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Full text of "Transactions and proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh"



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DUPLICATA DE LA BIBLIOTHE.QUE 

DU CONSERVATCIEE BOTAITIQUE DE GEl^VS 

VENDU EN 1922 



TRAXSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS 



BOTAfilCAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 






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DTI o^.^'^^'^^ ^^ ^^ BIBLIOTHEQUE 



TRANSACTIONS AND PH00EED1NGS 



BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



VOLUME XX. 

INCLUDING SESSIONS LVIII. TO LX. , ™ »',' VOU*^ 

(1893-94 TO 1895-96), t^T^NlCAL 



WITH TEX PLATES AJVD ELEVEN WOODCUTS. 




.o^VATO/Rr 



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DUPLICATA DE LA BIBLIOTHEQUE ^ ^^ ^ ' 
DU CONSERVATCITE ECTAriQUE DE GEl>rE?VB 
VEIn DU EN 1922 



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Vi 



EDIXBUEGH : 
PPvIXTED FOR THE BOTAXICAL SOCIETY, 

MDCCCXCVI. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XX. 



PAGE 

Transactions and Proceediugs, Session LVIIL, 1893-94, 1 

Officers of the Society, Session LVIIL, 1893-94, 

Accounts of the Society, Session LY II., 1892-93, 81 

Transactions and Proceedings, Session LIX., 1894-95, 273 

Officers of the Society, Session LIX., 1894-95, i73 

Accounts of the Society, Session LVIIL, 1893-94, 297 

Transactions and Proceedings, Session LX. , 1895-96, 457 

Officers of the Societ}', Session LX., 1895-96, 457 

Accounts of the Society, Session LIX., 1894-95, 491 

Al'I'EXDIX — 

Objects and Laws of the Society, 571 

Roll of the Society, corrected to November 1896, 577 

List of Publication Exchanges, 585 

IxDEX, 589 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 



BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



VOLUME XX. 
Part I. 




EDINBURGH : 
FEINTED FOR THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY. 



TRANSACTIONS AND PEOC'EEDINGS 



BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



u 



^^^ 



SESSION" LVIII. ^-'^ \... 

MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, Xovember 9, 1893. 

Dr. David Christison, President, in the Chair. 

The following Officers of the Society were elected for 
the Session 1893-94: — 

PRESIDENT. 
Professor F. 0. Bower, D.Sc, F.R.SS. L. & E., F.L.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

"William Craig, M.D., F.R.S.E., Rev. David Paul, M.A. 
cr^ F.R.C.S.E. 1 Malcolm Duxx, 

oi William Sanderson. 

COUNCILLORS. 

Colonel Fred. Bailey, R.E. Robert Robertson. M.A., B.Sc. 
Patrick Neill Eraser, F.R.S.E. Ediu. 

Symington Grieve. Andrew Semple, M.B., F.R.C.S.E. 

Henry Halcro Johnston, M.B., T. Bond Sprague, M.A., F.R.S.E. 

CM. Robert Turnbull, B.Sc. 

Robert Lindsay. , John H. Wilson, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

TEASS. BOX. see. EDIX. VOL. XX. A 

Issued November 1894. 



2 TEA.NSACT10NS AND PE0CEEDIXG5 OF THE [Sess. lviil 

Honorary Secretary — Professor Sir Douglas Maclagax, >r.D., LL.D., 

P.R.S.E. 
Honorary Curator — The PEOyESSOR OF Botaxy. 
Foreign Secretary — Andrew P. Aitkex, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 
Treasurer — Richard Browx, C.A. 
Assistant Secretary— J AiiES Adam Terras, B.Sc. 
Artist— Yp.a^cis_ 'Si. Caird, M.B., CM. 
Auditor — Robert C. Millar, C.A. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES. 

Aberdeen — A. Stephen "Wilson of North Kinmundv. 

Professor J. W. H. Trail, M.A., M.D.,'F.L.S. 
Beckenham, Kent— A. D. Webster. 
Berwick — Francis M. Norman, R.N. 
Birmingham — George A. Panton, F.R.S.E., 73 Westfield Road. 

\\. H. Wilkinson. F.L.S., F.R.M.S., Manor Hill, Sutton 
Coldfield. 
Bridge of Allan — Alexander Paterson, M.D. 
Calcutta — George King, M.D.. F.R.S.. Botanic Garden. 

David Praix, M.D., F.R.S.E.. F.L.S., Botanic Garden. 
Cambridge — Charles C Babixgton, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Botany. 

,, Arthur Evans, M.A. 

CJiirnside—CnyRUES Stuart, M.D. 
Croydon — A. Bennett, F.L.S. 

Glasgoic—Proie&iOT F. 0. Bower, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Kelso — Rev. David Paul, M.A., Roxburgh Manse. 
,, Rev. George Gunn, M.A., Stitchel Manse. 
Kilbarchan—Rev. G. Alison. 
Lincoln — George Mat Lowe, M.D., CM. 
Loudon — "Williajm Carruthers, F.R.S., F.L.S., British Museum. 

-,, John Archibald, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Melbourne, Australia— Baxon Ferdlnand von Mueller. M.D., 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Xova Scotia—FroieisoT George Lawson, LL.D.. DiUhousie. 
Ottawa, Ontario — W. R. RiDDELL, B.Sc. B.A., Pro v. Normal School. 
Perth— F. Buchanan White, M.D., F.L.S. 
Saharunpore, India — J. F. Duthie, B.A., F.L.S. 
Sevenoaks — E. M. Holmes, F.L.S. 
Silloth — John Leitch, M.B., CM. 

St. Andrews— PToiQ550v M-Intosh, M.D.. LL.D., F.R.SS. L. & E. 
Wellington, New Zealand— Six James Hector, M.D., K.C.M.G., 

F.R.SS. L. & E. 
Wolverhampton — John Eraser, M.A., M.D. 



John Grieve, M.D., F.K.S.E., was elected Resident Fellow 

of the Society. 

The President made intimation of the death of Hobert 
Hartie, and of Charles Jennee, Eesident Fellows of the 
Society, and of W. Etheeixgton Dixox, Associate. 



Nov. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBUEGII. 3 

Presents to the Lil)rary at the Royal Botanic Garden 
were announced. Amongst them being a copy of the first 
fasciculus of the new " Index Kewensis." 

Professor Bayley Balfour informed the Society that 
Mr. George William Traill, the well-known algologist, 
had presented his magnificent collection of alga? to the 
Society. 

Mr. Malcolm Dunn exhibited a number of cut blooms of 
herbaceous and other plants from the open ground, to show 
the mildness of the season and the occurrence of late and 
second blooms, amongst them being : — An apple (Liberton 
Einger), several kinds of rose, stock, rosemary, anemone, 
strawberry tree, primrose, etc. ; also twigs of Chimonanthus 
fragrans, with flower buds, and a few clusters of straw- 
berries. 

Professor Bayley Balfour exhibited specimens, sent by 
Dr. Aitchison from Gulmey, Kashmir, preserved in spirit, 
of Arceuthohium imnutissimum, Hook, fil., on Pinus coxclsa, 
a loranthaceous plant described by Sir Joseph Hooker in 
the Flora of British India V., 227, and referred to by him 
as " the most minute dicotyledonous plant I can call to 
mind " ; also specimens of proliferous Ecscda alia received 
from C. A. Middleton, Esq., Manxhead, Stow. 

Mr. Campbell sent for exhibition, from the open ground 
of his garden at Ledaig, Argyllshire, cut blooms of Veronica 
Andcrsoni and var., Escallonia macrantha, and other half- 
hardy plants. 



The following Papers were read : — 

Excursion of the Scottish Alfixe Botanical Club 
to Clova, 1893. By Rev. David Paul, M.A., Rox- 
burgh. 

This year the visit of the Scottish Alpine Botanical 
Club was to the classic ground of Clova. The party which 



4 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

assembled in the Ogilvie Arms Hotel on the 10 th of July 
consisted of Mr. W. B. Boyd of Faldonside, president ; 
Eev. George Alison, Kilbarchan, chaplain ; Eev. George 
Gimn, Stitchel ; Commander Xorman, E.X., Berwick ; Dr. 
Stuart of Chirnside ; Dr. Church of Edinburgh ; Mr. Potts, 
and myself. A business meeting was held in the evening, 
at which Mr. Gunn was elected a member of the Club, and 
a sum of five guineas was voted to the Illustration Fund of 
the Botanical Society. 

Leave having been obtained from the proprietor of 
Clova and from the shooting-tenant to visit both Glen 
Dole and Glen Fee, we arranged to confine ourselves 
next day (Tuesday) to the north side of the latter glen. 
Fortunately the day was dry, and bright and warm. We 
met the keeper of the deer forest at Glen Dole Lodge, who 
gave us every facility to pursue our investigations, but our 
finds were not very numerous. As we walked up the glen 
on the low ground, Trientalis curopcca, L., was plentiful, 
and Arctostaijhylus Uva-Ursi, Spreng., was found. Ascend- 
ing to the rocks on the right, and working round the base 
of them, we reached the well-known station of the Oxyiropis 
camjJcstris, D. C, the only locality where it has been found 
in Britain. It covers the rock over a considerable area. 
Many of the plants were very large and fine, and there 
seems to be no danger of its being exterminated.*"^ Asso- 
ciated with this rare plant on the same rocks the rare 
moss, Trichostoriiura fjlaucesccns, Hedw., occurs, which, after 
a good deal of searching, Mr. Boyd found two small morsels 
of, but not in fruit. The present confusion in the nomen- 
clature of the mosses is well illustrated by this species. 
Of the eight names that have been given to it, seven have 
been employed by British bryologists. In 1792, Hedwig 
named it TrichostowAim glauccscens, and he was followed by 
"Wilson, and by Hobkirk in the first edition of his Synopsis. 
In 1801, Dickson called it Bryum glauccscens. In 1807, 
Weber and Mohr gave it the name of Didymodon 
glauccscens, and they were followed by Greville and 
Hooker. The last author also styles it Didymodon 

* It is worth noting that in Germany this plant, under the name of Oxytropu 
pilosa, is widely distributed on rocky declivities, while the other species of the 
same genus, under the name of O. montana, occurs only in Bavaria on stony 
hill-meadows, the rarer species here being the commoner there. 



Nov. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 5 

cenujinosus. HoLkirk, iu his second edition, uses the 
name Ditriclium glaucesccns. In Berkeley's Handbook it 
is found as Lcptotviclium glaucesccns. Finally, Braithwaite 
calls it Saclania ccesia, following Lindberg, and remarks, 
curiously enough, in the face of all this variety of nomen- 
clature, that " it is a good example of a truly natural 
genus." It is to be hoped that, after the completion of 
Dr. Braithwaite's valuable Moss-Flora, a greater degree of 
order will be introduced into this baffling confusion. 

As we proceeded along the base of the rocks, nothing of 
special importance was found, so Mr. Gunn and I climbed 
up the face of the clifts out on to the table-laud above in 
search of Carcx rarijlora, Sm., which, however, we did not 
light upon. In the midst of a very large bed of Scirpus 
cccspitosus, Linn., occurred a patch of considerable size, 
which presented a remarkable appearance. On the summit 
of every stem, in place of the usual flower head, was what 
had the appearance of a small delicate egg-shaped fruit, 
like a miniature plum, of a bluish-brown colour, very 
smooth and regular in shape, and conspicuous enough to 
be observable some yards oft". I gathered specimens, and 
submitted them to Professor Trail of Aberdeen, who was 
of opinion that the fungus was probably Ustilago car ids, 
and stated that he had not before met with an Ustilago on 
that plant. Eejoining the members of the party we had 
left below, who had found a certain number of the Alpine 
plants that were to be expected in that locality, we at 
length brought a delightful day to an end. 

The chief plants found were these : — Draba incana, 
Linn. ; Silenc acaulis, Linn. ; Oxytropis campcstris, D.C. ; 
Saxifraga oppositifolia, Linn. : S. nivalis, Linn. ; S. stellar is, 
Linn. ; *S^. aizoiclcs, Linn. ; Saussurea alpina, D.C. ; Arcto- 
staphylos ?7r«-f/?--52, Spreng. ; Tricrdalis eurojKca, Linn. ; Salix 
myrsinites, Linn. ; Carcx capillaris, Linn., etc. ; Crypto- 
gramme crispa, E. Br. ; Asplcnium viridc, Huds. ; A. 
irichomanes, Linn. ; Polystichum aculcatum, Syme ; P. var. 
lohatum, Presl. ; P. lonchitis, Eoth. ; Zastraa oreoptcris, 
Presl. ; Lycopoclium Sclago, Linn.; L. cumotimim, Linn.; 
Z, alpinum, Linn. ; Selaginclla selaginoides, Gray. 

Wednesday, 12th July, did not promise well, being 
cloudy and foggy. We drove up to Acharn, and found 



6 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

that Fraser, the forester, had received a letter, which 
limited our visit to two davs. This oblicred us to alter 
our plans. "We had intended to visit that day the south 
side of Glen Fee in one party, and the next day to go up 
Glen Dole. "We now arranged that Messrs. Alison, Stuart, 
and Xorman should, with the forester, proceed by Glen 
Dole to the station of the Lychnis alpina, Linn., on Little 
Gilrannock, while the rest of us should examine the corrie 
on the south side of Glen Fee for Cara: aljnna, Sw., and 
Carex GraJiami, Boott. L^nfortunately, before we reached 
the corrie, it came on to rain, and it continued to rain 
most of the day, making things very uncomfortable for us, 
as the wind also was cold, and thick mist drifted over the 
rocks. Carex Graliami was found in one spot in a wet, 
level place, some distance up the rocks, but not very much 
of it, and it is desirable that when it is found again it 
should be treated tenderly, as it might easily be extirpated. 
We got some good specimens, but spared the roots. It 
grows a foot or 18 inches high, and is not unlike a large 
C. pulla, only not so dark in colour. "We gathered also 
Carex vaginata, Tausch ; Carex atrata, Linn. : and very hand- 
some specimens of Carex rigido.. Good. "We searched long, 
but unsuccessfully, for Carex alpvna. If the day had not 
been so wretchedly bad, we should probably have found it, 
as it seems to grow on more than one spot ; but, as I now 
understand, we were most of the time hunting on the 
wrong ground. "We meant to go out at the top of the 
corrie and round by the head of the glen to the other side 
of the Fee Burn, to examine the upper rocks there for 
Woodsia, and then to meet the other party in Glen Dole : 
but we had spent so much time in the corrie, and were so 
wet, that that part of the programme had to be given up. 
The only other plants we found worth mentioning were 
Veronica alpina, Linn., Epilohium ahinefoliurn, Till., and 
E. alpinum, Linn. One or two plants of Tetraijlodon 
mnioides, B. and S., were also found. On returning to 
Acharn, we met the rest of our company, who reported 
that there was still a considerable quantity of Lychnis 
alpina in its old station. 

On Thursday, 1.3th July, we walked up to Loch Brandy, 
where one of the party fished with more zeal than success. 



Nov. 1803.] BOTAXICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 7 

and where a few things were found, such as Loiselcuria 
procumbcns, Desv., Lobelia Dortmanna, Linn., and Isoeies 
lacustris, Linn. Abundance of Meum Athamanticum, Jacq., 
was <jrowino- near the hotel. 



XOTES FROM THE ROYAL BOTANIG GaEDEN, EDINBURGH. 

L Report on TEMrERATUEE and Vegetation during 
July, August, September, and October. By Robert 
Lindsay, Curator. 

JULY. 

The month of July was, on the whole, favourable. 
Rain fell on 18 days during the mouth. This was much 
needed after the long spell of fine dry weather during 
preceding months. The lowest night temperature was -42°, 
which occurred on the 6th of the month, and the highest 
55^, on the 10th. The lowest day temperature was 61°, 
on the 4th, and the highest 76°, on the 23rd. 

The common lime-tree was laden with blossom more 
abundantly than usual during the month, and the Xew 
Zealand shrub, Olcaria Haastii, was completely covered with 
masses of sweet-scented white flowers, both of which were 
highly attractive to bees. 

On the rock-garden 112 species and well-marked varieties 
came into flow^er, as against 237 for the corresponding 
month last year. A few of the best flowered were : — 
Anemone rivularis, Anemonopsis macrophylla, Aiibridia 
macrostyla, Aster Thomsonii, Alyssum argenteurn, Campanula 
macrantha alba, C. isophylla alba, Cistus formosus. Cineraria 
geifolia, Coronilla iberica. Chrysanthemum maximum, Dian- 
thus Atkinsoni, Fuchsia Riccartoni, Gentiana asclepiadea 
alba, Hclichrysum anatolicum, Hypericum coris, Lilium 
canadense jiavum, Micromeria piperella, Monarda Kahniana, 
Meconopsis Wallichii, CEnothera Selloioi, Potentilla verna 
ji. pi., Itosa. viridijiora, Serophularia scunbucifolia, Rhododen- 
'dron anthopogon. 





TKA^'S 


A.UT10N 


3 AND PR( 


3CEEDD 


sGS OF T] 


KE l^ 


ESS. LVIII 


Headings of 


exposed Thermometers at the Rock-Garden. 


Date. 


ilinimum. 


9 A.M. 


Maximum. 


Date. 


Minimum. 


9 A.M. 


Maximum. 


1st 


46° 


54° 


65° 


r7th 


49° 


63° 


70° 


2nd 


51 


60 


72 


18th 


49 


62 


75 


3rd 


53 


57 


64 


19th 


49 


63 


75 


4th 


50 


54 


61 


20th 


45 


64 


68 


5th 


49 


54 


66 


21. St 


43 


63 


71 


6th 


42 


61 


67 


22nd 


46 


60 


70 


7th 


55 


66 


70 


23rd 


. 49 


64 


76 


8th 


52 


64 


67 


24th 


49 


54 


73 


9th 


53 


65 


70 


25th 


47 


51 


69 


10th 


55 


61 


71 


26 th 


50 


61 


71 


11th 


49 


58 


67 


27th 


42 


60 


70 


12th 


52 


53 


67 


28th 


42 


55 


72 


13th 


47 


54 


62 


29th 


50 


60 


71 


14th 


47 


57 


71 


30 th 


45 


53 


70 


15th 


48 


58 


70 


31st 


46 


61 


69 


16th 


46 


61 


73 











AUGUST. 

August was an exceedingly warm month, there was an 
entire absence of anything like cold weather throughout. 
Eain and thunderstorms were rather frequent, but the 
month, on the whole, was a most favouralile one. The 
lowest night temperature was 38°, which occurred on the 
28th of the month, and the highest 58°, on the 16th. 
The lowest day temperature was 63°, on the 31st of the 
month, and the highest 87°, on the loth and 16th. 

On the rock-garden 73 species and varieties of hardy 
plants came into flower, as against 103 during the previous 
August. Amongst the most interesting were: — Allium 
glaucum, Campanula Jloribunda, Ccntaurea alpina, Colchicum 
speciosum, Coreopsis vtrticillata, Carlina subcaulescens, Cyda- 
'/nen curopcvum, Erica Lawsoniana, E. Watsoni, Delphinium, 
sulphureum, Gladiohis Saunclersii, Hypericum Ekeoidcs, H. 
2Mtulum, Montbretia crocosmceflora, Origanum Dictamnus, 
Polygonum capitatum, P. vaccinifolium., Scnecio compacta, 
Statice ininuta, Sedum latifolium, Veronica longifolia sub- 
sessilis, Zauschneria ccdiforniea. 



Nov. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 

Readings of exposed Thermometers at the Rock-Garden. 



Date. 


Minimum. 


9 A.M. 


Maximum. 


Pate. 


Minimum. 


A.M. 


Maximum 


1st 


46" 


60' 


68° 


17th 


54-' 


64° 


85° 


2nd 


50 


64 


72 


18th 


55 


64 


81 


3rd 


49 


61 


67 


19th 


51 


63 


73 


4th 


49 


60 


68 


20th 


54 


60 


74 


5th 


46 


50 


66 


21st 


52 


59 


65 


6th 


45 


57 


67 


22nd 


51 


61 


69 


7th 


41 


50 


67 


23rd 


48 


GO 


71 


8th 


42 


61 


78 


24th 


50 


61 


69 


9 th 


54 


64 


80 


25th 


47 


65 


70 


10th 


52 


59 


74 


26 th 


48 


61 


69 


11th 


54 


61 


73 


27 th 


43 


54 


65 


12th 


53 


6S 


75 


28th 


38 


56 


64 


13th 


48 


65 


76 


29th 


48 


60 


72 


14th 


55 


64 


81 


30th 


47 


60.. 


71 


15th 


55 


73 


87 


31st 


54 


56 ' 


63 


16 th 


58 


65 


87 


1 









SEPTEMBER. 

The month of September was cool and unsettled, with 
heavy falls of rain. The first frost this season took place 
on the 11th of the month, when the thermometer registered 
32°, which was repeated on the 23rd. The lowest day 
temperature was 50°, on the 23rd, and the highest 72', on 
the 2nd of the month. 

Most herbaceous plants flowered very well during the 
month ; strawberries and Gentiana acaulis were observed 
in Hower for the second time during this month, as were 
also laburnums and rhododendrons. Autumn tints began 
to show early in the month, and were most effective on. 
Pavia flava, lime-tree, horse-chestnut, and Ghent azaleas. 

On the rock-garden a large number of plants were in 
flower, but only 28 came into flower in September, as 
against 45 for the corresponding month last year, a few 
of the most interesting being: — Adlumia cirrhosa, Aster 
Strachcyi, Colchicuni maximum, Crocus annulatus, C. mcdiiis, 
C. Sahmanni, JDianthus Scgnicrii, Erica Mackiana, E. 
Stuartii, Fvclisia sanguinca, Gratiola officinalis, Potcntilla 
Mooniana, Polygonum capitatum, Tcticrium fiavum, Thymus 
striatus, Xnipho/ia nohilis, K. Saundersii, Scdum Faharia, S. 
spectdbilis. 



10 



TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Ses?. lviii. 



Readings of exposed Thermometers at the Rock-Garden. 



Date. 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

6th 

7 th 

8th 

9th 

10th 

11th 

12th 

13th 

14th 

15th 



3Iiiumnin. 

48° 

54 

53 

46 

48 

50 

51 

49 

40 

34 

32 

33 

45 

53 

54 



9 A.M. 


3IaxiniDm. 


54° 


66=- 


64 


72 


58 


63 


60 


72 


61 


70 


58 


68 


58 


68 


53 


63 


46 


63 


49 


58 


35 


61 


36 


67 


60 


64 


61 


72 


60 


64 



Date. 

16th 

17th 

18th 

19th 

20th 

21st 

22nd 

23rd 

24th 

25th 

26th 

27th 

28th 

29th 

30th 



Minimum. 

43° 

44 

49 

50 

39 

36 

37 

32 

34 

33 

41 

43 

43 

43 

43 



9 A.SI. Maximum. 

59° 

56 

55 



00 

54 
40 
46 
39 
49 
46 
45 
48 
49 
48 
53 



64° 

69 

65 

64 

62 

59 

57 

50 

53 

57 

50 

53 

66 

62 

61 



OCTOBER. 

The month of October was somewhat mild and change- 
able, but was a favourable month on the whole. The 
thermometer was at or below the freezing-point on five 
occasions, indicating collectively 18' of frost for the month, 
as against 44° for the corresponding month of last year. 
The lowest readings were — on the 4th, 30° ; 5th, 30° ; 9th, 
32°; 30th, 27°; 31st, 23°. The lowest day temperature 
was 50°, on the 26th, and the highest 67°, on the 1st. 
Autumn tints were very fine this season, though of short 
duration. The beautiful and varied foliage colouring was 
most effective on scarlet and Hungarian oaks, various 
species of Acer and Pyrus, Cornus, Liriodcndron, Licpdd- 
anibcr. Azalea, Ampelojpsis, and Berhcris. The brown tints 
on Biotas and other conifers are very pronounced this season, 
and very interesting. Hardy rhododendrons and azaleas 
are well set with flower-buds for next season. Fruit is 
plentiful on most trees and shrubs ; hollies are rather 
poorly set with berries ; and Pyrus latifolia, large trees of 
which in the garden never have failed, that I remember, to 
produce great quantities of fruit — the delight of numerous 
birds that abound in the garden — this year is a notable 
exception, being almost barren of fruit ; probably the 
very dry weather which prevailed during their flowering 



Nov. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



11 



period has prevented tlie berries from setting. Herbaceous 
plants and annuals continued to flower freely until the end 
of the month. 

(In the rock-garden only 3 plants came into flower 
during the month, viz. : — Aconituiii calif ornicum, Hdlcborus 
nirjcr grandifiora, and GyneriuTn argenteum. A good many 
plants have flowered a second time, among which were : — 
jRhododcndron fcrrugincum, Ulcx eitropcciis, and Pyrus 
ja-ponica. 



Headings of exposed Thermometers at the Rock-Garden. 



Date. 


Mininmiu. 


9 A. M. 


Maximum. 


Date. 


Minimum. 


9 A.M. 


Maximum 


1st 


45= 


55° 


67° 


17th 


45° 


49° 


63° 


2nd 


37 


55 


65 


18th 


37 


48 


55 


Srd 


39 


52 


60 


19th 


47 


53 


62 


4th 


30 


40 


57 


20th 


45 


51 


63 


5th 


30 


51 


57 


21st 


51 


57 


63 


6 th 


37 


52 


60 


22nd 


37 


48 


62 


7 th 


40 


50 


59 


23rd 


39 


49 


55 


8th 


43 


48 


58 


24th 


45 


55 


59 


9th 


32 


45 


54 


25th 


45 


55 


57 


10th 


36 


49 


55 


26th 


34 


39 


50 


11th 


38 


50 


57 


27th 


34 


44 


54 


12th 


37 


49 


56 


28th 


39 


52 


55 


13th 


36 


44 


57 


29 th 


37 


39 


53 


Uth 


42 


54 


67 


30th 


27 


33 


45 


15 th 


53 


59 


66 


31st 


23 


32 


46 


16th 


52 


58 


62 











[Table 



12 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. L\nii. 



II. (1) Meteorological Observations taken at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of July 1893. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
71"5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





'c'^ 


Thermometers, protected. 














§2 


4 feet above grass. 










/~\ 


a 
o 

1^ 


-S — 










a 


Clouds. 




X 

o 


S.E. 


Ther- 






£ 


mometers for 






»— 1 








t-l 


o 


-s 


preceding 


Hygrometer. 


o 








"w/ 


*o 


|5 


24 hours. 






o 








;r 


S3 












o 




^■ 




1 


fi 


c o 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


s 


Kind. 


5 
o 

< 


-'" 




1 


30-062 


68-8 


o 

51-2 


53-9 


63-2 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


2 


30-032 


62-3 


53-3 


57-0 


55-8 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-075 


3 


30-112 


71-4 


56-1 


57-7 


56-7 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-010 


4 


30-075 


59-2 


53-1 


55-1 


53-1 


E. 


Cum. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


5 


29-995 


570 


51-9 


53-7 


51-7 


E. 


Cum. 


10 


E, 


0-000 


6 


30-020 


59-0 


50-9 


58-2 


54-1 


E. 


Cum. 


1 


E. 


0-000 


7 


29-851 


62-0 


53-9 


61-8 


67-9 


E. 







... 


0-000 


8 


29-700 


68-8 


53-9 


56-1 


53-3 


E. 


Cum. 


10 


E. 


0-.535 


9 


29-413 


64-1 


55-5 


64-4 


61-6 


S.E. 


Cum. 


2 


S.E. 


0-200 


10 


29-678 


68-0 


55-8 


60-3 


57 3 


S.E. 


Cum. 


10 


S.K 


0-480 


11 


29700 


64-8 


55-3 


58-7 


57-3 


S.E. 


Cum. 


10 


S.E. 


0-070 


12 


29-659 


60 8 


55-0 


55-7 


55 1 


N.E. 


Nim- 


10 


N.E. 


0-200 


13 


29-653 


56-6 


50-9 


53-7 


50-3 


N.E. 


Cum- 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 


14 


29-804 


57-7 


49-9 


55-1 


50-9 


N. 


Cnm. 


9 


N. 


0-000 


15 


29-867 


61-8 


51-9 


56-5 


51-1 


N.E. 


Cum. 


10 


W. 


0-000 


16 


29-744 


62-8 


46-8 


60-7 


56-9 


W. 


Cum. 


9 


S.W. 


0-230 


17 


29-611 


66-7 


49-1 


63-3 


56-2 


N.W. 


Cum. 


6 


N.W. 


0-001 


18 


29-826 


65-8 


52-1 


619 


56-3 


N.W. 


Cir. 


2 


N.W. 


0-210 


19 


29-347 


67-8 


53-0 


63-9 


60-9 


W. 


Cum. 


6 


W. 


0-001 


20 


29-248 


71-2 


54-3 


601 


55-1 


W. 


Cum. 


9 


w. 


0-000 


21 


29-457 


66-6 


49-0 


50-8 


55-1 


W. 


Cum. 


2 


w. 


0-000 


22 


29-684 


67-8 


50-1 


61-8 


551 


W. 


Cum. 


6 


w. 


0-000 


23 


29-924 


68-4 


43-8 


59-8 


52-9 


W. 


... 







0-010 [ 


24 


29 624 


66-5 


58-0 


62-2 


58-2 


S.W. 


Cum. 


10 


S.W. 


■ 0-260 j 


25 


29-472 


72-0 


50-9 


540 


53-2 


w. 


Nim, 


10 


w. 


0-035 


26 


29-708 


68-6 


5-2-8 


601 


55-9 


N. 


Cum. 


10 


N. 


001 


27 


30-106 


63 7 


46-0 


59-9 


521 


N.E. 


Cir. 


4 


N. 


• 000 


28 


30-104 


638 


46-2 


55-1 


53-0 


S.E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


1 0-010 


29 


29-902 


64-9 


52-8 


58-9 


56-1 


W. 


Cum. 


10 


W. 


1 0-000 


30 


29-773 


65-8 


47-5 


58-3 


541 


N. 


Cum. 


10 


N. 


0-340 


31 


29-787 


63-5 


48-3 


62-5 


55-8 


N. 


Cum. 


5 


N. 


0-060 



Barometer.— Highest Observed, on the 3rd, =30112 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 20th, = 29 248 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 0-864 inch. Meau 
= 29-772 inches. 

S. K. Thermometers.— Highest Observed, on the 25th. = 72°-0. Lowest Observed, 
on the 23rd, =43°-8. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 28°-2. Mean of all the 
Highest = 64°-8. Mean of all the Lowest = 51° -6. Difference, or Mean DaUy 
Range, = ]3°-2. Mean Temperatiire of Month = 58°-2. 

Hygrometer. — Mean of Dry Bulb = 58° -7. Mean of Wet Bulb = 55° "0. 

Rainfall. —Number of Days on which Rain fell = 18. Amonnt of Fall = 2728 
inches. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 8th, = 0-535 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, 
Observer. 



% 



Nov. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



13 



(2) Meteorological Observations taken at Eoyal Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of August 1893. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea- Level, 
71"5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





'^^ 


Themiometei 


s, protected. 
















4 feet above grass. | 










^ 


3 
O 


1J 

a) 






a 


Clouds. 




a 


S. E. Ther- 
mometers for 




2 


'is 


preceding 


Hygrometer. 


o 
j3 








'-' 




24 hours. 




o 

o 








'c3 












-«• 




fi 


p «J 
^1 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


p 


Kind. 


o 

a 
< 


ii 


M 






o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


29-811 


65-0 


49-6 


60-1 


54-3 


N.W. 


Cir. 


6 


N.w. 


0-065 


2 


29-(;7o 


64-3 


58-0 


64-3 


59-2 


n.w. 


Cum. 


5 


N.W. 


0-180 


r$ 


2!V3(;l 


69-1 


53-0 


62-9 


61-7 


s.w. 


Cum. 


10 


S.W. 


0-155 


■i 


29-410 


66-2 


49-7 


64-3 


68-1 


s.w. 


Cum. 


1 


S.W. 


0-430 





29-714 


64-8 


49-1 


52-3 


51-3 


N. 


Nim. 


10 


N. 


0-050 


6 


29-9G7 


62-7 


45-1 


58-0 


53 


E. 


(■Cir.Cum. 
1 Cum. 


8 
1 


w.i 

S.E.j 


0-235 


7 


29-753 


64-7 


54-1 


57-8 


56-4 


S. 


St. 


10 


S.E. 


0-001 


8 


29-872 


70-9 


55-5 


63-7 


61-4 


w. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-013 


i» 


29-976 


71-0 


53-9 


63-9 


61-2 


N.w. 


Cum. 


8 


w. 


0-069 


10 


29-805 


77-9 


575 


58-9 


58-0 


E. 


Nim. 


6 


E. 


0-165 


11 


29-801 


68-7 


57-3 


60-4 


59-3 


S.E. 


Cum. 


10 


E. 


0-074 


12 


29-863 


69-9 


53-5 


68-7 


63-9 


S.W. 


Cum. 


5 


S.W. 


0-000 


13 


30-065 


73-5 


50-5 


66-9 


61-3 


w. 


Cir. 


4 


W. 


0-000 


U 


30-095 


75-0 


67-0 


65-8 


63-9 


w. 


Cir. 


2 


W. 


0-000 


If) 


30-053 


75-8 


58-0 


75-0 


6^<-3 


w. 









0-000 


k; 


30-048 


82-8 


59-4 


68-2 


64-4 


w. 


Cum. 


7 


W. 


0-000 


17 


29-883 


75-0 


571 


63-9 


61-9 


s.w. 


Cum. 


10 


S.W. 


0-000 


18 


29-579 


75-8 


58-5 


64-5 


62-2 


s.w. 


Cir. 


8 


s.w. 


0-000 


19 


29-617 


77-0 


54-5 


69-7 


62-2 


s.w. 









0-505 


20 


29-341 


74-2 


55-2 


60-0 


58-7 


s.w. 


( cir. 
\ Cum. 


ri} 


S.W. 


0-298 


21 


29-008 


71-6 


56-7 


59-7 


55-5 


s.w. 


Cum. 


2 


s.w. 


0-024 


22 


29-358 


66-1 


54-3 


62-6 


66-5 


s.w. 


Cum. 


6 


w. 


0-267 


23 


29-567 


680 


48-8 


59-0 


56-9 


s.w. 


Cum. 


8 


s.w. 


0-099 


24 


29-637 


679 


49-1 


59-0 


55-8 


s.w. 


Cum. 


4 


w. 


0-000 


25 


29-983 


67-0 


50-1 


63 


67-4 


N.w. 


Cir. 


2 


N.w. 


0-000 


2G 


30-011 


66-6 


50-0 


5><-8 


54-9 


w. 


Cum. 


6 


w. 


(1-000 


27 


30-017 


68-6 


49-3 


56-4 


51-3 


N.E. 


Cum. 


8 


N.E. 


0-000 


28 


30-150 


63-9 


40-8 


56-1 


52-4 


N.E 


f Cir. 
"^ Cum. 
Cum. 


1} 

8 


N.E. 


0-000 


29 


30-127 


63-1 


49-0 


60-6 


563 


W. 


W. 


0-000 


30 


29-952 


73-3 


51-1 


630 


57-9 


S.W. 


Cum. 


6 


S.W. 


0-019 


31 


29-791 

1 


70-7 


54-0 


54-7 


53-8 


N.E. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-022 



Barometer. — Highest Observed, on the 28th, =30-150 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 21st, =^ 29-00« inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 1-142 inch. Mean 
= 29-784 inches. 

S. E. Thermometers.— Hiffhest Observed, on the 16th, = 82°-8. Lowest Observed, 
on the 28th, = 40°-8. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 42°-0. Mean of all the 
Highest = 7()°-0. Mean of all the Lowest = 52°-9. Difference, or Jleuu Daily Range, 
=. 17°-1. Mean Temperature of Montii = 61°-4. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 62°-0. Mean of Wet Bulb = 58°-4. 

Rainfall.- Number of Daj^s on which Rain fell =18. Amount of Fall = 2-671 
inches. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 19tb, = 0-505 inch. 



A. D. RICHARDSON,) ,., 

A. ANDERSON, J ^''*"'" 



14 



TEANSACTIONS AXD PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



(3) Meteorological Observations taken at Royal Botanic 
Garden, EDiNreuRGH, during the Month of Seftember 1893. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
71o feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 



o 

o 


X x 

c =: 

h 

p H 


Thermometers, protected, 
4 feet above grass. 


o 
a 

"S 

a 

s 


Clouds. 


5 


S. B. Ther- '| 
mometers for „ 
preceding Hygrometer. 

24 hours. 


Max. 


Min. I Dry. 


WeL 


Kind. 


c 
£ 

< 


1 


1 


2;*-756 


59-9 


50-5 


59-9 


53-9 


s.w. 


Cum. 


10 


S.W. 


0-055 


2 


30-007 


66-0 


55-6 


641 


60-0 


N.W. 


Cum- 


10 


N.W. 


0-000 


3 


30190 


71-8 


53-7 


58-9 


55-1 


E. 


Cum. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


4 


30-091 


63-5 


48-8 


6-3-3 


58-9 


N. 


Cir. 


1 


N. 


0-000 


5 


29-853 


71-8 


49-4 


62 8 


582 


W. 









0-000 


6 


•29-633 


70-2 


514 


60-1 


56-9 


TV. 


Cum. 


8 


W 


0-060 


7 


29-449 


67-8 


53-1 


60-1 


58-2 


W. 


Cum. 


9 


W. . 


0-080 


8 


29-440 


68-0 


50-3 


59-7 


55-0 


W. 


J Cir. 
\ Cum. 


t] 


w. 


0-065 


9 


29-776 


62-8 


41-0 


51-9 


47-7 


N. 


Cum. 


5 


N. 


0-010 


10 


30014 


62-9 


36-2 


50-2 


44-9 


N.W. 









0-000 


11 


29-777 


58-0 


36-0 


54-0 


49-4 


N. 









0-000 


12 


30-204 


60-9 


36-5 


57-2 


52-1 


N.W. 







... 


0-000 


13 


29-769 


64-6 


51-8 


60-3 


57-2 


S.W. 


Cum. 


10 


S.W. 


0-000 


U 


29-959 


64-0 


54-9 


61-0 


59-1 


W. 


Cum. 


10 


w. 


0-000 


15 


29-8(J3 


67-7 


59-2 


62-7 


591 


S.W. 


Cum. 


10 


S.W. 


0-000 


16 


29-756 


63-8 


50-9 


57-7 


54-3 


w. 


Cum. 


1 


w. 


0-000 


17 


29-587 


62-9 


45-0 


54-1 


51-3 


w. 


Cum. 


10 


w. 


0-020 


18 


29-356 


58-8 


52-4 571 


56-0 


w. 


Nim. 


10 


w. 


0-040 


19 


29-065 


61-6 


53-0 57-1 


52-0 


w. 


Cum. 


2 


w. 


0'045 


20 


29-203 


61-7 


414 49-0 


45-8 


w. 


Cir. 


4 


w. 


0-000 


21 


29-346 


58-7 


38-0 46-8 


44-8 


w. 


Cir. 


10 


N. 


0-130 


22 


29-490 


52-0 


40-0 47-3 


44-1 


N.W. 


Cum. 


9 


N.W. 


.0-070 


23 


29-356 


53-2 


34-8 40-9 


37-9 


N.W. 


SL 


10 


N.W. 


0-010 


24 


29-806 


48-3 


36-1 46-8 


43-8 


W. 


Cir. St 


9 


N. 


0-050 


25 


29-857 


511 


42-0 


48-2 


42-4 


N.W. 


Cir. 


2 


N.W. 


0-060 


26 


29-793 


540 


42-0 


45-5 


44-2 


E. 


Cum. 


10 


E. 


0-020 


27 


29-615 


49-8 


45-0 


49-8 


49-1 


W. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-090 


28 


29-326 


55-7 


440 


557 


51-7 


W. 


Cum. 


9 


W. 


0-840 


29 


28-8-20 


646 


46-0 


56-1 


51-0 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-130 


30 


28-943 


CI 8 


45-2 5a-2 


49-0 


S.W. 


Cir. 


2 


S.W. 


0-175 



Barometer, — Highest Observed, on the 12th, = 30-204 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 29th, = 28-820 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 1-384 inch. Mean 
= 29-6o5 inches. 

S. R. Thermometers. — Highest Observed, on the 3rd and 5th, = 71°-8. Lowest 
Observed, on the 23rd, = 34°-8. Difference, or Monthly Range, -= 37°-0. Mean of 
all the Highest = 61°-3. Mean of all the Lowest = 46°-l. Difference, or Mean 
Daily Range, = 15°-2. Mean Temperature of Month = 53° -7. 

Hygrometer. — Mean of Dry Bulb ^ 55°-0. Mean of Wet Bulb = 51°-4. 

Rainfall. — Number of Days on which Rain fell = 18. Amount of Fall =1-950 
inch. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 28th, = 0-840 inch. 



A. D. RICHARDSON,"! 
A. ANDERSON, | 



Observers. 



Nov. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



15 



(4) Meteorological Observations taken at Koyal Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of October 1893. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
71 '5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





■^ ^ 


Thermometers, protected. 














g " 
" ^ 


4 feet above grass. 


t: 








/-N 


p 
o 












p; 


Clouds. 




13 


S. E. 


Ther- 






u 


mometers for 






^ 








a 


ID 


C ' 


preceding 


Hj'grometer. 


o 
a 








"-^ 


^ 


^eo 


24 hours. 












^ 


O 
m 




















3 












p 


, 


fi 


o o 
pq g 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry, 


Wet. 


o 


Kind. 


o 


5"^ 


M 






o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


29-331 


60-9 


44-7 


55-4 


51-3 


s w. 


Cir. 


5 


N.W. 


0-020 


2 


29-381 


60-9 


40-9 


52-3 


49-8 


w. 


Cir. St. 


4 


s. 


0-045 


3 


29-134 


58-8 


42-3 


48-0 


45-3 


w. 


Cir. 


2 


s. 


0-010 


4 


28-917 


56-8 


34-8 


42-2 


41-6 


s.w. 


Cum. 


10 


S.W. 


0-000 


5 


29-008 


48-0 


33-1 


45-9 


43-9 


N.W. 









0-000 


6 


29-202 


55-6 


39-9 


48-5 


46-8 


w. 


... 







0-000 


7 


29-493 


57-7 


43-6 


61-1 


48-8 


w. 









0-950 


8 


29-451 


57-0 


42-8 


60-3 


60-1 


N.E. 


Nini. 


10 


N.E. 


0-060 


9 


29-745 


53-8 


35 


47-2 


45-2 


S. 


Cum. 


6 


S. 


0-000 


10 


29-539 


52-4 


39-9 


4G-4 


44-8 


S.W. 









0-000 


11 


29-494 


63-8 


40-1 


48-2- 


44-2 


N.W. 









0-000 


12 


29-759 


56-0 


41-8 


46-8 


43-2 


W. 









0-000 


13 


29-941 


54-8 


39-0 


45-7 


431 


N.W. 


Cir. St. 


10 


N.W. 


0-365 


14 


29-487 


56-4 


45-4 


56-1 


55-9 


W. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-245 


15 


29-550 


60-0 


55-6 


59-7 


58-7 


S.W. 


Cum. 


10 


S.W. 


0-020 


16 


29-528 


63-4 


55-6 


590 


56-1 


W. 


Cum. 


4 


w. 


0-000 


17 


29-857 


61-4 


47-2 


50-0 


48 


W. 


... 







0-000 


18 


30-025 


58 


39-0 


48-0 


46-7 


N.W. 


Cum. 


() 


n'.w. 


0-000 


19 


30-157 


55-9 


46-9 


63-3 


50-9 


W. 


Cum. 


10 


w. 


0-000 


20 


30-107 


58-5 


47-9 


51-4 


48-8 


S.W. 


Cir. St. 


10 


S.W. 


0-000 


21 


29-858 


59-9 


50-9 


69-3 


57-1 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-025 


22 


29-981 


61-8 


41-6 


60-1 


47-2 


S.W. 


Cum. 


2 


w. 


0-000 


23 


30-294 


55-6 


38-7 


43-6 


42-3 


w. 









0-000 


24 


30-027 


53-8 


42-9 


52-0 


49-5 


w. 


Cum. 


5 


w. 


0-185 


25 


29-486 


56-9 


49-0 


49-2 


48-7 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


s.w. 


0-700 


26 


29-418 


49-8 


36-1 


40-0 


38-1 


w. 


Cir. 


5 


N. 


0-000 


27 


29-703 


46-0 


36-0 


43-7 


41-2 


w. 









0-000 


28 


29-337 


52-8 


43-1 


52-8 


50-1 


w. 


f cir. 
1 Cum. 


2) 
if 


w. 


0-OiO 


29 


29-400 


56-8 


38-0 


39-2 


37-8 


w. 


... 







0-020 


30 


29-821 


44-9 


29-1 


331 


31-5 


N.W. 









0-000 


31 


30-098 


43-9 


26-0 


31-7 


30-6 


N.W. 









0-055 



Barometer.— Highest Observed, on the 23rd, = 30-294 inches. Lowest Observed 
on the 4th, = 28-917 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, -- 1-377 inch. Mean 
«= 29-G30 inches. 

S. R. Thermometers.— Highest Observed, on the 16th, = 63°-4. Lowest Observed 
on the 31st, = 26°-0. Difference, or Monthly Range, --: 37°-4. Mean of all the 
Highest ==55°-2. Moan of all the Lowest = 41°-5. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Range, = 13°-7. Mean Temperature of Month = 48°-3. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 48°-4. Mean of Wet Bulb =46°-4. 

Rainfall. — Number of Days on which Rain fell -= 14. Amount of Fall = 2-710 
inches. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 7th, = 0-950 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, 
Observer. 



16 TRA2fSACTI0NS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lvui. 

III. Ox PiiBES SUBTESTITUM, Hooker and Arnott By 

A- J). ElCHARDSOX. 

In 1882 a Eibcs, of which a dried specimen is exhibited, 
was received by the Edinburgh Arboretum from the Eoyal 
Gardens, Kew, under the name of Rihes Cyrwbasti. 

In the end of April of the present year, when the plant 
was in flower, I endeavoured to ascertain whether it was 
correctly named, the result being that it turned out to be, 
not Eihes Cynobasti, but E. subvestitum of Hooker and 
Arnott. 

On a first comparison I was led to believe that it was 
E. Lobhi of Gray, a Californian species, from the fact that 
a woodcut and description in the " Gardeners' Chronicle " 
(Vol. XIX., X. S., p. 11), of what I then understood to be 
that species, seemed to agree very closely in every respect 
with our plant, and which was stated in the accompanying 
letterpress to be synonymous with E. suhrcstitum of Hooker 
in the "Botanical Magazine" (Vol. 82, t. 4931), but not 
with E. subvestitum of Hooker and Arnott in the "Botany 
of Beechey's Voyage." On turning to the " Botanical 
Magazine," however, I was surprised to find that the plant 
there figured as E. suhvestifum was said to be synonymous 
with E. suhvcstitum of Hooker and Arnott, but it did not 
quite agree with our plant, or with that figured in the 
" Gardeners' Chronicle." 

In the belief that two species were involved in the 
'•' Botanical Magazine " and " Gardeners' Chronicle " figures, 
and seeing that these two works contradicted each other 
regarding the synonymy, I sent to the editor of the 
" Grardeners' Chronicle " (Dr. Masters) a specimen of our 
plant, and, at the same time, drew his attention to the 
contradictory statements before mentioned. In his reply, 
Dr. Masters stated that the plant from which the 
" Gardeners' Chronicle " figure was made was received 
from Kew as E. subvestitum of Hooker in the " Botanical 
Magazine " ; and that that plant being the same as E. 
Lobbi of Gray, a mistake had somehow arisen in attaching 
the name Lolibi to the figure. He also stated that the 
" Gardeners' Chronicle " plant and our plant w'ere one and 
the same species, viz., E. Svibvcstitum of Hooker and Arnott, 



Nov. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGII. 17 

which species in his opinion was only a variety of R. 
Mcnzicsii of Pursh. 

The synonymy, therefore, stands thus : — 

1. B. Lohhi of the "Gardeners' Chronicle" (not of Gray) 

and the Edinburgh Arboretum plant are B. 
sulvestitiim of Hooker and Arnott (not of the 
" Botanical Magazine.") 

2, B. Lohhi of Gray (not of the " Gardeners' Chronicle ") 

is the same as B. suhvestitum of Hooker in the 

" Botanical Magazine " (not of Hooker and 

Arnott.) 

B. suhvcstitu'iii of Hooker is a native of California, and 

was first discovered by the naturalists of Captain Beechey's 

surveying voyage. It was subsequently introduced into 

this country by Lobb, and it therefore seems appropriate 

that Gray should have selected the specific name Lohhi in 

preference to the older one, especially as another species 

bearing the same name was already in existence at that 

time. This species seems, however, to be little known. 

B. suhvestitum of Hooker and Arnott flowers freely in 
the Edinburgh Arboretum, and forms, when in full flower 
in spring, a very striking and pretty object, the flowers 
hanging down like those of a small flowered fuchsia. It 
has not, however, produced ripe fruit here. 

IV. The Plants in the Palm House and Temperate 
House. By E. L. Harrows 

Since the opening of the Palm House on the 1st of 
September last, nearly 150 species and varieties of plants 
have flowered, and the effects of the past exceptional 
summer are now visible in many ornamental and foliage 
plants, in their production of a more intense colour and 
greater substance in the leaves. The success attending the 
planting out of the occupants in the beds arranged for 
their reception has been entirely satisfactory. Planted in 
tubs, as these specimens formerly were, their growth was in 
some cases naturally stunted ; since more root-action was 
allowed there has been produced a greater plenitude of both 
flowers and foliage. The palms in the Temperate House, 
which were formerly subjected to warmer treatment, are 

TRANS. BOT. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. B 



18 TEAXSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

now growing luxuriantly under a much lower temperature, 
Banibusa arundinacca, which started its first growth about 
the middle of August, has since thrown up five other shoots 
exhibiting great vigour. Another plant, Euterpe ahilis, 
which, on account of its height, could not be placed in a 
more tropical position in the Palm House, is still producing 
foliage almost the size of that found under its original 
warmer temperature. As these plants are generally grown 
under tropical conditions, an interesting illustration of the 
fact that plants will often thrive in lower temperatures 
than those thought to be essential for their successful 
culture is presented. 

During the past month many interesting, and several 
rare plants have flowered, a few of the most noticeable 
being the following : — 

Eaadenia eminens, a native of tropical Africa, and 
belonging to the order Ccqjparidccc. Its flowers are 
borne upon a terminal inflorescence, are of a greenish- 
yellow colour, and are in considerable numbers. The two 
upper petals are about 4 inches in length, spread out in an 
upward position, while the two lower are almost suppressed. 
This plant has, to our knowledge, never been fruited under 
cultivation, and our attempts were unsuccessful, although 
pollen was produced in abundance. 

Stapelia gigantea, of which a flower is exhibited, is noted, 
as its name implies, as being the largest of this remarkable 
genus, our largest flower measuring nearly a foot in 
diameter. 

Aristolochia gigas, var. Sturtevantii, which was received 
by us in the spring of this year from Kew, has since 
planting produced five flowers, four others in different 
stages being still upon the plant. The dimensions of the 
largest flower were 14 inches across, 1 foot 8 inches long, 
exclusive of the tail of the flower, which, being included, 
gave it a total length of 5 feet 3 inches. This being the 
first occasion of its having flowered in Scotland, it is still 
a source of great attraction to visitors. 

Amongst the many others worthy of remark are : — 
Allamanda neriifolia, A. Williamsii, Crinum asiaticum 
variegaium, Eranthemum alhiflorum, Ixora coccinea, Momor- 
dica Charantia, Liiffa cegyptica, Jasmimim Mrsuhim, U'Tiit- 



Nov. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 19 

Jiddia lateritia, Crotoii discolor, Mcdinilla venosa, Thcohroma 
Cacao, Begonia sinuata, Cosius igncus, Bignonia jpurpurea, 
Trichosanthcs anguina, Astclia BanJcsii, Strcptocarpus Diinnii, 
JRhodochiton voluhile, Bauera riibioides, Tinea, ccthiopica, 
Pitcairnca Andreana, Jatropha podagrica. 

On the table are exhibited plants and cut specimens, in 
flower, of : Gordonia anomcda, Sprang. = Fohjspora axillaris, 
Don. and Eoxb., — a free-flowering shrub, of the order 
Ternsircemiacece, bearing white flowers ; it is a native 
of Tropical and Sub-Tropical Asia, introduced in 1816. 
Callicarpa p)i''rpurea, — a native of India, bearing flowers in 
cymose clusters, which are very insignificant ; but pro- 
ducing berries of a deep glossy violet colour. Solanum 
iSeafortliaiii}un, — a beautiful climbing plant, formerly 
figured in the " Botanical Magazine " as >S'. vcnustum. 
Introduced 1804. Mcdpighia glcdjra, Bardados cherry, — 
coming from West Indies, where it is sometimes cultivated 
for its fruit ; its flowers, of a light pink colour, are 
produced late in the autumn from the axils of the leaves. 
Glohha ScJwmhurgJiii, from Siam, and G. atrosanguinca, 
from Bornea, — species of a genus of Scitamincce, remarkable 
for the development of root-tuber-buds in the axils of the 
. lower bracts of the spicate inflorescence. These are 
commonly mistaken for the fruit of the plant, with which, 
however, Lhey have no resemblance. Clerodendron nutans, 
— a creamy-white flowered species. Gi/nura sarmentosa, — 
a composite with dark-coloured phyllaries, and a peculiar, 
rather off"ensive, odour in the flowers. Phyllanthus nivosus, 
from South Sea Islands, — a very effective foliage 
euphorbiaceous plant. 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 2 1 

MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, December 14, 1893. 
Dr. Craig, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Eeginald Macleod, Queen's and Lord Treasurer's 
liemembrancer, and Pekcival C. Waite, were elected 
Eesident Fellows of the Society. 

The Chairman informed the Society of the deaths of 
Rev. George Gordon, LL.D., and of A. Stephen Wilson, 
Non-Eesident Fellows of the Society. 

The Treasurer briefly stated the financial position of 
the Society, particulars of which he promised to communi- 
cate at tlie next meeting of the Society. 

The following donations to the Illustration Fund were 
announced : — 

Dr. Cleghorn, . . . .£100 

Sir J. D. Hooker, . . . 2 2 

Presents to the Library at the Eoyal Botanic Garden 
were announced, amongst them being the second fasciculus, 
completing the first volume of the " Index Kewensis." 

]\Ir. Euthereord Hill said — Among some Museum 
specimens, received a few days ago, was a specimen of the 
Malay fish poison, called Aker Tuba. It is the root of 
Derris dliptica, Benth., a papilionaceous woody climber, 
which grows wild on the plains in Perak, and is also rather 
extensively cultivated. The roots, known as Tuba root, 
are done up into bundles like the one I now exhibit. This 
one is quite dry, but as sold in the East they are in the 
fresh state, and have a rather pleasant aromatic, resinous 
smell, resembling tliat of fresh liquorice root. "When cut, 
a milky juice exudes. This root has for a long time been 
used by the Malays for poisoning fish, the chopped roots 
being placed in the water. It also enters into the com- 
position of the " Ipoh " arrow poison of Borneo. As it 

Issued November 189-1. 



22 TEANSACTIOXS AXD PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

completely destroys the stock of fish in a stream, a law has 
been passed prohibiting its use. The root has also been 
extensively employed by Chinese gardeners for the destruc- 
tion of the insect pests which infest gardens and greenhouses. 
It is interesting to note that another species, I), uliginosa, 
Benth., is employed as a fish poison on the Zambesi, in 
East Africa. 

An examination of the root was made by M. Greshoff in 
1891, but a more complete investigation was made last 
year by Mr. Leonard Wray, Curator of the Perak Govern- 
ment Museum. He found that 2 grains of the fresh root 
added to 1 gallon of water rapidly killed fish placed in 
it. By exhausting the root with alcohol, acidulated with 
hydrochloric acid, and evaporating, a gummy substance 
separated, and was collected and pressed into a mass. This 
proved to be the active principle, to which he gives the 
name of " tubain." Tubain is very brittle, reddish brown, 
quite in.soluble in water, paraflBn oil, and benzol, but soluble 
in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. It is not an alkaloid, 
but a resinous substance. The dried root yields 9*42 per 
cent, of tubain by the above process, but it is hardly 
probable that it has yet been obtained in a pure state. It 
is intensely poisonous. Mr. Wray found that 1 part of 
tubain in 350,000 parts of water proves quickly fatal to 
fish, and so small a quantity as 1 part in 1,000,000 parts 
of water killed fish in from 15 to 30 minutes. Mr. Wray 
suggests that this substance might be employed to destroy 
insect pests, and is well worthy the attention of makers of 
insecticides, and of floriculturists and horticulturists gene- 
rally. This investigation being so recent, I have thought it 
would be of interest to the Fellows to see the specimen of 
the root which I have shown. 

Miss ]SlADDEy exhibited a cone of Araucaria iiribricata 
from Argyllshire. 

Professor Batlet Balfour exhibited models, by DeyroUe 
of Paris, of a section of tree-stem and of a grain of wheat, 
from the Museum of the Pi oval Botanic Garden ; also the 
top of a specimen of Ahks grandis blown down in one of 
the recent gales at Keir, and sent by Mr. Stirling-Maxwell 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 23 

of Keir. The specimen was remarkable for the growths, in 
length, of the three past years it exhibited, the length of the 
stem being in each year over 4 feet. 



The following Papers were read : — 

Obituary Xotice of Charles Jenner. By Eobert 
Lindsay. 

We have to record with great regret the death of Charles 
Jenner, which occurred at Easter Duddingston Lodge, 
Portobello, on 27th October 1893, in the eighty-fourth 
year of his age. Born at Chatham, Kent, on the 1st 
September 1810, he was sent, when thirteen years old, to 
learn the business which in after life he pursued with so 
much zeal and energy, and at the age of twenty he came 
to Edinburgh, founded, and carried on for fifty years, one 
of the most successful drapery establishments in the city. 

Soon after settlina; in Edinburoh Mr. Jenner became a 
member of the Philosophical Institution, and he attributed 
much of his success in after life to the valuable instruction 
he received there. His tastes directed him to literary and 
scientific pursuits, and he joined tlie Botanical Society in 
1351, and found time during his busy life to contribute 
several papers to our Transactions. His attention was early 
directed to cryptogamic plants, and he devoted much time 
to the study of the unicellular Alga?. In 1867 he was 
elected President of this Society. 

Mr. Jenner had an intense admiration of Scottish scenery, 
and took special delight in botanizing on our Scottish moun- 
tains ; indeed, nearly all his holidays were thus spent. He 
began with the Pentland Hills, the geology of which first 
attracted him ; this he followed up until there was scarcely 
a mountain district in Scotland that he did not know 
intimately. 

In 1868, when President of this Society, he proposed 
the formation of an Alpine Botanical Club, on the plan 
pursued at some of the German universities, and a committee 
was appointed to consider the subject, but it never reported. 
The idea, however, was not lost sight of, for within two 
years the Scottish Alpine Botanical Club was formed at 



24 TEANSACTIOXS AXD PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. L^^II. 

Killin, of which Mr. Jenner was elected an Honorary 
Fellow on the 5th Aucrust 1873. During a botanical 
visit to Eoss-shire and Inverness-shire in 1867, in com- 
pany with Mr! Charles Howie of St. Andrews, Mr. Jenner 
discovered a small moss, which Professor Schimper of 
Strassburg regarded as a new species, and named Didy- 
modoii Jennerii, in honour of its finder ; '" and in the same 
excursion a handsome thistle was found, which has been 
named Cnicus Carolorum (the Charles thistle). Mr. Jenner 
suggested that the plant was probably a natural hybrid, and 
this view has been generally accepted, the parents of the 
form being C. hetcropliylhis and C. palustris. In August 
1892, at Mr. Jeuner's request, I visited the district where 
he had found the thistle twenty-five years previously, and 
I was enabled, from his accurate instructions, to find the 
plant, although its locality is limited to an area of a few 
yards in extent. A few young plants were brought to 
Easter Duddingston garden, but have not yet flowered. 

Xot the least of Mr. Jenner's ser'S'ices to botany and 
horticulture is the formation and maintenance for so many 
years of a garden which, in point of richness and interest, 
is second to none of the private collections of living 
plants in the kingdom. His garden had always the greatest 
attractions for him, and a brief account of its origin and out- 
standing features may be here given.t The grounds were 
laid out chiefly by the late William Gome, the late James 
Macnab also rendered valuable assistance. The garden now 
consists of about eight acres, devoted to a large collection of 
ornamental plants, with the exception of about an acre and 
a half of vegetable garden. The original rock-garden was 
constructed by Mr. Jenner and Mr. Howie in 1862, and con- 
sists of a series of raised beds, having their margins fitted 
with blocks of stone set on end, forming pocket-lik6 spaces 
which were filled with special soil to suit the requirements 
of various alj)ine plants. The stone divisions thus prevent 

* Figured and described in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. ix. (1868), 
pp. 314. 315. It has since been shown that this is the Oncophorux poly- 
carpus (Ehrh.), Brid. See Braithwaite's Moss Flora of Great Britain, I., 
p. 169. 

t An account of the garden, being a paper entitled " A Scientific 
Garden," read at an evening meeting of the Edinburgh Naturalists' 
Field Club and !Microscropical Society, on 23rd March 1>>92, -vnth 
portraits of Mr. Jenner and Mr. Gorrie. and some views by Mr. John 
Lindsay, was printed for private circulation in 1S92. 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 2 5 

the more rampaut-growiug plants from mixing with and 
over-running the more delicate and slow-growing alpines. 
A large number of the plants in this part of the rock-garden 
were gathered by Mr. Jenner during his Highland excur- 
sions, the remainder consists of the best kinds of alpines of 
other countries that were in cultivation at the time. This 
was the first of this type of rock-garden constructed, so far 
as I know, in Britain; and that it has answered the purpose 
intended is witnessed by the fact that the majority of the 
original plants, planted thirty-one years ago, are still in 
perfect health and vigour. The raised beds were not 
stoned, but were simply planted with dwarf-growing shrubs 
or trees, many of which have been long since removed, as 
they had outgrown their positions, and in their place groups 
of lilies, ranunculus, anemone, and other showy plants 
have been substituted. All the rest of the rock-work at 
Easter Duddingston was designed by Mr. Gorrie. The best 
portion is a charming piece of artistic rock-work lying south 
of the original rock-garden, called by Mr. Jenner " Corrie- 
more," as a memento of a botanical tour. This portion has 
been laid out in a different manner from the rest. The 
ground, instead of being raised, is excavated to a depth of 
about 8 feet, the excavations forming a high bank all 
round. Eough stones, placed firmly in the ground, support 
the mass of soil forming the banks, and give the sides a 
cliff-like appearance. A sloping narrow path runs round 
both sides, and reaches the bottom, now laid out as a bog- 
garden. The high banks afiord ample protection for the 
growth of tender plants. Here such plants as Chamccrops 
Fortunei, Aralia Sieboldi, Phormium tenax, Cordyline cnis- 
tralis, Bamhusa falcata, Qucrcus (jlabra, Ilex latifolia, and 
other half-hardy plants, resist the most severe winters. 

Adjoining " Corriemore " is an erection for the cultivation 
of hardy ferns. Under cover of a projecting roof, large 
blocks of sandstone are set up against a north wall, with 
spaces for soil. In this hardy fernery most of the British 
species with their varieties, and several Xorth American 
species, are successfully cultivated. Some of the sandstone 
blocks have numerous apertures about 2 inches in diameter 
hollowed out, in which patches of Arenaria halearica are 
grown for the purpose of draping the stones. In the damper 



2 6 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

portion of the fernery, the stones are covered with various 
liverworts. 

Of late years several interesting features have been added 
to the garden. In 1887, Mr. Jenner, to utilize a piece of 
ground left vacant because unfit for ordinary garden pur- 
poses, conceived the idea of converting it into an iris 
garden. The ground was wet and clayey, and in digging 
out the clay, water was found at a depth of two feet. Good 
loam and peat soil having been substituted, the ground was 
laid out in square beds, with gravel walks intersecting them, 
the edges of the beds being formed by chips of granite 
set on end. Some of the best varieties of Iris Kcenipferi 
were imported from Japan, with which the larger beds were 
filled. As many of the other species as could be obtained 
were planted separately, along with the best varieties of Mont- 
hretia. The Japanese irises proved to be magnificent varieties, 
mth enormously large blossoms, both single and double 
flowers, in various shades of colour. At the edges of the 
beds are rows of the early-flowering Siberian Ii^is reticulata 
planted thickly, which in spring is very effective. All the 
plants are now thriving luxuriantly here, and what was 
little better than a clay pit, is now one of the most 
interesting features of Easter Duddingston garden. In 
1889, the "Alpine Levels" were formed. This is an 
arrangement for growing alpine plants in beds — not as 
single specimens, but in masses. The beds are 32 in 
number. Each bed measures 9 by 7 feet, and is sub- 
divided into four parts, to contain individually one species 
in mass, and as their flowering periods vary, the plants are 
so arranged that the interest is kept up throughout the year. 
The subdivision of the large beds into four is effected by 
longitudinal and transverse rows of an exceedingly dwarf- 
growing juniper — Junipcriis commurds hihertiica compressa. 
Several specimens of this, planted in the original rock-garden 
thirty-two years ago, are at present only two feet in height,, 
and are compact, symmetrical, handsome bushes, although 
the)' have never Ijeen cut or pruned. The large beds are 
edged with stone, and a gravel path runs round each. 
Numerous bulbs are planted on both sides of the stone 
margins, including snowdrops, snowflakes, winter aconite,, 
crocuses, and anemones, which in spring are a beautiful 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 2 7 

sight. The beds themselves are filled with gentians, 
primulas, aubrietias, saxifrages, sedums, dianthuses, silenes, 
lithospermiims, dwarf phloxes, etc., which produce masses 
of colour at different seasons of the year, rivalling the effects 
by tender bedding plants, besides being permanent and 
most interesting at all seasons. 

