Skip to main content

Full text of "Transactions of the Philological Society"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 
















I. — On the Metrical Glossaries of the Mediaeval Irish. 

By Whitley Stokes, D.C.L 1 

II. — The Celts and the other Aryans of the F and Q 

Groups. By Prof. John Rhys 104 

III. — iN'otes on English Etymology. By the Rev. Professor 

Skeat, Litt.D 132 

IV. — On the Bodleian Fragment of Cormac's Glossary. 

By Whitley Stokes, D.C.L 149 

V. — IN'ote on the Pronunciation of the English Vowels 
in the Seventeenth Century. By Russell 
Martixeatt, M.A. 207 

YI. — The Greek Indirect JS'egative. By E. R. Wharton, 

M.A • 211 

VII. — The Compensatory Lengthening of Vowels in Irish. 

By Prof. J. Strachan, M.A . . 217 

Appendix. — Reports on the Progress of the Society's New 
JEnglish Bictiona/ry — 

1. By Henry Bradley, M.A., president 261 

2. By J. A. H. Murray, M.A., LL.D., vice-president 268 

3. Etymologies of some Co- words by Dr. Murray 279 
VIII.— Etymologies by Prof. J. Stbachan, M.A 289 

IX. — On the Assimilation of Pretonic iVin Celtic SuflB.xes. 

By Whitley Stokes, D.C.L 297 

X. — Old-Irish Glosses on the Bucolics. By Whitley 

Stokes, D.C.L 308 

XI. — Some Greek Etymologies. By E. R. Wharton, M.A. 329 




XII. — Rare Words in Middle English. By the Rev. Prof. 

Skeat, Litt.D 359 

XIII.— The Old English Alliterative Line. By Prof. H. 

Ekank Heath, Ph.D 375 

XIV. — On Gaelic Phonetics. By J. H. Staples . . . . 396 

XV. — The Accentual Element in Early Latin Verse, with 
a New Theory of Satumian Metre. By "W. M. 
LiNDSAr, M.A 405 

XVI. — Contributions to the History of the Deponent Verb 

in Irish. By Prof. J. Steachan, M.A 444 

Appendix II. — Notes on the Orthography of the Ormulum. 

By Arthur S. Napier, M.A., Ph.D l*-4* 

Index 569 

Treasurer's Cash Accounts : 1891 in Part I. 

„ „ „ 1892 in Part IL 

„ „ „ 1893 in Part III. 

List of Members, corrected to January, 1893 . . (see Part I.) 
List of Membees, corrected to November, 1893 (see Part II.) 
List of Membees, corrected to November, 1894 (see Part III.) 





MEDIAEVAL IRISH. By Whitley Stokes, D.C.L. 

With the exception of the modern Irish Celts, all races 
possessed of an ancient literature desire to understand it, and 
many races, including the Greeks,^ the Norsemen and the 
Irish, have, at some stage of their civilization, taken a strange 
delight in verse of which archaisms and wilful obscurities 
are the chief characteristics. It is, therefore, remarkable 
that the obvious aid of metre has not been oftener used to 
help the memories of the hearers, readers, or makers of the 
compositions above referred to. But metrical vocabularies 
of rare or obsolete words belonging to the glossarist's mother- 
tongue 2 are found, so far as I know, only among the Hindus,' 
the Norsemen * and the Irish. The last-named people pos- 
sessed such glossaries as early, at least, as the beginning of 
the twelfth century. Thus in the vellum called Lehor na 
hUidre (the Book of the Dun), the scribe of which was 
murdered in the year 1105, we find, fo. 7^ 11. 19-22 : 

* Mur ' immed tall isind recht, * coph ' buaid, is briathar lanchert, 

* du ' bale, * du ' duthaig lat, * cul ' * comet, is * cul ' carpat. 

And further on, in the same column, 11. 36-38 : 

* P6 ' ainm do maith is do mfad, * fi ' ainm d'ulc ocus d'anrfad,* 

* an ' fir, is ni ioxm fand, * f ath ' mind, ocus * iath ' f erand. 

^ See, for example, the Cassandra of Lycophron, which Suidas called ffKortivhv 
irolrifjLa^ and which the Byzantines admired so greatly ; and consider the remarks 
of Prof. Sayce, in Mahaffy's History of Classical Greek Literature, on the 
artificial language of the Homeric poems. 

* The metrical glossaries composed in England and printed by "Wright are 
intended to teach the English Latin or French, not Anglo-Saxon. 

•* I am informed by Prof. Biihler that, with the exception of the so-called 
Vedic Nighantus, all the Sanskrit glossaries known to us are in verse. One would 
expect to find metrical glossaries among the Arabs. But I leam from Prof. D. 
H. MiiUer of Vienna that they have none. ** The most ancient Arabic 
glossaries are arranged according to the last letters of the words. They were 
compiled for the use of poets, and the arrangement is intended to facilitate the 
composition of rhymed verses." 

* See the Thulor printed in the Corpm Poeticum Boreale, ii. 423 et seq. 

* This is cail in Rawl. B. 502, fo. 56» 2, and cal in H. 3. 18, p. 610^ and 
H. 2. 16, col. 686. 

^ no octis d*etriad. This is the reading of Bawl. B. 502, fo. 56^ 2. 

PliU. Trans. 1991-2-8. 1 


The same quatrains are found in the Liber Hymnorum 
ff. 34» 2, 34* 1, and in Eawl. B. 502, fo. 56% which vellums 
also belong to the first half of the twelfth century. Further- 
more, in Rawl. B. 502, fo. 56» 2, and in H. 3. 18, p. 610% we 
find the following quatrain : 

' Dia' inchian, is coem in mod, is ctan uad o senfocul, 
ocuB * derc ' suil fri suairc son, ocub * derc' in scathobor.^ 

The following stave occurs twice in Kawl. B. 502, ff. 56** 2, 

* Mos ' ar b^s robsB co cian, ' buich ' ar brissiud, ni baethchfal, 
' sab ' ar tren tacrait doine, ocub * ong ' ar ecdine. 

This quatrain is found in a corrupt form in the Lebar 
Brecc, p. 92, marg. inf., and is quoted in modernized spelling 
by O'Clery. See Revue Celtique, v. 25. 

So in Oormac's Glossary s.v. bachall (LB. 264* 9-12) the 
following quatrain is quoted : 

* lath ' ainm do chlug co»a f eeid, noco chelad in glanghaith, 

* bach ' buain ina dhorM« tall, * bricht ' octiB * bacc ' is bachall. 

The same quatrain is in H. 3. 18, p. 611% the last two 
lines being 

* bacht ' buain isin doms tall, ' bricht ' minn ocus * bach ' bachall. 

The Lebar Brecc, p. 188, marg. sup., has this stave : 

Is * indless ' cech maithius mor, is * suan odar ' cech n-imrol, 

* folaid ' [ ] cech n-amrai, ni ba ri nach rodamnai. 

Again, in H. 3. 18, p. 611% we find the following six 
quatrains : 

* £ * truagh in sc61 rodus-sgrus, uile bith ba he a duchus, 
is e roglic ar * each n-eing, an t-* 6 ' breac dobf a mBoaing. 

' Ai' caingen, is * ae*' dan dron, donf each sai co solum, 
intl ba segdha ar in son bu sai can denma ar doman. 

^ The scribe adds : .i. in menb bis triasin ngae ngrd'ne. This quatrain is also 
in H. 2. 16, coL 686. 
* no fris. 
' no ai. 


* Doctus ' foircthi each rechta, isna leabraibh lancerta, 

ocus * dinn ' [cain] each enuasaigh, * dinn ' ainm each fir arduasail.^ 

* Dibadh ' ocus * bath ' na menn, ' ba ' oem * temel ' nar timcheall, 
ag sloinned ega gan f eall, as lor a m6d ron medhrann.^ 

'Sneid' each suaill snimachsund, 'seim' cachseang, each sircumang, 

* sab ' each soabb each forba, ocus ' sab ' each comorba. 

* Tir domhaisi ' each sliab slan, * airbri ' each n-iumat n-iumlan, 

* iath ' ferann, *iath' cloth cin coll/ iat[h] ' ploc ocus * iath ' cochall. 

In the same MS., p. 612» : 

' Mos ' each sob^s sidhamail, ' mos ' tuile, ocus * mos ' aithbe, 

* mos ' each c6ol eiuin cfchamail, na crinann cumscar caithme. 

* Robustus ' each sonairt slan, * reos ' each bidbadh, buan a bagh, 

* seis * each sofls sloindit sain, is * castus * each gnim genmnaid.^ 

Is * cai ' conair cacha huird, ' ae ' each ceird na cumgaid buirb, 
cain rofitir * eonruiter,' * recht ' dfrech* na dianbruiter. 

* Caissi ' miscais, * caisi ' sere, mar innisit liubair Ian cert,* 
doscail nert na tromsluaig de, dias d[i]ana[d] eomdhual caisi. 

' Glinne ' na laegha rit M, ' glinne ' na bu bleachtmara, 
ocus * glinne ' in luaide, * glinne ' sutl[h] • eo sir-buaine. 

Synonyms, also, were treated metrically by the mediaeval 
Irish. We have already had a stave on four words for 
' death.* So in the Lebar Brecc, p. 92, marg. inf., we find 
the following quatrain on four words meaning * good ' : 

* Dag ' ocus * fo,' clu cen brath, * so ' is * mo,' cen cob gnathach, 
anmanna sin do maith mas, derb Hum ni sseb in senchas. 

The following specimen of a glossary of synonymous 
words of different genders is taken from Rawl. B. 502, 

^ is 'dinn' ainm each ardhuasail, Rawl. B. 602, fo. 67* 1. 

2 Here the scribe adds : Dibad 7 bath 7 baa 7 b(i 7 eel 7 has 7 macht 7 ort 
7 teme de [leg. ix ?] nomina mortis. 
. 8 MS. geanmnaigh. 

* MS. reacht direach. 

* For mar innisit liubair read with H. 2. 16, col. 692, indisith libur. 

6 .i. lacht. The above Quatrains from H 3. 18, pp. 611, 612, are taken, not 
from the MS., but from 0' Curry's transcript, an anastatic copy of which is in 
the Bodleian. 


fo. 58* 2. It occurs also in Cormac's Glossary, s.v. adba 

othnoe : 

Iss 6 in * lia/ lith rolass, iar srethaib suad hi senchas, 

[ijs ed * onn ' iar n-aicniud ail, is i * cloch ' iar sairdataid. 

Whence we learn that Ha * stone ' is he, i.e. masculine, 
clock * stone * is she, i.e. feminine, and onn ' stone ' is * it ' 
i.e. neuter. Yerses dealing with the synonyms for water, 
fire, sea, wolf, horse, shield, spear, head, eye, truth, etc., will 
be found infra. 

Homonyms, too, were not forgotten. Thus the Yellow 
Book of Lecan (H. 2. 16), a MS. in the library of Trinity 
College, Dublin, contains in col. 121 the following quatrain 
on the four different meanings of saeglonn ('judge,* 'old 
man,* * king,* * column *) : 

* Saoglonn ' brithemh, buan a blad, * saoglonn ' senoir sir-saoglach, 

* saoglonn ' cech ri fora du, octis * saoglonn' columnu. 

The same MS., col. 693, has the following stave on the 
three meanings oiferb (*cow,* * blotch,* * word *) : 

* Fearb ' as ainm do boin iar fir, ocus do boilg can imshnim, 
0CU8 can uair n-eiihtffh n-airc, da breithir can chantobairt.^ 

So we have had, pp. 2, 3, two quatrains dealing with thei 
different meanings of ^ and mos, and we shall find below 
verses dealing with the different meanings of triatk, tuirighin, 
eo, etc. 

Besides metrical glossaries of obsolete Gaelic words, of 
Gaelic synonyms, and of Gaelic words with different mean- 
ings, the mediaeval Irish had glossaries in verse of Latin 
vocables. The following specimens will suffice : 

* Reus'^ esLch bidba cona blaid, ocm * castus* Gach genmnaid,' 

* rectum ' each ndiriug,* dal cirt, ocm * robustus ' sonirt. 

Eawl. B. 502, fo. 57* 2. 

* Condio ' saillim suarccote,* octts * doctus ' each forcthi, 

* custos ' cometaid rom-char, ocus * oboedens * humal. 

3td. fo. 56* 1. 

^ This quatrain is cited in O'Clery's Glossary, s.v. Fearb, ^Rev, Celt. iv. 416. 

« MS. Eeos. 

' MS. ngenmnaid, bnt genm[n]aid, H. 2. 16, col. 691. 

* MS. diriud, but in H. 2. 16, col. 69, direch. 

^ suarcaide, H. 3. 18, p. 613». 


* Fero ' taircim dar each leth, ocus * ligo ' cech cumrech, 

* finem * in crich coir is lib, ocus * nouit ' rofitir. 

Ibid, fo. 58* 2. 

* Reatus ' bibdanus baig, octM * demitus ' digbail, 

* mulgeo * ^ bligim cen baegul, is * imber ' each ard-broenud. 

Ibid, fo. 5S^2. 

The metrical glossaries which I have now the honour to 
lay before the Philological Society are three in number. 

I. The first is commonly called Fo^*us Focal, 'knowledge of 
vocables/ from the words with which it commences. This 
glossary contains 75 quatrains, and defines about 350 words. 
The first ten quatrains are here given in two recensions, one 
from p. 395 of the Book of Leinster, a vellum in the library 
of Trinity College, Dublin, the other from f o. 95 of the Stowe 
MS. No. III., now in the library of the Royal Irish Academy. 
Page 395 of the Book of Leinster was written in the sixteenth 
century. The glossary beginning on fo. 95 of the Stowe 
MS. is thus described by Dr. O'Conor, BibL MS. Stowensis, 
1818, vol. i. p. 52 : 

**Fol. 95. — 0'Dnvegan*8 Metrical Dictionary of Ancient 
Irish Words, beginning Forus Focal luaiter lihh, O'Duvegan 
died old in 1372. It may be doubted whether any Dictionary 
of the Northern languages is older than this. The verses are 
240.^ The transcript is by Cormac og o Corrain in the 
beginning of the last century. But it is written with the 
greatest care, by one of the best Irish scholars of his 

Upon which it is to be remarked that the colophon proves 
the scribe's name to have been Corrnan og 6 Corrnin : that 
he wrote in December, 1734,^ and that although native 
Irish scholars agree in attributing the Forus Focal to John 
O'Duvegan, there is ijot, so far as I know, any trustworthy 
evidence for such attribution. The Stowe MS. omits quatrains 
56-66 both inclusive. 

* MS. mulceo. 

' The quatrains are 60. — ^W.S. 

^ Corman og 6 Corrnin ro scribh sin a Mi na nodhlac a»no 1734. 


Two other MSS. have been used in forming the text, viz. 
a paper MS. in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, marked 
H. 2. 12, No. 6, and written in 1698,^ and a small quarto 
paper MS. in the library of the Royal Irish Academy, marked 
23. L. 21. Of these the former is here denoted by H., the 
latter by L. H. is written in an Irish hand, by Eoghan mac 
Gilleoin for Master Lachlan Campbell at Campbeltown, in 
Argyle. This scribe was grossly ignorant, and his work 
needs much emendation. The bulk of L. was written about 
1787; but it contains four pages in the handwriting of 
Malachi, a brother of the late Eugene O'Curry. 

Thirty quatrains of the Foi^s Focal have already been 
published, to wit : 

a. Twenty-three by O'Reilly in his Irish-English Dictionary- 
Dublin, 1821, s.m aidhbeis (15), Aodh (39), Art (34), caise 
(76), cobhra (37), colg (36), crom (40), dreimne (17), duirbh 
(26), eigh (20), fiodhrach (43), gabhar (19), gaodh (23), 
garbh (77), osar (60), pattric (19), reacaire (62), ren (42), 
risidhe (12), robhar (47), scuird (35), searrdha (49), snuadh 
(45), tinfeadh (64), troghan (14), tuaithcheall (11). The 
quatrain cited s.v. gahhar is repeated s.v. pattric, 

h. Seven by O'Donovan in his Supplement to O'Reilly's 
Dictionary s.w. breas (6), dreann (9), eo (5), fead (8), fo (4), 
ruiceadh (7), triath (2). 

With these exceptions, no part of the Forua Focal has 
been published. 

II. Our second glossary takes its name from its first line 
Deirbhsiur don eagna inn ^igsi, * Poetry is sister to Wisdom.' 
The copy now printed contains 62 quatrains, and defines 
about 193 words. It is taken from a photograph of the copy 
of this glossary in the library of the Royal Irish Academy, 
marked 23. L. 21. This copy contains corrections by 
Peter O'Connell, and was written about 1787. The various 
readings have been derived from the above-mentioned MS. in 
the library of Trinity College, Dublin, marked H. 2. 12, No. 6. 

^ For a loan of tliis MS. I am indebted to the kindness of the Board of Trinity 


The Derbhiiur glossary must have existed before 1643, for 
Michael O'Clery used it in compiling his Focloir, published at 
Louvain in that year.^ 

Thre^ other copies are known : 

(1) A vellum in the library of the Royal Irish Academy, 

marked ^— -, of which I do not know the date. This copy, 

Jr. o 

says Mr. Gilbert, the learned librarian of that institution, is 
** written in very bad ink — almost faded — wants portion at 
end, and is in a poor style of penmanship.'' The glossary 
begins on fo. 19. 

(2) A paper copy, transcribed at Limerick in 1768 by 

Andrew MacMahon, with corrections by P. O'Connell, in 

the library of the Royal Irish Academy, marked :=- — -. The 

glossary (62 quatrains) begins at p. 52. 

(3) Another paper copy in a large quarto MS. in the same 

23 . 
library, marked t^oo* i^ ^^^ handwriting of Michael 6g 

O'Longan, between the years 1805 and 1832. The glossary 
begins at p. 179 and contains 65 quatrains. 

I cannot find that any part of this glossary has ever been 

III. Our third glossary is unfortunately only a fragment and 
often corrupt. It is taken from fo. 17*of a vellum in the British 
Museum, marked Egerton 90, contains 29 quatrains, and de- 
fines about 154 words. O'Curry, in his MS. Catalogue of the 
Irish MSS. in the Museum, says that this glossary "appears 
to be part of a metrical glossary called Forus Focal, generally 
ascribed to Shane Mor O'Dugan,^ chief Ollave of Hy Maine, 
who died in the year 1372. This and the three following 
folios are in his handwriting, and are part of the ' Book of 
Hy Maine,' now in the possession of Lord Ashburnham.'' 

But though the metre in which the Egerton glossary 
is written is the same as that of the Form Focal, the 

* See jRevtte Celtique, iv. 354. 

* 0' Conor's * O'Duvegan.' The Irish spelling is DubhagSin. 


words explained are diflferent, and O'Curry's suggestion is 
therefore groundless. The writer of a prose wordroU in the 
Book of Lecan, a vellum in the library of the Royal Irish 
Academy, appears to have used a good copy of this Egerton 
glossary. If so, it must have existed before 1416, when, accord- 
ing to O'Curry, the Book of Lecan was compiled. But the 
occurrence in it of braitsi, a loan from the Middle -English breche, 
shows that it cannot have been written much before 1300. 

No part of this glossary has been published. 

The three metrical glossaries will now be faithfully set 
forth. The third is supplemented by the corresponding 
portion of the prose vocabulary in the Book of Lecan. 
Then follows an alphabetical index to the glossed words, 
including (a) references to the extant Irish prose glossaries, 
(b) bekgstellen from the Irish literature,^ and (c) such 
etymologies and comparisons as seem fairly probable. 

I. FoRus Focal. 
[0 Dubhagan .i. Sean, cecinit.^^ 

Book of Leinstee, p. 395. Stowe MS. "No, III. fo. 95*. 

(Cited as LL.) (Cited as S.) 

1. ForM« focul luaidht^r libh, 1. Foras focal luaiter libh, 

a eolcha in dana dlighidh !^ a eolcha dhana in dlighidh ! 

gach ni anois ara bhuil ainm gach ni a nois is ainm 

caidhe agaibh a thsenainm? caidhe aguibh a senainm ? 

2. *Triath' righ go rogha 2. *Triath' righ go rogha 

ndealbha, ndealbhna, 

HHath' ainm do each tigh- Hriath* ainmdog«<?htig^nia, 


[is*] *triath'tond co n-il«r 'trfath' tonn go n-iolar a 

ndath, dath, 

*triath' tore trom, is *triath' *triath' turc [trom] is 

ivilach, * triath ' tulaeh. 

^ For eighty-two of these I am indebted to Br. Kuno Meyer. He also 
pointed out to me the quatrain in LB. 188, cited supra p. 2. 
' aiCf L. 
3 dUghti, LL. dhirigh, L. 

* tiagherma, LL. 

* aiCf L. 



3. 'Tuirighin' ri^ ruamna'* gal, 
'tuirighin' hretheeimh blath- 


* tuirighin ' tuir fuilnges-^ 

*tuir[i]ghiii ' teangadh tuir- 

4. * F6 ' ainm do mhaith is do 

'fi* ainmd'ulc ocus* d'aimh- 

* an ' fir, is ni forus fann, 

* aoth ' minn, ocus * iath * 


5. 'Eo' dealg ocua *eo' iubar, 

* eo ' eigne nach eisidhan,® 

* aedh ' ocus * tnu' ' teine tra, 

* bolg' ® bema, ocus * ladhg ' 


6. * Bres ' is ® * oil ' gach ni as 



ocus * breas ' " gach greadhan- 

* irchaill ' ^* ursa buidhne 

ocus * toicheall * ^^ gach n- 


7. *Kuiced,*^* ni hainm gaw 
do thogbhail is d'ardugud, 

3. * Tuirighin ' ri ruamnw« gal, 
Huirighfn' breithemh bladh- 

' tuirighin ' tuir fuilnges 

is * tuirighin ' tenga thuir- 


4. * Po ' ainm do mhaith is do 


* fi * ainm d'ulc ocus * d'aim- 


* in * f irfios, ni f oras fann, 

* aoth * minn, ocus * iath ' 


5. ' £o * dealg, 7 ' eo ' iubhar, 

* eo ' eigne nac[h] eisiodhan, 
*aodh* ocus *tnuth' teine thra, 

* bolg ' bemna, is * ladhg ' 


6. * Bres * ocus * oil * gach ni is 

ocus * breas ' gach. greadhan- 

* iorchuill ' ursa buidhne 

ocus *t6icheal' gach n-im- 

7. ' Ruichet,' ni hainm gan 

do thogbhail is d'airdughw(;?h, 

* sic, L. rlgh, LL. 

* ruamnus, L. 

' fuilnges, L. 

* is, LL. S. 

* Identical with the quatrain from LU. 7^ cited supra p. 1. 
® eisighan, LL. eisiodhan, L. 

' tnuth, L. 

8 bladh, L. 

® sicy L. ocus, LL, 

^° siCy L. is, LL. 

*^ siCy L. bras, LL. 

** earcuil, L. 

*3 toichim, L. and O'Don. Supp. s.v. breas* 

^* ruicheat, L. 



is ainm * fuirmlieadh ' 6s ^ 

gach mud 
do twniadh * is d'fsliugwe?. 

8. * Fet * ainm dmnisin iar- 

'dil'3 farraid,* *foacht" 

' riadh ' ' rith, is ' riadh ' ' 

8(maclit gan on), 
'drucht'® eirghi, is 'drecht'® 


9. *Drenn* deabhaidh," is 

* dreann' doilghis, 
' grind '^* daingen, is *grinn"' 

'mont/r' gach nfdoni neach," 
' gle ' glan, ocm * gle * 


10. ^Coindealg' comairle nach 

* fuidhair ' briath«r baile 


* rose ' tuigsin gach neich 

ma le,*^ 
^lothar'*' gach ciall irtcleihe. 

is ainm ' fuirmh^^h ' os gach 

do thumadh is d'fsliughz^h. 

8. ' Fet' ainm d'innisin iarsin, 

*air iaruigh,fo6'A^ fiafraighe, 

' rfa ' ritb, is ' ria ' smacht 
gan on, 

* dracht ' 6irghe, is * drucht ' 


9. Greann deabaet^b, is greann 

*grinne' daingen, is 'grinn' 

*monar' g^c^ nl do n{ neacb, 

* gle * glan, is * gle ' gletbech. 

10. * Coinnealg ' combarle naeh 
*fuidber' briatbar builidh 

* rosg * tuigsin gacA neitb 

'latbar* gach cfall nl cleithe. 

^ siCf L. 08, LL. 
^ thumamh, L. 
3 aiCf L. ail, LL. 
' * i&rruidh, L. iarraigh, LL. 

* fothocht, L. f6cht, LL. 

* fiarfaighe, LL. fiarfndgh, L. 
■^ siCj L. ria, LL. 

* dmcht, L. dracht, LL. 
^ dieachtf L. drucht, LL. 

10 sAiivigudj LL. The quatrain is thus quoted in 0* Donovan's Supplement 
s.v. Fead : Fead ainm d'inisin iar soin | Ail iarraidh, fothacht fiarfoidh | Kiadh, 
rith, is riadh smacht gan 6n | Drucht ergeadh, is dreacht airchedal. | For. Focal. 

'1 deabhuidh, L. deabhaigh, LL. 

12 grinn, L. grinde, LL. 

13 sic, L. grinne, LL. 
1* cuimhdecnt, L. 

1* sic, L. nacA, LL. 
1* siCf L. gleithach, LL. 

1"^ In L. this couplet runs thus : ' Coindealg ' comhairle iar sin, is * fuighioU ' 
briathor hhuilidh. 
1® siCf L. maleith, LL. 
i» l^ithor, L. 


Stowe MS. No. III. fo. 95^ {continued). 

11. ^DtocU^ gach dubh, *drocht^ gacA dorclia, ^edrocht* gach 

glan gach sorca, 
'tuaichioP ba hainm do ghliocw*, is * edtuaicheal ' ^ aimhghli- 


12. 'Keisi" ainm [each] sgeil gan chaire, ^reisidhe'* ainm [do] 


* aidhbhsi * * ceol, * sceo' tuicsi ad chlos, ' rosal ' breath,* * basal * 


13. *De' is ' deichen ' gach dal' dleacht, 'MbhaU' breg, is ' dolbh ' 


* gart ' eineach, is ' neoid ' gach gann, ocus * seoid ' gach crodh 


14. *Bolg' bo, briathar *ferbh' anainm, *buich'® brisiodh is 

' tethra ' ^ ar bhaidhbh, 
don *° bhradan is comhainm * lach/ ocus * trogan ' ar 

15. * Bior' ocm 'an* is *dobhar,' tri hanmann uisge in domhuin,^^ 
*lear,' 'aibheis,* *bochna* bladha/'* anmanna gach" ardmhara. 

16. ' Faol,' 'cuib,' is^* *luan' ar chonuibh, a ttn senainm iar 

dha senainm ar bhuaibh bladha, *ferbh' is *laithri' lionn- 

^ ^ttuaichiol, L. 

'^ ris, L. and O'R. s.v. Risidhe. 

3 risidhe, O'R. risighe, L. 

* ainm do sgealaighe, L. 

5 «ic, L. aibhsi, S. 

® roisiol breith, O'R. rasal breith, L. 

' aoi is caingen gach d&il, L. 

^ 8*Cj L. buith, S. 

^ teta, S. tethra, L. teatra, H. 
10 sic, L. do, S. 
*i tri hanmanna duisge ar domhan, L. 

12 blagha, S. bladha, L. and H. 

13 «ic, L. tri hanmann, S., but anman do gach, H. 
1* «*c, L. Om. S. 

1* lionmhara. 


17. Dha* senainm ar mhuic mhiadhuigh, * f eis * * is * mada ' 


* ceathnaid * * caora, * dreimne ' * gal, * seghach * is * * cadhla ' 


18. 'Peat" ainm d'oirfidedh gan bhrath, *c^m' buaidh, ocus® 


* neas ' ainm ratha, li nach lag, sen-ainm na slighed ^^ * ramhad.' 

19. * Gabhar' octM 'mairc'*'* is *peall' ar na hesichatbh cantur 

' paitric ' cennsrian, carmad ^^ ' cab,' ^* ' ulaid ' ^* srathar, * cul ' 

20. 'Grith' grian ocus *eig'" esga,*^ *colt' biadh mar agras ^® 

*lothar' edach, li*° n-amhra, do eineach** ba bainm * easla- 

21. *^eid' ainm catba, *flann* [ainm^] d*fuil, *lear' iomad, 

ainm d'aon * uatbadh,' ^ 

* grib ' ^ luas, is michert ^^ in modh, ' ridnacht ' ^^ ainm do 


* Da, L. 

* seis, L. 

' m6rdhiamhair, L. 

* cethnaid, L. 
^ dreimhne, L. 

® s^ad gach. slighe, L. 

' Peit, L. 

8 is eige, S. is 6ag, L. 

'9 tlacht, L. 

^ eineach, S., but aonach L., and cf. O'Cl. s.v. tlas. 

* sleighe, S. sligheadh, L. 

* marc, L. 
^ carma, H. is cearma, h. leg. is carry as in O'R. s.v. pattric. And so 

O'Connell in marg. of L. (is carr cap), 

* ceap, L. 

* siCy L. ulad, S. 

8 carbat, L. 
' is eige, S. 
^ is 6ag easga, L. 

9 adhn<«, S. agrus, H. adhras, L. agras, O'R. s.y. eigh. 
20 lith, L. 

2' inweach, S. doineach, L. 
^ aiCf L. 

33 aon ainm uathaidh, L. 
»* cirb, L. 
'* m6ircbeart,L. 
2« righnecA^, S. riodhnacht, L. 


[fo. 96^] 22. *Calb'^ cruas [is] ^naoinneall'* gaisgedh, 'eallamh'^ 
ingnadh* nach aisder,*^ 
'galann' gaah namha* go nert, ocus 'barann' gach beim- 

23. *Nia' treni'earj is *mal' mflidh, ^lalghach^ gach^ laocb go 


* cusal ' gach coimhneart gan choir, *gaodh' ocus *ge6nadh* 


24. ' Sgal ' ^° ocus ' arg,' luait^ leat, Ben (?) anmann " na bhfer go 


* ainner * is * frac,' radh gan cheilg,^ arna mnaibh 'san tsengaoi- 


25. * Bath' ocus *ort* marhadh ier, ^cearr* ocus * ciochladh * ^* 


* eanglonn ' ^'^ gabhadh ^* nocha go, ocm fuirech *furnaidheo.' ^^ 

26. *Ana' saidhbhrios ^® iarmotha, ocus *una'^® ainm do ghorta, 

* duirb ' ^ gach galar immalle,'^ * easaoth,^ ba hainm do 


^ caladh, L. 

' is naoinneal, L. 

* siCy L.ealla, S. 

* iongnadh, L. eangnadh, S. 

* aistear, L. 

^ namhaid, L. 

' sic J L. tren, S. 

^ siCf L. lulgachy S. 

® gaodh is geoghnadh gach geargboin, L. 

10 Sc^, L. 

11 anmanna, L. 

1* ainder is fiachra gan cheilg, L. 

13 senghaidheilg, L. 

1* cachladh, L. ceachladb, O'Cl. 

16 easglann, L. 

1® aicy L. gabha, S. 

1'^ sicy L. lumuigheQ, S. 

1"* saidhbhreas, L. 

1* Ana, L. 

20 duirbh, L. 

*^ iomalleith, S. ima 16, L. 

'* eassaoth, L. 

^ This quatrain, omitted by S., is taken from H. and L. It is quoted by O'R. 
B.v. duirbh. . . . 


27. ' Caanna * * cnoc is * coice ' * sliabh, * ail * cloch, ' tec ' ' 

cnaimh, is ' conn ' * ciall, 
' ilacht ' talamh comhadhbhal cain,' ' tabhartha ' ainin ' 

28. Sen-ainm na trfucha* 'fonn' tra, sen-ainm na tuaithe 'forba,' ' 
' dun ' ainm [do] baile, is bladh binn, is 'iath' sean-ainm ^* gach 


29. 'Aincis'^^ is 'miscaitli' nama, dha senainm na^ malla^A^, 
' ordit ' " benna^^A^ ima le,'* * gesca ' ^' ba hainm do soillsi. 

30. * Cobh ' buaidh oeus " brfathar borr, ainm d'feoil * cama ' ocns *• 

* wrcoll/ 

* diu ' cfan, is ' derc ' 8u[i]l abhus, * cul ' *• coimli6d, is * an ' ^ 


31. ' Faosamh ' is * cuime/ '* n£ chel, dha ainm cumairce ** gan len, 

* oibid ' is * umhla ' go hecht, dha senainm do[n] eisgidhecht.^ 

J 32. * Annoid ' eagluis in gach tan, ' sgal ' ** laoch is * axal * ^ uasal, 

* * ailcne ' ail *• ar ieruih soin,*' ocus *® * anno ' *' ainm do 

I bliadhuin. 


!i aicj L. cuadhna, S. 
' aiCf L. coidhce, S. 
^ sec, L. teach, S. 
i| * aiCf L. cunn, S. 

J * can, L. 

,; • For tabartha ainm, H. has othar ba hainm. 

f "^ * othar ' ainm do thuarastal^ L. 

;' • do thri(ichad, L. 

, ' na ttuath * forbadha,' L. 

10 neas ainm diath, S. 

* * * D6n ' ainm do bhaile, is biadh * mann.* senainm * iath ' do gach fearann, L. 

1' Acais, L. 

" do, L. 

" oirbidh, S. 

16 < 6raoid ' ar bhennacA^ ma le, L. 

" g^sca, L. 

" Cobh buaidh agal, L. Ciiibh 7 b(iaidh, S. 

1* is, S. agas, L. 

» c6l, L. 

^ is an, H. agas &n, L. rian, S. 

•1 coimhcheasa, L. 

** comairce, L. 

^ ^isdidheM^, S. n. eusguidhecA^, H. ^scaidheacht, L. 

»* scU, L. 

** acsal, L. 
^ •• * airtne * oil, L. 

*'' ailcne 6il ar chloich mar sin, H. 

•* is, S. and L. 

*• sio, L. ando, S. 


33. * Ara ' ainm giolla gan chol, is * airrdhe ' ainm do leasughadh,^ 
*aidhmirt'* ar gheis, is garbh gal, ocus *ainfeiii' gach n-iongnadh. 

[fo. 96^] 34. Cruaid *art' a senainm go fir, is *anart' ainm 
do inhaoitlimh{n, 

* maoin ' * balbh, * taoi ' bodhar nacb dis, * main ' gridh [is] 

' anmain ' mioscais.* 

35. *Fuan' brat, is *rocan" ionar, is ' stialP' fuathrog ro fionnadh, 
*scuird,' *caimsi,'* leine gan on, *oblirat'' ba bainm do 


36. 'Gen'" octcs *colg,' toluibb" gal, dha senainm cloidhimh 

*cealtair' doiger," *luibhne' dbe, dha senainm gach airdsleighe. 

37. Ceitbre hanmann^* in sceith gan feall *fraic,'" 'cobbra,'" 

*failte,' *finneall,' 

* diniath ' is " * troniatb,* *^ go ttairm, don cbatbbharr is da 


38. Anmann" in chinn, is eol damh, tre sengbaoidhilg na bfil^^Hi, 
*trull,' *coll,' *itropa' trom[d]a, nocha coll a chomhfodhla.^ 

39. *Aodh'*^ 0CU8 * d^rc ' octis *cais,' tri hanmann in niisg 


* bra ' octis * laba ' ** naeh gnatb gairm, don mbalae^b is da 


^ is airidin leasiighadli, H. is airidin lesagbadh, L. is airidln leasagliodh, 
O'R. s.v. Garbh. 

2 airmirt, L. leg. airmit. 

3 ainbfein, H. ainmh^id, L. ainffein, 0*R. s.v. garbh, ainbeidh, S. 
* maon, L. 

^ maoin gr&dh is anmhaoin mioscais, L. 

® rotan, 8. roc&n, L. 

' giall, S. diall, H. stiall, L. and 0*R. s.v. scnird. 

8 siCf L. cuimsi, S. 

9 6brat, H. obhrat, L. 

*<* cheannbharr, L. o ba bainm do cbeannbhodar, 0*R. s.v. scuird. 

** Tol, S. ; but H., L. and 0*R. s.v. colg have Gean. 

^* tola, L. 

*^ is, H. agas, L. 

** hanmanna, L. 

^' fraig, L. 

16 caochbhrat, S. cobra, H. cobhra, O'R. s.v. eobhra, 

" 7S. 

*" dimatb is tr6ithiatb, L. 

*• anmanna, L. 

2° TromcboU, is tropa tromdha, nacb ar cboU a chomhaifoglila, L. 
21 odh, S.=a6dh, H. 
*' br&, is lubha, L. 


40. * Greann * ainm d'ulchain, lith nach locht, * feac ' fiacuil 

treabha[r] * taobhnot?^^, 
*com[m]ar* sron, *6** cluas ga» len, *cui[ii]8eal'^ aighedh* 
nach aimhreidli.' 

41. ' Coidhche ' a8caP farmotha, * eochair ' thenga thagarthaj 
'luc/^ bru,® 0CU8 *guaire' folt fionn, *gulba/ is *bile'^® bel 


42. *Glanii*" guala is *d6id' lamh gan len, 'scibh'** glac, ocus*^ 

* luibhne ' mer, 
*lua''* cos, is * treatban ' ^* troigh, [*ren'] reisi, is *nena' ainm 

43. * Meallacb * is * maoin ' ocus *^ * muaidb,' ionann sin is maith no 

* grib ' toirmeisc, [is] * c^bbach ' ^® creach, * fiodbr«db ' nos,^ 
'fireach*'*^ biseacb. 

[fo. 97*.] 44. * Tul ' gach gnuis is iodban ann, ' caor ' cainneal, 
is * cuar ' cam, 
* abrann ' olc is dirsan ann, * blacb ' *' saill is * salar ''^ salann.*® 


1 tubhra, L. treabair, H, 

2 6o, S. 

' cuinnsi, H. 

* aidhigh, S. 

^ cmnnse aghaidh nach ^imbgheur, L. 

^ caoicbe is coll, L. 

7 teanga thagartha, L. 

8 luch, H. and L. 

9 brfi, L. 

10 8iCy L. bil, S. 
" glang, L. 
1^ scib, L. 

13 ig g^ 

" Ifiagii, S. liiath, H. 

1* treaghan, S. trethan, L. 

1* orluidh, S. L. has reon reisi . nean ainm ordlaigb. 

17 is, S. 

18 Meallacb agas maoin is muadb, ionann sin is maitb r6a iomlnadh, L. 
Melleadh is maoin agus muadh, Inann sin is maith, re imluadh, O'R. s.v. 

19 toirmeasc, is cearrbbach L. 

20 sic, L. no, S. 

21 fiogbradb n6s, is fiogbr^cb bisecb, H. fiodbracb no fiodbradb biseacb, O'R. 
fiodhradh n6s, fiodbracb biseacb, L. 

*2 cuinneal, S. 

23 leg. bluch ? 

2* e^ar, S. And so O'Br. salor, O'Cl. 

23 H. and L. omit this quatrain. 



45. 'Broth'* ainm f6ola, 'flann** [ainm] d'fuil, *gnth' 6olw», 

*fraic '^ folt farsin. 
'conn' ainm c6iUe iarmotha, 'turbhuidh' ainm gac[h] urbhadha. 

46. * Meamur ' congna ferrdha * fir, is * caisi ' ainm [do] gach 

* ain '* ainm aoibhinn sdimh farsin,'' ocus *aoin' ainm do luacbair. 

47. *Eibhar'^ crfathar, foram ngle, *rumro'* radharc go ngeire,^" 
' coig ' " ainm runa, ni baidb bheag, oeics * lu ' " ainm do 


48. * Manaois* sen- ainm sleighe righ, is ' goithne ' foga" go fir, 
a.gu8 'luighne,'^* go ffr dhe, ainm na** sleighe diubhruic[th]e." 

49. ' Searrdha ' faobhar go" ngaile, ocm ' serrdha' tesgaidhe,^^ 
*[d]inn' ainm gflt?h druimne dera,** 'fuince' ingne^ airmgh6ra.** 

50. * Mur ' ^ iomad thall isin recht, * cob ' ^ buaidh, is briathar 

' du '** baile, * du ' duthat^h lat, 'cuP coimhed, is 'cul ' carbad. 

51. *0s' ainm gach airdfiadh[a] amach, 'fuinche' is'** 'criomhtan' 

ar sionnach, 
' patan ' miol muighe ma seach,'*' ' earc ' mil, ocus * earc ' 

* Brat, S. Broth, H., L. and 0*R. s.v. muadh. 

* snuaidh, H. snuadh, L. and O'R. s.v. muadh. 
' frag, L, 

* Meamar congnadh feardha, L. 
^ agas caise ainm do chaingin, L. 

* am, S. 

^ ain ainm ciche go s&imh sin, H. &in ainm siodha go suim soin, L. 

8 Ribhadh, S. Kobhar, L. and 0*R. s.v. robhar. Robha, H. 

® rumhra, H. romhra, L. runma, O'R. s.v. robhar. 
^° nglere, L. 
" Coic, L. 

12 8%c, H. l&oi, S. 

13 «ic, H. fada, S. 
1* luibhne, H. and L. 
1* gach, L. and H. 

1* diubhraicthe, L. 

" med, L. 

1*^ teascaidhe, L. 

" dionn gach druimne ad6ra, L. 

20 fuinche, S. and L. 

21 aimghera, H. &imgheara, L. and O'R. s.v. searrdha. 

22 Mtir, L. 

28 8%c, H. cobh, L. cod, S. 
2* Ikincheart, L. 
2* d<i, L. 
2* oeuSy S. 
27 ik seach, L. 

Phil. Trans. 1891-2-8. 2 





^ 52. Dha senainm do laoch ^ ga» on, * b^ ' ocm ' ce/ ni breg in mod 

^ * ce ' fos ainm do cheile cain, * be ' ben ocus* ' be * adbaigh.^ 


1^ 53. 'Treanadh' ainm gach caoinidh* dbe, * aime,' 'fod' fuirechf 

na ceil,* 
' ecosc ' ' cuma/ nat?h c oir cleith, * homo ' duine gan ® dichleit 


54. *Deime*' ainm fescu[i]r" go fuin, 'teibedh' ainm [gacl 
tinsceduil, ^^ 
'ionnsa' ainm doilghiosa dhi[l],^' 'fobbairt' is ainm d'io: 

I [fo. 97^] 55. *Cann' ainm leastair,^* luai[d]tber libb, *blo8§ 

ainm gfl(?b gotha gleghil,^* 
* foidhi'" tairm no fuaim go se, *saithe' sluaigh*^ no m^aidh 


H. 2. 12, p. 7. 

56. Tr' deabfledb tball ann gach modh, is *liat?A^uin' ainm c 

*iarlonw' iarthar ambi biadb, * inntille ' leastar^® no tiagh.*' 

57. * Les' soillse ocus^** *lang* meabhuil, 4us'^^ lamh, ni lem nac 

4ioghmdh' tenga thuirmne^ dbe, *lucA^aire' saobhchoire uisc 

^ oidhche, H., and O'R. s,v. ce. D§. ainm don oidche, L. 
a » is, S. and H. 

' •'* adhuigh, S. aghaidh, L. 

H * «ic, L. ainm coinnmhe, S. 

I 5 suirech nis ngle, H. fuireachras oidche, O'Cl. gl. s.v. airae. dime f^ 

Sfuireachras gle, L. Perhaps we should read fuirechrus ngle. 
fi eathar, S. eugusc, H. 
» ' comha, H. 

i ® nach, H. and L. 

' * Deine, S. Deimhe, H. and L. 

} ^^ feaacrach, L. hut in marg. feascair. 

' ^Ms teasccae/h ainm gach tionsgnaif^h, H. is tasgar ainm tionsgadail, L. 

[ *2 iodhna ainm doilgheasa dil, L. 

^3 «ic, H. f6bairt is ainm d'innsoighidh, L. forba ainm nintamhuin, S. 
( ^* leathuir, S. leastar, H. leasdoir, L. 

' ^* gleghlan, H. gleghloin, L. 

, ' ^6 loithe, H. faithe, L. 

^' sleighe, H. sluaigh corrected into slnagh, L. 

*8 leastarr, H. intiUe leastor, L. 

*^ This and the following ten quatrains are wanting in S. In L. they con 
• next after the quatrain numbered 75. 

*" is H. 

21 Ims, L. and O'Cl. 

*2 thuirmheach, L. 


58. ' Mand ' * [is] sen-ainm na hunga,* * miadh ' airmliidin,^ coir 
'nua'* uasal, *m^ii' bel blaidhe,* is g^g amWdh suithidhe,' 

69. *Tucht' gach gne, ocus' 'braon' hocht,^ *aidbbeil'® cian^'* 
ocus' *ur' olc : 
' mocbt ' gach ciuin, tonn mara" mhoir, 'nion' tonn coitchionn 

60. * Osar ' *' eire bbios ar neach, * ainnsi * [is] * airgsi ' gach 

aithfer : i* 
*ong* bron,** *oircne' measan con,'* *oiiii'" cloch, ocus' *tort* 

61. *Pelait ' *® righ-tech, coir ros-chom, * puincne, ' is ainm do 

*pont* borb, *pairt* rann ion gach tan,'* is * pain'^^ ainm d'aran 

62. * Bus ' roghairme[dh] do ghruaid ghloin,^ * ruicedh ' rus,*^ 

* imdherg ' aithfer,'* 
is 'sai*'* suabhuis iomaseach, is 'reudaire"®cleir^t?hcraibhth^ch. 

* Mann, L. 

* A syllable wanting. 

' niadb oirfidin, H. miadh 6ir fidin, L. 

* nnadh, L. 

* menbhel blaidbe, H. men belblaidbe, L. 
® is re amhlaidh socbaidbe, L. 

7 is, H. 

^ et pauper hocht, L. 

^ leg. aidhbean, as in O'Cl. aidh bhen, L. in marg. aidhbhean. 
^0 aidh bhen chinn, L. 
*^ c(iinthonn mhara, L. 
^' siCj L. nion, tonn accedoir, H. 
^^ Osaire, H., but see O'R. s.v. osar. osair, L. 
'* ainsi no airgsi gan aithbhear, L. 
^^ br6nach, H. 
*® conw, H. 
" on, H. 

18 Ptiait, H. Pil^iit, L. 
1® sgriboill, H. sgreaball, L. 
20 tan«, H. 
2» p{iin, L. 
*' ghloine, H. 
'^ ruis, L. 
'* aithbhir, L. 
'* 7 saoi, H. et saoi, L. 
^ reacaire, 0*R. s.v. reacaire. recoire, L. 


63. ' Suithnge ' suilbhir sen-ainm sin, * sfn * muince,^ ' sin ' ainm 


* searpan * * ar geis, is garbh gal, ecus ' ' agh ' ainm daimh 


64. ' Ce ' talamh, is foirghiol '^ fior, is ' teanlach. ' teine go fior, 
*tinf[e]ad' seimh, *troichit'® gach' corp, ocus^ 'teidm' gach 

bas bitholc. 

65. * Ur ' olc, ' lios ' deahaidh go dearbh, * usarb ' bas mhilles gach. 


* ascc ' diomus, is deimhin tra, is ' uamhuin ' ^ ainm gach eagla. 

66. "Ni heokigh,® ni bughdar ard, octcs ni file fiorgharg, 

ni sencba[idh] ag nach biadh a bfios, foiUsigbicni feasa forus.^** 


The following six quatrains are from the Stowe MS. 
No. III. fo. 97i> :— 

67. Da ainm choitchionna gan coll, *dith' deiredh is ceol 'duchonn,'*^ 
*neo'^*ainm [na] gaoithe gloine, *uim'^^ talamh go ttort«e(?he.** 

68. * Puid ' gach fursannadh " go se, * droch ' direach, * s6d ' gach 

* oin '^' cennach," * uain * iasat?A^ an, * fath ' tes, ocus " * fath ' ^ 

' sin muinche, H. 

* searb§.n, L. 
3 is, H. 

* eallai^h, H. 

* fuirgluoll, L. 

® troicch^f^h, L. troigh^«?h, H., but see Corm. Gl. s.v. fothrucud. 
' gan, O'R. s.v. tinfeadh. 
® uamhan, L. 

* heolach, L. 

^^ L. puts this quatrain before No. 65. 

^* sic, H. ducbon, L. S. corruptly, Tri senainm coitchenn gan col. dith 7 d6r 
is ddchon. 
^' neit, S. neid, L. ne, 0, H. 
*^ uaime, S. umb, H. 

^* ttorthuigbe, L. torruidhe {i.e. torraighe ?), H. 
*5 aiCf H. S., corruptly, Idith ftiar sou». 
18 siCf H. slige, L. 
1' aiCy H, on, S. 
1* cneadhacb, L. 
i» is, S. and H. 
20 fat, S. 


69. 'Ailt/re' saor doghni tech,^ 'ailt'* ainm tighe, *airt" gach 

'aithrinne'* ainm do laogh bo, 'feilisc" rusg,'' is *meile' bro. 

70. 'Bach' meisge, 'boisgeall'® eilit,' 'bir'tiobra, 'berr'^*^ gac?h 

'boigill'" borb, *bach.' saile serbb, 'mormuir,' moin,'^ 
*bothach,' seiscenn. 

71. *Curson'" senainm d'arra^A^ de,^* is ainm do cbinn *calb' 

*car[tli]uid' craibbthech," baidh go mblaidh," ocus 'cast'" 
ainm do ghenmnezi^h. 

72. ' Dagh ' maitb, ' drocb ' olc ocu8 gann, ' duibheall ' ^^ ainm do 

gach udmall, 
' ducbus ^ deabhuidb, * dibheoil *^ balbh, * daigb ' tine, ' dorr ' 
gach. n-agarbh.^ 

The following three quatrains are from H. 2. 12, p. 8 : — 

73. 'Ealg*'^ ainm d'Eirin[n], 'ealg' aghaidh, sean-ainm treoin 

' earr,' gan meabhuil, 
' e ' bron, caire, ann rocblos, ' esconn ' ^ seanoir, guth cadhus.^* 

^ tegh, S. teach, H. tech, L. 

* «ic, H. ail, S. 
. 3 gic^ 2, iar, S. 

* both, S. leac, H. art gach leath, L. 
^ «ic, H. airgime, S. 

® fioluscc, H. feilioscc, L. 

' sic J H. ruisg, S. 

^ boischeall, H. is boisceall geilt, L. 

9 geilt, H. 
10 bior, S. and L. 

1^ boitbeall, H. boiteall, O'R. boitheal, L. 
1* mormuinn, S. mor, muir : moin, H. m6rmh(iir m6in, L. 
1* siCf H. Carsan, S. Cur86n, L. 
1* do riandgh sen, H. d&rsuidh, sin, L. 
15 cuimhnech, H. cuimhnigh, L. 

1® siCy H. aidedh craibhdeadh, S. O'R. has *^ car ait y adj. religious, devout, 
For. foe:' 
" «ic, H. mbloidh, S. 
1^ caist, S. casd, H. 
13 sicy H. dupeall, S. 

20 siCy H. dubh cos, S. diichos altered into duchon, L. 
2' Hcy H. dibeol, S. 

22 doir gach. ngarbh, S. d6ir gach nagh garbh, H. See O'Cl. s.v. dorr. 
Here ends the Stowe copy of Form Focal, H. has three more quatrains, which 
are printed in the text. 

23 Ealcc, L. 

2* easgan, S. eascconn, L. 
25 go cckihus, L. 


74. *Fis' taidhbhsi, *feimlim'' gach lond, 'fuid' fua^^^, 'irsi'* 

gach n-ettrom,^ 
'glus' solus ocus* 'searbh' gaid, *faoinell'* is ainm do[ii] 

75. *Gno[d]'' is rinn mar dorala, 'grodhan" ainm churaig^ 

'giabair'* meirdrech, *grech' cnu tra,*° ecus 'gibne' adarc 

The following stave is quoted in O'Reilly's Dictionary, s.v. 
Cdise, as from the Forus Focal : — 

76. * Caisi * mioscais, * caisi ' searc, do reir na leabhar laincheart : 
ro sgaoil neart na tromsluagh Dhe, dias dan[a] comhdhual 


II. The Derbhsidr Glossary. 

23. L. 21, p. 9. 

1 . Deirbhsiiir don eagna an eigsi, as coruide a coimhedsi, 

si na blath 6ir mar eagna ; coir do chach a coimhfreagra. 

2. Dearbhrathair don eigsi aird, an senchtM raidhit righbhaird, 
a brathoir ni bh{ ar forbhas, mathair { don nghdardhas.^' 

3. A n-eigsi ni bhi gan bhlas, as buime { don eolns, 

ni ghlacfa eicht solus gan sal, a dalta an ^' fortM focal. 

4. An t-eigios gidh be he fein, airdrfgh ar an 6ig8i eis6in, 
egios eadhon e gan cheas, se gan ansodh ^* madh 6icces. 

* feimhin cancelled and feine written under it, L. 

* oic, L. sirsi, H. 

' 8iCy L. n-eittrom, H. 

* is, H. 

^ fuinneall no fainneall, L. 

« gno, L. 

' grod&n, L. 

® do churan, H. cliurcli^, L. 

' giabhuir, L. 
*° chnu chena, H. 

»» This quatrain is also in H. 3. 18, p. 612*, and in O'Clery's Focl6ir, s.v. 
cais. In H. 3. 18 the second line is mar innisit liubair l&ncert, which is 
hypermetrical. The first line re-occurs in the Berbh^iur glossary 60. 
** The dh inserted by a corrector. 
" a daltan, H. 
^* ansodh, H. an§6gh, L. 


5. Gach nech 'ga ^ madh dorcha dan, as e * bhios a cces chomhlan, 
gach. neach go brath da mbeith a cces, do ghnath ni ba he 

an t-eiges. 

6. As se an t-eigios seimh sothal,^ d^rbhbhrathair * na ndubhfocal, 
as se ghealas ^ an glor dubh, madh lor a i'eabht^ d'ollamh.^ 

7. Gidh be riocht na'^bfuilim lein, do dhean glor^ solw« soilleir, 

don ghlor as duibhe ' ar domhan, mor gach tuile ar ttiomsu- 

8. 'Nae ' duine bemaoid ga bhrath, do bhearmaoid*® do tra tosach, 
ainm dho ' dsB ' na deaghaidh soin, * gnae ' ag f eraibh na 


9. * Fich ' is * grian ' fearann a bfad, * tola ' is ^ dlumh ' da ainm 

' diu ' ainm do chian, ni cam soin, ocm * mann ' gach biadh 

10. 'Baghadh' gach gealladh, dearbh** duit, ^gno' ocus *ealg* 

da ainm d'ordhuirc, 
* dinnis ' ainm do luighe ^ Ian, mar innis " duinn an deghdhan. 

11. *Eccosg' cuma, ocm *fuath' dealbh, 'einech' aghaidh, ni 

' dism ' gach. luath ag dul a bfad, ocua ' drubh ' ainm do charbad. 

12. *Grib' ainm do luas, fionnuidh fein, ^iocht' is Hroicchedh* 

clann chnisreidh, 
sloinn gan tairm,^* gan lochty gan len, ainm do chloinn * core ' 
is ' ceinel.' 

I aga, H. ga, L. 

* as e, H. se, L. 
^ sotal, H. 

* dealbhadoir, H. d^bhrathair, L. 

* ffheall««, H. 

* do ughdar, H. 
■^ a, H. 

** doghen gloir, H. 

^ don ghloir is duibh, H. 
'^^ dobherum, H. 
*^ ama focladh, H. 
*2 «ic, H. dearbhadh, L. 
13 luidhe, H. 

1^ Bar innis, H. mar dinnis, L. 
IS sloinidh da ghairm, H. 


13. 'Bronnadh ' is 'gleith* caithemh caidh/ 'grant' ainm do 

liathadh' lanbhlaith, 

* tort ' bairghen, is * caladh ' cruaidh, mar do canadh on 


14. *Pracc' lamh, octts 'luibhne' mer, 'onn' is * ailcne ' cloch 

is' do chloich fos as ainm *ai]/ gan dalbh* ocus* gan docair. 

15. *Coart' ainm binn do bhrughuidh, *bar** ainm do saoi 


* re " ainm milis do ® gach modh, * i ' inis, is * aill ' nasal. 

16. ' lodhna,' is * ceis,' ocns* 'cealtoir/ ar *° sleaghaibh da 


* suit ' gach dath da mbe fa bhladh, * tucht ' " gne gach. brath 

do bhnnadh. 

17. *Gorm'** ainm d'urdhairc gan ail, * diochmhairc ' *' goid, 

comhradh cubhai^'^h, 
*dile ' leanmhuin, lughu bladh,** ' a ' ard, octM * bri ' ** briathar. 

18. *Cem' buaidh, is 'cearn' fer fearrdha, 'seghadh' alladh ^^ 


* bra * " gach mala seng sedach,*® ocm * earr ' gach gaisgeadhach. 

1 9. * Tiomghoire ' iarruidh, nach lag, ocm is ^^ * cam ' gach comhrac,'^ 

* rubha ' guin na *^ ciecht corcra, ocus * cecht ' gach cumhsichtsi. 

* chaich, H. 

' no l^the, interlined, L. 
' siCf H. as, L. 

* 1. doilb.e, L. 
» is, H. L. 

* siCf H. barr, L. 
' In marg, read, L. 

* sicy H. da, L. 

* is, L. 

10 arna, H. 

" siCf H. cucbt i4el tucht, L. 

'* 1. gormadh. 

13 diochmaire, H. 

1* lugha abladh, H. 

" bngh, H. bridh, L. 

1^ sicK, L. seems to have alladh altered into ialaidh. 

1' In marg. braoi. 

18 brae malach, seng sheghach, H. 

1^ sicy H. as, L. 

*o sic, H. comhradh, L. carad in marg. 

21 1. no, L. budh, H. 


20. ' Cearb * ciorrbhadh, ' cerb ' tesgadh tren, * bladh ' * slan, 

* bladh ' baile, is binnsgel, 
'gunn/* bloghadh, ^gunn** braighe bhan, a raidhim^ sunn as 

21. 'Ruanuidh** ainm dilios don d^g, 'iar' ainm don dubh gan 

da luadh ann amach 's amuigh, ' flann ' gach ruadh, ni dath 

22. ' Lang' ainm da gach meabhail mhoir, innister* is ni heccoir, 

* muchna ' ainm do ghruaim gan ghean, gan stuaim, gan ainm, 

gan aireamh, 

23. * Pale' ainm do gach jRBjmtaidh. moir, innist^ is ni heugcoir,' 
' folMn ' ainm do mhaisi amuigh, ni braisi do na beluibh. 

24. *Raiftinne' is'' radh gan ches, ainm don ghairge, glor^ dileas, 
is^ ainm do garg 'lore,' dar lem,^° gan fadhbh,^^ gan locht mur 


25. 'Deagha'" sen-ainm don ghaoith ghrinn, *16th'" ainm do 

chlumh,^* ni ceilim, 

* ur ' gach tosach, tren a bladh, * cria ' ^^ cennach, is * er ' 


26. 'Son* 0CM5 *fuach' focul feigh, *nith* guin, ^nion' liter 
' tebeadh ' " ainm do bhuain bhuna/<^, * aoi ' ainm *^ do gach. 

1 blath, H. 

* 1. g(in. 

' araidhe, H. 

* Euanaigh, H. 

* 8ic, H. imiistior, L. 

^ 8ic^.f L. omits these two lines, 

' sic H., Raistine (1. raisde) as, L. 

8 gai^ is gloir, H. 

^sicu., as L. 
*o sie H. ar leam, L. 

** sic IS., sadhbh, L, but corrected in margin into fadhbh. 
^* luaighsem, H. 
" Dedhe, H. 
w loth, H. 
** don chlmmh, H. 
^* sie H. criadh, L. 
" teibhe, H. 
i<} snaidlmi ainm, H. ■ ainm aoi, L. 


27. 'Besccna' sith, *besgna' berla, *tugaid'^ adhbhar a dhenmlia,' 
gin motha na feagmais sin, go bfionnmaois ^ mur ta a thuigsin. 

28. 'laircbena' osin amach, * ceachoir** ionann i is latbach, 
'annach'* as ainm grinn do ghlan, aga ghairm as binn do 


29. *Loc** ainm d'ionadh, sonn'' go se, *aoide' ionann i is oige, 

* ce ' talamh, is ni dluth ® dhamh, ionann * ur ' octcs nasal. 

30. ' Forchaomhnagair,*' comhradh glsm, ionann is gach ni fedhtar,**' 
'adchoda'" dlighedb dleaghedr/' do siredh*^ a senleabratbh.** 

31. ' Riaradh '** do dhuthcbw« as ainm, * feib ' feabhus each dha** 

cbomb ghairm, 
*feibh* ionann e ocm amhoil, in da gne" do ghabhabhoir. 

32. Ealadha ^^ is caingen cubhaidh, is dlighedh nach duaghamhoil,^® 
ainm doibh a ttrinr * aoi ' gan ail, a ngnaoi gan lindh ar lo^A^aibh. 

33. * Loscc ' bacach, * coscc ' ^ tegusg tenn, * adh * dlighedh, is 

'dluth '21 inneall, 

* taidhe ' goid do chomhloit crodh, * nuall ' ainm d'urdhairc 

'na farradh. 

34. ' An ' is * rann,' ^^ * ban ' is ' binne,' *^ anmonna lad d'firinne, 
athairm gach laoi ni leaghor,** agas * aoi ' ainm d'foircheadul. 

' tuig^<ih, H. tugaidh, L. 

2 an deamna, H. 

' interlined 1. do bhermaoid, L. go bfhedmaois, H. 

* ceacar, H. 

^ andag, H. annuigh, L. annacb, O'R. 

« Dog, H. 

' 8^11, H. 

8 dlugh, H. 

® Cor caomhna gair, H. 
10 ionan gach ni feuchar, H. 
^1 sic J H. adhcoda, L. 

^' deagair, H. dleaghoir altered into dieaghor, L. 
13 is readh, H. 

1^ aicy H. shenleabhoir altered into shenleabhor, L. 
" Bkcad, H. 
i« ga, H. 

" I. an da gbne, L. 
" Ealad, H. 
1^ duaghamhuil, H. 
^ sicy H. cosg, L. 
«' dla, H. dlugh, L. 
** rtin, L. rann truths O'R. 
** ar is rann bar is binne, H. 
^ atairm gach laoi gach l^igur, H. 


35. 'Gubha' caoinedh, ciadh do char,* *techteL^ dligeadh, 'art' 


* meall ' aoibhinn, octM ' fod ' fios, mdoidhim nach 6g do airmliios. 

36. * Cem ' caitheamh,* * ong ' teaUach. te, is ' sion ' catboir nua 

is * nasadh ' oird^rc re headh, s^sadh nar chomhloit cineadh. 

37. * Forchongra ' ^ furailiomh * fein, * ellgheadh ' ^ adhlacadh 

dochira go gar seimh seadhach, * ail * ^ min, is ' f eigh ' 

38. * Sgill ' obann, gan ® taom taoisi, * suin * ' cluthor ^^ no 

' gdid ' ** iarraidh. no guidhe ghrinn, diambair gach duine 

39. * Seire ' proinn, oilemain *^ Ian, degbf ear * cur' can^^marchombradb, 
' deiltre'** dee draoidheachta an, d'aos uidbeacbta 'na sechran. 

40. 'TuarasdoP luighe gaw len, is *clannadb' gach sadb sfrtbren, 

* gnaoi * ainm d' aoibhinn gan ail, * gnaoi' ag feraib ar na focluibh. 

41. Da ainm don chlaoine colat^h. * ciol ' is * cle ' *^ re a ccanamhain, 
's edh aderar re linn * laith,' a senadh " linn as lanmhaith. 

42. *TJs' gach sloinneadh, doirbh an radh, 'ealladh'*® aisgidh 

na^h adhnar,*' 
' duar ' gach. rann dana nach dubh, aga radha ann don ollumh. 

* cia do chur, H. 

* 8iCy H. cathair, L. 

^ For conghair, H. Forchongair, L. 

* forail^f-ni, H. 
6 eiUigh, H. 

* ail altered into ailghean, L. 

"^ do chim go reidh seimh seaghdha ailmin is feigh faircsiona, H. 

® gan altered into agtis, L. 

^ sun, H. sMn, in marg, svin, L. 
10 clutar, H. 

** sicy H. cSioinmbnisi, L. 
^* g6id, H. g^dhe, in marg. guidhe, L. 
13 ^uillean madh, H. oileamain altered into dil leanmain, L. 
1* deithf^ corrcan, H. 
1* teillW, H. ; but see O'Cl. s.v. deilUre, 

16 eilis cleith, H. 

17 innsenadh, H. an (altered into a) senadh, L. 
1^ eallamh, H. in marg. ealladh no eallamh, L. 
1^ aghnar, H. adhnair, L. 


43. * TJinnsi ' ionann e octcs ata, ' neimheadh ' gach dan da ndernta, 
' ciol' bas is * biodhbha' leatrom, is *iodhna' gach eineachlann.* 

44. * Cuislionnach,' ergna re each, as ainm e don fcaddnach, 

* Bliocht ' do gach ceill adcluine, is * ciocht ' reidh gach. rionn- 


45. * Eislinn ' esinneall, ni breag, ionann ' cuP oeus coimhead, 

* athreidhe ' ' sa thairm go brath,^ ' ceile ' as ainm do gach 


46. *Datan' ainm gach oide Ann, . ' dathnuid ' * gach. buime 


* fisleadh ' annamh ^ biadh fo bhladh, * gnia ' gach mac sethor 


47. 'Coimdhe" gach tigheama tenn, 'cealt* ainm d'edach gan^ 

. fuigheall, 
each da' ghairm is *° trom an tred, is ^° ainm ^ com ' do gach 

48. * Seimh ' beag, * airm ' baile ar bun," ' forba ' leadradhf * mal ' 

mar bhlos gach dal gan deghail, 'mal' cios aga chruinnioghadh.*^ 

49. * Slaibhreadh ' *^ ainm do choibhche is cair, 'muaidh'^* maith 

sech soithin'* siordhail, 
da ainm don choimhidea<?A^ cain, 'sail' ocus^* ' caoimhthea<?A^ ' ^' 

^ eineclann, H. 

* aithreighe, H. 

5 In marg, aithreidlie sa ghairm go brath, L. 

* dathnaidh, H, 

5 sicy H. fis leadh ainm 1. anamh biad, with the letters and word leadh ainm 
1. cancelled, and underneath are the words fios gach dath da mbiadh 7c. L. So 
O'R. fis colour y dying f tincture. 

8 featni]«r folarah, H. 

' sic H. Coimhdlie, L. 

8 re, H. 

9 ga, H. 

w 8ic, H. as, L. 

" dar liom, H. ar lumh 1. bun, L. 

" cuimhniughudli, H. chuimlmiuglmdh in marg, 1. chminnioghadh, L. 

^3 slabradh, H. 

^* muaidh, L. but with the i cancelled, 

1* sicy H. In L. soithin is cancelled and oscon written under sech and so. 

*8 is H. and L. 

" 1. coimh(thecht), L. caoimthus, H. 


50. ' Feith ' * ar eladhain ^ ainm dhi, ' troigh ' ar thurghabhail 

* fofor * ^ ainm * do thobar thren, * sloighre ' gach cloidhiomh 

51. 'Dron' gach. direch, breth naeh breg, ocua 'comruir'* gach. 

ba* he an sgel nach bu gan'' greim, octcs is gach dirim 'dreim.'^ 

52. * Mairae ' brath, ni coir a cheilt, * gno ' is ' ainm do ^° gach. 

tairm ^^ fa blath is daingne dhi, * airbhe ' ^^ is *^ * fath ' da ainm 

53. 'TJath' ainm d'uir, diamhair an dath," * f oilerbadh ' ^* gach. 

bas bronach, 
ionann *ceis' is cuairt re a radh, is suairc gach. gn6 don 

54. ' Cse ' is 'dae,* ciodh diamhair in de,'^ da ainm tighe a mbia daoine, 
' taithmheach ' g«^h scaoilidh go sceimh, " is maoidhemh 
* aithnech * eisein. 

55. Raidhrecumairce^^ gawchol,'snaidh^(?h,' *faoisidin,' 'faosamh,'*^ 
ionann *dionn* is*° maith mhordha, d'ardflaith iia mionn 

I Feidh, H. 

* ealagham, L. 

' In marg, fophor. 

* for forainm, H. 

* »wj H. coimhrin, L. 
8 budh, H. 

' gan«, H. and L. 

<^ 7 is dreim gach dirimh, H. et dreim ann {cancelled) gach dirim {filtered into 
^ aiclS,. as L. 

»o sic H. da, L. 

*^ atairm, H. 

^* airbhre in marg. no airbhe, L. airbhre, H. 

" sic H. as L. 

^* sic the corrector of L. for d'uir . . . dath the original scribe wrote don 
dath diamair rath. H. has uath ainm diamhradh an dath. 

1* sic the corrector in margin : the original scribe wrote failearibadh. H. has 

*** «tc H. Cse is doe {no dse) diamhair dhe, L. 

^^ sic the corrector in margin : the original scribe wrote sgaoileadh go 86imh. 

'® C^dh re comairce, H. 
• '* sic the corrector ofh.: the original scribe wrote snaidh^^ faosamh faoiside. 
H. has 7 snaoidhe faosamh f^oisidhe. See O'Cl. s.y. faosamh and O'B. s.y. 
faoiseadh and snaidhim * I protect.' 

^ sicB.. as, L. 


56. * Puan ' ainm do bhrat bhfos fa bhladh, ' eo * ainm do gach 
maith moltar, 

* eo ' ainm do gach fert abhos, * sgeo ' is ^ ainm do gach agus.* 

57. 'Daoe'^ teghdhuis, deilm* gan on, *bath* is 'ibath' is 
fregratdli^ an triar don bhas bhea^A^, grianfios as gnath^ do 

58. 'Asccal' iomagallamh® ann, ^uaghbha*' togbha re tagball,*® 
greas" n«^h cclos a mach go mion, 'mos' bes, ocus * buich' " 


59. ^ Dremhan ' ainm do Dbemhan dubb, * oirdherc ' ainm d'follus '^ 

'robuist'^* coimbed, *dagh' maith mar, ' aidhbhsi ' ceol ocus 

60. *Caisi' miosgois, *caisi' sere, ^drocb* ^^gach dorcba go duibhchert, 

* oibid ' umhla, ' ceo ' sechna, ocus ' beo ' ** gach buainchethra. 

61. ^ Tinne ' saill " ocus meith mor,^® * acobhar* *® saint go siothlogh,*® 
' deimh ' ** no * demhal * dioghbhail ^ sin,^ sgel go mbrigh gach 

dhail** bun«*dh. 

^ sic J H. as, L. 

2 ogus, H. 

3 Dse, H. 

* sicK, delmh no delbh, L. 

^ The tb of hkth. and the i o/ibath inserted by the corrector, ba ocm bath ocus 
diobhadh, H. 

^ sicK. freagraigh corrected into freagraidh, L. 

"^ ni gnath sa chiaU, H. 

8 iomagalladh, H. 

® uadha, H. 
1" tadhal, H, 
1* gres, H. 

1* buith, H., and L. has buith in marg, 
^3 sic H. dollum corrected into d'ollus, L. 
1* sic H. robrmsd corrected into robuisd, L. 

15 drocht, H. 

16 beo f&s, H. 

i*^ sic H. Teine soill, L. 
1® no meith mh6ir, H. 
1^ acobair, H. 

20 ro choir, H. et siclL.y but sioth 16gh in marg, 

21 dreim, H. dreimh, L., but corrected into d^imh. 

22 diabhail, H. diabhal corrected into dioghbh§dl, L. 

23 om. H. 

2* sgel go mb^iodhail mbronach, H. sgel. gach mbridh g^h dh&il bimaiih, L. 


62. ' Cudh ' ^ cenn, ocua * cudh ' ^ iudhbhairt, agus * buth ' bith 

an* derbhchest amhlaidh gan ail, labhruidh brfgb* inbbar 
mbriathruibh. Deirbhsiur. 

III. The Egerton metrical Glossary. 
Egerton90, fol. 17* 1. 

1 [fo. 17* 1] is gel *caindlecb,'« 

* arco ' ' lochor do Dia a dul, oeu8 * menmarc ' gach smuaineadh. 

2. *Rang' maelbuidhi lorn gan lag,® 'ris'* faisneis, 'ribar' criathar, 

* sol * g/ian, ' lugna ' esca and, * salt ' leim otersa (?) aderam. 

3. * Segamla ' gach blectas bog, * samh case araid ^° na cumagb, 

* snath * ^^ folt, nocho scele lium, ' smer ' teini [ocus] ^ fuaid ' 


4. * Seist ' meodhon-lae, is * [sjceng ' lebaidh, ^ sorb ' locht, * sin * 

cruind caemnegair, 

* slab ' cumang, ocu8 ^ coid ' coill, * segh ' ^^ fiadh istuig (?) mar 


5. * Sath ' biadh, 'sen' Ifn fiadha amach, *serr' gach^^ n-og is 

gach n-uallach, 
'telP fuaim mardoglach goglan, *ti' brat,^* [ocus] 'borr' bmchtadh. 

6. * Turba ' gach buiden bindsi, * fuaim' tobeim, *toth' ban-indsci,^^ 
' tuarad ' cuid adeire dun, * buili * ^® go deimin drochrun. 

* sicy H. Cudh no cuth, L. 
2 cuth, H. 

^ In marg. ordhuirc. 

* a, H. 

* brigh, H. bridh, L. Then in L. foUows this prayer in an ItaKan hand : 
Oremus. Absolve quaesumus Domine animam famuli tui Hugoni ab omni 
vinculo Delictorum : ut in Resurrectionis Gloria inter Sanctos & Electos tuos 
resuscitatus respiret Ver Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

^ is gell caimaech, Eg. 

' erca, Eg. 

8 laga, Eg. 

» fis, Eg. 
*® cascaraid, Eg. 
*^ leg. snuath? 
12 seth, Eg. 
*3 seirgach, Eg. 
»* 'tibrath, Eg. 
1* toa atinsi, Eg. 
" baiU, E^. 


7. ' Bro ' beimneach, oetcs ' ur ' olc, * baigliu ' * laeg allaidh' ardrod, 
' bascall * geilt, is * baislech ' dam, * band ' liathroid, * aisdrech ' 


8. * Bracht * beoil, * brae ' ' lamb, is * brann ' ben, ' braicbem ' * 

damh allaidh armer, 

* bas ' barr nach f uilgend fingal, is ' cuimling ' ' gach 


9 achy 

is cnath fumaigi re ' foir,' is ^ culmaire ' gach cairbtheoir. 

10. * Ceinntecol ' trialladb • go trie, * consal ' "^ comhairlech 

* duar * rand, * duar * gac[h] toradh tend, * iach * bradan, * solam ' 


11. 'Drenn' garb, 'del' sfne mosech, * teim ' dorca, is 'drocht' 
gacb ndirecb, 
' ai ' a been, nocho n-ecbt ' ecbtga, ocus * cecbt * gacb cumacbta. 

12. * Ealga ' in Eire re baicbne, ocus * eidel ' umaigthe,^° 

* at ' sescba, ni lesg ale, * gann ' easgra, ocus ' esc ' " uisce.*^ 

13. 'Icbt*" ceinel, *erc' nim gidb nar, *flesg' bun ficb, [is] 
*l8Bgb' lind ban, 

* feirend * oris cengail gu coir, * fis ' do cennaigb in canoin. 

14. *Pocbnadb' lasamnacb laegaidh, * fuaP gacb uisci e domain, 

* troced ' ^* corp, [is] * li ' moladb, maith ni bi omain ardr. . . 

15. ' Gamb ' geimreadb, * pit ' ^* proind nacb mor, 'caidb ' idan nocba 

na nodb, 

* fod ' faidech, is * les ' letrom, ocm * fen ' ^* gac[b] feiretrom. 

* bui^lui, Eg. 
2 allaigh, Eg. 
8 brach, Eg. 

* braici, Eg. 

* amling, Eg. 

* leg. truailledh ? 
' comsal, Eg. 

8 -gleic, Eg. 

' necth, Eg. 
^^ umacti, Eg. 
11 esg, Eg. 
1* uisgi, Eg. 
" Ucht, Eg. 
" oroced. Eg. 
" fid, Eg. 
" fe. Eg. 


16. 'Aig' fuacht, 'fol' bonn, is *gam' ben, 'gabar' solos ga 

* lua ' breb, * gil ' an sugad seng, ' gnlth ' gutb munadh nach 


17. ' Grot ' * goirt, * gno * cuidmide ^ claen, * gnai ' segda^A^,^ 

* clamar * gach aer, 

* gaire ' gairsecle * go grod, is ' bairseaca * gach baeth-rod. 

18. *Prann' tonn mara, maith in t-ainm, *pui[n]cni' sgreabull, 

re scfam * gairm, 
*pain* bairgen,* octM 'pairt' penn, 'pingwr' [saland],' 
gus aihinn. 

19. * Puideran ' inar masedh, * braitsi '* asan re airem, 

*iar' dubb, *fur' urlum re bedh, *rucbt* mer, ni cle da 

20. * Peib ' marsin, * du ' baili blaith, ' dumacb ' dorcba gan 

'fecur' brecc nach rosena sund, *lang' fled oem 'cro' cumnng.' 

21. 'Eangach' gres gusmbar go rath, 'druimcli' gach legthoir 

' sillidh ' ben doni tuaicle, n{ bi sel acht saeb fuaichthi. 

22. * Eath ' cor, oeus *mothla' mseth, * cliste ' " urlamh . . . ni heeth, 
dena sloindte gar na slecht, is * droingcedul ' gach naideoht.^^ 

23. ' Dlomodh ' fuagra, * commaim ' ^* ben, ' buas * a ainm bolg, 

* boindi ' blaithgel, 

* tap * oband, * tore ' craidhi coir, ' ge[i]s ' guidhi, is olc gach 

* egcoir. 

^ gnoth Eg., but see Corm. Gl. s.v. gruiten. 

* gnodh cuiiii, Eg., but see Conn. Gl. s.v. gn6. 

3 saegdacht Eg. but see LU. 109» 41 (gnae .i. segda). 

t gairsech Eg. 

^ resgiam Eg. 

^ bairgein, Eg. 

"^ Cf. Pingair .i. saland, L.Lec. Voc. 

* braidci Eg. 

3 erumung Eg, 
»o elisdi. Eg. 

^1 This couplet is obscure and prob. corrupt. 
^' comuaim, Eg. 

Phil. TraxLB. 1891-2-8. 


24. 'Dear' ingen, ocus 'uath' uir, 'buanann' buime go blaith. 


' bracht ' [buain], ' baircne ' cat/ * bil * mong, * brae * lam, 
' oidsen ' sin sloindem. 

25. * Ficell ' . . . signum gu se, * bus ' topais, is ord aicbne, 

in sceil end guma * enedhach, ocus ^ gr[e]id ' gaeh gaisgedhach. 

26. *Brac' min, 'bi[acb]' faebur ferdba, 'mur* gacb (n-imm)ed 

' base ' gacb d^g adeire a ndan, ^ blim ' sili, ' buidhi ' ballan. 

27. * Briar ' delg oir, ^ bniinnech ' ^ mathair, ' cod ' * buaid, * core ' '^ 

finda fataig,* 

* fuid ' fuacbt ocm * croch ' gacb n-ard, * cam ' buaid, is * loth ' 

gacb langarg. 

28. 'Cath' doaim'' is *ort'^ orgain, *ciar' dub, *coth' biad, blaith 


* cum ' gacb cis, * laemdba ' nach lag, 

29. ' Going ' lenmain, * cumlachtaidh ' ore,' * clairiu * ^° fodhail re 

' crumduma * ottrach,^^ * eel ' nem, ' cil ' cla3n, ni mor do 

* bairci cath, Eg. 

' Read, perhaps, guba. 
^ dmineeli. 

* cob Eg. 

* tore Eg. 

* Eg. adds eongeir or cengeir (the second letter is doubtful) . 
■^ corrupt. 

8 ord Eg. 

' cumlachtiaigh arc, Eg. 

*o claire Eg. 

^^ fachmorc Eg. 

12 crumdauba odtrach Eg. 



Here follows the part of the prose vocabulary in the Book 
of Lecan, fo. 155* 3 — 156^ 1, which corresponds with the 
metrical glossary in Egerton 90 : 

Goal .i. caindleach. Area .i. lochar do Dia. Meanmarc .i. 
smuainead. Cich .i. ger. Ris .i. faisnes. Ribar .i. criathar. 
Sol .i. gnan. Lugna .i. esca. Salt .i. leim. Smer .i. tine. Seist 
.i. medonlai. Sgeng .i. lebaig. Sorb .i. loclit. Sin .i. cruind. 
Saith .1. biad. Serrach .i. each cnocc.^ Turba .i. buidean. Puaim 
,i. tbbeim. Tot[h] .i. bainindsci. Tuarad .i. cuid. Buili .i. drochrun. 
Bro .i. bemnech. TJr .i. olc. Baidbliu .i. laeg allaig. Baseall .i. 
geilt. Baisleaeh .i. dam. Band .i. liathroid. Braehta .i. be[oi]l. 
Brae .i. lam. Brann .i. bean. Braici .i. dam allaid. Bas .i. barr. 
Cuibleang .i. cathirgal. Car .i. toit. Cieht .i. fidhidoir. Culmairi 
.i. cairptheoir. Ceindtegal .i. twrailead. Conseil .i. eomairleach. 
Duar .i. rann. Duar .i. eaeh torad. lach .i. bratan. Dreann .i. 
garb. Greann .i. uleha. Deal .i. sine. Tem .i. doreha. Droeht 
.i. direach. Ceeht .i. cumachteL. Feidil .i. umaidi. Gand .i. 
easera. Ease .i. usee, Pochnada lasamnaith. Fual .i. uBce, 
domain. Li .i. molad. Gam .i. gemrad. Pid .i. proind bee. 
Caid .i. idan. Aid .i. fuaeht. Pol .i. bond. Gamh .i. bean. 
Gabar .i. solus. Lua .i. breab. Gni .i. gut[h]. Clamor .i. air. 
Prand .i. tend. Pain .i. bairgen. Pairt .i. peanw. Pingair .i. 
saland. Paideran .i. inar. Puindehi .i. feandoc. Braitsi .i. asan. 
lar .i. dub. Puinehi .i. sindaeh dub. Du .i. baile. Lang .i. fleag. 
Cro .i. eumang. Eath .i. eor. Bus .i. tobais. Gred .i. gaisgeadaeh. 
Dlomad .i. fuacra. Comaim .i. bean. Dear .i. inga.* TJath .i. ur. 
Bracht .i. buain. Baircne .i. cat. Bil .i. mong. Briar .i. delg 
oir. Bruineach .i. mathair. Cod .i. buain no buaid. Core .i. 
cenel no finda. Pinit dona dubfoclaib. 

1 leg. ii-6cc. 
* leg. ingen. 


Asc. gl. 

Amra Choi. 


Bk. Arm. 

Bk. Feu. 
Bk. Rights. 


Corm. Tr. 



Edin. xxxviii. 
Eg. 88. 
Eg. 1782. 




H. 2. 15. 
H. 3. 18. 
H. 4. 22. 
Harl. 432. 
Harl. 5280. 

Laud 610. 



Glossarial Index. 

List of Abbreviations. 

AscolijGlossarium palaeo-hibemicum, pp. xvii— cxl. 
The Annals of Ulster, vol. i. ed. Hennessy, Dublin, 

The Amra Choluim chilU (from LU. and LB.), 

ed. Crowe, Dublin, 1871, and (from LH.) in 

Goidelicay London, 1872, pp. 156-173. 
The Book of Ballymote. Eacsimile, Dublin, 1887. 
The Book of Armagh, a MS. in the library of 

Trinity College, Dublin. 
The Book of Eenagh, ed. Hennessy, Dublin, 1 875. 
The Book of Rights, ed. O'Donovan, Dublin, 

Cormac's Glossary, printed in Three ^ Irish 

Glossaries, London, 1862. 
O'Donovan's Translation of Cormac's Glossary, 

Calcutta, 1868. 
Derbhsiur don JS'cna, the metrical glossary 

printed supra, pp. 22-31. 
The metrical glossary printed supra, pp. 31-34. 

from Egerton 90. 
A MS. in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 

Egerton MSS. in the British Museum. 

Forus Focal, the metrical glossary printed supra, 

pp. 8-22. 
FUire Oengusso, the Calendar of Oengus, Dublin, 

Annals of the Eour Masters, ed. O'Donovan. 
Grammatica Celtica, second edition, 1871. 
The Lorica of Gildas, printed in Irish Glosses^ 

Dublin, 1860, pp. 133-151. 
Goidelica, London, 1872. 

MSS. in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, 
containing unpublished glossaries. 

Harleian MSS. in the British Museum. 

A MS. in the library of the Royal Irish Academy 

marked 23. L. 21. 
A MS. in the Bodleian, described by Todd, 

Proceedingsof the R. I. Academy, ii. 336-345, 

and by 0' Donovan, Book of Rights, xxviii — 

Ancient Laws of Ireland, vols, i.-iv. Dublin, 

The Leahhar Breac, Eacsimile, Dublin, 1876.' 





L.Lec. Yoc. 


Mart. Don. 
Misc. Celt. Soc. 



O'Don. Supp. 




Eawl. B. 502. 

Eawl. B. 512. 

Eev. Celt. 
Salt. E. 
Stowe XIX. 

Three Frags. 

Trip. Life. 

Wind. Woi-t. 

The Liber Hymnorum, a MS. in the library of 
Trinity College, Dublin, the Irish in which 
is printed in Goidelica^ London, 1872. 

The Book of Lismore, a MS. belonging to the 
Duke of Devonshire, described in Lism. Lives, 
i.e. Lives of SainUfrom the Book of Lismore y 
Oxford, 1890. 

The Lehar Laignechy or Book of Leinster, 
Facsimile, Dublin, 1880. 

The prose vocabulary (of about 570 words) in the 
Book of Lecan, ff. 166^157^. 

The Lebar na hUid/re^ Facsimile, Dublin, 1870. 

The Martyrology of Donegal y Dublin, 1864. 

Miscellany of the Celtic Society, Dublin, 1849. 

The Battle, of Magh Eath, ed. O'Donovan, 1842. 

O'Brien's Irish-English Dictionary, Ist edition, 
Paris, 1768; 2nd edition, Dublin, 1832. 

O'Clery's Glossary. Lou vain, 1643. Ed. by 
Arthur W. K. Miller, Eevue Celtique, vol. 
iv. pp. 349-428, vol. v. pp. 1-69. 

O'Davoren's Glossary, printed from Eg. 88 in Three 
Irish GlossarieSy London, 1862, pp. 47-124. 

O'Donovan's Supplement to O'Eeilly's Irish- 
English Dictionary. 

O'Flaherty's Glossary, now in the Bodleian, 
marked MS. Ir. e. 1. 

O'Molloy. Grammatica Latino-hibemica, 1677. 

O'Mulconry's Glossary, H. 2. 16, col. 18-col. 

O'Eeilly's Irish-English Dictionary, Dublin, 

A twelfth- century MS. in the Bodleian, described 
by Macray, Catal, Codd, MSS, Bodl. Part v. 
fasc. i. cols. 719—722. 

A MS. in the Bodleian, described in Trip. Life, 
pp. xiv-xlv. 

Eevue Celtique, Paris, 1870-1890. 

Saltair na Eann, Oxford, 1883. 

The St. Gall glosses on Priscian, ed. Ascoli, 1880. 

A MS. formerly belonging to the Stowe library 
and now in that of the Eoyal Irish 

Annals of Ireland. Three Fragments, ed. 
O'Donovan, Dublin, I860. 

The Tripartite Life of Patrick, EoUs series, 1887. 

The Wiirzburg glosses on St. Paul's Epistles. 
Printed in The Old-Irish Glosses at Wiirz- 
burg and Carlsruhe, Hertford, 1887. 

Windisch's Worterbuch, Leipzig, 1880. 


a (MS. a) height^ D. 17. So Conn. s.v. arad. A .i. ard, Stowe 
XIX, L.Lec. Yoc. As vowel- flanked % is lost in Irish, 6. * height' 
may be cogn. with Lat. <w«, ara : so altm with altaria [altar e). Two 
other homonymous words are a 'chariot' cogn. with Skr. y/6s 
*to sit,' and the aw, Xet^. d 'mouth,' gen. sg. Trip. Life, p. 140, 
1. 11, with Lat. 08 f oris, 

acais curse, Ff. 29, note 12. acais .i. aor no mallacht, O'Dav. 48. 
virulence^ gan agh, gan accais, gan urcoid, MR. 294. tug se acais 
do he cast a slur on him^ Coneys. 

accobar N". desire^ D. 61. Z*. 222 : ririr accobur a sula he gave up 
his eye*s desire, Amra Choi. 71 ; from ad-\-cohar. 

adehota personal law? D. 30. This is prob. a verb,=atchota, LL. 
345* 38, and L.Lec. Yoc, though it is explained as a noun in the 
Brehon laws cited by 0*R. s.v. adcoda .i. dlighead dligheas neach 
d'faghail no do geibh neach. 

adh law D. 33. So Stowe XIX, L.Lec. Yoc. and O'Cl. ni hada 
.i. ni dlig^^a, Amra Conroi. A deriv. adae or ada .i. fas occurs. 

a.edjiref Ff. 5. So Conn, and H. 3. 18, p. 63^. aed tene, LU. 
45* 30, and see infra s.v. smer, ace. amal aed (.i. tenid) tre fithicen, 
LU. lOQa 35. Cognate with W. aedd ' calor, studium,' Gr. ai0o9, Lat. 
aedeSj aestus, A.S. dd, Aed 'eye,' Ff. 39, is doubtless the same 
word. So aed .i. suil, O'Cl. adam aed .i. adam suil 'my two 
eyes ' .i. im chind, LL. 208* 27. mu da n-aed .i. mo da suil, Amra 

ag stag, Ff. 63, properly a bovine animal, agh .i. bo, O'Cl. ag 
allaid *cervus,' a neut. stem in «, pi. nom. ace. aige alta. dual 
nom. it e da n-ag ata cainium robatar inn Eiri, Eg. 1782, fo, 
76^. Cogn. with W. ewig ' hind ' from *agika, Skr. aja-s. 

1. d!\one, E. 11: Old-Ir. ae, "adjectivis pronominabilibus each 
{cecK), nach {na) aequo adjunctum ac oin unus," Asc. gl. xvii. ' one, 
person, individual,' do cech ai, LL. 254^ 50, do each ae, O'Don. 
Supp. The forms di, ae point to an Old-Celtic aivo-s^^Qcr. 0T09, 
Cypr. 01F09 * alone,' 0. Pers. aiva- * one,' Av. aeva-, diva-, Skr. eva 
* alone,' 'only,' and (with a different suffix) eka-s, *one' just as 
the Old-Ir. 6in ' one,' W. un, points to Old-Celtic omo-«=Gr. 01P09, 
oivTf ' the ace on dice.' Lat. uniLs. 

2. ai F. science, D. 26. 32, ai .i. ealadha, Stowe XIX. oe .i. elada, 
L.Lec. Yoc. art (dan) pp. 2, 3, doctrine, D. 34. Sg. nom. dligid a£ 
astud, LL. 345^ 32. gen. iar cantain a ai .i. a eicsi, LL. 186*. iar 
fuithir grene .i. iar ndagthir inna ai (.i. inna eicsi) grianda, Rawl. 
B. 502, fo. 60^ 2. This word seems to occur in aefreslige, ai idan, 


names of metres, and cf. a n-aae dna .i. a nduana 7 a ndreclit[a] 
7 a n-admolta, Eawl. B. 502, fo. 62* 1. 

3. ai lawy D. 32, Stowe XIX.=O.H.G. iwa Gesetz, Korm, Skr. 
eva * course.' 

4. ai « suity p. 2. D. 32. Sg. nom. ae caingen isin tsengaedeilg, 
LB. 238° 54. gen. airbert aoi iama hastadh * to plead the came 
after hinding it, O'Don. Supp. ace. inti aighiss in ae, ih, 

aibeis, F. sea^ Ff. 15. aibeis .i. muir O'Cl. sg. gen. lebheann na 
haibheise, Lism. 117* 2. ace. forsin n-aibheis n-anbhail nemhfor- 
cennaigh, ibid. perh. from an Old-Celtic "^ahensi-s ex *abhent-ti'8, as 
sets infra, from "^sensis, ^sent-ti-s. Cognate witb Ir. abann, Lat. amnis 
(from ^ahnis), etc. A somewhat similar word, ahis, is borrowed 
from Lat. ahi/ssm, ind abis mor inro inclannad dliged circuil (gl. 
circulus abyssi magni), LH. 12^. abisus scientiae .i. abis fessa, 
LB. 196% pi. ace. abissiu, Ml. 51^ 8. In LB. 230^ dtbeis is twice 
used for abts : ataat (soil, the fallen angels) hi f udomain aibessi : 
i n-abeis na teined suthaine ichtair iffirnn : cf. D. C. Purg. i. 146. | 

aidben (MS. aidhbeil) remote, F. 59. adben .i. etircian, H. 3, 
18, p. 75*, and so O'Dav. 65, O'Don. Supp. aidhbhean .i. imchian 
no fada, O'Cl. .i. olc no deoraidh, O'Cl. ond Athain aidben anair, 
from the far-off Athens, from the East, LL. 215* 46. 

aidbse music, Ff. 12, D. 59. So O'Cl., Corm. s.v. adann, LTJ. 
5^ 8. aidbsi .i. aircetal, O'Dav. 47. (a)idbse .i. ainm do chiul nd 
chronan dogniteis ermor fer nEreud immalle, a name for the music 
or burden which the greater part of the men of Erin used to make 
together, LH. 34* 1 (Goidel. p. 156). aidbsi .i. corus cronain, 
LU. 5^ 5. 

aidmirt, airmirt. See airmit infra. 

aig ^ cold^ (rather ice), E. 16. Mathair etha aig, mathair saille 
snecta, ice is mother of corn, snow is mother of bacon, LL. 345* 9, gen. 
bissi ega icicles, lit. fingers of ice, bommand ega hailstones, lit. 
bits of ice, W. id, O.'N.jaki, A.S. gicel, 

1. ail ¥, stone, Ff. 27, D. 14. So O'Cl. sg. gen. ailech, a (?-stem, 
connected by Fick with Lith. uld * Felsen.' Why not with uKiy/r • 
Trerpa, Hesychius ? It has been connected with ireXeKv^ and paragu, 
as Lat. saxum with Ags. seax, O.H.G. sahs; Skr. dgman, with 
cLKfiij ; and Ir. art * stone ' with Med. Lat. artavus. But then we 
should have had *elech, 

2. ail smooth, gentle, D. 37. Compd. ail-menmnach, LU. 87^ 11. 
ail (two MSS. ail) asking, seeking, Ff. 8. So O'Cl. ail .i. a :no 

dliged no guide, O'Dav. citing ail dame dibhse, gen. ic id ail 


no aisc, LB. 216» 31. The length of the a is established by dnnd 
dil (gl. ad supplicandum) Ml. 40^ 44, the denom. verb ailtm .i. 
gnidim, Stowe XIX, better dilim ' I entreat,' dih-i, dlisa * rogavit,' 
Bk. Arm. 18* 1, 18» 2, as well as by the o of the cogn. W. add-oli 
* to adore.' 

ailcne a {little) roehy atme, Ff. 32, D. 14. So Stowe XIX. 
Alccne .i. ail bee .i. digabtach indi is ail, H. 3. 18, p. 74°. A 
dimin. of alec-^ the stem of 1 . ail, A form ailce also occurs. 

aill noble, D. 15. So L.Lec. Yoc, O'Dav. 49 and O'Cl. 

ailt house, Ff. 69. So 0*C1. and H. 4. 22, p. 61^. sg. dat. ro 
dosuidigthi i n-oen ailt. Salt. E. 6158.' alt .i. teach, O'Dav. 54, 
who cites is ae alt conae clu 'it is his house that preserves 
fame,' and toingthi fo ailt neimhi * swear by the house (vault ?) of 
heaven.' O.Br, oostad alt (gl. aeditui). May come from *{p)altd, 
which has been connected with Lat. palatum * vault, palate.' If 
so, alt neime would be a close parallel to Ennius' palatum eaeli. 
But the connexion is very doubtful. 

ailtire architect, Ff. 69. So H. 3. 18, p. 74c, g.v. ailt, O'Dav. 54 
s.v. alt, and O'Cl. eeltaire 7 sair, LL. 29*, 8Bltaire 7 rathbuige, 
LL. 29^, 39. Cogn. with ailt q.v. and the verb cor' altar mo fert-sa 
lat, LL. 269» 16. 

ain pleasant, Ff. 46. See 2, an infra. 

ain rushes, Ff. 46, O'Cl. and now written aoin. Sg. gen. 
scena buana afne, Laws iv. 310, dat. robatar grfanana .... 
essarda do din, LL. 263% fon ain, fon tuige. Laws i. 140, ace. dia 
taidled in n-uir no in n-ain forsa laiged Martain if he touched the 
mould or the rmhes whereon M. used to lie, Rev. Celt. ii. 400. From 
*ia%ni' cogn. with Lat. iuni-culus, iuni-perus and iuneus from 
*ioiniculos, ^ioini-pero-s, ^ioini-co-s. 

aincis a curse, Ff. 29. aingcis, O'Cl. ; a sister-form of acais supra. 

ainf^in unusual, strange, Ff. 33. anf6n .i. ingnad, H. 3. 18, 
pp. 63^, 638. dinfen, Lr..B3a 8, seems a different word. 

ainner a woman, Ff. 24. ander .i. ben, ainder .i. bean, H. 3. 
18, pp. 64*, 635^, aindear, O'Cl. pi. n. aindre 7 ingenrada 7 
maccaeme, LL. 109* 10, dat. andrib, LU. 81» 3. W. anner 'heifer,' 
O.W. enderic (gl. vitulus). Windisch compares Gr. avOripo^, 

ainnse (leg. ainsed?) hlams, Ff. 60, ainsed .i. ainmhedh no 
imdergadh, O'Dav. 47, citing ni ainsid enech ruirech nd ollaman 
the honour of a chief or an ollave was not reproached. Cognate are 
dinsem (accusatio), dinsid (accusativus), and the verb tainsither * is 
reproached, censured,' O'Don. Supp. 


airLhe a kind of poem, D. 52. So O'Cl. Hardly a mistake 
for airhert .i. aircetal, aircetal, O'Dav. 49. 

airbri, abundance^ p. 1. So in H. 3. 18, p. 61 1^ airbri .i. 
immad, LL. 311^ 12. airbhre .i. sluagh a host, army, O'Cl. (pi. 
dat. airbrib, Salt. E. 716. LL. 281» 21. LB. 131» 48. ace. 
rohairbriu, Amra Choi. 33), may be the same word. 

airgse (aircse?) hlamSy Ff. 60. Cogn. with airci% .i. 6accaoine, O'Cl. 

airm 'place, D. 48. So 0*Dav. 54 and O'Cl. cia airm sund hi ta 
Cuchulaind ? LTJ. 68*. Other exx. in Asc. gl. xxvii. 

airmit (MSS. aidmirt) prohibitiony tahu (geis), Pf. 33. So Conn. 
S.V. Diarmait, and O^Dav. 51. 

aime watching^ Pf. 53, watching at night, O^Cl. ame Pingin, 
Rawl. B. 512, fo. 109^ 2=aime Fingein, Stowe MS. 992, fo. 46% 
feacht n-aen dia mboi F. aidchi tsamna in Druim Finghein i 
n-airne, ihid,,. 0. Ir. aire, for air, fritJiaire, and the areanos of 
Ammianus Marcellinus, 28. 3, may be cognate. 

airrde (airidin?), leasughadh, Ff. 33. Prob. corrupt. 

airt side, direction, point (of the compass), Ff. 69, better aird. 
Wind. Wort, dird, O'Br., Gr. ilpSi^ ? 

aisdrech humble, E. 7. Seems wrong, for aistrech (derived from 
aister,^ ' journey,* ' error : ' g£ui aisder, gan oil, Bk. Fen. 242, 
cethri mogaid mor aistir, ibid. 370), means * unsteady,' 'inconstant,' 
Rev. Celt. xi. 128. aisdirech 'far-travelled,' Misc. Celt. Soc. 

aithnech boasting, D. 54. Prob. corrupt (leg. mdidmech 'vain- 
glorious ?). Hennessy renders aderim rib gu haithnech, Bk. Fen. 74, 
by / say to you, knowingly, 

aithrinne calf, Ff. 69. So in H. 3. 18, pp. 63^ and 638. athimi 
,i. loeg, LTJ. 8* 25. aidhrinne, O'Dav. 48. 

1. an truth {true?), D. 34. .i. fir, H. 3. 18, p. 633^ and Stowe 
XIX, p. 30». 

2. an {an?) pleasantness (aoibhnios), Ff. 30, *an adj. pleasant, 
O'R. seems the same word. 

3. an water, Ff. 15. So 0*C1. an-bruich [leg. an-bruith] .i. 
uisci 7 broth, Harl. 5280, fo. 11^. Cf. Gaul, anam, paludem, 
Endlicher's Glossary, Kuhn's Beitr. vi. 227. 

dn truth {true ?), p. 1, Ff. 4 : a mistake for I. an? 

ana wealth, Ff. 26, better ^ae, Trip. Life, 118, a masc. stem in 
-aio. For exx. see Asc. gl. xxxv. Seems cogn. with ops, opes, 
a(f)vo9, apnas, 

^ The sister-form astar occurs in LB. 7* 15. 


an-art softy Ff. 34. See art. 

an-gnai {?) fault? D. 32. Prob. corrupt: of. an^id * wicked.' 

an-main hate, Ff. 34. leg. anmuin, the opposite of muin ^ O.jN". 
munr *mmd,' *love/ or anmain = amnaoin, O'Br. 

annach cleaUy D. 28. andag .i. glan, anannag .i. inwglan, Stowe 
XIX, andad .i. glan, anandac .i. nemglan, L. Lee. Voc, for met a 
n-anannaic, LB. 258^ (where it is a subst.). neamh-annach impure, 
O'Don. Supp. annac guiltless, O'Don. Supp. 

annoit church, Ff. 32. So L.Lec. Voc. O'Cl. and Stowe XIX, a 
mother 'Q^mtoh, O'D., whose explanation is supported by the gloss in 
H. 3. 18, p. 74c, Andoit .i. eclais doet in aile as cenn 7 is tuiside 
(.i. tus). This is andodit in Bk. Arm. 18* 2, andoit, O'Dav. 71, 
s.v. ceim. Low Lat. antitas antiquitas, Ducange. 

anno year, Ff. 32. Borrowed from dat. or abl. of Lat. annus, 

aprainn (MS. abrann) evil, alas, Ff. 44. appraind LTJ. 45* 5. 
apprinn O'Mulc. ba abrain[n], Trip. Life, 190, 1. 6, used as an 
interj. Apraind na basa for mo nirt de sede, LIT. 78^ 29. 

ara M. gillie, Ff . 33. And so in the gloss on Ban do Bhrian na 
murtha, na haraidh .i. na gioUadha, Betha Finnchua. Cf. Skr. 
arati-s, Gr. v'7r-rjp€7rj9. Seems the same word as the t-stem ara 
charioteer, sg. gen. arad, LIT. 64*. Compd. ban-ara maidservant, 
O'Br., daor-ara slave, ib. 

arco (MS. erca) 1 beseech God, E. 1. arco fuin dom Dia, Corm. 
and H. 3. 18, p. 63^. Seems=Skr. archami. But Windisch brings 
arco from *parc6, cogn. with Skr. pragna, Lat. preces, Goth, fraihna, 

ard-broenud (gl. imber) p. 5. Compd. of urd ' high ' and hrdenad 
verbal noun of hrdenaim * I shower,' a denom. from hroen * a 
shower' : dech do sinaib ceo, ferr a brathair broen, LL. 345* 14, 
15. broen derg, LTJ. 90^ 18. 

arg a man, Ff. 24, prop, champion, hero, Corm. and H. 3. 18, 
pp. 63*, 80*, 541. ar argg (.i. laech) niad (.i. trenfer) ropsam 
fartail, LL. 208* 30. argg .i. anrath, LL. 311^ 25. etir argaib erritib 
.i. anradaib, LU. 47* 9. Cogn. with Gr. apxd^' Hence argan : 
sg. gen. deis ar n-argain uais, LU. 9, marg. sup. and argdha, O'Br. 

art hard, Ff. 34. art 7 anart cruaid 7 maoth, O'Mulc. 56. From 
A.S. heard ? Or is it the same word as art * stone ' ? 

art noble, D. 35. So Corm., L. Lee. Voc, Stowe XIX, and 
O'Cl. Eochaid art .i. nasal, LL. 393* 53. 

asc pride, Ff . 65, from *at-ko- ? cf. ataim turgeo. 

ascal conference, D. 58,=axal .i. imacallaim, O'Dav. 56, axul .i. 



imagallmha, H. 3. 18, p. 628. pi. gen. ba eola axal n-aingel, 
Amra Choi. 47. ace. ranic axalu la arbriu arehangliu, ibid. 33. 

at seseba, E. 12, seems corrupt, at 'milk,* sesc-ha *dry cows.' 

athreide ? aithreighe? D. 45. Corrupt. 

axal nohky Pf. 32. So H. 3. 18, p. 74^. Perhaps for *a8cal, 
*at-klo ? See asc, supra. Axal is the name of an angel in Corm. 

ba, baa death, p. 3. So H. 3. 18, p. 61 1^ and O'Cl. fit dibad 
7 (ba)th 7 ba 7 teme ic sluinn epilten, LH. 26^, 1 (Goidel. 162). 

bace (var. lee. bach) crozier, p. 2. So Corm. bacc buana finime (gl. 
ligo), Sg. 62^ 10. Qom^di. fid'hoec (gl. arcus ligneus) Sg. 107^ 1. 

bacad, D. 31, note 16. Obscure and prob. corrupt. 

1. bach drunkenness, Ff. 70. So O'Cl. madness, O'Dav. 56. 
Comp. all-bach, LTJ. 106^ 31. bach-lubhra yro^-J/o««OAyi«, Coneys. 

2. bach sea, salt-water ? Pf. 70, seems corrupt. Bead hoch, and 
cf. hochna *sea'? Compd. boch-thonna, LB. 118^. 

bacht {var, lee. bach) reaping, p. 2, better bocht, as in O'Cl. 

bagad a promising, D. 10, verbal noun of hdgaim. ** Eobagus," 
ol se, ** fiad Fergus comrac fri Coinculainn imbarach, " LTJ. 68^ 39. 
Bagais Pallamain na ragad arculu co hEmain, LIT. 78^ 6. bagais 
Cuchulaind co ndingned samlaid, LTJ. 75* 25 : a denom. from bag 
.i. briathar word, O'Cl. pi. n. ar ngnima ropsat mara, ar mbaga 
ropsat beca our deeds were great, our words were small, LL. 208* 34. 

baigliu a fawn, E. 7. So O'Cl. This word occurs in the following 
quatrain (LL. 200*, last two lines) : 

Atchonnarc braichem is brii I saw a stag and a doe 

ocus baigliu etwrru. And a fawn between them : 

sochaide rodech immach, A multitude which looked outside, 

ocus brech ica marbad. And a wolf killing them. 

baircne cat^ E. 24. A female cat ace. to Corm., a white cat, 
ace. to O'Dav. 58 and Laws, i. 150. braicne, O'Br. 

bairsecha foolish talk? E. 17. hairsighe * brawling, scolding,' 
O'R., who gives a number of cognate words, hdirseach *a scold or 
shrew,' hairseoir * a scold,' etc. hdirseacht * satire,' O'Br. 

baislech doe? stag? E. 7. So L.Lec. Yoc. : bai8lec[h] .i. eilit, 
O'Dav. 57. baisleach .i. dam allaidh, Stowe XIX, p. 30*. baisleach 
.i. damh, OPlah. an ox, O'Br. 

ban truth, D. 34. So O'Cl. In H. 8. 18, p. 633^ Stowe XIX, 
p. 30% and in L.Lec. Voc. han is glossed by fir * true ' or * truth.* 

band, bann, a hall, E. 7. So Corm., L. Lee. Voc. and O'Cl. Hence 







perhaps the adj. hannach: suil glas bannach, LTJ. 113^, 3. Hardly 
cogn. with liSiLfunda * sling,' from *fonda.^ 

bar a sage^ D. 15. So Corm., L.Lec. Voc, LB. 101, and H. 3. 
18, pp. 65% 663. Cobthach cloth . . . breo (.i. noem) bar .i. sui, 
LB. 101, marg. inf. bar. .i. sai, LL. 377^ 16. From ^hharo-s? cf. 
Lat. harioltcs * soothsayer ' ? 

barann a hloWy Ff. 22. So O'Cl. ni fuirc6ba-8u and fer rosasad 
... a beim, a bruth, a barand, LU. 58^ 41, lin a barann mbuan, 
Salt. R. 7934. Cogn. with Lat./<?rfa, O.K. lerja^ Skr. hhara *fight,' 
Lit. harnia, Slav, hrant, 

has top, E. 8. So L.Lec. Yoc. has .i. barr, O'Flah. A contraction 
of hathas, haithes ' crown ' ? The ' bras .i. barr,* of Stowe XIX, 
p. 30% seems wrong. 

has M. death, p. 3, note 2, "WTd. 15* 28, gen. bdis. Transferred to 
the slain: etir has 7 ergabail both killed and prisoner a, AU. 912. 
Cogn. with the verb heha ' mortuus est ' and the noun hath infra. 
Fick connects JjdX.fatuus, 

basal pride, arrogance, Ff. 12. So 0*Br. baiseal .i. diomas, 
0*Flah. Derived from has supra ? Cogn. with Lat. fasiua ? 

base red, E. 26. So Conn., O'Dav. 62 and O'Cl. So also H. 3. 
18, pp. 65^, 624, 560^ OTlah and O'Br. Possibly cogn. with Lat. 
hacca from *hat-ca, 

bascall one maddened hy fear, E. 7, and L.Lec. Yoc. baisgeall .1. 
gelt, Stowe XIX, p. 30». baiscceal .i. geilt, OTlah. [b]oisgell .i. 
geltan, H. 3. 18, p. 64^. Doghni boiscill dia bhibhdhaidh, hs makes 
a ' hoscelV of his foe, Dan do Bhrian na murtha. 

1. bath death, p. 3, D. 57. So Corm. s.v. baten, and H. 3. 18, 
p. 65, col. 1. morbas bath dom-r^, LTJ. 119^ 30. Hence hathach (gl. 
moribundus) Sg. 59*. A cognate verb, hathar, occurs in Amra 
Choi. 129. 

2. bath manslaughter, Ff. 25. Cogn. with Gallo-Lat. hatuere, 
hatudlia, Fr. hattre, hataille, A.S. headu. 

1. be night, Ff. 52. be .i. aidche, Stowe XIX, p. 30*. be .i. 
ai[d]che, L.Lec. Voc. Cogn. with Gr. 0atos (from *0a£<ros?) 

2. be IT. woman, Ff. 52. So Corm. s.w. Buanann, Be N6it, 
L.Lec. Yoc, Stowe XIX, and O'Cl. be .i. ben ut dicitur B6-bind 
.i. ben find, LH. 16*. cid as messo ban ? ni ansa : Be 

^ So aunt, avunculus are from sonty avonclos. There seems no ground for 
regarding /Mmi^a as borrowed from a<i>€pi6yri. 


chaim, LL. 346* 30. Bi carna and M n-mroma are glossed by 
merdreoh (=meretrix) in L.Lec. Voc. sg. voc. a be co mbail, 
LL. 260» 4. 

beo cattle, D. 60. So 0*C1. Identical with 5^o=Lat. fgjvivtis, 
Skr. jlvd'By Goth, qim : cf. the Eng. expression live-stocky O.N. 
kvikvendi, Ir. margad bid, margad beo-craid, LT,, 216* 53. beo- 
almai, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 112» 1. 

berr (MS. bior) short, Ff. 70. So H. 3. 18, pp. 64^ and 633». 
Hence the verb berratm ' I clip.' "W. hyrr brevis. Prom a pre- 
Celtic hhersO'B cogn. with Skr. hrasfoa ? 

1. bescna feace, D. 27. So O'Cl. bescna .i. sith no bearla, 
Stowe XIX, p. 30*, L.Lec. Voc. O'R.'s beasenadh, nembescna 
strife, O'Don. Supp. 

2. bescna the langiLage of a people, a nation, D. 27. Cogn. perh. 
with Skr. hhdshd * speech.' This is O'Cl.'s hhcna * every country or 
every land wherein are languages.' He quotes the Calendar of 
Oengus, Ep. 318, athath in each hhcnu. So in the Auraicept na 
nEces, Eg. 88, fo. 63% 2 : gach son fordorcha robui in gach 
besgna 7 in gach berla fofrith ionad isin Gaidilc everg obscure 
word which was in every country and in every district found place 
in the Gaelic, As to the use of lingua, langice and rfKwaaa for 
'nation,' see Ducange. belra a parish or district, O'Br. and see 
LB. 132i>. 

biach penis, E. 26. So H. 3. 18, pp. 51% 626, and O'Cl. biach 
dorf riastradh oili a penis which will reach another's vexation, O'Dav. 
57. Another example is in the following quatrain ascribed to 
Conall Menu, Eg. 1782, fo. 64* : 

Dia tf Luingsich don Bannda, cona trichait c6t imme, 
gellfaith, cid lebur a bhiach, Cellach Liath Locha Cimme. 
If Loingsech come to the Bann with his thirty hund/reds around him, 
He will make submit, though long his penis, Cellach the Grey of Loch 

In LL. 43* 5, da biach bar baill brde is glossed by duo testiculi 
eius circa molam. Hence biachachd priapismus, O'Br. 

bibda, miswritten bidba (gl. reus), p. 4, D. 43. bibdu bais, 
Wb. 1* 15. pi. n. bibdaid (gl. obnoxii) Ml. 134^ 1. bibdid 45^ 10, 
gen. bibdad 43* 12. Hence bibdamnact, Wb. 1^ 15. O.W. bibid, 
M. Bret. beve%. 

bibdanas, MS. bidbanus (gl. reatus), p. 1. So Conn. Tr. 147. 

bil hair, mane, E. 24. So LL. Yoc. Borrowed from Lat. pilus. 


187* 58, L.Leo. Voc., and Stowe XIX, p. SO*, pi- n. oonid de 
ataat na bri ee, LL. 287^, 9. 

briar a golden brooch, E. 27, weighing an ounce, Corm. and H. 3. 
18, p. 54 1^ briar .i. delg, O'Dav. 56, and H. 3. 18, p. 64«. 
Identical with the Eng. brSr, now brier, briar. But which 
language was the borrower is not clear. 

bricht reliquary ? diadem ? p. 2, = breacht .i. mind, L.Lec. Toe 

bro cutting, abusive, E. 7. bro .1. beimnech, Stowe XIX, p. 30*, 
.i. beimneach, Edin. xxxviii. bro, 0*R. 

bronnad consuming, D. 13. So L.Lec. Voc., O'CL bronnadh i 
Bcaileadhno cnamh, H. 3. 18, p. 609, andO'Don. Snpp. eg. gen. breth 
brondta ithe aidche judgment as to eating com at nighi, O'Dav. 60. 
dat. do longad 7 do brondad cacha Wd. LB. 217«. The cogn. veA 
bronnaim occurs in Fiacc's hymn 8 (n£ bronna), in LIT. 100* 6 (18 
ed robronnad frisna cdic fichtiu bargen sin), and in LL. 844* 60 
(robronnat na rothrebat). 

broth /mA, Ff. 45. So O'Cl. Cogn. with fiopa and Lat. (f)voro. 

bru doe. See quotation at baigliu supra, and cf. the Messapian 
Ppevtov ' i\a(t>ov, Hesychius. 

bruinnech ynother, E. 27. So Corm., and H. 3. 18, p. 65«. Nabi 
bruinnech balb {his) mother was not dumb, 0*Dav. 56, ba h£ a 
bruin[n]ech ro oilestar Mac De it was his mother that nursed Go^% 
Son, ibid. 61. Derived from bruinns 'breast,' or br& gen. hronn, 
' womb.' 

bu death, p. 3, note 2. So H. 3. 18, p. 61 1^ 

buanann nurse, E. 24. Buanann muimme na fiann, Conn. 

buas bellg, E. 23. Cogn. with Gr. (pvffKa and K.H.G. Baueh^ 
buas innbea ' entrails,' 0*Dav. 56. 

buich a breaking, p. 2, Ff. 14, D. 58. So H. 3. 18, p. 615*. 
Probably a verb : buich .i. robris, LTJ. 5^ 27. rocehaes gair co 
mbuich, Amra Choi. 39. buich bron cerd Cuind grief rotUed Conn^s 
division (i.e. the northern half of Ireland), Amra Choi. 130. 

buide churn, E. 26. W. btiddai, for muide (=Lat. mod%us\ 
muddai. sg. dat. im-mudiu bic i mbid ass, LL. 286*, 49. dobeir 
a df laim fon mudi, LU. 53*, 12.' So buime, E. 24, LL. 378* 24. 
buimme, BB. 31* 4, for muimme 'nurse.' However, the b of buide 
is possibly right, and the word may be cogn. with Lat. fidelia and 
Gr. irido^ for *(t>iho^, 

buile an evil secret, E. 6. So L.Lec. Yoc. ' an evil design * 

^ A part of a harp was also called mude. See LTJ. 8^, 41. 



bothach hog, fen, Ff. 70. So O'Cl. brugh botbacb-mbor, Rawl. 
487, fo. 14^ 2. From *bu-t-ako-. Cogn. witb Lat. imhuo {in-huo) 
I wet, moisten, 

bott fire, V. infra, s.v. smer. bod .i. teine, L.Lec. Yoc. 

bra eyebrow, Ff. 39. bra, braoi, D. 18. brae, LH. 2*. dubidir 
re bran a brae, LL. 44^ 27. di broi duba dorcbaide, LTJ. 55* — 55^. 
da bra doile dubgorma osna rosea sin, LB. 219*. Compds. 
bra-dorcha, LL. 266^ 48, bra-dub .i. malachdub, LL. 266* 22. O.Ir. 
*hrui =. O.-Slav. hruvi, Gr. o-cppm, Skr. hhrH. From tbe same 
root comes tbe Gaulish hrtva * bridge,' from *bhrvd. 

1. brae fiour (rectius malt), E. 26, Conn. s.v. brocoit, tbe 
Welsh equivalent of Ir. hraich, gen. hracha. Laws, i. 128. sg. dat. 
cess no da chess lana do braich 7 do arbur biid, LL. 286^ 35. 
aire secht n-ech do braich 7 bind, ibid. 37. ace. mar miles mulend 
muad-braich, LL. 86^ 21 = muadmraich, LTJ. 106^ 34. Hence the 
name Mrachide, ATI. 726. Gaul, brace, 

2. brae F. hand, E. 8. 24. So Corm. s.v. braccille, L.Lec. Voc. 
adam braicc .i. adam laim my two hands, LL. 208* 28. From Lat. 
bracchium, whence also W. braich, 

1. bracht sap, fatness, E. 8, and so Corm. s v. anfobracht. bracbt 
.i. sug no beoil, L.Lec. Yoc, H. 3. 18, p. 663. daceird bracht cu 
feic (.i. saill furri corrici a fiacail), LL. 208* 12. Hence the adj. 
brachtach * fat.' 

2. bracht a breaking, cutting (reaping?), E. 24. bracht .i. 
bri8[e]adh, Stowe XIX, p. 30*. .i. briseadh .i. buain, L.Lec. Yoc. 
From ^bhrag-to, cogn. with Lat. fra-n-go, frac-tu-s, Goth, brikan, 

braen (broen ?) poor (?), Ff. 59. Some mistake here : brdinech, 
LTJ. 106^ 19, braonach .i. bronach sorrowful, O'CL, maybe connected. 

braichem (MS. braici) stag, E. 8=braicheamh .i. damh alluidh, 
O'Cl. See quotation at baigliu supra. 

braitse hose, E. 19. braitsi .i. asan, Stowe XIX, p. 30. pi. 
brfstfghe, O'Br. From Mid. Eng. breche. 

brann woman, E. 8. So L.Lec. Yoc. Cogn. with bru ' womb,' gen. 

brech wolf = Skr. vrka. See quotation at baigliu supra. Compd. 

1. bres, F. some kind of noise, Ff. 6. breas .i. gach greadhan 
no gach glor, O'Cl. sg. ace. mar 'tchuala Michol in mbreis conruala 
in sluag 'mon tegdais, Salt. R. 5969. 

2. bres great, Ff. 6. So O'Cl. bress, 0*Don. Supp. 

bri word, D. 17. So O'Dav. 57 and O'Cl. bri .1. briathar, LL. 


187* 58, L.Lec. Yoc, and Stowe XIX, p. 30*. pi. n. conid de 
ataat na bri se, LL. 287*, 9. 

briar a golden hroochf E. 27, toeighing an ounce, Corm. and H. 3. 
18, p. 541*. briar .i. delg, O'Dav. 56, and H. 3. 18, p. 64^. 
Identical with the Eng. brSr, now brier, briar. But which 
language was the borrower is not clear. 

bricht reliquary ? diadem ? p. 2, = breacht .i. mind, L.Lec. Yoc. 

bro cutting, abusive, E. 7. bro .i. beimnech, Stowe XIX, p. 30% 
.i. beimneach, Edin. xxxviii. bro, O'R. 

bronnad consuming, D. 13. So L.Lec. Yoc, 0*C1. bronnadh .i. 
sc^ileadhno cnamh, H. 3. 18, p. 609, andO'Don. Supp. sg.gen. breth 
brondta ithe aidche judgment as to eating corn at night, O'Dav. 60. 
dat. do longad 7 do brondad cacha bid, LB. 217°. The cogn. verb 
bronnaim occurs in Fiacc's hymn 8 (ni bronna), in LTJ. 100* 6 (is 
ed robronnad frisna C(5ic fichtiu bargen sin), and in LL. 344^ 50 
(robronnat na rothrebat). 

hTot]i Jlesh, Pf. 45. So O'Cl. Cogn. with fiopd and Lat. (g)voro, 

bru doe. See quotation at baigliu supra, and cf. the Messapian 
Ppivhov • eXafpop, Hesychius. 

bruinnecii mother, E. 27. So Corm., and H. 3. 18, p. 65®. ITa hi 
bruinnech balb {his) mother was not dumb, O'Dav. 56, ba h{ a 
bruin[n]ech ro oilestar Mac De it was his mother that nursed God's 
Son, ibid. 61. Derived from bruinne 'breast,' or brli gen. bronn, 
* womb.' 

bu death, p. 3, note 2. So H. 3. 18, p. 611*. 

buanann nurse, E. 24. Buanann muimme na fiann, Corm. 

buas bellg, E. 23. Cogn. with Gr. (pvaKa and IT.H.G. JBauch ? 
buas innbea * entrails,* 0*Dav. 56. 

buich a breaking, p. 2, Ff. 14, D. 58. So H. 3. 18, p. 615*. 
Probably a verb : buich .i. robris, LTJ. 5* 27. rocehaes gair co 
mbuich, Amra Choi. 39. buich bron oerd Cuind grief routed Conv^s 
division (i.e. the northern half of Ireland), Amra Choi. 130. 

buide churn, E. 26. "W. buddai, for muide (=Lat. modius), 
muddai. sg. dat. im-mudiu bic i mbid ass, LL. 286*, 49. dobeir 
a di laim fon mudi, JAJ. 53*, 12.^ So buime, E. 24, LL. 378^ 24. 
buimme, BB. 31* 4, for muimme * nurse.' However, the b of buide 
is possibly right, and the word may be cogn. with Lat. fidelia and 
Gr. irlOo^ for *(piBo9. 

buile an evil secret, E. 6. So L.Lec. Yoc. ' an evil design ' 

^ A part of a harp was also called mude. See LIT. 8*, 41. 


O'E., as if there was some connexion with fiovXy, Cf. buaile a 
nomine holin .i. consilium, H. 3. 18, p. 80^. 

bus .i. topais, E. 25. Both 'lemma and gloss are pbscure to me. 

buth world, D. 62. budh, 0*Br. If this be right, cf. Gr. 0i;<7«« 
(from *0t;-Tt-9), Skr. hhu-ti-s * existence,' hhu-mi-a * earth.' 
But the dat. dual hathaih in the line maithi uli du dib 
bathaib, all the nobles of the two worlds^ Bk. Fen. 160, where 
it rhymes with rathuih^ seems to show that luth is a mistake 
for hath. 

cadlayo«^, Ff. 17. So O'Mulc. 279 and O'Cl. 

caer candle, Ff. 44. So H. 3. 18, p. 626 (^caer .i. caindell). caor 
a flame, fire, O'Don. Supp. caer thened hisinn aidche, LL. 207^ 
29. pi. n. caera crethir comraicthe, LIT. 91* 20. Cogn. with Goth, 
sheirs 'clear,' A.S. scir, Eng. sheer, y/ski *to shine.' 

1. cai (MS. cae) house, D. 54. So Corm., and H. 3. 18, pp. 66^, 
633°. Compounded: cerdd-chae (gl. officina) Sg. 51». Cogn. with 
Low Lat. caya, cayum domus, Gr. Ketjuai, Yedic gayd Lager, 
Kuhestatte, ^gi, Goth, heiva-, Eng. hive, 

2. (ioipath, p. 3. So Corm., L. Lee. Yoc, and see Laws, i. p. 32, 
where the words gilla dom-amic ar cae (a lad came to me on 
the way) are misrendered by ' a youth protected me on the way.' 
ar caoi .i. ar slige, H. 3. 18, p. 210. aroen contiagmais ar cae, 
LL. 44^. nir' lensat cai na conair dun primsligeV? immach, BB. 
407* 4. for oen-choi, LIT. 65^ 28. Cognate verbs are o shunn cai 
Helesseus ar eel, hence JSlisha went to heaven. Salt. E. 7223, and in, 
O'Dav. 52 and 71, s.v. cae: aracae osar sinnser the younger goes 
hefore the elder, and perh. ro-chim. Cf. Com. ke *go,' pi. keugh 
' go ye ' ; Lat. do, cieo ; Gr. kiu), Kiiru/jiai, Kiviiv. 

(i^\^pure,chaste,l£i.\b. So Corm. andO'Cl. Frequent in F61. Cogn. 
with Lat. castusirovcL *cad'to-s. Another caidh .i. nasal, O'Dav. 72. 

cail protection, p. 1 note, call .i. comet, H. 3. 18, p. 66^, LLec. 
Yoc. and Corm. s.v v. bracille, caile, culpait, cerchaill. comad moidi 
a cail, Bk. Fen. 414, which Hennessy renders *That the higher 
might be their fame.' 

caimse (MS. cuimsi) F. shirt, Ff. 35. caimmse Corm. caimse, 
H. 3. 18, p. 67*. pi. n. teora caimsi, LIT. 94, 1. 14. Borrowed like 
W.camse, Com. cams, A.S. cemes, from Low Lat. (Gaulish?) camisia. 
Cognate are N.H.G. JECemd and Skr. gamulya. Whence is W. hefis ? 

caindlech iW^A^, E. 1. Frequent inFel. rosccainlech glas, LU. 
130^ 25. Derived from caindel, LU. 89^ 14, and this borrowed 
from Lat. candela, 

Phil. Trans. 1891-2-8. 4 


cais eye^ Ff. 39. So O'Cl. From ^Jcas-tL The Irish, cognate 
verb is ad-chiu (*ati-kesi6) * I see ' ; pass. pret. sg. 3 ad-chess : ^kes, 
of which the so-called Skr. y/caksh is a reduplication, Windisch, 
in Kuhn*s Zeitschrift, xxi. 425. 

1. caise cause, Ff. 46. cais, 0*Br. cas .i. caingen .i. a causa, 
H. 3. 18, p. 66». 

2. caise love, p. 3, Ff. 76. caisi, D. 60. So H. 3. 18, p. 612^, and 
O'Cl. Yiom. ^kastio'. cats *love,' mis-cais * hatred,' are from the 
same root has, perh.= Skr. y/kash * to itch ' ? 

caisse, hatred, p. 3, Ff. 76, D. 60. So H. 3. 18, p. 612% and 
O'Cl. From ^cat'tio-, cogn. with Gr. kotows, or from ^cad-tio, cogn. 
with Goth, haiis, Eng. hate, A shorter form, cais, occurs in Amra 
Choi. 51 : Tar cais c^xi-dLeindim f(yr hMred {return) well-doing, and cf. 
miscais, infra s.v. neoit, gen. miscsen, LL. 344^ 34. The W. cas 
* hateful,' casedd * hatred,* are the British cognates. 

calad Aart^, D. 13. SoL.Lec.Voc.O'Dav. 65, and H. 3. 18, p. 663^. 
calath, LIT. 106^. caladh .i. gand, Stowe XIX, p. 39*. Compd. 
caladgela, H. 2. 16, col. 716. W. caled, Br. calet, Kluge connects 
N'.H.G. held from *hale]7. The Ir. calma 'brave' is nearer in 

calb (calbh, O'R.) hardness, Ff. 22, cognate with calad, 

calb head, Ff. 71. So L. Lec.Voc. and H. 3. 18, p. 615^ do 
chalb re cloich, O'Br. gen. sg. : Deaith doerchrau i crichaib cain 
cailb .i. diaith .i. ni haith doerchra[n]sat mo suile hi caincrichaib 
mo chind . calb .i. cend, LB. 241*. dat. adam aed (.i. adam suil) im 
chalb (.i. im chind), LL. 208* 27. Lat. ealva, calvaria ? 

caxa combat, D. 19. So Corm. and O'Dav. 64, 71, 103. midach 
teora cam a brave of three combats. Borrowed either from A.S. 
camp or (as K. Meyer thinks) from a prehistoric form of O.N. kapp. 
The spelling caam in Bk. Arm. 13* 1 (* lignum contensionis quod 
uocatur caam apud gentiles) has not been explained. 

cann a can, Ff. 55. So Corm. s.v. esconn. An early example is 
cann airgit, Bk. Arm. fo. 17* 2. Borrowed from A.S. canne, F. 

cap chariot, cart, Ff. 19. So Corm. s.v. capall, and L. Lee. Yoc. 
hearse, bier, ructhar i capp .i. i carr, LU. 6^ 30. In H. 3. 18, p. 624, 
cap is glossed by crdchar * bier.' 

dkm.'Bi flesh, Ff. 30. So Corm. and O'Cl. cuirm ecus carna, Corm. 
s.v. ore tr6ith. carna samaisci do indarggain, LL. mfr do chamu, 
Corm. (Laud 610), s.v. imbas forosnai. n{ ba lam laich lethas 
carna caurad, LL. 87* 43. noco n-ernaba cern na carna dit asind ait 
hi tudchad, LU. 86* 20. ba ech, or, argat 7 carna, FM. 1088. 


carna, cuirm, cnoimes, cadla | it e ada na samna, fleshmeaty ale^ 
nut-mast, trtpe, these are the dues of All Saints^ Day, Rawl. B, 
612, fo. 98^2. sg. voc. a chama cram, LB. 253*. Compd. ; a 
chomla do thirm-chamu, LB. 216». Cogn. with Lat. caro, 

carthoit (MS. caruid) pious, Ff. 71. So H. 3. 18, pp. 66* and 
634^ {carthdit, cardot), and O'Cl. {cartoit). Bai carthait, (Boi) 
cardait, Amra Cliol. 76. The noun cartoit, Corm., like W. cardod, 
is borrowed from an oblique case of Lat. caritas, 

cast chaste, Ff. 71. So H. 3. 18, pp. 66*, 613% 634^. Bai cath, 
bai cast, Amra Choi. 73. From Lat. castus, as castdit, Trip. Life, 
xvii, from castitdtem. 

castus, p. 1. From Lat. casttts. 

cath doaim, E. 28. Both lemma and gloss are obscure. 

1. ce niffht, Ff. 52, ace. to H. and 0*R. From *skaid (cf. Skr. 
ehhdya, Gr. aKia), as caech * blind,' from *skaiko-s. 

2. ce companion ? Ff. 52. So O'Cl. 

3. ce earth, Ff. 64. D. 29. So O'Cl. Hardly from *qhj6, 
cogn. with Gr. x^wi/ x^®"*'®** ^^^- ^*^? Is it due to a mis- 
understanding of the common phrase /or bith chA ? 

cechair a sloit^h, D. 28. So O'Cl. Ace. to O'Dav. 69. the upper 
part of a cechair is marsh ; and the lower water ; while in the case 
of a lathach, the upper part is water, and the lower mud. conid 
corastar dar droichtiu ind liss isin cechair, LL. 117^ 35. cobair 
bo hi cechatr, LB. 204^ 19. cobair cethrae ar choin 7 cechair, 
Harl. 5280, fo. 38*. ceachair dirt, filth, O'Br. Hence the adj. 
cecharda: nirpsa grenach cecharda, Eawl. B. 512, fo. 112* 2. 
The Skr. gdkan and Gr. Koirpo^ may be cognate. 

cecht power, D. 19, E. 11. cecht .i. cumachta, Stowe XIX. 
Sk. gakti, ^ gak, O.IT. hdttr, 

1. ceis spear, D. 16. So O'Cl. From *kes'ti, Cogn. with Gr. 
Ke(Trpo9, Lat. castro (from *castrum knife), Skr. gastra-m, 

2. ceis cuairt, circuit, visit, D. 53, = ceis curit, L. Lee. Voc. 
From "^ked-ti, cogn. with the verb ceisim (ro ceis romna n-aes .i. ro 
cheimnige i rosomaine na aese, Eawl. B. 502, fo. 62^ 2), and this 
with Lat. cado, cedere, cessare, Gr. KeKahovro, Zend gad gehn, 
verlassen, fallen (Justi). 

1. eel death, p. 8, note 2. So Corm., L Lee. Voc. and 0*C1. fa 
foa doluid for a cheal, LL. 370^ 23. Dochuaid for eel . . . for 
slicht sen, Salt. E. 3685. not-chuirfe in flaith ar eel, LL. 278, 
marg. inf. Cf. O.N. hel. 

2. eel heaven, E. 29. So Corm. and O'Cl. shunn cai Heleseus 


ar chel eter noebu for noeb-nem, Salt. R. 7185. Borrowed from 
Low Lat. *c^lumy caelum. 

cele servant^ D. 45. So O'Dav. 63, O'Cl. and see O'Don. Supp. 
s.v. ceile DS * servus Dei,* anglicised culdee, ceile caich a comhair 
a chomdedh the servant of every one in his lord's presence^ O'Dar. 63. 
dlegar don ceile denamh drechta im dun na flatha the tenant is 
liable to make a dreclit(?) round the chieftain's fort, O'Dav. 78. 
See also LTJ. 68* 13, 16, and 74^ 9. Compd. soir-chele (gl. 
libertus), Wb. 10* 23. Perhaps originally identical with die 

* socius.' 

celt raiment, D. 47. So Corm., H. 3. 18, p. 66, and O'Cl. 
Anglicised kilt, celt asas treu, LU. 95* 38. imdatuigethar celt 
clithargarb, LTJ. 95* 25. dechelt, Corm. Hence celtar, LTJ. 79* 
20, celtair, H. 3. 18, p. 66*, and celtach 'kilted,' Bk. Fen. 78. 

celtair spear, ¥f. 36. D. 16. So O'Dav. 68. pi. n. co mbeodutar 
celtra catha Caier ! Corm. s.v. gaire : dual n : di cheltir ina laim, 
LTJ. 133* 26. Cognate is diceltar, LTJ. 133* 44=diceltair the 
shaft of a spear without an iron on if, Corm. s.v. gaire. W. paladr 

* hastile,' Gr. TreXriy and ttoKtov shaft, pole, 

cenel children, D. 12, rather means kindred, and i8='W. cenedl 
gens, genus, natio. Hence cenelach, Wb. 23* 32. Cognate with the 
Ir. verb cinim * I spring from, descend,' O'Don. Supp., the verbal 
noun ciniud, and the noun cine (leg. cined?) * a tribe,* O'Don. Supp. 

cenntecol .i. triallad, E. 10. .i. twrailead, L. Lee. Voc. 
coinwtegal .i. truaill^(? 'corruption,' Stowe XIX. These glosses 
are due to a misunderstanding of Cormac's ceinticul .i. combrec 
rotruaillned ann .i. cenical (it is) Welsh that has been corrupted 
therein, to wit, * centecul.* He explains it as * a name for 
wool whereof they make a blanket.' So H. 3. 18, p. 67» s.v. 
centecul, and see O'Cl. s.v. cinnteagal. The Middle- Welsh form 
is kenhughel, Welsh Laws, i. 308, where the translator says, that 
cynnygl (as he modernises kenhughel) is ** literally * wadded'; 
perhaps a gambeson." Prom a Low-Lat. *contegulum ? 

ceo besides ? D. 60. Sceo 7 ceo 7 neo tri comoccomail Goideilggi, 
LL. 26* 1, and see Amra Choi. 73 (ceo ni coirm, ceo ni sercoll). 

1. cerb slaughtering, wounding, D. 20. sg. gen. crothid conchend 
catha ceirp, LU. 47* 22. mac in chirb, is e a bes guin, LL. 148* 14. 
Apparently identical with 2. cerb. 

2. cerb cutting, D. 20. So O'Cl. cerp .i. teascad, O'Dav. 63. 
An adj. cerb, cerp *keen,' occurs in Salt. R. 891, 4767, 
6913, 8087, the verb nos-cerband in LTJ. 109* 23, and the partici'ple 


cerltha in LTJ. 56* 12 (belt cuirp cerbtha, cainfit nma, bodies will he 
hacked y women will wail). 

1. cem victory, Ff. 18, D. 18, E. 27. So O'Cl. pi. dat. do 
cemaib .i. do buadhaib no do gnimhuibh, Amra Conroi, H. 3. 18, 
p. 49. pi. nom. mor a ceama fria tuireamh, Ban do Brian na 
miirtha, gen. is tu laech na cemd 7 na comram, LU. 100^ 17. Hence 
cemach, LL. 294^ 12. cearnach .i. buadach vietoriom, Stowe XIX. 

2. cem a man^ D. 18. So O'Cl. 

3. cem act of consuming, D. 36. So O'Cl. 

cerr a lopping, Ff. 25. So O'Cl. Cognate with cirrbed, Bk. 
Fen. 216, and the verb ro cirred iarom ind lam sin, LU. 98^ 2, 
cirrfitir colla, LL. 254^ 24. 

cerTh&ch. plunder, Ff. 43. So O'Cl. 

cetnait (MS. and O'Br. ceathnaid) a sheep, Ff. 17. So O'Dav. 
62. roearba rocetnaitt comair a tigi teacht ina lias he ordered a 
hig sheep near his house to come into her fold, O'Dav. 72, s.v. comair. 
This seems a dimin. of cet, the dat. pi. of which citoihh (leg. cetaihh) 
is glossed by cairidh [leg. cairigh] finda in H. 3. 18, p. 49. He 
nee cetaimni .i. cairidh [leg. cairigh], Duil Laithne 117. 
. ciar hlack, E. 28. So Stowe XIX, p. 30*, and O'Cl. pi. ace. fri 
lalla ciara .i. fri demna .i. elta duba demoniorum, Brocc. h. 91. 

cichlad a lopping, Ff. 25. ceachladh .i. ciorrbhadh, O'Cl. 

cicht (from *qviktu-) engraver, D. 44. So in H. 3. 18, p. 66^. 
cicht .i. geibire .i. rindaire. cicht .i. geibiach, Stowe XIX. cichtse 
,i. geibiach .i. rannaigh [leg. rinnaighe], O'Dav. 63. Cogn. with 
P ictus * Pict,' and perh. W, pwgth * stitch.' 