Another important feature was added in 1889, viz., 
" The Climber Garden." This has proved an entire 
success. It consists of 50 circular beds, each 3 feet in 
diameter. A good stout spruce fir about 15 feet high is 
placed in the centre of each bed, round which the climbers 
cling for support, the remainder of the ground lieing taken 
up by gravel paths. Xo grass is used, in order that the 
climbers may be examined without getting the feet wet. 
Among the climbers are various kinds of clematis, jasmines, 
roses, AristolocMa Sipho, Actinidia Kolomikta, PeripJoca 
grceca, Mutisia cUcurrens, Tropceolum tuberosum, T. speciosu7n, 
Wistaria sinensis, Lathyrus latifolius, hop, Virginian creeper, 
etc. But none is more effective than the new climbing 
rose, " Crimson Eambler." The history of this rose is 
intimately connected with Easter Duddingston garden, 
and affords one of the many instances of Mr. Jenner's 
characteristic generosity. In 1878, Mr. Jenner received 
a consignment of plants from Japan, which he had com- 
missioned Professor E. Smith, at that time Professor of 
Engineering at Tokio, to obtain for him. Among the 
plants thus received was this splendid rose, which Mr. 
Jenner named " The Engineer," in compliment to Professor 
Smith. The rose, which proved to be a new variety of 
Rosa polyantha, was much admired, and Mr. Jenner, wishing 
to spread such a good plant abroad and at the same time 
help a deserving man, presented, in 1889, the whole stock 
to Mr. John Gilbert, a small nurseryman at Lincoln in 
whom he was interested. Mr. Gilbert, in the following 
year, exhibited cut flowers of " The Engineer " at a meeting 
of the Eoyal Horticultural Society in London, when it was 
unanimously awarded a certificate of merit, but as he had 
not the means of placing the plant properly on the market, 
he obtained ]\Ir. Jenner's permission to dispose of the stock 
to Mr. Charles Turner, of the Eoyal Nurseries, Slough 
Turner changed its name to that of " Crimson Eambler," 



28 TI{A^'SACTIO^'S and proceedings of the [Sess. lviii. 

and it soon became famous in this country and in France. 
So recently as May last, the gold medal of the National 
Horticultural Society of France was awarded to it as the 
best new plant exhibited. 

The garden at Easter Duddingston is specially rich in 
rare trees and shrubs. The late Mr. Gorrie had a free hand 
to purchase every hardy plant of interest when the garden 
was in course of formation, and no one knew better than he 
where such were to be obtained ; consequently, many of the 
rarest trees and shrubs in cultivation are to be met with 
here, such as Fagus Ciuiiiingliamii, over 12 feet high; 
Qxiercus Fordii, 20 feet ; Plagianthus hetulinus (the " Eibbon 
Tree" of Xew Zealand), over 20 feet high, etc., the latter 
interesting as having been planted by Sir William Jenner 
in 1879, during a visit to his brother at Easter Dudding- 
ston. Dwarf-growing and pendulous varieties of trees are 
here very numerous, and nearly all the hardy species of 
Ehododendron are represented, besides maples, oaks, hollies, 
conifers, etc., in great variety. The entire collection of 
species and varieties of plants in the garden exceeds 4000. 
Mr. Jenner could never be persuaded to take much 
interest in " in-door " plants. The taste for rare orchids 
and tender bedding plants he denounced, and would have 
none of them while there existed so many beautiful plants 
capable of withstanding our climate. The climate of Mid- 
lothian he held to be nearly perfect. 

He cordially welcomed the various Natural History 
Societies throughout the country which paid a visit to his 
garden. After the death of his wife in 1 8 8 0, he contemplated 
bequeathing his unique garden to the Edinburgh Naturalists' 
Field Club, but unfortunately this was not carried out. 
The school children of the district, and the children of the 
Edinburgh Industrial School, were frequently invited to 
spend a day at Easter Duddingston, and many will long 
remember the kindness shown on these occasions. Mr. 
Jenner took much interest in the Industrial School, and 
was one of its founders. To charitable objects he gave a 
great deal of help in an unostentatious manner. He enjoyed 
vigorous health, and to the last week of his life took the 
greatest interest in his garden, and was full of plans for its 
further development. His motto was " Endeavour ever,' 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUUGII. 29 

and his life justified its use. He will be remembered as 
one of our most successlul merchants, a man of large-hearted 
charity, and a liberal encourager of scientific horticulture. 

LIST OF BOTANICAL TAFERS BY MR. CHARLES JEXNER. 

1. A Comparative View of the more Important Stages of Development 

of the Higher Cryptogamia and Phanerogamia. Trans. Bot. Soc. 
Edin., vol. v., p. 55. 

2. On the Accessory Organs of the Hybrid Selaginella. Trans. Bot. 

Soc. Edin., vol. viii., p. 169. 

3. On the History and Structure of LTrococcus. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., 

vol. viii., p. 318. 

4. On the Study of Botany as a Branch of Mental Training. Trans. Bot. 

Soc. Edin., vol. x., p. 1. 

5. Notice of a New Carduus gathered during a Botanical Excursion in 

Ross-shire. By ^Ir. Charles Howie and Mr. Charles Jenner. 
Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. ix., p. 257. 

6. On Spores. Edin. New Pliil. Jour., vol. iii., p. 2G9. 



The Non-Assimilation of Atmospheric Nitrogen by 
Germinating Barley. (From Experiments made in 1880.) 
By T. Cutiibert Day. 

(With Zincographs, Figs. 1 and 2.) 

The question of the direct fixation of atmospheric nitrogen 
by growing plants seems to have been an attractive problem 
to workers in the field of vegetable physiology, judging by 
the number of experimenters who have, at different times,, 
attacked the subject. I believe it is generally acknowledged 
that plants, by themselves, are not able to make any direct 
use of the element which constitutes four-fifths of the 
atmosphere, though, by the aid of certain organisms which 
attach themselves to the roots of some plants, a direct 
assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen takes place, as has 
been amply proved by the researches of Hellreigel and 
AYilfarth, Berthelot, Frank, Schloesing, Lawes and Gilbert, 
and others. It is not my purpose to-night to deal with plants 
as they grow in the soil, but with the germinating seeds of 
a well-known cereal, namely, barley. Do the seeds of 
barley take up any nitrogen from the air during the 
germinating stage of growth ? The question does not 
seem to be of much importance, but as, some years ago, 
I commenced to study some points in connection with 
the respiration of germinating barley, it was absolutely 



10 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviil 



necessary, from the nature of the experiments I requii'ed to 
execute, to satisfy myself whether nitrogen was active or 
not. I consequently went through a series of determinations 
on the point, and secured a number of concordant results, 
the outcome of which I thought might prove of interest to 
this Society, and I have taken this opportunity of laying 
them before you. 

In a paper published in the Transactions of the Chemical 
Society (September 1880), I gave the results of three 
experiments on this subject, showing that atmospheric 
nitrogen takes no active part in the germination of barley. 
Taking into consideration the short length of time occu- 
pied by each of those experiments, I thought it desirable 
to confirm the results then obtained by executing a fresh 
series of experiments, each extending over a longer period, 
and to observe the fluctuations in the volume of confined 
air from day to day. 

The apparatus employed was the same as in the former 
experiments. It is seen in Fig. 1. A is a flask of about 
100 c.c. capacity, with 3iLM. graduations on the neck, and 
carefully calibrated. The flask is inverted, with its mouth 
under the surface of mercury, in the small glass vessel B, 
and the whole is immersed in a large beaker full of water. 
The changes of temperature are obsers'ed by means of a 
thermometer, D. A small plug of platinum wire, in the 
neck of the flask, sen-es to keep the germinating corns in 
their place in the body of the flask. 
The specific gra\dty of the platinum 
plug and of the steeped barley was 
determined, so that their volume might 
be deducted from that of the air in 
the flask. 

"When the apparatus was arranged 
for an experiment, a portion of the 
confined air was withdrawn by means 
of a gas syringe, shown in Fig. 2 — 
(The V tube A has a capillary bore ; 
B is a pinchcock on the suction tube.) 
— and the quantity of nitrogen deter- 
mined by analysis. At the end of 
the experiment, another portion of air was taken from the 




Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



31 



flask, aud the quantity of nitrogen again determined. In 

calculating the volume 
of the confined air, the 
usual corrections were 
applied for temperature, 
pressure, and tension of 
aqueous vapour. 

By the above means, 
we have the data neces- 
sary for ascertaining the 
quantity of atmospheric 
nitrogen present in the 
rjerminatinfT flask at the 
commencement and end of each experiment. I give below 
the results obtained in the series of six experiments. 

EXPERIMENT 1.-2,269 Grammes Steeped Barley. 
Temperature during Growth, 15-5° to 19-0° C. 




A'OLUME OF THE CONFINED AlR. 


Differ- 
ence. 


State of 
Germination. 


At start of Experiment, Aug. 5 

Do. do. „ 6 

Do. do. ,, 7 

At end of Experiment, Aug. 8 


c.c. 
99-08 
98-51 
97-92 
98-01 


c.c. 

-0-57 
-0-59 
+ 0-09 


Budding. 
Growing freelv. 
Do. 

Rootlets neai-ly as 
long as the corns. 



Composition of the Air in the Flask. 

At start of Experiment. At end of Experiment. 

Oxygen 20-77% 6 29% 

Nitrogen 79-23% 80-16% 

Carbonic Anhydride 0'00% 13-55% 



100-00 



100-00 



Volume of Air — 

At start of Experiment 
At end of Experiment, 



c.c, % c.c. 

..99-08, containing 79-23 Nitrogen = 78 -50 

..OS-Ol, ,, 80-16 ,, =78-56 

Gain= 0-06 



EXPERIMENT 2.-2,305 Grammes Steeped Barley. 
Temperature during Growth, 20 ^^ to 23-0' C. 



Volume of the Confined Air. 


Differ- 
ence. 


State of 
Germination. 


At start of Experiment, Aug. 11 ... 

Do. do. ,, 12 ... 

Do. do. ,, 13 ... 
At end of Experiment, ,, 14... 

1 


c.c. 
96-85 
96-61 
96-25 
97-31 


c.c. 

-0-24 
-0-36 
+ 0-96 


Just budding. 
Growing rapidly. 

Do. 
Root as long as 
corns. 



32 TEAXSACnOXS AXD PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lvul 

COMPOSITIOS or THE AlE EN" THE FlaSK. 

At start of Experiment. At end of Experiment. 

Oxygen 20-84% 0-23% 

Xitrogen 78-99% 78*97% 

Carbonic Anhydride 0-17% -20-80% 

100-00 100-00 

Volume of Aie — c.c. % c.c. 

At start of Experiment ...96-85, containing 78-99 Xitrogen = 76'51 
At end of Experiment ...97-31, ,, 78-97 "„ =76-84 

Gain= 0.33 



EXPERIitEXT 3.-2,138 Geammes Steeped Baiilet. 
Temperature daring Growth, 13-0^ to 15-8° C. 



ToLT-ME OF the CoxmfED ArR. 



At start of Experiment, Sept. 16 ... 

Do. do. „ 17 ... 

Do. do. ., 18 ... 

I At end of Experiment, „ 19 ... 



Differ- 



State of 
Germination. 



c.c. 


c.c. 


95-79 
95-70 
95-07 
94-63 


-0-09 
-0-63 
-0-56 



Just budding. 
Showing short root. 
Eoots rather longer. 
Pi.oots about I length 
of corns. 



Composition of the Aie rs the Flask. 



At start of Experiment. 

Oxygen 20-81% 

XitK^n.. 99-15% 

Carbonic Anhydride "04 % 

100-00 



At end of Experiment. 

6-77% 

79-97% 

13-26% 

100-00 



VoLtncE OF AiK — c.c. % c.c. 

At start of Expmment ...95-79, containing 79-15 Xitrogen=75-82 
At end of Experiment ...94-63, ., 7997 ,, =7567 

Loss= 0-15 



EXPEELMEXT 4.-2,144 Geammes Steeped Baelet. 
Temperature during Growth, 13-2° to 17-0° C, 



TtOL-ME OF THE CoSFrS-ED Alll. , ^.^^^^ 


.State of 
Germination. 


At start of Experiment, Sept. 20 ... 

Do. do. „ 21 ... 

Do. do. „ -22... 
At end of Experiment, ,, 23 ... 


c.c. 
99-54 
99-29 
98-99 

98-75 


c.c. 

-0-25 
-0-30 

-0-24 


Just starting. 
Full bud. 
Short rootlets. 
Roots nearly | length 
of corns. 



Dkc. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



33 



Composition of the Air in the Flask. 

At start of Experiment. At end of Experiment. 

Oxygen 20-61% 7*82% 

Nitrogen 79-36% 80-06% 

Carbonic Anhydride 0-03% 12-12% 

100-00 100-00 

Volume of Am — c.c. % c.c. 

At start of Experiment ...99-54, containing 7936 Nitrogen=78-99 
At end of Experiment ...98-75, ,, 80-OG ,, =79-06 

Gain= 0-07 

EXPERIMENT 5.-2,296 Grammes Steeped Barley. 
Temperature during Growth, 15-3° to 15-5° C. 



Volume of the Confined Air. 


Differ- 


State of 
Germination. 






ence. 




C.c. 


c.c. 




At start of Experiment, Oct. 26 ... 


94-63 


-0-28 
-0-25 
-0-45 
+ 0-34 
+ 1-61 
+ 2-57 


Starting. 


Ho. do, ,, 27 ... 


94-35 


Full bud. 


Do. do. ,, 28 ... 
Do. do. ., 29 ... 
Do. do. ,, 30 ... 


94-10 
93-65 
93-99 


Short root. 
Growing steadily. 
Do. 


Do. do. ,, 31 ... 
At end of Experiment, Nov. 1 ... 


95-63 
98-20 


Do. 

Roots fully as long 








as corns. 



Composition of the Air in the Flask. 

At start of Experiment. At end of Experiment. 

Oxygen 20-36% 0-05% 

Nitrogen 79-64% 76-48% 

Carbonic Anhydride 00% 23-47% 



100-00 



100-00 



Volume of Air — c.c. % c.c. 

At start of Experiment ...94-63, containing 79-64 Nitrogen = 75 -36 
At end of Experiment ...98-20, ,, 76-48 ,, =75-11 

Loss= 0-25 



EXPERIMENT 6.-2,268 Grammes Steeped Barlev, 
Temperature during Growth, 15*5° to 15 '7° C. 



Volume of the Confined Air. 



At start of Experiment, Nov. 6. 

Do. do. ,, 7. 

Do. do. ., 8. 

Do. do. ., 9. 

Do. do. .. 10. 

Do. do. ,, 11. 

At end of Experiii.ent, .. 12. 



c.c. 
98-33 
98-19 
97-41 
97-26 
97-49 
98-62 
100-87 



Ditfer- 
ence. 



c.c. 

-0-14 
-0-78 
-0-15 
+ 0-23 
+ 1-13 
+ 2-25 



State of 
Germination. 

Just starting. 
Full bud. 
Short root. 
Growing freely. 

Do. 

Do. 
Long root. 



ruANS. hot. SOC. EDIN. vol. XX. 



34 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sbss. lviii. 

Composition of the Air in the Flask. 

At start of Experiment. At end of Experiment. 

Oxygen 20'40% 000% 

Nitrogen 79'57% 77"17% 

Carbonic Anhydride 0-03% 22-83% 

100-00 100-00 



Volume of Air — c.c. % c.c. 

At start of Experiment 98-33, containing 79-57 Nitrogen = 78 -23 

At end of Experiment ...100-87, ,, 77-17 ,, =77-84 

Loss= 0-.39 

Result of the Six Experiments— Gaix or Loss of Nitrogen. 

Gain c. c. Loss c. c. 

Experiment 1 0*06 — 

2 0-33 — 

3 — 0-15 

4 0-07 — 

5 — 0-25 

6 — 0-39 

Sum 0-46 0-79 



The total loss of nitrogen in the six experiments is there- 
fore 0-79 — 0-4 6 = 'S 3 c.c, or an average loss of 0-0 5 5 c.c. 
nitrogen in about 80 C.C. for each experiment, a quite 
inconsiderable quantity, and well within the limit of ex- 
perimental error. 

The result arrived at shows pretty conclusively that 
atmospheric nitrogen takes no active part in the germina- 
tion of barley. An examination of the daily differences in 
the volume of the confined air in Experiments 5 and 6, 
reveals the fact that when the oxygen becomes nearly 
exhausted, the volume of air increases owing to the evolu- 
tion, by the seeds, of more carbonic anhydride than can be 
accounted for by true respiration. The cause of this is no 
doubt due to intercellular fermentation. 

The germination of the barley in all the experiments, 
even in those occupying the longer period, was perfectly 
healthy, and no still corns were met with. The corns, when 
extracted from the flask, had that peculiar fragrant odour 
which is always noticed in barley when germinated in a 
confined space. 



Dkc. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 35 

PiECOKDS OF Scottish Plants for 1892. By Arthur 

]^>ENNETT. 

Agcain I submit the principal records among the additions 
to local Scottish Botany, being additional comital plants 
not represented in Topographical Botany, or since recorded 
by me. As before, full lists appear in the " Annals of 
Scottish Natural History," pp. 95, 101, 1893. 

One species is new to Scotland — i.e., Orohanche cruenta, 
Bert. ; but it will be desirable to try and refind it near 
Oban before full descriptions, etc., appear. 

In Dumfries Mr. J. T. Johnstone has continued his 
careful examination of the flora, and added several interest- 
ing species, among them Vicia Orobus, Scutellaria minor, 
and Salix lapponica. 

In Wigtown Mr. J. M' Andrew has found Malva rotundi- 
fulia, Careo: p)cnchda, Mclica unijiora, etc. 

In Selkirk the Rev. E. S. Marshall and Mr. Boyd have 
added thirty species to its flora, many of interest, such as 
Rosa involuta and sepium, Cicuta, Fotctmogeton ptrcclongus, 
P. plantagincus, and Carex filiformis. 

To Koxburgh, Utricularici ncglecta. 

In Stirling Mr. Kidston and Colonel Stirling have con- 
tinued their study of its flora, and found, among many 
more, Banunculns Lcnormancli, Convallarici vuijalis, Triticuin 
caninum, etc. 

To Lanark, AV. Perth, Aberdeen, Dumbarton, Clyde 
Isles, X. Ebudes, W. Pioss, and Caithne'ss one species each 
has only been added. 

To M. Perth three — Hicracium p)i'<xlongum, H. cingusta- 
■ium. If. Sommcrfcltii. 

To E. Perth seven — Lcistrca ecmula and Hicracium floccu- 
losum, etc. 

For Forfar Mr. Marshall has six and Professor Traill 
one — Lcpigonum neglectum, Utricvlaria ncglecta, Orchis 
mascula at 2900 feet (Watson's highest 1500 feet). 

To Kincardine Professor Traill adds two species. 

To Aberdeen, S., Professor Traill adds two. The Pev. 
Mr. Marshall found Stcllaria 7icmorum at 3000 feet (1200 
feet, Watson), and Potamogeton perfoliatus at 2300 feet 
(1200 feet, Watson's highest). 



36 



TKANS ACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



To Easterness (E. Inverness) the Eev. Mr. Marshall has 
recorded twenty-two additional plants, — Arctium ncmoro- 
snm, Atriplex littoralis, Zostera nana, etc. 

To Westerness (W. Inverness) Mr. S. M. Macvicar 
continues to add. 

Eive are added to xVrgyll, the Orohanche before men- 
tioned, etc. 

In E. Eoss the Eev. Mr. Marshall has succeeded in 
finding many additions, and among them Cochlearia. grcen- 
landica, L. (non Smith), Hieracium Jlocculosum (Bailey 
herb), Potamogcton rnfcscens, P. nifens, P. pusillus, Aira 
uliginosa, etc. 

In E. Sutherland Mr. Marshall finds Chcrlcria sedoides,. 
etc., Carcx ixiucijiorus. 

To the Outer Hebrides Mr. W. S. Duncan adds Eapha- 
nus maritwnis, Ccntv.nculv.s, Juniperus communis. 





Summary of Pccords from 


Scottish Counties f 01 


189 


2. 


No. 






No. Brought forward, 92 


72. 


Dumfries, 


. 9 


96. Easterness, . . 2-t 


74. 


Wigtown, 


. 9 


97. "Westerness. 




9 


77, 


Lanark, . 


1 


98. Argyll, . 




.5 


79. 


Selkirk, . 


. 30 


99. Dumbarton, 




1 


80. 


Roxburgh, 


." 1 


100. Clyde Isles, 




1 


86. 


Stirling, . 


. 17 


104. Ebudes, N., 




1 


87. 


Perth, W., 


1 


105, Ross, W., 




1 


88. 


„ Mid., 


. 3 


106. ., E., 




30 


89. 


)) E., 


. 6 


107. Sutherland, E. 




12 


90. 


Forfar, . 


7 


108. ., W., 


1 


91. 


Kincardine, 


2 


109. Caithness, 


1 


92. 


Aberdeen, S., 


5 


110. Outer Hebrides, 


6 


93. 


N 


1 






Carry forwai 


^d, . 92 


Total, . 




184 



A very interesting inquiry would be into the aquatic 
vegetation of the Lakes of Scotland and their temperature, 
colouration, transparency, and biological conditions. 

To any one willing to undertake any county I would 
advise them to consult Dr. Maguire's interesting account of 
the sixty-three lakes of the Jura mountains, entitled — 
" Eecherches sur la Vegetation des Lacs du Jura," Paris, 
1893. It appeared in "La Eevue Generale de Botanique," 
vol. v., pp. 241-297 and 303-316, 1893. 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH, 37 

l*rofessor Bay ley Balfour remarked on the important 
results that a systematic investigation of the flora and 
biological conditions of our Scottish lakes would supply, and 
reminded the Society that a Committee of the British Associ- 
ation was appointed at the Newcastle meeting for the purpose 
of carrying out such an investigation. So far, however, no 
results had been obtained, but the proposal was one which the 
members of the Society should endeavour to carry out. 

Botanical Notes fok the Moffat District, 1893. 
By J. Thorburn Johnstone, Moffat. 

This summer (1893) I visited a number of the small 
out-of-the-way Linns in the district, such as Harthope 
and Greskine in Evan Water, Greigsland Burn, Dykehead 
Linn, Duff Kinnel and its tributaries in Johnstone, and 
various other places. No new plants were recorded, but 
new stations were found for several of our uncommon 
plants, showing that they have a wider distribution in the 
district than might be inferred from the position of the 
previous recorded stations. Among the most interesting 
of these plants were — 

Pyrola secunda, gathered in one of the tributaries of 
Duff Kinnel, this being 16 miles from the nearest of the 
five stations for it previously known to me. 

Hicracium sparsifolium. Also in Duff Kinnel ; but the 
plants are much more luxuriant in their habit than those 
to be gathered at Beef Tub and Craigmichen Scaurs. 

Cardamine impaticns. This I found growing in the 
stackyard at Middlegill, and it is also growing very 
abundantly as a garden weed in Kirkpatrick-Juxta 
Manse garden. It was on the roadside near this manse 
I found it growing in 1891, when it was reconfirmed for the 
district. The liev. Mr. Little (a former minister of the parish), 
who was an ardent botanist, would most probably plant 
it in the garden some time during his incumbency, where 
it has thriven so well as to have now become a regular 
weed, and the specimens I originally gathered on the road- 
side must have spread from the garden. 

The inside of the garden wall at the Manse is also 
covered with Cderach officinarum, Willd., which in all 



38 TEANSACTIOXS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. la-iii. 

probability would be planted by the Eev. Dr. Singer or 
Mr. Little. 

The Eev. Wm. Brodie, the present minister, informs me 
that both yjlants have been growing there in abundance 
all the time he has been resident there. 

Arciostaphylus Uca-ursi, Ciorreferron, also a second 
station. 

With the exception of the Hieracia, I have only two 
plants to record as new to the district. Unfortunately, they 
are only casuals, and are Scandix pcdiiiveneri^, casual in 
garden, and Son<:hv^ arrensis, waste ground at Birnock. 

In the " Journal of Botany " of May, June, and July 
1893, the Messrs. E. F. and W. Pu Linton publish a list 
of Hieracia gathered by them in Scotland, a number of 
them ha\dng stations in this district. They have since 
named specimens of nearly all of them in a collection 
I sent up to them for that purpose. Their list, applicable 
to this district, is as follows : — 

Hierdcium centripetalc, F. J. Hanbury. 

„ dovc7is€, Linton. 

„ callisiophyllvm,.Y. J. H. 

„ Langii'dUnse , F. J. H. 

„ Sehmidtii, Tausch. 

„ huglossoides* Arvet-Touvet. 

„ argentum. Fries. 

„ nitidum. Backhouse. 

„ stenolepis, Tindel. 

„ stcnoUpis, var. angninum, "W. li. Linton. 

,, Somnurfeltii, Tindel. 

„ ruhicv/ndum, F. J. H. 

„ murorum, Linn. 

„ murorum, var. ciliatum, Almq, 

„ murorum, sub. sp. sarcoplvyllum, Stenstrom. 

„ duricejJS, T. S. H. 

„ euprepes, F. J. H. 

„ stcnophycs, W. E. L. 

„ aiigu-staturn, TindeL 

„ strictv.m, Fr. var. suhcrocatum, Linton. 

* Mr. Linton makes out that the Hkroucium gathered ly Mr. Backhouse 
at the Grey Mare's Tail in 1850, and named Ly him H. saxifiagam, is the 
H. bwglotisoid'es as above. I referred to this plant in a former paper. 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 39 

The above Hieracia are pretty evenly distributed over 
the sub-alpine Linns of the district, as Blacks Hope, 
Correferron, Midlaw Burn, Andrew Whinney, White 
Coomb, Grey Mare's Tail, Craigmichen Scaurs, Beef 
Tub, etc. 

Notes on the Flora of Fife and Kinross. By 
Charles Howie. • 

I. — ADDENDA TO THE MOSS FLORA OF FIFE AND KINROSS. 

29G. Zygodon Stirtoni, Sch. Eegistered as a variety of 
Z. viridissima in " Moss Flora," page 52. With the 
consent of Professor Lindberg and others, it ha? 
been retained as a species, as named by Professor 
Schimper. 

297. Ephemerum scrratum. Sparingly found at Tayport 

and St. Andrews, as registered in Ballingal's 
"Shores of Fife;" refound near Wormet, 1892, by 
Mr. Fulton. 

298. Dicranella citrvata. By the side of a small ditch, 

East of Fife ; abundant. 

299. Dicranella fidvellum. Among the cliffs on one part 

of the east sea cliffs. 
oOO. Eacomitriiim sw.lcticum. On rocks, Drumcarro Craig; 
registered in Ballingal's "Shores of Fife," 1872; 
refound near Denork ground, 1891. 

301. Racomitrium ellipticum. East sea coast and Drum- 

carro Craig. 

302. Trichostomum hrachydontium. On Dunbarnie Links. 

303. Pohjtrichum gracile. Eegistered, on the Tents Muir, 

sparingly, Ballingal's " Shores of Fife ; " refound 
again on the Tents Muir, 1889. 
3U-4. Amphoridium Mougeotii. On the upper range of the 
Lomonds; species, irrespective of numerous varieties. 

11. — STATISTICS OF THE FLORA OF FIFE AND KINROSS REGISTERED 
AS SPECIES UP TO DECEMBER 1893. 

Dicotyledons, 781; Monocotyledons, 213; rtcridophyta, 
43 ; Mvsci, 30G ; Hepaticcc, 40 ; Alga: marina), 248, includ- 
ing a species of Melohesia new to the country, in rock pools 
on the tidal beach, east coast; Dcsmidiccc, 124, principally 



40 TEAXSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

collected by Mrs. Farquharson ; Lichcnes, 89; Fungi, 59, 
not including the microscopic species. There are several 
rare species collected in October 1872 — Tramdcs peronatus 
and Hygrophorus cMorophanus, and a species new to Britain, 
H. meisncriensis, of a bluish colour, and gelatinous, as 
attested by Mr. "W. Smith, of London. 

Notes Feom The Eoyal Botanic Gaeden, Edinbuegh. 

I. PiEPORT on TeMPEEATUEE AND VEGETATION DUEING 

XoTEMBEE 1893. By EoBEUT Lindsay, Curator. 

During ^Rovember the thermometer was at or below 
the freezing point on sixteen mornings, indicating collec- 
tively 55° of frost for the month, as against 41° for the 
corresponding month last year. Falls of rain, snow, and 
sleet were frequent. The severe northerly gale which 
passed over the country on the 18th and 19th, with such 
disastrous effects in various quarters, did no damage at the 
Gardens. The lowest readings of the thermometer were 
on the 1st, 25°; 4th, 25°; 5th, 28°; 21st, 24°; 22nd, 
26°. Very few plants are now in Hower out of doors, 
vegetation being in an almost dormant condition. Not 
any plants came into flower during November on the 
rock-garden. 

Readings of exposed Thermometer at the Rock-Garden of the 
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during November 1893. 

Dat«. Minimum. y a.m. Maximum. Date. Minimum. 9 a.m. Maximum. 



1st 


25° 


41" 


49° 


16th 


33° 


40° 


56 


2nd 


33 


40 


47 


17th 


38 


44 


54 


3rd 


33 


40 


49 


i 18th 


33 


35 


38 


4th 


25 


35 


43 


19th 


29 


32 


39 


5th 


28 


32 


46 


20th 


31 


36 


41 


6 th 


31 


34 


46 


21st 


24 


26 


44 


7th 


32 


38 


43 


22nd 


26 


36 


42 


8th 


32 


39 


45 


23rd 


28 


34 


54 


9 th 


36 


39 


46 


' 24th 


33 


42 


44 


10th 


38 


40 


46 


' 25th 


40 


43 


52 


11th 


33 


40 


50 


26th 


31 


34 


51 


12th 


40 


46 


53 


1 27th 


29 


40 


53 


13th 


30 


38 


52 


' 28th 


3G 


41 


53 


14th 


28 


38 


44 


29 th 


38 


48 


53 


15th 


28 


37 


44 


30th 


35 


41 


43 



Dkc. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



41 



ir. Meteorological Observations taken at Eoyal Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of November 1893. 

Distance from Sea, 1 Mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
71-0 feet. Hour of Observation, S) a.m. 





^ QQ 


Thermometers, protected, 
















4 feet above grass. 










/— s 


a 

o 








o 


Clouds. 




s 

"3 


S. E. Ther- 




r- 


mometers for 












a 




§°^" 


preceding 


Hygrometer. 











\-x 


"o 

as 


1^ 


24 hours. 




o 

a> 








is 












_ 




d 














j3 




*3 


Q 


2§ 


Mas. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


P 


Kind. 


O 


is 


« 




pq (D 














< 


5- 








o 


o 





o 












1 


29-420 


43-9 


30-2 


43-8 


42-8 


W. 


Cum. 


10 


w. 


0-095 


•> 


29-404 


46-1 


34-3 


40-3 


39-1 


w. 


... 







0-020 


.•) 


29-626 


45-9 


36-1 


41-8 


41-1 


w. 


Nim. 


10 


w. 


0-810 


4 


29-885 


42-9 


29-8 


32-2 


32-0 


w. 







... 


090 


.") 


29-G29 


40-9 


28-8 


35-9 


35-0 


w. 


... 







0-020 


(i 


30-151 


41-8 


30-6 


34-1 


32-1 


N.W. 









0-000 


~" 


30-367 


42-9 


32-4 


39-8 


36-8 


N. 


Cum. 


5 


N. 


0-000 


8 


30-381 


41-7 


34-8 


39-5 


37-6 


N.W. 


Cum. 


10 


N. 


0-000 


i) 


30-446 


44-9 


38-9 


41-1 


40-0 


NE. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-005 


10 


30-420 


44-9 


40-9 


41-8 


39-1 


N.E. 


Cum. 


10 


N.E. 


0000 


11 


30-446 


450 


33-9 


40-3 


39-6 


Var. 


Cum. 


10 


N.E. 


0-075 


li' 


30-414 


46-2 


400 


43-9 


41-6 


E. 


Cum. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


i;j 


30-144 


44-9 


33 


38-1 


37-6 


E. 









0-000 


14 


29-758 


45-6 


30-2 


37-2 


36-9 


W. 


Cum. 


10 


S.E. 


0-000 


15 


29-820 


41-9 


31-1 


38-1 


37-0 


W. 


Cum. 


10 


E. 


0-010 


16 


29-743 


42-9 


36-3 


41-1 


38-6 


S. 


Cum. 


10 


S. 


0-010 


17 


28-485 


53-8 


41-2 


53-2 


50-1 


s. 


Cum. 


10 


S. 


090 


18 


29-461 


63-8 


36-9 


37-2 


31-0 


N.E. 


Cum. 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 


19 


29 930 


37-2 


29-2 


33-7 


31-0 


N.E. 


Cum. 


1 


N.E. 


0-000 


•20 


30-313 


37-9 


330 


37-8 


35-2 


N.E. 


Cum. 


9 


N.E. 


0-000 


21 


30-461 


39-8 


28-2 


28 9 


281 


N.W. 









0-115 


22 


29-884 


44-3 


28-2 


36-4 


34-8 


W. 


... 





... 


0-000 


23 ' 


30153 


38-9 


29-9 


35-1 


32-9 


N.W. 


Cir. St. 


6 


N. 


0-000 


24 


29-889 


43-8 


34-7 


43-8 


41-7 


N.W. 


Cir. St. 


10 


N.W. 


0-060 


25 1 


29-432 


48-7 


43-5 


45-9 


45-1 


W. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-060 


26 


29 650 


51-0 


33-9 


36-0 


32-8 


N.W. 









0-000 


27 i 


29-997 


40-6 


29-6 


40-6 


39-2 


s.w. 


Cir. St. 


^2 


W. 


0-025 


28 ' 


29-853 


52-9 


40-2 


52-6 


51-1 


W. 


(Cir. 
tCum. 


1} 


W. 


0-000 


29 1 


29-689 


55-0 


51-0 


51-2 


48-2 


W. 


Cum. 


10 


W. 


0-000 


30 ' 

1 


29-603 


52-5 


41-2 


41-9 


400 


N.W. 


Cir. St. 


10 

1 


W. 


0-040 



Barometer. — Highest Observed, on the 21st, =30-461 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 17th, = 28-485 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 1-976 inch. 
Mean= 29-895 inches. 

S. R. Thermometers. — Highest Observed, on the 29th, = 55°-0. Lowest Observed. 
on the 21st and 22nd, = 28°-2. Difference, or Monthly Range, ^ 26°-8. Mean of 
;ill the Highest .= 45°-l. Mean of all the Lowest = 34°-7. Difference, or Mean 
Daily Range, = 10°-4. Mean Temperature of Mouth = 39°-9. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 40°-l. Mean of Wet Bulb = 38° -3. 

Eainfall. — Number of Days on which Rain fell = 15. Amount of Fall= 1-5-25 incb. 
Greatest fall in 24 hours, ou the 3rd, =; 0-810 inch. Very light shower of Snow, 
lirst observed for season, on the 19th. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, 
Observer. 



42 TRAXSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Se.ss. lviii. 

III. On Plants in the Plant Houses. By P. L. 
Harrow*. 

The past month, as might be expected, has shown a 
gradual decrease in the number of flowering plants, and a 
comparison of Xovember with October in this respect 
exhibits a falling off of rather more than a third of the 
species which have been seen in flower in the plant houses 
of the Eoval Botanic Garden. The usual winter-flowering 
florists' flowers have done much to brighten up the respec- 
tive houses ; but, apart from these, several representatives 
of interesting tropical and temperate genera, which are not 
generally to be seen in cultivation, have produced their 
blooms. Specimens of some of these are exhibited. 

Xapolcona cuspidata,- ]\Iiers. This plant is a native of 
Old Calabar, belonging to the order Myrtaceie. The genus 
was first discovered about the close of the last century by 
Baron Palisot de Beauvois, the species first discovered 
being X. impcrialls, Beauv. The genus has since, says 
Sir W. Hooker in the " Botanical Magazine," attracted the 
attention of botanists in no ordinary degree, on account of 
the extraordinary structure of its flowers, and scarcely two 
of them have described it i^ the same way. The species 
named above was verified by Dr. Masters in the 
"Gardeners' Chronicle" of 1866, from flowers received 
from the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. On comparing these 
with flowers of X. imperialis at the Royal Gardens, Kew% 
he saw at once he had a different species, and dried 
specimens in the herbarium of Mr. Miers enabled him 
to determine with accuracy the identity of the plant. Up 
to 1886 the fjlant had been under cultivation as X. 
imperialis. 

JBanksia coUina, P. Br. Under the name of B. Jittoralu 
this proteaceous plant was figured in the " Botanical 
Magazine" t. 306 0, from a specimen sent from the 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden in ISoO, and the plant 
exhibited was struck a? a cutting some fourteen years 
ago from the original plant, now dead. Besides the above 
synonym, it has also been grown under those of B. 
Cunnwgharnii, Sieber, and B. ledifolia, A. Cunn. Species 
of Banhiia which are seldom seen in cultivation outside 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 43 

of our Botanic Gardens, are natives of Australia, some 
growing to a height of 20 feet; the foliage is strikingly 
handsome, usually serrated, dark-green above, covered with 
silvery hairs on the under surface ; the inflorescence takes 
some considerable time to develope. The plant exhibited 
has now beeii in ilower for more than two months. 

WhitfichU" latcritia is an acanthaceous shrub, named 
after Mr. T. Whitfield, a botanical collector, and is a native 
of tropical Africa. The genus consists of only two species 
the one under notice being the only one as yet introduced 
to cultivation. Its terminal racemes of flowers are pro- 
duced in October, continuing to bloom till late in the 
spring months. 

Conjnosfi/lis Hyhantlms, Mart. — This pretty stove 
climbing shrub is remarkable as being a member of the 
order Vwla.ria; and was introduced from Para in 18*70. 
The flowers are produced freely, in racemes ; the lower 
petal of the flower, which is the largest, forms a long- 
spur, somewhat like that of a large white violet. A fine 
figure of the plant will be found in the " Botanical 
Magazine," 5960. It is rarely met with under cultiva- 
tion. Sir J. Hooker describes it as a very variable species, 
being of the opinion that all the so-called species of the 
genus hitherto described are referable to one. 

Mancttia hicolor. — Producing its bright scarlet and 
yellow flowers in abundance from the axils of the light 
green leaves, this plant is well worthy of a place in our 
collections. Messrs. Veitch are credited with the intro- 
duction of this species in 1843, from the Organ Mountains. 
Treated as a climbing plant, in a warm greenhouse, it 
exhibits its true character to perfection. Belonging to 
the order Rv.hmcccr, it is closely allied to Bouvardia. 

In addition to these, there are on the table : Ccntro- 
pogon Lncyanvs, Hort., — a hybrid between the Mexican 
C. fastuosus, Scheidw., and the Brazilian Siphocav^jijlus 
hetida'folins, Don., raised by M. Despond at Marseilles, 
1856. Crassida ladca, Soland, — a Cape plant. Wallirhia 
densiflora, Mart., — from East Indies. Plumhago rosea, 
Linn., — an Indian plant. Cuscuta reflcxa, Roxb.,- — from 
India ; and the beautiful winter-flowering East Indian 
fyomcea Horsfidli(i\ Hook, var. Ehccdii, and var. Bru/g.m. 



44 TKANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

Of the other plants which have flowered may be noted : 
Begonia incariiata. Link and Otto, — from Mexico ; the 
tropical African Dracena fragrans, Ker-Gawl, and the 
East Indian D. angustifolia, Eoxb. ; Kennedya j^^ostrata, 
R. Br,, var. Marryattce, the finest variety of this 
Australian climber ; Aloe ciliaris, Haw., from South 
Africa ; Rhipsalis rliombea, Pfeiff, and E. salicornoides, 
Haw., two Brazilian plants ; and Erythroxylon Coca, 
Lamk., from Peru. 



The Botany of the Pilcomayo Expedition ; being a 
List of Plants collected during the Argentine 
Expedition of 1890-91 to the Eio Pilcomayo. The 
Identifications and the Description of New Species by Mr. 
N. E. Brown, Assistant in the Herbarium, Royal Gardens, 
Kew. By J. Graham Kerr, Naturalist to the Expedition. 

(Read April 1893.) 

The following is a list of a small collection of plants, 
with description of their species, brought by me from 
Fortin Page — the farthest point reached by the un- 
fortunate Argentine Expedition of 1890-91 to the Rio 
Pilcomayo, in the Gran Chaco of South America. For 
particulars of the expedition, and of the region of whose 
flora these plants form a part, I would refer to the 
preliminary notice published in Trans. Bot. Soc. vol. xix. 
page 128, and will here only premise a few words in the 
nature of an introduction. The specimens contained in 
this list were collected within a few miles radius of 
Fortin Page, situated on the banks of the River Pilcomayo, 
some 300 miles from its mouth measured along its very 
tortuous course. 

Though few in actual number of species, the list will 
be found to give a tolerably characteristic idea of the 
phanerogamic flora of the more central and low-lying parts 
of the Gran Chaco, a region consisting of wide-spreading 
palm-dotted llanos, varied here and there by patches of 
hardwood forest, or wide-spreading swamp. This low- 
lying part of the Chaco is subject to wide-spreading 
inundations, daring which enormous areas remain under 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 45 

water for several months at a time ; and at other times 
to the opposite extreme of climatic conditions, when it 
undergoes a prolonged parching and dessication, during 
which the soil becomes saturated with saline matters. 
Under such circumstances, the poverty of the ordinary 
plain flora is still further accentuated. The flora of these 
inner low-lying parts of the Chaco offering a striking 
contrast to the mild, semi-tropical luxuriance of the 
riverain regions along the great fresh-water streams. 

I am indebted to Mr. W. Botting Hemsley, of Kew, for the 
following note regarding the collection I made. "Amongst 
the 200 species are a score or so of novelties. As will be 
seen, they mostly belong to well-known genera ; but the 
new genus BipIoJxclcha and Quelracliia Moronfjil are 
specially interesting. The former belongs to the Sapin- 
daccii^, and is remarkable in having a double cup- 
shaped disc. Quchrachia belongs to the Anacardiacea', 
and differs from the only previously known species, in 
having simple leaves. ]\Iuch yet remains to be done in 
working out the flora of the sub-tropical part of the 
Argentine Eepublic. Most of the novelties collected by 
Tweedie in the region of Buenos Ayres, nearly sixty years 
ago, still lie undescribed in the Kew Herbarium. Doubt- 
less many of them were described from other collections 
by the late Dr. Grisebach in his Symboht- ad Floram 
Argentinam, published in 1879. In that work he 
enumerates 2265 species of vascular plants, 31 per cent, 
of which he regarded as endemic, and 24 per cent, of them 
were common to Brazil and Paraguay. Many interesting 
particulars of the flora may be gleaned from the work in 
question ; and G. Hieronymus has more recently published 
further novelties in his Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum 
Argentinarum. 

I desire to thank the Director of Kew for the readiness 
with which he allowed my collection to be determined in 
tlie Herbarium of the Royal Gardens, and the officials of 
the Herbarium I thank for the courtesy they showed me. 
I have especially to acknowledge the services of, and to 
thank Mr. IST. E. Brown, who undertook the working 
up of the collection, and the identification and naming 
of the species, with the exception of the orchids, the 



46 TRAXSACTIONS AND PROCEEDIXGS OF THE [Skss. lviii. 

names of which I owe to Mr. II. A. liolfe. My own work 
has been limited to merely adding a few notes as to 
locality, and other details of interest. To Professor Bayley 
Jxilfour I would also wish to record my deep gratitude 
for the interest he has shown throughout, both in the 
conduct and in the results of the Tilcomayo Expedition. 

Clematis boxariensis, DC. 

Hab. — Banks of liio Paran;i. Colonia Hernanda. Fl. 
Jan. 

Cissampelos Pareira, L. 
Hab. — Ptio Pilcomayo. 

A^ICTORIA CRUZLAXA, d'Orb. 

Hab. — Lateral lagunas of Pdo Paraguay. 

Maiz del Arjua, Yrupe. 

Leaves 4-6 feet across ; rim 3 inches high ; upper 
surface smooth, dark green ; lower divided into quad- 
rangular compartments, bright carmine. Flowers said to 
be about a foot across, pinkish violet, and with beautiful 
scent. As the name Maiz del Agua indicates, the pro- 
vincials use the seeds for food. 

Capparis retusa, Griseb. 

Hab. — Monte, near Fortin Page. 

Capparis Tweediana, Eichl. 

Hab. — In the montes around Fortin Page. A small 
tree al)OUt 15 feet in height. 

lONIDIUM GLUTINO.SU.M, Vent. 

Hab. — -Ptio Pilcomayo. Common in the open campo. 
Fl. 1st Xov.— 1st Jan. 

Xylo-Sma vexosum, X. E. Br. {vl sp.)— Arbor dioicus 
spinosus, ramis spinis foliisque glabris ; foliis coriaceis 
valde venosis petiolatis ovatis vel subrhomboideo-ellipticis 
obtuse acutatis, basi cuneato-acutis, crenato-dentatis, den- 
tibus subtus apice glanduliferis, glandulis ad petiolos 
decurrentibus ; iioribus axillaribus dense fasciculatis 
breviter pedicellatis, pedicellis ad medium articulatis, 
bracteis late ovatis vel ellipticis, obtusis, ciliatis, extus 
.subpuberulis, sepalis 5-7, valde imbricatis, ovatis vel 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 47 

ijllipticis obtusis, ciliatis iutus pubescentibus, disco crenato, 
iiiasculis staminibus 20-30, foemineis ovario glabro stylis 
2-4, baccis globosis, seminibus 3-4. Myroxylon Salzraanni, 
Morong and Britton in Ann. New York Acad. Sc, vii., 
p. 52, not of Kuntze. 

Hab. — I'araguay ; Asuncion, CHbert, 10! 1026! Eio 
Pilcomayo, Kerr ! 

Spini f— 1^ poll, longi. Folia l4-2i poll, longa, f-l| 
poll. lata. Petioli i-| poll, longi. Pedicelli 1-2 lin. 
longi. Sepala | lin. longa. Bacca 2 lin. diam. 

According to Gibert this is a large tree, called Nuati- 
2mnta by the natives. The plant collected at Uberaba, 
in Minas Geraes, by Eegnell (Xo. 1534), I believe also 
belongs to this species ; but the leaves are larger (up to 
o inches long by 2 inches broad), and the crenations more 
numerous and finer ; in all other respects it perfectly agrees 
with the plant here described, the leaves having the same 
peculiarity of being glandular-decurrent on the petioles, by 
which character it may be at once distinguished from 
X. Sahmanni, Clos., to which it is wrongly referred by 
Eichler in the Flora Brasiliensis (X. E. Brown). 

Pol YG ALA PAPvAGUAYENSis, A. "VV. Bcnn. (Syn. P. aregu- 
<-nsis, A. W. Benn.). — I see no distinction between tlie 
plants described under the above names. P. arcgucnsis is 
evidently perennial, and not an annual as stated by 
Bennett (X. E. Brown). 

Hab. — Fortin Page. In grass by the edge of the monte. 
Fl. 8th Oct. 

Port UL AC A sp. 

Hab. — Ptio Pilcomayo. 

Malyastrum Tweediei, Baker fil. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. Damp open spots. Fl. 9th Oct. 

Spileralcea bonariensis, Griseb. 

Hab. — Eio Parana. Colonia Hernanda. Fl. Jan. 

1'avonia consobrixa, X. E. Br. (n. sp.). — P. hastata similis 
sed foliis minus hastatis crenato-dentatis, pedicellis quam 
petiolis non longioribus, involucri bracteis linearibus vel 
anguste oblauceolato-oblongis quam calyce distincte longi- 
oribus, et corolla calyce vi.K excedente differt. 



48 TRANSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

Hab. — Uruguay; Montevideo, Gibert, 126! 351! Eio 
Pilcomayo, Kerr, 66 ! 

Pelioli |-1 poll, longi. Pedicelli i-J poll, longi. 
Involucri bractea} i-§ poll, longie, 24-iV P^H- ^ata.'. 
Corolla i poll, longa. 

This plant much resembles P. hastata, but may be at 
once distinguished by the pedicels being shorter than, or 
about equalling, the petioles, and by the involucral bracts 
distinctly exceeding the calyx. The articulation of the 
pedicels, too, appears to be much closer to the flower, and 
the leaves are less hastate, and their toothing more rounded. 
In P. hastata the pedicels are much longer than the 
petioles, and the involucral bracts are spathulate-ovate 
and shorter than the calyx. Although the corolla in all 
the specimens of P. consobrina that I have seen is small, 
and scarcely exceeds the calyx, yet the flowers are certainly 
not cleistogamous, though possibly a cleistogamous form 
may exist, as in the case of P. hastata (N. E. Brown). 

In shady spots by river side near Fortin Page. Fl. 1st 
Nov. 

Hibiscus cisplatinus, St. Hil. 

Hab. — Marshy spots — Parana Delta, Piio Paranti, Eio 
Paraguay, liio Pilcomayo. Fl. (Pilcomayo) 11th Dec. 

FUGOSIA SULPHUREA, JuSS. 

Hab. — Open campo near Fortin Page. Fl. 15th Oct. 
Corolla yellow, with crimson centre. 

Melochia pykamidata, L. var. Hieronymi, Schum. 
Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. 

Melochia tomentosa, L. 
Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. 

Buettneria filipes. Mart. 
Hab. — Eio Paraguay. 

Stigmaphyllon calcaratum, X. E. Br. (n. sp.). — Foliis 
oppositis, breviter petiolatis, oblongis vel lanceolato- 
oblongis obtusis, mucronatis, basi breviter mucronato- 
sagittatis, marginibus subintegris absque glandulis supra 
subtusque glabris, vel subtus sparse pubescentibus petiolis 
dense adpresse pubescentibus apice biglandulosis : pedun- 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 49 

culis axillaribus, adpresse pubescentibus, apice bibracteatis, 
umbellatim paucifloris; bracteis foliis simillimis, subsessilis, 
basi biglandulosis, pedicellis adpresse pubescentibus, medio 
bibracteolatis ; floribus flavis, calyeis lobis late ovatis 
obtusis glandulis inagnis, staminibns glabris, stigmatibus 
foliaceis late ovatis, subcucullatis. 

Hab. — Bolivia; Marsh near Corumba, Moore, 1012. 
Eio Pilcomayo, Kerr. 

Eolia 1-2 f poll, longa, |-1 poll. lata. redunculi -2-2 J 
poll, longi. Bracte?e i-f poll, longie. Pedicelli i-i poll. 
longi Flores | poll, diani. 

The elongate leaves, with their small spur-like auricles 
at the base, at once distinguish this from all previously 
described species (X. E. Brown). 

Janusia guaranitica, Juss. 

Hab. — Eio Parana and Paraguay. 

OXALIS chrysantha, Prog. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. Common in open woodlands 
and in the open campo. Fl. Dec. 

Agoxandra excelsa, Griseb. 

Hab. — Margin of monte, Fortin Page. 

Maytenus vitis-id.ea, Griseli. 

Hab. — In the little patches of monte. FI. 22nd Sept. 

Prov. Arg., Cdpia. 

A shrub ranging to about 10 feet in height, with 
densely aggregated foilage of thick, fleshy leaves, which 
are twisted upon their petioles, so as to lie in radial 
longitudinal planes with regard to the shoot. 

Cardiospermum halicacabum, L. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. River banks and open places in 
woods. Fl. May, June. Fruit Aug., Sept. 

A creeper with palmipartite leaves and peculiar capsular 
fruits. 

Paullinia angusta, X, E. Bi-. (n. sp.). — P. pinnata- 
similis, sed foliolis multo angustioribus li—l poll, longis, 
5-1 poll, latis, elongato-oblongis, subacutis, basi plus 
minusve cuneatis, utrinque grosse et obtuse 3-7 dentatis, 

THAXS. BOT. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. D 



50 TRANSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

floribus magis pubescentibiis, fructibus fusiformibus acutis, 
nee clavatis et obtusis vel retusis apiculatis, differt. 

Hab. — Paraguay ; Villa Occidental, Balansa, 2479 • 
Stewart ! Eio Pilcomayo, Kerr ! Porto Pachico, Moore, 
1063 ! 

This is somewhat like P. jji^nnata, but the leaflets are 
narrower and longer and the fruit is smaller and almost 
equally narrowed to both ends (X. E. Brown). 

Paullinia sp. ? A small specimen, too imperfect for 
description. 

DiPLOKELEBA, N.E. Br. (gen.nov. Sapindacearum). — Flores 
unisexuales. Sepala insequalia biseriata, late imbricata. 
Petala 5, requalia, imbricata, obovata, esquaraata. Discus 
duplex, completus, bicupularis, obsolete crenulatus, interioie 
intus 8-sulcato. Stamina 8, intra discum regulariter inserta, 
filamentis filiformibus elongatis exsertis glabris ; antherte 
parvse versatiles. Ovarium in fl. <? rudimentarium sub- 
globosum. Flores 2 fructusque non vidi. — Arbor vel 
arbuscula. Folia alterna exstipulata, iinparipinnata, foliolis 
oppositis vel alternis integris, foliolo terminali ad 
rudimentum filiformem reducto. Pauiculce termiuales. 

D. FLORIBUNDA, X. E. Br. — llamulis, petiolis, pedunculis, 
pedicellisque puberulis ; foliolis 6-8 longe petiolulatis, 
oblongo - lanceolatis acutis, recurvis, glabris ; floribus 
cymoso-vel corymboso-paniculatis ; sepalis oblongis obtusis 
extus intusque pubescentibus ; petalis obovatis obtusis, 
extus intusque pubescentibus, fimbriatulis, albis ; disco 
carnoso aurantiaco ; ovarii rudimento pubescent!. 

Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo, Kerr, 85 ! 

Sepala f-l^- lin. longa, ^-f lin. lata. Petala I5 lin. 
longa, 1 lin. lata. 

Until the female flowers and fruit of this plant are 
known, its position in the order must remain uncertain, but 
possibly its place should be near Stqnndus. In the 
structure of its very remarkable disc it resembles 
Lyclinodiscus, Padlk., but that is an African genus and 
described as having lepidote leaves, funnel-shaped petals, 
and ten stamens. Mr. Kerr's specimens consist of two small 
flowering shoots, and bear only male flowers, so that 
possibly the plant is dioecious (X. E. Brown). 



DEf. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 5 1 

Hab. — Fortin Page. 

The specimens on which Mr. Brown has founded this 
new genus of Sapindacese were collected on 19th Dec. 
1890, near Fortin Page, in about 24° 50' S. Lat. D. 
Jiurihunda is a slender tree about 20 feet in height, with 
granular bark, slightly fissured quadroidally. The leaves 
are pinnate with three or four pairs of oblong-lanceolate 
leaflets. I only found one specimen in flower, and it 
possessed only male flowers, so that the species is probably 
dioecious. 

QUEBRACHIA MoRONGli, Britton. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo, Kerr 55 ! Fl. 19th Dec. 

According to a note accompanying the specimen, this 
tree is called " Quebracho Colorado " by the provincials, 
that being also the name by which Q. Lorcntzii is known, 
and would imply that the wood is of the same hard 
character as that of the latter species. The genus 
Qucbraclua, Griseb., is the same as Schinopsis, Engl., but 
takes precedence over the latter by two years, having been 
published by Grisebach in 1874 (N". E. Brown). 

Under the generic name Quebracho, which is really n 
corruption of " quebra-hacha " or " break axe," the Argen- 
tine provincials recognise three distinct types of trees, 
the Quebraclio jlojo, Qucbraclio hlanco, and Qiiehracho 
Colorado. The last of these is the most important, and 
is famous for its dense and hard red heartwood, which 
is one of the most valued timbers of the Argentine — 
valued especially for its powers of resisting damp. The 
Quebracho Colorado, as hitherto known, has been described 
by Grisebach in his Plantar Lorentzianae as ZoxojJteryg- 
him Lorentzii ; and later, he founded for it the new genus 
Quchrachia (Symbol, ad Floram Arg. p. 95). The specimens 
which I was able to obtain, however, have shown that the 
Quchraclio Colorado of the Pilcomayo region is a different 
species of the same genus Quchrachia — differing from the 
Q. Lorcntzii in its simple instead of pinnate leaves. 

Crotalaria anagyroides, H. B. K. 
Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. 

Indigofera retrusa, X. E. Br. (n. sp.). — Pthizomate 
lignoso, canlibus herbaceis angulato compressis, appresse 



52 TEANSACTIOXS AND PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

cano-pubescentibus; foliis pinnatis, foliolis 3-8, Scopius 5, 
alternis, lineari-oblongis, subobtusis, mucronulatis, utrinque 
sparse appresse cano-pubescentibus ; stipulis lanceolato- 
subulatis, liberis : racemis longe pedunculatis, elongatis, 
multifloris, toto appresse cano-pubescentibus ; bracteis 
parvis caducis, lanceolato-acuminatis ; calyce quam corolla 
duple breviore, lobis subulatis ; vexillo apice pubescente, 
ovario cano-pubescente, tereto ; leguminibus ? non vidi. 

Hab. — South Brazil, near Porto Alegre, Tweedie, 370 I 
Sandy coast of Eio Grande, near St. Pedras, Tweedie, 311! 
liio Pilcomayo, Kerr ! 

Caules 4-10 poll, longi. Folia h--l poll, longa. 
Foliolis i-li poll, longis, 1-li lin. latis. Pedunculi 
1— 2i poll, longi. Pacemi usque ad 4 poll, longi. Flores 
4-0 lin. longi. 

This plant was confused by Bentham with /. asijcrifolia. , 
Bong., but it is more slender, with more numerous, smaller, 
and narrower leaflets ; the flowers are similar, but the 
calyx-lobes are rather shorter, and the vexillum more 
densely canous pubescent. I have not seen the fruit 
(X. E. Brown). 

Sesbania maegixata, Benth. 
Hab. — Gran Chaco. 

Aeschyxomene hispid a, Willd. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Desmodium incanum, do. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Erytheina ceus galli, L. 
Hab. — Eio Paraguay. 

VlGNA LUTEOLA, Benth. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Caesalpinia -MELAXOCaepa, Griseb. 

Hab. — Frequent in the "monte duro" on the Pilcomayo. 
Fl. 11th Xov. Fruit 11th Dec. 

Prov. Arg., Guayacan. 

A large stout tree, bark green and smooth, delicate 
feathery foliage. 



Dec. 1803.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 53 

Parkinsonia ACULEATA, L. 

Hab. — Frequent on bank of Rio Pilcomaj'o above " Las 
Juntas." 

Cassia bicapsularis, L. 

Hab. — Common all along the lower Pilcomayo in open 
scrubby places. 

A small shrub with spreading woody stems. The fruit 
consists of an elongated pod, and each seed is contained 
in a separate chamber. The seeds are albuminous, and 
the embryo is very rich in chlorophyll, which is probaldy 
to be correlated with the translucence of the surrounding 
tissue. 

Cassia l^vigata, Willd. 

Hab. — Piio Paraguay and Pio Pilcomayo. 

Cassia occidentalis, L. 

Hab. — Eio Paraguay and Pio Pilconiayo. 

PiPTADENiA quadrifolia, N. E. Br. (n. sp.). — Arbor 
inermis, foliis parvis, pinuis uuijugis ; foliolis unijugis, 
oblique obovatis, obtusissimis, supra glabris, subtus pilis 
minutis paucis ; petiolis petiolulisque puberulis, ad apices 
glandula parva instructis ; spicis a.xillaribus, simplicibus, 
cylindraceis, breviter pedunculatis ; pedunculis, calycibus, 
corollisque omnibus puberulis ; calyce quam corolla 
triplo breviore, quinquedentato ; petalis oblongis obtusis ; 
staminibus exsertis, quam corolla subduplo longioribus ; 
ovario stipitato, dense et appresse cano-tomentoso ; 
legumine piano, scaberulo, fuliginoso ; seminibus com- 
planatis, pallidis. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo, Kerr, 1 ! 

Polia 1 poll, longa. Petiolis j poll, longis. Jugie 
petiolis 2 lin. longis. Petiolulis i— f lin. longis, Foliolis 
4-7 lin. longis, 3—5 lin. latis. Spicie 1—2^ poll, longa. 
Calyx -3- lin. longus. Corolla li lin. longa. Stamina 
2 lin. longa. Legumen li— 2 poll, longa, i pol^- ^'^ta. 
Semina 2i lin. diam. 

Nearly allied to P.fcetida, Benth., but the leaves seem 
always to be 1 -jugate; the leaflets are broader in proportion 
to their length, more obovate and more obtuse than in 



54 TKANSACTIOXS AND PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Ress. lvih. 

P. fcetida ; the spikes are longer and solitary ; and the 
stamens are twice as long as the corolla, whilst in P.fcctiO.a 
they are only shortly exserted (X. E. Brown). 

Toba, Chigerdilc. 

A small tree abundant in the isolated patches of monte 
around Fortin Page. Leaves began to appear i2th Aug., 
flowers 30th Aug.; and by 2nd Sept. in full flower. 
Completely deciduous. 

The fruit consists of curved legumes, 1 i-2 inches in 
length, and when mature, of a dark brown colour and very 
hard, and with a rough outer surface. The see* are 
white, also extremely hard, and supported upon an 
elongated flexible funicle. The brilliant colour of the seeds 
and the rattling sound that is constantly produced by the 
slightest wind, owing to the flexible funicle, makes the 
fruit exceedingly conspicuous and apparently beautifully 
designed for the attraction of birds. 

I, however, quite failed to find that anything of this 
kind actually did take place. On the contrary, the tree 
appeared to be scouted by animals, the leaves having a 
very disagreeable alliaceous odour. I examined the 
stomachs of many hundred birds in the region where the 
tree grow.s, and not in a single case did I discover any of 
its seeds among their contents. 

Prosopis julifloea, DC, var. 

Prov. Arg., Algarobo ; Toba, Kamup. 

This Algarobo is fairly common about Portin Page, 
growing singly in the drier parts of the campo. In 
general appearance and in habit, it resembles the Vinal, 
but it is a smaller tree, and its spines are not of the 
extraordinary size .so characteristic of the Vinal. 

The Algarobo furnishes in its dark red heartwood a 
.strong and useful timber, while, growincr as it does in the 
open campo, its broad and leafy head affords a refreshing 
shade from the rays of the noon-day sun. It is, however, 
for its fruit that it is especially noted, and from which it 
gets its name of Algarobo, the Carob or Locust tree. 
These fruits are long, curved pods about 8 inches in 
length by f inch in breadth, whose soft and spongy tissue 
contains very large quantities of grape sugar and of starch. 



Dec. 1893.J BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 55 

from 25-35 per cent, of the former, and from 11 to 16 
per cent, of the latter. It is almost unnecessary to say 
that hidden in so attractive an envelope as this, the seeds 
nre encased in hard woody sheaths well calculated to carry 
them safely through the digestive canal of herbivorous 
animals. 

During the Algaroho season, i.e., during December and 
January, these pods form a very important factor in the 
food supply of the Toba and other Indians of the Gran 
Chaco. The women go out during the day to collect the 
fallen ripe pods from under the Algarobo trees. The pods 
are pounded up in a kind of rude mortar made from the 
upright base of a dead palm stem, and on separating out 
the hard seeds a kind of meal is obtained, which forms a 
very nourishing and staying article of food — Patai, while 
stirred up in water it affords a most refreshing drink. 
The Tobas, however, take further advantage of the large 
quantity of grape sugar present. The pods are roughly 
pounded and steeped in a considerable quantity of water in 
large calabashes, and left to stand overnight (or in the cold 
weather, for a couple of nights). Brisk fermentation 
ensues, and the result is a comparatively mild but at the 
same time very insidious alcoholic beverage, colourless and 
with a sourish taste, known to the Tobas as LuHagd — to 
the Provincial Argentines as Aloja. 

Peosopis RusciFOLiA, Griscb. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Prov. Arg., Vinal ; Toba, Nedasll'. 

The Vinal is one of the more conspicuous trees of the 
Chaco, conspicuous alike from its large size, and from its 
habit of growing alone and solitary in the open palmar. A 
large specimen measured 50 feet in height by 10 feet in 
girth at 4 feet from the ground. In general aspect the 
Vinal is much branched, wide-spreading, gnarled, and 
knotty. Its rough bark is deeply furrowed vertically ; 
its heartwood hard and reddish. 

On the Chaco frontiers the fruit of the Vinal is much 
used for feeding cattle, while a decoction of its leaves is 
of high repute as a remedy for ophthalmia. An Argentine 
chemist has found that the leaves contain a special 



56 TEANSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess lviii 

alkaloid, which he has named Vinalin. The most 
interesting feature of the Viiml, however, is its spines. 
Other species of the genus Prosopis are commonly 
provided with spines, but in Prosopis ruscifolia these attain 
to gigantic dimensions, so that a tiny twig an eighth of 
an inch thick may bear spines half-an-inch thick at the 
thickest point, and 5 inches in length. These spines 
would form an interesting problem to those who hold the 
opinion that spines are merely starved branches, and that 
they mark loss of vegetative power, for here we have the 
spines enormously larger than the parent branch from 
which they are given forth. 

The presence and the use of these enormous spines is, 
however, in any case very puzzling. The ordinary function 
of spines is as a protection against herbivorous animals, 
but the Vinal is a large tree, and there are no large 
indigenous herbivora, except deer and tapirs, both of which 
are obviously unable to prey upon the foliage. It seems 
to me most reasonable to look upon the Viiml as a survival 
of what was fittest a long period of time since, when, as 
in tertiary and post-tertiary times, the region which it 
inhabits had a population of large herbivorous mammals. 

Desmanthcs vihgatus, Willd. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. In the open palmar ; growing a 
few plants together, often on termite hills. 

Mimosa aspekata, L. 

Hab. — Eio I'arana near Goya. Fl. Jan. 

Mimosa cixerea. Veil. 

Hab. — Open palmar near Fortin Page. 

Mimosa steigillosa, Torr. et Gr. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. Common in the open palmar, 
resembling clover in its general habit. Fl. 20th Oct. 

Mimosa sp. I — Specimen too imperfect for deter- 
mination. 

Acacia boxariensis, GilL 

Hab. — Lower Pilcomayo, by the river margin. 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 57 

Acacia faknesiana, Willd. 

Au exceedingly common shrub, amongst the brush by 
the river bank. The flower balls, which are of a deep 
yellow, last only a very few days. In flower 15th-25th 
July. The Argentines of our expedition called this plant 
Espinillo, a name common, however, to almost all shrubby 
acacias. This was the first of the acacias to flower. The 
flowers are most beautifully perfumed. 

Acacia teaecox, Griseb. 

A low tree 10-15 feet in height, frequent in the monte- 
citos around Fortin Page. 

A well-marked variety of this species seems to be 
becoming developed, characterised by its very straggling, 
almost climbing habit, and the (no doubt correlated with 
this) more numerous and more recurved spines. 

The trees burst into a mass of bloom about 12th 
Aug., continuing in flower until about the end of tlie 
month. Each tree in flower exhaled a most delightful 
perfume, which could be perceived a long distance off, and 
proved a great attraction to insects and humming birds. 
The flowers were produced before the foliage. Fruit 
1st Dec. 

PiTHECOLOBIUM MULTIFLOHUM, Benth. 

Prov. Arg., Tinibo hlanco. 

A tall, slender tree, exceedingly abundant along the 
river banks in low-lying situations in the Chaco. Trees of 
this species lost their leaves entirely during the winter. 
The new leaves burst forth about the 1st Aug., but 
many of the trees were again stripped of foliage by the 
frosty night, about 6 th Aug. A large specimen had a 
circumference of 7 feet, at 4 feet from ground. 

The heartwood is white and very brittle — quite useless 
as a timber. The tree is much affected by two species of 
Lovanthacccc. 

Fl. 27th Sept.-Oct. 

Eugenia glaucescens, Camb. 

Hab. — Montes on Pio Pilcomayo. 

TiBOUCHIXA, cfr. T. sebastianopolitana, Cogn. ? 
Hab. — Pdo Pilcomayo. 



58 TEAlfSACTIONS A^"D PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

Nes.ea salicifolia, H. B. K. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo in campo, by margin of monte. 

JuSSI.3Li BRACHYCARPA, Micheli. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Banaea tomentosa, Clos. 
Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo. 

TcRNERA ULMiroLiA, L. var. 
Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo. 

Passifloea Gibeeti, X. E. Br. (u. sp.). — Caule scandente 
tereti glabra ; foliis profunde trilobis, basi late rotundatis 
vel sub-cordatis lobis oblongo-lanceolatis, subacutis, basi 
pauce serratis, utrinque glabris ; petiolis 2— 6— glandulosis, 
pedunculis quam petioli longioribus ; stipulis foliaceis, 
falcato-lanceolatis vel falcato-ovatis, acntis, mucronatis ; 
bracteis liberis, ovatis acutis, mucronatis, basi serratis ; 
calycis tubo brevissimo, basi intruso, sepalis oblongis 
obtusis, dorso sub apice processu perlongo acuto munitis ; 
petalis oblongis obtusis, corona faucialis lilamentis 
subquinqueseriatis, extimis radiatis quam petala i 
brevioribus, intimis erectis circum gynophorum conniventi- 
bus eoque paullo brevioribus, intermediis multo brevioribus ; 
corona media e medio tubi enata, membranacea, deflexa, 
integra; corona basilari membranacea, cupuliformi, integra: 
filamentis complanatis, antheris magnis ; ovario ellipsoideo, 
glabro, stigmatibus crassis clavatis. 

Hab. — Argentine Republic, Gran Chaco, Gibert 43 ■ 
Kerr ! Paraguay, Balansa, 2202 ! 

Folii lamina 2-2i poll, longa, 2|-3 poll. lata. Petiolus 
h—1 poll, longus. Pedunculi 1-2 poll, longl Bractese 
f-1 poll, longse, ;^-| poll, latai. Flcres 3 poll. diam. 
Comua sepalorum §— f poll, longa. Gynophorum |-t 
poll, longum. 

Tliis species seems nearly related to P. Sprucci, Mart., 
and P. vuAacca, Yell. ; from both it differs in the much 
longer outer filaments of the corona, and from the latter in 
its glabrous ovary; from the plant figured as P. violacea, in 
Flora Brasiliensis, vol. xiii., pt. 1, t. 123 (which does not 
agree with the description given on p. 612 as to the 
corona), and from that figured in the Botanical Magazine, 



Dec. 180;J.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUltGII. 5 9 

t. 6997, as P. vlulacca, it differs in the structure of its 
corona, and in having the dorsal horns of the sepals placed 
at about i-f of an inch below the apex of the sepals. 
The plant figured in the Flora Brasiliensis as P. violacca, 
may be the same as that of the Botanical Magazine, 
only with the corona erroneously represented, but they are 
both distinct from the true P. violacca of Vellozo, which 
appears to me to be much more like P. Sprucci, than to 
either of these plants. The petals and interior of the 
sepals of P. Giberti are stated by Balansa to be yellowish, 
which accords with their appearance in the dried state; the 
outer coronal filaments appear to be purple or violet with 
a white base, and have some appearance of being banded, 
the inner filaments are paler, but this may be due to the 
process of drying (N. E. Brown). 

Passiflora maximIliaxa, Bor. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Cayapona ficifolia, Cogn. 
Hab.— Kio Pilcomayo. 

Begonia cucullata, K1. 

Hab. — Damp spots in forests of Lower Pilcomayo. PL 
Mar., April. Flowers white. 

Sesuvium portulacasteum, L. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. Abundant by margins of salt pools, 
and by margin of river. Always in very salt soil. Fl. Aug., 
Sept., Oct. 

Hydkocotyle leucocephala, Ch. et Sch. 
Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. 

Hydrocotyle ranuxculoides, Linn. fil. 
Hab. — In fresh-water marshes along with Enliydra. 
Fl. October. 

Eryngium coRONATUiM, Hook et Arn. 
Hab. — Open campo, liio Pilcomayo. 
Toba, Algtco. 

Eryngium elegans, Ch. et Sch. 

Hab. — Estancia Gil. Eio Pilcomayo. Abundant in 
open campo on Lower Pilcomayo. 



GO TllANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lvih. 

Spermacoce diffusa, Polil. 
Hab. — llio Pilcomayo. 

Speemacoce yerticillata, L, 

Hab. — Fortin Page. Abundant in shady spots. Fl. 8 th 
October. 

GUETTARDA URUGUENSIS, Ch. et Sch. 

Hab. — Gran Chaco. 

Machaonia acuminata, H. et B. 
Hab. — Monte near Fortin Page. 

Machaonia brasiliensis, Ch. et Sch. 
Hab. — In the monte near Fortin Page. 

PsYCHOTRiA alba, Piuiz et Pav. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Yernonia rubricaulis, H. B. K. 
Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. 

Stevia multiaristata, 8pr. 
Hab. — Plio Pilcomayo. 

Eupatorium candolleanum, Hook, et Arn. 
Hab. — Gran Chaco. 

Eupatorium hecatanthum, Baker. 

Hab. — Pio Pilcomayo. Abundant all along the river's 
banks. Fl. loth Sept. ^ 

SOLIDAGO MICROGLOSSA, DC. 

Hab. — Plio Pilcomayo. 

Vittadinia multifida, Griseb. 
Hab. — Plio Pilcomayo. 

Bacchaeis dracunculifolia, DC. 
Hab. — Plio Pilcomayo. 

Baccharis perrulata, Pers. 

Hab. — Banks of Lower Pilcomayo. 



Dbc, 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 61 

Tessaria ABSINTIIOIDES, DC. 

A small tree like a miniature Lombardy poplar in habit, 
15—20 ft. in height. Forms a dense growth on the low- 
lying islands of the Parana, especially about Goya, and 
north of this. Also on banks of Bermejo near its mouth. 
Occasional thickets on the Pilcomayo, more especially on 
the southern branch. 

Argentine provincial name Palo hoho. 

Enhydra maritlma, DC. 

A succulent plant whose stems creep over the surface of 
mud or shallow water, in fresh-water marshes. 
Fl. 9th Oct., near Fortin Page. 

ECLIPTA erecta, L. 

Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. 

"VVedelia Kerrii, K E. Br. (n. sp.). — Caule herbaceo, 
erecto, dichotomo vel trichotomo, hispido ; foliis breviter 
petiolatis, ovatis, obtusis vel subacutis, basi in petiolo 
angustatis, obtuse serratis, utrinque subhispidis ; pedunculis 
e dichotomiis solitariis, et apice ramorum subcorymbosis. 
monocephalis, hispidis; involucri squamis biseriatis,.lanceo- 
latis, subobtusis, hispidis ; paleis lineari-lauceolatis concavis, 
subacutis, ciliatis, apice luteis ; ligulis late oblongis, 
tridentatis, luteis ; pappi squaniulis paucis, minutis, caducis, 
acha?niis calvis, compresso-tetragonis, obpyramidalis, apice 
truncatis cum tubercula central!, lateris scrobiculatis. 

Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo, Kerr ! 

Folia l|-2^ poll, longa, 3-li jdoII. lata. Pedunculi 
1-3 poll, longi. Capitula f poll, diani. Achu-nia 1}, lin. 
longa, 1 lin. lata (IST. E. Brown). 

Wedelia pilosa, Baker {W. hrachycarpa, Baker). 
Hab. — liio Pilcomayo. 

Wedelia subvaginata, N. E. Br. (n. sp.).— Caule erecto, 
subglabro vel sparse et minute appresse strigoso, foliis 
oppositis, lanceolatis, subacutis, mucronatis, basi acutis, 
pauce et minute denticulatis, trinerviis, subrigidis, supra 
subtusque appresse strigosis, breviter petiolatis, petiolis 
basi in vaginam brevissime connatis ; pedunculo solitario, 
elongate, appresse strigoso ; involucri squamis biseriatis. 



62 TKAXSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

linearibus vel lanceolato-linearibus, obtusis, crassis, minute 
appresse strigosis, ligulis lineari-oblongis profuude bilobis 
vel interdum bifidis, lobis oblongis obtusis, luteis ; paleis 
lanceolatis acutis, concavis, apice scabris ; pappo coroni- 
formi irregulariter lacerato ; achceniis ? 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomajo, Kerr. 

Folia 2— 2i polL longa, 5—7 lin. lata. Pedunculus 3 J 
poll longus. Capitulum 1^ poll. diam. (X. E. Brown). 

ASPILIA BUPHTHALMIFLOPA, Grissb. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. Abundant in many spots in open 
palmar. Fl. 15th Oct. 

POEOPHYLLUM ELLIPTICUM, CaSS. 

Hab, — Gran Chaco, Piio Pilcomayo. 

(taillaPvDU. Doniaxa, Griseb. 

Hab. — Gran Chaco, Piio Pilcomayo. 

Ti'jxis OCHKOLEUCA, Hook. et Arn. 

Hab. — Common along river banks, Fortin Page. Fl. 
Sept., Oct. Flowers white. 

PiCKOSIA LONGIFOLIA, Don. 

Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo. 

MeXODOKA INTEGRIFOLIA, Steud. 

Hab. — Colonia Hemanda, Piio Parana. 

Thevetia EICOENUTA, Mlill., Arg. {T. paraguayensis, 
Britton). 

Hab. — Common in open campo around Fortin Page. 
Fl. Nov., Dec. 

Akauja megapotamica, Don. 
Hab, — Lower Pilcomayo. 

ASCLEPIAS MELLIODORA, St. Hil. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. The open campo. Fl. 1st Oct.- 
30th Xov. In fruit 24th Dec. 

CORDIA CVLINDROSTACHYA, Piam, et SchulteS. 

Hab. — Pdo Pilcomayo. 

Ipomcea ARGENTINA, N. E. Br, (n. sp.). — Caule prostrato 
vel volubile cum foliis pedunculis sepalisque appresse 



Dkc. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. G3 

pubescentibus vel glabrescentibus, foliis breviter petiolatis, 
auguste lauceolatis, oblongo-lanceolatis vel oblongis, obtusis 
vel acutis, mucroniilatis, basi subaciitis vel subobtusis, 
pedunciilis quara foliis brevioribus, 1—3 floris; bracteis 
parvis, lanceolatis acuuiinatis ; pedicellis calyce brevioribus ; 
sepalis late ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, acutis vel subobtusis, 
basi late rotundatis baud decurrentibus ; corolla magna, 
infundibuliforme, extus vittis quinque appresse pubescenti- 
bus ; staminibus styloque corolla duplo brevioribus, 
filamentis glabris basi barbatis, ovario glabro, stigma 
didyma, lobis globosis. — Aniseia ccnma, var, amhiffua, 
Meissn, in Flora Brasiliensis, vol. viL, p. 319. 

Hab. — Buenos Ayres, Tweedie ! Uruguay, Tweedie ! 
Lorentz, 65! and 926 ! Eio Grande, Tweedie! Eio Pilco- 
mayo, Kerr, 63 ! 

Foliorum petioli 2—5 lin. longi ; lamina: lj-3 poll, 
longpe, 2^-10 lin. latse. Pedunculi i-2i poll longi. 
Pedicelli 2—8 lin. longi. Sepala 6-8 lin. longa, 3i-5 lin. 
lata. Corolla li-lf poll, longa, et subiequilata. 

This species is nearly related to /. martiniccnsis, Mey., 
but it is at once distinguished by its very much larger 
flowers, and by the sepals not being decurrent at the base. 
It also appears to be allied to /. campcslris, Meissn., /. 
prostrata, Meissn., and /. Sclloi, Meissn. In the Flora 
Jjrasiliensis, Meissner placed it as a variety of Aniseia 
ccrnua, Mor., which is a very different plant, with flowers 
that are not one quarter the size of those of the present 
species ; the figure, too, of Aniseia ccrnua given in the 
Flora Brasiliensis, is totally different from the true plant 
of Moricand, and probably represents Aniseia nitcns, Chois 
(X. E. Brown). 

A common ground creeper in shady spots. Fl. 1st Nov. 

Ipomcea xuda, N. E. Br. (n. sp.). — Caule volubili, glabro ; 
foliis longe petiolatis, late cordatis acutis vel subtrilobo- 
cordatis, lobo antico triangulari-acuminato, lobis vel 
auriculis posticis obtusissime rotundatis, utrinque glabris ; 
pedunculis axillaribus quam foliis brevioribus, trichotomis 
vel dichotomis, laxe cymoso 5-9 floris, glabris ; pedicellis 
calyce triplo longioribus, glabris ; sepalis coriaceis, ellipticis 
obtusis, minute apiculatis, glabris, exterioribus sub- 



64 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Se.ss. lviii. 

brevioribus ; corolla infundibuliformi, glabra ; capsula 
globosa, glabra, calycem dimidio superante ; seminibus 
(immaturis) glabris. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo, Kerr, 12 ! 

Petioli |-2i poll, longi. Lamina f— 2 poll, longa |-2 
poll. lata. Peduncnli |-2 poll, longi. Pedicelli i— f 
poll, longi. Sepala exteriora 2 lin. longa, interiora 2^ lin. 
loDga, 2 lin. lata. Corolla 9—10 lin. longa. 

Allied to /. umbellata, Meyer, but the cymes have fewer 
flowers, the calyx is smaller, and the leaves are different in 
form. 

The collection contains another species of Ipomcea allied 
to this one, but with larger flowers and differently shaped 
leaves. The material, however, is insufficient for a 
description (X. E. Brown). 

Ipomcea yillicalyx, X. E. Br. (n. sp.). — Caule volubili, 
cum petiolis pedunculisque dense villoso-tomentoso ; foliis 
cordatis, apice acuminatis, acutis vel obtusis, mucronulatis, 
utrinque molliter adpresseque tomentosis vel subvillosis ; 
pedunculis quam petiolis longioribus, dichotomis, cymoso 
3-9 floris ; pedicellis calyce lequantibus, villosis ; sepalis 
oblongis obtusis, subcoriaceis, pilis longis dense villosis ; 
corolla infundibuliformi roseo-purpurea, extus adpresse 
villosa ; staminibus inclusis, filamentis basi dense barbatis ; 
ovario glabro. 

Hab. — Argentine Eepublic, Gran Chaco, Gibert, 67 ! 
Rio Pilcomayo, Kerr ! 

Petioli i-li poll, longi. Folia li-4 poll, longa, 
li-2f poll. lata. Pedunculi 1^-2 poll, longi. Pedicelli 
4-G lin. longi. Sepala 5 lin longa, 2h-o lin. lata. 
Corolla 1| poll, longa, circa 2 poll. diam. 

A very distinct species, easily recognised by its tomentose 
surface and shaggy calyx ; the branches of the cyme are 
very short, being only from 1-3 lines long (X. E. Brown). 

Ipomcea platensis, Ker. 
Hab. — Pcio Pilcomayo. 

Ipomcea tuberculata, Roem. et Schultes. 

Hab. — Rios Parana, Paraguay, and Pilcomayo. 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 65 

Jacquemontia alba, X. E. Br. (u. sp.). — Caule volubili 
cum foliis, pedunculis, bracteis, pedicellisque tomentoso ; 
tbliis breviter petiolatis ovatis vel cordato-ovatis acutis, 
aristato-mucronatis, marginibus leviter siuuatis ; pedunculis 
quam foliis longioribus, umbellatim vel breviter cymoso 
o-11-floris; sepalis oblongis obtusis mucronulatis, pedicello 
subiequantibus vel subbrevioribus, parce pubescentibus vel 
subglabresceutibus, ciliatis ; corolla infundibulariformi, alba, 
extus glabra ; capsula globosa, glabra, sepalis aequante ; 
semina glabra. 

Hab. — Paraguay, Balansa, 1065! liio Pilcomayo, Kerr! 
Brazil, Pohl, 1756 ! 

Foliorum petioli 2—6 lin. longi, lamiiiie 1— 2f poll. 
longae, f-H poll, latiu Pedunculi f-3i poll, longi. 
Pedicelli 2—4 lin. longi. Sepala 2-2.3 I'li- longa, 1 lin. 
lata. Corolla f poll, longa. Capsula 2 lin. diam. (X. E. 
Brown). 

Jacquemontl\ tamnifoll\, Griseb. 

Hab. — liio Pilcomayo. Open palmar. Common. 

Convolvulus Hekmanni.e, L'Herit. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Solanum multispinum, X. E. Br. (n. sp.). — Caule, 
petiolis, pedunculis, pedicellis, calycibusque omnibus dense 
aculeatis, stellato-tomentosis cum glandulis stipitatis 
intermixtis ; aculeis acerosis, rectis, f ulvis, patentissimis : 
foliis solitariis elongato-ovatis, subobtusis, basi cordatis, 
breviter sinuato-lobatis, utrinque dense stellato-tomentosis 
et ad venas aculeis armatis, supra tomento tlavescente, 
subtus pallidiora ; pedunculis lateralibus quam petiolis 
brevioribus, scorpioideis, laxe plurifloris ; pedicellis erectis, 
longis, tenuibus ; calyce campanulato h vel f corolla- 
ji'quante, ad dimidium quinquelobato, dense stellato- 
tomentoso et aculeato, lobis anguste lanceolatis acurainatis, 
corolla ad medium vel ultra quinquefidn, extus stellato- 
tomentosa, lobis lanceolatis acutis, recurvo-patentibus ; 
antheris lanceolatis, poris apicalibus dehiscentibus. 

Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo, Kerr ! 

Foliorum petioli f-l] poll, longi, lamina? 2|-3 poll, 
longae, l^-lf poll. lata?. Pedunculi { poll, longi (vel 
ultra ?). Pedicelli f-1 poll, longi. Calyx 4^ lin. longi 

TRAXS. EOT. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. E 



66 TIIINSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

(lobis 2i liiL longis). Corolla 1 poll. diam. (lobis S-3h lin. 
longis, 2 lin. latis). Antherse 3^-4 lin, longcC. Aculei 
1^—2 lin. longi. 

This species should probably be placed near S. crinitipcs, 
it seems to be well distinguished by its long pedicels, 
deeply divided calyx, and the horizontal needle-like spines 
with which the calyx, pedicels, petioles and stem, are thickly 
clothed. A plant collected in Paraguay by Balansa (No. 
2115) may be a form of this species, but the specimen 1 
have seen is in fruit only, and the leaves have much 
shorter petioles, are more elongated, more deeply lobed, and 
have fewer veins (X. E. Brown). 

SOLANUM EOBUSTUM, Wendl. 

Hab. — Lower Pilcomayo. Fl. March. 

SoLANUM siSY]y£BErFOLiUM, Lamk. 
Hab. — Gran Chaco. 

Phtsalis angulata, L. 
Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. 

JaBOEOSA INl'EGElFOLIA, Lamk. 

Hab. — Common in open campo near Fortin Page. 

Petunia tiolacea, Lindl. 
Hab. — Piio Pilomayo. 

NicoTiANA GLAUCA, Grab. 

Hab. — By margin of river, Eio Pilcomayo. 

Stemodia palusteis, St. Hil. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

ScoPAEiA PLATA, Cham. 

Hab. — Frequent in open palmar near Fortin Page. Yl. 
Xov., Dec. 

BUCHNERA ELONGATA, Sw. ? 

Hab. — Ptio Pilcomayo. 

BiGNONIA COEYMBIFEEA, YahL 

Hab. — Montes of Pdo Pilcomayo. 

DOLICHANT)EA CYNANCHOIDES, Cham. 

Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. Lat. 24° 48' S. In margin of 
"monte duro." Straggling shrub. Fl. 3rd L»ec. 1890. 



Dec. 181)3.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 07 

PiTIIECOCTENIUM CYNANCHOIDES, Cham. 

Hab. — Kio raraiiii, near Goya. Gran Chaco. 

liUELLiA TwEEDiANA, Griseb. 
Hab. — Gran Chaco, 

Ch.etothylax umbrosus, Xees. 

Hab. — In the montes, Eio Pilcomayo. 

Belopekone Amherstle, Xees. 

Hab. — In the montes near Fortin Page. 

Beloperone Kerrii, X. E. Br. (n. sp.). — Glabra corolla 
oxcepta; caiile tereto; foliis petiolatis, lanceolatis vel ovatis, 
obtusis vel acutis, basi rotundatis vel acutis; spica terminal! 
composita, anguste thyrsoidea, basi bifoliata ; bracteis brac- 
teolisque anguste spathulatis calycem tequantibus ; calycis 
segmentis lanceolatis acuminatis angustissime albo-margi- 
natis ; corolla quam calyce triplo vel quadruplo longiora 
punicea, lobis extus minute pubescentibus, labio superior! 
recto, anguste oblongo-lanceolato, apice bifido, inferior! triplo 
latiori usque ad medium trifido, lobis oblongis obtusis ; 
staminibus corolla brevioribus ; antherarum loculi unus 
super altero posit!, inferior! breviter calcarati. 

Hab. — liio Pilcomayo, Kerr, 10<S ! 

Foliorum petioli 2—4 lin. long!, lamina? 1-2 poll, longa.% 
]-f poll, latie. Spica 1-1^ poll, longa. Bractea; et 
calyx -i lin. longie. Corolla 1|- poll, longa. 

Of the described species this appears to be nearest allied 
to B. phimhagi7iifolia, hut has a much narrower inflorescence 
and smaller leaves (X. E. Brown). 

Common in open spots in nionte. 

Dicliptera Pohliana, Xees. 
Hab.— Pio Pilcomayo. 

Lantana Sellowiana, Link et Otto. 
Hab. — Pios Parauii and Pilcomayo, 

LipPiA canescens, Kunth. 
Hab. — Pio Pilcomayo, 

LiPPiA lycioides, Steud. 

Hab. — Pios Paranj'i, Paraguay, and Pilcomayo. 



68 TKAXSACTIONS A.XD PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

VeREE^'A CHAM.i;DEYFOLIA, JuSS. 

Hab. — Frequent in open campo along Eios Parana, 
Paraguay, and Pilcomayo. FL Aug., Sept., Oct. 

Tebbe:xa eeixoides, Lam. ? 

Hab. — Fortin Page. Very common in open campo. 
"NVhite-flowered indi^iduals occasionally seen. Fl. Aug., 
Sept., Oct. 

This is the commonest Verbena on the Pilcomayo. 

VeEBENA LITT0EALI5, H. B. K 

Hab. — Open campo, Piio Pilcomayo. 

Veebexa stkllarioides, Cham. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. Frequent in open palmar. Fl. 
Aug., Sept., Oct. 

HYPns lappacea, P>enth. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Peaffia tenuis, X. E. Br. (n. sp.). — Caulibus tenuibus, 
simplicibus vel apice trichotomis, albo-lanatis ; foliis 
se-ssilibus, lanceolatis, acutis, supra arachnoideis, subtus 
dense albo-lanatis ; pedunculo elongato, terminali, gracili, 
simplici ; capitulo par\'o, globoso yel oblongo, rachi lanata ; 
bracteis oyatis euspidato-acuminatis, stramineis, dorso 
glabris, apice ciliatis ; bracteolis lateralibus late ellipticis, 
obtusis, glabris, albidis : perianthii segmentis lanceolato- 
oblongis, obtusis, albidis, basi longe yillosis, apice 
pubescentibus ; tubo stamineo parte filamentorum libera 
basi ciliata subiequante ; filamentorum lobis lateralibus 
medio antherifeTO multo longioiibus, integris, non ciliatis ; 
oyario oyato, stigma subsessile, obsolete bilobo. 

Hab. — Uruguay, Lorentz, 998 I PJo Pilcoma^^o, Kerr! 

Herba 6—9 poll. alta. Folia J-1 j poll longa, 2—5 lin. 
lata. Pedunculi 2|— 4 poll longi Capitnla 3-oh lin. 
diam. Bractese 1 lin. longa-. BracteoLe laterales 1^\ lin. 
longge. Flores If lio. longi 

Very similar to P. gnaphalioidts, Mart., in appearance, 
but is easily recognised by the much smaller flower-heads 
(X. E. Brown). 

SALicoEyiA PEE^^^A^^A, Kunth. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. Abundant upon bare soil by the 
margins of riyer and of salt lagunas. Found onlj' on soil 
saturated with salt. Fl. Sept., Oct. 



De<. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIh:TY OF EDINBURGH. 69 

IflVINA LAEVIS, L. 

Hab. — Piio Pilconmyo, Fortin Page. 

Polygonum acuminatum, Kunth. 

Hab. — Marshes of PJos I'ilcomayo and Paraguay. 

MUEHLENBECKIA SAGITTIFOLIA, Meissn. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

COCCOLOBA ALAGOENSIS, Wedcl. 

Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo. 

CoccoLOBA COKDATA, Cham. 

Hab. — In monte near Fortin Page. Fi. 4th Jan. 

CoccoLOBA PARAGUARiENSis, Lindau. 
Hab. — A small shrub frecjuent along margin of the Piio 
I'ilcomayo. 

Nectandra angustifolia, Nees., var. falcifolia, Nees. 
Hab. — Banks of Lower Pilcomayo. 

Euphorbia adenoptera, Berfcol. 

Hab. — Open campo near Fortin Page. Fl. 3rd Nov. 

Euphorbia brasiliensis, Lamk. 
Hab. — Ptio Pilcomayo. 

Euphorbia hypericifolia, Linn. 
Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo. 

Euphorbia ovalifolia, Engelm., var montevidensis, 
Boiss. ? 

Hab. — Rio Parana. 

Euphorbia selloi, Klotzsch. 
Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo. 

Croton lobatus, L. 

Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo, Fortin Page. 

Croton sarcopetalus, Miill. Arg. 
Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo. 

CiiOTON urucurana, Baill. 

Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo. A small erect shrub 4 ft. in 
height. Frequent at margin of monte duro. Fl. 20 th 
Sept. 



70 TEANSACTIOXS AXD PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. i.viii. 

JULOCROTOy ARGENTEU5, DidricllS. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo, Fortin Page. 

Capeeoxia castaxe^folia, St. Hil. 
Hab. — Banks of Pdo Pilcomayo. Lat. 24'' 48' S., May 
1890. 

Capeeoioa coedata, St. Hil. 
Hab. — Ptio Pilcomayo. 

AcALYPHA APiCALis, X. E. Br. (n. sp.). — Caulibus 
herbaceis simplicibus, laxe et breviter pubescentibus ; foliis 
longe petiolatis, membranaceis, basi quinquenerviis, reliqua 
parte penniner\'iis, ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis, basi late 
rotundatis leviterque emarginatis vel subcordatis, subtiliter 
crenato - dentatis, supra glabris vel minute puberulis, 
subtus bre\'iter pubescentibus, stipulis subulatis ; spicis 
masculis axillaribus, solitariis, tenuibus, pedunculatis vel 
subsessilibus densissime florigeris, pubescentibus, infimis basi 
bractea palmatilida una fo?minea rudimentaria prseditis ; 
.spica androgyna terminali dense florigera, usque ad f 
fceminea, apice mascula, breviter peduuculata, pedunculo 
pubescente ; bracteis foemineis unifloris, accrescentibus, 
palmatisectis, segmentis 9—11 linearibus, scabris ; calyce 
foeminea tripartite, segmentis ovatis acutis, pubescentibus ; 
ovario strigoso-hirsuto, stylis multipartitis, lacinulis 
filiformibus ovario sub;equantibus ; capsulis non muricatis, 
.seminibus le\T.bus. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo, Kerr ! 

Petioli \h—2\ poll, longi. Foliorum laminae 3-4 poll. 
longse, 1— If poll, latfe. Spicce masculse 1-1 i poll, longae, 
1-1 i lin. crassce, pedunculo 1—3 lin. longo. Spica 
androgyute pars fceminea li-lf poll, longa, mascula 5 lin. 
longa. Bracteae fructigene li lin. longie. Capsula IJ 
lin. diam. 

The specimens have no root, but have the appearance of 
an annual, or the annual stems of a herbaceous perennial. 
In general appearance this species is something like 
A. gracilis, but the terminal androgynous spike at once 
distinguishes it from all the other South American species 
(X. E. Brown). 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 71 

Celtis tala, Gill. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. Frequents the edges of the monte. 
Fl. 26 th Sept. 

Prov. Arg. Tala. 

A straggling shrub some 5 feet in height, characterised 
by its stiff rectangular spinescent branching. Fruit edible. 

QUERCUS sp. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. Frequent in open woodlands. 

This is, perhaps, the most interesting plant in the 
collection from a geographical point of view, but the 
material is too poor for its determination (X. E, Brown). 

Brassavola perpjxii, Lindl. 

Amongst the plants collected at Fortin Page was a fine 
Epiphytic orchid with white flowers, apparently belonging 
to Brassavola, or some allied genus. Its stems creep along 
the branches of its host. Its leaves are elongate cylind- 
roidal in form, with a deep groove along the upper surface. 
Flowers numerous. The three sepals are linear and 
colourless, as are the two smaller petals. The anterior 
petal is broad, expanded, and white in colour ; basally its 
edges curl upwards, so as to fit round the edges of the 
hood-like column, and with it to form a funnel leading 
into the nectary tube. This latter is about two inches in 
length, so that probably lepidoptera, and from the white 
colour of the flowers probably night-flying lepidoptera, 
Uiake most use of the honey. The upper margin of the 
mouth of the nectary tube is continued into the hood-like 
column, whose under surface is deeply concave to form 
the large somewhat conical stigmatic cavity. The inner 
surface of this is smeared with sticky cement. Below, 
this cavity is freely open : while above and distally its 
roof projects downward somewhat, and ends in several 
comb-like teeth. As it were, completing the hood distally 
is a large cushion-like structure, which is loosely held in 
position in a socket-like cavity by the downwardly pro- 
jecting teeth before alluded to. This cushion has loosely 
embedded in it the eight poUinia, and its posterior aspect 
is smeared with a sticky cement. If a slender object is 
inserted into the nectary tube and withdrawn, it rubs 
against the downwardly projecting edge of the cushion, and 



72 TEANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

rotates it outwards and upwards. Thus loosened from its 
attachment, it falls down flat upon the proboscis and sticks 
firmly. With the slightest touch, the protecting cap is 
knocked off, and we have left, attached to the proboscis, the 
eight pollinia. On introducing the proboscis into another 
flower these naturally touch and adhere to the sticky 
stigmatic surface. 

EULOPHIA MACULATA, Echb. f. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Onciduim pumilum, Lindl. 
Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo. 

Stenoehynchus oechioides, Piich. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Thalia geniculata, L. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Canna coccinea, Ait. ? 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 
Canna glauca, L. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Bromelia aegentina. Baker. (Uvika, Kalyite). 

This species of Bromelia, with leaves about 5 feet in 
length, is much used by the Chaco Indians as a source 
of fibre, of which they make cord and rope, and also coarse 
cloth. Around Fortin Page it did not occur at all, but 
existed in considerable quantities about four days' journey 
to the N.W. The fibre is obtained from the dried and 
withered leaves by simply peeling off the upper and lower 
epidermis. The fibre is one of very considerable tenacity, 
being quite equal or superior to jute, and it is characterised 
by its high specific gravity, and especially by its wonderful 
damp-resisting powers. 

A note has recently been published upon this species in 
the " Kew Bulletin," under the name of Karaguata. It, 
however, ought to be pointed out that Karaguata is a 
generic name applied in Guarani to almost all large 
Bromelia-like plants — for instance there is the Karaguata 
guazu or Great Karaguata, and the Karaguatd ii or Water 
Karaguata, and many others. To Bromdia argcntina, 
however, one scarcely ever hears a Paraguayan apply the 



Dkc. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 73 

• « 

name Karaguatii ; it is properly known as Uvird, and 
tliis is the name which ought certainly to be used in 
referring to it, instead of the very vague and indefinite 
Karaguatii. 

Bromelia ? sp. ? 

To the Paraguayans this species is known as Karaguatd it; 
to the Tobas as TuJdate. 

The Karaguata it is an inhabitant of the monte, where 
it forms a dense undergrowth. The leaves are about 3 feet 
in length, tapering gradually towards the apex. Margins 
beset, at regular intervals, with spines acutely bent towards 
the apex. The upper surface is deeply concave, and leads 
down into the widely sheathing leaf-base. The fruit is 
very enticing, of a rich yellow colour, and attractive odour. 
When first met with I hastened to taste the berries, but 
though pleasant to taste they are very acrid. 

The Tobas pile the spiny Karaguatd plants over the 
graves of their people. 

To the traveller in the Gran Cliaco this plant is an 
inestimable boon, for the dews and rains collect in the 
deep sheathing axils of its leaves, in which one can thus 
always find a little fresh water, even when the country all 
around is baked and parched, and when the rivers are 
either completely dry or have only a runlet of intense salt 
brine trickling down their beds. 

TiLLANDSiA BANDENSIS, Baker. 

Hab. — A common epiphyte in the forests of the 
Pilcomayo. 

TiLLANDSiA HiLAiREANA, Baker. 

Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo. Abundant. Epiphytic on nearly 
every tree. 

TiLLANDSiA VERNICOSA, Baker. 

Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. Epiphytic. 

TILLANDSIA TOMENTOSA, N. E. Br. (n. sp.). — Foliis 
rosulatis, caule brevioribus, basi subbulboso-convolutis, 
lineari - attenuatis, recurvis, convolutis, apice circinatis, 
utrinque dense squamuloso-tomentosis ; caule foliis 2—3 
instructis, superne in vaginis dense lepidotis abeuntibus ; 
spicis fasciculato-paniculatis, distichis (pedunculis in vaginis 



74 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

occnltis, apice fasciculatim 3-4 spicatis), rscurvis, 6—12— 
floris, bracteis ovato-lanceolatis, conduplicatis, obtusis vel 
acutis, lepidotis vel subglabris, iinbricatis, calycem sub- 
aequantibus; sepalis oblanceolato-oblongis subobtusis, glabris, 
ungues petalonim a-quantibus ; petaKs roseo-purpureis, 
laminis subrotundis ; staminibus styloque inclusis. 

Hab. — Kio Pilcomayo, Kerr ! 

Folia 6-8 poll, longa, basi h poll lata. Caulis 16-18 
poll, longus, Spicae li— 3 poll longse, I poll. lata-. 
Bractese 5-7 lin. longae, 2i-3 lin. latse, Sepala 6—7 
lin. longa, 2| lin. lata. Petalorum lamina 5 lin. diam. 

This species, I think, should be placed near T. strepto- 
phylla, but is abundantly distinguished from that and all 
allied species by having the recurving flower-spikes 
grouped in four or five distant fascicles, forming a dis- 
tichous panicle 6 or 7 inches long by 4 or 5 inches broad 
(X. E. Brovrn). 

Hab. — Plio Pilcomayo. Epiphytic. Common. 

Ctpella gracilis, Baker. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Ctpella herberti, Herb. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. Open campo. Fl. 9th Oct. 

Mayaca Sellowiana, Kunth. 

Hab. — Plio Pilcomayo. Creeping on ground in damp 
spots in forest. 

COMMELINA VIRGINICA, L. (C. sulcato., Willd.). 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. Very common in shady spots. 

Of palms, I found three species conspicuous on the 
banks of the Pilcomayo, Copernicia cerifcra, Trithrinax 
hrasiliciuu, and Cocos audralis. 

COCOS AUSTRALIS, Mart. 

This, a tall and beautiful palm called Findo in Guarani, 
and CTiciJ: laUt in Toba, was not found in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Fortin Page. Along the lower reaches of 
the Pilcomayo, and on the banks of the Eio Bermejo, it is 
a conspicuous object growing singly and solitary in the di- 
cotyledonous forest. The fleshy pericarp of its drupaceous 
fruit is sweet and wholesome, while the heart of the 
crown is also used as a vegetable. 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 75 

Trithrinax brasiliensis, Mart. 

Toba, Laiardui. 

Hab. — Fortin Page. Common in the " monte duro " of 
the Pilcomayo. Flowered 1st February. 

This species of pahn occurred not infrequently around 
Fortin Page, where it was entirely confined to the montes. 
Growing as it did in the comparative twilight, it was 
usually slender and much drawn out, the stem being often 
10 or 15 feet in length ; and oftener prostrate or semi- 
prostrate than erect. 

COPERNICIA CERIFERA, Mart. 

Hab. — Kio Bermejo ; Eio Pilcomayo. 

This, the Carandai or Palma Negra of the Paraguaians, 
the Chaik of the Tobas, is the most characteristic palm in 
the region of Fortin Page, and in fact in the Gran Chaco 
as a whole. Vast regions in the low -lying parts of the 
Chaco, occupying many thousand square miles covered with 
rank grass are dotted all over with Carandai palms, forming 
immense palm groves or palmares. 

The Carandai palm averages about 30 feet in height. 
It has a smooth stem about seven inches in diameter, 
marked externally with shallow depressions indicating the 
leaf scars. Great variability exists in the degree of 
persistence of the leaf bases. In the young palms they 
are decidedly persistent, the vvithered lamina being merely 
broken off by the wind, but after reaching a height of 
several feet the leaves are cleanly shed. The persistence 
of the hard spiny leaf-bases around the young stem must 
evidently be of great use in preserving it from the attacks 
of deer and other vegetable feeders ; the protection being 
no longer required higher up. The average height of the 
Carandai palms on the Pilcomayo is, as I have said, about 
30 feet. Two exceptionally tall individuals of which I took 
the altitude measured 72 feet 6 inches, and 62 feet 10 
inches, and the former must,. I think, be about the limit of 
height above which the wind pressure on the leafy head 
becomes too great for stability. Occasionally, but, com- 
paratively speaking, very rarely, I came across specimens 
whose stem divided up into several branches. One tall 
palm bifurcated about 45 feet from the ground. One of 



76 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

those primary limbs bore a leafy crown, the other one 
bifurcated twice in succession and then split up into a 
large number of irregular terminal branches, about 20 in all. 

The stem of the Caranda'i is very hard and dense, and 
very dark in colour, which in fact is the origin of the name 
Palma Negra — black palm. (In what appeared to be a 
distinct variety the stem remained comparatively soft, and 
the leaf bases were here much more persistent). These 
hard trunks are much used in the construction of houses, 
serving admirably for rafters and pillars. 

The Caranda'i came into flower about 10th December, 
and ten days later was in full flower. The flowers are 
borne on branches 7 feet or so in length, and have a rich 
and fruity scent. 

The fruit of this species is not edible, but the young and 
tender heart we found to be so, and amongst the Indians 
this Chaih lum is a regular article of diet. 

Typha sp. 

Abundant in fresh-water marshes. The male flowers 
are eaten by the Indians ; they are rather tasteless, but 
contain a certain quantity of nourishment. Fl. 11th Dec. 

PiSTIA sp. 

Very abundant in all the fresh-water pools, in company 
with Azolla maycllanica. Fl. 11th Dec. 

ANTHURIUil sp. 

Possibly a new species, but material is insufficient for 
description. 

Hab. — Damp spots in the forest, Piio Pilcomayo. 

EcHiNODOEUs FLORiBUNDUS, Scub., var. 
Hab. — Fortin Page. Very common in palmar. F). 
15 th Sept. 

Cyperus flatus, Vahl. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Cyperus giganteus, Vahl. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Cyperus Meyenianus, Kunth. 
Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. 

Cyperus sp. 

Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. 



Dec. 1893.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 77 

Kyllinga odorata, Vahl. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Eleocharis gexiculata, II. ]'>r. 
Hab. — Rio Pilcomayo. 

FlMBKISTYLIS VELATA, It. Vtl\ 

Hab — Eio Pilcomayo. 

SciRPUS paraguayensis, ]\Iaury. 

Hab. — Fresh-water marshes on Kio Pilcomayo. Fl. 

Sept. 

PaSPALUM NOTATUiM, Flligge. 

Hab. — Campo about Fortin Page, Pvio Pilcomayo. 

Paspalum quadrifarium, Lam., Glabrous form. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. Lat. 24° 47' S. Common. 

Paspalum rufum, Nees. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Paspalum tristaciiyon, Lam. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Anth^nantia lanata, Benth. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

P\NICUM CAPILLARS, L. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. Frequent. 

Paxicum riyulare, Trin. 

Hab. — Margin of Eios Parana and Paraguay. 

Panicum spectabile, Nees. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 

Oplismenus sylyaticus, Eoem. et Schultes. 
Hab. — Covering ground in more open and dry parts of 
the forest, Eio Pilcomayo. 

Setaria glauca, Beauv. 

Hab.— Eio Pilcomayo. Lat. 24° 47' S. 

Lmperata brasiltexsis, Trin. 

Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. Covering large patches in the 
open campo. 

Chloris polydactyla, Kunth. 
Hab. — Eio Pilcomayo. 



78 TKAXSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

DiPLACHNE VERTiciLLATA, Xees et Mey. 

Hab. — Forests near mouth of Eio Pilcomayo. 

Cheilanthes microphylla, Sw. 
Hab. — Same locality as last. 

Cheilanthes pedata, a. Br. 
Hab. — Kio Paraguay. 

Cheilanthes eauiata, E. Br. 

Hab. — Forests near mouth of liio Pilcomayo. 

Pteris palmata, AVilkl. 

Hab. — Common on prostrate tree trunks in damp forests 
on the Lower Pilcomayo. 

Xephrodium molle, Desv. 

Hab. — Common in forests of Lower Pilcomayo. 

POLYPODIUM ANGUSTUM, Mett. 

Hab. — On prostrate trunks in same locality as the 
preceding species. 

POLYPODIUM INCAXUM, Sw. 

Hab. — Forests of Lower Pilcomayo. 

Gymnogramme ecfa, Desv. 

Hab. — On prostrate tree trunks in forests of Lower 
Pilcomayo. 

Anemia to.mentosa, Sw. 
Hab. — Piio Pilcomayo. 

AzoLLA magellanica, AVilld. 

Very abundant upon fresh-water lagunas everywhere, 
forming a continuous carpet over their surface, green in the 
younger plants, reddish in the older. Sporangia developed 
during July, August, and September, i.e., as the waters 
dry up and the plants are left stranded. 

USXEA BARBATA, var. CERATINA, Sch. 

Prov. Arg., Barhara del niontc. 

Hab.— Abundant on trees in the montes of the 
Pilcomayo. 



llEC. 1893.] HOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 79 

A Xew Species of riiACELOCARPUS. By E. M. 
Holmes, F.L.S. 

(With Plate I.) 

(Read March 1892.) 

Ill the Epicrisis Systematis Floridcarum, Dr. Agardh 
describes six species of the genus, and another has since 
been added by him in Till Algcrnes Systematik, iv. p. 57. 
These algae are confined to the coasts of Australia, New 
Zealand, and South Africa. The genus has been divided 
into two sections, the first, Eudcnodus, having compressed, 
pinnately decompound, linear branches and branchlets, 
which are distichously pinnate throughout, and the second, 
Fhacclocarpus, a more or less cylindrical or terete irregularly 
branched frond, with the ultimate pinnules or teeth 
arranged in an irregularly spiral manner around the 
stem. 

The first section includes P. alatus, P. complanatus, 
P. sessilis, P. apodus, and P. Lahillardicrii, and the second, 
P. tortuosiis, and P. tristichus. The new species about 
to be described is intermediate between these two sections, 
in having the branches and branchlets distichous, but the 
stem twisted at the innovations, so as to give a pseudo- 
spiral appearance to the frond. It further differs from 
all the known species in having the fructification attached, 
not to the teeth, but to the surface of the frond. The 
name here given to the plant is in allusion to the latter 
peculiarity. 

PlIACELOCARPUS EPIPOL.EUS* (u. Sp.). 

Fronde basi teretiuscula, immerso-costata inferne sensim 
nudiiiscula, superne complanata, ramis corymboso-pinnatis, 
pinnis linearibus pectinato-pinnatis, ala angustissima 
instructa, dentibus compressis latitudinem rachidis ita 
formatae sua longitudine a-quantibus vel paululo super- 
antibus, planis, a basi latiore acuminatis, incurvis. Cysto- 
carpiis reniformibus breviter pedicellatis alterutra pagina 
afiixis ; nematheciis ovato-globosis breviter pedicellatis ; 

*Somc specimens of the plant have been distributed under the MS. name 
of P. disciger. The name epipoheiis, being of Greek derivation, is, how- 
ever, substituted here as more suitable. 



80 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

antheridiis subsessilibus oblongo-ovatis pallidis, similariter 
affixis. 

Hab. — Ad Africani Australem, prope ostiam fluminis 
Kowie. Dr. H. Becker. 

This interesting species was sent with several other new 
marine algae from a district in South Africa which appears 
to have a pecnliaily rich algal flora. The plant now 
under consideration attains, so far as can be judged from 
the specimens received, a length of 12-18 inches. The 
stem, which is terete at the base for about 2 inches of its 
length, arises from a discoid base. The branches, which 
nowhere exceed a line in diameter, are very irregularly 
pinnate, two or three ramuli frequently arising near 
together at variable intervals, and all the branches 
showing a tendency to corymbose branching towards their 
apices. The innovations occur at intervals of I to f inch, 
and as the frond is slightly twisted at each innovation, it 
assumes, before pressure, a somewhat spiral appearance. 
The nemathecia,cystccarps, and antheridia occur on distinct 
plants, and are situated between the midrib and the margin 
of the frond, never in the axils of the teeth, nor on the 
margin of the teeth, as in other species. They occur on 
both sides of the frond, and occasionally two or three are 
grouped together. The cystocarps are shortly stalked, not 
perfectly smooth, and are compressed and reniform, closely 
resembling in shape the sporangium of a Lycopodium. 
The nemathecia are shortly stalked, and vary in shape 
from globose to broadly oval. The antheridia are of a 
yellowish tint, nearly sessile, and ovate or ovate-oblong. 
The latter organ has not, that I am aware of, been 
previously described in the genus Phaeelocarpus. The 
cells form a dense layer on the surface of the antheridium. 

The drawings illustrating this paper have kindly been 
made for me by ray friend and collaborateur ]Mr. E. A. L. 
Batters, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S. 

EXPLANATIOX OF FIGURES IN PLATE I. 

1. Portion of plant, natural size. 2. ifaguified portion of branchlet 
sliowiug position of the pedicel on the surface of the frond. 3. Tetra- 
sporic fruit, showing the lateral cavities containing the tetra-spores. 
4. A cavity magnified, o. An isolated tetraspore with paraphyses. 
G. A cystocarpic fruit. 7. Longitudinal section of the same. 
8. Antheridium. 



Tfnns. Bof. Soc. Edin!' 



Vol. M PI/. 



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PKACE'uOCARP'JS EPIPOL/tUS. 



Jan. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 



81 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, January 11, 1894. 

Professor Bower, President, in tlie Chair. 

Mrs. A. DowELL was elected Ptesident Fellow of the 
Society. 

Miss Charlotte C. Pearson and Miss Elizabeth 
Madden were elected Lady Members of the Society. 

Dr. J. J. Mooney was elected JSTon-Eesident Fellow of 
the Society. 

The President referred to the loss the Society had 
sustained by the death of Eichard Spruce, Honorary 
British Fellow of the Society, and commented upon the 
value of his work. 

Presents to the Library at the Eoyal Botanic Garden 
were announced. 



The Treasurer submitted the following Statement of 
Accounts for the Session 1892—93 : — 



Receipts. 

Annual Subscriptions, 1892-93, 74 at 15s.. 
Do. do. 1892-93, 1 at 15g.. 

Compositions for Life Membership, 
Transactions, etc., sold, . . 
Diploma, Fees, .... 
Interest received, .... 
Subscriptions to Illustration Fund, 



£55 10 

15 

16 16 

4 6 6 

14 5 

4 

22 17 

£101 2 11 



TRANS. EOT. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XX. 

Issued November 18'J4. 



82 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

Payments. 

Printing Transactions, £44, Os. 6d. ; Billets, etc., £9, 9s., £53 9 6 

Lithographing, ........ 13 9 

Booms for Meetings, and Tea, ^620 

Charter Box, etc., 17 6 

Commission paid to Collector of Subscriptions, . . 10 6 

Postages, Carriages, etc., . - . • • 9 5 10 

Fire lusurance on Books, ..... 050 

Payments, . . £71 14 1 

Balance of Receipts, 29 8 10 

£101 2 11 



State of Funds. 

Amount of Funds at close of Session 1891-92, . . £36 2 2 
Increase during Session 1892-93, as above, . . . 29 8 10 

Amount of Funds at close of Session 1892-93, . £65 11 

Being: — Sum on Current Account with Union 

Bank of Scotland, . . £5 7 1 

Sum in Deposit Receipt do. 70 



£75 7 1 
Less due to Treasurer, . . 9 16 1 



£65 11 



Edinburgh, 30//i December 1893. — Certified as a correct Abstract 
of the Treasurer's Accounts, which have been audited by me, compared 
■with the Vouchers, and found correct. 

Rob. C. Millar, C.A., Auditor. 



The Treasurer intimated the receipt since last meeting 
of the following subscriptions to the Illustration Fund :— 

P. Neill Fraser, . . .£200 

Dr. H. H. Johnston, . . . 10 

Mr. Malcolm Dunn exhibited specimen of root of elm 
gnarled and contorted through its growth in unsuitable 
stony soil, several stones being overgrown by the wood of 
the root. 

Mr. Campbell sent specimens of Anemone, Eranthis, and 
GalantJms in flower, from his garden at Ledaig, Argyllshire, 
accompanied by good wishes in rhyme to the Society for 
the New Year. 



Jan. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 83 

Mr. T. CuTHBERT Day exhibited twin and quadruple 
barley corns from grain grown in France. 

Surgeon-Captain II. H. Johnston exhibited specimens of 
Ficus from Mauritius, beautifully dried and showing the 
fruit uncompressed, and therefore preserving their features 
in a way the crushed specimens of the genus, as usually 
found in herbaria, do not show them. He remarked that 
Mr. Scott, Assistant-Director (now Director) of the Botanic 
Garden at Pamplemousses, Mauritius, had found that he 
could not raise the endemic F. mauritiana from seed, and 
in explanation of this Dr. Johnston stated that he had failed 
to find a single perfect achene in many fruits he had 
examined. On opening a fresh ripe fruit he noticed a 
swarm of flies flew out, and the achenes all showed a 
puncture at one end and were empty. 

Mr. J. H. BuRRAGE exhibited twigs of the Peruvian shrub 
Efcilla voluhilis, A. Juss, showing remarkable root-cushions 
in the axils of the leaves. These are developed only on 
twigs which are adjacent to a support, such as a wall ; 
they do not appear on twigs growing erect in the air 
away from a support. A further communication upon the 
structure and development of these cushions was promised. 

Professor Bayley Balfour exhibited : — A specimen of 
Orchis macidata, showing regular peloria of the perianth. 
The six parts are all alike in size and form, the labelluni 
wanting the spur, but the androBcium and gynai'ceum are 
normal. The specimen was found and sent by Miss Munro, 
Alness, Caithness. Specimens sent by Mr. Walter Berry, 
Atholl Crescent, of piles bored by teredo ; also a series of 
dried leaves of Banhsia scrraia, prepared by Mr. Harrow, 
from a plant in the temperate house of the Pioyal Botanic 
Garden, showing remarkable heterophylly. 



The following papers were read : — 

African Species of the genus Ficus. By G. F. Scott 
Elliot, B.Sc. 



84: TEANSACnONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sbss. lvui. 

Ax Old List of " Stations of Earek Plants ascer- 
tained TO GEOW round InVERKEITHING AND NORTH OF THE 

Forth. By A, Eobertson." Communicated by Prof. 
Bayley Balfour. 

Amongst some old papers of the late Professor J. H. 
Balfour, recently come into my hands, I find one with 
the title quoted above, which appears to me to be worthy 
of being laid before the Society. Although the informa- 
tion it contains must have been utilised in the preparation 
of Balfour and Sadler's Flora of Edinburgh, there are 
stations noted in the list which do not appear in that 
work, and in view of the many surface changes in the 
area included in the list, brought about by new lines of 
railway communication through it, and the prospect this 
opens out of the introduction of alien plants, it may be, 
I think, useful to workers in the future to have before 
them such a list, showing what botanists of fifty years 
ago knew of the rarer and introduced plants of the 
district. Appended to the list is the following note : — 

" All the plants marked ' Pitrea\ae ' are decidedly 
introduced (old garden). 

'■' The Culross plants — Doronicuni Fai'dcdiancJies, Galan- 
fkus, Xarcissus, and Hypericurii Aiidrosoemum are at best 
suspicious ; also Euphorhia Laihyris and Arum. 

"The St. Da^dd's plants, — (excepting Tlvalidruhi jlavum 
and Allium are/iarium) — some decidedly introduced, others 
suspicious. 

" The Inverkeithing plants — Sapoiw.ria officinalis, Nastur- 
tian sylrcstrc and Sinajris muralis (also at Charlestown), 
decidedly introduced. 

" The Cleish plants — {Aralis Turrita), Actcca, Mecoiwpsu, 
ValeriaiwL pyrcna.ica, Hicroxium amplexicaule, Convallaria, 
Arum, either decidedly introduced or suspicious (old 
garden), also Doronicum plo.niagineum, Smyrnium Olv^satrum; 
and Feiccedanum Ostrutldum probably introduced at both 
stations. 

'' Fetasites alhus and Saxifraga nmhrosa certainly intro- 
duced. Frun'us doyne-stica and iiisititia and Frag aria elatior 
probably introduced ; and also Acer ca.mpestre, Fetroselinum, 
and Ainura certainly introduced ; and also Carum Carui. 



Jan. 1K94.] BOTANICAL SOCIKTY OF EDINBURGH. 



85 



" fficracium cmrantiacum introduced, also Mcdicago sativa 
and maculaUt ; Hespcris matronalis suspicious also. 

" The Inchcolm plants — Cranibe, Verbascum Thapsus, and 
Bmssica campestris ; JDianthus Garyophyllus certainly intro- 
duced." 

I have not been able to assure myself as to the identity 
of " A. Robertson," the writer of the list, but possibly some 
older members of the Society may be' able to furnish 
information on this point.* 



Acer canipestre — North Ferry. 
Acouitum Napellus — near Fordel, 

Iiiverkeitliing. A. Robertson, 

1334. 
-Vctiea spicata — Cleisli (old garden). 
Adoxa Moschatellina — Fordel, 

Woodmill near Dunfermline, near 

Culross. 
Aira pripcox — Ferry Hills. 

caryophyllea — Do. 

flexuosa — Culross, Cleisli Hills, 

CuUelo Hill. 
Ajuga reptans — Ferry Hills, Fordel, 

etc. 
Alisma ranunculoides — Loch Head, 

2 miles north of Dunfermline, 

Loch Leven. 
Allium arenarium — Pitreavie near 

Dunfermline, near St. David's. 

A. Robertson, in company with 

Dr. "VVallich, 1834. 
vineale — Ferry Hills, in many 

[)laces. 
Andromeda polifolia — said to have 

lieen found on the Cleish Hills by 

Lady Adam ; since then often 

sought in vain by other botanists. 
Anagallis ccerulea — single specimen 

found by Dr. Dewar north of 

Invcrkeithing. 
Anchusa sempervirens — Culross (A. 

Robertson), Pitreavie (Dr. Dewar). 



Angelica sylvestris — Dalmeny Woods, 
Culross, Lethan's Glen, seven miles 
north of Dunfermline. 

Anthemis arvensis — about Invcr- 
keithing in several places. A. 
Robertson, 1835. 

cotula — Do. 

Apium graveolens — Culross. A. 
Robertson, 1834. 

Aquilegia vulgaris — Pitreavie. Dr. 
Dewar. 

Arabis hirsuta— near Invcrkeithing, 
Ferry Hills. 

Turrita — Cleish. 

Arbutus uva-ursi — said to have been 
found on Cleish Hills by an 
English botanist ; since sought for 



-near Inverkeith- 



m vain. 
Arenaria marina- 

ing. 

rubra — Do. 

eerpyllifolia — Do. 

trinervis — Do. , abundant near 

Cleish and Saline 
Artemisia Absinthium — Ferry Hills, 

Burntisland. 
Arum maculatum — Culross, Pit- 
reavie, Cleish. 
Aspidiuni aculeatum (?) or lobatam — 

Fordel. A. R., 1832. 
lobatum — Cleish Hills and 

Lethan's Glen. 



* Since communicating this list to the Society I have received, from Dr. 
William Craig, one of the Vice-Presidents, the following note, which seems 
to settle this question: — "At a meeting of the Botanical Society, lOtlf 
November 1836, Professor Graliam in a i)apor (.see Fimt Report, page 38) in 
a record of rare plants mentions Campanula Trachelinm, near Donibristle. 
Fife (Rev. A. Robertson). This Rev. A. Robertson was Parish Minister of 
Invcrkeithing, and wrote the account of that parish in the New Statistical 
Account of Scotland (see vol. ix. page 230,. also page 234), where you have 
an interesting notice of the Botany of the Parish. This was published in 
184.''). This Rev. Andrew Robertson was ordained in 1792, and must have 
been nearly fifty years minister of Invcrkeithing. He had a son also Rev. 
A. Robertson, but where he was minist n- I do not know. Does this throw 
any light on the ' A. Robertson ' who sent a list of plants to your father ? 
Sec also bottom of page 40, and top of page 41 of First Report of Botanical 
Society for a Miss Robertson, likely his daughter." 



86 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



Aspidium lonctaoides — Cleish Hills. 

Oreopteris— Do. 

Aspleniuin Adiantum-nigrum — Ferry 
Hills, many places. 

niarinum — near Limekilns, 

Starleybum, Eavenscraig Castle 
near Kirkcaldy. 

Trichomanes — Ferry Hills, near 

Auchtertool, Cleish Hills. 

Ruta - muraria — Ferry HiUs, 

walls at Donibristle. 

Aster Tripolium — near Inverkeitbing, 

Ton-yburn (abundant). 
Astragalus glycyphyllos — Ferry 

Hills two places, Dalmeuy Woods. 

bypoglottis — Ferrj' Hills, and 

along coast eastward. 

Atriplex angustifolia — near Inver- 
keitbing, abundant. 

laciniata — Do., very rare. 

littoraUs— Do., plentiful. 

Atropa Belladonna — Donibristle, near 
Torryburn. 

Avena pratensis — Ferry Hills, abun- 
dant. 

Ballota nigra — North Ferry, St. 
David's. 

Betonica officinalis — Glenfarg, be- 
tween Kinross and Perth. 

Bidens cernua — Fordel. 

tripartita — Loch Leven. 

Blechnum boreale — woods north- 
ward, everywhere. 

Blysmus rufus — near Starleybum. 

Botrychium Lunaria — Blaii-adam, 
Lethan's Glen, Pettycur. 

Brach3T5odium sylvaticum — near the 
sea, everywhere. 

Brassica campestris — Inchcolm. A. 
Robertson, 18-34. 

N'apus — St. David's, Inver- 
keitbing. 

Bromus rigidus — St. David's. Dr. 
Wallich and A. Robertson, 1834. 

diandrus (?) — near Kinross, 

Inverkeitbing (?). 

Cakile maritima — shore at Feriy 

Hills. 
Calluna vulgaris (dovmy) — abundant 

at Culross. 
Camelina sativa — occasionally at St. 

David's, Charlestown, Culross. 
Campanula glomerata — Pettycur. 
ranunculoides — near Kirkcaldy. 

latifoUa — Cleish, Castle-Camp- 
bell. 

Cardamine amara — Cleish, Dhu Craig 
six miles west of Dunfermline. 

hirsuta — Culross, near Inver- 
keitbing. 

Carduus acanthoides — near Inver- 
keitbing. 
tenuiiloms — Do., abundant. 



Carduus marianus — Inverkeitbing, 

Chai-lestown. 
Carex extensa — Starleybum. 

Irmosa — Otterston Loch. Dr. 

Graham, 1835. 

vulpina — .shores near Inver- 
keitbing, several places. 

Castanea vulgaris — Pitreavie, Dal- 
meny Woods (introduced). 

Cerastium semidecandrum — Ferrv 
Hills. 

tetrandrum — Do. 

Chajrophyllum temulentum — Fordel 
Woods. 

Cheiranthus Cheiri^old church of 
Dunfermline. 

Chelidonium majus — Carnock, Cul- 
ross. Dr. Dewar, 1835. 

Chenopodiura maritiraum — shore 
near Inverkeitbing. 

Bonus Henricus — near Inver- 
keitbing. 

urbicum — Ferry Hills. 

rubrum (?), etc. St. David'.s. 

Chrysanthemum segetum — Ferry 
Hills and north of Inverkeitbing 
(abundant). 

Chiysopleniiun altemifolium — Wood- 
miU, Cleish, Fordel. 

Cicuta ^-irosa — Otterston Loch, Hill- 
head Loch three miles north of 
Dunfermline. 

Circsea alpina — rivulet near Crook of 
Devon. 

lutetiana — Aberdour Woods, 

Lethan's Glen, Castle - Campbell, 
Pittencrieff at Dunferailine. 

Cystopteris fragilis — Castle- Camp- 
bell, Glenfarg. 

Clinopodium %-ulgare — Burntisland, 
near Dunfermline, Cullelo HiUs. 

Cnicus heterophyllus — Lethan's Glen, 
near Auchtertool. 

Cochlearia danica — Inchcolm. A. 
R., 1834. 

Convallaiia multiflora — Cleish (old 
garden). 

majalis — Pitreavie (old garden). 

Convolvulus sepium — Ferry Hills, 
near Dunfermline. 

Corallorhiza innata — between Dun- 
fermline and Culross. Dr. Dewar, 
in company with A. Robertson 
1835. 

Coriandrum sativum — St. David's. 
Dr. Wallich and A. Robertson, 
1834. 

Comus sanguinea — Culross, Pitreavie 
(introduced). 

Coronopus RueUi — Burntisland, St. 
David 's. 

Corydalis claviculata — Culross. A. 
Robertson, 1834. 



Jan. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



Cranibe maritima — Iiiclicolm. 
Cryptogramme crispa — West Lomond 

Hill. 
Cynoglossum officinale — Rosyth 

Castle, Donibristle, Burntisland. 
Diauthus deltoides — Diuicarn Hill. 
Caryophyllus — Monastery, Incli- 

colm. 
Dipsacus sylvestris — Cliarlestown, 

Donibristle, Inclieolm. 
Doronicum Pardalianclies — Culross. 

plantagineuni — Cleish. 

Eleocliaris acicularis — Loch Leven, 

Lochgelly (large size). 

ciespitosa — Cleisli Hills and 

Saline Hills. 

Einpetruiu nigrum — Cleisli Hills. 
Epilobium angusti folium — Cleisli 
Hills, Lethan's Glen, Pitreavie. 

tetragonum — marshy ground 

near Inverkeithing. 

Epimedium alpinum— near Saline 
(introduced). 

Epipactis latifolia — Blairadam. 

Equisetum hyemale — Cleish Hills, 
Blairadam. 

sylvaticnm — near Inverkeith- 
ing. 

Eriophorum angustifolium — marsh 
east of Dalgety Church. 

polystachyon — Ferry Hills. 

Ervum tetraspermum — St. David's. 
A. Robertson, 18o5. 

Erysimum Alliaria — east of Inver- 
keithing (most abundant). 

Erythrrea littoralis — Burntisland. 
A. Robertson, 1835. 

Euonymus europseus — Pitreavie (in- 
troduced). 

Eupatorium cannabinum — Starley- 
burn, near St. David's. 

Euphorbia exigua — Ferry Hills, and 
near Limekilns. 

Lathyris — Pitreavie, Culross. 

Paralias — St. David's. A. 

Robertson, 183i. 

portlandica— St. David's. A. 

Robertson, 1834. 

Fedia dcntata — Ferry Hills, near 
Limekilns. 

Festuca rubra — Ferry Hills. 

pratensis — Do. 

duriuscula — Do. 

rubra — Do. 