1. cil (MS. ciol) wrong, D. 41, E. 29. So Corm., L. Lee. Voc. 
O'Dav. 66, and O'Cl. partial, false, O'Don. Supp. Compounds are 
leth'chil and cil-hreth, 

2. cil (MS. ciol) death, from *celu, D. 43. So O'Cl. co tarrlaic 
faodb fir cil so that he gave a truly deadly shot, O'Dav. 64. 

clairiu division, E. 29. So Corm. clairiudh .i. roinn, O'Cl. 
claireadh .i. foghail (leg. fodail) no sgaoileadh, O'Flah. 

clamar satire, E. 17. .i. air no escuine, H. 4. 27, p. 67. clamar 
,i. air, Stowe XIX. clamor .i. air, L. Lee. Voc. Borrowed from 
O.N. kldm-or^ * a libel in verse.' Cogn. with cldmaithe * reproach,' 
LB. 228^ 11. The Ir. gldm {in the phrase gldm dicenn) is either 
borrowed from or cogn. with O.N. kldm * foul language.' 

clandad thrusting, D. 40. So O'Dav. 70 and O'Cl,, L. Lee. Voc. 
and H. 3. 18 cited in O'Don. Supp. s.v. clannsad. Verbal noun 
of clandaim — nos-clanna in sciain ind, LL. 269» 23 ; corthe no- 


chlantais intan bad maidra n-imairic, LU. 86^ 42 ; clannsad cleatha 
doghra thrid, BB. 31» 26 — borrowed from Lai, plantOf whence also 
W. plannu * plan tare, serere.' 

cle wrong, D. 41. So O'Cl. Seems derived from oil q.v. But 
perhaps the e is long and cU would then be identical with eld 
* sinister,' W. cledd, Goth, hlei-duma, 

cliste readi/, E. 22. cliste active, swift, 0*Br. laoch clistei 
O'Don. Supp. s.v. leirg : cliste ar a laimh deis chl^, marcach ain- 
chlisde, O'Br. A living word : fear cliste * a clever, sharp, smart 
man,' O'Growney. Cogn. with clisid, O'Dav. 70, s.v. cleth, and the 
s-pret. clissis, LU. 69^ 13. 

cloch, F. stone, p. 4. Prob. cogn. with calad, q.y. 

coart landholder, D. 15. So O'Cl. and see O'Dav. 62. coairt, 
Corm. hi coairte .i. i mbriugaide, Rawl. B. 502, fo. 62* 1. 

cob victory, Ff. 30, 50, coph p. 1, E. 27. So Corm., O'Dav. 63, and 
O'Ci. So also H. 3. 18, pp. 67% 634*. Hence the name CoUhach. 
The Gaulish names Coh-launo, Coh-nertus, Coh-nerta, Ver-eohius are 
also prob. cognate. Pick connects 0. Norse hap, Eng. happy^ Skr* 
^ag-md * powerful.* 

cobra shield, Ff. 37. So O'Cl. pi. gen. tri maic TJislend cobra 
ngarg, LL. 114» 35. 

coemthecht (=com-imm-thecht) accompanying, D. 49. sg. dat. 
i coimthecht dagdoine, Wb. 16* 2. Hence coemthechtaid * attendant.' 

coic a secret, Ff. 47. So Corm., O'Dav. 63, s.v. coig, and 
Stowe XIX. ni cuala coic nuin he heard not an evil secret, H. 3* 
18, p. 61^^. coig .i. run, LL. 393*53. coic .i. comairle counsel^ 
H. 3. 18, p. 66<5, and coigli .i. comairli, O'Dav. 63. coicle .i. 
folach concealment, ibid. 6 1 *, may be cognate. 

coice, coidche (O'Br.'s coice) mountain, Ff. 27. 

coidche armpit, Ff. 41 : reading doubtful. L. has caoiche is colL 
A gloss in a note to Fel. Aug. 4, on the line Molua mace oche, 
preserves another word for * armpit': ^^ocha apud ueteres ochaal 
dicitur prius," where ocha may be cogn. with Lat. oculvs, 

coimmdiu (*com-mediot-) lord, D. 47. • So O'Dav. 72 and O'Cl. 
sg. gen. coimded, Wb. 9<', Ml. 26*. dat. coimdid, Wb. 8*, 27^ ace* 
coimmdith, Sg. 29*. Cogn. with Ir. midiur, Goth, mita^ Gr. 

fieBoP7€9, JLLTJffTtVp, JuijBo^* 

coindelg counsel, Ff. 10. So O'Cl. and O'Don. Supp. sg. gen. 
fer condilc fir. Trip. Life 210. ace. contuaset sbs na brudni uli a 
condelg, LU. 93, line 15. 

coing a following, E. 29, * a going together,' O^R. 


coit a wood, E. 4. So Corm. s.v. Sailchoit. Borrowed from 
W. coit^ now coed. Cogn. with Goth, haithi, 

colg F. sword, Ff. 36. So Conn, and O'Cl. ni for braigtib 
dam na bo cloithir colg (.i. claideb) mo ruanado, LL. 277*28. cole 
oc mo choilc-se, LTJ. 6^ 10. The spelling <?«/^ (=W. caly veretrum, 
Br. calch) seems more correct, calg det, LTJ. 87^ 18. 

coll head, Ff. 38. So O'Cl. and O'Br. gen. cuill: daceird bracht 
cu feic a cuill .i. a carpait, LL. 208* 12, whence it seems that 
coll means * jowl.' The dat. and gen. pi. seem in the phrases dicetul 
do chollaib cend, Eawl. B. 512, fo. 114^ 1, dicetal di cennaib coll, 
Laud 610, fo. 57^. Hardly borrowed from A.S. ceafl, 

colt food, Ff. 20. So Corm. s.v. asgalt, and H. 3. 18, p. 615^. 
cen cholt .i. cen biad, LU. 8*. eter cond sceo colt .i. enech no biad, 
LB. 241*. Literally, perh., something cooked, cogn. with Lat. caleo, 
Skr. crta, Lith. sziltaa, 

com-etaid (gl. custos) p. 4, cometid la mmaccu (gl. paedagogus) 
Wb. 19°. From com-H ' servatio,' GC.^ 793, 871. Compounds 
are a'dcomHid a.nd fos-chom^aid. 

comm covering, shelter, protection, D. 47. sg. dat. i com argit 
gil, LB. 233^. ace. tabar com (.i. coimhed) dun, Eawl. B. 512, 
fo. 35*. A sister-form coimm occurs in FM. 1599, p. 2140 
{ha coimm ria gcioth dosnm), the dat. sg. of which is frequent 
in the expression f6 a choim, LU. 68* 10, and see Lism. Lives, 
2025, 2027, 2398, 2396. It is the Irish reflex of Gr. Kofifios, and is 
cogn. also with Lat. cmgo. 

com-maim wife, lit. yoke-fellow, E. 23. So L. Lee. Voc. and 
O'Dav. 70. commam, Trip. Life 14. sg. gen. comaime, LB. 198*, 
dat. da chommaim, Bk. Fen. Hence commdmus * matrimony,* sg. 
gen. commamsa, O'Dav. 70. From <?oiw=Lat. cum and mdim, cogn. 
with mam * jugura.* 

commar nose, Ff. 40,=commor .i. sron, O'Cl. MeaDing doubtful. 
In LL. 108* 30, it seems to signify some other part of the body: 
coratar ecnaig a thruim 7 a glainene for ettegail dar commur a 
chraes 7 a bragit. So in LTJ. 15* 23: ar cend caid comarli, ar 
commor moradbal. 

comrair F. case, D. 51. comrair taiscedai, Bk. Fen. 12, better 
comrar (gl. capsa) Sg. 36*, 92*, LTJ. 114*32. ata comrar chloche 
i mbi and hi talam, LTJ. 134* 3. a muintore argit for a chomrair, 
ihid. 1. 6. comrar conga each cethra, LL. 293^ 19. Metaph. 
comrar dana, LL. 187* 15 and Eawl. B. 502, fo. 62^ 2. is hi tra 
comrair chrabuid leosum, LB. 10* 15. 


conn sense, Ff. 27, 45. So O'Cl. and Stowe XIX. amacha ndecra 
a chond nach a cliiall, LTJ. 79* 35. sg. dat. asa cund, LU. 48^ I 
bid crad da ce[i]ll is da cond, Bk. Fen. 246. ace. tucussa doi 
sere mo chride 7 mo ehond, LL. 302^ 34. is fin romedair in slua 
eo mbatar een ehond een cheill, LL. 282* 1. Perhaps cogn. wit 
Gr. Koppctv. 

conruiter, p. 3=conr6iter, Arara Choi. 13, 43, where it is glosse 
by cain rdfittTf no rochomct. The con is eogn. with Kaivo^^ La 

consal M. counsellor, E. 1 0. So Stowe XIX. pi. gen. Ni eumangar 
rim a ngradaib 7 a eeimendaib ar imat a consal ... 7 a ndiuice 
a eenture it is impossible to rehearse them in ranks and in degree 
became of the multitude of their consuls . . . and their- dukes an 
their centurions, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 87* 1. ace. consala, LB. 157 
From Lat. consul. So Ir. irchdnsal, LB. 180^, from Lat. proconsu 
as Erpoint, LL. 222^, 232», from Propontis, 

1. core 4an, D. 12. So O'Cl. and H. 3. 18, p. 66^. O.I 
corcu: in populo Korku Reti, Adamnan's Vita Col. ed. Reevei 
p. 89. de genere Corcu-Chonluain, Bk. Arm. 11^ 1. in regionc 
Corcu-Temni, ib. 13^ 2. de genere Corcu-Theimne, ib. 15* i 
Corcu Dubni, LL. 292* 47=Coreo Duibne, ib. 277i> 22. in ehlan 
Coreo Laigde, ibid. 210* 51. in fines Corcu Ochland, Trip. Life 9-- 
mace Rimenoeb Chilli Chorcu-Roide, ib, 138. i tir Corcu- Themne 
ib, 122. 

2. core (MS. tore) hair, E. 27. So L. Lee. Yoe. Cogn. wit 
Gr. Kcip, Lat. crinis ? or with xepKo^ * tail ? ' 

cose instruction, correction, D. 33, sg. gen. coise, cuise. eose . 
tegosc, Stowe XIX, p. 39^. dat. cose: teit-seom cosin n-arai 
dia chose, LTJ. 64*. Hence teooso, tinchose * instruction.' ro-cosca 
(gl. correptus est), W. cosp. From con+^seq, 

cot {a cutting) victory, E. 27. cod, L. Lee. Yoe. and 0*B: 
Form and meaning doubtful. Cotan .i. laoch * hero,' Duil Laithn 
38, may be derived, and Gr. k€pt€iv, kopto^, may be eogn. 

coth food, E. 28. So Corm. and O'Cl. coth eibum .i. biadh ar i 
berla am««l asb^rar cothngud na n-indile, Harl. 432, fo. 3* 1, an 
see BE. 3. 18, p. 634*. 

cria buying, D. 25. So L.Lec. Voc. and H. 3. 18, p. 633\ Bt 

' cria is a verbal form from crenim = ^\.r, krindmi, and mear 

* emas ' : ni ria, ni cria do dodhamnu, thou shalt not sell, the 

shalt not buy, to or from an unqualified person, such as a thie 

or a little child, O'Dav. 79 and Laws, iii. 58. 



crfch F. (gl. finem) p. 5, now erioch, Windisch connects this 
word with KpUo^ and circtia. 

crimthann (MS. criomhtan) fox, Ff. 51. So L. Lee. Voc, O'Cl. 
and Mart. Don. p. 160, where the author says that crtomtann, 
in the hard Gaelic ( Gaoideilg criiaid), is the same as * fox.* 

cro narrow, E. 20. So L. Lee. Voc. cro .i. timargain, H. 3. 18, 
p. 51^ H. 4. 22, p. 62a. 

croch, high, E. 27. croch gach n-ard 7 gach n-inn, H. 3. 18, 
p. 67**. Cogn. seems croich .i. uachtar bainne * cream,' O'Dav. 68. 

crum-duma dunghill, E. 29. So Corm. who cites cin chon 
crumduma a crime of a dunghill dog. crumdub .i. ottrach, 0*Dav. 63. 
The literal meaning seems * worm-heap,' from cruim = 'W. prgf 
Skr. krmi, Lith. kirmi-8, and duma cogn. with Gr. Orffiihv, Owfio^, 
Eng. dam, 

cuanna (MS. cuadhna) hill, Ff. 27. So O'Cl. and O'Br. Cogn. with 
O.N", hiinn * knob '? The W. ctvn, cynu, erchynu, and the Old-Celtic 
cunO' and 'Ap-Kvpia {oprf) are from the same root, with which 
Windisch (Kuhn's Beitr. viii. 40) connects O.H.G. hun * giant,' 
pi. hikni. Or is it from y/qeup, whence Lith. kaiipa-s * heap,' 
0. Pers. kaufa * mountain ' ? 

cuar {?roo^^(?, Ff. 44. So O'Cl. ras-tarraingda corranaib cruaidi 
cuara, LL. 230*. cuar-sciath, Rawl. B. 602, fo. 47* 1. pi. n. 
cuar-sceith, LU. 87^ 17. Hence the verbal noun cuarad, LL. 
236* 13. 

1. cud (cuth?) head, D. 62. So Corm. s.v. descud: cud .i. 
cenn, Duil Laithne 4. cudh no cuth, O'Cl. lea hanail ho chud, 
LU. 128^ 10. caut .i. cenn, H. 3. 18, p. 67*. cuth, O'Br. for- 
cuth, ib. . 

2. cud (cuth ?) an offering, D. 62. 

1. cuib dog, Ff. 16. .i. cu, O'Dav. 71, s.v. cinnes, and O'Cl. 
mu chuib (.i. mo chu) asa ho, darchinnius (.i. darlecius) co dfan 
mo chuib .i. mo choin, LL. 208* 12. In the Amra Conroi, 
H. 3. 18, p. 49, cuim .i. cu is perhaps the same word. 

2. cuib word ? Ff. 30, or is it a sister- form of coh * victory,' q.v.? 
cuime protection, Ff. 31 — leg. cuimne, as in O'Br. = 0. Ir. 

<ioemna, caomhna, O'Cl. 

cuimleng F. combat, E. 8. gl. agon, Gild. 19. cuimling .i. comrac 
H. 3. 18, p. 624. sg. dat. i comling. Trip. Life 566, ace. doroine 
cuimleng, note to Fel. Apr. 19. pi. ace. cumlenga, LL. 54* 5. 

cuinsel face, Ff. 40. cuinnseal, O'B. A sister-form is cuinnsi 
•i. aghaidh, H. 3. 18, p. 639. coinso, LU. 87^ 11. cuinsiu chorad. 


LTJ. 106*7. coindse .i. drech, H. 3. 18, p. 67% and O'Don. Supp., 
and see O'Dav. 62, s.v. cucht. 

cuislennach piper ^ D. 44. pi. n. cuslennaig, LL. 261* 30. gen. 
pi. cuslennach, LU. 88^, 97^. Derived from cuisli .i. crand ciuil, 
L. Leo. Voc. and Stowe XIX. gen. pi. cuislenn : bindfogur na 
cuislend, LTJ. pi. ace. na cuislenna (gl. venas), Gild. 222. So 
avpif^^ is used of any duct or channel in the body. 

1. cvl protection, p. 1. Ff. 30, 50. D. 45. So H. 4. 22, p. 67, 
and Stowe XIX. cia beith do iar cul, though he might have it under 
hi% protection, Laws, i. 150. A sister -form culu occurs: doberind 
culu (.i. comet) ar gart (.i. ar einech) Find, LL. 208* 31. These 
words, like culaid * raiment,' are cogn. with N.H.G. hulle, 

2. cul chariot, p. 1, Pf. 19. 50. So Corm., H. 3. 18, p. 60^, 
O'Cl. cul, L. Lee. Voc. culu (.i. cul .i. carpat) tria neit (.i. 
cath) LTJ. 6^ 24. fonoad (i. ro immanad) col carpait dun and, 
ol se, LTJ. 122^ 38. atchlunim cul carpait, LL. 83* 11. Compd. : 
culgaire na carpat, LL. 109^ 23. O.Slav, kolo * wheel, circle.' Lat. 
coluSy Gr. TToXo^, 

culmaire ehariothuilder, E. 9. So H. 3. 18, p. 66^, and O'Cl. 
Also charioteer: is culmaire .i. is cairptech, LTJ. 109* 40. cul- 
maire .i. cairptheo[i]r, Stowe XIX. culmairi .i. cairptheoir, L.Lec. 
Voc. culmhaire wheelwright, O'Br. 

cum a vessel? E. 28. Used topographically: ingen Dinil o 
Chum Dinil i crich Corco Duibne, LL. 277^ 22, where cum is 
=W. cwmm * vallis, convallis.' Gr. KVfiprj, KVfipo^^ *cup,' N.H.G. 

cumlachtaid pig, E. 29, is rather a sucJcing-pig, Corm. com- 
lachtaid, O'Dav. 62, where seven other words for * pig ' are given. 

cum-rech K. (gl. ligo), p. 1. cumrech, sg. dat. cuimriuch, pi. n. 
cuimrecha, is a noun, not a verb, and means * bond, fetter.' The 
cogn. verb is conrivg, pres. ind. sg. 3. conrig (gl. alligat) Ml. 23^ 2. 

cunn sense, Ef . 27, a sister-form of conn q.v. Cogn. with cunnlacht 
* wisdom.' 

CUT M, hero, champion, D. 39, also caur, LTJ. 85^ 32, 114*41, 
LL. 106^ 9. sg. gen. da suil churad i cind in chlaim atas-cim 
a htro*s two eyes I see them in the leper^s head, LL. 303^ 14. 
caurad, LTJ. 77^ 33. pi. n. cauraid, LL. 106^ 11. curaid, LL. 
256* 16. Compd. curath-mfr. Hence caurata, LTJ. 80* 28. Cogn. 
with W. cawr gigas, Com. caur in caur -march (gl. camelus), Skr. 
gavlra^ gura, Gr. Kupo^, Kvpios, 

curson a sage (arracht de image of God?), Ef. 71. So H. 3. 18, 


pp. 66a, and 634*, H. 4. 22, p. 67, and O'Cl. curson e a mbeasoibh 
brughadh, Dan do Bhrian na miirthay 116. The carbon of the 
Amra Senain, LB. 241*, is perhaps a mistake for curson, 

cusal strength^ Ff. 23. courage, 0*!Br. Hence perh. the adj. 
cossalach, LTJ. 96*. 

dae housCj D. 54. So 0*C1., who quotes rioghdhae (rig-dae) 
* palace.' daoe, D. 57. Possibly cogn. with Oaifio^ ' otKia, Hesychius, 
Oscfdmaum *to dwell,' Skr. dhdman, 

dag good, p. 3. Ff . 72, D. 69. So Conn. s.v. aingel ; droch do 
drochaib, dag do dagaib, Corm. Tr. 61 and H. 3. 18, pp. 68^, 634^ 
Roir dam .x. ratha (.i. lis), .x. treaba ( i. tighe) dagha (.i. maithi 
no cona ndilius feibh), Amra Conroi. Derb dag i mba, Amra 
Choi. 46. W. da. Can it be cogn. with Gr. Taxv^ (from *^axv9), 
compar. Oaaawv, as (ace. toCoUitz) ^vsis=Skr. dyu*^ Generally 
used as a prefix, another form of which is deg, 

daig //•<?, Ff. 72. So Stowe XIX and H. 3. 18, pp. 69^, 635*. 
a ^-stem, sg. gen. muir ndaiged. Salt. R. 910. Moiling lassar 
daiged, LL. 305^ 25. sg. ace. argain fri daigid cech n-aidchi, 
LL. 107* 21. pi. dat. go ndaighthibh .i. go dteinntibh, O'Cl. 
Skr. ^/dah from ^dhegh, ^dhogk. Lit. degtt *to burn.' Goth. 
dags, A.S. dag; the bright, warm part of the twenty-four hours. 

datan fosterfather, D. 46. So O'Dav. 73. dadan, O'Don. Supp. 
Oengus an Procchai, datan Dermatai, Uiath Beinne Mair, 70. 
daitean .i. oide, O'Flah. datiucan, LL. 279* 13. datan, O'Br. 
dimin. of "^.dat, a child's word, like W. tdd * father,' Eng. daddy, 

datnait (MS. dathnuid) foster -mother , nurse, D. 46. So O'Dav. 
73, s.v. datan ; dathDaid, O'Br. ; but dadnait, O'Don. Supp. is 
perhaps the right speUing. If so, cf. Gr. TrjOrj grandmother, from 
*0j97i, and Lith. dede, 

de division? Ff. 13. Cogn. with the form assumed by the 
numeral two as a prefix. 

dega (dede ?) wind, D. 25. The only similar word with this 
meaning is daghar ,i, gaoth, O'Cl. and O'Flah. daugar augrach ben 
daire the oakwood^s wife is a warring wind, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 
62* 2. daghar, O'Br. 

deichen division? Ff. 13. Cogn. with dechur * difference, dis- 
tinction,' Ml. 26* 1. 

deiltre (deilltre?) is explained, D. 39, by **gods of wizardry 
for travellers astray." O'Cl. has only deiltre .i. dee draoidhechta, 
O'Br. wrote d6-iltre, 

deim taking away, D. 61. deim .i. onf is demo .i. digbaim, H. 


3. 18, p. 614^. 'lack, want,' 0*R. cuil deim de eot, cuil deim 
de format, Amra Choi. 105. From de+emi-. 

deime evening, Ff. 54. deme, Corm. do deime .i. dorchadas, H. 2. 
16, cited O'Don. Supp. s.v. diorna. deimhe .i. dorchadus oidche 
* darkness of night,' O'Cl. Derived from deim * dark.' The demtthtr 
cited by Windisch as perhaps compar. of deim^ is a mistake for 
deinithir, compar. of dian q.v. 

del teat^ E. 11. .i. sine bo, Corm. deal .i. sine, Stowe XTX. 
of. oc a diul aiLching her : Gr. ^^/Xiy, Lat. fellare {felare)^ O.H.Q-. tila 
it, *dela. 

demal a taking away, D. 61. See deim, but qy. if this is not 
a mistake for dSmdl .i. demon, H. 3. 18, p. 69^. 

der F. daughter, girl, E. 24. So Corm. Tr. 61, Stowe XIX, 
H. 3. 18, p. 69^, and O'Cl. Helech der Fubthaire find, LL. 164^ 4. 
Petronilla der Petair, LB. 85. Compd. leis-dhear stepdaughter, 

1. derc F. ege, Ff. 30, Ff. 39, p. 2. So H. 3. 18, p. 81% and 
O'Cl. pi. nom. tuilsiter mo derea .i. mo suli, LL. 208* 7. dat. en 
CO nertaib nual dar dercaib sluag sa&r .i. use?^ dar suilib soercland 
ocom chainiud, water over the egea of nobles bewailing me, JLTS, 
119^ 21. Compds. cammderc (gl. strabo), Sg. 63* 4. fliuch- 
dercc (gl. lippus), Sg. 24* 8. Cogn. verbs occur. Cf. Skr. drg * eye,' 
Gr. SepKo/Liat, B€BopKa= -darc in Ir. ad-con-darc conspexi. 

2. derc a mote in a sunbeam ? p. 2. 

dfan swift, D. 11. dian .i. oband, Stowe XIX : a common word, 
compar. deniu and deinithir (combo deinithir broin mulind) which, 
is miswritten demithir in the facsimile of LU. 111*11. denithir Ml, 
57° 12. Cogn. with Gr. hleaOat, Skr. diydmi, 

di-bad death, extinction, p. 3, D. 57. So Corm., H. 3. 18, 
p. 68° and O'Cl. fo dibad .i. maith a epiltiu, Amra Choi. 31 : cen 
dibad, Colm. h. 44. do dibad innti na tol coUaide, LB. 168\ co 
dibadh n-aurdlighidh, 0*Don. Supp. Compd. erdibad, LU. 109** 

di-beoil dumb, Ff. 72. So O'Cl. dibeoil .i, cin urlabra, H. 3. 18, 
pp. 68^, 634^^. The dibidul ,1 balb of Stowe XIX seems a 
mistake for dibeoil. 

dichmairc theft, D. 17. So O'Cl. Rather seems to mean any- 
thing taken from the owner without his permission. Dic[h]m8drc 
.i. cin athcomairc * without asking,' Corm. Tr. 60. diam dichmairc 
.i. can fiarfaigeW d'fir bunaidh without asking {leave) of the owner, 
Harl. 432, fo. 11* 2. each dichmarc .i. each errach berar o neoch 


cin athcomarc, thus rendered in Laws, ii. 353, *' every forced relief 
or loan which is taken from one without asking permission." sg. 
gen. omun dichmairc, LB. 260^ 86. 

digbail (gl. demitus) p. 6 = di-gal>ail, inf. of df-gabaim. gen. fis 
digbala in uilc-sin, LB. 246^. 

dile a following^ D. 17. Verbal noun oi^do-lenim. The simplex 
Unit *adhaerent' occurs in Wb. 29* 23. the perf. sg. 3 UIiil LU. 
68* 41. pi. 3 ro-leltar, LU. 114^ 15. W. di4yn, can-lyny sequi. Cf. 
the forms from the Skr. ^ll * cling* in Whitney's Roots^ etc. 
p. 148. 

dfniath helmet^ Ff. 37, diniath, 0*Br. Perh.^=din niath a 
champiorCs protection ? For din cf. tair dar ndi'n, a Muiri, LL. 
308^ 41 : ba dfn do nochtaib, Amra Choi. 85. For niath^ see nia 

1. dinn (dind?) cain each cnuasaigh p. 1. dinn .i. aibhinn, 
delightful^ O'Dav. 79. .i. aibind, Stowe XIX. uas domun dind, 
LU. 50» 2 . 

2. dinn Ai7/, Ff. 49. So O'Dav. 79. Used metaph. in Amra 
Choi. 27 : bai dind oc libur leig. gen. denna, LU. 9^ 33. pi. dat. in 
dinnib .i. i telchaib, Fiacc's h. 44. Compd. dinn-senchas. 

3. dinn (dind?) prince, p. 1, D. 55. A metaph. use of 2. dinn 
hill, • . 

dinnis oath, D. 10. So H. 4. 22, p. 60^ O'Dav. 79 (dinnus) and 
O'Cl. sena[d] iar n-aititiu, leith-fiach la dindis a sodain denial 
after achnowledgment, half-fine with oath [is incurred^ for that, 
Laws iii. p. 108, 1. 8. 

direch straight, direct, p. 1, from dfriuch, df-riug (gl. rectum), 
p. 1, *de+regu-s. 

dith end, Ff. 67. So O'Dav. 79. literally death ; destruction : 
iar ndith Conaire, LU. 46* 8. dith co haen 'death of all save one.' 
rena dith .i. ria ec, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 104^ 1. cen dith n-6ighe, 
Rawl. B. 512, fo. 69^ 1. Lat. letum, from *detum, and deleo, from 
^de-deo ? Skr. ^dd abschneiden. 

diu long, p. 2, Ff. .30, D. 9. So O'Cl. Borr. from or cogn. with 
Lat. diu. diu-derc nder long look of tears occurs in LU. 7^ 16. 

dlomod act of manifesting, proclaiming, E. 23. dlomud .i. 
fogradach, Stowe XIX. Verbal noun of dlomhaim A. foillsighim, 
O'Cl. dlomas (gl. ait) Ml. 30^ 19, imper. sg. 2 dlom .i. abair no indis 
no raid, L. Lee. Voc, O'Dav. 75, 77. Fel. Aug. 7. Sep. 13. 
Oct. 12. dlomnais .i. labrais, Stowe XIX, seems an error for dlomais. 

dlum abundance, plenty, D. 9. So L. Lee. Voc. and O'Cl. 



i dlumh .i. umad, Stowe XIX. dluim .i. imadh, ihid, dluim .5 

/ imad, O'Dav. 73. Perhaps this occurs (spelt dlom) in LL. 147* 31 

'. intan atracht in mac cona dlom ferge fair. 

•; diuth a warpf D. 33. dluth (gl. stamen), Sg. 14*; certle dluthi 

j a ball of thread. The expression dliith agus inneach *warp and 

J woof * is still, I am told, living. 

■ dobur water y Ff. 15. So O'Cl. dobur Corm. dobur .i. dorcj 

no nisce, Stowe XIX. L. Lee. Yoc. W. dwfr, Gaul, duhron, whence 
Douvres (Seine-et-Mame). Compd. dohar-chii * otter '^W. dwfr- 

doctus learned, p. 3. Borrowed from Lat. 

; doe, dae human being, D. 8. doe .i. duine, Corm. Tr. 61. dae, 

; O'Cl. daoi, O'Br. ropo doi n-eit, Rawl. B. 502, fo. 62* 1. dae 

': uais .i. fear uasal. Ban do Brian na murtha, 

- doit hand, Pf. 42. So O'Cl. sg. gen. fail mo lama is mo doitti, 

: Bk. Fen. 400. dual nom. nirbdar dermaill a di doit, LL. 43« 

last line, and see Corm. s.v. Cerball; pi. nom. doti, LB. 190^, 

". dat. doitib (gl. manibus), Gild. 164. dobertha ailge arda foa doitib 

CO ru scaich slaide na ngennti, high stones were put under his handi 
till the slaughter of the heathen had ended, LB. 259*. Compd. 

; doit-gel, LB. 218*. 

dolbh wizardry, Ff. 13. So O'Cl. gen. ni hi deog cen damna 

I nduilb, Aided Finn, 61. ace. tre dolb draidheachta, Battle oj 

1 Ventry, 576. Cogn. with dolbhaim *fingo,' whence laeg doilbthe, LL. 

; 210a 38, 43. naithir doilbthe, LB. 121». in nath cetha dolfe 

! [dolbthe], Bev. Celt. i. 40, and doilbecht .i. draighecht, Stowe XIX. 

] dorr rough, harsh, Ff. 72. So O'Br. Still living, applied to a 

person of rude manners. 

[ drecht chant, Ff. 8. pi. nom. drechta .i. duana no laide 7 roscada, 

O'Dav. 72. canitar drechta, LU. 43* 32. gabtha a nduana 7 a 

■ ndrechta 7 a n-admolta doib, LL. 263* 1. gen. fir denma drecht 7 nath 

I 7 admolta TJlad, LL. 109* 12. a duaraib drecht, O'Dav. 72 s.v. duar. 

I dreim F. a company, a party, D. 51. Also dremm, sg. gen. 

i fodaig na dreime, Bawl. B. 512, fo. Ill* 1. ace. cor-romarbsat 

* dreimm moir, AU. 1018. 

! dreimne valour (gal), Ff. 17. Tia.t}ieTfury,Jierceness: sg. dat. for 

dremniu na farrce, LU. 84* 21. i ndremni in drecain, LL. 86* 28. 
Derived from dremun * fierce,' * mad,' monur ndremun, Petrie's Tara 
178, dreaman .i. dasachtach, Stowe XIX. Hence O'R.'s ** (^«WfM 
s. a cock,*' the Latin gnllus having some resemblance to the Irish 
gal, CO dremna, Salt. E. 8282, co ndremnai 8346. 


dremun the Devil^ D. 59. Seems inferred from sucli passages as 
the following from LB. 176, marg. inf. : 
Trede dremun is mo col, Three mad things whose sin is 

doman, Deman octis ben : World, Devil and Woman : 

cipe nos-cara ar bith che Whoever loves them in the 

present world 
hie Mac De niscon-ta nem. Hath not heaven with God's 


1. drenn quarrel^ Ff. 9. So Corm., O'Dav. 73, and H. 3. 18, 
p. 54 1^ drenn .i. depaidh, ut est drennach .i. deptach, H. 2. 15, 
p. 82. Hence dreandad .i. deabaid, Stowe XIX. Compd. drenn- 
galach. Salt. R. 944. 

2. drenn trouhUy afflictiorhy Ff. 9. buan in drenn, Bk. Fen. 366. 

3. drenn roiLgh^ E. 11. So Corm. drenn each croda, O'Dav. 63. 
drenn .i. garbh, H. 2. 15, p. 184. dreand .i. garbh, Stowe XIX. 
drend .i. garb, ibid, dothaet sunda budni drend do chosnam insi 
Herenn, LL. 109*. Hence dreandud .i. gruamacht, Stowe XIX. 

1. droch straight f Ff. 68. So Corm. s.v. drochet, 0*Dav. 73, 
H. 4. 22, p. 61% and O'Cl. 

2. droch had^ scanty, Ff. 72. droch .i. each n olc, Corm. W. 
drwg. Mid. Br. drouc. 

1. drocht straight f E. 11. So H. 3. 18, p. 653, L.Lec. Yoc. and 
Stowe XIX. 

2. drocht hlachy dark, Ff. 11, D. 60, note 15. drocht .i. dorca, 
Stowe XIX. Derived from droch .i. dorcha, D. 60 arid O'Cl, 
(borrowed from A.S. deorc ?), or is it inferred from Mid. Ir. edrochf 
* bright, shining ' = 0. Ir. Hrocht, q.v. ? 

dron straight, D. 51. So. L.Lec. Voc, O'Dav. 79, and O'Cl. 
droing-cedul, E. 22, = dron-chetul. Cf. Aed atnoi ule oU-doine 
dron-chetal, Amra Choi. 115, dron-cherdach .i. am diriuch im 
eladain, LL. 187* 7. The compounds </row-w«», dron-mind, dron-oll 
occur in Salt. R. ; but here the first element may be dron * firm,' 
dron .i. daingen, LL. 311^ 18, — as in for mur dron Dune Delga, 
LL. 154^ 12. 

drubh chariot, D. 11. So O'Cl. and O'Br. The latter has a 
** drubhdir cartwright or coach-maker." 

drucht a rising, Ff. 8. Seems a mistake for driucht=driuchd, O'Br. 

druimcli a reader, E. 21. This is the seventh and highest order 
of wisdom; see O'Curry's Lectures, p. 495. It is probably a 
metaphorical use of druimmehli (gl. laqueax) Sg. 54*. 


1. du place, p. 1, du Ff. 50, E. 20, Stowe XIX. dd .i. baile 
L. Lee. Voc. and Stowe XIX. co du * ubi,' Trip. Life, p. 4. I, 5. 
ata Dia in each du, LL. 281^ 38. Perh. hw. 

2. du meet, proper, fit, due, p. 1, Ff. 50. So O'CL- Nf du duib 
fornert for tuathi dabar fulang, LL. 238^ 19. As a subst. doberar 
dam CO tinniu doib cona du di chormaim dia feiss, LL. 247^ 6. 
Borrowed from O.Fr. <?ti=Lat. debutus for dehitus. Hence dual, 

1. dMQi fruit, E. 10. So L.Lec. Voc. and Stowe XIX. 

2. duar quatrain, D. 42, E. 10. So Corm., L. Lee. Yoc. and 
Stowe XIX. O'Dav. 72, H. 2. 15, p. 184, H. 3. 18, p. 68», 
and 0*C1. Da mbeth an tis (.i. an fer) ag tinm dhuar (.i. tuicsin 
focul no rann), H. 3. 18, part 1, p. 210. 

duchonn music, Ff. 67. So O'Dav. 63 (loinniucc no ceol), 
duchann, O'Cl. na hingena . . nobitisic amran 7 icduchund, Tog ail 
Troi"^ 1086. do gabail a ndrecht 7 a nduan 7 a nduchonn, Oided 
mac n Usnig, 7. 

duehus a quarrel, Ff. 72. Cogn. with O'Cl.'s duchonn .i. cogadh. 

duibell restless, Ff. 72. So O'Dav. 73 and O'Cl. But in H. 
3. 18, p. 68^ duibell is explained as * lightning* {saighnin), 

duirbh sickness, Ff. 26. 

dumach dark, E. 20, is prob. a mis-spelling of duhaeh: sam 
dubach .i. dorcha, Rawl. B. 502, fo. 62^ 2. 

dun IT. stead (baile), Ff. 28, gen. dune, properly walled fortress, 
W. din, Gaul, dunos, duno-n, A.S. tun, Eng. town, N.H.G. zaun. 

1. e sorrow, Ff. 73. e sad, p. 2. huile bith ba hsB he the whole 
world which was his [was'] sorrowful, LTJ. 8^ 34, glossed by hs .i. 
truag. e mo seel, Gold. 165. Originally an interjection = !N'.H.G. 
ei. As a subst. oneoin ainble .i. e 7 eit, Harl. 5280, fo. 74*, marg. infi 

2. e salmon, p. 2. hS, LL. 12* 42. Better 60, q.v. 

e-c6ir {unjust), evil, E. 23. ecoir, LL. 57* 33. sg. gen. do dfgail 
ar n-ecora, LL. 220* 30. From the neg. prefix aw- and c6tr=s 
coair, Ml. 48* 8. 

QGo^aform, shape, Ff. 53. D. II, .i. cuma, O'Cl. habitus, Z*. 67. 
sg. gen. ecosca, LL. and LTJ. passim. 

eic (MSS. eige, eag) moon, Ff. 20. eig, O'Cl. eag, O'Br., who also 
has idireig * change of the moon.' May perh. be from ^pengi-, cogn. 
with Skr. pdjas glanz, lichtschein, Or. 06770s (from *<T7r€7709, 
Bugge, X.Z. XX. 39), mod. Gr. cfyef^f^apL moon, moonshine, and O.H.G. 
funcho, now Funke, 

eidel prayer, E. 12. edel, Corm. eidil, H. 2. 15, p. 184. 

tineGh face, D. 11, So Corm. s.v. gaire. gen. enig. Compds. 


eneclann, enech-gris, enech-log, enech-ruice. Old- Com. enep (gl. 
faciem). Cogn. with Gr. iv wirri, 

eislinn unsafe^ D. 45. eslinn, Sanct. h. 15. 

elar salty Ff. 44. MS. and O'Br. ealar. See salar infra. 

1. Elg Ireland, Ff. 73, and so 0*Dav. 81. Elga, E. 12. Ealga, 
0*C1. sg. ace. aon cairde fon Elg n-aragar one treaty of peace is 
estahlished (lit. fastened) throughout Ireland, O'Dav. 81. gen. 
morthimchell insi Elgga, LL. 207^ 2. Hechtair Elgga .i. Herend, 
LL. 45a 28. rigan iarthair Elgga, LL. 81^ 41. etir fini find-Elga, 
LL. 88^ 12. 

2. elg (leg. elc?),/<wtf, Ff. 73. 

3. elg (leg. elc?) nolle, D. 10. .i. oirrdric, L.Lec. Voc. ealg 
.i. oirdrie, Stowe XIX. ealg .i. oirdheire, O'Cl. 

ellad or ellam gift, D. 42. Treidi ara carthar escara : gnas, ellad, 
erlabra three things for which a foe is loved: use, gift, eloquence, H. 
2. 17, p. 184*. O'Cl. explains ellam (eallamh) by *a dower {coihche) 
which is got in hand ' : ellom roguid ben Gedhe for a ceili the dowry 
which G.^s wife asked of her husband, BB. 251* 3. 

ellam a wonder, Ff. 22. wonder, astonishment, O'Br. 

ellged burial, D. 37. So O'Cl. eillgheadh. 

engach a vehement attack, E. 21. In trath erges Aed engach, 
Bk. Fen. 374, where Hennessy renders engach by * valiant.' O'Clery's 
eanghach * noisy, talkative ' (LB. 222^ 5) must be a different word. . 

englonn danger, Ff. 25. A doubtful word : S. explains it by 

gabha * smith.' 

1. eo M. pin, brooch, Ff. 5. So Conn. s.v. Emain, and O'Cl.: 

eu 6ir and, a brooch of gold therein, LU. 68^ 8. int-eo 6ir, LL. 
81^ 2. cia aithera eo? what is the sharpest of pins ? O'Dav. 81. 

2. eo M. salmon, Ff. 5. So O'Cl. rot-bia eu .i. bratan, LU. 
67* 26. Corruptly ^ : Am he il-lind, LL. 12* 42. sg. gen. iach, 
Brocc. h. 72. ace. ich, pi. n. liogit ich bricc speckled salmon leap. 
Bawl. B. 512, fo. 119* 2. 

3. eo yewtree, Ff. 5. So O'Cl. Also tree. In Fel. March 3, 
and O'Dav. 81, eo is glossed by lignum .i. crand; and see Conn, 
s.v. uball. Kop eo uasind fid, ropo rigda ind rail, LL. 147* 32. 
eo Mugna, LL. 200* 14. Cogn. with, or borrowed from, A.S. 
e6w = O.H.G. Iwa. 

4. eo a grave, (fert), D. 56. eo, O'Br. 

5. eo good, D. 56. Old-Celtic ari- ? Gaul. Avicantos = 0, Br. 
Hucant, Gr. evs from e^s, Goth, avi in avi-liud x«/>«5. evxapttrTia, 
Fick, Bezz. Beitr. i. 58. Lat. avere seems cognate. Skr. ^av, 

PMl. Trans. 1891-1^^. 5 


eochair tongtie, Ff. 41. So O'Cl. ^ 

6r nohUy D. 25. So O'Dav. 47, 81, and O'Cl. er .i. uasal, L.Lec. 
Voc, Stowe XIX. is eu othair er Emna, LIT. am smith uasal her, 
LL. 4^ 25. ^r-ellam .i. adbul ellam, gloss on Colm. h. 49. Seems 
abstracted from the intensive prefix in ir-chian^ etc. 

1. ere heoj Ff. 51. So O'Cl. Compd. eirc-bheach 'w^dwjp, O'Br. 

2. ere honey, Ff. 51. So O'Cl. 

3. ere heavm, E. 13. So Corm. Tr. 67, O'Dav. 81, and O'Cl. 
Arm. erhin * heaven.' 

err M. champion^ Ff. 73, D. 18. err (.i. trenfer) faebur (.i. 
claideb) fland, LL. 43* 10. eirr (gl. curruum princeps), sg. gen. 
gnfma erred, LTJ. 114» 21. pi. nom. errid .i. trenfir, LL. 312* 8. 
Hence erredacht, LTJ. 113^ 29. Cogn. with Gr; aparjv, Zend arshan, 

esc water, E. 12. So Corm. s.v. inesclonn, Stowe XIX and O'Cl. 
s.v. eascra. Compd. esc-ong, esc-ongon eel, lit. watersnake. The 
ace. sg. of a cognate word occurs in a note to Fel. June 17 : oc leim 
do dar aroile escai i Luachair Dedad as he was leaping over a certain 
water in L, D, Use is = Ptolemy's river-name *'\aKa, From 
'^fpjid'kd, perhaps cognate with irlba^, ttIBvio, So O.W. uise may- 
come from ^(p)eidka, 

esconn an old man, Ff. 73,=easconn, O'Cl. qy. a dotard (es+conn 

es-slabra ^^n<?ro«/^y, Ff. 20. Tri aib adannat serg: gnuis, aslach, 
easlabra, H. 2. 17, p. 183*. bochta co n-eslabrai, Rawl. B. 512, 
fo. 37* 1. easlabra (.i. enech) Guaire, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 60* 1. 
ar easlabhra is ar aoide, Ban do Brian na murtha, 

es-saeth (MS. easaoth) health, Ff. 26. So O'CL, who writes 
eassaoth. The contrary of saeth * sickness,' which is cogn. with 
Goth, sair, A.S. sdr, Eng. sore, 

etriad, p. 1. Meaning obscure to me. 

etrocht(MSS. ediocht) pure, light, Ff. 11, is rather shining, bright. 
pi. nom. aurchiche aurnochta etrochta, bosoms naked, shining, LTJ. 
107* 1. dat. rug-etrachtaib (gl. praeclaris), Ml. 37^ 3. Hence the 
abstr. etrochta, LTJ. 27^ 38, 29* 19, 29^ 3, 33^45, 34^ 11. sg. dat, 
etrachtai. Ml. 84^ 1. From ^etar-rog-to-, cogn. with Skr. rajata 
'white.' So innrocht .i. nemfollus, O'Dav. 100, is from ♦an- 

e-tiiaichil not astute, Ff. 11, where it is erroneously explained 
as a substantive : 6ttuachail .i. aimhghlic, O'Cl. The opposite of 
tiiaichil, q.v. 

iihoRalie, Ff. 13. So O'Cl. and H. 2. 15, p. 182 ; but it rathOT 


means a fable or romance, gen. sg. i cend na faible, LB. 217». 
incipit do fabull [leg. i'abaill] ibid. Borrowed from Lat. fdhula. . 

fael (MS. faol) wolf, Ff. 16. Lucifer is called in fdil feochair 
fir-thnachaill, Salt. B. 1670. sg. ace. amal fael fo chairib, like a wolf 
among sheep^ LL. 258^ 1 0. Compd. fael-chu * wolf,' with which Bhys 
would equate W. gweilgi (i.e. gwael+ci) * sea.* A cognate ^-stem 
occurs in Irish : amal foelaid etir chaircha, Tog. Troi^ 1433. Arm. goil. 

failte shield, Ff. 37, from *val-tio-, cogn. with Skr. ^val, valaie, 
and Gr. Fd\vrpo¥. 

fainell (foinell ?) fool, Ff. 74. Hence O'Cl.'s faoinnealach .i. 
oinmid, corrupted in O'Davoren's feanelach .i. oinmit, and 0*Br.'s 
* faoinedlach, adj. foolish, silly. ^ faindelach .i. oinmit, Conn. Tr. 
81. Dligid foindelach fuacra, LL. 345* 24. Cognate is foindel 
'wandering.* dat. sg. for fainiul, LU. 4* 16, for foindiul 7 
sechran, LB. 175». 

faithe (foithe, foidhi) sound, noise, Ff. 55. sg. ace. corro alsat 
faithi fiangaiscid impi, Bawl. B. 512, fo. 111^ 1. 

falc (leg. failc?) gap f D. 23. failc .i. manntaighe, 0*C1. 

1. fath hreath, Ff. 68, fath, O'Br. urkelt. *va-to. Cogn. Y^xthfeth 
'aura' and Gr. a-F'/rTj^ wind, Skr. rata, 

2. fath heat, Ff. 68. 80 O'K. faith, fath, O'Br. I have not 
found the word elsewhere. 

fath a kind of poem, D. 52. 80 O'Cl. ar mo fath .i. ar mo 
aiste. Bawl. B. 502, fo. 61* 1. is tre ffr hatha fdcaib each dam 
mochta inna suidiu iama ssethur co fdthaib fiss fii forcetul 
fethamail, LL. 293*» 27-29. W. gwawd * panegyric' Cogn. with 
A.S. ico^, O.N. 6^r, song, poetry, metre, Ir. faith * prophet,' Lat. 
tdtes, Goth, vods * mad.' 

fee F. tooth, Ff. 40. So O'Cl. Sg. dat. and ace. feic. Wind. 
"Wort. 538. Ir. fee (now feac) a kind of spade, and Lat. vanga 
' mattook ' may be cognate. 

fecur ? speckled, E. 20. Prob. corrupt. The line in which this 
word occurs is hypermetrical. 

1. feib, goodness,!). 31. feibh .i. maith 'good,' O'CL; but it 
is explained as a subst. in H. 3. 18, p. 667*: feib .i. marsin no 
feabas. co ro molaim rig as each feib imbf, LTJ. 124*^ 23. co feibh 
ndelbha, FAI. 1004. Hence feha, fehas * goodness.' Cogn. with 
Gr. V711J? and Lat. vegeo, vigeo. 

2. feib as, D. 31, E. 20. So O'Cl. and H. 3. 18, p. 70^ 667». 
feib .i. marsin, StoweXlX. .i. marsin no bindis, L.Lec. Voc. feib 
as dech roboi, LL. 149* 1. Cogn. with Groth. svasve. 


foid, science, D. 50, "W*. gtoydd * knowledge * (Pughe), from *r4di, 
^vidf cogn. with Skr. vedas * knowledge.' 

foig keen-sightedf keen ? D. 37. feigh .i. ger sharpt O'Cl. corop 
foig rose for n-anme that your souVs eye may he keen^ Wb. 21*^ 9. pi. 
ace. fri faebra fegi, Brocc. h. 97. Compd. feg-briathra, Eawl. B. 
612, fo. 113» 1. 

feimin vehement ? Ff . 74. Prob. a vox niht'li, as it is cancelled in 
L. and feine written under it. The adj. femendse, LU. 85* 19, 
130* 46, f^menda, LU. 113* 40, applied to horses, may perhaps be 

feis pty, Pf. 17. gen. sg. iomnocht feise .i. croiceann muice 
a $ow*$ skin, O'Curry's Children of Tuirenn^ 198. Com. guts (gl. 
scroffa), Br. yeru, gwH, 

felisc (filusc?) hark {of a tree), Ff. 69. Seems a genuine word, 
but I have not met it in the literature. Cogn. perhaps with Lat. 
tellus as Lat. cortex with Skr. hrtti * hide.' 

f^n a hier, E. 15, (gl. plostrum) Sg. 21\ fen dar crinach, LU. 
84* I. rosiacht corp a hathar-si don cill dia adhnacal 7 fean for 
sesrigh ag a iomchor, O^Don. Supp. dat. atconnaicset ... da dam 
allaid rempu co fhen etami 7 in corp and, LB. 29*. pi. gen. fengal 
Da fen, LL. 218* 42. From ♦vegno. Cogn. with W. ey-wain, Gaul. 
eo-rinnnA, Eng. tcagon, tcain^ and with Lat. reko, asferetrym with_/>ro. 

1. ferbh N. tcord, p. 4, Ff. 14. So Conn, and O'CL Borrowed 
from ♦irrrirm, the British pronunciation of Lat. rerhum, pi. gen. 
fcrb nDe verhorNm Dei, Corm. Tr. p. 72. buaid ferb, Salt. R. 4341. 
dat. fcrbaib, LH. 34* I (Goidel. 164). pi. ace. amail rochuala 
Domnall tra inna ferba follsoaidi, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 113* 2. ace. 
faig ferb fithir, Amra Choi. 52. 

2. ferbh cote, p. 4, Ff. 16. So Corm. and O'Cl. gen. sg. ferba 
LU. 109* (see infra s,v. mdi-a). pi. n. teora ferba fira. Laws i. 64. 
forlv^ .i. bai, LU. 125* 20. gen. cona chathchris do colomnaib ferb, 
•ri/A his hai^U-hiU of hid^ of kine, LU. 79*. Cf. Lat. rerrex f 

3. ferbh hlister, hJ4>tch. p. 4. So Cv>rm. and O'Cl. fearb .L briathar 
no bo no bolg no bole, L.Lec. Too. turgbait ferba fora [gjruaidib 
iar oillrrothaib hht^hes arose (m his cheeks aflrr {delirering) unjust 

judgments, LH. 34* 1 (Goidel. 164). Cf. Bret, gtterhl * bubon,' Lat. 
Ttrhera f 

forcnn M. girdle, E. 13. So Corm. and 0"C1. sg, acr. ferenn, 
Bk. Ann. o» 2. pi. ace. feniu, LU. 58* 9 and Trip. Life, li. 

ff-t rfro%t%iiva. Ff. 8. feii .i. innisin, O'Cl. Abstracted from the 
verb adtet rtJuie*. feid .L aisneidh, LL. 393' 52. 


1. ft had, p. 1, Ff. 4. So Conn. Tr. 79 and O'Cl. The same 
word as /i 'poison,' LL. 46*» 16, 18,=Lat. virus, Gr. /ov, Skr. ti«^<i. 
Used as an inteij. ff dom-tanic celmuino, Eg. 1782, p. 34* 2. 

2. fi dUohedience? p. 1, Ff. 4. 

ficell ? E. 25. ficell a vigilia, O'Mulc. 535,=figell a vigilia .i. 
frithaire H. 3. 18, p. 70». 

fich latid, D. 9, is, like W. gwig, borrowed from Lat. vleus, 


villa, LB. 35* 2. sg. gen. ainm in ficha, Fel. p. cxxxiii. dat. sg. 
oc airitind a cethra hi fich slebi cille, LB. 189^. aibind sund 
amne i fich Maige Murthemne, LB. 107** 48. 

fidrach, fidrad increase, Ff. 43. fiodhrach, 0*Br. for fidrad 
n-aes .i. ar each aes inn-araile, Rawl. B. 502, fo. 61* 2. 

fidrad etutomy Ff. 37. a Emain . . . asa fidrad adfeidim, LL. 
21* 6. 

finnell shield, Ff. 37. So 0*CI. Also finden, pi. n. findne gela 
'nal>laim LL. 276* 4 : im biat faibra fri faibra 7 findne fri findne, 
LL. 276^—277*. Derived from find * white,' the colour of the 
chalked shields. 

firsi unheavy, light, Ff. 74. Some mistake, probably, here, as 
firsi means strength, Corm. Tr. 80. O'Dav. 87. 

fis colour, B. 46, note. The * fisleadh ' of the text is obscure. 80 
is the 'fis'of E. 13. 

ffs, F. vision, Ff. 74. sg. gen. for slicht nafisi sin, LU. 119* 12, ace. 
fi8, LL. 256* 20. pi. n. fisi. A sg. nom. fisi occurs in LL. 208* 10 
(adbul fisi armotha) and/i««tM in Salt. K. 3356. All from Lat. vlsio, 

TO fitir (gl. nouit) p. 5. Root vid, 

1. flann red, D. 21. So H. 3. 18, p. 663, and OTL Faelchad 
file faebur fland, LL. 43* 36. fin flann, Three Frags. 150. Other 
exx. in Wind. Wort. 

2. flann llood, Ff. 21, 45. So Stowe XIX, L.Lec. Voc. and 
O'Cl. Exx. in Wind. Wort. Identical with 1. flann. 

flesc? E. 13. The line in which this word occurs is corrupt. 
Perhaps this^w i%=fleasc .i. fearann * a land,* H. 3. 18, p. 51^. 

1. fo good, p. 3. Ff. 4. So Corm. Tr. 79, s.v. fochen, and O'Cl. 
agnr, aigde Fifida fo, I fear, fear thou the good God, LL. 278* 33. 
ni fo mac rue mathair isin taig-sea innocht, LL. 254^ 37. fo dibad 
.i. maith a epiltiu, Amra Choi. 31. fo (.i. maith) mo cerd laechdachta 
LU. 75^ 30. fo each seel .i. is maith cech sc^l atchuas anuasana, 
LL. 188* 48. nip fo lat .i. ni maith leat, 0*Don. Supp. The 
compar.^ occurs in Eg. 1782, fo. 75*: ni thainicc riam tegluch 
fuo. Compd. fo-amsera, LU. 83*. fo-sen, LL. 254* 6. Skr. vasu ? 


2. fo Jwnourt p. 1, Ff 4. gan fo, gan forithint, O'Br. 

foacht (=fo-facht) a«^«»^, Ff. 8. Abstracted from a t-pret. '^veq^ 
such as iarmifoacht, Kawl. B. 612, fo. 109* 1. 

fobairt attack^ Ff. 54. So 0* Bav. 91. Verbal noun oifiiapraim 

ioGhiLBA firewood, E. 14. So Bt. 3. 18, p. 70*, and Corm. B. 
fochnod, and see Corm. Tr. 73, s.v. fochonnad. The fachnadad 
lasamuin of Stowe XIX seems corrupt. 

foessam (MS. faosamh) Bafeguard, Ff. 31, B. 55. for foesam rig na 
ndula, ib. 52. for a [f Joessam .i. fora[f Joessitin, Colm. h. 2. for 
a foisam dun ar talmain, LL. 364, marg. sup. for foisam nDe ^^iu, 
ol si, LL. 286» 3. 

foessitiu protection, B. 55, where it is written faoieidin, the dat. 
or ace. sg. for a [fjoessam .i. for a [f ]oessitin, Colm. h. 2. 

foir awaiting (?), E. 9. roforbad a foir, Kawl. B. 502, fo. 43* 2. 

fol hase ? foundation ? E. 16. fol .i. bonn, Stowe XIX. sg. gen. 
dubithir leth dub-folach, LU. 1 1 3* 1 3 . ace. for f olaig n-athloisc[th]e 
na hecailsi, Rev. Celt. ix. p. 458. Perhaps from *svolak, cogn. 
with Lat. solum. 

folaid ahle^ competent, p. 2. This seems the meaning of folaith 
in LU. is folaith do Bia anisin, 113*, is folaid Bia, 113^. 

folerbhad death, B. 53. So O'Cl. i fanu folerbad fal romiad .i, 
is fan i mbid immad na fer romiadach i mbas It is a slope tcherean 
many most honourable men are lying in death, LL. 187^ 52. 

follan beauty?, B. 23,= fallan, O'Br. It is generally an adj. 
da .L. ban find follan, LU. 50* 14, which 0' Curry renders by * twice 
fifty women, fair and healthy.' The corresponding adverb occurs 
iu LU. 6* 22, cepe nod-geba co follan (.i. etir ceill 7 fogur), and 
in H. 2. 16, col. 700 : ciabe gabas each dia Amra Coluim co fallan. 
cuairt nemhfallain * an unwholesome visit,' Misc. Celt. Soc. 332. 

fonn a cantred ? (tricha c6t), Ff. 28. dar each ferand, dar each 
fond, LL. 81^. flaith na fond, LL. 131* 8 : ba faenchrom a bh-fonn 
na sean an coll, Misc. Celt. Soc. 340. A oighre a n-easbaidh an 
buinn, ib. 342. tur gach aon fhonn d'iath Ealcca, JDdn do Brian 
na miirtha. Borrowed from Lat. fundus ? 

fophor, fofor a well, B. 50. l^ow the place-name Fabhar * Fore.' 
See sopur. 

1. forba a country (tuath), Ff. 28. forba .i. fearann, O'Cl. 
Bachatsa, em, d'iarra[i]d forba 7 feraind doib, Bk. Fen. 178. 
sg. gen. im roind a forba, LB. 124*. cosnum foirbe re Mac nBe is 
ed dogne lecae ban winning a heritage from Qod^s Son, this would 


wah the cheeks white, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 62* 2. O.Ir. orhe, orha 
with prothetic /. Cogn. with Goth. arhi. 

2. for-ba slaying, rending, hacking, D. 48. Cognate with for- 
lenim (for-da-rubai, LU. 20» 27) ; Gr. Oelvu), ewe(j>vov ; Skr. y/han. 

for-coem-nacair/a<?^w»» eaty accidit, D. 30. .i. tarla, Trip. Life xlviii. 
See G.C* 451. A deponential redupl. pret. of an imperfect verb 
of which the pres. indie, was prob. /e)r<?Aw»k?«»» {forchuimsed *fieret,' 
Wb. 4*). The 2d. sg. is in Salt. K. 1544, where Adam says to 
Eve : cid mor do locht ... is dom chorp f orcoemnacar. Boot nank, 
whence also Lat. nanciscor. 

forcongra injunction, D. 37. So O'Cl. triasin aine a mbui Moysi 
tria forcongra De fair, LB. 259*. A sister form of for-con-gur, 
cogn. with gdir=:W, gawr, Gr. ^rjpv9, etc. 

forcthe (gl. doctus), p. 4, part. pret. pass, of for-canim * I teach.' 
The part. fut. pass, bed foircthi, leg. foircthf (gl. imbuendam, 
studiis) occurs in Ml. 132* 4. The contrary, an-forcthe *indoctus,' 
is in LB. 55* 64. 

1. fot watchful, cautious, E. 15. So Conn, and O'Cl. It is rather 
watchfulness, Ff. 53. fo diiib fatchins 7 fot, LL. 57*. ri fot 7 ri 
foraire 7 ri freccomas, LL. 171* 30. 'com (f)6it 7 *com forairi, 
LL. 263*. The contrary is anfdt 'heedlessness,* LL. 125* 55 and 
Eel. July 30. 

2. fot knowledge, D. 35. So 0''R,f6d * art, skill, sense, knowledge.' 

1. fracc a woman, wife, Ff. 24. So O'Dav. 92 and O'Cl. frag, 
ruccthar i capp in diaid phill do[f ]racc, a scail, may thy wife he 
carried in a hearse behind a horse, hero I LH. 34* 2 (Goidel. 
158). fri fraicc .i. fri cumail, Broc. h. 71. W. gwrach. Hence 
the dimin. fraccnatan ' girl,' LL. 252* 3. 

2. fracc hand, D. 14. So O'Cl. frag. In L. Lee. Voc. we have 
metathesis of r: fare .i. lam 7 bean, douce a frac amach, Uath 
Beinne Mair, Rev. Celt. xi. 131. 

fraic shield, Ff. 37. So O'Cl. fraig. 

fraicc hair, Ff. 45,= W. gwrych ' bristles.' 

fuach word, D. 26. So Corm. Tr. 56, L.Lec. Yoc, Stowe XIX, 
and O'Cl. cia nach laigfedh (.i. nach cuirfedh) siansa (.i. ciall) a 
fuach (.i. a focul), H. 3. 18, part i. p. 210. From *fo-fech ? \/veq ? 
Cf . foacht supra. 

fuaim reproach, E. 6. So L.Lec. Voc. fuaim pi. n. fuamand, 
usually means * sound.' 

fuait remnant, E. 3. So Corm. s.v. smerdit, and O'Cl. 

fiial water, E. 14. So Stowe XIX. and O'Cl. fital usually 


means * urine.' sg. gen. ar galar fuail, G.C.* 949. tabairt a fuail, 
in-imechtur in dunaid to make his water outside the eampy LTJ. 67* 34. 
From *vog'lOj cogn. with Gr. vr^-pd-^ (from for^-po-) and O.N. 

fuan :N, mantle, Ff. 35. D. 56. So O'Cl. fuan (gl. lacerna), 
Wb. 30* 19. sg. nom. fuan cain coir, LTJ. 81* 25, fuan corcor-gonn 
im snide, LTJ. 113^ 4. ace. dobert fuan corcra cortharach taris, 
LL. 108* 16. for fuan n-argit .i. etach co n-argut, LL. 187° 24. 
W. ffwn, Eng. gown. The Old-Fr. goney ItaL gonnay seem to come 
from a Gaulish cognate *v6nd from *vos-nd, 

fuath shape, image, D. 11. fuath .i. dealb, L.Lec. Yoc, Stowe 
XIX. A common word. 

fuider word, Ff. 10,=:fuidhir .i. briathar, O'Cl. Cogn. with Skr. 
vad, vadati *to speak, call, sing,' Gr. vhu), vBetv, 

fuideran tunic, E. 19: dimin. of fuidhir .i. brat, O'Cl. Cogn. 
with oOovTf and A.S. wdd. * Fidan .i. inar,' H. 3. 18, p. 70^, seems 
a corruption of this gloss. 

fuigill word, Ff. 10, note 17. 

fumce fang, talon, Ff. 49. So O'R. but fuinche, S. and L. 

1. fuinche fox, Ff. 51. a black fox, L. Lee. Voc. is tomgmall 
[leg. togmall?j i foir foinchi .i. en toghain fo sinnach, Amra 
Conroi, H. 3. 18, p. 49. 

2. fuinche (MS. fuindchi) royston crow, L. Lee. Yoc. So O'Cl. 
Perhaps the gen. sg. of this word occurs in LL. 154* 21 : duibi 
deoir funchi feidil culchi each coin imthemin. 

fuirmed lowering, Ff. 7. So O'Cl. Rather pressing or laying 
down. Yerbal noun of forimim, end. fuirmim. 

1. fuit cold, Ff. 74, E. 27. fuit .i. uacht, H. 3. 18, p. 67^, s v. 
culpait. Fuit co brath, LL. 208* 41 = Fuitt co brath, Rawl. 
B. 502. Dr. K. Meyer suggests that this fuit may come from 
O.K hvitr * white.' 

2. fuit (MS. fuid), blazing, kindling, Ff. 68. This is O'n.'B fuid 
* lighting, kindling.' Can it properly mean to excite, stimulate, 
and be borrowed from O.N. hvetja or A.S. hwettan? A third 
Middle -Irish fuit occurs in LTJ. 59* 42 ; fuit Dia do bethu — and 
seems the Old Irish interjection uit, G.C.* 750, with prothetic/. 

fur ready, prepared, E. 19, is rather preparation, making ready. 
fur .i. leatha no urchill, L.Lec. Yoc. fur .i. uUmhughadh, O'R. 
fur na long, LL. 401* 45. A deriv. fiirad occurs in Salt. R. 5885 : 
fri furad na ngruam nglorach. Compd. aran rem-fuir nemdesctha, 
Salt. R. 4352, 4356. 


fumaide (MS. furnuigheo) delay, Ff. 25. So O'Cl. Ni roleic 
imorro in t-aingel fuirech na furnaidhe do i maighin eile co 
riacht Magh Kein, Bk. Fen. 112. on fethem 7 famaide frisin 
eochair, ibid. 176. on fuirech ocm on furnaidhe doronsat na clerchi 
[leg. clerich?] frisin corp, ibid. 180. This is, with prothetic /, 
the same word as urnaide, irnaide, ernaide * waiting.' 

1. gabar horse, Ff 19. So 0*C1., who gives two spellings, gahhar 
and gohhar. Ace. to Cormac gabur is * goat,' while gobur is * horse.' 
Is alaind feras alluagh(?) gabar Baetan riasin sluag, H. 2. 16, col. 
873 = Is alaind feras in luadh gabair Baedan riasin sluagh, 
Tig. 561. sg. gen. brunni gabra Diarmato, LU. 117* 14= LL. 
27 7* 05. dat. os gabur gil, LL. 154* 47. Doluid for a gabrai 
gluair. Salt. R. 4781. ace. cor-rucait namait a chend, a gabair, is a 
dubcend so that foes may carry off his head, his horse and his sword, 
LU. 13*, pi. gen. rotbia limsa . . . L. gabur ndubglas, LU. 130** 
43. tricha gobar luath leiranech, Bk. Fen. 366. dual nom. a da 
gabair cona n-allaib oir his two horses with their reins of gold, Rawl. 
B. 512, fo. 116* 1. Hence there seem to be two words, gahar and 
gabair, from two stems, *gabro- and *gahri-. 

2. gabar light (lux), E. 16. gabhar .i. solas, O'Flah. pi. n. taitnit 
gabra tar mag lir, H. 2, 16, col. 396 A. gabur ainm do grein a name 
for the sun, H. 4, 22, p. 61% seems the same word, the sun being 
regarded as the steed of heaven ? 

gaet (MSS. gaodh) a wound, Ff. 23. gaet .i. guin, Stowe XIX. 
O'Clery's gaod .i. guin. pi. ace. fordacorsatar goeta .i. gona no 
ro gonad, Brocc. h. 66. A cogn. verb ro-gdet {ro-gaod .i. dogonadh, 
O'Cl.), is used as a pret. pass. sg. 3 of benim. rogaet and do gae, 
LL. 154*46. gaitis .i. gonus .i. marbus, H. 3. 18, p. 70*». Cf. 
gaedad .i. guin, L. Lee. Voc, con-goite (gl. conpunctus), Ml. 58° 
17. Lith. zaizda *a wound, hurt.' 

gaid an asking, a prayer, D. 38, goidh .i. guide, O'Dav. 95. 
Abstracted from ro-gdid, perf. sg. 3 of -Ir. guidiu = Zt^nd 
j'aidhySmi, Teut. bid/an, which Bezzenberger connects with Gr. 
TToOew and OeaaaaOai. 

gaire shortness of life, E. 17. So Corm., citing the satire Maile, 
haire, gaire Caieur (evil, death, short life to Caier !), etc. Derived 
from gor .i. gairit, O'Dav. 95. Fel. prpl. 59. 

galann, an enemy, Ff. 22. So O'Cl. doringned guin galand 
desium and sin 7 rodichend Feradach he, LL. 258* 13. Cognate 
with W. galanas * inimicitia, homicidium, pretium homicidii.' 

1. gam winter, E. 15. So O'Cl. rofaeth sam, snigid gam, Amra 


Choi. 63. gen. mf gaim NovemheTy Conn. s.v. gamuin. in-aidcH 
gaim, Kawl. B. 612, fo. 102* 2. From ^ghyamo-s^ Windisch, in 
Curtius' Studien, vii. 375. Lat. hiems and Gr. x**/**^" find their 
Celtic reflexes in O.W. gaem^ later gayaf. Com. goyf. The Ir. gem 
(im gem-redy gem-fuacht, gem'Oidche) i8=Skr. hima, Lat. ^himo-s in 
Mmu8 from ^hi-htmo-s, 

2. gam wifef E. 16. So Conn, and L. Lee. Yoc. Cogn. with 
Gr. r^d/u,o9y r^a/ui€u)f Lat. gemifius, 

gann a vessel^ E. 12, a jv^ or pitcher y gann .i. easgra, O'Flah. 
may be cogn. with xdvOapos (a cup, a kind of boat), if this be from 

gart hospitality y Ff. 13. So Corm. and O'Cl. gart .i. tidnacul no 
eneach, H. 3. 18, p. 615*. sg. gen. richis garta .i. einech, LXJ. 123* 
11. CO lin garta, LU. 47* 21. 

geg, Ff. 58. A scribal en-or for riy q.v. 

geis prayer y E. 23. So Corm. and Stowe XIX. pi. n. gessi, 
gesse, LL. 220^ 26, 32. From *ged-ti, Cf. gessid (gl. supplicem) 
Ml. 40* 22. From ^ged-ti-ti. Cogn. with guidiu * I pray' v. supra 
s.v. gaid. Ceia .i. guidhe, O'Dav. 69, is either a mistake for geis or 
a loan from Lat. qimestio, 

gen swordy Ff. 36. So O'Cl. and O'Br. The latter has also the 
compound gen-chrios * sword-belt.' ITi ba eallma bias in gen i 
n-Ard iar n Dubh da inbher not in readiness shall he the sword in 
Ardy after Duh-dd-inhery Three Frags. 90. Cogn. is genam .i. 
claidemh, O'Dav. ^%=genumy LL. 166* 1, 208*. 8. Compare Lith. 
genu die aste am baume behauen oder beschneiden (l^esselmann). 

genmnaid (gl. castus) p. 4. is si in glan genmnaid, LU. 49**, 5. 
Cogn. with genaSy genma and genmnaidecht * chastity.' 

geognad a wound y Ff. 23. sg. ace. dogeba geognad is guin. 
Aed engach 'sin irgail, Bk. Fen. 376. Compare certain forms of 
the perf. sg. 3 of beniniy viz. geguin, LTJ. 70^ lly gioguin LU. 65^ 5, 
geogain, LU. 72^ 23, geognay Rev. Celt. v. 202, etc. 

gesca light y Ff. 29. ghoa 'branch' may possibly be the same 
word. Cf. Amra Choi. 62 : raith rith la grein ngescaig, i,e. (writes 
the glossator) "therefore geacach {branchy? luminous?) is said of it 
(the sun), for from it there is light unto stars and to human 
beings' eyes." 

giabair harlot, Ff. 75. So O'Cl., giabur Corm., but ciahar .i. 
salach no merdrech, O'Dav. 63, tre coiblighi ciabhair through im" 
pure copulatioYiy H. 2. l5, cited by O'Curry, Lectures, p. 462. 

gibne cupping -horny Ff. 75. So Corm. 


gil leech, E. 16. So Conn. b.v. gildae, who cites from the 
Bretha nemed ; doglen gil tengaid leech sticks to tongue. M<^ Alpine 
gives a Highland giol F. leech, giol-tholl horse-leech. "W". gel 
sanguisuga, pi. gehd, Com. gheL Possibly cogn. with the Hesy- 

chian KapXeer xaraTrivei and fiXe-rv€9' at fiSeXXai, Fick also 

connects Lat. guh, 

glann shoulder, Ff. 42. gland or glang, Corm., glang, O'Cl. cona 
chreit . . . clang-dirig, LU. 80» 28. 

1. glei?wr^, Ff. 9. So O'Cl. 

2. gle bright, clem', Ff. 9. Wb. 12* 4. gle la each, LTJ. 69^ 19. 
Identical with 1 gl^. 

gleith consuming, D. 13. So 0*C1. 'feeding, grazing,' O'R. 
ac gleith in feoir, feeding on the grass, Laws ii. 238, 1. 23. ar gleith 
ind feoir. Trip. Life 228, 1. 18. Mill do gabraib fri gleith, Salt. 
R. 6299. One of the infinitives of gelim. 

1. glinne cowsy p. 3. This and the following two words may be 

cognate with Gr. f^aXa, f^aXaOrfvo^, 

2. glinne calves, p. 3. O.-Ir. glonn calf, gen. gluinn, Bk. Arm. 
16^ 1, may be cognate. 

3. glinne milk, p. 3. 

4. glinne lead, '^. A. Cogn. perhaps with Gr. <^aXi^i/rf 'plumbago.' 
gluss light, Ff. 74. So Corm., O'Dav., 94, and O'Cl. do-glus .i. 

droch-soillsi .i. glus soillsi, H. 3. 18, p. 68°. so-glus, Eawl. B. 
512, fo. 62* 2. Probably connected with Eng. gloss, Norse glossi, 
N.H.G. glosten. But the etym. of all these words is obscure. 

gnae, gnai woman ? D. 8. wife, D, 40. gnae a woman, O'R. This 
goes with Yedic gnd, Gr. <^vpy, etc., while the ordinary hen goes 
with Boeotian fiai/a, 

1. gnai stately, E. 17. gnoe .i. segda, LTJ. 109* 41. gnoe imorro 
each segda, Corm. s.v. gno. Probably the same word as 2. gnai. 

2. gna£ (gnoi ?) pleasant, D. 40. gnoe, Corm. s.w. foi and gno. 
gnaoi, O'Cl. 

gnia a sister's son, D. 46. So O'Cl. A corruption of niae, gen. 
niath, G.C.^ 255, 256,= Lat. nepos, Skr. napat, A.S. nefa, the g 
coming from 0. Ir. gnia * servant,* sg. ace. gniaid, LTJ. 123* 28, 
compd. fern-gnia, O'Dav. 86, which is cognate with do-gniu 
* facio.* 

gnith voice, E. 16. Cormac's gnid, gnfd-gal: gnioth shout, 
uproar, O'R. pi. dat. perhaps co ngnithaib fiad na slogaib. Salt. 
K. 8118. The gni .i. guth of Stowe XIX seems an error for gnith, 

1. gno distinguished^ D. 10, famous, D. 52. So L. Lee. Voc, 


O'Dav. 94 and O'Cl. Compar. gno som sui .i. urdarca som. cech sui, 
Amra Sendin. noud cerda .i. aurdarcaigim elathna, Bawl. B. 502, 
fo. 61* 1. The 6 of gnd is probably from do\ cf. Lat. gnavtis^ 
gnavarey A.S. cndwan * to know,* from *kn^van. 

2. gao jeering f mocking, derision^ E. 17. So Conn., O'Dav. 94, 

gnod point J Pf. 75. gnod a cono, conum est summa pars galeae, 
O'Mulc. 67. 

goithneytfi;^/^, Ff. 48. goithni .i. gaoi, Duil Laithne. A dimin. 
of goth .i. ga, O'Cl. (pi. nom. goith tentide inal-lamaib, Kawl. B. 
512, fo. 44* 1. Compd. gotb-snechta, LB. 115 marg.), whence 
also gothnad (leg. gothnat) ibid.=gothnath, LIT. 79^ 8. pi. ace. 
ragabsatar ... a n-ocht ngothnatta neit, LL. 84* 51. 

gorm excellent, D. 17. .i. oirdheirc, O'Cl. .i. urdairc, O'Dav. 
94. .i. ord[r]aic, Stowe XIX. Compd. gorm-rig .i. na rig erdarcu, 
Pel. Prol. 233. Perhaps a participle passive from a root gor^=. 
Vedic gir *to praise, to honour' (Grassmann), whence giirta, 
gurya. The 0. Ir. adj. gor Spins' may be cogn., as well as 
Gr. f^epa^ and Lat. grains, 

grant making grey, D. 13, is rather greyi grant .i. liath, O'Cl. 
and Corm. s.v. crontsaile. Conall grant hua Cernaig cruaid, LL. 
185^ 26. 

grech nut, Ef. 75. Corm. Tr. p. 90. mac greche .i. eitne eno 
kernel of a nut, Amra Conroi, H. 3. 18, p. 49. In Harl, 5280, 
fo. 56*, grech is (erroneously ?) glossed by caech, ut est cna grecha. 

greit champion, E. 25. So O'Cl. greid .i. geraid, L. Lee. Voc. 
greid .i. gaiscidach, H. 3. 18, p. 537. greit rig, LTJ. 106* 5, con- 
greit rig, Eel. June 17, where greit is glossed by anroth, 

grenn, F. heard, Ff. 40. So Corm. Tr. p. 90, and O'Cl. sg. ace. 
greind, LL. 186* 9. Hence the verb grennaigim *I beard,' *I 
challenge,' verbal noun grennugud,. adj. grennaigthech, Welsh and 
Bret, grann cilium, palpebra. The Span, grena seems from an 
Old-Celtic *grennd. Cognate is the Albanian krande, 

grian land, D. 9. So O'Cl., H. 3. 18, p. 625, and L. Lee. Voc. 
gainem a grian, LB. 214*. O'Don. Supp. gives the gen. , sg. 
as grin : fine grin * the original tribe of the land : ' fer grin ' the 
owner of the land.' ace. coto-melat ar mur 7 grian, LTJ. 67* 16. 
Prob. identical with grian * gravel ' = W. graian. ar uir ocas 
grian, LU. 106^. itir ur ocus grioan, Harl. 5280, fo. 66^ corbo 
reill in grian 7 in gainem in mara, LTJ. 26* 8. is gat im ganem 
na im grian, LL. 88* 17. Compd. : murgrian amal mil, LB. 215*^. 


1. grib swiftness^ Pf. 21, D. 12, is rather swift, adv. co 
gribb, Mael fsu, cited in Fel. clxxxv. comor 's go gripp, Bk. Fen. 
218. Hence gripe swiftness ^ Rev. Celt. iii. 183. 

2. grih prohibition, hindrancBy ,^i. 43. So O'Cl. 

1. grinn stronghold. Ff. 9. So O'Cl. 

2. grinn decency, Ff. 9. So O'Cl. But it rather seems an adj. 
as to the meaning of which many guesses have been made. See 1 . 
grind in Wind. Wort, and add is ccoiggad ingen ngel ngrind, Bk. Fen. 
48, which Hennessy renders by * with fifty fair sprightly maidens.' 

1. grith sun, Ff. 20. But grioth, 0*Br. Apparently the same 
word as grith 'ardour': grith slegi, LL. 267°. From *ghrti, 
cogn. with Yedic ghrna * Sonnenglut.' 

2. grith knowledge, Ff. 45. So O'Cl. Hence gritheach learned, 

grot hitter, E. 17. So Corm. s.v. gruiten. Seems a sister-form 
of goirt (gl. acidus). Another grot * active'? often occurs: ro 
garb-gles go grod a geir-ingne, Eg. 1782, fo. 34* 1. Gac(h) egin 
grott a mbi in dream, Bk. Fen. 241, where Hennessy renders 
grott by * sudden': mana ti go grod 'na dail, ibid, where he 
renders go grod by * quickly.' dimiad . . . dom liubar co grod, ib. 

grotan (MS. grodan) hoat, Ff. 75. So O'Cl. 

guaire hair, Ff. 41. So O'Cl. Occurs in Lism. Lives 2212, 3798. 

guba wailing, D. 35. So L. Lee. Voc, Stowe XIX, and O'Cl. 
guba suspiria .i. osnad, Corm. Tr. 89 and H. 3. 18, p. 70^. oc 
estecht fri guba 7 fri golgaire na n-anmand oc troge, LIT. 30^ 39. 
agair a gubsB, LU. 69* 36. 

gulba mouth, Ff. 41. So O'Cl. In Corm. Gl. it means mouthful. 
sg. ace. doepetar gulba da each ferand. The n-stem gulha 
* rostrum' seems a different word. 

1. gunn a breaking, D. 20. So O'Cl. 

2. gunn neck, D. 20. So O'Cl. O'Reilly, mistaking brdige 'neck' 
for braige 'hostage,' has *^ gunn s.m. a prisoner, a hostage." 

homo human being, Ff. 53. Aithne dam homa (.i. duine) re haei 
(.i. re heladain), H. 3. 18. Borrowed from Lat. homo. 

humal (gl. oboed[i]en8) p. 4, So Corm. Tr. 167. Borrowed 
from Lat. humilis. So W. ufyll, Br. vuel. Hence huimle^ Salt. 
R. 7300. The cogn. subst. umalddit is from Ai litdUm, 

{ island, D. 15. So O'Cl. hi .i. inis, L. Lee, 1 
From O.N. eg = A.S. ^g, ig, 

iach salmon, Ff. 14, E. 10. So L. ] 


iaich, LTJ. 16* 39, 40* 16: a vocalic stem, cognate with the 
<j-8tem eo, gen. tach = Lat. esox, W. eog. Corn. ehoCf G.C.* 123. 

iairchena thenceforward^ D. 28, iarchena .i. anegmais, * besides,' 
L.Lec. Voc. iarceana .i. anegmus, Stowe XIX. This is archena 
LTJ., 28a 37^ 30b 30, 31* 37, archiana .i. sin amach, O'Cl. and 
archiana .i. anecmais, H. 4. 22. p. 59*. 

iar Uacky D. 21, E. 19. So L.L.Yoc, Stowe XIX, O'Cl. and 
O'Flah. Is nime goirthear Lughaidh lar-dhonn de, ionann iar- 
dhonn 7 dubh-dhonn, gona tre folt dhubhdhonn do bheith air 


rainig Lughaidh lardhonn d' forainm air, Haliday's Keating, p. 386. 
iarlonn the west, lack part, Ef. 56. iorlann .i. iarthar tighe mara 
mbi biadh, 0*C1. Can the iarluih of the Voyage of Mael Duin 
(Rev. Celt. ix. 474, I.e.) be a scribal error for iarlonnaih ? 

1. lath hell, pp. 2, 3. So Corm. s.v. bachall. aoth a heU^ 

2. {2^ih famous, p. 3. 

3. lath cowl, p. 3. 

4. fath (iat ?) reliquary, p. 1. * etag ' 7 ' iath ' anmann fethal la 
gentiu, O'Mulc. 469, = * ettech ' 7 * iat ' anmann fethal la gentiu, 
nnde dicitur dotong darsna hiata-so / swear hy these reliquaries^ 
H. 3. 18. p. 81, col. 1. 

5. fath ]Sr. land, p. 1, Ff. 4, Ff. 28. So O'Cl. iath n-Anand .i. 
Eiriu, H. 3. 1 8, p. 635*^. sg. dat. in sudigud bias in iath (.i. hi tfr) 
Sion, LU. 8a 41. ri dosn-uargaib os cech iath, Salt. R. 7445. ace. 
ranic iath in nad adaig aiccestar, Amra Choi. 34. cu iath nErend^ 
Annals of Boyle, 1014. dat. in-iathaib aidbli aniuil, Salt. R. 3526. 
dos-fuc a hiathaib Egipt, ibid. 4426. Compounds are nim-fath, 
rig- fath, fath-maige. 

ibath death, D. 57. iobadh, O'Br. Perhaps an V)ld misreading 
of .i. bath. 

icht children, D. 12, and E. 13 (where the MS. has ueht). So 
Corm. s.v. Eoganacht, and Corm. Tr. 98, where cinn should probably 
be cine7. icht may be cogn. with I^.H.G. echt * genuine,* urdeutsch 
*ahti. Hence the adj. ichtmar. Le rugadh an Righ Neamhdha an 
O'gh ichtmar oirea[gh]dha, Misc. Celt. Soc. 348. 

idna weapon, spear, D. 16. ri hidnae nethes nemthigetar, Corm. 
s.v. nith. O'Cl. explains this word by sleagha no arm, PI. nom. 
m*idnu (leg. m'idna?) airgdide, LL. 206^. dat. for idnaib an 
anruth, LL. 232^ 33. taithniomh oir ara n-iodhnoibh the glittering of 
gold upon their weapons, H. 3. 3 cited in Petrie's Tara 166. pi. ace. 
bruid idnu buden, LTJ. 47* 23. 0' roghabh a iodhna, Dan do Bhrian 


na miirtha. Hence the adj. idnach warlike, abounding in weapons. 
The root is yudh *to fight,' whence also many British names 
beginning with lud, Gr. va-filifrj, Skr. yiidhyatiy yuyddha, 

idna honour-price, D. 43. ace. cen idna nglan, Salt. E. 1395. 
Derived from idan .i. glan, O'Cl. 

immderg hlame, Ff. 62. Hence the verb immderyaim. Yerbal 
noun immdergud. 

indless goodness, p. 2. innlus gach tinnscra fri deirge dligt<? o 
rechtaib commamsa on leaving {her husband ?), she is entitled by the 
laws of matrimony to the increment of every bride-price, 0*Dav. 70, 
s.v. comaim. 

innsa trouble, Ff. 54. So O'Cl. A cognate adj. existed in O.Ir. 
ni insa, S. Paul, v. 5, the Mid. Ir. form of which was andsa, 
compar. andsu, Rev. Celt. viii. 858, 1. 2. 

inutile a vessel, or ease, Ff. 56. So O'Cl. In Corm. Tr. p. 98 the 
word is explained as * a small vessel wherein drink fits.' 

fr=Lat. ira, but in Ff. 56 explained by deabaidh contention. 
a ir .i. a ferg, Corm. Tr. 116, s.v. mei'. ir .i. fearg, O'Cl. £r .i. 
saithin (?) no ferg, O'Dav. 98. ir .i. fearg, Stowe XIX. ir . . . 
significaret Hibernis . . . iram, O'Moll. 29. gair ger gribi, hir 
is ferg. Salt. R. 921. buith co n-ir, LL. 43^ in marg. la Demon 
CO n-fr, LU. 114^ 30. cen chomairb, cenf-ir, LB. 261*» 17, cen 
fodord, cen hir, 262* 9. Hence the adj. irach, Salt. R. 4086, etc. 
The W. ir-llawn, ir-llonedd show that ira was borrowed also by 
the Cymry. 

irchaill doorpost, Ff. 6. earchaill, O'Cl. do chnamaib elefinnte 
tra doronta na doirsi 7 na hirchoUa, LB. 209^. O'Br.'s ircilt * the 
side-post of a door,' seems a corruption of this, ercheallan * a pole, 
stake,' O'Br., may also be connected. 

irsi adj. light y Ff. 74, a doubtful word. 

itropa head, Ff. 38. itropa, O'Cl. A doubtful word. L. has 
is tropa and possibly itropa may be nothing but an old misreading 
of .«. tropa, as ibath, q.v., of .«. bath. 

laba eyebrow, Ff. 39. Better laupa=:lauba, O'Br., cogn. with 
lupaim * I bend.' s-pret. pi. 3 rolupsatar, LL. 86^ 45. 

ladg snow, Ff. 5. So O'Cl. ladhg, O'Br. 

laeg water, liquor, E. 13. Perhaps a mistake for laith, q.v. 

laemda, E. 28. Meaning doubtful, ronasc go Isemda a lipadha. 
Eg. 1782, fo. 34a 1. St. Fechin's mother is called Lasair laomdha 
lanlebur, Betha Fechin. O'Br. has a laom * a blaze of fire,' and O'R. 
a laomh * strong, powerful.' co ti sil Luigdech in loeim, Bk. 


Fen. 226. The compd. laem-scel occurs in Bk. Fen. 340, where 
it is rendered by * famous story.* 

laith liqmry D. 41. So O'Cl. laith .i. cuinn. laith .i. ass, 
O'Flah. Compd. tri laith-linni, SP. v. 16. Com. lad (gl. liquor), 
Lat. latex, 

laithre coWy Ff. 16. So O'Cl. Derived from laith *milk,' Laws, 
i. 64, 66 : laith find for tellraig .i. as na mho iar8a[n] talmain. 

1. \qxi^ feast, E. 20. So fl. 4. 22, p. 13, and L. Leo. Voc. 
Cognate with the verb longaim * I eat.' 

2. lang fraudy Ff. 57, D. 22. So Corm. s.v. Gaileng, O'CL, 
O'Flah., H. 3. 18, p. 635^ and Eg. 1782, p. 26. Hence the 
verb longaim * I cheat, betray : ' ro lance in sennin fort. Rev. Celt, 
xi. 131. Gr. €'-X67xo5 'reproach, disgrace,' may be cognate. 

lathar hidden meaning y Ff. 10. So O'Cl. In Wb. 5® 16 we seem 
to have the dat. sg. dont lathur diasndisiu roboi hi runaib inna 
deacte oc tuiste duile hi tossuch to the unspeakable hidden meaning 
which was in the mysteries of the Godhead when creating {the) elements 
at first, Compd. erlathar, LB. 56* 41. Cogn. with Lat. lateo, 

1. ler M. sea, Ff. 15. So O'Cl. the ocean ace. to O'Dav. 100. 
ler tondban for talmain, Laud 610, fo. 90* 2. sg. gen. gainem lir 
fo longaib, LB. 28*. mac lir [.i.] mac mara, Corra. s.v. Manannan 
mac lir. dat. sg. liur, ace. mo ler cona lantoradh, LL. 385^ 44, 
Bk. Eights, 196. fer co n-ilur gnim dar ler, LU. 47* 30. ri rethes 
ler, LU. 40* 18. imma curchaib iarsin ler, LB. 33*. pi. ace. liru 
(gl. pontias) LH. 12* (Goidel.^ p. 69). W. llyr mare, equor. 

2. ler abundance, Ff. 21. Seems used as an intensive prefix in 
ler-glor, ler-thol, ler-mdr, ler-ol, Salt. R. 366, 611, 2722, 4443. 
ler-thinol, LL. 296* 1. Either a misspelling of leir ' industrius,' 
or the same word as 1 . ler : so the gen. sg. of d'iliu (borrowed 
from Lat. diluvium) is used to intensify the meaning of the 
governing word, e.g. dam dilenn, 

1. les bladder, E. 15. So O'Cl. sg. dat. mar anail il-les, LL. 86* 
35. Is leges lega cen les it is the leeching of a leech without a bladder 
(in which he kept his medicaments), LH. 34* 2. les lasgtha a 
clyster, O'Br. les each mbolg imbi lind every bag wherein is liquor, 
Conn. s.v. lesan, spelt lesan in H. 3. 18, p. 72*. 

2. les light, Ff. 57. 16os, O'Cl., leus, O'R. So L.Lec. Yoc. Leos 
and Ids, Eg. 1782, p. 26. teora bliadna boi cen les Colum ina 
dnbreoles, LH. i34* 2 (Goidel. 161). les-boire, sg. gen. 16sboiri, 
Vb. 26* 3. dual nom. dd 16spaire mora, O'Don. Gr. 352. The 

ining o oi u may be loans from O.^N. Ijos, 


If praise (?), E. 14. This meaning seems inferred from the U a 
molad * splendour his praise/ in Corm. s.v. fili. li = W. lliw * colour.' 

lia M. stone, p. 4. lia laime, LL. 393^ 50. sg. gen. liac, dat. 
liaic: compd. nertlia, LL. 255^ 16. 

liachtain moisture, Ff. 56. ^lei^, Cogn. with Xeipw, \oipri, 
Lat. Itbatio, de-lihuttM. 

ligrad tongue, Ff. 57. lioghra, O'R. Derived from U^ur 'tongue,' 
Corm., and cogn. with Xelx^t li-n-go, ligmio. So in Duil Laithne 
11, ligair .i. tenga. 

lis quarrel, Ff. 65. So L.Lec. Yoc. Borrowed from Lat. lis, as 
W. Hid * anger' from litem. See Corm. s.v. lesmac. 

loc place, D. 29. So G.C.* 69. log, L.Lec. Yoc. sg. gen. luic. pi. 
dat. locaib imechtrachaib mundi (gl. ab hibemis locis), 0*Mulc. 700. 
Compd. mac-loc womh, LL. 273^ 26 and Rawl. B. 502, fo. 61* 2. 
Borrowed from Lat. {st)locm, 

lore fierce, D. 24. So O'Cl. lore .i. angbaid no laind, H. 3. 18, 
p. 537. in chrott arpeit Labraid Longsech lore, LH. 34* 2. 

lose lame, D. 33. So Stowe XIX, L.Lec. Yoc. and H. 3. 18, 
p. 663^. sg. ace. ITi chuitbe nach sen ciarbat ooc . . . na lose ciaso 
luath Mode not any old man though thou art young, nor (any) lame 
man though thou art swift, LL. 344* 32. pi. ace. luscu .i. bacuchu, 
Fiacc's h. 32. lose (gl. clodus) O'Mulc. s.v. collud. Gr. \o}q6^, 
Lat. luxus. Another lose (=Lat. luscus) means * blind ' : Domrigne 
lose 16n, LL. 147* 30. 

1. loth plumage, D. 25. cf. luathan .i. en bird, Duil Laithne, 
123. From *(p)luto- or *fp)luta. 

2. loth fierce, E. 27. From "^luto, cogn. with Gr. \v<r<ra 'rage,* 
from *lutja, Lith. lutis * storm,' Ch. Slav. IjutH 'vehement.' 

lothar raiment, Ff. 20. So O'Cl. co ro dubai fri grein 7 gaith i 
certaib 7 lothraib, LL. 274* 1. From 1. loth? 

lu smallness, Ff. 47, is rather small : lu each mbec, Corm. lu 
.i. beag, O'Cl. lulaegh .i. laegh mbec. Eg. 1782, p. 26. Hence 
luan .i. mac, H. 3. 18, part i. p. 210. is dal ena tar lua[n] (.i. uisque 
tar nseidin), Amra Conroi. Compd. leas-luan stepson, 0*Br. 

lua foot, Ff. 42, kich, E. 16. O'Cl. gives these two meanings, 
lua .i. preb, Eg. 1782, p. 26. Atacomcussa com lau, LU. 114* 10. 
mo da lua .i. mo da choiss, LL. 208* 24. dobert a luie frisin 
comlai col-luid a chos trethe, LU. 19* 19. tobert Cuchulaind a lue 
afridisi, ibid. 22. tuc Cerball lua da choiss friasi, LL. 52* 11. In Old- 
Lish it seems to mean ' heel ' : sal no lue (gl. calx), Sg. 50* 20. 

luan hound, wolf, Ff. 16. So O'Cl. a greyhound, O'Br. 

Fha TraxLB. 1891-2-8. 6 


luba hody. v. infra, b.v. tethra. lithha, liihhnacha or liithhneachn, 

luc (luch?) belly, womb, Ff. 41. locc mbecc a dimple^ LB. 

luchtaire whirlpool, Ff. 57. So O'Cl. luchtaire also means 
'lanista/ Ir. Gl. No. 10, and, like the Lat. luctor * I wrestle,' comes 
from a root luy meaning * to twist.' 

lugna moon, E. 2. So L.Lec. Voc. Seems borrowed from Lat. 
liina, with y inserted to indicate the length of the preceding 
vowel. Cf. lun 6 luna, LB. 24 1^ 20, a gloss on the fo-lun 
lainderda, etc., of the Amra Senain. 

1. luibne^w^^r, Ff. 42, D. 14. So Conn. s.v. deach. luibhne 
.i. meoir^n^^*, O'Cl. 

2. luibne spear, Ff. 36. mam luibni .i. fam sleig, LL. 208*. 
Another meaning for luthne is shield. So in LTJ. 55* luibne gela 
foraib white shields upon them ; but this seems a mistake for ruibni. 
see LL. 208* 7 : mo ruibni .i. mo sciath. 

luigne y«t;^/m, Ff. 48. This is luibhne in H. and L. 

luis hand, Ff. 57. So O'Cl. and DuQ Laithne, 17, O'Dav. 101, 
H. 3. 18, pp. 71^ and 636, and Eg. 1782, p. 26. Hence luisea^ 
* the haft of a knife or sword, the small iron part that goes 
into the handle,' O'Don. Supp. From ^loc-si- ? Cf . Lat. al-lex, poUlex ? 

lulgach warrior, Ff. 23. a soldier, O'Br. 

macht death, p. 3, note 2. Cogn. with machtaim I slaughter : o ra 
machtait issin mormaidm, LL. 195* 56, machtad slaughtering, LL. 
193* 25, Lat. macto, 

maen dumb, Ff. 34. So 0*C1. (maon). Asbert in rigan: 'maen 
rue,' BB. 251% better moen, LL. 269* 29. Cogn. with Lat. mutus 
from ^moi'tO'S, 

1. main good, F. 43. So 0*C1. (maoin). Cogn. with mdin 
'treasure' (ni fil mo main fen acht a nim, LB. 216^), pi. ace. 
maini 'precious things,' LL. 271^ 16. Lat. munus from *moinos. 

2. main love, Ff. 34. So O'Cl. (maoin). 

maime treachery, D. 52. Cogn. with maim, maimed 'betrayal,' 
mairnim * I betray ' (rom aimet nad aincet, LL. 344^ 52), mamtid 
' traitor,' LL. 282* 2. 

1. mdl soldier, Ff. 23. So O'Cl. Prob. identical with 2. mal. 

2. msilalord,noble,'DAS. So O'Dav. 106, O'Cl., L.Lec. Voc.,0'Flali. 
Cormskc explains it as^tn^, and so in LL. 311^ 33 mal .i. ri : in LL. 
307^ 5 : mad beo mac in mail .i. in rfg, and in H. 3. 18, p. 82^ 
oa mail .i ligh. Oorbo m^ each maige moir, Salt. E. 3431 : is 


he mal na slog, ibid. 4427. Voc. cing mal .i. cemnig a uasail, LL. 
186^ 26. pi. nom. mail, LIT. 40* 17. gen. o chath Mucrima nam- 
mal, LL. 131». lin a mal, Salt. R. 6629. Old-Celtic ^maglo-s, 
W. mael in Maelgwn = Maglocunos, 

3. mal rmtf tribute, D. 48. So OTlah. and O'Cl. mal. gen. sg. 
ri moradh a mail hg increasing its tribute , Bk. Fen. 240. W. mdl 
*moneta' (Davies), * tribute' (Richards). From A.S. mdl, Eng. 
(black) ma«7. 

manais spear, Pf. 48. So O'Cl. manais lethanglas, LIT. 55* 15. 
113^ 8. manais lethanglas limtha Lochlannach, Selg Slebe na 
mBan Finn, cited in Battle of Ventry, p. 82. dia notairle manais 
... as mo laim sea, LTJ. 62^ 1, where manais and sleg are used 
as synonymous, pi. n. noi manaise, LU. 93, 1. 25. dat. bar ar 
mdnaisib, LL. 85* 3. 

1. mann F. food, D. 9. So O'Dav. 105, and O'Cl., who also 
have mann .i. cruithneacht * wheat.' cin mann cin biadh without 
fodder, or food, Laws ii. p. 18, line 6. Is tre fir flatha mesrada 
mora for fedaib atat at manna milsi blassaigter, LL. 293^ 16, 
346* 1. maind, LB. 121*. Borrowed from manna, 

2. mann ounce, Ff. 58. So Corm., O'Dav. 104, L.Lec. Yoc, 
H. 3. 18, p. 636°, Eg. 1782, p. 26, O'Cl. and O'Flah. pi. n. 
manna oir forloiscthi Corm. and H. 3. 18, p. 72*. Giiterbock 
regards this mann as borrowed from mina fiva. But mina would 
in Irish have become *men. Siegfried's etym., mann from ^manva, 
cogn. with Gr. /ioovo9, ju,6vo9 {/llovFos), as Lat. uncia with unus, 
seems more probable. 

marc (MS. mairc) horse, Ff. 19. So Corm. and O'Cl. Cogn. 
with W. march, the Galatian fidpKav (ace. sg.) and Tpi-fiapKiala, 
Pausan. x. 19, and the O.H.G. marach. The difference between 
a marc and an ech is, ace. to H. 3. 18, p. 639, that the former is 
female and the latter male (eich .i. firenna, mairc lathracha, leg. 
laracha * mares'). But O'Dav. 104, has marc .i. ech no lair horse 
or mare, and in LTJ. 119^ 28, the gen. pi. marc is glossed by ech. 
In the Amra Conroi marc is declined like a fem. d-stem : Is 
menn mairce murgeire .i. searrach eich fo ron mara. 

mata (MS. mada) pig, Ff. 17. Sg. gen. curadmfr ferba (.i. bo) 
brachtchi (.i. methi) brothlochi sceo (.i. acus) matai (.i. mucci) 
moogthi, LU. 109* 30, and see LL. 118*, 48, 50. A sister-form 
mdt in Corm., mait, O'Dav. 105, s.v. main. 

* meile quern, Ff. 69. So O'Cl. pi. ace. ranirusa immorro deich 
meile, LU. 83^ 4. Cogn. with melim * 1 grind,' act. pres. ind. sg. 3, 

:■:. N 


mar gall mblooic melid broe .i. broin, LL. 43* 7. Lat. mohj Gr. 
fivWojf Goth, malan. 

mell pleasant, J). 35, So L. Lee. Voc. Mag mell Fairyland, 
O.-Ir. meld: ba mor meld a acaldam, Ml. carm. 1. Lat. mollis, 
from *molvi8f *moldvi8, 

mellach ^eod, Ff. 43, also in LTJ. 24» 18, 74», 114*22, for 
meldach, G.C.* 18, is rather 'gratus.' ba mellach in bag, LU. 114^ 22. 

memmur, N. penis^ Ff. 46. So O'Cl., lit. member. Thus memur 
laime no coisi means * a finger or toe,' O'Dav. 106, pi. n. oire nundera 
membur uili du Dea, quia sumtu membra omnes Deo, Camb. G.C 
1005. Borrowed from Lat. membrum. 

men mouth, F. 58. So Corm., H. 3. 18, p. 72^ and Eg. 1782, 
p. 26. men mara .i. bel na mara, O'Cl. Hence menogud * hiatus,' 
Sg. 40^ 8. gen. ar immgabail menaichthe ' ad yitationem hiatus,' 
8g. 8^ 1 . W. min. 

menmarc thought, reflection, £. 1, rather means desire, darling. 
ba he menmarc a n-ingen 7 lennan a n-6cban, LL. 271* \, he was 
the darling of their daughters and the lover of their young wives. 
sg. gen. cluinte a hosnaid iar ndul a menmairc uathi hearken to 
her sigh after her darling has gone from her, LL. 269* 17. 

miad respect, honour, dignity, Ff . 58. So O'Cl. is miad mor ind 
apstalacht, Wb. 13* 5. pi. dat. miadaib, LU. 52» 25. O.Bret. 
a muoed (gl. fastu). 

mi-scaith a curse, Ff. 29. So Corm. miscaid, O'Dav. 104. 
miscath .i. mallacht, L.Lec. Voc. scath .i. beannacht, ibid, 
sg. dat. fo miscaid bretheman bratha, LU. 31* 21. ace. eirgg dot tig, 
ar se, 7 beir miscaid, LL. 272* 30. doberat trist 7 miscaid 7 berait 
a n-orait uadib, LB. 258* 52. Hence the adj. miscadach ' accursed,' 
Salt. R. 2392, 2422 (fri claind Cain miscadaig). 

mo good, p. 3. mo-ling * bene salivit : ' mo-genair. For mon 
(= Lat. manus * good ' ?) or ma (=maith), which often occur com- 
pounded with verbs: mo-genar, LB. 146^. mon-genar, ma-tuluid 
*bene ivit,' Fel. July 12, ma-lodmar, LL. 45*. ma-lodsaid, LU. 
65* 15=mad-lodsaid, ib. 64* 7. 

mocht gentle, quiet, mild? Ff. 59. Can this be=W. mwyth 
'mollis,' cogn. with mwythan et moethan delitiae? 

monur N. work, deed, Ff. 9. So O'Cl. monar .i. obair. The O.Ir. 
gender appears from monar n-gle, Colm. h. 37. is mor in monur, 
LL. 234* 32. Hence monorugud, LB. 261 marg. 

mormuir bog, Ff. 70. mormhuir L. Seems a compound of 
mor ' great ' and muir borrowed from A.S. m6r or Eng. moor. 


mos i. melody, p. 3. Prom '^mod-to, Cogn. with Lat. modtcsy 
* measure, due measure, rhythm, melody,' etc. modular , modulatus. 
ii. mps ehb, iii. mos flood, p. 3. These meanings (which are not 
helegt) seem to come from the regular occurrence of the phenomena 
in question. 

mos custom, pp. 2, D. 58. So 0*C1. each sobes, p. 3. immda gun 
cia (.i. fer) sin mos (.i. bes), fi (.i. olc), H. 3. 18, part 1, p. 210. 
ranic maige mos nad genetar ciuil, Amra Choi. 36. Borrowed 
from Lat. mos. Hence mdsach, 0*Br. 

mothla soft, E. 22. moist, O'R. Cogn. with Lat. mustus afresh,' 
from "^mut-tO'S ? 

muad good, Ff. 43, D. 49. So H. 3. 18, p. 652, and O'Cl. muad 
.i. uasal no airmidnech, Conn, mjac muad Muire, LB. 213^. sg. 
gen. masc. : roselai delaifir muaid moinig, LL. 186^ 31. ace. fem. 
la Macha muaid, LL. 21* 45. 

muchna surly, D. 22. Conn. Tr. 115 s.v. muc, and O'Cl. write 
this word mucna. But in LB. 255** 70 it is muchna, 

mur abundance, p. 1, and Ff. 50, E. 26. Dia mor m'anacul de 
mur theinntide diu derc nd^r great God to save me from the fiery 
abundance of long looks of tears \ Amra Choi. 4. So O'Cl. So H. 
3. 18, p. 76^, s.v. m^r. a mur (.i. a himmed), chluime, Eel. 
Prol. 126. Probably cogn. with the second element in TrXyfi-jLLvpa, 
irXrj/LL-fivpU, irXrjfi'/LLvptv, TrXrjjLi-fivpdtv. EbePs connexion (Kuhn's 
Beitr. ii. 163) of TrXri/ifivpU with Ir. muir *sea,' W. mor, Gaulish 
mdri, seems impossible. 

ndsad famous, D. 36. So 0*C1. pi. gen. comsid na naem nasad 
n-an, the guardian of the famous, splendid saints, LTJ. 40* 36. 
Hence nasadach, gen. sg. m. nasadaig .i. erdarcaig, Goidel. 173. 

neid, neit, neo wind, Ff. 67. neidh, O'R. The right spelling 
of this word is doubtful. It may have lost initial p, and be 

connected with Trviw, irvevfia, yrvoy, 

neit battle, Ff. 21. So O'Cl. culu tria neit .i. cath, Amra 
Choi. 2» neit ba hainm don chath nobrisind, LH. 34*2 (Goidel. 
158). iar do neit, ibid, neit .i. cath, LL. 393^ 2. neit .i. 
guin, LU. 7* 7. iar do n^it .i. iar do guin, LU. 6^ 29. lieit is 
glossed by dia catha 'a god of battle,' in H. 3. 18. pp. 73*, 637*. 
So Cormac, and see Rev. Celt. i. 36. 

nemed art, D. 43. neimheadh .i. gach dan no gach ealadha, 
O'Cl. each dan a nemed, Aibidil Cuigni, Book of Lecan, fo. 176* 
2. nemed * privilege,' seems the same word : pi. ace. ro ordaigset 
dano fir Herenn a nemthiu andsin, LU. 118* 6. 


nena thumb, Pf. 42. O'Cl. has nean .i. ordlach. But the gen. 
pi. nena occurs in LL. 208* 14 : triucha nena (.i. ordlach) Find 
'na feic (.i. 'na fiaccail). 

neoit penurious, scanty, Ff. 13. nfb neoit, br6cach, LL. 860, 
marg. inf. nirba neoit he not niggardly, LB. 101 in r. margin, ar is 
each lesc, lend, etaid, suanach, neoit, dedith is miscais De 7 doine, 
LL. 344*. In the Amra Choi. 103 neoit is a subst. 

nes an earthen stronghold {riith), Ff. 18. Perhaps neas .i. cnoe 
* hillock,* O'Cl. a hill, or fortified place, O'Br., or a mistake for mess : 
meitis ri mess .i. commeit ri tolaig as big as a hill, LL. 208*. 

nia champion, Ff. 23. So Conn., H. 3. 18, p. 77*, and O'Cl. 
In Old-Ir. a dissyllabic ^-stem. sg. gen. niad, Brocc. h. 71. 
pi. gen. forrach niad, LL. 44^. niath, LL. 217^. For another 
nia V. supra, s.v. gnia. 

1. nin letter, D. 26. So Conn. Tr. 126, H. 3. 18, p. 77^ and 
O'Dav. 108. nin .i. delb no litir, L.Lec. Voc. nion .i. litir, 0*C1. 
Specially the letter n : anamain etir da nin inso .i. nin i tossuch in 
moltai 7 nin ina deriud, .i. JVi disceoil [the beginning of the Amra 
Choluim chille] 7 iVimuain, LIT. 6* 34. secht nen-adman (septem 
litterarum conexiones) Ml. 2*, 2. dar ninu Nede, LL. 186^. Seems 
borrowed from Old- Welsh nihn, and this from the Hebrew nun. 

2. nin wave, Ff. 59. So Corm. s.v. Ninus : nen .i. tonn, Corm. 
Tr. 126. nin .i. tond, L.Lec. Voc. nion, O'Cl., O'Br. 

nith mortal wounding, D. 26. So Corm. and O'Cl. comtis nert- 
menmnaig fri each nith, LL. 219**. ni rubaim nith n-erred n-dn, 
LU. 77* 19. Also means * battle : ' arm fri nith, Laws i. 122. oc 
erlud in nltho 7 in eggnamo frisin idal. Trip. Life, p. 92, 1. 8. 

noe human being, D. 8. nae O'Cl. nai, L.Lec. Voc. noe, Corm. 
fo chaid oc noe .i. is fo chataid biim ocon duine ica mbiim in am- 
sa, Rawl. B. 502, fo. 61* 1. Hence nainan dwarf, O'Br. 

noinnell valour, Ff. 22. naoineal ^o?^?^m, chivalry, O'Br. Hence 
prob. noenellach, LU. 125^. 

nua noble, Ff. 58,=nua .i. laidir, O'Cl., who cites do throid se re 
nia nua he contended against a strong {noble ?) champion, sg. nom. 
in cuire noem nua, LB. 262* 37. gen. comde nimi nui, LL. 307* 
14. aes each dana nui fo nim, LL. 197* 9. do throit ra n£a[i]d 
nua, LL. 83* 27. From *gnua =Ir. gn6, Lat. gnavUrS, i-gnavus. 
The verb noud .i. erdarcaigira, LL. 187*, seems cogn. 

nuall conspicuous, famous, D. 33. So L.Lec. Voc. and O'Cl. 

6 ear, Ff. 40. So Corm. Tr. 131, H. 3. 18, p. 77^ and O'Cl. 
mo duais imm 6 .i. mo dom im chluais, LL. 208* 9. O.Ir. aw, sg. 


gen. aue, a neut. «-8tem identical with Ch. Slav, ucho, gen. uSese, and 
cogn. with Lat. auris from ^ausisj «w«-cultare, Gr. irapava, ovara. 
Compds. oi-derg red-eared, LL. 295^ 26, au-nasc earring, Corm. 

6-brat helmet j lit. ear-mantled Ff. 35. This is eo-hhrat .i. 
ceannbhar, 0*C1. .i. 6adach bis air chenn, O'Flah. eo-bhrat, 0*Br. 
Gf. .X. eo-barr .i. barr bis am cenn in rfgh, Amra Gonroi. 

oeth (MS. aoth) M. oath, Ff. 4. So Conn, (oeth) and O'Cl. 
{aoth). oeth la each n-eric, Laws ii. 60. pi. ace. fri oethu, 
LTJ. 46^. Old- Welsh ut in anutonou (gl. perjuria), Goth, aiths. 

oibid obedience y Ff. 31. D. 60, is rather obedient; .i. umal, 
O'Dav. 109. Boi huasal, boi obid . . . cerbo huasal ropo humal, 
Amra Ghol. 80. The gloss oidh .i. obuidens, H. 3. 18, p. 73^, is 
a corruption of oibidh .i. obediens. 

oidsen ? E. 24. O'E. has ' oidsen a surname,^ aed qu. 

oin (leg. oin ?) buying , Ff. 68. This word is glossed by iasacht 
'lending,' Corm. Tr. 132, O'Dav. 109 and O'Cl. is fiach forcraid 
fomalta for oin there is a fine for excessive wear of a loan, Laws i. 
168, 1. 10. 

oircne M. lapdog, Ff. 60. So Corm. s.v. Mog-eime, and 
O'Dav. 83, s.v. esrecht. im oircne rigna .i. indiaid orcan na rigna 
bis .i. in mesan, Harl. 432, fo. 10* 2=Laws i. 152 (where iti is 
erroneously omitted). A dimin. of oire .i. cu beag no measchu, 
O'Cl. orci, LU. 39^, 40^, is a sister-form. 

oir-derc manifest, conspicuous, D. 59. 0. Ir. airderc, erdirc, 
irdirc. Tri hirrdraici Herenn, Lem Chonculaind, Dun Cain, Srub 
Broin, BE. 2. 17, p. 183*. Root derk, whence also Gr. hipKofiai, 

oitiu (MS. aoide) F. youth, D. 29. aidig .i. oigedus, Stowe 
XIX. aide .i. oice, L.Lec. Voc. oetiu cen sendataid, LU. 33^ 39. 
gen. i sliab noited .i. i n-ard na oited .i. oclachas, LL. 187*. galar 
n-oeted, "Windisch, Ir. Texte, 145, 1. 11. sg. dat. oitid. oitith. 
Ml. 75^ 10, Sg. 63^ 6. From *juventut-, cogn. with W. ieuant 
* youth' and Lat. inventus. Hence the adj. ditidach, LL. 267^. 

oil great, Ff. 6. So Corm. s.v. ollam, O'Dav. 109, and 0'C1.= 
Gr. 9roX\o9. The cogn. verb is ollaigim, no ollaiged (gl. ampliauit) 
ML 6P 6. In the line Infer foil, Bk. Fen. 226, we have prothetic /. 

ond, onn N. stone, p. 4. Ff. 60, D. 14. So Corm., L.Lec. Voc. 
and O'Dav. 109. sg. gen. uinne. Compd. cloth-onn oc buaid^ 
Amra Choi. 77. A neut..«-stem, cogn. perhaps with Lat. pondus. 

1. ong hearth, D. 36. fire, hearth, O'Br. Seems cogn. with 
Skr. angdra * glowing coal,' Lith. anglis * kohle,' and perh. Eng. 


2. oDg grief, p. 2, Ff. 60. So Conn., H. 3. 18, p. 73^ and O'CL 
ni ong oen tige, LB. 240**, where wng is glossed by wih, Compd. : 
ong-[g]alar, Salt. E. 1453. 

orait (MSS. oraoid, oirbidh) a Hewing, Ff. 29. oiait .L oratio .i. 
aomaigthe, H. 3. 18, pp. 73^ 637*». oroit. Conn. Tr. 129. rom- 
bith oroit cet, a Maire, Sanct. b. 23. sg. ace. berait a n-orait 
uadib, LL. 258^. From Lat. oratio. The opposite anorait occors 
in Bk. Fen. 142, where it is rendered by ' evil prayer,' ' reproba- 

ort manslaughter^ Ff. 25. destruction, £. 27. death, p. 3, note 2. 
.i. orgain .i. bas, 0*Dav. 109. Seems abstracted from the ^-pret. of 
the verb orgim ; but may possibly come from *org-to. In H. 2. 
15, p. 182, ort is glossed by losgadh ' burning.' The ortaib cited by 
Windisch, Wort. 725, as an example of this word, is for 
ordaib, pi. dat. of ord 'sledgehammer,' ordd (gl. malleus), Sg. 
49*, 4, ordin ' mallet,' O'Br., cogn. perhaps with Ordo^icee. 

OSS M. deer, Ff. 51. So O'CL sg. gen. cethruime each ois rogab 
cuithech. Laws i. 272. basa chu-sa gabala uis, LIT. 114* 23. ace. 
gabait in n-oss ba nessom do, LU. 62* 40. pi. n. oiss alta, 
LU. 62* 32. uiss 7 altai, LL. 265* 5. gen. forrecat alma 
n-088, LTJ. 62* 31. i ndelbaib oss, LU. 64* 20. ocht fichit 
OSS n-allaid, LTJ. 57* 10. Li Old-Irish this noun also meant 
a wild boar, and was neuter : fo tuaith do[s3sephain a n-os 
.i. in mucc allaid, Brocc. h. 57. Batar da»o da n-oss, LL. 246* 
39. Compd. 088-feoil * yenison,' oss-gamain * fawn,' sg. gen. ir-richt 
os-gamna allaid, LL. 210*, o««-Z^<^ar ' deerskin,' LU. 79*. From 
*uk80'8 cogn. with W. ych, pi. y chain, from *uk8en, Asc. gl. cxxiv. 

ossar a burden, Ff . 60. a burden which is on a human being, O'Cl. 

othar wages, Ff. 27, note 7. So H. 3. 18, p. 51*, H. 4. 22, 
p. 60*, and O'Cl. pi. dat. do othraibh 7 do thuarustlaibb Uladh, 
Lism. 103* 1. 

pain bread, Ff. 61, E. 18. So Corm. and L.Lec. Voc. inid 
go caisg. ... do acht madh pain agas biolar, Cumine. From pdnie. 

1. -paht part, Ff. 61. So Corm. pi. dat. fot-dailfind i n-ilpartib 
ochianaib, LU. 69*. Often used for particle, as in pairte cro 
clots of gore, Chron. Scot. 166. From Lat. pars, partis, 

2. pairt^w, E. 18. So L.Lec. Voc. This seems a mistake, 
paitric bridle, halter, Ff. 19. 0^ Clery^ b peatraie. Seems formed 

from a prehistoric form of O.N. fjoturr * fetter.' For the change 
in Irish loanwords oi fto p cf. pisear-carla, plat, putralL 

patan hare, Ff. 51, is rather leveret, patu is *hare,' Corm., 


pattu, H. 3. 18, p. 6S7^,pataf 0*CL pi. gen. is do thimnaib rechta 
Moysi nemthomailt feola mucc 7 patan, one of the eommands of 
Moses* law is not to eat flesh of swine and hares y LB. 183^ 37. 
Hence O.Ir. patnide (gl. leporinus), Sg. 37^ 7. 

pauper ^oor, Ff. 59, note 8. So O'Cl. each pauper bid r£, Rawl. 
B. 502, fo. 61^2. pi. n. puipir do biathad, Laws iii. 18, 1. 19. 
Borrowed from Lat. pauper. Hence the dimin. pauperan, Fel. 
Ep. 408. 

pelait F. palace^ Ff. 61. piolait, O'Cl. nara chumaing Conchobar 
n£ doib acht in phelait ir-rabatar d*facbail leo, LL. 263* 7. ba 
hirgna in phelait rigda, LL. 256^ 45. No doubt from Lat. pald^ 
tium ; but the e and the gender are surprising. 

pell horse, Ff. 19. So O'Cl. gen. ruccthar i capp indiaid phill do 
[fjracc, LH. 34^ 2 (Goidel. 158)=:LU. 6^ 9. da n-o piU fair .i. da 
chluais capaill fair, H. 2. 16, col. 690. Cormac has another form 
fell. Both seem borrowed from some cogn. of Eng. foal, Goth. 
fula, which Kluge refers to a pre- Germanic peldn-, 

pet playing musiCy Ff, 18, peit, L. Abstracted from the verb 
arpeitim, inf. airfitiud, ar-us-pettet a n-aes ciuil, LIT. 57^ 20. 

pingur salty E. 18, =pinguir, L.Lec. Voc. Borrowed from some 
Romanic word cogn. with Fr. fanCy fange, Ital. fango. For the 
connexion of ideas cf . Corn, hdl * a saltmarsh.' 

pit a small mealy E. 15. So Corm. s.v. fogamur, and L.Lec. Yoc. 
Compd. leth-phit, terc-phit, Fel. Sep. 8 = terc-cuit, LB. 260**. 
From W. pSth=lT, cuitt, 

pont rudey Ff. 61. So H. 3. 18, pp. 73°, 637^ and O'Cl. 

prann sea-wavCy E. 18. prand, L.Lec. Yoc. prann, O^Br. Bor- 
rowed from some cognate of N.H.G. hrandung, 

puincne scruple ( = three pinginns), Ff. 61, E. 18. So Corm., 
H. 3. 18, pp. 73c, 637°, and O'Cl. A dimin. of pone. 

raiftinne fiercenesSy D. 24, = roptene, LL. 164* 49, .i. gairge, 
H. 3. 18, p. 73°. robtine .i. garg no ailgin, O'Dav. 110. Fiachu 
Boiphtine, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 102*' 1. This seems O'Br/s ''raiftine 
laughter, laughing." Did he mistake gairge for gdire ? 

ramat road, Ff. 18. Bather a high-roady ramut mo oldas rot, ace. 
to Cormac s.v. R6ty and 0*CL ar each ramut ar bith che ria sluag 
namat conar-ti, on every road in this world against a host of foes 
may Se come to us\ LL. 308^ 7, fer tri ramata, O'Curry, Lect. 

. rang baldness y E. 2. range, ace. to Corm., is where the temples 
are high. 


rann truth, J), 34. So O'R. ran .i. firinne, O'Cl. = PO+aii? 
See 1. an supra. 

rath a iurety, E. 22. rath (gl. sequester medius inter duos 
altercantes), Leyd. 69*. rath .i. urra, O'Cl. rdth security^ 
guarantee, O'Don. Supp. Am rath-sa dia raith-sium, FeL Ep. 165. 

re (ret?) manner (modh) ? D. 15, where L. has read in mai^. 

re (MS. re) a multitude^ Ff. 58, note 6. ind re. Conn. Prull. 
v. rhai, 

recht=Lat. rectus, p. 3. In the literature, reeht is g^ierally a 
substantive, sg. gen. rechto, Wb. 21* 13 or reeta, Wb. 21* 1. for rent 
recta .i. for sligi dirig, LL. 316<: 12, ace. conroiter recht robust^ 
LU. 10* 35. But in BB. 355* 13 it occurs as an adj. Eismeaeh 
in ri recht. 

r6daire a cleric, Ff. 62. retaire .L legthoir reader, H. 3. 18, 
p. 640*. reataire, 0*Br. For this word, obTiously borrowed from 
A.8. r^fdere, L. has recoire, and O'B.. recaire ' reciter,' which occurs in 
Lism. 152* 1 : Do f iarfaigh in doirseoir in raibi dan acn do righ 
Laighen. ' Ata,' ar in clamh, 7 is misi is recaire do the doorkeeper 
aehfd had they a poem for the King of Leineter ? * We haiee^ eay% 
the leper, ' and lam ite reciter.* This is from A.S. reeeere. 

reisi, reiside, Ff. 12, see riss, risside. 

ren a epan (<m^a«]y), Ff. 42. ream, ren, O'B. leon, lian, O'Br. 
from *regno- connected with riyim ' I stretch, out.' as oprpud, 
ipayvtOy ope^ma with ope^m*y ope^yp*. The mod. rtioe F. is from 
*rtx*id: cf. o-^^t^. Cognate with both words are Lat. reyo and 
Goth. m/-raifan. 

reo(£s p. 3. Borrowed from Lat. m». 

1. riad nmming^ Ff. 8, is rather y'^ny. So Conn. 8.T. arad, and 
OTL Hence the verb rtad*iim. Cogn. with A.S. ridam^ £ng. to 
ridey X.H.6. rtiteny OJS. n^. KLoge connects Gaulish rSds 
^ chariot * and Gr. «^/mc\>s- aufsenyery eerrant^ 

2. rtad itutAority^ Atir, diecipiimey FC 8. So CCL imminy^ 
eMhttHy^ O'Br. Hence the adj. r'usia applied to a trained horse. 

riATftdy?) htfTftdtt^ry riyhty D. 31. A doubtful word. H. has 

ribar «i<nv> Ff. 4T. E. 2. So Corm., LXec. Toe. and (VCL 

riobliAr ittt^aU A<Mwytv*»i» O'Br. StN?nLJ borrowed frova. Lat. 
cri^rum ^£rom "^-Sm^.vv-M^ Ir. ifrvii/UMr) ; but the ab^nee of initial 
e make» thb doubtful. 

rivluachC «• ywiny^ Ff. 21. Abt^ractevl frooi dih-r-Minaeiiy FeL 
2Ctjv. 13, th« t-prvt. sj^. 3 of HdmMrim " 1 deliTer^ ot&sr^ gxve.' 


rfss, storey tale, E. 2, corruptly reisi, Ff. 12. rfss, Corm. ris .i. 
faisneis, L.Lec. Voc. ris re aisneid Colum cen bith cen chill, Amra 
Choi. 8 : pi. n. ail rfg nasi redi, LH. 26» (Goidel. 159), LL. 
187* 37. ace. fochlus int sentonn rise nde, Uath Benne Mair 7. 

rfsside story-teller , Ff. 12, where it is, corruptly, reisidhe, risighe, 

robuist protection (?), D. 59. So O'CL, but it seems rather an 
adj. borrowed from Lat. rohmtua, conroiter recht robust he kept 
the firm law, Amra Choi. 43, LIT. 10» 35. 

robustus p. 3. Prom the Latin. 

rocdn tunie, Ff. 35. tunic or cowl, 0*C1. Formed on A.S. roce 
(=1^.H.G. rock)y or Med. Lat. roceus, whence Ital. rocchetto, Eng. 

rosal a judgment, Ff. 12. So O'Cl. Perhaps from *rodh'tlo-. 
Cogn. with Teut. rSdan, N.H.G. raten. A roaacel .i. brath (leg. 
brdth ?) occurs in H. 3. 18, p. 636. 

rose understanding, Ff. 10. So O'Cl. and O'Br. (rosg). Perhaps 
only a metaphorical use of rose ' eye.' pi. n. roisc, LL. 210^ 14. 

ruanaid red, D. 21. So Corm. s.v. ruam, and 0*C1. Riianaid 
atberthe cosse frisseom ar m^t a naire, LU. 115^ 27. 

ruba a mortal wound (guin), D. 19. So O'Cl. In Laws 
i. 106, 160, ruha in the phrases fuba 7 ruba, na tri ruba, is rendered 
by 'services of defence.' Hence the verb conid-rubaim trenocu tria 
nert gaile, LU. 124* 14. From the account of the fight between 
Cuchulainn and Ferdiad rubad seems to mean * thrusting with 
ffpears,' as distinguished from slaide * slashing with swords.' 
O'Curry, M. and C. iii. 444. 

rucht swift, quick, E. 19. ruchd sudden, vehement, O'Br. 

mice (MS. ruicedh) hlu^h ? Ff . 62. So L. Lee. Voc. amdip 
rucce doib, Wb. 30* 3. mice rebuke, reproach, O'Br. 

micet (MSS. ruicheat, ruichet) raising up, Ff. 7. ruiceat, 
O'Br. miceadh, O'Cl. The cogn. verb is exemplified in O'Don. 
Supp. ni ruicer aire a thing {which) is bestowed upon her, 

mmra sight, Ff. 47. romhra, O'Cl., O'Br. "What is romra, 
in LU. 40* ? m' oenuran im romra ro. 

mss cheek, Ff. 62. So O'Cl. russ .i. agaidh/ae?^, Corm. Tr. 146. 
rus .i. aigid, O'Dav. 110, and see Wind. Wort. s.v. 2. russ. gen. 
romna rossa .1. romna aigthe ic aerad, LL. 187* 17. 

1. sab strong, p. 2. each soabb, p. 3. Seems taken from LU. 
9* 34 : ba so-abb i suthemlacht each berlai eo elethi. sab * princeps, 
fortis,' G.C.* 255. pi. n. sabaidh, O'Dav. 114. 

2. sab successor, p. 3. 


1. BSieglonn jicdge, p. 4. H. 3. 18, p. 78^. O'Dav. 115. 

2. saeglonn old man, p. 4. So O'Dav. 115. Derived from uiegviy 
and this borrowed from Lat. saeculum. 

3. saeglonn king, p. 4. 

4. saeglonn jE?i7?ar, p. 4. So O'Dav. 115. 
sai mtldnesSf gentleness, Ff. 62. saidh, O'R. 

sail accompanying, D. 49. So O'Cl. a sail suad .i. a comaiteclit 
suad, LL. 186* 33. Hardly cogn. with O.H.G. sal (now Saal), a 
house or hall, ** serving especially as a place for socicd union" 
(Kluge), whence Ge-selle. 

saillim (gl. condio) p. 4,=saillim (gl. sallio) Sg. 187*. condio 
.i. sallim .i. inti nosailled o f orcetul brentaid ar cinad, LTJ. 8^ 4. From 
*8aldid, cogn. with W. halltu, 

saithe M. a multitude, Ff. 55. So L.Lec. Voc, H. 3. 18, p. 663% 
O'Dav. 116, and O'Cl. co Crist cechaing saithe, Fel. Jan. 25. 
cet-saithi a ndire na saileach, O'Don. Supp. s.v. saithe. 
deich mbeich[s]luaig (.i. saithe bech 7 lestra), H. 3. 18, p. 49. 
pi. nom. in tsaithi (gl. examina) Ml. 90* 7. dat. rodamnad co 
sathib slog. Salt. R. 6731. W. haid. 

salar (MS. ealar, et sic O'Br.) salt, Ff. 44. salor, O'Cl. Cogn. 
with salann, W. halen. Com. haloin, 

salt leap, E. 2. So Conn, and L.Lec. Yoc. isin bliadin sin hi 
cuiretar salt, Cr. 32* 11. gen. slan dliged salto, Cr. 3°. Borrowed 
from Lat. saltus, 

sam summer? E. 3. The line in which this word occurs is 
corrupt. Perhaps the first three words should be samh each 
samradh. So O'Cl. sam sogar .i. dagthorthech in samrad, LL. 
188* 33. sam taurfrossach, LL. 293^ 37, 346*. is grian etrocht 
imbi sam, LL. 284* 40. Compd. uide se sam-la a jowrney of six 
summer-days, Lism. 48^ 2. Yedic samd * year,' Zend hama * summer/ 
"W. hdf. 

sathfood, E. 5. So Conn, and O'Cl. bai seim sath, Amra ChoL 
Different from sdith * sufficiency, fill,' sg. gen. do cathim a satha 
dia[f]e6il, LIT. 46* 19. ace. ni thormalt saith no seire, LL. 37 1<* 19. 

1. seal warrior, hero, Ff. 32. So O'Cl. Seal Balb, LL. 9*. in 
seal sciathach, LL. 45* 25. gen. Mungairit meic Sc^ Eailb, LL. 
206^. Gleann an scail, Leac an scail, Lochan scail, O'Don. Supp. 
s.v. seal. Probably the same as 2. seal. 

2. seal a man, Ff. 24. So O'Cl. voc. a scail, LH. 34* 2 (Goidel. 
158). airddithir a sciath ri seal his shield as high as a many 
LL. 44*. Hence sgalog (0. Ir. scdUc ?) * homunculus,' O'Moll. 94. 


sceng hedf E. 4. So Conn, and O'Cl. sgeng .i. iomda, Duil 
Laithne 196. ard in sceng, LIT. 40* 1. im scing bic .i. biim il- 
lepaid immalle fri rig, LL. 187*. Perhaps borrowed from A.S. 
»<BCcing : on stBccingum * in grabatis.' 

1. sceo understanding, Ff. 12. So O'Cl. (sgeo). Cogn. with Lat. 

SCiOf 8CitC8, 

2. sc^o and, D. 56. So O'Cl. sceo 7 neo, 7 ceo tri comaccomail 
Goideilggi, three con/unctions in Gaelic, Amra Choi. 10. fodh 
macaib sceo ingenaib, O'Dav. 86, s.v. foth. immad fina sceo meda, 
LL. 343*. a muirib domnib sceo moraib, LL. 293^ 24. 

scill sudden, D. 38. So 0*Dav. 116, and O'Cl. (sgill). scilla .i. 
obann, L.Lec. Voc. 

scip (MSS. scibh, scib) hand, Ff. 42 : a sister-form of cib, O'Cl. 

I[8] si'n 

teit in mal ina thech rig, 
i ndegiult cen cassair trit, 
CO nduibciund ^ ina dag-scip.* 

Thus goes the lord into his palace, in a garment without a brooch 
through it, with a sword in his right hand, LB. 240*. 

scuirt shirt, Ff. 35. So 0*C1. (sguird). roghabh scuird-leinidh 
sroiU, Battle of Ventry, 474. Borrowed from O.N. shyrta, F. 

sec hone, Ff. 27, better siic, as in O'Cl. or seic, O'Br. 

s^g M. deer, E. 4. seg .i. oss allaid. Conn, (who quotes the ace. 
pi. segu), .i. agh allaid, O'Dav. 116. segb bos, O'Moll. 36. sed 
.i. OSS, L.Lec. Yoc. 

segach goat, Ff. 17. Derived from «^y ? Or is it a mistake for 
sighach wolf, O'Dav. 117 ? 

segad (?) excellency^ D. 18. A doubtful word. 

segamlae milkiness, E. 3. So Corm. Derived from seghamail 
'milky,' O'Dav. 116, and this from segh .i. lacht, H. 4. 22, p. 67°. 

seim little (rather slender, fine, subtile), p. 3, D. 48. So O'Cl. 
seim (gl. exile), Ml. 139* (gl. macer) Sg. 37*. pi. n. seime, LB. 195* 
38. dat. semib, LU. 35^ 34. Compar. semiu (gl. exilior) Sg. 14**, 
(gl. tenuiof), Ml. 19*. Hence the fem. abstr. seme : sg. dat. semi, 
LIT. 35* 42. ar mu semi-se (gl. pro ipsa mei adtenuatione) Ml. 
22* 1. Compd. seim-tana (gl. exilem) Sg. 14* 8. 

seire a meal, D. 39. .i. proinn no din^r, O'Cl. seire .i. feoil, 
H. 2. 15, p. 182. nochar' chaith saith no seire. Mart. Don. 

^ .i. cloidem. 
2 'i^ deslam. 


p. 188. nib airbirech fri seire, LL. 360, marg. inf. =iiir' bat 
ffirerach fri sere, LB. 101, r. margin, is ann roraid fri lesau in 
sliab do seilg co tucad sere do, 7 co tartad som a bendachta dosom 
fora mullacli ar in sere sin then he told Esau to hunt on the mountain 
and bring htm/oodj and that for that food he would give his blessing to 
him on his head, LB. 113** 38, caith in s^re, ol se, ib. 51. adbar 
sere detsiu, ib. 54. uati sere, LB. 260°. 

seis learning, p. 3. So O'Cl. rofes ruaim, rofes seis, his burial- 
place was known, his learning was known, Amra Choi. 44. LIT. 
10* 39 = LH. 27* 1 (Goidel. p. 163). adgenammar a seis (gl. non 
ignoramus cogitationes eius) Wb. 14^ 28. bid glan a seis, LL. 
297* 8. sg. gen. fogroU sese, LL. 187* 4. feal ai 7 seis, unde dicitur 
fealmac .i. mac seasa, O'Dav. 86, s.v. fealmac. ace. cen dula dar 
seis no smacbt. Salt. R. 2393. pi. ace. a druim re seisi, BB. 
293^ 13. From ^sent-ti-. Cognate with, but not borrowed from, 
Lat. sensus from "^sent-tu-. Another seis musical strain, is from 
*send-ti-, cogn. with the verb sendim. 

seist mid-day, E. 4. From Lat. sexta (hora). So Corm., L.Lec. 
Voc. and O'Cl. Spelt sest in the Palatine MS. 68, fo. 30*. 

sen a net for catching deer, E. 5, for catching birds, Corm. and 
0*Dav. 117, for catching deer or birds, O'Cl. sen fuirmither 
dichmairc a bird-net which is set without leave, O'Dav. 89, s.v. 
f uirmedh. The cognate W. hwyn-yn or hoen-yn means a hair of 
the tail of a horse, ox, etc., a springe or gin, 

seoit property, especially cattle, Ff. 13. seoid, O'R. Cf. seoit 
taurclotha, Corm. s.v. aicillne : one of the noms. pi. of set ? ace. co 
rucsat a bu 7 a seotu, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 109* 1. 

serbh theft, Ff. 74. So O'Dav. 117, but searb (with hard b), 
O'Cl. foserba petty thefts, larcenies, O'Dav. 117. O'Cl. has also a 
siorbhai * theft.' From *stervd cogn. with Gr. arepew, 

sercoU flesh, Ff. 30. So O'Cl. sg. ace. ni sercol [.i.] sechnais 
sercol, Amra Choi. 73. pi. n. sercla (gl. irritamenta gulae) Sg. 
63*, 11. batir i a sercla: grut bruithe etc. LL. 117^ 23. cosin 
sercoU sochenel mid, LB. 219*. So Diarmait says to Grainne (Rawl. 
B. 502, fo. 58* 2 : cf. O'Br. s.v. searcall). 

Is maith do chuit, a Grainne, Good is thy share, Grainne ! 

is ferr duit inda rige : It is better for thee than a kingdom : 

serccoU na cailech f eda the flesh of the woodcocks, 

la banna meda mine. with a drop of smooth mead. 

Originally a delicacy, relish ?. Derived from sere * love ' ? 


serpan (serban ?) swan, Tf. 63. So O'Cl. searpdn, O'Br. 

serr everything young and hatighty, E. 5. serr each n-uallach 7 
each n-ogla, Corm. s.v. serrach *foal.' searr colt, O'Br. cf. serr- 
graig a herd of foals, LL. 103^ 16. 

1. serrda edge, Ff. 49. So O'Cl. But it is a participial adj. 
meaning provided with sickles, carpat 8er[r]da "cumis falcatus." 
See Wind. "Wort. s.v. serda. 

2. serrda cut, lopt, Ff. 49, the same word, with a slight 
difference of meaning. 

sescenn fen, Ff. 70. salach nis .i. seiscenn, O'Dav. 115. co 
sescen in da cor, a sescunn in da cor, Bk. Arm. 17* 1. pi. dat. 
sescnib, LIT. 28*, 19. 

set path, Ff. 68. "semita unius animalis,*' Corm. s.v. rot. 
sg. gen. seta. pi. n. s6ti and seuit. "W. hgnt 'journey, way.' Goth. 
sinth * journey.' 

sethnach side. See infra s.v. tethra. 

sillid a woman who performs tuaicle, enchantment ? E. 21. This 
word is identical with sillid * looker,' and probably means one who 
has the evil eye. Cf . Corm. s.v. milliud. 

sin (MS. sin) necklace, chain, Ff. 63. So H. 3. 18, p. 73^. 
Cogn. with Gr. yuia. Sin round, E. 4, seems the same word : cf. 
Corm. s.v. sin. 

sion = Zion, ^twv, city of heaven, D. 36. In faith D6 dede Sion 
suidioth, Amra Choi. 11. fordonsnaidfe Sione .i. non-snaidfe co 
sliab Sion .i. co cathair nemda, ibid. 140. 

sirsi, adj. light, Ff. 74, scribal error for irsi? 

slab narrow, E. 4. Cogn. with slahar 'narrow,' Corm. s.v. 
slabrad. Perhaps the line in E. should be emended thus: 'slabar' 
cumang, is * coit ' coill. Hence esslahar * wide,' whence esslahra q.v. 

slabrad, slaibred (leg. slabra, slaibre?) D. 49, a kind of dowry 
composed of kine and bridles (ainm do bo-cethraib is d'echsrianaib, 
H. 3. 18, p. 608*). slabra used of horses, LL. 85» 27, 33. slaibhre 
.i. coibhche, 0*C1. 

slicht seme (ciall), D. 44, the O.Ir. sliucht * cognitio,' Sg. 200*. 
Hence intsliucht, Sg. 201*, intliucht, and the adj. intliuchtach. 

sloigre sword, D. 50. slaighre, O'Br. For the suffix cf . bligh-re 
*a milker,' O'Don. Supp. sloighreadh, O.R. The root may be 
slak, whence the O.-Ir. perf. ro-selach (for ro-seslach), and Goth. 
slahan, Slacc .i. claideabh, Duil Laithne 25, seems cognate. 

smer j^r^, E. 3. So Corm. s.v. smeroit, H. 3. 18, p. 637*, and 
O'Mulc. : Aod 7 tnu 7 smer 7 bott (.i. beoait) 7 tene, quinque 


nomina ingnis, H. 2. 16, col. 90. In the gloss 8m6r .i. tene, 
H. 3. 18, p. 73c, the mark of length seems wrong. Cogn. with 
Gr. fiaipa, the doff -star, jLLapfiaipiv, fiapiev^j a stone that takes fire 
when water is poured upon it; Lat. m^rus. The i is prob^ 

sn&ided protection, D. 55. A sister-form of snadhadh .i. comairce, 
O'Cl. 0. Ir. snadud, verbal noun of snaidim. W. nawdd, nodded. 

snath hair? E. 3. So Corm. But perhaps we should read 
snuath = snuadh .i. folt, O'Cl. ced imda (.i. fada) a snuadh (.i. 
folt), H. 3. 18, part 1, p. 210 = gidh fada a snuadh, O'Br. 

sn^id little, p. 3 = sn6idh .i. each n£ beag, O'Cl. b^f sa^gul 
sneid, Amra Choi. 24, ag seng sneid, Eawl. B. 502, fo. 60* 1. 
saiget Saxan sneid, Bawl. B. 502, fo. 47* 2. 

so ffood, p. 3. This is probably the laudatory prefix «w-, so-, "W. 
hy- = Skr. su-, Zend hu-, and perhaps Lat. SU' in su-hucula * a 
sacrificial cake made of spelt, oil and honey,' a different word from 
suh'Ucula *an under- garment.' See so-nirt, sopur, suithnge, 

sol sun, E. 2. Borrowed from Lat. s6l. W. haul, however, 
shows that the word existed in Celtic. The genuine Msh cognates 
seem sul .i. grian sun, gen. sulut (leg. sulot), BE. 3. 18, p. 74*, and 
sitil ' eye.' 

solam sUseng? E. 10. The gloss is obscure to me : solam usually 
means quiek, .i. so-ellam, L.Lec. Voc. 

son M. word, D. 26, and L.Lec. Voc, = son voice, noise, O'Cl. 
son a gotha, Amra Choi. 41. sg. gen. suin and other cases in G.C.^ 
981. Cognate with, or borrowed from, Lat. sonus. 

sonirt (gl. robustus) p. 4=so + nerti-s. W. hy-nerth. Cogn. 
with Sab. nero, nerio, Gr. a-vrip, 

sopor a well, D. 50. Siltair sopur na segsa for topur na trenoensa, 
LL. 156* 18. Sopor somma .i. am topur co n-immud eolais, I am 
a well with abundance of science, LL. 187* 5. Erom so-od-hur, as 
topur 'well ' from to-od-hur, and fohur * well' supra, fromfo-hur. 

Borh fault, E. 4. So Conn., L.Lec. Voc, H. 3. 18, p. 74*. .i. 
lochd no salach filthy, O'Cl. foul, dirty, O'Br. Possibly cogn. 
with Gr. (Tvp(f)09, ffi;/)06Tos, and Goth, svairhan * to wipe.' 

stiall-, girdle, apron, (fuathrog), Ef. 35. 

suan odar error, p. 2. This lemma is obscure to me, as is also 
the adj. suan cech slemon, LL. 344* 50. 

suba blood. See infra s.v. tethra, 

1. min a cover? D. 38, cf. suin .i. cumdach, O'Dav. 115. In 


the Tecosca Cormaic siiin is an adj. M chuitbe nach sen ciarbat 
ooc . . . na nocht ciarbot suin, mock not an old man thotcgh thou art 
young, nor a naked man though thou art clad, LL. 344*^ 29, 31. 

2. suin heauty ? D. 38. 

suithnge eloquent, well-tongmd, Ff. 63. So O'Dav. 117 and 
O'CL Sulpicc sothnge suabais, Fel. Jan. 13 (Eawl. 505), sui slan 
eothnge sutbain, Fel. Sep. 30. From the prefix so- and tenge. 
The opposite would be dothnge; but for this we find dothenga: 
cosaitecb cecb dotheng[a], LL. 344° 11. dligid cacA dotheinga 
dige, LL. 294» 7. dligid cech dotbenga miscais every evil-tongued 
deserves hatred, LL. 346** 33. 

suit colour, D. 16. So O'Cl. This is perhaps the meaning in 
conda tanic a suit ocus afeth, LIT. 129* 5. 

suth milk, p. 1. So Corm. s.v. uth, L.Lec. Yoc. and H. 3. 18, 

p. 663. suth nime ticed don draic sin a flow of poison that came 

from that dragon, LB. 180*. Cognate with Gr. vei it rains, as 

suth .i. clann, H. 2. 15, p. 182, pi. ace. suthu. Ml. 39° 22, is 

cogn. with Gr. v/Js. 

tabartha wages, Ff. 27, literally (something) given, the pret. 
part. pass, of -tahraim the enclitic form of do-hiur, 

taf (to{?) deaf Ff. 34. So O'Cl. and O'Br. (taoi). 

taide theft, D. 33. taide .i. gataide, Stowe XIX : no hailed in 
mac and sin i taide, Macgnimartha Find, § 4, where it means stealth, 
secrecy. So in Fel. Prol. 71, cen taide .i. cen folach. And so in 
O'Don. Supp. mac doirche .i. mac dognither i taidiu sech fine a 
son of darkness, i,e. a son begotten in secret outside the tribe, oc laige 
la mnai Find hi taide, Gorm. Gl. s.v. ore treith,=il-liugu la mnai 
Find hi taidiu lying with Find's wife in secret. Laud 610, fo. 82*. 
a topur na tonn taide, LL. 157**, 38. Derived from tdid (gl. fur) 
Sg. 47^ 9. Cogn. with Gr. rrjTao/iai, 

taircim (gl. fero) p. 5. is rather 'affero,* 'impertio,' Asc. 
gl. xcvii. : do-aircim is the orthotonic form, duairci (gl. efficit). 
Ml. 61^ Verbal noun tdirciud, Wb. 13° 9, Ml. Ill* 5. 

taithmech a breaking, D. 54. .i. sgaoileadh, O'Cl. analysis, Corm. 
Tr. 156, s.v. triath. sg. ace. doniat a cotuch cen taithmech tria 
bithu, LL. 303* 2. The right spelling is taithbech or taithbiuch, 
tathbiuch carat, Eawl. B. 512, fo. 40* 1. do taithbiuch to 
abrogate, Laws i. 18, 52. taithbech rudartha, LB. 101, marg. 
inf. oc taithbiuch a f uilt dia folcud loosening her hair to wash it, 
H. 2. 16, col. 716. ^-pret. of the cogn. verb : fobith to-n-aidbecht 
forro a aid. became he destroyed their fairy-mound, LU. 99*. pass. 

FhU. Trans. 1891-2-3. 7 


pres. sg. 3, taidbegar, Trip. Life, 160, 1. 19. ^hhegt Skr. ^hhaj^ 
tap sudden^ E. 23. So 0'Cl.=top, Corm. to-ud-h ? 

1. tebed cutting, D. 26. teibeadh .i. buain no tarraing, O'Cl. 
tepedh, ME. 286 ; but tebe, teibe .i. buain, L. Lee. Voo., Stowe 
XIX. dobretha Fergus tape forsin ngabul, LL. 61* 18. adbul- 
teipi, Laws i. 202. The cognate verb occurs: ri ro-thepi . . . 
asin chet-adbar . . . talam, Salt. K. 22. rotheip a m6id is a 
muin indlais a lama 'na fuil, LL. 154^ 30. From to-aith-he. 