• llyurus — Do. 

Fragaria elatior — near Fordel. 

Gagea lutea — Auchtertool. 

Galanthus nivalis — Culross, Pit- 
reavie, near Saline. 

Galeopsis versicolor — about Cleish, 
Inverkeithing. 

Galium uliginosum — marshes near 
Pitreavie and Cullelo. 



Genista anglica—Dliu Craig, Dollar, 

Cleish Hills. 
Gentiana cainpestris — Ferry Hills, 

Blairadam, Burntisland. 
Geranium lucidum — Cleish, near 

Dunfermline. 

sylvaticum — Lethan's Glen, 

Blairadam. 

Glaucium luteum — Charlestown. 

Gnaphalium dioicum — Ferry Hills. 

germanicum — Do. 

sylvaticum — Do. 

• — — minimum — Do. 

uliginosum — marshy ground, 

many places. 

Grammitis Ceterach — Kinnoull Hill, 
Perth. 

Gymnadenia Conopsea — Ferry Hills, 
moist ground north of Dunferm- 
line. 

Habenaria albida — Cleish Hills, 
Lethan's Glen. 

bifolia — north of Dunferm- 
line. 

viridis — Do., Ferry Hills, east 

of Kinghorn. 

Helianthemum vulgare — Ferry Hills. 

Heliosciadum inundatum — marsh 
east of Dalgety Church. 

Hesperis matronalis — Primrose near 
Dunfermline, fields about Charles- 
town. 

Hieracium amplexicaule — Cleish. 

aurantiacum — grass field near 

Aberdour. A. Robertson, 1832. 

moUe — Lethan's Glen. 

■ sabaudum — Do. 

denticulatum — Do. 

Plippuris vulgaris — Otterstoii Loch, 
near Carnock. 

Hordeum murinum — about Inver- 
keithing. 

Hymenophyllum Wilsoni — ravine 
near Crook of Devon. 

Hypericum Androsremum — Culross. 
A. R., 1834. 

hirsutum — Lethan's Hill and 

coast east of Inverkeithing, Starley- 
burn. 

humifusum — Cleish, Dollar. 

perforatum — Feriy Hills. 

pulchrum — Do. 

quadrangulum — burn north- 
west of Inverkeithing, Starleyburn. 

Iris fcetidissima — Fordel Woods. A. 
Robertson, 1835. 

Juneus compressus — marshes, shore 
west of Inverkeithing. 

glaucus — marsh, Ferry Hills. 

uliginosus and subverticellatus 

— marsh, Ferry Hills. 

Juniperus communis — Dhu Craig. 

Lastrsa virosa — Kinnoull Hill. 



88 



THANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



Lammm maculatum — Carnock. Dr. 
Dewar. 

of Smith — near CulrosB. 

Dr. Dewar. 

Laratera arborea — Inchgarrie. 
Leontodon palustre — ferry Hills, 

Cleish. 
Lepidium campestre — Ferry Hills, 

Colross, Burntisland. Kinross. 
ruderale — St. David's. A. 

Eobertson, 1835. 

latifoUum — Dalgety. A. E., 

1832. 

Ligasticum scoticum — ^shoreatlnver- 
keithing, Inchcolm (most plenti- 
ful). 

Linaria CjTiibalaria — Cleish, east of 
Kinghom. 

repens — Inverkeithing. 

Listera orata — Donibristle, north of 
Dunfermline. 

Xidus-avis — Blairadam. 

cordata^wood between Dun- 
fermline and Culross. Dr. Dewar, 
in company with A. Robertson, 
1835. 

Lithospermum officinale — Culross. 
Drs. Dewar and Currer, 1834. 

Littorella lacustris — loch near Auch- 
tei-tool, Lochgelly, Loch Lereu, 
Loch Fittie, Cleish Lochs. 

Lobelia Dortmanni — one of the Cleish 
Lochs, Loch Leven. Dr. Currer. 

Lonicera Xylosteum — near Dunferm- 
line. Dr. Dewar. 

Lotus tenuis — Donibristle. 

Luzula pilosa — Lethan's Glen, 
Woodmill, Culross. 

congesta — Cleish Hills, about 

Dunfermline and Inverkeithing. 

Lychnis visearia — Glenfarg (abun- 
dant). 

Lycopodium alpinum — Cleish HiUs. 
Dr. Currer. 

Selago — Do. 

Lycopus europseus — near Dhu Craig. 
Dr. Dewar, in company with A. 
Pkobertson, 1835. 

Lysimachia nemorum — Ford el, 
Cleish, Dollar. 

Xummularia — Fordel and Doni- 
bristle (introduced). 

Lythrum Salicaria — near Cleish. 

Malaxis paludosa — Cleish. 

Malva mosehata — near Dunfermline. 
Dr. Dewar. Culross, near Fordel. 
A. Robertson. 

Matricaria Chamomilla — abundant 
in many fields about a mile west 
of Inverkeithing. A. Piobertson, 
1832. 

Meconopsis cambrica — Cleish. 

Medicago sativa — Ferry Hills. 



Medica^o maculata — Donibristle : 

first found by A. Robertson, 1832 : 

in great abundance, 1835. 
Melampyrum pra tense — Lethan's 

Glen. 
MeUca coerulea — marshy places, a 

few miles inland from Inver 

keithing and Burntisland, Lethan's 

Glen, Cleish HilLs. 
Melica nutans — Lethan's Glen. A. 

Robertson, 1834. 

uniflora — Do., very fine near 

Auehtertool, Culross A. R., 
1835. 

MelUotus officinalis — St. Divid's. 

leucantha — St. David's, Charles- 
town, Inverkeithing. A. E., 1834. 

Mentha gentilis (?) — near Dunferm- 
line. Dr. Dewar, 1834. 

crispa of Hooker (Brit. Flora, 3rd 

edition)— Glenfarg. Messrs. Arnott 
and Stewart, 1834. 

viridis — Glenfarg, Crook of 

Devon, near Milnathort. 

piperita — Glenfarg. 

Meum athamanticum — Cleish. 

Milirn effusum — Lethan's Glen, Cul- 
ross Woods. A. R. 

]^Iontia fontana — marshy ground near 
Inverkeithing. A. E. 

Muscari racemosum — Pitreavie (once 
a garden). A. R., 1834. 

Myosotis collina — Ferry Hills (abun- 
dant). 

ctespitosa — many marshes about 

Inverkeithing (usually mistaken 
for palustris). 

palustris — rather rare, Loch- 
gelly, Hillhead Loch. 

— - sylvatica — abundant, Fordel, 
Donibristle. 

Myrrhis odorata — Inverkeithing, Pit- 
reavie, Cleish, abundant in many 
hedgerows about Auehtertool. 

Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus — "Willows 
west of Culross (abundant). 

Nardus stricta — Inverkeithing, Cleish 
Hills. 

Nasturtium terrestre — Loch Leven. 

sylvestre^Inverkeithing. 

Nuphar lutea — Locbgelly, Loch 
Fittie, Loch Hillhead, Cleish Loch. 

Nymphaea alba — Loch Hillhead 
(abundant). 

OEnanthe crocata— shores near Inver- 
keithing, east and westward. 

Ononis ramosissima — St. David's. 
A. Robertson, 1834. 

Ophioglossum -vTilgatum — Blairadam. 

Origanum vulgare — Starleyburn, 
Burntisland. 

Ornithogalum umbellatum — Pit- 
reavie fold garden). 



Jan. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



89 



Ornithopus perpusillus— Ferrv Hills. 

O.sinnnda rcgalis — Culross. A. li., 
1834. 

Oxytropis uralensis — Ferrj' Hills. 

Parietaria officinalis — Inverkeithing 
(abundant). 

Paris quadrifolia — Cleish Hills, 
Lethan's Glen, Culross. 

Parnassia palustris — uortla of Dun- 
fermline. 

Pastinaca sativa — near Kincardine. 
Dr. Dewar, 1835. 

Petasites albus — Cleish (Dr. Currer) ; 
glen near Auclitertool, apparently 
wild (A. Robertson, 1833). 

Petroseliuum sativum — Ferry Hills 
(escaped from a garden). A. R., 
1834. 

Peucedanum Ostruthium — Cleish, 
near Auclitertool. 

Phalaris arundinacea — Inverkeith- 
ing. 

canariensis — west of Dunferm- 
line. Dr. Dewar. ' 

Phleum arenarium — Burntisland. 

Pimpinella Saxifraga — Ferry Hills. 

Poa distans — Inverkeithing. 

procumbens — Do. 

maritinia — Do. 

■ rigida — Charlestown (Dr. ' 

Dewar), Burntisland. i 

Polygonum vivipariim — Lethan's 
Glen. I 

lapathifolium — St. David's. 

Bistorta — west of Dunfermline. 

Dr. Dewar. 

Fagopynim — near Inverkeith- ; 

Hydropiper — Do. ] 

Polypodium Dryopteris — Cleish Hills, i 

Blairadara, Lethan's Glen. 1 

Phegopteris — Do. 

Polypogon monspeliensis — St. I 

David's. Dr. Wallich, in company ' 

with A. Robertson, 1834. 
Potamogeton heterophyllus — Loch 

Fittie. I 

pusillus — Lochgell}-. 

perfoliatus — Do. 

crispus — Otterston Loch, Loch- 

gelly. 
lucens — Lochgelly, Kinghorn 

Loch. 
Potentilla vema — Ferry Hills. 

reptans — Inverkeithing- 

Primula elatior — Ferry Hills and 

sliore westward. 
Prunus domestica — Fen-y Hills. 

insititia — Fordel AVoods. 

Padus— Lethan's Glen (abun- 
dant), Culross. 
Pyre th rum Parthenium — Donibristle, 

Fordel, Otterston, Culross. 



Pyrus Malus — near Torryburn. 

Radiola millegrana — near Saline, 
near Kinross. 

Ranunculus auricomus — Lethan's 
Glen, Cleish, Fordel, Woodmill. 

Reseda lutea — Limekilns, Inverkeith- 
ing, St. David's, Burntisland. 

luteola — Ferry Hills. 

Ribes rubrum — Culross. 

Rosa rubiginosa — Ferry Hills. 

villosa — Do. 

• spinosissima — Do. 

RotboUia incurvata — St. David's. A. 
Robertson, in company with Dr. 
Wallich, 1834. 

Rubus saxatilis — Lethan's Glen. 

Idseus — Inverkeithing, Loch- 
gelly, Lethan's Glen, Auchtertool, 
etc. 

Rumex acutus — Inverkeithing. 

sanguineus — Culross. 

• obtusifoUus — Inverkeithing. 

Sagina maritima — Dalraeny Park. 

Salicoruia herbacea — Inverkeithing, 
Donibristle. 

Salsola Kali— Inverkeithing, Charles- 
town. 

Salvia Yerbenaca — Burntisland, 
Kinghorn. 

Sambucus Ebulus — Inverkeithing, St. 
David's, Cleish, Auchtertool. 

Sanicula europsa — Lethan's Glen, 
Castle-Campbell, Woodmill. 

Saponaria officinalis— Inverkeithing. 

Saxifraga hypnoides — Lomond s, 
Castle-Campbell. Dr. Currer. 

Scirpus maritimus — Ferry Hills. 

lacustris — Loch Hillhead, Loch- 
gelly, Loch Fittie. 

Scleranthus annuus — Ferry Hills. 

Scrophularia vernalis — Cleish, Kin- 
ross House (abundant). Dr. 
Currer. 

Scutellaria galericulata — near 
Cleish. 

Sedum Telephium —Ferry Hills. 

reflexum — Inverkeithing. 

villosum — Ferry Hills, Cleish 

Hills, Loch Hillhead. 

S e n e c i o (leaves linear ; not in 
Hooker)— St. David's. A. Robert- 
.son, 1834. 

sylvaticus — Ferry Hills. 

viscosus — Do. 

aquaticus — Cleish, etc., north of 

Dunfermline. 

Setaria viridis — one plant, St. 
David's. A. Robertson, 1834. 

Silene anglica— Ferry Hills. Dr. 
Graham, 1S35. 

Sinapis alba — Burntisland, Si. 
David's. 

nigra— St. David's. 



90 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDDsGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



Sinapis muralis — Cliarlestown (Dr. 
Dewar, 1834) ; Inverkeithing (A. 
Eobertson, 1834). 

tenuiflorus — St. David's. 

Sisymbrium Tlialiana — about Inver- 
keithing and Ferry Hills. 

Smymium Olusatrum — Ravenscraig 
Castle, south side of Kinghom 
(abundant). 

Solanum Dulcamara — Dalgety, Cul- 
ross, Dhu Craig, etc. 

nigrum — St. David's. 

Solidago A'irgaurea — Culross, Burnt- 
island east and westward. 

Sparganium natans — loch on Dun- 
earn Hill, Loch HiUhead. 

.simplex — Loch Camela near 

Auchtertool, about Cleish. 

Spergula subulata — Ferry Hills, many 
places. 

Stachys arvensis — Ferry Hills and 
east of Inverkeithing. 

Statice Armeria— shore Inverkeith- 
ing. 

Stellaria nemorum — Cleish "Woods. 

Sjnnphytum officinale — field near 
Limekilns. 

- — — tuberosum — Fordel, Pitreavie. 

Thalictrum flavum — St. David's. 

majus — Feny Hills. 

minus —Do. 

Thlaspi arvense — Ferry Hills (abun- 
dant). 

Torilis nodosa — Ferry Hills. 

Tormentilla reptans[?)— near Inver- 
keithing. 

Tragopogon major — Dunfermline, 
Burntisland. 

Trientalis europtea — Dunfermline and 
northward (abundant). 

TrifoHum striatum — Ferry Hills 
(abundant). 

scabrum — Burntisland. 

Triglochin maritimum — shore Inver- 
keithing. 

palustre — marshes northwards, 

Ferry HUls, 



Triodia decumbens — F erry Hills, 
Cleish, etc. 

Triticum junceum — Ferry Hills, 
Burntisland. 

loliaceum — Burntisland. 

TroUius europaeus — north of Dun- 
fermline, Cleish (abundant). 
I Tulipa sylvestris — Pitreavie, Otter- 
j ston, and North of Alloa. 
I Urtica urens — Inverkeithing. 

Vaccinium Oxycoccos — Otterston, 
Cleish Hills. 

Vitis-idaea — Lethan's Glen, Dhu 

Craig. 

Valeriana pyrenaica — Cleish. 

Verbascum Thapsus — Inchcobn. 

Veronica Anagallis — Burntisland. 

montana — Cleish Hills. 

scutellata — marsh east of Dal- 
gety Church, Ferry Hills. 

Viburnum Opulus — Dhu Craig, Cul- 
ross, Lethan's Glen (all truly 
indigenous). Dr. Dewar and A. 
Eobertson. 

Vicia lathyroides — Ferry HiUs. 

lutea — Do., seven places (three 

additional ones in 1S35 by A. R.). 

sativa — St. David's, Dahneny 

Woods. A. K, 1835. 

Bobartii — Ferry Hills, St. 

David's. A. Robertson, 1835. 

Viola hirta — Ferry HiUs, Auchter- 
tool, near Limekilns. 

lutea a — north of Dunfermline, 

everywhere. 

lutea h — near Inverkeithing, 

Cleish HiUs. A. Robertson. 

odorata — near Dunfermline, 

near Auchtertool. 

palustris — marsh east of Dal- 
gety Church, north of Dunferm- 
line (abundant on the marshv 
hills). 

Zannichellia palustris (?) — Loch 

Fittie. 
Zostera marina — abundant between 

Burntisland and Pettvcur. 



Notes FEo:\r the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 



I. Eeport on 
December 1893. 



Temperature and Vegetation during 
By EoBERT LiNTDSAT, Curator. 



The month of December was very wet and unsettled, 
but it was an exceedingly mild month. Frost occurred on 
ten mornings, indicating collectively only 52° of frost for 
the month. So little frost has not been registered at the 



Jan. 1S94.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



01 



garden for December since 1883. During December 1802 
frost was registered on twenty-three mornings, the total 
amounting to 102° of frost. The lowest readings of the 
thermometer for last month occurred on the 1st, 22°; 2nd, 
.18°; 10th, 28°; 12th, 27°; 21st, 28°. The lowest day 
temperature was 31°, on the 1st, and the highest 58°, on 
the 16th. Rhododendron NoUcanum, Hamamclis ja/ponica, 
Jasminum nudicaide, and Pctasitcs fragrans were in full 
flower during December. 

On the rock-garden four plants came into flower, viz. — 
Hcllcborus grandijlorus, H. inirpurasccns, variety. Iris soplio- 
nensis, and Primida infiata. The total number of species 
and well-marked varieties which have flowered on the rock- 
garden during the year 1803 amounts to 1114, as against 
1212 for 1802. The largest number came into bloom 
during the month of May. The number of species which 
came into flower each month was as follows : — January, 
13; February, 40; March, 81; April, 166; May, 300; 
June, 204; July, 112; August, 73; September, 28; 
October, 3 ; November, ; December, 4. 



Eeadings of exposed Thermometers at the Rock-Garden. 



Date. 


Minimum. 


9 A.M. 


Maximum. 


Date. 


Minimum. 


9 A.M. 


Maximum 


1st 


22° 


27° 


31° 


17 th 


38° 


45° 


53° 


2nd 


18 


24 


47 


18th 


38 


42 


48 


3rd 


33 


43 


51 


19th 


34 


38 


46 


4th 


40 


45 


51 


20th 


34 


36 


40 


5th 


36 


40 


52 


21st 


28. 


34 


47 


6th 


42 


49 


53 


22nd 


35 


43 


50 


7th 


32 


33 


46 


23rd 


38 


41 


48 


8th 


36 


42 


47 


24th 


39 


48 


52 


9th 


32 


36 


41 


25th 


37 


44 


51 


10th 


28 


32 


42 


26th 


33 


35 


52 


11th 


30 


34 


40 


27th 


40 


45 


49 


12th 


27 


34 


39 


28th 


38 


45 


51 


l;3th 


25 


32 


39 


29th 


37 


45 


51 


14th 


29 


35 


46 


30th 


38 


45 


50 


15 th 


34 


43 


53 


31st 


40 


45 


50 


16th 


40 


50 


58 











92 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



II. MeTEOEOLOGICAL ObSEEYATIONS TAKEN AT EOYAL BOTANIC 

Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of December 1893. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
71'5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 A-m. 





13 a 


Thermometers, protected. 












5 


~ '3/ 


4 feet above grass. 


> 


Clouds. 




X 


S. R. 


Ther- 




o 


1^ 


mometers for 
preceding 


Hygrometer. 


"tr 








•^x 


:{ ^ 


='1 


24 honrs. 






.£ 








~ 


X 


i-s 








C 










Max. 


MiD. 


Dry. ' 


Wet. 


Kind. 


"3 
5 


go 




raS 














-5 


p^ 








o 


o 


O 


o 1 












1 


29-894 


42-1 


25-0 


28-9 


26-5 


N. 


Cir. St. 


5 


N. 


0-000 


2 


30-302 


29-7 


21-5 


24-8 


23-9 


W. 


Oir. 


1 


X.- 


0-000 


3 


30H)19 


47-6 


24-0 


47-6 ! 


46-0 


W. 


J Cir. St. 
\ Cum- 
Onm. 


8 
1 


N.W. 1 


0-000 


4 


30-046 


49-0 


42-8 


47-3 


46-1 


w 


10 


0-030 


5 


30-137 


49-S 


38-0 


41-0 


40-2 


s.w. 


Cir. 


2 


S.W. 


0-010 


6 


29-617 


51-4 


40-2 


50-4 


48-2 


s.w. 


Com. 


10 


s.w. 


0-490 


7 


29-279 


51-8 


34-1 


35-7 


351 


s.w. 


Nim. 


10 


S.w. 


0-150 


8 


28-614 


46-1 


33-6 


45-2 


43-0 


s.s.w. 


ISim. 


10 


s.s.w. 


0-130 


9 


28903 


46-3 


35-0 


37-6 


35-8 


w. 


Nim. 


5 


w. 


0-125 


10 


29-164 


38-9 


301 


35-0 


33-6 


E. 


••. 





... 


O-Ooo 


11 


29-168 


42-9 


340 


35-9 


34-0 


w. 


Cir. St. 


5 


s.w. 


0-100 


12 


29H)79 


37-9 


29-1 


360 


35-4 


s.w. 


Cnm. 


5 


s.w. 


0-140 


13 


28-769 


39-7 


27-9 


33-9 


33-8 


N.E. 


2fim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-340 


14 


29-489 


87-7 


31-2 


36-2 


35-0 


N.W. 


Cmn. 


5 


V w. 


0-010 


15 


29-852 


45-9 


35-0 


44-8 


43-2 


N.W. 


Cir. St. 


4 


N.W. 


0-005 


16 


30O09 


53-8 


44-2 


52-3 


50-1 


S.W. 


Omn* 


10 


S.W. 


O-OOO 


17 


30-049 


53-7 


41-8 


44-9 


42-9 


S.W. 







• .. 


0-000 


18 


29-635 


46-7 


32-8 


44-1 


41-6 


S. 


Cir. St 


4 


s. 


0-010 


1 19 


29-106 


47-4 


36-9 


40-0 


39-8 


S.E. 


Cnm. 


10 


S.E. 


0-020 


! 20 


28-709 


46-0 


36-0 


37-1 


35-3 


w. 


fCir. St 
(^ Cam. 


8 
2 


S.W1 
W./ 


0-000 


21 


28-932 


38-4 


317 


35-6 


34-2 


S.w. 


••> 







0-005 


22 


29-186 


4€-€ 


351 


46-1 


43-6 


s.w. 


Cnm. 


10 


S.W. 


0-075 


23 


29-667 


49-0 


40-2 


42-3 


40-8 


w. 


... 





... 


0-000 


! 24 


29-708 


47-0 


40-8 


46-7 


43-7 


s. 


Cir. St. 


10 


s. 


0-530 


25 


29-639 


50-5 


38-0 


38-7 


37-0 


s.w. 







•>• 


0-070 


26 


30-148 


41-9 


34-8 


36-3 


36-0 


w. 







... 


O-OOO 


•27 


30H)91 


4«-7 


35-5 


46-7 


44-1 


s.w. 


Cum. 


5 


s.w. 


0-110 


28 


30-325 


49-4 


45-7 


47-3 


47-0 


s.w. 


Com. 


10 


s.w. 


0-000 


'< 29 


30-500 


50-0 


43-2 


46-2 


44-6 


s.w. 


Cum. 


1« 


s.w. 


0-000 


1 30 


30-493 


49-6 


39-0 


47-0 


44-2 


w. 


Cum. 


8 


w. 


0-<X>0 


31 


30-350 


48-8 


411 


43-6 


42-0 


w. 


... 







0-OW 



Barometer. — Highest Observed, on the 29th, = 30-500 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 8th. = 28-514 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range. = 1-986 inch. Mean 
= 29-638 inches. 

S. B. Thermometers. — Highest Observed, on the 16th, = .53°-8. Lowest Observed, 
on the 2nd.=-21°-o. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 32° 3. Mean of all the 
Highest = 4o°-9. Mean of all the Lowest = 35°-4. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Range, = 10°-5. Mean Temperature of Month = 40°-6. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 41-1. Mean of Wet Bnlb = SS^-G. 

Rainfall. — Number of Days on which Rain fell = 20. Amount of Fall = 2 -445 
inches. Greatest Fall in 24' hours, on the 24th, = 0-530 inch. • 

. A. D. RICHARDSON, 
Ohferrer. 



.Tax. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



93 



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94 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

III. Notes on Meteorological Observations made 
AT EoYAL Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during 1893. 

PRESSURE. 
The mean atmospheric pressure at 9 a.m. (29795 inches) 
was 0"007 inch above the average of the two previous 
years (29-788 inches). 

TEMPERATURE. 

The highest registered (85°'8, on the afternoon of 18th 
June) was 5°"2 above the highest in 1892 (80°' 6), and 
6°-l above the highest in 1891 (79°-7). 

The lowest registered (9°"9, on the morning of Oth 
January) was 1°'5 above the lowest in 1892 (8°*4), and 
7°-9 below the lowest in 1891 (17°'8). 

The range for the year (75°'9) was 3°"7 greater than 
that for 1892 (72°-2), 14°-0 greater than that for 1891 
(61°'9), and 8°'9 greater than the average of these two 
years (67°-0). 

The mean of all the highest (54°'8) was 2°"5 higher 
than the average of the two previous years (52°*3). 

The mean of all the lowest (41°-8) was 2°-3 higher 
than the average of the two previous years (39°'5). 

The mean of the year (48°'3) was 2°"4 higher than the 
average of the two previous years (45°"9). 

August was the warmest month (mean 61°'4); January 
the coldest (mean 36°'9). 

Frost was registered at four feet above the ground on 
57 days during the year. 

RAINFALL. 

The number of days on which rain fell (186) was 27 
less than in 1892 (213), and 21 less than in 1891 (207), 
The total fall (22-830 inches) was 0-689 inch below that 
of 1892 (23-519 inches), 2-457 inches below that of 1891 
(25"287 inches), and 1-573 inch below the average of 
these two years (24-403 inches), 

March was the driest month (0-666 inch); July the 

wettest (2-728 inches). 

A. D. RICHARDSON, 
Observer. 



Jan-. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 95 

IV. On Plants in the Plant Houses, with Ex- 
hibition OF Specimens. By R. L. Harrow. 

Since the last meeting of the Botanical Society in 
December up to the present date, very few plants have 
produced their flowers in the houses of the Ptoyal Botanic 
Garden, and, indeed, this period is probably the least 
fioriferous of the whole year, alike amongst the occupants 
of tropical and sub-tropical houses. 

In the Palm House, Broiunea coccinea, Jacq., an old 
inhabitant of these gardens, has produced its lovely 
inflorescences of scarlet flowers. These are both 
terminal, and also produced upon the older parts of 
its stem and branches. "When first visible they appear 
like leaf buds, gradually swelling into a large globular 
inflorescence, covered by lightish-coloured scales. The 
flowers are short-lived, lasting for not more than two 
days in perfection. The leaves, which are abruptly 
pinnate, bear from three to six pairs of leaflets. The 
figure in the " Botanical Magazine," t. 3964, was drawn 
from a specimen received from these gardens iii 1842 ; 
and although it had been introduced some years previously, 
this was the first record of its flowering. The plant 
was said at the time to be 1 feet in height ; our plant 
in the Palm House is now about 20 feet high. It is a 
native of Venezuela. 

Angrcecum sesquipedale, Thouars. This, now a fairly 
common plant in our orchid houses, is a native of 
Madagascar, and was first discovered by Du Petit 
Thouars about the end of the last century, but it was 
not until 1822, when his history of the plants of Mada- 
gascar was published, that it became generally known. 
For the introduction of living specimens credit is due to 
the Ptev. W. Ellis, who on his return from a visit to that 
country in 1855 brought, amongst other species of 
AngrcBCura, three plants of this, the largest of the genus, 
one of which flowered in the spring of 1857. Owing to 
the difficulties encountered in transmission to Europe, 
subsequent attempts to reintroduce it for some time failed ; 
but with increased facilities in this respect, large importa- 
tions have been made by several orchid dealers. The 
waxy appearance of its sepals and petals, combined with 



96 TRAifSACnONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

its long spur, have long been a source of attraction. The 
late Mr. Charles Darwin, upon asking himself the use of 
this long spur, which performs the oflSce of a nectary, 
came to the conclusion that the fertilisation of the flower 
depended upon its length, as the nectar was only found 
at the lower extremity ; and prognosticated the existence 
in Madagascar of moths with probosces, capable of ex- 
tending the length of 10 or 11 inches. In his book on 
the Fertilisation of Orchids, he says : — " If the Angrmcv.m 
in its native forests secretes more nectar than the vigorous 
plants in our hothouses, so that the nectary becomes filled, 
small moths might obtain their share, but they would not 
benefit the plant. The pollinia would not be withdrawn 
till some huge moth with a wonderful proboscis tried to 
drain the last drop. If such great moths were to become 
extinct in Madagascar, assuredly the Angrcecum would 
become extinct also. On the other hand, as the nectar, at 
least in the lower part of the nectary (spur), is stored safe 
from depredation by other insects, the extinction of the 
An^rorcum would probably be a serious loss to these 
moths." At the time no moth with this character was 
known, but since that date they have been, I believe, 
found in the island. The flower has a powerful odour at 
night, whereas by day it is quite scentless. 

ThinjJbergia lo.urifolw., Lindl. This is a beautiful winter 
flowering tropical climbing plant, belonging to the order 
Acanthaceae. It was described by Dr. Lindley in 1856. 
The plant is a vigorous grower, resembling in the colour 
of its flowers, to a certain extent, T. grandiflora, but 
differing in its foliage, the species under notice having 
elliptic, acuminate leaves, and quite glabrous, whilst those 
of T. grandijlora are pubescent. Its racemes are produced 
laterally from the stronger growths, and sometimes cany 
as many as a dozen of the beautiful ultramarine blue 
flowers. About the nodes there are a large number of 
secretory glands. I^Ir. W. Gardiner, M.A, F.PuS., in a 
paper read before the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 
states that the secretion serves to attract ants, which, 
besides feeding upon them, also protect the thin young 
climbing shoots by attacking and destroying other creeping 
insects of alien races with whom they may meet in their 
passage up and down the stem. 



Jan. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBUEGH. 9 7 

Barnadesia rosea, Lindl. This plant is a native of 
South America, the exact locality being at present un- 
known, but the plant is supposed to be spread over a wide 
area of the Continent. Its flower heads are produced 
upon the apex of a branch during the winter and spring 
months ; the florets are of a bright rose colour, the base 
of the inflorescence being covered by silvery, scaly bracts. 
The alternate leaves, of an ovate shape, are of a bright 
green colour. It is figured in " Botanical Magazine," 
4232. An interesting feature of the flower heads is the 
hardening and recurving of the calyx bristles as the fruit 
ripens. As they bend backwards, these act as springs for 
gradually drawing out the fruit from within the tubular 
involucre, and expelling them for distribution. When 
scattered, these bristles, which are hygroscopic, will no 
doubt aid further in disseminating the fruit by hooking on 
to passing animals and by flxing the fruits on a suitable 
nidus for growth. 

Ahitilon insigne, Planch. Introduced from New Grenada 
by Mr. Linden in 1851, this plant is still seldom met 
with. It is a slight-growing, shrub-like plant, producing 
its flowers, which hang in a drooping manner, about the 
beginning of the year. The petals have a ground colour 
of white, and are thickly penetrated by a rich carmine 
venation. The stem and the under side of the large 
alternate leaves are covered by short brown hairs. This 
plant is sometimes known as A. igncum. 

Strdbilanthes Dyerianus, Hort. This beautifully variegated 
foliage plant was recently introduced, being sent out by 
Messrs. Sander & Co., of St. Alban's. Although usually 
grown as a decorative stove plant, on account of its coloured 
leaves, it also bears pretty blue flowers, as the specimen on 
the table shows. 

In addition to these, specimens are exhibited of : Bill- 
hergia Bruantii, — a pretty bromeliad, with large red bracts. 
Calliandra hcematocephcda, Hassk., — a leguminous stove 
plant, bearing stalked globose heads of flowers, with long 
numerous stamens of a lovely scarlet colour, sent to Kew from 
Mauritius in 1857. Pithecolohmm unguiscata {Inga rosea, 
Steud.), much similar to the above, but with inflorescences 
smaller and pinnae of leaflets more numerous and bipinnate. 

TRAXS. BOT. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XX. G 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 9 9 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, Febmary 8, 1894. 

Dr. William Craig, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Lady Henry Grosvenoe and Ft. C. Munro Ferguson, 
Esq., M.P., were elected Eesident Fellows of the Society. 

The death of Sir Thomas Buchan-Hepburn, Bart., of 
Prestonkirk, Non-Resident Fellow of the Society was 
intimated. 

Mr. William Sanderson exhibited a plant in flower of 
Masdevallia sp. 

Mr. Campbell sent cut flowers of Daphne Mczcrmm, 
Anemone Hepatica, Erica carnca, Lcucojnm, etc., from his 
garden at Ledaig, Argyllshire. 

Professor Bayley Balfour exhibited a series of new 
diagrams, by Professor Dodel Port, illustrating the life- 
history of Iris. 

Mr. M'Glashan exhibited a portrait of the late Dr. 
Eichard Spruce. 

The following papers were read : — 

Obituary Notice of PiIchard Spruce, Ph.D By G. 
Stabler. 

Dr. Ptichard Spruce, tlie distinguished traveller and 
botanist, died of influenza at Coneysthorpe, near York, on 
28th December 1893, at the age of seventy-six years. 
He was born at Ganthorpe, near the same place, on 10 th 



100 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lvui. 

September 181-7, and was the son of Pdchard Spruce the 
highly esteemed and efficient schoolmaster at Ganthorpe, 
and afterwards at the neighbouring village of Welburn. 
His mother's maiden name was Etty, a relative of William 
Etty the eminent artist and Eoyal Academician. 

At Ganthorpe he spent his early life, and when quite a 
child he showed great aptitude for learning, and at an 
early age developed a great love of nature. Amongst his 
earliest amusements was the making of lists of plants, and 
he had also a great liking for astronomy, which was of 
use to him in after years. He commenced the study of 
classics with an old schoolmaster of the name of Langdale, 
who had originally been designed for the priesthood, and 
whose scholarship his distinguished pupil always spoke of 
most highly. When a little older he became a tutor for a 
short time in a private school at Haxby, near York, and 
about the beginning of 1840, was mathematical master at 
the York Collegiate School, which position he filled for five 
years. 

To trace his botanical career it will be necessary to go 
back a little. The writer of this memoir possesses a 
neatly written manuscript list, made by Spruce and dated 
April 1834, of plants found by him mostly within a short 
radius of Ganthorpe. It comprises 403 species alpha- 
betically arranged. The first page contains a list of 
abbreviations used in giving localities to the plants, and on 
the last page is a tabulated summary. This was drawn up 
when he was sixteen years of age, and most of the records 
must have been made before he was sixteen. Three years 
later he drew up the " List of the Flora of the Malton 
District," the manuscript of which is now in the hands of 
Mr. M. B. Slater. In it are enumerated 485 species 
arranged alphabetically, with habitats 

The next stage in his botanical career was the com- 
mencement of his study of mosses and hepaticfe, which 
dates from the time he went to York in 1840. For a 
time, whilst at York, he applied himself severely to the 
special study of mathematics, and some of his friends 
suggested that he should enter the church, but he preferred 
to become " a priest of science," as the great Von Martins, 
his " very attached friend and admirer," designated him in 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 101 

after years. During one of his summer vacations, when 
passing over Slingsby Moor, not far from his native place, 
he met with one of the uncinate Hypna in splendid fruit. 
His love of plants, from which he had been partially 
weaned for a short time by his mathematical studies, 
returned with such force, tfhat he vowed on the sjiot that 
henceforth the study of plants should be the great object 
of his life. Hitherto he seems to have been a lover, now 
he becomes wedded to his favourite science. 

For four years, January 1841 to December 1844, his 
journals show that he took every opportunity to explore 
the district surrounding the city of York, and especially 
the extensive unenclosed commons ; and in his vacations 
to take more extended and distant rambles. In June 
1841 he spent some days in the North York Moors, and 
in December of that year he went into Wharfedale. In 
the summer of 1842 he visited Dr. Thomas Taylor at 
Dunkerron, in the west of Ireland, and botanised in that 
rich district for about a month, and at Christmas spent 
some days collecting in Eskdale and other valleys near 
Whitby. In the months of June and July of 1843 he 
made a three weeks' expedition to Teesdale, which formed 
the subject of an excellent paper to the Botanical Society 
of Edinburgh, opening out for the first time the great 
richness of the flora of that valley, on which occasion he 
discovered AmUi/stegium Sprucei, Bruch. In December 
of that year he went to Forge Valley and other places 
in the neighbourhood of Scarboro'. Once more, in the 
summer of 1844 he spent ten. days in Derbyshire. In the 
three years and a half mentioned he made fully one 
hundred botanical excursions, some of which we have seen 
extended over several days. 

On 1st May 1845 he left England for the Pyrenees, 
going and returning by Paris, where he met Dufour. He 
did not return until the 10th of April 1846. His stay in 
the Pyrenees enabled him to secure a rich harvest of mosses 
and hepaticie, and these plants were the subject of a second 
and more important paper communicated to the Edinburgh ' 
Botanical Society. 

The next important step in the life of Dr. Spruce was 
his determination to explore the Amazon and some of its 



102 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

affluents. After working up and disposing of his Pyreneau 
plants, he prepared himself for future work by studying 
exotic plants at Kew and the British Museum. In the 
latter place he met Eobert Brown, for whom he had the 
highest esteem as a botanist, and whose descriptions of 
plants he considered as models. Having mentioned Eobert 
Brown, it would perhaps not be out of place to say that at 
this time Dr. Spruce numbered among his correspondents 
Dr. Montagne (one of Napoleon's army surgeons in Egypt), 
Dufour, Bruch, Schimper, Gottsche, Sullivant, W. J. Hooker, 
Bentham, Greville, Taylor, Borrer, Wilson, Leighton, Babing- 
ton, Hanbury, Mitten, etc. 

In his early manhood Dr. Spruce, who was never robust, 
was considered by some to be consumptive. He was 
offered a position on board one of the ships of a Franklin 
Search Expedition. This he declined, preferring the climate 
of South America. 

Having by this time, by sheer merit, attracted the 
attention and esteem of botanical authorities, he received, 
amongst others, commissions from Kew ; and on the 7th 
of June 1849 embarked for America, and arrived at Para 
on 13th July. This is not the place to give a detailed 
account of his travels and work in South America. In 
1886, in the " Eevue Bryologique," he gave a brief and 
most interesting 'precis of his travels, written in French, 
and entitled " Voyage de E. Spruce dans Amerique 
Equatoriale pendant 1849-1864." Sir Eoderick Murchison, 
in 1864, then President of the Eoyal Geographical Society, 
briefly summarised his geographical work thus : — " I have 
pleasure in announcing that the indefatigable explorer Mr. 
E. Spruce, who has for fifteen years been unceasingly 
employed in scientific labours in the valley of the Elver 
Amazon and in the Andes of Ecuador, is on his way to 
England. Of his great services to botany it is not for me 
to speak, but his geographical work is entitled to special 
thanks at my hands. Mr. Spruce left England in the 
year 1849, and landed at Para, whence he proceeded up 
• the Eiver Amazon and explored several of its least-known 
affluents. In 1849 he ascended and made a map of the 
Eiver Tombetas, an important tributary of the Amazon, 
which was hitherto unsurveyed. In 1853 and 1854 he 



Feb. 1894.] BOT.^'ICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 10-3 

ascended the Eio Negro, Cassiquiari, and Orinoco ; exploring 
and mapping the Eiver Cunucuniima, a tributary of the 
Orinoco, and the Eiver Pacimoni, which flows into the 
Cassiquiari. The maps of these three rivers were made by 
means of cross-bearings and astronomical observations, and 
will form an important addition to geographical knowledge. 
During the years 1855 and 1856, Mr. Spruce ascended the 
Eiver Huallaga, and in 1857 he successfully surmounted 
all the difficulties of the navigation of the Elvers Pastasa 
and Bombonasa, and reached the Andes of Quito. He 
has since been engaged in exploring the southern part of 
the republic of Ecuador, and during 1860 he was employed 
by the Secretary of State for India, in co-operation with 
Mr. Clements Markham, in collecting chinchona plants and 
seeds in the forests at the foot of the mountain of Chim- 
borazo. After fifteen years of such incessant toil in the 
cause of science, exposed to innumerable dangers and 
privations, the health of Mr. Spruce has been much 
impaired. . . ." 

In consideration of this work Dr. Spruce was elected an 
Honorary Fellow of the Eoyal Geographical Society in 
1866. 

An equally authoritative summary of his botanical 
work was given by Mr. Bentham, President of the Linnean 
Society, who worked up and distributed his Phanerogams, 
as follows : — " His researches into the vegetation of the 
interior of South America have been the most important 
we have had since the days of Humboldt, not merely for 
the number of species which he has collected (amounting 
to upwards of 7000), but also for the number of new 
generic forms with which he has enriched science ; for his 
investigation into the economic uses of the plants of the 
countries he visited ; for several doubtful questions of 
origin as to interesting genera and species which his dis- 
coveries have cleared up ; and for the number and scientific 
value of his observations, made on the spot, attached to the 
specimens preserved, all which specimens have been trans- 
mitted to this country, and complete sets deposited in the 
National Herbarium at Kew." 

It was whilst preparing to enter the forests of red-bark 
{Cinchona succiriihra), at the west foot of Chimborazo, that 



104 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

his health began to give way. Under date 24th April 
1860, he writes: "Woke up this morning paralysed in 
my back and legs. From that day forth I was never more 
able to sit straight up or walk about without great pain 
and discomfort." In September of next year (1861) 
another misfortune befell him owing to the failure of a 
mercantile house in Guayaquil, by which he lost 6000 
dollars, and thus was brought almost to destitution. He 
was now under the necessity of selling his most valuable 
and, to him, most precious books, which realised about 300 
dollars. After spending two years on the coast of Ecuador, 
and sixteen months on the coast of Peru, and finding it 
impossible to work, he determined to return to England. 
He landed at Southampton on the 27th of "May 1864. 

In addition to the results before mentioned, he gave 
considerable attention to the Ethnography of the districts 
through which he passed, and drew up twenty-one Indian 
vocabularies. 

After his arrival in England he remained in London for 
a short time, and then removed to Hurstpierpoint, where 
he superintended the arrangement and distribution of his 
South American mosses. This collection, originally in- 
tended to be worked up by himself, was undertaken by 
Mr. Mitten, and we can hardly open a page of Mitten's 
important work, "Musci Austro- Americani," without 
noticing plants gathered by Spruce. In 1867 he settled 
down in lodgings at Welburn. After his arrival in York- 
shire his health was very indifferent. Here he remained 
nine years, during the early part of which he was unable 
to do much work. In 1867 he writes : " I can hardly 
write in any other way than reclining in my easy chair 
with a large book across my knee by way of table, and 
consequently I rarely write anything but what is absolutely 
necessary." In January 1869 he says : " I fear I must 
henceforth shut my eyes to cryptogams ; I have packed the 
microscope away lest I should enter into temptation ; " and 
in October of the same year, " I have made two attempts 
to complete my monograph of the South American Plagio- 
chilfe, but the sitting up to the microscope has brought 
on bleeding of the intestines to such an extent that I 
fear I must renounce the task altogether, to my deep 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 105 

regret. I have not looked through the microscope for 
many weeks." 

On 11th May 1871 he wrote: "It has been very 
hard times with me all this year. Nevertheless, I lately 
plucked up courage to disinter my microscope, after it had 
been out of sight full eighteen months, and I have gone 
thoroughly over all my South American Plagiochilas, have 
described all the forms, and have made up my mind as far 
as possible about the ' species.' The result has been to 
make me more Darwinian than ever." 

During the last nine years he was at Welburn, and in 
this broken-down state of health he examined all his South 
American palms, and the result appeared in his " Palmar 
AmazoniCcT," a hrochure of nearly 200 pages, in which are 
described 118 species, more than half of which are new to 
science. The first portion of his • " Hepatica? Araazonicte 
et Andinae " was written at Welburn and completed at 
Coneysthorpe, where he lived for the last seventeen years 
of his life. The " Hepatic^ Amazonicffi et Aridina?," a 
book of nearly 600 pages, contains elaborate descriptions 
in Latin of upwards of 700 species and varieties, two- 
thirds of which were new to science. This may be said to 
be by far the most important of his numerous works, from 
a purely scientific point of view ; and as a proof of its 
merits, leading hepaticologists of other countries have 
adopted to a large extent the classification of an " illustre 
et venere maitre." It has been spoken of as one of the 
remarkable books of this century ; and it is a work the 
publication of which justifies the existence of such bodies 
as the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. After its com- 
pletion he had a slight apoplectic seizure. For about two 
months he never once used the microscope, and, to use his 
own words, " for the shortest letter I had to avail myself 
of an amanuensis. I knew exactly what I wanted to 
write, but my hand refused to write it. I am now writing 
almost a mon ordinaire, but I cannot write much at a time." 

It has been observed that through misfortune he was in 
straitened circumstances when he arrived in England. 
This, in combination with the state of his health, in- 
duced his friend, Mr. Clements Markham, to make repre- 
sentations to the Encrlish Government with the view of 



106 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

procuring a pension for him, which at first was refused ; 
and it was not until the se\^nth Earl of Carlisle used his 
influence that he was granted in 1865, by Lord Palmer- 
ston, a pension of £50 a year. In 1877, through Mr. 
Markham's further entreaties, he secured for his fellow- 
pioneer " of the greatest achievement of this century in 
the domain of practical economic culture of medicinal 
plants" a further pension of £50 from the Indian Govern- 
ment. These sums, awarded for past services, may be said 
to have afterwards been used as " endowment of research," 
for, except when prevented by illness, the recipient was 
altogether engaged in purely unremunerative scientific 
work up to the time of his last short illness. 

Many years ago he was in communication with Mr. 
John Murray with respect to an account of his travels, 
part of which is in manuscript, but incomplete. It was 
his intention also to supplement his " Hepatic?e AmazonicaB 
et Andinae " with another work on geographical distribution 
and other matters, which would have been as large as its 
predecessor. This is about half done. 

Having had the honour and privilege of being on terms 

of intimate friendship with Dr. Spruce for over a quarter 

of a century, I may be allowed to offer a few observations 

of a more personal nature. The treatment of his friends 

carried out the advice he gave to others, in the words of 

old Polonius : — 

" The friends thou hast and their adoption tried. 
Grapple them to thy heart with hooks of steel." 

. When young he was tall and spare, with dark hair. In 
his latter days his beard and hair were grey, the latter 
rather long. In his room everything was in the strictest 
order, and Mr. A. E. Wallace, who met with him and 
remained with him for some time in the basin of the 
Amazon, remarks that be was equally orderly when he was 
exploring the virgin forests of that district. He was also 
one of the most methodical of men. In his botanical work 
he seems to have thought that if anything was worth 
noticing it was worth recording. He seems never to have 
examined and noticed anything without making a note of 
it, and in his later years he would readily turn to notes, 
all carefully numbered, on plants which he had made in 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 107 

his early days, and rely on his conclusions with as much 
certainty as if they had been made on the previous day. 
All his work was well and thoroughly done. At the same 
time he worked quickly. He was also very systematic in 
the time for working. Por many years all his writing was 
done with black lead pencil, reclining on a couch with 
the paper on a board. Dr. Spruce had considerable 
aptitude for learning languages. He spoke and wrote 
French, Spanish, and Portuguese. He was widely read 
in general literature, and a copy of Shakespeare's Works 
was one of his companions in crossing the Continent of 
South America. He was always courteous and gentlemanly 
in his bearing, and ever affectionate, kind, and sympathising 
as a friend. He had a considerable vein of humour in his 
nature, and could relish and tell an amusing story or make 
a good pun. As an hepaticologist he might justl}' be 
placed in the foremost rank, and this being the case he 
was in communication, previous to his death, with nearly 
every hepaticologist of note in the world. He understood 
the theory of music, and was naturally very musical, 
possessing a true ear and a good voice. 

He was never married ; he died from an attack of 
influenza, which his already weakened body could not 
overcome. He was interred on the last day of the year 
1893 at Terrington, beside his father and mother, in 
accordance with directions given several years before his 
death to Mr. M. B. Slater, of Malton, his sole executor. 

LIST OF PAPERS, ETC., BY DR. RICHARD SPRUCE. 

1. A List of Mosses and Hepaticse collected in Eskdale, Yorkshire. — 

Phytologist, i., .540-544 (1844). 

2. On the Branch-bearing Leaves of Jungermannia juniperina, Sw. — 

Phytologist, ii., 85, 86 (1845). 

3. A List of Musci and Hepaticse of Yorkshire. — Phytologist ii.. 

147-157 (1845). 

4. The Musci and Hepaticse of Teesdale. — Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., ii., 

65-89 (1846). 

5. The Musci and Hepaticse of the Pyrenees. — Annals and Magazine of 

Xat. History, 2nd series, iii., "81-106, 269-293. 358-380, 478- 
503; iv., 104-120, t. i.-iii. (1849). Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., 
103-216, t. i., ii., xiv. (1850). 

6. On Anomoclada, a new Genus of Hepaticse, and its allies. Odonto- 

schisma and Adelanthus. — Jour, of Bot.. six., 33-40 (1881). 



108 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lvm. 

7. On Marsupella Stahleri (n. sp.) and some Allied Species of European 

Hepaticse. — Revue Bryologique, viii., 89-104 (1881). 

8. On Cephalozia, its Sub-genera and some Allied Genera. — 8to. 

pp. 99 (Malton, 1882). 

9. Hepaticae Amazonicse et Andinse. — Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin.. xv.. 

1-590, t. L-xxii. (1885). 

10. Lejeunea Holtii, a new Hepatic from Kilkrney. — Jour, of Bot., 

XXV., 33-39, 72-82, t. cclxxiL (1887). 

11. On a new Irish Hepatic (^Radula Holtii). — Jour, of Bot., xxv., 

209-211 (1887). 

12. Hepaticae in Provincia Rio Janeiro a Glazion lectae. — Revue Bryo- 

logique, xv., 33-34 (1888). (List only.) 

13. Hepaticae Paraguayensis, Balansa lectae. — Revue Bryologique, xxv., 

.34-35 (1888). (List only.) 

14. Lejeunea Rossettiana, Mass. — Jour, of Bot, xxvii., 337, 338 (1889). 

15. Hepaticae Bolivianae. in Andibus Boliriae Orientalis, annis 1885-6. 

A cl. H. H. Rusby lectae.— Mem. Torrey Bot. Club, i., 113-140 
(1890). 

16. Hepaticae Novae Americanae, tropicae et aliae. — Ball. Soc. Bot. de 

France, xxxvi., cxxxix.-ccvi. (1889). 

17. Hepaticae Spruceanse. Amazonicae et Andinae, annis 1849-1860 

lectae. — (Malton, 1892). (Specimens.) 

18. BeschereUe et Spruce. — Hepatiques nouvelles de Colonies Fran- 

caises. — Bull, de la Soc. Bot. de France, xxxvi., clxxW.-clxxxix., 
pL xiii.-xvii. (1889). (New species from Guadaloupe, French 
Guiana, New Caledonia, and Reunion Island.) 

19. On several Mosses new to the British Flora. — London Jour, of Bot., 

vol. iv. (April 1845). 

20. Notes on the Botany of the Pyrenees, in a letter addressed to the 

editor of Sir W. J. Hooker's London Journal of Botany, dated 
3rd Jan. 1846, Bagneres de Bigorre, Hautes Pyrenees, and 1846 
(England). 

21. On the Mode of Branching of some Amazonian Trees. By Richard 

Spruce. (Written from) Ambato, near Quito, 25th May 1859. 
— Jour, of the Proceedings of the Linnean Soc, vol. v., p. 14. 

22. On Five New Plants from Eastern Peru. By R. Spruce. — Jour, of 

the Proceedings of the Linn. Soc. (April 1859). 

23. Mosses of the Amazon and Andes. By Richard Spruce. — Jour, of 

the Proceedings of the Linn. Soc. Bot., vol. v. (An Andres&a, 
an Acroschisma, and three Tnylorias — all new except T. ery- 
throdonta). 

24. Notes on Papayaceae. By Joaquim Correa de Mello and Richard 

Spruce. Signed R. S., 3rd Jan. 1867. pp. 15. Lino. Soc. 
Jour, of Bot., vol. X. 

25. Notes on some Insect and other Migrations observed in Equatoiial 

America. By Richard Spruce. — Linn. Soc. Jour. (Zoology), 
vol. iv. 

26. Catalogus Muscorum fere omnium quos in Terris Amazonicis et 

Andinis, per annos 1849-1860, legit R. Spruce. Londini, 1867, 
p. 22. Extends to No. 1518. 

27. Notes on the Valleys of Piura and Chira, in Northern Peru, and on 

the Cultivation of Cotton therein. By R. Spruce. — London : 
for Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1864. p. 81. 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 109 

28. Voyage de R. Spruce dans Amerique Equitoriale, peudaut 1849- 

1864. -Revue Bryologique. No. 4, 1886. 

29. Musci Prseteriti. By R. Spruce.— Jour, of Bot., Dec. 1880, 

No. 216, and Feb. 1881, No. 218. 

30. Ant Agency in Plant Structure. By R. Spruce. Communicated to 

the Linn. Soc. by Charles Darwin. 

31. The Morphology of the Leaf of Fissidens. By R. Spruce. — Jour, of 

Bot., No. 220 (April 1881). 

32. List of the Flora of the Malton District, 1837. By R. Spruce.— (It 

is in MS. I doubt it being published.) 

33. Personal Experiences of Venomous Reptiles and Insects in South 

America. By R. Spruce. 

34. On some Remarkable Narcotics of the Amazon Valley and Orinoco. 

by R. Spruce. 

JVote. — Nos. 33 and 34 — MSS. in G. Stabler's possession. 
Do not know where they were published. 

35. Report on the Expedition to procure Seeds and Plants of the 

Chinchona succirubra, Pavon., or Red-Bark Tree. R. Spruce. — 
(Eyre & Spottiswood, I think.) 

36. Extracts from Letters from R. Spruce, written during Botanical 

Explorations on the Amazon, in Hookers Journal of Botany: — 
For May 1851, Nov. 1851, Oct. 1852, Nov. 1852, July 1853, 
Aug. 1853, Feb. 1854, April 1854. 

37. Palmffi Amazonicse, sive enumeratio Palraarum in itinere suo per 

regiones Americae ^Equatoriales lectarum. 183 pp. Auctore, 
Ricardo Spruce, Ph.D., F.R.G.S. — Linuean Society's Journal 
(Botany), vol. xi. 



Note on Ange^cum sesquipedule, Thouars. By 
William Sanderson. 

This Orchid is a native of Madagascar, and was intro- 
duced into this country by the Eev. W. Ellis. Though 
by no means a rare plant, it is one not commonly met 
with in average collections, as it is rather difficult to grow 
unless in a suitable situation. 

The photograph which you see is of a plant which I 
acquired in February 1887: it was an imported piece, 
and had then only four or five leaves ; it first flowered 
in my garden at Talbot House, Ferry Eoad, February 
1888, and has continued to flower annually ever since, 
the number of blooms being usually from six to eight ; 
this season it has surpassed itself, and carried eight 
spikes, six of two blooms each, and two of three blooms 
each, in all eighteen flowers, all perfect and all expanded 
at the same time. 



110 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess L\'ni. 

I am indebted to Professor Bayley Balfour for some 
information regarding plants with many flowers which 
have been recorded previously. In 1890 a plant at 
Messrs. Seeger & Tropp's nursery, East Dulwich, had ten 
blooms (Gard. Chron., 3rd series, vii., 1890, p. 11); in 
1873, in the garden of Mr. W. Terry, Peterbrough House, 
Fulham, a plant showed twelve blooms (Gard. Chron., 1873, 
p. 254, fig. 53) ; at Davenham in 1892 a plant bore 
thirteen flowers (Gard. Chron., 3rd series, xL, 1892, p. 84); 
in 1874, in the garden of Mr. Pi. Miln, Arbroath, a plant 
had seventeen flowers (Gard. Chron., 1874, p. 346, fig. 
79). The figure of Mr. Miln's plant shows it to have had a 
single stem, and this presumably was the character of all 
the other plants referred to, as it is of my plant. A plant 
is also noticed (Gard. Chron., 3rd series, xii., 1892, p. 123) 
from the garden of Mr. A. S. Kimball, Piochester, Xew 
York, which had twenty- three flowers in July, the period 
of flowering in this country being from December to 
March. But from Ferguslie, Paisley, a plant is recorded 
in Gard. Chron., 2nd series, xxv., 1886, p. 170, with 
five growths 2-3 feet high, bearing thirteen spikes with 
thirty-six flowers, of which twenty-four were expanded. 
He adds that so far as he can learn my plant is the one 
with the greatest number of flowers on a single stem that 
has been recorded in Britain. 

While in its native country this orchid is found growing 
on trees, this plant has been grown in a pot filled with 
alternate layers of crocks and sphagnum, close to the back 
wall of a house, along with Yandas, Dendrobiums, Cypri- 
pediums, etc. It is a plant of slow growth, making only a 
single pair of leaves annually, it seems to enjoy sunshine 
and a fair amount of water, but it must have efficient 
drainage. 



Scottish Uteicularias. By Eev. E. F. Linton. 

The following notes are submitted for the purpose of 
directing the attention of botanists who have opportunities 
of visiting the localities mentioned, or other places where 
species of TJtricidaria may be found, to some difficulties in 



Feh. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH, 111 

the way of determination of the species, and in the hope 
that they may be willing to co-operate in their elucidation, 

Utricularia Brcmii, Heer., has often been suspected, but 
its existence in Britain is still, I believe, not absolutely 
proved (but see a valuable paper on this in Jour. Bot., 
1876, 142, etc). 

Differences from U. minor, L., to be looked for are — 
(1) robuster habit, (2) a more decided spur, which in U. 
minor is scarcely longer than broad, and (3) an orbicular 
lower lip. 

Some suspected localities are " Moss of Inshoch, Xairn, 
and Loch of Spynie " — Bab. Man., ed. viii., 288. The 
Loch of Spynie is near Elgin. " Near Glenluce " — on a 
label, Hb. Ediub. B. G. Culdoch Moor, Kirkcudbright. 
Loch Feoir, Assynt. Mr. F, M. Webb {I.e.) considered 
the Loch of Spynie plant to be U. Brcmii, and " certainly 
not U. minor." 

In the Loch of Spynie a slender form of U. vulgaris, L., 
should be looked for, and observed while fresh. The 
specimen in Hb. Edinb. B, G. does not look typical. 

An interesting species has been gathered on Gordon 
Moss by Prof. Dickson in 1882, allied to U. neglect a, 
Lehm., and possibly a form of that species, which deserves 
study. There are three sheets in Herb. Edinb. B. G., 
beautifully preserved, but unfortunately tlowerless. 

A plant somewhat similar to the one from Gordon Moss 
has been sent me (by the Eev. E. S. Marshall, and may be 
rightly named) as U. neglect a, from peaty bogs of Loch 
Gaunich, Eannoch Muir, Argyll. ISTo flowers. 

Long Moss, near Faldonside, Selkirkshire, produces a 
plant which is probably U. ncglecta, but I have only seen 
flowerless specimens. 

The difficulty in determining the species of this genus 
usually arises from the absence of flowers, or their poor 
state of preservation when present. They are frequently 
flowerless in rainy districts ; while, on the other hand, the 
season of 1893 has given me abundant proof that a warm, 
dry season favours the production of flowers. Having a 
suitable locality for their development near at hand — 
a shallow bog with a sunny e:!^posure — I am willing to try 
and persuade to flower any critical or curious unnamed 



112 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

forms which usually are flowerless in their native stations 
that may be sent me. They are most easily transplanted 
in the winter-bud condition, when they may be posted 
either in a small bottle or tube of water, or in wet rag 
secured from evaporation ; but, with care in the supply of 
moisture, they will probably bear transplantation at any 
season. 



Contributions towards a Flora of West Eoss. By 
G. Claridge Druce, M.A., F.L.S. 

The first notice which I am acquainted with of any 
plants occurring in the vice-county of West Eoss (No. 105 
of Watson's " Topographical Botany ") is to be found in- the 
two volumes of Lightfoot's "Flora Scotica," which is dated 
1777. The Eoss-shire plants mentioned in it, which 
appear to belong to the western watershed, are as follows : 
— Circcca alpina, Cynosurus cceindcus (Sesleria cceridea), 
Chenopoclium maritimum (Sucda maritima), Cormis suecica, 
Vaccinium uUginosum, Juncus trijldus, Epilohium alpinum, 
Arhutiis alpina {Ardostaphylos aljnna), Pyrola minor, P. 
secunda, Satyrmm repeois (Goody era repens), Ophrys cordata, 
(Listera cordata), Ophrys cmnUorhiza (Corallorhiza innata), 
Dryas octopetala, Draha incana, Asplenium viridc. Poly- 
podium Lonchitis (Polystichum Lonchitis), HieraciiLm alpinum, 
Tanacetum vidgare, Sparganiiim natans, Poa maritima 
{Glyceria maritima), Pinus sylvestris, Tricliomanes tun- 
bridgcnses {Hymcnophyllum unilaterale), Osm^tnda Lunaria 
(Botrycliium Lunaria). Betuki nana is given as growing 
on the moors of Loch Glass, but these I believe drain into 
the Eastern Sea. Of the foregoing plants the exact identity 
of Sparganium natans, and Hieracium alpinum is doubtful. 
Up to the present time, so far as I am aware, Sesleria, 
Goodyera, and Corallorhiza have not since been found, they 
probably will be rediscovered. 

In "English Botany," 1809, Stachys amligua is reported 
on the authority of W. Borrer and W. J. Hooker from the 
side of Loch Carron. The plate in " English Botany " is 
numbered 2089. 

In Hooker's "Flora Scotica," 1821, we have two additional 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 113 

species put on record, i.e. Hypericum Androsccmum, Loch 
Maree, G. Anderson [Lycopus curopccus, margin of Loch 
Aichaltie, near Craigdarroch (W. Stables), is in East Eoss], 
and Pingvicula lusitanica. The station for Stachys ambifjua 
is given more precisely " near Jeantown," where it still 
occurs. 

In the " Xew Botanists' Guide," 1835, a considerable 
number of plants from Eoss are given, principally on the 
authority of Mr. G. Gordon. Most of the unlocalised ones 
were subsequently placed in the vice-county of East Eoss 
by Mr. H, C. "Watson. Orohanchc ribhra is an addition to 
the West Eoss flora ; it was found on a small island not 
far from the mainland, Gairloch, by E. B. Bowman. 

In Murray's "Northern Flora," 1836, several plants are 
mentioned as growing in Eoss-shire, but as they are un- 
localised they cannot be precisely placed in either division 
of the county. These include Veronica scutellata, Erio- 
phoruni aiigiistifolium, Triodia, Knautia arvensis, Galium 
horecdc, Alchcmilla alpina, Azalea procumhens, Hcdera Helix, 
etc. Mr. Watson subsequently placed most of them to 
East Eoss. 

In Gordon's "Collectanea for a Flora of Moray, 1839." 
Scirpus maritimus is noted from Kintail, and Eriophorum 
puhcscens from Plockton (Mr. Stables), which are additions. 
Saussurea alpina and Cryptogramme crispa are recorded in 
the same work by Mr. G. C. Smith from Ben-lea-mohr- 
guislee, which Mr. Arthur Bennett suggested might be 
Bienn Liath Mohr in Strathcarron, i.e. in West Eoss. Mr. 
W. Douglas suggests with greater probability that by this 
name was intended Bienn Liath Mohr a Ghuibhais Li 
(2464 feet), which lies about six miles north of Loch 
Luichart station, i.e. in East Eoss. 

In the " Geographical Distribution of British Plants," 
the author, H. C. Watson, records a few plants, such as 
Banunculus Ficaria, B. Flammula, and Nymplicea alba 
for Eoss, but these again cannot be precisely put to the 
western portion of the county. 

Anderson, in " The Guide to the Highlands and Islands 
of Scotland," mentions that Atropa Belladonna grows in 
the churchyard of Gairloch, where, of course, it was not a 
native plant. 

TBA>S. EOT. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XX. H 



'114 TEAXSACnONS A^■T) PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

In the " Phytologist," voL i., p. 147, 1842, Lycopodium 
aniuAinum is said to have been gathered by Mr. G. C. 
Smith in West Eoss, and given to Mr. Stables. 

Some time prior to 1873, Professor Churchill Babington 
■vTBited the county, and recorded the discovery of Rubus 
Chamceirwrv^, Rosa simiosissima, Antennaria dioica, Cnicus 
heterophyllus, Hieracium anglicum, Utncularia, intermedia, 
JvMCVA triglumis, Rhyncospora alba, Avcna imhescens, 
Gakojjsis versicolor, and Schojnus nigricans. 

In the first edition of " Topographical Botany," published 
1873—74, Mr. Watson includes for West Ross Silenc aca.ulis, 
on the authority of Mr. Graham ; Alchemilla aJphia and 
Salix Lapponum, on Mi. Campbell's authority ; and Galium 
horeale, recorded by Mr. G. C. Smith. In the same work 
-sixteen species appear to be first definitely recorded for 
the "v-ice-county, but they are without personal authority 
for their occurrence. They are as follows : — Tludictrum 
oJpinum, Sv.lmlaria aqvMtica, Cherleria sedoides. Radiola, 
Sibhaldia, Vicia sylvaiica, Saussurea, Lobelia Dortmanna, 
Azalea procumJbcns, Gentiaim Ariiarella, Arbutv^ Ura-ursi, 
Salix Turbacea, Tofieldia,, Jfahixis, Blysmv.s rv.fu.s, and 
Lycopodium inwndatum. Betula. nana is also given, but 
this is probably included on the erroneous idea that Loch 
Glass is in West Ross. Several species recorded by Light- 
foot, Churchill, Babington, and others are also included. 

In the '•' Scotch Xaturalist," vol ii., 1873-74, pp. 74-78, 
^Ix. Davidson commenced a paper on the Flora of Ross, 
but which only treated of the Phanerogams as far as the 
Caprifoliacese. This flora is not of great ser^-ice to us 
since necessarily 'SLt. Watson's di%dsions of the county were 
not adopted, and the absence of precise localities prevent 
us from taking the authority for the occurrence of the 
species in the western watershed. The terms " common " 
or ■' very common " almost certainly refer to Eastern Ross. 
It must be borne in mind that the two divisions of the 
county are based on a natural separation by the watershed, 
east and west, so that the flora of the two divisions of the 
county perhaps difler more from each other than that of East 
Ross does from Northern Easterness, or that of West Ross 
does from Xorthem Westerness. The unlocalised records 
of Mr. Davidson's are therefore neglected in the following list. 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 115 

The localised records (assuming that the plants are 
correctly named), which appear to be new to the \dce- 
county, are Banunculus Lingua, Kintail and Gairloch. 
(Not yet seen by me in the county. Large forms of R. 
Flammula are sometimes so named.) Trollius eiwopceus, 
West Eoss ! Corydalis claviculata, Melvaig, by Gairloch. 
Arahis pctrcea, Gairloch. (Can this be correct ? It is a 
mountain plant, but is occasionally brought down to low 
level by mountain streams. It occurs on hills at the 
head of Loch Maree.) Drciba rupestris, Ben Sleugach. 
(If correctly named, an interesting record, but small forms 
of D. incana are sometimes mistaken for it.) Lcpidium 
Smithii and Droscra anglica, Gairloch ! Hypericum caly- 
cinum, Balmacarra (planted, of course). Paibus corylifolius, 
Glen Shiel. Rosa involuta, Gairloch. Pyrus Aria, " rare, 
Loch Carron." Scclum Rhodiola, " Baios Bhein, Gairloch." 
Scdurn Teleplmim, " not common, Gairloch " (a doubtful 
native). S. anglicum, " rare, Gairloch " (so far as my 
observation goes, it is a common plant by the coast). 
Cicuta virosa, Glen Shiel. (I saw CEmmthc crocata there, 
but Cicuta is recorded from the Hebrides, so it may be 
correct.) Helosciadiicm nodifiorum, Gairloch. CEnanthe 
Laclicnalii, Gairloch. Linncca horealis, '' in an island in 
Loch Maree." Xeither of the last three plants have so 
far been observed by me in West Eoss. 

The foregoing records are the only ones I have been 
able to find that relate to West Eoss, but my search has 
not been of an exhaustive character, and I may have 
overlooked some paper or work in which the subject has 
been dealt with. 

After the publication of Mr. H. C. Watson's " Topo- 
graphical Botany," in which nine counties had no list of 
common plants recorded, Mr. Watson asked me to visit 
West Eoss, which was one of these, in order to compile a 
list of its plants. In the August of 1880 I made my first 
acquaintance with what proved to be really " a land of moun- 
tain and flood." I began my expedition at Achnasheen, 
where (as its name implies) all the winds and a good deal 
of the wet of heaven meet, and walked through a heavy 
rain to Kinlochewe, gathering Malaxis and noting about 
a hundred plants on my way. Two days were spent at 



116 TEAXSACTIONS AXD PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sese. lviu. 

Kinlochewe in climbing the Slioch, and examining the 
shores of Loch Maree, but torrents of rain made the task 
anything but a pleasant one. The plants gathered included, 
Isoetes lacustris, Myriophyllum alternifiorum, Hydrocotyle, 
LUtonUa, Lobelia Bortiiianna, Piiiguicula lusitanica, Nitella 
opaca, Drosera dbovata. Car ex pa.ucijlora, C. Hornshuchiana, 
Equisetuiii sylvaticum, Haheiuiria hifolia, G-nap)halium sylvati- 
cum, Tlmlictrum alpinum, Potcntilla Siliboldi, Epilobium 
o2pinum, Cornvs suecica, Junipei'us najia, Arctostaphyllos 
Vva-ursi, Tofiildia, Luzv.la spieata, Juncus trifidus, Lathyrus 
jyratcnsis, and Lycopodium alpinum. A walk was next taken 
from Kinlochewe to Achnashellach by Loch Clare, the chief 
plants seen being Carex remota, Scirpus fluitans, Rosa 
Sahini, Ruba-s villicav2is, Eleoclio.ris palustris, and Nympjhcca. 
alba. Another wet day was spent about Strome on Loch 
Carron, when Hymenophylliuii unilaterale, Aspidium lobatum, 
Aira cu.ryophyllea, Arenaria pieploides, Biida media. Pea 
nemoralis, Arenaria scrpyllifolia, Veronica agrestis, Vicia 
hirsuta, Epilobium ob&curum, Sedum anglicum, Viburnum 
Opidus, Asperida odorata, Hicracium anglicum, H. murorum, 
Triglochin mo.jntimum, Juncus Gcrardi, Allium ursinum, 
etc., were noted. I next walked from Strome to Loch 
Alsh, and then ferried over Loch Duich, walking by the 
southern side of that lovely loch to Shiel House, and then 
on the same day ascended Sgurr Fhuaran, 3505 feet; from 
the summit a most gorgeous view was obtained, the rays of 
the setting sun lighting up a great expanse of eastern 
Scotland, while the knife-edge ridges of the hills about Loch 
Houm were singularly magnificent. To the west, the peaks 
of Skye were almost obliterated by the richly coloured 
clouds. The day, of which the latter part had been fine, 
yielded a considerable number of plants including Petasites 
vidgaris, Comarum palustrc, Carex curta, BoirycMum Lun- 
aria, etc., Sgurr Fhuaran was rather barren, but I had but 
little time to explore it. Chiapho.lium supinum, Hieracium 
chrysantlcum, Juncus trifidus, Oxyria, Ca.rcx rigida, C. palle- 
scens, Cryptogramme crispa, etc., were gathered on it. The 
next day opened badly, with a drizzling rain, which in- 
creased as the day went on to a steady downpour (if the 
word steady can be properly applied to a rain which, never 
ceasing, came in violent gusts again and again), but I 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 117 

struggled through it from Shiel House to Kintail and then 
ascended A Glas-bheine, and afterwards visited the cele- 
brated Falls of Glomak, retracing my way back to Kintail 
and continuing by the northern side of Loch Duich to 
Dornie, where I meant to have slept, but where I found the 
accommodation so limited that it only extended to a single 
bed, half of which was bespoke by an itinerant pedlar, so 
that I had to trudge my weary way on to Strome — making 
a journey of nearly forty miles. My gathering included 
Mimulus guttatus, which was quite naturalized in Kintail. 
A Glas-bheine afforded a large flowered variety of Piiigui- 
cula vulgaris, Saxifraga oppositifolia, 8. hypnoides, Silene 
acaulis, Cerastiwm trivialc, var. alpimcm, Koch., Saussurca, 
etc. On the rocks about the falls of Glomak Gcrmimm 
sylvaticum and BJiodiola occurred. The north sides of 
Loch Duich afforded Hicracium crocatitm, H. Pilosclla, 
(Enanthe crocata, SjMrganium minimum, Scirpus lacustris, S. 
maritimus, Chenopodium Bonus-henricus, Aira caryophyllea, 
etc. 

The result of my visit was that I found on this journey 
23 species already on record (of which 16 were without 
personal authority), in Topographical Botany, 314 Phaner- 
ogams, and 28 Cryptogams, which were new county 
records. In addition to these, 16 varieties and 14 more 
or less naturalized plants were noticed. Among the 
latter were Barharea vulgaris, Acer Pseudoplatanus, Ulex 
europmus, Bosa ruhiginosa, Doronicum Pardalianches, 
Ligustrum vulgare, Ulmus campestris, Fagus sylvatica, 
Popidus nigra, Salix ridjva, Avcna fatua, Lolium italicum, 
and Bihcs Grossidaria. Of the 314 Phanerogams, Juncus 
comprcssus, Sagina maritima, Festuca arcnaria, Osb., and 
Mdanipyrum sylvaticum require verification. The speci- 
mens, so named by a well-known botanist, were not in 
good condition, so that in two or three cases the identity 
may not be accurate. Deducting these four from the list, 
we find that 338 species were added as native plants, and 
14 as more or less naturalised plants to the county; while 
23 species, on somewhat doubtful or old authority, were 
verified — a total of 365 species. 

The second edition of " Topographical Botany " added 
nothing to the published knowledge of West Ptoss plants 



lis TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii 

except VihuTimni Opulus, which was noticed by me in 
1879, but accidentally omitted from my list. In the 
Eeport of the Eecord Club for 1881-82, my record 
of Veronica humifusa is included. In the 1883 report, 
Mr. C. Bailey records as additional species Thalidriini 
maritimuTii (T. (Umense), Anthyllis Vulneraria, Myosotis 
rcpcns, Hahenaria conopsea, Chara fragilis, and the variety 
gracilis of Euphrasis officinalis. I added Carex vaginatct 
from the Slioch. In the 1885 report, the Kev. E. F. 
Linton adds Sherardia arvensis, Trifoliuin luJbridMm, Geum 
intermedium, Rosa darnalis, Lastrea Filix-mas, var. Borreri, 
with some few plants already on record. The Eev. W. E. 
Linton records Melica nutans and Eosa mollis, var. glahrata. 
Mr, C. Bailey records Rosa marginata, which must be a 
glandular variety of E. eanina or E. coriifolia, or a hybrid 
of these species, with E. tomentosa or mollis, and not the 
true E. marginata, which is a hybrid, having the con- 
tinental E. gallica for one of its parents. 

In 1886, Mr. Arthur Bennett records the occurrence of. 
Carex laevigata, Thymus Serpylhim, var. prostata, and 
Equisetum sylvaticum in " The Scotch Naturalist " as having 
been found by j\Ir. Grieve, but the latter was already on 
record. In the same year — 1886 — some members of the 
Summer Camp visited Applecross ; the results of the 
investigations were published by Mr. John Allan in the 
Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, pp. 
117-120. In their explorations about Applecross and 
Loch Torridon, 286 species of plants were noticed, of 
which 50 were claimed as additions, but of these 23 
had already been noticed. The actual additions (if 
correctly named) are Leioigomim salinura, Vicia sepium, 
Ligusticuin, Daucus Carota, Gentiana camp>estris, Myosotis 
palustris {?), Salicornia, Elcocliaris palustris (gathered, but 
not recorded, by me in 1880), Asplenium marinum, 
Potajnogeton natans, Equisetum mao:imum, Chara aspera, 
Anagallis tenclla, Hahenaria viridis, H. chloroleuca, and 
Epilohium angustifolium. 

The following species require verification : — Viola eanina 
(this has been found in East Eoss), Potentilla argentea 
(a misnomer, or casual), Callitriche verna (the occurrence 
of the segregate is improbable — the aggregate species is 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 119 

already on record), Scabiosa Columharia (a misnomer or 
casual), Artemisia Absinthium (a misnomer or an escape 
from cultivation), Arctium majus (my Loch Torridon plant 
has been pronounced to be A. intermedium), Syrivphytv.ni 
officiiude (I have seen the prickly comfrey as an escape, 
but not the true S. officvaale in West Eoss), Veronica alpina 
(very doubtful ; if correct, an interesting record), Rumcx 
maritimus (a sea-side Faimco:, not the true plant), Scdix 
'pliylicifolia (likely to occur, but I have not seen it in the 
county ; forms of aS'. cinerea are often mistaken for it), 
Junipcrus communis (J. nanus is common, also an inter- 
mediate plant). The above records, I am afraid, show that 
implicit reliance cannot be placed on the naming of the 
plants in the foregoing list. Two plants, however, that 
are mentioned in the text are additions — Mclarapyi^m 
pratensc (probably the J/, sylvo.ticurn of my 1880 list was 
the yellow-flowered form of this species) and Scolo- 
pendrium. 

In 1886, " Gairloch," by J. H. Dixon, was published. 
This excellent account of the Parish of Gairloch contains 
a list of 368 plants, compiled by the author with the 
assistance of Lady Mackenzie, Mrs. Fowler, Mr, 0. 
Mackenzie, Mr. A. Davidson, etc. This list probably 
precedes the records just referred to in the Applecross 
list. The Gairloch list, which includes many plants not 
previously recorded, however, contains so many errors 
that in a scientific point of view it will be safer to ignore 
it, at any rate it will be necessary to verify the occurrence 
of each plant recorded. Some of them are probable 
enough, others are wildly improbable, if referring to 
native species. Ranunculus aquatilis, R. hederaceus, and R. 
bulbosi's (the latter a very rare plant in the north-west of 
Scotland — Davidson says it is common in Eoss), Fapaver 
Rhceas, Cahile (very likely to occur), Coronopus didyrna, 
(very improbable), Arabia hirsuta, Cochlearia anglica and 
danica, Sisijmbrium Tkcdianum, Sagina subidata, Hypericum 
pcrforcdum. Geranium, sanguineum, G. lucidum, Malva 
moschata, M. sylvestris (not native), Erodium ciciUarium 
(since verified by me), Prunus Cerasus (not native), 
Potentilla reytans (probably only a form of P. Tormentilla), 
Riihus saxatilis (since found by me), Pyrus Aria (if 



120 TEAXSACTIOXS AXD PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Se-ss. Lvni. 

correctly named probably only planted — Davidson says 

a tree grows in Strathcarron), Upilobium. angustifolium, 

E. alsincefolium, Sedn/m rejleom.m (I have seen this as a 

planted species), S. ylavxum (doubtful in name), Chryso- 

splenium alternifolium (doubtful, (yppositifoliiirii is not rare), 

Anthriscus sylvestris (since found by me), Scandix Pecten- 

vetieris (also verified), Myrrhis odorata, Daucus maritimus 

(a form of I). Carota), Ligusticum (verified), Meum 

Atlmmanticum, Crithmum, ^gopodium (found by me), 

Qalium verum (verified), G. uligiyiosum, Valeruj.na dioica 

^ost improbable), as are Scaliosa Columbaria, and 

Matricaria Chamomilki, Antkemis maritima (a misnomer), 

Canijximda rapunculoides (? planted), C. hederacea. (it occurs 

in Argyll), Scrophularia aquatica (a misnomer most likely 

for S. nodosa), Mimidus luteus (an escape, a variety is 

already on record), Mentha sylvestris and M. piperita (most 

improbable as native plants), M. sativa (verified by me), 

Nepeta Cata/ria (most improbable), La/niiuni alhuni (very 

unlikely, perhaps a white-flowered form of purpurev.ra or 

inter medAurn), Ajaga pyraraidalis, possible, as is Litho- 

spermuni maritiniurn, Myosotis collrna, verified by me, as 

also Utricularia minor; Trientalis curopoea (a plant likely 

to be found), Plantago Coro'nxypus (also probable), Cheno- 

podiurn urMcurn and C. murale (certainly erroneous), 

Salicornia (confirmed by me), Polygonum viviparum (seen 

by me in another district), P. rnaritirauin (impossible), 

Mercurialis 2Jcre7i7iis (seen by me), Salix pentandra and 

S. reticidata (both rather doubtful), S. alba (planted), S. 

nigricans and ;S'. angnstifolia. (the names are very douVttful), 

Habenaria. albida and H. chlora/ntlut (both verified by me), 

Epipactis ensifoWx (this means Cephalanthera ensifolia, which 

has been found in north-west Scotland), lAstera. ovata (found 

by me). Allium oleraceurn, Oi^Moglossum mdgatum, Potarao- 

geton lucens, Asplenium marinum, A. septentrional e, and 

Scolopen driuni. 

In the year 1887 I acrain visited the county for a few 
days, until the wet weather and the midges drove me 
away from Kinlochewe. Glen Torridon, Ben Eay, and 
the Slioch were explored, and yielded the following plants: 
— Lepiclium Jieterophyllum, var. canescens, Erophila vrdgaris, 
Arahis petrcsa, Viola, tricolor, V. arvensis, Lychnis Githago 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 121 

Trifolium minus (a plant of cultivation), Prumis Padus, 
Rosa tomcntosa, var. sijlvestris, Scdum acre, Hieradum 
tcnellum (Backh.), H. nigresccns, Arctium intermedium, 
Ccntcmrea Cyanvs, Aster Tripolium, Arctostaphylos alpina 
(confirmatory), La?nium intermedium, Myosotis collina. Poly- 
gonum Convolvulus, £upJiorhia Helioscopia, E. Peplus, Salix 
rcpens, Sparganium ajfflne, Scirpus setaceus, Agrostis canina, 
Festuca sciuroidcs, Polystichum Lonchitis, Vicia sativa 
(introduced), Circcea alpina (confirmatory), Eieracium 
lioloscriccum, H. lingulatum, Scdix rugosa, S. herhacea (con- 
firmatory), Carex xanthocarpa, and List era cordata (con- 
firmatory), as well as some varieties. 

Mr. C. Bailey adds Cerastium tetrandrum from Gair- 
loch. 

In 1889 I again visited Kinlochewe in order to clear 
up a difficulty respecting a form of Agrostis canina, 
gathered the previous year on Ben Eay, which in some 
respects approached A. rubra, Wahl. A large series of 
specimens collected this year from the same mountain, 
and also from the Slioch, were sent to Professor Hackel, 
who named them Agrostis canina, var. scotica (see " Scotch 
Naturalist," 1889-90, p. 239). The following additional 
plants were also observed : — Eitbus saxatilis (in Dixon's 
list), Viola sabulosa, Prunns avium (? planted), Hieracium 
globosum {?), H. melanocephalum (?), R. eximium (?), Cam- 
2Jamda rotundifolia, Pyrola media, Myosotis repens, Mcrcuri- 
alis perennis, Carex panicidata, Scirpus maritimns, var. 
conglobatus, and a large number of varieties. 

A hawkweed, gathered by me at Kinlochewe in 1889, 
proved to be H. 2^raelongum, an interesting addition. In 
the same year I verified the occurrence of Arenaria 
sedoides. Mr. Sewell adds Ca^rx ^ndla. 

In the "Scotch Xaturalist," 1891, p. 186, Mr. Arthur 
Bennett cites the Jour. Bot., 1890, p. 40, for six additions 
to the flora, but four of the plants are already on record, 
and the other two — Drosera intermedia and JElymus 
arenarius — had not been observed by me. Cladium 
Marisctis {C. jamaicense) is given on the authority of Mr. 
A. Evans. In the same Journal for 1892, p. 125, eleven 
species are given on the authority of Mr. P. Ewing. Of 
these Stachys arvensis, Plantago Coronopus, Urtica urens, 



122 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

Garex filiformis, Q.n(k Isoetes echinospora are additions to the 
flora. 

The year 1893 once again saw me in West Eoss, but 
this time I chose fresh ground. My route was by the 
road from Garve to Ullapool by the Dirie More and Brae- 
more. As this was done through streaming rain, but few 
plants were added to the list. On the following day, 
which was beautifully fine, I retraced my steps to Brae- 
more, with its magnificent gorge and falls, and explored 
the sides of Loch Broom. Elymus arenarms occurred 
sparingly on the shingle, the true Solidago Virgaurea, 
var. angustifolia, Bromus ramosus, Rubus mucronatus, B. 
fissus, B. Badula, B. incurvatus, etc., were gathered. The 
beach at Ullapool afforded a plant which I had long been 
looking for — the glabrous-fruited form of Sisymhrium 
officiiiarum, Crantz. Here it was the prevailing form, but 
at Jeantown the typical form alone occurred. Ranuncidus 
vulgaris grew in the shingle with Cochlearia grcenlandica^ 
Gcdiuin verum, Buda media, and Fumaria Boraei. The 
cultivated fields contained two varieties of Veronica 
agrestis, Fumaria officinalis, the yellow-flowered form of 
Baphanus Bajjhanistrum, and great abundance of Spergida 
sativa (the only form noticed) ; it was so abundant as to 
give a heavy valerianaceous odour to the air. At the head 
of Loch Broom Hieracium sparsifolium grew by the river, 
and at Ullapool Hieracium retictdatum, H. auratum, and 
H. ruMcundum occurred. Near Ullapool, on the road to 
Loch Achall, some limestone rocks are exposed. These 
yielded some interesting plants, such as Halenaria viridis. 
Orchis mascula, Anthyllis Vidneraria, Melica nutans, Pyrola 
secunda, Gentiana Amarella, Avena pubescens, var. Listera 
ovata and cordata, and Hahenaria alhida. Most of these 
grew on the steep banks of the river, which for a short 
way cuts its course through the limestone. Hieracium 
iricum was conspicuous, as it was on the limestone of 
Kishorn. In Loch Achall we found Lobelia JDortmanna, 
Callitriche hamidata, Chara fragilis, etc. 

One day we sailed by the Summer Islands to a little 
stretch of sandy beach near Polglass, where we found 
Garex arenaria, Ligusticum scoticum, Agropyron junceum, 
and Daucus Garota. A visit was paid to Dundonnell at 



Feb. 1894.] BOTA^■ICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 123 

the head of Little Loch Broom. We ferried over Loch 
Broom and climbed the moorland road by Loch na h' 
Airbhe, in which grew Ranuncuhis 'petiolaris, Carex 
rostrata, etc. About Dundonnell we gathered Viola 
tricolor and Raphamis in the corn fields, and Halenaria 
chloroleuca in the grass fields near the shooting lodge. 
We then ascended the Glas Mheall Mor and the shoulder 
of An Teallach, but the rain and mist prevented the climb 
from being successful, if, indeed, there had been time to do 
much botanising. ^ye gathered Hieraciuni lingulatum, 
Ej)iloliium aljnnum, Vacciniuni ulginosum, Salic herbacca, 
Rubus Chamcemoriis, Arctostaphylos alpina, etc., on the 
mountain, which we climbed to something over 3000 feet, 
when the mist and rain hindered further work. On our 
way back we found, near Dundonnell, Riihus pyramidalis 
and E. Jissns. By the time we reached Loch Broom the 
rain had cleared off, so that the passage across the lake 
was one of rare beauty, the sea being without a ripple, 
refiecting all the colours of a magnificent sunset. Before 
we left L'llapool we found (Enanthc crocata, Coronopus 
procumhens, Buda marina, ^'Egopodium Podxigraria, etc. 

My next stopping place was Strathcarron, at the head 
of the loch of that name. Here we found Ruppia, Scirpus 
rufus, Salicornia, Arenaria peploides, Carex extensa, C. 
chry sites. The corn fields afforded Bromus secalinus, Viola 
segetalis, and Buda rubra. On the shingly margin of 
the river, Galium verum, Silene marithna, Lepidium hetero- 
phyllum, var. canescens, Anthyllis V^dneraria, Hieracium 
auratum, and H. duriceps. Rumex domesticus, and conspcrsus 
were gathered near the station. A grass field contained 
several plants of Galiuni erectum. On the shingle near 
Jeantown we found Caucalis Anthriscus, Malva sylvcstris, 
Volndus sepium, Arctium intermedium and several garden 
stragglers, if indeed the Malva and Volvulus do not belong 
to that class. 

In a picturesque ravine near Jeantown we saw Osmunda, 
Festuca sylvatica. Allium, ursinum, Bromus ramosus, Brachy- 
podium gracile, Agropyron caninum, Potcntilla Fraga.ria- 
strum, Aspleiiiiim viride, Rolystichum aculeatum, Hicraxiv.rn 
anglicum, etc. An extremely hot day was occupied in 
ascending a mountain nortli of the Strath, but we found it 



124 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lvni. 

very bare and the plants much dried up. On the rocks at 
about a 1000 feet Juncus trijidus occurred, with a large 
form of Salix herbacea. We also gathered Hieracium 
lingulatum, and on the higher shoulder Ardostaphylos 
alpina and Loiseleuria ])rocuriibcns dried up by the hot sun. 
The base of the mountain yielded a very small form of 
Chara fragilis, Scirims fiuita/ns, and Arenaria serpyllifolia, 
the two former growing in a pool, the latter by the road- 
side. Another visit to Jeantown afforded Stachys amhigua 
growing with its assumed parents S. palustris and >S^. 
syhatica. This locality is given for it in Hooker's Flora 
Scotica, jEthusa Cynapium grew in cultivated ground. 
Another day we went from Carron by Jeantown to Kis- 
horn during a violent storm of thunder and rain, which 
accompanied us over the celebrated^Beallach na bo Pass to 
Applecross. The beach at Applecross with its curious 
limestone pavement gave Sagina nodosa, and Epilolium 
pai'viflomm, which grew in the fissures in the rock. BvMis 
corylifolius was not uncommon on clay. A small fresh 
water loch near the sea, called Loch a Mhuilinn, had 
Nymplioea alba, Utricularia negleda and minor, Potamo- 
geton nataTis, Scirpus lacustris, Carex rostrata, Veronica 
scuteUata, Cluira fragilis, and Suhularia aquatica. In the 
woods grew Equisetum maximum and Hieracium corym- 
ho3um {H. Eupatorium). By the shingle, Atriplex BaMng- 
tonii, var. vircscens was common, Agropyron jv/nceum, Seduvi 
axre, native, Erodium cicutarium, Geranium dissectum, white- 
fruited Buhus idaeus, Erophila vulga.ris, Cerastium tetrandiom, 
etc. A handsome subcristate rose was common, it does not 
answer to any of our varieties, M. Crepin considers it to be 
a glandular variety of B. glauca. Bosa coriifolia, in varied 
fonns also occurred. 

The return journey over the Beallach na bo Pass yielded 
Juncus trifidus, J. triglumis, Saoiifraga hypnoides, Saussurea, 
Epilolium alpinum, Cryptogra/nime crispa, Hieracium mv/ro- 
rura, var. ciliatum, Bhodiola, G^nap)lwlium supinum, Silene 
acaulis, Thalictrum alpinum, Luzula spicata, etc. In a pool 
at the top of the pass (2050 feet) Suhidaria, Isoetes lacustris, 
var. falcoM and Callitriche hunndaM occurred. By Loch 
Ki shorn we gathered Scirpus maritimus, and about Elishom 
on the limestone, Hieracium iricum, Hahenaria coiwpsea, 



Feb. 189-t.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 125 

Scolopendruim, Veronica anagallis, var. anagalliformis, Salix 
repens, and S. amhigiia, Fcduca elatior, etc. 

My visit to AVest Eoss in 1893 was a very pleasant 
one, seven out of the ten days I spent there being fine ; 
the preceding drought had, however, been prejudicial to 
vegetation, the sedges especially being in bad condition. My 
marked catalogue shows that I noted nearly 480 species, of 
which about 75 were additions to the flora, and 15 more 
were species more or less naturalised, which had not been 
previously noted, and 3 more without personal authority in 
" Topographical Botany," were now verified. A large num- 
ber of varieties were also observed. The total number of 
plants on record for the county is now over 570. The 
following is a complete list of the county plants so far 
as are at present known to me. In naming the critical 
forms I have had the kind help of Professor Hackel, M. 
Crepiu, Eev, W. Moyle Eogers, Eev. E. Marshall, Messrs. 
F. J. Hanbury, H. and J. Groves, and my kind friend 
Arthur Bennett, who has in many ways rendered assist- 
ance, and especially in looking over my rough notes 
and generously adding some of his own. I must also 
thank Mr, Mackenzie, of the Caledonian Hotel at Ulla- 
pool, for much kind attention during my agreeable sojourn 
at his house. 

In 1894 I paid a fiying visit to Ullapool towards the 
end of June, but the season was rather backwards, the 
Ruhi, Bosce, and Hieracia, with few exceptions, not being 
sufficiently advanced to determine, while the spell of 
unusually hot weather which set in did not make walking 
more enjoyable. My object was to visit the limestone 
rock, called by Lightfoot " Creg ach no caen, upon the 
boundaries of Coygach and Assynt, just on the confines 
of Eoss-shire and Sutherland, about ten miles from Loch 
Broom, on the road to Lead-beg." On the geological 
ordnance chart. No. 101, the limestone rocks are marked 
as thinning out before the Eoss boundary is touched on 
the hill, which is there called Cnoc an t-Sasunnaich 
(1258 feet high), and which has a fine range of cliffs 
exposed on the western side. The high road to Inchna- 
damph runs at their base at an elevation of between 700 
and 800 feet above sea-level. On the Sutherland portion 



126 TEANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. ltoi. 

the limestone occurs even as low as 400 feet, and the 
fields in the village of Elphin were blue with Folygala 
vulgaris, or showed the feathery fruits of Dryas, while the 
profusion of Trollius and Orchis latifolia, the latter in 
superb colour, must be seen to be appreciated. From the 
summit of the hill a magnificent view is to be obtained of 
the grand Ben More of Coigach, of Canisp, An Stac, Suilven, 
and Ben More of Assynt. A close examination led me to 
believe that the limestone rocks, which rise at a gentle 
angle from north to south, must extend into Eoss, since 
Dryas was found beyond the boundary, but at a much 
higher level (over 1000 feet) than in Sutherland, and at 
the top of the fucoid beds. With Dryas also occurred 
Draba incana, and a patch of the local Carex rupestris was 
also noticed. A solitary tuft of Adoxa, Moschatellviut was 
also observed. Epildbium angustifolium occurred as an 
undoubted native plant. Folygala vulgaris was very 
beautiful. Allium ursinum was seen in one place, but not 
observed in Sutherland, while Silene acaulis, which occurred 
nearly down to the road level in Sutherland, was not noted 
in Eoss. Thalictrurii alinnum, Polygonum viviparum, Poly- 
stichum Lonchitis, Asplenium viride were rather common. 
Phegopteris 'polypodioides and P. Dryopteris also occurred, 
but the latter was not quite typical, reverting in leaf 
cutting somewhat to P. Rohertiana. Alchemilla vulgaris 
occurred both as the glabrous and as the pubescent plant. 
PmIus saxatilis in flower (with a hawthorn like odour). 
Luzula maxima and Carex pilidifcra, the latter as the 
acute glumed form, were gathered. A form of Poa suh- 
CKrulca also was noticed on the rocks, but no Geranium 
sylvaticum, Bhodiola, or Oxyria was observed. A form of 
Poa. and a few other critical plants are still under 
observation. 

Another day was spent at Dundonnell endeavouring to 
refind Lightfoot's plants (it will be observed that all his 
records from the limestone rocks were verified), but with- 
out success. Considerable alteration has taken place at 
Dundonnell since the time of his visit, and the wood.s, I 
am told, have been much cleared. The visit, however, 
gave additional localities for Festuca sylvatica, Asperula 
odorata, Carex rernota, C. p)allescens, Allitim ursinum, and 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 127 

other interesting plants. The scenery towards the head 
of the glen is of a very interesting character. Near Dun- 
donnell, in a swampy, shady place, occurred a plant which, 
I have little doubt, is identical with Forster's Caltha 
radicans. It rooted freely from the nodes, and formed an 
interlacing mass. The flowers were decidedly smaller than 
in C. ixdustris, and the sepals narrower, and therefore not 
contiguous. The shape of the radical leaves varied. Some- 
times they were almost as deltoid as the one figured in 
" English Botany ; " at others, they were scarcely different 
from the type. The serration also varied very considerably. 
The leaves on the stem above the first rooting point were 
almost invariably of a bluntly, triangular form. It would 
be interesting to learn if Don's plant had the actual root 
leaves as well as the leaves of the stem at its first rooting 
point of this deltoid shape. I may say that the plant 
occurred in several places, and was uniformly rooting in 
its habit. All the flowers which I observed had narrower 
and rather smaller sepals. The creeping stems were very 
brittle, and it was not quite easy for that reason to get 
perfect specimens. 

A day spent on An Teallach was toilsome, and not pro- 
ductive, the season being backward and the ground barren. 
Zycopodium annotinum was gathered, and Ardostaphylos 
alpina was rather frequent on the lower shoulders of the 
hill. Lycojjodium cdpinum, var. decijJiens, Juncus trifidus, 
Carex rigida, Armeria, Bhodiola, Luzula spicata, Loisc- 
leitria, Cornus suecica, Ruhus Chaincemorus, and Vacciniuin 
uliginosum (the latter in flower) were noticed. 

A day was spent in walking to Ehidorroch by Loch 
Achall, but the only addition made to the flora was 
Sagina suhidata, which occurred in the path near the 
shooting lodge. Hnhernaria albida, IT. viridis, H. conopsea, 
H. Mfolia, Orchis incarnata, Listera cordata, Melica nutans, 
and Carex pallescens were seen. 

Another day or two was spent at Strome, where, 
between the station and Plockton, Corydalis daviculata, 
Ruhus rhammfolius, Myosotis rcpens, Hypericum Androsm- 
■mum, and Oxyria were noted, but the intense heat made 
botanising a toil. The results of this visit were rather 
meagre, five additional species and five confirmatory records 



128 TRAXSACTIOXS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

only being made ; but the few Hieracia gathered, now in 
Mr. Hanbury's hands, will, it is hoped, yield another 
record. 

The sign (*) means that the Author, it is believed, is the first 
recorder of the plant for the county ; the sign (:) means that the 
plant is not a native. 

Thalictrum alpixu:m, L. — On the mountains near 
Strathcarron ; plentiful on ]Meall Gorm and Sgurr na 
Caorach ; in a barren state on Sgurr Fhuaran ; probably 
not a rare plant on the higher hills. It also comes down 
to 900 feet on the fucoid rocks of Cnochan. 

T. DUNEXSE, Dumort. — On the sand at Gairloch (Mr. C. 
Bailey), 1883. 

*AxEMOXE Xemorosa, L. — In many wooded situations, 
as on Loch Maree side, Dundonnell, etc. 

(? PiAXUXCULUS HEDERACEUS, L. — Gairloch, in Dixon's 
list, requires verification ; it is likely to occur as it is 
reported from Skye. E. aquatilis is also given in the 
same list.) 

(E. Lingua, L. — " Kintail and Gairloch not uncommon " 
(Davidson). I have not seen it. "Was the large form of 
Pk,. Flamraula mistaken for it ?) 

* R. Flammula, L. — Common ; it is a variable plant. 
The variety pseudoreptans is frequent on the gravelly 
margin of lochs, etc. 

* Pi. PETIOLAPJAS, Marshall. — This occurs in Loch 
Achall at 265 feet, in Loch na h' Airbhe at 700 feet, 
and in a small mountain loch on a mountain in Strath- 
carron at over 2000 feet. In the latter situation it 
appeared to grade into the type. I should be content 
to give it varietal rank, notwithstanding its Littorella-hke 
radical leaves. It is probably widely distributed. 

* Pu ACRIS, L., var. VULGATUS, Jord. — A common plant, 
widely distributed; from the sea-level to 4000 feet. A 
very hairy form occurred on the beach at L'llapool, but 
this and other forms I defer naming tiU I have had the 
opinion of Herr Freyn. E. acris, L. (E. Boraa/ius, Jord.), 
near Braemore. 

* It. REPENS, L. — Xot uncommon on low ground. A 
curious form occurred on the shingly margin of the river 



Feb. 1894,] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 129 

Carrou ; it has the leaves much more finely cut, and the 
plant unusually small. 

(?I1. BULBOSUS, L. — Only in Dixon's list of Gairloch 
plants ; possibly an error, although Davidson says it is 
common in Eoss.) 

* E. FiCARiA, L. — Attadale ; rare, or my visits made too 
late in the season to observe it. Seen at Dundonnell in 
1894. 

* Caltha palustris, L. — Common ; but the var. minor 
appears much less frequent in Eoss than on the Cairn- 
gorms or Breadalbane hills. I saw it on An Teallach at 
about 2000 feet. 

* C. EADICANS, Forster. — In shady, marshy situations at 
the head of Little Loch Broom, near Dundonnell. 

Trollius EUROPiEUS, L. — Not unfrequent, and widely 
distributed. I saw some plants at an elevation of upwards 
of 2000 feet in Strathcarron. West Eoss not localised 
(Davidson). 

: Berberis vulgaris, L. — Occurs as a planted shrub at 
Ullapool and Braemore, and, according to Mr. Dixon, at 
Gairloch. 

* Nymph.ea alba, L. — In Loch Coulin and Loch a 
Mhuilinn. 

: Papaver somniferum, L. — On the shingle at Jeantown 
and Applecross ; probably a garden escape. 

(? P. EholAS, L. — In Dixon's list, which also gives P. 
duhium. The latter has a more northern range than this 
species, which has not been observed by me in West Eoss.) 

* P. dubium, L. — Eare, and only of casual occurrence, as 
at Kinlochewe, Dornie, and Gairloch — in the latter place 
on the authority of Mr. Dixon. In 1893-94 I did not 
see a single poppy in the county. The Kinlochewe plant 
was the var. P. Lamottei. 

■^'^ P. Argemone, L. — Like the foregoing, scarcely natural- 
ised. I saw it by the rail side near Strome in 1880. 

CoRYDALis CLAVicuLATA, DC. — Eare. Kintail, and be- 
tween Strome Ferry and Plockton. It is given in the 
Gairloch list, probably on the authority of Mr. Davidson, 
who records it in " Scotch Naturalist," vol. ii., from Melvaig, 
near Gairloch. 

* FuMARiA BoR^i, Jord. — On shingle at Ullapool, where 

TRAXS. BOX. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XX. I 



130 TEAXSACnONS AND PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

it also grew in potato fields. Mr. Dixon includes F. capreo- 
lato. in the Gairloch list, which probably means this. 

*F. OFFICINALIS, E. — Eare, in cultivated fields at Ulla- 
pool and Dundonnell. 

* Xastuetium officinale, Br. {Rryripa Nasturtium, Beck). 
— Xear Ullapool and Applecross : probably overlooked. 

* Baebaeea YULGAEis, Br. — Piare, and probably not 
native. In the Gairloch list I savr it at Strome. 

* Aeabis pete.^:a, Lamk. — On the quartzite slopes of 
Ben Eay, at an elevation of 2000 to 2800 feet, only as 
the glabrous plant ; it has flowers rather larger than the 
plant from the Cairngorms, but not so large as those of 
the var. grandifolio. from Ben Laiogh, in Argj'll. Davidson 
records it from Gairloch, but it is not usually a plant of 
the lowlands. Is !Mr. Da^adson's record correct ? 

(?A. HIESUTA, Br. — Given in Mr. Dixon's list. It 
probably occurs as it has been found in Skye and East Eoss.) 

* C'AEDA^yilNE PEATENSis, L. — Common ; usually as the 
plant with lilac flowers and pedicelled leaflets ; figured in 
" English Botany," 776, which appears, according to Kerner, 
to be the C. palustris, Petermann. At Applecross I saw 
the true C. pratensis — the plant with white flowers and 
sessile leaflets which is figured in "Flora Danica," No. 
1039 (1790). 

* C. HIESUTA, L — Not rare. At Loch Carron, Ullapool, 
and Applecross. 

* C. FLEXUOSA, With. — Not uncommon, as at Jeantown, 
Kintail, Strome, UEapool, and at Applecross: also as the 
var. umhrosa, Gren. et Godr,, by a waterfall at Jeantown. 

Deaba incana, L. — On Creg ach no caen, near Ledbeg 
(Lightfoot 1777). It occurs on the limestone rocks at 
that place in both counties, and near Gairloch. 

( ?-D. EUPESTEis, Br. — Ben Sleugach (Davidson). If 
correct, very interesting ; was it not a small form of D. 
inca.no. ?) 

* Eeophila YULGAEIS, DC. — In the Gairloch list. Seen 
by me at Kinlochewe, and by the roadside at Applecross ; 
it is most likely not uncommon. 

* Cochleaeia officinalis, L. — Common on the coasts, 
and as the var. alpiiia, Wats., on some of the hills, as on 
An Teallach, and on A Glas-bheine, in KintaiL 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 131 

* C. GRCENLANDICA, L. — On the coast at Ullapool, very 
fine specimens. 

(C. DANICA, L., and C. axglica, L., are both given in 
Dixon's list.) 

: HESPEPas MATRONALis, L. — Naturalised about the ruins 
of a kirk near Jeantowu. 

Sisymbrium Thaliaxum, Gay. — Given in Dixon's list, 
and likely correctly ; my visits have been made rather late 
in the season. 

* S. OFFiciNARUM, Crantz. — On the shingle and in 
cultivated ground at Jeantown, as the type plant with 
pubescent siliquas. At Ullapool the form with glabrous 
siliquas alone occurred, it is the var. leiocarpum, DC, 
which I had long sought for in Britain, and which I had 
once seen at jMeran, in Austria. 

SuBULARiA AQUATICA, L. — In a small loch near the 
summit level of the Beallach na bo Pass, at a little over 
2000 feet, and in Loch a Mhuilinn, near the sea-level, 
caulescent and acaulescent forms occurred. 

: Brassica Xapus, L. — As a weed of cultivation on the 
shingle at Jeantown. 

*B. SINAPISTRUM, Boiss. — Kinlochewe, Strome, etc. 
(Colonist). 

* B, ALBA, Boiss. — Loch Alsh, Ullapool, and Applecross 
(Colonist). 

* Bursa pastoris, Wib. — Common about Ullapool, etc. 

* CoRONOPUS PROCUMBENS, Gilib. — On the grassy margin 
of Loch Broom at Ullapool. 

( ? C. DIDY'MA, Sm. — In Dixon's Gairloch list, almost 
certainly incorrect.) 

Lepidium heterophyllum, Benth., var. canesgens, Gren. 
et Godr. — On the shores of Loch Torridon, near Loch 
Maree, and on the stony border of the river Carron. The 
older name appears to be L. heterophyllum, var. campestre, 
r. Schultz, in Fl. Gall, et Germ., Exs. 3 et 4, Introd. p. 3, 
1840. It is the L. Smithii, Hook. Davidson records it 
from Gairloch. 

Cakile maritima,L.— Gairloch (Dixon). Likely to be found. 

*Eaphanus PtAPHANiSTRUM, L. — Abundant among the 
oat crops at Dundonnell and Applecross and Ullapool, 
always as the yellow flowered form. 



132 TKANSAOTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sbss. lviii. 

* Viola palustris, L. — Common. 

(V. canina, L. — Given in the Applecross list, but 
requires verification.) 

* V, Eiviniana, Eeich. — Common. I suspect it is the 
" V. canina, L.," of the Applecross and Gairloch lists. 

* V. tricolor, L. — In a field near Loch Torridon, and 
in oat fields at Dundonnell. Dixon has it in his list. 

* V. ARYENSis, Murray. — Xear Torridon and Ullapool, 
and a form identical with V. segetalis, Jord., at Strathcarron. 

* V. LUTEA, Huds. — Near Braemore. 

* V. SABULOSA, Jord. — Loch Torridon side, Strathcarron, 
Applecross, etc. A plant very near to, if not identical 
with, V. Curtisii, Forst. 

* POLYGALA VULGARIS, L. — Not common, Sgurr Fhuaran, 
Sgurr na Caorach, and in beautiful condition on the 
Cnochan rocks. 

* P. SERPYLLACEA, Weihe. — Common and widely distri- 
buted. 

* SiLENE CucuBALUS, Wibel. — Piare, and perhaps only of 
casual origin. I saw it at Strome in 1880. 

* S. MARITIMA, With. — Piather common, not only on the 
coast, but also on the shingly margin of Loch Maree, and 
the Eiver Carron, etc. 

S. ACAULis, Jacq. (see " Topographical Botany "). — I have 
gathered it on Ben Eay, but it appears to be rather a 
scarce plant on the Boss mountains. 

* Lychnis dioica, L. — Locally common, abundant about 
Jeantown, and of very rich crimson colour. 

* L. alba. Mill. — Bare and only a colonist, if, indeed, it 
is more than a casual. I saw it at Dornie, at Ullapool, 
Jeantown, Strome Perry, etc. 

* L. Plos-cuculi, L. — Prequent. 

* L. GiTHAGO, Scop. — Little more than a casual. A 
solitary specimen in an oat field at Kinlochewe. Dixon 
includes it in his list, but does not consider it a native. 
Davidson says it is too common in Boss-shire. 

Cerastium tetrandrum. Curt. — Gairloch (Mr. C. Bailey), 
sparingly on the course sand at the head of Applecross 
Bay, 1893: Ullapool, 1894. 

* C. GLOMERATUM, Thuill. — Common, also as the var. 
apetalum, Dum. at Applecross, Braemore, and Dundonnell. 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 133 

* C. TKIVIALE, Link. — Common and widely distributed. 
The var. alpimiin, Koch., in its typical form on A Glas- 
bheine in Kintail, on An Teallach and on Meall Gorm of 
Applecross. Boswell Syme said the specimen from the 
former locality was the true plant, his var. alpcstre, Lind. 

*Stellaria media, Gyr. — Abundant. The var. major, 
Koch., at Linlochewe and Inverlael. 

* S. HOLOSTEA, L. — Local. Near Attadale, Jeantown, 
Kishorn, Ehidorroch, etc. 

* S. GRAMINEA, L. — Not rare. Keppoch, Braemore, 
Dundonnell, Kintail. 

* S. ULIGINOSA, Murr. — Common. 

* Arenaria sedoides, Schultz. — "Topographical Botany" 
without personal authority. Apparently scarce. I saw it 
on Slioch at 1800 feet, and also as the var. apetala. 

* A. sekpyllifolia, L. — Eare, but possibly native. By 
the railway at Strome, and dry roadside at Strathcarron, 
also near Applecross, 

* A. PEPLOIDES, L. — Locally abundant on the coast, as 
at Torridon, Ullapool, Jeantown, Applecross. At Ullapool 
the var. diffusa, Horn., occurred with the type. 

(Sagina maritima, Don. — A specimen which I gathered 
by Loch Duich was so named by a botanical referee. I 
have not been able to refind it in the county, but it is 
a plant which is likely to be found, as it occurs in East 
Eoss and Caithness.) 

* S. PROCUMBENS, L. — Not uncommon, and variable. 

* S. NODOSA, E. Mey. — Local. I have only seen it in 
the crevices of the limestone pavement at Applecross ; it 
was the glabrous plant. 

S. SUBULATA, Presl. — Given in Dixon's list. I found a 
solitary patch on the shingle path near Ehidorroch Lodge 
in 1894. 

* Spergula sativa, Boenngh. — Abundant in many corn 
fields, and about Ullapool, Dundonnell, Applecross, so 
profuse as to give a heavy-valerianaceous odour to the 
air, especially in the evening. S. sativa alone occurred ; 
although I examined many scores of specimens, I was 
unable to find one with papillate seeds. 

* BuDA rubra, Dum. (Arenaria rubra, L.) — Eare. A 
few plants at Strathcarron, and in dry fields at Kishorn. 



134 TEANSACTIO>'S AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. ltoi. 

*B. MEDIA, Dum. (Speegularia maegixata, Syme). — 
Eather common on the coast, as at Loch Carron, Apple- 
cross, Polglass, etc. 

* B. marina, Dum. (Speegulaeia neglecta, Sjme). — 
Eare. Moreiields, near Ullapool, and shores of Little Loch 
Broom. {Lepigonum salinum, Applecross, Mr. Allan.) 

*B. RUPESTEis (Speegulaeia eupesteis, Lebel.) — Loch 
Carron, 1880. I did not see it in 1893. Boswell Syme 
so named my specimen, and Mr. Arthur Bennett says he 
has a note, that he saw one from me. 

* MoxTiA FONTAXA, L. — Eather common. The var. major, 
Allione (M. rhularis, Gmel.), at Lochalsh, Braemore, and 
Applecross. 

Hypeeicum Andros.emum, L. — Eare. Loch Maree 

(Hooker), Kintail, Glenelg, Duncraig. 

(H. PERFORATUM, L. — In Dixon's list only.) 

: H. CALYCINUM, L. — Balmacarra (DaAadson). Planted, of 

course, but the recorder gives no particulars. 

* H. PULCHRUM, L. — Common. The var. procumhens, 
Eostrup, in Coigach. 

(: Mala'a moschata, L. — In Dixon's list ; he does not 
consider it native.) 

: M. STLYESTRis, L. — Dixon thinks this is not a native. 
It is plentiful on the shingle in Jeantown, but it is also 
cultivated there, so that it is very likely only a straggler 
from the gardens. 

: TiLiA PLATYPHYLLOS, Scop, — Planted at Braemore. 

: T. VULGARIS, Hayne. — Planted at Braemore, Kishorn, etc, 

(Eadiola Linoides, Eoth, {Millegrana minima). — In 
Dixon's list. It is given in " Topographical Botany " for 
105 Eoss West, "Eoss Cat.," probably by the authors 
confusing Boss's list of Mid Ebudes plants with mine from 
West Eoss. This opinion is confirmed by seeing on p. 598 
of that work that Mr. Eoss is credited with supplying the 
list of Mull and West Eoss plants in Eep. of Eec. Club, 
whereas he only compiled the list of Mull plants, in which 
he records Puidiola Millegrana. It is very likely to occur, 
as it is usually overlooked.) 

*LixuM CATHARTicuM, L. — Common. 

: L. usiTATissiMUM, L. — A casual on the beach at Jean- 
town. 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 135 

(? Geranium sanguineum, L. — In Mr. Dixon's list only.) 

* G. sylvaticum, L. — Eare. I have only seen it on the 
steep rocks about the falls of Glomak. 

* G. molle, L. — Not common. Strome, Applecross, 
Kinlochewe, Ullapool, Kishorn. 

* G. DISSECTUM, L. — Eare. Only seen at Applecross. 

(? G. LUCIDUM, L. — In Dixon's list. If correctly named, 
was it wild ?) 

* G. EoBERTiANUM, L. — Glen Docharty, Jeantown, Dun- 
donnell, etc. ; var. album, at Inverlael and Applecross. 

* OxALis AcETOSELLA, L. — Local ; on the base of Slioch^ 
at Strome, Kishorn, Dundonnell, etc. 

* Erodium cicutarium, L'Her. — In Dixon's list. I saw 
it on one station at Applecross in 1893. 

* Ilex Aquifolium, L. — Not uncommon, and native, as 
in Glen Docharty, on the sides of Slioch, in Coigach, Dun- 
donnell, etc. 

: Acer Pseudoplatanus, L. — Loch Duich, Loch Carron, 
etc. Planted, and in some cases self-sown plants. 

: Ulex europ^us, L. — Extensively planted as a cover 
for game, but not, I think, native. 

* Cytisus scoparius. Link. — Not very common, but 
possibly native. Strome, Ullapool, Kishorn. 

: Medic AGO lupulina, L, — A relic of cultivation, at Kin- 
lochewe. Dixon gives it in his list. 

* Trifolium puatense, L. — Common, and generally dis- 
tributed in the low lands. 

:T. HYBRIDUM, L. — As a relic of cultivation. Strome 
Ferry (E. F. Linton), field borders, Dnndonnell, Jeantown, 
etc. 

* T. repens, L. — Common, and generally distributed in 
the low lands. 

* T. procumbens, L. — Strome, Ullapool ; rare. 

*T. DUBIUM, Sibth. — Kinlochewe, Applecross, Strath- 
carron, etc. ; and, as the var. pi/g^naeum, Soy. -Will., at 
Ullapool. 

. Anthyllis Vulneraria, L. (Gairloch, C. Bailey). — 
Appears where the limestone rocks are exposed, as near 
Ullapool, Kishorn, and Cnochan. Also on river shingle, as 
at Kinlochewe and Carron. 

* Lotus corniculatus, L. — Common ; often as a larger 



136 TRAXSACnONS AST) PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lvhl 

flowered form than the mid-English plant, and sometimes, 
especially by the coast, as the var. crassifolius, Pers. 
Yar. vUlosus, Ullapool. 

*TiciA mssuTA, Koch. — Strome, Canon, Jeantown, 
Kishorn. 

^' Y. Cracca. L. — Common, especially as a com field 
plant. The var. incana, Thuill, at Ullapool, on the shingle. 

Y. sylyatica, L. — Uncommon. Keppoch. It was given 
in '• Topographical Botany " without personal authority. I 
did not see it at Ullapool, Applecross, or Strathcarron. 

Y. SEPioi, L, — Klnlochewe, Braemore, Applecross, etc. 
Xot uncommon, and in two forms. 

: Y. SATIYA, L. — Occurs as an outcast or straggler from 
cultivation, as at Kinlochewe. 

*Y. AXGUSTTFOLIA, L. — Eare. Ullapool and Strath- 
carrorL 

* Lathyrus pratexsis, L. — Xot uncommon ; usually as 
the glabrous plant. 

* L. MONTAifUS, Bemh. — Braemore, Dundonnell, Kishorn, 
etc.; also the var. tenvAfolius, at Braemore. 

* Prcxus spinosa, L. — On my first visit I thought this 
was planted in West Boss, but now I think it may be 
native in Strathcarron and at Applecross ; there were some 
old bushes by the river at Ullapool. 

:P. IN.STITIA, L. — Doubtfully wild at Applecross, etc. 

: P. D0ME5TICA, L. — Most likely the result of planting in 
Strathcarron, etc. 

(P. CEEA.SUS, L. — In Diion's list, probably an error, the 
next species may have been intended.) 

:P. AVIUM, L. — Glenelg, Strathcarron, Dundonnell, in 
what was an old hedgerow. A doubtful native. 

* P. Padus, L — Applecross, Kishorn, Inverlael, Kin- 
lochewe, etc. 

: Spxe-Ea salicifolia, L. — Inverlael Certainly planted. 

* S. Ulmaria, L — Xot uncommon. So far as I noticed 
always as the plant with the leaves white underneath, var. 
disc-olor, Kod. 

* PuBr.s iD^us, L — Xot common, but I think native. 
It grew by the side of Loch Coulin, at Braemore, and a 
Applecross, as the var. leucocarpiLS. It is possible that the 
latter plant may be the result of ancient cultivation. 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 137 

* K. NESSENSis, Hall. — Inverlael. 

* E. Fissus, Lindl. — Near Ullapool, in several stations. 

* E. PLICATUS, W. and N. — Near the shooting lodge at 
Dundonnell. 

* E. EHAMNiFOLius, W. and N. — Stroma Ferry. 

* E. INCURVATUS, Bab. — A plant from Ullapool and 
Inverlael, the Eev. Moyle Eogers puts under this name. 

* E. LEUCOSTACHYS, Sm. — Eare, Ullapool. 

*E. PYRAMIDALIS, Kalt. — Ulkpool, and in very fine 
condition at Dundonnell. 

* E. viLLiCAULis, Koel., var. Sclmcri (Lindeb.). — Strath- 
carron, Ullapool, Kinlochewe. 

* E. MACROPHYLLUS, W. and N. — Inverlael. 

* E. PULCHERRIMUS, Neum. — Jeantown. 

*E. MUCRONATUS, Blox. — Not rare. About the side of 
Loch Broom, Braemore, etc. 

*E. Eadula, W. and N. — Large, handsome plants at 
Ullapool. 

E. CORYLIFOLIUS, Sm. — Near Ullapool, and on limestone 
at Applecross and Kishorn. A small form. Davidson 
records it from Glen Shiel. 

* E. SAXATiLis, L. — In Dixon's list. I saw it on 
Slioch at about 2800 feet. It occurred on Meall Gorm 
of Applecross, on Cnochan rocks and An Teallach, and as 
the var. setodermis, Borb. (in Baenitz. Herb. Europ.), near 
the sea level at Jeantown. 

E. Cham^morus, L. ("Topographical Botany"). — I saw 
it on Slioch in 1889, and in fine fruit on An Teallach 
in 1893. 

Dryas octopetala, L. — " On a limestone rock called Greg 
ach no caen, upon the boundaries of Coygach and Assynt, 
just on the confines of Eoss-shire and Sutherland" (Dr. 
Lightfoot). I saw it on the Eoss-shire side of the boundary 
in 1894. 

* Geum urbanum, L. — Not uncommon, as at Loch Carron 
and Kinlochewe. 

G. INTERMEDIUM, Ehrh. — Stromc (Linton 1885), Jean- 
town. 

* G. RiVALE, L. — Eather common. Loch Long, Braemore, 
Dundonnell, Jeantown, in splendid flower at about 2000 
feet on a mountain in Strathcarron,and on the Cnochan rocks. 



138 TKANSACTIONS AXD PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. latji. 

* Fragaria vesca, L — Eather common. 

* POTENTILLA Fragaeiastrum, Ehrh. — Apparently rare. 
I saw it only by the waterfall at Jeantown, and at 
Applecross. 

* P. ToRMENTiLLA, Xeck. — Abundant and generally dis- 
tributed. 

( ? P. REPTANS, L. — In Dixon's list. A misnomer ? It 
is a rare plant in the north.) 

^ P. Anserina, L. — An abundant and luxuriant shore 
weed on the shingle, as at Jeantown, Applecross, etc. It 
usually occurred with the leaves green above, the var. 
sericea, Koch., with leaves silvery on both sides being rare; 
it was noticed at Ullapool. 

( ? P. ARGENTEA, L. — One of the plants recorded by the 
Summer Camp from Applecross. The true plant is most 
unlikely to be found native so far north; perhaps it was a 
slip of the pen for the preceding species, but it was given 
as a new record, while I recorded F. Anserina in 1880.) 

P. SiBBALDi, Hall. f. — "Topographical Botany." Ptare. 
Slioch, 

'"' Alchemilla arvensis. Scop. — Eather rare or over- 
looked. Dornie. 

* A. VULGARIS, L. — Eather common. Large plants of 
the var. glabra, W. et Gr., occurred in the shingly margin 
of the river Carron, but it varied into forms with more 
pubescent foliage. The glabrous form grew in the stony 
bed of the stream that descends from Ben Eay. On the 
hills a small pubescent form is common, especially between 
Kishorn and Applecross, but I should not call it A. 
montana, Willd. The two plants grew together, and 
kept fairly distinct on the Cnochan rocks. 

A. ALPINA, L. — See " Topographical Botany." Common. 
EosA spiNOSissiMA, L. — See " Topographical Botany." I 
have not seen it in Eoss. 

* E. INVOLUTA, Sm., Gairloch (Davidson), and as R. 
Sahini, Woods. — By the side of Loch Clare, and by Loch 
Maree. This, M. Crepin says, is a hybrid of the former 
with R. tomentosa. 

* E. MOLLIS, Sm. — Not unfrequent in the lower wooded 
straths, as at Loch Maree, Ullapool, Dundonnell, Apple- 
cross, Kishorn, Kintail, etc. The var. ccerulea, Bak., I 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 139 

have seen at Kinlochewe, etc. The var. glahrata, Fries. 
(E. F. Linton), Strome Ferry, 1886, not previously noticed 
in Britain. 

* R TOMENTOSA, Sm. — Common in the lower glens, and 
very variable. Of the named forms I have collected E. 
scdbriuscula, Sm., at Applecross and Ullapool ; the var. 
R. syhcstris, Woods, at Kinlochewe and Ullapool ; var. 
cKspidatoides, Lej., at Achnashellach. The latter collected 
by Rev. H. E. Fox in 1893. 

* E. CANINA, L. — The aggregate plant is common in the 
low lands. Of the named British forms I have gathered 
B. lutetiana, Lem., in many localities. The flowers of this 
and other varieties of the dog rose are often darker than 
our Midland plants. B. chimalis, Bechst., see Eep. of Piec. 
Club (Lintons, Bailey), Gairloch and Strome Ferry. It is 
one of the common forms of the non-cristate canina. I noted 
it in 1880 at Loch Alsh, in 1887 at Kinlochewe, and this 
year I found it commonly at Ullapool. E. urhica, Lem. — 
Applecross and Strathcarron, E. tomcnteUa, Lem. — L'^Ua- 
pool. E. glauca, Vill. — Common and variable. M. Crepin 
writes to me " that E. glauca and E. coriifolia, Fries., 
have not been sufficiently studied in Britain. These two 
secondary species may be met with at lower levels, but 
they prefer higher situations or else more or less northern 
lands. A complete series of their variations will doubtless 
be found in Scotland." A plant which, in the opinion of 
our British authorities, would be called var. subcristata, 
M. Crepin refers to E. glauca, of which he considers it to 
be a form with compound teeth, and smooth sepals. A 
conspicuous rose at Applecross, which is, I think, a distinct 
variety from any of our named forms, M. Crepin says is 
a variety of E. glauca, with simple teeth and glandular 
pedicels and sepals. It may be worth distinguishing as 
var. glanchdosa. E. coriifolia, Fries. — This is a common 
Eoss rose. A very pubescent form occurred at L^llapool ; 
in fact, were it not for its subcristate sepals, it would now 
come under E. toinentella, according to our insular ideas. 
M. Crepin keenly remarks " that as we go northwards 
forms of E. canina are replaced by forms of E. glauca 
and E. coriifolia^ A very curious rose from Ullapool, 
which I half thought might be a form of E. dccijjiens, is 



140 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

commented on by Eev. Moyle Eogers thus : " This puzzles 
me greatly. Can it be R. Bakeri, which I do not under- 
stand ? The strongly hooked prickles seem against it. 
Those long, narrow leaflets seem to me to put decipiens 
out of court." M. Crepin would rather refer it to R. corii- 
folia, of which he " thinks it is a form with pubescent 
petioles, and slightly glandular pedicels." In the Eep. 
Eec. Club, 1884-86, Mr. C. Bailey records R. marginata, 
Wallr., from opposite the hotel at Gairloch. This is 
probably not correct, since the true marginata, which is a 
hybrid of R. gallica, is not likely to be British. It is 
doubtful whether we have the true plant in Britain. The 
var, Watso'/ii occurred at Jeantown. 

* E. EUBIGINOSA, L. — Kinlochewe and Applecross. I 
am not quite convinced of the indigenity of this rose in 
the county. 

(Pyeus Aria, Sm. — In Dixon's list, erroneously named, 
or planted. Davidson says it is rare by Loch Carron.) 

* P. AucuPAEiA, L. — Xative ; not uncommon. Stroma, 
Kinlochewe, etc. 

* P. Malus, L. — Strome, Dundonnell, etc. ; possibly 
native. 

* Crataegus Oxyacantha, L. — Possibly native. Dornie, 
Jeantown, Applecross, 

* Saxipraga oppositifolia, L. — Eare. A Glas-bheine, 
in Kintail, Ben Eay. 

* S. STELLARis, L. — Ptather common, as on the Slioch, 
Sgurr Fhuaran, Meall Gorm, and An Teallach. A very 
large form on the rocky bed of a stream which descends 
from Ben Eay. On Sgurr na Caorach a form was found 
similar to the plants met with on Aonach Mhor in Wester- 
ness, that is with a leafy stem and without the basal rosette 
of leaves. As in the former case it was associated with 
Epildbiutn alpinum, and Bartramia. It is a form, not a 
variety, induced by shade and the drip from moist over- 
hanging rocks. 

*S. AIZOEDES, L. — Abundant, and usually as the plant 
with ciliate leaves (S. autumnalis, L.). Flowers with 
various tints of orange have been seen, but the dark 
orange-brown flowered plant which is found in Norway has 
not been obser^-ed. 



Teb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH, 141 

*S. HYPNOIDES, L. — Eather rare. On A Glas-bheine, 
and on Meall Gorm. I also saw this plant in a rocky 
piece of ground opposite the mansion-house of Kishorn, 
where it was probably planted. 

* Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, L. — Not rare, Loch 
Beag side, Talladale, Applecross, Jeantown, etc. 

(C. ALTERNIFOLIUM L. — In Dixon's list only.) 

* Parnassia palustris, L. — Moilan, Gairloch. 

: EiBES Grossularia, L. — Strome, Jeantown, etc., not 
native. 

: E. RUBRUM, L. — Near Ullapool; an escape from cultiva- 
tion. 

: E. NIGRUM, L. — Near Braemore ; sown by birds, but 
fruiting freely. 

Sedum roseum. Scop. (Ehodiola rosea). — Plentiful on 
the precijjices about the Palls of Glomak, also seen on 
mountains in Strathcarron, on An Teallach, in the Beallach 
na bo Pass, and on Slioch. Davidson says it occurs on 
Baios Bhein, Gairloch. 

S. Telephium, L. — "Not common, Gairloch" (Davidson). 
A doubtful native. 

S. ANGLICUM, L. — Common on the low rocks near the 
sea. Davidson says it is rare at Gairloch. 

* S. acre, L. — Kinlochewe, and certainly native at 
Applecross, where a large form was seen. 

: S. reflexum, L. — In a rocky plantation opposite the 
mansion-house of Kishorn. This and S. glaucum (whatever 
that may be) are given in Dixon's list. 

*Drosera rotundifolia, L. — Abundant, and in the 
sunny summer of 1893 in plentiful flower. 

* D. obovata, Mert. and Koch. — In several localities in 
Glen Torridon, by Loch Coulin, Loch Maree, and in Kintail. 
I now think it is a hybrid of D. rotundifolia and anglica. 

D. ANGLICA, Huds. — Gairloch (Davidson). Eather com- 
mon in the wetter bogs, and in many places even more 
plentiful than D. rotundifolia, and, like that plant, profusely 
flowering in 1893. 

(D. longifolia, L. = D. intermedia, Hayne. — The 
reference in "Scottish Naturalist," 1891, p. 186, to the 
occurrence of this species is a misprint for D. obovata.) 

* Myriophyllum ALTERNIFOLIUM, DC. — Loch Maree, 



142 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

Eiver Carron, Loch Coulin, Loch Achall, and common in 
most of the fresh water lochs. 

(Calliteiche verna. — A misnomer in the Applecross list.) 

* C. STAGNALIS, Scop. — Common ; and as the var. jylaty- 
carpa. 

* C. HAMULATA, Kuetz. — In a pool near Loch Alsh ; a 
drawn-out form in Loch Achall ; in a pool near the summit 
level of the Beallach na bo Pass, at about 2000 feet; and 
as a small condensed form in Loch a Mhuilinn. 

Epilobium angustifolium, L. — Given in the Applecross 
list, and also in Dixon's list of Gairloch plants. On the 
Cnochan rocks, undoubtedly native. 

* E. PARVIFLORUM, Schreb. — On the limestone pavement, 
and in other places about Applecross ; and about Kishorn, 
also on limestone. 

* E. MONTANUM, L. — Xot uncommon ; and as the var. 
minor, Haussn., at Kinlochewe and Inverlael ; and as the 
hybrid E. oiiontanum x ohscurum at Kinlochewe and Ullapool. 

* E. OBSCURUM, Schreb. — Not rare. Strome, Kishorn, 
Kinlochewe, Dundonnell, Braemore, etc.; and rather common 
about Applecross as the upright plant, which suggests E. 
tetragonum ; also as the hybrid obscuruni xpalustre at Apple- 
cross and Kinlochewe. E. ohscurum x parviflorum was also 
seen at Kinlochewe. 

* E. PALUSTRE, L. — Abundant, and as the var. fontanum, 
in the Beallach na bo Pass. 