2. tebed (tescad, tascar) a beginning, Ff. 54. A doubtful word, 
tec bone, Ff. 27. Another doubtful word, as one MS. here has teach 

and another see. But O'Br. has tec, a bone, and O'R. teeeach bony. 

techta IT. law J D. 35 and L. Lee. Voc. = techte, Sg. 117* 6. 

teidm death, Ff. 64, is rsitheT pestilence, Corm. Tr. 139. pi. nom. 
ticfait iarsein tedmand ili ancride, LL. 188° 53. Hence the adj. 
tedmnach. Salt. E. 946. A cogn. verb is no-tedmais (gl. 
tabescebamus), Ml. 131® 4. 

teim dark, E. 11. So Corm. and Stowe XIX. tem, L.Lec. Voc. 
Skr. tamas, timira. 

tell sound (fuaim), E. 5. Seems inferred from Corm. s.y. tailm 
sling, which he explains etymologisingly as tell-fuaim. O'Reilly's 
teall 'a noise, sound,' rests on the supposition that fuaim 'noise' 
is here a gloss on tell, 

teme death, p. 3, note 2. melg-theme, Corm. Tr. 108. Skr. ^tatn. 

temel death, p. 3, is rather darkness, shadow, concealment^ .i. scath 
no folach. Cogn. with Lat. temere, tenebrae, Skr. tamisra-m, 

tenlachfire, Ff. 64, is rather hearth. Cormac explains it (more 
suo) SiB^tene *fire' and lige *bed.' The n is usually assimilated, 
and we have tellach, gen. tellaig, dat. tellvg, pi. n. tellaige with 
passage from the o- to the ^-declension. 

tethra aroyston crow (badb), Ff. 14. This seems a mistake for 
Tethra (a Fomorian king, see Corm. s.v.), the husband of the lamia 
Badb. eter triunu Tethrach .i. eter na treono Tethrach ; .i. ainm 
rig Fomore, LL. 187**. Thus in Mac Lonain's stave (LTJ. 50, upper 
margin) : 

Mian mna tethrach (.i. badb) a tenid (.i. gae 7 arm), 
slaide sethnach (.i. taeb) iar sodain, 
suba (.i. fuil), luba (.i. corp) fo lubaib (.i. fo feraib), 
ugail (.i. suli), troga (.i. cend), d£r drogain (.i. fuach). 
The desire of Tethra^ s wife {i.e. Badb) are her fi/re% {i.e. ^ear and 


Slashing of sides thereafter^ 

Bloody a body under bodies {i,e, men)^ 

£yes^ head, a just word. 

tf F. mantle, E. 5. So Corm. Tr. 156 and O'Dav. 121. pi. n. 
tii dubglasso col-luibnib corcraip impu, Eg. 1782, fo. 72. The gender 
appears from the compound : iorti choir imbi, LIT. 87^ 8. co forti 
lethanchlaiss orbhuide tar a formna sechtair, Uath Benne Etair 68. 

timmgaire a seeking, D. 19. So O'Cl. tanic timgairi do tichtain 
dia crich fesin, unto him came a request to go to his own district, 
LTJ. 125^ 6. ba menic didiu a timgaire 7 al-lin, LL. 270^ 3. ba 
m6nic a timgaire, Rawl. B. 512, fo. 122^ 1. See also O'Don. Supp. 
s.v. tiumgaire. A cognate ^-pret, timgart, O'Dav. 122. 

^tinfed slender, l^i. 64. Kather perhaps slenderness, thinness, 
(-/(?(?=Br. -gued, see G.C.* 890), tinfed .i. tiniugud, Stowe XIX. 
tinfed .i. tinad, L.Lec. Yoc. Cogn. with Lat. tenuis, "W. tenau. The 
tinfeth * aspiratio, spiritus ' is quite another word, from ^to-in-ve-to-, 

tinne hacon, D. 61. a hog killed and salted, O'Don. £k. 
Rights, p. 121, note j. tindi .i. batun (leg. bacun), L.Lec. Yoc. 
dam bruthe dano 7 tinne forsind lar, LTJ. 23* 38. sg. gen. amra 
tinne (.i. saille) senastar, a marvel of hacon she sained, Broc. h. 45. 
pi. gen. tricha tinne, tricha bo, LTJ. 115^ 29. gurub fiu tri tinne 
logh bo eile, O'Don. Supp. s.v. logh. 

tlr domaisi mountain, p. 3. Here domaisi seems the opposite of 
Bomassi, LTJ. 79* 10, 

tlacht the earth, Ff. 27. So O'Cl. Either from *tal-acto-, cogn. 
with tdlam, or a metaph. use of tlacht 'raiment,' O'Dav. 119, 

from *tlagto, root tlgh, whence {T)\axvo9, {i)\axvrf and Eng. flock, 
0,TL.Q[,floccho from ^\lukken, Bezz. Beitr. xvii. 165. 

tlas a fair, Ff. 18. So O'Cl. 

tnu/r^, Ff. 5. So H. 3. 18, p. 615% O'Mulc. and O'CL et 
V. supra s.v. smer. tnu tene, LL. 393* 50. ba tarb tnu fri gleo, fri 
oath, Salt. R. 3895. Cogn. with Zend tafnu *heat.' 

tochell a going, journey, Ff. 6. So O'Cl. toichell richid, LTJ. 
34* 6. A cognate verb occurs : is i toichled Erinn i n-oenl6, LL. 
115^ 11. mairg toichless i ndagforcetul 7 doeall hi sseibe, LB. 12*. 

toichim a going, Ff. 6, note 13. tochim a charpait, LTJ. 105* 32. 
From *to-c^im. 

tola abundance, flood, D. 9. tola .i. iomarcaidh excess, O'Cl. tola 
nsci, LB. 25*. col-linad tola 7 lia husque less a muime, so that a 
flood and spate of water was filling his foster-mother^ s garth. Trip. 


Life, p. 10, 1. 11. tola usci, ibid. 434. tanic tola diairme do 
biastaib, LB. 141^ 32. sg. dat. di tholu sechtrann et namat et 
geinte, Reichenau Baeda, no. 167. aco. la tola n-echtrand 7 
d8escarslua[i]g, LL. 188° 49, Rawl. B. 502, fo. 62^ 2. Prob. 
cogn. with tmrdolj fordil, derdilj and intdla^ Asc. gl. cxv. 

tore heart, E. 23. So Corm., O'Dav. 121, and O'Cl. So, too, 
H. 3. 18, p. 76% 8.V. Ion. sg. gen. tuirc. pi. nom. (used for ace.) 
dobendais tuirc 7 tromchaepa a taebhaibh 7 a torc-asnach, a cheili, 
Battle of Ventry, 883. 

tort a eake, Ff. 60, D. 13. So Corm. and O'Cl. Hence the 
diminutives tortine^ Corm, — da toirtine do thara, O'Don. Supp. s.v. 
tarrai, — and tuirtin^ Laws ii. 242, 418. "W. torth. All from Lat. 
torta (diuisit universis tortam panis, Paralip. 16, 3). 

toth feminine gender, E. 6. So Corm., Stowe XIX, and O'Cl. 
Compds. toith-ghiobhair, toith-leannan, toith-sear[r]ach, O'Br. 
"Windisch connects toth (from to-sutd ?) with tdud ' gignere,' from 
*tO'fO'8utUf ^8u, whence also Ir. suth fetus, Skr. suta ^ son,' 
Gr. v/o's, Goth, su-nus, 

trenad lamentation, Ff. 53^ So 0*C1., who has a cognate treana 
Tailltenn explained as a clapping of palms or lamentation which used 
to he at Teltown. 

trethan foot, Ff. 42. So O'Cl. tricha treten (.i. traiged) dam 
comnaib, LL. 208* 13. tren for trethan i nEgept, Salt. R. 
3644. ar muir, ar tir mor a trethan, Bk. Fen. 228. atchuala 
tairm 7 trethan in aen-oclaigh chuigi, Lism. 148* 1. 

1. trfath king, lord, Ff. 2. So Corm. triath tin Tethrach .i. 
Muiredach, Bawl. B. 512, fo. 110^ 2. sg. gen. treith, LL. 187^. 
(in oenuch tuirc threith). dual nom. da thriath, LL. 232^. pi. ace. 
triathu, LB. 205^ 16. Compd. triathgein .i. gein rigda he, LB. 101, 
marg. inf. Perhaps cogn. with the first element of Lat. trlt-avus, 

2. triath wave, Ff. 2 : the gen. sg. is said to be trethan. Cognate 
is trethan ' sea,' gen. trethain, Cf. Tpirwv and ^A/i(f>i'TpiTrj, 

3. triath hoar, Ff. 2 : the gen. sg. is said to be treithe. But the 
nom. pi. is treith: deich treith tire .i. sentuirc .i. tuirc bite for 
faithche, Amra Conroi. 

4. triath hill, Ff. 2. 

trogan raven (brainfiach), Ff. 14. trodhain or troghan, O'Br. 

troichit hody, Ff. 64, troced, E. 14. So Corm. s.v. fothrucud. This 
should perhaps be trocit, troicit, as in H. 3. 18, pp. 74, 638. 
troicit corp, Dull Laithne 2. Corn, trogel. Perhaps Lat. truncus. 

-•'■.. V. «. V. 


troig sunrise^ D. 50. trogh, 0*R. A doubtful word. In 
^rm. GL s.v. trogein 'sunrise,' trog is said to mean * bring 
^orth:' cf. trogais .i. tusmis, LIT. 128*42 ; and in Corm. Tr. p. 162, 
tndgli, trog is glossed by clann 'children.' In LL. 186^ 37, 
trogan is said to be a name for the red rising of the sun in 
the morning, 
troiged children^ D. 12. cf. trog .i. eland, Corm. Tr. 162, s.v. 

tmigli and H. 3. 18, p. 650% and the verb trogais (.i. tusmis) 

di lurchuire (.i. da serrach) {the mare) brought forth two colts f LU. 

i28* 42. 
troniath helmet, Ff. 37. A doubtful word ; spelt trdithiath, L. 

troiath, O'Br. 

tropa (see itropa supra) may bo a mistake for the trog a .i. cend 

^^ LXJ. 50*, cited supra s.v. tothra. 

truU head, Ff. 38. So O'Cl. Cogn. perhaps with Lat. truUeum 

tuaichil cunning, astute, Ff. 11. tuachil, Sg. 60* 7. fir-thuaehaill, 

Salt. R. 1670 : compar. tuachliu (gl. sapientior), Goid.- 68. 

^mpd. fir-thuachaill. Salt. E. 1670. Hence the abstract noun 

tuicKle (misspelt tuaithle) .i. glicus. Trip. Life, pp. Ivii, 256, 1. 27. 

tuarad a share, E. 6. So L.Lec. Yoc. tuaradh .i. cuit, Stowe XIX. 

toarastol wages, D. 40. sg. dat. nf dia thuarustul, S. Mart. 11. 

ace. na gebaind a thuarastal, LL. 109*. From *to-fo-ar-cs-talu-. 

cognate with Ir. tails (gl. salarium) and Gr. t€\o9 ' tax, duty, toll.' 

tucait cause, D. 27, L.Lec. Voc. tuccaid, O'Cl. tucait (gl. 

causa) Ml. 58® 13. tucait a denma, LL. 186\ 

tucht/or»i, shape, Ff. 59. D. 16. So H. 3. 18, p. 609% and O'Cl. 
no antais eter each da trdth in tucht sin, LU. 133^ 15. tucht ara 
ndalfar-sa. Cf. perh. tvko9, rvKt^tv, y/tuq, 

1. tuirigin king, Ff. 3. So Corm. and O'Cl. 

2. tauigia judge, Ff. 3. So Corm. and O'Cl. 

3. tuirigin (leg. tuiridin ?) tower, Ff. 3. So Corm. and O'Cl. 
a dmim frisin tuiridein, Salt. R. 4520. Derived from iurid, 

4. tuirigin (leg. tuiridin?) tongue, Ff. 3. So Corm. and O'Cl. 
den-fuc for a tuiridin, Uath Benne Etair 60. 

tul countenance, Ff. 44. So O'Cl. o thul co aurdomd, LU. 79* 19. 
conecmaing a tul immon n-all, LU. 109^ 22. tul dreiche. Laws 
i. 66. tul i tul, LL. 225* 39. Compound : tul-lethan, LU. 105^ 37. 

turba a hand, £. 6. So O'Cl. Corruptly turhaid .i. buighen, 
Stowe XIX. Deich [n]-exercitus . . . tiagait ... in turba, 
Deich turba . • . iss ed tiagait i n-agmen, Salt. R. 771-774. 



Borrowed from Lat. turha. According to a note in Egerton 1782, 
fo. 49^, there were 10,000 in a legion, ten legions in a eunia (cnnens), 
ten cunias in a mares (myrias), ten tnareses in a caterva, ten eaUrtas 
in an exercituSy ten exercittu in a turhaf ten turbos in an agmen, 

torbnid protection, exemption^ Ff. 45. turbaid chotnlta sleepless- 
ness. Common in the Laws : re na tnrbaide .i. 198 : i tnrbaid, i. 
194. See O'Don. Supp. s.w. tnrbadh, tnrbaidh. 

nagba choiee, election, D. 58. naghbha, 0'£r. Perhaps we have 
an obi. case of this word in tri embaid uagboid, LTJ. 94, L 22. 
In ££. 351^ 4 — ^bad athlnm aine im-uaga — the last word seems 
a corruption of uagla. From ua+gab- ? 

uain a lending, Ff. 68. oin eich ag ar for bla, O'Don. Supp. 8.v. 
bla. 8g. dat. oc uain 7 airlicud, Wb. 31® 5. Hardly cogn. with 
Gr. wvri 'buying.' 

uamun (MS. uamhuin) M. fear, Ff. 65. in t-6mun, Ml. 42*9. 
sg. ace. lat graain 7 t*omun, LTJ. 98^ 9. ar omun lathe bratha, LL. 
281* 26. pi. ace. omnu, Amra Choi. 16. But dat. and ace. sg. 
uamuin are found. Hence the adjj. omnach : (is mana der co 
homnach, LL. 257^ 22), and immuamnaeh : imuamnach cech cintach, 
LL. 344c 9, ^, offi^ M. Gaulish *obno-s in Uxohnus. 

uath mould, clay, D. 53, E. 24. So L.Lec. Yoc. and O'Cl. sg. gen. 

uatha, Conn. s.y. audacht. Compd. : uath-onn : in-adbai uath- 

uinni .i. i n-adbai ure 7 chloche, .i. uath uir 7 ond cloch, LL. 

187^ 32. 
uathad IT. solitude, Ff. 21. .i. beagan, O'Cl. a few. conna 

torchair acht uathed mbec im Conaire .i. nonbor nammd, LTJ. 98* 39. 

is lor uathad dfb for desmbirecht, LB. 219®. In grammar the 

singular number and the first decad ; gen. aile uaihaid esci Martai, 

LB. 90, lower margin, cethramad uathatV? esci luin,, ibid, hi 

coicid huathid on the fifth of the first decad, Cr. 33^, as distinguished 

from coiced deac fifteenth, hi, fifth of the second decade, coiced fichet 

twenty-fifth, lit. ^ fifth of the score,'' coiced uathaid, Eawl. B. 

512, fo. 52* 1. Uathad is also used as an adj. rop uathad i 

sanasaib let him be solitary in secrets, LL. 343* 20. giarb' uathed 

do dam malle, LL. 87** 25. rob uathad mo dam, LB. 214*. Cogn. 

with Lat. pau-ctcs. Got. favai, Eng. few, 

ugail eyes. See above, s.v. tethra. pi. n. of *ugal, borrowed 
from Lat. oculus, 

uim earth, Ff. 67. So O'Cl. Compd. uim-chrith earthquake, 
0*Br., of which arm-chrith, Trip. Life 46, 1. 5, seems a corruption. 
Borrowed from gen. sg. of Lat. humus ? 


ulaid a paeh'Saddle, Ff. 19. ulaidh, 0*C1. 

umla F. humility, Ff. 31. umla (gl. obsequium), Eg. 88. sg. 
nom. umla cen fodord, LL. 371® 29. in umla-sin dorat Euagair 
do Thatha, LB. 147*. ace. humli, Amra Choi. 80. ni thucc an 
mac ba so umhla don mac ba sine, FM. 1228. Derived from umail 
or umal (bat umal cor' bot nasal, LL. 345® 19), which, like "W. 
fifellf is borrowed from Lat. humilis. 

una F. famine^ Ff. 26. So Stowe XIX. dith for finibh no plaigh 
no una no duinebhath, Bk. Rights, p. 184, 1. 5. A corruption 
of niina (marta la nuna .i. gorta, LL. 188° 60. nuna 7 gortai, LB. 
114*), and this perhaps of O.-Ir. ndine, sg. gen. di phlagaib tened 
et noine et gorte, Reichenau Bseda, No. 167. "W. newi/n, M. For 
loss of initial n cf . umir^=mimeT\i8. 

unse here is, D. 43. So O'Cl. TJinsi, O'Dav. 124. Undse sund 
tall, or Fergus, LTJ. 69*. undseo col-luath dot-bia in tuath ra 
togais, LL. 45* 33. undsea, LL. 100* 51, 101* 1. imse a ben lasin 
rig; ondat a bai issin tir ar far mbelaib there is his wife with 
the hing^ here are his kine in the land lefore you, LL. 252* 14. TJindsi 
thall he .i. aici thall he, L.Lec. Yoc. Huinse Conall Cernach sund, 
laech as dech la XJltu, LL. 252* 31. Ise, issi, iss^^, uinnse, unnse 
[leg. uinnsi], onnar a urlunn indsci, BB. 330*. Isse, issi, iss^(? iar 
macaib Mil^e?. Uindse, uindsi, ondor iar Feraib Bolg. Mod 7 tod 7 
traeth iar Tuaith De Danonn, BB. 327* 49. Ondar ?iere is, LTJ. 
62* 12=undar, LTJ. 65* 41, seems cognate. 

1, ur a heginning, D. 25. So Corm. Tr. 166, s.v. urla, L.Lec. 
Voc, Stowe XIX, and O'Cl. 

2. ur noble, D. 29. So O'Cl. This and 1. ur seem nothing 
but the prefix air-, er-j ir-, ur- = Skr. pari, Gr. Trepi, Lat. per. 
So er .i. mor, O'Dav. 81, citing the adj. erderg very red, 

ur had, Ff. 59, 65, E. 7. So Corm., Stowe XIX, and O'Cl. Yr 
.i. olc, Duil Laithne, 136. From ^pH-ro-s, cogn. with ttvOu), ttvov, 
Lat. pus, Goth, fuls, 

us declaration, narrative, D. 42. So O'Cl. go roib a h us 7 a 
imthw«a 7 a deired na Tanad gonici sin, so far the narrative, and 
the events J and the end of the Tain (h6 Cualnge), LL. 104* 4. From 
*ud-tu, ^vad-tu. Cognate is immth{ts=imm'to-its. 

ussarb death, Ff. 65. So Corm., who quotes ri rodet do-ussairb 
i n-TJUtaib, a king who suffered ^ an evil death in Ulster, 

^ rO'detj the ^-pret. sg. 3 of damaim. The quotation is giyen in LL. ITS'* 
as * rig rodet roussarb nUItaib.' 

l£ead April 17 y 1891.] 


THE P A^D Q GROUPS. By Johx Rhis. 

l^md Fthruary 20, 1$91.] 

It is a commonplace of Celtic phflology that the Celtic 
languages of modem times divide themselves into two groups, 
namely Goidelic and Brythonic, and that the Goidelic group 
consists of the Gaelic dialects of Ireland, Man, and Scotland, 
while the Brythonic group is made up of Welsh, Old Cornish 
and Breton. It is equally well known that Brythonic speech 
is characterized by the use of the consonant p (liable accord- 
ing to its position to become b and ph)^ while inscriptions in 
early Goidelic show qfi^ which is simplified in the later stages 
of Goidelic pronunciation into c (liable to be modified accord- 
ing to its position into ch and g). Now the question suggests 
itself whether the Continental Celts of antiquity had not 
likewise two languages similarly characterized hj p and qn 
respectively: in other words, whether, besides the Gauls, 
whose language is known to have had p for original ^i, there 
was not on the Continent a Celtic people whose language 
was like early Goidelic and resembled it particularly in 
retaining qu, I have been gradually convinced that there 
was such a people, and I should call it Celts as distinguished 
from Gauls, but that the modem meaning attached to the 
word makes this inconvenient. One has therefore to fall 
back on the name given by Pliny to their portion of Gaulish 
territory, namely Celtica,^ and call them from it Celticans, 
just as we speak of the inhabitants of Africa and America as 
Africans and Americans. Celtica was the country of the 
people who according to Caesar called themselves Celtce in 
their own language. He regarded Gaul (exclusive of the 

^ Nat SisU iy. 105: ''Gallia omnis comata nno nomine appellata in tria 
populoram genera diyiditnr, amnibus maxume distincta ; a Scaloe ad Sequanam 
bel^ca, ab eo ad Ganinnam Celtica eademque Lugdunensis, inde ad Pyrenaei 
mentis excursum Aquitanica, Aremorica antea dicta." 


Province) as consisting of three distinct regions, one of which 
situated beyond the Garonne was inhabited by the Aquitani, 
who were wholly or mainly non- Celtic. The other two 
peoples were the Celtae and the Belgae. As to the Celtse he 
says, that they were separated from the Aquitani by the 
Garonne, and from the Belgae by the Seine and its tributary 
the Marne. That is to say, one is given to understand that 
Caesar's CeltcBj whom it is here proposed to call Celticans, 
occupied all North-western, Central and Southern Gaul 
outside the Roman province ; and within the limits of that 
province itself they probably formed the bulk of the Aryan 
population there, at least before the AUobroges were annexed 
to it.^ Moreover they had also penetrated into Spain ; for 
we possess important evidence to their presence there in 
the well-known name of the mixed people of the Celtiberi. 
Lastly, as the Celtican element found its way to the heart 
of the Iberian peninsula, it may have also possibly reached 
the North of Italy ; but this must depend for its proof 
on the interpretation to be put on the slender facts of 
language to be presently brought forward. 

Let us begin with the instances of q names found in the 
ancient inscriptions of the countries here in question, and, for 
the sake of convenience, let us take first those of Spain 
and Portugal. Here we have AlluquiuSy ArquiuSy Doqtiiriis, 
Eqtmesvs and Quarquerni, together with some others about 
which there is less certainty.^ 

ArquiuSy Alluquius. These two names occur in one and 
the same inscription^ at Valenca on the Minho in North 
Portugal, while Alluquius occurs elsewhere in an inscription 
at Paimogo* in the west of the old province of Baetica, 
near the river Guadiana; and somewhat less certain is its 

^ I make this qualification as the name AUobroges would seem to mean a people 
" of other marches : " possibly they belonged to another branch of the family. 

2 Such as the dative Genio Laquiniesi on a stone from Caldas de Vizella near 
Goimaraens in the North of Portugal : see volume ii. of the Berlin Corpus 
Inserip. Lat, No. 2405. Such also as Atlondua Maquiaesus Sunnae F., of 
doubtful reading : see No. 4980. 

* No. 2465 : Dis . Manibus | Alluquio . Andergi . F. | Aeturae . Arqui . 
F. I Macro . Alluqui . F. CI | utimoni . Alluqui . F. Civi | Ena 

* No. 961 : Glaucus . Aluquii . F. | H.S.E 


presence in an inscription at Arroya del Paerco^ not 
very far from Caceres or the ancient town of Norba in 

The origin of Alluqiiius is obscure ; but I cannot help 
regarding it as possibly one of the forms which Arquim 
took in Iberian mouths.^ This latter name, besides occurring 
with Alluquius in the Valen9a inscription, is to be met 
with in others, at Trujillo, the ancient Targallium, in the 
east of Lusitania, at Monteagudo between Tarazona and 
Cascante in the ancient Tarraconensis, and at Astorga, the 
ancient Asturica Augusta, to the south-west of Leon.^ Also 
at Galderuela near Soria between Tarazona and Osma,^ and 
at Carri9a in the vicinity of Oporto,^ besides Arquia in an 
inscription from Condeixa a Nova, near Coimbra.® The name 
Arquius probably meant one who had to do with the bow, 
that is to say, an archer, and was derived from a Celtic 
word^ cognate with the Latin arquus and arcus,^ a bow or 
arch. Whether the adjective Erquesis ® should be considered 
as in any way related to Arquim is extremely doubtful. 

Doquirus, Docquiricm. We have Doquirua ^® from Trujillo, 
and Docquirus ^^ from Idanha a Velha, the ancient Igaeditani 
in central Lusitania, and a probable Doquira^^ from Soure 
in the neighbourhood of Alfeizarao in Lusitania, also a trace 

^ No. 737 : Amona, Allmi, F,, where the reading Alluqui has been suggested 
by the editor Dr. Hiibner. 

2 Here my colleague Prof. Nettleship reminds me of Cicero's words when in 
his oration Fro Archia he speaks concerning **natiB Gordubae poetis, pingue 
quiddam sonantibus." 

3 Nos. 632, 2990, 2633 respectively. 
* No. 2834. 

» No. 2373 : other instances will be found in Nos. 2458, 2433, 2435, all from 
localities in the neighbourhood of Braga, the ancient Bracara Augusta. 

« No. 377. 

' We have probably a trace of the word in the Welsh arffed^ *the lap or the 
abdomen,' since arqu must become arph or urff in that language : as to the 
meaning compare the German schombug. On Teutonic ground the word is 
implied by the Gothic arhvazna * an arrow,' A. -Saxon earh^ the same. 

t> The modem Welsh arch is the Latin arena borrowed, but in the coUoqidal 
the English arch (with palatal eh^ is usually substituted for it. 

^ It comes from Alcala del Kio north of Seville, and, purporting to be the 
name of a centurion, it occurs in company with such other names as Beresiif, 
Arvaborest«, Isinesi«, Isurgutana, etc. : see No. 1064. 

10 No. 624. 

" No. 448. 

« No. 364. 


of the name in an inscription at Alfeizarao itself.^ One may 
add Docquiricus or Docquirinus,^ from Freixo de Nemao on 
the Douro in Lusitania, Docquiricus^ from M^rida, the 
ancient Augusta Emerita in the south-east of Lusitania, and 
a doubtful instance^ from Lara de los Infantes, south-east 
of Burgos in Tarraconensis. The origin of Doqui'rus^ and 
its derivatives is not certain, but it cannot be Gaulish ; so 
it may be regarded as here in point, since it has the appear- 
ance of being an Aryan word. 

Equahona, This is the name of a place in the Itinerary 
of Antoninus,^ and it was on the route between Lisbon 
and M^rida on the Guadiana. It is unmistakably Celtic, 
and recalls such other Celtic names as Yindobona and 
Bononia, but in Gaulish it would have doubtless been 
Epobona, like Eporedia and the like, the first element in 
the compound being forms of the Celtic word which is 
in Latin equua 'a horse,' in old Irish ech 'horse/ and in 
old Welsh ep-aul, now ebol, 'a colt.' The derivation of 
bona in Uqtuzbona, Vindobona, and the like, is unknown; 
it may be of the same origin possibly as the Welsh bdn 
* the stem or trunk (mostly of a tree),' Irish bun " Wurzel- 
stock," also probably the German biihne,'^ which refers 
rather to the boards made out of the trunk of a tree ; but 
the Greek word /Soui/o? ' a hill, height, heap, mound,' would 
seem to suggest an easier explanation of the Gaulish place- 
names ending in bona. It has been hinted by M. d'Arbois 

1 No. 360. 
» No. 431. 
8 No. 551. 

* No. 2862. 

* It reminds one of Gartnait Biuperr, or Gartnaich Diuberr of the Pictish 
Chronicle, whose name is rendered in other chronicles Garnard Dives and 
Gamard le riche: see Skene's Chron. of the Picts and Scots, pp. 6, 28, 172, 
200. If Diuperr or Diuberr he a loanword from a Brythonic dialect, it might 
be traced to the same root as the Welsh gwobr * a reward,' for an early wo-pr 
or the like, cognate with gfwjo-brynu *to obtain by merit,' while the verb 
dy-hrynu *to obtain or acquire,' suggests a correlative noun with the same 

?refix as Doquirua and Diuperr, in case they are to be analysed as here assumed. 
n a note from Dr. Whitley Stokes I learn that he gives the preference to the 
spelling Diupeir, as he connects it with the Welsh pair *a cauldron,' and 
invokes the parallel of an Irishman who was called * a cauldron of hospitality.' 

6 See Parthey & Pinder's edition, No. 416 (p. 197) ; in the Index they 
identify Equabona with Couna, Coyna. 
^ See the fourth edition of Kluge's Diet. 


de Jubainville that the first part of Equabona is purely 
Latin. Of course, names like Juliobona and Augustobona 
existed in Gaulish, together with others into which the 
Latin proper names Augustus, Caesar, Claudius, Drusus, 
Flavius, and Julius entered; but at present I cannot 
recall an early instance involving a Latin appellative like 

Equaesi and Quarquemi. These were the names of two 
of the peoples who formed the so-called Conventm Bracar- 
augustanus as enumerated in an inscription ^ found at Aquae 
Flaviae. The peoples of this Conventus dwelt between 
the rivers Minho and Douro, where the principal towns 
were Bracara or Bracaraugusta, and Aquae Flaviae, now 
Braga and Chaves respectively. The Equaesi are so called 
also by Pliny ;2 but the Quarquemi's name is given as 
Querquerni^ by him. Here Querquern- is probably identical 
with the Perpern- of such personal names as the masculine 
Perperna and the feminine Perperma, both of which occur 
in Spain, namely at Tarragona and Barcelona ; ^ also in 
Cisalpine Gaul, to wit, at Padua ;^ but the most note- 
worthy instance, perhaps, is an inscription found at Marto&f, 
the ancient Tucci, not far from the eastern boundary 
of Baetica : it reads ^ — D . M . S | M . Perperna Gallicanus | 
Annor .L.H.S.E.S.T.T.L| Huic . Mer . Fil . Et . 
Nep . Fee I . Querquem- and Petpem- look like reduplica- 
tions of a stem represented in Irish by crann'^ and in 
Welsh by prenn, now written pren, 'a piece of timber, 
a tree,' which are presumed to be of the same origin as 

1 The Berlin Corpus, iL No. 2477. 

2 Nat. Hist. iii. 28. 
» Jbid, 

* The Berlin Corpus, ii. Nos. 4301-2, 4393, 4547, 4555. 

^ Ibid, T. Nos. 3004 and 2856, which is of douhtful reading. The name 0. 
Perpemius, which occurs in a list of gladiators found at Venusia in Apulia, 
probably belongs here: see the Corpus, ix. No. 466. The relation between 
Perperna and Perpenna is a question of considerable difficulty, which I am not 
prepared to discuss. 

« No. 1709. 

7 The form in early Celtic must have been qyffnon of the neuter gender, and 
the reason why the reduplication should yield, not querqurann'^ but g^tfrquern', 
is to be sought in the too great accumulation of consonants the former would 


the Latin quercus 'an oak/ quernus 'oaken, of oak*: com- 
pare Sahranriy an old name of the Irish river Lee, Welsh 
Hafren 'the Severn^' and Irish salann 'salt,' Welsh halen^ 
as illustrating the same treatment of rn and In in Irish 
and Welsh respectively. 

Let us take next the other outlying portions of the Celtic 
World looking towards the south, namely Gallia Cisalpina or 
Northern Italy and a portion of the Alps. Here we have 
a variety of names which may have belonged to a Celtic 
dialect ; but several of them are too obscure to be of use 
to us, such as Quassauna,^ also given as Cusonia,^ both in 
inscriptions at Verona; and such as Qiierra^ in another 
inscription at Verona. Then we have a people called 
Quadiates on the Cottian Arch at Susa : * they belonged 
to the Cottian Alps, and were probably the same as the 
Quariates supposed to have left their name to Le Queyras 
in Switzerland. It is scarcely probable that they were the 
Germanic people of the Quadi of whom we read in the 
Germania of Tacitus ; far more likely is it that they were 
either Celts or Ligurians, if we may judge from the other 
peoples enumerated in the same inscriptions.^ Putting aside, 
then, such names as the foregoing, we find remaining in the 
inscriptions such forms as JEquasia, Squillius, and Veiquasius, 
The stem of the name Equasia found at Trieste^ might be 
either Latin or Celtican, but the formation of the word seems 
to resemble that of Veiqiiasiiis, the Celtican origin of which 
is not improbable. This, together with Vequasius and Vequasiay 
occurs as a personal name in inscriptions '^ from Polenza and 
neighbouring places in Piedmont. The variety of the 
spelling shows that the vowel of the first syllable was long ; 
so that we mav have here in fact the same stem as in the 
Irish names Fiachna and Fiachra. The genitive of the latter, 

1 Berlin Corpus y. No. 3463. 
« No. 3916. 
3 No. 3597. 

* No. 7231. 

* See Milllcnlioff's Deutsche Altertumskundet vol. ii. 249. 

* No. 694. 

' Nos. 7694a, 7680, 7682. 


Fiachrach, appears in a late Ogam as Veqnrecc^ while that of 
the other, Machna, is found in an Ogam of the earlier sort as 
Veqoanai? The later forms with their ia show that the 
original vowel was ei or e and the Irish common noun fiach 
* a raven ' suggests a possible interpretation of this group of 

Lastly we come to the names SquilUus ^ and Squilliantis * 
in inscriptions at Verona; to these may be added Squeillanius^ 
from an inscription found at Narbonne, and possibly a 
genitive Squelioles^ in a Christian inscription at Marseilles. 
The variety of spelling here also suggests that the vowel of 
the first syllable was possibly long ; and in that case the 
length was probably the result of the elision of a consonant, 
the original stem being presumably squetl of a nexxter squetlony 
meaning * a piece of news, a tale.' The Goidelic language of the 
insular Celts retained the t for centuries later, as we find on 
one of their monuments in Glamorgan the compound scttli- 
rissi, the genitive of an earlier squetlmsso- ; but the point of 
importance here is that the Brythonic treatment was quite 
different, seeing that the Welsh word for a story is chwedl, 
from an earlier snetloriy to which squetlon had been levelled,^ 

1 The stone comes from Monataggart, in the parish of Donoughmore, in the 
county of Cork, and is now at the Royal Irish Academy. 

2 U'he stone is at Cooldorrihy, in the parish of Kilmichael, in the same county. 
The of Veqoanai is unusual and meant probahly for the u (of the qu ordinarily 

represented by the single Ogam character 1 1 1 1 1) : in another instance the 1 1 1 1 1 is 
followed by the Ogam for w or t;, namely m, but the Ogam for qu is never con- 
founded with that for e ot k. 

^ Berlin Corpus, v. No. 3336. 

* No. 3401. 

5 Berlin Corpus, xii. No. 5972. 

6 No. 491. 

' For other instances of an for squ see my Celtic Britain*, p. 92. The dis- 
carding of the q w£is here probably due to the syllable being unaccented ; so also 
in Welsh peunydd * every day, daily ' for quoundii - from an earlier qtfoqnn-dii; 
Compare the old Irish cethir four, the initial of which suggested the symbol 1 1 1 1 
for c in the Ogam alphabet ; so the word was probably at one time eetudres 
from an earlier quetuoresy corresponding to the Welsh petguaf\ now pedwar. 
This accentuation is also that of the Sanskrit catvSras and it is implied by the 
d of Gothic ^(3?wor, and possibly by the a of the Latin quatuori see Mr. Wharton's 
paper in the Phil. Tram. 1888-90, pp. 46-9. On the other hand, the former 
initial of the Irish coic^ c6ig * five ' suggested the Ogam symbol 1 1 1 1 1 for qUy 
which the fifth numeral must have retained in Irish Gaelic : in fact Manx Gaelic 


and the same remark probably applies to Gaulish. Such a 
name then as SquilUus would mean a news-bringer or a 
scout, and perhaps a story-teller. 

The ancient inscriptions of lUyricum present nothing very 
certain as regards the present question : we get a personal 
name Quardaio^ from the neighbourhood of Salzburg, but 
it is obscure to me as is also the genitive Quitai,^ which comes 
from Kovdcsi, north-west of Buda-Pest in Hungary. It 
is probably more correct likewise to regard q names, such as 
Quernio,^ from the Roman town of Aquileia and its vicinity, 
as Latin rather than Celtic. So we now recross the Alps to 
Transalpine Gaul, where we have already found the name 
Squeiliunim and others in point. 

A word must now be said as to the relation between 
the two Celtic peoples of the Continent, and first from 
the geographical point of view. If we take for granted, 
as we safely may, that the earliest population of Gaul was 
not Celtic or even Aryan, and further that the Celts of 
ancient Gaul did not originally come thither from the 
direction of Spain or of Italy, we are entitled to conclude 
that the Q Celts arrived in the west before the P Celts, 
as they are found occupying the furthest parts of the Celtic 
area, namely north Italy, Spain, southern and western Gaul, 
Ireland, Man, the Scotch Highlands and Islands. The 
conclusion is scarcely to be avoided that the later comers, 
the P Celts, came as invaders and conquerors constituting 
themselves the ruling people wherever they could vanquish 
the other race. This seems to have been the case in most 
of Gaul, and some of the results of this state of things 
are indicated in Ca3sar's Commentaries,* as, for instance. 

still retains it in its queiff * five * as contrasted with Tiegeesh (pronounced kegTah or 
hagish) * a fortnight,' in Irish coicdigis or cSicthighis, with 6i owing to the 
analogy of edig, 

1 See the Berlin Corpus, iii. No. 6523, from which it appears that Conginna, 
daughter of Quordaio, nad married the grandson of a man bearing the name 
AUval'if which looks like Celtic. 

' No. 3621, but Quita's daughter bore the apparently Celtic name of 

» Vol. V. No. 1270. 

« Books i. 4, yi. 13. 

i^- ■ 


ia the multitudes of clients and dependents forced to attach 
themselves to the Gaulish chiefs. This would also explain 
the scarcity of data as to the language of the earlier Aryans 
there ; for Roman and Greek writers would come more directly 
in contact with the ruling race and hear Celtic names only 
in the Gaulish form which the ruling Gauls gave them; 
and, to judge from similar cases elsewhere, the subjugated 
race must have acquired at an early date the habit of 
translating its own names and forms into those of the 
conqueror's idiom. We seem to have an instance of this 
in an ex-voto to certain Nymphae Auguatae in the neighbour- 
hood of Vaison in Gallia Narbonensis, where the name 
applied to them is Fercernes^ in which we seem to have an 
imperfect translation into Gaulish of the querquern- of the 
proper name Querquerni ; so the epithet may be supposed 
to have characterized them as nymphs of the forest or wood- 
lands. But be this as it may, that is the sort of process 
always going on in dialects brought into contact with a 
dominant dialect. 

Nevertheless there are one or two well-known names which 
for some reason or other successfully held their own, and 
those are Sequana and Sequani, and Aquitani. How the 
name of a river ^ like the Seine should have been accepted 
by the invading race is not very difficult to understand, but 
the difficulty is greater when we come to that of the people 
known as the Sequani, as there are no data to decide whether 
they were Celticans or Gauls. Their geographical position, 
however, among the mountains of Switzerland, and the role 
played by them in Gaul at the time of Caesar's advent 
and for some time previously, are not inconsistent with the 
possibility of their belonging wholly or in great part to the 
earlier race. Caesar represents ^ the ^dui and the Celtican 
people of the Arverni as the heads of two rival federations ; 

1 Vol. xii. No. 1329. 

2 It occurs also as a woman's name, in an inscription from the neighbourhood 
of Trevisio to the north of Venice : see the Corpus, t. No. 2129. Most probably 
Saquana was in the first instance the name of a goddess (see Key. Celt. toI. iii. 
p. 306) ; but a compound name Sequanoioiuos occurs on coius ascribed to the 

8 Bk. i. 31. 


and that of the Arverni proving the weaker, it was they 
whoy together with the Sequani, invited Ariovistus and his 
Germans to come into Gaul. 

The presumption is that both Sequana and Sequani are 
words of Celtic origin, but with regard to the name of 
the Aquitani we are left in doubt whether it was Celtic 
at all or not; if the word is Celtic, it may be supposed 
to involve a Celtican word for water, of the same origin 
as the Latin aqua, and that the first bearers of the name 
Aquitani were in that case described as a people dwelling 
near the water, meaning the sea, and this would agree well 
enough with the little that is known of the history of the 
word. Strabo ^ maintains, and probably with perfect justice, 
that the people beyond the Garonne, whom CaBsar called 
Aquitani, were more Iberian than Celtic. From them the 
province of Aquitania, constituted by Augustus so as to 
extend to the Loire, took its name. Pliny makes the Iberian 
and original Aquitania into Aquitanica, adding, in the passage 
already cited, that it was at one time called Aremorica. So 
it is possible that we have here to do with a term Aquitan 
or Aquitanic, admitting of being rendered into Gaulish by 
the adjective Arenioric, which meant * maritime, belonging to 
the sea-coast.* The former may in that case have been 
derived from a Celtican word of the origin already sug- 
gested. Thus Pliny's Armoric Aquitanica coincides with 
the information which led Caesar to confine the name 
Aquitani to the Iberians on the further side of the Garonne. 
Pliny traces the name there to a single tribe bearing no 
other designation than that of Aquitani : their exact position 
is not given, so that one is at liberty to suppose that they 
dwelt on the coast somewhere between the Garonne and the 
Adour. Though originally synonymous, the later usage had 
the effect of severing the terras Aremoric and Aquitanic, 
Aremoric or Armoric became associated with the Armoric 
League, and shifted with the shifting fortunes of the states 
constituting it, which Caesar describes as civitates quce 

^ See Meineke's ed. It. 1. i. 
Pha Trans. 1891-2-8. 8 


ArmoriccB appellantur.^ On the other hand, the other 
adjective was associated by Augustus with the province of 
Aquitania, including the spacious region from the Garonne 
to the Loire ; and it is there that the name Aquitania has 
ever since had its home, and has come down to later times 
in the French form of La Guienne. 

Here must be mentioned the term Chortontcum, which 
occurs, among other geographical names, in the Wessobrunn 
Codex in Munich, a manuscript written before the year 
814. The names of Celtic interest in it are the following : 
Hyhernia . scottono lant, i.e. the Land of the Scots. Oallia . 
uualho lant, i.e. the Land of the Welsh. Chortanicum . auh 
vualho lanty i.e. also the Land of the Welsh. Equitania . 
miascono iant, i.e. the Land of the Vascones or Gascons. Dom- 
noniam . prettono lant, i.e. the Land of the Britons. But the 
name of prime importance here is Chorfonicum, a spelling 
which may be regarded as standing for Cortonieum in the 
text which the writer of the Old High German glosses had 
before him, and Pott with his usual insight perceived that 
it was to be interpreted by means of the words Cruithne, 
Cruithneach, *a Pict.'^ Cortonieum would thus have to be 

^ Bks. V. 43, vii. 76. In both passages the spelling is Armorieae, nor does 
Holder mention any variant like Aremoricae, which, etymologically speaking, 
would be the older and better form of the word. Prof. Nettleship reminds me 
that the prevalent form in the poets is scanned Aremortctts. 

2 Etym. Forsch. II. ii. 899 : see also Windisch in Ersch & Griiber's Ency- 
clopaedia, s.v. Keltische sprachen. I copy the glosses from Graff *s Diatiska, vol. 
ii. pp. 370-1, in the hope chiefly that some one will inform me to what text 
they belong : it is needless to point out the curious questions which some of them 
suggest : — 

Fol. 6 Iff. Hec nomina de veiriis prouinciis. 

Hybemia . scottono lant. 
„ 613. Gallia . uualho lant. 

chortonicum . auh uualho lant. 
Equitania . uuascono lant. 
Uacea . uuascun. 
Germania . franchono lant. 
Italia . lancparto lant 
Ausonia . auh lancparto lant. 
Domnoniam . prettono lant. 
Bruteri . prezzun. 
Araues . sarci. 
Ispania . benauentono lant. 
Cyuuari . suapa. 

Pannonia . sic nominatur ilia t^/ra meridip danobia . at uuandoli 
habent hop. 


explained as an adjective formed, probably in Latin, from 
the name of a people called in Celtic Qur&tonea or QurMonii, 
of the same origin not only as Cruithne * a Pict,' but also 
as the "Welsh Pi^dyn^ the part of Britain inhabited by the 
Picts of the North, and "Welsh Prydain, the name of the 
whole island. So Cortonicum may have meant all Gaul, or a 
part of Gaul, or else it may very probably have been used in 
both senses ; and to discover approximately the part of Gaul 
it could have specially referred to we cannot do better than 
take the synonymity of Cruithne and Pict in the British Isles 
as our guide on the Continent. This clearly suggests that 
the Cortonic district par excellence covered the whole or 
part of Poitou or the land of the Pictones, whose name, 
together with that of their town now called Poitiers, 
cannot, etymologically speaking, be severed from the name 
of the insular Picts. Thus it may be presumed that the term 
Cortonicum referred to the region so called, whether all 
Gaul or only a part of Gaul, as the land of the non-Aryan 
aborigines ; and it goes to show that the early Celts regarded 
the latter as one and the same race, whether on the Continent 
or in the British Isles. That is too large a subject, however, 

[Note continued from previous page.] 

Fol. 62a. Arnoricus . peigiro lant. 

Istri^ . peigira . later . danobia 

Sclauus et auarus . huni et uuinida. 

Palestina . iudeono lant . hoc est circa hierosolima. 

Uuandali . huni . et citta . aut uuandoli . 

Auriliana . sic nominatur ilia terra ubi roma stetit. 

Pentapoli . sic nominatur illia patria . ubi rapana stat. 

Tharcia . ilia patria . ubi constantinopoli . stetit. 

Cynocephali . canini capita. 

Amazones . hoc .s. uirgines. 
,, 62 J. Thebaida . ilia patria inde fuit mauricius . Argi . greci. 

Ethiopia . patria mauri . 
De Ciuitatibus. 

Luctuna . Liutona. 

Argentoratensis . strazpuruc. 

Nimitensis ciuitas . spira. 

TJuangiaonium . ciuitas uuormacip. 

Agrippina . cholonne . 

Constantinopoli . costantinuses puruc. 

Neapolis . ciuitas noua. 

Norica . reganespuruc. 

Allofia . rada8p6n8a. 

Betfagia . pazauua. 
„ 63a. Ualuicula salzpuruc. 


to be discussed here; let it suffice for the present to have 
called attention to the form of the word Cortonicum, as it 
proves to be derived from a Celtican source, not from 
a Gaulish one. Its history, nevertheless, is incomplete ; 
for it is not known in what author it was found by the 
writer of the glosses in the ninth century ; so one cannot 
say whether the text he read is still extant, or on the 
other hand whether it did not carry him back a con- 
siderable distance of time towards, let us say, the fourth 
century. I say the fourth century, as we have evidence 
in the dialogues of Sulpicius Severus that not only Gaulish 
but Celtican likewise was in use in his time : his words are, 
Tu verOy inquit Postumianus, vel Celtice aut, si mauis, Gallice 
loquerei duynmodo Martinum loquaria} The words which 
Sulpicius puts into the mouth of Postumianus deserve all the 
more attention as Sulpicius is said to have belonged to 
an influential family in Aquitania, where Celtican speech 
may not unnaturally be supposed to have been last heard. 

The word Prydain, which is the Welsh name for Great 
Britain, is not etymologically related to the latter name 
from the Latin Britannia, which was formed from the Latin 
name of the people whom the Romans at first called Britanni, 
For after the Romans conquered a part of Britain and became 
better acquainted with its peoples the term Britanni seems to 
have gradually fallen into disuse in favour of the kindred form 
Brittones, which is also the pronunciation of the name to 
which the Brythonic Celts bear testimony by their use of such 
forms as "Welsh Brython * a Briton or Welshman,* Brythoneg 
* the Brythonic language, Welsh,' Old Cornish Brethonec 
*the Brythonic language, Cornish,' Breton Brezonek *the 
Breton language.' Where then did the Romans learn their 
first name for the Brythons? Probably in the Roman 
province in the South of Gaul. At any rate it is remarkable 
that the old Irish word for Bryfhons, which had also to do 
duty for Britain, was the plural Bretain, genitive Bretan, 
dative Bretnaih, accusative Bretnu, which corresponds to the 

i Halm's ed. Dial. i. 27, 4. 


Latin Britanni, or, more exactly, BrittanL Hence It would 
appear that the Romans must have learned the name 
from a people who spoke a language resembling Goidelic, 
that is to say from the Celticans of Southern Gaul or the 
Roman province. This is corroborated by the fact that 
Britanni and Brittanni resemble the Greek form Bperravoi, 
which reached Greece probably through the Greeks of Mar- 
seilles, who doubtless learned the name in the same district 
as the Romans : perhaps it would be more accurate to regard 
the Britanni of the Romans merely as the Latin rendering 
of the Greek BperTuvoL, and to suppose the Greeks to have 
learnt the latter from the Celts nearest to Marseilles. At all 
events it was not the form which the Brythons themselves 
gave to their own national name. It probably represented 
rather the pronunciation which the Q Celts of the Continent 
gave it, as it must have done, with tolerable accuracy, that 
of the Q Celts of Ireland, judging from the forms which 
the name exhibits among them in later times. 

Such are the traces on the Continent of a Celtic language 
resembling Irish as contrasted with "Welsh, and though they 
seem to me to render its former existence there highly 
probable, I leave others to settle how far it is probable. 


The question of classifying the Celts into two groups 
characterized by the use of P and Q languages respectively 
is not to be dismissed without reference to a similar grouping 
of the Aryans of Italy and Greece. Thus to begin with the 
former, the Romans used qu just as the ancient Irish did, 
but in so doing they stood well-nigh alone in the Italy of 
historical times; for the Osco-Umbrian dialects replaced 
gu hjp.^ 

^ Messapian and possibly other dialects of the south are to be regarded as more 
akin to Grreek than to the other languages of Italy : see Mommsen's Unter- 
italitehen JHaiekU, p. 85. 


The Latin-speaking Italians of the beginning of Roman 
history occupied a comparatively small area, their original 
territory in the peninsula having probably been narrowed ^ 
by Umbrians and Sabines, by the latter of whom the legends 
of Rome represent the nascent city hard pressed. On the 
other band the scanty remains of some of the dialects of 
ancient Sicily are supposed to show close similarity to Latin, 
and this suggests that Latin or kindred dialects were once 
spoken over the whole of the eastern coast of the Peninsula, 
from Latium to the Straits of Messina. Their disappearance 
from all that tract was probably due to the conquests made 
within historical times by the Samnites, and other tribes 
of Oscan stock, and in part also to the Greek colonies 
planted on the coast. In the rear of the Oscans came the 
Umbrians, occupying not only the district which bore their 
name in Roman history, from the Adriatic to the Apennines 
and the Tiber, but also the adjacent country westwards 
to the sea opposite Corsica. In other words they owned, 
if not the whole of what came later to be Etruria, the 
south at any rate and the east of Etruria, so that they 
completely barred the north of Italy from sea to sea 
behind the peoples of the Siculo-Latin stock. I cannot 
discuss here the extent to which the latter had been deprived 
of their territory by the Osco-Umbrians, or the fact of these 
last being in their turn deprived of so much of their territory 
by the Etruscans, that Pliny ^ found the Etruscans to have 
taken possession of no less than 300 towns of the Umbrians. 
The one thing to be borne in mind for the present is, 

^ The remains of the Faliscan dialect show clearly that the people of Falerii, 
for instance, helonged to the same stock as the Latins and not to the Umhrians 
or Oscans : see Deecke's * Falisker' (Strassburg, 1888), where, pp. 135, 166, 
193, he ^ives as Faliscan -que or -cm6 = Latin -que, euando =lj&\im quaudo, and 
other similar evidence which cannot be overthrown by the occurrence in a Faliscan 
inscription of Fuponio equated by him with Fomponius, at the same time that 
he suggests equating Popta with Publia : see pp. 153, 187. 

2 See iii. 112 : the passage is highly instructive, especially the following 
words — ** Ah Ancona Gallica ora incipit togatae Galliae cognomine. Siculi et 
Liburni plurima eius tractus tenuere, in primis Palmenseni, Praetutianum 
Hadrianumque agrum. Umbri eos expulere, hos Etruria, banc Galli. Um- 
brorum gens antiquissima Italiae existimatur, ut quos Ombrios a Graecis putent 
dictos, quod inundatione terrarum imbribus superfuissent. Trecenta eorum 
oppida Tusci debellasse reperiuntur." 


that the Italians of the Q group appear to have entered 
Italy before those of the P group, that the Siculo-Latiu 
race had already settled down when the Osco-Umbrians 

Much the same kind of remarks may be applied to 
Greece, where the Q group is most obviously represented 
by the dialect of Herodotus,^ with such forms as kco^ and 
k6t€ for the ttw? and irore of the other dialects. The 
historian was a native of Halicarnassus in Asia Minor, and 
his Greek belongs to the group of dialects called Ionic. 
As there is no reason to suppose that he invented the 
language of his writings, he must be supposed to have 
heard it at Halicarnassus or in some part of Asia Minor, 
or else, as has been sometimes thought more probable, in 
the island of Samos, where he is said to have passed some 
years of his life. Now Halicarnassus is spoken of as a 
Doric colony, namely, of Troezen ; but this by no means 
proves that it was not also Ionic. That it was so is seen 
from the fact that the Ionian deity Poseidon was worshipped 
at Halicarnassus with peculiar zeal,^ and the connexion 
itself of Halicarnassus with Troezen is by no means in- 
consistent with this view, but rather the contrary; for 
Troezen was a mixed city. Originally Ionic, it had been 
conquered by Dorians. The name Ionian is applied early 
to the inhabitants of the north-east of the Peloponnese, 
including Troezen and other places; also to the district on 
the north coast, subsequently known as Achaia. In what 
numerical proportions the Dorians and the lonians lived in 
the towns conquered by the former, it is impossible to say ; 
but in Sicyon, for instance, the old inhabitants formed a fourth 
tribe, whereas at Corinth they consisted of five tribes, while 

^ Herodotus is selected as the representative of the dialect, for one learns 
from the editions of such authors as Hippocrates and Heraclitus that the 
manuscripts narrow the domain of the k as compared with the usage of the 
historian. It was doubtless very natural for Greek scribes and editors to normalize 
the dialect by giving its forms the ir with which they were familiar in Attic 
prose; but the longer the writings of an author were, the more resistance 
they offered to this process of assimilation. 

* ETelyn Abbott^s Greece, vol. i. 125 ; Miiller's Dorier, i. 407, ii. 105 ; and 
the Berlin Corpus of Greek Inscriptions, No. 2655. 


the conquering Dorians only made up the three remaining 
tribes. The conquest of the Peloponnese known as the 
return of the Heraclidao was effected by Dorians helped 
by ^tolians, and the former can be traced back to a district 
between Oeta and Parnassus, where their name survived in 
Doris : at a still earlier period they dwelt in the Thessalian 
district of Hestiaeotis.^ When the Dorians and their allies 
conquered the Peloponnese, the ancient lonians and kindred 
peoples were subjugated or driven into corners, such as the 
north-east of the peninsula, together with Attica, also 
Euboea, the other islands and Asia Minor, whither the 
Dorians in due time followed them. Eventually ensued 
a fusion of races, which it would be useless to attempt 
to analyse. But it will suffice for the present to bear in 
mind that the Dorians and kindred invaders found the 
lonians in the Peloponnese before them, and that the Ionian 
dialects contained among their number one, at least, which 
belonged to the Q group. 

The principal questions which these remarks raise may 
be comprehended under two headings, the fusion of P and 
Q Aryans and the common descent of the P Aryans. Let 
us take the latter first : is the modification of qu into p 
enough to prove the nations speaking languages of the 
P group to have spread from a single centre, whether they 
are found in Celtic lands, in Italy, or in Greece ? As the 
physiological change here in question might, so far as one 
can see, take place in any language hiving words with qUy 
that change would be a precarious foundation for such a 
conclusion.^ But it makes a very great difference to find 
that the change has been resisted in the outer area alone, 
that is, among the Goidelo-Celtican group in Celtic lands, 

1 Abbott, vol. i. 61 ; Herodotus i. b^^ viii. 43. 

^ Most of those who notice this, speak as if they consider the change of qu into 
p a yery common phenomenon, whereas, besides the case of the Aryan languages in 
question, I haye not succeeded in eliciting an instance from friends acquainted 
with non-Aryan languages. One is generally asked to take Koumanian as in 
poiut ; but that will not do as an independent instance. For who is to say 
that the legionary ancestor of the modem Koumanian who says patru for the 
Latin quatuor, was not an Oscan or Umbrian, or even a Gaul, inheriting the p 
pronunciation P 

t« tm* * ■•■- 


the SIculo-Latms in Italy and some of the lonians among the 
Greeks. In fact we have only to make a simple calculation 
of chances, which may be put thus : let the three P groups 
of the inner area be represented by three white balls, and the 
three Q groups of the outer area by three black balls ; then 
suppose the six balls placed in a bag, and the question is, what 
the chances are, in drawing three at a time, that those three 
will be the white balls. Now the number of different triplets 

that can be formed of six balls is f^|^=20 : that is to say 

the chance of drawing any given triplet is -^, or, in other 
words, the odds against it are 19 to 1. Suppose we leave 
out Greece on account of the evidence being less clear there 
than in the case of Italy and Celtic lands, our calculation 
is then made with four balls instead of six, and the number 
of pairs possible is ^=6: that is, the chance of drawing 

any given pair is ^ ; in other words the odds against it 
are 5 to 1, which is a preponderance of probability by no 
means to be despised, and from which one might proceed 
to assume the same state of things in Greece as in the other 
two linguistic regions. It thus appears unreasonable to 
suppose the change of qu into p ampng the Aryans of the 
inner area to have been a mere matter of accident, and 
the alternative explanation which alone deserves considera- 
tion is, that the P Aryans issued from a common centre 
where the phonetic change in question had been accom- 
plished once for all in their common dialect. 

Here may be added the fact that the consonantal change 
is not the only characteristic of the P languages, as they 
show another change, namely that of long u into long u or 
even z ; but as this will come under notice later, let it suffice 
at this point to remark that it vastly increases the strength 
of the argument.^ 

^ For instead of simply drawing the three white balls once, the chance of 
which taking place was shown to be only -^y one has to suppose them (replaced 
and) successfully drawn a second time. The chance of the compound event 
is ^tfXA^ifc '• tbat is, the odds against it are 399 to 1. If Greece be omitted 
the chance of the compound event is ixi—-isy or 35 to 1 against it so far as 
concerns the Celtic and Italian areas. 


Irish, Latin and the Greek dialect in point must so far as 
concerns the consonantal change which interests us here be 
regarded as having remained in a sense on the level of 
Teutonic, as a single instance will suffice to show : take, for 
example, the English interrogative who, Gothic hvas, and 
compare with it the initial of the Irish da ' who,' Latin 
qui and quk, and the Herodotean koIo^;^ contrasting with 
them the "Welsh pwyy Oscan pis * who,' and the common 
Greek ttow?. As no philologist supposes the change to have 
been from p to qu^ Irish, Latin and Herodotean Greek must 
be regarded as having in this respect remained on the ancient 
level, the reduction of qu to p being a later phenomenon. A 
similar remark applies to the vowel change to which allusion 
has been just made. So the two changes agree in signalizing 
for u« the rise of a new Aryan dialect, and this translated into 
ethnology can hardly have any other meaning than that 
Aryan speech had been adopted by a non- Aryan race, which 
introduced into its adopted language the habits of pronun- 
ciation prevalent in its previous language. The question 
next comes, where the conquest of non- Aryans by Aryans 
took place, and looking at the distribution of the Aryans 
of this mixed origin as represented by the P dialects of 
Gaul and Britain, of Italy and Greece, also possibly by the 
languages of peoples of the Thraco-Phrygian stock both in 
Europe and Asia Minor, one cannot help thinking that it must 
have been somewhere in the region of the Alps. 

Granted this, we are enabled to explain a variety of the 
features which characterize Celtic, Italian and Hellenic dia- 
lects : in other words, we now come to the other question to be 
noticed, that of the fusion of the later or P Aryans with the 
earlier or Q Aryans. But here, as before, I only attempt 
to deal with the races indirectly, through the linguistic 
data which they have left us, and Latin proves of prime 
importance to the inquiry. The history of that language is 
a very remarkable one, for, after having its domain narrowed 
to a comparatively small area, it begins to conquer all the 
dialects around it, nor desists till it becomes one of the great 
languages of civilization; but what is particularly to be 


borne in mind is the fact, that the antagonism between the 
makers of Borne and the peoples around them seems to have 
been so intense that Latin remained comparatively unaffected 
bj non-Latin dialects up to the time of its classical period. 
Thus not only does Latin agree with the rest of the languages 
characterized by qu in the matter of that combination, but it 
farther abstains from the corresponding change of gu to J, 
which happens in Irish and Greek. It retains gu or reduces 
it to t;: take, for example, the word unguo *I smear or anoint,* 
unguen *fat, ointment,' Oscan umen (for *umben), Irish imb, 
gemiiYeimbe (like ainfn 'name,' genitive anme), Breton amanUy 
WehTi ymenyn 'butter.' Take also the Latin vivus 'living' (for 
*^!*n7{w), Oscan bivua "vivi," Irish 6^0, Welsh bi/20 'quick, alive.* 
A remarkable exception in Latin is bos ' an ox,' which, bad 
it been native Latin, ought to have had some such form as 
W8j and not bos; but the very fact of the latter standing 
pretty nearly alone speaks clearly for the comparative freedom 
of Latin from any considerable admixture of Oscan.^ Another 
respect in which Latin remained pretty nearly on the old level 
is that of long u, which in the P languages shows a narrow- 
ing towards French u or even i. Thus while Latin had sus 
* a sow,' Greek had its 5?, pronounced with a vowel like the 
French u of the present day; and the accusative singular 
and plural of this same word were in Umbrian sim and sif 
respectively. Umbrian had also pir and frif, corresponding 
to the Greek irvp 'fire,' and Latin /rw^^s 'crops.' Similarly 
Latin tu, English ihou, appear in Irish as tu, but in Welsh as 
/I, and Irish cu ' a hound,' is in Welsh cl, not to mention 
that such a word as Irish tuath, in Gaulish touta * a tribe or 
people,' is tied in Breton, and in Welsh tut and tud, with a u 
which in North Wales is much narrower than French m, 
while in the rest of the Principality it becomes mostly i. 
This may be regarded as a Bry thonic extension of the domain 
of the tendency to narrow or unround the vowel. 

The comparative freedom of Latin from the changes here 
in question suggests the conclusion that they were phonetic 

^ li bathe not Oscan or Umbrian, it may be of Gaulish origin, or else a loan- 
word from Greek, which some are inclined to maintain. 


characteristics of the P dialects, that is to say, all three 
of them, the labializing of qu into jo, of gu into h} and the 
modifying of u towards I? Granted this, it follows that one 
must suppose the linguistic influence of the later Aryan 
comers to have varied considerably in force as measured by 
the changes it effected in the phonetics of the Q dialects of 
the Celts, the Italians and the Greeks respectively. In Italy, 
as already stated, it may be said to have been a minimum 
quantity, but it was quite otherwise among the Celts and 
the Greeks. Let us begin with the latter: the majority 
of the Greek dialects are known to have used ir for the 
qu of the labalizing Aryans, but they did not treat that 
combination always in the same way. Before the vowel o 
they made it into tt as in ttoZo? ' qualis,' but before e and f, 
it became r, as in -t€ and Tt9, with which are to be 
contrasted Latin -que and quis, while before or after v the 
guttural remained, as in kvkKo^ ' a circle,' A.-Saxon hweohl^ 
English wheel. Under similar conditions gu became ^, S 
and 7 ; also ghn became ^, 9 and ^ respectively. No such 
limitations of the phenomenon of the guttural plus the u 
yielding a labial are known to have systematically existed 
in the P dialects of either Italy or the Celtic world,^ and 
certain Greek dialects seem to have somewhat defied them, as 

^ The change of ghu into/ or ^ has been omitted, partly as being of minor 
importance here, and partly as contained, so far as concerns Celtic, under that 
of gu into b. 

2 My friend Mr. Wharton, in the paper to which reference has already been 
made, gives it as his opinion, p. 54, that ^' the influence of dialect on the Koman 
long vowels, and especially on the diphthongs, was much stronger than on the 
short vowels, as conversely that of accent was much weaker ; " but from among 
his instances of u becoming t, I should be inclined to remove such as divinus, 
amicus, formido, vopiscus, as contrasted with opportiinus. cadiicus, testiido, 
coruscus, and the like ; for the use of a termination mus, for example, rather 
than UMM^ raises questions as to the thematic vowel, and it is open to the suspicion 
of being due to analogy rather than to a mere phonetic change. Among 
Mr. Wharton's other instances may possibly be some which were due to the 
influence of Oscan and Umbrian. 

^ But Prof. Zimmer in his Keltische Studien in Euhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xxx. 
pp. 134, 140, regards Irish guth * voice' and Greek jSo^ as of the same origin, 
and treats gegon * I have wounded,' as the perfect of a verb which in its other 
tenses has ^, such as benim * I strike.' So here we have guo becoming gu or go^ 
and some such a rule must have applied in the case of Sequana, supposing it to 
be— against the probabilities of the case— Gaulish and not Celtican. Add the 
form SEQVONIvS, which, if correctly read, is deserving of notice in this con- 
nexion : see the Jitvue Celtique, vol. iiL p. 307* 


when the Thessalians said /ci^ for rk ' who.' Then as to 
the dialects characterized by the unrounding of long u into 
long Uy similar treatment is found to have been extended 
to short Uy which was changed in the same dialects into u ; 
and this still remains the sound of v in certain dialects 
of Greek, such as the Tzakonian. But the ancient dialects 
retaining u and u are said to have been Boeotian and Laco- 
niauy probably also Arcadian, Cypriote, Pamphylian, Chal- 
cidian, and Lesbian ; ^ and such instances may be mentioned 
as the Boeotian name EvOovfio^ for the Attic EvOvfio^;, 
and the Laconian verb fiovaiSSec for what would have been 
in Attic fiifOi^eL in the sense of \a\el ' speaks/ On the 
whole the P dialects may be said to have had the upper 
hand in the Greek world, and the fusion, not to say the 
confusion, of the dialects of the two groups must here be 
regarded as of such a nature that Greece cannot help us 
much in the attempt to distinguish between peoples of the 
P and Q groups : rather have we to assume that the 
conclusions already drawn as to the corresponding peoples in 
-Celtic and Italian lands may be applied in principle to 
Greece likewise. 

On Celtic ground we have no data to enable us to judge 
with any precision of the attitude of Gaulish and Celtican 
towards one another on the Continent, but we seem to have 
a distinct trace of the influence of the former in the French 
pronunciation of Latin long u, a pronunciation which not 
only characterizes the French language, but is found also 
in modern Provencal, in the Engadine, and in Lombardy.^ 
Lisaving the Continent, we have in these islands the facts 
of Brythonic and Goidelic pronunciations to draw upon. 
In the first place it may be mentioned that the modifying 
of u towards ii or I is unknown in the Goidelic dialects, 
as is also the reduction of qu to p ; but, on the other hand, 
b for gu and ghu is as general a rule in them as in the 
Brythonic dialects. How then is this to be explained ? 
To some extent, probably, by the geography of the British 

I Brngmaniiy §§ 48, 56. 

* Diez, Cham, der romanisehen Sprachen (Bonn, 1870), toI. i. 426. 


Isles ; for the case would be met by supposing the Q Aryans 
to have first conquered Britain as far, sooner or later, as the 
sea separating it from the sister island, and the P Aryans 
to have eventually arrived in such force as to establish 
themselves in the east and south-east of Britain, preserving 
their own language at first unmixed, while influencing 
that of the Q Aryans to the west of them more and more 
as time went on, and reducing their territory. In fact 
we may suppose the same thing to have taken place 
here as in Gaul, namely, that the P conquerors everywhere 
made themselves the ruling class, even where the Q dialects 
continued to be spoken. It was the speakers of these 
mixed dialects, that is to say, of Q dialects modified under 
the influence of those of the P group, that probably sent 
forth men to conquer Ireland; they set sail, let us say, 
from Anglesey and landed on the opposite coast, somewhere 
between Bray and Dundalk. In Ireland the Q language 
of the invaders became stereotyped against the further 
influence of the idioms of the P group, while the Q dialects 
left behind in Britain continued subject to that influence 
until they were assimilated out of all separate existence. 

It is needless to say that while Brythonic made this sort 
of conquest, it could not itself escape being phonetically 
modified, namely, by the previous habits of pronunciation 
of those who adopted it instead of their own language. Add 
to this the subsequent influence of the extensive conquests 
made in Wales and Dumnonia by invaders from Ireland 
about the end of the Roman Occupation. 

Such at any rate would be a possible account of the rise 
of Goidelic as it was when it spread from Ireland to 
Man and Scotland ; but with regard to the influence of 
the P dialects on it, only one instance has been specified, 
namely, the change of gu into J. This must, however, not 
be regarded as standing alone : there is probably one other 
which must be supposed to date quite as early : it belongs 
to the history of the treatment of Aryan p in Celtic, which 
must by no means be confounded with the treatment of 
Aryan k or qu whether changed into p or not. Thus it has 


been for some time known to philologists that Aryan p 
wholly disappears in the Celtic tongues, that is, it has 
either given rise to another consonant or it has simply 
left its place empty. Take for example the Irish word Idr, 
Welsh llatDr, which means floor and is of the same origin, 
or the Old Irish word athir, which means father and is in 
feet the same word with father and Latin pater, with their con- 
geners ; similarly the Irish verb lenim ' I adhere, follow,' 
reduplicate perfect (3rd singular) ///, (3rd plural) leltar, future 
lilit 'sequentur,* Welsh iilt/n, ca.nlt/n 'to follow,' and erlyn 
*to prosecute,' are of the same origin as the Lithuanian 
limpu ' I adhere,* preterite lipaii, Old Bulgarian prilina (for 
prilipna) ' I cleave to or remain hanging.' ^ This consonant 
has disappeared even in Gaulish, as may be seen from such 
words as Aremoricus, where the prefix are, Welsh ar *on, 
upon,' is of the same origin as the Greek irapd and the 
whole adjective may be rendered 7rapa6dKd(7<Tio<; ; take also 
the name of the Belgic people of the Remi, who have left 
it to the town of Rheims, the ancient Durocor forum Remorum, 
where Remi is of the same origin as the Welsh rhwyf * a 
king or ruler,' Latin primus : compare English first and 
German furst * a prince,' and the Latin pnticeps, whence, 
through French, the English word prince. In other Celtic 
words the original p is represented by a guttural, as in the 
Irish secht * seven,' Welsh saith, seith for *secht, or the Irish 
word uasal * noble, high-born,' Welsh uchel ' high,' which was 
in Gaulish ucsel- as in Ujcelhiunum meaning High Town. 
This adjective is parallel to the Welsh isel 'low,' and the 
two are to be traced back to the prepositions which have 
yielded the Welsh yn (Irish i n-, i) * in, into ' and *wj9,^ 
of the same origin as the Greek word i^iyXo? * high ' and 
English over, German uber, Sanskrit upari, * over.' In all 

^ Brugmannn, i. § 36. 

' This etymology was suggested some years ago in my Celtic Britain? p. 310, 
but an older etymology is accepted, among others, by Brugmann, who, in his 
Orundrisa der vergL Grammatxk, toI. i. § 434, connects Uxello- with Greek oi;{« 
* 1 increase,' and Lith. duksztas * high.' If this were correct, one would rather 
expect the word to have begun in Gaulish with ow, eu, or au, which however it 
does not. 


these instances it would suffice, phonologically speaking, to 
regard p as having in the first instance become h (in the Celtic 
dialects with p for qu), just as the samejo is known to have 
done in Armenian in such words as hair * father/ the etymo- 
logical equivalent of that word and of the Irish athir, Latin 
pateVf etc. H before vowels would disappear on the way 
down to the Neoceltic tongues, while before t it may be 
supposed to have helped to produce the favourite combination 
X^t retained in Irish, but modified in Welsh to Uh, as in 
Old Irish secht * seven,* Old Welsh seith, now saith. Before s 
the analogous combination ;^s was liable to undergo the 
changes illustrated by Irish uasal and Welsh uchel already 

The theory here propounded leaves the Goidels nearly 
related to the ancient Latins in harmony with the striking 
similarities between the Irish and Latin languages, at the 
same time that it represents the same Goidels as inseparable 
from the Brythons by reason of manifold mixing. So we 
should still be justified in speaking of these two peoples as 
Celtic, and not merely as Goidelic and Brythonic, or as 
groups only distantly related to one another, which is the 
utmost one could have said of them when they first came 
in contact with one another. The same kind of remark 
applies to the two sets of Aryans in Italy and in Greece. 
But who were these races distinguished as those speaking 
Q and P languages respectively ? The former, suffice it for 
the present to repeat, were of the same Aryan stock as the 
Teutons, Slavs, Albanians, Armenians, Iranians and Hindus, 
that is to say in so far as those nations were not merely non- 

* The case of initial sp making in Welsh/ (written/") and in Irish a has been 
omitted here as probably representing an original Aryan ap-h or sp aspirated : 
compare Welsh J'er * the ankle ' with the Greek a<f>vp6v of the same meaning, 
and Welsh Jbn * a staff,' ^on daji * a sling,' Irish «o«n, with the Greek u^^vl6in\ 
* a sling.' In such Irish words as aonn the a has probably replaced a previous 
/", as is the case in such borrowed words as Irish ar%an — \au\\xi frenum^ and adiat^ 
I^atin faatia. Some more instances of initial / in Welsh will be found brought 
together by me in the Rev. Celt. vol. ii. pp. 335-7. Sp-h or ap* became ^ or/ in both 
Brythonic and Goidelic, and in Brythonic the /has remained while it has become 
a in Goidelic. In any case I see no room for the av^ which Dr. Whitley Stokes 
suggests in his Celtic Deelenaionf p. 26. 



Aryans Aryanized by Aryan conquest. In Italy they appear. 
to have been not only the Latins of history, but the race 
more widely represented by an early civilization, of which 
traces occur from Etruria to Sicily, as shown by recent 
arohseological research. In Greece they were possibly the 
mysterious people called the Pelasgi with whom Herodotus^ 
identified the lonians. But the Pelasgi, though Aryans, 
were not exactly Greeks, however readily they became 
Greeks in the sense of losing their national identity in the 
ganglion of peoples which went to constitute the Hellenic 
world of history. 

In answer to the question who the P Aryans were, one 
may first say that they appear as a second stratum, so to say, 
covering a part of the area previously occupied by a Q stratum, 
namely, from the fTorth Sea as far perhaps as Asia Minor, 
with an overflow into Britain, Spain, Italy and Greece. So 
their area of dispersion appears to have been included within 
the other area. Further, since the language of the P Aryans 
is to be regarded as a modified form of the older Aryan 
speech, it may be asked to what cause the modification is to be 
traced. One might of course answer that all languages are iu 
a permanent state of change, more or less rapid, so long as 
they are living; but this would hardly be a sufficient answer in 
the case of changes so definite as those here in question. We 
have accordingly no alternative but to suppose, as already 
suggested, that the dialects of the P group arose from the 
coming of speakers of the older Aryan dialects, namely, those 
of the Q group, in contact with a non- Aryan race, which, 
conquered or otherwise powerfully influenced by them, 
adopted Aryan speech without having got rid of the non- 
Aryan characteristics of its inherited pronunciation. This 
supposition of a very considerable absorption of non- Aryan 
elements makes the P Aryans a mixed people talking what 
might be termed Neo-aryan. This view which derives .counten- 
ance in this country from the fact that archaeologists find the 

^ Book, i. 56. In the chapter following he surmises the dialects of Creston 
and Placia to have heen Pelasgian in his own day. 

PhU. Trans. 1891-2-8. 9 


round-barrow Brython ^f the Bronze age to have been pre- 
dominantly a broad-skulled man, though it is believed that 
the original Aryan was long in this respect rather than broad 
or round. Perhaps one might venture to regard the lake- 
dwellings of Switzerland as the homes of the mixed population 
of the JTeo-aryans. At any rate, we have an instance of the 
possibilities of the Alpine- region so late as the time of Caesar, 
when the Helvetii set out from their country en masse to 
seek a home elsewhere ; and, but for the intervention of the 
legions of Rome, they would doubtless have succeeded, as 
many similar migrations from the Alps had probably done 
before. It is interesting to note the destination of the 
Helvetii : they set out for the territory of the Santones in 
the West of Gaul : in other words, theirs was the march of 
Aryans of the P stock to conquer the territory of Aryans 
of the other stock, or else of a people perhaps more correctly 
described as not Aryan at all. 

Having endeavoured to show that the Aryans of the P 
stock emanated from a common centre, I have nothing to 
add except a word as to the wider classification suggested 
by Brugmann's treatment of the consonants of the palatal 
and velar series.^ Compare, for example, the Gothic hvas 
'who,' with its Lithuanian and Sanskrit equivalent kaSy 
which gives no indication of its ever having been knas or 
quas t similarly in the case of velar g and gh, the eastern 
group of languages show, according to Brugmann, no trace 
of u as the mark of labialization.^ On the other hand, they 
agree in differing in their treatment of palatal ^, ^, and 
gh from the languages of the western group, namely, in 
that they reduce those mutes mostly into spirants.* The 
Western Group consists of the following languages : 
Teutonic, Celtic, Italic and Hellenic, and the eastern 
group of Letto-Slavic, Albanian, Armenian, Iranian and 
Sanskrit. So our P languages take their place as a sub- 

^ Grundrisfi, vol. i. §§ 380-466. 
2 Ibid, § 417. 
5 Jbid, § 380. 

P AND 'Q- GROUPS. 131 

division of the Western Branch, which may be shown thus 
at a glance : — 

I. Labializino Languages. 

i. Those characterized, some time or 
other, by gfi, ffj^, ffkjff namely : 

1. Teufonie, 

2. a. €hidelie, 
b, Latin. 

e. JSerodotedn Greek, 

ii. Those with the u combinations 
reduced tothe labials j?) bj ^, namely: 

1. Brythonic, 

2. OseO'Umbrian, 

3. Standard Greek. 







It is right to state that Brugmann, while distin- 
guishing between the Aryan languages which labialize 
and those which do not labialize, hesitates ^ to draw the 
conclusion that the Aryan parent speech had split up into 
two dialects. In his discussion of the consonants, however, 
he is obliged to divide the whole family into the two groups, 
which have been termed respectively Western and Eastern, 
in spite of Albanian having somehow straggled out of the 
direction indicated by the geographical position of the other 
members of its group. It need scarcely be added that he 
deals with the Aryan languages and not with the ethnology 
of the nations by whom they have at any time been spoken. 

Since these conjectures of mine were written an important 
article has been published in the Nineteenth Century by Prof. 
Huxley on " The Aryan Question and Prehistoric Man " ; 
and I may say that my view is decidedly favoured by 
his conclusions, though I cannot now enter into details, 
as my paper is already longer than it was intended to be. 

^ Ibid, § 417, and note 1. 



Rev. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D. 

[Bead at a Meeting of the Fhihlogieal Society on Fridajfj April 18, 1890.) 

N.B. — A brief abstract of this paper appeared in. the Atheneeum^ April 26» 
1890 ; and another in the Academy, May 3, 1890. 

Askaunces. This difficult word, meaning ' as if/ occurs in 
Chaucer; see New E. Diet. In my belief, it is made up of 
E. as, and O.F. quanses, * as if,* a word given in Godefroy's O.F. 
Diet., with references to Romania, xviii. 152, and Forster, Cliges, 
1. 4553 (note). Thus the sense is, literally, ' as as if/ the E. a» 
being tautologically prefixed. Cf. Lat. quasi, 

Bedene, forthwith, together, etc. The etymology is unknown. 
I suggest that it is from M.E. he, hi, by, and the pp. ^dene, repre- 
senting A.S. den, done ; from this there may, perhaps, have arisen 
the sense ' by the time that it is done,' immediately on its com« 
pletion, or immediately afterwards. Cf. Mididone (below). The 
A.S. den occurs in ge-den ; * synna ser gedenra,' Cynewulf s 
Christ, 1266. The 0.!N"orthumbrian form is doen (=:^^) ; cf. 
*bi^ gidoen,' gloss to *agitur;' Durham Ritual, p. 113, 1. 20; 
cf . gidoe we, faciamus, id. p. 4, 1. 2, etc. ; \at \u ne gedae, ne 
feceris; S. Mark, x. 19, in the Lindisfame gloss. I am told that 
deen for * done ' occurs in M.E. ; the reference is probably to 
y-dee, i.e. done, in St. Editha, ed. Horstmann, 1. 290, where .y-dee 
rimes with ^^. Cf. deand, doing; St. Cuthbert, 3227. We find 
den for * done ' in O.Friesic ; see Richtofen, s.v. dua. 

Cant. From Lat. cantum, ace. of cantus, a song. Formerly 
cantum. * I pray yow, telle me what was wreton vnder the mares 
fote ? "What was it, prose or ryme, metre or verse ? I wold fayn 
knowe it, I trowe it was cantum, for I herde you synge ; ' Caxton, 
Reynard tbe Fox, c. 27 ; ed. Arber, p. 63. 

Chete, Cheat, a thing. This is an old cant term for 'thing;' 
see Cheat, sense 3, in the I^ew E. Diet.; and see OIobs. to 


Harman's Caveat. We find, indeed, the entry: * Eerum, ceatta* 
in Wright- Wiilker, Focah. 506, 28 ; but it is a general opinion 
that this is not to be relied upon, and may be due to some blunder. 
Perhaps, for seeatta. 

Cockroach. The Span, ettcaraeha also explains the variant form 
eooohch (Nares). 

Compame, in Chaucer, C.T., A 3709, certainly ought to be 
com ha me, i.e. come kiss me. At least four MSS. have this 
reading. ' (It was subsequently discovered that this suggestion 
was made by Mr. Ellis in 1870. See his E. E. Pronun. p. 715, 

Cowl, a tub. From A.S. cufl; not in the dictionaries, but the pi. 
euflaa occurs in Birch's Cartul. Saxon, iii. 367. Cf. cyflas^ in 
Anglia, ix. 264, col. 1. M.E. cuvsl, O.F. cuvele is the same word ; 
from Lat. eupella, dimin. of cupa. In Wright's Vocab. 577, 10, we 
find : * Cupa, anglice, a cupe, or a cowle.' 

Crucible. Possibly a corruption of crassiptdum or erasBihulum, a 
pot for holding grease ; cf. cresset. Observe the entry : * Crassi- 
jmlum, Crassipularium, Cruciholumf anglice, a cresset ; ' Wrt. Vocab. 
576, 9. 

Cnry, cookery ; as in M.E. * form of eury.^ So also in * Petty 
Cury, Cambridge,' i.e. cook's quarter, or quarter for eating-houses. 
From O.F. queurie, cookery (Godefroy) ; from O.F. queu, a cook ; 
Lat. ace. eocum. 

Dicker, Daykyr, a lot of ten hides. From O.F. dacre (Godefroy), 
tiie same ; Low Lat. dacra, decora ; from Lat. decuria ; from decern, 
Cf. Swed. ddcker, * a dicker ; ' Widegren. 

Dnllor. This prov. E. word, signifying * a moaning noise,' or as 
a verb, * to whimper, moan, with pain,' is spelt phonetically. The 
word cohtir BhewB that it stands for dolour, i.e. grief, anguish; 
whence the verb. 

Feckless, useless, etc. In Lowland Scotch ; see Jamieson ; 
merely short for effectless, void of efPect. ' A fectlesse arrogant 
conceit of their greatnesse and power ; ' K. James I., Basilikon 
Doron, paragraph 17. 

Filbert. I have shown that it should rather be philhert. The 
A.S. form is actually jpAt7i^r^ ; see Britton, ed. Nichols, i. 37 J, 
note 5. 

Orift, a slate-pencil (Essex). Formed, with added -t, from O.F. 
grefe, a pencil (Godefroy); Low Lat. graphium', from Greek 
r^pcupeiv. Cf. G. griffel. 


Inkling ; of undiscovered etymology. But it is solved by noting 
that E. often turns (M.E.) en into in. Hence inkling is for enkling', 
a substitution for enklin or enclin. From F. enclin, Cotgrave has : 

* Uncling an inclination, disposition, addiction, ... or humor unto.' 
Also * Enclin, inclined, bent, prone, given, addicted, or disposed 
unto.' An inkling of a truth is an inclination towards it. The' 
substantival use is lost in French ; see enelin in Godefroy. This, of 
course, is but a guess at an unsolved puzzle. 

Lascious. M.E. Vudm ; as in ' with Itteius drinkes ; ' Bobson, 
Three Met. Rom. p. 17; a variant of licius, as in *With licius 
drinke ; ' id. p. 38. Ajid licim is short for delicious ; see Wedg- 

Mididone, forthwith. It occurs in "Weber's Met. Bom. iii. 54, 
57; Seven Sages, 11. 1368, 1442. B^ally two words ; mid idone, 
with its being done, i.e. immediately afterwards ; from A.8. mid, 
with; and gedOn, done. "Weber's comic explanation — *at mid- 
night' — seems to be founded on the fact that F. midi means 

* midday.' 

Fawn, at chess. Littre is wrong in connecting it with paony 
a peacock. See O.F. peon, also paon, a foot-soldier, in Godefroy. 
^, pawn : 0,7, peon :: "E./awn : CF.feon, 

Pie, a pasty. Really from Low Lat. pica, lit. magpie ; perhaps 
from the miscellaneous nature of a pie's contents in medieval times. 
At any rate, in the Babees Book, ed. Fumivall, ii. 36, LSI, we 
find Lat. pi. pice in the sense of * pies,' in close connection with 

* Pastilliy* i.e. pasties. 

Flash, a pool. O.F. plascq, plassis, a pool (Godefroy) ; of Low 
G. origin. Hexham has : ' een Flos, ofie Plaseh, a Flash of 

Pony. The etymology of this difficult word may be found in 
Godefroy. It is from O.F. poulenet, a little colt; dimin. oipoulaini 
a colt ; from Lat. pulltiB. The I is lost before », as in Colney Hatch, 
Lincoln ; but we find Lowland Sc. powney (for polney), like stown 
for stolen, gowd for gold, 

Eail, a bar. IS'ot from Low G. regelf as in my Diet., but 
rather from O.F. reilley a rail (Godefroy). 

Eoach, a fish. M.E. roche. From O.F. roche, the name of a 
fish (Roquefort). Of Teut. origin. 

Sleigh. M.E. scleye, Mandeville's Trav. ed. Halliwell, p. 180. 
This answers to an O.F. fescleie, which would be regularly formed . 
from Low G. slede^ whence E. sled^ sledge. Cf. E. Friesic sJede^' 


eomtioinly shortened to 8li (Koolman). But Br. Murray tells me 
that our present sleigh is modem, being in 1806-9 an American 
>vord, borrowed from Butch colonists ; i.e. from sks, short form 
of slede, (The spelling imitates that of net^h.) 

Snore. This is usually deriyed from A.S. mora (Bosworth)« 
But there is no such word. The A.S. word is really fnora. 

* Sternutatio, fnora;' Wright's Vocab. 48, 14; 200, 9; 213, 21: 
277, 26. This became mare because its root-verb fn^osan became 
8HMse; perhaps, too, it was associated with snort. In Chaucer, 
G.T., B 790, the MSS. have moreth^ fnorteth^ morteth^ and even 

JranUth (!). 

Stodge. From O.F. estockier, to stab, to stop; cf. Walloon 
astohier, to fix, fill. Of G-ermanic origin; cf. G-. steehen. See 
estoehier or eatoquter in Godefroy. Cf. M.iE. stokm^ to stab, in 
Chaucer, C.T., A 2546. A form stochen seems to be established 
by Halliwell,. who gives : * Stoche, a stab ; ' Yorkshire. 
. Tennis. Of unknown origin. I draw attention to the Low 
Lat. tmoTj the palm of the hand ; from Gk. Oevapf the same. Cf . E. 
jeu de paume. The Low Lat. tmar occurs in Wright's Vocab. 158, 
14: * Uola^ uel tmar, uel ir [i.e. x«V]> uiiddeward hand.' (Probably 
wrong; but all the guesses are futile.) 

Weariflh. This word occurs in I^ares ; the right sense seems to 
be * pimpled.' Cf . * Callus, wear ; ' Wright's Vocab. 363, 30 ; 

* CalloSy wearras, ilas;' id. 363, 5; * Callosi, wearrihte;' id. 374, 
22, etc. * Wear, a hard pimple on the face;' Cockayne, A.S. 
Leechdoms, ii. 409. 


Rev. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D. 

[Read at the Fhilologieal Sae%ety*8 Meeting, June 9, 1891.] 

Alaun, Alaunt. Alaun, in Chaucer, C.T. 2150 (or 2148) means 
a large mastiff, or a wolf-hound ; see New E. Diet. It is ex- 
plained as being from O.F. alan ; cf. Ital. and Span, alano. The 
ultimate source is not given. Cotgrave has : * Allan, a kind of big, 
strong, thick-headed and short-snouted dog; the brood whereof 


came first out of Albania (old Epirus).' Pineda's Span. Diet, has : 
*AlanOf a mastiff-dog; also an Alan, one of that nation.' The 
Alani were a race of warlike horsemen, first found in Albania ; 
Smith's Classical Diet. I suggest that the Low. Lat. alanus orig. 
meant *an Alanian dog;' which gives us the etymology. In 
Higden's Polychronicon, i. 144, the great size and strength of the 
Albanian dogs are enlarged upon ; they could attack and master, 
he tells us, not only a bull, but a lion. Smith's Diet, further tells 
us that Alantts orig. meant * mountaineer ; ' from the Sarmatian 
word ala (mountain). Observe that the Molossi were also a tribe 
in Epirus; and the Lat. molossua means (1) a Molossian, and (2) a. 

Begg^. Dr. Murray shews the high probability that this word 
is nothing but a special application of the name Beghard or Begard^ 
a synonym of Beguin, and originally applied to a lay brotherhood 
who took their name from a certain Lambert B^gue. There is a 
passage in the E. version of the Eomaunt of the Rose, which is 
valuable in this connexion, and gives support to his suggestion. 
At 1. 7256, and again at 1. 7282, we find: *But Beggars with 
these hodes wyde ; ' and again : * Who may that Beggar wel 
excuse ? ' In both places, Beggar should be spelt with a capital 
letter, because the French text has Begum. Here is positive proof 
that P. Begutn and E. Beggar were used as convertible terms. The 
passage is the more remarkable, because Jean de Meun here uses 
Begutn as a term of reproach. He seems to mean, not the Beguins 
themselves, but the Franciscan friars. The passage is difficult, and 
should certainly receive attention. 

Cole. In Weber's King Alisaunder, 813—816, we find : 

* King Phelip, that was his lord, 
Gurd him with a god sweord, 
And gave him the tole aryght, 
And bad, he scholde beo god knyght.' 

The Glossary has : * Tole^ the tool, instrument, i.e. the sword. The 
Bodley MS. reads perhaps better colere^ This shews that t and o 
have been confused. The right reading is, of course, eoU or eoUe^ 
with the same sense as acotee^ an accolade (New. E. Diet.). See 
numerous examples in Godefroy, s.v. eoUe. I regret to say I did 
not discover this in time for insertion in the Dictionary ; but there 
is an excellent example of the word in Barbour, which Dr. Murray 
has duly quoted. This new example is a little earlier. , 


Derring-do. This is given, in the Century Diet., s.v. Baring-do. 
The account is partly correct. * The word was adopted by Spenser 
in the erroneous spelling derring-do, which from him and his 
imitators has become familiar in literature from Chaucer; M.E. 
dorryng don, during do, etc., a peculiarly isolated compound, from 
dorryng, mod. E. daring, pres. pt., and infin. don, to do. The 
associated phrase to dorre don, consists of the infin. do depending 
on the infinitive dorre, durre, dare, and is not, as some think, a 
compound verb.* This leaves the real error untouched. The fact 
is, that Spenser or his editors misunderstood the matter, and the 
supposed compound derring-do is not really a compound at 
all. It is curious that the editors of the Cent. Diet, should 
have seen the right construction in one case, but not in the 
other. !But we have only to look at the origincd passage in Troil. 
V. 835 : 

• . * Troilus was never, unto no wight, 

As in his tyme, in no degree secounde 

In durrtng don that longeth to a knight, 

Al mighte a geaunt passen him of might. 

His herte ay with the firste and with the beste 

Stood paregal, to durre don that him leste.' 

In the last case, to durre is dat. infin., governing the infin. don, 
and there is no composition at all. So in the former case, durring 
is not by any means a present participle, but a verbal sb., mod. E. 
daring. It is followed by the infinitive don, by an elliptical con- 
struction. The proper form would be, in full, * In the durring 
don,' where don = to do ; and in modem English we should 
probably say * In daring to do,' though the shorter form *In daring 
do ' would be idiomatic and permissible. My point is, that durring 
don is not a compound at all in Chaucer ; and if Spenser chose to 
consider it so, he was wrong in so doing. It would be ridiculous 
to talk of * daring to do it ' or * daring to go' as a compound; and to 
talk of * daring do it ' or * daring go ' as a compound is equally 

Dirk. I give an early instemce of the use of dirk in 1661 ; 
older forms are dork, durk ; Dr. Murray has * Two Scotch daggers 
or dorks* in 1602, and, in Eitson's Robin Hood, p. 78, *a drawen 
durk,* The mod. Irish word is duirc, but I do not know whether 
that is borrowed from English or not. I venture to compare the 
0. Irish delg, given in Windisch ; it means ^a thorn, a pin to 


fasten a brooch.* The mod. Irish form is dealg, *a thorn, a 
skewer, a pin, a bodkin, a prickle.' Cf. Shakespeare's use of 
hodkin in the sense of 'dagger.' We also find A.S. dale, a 
brooch-pin; M.E. dalkej a brooch-pin, in the Catholicon, a.d. 
1483. But we want more light. 

Fewte, Feute, a track. In my gloss, to Wm. of Paleme I give 
^feuUy scent, track,' and quote from Morris : ^ftiwt, a trace of a fox 
or beast of chace by the odour.' In the gloss, to Sir Oawain, 
ilorris has ^ fewte or odour,' s.v. Vewters, I wish to point out 
that, etymologically, fetote is simply * track,' and that the notion 
of * scent ' or * odour * is unoriginal. It is possible that Strat- 
mann's Dictionary is correct in deriving it from the F. fuitey lit. 
* flight ; ' hence, * a track.' The sense * odour ' was imported into 
the word; hence we find: '/w^tf, odowre' in the Prompt. Parv. 
Of course Way is wrong in connecting this ^\\hfe%Uerer ; in fact, 
he only suggests this as a guess. . ^ ^ 

Oofiflh. This is really a ghost-word. It occurs in TroU. iii. 584, 
but only in the black-letter editions, which read : * For to be war 
of goJUh peples speche.' Tyrwhitt explains it as * foolish, from the 
F. goffe, dull, stupid.' This is impossible for two reasons: (1) the 
F. goffe (see Littre and Godefroy) is not known before the 16th 
century, and appears to be merely borrowed from Ital. goffo, stupid, 
a word of unknown origin. Secondly, words in -mA are formed 
from sbs., not from adjectives ; the exception fool-ish is accounted 
for by the fact that the word fool, properly an adjective, was 
commonly used, in English, as a sb. We might add a third reason, 
viz. that Chaucer would not add the suffix "ish to an unfamiliar 

When we turn to the MSS., the Campsall MS. has go9yUfehe, by 
some mistake; for the line will not scan with this reading, nor 
does it give any sense. The Camb. MS. omits the word. But the 
Harleian MSS. have goosish, goaisBhe, though Morris's edition 
unluckily has goofish for the MS. reading goomh. Beyond question^ 
the right reading is gdsish, and the sense is goose-ish, i.e. goose-like, 
silly. Dr. Murray finds no other example of the word, but it is 
quite intelligible and legitimately formed. It is also quite in 
Chaucer's manner ; we may compare Pari. Foules, 668 :— * Lo 
here, a parfit reson of a goos ' ; and 586 : — * For sothe, I preyse 
noght the gooses reed.' I find that Chaucer uses the words 
mannish, childish, cherlish, and rammish \ and Wyclif has dogguh. 
The original forms of childish, churlish, folkish, heoAentshf and 


many more, occur in A.S. As for gofish^ it is the old story of 
misreading a long « as an/; cf. sftureSy in Malory, for eatres. 

Idle, Ydle, an isle. The form ydle^ with the sense ' isle/ occurs 
repeatedly in King Alisaunder, ed. Weber, 11. 4840, 4856, 5040, etc. 
I find no notice of it in Stratmann or Halliwell or Godefroy. I 
wish to point oat that it is formed quite regularly. In A.F. si 
becomes sdl^ as explained in my Eng. Etym. 2nd Ser. p. 236. 
Thus mesUy a medlar, became ^mesdle, whence, by loss of s, E. 
medUy the fruit of the medlar-tree ; also mesler, whence ^meadler, 
and the E. verb to meddle. So also A.F. isle became ^isdle, and by 
loss of s, ^tdle ; regularly. I find that this form is duly noted in 
Matzner, but he does not account for it quite correctly. He asso- 
ciates it with yet another form tide, which he correctly explains as 
formed with an excrescent d after /, just as we find vilde for vile in 
Tudor-English. There is, however, this distinction, that idle is due 
to an excrescent d after «, which s afterwards, as in other cases, 
dropped out. Thus tide and idle were really formed in rather 
different ways, and should be dissociated from each other to that 

Loigne, a leash for a hawk. This word occurs in the Eom. of 
the Rose, 1. 3882, where the original has longe. This is the mod. 
F. longe, in the sense of ' tether,* also spelt loigne in O.F., which 
accounts for the form here used. The Low Lat. form is longia, a 
tether (see Ducange), which is merely a derivative of loftgus, long. 
Hence the Century Dictionary merely gives a wild guess, in suggest- 
ing that loigne is another form of line. There is, of course, another 
O.F. loigne, E. loin, mod. F. longe, in the sense of ' loin ; ' from 
Lat. lumbea. It thus appears that the original sense of loigne was 
really * a long piece ' or * a length ; ' and this result is remarkably 
confirmed by another passage in the Romaunt, 1. 7050, where 
the F. text has : * II aura de corde une longe ; ' and the E. version 
has: *He shal have of a corde a loigne,'^ i.e. a length of cord, 
enough cord to bind him and lead him away to be burnt, as the 
context shews. 

Lunes, a hawk's jesses. Cotgrave gives *a hawk's lune, or leash,' 
as one of the senses of F. longe. This is the mod. F. longe, a tether. 
Low Lat. longia, a derivative of longm ; see Loigne, 

I suspect that lune is merely a variant spelling of the M.E. 
loigne, a hawk's leash. Godefroy gives the spellings loigne, longne ; 
and I think the form longne, which occurs in Froissart, is sufficiently 
near. I may add that, according to Godefroy, the distinct O.F. 


higne^ a loin, was sometimes spelt luiney which seems to shew that 
luine is a possible variant of higne, a tether. This brings us very 
near to lune. Cf . M.E. moyl, a mule. 

Lyngell. This curious word occurs twice in Libeaus Disconus, 
in Bitson's Met. Eomances, ii. pp. 37, 54, U. 861, 1274. In the 
first case, we find : ^lyngell and trappure: ' in the second, 'lyngell, 
armes, trappur was swich.' Trappure means * trappings ; ' and the 
reference is to heraldic display. I think lyngsll reprejsents O.F. 
lineal^ a linen Testment ; it may have been confused with the O.F. 
adj. Ungey made of linen; we also find O.F. lingette, linen cloth 
(Godefroy). If so, lyngell means * linen cloth,' which goes very 
well with trappings. The O.F. lirwel is from Lat. linteum, made of 
linen ; all from Lat. linumf flax. ' Lingel, a shoemaker's thread,' 
in Halliwell, does not suit the context. 

Mistery. The usual glossaries to Chaucer do not notice his use 
of misterie in the sense of * ministry ; ' but an example is given in 
the Century Dictionary, s.v. Mystery, There is another example 
of it in Morris's Chaucer, iii. 348, 1. 4, where it translates the Lat. 
officium of the Yulgate (1 Sam. ii. 12, 13): 'nescientes officium 
sacerdotum ad populum.' The Century Diet. explaiuGf it as formed 
by O.F. mestier, with added -ie or -y. I regard it as formed from 
the Low Lat. mtsterium, a shortened form of ministerium. The 
ultimate origin is the same either way. 

Moysoun, measure, size ; Eom. of the Hose, 1677. Not con- 
nected, as suggested in Bell, with moisson^ harvest, but the same 
as O.F. rnoiaoriy size, Lat. ace. memionem. See maisan in Strat- 

Oubit, a hairy caterpillar; also spelt woMt, toohat, potohet (for 
ivoubet); see Jamieson. The right M.E. form is wolbodoy which 
occurs in Wright's Vocab. 706. 15 (cf. 766. 28), misspelt tcelbode, 
and explaining Lat. hie multipes. In the Shrewsbury MS. of the 
Ortus Vocabulorum, it is written wolhede^ in which the second 
vowel is phonetically weakened. The etymology is easy, viz. 
from A.S. wul, mod. E. wool ; and an A.S. form *hoda or *buda, 
closely related to A.S. htiddaf a beetle. Cf. E. howd, a weevil, and 
botf a worm or maggot. Thus the sense is * woolly worm,' i.e. 
hairy caterpillar. Of course, wool becomes *oo* in Lowland Scotch. 
(N. and Q. 7 S. x. 324). 

Paxodie. This is among the words in Chaucer which Tyrwhitt 
says that he could not explain. The passage is in Troil. 
V. 1548. 


' Among al this, the fyn of the par6die 
Of Hector gan approchen wonder bly ve ; 
The fate wolde his soule sholde nnbodie.' 
I think it is certain, from the form of the word, that it can be no 
other than the modern parody ^ from Lat. parddia^ Gk. TraptvBia, The 
lit. sense is * a song sung beside,' and we might take it in the simpler 
sense of 'song.' I think Chaucer took it to mean 'story;' the 
sense is : — * the end of the story of Hector was quickly approach- 
ing.' We may observe that Chaucer uses * tragedie ' to mean 
' lamentable story ; ' and we may note Dante's use of * Commedia.' 
A note in Bell's Chaucer explains it from the Gk. wapoBo^, a 
passage, but used in the technical sense of the first appearance of a 
Greek chorus in the orchestra. But there are two fatal objections. 
First, the Gk. vap6Bo9 would only have given 'parod;' it could 
not easily have produced a trisyllable. Secondly, Chaucer knew 
no Greek to speak of, and he certainly had no copy of Liddell and 
Scott in which to hunt up the meaning of a technical term of the 
old Greek theatre. BelFs note adds: * parody, in the modem sense, 
has quite a different derivation;' which is precisely the point 
which I dispute. 

Pentacle. There seems to be little doubt that pentaele answers 
to the M.E. pmtangel, for which see Gawain and the Green Knight, 
1. 627. The fact that a pentacle usually meant a six-pointed star- 
shaped figure, whereas a pentangel signifies ' five-angled ' is easily 
expledned by two considerations. The first is the similarity of the 
two figures; and the second is, the partial ignorance of Greek in 
England in the fifteenth century. As to the figures, their similarity 
is proved thus. 

The pentacle was formed by two equal and equilateral triangles, 
one above the other, disposed thus : O 

The pentangel is described in * Sir Gawain ' as being ' five- 
angled,' and also as being an ' endless knot ; ' i.e. the lines forming 
it were continuous. Hence its shape was this : i^ 

The substitution of the six-angled figure was natural enough. 
It was more easily connected with astrology, as it represented six 
of the aspects called * trine ; ' whereas it was hardly possible to 
connect the pentangel with astrology in any way. 

Peridote, Perydote, the name of a precious stone. The pi. 
pery dotes occurs in a list of precious stones in Emare, 1. 155 ; in 
Ritson, Met. Rom. ii. 210. Godefroy gives O-Y, peridot t with five 
variants, and nine examples. He describes it as being of a 


yellowish green, and less hard than rock-crystal. But what the 
etymology of the O.F. form is, I do not know. 

Pomet. In Bitson's Met. Bom. ii. 55, in the Eomance of 
Libeaus Disconus, 1. 1295, we find a mention of * pomet touris,' 
where * touris ' is * towers.* It should rather be pomed ; and the 
sense is, that the towers were finished off with pomes^ i.e. apple- 
shaped ornaments, which were usually gilt. Cotgrave has : 
^Pommeau d*un tour, the ball of a tower, or middle of the top 
thereof ; that part whereon the weather- fane or weather-cock is 
planted.' Godefroy, s.v. pomel, the diminutive of O.F. pome, has 
several examples of tents and towers being thus ornamented. Cf . 
E. pommel. Similar ornaments or knobs may still be seen at the 
summit of the poles of a cricket-tent. 

Posset. I have given this as of Celtic origin ; and perhaps it is 
so. But we must not overlook the O.F. possetfe, cited in Palsgrave 
as equivalent to E. posset. The Prompt. Parv. has possot a& the 
M.E. form ; it appears also as poshoot and posset in Wright's 
Vocabularies, but does not seem to be older than the 15th century. 
The history of the O.Y.possette does not seem to be known. It 
seems to have meant a drink that is curdled, being explained by 
Lat. coagulum. 

Pray, a flock, troop. This word is nowhere correctly explained. 
Weber's glossary to his Metrical Rom. has: * Pray, Alls. 2595, 
press, crowd, rhythmi gratia ; ' which shows that he fancied it was 
a licentious form of the word * press.' Halliwell copies this in the 
form: ^ Fray, press, crowd; Weber.' The right explanation is 
something different. The lines are : * Of his people theo grete pray 
Laste twente myle way ; ' i.e. the vast host of his army extended 
for 20 miles. Pray is precisely the same word as the mod. E. prey, 
but in a very different sense. The fact is, that the Low Lat. 
prceda, O.F. proie, was used in the sense of a flock of sheep ; 
evidently because a flock of sheep was a very convenient thing 
to make a prey of. See Ducange and Godefroy. Hence, in 
this passage, it means * flock,' or * multitude,' or * host,' or 
* troop.' 

Prepense. In the phrase ^ mslim prepense,^ it might seem that 
the etymology is from the F. penser, to think, with a prefix due to 
lfi,t.pra, beforehand. But this is not so certain. The prefixes jpr<9, 
jw, and pro were remarkably confused in French ; and it is a fact 
that 'premeditated lying in wait' appears in the Laws of William I, 
•8 ' agwait parpens^ ; ' sect. 2. Godefroy gives the O.F. phrase as: 


.'de malice paurpemee.^ . Gf. 'felonie purpmse^ m BrittoQy i. 15 ; 
and the long note in Elyot's Governor, ed. Croft, ii, 375. 
, Quert. Stratmann gives: ' Qioert, tahert, adj. safe and sound; ' 
and * Quert, sb. sound, health.' Eitson, in the gloss, to his Met, 
Eomances, collects several examples, shewing that the phrase in 
quert is common; I should explain this phrase by 'at rest,' or 'in 
peace and quietness,' or ' in security.' An attempt has been made 
tx> explain it from the Er, ciAer, heart, as if the final t did not 
matter, and as if in quert meant ' in good heart,' which is a very 
forced explanation. I am clear that it is not a French word at all, 
but Scandinavian. It has the characteristic adverbial suffix -^, 
originally the sign of the neuter ; and I have shewn (Etymology, 
1, 467) that we cannot explain the final t in the words athwar-t, 
Bcan-ty tof'tf wan-t, and wigh-t (adj. active), in any other way. So 
here, the real origin is seen in an old Scandinavian form *kwert, 
neuter of ''^kwer. In mod. Icelandic, the adj. is kyrr, but the older 
form is kvirr, which, as Vigfusson notes, is common in Norse MSS. 
The Dan. form is qvtsr^ quiet, silent, still ; and the Icel. word like- 
wise means quiet, still, at rest. In Swedish, it appears only in 
phrases, as in ligqa qvar, to stay, remain ; qvar-hlifva, to remain, be 
left ; qvar-halla, to retain, lit. * to hold safe ; ' quar-lefoUy remainder, 
residue, etc. That -t is a suffix, appears from the Catholicon, 
p. 297, where we find : * to make quar-full, prosperare ; ' quarfuU 
ness, prosperitas; the same as hele [good health].' We also find 
^ quart/ulle ' in the same, and even * quarti/fuUe,^ with the senses, 

* compos, prosper, sospes.' I take it that quert was first an adv., 
then an adj., and lastly, a sb., with the successive senses * at peace,' 

* peaceful,' and * peacefulness.' We have further cognates in the 
G. ktrre, calm, and the Goth kwairrus, gentle, whence the sb. 
kwairrei, gentleness, meekness. Kluge gives *kwer as the form of 
the Teutonic root; which he writes qer. See the examples in 
yigfusson, shewing that vera kyrt meant ' to be quiet : ' aiija um 
lyrty to sit at rest, not to stir ; cf . kyrr-ligr, calm ; kyrr-laikay 
tranquillity; kyrr-sata, a living at rest. The notion of 'tranquillity' 
suits all the E. examples very well. This etymology also explains 
the variant form tvhert. 

Quilt. Notice the M.E. quelde-poynte, a quilt, exactly re- 
presenting the Lat. culcita puncta. It occurs in Gawain 
and the Grene Knight, 1. 877; but the explanation in the 
Glossary is incorrect. It does not mean a ' hassock,' but a 
^ counterpane.' 


Baiikla. I have shewn that the A.F. lonn of the Terb *t0 
rankle is rtmkUr. I have also said that it seems to be connected 
with the Lat. ranetdut, and I daresay it may really have been so 
connected in the popular mind. But the real etymology is very 
different, and past all guessing. The fact is, the word has lost 
an initial d^ as shewn by Godefroy. Grodefroy gives draanele, 
dranehj raanele, ratmeUy raneU, an eruption of the skin, or, as we 
should say, a rankling sore. The verb is drmneler, raaneler, 
ranekfj to suppurate. It is obyious that drtunele must be, in Low 
Latin, draetmeuhu; and we find accordin^y, in Bucange, that 
dra€HneulH9y also spelt draneuhu, by contraction, is a Low Latin 
term for a kind of ulcer, or, as we should say, a rankling sore; 
But draameuluSy as Ducange says, means, literally, neither more 
nor less than ' paruus draco,' i.e. a little dragon, a diminutive of 
draeo. It is thus quite clear that our verb to rankle is a derivative 
from the very Gk. sb. which we spell dragon. Dragons were 
supposed to be venomous ; and draeuneuhu probably meant, at first, 
a small venomous thing, and was applied to a poisoned or sup- 
purating wound or swelling. The Low Lat. draeuiy properly 
a dragon, also meant a demon; and Ducange quotes the phrase 
fa U draCy to play the deviL ; as well as the JF. drage^ a sorceress. 
In Kcardy, as Godefroy remarks, the initial d is still retained; 
he quotes ' j'ai le doigt drancU^ I have an inflamed (lit. rankled) 

Hebeten, to cheer. Given in Stratmann; add a reference to 
Rom. Kose, 6509. Prom O.F. reheUr^ rehaiter, rehUtier^ to cheer, 
enc<yurage ; as said in Stratmann. The etymology of the O.F. verb 
is difficult. The most likely solution is that given by Diez, that it 
i9 frotn the O.F. sb. hait, pleasure, wish, whence F. eauhaiUr ; and 
that this sb. is of Teut. origin. The Gk>th. ga-hait means a 
prcmiise ; Icel. heity a vow ; and Diez notes that, just as Lat. uotum 
combines the ideas of ^ vow ' and * wish,' so the Icel. heitf a vow, 
may be represented in the O.F. phrase a eon hait, according to his 
wi^h. Hence we come to the idea of pleasure, cheerfidness, etc« 
Bchade takes the same view ; under M.H.G. hetz, a command, 
premise, he ranges O.F. haity wish, pleasure; O.F. haitury to 
i'b€ME>r, and F. eouhaity a wish ; and refers us to Dies. 

Benciaa. I only know of two examples of this rare word. It 
f»ccur*i in Morrises Old English Miscellany, p. 92, L 70, and p. 96, 
1. 106. AVe there find mention of ' robes of russet, ne of rencgtm\* 
and again, ' vouh, ne gray, ne rencgan** It vras therefore the name 


of some sort of garment. Morris explains it by 'a robe of a roan 
colour/ but gives no reason, and it looks like a guess. The real 
sense is ' a robe made at Bbeims ; ' and the etymology is from the 
O.F. adj. raencien, given by Godefroy as an adj. formed from that 
place-name. The suffix -ten is adjectival ; Lat. -ianus. 

Sespioe. Respice is given as the name of an unknown wine in 
the Squier of Low Degree, 1. 756 ; ed. Eitson. I should guess it 
to stand for raspice, and to be allied to raspure^ given in Godefroy 
as occurring in the phrase vins de raspure, Cf. rape (for rdpe^ Le. 
ratpe) in Cotgrave, as the name of a thin wine. Perhaps allied to 
E. ratp-herri/. 

Bideled^ gathered, pleated, Bom. of the Eose, 1235. This is a 
verb formed from M.E. ridel^ O.F. ridely a curtain ; see Stratmann. 
The sense is that the garment mentioned was pleated at the neck, 
like a surplice. Halliwell refers to EeliquisB Antiquae, i. 41, 
where we read of * filettis, and wymplis, and rydelid gownes.* It 
does not mean * riddled with holes,* as suggested in Bell's Chaucer. 

Scale. I give, in my Dictionary, a quotation from Gower about 
* the scales of a fish ; ' and another from P. Plowman which 
mentions * the scale (or shalf) of a walnut.* I have not made it 
clear, however, that the form scale must be of P. origin, viz. from 
O.F. escale, because the A.S. sceale or scale would only give the 
form shale. The ultimate source is, of course, the same, because 
the F. escale is from the cognate O.H.G. scala, but it makes a 
difference phonetically. There is a good example of O.F. esealCf a 
shell, in the Gloss, to N. Bozon, Contes Moralises, 

Soak. I note, in my Diet., that the A.S. form should be socian, 
but that it is unauthorised. But it occurs in Cockayne's Leech- 
doms twice, in the phrase *l»t socian,' i.e. let it soak; ii. 240; 
iii. 14. 

Taut. Spelt taught in Phillips, 1706. M.E. toht in Stratmann, 
also spelt toffht in Chaucer, C.T., D 2267. Pp. of toghen^ from 
Icel. tog a J to draw, draw together ; a secondary verb from tjiiga^ to 
draw, cognate with G. Ziehen, Cf. E. tow, verb; practically, a 
doublet of towed. 

Tranter, a carrier.* Given as a dialect-word in Halliwell; it 
occurs in Hardy's novels. I think it refers to the old time when 
carrier's carts went at a foot-pace, and the carrier walked slowly 
beside the horse; or (as Dr. Murray suggests) to a still older 
time when tranters trudged along, carrying their packs on their 
own shoulders. See trant, tranten, in Stratmann. Hexham^s 

FhU. Tram. 1891-2-8. 10 


Du. Diet, has : * tranUleny or tranten, to goe lazely, softly, or a 
soft pace.' Also : * een Trant, a march, a pace, or a step.' TJlti- 
mately allied to E. trend, trundle, 

Trayeres. This word occurs in Rich. Coeur de Lion, 4785 ; in 
Weber's Met. Rom. ii. 188. The line is — *Berges, schoutes, 
trayeres fele.' The Glossary has : * IVat/eres, long boats, resembling 
trays or troughs.' This is all pure invention. But it is copied in 
Halliwell, who has : * Trayeres, long boats : Weber.' But the fact 
is, it is a ghost- word. By the ordinary mistake of t for e, it is a 
misprint for erayeres, a well-known word, discussed by me before 
this Society, June 7, 1889. 

Vewter. In Sir Gawain and the Grene Knight, 1. 1146, the 
word vewters occurs ; it is explained in the Glossary by * men who 
tracked deer by \hefetote or odour.' To this there are two obvious 
objections ; (1) men are not usually educated up to such keenness 
of scent ; and (2), fewte does not necessarily mean odour. I deal 
with this second objection under the heading Fewte. 

The fact is, that / never becomes t; in this poem, as far as I 
know; the West-Midland Dialect hardly admits of it. Hence I 
take vewters, if correct, to mean a kind of dog, which in O.F. was 
veutre, and in Cotgrave is vaultre, and in Dante appears as veltro. 
But the context suggests that vewters refers rather to men, in which 
case it is a mere corruption of vewtrers ; cf. Low Lat. veltraritts, a 
man in charge of ventres. I have fully explained all about this in 
my article on Feuterer, read before this Society on Nov. 6, 1885. 
But we may go further ; vewter is no error, but simply a corrupt 
form of vewtrer, the former r being dropped. This will account 
for the entry : * Vewter, a keeper of hounds ' in Halliwell, given, 
unfortunately, without a reference. This shews that the right 
explanation might have been found in Halliwell. Moreover, I can 
supply a reference. It occurs in the Glossary to Dr. Fumivall's 
Edition of the Babees Book, with a note on the word, which is 
correct throughout. We can now explain the passage : * To 
trystors vewters yod, Couples huntes of kest ; ' i.e. Men with grey-p 
hounds went to stand beside the tristors, or men who kept the 
stations, and the hunters then cast oS. the couples, i.e. removed the 
leashes from the dogs. 

Wayz-goose. I find this term in Bailey, ed. 1731. He says: 
* Way^-goose, a Stubble Goose, an Entertainment given to Journey- 
it .the beginning of winter.' No doubt the entertainment is 
front the feust that a ' stubble-goose ' formed a principal dish 


at the feast. I have said, in Not$% and Qusrietij that this taai/z is 
the same word as that which appears in Baily as ' Way%y a bundle 
of straw/ though the latter word is more commonly spelt wasey and 
its commonest sense is a straw pad, for carrying a weight on the 
head. I have been told, also in Notes and Queries^ that I have not 
proved my point, as to the identity of way%j stubble, and wase^ 
a straw pad. But I believe it is quite capable of proof, and that 
the connection will appear to any one who consults the Swed. Dial. 
Diet, of Eietz and other authorities whom I shall mention. More- 
over I take the word to be of native origin. From the A. 8. 
wrtthan^ to writhe or twist, which is a strong verb, we have the 
sb. tordseny a chain, lit. a twist, for which see Grein. This would, 
regularly, have become wrOse in Mid. English ; but we find what is 
doubtless an allied form in the M.E. ivrase, also warse, noted in 
Stratmann. Thus, in O.E. Miscellany, ed. Morris, we have : * Of 
one wrase of thornes, he wrythen hym one crune,' i.e. of a twist or 
wreath of thorns, they wreathed our Lord a crown. I think this 
form answers to an A.S. ^wrMhSy which would regularly become 
wrasSy by vowel- shortening. Then the r shifted, as shown in the 
Catholicon, which has the entry : * A tvarsey fasciculus;' at p. 425. 
We should particularly notice that, though spelt way it is entered, 
alphabetically, as if it began with wr. Of course, this is the same 
word. Next, we may note that Mr. Herrtage, in his note on the 
word, tells us that to arse is * probably a slip for wase,^ because tease 
occurs in M.E. with the sense of a pad of straw ; it also means 
* hards,' or a wisp or bundle of hards for stopping up a hole with. 
But the fact is just the contrary, viz. that toase is a corrupted form 
of tparse (the equivalent of tvrase), due to the loss of the r. In this 
way, we see that taase, a wisp, twist of straw, is formally connected 
with torasey and is ultimately derived from A.S. tcrlthan, whence 
also E. wreath. In fact wase and wreath have the same sense, and 
only differ in shewing diffierent suffixes. 

It remains to show the connection with stubble. To begin with, 
these twists were usually made of straw, and the connection 
between * straw' and * stubble ' is sufficiently close.. But it appears 
more clearly in this. The Swed. dial, vrase is explained by Rietz 
to mean precisely the com which, in reaping-time, was not bound 
up in the sheaves, but was left by the binders, and raked up into 
heaps afterwards. This is just the very thing out of which the 
goose would pick up its living; I take a stubble-goose to mean 
precisely a goose which is turned into the corn-fields after the com 


is reaped and carried. Further, Kietz says that vrase or vase also 
means the lowest layer of hay in a hay-loft, though this may be 
a different word. Hence we may equate the form vraw with 
the common Swedish vase^ a sheaf of com; Norweg. vase, a 
wisp or bundle of thread or of hair, a bundle or heap of brush- 
wood ; Dan. dial, vaaey a sheaf, a bundle of straw with the com in 
it (Molbech). Then, again, Hexham gives Du. was$, a torch, 
clearly because a torch was a * twist,' as the derivation of torch 
shews. I think this is enough to shew that wrase and warM and 
wa9e are the same word, and that the senses were: (1) a twist, 
hence, a wreath, wisp, bundle, esp. of straw or faggots, and (2) a 
heap of straw, and hence, the leavings of com in the fields, on 
which geese were fattened. The Du. Waae^ turf, is a different 
word; see Schade, who distinguishes A.S. tordsen, a chain, twist, 
from IVI.H.G. torase, G. Eaaen, turf; and shews that they are 
probably from different roots. I mention this last point, only to 
shew that I have not overlooked it. Lastly, I would observe that 
a similar loss of r occurs in dacej formerly daree, derived from O.F. 
dars, a dart ; and again, in gashy formerly garee, from O.F. fforseTf 
to scarify, to lance. ^N'.B. I find an instance of teasey a wisp of 
straw, in Lydgate's Troy-book, ch. 34 ; fol. t6, back, col. 1. 

Ynly. Halliwell notes the wonderful word *ytt^, handsome,' as 
given by Eitson ; but thinks it is an error for y«^. There is no 
doubt about it ; tnhf often means ' closely ' or * narrowly ; * the line 
is — ' He behelde ynly hur face ; ' Erl. of Tolous, 337. The sense 
' handsome ' is wrong. 



GLOSSARY. By Whitley Stokes, D.C.L. 

{Bead December 4, 1891.] 


OoEMAc's Glossary is a mediaeval Irish Etymologicum, full 
of absurd attempts to trace words to their sources, but 
valuable, partly as explaining many obscure vocables, 
partly as containing extracts from ancient law-books, 
whereof some are now lost, and partly as preserving sundry 
traditions and legends which interest the student of Celtic 
history, folk-lore and romance. It is ascribed to Cormac, 
the king-bishop of Cashel, who was slain in battle in the 
year 903 ; but its language proves that it was not written 
much before the eleventh century, when the change from 
Old- to Early-Middle-Irish had set in. 

Two complete copies of this Glossary are known. The 
elder is in the Lobar Brecc, a fourteenth century MS. in 
the library of the Royal Irish Academy, pp. 263 to 272 
of the fac-simile, Dublin, 1876. The younger is in the 
Yellow Book of Lecan, a vellum in the library of 
Trinity College, Dublin, cols. 3 to 87. This part of the 
codex was written in the beginning of the sixteenth 
century. Three fragments also are known, one in the Book 
of Leinster, a vellum of the middle of the twelfth century, 
p. 179 of the facsimile, Dublin, 1880, another in a Bodleian 
MS. of the fifteenth century, and a third, containing only 
the articles Prull and Mug 4me, in ff. 76*-76* of Harl. 
5280, a vellum in the British Museum. The Lebar Brecc 



copy and the fragment in the Book of Leinster were 
published in Three Irish Glossaries^ London, 1862, and a 
translation of the former by John O'Donovan was printed in 
Calcutta, in 1868. The copy in the Yellow Book of Lecan 
has not yet been printed ; but a photographic facsimile of it 
and the rest of the vellum in which it is contained will be 
published next year by the Boyal Irish Academy, with fiinds 
supplied by the British Govemment. The Bodleian fragment 
now for the first time appears in extenso} It is taken from 
the MS. marked Laud 610, which has been described by 
Dr. Todd (Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, ii. 336) 
and by Dr. O'Donovan {Book of Rights, pref. xxviii, xxxiii). 
This fragment begins at fol. 79* with the last four words 
of the article iartnMre,^ and it ends at fol. 86* with the 
article turigein, the nine articles beginning with u being 
omitted. The scribe of this part of the MS. was Se&n 
Buidhe O'Ol^righ, and his colophon, written in 1440, runs 
as follows : 

IShe annala inTig^ma inudir 
doscriboi in sanasan so na Salt- 
rach .1. mile hli&dan 7 ceithri 
cet hlisidan 7 tri bliaina dec 7 
deijichitf in cuiced li domf Febra 
7 into^rA^mad Id donesca. misi 
Seaan Bvidhi oCleiny doscrib 7 
dl^lmann Bvillter mac Risterd 
doscrihad sanasan Saltrach Oor- 
maia so. 

This is the year of the Lord 
when this little Glossary of the 
Psalter hath been written, to 
wit, a thousand years, and four 
hundred years, and two score, 
the fifth day of the month of 
February, and the eighth day of 
the moon. I am Yellow John 
O'Clery who wrote this, and 
for Edmund Butler Mac Eichard 
hath been written this little 
glossary of Cormac's Psalter.' 

^ The articles Imbast foromai, Modehroth^ Mug Sme^ iVdf and Pdtraie were 
published from Laud 610 in the Tripartite Lift of Patrick, Bolls Series, pp. 668 

' d.h. die unbetonten Worter, die fiir die Alliteration nioht mittiihlen, 
Thumeysen, Irische Texte, 3** eerie, 1. heft, s. 116. 

3 i.e. the compilation called the Psalter of Cashel, as to which see Petrie 
£cch$iastical Architecture of Ireland, pp. 38, 39, and 0* Curry, Zeeture* on 
the MS. Materials of Irish History, p. ll. 



The history of the MS. is continued by the following entry 
on the opper margin of fo. 110^ : 

Salttair moic Ruisd^ Buitil^ 
•L 'Emaim Buitiler, in tsalttair 
see nogo dtaca[d] maidm Baile 
in f Poill ar iarla Urmuisan 7 
91 mac Eoifidfrd le iarla Desmu- 
man .i. TomM, 7 do bained in 
leab«r so 7 Leabar na Garmigi 
as huaglad mete Euisderd, 7 isse 
in M«c Buisdsrd sin do ohuir na 
leabaiir sin da scribad do fein no- 
gur bain Tomas iarla Desmuman 
amach iad.' 

This Psalter (was) the Psalter 
of Mac Richard Butler, to wit, 
Edmund Butler, until the defeat 
at Baile in Phoill (now Pilltown) 
was inflicted on the Earl of 
Ormond and on Mac Richard by 
the Earl of Desmond, to wit, 
Thomas.' And this book and 
the Book of Carrick were taken 
in ransom for Mao Richard, and 
it is that Mac Richard who caused 
those books to be written for 
himself, until Thomas Earl of 
Desmond took them away. 

0*Clery must have transcribed from a very ancient 
manoflcript, for the language and spelling of this Bodleian 
fragment (£.) are far more archaic than those of the copy 
in the Lobar Brecc {LB,), the oldest complete copy known 
to exist. The comparison of a few forms will justify this 
assertion. The corresponding forms in the Yellow Book 
of Lecan (F.) have been added. 

laud 610. 





tarsa mullag 

forsa crand-sin 



na semmand (ace. pi.) 

ond anmuim sin 

don chrund 

forrumither . 

banbrugid (nom. pi.) 


Lehar Brece, 





darin mullach 

forsan crand sin 



na semanda 

on ainm sin 

do crand 




Yellow Book o/Z&ean. 





tar mullach 

forsin crandsin 



na semand 

on anmain sin 

don crund 




' There is an incomplete and inaccurate copy of this entry in the Proceedings 
9/ the R^ifol IrUk Academy, ii. 338. 
* The eighth Earl, who was beheaded at Drogheda in 1467. 


In the Bodleian fragment the neuter article is still in use 
(an-i, a tenm l&ida, s.v. imbas forosnai, an-etag, an-^tach, 
s.y. legam, a c^tnae, an-aithesc, 8.y. ktheeh, a muin, a nduiu, 
a mbraut^ s.v. modebroth, al-lathi-sin, s.v. mairt, tar-sa- 
muUag, S.Y. malland, for-sa-crand-sin^ s.v. nescoit, i-sal-leth 
n-aill, S.V. prull). Neuter stems in n are declined as in 
Old-Irish: thus we have sg. gen. anma, s.v. Morann, dat. 
anmuim, s.v. Mumu, dual nom. da n-ainm, s.v. Morann, pi. nom. 
il-anmantif s.v. rout, ace. semmend, aemmandy gen. aemmend, s.v. 
nescoit, dat. cmmonnaib, s.v. nemnall, rSmennaib, s.v. triath. 

Comparatives in -thir are frequent: buidithir, caissidir^ 
cuirrithir, duibithir, glaiasidir, luaithidir — all s.v. pruU. A 
superlative is nessam, s.v. ore tr^ith, from *nedh8mm0'8, 
cognate with Fmbr. and Osc. neatmo-, Skr. ^nah, naddha, 
nadh. So airegdam, s.v. pruU. Moaib, s.v. nemnalli is 
probably a scribal error for moam, another superlative. 

Infixation of pronouns is still in full force. Thus : 

sg. 1, fo-m-geillsaty s.v. pdtny and imm-om-loiscet, nom-leicid-si, 
rom-bia, atotn-glaite-sa, all s.v. prull, 

sg. 2f ro-t-hucy s.v. mumUf and inn-ot-bia, ni-t-aicelladar, nit- 
acelladar, s,y, prulL 

sg. 3, masc. d: ro-d-torinnai, s.v. lethech; immi-d-comairc, s.v. 

prulL . , 

dn; do-dn-gnf, s.v. nitk; do-dn-g6na, s.v. tmhaa 

idn : ass-id-cfd, s.v. prull ; imm-id-r6t, s.v. rout. 
for-idm-bi, s.v. la%th\ ar-idm-boi, s.v. xmbaB 
tn: co-tn-gair, co-tn-aitib| no-tn-acclestar, all s.v, 

a : d-a-bir, s.v. imhas forosnai. 
da: con-da-forruimi, s.y. ninus; cota-gair (=coth- 

da-g.), s.v. imhas forosnai, 
n : do-n-iced, s.v. nescoit ; amach-n-imp[ar3ra, 8.v. 
imhas forosnai ; ta-m-bert, s.v. ore* 
fern. 8 : ni-s-fuair, s.v. prull. 
pi. S. da: ata-gladastar (=ad-da-g.), b,y, pruU, 

OS, s: imm-os-coemorcuir, s,y. prull; do-s-leicit, ro-s- 
fuair, s.v. ore. 


' Infixed relative : intan didiu ro-m^bo bmitlie, s.v. letheeh ; imm- 
an-dergthar, s.v. U09 ; intan tra do-p*anic, s.v. prull ; is do con- 
a-secrad, s.v, mairU 

The verbal forms are equally i^r^haio* Thus : 

Verbal prefix infixed : f ort-ro-r-gell, s.v, %mla9 \ far-ro-laig, b.v. 
letheeh; do-de-r-saig (=*to-di-ro-od-8eoh), s.v. mu^ ime\ do-r-6nad, 
8,Y, prull; pi. do-r-onta, s.v. mug ime; fo-r-aobad, s.v. imhM. In 
do-ind-ar-scansat (from ^-{nd-ro-scansat), s.v. mug Sme, as in /(h 
ind-fur-lid (gl. subintravit) Wb. 3^ 6, and timm-ar'naif lism. Lives, 
222, 225, we seem to have a metathetic form of the posttonio ro, 

Orthotonic forms of compound verbs: adnmludur, s.v. tMmn; 
ad-rimedy s.v. rinene; at-cess, as-bert, s.v. p9^; as-con-grad, s.v. 
mugime; as-soilgi, s.v. lock; atopair, s.v. imhasforosnai; con-acrad, 
s.v. letheeh ; con-daig, s.v. mug erne ; do-ad-benar, s.v. imhas faromat ; 
do-aitni, s.v. samrad; do-bert, s.v. ore; do-fuisim (*to-fo-ess-sem-), 
s.v. lesmae; do-fuarascaib, s.v. tmhas foromai; do-g6niy s.v. mug 
erne; do-indarsoansat, s.v. miig ime; fo-r-acaib, s.v. mug erne; for-> 
rumither, s.v. nesedit ; imme-luinethar, s.v. loea. 

Enclitic forms of compound verbs : (con)epert, s.v. mu^ hie ; 
(ni)fargaib, s.v. imhas forosnai ; (hi)fairmither, s.v. neaeoit; (co nach) 
tarmesca, (arna) tarmescatar, s.v. imhas forosnai; (ni) tardad, s.v. 
ore ; (na) tarta, s.v. mug im$ ; (arna) eillnet, s.v. r6ut (where 
eillnet stands for isslenet, cf. the orthotonic as-Unaimm, Sg. 54* 8) ; 
remeperthe, s.v. prull; tait, s.v. milgetan; (na) hacaldai, s.v. 
prull. In tohrethf s.v. letheeh, tohert, s.v. mug eme, and ta-m-hert, 
s.v. ore, an enclitic is wrongly used for an orthotonic form. 

The conjugations are still distinguished in the third sg. 
present ind. act. Thus we have the following subjoined (or 
* conjunct ') forms : 

0- verbs: atfet, s.v. letheeh ; imm-id-r6t, s.v. rdut; atopair, s.v. imhas 
forosnai; con-gair, cota-gair, dicain ihid. ; di-eim, s.v. ollam; do-beir, 
da-bir, s.v. imhas forosnai; do-fuisim, s.v. lesmac; do-fuarascaib, 
s.v. imhas forosnai; do-ling, 8,y. prull; do-roich, s.y, pam; do-d-roig 
s.v. rdut; fargaib, s.v. imhas forosnai ; fo-cren, s.v. rdut, for-dingair, 
s.vv. laithy letheeh, mairenn; con-daig, s.v. mug ime; t-ic, s.v v. 
orCy dimelgg, and apparently (nad) fosad-som, s.v. legam, 

a- verbs: do-bruchta, s.v. tipra; forosnai (from *for-od-sunna), 
con-cna, s.v. imhas forosnai ; tim-chella, s.vv. /o^«, seeng ; fodera 
(=fo-d-fera) s.v. mairenn ; do-srenga, s.v. rop. 


e- verbs: do-d-gnf, s.v. nith; pass. sg. 3, do-gnfther, s.t. imhas 

i-verbs: assoilgi, s.v. loch; contuili, s.v. imhas forosnai; do- 
aitni, s.v. samrad; docruidi, s.v. loch ; forroimi, b,v. prull. 

The so-called consuetudinal forms in -ann, "enn do not occur. 
This points to a date before A.n. 1100. 

Absolute forms: benuid s.v. orCy sochtaid s.v. prvlly sluinnith 
s.v. laithf bfid s.v. hngfitery doithid s.v. mug dime : with suffixed 
pronouns : cingth-i, s.v. pndl,^ rant-ai (=rannaith-i), s.v. ore. 
Pass. sg. 3 6tithiry s.v. Idmand; bithir, s.v. imbas forosnai; 
lethaidir, ferthair, s.v, Uthseh^ promthair, s.v. pain, maeltair, s.v. 
rane ; pi. 3, deiligtir, s.v. triath. 

Subjoined (or 'conjunct') forms: pi. 3, dofocbat, immom-loiscet, 
r-ecat, s.v. pndL Do-s-leicit, s.v. ore^ should be do*8-leicet. 
Pass. sg. 3 doadbenar, dognfther, s.v, imhas forosnai^ aracialltar, 
fossaimther, s.v. Isgam^ imma ndergthar, s.v. leos^ oo n-oenaigtlier, 
s.v. twrtgin, doberar, s.v, Uthechy imcomarcar, s.v. naimsy adfiadar, 
s.v. nsscoit, fothruicther, s.v. pruU, i ngabthar, s.v« ssn; pi. 3, 
i nglanaiter, ara nglanaiter, 8.v. rdut. 

Reduplicated preterites are : 

sg. 3, atchonnairc (^^derk^ Skr. dadarga, hihopKe), s.v. prull; 
do-chuaid {^kud, Skr. eodai/dmi), s.vv. mug erne, prull ; do-doochaid, 
s.vv. ninuSy prttil, roscad ; pass. sg. 3, dochuas, s.v. ore ; ra-cuala 
(from *kuklave^ Skr. qu^Qva\ s.v. letheeh ; ni thanic, s.v. mug erne, 
do-n-anic, s.v. prull, co famaic, s.v. ore {^ank^ Skr. y^^if , dnamga) ; ro 
gdid {= Skr, jagdda), s.v. ore; dorrumidir (Goth, mitan), s.v. laith; 
do coemnacair {^nank, Lat. nane-iseor), s.v. ore ; immos-coemorcuir, 
s.v. prull (cf . imchomarcair, LIT. 62» 7, y/ark^ Skr. prag). 

pi. 3, con-accatar (^kas, Skr. yjcaksh for cakas\ s.v. prvXl; ro 
lollatar (\/Zj, Skr. -lili/e), s.v. morann; romebdatar (leg. -memdutar, 
^mat, cf. Skr. mamdtha), a mbatar, s.v. prull. Absolute form: 
batir, s.v. ore. 

T-preterites are : 

sg. 3, ro-dn-ort, s.v. lathirt (cf. ro ort * delevit,' LIT. 48®, ^org) ; 
conammelt {^mel^ Lat. mofo), s.v. mug ime ; luid, do-luid (,^lu=plu), 
s.w. orCy mug erne; doriucart (=*to-ro-od-gar-t), fris-gart {^y/gar^ 

^ Such forms originally, perhaps, belonged to the middle Toice. Tbns herxd 
mav be from *b^ete=<p4p€reu, as no-bered is certainly = ^-^/prro. See II. 
Coflitz in BeEZ. Beitr. xvii. 232, note, where he sug^gests that the absolute 
inflection is deyeloped from the old middle, and the conjunct {'beirt^hsX, fer-t) 
from the actiye. 


Lith. ^tWt^), s.T. prull; as-bert, s.v. lethecH; to-bert, s.v. mu^ ime, 
ad-acht, 8.t. rinene (cf. do-sn-acht, imm-act, ^ag^ Lat. agOf Gr. dyw). 

pi. 3, bertatar, as-bertatar, s.v. prull {^ber, Lai.fero, Gr. (Pdpu)) ; 
for-m-achtatar, 8.v. mdU (cf. do-ru-acbtatar, Z'. 457, ^aky 
8kr. ag). 

Reduplicated future: sg. 1» ni geb-sa, s.v. mttg Sme; sg. 2, 
asbdra, s.t. lethsch; sg. 3, do-dn-gena, s.v. imhas ftfrosnai ; ass-m- 
bSra, B.T. Utheeh. Secondary form, sg. 3, nach ep^rad, s.v. morann, 

S-future, sg. 2, ui naiss, s.v. mdl; deponential : meser, s.v^ 
ugimlas ; sg. 3, ara udig, s.v. rdui : dep. cini fiastar, s.v. pam ; pi. 
3 (relative), cicbsite, s.v. tnann. Secondary forms : sg. 3, co feissed, 
ara tissed, 8. v. Utheeh ; co taudcbissed, s.v. ore} The curious form 
iwrthu^ s.v. r6ut, seems=iMr<ii, the secondary redupl. s-fut. of 
wrgimy^ plus a suffixed pron. of the 3rd plur., just as iMhund, 
LU. 108* 19, iB^iurad plus a suffixed pron. of the 1st plur. 

Passive forms of the verb substantive are bithir, s.v. tmhas 
farommiy and -tathar, s.v. pndL £eihir, -Mher occurs in the 
Wurzborg codexf but I have not met tdthar in Old-Irish. 

So much from the grammarian's point of view. To the 
lexicographer all the articles now published, but especially 
rane and rdut, are of value. The historian of the move- 
ments of races in the British islands will find one of his 
most trostworthy documents in the article Miigh ^me. Irish 
folklore and mythology are illustrated by the articles Imbass 
faraanai, Lugnamd, Leas, Mil/iud, Morand, Mugh Sme, Man* 
annan mac lir, N^it, Ninus, Ruad ro/easa, Sin, and Triath : 
Irish manners and customs by Laarg, Leithech, Milgetan^ 
and Ollam: Irish law by Matt, Mann, Noe, Noes, Neas^ 
Segamla and Sau : Irish romance by Nescdit, Ore, Prull, 
Rinene, and Serb. All these matters are more fully 
noticed in the preface to Three Irish Olossaries, and in 
the annotations to O'Donovan's translation of Oormac's 
Glossary, To that preface and those annotations the notes 
at the end of this paper may be taken as supplemental. 

W. S. 

> See as to iurad 'occideret,' Thumeysen, Retue Celtique, vi. 96, 372, note, 
and Hogan, ibid. yiii. 636. With Ir. or^tm, cf. the O.W. orpiat (gl. caesar, 
i.e. eaesor), and Gaol. Orgtlo^m, which Penaon connects with Gr. ip4xB», 



Laud 610. 

[fo. 79».] hurusa a thascelad ind. 

IMbas forosnai .i. dofuarascaib 8echi[p]ret bas maitb lasin filid 
7 bas adlacc ' do doiaillsigod. Is amlaid on didiu dognfther on 
.i. concnd infill mfr dochamu dirg muiee nd chon no cbaitt, 7 dabir 
iarum forlicc iarcul nacomlad, 7 dicbain* dicbetal fair, 7 ato[d]pair 
do deib idol, 7 cotagair do, 7 nifargaib iarum amabaracb, 7 dicain ^ 
iarum foradabais,^ 7 congair deo * idol chuici ama tarmescat[b]ar • 
achotluth, 7 dobeir adabois imadaleccoinn ^ 7 contuili, 7 bithir 
oca[f]horairi amacb nimpra^ 7 connacb tarmesca* necb, 7 do 
adbenar*® do iarum anf aridmboi" cocend nomaithe" no ado nd 
atrf fut gardi cotmeiss^(^ '^ occond audbairt. JSt ideo imbas dieitur 
.i. bas disiu 7 bass anall imacenn. Atrarpi'* Patraicc anisein 7 
atenm laida, 7 f(j>rtrorgell " [a briathar] napa[d]nime na talman 
naoboen dodngena, ar is diultud bathiss. [col. 2] Dicbetal dochen- 
daib immorro i core^ cberdse foracbad^^ son, ar issoas fot^ra son, 
7 nibecen audpairt do demnaib occu, acht aisn6i& dicbendaib 
achname focbetoir. 

Laech .i. a laico. Laicbes .i. laecb 7 fess : is^^ dinfess foas la laecb. 

Ligur .i. tengu, 

Lugna8a[d] .i. nasad Loga maio Etblend .i. oenaob nofertba 
laissom imtbaitti fogomair. 

Lelap .i. laulep .i. lau cech mbec. 

Lesmac .i. lismac .i. arindi dofuisim liss dond[f]ir nd donmnai 
inti is lesmac donecbtar de. Sfc lessathair 7 lesmatbair. Les'^ 
daTio qmai lis ^^ .i. immorgal ^ no debuid. 

Legam .i. ligem, dindlige liges anetag. [K6] ligditb .i. aitb fri 
liga. M ariu em nad fosadsom^^ fri oacb n6tach cenibetis liga 
imbi, acbt ismenciu aracialltar^ 7 fossaimtber an^tacb liga quam 
aliud uestimentum. 

1 adlaic, T. ' d6cai, L. ' dochain, Y. * foradibois, T. • wr, T. ; 
dano, L. ^ tarmascthar, Y. "^ adibois ima dilecain, Y. ^ n-impairae, Y. 
® toirmescae, Y. *o doadbanar, Y. ^i aradmbi, Y. 1* ndmaide, Y. 

^^ fut ngair ^omessad, Y. ** Atrorbe, Y. '* fotroirgell, Y. i* fodracbad 
son i corus cerdae, Y. " tiCf Y. ; 7, L. ^* Lis, L. *® liss, L. '° imargail, Y. ; 
imorgal, L. '^ na denand som fos, LB. ^^ araciallathar, Y. 



easy to disclose it therein. 