E, ALPINUM, L. — Ptather rare. Mountains near Little 
Loch Broom (Dr. Lightfoot). I saw it on An Teallach, 
and in the Beallach na bo Pass, on the Slioch, and on Ben 
Eay and Lieuthgoch. 

(E. ALSIN^FOLIUM, Vill. — Given in Dixon's list, and I 
have an impression that I saw it on Ben Eay, but it 
should be verified.) 

CiRC^A ALPINA, L. — At the foot of the mountains about 
Loch Broom (Dr. Lightfoot). Still there, and not un- 
frequent by Loch Maree, on the sea beach at Applecross, 
about Dundonnell, and in Strathcarron. On the shore of 
Loch Maree it was very dwarfed. 

* Hydrocotyle vulgaris, L. — Not at all common. By 
Loch Maree, and as the floating form. In 1893 I only 
noticed it at Applecross. 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 143 

* Sanicula eueop-EA, L. — Strome, Loch Maree side, 
Ullapool, Jeantown, Applecross, etc. 

: yEgopodium Podagraria, L. — Near habitations at 
Jeantown, Ullapool, and Applecross. 

Apium nodiflorum, Eeichb. — Gairloch (Davidson). 

'"' CONOPODIUM DENUDATUM, Koch. — Locally common. 

: Myrrhis Odorata, Scop. — In Dixon's list, how far 
naturalised I cannot say, as I have not seen it in the 
county. 

* Ch-Erophyllum temulum, L. — Eare. Loch Duich side, 
and near Jeantown, a doubtful native. 

CicuTA VIROSA, L. — Glen Shiel (Davidson). I saw 
(Enantlic crocata there ; but Cicuta occurs in the Hebrides, 
so the record may be correct. 

* ScANDix Pecten- Veneris, L. — Colonist, or perhaps not 
more than a casual. A few specimens near Strathcarron. 
Dixon gives it in his list. 

* Anthriscus sylvestris, Hoffm. — Very local. So far 
as my observation goes, it is confined to the limestone of 
Kishoru and Applecross. Dixon gives it in his list, but I 
have not seen it by Loch Maree. 

(Crithmum maeitbium, L. — Given, like so many other 
plants in Dixon's list, on, I am afraid, very slender evidence. 
Probably Salicornia was meant.) 

* (Exanthe crocata, L. — Local. Loch Duich and Loch 
Alsh, near Ullapool, and at Applecross and Kishorn not 
unfrequent. 

(CE. Lachenalii, Gmel. — Gairloch (Davidson.) 

* iETHUSA Cyxapium, L. — Colonist or casual. Eare. 
Between Jeantown and Strathcarron, and at Kishorn. In 
Dixon's list. 

(Meum Athamanticum, Jacq. — Only in Dixon's list.) 
LiGUSTicuM scoticum, L. — Given in the Applecross and 

Gairloch lists. I only saw it on a small tract of sand near 

Polglas, in Coigach. 

* Angelica sylvestris, L. — Common, and widely dis- 
tributed. 

* Heeacleum Sphoxdylium, L. — Attadale, Applecross, 
etc. 

Daucus Caeota, L. — In the Applecross list. It is 
apparently scarce. I saw it on the small tract of sand 



1 44 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

near Polglass. It is probably the D. maritimus of Mr. 
Dixon's list. 

* Caucalis Antheiscus, Huds. — About Jeantown and 
Applecross ; rare. 

* Hedeka Helix, L. — Eare. On the Slioch, Strath- 
carron. Native. 

(LiNNiEA BOREALis, L. — In one of the islands in Loch 
Maree (Davidson). Xeeds confirmation.) 

: * Sambucus NIGRA, L. — Strome, Jeantown, etc. ; a very 
doubtful native. 

* Viburnum Opulus, L. — Seen by me at Strome and 
Kinlochewe in 1880, but accidentally omitted from my 
list. Eecorded in ed. ii. of " Topographical Botany " on 
the authority of Mr. Stables. I have seen it near Ulla- 
pool, Applecross, and Kishorn. 

*Adoxa Moschatellina, L. — Very rare. Cnochan 
rocks, 1894. 

* Lonicera Periclymenum, L. — On the slopes of Slioch, 
at Ullapool, Strathcarron, etc. Not uncommon. 

CORNUS SUECICA, L. — Loch Broom mountains (Light- 
foot), plentiful on Slioch, also on An TeaUach and in 
Strathcarron. 

G-ALIUM BOREALE, L. — " Topographical Botany " (G. C. 
Smith). — Sgurr Fhuaran, Beallachnabo, An TeaUach, Ben 
More, Ehidorroch, etc. 

* G. VERUM, L. — Local, and absent from a large area of 
the county. It was not unfrequent on the shingle at 
Ullapool, at Applecross, and in a few localities at Strath- 
carron. On the limestone near Loch Achall, and at Kishorn. 

* G. HERCYNICUM, "VVeig. (G. scLoxdile, L. Sp. PI. ed. ii., not 
of ed. i.). — Very common. An unusually large form at 
Dundonnell. 

: * G. ERECTUM, Huds. — In a grass field near Strath- 
carron ; possibly introduced with grass seeds. 

* G. PALUSTRE, L. — Eather common. Var. Witheringii, 
Sm., at Braemore, etc. A small, thick-leaved form 
occurred on shingle at Torridon; it is probably the var. 
micropliyllum, Lange. 

(G. ULIGINOSUM, L. — In Dixon's list.) 

* G. Aparine, L. — Eather rare. Strome, Ullapool, Apple- 
cross. 



Fbd. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 145 

* AsPEKULA ODORATA, L. — Strome, Ullapool, Jeantown, 
Duiidonnell. 

Sherardia arvensis, L. — Strome Ferry (E. F. Lintou). 
Trobably a colonist or casual. Also at Kinlochewe. See 
Journ. Bot., 1888, p. 21, as the type plant, not the var. 
}rallrave7iii. 

(Valeriana dioica, L. — In Dixon's list. Almost 
certainly an error.) 

* V. officinalis, L. — Common as the var. samTntcifolia. 
It is especially abundant about the ravine of Braemore. 
and is also found at a considerable elevation on mountain 
cliffs. 

* Sc.\BiosA SucciSA, L. — Common, and generally dis- 
tributed, ascending to nearly oOOO feet. 

(S. ColUxMBARIA, L. — Given in the Applecross and in 
Dixon's list of Gairloch plants ; in both cases probably a 
misnomer.) 

: S. arvensis, L. — Very rare, and probably a casual or 
colonist, as at Dornie and Kinlochewe. 

* SoLiDAGO ViRGAUREA, L. — Abundant, and generally 
distributed. The var. camlrica (Huds.) is also frequent. 
The var. angustifolia, Gaudin, also occurs, as on Slioch, and 
in very fine condition by the river at the head of Loch 
Broom. 

* Bellis perennis, L. — Xot uncommon. 

* Aster TiiiPOLiUM, L. — Loch Torridon (Journ. Bot. 
1888, p. 21), Strathcarron, Jeantown, and Applecross. 
One or two specimens of the form discoidca also were seen. 

Antennaria DIOICA, Br. (" Topographical Botany," Ch. 
Babington). — Xot uncommon. The \^x. pcfliccUo.ta occurred 
on mountains by Strathcarron, etc. 

* Gnaphalium uliginosum, L. — Bare. Kishorn. 

* G. SYLVATICUM, L. — Courthill, Ivishorn. Piare. 

* G. SUPINI'M, L. — Xot common. On Sgurr Fhuaran, 
Beinn Fhada, Beallach na bo, Beinn Eigh. 

* Achillea Millefolium, L. — Common, and generally 
distributed. The var. riihra at Kishorn, and a very downy 
form in Glen Bianasdail. 

* A. Ptalimic.a., L. — Common, and widely distributed. 

* Chrysanthemum segetum, L. — Locally abundant in 
corn fields, but probably introduced at no very distant period. 

TRASS. BOT. see. EDIX, VOL XX. K 



l-i'J TRAXSACIIONS AND PPvOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lvhi. 

* C. Leucanthemu.m, L. — Not common. Attadale, Ulla- 
pool, Applecross, and Kishoru, etc, 

* Matricaria inodora, L. — Common, and as a very 
large flowered plant. 

(M. Chamomilla, L. — Given in Dixon's list.) 

: Taxacetum vulgaee, L. — Side of Gairloch (Dr. Light- 
foot). Given in Dixon's list. I saw it as a garden escape 
at Jeantown. 

(Ax'THEMis MAEITIMA, L., is given in Dixon's list ; probably 
Matricaria inodora was intended.) 

(Artemisia Absinthium, L. — Cnven in the Applecross 
list, but very likely A. vulgaris v/as mistaken for it. If 
the former really occurred it was not a native.) 

'"' TussiLAGO Fakfara, L. — Xot common. Kinlochewe, 
Dundonnell, Ullapool, Kishorn, etc. 

''• Petasites officinalis, Mcench. — Eare. South side of 
Loch Duich. 

:DoRONicuM Pardalianche.s, L. — Shiel. A garden 
straggler. 

* Senecio vulgaris, L. — Xot common. Kinlochewe, 
L'llapool, Jeantown, etc. 

* S. sylvaticus, L. — Local and rather rare. Often on 
cottage roofs at L'llapool and Jeantown. 

* S. Jacob-UA, L. — Very common. A shoit-rayed form 
also occui'red. 

* S. AQ caucus, Huds. — Common. 

( ? Arctium majus, Schk. — In the Applecross list. My 
Torridon plant was a form of intermedium.) 

'"' A. intermedium, Lange. — Kinlochewe, Torridon, and 
Jeantown. 

'" A. MINUS, Schk. — Mollan, Ullapool, Jeantown. 

(Caeduus nutans, L. — In Dixon's list. Probably an 
error.) 

* Cnicus lanceolatl'S, Willd. Abundant. The var. 
nemorale, Eeichb., occurred at Kinlochewe. 

* C. palustris, AVilld. — Abundant. Sometimes with 
whitish flowers. 

C. heterophyllus, Willd. — Xot very common. Loch 
Maree .side, Ullapool, etc. See '' Top. Bot.," ed. i. 

* C. ARVENSIS, Willd. — Common, and occasionally with 
white flowers. The var. mitis, Koch., was seen at 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBURGH. 147 

Jeantown, and the var. horridas, Koch., at Strathcarron, 
Kishorn, etc. 

Saussukea alpina, DC. — IJare. On Sgurr Fhuaran,.SguiT 
ua Caorach. No personal authority for this plant is given 
in " Topographical Botany." The flowers have a powerful 
heliotrope odour. 

* Centaurea nigra, L. — Connnon, and widely distri- 
buted. 

* C. Cyanus, L. — liare, and perhaps only a casual. Kin- 
lochewe. Dixon gives it in his list of Gairloch plants. 

* Lapsana COMMUNIS, L. — lu scattered localities through 
the county, and indubitably native. A more pubescent 
form was found on the shingle at Ullapool. 

* Crepis virens, L. — Strome, Ullapool, Applecross. etc. 
The var. arjrcstis, Kit., occurred at Ullapool and Jeantown. 
Dixon gives C. tedonnn, L., as well as C. rirais in his list, 
but C. teetorum is not a British plant. 

* C. PALUDOSA, Mccnch. — Common, and widely distri- 
buted. 

* HiERACiUM Pilosella, L. — Xot common. Xorth side 
of Loch Duich. 

*H. melanocephalum, Tausch. (7/. (iJpimun, L.). — Ben 
Eay. Bare. The specimens were much over flower. 

* H. holosericeum, Backh. — Bare. Ben Eay. 

(?* H. GLOBOSUM, Backh. — Some specimens of apparently 
this species occurred on Ben Eay, but they were too far 
gone over to be identified with certainty.) 

* H. CHRYSANTUUM, Backh. — On Ben Eay, Sgurr Fhuarau, 
An Teallach, etc. 

* H. eximium, Backh., var. tenellum, Backh. — Ben Eay. 
liare. Specimens much gone over, of what were probably 
the type plant, were seen on Ben Eay. 

* H. LiNGULATUM, Backli. — A rather frequent montane 
hawk weed, as on Beu Eay, the Slioch, An Teallach, Meall 
(Jorm, Sgurr na Caorach, etc. It reached nearly 3000 
feet on the Slioch. 

* H. nigrescens, Willd. — Ben Eay and the Slioch. 

* H. ANGLICUM, Fr. — Common on the mountains, and in 
the ravines in sub-alpine districts. Var. longibracteatum, 
Hanb. — Loch Broom side near Ullapool, and Beallach na bo. 

""" H. IRICL'M, Fr. — Apparently rare or local, and only 



148 TRANSACTIONS AND TKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

noticed by me on the limestone, as at Kishorn ; by the river 
in the limestone gorge at Ullapool; and on the Cnochan 
rocks. 

(? H. PALLIDUM, Fr. — A plant, in seed, of what is probably 
this species was seen by the river north of Ullapool.) 

* H. MUEORUM, L. — Not uncommon, as at Strome, Ulla- 
pool, Braemore, Dundonnell, Kishorn, Jeantown, etc. A 
very handsome form occurred by the ravine of Braemore. 
Yar. cilintinn; Almq. — Beallach na bo Pass. 

* H. CAESIUM, Fr. — Sgurr Fhuaran. The specimen was so 
named by Boswell Syme. 

* H. vuLGATUxM, Fr. — Abundant, and generally distributed. 

* H. RUBICUNDUM, Hanb. — Near Ullapool. 

* H. DURICEPS, Hanb. — Strathcarron, but scarcely typical. 

* H. SPARSIFOLIUM, Lindb. — Eare. By the river Broom 
at the head of Loch Broom ; and the form with blotched 
leaves " f. ahcrrans crucntata." 

* H. CROCATUM, Fr. — Nortli side of Loch Duich, near 
Loch Torridon. 

* H. AURATUM, Fries. — Banks of the river at Ullapool, 
and by the river Carron. 

'"' H. RETICULATUM, Lindb. — Eare. By the river at 
Ullapool. 

* H. EuPATOEiUM, Griseb. — By the stream at Applecross, 
a form approaching H. rcticulatum. 

* H. PR^LONGUM, Lindb. — Eare. By a stream near 
Kinlochewe. 

* Hypociitkris radicata, L. — Abundant and variable. 
As I came down the Beallach na bo Pass, I saw across the 
bay of Kishorn a bright band of yellow flowers below the 
mansion-house; since I could not understand what it was I 
visited the place, and found it to be caused by a quantity 
of Hypochccris, which grew at the junction of the limestone 
with a bed of clay. 

'^ Leontodon autumnalis, L. — Abundant ; var. pratcnsis^ 
Koch., also common. A form with deeply cut leaves 
occurred by the roadside near Broom and also at Dun- 
donnell. The form with woolly involucres is by no means 
confined to the mountains, it grew by the sea near Ulla- 
pool. The alpine form, with black, woolly involucres, is 
common on the hioher mountains. 



Feb. 1894.] r.OTAXICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH, 149 

* Taraxacum officinale, AVeb. — Common. Xar. iKilastrc, 
DC, not unfreqiient. 

* SoNCHUS GLEitACEUS, L. — Loch CaiTon side, Kin- 
lochewe. 

* S. ASi'ER, All. — A very prickly form grew on the shingle 
at Ullapool, it is probably the var. jnnnatijichis, Peterm. 

* S. ARVENSis, L. — Eare, and probably only a colonist. 
Dornie and Dundonuell. 

Lobelia Dortmanna, L. — See " Topographical Botany." 
Not rare in the lochs, as Achall, Clare, etc. 

(?Wahlenbergia hedekacea, Ileichb. — (Jiven as a 
doubtful native in Dixon's list. "Was it rightly named ?) 

( Campanula rapuxculoides, L. — Included in Dixon's 
list.) 

* C. ROTUNDiFOLLi, L. — Very rare, and local. Kintail, 
V. s. Xot seen about Ullapool, Strathcarron, or Applecross. 

'^ Vaccinium Oxycoccos, L. — Very rare, moorland above 
Loch Long. The cranberry is given in Dixon's list. 

* V. ViTis-iD.EA, L. — Xot uncommon, as on the lower 
slopes of Slioch, Ben More, Braemore, etc. This is the 
" cranberry " of northern Scotland. 

V. ULIGINOSUM, L. — Loch Broom mountains (Lightfoot). 
On Sgurr Fhuaran, An Teallach, in good flower, Ben Eay, 
Meall Gorm, and probably occurs on most of the higher 
mountains. 

* V, Myrtillus, L. — Xot uncommon. 
Arctostaphylos alpina, Spreng. — " To the south of 

Little Loch Broom, and between that lake and Loch Mari, 
Coygach, liennaish " (Lightfoot). 1 have found this plant 
in many situations between 1600 and 2000 feet on the 
rather bare and exposed shoulders of mountains, as on Ben 
Eay, An Teallach, and on the mountains on the northern 
side of Strathcarron, where it was very profuse on one 
ridge at about 2000 feet, but quite burnt up by the hot 
sun of the abnormal year 1893; it was associated with 
Loiseleuria procunibcns. 

*A. UvA-URSi, Spreug. — Lieuthgoch, Ben Eay, Slioch. 
An Teallach, etc, Var. angusiifolia, a form with much 
narrower leaves, occurred on An Teallach. 

* Calluna Erica, DC, — Too abundant ; ground covered 
with heather or bracken aftbrd little variety of plants to 



150 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Skss. lviii. 

the botanist. The var. incana also occurs. The form with 
white flowers was rather common on the lower slopes of 
Ben Eay and in one of the Summer islands. 

* Ekica Tetralix, L. — Abundant on the moorlands and 
bogs, also with white flowers, 

* E. cinerea, L. — Common, rarely with white flowers, 
as in Glen Torridon. 

LoiSELEURiA PROG UM BENS, Des V. — " Topographical 
Botany;" see also Murray's "Northern Elora, Hills of 
Eoss-shire " (G. C. Smith). It is rather frequent on the 
higher hills, as Sgurr Fhuaran, An Teallach, etc. 

* Pyrola media, Sw. — Glenelg, v. sp. 

P. minor, L. (" Topographical Botany ").— Doubtless on 
the authority of Lightfoot, who records it from Little Loch 
Broom. Dixon includes it in his list. „ 

P. secunda, L. — Piccorded by Lightfoot " from a wood 
called Ca-buch . . . , near Little Loch Broom, and about 
Loch Mari." I found it on some limestone rocks by the 
river Ullapool. 

* Armeria maritima, Willd. — Common on the coast in 
many places, also on the higher hills, as Meall Gorm, An 
Teallach. A small, narrow-leaved form was seen near 
Applecross, but it was not A. sibirica, Turc. On the 
Slioeh the var. planifolia occurred. 

* Primula acaulis, L. — Not unfrequent in the wooded 
straths. 

*Lysimaghia nemorum, L. — Loch Maree side, Braemore, 
Applecross, Dundonnell, etc. 

Trientalis EUROPyEA, L. — Mentioned in Dixon's list. 
It is a plant which is very likely to be found, but it must 
be very local, as so far it has eluded me. My journeys 
have been made rather late in the year. 

* Glaux maritima, L. — In many places on the coast, as 
by Loch Torridon, Loch Carron, Applecross, and Ullapool. 

Anagallis tenella, L. — Given in the Applecross 
and Gairloch lists. It must be local, since I have not 
observed it. 

* Fraxinus excelsior, L. — Not rare, and undoubtedly 
native. 

:LiGUSTRr:\i yulgare, L. — Probably planted, as at 
Strome, etc. 



Fki-.. 1804.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 151 

* Gextiana Amai{ELLA, L. (" Topographical Botany "). — 
Apparently rare. On the limestone near Loch Dearg as 
:i branched form, the f. vudticaulis, Lange. 

* G. campesteis, L. — Local and rare. Xear Loch 
Torridon. 

*Menyanthes TRIPOLI ata, L. — Loch Maree, Lllapool, 
Applecross, etc. 

(? Symphytum officinale, L. — Given in tlie Applecross 
list ; if correctly named it is probably only an escape from 
cultivation.) 

: S. PEREGRINUM, Led. — The fodder plant which has been 
thus named occurred as a straggler from cultivation near 
Inverlael. 

*Lycopsis ARVEXSIJ^, L. — In cultivated ground at Dun- 
donnell and Ullapool. 

* Mertensia .maritima, Gray. — Side of Loch Duich, v. s. 
Given in Dixon's list. 

*Myosotis ]MARitima, Fries. (M. cccspitosa, Schultz.). — 
Common. 

M. repens, Don. — Near Kinlochewe (C. Bailey, in the 
Eep. of Eecord Club, 1883). Strathcarron, Applecross, 
Duncraig. 

(?M. PALUSTRis, With., is given in the Applecross list. 
It may possibly be correct, but more likely is a misnomer 
for 31. cwspitosa or M. rcjjcns.) 

* M. scoRPioiDES, L. (M. arvcnsis, Eoth.). — Kinlochewe, 
Ullapool, Applecross, Jeantown, etc. 

* M. COLLINA, Eoth. (7lf. Mspida, Schlecht.). — Kinlochewe, 
Ullapool. 

* M. VERSICOLOR, Eoth. — Not uncommon. The var. 
Balbisiana, Jord., with all the flowers yellow, occurred at 
Lubavadie. 

: Volvulus sepium, Jung. — On the shingle about Jean- 
town, principally as the var. colorata (Lange). Most likely 
of garden origin. 

: Atuopa Belladonna, L. — Given in Dixon's list. It is 
stated in Anderson's " Guide to the Highlands and Islands 
of Scotland " to grow in one of the islands in Loch ]Maree. 
It is not native. 

: LiNARiA Cymbalaria, L. — On a wall in Ullapool, 
planted. 



152 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

(SCROPHULARIA AQUATICA, L. — Given in Dixon's list; 
doubtless an error.) 

* S. NODOSA, L. — Acbnashellach, Kinlochewe, Inverlael, 
Applecross, Dundonnell, Duncraig, etc. 

: Mdiulus luteu'S, DC. — In the Gairloch list. The var. 
guttatus, DC, I found by a small stream near Lienassie, 
and not near any houses. 

* Digitalis purpurea, L. — Widely distributed. 
(Veronica heder.efolia, L. — Given in Dixon's list. So 

far I have not seen it.) 

* V. DIDYMA, Ten. ( V. jJolita, Fries.). — Jeantowu. 
Colonist or casual. 

*V. AGRESTIS, L. — Kinlochewe, near Ullapool, in the 
latter locality in two forms. 

* V. ARVENSis, L. — Eather rare. Loch Broom side, Kin- 
lochewe, Strome. 

* V. SERPYLLIFOLIA, L. — Xot uucommon. 

* Y. HUMIFUSA, Dicks. — A Glas-Bheine. Also on the 
Slioch. 

* V. OFFICINALIS, L. — Glen Docharty, Kishorn, Brae- 
more, not uncommon. 

* V. Cham.edrys. L. — Common. 

* V. scuTELLATA, L. — Loch Clare, Ullapool, Applecross, 
etc., but always as the glabrous plant. 

*V. Anagallis-aquatica, L. — Ears. Only noticed at 
Kishorn, near CourthUl, as the var. aiiagalliformis, Boreau, 
which has the inflorescence covered with glandular hairs. 

* y. Beccabunga, L. — Eather rare. Dornie, Ullapool, 
Jeantown, and Applecross. The flowers appear to be 
rather deeper in tint than those of the Midland plant, 

* Euphrasia officinalis, L. — The aggregate plant is 
common. Var. Rostkoriana, Hayne, f. horealis, Towns- 
end. — Glen Torridon, Ullapool, Applecross, etc. Koch in 
Synopsis FL, Germ., ed. ii., reduced U. Rostkoviana to var. 
pratensis. Var. gracilis, Fries. — Glen Bianasdail, also at 
Slattadale (see Eep. of Eec. Club (C. Bailey), 1883). 

* Bartsia Odontites, Huds. — Loch Duich, Jeantown, 
Applecross, and Kishorn. Local, and always as the var. 
Odontites verna, Eeichb. 

* Pedicularis palustris, L. — Common. 

* P. sylyatica, L. — Common. I saw it flourishing on 



Fbb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 153 

the turf-covered top of a wall by Braemore. The white- 
Howered form was not uncommou on the moorland near 
the Falls of Glomak. 

MELAMPYUU^[ PEATENSE, L, — Loch Maree side, Braemore, 
Dimdonnell, Drumroonie, etc., out not so common in 
Western Eoss as in some of the other Scotch counties. 
The var. montanum, Johnston, occurred on An Teallach, etc. 

(? M. SYLVATICUM, L. — Doubtfully recorded by me from 
a wooded rock near Strome, but it may have been a 
yellow-flowered form of M. praicn^c, i.r. var. Jiians. Dixon 
records it in his list of Gairloch plants.) 

* Ehinanthus Crista-galli, L. — jSTot uncommon, and 
usually as the var. angv.stifolia, Koch. The mountain form, 
var. Drunimond-Hayi, Buch. White, occurred on the Slioch, 
An Teallach, etc. 

Orobanche rubra, Sm. {0. Epithymum, DC). — In an 
island near the mainland at Gairloch (Bowman) in " Xew 
Botanical Guide." It is included in the Gairloch list. 

* Utricularia neglecta, Lehm. — Bare. In Loch 
a ]\lhuilinn. 

* U. MINOR, L. — With the above, not in flower. 

l\ INTERMEDIA, Hayue. — In " Topographical Botany " 
(Churchill Babington). I saw it in Glen Torridon. 

■* PINGUICULA VULGARIS, L. — Common. The var. 
al2)icola, Beichb., which is a very large-flowered form with 
more contiguous petals, occurred on the north-western 
slopes of A Glas-bheine, in Kintail. Boswell Syme said 
he had never seen any British specimen like it before. 

P. lusitanica, L. — Eecorded in Hooker's " Flora Scotiea " 
and " Xew Botanical Guide." It is not rare. It occurs in 
Gairloch, Kintail, Ullapool, etc. 

(Mentha longieolia, Huds. (J/ syhcstris, L.), is given in 
Dixon's list. An almost certain error.) 

: M. viRiDis, L. — On the beach at Jeantown as an out- 
cast from gardens. 

(M. piperita, Huds. — Another misnomer, which is 
recorded iu the Gairloch list.) 

* M. HiRSUTA, Huds. — Glen Docharty, Ullapool, Apple- 
cross, Kishorn, etc. 

* M. SATIVA, L. — Eare. Applecross. It is given in 
Dixon's list, but probably not correct. 



154 TKAXSACTIONS AXD PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lvi 

* M. AEVENSis, L. — Loch Duich side. Eare. 
*Lycopus europ-EUS, L. — Kintail, 1880. 

-■^ Thymus SEPtPYLLUM, L. — Common, and generally dis- 
tributed. The so-called var. prostatum, Hornem., Glen 
Torridon, 1886 (teste, Mr. Arth. Bennett). I saw it in the 
Eeallach na bo Pass, it is probably not uncommon. 

(Nepeta Cataria, L. — Another of the misnomers of the 
Gairloch list). 

*K Glechoma, Benth. — Ullapool, Applecross, Dun- 
donnell, not common. 

* Scutellaria galericulata, L. — Strome, Jeantown, and 
Applecross. The flowers are rather more brightly blue 
than those of our Midland plant, the calyx is densely hairy. 

* Prunella vulgaris, L. — Common, The flowers are 
distinctly larger than those of our Midland plants. 

* Stachys palustkis, L. — Xot uncommon. The var. 
canescens, Lange., occurred at Kinlochewe and Ullapool, in 
corn fields. 

S. ambigua, Sm. — Xear Jeantown (Hooker's " Flora 
Scotica "). I gathered it in very fine condition in Jeantown, 
growing with both the assumed parents, in 1893, 

* S, sylvatica, L. — Xot common. Kinlochewe, Apple- 
cross, and Jeantown, 

S. ARVENSis, L. — Found by Mr. Ewing in 1887. It 
was rather plentiful in a few corn fields and garden ground 
at Ullapool. 

Galeopsis speciosa. Mill. — Discovered by Churchill 
Babington, and included in Dixon's list, but I have not 
seen it in the county. 

* G. tetrahit, L. — Dornie, Khilochewe, Ullapool, Dun- 
donnell, Applecross, Jeantown, etc. The var. bifida, Boenn., 
is also not rare, or rather is the prevailing plant. 

* Lamium amplexicaule, L. — Eare. Coulna Craig, 
Ullapool. 

* L. intermedium. Fries. — Xot uncommon. 

* L. PURPUREUM, L. — Eare. Dornie, Strathcarron. Dixon 
also includes it in his list. 

(L. ALBUM, L. — Given in Dixon's list, but probably a 
misnomer — a white-flowered form of intermedium may have 
been mistaken for it). 

*Teucrium Scouodonia, L. — Common. 



Fi-.ii. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 1 5 ") 

^'' Ajuga reptanr, L. — Not uncommon. Kinlochewe, 
Sirathcarron, Jeantown, Applecross, etc. 

(A. PYRAMIDALIS, L. — Given in Dixon's list, and it is a 
likely plant to occur). 

* Plantago major, L. — Common, often as the var. P. 
intermedia, Gilib. 

^ P. lanceolata, L. — Common and variable. As the 
var. capitata, PresL, and var. rcpens, Lange, on rocks near 
Jeantown ; and the var. criophylla, Dene. 

*P. maritima, L.— Common, not only by the coast, but 
also inland, and ascending to a considerable height on the 
hills. Two or three forms occur, one of them the var. 
pyrjmma, Lange. 

P. CoRONOPUS, L. — Found by Mr. Ewing in 1887; 
it is also included in the Gairloch list, but so far I have 
not met with it. 

* LiTTORELLA JUNCEA, Bergh. — Not uncommon by the 
loch borders, as in Loch Maree, IMhuilinn, Achall, etc. 

* ScLERANTHUS ANNUUS, L. — Kinlochewe. Rare, and 
only a colonist or casual, so far as my observation goes. 

* Chengpodium album, L. — Not uncommon in cultivated 
fields and waste places. The var. G. candicaiiH, Lamk. (var. 
incanum, Mof[. Tand.), was seen at Ullapool, Strathcarron, 
etc. The var. 61 paganum, Reichb. (var. cymosuni, Chev.), 
also occurred at Ullapool, Dundonnell, Jeantown, etc. . 

(? C. murale and C. urbicum, L, are erroneous records 
given in Dixon's list.) 

* C. Bonus-Henricus, L. — Ptare. Dornie, not far from 
houses. 

* Atriplex patula, L. — In cultivated ground, as at 
Jeantown, Ullapool, etc. Var. angustifolia (Sm.). Ap- 
parently rare, Ullapool. 

*A. HASTATA, L. — Stroma and Ullapool. 

* A. Babingtonii, Bab. — Very common as a shore weed, 
and often as the var. vircsccns, Lange, as at Torridon, Ulla- 
pool, Loch Broom. 

Salicornia herbacea, L. — Found by Mr. Ewing in 
1887. Plentiful by Loch Carron below Jeantown, also 
seen at Applecross. 

Sueda maritima, Dum. — Recorded from Loch Broom by 
Lightfoot as Chcnopodium maritimum. It also occurs by 



156 TEAXSACTIOJfS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

Loch Canon as the var. crecta, Moq. Tand., and as the var. 
cidgaris, Moq. Tand. The latter is the more frequent 
fomL Applecross, Kishom, and Little Loch Broom also 
yield it 

(Salsola Kali, L. — Given in Dixon's list, and very 
likely to occur.) 

*PoLYGOXU]iii CoNVOLYULUS, L. — liaie, and little more 
than a casual. Kinlochewe. It is also marked in Dixon's 
list 

*P. AViccLAEE, L — Xot uncommon. The varieties 
o.grcstinum, vulgatum, areimstrv.m, ruricagum, and litorale 
have been noticed by me in the county. 

(P. :maeitimoi, L — Is given in Dixon's list, e%idently 
in error, a maritime form or variety of aciculare having 
doubtless been mistaken for it) 

* P. HYDEOPiPEii, L. — Piather common, 

* P. Persicaeia, L — Widely distributed. 

* P. LAPATHIFOLIUM, L — In several corn fields, as at 
Ullapool, Dornie, Kinlochewe, Jeantown, Applecross, etc. 

* P. AMPHIBIUM, L — Pare. The land form at Dornie 
alone noticed, 

P, VIYIPAEUM, L. — Given in Dixon's list, but this 
common jjlant of sub-alpine pastures I did not see till 
1894, when I found it on the Cnochau rocks. 

* OXYEIA DIGY'XA, Hill. — On many of the higher hills, 
and often brought down by mountain streams to low levels. 
I have seen it on Sgurr Fhuaran, An Teallacb, Meall Gorm, 
the Shoch Beinu Eigh (Ben Eay), on the sea-beach at 
Applecross, and near Duncraig Castle, close to the sea-level. 

* PiUMEX CONGLOMEEATUS, Murr. — Scattered through the 
county. 

* E. OBTUSiFOLius, L — About houses, as at Strathcarron, 
Jeantown, Dornie, Ullapool, Achnashellach. 

* P. ACUTUS, L. — Pare. Strathcarron. 

* R. CRISPUS, L — Common. As the var. trigranuloJiis 
(Syme), at Jeantown and Ullapool. 

* R DOMESTicus, Hartm.^ — Local, occurs in the neighbour- 
hood of the station at Strathcarron, with a plant which is 
probably B. propinquus, Aresch. 

* E, CONSPERSUS, Hartm. — Strathcarron. 

* P. AcETOSA, L. — Common, and widely distributed. 



Fki!. 18111.] IJOTANK'AL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 157 

* R. ACETOSELLA, L. — Coiiiiiioii, aucl generally dis- 
tributed. 

* Euphorbia helioscopia, L. — liare, and only a colonist. 
Kinlochewe, Dundonnell. 

* E. Peplus, L. — Colonist. ( larden ground at Kinlochewe 
and Stratlicarron. 

*Mercukialis peuennis, L. — Kare. Kintail. 

* Ulmus ca^nlpestkis, L. (U. montana, Sm.). — Probably 
native. Loch Duich, Stratlicarron, Applecross, and Dun- 
donnell. 

* U. SUBEIIOSA, Ehrli. — Planted in many places. 

* Urtica dioica, L. — Usually about houses ; widely 
distributed. 

U. UREXS, L. — Pecorded by ]\Ir. Ewing in 1 8 S 7. Coniniun 
about Ullapool and Jeantown. 

* Myrica Gale, L. — Common. 

* Betula alba, L. — Not uncommon. Loch Duich, Kin- 
lochewe, Applecross, etc. 

■* B. GLUTIXOSA, Eries. {11 odorafa, Bechst.). — In the 
Straths. Yar. imrvifoHa, "Wimm. — Kinlochewe, Stratli- 
carron, Ehidorroch. 

( ? B. NANA, L. — Loch Glass (Dr. Lightfoot). Loch Glass 
is, however, in East Eoss. It is included in Dixon's list, 
and is given in '"' Topographical Botany " without personal 
A'oucher.) 

* Alnus glutinosa, Cnertn. — Common in the valleys. 
*CORYLUS avellana, L. — Not common. Strome, Kin- 
lochewe, Loch Broom, etc. 

* QuERCUS PtOBUR, L, var. F(KM[na, Mill. — Kinlochewe, 
Dundonnell, Jeantown, Applecross. 

Q. PEDUNCULATA, Elirh., was not noticed by me, but the 
oak is so frequently barren in Poss that I may have over- 
looked this variety. 

: Fagus sylvatica, L. — Occurs only as a planted tree. 

(Salix pentandra, L. — Criven in Dixon's list, but I have 
not observed it.) 

: * S. alba, L. — Occurs as a planted tree at Jeantown, etc. 

* S. RUBRA, Huds. — Probably as a planted tree. L 
noticed it at Kinlochewe and Inverlael. 

* S. VBiiNALiP, L. — I'ossibly native. Strome, Loch 
Broom, Jeantown, etc. 



158 TEANSACTIO>'S AXD PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

* S. Smithlln'A, "Willd, — Loch Broom, but ver}- likely 
planted. 

* S. EUGOSA, Leefe. — Probably planted. At Kinlochewe. 

* S. crxEBEA, L. — Common and vaiiable. 

*S. AUEITA, L. — Eatlier frequent, sometimes as the var. 
minor. Sond. 

*S. CAPBEA, L. — Xot uncommon, but much less frequent 
than S. cinerca. 

(S. NIGEICANS, Sm., is given in Dixon's list, and it may 
probably be correct, but it evidently is not common, as I 
have been unable so far to detect it. 

(S. PHTLiciFOLiA, L., is given in the Applecross list. I 
was unable to see it on either of my visits to the county. 
It had better be queried, since forms of >S'. cinerea are 
frequently mistaken for it.) 

*S. AMBIGUA, Ehrh. (.S'. aurita x rcjJcns). — Rare. Xear 
Kishom. It is given in Dixon's list, but this Gairloch 
record will have to be verified. 

* S. KEPEXS, L. — Eather scarce. Ben Eay, Kishom. 

S. Lappoxcm, L. — In '•' Topographical Botany " on the 
authority of Mr. Campbell. I have not seen it in the vice- 
county. 

S. HEEDACEA, L. — Given in " Topographical Botany " 
without personal authority. It occurs on most of the 
higher mountains, as Ben Eay, the Slioch, An Teallach, 
^leall Gorm, and on a mountain in Strathcarron at about 
2000 feet, with very much larger leaves. 

(S. EETiCLLATA, L. — Included in the Gairloch list, but 
the record must be verified. S. aurita was probabl}' the 
plant seen.) 

* PoPULUS TBE:kiLTLA, L. — Xative, and widely distributed : 
and as the var. fjlah-a. 

* : P. XIGBA, L. — Planted, as at Ullapool, Jeantown, 
Lo'j;h Daich, etc. 

* EsiPETEUM xiGECM, L. — Abundant. 

JcxiPEBUS COMMUNIS, L. — Given in the lists of ]\Ir. 
Dixon and Mr. Allan, but I have no memorandum of 
liaving seen it in the vice-county, 

*J. NANA, Wnid. — On the Slioch, Ben Eay, Ullapool, 
Strathcarron, etc., also as a fonn approaching ./. communis. 

Pes'US SYLVESTp.i.^, L. — Undoubtedly native. Eemains 



Ficii. 1891.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 159 

of ancient trees are to be seen in many of the peat bogs. 
Lijihtfoot recorded it from Loch Aiaree in the " Flora Scotica," 
where it still occurs. This tree probably supplied the 
ancient iron-works with fuel. 

Malaxis paludosa, Sw. — See " Topographical Botany " 
without personal authority. In Glen Docharty growing 
with Hijimiim revolvcns, rather common on the shores of 
Loch Maree. 

CoKALLOKHiZA INN ATA, Br. — " In a moist, hanging wood, 
on the south side, near the head of Little Loch Broom." 
(Lightfoot in "Flora Scotica," p. 52o). 

LiSTERA coed ATA, Br. — About Little Loch Broom (Light- 
foot). I saw this by Loch Maree and on the limestone 
near Ullapool, and near Dundonnell in Lightfoot's locality ; 
"also at Ehidorroch. Pcramlum appears to be the older 
generic name. 

* L. OVATA, Br. — Not common, and only noticed on 
limestone, as at Ullapool, Applecross, Kishorn, and Cnochan. 

GoODYERA REPENS, Br. — Kecorded by Lightfoot as 
" Satyrium repens, growing amongst the Hypna, in an old, 
shady, moist, hanging birch wood, called Ca-bue or Yellow- 
hill, facing the house of Mr. Mackenzie, of Dundonald, 
about two miles from the head of Little Loch Broom." 

Cephalanthera ensifolia, Rich. — Dixon in his list of 
Gairloch plants states that Dr. Mackenzie, writing of the 
first quarter of the century, says " the braes and wooded 
hillocks of Gairloch were a perfect jungle of every kind of 
loveable shrub and wild flower . . . some of the Epi]3actis 
tribe being everywhere a lovely drug." " The Epi2Kictis 
ensifolia^' says Dixon, " formerly abundant, is now almost 
unknown. In June 1883 I discovered one plant on a 
stony bank by water. In 1885 two plants were at the 
same place." 

* Orchis mascula, L. — Strome, Ullapool, Ehidorroch, 
Cnochan, and Jeantowii. 

* 0. incarnata, L. — Loch Duich, Ehidorroch, etc. 

* 0. LATIFOLIA, L. — Near the sea at Ullapool, Drum- 
roonie, Dundonnell. 

* 0. MACULATA, L. — Abundant. Usually with darker 
coloured flowers than those of the plant from the Midlands. 

(? Ophrys muscifkra, Huds. — Mr. Ix S. Ogle brouglit a 



160 TRANSACTIONS AND rEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. i.viir. 

root of an orchis, which he found near Achnashellach, to 
his garden in Oxfordshire. He believes a plant of the 
fly orchis, which has flowered there, to be from the Eoss- 
shire root. Confirmatory evidence of its occurrence in the 
county is needed.) 

(Hermixium Monorchis, Br. — One of the impossible 
plants of Dixon's list.) 

*Habenaeia albida, Br. — Apparently rare. I saw it 
on the limestone at Ullapool, and rather plentiful near 
Pthidorroch. 

H. CONOPSEA, Eeich. — Recorded by Mr. C. Bailey from 
Gairloch in 1883. I have seen it at Kishorn, Rhidorroch, 
Cnochan, Strome, etc. 

H. viRiDis, Br. — Recorded in the Applecross list. I 
saw it at Ullapool, Cnochan, and Kishorn on the limestone, 
also a plant with branched spike. 

* H. I3IF0LIA, Br. — Loch Torridon, Strome, Loch Duich, 
Rhidorroch, Duncraig, Dundonnell, etc. 

H. CHLOROLEUGA, Ridley. — Recorded in the Gairloch 
and Applecross lists. I saw it in grass fields near Dun- 
donnell. 

* Iris Pseudacorus, L. — Achmore, Ullapool, Kishorn, 
Applecross, Jeantown, etc. 

(Allium oleraceum, L. — In the Gairloch list, doul)tful.) 
*A. URSINUM, L. — Rare. Strome, on steep rocks by the 
waterfall at Jeantown, and on the Cnochan rocks. 

* SciLLA NUTANS, Sm. — Widely distributed. 

* Xarthecioi ossifragum, L. — Abundant. The flowers 
have a perfume like the clove-pink. 

ToFiELDiA PALUSTRis, Huds. — Recorded in " Topo- 
graphical Botany." I have seen it on the Slioch and Ben 
Eay. 

* JuNCUS BUFONius, L. — Common, and as the var. fo-^ci- 
cularis, Koch. 

J. TRiFiDUS, L. — Mountains near Little Loch Broom 
(Dr. Lightfoot). In " Topographical Botany," without 
personal authority. It is plentiful on the ridge of Ben 
Eay, on the Slioch, Ben More, An Teallach, Sgurr Fhuaran, 
and Meall Gorm. It descends to 1000 feet on a mountain 
in Strathcarron. 

(J. COMPRESSUS, Jacq^. — Some specimens which I 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 161 

wathered at Attadale in 1870 were so named by Dr. 
Boswell Syrae, but they were rather young, and I 
l)elieve them to have been J. Gerardi. At anyrate, 
confirmatory evidence is needed of the occurrence of true 
J. compressiis in "West Ross.) 

*J, Geraedi, Lois. — Common on the sides of Loch 
Carron by the mouth of the river, at L^llapool, at 
Kishorn, and Dundonnell. 

* J. EFFUSUS, L. — Widely distributed. 

* J. CONGLOMERATUS, L. — Abundant, and generally dis- 
tributed. 

*J. SUPINUS, Mcench. (./. hidhosvs, L.). — Common, and 
generally distributed. Var. Kochii, Syme. — Strome Ferry 
(Rev. E. F. Linton), 1885. Yaw Jluitans, Fries. — Loch a 
Mhuilinu, etc. Yar. idiginosus, Roth. — Glen Docharty, 
Ullapool. 

*J. LAMPOCARPUS, Ehrh. — Common. Yar. nigritelluSy 
Don. — Margins of Loch Maree. 

* J. SYLVATicus, Reich. {J. articidatus, L. pp.). — Xot un- 
common. 

J. TRiGLUMis, L. — Recorded by Churchill Babington 
in " Topographical Botany." It is much less frequent 
on the Ross mountains than on the Cairngorms or the 
r>readalbane mountains. I saw it on An Teallach, 
Sgurr Fhuaran, Meall Gorm, etc. 

* LuzuLA VERNALis, DC. — Not frequent. Glen Docharty. 
*L. MAXIMA, DC. — Widely distributed; plentiful on 

mountain cliffs and by waterfalls. 

L. SPICATA, DC. — Without personal voucher in " Topo- 
graphical Botany." On the Slioch, Ben Eay, Ben More, 
An Teallach, Meall Gorm it has been noticed by me. 

* L. CAMPESTRLS, DC. — Common. 

* L. ERECTA, Desf. — Common, and more frequently as 
the var. conrjcsta, Koch. The var. jPf/Z/csccjis, Koch., was 
noticed near Braemore. 

* Sparganium erectu.m, L. — Rare. Dornie. 
*S. simplex, Huds. — Loch Maree. 

*S, AFFiNE, Schnizl. {S. natans, Hooker et auct. var.). — 
In some small mountain lochs on Ben Eay ; also at 2200 feet 
on the Slioch. Probably this was Dr. Lightfoot's S. natans, 
seen in lochs between Little Loch Broom and Ledbeg. 

TH.VXS. BOX. .SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. L 



162 TRANSACTIONS AND TROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

* S. MINIMUM, Fries. (S. natans, L. herb.). — In a small 
marshy place near Loch Alsh. I saw no Sparganiums in 
1893 in Eoss. 

* Lemna minor, L. — Rare. Kinlochewe. Not seen in 
1893. 

*Triglochin ralustee, L. — Glen Dochartj, Ullapool, 
etc. 

* T. maritimum, L. — Common on the shores of Loch 
Carron, Little Loch Broom, etc. 

* Potamogeton NATANS, L — Eccorded in the Applecross 
and Gairloch lists, but how far correctly I cannot say. It 
is much rarer than the next species, which the above 
record may have probably intended. The true P. natans, 
L., occurs in Loch a Mhuilinn. 

*P. POLYGONiFOLius, Pourr. — Abundant both as the 
ericetal form and as the floating plant. 

* P. gramineus, L. (P. lietcrophyllus, Schreb.). — In Loch 
a Mhuilinn. The unusual drought made the level of the 
water much lower, so that some of the plants were growing 
on the muddy margin of the loch as the form terrestris 
Meyer. 

(P. lucens, L. — Gairloch, Dixon. Very doubtful ; pro- 
bably the foregoing species.) 

* EUPPIA ROSTELLATA, Koch. — In brackish ditches at the 
head of Loch Carron. * Var. nana, Bosw. — Loch Carron, 
near Jeantown. 

(?Eleocharis acicularis, Sm.— Kinlochewe. I should 
like to have this reaffirmed.) 

*E. PALUSTRis, E. Br. — Loch Clare. Recorded in the 
Applecross list. I saw it also in a loch on the moorland 
between Ullapool and Dundonnell, and in Strathcarron. 

* E. MULTiGAULis, Sm. — Common, and widely distributed. 

* SciRPUS PAUCIFLORUS, Lightf. — Frequent. 

* S. FLUITANS, L. — Loch Coulin, and in a small stream 
in Loch Carron. 

* S. C^SPITOSUS, L. — Abundant, and generally distributed. 
*S. SETAGEUS, L. — Kinlochewe 1887, Ullapool, Strath- 
carron, Applecross, etc., not rare. 

S. LACUSTRis, L. — Glencarron (Mr. Sewell). I have 
not seen this in the west watershed in Strathcarron ; it is 
not rare in East Eoss. It occurs in West Eoss at Apple- 



Tkij. l.S'J4.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 163 

cross, in Loch a Mhuiliun and Loch Coulin, and by Loch 
Diiich. 

S. MARiTiMUS, L. — Kiutail (" Collectanea for a Flora of 
Moray," by Dr. Gordon, 1836, p. 3). I have seen it 
there as the var. coiiglohatus, Gray. It also occurs at 
Kishorn with the variety mentioned. 

* S. RUFUS, Wahlb. — Plentiful in two or three places on 
the shores of Loch Carron. The var. hifolius {Bbjsmus 
rafiis, var. hifolius, Wallroth) also occurred, and appeared 
to gradually merge into the type. 

* Eriophorum VAGiNATL'M, L. — Abundant, and generally 
distributed. 

*E. POLYSTACHiox, L. {E. aivjustifolmni, Eoth.) — 
Abundant, and generally distributed. The var. minus, 
Koch, was seen on Slioch, etc. Var. Vaillantianum, Poit. 
€t Tiirp. — Kinlochewe. 

E. LATIFOLIUM, Hoppc. — " Topographical Botany," on 
faith of a specimen sent by Churchill Babington. I have 
not seen it in West Boss. There is an earlier record, Mr. 
Arth. Bennett points out, viz. Plockton, 6 miles w.s.w. of 
Strome Ferry (Mr. Stables). See " Gordon Coll.," p. 3, 1836. 

Ehyncospora ALBA, Vahl. — Recorded by Churchill 
Babington in " Topographical Botany." It is locally 
common, as in Glen Torridon, Strathcarron, near Dun- 
donnell, etc. 

ScHCENUS NIGRICANS, L. — "Topographical Botany 
(Churchill Babington)." Frequent. Especially abundant 
about Loch Broom side, Strathcarron, Applecross, etc.; also 
as the var. nanus, Lange, in Strathcarron. 

Cladium jamaicense, Crantz. (C. r/ermanicum, Schrad.) — 
A. Evans 1890, see "Scotch Xaturalist," 1891, p. 186. 
1 have not seen it in the county. 

* Carex dioica, L. — Xot uncommon, and widely dis- 
tributed ; but much less frequent than C. pulicaris, L. 

* C. PULICARIS, L. — Abundant, and generally distributed. 

* C. RUPESTRis, L. — A scrappy specimen gathered by me 
in 1880 near Glen Shiel may belong to this species. It 
occurs very sparingly on the Cnochan rocks in West Boss, 
and is not uncommon on the same rocks at a low altitude 
in West Sutherland. 

* C. PAUCIFLORA, Liglitf. — Lower slopes of Ben Eay, 



164 TEANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

moorland in Glen Torridon, and moorland between the two 
Loch Brooms. 

* C. APiENAEiA, L, — Very local. I only saw it on a 
small piece of sandy coast near Polglass. 

* C. PANICULATA, L. — Rare. In Gleann Bianasdail. 

* C. ECHENATA, MuiT. — Abundant. 

*C. EEMOTA, L. — Loch Coulin side, DundonneU. Local 
and rare. The starved form C. tenella, Sm. (non Schk,), 
occurred by Loch Duich. 

* C. CAiTESCENS, L. — Local and rare. Loch Alsh. 

*C. LEPOEDsA, L — Glen Shiel, Braemore, DundonneU, 
Applecross, Kishom, etc. 

* C. EIGIDA, Good. — The Slioch, Ben Eay, An Teallach, 
Sgurr rhuaran, etc. Common on the higher hills. 

* C. GooDEJfOwn, J. Gay. — -Common and variable. The 
var. C. juncdl<Ji, Fries., occurred at Kinlochewe, and at Loch 
Achall, etc. The var. mclosiia, "Wimm., at An Teallach and 
Ben Eay ; it is simply a diseased state. 

*C. FLACCA, Schreb. {C. glo.vxd., Murr.). — Common and 
A'ariable. 

* C. PILULIFEEA, L. — Common, and generally distributed. 
The var. longihracteata occurred on Ben Eay, An Teallach, 
and Cnochan. 

* C. PALLESCENS, L. — Basc of Sgurr Fhuaran, Braemore, 
DundonneU, Applecross, Duncraig, Pihidorroch. 

* C. PAXICEA, L. — Common, and generally distributed. 

* C. YAGINATA, Tausch. — Bare. The Slioch. 

* C. SYLTATICA, Huds. — Strome, Braemore, DundonneU, 
Applecross, Kishom, etc. 

* C. BDv'EEYis, Sm. — Abundant and variable. On the 
higher hills it occurs with much darker fruit and glumes 
— var. or f. nigrcsccns. On the moorlands as in Glen 
Tonidon, Braemore, etc., it is sometimes four feet high, and 
has large, rather conical than cylindiic spikelets. This 
form {iiatior) is sometimes confused with C. laevigata. 

C. L^TIGATA, Sm. — On the authority of Mr. Grieve. I 
have not seen it in the county. 

* C. HOENSCHUCiiiAKA, Hoppe. — Bather common. 

*C. ruLVA, Good. — Glen Torridon, Strathcarron. Var. 
C. xo.nihocarpa, Degl. — Kinlochewe, Applecross, near Loch 
Clare 1888, DundonneU 1894. 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 165 

* C. EXTENSA, Good. — Xear Jeantown by the shores of 
Loch Carron, and as the \di\\ pumila, And. 

* C. FLAYA, L. — Common. Var. oederi, Lilj. — Strath- 
carron, Applecross, etc. 

* C. CHKYSITES, Link. {C. wdcri, auct. Yar. non Ehrh). — 
IJare. At the upper end of Loch Carron. 

C. FiLiFORMis, L. — Found by Mr. V. Ewing in 1887. 
80 fur I haYe not met with it. 

* C. KOSTRATA, Stokes. — Common. 

C. SAXATiLis, L. — Found by Mr. Sevvell on Sgurr Paiadh 
at about 3000 feet. 

* Phalaeis aruxdinacea, L. — Dornie, Applecross. Not 
common. 

* Anthoxanthum odoratum, L. — Common, and generally 
distributed. 

*Alopecueus geniculatus, L. — Kinlochewe, Ullapool, 
Applecross, etc. 

* A. PEATENSis, L. — Dornie, Jeantown, Applecross, Ulla- 
pool, etc. Some Yery robust forms by Loch Carron in 
cultiYated fields. 

* Phleum peatense, L. — Kinlochewe. Very robust 
form at Jeantown, Dundonnell. 

*Agrostis canixa, L. — Common. Abundant on the 
moorland in Glen Torridon as the f. grandiflora, Hack. ; 
and on Ben Eay and the Slioch, from 1500 feet upwards 
to 3000 feet, as the var. Scotica, Hackel, which approaches 
A rzihra, AYahl. It occurs also as the sub- var. mutica. 
True A. riihra has Jlat radical leaves without runners. See 
Journ. Bot., 1890, p. 45-6. 

*A. ALBA, L. — Abundant and variable. As the var. 
coaixtata, Hoffm., at Kinlochewe, Strathcarron, Ullapool, 
Torridon, etc. Yar. maritima, Meyer. — Jeantown, Polglass, 
etc. Var. ijatula, Gaud. — Ullapool. 

*A. vulgaris, With. — Common. Var. _^m?;ii7«, L. — Xot 
uncommon. An Teallach, Meall Gorm, etc. 

AiRA caryophyllea, L. — Found by Mr. Ewing in 1887 ; 
it is not very common. I saw it in Strathcarron and 
Ullapool. 

*A. PR.ECOX, L. — Ullapool, Keppoch, Braemore, Kin- 
lochewe, etc. 

*Deschampsia c.ESPiTOSA, BeauY, — Abundant and 



166 TEANSACTIONS AKD PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

generally distributed. , Var. alpina, (laud. — An Teallach, 
Meall Gorm. Yar. ^jJa/ZiV/a, Koch. — Applecross, Strath- 
carron, Kinlochewe. 

*D. FLEXUOSA. Trin. — Common, and widely distributed. 
Var. montana (Huds.). — An Teallach, Meall Gorm, Ben Eay. 

AvENA PUBESCENS, Huds. — " Topographical Botany " 
(Churchill Babington). On the limestone at Ullapool, 
and as the var. glahcrrima, Borb., in Baenitz. Herb. Europ. 
=Yar. alpina, Eeichb., Fl. Excurs. 52, there and at 
Cnochan. 

*A. FATUA, L. — Strome 

*HoLCUS MOLLIS, L. — Strome, Ullapool, Jeantown. 

* H. LANATUS, L. — Abundant and generally distributed. 
A common montane grass on Slioch. . 

* Arrhexatherum avenaceum, Beauv. — Attadale, Strome, 
Ullapool, etc. The var. A. hdhosiim is the frequent plant 
at Ullapool, etc. I think it is a distinct sub-species. 

*Sieglingia decumbens, Bernh. — Craigmore, Braemore, 
etc. Common. 

*PnKAGMiTES COMMUNIS, Trin. — Eather rare. Loch 
Duich, Glen Torridon, Polglass as the var. iiniflora, Boreau. 

Sesleria cceeulea. Hard. — Piecorded by Lightfoot in 
the " Elora Scotica " as Cynosurus camdetts, growing on wet 
places on the sides of the mountains about Little Loch 
Broom. I did not see it on my short visit to An Teallach, 
but my exploration was stopped by heavy rain and mist, 
and I did not get as far as a small outcrop of the limestone 
where Lightfoot may have seen it. I failed to find it in 
1894. 

* Cynosurus cristatus, L. — Kinlochewe, Ullapool, Dun- 
donald, Jeantown, etc. 

*MoLixiA VARIA, Schranck. — Abundant, probably the 
commonest grass in the county. Sometimes on the hills 
and dry rocks as the var. dcijaiqjerata, Lindl. 

Melica NUTANS, L. — Strome (Eev. W. E. Linton). I 
saw it in the limestone gorge at Ullapool, by the waterfall 
at Jeantown, at Dundonnell, and Ehidorrocli. 

*Dactylis glomerata, L. — Kinlochewe, Ullapool, 
Applecross, Jeantown, etc. Not abundant. 

*PoA ANNUA, L. — Common, and generally distributed. 
The var. supina, Schrad., on Slioch and An Teallach. 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 1G7 

* r. NEMORALis, L. — Rare. Near Strome. I did not 
see it anywhere in 1893 or 1894. 

* P. PRATENSIS, L. — Common, and widely distributed. 
The var. P. subccerulea, Sm., on the beach at Ullapool, at 
Strathcarron, and on limestone rocks at Cnochan. 

* P. TRiviALis, L. — Common, A large, stout form which 
occurred at Ullapool is probably the var. midtifiora, Eeichb. 
The var. glahra, Doell. — Near Applecross and Ullapool. 

*G. FLUITANS, Br. — Dornie, Ullapool, etc. 

G. MARiTiMA, Wahl. — Piecorded by Lightfoot in "Flora 
Scotica " as Poa maritima from Loch Broom. It is abund- 
ant by Loch Carron, and also occurs about Kishorn, Ulla- 
pool, Applecross. It is a variable plant. 

* Festuca sciuroides, Eoth. {F. hromoides, L.). — Strath- 
carron, Ullapool, Loch Torridon side. 

*F. ovina, L. — Abundant, and generally distributed 
from the sea-level to over 3000 feet. The var, paludosa, 
Caud., is not uncommon. It occurred on a wall top with 
Sieglingia, Pedicidaris syhcdica, Carex pulicaris, 07'chis 
maculcda, L. Narthecium ossifragum, Carex echinata, etc., 
at Braemore. F. ovina is frequently viviparous. 

*F. RUBRA, L. — Not uncommon, and very variable. The 
f. pruinosa, Hackel, occurred by Loch Torridon, and is 
frequent as a plant of rocky coasts. Sub.-var. barbata. 
Hack., on An Teallach. A depauperate form occurred by 
the Abtruinn Bruachaig near Kinlochewe, and a rigid 
glaucous form by Loch Maree, and a form with much 
larger spikelets near Duncraig. 

*F. SYLVATICA, Vill. — I was pleased to find this hand- 
some species by the waterfall at Jeantown, and in a shady 
gorge at Dundonuell. 

*F. ELATIOR, L. — Ptare. On the limestone at Kishorn. 

^^ F. arundinacea, Schreb. — A plant probably belonging 
to this species was gatliered in a field close to Courthill 
House at Kit^horn. 

*Bromus giganteus, L. — Piather rare. Strome, Inver- 
lael, Jeantowm, Rhidorroch, Dundonnell. 

* B. ramosus, Huds. — Pare. Inverlael. 

* B. secalinus, L. — A rather rare colonist at Strath- 
carron, Ullapool, and Dundonnell. 

* B. RACKMOSUS, L. — Ullapool. 



168 TRAXSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lvih. 

* B. ]\roLLis, L. — Xot uncommon. The var. glabrescns, 
Co3s., at Ullapool. 

* B. COMMUTATUS, Schrad. — Ullapool. 

* Brachypodium gkacile, Beauv. — Local. Applecross, 
Eliidorroch, and by the waterfall near Jeantown. 

*LoLiUM PEPvENNE, L — Dornie, Kinlochewe, Ullapool, 
Strathcarron, etc. 

: L. ITALICUM, Braun. — Kinlochewe. Planted. 

*Agropyron caninum, Beauv. — By the waterfall at 
Jeantown. Dundonnell, Ehidorroch. 

*A. KEPENS, Beauv. — Common, and very variable. As 
the var. Leersianum, Gray, at Ullapool, etc.; as the var. 
harhahwi (Duval-Jouve), at Strathcarron ; and as a stiff 
maritime form, var. maritiimim, Mihi., by the coast at 
Jeantown. The glaucous form, var. ccesium, Doll., also 
occurred in Strathcarron. 

* A. JUNCEUM, Beauv. — On the small bit of sea sand at 
Polglass. 

* Nardus stricta, L. — Bather common, and widely 
distributed. 

*Elymus arenarius, L. — On tlie finer shingle of Loch 
Broom between Ullapool and Inverlael, and at Polglass on 
the sand. 

Hymenophyllum unilaterale, Bory. — Ptecorded as 
Tncliomanes tunhridgenses, near Loch Mari, by Dr. Lightfoot. 
In " Topographical Botany," but without personal authority. 
I saw it by the rail side near Strome Ferry. It is also 
given in Dixon's list. 

* Pteris aqltilina, L. — Common, and widely distributed. 

* Cryptogramme crispa, Br. — Local. Sgurr Fhuaran, 
Meall Gorm, and Sgurr na Caorach. In the Beallach Pass 
it is abundant. 

*LoMARiA Spigant, Dcsv. — Common, and widely dis- 
tributed. 

*AsPLENiUM Adiantum-nigrum, — Common, and widely 
distributed. 

A. MARINUM, L. — Given in both the Applecross and 
Gairloch lists. It occurs in a sea cave near Apple- 
cross. 

A. VIRIDE, Huds. — Ptecorded from the Cnochan rocks 
by Lightfoot in the " Flora Scotica." It is local. I saw it 



Feb. 1894.] BOTAN'ICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBUEGH. 169 

in tlie limestone gorge near Ullapool, and by the wateifall 
near Jeantown. It is abundant on the Cnochan rocks. 

*A. Trichomaxes, L. — Common, and widely distributed, 
especially near the sea. 

* A. EuTA-MURARiA, L. — Common The var. pseudo- 
germaniciLin, Milde., occurred in the limestone gorge near 
Ullapool, and at Cnochan. 

A. septenteioxale, L. — Given by Mr, Dixon m the list 
of Gairloch plants. 

*Athyrium Filix-fcemixa, Eoth. — Common, and as the 
vars. convexum, and mollc, by Loch Maree, etc. 

ScoLOPEXDEiUM YULGARE, Symons. — Eare. Eecorded in 
the Applecross list. It occurs near Kishorn, but very rarely. 

* Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. — Xot uncommon, and as 
the var. dentata. Hook. 

POLYSTICHUM LoxcHiTis, Eoth. — Given in the " Flora 
Scotica " as occurring on the limestone rocks at Cnochan. 
I found a small specimen on Ben Eay, and it is given in 
Dixon's list. It is common and luxuriant on the Cnochan 
rocks. 

* P. LOBATU.M, Presl. — Eather rare on both sides of 
Strathcarron, and as the var. acidcatum, Syme. 

* Lastrea Oreopteris, Presl. — Common and widely 
distributed. 

* L. FiLix-MAS, Presl. — Generally distributed. The var. 
'pahacea, Moore., at Lieuthgoch, Kinlochewe, etc. ; the var. 
ajffliiis, Bab., at Ullapool ; and the var. pumila, Moore, on An 
Teallach. 

* L. SPIXULOSA, Presl. — Glen Shiel, Applecross, Kinloch- 
ewe, etc. 

* L. DILATATA, Presl. — Common and variable. 

* L. .EMULA, Brack. — Glen Docharty. 

* PoLYPODiUM YULGARE, L. — Common, and also as the 
form var. hreves, Lange. 

* Phegopteris Dryopteris, Fee. — Xot common. Loch 
Clare side, near UUapool, Jeantown, Cnochan not typical. 

* P. polypodioides, Fee. — Xot very common, Strome, 
Braemore, Ullapool, Cnochan, etc. 

* OsMUXDA regalis, L. — Duncraig, near Jeantown, Dun- 
donnell, and near Applecross. In one of the islands in 
Loch Maree. 



170 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lvih. 

(Ophioglossum vulgatum, L. — Criven in Dixon's list. 

BoTRYCHiUM Lunar r A, L, — Eecordecl by Lightfoot 
" from Dundonalcl," near Ullapool, and at the south end of 
Loch Duich. 

Equisetum maximum, Lamk. — Local. Given in the 
Applecross list. I saw it close to the window of the little 
inn at Applecross, and it is plentiful in the woods close by. 

*E. arvense, L. — Not very common. Kinlochewo, 
Jeantown, etc. Also as a curious form or variety at 
Applecross. 

*E. sylvaticum, L. — Widely distributed, but not ex- 
tremely common. The var. capillare, Hoffra., at Kinloch- 
ewe. 

*E. palustre, L. — Not very common. Loch Clare, 
Ullapool, Jeantown. 

*E. limosum, L. — Loch Coulin, Kishorn, Strathcarron, 
Drumroonie, etc. 

*LTC0P0DiUiM Selago, L. — Not very common. On the 
Slioch as the var. recurvum, Desv., also as the type on Ben 
Eay. The var. cqjprcssum, Desv., on a mountain in Strath- 
carron, on An Teallach. 

L. inundatum, L. — See " Topographical Botany." I 
have a recollection of seeing it recorded from Kinlochewe. 

L. annotinum, L. — West Eoss (Stables). Sparingly on 
An Teallach. 

* L. clavatum, L. — Carnasoiig, Ben Eay, etc., but not 
common. I did not see it in 1893. 

* L. alpinum, L. — Eather common on tlie higher hills. 
The var. decipicns (X. comjjlanatum, L., var. anccps, 
Baenitz., Herb. Europ.). — Eare. Ben Slioch, An Teallach, 
Ben Eay, etc. In 1893 I saw but few specimens of the 
Lycopods in Eoss; in 1894 they were more common. 

* Selaginella selaginoides. Gray. — Not unfrequent, as 
Glen Shiel, Torridon, Strathcarron, Beallach na bo Pass, 
An Teallach, and Cnochan. 

* Isoetes lacustris, L. — Common in Loch Maree. It 
is found at about 2000 feet on top of the Beallach na bo 
Pass as the var. falcata, Tausch. 

I. ECHINOSPORA, Dur. — Eccorded by Mr. Ewing. 
Chara fragilis, Desv. — Eecorded by Mr. C. Bailey. It 
is plentiful in Loch a Mhuilinn and Loch Achall, and as the 



Fer. 1804.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. I7l 

var. dclicatiila, Br., in a small stream in Strathcarron, and 
at Applecross. 

* ISTiTELLA OPACA, Aghardh. — Loch Maree. Apparently 
rare. ' 



A few critical plants are still being investigated. 



Notes from the lioYAL Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

I. BtEPORT ON Temperature and Vegetation during 
January 1894. By Egbert Lindsay, Curator. 

During the past month of January the thermometer fell 
below the freezing point on nineteen occasions, indicating 
collectively 121° of frost for the month, as against 100° 
for the corresponding month last year. The lowest reading- 
was 9°, or 23° of frost, which was registered on the 7th 
of the month. (The same amount was registered on the 
6th of January last year, and was the lowest reading 
recorded last winter.) Other very low readings were 
registered on the mornins-.s of the 6th and 8th, when the 
glass fell to 13° and 15° respectively. The lowest day 
temperature was 22° on the 6th, and the highest 58° on 
the 14th. Of the forty selected plants whose dates of 
flowering are annually recorded to the Society, the follow- 
ing came into flower, viz.: — Bidhocodium vermim, on 12th 
January; GcdantJms nivalis, 16th; Leucojum vermcm, 18th; 
Eranthis hyemcdis, 19th; Daphne Mezercum, 19th; Scilla 
inaxox, 22nd; ^S*. siberica, 22nd; Galantlms pliccdus, 22nd; 
Rliododcndron atrovirens, 24th. 

On the rock-garden 22 plants came into flower during 
the month, as against 13 last January. Amongst which 
were the following, viz. : — Arahis 'procii7Tens, Hellchoms 
viHdis, ITepatica triloba, If. angidosa, Hyacintlms aziircun, 
Galanthus Ehvcsii, G. Impcrati, Iris soplionensis, Primula 
elatior, Synthiris reniformis, Triteleia iinifiora, etc. Several 
plants of Yucca gloriosa are developing flower-spikes at a 
very unusual period of the year. 



172 TKANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lviii. 



Eeadings of exposed Thermometers at the Eock-Garden of the 
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during January 1894. 



Date. 


Minimum. 


A.M. 


Maximum. 


Date. 


Miuimuni. 


9 a.m. 


Maximum 


1st 


. 26° 


35° 


39' 


17th 


38° 


40° 


48° 


2nd 


28 


33 


39 


18th 


36 


38 


47 


3rd 


27 


30 


36 


19th 


35 


40 


49 


4th 


29 


32 


36 


20th 


36 


41 


47 


5 th 


28 


31 


36 


21st 


38 


45 


52 


Gth 


13 


14 


22 


22nd 


31 


35 


41 


7 th 


9 


13 


31 


23rd 


25 


27 


37 


8th 


15 


21 


33 


24th 


28 


41 


50 


9th 


25 


35 


44 


25th 


36 


38 


45 


10th 


31 


32 


50 


26th 


29 


30 


49 


llih 


41 


47 


60 


27th 


34 


47 


51 


12th 


37 


44 


50 


28 th 


27 


32 


39 


13th 


38 


45 


52 


29th 


28 


32 


44 


14th 


39 


43 


58 


30th 


31 


33 


39 


15 th 


30 


33 


43 


31st 


27 


30 


40 


16th 


35 


47 


57 











Feu. 18!) I.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



17; 



11. Meteorological Observations recorded at Uoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of January 
1894. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Moan Sea-Level, 
76-0 feet. Hour of Observation, 1) a.m. 





'^"2' 


Thermometers, protected, 
















4 feet above grass. 










r^ 


J3 














M 


P 
O 


0) 


S.E. Ther- 




^,. 


Clouds. 






1^ 




mometers for 
















0) 


O o* 
O ^1 


preceding 


Hydrometer. 


o 

a 

o 

s 








^— ^ 






24 hoiu-s. 














Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Kind. 


o 


ti 




M2 
















5"" 








o 





o 















1 


30-408 


47-8 


31-0 


36-2 


33-0 


N. 


Cum. 


J) 


N. 


0-000 


2 


30-350 


37-0 


30-7 


35-1 


34-2 


N.E. 


Cum. 


S 


N.E. 


0-010 


3 


30683 


38-1 


30-1 


32-6 


3(1-0 


S.E. 


Cum. 


10 


S.E. 


0-000 


4 


30-511 


36 


32-1 


35-2 


31-2 


E. 


Cum. ' 


10 


E. 


0-015 


5 


30-006 


35-8 


300 


33-1 


30-0 


E. 


Cimi. 


10 


E. 


0-040 


6 


29-563 


35-8 


15-5 


16-2 


14-9 


N. 


Cir. 


1 


S. 


0-000 


7 


29-692 


20-8 


11-8 


14-1 


12-9 


Calm. 


Fog 


5 




0-000 


8 


29-918 


25-2 


13-2 


21-5 


21-1 


E. 


Fog 


5 




0-010 


9 


29-581 


37-2 


21-7 


37-2 


35-6 


E. 


Cum. 


10 


S.' 


0-010 


10 


29-358 


44-8 


35 


44-8 


430 


S.W. 


f Cir. St. 
\ Cum. 


7 
1 


s. ) 
S.W. r 


0-020 


11 


29-360 


51-9 


44-0 


49-8 


48-2 


S. 


Nim. 


10 


s. 


0-045 


12 


29 515 


52-8 


40-4 


47-1 


44-1 


S. 


Cir. 


5 


s. 


0-005 


13 


29-556 


49-8 


41-4 


48-2 


44-2 


S. 









0-000 


1-t 


29-647 


50-9 


39 7 


43-0 


42 


s. 


Cum. 


10 


s.' 


0-000 


15 


29-771 


45-2 


31-2 


32-3 


32-2 


w. 


Cum. 


5 


w. 


0-215 


16 


29-375 


47-1 


32-6 


46-5 


44-0 


s. 


Cir. 


4 


w. 


0-085 


17 


29-151 


51-6 


41-6 


42-0 


40-6 


S.W. 


Cum. 


3 


S.W. 


0-030 


18 


29-177 


46-7 


37-7 


39-8 


38-9 


N.W. 


... 







0-005 


19 


29-540 


45-7 


36-8 


41-2 


39-5 


S.W. 


Cir. St. 


10 


s!w. 


0-115 


20 


28-898 


48-6 


41-0 


42-8 


40-9 


s w. 


j' Cir. 
( Cum. 


1 

6 


W. ) 

S.W. ]■ 


0-020 


21 


29-389 


45-7 


41-0 


45-1 


431 


w. 


j Cir. 
t Cum. 


4 
3 


1 w. 


0-315 


22 


29-174 


46-8 


36-0 


36-0 


34-9 


w. 





0-000 


23 


29-707 


41-5 


28-2 


29-2 


27-9 


AV. 









0-000 


24 


29-576 


42-0 


29 


42-0 


40-() 


S.W. 


Cir.'st. 


10 


w. 


080 


25 


29-467 


48-9 


39-0 


39-8 


38-1 


S.W. 


Cir. 


1 


w. 


0-175 


26 


29-342 


43-9 


30-8 


32-2 


31-0 


w. 


Nim. 


10 


w. 


0-145 


27 


28-947 


49-0 


31-9 


49-0 


47-2 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-360 


28 


28-953 


49-8 


32-7 


34 2 


33-0 


w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


W. 


0-150 


29 


29-754 


36 1 


30-1 


33-1 


32-0 


S.W. 


... 







0-200 


30 


29-085 


43-6 


33 


37-1 


35-1 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


s.'w. 


0-235 


31 


29-087 


37-1 


31-1 


31-9 


30-6 


w. 







... 


0-045 



Barometer. — Highest Observed, on the 3rd, = 30-683 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 20th, = 28-898 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 1-785 inch. Mean = 
29-566 inches. 

S. R. Thermometers. — Highest Observed, on the 12th, = 52°-8. Lowest Observed, 
on the 7th, = 11^-8. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 41°-0. Mean of all the 
Highest = 43°-0. Mean of all the lowest = 32°-3. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Range, = 10°-7. Mean Temperature of Month = 37°-6. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 37'-0. Mean of Wet Bulb = 35° 3. 

Rainfall.— Number of Days on which Rain fell = 23. Amount of Fall = 2-330 
inches. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 27th, = 360 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, 
Observer. 



174 TKANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

III. On Plants in Plant Houses, with Exhibition 
OF Specimens. By Pi. L. Hakrow, 

During the montli of January about forty species of 
plants have produced their flowers in the houses of the 
lioyal Botanic Garden, the majority being inmates of 
tropical houses. The effect of brighter and longer days^is 
already apparent in these houses by the plants starting 
into new growth, the new foliage generally presenting a 
pleasing appearance. This is especially noticeable in the 
Palm House amongst Cycads, Palms, and ornamental foliage 
plants. Amongst the most worthy of flowering plants may 
be noted : — 

Clcrodendron sjdendcns, G. Don. This is an evergreen 
species with oblong shining leaves, produced upon a slender 
climbing stem. Flowers are scarlet, with yellowish green 
stamens and pistil, and are borne in terminal corymbose 
panicles sometimes more than six inches across, and thus 
forming a gorgeous winter-flowering stove climber. It is a 
native of Sierra Leone, and, although introduced in 1839, 
is still rarely seen in cultivation in this country. 

Vanda Amcsiana, Pchb. This is a comparatively recent 
introduction, first imported by Messrs. Low & Co., of 
Clapton, from the southern Shan States of Burmah, where 
it is said to grow at an elevation of from four to five 
thousand feet. The plant is of a small erect habit, leaves 
fleshy, rounded, with a grooved upper surface. The 
racemes of flowers are very fragrant, the sepals and petals 
being tinged with a slight p»urple shade, yet this colouring 
seems to be variable in the species, some plants producing 
almost pure white flowers which last a considerable time in 
perfection. 

Medinilla Javancnsis, Blume. A tropical evergreen 
shrub growing to about four feet in height, with four- 
angled stems, elliptic sessile leaves, with very prominent 
venation. It is a floriferous species with terminal panicles, 
bearing numerous pink white flowers of a waxy appearance, 
the anthers being dark purple. Messrs. RoUison were the 
first to introduce this species, at whose nursery it first 
flowered in 1850, from which a figure was prepared for the 
"Botanical Magazine," 4569. 



Feb. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBUllGIi. l7o 

Speciuieus of these and of the follo\Yiiig are exliibited : — 
Aiioiganthus Ircvijlorus, Baker,— a pretty, spring flowering, 
bulbous plant from Xatal. Eclgv:ortliia Gardncrii, Meissn., 
— a shrubby, deciduous plant belonging to the order Thy- 
melacaceie, with terminal inflorescences of yellow flowers, 
inhabiting the regions of the Himalayas and China, often 
called E. clinjmntlia, Lindl. Others most worthy of note 
are Cdbomha aqiiatica, Aubl., — a long growing aquatic with 
finely divided leaves, a native of Mexico ; Laclicnalia 
tricolor, Linn., and L. Xclsoni, Hort. ; Cypripcdiuni villosuiii, 
Lindl., and C. Hoolccra', Echb. fil., — a Bornean species; 
Caraguata Zahnii, Hook., — a bromeliad from Central 
America; Thunhcrgia laurifolia, Lindl. 



1 



Mar. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBUEGH. 177 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, March 8, 1894. 

Professor Bower, President, in the Chair. 

Sir A. BucHAX Hepburn, Bart., and Mr. A. Thomson, 
were elected Eesident Fellows of the Society. 

The President informed the Society of the death of 
Eobert Hutchison and of Alexander Galletly, Fellows 
of the Society, and of Joseph AVhittaker, Associate. 

Cut iiowers of Hcpatica triloba, Scilla sibcrica, Narcissus 
pseudo-narcissus and JY. BulljococUiLm, Berheris Darvnnii, Bibes 
sanguincum, and Daphne Mezercum were exhibited from the 
open garden of Mr. Campbell, at Ledaig, Argyllshire. 

Mr. KuTHERFORD HiLL exhibited specimens of the 
flowers from which Dalmatian insect powder is prepared. 
These were the flower-heads of the Fyrethrum cinerarice- 
foliura, Treviranus, a native of Dalmatia and Montenegro. 
The flowers imported from Dalmatia were cultivated chiefly 
at Citta Vecchia and Eagusa, and were also collected from 
wild plants growing on the hills in Montenegro. The wild 
flowers v.'ere reputed to yield the most powerful insecticide. 
The plant w-as now cultivated in Australia, South Africa, 
California, and near Berlin. It was a comparatively hardy 
plant, growing at an elevation of from 6000 to 7000 
feet. The original insect powder came from Persia, being 
yielded by two allied species, the Pyrcthruni roscurn and 
P. carneum, Bieberstein. All authorities agreed that the 
Dalmatian powder was a superior insecticide to the Persian, 
and this comparative weakness of the latter had been 
attributed to the fact that the flowers of the Persian 

TRAXS. BOX. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. M 

Issued November 1894. 



178 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

species were more prone to become " double " than those 
of the Dalmatian. When an insect was exposed to the 
action of the powder it was speedily paralysed, but in a 
few minutes seemed to slightly revive again. Soft-bodied 
insects, such as house flies and bees, were speedily killed, 
but hard-bodied insects, like beetles and cockroaches, 
resisted its action for a much longer time, and were not 
killed till after 50 or 60 hours exposure. Though not 
dead they were, however, rendered helpless, and could be 
easily captured and destroyed. The insecticidal properties 
of the flowers had been attributed to various constituents, 
and their toxic action was not thoroughly understood. 
They contained a small percentage of a volatile oil, which 
gave them their characteristic " tea-like " odour and slightly 
aromatic taste. It had been stated that the volatile oil 
was the active constituent, but that had not been proved. 
Schlagdenhauffen and Keeb found in the flower-heads a 
poisonous volatile acid, chry&anthemic acid, and also a 
poisonous non-volatile acid, pyrethrotoxic acid, to both of 
which they ascribed the insecticidal properties of the 
powder. 

The specimens shown consisted of the three grades met 
with in commerce, namely : — 

1. The closed flower-heads. These were the best 

quality, and by grinding these the finest and most 
powerful insect powder was obtained. They were 
worth, in the wholesale market, about £5, 16s. 
per cwt. 

2. The half-closed flower -heads. From these a second 

grade of insect powder was obtained. They were 
less aromatic and less powerfully insecticidal 
than the preceding grade. They were worth 
about £4 per cwt. 

3. The open flower-heads. These were the lowest 
•commercial grade, and worth only about £3 per 
cwt. 

Professor Bayley Balfour directed the attention of the 
Society to a paper in the " Kew Bulletin," giving an 
account of the production of citric acid, on a commercial 
scale, from sugar, by the agency of a form of Penicillium. 



Mar. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. l79 

The following Papers were read : — 

The President gave an interesting display of lantern- 
slides illustrating his views, which he explained, of the 
progressive sterilisation of cells in sporangia of the 
Ptcridophyta. 

Notes from the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

I. Eeport on Temperature and Vegetation during 
February 1894. By Egbert Lindsay^, Curator. 

The past month of Pebruary has been remarkable for 
the excessive rainfall that took place, which was unpre- 
cedented for February, and for the storm}-, unsettled 
weather that prevailed throughout the whole month. 
Gales from the westward or south-westward were frequent. 
The thermometer was at or below the freezing point on 
tifteen occasions, indicating collectively for the month 63° 
of frost, as against 64° for the corresponding mouth last 
year. The lowest readings occurred on the 1st, 24"'; 14th, 
20°; 15th, 22°; 19th, 25°; 22nd, 25°. The lowest day 
temperature was 36°, on the 17th, and the highest 55,° on 
the 6th. Vegetation generally is well forward. A large 
number of spring plants are in blossom. Eibes, thorns, 
roses, lilacs, and other hardy shrubs are fast starting into 
growth. Deciduous trees, such as elm, poplar, alder, and 
hazel are bearing large quantities of flower buds. Very 
little injury has been done by frost this winter so far as 
it has gone. Of the forty spring-flowering plants whose 
dates of flowering are annually recorded, the following 11 
came into flower, viz. : — CoryUus Avellana, on 3rd February ; 
Rhododendron Nobleanum, 3rd ; Scilla bifolia, 5th ; Crocus 
Susiamis, 6th; C. vermis, 12th; Si/riiplocarpus fcdidus, 
13th; Nor drnannica cor difolia, 1-^ih. ; Iris rcticidata, 19th; 
Tussilago nivea, 19th; Arabis cdhida, 20th; Mandragora 
offi-cincdis, 26th. 

On the rock-garden 40 species and varieties came into 
flower during the month, the same niimber as for the 
corresponding month last year. Among the more interest- 
ing were — ColcMciun crocifiorum, Corydalis angustifolius, 



180 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

Chionodoxa sardensis, Galanth.us Redoutei, Daphne Blaga- 
yana, Lcucojnm carpaticum, Narcissus minimiis, Hcllehorus 
antiquorurn, H. abschasicus, IT. orientalis, Hhododendron 
lajyponicuvi, R. prcccox, Saxifraga. Burseriana, S. oppositi- 
folia, etc. 

Readings of exposed Thermometers at the Rock-Garden of the 
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during FelDruary 1894. 

Date. Minimum. a.m. Maximum. Date. 3Iinimum. 9 a.m. Maximum. 



1st 


24° 


30= 


50° 


15th 


22° 


33° 


41' 


2nd 


38 


47 


53 


16th 


34 


37 


43 


3rd 


3G 


40 


41 


17th 


34 


35 


36 


4th 


35 


43 


51 


18th 


31 


34 


43 


5th 


33 


37 


52 ; 


19th 


25 


31 


41 


6 th 


36 


48 


55 


20th 


32 


38 


43 


7th 


35 


43 


49 


21st 


36 


39 


47 


8th 


36 


40 


48 ' 


22nd 


25 


35 


36 


9th 


39 


40 


43 


23rd 


31 


43 


49 


10th 


28 


36 


43 


24tli 


30 


35 


39 


nth 


31 


35 


49 


25th 


30 


42 


50 


12th 


35 


36 


42 


26th 


32 


42 


51 


13th 


26 


33 


41 


27th 


36 


43 


49 


14th 


20 


27 


41 


28th 


30 


35 


46 



Mak. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



181 



II. Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of February 
1894. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
7G-5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





'3'? 


Thermometers, protected, 














§1 


4 feet above grass. 










/-^ 


^ 










a 


Clouds. 










i 


0) 


S. R. Ther- 




■^ 








o 


go- 


mometers for 
preceding 


Hygrometer. 










v—' 


"o 


I'' 

ii 


24 hours. 






§ 

o 

p 

p 








3 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Kind. 


. 

3 
O 

a 

< 








o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


29-518 


37-1 


27-1 


31-2 


30-6 


w. 


Cir. 


5 


N.W. 


0-115 


2 


29-499 


48-9 


31-7 


48-0 


46-9 


W. 


Cum. 


10 


W. 


0-160 


3 


29-602 


52-7 


40-2 


41-6 


39 


w. 









0-060 


4 


29-993 


46-0 


37-4 


46-0 


44-8 


w. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-010 


5 


30-199 


52-4 


34-7 


36-9 


35-9 


s.w. 


Cir. 


10 




0-045 


6 


29-458 


49-8 


36-8 


49-8 


46-9 


s.w. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-385 


7 


29-267 


53-8 


45-2 


45-2 


44-9 


w. 


Nim. 


10 


w. 


0-520 


8 


29-760 


46-8 


37-0 


41-5 


39-2 


w. 









0-100 


9 


29-384 


46-7 


40-8 


42-1 


40-9 


w. 


Cir."'st. 


10 


w. 


0-490 


10 


29-144 


46-7 


34-2 


35-8 


35-0 


N.W. 


Cir. 


3 


N.W. 


0-145 


11 


29-026 


38-7 


35-1 


36-1 


35-9 


e. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


1-020 


12 


28-968 


49-3 


35-3 


37-8 


35-7 


N.W. 


Cir. 


6 


N.W. 


0-000 


13 


29-790 


42-4 


29-3 


32-0 


30-6 


W. 









0-010 


14 


30-076 


39-1 


23 9 


26-4 


24-4 


W. 









0-000 


15 


29-999 


39-2 


26-6 


34-6 


31-9 


e. 


Nim. 


10 


e'. 


0-165 


16 


29-880 


40-8 


330 


40-1 


40-0 


e. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


1-650 


17 


-29-960 


42-8 


36-0 


36-1 


35-8 


s.e. 


Nim. 


10 


S.E. 


0-285 


18 


30-330 


36-7 


32-1 


35-0 


32-9 


s.e. 


Cir. '. 


2 


N.W. 


0-000 


19 


30-350 


39-0 


28-7 


31-9 


29-2 


w. 


Cir." 


9 


N.W. 


0-000 


20 


30-332 


39 


31-2 


39-0 


37-8 


w. 


fCir. St. 
ICum. 
Cir. 


9 


W. 


0-000 


21 


30-144 


43-4 


38-3 


40-2 


39-1 


s.w. 


N.W. 


0-000 


22 


30-239 


45-6 


30-0 


32-2 


31-1 


w. 


Fog 


2 




0-010 


23 


29-613 


480 


32-8 


43-0 


40-1 


s.w. 


Cir. 


5 


s.'w. 


0-482 


24 


29-279 


47-8 


32-3 


33-2 


32-8 


w. 









0-140 


25 


29-108 


41-8 


32-8 


41-8 


40-1 


s. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-370 


26 


29-195 


48-9 


360 


43-5 


42-2 


w. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-150 


27 


29-384 


50-7 


40-0 


40-5 


36-9 


w. 







... 


0-085 


28 


29-539 


46-5 


34-3 


40-0 


38-1 


N.W. 


cir. 


6 


S.W. 


0-300 



Barometer. — Highest Observed, on the 19th, = 30-350 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 12th, = 28-968 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 1-382 inch. 
Mean = 29-680 inches. 

S. R. Thermometers. — Highest Observed, on the 7th, = 53°-8. Lowest 
Observed, on the 14th, = 23°-9. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 29°-9. Mean of 
all the Highest — 45°-0. Mean of all the Lowest = 34"-0. Difference, or Mean 
Daily Range, = ll°-0. Mean Temperature of Month = 39°-5. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 38°-6. Mean of Wet Bulb = 37° -1. 

Rainfall. — Number of Days on which Rain fell = 22. Amount of Fall — 6-697 
inches. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 16th, = 1650 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, 
Obscri'cr. 



182 TEAXS ACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lvm. 

III. On Plants in the Plant Houses, with Exhibi- 
tion OF Specimens. By Pi. L. Hakrow. 

About sixty species of plants have flowered in the 
houses of the Eoyal Botanic Garden during February, this 
number being a decided increase upon that of the preceding 
month. The earlier flowering Acacias have done much, 
with their numerous heads of usually bright yellow flowers, 
to give the several houses containing them a bright appear- 
ance. Conspicuous amongst them being the well-known 
A. cUalhata, Link., so commonly seen in the windows of 
florists ; the greater quantity of the supply for our markets 
coming from the Eiviera, where it is very successfully 
cultivated out of doors. M. Yilmorin, in a paper read 
before the Pioyal Horticultural Society, mentions an artificial 
process to facilitate the opening of the flowers of this 
species in that district : — " The flowering branches are cut a 
week or so before they would bloom in the open, and are 
submitted, with their butt end steeped in water, to the 
action of moderately heated steam. The flowers expand in 
from ten to twenty hours, and last as long afterwards as if 
cut direct from the tree." 

Amongst the others exhibited are A. discolor, Willd., a 
stifi'-growing plant with long spikes of flowers lasting for a 
considerable period, native of Xew South Wales, and intro- 
duced in 1788. 

A. melanoonjlon, E. Br. From Australia, with large balls 
of light yellow flowers, the plant being bush-like in habit, 
bearing rather large leathery phyllodes ; the native name 
being Blackwood. 

A. longifolia, Willd. The spikes are thickly crowded 
with small flowers, the phyllodia being linear lanceolate. 
It is of an erect habit of growth. 

A. Latrolei, Meissn. This is an extremely graceful, free- 
flowering plant, with small phyllodes ; the flower-heads 
solitary, and produced a good distance from the apex of 
the shoot. 

A. imhricata, F. Mueller. Very similar as regards its 
flowering, but difiering in its more loose mode of branching, 
and the phyllodes being rather larger. 

A. fcrticillata, Willd. This is a distinct species, with 



Mak. lf<^J. BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



linear phyllodes, and solitary axillary spikes. Introduced 
in 17S0. 

The Camellias have also been very showy, the colours 
ranging from dark red to pure white, about twelve varieties 
of which we are able to exhibit. 

Dekerainia svmragdina, Decne. Is one of the small 
number of plants which bear green flowers. The plant 
under notice is a member of the order Myrsinacete, being a 
native of Mexico. In habit it is a small, compact-growing 
shrub with dense foliage, the oblong lanceolate leaves 
covered with brown hairs. The flowers are borne in 
clusters towards the apex of the growths, being scarcely 
discernable amongst the green foliage where they are con- 
cealed. The flowers are about two inches in diameter. 
Formerly known under the name of Theophrasta smaragdina 
it was first introduced in 1876, and this is probably the 
first time of flowering in this garden, the plant exhibited 
having been received from Kew during 1893. 

Lcdia harpophylla, Echb. fil. A slender-growing plant, 
till recently rare in cultivation, the flowers having an un- 
usual colour amongst orchids. In Messrs. Veitch's " Manual 
of Orchidaceous Plants " it is said to have first flowered in 
1867, and that, although introduced from Brazil, no record 
was obtainable as to the locality. 

Amongst the others worthy of note are : Tillandsia 
splendcns, Brongn., — a native of British Guiana, with bright 
purple bracts ; Phyllodadus rlioinboidalis, Eich., — a coni- 
ferous tree, growing to a height of sixty feet in iSTew 
Zealand ; Illicium jioridanum, a brightly coloured magno- 
liaceous plant, introduced from Florida in 1771 ; Pilocarpus 
pennatifolius, Lem., — a Brazilian plant furnishing the jabor- 
andi of commerce ; Brunsfclsia latifolia, Benth. ; Ccelogyne 
tcstacca, Lind. ; Bendrohium primulinuin, Linn. ; and Phalos- 
nopis Schilleriana, Echb. fil. 



Apr. I89i.1 BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 185 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, April 12, 1894. 

Dr. William Craig, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The presentation to the Society of a copy of Goode- 
nough's Algae, by Mr. G. "VV. Teaill, was announced. 

Miss Madden exhibited a twig in flower of Stauntonia 
latifolia from a plant grown at Eoyal Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Surgeon-Major H. H. Johnston exhibited specimens of 
cultures of Bacteria from water, and pointed out the in- 
adequacy of most filters to prevent the passage of Bacteria. 

Mr. Campbell sent from his open garden at Ledaig, 
blooms of Acacia lincarifolia, Orchis mascula, Erica mcdi- 
terranea, and Fi/rus communis. 

The following Papers were read : — 

The Influence of Light on the Eespieation of Gee- 

MINATING BAELEY AND WhEAT. By T. CuTHBEET DaY. 

Introduction. 

Though this paper was written as long ago as 1886, 
still, as far as I am aware, the work is new. I have not 
come across any communication on the subject since, and 
the paper I have the honour of bringing before your notice 
to-night has not been read before any society as yet. The 
fact is I hardly knew what to do with it. I did not think 
it suitable for the Chemical Society, as not being nearly 
chemical enough, though there is a fair amount of chemical 
work in it. As the paper is fairly in the domain of vege- 

Issued November 1894. 



186 TRANSACnOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

table xjhysiology, I thought it might interest the members 
of this Society, and I trust you may find at least some 
matter worthy of your attention in it. 

From a practical point of view the importance of the 
subject is really almost nil, but in almost every book on 
malting the influence of light on germination is mentioned, 
and in regard to it some fearful and wonderful statements 
are sometimes put forward. Some maltsters, as I have 
seen in various places, have adopted blue glass for the 
windows of the malting floors, under the impression that 
by admitting the actinic rays of light they favour in some 
way the germination of the grain, apparently losing sight 
of the fact that their operations are practically carried on 
in the dark, as far as germination is concerned, seeing that 
it is only the upper layer of corns that is exposed to the 
light. Some other maltsters, prefer having their floors alto- 
gether dark, which is often an advantage, because direct 
sunlight is excluded, and the consequent undue elevation of 
temperature is avoided, which, of course, would affect the 
germinative acti^^tv to a considerable extent. 

Many experiments have been recorded at different times 
by various authors in connection with the influence of light 
on the germination of seeds, but the results arrived at have 
been very conflicting. 

The state of uncertainty in which this question still re- 
mains has induced me to make a series of experiments, using 
every means which I could devise to avoid the interference 
of outside influences, in order to arrive, if possible, at a 
definite solution of the problem as to whether light retards 
or accelerates the respiratory functions of such seeds as 
barley and wheat during the process of germination. My 
chief purpose in making this communication is rather to 
place on record the methods employed and their result, 
than to put forward any particular conclusions that might 
be deduced from the experiments. 

Among the experimenters who have worked on this 
subject, the following names may be mentioned. They are 
collected from the historical record of the subject, with 
references, given by M. A. Pauchon in his memoir, to be 
alluded to acrain : — 



Apr., 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 187 

Miesse (Experiences siir I'lnfluence de la Lumiere sur les 
Plantes. — Journal de Physique de Piozier, T. 6, Dec. 1775) 
considered that light has little or no influence on germina- 
tion. 

Senebier (Memoires Physico-Chimiques, 1782) concluded 
that light was hurtful to the germination of seeds. 

Ingenhousz held the same opinion as Senebier as 
to the action of light (Experiences sur la Vegetation, 
1787-89). 

The Abbe Bertholon (Journal de Physique de Eozier, 
Dec. 1789) criticises previous experiments on the subject, 
laying special stress on the necessity of equality in the 
degree of humidity of the seeds experimented upon. 

Senebier (Physiologic Vegetale, 1800) in subsequent 
experiments, called forth by the remarks of the Abbe 
Bertholon, and taking care to adopt the precautions sug- 
gested by the latter, is led to the same conclusion as 
formerly. 

E. Lefebure performed many experiments on the action 
of light, especially with regard to the action of coloured 
rays. In the latter inquiry he does not arrive at any 
definite result. He discovers a retardation of germination 
under the influence of white light. The experiments were 
made without regard to small differences of temperature, 
though considerable trouble was taken to secure similarity 
in the conditions of moisture (Experiences sur la Germina- 
tion des Plantes, 1800). 

Th. de Saussure (Eecherches Chimiques sur la Vegetation, 
1804) regarded the action of direct sunlight as hurtful to 
the seeds on account of the heat which accompanies it, but 
in diffused light, when every precaution was taken to 
ensure similarity in the conditions of temperature and 
moisture, he does not perceive any difference in the progress 
of germination. 

A. P. de Candolle (Phys. Veget, 1832) thinks that light 
has no action on the germinative activity. 

Ch. Morren (An. Sc. 'Nat, 1832) considers that obscurity 
favours the first period of germination. 

Mayen (Neues System der Pflanzen-physiologie, 1837) 
made experiments with seeds of six different genera of 
plants, observing equal conditions of heat and moisture 



188 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. L^^IL 

He noticed that the appearance of the radicle and the de- 
velopment of the cotyledons were the same in light as in 
darkness. 

G. Ville (Eevue de Cours Scientif., 1865) considers that 
the action of light is inconsiderable. 

M. Faivre (1879), experimenting with seeds of Trago- 
'pogon porrifolius, noticed that the seeds developed chloro- 
phyll and sap more rapidly under the influence of yellow 
light than under the influence of blue light. 

It will be readily seen, from a perusal of the foregoing 
resume, that there is no real concordance in the results 
obtained by the different experimenters. 

There are two serious defects in the methods of experi- 
ment followed. The first is a failure to secure real identity 
in the conditions under which the seeds were germinated 
in light and darkness. Similarity in temperature and 
moisture is of the most paramount importance ; and though 
at first sight it might appear easy to secure identity in this 
respect, it is in reahty a matter of considerable difficulty. 
The material used as a shield from the light to one of the 
vessels containing the seeds operated upon, must make a 
difference in the amount of heat absorbed or radiated, 
especially if the vessels are surrounded by air, or if they are 
situated far apart. If similarity of moisture is secured, in 
the first place, by steeping the seeds for the same length of 
time in water at the same temperature, this similarity is 
destroyed during the experiment if the surface of one of 
the containing vessels becomes colder than the other ; 
because, in that case, though moisture is condensed on the 
inner surface of both vessels, the coldest vessel will have 
the greatest amount of condensation, and the moisture so 
condensed is derived from the seeds, unless special pro- 
vision is made to keep the contained air saturated with 
moisture. The second defect alluded to is the method of 
judging the progress in germination. The usual plan is to 
note with as much accuracy as possible the development of 
the radicle in dicotyledonous seeds, or of the radicle and 
plumule in monocotyledons. This method is, of course, 
very crude and uncertain, and much of the variation in the 
results obtained may be attributed to the employment 
of it. 



Apr. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 189 

In 1880, Dr. A. Pauchon published a memoir (Role de 
la Lumiere dans la Germination) in which he criticises 
closely all foregoing experiments on the subject, showing 
their defects. He performed many experiments, with 
proper precautions, but judging of the germinative progress 
in the way above mentioned, in order to show that only 
doubtful results could be so obtained. He then suggests, 
as a measure of germinative progress, the amount of oxygen 
absorbed by the seeds during germination. This method is 
a decided improvement, since it substitutes a precise and 
easily observed measurement, for a rough estimation by 
which an approximate result can hardly be arrived at even 
with much trouble. 

Dr. Pauchon's apparatus consisted of two wide tubes of 
glass, one of which was covered with folds of black paper 
to exclude light, the other being left clear. The two tubes 
were placed upright, side by side, during an experiment, 
the lower ends being closed by corks pushed in to a certain 
distance. Above the cork in each tube was placed a small 
vessel containing concentrated potassa solution, and above 






KHO 
CcnJi. 



, ■- ■ >. this was supported another vessel contain- 

^ \ ing a pad of cotton wool saturated with 

water, on which the seeds were placed, A 
narrow tube, bent twice at right angles, 
issued from the upper end of each of the 
two wide tubes, and its open extremity was 
immersed in mercury. The limb of the 
narrow tube, above the mercury, was grad- 
uated into cubic centimetres and parts of a 
cubic centimetre, and the absorption in each 
^^' ■ tube was observed by the movement of the 

mercury column. Fig. 1 gives the appearance of one of 
the tubes as fitted up. 

The seeds absorbed oxygen and exhaled carbonic anhy- 
dride, which was at once fixed by the solution of potassa, 
producing a partial vacuum ; the mercury then rose in the 
narrow tube, and the absorption of oxygen was measured 
by taking an observation and making proper allowance for 
temperature, pressure, and tension of aqueous vapour, and 
the volume of the solid and liquid contents of each appar- 
atus. An account was also taken of the visible progress 



190 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

in germination made by the seeds during an experiment. 
The seeds experimented upon were chiefly oleaginous and 
leguminous, with the exception of Indian corn, which was 
the only seed which approached in composition the seeds 
of wheat or barley. 

Dr. Pauchon concludes from his experiments : — 

1. That light accelerates in a constant manner the 

absorption of oxygen by germinating seeds in 
all cases. 

2. That a relation exists between the degree of 

illumination and the quantity of oxygen 
absorbed. 

3. That the respiratory acceleration, exercised by 

light, persists in obscurity for some hours. 

4. That the differences between the amounts of 

oxygen absorbed in light and in darkness are 
more considerable at a low than at a high 
temperature. 
According to the experimental record, the first con- 
clusion seems to be well established, and in that case 
the second would follow almost as a matter of course. 
The two last conclusions do not appear to me at all 
clearly warranted, after a careful perusal of the experi- 
ments. 

There are three possible sources of error in Dr. 
Pauchon's experiments. The first consists in placing the 
seeds on a pad of cotton saturated with water. In this 
case some of the rootlets may come in contact with the 
pad before others, and this would cause, by itself, a 
considerable irregularity in germination by the stimulating 
action of the moisture absorbed. The second source of 
error is the irregularity in germination caused by selecting 
seeds, for experiment, in which the radicle has not already 
burst the seed coats. The third source of error is the 
manner of securing similarity of temperature. The two 
glass vessels containing the seeds, one clear and the 
other covered with black paper, were placed side by side, 
in the air, with a thermometer between them. It does 
not seem to me at all certain that the thermometer 
indicates the actual temperature of the interior of each 
vessel, for the radiating powers of clear glass and black 



Apr. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 191 

paper are by no means the same ; and any difference 
in the temperature of the surrounding air, or of near 
objects, would destroy, if only in a small degree, the 
equilibrium of temperature in the two vessels, which 
would affiect the germinative activity of the seeds, and 
vitiate the absorption observations by unequal expansion 
or contraction of the enclosed air. 

If the problem be considered in the light of what we 
already know of the active influence of light on the 
green parts of plants in the presence of small quantities 
of carbonic anhydride, one would be inclined to think 
that light would probably have an apparently retarding 
effect on the respiratory function of seeds. In this 
way, — If the seed coats be at all pervious to light, 
chlorophyll would be developed in the young plumula, 
and by the action of the light on this substance, in 
presence of the carbonic anhydride evolved during germina- 
tion, a portion of the carbonic anhydride would disappear, 
and the actual quantity produced during germination 
would be diminished in proportion to the activity of the 
light. This indirect effect of light could not take place 
if the carbonic anhydride evolved by the seeds was 
removed as soon as formed. It will be seen to what 
extent this idea is confirmed by the test of experiment. 

Method of experiment. — In my first series of experi- 
ments I made use of an apparatus similar to the one 
employed in former experiments on germination, and 
fully described in a previous paper (Chem. Soc. J., Sept. 
1880). The only modification introduced is in the form 
of the vessel containing the seeds experimented upon. 
This consisted of a piece of combustion tube, worked into 
«=^ the form shown in 

■^ fF" the figure (Fig. 2). 

^ — ■] The internal diameter 

was 13 M.M., and the 
^^' "• length, between the 

two bends, 190 m.m. A tube this size will hold about 3 
grams of barley loosely disposed all along the interior. 
Two tubes of the kind described were used in each experi- 
ment, and the rest of the apparatus was in duplicate. 
The two tubes were placed side by side in a glass trough 



192 TRANSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lvui. 

filled with water, one of the tubes being closely covered 
with two or three folds of tinfoil, to exclude the light, 
while the other was left clear. The carbonic anhydride, 
evolved in each tube, was collected by absorption in the 
potash bulbs and weighed. 

A few remarks on the respiration of germinating barley 
will not be out of place at this point. 

During germination oxygen is absorbed and carbonic 
anhydride excreted, the amount of the latter gas produced 
being very slightly less in volume than that of the oxygen 
absorbed, showing that a smaU quantity of oxygen is 
retained by the corns, and is probably used up in other 
changes. A certain quantity of water is also produced by 
respiration ; and I have found that a fairly definite relation 
exists between the weights of the carbonic anhydride and 
the water. The numbers obtained indicate pretty plainly 
the splitting up of a carbohydrate by oxidation. The 
carbohydrate may belong to the cane sugar group repre- 
sented by the formula C^o H22 On, the grape sugar group 
C12 H24 O12. or the starch group, n (Cg Hjo O5). 

The oxidation by respiration of these carbohydrates may 
be represented by the following equations, and it will be 
observed that no more oxygen is required than is sufficient 
to convert the carbon into carbonic anhydride : — 

1. Cane Sugar . Q^ H^, On + 24 = 12 CO^ + 11 OH, 

2. Glucose . C12 H., Oi, + 24 = 12 CO, + 12 OH, 

3. Starch . . C, Hj, O5 + 12 O = 6 CO, + 5 OH, 

The relation of the carbonic anhydride to the water will 
be made simpler by taking the molecular weight of carbonic 
anhydride 44, as a basis, then the ratios will be : — 





CO2 


OH, 


Jith. Cane Sugar 


. 44-0 . 


. 16-5 


„ Glucose . 


. 440 . 


. 18-0 


., Starch . 


. 44-0 . 


. 15-0 



In one set of experiments on this point, the results of 
which appeared in the paper referred to above, a ratio of 
44 : 18"28 was obtained, while in a later series of experi- 
ments, with a different barley, the ratio was 44 : 14"43. 
The first result points to the splitting up of a glucose, and 
the last to a splitting up of a starch. 



Apr. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 193 

In selecting corns for experiment, a small sample was 
taken, and all doubtful-looking corns carefully removed. 
From this, two lots of identical weight, about 3 grams 
each, were taken, one for each tube. They were steeped 
in water in small beakers, at the same temperature, for 
the same length of time, and were again weighed before 
being introduced into their respective tubes. The amount 
of moisture absorbed during steep was about 1*7 grams in 
most cases, and did not vary more than 0*02 grams in 
each duplicate experiment. The glass trough containing 
the germination tubes was placed as close as possible to 
a window having a clear look-out to the north. During 
the experiment, air saturated with moisture was slowly 
aspirated through the apparatus, so that the corns might 
be continually surrounded with fresh air. The germina- 
tion was usually allowed to proceed for ten days, or until 
the acrospire had nearly reached the end of the corns. 
The temperature during the whole course of the experi- 
ments ranged between 14°"2 C. and 20°*8 C, and was 
regulated by means of a thermostat. During the greater 
number of the experiments the . temperature only varied 
between 15°' 5 C. and 16°' 6 C. 

The potash bulbs were weighed after germination had 
proceeded for three days, again after another interval of 
three days, and finally after another interval of four days. 
The other parts of the apparatus, including the germination 
tubes, were also weighed at the same time, to show that no 
moisture w\as lost or gained by the seeds experimented 
upon. 



[Continued on next page. 

TKAXS. BOX. SOC EDIX. VOL. XX. N 



194 TEAN^ACTIOKS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



I will now give the results of seven double experiments, 
made during March, April, and May 1881 : — 



Exposed to Light. 


In Obscurity. 


Result in 

favour of Light 

or Obscurity. 


Experiment. 


Days. 


CO,. C.C. 


Experiment. 


Days. 


CO.. C.C. 


lA. Saale Barley, 
3-014 grams, 

Total, 


3 

6 

10 


25-67 
34-50 
41-50 


iB. Saale Barley, 
3-022 grams. 

Total, 


3 

6 
10 


29-27 
34-95 
44-85 


C.C. CO.. 

Obscurity, 3-60 

Do. 0-45 

Do. 3-35 


101-67 




109-07 


Obscurity, 7-40 


2a. Saale Barley, 
3-037 grams. 

Total, 


3 

6 

10 


40-79 
43-48 
47-13 


2b. Saale Barley, 
3-037 grams. 


3 

6 

10 


42-06 
44-24 
49-87 


Obseuritv, 1-27 
Do. " 0-76 
Do. 2-74 


131-40 


Total, . . 


136-17 


Obscurity, 4-77 


3a. Saale Barley, 
3-040 grams. 

Total, 


3 

6 

10 


40-23 
41-70 
47-94 


3b. Saale Barley, | 3 

3-052 grams, i 6 

10 


41-04 
42-31 
49-41 


Obscurity, 0-Sl 
Do. 0-61 
Do. 1-47 


129-87 


Total, 




132-76 


Obscurity, 2-89 


4a. Saale Barley, 
3-029 grams, 

Total, 


3 

6 
10 


43-78 
41-75 
52-10 


4b. Saale Barley, 
3-028 grams. 

Total, 


3 

6 

10 


*42-46 

♦40-28 

53-17 

135-91 


Light, . 1-32 

Do. . 1-47 

Obscurity, 1-07 


137-63 


• Light, . 1-72 


5a. Saale Barley, 
3-010 grams, 

Total, 


3 
6 
10 


41-95 
41-14 
45-56 


5b. Saale Barley, 
3-018 grams. 

Total, 


3 

6 
10 


40-74 
41-29 
48-30 


Light, . 1-21 

Obscurity, 0-15 

1 Do. 2-74 


128-65 


130-33 1 Obscurity, 1-63 


6a. Saale Barley, 
2-956 grams, 

Total, 


3 

6 
10 


41-80 

38-76 
47-23 


6b. Saale Barley, 
2-936 grams, 

Total, 


3 

6 

10 


41-40 
40-03 
46-62 


! Light, . 0-40 

Obsourity, 1-27 

, Light, . 0-61 


127-79 


128-05 


1 Obscurity, 0-26 


7a. Saale Barley, 
3-011 grams. 

Total, 


3 

6 

10 


49-72 
46-87 
49-31 


7b. Saale Barley, 
3-094 grams, 

Total, 


3 

6 

10 


50-63 
45-81 
50-12 


Obscurity, 091 
Light, . 1-06 
Obscurity, 0-81 


145-90 


146-56 


' Obscurity, 0-66 



Taking the totals in each double experiment, the result 
is as follpws : — 

Total CO, produced. Excess of COg in favour of 



Experiment, 


Light. 


Obscurity 


1. 


101-67 CO. 


109 07 C.C. 


2. 


131-40 „ 


13617 ,, 


3. 


129-87 ,, 


132-76 ., 


4. 


137-63 ,, 


135-91 ,. 


5. 


1-28-65 ., 


130-33 ., 


6. 


127-79 ., 


1-28-05 .. 


7. 


145-90 ,. 


146-56 ,, 



Light. 



Totals. 902-91 c.c. 



918-85 C.C. 



1-72 C.C. 



Obscurity. 
7-40 C.C. 

4-77 „ 
2-89 ,. 

1-68" .. 
0-26 .. 
0-66 .. 

17-66 C.C. 



Total excess of carbonic anhydride produced in favour of 
obscurity is 15'94 C.C, or an increase in favour of obscurity 



Apu. 1894.] BOTA^•ICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 195 

of l'7o per cent, on the mean of the total quantity of 
carbonic anhydride produced. 

Of the seven double experiments, six show an increase 
in respiration in favour of obscurity, and one only in favour 
of lio-ht. 

Out of the . twenty-one separate observations made during 
the course of these experiments, fifteen show the greatest 
activity in obscurity, and the remaining six point to light 
as being a stimulating agent. I must remark here that 
two of the observations recorded in experiment 4b, and 
marked with an asterisk, are probably vitiated by a leakage 
which was found at one of the joints in apparatus, which 
would have the effect of diminishing somewhat the current 
of air which passed over the germinating barley, and the 
quantity of carbonic anhydride collected would be lessened 
in consequence. 

Though, as a rule, there appears to be more carbonic 
anhydride evolved in darkness during germination, yet the 
increase, as shown by the foregoing experiments, is ex- 
ceedingly variable in amount, and is altogether so slight 
that it is more than doubtful whether one is justified in 
taking the arithmetical mean of so few as seven experi- 
ments to express the truth. That identity in the con- 
ditions of moisture and temperature were secured in each 
double experiment can hardly be doubted. The only source 
of variation which remains is the difference in the samples 
of barley and in the constitution of individual corns, a 
difference which it is impossible to detect, much more to 
avoid. This difference in the samples of barley used, if 
not great, say about equal in effect at the most, to the 
retarding influence of light would in some experiments 
exaggerate the results in favour of obscurity and in others 
tend to neutralise them altogether, the results varying with 
the degree of difference between the samples of barley. 

At the end of each experiment the corns were all care- 
fully examined. I did not meet with any still or dead 
corns during all the experiments. There was little or no 
difference in the outward appearance of two samples, one 
grown in darkness and the other in strong diffused light, 
at the end of ten days ; but on dissecting the corns it was 
found that while the interior of the primitive sheath of the 



196 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



plumula was of a pale yellow colour iu the corns grown in 
obscurity, the colour of the same part in the corns grown 
under the influence of light was a dark green. 

Xot being satisfied with the results already obtained, I 
resolved to try a different method of experiment. I thought 
that if the observations could be made volumetrically as to 
the amount of carbonic anhydride produced, greater accuracy 
might be attained. With this object in view I devised 
and fitted up an apparatus similar in principle to that em- 
ployed by Dr. Pauchon, and alluded to on a previous page. 
There is, however, considerable difference in the details and 
in the manner of experiment. 




n® ^==^ 




Fisr. 3. 



Description of the Apparatus, Fig. 3. — A, a large 
strong glass tube (about 140 c.c. capacity) closed at one 
end. The open end of the tube is closed by an india- 
rubber cork, C. This cork is always pushed in to the same 
distance, shown by marks scratched on the glass tube. 
The cork has three perforations to carry three tubes, D, E, 
and F. D has an internal diameter of 8 M.M., and is bent 
in the form shown in the figure. It is graduated on both 
limbs from to 9 m.m. E and F are two capillary tubes ; 
F reaches nearly to the end of the tube A, while E is ter- 
minated level with the inner surface of the cork. The 
upper ends of both these tubes are closed by stoppers 
covered by a water joint. Their use is for replenishing the 
air in the large tube as often as it is considered necessary. 
B and B^ are two porcelain spoon boats ; B contains a 
measured quantity (about 1-3 c.c.) of distilled water, and 
B^ about the same amount of potassa solution. The corns 
experimented upon are placed near the closed end of the tube. 



Apr. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 197 

A duplicate to this piece of apparatus, similar iu every 
respect, was prepared, but light was excluded from its 
interior by an external coating of very thin sheet brass. 
The two tubes were fixed in an appropriate holder, and the 
whole was immersed under the surface of water, with only 
the open upper ends of the graduated tubes and the water 
joints protruding. The trough itself was placed in strong 
diffused light in a small greenhouse facing the north. 

o o o 

Both pieces of apparatus were carefully calibrated. 

Method of Experiment. — A sample of the corn, about 
50 grams of barley or wheat, was taken and placed in a 
beaker. The corn was covered with water from thirty-six 
to seventy -five hours, changing the water at intervals. 
The water was then drained off the seeds, and they were 
placed in a glazed earthenware jar, covered with an opaque 
plate, and allowed to germinate for periods varying from 
two to eight days. At the stage fixed on for experiment 
the jar was opened and the sample turned out. Thirty 
corns, or thereabout, were then selected for each tube, the 
greatest pains being taken to ensure similarity in the size, 
weight, and progress in germination of the two samples. 
It was hoped by employing this method of selecting the 
corns to eliminate in some degree the variations caused by 
differences in the samples employed for experiment. After 
being weighed, the samples were introduced into their 
separate tubes, as shown in the figure, and the apparatus 
was immersed. After a short interval, to establish equili- 
brium of temperature, readings were taken on the limbs of 
the tube D, which is half filled with cj^uicksilver, and the 
volume of the enclosed air was deduced after allowing for 
temperature, pressure, tension of aqueous vapour, and the 
volume of the seeds, as well as that of the two boats with 
their liquid contents. The volume occupied by the corns 
was ascertained by finding the specific gravity of a separate 
portion of the same sample. The readings were repeated 
at suitable intervals. The reduction in volume between 
each observation gave the amount of oxygen absorbed by 
the seeds, the carbonic anhydride produced being absorbed, 
as soon as formed, by the potassa solution in the boat B^. 
"When it was required to change the air in the tubes, which 
was usually done immediately after an observation of the 



198 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 




i r 




absorption, the stoppers of the tubes E and F were 
removed ; F was connected with an aspirator, and E with 
an apparatus for purifying the air and saturating it with 
moisture. About 1 litre of air was drawn through each 
tube at one time, the operation occupying about ten 
minutes. The stoppers were then 
replaced, and the volume of the con- 
tained air immediately ascertained. 

The quantity of carbonic anhydride, 
produced by the seeds, was found at 
the end of the experiment in the 
following way : — The contents of the 
two boats B and B\ from each of the 
two tubes, were washed into two small 
flasks, like A in Fig. 4, with distilled 
water. 

Each flask was, in turn, fitted with 
an indiarubber cork, B, perforated 
by the wide tube C, which was con- 
nected with a Sprengel's mercury 
pump. A tap funnel, E, containing 
recently boiled dilute sulphuric acid 
tinged with litmus communicated with the interior 
of the flask by the narrow tube, D, which passes down 
the axis of the broad tube C. As soou as a vacuum 
had been obtained, the acid solution in the funnel was 
cautiously run into the flask till the contents were pink 
in colour. The pump was then worked, and the flask 
exhausted as far as possible, the carbonic anhydride being 
collected in a tube over mercury. Gentle heat was then 
applied to the liquid, which caused it to boil briskly. 
It was found very advantageous to put a small piece of 
platinum foil, previously ignited, into the flask to prevent 
bumping. The source of heat was then withdrawn, and 
the pump worked till a vacuum was again produced, at 
which stage heat was applied once more, and the pump 
was set in action as previously. This operation was 
repeated until a vacuum was obtained within a few seconds 
after boiling the liquid. By proper attention to these 
details, the carbonic anhydride expelled from the liquid 
can be obtained nearly free from water in the collecting 



Fior. 4. 



I 



Apr. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 199 

tube. The gas, which consists of carbonic anhydride, 
with a slight admixture of air, was analysed in the usual 
way in a Frankland's gas apparatus. A deduction was 
made from the quantity of carbonic anhydride found, to 
allow for that which was originally present in the potassa 
solution employed. The quantity of carbonic anhydride 
found, subtracted from the total quantity of oxygen 
absorbed during an experiment, gave the amount of 
oxygen absorbed and retained by the seeds. 

These experiments were conducted at intervals during 
1883, 1884, and 1885. Three blank experiments were 
tried with the apparatus placed in a dark room, and fitted 
up as described. The results thus obtained are tabulated 
on the next page. 



200 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



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Apr. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH, 201 

A glance at the preceding Table shows that there is not 
much difference in the results obtained in the two tubes, 
when the whole apparatus is kept in the dark. In the 
case of " Oxygen utilised," the differences are pretty equally 
distributed in favour of either tube ; but in the case of 
" Carbonic Anhydride produced " there appears to be a 
slight increase in favour of the covered tube in each 
experiment. These results may be more clearly seen by 
collecting the totals as before : — 

Total Oxygen utilised. Excess in favour of 

Experiment. Clear Tube. Covered Tube. Clear Tube. Covered Tube. 

1. 23-87 c.c. 23-48 cc. 0-39 c.c. 

2. 20-38 „ 20-87 ,, ... 0-49 c.c. 

3. 28-57 ,, 28-48 „ 0-09 „ 



Totals, 7-2-82 c.c. 72-83 c.c. ... 0-01 c.c 





Total COo produced. 


Excess in favour of 


Experiment. 


Clear Tube. Covered Tube. 


Covered Tube. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


22-06 c.c. 22-08 c.c. 
19-76 „ 20-11 ,, 
25-75 ,, 25-91 „ 


002 c.c. 
0-35 „ 
0-16 „ 



Totals, 67-57 c.c. 6810 c.c. 0-53 c.c. 



The total quantity of oxygen utilised by the seeds in the 
three experiments is nearly identical in both tubes. The 
totals of carbonic anhydride produced show a small increase 
of 0'53 c.c. in favour of the covered tube, equal to 0'78 
per cent, ou the mean of the total quantity of carbonic 
anhydride formed. There is hardly any doubt that this 
increase would be considerably lowered if the mean of a 
larger number of experiments were taken. 

Considering these results as a sufficient test of the 
efficiency of the apparatus, I may now give, in a tabular 
form, the results obtained when strong diffused light was 
admitted to the clear tube. 



202 TEANSACTIOKS A^s'D PROCEEDI^'GS OF THE [Sess. L^^II. 









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Apr. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 



203 





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204 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 





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Ai'R. 1894] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



205 

















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206 TKAXSA.CTIOXS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



In these experiments on different kinds of barley, the 
large majority of the olDservations, during germination, as 
to the amount of oxygen utilised by the corns, points to a 
small but variable increased activity under the influence of 
strong diffused light. Of the sixty-six observations re- 
corded on this point, fifty-six are in favour of light, eight 
in favour of obscurity, and two show an equality. 

Of the total quantity of oxygen utilised in each experi- 
ment, the results show a small variable increase in favour 
of light in every case : — 





Total Quantity of Oxygen utilised. 


Excess in favour of 


erim 


lent Light. 


Obscurity. 


Light. 


2. 


23-65 c.c. 


22-02 c.c. 


1-63 c.c. 


3. 


22-88 „ 


21-95 „ 


0-93 „ 


4. 


21-37 „ 


21-09 „ 


0-28 „ 


o. 


28-22 .. 


26-75 „ 


1-47 „ 


6. 


22-93 ,, 


22-43 „ 


0-50 „ 


7. 


26-54 „ 


26-11 „ 


0-43 „ 


8. 


27-39 „ 


26-17 „ 


1-22 „ 


9. 


22-71 „ 


21-41 „ 


1-30 „ 


10. 


26-97 „ 


25-50 „ 


1-47 „ 


VL 


26-81 „ 


24-52 „ 


2-29 „ 




Totals, 249-47 c.c. 


237-95 c.c. 


11-52 c.c. 



The total excess of oxygen utilised, in favour of light, 
in all the experiments amounts to 11 '5 2 c.c, or an increase 
of 4'73 per cent, on the mean of the total quantity of 
oxygen utilised, 243-71 c.c. 

Of the ten experiments in which the carbonic anhydride 
produced was determined, all show a small variable increase 
in favour of the corns grown under the influence of light. 



Experiment. 



8. 
10. 

IL 



Carbonic Anhydride produced. Excess in favour of 



Totals 



Light. 


Obscurity. 


Light. 


27-59 c.c. 


26-53 


C.c. 


1-06 c.c. 


19-72 „ 


19-4G 




1-26 „ 


20-77 „ 


20-05 




0-72 „ 


20-76 „ 


20-52 




0-24 „ 


25-85 „ 


24-11 




1-74 „ 


21-74 ,, 


21-58 




0-16 „ 


25 27 „ 


25-12 




0-15 „ 


25-02 „ 


23-80 




1-22 „ 


26-13 „ 


24-66 




1-47 „ 


25-16 „ 


22-78 




2-38 ,, 


238-01 c.c. 


2-28-61 1 


c.c. 


9-40 c.c. 



The total excess of carbonic anhydride produced, in 
favour of light, in all the experiments is 9 '40 c.c, or an 
increase of 4'03 per cent, on the mean of the total quantity 
of carbonic anhydride produced, i.e. 233'31 c.c 



Apr. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH! 207 

The amount of oxygen ahsorhcd and retained by the seeds 
varied very much, and indefinitely, in the different experi- 
ments. Of the nine double results recorded, five are in 
favour of light, two in favour of obscurity, and in two 
equality was observed. 





Oxygen absorbed 


and retained. 


Excess in favour of 


Experiment. 


Light. 


Obscurity. 


Light. 


Obscurity 


2. 


3-;»3 c.c. 


2-56 c.c. 


1-07 c.c. 




s' 


2-11 „ 


1-90 „ 


0-21 „ 




4. 


0-61 „ 


0-57 „ 


0-04 „ 




5. 


2-37 ,, 


2-64 ,, 


• .. 


0-27 c.c. 


6. 


1-19 „ 


0-85 ,, 


0-34 ,, 




7. 


1-27 ,, 


0-99 „ 


0-28 „ 




8. 


2-37 „ 


2-37 „ 




Equal 


10. 


0-84 ,. 


0-84 „ 




Equal 


11. 


1-65 „ 


1-74 „ 




0-09 c.c. 



On comparing the mean rate of increase in tlie carbonic 
anhydride produced in favour of light, as determined by 
this series of experiments, with the rate obtained in the 
first series of experiments (where the carbonic anhydride 
was weighed), it will be at once seen that it is rather more 
than twice as great, and is, moreover, in the opposite direc- 
tion. That is to say, in the first series of experiments an 
excess of carbonic anhydride was produced in favour of 
obscurity, and in the second series a greater excess of 
carbonic anhydride was produced in favour of light. I 
€an only account for this discrepancy in the results in the 
following way : — 

In the first series of experiments a larger number of 
seeds was employed ; these were confined in a narrow 
tube, through which air was slowly aspirated. It is 
evident that the air present in the tube must be con- 
taminated to a small extent with the carbonic anhydride 
produced by the germinating seeds. On calculating the 
amount of this contamination, from the quantities of air 
aspirated and carbonic anhydride excreted, it was found 
to vary from 0*58 per cent, to 1'26 per cent, during the 
different experiments. It is possible that the influence of 
light on the seeds in the exposed tube, in presence of this 
small quantity of carbonic anhydride, may have tended, by 
its partial decomposition, to diminish the observed amount 
of carbonic anhydride excreted, though the results, when 
compared with the degree of contamination in each experi- 
ment, do not show any corresponding variation in the 



208 TEANSACTI0X3 AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. l^tti. 

quantity of carbonic anhydride excreted. If this variation 
exists, it was overshadowed bj the effect of unavoidable 
differences in the samples of barley, or by some other un- 
known cause. The main fact remains, that all the experi- 
ments show a slight increase of germi native respiration in 
the samples of barley grown in obscurity. 

In the second series of experiments (in which the 
carbonic anhydride was measured volumetricallyj the seeds 
were placed in a large tube with about 120 c.c. of air, and 
potassa solution was present in the tube, to absorb the 
carbonic anhydride as it was produced. The average 
i^uantity of carbonic anhydride produced in twenty-four 
hours throughout the experiments would be about 6 C.C. 
(varying from 4 to 8 c.CJ, which would give 0'2o c.c. 
per hour, and there can be no doubt that the greater part 
of this quantity would be absorbed by the potassa solution 
in the same time, i.e. one hour. It is evident, therefore, 
that the contamination of the air by the presence of un- 
absorbed carbonic anhydride must be very slight indeed, 
and far below that which obtained in the first series of 
experiments, and also that the disturbing effect of such 
contamination on the results would be absent in the second 
series. 

In order to test this theory, I performed a few addi- 
tional experiments with the same apparatus used in the 
second series, but instead of absorbing the carbonic anhy- 
dride as it was formed, I allowed it to remain in contact 
with the seeds. At the end of each experiment, a portion 
of the air was withdrawn from each tube, and a measured 
quantity analysed, to determine the quantity of carbonic 
anhydride produced in each tube. The following are the 
results obtained in this wav : — 



Apr. 1&9-I.] BOTANICAL ^JOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



209 



Experiment. 



1a. and 1b. 

Yellow English Barley. 1882. 

Weicrht— i^-. 2-11 grams. 

weigm |b .2-(:i8 „ 

30 Corns each. 

Steeped 72 liours. 

Germinated 4 days. 



2a. and 2b. 

Yellow English Barlev, 1882. 

Weight- {t;J;|3^ms. 

30 Corns each. 
Steeped 72 hours. 
Germinated 8 days. 



3x. and 3b. 
Yellow English Barley, 1882. 

W"Sl^t-{B.:2-37^T'' 

30 Corns each. 

Steeped 72 hours. 

Germinated 8 days. 



4a. and 4b. 

Yellow English Barlev, 1882. 

Wei-ht- -f^' 2 20 grams. 

30 Corns each. 
Steeped 72 hours. 
Germinated 6 day.c. 

OA. and 5b. 
Saale Barlev, 1880. 

Weight- {^"llJ^g^;^- 

30 Corns each. 
Steeped 72 hours. 
GeiTninated 4 days. 



6a. and 6b. 
Saale Barley, 1880. 

Weight— -f^-' 2"10 grams. 
wei^ni |b 214 „ 

30 Corns each. 

Steeped 72 hours. 

Germinated 8 days. 



7a and 7b. 
Yellow English Barley, 1882. 



Weight 



grams. 



fA., 2-2( 
tBv2-17 
30 Corns each. 
Steeped 70 hours. 
Germinated 5 davs. 



8a. and 8b. 
Yellow English Barley, 1882. 

Wei<rht— /^' 2-10 grams 
♦veioni -^jj 217 ,, 

30 Corns each. 

Steeped 70 hours. 

Germinated 11 davs. 



Carbonic Anhydride 
produced. 



15-24 



11-33 



18 IG 



18-85 



17 62 



18-76 



14-86 



12-93 



A. B. 

Light. Obscnrily. 



Totals, 127-75 



15-50 



18-97 



18 3.3 



14-74 



14-03 



Excess ill 
favour of 



Obscurity, 0-26 



11-01 , Light, . 0-32 



Obscurity, 0-81 



19-40 ; Obicurity, 0-55 



17-24 Light, . 0-38 



Light, . 0-43 



Light, . 0-12 



Obscurity, 1-10 



129-22 I Obscurity, 1-4; 



trass, box. SOC. EDIX. VCL. XX. 



210 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

Ill these experiments four results are recorded in favour 
of light and four in favour of obscurity; though the excess 
in favour of obscurity is rather more than twice as great 
as that recorded in favour of light. 

This leaves a total excess of carbonic anhydride pro- 
duced in favour of obscurity of 1"47 CO., or I'l-l per cent, 
on the mean of the total quantity of carbonic anhydride 
produced in all the experiments. 