Imhaa fwroma ' Manifestation that enlightens ' : (it) discovers 
what thing soever the poet likes and which he desires to reveal. 
Thus then is that done. The poet chews a piece of the red flesh 
of a pig, or a dog, or a cat, and puts it then on a flagstone 
behind the door-valve, and chants an incantation over it, and offers 
it to idol gods, and calls them to him, and leaves them not on the 
morrow, and then chants over his two palms, and calls again idol 
gods to him, that his sleep may not he disturbed. Then he puts 
his two palms on ids two cheeks and sleeps. And men are watch- 
ing him that he may not turn over and that no one may disturb him. 
And then is revealed to him that for which he was (engaged) till 
the end of a ndmad (three days and nights) or two or three for the 
long or the short time (?) that he may judge himself (to be) at 
the offering. And therefore it is called Imm-baSy to wit, a palm 
{has) on this side and a palm on that around his head. 

Patrick banished that and the Tenm Idida ' illumination of song,' 
and declared that no one who shall do that shall belong to heaven 
or earth, for it is a denial of baptism. Dichetal do chennaih 

* extempore incantation,' however, that was left, in right of art, 
for it is science that causes it, and no offering to devils is necessary, 
but a declaration from the ends of his bones at once. 

Laech * hero ' from laicm. Laichess * heroine,' that is laech and 
fees * sleep : ' it is from the sleep which she sleeps with the hero; 

Ziffor, that is * tongue.' 

Lugnanad * lammas-day,' that is the festival {nasad) of Lugh, son 
of Ethliu, to wit, a fair that was held by him at the beginning of 

Lelap * child,' that is lau-lep, Lau is everything small. 

Lesmae 'step-son,' that is Us-mae, because dissension (lis) is 
caused to the husband or to the wife by him who is step-son to 
either of them. Even so Us-athair 'step-father,' and les-mathair 

* step-mother.' Les, then, quasi /»», that is * contest or quarrel.' 

Legam * moth,' that is Ugemy from the licking with which it 
licks the raiment, or Ug-dtthf that is, * sharp against colours.* 
Not because it does not settle on every cloth, though there be no 
colours thereon, but the coloured cloth is perceived (?) and is settled 
on oftener than another vesture. 


Lecconn .i. leccend .i. leth chenn. 
Lassamuin ab eo quod est lass- [coL 3] -im .i. cech n^. 
Lemlacht .i. lacht t^ith .i. lem cech t^ith. 
Loch dede fordingair .i. loch .i. dub. rmde dieitur assoilgi laith 
loch bronna .i. dub bronna .i. cid dorche samud cdich 7 cid rundae ^ 
riam 7 iarum, docruidi aruna laith do 61. Loch dano .i. huili, tuk^ 
dieitur loch dub .i. hnile dub. 

Laarg .i. leo ball 7 arg .i. laech. ball, dagldich insin .i. 

Lam .i. luam in ' chuirp. 

Lamas .i. lamtbss .i. foss l&me. 

Ldmand .i. \6m ind .i. ind na laime etithir * di. 

Lautu .i. lau cech mbeco .i. m6r is lugu fil forsinlaim.^ 

Lie ab eo quod est lidos greice et interpretatur lapis. 

Laith .i. d6de fordingair .i. laith gaile 7 lAiih .1. med* ut 
pra^iximus etir laithi Lugbai [li sula sochar, F.] .i. ameid Lugbai 
cherrda dorrumidir Fachtna anargat amaba 7 rl. INtan tra as 
forsail foridmbi issand sluinnit[h] ^ hoc. 

Langphetir .i. aiugliss insin. lang didiu A. fottae, phetir 
immorro .i. glass, langphetir didiu A. glas fota .i. itir chois 
n£arthair [fo. .79^] 7 chois nairthir bfid.* Non sfc aurchomul .i. 
aur accomol .i. itir dichoiss airthir bfd son. 

Lecht ab eo quad est lectus. 

Long bis formuir, ab eo quod est longa.' 

Luachair .i. taitnem, ab eo quod est luceo vel lux^^ quasi 

Lebor quasi libor .i. a libro. 

Lott quasi lott, ar is lott do mnai mertrichus. 

Lath quasi, luth" [.i. iarsinnf luthas]. 

Loman .i. lorn fann, sech is lorn is fann. 

Lathirt .i. laith ort .i. laith rodnort .i. 61 corma. 

Lugbort melitM est .i. lubgort^' .i. luib gort, ut dieitur gort 



• longa( 

etst .1. luigbort, .1. luib goirt, ut dica^wr, L. 


Zeceonn ' cheek,' that is leceenn, that is ' half/ lethf * head/ cenn, 
LoMamuin * flamy,' from lassitn * everything hright.' 

Lemlaeht * new milk,' that is smooth milk, for lem is everything 

Loch means two things, to wit, loch 'dark,' whence is said 'ale 
opens dark wombs,' that is, though dark be every one's council, 
and though it be secret before and after, to drink ale elicits (?) ^ 
its secrets. Zoeh, moreover, means ' all,' whence is said loehdub, 
that is ' all black.' 

Laarg 'fork,' that is leo 'limb' and arg 'champion,' a good 
champion's limb is that, that is, his joint {i.e. his honorific portion 
of food). 

Ldm ' hand,' that is pilot {luam) of the body. 

Ldmos ' sleeve,' that is Idm-fosa, that is the resting-place (Joss) 
of the arm. 

Ldmand ' glove,' that is Idm-ind, i.e. the end {ind) of the hand 
(Jam) is clad thereby. 

Lautu 'the little finger,' i.e. lau is everything small, for it is 
the smallest finger on the hand. 

Lie ' stone,' from the Greek \t0o9f and it is interpreted lapis, 

Laithy two things it means, i.e. laith ' a valiant hero,' and Idith 
'a measure,' as we said before. 'Between the scales of Lugba,' .... 
that is, ' in the balance of Lugba the goldsmith Fachtna adjusted 
the money for the cows.' It is when 9kfarsail ' mark of length ' is 
upon it that it signifies this. 

Zangphelir, 'spancel,' that is English : lang then means 'long,' 
and phetir means * fetter.' Langphetir then means a long fetter — 
between a hind-foot and a fore-foot. Not so is aurehomul, i.e. aur 
' front,' aceomol * binding,' that is, between two fore-feet. 

Leeht ' sepulchre,' from lectus. 

Long ' ship,' which is on the sea, from long a. 

Luaehair * brightness,' from luceoy or lux quasi lucar, 

Lehor ' book,' as if libor, i.e. from liber. 

' LoU ' harlot,' quasi lot ' destruction,' for harlotry is destruction 
to a woman. 

Ldth ' hero,' quasi luth 'motion,' because he moves with suppleness. 

Lommann * cloak,' that is lomm-fann, because it is bare (lomm) 
and weak (Jann). 

Lathirty ' drunkenness,' that is laitk-ort, i.e. laith ' liquor,' 
rodn-ort ' destroyed him,' that is a drinking of ale. 

Lugbort, better Lubgori ' herb- garden,' i.e. luib 'herb,' gort 
' garden ' : as it) said, gort luibe, a garden of herbs. 

1 Cf. ro-cruidi, Fcl. ep. 136. 


Lfn .i. a Hno. L6ne a Ifnfa. 

Lanamain .i. Mn-somuin insin,^ aris leth-somuin nechtar de 

Lethech .i. deide for[d]ingair .i. ainm [ce^amus] docheneliu eisc 
dianid ainm [lethech] .i. ara lethet 7 ara thanadetaid, ar is mor 
lethet neich de bfs' in ociano. Ainm dono do losait, aiindi 
lethaidir bargin fuirri, &mal ishert Cruiteni [file] fechtas luid 
dothig alaile eicis 7 agilla leis .i. ecsini [e]side com^main 
fithidrea.* Farrolaig didiu Cruiteni fadesin himmaig. Leicis agilla 
do hoigidecht* dothig indeicis. Tobreth* didiu tarr tuire do 
iscab^il' 7 ro [col. 2] boi calleic inteices occacallaim indeicsine, 
7 occur sula tar a frithgnam. Borathaigestar ^ iarum inteices 
mor-m^main indeicsine 7 laget afrithgnama. Intan didiu rombo 
bruithe intairr asb^rt inteices fiadindecsiniu .i. *Dofotha tairr 
tein ' .i. ismithig athicseil dintein,* 7 ba *® cofeiss^i son ciafrecra 
dob^ad inteicsine do, fobith rachualasom inteices ocga[u]maidim ^^ 
alanaile nairecc ningantae amal bidhe feisin aratiss^^^^ 7 niro 
[creit]son immorro inteces," [Ba aire atbert inteces] dopromad 
indeicsine .i. Hofotha tairr tein,' et tribw« uicibw« dixit, et non 
respondit ei ad uUum u^bum. Laissein didiu attraig inteicsine 
7 teit cossinmbale ^* imbai Cruiteni, 7 atfet scela do, 7 asb^rt 
f/is anai these roradi inteces .i. * tofotha tairr tein.' * Maith,' ol 
Cruiteni, * intan assmbera^* affrisi" asb^asa fris occa .i. *T6i lethaig 
foin fris. [adaind indlis .i. toi lossait faon fris] .i. fon tairr, 
7 frisindle chaindill do deicse" d^* inbruithe intairr.' INtan 
didiu dofessid inteicsine isintig thall [79^ 3. J dixit intecess acetnae, 
et dixit inteicsini [col. 3] *T6e lethaig' 7rl 'Maith son,' ol 
inteces, *ni bru ecsini rodtorinnai : ^® isin ocus ata Cruiteni. 
Cotngair demuig ! ' Conacrad iarum. Ferthair failti fris, 7 
dob^rar biad naill hicoiri dosuidiu, 7 babecc a m^nmae de ineicsine 
fobith cotnuaitib ^* inteces cein notnaiclestar ^ Cruitini. 

Leos immdergad^^ immandergthar duine iamahair no iama- 

1 For insin, Y. has each dib dia chelei. ' Y. adds : Aliter lanamain quasi 
lenamain, arni fil etarscarad doib acht ar Dia. ^ nich bis de, L. ^ fithidire, Y. 
* do huigidecht, L. ; do aigidecht, L.B. * Dobreth, Y. ' iscabul, Y. 

^ Eorataid, Y. ® athiscal do teinidh, Y. ^® isba, L. " oc gmnaidim, 
Y. 1* arabissed no araradissed, Y. ^' inteigsin, Y. 1* maighin, Y. 
^* assinbera, L. *® doridisi, LB.* " dia deicsin, Y. ** rotormai a 

inne, Y. ; rotoirae no rotorma, LB. ^^ cotnaitib, Y. ^ cech notnaichlestar, 
L. ; ce chotnaiclestar, Y. '^ inmdergad, L. 


Zln * flax,' from linum ; lene ' shirt/ from lima. 

Ldnomain *a married couple,' i.e. Idn-somain 'full property,' 
for each without the other is only a half property. 

Lethechf two things it means: it is a name for a kind of flsh, 
because of its breadth and its thinness, for great is the breadth 
of it that is in the ocean. It is also a name for a kneading- 
trough, because a cake is spread {lethaidir) on it, as Cruitene said 
once when he went to the house of a certain poet having with 
him his gillie, a bardling he, with a teacher's pride. Cruitene 
himself remained outside, and sent his gillie for guesting to the 
poet's house. Then a hog's belly was given the bardling in a 
caldron, and meanwhile the poet began conversing with him, and 
casting an eye on his diligence (in preparing the meat). Then 
the poet perceived the great pride of the bardling and the small- 
ness of his diligence. So when the belly was boiled, the poet 
said in the bardling's presence, Bofotha tairr tettif that is, 'it 
is time to take it off the fire ; ' and [it was in the poetic dialect 
he spoke], in order that he might know what answer the bardling 
would give him, because the poet had heard him falsely boasting 
of certain wonderful inventions, as if it were he himself that 
had invented them. But the poet did not believe that, and 
therefore he said, to prove the bardling, Dofotha tairr tein. Thrice 
he said it, and not even a word he got in answer. "With that 
the bardling rises and goes to the stead where Cruitene was 
staying, and tells him his tales, and repeated the words which 
the poet had uttered, even Dofotha tairr tein, "Good," quoth 
Cruitene : " when he says them again, thou shalt say to him, Toi 
hthaig foin fris adaind ind lis^ i.e. ' put a kneading-trough under it, 
{i.e, under the belly), and light a candle to see whether the belly 
is boiled.' So when the bardling (returned and) sat down in the 
house there, the poet said the same, and the bardling replied, * Toi 
lethaifff^ etc. ' That is good ! ' saith the poet : ' it is not a bardling's 
womb that hath produced it : Cruitene is at hand : call him from 
without.' So then he was called: welcome is made to him, and 
other food is put for him into the caldron ; and small was the pride 
of the bardling because the poet had mocked him until Cruitene 
had spoken to him. 

Xeo8, a blush wherewith a person is reddened after being satirized 
or reviled. 

PMl. Trans. 1891-8-3. 11 


Loes .i. suilse, ut eat inDuil [Roscad] : griii[n]iud lois .i. 
dibdud^ suilsi .i. caindli. Item aiged fir imme lois luinethar .1. 
immatimcliella ' suilse. 

Luachamn .i. quasi lucemn .i. a lucema. 

Modebroth, oP Patraicc, quod Scoti corrupte dicunt. sic autem 
dici debet .i. muin duiu braat. amain didtu is meus, anduiu is d^s, 
ambraut is iudex. 

Marcc .i. ech. marcaoh .i. eich imdai laiss) ut dieitur buasacb 
infer lasambit bai imdai, airmnech dano infer tecbta« arbur nimdai 
7rl. Sfc airgtech,* coilcthech. 

Mathair qemsi ma^^r, ariss«(^ rotruaillned and. 

Mid .i. combrece rotruaillned and .i. med. 

Metbil quasi metil, ab eo quod est meta ° ve\ meto. 

[fo. 80*. J Muccairbi .i. mac fuirmid .i. is mac dan dofuirem* adana. 

Malland .i. f^ith bis tarsa mullag anuas, quasi mulland. 

Mass quasi a ma[s]sa.'' 

Milliud quasi misilliud .i. silliud olc.^ 

Mf scath ^ .i. mi insce. scath .i. insce. 

Milgetan .i. Mol-cbuiten .i. ouit Muil dorsada Temrach. Mol 
didtu a ainm side, deg in muil noferad foma duinib *** .i. tait 
ass, tait ind. inde dieitur molacb. 

Melgg as, arindi mblegair." Melgg dawo .i. bds, unde melg-tene 
•i. tene mbais. 

Morann .i. morfind. bahed insin ahainm dob^rt amatbair do, 
7 asb^rt robad bibdu" bais nacb eberad" fris [anainm sin], 
Mao muin immorro issed ainm dob^ aatha[i]r do .i. ba muin 
maitb inmac. 7 ba bidbu bais nach ep^rad fris iuainmsin. 
Eolellatar " iarum a da nainm infer in dun " oenanma. Mac som 
Choirpri Cbind chaitt immorro. 

[80, col. 1.] Menath .i. min dith. 

Moth .i. each ferdae .i. cech [fer-] insce, et nomen [est] uirili 

Man .i. a manu. 

* didbdud, L. ; dlbad, LB. * immathimchela, L. ; imaiimchella, Y. 

3 od, L. * airgthech, L. ; air^tec, Y. ; airgdech, LB. ^ A. buain, Y. 
6 du fuirim, Y. '' .1. on cMr, Y. * drochsilliw^?, Y. » Missach 

.i. inimsce, L. ^^ forsna d6mib, Y. " melgair, L. ; blegar, Y. 

12 bidbu, L; bidba, Y. and LB. i» naclTijitnepred, Y. " Rdeltar, t.; 
rolenustar, LB. " indun, Y. ; arson, LB. i» .1. ball ferrda, Y. 


Loes 'light/ as is in tlie Book of Maxims, grinniud lois, i.e. 
extinction of a light, i.e. a candle. Also aigedfir imme his luinethar, 
' the face of a man which light surrounds.' 

Zuaeham ' a lamp/ quasi lueem from lucerna, 

Modehroth, says Patrick, which the Scoti say corruptly. It should 
be said thus : mum Duiu hraut : the muin, then, is * my,' the Dm'u 
is * God,' the hraut is 'judge.' 

Mare 'horse,' mareaeh 'one who has many horses,' ut dicitur 
huasach, the man who has many cows, airmnechy the man who 
owns much com, etc. Even so atrgteeh, ' a moneyed man,' coilcteeh^ 
' one having quilts.' 

Mdthair ' mother,' quasi mater, for this was corrupted in it. 

Mid ' mead.' "Welsh was corrupted in it, to wit med, 

Methil ' a party of reapers,' quasi metil, from nteta or meto, 

Mueeairhe, that is a maefuirmid (a poet of the sixth grade) 

Malland, a vein that is across the crown of the head (mullach), 
quasi mulland. 

Mass ' a mass,' as if from massa. 

MilUtid ' destruction,' quasi mi-silliud, i.e. evil-eyeing. 

Miseath *a curse,' i.e. mi-inaee 'evil-word,' seath, i.e. word. 

Milgetan, i.e. Mol-ehuiten, the share of Mol, the door-keeper of 
Tara. Mol, then, was his name because of the talk (mol) which 
he used to hold with the people, to wit, * Go out ! Go in ! ' Hence 
is said molach ' hoarse.' 

Melg ' milk,' because it is milked (melgair). Melg, also, * death,' 
whence melg-tene, that is fire of death. 

Marann, that is mdr^find, i.e. great-fair. That was his name 
that his mother gave him, declaring that whoever should say that 
name to him would be guilty of death. Mac-mdin was the name 
that his father gave him, i.e. the son (mac) was a good treasure 
{mdin), and whoever should say that name to him would be guilty 
of death. So his two names clave to the man instead of one 
name. He was son of Coirpre Catshead. 

Menath * an awl,' i.e. min ' small,' dith ' sharp.' 

Moth, everything masculine, i.e. every masculine word, et nomen 
uirili membro. 

Man ' hand,' from mantis. 


Manach .i. a monacho.^ 

Monach .i. clessach, ab eo quod est mon .i. cles. 

Methoss .i. a meta.' 

Molad [fo. 80, col. 2.] [.i. mol-sod] .i. is mol ara menci 
7 i3[86]od aragiiaith[ch]i. 

Menmchossach .i. m^mae chassach .i. caingnech, [lais]. 

Muirtcbend .i. ab eo quod est morticinium.' 

Muilend .i. mol 7 ond .i. clocb, aris^ d6de asmnilend immulinn.* 

Mertrech ab eo quod est meretrix, merendo pretium stupri.' 

Matt .i. mucc, wide est tsna Brethaib Kerned .i. forraachtatar 
mdtta mothuindi torgabail 7rl. 

Mann .i. unge .i. \mde Sencha dtxi^ : 

Mo ailib imdergad Emnae. 
Admiudur de secht cactu cichsite crisu. 
Secht mugu moigfite morgnimu mugsaine. 
Secht manna 6ir forloiscthi * frifialgnuis ^ cona chaurathaib 

Munnu .i. mo finnu ' .i. ainm buide Fintain enim dicttM est .i. 
uni^ Moedoc Eema dtxtY oco dir Munnu mate Tulchain : 

A chel^n D6 chumachtaig ! 
a mate Tulchain, a bachlaich ! 
rue mac nannsae ' diamuintir 
mathair rothuc, a Eintain ! 

Milis quasi mellis .i. isinand 7 mel. 

Mai .1. ri ^^ 7 fill, Made dtcitur Ni naiss or " na hargatt [fol. 80, 
col. 3.1 acht for mdl. 

Mairenn .i. dede fordingair. ainm cetamtM domnai .i. morfind. 
ainm dano do gai .i. mfrind^' .i. droch rind .i. fodera bds. 

Mugeme ainm incetna oirc cetarabe inH6re .i. Coirpri Muso ceta 
tucside in Ere atirib Bretan. Ar intan ropumor cumachta nan- 
Goedel forBretnaib " rorannsat Albain eturru hiferanna, 7 rofitir 
dLch durais diacharait ^^ leo. 7 nibu lugu notrebtafs Goedil ^^ ffimuir 
anair quam in Scotia, 7 doronta anairusa ^' 7 arigduine and. Inde 
[dicitur] Dind Tradui .i. dun tredui ^^ .i. tredue Crimthain Moir mate 

' manacho, L. ; manco, T. ' on crich, Y. • .!. marbadh, Y. 

* is muilend inmullnn, L ; is muilend immuilend, Y. ; asmaillem immuilend, 
LB. ^ .i. dligid si fiach a saothair, Y. ' aithlegtha, LB. ^ fialniwM, Y. 
** mo a finda, Y. ^ L. insert* rue nansae. ^^ Y. interU 7 cis. '^ 6ir, L. 
" mlrfind, L. " L. and H. insert 7. "7a caruid, H. " goedelo, L. ; 
gaoidil, Y. ^' anoirse, H. anairlisi, Y. ^^ »ic H. tradui, L. 


Jfanach ' a monk,' from tnonachus. 

Monach * tricky/ from mon * a trick.' 

Methoss * a goal/ from meta. 

Molad 'praise/ i.e. mol *a mill-shaft/ from its frequency, and 
B6d * turning/ from its usualness. 

Mmmchoasachy i.e. menmae 'a mind' eassaeh 'disputatious' hath he. 

Muirtchenn * carrion/ from mortmnium. 

Muilend 'a mill/ i.e. mol 'mill-shaft/ and ond ' stone/ for these 
are the two things that are together. 

Mertrech ' harlot/ from meretrix ; being entitled to (merendo) 
the price of her defilement. 

Matt *pig/ whence in the Judgments of the I^otables, mdtta 
' pigs ' have attacked my . . . . , etc. 

Mann * an ounce/ whence Sencha said : 

* Greatest of disgraces is the reproach of Emain. 

I adjudge therefor seven bondmaids who will embroider (?) girdles : 
Seven slaves who will perform the great works of slavery, 
Seven ounces of refined gold for a noble face, with Conor's 

Munnu, i.e. mo Ftnnu, * my Finnu,' a loving name. Finntan was 
so called. Hence said Maedoc of Ferns when satirizing Munnu, 
son of Tulchan : 

little vassal of mighty God ! 

son of Tulchan, shepherd ! 

She bore a child troublesome to his family 

The mother who bore thee, Finntan. 

Milts * sweet,' quasi mellis : it is the same as mel * honey.' 

Mdl * king' and ' poet.' Hence is said, ' Thou shalt not bind gold 

or silver except on a mdlJ 

Matrenny two things it means, first, it is a name for a woman, 

i.e. mdr-find * great-fair :' then it is a name for a spear, i.e. mi-rind 

* evil point,' that is, it causes death. 

Magh-ime * slave of hilt,' the name of the first lapdog which 
was in Ireland. Coirpre Muse, he first brought one into Ireland 
out of the lands of the Britons. For at that time, great was 
the power of the Gaels over Britain, and they divided Albion 
among them into estates, and each of them knew his friend's 
abode. And the Gaels used to dwell to the east of the sea not less 
than in Scotia. And their dwellings and their royal forts were built 
therein. Hence is said Bind Tradui, i.e. Dun Tredui, i.e. the triple 


Eidaig .i. rf Heirenn 7 Alban comuir nicht. 7 inde est Glassdinibir 
[na nGoidel] .i. cell forbru mara hlcht. l^ed aruiss insin irrobai 
Glass mac Caiss muicid righ. Hirhuaithi occmucaib for mess, 7 ish^ 
insin dodersaig ^ Patraicc iartain .1. se fichit ' bliadnae iam[a]guiii 
dofiannaib Mate Con, 7 is dindraindsin beos ata Dind Map Letani ' 
liitfrib Bretan Com .i. Dun mac Liathan [ar is mac innf as map 
isin Bretnus]. Sic rorann c«u3h cen61 disiu, arroboi achutmmu allse 
anair, 7 robatar fonohumachtu sin cociana cid iartichtain Patraicc. 
Disin tra didtu roboi Coirpri [fo. 80^, col. 1] Muse occ aithigid 
sair coamuintir 7 coacairdea. Nithanic didiu indinbuidsin oircci 
tir B&irenn, 7 ascongrad * laBretnu natarta * oirei indail nahaiscid 
nacaratrad na commain doGoed^/ai3. 

IShi tra cain roboi indinbaid si laBretna: Ceeh bidbu innacUnaid 
doneoch foroesad [a chdin].* 

(£oi) di^tu oirei aimind^ isseilb charat Choirpri Muse hitirib 
Brettan, 7 atroe ® Coirpri huad. Dochuaid dawo Coirpri corfectais 
do athaigsidi,^ 7 forrice ^° failti act immonoirci. Scfan amrae dano la 
Coirpri Muse 7 imdenam de or 7 do argat imaheimh, 7 baset amrae 
7rl. Tob^rt i&Tum Coirpri beoil eomor 7 conammelt saill fo an em.*^ 
Po/acaib inscin arbelaib indoirci. Bogab iar^m intoirci cocnam 
indeme comatain .i. roluited iarum inseian (^onabud alain[d] ^^ 
[i]amabarach. Dogeni iart^m Coirpre cais moir desin, 7 ba 
bronach, 7 condaig cert nimbi coacharaitt. '^Indraicside, dano; 
[col. 2.] icfasa inchinaid/' ollsuide. "Nigebsa," ol Coi[r]pr«, 
** acht hi fil hi cain Bretan .i. each bibdu ^* inachinaid.'* " larsein, 
tra, dobreth ^* intoirci innachinaid, 7 dobreth " ainm do .i. Mug 

Ba banchu, tra, intoirci, 7 batorrach intan dobreth taaiis anall. 
Ailill Flann Bee, tra, ba ri Mmnan intansin, 7 Qormac hua Cnind 
hinigu Temrach. Do indarscansat sidi fochetoir cuinghid [7 
cosnam] indoirci. Ishe iaxum omth rocoraiged etuira atrinr, 
aimser chinti dobeith donchoin hitig cachae. Doithid iartim incu 
[7] rohuc each cuilen di[a3citain9 ^^ 7 is onchoinsin oirei Heix^nm, 
ut Scoti p^hibent. 

^ dedersaich, H. ; loderatag, Y. and LB. ' fithit, L. ' den romd beoe 
sen ata dind mapledhain, H. ^ isracongradli, H. * (K)nat&rda, T. 

9 forsesed a chain no fomaanadfad ichaan, T. ; joteaaed a canain, H. ; nofnaana- 
bad cain, LB. "^ anniod, L. ^ contori, LB. ^ atiocsufe, H. 

atsaighid, Y. ^* Hcy Y. ; forioc H. ; coi&taic, LB. We shonld perhaps 

read forrdnic, the perf. eg. 3 of forieim, ^^ beoil comor ima neim 7 

conammailt saill 7 bosaill foa, Y. ^^ conarbo aloinn, H.. ^' bidhdn, L. 

bidba, H. ^* each rob ina chin, LB. " dobretha, ' Y. ; tncad, LB. 

16 rolil, LB. ^^ Y inserts conaprait aceli iiade 7 randsat fir Eirenn etoira. 



loss of Crimthann the Great, son of Fidacli, king of Ireland and 
of Albion as far as the Ictian Sea, and hence is Glastonbury of 
the Gaels, a church on the brink of the Ictian Sea. That is 
the residence in which dwelt Glass, son of Cass, the King of 
Hiruath's swineherd, with his swine mast-feeding, and it is he that 
Patrick afterwards raised from the dead, six score years after he had 
been slain by the Fianns of Mac Con. And from that division also, 
in the lands of the Cornish Britons stands Dind Map Letan, that is, 
the fort of the sons of Liathan, for mac * son,' is the same as map 
in the British. Thus every tribe divided on that side, for its 
property on the east was equal to that on the west, and they 
continued in this power long after the coming of Patrick. Hence 
Coirpre Muse was paying a visit in the east to his family and his 
friends. At that time no lapdog had come to the land of Erin, 
and the Britons proclaimed that no lapdog should be given to 
Gaels in partition, or gift, or friendship, or barter. 

I^ow at that time the Britons had this law : * Every criminal for 
his crime to him whose law he shall have infringed.' 

There was a beautiful lapdog in the possession of a friend of 
Coirpre Muse in the lands of the Britons, and Coirpre got it from 
him thus : Coirpre once went to his house, and was made welcome 
to everything save the lapdog. l^ow Coirpre had a wonderful 
dagger, with an adornment of gold and silver on its hilt. It was 
a marvellous jewel. So Coirpre put much grease upon it, and 
rubbed bacon to its haft, and left the dagger before the lapdog. 
The lapdog took to gnawing the hilt til! morning, and the dagger 
was injured so that on the morrow it was not beautiful. Then 
Coirpre made great complaint thereof, and was mournful for 
it, and demandeth justice for it of his friend. * That is fair 
indeed. I will pay for the crime,' said he. * Nought will I take,* 
says Coirpre, * save what is prescribed in the law of the Britons, 
namely, every criminal for his crime.' So after that the lapdog 
was surrendered for its crime, and a name was given to it, even 
Mug-ime ' slave of hilt.' 

Now the lapdog was a bitch, and was in pup when it was taken 
over to Ireland. Ailill Flann the Little was then King of 
Munster, and Cormac, grandson of Conn, was then in the king- 
ship of Tara. These began at once to demand and contend for 
the lapdog. This is the way in which matters were arranged 
between the three of them; that the bitch should be a certain 
time in the house of each. Then the bitch litters, and each of 
them took a pup of her litter ; and from that bitch come (all) the 
lapdogs of Ireland^ as the Irish declare. 


Bamarb tra intoirci. larreib cianaibi immorro, fofuair Connlae 
mac Taidg mah Cein mate Ailella O'luim clocenn lorn indoirci, 
7 dobert^ hiceist dondfilid doluid conairchetul ' dia athair .i. 
Moen mac Etnae nomen poetee illius. Tethnae iarum, inteces tre 
tenm laido, eone^ert : * Cain tonna [tige ^] hui [fo. 80^, col. 3] 
Eogain,* fth hitig hiii Chuind cachthddatb tobaraind.* Basa coem 
hitig Choirpri Muse, aMug beme. Cend Moga beime inso,' olse, 
•incetna boirce dobretb* inHerind.* 

Mumu de nomine alieuius regis, id est Eocbu Garb Mumu .i. 
Eocbo Murao .i. mo agreimm 7 agreitt 7 acbumacbtae oldds cacbri, 
7 i8di[a]anmuiin robainmniged Mumu 7 Muimnig dicuntwr.'' 

Mug quasi mucb, aris fo muicb 7 fo tbodemam fognama bis. 

MugsaiDB .i. quasi mug snime .i. snim bfss ^ for m^nmain inmoga. 

Mucb ^ tra ainm saindiles dodiaid, un^^^ dteituT mucbad. 

Mil .1. mel rotruaillned ann. 

Midacb qitasi medic, ab eo quod est medict^^.^^ 

Mer arindi isaboenur bitb ^* isind alt imbi .i. innameracbt, 7 
isaboenur teit ^^ qti^si merulus .i. Ion, et inde memlus graece quod 
uolat solus, ^^ 7 nfgnatb en aile cid diacbinel fodeisin inacoimtecbt. 

Meracbt quasi meriebt .i. iebt n6 aebt mer .i. gnim mer ab 
eo quod est actus.'* 

Mairt .i. a Marte .i. dia cbatba la genti dianid ainm Mars, 
is do conasecrad ^^ allatbisin [fo. 81% col. 1] 7 inmi dianid ainm 
Martins .i. mf marta. 

Mfndecb quasi mendio .i. ab eo quod est mendiciM.^* 

Mart a morte, quasi mort." 

Mortlaitb .i. a mortalitate.*® 

Manannan mac lir .i. cennaigi amrae roboi inninis Manand. Isb6 
luam ^® isdecb roboi formuir iniartbar domuin. Bofinnad trianem- 
gnacht (.i. gne nime) .i. tria deicsin indaeoir,** inderet nombiad 
int8uitbnenn[7 in doinenn] " 7 intan conoemcblabad ** cechtarde 
arre. inde Scoti et Britones eum deum maris uoeau^runt, et 
inde filium maris esse dixerunt .i. mac lir ; et de nomine Manann 
insola ^ Manannan dicta ^ est. 

^ combert, LB. ^ donaircetiil, L. ; co n-&i [-i.] airchetul, LB. ' «<?, H. 
* ecgom, L. ^ cech tratha dobarind, H. ' dbbretha, LB. "^ dicantur, L. ; 
dicunt, Y. * L. omits ; biss, Y. ; ibs, LB. » Mug, L. ; much, Y. and LB. 
^" .i. liagh, Y. ; liaigh, LB. i' arindi bis ina aonar, Y. ^* isin aonar imteit, Y. 
*^ .1. etellaigid [a]aonar, Y. ^* .1. gnim, Y. " condosecrad, Y. *• bregach, Y. 
" morte, L. ; mort .i. on b&ss, Y. ** on mortlaitb, Y. " luamaire, Y. 

20 tria deicsin gne in nime .i. in aeoir, Y. *^ ind airet nobitb indtsoinind 7 
ind donend, Y. ^^ coclaocblobadb, Y. ; nosclaechl6bad, LB . ^ insole, L. 
** dicattM, L. 


Now the lapdog died, and long afterwards Connlae, son of Tadg, 
son of Cian, son of Ailill Bare-ear, found the bare skull of the 
lapdog, and took it as a puzzle to the poet who had come with 
a eulogy to his father. Moen, son of Etna, was that poet's name. 
Then the poet solved it by tenm Idido * illumination of song,' and 
said * Cain tonna, etc., Thou wast dear in the house of Coirpre 
Muse, Mugh-eme.' This, says he, * is the head of Mugh-eme, 
the first lapdog that was brought into Ireland.' 

Mumu 'Munster,' from the name of a certain king, to wit, 
Eochu Garb Mumu, i.e. Eochu Mu-mo, i.e. Greater {m6) his 
hold and his valour and his power than that of every other king, 
and from his name Mumu * Munster,' was named, and Mumnig 

* Munster-men,' are (so) called. 

Mugh * slave,' quasi much * mist,' for it is under the mist and 
tribulation of slavery he is continually. 

Mughaaine * slavery,' quasi mugh snimej the sadness that is on the 
mind of the slave. 

Mtich, a name proper for smoke, whence is said mttchad *to 

Mil * honey ' : mel has been corrupted therein. 

Midacht the name of a Tuath de Danann leech, quasi tnedic, from 

Mir * blackbird,' because it is alone in the wooded valley where 
it lives, that is, in its madness (?). And it is alone it goes, qua.<^i 
merulus, i.e. merle, and hence in Greek merultMy because it flies 
alone, and another bird, even of its own kind, is not often in its 

Meracht * madness,' quasi mer-icht, i.e. icht or acht mdr, i.e. 

* action of fingers,' from actus. 

Mairt * Tuesday,* from Mars, a god of battle with the Gentiles, 
whose name was Mars. To him that day was consecrated and 
the month whose name is Martins, that is March. 

Mindech * a bad man ' (?), quasi mendie from mendicus. 

Mart * a beef,' quasi mort. 

Mortlaith * mortality,' from mortalitas. 

Manannan mac lir, a famous merchant who dwelt in the Isle 
of Mann. He is the pilot who was best at sea in the west of the 
world. He used to know by studying the heavens, that is by 
looking at the sky, the time that would be fine weather, and foul 
weather, and when each of them would change. Hence the Irish 
and the Britons called him a god of the sea, and hence they said 
that he was Mac Lir, son of the Sea, and from Manannan's name 
the Isle of Mann has been called. 


Kie .i. mac sethar. at Cu Chulaind dixit, profetans de Christi 
aduentu .i. nie duine ticfa .L mac sethar a. mac sethar duine ticfa, 
ipse est lesus. 

l^emnall issM^ ainm as moaib ^ de anmonnaib H^irenn ^ insin 
.i. nemnnall .i. nuall far nime imbi. 

NfntM .i. iLin[f]o8 .i. nin .i. tonn [rogab foss] .i. toDd [tanic 
don] fairgi anfar. dodeochaid' iarsindaeor eondaiorrmmi^ isintfr 
[n-ucut], condeirg6ni^ tiprait df. Inde dieitur Corcumruad 

l^emeth .i. nemiath anas dfrde ' dobeclais : nemdith anas dfide' 
de ocaib : nemhuath anas dfrde * dofil^^ib. 

N6it .i. dia catha lagente Goedel. Nemon uxor illins. 

Nacc ^ quasi n6cc. 

[Nith] .i. guin daine. 

Ner .i. tore allaid, ut est isnaib Aistib .i. fail nir n6it grffe 

l^oe .L duine, imde dicitur diandama noe tortir .i. dfan dama 
duine fortir. 

Noes ^ .i. fess ' ndnhair .i. tri rfg 7 tri epscoip 7 tri suid .i. sui 
^lidtchtSL 7' sui litre 7 sui belnd F^ne. Kobatar buili ocdenam 
intSenchasa [Mair]. 

Nim[b] .i. broon, ab eo quod est nimbus. Inde dieitur isnaBrethaib 
N6med .i. OengtM foh6iblib ^° imbais aricht roluisc leth ^^ fonimib 

iN'ainme .i. glaine/' no naimne, amal bid naire nobeth and. 
Senbelrae didtu annairesin.^' Isinann 7 asb^ha 6cin. Isgnath 
b^lraeom [col. 3.] tra [cid indiu] lahlrmumain maxime, nude 
dt^nt *'Infil ni bes toich duit ?" "Fil naire," arinti dianimcomarcar 
.i. fil eicin. 

Nith .i. guin duine. Nie infer dodngni. Neithes daiso .i. guin ^' 
duine. ut est ni idnae nethis nemthigedar. 

Kescoit .1. ise senchas Gk)idhel .i. intan fechtae cath Muige 
Tuiredh bui Goibhne gobae isin cerdchai oc denum na narm do 
Thuathuibh nDea Domnand, 7 bui Luchtaine soer fri" denum 
crand isna goa, 7 boi Credne cerd fri denum semmend innangoe,*' 

^ mo, T. ; mou, LB. ' in domuin, T.; in domain, LB. > tonn 

dodechaid dond fairci aniar, Y. * co torchuir, Y. * condema, Y. 

• dir, Y.; dirge, LB. ' nac, Y. and LB.; niacc, L. . ® Noe, Y. 

» fis, LB. °o fohkibUb. Y. ; fohuiHb, L. ; fo&ibUb, LB. " Roloisceth 
a leth, Y. i' gl^m, L. ; glain, Y. ; ffl&ine, LB. *' anairenisin, L. ; 

innairesin, Y. ** guine, L. ; guin, i . and LB. " oc, Y. and LB. 

i« issna goib, Y. 


Nia a sister's son, as said Cdchulainii prophesying of Chriist'^ 
advent : * The sister's Son of Man will come, and He is Jesus.' 

Nemnuall, this is the nonn that is greatest of the nouns 
of Erin, that is, Nem-nuall the acclamation of the men of 
Heaven around it. 

Niniis a place-name, i.e. nin-fosSy i.e. nin 'a wave,' which, got 
/o88 * an ahode,* i.e. a sea-wave from the west which came along 
the air until it settled in yon country and made a well of itself : 
whence is said * Corcumruaid of Ninus.' 

Nemeth * a chapel,' * a sanctuary,' that is nem-iath * heaven-land,' 
what is due to the church : neim-dith * poison-sharp,' what is due 
to soldiers : neim-uath * poison-horror,' what is due to poets. 

Neity a god of battle with the heathen of the Gaels. Nemon, his 

JN'aee * no,' quasi nee. 

Nith * the slaying of a human being.' 

Nisr * a wild boar,' as is in the Metres, to wit, * the lair of a 
boar, the nest of a . . . griffin.' 

^oe * a human being.' Hence is said, ** If thou sufferest a nde 
on land," that is, if thou sufferest any one on land. 

N6e8 * customary law,' i.e. ndi-fias the wisdom of nine persons, to 
wit, three kings, three bishops and three sages, to wit, a sage of 
poetry and a sage of history and a sage of the. language of the 
Eeni. They were all composing the Senchas Mor. 
. Nimh * a shower,' from nimbtM, Hence is said in the Judgments 
of the Notables: **Oengus under the sparks of the imhass which. 
was invented, half (of him) burnt under heaVens of showers." 

Naime 'pure,' or nairne as if it were naire. Old language is 
that naime. It is the same as if iicen * indeed,' were said. It 
is common speech even to-day, in West Munster chiefly, whence 
they say, ** Is there aught that is pleasing to thee?" ** Ml naire," 
says he who is asked, that is, ** There is indeed." 

Nith * the slaying of a human being.' J^ie, the man that inflicts 
it. Neithes then, the slaying of a human being, as is said, ** Not 
a weapon of slaughter that dignifles." 

Nescdit 'a boil.' This is a story of the Gaels. "When the 
(second) Battle of Moytura was fought, Goibniu the Smith was 
in the forge making the weapons for the Tuatha dea Domnann, 
and Luchtaine the Wright was making shafts for the spears, and 
Credne the grazier was making the rivets of the spears. More- 

v. ^ . 


et dicMnt autem Scoti quod Gobne* gobae [hjSistas faciebatfri teora 
gr^fssa, 7 ba f eth * Ingres dedenach.* 

Dognfth d&no Luchtaine soer [na crunda] fri teora snassa, 7 ba 
feth intsnas dedenach. Sfc [faciebat] et Credna nasemmand. 
Dobidgged iarum Goibne asintenchair nagoa conglentais isindaur- 
sain. Dolleiced Luchtaine saer nacranna innandfaid/ 7 balor insma 
doib. Dobidged iarum Credene cerd nasemmend abelaib* naten- 
choire, 7 balor [fo. 81^, col. 1,] insmai doib 7rl. Cene tra bu{ 
Goibne gobae occondisin Kthe bine foramnai. Adfiadarson 6ddiu 
doGobnind, 7 basaeth lais, 7 bahetaid imbi, Issed 6ddiu dog^ni 
fris .i. bui crann innalaim intan adf^ss^ do a8c61 .i. ness a 
ainm, is imbi dognither indaurnaisi criad. Dicain [brichtu] ' diitu 
forsacrandsin, 7 each, fer doniced dob^ed faasmaind® doncrand. 
Ma adellad ian^m induine dohurgbad foc^^oir cnocc ann Ian doloimm 
chru * 7 gur, 7 foloisced induine SLxnal tene, ^° 7 huaire ba fuath *^ 
incraind dianidainm * ness ' nobid forsincnucc. Isaire roainmnigset 
ondanmuimsin as nescoit .i. ness [.i. cnoc] 7 scoftt .i. lind. 

Kess tra cetharda fordingair .i. ness cetamiM ainm indanmandai 
7rl. Ness ainm donchrund ut pra^diximus. Ness dano ainm 
dondaumisi criad fessin," amal ashert ben araile goibenn ^' dorigeni 
marbnaith doa ^^ fir, dieena : 

Badirsan lim sella[d] [col. 2.] friss, 
f orbir ifr[a]ig derc " aniss, 
ba binniu nochantais dord 
fri derc aniss adabolg. 

Ness dsMO ainm donbeimm 7 doncrecht, ut est i8int[S]enchas Mar .i. 

agrannib cachtomM«, aEenib gSicMoTUs, ammainib each mess. 

a dirib cuirp duine, citili afuili," rohordaiged " ness. 

.i. SLUial mbes aurgnatu ^^ inbaill isin duiniu hif uirmither 
increcht isfai^* dano hith inderaic .i. u^bi gratia .i. mad indagaid 
no inetan'*' no ismech forrumither increcht nd inaithiss^^ ismoiti 
ah6raic 7 rl. aiAal rongab i8int[S]enchw« Mar .i. mad fohetach 
t/nmorro bis increcht nd indainim islugu son.*' 

^ Gobniu, Y. ^ feith, Y. ' degenach, L. ; in tress gress, Y. * -diaig, L. 
6 agobaib, LB. * adfedes, L. ; atfes, Y. ; atc(ias, LB. ' «ic, LB. ^ fuasmad, 
Y. ; fuasma ind, LB. » do lind chrfi, Y.; do lindchro, LB. 10 tenid, LB. 
*i arba be fuath, Y. and LB. 1* fissin, L. ^^ gobenn, Y.; gobann, LB. 
" dia, Y. and LB. i* deirc, L. ; derc, Y. ; dercc, LB. »« cidhat iU fuile, Y. ; 

ciadat ile a fuile, LB. ^^ rohairdiged, Y. ; rohainmniged, LB. ^^ urgnacht, 
LB. '* issai, L. ; isfai, Y. ; as foi, LB. *o anetan, L. ; inetan, Y. 

*^ forruimther indathais, Y. ** luga, Y. 


oyer the Scoti say that Goibniu the Smith used to make spears 
by three processes, and the last process was the finish. Then 
Luchtaine the Wright would make the shafts by three cuts, and 
the last cut was the finish. So also Credne made the rivets. Then 
Goibniu used to cast the spear-heads out of the tongs, so that 
they stuck in the door-post. Luchtaine the Wright used to cast 
the spear- shafts out after them, and this was enough to set them 
in. Then Credne the Brazier would fling the rivets from the 
jaws of the tongs, and this was enough to insert them. I^ow 
while Goibniu was at that business, a crime is charged against 
his wife. That then is told to Goibniu, and it was grievous to him, 
and he grew jealous thereat. This is what he did in consequence. 
When the tidings were told him there was a pole in his hand, 
Ness is its name, and round it the furnace of clay is made, and 
he sings spells over that pole, and to every man who came to 
him, he would give a blow with the pole. If, then, the man 
escaped, a lump full of gory liquid and matter would rise and 
bum the man like fire. And because the form of the pole called 
Ness used to be on the lump, therefore they called it nea-scdit from 
that name, to wit, ne88 ^ a lump,' and 8c6%t * a liquid.' 

JV(W«, then, means four things, to wit : 

I/e88, first, the name of the animal (the weasel), etc. 

JVesSf a name for the pole, as we have said before. 

1^688 f then, a name for the furnace of clay itself, as said the 
wife of a certain smith who made an elegy for her husband, saying : 

* 'Tis sad to me to look at him : 
The red flame of his furnace grows into the wall : 
Very sweet was the bass which his two bellows 
Would chant to the hole of his furnace.' 

Ne88y then, is the name for the blow and for the wound, as is 
(said) in the Senchas Mor : 

From grains every measurement, from the Teni every law, from 

treasures every appraisement, 
From the fines for a man's body, though many be his wounds, the 

ne88 was graduated. 

That is, according to the dignity of the member in the person on 
whom the wound is inflicted, so then is the eric. Por example, 
if the wound or the insult is inflicted on the face, or the forehead, 
or the chin, the greater is its eric, etc., as is in the Senchas Mor. 
If, however, the wound or the blemish is under the clothing the 
eric is less. 


[011am .1.] olldam .L oU ad&n .i. cethrar ar . xx . Alit^ [oUam 
.i.] ollhaam .i. am[ail]a8 nannwafl saigid huame bis inaild sio 
isdoirb^ saigid ior ddn 7 ei[c]8i indollaman. Ailitdr [oUam .i.] 
olldieim a. oil an{ dieim.* 

(yi .i. cauru,' wnde dieitur oisc .i. 6i seiso. 

Omelgg * .i. 6i melg .i. isi aimser insin hitio ass cairach ^ melgg 
[ool. 8.] .i. ass, arindf melgair.' 

(yen qiMsi un, ab eo quod est untM. 

04nach .i. une^ ech. 

Oeth .1. luige.' 

Oar .i. guth.* 

O'ech .i. namae. 

Orb .i. nomen niri a quo Oirbrige.^^ 

Og quasi ob, id est ouum." 

Ordd .i. ab ordine. 

Olchobor .L occobor laiss 6L 

Omn " .i. orguin." 

Om in bid, gr^co truaillnide insin .i. omon isinOr^ico .i. cmor 

Opar ^* .i. ab op^ratione. 

Ong fochid ^^ 7 cose : inde drc^ion est cossaig domo^, aFithil, 
cotrescat " a oing. 

Oraitt .i. 6ratio." 

Oslugud .i. huasleoud .i. lecnd suas nacomlad. 

Ogtdcli ^^ .i. ogthech .i. ognde athech diabnith fair. 

O'r quHsi aur .i. ab auro. 

Orcc trcith .i. nomen domoo rfg, trfath enim rex uocatur [unde 
dixit pocta :] Oenach nuirco treith .i. biad 7 6tacli logmar, cluim 
7 coilcid, [cuirm 7 cdma *•] 7 brannub 7 fithchell, hech 7 carput ^ 
7 mflchoin 7 ^isrechta olchena. 

Orcc dono ainm do brattan. Inde dixit cend Lomnai druith 
iamabcin" de : ''Orcc brecc brondUnn bruohtas [£o. 82^ col. l.j 

1 umail IB doilig noim bis fo aill do togail no sai^ naime bis fo aill, nc is 
doilig, Y. ' id uU inni ditnees .i. cethrar ar fichit, no oil diemid .i. ullam 
ernes naee8ta,Y. ^ caora, Y.; caera, LB. * 6inielc, Y.; oimelc, LH. 
^ c&irichf L. ; is aimser andsin tic as cairach, T. ' blegnr, Y. and lAi. 

"^ aine, Y.; tine, LB. ^ luidhe no eithech, T.; luige no ethei'h, LH. 

• LB. add* no gairm. *® orbroige nominatur, Y. " .i. og, LB.; .i. 

ogh, Y. " om, Y. ** creach no orguin, LB. " «c, L. und Y. ; 

opair, LB. " ong .i. foiched, Y. " cot sescait, Y.; con uttuit, LB. 

*' ah oratione .i. aimaigthi, Y. ^* ogthach, Y.; ochtach, LB. >^ tic, LB. 
^ braunduh 7 fidhcella, eich 7 carpait, Y. " lama heimeim, Y. 


OUam 'professor,' that is oil 'great' his ddm * retinue,' that 
is, four-and-twenty men. Alitor ollam, i.e. oll-uam^ as it is 
difficult to go to a cave {uam) which is in a cliff {all) so it is 
hard to attain to the poetry and learning of the Ollam. AliUr 
Ollaniy i.e. oll-diem, i.e. great {oil), is what protects {dieim) him, 
(the train of twenty-four persons). 

(yi * sheep.' Hence is said disc, i.e. * a dry ewe.' 

(yimelgg *the first day of spring,' that is di-melgg 'ewe-milk,' 
that is the time at which the sheep's milk comes. Melgg, i.e. 
milk, because it melgar ' is milked.' 

Oen * one,' quasi ^», from untM, 

Oenach * a fair,' that is une ech * contention of horses.' 

Oeth * an oath.' 

Oar * a voice.' 

Oeeh * an enemy.' 

Orb, the name of the man from whom are the Orbraige. 

Og * egg,' quasi oh, i.e. ovum. 

Ord * rank,' from ordo. 

Olehohor, a man's name, i.e. drink {ol) is a desire {accohor) with 

Orn * destruction.' 

Om * raw ' of the food. That is Greek corrupted : w/ibv in the 
Greek : cruor [leg. crudum ?] in the Latin. 

Opar * a work,' from operatio, 

Ong 'tribulation,' and 'chastisement': hence was said, 'Chastise 
thy son, Fithel, till his tribulations ' . . . 

Or ait ' prayer,' ' blessing,' from oratio. 

Oslucud 'an opening,' i.e. uas-lecud 'up-letting,' i.e. letting up 
the valve. 

Offtach * ridge-pole,' i.e dg-thech ' perfect house,' i.e. the house 
{tech) is the more perfect {6gu-de) from its being thereon. 

Or ' gold,' quasi aur from aurum. 

Ore triith, a name for a king's son, for a king is called triath, 
whence a poet said oenach oire treith ' a king's son's fair,* to wit, 
food and costly raiment, feathers and quilt, ale and flesh-meat, 
draugbt-board and chess-board, horse and chariot and grey- 
hounds, and toys besides. 

Ore also is a name for a salmon. Hence said the head of Lomna 
the Fool, after it had been cut off him : " A speckled white-bellied 


demagnr fo muirib nilabar nitoe tuathe tore nadiic nnind 
rorannaifl raind nad chert Coirpri." 

Iflde didiu boe aniseiQ dossom. 

Find huaBaiscne, is do robo dnith Lomnae midlach. Luid didiu 
Find lathe nand forcnaird selga. Darmaiaid^ Lomna hifM.* 
Biii ben laFind, de Lnignib ' di, aror * em cech roilbe 7 cech rofid 
nognathaiged Find conafeind' nobith ben aordaltae arachind as 
each tfr banessom do beos. Batir banbnigid sod, 7 batir maithi 
do[im]fulaDg nafiann, amolethad ananae tar[na]tire, amflamthe^ 
nech olc frin. Bocoemnacair* didiu fecht nana Find hiTethbae 
co[n]afeinn, 7 Inid forcuaird selga. Dormaraid tra Lomnae hifnss. 
Ambuiside occ imthecht immnig cofamaio Coirpr» .i. fennid 
doLuignib, illingn lamnai Find hitaidiu. Bogaid di<^tti inben 
doLomnae adichlid, 7 basaith laissom brath Finn. Tic Find iarom. 
Benaid Lomnai didiu ognm hifleisc chetharchair. Jaesd [coL 2.] 
bui intiside .i. 

Cnaillne femae hi felaim* argaitt ath[al>a] hifothrocht."* Fer 
mna druithe druthlach lafeinn" foircthe. hifroech" forhnalaind 
linim luigi." 

Bofitir iarum Find ascel, 7 ba dognasach donmn£L Rofitir 
didiu inben is oLomnai rofess, 7 docnas ^* huadi coCoirprtf cotand- 
chiB8ed coromarbai indruth. Dognith son dano iarwm, 7 tallad 
achenn de, 7 tamb^ Coirpr^ laiss." Tic iarom Find dond hnarbnid 
deod Idi, cofamaic in cbolaind cen chenn. '* Colnnn snnn cen 
chend!" arFind. "Fintae dund," olind Hann "coich incholann." 
Dob^ iarum Find ahordain inoabeolu, [7] dicain '* tre thenm-MidOy 
condepeirt: '^Kiconrub^ doini niconarlaig nicontopaig nais 
nicodcrgraig " nicorubai thorcc nicotorgro^ niconarbaiit " alige 
Lomnai. Colann Lomnai inso," olFinn, "7 rohucsat^ namait 
acenn de.'* 

Ticsid* dfnaib*^ conaib 7 dosleicit forsinslicht." T6id didiu 
Find forsin slicht na noc, 7 rosfuair^ hifastig ocfuinia heiso 
fmndein,** 7 bae cenn Lomnai forbir hicinn natened.** INc^t 

^ Domaraid, Y. and LB. ' ibfus, Y. * ne, Y. ; laignib, L. 

* ar6n, Y. * fein, Y. « in, Y. and LB. f tania tirib 

cona lamad, Y. ^ deccomnacuir, Y. • feilm, Y. " athaba 

ifothlacht iJolurg .i. forlurg, LB. " fene, Y. '* is fraoch, Y. *• limm 
luigne, Y. ; luimm I6igne, LB. ^* teit techta, LB. '^ co tudchaid side core 
marb an dnith, Y. ; 7 co tall a cenn de combert lais, Y. ^* 7 dochain, Y. 
1^ ni cu dergrain, Y. ^*^ ni con ruba tore ni eonfoTDae m oontorgrae ni 
cnrarbairt, Y. " ronucsat, Y. ^ Ticsaid .1. benaid, LB. •' Tk»at dona, Y. 
« for slicht na nog, Y. ^ fosfuair, Y. ^ for indinin, Y. »* for bir 
ocon teinid, Y. 


salmon that bursts Thou hast portioned a portion that is 

not fair, Coirpre.'* 

Thus, then, that happened to it. Pinn, grandson of Baiscne, had 
as his fool Lomna the Coward. One day Einn went on a hunting 
excursion. Lomna remained at home. Finn had a wife of the 
Luigni, for on every mountain and in every forest that Finn and 
his Fiann used to frequent, there was a certain woman awaiting 
him from the neighbouring country. These were female land- 
holders, and they were good to support the Fiann, for their wealth 
spread over the territories, so that no one durst do evil to them. 
Once, then, it happened that Finn was in Teffia with his Fiann, and 
he went on a hunting excursion. Lomna stayed at home. While 
he was walking outside he found Coirpre, a champion of the 
Luigni, lying secretly with Finn's wife. Then the woman 
entreated Lomna to conceal it, but indeed it was grievous to him 
to betray Finn. Then Finn comes back. Lomna cuts an ogham 
on a four-cornered rod. This is what was therein : * A stake of 
alder in ... of silver, deadly nightshade in brook-lime. The 
husband of a lewd woman . . . with the well-taught Fiann. 
There is heather on Ualann . . .' Then Finn understood the story, 
and he became disgusted with the woman. So the woman knew 
that it was from Lomna, and she sent to Coirpre that he might 
come and kill the Fool. That then was done, and the FooPs head 
was cut off, and Coirpre took it away with him. Finn, at close 
of day, comes back to the hunting-bothy and found the headless 
body. ' A body here without a head ! ' says Finn. * Make known 
to us,' say the Fiann, * whose is the body.' Then Finn put his 
thumb into his mouth, and he chanted by tenm Idido ' illumination 

of song,' and he said : ' Not 

from Lomna's bed. This is Lomna's body,' says Finn. *His 
enemies have taken the head from him.' 

They slip the sleuth-hounds and put them on the track. Finn 
goes on the track of the warriors and found them in an empty 
house cooking fish upon a gridiron, and Lomna's head was on 
*Pliil. Trans. 1891-2-3. 12 


[col. 3.] Incht doralad^ dindin[deoiii] rantai Coirpr* doa' trib 
nonbfiraiby 7 ni tardad dantmir imbeolu inchinn olsodain.' Bageis 
lafiannu.* Ib andsein iarton asb^rt [a cend] frin : " Orcc brecc 
bronnfind [bmchtM di magar fo mnirib] inbratan di magnr .1. 
ifls^ adomnae.'' 

IKlucht tanaisri dano doralad' dindinn[eo]m lantai' Coirpr^ 
it^mm priori modo, coclos ni daito, acenn : '^ Borannais raind 
fonnail^ nathrainit rann^ nathbaig iarmnig medbae mos batoich 
mir metnail* bit fnaitne finsa'® lib Luigni. ''Cnirid immag 
acend, secbas mi[f]ocal dnnn/' olCoirpri. Coclos ni, acenn dimnig. 
** Bomecbtatar cletb cboiri rintb roirthecb. Age catha cet amba 
mescbaitb. bacomme lib moage. ba condimdai biid moag tein 
doalasfaid Luigni laFind didiu. 

[Lasin dodecbaid Finn cncu, conid romarb."] 

Patraicc a patricio : patricitM autem qui ad lattM regis sedet. 

PeU .i. a peUe.» 

[Pennait .i. a] pennitentia. 

Peccad .i. ape[c]cato. 

Pattu .i. poitbo .i. poi coss : is to didiu fonoiimi inpbattu [fo. 
82^, col. 1.] achossa, ol ni lugu bis finn fo a demaind oldas fnirri 

Propost .i. pr^ost .L pro^osittw." 

Port .i. a portu." 

Parche .i. a parrucbia. 

Pamn .i. nom^ do blo[a]cb mara. N£ cecb" dihalt" trarosegar 
inne." Nipmacbdad lanecb cini fiastar can doroicb bloacb dindi 
as pamn, et alia similia. 

Puincne .i. screpul mode inbicbe. isbe insin screpul Goidel .i. ofing. 

Pugin [selldn] imbe .i. sellan cemnsB.*® 

Pafn .i. bairgen, a pdne. Inde eat isin Gairi Ecbdacb mate 
Lucbtai .i. mo thri finndni fomgeillsat .i. imm ailt nEocbacb 
ailcbetail gaire deloilig find forscing scailtir codipil promtbair 
pain la pugin puinceimn lasiail cemnacb^^ cermnais coimmilg 
cuicbo bitbbf cotamuicc midligen goss gessen cenosmessed connacb 
innabetbu baa. 

1 rolaad, Y. « dia, Y. « disodain, LB. * la find, Y. 

* dorala, Y. • randais, Y. ' fond naile, Y. ; fofael, LB. •* raind, Y. 

• mo mir metail, Y. ^^ fianna, Y. " sic, Y. " .i. 6n croicend, Y. 
" [i.lnech remsuidigthe, Y. " a porta .i. on port, Y. '* thiced, L. ; 
cecn,!. and LB. ** ndialt, Y.; diaJt, LB. ^^ ni cech ndialt tra rosegar 
a inne, Y. '^ Puingind .i. selland imme .i. selland cemae, Y.; Pinginn salund 
imbe .1. seland cemae innsin .i. offaing, LB. ^' cennach, Y. ; cenach, LB. 


a spit hard by the fire. The first batch that was taken from the 
gridiron, Coirpre distributes it to his thrice nine men, and not 
a morsel thereof was put into the mouth of the head. That was 
a gets (magical prohibition) of the Piann^s. So then spake the 
head to them : ' A speckled white-bellied ore, the salmon from 
a . . . this is his . . .' 

The second batch, then, that came from the gridiron Coirpre dis- 
tributes it again in the same way. Then was heard somewhat : 
the head (saying) : ' Thou hast portioned a portion . . .' ' Put 
out the head/ says Coirpre, * though it be an evil word for 
us.' Then was heard somewhat : the head from outside (saying) : 
* Momeehtatar,^ etc. 

With that Pinn came up to them and slew them. 

Pdtraie * Patrick' from Patrieius, Fatricius is one who sits 
beside the king. 

Pell * a covering,' from pellis. 

Pennait * penance,' from poenitentia. 

Peeead ' sin,' from peeeatum. 

Pattu * a hare,' i.e. poi-td, i.e. poi * foot,' silently (td) does the 
hare put its foot down, for not less is hair under its sole than 
on it above. 

Propost * provost,' i.e. prepost, i.e. praepositm. 

Port *a port,' horn, portus, • 

Parehe * parish,' from paroehia. 

Pam, a name for a whale (?) of the sea. Not every syllable 
attains a meaning. Let no one wonder then though he know not 
whence hloaeh applies to a pam, et alia similia. 

Puinene, a scruple of the notched beam. That is the scruple 
of the Gaels, to wit, an ojlng,^ 

Pugin [leg. Puinginn ?] 

Pain * a cake,' from panis ; hence it is in the Gaire of Echaid 
son of Luchta, " My three," etc. 

^ The afaing .i. screpul of O'Dayoren, p. 48, 


Puincemn du^tu cenm tomais sellae 7 mod tomais indile .1. in med 

[col. 2.] Pend .i. a penna. 

Perticc .i. a p#rtica .i. forrach tomais tfre. 

Pairt .i. a parte. 

Poc quasi pao .i. a pace, ar is ardhe sfda in poc. 

Praind .i. a prandio. 

Prull aidbligud 7 metugud,^ ut dixit ingen hui liulsaini 
inbanI6cer^ ' fri Senchan Torpest hiManaind .i. 

immomloiscet '^ modano* prull. 

Frisgart.iarum intecsine dimnintir Senchain .i. 

incberd mac hiii Diilsaine 
oLia[i]cc doTaursaigi Toll. 

ISde tra bui do Senchan anfsein. 

Tochairastar * fair techt imManaind .i. fecbt aninsa do cbor 
chuarta indi. coeca eices allin cenmotha^ 6icsinia. Is[ing] marodbui 
didiu ^ riam imnach naili neices samail inchumdaig biii um Senchdn 
cid cenmotha a thugain ^ suad 71!. Arrombuf dech dano do thim- 
thaigib ' t'er (sic) nGoidel issed b^rtatar umpu indeicis chenae. 

INtan tra documlaiset forfairgi 7 dochorsatar aurlunn^^ fritfr, 
atagladastar gilldae ^cuisc amal dastai ^^ inandiaid dentir : ' Nom- 
leicidse lib,' ols^. Do^cet huile [col. 3.] ingilla. Niipu data^ leo 
iarwm alecud chucu arba fae " leo nibu ^n comadas inna neill.** 
Arbadochruid ah6co8c. Intan, cetam«w, do[m]b^ed nech amer iorsL 
etan notheged atboesc dignr bren [tria chluasaib] f(7radichiilaid : a 
chongrw* chraiche ^* do daramuUach commoithan ada imdaid." Ata 
lanech assidcid batar" caib abinchindi romebdatar trea chlocenn. 
Cuirrithir og luin adisuil, duibithir 6cc [a drech :] luaithidir 
fiamuin ^® [a f egad] ; buid!thir or rinn a fiacla, glassidir bun cuilinn 
ambun : dalurgain lomchoila : daseirid" birdai* brecdaba fou. 
Bia tallta de inceirt bui imbi nibu decmaing di teoht fonmiighi 
a koenur, manifuirmithe cloch fuirri, arimbud amfl. Dorriuoart 
commor" fri Senchan 7 asbert fris : ' Beatorbachasu '^^ deitsiu/ 
olse, 'oUdas ind re foruallach** forbaeth fil imut.' 'Insetir^ 

' m^dugud, L.; metugad, Y. * in bainletbfierd, Y.; in banlecerd, H^; 
in bannlicerd, LB. ^ imanomloiflcet, L. ; imomloiscet, Y. ; immomloiscet, H. 
♦ modeno, L. ; modanoo, H. * dooorM«tair, Y. ; dei cortMtor, H. ; docorustar, 
LB. ® cinmothat, LB. ' Z. repeats didiu. ^ stuigen, LB. » H. inserts 
flathe. *® doconistar a Ifii no urland, Y. " an indM«tae, Y. ; an industai, H. 
" c&in, LB. " ar fae leo, H. " dia n-elta, LB. 1* craicei, H. *« imdad, 
H. " sic, Y. ; badhar, L. ; b6t«r, H. ** luiathidir fiammn, L. ; Inaithitir 
fiamain, Y. ^* daseirr, L. ; da seirr, H. ; da sheirith, Y. ; da send, LB. 
*o birrdai, L. ; birdae, Y. " guth mor, Y. « bem torbachsa, Y. 2» sic, Y. 
H. and LB. ; forthnallach, L. ^ sicY.; Insetar, H. ; indester, LB. 



Puineem^ then, a dish for meaeuring a wland,^ and a beam for 
weighing cattle, %,e. the notched-beam. 

Penn *apen,' irom pmna. 

Pertky from pertica^ a pole for measuring land. 

Pairt * a part,' from pars* 

P6e * a kiss,' queLsipaCy from pax, for the kiss is a sign of peace. 

Praind * dinner,' from prandium. 
:. PruUf greatly increasing and magnifying, as said Hua Dulsaine's 
daughter, the female rhymer, to Senchdn Torp6ist in Mann, to wit : 

** My two ears bum me greatly " {prulT). 

Then answered the bardling of Senchdn's family : 

'' The artist, son of Hua Dulsaine, 
From Liacc of Taursaig TuU." 

Now that happened to Senchdn thus: It came to pass that 
he went to Mann, an excursion of pleasure, to make a 
circuit therein. Fifty poets were his retinue beside bardlings. 
Scarcely any poet had worn such a dress as Senchdn had upon 
him, besides his sage's gown, etc. And what was best of the 
men of the Gaels' garments, this the other poets wore about them. 

So when they had put to sea, and set (their) steering-oar to land, 
a foul-faced gillie called after them from the shore as if he were 
mad: **Let me go- with you!" says he. They all look at the 
gillie. They did not like to let him come to them, for they deemed 
that he was not a bird fit for their flock, for his aspect was hideous. 
For, first, when any one would put his finger on his forehead, a 
gush of putrid matter would come through his ears on his poll. A 
congrus craiche (?) he had over the crown 'of his head to the gristle 
of his two shoulders. It seemed to every one who looked at him 
that the layers of his brain had broken through his skull. Bounder 
than a blackbird's e%^ were his two eyes; blacker than death 
his face; swifter than a fox his glance; yellower than gold the 
points of his teeth; greener than holly their base; two shins 
bare, slender; two heels spiky, black-speckled under him. If 
the rag that was round him were stript off, it would not be 
hard for it to go on a fiitting alone, unless a stone were put upon 
it, because of the abundance of its lice. He shouted mightily to 
Senchdn, and said to him, 'I should be more profitable to thee 
than the proud and wanton crew that is around thee.' 'Is it 

^ 'a ration of honey consisting of four eggfols,' see O'Day. 118, s.y. 


latsu,' olSencliaiiy Huidecht iarsind luith issin churach?' 
' Fromthit^' olse. Cingthi iart^m iarsind luid isincurach, luaithidir 
lochaid iar forga[r]niuin, combui isincurach. Basuail tra corroib- 
[fo. 83*, col. 1.] -tbide* in curach cona lucht arindi rombrochsat ' 
indeicis riasom ^ asindala leith indlestair issalleth^ naill, 7 asb^rtatar 
ama/ bid asind oengin: ' Totro[r]pai '^ pefst, aSenchan! Bid si domuinter huile acht conerlam "^ dochom tfri." 

Is disein rohaiDnmiged dosom Senchan Torp6ist .i. Sencban 
dororpai peist.^ 

Eecat ianim iManaind. Dof ocbat ' acoblacb hitfr. Ambatcur 
didtu hitfr ocimthecbt iarsintraig conacatar insentaiiidi mongleitb 
moirforsin^® carraicc, ocbu&innafemna" 7 inmuirtboraid^* olcbenai. 
Airegdai gratai acossa 7 alama, acht natbui^ etach maitb impi, 

7 bui anf eth gorta fuirri ; 7 ba liach on immorrOf ^rbasisi inbanlecerd 
ingen huiDulsaine de Huscrugn Lfacc Tuill acrfcli huaFigenti. 
Docbuaidside forcuaird Heiren;» 7 Alban 7 Hanann, 7 ba marb 
amuinter hnile. 

[col. 2.] Bui ianon abrathair mac bui Dulsaine, cerd amrae 
sidhe, oca biarmoracht focricha Heirann, 7 nfsfuair 7rL 

IKtan didtu atcbonnairc ^^ intsentainne innabefcsi[u] immoscoem- 
orcair^* ceptar h6. Asb^ iart^m araili dfb : 'Maitb in re" 
immidcommairc. Senchan heices Heir^;» huili [inso]' 7rl. 
TNnotbia de humeldoit? a Senchain/ olsi, 'anad rommath- 
escsa ? * " * Eombfa 6m/ olSenchan. 

I^ipsa eola imnid odbaig '® 
ceso femmuin mbolgaig mbung. 

* Gate a leth-chomorgg? * ^* Sochtaid iarum Senchan 7 indeicis*^ 
huili Doling lasodain ingilla remep^he arbeolu Sench^ 
anasb^: 'Ta,'^ achaillech ! na hacaldai Senchan,^ nf comadas deitt. 
Atomglaitese amne, ol nitaicelladar^ nachaile dim muintirse.' ' Gid 
dii/w ? ' ol in banleicerd, * cate a lethrand ? ' * Ki ansSj* ols0 : 

De muin carrci mara Manann 
doronad mor saland sund. 

* promfit, Y.; promfid, H, ; proimfimit fris, LB. * corroibdithe, Y.; nach 
beite, LB. * robroccsat, liB, * roimesimn. * sic, H. ; isaUeith, L. 
6 dotrorbai, Y. ; dotrobai, H. ' coroisium, LB. ^ Y. adds no paist. 

8 fonacbat, Y. ^^ iarsin, Y. " na femnnige, Y. ^2 mMrthoracht, Y. 
'^ nadmbui, H. ^* atcondairc, H. ^^ immoscoemcorcmr, L. ; immtMCsemorcair, 
H. " niath Ire, L. ; ni athire, H. ; math ire, Y. " fnm aithescsa, Y. ; frim 
aithesxa, H. ^^ adpaig* L- ; odbaij^h, Y. ; adbaig, H. and LB. The i^ht 
reading must be odbaig, rhyming with mbolgaig, *• lethcomarc, 1 . ; 
lethcomrac, LB. ^ ind^ices, L. ^^ asbert sta, Y. ; asbertta, L. ; antMb^ai, 
H. ^ niraga H-leth Senchain, LB. *' ohiidaciildadhar, H. 


possible for thee,' said Senchdn, 'to come along the steering -oar 
into the boat?' *I will try it,' says he. So he goes along the 
steering-oar into the boat, swifter than a shuttle along a weaver's 
beam, till he was in the boat. N'ow the boat with its crew was 
nearly swamped, because the poets pressed before him from the one 
side of the vessel to the other. And they said, as it were with one 
mouth: ''A monster hath come to thee, Senchdn, and it will 
be thy whole family, provided we escape to land." 

Hence he was named Senchan Torpeist, that is, Senchan to 
whom a monster (piist) hath come. 

Then they reach Hann and haul their boat on land. "Now 
while they were ashore, going along the beach, they saw an 
old woman, grey-haired and big, on the rock, reaping the sea- 
weed and the other sea-produce. Eefined and noble were 
her feet and hands; but there was no goodly raiment around 
her, and upon her was the evil aspect of famine. Now that 
was a pity, for she was the female rhymer, the daughter of 
Hua Dulsaine of Muskerry, of Liacc TuU, from the territory 
of Kui Eidgente. She had gone on a circuit of Erin and 
Alba and Mann, and all her company was dead. 

IS'ow her brother, the son of Hua Dulsaine, a marvellous artist 
he, was seeking her throughout the territories of Ireland, and found 
her not. 

So when the old woman saw the poets, she asked them who 

they were. Said a certain one of them: "Good are those thou 

questionest. This is Senchan,. the poet of the whole of Erin," 

etc. **Wilt thou be humble enough, Senchan," says she, **to 

wait and give me an answer? " '* I will, in sooth," says Senchan. 

[Then she said :] 

"I have no knowledge of knotty^ tribulation. 

Although it is blistered sea-weed that I reap." 

"What is its corresponding half-quatrain?" Then Senchdn is 

silent and all the other poets. But then the aforesaid gillie springs 

before Senchan and said : " Hearken, hag ! address not Senchan : 

'tis not fitting for thee: but address me, for no other of my 

family holds speech with thee." " Well, then," says the female 

rhymer, "what is this other half -quatrain?" "Not hard," saith 

be : 

" From the surface of the crag of the Sea of Hann 

Much salt hath been made here." 

^ i.e. dark and hard, like a knot in a tree. 


" I8f(r," olsi, 7 inlethrann Wau dano .!• 
immomloiscet modd nao prull. 

Gate alethrann, aSenchain, beoa?" [coL 3.] '^Amin," olingilla, 
'^ ocsaigid deit acallma Sencbain. nitacelladar 6m." ^*CesididiUf 
cate latsom ? olissem.^ Olsessom : 

incerd mac Hui Dulsaine. 
oLiac do Tairsaige TuU." 

* ' Ffr son," olSenchan. ' ' Intussu ingen Hui Dulsaine inbanleicerd 
occa tdthar chuincbid setbno * "Reirmn ? " 

" ISme em," olsi. Fotbruicther iar^m laSencban,' 7 dobwar 
decbelt * amra * impe, 7 dodeocba/<^ laSencan inHeirw»/ INtan, 
tra, donanio Senchan inHeirtn^^ conaccatar ingillai remepertbe,^ 
ba boclacb comoing orbuidi caissidir cana mennorott. Tlacbt 
rfgdba imme : delb isairegdam ' atcess for duine fair, 

Dotboet dessiul Sencbain 7 amuintere, et nusquam appamit 
ex illo tempore. Dubium ita^ jxon est quod ille poematis erat 

Eectaire .i. rettor [leg. rector] a rege. 

Boss .i. trede lordingair .i. ross fidbuidi 7 ross Ifn 7 ross buisci. 
sain didiu accuiss as(ro)bainmniged cacbae .i. ross fidbuide, cetami<& 
.i. roi ^^ OSS : ross lin dano, robas : ross buisci dano rofoss son, [fo. 83^ 
col. 1.] oir nfbi" acbt for marb-buisci. 

Bemm ainm do fuirseoir fobitb ceob fuirseoracbta 7 cacb 
riasta[r]da dob^»r foraaigid. 

Rintaid ainm dofir aercbdd ^^ rinnas cacb naigid. 

Rout .i. roset .i. mo oldas set, semitta son unius animalis. Atatt 
tra ilanmann forsnaconairib .i. set 7 rout 7 ramut 7 slige 7 lamrottea 
7 tuagrotea 7 botbur. 

set cetamt^^ ut pr^diximtM. 

rout .L d^cbubat carbat 7 daoenecbda imbi.^ doronad i&ibecbraite 
mennato immedon.'^ 

ramut .L [mo] oldas rout .i. aurscur bis fordim rig. cecb 
comaitbecb asa tir dodroig ^^ dlegar do a glanad. 

^ old, Y. and H. ' oningidh seehxioQ, T. ' Y. adds dS. * ^eb, LB. 
* dobret dechelt n-amra, Y. ® docmn neiremi) Y. ' tangatar docnm nerend, Y. 
8 nemeperthe, L. ; remepertae, Y. ' is airegdai, L. ; is airecbdam, Y. ^^ siCy 
LB. ; reoi, Y. ; nif, L. " nirbi, L. " aorcbaid, Y.; aerad, LB.; fsBscb&id, L. 
^^ dacnbat carpat 7 daonecbdae imme, Y. ; dacumat n6 dacbuat carpal doaenach 
dae imme, LB. Tbe text bere is corrupt, and my yersion is a mere guess. 
^* armedon, Y. ^^ dotroicb, Y. ; dor6 chuige, L. 


** That is true/' saith she, '' and this half-quatrain moreover : 

My two ears bum me greatly. 

What, O Sench^n, is its half-quatrain also ? " 

"Verily," says the gillie, **thou art attempting to converse 
with 8enchan; he holds no speech with thee." "What then,*' 
saith she, " what is it according to thee ? " Saith the gillie : 

" The artist, son of Hua Dulsaine, 
From Liacc of Taurswg Tull." 

"That is true," saith Senchdn. "Art thou the daughter of Hua 
Dulsaine, the female rhymer, for whom there is searching through- 
out Ireland ? " 

"I am, indeed," saith she. Then she is washed by Sench^n, 
and a wonderful dress is put upon her, and she went with Senchan 
to Ireland. Now, when Senchan arrived in Ireland, they saw 
the aforesaid gillie, that he was a young hero with golden-yellow 
hair curlier than cross-trees of small harps : royal raiment ho 
wore, and his form was the noblest that hath been seen on a 
human being. 

He went right-hand-wise round Senchdn and his people, and 
thenceforward he never appeared. It is not, therefore, doubtful 
that he was the Spirit of Poetry. 
. Rechtaire * a steward,' i.e. rector^ from rex, 

Ro88y three things it means : ro%8 * a wood,* and ro8B * flax-seed,' 
and ro88 of water (* duckweed'). The cause for which each of 
them was so named is different. M088 * a wood,' in the first place, 
that is roe-088 an abode (?) of deer ; ro88 * flax-seed,' then r0'd88 
' great growth ; ' ro88 of water, ro-fo88 that is * great rest,' for it 
(duckweed) is only found on stagnant water. 

Remm^ a name for a buffoon, because of every buffoonery and 
every distortion which he puts on his face. 

Rintaidy a name for a satirical (?) man who wounds every face. 

R6ut ' a road,' i.e. ro-«c7 * a very great path,' i.e. greater than 
a 8ety the path, that, of one animal. Now there are many names for 
the ways, to wit, bH and r6uty and rdmut, and sliffe, and Idni' 
rdta^f and ttutg-rdtae, and hdthar. 

8^tf in the first place, as we have said : 

rdut, two lengths of chariots and two one-horse vehicles (?) on it : 
it was made for the horses of a mansion in the middle. 

rdmutf i.e. greater than a rdut, an area which is in front of 
the King's fort. Every neighbour whose land roaches it is bound 
to cleanse it. 


sligi dawo doscuat^ carpait sech innaile, dorronadlri himcomrac^ 
dacarpat .i. carpat rig ycarpat epsi^ijp arandig • cechtar dib sech 

laimroitea .i. eter da sligi .i. sligi tar tuaiscerd mendato alaile 
tar deiscerd frilessu fricui doronad. 

tuagroitea focren fer trebar conair do ascnam raitea nd sleibe. 
issi iartim afochraicc anamin each dine ^ immidret cachala bliae^ain. 

bothur, talla daboin fair, ala[ii]ai ioriot, alaili fortarsnu, aratalla 
allaegn 7 angamnu aiL[a fjarrad,^ armad inna ndiaid beit furthus ^ 
inbo bias diheiss. 

Attat tri glantae docachae. Teora aimsera inglanaiter^ .i. 
aimser [col. 2.] ech-ruathair 7 amser chue 7 amser choctha. Itte ® 
a tri nglantae,^ glanad afeda 7 ahnisci 7 acoclaid. 

IThe aicsin *^ aranglanaiter .i. ama heillnet acarptea " ocdul for 
cui," amahuallnet ^^ echraide oc techt do oenuch. A choclaid 
arnahesarlaither nech fair octecht fothressu.^^ 

Reo .i. gr^ic, reoi enim grece gelu int^rpr^tur. 

Eincne .i. quasi quinqe^. Inde dtettur Perches mac Mosechess 
d*x»t intan adrimed Finn hua Baiscni cech coiciur ahuair^* de 
sluag Lmg[dech] m«ic Neit" dochuinchid ind[f]eindedo .i. Ferchess. 
Lassin didiu adacht Ferchiss tren foachnamai sech Find, 7 dolleici 
inslig for Luigid " conid romarb, 7 asb^t occo : " Kincne cairincne 
ris ^^ riig " .i. arbahed asb^ed " Finn beos adrimed each coiciur 
arhuair.*' Eincne qt^asi quinque. 

Eobuth qt^asi rebuth .i. rembu[b]thad.*^ 

Retghlu .i. r6t gl6 .i. ar[a]sml8i. 

Roth .i. a rota.** 

Rucht .i. inar, ut Ferchertne dixit .i. [ro ir dam] dech ruchtu 

Rudrath .i. rodurath. 

Ruam quasi rom a Roma. 

Ranc issed afsjseiss^^^ cenel namaili. Ranc didiu ite na hussin ^ 

^ doscuet, Y. doscuchad, LB. * himcomarac, L. himcomarc, LB. 

3 siCf Y. arandiche M sechindili, L. ; oondechaid cachae dib sech araile, LB. 

* anam each dine no each mil, Y. ^ f or a tallut a laeig n6 ang&mna inafail, LB. 

* iurrus, L. iurthass, Y. iurtais, LB. '' Y. inserts teorae tucaite aranglanaiter. 
8 Iteat, Y. 9 glanta, Y. »« achuis, Y. " cairpthiu, Y. « cai, Y. 
" ama hnilled, i. " fotressae, Y. fothress, LB. " Intan boi 
find ua baiscni oc airim each coieir amnair, Y. ^^ niadh, Y. ; con, LB. 
" Inidig, L. ; lugaid, Y. is rus, Y. « arbaheth atbeired, Y. ^ anair, Y. 
^1 Robuth quasi remfuath no robudh di^iu .i. rembuptadh bios, Y. '^ .i. on 
cuairt, Y. ; a cuairt, LB. ^ hnsine, LB. huisin, Y. 


8l%g0f then, chariots pass by each other on it : it was made for 
the meeting of two chariots, to wit, a king's chariot and a bishop's 
chariot, so that each of them may go by the other. 

Idm-rdtae, i.e. between two highroads, i.e. a highroad to the 
north of a mansion and another to the south: for garths . . . 
• • • it was made. 

iuag-rotae, a husbandman buys a path to get at a pasture 
or a mountain. This then is its price, .... for every lamb 
that passes it every second year. 

hdthar, two cows fit on it, one lengthwise, the other athwart, 
that their calves and their yearlings may fit on. it along with them, 
beside them ; for if they were behind them the following cow would 
gore them. 

For each of them (the ways) there are three cleansings, (and) 
three times at which they are cleansed, to wit, time of horse-racing, 
and time of winter, and time of warfare. These are its three 
cleansings: cleansing of its wood, and of its water, and of its 

These are the causes for which they are cleansed, that their 
chariots may not be soiled in going on the way, that horses 
may not be ... in going to a fair. Trom weeds that no one 
may be delayed (?) on it when going . . . 

£eo * frost,' i.e. Greek, for reo (^<7os) in Greek is interpreted ffelu. 

Rincney quasi quinque. Hence said Eerches, son of MoSechess, 
when Finn grandson of Baiscne was counting every five in turn 
of the hos( of Lugaid, the son of Mac-neit, to seek the champion 
Ferches. With that Ferches gave .... past Finn and cast the 
spear on Lugaid and killed him, and said thereat Rincne cairincne 
ria (leg. rus ?) riff, for that is what Finn used to say when he was 
numbering every pentad in turn, Rincne quasi quinque, 

Robuth * a warning,' quasi rebuth, i.e. rem-bubthad ^ a fore- 

Retglu ^ a star,' i.e. rit gU ^ a bright thing,' because of its 

Roth ' a wheel,' from rota. 

Rucht * tunic,' as Ferchertne said, * He gave me ten red tunics.' 

Rudrath ' period of prescription,' that is rodkrath * very great 

Riiam * a cemetery,' from Roma. 

RanCf this is the sixth kind of baldness. Rane, then, here the 
temples are high. 


Each d&noy ishe inront namaili otha ilitedan ^ corrice amuUacli. 

Romaili .i. etsr inda n^o huile« 

Saal tria assa .i. assa firm- [coL 3.] -uUaig^ maeltairside combi 
achaisi buidi inamuUacli amal sail duine tria assa. 

Bude-reid ' dana .i. mael achenn huili isidu combi glelom. 

IMspeilp * dano .i. bid folt for cectar iDdalethchend 7 bfd inrout 
reid otha intedan corrice claiss indachulad.' 

Ite insein se cinela namailL 

Eigan .i. a regfna, uel apt^ Scotos xi rigan huad. 

Bath ab eo quod est rata latine^ 

Euam .i. luss dobeir oucht super faciem combi derg, nude dtcitur 

Eoscad .i. ro scad .i. roinnsced de deochaid inord insce T .i. scath 
.i. insce. 

Eelic .i. a relicis Banctorum, 

Eop .1. rap. rop ^ didiu naeh nanmanna gonas, ut sunt uaccae. 
Eap immorro nach nanmanna dosrenga [chugae ^], ut sunt sues^ 
Bed tamen uicissim communit^r dicuntur. Eap didiu ab eo quod 
est rapio. Eop yero ab eo quod M rohustus. 

Eibar .i. criathar. 

Eiss .i. seel, Eissi .i. scela. Inde Coirpr^ mac Ethna dtxt't 
isin citna dir doronad inHere .i. oendil dam rissi ro[bj8en 

Euad rofessa i. nom^ donDagdu. 

Eomnae aiss .i. lias 7 buidetu. 

SanctBrigit .i. noebBrigit.^° 

Suil quasi sol, aristrithi ata ^oilsi do duine. SuiLd ab eo quod 
est suil. Solus .i. a sole.^^ 

Sobraig i. a sobrio." 

Senod .i. a^ senodo." 
. Salonn i. sal ond .1. cloch sdili.^f Sal xinde est sale. 

Sanas .i. sain fis. 

Segamla .i, blichtmaire. seg ^dtu A, blicht. 'Inde dicitur isna- 
Brethaib Neimed .i. meser bu ara segamla." 

* mdetan, Y. • firmullag, Y. ; drmhullacli, LB. • Buge reid, L. ; 
Bugereth, Y. ; Buide reid, LB. * Imspelip, Y. * conice achiil, LB. • diarmait 
ruanaidh, Y. ^ roindsciged .i. doaeocnaidh innord nindsci, Y.; r6iiidsc6 .i. 
dodhechaid in ord insce, LB. ® sic, Y, ; pop, L. • «»<?, Y. '^^ ««j, Y. ; 
noembriffit, L. " .i. on grein, Y. '* a sobrio .i. on subachus, Y. 

'3 synooo, Y. ** cloch sail iinde dicitur saile, Y. " Y. adds .i. ar a 



raoh^ also, this is the road of baldness from the forehead as far 
as the crown. 

nmdiU •very great baldness,' to wit, all between the two ears. 

Bol tri assa, *heel through hose.' From his very crown h6 is 
bald, so that his yellow caiae (?) is in his crown like a man's heel 
through his hose. 

hude-rStd, * yellow-smooth,' then. Bald is the whole of his 
head in him, so that he is completely bare. 

inMpeilp, then, there is hair on each of the two half -heads, and there 
is the smooth road from the forehead to the hollow of the polL 

Those are the six kinds of baldness. 

Ei^an ^ queen,' from reginai vel apud Scotos ri 'king,' Hgan 
from it. 

Rath ' a surety,' from rata in Latin. 

Ruam, a herb that puts a colour on the face so that it is red, 
whence is said rtMmttad. 

Roscad 'maxim,' i.e. ro-scad, i,e. ro-tnsced. It went into the 
order of words, i.e. scath * a word.' 

Relic * a burial-place,' from the reliquiae j ' relics,' of the saints. 

Rojp and rap, Rop is every animal that gores, such as kine: 
rapy however, is every animal that drags to it, sed tamen vicissim 
communiter dicuntur. Rap^ then, from rapio^ but rop from rohustus, 

Rihar * a sieve.' 

Rise * a tale,' rissi ' tales.' Hence Coirpre, son of Ethna, said in 
the first satire that was composed in Ireland, ' Not to pay story- 
tellers, may that be Bress' fate.' 

Ruad rofessa * lord of vast knowledge,' a name for the Dagdae. 

Romnae aiss, to wit, greyness and yellowness. 

Sanot Brigit, i.e. Saint Brigit. 

Sibil * eye,' from sol * the sun,' for through it is light to man. 
SoiUe light, from Siiil, Solas * manifest,' from sol. 

Sohraig from sohritcs. 

Senod * an assembly,' from synodtts. 

Salonn ^ salt,' i.e. sal-ondf i.e. a stone of salt. Sal, whence is 
saile 'brine.' 

Sanas * a secret, ' ( 'an etymologicum *?) i. e. sain-fiss ' rare knowledge.' 

Segamla 'milkiness,' seg then is milk. Hence is said in the Judg- 
ments of the Notables : ' Thou shalt estimate kine by their milkiness.' 


[Smeroit .i.] Smerfuaitt [fo. 84», col. 1.] .i. smer .i. tene 7 
f ude * .i. fuidell. 

Sirem .i. iarsindi sires olucc collucc in capite et in toto corpore. 

Serr .i. a serra. 

Snuad .i. folt. 

Secc 7 seccda ondi i8[s]iccu8. 

Secnap ^ .i. secund-abb ^ .i. seeundus abbati.^ 

Secht qt^si sept' ab eo quod est septim. 

[Se ab eo quod est sex. 

Spirut ab eo quod est spiritus. 

Spiracul ab eo quod est spiraculum.] * 

Sponc .i. a sponcia.'^ 

Sest .i. nomen domedon lae, quasi sext .i. a sexta bora. 

Semind .i. seim coahinn. 

Screpul quasi scripul, ab eo quod est scripulu^. 

Sceng .i. imda, unde est imsceng .i. both beco immatimcella 
imdai. Inde dieitut ferr [imscing] adbul ® il. 

Sorbb .i. locht, quasi sord .i. a sordendo.^ 

Slabrad quasi slab[a]r-iad .i. iadad cumang .i. slabar each cumang 
7 eslabar cech fairsing. 

Samrad .i. sam isindEbru, sol isindLaitin/^ und^^ [dicitur] Samson 
' sol eorum.' Samrad 6idiu riad reithess gHan, is ann ismo doaitni ^^ 
asuilsi 7 ahairdi. 

Sen ab eo quod est senex. Senser .i. senex 7 fer. 

Sailchoit .i. sail coit. coit .i. caill isin Combreicc. Sailchoit 
didiu .i. caill mor dosailchedain roboi ann.^^ 

Badb .i. so adba. 

Sine ^^ quasi suige. 

Serb .i. ingen Scethimdi in druad deChonnachtaib. Ishf rosddi 
feda Atha Luain .i. Bron 7 Duba 7 Daurdibeoil** .i. intan rodalai 
natri dalai ocAth luain fri Cormac Conloinges " (.i. Cond naloingse) 
mac Conohobair. 

Sin .i. each cruind, \mde sin Maie mufn " .i. epis^t7 bai imma- 
bragait [col. 2.] fri forcell firinne .i. intan" nobbed" firindi 
bafairsing d[i]a braigit. intan " bago bacumang." 

^ fuait, Y. * Sechnap, L. ^ secimda, L. * abbate, L. 

* septa, jj. • sicy Y. '' spongia, Y. ^ adbar, Y.; &dbai, LB. 

^ a sordento .i. on tsalchar, Y. ; a sonlido, LB. ^^ sam hebraice, sol latine, Y. 
1^ doaithne, L.; doatne, Y. *® do sailchetain and prius, Y. ** sene, L. ; 

sine, B. " daurdebeoil, Y.; dur 7 dibeoil, LB. »* sic, Y.; Coinloinges, L. 
16 main, Y. *' «<?, Y. ; antan, L. ^^ atberedh, Y, ^* cumac. LB. 


SmMit 'embers,' that is smSr-fudti; smer 'fire/ and fiMtt 

Sirem ' disease/ because it searches {aires) from place to place in 
the head and in the whole body. 

Serr * a reaping-hook/ from serra. 

Sniiad 'hair.' 

8ece ' frost/ seec ' dry/ seeta, aecda ' dried/ from siccus, 

Secnahb ' a prior/ i.e. secund-ahh, i.e. secundns abbati. 

JSecht ^ seven/ quasi sept, from septem. 

Si ' six/ from sex. 

Spirut ' spirit/ from spiritus, 

Spiracul ' a breathing-hole/ from spiraculum. (Genesis, vii. 22.) 

Sponc ' sponge/ from spongia, 

Sestf a name for mid-day, quasi sexi, i.e. from sexta hora. 

Semind * a rush/ i.e. slender («^»m) to its end {ind), 

Screpuly quasi scripul, from scripultM. 

Sceng 'a bed/ whence is im-scing, a little bothy in which a 
bed fits. Hence is said, ' Eetter is a bed-booth than a . . .' 

Sorb ' a fault/ quasi sord from sordendo, 

Slahrad ' a chain/ quasi slabar-iad, i.e. a narrow closing (iadad). 
Slahar is everything narrow, and esslahar everything ample. 

Samrad * summer,' sam in the Hebrew and sol in the Latin, 
whence is said Samson ' sol eorum.' Samrad then is the course 
which the sun runs. Then {i.e, in summer) its brightness shines 
most and its height. 

Sen 'old,' from senex. Senser 'ancestor,' from senex andfer 'man.' 

SailcMit (a place-name), i.e. sail-c6it, Coit is ' a wood ' in the 
"Welsh. Sailchoity then, a great wood of willows that was there. 

Sadh ' a dwelling * ? that is, so-adba ' a good abode.' 

Sine ' a teat,' quasi snige * a dropping.* 

Serbf the daughter of Scetherne the wizard of Connaught. She 
it is that planted the trees of Athlone, to wit. Grief and Darkness 
and Hard-Dumb, when she trysted the three trysts at Athlone 
with Cormac Conloinges {i.e. Conn of the Exile) son of Conor. 

Siny everything round. Whence is Mac moin's sin^ i.e. an epistle 
which was about his neck for declaring truth. When he used to 
pass a true judgment the sin was wide for his neck. "When the 
judgment was false the sin was narrow. 


Serrach .i. serr cech nuachell^ .i. cech noccla. Inde dtcitur serr 
[cech] ocdam. iVd serrach .i. ser-ech .i. indiaid amathar bis. 

Scuit .i. a Scota ingen rig Eoraind rig Egept[e}. 

Sath .i. biad, un^^ dicttur sathech. 

Sanb .i. inac Augaine Moir, nnde Mag Sainb dicitur, 

Segda i. cosmail [fri s6ig 6] arafegi 7 aglicct^.' 

Seng cech segda isinDuil Feda Moir.^ 

Subaid .i. subiate {sie : leg. a sobrietate ?). 

San .i. rifriget. 

Srol* .i. suilsi, un^f^ eat apud Scottos [diu* srol .i.] dies solw. 

Sopaltair .i. sepultair .i. a sepultt^ra .i. relicc nanduneba .i. 

Saim .i. cech corait bf s eter da duine ' n6 iter da hech, 

Sed^ .i. OSS allaid, nnde est sedgoine' .i. fer gonas ossu 
allaid {sic : leg. alltai). 

Sanc[t] ab eo quod est sanctus. 

Sen .i. Ifn ingabthar 6oin, nnde sen-bretha. 

Sau each soer nt est isnaErethaib l^eimed : fiaircditeir ^° mairc 
mathi maccaib sau socharde.^^ 

« • • 

Triath .i. ri .i. tremi etha iath.'* 

Ti .i bratt> 

Tort i. bairgen .i. nomen de sono iactum. [inde dicitur] 
tortene .i. bairgen6ni. 

Toisc .i. uoluntas hominis. csioh nf iart^m aslaind 7 isadlaic laduini 
is^t^ atb^ir istoisc dam. 

Trfath dano trede fordingair .i. trfath .i. rf, 7 triath muir, 7 
triath tore. [col. 3.] Deiligtir didiu innar^mendaib. Triath ri 
didiu treith areim. Triath muir .i. trethan areim. T/iath tore 
dano treith[i] areim.** 

Tech ab eo qwod est tectum. 

Tore quasi pore .i. cendfochrtw. 

Tarb qw^^si taurb .i. a tauro. 

Tethru .i. ri Fomori, ut est isind Immacaldaim in da Thuaru 
.i. et^r tri[u]wu Tethrach." 

1 nuallacli, LB. • Y. adds 7 ara gabailchi. ' Y. prefixes Segon quasi 
Began .i. gen segdae, ab eo quod est. * aroll, Y. ' siCy Y. * relec na 
duineba .1. mag mar a n-idlmaictis na genti, Y. ' dam, Y. ^ seg, Y. seg, 
LB. » seguinidh, Y. s^ghuinech, LB. »<> faircdither, Y. " sochraite, Y. 
^ trem atha lath, L. ; treime ethae iathae, Y. ^ LB. and Y. add .1. 

breo ar fuit. 1* Y. adds Triath .1. ri, tir-sith a taithmech. Triath muir, 

tir-uath a taithmech. Triath .i. tore, tir-sod a taithmech. ^ trethrach, L. 


Serrach * a foal.' 8err everything proud (?), everything vehe- 
ment (?). Hence is said: Every band of warriors is serr. Or 
Mrraeh i.e. ser-eok * heel-horse,' i.s, behind his dam he is. 

Scuitt * the Scots,' from Scota, daughter of King Pharaoh, king 
of Egypt. 

Sdth * food.' Hence is said sdthech ' satiated.' 

Sanh, son of Augaine the Great. Hence is said Magh Sainb 
* the Plain of Sanb.' 

Segda, he is like to a aeg (hawk?) for his keenness and his 

8mg is everytKing segda in the Book of the Great Wood. 

Stfhaid subiate (?). 

SaHy i.e. rifriget [read refrigeret ?]. 

8r6l * sun,' whence is said by the Scots * diu sr6l^ i.e. Sunday. 

Sopaltair, i.e. sepuUair, from aepultwra, i.e. the graveyard of the 
plagues, in which they (the heathen) used to be buried. 

Saim^ every yoke that is between two persons or between two 

Sid 'a deer,' when is said sidguine, a man who kills wild 

Sanct * holy,' from sanettts. 

Sin * a net in which birds are caught,' whence sin-hretha * bird- 
net judgments.' 

SaUf every noble, as is in the Judgments of the Notables : * Let 
good horses be kept by the sons of a noble host.' 

lyiath *a king.' Through him {tremi) are the foods (etha) of 
the lands. 

Ti * a mantle.' 

Tort 'a, cake,' a name made from the sound. Hence is said 
tortine * a cakelet.' 

ToisCy one's desire, everything that is pleasing and desirable in 
a person's eyes he says it is a toiac, it is a desire, of mine. 

Triathy three things it means, to wit, triath * king,' and triath 
*sea,' and Math *boar.' They are distinguished by their 
genitives. Triath *king,' triith is its genitive. Triath *sea,' 
trethan is its genitive. Triath * boar,' triithi is its genitive. 

Tech * house,' from tectum. 

Tore, quasi pore, a mutation. 

Tarhh * a bull,' quasi taurhhy from tatirm, 

Tethru, a king of the Eomorians, as is in the Dialogue of the 
two Sages : * among Tethru's mighty men.' 

FliU. Tram. lSdl-2-Z, 13 


Tenlach ab eo quod est tene lige. 

Tet i. notnen de sono iactum. 

Temair .i. Grr^c rotruaillned ann .i. teomoro .i. oonspicio. 
Temair dddtu cachloo asnad airgna deosin, xmde^ dtoitur temair 
natuathe 7 temair intige. 

Tem cech ndorclia, uade dteitur temen. 

Tipra quasi topra d. iarsindi dobruclita [uisce as] . nd tipra .i. 

Troech ' .1. ca^h nechtraide .i. each neotwr.' 

Turigen .i. rf. Turigein (.i. tuili) gein .i. gein tollin [.i. tolin] 
a fir (aaui)daicn»W e^onoenaigter fri fir na screptra. Alit^ turigin 
.i. tur i[ii]gena .i. tenga. Aliter turigein .i. gein turi.* &mal bis 
tair mor ocfulang thighi 7 illama essi [sic ised in teg in doman 
centaxacli']. ISbf intirir firindi recbta aient^. Itte na billama 
fasin tuirid .i.'] ilchialla 7 ilcbonora inbreithemnais 7rl. Aliter 
tuirigein .i. rl, at est isinDuil Roscad 7rl. 

* cech loc as mbi aur^am deicsl ittr mag 7 tech, ut, Y. * Troeth, Y. ; 
Traaeth, LB. ; traetji, Book of Leoan, 160^ 2. ' .i. gach neuter .i. 

nemtedhtardea *not-either-of-them,* Y. [ = nemnechtardha (gl. neutrain), 
Uraicecht, Book of Lecan, fo. 145^ ll. * quasi gein a tuir, Y. * sic, Y. 
^ sic, Y. Y. adds the quotation : M tulach fri tuirigin tuigethar tuile mar 
muime * not a hill for a king who ... a great flood of spears ' [muirenn .i. 
aleghy O'Day. 105, mairenn, supra, p. 16]. 


Tenlaeh ' hearth,' from tene ' fire ' and Uffe * bed/ 

Tet * a string/ a name made from the sound. 

Temair, Greek was corrupted therein, i.e. teomoro (Oetopeo)?), 
that is, conspicio. Temair, then, is every place from which there is 
a remarkable prospect, whenpe is said the temair of the country, 
and the temair of the house. 

Tern, everything dark, whence is said temm ' dark grey.' 

Tipra *a well,' quasi topru, because water bursts {dohruchta) 
out of it, or tipra, a dropping {tepersiu). 

Troeth, everything neutral, every neuter. 

Tmrigen *a king,' turiffein, i.e. tuU-gein 'flood-mouth,' i.e. a mouth 
that fills itself, i.e. its truth fills out of nature, so that it is made 
one with the truth of the Scripture. Aliter turigin, i.e.' tur in gena 
* the tower of the mouth,' i.0. a tongue. Aliter turigein, i.e. gein 
turi, as there is a great tower supporting a house with many arms 
out of it, so is the house in the present world. This is the tower, 
the truth of the law of nature. These are the many arms out of 
the tower, the many meanings and many ways of judicature, etc. 
Aliter ttirigein * a king,' as is in the Book of Maxims, etc. 



Imbas foromai or Imhass foromaf see LU. 55^ 14, 125^ 9. My 
translation of this difficult article is merely tentative. ImbaSf 
LL. 30^ 29. Imhass, H. 3. 18, pp. 70, col. 3, and 635, col. 3. 
Imhass, gen. tmhais, supra, s.v. nimb,' from ^emhi-hat-tO', cognate 
with the Jjd&ifateor, 

forosnai, from '"for-od-sunna, verbal noun fursunnud, seems cogn. 
with Goth, sunnd, A.S. sunne. As to cama derg, see Laws, ii. 
202, where derg-cama is contrasted with cama hruithe 'boiled 
flesh.' In tmm Idida ' illumination of song,' we have a derivative 
of ten * fire,' ^tep. 

Ldichess, voc. pi. a Michessa, LU. 103^ 35. 

Lugnasad, gen. oenach Tailten cech lugnasaid, LU. 52^ 20. As 
to Lug mac Ethlenn, see LU. 78^ 18 and Eevue Celtique, xii. 127. 

Lelap. The lau kittle' here and s.v. lautu seems borrowed from 
an Old- Welsh *lau = Ir. lug, Gr. €-\axt;9, Skr. hghu. 

Lemlacht, lem each maeth, H. 3. 18, p. 635*. The Uith (leg. 
teith ?) here cited occurs compounded in teith-milhi * smooth-sweet,' 
an epithet for the rivers in Fairyland, LU. 131, 1. 37, and teith-hlaithi 
* smooth-soft,' an epithet for a woman's thighs, H. 2. 16, col. 716. 

Loch, O'DoDovan renders assoilgi laith hchhronna by ' prosperous 
is a king of dark secrets' — a signal instance of unlucky guess- 
work. Assoilgi is 3rd sg. pres. ind. act. of a verb, '^salc, cognate 
with osslaicim *1 open,' and arosailcther. Ml. 14° 15, irsolooth *an 
opening,' dufuasailce, Ml. 29^ 10, and the verbal noun tuaslucud 
*an opening': laith is. a common word for ale, cognate with 
Com. lad (gl. liquor), Gr. Xdra^, and Lat. latex ; and hronna is the 
ace. pi. of hrd, a fem. nn-stem. 

Laith, from *(p)lati, cogn. with 7rd\rf, wdkefio^, as flaith with 
valeo, Ldith ' balance,' perh. from *tldti, cogn. with Gr. Tokamop, 
Skr. tula, Lat. tuli, {t)ldtus. The t of the soundgroup tl seems lost 
also in lucht *a charge '=0.W. tluith in or mawr-dluithruim (gl. 
multo uecte). The grammatical term forsail is thus explained in 

^ And so ba rand immais, LL. 187^ 15. fomesa ceard n-eicse donessa cerd 
n-iumuis, he who reproaches the art of imbass reproaches the art of poetry, H. 3. 
18, p. 62, col. 3. 


the TTraicecht, BB. 31B^ 20: forsail m fuilM ele dob^/r cumang 
fedha for in son dia fot, amael ata sron, slog [leg. sron, slog]. So 
in BB. 328* 44, forsail, ut est sron 7 slog 7 mor. 

Langfitsr, The corresponding loanword in "Welsh i^ lawhethyr^ 
Laws, i. 558, now Ihwethir in Cardigans}iire, according to Bh^s, 
Wehh Fairy Tales, 36. 

Lommand, The ace. sg. lummdin is in Mac Conglinne's Yision, 
LB. 213^. The adj. lomm (W. llwmm) here mentioned is, according 
to Strachan, from '^lup-mo-, cf. O.-Slav. lupiti detrahere, Lith. lupti 
schalen, lattpiti ranhen. So Old-Ir^ dmm *hand,' Ascoli, Gloss, 
pal.-hib. p. xl, seems from *dp-inen, cogn. with Lat. apere, aptm, 
apisci, Skr. ^dp, 

Letheoh 'plaice' ('flounder'?), cogn. with Mid.-High-Germ. 
vluoder 'flounder.* 

fithidrea, sg. gen. of Jlthithair, Laws, ii. 344, 348. dat. do 
fithidir, Laws, ii. 228. 

Z6e8, The stem of the verb -Imnethar here cited seems in form 
identical with that of wX^pto from TrXv-P'^-as (KZ. vi. 89). Root 
(p)lu. With the tmesis, imme- loea -luinethary cf. as- rUna -r^mdid, 
r61. Jan. 12. 

Mo dehroth. This is spelt mudehroth in the Bk. of Armagh, 6^ 1, 
mudehrod, ibid. 7* 2. 

Marc, In airmneeh, cogn. with arha, pi. arhann, the m is for 
V. Airgtech (which I have not met elsewhere) is derived &om 

MuccairhSy see Laws, iv. 360, 1. 6. 

Milliud, LU. 97». Cf. oc admilliud ind rig, LTJ. 86*. do 
admillind ind rfg, LTJ. 87*. fer tuadc^ech co suil millethaig, 
LU. 97^ 

Mtlgetan^ is an honoriflc portion of an animal ; but what portion 
is not known. 

Melg, The compound melgthem is exemplified in the Amra 
Conroi : firu batar fo meilgtine .i. has. 

Morann. See now as to him Irisehe Texte, 3^® serie, I. heft, 
pp. 206, 207, 208. The AudaeM Morainn is in the Book of 
Leinster, pp. 293, 294. With hihda hdis, cf. is bidba bais (gl. reus 
est mortis), LB. 165» 42, 169^ 59. 

Menad, W. mgnmcyd, M. Bret, metmud* Etym. obscure. 

Monach: mon is cognate with Ch. Slav, i 'a, « lit 'triigen, 
tauschen,' Lith. mdnai ' Trug,' Lett, mdnii ' (ih ' a'S zh 

word see Fick %n Bezz. Beitr. ii. 201 ^ r 



Methoss * boundai*y-mark/ cogn. -with Skr. tnit 'post.' The Ir. 
mede ' neck * (from ^meitio-) and Lat. mita are radically connected. 
As to the twelve kinds of boundary-marks, see Laws, iv, 142. 

Muilenn. The maillem of LB., which corresponds with the 
muilend of L. and Y., was rendered by O'Donovan 'together' 
— a mere guess. 

MdU. Cogn. perhaps with Lat. mdjdlts * barrow-hog.' Anothei 
form, mdtay gen. sg. mdtai .i. mucci, occurs in LIT. 109* 30. dat 
sg. mataif Book of Leinster, 118» 48, 60. As to the Breth^ 
Nemed, cited here and s.vv. nimby seffamlae, aauy see Laws, i 
112, 113, ii. 70, Nemed includes a chieftain, cleric, sage, poet 
judge and chief artificer. See also O'Don. Supp. s.v. neimheadh. 
^ Mann, The Sencha here quoted wad doubtlesd one of the Senchai 

mentioned in the Laws, i. 22. The second word of his decree 
dilih^ is the pL dat, of dil from "^agli-y cogn. with Goth, agh 
'disgrace' (Strachan). Cichaite seems a redupl. «-fut. (relative form] 
from ^qiky whence also cichty a carver or engraver, with whicl 

IWindisch connects Pictiy Pietones, Pictmi. 
mdly gen. mdil, from *magl0'8, cogn. with Lat. mag-nu-s, Ar 
Old-Celtic * Maglus Conomagli filius ' is cited by Becker, Kuhn't 
Beitr. iii. 849. Mai i CHu Mail, LL. 21^ M41 mac Telbaind^ 
LU. 90* 32. 

Mug-iime. In the footnotes marked H. are given the mon 
important various readings of the copy of this article in Harl 

As to Coirpre Miisc, the anciestbr of the Muscraige in Tipperar] 
and Cork, see LL. 38^ 2. He fought in the battle of Cennfebrat 
A.D. 186, according to the Four Masters. . 

The statements here made as to the power of the Gaels ii 
south-western Britain agree with' !N'ennius, and have of lat( 
years been confirmed by the discovery of some Ogham inscription! 
in South Wales and Devon, which were certainly the work o 
a Gaelic population. 

As to Glastonbury of the Gaels, see the notes to the Calendai 
of Oengus, Aug. 24 (Glastingbeta na nGaedel i ndeisciur 
Saxan, A.S. Glaestingabyrig). 

Tor the resuscitation of Glass, son of Cass, see the Tripartita 
Life of Patrick, EoUs edition, p. 122, and the Book of. Armagh 
fo. 14a 2, cited ibid. pp.. 324, 325. 

As to the maic Liathain, here said to have settled in Cornwall 
see ^ennius, ed. Stevenson, c. 14, the Iruh Nenniw^ edd. Todd am 


Herbert, p. 52, and Bhfs, The Arthurian Legend^ 329, whence 
it would seem that the Children of Liathan were in Pembroke- 
shire (*in regione Demetorum'), the peninsula of Gower {Guir) 
in Somerset, and Kidwelly ( Cetgueli), in Carmarthen. 

To the British law * every criminal for his crime, etc.,' there seems 
to have been something similar in Ireland : see a story cited from 
Zebar Gahdla in Petrie's Tara^ p. 195, where a horse is adjudged 
to lose the leg with which he had kicked a boy. The offending 
thing, not its owner, was liable (0. W. Holmes, The Common Law, 

p. 10). So under Solon's law : et^payfre Se xal fiXdfirf^ Terpawohwv 
vofiovy €v iZ Kal Kvva daxoma irapahovvai KcXevei kXoiiv Te7paTnj')(ei 

hehefiAvov} By the Eoman law of pauperies,^ the owner of the 
animal doing damage had either to surrender it to the injured 
party, or to make full compensation, see TJlp. in Dig. ix. 1, 1 ; 
Justin. Inst. iv. 9. So King Alfred enacts : Gif neat mon 
gewundige, weorpe f neat to honda oj^j^e fore j^ingie.* These 
and other ancient laws, in that they give the owner of the 
peccant beast the option of making compensation for its crime, 
are less primitive than the Celtic and Solonean rules above cited. 

at, the name in LB. of the eulogy brought by the poet to Tadg, 
is an interesting word. The gen. sg. is ttath,^ ace. sg. uith, pi. gen. 
uathf Thumeysen, Irische Texte, third series, part i. pp. 127, 128. 
Hence the Old-Irish nom. sg. would be uiy which becomes at in 
Middle-Irish, as drut druid, mi sage, become drdi, sdi, With this 
*ui I venture to connect Gr. vfivo^ for v-fivo^ as vTrepy vto for vwep^ 
vTTo. Curtius' etymology of vfivo^ {v<f>-/ipo9) is, as Brugmann 
shows (Studien, ix. 286), impossible, because the suffix fivo when 
added to a root ending in a consonant requires a connective vowel ; 
a^nd Brugmann*s own combination with Skr. s^Hman 'Band, 
Streifen,' is questionable, as the v of vfivo9 is short by nature. 
See Aesch. Ag. 990 : rbv S*av€v \vpa9 Sfiw^ vfivwBei, There 
seems to have been an Indo-European V^, *to call, cry, proclaim,' 
whence Ir. *w-t, Gr. v-fivo^ ; but whether the Vedic uve (uve . . . 
yathevangd bhavishyati I proclaim how it will he indeed^ Bv. 10, 
86. 7) is to be referred to it I do not venture to say. 

» Plat. Solon, 24 (ed. Reiske). 

^ Is this for *p6p . . . cognate with Skr. pApmany with which Fr5hde and 
Wackemagel have connected Gr. *ir^fia from ^mHuMy *iniirfjM? For Lat. au 
from 6 see Stolz, Lat, Or, 272. The suffix may be due to confusion with 
/wK-j»^-w« 'poverty.' 

^ Ancient Laws, etc., ed. Hioi^e^ i. 78. 

* Or uadf Conu. ■•▼• «raw, - , * . * 

- . - LiJ, 


Much * smoke/ W. mtr^, Arm. muXf and perhaps Or. tr^vx*^ from 

MSr 'blackbird/ has been dednced from *9m9r0'f cognate not 
only with W. mwyakh (from ^m^isalko- ?), bnt with Germ. meiw. 
Cormac's etym. is taken from Isidore, Origg. xii. 7. 69 : Alii 
memlam aiant uoeatam, quia sola Tolat, qnasi mera nolans. So 
also Pestns (ed. Miiller, p. 124) : Memm antiqoi dicebant solum ; 
unde et avis tnerula nomen accepit, quod solivaga est et sola 

Jfi9ui^A=minneach .i. breg, 'falsehood,' 0*01. But cf. the 
nom. pi. mindig a tigh .i. drochdaine no an t-6es deroil, HarL 
5280, fo. 41^. Oognate are Lat. menda^ mendum, Skr. mindd* 

Manannan mac lir. See also BB. 258% 11. 48-56. 

Nemnuall. This obscure word is glossed by eeol aingeal ' music 
of angels,' in the Book of Lecan vocabulary. 

Nemeth. See Petrie's Eeel, Architecture, 59. As to nem^uath see 
LL. 38^ 38. These absurd etymologies are thus given in H. 2. 16, 
col. 120 : !N'emid intan is fri heclais .i. nem-iath .i. iath neme. 
Kemed flathae .i. neim (no nim)-aith .i. aith neime (no nime) for 
armaib inn oesa flathae. "Nemed ^led A. nim-uath [.i.] uath nime 
for teugthaib na ^led — ^the sharpness of poison being on the 
weapons of the nobles, the horror of poison being on the tongues 
of the (satirical) poets ! 

N6e. The quotation is explained in the Book of Lecan, 151^ 1 
=BB. 328^ 43. 

N6e$ eustomf ' customary law,' whence ndm^e, LL. 234^, 
and the verb ro-ndeseged, LU. 90^, nonoisigthe, LL. 106^, is 
obscure. The synonymous nds is borrowed from W. nawe 'dis- 
position,' which is cogn. with Ir. t^nde * custom,' and gndth ' usual.' 

Neecoit. An abridgment of the story of the Second Battle of 
Moytura is now published, with a translation, in the Eevue 
CeltiquCf xii. pp. 56-111. For the part corresponding with Oormac 
see ihid. pp. 92-94. 

a hilaih na tenchoire, lit. ' out of the lips of the tongs : ' hil from 
*gvetlo-e, cogn. perhaps with Goth. qi]^any A.S. cwe^an. So Lat. 
labrum with Ir. labraim ' I speak.' 

Ollam, Compare Laws, iv. 358. In the earliest times his retinue 
was 24 in number, BB. 333* 1. The ddm here mentioned is a fern, 
d-stem, and, aco. to Windisch, cogn. with Dor. lafio9. 

Oi. The gen. pi. of disc occurs in the Saltair na Eann, 2844 : 
CO tret n-ooisce Jacob. 


: OimeJe. So in Harl. 5280, fo. 32% somsnan co hoimelc, ho 
oimelc co beltine, ho beltine co brontrogain 'from the first day 
of winter to the first day of spring, from the first day of spring to 
the first day of summer, from the first day of summer to Lammas/ 

Oech, A.S. if0'fda * foe,' Goth, faih Betrug, Lith. petkiii, peikti 
fluchen. For-oeaad, p. 18, 1. 14, may be the 2dy «-fut. sg. 3 of a 
cognate verb. 

Om» This seems cognate with Gr. e/iiv, ^Aprf9f dptf and Skr. drush 
' wound,' j'-nd'ti. From the same root are ort .i. b^s, art .i. orgain, 
O'Dav. 109, and airi i n-air a prim-roit 'for injuring his chief 
road,' E. 3. 6, p. 39^, cited in O'Don. Supp. The W. omest 

* monomachia,' which has been compared, is borrowed from A.S. 
earnost * a duel.' 

• Oohtaeh. The aoc. sg. occurs in LIT. 108^ 22 : focheird iarom in 
roth CO hochtaig ind Hgthigi then he east the wheel to the ridgepole 
of the palace. Is it the same word as the (corrupt) O.-Ir. octgag 
(gl. pin us), octhgach as ardu alailiu (gl. habies), MS. Lat. 7260 
(Bibl. Nationale), fo. 9^? Cf. the gloss Ailm dno .i. crann giuis 
.i. ochtach, Book of Lecan, 149^ 1=BB. 326» 50. 

Ore triith, cf. LL. 187^ 49 : i n-oenuch thuirc thr6ith^ .i. i n- 
oenuch maic ind rig .i. cluim 7 cholcid yrl. 

Ore, The story of Lomna*s head is noticed in Rhys' Hihheri 
Zeetures, pp. 98, 99. But surely the head's displeasure at not 
being given part of the salmon is nothing but vexation at the 
breach, in its case, of a law of hospitality which bound the Fiann, 
and the '' offering to the Celtic Dis " is mere ingenious guesswork. 
For other tales of a speaking head see LU. 98* 35 and Three 
Fragments of Irish Annals^ pp. 44, 46. 

The indeoin which I have rendered tentatively by ' gridiron,' is 
some kind of cooking apparatus. Hence the verbal noun indeonad 
' to broil.' 

a eenn, pp. 28, 1. 30, 30, 11. 5 and 9. Hence cenn seems to have 
been sometimes neuter. Cf. friscichset for cenna d{b, LU. 89* 44, 
and BB. 320^ 3 : hilugud labartha, ut est is ed a cenn 7 is lia-te 
ind aurlabra. 

conid-ro marh. Here the d {id ?) is an infixed pers. pron. of 3rd 
pi. See G.C. 332. 

Pattu, gen. pi. pattan^ LB. 183^ 37, seems a loan-word, cogn. 
with Fr. patte and pataud. See Diez, s.v. patta. So p6i * foot,' 
is a loan from O.Fr. poe (K. Meyer). 

1 do ihuio Thomair <to prinee Tomair,* Book of RigbtB, 206, 3. 


\Pdin, The Bretha Echach maic Luchta are mentioned in the 
Laws, i. p. 18, 1. 23. Some of the words in the obscure extract' 
here quoted are thus glossed by D. Mac Pirbis : form Being .i. 
ar mo leaba : pain .i. aran : punoem .i. torn as : hsiail (leg. la siail?} 
.i. oileamhain : goss ^ .1. gMh : geisen .i. eala. 

P(5<?: sain-poc 7 pocnat (gl. osculum), Sg. 46* 2. df laim im 
£tain 7 poc di, ol Midir, LTJ. 131, 1. 24. It is borrowed from an 
oblique case of Lat. pax, 

Frull Of the copy of this article in Harl. 5280, fo. 75*, the^ 
more important various readings are given in the footnotes 
marked H. 'Sh.j^ {Hihhert Lecturei)^ p. 567, note 1, equates prull 
with W. prwystl * tumultuous.' With the description of the 
monster which appeared to Senchan cf. the description of the. 
pishdcha in Hoernle's edition of the Jaina Uvdsagaddao, pp. 
65-69, translated by Morris, Philolog, 8oe, JProceedings, April 
15, 1887. Rhys {Hihhert Lectures, 567) says that Cormac'» 
picture of the Sptritm Poematis is ** in fact a description of 
a corpse in an advanced stage of decomposition," and accounts 
for this by alleging **the ancient notion that poetry traced ita 
origin to the world of the dead, whose king was sometimes given 
the outward appearance and lividness of a corpse." But where^ 
is there any evidence of the existence of this ** ancient notion " ? 
And what people had a corpse-like king of the shades? Not 
the Indians, nor the Greeks, nor the Finns. Neither Yama nor 
Hades, nor Tuoni had anything corpse-like about him. Hel, no' 
doubt, is described as hid (or half-J/«f) ; but she was a goddess. 

promthit for promfit ex promfa-\-itf as gehait, LU. 87* 45, for 

luaithidir lochaid ia/r forgarmain ' swifter than a shuttle along 
a weaver's beam ' : cf . Job vii. 6 : * My days are swifter than a; 
weaver's shuttle.' The primary meaning of the word rendered 
* shuttle ' is * mouse.' The Welsh term for shuttle, gwennol gweydd^ 
lit. 'weaver's swallow,' also recognizes the swiftness of this 
instrument. With for-garmain cf. lu-garmain, Laws, i. 150, 1. 7, 
and Welsh car/an, 

seiir, -sHar, pass. pres. indie, sg. 3 of sStaim, a sister-form of 
fHaim * possum,' both from an Old-Celtic *scent6 cogn. with Goth. 
&vin^8 * strong,' svin]fjan Kpareiv, svin^nan KparaiodaOai. 

lite 'steering-oar,' dat. luith, from *lu(p)ei, cogn. with Slav. 
lopata * shovel.' 

^ A loan either from A.S. gdt or O.N. gda. 



Another instance in Irish literature of challenges to give 
corresponding couplets will be found in the Lebar Brecc, p. 85, 
lower margin, where the challenger is the Devil and the person 
challenged is Saint Colomb cille. The practice seems to exist 
in Portugal, where singing ao desafio is a favourite amusement : 
see Latouche, Tra/veh in Portugal^ p. 47. So in India : samasyd 
* the giving to another person part of a stanza, and requiring him 
to complete it ' (Benfey). 

odhaigy sg. ace. fem. of odhaoh, derived from odh (=W. oddf 
*tuberculum'), later /<k?3, with prothetic/. 

hung (=01d-Celtic *hong6f later hongaim) is, as K. Meyer first 
saw, the act. pres. ind. sg. 1 of the verb of which hiiain {=*hogni) 
p. 39, 1. 12, is the infinitive, and hocht 'poor' an old participle 
passive. Skr. y/bhanjy hhandjmh ' I break,' Lith, hangd * wave.' 

Tdy cf. Ta (.i. clostid) cein, LIT. 85». 

The description of the Spirit of Poetry, after he had assumed 
his proper form, is thus given in Y. cols. 75-76 : 

Intan, tra, tangatar docum So when they came to Ireland 
nErend conacatar in gillae they beheld the youth aforesaid, 

remepertae, ar ba hoclaech 
ruithentae, righ[d]ae, romor, 
roiscletan, mormileta eseom, co 
muing orbuidhe orsnaith fath- 
maindigh caisidir carra menn- 
crot. Tlacht rochaom rigdae 
uimbe : milech orduide a n-im- 
dunad in tlachta sin. Sciath 
corcra cobradach cetharochair, 
Ian do gemaib carrmogail 7 liag 
logmar 7 nemthand 7 cristal 7 
sathfire, for a cliu. Cloidhemh 
coilgdirech, co tairchetlaib [= 
trocheltaib, LL. 231» 47] oir 
deirg, for a deiscib. Cathbarr 
airg[d]idhe co coroin 6rduighe 
ima cend. Dealb is airechdam 
7 is aidbli luchracht [?] bui 
for duine riamh fair. 

for he was a hero radiant, royal, 
huge, broad-eyed, warrior-like, 
with golden-yellow hair of gold- 
thread, fathmainnech (?), curlier 
than cross-trees of small harps. A 
costly, royal robe around him : a 
golden brooch closing that robe. 
A shield purple, bossy, four- 
edged, full of gems of carbuncle 
and precious stones and pearls 
and crystals and sapphires, on 
his left. A sword- straight 
glaive, with inlayings (?) of red 
gold, on' his right hand. A 
silvern helmet with a golden 
crown on his head. A shape 

the noblest and grandest 

that had ever been on man was 
on him. 

In the phrase carra menncrott K. Meyer takes oarra to be for 
corruj ace. pi. ofeorr, the curved cross-tree of a harp, see 0' Curry,* 


Manners and Customs, iii. 256. Mennerott (=mendcrbtt, LL. 18^ 
60) seems a compound of mend * kid ' (cogn. with Alb. ment * to 
suck,' as dinu * lamb * with Lat. fe-Iare, Gr. Oi^-trarOf Strachan) 
and crott=W, erwth. 0' Curry's benn chroit (M. and C. iii. 305) 
is a mere figment. 

Ross. The ace. pi. of ross 'a wood,' occurs in LB. 208* 1 : Bxnal 
trascraid sloig dochein reid rossa do thuagaib rog^ra * as hosts fronr 
afar fell smooth woods with keenest axes.' The gen. sg. of ross 
* flax-seed,' rois, occurs in Laws, ii. 368. It is said in the 
Uraicecht (Bk. of Lecan, 143^ 1 = BB. 317* 43) to have been one 
of the nine components of the Tower of Babel — ^the others being 
clay, water, oil, blood, lime, flax, shittim and bitumen. The * ros9 
of water ' is = ros lachan (gl. lenticula aquatica), Bev. Celt. ix. 236. 

dss * growth,' is from *{p)dt't0't cogn. with Gr. wareofiat, 
a-7ra<rros, and Gcoth., fddjan (Strachan). 

Similar explanations are given in the Uraicecht (Leb. Lee. 150* 
1 = BB. 326* 50) : ross .i. roi oss, quando .i. intan, is ros caille, 7 
rass iar lind intan is ros usee .i. rof hos mad for maxbuBci, no roidh 
ass mad for sruth, 7 rofhas intan is ros lin .i. ara luas 7 ar[a]thighe 

Remm, Spelt reimm and glossed by fuirseoir no druih in Laws, 
iv. 354. 

Rout. The whole article is printed and translated by O'Donovan 
in his edition of the Book of Bights, Dublin, 1847, pp. Ivi-lviii. 
As to rdut and ramut, see Laws, i. 232, 1. 18. From ramut comes 
the adj. ramatach, Laws, iii. 112. The description of sli^e 
reminds one of afia^no^ *a carriage-road.' As to the five great 
sUgid of Ireland, see LL. 155^ 8. With Idmrotae of. 0*C1. Gl. 
lamrod .i. rod laimh le rod aUe. With the gen. sg. raitea cf. raite 
.i. cuairt ingelta, O'Don. Supp. Bdthar seems borrowed from an 
Old- Welsh *bautr, y'^a, whence also Skr. ji-^dtt, a-gdt, Gr. i-fiav^ 
A.S. pcB^, O.H.G. pfad. In amser chue (rectius ehiiad) we seem to 
have a cognate of W. eawad *imber,' Com. eouat (gl. nimbus). 
See H. 3. 18, p. 639^, where diadh is glossed by gemred 'winter.' 

Rinene. This article is, to me, unintelligible. The usual 
meaning of rinene is ' spear ' : do rindcne a. do sleigh, Bawl. B. 
488, fo. 4^ 2. 

Rohuth, gen. rohaid, LIT. 57» 36, 87» 13, 15. pi. dat. robthaih^ 
LL. 57^ 22, seems a compound of ro-^pro and ^beuto- from ^gveuto-^ 
cogn. with poFa and 7oo«, Tick* 406. So the Welsh r^ybudd 
^ monitio,' comes from ro and *peud, *peuJ0', y/qu *to cry,' Fick* 380. 


Ruekt from ^ntk-tu, cogn. with Germ. JtoeJc, Bockenj A.S. rocc^ 
Jiow Lat. roccus, whence Fr. and Eng. rochet, pronounced rocket 
ia the Co. Cork. The quotation is from the Amra Conroi (H. 3. 
18, p. 49): ro ir dam .x. ruchta derga ^he gave me ten red 

JRiuim * cemetery,' from R6ma. See the Tripartite Life, p. 656, 
col. 2. See also the Divina Commedia, Far. ix. 140 : xxvii. 25. 

Rane seems borrowed from a British cognate of Lat. runcoy Persius 
4- 36, runcina. For the ablaut a — «, see Frohde, Bezz. Beitr. 
xvii. 306. The imspeilp here mentioned is a compound of imm- 
=Lat. amh'y Gr. d/i0/, and speilp borrowed (with prothetic b and 
metathesis of T) from the gen. sg. of Lat. peplum. Speilp (gl. co- 
opertorium), Ir. Gl. 730. Cor' scail in speilp boi imme, LB. 
160a 42. 

Rath. The Low-Latin rata occurs often in the Canones Hibem. 
Ducange explains it by ^ stipulatio, contractus ; ' but it seems 
always to mean ' a security ' or * guarantee.' 

RtMm : hence ruamadh, 0' Curry, M. and C. iii. 119. 

Roscady pi. nom. dotiagait asna foclaib sin . . . roscaid 7 fasaig 
7 aircheadail, L.Lec. 143^ 2=BB. 317^ 30. 

Riba/r * sieve' seems cogn. with Lith. re-tis, the suffix being 
borrowed from Lat. crihrum (krei-dhro-). 80 in Idichess, supra, p. 
8, the suffix is=Lat. -««««, Gr. -taaa. 

RuBy pi. n. ail rfg risi rede, LL. 187* 37, rissi ruada, LL. 187^ 20. 

Sohraig, Eop sobraig, LL. 343^ 3. 

Semind. So semind .i. s^im co hind, LL. 186^ 29. 

Sen, BcuBer is, ace. to Windisch, from *BeniaBterO', O'sBer 
' younger ' and Lat. magiB-ter, miniB-ter, are similar formations. 

Sail'choit=Sulch6idy Four Masters, a.d. 1602, p. 2312, is a loan 
from Balieoitum, the Old-British pronunciation of Lat. ^BalicUum. 
The Welsh eoit here cited is from ^keito-tif whence the Old-British 
ceton in Zito-ceton, Luit-coit ' grey-wood,' now Litchfield. See 
Bradley, in the Academy, October 30, 1886. The Goth, haithi 
* a heath,' is cognate. 

Sine is compared by Bugge with Lith, BpenyB * teat.' But tri- 
phne, LU. 77* 38=^ri Btne, LL. 75^ 21, seems to point to a 
primeval Celtic Bvenio, Cf. however the redupl. perf. Bephaind 
'played (the harp),' which Strachan brings from ^Bphendh, 
' zucken,' whereto Fick * 149, refers Skr. pa-Bpande, Gr. (T<^da>/69. 

Serb. As to the Feda, or woods, of Athlone see the Four 
Masters, ed. 0*Donovan, a.d. 1536, p. 1435, note 0. 


^ Sin. 8e6 now IrUohe Texte^ 3*® serie, 1. heft, pp. 188-198, 
where this and eleven other Irish ordeals are described. The 
< epistle ' was got from 8. Paul. 

Scuitt, So in the Bk. of Lecan, 152* 2 : Nel mac Feniusa dofuo 
Scotai ingen Foraind, conid dia hanmaim-sein dogairthear Scuitt 
*. Nel son of Fenius wedded Scota Pharaoh's daughter, so that from 
her name the Scots are (so) called.' 

Sopaltair, Soppaltair la Forbraigi, Tripartite Life, p. 250. 

Saim^ cogn. with Skr. samdm, Gr. afia^ ofio^, o/jloO, Germ, zu- 

Sen * net ' ( W. htci/n), from ^sep-no, ^seffh, whence Gr. ex^. 
To the same root Strachan refers Ir. semmenn * rivets/ s.v. nescoit, 
from ^aeasmen^ *8egh-8'men. 

Sid. pi. gen. re trichait sedh lurganda, Bk. of Lecan, 149^ 1 = 
BB. 325^ 

SaUy 0' Donovan Supp. takes s6er to be for saevj and accordingly 
renders sau by * carpenter.* 

Ti * mantle,' Hi dubglass co lubain airccit, Egerton 1782, fo. 
37^ 2: pi. n. tii dubglasso, Ir. Texte, 3^ ser. 1. Heft, p. 239, 
1. 136. From *io-ve8to-y ^ves (Strachan). 

; jDriath * king,' may be cogn. with Lat. strlt-avus * an ancestor 
in. the sixth degree.' As to the superstition here referred to, — the 
influence of a righteous king on the seasons and crops, — see the 
Odyssey, xix. 109-114; Horace, Odes, iv. 5, 11. 7, 8; Manu, ix. 
246, 247; and the Irish documents mentioned in the Tripartite 
Life, pp. clx, 507, 670. 

' Tethra^ The quotation from the Dialogue of the Two Sages 
may be found in LL. 187^ 37. 

.7Iw»=A.S. yimm. The adj. temen occurs in Bumann's poem in 
praise of the sea, Laud 610, fo. 10% as an epithet for a wave : eonn 
dutraic tuinn temen cruaid. It also seems to have been a proper 
name, whence Temenrigi^ Book of Armagh, 15^ 2. 

Turigen. The similarity of tur- with the first syll. of Gr. 
Tvpavvo^y said to be borrowed from Lydian, is probably accidental. 
The IHiil Roacad * Book of Maxims,' cited here and s.v. Idea, is said 
to have been composed by Cennfaelad, son of AUill, after his skull 
had been split in the Battle of Moira, a.d. 637, and his * brain 
of forgetfnlness ' {inchinn dermait) removed : see Laws, iii. 86, 88, 
650. He is also alleged to have been the author of the Uraicecht. 


CENTURY. By Russeli, Martineatj, M.A. 

[Mead at the Society^ s Meeting on Friday, Nov 6th, 1891.] 

The elder Joannes Buxtorf, the great Hebraist, was born 
at Kamen in Westfalia in 1564. He was Professor of 
Hebrew at Basle for 38 years, and died in 1629. His son 
of the same name was a worthy sou of his father, and 
carried on his work. Several of the father's works, left 
unfinished at his death, were edited by the son. One of 
these appears to be the " Epitome Granamaticae Hebraeae," 
which, probably owing to the esteem in which the younger 
Buxtorf was held in England, wher^ he resided for some 
time, was published first in London in 1653. This was 
written in Latin ; but at the beginning, where the Hebrew 
vowels are enumerated, their value is given by citation of 
both Oerman and English words. These give us interesting 
information respecting the pronunciation of the English 
vowels in the age before 1629 when the author died, or at 
least before 1653 when the book was published. It might 
indeed be objected that, Buxtorf being a foreigner, his 
estimate of the English vowels is not to be implicitly 
believed. But very fortunately for my argument this 
objection is met by the existence of an English translation 
of this little grammar made by John Davis and published 
in London 1656. The translation omits the German 
instances, but retains all the English ones — except in one 
case where Buxtorf gave two instances, and the translator 
thinks only one necessary. Thus we have native English 
evidence of the time, I shall also show (though it is not 

4 . 

t , 


the subject of this paper) that the Oerman instances aff< 
interesting indications of Buxtorf's German pronunciati< 
showing him to have retained (at least in the vowels) t 
Low-German sounds of his native country of Westfal 
and not to have adopted the High-German of Basle, wh( 
he lived for the greater part of his life. 

I now give the passages (at the beginning of the gramme 
in which Buxtorf explains the Hebrew vowels,^ and t 
corresponding ones in Davis's translation. 

Buxtorf, Epitome Grammaticab Hebraeae. London, 16' 


Longae. Breves. 

Kametz J< A obscurum Pathach K A clarum, ut 

T - 

quasi cum mixtum, ut in F(3r^^^rpater,/Sflfm^ncollige: 

Germanicis Avend^ vespera, Dach tectum, Angl. art ars 
Samen semen, Angli salt sal, 
small ^ parvus. 

Tzere K E purum et siccum, 8egol K E impurura 

Uhr honor, Lehr doctrina, dilutum, ahr^ arista, An| 

Angl. we nos. an eare of com, bed lectus. 

1 Of the consonants he gives only three English sounds: <Sajin t, 7 
lenissimnm, Angl. z ' ; ' Caph 3 , 20, ch, x Crraeconun, Angl. c ' ; ' Schin 
300, sc vel ax ^^^ ^^ German. Angl. sh.' 

^ This is Frisian ; Dutch is avond. Buxtorf was horn at Eamen in Westfal 
and his German pronunciation here and in Note 4 is Low — not as one mi^ 
imagine from his long residence at Basle eminently High, It is clear that 

gronounced &Yend. ui this word the a tends in many dialects towards o, as 
•wiss obed, 

^ He means the modem aw (Sw. k) sound in salty small. It is the mod( 
Jewish pronunciation of kametz, and Buxtorf s teachers were Aahhis. Christi 
scholars generally treat the kametz as the ordinary long & of father. 

' Legend, ahr, properly ahre. Engl, eare is meant not as translation of ah 
hut to show pronunciation of segol, and is retained in the Engl, translation 
that sense. It would appear therefore that the vowel of Engl, eare is identii 
with that of Germ, ahre ; hut hoth these examples are puzzling, for they woi 
seem rather equal to S Tzere, with the vowel of Ger. ehr, lehr. rerhs 
Buxtorf had a recondite reason for selecting ahr, ear. The pronunciation 
the segolate substantive in pausa (which, moreover, is the pronunciation adopi 
in the transliteration of proper names in the Greek and Latin versions) lengthc 

the segol (S) into kametz (a), as in ^SPI, pausal ?^ri '^AfitK Abel. Thus th< 




Chirek longum *K I Ihr voe, 
Ihnen ipsis, Slider [legend. 
Glider] membra, Angl. Alive 

Cholem N IN Ohr auris, 
SoUn filius, Angl. open apertus, 
oter supra. 

Schurek ^ XT Unaer nosier, 
Unschuldig innocens, gesund ^ 
sanus, Angl. a lute barbitum, 


Chirek breve K I Irren 
errare, Sinn sensua, gelitten 
passus, to live vivere. 

Kametz chaiuph K K Or^ 

t: T 

locus, Son sol, Trott torcular, 
Angl. to trot, succussare. 

Kibbutz K u vel T, Sunde 
peccatum, verfuhren seducere, 
Angl. but sed, ahut^^ clausus. 

Impropria yocalis est, quae vel non semper, aut noa 
omnium literarum vocalis est ; estque Simplex vel Compofnta. 
Simplex dicitur Sbeva . . . valetque E brevissimum, quale 
in berahtty^ gestrafft, quod rapide effertur quasi brahlt, gstrqfft, 
ut e med. in Angl. beggery. Vulgo vocatur Sheva mobile. 

seems to be an affinity between the Hebrew a and e^ so that Buztorf might 
treat it as an umlaut like the Germ, a, a. Anyhow, the Eng. bed (his 
other instance) is unequivocal ; the surprising thing is that he should put side 
by side ear and bed, the vowels of which surely never can have b^jsn identical. 

' The German instances of long H seem faulty, i.e. to be short rather than 
long: unser, unschuldig (he probably means botn vowels to serve as examples), 
gesund. Happily for us the £ng. lute is unequivocal; for even if that was 
pronounced lyute, the vowel which represents the Heb. shurek is not yu but u. 

* These identifications are interesting ; and, as with shurek, the Eng. instances 
are most obviously correct. But, shut are clearly to be pronounc^ with the 
original short u as in bull. The German instances are curious : tunde^ verfuhren. 
It looks as if he pronounced the Heb. ii like Germ, ii with umlaut, though his 
Eng. instances will not lend themselves to that. But the umlaut is not written, 
nor I believe used hy Buxtorf in these words. Fiihren had by no means 
generally the umlaut in the earlier times down to at least the nuddle of the 
sixteenth century, and in the Netherlands we hnve voeren [pron. fCLren]. 
similarly in the other instance : Bundf is the Hi;;h-^rman pronunciation ; but 
the Low is in Dutch zonde, which implies High-Germ, sunde^ as D. d = G. ii, 
e.g. omii^=unter, ront/smnd, #prwi^ = sprung.) 

' This word berahlt is not easily exphcable, as no verb at all lika rahlen is 
known, It seems to be a misprint. 

PUL Thtnf. 1891-8-8. 




John Davis's Translation. London, 1656. 

Long Votcek. 
Kametz K it's an obscure 


A as though the vowel 
were mixt with it, as in 
English salt, small. 

Tzere K it's a plaine, and 
single £ in English thus, 

Long Chirek ^K it's the 

vowel I, in English, thus, 

Cholem i< IK is the vowel 
in English (ypen^ over. 

Schurehf it is the vowel 
U in English thus, a lute. 

Short Vowels. 

Pathach K is a cleare and 
shrill A, in English thus, art. 

Scegol K is a dubble or 
mixed E, in English thus, 
an eare of come. 

Short Chirek K it's the 
vowel I, in English thus, to 

Kametz-chatuph N K it's 

the vowel 0, in English to 

Kibbutz X is either u, or 
else it is y, as in English 
but or shut. 

The simple improper vowel is Sheva, and it's cast under 
the letter in two pricks just down right thus K, and it hath 
the force of a most shorte e, as in English thus beggery\ 
it's commonly called the movable Sheva. 



R. Wharton, M.A. 

[lUadat the SocUty^s Meeting held on Friday^ Nov, 6, 1891.] 

The real nature of the particle /ty is allowed to be the greatest 
difficulty of Greek syntax.* I shall endeavour to show that (1) 

primarily and essentially /ty is not a negative or prohibitive 
particle, but an interrogative ; that (2) many /t^-sentences which 
are at present printed as assertions might better be printed as 
questions ; ' and that (3) even in other cases the apparent negation 
contains or pre-supposes an interrogative meaning. 

(1) Greek /ii; is plainly the same word as the Arian m& (Old 
Persian and Zend md,' Sanskrit ma : * the so-called ' prohibitive ' 
particle). That both are identical with the Accusative of the 
Pronoun of the first person (Latin mi, Zend md, Sanskrit md, 
enclitic), used, as in Vergil's * me, me, adsum qui feci,* to call 
attention to the speaker, is an old but over-bold suggestion. 
It is possible that /tr) and firiv were originally byforms like vv 
and vvv, e'^iv and i^iLv, since t/ fiij and t/ firjv equally mean 
(like our * Why now,' introducing a sentence) * of course * : but 
in practice firi was confined to questions, fiiiv was not." That 

> See Madvig, Oreek Syntax, sections 122-124, 131, 200-212; Goodwin, 
Moods and Tenses,* sec. 259-283, 289-301, 305-310, 315-316, 333, 352-354, 
365-371, 550-551, 576, 595-599, 685-688, 734, 784, Hll-819, and Appendix 
II. ; Monro, Homeric Grammar,' sec. 278, 281, 303, 316, 328, 35K-361 ; 
Gildersleeye, American Journal of Philology, I. p. 45-57; J. Cook Wilson, 
Transactions of the Oxford Philological Society, 1890. 

' Of course our present system of punctuation in Greek, dating only from 
post-classical times, can prove nothing as to the usage of the classical period. 

* See Spieeel, Grammatik der Alteranischen S^rachen, sec. 388. 

* Bohtlmgk, Sanskrit- Worterbuch, s t. ; Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, sec. 
579-580; Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, sec. 177, 191, 203, 26^267; Speijer, 
Sanskrit Syntax, sec. 353, 405. 

^ Before a mute or spirant fi'f\v re^arly became /i/v, e.g. in the combinations 
fihf roi, ti\if ydp, whicn form then l)ecame common before vowels also. See 
Brugmann, Grundriss, I. sec. 611, and to the consonant combinations there 
mentioned as shortening the preceding vowel in Greek add 8y : K99y6s for 
*icfiZ-¥6s must be an lomc derivative from ir^Sos (the form in other dialects would 
be *KaBi'6st from icaSof), and }\ftMs stand for *\^'9'p6t from <f^y *to rub.* 
The Greek grammarians notice the shortening of the semivowel before | in 
^iKt^ Krjpv^ beside ^IwiKa K^pOxa. 


yuy usually begins the clause and /tiyi/ never does is no objection 
to their connexion: hri is often initial in Homer, though never 
in Attic. 

(2) In the Homeric interrogative formula rj firi (Od. 6. 200, 
9. 405-406), as in the Attic combinations apa firi^ fiCbv fiij, tI firi, 
the firj merely adds a slight emphasis to the initial interrogative 
particle. In Attic (see Madvig 199 b) firi in direct questions 
has an indeterminate force, the answer expected may range over 
the whole field of possibilities, from * No ' through * Perhaps ' 
and * Probably ' to a covert or ironical * Yes ' ; it is only the 
context that can show which answer is intended. But that this 
use of firi in questions was Homeric as well as Attic may appear 
if we view the following combinations as interrogative : 

(a) firi with Indicative : II. 9. 698 /tiy^' o0€\€9 XlaaeffOai ; 
' (hight you to have prayed ? (We cannot say that in such cases 
the firi, for ov, goes with the Infinitive, for then we should have 
equally/*^ Xprjv XlaaeaOaiy firf koXov yv XitraeffOai,) — ^Eur. Med. 822 
Xefeis (Xefjyy is only a conjecture) Se firiUv ; * Will you say 
anything? — Ar. Av. 195 (see Goodwin 686) firj '7^ vorifia 
Ko/iiy[r6T€pov rJKovaa irw ; * Did I ever hear ? ' 

(y3) firi with Subjunctive, used as future: II. 16. 128 firj ^ 
i/^os ektvai; * Shall they seize the ships?' — Eur. Or. 776 ymy 
Xa^uxTi <T€ ; So, first in Herodotus and often in Plato (Goodwin 
265), where the answer really expected is *Yes,' e,g, firj (/)av\ov 
7J ; * May it be bad ? Quite possibly ' : cf . the use of apa for a/>' 

ov, Soph. Oed. Hex 822 ap* i(jivv Kaxos ; ap' ov'xi ^0,9 ava*^vo9 ,* 

— Also with Optative, a less direct form of the Subjunctive : 
Od. 7. 316 firj Touro (/>i\ov Aa irmpi rfdvoiro ; 'Should this be 
the will of Zeus ? ' and so firj r^dvono / * Should it be so ? God 

(7) f^V ^^^^ Imperative, which is really (see Rutherford, 
Babrius, p. 38) a Future with a sense of command : * firj KXeTne ; 

* Will you cheat? Don't.' — The corresponding use of md in 
Sanskrit with Imperative is not found in the Vedas (the only 

^ Anstophanes' d!(r0* Z dpciffov and Euripides' olcG^ Z Spda-tis equally mean 

* Do you know what you must do ?,' and so I would explain the Homeric tl 
8* Ayt * But if you must come — .' So the Sanskrit Imperative is used in 
questions (Whitney 672 b). 


instance quoted is probably corrupt, Whitney 579 c), though 
common in Classical Sanskrit ; whence we may infer (Monro 328) 
that the Imperative was originally used only in commands, and 
perhaps that its extension to prohibitions was due to the analogy 
of the Subjunctive. 

(^) /tjy with imperatival Infinitive: II. 2. 413 firj wplu cV 
^eXiov bvvai ; ' Is the sun to set before ? ' i,e» let not the sun 
set before. 

(c) firi used elliptically, without a Verb : Soph. Oed. Col. 

1441 el XP^ Oavovfiai, — fju^ av 7' / afOC ifiol ttiOov ' What, i/OU 
die ? l^ay, hear me ; ' Ant. 577 fAtj rpifiai eV ; * What, still 
tarrying?' So /a^ on (or oTrwi) is the interrogative equivalent 
of ovx on (or oww^\ and in Dem. 18. 200 (=295) t/s ovx« 
Karemrvaev av nov ; firj f^ap t^9 7r6Xew9 <y6 the latter clause is 

as much interrogative as the former. 

In the same way we may analyse every complex sentence in 

which the second clause begins with fii^ (usually translated * lest ' 

or 'whether/ though the latter would properly be el) into an 

affirmative dause + a question : ^ 

' (a) jtt7 with Indicative in oaths in Homer: H. 10. 329-330 

ftrrw vt/v Zem , • , ft^ fkev rots iTTTroiaiv av^p iwo'xyjaerat a\Xo9 ; 

'Shall any other drive them? I call Zeus to witness, No,' and 
so 15. 36-42. 

(/8) firj with Subjunctive or Optative in final sentences: H. 1. 
522 iiroanx^' ^ff n poi^ay ; * Shall she notice anything ? With- 
draw,' t.e, 'Withdraw, or she will notice something.' 

(7) /*i/ in sentences expressing apprehension, with Indicative: 

Od. 5. 300 SeiSu)' firj hrj wavra Oea ufffieprea eiirev ; * Was it all 
true ? I fear it was,' see Fasi ad loc. ; Plat. Theaet. 145 b Spa- 
firi 7rai^u)v eXe'^ev ; 'Was he joking? See to it'; Soph. Ant. 
1253 eltrofjietrOa' firi t« . . . KaXvirT^i ; ' Is she concealing some- 
thing ? We shall find out ' (Goodwin 369 note) ; Thuc. 3. 53 
(popovjii^Oa' ftrj afKporepiov y/iiapTi^Ka/j^ev ; So with Subjunctive 
in the sense of a Future : II. 11. 470 helhw* fiy n waOrjaiv : Plat. 
Gorg. 512 d Spa* jurj ttXXo n » , . rj ; 

^ In Sanskrit the Verb after ma is always enclitic (Delbriick 267) ue, the 
clause was a principal one, not dependent, and the mH cannot be translated 
* lest.' In really dependent sentences nid, not ma, is used. 


(3) Finally, even where we cannot print interrogatively we 
may fairly see a question underlying the use of /i^. Instances 
in Homer are comparatively rare (Goodwin 316, Monro 361), 
while in Attic they are numerous and in later Greek preponderate 
(see Gildersleeve) : the Greeks increasingly loved * dubitantius 
loqui,* to view facts as possibilities. 

A. firj before a Verb : 

(a) After a Relative (Monro 359 b) Homer always has ov, except 

m II. 2. 301 €<rr6 ^6 wame^ fiaprvpoi ov9 firj icrjp€^ ifiau Oaporoto 
(/)€povtTaif which contains the question ' Are some of you gone ? 
Perhaps ' ; and so Soph. Ant. 546 /htj^^ el fjLrj *Ot*^e^ woiou a€avrij9f 
' Had you a hand in it ? No : then do not claim to have had.' 
So after a ' final ' Relatival particle : iva /irj rfci^rai is a less 
original way of saying /a^ 7€i/iyTa*, which (see 2 fi) is really 

(/3) In Protasis. A hypothetical sentence may be viewed either 
affirmatively, 'This is so, then that follows,' or interrogatively, 
* Is this so ? then that follows.' To the first form belong the 
Sanskrit hypothetical sentence, which always has the direct 
negative nd, not ma (Speijer 405 Rem. 2), and the Greek use 
of 01* after e* : ^ Homer always (with one exception, Od. 9. 410, 
see Monro 359 c) has ei ov with Indicative unless the natural 
order of the clauses is reversed and the apodosis put first, and 
so Soph. Aj. 1131 ei . . ovK ea9j Thuo. 1. 121 fin. 6£ • . ovk airepouffiv, 

and with Subjunctive II. 3. 288 ee . . . ovk iOeXwtrii/, Plat. Apol. 
25 b idv re . . ov 0§t€ (Goodwin 384). We cannot explain such 
cases by saying that here the !N'egative forms one idea with the 
Yerb, since this is equally true in all cases, e,ff. Dem. 21. 205 
av T€ /iirj (jyCbj Thuc. 3. 68 oTrore firj (/)at€Pf * the negative particle 
was treated originally like the prepositions, placed immediately 
before the Verb and closely connected with it ' (Monro 355). — 
But the commoner way in Greek was to regard the Protasis as 
involving a question : el fiy n ex^ ovti BiBtvfii, * Have I nothing ? 
then I give nothing.' 

(7) In Oratio Obliqua after or* or w* the regular Negative is 
ov : Soph. Ant. 685 otto;? av fi^ \ee^ei9 opOut^ rd^e is a kind of 
anacoluthon for an interrogative /n^ \erfei9 6p0w9 rdBc But in later 
Greek (see Gildersleeve) on firj became common, reported state- 

^ ci in itself no more necessitates /i^ than its compound lT-f( does, which 
is always followed by ov. 


ments were regarded as involving questions. — ^Before Infinitive 
also ov is used (Goodwin 685), except where the narration is but 

half oblique, after Verbs like * hope, promise, swear, agree ' : 

II. 9. 132 ofiovfiai fjurf ttots t^9 €vi^« imPyfiepai (' Shall I ever do 
it? I will swear an oath'), Thuc. 2. 101 aTTKnooPTes atnov /nrj 
TJ^eiv ('Would he come? They doubted'), and so 1. 139 
TrpouXet^ov . . fiy &v f^iypetrOai voXefiov^ as if it were * They agreed 
not to fight.* 

(^) ov firj t^eurjrai (or t^€Pi^<r€Tai) plainly, see Goodwin p. 391 
note 1, contains the question /ciy r^ei^rai (or 7€j/iJ<r€Ta«) ; ' Shall it 
be ? 'No,' and so=* There is no question of its being/ 

(e) wff7€ ov with Infinitive (instances in Goodwin 598) contains 

an assertion. Soph. EL 780 war^ ovre pvktos wrvov . . . ifie 

ffref^d^eip, * I never slept : such was the consequence of my alarm,' 
while the more usual ware firi contains a question, ' Did I ever 
sleep ? ' 

(f ) Before a Participle : ov witrrevwv involves the assertion * He 
disbelieves,' firi wKnevtou (*if he disbelieves') the question 'Does 
he believe?' So Soph. Oed. Rex 397 6 fitjdep eM^ Olhlwov^ 
(* Do I know any thing ? Perhaps'), 289 firj Trapivv Oavfia^erai 
('Is he here? It is strange if he is not,' while ov jrapivv would 
involve a definite ov wapetm). So Thuc. 2. 40 fin. elhvb^ ovk . . . 
d7roSw<rwv=^ 'S.e will not pay, and he knows it,' while 2. 17 
TTporjdei firj , . . KaTotKi<rOij(y6fi€vov=* Would it be occupied ? The 

oracle knew,' 1. 76 tafiev firj dv rjaaov vfia^ Xvirripom f^epofievov^^ 

* Would you have been gentler ? We know all about that J 

B, fiTj before a Noun: Ar, Eccl. 115 heivov , , ri firj ^fiweipla 
involves the question * Is there experience?', Thuc. 1. 137 fin. 
T^i/ rwif (^etjyvpwv , , , ov hidXvaiv contains the assertion ra? 'y€(j>vpa9 
ov hiiXvaav, So Thuc. 1. 22 to firf fivOCbhe^ axnwv presupposes 
'Is there a mythical element in it? Perhaps not.' In Soph. Aj. 

1231 or* ovdeu ij^u tov firfdep dv7€<nrf9 threp we have both the 

assertion 'You were worth nothing' and the question ' Was he 
worth anything ? ' — But in Thuc. 1. 118 /tiy laxeii can only be 
a Byzantine gloss (see Rutherford, Thuc. lY. p. xxxiv) which 
has taken the place of the original ppa^eh. 


The particle md is used (a) in Old Persian, the Gathas, and 
Sanskrit, with the * Injunctives^ i.e. Aor. or Imperf., almost always 
unaugmented and so having no connotation of time ; ' (^) in Old 
Persian, the younger Avesta, and Classical Sanskrit, with Optative 
(or 'Potential'); and in the two former languages also with 
Suhjunctive (in Old Persian only after mdtya\ while in Yedic 
hoth Moods almost always take nd, not ma ; (7) in Classical 
Sanskrit alone, see above, 2 7, with Imperative ; (^) in Sanskrit 
epics with Future. In Sanskrit (see. note 7), and therefore doubt- 
less in the Iranian languages too, ma-olauses were always regarded 
as principal, not dependent; and I would explain them in just 
the same way as Greek /cry-clauses, sec. 2, i.e. as really questions. 
The Injunctive then will be a * timeless * Indicative, the Subjunc- 
tive a direct (the Optative a less direct) Future, the Imperative 
a Future of command. 

' The Injunotive in Sanskrit often takes nd instead of mSy Delbriick 203. 


VOWELS IN IRISH. By J. Strachan, M.A., 
Professor of Greek and Comparative Philology, Owens 
College, Manchester.^ 


''Fr)\a(f)&vT€^ &air€p iv aKOTei." 

Though the lengthening of vowels in Irish by way of 
compensation for a lost consonant has often been noted in 
isolated cases, the subject is one that has never been syste- 
matically treated as a whole. The unsatisfactory state of 
the question was forced upon the writer's notice by a remark 
of Dr. Richard Schmidt in Vol. I. of Indogermanuche 
Forschungen, to the eflfect that for d^r *tear'=Vacrw, O.W. 
dacr, one might have expected *ddr. That d^r stands for 
*dacr' there can be no doubt. But should dacr- have 
given *ddr? The investigation of this question led on to 
the consideration of other similar problems, until at last 
it seemed desirable to bring together and discuss as many 
instances as possible of such compensatory lengthening with 
a view to determining the laws by which it is governed. 
For the sake of completeness there have also been included 
in this paper those combinations' of which the laws are 
already known. It is not to be expected that all the details 
of this difficult subject have been finally settled : a further 
analysis of words that have hitherto defied analysis will 
doubtless fill up some gaps and correct some of the following 
statements. But it is hoped that something may have 
been done to advance the question, or, at least, to clear 
the way for further research. 

It is necessary at the outset to call attention to the 
peculiar difficulty of the subject, which is that in Irish 
itself there is often nothing to indicate that a consonant 

* The writer's best thanks are due to Dr. Whitley Stokes for much friendly 
criticism and for information freely given from his stores of Keltic lore. 


has been lost, and, even when that is certain, there is still 
often an embarrassing variety of possibilities. Sometimes 
help is to be got from the British dialects : thus ^n * bird ' 
might, so far as Irish is concerned, go back to ^egno- or 
^ecno- or *etn(h; O.W. ein decides in favour of the last. 
When this help fails, the only course left is to look around 
for cognate words in the other Indo-Germanic languages. 
Such evidence is naturally not so conclusive; a wider 
knowledge might reveal a more satisfactory etymology; 
a word put under one heading might have to be transferred 
to another. 

I. Sound Groups ending in n. 

1. den > en.^ 

Un 'sorrow,* Gael, ledn * wound, grief, vexation,* Mid. 
Ir. Unaim 'I YrovLnd,* ^*placndi6 : Lith. pldkti * strike/ 

^ Stokes {Kuhn'a Zeitaehrift xxix. 375) has suggested that pretonic gn, dn, 
hn (so also pretonic kn^ tn^ pn)^ became in Keltic e {ec)^ t, p, bb in Teutonic kk, 
tt^ pp. There is a considerable amount of evidence in favour of this: cnoee 
'hill' may be most simply explained from ^enocnos Germ, nack^n (Kluge, 
Etym, Wb. s.v.) ; hoc * tender *= •ftAwywo*, Skr. bhugnda 'bent*; aice 

* houA^ =*pacnii^ Skr. pa^a- * fetter,* Gr. 'rfr/yvfu {Kuhn u, Schleicher* 8 
Bextrage, viii. 332) ; Uee * flat stone,' "W. lleeh 'lapis, tabula saxea,* Uych * what 
is flat't= VJ<^» *Plcn6'y Gr. »\a|. Lett. pWku 'become flat* (kSB. viii. 
317); Uco * maxilla '«s ♦/»«!-, Old Pruss. laygnan, Ch. Slav, lice * vultus * 
(KSB, viii. 439); boce * he-goat,* W. burch, Eng. buck = *bhugn68, Zd. buza 

* he-goat' (cf, however, Skr. bhukka)^ menicc 'often,' W. fnynych=smenogm-y 
Goth. minag»\ so Johansson (ATZ., xxx. 426) would derive cace 'excrement' 
from caqn'y Skr. qaknda : here, however, kk appears outside Keltic, Gr. tcdjcKJi, 
Lat. ca4^are\ brecc 'variegated, speckled,* W. brych ^^mrignd- ^mrtgno- a 
participial formation parallel to mrkto-^ in W. braith^ Ir. mrechtrad; if mitce 

* pig,* "W. mock is to be connected with Gr. fivHrfip etc., Skr. munrdti * lets 
loose.* (Stokes KSB. viii. 316, Brugmann, GrundrUa I. 327), it might be 
derived from *muknu (original decl. *muknuy ^muknuUSy etc., cf. Thumeyson, KZ. 
xxviii. 149, Stokes, KZ. xxviii. 291, J. Schmidt, Pluralbildungtn der Indo- 
germaniachen Neutra^ 54 sq). In view of a forthcoming paper of Mr. Stokes it 
is unnecessary to enter further into the subject here. There is one point, 
however, to which I should like to call attention — the two -fold treatment of 
Old Ir. ee in the modem dialects. It sometimes appears as «, boc^ ' he-goat,' 
muc 'pig/ sometimes as g, beag 'small,* Old Ir. bece^ W. byehan. Probably 
under certain conditions of sandhi the double consonant was reduced. There 
was probably also a still earlier interchange of cc, e in Keltic, cf. VT. clwch 

* crag * = *clucco- by "W. clwg ' crag,* Ir. eloch * stone * = ^eluco^, ^cluoa, unless 


Gr. 7r\i70'0'o)=*7rXa/ct«, y/plak. By the side of a tenuis 
a media often appears at the end of a root,^ and thus we 
find also plag-? which in Lat. plangere^ Goth. faifl6k 

* lament ' shows the same development of meaning as in len 

* sorrow,* 

l^ne ^camisia, shirt, shift '=/aow-, Lat. lacema, lacinia} 
min i. bil 'mouth ' *=*wflk;/i- : Ags. maga^ Eng. mafc^ 
N.H.G. magen=:*maydn. At first sight the meanings lie 
far apart, but it seems possible to reconcile them. M^n 
means not simply ' mouth/ but * open mouth, rictus, hiatus/ 
em is evident from the derivative m^naigim, Ml. 71^ 4 
menaigte, gl. inhiare, i.e. 'qui inhiant,' minogud 'hiatus,' 
Sg. 8^ 11, 40^ 8; cf. also Gael, meunan 'gape, yawn.* The 
transition of meaning would then be from 'gape' to 

* throat,* and from ' throat * to ' stomach.* Of. Lith. 
gomurya * palate, throat,' Lett, gdmurs ' windpipe,' Gr. 
y(aaKQ), xVMf^ further the change of meaning in Gr. 
iJTOfia'xpi;,^ Formally *makn' would stand in the same 
relation to *mak6n,^SLB Skr. ahna- to dhan •day.''^ With men 
has been compared W. min 'edge, lip.*® Thurneysen re- 
marks, "die worter konnen nur verbunden werden, wenn 
fiir das brittische ein stamm auf i {^megnu) angesetzt wird, 
in welchem das e durch das folgende i umgelautet wurde 
wie im cymr. llith aus lat. lectio.** But short i in a final 
syllable does not produce umlaut in Welsh*: nith 'niece' 

here *clucO' comes from ^clue-y *cluccO' from ^clucti'. Where c g etc. remained 
before n and disappeared only at a later period, we should then have to assume 
that the accent fell on a preceding syllable. 

^ Cf. Brugmann Qrwndrisa I. 190 sq., 348 ; Griech. Gram.^ 51 with the works 
referred to there. 

» Fick I*. 486. 

' lene represents the development of an n stem, laeema the mixture of an 
n and an r stem, cf. Johansson, Beitrdge z. Griech. Sprachkunde 110. 

* Cf . Stokes, Metrical Irish Glosses 84. 

* Persson, Zur Lehre v. d. Wurzelerweiterung 139. 

* If old Slav. <ieladuku 'stomach,* is connected with zeladu * acorn,* one 
might conjecture that zeladUku meant first 'Adam's apple,* then ' throat,* then 

* stomach.* 

^ Cf. Brugmann, Morphologiaehe Untersuchungen II. 166, sqq. 
^ Thurneysen, Kelto-Romanischea 69 ; Stokes, Metr, Ir. Gl. I.e. 

* Grammatica Celtiea^ 175 ; Windisch, KZ. xxvii. 157. 


{=:*nepti) may be directly compared with Skr. napti. 
Perhaps a stem ^megnl- would give the desired result, only 
then the British stem would be different from the Irish, 
which points to -no- or 'fid- ; we should have in this case to 
postulate a pre-Keltic megh- with ablaut mogh- in Teutonic. 
On the assumption that m^n comes from ^maen- the W. 
form admits of a simple explanation. To ^macn- there 
might be an ablaut form *micn- and *f)iicnO' or *micnd 
could in W. give min. There seems to be no doubt that, 
under some circumstances at all events, c was lost before n 
in the British dialects, that is to say en had become gn by 
the time that g was lost before n. Only thus can be ex- 
plained W. croen *skin* by Bret, croc^henn^ Tr. croccenn; 
croen^*crogn; ^crocn" with a weak form of the suffix. 
W. dwyn^ Bret, doen *to carry/ have been explained as 
standing for ducn-} and whether Zimmer^ is right in his 
account of due or not, dwyn can hardly be explained 
otherwise. See below hrin^ tdn. Where c appears as ^, 
as in W. mign ^bog'' it is easy to suppose that a vowel 
has been lost between c and n. It seems simplest then to 
refer m6n^ magen, min to tndk-, mik-, though the possibility 
of megh'y mogh- is not altogether excluded. 

8c6n * shyness, fright ' = ^scacno- : Lith. szdkti, * jump, 
spring,' etc.^ From this can hardly be separated scuchim 
*I depart '=*«(?ffci'd. Zimmer* postulates scec-y but the 
cognate languages show an ablaut slcdk-, slcdk-, and the 
Irish forms may be equally well explained from scac- ; for 
8cuchim=i^8cacid cf. cechuin^=.*C€cane. The perf. roscdich 
^^prO'SCdce is not in itself absolutely decisive, as such 
perfects also come from undoubted e roots, as rogdd, y/-^hedh. 
With the use of the perf. roscdich in the sense of ' it is past, 

^ Rhys, Revue Celtique, vi. 17 ; Ernault, Dictionnaire etytnolog%qt*e du breUm 
moyen 275. 

- JCZ. ixx. 188 sq. 

' Bezzenberger» Beitrige^ xvii. 303. 

* BB, xvii. 303; Fick, I*. 41. 

» Keltiaehe StudUn II. 80, 97. [If, howeyer, M.H.G. 9chehen 'run, hasten,' 
is to be compared, we must assume a 'JtJSek^ cf. Franck, Etymologitch 
Wurdenboek d. Nederlandtehe Taal, 286 ; Mccn would i\ieii*^*aceenO'.] 


was past/^ cf. hith. praszokti, in expressions like ssds metas 
greitai praazdko * this year has passed by quickly.'^ 

hrin 'rotten, stinking/ W. braen 'putidus, tabidu8/= 
*mracno-, cognate with Ir. mraich, braich *malt' (=*wrac*-), 
Lat. marceo, marcidm. For a trace of the primary meaning 
in the Latin words Osthoff* refers to corpus occtsi marcescit, 
Pliny, n.N. x. §134. He points out also the analogous, 
development of meaning in Ags. meaU 'malt/ Ags. meltan 
'dissolve, melt,' ON. maltr 'rotten, corrupted, become sour/ 
O.H.G. maiz 'melting away, soft, flabby.'^ In *mracno* ra 
would represent r ; cf . fraig ' wall,' Gr, iFipyo), flaith 
* sovereign ty,*=*t?^^w, ^ueU^ Lat. uelle.^ 

bUn * inguen ' may ==*mlacndy Gr, fjLaXatc6<;.^ 

Where the following syllable originally contained a slender 
vowel* i appears as edi, g. l€din=z*lacni (Lives of Saints 
from the Book of Lismore, 3206) ; scedin {do chor scioin 
' to cause terror,' LL. 302* 24) ; bleoin ace. of blin (Wind. 
Wb,). This ed may make its way further by analogy, e.g. 
Gael. nom. ledn after gen. ledin. 

On the other hand den > an. The long vowel resists the 
change of quality. 

cdinim "^ ' I revile, satirize '=*cdcnio : O.H.G. huohdn. 

1 Windisch, WorUrhuch 763. 

' Kurschat, Littauiach-deutaches Worterhuch 437. 

' Morphologiache Unteratichungen V. 105 sq. His further comparison of Lat. 
f races is tempting, but the change of initial mr to fr in Latin cannot be regarded 
as established. 

* Osthoff, Morph. Untermich V. iv. sq. Flaith goes better with Lat. valeo 
(Fick. I.* 541) ; another Keltic cognate of valeo seems to be W. gwell * better/ 
cf. Oscan valaemom * optimum.* 

* Formally Ir. blen is very like W. blaen 'cuspis, summitas, pars interior* : the 
gender is different. Are the words the same, Ir. blen representing some highly 
specialised meaning ? 

® As R. Schmidt points out {Indogermaniache Forachungen I. 65) this infection 
took place only when the following slender vowel was actually lost. In the 
modem language a levelling has set in. According to 0' Donovan's Ir. Gram, 
85 ei is now the usual form of the gen. If the Irish Tales edited by Mr. 
Douglas Hyde represent the popular usage in this respect, they only confirm 
0' Donovan 8 observation. In no single instance have I observed «« ^o'i in the 
same paradigm. The levelling is commonly at the expense of the eoi forms, 
beul — beily feur — /etr, muineul — muineil. It may, however, also take place in 
the opposite direction, as in deor * tear ' after gen. deoir. In Gaelic, so far as it is 
possible to judge from grammars and printed books, this levelling has not gone on 
to nearly the same extent. 

^ At the same time it is also possible to connect cdinim with Goth, hauna 
'mean, humble,' haury'an ' raircivoDv ' ; Lett, kauna * disgrace/ on the assumption 


crdin * BOW ' =z*crdcntx, properly *grunter'; Lith. krokit, 

* grunt/ Lett, krakt, * snort, rattle/ Lat. crocio. 

2. agn > dn. 

din * driving ' {oc dm liathrdite * driving a ball/ LXJ. GO'* 6) 
=i^agni'f agim * I drive.* So the compounds immdin to 
imm-agim * I drive about/ and tain * cattlespoil/ to do^agim, 

• grain * disgust, loathing '=*^rfl^w»- W. *graen Mament- 
abilis, luctuosus * (Davies). 

stdn *tin/ W. t/sfaen, borrowed from Lat. atagnum.^ 
Giiterbock^ remarks: "die lange des vocals in 8tdn=z 
stannum ist vielleicht aufzufassen wie die in den seite 17 
erorterten wortem wie bare, spiritdldle,'* etc. (where the 
mark of length is put over vowels naturally short, but long 
by position). But W. yntaen points conclusively to deriva- 
vation from a form stagnum ; of. Ital. atagno, Span, estano, 
Fr. Main? 

'dn:='agnos, Broccdn=Broccagno8, etc.* 

fan * sloping ' (etir riid y amreid etir fdn / ardd * both 

smooth and unsmooth, both slope and height,' Ml. 140* 2 ; 

glenta 7 fdnta ' glens and slopes,' LL. 101* 45 ; barallsam 

a tilcha cqfailet ina fdntaih * we have cast down their hills 

of an ablaut koun-^ kaun-t with loss of u after the long vowel, Schulze, ICZ. 
xxvii. 420 sqq. ; J. Schmidt Plur. d. Idg. Neutray 407 ; Kretschmer KZ. xxxi. 
451 sqq. ; Streitberg, IF. I. 278. The effect of the loss of « in a final syllable 
on the accentuation of the preceding long vowel is disputed. Streitberg, 
IF, I. 270, supposes that on the loss of t or « the preceding long vowel took 
the circumflex, /8«v, Skr. ffdmsz^z^yim. On the other hand Hirt IF. I. 22n. 
thinks that i and u did not have this effect, cf . nom. dual, Gr. iyp^y Lith. butu 
ssoUf and explains fi&if by a rather complicated process of analogy. It may be 
worth while pointing out that, in Lithuanian, where in the interior of a word u 
has been lost after i? (=o), the accent is the acute (gestossener accent) — kU'piu, 
kU'pti * to heap*: kaitptiy *to heap,* kaupaa *heap* ; azl&ju^ azlffti *to wipe,' 
8zlh'ta * besom*.* -pTet. szlaviadj Gr. kK^Cu; dU'bti * to hollow out*; dubU 
'become hollow,* guati 'bewail': gaustiy *wail,* gattdits, * pitiful*; d&'iis* 
'breach* : daUzH {dauzti Leskien), 'strike hard.* On the other hand, so far 
as I have observed o in such cases appears with the circumflex (geschliffener 
accent) kopti 'heap,* by kd'pti; glodinu 'make smooth,* glodua n. glddu 
' smooth,* by glaudusy glaudu ' smooth.* Does this indicate that the loss 
took place at different times? Perhaps some Lithuanian scholar will give an 

1 Ebel, K8B. II. 163. 
* Latemiache Lehnworter im Iriaehen 41 n. 
' Schrader, Sprachvergleiehung und Urgeachiehte^j 316. 
« Cf. Holder, Altkeltiacher ^aehaehatz 60, 164. 


80 that they are in their valleys,' LL. 95^ 11) may stand 
for *vdgnO' or *vd<mo- : ^udg, udk, Fick I.* 123 ; W. gtcaen, 

* plain^ meadow/ pi. gtoeunydd points to ^vigno- or *i>dcnO'} 

3. atn > an. 

tdnaise ' secundus/ imthanu * alternation ' (imthanu aidche 
^noctis vicissitudo,' ML 21® 3; inna imthanad gl. proprias 
vices, Ml. 93° 7; innimthdnad gl. talionem, Sg. 181* 6) 
=i*tO'atn'f ^amhi'to-atn- : Vat 'go/ Skr. a^, with which 
Schulze ^ has connected Goth, apn ' year.' From the same 
root may be derived Jr. amm * time ':=*at8men. 

an 'drinking vessel' has been connected by Bezzenberger ' 
with Gr. waTavr}, Lat. patina {dn=z*patnd). Against this 
is the Old Keltic a^iax ; patenam et urceum qui anax dicitur, 
Greg. Tur. Mir. 2, 8 (quoted by Holder, Alt. Kelt. 8pr. 
137), as t is not lost in the Gaulish dialects. Stokes^ has 
already connected the word with Skr. pdnam. 

4. apn. 

There is no clear instance of lengthening here, ana 

* wealth ' has been connected with Skr. dpnas, Lat. ops. o is 
also found in Irish in somnie 'rich,' domme 'poor'=*s«*-(>p- 
mio-, etc. : thus it is improbable that we should also find a. 
On the supposition of an ablaut d, o, dnae may be explained 
as=*ajow- *6pn- (a[j9]«a/os, Stokes*'^). 

5 ecsn. 

trin 'strong,' compar. tressa W.trech^*trexto8, is commonly 
derived from Hrecsnos. This is not free from difficulties. It 
is impossible to separate from trin W. tren^ * impetuous, 
strenuous,' and the Welsh word indicates that can was treated 
like «w, i.e. became n without lengthening the preceding 
vowel ; compare the parallel change of csm like sm > mm, 
and csl like si > II (see below). It is difficult to get any 

* For ae > eu when a syllable is added cf. aeth *ivit,' euthom *ivi,* haer 
* certus,* heurwyd * certa scientia,' Gram, Celt, 103, cf. also Nettlau, Beitr. z, 
Cymr. Or amm, 61. Bret, gueun * marsh,* seems to point to a form ^vacn^ 
or '^vagu'. 

2 KZ, xxviii. 164. 

3 In Stokes' Altkeltischer Sprachschatz 27. Through the kindness of Mr. 
Stokes I have been able to see the first few sheets of this work. 

* KSB. viii. 334. Perhaps a British reflex of dn is to be found in Com. 
engurbnr * patena,' Is. ^curbor a corruption of Lat. etborium? 

* Altkelt. Spr, 14. 


certain instances of csn. Irish Ion * elk ' might be derived 
from ^locsnO' and connected with Kussian lost 'elk/ which 
like *loc8nO' points to a base loU} A different form of base 
is found in Ags. eolh, O.N. etgr^ O.H.G. elaho. We may 
postulate as the original base elo^-, whence by different 
weakenings e/S-, loU-. Keltic locsno- might be regarded 
as an expansion of an 8 stem, cf. Lat. alnus 'aldertree' = 
*alsno8, Lith. elkszms, Ags. aior, O.H.G. elira, Ch. Slav. 
jehcha. men * farina/ might be derived from mec8n', an un- 
nasalized form of menk^ * grind/ Ch. Slav, mqka *meal.' 
It might, however=*mew- and be connected with Lith. 
tnlnti ' tread/ Ch. Slav, meti ' dXl^eiv,' Gr. fiaTrjfit, (BBl 
xvii. 205), though the meaning does not come so close. If 
*tr€C8no8 became in Keltic ^trenos, It, Mn might be ex- 
plained as follows. At one time there stood side by side 
pos. *treno8, comp. *trec8io8y whence C8 made its way into the 
positive — *trec8no8, *trec8i08; *tr€csno8 then by e^ later law 
became Mn, There is an analogy to this in the treatment 
of the prep. e88'=.exy e.g, inirt * weak'=*^cswfr^«s, where €C8 
was retained or restored from cases where it regularly 
remained, as before a vowel e.g. €8omain * fearless,* Gaul. 
€xobnu8, csl becomes //, hence *ecs-Idid, *I escape,' should 
have given *elldid, *ellaim. We find instead 4(aim. *ec8 
(or ess) was restored (or retained) as in the previous 
case and essldio became by a later law *^laim. Similarly 
ecsm in 4mdim *am unable *=*ecsw^fi?d, enclitic to asmidim 
(W. meddu cf. Gr. fieSewv, fieBovrcf;). The meaning of W. 
tren points to derivation from y/thregh, Gr. rpe'xpD, Gaul. 
vertragus, whence may also come Ir. tress * battle '=*^/ecs-, 
further trice 'quick, nimble '^=itrghni', 

6. encn > en, 

lenu (ace. pi.) * meadows,' Uana ' meadow, swampy place ' 
O'Reilly, leana * meadow,' Mac Alpine, Manx lheanee=^*iencn' : 
Lett, lekns, lekna 'depression, wet meadow' {^^^lenkn-), 

^ As ^ in this word ^oes throughout the Slavonic languages it seems 
impossible with Joh. Schmidt, Vacalismus 146, to explain it as coming from ol. 
At the same time one must reckon with the possibility that Ion \b 9l variation of 
the stem elen' 'deer.* 

2 Fickl*. 611. 


There is also a form lian which can hardly be connected 
with these words; it may stand for leino- and be compared 
with W. llwyn ' lucus, nemus, saltus/ Gr. Xcliiodv} 

7, egn > en, 

fin^ wagon =*t?«^«o- : ablaut to ON. vagn^ Vw/»^A, W. cywain 

"Q^n * T knew ' (etirg^nsa adg^nsa). The Idg. form of this 
was *gegnd(u), Skr. jajndu. With u infection *gegnd would 
give in Irish *g^un. The isolated form could hardly maintain 
itself against the mass of the perfects originally ending in 
0, so we find not geun but g^n. 

ginar * was born '^gegn-, y/gen? 

Hn *span'=*re^«o-.* The quantity of the e in the 
modem Hke is remarkable, as *rec8id should have given 
*r€i8e. The long e may have been taken over from ren. 
This is more probable than to refer r^w, reise {^*prend8nO', 
^prendsid) to ^{s)prend, Lith.. sprSsti *to measure a span/ 

s^n ' net' ^=* segno- ^segh, Stokes/ who also compares W. 
hwynyn, or hoenyn, *a hair of the tail of a horse, etc., gin, 
springe.' We have seen above that egn in W. becomes 
ain ; hence if sSn and hwyn are to be connected, we should 
have to assume an ablaut *segnO', *8ognO', It is very doubtful, 
however, if the words have anything to do with one another. 
8^n is found only in the sense of * net for catching deer or 
birds'^; on the other hand, for hoenyn Davies gives only 
'Pilus ex Cauda equina vel bovina, etc., pilus majusculus, 
seta': it is only in a secondary sense that hoenyn comes to 

1 Gramm. Celt^ 96 ; Curtius, GriecK Etym.^ 366. 
» Ebel, KSB. II. 177 ; Stokes, Metr, Ir. Gl. 68. 

* Why Zimmer, Kelt, Stud, II. 127, should say, *' "Windisch's ansicht *da8S 
dieses e erst auf speciall irischem bodea eingetreten ist/ entbehrt jedes beweises/' 
is not clear. The eyidence is clearly against. Zimmer* s view that the J is here 
pro-ethnic. Idg. gen should in Irish have become *gin : there is no evidence in 
support of two Idg. e sounds one of which became in Irish t while the ohter 
remained e. Even if this difficulty could be got over, an Idg. *gen* would still 
have to be regarded as an analogical formation after other e perfects, and the 
existence of such e perfects in Idg. is very doubtful, cf . "Wiedemann, Daa litauiache 
Frdteritum 106 sq. and the works quoted there. On the other hand there is 
nothing against the origin of gen- from gegn- in Irish ; in the middle the weak 
form -gu' is regular. 

* Stokes, Metr. Ir. Gl. 90. 
« Academy J Dec. 12, 1891. 

* Cf . Stokes, Metr. Ir, Gl. 90. 

PhU. Trans. 1891-2^3. 15 


mean * gin/ because made of hair. Is hoen to be compared 
with Lat. saeta ? For the vocalism might be compared coed 
'wood/ Lat. bucetum. Can Irish sSn be a borrowing 
of some kind from Lat. sagena, for instance, through Ags. 
sagne ? 

8. etn > en, 

in *bird/ O.W. etn'^i G. Meyer* compares Alb. ipen^ 
spese *bird.* 

Before slender vowels ecn, egn appear as iui^ eui, eoi; etn 
as eui, eoi. The following are the instances in the Old Jr. 
Glosses :—^rfmV» Sg. 96^ 4, Ml. 46c 23. triuin Ml. 30» 11, 
triuin Ml. 30^ 10, 36^ 1, treiiin Wb. 27» 7: etargMn^ ML 
42« 10, ingiuin 69* 15, athgeuin, ingeuin 52, etargeiiiin Sg. 
197^ 10, adg&uin Wb. 12° 13, under the influence of -^^w, 
ginammar, etc. etirgein Ml. 24* 19 : euin Ml. 127® 12, eiuin 
Sg. 93* 2. 

9. epn. 

I have no clear instance of this. Stokes^ connects ten 
*&Te'=*tepno8 with Zd. tqfnanh, in which case j9 would have 
disappeared without affecting the preceding vowel. This, 
however, is not certain, as there is also the possibility that 
ten=i*tep8no8, as teas * heat*=*^^«^M-.5 So timme *heat/ may 
^*tep8mtd ; it might also =*^^mtd. 

10. ebn. 

Stokes® derives Ir. indedin * anvil,* Corn, ennian^ Bret 
anneffn, from *ande'bni-8, *bend * I strike,* y/jfien. But imn 
*lamb,* W. o^=*o5wo- (see below) proves that ;» in the 
interior of a word in Keltic did not become i/i, as b was 
not lost before n ; cf . Gaul. Exobnm, Ir. e88omun * fearless,' 
W. ehofgn. The Irish word might be derived without 
difficulty from ande-gni-, but this could not give Breton 
anneffn. Could this have come from a parallel ^ande^-^heni-^ 

1 Ebel, K8B. 11. 130. 

• Albanesiaches Worterbueh, 413, Atb. Stud. iii. 40 n. 

* Oeuin might— *^effnai and be compared directly with Skr. jaj'ne. The 
ending -at in the 3 sg. perf. mid. is established by Goth id(i{fa ' he went,' Ags. 
df/de, cf. BB. xvii. 238. 

* KZ. xxix. 380. 

6 R. Schmidt, Idff, Forach. I. 73. 

• Altkelt. Sprach, 15. 


^ande-beni' ? It may be doubted whether, under any con- 
ditions, ^n became in Keltic bn. Brugmann,^ indeed, 
assumes this change in *mwa=*3wds, gen. of ben 'wife'= 
^-j^end. But b of *bnd8, whence mnd, may very well have 
come from cases with ^ben- ; a declension *bend, *gnd8 would 
have had no chance of surviving. 

11. emn. 

According to Windisch,^ Osthoff,^ Wiedemann* *minar 
*I thought,' is developed regularly from *memnar. This seems 
very doubtful. I am unable however as yet to prove that 
in any of the cases where mn come together in inlaut they 
were not originally separated by a vowel.^ We have an 
instance in auslaut if Ir. slemon 'smooth,' W. llufn'=.*8limno~ 
is to be connected with Ags. slimy Gr. Xelfia^,^ It is safer 
to look upon m^nar as due to the analogy of genar. Points 
of contact are found in the inflection of the present, cf. 
gainedar * nascitur,' dodmainetar * putant hoc' 

12. ocn > on, uan. 

criiariy cron 'red, orange '=*crocwo-, Gr. KpoKo<; (Stokes). 

mdin 'bog,'=*/wocm*-: Ch. Slav, mokrti *wet,* moca *bog.' 
n and r stems are often found side by side.^ 

icain, din 'loan' perhaps = *pocwe-, Lat. paciscor, Cf. 
tindlaim below. 

13. ogn > on, uanfi 

brdn 'sorrow': W. brwyn. 

^ Grundrissl. 380-1. 

2 KZ. xxiii. 246. 

' Zur Geschichte dea Perfects 10. 

* Das Zitauische Frdteritum 107. 

^ A possible instance is domna, rigdomna ' the material for a king, a crown 
prince/ W. defnyd * element, matter/ which may come from domn-f Gr. Sc/aw, 
£ng. timber. 

• Persson, Wurzelerweiterungy 110. 

' Cf. Pedersen, KZ. xxxii. 240 sqq. ; Johansson, Beitrage zur griechischen 
Sprachktmde 1 sqq. W. mawn * peat, turf * may be derived from mdcn-y in 
ablaut to mocn-. If Thumeysen {Paul u. Brattne*s Beitrage xiii. 436) is right in 
ascribing 6 of mdr to the influence of the preceding m, main might come from the 
same form. 

8 In every instance ua may be assumed to have passed through the stage o. 
The precise conditions under which o became ua are not very clear. If, as 
Brugmann, Grundriss, I. 67, suggests, 5 passed into ua before a following 
broad vowel, then the regular representation has been very much interfered with 
by analogy. Why, for instance, should ^clopni- have given cluain, when in 
nearly all the cases the following vowel was slender P There is an obvious 


sron 'nose/ W. ffroeny Bret. froan^=i*8prognd} As we 
saw that c was lost in W. before w, there is the possibility 
of *brocno- (or *brucnO') *sprocnd. No certain etymologies 
have been proposed. 

uan 'lamb/ W. oen (pi. wi/n=z*ogm)=^*ognO', *og^no- : Lat. 
agnus, Gr. afivoi;. The vocalism is strange here, as other Idg. 
languages shew a. Can o be due to the u sound following 
the g? u seems to change a to o in mog 'slave/ cf, mam 
'servitus/ Goth, magus. The alternative is to assume an 
ablaut 6 d (a in Ch. Slav, agnid, jagnicl ' afivo^ '), for which 
see Bartholomae BB. xvii. 121 sq. 

hUain 'reaping' {cofinbuanaigit ^ vrndiemiBXiiy* Ml. 102* 12) = 
*bogni' : an unnasalized form of the root appears in bocht 'reap- 
ing/ O'Cl. also Broccan's Hymn 1. 29, lathe biiana di mad 
bocht ' on the day of reaping to her a good harvest.'^ Brug-» 
mann,^ however, and K. Schmidt^ derive biiain from ^bongni" 
— which seems also possible. 

^ane 'green,' may stand for *vognio- : Gr. vypo^, O.N. v0kva 
' wet.' uane and vypo? (Ir. ur, see below) would be another 
instance of n and r stem side by side, ^vognio- should have 
become *fuaine. The loss of / may either be explained as 
in errachy espartain,^ or uaine may be regarded due to con- 
tamination of uog-, and ug-. That ^ugnio- should have 
become uaine is highly improbable, as the change of ugn to 
on can be explained only through an intermediate ogn, 
where u has become o because of a following broad vowel. 

14. opn > on, uan. 

difference of treatment of e and 5 in cases where they arise hy compensatory 
lengthening. Unlike B =ei, this e does not (except dialectically) hecome fa, while 
hecomes ua like o from ou. This would seem to indicate that 5 > Ha was later 
than e > la-, that when e arose hj compensatory lengthening, the change of « to 
la had already taken place, while o lell together with o=ou and shared its 
fortimes. The subject requires further investigation. It may 6e noted that ua 
is very much more frequent than o. 

1 Ebel, KSB. II. 8? ; Stokes, KSB, viii. 335 ; otherwise Windisch 
KSB. viii. 431. 

2 Cf. Stokes, Metr, Ir. GL 43. 

3 Gnmdriaa, I. 382. 
* Idg, Forach, I. 77. 

^ Stokes, KSB, viii. 344 ; Zimmer, Zeitschrift fur deutschea AlUrthum 
xxxii. 279 sq. 


c&an 'harbour' (Irish), *sea' (Gaelic) =*cc|/)w- : Ags. 
hmfene * haven/ Ags. heafy O.N. haf ' sea.' So already Kluge. 
Wh. S.V. hafen, 

cliiain * meadow '=*c/lqpwt-: Lith. szldpti * become wet/ 
szlapias *wet/ szlapimd 'a wet spot,* tcXeirar vorepov irrjX&Scf;, 
teXiiro^* vorepov, Hesych. ci&ain and ^X^tto? may be added 
to the examples of parallel n and 8 stems given by 
Pederssen, KZ. xxxii. 252, Johansson Bettr. z. Or. Sprach. 
21, 28, etc. 

cl&am * deceit ' =*cfop»t- : KKewTto (Stokes). For cliiain, 
* meadow,' we must postulate y/Ulep, as Lith. szldpti shows, 
for clkain * deceit,' y/klep, Gr. /eXeTrro), Goth, hlifa, Pruss. 
auklipts * hidden.' 

15. ten + broad vowel > ^ecn, en. 

L^Yiy a proper name ^= Gaul. Licnos, 

The Gaulish -icnos in Dniticnos and the like has been 
compared with the Ir. diminutive ending 'in,^ It is 
impossible to connect in directly with -icnos, as the modern 
form 'in indicates the loss of a slender vowel after n. 
Moreover in, though it is found in Middle Irish and is very 
common in Modern Irish, is not found in the Old Irish 
glosses. The most common diminutive suffix in Old Irish 
is -dw, and next in frequency come -tat, -nat: -ine is found 
in some eight or nine words, there are a couple of instances 
of 6n, and -ine is found once in gtainine 'maxilla.' This 
'ine might be directly compared with -icnios in Gaulish 
Te^^igniua,^ -icnos would in Irish give -^/» and may account 
for some of the diminutives in -en^ but it will explain neither 
'^ne, nor -in. It would be possible to explain these latter 
as arising from an admixture o{ '^n:='icno8, and 'ine-=-icnio8^ 
but it is very likely that these diminutives have more than 
one source. Some diminutives in -in, 'ine may very well 
come from stems in -ec-, e.g. larene ' equula '=*^r^c-ma from 
lair 'mare' stem Idrec-. There is the strongest reason for 

^ Stokes, Lives of the Saints xxxi. 

» Stokes, KSB. iii. 71. ; Rev, Celt, vii. 107. 

* KSB, iii. 208. 


suspecting the working of analogy in the suffix -fn^ which, 
as we have seen, does not occur in the oldest language, 
and is found with increasing frequency in the later language. 

16. i^«+broad vowel > ^egn, en. 
dogina ' he will do ' ^:=^*tO'gigndL 

nitgima * I will not slay thee/ LTJ. 68^ 34 : gSn=z*gigndm. 

Br^n, a man's name ^=i*Brigno8, Gaul. Arebrignos (Stokes). 

8^n ' blessing/ from Lat. signum, if it did not rather come 
from segnum. Before a slender vowel ign > iuin in Briiiin 
gen. of Brin. 

17. ucn + broad vowel > *ocw, d», uan. 

The instances here are somewhat uncertain, as dn might 
be also derived from eucn^ oucn, with a strong form of the 
root. This remark also applies to most of the other cases 
in which o may be derived from u with compensatory 

biiuin * fragment/ maj =:i*bhrucnO' or ^bkroucno" and be 
connected with Lett, brukt 'crumble.' But it may equally 
well stand for *bhrout8no~ ^bhrovd-mo-^ Ags. briostan * break,' 
b.H.G. brdama. 

tdn *podex'=*^ewc«5, or *tiicndi Teut. ^peuha' * thigh.'* 
From idn cannot be separated W. tin podex; tin may 
be derived from ^tucnd. That Ir. tdn should also go 
back to *tucnd is highly improbable, as 6 is not liable to 
umlaut (cf. ur below) : there is nothing very strange iu 
the fact that the two branches of Keltic should shew two 
different grades of vocalism. Hucnd points to an n stem 

^ If these diminutiTes in -m be ancient, they might come from ^ienit (-m weak 
form of -ioa) if we are right in supposing (p. 36), that short % £d not change 
preceding i to iui. With regard to the relation of W. -yn to Ir. -^ Thumeyseii 
Mev. Celt, vii. 326 compares W . dynyn * mannikin ' with Ir. duin^, g being loet 
without a trace in unaccented syllables. W. -yn as well as Ir. -en might thai a 
-icnos. Thus W. -yn proves nothing as to the antiquity of Ir. -m. 

^ Thumeysen (JTZ. xxxi. 77) has made it probable that the Towel of the 
reduplicated syllable was » not e. Comparing pechna^^eicannt with ^y^tiam 
^gi-gn-dt, we see that in the one case there is a strong, in the dther a weak foitii 
of the root. The supposition lies nigh at hand that these strong and weak forms 
were originally combined in the same paradigm, the strong forms appearing in 
the sine, act., the weak in the dual and plural, and that the historic paradigms ate 
due to levelling in one direction or the other. 

» Cf. Fick III.» 136. 


*ieuken'. For n steins from o stems of. Barthblondae Sezz. 
Beitr, xv. 25 sqq. Of. also Zd. ndonhana * nose ' by tidonha. 

luan, I6n * light/ may stand for *leucmo~ or *^wc«»o-, Zd. 
raoxsna ' shining/ Lat. /t^mi.^ It might, however, equally 
well:=* iucno' ; of. Old Sax. logna 'flame.* The meaning 

* moon * seems to have been taken over from L^t. luna, 
which resembled in form the native word, or we may say 
that the Irish borrowed luna and adapted it in form to the 
similar i&an. 

18. ugn, 

duan 'poem' =z*dugnd or *dougnd: Gr. revx^cv, Goth, dugan.^ 

ciian^ne 'pugil,' from Lat. pugnus, or perhaps reithex pognua. 

Of ucUf w^n+ slender vowel, I have found no instances; 

we might expect -uin, imine was discussed above ; iiain 

* leisure,' may be derived from ^eucni- : Gr. evicqXja^ * free from 
care, at ease,' Skr. dkas^ 'comfort, dwelling-place,' rather 
than from *wcwt- [ucn- may, however, appear in nine * time, 
opportunity ']. 

19. w^w+ broad vowel=*o^«, on, tian (?). 

&2^an 'lasting ' may perhaps stand for ^bhu'tno-, and be com- 
pared with Lith. butinas, 'essential, lasting' (=*6Aw^n«o-), 
with which has been compared Lat. -hunduazn^bhutno-} I 
know of no other instance of suffix -tno- in Keltic. 

20. udn- > *odn, dn, uan, 

smudinim ' think '=*«wwfl?n- or ^smoudn- : Goth, gamaud^an 
'remember,' Ch. Slav. myslU 'thought.' If uan \iQTez=:udn, 
it must have arisen before a broad voweL 

21. upn > *opny ow, uan, 

cimn ' host ' {Dniim Criaich cite cit c&an * Drum Oree 
meeting-place of a hundred hosts,' LL. 161* l)=*ctt/?n- or 
*coupn' : Lith. kupd ' a heap, a multitude, an ateembly, e.g. 
of men,* Germ, haufe. 

man 'sleep,' W. ^wn=*swjpwos: Gr. vttvo^, Ch. Slav. %iinU^ 
Alb. gume. 'sleep.' The gen. Biiain can hardly be the 

* Brugmann, Grundrisa II. 132. 

^ Thurneysen quoted by Osthoff, Paul u. £raune*t BHtrage, ziii. 421. 

' Cf. Brugmaim, Grundrias II. 152. 


regular development of *8upni: ua comes rather from cases 
containing a broad vowel. For suggestions as to the 
phonetic changes of pn see Brugmann, Orundriss I. 272. 
According to Stokes' law *8iipno8 must have been accented 
like Gr. virvo^. 

22. sn. 

Thumeysen ^ suggests doubtfully that W. gtm ' toga/ Ir. 
fUan *lacerna'=*e?dno- come from *fosno-. But that is im- 
possible; 8 disappears before n without lengthening the 
preceding vowel.^ ^vmo- may be derived rather from 
*vO'Ouno-, Lat. ind-uo, ex-uo, sub-u-cula, Lith. aiiiti 'to put 
on shoes, stockings, and the like.' 

11. Sound Groups Ending in m. 

. 1. dcm. 

One would expect by analogy of acn^ aer, em. I have no 

2. agm > dm. 

gldm ' outcry ^=:*glagmd: Germ, klagen, y/glagh. 

mam ' servitude ' =*/w«^ww- : mog 'slave/ Goth, magus. 

tidm * handful of wool '=*/^^w- : Germ.^ocA:^, Gr. Xdy(yo^,^ 
with which Stokes ^ has already compared tlacht ' garment.* 

Hence Mod. Ir. brdim, Gael, braim (g. brama, pi. braman" 
nan)y W. Corn, bram, Bret, bramm * crepitus ventris/ to 0. Ir. 
btaigim *pedo/ CB,nnoi=z*bragmen. Nor is it likely, as Thur- 
neysen ^ doubtfully suggests, that it should have come from 
*brangmen ; cSim * step ' =^*cengmen, and similar cases are 
against this, bram is probably to be explained SLS=^*brag8men, 
cf. bomm * morsel '=*6o^sm^w,® semmand * rivets' iy/segh^ 
Stokes) from a stem ^segsmen, W. drem 'look, aspect ' = 

^ Kelto-Bomaniaehes 64. 

* Stokes^ KZ, XXX. 559. 

' Siitterlin, Bezz, Beitr, xvii. 164 sq. * 

* Metr. Ir, GL 99. 

* KehO'Bomanisches 98. 

^ Not Hoffmen as R. Schmidt, Idff, Forach, I. 30, suggests ; that must bare 
given *b6%m or *biM%m, 


*drec8md ^driesmd, Ir. drech ' aspect, countenance* y/derUy Gael. 
dream * wisp of hay or straw/ dreamag ' handful of corn* : Gr. 
hparfiMi. 8 is often present before certain suffixes in other 
Idg. languages, e.g. -amo-, -sno- 'Slo-,^ and its presence must 
be also recognized in Keltic, e.g. amm ' time' =:*at8men 
(above), trom * heavy,' W. trwrn^^Hrudsmo- : Goth, ws- 
thriutan 'oppress.' 

For 6i in Mod. Ir. brdim, cf. dirdhearc 'glorious *=0. Ir. 
airderc, and in the Wb. glosses bdill limbs, sg. ball is 

3. ecm > em, 

riim 'shout' {dobert rim curad asa bragit *he gave a 
hero's shout from his throat' LXJ. 76« 10, reim ouradh i. 
geim curadh 'a hero's shout,' 0'Clery)=r^c/w- : Ch. Slav. 
reka 'speak,' Lith. rekiii 'roar, cry'; for the long vowel 
in rikti, see Bechtel Hauptprobleme der Idg, Sprachwissen* 
schaft 162. Examples of words with the meaning of cry, 
roar, and the like applied to articulate speech will be 
found in Persson.* To this belongs W. rhegen 'quail'; . 
for the origin of the name cf. Diez. Etym, Wb. s.v. quaglia. 
In Old Ir. a similar name is found for the peacock, gisachtach 
from gessim ' cry.' 

4. egm > em, 

aiimeth 'offspring, * =*8egmeto-^ 

drimire ' ladder,' according to Stokes * stands for *dregm', 
but it seems rather to come from drengm.-, cf. dringim ' step, 
advance,' and so to fall under the following head. 

6. engm > emm, em (in auslaut). 

ciimm 'step,' W. cam=z*kngmen, 

Uimm 'leap,' W, llam=z*lngmen. 

gSim * shout' =i*gengmen : cf. Lith. zwingiu ' neigh.' If this 

^ Osthoff, Forachungen I. 190 sqq. ; Brogmann, Grundrisa II. 133, 140, 163, 
165, 187, 195, 196, etc. 

' According to Thumeysen, Paul u, Braunea Beitrdge, liii. 436, o is here due 
to the preceding labial. 

' Wurzelerweitertmg 244. 

* Stokes, Lives of the Saints 399. 

* Stokes, Linguistic Value of the Irish Annals 371. [He now {BB» xviii. 62) 
refers it to *drengmen']» 


comparison is to be maintained, we must assume a double 
Idg. form gneng, geng, u having been lost in certain positions 
in the parent language.^ 

rSimnif riim 'cursus/ serving as the infinitive of rethim 
' I run.' The double m of rSimm cannot be explained either 
from *retmen or from *reidmen,^ as R. Schmidt^ suggests. 
Either we may suppose that *r^im-=z*retmen became reimm 
under the influence of ciimm^ grSimm, or we may place it 
with W. rhamu * soar/ Idg. *rengho *run, spring.'* 

6. endm > emm, em, 

griimm ^progressus ^■=L^grendmen : ingrennim ' persequor.* 
Gael, teum * bite/ W, ^aw, Bret, tamm * piece, bite/ Corn. 
tamy pi. ti/mmyn=z*tndmen: Gr. Tei/SoD, Lat. tondeo, 

Brugmann* doubts if endm became regularly emm. For 
griimm he suggests the analogy of cSimm, which, from the 
similarity of meaning, is quite possible. But if teum is 
rightly derived from *tendmen no such analogical explanation 
is possible. We must then with Schmidt, IF, I. 77, look 
upon endm as becoming regularly emm^ and there is nothing 
in the way of this. 

7. enm. 

beim 'a blow,' has been explained as standing for *ben^ 
men, y/jjien. But this explanation is very doubtful for 
the Irish word (according to R. Schmidt® one might have 
expected ^bemm'^), and it is impossible for Bret, boem^ 

* Cf. Brngmaniiy Grundriss 11.476, 802; Solmsen, KZ, xxxii. 277 sq. If it was 
in enclisis that u was lost, it must be remembered that in certain positions the 
Idg. verb was enclitic. 

* It might however come from ^reidsmen. 
' Idff. Forsch, I. 77. 

* Fickl*. 118. 

6 Grundriaa I. 382. 

* Idg. Torsch. I. 77. His own explanation leaves Bret hoem out of account, 
and does not satisfactorily account for Ir. beimm, for how could beimm be in- 
fluenced by words of so totally different meaning as chmm and greimm ? On 
the other hand, as Schmidt suggests, beimm 'journey,' V3^»*» ™ay have been 
influenced by these words ; it may however = *gtiem-8men, 

^ Anmaimm dat. of ainm *name' m\^i—* anmembi as well as *anmenm%, 
A difficulty arise in connexion with the form ainm. If ainm^*anmen *a%mm 
might have been expected ; if it comes from *aw''m*», we should rather have 
expected *ainmh. Perhaps the difficulty may be overcome by the hypothesis 
that two forms of the stem *anmen and an^men were originally in use in 
different cases, and that they acted and reacted on one another. (In Mod. Ir., 
Gael. meamna=0. Ir. menme, such an nm has beco^le in iolaut mn.) A 


Corn, bomnif pi. hommen *blow,* All these forms may- 
be explained from ^bensmen, which in both branches 
of the Kelts would become first *besmen. ^Bismen 
would give by assimilation in Irish *bemmen, b^im. In the 
Brythonic dialects,^ too, besmen would become ^bemmen^ 
whence regularly Mid. Bret, boem, Mod. Bret, bomm (cf. Mid. 
Bret, toem 'hot' (W. ttcym) probably =*^6/?^«//io-, Mod. tomm). 
In older Cornish e appears as ui^ oi, in the later texts as o, 
Mm *hot/ later tommy a 'heated/ Qramm. Celt? 97. Now 
bomm is found only in texts in which o appears for e. It 
is also possible to derive beimm, ^bemmen from ^beismen : Ch. 
Slav, biti 'strike/ with which Thumeysen^ connects Ir. 
benim ' I strike.** 

8. ogm > dm, mm. 

fiiaimm, fimim 'sound, noise *=:*wjrw^«, ci. fogur 'sound, 
noise.' The tiouble m here is not due to phonetic develop- 
ment, but comes by analogy from other cases where it arose 
regularly, e.g. imimm ' sewing ' (to imgim ' I sew ') =^*eug8men. 
In such cases mm became in auslaut m, so that hevQ fuaim 
&nd iiaim would coincide, and this coincidence would lead to 
the introduction of mm into fdaim. 

idm before a broad vowel seems to become *edm em in 
fO'd^ma 'he will %}iS&r^-=^*didmdt, But as fodidmat=*dida- 
mdnto is also found, it is probable that in fod^ma we have 
an analogical formation, for, though in all likelihood in 
these reduplicated futures strong and weak forms of the 

difficulty of a somewhat similar nature is met with in "W. eiprw *heer,' 
Gaul. Kovpfu (Ir. cuirm) compared with garm * outcry' (Ir. gainn) where 
the m is preserved. The difficulty might be solved by postulating in the 
latter case a stem *garsmen cf. Lith. garsas * noise,' Lat garr%o=*gar8%Oy Alb. 
gtrSaa *■ invite.' With a syllabic division *gar \ amen this would have given 
*garmmen, and mm did not become / {cwrtv=*cwruf cf. Com. corofj. How 
is the t of Kovpfii to be explained ? Can it be that we have here a nom. -me {n), 
as in Ch. Slav, ime * name,' Schmidt. Fluralbildungcn 90 ? Kopfia might be 
looked upon as a Graecised form (or Kopfm : Kovp/ut = 3kr. nama: nSma?). 

* It is not certain to what extent these changes are to be referred to proto- 
Keltic. I know of nothing to shew that the change of ^benamen to *besmen and 
of besmen to bemmen did not take place before the separation of the Keltic 

^ Mheiniaches Museum xlui. 351 ; KZ. xxxi. 83. 


Stem were at one time found in the same paradigm, it i^ 
not very likely that both survived in this solitary instance, 
particularly . when we bear in mind the tendency of the i 
future to encroach. Stokes suggests that d may have been 
lost before m, before the time when intervocalic m was 
aspirated. He refers to frim ' root * (Mod. Ir. freumh) = 
*vridmdy W. gureidd: Lat. radix, iiamonn * skin '=*oe/w-: 
Lith. uda ' skin '= (ablaut 6: o). But this is not very 

Sound Groups ending in r. 

1. acr > er. 

dir * tear/ O.W. dacr-^^^dacru : Gr. SaKpv. 

ir A. uasal, 'lofty/ 0*Davoren=*acro« : Gaul, axpotalvs, 
Gr. aKpo^.^ 

mir * finger '=*wacros: Gr. fiaKpo^y^ fiaKeiv6<iy fioKp&va% 
TOP o^vVy ^Epvdpaloi Hesych.* 

Mod. Ir. cSir 'gum/ Manx keei/r, Gael, cdtr might bcf 
explained from an ablaut ^cdcri-, ^cdcri-. We may compare, 
perhaps, W. ctg ' flesh * (Ir. cich ' teat ' *) =*cec-. The ablaut 
series would then be kdk-, kek-, kok- (=Ir. cdc-). The W. 
name for 'gum' is cig y dannedd, lit. ^zahnfleisch.' One might 
conjecture that the Irish word was originally used with 
some such qualification, ciir inna n-dSt or the like ; cf . feoil na 
fiacal (gl. gingiva), Stokes, Ir. OL 150. 

Before a slender vowel edi: meoir^ gen. sg. and nom. pL 
oimir (Gael. gen. sg. medir), Gael. Mod. Ir. dedir gen. sg. of 
deur 'tear* (with change of declension, Mid. Ir. gen. dire^). 
For the vocalism of c4ir see p. 36. 

1 Stokes, Althelt. 8pr. 5. 

» Bezz. Beitr, xvii. 299. 

3 Brugmann quoted by R. Schmidt^ Id^, Forsch, I. 63. 

* Stokes, Ir. GL p. 150. 

' The nom. pi. na d(Br is found Ml. 23a 13, indicating a neut. M-stem ; der 
might \iexe=*da^ru like Ved. puriC (Schmidt, Plur, 42). There are however 
other possibilities, cf. Brugmann, Grundrisa II. 625. 


. 2. agr > dr. 

dr '8trage8*=*a^ros, W. aer 'praeliuin/ 0, Bret, air, Gaul, 
Veragri, Suagros, Gr. Sr/pa.^ 

adr- * exceedingly ' (as a prefix), W. haeru 'affirmare.'^ 

sdr 'insult/ can hardly be separated from W. aarhdu 
'contumelia afficere.' Corresponding to Ir. a one would 
expect W. ae ; e mu3t have been lost in the pretonic syllable, 
though I have no other instances of this. For examples of 
ae > ain other positions, cf, Nettlau, Beitr. 2. Cymr, Qramm, 
61 sq. 

ndr * modest '=*«a^ro- (or *ndgro-) : *ndjfio *to be sober,* 
Gr. vq^to? 

3. U\ 

t is not lost before r ; an anaptyctic vowel has sprung up 
between t and r, and intervocalic t then becomes th, e.g. 
tarathar ^hoTQT^ \ terebra, reperpov, criathar ' sieve '=*cm^ro-, 
briathar ' word' =*6m^m,* mothar *dark '=*/w2i^ro- : Arm. 
mut^ " tenebre, nebbia," mtar " oscuro," ^ riathor ' torrens ' 
z=*reitrO' : Skr. ri ' let flow, run,' Lat. rtuos, 

4. adr > dr. 

Only in composition drim ' number ' ^=^*adrlmd to rim 
' number.' 

5. e^r > er. 

f^r 'grass,' W. gwair. Com. gwyr^:z*vegrO' '. y/veg 'to be 
moist ' Fick P. 545 ? 

Before a slender vowel feiuir Sg. 68^ 10, feuir Ml. 90^ 8, 
Mid. Ir. f^oir, Windisch. Wb. (by analogy dat. feor, LU. 
74^ ^8). 

^^m^, ^^raiY 'champion' is probably cognate with the 
shorter greit 'champion.' Oreit may stand for *gredni', 
^ghredh-ni' {y/ghredh Fick I*, 418) ; g^rait would be a 
parallel form with reduplication. Ii^ FSlire, Sept. 27, 
^ passage to which Mr. Stokes has called my attention, 

* Rhys, Bev. Celt. II. ; Stokes, Sprachschatz 7. 

* Rhys, Lectures*, 395; Welsh has also taeru^^to-aagr-, an additional 
example of the original coincidence hetween the Welsh and the Irish accent. 

8 Fick I*. 499. 

* Bmgmann, Grundriss I. 470. 
s Bugge, KZ, xxxii. 19. 


it is used with fern. M, which shows that, as might have 
been conjectured, it was originally an abstract fern. noun. 

6. u?r+ broad vowel > *ecr, er. 
{arro)ch^r ' redemi * =*-(?k?ra.^ 

9mMU 'burning coals, sparks, embers' m9Lj'=^*9m%cronfi' 
and be compared with Lat. micare^ V {8)mik'. Otherwise 
Stokes, Metr. Ir. 01. 97, but the length of the e is established 
by the modem language, ameur&id * charcoal,' Foley. 

Before a slender vowel i fii, dorachiuir, * redemit,' Wb. 2^* 9, 
duarchiuir, Ml. 73^ 5. 

7. i^r+ broad vowel > *egr, ir. 

(/ris)gira *he will answer* =*^i;j7rd^, {ar)gerat, Ml. 112^ 8= 
*gigrdnto. It might be expected that t in such a case would 
remain. We have perhaps an example in dir, 'proprius, 
conveniens, iustus'=*^fY)- or *digrO' : Vdetjc, deig, SeUwfu, 
BUrf, Lat. dignuBy Goth, teihan, iaikns.^ 

8. ibr seems to become *ebr^ ^r in Mra *he will bring '= 
^bibrdt. But b is not lost before r ; as in the case of tr an 
anaptyctic vowel is developed between b and r and b becomes 
a spirant, e.g. dobur * water,' W. dicfrr^^dubrO", Gaul. Venw- 
dubrum,^ gabor ' goat,' W. ga/r^zgabro-, Gaul. Oabro-sentum ^ 
Oabro-magus, It might be said, perhaps, that this may 
hold good only in auslaut, while in the middle of a word no 
such vowel sprang up, and in this position b was lost 
before r. But in abra 'eyebrow,' Gael, abhra, Mod. Ir. 
fabhra : Gr. o^pv^, br is treated in precisely the same way as 
in dobutf gabor. It follows, then, that b^ra is an analogical 
formation after ^g^ra and the like. The e future has a 
tendency to spread, cf. sc^ra to scaraim^ l^maither to Idmaim 
(LXJ. 63» 15), g4t to gataim, aderad to adraim (KSB. vii. 
23). The same view must be taken of m^raid 'he will 
remain' to maraim; there is no evidence that m was lost 
before r. 

» Cf. R. Schmidt, Id^. Forseh. I. 63 note. 

' Cf. Kluge in Paul*8 Orundrisn cUr Orrmanisrhfn PhUoloffie I. 326 ; Brug- 
mann, Grtmdriss II. 136. [I had orerlrtoked W. dir * certua, necessariiw,' dir yu> 
* oportot, net'osse est/ which shows that c cannot hare been hist ; the words may be 
reierrtHi to *drro8, *dherMy \f dhcy cf. Skr. dhdman *law, order/ Gr. 9r/u5.] 

' Gliick, Keltische Xamen 35. 



9. ogr > dr, uar. 

iuxT^ fiar 'cold/ W. oer, goer=^ogro^^ (to Ch. Slav, ognl 
* fire/ cf. urit frigua, or Gr. ird'xyri waryero^, ablaut a o P), 
Ck)m. oir. For W. goer, cf. gardd * hammer/ Ir. ord\ for the 
explanation of the prothetic g see Nettlau, Rev. Celt xi. 77. 

10. t£<T+ broad vowel > *ocr, dr, war. 

c6«r 'crooked/ cf. corihdn {corthdnech Ascoli), 8g. 66^ 7= 
^cucrO' (or *ceucrO') : y/kenk, Skr. kticati ' bend/ Ch. Slav. 
kuko-nasH * crooknosed/ etc.^ 

u in tkr, fi^r might be expected to remain. Of ficr j 
have no very certain instance; 6r, 'bad/ might =*jE>fiA:ro- : 
Gr. ^€7rev^9, Treu/ceSavo?, cf. KaK6^: Lith. kenkti 'hurt*; it 
may, however, be explained otherwise'; b&rach *din/ bitrethar 
'clamat/ might stand for •Jflcr-: Gr. /3v/cTfj<i, Lat. ieie^'ita; 
they might equally well stand for *66r- : Gr. /Sua?, Arm. 
6ii, bu'€c * owl. '* tir ' fresh ' {xerin' withered ' *), W. ir 
'viridis, floridus, novus, recens, suoculentus/ has been well 
compared by Siegfried * with Gr. vypo^. The Keltic forms 
go back to *ugrO' ; Welsh proves conclusively 6. 

IV. Sound Groups ending in /. 

1. acl > el. 

die * servus ' is separated by Stokes from cile * comrade * 
(see below) and compared with Lat. cacula ' soldier's servant.' 

milacht * disgrace '=*//ww?/<5W?^m-: Lat. macula, though this 
is not altogether certain. 

1 Stokes, Live* of the Saints 402. 

' Fick I*. 380. 

» Stokes, Metr, Ir. 01. 103. 

* Cf. Persson, Wurzelerweiterung 12 sq. 

* A good instance is quoted by Wmdisch [Worterhuch 866) from Stokes, 
Three Middle Irish Homilies 26 : teeh do d^num isin uair sin a leth ur ocus 
aroli erin, *'to build a house in that hour, the half thereof fresh and the other 
withered.'* Cf. also Stewart's Oaf lie Poetns 5i6 Cia lion erann bheil an eoill f 
ar Fionn. Adha^ ar an inghean, iodhon ur agt^s erlon. How many trees are in 
a wood ? said Fionn. Two, said the maiden, to wit green and dry. 

« Quoted by Stokes, KSB. viii. 322. 


eel i. hily * mouth,' O'Clery. If this be a genuine wbrd 
rightly explained one might compare Lith. kaklas *neck.' 
But no weight can be laid upon this instance until the 
word is better established. 

2. agl > dl. 

ail * disgrace '=*a^/t- Goth, agls ^ala^po^'* Cf. also "W. 
*aele, grefyn, dolorus, trest, trwm, LI Braw aele, * Terror 
mtserandus* (Davies), 

ail ' pleasant '=*joa^/i-, Qoth.. fagrs * fitting/ /aA^J)« 'joy' 
V'i?a;e,i?a^,Fick 1.4 77.1 

dl * brood, ofispring/ W. ael ' litter, brood,' Bret, eal ' foal ' 
perhaps =*pa^^- : Lat. propago, 

gabdP inf. of gabim * I take'=*gabagN', W. caffael. 

mdl * chief,' W. Ma€l^=^*maglO', Gaul. Maglus. 

tdl * adze,' may, perhaps, stand for ^to-aglo- : Goth, aqizi, 
Engl. axe. If this were so, *-aglo- Teut. akes^- would be an 
instance of / and 8 stem side by side, cf. Lat. oculus, Gh. 
Slav, oko 'eye.' The difficulty is to see what the particle 
to- has to do here. Stokes^ now derives tdl from *taxlO' 
(=Idg. HdHsU)"?) : Ch. Slav, tesla *axe.' But kal seems in 
Irish to become *ss/, //, cf. uall * pride '=*«wg's/a,* toll, W. 
twll * hole '=*^wcs/o-, Slav, titk-- 'pierce.' 

We have seen that acn, acr, acl became respectively ew, cr, 
e/, but agUy agr, agl became respectively an, dr, dl. What 
was the reason of this difierence of treatment? The naost 
probable answer to this is that the loss of c and of g do 
not belong to the same period, that c persisted longer than 
g, and, when it also went, the preceding vowel was treated 
differently. We have a parallel to this in Welsh, where 
*dacru becomes dagr (O.W. dacr), but *agrd becomes aer. 
In Irish itself there is something similar in the different 

^ d'Arbois de Jubamville, Lea Noma gauloia chez Cesar 25, sees this word in the 
Gaulish name Catumalis ; if that were so, the etymology would have to be given 
up. But Stokes and Rhys {Classical Review, April, 1892, p. 166) compare 
Catusttalis better with W. chwalu ' strew, spread,' =^ battle- scatterer.' 

2 Zimmer KZ, xxx. 156 derives ticsdly wnich occurs by ticsath as the infin. of 
ticsaitn *I raise,' from *diodgestdld'. It is tolerably evident that it is only an 
fmalogical formation after toC'bdl=*tO'Udgabagli', the inf. of tocbaim *■ I raise.' 

8 KZ, xxxii. 219. 

* Brugmann, Grundriss II. 194. 


treatikieiit of tlie particles aith- and ad^zndte^, ad^ in com- 
positioii, under the accent. Where the a oi ate rbecomes e, 
the a ot ad appears as a, compare ni ^pil 'he does not die' 
^z*dtebakt with dpelugud 'flattery *=«fl?6-, 4cid *he relates '= 
atC" (with accent on the verb aithchuaid) with acd 'he sees' 
::^adc^} Where this rule seems. to be violated, there is 
confusion of the two particles.^ Now, as in ate- the t is 
followed by a Towel, while in ad- the d is final, it is 
easy to suppose that the t persisted longer. The different 
treatment of the vowel in this case would then be a 
^aralleH to the diflerent treatment of the vowel in the 
combinations acn^ agn, etc. 

3. atl > dL 

anal * breath/ W. anadl = *anatld, *an9tld : Skr. dniti' 
* blows.' 
. da/ * meeting/ W. <to(//=*rfii^to. 

In adl 'heel/ W. aawdl, Bret. 8€ul^=-*8tdtld (Stokes)* a is 
naturally long. 

4. adl > dL 

In the compound dlaind ' beautiful '=a6/-/atnd, laind .L solus 
no taitnemach 0' Dav. 102.* 

5. eel > eL 

* From cases like usee 'water*: Gr. Zivp, 08of, etc., meae 'drunk': Gr. 
fi4$v, eixi,, seae *dry\* Lat. 8ieeu8{=*8itqo8) has been deduced the law that 
Idg. tk became in Keltic sk (cf. Brugmann Grundriss 378). If that be so, then 
in aeei ad must haye been restored from other words where it remained, and then 
ode became ace in accordance with a later law. There is something strange in 
the sound change here postulated, and the same law has been called in question 
for Teutonic by Eluge (FauVs Grundriss I. 327), who points out that in the 
instances quoted sk may equally well go back to Idg. t-sk, sk could be explained 
in the same way in Keliac ; tisee ^*ut8-cidf *ud'S'kia (from stem *udes- Gr. 
98os, Skr. iUsa' 'spring* with which Stokes compares Ir. os * water,' (=s*utso-) 
in OS' hretha * water judgments'), mesc—^mets-coSy etc.; with sesc *dry,' W. 
hysp cf. Zend hiskuy Gr. itrxv^s (Zimmer, KZ. xxiv. 212, Bartholomae JTZ. 
xxix. 525). A good instance in which ee in inlaut may be explained from tk' 
is rueee * disgrace ' (Gael, ruicean * a red pimple') =*r«^-^i(f, rudh-kid '\l reudh 
* to be red,' cf. Ir. ruiduich * blush,' Gaul. Seno-ruccus (d'Arbois de Jubainville, 
noms. gauL 69) : so cuie * secret,' = *t?«^ci- : Gr. Kt{>Bw (Stokes) ; brocc W. hroch 
*ha.dtger^ =*broteO'y *bkrodh'ko- : Skr. bradhnd * lightred ' Ch. Slav, bronti 
'white' {*bhrotko- : *bhrodhno-=]j&t. caseus: canus), 

* Zimmer, £elt. Stud. II. 70. 

' Unless e for a is due to the lost slender vowel. 

* Cf. XJSB, viii. 428, B£, xi. 128 ; in sdl the loss of t might be explained 
from dissimilation. 

* Stokes, Bezz, Beitr, xvi. 50. 

Phil. Trans. 1891-2-3. 16 


muinil^ *neck* (g. muine6il)=.*tnuneelO'^ W. mynwglz cf. 
Lat. monile, Skr. manyd ^neck, muscle of the neck/ Eng. 

Stokes,^ after Rhys connects ceol *music* with W.pib ^fistula 
tibia,' O.W. piipaur (MS. pispaur) ^tibicen/ and derives 
it from a form *cvecvlO', But cvecvlo* would not explain 
the vocalism of pib, piipaur, which are rather loan-words 
from Lat. pipa. Apart from the Welsh words the hypothe- 
tical cvecvlo- haa little probability. It is very likely that 
some consonant has been lost between e and o, I had 
thought of deriving ceol from *Repolom, Skr. ^np * curse/ 
supposing that the meaning of ' curse' developed itself from^ 
metrical formulae of imprecation. But that is not very 
certain.. : 

6. egL > el. 

Ir. cSle 'comrade,' has been brought together with "W. 
eilt/d * comrade/ in the phrase y gilyd * the other ' (lit. * his 
comrade ')=Ir. ach^ile. cele and cilyd might come from 
*ceglid8. For i in cilyd cf. lliih from Lat. lectio, nith * niece/ 
from *neptz. 

rSil * clear * {rilaim * manifesto ') =i*regli', Lith. regiii ^ I 
see/ regimaa * visible.' For the vocalism of r^il see p. 36. 

sedl * sail/ W. hwyl is puzzling. The words are 
commonly derived from ^aeghlo- : Teut. *8eglo^ * sail.' We 
should expect, however, in Irish *sSl, in W. *haiL One 
might at a pinch explain seol as a new formation from the 
gen. siuil {*segli) after the analogy of ciiiil: cedl, and the 
like ; but, though such formations are found in the modem 
dialects, I know of none in Old Irish. W. hwyl is equally 
perplexing. Breton and Cornish have for 'sail' a word 
borrowed from Lat. velum, Bret, goel, * veil de f emme et de 
navire,' Com. guil (Yoc.). Did Welsh also once have a word 
*gwyl similarly borrowed from velum which affected the 
native word? Perhaps further investigation may bring some 

' On the long vowel is an unaccented syllable see Thnmeysen JBw. Celt, vii. 
325. Gaelic shows secondary shortening, muineal, cineal, gabhail. 
* KZ. xxviii. 67 n. 


light. Ir. aedly W. hucyly 'course/ seem but a particular 
application of the above words. 

7. etl > el. 

Ml * mouth *:=:*gvetlO': Goth, qithan *say, speak ' (Stokes). 

een^l ' race/ W. cenedl=^*cenetlon. 
. sc^l ' story/ W. chwedlz^^scvetlon : Qr. iweirm. 

Before slender vowels * beiiiil Wb. 12* 12, beoil 7* 9: 
9eiuU Wb. 17^ 6. From cenil the forms are numerous 
and varied— c«wi?/t7 Sg. 28* 5, 28^ 4, 32^ 3, 61* 24; 
cmiuil Sg. 31* 15, 62* 3, 75«^ 6, 152» 3, 203«^ 19, Ml. 83i» 
5; ceniiiil Wb, 5« 3; ceniiuil Sg. 30* 8, 3P 12, 61» 18; 
c^wwW/ Sg. 40% 4, 6, 18; c^n^we/ Sg. 32* 9, 40«^ 11, 61» 2; 
dochen^uil Sg. 64* 6 ; ccmm/ Sg. 41* 3 ; C6w^e7 33» 5, 75» 7, 
211» 16, Ml. 66* 1 ; docheneuil Ml. 103« 13 ; socheneuil 101* 
19 ; ceneM Wb. 1* 12, 6^ 6, 17^ 15. Thus Wb., as might be 
expected, comes nearest to the later language where edi gains 
the upper hand. Most of these variations must be regarded 
as purely orthographical ; the presence or absence of the long 
mark is more or less a matter of chance. But mt, eoi clearly 
represent two entirely distinct sets of sounds (the modem 
Gaelic pronunciation shows that u and o in these com- 
binations are long). Either the difference was dialectical 
or lilt, edi arose from the loss of different consonants and 
were afterwards used promiscuously, because in most cases 
the words would fall together ; why in this case eoi, which 
is rare in Old Irish, should have gained the upper hand, 
it is not easy to see. That the difference is not purely 
chronological is shown by the persistence of iui in later 


No clear instance of this, fedil * flesh ' is probably to be 

^ forminsceihi Wb. 23«i 2, hi nephceneil Wb. 5» 14, are accusatives after the 
fashion of i stems, and might be explained like similar cases on p. 36. docheneuil 
gl. degener, Sg. 64*^ 6, ii it stands for -*cenetli8y would be an exception to the 
rule md down there. But it might come from -*eenetlU (cf. Brugmann Grundr. 
ll. 1. 116). The ace. to -^cenetlU would be -^cenetUmj whence '-*cenetUm 
(Brugmann Grundr. II. 689), whence '*ceneil the influence of which may be 
seen in the forms quoted above. Socheneuil Ml. 101^ 19, docheneuil Ml. lOS^ 
13, are datives after the analogy of i stems and consequently regular. 


Connected with Skr. vapd ' fat/ but it may be referred to 
*repoli'. In favour of this iafeulae Ml. 97* 10, feuldae 70^ 8, 
87^ 7. 

8. ebl> il. 

aidhhheul {le sgread aidhbheui, Hyde, Leahhar ageulaigh' 
ertchta 66, sgeulta aidhbhmla ih, 75), aidhbMil * huge, vast;, 
en6rmou8,' O.R. may come from ^atebebhs, a reduplicated 
form cognate with adbul * great, vast,' which may itself be 
connected with ^bhel * swell,* (Persson, Wurzelerweiterung 

■ w<^/* cloud,* W. mwlz=:neblO'» 

Before slender vowel niuil Ml. 120* 11. The effect of the 
labial is seen in the ace. pi. niulu Wb. 25!* 23; contrast 
beolu 5^ 11, beulu Ml. 13P 6, Incant. Sang. 

9. ic/+ broad vowel > *ecl, el. 
cSla * will conceal '=^*oicldt. 

10. t^/+ slender vowel > iuiL 

. gi&il * adhaesit ' {rogiuil Ml. 98^ 8) :^*gigk, pres. glenim. 
.11. «6/+ broad vowel=gW, il. 
at'bSla * he will die' :=^*bibldt 

12. iml. 

There is no proof that m was lost before /, so it is safest 
to look upon m^la f ut. of melim ' I grind,' as an analogical 

13. ocl > ol, uaL 

■ dual 'lock of hair*=^oc^-: Goth, tagl *hair,* A.S. tmgl, 
which has been compared with Skr. da^a ' fringe.' 

tin-olaim *I collect,' doinola adplicat : dl^^^pocl-, Skr. 
pdga 'fetter,' paciscor, Germ, fugen. Ablaut paH-y poU-, 

14. ogl > 6l, ml. 

bical ' WBiter* =^bhoglO', cf. Germ, bach, Eng. beck. 

fiial ' urine '=*i'0^fo- : O.N. v(iikva * wet.'^ 

dmlUan, * curl ' : ko'xXo^' ' a shellfish with a spiral shell " 
(Stokes). With k6x><'0^» however, Franck Ndl. Wb. 262 
compares Dutch gagel, Ags. geagl * tandvleesch, gehemmelte ' 

1 Stokes, Metr, Ir. 01, 72. 


i=^^ghoghlO'. If that be so, Stokes' etymology would have 
to be given up. 

15. oil > dl. 

If (^/ ' drink/ is to be connected with ^po * drink/ it might 
borne from a stem *potlO'.^ From 61 ' drink 'can hardly be 
separated 61 'undare/ imr6l 'abundantia/ /or6il, id., der6il 
* inops,' etc.^ The root poi^ p6 shews similar meanings in 
other Idg. languages, Skr. jot, pat/ate, ' swell, be exuberant, 
be full,' Gr. wicov * fat.' 

16. odl> ol, <ial? 

iuilach ' burden ' =jM><f/i3co- ? Cf. O.H.G. fazza 'bundle, 
load,' also Ir. osaar 'burden,' 08<-=*pofe- *p6d&-. 

17. ttc/+ broad vowel > *ocly oly iiaL 

duila *I heard '=*cwc/om, cualae *he heaxd' =i*cuclove. 

18. u^/+ broad vowel=*orf/, ol, ml? 

buailim 'strike' jna,y=zbtidl' or boudl-, y/hhud: Ags. hedtan, 
!Eng. heat. If iial here=uc^/, it. must have arisen in the 
first place before a broad vowel. 

19. w6/+ broad vowel > obi, ol, ual? 

giuila * shoulder '=*^m6/- (or goubU?) Slav, gUb- *bend' in, 
g&nati * to bend,' G. /ci/^o?. Cf. O.N. bah, Ags. Ixbc ' back' = 
*bhogom^ ' supple, flexible,' Germ, buckel * back, belly,' y/bhug 

V. Sound Groups ending in k. 

1. anc, enc, nc > eo.^ 

These groups have in Irish fallen indistinguishably 

br^c * ]ie* =^*bhrancd or *bhrencd: Skr. bhramga 'falling, 

^ IJiiless we assume a radical yariatioii poy pd{, pbu, like gh&y ffhdl, ff^'*, 
Persson, Wurzelerw, \\1, 138^ sta, stdi^, stdu^ ib. 141, ^. 

• Ascoli, Lexicon FaUto-Hibernieum civ, 
• • Persson, Wurzelerweiterung 190. 

« Cf. Brugmaim, Grundriss I. 180, 203 ; E. Scbmidt, Idg, F&rsch, I. 66 sq. 


gic^ ' branch *=*cflfnca, W. cang (f.), pi. cangau: Oh* 
Slav. sqM ' surculus/ Skr. ganku- * stake, trunk.* 

^cath * hook' =^*ancatO': Skr. ahkd * hook/ Gr. aryKtop, &y/co^» 

Seen 'nece8Sity'=*awc^wa, W. an gen : Gr. avdy/crj. 

Sc * death '=*«A:w-, W. aw^«*, Bret, ancou : Skr. wa^r ' perish/ 
Gr. veKv<;. 

trSicim * forsake/ W. tranc^ trang 'finis, obitus/ trengi 

* obire, mori.' 

2. owe > d(J. 

coec 'five'=*cowce, ^k^enk^e, Idg. ^penqe, W. pump. The 
for e must be ascribed to the preceding ti sound, as 
in cuit, *part,' W. peth * thing, part *=*AJ^e2e/t-, * coir^ 

* kettle '=*A'"mo-, W. joaw*: Skr. cdrUy O.N. hverr? On 
the other hand ^ is unaffected in dall * understanding/ 
W. picyllz^^k^eisldy^ cia, * who/ W. pf€g:=*k^ei, dan 
' long ' ^=z*kJfnno8, cf. Skr. cirda *long,' Goth, hveila^ 
'while,' cend 'head,' W. pen:=.*k^endO''\ cech 'everyone' 
zrz^ki^ek^O'y cethir * four,' O.W. petgicar=:*k1ietuere8 : Gr. 
Te(Taep€<;. In these cases (except in cethir) e appears as 
o when the vowel in the following syllable is clear, as e 
when the following vowel is dark. Is this mere chance, or 
did the n sound disappear in Irish before a dark vowel in 
the following syllable without affecting the e P cetheora fem. 
of cethir =i*k^ete8ore8 might be explained as due to the analogy 
of the masculine. In ceihir the loss of u may be explained 
by dissimilation due to the following u : in that case *k^enk^e 
for ^penk^e must be supposed to have arisen within Keltic 
itself^ after this dissimilation had taken place. If this 
dissimilation is to be placed in proto-Keltic times one 
would have expected in W. *cetguar ; petguar may be 
ascribed to the influence of the feminine. 

^ For a suggestion as to the explanation of initial g for e see Bezz, Beitr. xir^ 
'-* Thurneysen, Kelto-Bomanischea 71. 
3 Windisch, £SB, viii. 44. 

* Brugmann, Grundrias II. 1. 194. 

* Cf. Osthotf, Morph. Untersuch. iv. 162. 
« R. Schmidt, Idff, Forseh. I. 73. 

"^ Brugmann Grundrias I. 170 has suggested an historical connection between 
;^eltic *kyienfe^e an(i Lat. quinquey Goth.^wi/". 


3. inc} unc. Of compensatory lengthening of i or u 
with loss of n I have no instance. In the case of u there 
is an example of apparently different treatment in aluccim 
*I swallow/ Mod. Ir. sluigim^ O.Bret, roluncas^ W. lltoncy 
where nc seems to be assimilated to cc. Cf. also derucc 
* acorn* =*d€run-cO' (?), derun- weak form of stem derven-, 
cf. W. derwen * oak,' Lith. deridnts * made of pine wood/ 
dertdngaa ^resinous.' Stokes derives ticcim *come' from 
to-enk. If ice here comes from enk (or nk), did it come 
through ine? Whether this lack of examples of length- 
ening of t and u is due to chance, or to something in 
the nature of the sounds themselves I am not in a position 
to say; at all events a prolonged search has brought to 
light no instances. There is the same absence of examples 
of lengthening of i, u in int (before slender vowel), unt. 

VI. Sound Groups ending in t. 

1. ant, ent, nt > et? 

bet * hurt ' =^*-^henti' or *'^^ntt- y/jjien. 

c^t ' hundred/ W. cant=.*kmt6m : Lith. szimtas. 

' o 

c^t' 'first,' cetne 'first,' W. cyntaf^ Gaul. Cintus, Cintugnatus, 
*Ginto-: Ch. Slav. cl«fl^ 'begin.' 

* Bm^mann once Morphol. Untenueh. III. 154, deriTed leicim *I leave' 
from *liHcim with a tranjsition to the Srd conj. That is highly improbable. 
Supposing the verb to hare belonged to the 1st conj. e for i could hare ari:»ea 
only where a broad Towel follow^, and if the inflexion according to the 3rd 
conjugation is older than the umlaut, it could never have arisen at all. He now 
(Grundriss I. 327) suggests Ujjcykio, but there is no evidence that ieik^io could 
give Uicim. It seems to me that Old Ir. leicim, Mod. leig can be explained ouly 
from *le}nk!iid, a mixture of leiq- and linq-. How e could have made its way 
into leinq' is easily intelligible if, as may be easily supposed, there was by the 
present *linqd (or ^linqio) a fut. *leiq»d, Aor. *{e,leiqMni, etc. 

» Cf. Brugmann, Grundriss 1. 203 ; K. Schmidt, Idg. Forsch. I. 64 sqq. 

' Schrader, Sprachcergleichung und Urgeschiehte^ 537. With Cintus compare 
the Ir. proper name Cet, nparros. 


c^ial 'Bong* r=*cantlon, canim *I sing^ : Lat. cano^ 

dH * tooth/ W. dant^*dnt' : Goth, tunfiua. 

H * jealousy '^anto-, W. add-iant ' longing/ Gaul. Adian* 
tunneni, Jantumarus, Skr. yatna- * effort.' ^ 

itim 'I clothe/ itach 'dress' may be compared with Alb. 
ent, int 'weave/ Gr. aTTOfiat, Skr. dtka- 'cloak.'* 

Staim ' find * : Goth. finpaUy Eng. find,^ 

mSit size, W, maint=z*mm%: 

' o 

sSt ' way,' W. hi/nt:=*8ento- : Goth, sinfis^ 

ait^ ' likeness '=*«^^^- or *m^-, cf. amal 'as': Lat. simul, 
Gr. afia, ^ 

set ' treasure *z=:sent- (stem uncertain cf. BB. xi. 99) : Skr. 
8dni' 'being/ Gr. eU (Stokes).* 

m ' fides,' W. tant=*tntU'. 


tef * way* =^*temt- or *imt-: rifivw. > 

Mt 'flock, herd,' (g. tredit) = *trento-: Lat. turma, 
with which Bugge (KZ. xxxii. 67), has compared 
Arm. tarm ' flock of birds.' 

R. Schmidt has acutely perceived that €t=nt is clearly 
distinguished from et=ant, ent in the i infection; here ef=i 
nt gives ^t, €t=:ant, ent gives euit, edit, e.g. c^t 'hundred,' 
g. c^it {=i*centz) but, ^t 'jealousy,' g. euit (=i*panti) (Ml. 
32^ 10), eoit (Ml. 32^ 9) s^ ' treasure,' sduit, sSoit. 

2. out > ot, 

airchot ^myivj*^=i*{p)ari-konti'? 

moit * oath '^*monti'.^ 

The etymology oi fot 'sod,' is obscure; doit 'hand, wrist,' 
gen. pi. inna n-doat 'lacertorum' (Aug. Or. 92),- may be 

» Stokes, Goideliea* 85. 

* Cf . G. Meyer, -4/i. Stt*d. III. 24. It is equally possible (Stokes, Spraehaeh, 
82) to compare etim with Lat. pannus, etc. 

3 Stokes, 5J9. xi, 140 ; R. Schmidt, IF, I. 64. 

* Can the gen. s^ta etc. be due to association with imiheehta with which 
it is often found joined, as in the phrase i eend sdta oeua imthechia, e.g. LL. 
263b 13? 

« Stokes, X8B. viii. 328. 

* If this comparison is right, it furnishes an additional proof that the I^. 
form of this part, was *8ent8 (cf. Idg, Forseh. I. 23) for>8^Mi^ comes fxom*senti 
not from *8^tu 

' Stokes, Bezz. Beitr. xvii. 137. 
^ Stokes, Breton Gloaaea 17. 


derived from ^doventi-, y/dhevch, 'move violently/^ cf. 
Kapiro^ ' wrist ' to KapiroKifio^if O.H.G. hwerban, ' turn ' : * 
dovent' to ddaf, d6i, as *ipvenko8, young man, to ode, 6c. 

3. int+hroai vowel > *eni > eL 

fitaimy sitaim 'I can '=*m«/ajd: Goth, svinps 'strong/ 
svinpjan * Kparelv* * sStaitn appears in setar LU. 68^ 2. 

4. and, end > ed, echt. 

tSchtaige (read Uchtaide) ' frozen * (Atkinson, Passions, etc. 
915), Gael, teuchd 'cod goal '=*/awc^- y/tank (or tenk?), ti. 
coiteidhea * concretionis,' Ml. 145* Z'=.*con-tancet(ms (or 
tenc' ?) (also Ml. 44» 10, 62« 4, 84^ 7) : Zd. tandsta ' very 
firm,' Lith. tanktis ' thick,* Arm. t'anjr ' thick.' * 

deacht is given by O'Clery with the meaning of 
' thunder.' There is also a word dinge with the same 
meaning. As it is difficult to separate these two words, 
it is very likely that deacht should be written diacht=> 
denct'i dinge =.*dingiO' or *dingid. The etymology is un- 
certain; one might perhaps compare dingim 'I thrust, 
urge/ Ch. Slav, dqgii ' strength ' in nedqgU ' sickness.' 

^cht ' murder *=zend- to ec 'death.' 

tSchte '&tting '=.*tendiO' to *tenqo Fick I*. 440. 

dr^cht * song/ cf. Zd. drehj ' repeat, utter.' 

cicht 'power,' has been compared by Stokes^ with Skr. 
^akti' * power/ y/Rak-. If Fick I.* 41 is right in referring 
to this root Lith. szvdnkus ' becoming,' we have a nasalised 
form also in Lith. 

5. amptj empt > and, enct > echt perhaps in^- 

cecht^ gl. buris Sg. 127^ 1 (1. cScht), Mod. Ir. eeucht, g. 
ceuchta, Manx keeaght ' plough '=*ca/w;^-, *kamptU': Gr. 


1 Fick, I*. 75, 465. 

* Curtius, Gr. Et.^ 525 ; Schrader, KZ, xxx. 473. If the connexion between 
Kapv6s and hwerban is to be maintained, KupirSs must stand to hwerban in the 
same relation as Kdwos to Goth, afhwapjan ' afitvvivai^* Lith. kvapaa * smoke/ 
cf. Bechtel, Hauptprobleme 355, Wiedemann IF. I. 256. 

3 Stokes, Bodleian Fragment of Corma&a Glossary 54. 

* Against this Bugge KZ. xxxii. 68 sq. 
6 KSJB. vii. 67. 

fi Stokes compares more probably Goth. hSha * plough ' ; *eanetu» : *eanca» 
* branch * = hoha : Lith. szakd- * branch.' 


dr^cht 'part^ =z*drempt' a nasalised form of ^drep m Gn 

cr^cht 'wound/ may perhaps be referred to *kremptd^ 
nasalised form of V kerp^ in Skr. krpdna * sword,' Lith. kerpu 
' cut/ 

6. Of onct I have no example ; the etymology of tocht. 
Apiece,' tdchtad 'hewing to pieces' (LL. 101^ 8) is not clear.^ 

6. ecBt 

appears in auslaut as e, dl^, fori, gi from ^dlecst, */oret8ff 
gesst,^ So ecs in 6^ *8ix'=*sw6'As. But the lengthening 
here is not compensatory: rather it seems to have been a 
law that accented monosyllables ending in a vowel were 

VTI. Sound Groups ending in a, 

1. ans > €8.^ 

isi * reins/ stem *an8i' : Lat. ansa, Lith. qsd ' handle^ 

fes, fesdg 'beard '=«?«»«-: O.Pruss. tcanao, Ch. Slav. vohH 
' beard.' ^ 

gets * swan '=*gansi' : Germ, gam, Lat^ hanser. 

2. em > 68. 

drhsacht 'a rattling or creaking sound '=Vren«-ac^M- : 
Skr. dhran {dhranati gabde), not found in literature, Goth. 
drungus (pdoyyof;, O.N. drt/nr ' roaring.' * 

1 Stokes, KSB. vii. 67. 

2 Stokes suggests *8tonk', *8tunk- cognate with N.H.G. atuckef stock, etc. 

' Bezz. Beitr. xiv. 313, n. . 

* Thumeysen, ^Z. xxxi. 91. Cf. also m^ *l, ine'=ldg. *m^, Brugmann, 
Grundriss II. 811. How is Gael, mi to be explained P Does it=ldg* me ? 

* If £8m, the name of a Gaulish deity, =Teut. *(mm- *god,* as is highly 
probable (Fick. III.^ 18), then ans became es in the Gaulish branch of Keltic too* 
The change ans > es may very well have taken place before the separation of the 

® Stokes, Linguistic value of Irish Annah 8. 
' Stokes, Bezz, Beitr. ix. 89. 

* Persson, JFurzelerweiterunff, 73; Fick, I*. 76. . » 


grSasacht ' inciting, urging on *=*^r^«- : gris 'fire/ grisaim 

* incite.' Ablaut grena-y Ir. gr^ssacht, Bret, groez 'heat of 
the sun,* Skr. ghrdma^ 'sun's heat': grm-^ Ir. griSy griaaim.^ 

b^im^iHensmen. See above. 
. It has been held that en8 in Irish became is, ^ hut the 
above instances, if rightly explained, prove the contrary. 
Zimmer lays stress on mi ' month,* which he seems to derive 
through *men8 from mens. But mi, g. mis, cannot be separated 
from Brythonic fm's, in W., Bret, and Corn., and in Bret, after 
the analogy of groez we must have had for *menS', *moeZy 
or ^rnoaz. These facts indicate that *menS' became in ur- 
Kelt. ^mins^ (perhaps mis-) ; if a long vowel + sonant + 
consonant was shortened in Keltic as in other European 
languages, this shortening must have come after the change 
of e to I. The borrowed words cis, pissire from census, pensum 
prove nothing ; i for e is found in other cases where there 
can be no question of n : sita ' silk,' Low Lat. seta, siric, Lat. 
serious, z for Lat. e appears also in Teutonic loan words, 
O.H.G. sida=-s€ta, O.H.G, chrida=.creta, O.H..Q, pina:=pena, 
Goth. akeit=ac€tum, Ags. pislic^=^penmm? These instances 
are probably to be explained from the closer sound of Lat; 
e, that it was something between Kelt, e and Keltic I and 
was expressed now by the one, now by the other, i also 
appears in Teut. as in Goth, misa- O.H.G. mias ; this e must 
have been a closer sound than e which becomes a.^ 

3. ent {ntt) > enss > ess, es, 
. b^ss * custom '=*6^n/^w-,^ Gaul, bissits,^ y/bhendh- ' hind' : 
Alb. bese * belief, agreement.' "^ 

* Bezz, Bextr. xiv. 314. 

' Zimmer, KZ. xxx. 210. 

' Cf. Kluffe, PauVa Grundriaa T. 

* In speaking of the change of Idg. e to West Germ. 4, Kloge {PauVa 
Orundriss I. 363), remarks: 'dabei ist zu beachten, das kein S eines Lat. 
lehnworts {acetum remua tnhna catena monSta u. s. w.), den wandel von S ia d 
durchmacht ; offenbar deckten sich lat S und idg. -germ, S nicht.' 

* Bezz. Beitr. xiv. 312 sqq. 

^ Bestia dicitur de bessu, hoc est more feritatis, Yirg. gramm. quoted 
by Holder, Alt. Kelt. Spr. 409. From this can hardly be separated 
Bret, boaz 'custom.* But W. woes is difficult. Confusion of b and m is found 
elsewhere, because h and m fell together in certain positions, e.g. ben, men 

* wagon ' ; but e should in W. have given %cy. 

' Meyer, Alban. JFb. 33. 


c^ssaim * suffer '=cen^/- or cents-; Litli. Jcenciiii, kqsti 

* suffer.' 

gl^se ' brightness '=*^/(9n^-^-, cf. Germ, glanz and other 
words referred to by Kluge, s.v. 

gr^ia 'a,ttajck' = grentti-, grend-ti-, ingrennim ^-pGraeqnor:^ 
Oh. Slav, greda 'come/ 

Uss * light/ lisshoire *\\^t^ ^^plentto^ : Lat. spkndeo^ 

«^w * music/ =*«c«^^/-, s^wwtw * I play.' 

In such instances Gaelic has also by infection ediy e.g. ceu9 
g. cedisy lem 4ight/ g. Iedi8=z*plen8z, gUuB * order, condition * 
g. gledis. I have no similar examples from the older Irish 
unless in Cormac's Glossary s;v. grinniud leos i. dihad soilhi 

* extinction of light/ we should read ledisy as the gen. is 
required; from ledia would come nom. kda. On the other 
hand I have no evidence that e in a similar position 
was not treated in the same way in Irish. The instances 
giia, gr^is^ s^is, are not conclusive, since it is by no 
means certain that a short i could effect a preceding ^ 
in this way. In alP the cases collected in this paper the t is 
long. On the other hand i remains in c^ir ^ gum/ r^l 
' clear/ where the following syllable once contained L 
Whether the etymology proposed for rSil is right or wrong 
fortunately does not matter; the verb rSlaim points clearly 
to compensatory lengthening; if i in rM had come from 
ei we should have expected *rialaim. 

4. anc8, encs > ess, is. 

g^sca * branch ' = *cancsoaiO' to g^c * branch '=*canm, W. 
cang (see above). 

eaca * moon' =enc8caio'f cf. Sig *moon, ' 0'Clery=*^m?e-. 
The words are probably to be connected with Skr. pdjaa 

* light' Gr. <^€7709. As to enci- the c may be explained 
in one of two ways ; either ^Jpeng had a by-form penh^ 
or ^enci" stands by Stokes' law for '^engni- ; the latter 
explanation is the more probable. encB- in i%ca would come 
from a stem *penge8» with the weak form of the suffix. 

» BB. xiY. 313. 

' For the doubtful docheneuil see p. 27* 


^ QbA. ceu8 * ham * g. cedia (also nom. cede after the gen.) = 
*cenc80' : Lith. kenkld * hQugh.' 

^ 'footstep* = •ewc««-, e£ eng 'footstep/ *encBi- is 
probably developed from a neut. stem *enge$^, 
. giasim ' I cry ' ::z*genc8id, of. g^m. 

do gria ' continuo/ griasach ' continuus'=*(7rcw(?«-, ^grenga- : 
Lith. grikti, 'come back,' atgrqkaa, 'repetition, strophe/ 
O.N. kringr ' round/ N.H.G. kring.^ 

Ua * bladder ' perhaps= *knca<h : Lith. lengviia 'light.' For 
the meaning. cf. etromain. 

5. enta > ea. 

aSa-, fut. stem of aennim {=.*avendd) * drive '=*swm^s-.* 
inglUa^ gl. rimare ML 140® 7, fut. to inglennim^ 3 pi. 
inglennat, gl. vestigant. 

6. tns > ia, 

gria 'fire'=*^nw«o-, gpiao- (see above). From this it 
appears that i before na is not subject to umlaut. 
ia ' below ' W. f«=e««- : Lat. infra for *««srd.* 

7. o«« > o«. 

fo-lda- {^=.'lonca-)y fut. stem to folangim 'I endure.' 
friataaaam 1 pi. fut. to friatoing, Z. E. 1005. 

8. ww« < tis ? 

I have no certain instance of this in Irish. W. cua ' kiss/ 
may be explained as=*cz<w«-, cf. tcvpe(o=:/cv-ve-a'(o^ to 
S'/cva-aa, It would be possible to explain in this way 
adgmim *I choose*; gua-^guna- a present stem with nasal 
infix from y/geua^ Gr. ^evto^ Eng. chooae. The w, however, 
might be explained otherwise. 

9. ra 

Zimmer^ has asserted that in Irish ara became er, era, Ir ; of 
the former change he produces no instances except futures 
like adger which may be better explained otherwise (see 
above, p. 4). For er« > Ir he cites tir 'land' Vtera: Lat. 

* Leskien, Ablaut im Litauischm 66 (328); Fick, II'*. 362. 

* Bnigmann, Grundriss II. 180. 
' Thurneysen KZ. xxx. 491. 

* Johansson, De derivativis verbis contractis lingtMe graecae 109. 
« KZ. xxx. 211. 



terra^ eir * comb ' Vkers^ : Skr. karsh ' p\(mg\i.* But there Is no 
proof that f of tir came from ira ; e is also found in Osc. 
teerum * land/ In iir±^*iero8, Lat. terra^^*Ur%a we may 
have an ablaut e^. cir may be better derived from *cest% 
Ch. Slav, cesati * to comb/ cealU * comb.* In Bezz. Beitr. xiv. 
315 I have collected a number of cases (which might 
be e^ily increased) in which rs becomes rr without affecting 
a preceding vowel. Until Zimmer has brought forward more 
Certain- instances, and has shown reason for the double 
treatment of rs, it is impossible to accept his law. 



Old Keltic. 

Adiantnnneni, 32. 
anax, 7. 
ArebrignoB, 14. 
bessus, 35. 
Broccagnos, 6. 
Catasualis, 24. 
CintugnatuSy 31. 
Cintus, 31. 
£sus, 34. 
Exobnus, 8. 
GabromaguSy 22. 
Gabrosentum, 22. 
Jantumarus, 32. 
Kovpfiiy 19. 
Licnos, 13. 
Magliis, 24. 
Senoraccus, 25. 
Suagros, 21. 
Te-StJignios, 13. 
Veragri, 21. 
Veraodubnim, 22. 
vertragufl, 8. 

abra, 22. 
adbul, 28. 
aderad, 22. 
adgdsim, 37. 
aicc, 2. 

aidhbheul, 28. 
&il disgrace J 24. 
hUpleasantf 24. 
§LiD, 6. 

ainm, 18. 
airch6t, 32. 
&1, 24. 
klaind, 25. 
amm, 7, 17. 
fi-n, 7. 
&na, 7. 
an^, 25. 
Ilt, 21. 
argerat, 21. 
^m, 21. 
arrocher, 22. 
atbela, 28. 
becc. 2. 

beimra bloWy 18. 
heimm jouniei/f 18. 

b6l 27. 
bera, 22. 
bess, 35. 
bet, 31. 
blen, 5. 
boc, 2. 
bocc, 2. 
bocht, 12. 
bomm, 16. 
brec, 29. 
brecc, 2. 
br§n, 5. 
Bren, 14. 
briathar, 21« 
brocc, 25. 
Broccin, 6. 
br6im, 16. 
br6n, 11. 
br(iaii, 14. 
bfiaiUm, 29. 
b(iain, 12. 
baal, 28. 
b(ian, 15. 
bfirach, 23. 
barethar, 23. 
cacc, 2. 
c^inim, 5. 
cech, 30. 
cechna, 14. 
cecht plough, 33. 
cecht power, 33. 
ceimin, 17. 
ceir, 20. 
eel, 24. 
cela, 28. 
cele servus, 23. 
cele comrade, 26. 
cend, 30. 
cenel, 27. 
ce6l, 26. 
cessaim, 26. 
Get, 31. 
cet, 31. 
c6t, 31. 
cetal, 32. 
cethir, 30. 
cetne, 31. 
cia, 30. 
ciall, 30. 
cian, 30. 
cich, 20. 
cir, 38. 



els, 35. 
cloch, 2. 

cldain mectdoto, 13. 
cliiain deceit^ 13. 
cnocc, 2. 
c6ic, 30. 
coire, 30. 
cr&in, 6. 
crecht, 34. 
criathar, 21. 
croccenn, 4. 
cr6n, 11. 
cr6an, 11. 
ctiailean, 28. 
c6ala, 29. 
c6an harbour, 13. 
c6an hoity 15. 
ctianene, 15. 
c(iar, 23. 
cuic, 25. 
cuit, 30. 
d&l, 25. 
deacht, 33. 
de6ry 5. 
der, 20. 
der6il, 29 
derucc, 31. 
det, 32. 
dinge, 33. 
dir, 22. 
die, 34. 
dobur, 22. 
dog^na, 14. 
d6it, 32. 
domme. 7. 
dorachitiir, 22. 
drecht song^ 33. 
drechtj»«r^, 34. 
dremire, 17. 
dressacht, 34. 
ddal, 28. 
dUan, 15. 
duin^D, 14. 
ec, 30. 
6cath, 30. 
6cen, 30. 
6cht, 33. 
6ig, 36. 
eis, 37. 
^laim, 8. 
emdim, 8. 
en, 10. 
6iiirt, 8. 
er, 20. 
68ca, 36. 
esi, 34. 
6t, 32. 
etaim, 32. 
etim, 32. 
f&n, 6. 

f6n, 9. 
fe6il, 27. 
fer, 21. 
fes, 34. 
f^taim, 33. 
fodema, 19. 
fodidmat, 19. 
for6, 34. 
for6il, 29 
fr6m, 20. 
fris-g6ra, 22. 
f(iaimm, 19. 
faal, 28. 
faan, 16. 
f6ar, 23. 
gab&l, 24. 
gabor, 22. 
gairm, 19. 
gee, 30. 
geim, 17. 
geis, 34. 
-gen, 9. 
genar, 9. 
g6sca, 36. 
g^rait, 21 
gessachtach, 19. 
g^ssim, 37. 
g6t, 22. 
-g^uin, 10. 
giuil. 28. 
gl&m, 16. 
glese, 36. 
gr^, 6. 
greimm, 18. 
greis, 36. 
greit, 21 
gr^s, 37. 
gressacht, 35. 
gris, 35, 37. 
gilsaim, 35. 
^aala, 29. 
imthanu, 7. 
inde6in, 10. 
ingleis, 37. 
is, 37. 
lar^ne, 13. 
leana, 8. 
lecc, 2. 
leco, 2. 
leicim, 31. 
leimm, 17. 
lemaither, 22. 
Len, 13. 
len, 2 
16naim, 2. 
16ne, 3. 
Ie6s, 36. 
les, 37. 
less, 36. 
lian, 9. 



lODf 8. 
16b, Id. 
Ifiuu L5. 

Bftm. 16. 
»'*«'"^«, 19. 


nelacht, 23. 
men, 8. 
men, 3. 
"«^*'f^Tn. 3. 
mennr, 11. 
menicc, 2. 
menme, 19. 
mer, 20. 
meraid, 22. 
mesc, 25. 
mi, 3o. 
mok, II. 
m6in, 17. 
m6it, 32. 
mothar, 21. 
mucc. 2. 
muinel. 26. 
n&r, 21. 
nel, 28. 
nitgensa, 14. 
6m, 11. 
61, 29. 
06, 25. 
pissire, 35. 
r6U, 26. 
r6im, 18. 
reimm, 17. 
reise, 9. 
relaim, 26. 
r6n, 9. 
riathor, 21. 
rlgdomna, 11. 
rogiuil, 28. 
rucce, 25. 
s&l, 25. 
8&r, 21. 
skr-, 21. 
8cel, 27. 
8c6ii, 4. 
scera, 22. 
scuehim, 4. 
86, 34. 
B^imeth, 17. 
seis, 36. 
semmand, 16. 
sen net, 2. 
sen blessing y 14. 
se61, 26. 
sesc, 25. 
s^t tvai/y 32. 
set likeness, 32. 
set treasure^ 32. 

Phil. Trani. 1891-8-S. 


»Lru.\ 3o. 
ttfia. 3o. 
dltfmoo. II. 
sluccim. 31. 
smieroiv 22. 
9iituauum. 13. 

;H>OUIW. 7. 
sron. 12. 
stSm. 6. 
siian. 15. 
tal. 24. 
t4naue, 7. 
tarathar, 21. 
techtaide, 33. 
teehte, 33. 
ten. 10. 
te», 10. 
tet jiiUs, 32. 
tet tc«^^ 32. 
ticoim. 31. 
tiod&l. 24. 
timme, 10. 
tindlaim, 28. 
tJr. 37. 
tl&m. 16. 
tooht, 34. 
taU, 24. 
t6n, 14. 
tr^ioim, 30. 
tren, 7. 
tress, 8. 
tr^t, 32. 
trice, 8, 
trom, 17. 
tiaimm, 19. 
(iain loan, 11. 
(iain leisutr, 15. 
(ialach, 29. 
(iall, 24. 
(iamon, 20. 
(ian, 12. 
tiano, 12. 
tiar, 23. 
<ir bad, 23. 
tLT, fresh, 23. 
usee, 25. 

abhra, 22. 
braim, 16. 
ciUr, 20. 
ceufl, 37. 
cineal, 26. 
dream, 17. 
dreamag, 17. 
gabbaii, 26. 

{^leuH, 36. 
o6n, 2. 
Ieu0, 36. 





meamna, 19. 
meunan, 3. 
mi, 34. 
muineal, 26. 
niicean, 25. 
teuchd, 33. 
teum, 18. 

keeagbt, 33 
keeyr, 20. 
Iheanee, S. 

addiant, 32 
ael, 24. 
aele, 24. 
aer, 21. 
anadl, 25. 
angen, 30. 
angeu, 30. 
blaen, 5. 
braen, 5. 
broch, 25. 
brwyu, II. 
brych, 2. 
bwch, 2. 
bychan, 2. 
caifael, 24. 
cam, 17. 
cang, 30. 
cant, 31. 
cenedl, 27. 
chwedl, 27. 
cig, 20. 
cUyd, 26. 
clwch, 2. 
clwg, 2. 
croen, 4. 
cus, 37. 
cwrw, 19. 
cyntaf, 31. 
cywain, 9. 
dacr, 19. 
dadl, 26. 
dant, 32. 
defnyd, 11. 
derwen, 31. 
dir, 22. 
drem, 16. 
dwfr, 22. 
dwyn, 4. 
dynyn, 14, 
etn, 10. 
ffroen, 12. 
gafr, 22. 
garm, 19. 



goer, 23. 
graen, 6. 
gwaen, 7. 
gwair, 21. 
gwell, 6. 
gwn, 16. 
ewreidd, 20. 
naeru, 21. 
hoenyn, 9. 
bmi, 15. 
hwyl, 26. 
hynt, 32. 
hyap, 25. 
ir, 23. 
is, 37. 
11am, 17. 
Uech, 2. 
llwnc, 31. 
llwyn, 9. 
llych, 2. 
Uyfn, 11. 
Mael, 24. 
maint, 32. 
mawn, 11. 
min, 3. 
mis, 35. 
moch, 2. 
moes, 35. 
myhwri, 26. 
mynycb, 2. 
nith, 3. 
niwl, 28. 
oen, 12. 
oer, 23. 
pair, 30. 
pen, 30. 
petenar, 30. 
peth, 30. 
pib, 26.' 
piipaur, 26. 
pmnp, 30. 
pwy, 30. 
pwyll, 30. 
rbamu, 18. 
rhegen, 17. 
sawdl, 25. 
sarhan, 21. 
taeru, 21. 
tarn, 18. 
tant, 32. 
tin, 14. 
tranc, 30. 
trech, 7. 
tren, 7. 
trengi, 30. 
trwm, 17. 
twll, 24. 
twym, 19. 
ygilyd, 26. 
ystaen, 6. 



bomm, 19. 
bram, 16. 
Goruf, 19. 
engurbor, 7. 
ennian, 10. 
gail, 26. 
gwyr, 21. 
mis, 35. 
oir, 23. 
tarn, 18. 
toim, 19. 
tommys, 19. 

air, 21. 
ancou, 30. 



anneffn, 10. 
boaz, 35. 
boem, 19. 
bramm, 16. 
cro'chenn, 4. 
doen, 4. 
eal, 24. 
goel, 26. 
groez, 35. 
gueiiii, 7. 
mis, 35. 
Tolimcas, 31. 
seuly 25. 
tamm, 18. 
toem, 19. 
tomm, 19. 

[The reason for the past discontinuance of our yearly Dic- 
tionary Eeports was merely want of funds. As the Dictionary 
work suffered in some degree from this stopping of news, and 
of recognition of the labours of our helpers — whose collection of 
the uses of words constitutes the chief value of the Dictionary — 
the Council have resumed the publication of the Eeports at the 
earliest possible time, almost before the Society's funds justify 
the step. 

The issue of the present Part of Transactions with the Dic- 
tionary Eeports has been delayed, first by Mr. Bradley's regrettable 
illness, and then by the pressure of Dr. Murray's other work. 

My daily help to the Dictionary is (as it has been for many 
years) cutting out slips from the newspapers, periodicals, and 
proofs or revises of Early English Texts as they pass through 
the press, with an occasional hunt for an early instance for Mr. 
Bradley. Looking back to 1858, when Herbert Coleridge and I 
started the Dictionary work, I feel satisfied that, however faultful 
the result may be, the Society's New JSnglish Dictionary is the 
best existing Dictionary of any modem language, and is a 
credit to our Yictorian time. — F. J". Fuenivall, 18th Jan. 1-893.] 



I. Bepoet on the Pkogeess of Vol. III. of the Society's 
Dictionary. By Heney Bkadley, M.A., President (Editor 
of Vol. III). 

{Bead at the Meeting of the Society y Febntary l^thy 1892). 

"The Society is already aware that in August, 1891, the 
Clarendon Press issued the First Part {U — Every, 344 pages) 
of the portion of the Dictionary entrusted to ray editorship. 
Of the Second Part there are now in type 115 pages, extending 
from Everybody to Extemporize ; 64 pages, ending with the word 
Exhibition, having been finally passed for press. 

" The reviews that have hitherto appeared of Part I. have 
been, so far as I know, without exception, highly favourable in 
general tone. I have to thank my reviewers for many criticisms 
on points of detail that will be useful for the improvement of 
the forthcoming portions of the work. Even when I am unable 
to agree with my critics, their remarks have not unfrequently 
been of service in emphasizing the necessity for exhibiting, as 
fully as the limits of space permit, the evidence on which the 
conclusions adopted are based. In one or two instances, in which* 
pertinent criticism was afforded by competent specialists, I am 
happy to say that I have been able to obtain from my reviewer 
a promise of his assistance in dealing with matters belonging 
to his particular branch of knowledge. 

"The words beginning with E, which occupy the whole of 
the portion of the third volume now in type, and will for some 
time longer continue to engage the attention of my assistants and 
myself, are remarkable for the large preponderance of foreign 
derivatives, the native element being very scantily represented. 
Technical words belonging to science and philosophy are ex- 
ceptionally abundant, and their treatment has often required 
a good deal of research, and recourse to the advice of specialists. 
Although the E words, as a rule, do not form a very interesting 
portion of the English vocabulary, either with regard to etymology 
or to sense-history, there are still many instances in which our 
material has disclosed facts not generally known. The articles 
in Part I. which contain matter specially worthy of attention 
are enumerated in the prefatory note. Of the points of interest 


occurring in the subsequent portion already in type, a few may 
be here mentioned. Under the word Excise^ I have adduced 
evidence to show that the word (which came into English from 
Dutch) is ultimately connected etymologically with the Latin 
census, not, as hitherto supposed, with Assize. The word Evil, 
in modern use expressing only positive badness, retained until 
the 16th century its original wider sense, and could still be 
used as expressive of mere depreciation, as in the invitation, 
'come and take an evil dinner with me.' The etymological 
equivalents JSvict and Evince were formerly used indiscriminately. 
Their primary meaning is *to gain by a victory,' or *to expel 
by a victory.' In early use it was possible to speak of * evicting ' 
or * evincing ' a country by force of arms ; but the prevailing use 
referred to a victory in argument or in a legal contest, and 
eventually the two words became differentiated, evince meaning to 
establish a conclusion by argument, and evict to gain possession of 
a holding or to turn out its possessor as a result of a legal contest. 
The now familiar word exist, it is curious to find, cannot be 
traced earlier than the age of Shakspere, though existence 
meaning * reality,' goes back to Chaucer. The words containing 
the Latin prefixes e or ex and extra afford many illustrations of 
the tendency of words that originally expressed mere facts, to 
acquire an emotional sense ; thus enormous, exorbitant, extraordinary , 
extravagant, all originally meant simply * out of the common rule 
or course ' ; but in modern use they express the speaker's feeling 
of astonishment, admiration, or disgust. ' Another instance of 
this emotional connotation of words is exquisite, which originally 
meant only * carefully sought out,' * well-chosen,' or in an un- 
favourable sense * abstruse, out of the way.' One application 
of this word has often been misunderstood. The old medical 
term 'exquisite fever,' * exquisite erysipelas,' did not mean an 
acute or specially severe form of the disease. The Latin exquisitus 
was a translation of the Greek dxpifi^^, accurately determined, 
80 that an exquisite erysipelas meant an erysipelas accurately 
so-called, the typical form of the disease, or the genuine disease, 
as opposed to a spurious one. 

" The treatment of pronunciation in this portion of the Dic- 
tionary has presented some special difficulties. This is due chiefly 
to the large number of classical derivatives which, although they 
may be more or less frequent in literature, are so seldom pro- 
nounced that there exists no orthoepical usage with regard to 


them. In some cases it has been necessary to choose between four 
or five difPerent pronunciations, each of which is supported by the 
authority of some dictionary of repute, and by an analogy which 
would be sufficient to decide the question if it stood alone. In 
dealing with such words I have been guided by the consideration 
that with reference to them the normal relation of written to spoken 
language is reversed : the combination of written letters being the 
real word, and the corresponding combination of sounds merely its 
symbol. In words of this class, therefore, the best pronunciation 
is that which most effectually and promptly suggests to the mind 
the written form of the word. 

** The constant recurrence of difficulties of the kind just referred 
to has strongly impressed me with the conviction that the objec- 
tions to the adoption of phonetic spelling are far more serious than 
the advocates of reform are accustomed to admit. I will even 
venture to say that the opponents of reform have seldom, if ever, 
done full justice to the strength of their own case. I quite admit 
that the want of correspondence between our spelling and our pro- 
nunciation is a great evil. Whether it can be remedied I am not 
sure; but it is quite certain that no reform can be satisfactory which 
is based upon an imperfect recognition of the force of the arguments 
on the conservative side. I therefore think it is worth while to 
attempt to call the. attention of the Society to certain considerations 
which, as it seems to me, are of essential importance and have been 
veiy generally overlooked. 

"In the first place, the objection felt to all orthographical 
change as such is very far from being a mere matter of sentiment. 
It might be so described if the function of writing were merely 
to represent speech; or, in other words, if whenever we looked 
at a printed page we were obliged to think of the sound of the 
words before we could apprehend the author's meaning. This, 
however, is very far from being the case. By long habit certain 
groups of printed letters have acquired for us an ideographic value, 
so that to every educated adult the act of reading is partially, 
what to a deaf mute it is altogether, a direct translation of 
printed symbols into thoughts without any intermediate transla- 
tion into sound. This is, to some extent, the case with regard 
even to common colloquial words. If I receive a letter beginning 
*My deer Friend,' my mental eye sees a picture of a homed 
animal quite as soon as my mental ear hears the ambiguous suc- 
cession of sounds which the spelling represents. With regard 


to purely literary words the case is, of course, much stronger; 
their written form often conveys to our minds their meaning 
without calling up any * sound-picture ' at all, even as an ac- 
companiment. In consequence of this ideographic function of 
written words, most practised readers are able to take in at a glance 
the drift of a whole octavo page. The practical value of this 
accomplishment is obviously enormous. Introduce a new system 
of spelling, and you render it necessary for us at first to translate 
every word into sound before we can understand it ; and the 
amount of time that must be spent on reading, when mere 
information is the object, will be multiplied tenfold. Of course 
habit would gradually give to the new spelling the quality of 
ideographical expressiveness; but I do not think that we who 
have reached middle age could hope ever to acquire that familiarity 
with it that would enable us to read as rapidly as we now read 
books in the traditional orthography. Supposing, therefore, that 
a really practicable scheme of phonetic spelling-reform were before 
us for adoption, the question to be answered would not be merely 
whether we were prepared to sacrifice for the good of posterity 
certain SBsthetic prejudices and likings, but whether we were 
prepared to undergo a considerable loss of working power for the 
rest of our natural lives. 

** In the second place, it seems to me that one of the current 
specific arguments against spelling reform has been treated with 
undue scorn by some of our most eminent philologists, i refer 
to the plea that * phonetic spelling would obscure the etymology 
of words.* The common reply has been that, our traditional 
spelling is often positively misleading as a guide to etymology; 
and that etymology is of no practical importance to the ordinary 
reader, while for those whom it does concern such evidence as 
the old spelling supplies would still be available, so long as the 
books written in it remained in existence. This answer would 
be quite conclusive if the language consisted only of colloquial 
words, and of words compounded of or derived from these. So 
far as colloquial words are concerned, the correct meaning is 
that which is prescribed by usage; there is no appeal to any 
higher court. If the customary meaning differs from the etymo- 
logical meaning, it is bad English to follow the etymology. 
In this class of words, therefore, etymology is never a help to 
correctness of speech, and is sometimes an actual hindrance ; so 
that even if phonetic spelling did conceal the derivation of the 


words no one would be the worse for it. The words peculiar 
to literary use, however, are on a very different footing. The 
majority of our most famous English writers, from More and 
Spenser to the present day, have been * classically ' educated, 
and have been accustomed to presume on classical education in 
their hearers. Most of them have now and then invented words 
of Greek or Latin derivation — often without knowing that the 
words were not already English ; and nearly all have habitually 
used words in senses or shades of meaning which are not based 
on any existing English usage, but which are understood as a 
matter of course by readers who know Latin and Greek. A large 
proportion of our classically derived words can be understood 
with precision and used with unfailing correctness only by those 
who are acquainted with their etymology. This curious dependence 
of English literature on a foreign culture is perhaps a lamentable 
weakness ; but that it exists as a fact cannot reasonably be denied. 
As a consequence, the English vocabulary includes an enormous 
number of words of which the written form has an ideographic 
value, due not to its being familiar to the eye as occurring in 
English books, but to the fact that it reminds us of the spelling of 
certain words in a foreign language. These words were originally 
formed as sequences of alphabetic letters, not as sequences of 
sounds. The rarely heard and often uncertain pronunciation 
of a word of this kind is merely symbolical of its written form, 
and intelligible only as it suggests this to our recollection. If, 
as sometimes happens, we mentally give a wrong graphical 
interpretation to the sounds we hear, we are for a moment 
puzzled to think what the word can mean. If phonetic spelling 
were adopted, we should in reading often find it necessary first 
to render the written word into sound, and then to render the 
sound into the old spelling, in order to apprehend the meaning 
by the light of the etymology. It seems to me that to write 
words of this class in phonetic spelling would be just as useless 
and mischievous as it would be to alter the pronunciation of 
colloquial words to make it conform to the spelling. To do 
either of these things would really be disfiguring an original to 
make it accord with an imperfect copy of itself — much as if 
some one were to alter a text in the Hebrew Bible because the 
sense of the English version was different. On the whole, I 
regret to say that I see no practical way of very greatly 
lightening the difficulties occasioned to children and foreigners 

• • ••• :*• :• •: 

•••«•! • • - 

« • • • 


by the anomalies of English spelling, though many small changes 
in the phonetic direction may with advantage be gradually intro- 
duced in the orthography of such words as are really addressed 
primarily to the ear. But it is highly important that the process 
should be gradual, and the reformers ought not to begin by 
abolishing the useful distinctions that have become established 
in the spelling of such pairs of homophones as whoUy hole. 
The number of such cases is not large enough to add very much 
to the learner's difficulties. And there is no abstract reason 
why written English should be condemned to share all the im- 
perfections of spoken English ; we all recognize the advantage of 
writing proper names with initial capitals, though that contrivance 
is purely ideographic. 

"It is now my pleasant duty to express my thanks to those 
persons who have in various ways assisted in the preparation of 
the work. Amongst these the first place by right belongs to the 
readers who have furnished the quotations ; but to them I can only 
refer in general, their individual contributions to the Dictionary as 
a whole being from time to time acknowledged by Dr. Murray. 
"With regard to the volunteer sub- editing, only one name has to be 
mentioned, the whole of this work for the letter E having been 
performed by the late Mr. P. W. Jacob, whose scholarly and 
painstaking labours are referred to in the prefatory note to the 
first part of Vol. III. Dr. Murray continues to give constant and 
most important help, every page from the beginning having had 
the benefit of his careful criticism. The proofs have been 
regularly read by Mr. Eitzedward Hall, D.C.L., who has furnished 
an abundance of supplementary quotations which have in an 
extraordinary degree enhanced the value of the Dictionary as a 
record of the history of words; also by Mr. H. Hucks Gibbs, M.P., 
the Eev. J. T. Fowler, M.A., Durham, and Mr. W. H. Stevenson, 
who have all from time to time contributed suggestions of great 
value. Most important aid lias been rendered on questions of 
Teutonic philology by Prof. Sievers, of Halle, and Prof. Napier, of 
Oxford, and on questions of Eomanic philology by Prof. Paul 

"My especial thanks are due to the constant and multifarious 
assistance rendered by our Hon. Secretary, Dr. Fumivall. The 
persons to whom I am indebted for information on particular 
points are very numerous. It is to be feared that the following 
list is far from complete; and I must ask the forgiveness of 


any occasional helpers whose names through inadvertence been 
omitted : — 

'* Mr. F. Adams ; the Rev. J. C. Atkinson, D.C.L. ; Mr. A. 
Beazeley, C.E. ; the Rev. T. E. Bridgett ; the Rev. W. Bright, 
B.D., Canon of Christ Church ; Dr. Robert Brown ; Mr. A. H. 
Bullen, M.A. ; Mr. Ingram Bywater, M.A., Oxford ; Mr. J. S. 
Cotton, M.A., Editor of The Academy ; Mr. P. A. Daniel ; Mr. 
Benjamin Dawson ; Mr. Leon Delbos ; Mr. C. E. Doble, M.A., 
Oxford; Mr. Austin Dobson ; Mr. W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Royal 
Gardens, Kew ; the late Dr. A. J. Ellis ; the Rev. Canon D. 
Silvan Evans ; Dr. Pennell, Cambridge ; Dr. Robert von Pleisch- 
hacker ; Dr. S. Rawson Gardiner ; Dr. R. Gamett, British Museum ; 
Mr. Israel Gollancz, M.A., Cambridge ; Mr. G. Heppel ; Dr. Carl 
Horstmann; Mr. Henry Jenner, British Museum ; Mr. Henry Tones 
(Cavendish) ; Mr. W. P. Kirby, Nat. Hist. Dept., British Museum ; 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester ; the late Mr. James Lecky; tlie late 
Rev. Dr. Littledale : Mr. J. A. Fuller Maitland ; Prof. Maitland, 
Cambridge; Mr. Julian Marshall; Mr. Russell Martineau, M.A., 
British Museum ; Mr. F. D. Matthew ; Prof. Alfred Newton, 
Cambridge ; Mr. Edward Peacock ; Prof. Karl Pearson, University 
College, London ; Mr. T. G. Pinches, British Museum ; Mr. A. 
W. Pollard, M.A., British Museum; Sir Frederick Pollock; Mr. 
F. York Powell, M.A., Oxford; Mr. R. B. Pressor; Mr. P. Le 
Page Renouf, British Museum ; Prof. Rhys, Oxford ; Dr. Ch. 
Rieu, British Museum ; Mr. J. S. Shedlock; the Rev. Prof. Skeat, 
Cambridge ; Mr. John Slater, F.R I.B.A. ; Dr. Oskar Sommer ; 
Mr. W. Barclay Squire, British Museum; Mr. Whitley Stokes, 
D.C.L. ; Mr. W. Sykes, M.R.C.8., Mexborough ; Miss Edith 
Thompson ; Dr. R. F. Weymouth. 

"I have further to acknowledge the services of my assistants 
at Oxford, Mr. G. F. H. Sykes, B.A., and Messrs. Lewis and 
Bryan; also the very important aid rendered by Mr. A. Erlebach, 
B.A., in the reading of the first proofs. In conclusion, I desire 
to ofPer my thanks to the Trustees of the British Museum for 
having accorded me exceptional advantages for working in the 
library, and to the officers of that institution for the courteous 
readiness which they have shown in every possible way to 
facilitate my researches.'' 


II. Repoet on the Progeess op the Philological Society's 
New English Dictionaey. By Dr. J. A. H. Mueeay. 

(Mead at the Meeting of the Society on Friday, March, ith, 1892.) 

It is with much regret that I send this statement to be read 
instead of being personally present at the meeting. It is a great 
disappointment and loss to me not to meet my fellow-members and 
to shake hands with the many Dictionary workers who usually 
come to meet me on these occasions. It will, I think, be expedient 
in future to hold the Dictionary Evening at another time of the 
year, when there will be less likelihood of interruption from in- 
disposition or severe weather, or as in the present instance from 
both combined. I had a serious attack of pneumonia in January, 
from which I have been for several weeks so far recovered as to be 
able to do regular work, but not sufficiently recovered to endure 
exposure to cold or wet. Until Tuesday, I thought it possible that 
I might venture to come to London, but the untoward change in 
the weather has completely defeated my expectations. 

In reporting on the progress of the Dictionary during the past 
year, it is unnecessary to dwell upon the fact that during the year 
two parts were completed and issued to the public, one of Vol. III. 
letter E, by Mr. Bradley, and a part of Yol. II. letter C, under 
my immediate editorship. As to the parts in progress, the 
** Monthly Statement" of the Press which I have just received, 
shows that of the C part, 153 pages are in type, and 112 
printed off; of the E — ^F part 115f pages are in type, and 64 
printed off. Turning to the question of what proportion of 
C is now either in type or in the printers' hands, that is down 
to Corse, I find that when we started, the material for C 
filled 320 pigeon-holes, 6 inches wide; the portion still to do 
occupies 40 pigeon-holes, or makes i of the letter. I may pause to 
point out that 320 pigeon-holes contain a pile of slips 160 feet 
high, and that we still have 20 feet thick of this to work through. 
When I turn to Wehster^s Dictionary, and compare the pages done 
with those still to do, the proportion remaining seems larger : 
C has in "Webster 149 pages, of which we have got through 119, 
leaving 30 still to do. My recent illness has, I fear, lost me some 
10 days; but my assistants have worked splendidly in the mean- 
while, and I do not think that the total back-set is very serious. 


I do fear, however, that I have paid less attention to cor- 
respondents, since I have had to devote all my available strength 
to actual work at the Dictionary. I hope that if some communi- 
cations have not been acknowledged at all, and others only after 
delay, that the writers will not feel hurt. The answering of letters 
is a very serious part of my duty; after delegating as much of it as 
is possible to assistants, that which I absolutely must do in my 
own handwriting, takes always one, more usually two, sometimes 
three hours of the freshest part of my working day. This being 
so, it will readily be believed that letters which take trouble and 
thought to answer have often to wait for many days till I have the 
time and thought to give, and not unfrequently are never answered 
at all, because the time never comes, or comes only too late. 

I have had the benefit during the year of the valued assistance 
of Mr, John Mitchell, Mr. Walter Worrall, B.A., Mr. Arthur 
Maling, M.A., Mr. C. Balk, all of whom have now been in the 
Scriptorium for some years, and are capable co-workers, also of Mr. 
Sweatman, as a junior assistant; of these gentlemen I desire to 
speak with much appreciation. Much of the accuracy of the 
Dictionary in the thousand and many points, in which error is not 
only possible, but hardly to be avoided, comes from the special 
attention of these assistants. I cannot attempt myself to keep in 
mind the hundred thousand dates of authors and editions, with 
which the dictionary deals, and for these, and countless other 
matters, have to depend upon the special attention of one or other 
of the staff. 

But if credit is due to these paid assistants, much more are credit 
due and grateful thanks to be offered to the many unpaid volunteer 
workers, who have so nobly helped us from the beginning, and are 
helping us still. It is a real source of trouble to me that I cannot 
bring more prominently before the public, and especially before 
that peculiarly opaque section of the public called reviewers, the 
important work done by these unpaid workers, and the honour and 
credit which are their due. I carefully give the names of all 
Sub-editors in every prefatory note; I mention particularly the 
sections which they have handled, and — the Reviewers never 
mention them, except in the rare case in which a local newspaper 
is "pleased to observe that the name of our respected townsman 
Mr. A. B. is mentioned among those who have helped in the 
arrangement of material." But then local papers very rarely 
** review" the Dictionary, and so ** respected townsmen" maybe 


doing silently the most assiduous and self-sacrificing work, while 
their fellow-townsmen know nothing of it. I hope that we may be 
able to devise some means of remedying this evil, and of bringing 
the public, especially the Reviewer, to render honour to whom 
honour is due. My own wonder is that in such circumstances, so 
many of our unpaid workers have stuck so devotedly to the work ; 
I know that the want of recognition has chilled and disappointed 
some, who have consequently turned their energies to fields in 
which they could do something for their own fame, instead of 
merely contributing to swell the fame of another, and all the more 
do I admire and honour those who work on notwithstanding. But 
I trust the Society will assist me in an effort to let those who value 
the Dictionary know to whom they are indebted for very much of 
its workmanship. 

I have to give the following Statement of help received from 8ub^ 
editors and others from Jan. 1891 to Jan. 1892. 

The following portions of C have been re-subedited, and the 
new material incorporated in preparation for treatment in the 
Scriptorium — 

Mr. G. L. Apperson, 11, Park Road, Wimbledon. 

Consub- to Contem-, Cop-, Counteract to Counterworking; 
now engaged on Crot- to Crows-. 

Rev. C. B. Mount, M.A., 14, Norham Road, Oxford. 

Contenance to Conti, Corr-, Covenant ; Cro to Crony ; engaged 
on Cm to Crup. 

Mr. John Peto, Ravens wood, Alleyn Park, London, S.E. 

Conto to Contra, Core to Corpus, Cow to Coz-; engaged on 
Cur to Curi-. 

Rev. W. B. R. Wilson, M.A.., Devonside House, Dollar, N.B. 

Const-, Centre to Conu, Coq to Conn, Coup to Couw-, Crad to 
Crez- ; engaged on Cu to Cui. 

Mr. W. N. Woods, B.A., 58, Elgin Road, Addiscombe. 
Com-, Cost to Coty- ; Cou to Coum, engaged on Cri-. 

Miss Edith Thompson, Brooks Lodge, Reigate. 


I am especially indebted to Mr. Apperson, Mr. Peto, and Mr. 
Woods,* for the thoroughly workmanlike manner in which they 
return the material to be taken in hand by the Scriptorium stafP, 
and to the Eev. C. B. Mount, the earliest and most devoted of 
our workers, for unnumbered preparatory investigations of difficult 
and doubtful points in the Bodleian Library and elsewhere, 
whereby he has often cleared up difficulties before I actually 
reached them. 

The following Sub- editors, who are engaged on other parts of 
the alphabet, have sent in work since Jan. 1891. 

Mr. W. J. Anderson, Bank House, Markinch, Fife, N.B. 
Mor- to Mors- ; engaged on Mort to Mostly. 

Mr. Jamas Bartlett, M.A., Cloverlea, Bramley, Guildford. 
Get to Goz- ; engaged on Gr-. 
Mr. Bartlett is one of the most valued of the recent additions 
to our staff of volunteers ; he does work excellent both in quality 
and amount. 

Rev. W. H. Becket, The Manse, Stebbing, Chelmsford. 
Wea to Weaz- ; engaged on Web to Wei-. 

Eev. G. B. E. Bousfield, B.A., 248, Portsdown Eoad, W. 

Pissel to Fizzle, Foin to Font, Wi to Withy; engaged on 
Witi to Wom-. 

Mr. E. L. Brandreth, 32, Elvaston Place, Queen's Gate. 
Hat to Haz ; engaged on Kno to Knutty. 
Of Mr. Brandreth's work I need hardly speak; no member 
of the Philological Society has done so much, and I often feel 
impatient to be at letter H in order to follow his steps. 

Miss J. E. A. Brown, Further Barton, Cirencester. 

Incem- to Inch-, Indispen- to Indue- ; engaged on Indue 
to Inexo-. 
One of the greatest friends of the Dictionary, to whom its 
Editor owes a debt of deepest gratitude for help in difficulties. 

Mr. J. Brown, M.A., Kendal Grammar School. 
Mah- to Mainy- ; engaged on Mair to Mak. 

^ Alas ! since this Report was written, death has carried off Mr. Peto and Mr. 
"Woods, and pressure of other work has obliged Mr. Apperson to discontinue his 
valued assistance. — J. A.H.M., December, 1892. 


Rev. A. P. Payers, Rawdon Manse, Teadon, Leeds. 
Nid- to Niggot. 

Mr. R. J. Lloyd, 46, Chatham Street, LiverpooL 
Hip- ; has to end of Hi-. 

Rev. Dr. Rupert Morris, D.D., Eaton, Eccleston, Chester. 
Engaged on Intra to Inutterable. 

Rev. J. Smallpeice, M.A., St. Bees. 

Myrobolan to Myry ; has to end of M. 
An old and faithful friend, who never fails to send his half 
yearly tale of sub-edited work. 

Mr. John Dormer, Mortimer Crescent, Kilbum, N.W., has in- 
corporated new material for Dia to Dirty, and made out Lists 
of Special Wants. He has done the same for Cu to Cz, and 
re -subedited Cut. Mr. Dormer has given invaluable help 
during the last few years, enriching the Dictionary with 
scientific and technical quotations from books not before 
read, and contributing in every way that seemed most likely 
to be useful. 

Mrs. L. J. Walkey, 24, Milverton Crescent, Leamington, has 
some new material for Dis to Dy to arrange alphabetically 
and chronologically. This lady has for many years devoted 
much of her time to this needful work. 

The present Report will, I hope, be printed ; I think it therefore 
useful to present, in a tabulated form, a statement of the 

Present Position of the whole Work with reference to Suh-ediiing^ 
and the names of those who have done the work. The year 
given shows approximately up to what date new material 
was incorporated, and gives an idea as to what will have to 
be added before we take it up finally in the Scriptorium. 

D. D to Decayer Mr. Elworthy (1882) 

Dece to Defecation Mr. Elworthy (1884) 

Deliver to Dh. Miss Brown (1883) 

Dia to Dialysis Rev. W. E. Smith 

Diam to Dietist Mr. Jacob 

DiffaU to Dirvy Mr. W. W. Tyndale 

(Dia to Dirty — ^the new material up to date has been in- 
corporated by Mr. J. Dormer) 
Dis to Dz Mr. Jacob (1883) 




F to Fiz 

Eev. G. B. R. Bousfield i 

;i 884-90) 

Fla to Floun 

Mr. J. Peto 1 

; 1886-8) 


Gem to Groundsel 

Rev. G. B. R. Bousfield ( 

;i880- ) 

Group to Gz 

Rev. T. D. Morris ( 


Ga- to Go- 

Mr. J. Bartlett ( 



Ha to Harmlessness 

Mr. G. A. Schrumpf 1 


Harm to Haz 

Mr. Brandreth I 



Mr. Brandreth ( 

; 1886-9) 

Hi to Hipwort 

Mr. Lloyd ( 


Ho to Homunculus 

Mr. Brandreth ( 

; 1883-5) 

Hoo to Horus 

IVfr. Peto i 


Hosan to Hwata 

Mr. Woods 1 



Mr. Peto 1 



la to Inch- 

Miss Brown 1 


Incoacted to Incomp- 

Mr. T. Wilson ( 


Inconceal to Indiscr- 

Rev. E. H. Sugden ( 


Indisp to Induc- 

Miss Brown i 


Inva to Invent 

Miss L. Gardner \ 


Invest to Iz 

Rev. R. Morris 1 



J- to Juxtaposition 

Rev. W. Gregor | 



Xa to Ky 

Mr. H. H. Gibbs 


La to Lusus 

Mr. Hulme ( 


Lu to Lyz 

Mr. E. Warner ( 



Ma to Maz- 

Mr. J. Brown I 


Ma to Miz 

Rev. T. Sheppard ( 


Mo to Mond 

Rev. S. W . Lawley ( 


Mone to Mostly 

Mr. W. J. Anderson ( 


Mu to Myry 

Rev. J. Smallpeice ( 



Na to Kaz- 

Rev. A. P. Payers ( 


Ne to Nez- 

Mr. Hailstone ( 


Ni to Niche 

Mr. Bumby ( 


Nicher to Xiggot 

Rev. A. P. Payers ( 


No to Nony 

Mrs. Pope ( 


Nu to Nz 

Mr. R. F. Green ( 




Mrs. Stuart (Miss Haig) ( 


Oo to Opentide 

Rev. W . J. Lowenberg | 



Pa to Paz- 

Miss Brown ( 


Peas to Polys 

IVrr. J. Britten ( 


Pern to Perem- 

Mr. R. McLintock ( 

; 1885-92) 

Personality to Poz 

Mr. W. J. Anderson 1 


Pra to Pz 

Mr. Jacob ( 


Phil. Trans. 1891-2-3. 





Mr. Jacob 1 



Rec to Rigour 

Mr. Jacob ( 



Sa to Sy 

Mr. Jacob ( 



Tal to Tiling 

Rev. W. B. R. Wilson I 


Till to Tmesis 

Mr. T. Wilson 1 


To to Toz 

Rev. W. B. R. Wilson { 


Tra to Tralucent 

Mr. A. Sweeting i 


Tre to Trilogy 

Rev. W. B. R. Wilson .( 

; 1888-91) 

Tua to Tz 

Mr. A. Lyall i 



XJa to XTz 

Rev. T. Sheppard ( 



Ya to to Vyse 

Rev. T. Sheppard ( 



"Wa to Weaz 

Rev. W . H. Becket ( 


Wi to Withy 

Rev. G. B. R. Bousfield ( 

; 1890-1) 



Rev. J. Smallpeice ( 


There are still parts of the material which have not been dealt 
with by a sub-editor — at least since I undertook the work ; they 
are the following : — 

Material not Suh-edited, 

D. Defect to Delitescent (in the hands of Mr. Elworthy), 

r.' Fo to Pyz (not touched after work of old sub-editor). 

H. Hir to Hiz (in the hands of Mr. Lloyd). Hon-. 

I. Indue to Inutterable (Miss Brown working at the one end 

and Rev. R. Morris at the other). 
K. (not since originally done by Mr. H. H. Gibba. Mr. 
Brandreth has begun re-editing — has in hand Kno to 
M. (end of Mo and My. Messrs. Anderson and Smallpeice 

are working at respectively). 
N. Nigh to Niobium-. 

Nip to Nizam (in hands of Mr. R. F. Green). 

Noodle to Nozzle. 
0. Ole to Om (Mrs. Stuart has). 

On to Onyx, 

Opera to Ouster (in the hands of the Rev. W. J. Lowenberg). 

Out to Oz-. 
P. Pea to Pear. 

Per to Person. 
R, Ra to Rebutter. 

Rile to Ry. 


T. Ta to Taky. 

Tram to Traz. 

Trim to Tsetse. 
"W. Web to Wh- (beginning in Mr. Becket's hands). 

Witless to Wy- (beginning in Mr. Bousfield's hands). 


A good deal of ** Reading" has been done during the year, 
and much is still going on ; it being still, often found that some 
works have been unduly neglected or read only for particular 
letters, a most pernicious and deceptive practice, since in beginning 
a new letter, it takes a long time before we notice that a particular 
author or book has dropped out; and when such books are read 
again entirely, we get a multitude of duplicates for the letter 
or letters already read. The publications of the Early English 
Text, Scottish Text Society, and other prints of MSS. or 
early printed books, also require to be kept up with. I am 
sorry to say contemporary literature is not ; we have 
next to nothing of Andrew Lang, Austin Dobson, George 
Meredith, R. L. Stevenson, and a host of contemporary writers ; 
and I should be devoutfuUy thankful if Dr. Furnivall, or any 
other competent person, would draw up from Mudie's Catalogue 
or other source, a list of works published since 1875, which 
ought to be read in order to give us a representation of the 
literature of the last quarter of the 19th century. I cannot 
do it ; I have not a moment to spare for it ; but I will check 
it when done, and mark oS. books that have been read, and some 
means may be found of superintending the Reading. 

We have kept up our plan of preparing Lists of Special Wantsy 
for the words in front of us, though I am sorry to say that 
the number of readers who make good use of them is not so 
great as it ought to be. I enclose some copies here, and ask 
any present who will seriously use them to take a set, but not 
to take them needlessly. 

During the past year not less than 30,000 quotations were 
received. Of these, Mr. John Dormer, of Mortimer Crescent, 
Kilburn, contributed more than 5,000, including many important 
desiderata and quotations from scientific works of last century, 
with early occurrences of technical terms. This is besides the 
assistance given by him in arranging material of C and D, and 


in preparing therefrom Lists of Wants for printing. I regret 
that lately the state of his health has interfered with his 
j<plendid work for the Dictionary. 

Dr. "W. C. Minor, of Broadmoor, Crowthome, has sent ahout 
3,000 quotations, all for words in C and E, such as we are 
ready to deal with, and including many from the E.E.T.S. ed. 
of Lanfranc's Cirurgie, one of the most important works for 
Dictionary purposes ever yet published by the Society, also from 
Hall's and Grafton's Chronicles, and numerous rare books of 
travel of the 17th and 18th centuries, giving early instances of 
foreign words since naturalized. 

Mr. E. Peacock, of Bottesford Manor, Brigg, has sent about 
4,000 quotations, including 750 from Dryden's plays (formerly 
badly read) and 300 from Ford. 

Dr. Brushiield, Budlcigh Salterton, has sent about 3,000, 
including about 1800 from Mad. D'Arblay's Diary and Letters. 

Rev. J. T. Fowler, Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham, about 1500, 
including a complete reading of the Castle Howard Life of 
St. Cutbcrt, edited by him for the Surtees Society, and of the 
Bury Wills. 

Mr. A. Beazeley, Thornton Heath, Croydon, has sent about 1500 
quotations from Foote's plays, previously unread for the Dictionary, 
and many Miscellanea and Desiderata. 

Rev. J. W. Hooper, Gateshead Fell Rectory, has sent about 1600, 
among them many for modern colloquialisms. 

Mr. T. Henderson, Bedford County School, has sent about 
1300, among them many desiderata. 

Miss H. M. Poynter, Park Town, Oxford, who is a new reader, 
has sent about 1250 from books specially selected by me. 

Prof. J. M. Dixon, Imperial University, Tokyo, Japan, has 
sent about 700 quotations as supplement to those in his Dietioymry 
of Idiomatic Mnglish Phrases^ for all of which he has besides sent 
the full references not given in the book. 

Rev. Henry Ellershaw, Mexborough Yicarage (a new reader), 
sent about 450 from R. K. Hypnerotomachia. 

Among our American readers Mr. W. Boyd, of Cambridge, 
Mass., has sent about 2000 ; the Rev. B. Talbot, of Columbus, 
Ohio, 700 ; Mr. G. M. Philips, of West Chester, Pa., 600 ; 
Mr. Albert Matthews, Boston, Mass., (a new reader) has sent 
about 900 quotations; and Mr. W. P. Garrison (editor of the 
New York Nation) has been a constant contributor. 


Of our Dutch readers Mr. Caland has sent ahout 800 of modern 
colloquialisms, while smaller contributions were received from 
Dr. Logeman and Mr. StofPel. 

Valuable quotations, both general, and of desiderata, have been 
received from Mrs. Grey, Gledhow Gardens ; Miss E. and Miss E. P- 
Thompson, Eeigate ; Miss Geraldine Gosselin, Miss C. Pemberton, 
the Rev. Cecil Deedes, Brighton ; Rev. W. D. Sweeting, Maxey 
Vicarage ; Rev. W, Lees, Reigate ; Rev. W. C. Boulter, Malvern ; 
Rev. W. B. R Wilson, Dollar; Dr. Prior, York Terrace; Mr. 
C. Gray, Mr. KcUier R. H. Gosselin, Mr. John Randall, Mr. 
M. L. Rouse, Mr. F. Hall, Llandudno ; Mr. Ralph Harvey, Cork 
Grammar School ; Mr. J. Hooper, Norwich ; Mr. J. Whitwell, 
Kendal. [See also Addendum, p. 287.] 

Special assistance in quotations for desiderata and for a number 
of historical words including convent ^ corporation, conventicle, 
covenant, cross, etc., has been given by Miss Edith Thompson, 
Technical words have been taken under his special protection by 
Mr. R. B. Prosser, who has not only looked to the accuracy of 
the defiaitions, but got us the earliest quotation from the Library 
of the Patent Office for very many. Mr. R. Oliver Heslop, of 
Corbridge-on-Tyae, has given most important assistance on several 
coal- mining terms ; valuable contributions for the Desiderata have 
been sent by Mr. A. Wallis, F.R.S.L., Exeter ; Mr. J. R. Gillespie, 
Stratford Grove, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; Mr. J. Dixon, Harrowlands^ 
Dorking; Mr. W. Jones, Gloucester; Mr. W. Johnson, Lavender 
Road, Battersca. 

Time would fail to tell of the splendid assistance rendered to 
the Dictionary by Dr. Fitzedward Hall, who devotes nearly his 
whole day to reading the proofs of both volumes, and to supple- 
menting, correcting, and increasing the quotations from his own 
exhaustless stores. When the Dictionary is finished, no one man 
will have contributed to its illustrative wealth so much as 
Fitzedward Hall. Those who know his books know the 
enormous wealth of quotation which he brings to bear upon 
every point of English literary usage; but my admiration is 
if possible increased when I see how he can cap and put the 
cope-stone on the collections of our 1500 readers. 

In this department I have also to mention the constant solid 
assistance of Mr. H. H. Gibbs, whose accession to the legislative 
benches at St. Stephens has not in the least diminished his 
interest in the Dictionary. If I were not afraid of its getting 


abroad in the City, I should express my belief that he thinks 
the Dictionary a more 'important constituency than the City o£ 

The Rev. J. T. Fowler, Yice-principal of Bp. Hatfield^s Hall, 
Durham, one of my earliest and most valued Dictionary friends, 
to whom 1 am indebted for great personal favours, has recently 
undertaken to read a set of the first proofs, and his keen and 
experienced eye has already hit upon and remedied many 
deficiencies. If it is remembered that reading a proof means 
giving at least eight hours a week to the service of the 
Dictionary, the credit due for such a service will be more fully 

Dr. W, Sykes, formerly of Mexboro', now of Gosport, has for 
several years given us indispensible aid with the medical terms, 
the history of which really requires the care of a specialist ; 
any one who looks at the completeness with which these terms 
have in the last two or three parts been treated will see how 
much Dr. Sykes has contributed to the work. It is therefore 
with nothing short of dismay that I have learned from him 
that his other duties will no longer enable him to continue his 
generous work. His case is one in which I specially wish that 
some means may be found of fittingly drawing attention to his 
share in the work. 

The proofs have also been read and annotated by a former 
member of the Scriptorium Staff, the Rev. J. B. Johnston, of 
Palkirk, whose ** Place Names of Scotland," just published, is 
the best book on local names known to me in the language, 
and well deserves the attention of all interested in the subject. 
Monsieur F. J. Amours, of Glasgow, also supplies with the earliest 
known examples of words from French, and reads the Proofs 
with a special view to the treatment of these words. Professor E. 
Sievers, now of Leipzig, and M. Paul Meyer, Member of the 
Institute, Paris, have continued their valued assistance in words 
of difficult etymology, Teutonic and Romanic. Many other foreign 
scholars, particularly Senor Don Rufino J. Cuervo, of Paris ; Prof. 
F. Neumann, Heidelberg; Prof. F. Kluge, Jena; Dr. J. W. 
MuUer, Leyden ; Prof. A. Noreen and Dr. Axel Erdmann. TJpsala, 
have helped me with special words. [See Addendum, p. 287.] 



WoEDs. By Dr. J. A. H. Mueeay. 

{Read as a SuppUment to the Report on the progress of the Dictionary y 

March bthy 1892.) 

Cony, coney. There are namerous ME. forms: a 12-1 6 tli c. 
eunin, hmyne^ conning , cunyng^ cunig, p 14 c. onward conpy 
cunny, eunniey etc. The origin is L. cunlcultMf which regularly 
gave It. conSgltOf Pr. and OF. eonil : of the later there was a variant, 
contn, (French has other examples of this oscillation of I and n.) 
OF. contn, gave the Eng. cuniny conning forms, now obsolete, except 
as surviving in some proper names as Coningshyj Cunnington, etc. 
OF. conil had in pi. conils, conniz, with I suppressed as in other 
"l words; the pi. coniz (found in Anglo-Fr. in Bretton 1292, as 
oonys, coniySy with the variants coninz, conyns), gave the Eng. plural 
eonysy conies, whence was deduced the singular cony. The rabbit 
is evidently of late introduction into Britain and Northern Europe. 
It never had a native name in any Celtic or Teutonic land, the 
Teutonic names cited by Prof. Skeat are all from Old French conin. 
There is no mention of it in English before the Norman Conquest ; 
and it is notable that the/wr seems to have been known before the 
live animal. The Moral Ode, jl. 1200, has 1. 361, ' Ne seal J^er beo 
fore ne grei ne cunig [v.r. cunin, konyng] ne ermine.' 

In the ME. period the rabbit was a domestic or protected animal 
kept in cony-horoughB, cunny-herries or conybeares, conyng-earths or 
cony-garths, conyngers or cony-gress, cony-greens, cony-greaves, cony^ 
graves. It has since escaped to the woods and sand-hills, as it has 
more recently done in Australia. 

The historical pronunciation is cunny, as in honey and money, but 
the word is now known chiefly as a Bible- word, where it is a mis- 
translation of the Heb. name of the Syrian hyrax; and as the 
domestio 'cunny' had come to have some familiar and even in- 
decorous senses, readers of the Psalms have preferred to read cony. 
Walker in 1790 knew only the cunny pronunciation. Smart (1836) 
says 'it is familiarly pronounced cunny, ^ but cony is 'proper for 
solemn reading.' 





GooK, OE. c6c, adaptation of late L. cocus^ L. coqutM, The long 
vowel of OE. c6c regularly represented in the modem oo, shows the 
word to be of late adoption, after L. cdqutis had become cocus 
(cf. It. cuoco). On the contrary, all the Celtic and Continental 
Teutonic forms have or point to a short o, and an adoption of the 
Latin word before the 6th c. The Roman coqui were known to 
the British, but were not taken over by the Teutonic invaders ; 
and the English cook evidently represents the cocus of the monas- 
teries of the later OE. period. 

An interesting parallel to this is furnished by the British and 
English pronunciations of L. pdter,- as noticed by JElfric in the 
opening of his Grammar and Glossary, the Britons retaining the 
original shbrt ^, while in living Romanic use the vowel became 
long, and was so pronounced in the service of the English as 
opposed to that of the British church. 

Coolie, an Indian labourer. H. H. Wilson, Glossary of 
Indian Terms ^ as quoted by Prof. Skeat, says " Tamil Mlif daily 
hire or wages, a day labourer, a cooly; the word is originally 
Tamil, where it has spread into the other languages; in Upper 
India, it bears only its second and subsidiary meaning" [i.e, 
it means the man, not *hire' or * wages,' J. A. H. M.]. This 
represents the general opinion of Dravidian scholars, but it will 
not stand historical examination. The historical facts have been 
indicated by Yule and Burnell, and the word is none other than 
£ull or ^ollj the name of an aboriginal tribe of Guzurat, formerly 
noted as robbers, but now settling down as respectable labourers 
and cultivators. They were known as Cole to the Portuguese 
in the 16lh c, are called Quullees by Pinch in 1609, and coolies 
by Ferry in 1606 ; from which time quotations may be found 
for them almost every year, down to their appearance in the 
Imperial Gazetteer of India in 1885 as £ulis. It was evidently 
the Portuguese that carried the name both to Southern India 
and to China, where we have a quotation for it as early as 1745. 
I suppose that the likeness of the tribal name JEiult to the Tamil 
word kfili * hire,' led to their ready identification in Southern 
India, and to the genesis of the connecting sense 'hire-man, 
hireling, day-labourer.* Our first quotations for the extended 
sense is from Bruton, 1638, who speaks of * cowlers (coolers) 
which are Porters' in the W. of India, and the name appears 
at Madras in 1680. Most coolies in the current sense belong to 
lieni Indiay and this has encouraged the erroneous notion 


that the word is native there, just as many people think that 
'parliament' is a native English word, because parliamentary- 
institutions in the modem sense are of English origin. 

CooM, CULM, soot, grim, coal-dust, small coal, brittle, inferior 
anthracite coal, is not treated by Prof. Skeat. Culm goes back 
to a M.E. colm whence colmy, sooty, grimy, hicolmen to begrime. 
I think colm must be radically related to col coal, with an m 
suffix, but want of OE. or cognate examples make the early 
history uncertain. Coom is a northern variant of culm, just as 
Bulmer in Northumberland is locally called Boomer , and hulk, 
shoulder^ coulter appear in Sc. as hook, shooder, cooter. But there 
is also a 16th c. spelling coame, which may be reduced from 
colm, as in Jiolm pronounced hoam ; or it may correspond to 
O.Norse kdm grime, filth of dirt; and a sense of coome used 
by Butler 1609, suggests Ger. kahm mould, the white film on 
fermented liquors, and so related to keem of cider. 

Coomb (badly spelt comh) a measure of four bushels, has no 
possible connexion with F. comhle or L. cumulus, English shows 
what appears to be this word at three distinct periods and in 
three different uses. 1. OE. cumh *a vessel, a cup/ occurring in 
Birch CartuL Saxon, No. 273 of date 791-6 *cumb fulne li^es 
aloj?, and cumb fulne Welisces alo]?.' 

2. ME. and early mod. comhe, comh, a brewing tub or vat, of 
which we have examples from a, 1400 to 1688. * A comb, or a 
brewer's comb, or yelling comb or tub ' is that vessel into the 
which the wort is put to work with the yeast. 

3. Coomh, comhe, comh, coom, etc., the corn-measure, found 
in the Bury Wills 1418, and abolished by statute about 1883. 

These all agree in the sense of * hollow or deep vessel,* and 
correspond to older LG. kumh, mod. LS. kumm a vessel, in 
various dialects, a round deep vessel, basin, cistern, trough, etc. 
Cf. also LG. kumm, kump a measure of corn or fruit, of which 
the Bremen Wcirterbuch says * kumm oder besser kump, tiefe 
schiissel.' We have evidently a Germanic type ^kumho- *kummo-, 
with a by-form ^kumpo-, the same as is established for clam, clamp. 

Coomb (badly comhe, comh), a hollow on a hill-side or slope. 
Occurs as cumh in OE. charters as early as 770, and plentifully 
in proper names as Batancumh, Brancescumh, Uastcumh, Sealtcumh, 
Wincelcumh, etc. A multitude of these names survive in modern 
form, and the element is usually written comb, comhe, in accordance 
with the ordinary scribal rule of avoiding the combination of u 


with m, n, 9, which gives modem tofiM, ion, honey, etc. It 
is interesting to note that as a separate word eumb, comb is 
unknown from the time of the Wessex Charters down to 1578 
when it appears in the hotanist Lyte, a Devonshire man 
'Foxeglove groweth in darks shadowie valleys or coombes.' It 
was still to Ray in 1674 a South Country Dialect word, but 
it is not uncommon in 18th c. writers, natives of the southern 
counties, and in the 19th c, with its love of nature and summer 
holiday haunts, it has like chinSf glen^ eleve, clatter, turn, corry, 
beck, elaehan, fjord, aiguille, col, and the like, become familiar 
to everybody. There is no reason to think that it ever died 
out in Wessex or the Chalk country ; but it is very remarkable 
that it never emerges in literature between King Alfred and 1578. 

It is generally recognized as one of the few British words 
taken up at the English Conquest of Britain; and is supposed 
to be identical with the cum- found in proper names in 
Cumberland and Strathclyde as in Cumwhitton, Cumdivock, Cum' 
longan, Cumloden. The modem Welsh cwm, occurs in com- 
pounds as -cwm, -^tom, and in syntactic combination as 
in Cwm Idwal, Cwm BocMwyd; it represents a proto-Celtic 
kumboi. It was natural that in coming from a flat land which 
had no hills or valleys of its own, the Old English should adopt the 
native names dun and eumb from the Bretons ; but in the case 
of the latter, the fact that they had a word eumb of their own 
meaning hollow vessel, basin, might well be a helping cause. 
I think it quite probable that if King Alfred or any of his 
men had been asked what -eumb meant in Widcumb, Sealtcumb, 
etc., they, ignorant of Welsh, would probably have expledned 
it quite satisfactorily to themselves as a natural hollow like a 
' eumb ' or basin. It is also to be noted that combe occurs in 
Prench in the sense of * petite vallee, pli de terrain, lieu bas 
entour^ de collines' Littr6 (who has examples from the 12th c). 
This word would be known to the Normans, and may actually 
be the source of some of the names in -combe, or at least of the 
spelling -eombe. It is interesting and somewhat remarkable that 
the word has thus had a meaning in the languages of Celts, 
Saxons, and Normans. The origin of E. combe is disputed : some 
think it Celtic, but others look for it elsewhere. 

Coop, a basket, etc., cannot, of course, be ideutified with OE. 
eype, which actually persists in its proper form kipe, kype, a 
wide-spread word for a bushel-basket, a potato-basket, and a 


wickerwork basket or cage used in catching fisli or eels ; but 
it may go back to a collateral form unrecorded in OE., whence 
MDu. ciipe, Du. kuip cask. But if so, this makes impossible 
the derivation of the latter from L. eupa cask. On account of 
the ambiquity of u in southern ME. it is difficult to tell whether 
we ought to read cupe in Floriz, the Castel of Loue, and Trevisa, 
as coopy or hype. In any case cooper is not a derivative of the 
Eng. word coop ; coops were never casks in England, and coopers 
never made wickerwork. Cooper was in the 15th c. couper, 
cowper; the spelling cooper is of the 16th c. and merely phonetic; 
in coopt cooper^ as in stoopf droop, and elsewhere before p^ long 
u has persisted and not become ow in modem English, and this 
phonetic persistence of the sound has been marked by substituting 
the modern symbol oo for OE. ^, ME. ov, ow. Cooper was 
probably introduced ready made with the wine trade or some 
other department of commerce from the Low Countries or the 
Rhine; cf. MD., and 15th c. Niederrheinish cuper, etc. The 
Med. Lat. was cupartus ; but there is no evidence of the Eng. 
name being taken directly from this. 

Cooper is also a name given to the floating grog-ships which 
used to do so much mischief among the Deep Sea Fishermen 
in the North Sea. But this is more correctly written and 
pronounced Coper, as it appears in E. Mather's JVor^ard of the 
Dogger, and in the publications of the Mission to the Deep Sea 
Fisheries, which by its beneficent work has extirpated the coper. 
The latter is simply the Dutch, Flemish, and Low German k6per, 
hooper, buyer, dealer, and according to information which has been 
collected for me at Grimsby, Yarmouth, and other places, from 
some of the old fishermen, it arose some forty years ago, at a time 
when the fishing-fleets fished in and near the Dutch coast off 
Camperdown. They were then visited by Dutch and Flemish 
boats, which brought them fresh provisions, tobacco, etc., and took 
from them their inferior fish. There then arose a trade in un- 
licensed tobacco and spirits, and at length when the fishing fleets 
went far out to the Dogger Bank, and the mid sea, larger vessels 
were fitted out to follow them as floating grog-shops, still pre- 
serving the Dutch name of coper, though their main object was no 
longer to buy fish, but to sell vile spirits, bad tobacco, obscene 
photographs, and other demoralizing trash. 

Coot. The derivation of this was by Mr. Wedgwood sought 
in the Welsh word cwta short, docked; but this is inconsistent 


with the history of the word in English, in which coot comes 
down directly from ME. c6t9. The word is common Low German ; 
Du. kaet of the 16th c. points to a MDn. c6te^ identical with the 
ME. c6te. The name appears to have heen given vaguely to 
various swimminj? and diving birds; especially (1) the Guillemot, 
called also in Du. zee-koet, and (2) the Bald Coot, in Dutch 
meer-Jioet, Abundant quotations in both senses occur in Eug. : 
'a balled cote' is in Walter de Biblesworth, and Lydgate has 
'and yet he was as balde as is a cote,' while Tindale cites 'as 
bare as Job, and as bald as a coot.' 

Coper and Coitper, in Horse-gofer^ etc., are often spoken of as 
dialectal variants. They are more than this. C^^pe came from 
Flemish in the 15th c. Lydgate in London Lyckpenny says : 
** Fleminges began on me for to cry, * Master, what will you copen 
or by?'" and Hey wood has among his Proverbs and Epigramt 
" the Ducheman saieth ' segging is good cope.' *' But coup is 
the Xorse kaupa, and is older in England than cope. The native 
English equivalent of both is cheapy cheapen ; and it is interesting 
that in coup, cope, cheap, we have the original Germanic diphthong 
an, and its two derivatives LG. 6 aud Eng. ea. Another cognate 
is the Sc. cofty bought, where the consonant / seems to be that of 
HGer. gekauft. 

Copperas, I have discussed fully in the Academy ^ showing that 
the alleged derivation cupri rosa rose of copper, conjectured by 
Diez to be a rendering of Gr. x"^^*""^®!/ copper-flower, is only 
a fanciful alteration of cupero^a, or cuprosa, coppery, occurring 
in aqua cuprosa the equivalent of Ger. kupferwasser, Du. koperwaUry 
mames of copperas, orijanally of its solution, flowing naturally 
from some mines, and used according to olden notions to transmute 
iron into copper by leaving iron in the stream until copper was 
deposited in its place. 

Coppice. The OF. form was copen, coJpeU, the regular repre- 
sentative of a L. colpdticium^ that which has the characteristic of 
being cut. Cf. the L. adjectives in "Icius, like advent icius, 
Colpare to cut with a blow, was from colpus, earlier colapus, 
originally colophui a blow, a cuff. The med. L. eopecia some- 
times given as the source of coppice is only the French or 
Eng. word with its ending latinized. 

Copt, an Egyptian Christian, is a comparatively modem word, 
app. not known in Western Europe much, if at all, before 1600. 

It represents the Arabic collective k-i , quht^ qy^t, laii quft^ 


qyft ' the Copts,' with adjective derivative quhte^ qufti, Coptic, most 
prob. representing the Coptic rTIITIOC, KTIIX^IOC guptios, 
kuptaios,=Gr. *Ai<^v7rTio9 Egyptian. Some have thought the 
name referred to the ancient city of Coptos in Upper Egypt, 
and it is probable that a belief in this among scholars made 
Copt and Coptic the settled form. The earlier Engl, forms were 
CophtSy Cophtie. The fact that Arabic has no g nor p explains 
how guptioSy gyptios^ necessarily became hufti or kuhtiy hyfti or 

Corbel has been badly treated by etymologers. The dictum of 
Skinner that it is from E. corheilley basket, has been repeated 
ever since, apparently without looking to see what Erench 
etymologists have themselves to say about it. A corbel has 
nothing whatever to do with a lasket in etymology, sense, 
appearance, or fancy ; it is the end of a beam or stone 
built into a wall, and projecting more than its own depth, 
forming a bracket for the support of some structure resting upon 
it. In many an old castle or ruined mansion the rows of stone 
corbels that supported the floors, can be seen still projecting 
from the walls. The word is in ME. in 15th c, and was in 
OF. corbel, mod. E. corleau, the primary sense being * raven ' 
L. type corvellus dim. of corvus, E. corbel, corbeau, has been 
and is applied to many beaked projections, as may be seen in 
the new Dictionnaire Ginerdl of Hatzfeld, Darmstetter, and 
Thomas (a splendid and cheap work which everybody ought to 
have) ; and the architectural sense was probably given, because 
the corbel being usually slanted away underneath, was, viewed 
in profile, a beak-like projection. In modem times, the word 
was merely technical, until caught up by Sir Walter Scott, 
who had always a good eye for a word that looked mysterious 
and sounded well. His * corbels carved grotesque and grim,* 
have taken hold of the popular fancy, and a hundred writers 
since have adorned their pages with ' grotesque corbels * and 
* grim corbels ' with the very slightest notion of what they were 
writing about ; generally any grotesque figure on an abbey wall 
was to them a ' corbel * ; but a corbel is not an ornament, and 
ornamentation forms no part of it, though it may be carved 
•into something either florid or grotesque, just as a finial or a 
door-knocker, or a lectern may be. One thing that helped to 
confuse Englishmen was that the E. corbeille (L. corbicula) is 


actually applied to a basket in architecture, t.e, the baskets on 
the heads of Caryatides, or the *belP of the Corinthian capital 
considered as a basket out of which Acanthus leaves and flowers 
are projecting ; but this, of course, has no connexion with corbel 
in meaning, form, or derivation. 

CoEDTJEOY is a trade word of English concoction, introduced 
between 1776 and 1787, as a name of corded fustain. It is 
impossible to say whether it was named after the inventor — 
Corderoy is an English surname, and corderoy is actually the 
earliest spelling of the fabric — or whether the inventor meant 
to simulate a French word, and thought of corde du roi, king's 
cord. But no such name has ever been known in French ; 
indeed in a French work of 1807, Voyage dans lea Departements 
du Midif by Millin de Grandmaison (for a knowledge of which 
I am indebted to our esteemed Dictionary helper, Mr. Prosser), 
among the manufactures of Sens are mentioned * etoffes de coton, 
filatures, futaines, kings cordeSy moUerons,* etc., which shows 
first that corde du roi was not the French name ; secondly 
that the interpretation hinges cord was so current, that the French 
manufacturers borrowed it in their imitations of the English 
fabric. The word duroy as the name of a coarse woollen fabric, 
manufactured with serges and druggets in the West of England 
in Defoe's tiuie, has evidently no connexion. A sample of the 
historical falsehoods, uttered in the name of etymology is the 
following, from the Evening Standard of 28th August, 1884, 
* Corduroy is the coming material . . the new corde du roy will 
be a dainty silken fabric, as indeed it was in the beginning.' 
This is a sheer invention, delivered as a bit of history. 

CoEB is a difficult word; the one thing certain about it is, 
that it is not as Skinner taught, L. cor^ or F. coeur heart. 
The primary meanings are the hard unbumt centre of charcoal 
or of a lime-shell, the hard centre of a boil or tumour, and 
the hard, scaly, or uneatable part of a fruit. For these 
the earlier name was colk^ which now survives in the unbumt 
coke of lime or coal. In all, the sense is that of something hard, 
objectionable, or unusable. So with the early figurative senses 
of * something that sticks in one's throat,' * something we cannot 
swallow or that will not go down with one,' and of a grudge 
that It lins in the heart even after a quarrel has been composed. ' 
Tt 1 only late in the 16th c. that etymologizing writers began 
^1 I. connexion with heart, and to use * core ' in senses 


in which * heart * had previously been used. Shakspere's * I will 
wear him in my heart's core, I, in my heart of heart,' from 
which * heart's core ' has (only since Keat's time) become a 
19th c. stock phrase, was, I have no doubt whatever, a pun, 
' heart's core ' suggesting the L. eor, and so * heart of heart/ 

[Atdekdum: to De. Miteray's Dictionaey Repoet, pp. 268-278. 
— As my Annual Reports for 1889-91 were not printed in the 
Transactions, I desire here to repeat the special acknowledgments 
there made of the work of Mr. Halkett Lord, of Hawthomden, 
Scotch Plains, iNTew Jersey, U.S., who during those years was our 
most important contributor, sending us more than 4000 quotations 
from specially-chosen, and in many cases rare books, which it 
would have been difficult for us to get at, except in the public 
libraries. — J. A. H. Miteeay.] 

TftEi^rRE&N Cash Accoukt, 1891. 

•^ -SI 

c% o o 

« CI — 

s ?• o 



1 — 








•O I = 


«c »^ 

"^ l- 

CO o 

• ^ JS ^ cs ^ T* ** */ • -^ j^ s s ^^ ■> 























• g^ 

























1— < 







ft ^ 




s s 
•r « 




•*: es 


S H 

F a 


RlJ t:'« ^'2 « 

•- *?• 1- y o s 



es 9 

^ Cl« 


o w 



PS 54 


o o o 






or o CO 






o o o o 

CO <o 



CO "?! <M M 


OO <N »C -M 

f-< »^ 











9 in 

,* a 






t- £ 




OX ^ ^ £ 

flC * ^' 

■*«■« o • •> .» 
• *^ _: •■- • » • 

ee © «a 

a ? " 
•- : a 
2 • fc- 

a = o 

H « ^ 
M («4 



'^ is 

c ^ 

« O 













VIII.— ETYMOLOGIES. By J. Strachan. 

1. Ir. tallaim * fit in, find room' agrees well in meaning 
with Lith. tilpti * fit in, find room,* as a couple of examples will 
show. Compare, for instance, meit gamlias hi tallait trichaii ^ 
n- gamnay " as large as a winter fold into which go thirty 
yearlings" (Feast of Bricciu, §91), with suvdre i tvdrta, 
aU da i td^ tvdrta netilpOf ** he drove them (the swine) together 
into the pen, but they could not get into the pen " (Leskien 
und Brugmann, Litauische Yolkslieder und Marchen, p. 200). 
One might render t td tvdrta netilpo in Middle Irish by ni 
rothalhat isin chr6, Kurschat, in his Lithuanian dictionary, 
furnishes a couple of additional examples — toj haznyczioj teipa 
tuhstantis zmoniu ** in this church a thousand men find room,'* 
toj pleczkoj stdpa nHelpa ** into this bottle a stopa (a certain 
measure) does not go." Compare with these Irish examples 
like a toill ind ina seasam n'l toillet ina suide " the number 
which fit in it standing, would not (lit. do not) if sitting," 
dotallfasu indi " thou wouldst fit in it," and the like (Atkinson, 
Passions and Homilies, 910 ; Windisch, Worterbuch, 807). 
Formally tallaim might be connected with tilpti by assuming 
that the Irish verb started from a present in -wd-; tallaim 
might come from ^talpnami =^ldi^, Hslpndmi or the like. In- 
stances Kke dundalla, Milan Glosses, 31° 17, where tallaim is 
treated as though it were a Qom^oMudi^ to -allaim do not prove 
that tallaim is in its origin a compound verb. Other verbs 
beginning with t^ which are certainly simple verbs, are found 
treated in the same way. Thus tongim^ W, tyngu * swear ' is 
treated as though it were for do-fongim, inti dO'd-fongad=\^ 
qui id iuravit, Ml. 36*. W. tyngu shows conclusively that 

* The ace. triehait-n must be a blunder for nom. trichaj MS. xxx. So also 
mSit Has for mHt 14x8, 

PhiL Trans. 1891-2-8. 19 


tongim cannot have come from to-fongim. In verbs compounded 
with to-fo', t6- alternates with do-fo-, and it is to the analogy 
of siich compounds that we owe dodfongad} 

2. Ir. gemel * fetter' K'^gemlo-: Old Slav, iiina 'press,' Gr. r/eino 

3. Ir. r6i * planities ' < ^rovesid : Lat. rm, Zend ravanh. Different 
from this is Ir. roe * battle *=W. rhae^ which is probably cognate 
with immidrdi i. rohriss * broke/ Leabhar na h-Uidhri, 85^ 20, 
and further with roen ' victory,' roenaim * break, defeat.' Cf. 
ipeiTru}^ Old Norse rifa * break,' rifna * rumpi ' ? 

4. Lat. harena, Sabine fasena^ * sand ' is commonly connected 
with Skr. hhdsman * ashes * and its cognates, cf. Ascoli, KZ. 1 7 
347, Pick 1.3 160, Bersu, Die Gutturalen 131, Johansson KZ. 
30 432. The difficulty in this etymology is the representation 
of initial hh by h in Latin. There are certainly instances where 
h varies with f—hh^ dh^ haha, faba, hordus, fordm, hebrta, fehris, 
etc. But Yon Planta, Grammatik der oskisch-umbrischen Dialekte 
463 is doubtless right in regarding this change as dialectical ; 
these cases could then be quoted in support of the above 
etymology of harena only if we suppose that harena came from 
this dialectical area, and of this there is no further evidence. 
Of the above change in common Latin words I know no certain 
instance. The connexion of horreum with far (Ascoli, KZ. 17 
338) is exceedingly improbable ; the vocalism is difficult as well 
as the initial consonant. Herha has been compared with Gr. 
(tyippofxai, (/)opprjy but the connexion is by no means certain (von 
JSabler, KZ. 31 278, compares herba for *gherdhd with KplOri 
which again is improbable). There remains harena^ and for it 
another etymology is possible.^ It may come from ^ghasend and 
be connected with Irish ganem * sand * < *^^m/»a or ^ghasnemd. 
The former is the more probable. The root is in all probability 
ghas, from this might come ^ghasm-, whence, with secondary 
suffix md as in Lat. lacruma, would come ^ghasnimd. As to 

* doiagat LIT. 60* 30, 66*> 11, might at first sight seem to be a similar 
analogical breaking up of the simple verb tiagaim 'I go,' but Zimmer KZ. 
30 25 is right in regarding doiagat as standing for dothiagat. Another 
old instance of th unexpressed between vowels is adroneestar gl. sustinui Wb. 4*^ 
35. This is evidently for adronethestar^a. compound of the same verb as is 
seen in arnethim gl. sustineo, expecto, Ml. 46^ 20, 46*^ 14, 50^ 8, 9, etc. 

* Stokes, Spracbschatz 111, adds O.H.G. unquemilo *racemus.' 

3 Dr. "Whitley Stokes informs me that he had previously arrived at the same 


^ghami' it might come from an w-stem ^ghasen-, cf. Lat. collia 

< ^colnis by koXmi/-. in KoXtvvo^f^ and to ^ghasen- there may 
have been a parallel -es- stem ^ghases- whence might be derived 
harena < ^ghasesnd. Further cognates are uncertain. Do these 
words go with Skr. ghas * verzehren, essen/ as yjrycpo?, yjra/j,/j,69 
with Skr. bhas ? 

4. Ir. dalta * fosterling ' < *daltaioSf or the like. Dal- may come 
from dhal- dhal- said be connected with Lat. felare^ Gr. OrjaaTo, 
y/dhe, whence, with strong grade of root, Irish dinu * agna.' 

5. Ir. truit^ druit * starling ' < *trozdt8 : Lith. strazdas * thrush,' 
Lat. turdus for *forzdo8. The words in the Brythonic group of Celtic 
dialects, Welsh drudwy, Corn, troden^ Bret tret, dret, dred cannot 
have been regularly developed from ^trozdis — zd in this group of 
dialects gives th\ if there is any connexion it must be one of 
borrowing, and that seems not unlikely for the Cornish and 
Breton words; the relatiqn of the Welsh word to the others 
is not clear to me. As to truity druit, the sinking of the 
tenuis to the media finds a parallel in Irish gee * branch ' 
compared with Welsh cang. Under what conditions the 
weakening took place it is not easy to determine. The tenuis 
would become a media after a preceding closely connected word 
originally ending in a nasal ; thus * inna n- cec in the gen. pi. 
would have given inna gee, and the media may have spread from 
such cases. Quite distinct from this is the sinking of a tenuis 
to a media in pre tonic words as gach * every ' from each, do * thine ' 
from to=^'^ tovo or * tove, cf. Skr. tdva, Lat. tuus, 

6. W. troeth 'wash, lye, urine,' K'^trodd: Gr. idpf^avov 'vinegar' 
(with different grade of vowel Ta/)7-=*^r^-), with which Prellwitz, 
Etym. Wb. d. Griech. Spr. compares O.N. ')pre1ckr, O.H.G. drech, 
N.H.G. dreck. Another form trwyth is given, which would come 
from some form like *troctiy wy for oe being due to the nature 
of the following vowel, cf . wyn * lambs ' < *ogni with oen * lamb ' 

< *ogno8. 

7. W. gwyiv 'withered, faded' < *vt'V0-8 : Lat. viefus * withered,' 
Lith. vystu * wither.' The suffix -uo- may have a participial force 
as in Ir. mart * dead ' < ^marvos ; other examples are given by 
Johansson, KZ. 30, 443 note. 

8. Lat. ligula, G. Meyer, Indo-Germanische Forschungen II. 
368, rejects the derivation of ligula from y/leigh * lick,' and 

* Cf. Johansson BB. xviii. 13. 


postulates as the original Latin form *lugula. His reason 
for rejecting the derivation from high is the Old Slav. Itiica 
' spoon ' ; according to him ligtUa and l^iica are diminutives of 
a *luga 'spoon.' In this he has overlooked some Celtic words 
which, from the close connexion between Latin and Celtic, have 
more weight in determining the original form of the Latin word, 
and which Stokes, Kuhn u. Schleichers Beitrage VIII. 323, 
has already brought into connexion with ligula. Ir. Hag * ladle,' 
W. //try, Com. /o, Bret, loa * spoon,' point to a Celtic word 
*leigd * spoon,' of which, with a different grade of vowel Lat. 
liguia is evidently a diminutive. The connexion of ligula with 
^letgh may then be maintained. With regard to Slav, luiica 
1 do not venture to express any opinion. 

9. Ir. /uar *I found,' frith * was found.' These words have 
been discussed in Curtius' Grundziige,* 742, with no satisfactory 
result. It is remarked there : ** Zu fuar gehort als praet. pass. 
frith fofrith inventum est. Daraus lasst sich im giinstigstcn falle 
eine irische wurzel /ar, d. i. rar, erschliessen, mit fo (sub) zusam- 
mengesetzte fo-far^ im perfektum zu fimr verschmolzen ; das praet. 
pass, frith ohne die praposition, fofrith mit derselben, enthalt die 
geschwachte wurzelform, deren ri einem skr. r entsprechen wiirde, 
obwohl man hierboi nach dem muster von hreth (vgl. skr. hhrta), 
praet. pass, von herim ich trage, eigentlich ^freth erwarten sollte." 
It seems to me that fiiar and frith might formally be explained as 
follows. We may postulate a root nere- with another form yre- ; 
compare the variation in ipeiv^ f^rjOijpai. The strong stem of the 
perfect from this root would be «/^Mor-, the weak ufur-. Thus we 
may suppose that there was at one time an Irish paradigm 1 sg. 
*cevora, 3 sg. ^vevore^ 3 pi. ^ceurontor. These forms would become 
in the first instance *vovora, *oovore, *vourontor. The last would 
give regularly the historical fxiaratar * they found.' Can *vorora 
have given regularly *f6rf fuar? This sound-change seems to 
me to be established by the contraction of the combination of 
particles to-vor' to txiar- as in. tiiar-aschat *proferunt' <*to-for- 
ex-gabantOf to-vo^ to tua- in tualang * aptus, peritus,' < *(ofo- 
lang-. We may then look upon fuar as coming from ^vovora^ 
fuair from *vovore, without calling in the analogy of the plural 
or dwelling on the fact that the 3 sg. fuair might also represent 
the middle form *ueurai, A parallel to fdair * he found ' is met 
with in foHiair * he caused ' > ^fo-ro-fkair pret. of fo-feraim. As 
for frith, unless we are to believe that it differs in formation from 


other preterites passive, it must be supposed to have come from 
*vritO', In that case the i cannot be short, as *vrito- would have 
given */reth. It is true that for the most part the i of this 
word has no mark of lengthening over it, but the long mark is 
occasionally found, and the length of the vowel is sufficiently 
guaranteed by the absence of inflection. In some other words 
ending in th the long mark is found very sporadically. If then 
the t of frith is long, the form may be explained very simply : 
it comes from *vrelo8y which stands in the same relation to ^vere- 
as Gr. pjfro^ to ipeiv or rprf-To^ to Tepe-rpov, That, as Mr. Stokes 
long ago suggested, f&ar is etymologically connected with evplaKw 
is very probable, but the formation of the Greek word is not 
clear. From a disyllabic root euer- (for examples of such roots 
see Persson, Zur Lehre von der Wurzelerweiterung 227 sq.) might 
come on the one hand uer-, on the other eur-^ but how then is 
the rough breathing to be explained ? Can analogy of some 
kind have been at work ? That must remain a mere guess until 
some word is pointed out near enough in meaning to evpiffxto 
to have influenced its form. There are other possibilities, but 
all too uncertain to be mentioned. Whether there is further 
connexion with Skr. vdrate * shuts in,* Old Bulg. vrHt * claudere,' 
Lith. suverti * close,* must be left an open question. For the develop- 
ment of meaning might be compared perhaps Gr. wepipaWeaOai 
' to bring into one's power.* 

10. Ir. bras, W., Corn., Bret, bras 'great, big' may come 
from *bratto8, and this from *mratto8y *mr9dh-to8: Gr. pXwOpo^ 
for '^ppwOpo's, Skr. murdhan 'head,' Old Bulg. brtdo * height,' etc., 
cf. Johansson, KZ. xxx. 449. There is also an Irish word bres 
* great,' which might be derived from *britto8, *mrdh-to8, 

11. Ir. medar * mirth ' < *medrO'f medraim * disturb, confuse ' 
{cid notmedrasu * what disturbs thee,' LL. 57^ 27, rotmedair * has 
confused thee,* LL. 308* 36) < *medrdid : Skr. mad * gliicklich 
sein, sich beriiuschen,' cf. Fick, "Wb.* 105. 

12. Ir. tailm * sling,' Bret, talm * sling ' (in dial, of Yannes 
' coup de tonerre '), may stand for ^talksmi-, cognate perhaps 
with Old Bulg. tlUka * schlage ' ^y/telk-, though the meanings 
difier considerably. Closer in meaning to the Slavonic words 
are W. talch ^ grist, or coarse meal,' Corn, talch ' bran,' "W. 
talch * broken, bruised,' cf. Russ. tolokno * gedorrtes hafermehl.' 
Talch might come from talko- : it might also by Stokes' law come 
from talkkoy talkno-, -no- part, from telk-, and so=Russ. tolokno. 


13. Ir. toisc 'wish' < ^to-vesci-, ^to-venski- : Germ, wunsch 
< '^taunskdf Skr. vdnchu * wish.' * As Irish en may come from 
^, tO'Venski- may contain the same grade of vowel as *wunsk6f 
nensk' is a -sko- formation from uen-, Skr. vdnati * desire,' Goth. 
^'unan * sich freuen,' etc., which appears perhaps in Celtic in 
"W. gwenu * to smile, to look pleasantly.' 

14. Ir. ddssaim in pass, with prep, imm * to rage,' Windisch 
Wb. 407, LL. 69a g, 256^ 8, 258* 11, ddsacht ' insania,' 
ddsachtach *insanus.' Ddssaim may come from ^dhuostdio^ and 
we may compare Lith. dvesti * breathe,' dvash ' breath, ghost,' 
dusmas * anger,' Ags. dvas^ *hebes, fatuus,' Dutch dwaas Hhoricht,' 
Persson, Zur Lehre v. d. Wurzelerweitening 81 sq. The Irish 88 is 
ambiguous, but if the word is rightly derived from dhues, it 
is simplest to suppose that it is based on a stem ^dhndsto-. 
Cf. similar Lat. formations, Brugmann, Grundriss II. 11. 26. 

15. \v,fuinim * set' of the sun might be derived from *vo-ne86, 
Gr. veofiai\ fuinid in gr'ian literally * die sonne geht unter.' 
The explanation of the cognate fuin ' sunset ' is not quite clear. 
I have examples only of the ace. fuin} A nom. fuin might 
come from '^vo-ne8'8 a radical noun, which may have fallen 
together with i- stems, and so have ace. fuin^ (for '^fuine=*vonesen). 
It is, however, possible that it may be a late deverbative from 

fuinim, of the same kind as Lat. pugna from pugnare, 

16. Ir. ness * blow, wound,' < *nec8o- or *nec8d : Old Bulg. 
niza *infigo,' pronoziti 'perfodere,' Gr. vvaffvo. The Irish word 
may be based on a neut. stem neghes-. From ness seems to come 
the verb fo-nessaim, LL. 74^ ^Ofosnessa sleig culind ina bond traiged 
* he drives a spear of holly into the sole of his foot' (the LU. version 
73^ 15 has fornessa). Another form of the root appears in Gr. 
e^lX^^i cf. Prellwitz Et. "Wb. s.v. The two forms negh^ engh may 

* Mr. Stokes informs me that he had previously compared with vdnchd, 
wunsch, Ir. dufoscaiget, Ml. 33*^ 3, toisc, Toisc may then, as he suggests, very 
well come from ^to-vonski-, 

2 With Ags. dwaeSf Dutch dwaas Ir. dussaim goes very well in meaning, 
Ml. 6Q^ 2, in a gloss on non nisi mentis incompofem dicit piovidenticB negatorem. 
The gloss runs nech lasnahi eiall 7 immaudaister ishe asber nad Jil dleyed 
rt[medeicseii) d<B diadulaib^ *'he who has no understanding and is out of his 
senses {mentis incompos), he it is who says that there is no law of providence of 
God to his creatures." 

8 Windisch, Wb. s.v. /wtw, siar co fuin * westward to sunset,' LL. 10t> 4 
= Book of Ballymote 33* 44. 

* If we could assume a radical neut. noun *vo-nes fuin would be the regular 
ace, but I can find no instance of such a formation. 


best be explained from a disyllabic ene^h which became differen- 
tiated into neghj engh^ under different accentual conditions. This 
form of the root is also found in Irish in composition.^ The oldest 
instance is Wb. 4^ 1 3 adcomcisset ilheim friss ' they struck many 
blows against him ' : adcumcisset—^aith'COM'ang-isset, For the 
phonetic change cf. nk chumcaim^ *I am not able '=wi com-angaim. 
The corresponding 1 sg. atacomcua {^aith-da'Comangus) * I struck 
them* is found LU. 114^ 11 atacomctissa com Idu *I struck them 
(the doors) with my heel.* Cf. also LL. 107* 14 atacomaing na 
teora formaela Mide * who smote {i.e, cut off the tops of) the three 
Bald Hills of Meath.' The enclitic form of aith-comaing is ecmaing, 
ecmoing * he struck, cut/ Windisch Wb. 5 1 7-5 18. The simple comang 
is found LL. 90* 21 cumangsa in m-hirsa trisindara n-ai dih stum 
* I drove this spear through one of the two/ the 3 sg. cumaing in 
the same passage. As to the Irish vocalism I have with great 
hesitation written ang : a^ however it is to be explained, is un- 
doubtedly found in Celtic in the e-o series. But it is possible that 
the Irish forms are based on a perfect — *onga, *onge with regular 
ablaut. Such perfect forms are cumang, cumaing , which might come 
from *comonga, ^comongCy but also from *comanga, *comange. 

17. W. hreuan * carrion-crow.' As W. hreuan * handmill,* 
Ir. hr6 comes from ^brdvon-, ^^rdvon-y Skr. grdvan, * stone for 
pressing the Soma,* so hreuan * carrion-crow * may be derived 
from ^brdvon-y ^-^rd-von- : Gr. ^ifipwffKw * eat.* We have a 
cognate formation in W. hreuad * a grave-worm, a worm that 
eats the bodies of the dead ' < *j^r6-uot. 

18. Ir. dahach 'cask' <^dahakd^ ^dhahhahd: Gr. Tacjyo^j Tacppo^y 
OuTrTtUy and cognates. 

19. Ir. derg *red.' So far as I know no cognates have yet 
been discovered for this word. May it not be possibly connected 
with Ags. deorCf Eng. * dark * < *dkergos ? For the two meanings 
cf. Skr. raj * colour, be red,' raktas * coloured, red,* rajas 'dunst- 
kreis, nebel, dunkel, Gr. ep€fio9y Goth, riqis * darkness.* 

20. Ir. *di-ne8sim^ * despicio * : Gr. ovoffaofiaiy oi/o<rT09, etc., 
Zd. nad *schmahen, cf. Osthoff, Perfekt 394 n., Persson, Zur 

^ Cf. Zimmer, Zeitschrift fiir Deutsches Altertham xxxii. 253. 

^ Graphic for eumgaim which is also found, e representing the explosive g. 

-^ Old-Irish examples are codunessa gl. ut dispiciat Ml. 'S6^ 12, andarunesvs 
gl. spernens (=when I despised them) ^6^ 1, donesbe gl. dispicies 11 2<^ 3, 
odernesaa gl. donee dispiciat 129* 14. A compound with com is also found: 
connessat 'they condemn' Wb. 1^ 7, cia conne^ea tuicsiu de gl. quis accusabit 
adversus electos Dei P 4^ 15. 


Lehre v. d. Wurzelerweiterung 198. The formation of nesstm 
is uncertain ; it might come from ^netteid or ^netlitp, or ^netsew 
or ^netsiio. If this connexion is to be maintained, the Irish 
word points to an Idg. root ^ned^ to which Gr. ovoh- would 
stand in ablaut. 

21. Ir. ipv. tairg 'offer* points to a compound to-arg-. This 
arg- is found with com- LL. 65* 48, coropi in laech conairr 
oomrac dar cend in ehoicid ali *'so that he is the warrior who 
shall offer battle on behalf of the whole province," 65^ 1, coropi 
conairr sHa *'8o that he shall offer treasures": conairr < ^com- 
arcsei, subj. of s- aorist. We may perhaps compare Gr. opeyto and 
its cognates so that the primary meaning would be * to stretch out,' 
whence comes easily the meaning of * offer,' cf. oTnrorepoKn Trarrjp 
Z€V9 KvSo9 ope^rj and the like. Root oreg-^ reg- org- {op^via\ 
Persson, Zur Lehre v. d. "Wurzelerweiterung 225. The form reg- 
is also found in Irish, Ascoli, Lexicon Palseo-Hibemicum, cxcvii. 


CELTIC SUFFIXES. By Whitley Stokes, D.C.L. 

iRead 6th February, 1893.] 

'* Ferner scheint n als Anlaut hochbetonter w-Suffixe an die Nach- 
kommen idg. wurzelschliessenden Verschlusslaute assimiliert worden 
zu sein. So liisst sich die urgerm. Konsonantendehnung erklaren 
z.B. ahd. lecchon * lecken/ urgerm. likko^ aus vorgerm. ^li^h-nd-^ 
vgl. griech. Xixvevw^ w. leijh.'*^ — Brugmann, Grundriss I. § 214. 

*' hn, dUf g7iy vor dem Hauptton wurden im Urgerm. zu bh, dd^ gg^ 
daraus nach § 533, pp^ tt, kk^ die weiter ebenso behandelt wurden, 
wie die aus idg. puj tn, k'n^ qn, und aus idg. hhn^ dhn, ^hn, 
jfin, entstandenen pp, Uy kk (§ 530, 538). — Grundriss I. § 534.^ 
ISee also ibid. II. p. 397, § 541. 

Though well aware of the danger of assuming that a phonetic 
law, good for one family of languages, is good for another, it seemed 
to me, when I read these passages, that they gave the key to the 
etymology of six groups of Celtic words, which have not, so far as 
I know, hithei-to been explained. I mentioned this key, briefly, 
in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, xxix. 375, and now after five years' con- 
sideration, I proceed to submit to Celtologues the words in question 
and their respective etymologies. 

I. gg from -gm, -gni^ -gnd, 

1. Ir. acuSy ocuis (now agus) *and'; Old'Celtic *akku8ti from 
"^'aggiisti (the provection being due to the accent) ; pre-Celtic 

^ Compare Paul-Braune's Beitrage, vii. 133'; Osthoff, ibid. vii. 297 et seq. ; 
Kluge, ibid. ix. 149 ; Kauffmann, ibid. xii. 604. 


*aghnuHtiy cognate with Lat. angmtus ; Greek axwjiiai (Schmidt, 
Vocaligmus, I. 31), a7x« ; Skr. amhiis. So Ir. ac 'and' (Bodleian 
Annals of Innisfallen, fo. 35^ 2, etc.); W. ach 'near,' point to 
an Old-Celtic ^akko-j "^aggd-, pre- Celtic *agh-n6' . 

In the Welsh ac *and/ agos ' near *= Corn, hag, ogos ; Bret, hag 

* and,* 7*0^02 * presque, k peu pres,' the urkelt. kk seems to have 
heen simplified. The Ir. prep, ucy oc * juxta, prope, apud' = 
W. wng^ wngc * prope,' seem to come from an Old-Celtic ^onko-, 
cognate with Skr. dndmga ; Gr. ^t/eyKc. 

2. Ir. aicCf ate * band,' * chain ' ; Old-Celtic ^akki^ *aggi ; pre- 
Celtic *pagni (the loss of p is regular), cognate with Lat. pa-n-go 
(Grundriss, § 632), corn-pages ; Gr. Tn^yvv-fii. Erom atcc comes 
Ir. aicde * structure,' * building.' 

This etymology of mcc is doubtful, as it might equally well 
be derived from a pre-Celtic ^pakni-, cognate with the Skr. 
pagdyati * binds ' ; Lat. pax^ paciscor ; Gr. TraffaaXo^ (from 
*7ra*:m\,o9) ; Goth, fahan, 

3. Ir. hacc (now hac) ' crozier, hook * ; Welsh hdch * hamus, 
uncus ' ; Old-Celtic *bakko-, ^hnggd- ; pre-Celtic ^bhag-nd, cognate 
with A.S. hcec; Eng. back; Skr. \/ bhaj ^ sich. wenden.' For the 
connexion of ideas, compare !N'.H.G. Rilcken, cognate with Skr. 
yjkrunc * to be crooked, to curve.' 

4. Ir. bocc (now bog^ * soft ' and bocc * bow ' (in fid-bocc ' arcus 
ligneus'); Old-Celtic ^bukko-, *bugg6-; pre-Celtic *bkug-n6f cognate 
with A.S. boga; Eng. bow; !N'.H.G. Bogen^ biegeUy biegsam; Gr. 
(jf)evfytvy (jf)iffyyai/tvy Lat. fugto ; Skr. bhuf, part. perf. pass, bhugnd. 
The mod. Ir. bogha is borrowed from the A.S. 

5. Ir. bocc (now boc) * he-goat ' ; W. bwch ; Old-Celtic *bukko'8, 
*bvgg6-8 ; pre-Celtic *bhug-n6'8j cognate with Zend biiza ' Bock ' ; 

A.S. bucca; O.N. bukkr ; O.H.G. boc. 

It is possible that this Ir. bocc may have been borrowed from 
one of the Teutonic words just cited. 

6. Gaul, brdca * breeches ' ; Old-Celtic *brdkkd, *braggdy pre- 
Celtic ^bhrdg-ndy derived from *bhrdg * rump,' cognate with Lat. 
frdg ro. For the connexion of ideas compare Lith. bulis * buttock' 
and Skr. buli * vulva,' cognate with Ir. bolad (Old-Celtic ^bulaio-s) 

* smell'; Skr. puta m. du. 'the buttocks' B.R., cognate with 
pug, puyate * to stink ' ; Lat. podex, cognate with pedo ; and Gr. 
Xohavo^y Zend zadhahhy cognate with x^T^ ^^^ ^]s.t. had. 

From the Gaulish brdca (where the Old-Celtic kk is simplified) 
are borrowed, on the one hand, Romanic words like Ital. braca; 


Fr. hrat'ef and, on the other, Teutonic words, such as O.H.G. 
pruoh\ O.N. hrdkr \ A.S. hrdc^ pi. hrec \ Eng. breech. 
The Br. hragou seems to come from a Low-Lat. hrdca. 

7. Ir. brecc (now hreac) ^speckled* ; W. hrych ; Old- Celtic *wrH*o-«, 
*mrgg6-8 ; pre-Celtic ^mrg-nd-Sy cognate with Lith. margas. Another 
participle from the same root is O.Ir. mrecht * variusr= W. hrith 
* motley, pied ' ; Old-Celtic ^mrkto-s ; pre-Celtic ^mrg-to-s, 

8. Med. Lat. (Gaulish ?) clocca ' bell,' W. clock, F., Old-Celtic 
*klokkd, from an oxyton *kloggd, pre-Celtic *klogndf cognate with 
Gr. Kkd^tv (perf. KCKXayya), from *K\ayiu), and icXa77iJ ; Lat. 
cla-n-go; Lith. klag'eti *to laugh'; O.N. hlakka Ho scream.' The 
Irish cognate is e?/o<?<? (now clog), a masc. o-stem, deducible from 
a pre-Celtic ^klog-nd-s. 

This etymology is doubtful, as Med. Lat. clocca, W. clock may 
come from *klukkd, kluk-nd ; and Ir. clocc from *klukko-8, ^kluk-nd-a, 
cognate with Bulg. klUcam * stosse * ; Servian kucati * klopf en.' 

9. Ir. cnocc (now cnoc) M. *hill'; O.Br, cnock (gl. tumulus); 
Old-Celtic ^knokko'8, *knogg6-8 ; pre-Celtic *knog-n6-8. Cognate 
with O.N. knakke * Hinterhaupt ' ; A.S. knecca ; Eng. neck; N.H.G. 
NackeUy see Kluge s.v. In W. cnwc, pi. cnyciau * gibbus, tuber,' 
we have an unexplained preservation of the Old-Celtic kk, 

10. W. crych * curled'; Bret, creek; Old-Celtic *krekko-8, ^kreggd-s; 
pre-Celtic *kregk-n6-8. Cognate with A.S. kring ; O.N. kringa ; 
O.Slav, krqgii 'circle,' kraglH * round.' 

11. Ir. eic {eig, O'Cl.) *moon'; Old-Celtic ^enkki-, *enggi- ; 
pre-Celtic ^peng-nt-, cognate with Gr. 0€77os from *8phengo8, 
Mod.Gr. (jye^^api * moon.' The common word for * moon,' e8cae, is 
to eic as gescae * branch ' is to gee. 

12. Ir. fecc (now feac) * spade' ; Old-Celtic *vekkd, *vegga ; pre- 
Celtic *vegk'na; cognate with Lat. vanga, vomer, Gr. o0i//9, O.N. 
mngsnt, O.H.G. waganso * ploughshare ' ; Pruss. wagnis * coulter.' 

13. Ir. glicc (now glic) * cunning ' ; Old-Celtic *glkki-8, *glggi-8; 
pre-Celtic ^ghlgh-ni-s, cognate with Gr. koXxo-ivu), KaXxas ; Goth. 
glaggvd, glaggvuha. 

The Scottish gleg seems borrowed from Ir. glicc. 

14. W. kwch F. *a sow' ; Com. kock; Old-Celtic *8ukkd, ^suggd; 
pre-Celtic ^sugk-nd, cognate with A.S. 8ugu *sow' and Dutch 

There is a modern Irish 8uige * a call to pigs,' and O'Reilly has 
also 8uig * a pig ' ; but this may have been borrowed from A.S. 
sugu. Why W. kwck is not kock I do not understand. 


15. Ir. laee (now la^) * weak ' ; Old-Celtic ^lakko-Sy laggd-g ; 
pre-Celtic ^lag-nd-s, formally = the oxyton Gr. Xa7J/o?, and cognate 
also with Xarfivvy Lat. languor, Una (from *lengnd)f etc. In W. 
llaec ' laxus, remissus/ we have another instance of the preserva- 
tion of Old-Celtic kk. 

16. Ir. Uce, leae 'an act or deed which binds the persons 
indissolubly,' O'Don. Supp.; Old-Celtic *Ukka {-ko-?), *liggd 
{-g6- ?) ; pre-Celtic ^lig-nd {-nd- ?), cognate with Lat. ligare, 

17. Ir. 'liee in dlie (^ad-licc) and ad-laie {^aith-lice) ' pleasing,* 
"W. lip in cyffelyb * consimilis *; Old-Celtic ^liqqi-, ^li'S'S^- ; pre-Celtic 
*/t5-«i. Cognate with Goth, ga-leiks, leikan ; Lith. lygtM ; Skr. 
linga-m (J. Schmidt, Vocalismus, i. 89). 

18. Ir. loco (now log) ^ a hollow' ; Old-Celtic Huhho-y *lugg6- ; pre- 
Celtic ^Itcg-nd-, Cognate with Gr. XvyiXf^, Lith. lugnas * biegsam.' 

19. Ir. menicc (now minic) * frequent, often' ; W. mynych; Old- 
Celtic *menekki', *meneggi- ; pre-Celtic *menegh-ni-. Cognate with 
Goth, manags ; O.Slav. mUnogU (Kluge s.v. manch). 

20. "W. rhoeh F. * a grunt, a groan ' ; Br. roc' ha * ronfler ' ; Old- 
Celtic *rokkd, *roggd ; pre-Celtic *rogh-nd. Cognate with Gr. /5€7xos, 

21. Ir. sluccim {now slugaim) 'I swallow;' Old -Celtic ^slukkd^ 
^sluggo ; pre-Celtic ^slug-no. Cognate with Gr. Xv^to (from 
Xi/fyio)), Xv*^f^avu3 and N.H.G. schlucken. 

The nasal in the corresponding British verbs — W, llyngeu 
* deglutire,' ' gurgitare*; O.Bret, ro-luncas (gl. guturicauit) — seems 
due to a contamination of the regular *luch with the equivalent of 
the Ir. longud ' to eat ' (W. llewa * edere,' * manducare '), or of the 
Goth, fra-dindan ' verschlingen.' 

22. Ir. trice (now trie) * swift'; Old- Celtic *trkki-8, *trggi-8; 
pre-Celtic ^tfgh-ni-s, . Cognate with Gr. rpextn- The Gaulish 
ovep-rpayoi' 7roSwK€i9 Kvv€9f Ir. traig * foot,' and Goth. ]fragjan^ 
exhibit a different grade of vowel. 

Other such words are perhaps Ir. /race * hand,* /race 'wife,' 
/rate * shield ' ; W. gwych ' brave ' ; Br. sac^ha * s*arreter,' ' ne 
point couler,' which last may come from an Old-Celtic verb *8takk6, 
*8taggo; pre-Celtic stag-no^ltai. stagno; and Br. stuc^hen * sheaf,' 
which may be cognate with Skr. tunj 'to push,' as Eng. sheaf 
is with Goth, skiuhan ' to shove.' 


II. dd from -dnd, -dni^ -dndj -dno, 

23. Ir. ctt * sheep,* (whence ctten, cetnait * lamb ') ; Old-Celtic 
*kettt'j ^keddi; pre-Celtic ^ked-nij cognate with ur-Germanic 
hadna *goat'; M.H.G. hatele, with which Ir. cadla *goat* seems 

24. Ir. cuit (now cuid) ' portion, '='W. peth ; Com. peth ; Br. pez ; 
Old-Celtic *qetti, *qeddi'; pre-Celtic *qed-ni, cognate with Lith. 
kedeti bersten ; Slav, cesti * a part ' (Bezzenberger). 

The Er. piece j Ital. peiaa, rest immediately on a low-Loiin petia^ 
doubtless a Gaulish derivative of qetti-. 

The Gaelic pet, gen. jt?^/^^, * a piece of land,' common in the 
topography of Scotland, and pit (in tercfity leth-Jit) ' a portion 
of food,' are borrowed from some British dialect, Pictish perhaps, 
from which the Icelanders seem to have got their petti, 

25. lT,/mt * cold ' ; Old-Celtic *votti, *voddi ; pre-Celtic ^vod-ni, 
cognate with Ch.Slav. voda 'water,' Goth. vatOy Eng. water, 
toet. In Lith. vandu and Lat. unda we also find a nasal, which, 
though inserted in the root, may have been originally suffixal. 

26. Ir. gataim (now gadaim) *I take away, steal'; Old-Celtic 
*gatt6y *gadd6 ; pre-Celtic ^ghadh-noy cognate with Skr \/gadh (I.E. 
ghadh) ; Yedic gadhia * was zu erbeuten ist ' (Grassmann) ; Gr. 
KLffffo^ (from *x^^i°^) t ^^d ^^^' ^^dera. 

The I.E. root ghad, whence Gr. x^^^^^^^t ^^^- pre-hendoy Goth. 
hi-gitariy is represented in Celtic by the W. genni * contineri, com- 
prehendi, capi.' 

27. Ir. *gett {now gead) 'rump,' whence geaddn ^buttock,' O'Don. 
Supp. ; Old-Celtic *geito-y ^geddd- ; pre-Celtic *ghed-n6, cognate 
with Gr. x^r^> KcxoSay xo^""®* > Skr. had * cacare ' ; Zend 
zadhaiih * podex.' 

The honorific portion of food called in Old- Irish mil-getan, 
seems to belong here. 

28. Ir. lutu (now liiidin) 'little-finger.' Founded on a base 
*Htt ex ^luddy ^lUd-n. Cognate with A.S. Igtel, O.H.G. luzil, 

29. Ir. *rataim (now radaim) ' I give,' do-rata * det,' do-ratus 
*dedi'; Old-Celtic *ratt6, raddd ; pre-Celtic *radh-no, cognate with 
Skr. yjradhy randh * iiberliefern, in die gewalt geben ' (see Schmidt, 
Vocalismus, I. 36). From the unnasalised form of the root comes 
added to the Middle- Welsh dy-rodeSy where the ending of the 
s-pret. is the perf. rod. This rod (= O.Welsh ^raud) is to the 
pre-Celtic radh-no as Gr. ep-pw-^a is to pyfy-vv-p,i. 


Windisch, Worterb. 499, brings doubtfully Ir. rat in do-ratuMy 
etc., from *ro-dad\ Skr. dadami. But in Old-Celtic the verb 
corresponding with dadami would probably have been dO, dedd, 
or dido J and ro-dedoy ro-dido would have become in Old -Irish, not 
ro'dadf but ro-deod, ro-dtud. 

30. Ir. sldet (now slaod) * a slide,' LL. 391^ 7; Old-Celtic ^slaitto-, 
^slaiddd-; pre-Celtic ^slatdh-nd-. Cognate are Lith. slidita * glatt' ; 
Lett, slatds * sloping' (Grundriss, §634); A.S. slidan; N.H.G. 
schlitten ; Skr. sridh * to stumble,' * to make a false step.' 

31. Ir. tot 'a wave,' O'CL; Old-Celt. *tutta, *tudda; pre-Celtic 
*tud-na. Cognate are Skr. tuddmi *I strike'; Lat. tudes, tudttare ; 
Goth, stauta; M.H.G. siutze 'stosse,' groundform stud-n (Grundriss, 
§ 605). 

In Ir. and Welsh tonn * wave ' ; Old-Celtic ^tundd, the root is 
nasalised, as in Lat. tu-n-do^ Per-tu-n-da ; Skr. tundate. 

Prof. Bezzenberger prefers to connect tot and tonn with A.S. 
\e6tan * heulen,' O.N. \j6ta *ert6nen'; O.H.G. diozan *to8en, 
rauschen, schwellen,' tffnzzer diezo * wasserschnelle.' 

32. Ir. trott (now trod) *a quarrel,' pi. n. troit\ Old-Celtic 
*trutt0'8, ^truddd'S ; pre-Celtic *trud-n6'8. Cognate are Lat. trudo, 
trudia; Goth, us-^riutan Ho molest,' \rutsJHl 'leprous'; A.S. 
]>re6tan (Eng. threaten) ; O.Slav. trudU * trouble.' 

Other Celtic derivatives from \/trud are Ir. troscatm *I fast' 
i^trud'skd), trosc 'a leper,' tromm 'heavy,' * oppressive' {^trud'Smo-s) ; 
"W. trwm * gravis, tristis, maestus'=Com. trom, Bret, troum. 

To these words we may perhaps add Ir. grett * champion,' 
^rut * curds,' lott * whore,' lott 'destruction,' and slatt (=W. 
llath) now slat, * rod.' 

III. hb from -hni, -hn6, -hnii, 

33. O.Ir. *bapp, *bopp ' bunch,' ' tassel ' ; Mid.Ir. papp, popp, 
LTJ. 97* 3, pi. ace. pupu, LB. 127*; Highland Gaelic bab, M. gen. 
baba ; Old-Celtic *bappu, *babbii, ^boppw, *bobb{t' ; pre-Celtic 
*bhabh-n{i, ^bhobh-nu-, cognate with Lat. /aba, haba, Pruss. babo ; 
O.Slav. bobHf and perhaps Gr. 7ro-/A-0o9, 7r6-/t-0/9 from ^tfto-fi-tpo^^ 
*</)€- fi-(pi9. The initial p in Mid.Ir. popp may be due to assimilation, 
as in Mid.Ir. prapad 'the twinkling of an eye ' = O.Ir. bra/ad; 
e6ie *five,' Old-Celtic *qenqiy pre-Celtic *penqi; and Eng. Bob a 
pet-form of Robert. 


The Eng. hoh * bunch, knob, plummet,' seems either borrowed 
from, or cognate with, O.Ir. hopp. 

34. W. doff * lame, limping ' ; Old-Celtic ^kloppo-Sy *klohh6-8 ; 
pre-Celtic ^klob-nd-s, cognate with Gr. KKafi^o^ and Lith. Uumhas 

* lame, limping.' 

The low-Latin cloppua * x^^^^>^ Ducange (whence Fr. cloupf 
elopiner) seems to rest on a Gaulish *kloppo-8, 

35. rap * every animal that drags to it, ut sunt sues,' Cormac's 
Glossary; Old-Celtic *rappO', ^rabbd-; pre-Celtic rah-n6y cognate 
vfi\hrapm\ N.H.G. raffen *to snatch.' Or with Old-Bulg. rahiti 

* secare, rapere * ? 

The above etymology is doubtful, as rap might equally well 
be referred to a pre-Celtic *rap-n6 (see infra, Nos. 56-63), and be 
then connected with Lat. rapio, 

36. Ir. scip * hand,' dat. sg. ina dag-scip *in his good hand,' 
LB. 240*; Old-Celtic ^sheppi-, '^skehhi- ; pre-Celtic ^keh-nu 
Cognate are Goth, ga-skapjan^ Eng. shapes !N".H.G. schaffen. 

In Ir. <?Mj[?^A<i ' shapen,' 'brought into form,* O'Don. Supp., we 
have a part. pret. pass, from a sister-root keh. Hence also O'Brien's 
eib * a hand.' 

Other such words are possibly Ir. cepoc * quire-song,' lapp 

* slime ' (now lahdriy lathe) ; W. lleihio (Br. lippat) * to lick ' ; Ir. 
opunn (now olann) * sudden ' (cf. Gr. aipi/wi) ; tapp, ^opp, Mod. Ir. 
tapf tapaidh * quick, active,' and timpdn ' a standing-stone,' formed 
a stem *iemppo-f *tembb6'y from ^tembh-no : cf. Skr. stamhha ' post,' 

* pillar ' ; Zend gtembana ; Lith. stambas, 

I have thus, I hope, made it probable, if I have not proved, 
that in Old-Celtic, as in primeval Germanic, the initial n of the 
accented n- suffixes was sometimes assimilated to a preceding ^, 
dy or b. I will now mention some instances where the same 
n appears to have been assimilated to a preceding ^, q^ t, or p. 

IV. kk from -knd, -knd-y -knon-, -knu-, -qud-, -qnu. 

37. W. achf F. 'generation,' achen * lineage'; O.W. achmonou 
(gl. inguinibus) ; Ir. aicme * genus,' aicned * natura.' All from 
an Old- Celtic *akka, pre-Celtic '^ak-nd^ cognate with Skr. anka^ 
' flank, lap,' and aknay vy-akna, sam-akna ' gebogen' (Fick^, I. 6). 

38. Ir. hrocc (now brog) * grief ' ; Old-Celtic ^brukko- {^brukka ?) ; 
pre-Celtic ^bruk-nd, *grukn6y cognate with Gr. ppvKiv * I bite ' ; 
Lat. broccfim. 


Ir. brdn * grief '=W. hrwyn M. 'a pricking,* 'smarting/ may 
be cognate and come from a paroxyton Old-Celtic ^hrdknO'. 

39. Ir. cacc (now cac) ^ dung '; W. each M. ' fimus '; Com. caugh ; 
Br. cauch *merda'; Old-Celtic *kakko- ; pre-Celtic ^kak-nd- or 
*kaq-n6'. Cognate with Skr. gaka and gakrt, gen. gaknds (oxyton !) ; 
Gr. KaKKTj ; Lat. cacare ; Lith. azikti. 

Ir. cechair * slough* may be cognate. 

40. Ir. crocan (now crogdn) *pot'; W. crockan, founded on an Old- 
Celtic *krokko'y pre-Celtic ^krok-nd-, cognate with Gr. Kptotrtro^ 
from '^KpujKio9, 

41. *grdcc (now grdg) *the croaking of a raven,' grdg infra 
No. 55, where it rhymes with ndt ; Old-Celt, ^grdkko ; pre-Celtic 
*grdk'9i6. Cognate with Lat. grdculus, 

42. lecc (now leac) ' flagstone ; ' W. ?/^(?A * tabula saxea ' ; Old- 
Celtic *lkkd ; pre-Celtic *plkna. Cognate with liBt.planca, placenta ; 
Gr. 7r\af, 7r\aKov9y TrXaKivo^ ; N.H.G. flach, 

43. Ir. Z^^co (now leaca^ * cheek,* gen. leccon. Founded on an 
Old-Celtic *lekko- from ^lek-nd-. Cognate with Pruss. laygnan for 
*lagknan ; O.Slav. lice Trpoaujirov (Windisch K.B. viii. 439). 

44. It, mace {iLOW mac) ^^oji^'y 01d-Celt.*mfl5'^e)-«(ogmicgen.mfl^yi); 
pre-Celtic maq-n6'8. Cognate with Lith. mdku, moke tt = Lett, mdzu, 
md%H *konnen* ; as Goth, magus *boy * (Ir. mug) is cognate with mag an. 

The Old- Welsh map points to an Old-Celtic maqo-s, or else the 
qq has been simplified. 

45. Ir. muce {now mice) * pig '; W. moeh-yUy pi. mock ; Old-Celtic 
*mukku' ; pre-Celtic *muk-n{if cognate with Lat. muctM, e-mungere ; 

Gr. pvKTi^pj yttufa, dTTo-fivffau), pv^tvv. 

46. Ir. sice (now siocc) 'frost'; Old- Celtic *8tkku, *8iqqu; pre- 
Celtic ^siq-nu, cognate with Lat. siccarCy Skr. sikatd, Zend 
hikush (Bartholomae, K.Z. 29, 525). 

47. O.Bret. *techa/n ^ fugio ' (M.Bret, infin. techet) ; Old-Celtic 
*tekkd (^teqqd?) ; pre-Celtic Hek-no {*teq-no?), cognate with Lith. 
tekinas * laufend, schnell.' So the Ir. techim ' I flee ' is cognate 
with Lith. tekuy teketi *to run, to flow,* and Zend tac 'to run, 
hasten, flow.* 

48. Ir. ^traecaim *I press,' in the compound du-thraic 'desires,* 
i.e. * presses after something * ; Old -Celtic *trakkd ; pre-Celtic 
^trak-noy cognate with A.S. \ringan\ O.H.G. dringan; Lith. 
trenkti 'stossen.* 

To this belongs W. trwch 1. *fractus,* *mancus,* 2. 'scissura,' 
' incisio,' if it be not borrowed from Lat. truncm. 


The following words may possibly be explained in like manner : 
Ir. hiccim *I bellow' (W. heichio *mugire'), now heicirn, Ir. cocca 
'boat' (W. cwch), Ir. cicce * flesb/ Ir. ice * healing' (W. tach), now 
ioCf and W. talch * grist,' from ^talkko-, *talk-n6-f which Strachan 
has connected with liuss. tolokno ' dried oatmeal.' 

V. tt from tnd, -ind, -tnii. 

49. Ir. hratt (now hrat) ' mantle ' ; O.Welsh vcLdo^-hrethinnou 
(gl. cunis) ; Old-Celtic ^hratto-a ; pre-Celtic '^hrath-nd-Sy ^grath- 
n6'8f cognate with Ir. hrdtt * a strip of cloth,' which Rhys brings 
from *branti=:SkT. granthi ' a tie, a knot.' 

50. Ir. ^^o^a * belly,' gen.glotan: glotain * bosom,' O'Er. Formed 
on a base glutt-, glut-n, cognate with Gr. 7\ovto9, I^.H.G. Kloss^ 

51. Ir. lat 'foot'; Old-Celtic natta (natto-?) ; pre-Celtic 
*plat-nd (*plat-n6' ?), cognate with Lat. planta * sole of the foot ' ; 
Gr. 7r\aTi;9 ; Lith. platits, 

52. Ir. Uttiu * porridge,' gen. litten ; Welsh IIM M. Derived 
from an Old-Celtic *lUo- ; pre-Celtic ^pU-nd-, cognate with Lat. 
puis (I.E. pltt') and Gr. ttoXto? (I.E. pi to-), 

53. Ir. matan 'battle' (Eev. Celt. xiii. 472), Mid. Ir. madan, 
BB. 49^ 18. Derived from an Old-Celtic *matto- ; pre-Celtic 
*math-n6', cognate with Gr. fioOo^ and Skr. ^math {tnanthati^ 
mathndti) ' to crush, hurt, kill.' 

From the same root come the Ir. verb memaid 'f regit/ and the 
nouns maided and maidm ' breach.' 

54. Ir. mut * short ' ; Old- Celtic ^mUttu- ; pre-Celtic *milt-nu, 
cognate with Lat. mUtilus. 

55. Ir. ndt 'buttock,' ndd .i. ton, O'Cl., gen. pi. ashetr [in]Jiach 
gohlom grdg \ «[c] creim ndt ndmat anocht ' the bare-beaked raven 
says grdCf gnawing foemen's buttocks to-night,' H. 3. 18, p. 73, 
col. 1 ; Old-Celtic ^ndtto- ; pre-Celtic ^notnd^ cognate with Gr. 
i/a)Tos, VW70V ; Lat. n&tes, 

YI. pp from 'pn6, -pnL 

56. Ir. capp ' chariot,' * hearse,' * bier,' dat. sg. ructhar do ben i 
capp .i. i carr, * may thy wife be carried in a hearse ! * LIT. 6^ 30 ; 
Old-Celtic ^kappo- ; pre-Celtic '^kap-^w. Cognate with Thess. 

KaTrai/rjf chariot,' perhaps also with KaTrduevs. 

Phil. Trans. 1891-2-8. 20 


Gr. KOLTTT) ' crib ' and Lat. eapulus * coffia ' may also be cognate. 

57. Ir. cepp * garden,' whence ceppdn and the modern caapach 
* a piece of ground laid out for tillage/ O'Don. Supp. Old- 
Celtic *keppO' ; pre-Celtic ^kep-nd- . Cognate with Gr. kyj-jto^. 
Dor. #ca7ros and I^.H.G. Huhey though the vocalism does not 
agree well. 

58. "W. (?ra^*firmus'; Old-Celt, ^krappo-s; pre-Celtic ^krap-nd-s. 
Cognate with O.Slav. krepH *fortis'; O.N. hrafa * ertragen/ krafr, 
kraptr 'robur* (Ebel, Kuhn*s Beitr. ii. 174; Schmidt, Vocalismus, 
ii. 72). 

59. Ir. crip * swift ' ; Old-Celtic *krppi- ; pre-Celtic ^krp-ni-, 
cognate with the words cited under 58 ; crib ' swiftness,' O'Br, 

The Welsh cri/f 'fortis,' * gravis'; Corn, crif (gl. fortis); Bret. 
creff *fermu8, tenax,' may belong to the same root and descend 
from a pre-Celtic ^krpmo-. For the connexion of the ideas ' swift * 
and * strong,' cf. !N".H.G. 8chneU=0.1^. sn/allr. The Irish cognate 
may be crimthann * fox,' also a proper name. 

60. Ir. gopp * mouth, beak, snout ' ; Old- Celtic ^goppo-a ; pre- 
Celtic ^gop-nd'Si cognate with Zend %afan * mouth* (Bezzenberger). 
Now gohy whence, I suppose, the English slang- word gob. The 
Fr. gobevy gobs' mouche, point to a Gaulish ^gopo-, 

61. Ir. ^ripaim *I tear,' 'rend'; Mid. and Mod. Ir. ribaimy 
reubaim; Old-Celtic *retppd; pre-Celtic "^reip-nd. Related Irish 
words are rip in the compound rip-gaeth * a rending wind,' 
LL. 83* 15, and the verbal noun repud, LB. 150*. Cognates are 
Gr. e-peiTTu); Lat. rlpa; O.N. rifa *to break,* rifna 'rumpi.' 

The Ir. rae * battle * = W. rhae may have lost a p in inlaut and 
belong to the same root, with a different grade of vowel. 

62. Ir. ropp * every animal that gores, ut sunt uaccae,' Cormac's 
Glossary ; Old-Celtic ^ruppo-s ; pre-Celtic ^rup-nd-s, cognate with 
Lat. ru-m-po'y Goth. bi-raub6n; A.S. redfiariy reofan'y O.N. rjiifa. 

63. timpdn * a stringed musical instrument.' Formed on a stem 
HemppO' * a chord ' ; pre-Celtic ^temp-nd'. Cognate with Lith. 
tempiHty tempH * ausdehnen,' temptyva * Sehne.' 

I am bound to admit that none of these etymologies are absolutely 
convincing, with, perhaps, the exception of those numbered 4 and 
15, where the ideal pre-Celtic forms are actually established by 
the oxyton Skr. bhugnd-a and Gr. \ayv69. But one of the tests of 
the truth of a theory is the number of phenomena which it explains ; 
and tried by this test, I submit that the theory now brought forward 
is at least deserving of careful consideration. 


I confess, also, that I cannot explain why, in modem Irish, we 
have offtMf hog 'soft,' clogy dig, lag, log, slugaim, beside hac, hoe 
* he-goat,' hreac, cnoo, feac^ glic, minic, trie, and hrog, crogdn, grdg, 
beside hiicim, oao, ioo, leac, leaca, maCf muc, sioo : why we have cuid, 
gadaim, gead, I'&idin, radaim, slaod, troid, beside hrat, glotain, slat: 
and, lastly, why we have hah, cih, crib, goh, ohann, reuhaim, beside 
ceapach, tap, tapaidh, 

I have, in conclusion, to state that a first draught of this paper 
appeared in Indogermanische Forschungen II. 167-173, and that 
the etymologies numbered respectively 2, 5, 7, 22, 43, 46, and 
49 are due to Professor Strachan. He also pointed out to me that 
the Irish hocc * soft ' (No. 4) might be deduced from ^hhugnd- : that 
gataim {JSo. 26) might be connected with the Skr. y/gadh\ that 
hulis and huli were cognate with Ir. holad (No. 6) ; and that lutu 
(No. 28) might be cognate with A.S. lytel, O.H.G. luzil. 

Nervi, near Genoa, 

ZOth January, 1893. 


From a MS. in the Laurentian Library. By Whitley 
Stokes, D.C.L. 

Geo. Thilo (Eheinisches Museum, Neue Folge, XIV. 132-133) 
was tlie first to call attention to the Old-Irish glosses, which are 
found in the abridgments of Philargyrus* scholia on the Bucolics 
contained in two tenth-century codices, one in the Laurentian 
library, marked plut. XLY. cod. 14, ff. 1-22, the other in the 
Bibliotheque Rationale, MS. lat. 7960, ff. 1-17. Thilo printed 
six of these glosses, which were reprinted by Zimmer (Gloss, hib. 
supplementum, p. 5), with the addition of one from the latter 
codex contributed by Herm. Hagen. To these seven, I added, 
in the Academy for Jan. 17, 1891, pp. 64-65, thirty from the 
Paris MS. I now present a complete list of those in the Lauren- 
tian codex. Among them I have inserted the end of a scholium 
on Eel. III. 90, which tends to show the nationality of the maker 
of the abridgment in which it occurs. The Irish glosses in the 
Paris MS. will be published in the Revue Celtique for July, 1893. 
Both MSS. are in continental handwritings, and the scribes 
were, naturally, ignorant of Irish. Hence sundry mistakes in 
copying the Irish glosses, such as bisecting and trisecting words, 
transposing letters, and sometimes putting c for t; e^ o or t for c ; 
h for h; 8 for / and f for 8 or p; m for in ; t for rf, d for ^, and 
even u for il and ic for a. Five of these glosses — viz. (16), (25), 
(47), (65), (104) — are so corrupt that I am unable to explain 
them satisfactorily. But, on the whole, they have been handed 
down in a comprehensible form, and apart from the lexicographical 
value of them all, the gen. sg. milge^ the nom. pi. derce, the 
accusatives pi. hledmily englemen, darcha^ grode^ the verbs eit^ 
farmuinetharf tucrecha, dodzkel, banrag, folloinc, fedid, immonatsc, 
adrethf sibrase and adcichluSy and the participles clithi, nephglidi 
will be welcome to the student of Old-Irish grammar. 

1 Reprinted, with many corrections and additions, from Kuhn's Zeitschrift fiir 
vergl. Sprachforschung, xxxiii. 62-80. 


(1) Fo. 2!;. 10 Da .i. cit (Eel. I. 19). 

(2) „ 3r. 14 Raucse .i. brongidi (Eel. I. 58). 

(3) „ Sv. 9 Dumosa .i. drisidi (Eel. I. 77). 

(4) „ „ 39 Cieadis.i cauig (Eel. II. 13). 

(5) „ 4v. 8 Uiolas .i. seotha 1. uaecinia (Eel. II. 47). 

(6) ,, ,,11 Anethi. projptr lostf (Eel. II. 48). 

(7) „ 6v. 10 De Meuio uero nihil repm ut Adawnanus* ait 

(Eel. III. 90). 

(8) „ „ 13 Eraga .i. subi (Eel. III. 92). 

(9) „ ,, 22 in eruo .i. ti»cur (Eel. III. 100). 

10) „ ,, 23 faseinat .i. farmuinetliar (Eel. III. 103). 

11) „ 7v. 27 flauescet blicfithir (Eel. IV. 28). 

12) „ „ 28 Arista broth (Eel. IV. 28). 

13) ,, 8r. 8 mentiri .i. tuereeha fusea enim luna mentitur 

alium eolorew (Eel. IV. 42). 

14) „ Sv, 1 labruscas .i. feadinne (Eel. V. 7). 

15) „ „ 34 thiasos .i. clasa (Eel. V. 30). 

16) ,, „ 39 auene .i. maila» uilehi ueleu infec uel zezanias 

(Eel. V. 37). 

17) ,, ,, 40 uioUa .i. scoth uel fobuirge fEcl. V. 38). 

18) ,, 9r. 1 phalliorus (sic!) .i. geelcas 1. aiten ^Ecl. V. 39). 

19) „ „ 3 Tumulum .i. fert (Eel. V. 42). 

[20) ,, ,, 4 superattite (sic !) carmen .i. sit scriptuw sup^r 

tumulo .i. membrse sup^rscripte (Eel. V. 42). 

[21) ,, ,, 6 In gramine .i. israth (Eel. V. 46). 

[22) „ „ 14 Intonsi .i. nephglidi 1. intaeti (Eel. V. 63). 

[23) „ „ 20 nectar eetgrinnse^ (Eel. V. 71). 

[24) „ „ 28 thimo .i. proph fedo (Eel. V. 77). 

[25) ,, ,, 30 damnabw .i. fisi lusu .i. res facias* ut uotaw 

tuaw multi adorarent (Eel. V. 80). 

[26) „ ,, 34 cicuta .i. buinne (Eel. V. 85). 

27) „ ,,35 Pedum .i. bron braehin .i. baculum incuruuw 

quo pedes ouiuw inpediuntur (Eel. V. 88). 

[28) „ „ 37 nodis»obid(Eel. V..90). 

[29) „ 9v. 18 serta .i. coerea (Eel. VI. 16). 

[30) „ „ 19 ansa .i. dom (Eel. VI. 17). 

* MS. cicades. 

^ Adananus, Thilo, perperam. Adannanus, P. 
3 MS. nectacse grinnaB. 

* MS. facier. 
' MS. nobis. 


(31) Fo 






lOr. 4 

„ 32 
„ 36 






9v. 22 moris .i. merih (Eel. VI. 22). 
23 fronted* .i. grode (Eel. VI. 22). 
timpora. a am (Eel. VI. 22). 
nerea .i. bled • mil .i. animalia maris ^ (Eel. VI. 

comua .1. henn (Eel. VI. 51). 
stabula .i. lesib 1. gelbin (Eel. VI. 60). 
alnos .i. fema (Eel. VI. 63). 
p^rmessi .1. propir fluminis boe[o']ti8D (Eel. VI. 

apio .i. luib serb (Eel. VI. 68)^ 
omos^ .i. ligna .i. darehaehis .i. ealamis (Eel. 

VI. 71-72). 
inguina ' .i. norae^ loci in quo canes sciUe latra- 

bant uel melen* (Eel. VI. 76). 
arguta dresaeh tacb (Eel. VII. 1). 
arcades .i. sulbari 1. fissidi (Eel. VII. 4). 
deerrauerat .i. todidel (Eel. VII. 7). 
salir[u]s .i. slan (Eel. VII. 9). 
examina .i. saithi (Eel. VII. 13). 
seria .i. samre (Eel. VII. 17). 
setosi .i. simeb (Eel. VII. 29). 
suras * .i. gairri (Eel. VII. 32). 
ruseo .i. ait tun 1. ruse (Eel. VII. 42). 
museosi .i. eoennich (Eel. VII. 45). 
turgent .i. astaid (Eel. VII. 48). 
tede .i. eaindla (Eel. VII. 49). 
fuligine .i. osuidi (Eel. VII. 50). 
pawpiniis .i. ehannaebdi (Eel. VII. 58). 
populus .i. pro[pir] fedo (Eel. VII. 61). 
fraxinus .i. umnus (Eel. VII. 65). 
pinus .i. oet gag (Eel. VII. 65). 
babies .i. oeth gaebasardua. Lailu (Eel. VII. 66). 
populus .i. fit (Eel. VII. 66). 
sine .i. leie (Eel. VIII. 12). 
8 age .i. fer airli .i. eito ueni (Eel. VIII. 17). 




„ 37 
Ur. a 












19 99 

12r. 6 

^ MS. animali amaris. 
2 MS. omus. 
5 MS. inguma.. 

* MS. uelme lendulicias, where duliQias is the beginning of a gloss on 
DuUchias (Eel. VI. 76;. 
' MS. surras. 



























































































cotibt^j .i. lecib«« (Eel. VIII. 43). 

electra .i. orget (Eel. VIII. 54). 

ululae .i. coinnil (Eel. VIII. 55). 

cignis .i. elu (Eel. VIII. 55). 

ui[t]ta • snathsB (Eel. VIII. 64). 

licia .i. englem qwasi ligia -per que ligantur 

stamina (Eel. VIII. 74). 
neete .i. immonaisc .i euwliga (Eel. VIII. 77). 
bocola .i. bonat (Eel. VIII. 86). 
sersB etmaill (Eel. VIII. 88). • 
exuias .i. inda fodh (Eel. VIII. 91). 
eorripuit .i. adreth (Eel. VIII. 105). 
Hylax^ .i. conboehuil (Eel. VIII. 108). 
fors .i. toe eth (Eel. IX. 5). 
examinas athi (Eel. IX. 30). 
taxes .i. fer .i. arbor (Eel. IX. 30). 
anser .i. gigren (Eel. IX. 36). 
inter argutos olores .i. iter nelu. luin een ehu 

(Eel. IX. 36). 
populus .i. pro[pir] fedo (Eel. IX. 41). 
aprieis .i. elithi (Eel. IX. 49). 
omnia, fert .i. folio, inel.* fedid (Eel. IX. 51). 
equor .i. muir (Eel. IX. 57). 
simae ' .i. milberaeh .i. uirgulta .i. inpr^si naribw* 

(Eel. X. 7). 
pinifer. fin tad birtihd (Eel. X. 14). 
subulei .i. mueibi (Eel. X. 19). 
fenilas .i. flesea (Eel. X. 25). 
ebuli .i. pro[pir] fedo (Eel. X. 27). 
baeis .i. eariaib (Eel. X. 27). 
uinitor* .i. finbondid (Eel. X. 36). 
serta .i. eoherta (Eel. X. 41). 
a aueh (Eel. X. 48). 

modulaihoT .i. sibrase .i. seribaw (Eel. X. 51). 
malle * .i. raa aeubrimse (Eel. X. 53). 
uenabor .i. adeiehlus (Eel. X. 56). 

1 MS. hiias. 

* In the MS. the e joins the barred /, so that at first sight we seem to have 
ind with barred d. 

3 MS. semaB. 

* MS. uiniator. 

* MS. malles. 

































16t;. 8 


„ 29 
I7r. 25 



































comu .i. ondidbuoc (Eel. X. 59). 

spicula .i. fogau 1. gaau (Eel. X. 60). 

liber .i. insnob (Eel. X. 67). 

palus .i. cethor (Eel. I. 49). 

susurro .i. susurratio 1. amal quod de apiba* 

naseitur (Eel. I. 56). 
uae[c]in[i]a .i. uiole purporese 1. subi 1. certe 

deree ruieh (Eel. II. 18). 
Calathis .i. oeth alea ib (Eel. II. 46). 
pruna .i. airni draigin (Eel. II. 53). 
transuersa tuentibus hircis .i. maieeini diJ^se 

uereeunde, hireus enim laseiuu/w animal et 

petuleum,' animal et feruens sewip^r ad coi- 

tnm. Cuius oeuli ob libidinew in transuersuw* 

aspieiunt (Eel. III. 8). 
Stipula .i. euislen (Eel. III. 27). 
eorymbos .i. brutus (Eel. III. 39). 
malo me petit .i. cabawrag (Eel. III. 64). 
fraga .i. subi . quidam tam^ dtcnnt poma iuxta 

t^rraw* nata (Eel. III. 92). 
in eruo .i. fo»d orheman (Eel. III. 100). 
cum baeehare .i. bin uel genus herbe et odoris 

ioeondi (Eel. lY. 19). 
quid ? 2 .i. eiriee (Eel. V. 9). 
si .i. adas (Eel. V. 9). 
auenae-' .i. mail molclii uel euintbe eha .i. 

genus zizaniae* (Eel. V. 37). 
uiola .i. fobuirge (Eel. Y. 38). 
palliorus .i. gle elge (Eel. Y. 39). 
ealatbis .i. eatlialeaib (Eel. Y. 71). 
baehare .i. boethin (Eel. YII. 27). 
sinum laetis .i. genus uasis .i. bomilge (Eel. 

YII. 33). 
ruseo * .i. aittiun (Eel. YII. 42). 
Lieia .i. englemen (Eel. YIII. 74). 
Hylax * .i. horese milehu uel eonboeail (Eel. 

YIII. 107). 

^ MS. pecul cu;w. 
2 MS. quod. 
^ MS. anime. 

* MS. zezame. 

* MS. ruscor. 
« MS. hUa9. 


(122) Fo. 22r. 28 minio .i. uafordin (Eel. X. 27). 

(123) „ 22t;. 1 spicula .i. fogu (Eel. X. 60). 

(124) „ „ 4 liber .i. sinob (Eel. X. 67). 


L. =the liaurentian codex. 
P. =the Paris codex. 

(1) eit (gl. da), imper. sg. 2 of a verb cognate with cet 
'permission,' which Thumeysen (KZ. XXXII. 571) connects 
with Lat. cedo from ^kezdo. Not in P. 

(2) hrongidi (gl. raucae), pi. n. f. of hrongide cogn. with Gr. 

ppar^X^^ * hoarseness,' fipar^x^^ * hoarse.' 

(3) drisidi (gl. dumosa), dat. sg. f. of driside, derived from drisa 
(gl. vepres) Sg. 47* 8, cognate with "Welsh drysu * briars, 
brambles,' M. Bret, dresen **epine." This or a like gloss is 
the source of the **fdrisidi8,*' which Thilo and Hagen have 
inserted in their text of Servius, III. 17, 1. 1, believing, 
apparently, that it is corrupt Greek. 

(4) eautff (gl, cicadis), a scribal error for cailifff pi. n. of cailech=^ 
"Welsh ceiliog rhedyn " cicada," ad v. ** gallus filicis." Com. 
chelioc * cock ' (Gaul. Calidcoa ?). Cognate with Gr. KaXetv, 
Lat. calardf OHG. haldn ** berufen." 

(5) scotha (gl. uiolas), pi. ace. of scoth (gl. uiolla) No. (17). 
Hence seotae (gl. uiolarium) Sg. 35^ 1. But scoth ordinarily 
means a flower of any colour (derc a scotha ** red its flowers," 
H. 3. 3. p. 59^). Connexion with Lat. scato, scateo seems 
possible^ Or should we compare NHG. achosz, schdszlmg 
and Fr. ecot * tree-stump,' y/skut? 

(6) ^opir loss. (gl. anethi), ** the proper name of a plant." So 
we have propir fedo (24), (56), (80), (88), propir fluminis 
(38). Fropir^ pi. propiriy Sg. 32^ 14, is borrowed from 
the Lat. proprium (nomen), and losa is the gen. sg. of /ew= 
"Welsh lips ** herba," pi. llysiau. Corn, losowy losowys, sg. 
hsowen, Mer. 1483, Br. louzou, 

(7) Adamnanus a Latinisation of the Ir. Adamndnf a dimin. of 
Adaniy here apparently denoting some Irish grammarian. 
Other such diminutives (which have been connected with 
Lat. ndnits) are Flaithndn, Gartndn, Zachtnan, Ziatlmdn, 
Zuhndn, Lomndn, Lescndn, 

814 MR. stokes: old-irish glosses on the bucolics. 

(8) 8uhi (gl. fraga), pi. ace. suhi (gl. uaccinia) (101), pi. nom. 
of *8ube=:subha "berry," O'R. or suih O'Br. Welsh s^ 
** fraga," sg. sjffien: Bret, stvi "fraise." 

(9) tincur (gl. pingui ... in ervo). I cannot explain this 
gloss confidently. It seems the dat. sg. of tmcor, LIT. 99^ 
30 (a tincor do lind 7 do bind), which appears to mean 
** a supply," " an abundant provision." gen. sg. tincair 
O'Curry M. and C. III. 499, 1. 17. A homonym is 
in LL. 109* 5 : ni roacht Gull tascud no tincur dind fot 
forsa mbai. Compare gloss (112). 

(10) farmuinethar (gl. fascinat), better formuinethary pi. 3 for- 
doh-moinetar (gl. aemulantur vos) "Wb. 19^ 27. Welsh 
gorfynu * to rival, to envy.' The gloss adligon which comes 
next in L. 7' 6, is adligor in P. and stands for adligorice 

(11) hlicfithir (gl. flauescet), a scribal error for lldfithir sg. 3 
5-fut. of a deponent verb cognate with Ir. 5/a=Lat. flavus. 

(12) Iroth (gl. arista). O'R. has a gloss Iroth .i. arbhar " corn " : 
also broth " straw." broth ** a straw," 0*Br. Cognate with 
Lat. frutex ? The gloss on Argo, Eel. iv. 34, viz. monau, 
which comes next in L. 8' 2, is tmmaui in P. and stands for 
nomen nauts. 

(13) tucrecha (gl. mentiri), should be ducrechay pres. ind. sg. 
3 of the verb whence the pi. 3 ducrechat (gl. moliuntur) 
Ml. 30^ 6 (gl. demolentibus), Ml. 85^ 3, duorechubsa (gl. 
demolliar) Ml. 126° 23, amal bid sm-dttrochrech (gl. quasi 
. . . commentatus) Ml. 68*^ 11. 

(14) feadinne (gl. labruscas) should apparently be fiad-fini ''wild 
vines," a compound of fiad ** wild "= Welsh gwydd^ and fine^ 
borrowed, according to Cormac, from Lat. vinea, 

(15) clasa (gl. thiasos "Bacchic dauces"), elausa P. This seems 
for classa pi. ace. of class (pi. n. classa buana binde, Fel. 
prol. 181 ; clasa aingel oc claiscetul, LB. 111^ 2) borrowed 
from, or cognate with, Lat. classis, 

(16) mailan uilchi uel cuinfec (gl. auene). This gloss is, I fear, 
hopelessly corrupt. In (113) it appears as mail molchi uel 
cuintbecha. In the Paris MS. 7^ 8 it is mailam uilhi Lcm 
infeCj ibid. 15^ 26, it is mailchi molchi 1. cuintbe cha. Per- 
haps the mailan may he='mdeldn **beare, a kind of coarse 
barley," (Vision of MacConglinne, ed. K. Meyer, p. 186,) 
which may be cognate with Welsh meillion " trefoil, clover." 


(17) scotk uel fohuirge (gl. uiolla). As to aeoth v. supra (5). 
Ibbuirffe, which reoccurs infra I^o. (114), is either a sister- 
form of, or a scribal error for, 8ohairge=8ohairche ** hypericum 
quadrangulum," Windisch, Worterb. s.v. sobrach. Have we 
the same* word in the imperfect gloss . . . tannica fohirge^ 
Zimmer, Gloss. Hib. supplementum, p. 4 ? 

(18) geelca uel aiten (gl. phalliorus, i,6. paliurus) = gehelcae 
1. arten, P. Here geelccB is=zgle elge infra (115). It probably 
stands (as Prof. Strachan suggests) for ^gel-sc^, a compound 
oi gel "white" and 8c6 ** thorn.*' aiten, better aitten, dat. 
aitturty gl. rusco (50), attttim, gl. rusco (119), is= Welsh 
etthin, Corn, eythinen (gl. ramnus), 0. Bret, ethin (gl. rusco). 
It occurs in the compound aiten-sliah ** a furzy mountain," 
H. 3. 3, p. 63^ 8. aitenn-sliahy LL. 210^ last line. 

(19) fert (gl. tumulum) is=/<jr^ .i. adnacul, Corm. Tr. p. 79: see 
also fert " grab," Windisch, Worterb. p. 544. pi. n. ferta, 
LL. 44^ 29. 

(20) membra (gl. tumulo) = meamhra, 0*C1., who explains the 
word as meaning "a shrine or case in which are relics." 
See also Windisch, Worterb. s.v. memra, and add Less an memra 
"the Port of the Shrine," Four Masters, a.d. 1143. Borrowed 
from Lat. memoria, the grave or shrine of a martyr or saint. 

(21) israth (gl. in gramine). Here i is=Lat. in^ Gr. eV, and 
sraihy gen. sratha, is the dat. sg. of srath **the bottom of 
a valley," " fields on the banks of a river," see Windisch 
s.v. The Welsh cognate is y sir ad, Old Welsh istrat " the 
flat land bordering on a slow stream," Eev. Celt. II. 190. 
In the gloss "equiparas .i. coequaiis .i. accom 7 ablo," 
L. 9^ 8, the last three words stand for accusativo et ablativo, 
and mean that aequiparas, in Eel. V. 48 governs the 
accusative and ablative. 

(22) nephglidi (gl. intonsi). This is the nom. pi. msc. of a 
compound of the negative prefix neph- or neh- (G. C.^ 861) 
and glide or glithe the pret. part. pass, of gelim * I eat, graze,* 
cogn. with Skr. gilati, Lat. gula, 

(23) cetgrinncB (gl. nectar). So in Sg. 122^ 2 ceit grinne f'lno 
(gl. nectar), and in Ir. Gl. 1045 cetgrindi foilci (gl. nectar). 
The cH is the common prefix meaning "first," and cognate 
with Welsh cyntaf, Ch,-Slav. clna ; but the grinne is obscure. 

{2A) prapir fedo (gl. thimo), "proper name of a tree." As to 
propir see (6) supra; fedo (also in Nos. 56, 80, 88) is the 

316 MR. stokes: old-irtsh glosses on the bucolics. 

gen. 8g. oi Jid a stem in tt= Welsh gwydd-en "arbor," O.N. 
r«^r, As. wuduy Eng. wood^ OHG. witu. It occnrs com- 
pounded in fid'hocc infra No. (96). 

(25) fisi lu8U (gl. damnabis)=/iM» lisuy P. This gloss is certainly 
corrupt. The -8Uy no doubt, is the pronominal suffix of 
sg. 2, the 'lu may be miscopied for -hi', but the rest of the 
gloss is obscure. 

(26) huinne (gl. cicuta) \A=^huinne (gl. tibia), Wb. 13.^ 

(27) hron hrachin (gl. pedum) =Jro»i hraehin, P. We should 
probably read hronhaehal: cf. Hie est Oingussius cuius cog- 
noraentum Bronbachal, Vita Columbae, p. 21* of the 
Schaffhausen codex, gen. sg. mors Oengusa Bronhaehlae, 
Annals of Ulster 648. Here hachdl is a loan from Lat. 
haculm or bacillus (see Thumeysen Kelto-rom. 38, 39), but 
hron {hrdnl) is obscure. Can it be for brog-no- cognate 
with fifio'xp^ ? 

(28) obid (gl. nodis), leg. oidb^ pi. n. of odh M. (gl. obex.) MS. 
lat. 11, 411, fo. 125^, pi. ace. udhu, Windisch, Worterb. 
s.v. odb. = Welsh oddf ** tuberculum." 

(29) coerca (gl. 8erta)=(?oA^^a, gl. serta, infra (91), pi. of *eoherty 
a compound of co- and sert (=Lat. sertum), which occurs 
in the Laws, 1, 12, line 13, deilb rig roda sluagaib sort 

(.'JO) dorn (gl. ansa)=r^r» M. "fist, hand," Windisch's Worterb. 
Welsh dwrn pugnus, pugillum, Bret, dam " main." Lett. 
dure "fist." 

(31) tnerth (gl. raorls), a scribal error for fMrih, as it is in P.-, 
pi. dat. of */;i^= Welsh mer in mer-toydd "mulberry-trees." 
pi. n. mcra derga, caera glassa, LL. ll?.'* Compare Gr. 
fidpov " the black mulberry." 

(32) grode (gl. frontem) is either the ace. pi. of gruad " cheek," 
"W. gruddf a neut. stem in s (KZ. XXIX. 379), or else 
a derivative therefrom. 

(33) a aru (gl. timpora, %,e. tempera) seems a scribal error for 
araoha, the ace. pi. of aire ' temple,' gen. arach. 

(34) bled'tnil .i. animalia maris (gl. Xerea). The glossographer 
took Nwrem to be equivalent to Nerei JUius " a seamonster." 
Bee Windisch, Worterb. s.v. bledmall, and add examples of 
the Mid. Ir. ace. sg. and pi. ar in mbledmil muride, LL. 

^ Sic in MS. The edition has saighit. 


21 Y'* 1. norannad bledmila in mara, LL. 108* 25. A com- 
pound of hUd =Welah hlaidd ** lupus," and mil pi. ace. of 
mil ]S'.= Welsh mil "bestia,** cognate with Gr. /irjXov, 

(35) henn (gl. cornua), ace. pi. of henn horn, peak, which is 
now fern., but in Old and Early Middle Irish seems to 
have been a neut. stem in u, dat. benrtf Goid.^ 93, gen. henna, 
Fiacc h. 29, pi. dat. bennaib, LL. 251^ 45. The ace. pi. 
for cethora benna, LU. 58* proves that before the twelfth 
centuiy henn had passed over to the fem. a-declension. 
Welsh, Corn, ban * horn, peak ' shews a different grade of 

(36) lesih uel ffelbin (gl. stabula). The context is Perducant 
aliquae stabula ad Gortynia uaccae, and the pi. dat. lesih 
may be intended to translate, not ** stabula," but ** stabula 
ad." The nom. sg. is less M. " enclosure," ** garth," gen. 
liss, dat. ItmSf ace. less, pi. ace. Ussu, Windisch, Worterb. 
s.v. Welsh ll^s " aula, curia, palatium," Bret. lez. As to 
the possible connexion with Fr. lice, lisikre, see Diez s.v. 
liccia. The etymology of the air. \er^. gelbin is obscure to me. 

(37)/^r«a (gl. alnos), ace. pi. of fern, gen. ferna ** alder " = 
Welsh gwern, sg. gwernen ** alnus," Gaul. Verno-dubrum, 
Fr. verne, 

(38) propir fluminis ** the proper name of a river" : see above (6). 

(39) luib Serb (gl. apio). Here luih is the dat. sg. of luib, 
gen. lubae, Sg. 65% 61% Old- Welsh lu in lutrd (gl. horti) 
= Ir. lub-goirt, Corn, lu in lu-orth^ Bret, li in liorz, and 
Serb ** bitter " = Welsh chiverw, M. Bret, htceru, urkelt. *svervos, 
which has been connected by Brugmann with NHG. sauer 
from suer, sHr, This gloss is followed by the word herena, 
a corruption of the Lat. harena, here used to denote the 
Nemean u^tvv, where poets were crowned with parsley. 

(40) omos .i. ligna .i. darchachis .i. calamis. Here two glosses 
(one Irish, the other Latin) have been run together. Bead : 
omos .i. ligna .i. darcha . chis .i. calamis. Here darcha is 
the ace. pi. of the Irish c- stem dair ** oak," and **chis" is 
for the Lat. his (Eel. VI. 72), as michi, vecho in Irish latinity 
are for mihi, veho. 

(41) melen (gl. inguina) is a copyist's error for ^mleen or mien 
=Mid-Ir. blen " groin," die weichen, ace. bleoin, blein, 
Windisch, Worterb. s.v. This supports Strachan's etymology, 
mUn from *mlaknd, cognate with Gr. jLuaXaKo^, 


(42) dresachtach (gl. arguta), better dresachtach, as in LU. 106* 
32, derived from dresacht ** ein knarrendes oder quietschendes 
gerausch" (Windisch), LIT. 112* 29, and this (according to 
Strachan) from drens- : cf. Goth, drungus (/>06rfr^o9f ON. 
dtynr ** roaring,'* Skr. dhran {dhranati gabde), 

(43) sulhari uel fisaidi (gl. arcades). Here sulhari is the nom. 
pi. of sulbair "gut sprechend, beredf (Windisch 8.v.)= 
Welsh hylafaVy abret. helahar (gl. greens), urkelt. ^su-lahart-s, 
(where su- is==the Skr. laudatory prefix «w-), and fissidi is 
the nom. pi. of fissid^JUid, fiasith (gl. sophista, gl. catus) 
Sg. 15^ 52*, root vid. The pi. n. of fissid occurs, with 
the / infected, in cenuded isstdi * though ye are knowing,' 
Turin palimpsest. A cognate adverb, ind-fissid (gl. scite) 
occurs in Ml. 68° 9. 

(44) todidel (gl. deerraverat), better dodihel as in P. Cognate 
with do-m-ar'atU mihi uSnit, ad-n-ellat quo transeunt, do-m- 
aid-lihea uisitabit eos, fo-U'ind-lea (gl. euagari), do-n-ella ut 
deuiet, and other verbs collected by Ascoli, Gloss, pal. hib. 
pp. Ivi. Ivii. A Welsh cognate is elaf "ibo," a Latin 

(45) slan (gl. saluus), better sldn (gl. salvus) Wb. 8^ 4, from 
an oxyton or paroxyton ^saldno-Sy cognate with Lat. sal-vu-s. 

(46) saitht (gl. examina), satht (76), pi. nom. of saithe M. ** a 
crowd,'' "a swarm" (of bees, etc.). So in Ml. 90^ 7 in tsathi 
(gl. examina), and see Windisch, Worterb, s.v. saithe. Welsh 
haid **examen," Bret. ^^, urkelt. "^satjo-s. 

(47) samre (gl. seria, ace. pi.). This gloss is obscure and pro- 
bably corrupt. 

(48) simch (gl. setosi) is badly corrupted by the copyist. I 
conjecture that it is a misreading of finnich gen. sg. msc. 
oi fimiech ** hairy," and =^finnigh in Corrcenn mac Faithemaw 
finnigh, H. 3. 3, p. 59^. So the nom. pi. msc. finnich or 
finnig (tri bruitt finnig, LL. 266^ 13), findech, LL. 266^; 
findach. Vision of MacConglinne. The cognate noun \% finn^ 
a stem in w, whence the gen. pi. inna finncB (gl. pilorum) 
Ml. 72^ 16. Cf. Lat. villus from '^vinlus. 

(49) gairri (gl. suras), ace. pi. of gairr " the calf of the leg," 
dat. sg. ina gairr, LL. 289* 8, where it is used as synonymous 
with colptha. This is the Irish reflex of Welsh garr ** poples," 
M. Bret, garr **jambe, tibia," with which Diez connects 
the Span, garra and Fr. jarret. 


(60) aiitun vel ruse (gl. rusco). As to aittun see above (18). 
This ruse (leg. riisc) seems borrowed from, or cognate with, 
Lat. ruscuin "butcher's broom." Another r'itsc (== Welsh 
rhisg, Corn, rise) means ** bark," "a vessel made of bark," 
and is connected by Diez with Fr. ruche. See also Thurney- 
sen, Keltoromanisches 111. 

(51) coennich (gl. muscosi), pi. nom. msc. of coennach "mossy." 
In modern Irish caonnach is ** moss " and caonnachamhuil 
" mossy " : coenna (gl. putamen), Pr. Cr. 33^, seems cognate. 

(52) astaid (gl. turgent), a mistake for, or a sister-form of, attatd, 
attaity pros. ind. pi. 3 of attaim " turgeo," a denominative 
from att *a swelling,' gen. fri met in atta, LB. 142,^ a 
masc. or neut. stem in u from a pre-Celtic *a%du, cogn. 
with AS. 68t (gl. nodus). 

(53) caindla (gl. tede, i.e. taedae), pi. nom. of caindel F. borrowed 
from Lat. candela. gen. sg. co cnocc na eaindle, LL. 304^, 
dat. sg. gabait in coire din chaindil * they take the caldron 
away from the torch,' ibid. A compound, rig-chaindell, occurs, 
LL. 301*, where the double I may be due to the length 
of the preceding vowel. 

(54) suidi (gl. fuligine), 6, ua "from, by," (96), (122) suidi 
dat. sg. of suide, a fem. stem in ia cognate with Fr. suie, 
AS. sdtf Eng. sooty or with Gr. ffTroBii^ * ashes, scoria.' Now, 
corruptly, siighay suithche, suithe, 

(55) channachdi (gl. '^^m^in.e\^)=^chanacMi P., pi. ace. fern, of can^ 
nachdey a derivative of cannachy which O'E. explains by 
** sweet- willow, myrtle " : camiaclJi] a canna .i. fid bis il-laim, 
H. 2. 16, coL 95. 

(56) propir fedo (gl. populus) " the proper name of a tree." 
See above (6). 

(57) umnus (gl. fraxinus), miscopied by the scribe for unnius or 
uinnius F. ind huinnius ardd (gl. alta fraxinus) Sg. 67*. 
Hence the modern uinsemm. Zeuss compares the Welsh 
onny onnen. If the nn is from sn cf. also Lat. ornus from 

(58) octgag (gl. pinus). This is cert&inlj =ochtach F. gl. crann 
giuis, Bk. of Lecan 149^ 1 : the kingpost of a house, 
Corm. It may stand for ^[^p'\uktdkd and be cognate with 

OKGr, fiuhta^ fichte, Gr. TrevKrj, \At\\, pU8%l8, 

(59) oothgacha 8ardua. Lailu (gl. \i'd\)\Q^) — octhgacha sardua lailu, P. 
This is. obviously miscopied for oehtach as ardu alailiu *' a fir 


that ifl higher than (the) other/' the ahtM being taller than 
the pinus. Here alailiu is the instl. eg. of alaile. 

(60) fit (gl. populus), leg. fid ** a tree," gen. fido supra (24), 
(56), and infra (83), (91). 

(61) Uic (gl. sine), better Uic^ imperat. sg. 2 of Uicim from 
*leink^i6, a mixture of lei^ and linq (Strachan), cognate 
with Lat. linquo, 

(62) fir airli (gl. age). Here fir seems the imperat. sg. 2 of 
feraim *I give,* and airli is the ace. sg. airle F. ''counsel.'* 

(68) leoibas (gl. cotibus), leg. lecib, the dat. pi. of lecc F.= Welsh 
lldch ** lapis, scandula, tabula saxea." From *\_p]lekkdf 
vorkolt. *[/?]/^*wd, cognate with Lat. planoa, Gr. wXaf, TrXa- 
Kivo'i, Lett, plakt flach werden. 

(64) orget (gl. electra), a mistake for drarget " gold-silver," 
(tho Paris MS. has orar get). The Irish glossographer took 
electra to mean the mixed metal resembling amber (JjkeKTpov) 
in colour, which Vergil mentions in Aen. 8, 402. 

(65) coinnil (gl. ululse) I have not met elsewhere and cannot 

(06) elu (gl. cignis) seems a mistake for elaih, pi. dat. of ela 
(gl. cygnus) Ir. Gl. 509, now eala, sg. ace. mar hela ir-richt 
aingil gil * like a swan in the shape of a white angel/ Salt, 
na Uann, 1671, pi. ace. nelu — leg. helu — (gl. olores) infra (82). 
Tho Welsh ahrch^ and Com. elerhc (gl. olor 1. cignos) seem 
cognato. Various non-Celtic words have been compared, 
liut. o/or, Or. tXca, or (assuming the regular loss of p), 
Gr. WK\iin, Lat. palumhay and Pruss. poalit " taube." 

((^7) sfiafhfT (gl. uittii), bettor inalhe (gl. filum) Sg. 54», dat. tndthiu 
Sg. 54**, Welsh y^nod^n^ Com. $nod (gL uitta). Windisch 
coi\i\eols i'ijna and other words in Curtius G.E.*, No. 436. 

(68) ^nghm (gl. \\c\ix)=^englfmen (gl. licia) infra (120), is the ace. 
pi. of ♦^Wj^/dj'iM — OTlory's e^mgUim .L inneach "woof." The 
eontpouttd m^r-fnghim occurs in Dalian's address to Gerball's 
Rwonl, LL. 47* 51, where tnghim seems used metaphorically 
to j^iguify the woof of war. Its etymology is obscure to me. 

(6tt) immonaisie (gl. necto), imperat. sg. 2 of the verb nmteim 
oompo\nidi\l with the props, imm-fi (GC.* 883). Iffm^cim 
fi\>m ^fi^dhsl\\ cognate with the Skr. \/futk (Idg. medk\ 
umbr. nmffiff ** proximo," Ir, nesaam^ W. neiafj Com. me»8m, 
otc. l^nigmann, Umbr, u. Osk. 236, Idg. Forsclumgen I. 
1 76« Sec also Thumoyscn, Xelto>ronianisches 38. 


(70) honat (gl. bocola), leg. hdnat (gl. bucula), a diminutive of 
hd ** cow," like siurnat (gl. sororcula), clethnat (gl. tigillum), 
eolumnat (gl. columella). The same ending occurs in the 
double diminutives fracnatan .i. caillfn, and the proper names 
Banhnatan, Becnatan, Corcnatan. B6 (= Welsh buw, 0. Bret. 
hou) occurs in composition infra in con-bo-chuil, hoo-hethin and 
ho-milge. Cognate with Gr. /8o«)s, Umbr. hu-m **bovem," 
Skr. gdus, etc. 

(71) etmaill (gl. sereie) seems miscopied for efermaiU dat. sg. 
fern, of *etermall " valde lentus, tardus/* From the 
intensive prefix eter- (also in eterciaUf etarmoladj ettorsonde, 
etarkarad) and mall from ^marlo-s cognate with Ir. maratm, 
Lat. mora, moror. 

(72) tnda fodh (gl. exuuias), leg. inda fodh " ends of vestures.'* 
Here inda is the pi. ace. of ind N. ' end/ * head,' gen. 
dat. indy and fodl is the gen. pi. of fodh I^. " vesture," 
" something stript off," " the spoils of a vanquished foe," 
pi. ace. fodha (gl. manubeas) Ml. 92^ 2. This gloss is (as 
Prof. Strachan has pointed out) a close parallel to the 
Greek original of Eel. VIII. 91, viz. Tovt' airo ra^ 'xXalva^i 
TO KpdffTreBou wXeae A€\0<9, Theocr. II. 53. As it is 
improbable that the Irish glossator had read Theocritus, 
we may perhaps conjecture that the ancient Irish, as well 
as the Sicilian Greeks, believed that a lost love might be 
recovered by burning only the ends or hem of the beloved's 
dress. Italian magic, if we may trust Yergil (Eel. viii. 91, 
Aen. lY. 492-497, 507), required the whole of his or her 

(73) adreth (gl. coTn^mt)=adrech, P., for ad-raith perf. sg. 3 of 
a verb compounded of ad- and -rath" "cum variis praefixis, 
prehendere, comprehendere, continere, includere," Ascoli, 
Lex. pal. hib. p. clxxxix. 

(74) conlochuil (gl. Hylax, ** Barker ") " a watch-dog," conhocail 
infra {\2^)—conhuachaillf Laws 1, p. 126, 1. 8, a compound 
of the stem of cii ** hound " = /cva;i/, and hd-ckail ( = Welsh 
hugaily Com., Bret, hugel) a compound of h6 ** cow" (73) and 
call cognate with the -/co\o9 of povKoXo^y the iroXo^ of 
aiTToXo^. The triple compound con-hd-chail reminds one of 

(75) toceth (gl. fors) =tochet P. tocad, Ml. 35^ 22, Welsh tynghed. 

(76) athi (gl. examinas), leg. aathi (gl. examina). See above (49). 

PhU. Trans. 1891-2-3. 21 


(77) A. fer (gl. taxos). Here the gloss is meant for "citiso" 
{i.e, cythiso) in the next following line of the eclogue. Fer, 
leg. /er, gen. feuir^ Sg. 68^ i8= Welsh gwair, 

(78) gigren (gl. B.n%Qx)=gigrem P., giugrann (gl. anser) Sg. 64^, 
a masc. o- stem, pi. nom. giugraind, LL. 297^ 46, gen. elta 
giugrand, LL. 265* cognate with Welsh gwyrain ** chynelops, 
chenalopex, vulpanser, anas scotica." Seems to be a redupli- 
cated subst., ^gi-gur-annO'S, 

(79) iter nelu, luin cm chu (gl. inter argutos olore8)=«Y^ nelu 
luinceeUy P. Here iter i8=Lat. inter: nelu is a scribal error 
for helu ace. pi. of hela ' swan ' (66) ; and luincechu is ace. pi. 
m. of an adj. derived from luinniuc "song," still living in 
the Highlands as luinneag, 

(80) propir fedo (gl. populus) ** the proper name of a tree.'* See 
above (6). 

(81) clithi (gl. apricis), clit thi, P. the pi. nom. of a participle pret. 
pass, from -y/^/, cognate with Lat. caleo, Lith. szgluy szilti? 
Strachan suggests that cUthugud * cherishing,' LL. 160^ 42, 
may be compared. The * ab ' which follows this gloss stands 
for ablativus : " apricis in coUibus," Eel. ix. 49. 

(82) folio, incl. fedid (gl. omnia fert). Bead folloinc 1. fedid. 
Here folloinc is for folloing 3 sg. pres. ind. act. of folangim 
with an assimilated infixed pron. fedid is the same tense 
and person of fedaim ** fero," no-feidtia (gl. efFerebantur) 
Ml. 54<^ 12 ; and L is the common sign for Lat. vel and Ir. nd. 

(83) muir (gl. equor), Welsh wor, Gaul, mori^ Lat. marCy with 
which Hirt has recently connected Gr. ppv^ ace. fipvxa from 

(84) milberach (gl. simae "flat-nosed") should probably be ^mdiU 
heracha "blunt-pointed": wa«7= Welsh moel calvus, glaber, 
and heracha pi. nom fem. of *berach a derivative of bir== 
Welsh, Com., Bret, hery Lat. {g)veru, Umbr. heru "spit," 
and see Bezz. Beitr. XVI. 239. 

(85) fn tad hirtihd (gl. pinifer) = flnit adhir thio. P., should 
obviously be pintadhirthidy where pin {pin crann^ O'R.) is 
borrowed from Lat. pinus (so Welsh pinwyddy Com. 
pinhren), and tadbirthid is cognate with the verb taidbrim 
exhibeo, the enclitic form of ^do-aith-berim. 

(86) mucibi (gl. subulci), leg. mucidi (or muccaidi, LIT. 93*), pi. 
nom. of mucidy muccaid " swine-herd," derived from muce 
" pig "= Welsh, Bret. moch. A compound, rig-muccaid, occurs 


in LL. 169^ 8. Mucc, Welsh mochy from '^mukku, ^muknd, 

cognate with /uLvm-i^py etc. 
(87) ^8ca (gl. ferulas), pi. ace. of flesc *' rod." Flesc 

(Gaul, ^vltskdy Fr. flSche) has been deduced from ^vlksd 

cognate with Skr. vrkshd "tree," but seems more probably 

from *vU'8kdj cognate with Ir. foU "hair/* Welsh gwallt, 

Gr. ttX<ro9, Ags. weald, l^HG. wald. 
(fi%) propir fedo (gl. ebuli) ** the proper name of a tree." See 

above (6) and (24). 

(89) cariaih (gl. bacis), ciraih, Paris MS. leg. cdiraih (gl. baccis). 
Here cdiraih is the pi. dat. of cdir or cder (gl. baeca) Sg. 22^, 
Welsh cair : compounded in eaer-fhann mountain-ash, rowan. 

(90) finhondid (gl. uiniator) = finbondioy P. leg. finhondid (gl. 
uinitor), a compound of fin ** vine " and hondid for *bongidy 
noraen agentis to the verb hung or hongim " I break, reap," 
cognate with Skr. hhanj, hhanajmi. The verbal noun of 
hung, hongim is huain, whence the denominative huanaigim 
in Jln-huanaig it (gl. uindimiant) Ml. 102* 12. For the change 
in hongid of ng to nd, compare cindis, LL. 86^ 8, 13, for 
cingis, cindsiu, LL. 82^ 44=cingsiu LIT. 63* 12, gland and 
glang, Corm., and see Ziramer, KZ. 30, 63. 

(91) coherta (gl. 8erta)==coerta, P. See above !N"o. (29). 

(92) auch (gl. a), leg. uch, wehe ! vae, Z.^ 750. 

(93) sthrase (gl. modulabor) is a redupl. fut. sg. 1 from V ever. 
The '80 is the pronominal suffix of sg. 1 . The sihra (formed 
like gegna) is from ^svi-sverdm, just as ar-heittet, carm. S. 
Paul, is from ^are-sveizdionti (Thumeysen, KZ. 32, 570). 
Cognate are Skr. svar, sv draft ** rauschen, besingen,*' Ch. 
Slav, svirati pfeifen, AS. svarian ** to speak." 

(94) ma acuhrimse fgl. malle). The gloss, if it be wholly Irish, 
means ** if I desire." But I suspect that the ma is a relic 
of the Latin malo, written by the original scribe over malle 
to show the source of this infinitive. If so, a[d^cuhrim'8e 
is a gloss on malo, and^adcohraim (gl. nolo) Sg. 146^, pi. 
3 adcohrat Ml. 89^, 16, pret. sg. 1 nicon ru accohrus. Ml. 
136^ 7, sg. 3 ad-ro-chahair, Trip. Life 202. 

(95) adcichlus (gl. uenabor), the redupl. s-future, sg. 1 of *adcladim 
whence an adcladat (gl. aucupantes) Ml. 112^, 2, »-fut. sg. 
2 adclaias, Trip. Life, p. 88, 1. 28. The verbal noun is 
aclaid, ibid. 1. 25. A cognate verb, ar-claid, occurs in LIT. 
122^, 36 (i tig fir arclaid iasc im-muir ethiar in the house 

324 MR, stoker: old-irish glosses on the buooucs. 

of a man take catcher Jish in a sea of ether). The Greek 
kKiihitrtftt^ai ** I ruMh violently'* may perhaps he cognate. 

(Of); ondidbuoo (j^, coniu), ondiobuoc, P., leg. 6nd jidhuce. Here 
/md iM u compound of the prep. 6, ua (»Skr. dva\ see infra 
(122) and the article, and fidhuco (the / heing regularly 
iiillocU'd aft<jr 6nd) id the dat. sg. of fidhocc (gl. arcus) Sg. 
1()7*' 2. Th(j word literally means "arcus ligneus," heing 
compounded of fid Hupra Ko. (24), and hocc from an Old- 
(yoltic ^bukko'f j)n'-C(!ltic ^hhup-nd-, Skr. bhugnd-, cognate 
witli AH. boga^ OilG. bogo^ NHG. Bogen, 

(il7) ftguu I. gaau (gl. spicula). Here gaau is the ace. pi. of 
gati Hj(, i*J7^ (y/w gona 6i$o gl. fuscina), which seems cognate 
willi (hull, ganon, Gr. x'*'^"* or X"*®" ** ^ shepherd's staff," 
uiid Skr. hnhttH ** goschoss." Fogau is the ace. pi. of fogae 
coinpoiuuhul of gae und the diminutival prefix fo-^viro-. 
Ho in Old-Hrotou guu-goiou (gl. spiculis .i. tells), Bezz. Beitr. 
XVII. liU), 

(UH) hmHub (^l. llhor). Koro tn is the masc. article and snob 
((M>n\iptly ninub infra, No. 124) means the inner hark or 
rind of u tit>o. It glosses suber **cork" in Sg. 64* 10. 
'I'ho rtyn\uli»gy i» ob8ourt>. Terhapa it is cognate with Skr. 
»niit HHilgnii \uuwiuden» bokloidou. The OHG. snuaba ** vitta," 
hu>« ulm» boon oompannl. 

(1)10 vpthut' (nL pulu») — Ci^tor^ P., leg. cechor, a sister-form of 
(>*(-U»ry*i* «v<#4*A«iiV .i. hithuoh **tt slough." See Metrical 
(tiimm^m^ )i(>»«. )U>itr. XIX. p. 54. Cognate perhaps with 
U\\ 4*»/»/»i»v uud Skr, {iikttH. 

^10(0 ^M«(«/ \^^1, HU^urixO LH^(iM4fr iu en^wMr, LU. 128* 19, 
iittthur ,i. vHvl **mu«tio'* O'CL <4*»v>r LL. 19» 1 (ha hinnithir 
WU\ mvuvloivtt |{\)tU 7 Hmor otu*h duiue inna fiaith sweet as 
h^h .ih'^Hiit nyiy tA¥ fvitv *#W w^uy mA* «^r«»ry <mi# in his reipi). 
\\\\A\\\'V iwA^xwK^ v^( thud / tV>r r is Mi4(.vulug^ily Bk. of Armagh 
■V' \) - **4rtvW*\y*/\ ibivL 4^ I, 

^lOP AM^* \vl \H>tU> i^i^\'¥ t'Hti.'^ ^^U vwcciuia)* As to«i^*v. supra 
<s[ \^H>. /W^v [ t \f^nf\ \<— vuuii 4^«^vwflr ^/hwVA (gL uaccinia) 
8^i. I\»** li> » wlunv ^MuvA is thv> ^*u» §^. oi JrtSech,, urkelt. 
*^^*»^v» '\ vvkiUtilv* wUU NVv'UU Z'*^* >I. Com. jm^, Gr. 
vVv<vv (\vm v'^/>*'\v. rtiul «*Vrvi^ isL th<? BLom* pi. of der€ 
'• K^M\/' u uvulv» '•Iv^M itt *. uow ^*cHL.> possibly cognate 

^ Vx ks' iv> ><<• ^^U ttkvit ^'•»'V. ^''ty. «w Ctlujcngvwit.. KttliM^iuiiitiiiKciMfr 94. 


with Skr. drdkshd " vine," " grape," an erwsiterung of 
*derke8f as drakshydmi from yfderk to see. The inflection 
of the / of fruich is due to the fact that in Irish, as in 
Greek (/ceVea from fiepeffa), and Latin {genera from genesa), 
the nom. pi. of neuter stems in 8 originally ended in a vowel. 

(102) octh alea ih (gl. QdldX}nB)=^octhalcaih, P., is certainly = 
eathalcaih (gl. calathis) (116). Perhaps the word meant 
is cothalcaih nom. sg. ^cothale from *kutalkd, Etym. 
ohscure. It might be cognate with Gr. icorvXiy, or with 
Lat. scutula, scutella. For the suffix cf. Gaulish Bodalcay 
etc., G.C.* 808, and Welsh madaleh fungus. 

(103) airni draigin (gl. pruna). Here airni is the ace. pi. 
of airne {airnne gl. glandula, Sg. 49^) = Welsh eirin-en 
" prunum,'* M. Bret, irin-enn '* prunellum, prunellus," Cath., 
and draigin is the gen. sg. of draigen ** sloetree,"* blackthorn 
= Welsh draen spinus, spina, sentis, Bret, dren " epine," 
which Ebel connected with repxt^o^^ Tpex^o's **atwig.*' Cf. 
smera is dime dubdroigin, Silva G. 102. 

(104) maiccini disse uerecunde (gl. transuersa tuentibus hircis) 
== maiccinudis se verecunde et, P. An Irish maicc (or maiccini, 
a diminutive of mace ** filius/' ** puer " ?) and a Latin 
cinaedis may perhaps be elicited from this corrupt gloss. 

(105) cuislen (gl. stipula), should be cuislen, a diminutive of 
cut'sle **vein, pipe," anglicised cushla in the phrase acushla 
or cuislenn (Mid. Ind. Mod. Ir. cuisle), whence cuislennach 
* piper.' Etym. obscure. 

(106) brutus (gl. corymbos) is probably a scribal error for Gr. 
poTpvs, just as the gloss glaiis (gl. sandix) L. 18^ 39, which 
Hagen and Zimmer^ supposed to be Irish, is a scribal error 
for Gr. r^Xav^. 

(107) cahanrag (gl. malo me petit). This should perhaps be 
CO ban-rag ** that I may come with a woman." Here co 
is a conjunction meaning *'ut," "donee," and *ban-rag a 
compound of ifl»=Aeol. pava, and -rag, a conjunctive sg. 1 
of the verb whence raga-t, do-rega ** veniam." 

(108) 8ubi (gl. fraga). See above, No. (8). 

(109) /on<? orbeman (gl. in ervo). Ad v. "fundus haeredis": 
fond borrowed from Lat. fundus, and orbeman gen. sg. of 
orbem, pi. n. horpamin, Wb. 2° 14. 

1 Glossarum Hibernicanira Supplementum, p. 5. 


(110) bin (gl. bacchare). (117) boethm (gl. bachare). These 
glosses are respectively bo ob ethin and boethin in the Paris 
MS. They seem compounded of bo **cow," and bethin {bet&iu?) 
which may be cognate with Lat. beta, whence NHG. Heete, 
Eng. beet. 

(111) cirice (gl. quid ?)=^enr ice y. P., read ciricCf and compsure or 
cine (gl. quid enim ?), ciaricCy cerioc (gl. quid ergo ?), G. C* 

(112) adaa (gl. si) is —adas, adaaa "although," G. C* 489, adas 
cia da-gnio (gl. si autem quod nolo illud facio) Wb. 3*^. 

(113) See (16). 

(114) fobuirge (gl. uiola). See (17). 

(115) See (18). 

(116) See (102). 

(117) See (110). 

(118) bomilge .i. genus uasis (gl. sinum lactis). The Irish gloss 
seems only on ** lactis" and to mean ** of cow's milk," 
b6-melg, gen. bomilge^ a compound of bo supra, No. (70) and 
melg A. as ** milk," Corm. Tr. p. 107, and s.v. d», p. 127, 
just as bdmlachtf Corm. Tr. 20, h^bd+mlicht. As melg is 
neuter {cuirm .i. melg n-etha, Egerton 1782, cited in Corm. 
Tr. 107), and its gen. sg. is milge^ it must be a stem in «, 
to be added to those in KZ. 27, 292 and 29, 379. Add 
also derc (101). 

(119) See (18). 

(120) See (68). 

(121) horccdy milchu uel conbocail (gl. Hylax). Here we have 
three words for **dog": horcce^^orce ** lap-dog," Corm. s.v. 
Mugeime. Orce co nemib 7 epthib fondiaet for beraib cairthind 
"a dog with poisons and charms which they cooked (?) on spits 
of rowan," LL. 120* 12. In milchu (not milchul) ** grey- 
hound," •* hunting-dog," the mil is = the mil of milrad 
** hunting," dat. milruth, LL. 272* 23. As to conbocail (leg. 
conbdchuil) v, supra (77). 

(122) ua fordtnn (gl. minio). Here ua is=(5 supra (54), (96), 
and fordinn is a compound of the intensive prefix for-, and 
dinn dat. sg. of denn ** colour," O'Clery's deann .i. \\ no dath. 
See the compounds gle-den7i, Pelire, Peb. 1 and 13 and dend- 
gorm, LL. 277* 32. 

(123) See (97). 

(124) See (98). 



(The numbers refer to the glosses.) 

Adanm&n, 7. 

adcubnm, 94. 

adas, 112. 

ad-cicblus, 95. 

ad-reth, 73. 

airle, 62. 

aime, 103. 

aittenn, 18, 50, 119. 

alaile, 59. 

amal (=aiiiar), 100. 

ara, 33. 

ard, compar. ardu, 59. 

arget, 64. 

as which is, 59. 

astaid, 52. 

att, 52. 

ban-rag, 107. 

benn, 35. 

berach, 84. 

bl&, bMthir, 1. 

bled-mil, 34. 

b6-bethin, 110, 117. 

bocc * bow,' 96. 

b6chail, buachail, 74, 121. 

b6-melg, 118. 

b6nat, 70. 

bondid, 90. 

bron-bachal (?), 27. 

brongide, 2. 

broth, 12. 

brutos for jSdrpvs, 106. 

buinne, 26. 

cailech ' cicada,' 4. 
caindel, 53. 
c&ir, 89. 
canachde, 55. 
cechor, 99. 
cet-grinne, 23. 
ciricc. 111. 
cit, 1. 
class, 15. 
clithe, 81. 
CO, 107. 

coennach, 51. 

coerta, coherta, 29, 91. 

coinnil? 65, 

con-b6-chuil, 74, 121. 

cothalc, 102, 116. 

c6, 74, 121. 

cuinfec? cuintbech? 16, 113. 

cuislenn, 105. 

dair pi. ace. darcha, 40. 
denn, 122. 
derc * berry,' 101. 
do-di-hel, 44. 
dom, 30. 
draigen, 103. 
dresachtach, 42. 
drLside, 3. 

ela, hela, 68, 79. 

englem, 68, 120. 
etermaU, 71. 

far-muinethar, 10. 

feadinne, 14. 

fedaim, fedid, 82. 

feraim, fer, 62. 

f^r, 77- 

fern, 37- 

fert, 19. 

M 60, gejL. fedo, 24, 6$, 80, 88. 

fid-bocc, 96. 

fin-bondid, 90. 

fine, 14. 

iinnech, 48. 

fisilusu (?), 25. 

fissid, 43. 

flesc, 87. 

fobuirge, 17, 114, 

fodb, 72. 

fo-gae, 97, 123. 

folangim, fo-1-loinc, 82. 

fond, 109. 

for-denn, 122. 

froech, 101. 


gae, 97, 123. 
gain*, 49. 
gelbin (?), 36. 
gel-8ce (?), 115. 
gigrenn, 78. 
glaus for 7\aj/£, 106. 
glithe, 22. 
grinne, 23. 
gruad, 32. 

immo-naisc, 69. 
i-n prep., 21. 
in 'the,' 98. 
ind *end,' 72. 
iter prep., 79. 

lecc, 63. 

16icim, leie, 61. 

less, 36. 

luib, 39. 

luinceeh, luinmuc, 79* 

Ills, gen. loea, 6. 

ma, 94. 

mace, maicctne (?)^ 104. 

maiian, 16, 113. 

m^-berach, 84. 

mall, 71. 

melg, 118. 

membrae, 20. 

mer 'mulberry,* 31. 

mil, 34. 

mil-chu, 121. 

mien, 41. 

mucoid, 86. 

muir, 83. 

nascim, 69. 

neph-glide, 22. 
nessam, 69. 

6 prep. 54, 96, 122. 
ochtach, 58, 59. 
odb, 28. 

6nd 'from the,' 96. 
6r-arget, 64. 
orbem, 109. 
orcae, 121'. 

pln-tadbirthid, 85. 

propir, 6, 24, 38, 56, 80, 88. 

-rag, 107. 
ruse, 50. 

saithe, 46, 76. 

samre (?), 47. 

see, 115. 

scoth, 5, 17. 

-se, 93, 94. 

Serb, 39. 

sibra, 93. 

sl^n, 45. 

sn^ithe, 67. 

snob, 98, 124. 

srath, 21. 

-su, 25. 

suib (sube?), 8, 101, 108. 

suide *80ot,' 64. 

sulbair, 43. 

tadbirthid, 85. 
tincor, 9. 
toceth, 75. 
tu-crecha, 13. 

ua, prep. 122. 
uch, 92. 

uilche (?), 16, 113. 
uinnius, 57. 



Wharton, M.A. 

(1) The modem theory that the * prothetic,' or, as the Greek 
grammarians called it (Curtius, Grundzuge,'' 720), * prosthetic,' 
vowel is in most cases really the first vowel of an originally 
hi-vocalic root can scarcely he rejected {a) where other languages 
besides Greek have a similar vowel, as in epefio^ ipevr^o/iai o\o(jyv^ 
besides Armenian erek orcam o\h (Persson, Wurzelerweiterung, 
p. 246, n.), or {b) where two forms can be best explained by 
starting from a bi-vocalic root, e.ff, av^to Sk. vaksh- from aveks- 
in d{F)€^(v, aupa^ Sk. va- from ave- in a{F)r}fii, Lat. unguis 
Sk. nakhds from onokhv- in oi/vf : though why one language 
dropt the second vowel and another the first we do not in the 
least know. But in some cases such an explanation is impossible, 
and the word must be regarded as a compound. 

A. Latin in-ednus in-clutus in-columis and I think in-vitus are 
but emphatic forms of canus clutus columis and * vitua * forced ' : 
*i« enim saepe augendi causa adicimus,' says Festus. This in- 
may be identified with the Preposition in meaning * upon ' (quite 
a dijfferent word from in meaning * in,' which goes with eV), Greek 
ava in ava aKi^Trrpiv (=in sceptro). The original meaning was 

* up ' and so * upon ' (cf . German auf in both these senses), while 
in the Latin Adjectives given above and the Greek Adjectives 
to be given below we have a transition of signification from 

* up ' to * in a high degree, quite.' The form in the Ursprache 
would be n, represented in Latin by in-, in Greek by ap- before 
a vowel,* a- before a consonant, as in the following words : 

d-fiXrjxp^^ * weak, gentle,* beside pXrjxpo^' The termination, 
which appears also in phekv-xp^^ /j,€\i-xpo^ irevi-xpo^t must go 

* In the only place in which it occurs in Homer, Od. 5. 469, oi/pr; means the 
mnming breeze, i^Sodi irp6 ; and with it in this sense Buttmann rightly connects 
aHpiov * in the morning, to-morrow.* So in my *Etyma Graeca ' 1 have ex- 
plained Homer's ij(&s, Lesbian aijoos, as from avo-, an Ablaut of ave- in Ihjjju : to 
a people dwelling near the Mediterranean the morning breeze would be the 
natural herald of dawn. The Attic form ccds takes its aspiration and accent 
from fjKios. 

* In some dialects before a consonant also, Hom. &»/ * up,* Theocr. ofi-fiifiya- 
CKOfAivip (in which the vocalism shows the presence of a sonant). 


with xp^^^ XP^^ ' surface, skin, colour,' so that fi\ij-xp^^ means 

* weak-looking, weakly ' : the root is mle- (not mla-, since fiXrf- 
Xpo9 occurs in Doric), Sk. mid- 'to wither,' with Ablaut mlo- 
in Irish hldith * smooth, soft,' and mele- in filXco^ * useless.' — 
Quite a different word is pXa^ * slack,' in which the d must 
be due to contraction (Kretschmer K.Z. 31, 295), or we should 
have *^\?7f : as i/eaf or i/ejyf comes from i/€09, so I would explain 
^\af as for *p\aFd^ ov ^pXapri^, from a simpler form ^fiXafd^f 
mlvos, Lat. mollis for *molvis. The root appears in Gothic 
ga-malvjan * to crush,' and Eng. mellow. 

d'Oeacj^aTo^ * marvellous,' beside &€(r<f>a'n9 * divine ' : literally 

* struck {t.e, made) by a god,' cf . 7rp6(r-<f>aT09 * made in addition, 
new,' and ^/-0aTO9 (Hesychius) Si-<f>affio9 * made double.' The 
root of this -(f)aT09 is ghyn-, ghven-, in Oeivio ^ * strike,' fivXri' 
(paT09 * struck by the millstone,' and, with a transfer of meaning, 
(p6po9 * slaughter,' Aprfl'(paT09 * slain in battle.' — The first element 
of $€(r'(f)aT09 appears with a * determinative ' o (Brugmann, 
Grundriss, 2. 60) in ^eos, i.e. ^Oeao^ : which, however, can hardly 
go (as Tick thinks it may, Worterbuch* 1. 469) with Lithuanian 
dwases * spirit,' Middle High German ge-twds * ghost,' for the 
Greek gods were by no means spiritual beings. 

So we have a-fiavpo^ * dim,* beside fjtavpo^ (Photius) ; and in 

II. 24. 753 the two readings dfucxOaXoeatrav and fiixOaXoeaaav^ a 

word of unknown derivation (the connexion with 6/u,rx€tv, Hoffmann, 
Bezz. Beitr. 15. 84, is absurd). So I would explain the «- as 
intensive in 

d"yepu)xo9j ^<y€pa'Oxo9 * holding privileges.' 

d-{F)ri(ruXo9 * wicked,' beside Sk. vdtulaa * mad.' On this 
dialectic change of tv^ to av see Classical Review 6. 259 : I 
connect aXo-avhvq * goddess of the sea wave ' with Irish tond 

* wave,' d(rv<f>i]Xos' (below) with rvcpiXd^, avx^d^ * long, numerous ' 
with Tvx*ijv * ordinary,' as a Litotes for * considerable.' Thus alone 
can we fairly explain haatfs and Lat. densm {i.e. *dent-tos) beside 
Albanian dent * to make thick.' 

d-Kpo9 * at the top ' (it never means * sharp,' and therefore 
cannot go with dicU, Lat. acu&), beside (paXa-icpo^ * white-headed ' ' 

1 As Lat. ferio means both 'strike* and * cheat,' and Kpovais hoih. * striking' 
and 'cheating* (Ar. Nub. 317), so with Beivw I would connect (p4va^ 'cheat*: a 
Done word, like it6fiuKos ' rogue,' as the a, for tj, shows, with a dialectic (f> for 
as in (pfos for d€6s (Gr. Meyer, Griech. Gramni.* 211). 

2 The first element is Dhl-n-, cf. bhl-n- in <f>aW65 * white ' (Hesychius) and 
Lat. fullo ' clothes-cleaner.* 


(Schulze, Quaestiones Epicae 464), from a by-form of Kapa, On 
these by-forms see Danielsson's Grammatische imd Etymologische 
Studien pp. 1-56, Johansson K.Z. 30. 347-350, Johannes Schmidt's 
Pluralbildimgen der Indogermanischen IN'eutra pp. 363-379. From 
the same root as icapd we may deduce {a) Kotpo^ {i,e, ^Kapjo^) 
* thrum,' end or top of the thread; (ft) xapTo^ KpaT09 'headship, 
power,' quite a different word from KpaTal-Xea^ * rocky,' Gothic 
hardus 'hard' (with which we may put Keprofia 'hard words'); 
{e) K\7Jpo9 *lot,' a Dissimilation for ^tcpapo^, cf. Arcadian KpapiwTai 
and Khodian 'UXo-Kpaprj^ (Meister, Griechischen Dialekte 2. 104, 
G. Meyer 160), the word thus meaning *head' as sign of in- 
dividuality, going with vav-xXi^po^ i/av-Kpdpo9 * householder ' (what- 
ever the first element of these words may be) and Hesychius* 
Kpaepa 'head'; {d) KpaiTraX'q 'headache,' for ^Kpatn-TraXTf * a fight 
in one's head,' the first element being Locative of *Kpa9^ while 
from another form *Kpd'7raXij is borrowed Lat. crdpula : 

a'fieivuyv * better,* from /*€i/09 * strength : ' 

d'(TKriOrj9 * safe,' quasi ' supported, cared for ' (cf . with Active 
meaning, trKeOpo^ 'careful'); a Dissimilation ioT *d-ffx^0t/9f from 
the root of <rx7/*a, extv (in (rx^Oeit/ the x ^^ retained through the 
analogy of o-xeti/) : 

d'ff7r€px€9 * hastily,' from (TTrepxtt^ ' hasten ' : 

a-(rT€/u,(/)i^9 ' stiff,' from a root meaning * to be hard,' whence also 
ffT6/*0i;\a * pressed grapes,' Sk. stamhh- ' to restrain, hold fast * : 

d'(rv(/)rfXo9 (with Aeolic accent) ' insulting,' *ti;0//\os (see above 
on di^(rvXo9) going with Tv(f)X69 * blind,' Tv(/)wBrj9 * dull,' Tt)0o9 
' conceit ' : 

d-TapT7jp69 ' baneful,' *TapTJ a Subst. from ^rapro^ Part, of 
Teipeiv * to distress ' : 

a-T€i/?;9 ' strained,' Lat. m-tenttcSf from tciuw : 

o-T/)V7CT09 ' swelling,' Lat. turgidiLs, from a root tver-g- (Frohde 
B.B. 14. 107), an extension of the root tver- (see on aavpwryp 
sec. 5, and, on the pvj pv^tv, p. 11) : 

d'v<naXeo9 'squalid,' Od. 19. 327, cf. Sk. gush- * to dry,' Lat. 
8u-du8 * dry ' ; from ^d-avaTaXeo^ as av7n/o9 from '^aavn-vo's. 

So, with dv- for p- before a vowel, I would explain dv-dehuo^ 
' quite dowerless,' dv-aeXino9 ' quite unlocked for,' and Hesiod's 

du'd7rv€V(Tro9 ' quite breathless,' Suidas' dvdr^^i/tvffTO^ di/'dinaiaro^ 

(J. Schmidt K.Z. 23. 273). 

B. The same intensive particle appears in several Yerbs : 
Lat. incitd mfringo ingemind tnnovd intremo etc. beside cit6 frang6 


etc., Greek aoKapl^tv atm-aipu) 'palpitate ' beside ffKapi^to <nraiptM)f 

a<T(j>apaf>(iu} * clank' (Theocr. 17. 94) beside fftpapar^eojLLai * burst,' 
and d-Kovu) * hear ' beside ko{F)€u> * perceive.' So 

d{F)eiSu} *sing' beside oiBa: i.e. deiSu) used absolutely means 
* make my meaning known,' used with an Ace. * make known, 
celebrate.' In the original signification *know' we have (Hoffmann 
B.B. 15. 62) Cyprian aetSe 'hear' and the common word alaOavofiai 
(i.e. *d'fiB Odpo^ai) 'perceive': for the transition of meaning 
from * know ' to ' make known ' cf. itrropia * knowledge ' (to elBet/ai) 
or ' narrative ' (to elSet/ai Trotetp), and f^ifyvuxrKU) ' know ' beside 
rfvivpt^tv ' make known ' : 

d'Xer^tv * heed ' beside Lat. *leffd in diligd intelUg6 neglegd (quite 
a different word, as the Perfects show, from legO * gather *). From 
a Neuter Subst. *uX€r^o^ comes aXer^eipd^ * demanding caution, 
troublesome ' ; which, with Ablaut, and without the intensive a-, 
appears in Hesychius' Xar^eiva- Seit/d. From this *a\.er^09 come 
further (a) Bvtr-jjXer^y^ * cruelly troublesome,' Homeric epithet 
of war and death; (b) Tai/rjXey^^ 'intensely troublesome,' used 
of death, with the derived sense of Tat/vtv * stretch,' as in the 
Homeric use with epiBay p^xv^y irovovy * to intensify ' the strife, 
etc. ; {c) d7r-7j\€<ye(V9 * most carefully,' the aTro- heightening the 
meaning : 

d'\€i(f)tv 'smear,' cf. Lat. dilihutus 'besmeared ' : 

d-Xvin-dt^u} d-Xv<r<ru) ' am in distress,' going with Xvff<ra (ji.e, 
*XvK'ja)f which in Homer means ' martial rage,' the spirit of 
a wolf, \i;ico9: in 11. 16. 156 and 352 warriors are compared 
to wolves, and Theocr. 4.11 ireltrai rot MtXwp xal tw? \v*:o9 avriKa 

Xvffffrjv shows that the Greeks themselves connected Xvaaa with 
XvKo^. With these words go fiop/no-XyrreffOai * to madden as a 
hobgoblin, nopp^w,^ would,' and p.oppoXvicelov 'bugbear,' literally 
' hobgoblin wolf ' : 

d-fiaXhifvtx3 * destroy,' from *p.aXhmy Sk. mrdUs ' soft.' 

aytteV/tt), cf. Lat. mulgeQ. 

C. In three other Verbs we have the ' copulative ' a- of d9poo9 

a7rd9 d7rX6o9f dialectically a- m dSeX(/)d9 UK01T19 dKoXovOo^ aXo'yo9 

drdXavTo^ ; representing sqi-, a/* -a, Lat. aimul, 8k. sam * with ' (as a 
Preposition) or, in compounds, ' together.' This appears as a- in 

* With fiopfidi go fiSpfioi * panics' (Hesychius) and I think fiepfiepos 'mis- 
chievous,' fitpfiripa 'trouble/ and fiopfivpcou in II. 18. 402 p6os *A/ccai/oio iupp^ 
fiopfi{rpa>Vy rightly explained by Hesychius as Tapda-auv * making an uproar ' : it 
has nothing to do with Lat. murmuTf which would give far too weak a meaning. 


(a) a-fiapTCLvti} 'fail' (the root, on which see Neisser B.B. 19. 120 aq.^ 
may perhaps he found in Lat. mora), with which of. Hesychius' 

d/iapeiv' a/iapTciveiv and Homer's rjfippoTov ; as a- in {b) a-/i€t/3to 

* exchange ' beside Lat. mlprd * remove ' and Old Slavonic miglivH 

* mobile/ and (<?) a-fievofiai * surpass' ('change places with') beside 
Lat. moved. In these Verbs the copulative prefix, like the (of 
course unrelated) Lat. eom^ in commaculd comminuo concitd convelld 
etc., merely * gives intensity to the signification of the simple 
word,' Lewis and Short s.v. cum. With the same force it appears 
in 0-/10X709, which Eustathius says was 'Achaean' for a/c/iiy 'prime' 
(as Hesiod Op. 588 uses dp^oXfyaitf of a * prime ' cake, /na^a) : I 
would connect the word with mlg- in Lettish miht ' to swell,' 
Lat. muUu8 for *mulctus ("Wiedemann B.B. 13. 303 «y.), so that it 
will mean ' swelling, climax,' and wicto^ d/ioXr^w will be Cicero's 
muUd node ' late at night.' 

A copulative, though not an intensive, a- seems to appear in 
d-offffrjTi^p ' helper,' which I would explain as ' one who hears a 
divine voice {Foaaa, as o<T<ra may everywhere be read in Homer, 
L. Meyer K.Z. 28. 90 : the root appears in Lat. vocd), and in 
obedience to it goes to help his comrades.' Hesychius has also the 
form offffrjT^pa, referring, according to Moriz Schmidt, to II. 15. 254 
Toiov Toi (^a)o<Tari7ijpa Kpopiwp ef lSij9 TTpoejjKe, in which case the 
word must necessarily have had a digamma : 

u-ff^o\o9 ' soot,' quasi ' thrown together, collected,' from fidWtv. 
The ff/3 is the same dialectic representative of gv which Pick 
B.B. 17. 323 finds in (fyepe-a^io^ 'life-giving' and afievvvfjbi 
' quench ' (Goth, qistjan ' to destroy ') : and which I find, before 
other vowels than e or £, in {a) dfKJyi'tT^aiva 'a serpent that can 
go either way ' and dfKJyc-tr^rireu} ' dispute,' both from ^alvw ; 
and (J) (j)\o7apo9 ' din,' the clash produced by the impact of one 
heavy body on another, from a root bhleigv-, cf. (pxtfitv OXifiw 
*rub,' Jjoi.fligo 'strike,' Welsh i/*/ ' catapult.' — ^Another dialectic 
representative of gv was 5", Eur. Phoen. 45 eTre^dpei^iTre^dpei, 

Hesychius ^eWeip ^epeOpa ^eLvafiev= pdWeiv pdpadpa trfiei/vvfiev. 
So I think in {a) ^dXrf * spray * from fiaXXw ; {h) ^aXo^ ' jealousy ' ^ 
beside Lith. geld 'pain,* Old High German quala 'torment'; 
(<j) faYr 'sea,' and Homer's €V£-g'a0e\o9 'stormy,' from fiaTrTto, 
the sea ' dipping ' the ships, cf. Eur. Orest. 706 vau9 . . . ipayjrev 

^ The a here is Ablaut of e as in KcipSs beside Lat. cera, fiSKuy beside Old 
High German md^o, see Johansson B.B. 15. 306 «^. 


* the ship sank,' Old Norse haf * a dive, the deep ' ; (rf) faw ^wto 
quasi * walk,* and Si^rf/uiat fj/rew quasi * go about,' all from fiatutv : 
(e) poi^o9 'whistling* beside poi/i-Bo^ (for the termination cf. 

D. Beside the copulative sm-, Greek a- or a-, there appears a 
parallel form so-, Sk. sa-^ Greek o-. We have it in Hesychius' 
oydffTtvp o^vye^ oOpoo9 o^vXov (Schulze 495), Homer's o7raTpo9 and 
II. 2. 765 oTpixa^ olerea^ (the latter, despite Schulze, a miswriting 
for *oi;€T6as, i e. ^o-Ferea^); and I think in 6Sov9, Armenian 
a-tamnj each a Singular formed out of a Plural signifying *the 
united teeth, the rows of teeth,' as perhaps darijp u<npov Arm. aatX 
are Singulars formed out of Plurals signifying 'the whole body 
of stars,' the initial vowel in each word being a copulative prefix. 

E. In two important words the initial e- or e- seems reduplica- 
tive, standing for ae- : 

iffOXo^ ' brave, good ' =*<re-<rTXo9, from the root of ffreWtv * set 
in order,' the meaning thus being ' ready, settled, steadfast.' The 
Greeks found a difficulty in pronouncing the combination (ttX, which 
occurs in no old word {(nXer^<yi9 * scraper ' appears first in Hippo- 
crates, offrXi^f^ *curl' in Attic): they preferred either (1) to 
aspirate the t, Attic vavaOXou) * convey by sea ' beside vavtrroXiuj, 
Hom. IfidffOXrj * whip ' with the same termination as ix^rXrfj Att. 
fidaOXri'i * leather ' from the same root as fiaffTi^ * whip,* and so, I 
think, eV^Xos; or (2) to drop the 9, TXeyryt^ — or the t, Sappho 
/Lid(rXTj9 * leather,' Doric and Lesbian eVXo? and Arcadian etrXo^ 
(which last must represent *e<rTXo9, not *eff0Xd9, or it would have a 
smooth breathing) — or both letters, Att. vavXov * fare ' beside 
Hesychius* vauaOXov ; or (3) to change the X to />, (npe^r^U ; or 
(4) to insert a vowel, otndXi^^ (as M. Schmidt reads otrrdXai^ in 
Hesychius), trTeXer^'yU. — The same ffreXXtv appears, I would suggest, 
in 6(f)6aX/i69 from *67r-<rTaX'^69 * arrangement for seeing,' the first 
element going with ojm/iia oTrtvira ©"^^as : ^oyjrraXfio^ became 6<f)OaX/i69 
as *fcY^T09, the proper Participle of €\[rtv, became €0^os : 

e(TTta * hearth, altar * (in Homer only in the compounds avetmo^ 
i(j)e<TTio's) =*(re-ffTia from a root bH- * stone,* whence <ttiop 'pebble' 
and I think irepiffTia 'lustration of the Ecclesia* by carrying a 
victim round the altar, and, with Ablaut, Goth, stains ' stone ' 
and Old Slavonic stena * stone wall.' On the parallel form larirj 
see next section. 


(2) The greatest difficulties in Greek vocalism are connected with 
the occasional appearance of i where we should have expected e 
(G. Meyer 67-60, 29; Kretschmer K.Z. 31. 375 aq,)^ and of v where 
we should have expected o (G. Meyer 61, 62 ; Schulze p. 495 sq,). 

A. (a) Some of the instances quoted of i for e rest on douhtful 
or impossible etymologies : 

dlr^i\t\[rf epithet of Trerpij in Homer and Aeschylus (Suppl. 794), 
is of unknown meaning (Monro), and can have nothing to do 
with XeVa? * rock.' Hesychius' Xi^Jr' irerpa u(f> ^s ^htop ffrd^ei may 

go with Xet^u), 

ir^r^ia' eU and tTToi/* ev, quoted by Hesychius as Cretan, are 
too obscure to be deduced from a root sem- : M. Schmidt suspects 
both glosses. 

i\\d9 *rope,' l\\69 * squinting,' cWtvovecXXw 'wrap up,' tXKo/Liai 

* move to and fro ' can hardly have anything to do with Lat. volvd. 

Ttttto^ cannot go with Lat. equus, Sk. dgvas : the aspiration is 
quite abnormal, and the Homeric form ought at least to be *ikko9^ 
cf. ireXeKKov fi^om *'jrek€K-fov. The form LKico^ in the Etymologicum 
Magnum may be Lat. equus borrowed (with i from iTTTros^f as 
dtcKfn-yffio^ in Athenaeus is Lat. aquipensis borrowed. 

Kiaao^ *ivy' cannot go with Lat. hedera from a root ghvedh-, 
or we should have *x«<t<tc^. 

XiKpKpU * sideways,' with a strange termination, goes with Lat. 
Uctnus * with upturned horns ' and ohliquus {i.e. *ob-lic-vos) 

* crooked ' ; not with \expio9y which stands for ^Xe^-p-to^ and 
goes with Xo^o^ (De Saussure, Mem. Soc. Ling. 7. 91, n.). 

xOi^d^ is not directly from x^"> *-^' &^JCS, but from an 
Ablaut ghjj with sonant sibilant, Thurneysen K.Z. 30. 352 ; 
the termination is dj6-, cognate with Lat. dies, 

(^) In Ifypvri it^iv i9pi9 IffTTrj the initial vowel is reduplicative, 
as in «Vt/9 {KriSeo^) ix0v9 (Arm. jukn) i7rra/j,ai (^Trejojiiai) laOi (Zend 
%dl *be thou*) as opposed to i^Oe^ ir^vwKa effrrjKa: in such cases 
it would be absurd to talk of a change from e to «. So in uiffirofiai 
TiKTU) the I is reduplicative, as in TiOtjptf Bid w fit mvtrKeaOai beside 

T6Tai/o9 BedtoKa rervKetrOai, Thus 

i-<yt/vij * hollow of the knee ' is reduplicated from the root of 
7»'vf, 7i/v-7r€T09, Sk.y^w: 

i^tD^=*i'(rd-ju) from the * reduced ' root of e^ofiaiy e^os, Lat. sedeo ; 
and so ISpvco (the i is short) =*/-o'^-/)-t7w : 

^ hrSs, properly Participle of Tfw * set up,' is used as a subst., * mast, loom.* 


i0pi9' airahwv and e$pt^' jofita^ ( 80 M. Schmidt reads for raXfiia^) 
in Hesychius may both go with 9pi^u3 * cut off ' : 

I'ffTi rj is the Homeric form of ^(niciy see above. The Homeric 
compounds of eor/a, and the evidence of Boeotian, Cretan, Hera- 
clean, Locrian, and Sicilian inscriptions (Meister 1. 46), prove that 
neither form ever had an initial F - the Arcadian proper name 
Vistias can have nothing to do with larTri^ and is as obscure as 
the name Kdfiai<ro9 in the same inscription (Meister 2. 103). 

viffao/iaissa'^vi-vff-jo/iiatf from the reduced root of ve{^<T)ofiaty voaro^ I 

TiKru)=:i*Ti'TK'TU}, from tho rcducod root of rexetv, cf. K€un9 
* brother ' from *Tic-ii-T«9. 


(7) We have i as Ablaut of je in Sk. vie- vidh- beside vyae- ' to 
extend ' vyadh- * to pierce,' and so I think in vTrep-ncraivovro * they 
sped on ' (Od. 23. 3) beside Sk. pra-yaksh- * to press on.' The 
relation of itcrepos * jaundice ' (for the termination Havet, M^m. 
Soo. Ling. 4. 230, compares vtr-Tepa, r^a(r-TJp) to jekv-, JjSit,jeeury 
is not quite clear : we should have expected ^iirrepo^, 

(5) Homer's Kipvij/ii irtrurj/ULi irlXvafiai (^<T)Kihvafiai beside Kepaatra 
ireraffffa iriXaaaa (XKeSaaa {^iicehaa<Ta\ Pindar's Kpifivqfii * irlTvto 
beside Kpifiaaav ireToiffai, Attic opiyudo/iiai beside ope^o/aaiy owe 

their i to the analogy of reduplicated Verbs, they are formed 
after f^l-^vofiai fil-fivuo^ as Homer's aKiptdw (root sker-, cf. 
aicalpu)) is formed after ti-ktu). So Pedersen Idg. Forschungen 
2. 293 says * the i of aKiSptj/Ln is due to the influence of T<mffn 

tiOtj/lli Tri'fiirXTffii etc. 

Homer's Trltrvpe^ beside Lesbian Tritrvpe^ must owe its i to the 
preceding numeral, rpia rpU rpno^. So (BaunackK.Z. 25. 225 sq., 
Brugmann Grundriss 2. 165 sq.) oxra- in compounds owes its 
-a- to eTTTa-, Heraclean oktiv and Elean otttw draw from eTrrd 
their breathing and labial respectively, 07^009 borrows its consonants 
from efiSofio^. 

(c) There is no clear proof of any confusion in the Ionic- Attic 
dialect between e and 1 : the Old- Attic forms Alvearai — Alviarai^ 
AvXeaTai — AvXiarai only show different ways of resolving the 
diphthong €t before a vowel, Delian (nXifytyU is an Assimilation (see 
J. Schmidt K.Z. 32. 321 sq,) for (rrXeryryU, Mivhalivv is a very late 
form for the earlier Mevhalwv on the coins of Mende in Pallene. 

* In the MSS. almost always written Kfyfifivnfii (Kretschmer K.Z, 31. 376), see 
Aescb. Theb. 229. Eiir. Here. Fur. 620. 

* Homer's irfpvrjfii kept its e tbrough the influence of its cognates irtpdo) * sell ' 
and v4prt)Vf 11. 24. 761 iT4pya(rx\ ^vriv* cA.c(rK6, irexiiyj/ a\6s. 


But in the non-Ionic dialects the letters interchange so often that 
we can only explain the instances by supposing that in those 
dialects e was pronounced * close,' half-way to an ' open ' «, and so 
might be represented by either letter. Before a consonant we have 
this variation in 

Arcadian Iv beside eV, even in consecutive lines of the same 
inscription (Meister 2. 90) : cf. Hesychius ir^Kpo^' €yK€(f>a\o9, 

l<r)(€pG)' €^ij^ {i.e. iv (F^epiv) : 

Cyprian Iv beside (Hesychius) evavov evOe^, L{v)0e beside i{y)0ahe 
(Meister 2. 210) : cf. Hesych. ttiXvov' (paiov (=» Att. weWov) : 

Cretan Iv and eV in the same inscription (G. Meyer 58) : 

Locrian 7/1/os (Havet, Mem. Soc. Ling. 2. 168). 

80 the Sicyonians themselves called their city 'S.eKvwv (Meister 
2. 89) : Hesychius has Xetcpoi and XiKpoi * antlers' without designa- 
tion of dialect. Before a vowel (Solmsen K.Z. 32. 513 sq.) 
we find this variation in Cyprian, Lesbian, Boeotian, Thessalian 
(excluding Larisa), and Doric : 

Cyprian Oi6v and Oeiv, fil and /xe (Meister 2. 211) : 

Lesbian 'x^pvtrtu) and xp^^^^ • 

Boeotiaa O169 and ^eoTs, BoKiei but KaXeovn : 

Thessalian Alovra and Aeow : 

Laconian (no^ and Qeivva : 

Heraclean TifioKpajio^ but Fereo^ : 

Cretan 0i6^ and ^609, a/nlivv and a/ietoVf tiv/LLev and eiv/ncv. 

We must therefore conclude that, however it was written, e was 
always pronounced ' close * in Aeolic, Doric, Locrian, and Cyprian ; 
and, at least when it stood before a consonant, in Arcadian also. 

B. (a) The derivation of the following words is unknown, 
and we cannot say that the v stands for o : 

irpvXee^ * champions ' (Hom.), cf . Cyprian irpyXi^ ' war-dance ' 
(Hoffmann B.B. 15. 89). 

TrpvjLLvrf * stern,' Trpu/ivo^ * hindmost': not from tt/oo, which would 
give just the wrong sense. 

irpinavL^ ^president': Attic also wpoiav^la wpojavevw (Meister- 
hans, Grammatik der Attischen Inschriften, p. 19), Lesbian 
both TrpvTavL^ and Trporavi^y the words being popularly connected 
with 7rp6, 

TTvXrj * gate ' : not from TreXtv * move,' which gives too indefinite 
a meaning. 

TTvfiaTo^ *last': Sk. pit-nar *back' (Bugge B.B. 14. 68) has 
little resemblance of meaning. 

Phil. Trans. 1891-2-3. 22 


awvpaOoi. * stercus ' (Hippocrates), cf. Att. a<t>vpnh^^. 

avvpi^ or ff<pvpi9 * basket * : Lat. sporta goes rather with airapTov 

* rope.' 

rpv^ * new wine ' : Eng. dregs cannot be connected. 

vwea^ * awl * (Herodotus) : Att. ott^tioi^ may take its o- from owrf 

So 7\i50w ' carve ' goes with Lat. gluhd * peel,' Ags. eledfan 
'split,* not with ty\a(/>iv 'scrape.* In vXof^o^ 'army,' vppa^ 

* pell-mell * (Schulze 495), the first element is a dialectic form 
of <rvi/, not a * copulative ' o-. 

(ft) In the following words the v is formative, a stem-ending 
(Brugmann Grr. 2. 104, cf. 91, n.) : 

af^vpi's 'gathering* (^a'^wv\ o/n/jyvpi^f 7ravi^yvpi9f Att. ayvpnj^ 

' beggar ' : from a stem dyu-, as ayopa dyeiptv from a stem 070- 
(tt76-), all cognate with aytv ' drive.* 

alffVfivrjTTj's ' umpire ' : stem altrv, cf. ai.<r{^F^ay see on ai(7)(^o9, 

sec. 4. 

a^vBi9 ' together * (the accent, as opposed to that of d/LLoifSriBi^j 
is from ap.a)= stem dfiv (on the breathing see sec. 3), as dfjua 
from a stem dfio-, 

hiairpvaio's ' passing through * : stem wpvy from the root of 

I 1 A 

TrepatVf see TrpatrtrtVy sec. 4. 

BpvTTTiv ' I tear ' : stem Bpv (^€/)a»), as BpeTno ' pluck * from 
a stem Spe-. 

iiraatrvrepoi ' one after the other,* of obscure formation : if it 
went with the Homeric daffOTepay (by-form of affaov) it would 

be ^eTTafffforepoi, 

KpoKvSeiXo^ 'lizard,' Hipponax 119: stem KpoKv-f as KpoKoSeiXo^ 
from KpoKO'j sec. 4. 

/ndprupo^ Horn., fidprvp Pind. and Att. : stem fiap-rvy root nir-y 
as in Ppa-p€V9 ' umpire ' (Kretschmer K.Z. 31. 392). 

i/tui/v/tos Hom., vu)vvp.vo9 Hom. Pind., diz-ivw/LLo^ iir- 6fi- Hom. 

Pind. Att., ev- TToXv- Hes. Pind. Att., Bi- <rvv- ylrevS- 'Trarpiavvfiio^ 

Att.: not 'compounds of ovofia* as Kretschmer K.Z. 31. 377 
makes them, or they would end in -fiwv : they are from a stem 
wuv (for the ending cf. ervfio^ i^Bvfio^)^ as ouofia is from a stem 
ovo' (Bartholomae B.B. 17. 132).^ 

^ On ivofia and its cognates — among which Lat. nomen must not be reckoned, 
it cannot be separated from co-gr nomen and Old Slavonic zname * sign ' — see 
further J. Schmidt K.Z. 23. 267 sq.; Thumb K.Z. 32. 130 sq. ; Bezzenberger 
B.B. 10. 72 ; R. Schmidt Idg. Forsch. 1. 77 ; Audouin M^m. Soc. Ling. 


. ofyrv^ * quail ' : stems opru^' and opruK^^ cf ., with other stems 
from the same root, Sk. vartakas vdrtika vartlraSj all meaning 
* quail.' 

po(p€u) * swallow * (Ionic) : stem sm-, cf., with the same * deter- 
minative ' bh, sro- in Att. /»o0€w (Ablauts are- Lithuanian sriehiUy 
ST- Lat. 8orbed)f and, with a different determinative, sy- in Old 
Slavonic sriikati. 

vTTofipvxa * under water * : stem mm-, cf. Lat. mare (Hirt Idg. 
Forsch. 1. 475). 

(7) In pv^u) ' growl * beside po^tv poxOetOf and pv^/So^ ' bull- 
roarer * * beside po/uifio^, we have different Ablauts : the pv- repre- 
sents vr- (Frcihde B.B. 14. 107), the po- represents vro-. It 
seems that in one dialect of the Ursprache vr (vl) became ru (lu), 
in another the sonant took the same form as in other combina- 
tions : we have Sk. rue- * shine * rudh- * grow * luhh- * be lustful * 
beside vdrcaa * light * vardh- * grow * valbh- * enjoy * respectively, 
opvaaw * dig ' and (nasalised) pv^x^^ * snout ' but Sk. vrh- * to 
tear,' Xuxros Lat. lupus but Lith. wUkas, see on aavpwjrjp sec. 5. 

(5) In the following cases the v — like the u in Sk. dhur- mh- 
hur- beside dhvar- * injure ' vas- * shilie * hvar- * be crooked ' 
respectively — is Ablaut of vo or ve : 

7V1/1J, gun-,^ beside gven-, Goth, qino, Old Irish hen^ Old 
Slavonic zenuy Sk. janiSf and Elean fieveoi {filat^otjo rrj f^waiKi^ 
Meister 2. 22). 

iiri-aKvviov * skin over the eyes,' skun-, beside skven-to-, Old 
Norse %kinn. 

7. 61 ; G. Meyer Gr. Gr.' 77 and Albanesische Studien 3. 69; Brugraann Grr. 
I. 219 fin. and 2. 340; Schulze 201 hq.\ Persson 227. The forms in Celtic 
(Irish ainmm or oinm, Welsh enw) and Old Slavonic {itn/) have not yet been 
satisfactorily explained. The root may appear in 6voixai ' blame, disparage,' i.e, 
*name/ in our parliamentary sense, stigmatize. Arcadian KAcwvej/nw, Laconian 
•trarpovSfioVy seem to owe their third vowel (for v) to a false connexion with 

1 i.e. (Andrew Lang, Custom and Myth, p. 39), a fish-shaped piece of wood 
making a hideous noise when whu'led round by means of a piece of string. The 
Greeks themselves seem to have compared the shape of the bullroarer to that of 
the wryneck, tvy^, with its long snake-like neck : * the mad bird, the variegated 
wryneck of the four spokes, bound to an endless wheel,' which Aphrodite in 
Pindar (Pyth. 4. 381) brings to Jason to help him in gaining the love of Medea, 
can hardly have been a real wryneck, but a oulkoarer spun round by means of a 
wheel. From the noise which this would make, not from the bird itself, which 
has not a loud cry, came the Homeric tvfcw * roar ' ; and, from the use of the bull- 
roarer in magical ceremonies, the meaning of tvy^ as 'charm, spell' (Pind. 
Nem. 4. 66) or 'yearning produced by a spell' (Aesch. Pers. 989). 

2 A Velar after or before v becomes Palatal, not Labial (De Saussure, Mem. 
Soc. Ling. 6. 161 sq.). 


Ovpa^ dhur-, Lit. diirys^ Arm. durn^ Sk. rfwr-, beside dhvor-, 
Zend dvara, 

kvk\o9 * wheel,' kiikvlos, beside kvekvlos Ags. hveohl,^ 
kvekvlos Ags. hveogel^ Sk. cakrds, and kvokvl- Lat. poplea (an 
Oscan form, for ^quocles, as popina is the Oscan form of coqulna) 
*ham of the knee' as being rounded (Bugge B.B. 14. 64, 65). 

Kv\i^ 'cup,' kul-, beside kvel- TreX*^ (Cratinus, Meineke 
2. 64), and kvol- Sk. kalagas. 

ffrvpa^ ' spike at the butt-end of a spear,' (8)tur-, beside 
(8)tver-, see on (ravptorypy sec. 5. 

vSivpy ud- Sk. udan-f beside vod- Goth. vatOj Old Slavonic voda. 

v7n/o9, supnos. Old Slavonic sUnii, Arm. khun, beside svepnos 
Ags. svefUf and svdpnos Lith. sapnas (Lat. somntM and Sk. svdpnas 
may represent either svep- or svop-). 

TTiavpe^ Treavpe^ (see pp. 8 and 2), kvetur-, Lith. keturif 
beside kvetver- Lith. keiweri, Old Slavonic c'etveriij Irish cethir, 
and kvetvor- Dor. rhope^. 

So apparently in 

fivXrjy mul-, beside mvel- Irish melim, Old Slavonic melja^ 
Sk. mar-^ and mvol- Goth, malartj Lith. malit, Arm. malem (Lat. 
mola mold may be either mvol- or mvl-, see below) : 

pv^j nuk^t-, beside nvokt^- Lat. nox, Irish nocht, Goth, nahts, 
Lit, nakthy Old Slavonic noHi^ Sk. ndktis : 

0v\Xoi/, bhiil-jom, beside bhvc^l-jom Lat. folium, 

I.e.y though no extant language has initial mv, nv, or bhv, 
the Greek forms here show that such combinations existed in. 
the TJrsprache. So (Brugmann Grr. 166. 170. 184) v is lost 
after initial bh in V7r6/o-0m\o9, Lat /?«, Old Slavonic he * he was ' ; 
and after medial n in Att. r^oi/ara fei/o? (f>0dvu), and Old Slavonic 
ttnUa ^ thin.' 

In five of these words we have a further Ablaut, the final liquid 
of the root becomes sonant : 

71; 1/7/ : gvn-, Dor. 701/5, Boeotian fiava? 

Ovpa: dhvr-, Lat./om, Old Slavonic dviri.^ 

^ So, I think, ir4v\os * robe ' as being circular when spread out flat on the 
ground ; whence in Latin it was called cyclaa. 

2 Also, I think, Ionic (not ' borrowed into Attic from Boeotian ' as J. Adam 
says of fidyavffosy Classical Review 7. 102) : fidvavtros * mechanical' — Herodotus 
2. 165 opposes fiavavfflr) to rh /jLaxifioy — = *fiavd-avT-jos (for similar shortenings 
in compounds see on tlyx^Kvs, sec. 4) ' quite womanish,' the second element being 
from avr6s in the sense of Homer's aUrcos * merely, simply.' 

3 But not doup6sj which was the pivot of a gate, irvKat (II. 12. 459), not of a 


icvXef : kvl-, *ica\cf, a form from which Lat. caltx was horrowed. 

7ri(Tvp€9 : kvetVf-, lon.-Att, reWa/^es, Hdt. reaaepe^ {ep repre- 

sentiQg f , sec. 3 c, as in eptnjv beside Att. upffffv), Boeot. TreTra/aes, 
OaGSiJi petor. (So Aeolic avpKe^ may be from turk-, while Att. 
<rapK€9 is from tvfk- : the root is unknown.) 

p,v\rf : mvj-, fidXij ' armpit,' cf. fivXrj in the sense of * kneepan ' : 
both parts of the body were named from their shape, the armpit 
concave like the upper millstone, the kneepan convex like the 

Why all these forms of Ablaut were used it is hard to see : 
plainly it had nothing to do with accent, whether of pitch or of 
stress. My own theory on the subject, Etyma Latina p. xxx., has 
as yet escaped notice. 

(e) In ovv^ from onokhv- (p. I) the second vowel is due to 
Dissimilation, the dislike to having the same sound in two con- 
secutive syllables : cf. with * regressive * Dissimilation, the dialectic 
Attic Arii(/>vl3o9 (Kretschmer K,Z. 29. 412). In onokhv- the 
second vowel was a genuine 0, not one interchangeable with e : 
every other kind of o remains in Ionic-Attic in such a position, 
whether the preceding vowel be o, oro^o^ ototoI (both onoma- 
topoeic), oySoXo's oXoipivio^i opoyvia 6po(pi^ beside o^eXo^ iXe(f>aipop,€ii 
opefyuj ipecjio) respectively, oOopuai oXo6^ beside oOerai oXeKiVf ovo/iici 

from a stem ono- (see p. 10), ^-or w, Hom. irefinrw^oXov Att. 

a/iKfyiapoXo's Tpitv/SoXoVj Archil. Att. aTr-tvfioTO^ Att. eV- <n;i/-, Hom. 

Att. v7rtvp6(pio9 : with the exception of irej/Ttvpyt^a in an Attic 
inscription of 330 b.c. (Boeckh, Staatshaushaltung 3. 412), Bitvpvf^a 
etc. in Xenophon, Cynegeticus 2. 5, which owe their v to the 
analogy of eirwuvfio^ etc., (see p. 10 fin.), since they stood to 
6p6yvia{A.T. Fragra. 661*) as eTrwwfia etc, seemed to stand to ovofna. 

But in the non-Ionic dialects an o in such a position was pro- 
nounced * close,* inclining to an 'open* v, and might be written 
either <* or v: whether the preceding vowel were o, ouvfia in 
Lesbian, Boeotian (as oviov/uia), Thessalian, Phocian, and Doric 
(Kretschmer K.Z. 31. 377, Meister 1. 56), and ofivav (apparently 
for ofioa€f Bezzenberger B.B. 5. 327) in Pamphylian, — or w, 
Epidaurian v'7rujpv(/>ia9 beside opo^d (Kretschmer K.Z. 378). 

(g") Even apart from Dissimilation, in the non-Ionic dialects 
every un^stressed o seems to have been pronounced * close * and 
written indifferently o or v. Thus 

* Pind. Pyth. 4. 228 hp6yvLavy and Sappho 98 ivropSyvioi, are mere conjectures. 


(a) in the article, which like our * the ' was douhtless Un- 
stressed, Pamphylian v but Arcadian 6 : 

{b) at the end of a word, Lesbian dTrh and a-Trb (the Grammarians 
give Bevpv as the Aeolic form, Sappho has Sevpo), Arcadian avv 
Karv^ uWv^ but iXvffaTOy Cyprian ayrv f^evoirv wplaerv (never -to), 
Pamphylian e/SwXdffcrv eTriyjXoBv KaTepep^oSv. So before a final 
consonant, Cyprian Kepd/nw^ Nom. Sing, (in other words -09), 
Pamphylian pwXrj^ew^ and in the same inscription KeKpajLLei/o^f 
'EffrFcSiiv^ Nom. and Kovpaaitow^ Gen. : 

(c) in the first element of a compound, whether a monosyllabic 
Preposition, Cyprian vv-eOrfKc and ov-eOrfKey both from n-, Att. 
av ; or at the end of a disyllabic Preposition, Lesbian aTrv- and 
diro', Larisaean aTrv-, Arcadian aTrv- Ka-rv- ; or at the end of a 
stem, Rhodian *Aya0V'/u,pp6Tov and Tifio-ppohov^ Pamphylian Foncv- 

TToXt'S and N€70-7roX6«9. 

Pitch- accent seems to have had nothing to do with this pro- 
nunciation of o, we have v in the oxytone syllable in FoikvttoXi^ 
and may suppose it in ^k^aOvfuiPpoTos} On the other hand, except 
in the later Lesbian dialect, on which see below, this peculiar 
V seems to appear only in the unstressed syllable.* 

In some sub dialects o before «, wliether stressed or not, seems 
to have been pronounced 'close*: the instances (G. Meyer 116; 
J. Schmidt K.Z. 32. 394 sq.) are — Ionic (at Abu Simbel) vfs, 
Cretan vl and o7rv«, Euboean /u,€rviK09. 

(97) In the later Lesbian dialect — that of Theocritus in his three 
' Aeolic * poems, and of the poetess Ealbilla, not that of Sappho 
and Alcaeus or of any early inscription — even radical o seems to 
have been pronounced somewhat * close.' The Greek grammarians, 
who say that the * Aeolians,' i.e. the Lesbians, *tum o into v,* 
give /bLif^/i^ ^vavov atvfia tvt€ vfAxf^dXo'i viriaOa vpvi^ as the proper 
Aeolic forms, though Pittacus (in Eergk) has arofia^ a Lesbian 
inscription oref Alcaeus opvi^ ; so that we cannot be sure that 

^ For */caTj», which is to Karh. as virh to hira- (Sappho). 

* Homer's 2(A\uSis owes its v to ^ixv^is. 

3 So in Cyprian Kvv6m(Tfia (Hesyehius) * wine made from the refuse of pressed 
grapes,* if Meister 2. 220 is right in making this=*/c«i/<J-7ri(r/ia, from kmuos 
* resin* -{-wrpu : but M. Schmidt suggests Kvyv-vUfffia ('juice J)ressed out'). 

* Cyprian SoFfvai and IvFdvoi seem to contain the same root in two forms, 
(1) dou- from dou- (Wiedemann, Litauisches Praeteritum, 41 sq.), cf. Old 
Slavonic darati, and (2) du-, cf. Lat. duun, with F developt before a vowel, as in 
Chalcidian TapvFSvri^, Boeotian Ei/Fdyopos, cf. Epirotic Et/fiavhpos. Cf. respec- 
tively (1) do(u)- in Cyprian ^(i>Koi, and (2) dii- in iir4dvK€ (Meister 2. 220). 


the various readings ^wei and vtrBtvv in Sappho 40 and 4 ai-e 
genuine. In a late inscription we have vfiolws^y in Ealbilla 
(Meister 1. 53) v/*oc, in Theocritus vfiowv tffiaprrj, in Hesychius 
ef vftAXKiov ef ofioltovy while Theocritus has arifxa^ Hesychius 
fivpfivpu)v. These facts seem to show (1) that the 'close' pro- 
nunciation of radical o was confined to the later Lesbian dialect, 
and (2) that even in this later dialect the radical o was pronounced 
only slightly * close,* since in all instances but those just given 
it is spelt o and not v. 

{$) As the Romance languages, descended from the dialect of 
the Roman lower class, make every Latin u into o, so the dialects 
of Western Cyprus (Hoffmann B.B. 15. 49 sq.) seem to have 
made every v into o : the town-name ^6\ol (in Cyprus) is in 
Plutarch 2i;\ot (Meister 2. 220), we have lOovUri in an inscription 
from Paphos (Deecke B.B. 6. 71), Hesychius quotes Oopava^ 
fioxot (Todua (beside Ovpd fivxo^ ^vrfKrj) as Paphian, and his 
fiopfiia^ iiTToKaaev IvKa^reve KOfifio's Kp6<rTaX\o9 \o^vi9 ireiroafiai 
ap^of^epov (beside fivpfiri^ iwvKaaev iyKaraCpvTeve Kvp/3o9 Kpv<TTaWo9 
\v')(vU TreTTvap^ai eTriafivyepiv^) may belong to the same family. 
So also in some Boeotian dialect (G. Meyer 90), 'Ayttoi/rav Ooairjv ; 
but Boeotian Ev(f)po(r6i/ai/ 2o/i^yow, Attic ^0\o/t5ro9, Laconian 
Kovoovpetoi/, may be due to Assimilation (Kretschmer K.Z. 29. 
412), while Strabo's 'Opfiiua for 'Ypfiuii^Tf (in Elis, II. 2. 616, 
see Meister 2. 31) seems to show the influence of oppo9 * roadstead.' 

(3) Leskien's principle of * Ausnahmslosigkeit,* that a phonetic 
law has no exceptions, is doubtless true within each dialect ; 
but in Greek there were as many dialects as there are in 
English, and every poet and each of his hearers or readers must 
have been familiar with several. So ovts and io«, words common 
enough, were loanwords in Latin (Havet, Mem. Soc. Ling. 
6. 17 sq.), the proper Roman forms would be *avis and *vo8 : 
the Romans said * sedeo in solio,* though the I in the last 
word was Oscan. In * the skipper met the shipper in a well- 
equipt skiff ' we have four different dialects : in the Windhill 
dialect of Yorkshire the forms miserly misel, miseln (myself) are 
used without distinction, and * probably due to importation from 
neighbouring dialects' (Prof. Joseph Wright, Dialect of Wind- 
hill, p. 122). 


A. Whether an initial vowel should preserve its aspiration 
or not must have depended on dialect in Greek, just as it did 
in Latin and does in English: the lower orders at Rome, the 
linguistic progenitors of the Romance languages, must have 
dropt all their A'«, and in England it is only the educated 
classes that keep theirs. 

yBv9 and ^^09 go together: the latter in II. 11. 318 y^ivv ^Bo9 

* satisfaction from us * has an ironical sense, which I detect also 
in cognate words with short vowel, viz. {a) dBo9 II. 11. 88 
(where it seems to have a digamma), and dSij or aBrj (in Homer 
only in Ace), * satiety ' ; (b) aBii/69 or aBii^o^ * to repletion * ; 
and (c) the post-Homeric aSpd^ * thick, large,' quasi ' sufficient.' 
— In II. 5. 203 dSrjt^y also writtefi dBBfjv, may be a contraction 
of "^d-fffaSiji/ * without satisfying oneself (Schulze p. 452 sq,) ; 
and so I would explain dBeto in Homer's aB^treie a^j/zcoVe?, both 
also written aBB-y as for ^d-afadetVf * am dissatisfied, displeased ' : 

</)pot/j,tov * prelude,' beside 7rpo-oiiu,ioVf must come from *oifiiov^ 
as (f)povp69 comes from 7rp6-\-*6p6^ * watcher * (o/>aw), and ^pov6o9 
from ^(ppovBoOf i.e. irpo oBov, * ahead on the way,' II. 4. 382. 
Homer's ot/mrj * song ' will then be dialectic for "^^oifirjf perhaps 
meaning * connection,' arrangement of words, from a root soi-, 
Sk. setus * binding,' «*-, * to bind,' l-fid^ * band.' (Lat. saeculum 
then must be from some other root.) 

B. In Lesbian we have tW/o t'^os for virep v^os (G. Meyer 91), 
in Larisaean Ivep (Meister 1. 224), in Megarian alaifivara's for 
alavjuLvijrr/^ (Kretschmer K.Z. 29. 412 sq,), in Hippocrates both 
(TTpKpifo^ and a7pv(f>v6^ * hard.' So I would explain KivaiSo9 

* wanton ' as for *icvj/at5o9, Le, kwo's alhCb e^^wi^, * with as much 
modesty as a dog,' the dialectic form being employed to disguise 
the meaning. 

C. The Lesbian representative of r was po (G. Meyer 27), 
e.g, Ppox^u)^ 0po(T€u}9 (rTp6rar^o9, Homer's '^/nfiporov beside Att. 
tjiiiaprov : SO fiporo^ (cf. Sk. mrtds 'dead') must have been Aeolic, 
the true Ionic word being OurjTo^y Dor. Ouaro^. So n is represented 
by vo in Alcaeus* *^v6(t>aWov beside Att. KvacfiaWov : ^ the root, 
as the varying initial proves,^ was originally bi-aspirate, ghn-bh-, 

^ On va for n in Ionic- Attic see Osthoff, Morphologische TJntersuchungen v., 
preface; he quotes yv^Bos^ vaico (i.e, *i/a<r-J<w), and, for fiu from m, /nare^M 
beside fieraWtici. 

^ Cf. Hesych. h.KaB6v' hyad6vy i.e. the original form was *i-xa^<iy, from 

* intensive * d- (see sec. 1) -t- a root ghadh-. Ablaut ghadh- in Goth, gods * good.' 


cf. ghne-bh- in Att. f^vifpaWov, and with Metathesis (as in 
ofKpaXd^ beside Ags. nafela) ghem-bh-, Old Slavonic zeha *I tear 
in pieces ' (wool being carded for use). 

One dialect seems to have used e-, not d-, to represent the 
nasal sonant : Hesychius has ioffffrfri^p' aoffffr/rrjp, and ir^pvirvet' 
aypvTTvet, the first vowel in each being the * copulative ' prefix, 
originally sm-, sec. 1, c. (In d-f^p-virveiy literally * is chasing 
sleep,' ' and in ct-r^pa * chace,* a-r^peu) * seize,' ^bj-a-^pia 'reward 
for saving life,* the a- must be a prefix, the root gr-, ger-, as in 
Hom. ^iv'typei *take alive,' and Hesych. ef^prfurai' yprfUTai,) So 
y=€/o in Homer 8 ipi- and OepffiTij^ beside apt- and Odpao^^ Hesych. 
^epeOpa and jLLepyi^e * gobble ' beside pdpaOpa and i^dpr^o s ; and 
J=€X, in Hesych. ^eWeiv jneXepov beside fiaXkeiv fiaXepov. Again, 
with the consonant coming first (as in fiaTcvtv 71/a^os KpaBirf 
vXaTV9)f we have ni=yt4€ in Hesych. fiioTa^ for fULdtrra^y and 
y=/06 in Lesbian Kpero^ for Kpdro^ (G. Meyer 6), Hesych. pd/Kpoi 
for pd^(f>09 ' beak,' Boeotian rpewehha^ beside (in another inscription) 

rpawehha^ (B.B. 17. 336, n.). 

D. Homer's ob/xtf = Att. oafirjy as "AB/u.ijto^ = Att. ^Ac/tiyros 

(Kretschmer K.Z. 29. 420) ; so Pindar's KeKahfA^vo^ * furnished 
with' -sAtt. KeKaa^€i/o9f perhaps meaning * bound with,' and 
going with the post-Homeric ktjBo9 * connexion by marriage ' 
— quite a different word from the Homeric KtjBo^ * care, mourn- 
ing.' Homer's Kalvvfiai * surpass,' Perf. KeKaofiai, cannot be for 
*KdSvv/j,ai or go with KEKahfievo^y for Dental +1/ would remain 
unchanged, as in dXoavhvrj wlivw eOvo^ (G. Meyer 280) : I 
would explain it as far ^Kaavvfiai (cf. eivvfii for *6ffj/v/tt), from 
a root kns-, Sk, qam- * to praise,' so that Kaiifvfiai will mean 
* am praised ' for something, Od. 4. 725 TravToirf^ apery <ri 

KCKaafJieifO^ iv Aayaoiffi. 

E. Herodotus (Rhys, P and Q Groups, p. 16), uses k- for w- 
in words derived from the Relative stem, e.g, kotc Koi) kw9 : 
thus his wpoKa * forthwith ' may stand for ^Trpd Tray i,e, 5r/9o+the 
Instrumental (Brugmann Grr. 2. 274) of kvo-. Thus 'irpoKa 
will be identical with Lat. prope * near,' an Oscan form (see 
p. 12 init. on poples) for *proque from *proqua (Brugmann Grr. 1. 
973). — The -Ka in ainUa must be differently explained, 
apparently as kn. Ablaut of /ce*/ * then ' (see Persson Idg. Fors- 

* Havet's (and Benfey's) connexion of 6.yp\nrvos with iytipWf Mem. Soc. Ling. 
6. Ill, is rightly controverted by Breal, do. 172. 


chungen 2. 228) : the first element is *avT/, Location of av9 
* ipse ' (Hesychius), while avr69 is from the stem of avy+a 
'determinative' o (see on Oetrcparo^, p. 1). 

r. Before € or « a Velar ought in Greek to appear as a Dental 
(Bezzenherger B.B. 16. 254 sq.j Bechtel Hauptprobleme p. 356 
sq.) : the rule-right forms of ^/o? and )3/a, beside Sk. jiv- and 
7ya- respectively, would be *^/o9 and *^m. The former appears in 
Bicp69 * living' (Fick B.B. 16. 287), and I think in hie^ai * hasten, 
am quick ' ; of which the Perfect Active would be ''^BeBiivKa (as 
that of d(ptri/!ii is acjyiwKaf G. Meyer 559), whence was formed a 
Present hitvKw * set in motion ' (G. Meyer 45). The form ^hla I 
detect in 

{a) ^la-Kovo's 'servant,' quasi pla kovwv, 'compelled to work': 
the second element, as in Hesychius' kovgIv' eireityetrOaiy Homer s 
eyKouew * hasten,' Att. aKovlTi ' without trouble ' (Schulze 353, n.), 
is from ken-, a parallel form of kven- in wopeiv, as kel- in kcWu), 
K€\y9, Lat. celer, is a parallel form of kvel- in ttcXu) ' move,' 
Lat. cold : 

(h) hia-veKYj^ 'continuous,' quasi fila ivexOei^, 'brought on by 
forcCj not to be stopt ' : the second element being an unnasalised 
form (as in Lat. naetm) of the root of ivet^Keiv and Lat. nanciscar. 

(4) It is often difficult to decide whether a word is a compound 
or a derivative, or of what elements an admittedly compound word 
is made up. 

ti^rjxj'^ in Homer always connotes sound : it is used of the cries 
of pain, of a tumult, of the bleating of sheep, and of noisy eating 
and drinking. I would therefore explain it as ' dry-sounding,' 
from *aJ'o9, Adj. of a^rj 'dryness,' + 7%os 'noise,' comparing 
II. 12. 160, KopvOe^ S* d/Li(p^ avov avrevvy of a 'harsh, grating sound ' 
(Monro), and Verg. Georg. 1. 357 aridus . . fragor ' a jarring noise.' 
Hesychius* afaxC^'"] ^^^^ ^^^ ^® ^^® Doric form ; his a£'€X'/« is a 
different word, dwh too a^rjv exeiv^ as the Scholiast on II. 15. 25 
gives the derivation of d^ijxv^ (which Apollonius Rhodius uses 
as = d^a\€09 'dry,' Wackernagel K Z. 33. 51). 

alaxo^ ' disgrace ' = *aro-o-x-o9, from ais- in Goth, aistan^ to 
observe,' Old High German era ' honour,' al[a)'hw9 * shame, respect ' 
(Bezzenherger B.B. 4. 313),^ and aiff-{F)fi 'apportioning,' giving 

* The 8 is probably terminational, not from Sl^oofu. 


each his due share of honour. The second element of a7<rxo9 
is the * reduced ' root of cx«, so that the whole word means * having 
ohservation,' getting oneself observed. So wa<rxw=*5ra^-<rx«, *I 
have suffering, I suffer,' firom iraOo^, vaOeiv: Hesychius' waaxi'^^? 
shows that the Greeks themselves considered vaax' ^^ root. 
There is no proof that *ira6-<n:uyy with an Inceptive ending, could 
give anything but vaaKw (which is the Elean form, G. Meyer 269) : 
fiitryo) is not for *fjity(r 1:10 y but shows the same stem fiitry- as in 
Homer's fiitryayKeia * meeting of glens,' i.e. fu^-a-^-y the root of 
fuy-vvfii increased by 8, and with the same termination (Brugmann 
Grr. 2. 91) as ai-yri beside (ri-unraw * look silent' (Kretschmer 
K Z. 31. 471). 

aifuyya * command' means *lead up' (Lat. tn-duco, see sec. 1, 
A), cause to do a thing: *ivya is an unreduplicated Perfect, 
like otSa, from the strong form (as in ay'wy'69) of the root 
of u'^w. So oijuLtvy^ * wailing,' from or/tor+*tt>77 : for the sense 
cf. KTVTTot/ uyeit/ * make a noise,' rfeXtvTa d'^eti/ * raise a laugh.' ' 
So I would explain irpaffau) as *jrpa'ay-Tjufj * make progress,' 
whence its Homeric use with a * local ' Genitive, e.^. II. 24. 
264 iva 7rpi)<TaisyfAev oBoio * advance on our way,' and so vpa'^os 
* business '=:*7r/>a-a7-o? : the first element is *7rpa 'progress,' 
a Subst. formed like xP^l *^^ o/io-kXj (Brugmann Grr. 2. 896), 
and standing to 7ropo9 irepauj much as Bpa- in Bpn/ita Spato stands 
to Lith. darau *1 do.' 

tt/»7rt\€09 'difficult' (the d- must be long, as it is in Att. 
a/0709 * idle,' from ^d-p^p^o^) means * impracticable, not to be 
done,' from a- negative -f-(^e/xyoi/. For the contraction cf. 


cLkUJV from *d-F€KU}U. 

apparo^ 'unchangeable' (Plato) = *«-/7)a-T09, a- negative -(- 
^fparo^ Participle from vr- 'to turn,' whence also (a), with a 
termination -mo-, p6p,o9 * worm' (see sec. 3, C), Lat. vermis (from 
*vormis), Goth, vaurnis * serpent' ; with -mn, Lat. vermina ' colic.' 
and {h) with a ' determinative ' t, Lat. vortd-, Sk. vart- ' to turn,' 
Elean ppardva * stirring -ladle ' (Hesychius), and oprv^ ' quail ' 
quasi * dancing, turning round.* 

ii(t>9epa ' dressed hide ' (Thuc. 2. 75 tippets Koi li(j>0epa9 ' skins 

' "With the literal sense of * raise ' we find iyw in ^kt^ * raised land, coast, 
river-bank,' cf. Soph. Oed. Rex. 183 fidofxiov atcriv ' the raised altar ' ; so in 
&X^os * weiprht, what one can lift,* cf. Soph. El. 119 ^.ynv ovKfTi croaKoa Auinjs 
iivrlppoirov &x^^^i ^^^ ^^^ Attic use Ikynv fxvay 'to weigh a pound, be able to 
lift it.' 


undressed or dressed ') means ' twice spoilt,' Si9'\'<f)0€tptOf diverted 
from its natural use as a covering for the beast, first torn off 
(Sippi9 from Bepo), with a termination 'pt9 as in aKpi9 oKpi9f Brug- 
mann Grr. 2. 98) and then tanned. Hesychius has a dialectic 
form hiyfrapa, which goes with his yfreipec (fjOeipei (G. Meyer 
209 fin.). 

er^XeXv^ ' eel ' = *€7xv-x6\i;?, * snake with the mouth of a 
tortoise/ x^'^*'*- *^yx^^ exactly =Lat. anguisj since eng- becomes 
in Latin ang-^ frangO is for *frengo, cf. Goth, hrikan, — On similar 
shortenings in compounds, where the two middle syllables have 
the same consonant or two similar vowels concur, see G. Meyer 
302 and Schulze 427 : Aeschylus Eum. 62 has fibeXvicTpoiro^ for 
* pheXvicTO'TpoTTo^, and so I would explain {a) iraXafLvalo^ * suppliant 

not yet purified ' as for *'jraXafiofiva7o9 (as naXa/ti^2i/»=*naXayMo- 

firjdff^f Tick K.Z. 22. 99), * with a deed of violence, TroXa^jy, in 
his memory,' fii^^firf ; {b) (no-fiapyoi * loquacious ' as for *<rTOfid^ 
fiapyo9 * mad of mouth ' ; and {c) vTrefivrjfivKey II. 22. 491, of an 
orphan boy, as for *inr-€-fiinj'7ipxtK€ * is bowed down in mind ' 
(quasi ^vTr-qfivKe fi€fivrjfi€i/o9) : though for rjp.vto * bow down ' I 
cannot suggest any etymology. 

etafJ>o9 * foundation* is marked by Brugmann, Grr. 2. p. 204, 
as the only Neuter word with the termination -bho- : I therefore 
take it as a compound of €iSo9+a0i; aTrro/iai, ' touching the seat ' 
or bottom, a Dissimilation of breathing for * 6iSa0o9. 

eroifio^ * ready ' may mean * striving after the way,' otfiL09; 
the first element being (as Prellwitz Etym. Worterbuch der 
Griech. Sprache suggests) jet-, Sk. gat- * seek to reach ' (Middle). 
In the Active Sk. gat- means * to marshal, put in order ' ; and 
with this we may connect eVeo*, cVu^ov, and (with the root in 
its long form reduplicated) ir^rvp.09 * true,' quasi * regular.' 
On the difference of breathing see sec. 3, A. 

€vpv9 must be a compound, or we should have *€ipv9f^ as we 
have EiXeiOvia beside *EX€v0u} : it seems a contraction of *€v-vpv9 
*full wide' (Sk. urus). So ev0u9 'straight' may be from 6v-+^i5ai, 
'rushing well,' going in a straight line. The first element appears 
in three different forms: (I) esu-, 6v-, cvs * brave,' with metrical 
lengthening (Schulze 33 sq.) rjm ; (2) 8U-, the reduced form, 
Sk. su' * well,' Greek v- in v/Bpi9 beside Ppiapo^, vyiy9 beside 

* The only non-compound word in Greek with v in both syllables is y\Ȥc6sf 
apparently a by- form of the *yKvK6s which appears in Hesychius* yKviefi' fiordvii 
ris iS<&Bifios. 


Lith. gyja 'I get well (De Saussure Mem Soc. Ling. 7. 89, 
Zubaty K.Z. 31. 52 sq,)-, (3) su-, Sk. «w- 'well,' and I think 
Greek *v- in *v^t;s, whence by Dissimilation (Osthoff Morph. 
Unters. 4. 190 sq,, though his explanation is very different) lOm^ 
the second element being Ovia, As Zubaty points out, the 
parallelism of 

Sk. sli- ' well ' and dmh- * ill,' 
Zend hu' and dmh-^ 
Arm. h' and ^-, 
Irish. 8U' and ^m-, 

makes it difficult to separate ev-, as the correlative of hva-f 
from Sk. «ii-, and put it with either Sk. dyiis * alive * or dvas 

* favour.' — With ev I would put {a) evre * when * or * as,' in 
the latter meaning also rjvTe, with metrical lengthening: the re 
being superflous, as in avre, os re, added on the analogy of 
clauses in which it really meant * and.' Thus II. 23. 62-65 

evre rov thrvo^ ifiapwre . , . rfKOe B* cttI "^vxrif literally * well 

was sleep seizing him : the ghost appeared,' came to mean * when 
sleep was seizing him, the ghost appeared;' II. 3. lC-13 evr' 
op€09 Kopv^ytTi NoTos Karix^vcv 6/j,t)(X7ju . . . liDs upa rwv vtto 

TTOfftri Koviaa\o9 wpvvr aeWiJs means * well does the south wind 
bring fog: so rose the dust,' i.e, *a8 the south wind brings fog, so 

rose the dust ' ; and II. 4. 277 fieXavrepov^ ijvre irlaaa^ (^alverai 

* it looks blacker, quite pitchy ' : (b) evxofiai * boast, vow, pray,' 
literally *use only bona verba* about myself or the gods, the 
same termination appearing in vi]X^ ^f^VX^ arei/dxt*^ "^p^X"^ V^'VX*^'* 
ffrovaxrji SiSaxy (this from the same root as ^w * I will find,' Zend 
dd' *to know '). 

bxOodoTTeiv 'quarrel,' II. 1. 518, means 'organise hostilities,' 
from the root of exOo^ exOpo^ + dekv- Old High German gi-zehon 

* to arrange,' with which Brugmann Grr. 1. p. 332 puts helwov 
' dinner,' quasi ^hewv-jov, — Eng. hatred, literally ' arrangement 
(Ags. raed) of hate,' is a somewhat similar compound. 

kpok6c€l\o9 * lizard,* an Ionic word (Hdt. 2. 69), = * yellow 
coward,' KpoKo^ * saffron ' + BeiXo^, from the colour and shyness of 
the animal. The application of the word to the crocodile must 
have been a Litotes, or joke. 

\ap7u69, properly used of an ox (Ar. Pax. 925), = ' with a fine 
hide,' /j7i/os. The first element is the intensive prefix \a-, as in 

XaKaraTrv'^ftcVf \aKardparo9, Adfiaxo^t representing *\,a€- i,e, "^Xaae-^ 


as the similar prefix Xai- in \ai/u,apyo9 \aiff7roBia9 represents *\a(n- : ' 
both are from a root las-, Sk. las- *to be lively,* reduplicated in 

XiXaiojuai * I desire,* i.e, ^Xi-Xaa-jofiai.^ 

fjuevoivau) * desire eagerly *=*/t€i/o-/"o£i/att; (for the shortening 
of a compound see p. 20 on €7xe\v9) * am drunk with desire,* 
fievei oivwfiai : cf. the Attic use of fieOveiv * to be drunk with 
passion.* In II. 12. 59 fievolvsov is wrong both in form (for 
fievolvaov) and meaning ('were anxious*): Goebel, Homerische 
Blatter, p. 1 5 sq, proposes to read fievoieu av, 

vrjf^ar€09f the Homeric epithet of ;)^£Tiii/ and Kp-qhcfivov, may 
mean *such as never was,* ofos ouiru) i^(ev£7o (as I think the 
post-Homeric aTrXeros * immense * meant olo^ oviru) eTrXeTo), vrf- 
negative + a Participial form from r^iyi/o/ So Lat. ingens 
* huge * means * quod nondum genitum est.* 

Traiyi/iff * sport' (Hdt.) and iralr^viov *toy' (Att.) are from 
an Adj. "^vai-^ivo^ for *7raiS-yi/69f formed after 1/60-71/09, the 
second element going with (yiyi/o/nai, Eut the forms Traif^/uLoavvrf 
Trat^ovfiai ireTratKa owe their guttural to a mistaken explanation 
of Tral^u) {i.e. *7raiB'jiv) as for '^Traify-jiVf since the -fw in most 
Verbs arose from -'yjiv: Curtius, Yerbum 1. 317, gives thirty 
instances of -fw from -7/0;, as against nineteen of -J'w from -Bju), 

TTtv/j.aXa 'not at all* (Att.) is a negative which was originally 
an interrogative : irta fidXa * how, very much how * ? The two 
words were pronounced and accented as one, to show that the 
/[idXa qualified the preceding word and not anything that might 
follow. So TTuj in Aesch. Agam. 1507 is a negation under 
the guise of a question : Sidgwick rightly translates it * nay.* 
In meaning it differs from ttw^ * how ? * no more than ovrtv 
differs from ovTtv9 : in each case euphony alone determined which 
form should be employed. So ovTrtv and ou7rw9, fiyjiru) and /ntfTrtDSj 
are used interchangeably : in 

II. 2. 419 ovB* apa TTw 01 iTreKpaiaive Kpoi^iivv (see Fasi), 
II. 3. 306 ouTTu) rXTjaofi, 

II. 14. 143 aol B* OUTTU) fidXa 7rd^')(y Oeot ficLKape^ Koreovaiv^ 
Od. 2. 118 KepBed 0* oV ovvu) riv* dKovofi€.v ovBe vaXaiCbVf 

1 For the difference in the final vowel cf. hpx^'ifoKis hpxi''r4KT(ov (G. Meyer 

* XtKiHlihos * eager ' is not from KiKaloixai but from *Afc£o/itoi * I am much set 
on a thing,' cognate with Xitav \l7}v ' very much ' ; which itself seems to stand 
for *\lF-a¥f,* smoothly, easily,* beside \€i{F)os * smooth,* with the same termina- 
tion as vK-dv vK'iiv * except,' literally * turning from ' (e.g. irXV civtov^^ away 
\ '), from the root of n4\» * move.* 


Soph. Oed. Kex 105 ov f^ap elaetBov 76 TTw, 

and again 

II. 4. 234 firiTTw 71 fieOiere OovpiBo9 a\K^9, 

Od. 9. 102 /j^rfTTU) Tts XwToio ^af^ihv voffjoio XdOijraif 

Cur. Hec. 1278 /myTrw fiavelri Tvi/Sapi9 Toaovhe irats^ 

we might just as well have had ovirto^ (/j^yTrw^), In many 
passages outtiv (/aj/tw) may conveniently be tr.mslated * not yet * : 
but in each it is the Verb that gives the connotation of time, 
the particle denotes only manner (* not at all '). 

a6\oiK09 'foreign* {^fidp/3apo9f Herodian) must be a comic 
formation from 0-0X09 * ball of iron*+the termination of uttoiko^ 
eiroiKO's fi6ToiKo9 ffvvoiKo^f quasi * lumpish dweller,* heavi/ citizen. 

(r<poSpu)9 * violently* (Od. 12. 124: <r^6Bpa and tr(j>ohp6's are 
post-Homeric) = * acting for oneself,* from the roots of o-0os * their, 
his * and hpau), as in oXiyoSp^vewv * doing little, feeble.* So I 
would deduce <T(f>€hav6v * eagerly ' (II., in the phrases eirero 
o"0e5ai/oi/, a(f>€Bav6v €0€9re, * he followed on his own way *) from 
the stem of o'0€T6/oo9+the termination -Savo-, /u^rjKeBavo^, a by-form 
of 'hvo' in oKairahvo^ f^oehvo^ fiaKehvo^ o\o^hvo9 rreXiBvo^ i^e^i/o's, 

as the termination -rai/o'-, eTrrjeraposy is a by-form of -tj/o- in 


vTroBpuy in the Homeric phrase vTroBpa IStvv * looking fiercely at 
him,* can have nothing to do with BipKofiaiy which would be giving 
the same idea twice over, and in which case the word ought to be 
vTToBpd^y as the Alexandrians rightly had it. I therefore (Etyma 
Latina s.v. odium) take virobpa as Instrumental (for the accent cf. 
(r(/>6Spa from (T(f)oBp6^) of an Adj. ^vir-oB-po^ * with covert hatred,* 
from the root of oSvo/LLai (Schulze 341) * am angry,* Lat. odium, 
Arm. ateam * I hate,* Old !Srorse otul * fierce * {e.g, otul augu 
'fierce eyes*). With odium goes airox 'fierce* (Lat. Consonant 
Laws 22, see Thurneysen K.Z. 32. 562) ; so that, if I may coin 
the Latin word, v7ro^/9a=*8ubatrociter. 

wxpo^ (apparently Neuter) * paleness * is in Homer the colour 
of fear, II. 3. 35 wxpo^ re juiv elXe Trapeid^, Od. 11. 529 
wxprj(TavTa xp^^t ^^ ^ coward ; it may mean ' egg-colour,* as 
yellow as the yolk of an egg, to wxpov rod woo (Aristotle). 
The first element is the root of u}{f)6i/ (a post-Homeric word), 
Lat. ovum. Old Slavonic aje (which last proves the root to be 
6-, not 6v-) ; the second is a by-form of XP^^ * colour.* From 
tvxpo9 was later (first in Hippocrates) formed an Adj. tvxpd^ 
*pale, yellow.* 


(5) Some other words may best be given Iq alphabetical order. 

a«€To9 * eagle' (=*a«/^6Tos, as Pergaean alfiero^ shows), Aratus' 
alrfTo^f^ may mean 'mighty one/ going with aij/ros, epithet of 
Hephaistos in II. 18. 410, aia 'land' (the 'mighty' earth), 
and alavif's * everlasting.' The two last words Johansson, B.B. 
18. 4, puts with alelj alwv, and Sk. ayks 'living': the common 
idea then will be * full of life, strong.' 

a/i/os * terrible ' may originally have meant * bitter, cruel,' *hfi-j69 
(cf. palvw from *pdfijuj, Goth, qiman), m- Ablaut to om-, Lat. 
amaruB * bitter' (on the first vowel see Latin Vocalism 5), w/to's 
' raw, cruel.' 

uKu)v 'javelin' may go with aicvKo^ 'acorn ' and mean ' made of 
oak.' So Schrader K.Z. 30. 461 connects alr^averj 'spear' with 
Eng. oak, 

duBporT/ra ' manhood,' occurring three times in the Iliad, is of 
course unmetrical: it may be corrected in several ways. (1) The 
most impossible of all is Ciemm's, who reads ^BpoTfjra from *vSpo- 
ryra (d'vBpd^) : this in two places gives an un-Homeric caesura 
Kara reraprov Tpoxalov (Monro, flomeric Grammar,* 367. 2), 

\i7rovaa '^SporijTa Kal yfirjPf and in the third, II. 24. 6 woOetvv 

*BpoTrJTu re Kal fievo^, will not even scan. (2) The idea that 
*dSpor^ra could be a ' reduction ' of ^avSporijra lacks support : 
dftportf is epithet of i/uf in II. 14. 78, and afi^poro^ in Od. 11. 330, 
but the sense is different, dppoTff (like d/jupiftpoTjjy G. Meyer, 179) 
is * neu componiert * from fipoTo^, to mean * void of men, unpeopled,' 

(^Ka$* yv PpoTol furj (jionwaiv Schol., e*/ if fipoTO^ ov Trpoeiaiv 
Eustathius), and so in Aesch. Prom. 2 uftporov eh iprjiJilav (as 
Dindorf rightly reads for u^arov : Hesychius has afiporov dwavOpu)- 
TTov)? (3) I would therefore read ^dporrj'ra, as a parallel form 
to dperjv, the dp- in each case representing nr- (beside d-vrjp). In 
II. 2. 651 *FiVvcLkiiv dvBpet<p6vry we may read ^apecpoPTyf with the 
same stem as dperrj. 

dvTaKOLO's ' sturgeon ' was a Scythian word, Hdt. 4. 53 : if this 
means Slavonic I would connect the word with ant- in dvrl 
'against,' Lith. ant 'up to,' and akv- in Lat. aqua (the Ur- 
Slavisch form would be *aka), and explain it as ' going up 

^ For the varying quantity of the second vowel cf. h.py4ri ^pyriTt, iia-Ke 
iffKriBiiSt irptarowayhs evTrriyfis (Schulze 473 n.). 

2 From kfip&rn Goebel, Homerische Blatter, p. 1 sq.^ derives h.^pord(Do in 
II. 10. 65 liii TTws afipord^ofifv iiWiiXouv, * walk by night to each other's hurt * : 
Hesychius has ^jSpor^o-ai ' to meet by night.* 


stream,' sfnce according to Pliny (Hist. Nat. 9. 60) the sturgeon 
swims with its scales turned forward. Lat. aquipensis may mean 
the same thing, though I cannot explain the second element. — 
Another Scythian word, u<rxv * hazelsap,* Hdt. 4. 23, may go 
with Polish oskola ' hirchsap,' from a stem askhv-. 

avrpov * cave ' may mean * cul de sac,' and go with Sk. dntas 

* end,' Goth, andeis. 

av\a^ * furrow,' avXri 'court' (within a high fence, Homer's 
fiaOiri^ avXij^), avXos * flute,' avXtvv * hoUow way ' or * windpipe,* 
may all go together, the common idea being * hollow.* The stem 
then is au-l-n- from ave-l-n-, p. 1, whence also ve-l-n- in Lat. 
vallta (Persson 230 : i,e, *veln6s, with * pretonic ' a), Sk. vdni 

* reed ' and vdnds * arrow made of reed.' ^ 

^pe</>09 * babe * stands to fipaxv9 * small ' much as iXa<pp69y see 
note p. 11, stands to iXaxv^ : the root of ppecj^o^ must be mreghv-, 
as that of fipaxv9 is mrghv-, Goth, ga-maurgjan * to shorten ' 
(Johansson K.Z. 30. 442 aq,), I detect a third form, mfghv-, in 
jj,6p(/)i/o^y II. 24. 316, 'the little one,* according to Pliny (Hist. 
Nat. 10. 7) the smallest but one (the fieXavaeTo^) of the six kinds 
of eagle. 

SeXeap * bait,' Laconian fiXrjp (Alcman 130), must mean 'dropt* 
into the water, from fidXXw (not, as Meister 2. 204 says, from a 
root gvel- meaning * to split, tear'). In Od. 12. 252 the gram- 
marian Callistratus read IxOvai to?9 6Xi<yoi4Ti SoXov Kara SeiXara 
(* bait') pdXXwv, for fl'Sara (Schulze 102). 

^eo-TToTi/s and Sk.jaspatis * master of the house ' owe their ^ to a 
popular connexion with the words for * lord,' Troo-es (* husband ') 
and pdtis : the proper form, as Old Slavonic gospodt * lord ' shows, 
was gvispod-, the -B- perhaps appearing in Seffiro^w. The further 
derivation is obscure : the word indeed may be un- Aryan. 

BixofiaL in Homer and Att., beside BeKOfiai in Sappho Pindar 
Hdt. and -hoK- in compounds in all dialects, owes its x ^^ ^X^> 
a word of cognate meaning : i.e.y to use Pick's convenient 
expression, Sixojtiai * rhymes ' with exojmai (Middle). — With 
BoK' may go Sox/^o^ {i.e.y '^hoK-a-fio^^ as 7rXox/iio9 is for *7r\o/c-<r- 
/Aos, De Saussure, Mem. Soc. Ling. 7. 91^) 'aslant,' a metaphor 
from a beast turning to 'receive' the hunter, 11. 12. 147 (of 

1 These must be quite different words from Sk. vdnl * music, tone ' and vdndi 

* music, hundred-stringed harp,' with which Johansson, Idg. Forsch. 2. 66 n., 
puts av\6s 

* Cf. (KaxH-^s ' cleft,' II. 23. 420, for *^«7-(r-/*os, from ^'tiyvHixi, 

FMl. Trans. 1891-2-3. 23 


boars at bay) av^pwv i^^e kvvujv hi')(tnai Ko\offVfnov loma toyjiw t* 
aiffffotrre irepi 4T(^<nv uymrrov vXrjv. 

^t/pt9 * contest ' may mean * spear-work,' from *hjjpFt9^ derv- 
Ablaut to dorv-, ddm, Sk. ddru * piece of wood ' : cf., with 
short Towel, derv- Lith. derwd * pine wood/ dorv- hovpara, dom 
iopv * spear.* This *^tjpFi^ then became *^ppi9, Bfjpi^, though 
by ordinary Greek laws it should have become *i€pfi9f *S€vpi9; 
much as *p,7fv(r69 became '*firjvpo9 (Lesbian firjvvost\ firjvos, though 
by ordinary Greek laws it should have become *fi€P<r69y *^nr69. 
In other words, the law that rv became pp was earlier in 
operation than the law that erv- became epF, as the law that 
ILB became vp was earlier in operation (Erugmann Grr. 1. 611) 
than the law that ens became ei^v. 

€tic^ * at random ' seems a Litotes for elKorio^ ' as we should 
have expected, simply, naturally,' Soph. Oed. Rex 979 elicrj 
KpaTitrrop ^tjp, oiriv^ hvpano tc9. It is then Instrumental of au 
Adj. ^eiKo^f seen in eUo-fioXeip *to aim at random,' cognate with 
€oiic€ * it seems.* 

etireip * to say ' may mean * to clear up,' veikv-, cf. Sk. vie- 
* to sift, separate, examine.' 

eTTi-ffrafiat * know ' seems formed from the Adj . iwiarfifiuop 
(Od. 16. 374) 'knowing,' literally * setting oneself to a thing.' 
The Subst. iirnrTrifirf * knowledge ' appears first in Hippocrates. 

€pp,yp€V9 * interpreter ' must be formed from *Epju,^p (Ace. of 
*E/3/*5*), taken as a stem: Hermes was the god of speech, \oyio9 
(Lucian). So Zijp, Ace. of Zevs (H. 8. 206), being taken as a 
stem produced in the Tragedians the forms Zijpa Zr/vos ZijpL 

^Tpop * abdomen' (*wind' in our pugilistic sense) stands to 
Old Slavonic vetrU * wind ' as Lat. venter (see Etyma Latina) 
stands to rentus: yrpov is from (a)ve-, arjju,ty with a termination 
-trom, as venter , stem ventri-, is from vent- (a Participial form 
from the same root, Brugmann Grr. 1. 612), with a termination -ri-. 

KoXXaia * a cock's wattles' may mean * beauties,' *Ka\Xato9 Adj. 
from *icaWiy by-form of /caWo? (as evxv ®^ ^^X*'*)* 

K\ot69 k\wo9 * wooden collar,' i,e. *K\tvF'i-o9y shows the same 
stem klv- as Lat. cldva * wooden club.* 

KU}\6u} * hinder ' is a Dissimilation for *kvXvu) (as KtvKvit) * howl ' 
for *icvicvtv, Lith. kukiu) : with a short vowel the root appears in 
KvWoo) * cripple,' and Sk. kunis * crippled in the arm ' (Fortunatov 
B.B. 6. 216). 

\ao9 ought in Ionic to be \ijo9, as it is in Hipponax, and perhaps 


once was iii Homer (Monro, Horn. Gramm.' p. 390). From \7j69 I 
would deduce (a) Xr/iov * crop,* the produce of * common ' land, and 
{h) \ffi^ Xrftrj Xeia * booty,' public property before it was divided 
among the combatants, cf. Xc/as aSatrra Soph. Aj. 54. 

/nardu) 'linger* (11.) and /tariy 'folly' (Tragg.) are from mn-tos 
Part of /tei/tt), with the same transition of meaning as appears in 
Eng. dwell and dull. 

fi€iu)v * less,' for *fi7]'ju)v (G. Meyer 391), goes with Sk. md- *to 
measure,' and so means 'more measured,' jneTpiwrepo^f not so 

firi'vvivj Dor. fiavvu) 'make known,' is from mn- Ablaut of mn- 
in Lat. mens, Sk. matis ' thought.' For the transfer of meaning 
from ' think ' to * declare ' see on aei^w, p. 4. 

fioyo(TTOK09f epithet of Eileithyia in Homer, of Artemis in 
Theocritus, cannot mean, as Brugmann Grr. 1. 204 makes it, 
'causing pangs,' from */ao7oi/s Acc. Plur. of /A0709 : tiktw is not 
used metaphorically in Homer, and such a use would be peculiarly 
inappropriate in connexion with the occasion. Liddell and Scott 
rightly translate it 'helping women in hard childbirth,' protectress 
Twv jj,orfi9 r€Kov(Twv I tho fipst clemcnt is an Adverb */i07-os (with 
the same termination as 7rdp-o^) from a stem ytto7-, whence with 
Locative ending, and the same 9 as in ajbKpi-^, we get yuo7«s ' with 
difficulty' (accented like the Subst.), and, with a determinative 
-o- (see on 0€(T(/>aTO9, p. 2), jj,6r^09 ' labour.' 

fivit}\lr 'gadfly, goad' means * fly like,' stinging as a fly does: 
from fiiva, the Attic form of fiv7a (Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. 5. 77, 
where Liddell and Scott wrongly make it the name of a plant), 
+ u)7ra. Prellwitz derives it from fiv2a in the sense of ' buzzing * ; 
but this will not suit the meaning ' goad.' 

veaXij^ * fresh ' is not a compound of aXlaKofiaiy but a by-form of 

*i/€aX,os (as Sa'^iXy^ is of Ba'^iXo^y akovpf^ij^ of aXoi;/37os), from a 

Subst. *i/ea ' youth,' whence also veavi^, veavia^. For the termi- 
nation cf . cLTraTrjXo'Sf (Tif^TjXd^, 

vou(to9=*p6(T'Fo9 (Kretschmer K.Z. 31. 471), which I would 
connect with ve{<T)o/u^i 'come': thus Od. 9. 411 vovao^ A169 
means ' the visitation of Zeus,' and Soph. Ant. 421 Oeia voao^f of a 
whirlwind, ' the visitation of heaven.* 

7ra(pXd^€tv ' to foam ' must be from an Adj. ^TracpXd^ (or *wa0\a9, 
cf. f^vfiivd^ beside f^vjuivd^)^ from the same root as Tri/ncfx^ Tro/ixpoXv^ 
' bubble.' It cannot be, as Prellwitz makes it, a Eedu plication 
from €</>XaSov ' they burst,' which would give *7rai(f)Xd^€iv (Brug- 


mann Grr. 2. p. 1084) : 7rafi(j>aiva) 'shine' must be formed on an 
Adj. *7rafi'(t>avii^ * all shining,' whence also 7ra/n(f>av6wp, while 
iraTrraivu) * look round ' must be from a root kvnkvth- (or whatever 
the last letter may be), kvenkvth-, whence, without the nasal, Sk. 
cahsh' * to see ' (Fick B.B. 18. 134). — So rerpe/j^alpu) must be from 
an Adj. *T6-T/>e/tai/os, not straight from tpefiwy or we should have 
^Tnpefiialvu), like Tnaivuj \ and rerpaivw 'pierce' from an Adj. 
*T6-T/3ai/o9, or we should have mpalvw (the form used by Theo- 

Treirvvfjievo^ * wise,' voov ireirvvaOai * to have understanding ' 
Od. 10. 495 (see Goebel, Homerische Blatter, p. 24), go with 
woiTTvvtv * am busy,' the common idea being that of strength : 
the root is kvneu-, Old High German pi-hniutan 'to glorify,' 
wi/uf 'meeting-place of the Ecclesia,' quasi 'enclosure, strong- 
hold.' Thus TTvew ' blow ' must originally have been used of 
the wind blowing strong, and then transferred to the breathing 
of human beings. 

^eTTTrjw^' Bi* affOeveiav koi heCklav TreirrajKiv^f says Hesychius : 

in Homer the word always means 'fallen,' e,^. Od. 14. 474 
vTTo Tev\eai weTmjwre^ KeifieOa ' we lay on the ground, with 
our shields over us,' and II. 2. 312 (of young sparrows) TreraXots 
vTroTreTrrrjW'Te^ ' at the bottom of the nest, under the leaves.' 
It has no more to do with irr^'iaGU) ' crouch ' than has Karawryr^v 
in II. 8. 136, of horses falling- under the car: horses do not 
crouch down when they are frightened, but struggle to get away. 

TTTjr/y * fountain ' must go with tttj^o^ ' big,* the Homeric 
epithet of horses and waves, and Sk. pajrda ' strong ' : it means 
a place where the water is strong enough to force its way out. 

7ri0rjKO9 irlOtov ' ape ' must go with wlOo^ ' jar,' and means 
'rotund, pot-bellied.' 

TTpoxvv means ' wholly ' in Homer, as it is allowed to mean 
in ApoUonius Ehodius: it has nothing to do with 70J/1; (which 
would not account for the x)>^ i^ H. 9. 570 wpoxw KaOe^ofiiptf 
means * sitting right down,' not ' sitting on her knees,' which 
would be an impossible feat. I would deduce the word from 
*7r/3of, formed from 7rp6 as Trept^ is formed from Triply and, I 
think aira^ from ^aira Instrumental of *a7ros, i.e. spkvos, from 
S51- 'together' (see 1, C) : for the sense cf. Lst. proraus 'utterly,' 

' Sk. prajnus, quoted by Fick, Worterbuch* 1. 432, is unauthenticated, and 
at best only means * bandy-legged,' 


from prd. The second element is the -nu which appears in 
Cyprian ow 'this,' Arcadian raw * these things/ Goth, thannu 

* so then/ and I think irdw ' altogether ' {i.e, wi-w, the first 
element going with Lat. pen-ituSf Sahler K.Z. 31. 371), see 
Persson Idg. Forsch. 2. 251 : ^Trpo^-w hecame wpoxw hy De 
Saussare's law, Mem. Soc. Ling. 7. 90, as *Xi;f-i/os (cf. Zend 
raokhshna * shining') hecame \vx^09. 

pyf^09 * rug ' (Hom.), per^os (Anacreon), pe^tv * dye* (Epicharmus), 
and aXo'vpy/f^ * dyed with sea purple ' (Att., see Schulze 498, w.), 
must go with /)i/<r<rtt; Vbeat the ground' (H. 18. 571), cloth being 
stamped on to make the dye penetrate : so German walken * to 
clean cloth ' is the same word as Eng. walk. The root must be 
vreg-. Ablaut vrg- in paaau) * push ' : Sk. raj- * to be red ' cannot 
be connected, if only because the meaning would be too narrow. 

(TaTLVjj * chariot * may be a Persian word, standing for ^fartViy 
(as aaTpairri^ stands for ^^arpawTj^, Old Persian khshatrapdvan- 

* viceroy *), and going with Sk. kshat-tdr- * charioteer.' 

travpivryp 'spike at the butt-end of a spear' must mean * twirler,' 
from a Yerb ^aavpow, itself from a Subst. aavpo^^ originally, I 
would suggest, meaning * a stirring-stick,' and hence coming to 
mean * a. lizard,' which when motionless looks like a piece of wood. 
This <radpo9=*rFap-Fo9, from a root tvr-, whence also Lat. trua 

* stirring-ladle' (on the ru see p. 11 med.), oTpvt/tv * urge,' orpaXetv^ 
' quickly' ; Ablauts (I) tnr- in Topvvtj * ladle,' ^ a Dissimilation for 
*Tvpvvrif as KOKKv^ is for *KVKicv^, Lat. cticulus ; (2) tvor- in Old 
Norse thvara * stirring- stick ' ; (3) tver- in Ags. thviril 'chum- 
handle,' Eng. twirl f Old High German dweran *to mix up,' Sk. 
tvar- * to hasten.' From a by- form stver-, stnr- (see Schrijnen, 
Phenom^ne de V S Mobile) comes orv/aaf, p. 12. 

trw/uiay which in Homer always means * dead body, carcase,' 
may go with ffu}9 * safe,' and mean * remnant, what has escaped being 
eaten by dogs or birds ' : II. 3. 23 wdre Xewv ix^PV i^^akv^ iwl 

trtv/nari Kvptras, 

r6<Tffai9 * being,' iTrirofftrai^ * finding ' (both in Pindar), seem 
to point to an Aeolic Verb *r6(T(Ta/u,i * I do so much,' from too-o-os. 

(f)v\a^ * guardian ' may originally have meant * the man in 
the house,' otVeriy?, bhu-1- being Ablaut of bhou-l- in Old I^orse 
bol *lair' (Wiedemann Lit. Praet. p. 137, despite Kluge 

1 Pick, Worterbuch*, 1. 499, adds rvp6s * cheese'; but this is not made 
by stirring, though butter is. 


K.Z. 26. 97), bho-1- in (t>u)\evw * lurk/ 0a>\a9 ' in his Jen ' (of 
a bear). So 0iJ\// 'tribe' may originally have meant *houae* 
in the sense of Lat. gens. 

*^//3jy9, used by Homer in the forms x^PI^'t X^Pl^* X^PV^^f ni^st 
go with x^^'p ^^^ mean 'belonging to a handicraftsman,' x^P^V^y 
as opposed to a warrior. Thus it is used contemptuously, II. 1. 80 

fiaiTtXeif^ ore x^'^eTai uvCpl X^P'I' C^ ^^^ fcUow '), Od. 15. 324 
oTa re to?? af^a0o7ai Trapahpwwtn x^P'l^^t ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^be I^eut€r, 

II. 14. 382 e<T0\a fAev i<T0\o^ cBvi^c^ x^Pn^ ('those fit for an 

artisan') Se ^ei/>oi/< S6<tk€v, In Od. 14. 176 ouri ^eyw/a 7raTpo9f 
'not like a handicraftsman beside his father,' we haye a Genitive- 
Ablative of comparison, such as Brugmann Griech. Gramm.* 

183 finds in Thucydides' iroXe^wv a^toXoywrarop rwv 'H'po'^eyetnf' 
p-cvivu * most notable in comparison with those before.' The 
Comparative of *x^PV^ ^® %e/ifta'i/ or x^^P^'^ * more fit for an 
artisan,* or, as in II. 14. 382 above, ' more like an artisan.' But 
in another view battle was called ' handwork,* X"P/^V (with the 
* reduced ' root xj-) ; and with this I would put x6/a/*a^«ai/ * a stone 
used in battle as a missile.' 



the Rev. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D. 

[Bead at a Meeting of the Philological Society , Friday y June 3, 1892.] 

Abos. For this word^ see Boose. 

Aker. See Ker. 

Boose, a cow- stall. The earliest quotation in ]N". E. D. is dated 
1440. But it occurs a century earlier, in Allit. Poems, ed. Morris, 
B. 1075 ; where it is misunderstood, and ignored in the glossary, 
owing to the preceding indef. article being written closely against 
it, as is common in M.E. The mysterious word ahos means a bos, 
i.e. a boose. It makes excellent sense. Speaking of Christ's 
nativity, the author well says: **Was never so blisfull a bower 
as was a boose then, Nor no shroud-house so sheen as a shepen 
there." Shepen is a stable. 

Borken, barked. It is curious that Stratmann*s Diet, does not 
happen to give the pp. of the verb berken, to bark as a dog. Yet 
borken, which is the right form, occurs in the first line of bk. i. 
pr. 5 of Chaucer's Boethius. It so happens that it is missed in 
Dr. Furnivall's index, and Dr. Morris's text has the corrupt 
reading broken. Matzner gives an example of borken from the 
King of Tars, 1. 400 ; but he misses the example in Chaucer. 

Bredes. In Allit. Poems, B. 1405, we have: **Burnes berande 
the bredes upon brode skeles," i,e. men bearing the roast meats 
upon broad dishes. I note this because bredes is not in the 
glossary, and the side-note says it means ** bread." See brede in 

Ghevisaunce, resource. This is given in the T^ew Eng. Dic- 
tionary as the right reading in the Eom. of the Rose, 3337. I 
draw attention to it because it affords us a conclusive test as to 
the genuineness of the Eowley Poems. It so happens that all the 
existing editions have cherisaunce, by mistake, though the original 
French text has chevisaunce. The editors thought it meant 
** comfort," and so explain it. Hence, by a second misprint, arose 


the form cherisauniey and even cherisaunet, duly explained as 
** comfort" in Kersey. Chatterton fell into the trap, and began 
his poem of -^lla with ** Some chertaaunei *ty8," i.e, it is some 

Decoped. Rightly explained in Stratmann, with a reference 
to Rom. of the Rose. It means ** cut, or blashed," said of shoes. 
The explanation in Halliwell is wrong. He refers us to coppid^ 
which he explains by * peaked.' Under coppid, he refers to 
eouped in P. Plowman ; but this means * slashed.' Cf . also coped, 
Libeaus Desconus, ed. Kaluza, 1. 143. 

Degaxe. A copy of the Romance of Sir Degare occurs in the 
Percy Folio MS. iii. 26, where the name is explained as meaning 
** almost lost." Dr. Furnivall notes that an O.F. degarer answers 
to Low Lat. deuagarij as deg aster does to deiMstare. This does not 
work out correctly ; for, by the same rule, degarer would answer 
to Low Lat. deuarart, as the g is for w. But the fact is, that, 
as in other cases, the real prefix is des- (for Lat. du-), which 
became de- in later French (mod. F. de-). The full form would 
be des-garL This only differs from O.F. ee-gari in the use of 
the prefix des- instead of ea- (Lat. ex) ; and we know that these 
two prefixes were of equivalent value. The O.F. esgare meant 
lost, abandoned, strayed, out of the way; cf. mod. F. ^gar^ 
lost. The English explanation "almost lost," just represents 
a not uncommon sense of eagare, viz. strayed, applied to one 
who has lost his way for a time, but may hope to recover it. 
The etymology is now apparent, viz. from the prefix des-, de- 
(Lat. di8')y and the verb garer, to take heed, from the O.H.G. 
wardn, to observe, heed, be aware of. The Eng. wary is from 
the same Germanic root. Cf. Ital. agarratoy mistaken, from the 
same source. 

Dray, a squirrel's nest. This word occurs in Drayton's Quest 
of Cynthia, st. 51; W. Browne's Pastorals, bk. i. song 5; and 
in Cowper, in a piece called A Fable. The A.S. spelling would 
be drceg ; cf. day for A.S. dceg. It seems to me that the sense 
of * nest * would very well explain a passage in Beowulf, 1. 757, 
where it is said that Grendel was scared by Beowulf, and wanted 
to get away to his own haunt ; ** wolde on heolstor fleon, secan 
deofian gedrceg,^^ he wanted to flee to his hiding-place, to seek 
the devils' dray. The explanation of gedrmg in Grein is not 
at all clear. There seem to have been two forms, gedrceg and 
gedreag^ which may have been from different roots. 



Eynes. This form appears in the glossary to the Allit. Morte 
Arthure, with nine references. Wholly failing to understand 
it, I applied to Mr. Bradley, who correctly informed me that 
it is a ghost- word. The n should be u ; and all the forms quoted 
are variants of the mod. E. eaves, a border, margin. See evese 
in Stratmann, and eaves in the New English Diet. 

FatLsere, Fasonre, Vasnre. In Libeaus Desconus, ed. Kaluza, 
1. 1919, we have a curious and unexplained word. The passage 
relates the effects of an earthquake ; — 

" The halle-rof unlek. 
And the faunsere ek, 
As hit wolde a-sonder/' 

i,e, the hall-roof unlocked or came apart, and so did the faunsere, 
as if it would part asunder. The MS. can also be read SLsfauusere, 
which is, in fact, a better form ; and the various readings give 
us the forms fasoure, vasure, I wish to suggest that the 
word here meant is an old form of the mod. F. vomsure, for 
which Littre gives the old forms vousure, vossure. In mod. E. 
architecture, the corresponding term is voussoir, applied to a 
somewhat wedge-shaped stone used for forming an arch. The 
proper sense of the word is the curvature of an arch, or the 
vaulting of a roof; Cotgrave explains vousure as ** a vaulting 
or arching.*' The point is, that it gives precisely the very 
sense required; "the hall-roof fell apart, even where it was 
made of vaulted stonework." The sb. is formed as if from a verb 
vousser, answering to a Low Lat. ^volutiare, from uolutics, pp. of 
uolttere; that is, it is from the same root as vault, and has much 
the same sense. 

Ferannt. The gloss, to Morte Arthure explains feraunt as 

'seemly.' But Bradley rightly explains it as * iron-grey,' O.F. 

/errant, as an epithet of a horse. Hence it is not from A.S.faran 

* to go,' but from Lat. ferrum * iron.' Ferrand occurs, in romances, 

as a name for a horse ; from its colour. 

Fnatted. In Weber's King Alisaunder, 6447, there is a des- 
cription of a monstrous race of men, with very long faces, and 
ears an ell long; ** a.nd fnatted nose, that is wrong." The word 
is misprinted fuatted, both in the text and glossary ; but such 
a form is impossible; there is no such diphthong as ua in M.E. 
Wrong means simply distorted, or crooked. As to fnatted, it is 
the Danish fnattet^ given by Molbech, meaning afflicted with 


a disease called fnat^ which was a skin disease, a kind of itoh. 
So in Swedish, dialects, fnatta is to scratch a place that itches 

Podding. In Kyng Alisaunder, 1. 48, we find: " Wyse men fond 
also there Twelf fodding to thes yere, The yere to lede by right 
ars (arts)/' Weber's explanations are seldom right, but in this 
case he has seen his way. He makes fodding to be the A.S. 
fadung^ disposal, arrangement ; hence, a division of the year, 
a month; and he explains to lede by **to guide." This explana- 
tion is borne out by a passage in the A.S. Leechdoms, quoted 
in Bosworth and Toller, s.v. gefadung, Cf. fadey ready (?), in 
Sir Tristrem, 1. 153. The word appears neither in Matzner nor 
in Stratmann. 

Fuatted. See Fnatted. 

Gele. This word occurs in the Pearl, 931. Morris explains 
it by *'8py, see *' ; this suits the context, but there is no authority 
for it of any kind. Mr. Gollancz says it either means ** hesitate, 
delay,'* from A.S. galan; or perhaps it is from Icel. gala, to 
comfort, to soothe. The latter will not &uit the context. It 
is clearly from A.S. galan, in the intransitive sense of ** tarry." 
The passage is — **And by thyse bonkes ther I con gele, I se no 
bygyng nawhere aboute," i.e. And wherever I have lingered 
beside these banks, I see no building anywhere. (The MS. 
needlessly repeats And before / se.) 

Gessenen. In Morte Arthure, 2521, we find the line — "He 
bare, gessenande, in golde, tbre grayhoundes of sable." The word 
gessenande is not explained. I take it to be present part, in -ando 
from a verb of which the stem is gessen-, and the infin. mood 
is gessenen. It must be French, because it is a term in heraldry. 
I take it to be a verb formed from the M.E. sb. gesin or geaine, 
Cursor Mundi, 3906, Gov. Mysteries, p. 150. This is adapted 
from the P. gesine, which Cotgrave explains as * a lying-in,' 
though the related verb gesir merely means to lie down. If 
we give to this verb gessenen the same simple sense, it makes 
it equivalent to the P. coucher; and the pres. part, becomes 
equivalent to the pres. part, coicchant, lying down, a well-known 
heraldic term. Then the sense becomes : "he bare, on his shield, 
or, three grayhoundes couchant, sable J ^ This is perfectly in- 
telligible and consistent. 

Harrawnte. This word occurs in the Morte Arthure, 2449. 
It is necessary to quote the passage. 


* Thane come the herbariours, harageous knyghtez, 
The hale batelles on hye harrawnte therafter.' 

Harageous is said to mean * violent,' though its etymology is 
not clear. Sa/rrawnte is supposed, in the glossary, to be a verb. 
I take it to be really a present participle, representing the O.F. 
harantf pres. pt. of harer, which Cotgrave explains by * to set 
on a dog.' The original sense of harer was simply *to cry out 
aloud, to shout,' as it is merely the O.H.G. haren^ *to cry aloud, 
to shout,' in a French form. I explain the passage thus : ' Then 
come the harbingers (or vanguard), fierce knights ; and the com- 
plete battalions (or squadrons) come after them, all shouting 
aloud.' On hye=on high, aloud. 

Himland. This word, spelt hymlande^ occurs in the same line 
as hope^ q.v. It is clearly a present participle, but has never 
been explained. I would explain it as * abounding in hummocks,' 
from the same root as hummock. At this rate, himland hills would 
mean rolling hills, hummocky hills, which suits the whole context 
admirably, as the thing described is a rough ride over uneven 
ground and various obstacles. Probably the vowel i is due to 
a mutation of u ; compare E. pit from Lat. puteus, I think 
we may compare it with E. hump and Low G. hiimpelf a little 
heap ; Lat. cumulus, Gr. Kvfia ; Ital. cima, a mountain-top. 

Hope. In the Morte Arthure, 1. 2503, we find: **Thorowe 
hopes and hymlande hilly s and other." Mr. Bradley explains it 
by * valley,' which is practically right, and refers us to A.S. hop, 
with short o, I wish to point out that there seems to be two 
distinct hopes, one with original short o, and one, perhaps, with 
long 0. Mr. Bradley has got hold of the right one, etymology 
and all; but Grein and Bosworth are at fault. Sievers has: 
" hop, recess," which I take to be the right A.S. form, but with 
a wrong sense. I would set it all right thus. (1) A.S. hop, strong 
neuter sb., pi. hopu, explained by Jamieson as in use in Scotland 
in the forms hop, hope, and as meaning a sloping hollow between 
two hills, sometimes a rather deep glen. The o is short, because 
the plural terminates in w, see Sievers, A.S. Gram. §239. Only 
two A.S. examples are known, both plural, and both in Beowulf, 
viz. fen-hopu, or sloping hollows with a fenny bottom, and mor- 
hopu, sloping hollows on a moorside. This explains the form 
hopes in the present passage, and doubtless occurs in some 
English place-names, such as Hope, near Castleton-in-the-Peak, 


flopton, etc. The other word I take to be of Norse origin; 
it also occurs as hope in Lowland Scotch, but it has quite a 
different sense; it means a recess or haven, and occurs in place- 
names on a sea-coast, such as Kirkhope in Orkney (Yigfusson). 
This may well be the Icel. hop (with long o), a recess, a haven ; 
and may be connected with E. hoop^ i.e. a circular bend. I think 
we ought to keep the words separate, and to correct the quantities 
given in Grein and Toller. 

Ker. In the glos. to Sir Gawain and the Grene Knight, we 
find ^^ Eerre, rock, 1431." Stratmann explains it better by 
" marsh." The line is : " In a knot, hi a clyffe, at the kerre-syde,^^ 
i.e. at the side of the marsh; the same marsh, or pool, is called 
a floBche (flush) in the preceding line. I notice this because the 
very same expression occurs again, only a few lines above, at 
1. 1421 ; but it is there printed aker syde, with the explanation 
of aker as * afield, plain" in the glossary. But the alliteration 
proves that the word begins with k. The line is — ** Sone thay 
calle of a quest in a ker-syde." See Carr (2) in the New Eng. 

Keve. This word occurs twice in the Pearl, 320, 980. Strat- 
mann suggests ** turn," but with a query. Mr. Gollancz points 
out to me that it is the Icel. keffa^ to dip, to dive, to sink. The 
sense seems to suit sufficiently. In the former passage, the 
dreamer is told that, before he can go to heaven, his ** corse in 
clot mot calder keve," i,e, his corpse, made colder, must sink 
into the clod. The latter passage is less clear. The dreamer 
lifts up his eyes, and sees, far above, the heavenly Jerusalem, 
brightly shining "byjonde the brok, fro me warde keued," i,e. 
beyond the brook (of death), that dipped down away from me. 

Lauen, pools; K. Alis. 3856. Given in Stratmann, s.v. La]e, 

Laye. This word occurs in Morte Arthure, 3721 ; and is not 
explained. But it is the same as la]e, a pool (A.S. laga, a lake), 
explained in Stratmann and in Matzner, with references to other 

Lorayn. In the Morte Arthure, 2462, there is a mention of 
*' launces with loraynes " ; the word lor ay nee is not in the glossary. 
Halliwell and Stratmann give lorein^ with the sense of **a rein." 
So here, launces with loraynes may very well mean lances provided 
with thongs for throwing them. Of. Lat. lorum, a thong. The 
Eoman iaculum was furnished with an amentum ; Ovid, Met. xii. 


Haches. In Morte Arthure, 2950, we are told how Sir Gawain 
attacked his enemies ; one of his feats was that he " metes the 
maches of Mees, and melles hym thorowe," i.e. he meets (some- 
body), and smites him through. The * somebody ' is here called 
"the maches of Mees," which has not been explained. When 
we remember that a was then pronounced as the a in path^ 
which only differed from the sound of ar when the r was 
properly trilled, we see that maches is an error for marcheft. 
This is the O.F. marchts, given in Littre as the usual spelling 
of the word which exists in English as marquis. Again, 
Cotgrave explains that marquis meant, " in old time, the 
governor of a frontire town." Hence "the maches of Mees" 
means the governor of MesSy where Mees is the name of the 
town. Further, as the said marquis was a follower of the 
Duke of Lorraine, it is an easy guess that Mees repiresents a 
frontier-town of Lorraine, which happens to be Metz, as rightly 
explained in the Index. Hence we arrive at the romantic fact 
that one of the governors of Metz had the distinguished honour 
of being slain by Sir Gawain. Note that the ch sound of marches 
is still heard in the E. marchioness, 

Hansell, MasneL See Masuel. 

Hasuel. We must add to the M.E. Diet, the word masuel, 
a little mace, a kind of weapon; O.F. maguele (Godefroy), also 
spelt massueUj masuele. Cotgrave gives: Massue, *a club,* which 
is the same word, without the dimin. suflBx. It occurs twice 
in Rich. Coer de Lion, ed. Weber, 351, 5660. In the latter 
place Weber has spelt it masnel, with « for w ; and in the former 
place he actually has mansell, probably a misprint for masnell, 
which means tnasuellf as before. In both places the line scans 
better with the right form. In 1. 351 read: 'Forth he took 
a masuel,' in three syllables. In 1. 5660, scan the line : * By 
that I ther syde | his mas \ ileV The Low Lat. form would be 
maxucella, as it is a fem. form ; see Maxuca in Ducange. 

Mes, a good position for taking aim. This word occurs twice 
in the Rom. of the Rose, though it does not appear in the editions. 
It so happens that in both cases (11. 1453, 3462) it occurs in the 
same phrase, viz. at good mes; and in both places it has been 
turned by the editors (except Thynne) into at goodness, though 
this yields no sense. Mes is a real word, and an old Anglo- 
French hunting term. It represents a Lat. missumy and signifies 
a good place for aim, a good place for a shot. Thus, in a lay by 


Marie de France, entitled Guigemar^ 1. 87, a man tries to shoot 
at a deer. "Trair voleit, si meB oust," i.e, he wished to pull 
the bow, if he could get a good shot. And, in Gaimar's Chronicle, 
there is a most interesting example, with reference to Sir Walter 
Tyrrel and King William Eufus. It is said of Tyrrel that when 
"le grant cerf a meB li vint, Entesa Fare," i.e, when the great 
stag came within his aim he drew the bow. The arrow missed 
the stag, as we all know, and killed the king. The E. phrase 
at good mes represents an A-E. a hon mes, i.e. within one's aim, 
in a favourable position for a shot. When this is seen, both 
passages become easy. In tbe former, the writer says that the 
God of Lov6 came after him with a bow — 

*' Right as an hunter can abyde 
The beste, til he seeth his tyde 
To shete, at good mes, to the dere." 

In the latter passage we have the lines — 

** Suffre, I rede, and no boost make 
Til thou at good mes mayst him take." 

The original Erench has en lei leUj in a good position, in the 
former passage, and en hon point in the latter passage, with the 
same sense. 

Odam, son-in-law; King Alis. ed. Weber, 2081. Weber ex- 
plains it wrongly, though rightly comparing G. JEidam. I note 
it because it is difficult to find in Stratmann, where it is entered 
under dthum. 

Paleis, Palis. There is a word in Chaucer's Boethius which 
does not seem to be explained with sufficient clearness. We know 
that M.E. paleis usually means * palace ' ; but there is another 
paleis, also spelt palis, in Chaucer, which Dr. Morris and Dr. 
Eurnivall explain by * pale ' ; and the Lat. original has uallum, 
* Pale ' is not quite right, nor does it explain the form ; the 
right sense is * a set of pales,' i,e, a paling, or a palisade, a kind 
of stockade. The word is not plural, but singular; it is the 
O.E. palisy paleis, mod. E. palis; whence the verb palisser and 
the sb. palissade. The Low Lat. forms are palitium (whence 
E. palis) and palacium (whence O.E. paleis). I find that paleis 
occurs three times in Libeaus Desconus, ed. Kaluza, 1556, 1791, 
1862 ; and in the first instance, at any rate, the sense of * stockade * 
suits better than 'palace ' ; the various readings in 1. 1556 present 


the forms palynei^ i.e. provided with a palisade, and palyd^ i.e. 
provided with pales ; which renders my suggestion highly probable. 
The word is not in Stratmann. The same word occurs, spelt 
palays, in Gawain and the Grene Knight, 769. See Pyked below. 

Paxtlet, a woman's ruff. I have not seen any satisfactory 
etymology of this word. In the Century Dictionary it is con- 
nected with partlety a hen. I believe that the two words were 
originally quite distinct, but were gradually confused in spelling. 
Fartletf a hen, is spelt Fertelote in Chaucer ; and it is asserted 
in the Century Dictionary that this Pertelote was a feminine name. 

But the other partlet is remarkable for having, originally, no 
r in it. The M.E. form is patelet, which occurs in Eob. Henry- 
soun's Garmond of Gude Ladeis, st. 7, as the name of an article 
of female attire. This is precisely the O.F. patdette^ given by 
Godefroy and Cotgrave. Cotgrave has it in the sense of a part 
of a bridle ; but Godefroy gives it as a dimin. of patte, properly 
a bird's foot, but occasionally used in the sense of a band of stuff, 
or a flap of a garment. I think the right etymology must be 
looked for in this direction, though I do not quite see through 
it. Perhaps we receive further light by consulting paitlattis and 
paitclayth in Jamieson. Skelton has both patlet, in his Magnificence, 
1. 2100, and partletteSj in his Maner of the World, 1. 163. In 
Fairholt's Costume, ii. 15, s.v. arming Doublet y we have a re- 
markable mention (in 1513) <5f ** arming patletts of white satten 
quilted and lined with lynen cloth, for my lord to wear under 
his harness.'* 

Pechelyne. This word ocours in Morte Arthure, 1341 ; the 
sense being unknown. 

The passage is one where a certain emperor threatens to deprive 
Arthur of all his possessions. He says he will not leave in Paris 
(which then belonged to Arthur) so much as "his parte of a 

The O.F. pescheVf to fish, occasionally appears without «, like 
the Mod.F. pecker; see Godefroy. I take peche to be from O.F. 
pecker, to fish; and I explain pecke-lyne to mean "a fishing-line," 
i.e. a line to catch fish with. This suits the context. Arthur 
is to lose all his possessions, and his men will have nothing to 
eat ; they will not even have a fragment of a fishing-line to catch 
a stray fish with. The threat is sufficiently expressive. 

Pisane. This word is also spelt pesane, as in the Morte Arthure, 
3458, and pmane. See pusane in Stratmann. Add to the references 


there given pysane, Libeans Desconuft, ed. Bitsoiif 1618, and 
pisaine, in the 8ame, ed. Kaluza, 1708 ; and, probably, pesant, 
conjecturally explained by * head-piece ' in Fairholt's Glossary of 
Costnme in England, and dated 1579. It seems to hare meant 
a gorget, or neck-piece, fastened below the helmet. Bradley 
proposes to connect it with the O.F. gorgerette phainne, mentioned 
in Grodcfroy, s.t. pisain^ i.e. an adj. formed from Pisa, in Italy. 
Gkxlefroy also gives the adj. pisanes with the same sense, and with 
the example elm$ pizane, which I take to mean ' helmet of Pisa.' 
I conclude that the word is really formed from the place-name 
JPisa. Jfi'lan was likewise celebrated for cutlery and armoor; 
cf. £. milling. Bitson's Glossary to his Met. Bomances giTes 
a quotation from Grose : "3 coleretes pizaines de jazeran d'acier.** 

Fotenere, a purse. In the Percy Folio MS. iii. 47, we find 
the spelling poteiiere\ and in the same, ii. 305, it is potewer. 
But the right spelling is potenere, whence the other forms result, 
by mistaking n for «, and then altering « to tr; as, no donbt, 
the scribes did. See Pawienere in the Prompt. Parv., and "Way's 
note; and the note on pmwienar in Skelton, ed. Dree, iL 105. 
(jodefroy gives O.F. pautonniere, s.f . a purse ; which is dearly the 
same word. Ducange discusses it under Pantomanu, PanioMerim, 
and Pautonen'a. He thinks it refers to a beggar's scrip; irom 
O.F. pautonier, a servant, beggar, rascal. 

Pyked. In Gawain and the Grene Knight, 1. 769, we have 
a description of a park " with a pyked palays, pyned fed thik " ; 
and in the next line we are told that this '' palays " extended 
for more than two miles. This line has never been explained. 
Pyked and pyned are both explained wrongly in the glossary, 
and palays is not explained at all. Possibly the editor took palayM 
to mean "palace,^' and this threw him out. Bat palaces are 
not usually two miles long ; hence we must take palays in its 
other sense of ••palisade" or "fence"; see Palays above. Then 
pyked means furnished with pikes or spikes; see this meaning 
in Stratmann. Lastly, the y in pyned is short; it stands for 
pynnedy i.e. pinned in, enclosed, fastened, penned up ; cf. pindar^ 
and see Stratmanu. We know that this is right because, in the 
same MS., in the poem on Parienee, 79, we find — " Pynex 
me in a prisoun, put me in stokkes," where Dr. Morris rightly, 
as I ink, explains pyntz by feisten, or shut in, i.e. pen or pin 

; ti L the sense "torture" is possible. Hence the line 
park bad a spiked paling all round it, the spikes 


being pinned or fastened very thickly or closely together. This 
gives an exact sense, and suits the context. The misspelling 
pyned is due to omitting a stroke over the n. 

Pyned. See Pyked above. 

Quernes. See Ternes. 

Badevore. This difficult word occurs in the Legend of Good 
"Women, 2352. The only suggestion of any value is that given 
in Urry*s Glossary, viz. that it stands for ras de Tore, i.e. serge 
made at a place called Tore. Tyrwhitt remarks that ** there 
is a town in Languedoc called La Vaur; but I know not that 
it was ever famous for tapestry." Further investigation shows 
that this explanation is certainly correct; the difficulties that 
arise all vanish on examination. In the first place, as XJrry*s 
Glossary tells us, such phrases as Has de Chalons ^ and ras de 
GenneSy were really in use. My own difficulty was a phonetic 
one. I could not see how the s in the Old French ras could be 
ignored in the pronunciation ; particularly when we notice that 
this very word ras produced the E. word rash, as explained by 
Nares, of which more anon. But Mr. Mayhew pointed out to 
me that, in O.French, s before a consonant vanished in the 
second half of the eleventh century. Hence, when ras de Fore 
was used as a complete phrase, it regularly became radevore in 
English. The next point refers to the place Tore. This is 
clearly, as Tyrwhitt says. La Vaur^ in the province of Languedoc, 
and in the modem French department of Tarn, at no very great 
distance from Toulouse. It appears that silk and serge are still 
made at this very place; see Engl. Cyclopaedia, s.v. Tarn. We 
thus obtain, as the final result, that radevore means, precisely, 
" rash made at La Vaur." "We have now only to enquire into 
the sense of rash. The F. ras means^ especially, serge or satin. 
The English rash^ says ITares, is ** a species of inferior silk, or 
silk and stuff manufacture." One of his quotations speaks of 
*' velvets, satins, sylkes, rashe, and other stuffs"; and the Century 
Dictionary quotes from Middleton : ** *t is good stuff, indeed ; 
It is a silk rash." This explanation precisely fits the passage 
in Chaucer. Philomela had learnt, in her youth, how to weave, 
in an embroidery frame, such rash as was made at La Yaur. The 
nearest mod. E. equivalent seems to be ** serge." 

Sigh-clout. This word occurs in the Percy Fol. MS. ii. 323 ; 
see note 5. It is explained by Dyce in a note at p. Ixix. as a 
clout for straining milk ; from sie^ to strain. Dr. Furnivall remarks 

Phil. Trans. 1891-2-8. 24 


that he only knows site in this sense. But sie, to strain milk, 
is given in Halliwell, who, curiously enough, quotes the very- 
passage here in dispute, and refers us to Palsgrave, who has : 
** I sye my Ike, or dense.*' It is a particular sense of A.S. algan^ 
M.E. si]en, to sink. 

Stele. In the AUit. Poems, C. 513, the author laments that 
some people don't know the difference between their right hand 
and their left, nor yet between ** the stele and the stayre.*' 
Among these we have to include, very possibly, "William of 
Shoreham; and neither Morris nor Stratmann have seen any 
difference. They explain both words as meaning the step or 
rung of a ladder. I believe this will suit some passages, and 
that the senses of the words were confused (as our author hints) 
even in the fourteenth century. The stayre is really the stair 
or step of a ladder. "But the steles are the two uprights, the 
handles by which the climber holds ; called by Chaucer the stalke*. 
Steel in pro v. E. still means a long upright handle, as of a 
besom or of a pitch-fork. Stratmann (s.v. staUf which, though 
differing in form, has the same senses) obligingly refers us to 
the very passage in the Ancren Riwle which settles the question ; 
there was no ambiguity at that date. At p. 354 we are told 
that ignominy and pain are the two stales of the ladder (the 
two Uddre-stalen) that are upright to the heaven ; and between 
those stales {stalen) are £xed the tindes, steps, or stairs. 

Stivoor. (Not in Stratmann.) In Weber's King Alisaunder, 
2571, we have: ** Mury is the blast of the styvour,^* Weber 
explains it as **an ancient wind-instrument," but it certainly 
means the player on such an instrument, just as, in the next 
line, harpour means a player on a harp. Otherwise, his note is 
correct; the instrument was called estive^ and is mentioned in 
the Eoman de la Rose, 21308 ; see my note to House of Fame, 
1218. See Estive in Godefroy. Cf. Lat. stipula^ in Virgil, 
Eel. iii. 27. 

Talle ne in tuch. In Allit. Poems, ed. Morris, B. 48, we 
read that a ragged man would be turned out of a nobleman's hall, 
and forbidden to enter again, on pain of being set in the stocks, 
**thagh neuer in talle ne in tuch he trespas more.'' I take 
this to mean : " though he should never again do wrong either 
in tale or in touch," i,e, by word or deed. I see no difficulty, 
especially when we notice the curious uses of touch in Sir Gawain 
and the Grene Knight, by the same author, and further note 


that, in that poem, the words tale and touch are alliterated, 
1. 1301. Dr. Morris explains tuch by * cloth,' from the G. Tuch\ 
but I decline to equate the Eng. ch with the Ger. ch in this way ; 
the M.E. for 'cloth' was touk, i.e. if it be related to M.E. toulcer, 
a fuller (Stratmann, s.v. tuTcen), The editor further explains talle 
by tulyj which means scarlet. This I cannot accept either. The 
spelling talle for tale is like the spelling walle for waUy to choose, 
B. 921. 

Tayt. In Allit. Poems, ed. Morris, B. 889, the word tayt 
means **joy." The glossary says "fear,*' but see Stratmann. 

Teneling. This word, in the glos. to the Grene' Knight, is an 
error for teueling ; see Stratmann, s.v. teveling, i.e. sport. This 
word is entered in Stratmann under tavelin, and is easily missed. 

Temes. In Rich. Goer de Lion, 2009, is the line : ' Ternes and 
qmrnes he gave him there.' Weber's Glossary indulges in a bad 
shot as to the sense : * Ternes and querneSf thrusts in fencing, or 
blows with the broadsword.' The context shows that both senses 
are impossible ; for King Richard, who dealt these blows, had 
nothing in his hand but a truncheon, which is neither a broad- 
sword nor suitable for thrusting. The fact is, these are terms 
in dice-play. Ternes means double three, and quernes means 
double four ; neither are in Cotgrave, but he gives * QutneSj two 
cinks, or fives, on the Dice.' Littre, s.v. terne, quotes from 
Villon ; the passage shows that ambesas (E. ames ace) meant double 
ace, and ternes double three. The passage is jocular. King 
Richard, with his truncheon, gave his enemy a double three, 
and after that a double four. The fourteen blows near finished 
him; "he thought he should be dead." He could not have 
survived fourteen thrusts of a broadsword, delivered by the 
Richard Coer de Lion of romance. 

Thacces. In the glossary to the Allit. Poems, we find " TJtacce^ 
a blow, C. 325." This is due to a most curious misconception. 
The alliteration shows that the word should begin with a vowel ; 
and, in fact, thacces is merely the two words the acces run together. 
Hence thacces must disappear from under th^ and take its place 
under a. The line is — ** Eor when thacces of anguych wacz 
hid in my sawle " ; i.e, when the attack of anguish penetrated 
to my very soul. 

Thulged. In Gawain and the Grene Knight, 1859, we read: 
*' Thonne he thulged with hir threpe, and tholed hir to speak." 
Thulged is not in Stratmann; and the glossary says: ^^ thulged^ 


tholged=ztholed, endured." This cannot be right, because tholed 
occurs in the same line properly spelt; and we cannot thus 
account for the spelling thulged. The fact is, that ge represents 
ay-sound, resulting from a palatalised d\ cf. the frequent pro- 
nunciation of dew as Jew, Thulgen represents A.S. thyldgian, 
to bear patiently, from the same root as tholian. See gethyldigean 
in Bos worths Diet. 

Tipen, to overturn ; cf. mod. E. tip up. Stratmann only gives 
tippen, with short t. But the word should rather be tipen^ with 
a long t. In the only example quoted there is but one p, and 
the vowel is written y. " Type doun yonder toun," t.e. overthrow 
that town ; Allit. Poems, iii. 506. So again in the Percy Folio 
MS., Death and Life, 194 (vol. iii. p. 64): — "Trees tremble 
for feare, and ttpen to the ground.'* Cf. Lincolnshire type or 
tipe, to tip up, in Peacock's Glossary, and tipe, in Halliwell. 
These point to a lost Germanic strong verb, tipan. 

Totez. In Allit. Poems, ed. Morris, B. 41, a ragged man is 
described as having "his tabard to-torne, and his totez oute.'* 
Dr. Morris says that totez is merely a form of " toes," which 
I cannot accept. Stratmann gives tote, sb. ?toe; totez, pple., 
A.P. ii. 41. Of course the plural of " toe " cannot be 
past participle; *pple' is probably a misprint for pi. (plural). 
The word is surely the Low G. tote, a peak. Hexham has : 
^* een Tote, a teat; de Tote van een sehoen, the beake or lap of 
a shoe; een Tote-pot, a pot with eares, etc. Cf. M.E. toten, to 
peep out; his ton toteden out, his toes peeped out, Piers. PI. 
Crede, 425. I translate tote by extremity or end ; the sense 
is, "the ends (probably of his toes) peeped out.*' It is a mere 
coincidence that toe begins in the same way. A.S. totian, to 
peep, is quite distinct from td, toe. Again-tote, a peeping behind 
one, occurs in this same poem, B. 931. 

Trashes. In Allit. Poems, ed. Morris, B. 40, is the line — 
**"With rent cokrez at the kne and his clutte trasches.** "Rent 
cokrez " are rent cockers or leggings. Clutte means clouted, 
patched, as explained in the New E. Diet., s.v. Clouted, Trasches 
is explained, with a query, by Morris and Stratmann, to mean 
trousers. Surely the words cannot possibly be identified. Trashes 
is the plural of trash, still in use ; and one sense of trash is rags. 
Cf. Swedish trasa, a rag, a tatter ; slita i trasor, to tear to tatters ; 
ham kldder dro utsletne i trasor, his deaths are worn out to 
rags or tatters (Widegren). 


Treieted. I^ot in Stratmann in the sense required. It occurs 
in Gawain and the Grene Knight, 960. The t stands for/; the 
sense is ** variegated " ; see Burguy, s.v. tresgeter. In the 
glossary it is misprinted treieted; hut the sense given, ** adorned," 
is correct. 

Troched. Both in AUit. Poems, B. 1383, and in Gawain and 
the Grene Knight, 795, some well-built towers are described as 
troched. The glossary tells us that this is an architectural term 
of uncertain meaning; Stratmann suggests ** ornamented." The 
word occurs frequently in the Yenery de Twety, in Reliq. AntiqusB, 
i. 151, where it is applied to a hart who has thrown out tines 
from the tips of his antlers. The divisions of the antler are 
given in this sentence: **whan an hert hath fourched^ and then 
auntlere ryall and surryall, and forched one the one syde, and 
troched on that other syde, than is he an hert of .X. and the 
more." The engraving of an antler in the Century Dictionary 
helps us here. The fourchesy or forks, are the long projections 
on the one side of the horn, and the troches are the clustered and 
shorter projections on the other, near the tip. If we now turned 
to Cotgrave, we find : " Teste de cerf trochee, troched, or whose top 
is divided into three or four small branches." And again : 
** Trocheure, the troching on the top of a deer's head, or the top 
troched." Hence troched, as applied to a stag's horn, means tufted 
at the tip with small tines. It is a term of the chase, and of 
French origin. I do not suppose it was a term in architecture, 
but was applied to a tower poetically. The sense is, clearly, 
*' adorned with small pointed pinnacles." 

TJnkek. This word occurs in the Seven Sages, ed. Weber, 955. 
By comparison with 1. 2251, it is seen to be an error for unlek, 
i.e. unlocked, opened. Weber explains it by * unopened,* whereas 
it means precisely the contrary, as the context shows. The 
spelling with k is due to anticipation. Similarly we find sikerklik 
for sikerliky in the same, 1373. 

Windren, to paint up or trim the eyebrows. In the Rom. of 
the Rose, 1018, we read: **No wyntred hro"^!^ hadde she.** This 
is one of the words which Tyrwhitt does not explain; nor is 
it in Morris or Stratmann. Only two lines below the infin. mood 
occurs as wyndre, " It neded nought To wyndre hir or to peynte 
hir ought." And this is the better form. This verb to windre 
represents guignier in the F. text, of which an older form must 
have been wignier\ and it is obvious that the E. word is merely 


the O.F. wignier done into English, and treated with an excrescent 
d, after », just as the F. son has become E. sound. We thus 
get the sense at the same time ; for guignier meant to disguise 
or paint or trim up, and is usually joined with farder^ to paint, 
with a like sense. Hence the passage means that the damsel 
did not paint or trim her eyebrows, because it was needless 
for her to do so ; they were not capable of improvement. 

Writhe. I wish to draw attention to a passage in Chaucer's 
Boethius, bk. i. met. 4, where both the best MSS. are wrong. 
The reference is to Mount Vesuvius, that (according to MS. C, 
printed by Eumivall) ^^writith owtthorw his brokene chymynees 
smokynge fyres.** FurnivalFs index explains writith by **work- 
eth," which is impossible, and was obviously suggested by the 
reading wircheth in the MS. printed by Morris. In this case, 
as in other places, the black-letter editions by Caxton and Thynne 
have an older reading, viz. writhethy which is perfectly correct. 
The reading writith is due to the mere omission of an A; the 
reading wii^cheth is due to the transposition of r, thus giving 
wirthethy with the usual confusion of t and c, thus giving wircheth. 
The sense is that Mount Yesuvius writhes or twists its smoking 
fires out of its broken chimneys, which is very expressive. How 
Ch. came to use toritheth is obvious when we refer to the Latin 
original : Torquet fumificos Vesevus ignes." It is, perhaps, worth 
while noticing that Chaucer again uses writhen away to translate 
Lat. detorqueri ; bk. v. pr. 3 ; 1. 4452 in Morris's edition. I 
have lately found that MS. li. 1. 38, in the Camb. Univ. Library, 
likewise has the correct reading wrythith. 


By Prof. H. Frank Heath, Ph.D. 

[Head at a Meeting of the Fhilologieal Society , June 2, 1893.] 

Tlie references to Beowulf throughout this paper are taken from M. 
Heyne's edition, 1888 ; the references to other poems from Grein*s Bibliothek 
der A-S. Poesie, 1867. 

WttBN Dr. Fumivall first asked me to read a paper before this 
Society I had recently formed a new theory about the construction 
of the Old English *' Expanded Lines," ** Longer rhythms" as 
Guest calls them, Streckverse, or Schwelherse^ as they are named 
by German scholars. It struck me that I might make this theory 
the subject of my paper, and Dr. Fumivall approved of my 
suggestion. But as time went on, and I began to think my 
paper out, I remembered that I held heretical views about the 
construction of the Normal alliterative line, views which, so far 
as I am aware, are only shared in England by one friend and 
fellow- student, and that it would therefore be necessary for me 
to at least give an introductory section upon the Normal line, 
as I conceive it, or rather as my most honoured master, the late 
Prof. Ten Brink, conceived it to be constructed. 

Then came the publication of Prof, ten Brink's fragmentary 
posthumous contribution to Paul's **Grundri8s" upon O.E. literature, 
containing a very condensed account of his theory of O.E. metric, 
and without the explanatory notes which he had intended to add. 
I found upon enquiry that men of the very highest rank amongst 
English philologists had found some difficulty in understanding 
this cramped and incomplete presentation of the case, and I felt 
that, this being so, 1 could not better honour the memory of my 
master, nor better advance the cause of truth than by an ex- 
position of his views, as I understand them to have been, after 
hearing a course of lectures from him on the subject, and taking 
an active part in the Seminar which he held in connection with 
it. The first part of this paper, therefore, lays little claim to 


originality, other than that small measure of it which lies in 
the method of presenting the suhject. 

First, then, I hope you will allow me to remind you of one 
or two general truths, ahout which there is no doubt, hut of 
which we must grasp the full importance, if we are not to 
wander from the right track into the many pitfalls which beset 
the study of this very difficult subject. To begin with — What 
is the essential difference between Prose and Yerse? The 
difference, of course, is that verse is speech with a definite 
Rhythm f whilst prose has properly no definite Rhythm ; though 
corrupt prose styles such as that found in some of Aelfric's 
Homilies show a very near approach to a Rhythm both continuous 
and definite. 

Rhythm, of course, means regular movement causing a sensa- 
tion in one of the organs of sense ; movement, the law of which 
can be appreciated by the senses. This is universal. Tn dancing, 
in music, in a swinging pendulum, when travelling in a railway- 
train, we have this phenomenon called Rhythm. 

** Wer theilt die fliessend immer gleiche Reihe 
Belebend ab, dass sie sich rhythmisch regt ? 

Des Menschen Kraft im Dichter offenbart." 

— Faust. Prol. 

Rhythm, then, more ex&ctly, is a regular' sequence of Movements^ 
each group of Movements constituting the sequence being divided into 
equal periods of Time {morks) of which one period receives a pre- 
ference according to some principle. 

Kow Metre is Rhythm realised in speech. Metric is, there- 
fore, only a part of Rhythmic. Metric is the particular, Rhythmic 
the general. All poetry is necessarily rhythmical, and the ordinary 
distinction between rhythmical and unrhythmical measures is due 
to the fact that the classical languages made use of a particular 
form of Rhythm in their verse. There are, I need scarcely 
remind you, three varieties of Metre. (I) The Syllabic, where 
every rhythmical time-period coincides with a syllable. This is 
nowhere found in strict use, but the Yedas are a near approach 
to it. (2) The Quantitive measure — in which the time-period 
which receives the preference (Thesis) has a definite duration in 
Speech relative to the other time-periods. Thus the length of 
time taken to pronounce the long syllable of a dactyl is exactly 



twice that taken in speaking each of the short ones which follow. 
That is why a spondee can he substituted. This is the measure 
of Greek and Latin. (3) The Accentuated measure. Here the 
relation of stressed to unstressed syllables in the line cor- 
responds, on the whole, to the relation between time-periods, 
or mor^s, which receive a preference and those which do not, 
i,e. the stressed syllables coincides with the Tact or beat of the 

We see then that Khythm is the essential, and it may be 
the same though the metrical realisation differs. Thus, in the 
classic Elegiac verse, the rhythm of the Hexameter and that of 
the Pentameter is the same, but the Metre is different ; or, again, 
the Khythm of the lines in a stanza of the Nibelungen-Lied is 
the same throughout though the Metre differs. 

This being so, I should like to assert the two following dicta 
with regard to any theory of O.E. Metric. (1) Ko explanation 
of O.E. verse can be satisfactory which does not prove a unity 
of Ehythm. (2) No explanation is satisfactory that does not 
give us a Prosody which a poet could easily carry in his head. 

Now the most elaborate system of recent times, and the one 
niversally adopted in England, is that laid down by Prof. Sievers 
in the tenth volume of Paul and Braune*s **Beitrage,'' and more 
recently in PauFs Grundriss, and in his ** Altgermanische Metrik," 
Halle a/S, 1893. Sievers has undoubtedly add6d very consider- 
ably to our knowledge of the O.E. verse- system, and his work 
marks a great advance on the results of Wackemagel and Max 
Rieger, but does it stand the tests I have just formulated? I 
think not, Sievers believes, as you all know, that there are five 
Types with Variations : — 

Typus A. Jl X I -1 X 

Typus B. X - I X ^ 

Typus C. (a). X .n I Jl X ll^pe. 

(^). X - I 6 X 1 1 ''¥y*ref ' 

Typus D. (a). Jl I _ id X 
(y3). Jl I Jl X 1 
Typus E. jl :bi X I - II 



Examples from Bebwulf. 

A. (a) jomban jyldan. 1. 11 || (^) lebfne >^en, 1. 34. 

B. (a) ale I don >a, 1. 34 || (}) ond Hal | ga til, 1. 61. 

C. (a), (a) oft Scyld Scefing, 1. 4 1 1 (^) ond jrlmhelmas, 1. 334. 
(y3). (*) of feorwejum, 1. 37 || (^) in jeardajum, 1. 1. 

D. (a), (a) beam | Healfdenes, 1. 469 1 1 (^) febnd | mon cynne8,L 164. 
(P). (a) fyrst I for^ jewat, 1. 210 (| (^) holm | up setbaer, 1. 519. 

E. (a) healsema | msest, 1. 78 || (^) weor^myndum | J?ab, 1. 8. 

Here I can find no unity either of Ehythm or Metric. Here 
are half-lines of Trochaic and Iambic form, and that even in the 
two halves of the same line; cf. aledon ]fk \\ leofne J?ebden |. 
Not only that, but in Typus C we find an Iambic foot immedi- 
ately followed by a Trochaic one, i.e, absolutely no Ehythm at 
all. It is quite impossible to speak such a line without either 
lengthening the first stressed syllable or putting a pause after it ; 

thus the line must either bexl.l.xl— XorX:lAl:lX. 
If we analyse Typus D in the same way we should get 
I 1-1- I ^ X, i.e. Three Chief Accents; and similarly 


with E. 

When we turn to the Yariations the matter is worse. I only 
give the Yariations of A as a specimen : 

A. il X U X ^?ir 

:! XX I ^ X 

^ XXX I ^ X 
^«) Jl XXXX I - X 

(iSS?r) ^ xxxxx I ^ X 

^ All X 

occur X I ^ XX 

^ X I ^ X 
^ X 

with X I ± XXX I ^ X 

Ana- X I ± XXXX I ^ X 

krusis. X I ^ XXXXX I ^ > 

Further, there are five Yariations of A caused by the addition 
of a third and even a fourth (subordinate) Accent to the line in 
different positions. 


I have already shown that this scheme does not satisfy my first 
requirement. I do not think any one will contend that it satisfies 
the second. No poet could possibly carry so complicated a system 
in his head. To compose with such a Prosody would imply at 
once the greatest crudity and the greatest subtlety in the ancient 

* scop.' 

Old English verse is accentual^ and can only he explained from the 
Mhythmical standpoint. Even Sievers, in his article in Paul's 
Grundriss (s. 870, Bd. II.), acknowledges that the Germanic 
verse is to be traced back to a four-accent type, with a constant 
Iambic Ehythm, such as we find in a number of the Yedic songs. 
But he believes that at the time when the earliest Germanic 
poems were composed, musicsil recitation had completely dis- 
appeared, and, further, that the poets had lost all sense of 
Rhythm. His arguments to prove this are, to me, completely 
inconclusive. And the constant recurrence of such phrases as 
*swutol sang scopes,' and reference to the *gldb-beam' as one 
of the chief joys of the banqueting hall would be meaningless 
if we are to suppose that simple recitation was the method of 
delivery. Besides, though Moller^ has failed to show that 

* Beowulf was originally written in a four-lined strophe, yet 
he has, I think, conclusively proved that a tendency is traceable 
in O.E. poetry to fall into a four-lined stanza-form as a re- 
miniscence of an older phase of composition. If this be so, it 
is clear that the Germans must have used the musical delivery, 
and that at the time of the popular epic (as we know it), even 
if song had given way to intoned recitation, which is quite 
possible, yet the old sense of rhythm still survived. 

To turn to the constructive side of my argument, the following 
is Ten Brink's scheme of the O.E. Rhythm, viz. One Fundamental 
Type, with Four Variations,' as follows : — 


Yar. 1. X)XXX XXXX II 

Yar. 2. x))^X)^ xkx^ II 

Yar. 3. x)icXX XXXic 1 1 

Yar. 4. x)Xx5c xAxX 1 1 

* H. Moller "das A-E. Volks-epos in der urspr. stroph. Form," Kiel, 1883. 


Katalectic F.T. (a). x)xxk x5((x(x 1 1 (P)- x)xxk X^XX 1 1 

A A 

„ Var. 1. (a). x)xxx x5((x(:(c II (^). xx)xx xxxxir 

A A 

„ Yar. 4. x)xx^ x:<(x{k 

A A 

The O.E. verse, therefore, in the short or half-line shows 
four heats of two Mores, each of the form XX, though there is 
evidence that in earlier times the half-line consisted of two 
heats of four Mor^s each, e.ff. I XXXX I . The following facts 
point in this direction, (a) That even in historical times the 
Rhythm of the verse always distinguishes two Chief from two 
Suhordinate Accents. {Jb) That when the Accents are not arranged 
as Dipodies the Prosody seems to require that the type of line 
in question should he more clearly expressed in speech. 

It will he seen that in all the above cases the Rhythm is the 
same. In the second half-line the first of the two Chief 
Accents is the stronger, and bears the alliterative letter. Indeed, 
it is the strongest Accent in the whole line. Anakrusis is 
oftener lacking than not, which caused Sievers to look upon 
the Anakrusis as not belonging to the verse.* Examples of 
the various forms are the following : — 

F.T. jehedde under heofenum, Beow. 505*. 

Yar. 1. /^ se J?e wd^terejesan, Beow. 1261*. 

Yar. 2. \ ofer je6fenes bijanj, Beow. 362*. 

Yar. 3. y^ s'i'jemunde jesprdnj, Beow. 885^. 

Yar. 4. y^ atol y^a jeswmj, Beow. 849*. 

It will be noticed that the unaccented syllables between the 
second and third Accents in the last two examples are lacking. 

^ This type occurs only in the second hemistich after an akatalectic first. 
* Two-syllabled Anakrusis is sometimes found, and probably also three- 
syllabled occasionally, though this is denied by some. 


In fact, it is seldom that lines occur in which all the unaccented 
syllables are expressed, and, to put the matter shortly, Old English 
verse, as we shall see, in common with all Germanic verse, only 
requires that every ^^ prefer enced Time-period^^ (Thesis or Gutes 
Zeittheil) shall correspond with the beginning of a syllable. Thus, 
in the Fundamental Type, all the unaccented syllables may be 

,M - " 

wanting, thus: — /^ j^mban /^ jyldan, Beow. 11% or /^ breost 

\j I \j A 

hord blod hre'bw,^ Beow. 1720*. 


The syllables able to stand in the Thesis or verse-tact are 
determined partly by Lachmann's Law, which deals with the 
word- stress, and partly by the law of Sentence-stress, which, 
in O.E., was not logical, as now, but purely conventional. 

Lachmann's Law, I may remind you, is as follows : — That 
there are two grades of Stress in words besides the unstressed 
syllables, though the Chief Stress is not different in kind from 
the Sub-stress. Further, that after a long syllable, bearing a 
Chief Stress, follows a sub-stressed syllable ; after a long syllable, 
bearing a Sub-stress, follows a sub-stressed syllable ; also after an 
unstressed syllable (short or long) follows a Sub-stress. On the 
other hand, after a short syllable, bearing either a Chief Stress or 
a Sub-stress, follows an unstressed syllable. 

This may be formulated thus : — 












Scholars have denied that Lachmann's Law applied to the 
spoken language. But this is * a priori ' improbable, for it 
neglects the very close connection between verse and the spoken 
tongue in Early Germanic times — besides which, if it only applied 
to the verse, this highly conventional system of accentuation 

^ The dot • expresses a short pause. 


(as it then would be) would certainly strike an audience as un- 
natural and fail to catch on. But it can be proved that Lachmann's 
Law applied to the O.E. spoken language. 

In words of the following form : — ^ H *> — ii > ^ kj bi J 
C ii ^ > 1^ can be shown that the syllables in the second place 
are either weakened or disappear. In words of this form: — 
w ^ w , this must occur even in compounds in which a chief 
accent had fallen there in the simple word, e.ff, jeatwe (Armour) 
< ja+tawu (cf. ja-mol for ja-mal, which shows that 5a- was 
accented), or, again, fra^twe (Ornament) < fra+tawu. 

Other examples, which prove the validity of this Law, 
are : — the disappearance of the Reduplication in the Praet. of 
Red. vbs., e.ff. het < hehat, and the early disappearance of the 
connecting vowel in the Praets. of weak verbs, e.ff, tealde for 
talde < talida ; sealde for salde < salida. In these last cases, as 
also in -j^eatwe and frcetwe, the disappearance of the middle-syllable 
insured the survival of the suffix-syllable, which was of the 
utmost importance, by transferring the Sub-stress to it. 

The conventional Law of Sentence-stress, as is well known, 
was shortly this: That certain Parts of Speech naturally took 
a stronger stress than others. (1) The Substantive, certain 
notional Adverbs, and the Pronouns self, begen, and perhapa 
o^er. (2) The Verb. (3) Pronouns and Particles. In addition 
to this, when two words of the same rank stood together, the 
first took the Chief Stress. Thus we should say ' Shakespeare's 
mother ' but ' the mother of Shakespeare,' i.e. Logical stress. 
In O.E., on the other hand, they said * ficjlafes beam ' but 
* beam Ecjlafes.* In the second half-line, however, a certain 
amount of freedom was allowed in this respect. Thus in Beow. 
1129^ "wunode mid Pin," the chief accent falls upon *wunode,' 
and not on ' Fin,* because the first syllable of the verb is the 
alliterative one. 

I can now proceed to give the rules for Quantity and Accent 
in the O.E. verse. 

Eules for Quantity, 

1. Absence of Anakrusis is replaced by a Pause. 

2, When the unaccented syllable {senhung) is wanting after a 

Chief Accent, its value is replaced by lengthening the 
preceding Chief-accented syllable, e,g, Xx(x)x« 


3. When the unaccented syllahle (senkung) is wanting after a 

Suh-accent, its value is replaced partly by lengthening 
the preceding syllable, partly by a Pause. 

4. Syllables to be lengthened must be long. Here is to be noticed 

that Germanic verse occasionally allows the freedom that 
syllables which in the spoken language are short, are, for 
the purposes of versification, treated as long, eg, words 
of this form (i — w , when they come at the end of 

a verse and are preceded by 6 v^ , are accented w — u 
instead of 6 — v^ . The word ' cyriing ' is specially to 
be noticed in such lines as fe^rh cyninjes, hedfon cyninj^s 
(where the * n,' instead of beginning the second syllable, 
is counted as closing the first, and consequently lengthened 
in accordance with the universal custom in O.E.).* Also the 
Pres. Parts, berende and wesende in lines such as swe^rd 
berende and rsed berende and cn'iht wesende, Beow. 372^. 
(5) In conclusion, a rhythmical More can in general be filled by 
either a long or a short syllable — though in practice this 
freedom is very restricted — especially by the action of 
Lachmann's Law. 

Rules for Accent y i.e. Relation of Verse Accent to Word Stress. 

I. The two chief Accents fall upon the two most strongly stressed 

syllables, and in the second hemistich the alliterative 
letter should coincide with the strongest stressed syllable 
in the line — except in cases like '*wunode mid Fin" 
referred to already. 

II. {a) Every syllable capable of bearing a stress, if it comes 

before a less strongly stressed syllable which fills a Mor^ 
[i.e. is not capable of being slurred), or if it comes at the 
end of a line, must bear a Verse Accent. Thus the second 
syllable of * Burgendum ' and the third syllable of 
*Gifica' in the line ^ BUrgendum G'ificd.^ Again, *f61ca 

jeondferde || ' 
^ Cf . wis-dom ; see Ten Brink Chaucer's Sprache imd Verskunst, § 87. 


(b) Every syllable capable of bearing a stress is accented 
when it follows a less strongly stressed syllable which fills 
a More {i,e, is not capable of being slurred), e.^. E6rmanrlc 
III. If a syllable capable of bearing a stress stand between two 
which are more strongly stressed, it may or may not 
receive a Yerse Accent. If it is a sub-stressed syllable, 
and a Suffix, it can only bear a Verse Accent when, by so 

doing, it forms a Dipodie, e.ff. 'E^rmanrllc G^tuin.* The 
*an' must be unaccented, because, if accented, it would 

not form a Dipodie. On the other hand, in leofne jfeoden, 
the syllable -ne does bear a sub-accent. 

Of the normal line scanned, according to these rules, there 
are plenty of examples — the vast majority are such. I have 
already given an example of each variation, and I have no time 
for more. 

Katalectic Linea, — One of the Sub-accented syllables may be 
replaced by a pause — but never a Chief-accented. As a rule it 
is the fourth verse Accent which is wanting. Only the Funda- 
mental Type and Variations 1 and 4 can be Katalectic. A 
Katalectic verse can end either with (a) an unaccented or (/3) an 
accented syllable. In the former case the Pause is a short one, 
in the latter long (cf. scheme supra, p. 9). 

Examples — 

E.T. a. fr^imcyn wi' tan y^ Beow. 252*. 
Hr'tfntfng nama /^ Beow. 1458^. 
/3. miimende mod /^ Beow. 50*. 
w o rd hord onleae /^ Beow. 259^. 

It is to be noticed that in case ft an unaccented syllable occurs 
between the second and third Accents almost invariably. And 
when this is not the case then there is invariably Anakrusis, 
e.g, Gecyste \i ^ Beow. 1871*. 

Yar. 1. a. we ]7urh h^ldne hi'je /^ Beow. 267*. 
]78et W8BS g'6'd cyning y^ Beow. 11^. 
ft, }7{et fram ham jefr^gn /f Beow. 194*. 
oud Ha'lga til a ^eow. 61^. 


The omission of an unaccented syllable between the first and 
second Chief Accent is much commoner in the second hemistich 
than in the first. 

Yar. 4. a. swiitol sang scopes j^ Beow. 90*. 
wop up ahafen y^ Beow. 128^. 
/3. fi^rst fdr) ^ewat X Beow. 210*. 
holm stdrme weol a Beow. 1132^. 

Here two things are to be noticed. (I) This type of verse 
is not so beautiful in form as those above, for a Pause, following 
upon a Sub-accent, is not natural. The poet is, therefore, careful 
to ensure that the Sub-accent coincides with a Chief stress. (2) 
In case /3 there is always an unaccented syllable between the 
second and third Yerse Accents. 

In yar. 1 only^ the first Sub -accent is sometimes absent, thus : 
' I " " ' , and this form generally occurs in the second half- 
line, e,g, A jew'aden haefde, Beow. 220^. 

How can we distinguish i \ n n i from n n i | i ^ i,e. 
var. 4, Katatalectic ? 

Easily, for in the case of var. 4 " " ' | ', the last Verse 
Accent, as we have seen, always coincides with a Chief Stress, 
whilst in this particular variety of Katalectic, var. 1, the last 
Yerse Accent always coincides with a Sub-stress (Nebenton) ; 
moreover, in this case, the line always begins with an unaccented 
syllable, which looks like Anakrusis. 

Finally, there is an occasional Katalexis of the Fundamental 
Type where the first chief-accented syllable in the line is 
lengthened so as to cover the following unaccented and accented 
Mor^s, thus : 

x)xxx xibd(. 

A Li£j ii ^v^ ^ 

Ex. or astelidse (Ceedmon's Hymn). 

ham jesohte, "Widsi^ 7^. 

}7rymm jefrunon, Beow. 2^. 

Xticf-jewsedu, Beow. 2618^. 
Phil. TraxiB. 1891-2-3. 25 


The prolonged syllable at the opening, it must be noticed, is 
not only always long and bears a Chief Accent, but it is generally 
followed by a Continuant Consonant. In addition to which, 
this particular form of verse nearly always occurs in the second 
hemistich, which makes the matter easier; for the first accent 
in this hemistich is naturally the strongest in the whole line. 
This form of line, I may say, presupposes and points towards 
a musical form of delivery — to aong^ for it would be difficult 
to speak such a line without destroying the Rhythm. 

It is possible, of course, to find shorter lines than even these, 
but all scholars, including Sievers and Rieger, look upon them 
as corrupt. 

Hyperkatdlectie lines proper^ i.e. lines ending in an extra 
unaccented syllable, there are not many of. Most of them 
are to be reduced to the right measure by slurring, which was 
apparently allowed freer play in the Caesura than elsewhere, e.g. 

"W^rd wceron wynsume, Beow. 613*. 
E^rd on e^rlscipe, Beow. 1728*. 
Selllce s^edracan, Beow. 1427*. 

Expanded Lines, called by German scholars SchwelUverse or 
Strech-verse^ are hypercatalectic, in that they possess a larger 
number of Verse Stresses than the normal line. Either, or both, 
hemistiches may be expanded. The half -line is either (1) expanded 
by a half; the method in the great majority of cases, or (2) 
it is doubled in length, which is a peculiarly characteristic form 
of the expanded line in the younger Genesis. 

Kow is it possible to discover any principle in the way in which 
these verses are expanded ? Because if not, then it will be im- 
possible to say which part of the verse is expansion, and which 
not, and it is equally impossible to see how such a line was 
understood to be expanded by an Old English audience. 

Ten Brink does not seem to have come to any final conclusion 
about the matter. Certainly the view taken by my old friend, Dr. 
Gregory Foster, in his Studies on Judith (Q. and E. 1892); a 
view with which Ten Brink was then inclined to agree, I believe, 
does not coincide with that which he seemed to hold in the 
winter of 1889-90. 

I will quote Foster's theory verbatim, as it gives what was 
practically Ten Brink's last opinion on this matter. 


** SucIl lines," he says, " are * expanded ' by prefixing to each 
hemistich a chief-stressed syllable, thus raising the number of 
chief-stresses in each hemistich to three, and one or more either 
secondary or un-stressed syllables. In the first hemistich, this 
prefixed syllable should alliterate, but not in the second hemistich, 
in which the syllable having the chief-letter becomes the second 
chief-stressed, but remains the first, and only, rime-letter of the 

Now, though as a matter of fact, this account of the construction 
fits the majority of the lines in Judith, yet even in a poem, the 
author of which has shown such marvelous skill in the use of 
these expanded lines (as Foster has proved), and who, in other 
respects, was evidently a most polished and skilful versifier — 
even in this poem there are at least two lines which will not 
fit in with Foster's theory, and he remarks that '* the irregular 
form of these lines in the Cynewulf poems is remarkable." 

Besides which, one does not see why in such a line as bealoful 
his beddes ne6san, Judith 63*, the word bealoful should be ex- 
pansion rather than ne^san. There is nothing in the reason of 
things, according to this theory, why the first element should 
be expansion. Foster makes no attempt to explain the con- 
struction of hemistiches which are double the normal measure, 

JS'ow, in my opinion, no theory about these Expanded Lines — 
so far, at any rate, as they are found in the older verse, the 
poetry composed in recitation and not on parchment — can be 
the right one, unless it explains to us not only their actual 
form, but how an audience appreciated that they were listening 
to an expanded line. If the expansion was not heard by the 
audience, as in some way an integral portion of the line, the 
additional syllables would strike the ear as an impertinence, and 
as absolutely destroying, not only the Prosody, but the rhythm 
of the line.^ Of course the rhythm of an expanded line must 
be the same as that of a normal line in character^ though it should 
be felt to be an extension of the normal phrase. The law, 
then, if one is to be found, must be one which appeals to the 
ear, not to the eye. 

1^0 w, as we all know, the unity of the two hemistiches depends 
upon the alliteration. The first half-line, usually, though by 

^ They would in fact have an effect similar to the irregular verse of Southey 
for our ears. 


no means always, has two alliterative letters; the second half 
only one. The existence of only one rime-letter in the second 
hemistich ensures the two halves being felt to form one whole, 
and makes it clear in the majority of cases whether we are 
listening to the opening or close of a line. This being the 
case, what would be the most natural place for a poet to make 
an addition to his hemistich ? Surely if the expansion is to take 
place in the first hemistich, it would- come between the normal 
hemistich and the verse pause. If the second hemistich is to be 
expanded it would receive an addition between the verse pause 
and the opening of the hemistich. In this way the ear could 
never be in doubt as to what was expansion and what not, nor 
as to which hemistich the expansion belonged to. The alliterative 
letters would fall in exactly the same places as in the nonnal 
line ; the expansion would receive no rime-letters. On testing 
the expanded lines in the O.E. corpus from this point of view 
1 have found that the vast majority of expanded lines conform 
to this type, which may, therefore, be taken as the normal, or 
Tjrpe I. Every line (about which there is no doubt that it is 
expanded), in Bdbwulf is constructed according to this type ; 
but no expanded lines occur in the oldest part of B^wulf. 
Here is a line expanded in both hemistiches, though it is not 
necessary that one should always be expanded because the other 
is, indeed, as a rule, in Bebwulf only one hemistich is expanded. 

Beow. 2996. landes ond 16cenra I beaga 1 1 

ne >^rfte himj "Si l^an o^wltan 1 1 

/ n/ II 

Other examples are : — 

Beow. 1167a. 8Bt fotum sset frean I Scyldinga |I 

It I II 

Beow. 1708*. freode, swa wit f^ir^um Isprfecon || 
Beow. 21 74a. wraetlicne wiindur- 1 ma^^um || 

Two things are to be noticed here — (1) that when the first 
hemistich is expanded it always has two alliterative letters, at 
any rate in the older poetry. In Judith, which is modelled 
upon the old heroic poems, there is only one exception to this. 


tiz. 90* ^ (2) There is no objection to the second element of 
a compound forming the expansion of the first hemistich, especially 
when there is no unstressed syllable at the opening of the second 
element. The necessary pause, which must then take place 
between the two elements, helps to mark the commencement 
of the expansion. Several examples of lines, constructed like 
Beow. 2174% are to be found elsewhere, e.g. the Rood Poem, 
47% 63% 68* ; Judith, 7% 1 1% 346». 

All the expanded lines in the Seafarer (except one, which I 
shall come to presently), all the expanded lines in the Wanderer 
(except one, which I shall return to), all the expanded lines in 
the undoubtedly older portion of Wldsi^,* and the two examples 
of expansion in the Battle of Finnsburg (11. 13 and 24), are 
constructed upon this normal type. Line 24 in the Battle of 
Finnsburg is interesting, because it is impossible to scan it at 
all upon Foster's theory, whilst it is quite easy on mine : — 

1. 24. Si'geferh^ is min nama /^ I cwsb^ h^. 

Two unaccented syllables together {doppelte Senkung) is by no 
means unknown in the first hemistich.^ 

To sum up — Every expanded line in the national epic and the 
lyrics (I have examined) are Type I. with two exceptions, which 
are Type II. 

To turn to the religious epic — the work of the CsBdmonian 
and Cynewulfian schools: 

In Genesis A. all the expanded lines are of Type I. There 
are only three slight irregularities, viz. 2866*, which is expanded, 
and only has one instead of two alliterative letters, and 2142^ 
and 2182^, which have the alliterative letter in the expansion 
instead of on the first Chief Accent of the normal portion of 
the hemistich. 

Gen. A. 2142^. nis wikvldi feoh, j ^e fc me ajan wille. 
Gen. A. 2182^. /est^J mynte^ 'Inje^ancum. 

* It is doubtful whether 9» is expanded ; if it is, then this is another 

2 Miillenhof rejected 11. 75-87 and 131-134 as later interpolations, and 
I agree with him. I think we shall see that there is ground for regarding 
11. 59-64 with considerable suspicion. 

3 Cf . jesawon J>a ^fter waetere 1 1 Beow. 1426*. 


It seems impossible, in either case, to consider the expansion 
as at the end. If the expansion is at the end, then they belong 
to Type III. 

In Gen. B., which was written about two centuries later (latter 
half of ninth century), and has been proved to be based od the 
* Heliand,' there is a very large number of expanded lines. 
Many of them belong to what I shall call Type II., and I pass 
these over for the present. Of the remainder, all, except two, 
are expanded in accordance with Type I. In two cases (338* 
and 488*) there is only one instead of two alliterative letters. 
The two exceptions to Type I. are 287^ and 301^, but it is 
doubtful whether 287^ is an expanded hemistich at all. L. 301^ 
seems to be a case of what I shall call Type III., unless we 
may assume Elision of the * e ' in * haefde ' ; in which case we 
might possibly construe it as an unexpanded hemistich.* 

Of the four expanded lines in JSxodm all are of Type I., 
viz. 11. 570-73. 

There are many more expanded lines in Daniel. If we omit 
the clearly corrupt passages, every expansion is constructed accord- 
ing to Type I. There might be some doubt about 453% but this 
is, in all probability, a case of three-syllable Anakrusis. 

In Christ and Satan, lines 260^ and 26 1* belong to Type II., 
but all the rest belong to Type I. If 1. 89* is not corrupt, there 
is only one alliterative letter instead of two. Line 205* seems 
irregular, but the * mid ealra,' at the opening of the line, has 
evidently crept in from 1. 203, and it is, therefore, a normal 
line. To sum up then : In the Caedmonian poems there is only 
one probable case of Type III. — at the very utmost only three 
in all. Of Type II., if we except ' Genesis B.,* there are only 
two hemistiches, both of which occur in * Christ and Satan.' 

We now come to Cynewulf and his school. All the expanded 
lines in the 'Christ' are clear examples of Type I., with the 
exception of five. 1163^ and 1515^ may possibly be examples 
of Type III., but possibly they are hemistiches with two-syllable 
Senhung — though it is true that this phenomenon is rare in the 

^ I. hy'ld hsefde his I ferWren6 or 

II. hy'ld h^fde lus ferl()rene. 

But case II. we should have two syllables together unaccented, a doubtful 
possibility in the second hemistich ; besides, it occurs in the middle of a passage 
of expanded lines, and this speaks against the second method of scansion, though 
it is true that 302^ may also be a normal hemistich. 


second hemistich. 1385* I can make nothing of in any way unless 
we are to assume three -syllable Senkung between the first and 
second Stresses. 1496* and 1426^ seem clear cases of Type III.^ 
In the Elene, as in the Christ, there are but few alliterative lines, 
but they are all Type I. 582* is slightly irregular, in having only 
one alliterative letter. Lines 163 and 610, which Foster takes 
to be expanded, seem to me normal lines. 

In the Dream of the Rood the expanded lines are of two types — 
of the second Type there are about ten lines (quite certain), 
and about as many again where we cannot be sure whether they 
are Type I. or Type II. The remainder are clear examples of 
Type I. Three lines, 10^, 47^, and 83*, offer some difficulties, 
but there are no clear cases of Type III. This is significant, 
as Ten Brink places this poem as the first of Cynewulf's religious 

The expansions in the Andreas are all Type I., but there are 
only a few. 

In Guthlac, however, there are no less than eleven clear cases 
of lines constructed on Type III. (the least perfect form of the 
three), e.g, 163*, 212*, 347*, 348*, 436*, 437*? 440*, 673*, 674*, 
713*, 350*. This is very extraordinary, and it is worth notice 
that Ten Brink has placed this poem among the last of Cynewulf s 

Finally, let us turn to the ^Judith,'* which Foster has clearly 
shown to belong to the Cynewulf school, ana to be later than his 
work. The poet, as Foster has proved, makes a most skilful use 
of the expanded line, and there are, relatively, a large number 
of them. The large majority are clear cases of Type I., but 9* 
and 65* seem evidently cases of Type III., and, on the analogy 
of those, I am inclined to interpret seven other cases, 11*, 17*, 
19*, 20*, 33*, 270*, and 242*. But I shall return to these. 
Suffice, for the present, that I believe there to be nine cases of 
Type III. in Judith. 

Type II. This type is the double of the normal line, instead 
of half as long again. Here it would be impossible for the whole 
expansion to occur between the close of the normal line and 
the verse pause in the case of the first hemistich, because the 

> LI. 1306», 1378», 1410% 922», 1050», 1360% and 1666% which Foster 
considers to be irregular expanded hemistiches, I look upon as normal un- 
expanded ones. 


line would then sound like a normal line without alliteration in 
the second hemistich. 

The expansion, therefore, takes place in the best examples, 
half between the two rime letters and half at the close. This 
in the first hemistich. 

The result, therefore, is equivalent to two hemistiches with 
one alliterative letter in each. As a rule the second alliterative 
letter occurs in the accented syllable fourth from the end, but 
sometimes on that third from the end, and occasionally on the 
second from the close. In the second hemistich the whole ex- 
pansion occurs between the verse pause and the normal line. 
In the later poetry there are examples of the whole expansion 
occurring at the beginning of the hemistich, even in the first 
hemistich, but this is very exceptional. 

There are no Type II. lines in Beowulf or Finnsburg, i.e. in 
the national epic 

In * Seefarer ' is one clear example of Type II. in the first 
hemistich of 1. 106. 

^61 bi^ se ^e him | his dryhien ne ondrfede^. 

Here if, as Sievers assumes, * ne ' can bear a stress, the 
Sub-accent should fall upon *ne.' 

The second hemistich of 1. 106 is an expansion of Type I. A 
curiously similar line to this occurs in the Wanderer, 1. 112 — 
the only one : 

ft n 

Til bi^ se ^e hfm | ^re'bwe jehgalde^. 

The second hemistich is also of Type I. 

Now we come to the *Wldsl^.' Here are two groups of very 
long lines which can only be explained as Type II., but they 
are very irregular in construction, viz. 59-64 and 76-87. 

An example from each group is : 

60. Mid Gefdum ic wffis | and mfd ?Finedum || and mid 

84. Mid M6rdum ic w«es | and mfd Persum 1 1 and mid Mj^rgingum. 

Even if this scansion is right there are several irregularities. 
1^0 w Miillenhof rejects 11. 75-87 and 131-134 on other satis- 
factory grounds, as later interpolations. 


It 18 certainly very tempting to reject group 59-64, which is 
exactly parallel in style and in syntax, and almost, though not, 
perhaps, quite so vile in versification. 

If this is justified, we only have two examples of Type II. 
in the older lyric poetry. Of these, that in the Wanderer occurs 
in the second half of the poem, which Ten Brink, upon other 
grounds than those of metric, considered to he hy a later hand, 
and I agree with him. We have thus reduced our ten little 
niggers to one. I suspect there will soon be proof that will 
dispatch even this one. Type II., indeed, is not made any con- 
siderable use of till we come to Genesis B., where there are a 
large number, and if we remember the source of the English poem 
we shall not feel surprised I think. Most of the examples are 
regular, but I have noted that the alliteration occurs in an 
irregular place in 11. 322* and 708^. 

322*. La'gon ^a 6^re | Fynd on ^am Pfre || 
708* is a similar case. 

In some cases it is difficult to say whether we have a line of 
Type I. or II., though the constant undoubted cases of the latter 
make an a priori presumption in its favour. 

Example 260*. Wi'^ J^one hehstan | hedfnes wealdend 

Wi^ J?one hehstan he^fnes I wealdend. 

In Christ and Satan there are two hemistiches of Type II., 
viz. 260^ and 261*. 

260^. (?od sQlMi hfm | rice healde^. 
261* is a regular example. 

In the Cynewulfian poems we only find this type in " The 
Dream of the Rood," but here there are a good many, though, 
again, it is sometimes hard to say whether we have a Type I. 
or Type II. 

An example of a second hemistich, as I have not yet given 
a regular one, is : 

66^. cilrfon hfe ^&t I on Je^rhtan stane. 

The conclusion to be drawn is that this is not so old as Type I., 
and probably arose after poems were composed on parchment and 
not by ear. 


Type III. is the least perfect and the rarest. These could 
only arise when poets wrote, and did not compose in recita- 
tion. In the first hemistich expansion is by a half, but at the 
beginning of the hemistich instead of at the end. In the second 
hemistich expansion is at the end and not at the beginning. But 
this is rarer than Type III. in the first hemistich. The expansion 
can only be recognized as such by the Syntax, 

Examples from the * Guthlac ' : 

163^ cwfedon }7S§tJ he 6n jfim be6rj6 || 
440». eaUes ^uj ^ses wite awiinn© || 

Example from * Christ ' : 

1426^. Lie J on heardum j^ Istane. 

If this is not right, then there is no alliterative letter. 

In Judith there are several examples of Type III., but they 
are peculiar in having alliterative letters in the expansion as a 
rule. This one has only one alliterative in the hemistich. 

9«. GirwanJ up swaesendo || 
19a. EiilleJ flett si'ttendum || 

I do not see how else to scan this with 9* in view. 

In conclusion, we find none of these lines in the national epic, 
nor in the old lyric, and in the Csedmonian poems there are also 
none (for, of course, I do not include Genesis B.). This type, 
therefore, does not occur till the Cynewulfian time, i.e, a time 
well within that when composition took place on parchment, and 
the invariable appeal to the ear both by poet and public was gone. 
Cynewulf seems to have grown more lax in the use of this type as 
time went on, for in Guthlac are many more than in any poem 
of his I have examined. In Judith, too, as we should expect, 
since it was written after Cynewulf s time, there is a com- 
paratively large number of these lines, but I attribute the poet's 
use of the first alliterative letter in the expansion to his study of 
the older schools of poetry. He saw a line like Beow. 2173* — 

"Wrffitlicne wiindor I ma^^um 

or I ma^^um || 
and did not recognize that 'ma^'Sum' must necessarily be the 


expansion. The appeal to the ear was gone — his imitation was 
a purely mechanical and therefore superficial one, and if we are 
to scan many of his lines we must assume the word with the 
first alliterative letter to be in the expansion at the beginning of 
the line. 

In conclusion, I need only say that if this conception of the 
construction of the expanded line be correct, the occurrence, or 
non-occurrence, of the various types in O.E. poems may serve 
as a relative time test in deciding their dates. 



{Head at the Meeting of the Philologieal Society, Friday, March Srd, 1893.) 

The speech sounds represented by the symbols and characters in the 
accompanying tables, and for which the test words in Tables II and 
III are examples, are those of a dialect of Argyll, having much 
in common with Scotch Gaelic dialects elsewhere, and therefore 
offering a somewhat representative utterance, but the nasal form 
of the peculiar Gaelic vowel in " aon,** though prevalent in other 
districts, is not used in Argyll. There the vowel in ** aon " would 
be the same as in **caomh," see Table II, 2nd column, Nos. 7 
and 11. Also the pronunciation of n in the combinations *cn,' 
* gn,' see foot of Table III, though permissible, would in Argyll 
be rather old fashioned. The use of the *n' sound in these 
combinations is very prevalent in many other Highland districts, 
but in Argyll nasal * r ' as in *' mna,*' see lowermost space, 
Table III, No. 3, is substituted for 'n.* 

In the following observations a Gaelic word is in ordinary 
spelling in inverted commas, single letters or letter-groups being 
alluded to thus *bh,' phonetic spelling and single phonetic 
characters in parenthesis thus (a), using Prof. Sweet^s modifica- 
tions of alphabetic types, with exceptions described at head of 
Table I, and the following modifying marks are also used in 
connection with such types : viz. nasality (^), thus (a) ; forward 
position (•), thus {a) ; backward position (.), thus (r) ; half length 
(• ), full length (:), thus (firfenta-xk) *'fireantachd" ; extra or 
mere rounding without amounting to full consonantal (w) by 
{w), thus (ue^l) "ubhal." I write phonetically (p), (t), (k) for 
Gaelic *b,' *d,* *g,' when not voiced by the nasal prefix, but 
those letters represent sounds not quite identical in their voice- 
lessness to the English voiceless stops, for a slight breath recoil, 
usually used with English (p) (t) (k), is quite or nearly absent 
from Gaelic *b* *d' * g,* and on the other hand Gaelic *p' *t' 


'c' are connected with much more distinct breathings than the 
English stops. These breathings I represent by (h), and in some 
cases by (9) and (x). As in *bl' *br' *gl' *gr,' the stops are 
usually more vocal than in other cases, they are represented thus 
(pbl). (pbr), (kgl), (kgr). 

Although the Gaelic rule of spelling governing the last and 
first vowels of succeeding syllables in the same word seems 
generally known, and though readers are familiar with the use 
of the digraphs *bh,' *dh,' *gh,' *th' and * mh,' as medials and 
finals, yet the appearance of the written words seems to the 
stranger of very confused phonetic significance, and the English 
student puzzling over the redundancy of letters forgets the, 
I think, greater irregularities of his own orthography. Gaelic 
writing was changed in Scotland some time in the last century 
in orthography from what had before been common both to the 
Irish and Scotch branches. The inaugurators of the change 
aimed at a better representation of the separate Scotch develop- 
ment, but were restrained by regard to customs they were used 
to, and by a desire to preserve the history of words or inflections. 
I shall try to show that, considering the types allowed it and 
the rules its writers felt bound by, some study of its system, 
which is at least ingenious, combined with a careful record of 
its actual speech sounds, and if possible with a comparison of 
them in different dialects, may be of some value to the philologist. 

§ 1. One of the first things to be remembered is, that the vowel 
letters added to meet the rule above referred to, have no phonetic 
value, but are simply used to meet pedantic exigencies, see § 12. 

§ 2. The Gaelic language remarkably illustrates the fact that 
speech sounds have a modifying influence on one another, vowels 
on vowels and on consonants, and especially in Gaelic certain 
consonants appear to exert a modifying influence on vowels, and 
in this language the influencing sound apparently once existing, 
now dead in speech, has remained in writing and left its mark 
in the character of adjacent sounds. The Latin alphabet, in- 
sufficient as regards this, as well as some other tongues, to 
represent all the speech sounds, vowel and consonant digraphs 
have been adopted by its writers to represent sounds for which 
the types furnished no single representative. 

§ 3. The consonant sounds spelt by ' d,' * t,' * c,' * ch,' ' dh,' 
* gh,' ' s ' and sometimes * th * and * sh ' differ in character according 
as they are, or presumably have been, influenced by the contact 


The symbols beginning at the left are Melville Bell' 
horizontally above, thus I instead of Ls, so as to include if 
in ordinary or modifications of ordinary type placed immedii 
Primer of Phonetics with the following exceptions : q insteac 
voicelessness is indicated thus — n* instead of nh. Where an 
nasal sign is repeated in the same square immediately below, 
proceeding inwards and downwards and with, consonants begini 














[ e 











> \ <\a 



1 c 



1 ^ 



3^ 3 

J » 














1 u 

■ 1 






{I 81 






















§ 7. Particularly initial * m ' and final ' 1 ' modify very strongly 
the sound of * a ' in monosyllables, the first by greatly advancing, 
the second by deepening, and so furnish vowel sounds which exist 
in no other circumstances, see § 17. 

§ 8. Another important factor, which seems to have helped 
to decide the state of Scotch Gaelic speech, is the habit of carrying 
to a comparatively illimitable length one vowel or syllable, almost 
always an initial, and of dispatching with the utmost possible 
speed the adjoining syllable, so that short vowels and short 
syllables tend, by being unemphasized and excessively shorten ed^ 
to be broadened or mixed or entirely silenced by the preceding 
long sound, and this, combined with an evident tendency to 
blur over or silence the consonants represented by the * h ' digraphs, 
when medial or final, helps to explain the fact that many 
apparently dissyllabic words are monosyllabic or even monoph- 
thoogic in speech, see § 20, § 21 and § 22. 

* Th * generally * h ' as initial, is always silent as a final, except 
sometimes after ** narrow " vowels when it is (9), and also often 
as a medial, chiefly when heard then as dividing a front from 
a back or mixed vowel when it also becomes (9). * Fh ' is always 
silent, with few unimportant exceptions being (h). * Sh ' existing 
only as an initial with the value of (h) or if absorbing and 
silencing *i ' as (9), see § 12 and § 14. 

§ 9. Although Gaelic spelling has generally preserved the 
separation of syllables which once existed separately, by keeping 
the consonantal digraph marking a boundary now sometimes 
extinguished in speech, yet on the other hand there is a dislike 
to the contact of many consonants as medials or finals, and a very 
short but very distinct vowel is inserted as a glide which writing 
omits, and which diifers in character according to adjacent sounds. 
This occurs, for instance, between * b ' and '1,' * 1 ' and * bh,' * 1 ' 
and *g,' *r' and * b,' *r' and *g,' 'r' and 'bh,' *r* and ' ch,* 
* r ' and * m,* * n ' and * m,' * m ' and * s,' see § 23. 

§ 10. The breath glides, which are such a noticeable feature 
before the voiceless stops spelt by ' p,* * t,' and * c,' taking the 
place of these vowel glides become in most dialects between * r ' 
and * t ' (s) and sometimes (f) : see § 24. 

§ 11. A process of phonetic decay has evidently destroyed many 
of the consonants in particular wonls, and in some dialects has 
extinguished some short second or final syllables or final stops 
and nasal consonants usually distinctly touched. But it may be 


noted that the letters * 1/ ' r,' and ' ch ' " broad " as (x) " narrow " 
as (9) have always full value given them, see § 20 and § 21. 

Examples of the usual normal sounds of the vowels when least 
influenced by adjacent sounds are found on Table II Kos. 1, 
2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 14, 18, 20 and 22. Instances of values of vowel 
digraphs on Table II Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 12, 15, both in Ist column. 

It may be noticed from an examination of the vowel digraphs 
and their values that ' i ' is always as ** naiTowing " vowel the 
last in a syllable, and unless it be intended that the vowel in 
the succeeding syllable be sounded ** narrow," *e' begins the 
syllable harmonizing with * i * in the first: see § 12. *a' and 
*u' are very often used indifferently as *' broadening" vowels, 
* a ' and * ' may sometimes be used indifferently in some mono- 
syllables often indicating a difference of dialectal pronunciation, 
see § 23. 

Examples are given below in Gaelic spelling and phonetic 
writing illustrating the foregoing matter as marked in paragraphs. 
Many vowel digraphs differ in different dialects thus *' geal/* 
"beul," **fior" in some (kj«}), (pi4)» (fi^r), in others Q^e-}), (j^e-l), 
(fi : r). 

§ 12. The words "basaich" (pa: si^), ''bais" /^p«:/;, "laidir" 
(Xd : cjtr) ; Gaelic initial * 1 ' is usually (\), but (\) medial or final 
is written '11'; ** eadar " (#ter), ** ait " {a : 09), ** staid " (sta : 09) ; 
final * d ' and * t ' " narrow '' are both (09) ; " fold " (fcic9). " ciod " 
(kbit), **cuid" (khuc9), "rud" (rut), **riut" (fuht), '*deagh" 
(cje:q), "an deigh'* (enjje:j), **dea8" (cj^s), ''deis" (^\^\fJt 
<*eadhon" (^qen), <* boidheach " (pojex), " toiseach " (th^^x), 
"thoisich" (h6/i9), *' sios " //its;, **fios" (fis), "fior" (fi:r), 
"fir" (fir), "chiosaich" (9^819), "fichead" (fi9^t), "dachaidh" 
(t«xi), "nithean" (ni9«n), "shiubhal" (9uwel), "mo shuilean" 
(me hu:len) furnish some examples of § 1, ^ 2, § 3, § 4, § 8, and 

§13. In "feabhas" (fio-s), "gheibh'' (jow), "ghabhaa" in 
Deeside (qo:l), "leam" (lom), common Argyll pronunciation, 
are instances of a rounding effect of medial or final * bh ' or * m,' 
see § 6. 

§14. In "an'' (?n), "ann" (?5n), "gleann" (kgbgttN), 
"beann" {^ekm\ "call" (khawX), "mall" (maSx), "sonn" 
(seQN), "ionnsindh" (jQNsi) or (lesi), observe diphthongal effect 
in many of these words with round raised ending connected 
with terminals 'nn ' and '11/ § 6. The character the nasal gives 


to the vowel in the article seems to remain with other nse of 
the vowel hy itself as feminine article and possessive pronouns 
(e) and this is usually the sound of the pronoun **e'' which 
apparently, in some dialects, seems considered " narrow " in the 
beginning, and broad in the end to judge from its use in connection 
with the substantive verb "is" and emphatic suffix, thus "is 
mise" (is miy*e), "is tusa" (is tuse"), "(i)*sesan" f/e^enjy 
"(iysise'^ f/i/QJ. 

The words "tuais" fiue/J, "fhuair" (huef), "fuaire" (fuefe), 
"buail" (puel), are instances where the final *i,' otherwise making 
a triphthong, only narrows the adjacent consonant, see § 4 and § 5 ; 
" dh'ith mi " (ji9 mi), " tfiuif " (tf uf), are instances of the sound 
of final * th ' after a narrow vowel, and of the mere " narrowing " 
effect of * i ' respectively, see § 4. 

§15. In "tigh" (toij), "rinn" (reiw), the round commencing 
diphthongs seem related to the final consonants. In the word 
"rinn** the diphthong may be due to its derivation. 

§16. In "Hadh'' (Xieq), "seadh" //eq; " lagh '' (\eq), 
"aghaidh" (eqi), "liath'' (\i6), the 'dh,' ' gh,' and *th' seem 
to exercise an effect unnoticed in "fear** (f^r) monophthongic 
or " each " (^e'x) diphthongic, see § 6. 

§17. In "math" (mse), "mac" (msexk), "mam" (m£e:m), 
and in "al" (»:1), "cal" (kh»:l), "fal" (f»:l), we notice the 
respective effects caused seemingly by the initial and final con- 
sonants as these sounds obtain under no other circumstances, see § 7. 

§ 18. In "dubh," "subhach" "cobhair," "treabhadh,'' "ubhal," 
"cuibhrionn," the value of *bh ' has generally died away or amounts, 
and in some dialects only, to a slight rounding, thus " ubhal " 
{moY). In "sabhal" *bh' only rounds the vowel thus (sflful). 
In " aoibhneach," "aobhar," "cabhag," "cubhaidh," "seirbhis," 
"scriobhar," " toibheum," " uaibhreach," ' bh ' still remains (v), 
or in some dialects and in some cases (y3), see § 6. 

§19. In "deimhin," "diomhair," "ionmhuinn," 'mh' is (v) ; 
in "amhuil" (w); in " amhairc," "amhluadh," "samhach," 
"amhghar," " samhradh," " geamhradh," *mh' in most dialects 
only nasalizes adjacent sounds and perhaps slightly rounds vowels 
thus (awlvid), (sefe^req), see § 6 and § 8 and § 9. 

§20. In " dioghaltach," " glaodhaidh," " chladhaich," "fiad- 
haich," "bodha,"the medial 'gh' or *dh* now usually only indicate 
division between what are or were two syllables, and in some 
dialects the long first is extinguishing the short second, " saoghal ' 

Phil. Trans. 1891-2-8. 26 


Test words for short, half long and long, and for m 

1. I iir, 8 ; iioT, I. 

2. X t&, 8 ; pw>b, /. 

3. [ le, a; U, I, 

4. C iear (man), s ; teur (grass), /. 

5. T ciod, 8. 

6. \ 8eaih 8. 

7. \ aithr^flch, s. 

8. 1 laogh, L 

9. ] agws, 8. 

10 (3'' «*'threach, s ; «/reach, /. 

{] has (palm of hand), s ; bds (death), L 

11. J cal, /. 

12. f fliodh, s. 

13. ^I t/gh, s. 

14. -g sfl5or, J /; aaoghal, I, 

15. I tw/g, i / ; an t saoir, I. 

16. ^ teabhas, ^ I, 

17. t loch, «. 

18. 1 gwl, 8 ; UT, L 

19. 1 gwr, s. 

20. 3- robh, s; gheobh, J /; Ion (marsh), /. 

21. J bho, 8. 

22. J so, s ; dg, /. 

1. I 


2. C 1^«: 


3. X nia 

4. T tbnj 

5. {i 

6. I tal( 

7. 1 aoi 

9. f brib) 

10. {1 (M 

11. i ca 

12. fr 

13. t d 

14. i n 

16. jU 


or **dheth» (cje) or (je), with "do" being "da'' or "dha" 
{ta) or (q«). Sometimes the i of "iad" appears as if at the end 
as (^09) the proper pronunciation as if written ** eaid/' 

The forms "deanadh" (cj2:n^q), "deanamh** (cj^:n?w) or 
(cj^inQ), acknowledged forms of the pr^nt participle of "dean," 
customary in different dialects respectively, also " ugh " sometimes 
" ubh," in one dialect (u:q), in another (u:), in another (u:w), 
in another (u:v), seem very suggestive ; also the participial suffix 
"adh" in "cathadh" (kh^-eq) in the West, is>^ Deeside (u) 
thus (khrthu). 

The remarkable word "oidhche" (Si]9e) in Deeside, an almost 
purely phonetic pronunciation, is in the West (01390), while a 
Kerry Irishman gave me his pronunciation as (1396), by its nasality 
apparently points to a quondam ' n * which still exists in the 
adverbial locution "an nochd" (en nSxk) and seems to show a 
process of degeneration both of consonant and vowel sounds. 

Evidently Gaelic has undergone much phonetic decay, but it 
still retains with remarkable purity and length a very large 
number of vowel sounds, both front and back. It has an un- 
doubted preference for whispered consonants, and as it uses the 
back open (q) for the modified (d) or (t) instead of (^), and 
(h) for modified (th) instead of (^), we may consider it has also 
a preference for back consonants, which is borne out by every 
"chd" being (^k) and by its using (q) and (j) as "euphonic" 
insertion between the vowel ending prepositions "de" or "do" 
and following nouns beginning with a vowel, and also as prefix 
before vowel-beginning verbs thus " foghnaidh na dh'fhoghnas 
ged b'ann de dh'aran 's de dh'im" (fd:ni ne q5:nes ket p'?to te 
qaren ste ji:m). 

The preference for whispered sounds is somewhat balanced by 
the evident favor shown to nasal sounds almost always strongly 

A few of the initial lines of one of the most generally admired 
poems by a well-known Gaelic poet, a.d. 1724-1812: "Donna- 
chadh Ban Mac an t saoir" (Mac Intyre) with ordinary spelling 
and phonetic rendering. 

A Mhairi bhan 6g 's tu 'n oigh th'air m'aire 
Ri'm bheb bhi far am bithinn fhein ; 
O'n fhuair mi ort coir cho mor 's bu mhath leam 
Le posadh ceangailt o'n chleir ; 

**H ; i rr t.JZuSh—'^3 i.t^mr ? 

1 1 i:>r TIL irr-r iiiijj ;•» -n.Trr * iii "^ jluxl 
« * 


M.A., Jesus College, Oxfords 

[Sead at the Meeting of the Philologieal Society held on Friday ^ March 2, 1894.] 

§ 1. The Nature of the Latin Accent, 

We have two means of ascertaining whether the accent of a dead 
language was one of pitch or one of stress. We have the 
phenomena of the language itself on one hand, and we have 
the statements of native Grammarians, so far as they are trust- 
worthy, on the other. Both these means of evidence point to 
the pitch- character of the ancient Greek Accent. The words 
of the language do not show that Syncope and Reduction of 
Unaccented vowels\ which are the characteristic effects of a 
stress accent ; the Greek Grammarians' accounts of the Accent 
of their own language point in the same direction. Modem 
Greek has, however, a stress-accentuation, so that the Greek 
Accent must have changed its nature in course of time, though 
at what precise period the change took place, it is difficult to 
say. No doubt the nature of the accent differed more or less 
in different parts of Greece; and the accent in one dialect may 
have allowed stress to predominate over tone at an earlier period 
than another.^ Accent is taken into account in Greek Metre in 
the verse of Babrius, a contemporary probably of Augustus, and 
author of a verse-translation of JEsop's fables. 

When we turn our attention to Latin, we are confronted with 
the difficulty that, while the Latin Grammarians often speak of 
their accent in terms properly applicable only to a pitch-accent, 

^ In the N. Greek dialects, for example, as in the N. Greek dialects of modem 
times, the stress-accent is stronger. (See Hatzidakis in Kuhn^e Zeitachrift, 
XXX. 388.) 

FMl. Irani. 1891-2-8. 27 


all the features of their language point to its having been a stress* 
accent. The reduction of the accented Towel (e.g. dbigo^ etc., 
but Greek ava^Wy etc.), the Syncope of syllables following the 
Accent (e.g. ohjurgo from ohfurigo, caldui from ealiduij etc., etc.), 
all indicate unmistakeably the presence of a stress-accent. And 
the difference of its accentuation from Greek, though not a single 
Grammarian definitely informs us of this difference, comes out 
clearly in the treatment of Greek loan-words, especially in the 
language of the less educated Eomans. Greek 2o0ui became 
Sofia, a stress-accent replacing the pitch-accent, with the resolt 
of lengthening the accented vowel ; Greek evBwXov became iddlum. 
Instances like these show that the Eomans had much the same 
difficulty as we have, in pronouncing Greek words with a short 
accented paenultima, or with an accented ante-paenultima and 
long penult. The difficulty would not be so great for a Roman 
as for us, if his stress-accent, like that of his modem descendant, 
the Italian, was not so strong as ours ; nor would it be so much, 
felt at an earlier period, when the distinctions of quantity were 
more vividly marked than in the later Empire. The Hungarian 
language, where the sense of quantity is equally vivid, accentuates 
the first syllable of every word, without detracting from the 
quantity of vowels in the following syllables. No doubt, too, 
the nature of the stress-accent would differ in various parts of 
Italy in ancient times, as it does to-day (see Meyer-Liibke, Itali 
Chram. § 122, p. 71). In Praeneste, if we are to believe such 
indications as the spelling MGOLNIA for the name Magolnia on 
inscriptions, and perhaps the form eonea for eieoniaj a stork. 
Syncope was carried to greater lengths than in Latin, and the 
stress of the accent must have been stronger. But that the Latin 
language of all periods, at which we have definite knowledge 
of it, was a language of stress- accentuation, is proved by all 
the evidence at our disposal, and disproved by nothing except 
the silence of the Grammarians. The same tendency to Syncope, 
which before the literary period produced undeeim out of *tmo- 
decenif is seen working in the Early Literary time in words like 
ohfurigo (Plaut.), oljurgo (Plaut. and Ter.), and in the Aug^ustan 
Age in calidus and caldus (the form preferred by the Emperor 
Augustus, Quint. 1, 6, 19), while virdis for viridis asserted itself 
stiU later, and the same tendency still shows itself in modem 
Italian {e.g. Ital. gridare from Lat. quiritare). And hand in hand 
with Syncope goes the reduction and change of unaccented vowels* 


How then are we to explain the absence of comment on the 
part of the Grammarians ? "We must, I think, take three things 
into consideration. Pirst, that the study of Accentuation, and 
all the terminology used, came to the Romans from Greece. 
The word aeeentus itself was nothing but the Greek word wpoaiohia 
in a Latin dress ; and not only the terms employed, but the 
descriptions of the phenomena of accentuation are taken directly 
from Greek authorities. In the second place, the contrast between 
their accent and the Greek would not be felt so markedly by 
Eoman Grammarians as it would by us, whose accent has so 
much stronger a stress than the Latin or modem Italian, a 
consideration which makes it less surprising that they did not 
remark on the essential difference between the two systems of 
accentuation. And thirdly, the Greek Accent itself had probably 
at the time of these Grammarians already entered on that process 
of change which ended in the stress accentuation of modem 
Greek. The Greek writers on accentuation would, no doubt, 
go on using the terminology of the earlier phoneticians without 
perceiving that their terms and descriptions were no longer so 
applicable to the actual phenomena as they had once been ; and 
if the Greek contemporary theorists on Accent misused the 
terminology in this way, a Roman imitator might be excused 
for carrying the misuse a little further, in applying the same 
terminology to Latin Accentuation. Indeed the writers on Latin 
Grammar were seldom Romans by birth; they were usually 
Greeks, and would have the same difficulties in describing the 
Latin Accent as a Prenchman in describing the strong stress- 
accent of English. These considerations may explain how it is 
that only a few statements of the writers on Latin Grammar 
are rid of the terms 'high' and *low' (instead of * strong' and 
* weak ') accent, such as the remark of a fifth century Grammarian, 
that the accented syllable in a Latin word is the syllable which 
would be heard at a distance, when the others were inaudible 
(Pompeius, p. 127 K. : "finge tibi quasi vocem clamantis ad longe 
aliquem positum . ut puta finge tibi aliquem illo loco contra stare, 
et clama ad ipsum . cum coeperis clamare, naturalis ratio exigit 
ut unam syllabam plus dicas a reliquis illius verbi ; et quam 
videris plus sonare a ceteris, ipsa habet accentum . * optimus,' 
quae plus sonat? ilia quae prior est . numquid hie sonat *ti' 
et * mus ' quemadmodum * op ' ? Ergo necesse est ut ilia syllaba 
habeat accentum, quae plus sonat a reliquis, quando clamorem 


article in Philoloffus, LI. p. 364). And a word like dimidius 
(from m^dius) mnst liave been still accented on the first syllable 
about 250 B.C., for the change of unaccented ^ to if is not found 
on the oldest inscriptions. But though we cannot fix the time 
when Latin words passed from the old to the classical accentua- 
tion, when, for example, sdpientia became sapiSntia, Umpestatihus 
became tempestdtibus, we can guess, partly from the analogy of 
other languages, partly from the inherent probabilities of the case, 
what the nature of that change was. A long word like sapientia 
tempestatibm must have had at all periods a secondary as well 
as a main accent; it could hardly be pronounced otherwise, as 
we can see from our own pronunciation of such words as 
* chdracterfstical * (with secondary accent on first, main accent 
on fourth syllable). So that sdpientia would be more accurately 
written sdpientia. The change from the old accentuation to the 
new would be, in reality, nothing but a usurpation by the 
secondary accent of the prominence of the main occent ; sdpientia 
would become sdpiSntia, t^mpestdtibus would become t^mpestdtihtcs, 
A secondary accent (perhaps the media prosodia of Varro) is in- 
dicated for the first syllable of words like armatura by the 
Bomance forms, which treat the vowel of the first syllable in 
the same way as they treat accented a, Italian Fiorentino beside 
Pirenze may point to the secondary accent having been stronger 
in the first syllable of Lat. Florentinus than of Lat. Florentia 
(cf. Ital. seppelire, scellerato, etc., with doubling of the consonant 
which follows the vowel with secondary accent). (See Meyer- 
Liibke, Gramm. d. Romanisehen Sprachen^ I. p. 501.) 

The Latin accentuation of the sentence, as distinguished from 
the accentuation of words by themselves, may be determined 
with a fair amount of accuracy, partly by the help of the remarks 
of the Latin Grammarians, partly from observing the phonetic 
changes of Latin words in the Eoman tongues, where an accented 
word or syllable is not subject to the same laws of development 
as an unaccented, partly from the analogy of other languages. 
Examples of Sentence-enclitics are: (1) Enclitic Particles like 
qu^^ 1% n^ (Interrogative). These were always written as ap- 
pendages of the preceding word, e.g. Caesarque, Ciceroqm^ atque 
(weakened in pronunciation to *atc^ ac) ; (2) the various parts of 
the Substantive Yerb. The unaccented nature of eraty erit, etc., 
is shown by Eomance forms like Ital. era and Span, era (Lat. erat)^ 
O.Er. ert (Lat. erit), for an accented e would have taken another 


form, such as Ital. *iera, Span, ♦yera (cf. Ital. niega^ Lat. negat). 
Esy est are written in the MSS. of Flautus, Virgil, etc., as ap- 
pendages of a Perf. Fart. Pass., amattts {amatu^s)^ amattut, 
amatumst for amatmea, amata eat, amatum est. It need hardly he 
said that the extent to which these words, and, indeed, all 
Sentence-enclitics, were suppressed, would depend on the caprice 
of the speaker, on the nuance of thought, on the style of 
composition, etc. No hard and fast rule can he laid down about 
them, just as no rule could be made for the use of *'s' for *is,' 
*'re 'for *are 'in English. A sentence, for example, of Cicero, 
ending with the words licitum est, is quoted by a Grammarian 
as an instance of a sentence ending with a monosyllable (Mar. 
Sacerd. p. 493 K.). (On the rules of Latin Accentuation, see 
my articles in the Classical Review, V. pp. 373 and 402.) Of 
"Word-groups the Grammarians mention some, e.g. res-puhlieaj 
jus-jurandum, etc., and the Eomance languages point to others, 
e.g. foris-facere (O.Ital. forfare, i'r. forfaire), ad-illmm-horam 
(Ital. allora, Fr. alors). 

The theory of Bentley and Hermann that the accent was shifted 
a syllable nearer the beginning of a word when the final syllable 
was elided, so that in a line like Ter. Andr, init. : poeta 
cumprim(um) anim(um) ad scribend(um) appulit, the accent 
would fall on the first syllable of scribend(jum), is now generally 
abandoned. There is no evidence to prove it, and what evidence 
there is goes against it. £ut the versification of Plautus points 
to the retention of the accent of the simple word when an ap- 
pended -qtie, -ne is elided, e.g. pr6spereq{ue), siirHiptasq(ue), and 
though Servius (ad ^n, X. 668, etc.) declares that tanton^ 
Fyrrhin, etc., are properly perispomenon, because they stand 
for tantd-ne, Fyrrhi-ne, he tells us in a note on another passage 
(ad ^n. YI. 779) that vid^ [i.e. vides'n{e)\ was the actual pro- 
nunciation of his time. 

§ 3. The Accenttutl Element in Latin Poetry. 

The Latin Accent, we have seen, was an accent of stress, and 
different from the Greek accent of tone or pitch, though its stress 
was not strong enough to overmaster the quantity of a vowel. 
An educated Koman pronounced orator with the stress of the 



voice on the second syllable,^ but without impairing tbe long 
quantity of the initial o ; the final o of pond retained its length,* 
in spite of the fact that the stress of the voice fell on the first 
syllable ; the first syllable of piper had the stress-accent along 
with the short quantity,' and so on. It was thus possible for 
the Romans to imitate the quantitative metres of the Greeks, in 
which the harmonious or metrical element of the line consisted 
of the regular arrangement of long and of short syllables, — the 
Dactylic metre, for instance, composed of Dactyls (— \j o), or 

on occasion Spondees ( ), as in the Dactylic Hexameter (with 

six metrical units). 

— u u 



— KJ KJ 



— U 

e.g, firjviv aeiBCf 6ed, Ur/XrfidBew 'Ax^^yo^, 

or as in the Dactylic Pentameter (with five metrical units), 

— u u 

— \JKJ 

—, ^\J \J 

— \JfJ 


e,g, oure ri f^ap v/f^u) oure \i'qv fieOvtv^ 

the Iambic metre, composed of Iambi (v^ — ), varying with 
Spondees, or even with Tribrachs (v^ u u), Anapaests (w v^ _) 
and Dactyls, as in the Iambic Trimeter (with three metrical units). 


KJ — 

KJ _ 


$.g» Bciffavres ^ arep^ame^ u)9 6i\ovro9 av, 

the Trochaic, composed of Trochees (— o), varying with Spondees, 
or even with Tribrachs, Anapaests and Dactyls, as in the Trochaic 
Tetrameter Catalectic (with four metrical units), 

_ \J 

— u 

_ u 

— u 

_ \J 

— KJ 

-KJ -^ 


All these quantitative metres the Eomans could imitate without 
being driven to that substitution of accented syllables for long 

^ orator was a misproimnciation of the time of Oonsentius (fifth century a.d. 
See Cons. p. 391 K.). 
* ponOf however, came to be the universal pronunciation in course of time. 
3 piper was another mispronunciation of Oonsentius' time (Cons. p. 391 K.). 


syllables and of unaccented for short, which we see in English 
imitations of Greek dactyls : 

This is the forest primeval ; the murmuring pfnes and the h6mlocks. 

But a stress-accent like the Latin could haidly be kept from 
asserting itself in Roman poetry; and, as a matter of feust, we 
find that the changes which the Greek metres underwent in the 
hands of these Eoman imitators, are, in many cases, due to an 
attempt to reconcile the natural stress-accent of the words with 
their ictus or metrical beat. 

The Dactylic Hexameters of Virgil and Ovid are hardly allowed 
any other ending than (1) ^ ^ ^, ^ u, e.g. moenia Roma»^ or 
{^) JL yj9 Kj IL yj9 e.g. magnm Apollo \ the Dactylic Pentameters 
of Ovid are practically confined to the ending jii ^J u(>) il v^> 
v^ <J, e.g. praectpitata forent, moenia magna formt\ and if we 
seek for the reason why these endings were preferred to Greek 
endings like those just quoted ('Ax^X^o? (four syll.), and ovre 
XiTfu /leOvu}), we shall hardly find a better one than the harmony 
of ictus and accent in the favoured endings (iL ^ w> -1 H Moinia 
E6mae\ Jl y, ^ — — mdgnus Apdllo; ji ^ ^(,) ji v-r> u — 
prakeipitdta fdrent, moinia magna fdrent\ as contrasted with 
the conflict of ictus and accent in the rejected endings. 

Similarly with the Roman imitations of the Iambic and Trochaio 
Metres of the Greek Dramatists. The Dipody Law of the Gb*eek 
Iambic Metre prescribes that in the latter part, the (metrically) 
important part, of each Dipody of an Iambic line, a Spondee shall 
not be substituted for an Iambus, so that 

oaa ^^ BeBrff^ | /juii t^v ifiav | tov xapBidu 

could not be changed to oaa B-^ Xvwov fun jc.t.X. ; for the substitu- 
tion of a Spondee for an Iambus at the end of a Dipody would 
spoil the iambic character of the line. Plautus found himself 
prevented by the large number of long syllables in the Latin 
language of his time from observing this rule, but while he admits 
spondees into these feet, he excludes those spondees which would 
bring the ictus and the accent into conflict. 

vin cSnmuti \ mus ? tUam ego dil \ earn et tU me'am ? 

is legitimate, but 

vin cdnmute/n ? | vin tilam ego, etc., 


is aToided, as uniambic, because the conflict of the natural accent 
conmiitem with the metrical ictus "tnutem was felt to bring into 
unpleasing prominence the irregular formation of this important 
part of the line. Change the second word to a word in which 
there is not this conflict, say mutHer, and the line becomes 
rhythmic again : 

vin miltuer ? | vin tuam ego, etc., 

as it is with odnmutemua, etc. 

In a Trochaic Hue the correspondingly important parts of the 
line, the parts which give the line its trochaic character, are 
the flrst parts of each Dipody. These, in the lines of the Greek 
Tragedians, may not show a Spondee for a Trochee. In the lines 
of Plautus they may indeed show a Spondee, but the clash of 
ictus and accent is ayoided. A line like 

ff * 

v'irginem Kdheo \ grdndSm, dHte \ eissam atque 'inlo \ o'ihi \ Urn 
satisfied the Eoman ear, but not 

virginem haheo | dOtdtam, etc., 

where the natural accent of the word, dotdtam, would not harmonize 
with the ictus ddtd-. 

In a Greek Anapaestic line the second foot of a Dipody may not 
substitute a Dactyl for an Anapaest unless the flrst foot be a 
Dactyl, e.g. icainreffe KarOave \ , but in the Anapaestic Cantica 
(or Choruses) of Plautus a Dactyl is allowed even when the flrst 
foot is something else, provided that this Dactyl irregularly 
substituted for an Anapaest has an accent not in conflict with 
the ictus. Thus we find Dipodies like «_ il, __ ^ v^ \ passim 
oaerule \ 08, or ^ ^ !L} ^ ^ s^ \ ubieumque eat Upi \ dum, though 
passim caerulus \ , with conflict of natural accent oaerulus and 
metrical ictus ea&Hllus is avoided. Similarly in the Bacchiac 
lines of Plautus the second foot of a Dipody, if it substitutes 
a Molossus (_ Jl il) for a Bacchius (^ !L IL)} °iay not show the 
irregular long syllable with the stress-accent upon it, and in his 
Cretic lines, while a second hemistich like Amph. 200 : 

// // tf n 

dispSrtU{t) Ordinis 

is allowed to begin with a Molossus (^ ^ IL)} composed of the 
flrst three syllables of dispertiti, instead of a Cretic (Jl \j jl). 


II It §1 _ // 

a change to dlspSriU drdinis would not be allowed, where the 
accent falls on the irregalar long syllable, the middle syllable 
of dUpMis, 

All these changes of the Greek schemes of metres are then 
so many instances of the Roman stress-accent asserting a claim 
to recognition. Another clear case of the kind is the treatment 
by the Latin Dramatists of Tribrach words and word-endings. 
While a word composed of three short syllables may be used 
in the Greek Drama without regard to correspondence of accent 
and ictus {eg. vharo^, dyaOov may, equally with iraripa, take the 
place of an iambus and the ictus v^aro9, ayaOov)^ a Roman 
Dramatist eschews genira and the Kke, evidently because the 
conflict of ictus {gensra), with accent {genera), was in such 
words intolerable to the Roman ear.' 

These examples of the regard paid to the accent of words by 
Roman poets might be considerably increased in number, and 
must not be supposed to comprise the whole evidence of the 
existence of an accentual element in Latin poetry. But taking 
them to be sufficient for our present purpose, we may proceed 
to enquire into the extent to which this accentual element 

The Latin Dactylic Hexameter, as we have seen, favoured 
endings like moenia Romae^ magnus Apollo^ which bring accent 
and ictus into exact correspondence. How far was this corres- 
pondence aimed at in the rest of the line? That an exact 
correspondence in each of the six feet would usually give the 
line an unpleasantly monotonous sound, we can see from that 
line of Ennius, which incurred the ridicule of Lucilius : 

Bparsia hastis longis campus splendet et horret, 

though it can occasionally be used with effect, as in another line 
of Ennius, expressive of the measured pulsation of oars : 

poate recumhite, vestraque pectara pellite tonsis 

* He back and let the oars strike into your chests.' The reason 

* Prof. L. Miiller in his de Re Metrical ^ p. 154, quotes from Seneca, Med, 
450 (an Iambic Trimeter or Senarius) : 

fugi'mufl lason fugimus . Aoc noti est novum. 

The combination of three short syllables in place of an iambus is not objected 
to in iteelf. Plautus begins iambic lines with Et ita {Cure. 639) and similar 
tribrachs, where there is no clash of accent and ictus. 


of the monotony is not far to seek. Since the Latin accent 
attaches itself to the long paenultimate or antepaenultimate 
syllable of a word, its correspondence with the metrical beats 
of a dactylic line tends to make all or many of the feet of the 
line end with the ending of the word, and leaves the line without 
these Caesuras, or divisions of words between the metrical feet, 
which weld the Kne into a graceful whole. Virgil, accordingly^ 
while insisting on the correspondence of ictus and accent in the 
last two feet, aims rather at Caesura in the earlier part of the 
line, e.g. 

diver \ si dr \ cumspici \ unt . hoe \ acrior | idsm^^ ' 

and avoids not merely lines in which the first two feet are marked 
off from the rest, as Ennius {Ann. 31 M.) : 

vi'res I vi'taque | ewpu^ m&um nune deserit anne, 

but even those whose fourth foot is wholly contained in one word 
and ends with that word, e.g. Enn. (A. 42 M.) : 

qtMnquam rrndta manus ad \ caSli | eaenda templa, 
Enn. (^. 215M.): 

Brundieium pulcro prae \ c'inctum \ praepete portu^ 

or uses them designedly with archaic effect, e.g. Aen. I. 33 : 

tantae molis erat Ro \ manam | eondere gentem. 

But it is the Comedies of Plautus which supply the best material 
for deciding the question how the Greek metres were changed 
in their tranference to Roman soil. For while we have only 
fragments of the poetry of Ennius and the other early imitators 
of the Greek Dactylic metres, we have practically the whole 
of the works of Plautus, the first adapter (if we exclude Livius 
Andronicus, and Naevius, his older contemporaries) of the plays 
of the New Comedy, plays which, in their original Greek form, 

' Almost identically the same beginning is used as the first half of an Iambic 
Benarius by Pacuvius (Tragg. 224 E.) : 

divorsi cir \ cumspicimus hor \ ror pereipitj 

but the older Dramatist is careful to keep ictus and accent in agreement {divorti 
ei'reutnsp'icimua, divdrsi cireumtpicimus). 


were, no doubt, familiar to many of the educated Bomans of 
the day. And another piece of good fortune has preserved to 
us the whole of the plays of Terence, a Comedian of some fifty 
years later, who, like Plautus, used in his plays the actual spoken 
language of his time, and is free from the suspicion which attaches 
to some extent to the Augustan poets, but especially to the poets 
of the Silver Age, of the use of artificial diction, of obsolete 
forms, quantities, and possibly accentuations of words. The 
Iambic and Trochaic metres, which Plautus and Terence employ 
in their dialogue scenes {diverhia or deverhia\ are the metres 
which come nearest to the language of conversation and of 
prose literature,^ so that by comparison of the lines of Terence 
with those of Plautus we can trace not only the development 
of the spoken language in the second century b.c, but also the 
course taken in adapting these Greek metres more and more to 
Roman requirements. And for our present purpose, the investi- 
gation of the accentual element in early Latin poetry, these 
writers are all important for this reason, that, since their diction 
is patently the diction of the ordinary life of the time, and their 
dialogue-scenes reproduce all the varied phases of everyday con- 
versation, with its tones of banter and innuendo, of entreaty and 
refusal, of threatening, command, and deprecation, they afford 
us an opportunity of testing how far what is called the ac- 
centuation of the Sentence, as opposed to the accentuation of 
the single word, was regarded in Latin poetry. Lines like Plaut. 

Stick, 185 : v'ini illo ad e*dnam : 8% c face, 

prom'itte vera ; »^ prav'ire: est cSmmodUtn. 
volo, 'inquam^ fieri: nbn am'ittam qu'in e'as (Iamb. 
Stick, 93: nH aedep tsti (MSS. iatic); vUs aed'He: ego t'idero 'in 

suba'ellio (Troch. Sept.), 
Stick, 6S5: :&ff one? TUne, MUine? T'i bine, etc. {Troch.), 
Merc. 947 : ilt valutsti? qu'id, par ^ntes me'i vale nt? tarn gr'dtiasi : 
B'ene vocHs, hen'igne d'icis . cr'as apiid te, niinc domi^ 

^ Since the ictus falls on long syllables in all except trisyllabic feet in Iambic 
and Trochaic lines, and since the Latin Accent attaches itself to long (at least 
long paennltimate) syllables, there are clearly more chances in Latm than in 
Greek poetry of the ictus and accent lighting on the same syllable. But if 
we make the experiment of applying the Latin accentual laws to the Trimeters 
of the Greek Comedians, we find that the coincidence of accent and ictus is 
not at all so frequent as in the Senarii of Plautus and Terence. Some other 
influence is clearly at work in the latter. 


have clearly tbe ipstsHma verba of actual Eoman conversation, 
and would be uttered by tbe actor witb tbe same gesture and 
tone tbat would accompany tbem in everyday life. Did, tben, 
this intonation impress itself on tbe metre too? Do the 
emphasized syllables receive tbe ictus or metrical beats of the 
line, and are the subordinate words and unaccented syllables 
relegated to the theses. An examination of the plays will, I 
believe, make it certain that this, so far as is consistent with 
the quantitative requirements of the line, is invariably done; in 
other words, that the lines of Plautus, while they are in essence 
quantitative, being Latin reproductions of tbe quantitative lines 
of Diphilus, Philemon, and other Greek Comedians, take all 
possible regard of the accent of the several words, and aim at 
reproducing in their metrical arrangement the intonation of 
ordinary discourse. The famous dictum of Eitschl {Prolegg. 
ch. zv.) : cum quantitatis severitate summa aocentus observationem 
quoad ejus fieri posset, conciliatam esse, has never been success- 
fully impugned.^ The more we learn about the metrical and 
prosodical usages of Plautus, and about the sentence-accentua- 
tion of the Eomans, the more we are inclined to regard EitschVs 
statement as too weak rather than too strong, and to believe that 
if we had full knowledge of the actual accentuation given to 
the sentence by a Eoman of the time we should find it reproduced 
with great fidelity in these early comedies. Our knowledge of 
this subject is necessarily defective. The Grammarians of the 
Empire tell us, for example, that unde, tbe Eelative, was an 
unaccented or subordinate or enclitic word in the Latin sentence, 
while unde^ the Interrogative, bad the accent ; and their statement 
can hardly be doubted, if we consider the accentuation of the 
corresponding words in other languages, of our own ' when ' for 
example in its use as Eelative and as Indirect Interrogative in 
the sentence ' I shall see him when he comes back, but I don't 
know when he is coming ' ; they tell us also of a distinction 
between quis^ the Indefinite Pronoun, as in siquis^ nequis, and 
quis the Interrogative, the former being an enclitic or subordinate 
word, the latter an accented. But they do not add, what the 
analogy of other languages would lead us to expect, that these 
enclitics received an accent when they preceded other enclitic 

* The objections of Prof. W. Meyer {Abhandltmgm d. Bayeriachen Akademie, 
xTii. p. 1, Munich, 1884) have been answered by Prof. Langen in the Fhilologui, 
Yol. xlvi. See also my article in the Joum, Fhil, XX. p. 135. 


words, that, for example, unde Kel. and guts Indef. were uttered 
with a certain stress of their own in phrases like ilnd{e)'luhet ^ 
{Epid, 144), nequts sti arbiter (the ending of an iambic Senarius, 
Poen. 178), where they precede the subordinate verbs luhet (of. 
quUubet, qudluhet), and sit. And while they tell us that Inter- 
rogatives were accented, they do not say whether the accent of 
the Interrogative or of the Noun was stronger in a question like 
quis hie homo^st?y which in Plautus always bears the ictus on 
the quis and not on the first syllable of homo. It is seldom that 
they condescend to such minutiae as the difference of meaning 
conveyed by the accentuations siquando and (the usual) siqudndo, 
a difference pointed out by Donatus in his note on Terence, 
Etm. 437: 

sein siquando iUa mmtionsm Phaedriae 

'siquando' et prima syllaba acui potest, et media, tamen variat 
sententiam, and, no doubt, corresponding to our * ii ever,' as 
compared with * if 6ver.* They are, as we have seen, silent about 
the secondary accent in long words like tempestatihus, FlorenUnus, 
and they are equally silent about the secondary accent which 
must have fallen on a subordinate word like unde Eel. in collo- 
cations like und{e)'advenimuSf und{eyadv«ni. In the absence of 
complete information about the accentuation of the spoken Latin 
sentence, it is impossible to compile exact statistics of the number 
of lines in which this or that accented word or syllable has not 
the ictus, and so it is difficult to demonstrate by figures the 
wonderful extent to which agreement of ictus and sentence-accent 
prevails in Plautus and Terence ; though, I believe, that anyone 
who takes the trouble of reading a play or two with his attention 
directed to this point will not be able long to retain any doubt 
on the matter. 

The term * subordinate ' is preferable to ' enclitic ' in speaking 
of Latin sentence-accentuation. Quintilian censures the rule of 
Hellenizing Grammarians of the Empire that disyllabic Latin 
prepositions are * accented on the last syllable * before the noun. 
He points out that what really happens is that they are joined 
with the noun into a compound word, or word-group, which 

^ On this suppression of a final e in wwrf^, nempe, atque^ etc., before a word 
beginning with a consonant, see Skutsch, Forachungen I. 


takes the accentuation of any ordinary word: eircum-lUtora for 
example having one (main) accent on the antepaenultimate 
syllable, like cireumlitto, etreurndttetio^ oireumspieio, Priscian 
(Y. 67, p. 183 H.) objects similarly to the statement that quis 
the Indefinite Pronoun in siquis^ numquis^ etc., is an EncKtic like 
Ti9 in €irt9, and prefers to call siquis a compound with the natural 
accent of a compound word. This fusion of qualifying words 
with the words which they qualify, of dependent words with 
the words on which they depend, is the cardinal point of Latin 

Among the subordinate words of the Latin sentence were Con- 
junctions, like et, sed, ut, Bitschl, in his FroUgomwia (p. ccliii. 
sqq,), called attention to the fact that they are carefully kept 
in the theses of the line, as in Trin. 2 : 

Bequor , ^/^JiiMmfore quern dteam neteio ; 

and in the first 500 lines of — ^let us say — ^the Amphitruo an instance 
of ut (Hhat, as') with the ictus can hardly be found, except 
in phrases like Utlubet (v. 396), where it would have the main 
accent of the word, Ut-vid^Hur (v. 334), where it would have a 
secondary accent. 

The strong stress of Interrogative, and the weak stress of 
Relative and Indefinite Pronouns is reflected in the versification 
of Plautus and Terence, in their treatment of such a word as 
unde. If we examine the instances of unde Eelative and unde 
Interrogative in their plays,^ we see that in the great majority 
the Eelative stands in theBt and the Interrogative in arst. 
Similarly quis Interrog., a word which naturaUy stands at the 
beginning of a sentence or line, will be found in this position 
far oftener in Trochaic lines, where the ictus falls on the first 
syllable, then in Iambic, where the ictus falls on the second 
syllable of the line. Prepositions were fused with a following 
Noun into a compound word, and would be entirely without stress 
in a group like ad-caksam, as in a compound Verb like ae'e(i80\ 
but before an enclitic or unemphatic Pronoun they would doubtless 
take an accent dd-me, dd-eum like Greek irpov fie, Engl. ' to him,' 
* for him,' Early Irish for-m on me, fort on thee. This treatment 
of the Preposition before an unemphatic Pronoun is reflected in 
every page of Plautus and Terence, who hardly ever relegate 

^ The list will be found in Skutsoh, Forsehungtn I. i 6. 


it to the thesis unless the Pronoun is elided, e.g. ad'm{e) 'UvmU^ 
and it is probable enough that the elision of the Pronoun restored 
the Preposition in actual pronunciation to its unaccented state. 
A good example of the treatment of the group when the Pronoun 
has emphasis is seen in Aiin. 772 : 

abs ted aceipuU, tihi propinetf tu htbaa. 

The stressed and unstressed uses of the Latin Personal Pronoun 
have produced two series in the Romance languages, e.g. Italian 
me, te emphatic; mi, ti unemphatic. These unemphatic forms 
are joined to the verb, e,g. prestatemi il libro ' lend me the book.' 
If something analogous took place in Latin (and I see no reason 
for doubting it), an ictus like that of servH-ms 'save me' in 
Cure. 628 (trochaic) : 

FhaSSdrame, ShsecrU, serv'd the, etc., 

cannot be quoted as an example of the conflict of ictus and accent. 
The accent of the Imperative standing alone would be Bh^d^ but 
the word-group servd^me would take the same accentuation as 
a word like servamtu, servatiSf servate. Though it is rare for 
two iambic words to be allowed to stand together in a line of 
Plautus, presumably because this involved a double clash of accent 
and ictus, we find {Amph. 991) a line beginning with the words 
pat'ir voeAtme^ where we may suppose the ictus to have fallen 
on a different syllable from the accent in the first word only 
(pdter, but vocdt-me). An example of the emphatic pronoun 
is Men, 1076 : til ertu es ; tu servom quaere : tU salveto : tU vale. 
The corresponding double series of Possessive Pronouns in 
Bomance, e.g. Ital. mio and mo (e.g. ma-donna), point to an 
emphatic and unemphatic variety of the Latin Possessive, which 
I find reflected in the versification of the Comedians. If we 
contrast, for example, Capt. 261 (trochaic) : 

ut V08 hie itidem tilt (M8S. tllie) apud voe meus servatur fiUue 

and its emphatic meus on the one hand, with the subordinated 
Possessive in a line like Bacch. 251 : 

heu cor meum et cerehrum, Ntcohule, finditury 
we shall not be inclined to agree with an opponent of Ritschl's 


dictum, who finds in the pat'ir of Adelph, 983 (trochaic) an 
instance of conflict hetween accent and ictus : 

fdciet, d vir Uptume, 3 pat'ir mi fistivhsume. 

The emphatic Demonstrative is seen in phrases like is ego sum, 
ego M sum, which in Plautas always have the ictus on is, as 
contrasted with the ordinary unemphatic usage, e.g. proplVr-eos, 
praeter-eoSf or in a line like Foen, 394 (trochaic) : 

oeulus hiijus, lippitudo meUy mel hiijus,/<f/ meum, 

although the different metrical treatment of iUl and ilUe^ hoth of 
which were in the time of Plautus used either as the Adverb 
' there,' or as Dative of the Pronoun * to him,' has been obscured 
by the scribes of the MSS. of Plautus, who have usually changed 
illi Adv. to the classical illic, and illio Dat. to the 'doublet' 
reserved for this sense by the classical writers, illi^ e.g. Copt. 278 
(trochaic) : 

q%u>d genus i'lli est unum pollens atque honoratissumum 

where the MSS. offer illio^ the classical form, but where the metre 
requires illi. That Plautus used horUne^ harUne but kdrum, h&rum 
before a word beginning with a consonant has been established 
by Studemund {Jahrh, Phil, cxiii. p. 57), though this usage too 
is often obscured by the MSS. In Pseud. 69, for example : hariinc 
volUptatum, the Ambrosian Palimpsest alone has preserved the 
true reading harunc, while the Palatine MSS. have altered it to 
the more familiar harum. 

The Latin Grammarians have not given us a list of the sub- 
ordinate or auxiliary Verbs in Latin. We have, however, many 
proofs, if proofs be needed, that the Substantive Yerb belonged 
to this category, and its fusion with a preceding word is indicated, 
not only by the spellings of the best MSS. of Plautus, amatust 
{amatus est), amatumst {amatum est), amatast {amata est), pulerast 
{pulcra est), pulcrumst (pulcrum est), etc., but by its metrical 
ictus in the line, e.g. placitae-sunt {Sec. prol. 21), salvae-sunt 
{Pseud. 1036), pauper-sum {Aul. 88). The usual place of the 
disyllabic forms of the Substantive Verb after a Participle or 
Adjective is at the end of a line, e.g. Asin. 320, salvi-sumus. 

That volo in such a phrase as volo scire was a subordinate 
Verb, like ' will * in English, is seen not only from its invariable 
PhiL Irani. 1891-2-8. 28 


scansion told setre, but also from its almost invariable ictus 
voloseire, which surely reflects an accentuation volO'Seire. The 
same Yerb shows its subordinate character in quantumvU * as much 
as you wish,' quamvis (like quantumlihet 'as much as you please/ 
quamlihet)y and we can hardly be wrong in refusing to regard 
these common endings of Plautine lines, faetUm voh, fae%&% volo^ 
as instances of the clash of accent and ictus. D(vt$^ habere^ and 
faeere were in certain uses as much Auxiliary Verbs as our ' have,* 
'do/ and line-endings like eoetUm-daho (^^eoqitam\ fn%88am-fae$ 
(^=^d%mitte) must be judged in the same way dA faetUm-volo^ faeiS&a- 
voh. They had in all probability the same subordinate character, 
when combined with a noun to express an action which might 
be expressed by a verb alone, e.g. Jidem dare * to promise,* dtmo 
dare * to present,* operam dare * to attend,' just as we throw 
the stress on the Noun ' noise ' and not on the Verb ' make * in 
the phrase 'to make a noise,* and this subordination of the Verb 
would imply in Latin its fusion with the Noun into a word- 
complex, fidim-do, dond'data [donH data at the end of a line^ 
Ter. Eun. 564), operam dabam {operam daham at the end of a line, 
JECeaut. 110). If this was so, there will be a coincidence, and 
not a conflict, of accent and ictus in such iambic lines as Ter. 
adelph. 473 : 

fldem dans, jurane ee illam dttcturum domum 

Fhorm. 492 : nondum miki credis . Hariolare , Sin fldem do . 

Fabulae / 
Andr, 243 : itane obstinate operam dat ut me a Glycerio muerutn 

abstrahat ?, 

or in such trochaic lines as Plant. MiL 455 : 

ddfldem, si omittis isto me intro ituram, quojubes. 

Among Subordinate Nouns, like our 'thing,' 'kind,' 'part,' 
in such phrases as ' something of that kind,' ' some parts of 
England,' we may reckon in Lat. res (cf. qudre^ qtcamdbrem^)^ 

^ The common phrase res divina (in early Latin also res dinay like ditem for 
divitem^ obliscor for obliviscor) *a sacrifice,' as in an old inscription (C.I.L. XI. 
4766) once written as one word EEIDINAI (Gen.), like respublica, once as two 
words RES DEINA. 


modus (cf. qudmodOf guemddmodum), hem in the Adverbial word- 
groups ubt-looi?f intered'looi (Donatus ad Ter. -S'ww. 255 (Iambic): 

dum haee loqutmur, interea loci ad maeellum ubi advmtamus)^ 

diesy in quotidie^ postridie (for poateri die, like crastini die), and 
so on. 

The normal ictus of the phrase ei-r^ operam-dabam in Plautus 
is ei rei operant dabam, and of the various cases of mala-res (the 
equivalent of malum 'punishment,' 'evil in store*) is mala res, 
matde m, malam rem, mala re. Mala crux seems also to have 
been treated as a compound Noun in the phrase i in malam crucem 
*go and be hanged,' for the phrase may be qualified by an 
Adjective, i in maxumam malam crucem. The accentuation malam- 
crucem is reflected by the ictus mal'dm crucem. Other cases of 
woi-d-groups, composed of an Adjective preceding and a Koun 
following, are probably bona-fidee, mala-fidea (hence bon'dn fid'i, 
Most, 670, though forming two iambi, is allowed to end a line, 
because the accent fell not on the first but on the second syllable 
of bond), magnum malum (cf. magnopere), bonus vir, the last two 
phrases showing normally in Plautus the ictus magnum malum 
(a common ending of a line), bone vir, boniJC vir (final * usually 
did not produce * length by position' in the pronunciation of the 
time of Plautus). Also some Numerals with following Nouns 
like trhviri, vigintiviri, possibly sepUntridnes, to which class we 
may perhaps refer expressions of time like trigintd-dies, viginti- 
dies (cf. our * fortnight,' 'twelvemonth'), or of value like trigintd- 
minae, viginti-minae (cf. our 'sixpence,' 'twopence'). The normal 
ictus in the Dramatists is trigintd dies, viginti minae, etc., although 
iriginta, viginti, when not used in such collocations, show the 
ictus which we should expect, triginta, viginti. 

These examples may suffice to show how the sentence-accent 
of Latin conversation asserts itself in the dialogue metre of the 
Early Drama, though it would not be difficult to double their 
number. Perhaps as strong a piece of evidence as any other 
is the fact that certain colloquial phrases, which evidently come 
direct from the streets of Rome into the lines of Plautus and 
Terence, show uniformly the same metrical accentuation, and that 
too, though there is often no necessity for this from the prosodical 
nature of the words. The phrase of everyday life nil moror 
'I do not care' appears in all the plays of Plautus with the 


ictus almost invariably on the first syllable, not on the second ; 
and there is no reason to doubt that a Eoman, of that time 
at least, would pronounce the word in this way with a single 
accent, and that on the important word of the phrase, the word 
nil. The common phrase ' I wish to know ' volo seire might, 
from its prosodical nature, its arrangement of short and long 
syllables, take a metrical accentuation void se,^ and we should 
expect to find iambic lines beginning vol3 scire 'i^ttur, volS 8cir$ 
aUtemy etc. But the almost invariable metrical accentuation in 
Plautus is void scire, with an ictus which in all probability 
conforms to the usual pronunciation void scirCy the subordinate 
Verb volo being fused with its Infinite into something like 
a compound word. The normal ictus quid-istic? or quid is tic? 
* well ! well ! ' quHd istue ? or quid istOc ? ' what's that ? ' agrees 
with what the Grammarians tell us of the accentuation of the 
Interrogative {quUy but Indef. quis unaccented), and of the 
oxytone nature of istiCy istdc (for ^istod-ce). The phrase of 
endearment voluptas mea is always scanned by Plautus volikptaS' 
nuoy with a shortening of the second syllable, that is only found 
when the next syllable has the natural accent, e.g. voliiptdtis, 
volUptdtem ; and the accentuation voluptds-mea agrees with the 
BubordiDate character of the Possessive Pronoun (cf. pat'er-mi^ 
frat'ef'-mif mater-mea). The subordination of the Personal Pronoun 
is seen in vac miseromihiy a common expression of disappointment 
or despair, which bears in the lines of the Dramatists the ictus 
on the last syllable of miser o and on the Interjection, vae miserS 
mihiy and which would probably be accented vae-miserd-mihi. 
Another exclamation, eu^ae eugae\ * bravo bravo,* bears invariably 
the ictus eugae eilgaCy and would no doubt have in ordinary 
utterance the accentation eug{ae)-e{Lgae (Greek 6i57€). Similarly 
quid tta? quid agis? quid ais? etc., seem to reflect quid-ita, 
quid-agiSf quid-aisy and so on ; quis hie homost ? shows the 
same subordination of homo {quU-hic-homost) as scelus-viri ! ' the 
wretch ! * of vir {scelU^-virf). 

As regards the other laws of Latin Accentuation, the laws 
of the accentuation of the single word, as opposed to the various 
modifications to which its accent is subject in a sentence, we find 
here too a wonderful amount of agreement between ictus and 
accent in the lines of Plautus. His greatest difficulty must, of 
course, have been with iambus-words like firdy f^rufit, and it 
must have been increased by the large number of long final 


Byllables in the langnage at the beginning of the second centnry 
B c, e.g. 'dty -elf -U in 3 Sg. Act., -dry -dr^ -er in 1 Sg. Pass, 
of Verbs, -or in Xom. Sg. of Xoons and Adjectives ; for Plautus 
and his contemporaries still pronounced eoqudt^ coquet, coqudr, 
eoquir, etc., though, after his time, the difficulty of keeping the 
long vowel sound before a final -^,* -r changed the pronunciation 
to coqudt, coquet, eoqudr, coqu^r. The Latin Accent, as we have 
seen (p. ), is excluded from the final syllable, so that the 
word-accent was /ero, feruntf edqtidt, etc. But the nature of 
the Iambic and Trochaic metres allows no opportunity for the 
ictus to fall on a short syllable immediately followed by a long 
syllable. The permissible ictus-forms in an Iambic line are 
(Iambus u !L > Spondee _ IL > Tribrach u u U > Anapaest 
KJ KJ —^ Dactvl ^ ij Kjy Proceleusmatic ^ ^ vS ^)) in a Trochaic 
(Trochee !L Kji Spondee !L — » Tribrach Ij kj kj9 Anapaest 
yj Kj ^1 Dactyl !Lkj kji Proceleusmatic \j yj \j yjj- There is 
no room for an ictus like ^[i — to reproduce the accurate ^pro- 
nunciation of a disyllabic word like fero^ with short accented 
first syllable and long final syllable. 

This discrepancy furnishes the opponents of Bitschl^s dictum 
with their strongest argument. How is it possible, they ask, 
to ascribe an accentual element to the lines of Plautus, when 
by the very nature of the metre used, the accent of those 
numerous iambic disyllables of common use would resist adapta- 
tion to the ictus or beat of the verse? Another argument, as 
frequently used as this one, is that an Iambic line must end 
with an Iambus [yj ^), which implies an ictus on the final 
syllable of the line, whereas an accent on the final syllable of 
a word is contrary to the Latin practice ; and these two arguments 
are regarded by many persons as conclusive. And yet to my 
mind the very fact that Plautus evidently takes the greatest 
possible pains to overcome these two difficulties in the way of 
reconciling ictus and accent, is one of the strongest proofs that 
he aimed at such reconciliation. Let us examine his methods 
of dealing with these Iambus- words ? 

[Vj In the first place, he avails himself of the tendency of 
Latin pronunciation to shorten their final syllable, a tendency 
which asserted itself most strongly in those ending with a long 

^ Similiirlv our * note ' has a shorter rowel -sound than ' node.* 


vowel followed by -r, -t (e.g. amdr, amdt), and in many words 
which, ending with a long vowel, were closely joined with other 
words in ordinary rapid utterances, e.g. cBY^-farUj dowLi-resfo, 
domo-r^ni, dabo -^/a^am, ded1-)9/cZ^am, cit5-^rr#, modo-r^t, prob£- 
/actus f dato-plagam (O.Lat. datdd)? 

(2) Or, secondly, he so places them in the sentence that their 

accent is diverted from the first syllable, whether to the final, 

e.g. honaequSf hanaene, hanaive, honad-sunt, malaS-res, mald-Jide^ 

fidem-daty or to a preceding word, e.g. ?i6c'modo (like qudmodo), 

aligud-modo, eoetum'dahOf tigintk-mtnae. 

(3) Thirdly, he elides their final vowel. 

The usual place to which he assigns an lambns-word with 
conflict of ictus and accent is before a pause in the sentence, 
e.g. Trin. 1-2: 

Sequere Kac me, gnata, ut mUnus fUngarh tuam. 
Seq{ior. sed/tnem/Sre quern dicam n'iscto, 

where the disagreement would probably not be so marked. 
(Similarly before the last Dipody of an Iambic Senarius.) At 
the end of a line iambic words are preferred which would in 
ordinary utterance have no perceptible accent, e.g. tuam in the 
line just quoted, which would be as much an unaccented disyllabic 
as the 'scio of nescio^ and the common endings already mentioned 
(salvae) sumus^ {factum) volOf {operdm) daham, etc. Of trisyllables, 
tribrach- words, as has been mentioned, are never used with an 
ictus on their second syllable, e.g. genera \ dactyl- words are 
occasionally allowed with an ictus of the kind by Plautus in 
the first foot of an iambic line, but this is never permitted by 

* That this shortening of a final lonp ayllahlo under the influence of a preceding 
flhort syllable (what is called the Law of the Brevis Brevians, i.e. brevis (syllabaJ) 
breviaus (sequentem syllabam)) was not a mere metrical licence on the part of 
Plautus, but a more or less faithful reproduction of ordinary pr(»nunciation is clear 
from the statement of Quintilian (I. 6. 21). He tells us that in unconventional 
talk the second syllable of are {have) * hail ! ^ood-day ! * was shortened, though 
a few punctilious persons took pains to give it it« proper long sound. Cave was 
reduced not merely to cave but to cau-y to judge from Cicero s story of Crassus, 
ou his sotting out for Parthia, mistaking the cry of a fig-seller Cauneas ! Caunetis ! 
(so. finis vefido) for cave ne eas ! care tie eas ! as well as from the spelling causia 
for cave sis (Juvenal, 9. P20). A similar reduction of have to hau may be inferred 
from Phaedrus' fable {^4pp. 21) about the man who mistook for this salutation 
tlie caw of a crow. Some of these shortened forms forced their way into Augustan 
literature {putd Hor., cave Ovid, vidtn Yirg., modo^ cito, and always bniCy mate, 
eXc. We can understand why these last two Adverbs should have succumbed 
e.irlier and more thoroughly to the shortening tendency, if wo consider their 
fre(}uent use in phrases like male/icio, beneficioy etc. 


Terence, who evidently felt an ictus like pectSray perdtta to 
involve so violent a conflict between ictus and accent {pictora, 
perdtta) as to be shunned at all costs; molossus words are not 
infrequent with ictus on the first syllable, when their final syllable 
is elided, e.ff, Ter. Andr, init. : 

poeta quUmprim{um) 'dnm(um) flf(?-scribend(um) appuUt, 

this discrepancy of ictus and accent being regarded as less 
unpleasant than a double discrepancy like scrUendilm, Of quadri- 
syllables, words of the form of the First Paeon (u u u — ) or 
the Proceleusmatic (vj u vj \j)i ©-g* hdlinUde, bdltnM from 
Gk. fiaXaveiovy which, as we have seen (p. 2), retained their 
early accentation of the first syllable (whence later halneae, balnea) 
have the ictus also on this syllable with very few exceptions 
in Plautus and even in Terence ^ ; words of the type _ ^ _ ^, 
e.g. Florentinus advenite, are by the nature of the Iambic and 
Trochaic metre restricted to the ictus FlSrent'inus advenUe^ etc., 
which corresponds with their accentuation FldrmtimM ddvenite, 
and much the same is true of words of the type u u — — > 
e.g. sepeltrCj sceleratos, or sepeltre, sceleratos {sepelirey scaler dtos) ; 
choriambic words, e.g. ititerea^ consilium^ dtmidtU8y have usually 
the ictus mt'ereaf consUiumf dim'ldius, which corresponds to their 
accentuation under the Paenultima law, though the ictus dimidiuSf 
etc. (like the older accentuation of the first syllable, p. 2), is 
not at all infrequent. 

These are the chief points in the case for the accentual element 
in the Iambic and Trochaic metres of Plautus and Terence. 
They constitute in my opinion too formidable an array of 
testimony to be disregarded. And anyone who, in spite of all 
this evidence, finds himself unable to believe that the question 
of accent was ever allowed to enter into the composition of the 
lines of the Roman Comedians is confronted with this further 
difficulty that the Romans themselves evidently read the lines 
of these authors as if ictus and accent were very much the 
same thing. We see this not only from the comments of 
Donatus on the pronunciation of words in some lines of Terence 
(e.g. siquandoy see p. 4 ; mtered-loct, see p. 6), but from the 

^ But other combinations of four syllables of the kind are freely used with ictus 
on the second of the group, e.g. M etiam {Epid. 624), An abiit? {Mere. 981)> 
where ictus and accent would not be in conflict. 


express statement of Aulus Gellius (second century a.d.), who 
mentions an appeal to a line of Fluutus, ending aliorum affatim estf 
for the accentuation affatim^ and to a line of Terence, ending 
ex'ddversum loco, for the accentuation exddversum (the usual 
accentuation of his own time being affatitriy exadvh'sum), and 
quotes the testimony of a pupil of Valerius Probus, that that 
celebrated Grammarian (of Nero's time) read the line of Plautus 
with that pronunciation of the word. 

At the same time I do not believe that anything is so likely 
to dispel one's doubts about the accentual element in the 
Comedians' dialogue metres as the perusal of one or two of 
their plays after a study of the rules of Latin accentuation, 
particularly sentence -accentuation.* We should be prepared to 
find a different state of things in the choric metres of Plautus, 
the bacchiac, cretic, anapaestic, etc., for the passages composed 
in these metres were not spoken but sung, and do not like 
the dialogue passages aim at a close reproduction of the tone 
and diction of ordinary conversation. The Cretic and Bacchiac 
metres, with their abundance of long syllables, especially favour 
forms like cave, mihiy modo {hoc volo scire te Cure. 134), which 
were not the forms employed in common speech ; but their ictus 
are not more difficult to reconcile with the natural accents of 
Latin words than are the ictus of the Trochaic and Iambic 
Metres; and we find the accentuation of the Paenultima Law 
fairly conserved in these Cantica. Still it is a significant fact 
that Terence, after making trial of Bacchiacs and Cretics, gave 
up the attempt to adapt them to Latin. The Cantica, however, 
composed in the Anapaestic Metre, seem often to ride rough- shod 
over the accentuation, although it is possible that further research. 
into the nature and laws of the passages so scanned, and in 
particular the discrimination of Dactylic from Anapaestic lines, 
may remove some of the harshness of what are usually regarded 
as Anapaestic lines.' A cardinal point of the metre is its 
readiness to substitute not only Dactyls for Anapaests, but dactylic 
words for anapaestic words, a substitution which is as natural 
in Greek as the substitution of a Spondee for a Dactyl, but 

^ It has been remarked that some of the lines of the Early Tragedians read 
almost like lines from a Christian (accentual) hymn, e.g. Ennius 163 It. : 

magna templa eaelitum, \\ commixta stellis apUndidts. 

^ It is difficult, for example, to believe that usiis sum in altOy dietus Prometheus 
were actually so uttered hy a Koman. 


which involves in Latin the use of ictus-forms like pectHra, 
perdUaj not to speak of proper'dsy quid-ag'Ss ? It is no wonder 
that Terence refused even to make experiment of Anapaestic 
verse in any of his Comedies. 

§4. Hie Saturnian Metre. 

The earliest Latin imitations of the Greek metres differ in 
two respects from their Greek originals : (1) in the use of 
Alliteration ; (2) in the regard for the natural accent of the 
words. This suggests that the native Latin metre, the Satumian, 
which was used before, and for some time after, the adoption 
of the Greek quantitative poetry, was (1) Alliterative, (2) 
Accentual. The Alliteration was one of its main features will 
be evident to anyone who takes even a cursory glance at the 
Satumian lines preserved to us (about 150 in all), but its accentual 
character (though almost implied by its alliterative side) has been 
recognized only recently, since the investigation into the metres 
of the different Indo-European nations has shown the isolated 
position of the Greeks in their use of an entirely quantitative 
metre. The Roman Metricians of the Empire, when they came 
to write adaptations of the Greek treatises on Metre, and found 
themselves compelled, after a description of the Hexameters of 
Virgil, the Pentameters of Ovid, the Sapphics and Alcaics of 
Horace, etc., to give some account of the native metre used 
at the time of the Punic Wars by Livius Andronicus and 
Naevius, were quite at a loss to fit it into the Greek metrical 
scheme. They tried to account for it as a composite of Iambic 
and Trochaic metre, an Iambic Dimeter Catalectic with a Trochaic 
Dimeter Brachycatalectic, though they were obliged to confess 
that hardly more than a single line could be suited to this 
Procrustean scheme. Their model line is the epigram of the 
Metelli on the poet Naevius: — 

ddhunt mdlum M^Ulli || Naevio pdetae, 

which has become the stock example of a Satumian. It is 
strange that, although the Roman metricians frankly confessed 
their inability to suit the actual extant lines to quantitative 
rules, the Quantitative theory of the Satumian metre should 
have found acceptance in modem times ; for once we leave 


this single example, dahunt malum, etc., we find line after line 
which resists a quantitative scansion, 

e.g. RuncHa atqu^ ForpurStu Jllii Terras, 
Jsqu^ susHm ad caelum sustulit suae res. 

Por a time it was supposed that these final syllables might hare 
been long in Early Latin, just as eurdty audit, canddr had their 
final syllables long in the time of Plautus. But ComparatiTe 
Philology has now taught us that they were short at all periods 
of the language, their I.-Eur. forms being -ds, -q^, -dm. The 
-que indeed of Latin atque, isque was so short a syllable that 
in ordinary rapid utterance the vowel was lost altogether, even 
before a word beginning with a consonant, atque becoming ac 
(for *atc), neque becoming nee, etc., while -urn of susum, etc., 
was in classical poetry invariably, and in anteclassical poetry 
usually elided, though Plautus and Ennius sometimes reckon it 
as a short syllable like the -um of cireum in the classical compound 
circHmit or circuit. Pinal -a of the Nom. Sg. of A-Stems, and 
the Nom. Ace. PL ITeut. of 0-Stems may have been long at 
some remote period, but in the period of the earliest literature 
it is invariably short, and is scanned as a short syllable by Livius 
Andronicus, and Naevius themselves in their other poems in the 
Greek quantitative metres, so that, e.g. vita, can hardly be a spondee 
in a line of a Scipio epitaph, written c. 130 b.c. : 

quoiei vita defeeit, non honos honore} 

It is, however, the recent investigations into the versification of 
Plautus that have given the coup de grdce to the old theory of 
Saturnian Metre. Plautus never uses a tribrach word with 
metrical ictus on the second syllable. How then can we make 
the beginning of vv. 96, 101 iambic ? 

suhigit omne Loucanam opsidesque ahdoueit, 
facile facteis superases gloriam maiorum, 

Plautus avoids the use of a spondee with metrical ictus on its 
final syllable in the even feet of an iambic line. How then 
can we scan : consul censdr aidilis. 

^ Dr. Reichaxdt, the latest champion of the Quantitatiye theory, allows that in 
127 lines 63 cases occur of a short final where a long syllable is required, as 
against 66 cases of a long final ! {Jahrb. KUua. FhiL (Suppl.) xix.). 


And in general, as we have seen, Plautus does all he can to 
bring metrical ictus into correspondence with the natural accent 
of the words. If this care is shown in imitations of Greek 
metre, a metre purely quantitative, can we believe that the 
native Latin poetry brought ictus and accent into conflict in 
the first half of, I would say, every line : 

eomSl censdr aidilis 

annHs gnatils viginti 

quoie'i vtid defecit 

GnaiuHd patre jprognatuSf etc., etc. 

Even the more plausible form of the Quantatitive theory, according 
to which Iambic might be at will replaced by Trochaic rhythm, 
and Trochaic by Iambic (e.g. RUncm atqtte being trochees, not 
iambi), fails to meet these objections, and its author* has now 
relinquished it for a (more or less thorough) accentual theory. 

A host of arguments might be brought against the Quantitative 
theory, if it were necessary. The single fact, however, that every 
extant Satumian line begins with an accented syllable, is almost 
enough to show that the metre is governed by Accent, and is not 
a composite of a quantitative Iambic and a quantitative Trochaic 
line. Per how otherwise can we explain the fact that, while the 
iambic lines of the Dramatists begin again and again with trisylla- 
bles accented on the second syllable (e.g. Plautus in the first scene 
of the Miles has v. 1 Curate, v. 4 Praestringatf v. 29 Conuica, v. 39 
Facete, v. 40 Novtsse, v. 41 Cur'dmquey v. 44 Trig'inta, v. 57 Utrtilte, 
V. 72 Uidetur, v. 74 Latrdnes), we have not a single instance of 
such a beginning of a Satumian line ') ? The natural order of the 
words 'aedile, consul, censor,' the order of the prose Scipio epitaph 
(I. 31 aidiles coiol ceaor) is not retained in the Satumian epitaph : 
consol censor aidilis (v. 94), an inversion which may reasonably be 
referred to the necessity of beginning the line with an accented 
syllable. And an examination of the lines in detail will show that 

^ Prof. Zander, of Lund, who gives me this infonnation by letter. 

' V. 67 Plerique omnea is an exception that proves the rule, for Plautus and 
Terence always throw the metrical ictus in this phrase on the first syllahle of 
plerique and the first svllable of omnesy pointing to a pronunciation of the word- 
group, like pier iqu{e) -omnea. v. 105 (on a Scipio epitaph) Aetate quom parua 
shows the common spelling aetate instead of the older form, here required by the 
metre, aevitate^ by a similar graver's mistake as the substitution of aetemus for 
aeviternus on an iambic epitaph of Diocletian's time (Orell. 6017) : divini vis est 
aeterni temporis. 


each line not only begins with an accented syllable, but has three 
accents in the first half -line, two accents in the second, account 
being taken of secondary accents in a degree which, we can believe, 
corresponded to their prominence in actual pronunciation.* 

This Accentual theory of the Saturnian Metre has the merit 
of suiting each and every extant Saturnian line.* But stated 
in this form, it seems to me hardly sufficient as a metrical 
scheme. ITo doubt the Saturnian poetry was stigmatized by 
Horace as horrtdus tile numerusy and grave virus ; but could it 
have been so devoid of harmony as lines would be which 
answered only these two requirements, (1) of beginning with 
an accented syllable, (2) of showing three accents in the first 
half, two in the second half ? A good many lines of prose 
could satisfy such a test, the opening sentence of Cicero's First 
Philippic, for example: Antequam d^-republica, || patres con- 
scripti, Dicam-ea quae-dic^nda || hoc-tempore arbitror! !, and 
even with ' AUiteration^s artful aid ' we can hardly suppose such 
a metre to have been favoured by a poet like Naevius, who 
was familiar with the Greek style. 

The counting of syllables, which is a feature of the poetry 
of various Indo-European peoples is an essential element in 
Eomance metre. The commonest Romance line, the Decasyllabe 
as it is called in Freach, the Endecasillabo in Italian, gets its 
name from the number of syllables used, viz. ten with masculine 

1 A five-syllabled word always counts for two accents, e.g, 

y. 104 mdgna adpientia |[ muUdsque uirtuteSf 

90 dedet Tempestdtebus || aide meretod, 
56 bnerdriae onustae || stdbant in^ustris, 

and a four-syllabled word (at any rate of the forms — ii — il and 
^ — ^ hi) does the same at the beginning of the line, e.g, 

y. 44 immoldbat aiiream || utctimam piileram, 
60 super biter eontemptim \\ eSnterit legiones, 

91 Cornelius Lucitis || Scipio Barbdtua. 

A word at the beginning of a line or sentence would naturally haye more pro- 
minence given to it than in the middle. For the double accentuation of quadri- 
syllables m other parts of the line than the beginning, the only strong instances 
are v. 129, cdmplurimae\\y v. ISO, prtmdrium\\j whose first syllables alliterate with 
neighbouring words, and would receive extra stress on that account, and the 
proper name Seipione, y. 87. 

2 The last line of the epitaph on Naevius, quoted by Gellius from Varro, should 
probably be read : loquier lingua Latina || obliti-aunt Homae, 


ending, eleven with, feminine ending, e.g, Ariosto Orl. Fur, 
lY. 62: 

di vera pudicizia h un paragone, 

where the rhythmical factors are (1) the two accented syllables 
(the sixth, -(?»-, and the tenth -^o-), (2) the number of syllables 
(eleven, with elision of -ia k before the initial vowel w- of un), 
(On the Eomance Metres see Stengel in Grober's Qrundriss^ 
vol. ii.). I believe this counting of syllables to have been 
an element of the- native Latin metre, the Satumian. Seven 
syllables are the quota of the first half-line, six of the second, e,g, 

ddbunt malum Metelli || Namio poetae ; 

and this number will be found to occur in the various lines, 
the laws of elision being nearer those of Plautus and Ennius 
than those observed by the classical poets, in that a final long 
vowel or diphthong or a final syllable ending in -m was not 
wholly elided, but was left in 'prosodical hiatus' (reckoned as 
a short syllable *) ; and that this treatment coresponded with 
the actual pronunciation we may argue from such forms as 
pr^'hendo (from prae hendo)j circii{m)-tt (from eircum it), e,g, 

V. 25 topper citt ad aedis || 
40 uqvs suaUm ad caelum \\, 

The monotony is varied by occasionally allowing an extra short 
syllable in positions where in current pronunciation it would 
be completely, or partially, suppressed, to count with a preceding 
short syllable as a single syllable, e.g, 

V. 66 II cdpUthus optrtis 

99 II glor%{a) atq{ue) ing^nium, 

where capitibuSy ingentum are allowed in place of trisyllables, 
just as Ennius {Ann. 267 E.) allows eapitihu8 to take the place 
of a dactyl at the beginning of a hexameter line : 

capitthu* nutantis pinos rectosque cupressos, 

* Monosyllabic enclitics were an exception. Their treatment varies in Plautus, 
e.g. in Cos. 691 : 

cum haCf cum istaCy cumqtte arnica etiam mea, 

cum stands in prosodical hiatus, though usually elided. 


or as Horace has oonsilium {C. III. 4, 11), prtneipium {C. III. 
6, 6) in place of trisyllables.^ 

Farther I find that the accents of the line are systematically 
arranged. The extant verses show us clearly two types, one 
(the A-type we may caU it) )^x(0 )<:X» XXX II )CXX> XXX 

ddhunt mdlum MetilU || Naiuio poHae, 

the other (B-type), which is much less common, i^x(0 XX» 

prim[a) ineidit Cereris || Proserpina piter* 

What the historical genesis of either type may have been is 
another matter, but it seems to me that what was present to 
the mind of Livius and Kaevius in their actual use of them 
was an endeavour to secure (after the first two feet of the line, 
where the accent was fixed) a regular alternation of accentual 
rhythm, a * rising ' accent (e.g. Metelli) being followed by a 
* falling ' (e.g. ^aMo), and vice versd (e.g. Cinris by Prosirpina), 
The scarcity of our material does not allow us to discover 
precisely to what extent variations from these normal types were 
permitted. A variety of the A-type has in the second half-line 
II yockx^ XX> ®'S- adloMus siimmi; a variety of the B-type, which 
lacks one of the requisite number of syllables, but satisfies the 
requirements of alternation of accentual rhythm, has in the same 
part of the line || XXX» x'x> o-g'/«<^««^ ukrum. But that these two 
types were deliberately followed by the writers of Saturnian lines 
(more successfully, as is natural, by the poets, Livius and Kaevius, 
than by the chance writers of metrical inscriptions) is, I think, 
put beyond a doubt by the actual extant lines. The theory might 
be tested, if the words were by any piece of good fortune dis- 
covered, which are wanting in certain fragmentary lines. For 
example, a fragmentary line of Naevius, quoted by Festus 
(472 Th.) : quod Iruti nec-satia sardare qmunty will, if my theory 
be right, lack four syllables at the beginning so accented xx(>) XX 

dicttis BriituSj quod hruti || nec-satis sardare 

* That this * resolution ' was recognized as a licence, a permissible departure 
from the regular number of syllables, is shown by the limits within which it is 
confined. Two such 'resolutions* are avoided in the same half -line, probably 
even in the same line. 


Eules of Caesura are often given for the Satumian verse, but 
improperly, for they are dependent on the three main rales of 
accentuation^ number of syllables, and alternation of accentual 
rhythm, and are implied by them. The only caesura that really 
formed of itself an element of Satumian metre was the break 
between the two half-lines ; the others, viz. the occasional break 
between the first and second 'feet' of the first half-line (e.g. 
dabunt malum) f and the usual breaks (1) between the second and 
third *feet' of the first half -line (malum Metelli), (2) between 
the first and second * feet ' of the second half-line {Naeuto poetae), 
are merely the conditions under which a certain number and 
arrangement of accents, combined with a certain number of 
syllables, can be secured for the line. But Ehyme (in the final 
syllable or syllables of each half-line)^ was an ornament much 
sought after, so that the regular structure of the verse seems 
occasionally to be sacrificed for the sake of securing it, e.^. 

V. 47 {irit, pdpUldtur vdstat, \\ re{m)'h69ttum concinnat, 

instead of the usual rhythm: iirit, vdstaty pdpUldtur, like v. 131 
JFundit, fdgaty prdaternit. And there are possibly traces of an 
arrangement of lines, usually or occasionally, in distichs, any 
peculiarity of rhythm in the first line being * echoed ' by the 
rhythm of the second e.g. 

w. 18, 19 ndmque niillum piiua || mdcerat humdnum 

qudnde mare sa^uom \\ uis-et-oui sunt-mdgnae, 

though the number of quotations by the Grammarians of anything 
but isolated lines is so small that we have not data enough to 
warrant a certain inference. 

Naevius, who died at the end of the Second Punic War, was 
succeeded in the domain of Epic Poetry by Ennius, whose in- 
fluence effected the replacement of the native metre by the Greek 

* The final syllable was, of course, unaccented. Similarly rhyme in Commodian 
and S. Augustine is of unaccented finals, while in Romance poetry it is accented 
syllables which bear the rhyme. 


quantitative Hexameter.* The Saturnian disappears altogether 
from our ken in the course of the second century b.c. ; and in 
the plebeian epitaphs of the later Republic and Empire the 
common metres are the Iambic and Trochaic. (A frequent • poor 
man's epitaph,' for example, as frequent as our 'Affliction sore 
long time he bore * is : 

noli dolere, mater, eventum meum, 
properavit aetas ; hoc voluitfatus mem, 

* Dear mother, do not weep for me. 
Short was my course ; 'twas fated so to be.') 

But if the new theory of Prof, Stengel (Grober's Orundriss der 
Romanischen Fhtlolo^ie, II. p. 19) be right, the Satamian metre 
must have remained in popular usage down to the Komance times, 
though no trace of it has been left in literature or in epitaphs. 
{Jnscr. Neap. 3829 : 

rogo te, mi viator, noli mi noeere 

may be a Saturnian, but is too doubtful to quote.) Prof. 
Stengel, who refers the common metre of Spain, the fourteen- 
syllabled line, with accented seventh and fourteenth syllables^ 
to the Latin Trochaic Septenarius (Tetrameter Catalectic), sees 
in the commonest Romance metre, the D6casyllabe of ErancOy 
the Endecasillabo of Italy, a direct development of the Saturnian. 
This line he shows to have had at an earlier stage more than 
ten (or eleven) syllables, and to have had an accent on the sixth 
syllable, as well as at the end of the line ; and this internal 
accent he ascribes to the accent at the end of the first half-line 
of the Saturnian, e,g. 

dahunt malum Metelli 
V. 1 1 partim errant nequf nunt 
V. 4 argenteo polubro. 

He supposes that the Paenultima law of accentuation had often 
the effect of weakening the accent at the beginning of the line, 

^ There seems to have been a later edition of the Odyssea and the Bellum 
Poenicum in hexameters, perhaps for the use of Roman school-boys, for some of 
the lines quoted by the grammarians have unmistakeably this form, e,ff. Piiscian's 
quotation (I. p. 419 K.) from the Odyasea : 

cum socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops. 


drginteo becoming arginUo with no perceptible secondary accent 
on the first syllable, so that the accentuation at the beginning 
of the line came to be regarded as unfixed : 

pdrtttn hrant 

while the accent at the close of the half-line (and of the whole 
line) continued to assert itself : 

partim errant nequinunt \\ 
argenteo polithro ||. 

However that may be, it is certain that the popular poetry of 
the Eepublic, as well as of the Empire, was markedly accentual. 
The few examples that have been preserved are mostly Trochaic 
Septenarii, being lampoons of soldiers on their general (on the 
day of a triumph such abuse was thought to avert the Nemesis 
that attends undue prosperity), e,g, the lampoon on Pompey 
(quoted by Sacerdos, p. 462, 1 £.), of accentual, somewhat 
halting, rhythm : 

qu6m non pudet 6t rubet non est homo sed ropio, 

or the more rhythmical one on Caesar (Suet. Cae8. 80) : 

6cce Ca6sar nunc triiimphat qu{ sub6git Gdllias.^ 

The recognition by the Christian writers of this accentual metre, 
and the process by which the *poor man's poetry* became the 
poetry of the Church and the ITation, are matters which lie 
outside the province of this article. I will only mention that 
the recent investigations of the poetry of Commodian suggest that 
a better knowledge of the exact pronunciation and accentuation of 
the language of his time will explain the rhythmical structure of 
the hexameters of the * Instructiones ' and * Carmen Apologeticum.' 

^ The call of the ' retiarius ' gladiator may be a (loose) accentual Trochaic 
Tetrameter : 

n6ii te p^to, piscem p^to, quid me f (igis, G&lle P 

PhU. Tram. 1891-2-8. 29 



Satttbniak Yebse — A List of all the (complete) Extant Lines. 

A-Type )}:x(,) ix, XXX II XXX , XXX (<>' II XXXXt Xx) 
^Type xx(,) XX, XXX II XXXX» XX (»' II XXX , XX) 

(Lines of doubtful reading are enclosed in brackets. Where two short syllables 
replace a single sellable, the quantities are indicated. Departures from the 
MSS. are put in italics). 

(Z«V. Andr.) 1. Yfrum mihi Cam6na || fnsece rersiitum. 

2. Mea pu^ra, quid-v6rbi || ex-tuo-6re sdpra. 

3. K^q(ue) tarn te oblftus-sum, || La^rtie noster. 

4. Arg^nteo polubro, || aureo eclutro. 

5. Tuque mihi narrdto || omnia dis6rtiin. 

6. Matrem < proci > procftum || plurimi Ten^mnt. 

7. Qudndo dfes adv^ntet, || quem-proMta Mortast. 

8. Aitt in Pylum deventes || adt ibi-omm^ntans. 
[9. Tuncque r6mos jussit || religdre striippis.] 

10. Ibid6mque vir-summus || V&trieoles adprfmus. 

11. Pdrtim errant, nequinunt || Gra6ciam redfre. 

12. Apud-nympham, AtMntis || fHiam Clllypsonem. 
[13. fgttur demum TJKx{-[cor^] || prae-pavore frfxit.] 

14. U'trum genu(a) amploctens || vfrginem ordret. 

15. rbi manens sedeto, || donicum vid^bis. 

16. Me carpento vehente || m^am-domum venfsse. 

17. Simul dacTumas d^-ore || noegeo det6rsit. 

18. I^dmque nullum p6jus || macerat humdnum. 

19. Qudmde mare saevum, || vf«-et-cui sunt-mdgnae ; 

20. Topper < eas > confrfngent || importunae undae. 

21. M^rcurius cumqu(e)-eo || fflius Latonas. 
[22. Nexerant mult(a) int6r-se || »exu nodorum.] 

^3. "N^m divina Monetas 11 filia m^-dociiit. 

cor probably belongs to the context, and should be removed from this line. 


24. Topper fdcit homines || iit-prfus fuerunt. 

25. Topper citi ad-a6di8 || yenimus Circd'2. 

[26. Cdmis autem vinumque || quod-Mbant anclabant.] 
27. Sdncta puer, Satumi || fflia, regina. 

{I^aevius) 28. Eorum s6ctam seqnontur || multi mortales. 

29. Ubi foras c\im-auro || (lico exlbant. 

30. Multi alti e-Troia || strenui vfri. 

31 . Jdmqu(e) eiu^-mentem fortuna || fecerat quietem. 

32. Tnerant 8{gii(a) expressa || quomodo Titani, 

33. £lc6rpore8 Gig^ntes || m^gniqu(e) Atlantes 

34. EuDcus d,tque Purpur^us || fflii Terras. 

35. Silufcolae lioin(5nes || belliqu(e) inertes. 

36. Bldnde docte percontat || A6neam quo-pacto. 

37. Prfm(a) incedit Cereris || Pro86rpina puer, 

38. Deinde pollens sagfttis || fnclutus Arquit^nens, 

39. Sanctus Delphis prognatus || Pythius Apollo. 

40. Tsque susum ad-caelum || sustulit suas-res. 
[41. Amulius < ac-multis > || gratulatur divis.] 

42. Postquam avem a8p6xit || tempt^lo Anchisa, 

43. Sacr(a) in-m6D8a Fendtum || ordine ponuntur. 

44. Immolabat auream || yfctimam pulcram 
[45. Sfmul itrocia || porricorent exta.] 

46. Transit Melttam KomdnuSi || insulam integram 
4 7 . I/rit, populatur, vdstat || rem-hostium cod cf nnat . 

48. Vfrum praetor adv^n^'t, || auspicat auspiclum. 

49. Consent 6o venturum || obyiam Poenum. 

50. Superbiter contemtim || conterit l^giones. 
[51. S^ptimum-dectmum dnnum || ilico sedent^^.] 

![52. Id^m-quoque pacfscunt, || mo6Dia siquo^.] 
[53. Liltatium (Joncfllant, || captfvos plurimos] ^ 

54. Siciliensis paciscit || obsides ut-reddant. 

55. E'i venit in-mentem || hominum fortunas. 

56. Onerail^e ondstae || stabant in-flustris. 

^ Perhaps plurimos eaptivos. 



57. Pl^riqu(e)-6iime8 siibtgihitar || sub-^nmja- 

58. E^s-diyfnas edicit, || praMicit ^ dUdms. 

59. S6nex, fr^tuB ptSt&te, y adlooiitns summi 

60. Begis fr^trem Neptunom, Q regnatdrem m&nin. 

61. Summe d6am regnittor, || qofanam g^niiisti? 
[ 62. S^8eqa(e} fiperfre || mdYolunt ibidem, 

( 63. Qa4m cum-stiipro redfre H &d-BU08p5piiULri8. 

64. Sin fUoB ddserant || fortlBsimos yiros, 

65. Mdgnum stuprum populo || f[eri per-g6nti8. 

66. N6cta Troiad exfbant || dtpttibus opSitis. 

67. El^ntis dmbae, ^b^untes || l^crimis cum-multis. 
[68. Atque prfus pdriet || luoiiBta lucam] 

69. Ferunt pulcras cret^rras, || aureas lepfatas. 

70. Mdgnae m6tu8 tumdltuB || p^otora possidit. 

71. Novem lovis conoordes || fOiae sorores. 

72. Pdtrem suum sapr^mum || 6ptamum app61Iat. 

73. Scopas d,tque verbenas y sdgmina sumpaSrunt. 

74. Simul &l»i9-&r[uiide || rdmitant int6r-8e. 

[75. JLpiid-einpoilam m-cdmpo || hostiam pro-mo^ne] 

76. Simul duon(a) e6rain || p6rtant ad-ndvis ; 

77. M£li(a) dli(a) m-fsdem || iDseriniiiitar. 


78. D^bunt mdlnm Met611i || Na6vio po6tae. 

79. rmmortdles mortiles || 8i-for6t-&8 fl^re, 

80. Elerent dfvae CamSnae || Na^yium po^taxn. 

8 1 . rtaq(ue) postquam est O'rcho || trdditos thesadro. 
[82. L^quter lingua Latina || obliti-sunt Bomae.] 

83. Summas opes qui regum || r6gia8 refregit. 

84. 6ccursdtrix artiftcum, || p6rdita spintdmiz. 

(Inscriptions) 85. Hone oino ploirume || co86ntiont R <6mai> 

86. Dilonoro optumo || fuise viro, 

87. Luciom Scipione. || filios Barbdti 

88. Consol, censor, aidilis || hic-fuet apud-TOs 

1 Of. Ter. Andr, 777, prov6lvam . . pirvolvam. 


89. Hec c6pit Corsica || Aleriaqu(e)-urbe 

90. D6det Tempestdtebus || aide m^retod. 

91. Cbrnelius Lucius || Scipio Barbdtus, 

92. Gnafvod pdtre progndtus, || fortis-vir saptensque, 

93. Quoius-forma virtutei || parlsuma fuit, 

94. Consol, c6QSor, aidflis || quei-fuit apud-vos, 

95. Taurasia Cisauna || Sdmnio c^pit, 

96. Subtgit omne Loucdnam || 6psides-qu(e) abdoucit 

97. Qu(ei)-aptce insfgne Dialis || fldminis gesfstei, 

98. Mors perfecit tu(a)-ut-e88ent || omnia brevia, 

99. HonoSy fdma, virtusque, || gl6ri(a) atqu(e) in- 


100. Qutbiis s(ei)-in-16nga rfctifset || tib(e) utier vita 

101. EacYle facteis siip^rdses || gl6riam maiorum. 

102. Qud-re lubens t(e)-in-grem'Iu, || Scipio, recipit 

103. T^rra, Publi, prognatum || PubHo, Comeli. 

104. Mdgna sdpientia || multasque virtutes 

105. A^tate quom-pdrva || posidet hoc-saxsum, 

106. Quoiei vita defecit, || non-honos,^ bonore, 

107. Tb hie situs quei nunquam || victus-est virtutei, 

108. Annos gnatus vigiuti || r8-l(oc)eis mandatus. 

109. I^^-quairdtis honore || quef-minus-sit mandatus. 

110. Qu5d r^-sua difeidens || dspere afleicta 

111. Parens tfmens heic vovit, || v6to-hoc soluto, 

112. Deciima facta poloucta; || lefbereis lubentes 

113. Donu danunt H6rcoIe ; || mdxsume mereto 

114. Semol t(e)-6rant se voti || crebro condemnes. 

115. Ductu aiispfcio || imp6rioqu(e) ^jus 

116. Achaia capta, || Corinto delete, 

117. Eomam r^dteit triumphans. || ob-basc(e)-res- 


118. Qu6d in-bello v6verat, || hanc-aedem et sfgnu 

119. H^rculis-Victoris || imperator dedicat.^ 

120. Hoc est-fdctum monumentum || Maarco Caicilto 

^ Doubtful accentuation. But cf. Plant. Atnph, 379, e^o sum, non tu, Sosia; 
Jtud. 136, Veneriparavi . . no« tnihi, 
' Or is this line an Iambic Senarius ! 


121. Hospes, gratain-(e)st qu(om) apud-meas || resti- 

tfstei seedes. 

122. B6ii(e)-rem-gerasetv^lga8; || dormias sln^-qura. 

123. Gbnlegium [quod est] aciptum || aetdtei agedai, 

1 24. O'piparum ad-yeitam quolundam || festosque dfes. 

125. Quel soueis-astutieis || opfdque Yolgdni 

126. Gondecorant saipisume || com vf via loidosque, 

127. Ququei hue dederunt || imperatoribus summeis, 

128. Utei sesed lubentes || b6n(e)iovent opt^tis. 

129. IJno cbmplurimae || cons^ntiunt g6nte8 

130. Fopuli primdrium || fufsse yfruniy 

131. Eundity fugat, prost^mit || maxumas l^gYones. 

132. Magnum num^rum triumphat, || hostibiis dev£ctis. 

133. Duello magno dlrlm^ndo || regibus siibYgendis. 

{Prophecte8,etc,)lS4. Terra p^stem ten6to || sdlus hic-man^to 

[135. Cave in-mar^ manare || sud-flumine slnas]] 

S[136. Tum tu audax insfste || hostium maris.]] 
[137. Memor qu4m per-tot-dnnos || obsides urbem.1 
[138. Apollini vovendos || censeo ludos.] 
[139. Qui quotannis comiter || Apollini ffant.^ 
[140. Hoc si r6cte faxitis, || gaud6bitis semper.^ 
141. Quamvis nbv^ntium |[ duonum n^giimiite. 
[142. Nequid fraudis stuprique || ferocia pdr^.J 

The text and scansion of these lines I have discussed in two 
articles in the American Jowrnal of Philology (xiv. p. 139 and 
p. 305), where the whole question of the Saturnian Metre is 
treated with fuller detail. The Satumians of inscriptions must 
not be supposed to be any more conformable to the rules of the 
metre than the Dactylic and Iambic quantitative lines on in- 
scriptions of the same kind. We may gauge the technical skill 
shown in the Satumians in the Scipio Epitaphs (w. 85-109) by 
the Elegiacs on another epitaph of the family {CLL, I. 38); 
the Satumians of Mummius* Dedication (vv. 115-119) will be as 


far removed from those of Naevius as the Dactylic Hexameters 
on another of his Dedicatory inscriptions ( CLL, I. 542, e,g, 

cogendei dissoluendei tu ut facilia faxseis) 

are from the lines of Ennius; the inscription of the Faliscan 
cooks (w. 123-128) seems to be as nnmetrical as, e.g. CLL. 
I. 1027, in 'iambics,' where the metre is destroyed by certain 
additions, which I bracket, in each line : 

hospes, resiste, et hoe ad grumum \ad laevam] asptee, 

uhei continentur ossa hominis honi, [miserteordis, amantu, pauperis"], 

rogo te, viator, monumento huie nil [male feceria]. 

The halting Satumians of the prophecies, most of which are 
mere conjectural restorations of Livy's prose paraphrases, may be 
capped with equally bad hexameters from the Sories in CI.Z, 
I. 1438 sqq., e.g. 

I. 1438 eonrigivix tandem quod curvom est factum crede. 
I. 1448 laetus lulens petito quod dabitur . gaudehis semper. 



[Biad at the Mating of the FhUologieal Soeitty held on Friday, June let, 1894.] 

Thb object of this paper is not to investigate the origin of the 
r deponent, which Old Irish shares with Latin, and its relation 
to the Indo-Germanic verbal system, or to discuss, except inci- 
dentally 80 far as they have any bearing on the subject proper, 
the theories that have been put forward concerning the origin 
of these forms.* Whether it will ever be possible to get 
beyond conflicting theories, and to arrive at any certain or even 
probable account of the genesis of the type, may be reasonably 
doubted. But, taking the deponent as it exists in the oldest 
records of the Irish tongue, it should not be an impossible task 
to trace, with more or less exactness, its history within the Irish 
language itself, to follow the old forms in their life and decay, 
and to search out the starting-point and follow the development 
of any new types. 

The degree of precision with which such an investigation can 
bo carried out must depend on the nature of the documents on 
which it is based. Where there is a continuous series of dated 
documents, each of which represents faithfully the language of 
its time, the course of the enquiry will run smoothly enough. 
In Irish, however, the student does not And himself in this 
fortunate position. For Old Irish we have trustworthy documents 
in the Glosses and in fragments of Irish preserved in the oldest 
manuscripts. In the later language we have metrical compositions 
like the Saltair na Mann, where the original forms were to a great 
extent protected by the metre. But with the mass of Middle 
Irish texts, some of them very ancient in their origin, preserved 

* Cf. "Windisch, Ufher die Verhalformen tnit dem charakter t.^ etc., Abhandl. 
der Siichs. Ges. d. Wiss., phil.-hist. CI. x. 447 sq. ; Zimmer, Ueber das italo" 
kdtische Fateivum und Deponetiit, Kuhn*s Zeitschrift, xix. 224 sq. ; Thumeys«»n, 
KZ xxxi. 62 Bq., Indo-German. Forsch. i. 4G0 sq. ; Brugmann, Grundriss, 
ii. 1388 sq. 


in manuscripts of the eleventh century and later, it is very 
different. In the transmission of such texts there was a tendency 
to replace old forms by modem ones. The probable extent of 
such corruption is not to be estimated d priori by the date of the 
manuscript. We shall find instances in which later manuscripts 
preserve the old forms better than earlier ones. And in the same 
manuscript different texts will be found to have suffered in a 
different degree. Thus, in the Book of Leinster, a manuscript 
of the twelfth century, the old deponential forms are well pre- 
served in many of the old texts, but, for instance, in the famous 
Tain B6 Cuailhge, the Cattle-raid of Cooley, they have almost 
veinished. In such a case as this we must suppose that in the 
one instance the old forms were more or less faithfully copied, 
in the other the language has been approximated to the language 
of a later period that the old tale might delight new generations. 

Such corruptions of necessity make the problem more com- 
plicated. Already in the Glosses the deponent verb has begun 
to pass into the active; and in a particular active form from a 
deponent verb found in one of these old texts, preserved in 
a manuscript of a much later date, it may be impossible to say 
whether the active form was original or whether it was introduced 
later. The remedy here lies in widening the field of observation ; 
for by the examination of a number of texts of the same character 
individual peculiarities may to a great extent be eliminated. 

Another difficulty is the difficulty of chronology. In some 
cases the date of the composition of a text may be accurately 
or approximately fixed from the internal evidence supplied by the 
subject-matter. In other instances it might seem to be fixed 
by the name of the author. Unfortunately we must be very 
careful in accepting such statements; there is, throughout Irish 
literature, too much of a tendency to fasten to the productions 
of later times the great names of the past. A third means of 
fixing approximately the date of composition is the language. 
But here again the development of the Irish language in its 
successive stages is a subject that has yet to be worked out. 
Until that is done we must rely in this matter, to a great extent, 
on general impressions, which accurate observation may prove 
to be false. The following pages may serve as a starting-point 
for the history of one particular form in Irish, the deponent 
verb. The results of such an adventure on a fresh field must 
of necessity contain much that will have to be modified or 


corrected by further observation and discussion. Sometbing will 
have been accomplished if the way has been made smoother for 
those who come after. 

The main subject falls, naturally, into two parts. The first 
part contains a collection of materials for the history of the 
deponent verb; the second treats of the history of the deponent 
based on these materials; a third part will deal with some new 
Irish developments, whereby certain forms of the active verb 
have taken to themselves endings borrowed from the deponent 
inflexion. Fart I., though it will consist chiefly of dry lists of 
forms, is a necessary preliminary to Fart II. For the Old Irish 
of the Glosses the Grammatica Celtica furnishes extensiye col- 
lections of material, though the further publication of Irish 
Glosses, particularly of the Milan Glosses, enables considerable 
additions to be made to the material gathered together by Zeuss 
and Ebel. For the Old Irish of the profane literature and for 
Middle Irish there are no collections of any extent ; here the 
work had practically to be done from the beginning. To ransack 
even as much of this literature as is already generally accessible 
would be an endless and a profitless task. What has been done 
has been to take a number of representative texts and to examine 
them carefully. This may lead to the omission of some deponent 
forms that might have found their place here; but, on the other 
hand, the history of the deponent is not to be learned from a 
multitude of scattered forms huddled together from a Tariety of 
heterogeneous sources. Apart from the glosses the material 
has been got to a great extent from the two oldest Middle JLrish 
manuscripts, the Leabhar na hUidhre (eleventh century) and the 
Book of Leinster (twelfth century). The former has been ex- 
amined throughout; of the latter I have read through all that 
seemed to be of importance for this investigation. From these 
two sources have been selected such texts as appeared most 
illustrative. To these have been added texts from other sources, 
such as the Sanaa Cormaic and the Saltair na Rann, two works 
which we shall find to be of the highest consequence, since 
between them lies the breaking up of the deponent inflexion. 

In the arrangement of the material collected from these texts 
that order has been adopted which seemed to put the' facts in the 
clearest light; it does not of necessity correspond to the order 
of the date of the original composition of the several texts. In 
the present state of our knowledge it is impossible to arrange 


the oldest stratum of texts chronologically, and something besides 
has been sacrificed to convenience. The language of the Old 
Irish Glosses has been treated as a whole. Each of the other 
texts has, as a rule, been treated separately. This involves repe- 
tition, but that is a much less evil than would have resulted 
from the mixing up even of the material got from closely similar 
texts. We have seen the corruptions to which these documents 
have been exposed in the course of their transmission. But they 
did not all suffer in an equal degree. For example, to put together 
the forms of the deponent verbs found in the LU. and LL. versions 
of the Tain would be to convey an entirely false impression. 
Besides, it will be found that the presentation of such forms 
from a number of texts of various kinds and of various ages 
will be the most effectual way of illustrating their history. 



1. The Old Irish Glosses.^ 

The deponent verbs here arrange themselves naturally in two 
classes. The first class consists partly of primary verbs like 
sechur, Lat. sequor, ^tluchor, Lat. loquor; partly of denominative 
verbs such as ^comalnur * I fill,* from comldn * full ' ; cf . Latin 
denominatives in -are. With this class goes a small number of 
verbs that show deponent forms only in certain parts, generally 
in the perfect. Only those parts of the verb have been given 
in which the deponent inflexion differs from the active. That 
it may be clear at a glance how far the active inflexion has 

^ The references are to the following editions : — 

Acr. = Codex Aus^tini Carolisruhensis, ed. Stokes. 

Bcr.= Codex Bedse Carolisruhensis, ed. Stokes. 

Per. = Codex Prisciani Carolisruhensis, ed. Stokes. 

Wb. = Codex Paulinus Wirziburgensis, ed. Stokes. 

Ph. = Glosses on Philargyrius' Scholia on the Bucolics, ed. Stokes (KZ. 

xxxiii. 62 sq.. Trans. Phil. Soc. 1893). 
Ml. = Codex Ambrodanus, ed. Ascoli. 
Sg. = Codex Sangallensis, ed. Ascoli. 
Tur. s' Codex Tanrinensis, ed. Zimmer. 
Cod. Cam. = Codex Camaracensis, ed. Zimmer. 
Bv. = Codex Bedae Vindobonensis, ed. Zimmer. 
Incant. Sg. =Incantationes Sangallenses, ed. Zimmer. 
Sp. =Carmina Monasterii S. Pauli, ed. Windisch. 


encroached upoii the deponent, the deponent and the active fonns 
have been arranged in parallel colnmns. 

^* , ' j ni dgor, non timeo, Sg. 112.* 

Deponent Fobms. Actiyb Fobms. 

dgnr,^ timeo, ad-dgur. 
Pros. ind. 

nadndguraay g. neminem me 
timere, Ml. 74^ 19. 
Bg. 3. ni agathar, Wb. 1» 3. 
nimagathar, Wb. 6* 7. 
inna agathar ni, annon timet