The rate of increased activity in favour of obscurity, 
thus obtained, approaches in amount that found in the 
first series of experiments. 

This result, if considered trustworthy, seems to bear out 
the explanation given above of the considerable discrepancy 
between the evidence afforded by the results of the first 
and second series of experiments as to the influence of 
light on the respiration of germinating barley. 

A noteworthy point in this third series of experiments 
is the fact that although the contamination of the air by 
carbonic anhydride is much greater than it was in the first 
series, yet its effect in masking the stimulating action of 
light is not increased, as might reasonably be expected 
would be the case. The only part of the seed which would 
probably have the power of decomposing carbonic anhydride 
in presence of light is the young plumula, and the quantity of 
this gas which it would be able to decompose would certainly 
be very small, so it might happen that when the amount of 
carbonic anhydride present in the air is above a certain 
point it ceases to have an increased effect in diminishing 
the observed quantity of the gas which is produced by the 
seeds when germinated under the influence of light. 

It seems fair to conclude from a consideration of all 
the results obtained that light has probably a small 
stimulating action on the respiration of germinating barley, 
resulting in an increase of between 3 and 4 per cent, in 
the quantity of carbonic anhydride excreted ; and that 
this increased activity is lost sight of when the air 
surrounding the seeds is contaminated, even in a small 
degree, by carbonic anyhdride. 



I made a few experiments to ascertain the influence of 
light on the respiration of germinating wheat, employing 



Apr. 1894.] BOTAXICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



211 



for the purpose the same apparatus that was used in the 
second and thh'd series of experiments on barley. 

In the six following experiments, the carbonic anhydride 
was absorbed by potassa solution as soon as formed, and 
the absorption of oxygen by the seeds was noted from 
time to time, as in the second series of experiments with 
barley : — 

Table of Experiment.\l Results. 



Experiment. 


Observations during Germination. 


Total Carbonic 


S 


1 

IS 

►-( 

Hrs. 

23^ 

24 
221 


Oxj-gen utilised. 


Anhydride produced. 


.5" 

■< CO 1 Bo 

o 


Excess in 
favour of 




"1 
O 


1 Excess in 
favour of 


1a. and 1b. 

White Wheat, 1SS2. 

Weight— }-''■' -""^ grams. 

30 Corns each. 

Steeped 50 hours. 

Germinated 3 days. 


°c. 

o 


c.c. 

5-91 
7-24 

7-28 
7-49 


c.c. 

6-15 
7-27 
6-64 

6-03 


c.c. 

Obscurity, 24 

Do. 0-03 

Light, . 0-64 

Do. . 0-14 


1 cc. 
28-50 


C.C. 
27-17 


c.c. 

Light, 
1-33 


27-92 


26-09 Light, . 1-83 


2a. and 2b. 
White Wheat, 1SS3. 

20 Corns each. 

Steeped 50 hours. 

Germinated 2^ days. 


op 
i) 

o 

n 


25 

281 

18* 

27i 

13J 


6-40 1 6-61 
6-27 i 6-27 
4-09 1 4-08 
5-99 1 5-75 
3-03 1 2-73 


-- 
Obscurity, 21 

Equal 

Obscurity, 0-01 

Light, . 0-24 

Do. . 0-30 


25-69 


25-70 


Obscurity, 
0-01 




25-78 


25-44 


Light, . 0-34 


] 


3a. and 3b. 
White Wheat, 1SS3. 

Weight- 1^-' i:^^i -'^°^^- 

20 Corns each. 

Steeped 37 hours. 

Germinated 3 daj's. 


O 
00 


16 
24 


3-72 
4-95 
4-77 


3-6S Light, . 0-04 
4-84 Do. . Oil 
4-29 Do. . 0-4S 


12-57 


Lost 


Light (?) 


13-44 


12-81 Light, . 0-63 


4a. and 4b. 

White Wheat, 1SS3. 

Tr„i~i,+ Ja., 1-43 grams. 
Weight- jg 1^.3^- _^ 

20 Corns each. 

Steeped 24 hours. 

Germinated 3J days. 


p 

00 


17* 

23* 
23| 
24 


3-20 3-03 
3-54 3-01 
3-98 1 3-17 
3-45 j 2-77 


Light, . 017 
Do. . 0-53 
Do. . 0-81 
Do. . 0-68 ^ 


Lost 


12-20 


Light (?) 


14-17 1 n-9s 


Light, . 2-19 


5a. aud OB. 

Red Wheat, 1SS4. 

Wei-'ht— '■^■' 1'5+ grams. 

20 Corns each. 

Steeped 36 hours. 

Germinated 4 days. 


00 

o 

«5 


24J 
18 
30* 
16i 


4-37 4-41 1 Obscurity, 0-04 
2-38 2-71 ] Do. 0-33 
4-12 4-OS Light, . 0-04 
2-91 2-94 Obscurity, 0-03 

13-78 14-14 Obscurity, 0-36 


13-67 


14-60 


Obscurity, 
0-93 


6a. and 6b. 
Red Wheat, 1884. ; 

20 Corns each. 

steeped 37 hours. 

Germinated 4 days. 


p 

s 

O 

1—4 


24i 
24i 1 
4S 


' 1 
3-61 3-50 Light, . 0-11 ; 
2-69 2-76 Obscurity, 07 ; 
5-56 5-47 Light, . 0-09 


12-71 


13-11 


Obscurity, 
0-40 


11-86 11-73 Light, . 0-13 



212 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

The results obtained in this rather imperfect series of 
experiments are too few in number to justify taking an 
average. They show, broadly, for white wheat an increased 
activity in the respiration under the influence of light ; but 
in the case of red wheat, in the two experiments recorded,, 
there appears to be a small increase in the oxygen absorbed 
and carbonic anhydride excreted in favour of the samples 
grown in darkness. 

These experiments, though they can hardly be considered 
decisive as to the action of light, bring to notice a 
peculiarity in the respiration of wheat which I have never 
met with in barley, that is, the volume of carbonic anhy- 
dride excreted generally exceeds in volume the amount of 
oxygen absorbed by the seeds. In the case of barley there 
is always more oxygen absorbed than carbonic anhydride 
excreted. This peculiarity of wheat certainly deserves 
further study. 

It is more than probable that a portion at least of the 
oxygen absorbed by germinating wheat is retained, and does 
not appear again as carbonic anhydride, as is the case with 
germinating barley. If this is so, a considerable percentage 
of the carbonic anhydride excreted by germinating wheat 
cannot be accounted for as derived from the splitting up of a 
carbohydrate, and we must look to more complicated bodies, 
probably some of the nitrogenous compounds, for its source. 

As with barley, I made a few experiments to determine 
the action of light on the respiration of germinating wheat, 
when the carbonic anhydride excreted was allowed to- 
remain in contact with the seeds. Contrary to expecta- 
tion, white wheat still showed an increased activity in 
respiration under the influence of light, and red wheat still 
showed a little in favour of obscurity : — 



EXPEKIMEXT. 


Carbonic Anhydride 
produced. 


Excess in 


A. B. 

Light. Obsciirity. 


favour of 


1a. and 1b. c.C. 

White Wheat, 1883. 

■n-^; ut. ^A., 1-40 grams. , 

^ eight- ^^j, ; j.^^ B ^^ 1 ^^^^ 

20 Corns each. j 
Steeped 24 hours. 
Germinated 4 days. 


C.C. 

11-79 


c.C. 
Light, . 57 



Apr. 1S94.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 



213 





Carbonic Anhydride 






produced. 


Excess in 
favour of 


EXPEKIMEST. 




A. 




Light. 


Obscurity. 




2a. and 2b. 


c.c. 


c.c. 


c.c. 


White Whe:.t, 1883. 








: ^-sbt-feS^T' 


13-7C 1 12-59 


Light, . 117 


20 Corns each. 






j Steeped 2-4 hours. 








' Germinated 4^ days. 








1 3a. and 3b. 


' Ked Wheat, 1884. 








-nT- • vi (A., 1--1:7 grams. 

1 ^^^•g^t-in.;i-45 .. 


7'75 7-37 


Light, . 38 


20 Corns each. 


1 




Steeped 47 hours. 


1 




Germinated 5 days. 








. 4a. aud 4b. 


Eed Wheat, 1884. 








Weight- {-;;;S^T- 


7-67 ; 8-27 


iDbscurity, 60 


20 Corns each. 








Steeped 38 hours. 








Germinated 6 days. 









If these experiments on wheat were considerably multi- 
plied, using rather larger quantities of the seed, no doubt a 
more decided result mi^ht be obtained. 



On Acrosiphonia Teaillii, a new British Alga. By 
Edward A. L. Batters, B.A., LL.B., F.L.S. 
(With Plate II.) 

Acrosiphonia Traillii, J. G. Ag. (Batt. in Herb.). — Eila- 
ments slender, one or two inches long, tufted and densely 
matted at base, becoming free and divergent above ; colour at 
first dark green, but soon becoming brownish olive ; tufts com- 
posed of numerous separate bundles ; branches near the base 
rhizoidal, recurved, and interlaced ; upper branches erect, 
opposite, or subsecund ; main axis distinct, composed of one 
or two long branches beset with opposite or scattered ramuli ; 
the ultimate branches of two kinds, the one having apices 
drawn out with a long slender point, the other of nearly equal 
diameter throughout, with very obtuse apices. The spiny 
branches greatly outnumber the blunt ones, but both kinds 
are sometimes found side by side. Hooked branches are 
present, but in very small numbers. Fertile cells 1-2| 
times as long as broad. Average width of filaments 110 /i. 



214 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviti. 

HalD. — On rocks in shallow tide-pools, in the shade, at 
a little above half- tide level. March to July. Spores 
escape in June. Joppa, near Edinburgh. G. AV. Traill. 

This species belongs to the section Spcirogonicce, in 
which the fertile cells at first are scattered, solitary, or two 
or three together, of Kjellman's sub-genus Mclanartlirum, 
which is characterised by the fertile cells containing very 
numerous motile bodies, about 2-5 /a. in diameter, so closely 
packed as to render the cells which contain them opaque. 

Although very closely related to A. albescens, Kjellm., 
A. Traillii appears to be a fairly well marked species. 

Named in honour of Mr. G. W. Traill, its discoverer, to 
whom alone is due the credit of having noted that it was 
different from A. centralis. 

Explanation of Figures in Plate II. 
Fig. 1. Plant natural size. 

Fig. 2. Portion of tuft separated, slightly magnified. 
Fig. 3. Apex of a brancli, showing spiny and blunt ratnuli, x 100. 
Fig. 4. Branch •with fertile cells, _/' x 100. 
Fig. 5. Branch with hooked ramulus and fertile cells, x 100. 
Fig. 6. Apex of obtuse ramulus, showing perforated chlorophyll 

body, X 100. 
Fig. 7. Base of branch with rhizoidal filaments, x 100. 

Notes on Gleichenias. By Percival C. Waite. 

Notes from the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

I. Effort on Te:\iperature and Vegetation during 
March 1894. By Robert Lindsay, Curator, 

During the month of March the thermometer was at or 
below the freezing point on nineteen mornings, indicating 
collectively for the month 63° of frost, as against 64° for 
the corresponding month last year. The lowest tempera- 
tures were registered on the mornings of the 12th, 27° ; 
16th, 25°; 17th, 24°; 26th, 26°; 27th, 25°. The day 
temperatures were high, the lowest being 46°, on the 5 th, 
and the highest 65°, on the 30th. There was a fair 
amount of bright sunshine, and on the whole the month 
was a most favourable one. Vegetation generally has 
made good progress. The leaf-buds of deciduous trees and 
shrubs are well advanced. Early flowering varieties of 
Rhododendron, Andromeda, and Bibes are flowering freely. 



Apr. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUllGH. 



215 



Forsythia suspensa and Magnolicv consjncua are unusually 
well flowered. Of the forty spring-flowering plants whose 
dates of flowering are annually recorded, the following 
eighteen came into flow^er during March, thus completing 
the list, viz. : — Tussilago alba, on 2nd March ; Narcissus 
puviilus, 6 th; Scilla hifolia alba, 6 th; S. taurica, 6 th 
Orobus vcrnus, 6 th ; Sisyrinchmm grandiflorum album 
12th; Omphalodes verna, 13th; Draba aizoides, 14th 
Erythronium Dens-canis, 14th ; Aubrietia grandijiora, 16th 
Sisyrinchmm grandiflorum, 18th; Bibes sanguineum, 19th 
Narcissus Pseudo- Narcissus, 20th; Gorydcdis solida, 22 nd 
Hyoscyamus Scopolia, 22nd; Symphytum ccmcasicum, 22nd 
Adonis vcrnalis, 24th; Fritillaria impcricdis, 25th. 

On the rock-garden 75 species and varieties came into 
flower during the month, as against 8 1 for March last 
year. xlmongst the most interesting were — Anemone 
ranunculoidcs, A. fulgens, Aubi'ictict Hendcrsonii, Cardamine 
trifoliata, Corydalis nobilis, Dentaria pentapliyUa, D. ennca- 
pihylla, Doronicum caucasicum. Narcissus incomparabilis 
gigantcus, Ornphcdodes xerna alba, Pachysandra ijrocmnhens, 
Pachystima Canbyi, Rhododendron ciliatum, Saxifraga ciliata, 
S. juniperina, S. Jimbricda, S. crassifolia, S. sancta, S. 
retusa, S. pyrenaica, Scopolia Hladnickiana, Soldanellct 
montana, etc. 



Readings of exposed Thermometers at the Rock-Garden of the 
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during March 1894. 



Date. 


iliniimun. 


',1 A.M. 


Maximimi. 


Date. 


Minimum. 


9 A.M. 


Maximum 


1st 


30^ 


40^ 


48° 


17th 


24° 


50^ 


54° 


2nd 


32 


43 


49 


18th 


34 


47 


55 


3rd 


33 


44 


51 


19 th 


43 


48 


57 


4th 


33 


38 


49 


20th 


44 


47 


51 


5th 


30 


39 


46 


21st 


37 


54 


61 


6th 


37 


43 


49 


22nd 


32 


45 


56 


7th 


27 


33 


52 


23rd 


29 


43 


58 


8th 


37 


45 


52 


24th 


32 


44 


57 


9th 


34 


41 


55 


25th 


27 


42 


56 


10th 


33 


40 


48 


26th 


26 


43 


48 


11th 


35 


37 


49 


27th 


25 


38 


56 


12 th 


27 


42 


48 


28th 


34 


44 


53 


13th 


30 


40 


48 


29th 


28 


40 


62 


Uth 


32 


43 


50 


30th 


30 


39 


65 


15th 


28 


41 


50 


31st 


31 


40 


57 


16th 


25 


41 


50 











216 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Skss. lviii. 



REGISTER OF SPRING-FLOWERING PLANTS, SHOWING DATES 
OF FLOWERING, AT THE ROYAL BOTANIC GARDEN, 
EDINBURGH, DURING THE YEARS 1893 AND 1894. 







First Flow 


ers oppned. 




No. 


Names of Plants. 










1893. 


1894. 


1 


Adonis vernalis, .... 


March 


13 


March 


24 


2 


Arabis albida, .... 


J, 


3 


February 


20 


3 


Aubrietia grandiflora, . 


^j 


20 


March 


16 


4 


Bulbocodium vermnn, . 


February 


10 


January 


12 


5 


Corydalis solida, . 


March 


24 


March 


22 


6 


Coryllus Avellana, 


February 


8 


February 


3 


7 


Crocus Susianus, .... 




8 


,, 


6 


8 


,, vernus, .... 


,, 


14 


,, 


12 


9 


Daphne Mezereum, 


,, 


11* 


,, 


19 


10 


Dondia Epipactis, .... 


January 


16 


Dec. 28 (1893) | 


11' 


Draba aizoides, .... 


March 


13 


March 


14 


12 


Eranthis liyemalis, 


January 


25 


January 


19 


13 


Erythronium Dens-cauis, 


March 


13 


March 


14 


14 


Fritillaria imperialis, . 


April 


3 


,, 


25 


15 


Galantbus nivalis, 


January 


30 


January 


16 


16 


,, plicatus, 


,, 


28 


^, 


22 


17 


Hyoscyamus Scopolia, . 


March 


18 


March 


22 


18 


Iris reticulata, .... 


,, 


3 


February 


19 


19 


Leucojum vernum, 


February 


6 


January 


18 1 


20 


Mandragora officinalis, . 


JIarch 


26 


February 


26 1 


21 


Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus, 


^^ 


23 


March 


20 


22 


,, pumilus, 


,, 


10 


,, 


6 


23 


Nordmannia cordifolia, . 


February 


20 


February 


14 j 


24 


Omphalodes verna, 


March 


15 


March 


13 


25 


Orobus vernus, .... 




2 


,, 


6 


26 


Rhododendron atrovirens. 


February 


4 


January 


24 


27 


,, Nobleanuni, . 


,, 


14 


February 


3 


28 


Ribes sanguineuni, 


March 


17 


March 


19 


29 


Scilla bifolia, . . . . 


,, 


6 


February 


5 


30 


,, ,, alba, .... 


,, 


7 


March 


6 


31 


,, prfficox, .... 


February 


10 


January 


22 


32 


,, siberica, .... 


,, 


14 


,. 


22 


33 


„ taurica. 


March 


7 


March 


6 


34 


Sisyrinchium grandiflorum, . 


,, 


2 


,, 


18 


35 


,, ,, album, 


,, 


5 


,, 


12 


36 


SjTnpliytum caucasicum. 


^, 


24 


,, 


22 


37 


Symplocarpus foetidus, . 


February 


14 


February 


13 


38 


Tussilago alba, .... 


,, 


16 


March 


2 


39 


,, fragraus, 


,, 


6 


Dec. 25 (1893) | 


40 


,, nivea, .... 


" 


18 


February 


19 



Trans. Bot. Soc.Edm ' 



Vol. XX. PL. Jl 



Fiq. 1. 




Ficf. 5. 



E-Batters del 



FHutH,Lith''Edin^ 



ACROSIPHONIA TRAILLM, Ba^tt. 



Ai-it. 18;)4.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 



217 



II. Meteokological Observations kkcorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of March 
1894. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Moan Sea-Level, 
76-5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





'^'^ 


Thermometers, protected, 














Z3 CO 


4 feet above grass. 










^^ 


5 






a 








CO 


5 




S. R. Ther- 




^ 


Clouds. 




1 


U, 


mometers for 


Hj'grometer. 










hS 




O o ' 


preceding 










>^^ 


"o 




24 hours. 




"5 








3 

■a 
















cc' 


a CD 










f~t 




p 
o 


1 


*3 


Q 


5 g 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


5 


Kind. 






ns 














3 
< 


S'-^ 






o 


o 





o 












1 


29-198 


46-7 


36-6 


43-0 


41-9 


s.w. 


Nim. 


10 


S.AV. 


0-340 


2 


29-428 


47-0 


35-8 


42-0 


40-1 


w. 


Cum. 


6 


w. 


0-010 


3 


29-845 


47-7 


35-9 


42-7 


.39-6 


w. 









0-060 


4 


29-538 


51-4 


35-0 


39-9 


38-8 


w. 


CiiV'st. 


8 


w. 


0-030 


5 


29-947 


46-0 


32-7 


39-2 


37-9 


w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


AV. 


0-140 


6 


29-153 


46-4 


39-0 


43-8 


41-1 


w. 







... 


0-000 


7 


29-G91 


48-9 


30-3 


33-3 


32-9 


N.W. 


Fog. 


5 




0-060 


8 


29-218 


47-9 


33-1 


441 


41-4 


w. 


Cir. St. 


6 


w. 


0-035 


9 


29-142 


48-6 


.S7-3 


431 


41-1 


s.w. 


Nim. 


10 


R. 


0-235 


10 


29-234 


50-9 


35-7 


38-2 


37-6 


w. 


Cir. 


2 


W. 


0-330 


11 


28-883 


48-8 


37-8 


41-2 


38-8 


w. 


Cir. St. 


5 


w. 


0-190 


12 


29-084 


44-8 


34-2 


40-0 


37-6 


w. 









0-000 


13 


28-786 


45-8 


,33-2 


37-8 


36-2 


w. 


cir. 


1 


w. 


0-010 


14 


29-249 


47-7 


34-0 


40-1 


37-8 


w. 









0-020 


15 


29-376 


46-8 


34-1 


37-8 


36-8 


N.W. 









O-OOO 


16 


29-782 


46-9 


28-5 


37-4 


35-3 


w. 









0-000 


17 


30-089 


48-0 


28-1 


42-4 


39-8 


w. 









0-000 


18 


30-109 


52-7 


35-6 


45-0 


43-1 


w. 


Cum. St. 


10 


w. 


0-000 


19 


30-181 


51-7 


44-6 


50-1 


48-7 


w. 


Cum. St. 


10 


w. 


0-000 


20 


30-190 


54-6 


45-1 


47-9 


45-4 


w. 


Cum. St. 


10 


w. . 


0-000 


21 


30-164 


49-6 


39-6 


49-6 


46-0 


w. 









0-000 


22 


30-282 


59-1 


34-2 


44-1 


43-0 


w. 


Fog. 


5 




0-000 


23 


30-419 


53-6 


31-0 


44-8 


42-1 


E. 


Fog. 


5 




0-000 


24 


30-392 


61-0 


32-1 


39-7 


39-2 


E. 


Fo|. 


5 




0-000 


25 


30-169 


55-5 


33-0 


37-9 


37-9 


e. 


Fog. 


7 




0-000 


26 


30-002 


51-() 


31-0 


38-6 


38-4 


E. 


Fog. 


5 




0-000 


27 


30-096 


54-9 


30-0 


45-0 


431 


e. 


Fog. 


2 




0-000 


28 


30-214 


47-5 


37-4 


38-0 


37-1 


e. 


St. 


10 


e! 


0-010 


29 


30-061 


46-0 


31-0 


40-5 


40-3 


E. 


Cir. 


3 


N. 


0-000 


30 


29-814 


64-6 


33-1 


45-0 


43-0 


S.W. 


Fog. 


2 




0-000 


31 


29-670 


65-6 


36-8 


42-3 


4L-1 


w. 


Cum. St. 


10 


is'. 


0-010 



Barometer. — Highest Obsei-ved, on the 23rd. = 30-419 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 13th, =28-786 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, =:1'633 inch. Mean = 
29-723 inches. 

S. R. Thermometers. — Highest Observed, on the 31st, = G5°-6. Lowest Observed, 
on the 17th, = 28°-l. Difiference, or Monthly Range, = 37°-5. Mean of all the 
Highest = 50°-9. Mean of all the Lowest = o4°-7. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Range, = 16^-2. Mean Temperature of Month = 42°-8. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 41°-8. Mean of Wet Bulb = 40°-l. 

Rainfall. — Number of Days on which Rain fell = 14. Amount of Fall = 1*480 
inch. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 1st, = 0-340 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, 
Observer. 



218 TRAXSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

III. Ox Plants ix the Plant Houses. By Pi. L. 
Harrow. 

The past month, which is perhaps one of the most 
interesting periods of the whole year to those engaged 
in the study of plant life in its various stages, has been 
very favourable to the good development of both flowers 
and foliage. The great majority of plants cultivated under 
glass, which have been inactive during the winter, and 
have been partially or wholly destitute of foliage, are 
now vigorously started into growth. A much greater 
display of flowers has been produced, the number of species 
recorded being about seventy-five. A few of these we are 
able to exhibit, viz. : — 

Browiua gra'tidiceps, Jacq. This is a leguminous shrub, 
which is a native of South America, where it is 
said to attain a height of CO feet. The inflorescences, 
which are produced in large globular heads at the 
extremity of branches, and also upon the old wood, 
resemble, when fully expanded, the flowers of a Pihodo- 
dendron. The light red flowers at the base of the 
inflorescence are the first to open, the remainder opening 
successively in tiers until the apex is reached, and a fully 
expanded flower head is seen. The foliage, which is at all 
times handsome, has, in a young state, a peculiar drooping 
appearance, gradually with age assuming a more erect 
appearance. The leaves possess from nine to twelve pairs 
of leaflets. The figure in the "Botanical Magazine" was 
prepared from a specimen received from the Glasnevin, 
Botanic Garden, Dublin. 

Myrioco.rpa longipcs, Liebmann. This is a member of 
the order Urticaceee, the genus consisting of six species. 
It is a strong-growing, shrub-like plant, with large elliptic 
leaves, some of which are about eighteen inches in length, 
and half the distance in breadth. The singular inflorescences 
are produced in the axils of the leaves, and branch dichoto- 
mously, sometimes attaining a length of from 2 to 3 feet, 
and trailing upon the ground. The flowers are arranged 
in a spiral manner along its whole length, giving it a 
remarkable appearance. It is a native of Vera Cruz. The 
plant under notice was received from Kew during 1893. 



Apr, 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBURGH. 219 

Randia maculata, DC. This plant was sent some years 
ago to this country by Mr. T. Whitfield, a noted collector 
of plants, from Sierra Leone, and was for some time known 
under the name of Gardenia Stanleyana. It is a free- 
tlowering, shrub-like plant, with spreading dichotomous 
branching, the foliage being thick and oblong upon very 
short petioles. The flowers are produced singly in the 
forks of the branches, and when fully grown are about 
9 inches long, being of a dull green and purple upon the 
outer surface, and white with purple blotches in the 
interior. The anthers are affixed to the inside of the 
mouth of the corolla. They are very fragrant, and a 
considerable time elapses from their first appearing till 
the corolla bursts ; but when fully expanded the plant 
is a remarkably handsome object. 

Stropliantlius lonrjicaudatus, DC. This genus of Apocy- 
nacete is noted for its poisonous properties, and has of 
late years supplied a drug used in connection with diseases 
of the heart. The species under notice is a native of 
Tropical Africa, and is a low-growing plant with opposite 
dark green leaves. The flowers are terminal, generally 
produced in threes. The sepals are small and persistent : 
the corolla is of a greenish-yellow colour. The five 
segments are reflexed and tail-like. It is now flowering in 
the annexe of the Palm House. 

Fothcrgilla Gardcnii, Murr. This is a pretty North 
American dwarf deciduous shrub, belonging to the order 
Hamamelidcce, this being the only species of the genus. 
The inflorescences are terminal, and appear before the 
leaves, the flowers, which are white, being very sweet 
scented. The foliage is small, the leaves being covered 
with lightish hairs. 

Calypso horealis, Salisb. A Xorth American terrestrial 
orchid of miniature growth. The flowers are of a pinkish 
colour, and borne upon a slender sheathed stem springing 
from the base of the petiole of the leaves. The labellum 
is larger than the petals and sepals, differing slightly in 
colour. The leaves are solitary, ovate, and of a succulent 
nature. 

Of other plants of interest which have flowered may be 
noted: Illicium anisatum, Ga^rtn., — the Star Anise of China, 



220 TRAXSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDiyCS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

bearing fragrant white flowers ; HaJ:ea acicularis, E. Br., — 
a protead with acicular leaves and small white flowers, 
native of Australia; Viburnum macroceplialum, Fortune, — 
a beautiful spring-flowering shrub, with immense v/hite 
inflorescences, from China ; Boicica voluhilis, Harv., — a 
liliaceous twining plant with small pedicillate flowers, a 
native of South Africa ; Bignonia speciosa, E. G-rah., — a 
lovely tropical climber, from Uruguay ; Talauma p)umila, 
Blum., — a native of Amboyna and Java, with deliciously 
scented flowers, only fragrant at night ; PJiododendron 
racemosum, rrauch., — a small Yunnan species. 



May 1894.] . BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 221 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, May 10, 1894. 

Dr. ^yILLIAM Craig, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. E. TuRNBULL exhibited a stem of Hippuris, showing 
a spiral arrangement of the normal whorls of leaves. 

From Mr. P. H. Xoemand, Whitehill, Aberdour, were 
exhibited cut blooms of two-year-old seedlings of Cytissus 
scopariuiii, var. andrcanus, — the flowers varied in colour, 
none so dark as the parent variety, and some being as 
yellow as the type; also blooms of Spiraa primifolia, 'A. 
pi. ; also a plant of Anemone Hepatica, with white blotches 
on the leaves ; also cut blooms of double white Banksian 
rose from a cool conservatory at Balmuto ; also blooms of 
Ornithofjalum lactcum, grown under glass, which had been 
cut more than a month previous. 

From Dr. Stuart, Chirnside, cut blooms were exhibited 
of a Trollius hybrid between T. curopccus and T. amcricanus. 

From ]Mr. Campbell of Ledaig cut blooms, from the 
open garden, were exhibited of Dcuizia f/raeilis, Buddleia 
(jlobosa, double red hawthorn, etc. 

Amongst herbaceous and alpine plants on the table from 
the Eoyal Botanic Garden were — Androsacc sarmcntosa, 
A. villosa, Daphne rupestris, Gcntiana verna, Ifi/osotis 
pygmcca, M. lithospermifolia, Silene acaulis alba, Soboloi'jskya 
clavata. 

Issued November 1894. 



222 TEA^'SAC•T10^^•5 AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [SesS. lviii. 

The following papers were read : — 

XOTES FEOM THE EOYAL BOTANIC GARDEN, EDINBURGH. 

I. Eepoet ox Tempeeatcee and Vegetation during 
April 1894. Bj Eobekt Lindsay, Curator. 

The past month of April has been one of the most 
favourable experienced for many years. Seldom has there 
been so little frost in April, and vegetation has gone on 
advancing without check. Such a fine early season rarely 
occurs. The foliage of many deciduous trees and shrubs 
is remarkably luxuriant and perfect. Apple, pear, cherry, 
and currants are quite smothered with blossom. Xearly 
all early ornamental trees and shrubs are flowering pro- 
fusely — considerably above the average in this respect. 
The hawthorn came into flower on the 29 th of the month, 
much earlier than I have ever observed it before, and fully 
three weeks before its ordinar}- time of flowering here. 
The thermometer was at or below the freezing point on six 
occasions, registering in all 5' of frost for the month, as 
against 12'' for the corresponding month of last year. The 
lowest readings occurred on the 1st, 31"; 2nd, 29'; l-lth, 
32'; 20th, 32'; 21st, 31'. The lowest day temperature 
was 44' on the 3rd, and the highest 72° on the 27th of 
the month. The collective amount of frost registered this 
season up to the end of April is 325 , as against 517' for 
the same period last year. The following is the distribution 
for each month: — October, IS' of frost; Xovember. oo': 
December, 52': January, 121'; February, 63'; March, 
63'; April, 5'. The lowest point reached this sea.son was 
9' Fahr., or 23' of frost, which occurred on the 7th of 
January. 

On the rock-garden 153 species and varieties came into 
flower during the month, as against 166 for April of last 
year. Among the more interesting were : — Anemo/u alpina, 
A. Pulsatilla, var. Irracteoia, A. ihalictroides, Androsace 
coronopi/olia, Arnebia echioides, AuhrietM Lekhtlini, Bry- 
anthv.s e'rectiis, Cassiope fastigiata, Crenularia eunomioides, 
Corydxilis Scoulerii, Cytisv.s ArdvAnii, Erythronium gigan- 
tcv.m, Heloniopsis umhellata, Muscari Szocitzianum, Narcissus 



May 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



22S 



Empress, N. Iriandrus pulclicUus, Fhlox nivalis, T. setacea 
vars., Polemonium Jmmile, Frimula Dinyana, F. integrifolia, 
P. intermedia, Ranunculus montanits, 11. spcciosus, Rhodora 
canadensis, Rhododendron antliopogon, R. Chama3cistus, R. 
glaitcum, R. Grievci, Soholoivshja clavata, Trillium erectum, 
T. fjrandifiorwm, Uvularia grandijiora, Veronica linifolia, 
etc. 



Readings of exposed Thermometers at the Rock- Garden of the 
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during April 1894. 



Date. 


Minimum. 


9 A.M. 


Maximum. 


Date. 


Minimum 


A.M. 


JIaximum 


1st 


31° 


45° 


60° 


16th 


33° 


46° 


71° 


2nd 


29 


41 


59 


17th 


44 


52 


57 


3rd 


33 


39 


44 


18th 


41 


43 


53 


■4th 


38 


41 


47 


19 th 


35 


49 


58 


5th 


40 


43 


50 


20th 


32 


52 


61 


6 th 


34 


43 


51 


21st 


31 


50 


61 


7th 


38 


43 


54 


22nd 


35 


50 


64 


8 th 


38 


42 


50 


23rd 


38 


48 


52 


9 th 


38 


42 


61 


24th 


38 


46 


60 


10th 


44 


69 


65 


25th 


36 


50 


65 


11th 


38 


60 


62 


26th 


40 


50 


68 


12th 


40 


46 


61 


27th 


32 


50 


72 


13th 


39 


46 


61 


28th 


36 


51 


71 


14th 


32 


46 


57 


29th 


42 


57 


65 


15th 


36 


49 


Q5 


30th 


44 


50 


57 



224 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



II. Meteoeological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of April 
1894. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
76'5 feet. Hour of Observation, '.> a.m. 





"H? 


Thermometers, protected, 












1 


5 _= 

rs - 


4 feet above grass. 


13 


Clouds. 




01 

o 

1 


S. R. Ther- 






1^ 




mometers for 
preceding 


Hygrometer. 


1 








o 


"o 


C _ 


24 houi-s. 












3 






Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


o 

o 

5 


Kind. 


"3 

c 

< 


.- .2 


'S 


1 


29-924 


o 

54-8 


34-4 


47-0 


o 

45-2 


w. 


Cum. St. 


10 


W. 


0-120 


2 


29-879 


57-9 


32-1 


42-9 


4-2-4 


S.E. 


Cir. Cum. 


3 


S.E. 


0-000 


3 


29-840 


56-7 


37-1 


40-7 


40-4 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-010 


4 


30-040 


42-2 


40-4 


421 


41-0 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


5 


30-217 


44-8 


42-0 


44-4 


430 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-005 





30-105 


51-0 


398 


42-7 


41-2 


E. 


Cir. St. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


7 


30-044 


49-2 


42-1 


46-9 


43-0 


S.E. 


Cir. St. 


10 


E. 


0-140 


8 


29-877 


49-5 ' 41-1 


42-3 


41-4 


E. 


Cum. St. 


10 


E. 


0-020 


9 


29-743 


45-8 40-6 


42-1 


42-1 


E. 


Fog 


10 




0-010 


10 


29-887 


56-9 ■ 41-5 


56-8 


51-6 


W. 


Cir. 


5 


W. 


0-000 


11 


29-886 


630 41-3 


59-2 


53-9 


N.W. 


Cir. 


3 


s. 


0-000 


12 


29-762 


61-8 


44-0 


46-9 


45-5 


E. 


Cir. 


6 


E. 


0-000 


13 


29-823 


57-6 


41-1 


450 


411 


E. 


Cum. 


9 


E. 


0-000 


14 


29-631 


48-6 


36-7 


44-7 


41-0 


E. 


( Cir. 
I Cum. 
Cir. 


2 


E. 


0-000 ■ 


15 


29-588 


51-9 


39-4 


49-1 


46-0 


S. 


s. 


0-055 ( 


16 


29-419 


57-4 


36-3 


46-4 


45-8 


E. 


Cir. St. 


8 


E. 


0-.300 1 


17 


29-289 


54-5 


43-8 


45-9 


45-7 


S. 


St. 


10 


s. 


0-.S10 1 


18 


29-654 


52-8 


45-1 


46-5 


46-2 


N. 


Nim. 


10 


N. 


0-350 1 


19 


30-072 


49 6 


37-5 


48-9 


45-9 


E. 









0-000 1 


20 


30076 


54-8 


.%-l 


51-8 


47-9 


E. 







... 


0-000 ; 


21 


29-959 


58-5 


35-1 


47-4 


45-0 


E. 









0-000 \ 


22 


29-854 


55-6 


39-2 


46 


430 


E. 









0-030 


23 


29-593 


56-9 


41-9 


45-S 


43-9 


E. 


cir. 


8 


E. 


0-020 


24 


29-461 


48-8 


42-9 


47-2 


44-7 


N.E. 


f Cir. 
\ Cum. 
Cum. 


3 

6 


I> 


0-095 1 


25 


29-439 


55-6 


40-2 


51-2 


45-6 


S.E. 


8 


0-000 


26 


29-495 


58-8 


43-5 


49-7 


450 


S. 


Cum. 


9 


S. 


0-075 


27 


29-511 


61-0 


35-0 


48-2 


46-0 


S, 


Cir. 


6 


S. 


0-000 


28 


29-904 


56-0 


40-9 


52-2 


47-0 


N. 









0-030 


29 


29-897 


57-8 


47-6 


53-0 


50-8 


W. 


Cir.'St. 


10 


w. 


0-100 


30 


30-160 


606 


47-0 


50-2 


47-9 


s. 


Cir. St, 


10 


N. 


0-OUO 



Barometer, — Highest Observed, on the 5th, = 30-217 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 17th, =29-289 inches. Difference, or Monthlv Range, = 0-9-28 inch. Mean 
= 29-803 inches. 

S. E. Thermometers. — Highest Observed, on the lltb, = 63°-0. Lowest Observed, 
on the 2nd, -^ 32°-l. Difference, or Monthly Puinge, -= 3C°-9 Mean of all the 
Highest = 54°-3. Mean of all the Lowest = 40°-2. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Range, = 14°-1. Mean Temperature of Month = 47''-2. 

Hygrometer. — Mean of Drj- Bulb =- 47°-4. Mean of Wet Bulb = 45°-0. 

Rainfall. — Number of Days on which Rain fell = 16. Amount of Fall =1-670 
inch. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 18tb, = 0-350 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDSON Observer. 



May 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 225 

III. On Plants in the Plant Houses, with Exhibi- 
tion OF Specimens. By E. L. Harrow. 

The number of plants which have flowered in the houses 
of Royal Botanic Garden during the month of April is 
125. This is a large increase upon the month of March, 
consequently there has been a much more showy appear- 
ance amongst the inhabitants of the greenhouses ; the 
colours of the azaleas, rhododendrons, and other early 
summer flowering plants being especially brilliant. 
Amongst those worthy of notice are : — 

Eugenia polyiKtala, Wight. This is an evergreen 
shrubby bush, a native of India, where it is said to grow 
to from twenty to thirty feet. The leaves are generally 
produced in whorls of three or four, are six to eight 
inches in length, and of a linear lanceolate shape, being 
borne on very short petioles. The flowers are large and 
solitary, arising upon the old wood. The number of petals 
is from twelve to sixteen. At present the plant is very 
rare in our gardens. 

Utricularia montana, Jacq. A native of the West 
Indian Islands, this is probably the most handsome 
species of this genus of Lentibularieae. The roots are 
swollen into hollow green tubers, connected by small 
fibres. The leaves are about six inches long, elliptic 
lanceolate, gradually becoming narrower as they near the 
petiole. The flowers are produced upon an erect scape, 
which rises above the foliage, generally bearing from three 
to four flowers ; these are spurred and two-lipped, the 
lower lip being twice as large as the upper, and with a 
yellow blotch about the centre. The plant grows upon 
the damp mossy trunks of trees in its native habitats. 
A fine figure may be seen in the " Botanical Magazine," 
t. 5923. 

li'anunculus cortnsmfolln^, Willd. This is a very showy 
species, which was introduced from Teneriffe in 1826, and 
is a tall-growing kind, the flowers being large and of a 
lustrous yellow, somewhat resembling the common butter- 
cup. The foliage is dark green in colour, the radical 
leaves being large, gradually becoming smaller as the stem 
increases in height, all being covered with short hairs. 

TliANS. BOT. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. 1' 



226 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEKDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

RicJiardia Eehmannii, N". E. Br. Tliis is a lovely little 
Aroid, a native of South Africa, with narrow tapering 
leaves about eighteen inches long, arising from an under- 
ground rhizome. The inflorescence is small, and grows to 
a less length than the foliage. The spathe is white, slightly 
tinged with red at the margin. 

Acradenia Franldincv, Kipp. This plant is a member 
of the Paitace?e, said to have been first introduced in 1845 
from Tasmania. It is of a compact, shrubby growth. The 
leaves are trifoliate, fragrant, and covered with small 
glands. The flowers are white in terminal and axillary 
clusters, the petals deflexed, and stamens alternate. 

Adenandra umhellata, Willd. Belonging also to the Euta- 
cea3, this is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, growing to 
a height of two or three feet. It is very free flowering, the 
flowers — three to four in number — being produced in an 
umbel-like manner at the apex of each shoot. The petals 
are large white, with a purple streak running through the 
centre of each. The leaves are small and alternate. 

Amongst others of interest may be mentioned : — Eutaxia 
myrtifolia, R Br., — a pretty leguminous shrub, with 
numerous yellow and brown flowers, introduced in 1803 
from Australia ; Ca/itua huxifolia, Lamk., — an elegant, 
slender, drooping polemoniaceous plant, introduced in 1849 
from the Peruvian Andes, and figured in the " Botanical 
Magazine," t. 4582 ; Hibbertia Recukli, Hort., — a small- 
growing plant, with small yellow flowers, belonging to 
the order Dilleniacese; Malpigliia coccifera, Linn., — possesses 
small, solitary, pink flowers and spiny leaves, growing to a 
height of about three feet ; Arriieria latifolia, Willd., — 
this pretty species was lately figured in the " Botanical 
Magazine," from a plant flowered at Kew, received from 
these gardens ; Marica Northiana, Ker., — a fragrant species 
from Brazil, with livid, showy flowers ; Oncidium altissimum. 
Smith, — introduced nearly a century ago from the West 
Indies, bears scapes, sometimes 3 feet in length, carrying 
numerous yellow flowers ; Tctranema mexicana, Benth., — 
commonly called the Mexican Foxglove, a small-growing 
plant, with short peduncles, the flowers lasting over a long 
period ; Phalcenojms Luddemaniana, Echb. fil, — a native of 
the Phillipines, introduced by Messrs. Hugh Low & Co. 



Ji-NEl894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 227 



:meeting of the society. 

Thursday, June 14, 1894. 

Professor Bower, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Vv^iLLiAM Sanderson exhibited a pLant of Oiicidinm 
macranthum in flower. 

From Mr. Campbell of Ledai^ was exhibited a shell-full 
of ripe strawberries from his open gai'den. 

Amongst herbaceous plants from the lioyal Botanic 
Garden on the table were a series of hybrids of Dmntlius, 
raised by Mr. Burnett, of Aberdeen. 

Mr, Tagg exhibited specimens of Tahcrnccmontana 
longijiora, Benth., showing extra-axillary branching. 

The following papers were read : — 

Note ox the Occurrence of a Variegated For.m of 
THE Common Mistletoe (Viscum alliun). By J. Grieve. 

There is at present growing on a healthy thorn, in the 
Dean Cemetery of this city, a form of the common mistletoe 
sufficiently striking to merit attention being called to it. 
As will be seen from the specimen exhibited, the leaves 
are beautifully variegated, such a departure from the 
normal type being very unusual. Indeed, I do not know 
of any other example of the mistletoe " sporting " in this 
manner, and I have ventured to place it before the Society 
in order to learn if any of the members have met with 
such " sports " in this parasitic plant. The specimen 
exhibited is some ten or twelve years old, but no record 
of it has hitherto been made. 

Issued Xovember 1894. 



228 TEAXSACTIOXS A^;D PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Skss. lviil 

Mr. Dunn remarked that he had seen variegated speci- 
mens of mistletoe, but only on unhealthy hosts. 

XOTE ON THE OkIGIN AND HiSTORY OF SaXIFRAGA 

Wallacei, Hort. By J. Grieve. 

As I am aware that the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 
does not confine its attention to matters of purely scientific 
botany, but takes a great interest in everythiDg relating to 
horticulture also, I need scarcely apologise for bringing 
under your notice the subject of the origin and history of a 
now well-known plant, namely, Sax^fraga Wallacei. I am 
the more anxious to place this subject before you, seeing 
that doubts still exist in the minds of many — both as to 
the parentage of the plant and its raiser * ; and being 
acquainted with its history from the beginning, I am able 
to speak with some degree of confidence on the subject. 

In 1873, Messrs. Jas. Backhouse & Son, of York, sent out 

* Under S. Camposii, Boiss. et Rent., in the " Botanical Magazine," 
t. 6640, which had been in cultivation for many years at Kew, 
Mr. Baker places as a synonym S. Wallacei, Hort., and says : — 
" According to Witlkinson, its [S. Camposii] nearest affinity is with 
S. trifuj-cata, Schrad. (' Botanical Magazine,' t. 1651), and -V. cimeata, 
WiJld., but to me it appears to be scarcely distinguishable from S. 
Maiceana, Baker (' Botanical Magazine,' t. 63S4), except in the smaller 
leaves, which seem never to assume the reuiform shape. It is true that, 
judging by the dried native specimens, .S'. Camposii is a stouter, more 
rigid species, with a more crowded rosette of leaves, and shorter 
peduncles and pedicels, but under cultivation these differences are so 
considerably modified that the two plants may not unreasonably be 
regarded as geographical forms, one inhabiting the southern mountains 
of Spain, the other the northernmost ones of Marocco. The S. 
maderensis represents the same type in its western limit of growth — 
the island of Madeira ; the .S". cuntata of the Pyrenees represents the 
northern limit within the Peninsular area ; within that area occur the 
equally or, indeed, more closely connected forms of .S". obscura, Gren. 
and Godr., and S. canaliculata, Boiss. et Rent. : and it would not be 
difficult to connect all with the forms that occur under other names 
elsewhere in Western Eivrope." This is interesting taken in connection 
with the following dogmatic assertion of a writer in the " Garden," 
XXXV. (1889), p. 420: — " -S'. Wallacei, however it may have found its 
way to the Dean Cemetery, is S. Camposii, Boiss., cultivated for many 
years in gardens, and having nothing to do with 5. Maiceana.'' As 
illustrating the confusion that exists regarding these dactyloid saxi- 
fragas, the following quotation from another writer in the '• Garden," 
xxix. (1891), p. 545, may be noted : — " True S. Camposii of Boissier is 
very seldom met with in cultivation, and I question whether it is to be 
found growing in any garden except that of M. Boissier himself, or of 
some one to whom he may have given a specimen of the plant."' 



J 



June 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBUKGII. 229 

two new Saxifrages — S. Maiccana * and S. Wilkommiana.\ 
These were described by them as " two new species of the 
S. palmata section, with showy tufts of large pure white 
tiowers, on stems six to ten inches high." They added that, 
though nearly allied to each other, they are quite distinct, 
and might be regarded as two of the finest of the group. 
The first of these, S. Maiceana, has now practically gone 
out of cultivatiou ; but the second, S. WilkommiancL, is 
still grown. 

Some two years after they were sent out, the late 
George Wallace, of the Dean Cemetery, Edinburgh, 
succeeded in raising from them a saxifrage now usually 
known in plant catalogues as S. Wallacci of gardens. 
This plant has become very widely known, and it is, 
perhaps, one of the best of its kind, whether for bedding 
purposes or as a pot plant. It has some qualities which 
mark it as an improvement on both parents, since it lasts 
longer in bloom than S. Mdiccana, and is of much superior 
habit to >S', JFilkommiana, while it possesses a sweet scent 
but faintly present in either parent. Messrs. Dicksons & 
Co. procured the original plant from the raiser, and at 
once proceeded to increase it, preparatory to sending it 
out.;J; As many as 10,000 pots of it have been in stock in 
Messrs. Dicksons' Xurseries at one time — for, although the 
plant very rarely seeds, it is easily grown from cuttings. 
It was distributed all over Britain and throughout the 
Continent of Europe, as well as in America. 

As already stated, doubts have been thrown on its origin 
and history, and it is chiefiy to set these doubts at rest, and 
to give honour to whom honour is due in the raising of it, 
that I have ventured to bring this subject to-night before 

*,*?. Mawenna^ Bator, fi^aired in the "Botanical Magazine,'" t. 6384, 
was discovered by Mr. P. B. Webb, of Paris, in 1827, "in its only 
known habitat, rocks of the Beni Hosmar range of mountains opposite 
Tetuan," in Marocco, "at about 2000 feet elevation." He regarded it 
as a form of ^'. (jlohulifera. It was not recognised to be a new species 
until Mr. Maw gathered it in 1869, and it was introduced into cultiva- 
tion by him. It is also figured in " Gardeners' Chronicle,'' 1871, 
fig. olio. 

t Is the »S'. canaliculata, Boiss. et Reut., from the mountains of 
Spain ■? 

i It was awarded a first-class certificate by the Royal Caledonian 
Horticultural Society in 1878. The name was given at the suggestion 
of Mr. James M'Xab. 



230 TEAXSACTIOXS AXD PIIOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

the members of the Botanical Society. I trust the plant 
will long keep alive the memory of its raiser — one who, 
though but a humble horticulturist, was, throughout a long 
life, a keen and enthusiastic lover of plants. 



Notes from the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

I. Eeport on Temperature and Vegetation during 
May 1894. By PlObert Lindsay, Curator. 

The past month of May will be remembered as one of 
the most disastrous to vegetation that has occurred for 
many years. Preceded by a very mild and genial month, 
vegetation was in a most forward and flourishing condition, 
rendering it peculiarly susceptible to injury from frost. 
Between the 19th and the 24th of the month a succession 
of frosty nights took place, which has done serious damage 
to fruit crops throughout the country. Many hardy trees, 
shrubs, and herbaceous plants have sustained severe injury. 
The following plants, in exposed situations, were more or 
less injured : — Azalea pontica, A. mollis, and Ghent varieties 
Laburnum and Horse Chesnut, had their flowers browned 
and destroyed ; young shoots of Oak, Ash, Maple, Larch, 
Ahies VcitcMi, and A. ccplialonica, Eoses, Dimorphanthus, 
Ehododendrons of the Arboreum and Campanulatum breeds, 
Pieris formosa, Tulip tree, etc. ; Spircea 'pcdmata, S. Arvmcua, 
Eodgcrsia podophylla, Bhev.m officiiicde, and R. Emodi, 
Tamus comviunis, Polygonum Sieboldii, P. amplexicaide, P. 
molle, Trillium graiuliflorum , Male Fern, Oak Fern, Eoyal 
Fern, and even the Common Bracken had their young 
fronds completely blackened. The thermometer was below 
the freezing point on six occasions, registering in all 23° of 
frost. The lowest readings occurred on the 20th, 28°; 21st, 
26°; 22nd, 28°; 23rd, 28°; 24th, 28°. The lowest day 
temperature was 48°, on the 16tli, and the highest 70°, on 
the 4th of the month. 

On the rock-garden 22 7 species and varieties came into 
blossom against 300 for May of last year. Among the 
most interesting were : — Anemone narcissijlora, A. Polyanthus, 
Acipltylla. Colciuoi, Anthemis alpcstris, Androsa.ce sarmentosa, 
A. ladea, Anthyllis erinacea, Aqnilermc W7iitmanniana, 



Jlne 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



231 



Cheiranthus alpiniis, C. Allionii, Cytisus dcnumhens, C. 
Scoparhis Andrcanus, C. 2)f(i'2^ureus, Campamda Allionii, 
Clintonia Andrewsiana, Daphne Cneorum, D. Floniana, 
Dodecatlicon integrifolium , Doronimmgrandijlorum, DiantJms 
Michael Foster, Enhianthus himalaicnsis, Gentiana verna, 
TAnumfiavum, Myosotis alpestris, Mertensia sibirica, Menziesia 
Drummondii, Onosma taurica, Ononis rotundifolia, Olcaria 
Gunniana, Phlox verna. Primula intcyrifolia, P. magellanica, 
P. rosea, P. sikkimensis, Potentilla aurea, Papaver pyrenaicum , 
Buhus arcticvs, Ranuncidus Trannfclnerii, Ramondia pyre- 
naica alba, Saxifraya atropurpiirea , S. MelviUei, S. Shirmiana, 
Saponaria ocymoidcs Lodcri, SUene acaidis, Scilla peruviana, 
Veronica saxatilis alba, Widfenia carinthiaca, etc. 

Readings of exposed Thermometers at the Eock-Gaulen of 
the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Edinbur;^h, during May 189-1. 



Date. 


Miniimiiii. 


9 A.M. 


Maximnm. 


Date. 


Minimum. 


9 A.M. 


Maximum 


1st 


37 = 


49' 


59° 


17th 


39^ 


44° 


53° 


2nd 


38 


45 


55 


18th 


41 


48 


55 


3rd 


42 


50 


52 


19th 


37 


42 


49 


4th 


33 


43 


70 


20th 


2.S 


37 


58 


5th 


31 


54 


58 


21st 


26 


47 


50 


6 th 


39 


54 


63 


22nd 


27 


44 


57 


7th 


38 


46 


53 


23rd 


28 


50 


58 


8th 


39 


46 


63 


24th 


28 


56 


67 


9th 


39 


50 


61 


25th 


37 


55 


69 


10th 


39 


54 


65 


26th 


38 


47 


53 


11th 


41 


55 


63 


27th 


36 


45 


59 


12th 


37 


61 


64 


28th 


37 


43 


52 


13th 


35 


50 


60 


29th 


39 


42 


56 


Uth 


41 


44 


53 


30th 


39 


41 


57 


1.5 th 


43 


45 


50 


31st 


40 


59 


61 


16th 


42 


43 


48 











232 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



II. Meteorological Observations recorded at Royal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of May 
1894. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea- Level, 
76 '5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





-^^ 


Thei-mometei 


s, protected, 












o 


S 


4 feet above grass. 


'6 

a 


Clouds. 




IB 
1 

a 


S. R. Ther- 




t . 


mometers for 




u^ 










^h 


preceding 


Hygrometer. 


o 









v—' 




io 


•24 hours. 




05 








i 

a 
'3 














*^- 


, 


ft 




Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


S 


Kind. 


5 

o 

a 


£ 5 


CO 






o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


30-319 


59-4 


40-6 


61-2 


46-9 


N.W. 


Cir. St, 


10 


N. 


0-215 


2 


29-957 


58-5 


40-7 


47-1 


46-9 


W. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-1.36 


3 


29-584 


54-8 


44-7 


54-1 


49-8 


N.W. 


Cir. 


5 


N.W. 


0-005 


4 


29-640 


56-9 


35-6 


43-3 


38-3 


N.W. 


Cum. 


6 


N.W. 


0-000 


5 


29-825 


52-1 


35 


60-1 


44-0 


N.W. 









0-050 


6 


29-449 


55-9 


42-2 


52 1 


479 


W. 


r cir. 

t Cum. 
Cum. St. 


10 


W. 


0-060 


7 


29-489 


57-7 


40-6 


49-0 


45-8 


w. 


w. 


0-135 


8 


29-663 


56-5 


41-8 


48-2 


48-0 


s. 


Nim. 


10 


s. 


0-040 


9 


29-564 


58-6 


42-0 


51-6 


46-9 


s. 


Cum. St. 


10 


s. 


0-010 


10 


29-370 


55-0 


427 


51-4 


47-0 


s. 


(Cir. 
tCum. St. 


t} 


s. 


0-165 


11 


29-607 


60-8 


42-7 


61-4 


47-2 


w. 


Cum. St. 


ID 


w. 


0-000 


12 


29-902 


60-7 


39-6 


56 7 


50-8 


N.W. 


Cum. 


1 


N.W. 


0-000 


13 


30-018 


60-0 


38-0 


49-7 


45-0 


S.E. 


Cum. St. 


11 


S.E. 


0-405 


14 


29-864 


64-G 


44-0 


46-7 


46-4 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-480 


15 


29-977 


49-8 


46-7 


47-1 


47-0 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-110 


10 


30-131 


48-2 


44-8 


45-1 


44-3 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-045 


17 


30-340 


46-6 


42 6 


44-4 


42-3 


E. 


Cum. St. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


18 


30-321 


47-8 


44-0 


47-2 


44-1 


E. 


Cir. 


8 


N.W. 


0-015 


19 


30-321 


51-4 


40-5 


43-0 


37-7 


N.E. 


Cum. St. 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 


20 


29-986 


44-7 


32-1 


40-9 


37-0 


Var. 


Cum. St. 


10 


N.E. 


0-020 


21 


29-968 


60-1 


31-7 


44-4 


39-2 


N.E 


Cum. 


2 


N. 


0-020 


22 


30-081 


50-2 


31-9 


47-6 


43-0 


N.E. 


Cum. 


1 


N.W. 


0-020 


23 


30-335 


618 


32-2 


48-2 


42 7 


N.E. 









0-020 


24 


30-411 


53 2 


33-2 


48-7 


45-1 


N.E. 









0-020 


25 


30-098 


59-7 


43-1 


54 8 


4S- 1 


W. 


Cin'St. 


9 


N.W. 


0-015 


26 


29-933 


63-1 


41-9 


47-7 


43-9 


N. 


Cum. St. 


9 


N. 


0-030 


27 


29-810 


5(1-4 


39-8 


46-9 


40-7 


N. 


Cum. 


5 


N. 


0-200 


28 


29533 


63-8 


42-0 


45-4 


44-1 


N.E. 


Nim. 


11) 


N.E. 


0-240 


29 


29-666 


48-3 


43-0 


48-2 


44 9 


E. 


Cum. St. 


8 


E. 


0-250 


30 


29-605 


52-1 


42-9 


46 9 


44-7 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-090 


31 


29-611 


51-3 


43-0 


46-9 


45-1 


N. 


Cum. St. 


10 


N. 


0-010 

1 



Barometer. — Highest Observed, on the 24th, =30-411 inches. Lo-^vest Observed, 
on the 10th, = 29-370 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 1-041 inch. Mean 
= 29-879 inches. 

S. R. Thermometers. — Highest Observed, on the 26th, = 63°-l. Lo-west Observed, 
on the 21st, = 31°-7. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 31°-4. Mean of all the 
Highest = 54°-0. Mean of all the Lo-west = 40°-l. Difference, or Mean Daily Range, 
= 13°-9. Mean Temperature of Mouth -= 47°-0. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 48°-2. Mean of Wet Bulb = 44°-6. 

Rainfall. — Number of Days on -which Rain fell =^26. Amount of Fall = 2-805 
inches. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 14th, = 0-480 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, 
Observer. 



June 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 233 

III. Ox Plants in the Plant Houses. By Pi. L. 
Haeroav. 

During the month of May many interesting and rare 
jilants have flowered in the houses of the Eoyal Botanic 
Garden. The luxuriant well-ripened growth of last 
summer has already shown very satisfactory results, in 
copious fioriferousness. Several plants have, since the 
last meeting of the Society, produced their flowers in 
profusion, due, no doubt, to the greater amount of light 
and better conditions under which they are now grown, 
this being particularly noticeable in the Palm House. The 
number of species flowered during the past month numbers 
rather more than one hundred and twenty-five. Among 
the most noteworthy are the following : — 

Odontodcnia spcciosa, Benth. This is a climbing plant, 
a native of Trinidad, said to have been first flowered in 
Europe by Messrs. Veitch in 1854. The strong-growing 
stems of this plant are glabrous and terete, the large 
opposite leaves being of leathery substance, borne upon 
short stout petioles. Its inflorescences of terminal and 
axillary racemes are very handsome, the individual flowers 
measure about three inches across the corolla, and are 
reddish-yellow in colour. A figure of this plant may be 
seen in the " Botanical Magazine," t. 4825, under the name 
of Dipladenia Harrisii. 

Sandersonia aurantiaca. Hook. A rare plant in cultiva- 
tion ; discovered at Durban, South Africa, in 1854, by Mr. 
J. Sanderson, Secretary of the Hort. Society of Xatal, after 
whom this monotypic genus was named. The herbaceous 
stems resemble in manner of growth those of Gloriosa, and 
grow to about three feet in height. The lower leaves are 
larger and more distant than those nearer the apex, from 
the axils of wdiich the solitary flowers spring. These are 
-drooping ; the orange-coloured perianth being inflated, the 
throat contracted, and the limb six-toothed ; at the base of 
the perianth are six spurs containing nectar. 

Prostranthera lasianthos. Labill. This native of Xew 
South "Wales has long been an inmate of our gardens, 
having been introduced in 1806, yet it is but seldom seen 
in cultivation. It has a shrub-like habit, with lanceolate 



234 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

serrated leaves of a dark green colour. The flowers are 
axillary and terminal, with bilabiate corolla, which is very 
hairy, the throat covered with lavender coloured spots. 

lieevcsia thyrsoidea, Lindl. This tree -like shrub, a 
member of the order Sterculiace?e, is a native of China. It 
was flowered at Kew in 1845, having previously been 
introduced by J. Eeeves, Esq., of Canton. The foliage is 
of a dark green colour, the individual leaves are broadly 
lanceolate acuminate. The inflorescences are in large 
terminal corymbs, and very fragrant. The petals are pure 
white, the filaments of the anthers united into a tube, the 
stigma protruding above at the apex. 

Eurydes sylvestris, Salisb. The pretty white flowers of 
this now rare species of Amaryllid are now to be seen in 
the Palm House. They are large and pure white, borne 
upon a stout peduncle in a umbel-like manner. The 
leaves are broad and fleshy, the venation being very pro- 
minent, are about a foot high, and are produced after the 
appearance of the inflorescence. Its native habitats are 
the Malay Peninsula and Phillipines. 

Aotiis gracillima, Meissu. Amongst Australian Legu- 
minosete this takes a high rank as a decorative plant. The 
slender branches grow to a length of about three feet ; the 
linear leaves are scattered and numerous. The flowers are 
borne in profusion for about a foot at the ends of the 
branches, and are of a yellow and brown colour. 

Cyrtanthus Huttonii, Baker. This rare species is one of 
the most lovely of the cultivated plants of this genus, and 
has lately produced a strong inflorescence. The leaves are 
about a foot long, the stout peduncle springing from 
amongst them, and the flowers produced in an umbel-like 
manner. The perianth is of a reddish-yellow colour, about 
an inch in length. A native of Cape Colony. 

Others of interest are : — Platytheca galioides, Steetz., — a 
monotypic genus of Tremandrea?. This species has an 
erect habit, small linear leaves, and numerous pretty blue 
flowers ; a native of South-west Australia. Elct'ocarpus 
cyaneus, Sims, — an Australian plant with racemes of white 
flowers, the fruits being blue ; Passiflora a.lata, Alton, — a 
large flowered species with crimson and purple flowers, a 
native of Peru, introduced in 1772 ; Barv:iiiia Hooheriana, 



Jo-E 1804.] LOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 235 

Benth., — possessing pretty drooping tiowers, belonging to 
the order Myrtaceie, a native of Australia ; Pliajus 
Marshallicp, — a fast-growing, white-flowered orchid from 
Moulmein ; Burchellia capensis, E. Br., — an evergreen 
shrub witli scarlet heads of flower.s, belonging to the order 
Eubiaceae ; Godhca Wioiii, Hort, — a tropical member of 
Malvaceoe, with peculiar flowers possessing an epicalyx ; 
Gcsncra eloncjata, Humb. et Bonpl. 



July 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 237 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, July 12, 1894. 

Dr. "William Craig, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Miss Katherine Millar and Mr. Alexander Porteous 
were elected Eesident Fellows of the Society. 

Dr. T. B. Sprague exhibited specimens of peloria in 
Dif/italis purpurea and in Campanula. 

Miss Madden exhibited a specimen of peloria in Digitalis 
jnirpuira. 

Mr. Pi. TuRNBULL exhibited a leaf of cabbaQe showino- 
hypertrophic development of the midrib. 

Mr. Dunn exhibited Morns alba, with set fruit, from the 
open garden at Dalkeith. 

Mr. J. Grieve exhibited a plant with flowers, in pot, of 
Euhis yhcenicolasius, the Japanese wine-berry, one of the 
so-called American blackberries. 

Amongst herbaceous plants on the table from the 
Eoyal Botanic Garden were : Primula involucrata, Allium 
M'Nabianum, Pratia ang^data, etc. 

The following papers were read : — 

Keport on the Flora of PiOund Island, Mauritius. 
By Surgeon-Major H. H. Johnston, Army Medical Staff, 
D.Sc, F.L.S. 

The islands forming the Mauritius group are situated 
in the Southern Indian Ocean, in 20° south latitude and 
between 57° and 58° east longitude. They lie 470 miles 
east of Madagascar, and 100 miles east-by-north of 

Issued November 1894, 



238 TKAXSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. L%nu. 

Bourbon. The principal island of the group, to which the 
name Mauritius is applied, is a mountainous oceanic island 
of volcanic origin, but no active volcano has been known 
within the memory of man. The geological formation 
consists of vesicular basalt, which, on decomposing, forms a 
very porous red earth. 

The island has an area of 713 square miles, its greatest 
length from north to south being 38 miles, and its breadth 
from east to west 28 miles. 

The northern part of the island is a low plain, and the 
centre consists of an elevated plateau surrounded by three 
ranges of rugged mountains, reaching a height of 2711 feet 
above sea-level in the Black Eiver Mountain, 

There are numerous streams of water, the largest of 
which is twelve miles long. The lakes are few in number 
and small in size. 

AMien Mauritius was discovered by the Portuguese in 
1505, the island was clothed to the water's edge with 
virgin forest, in which existed a large number of endemic 
species of plants. On account of the terrific hurricanes 
which occasionally visit the island, the trees were nowhere 
high, but they formed a dense mass of nearly uniform 
height, and they were thus better fitted to withstand the 
violence of the wind. Beneath this dense canopy of ever- 
green foliage, large numbers of shade and moisture-lo%dng 
plants, such as orchids, ferns, club-mosses, and other 
Cryptogams, found a genial home. During the present 
century the greater part of the virgin forest has been 
cleared away to make room for sugar-cane plantations, in 
consequence of which many of the native plants have been 
exterminated. Foreign plants have found their way into 
the island, where they flourish, and have killed out many 
of the native species. Thus, in Baker's " Flora of Mauritius 
and the Seychelles," published in 1877, the number of 
native flowering plants is only 705 species, whereas the 
naturalised species number 269. 

Mauritius, being situated within three degrees of the 
Tropic of Capricorn, has a tropical climate ; but owing to 
its isolated position in the Indian Ocean and the cool 
south-east trade wind which blows during the greater part 
of the year, the climate is more temperate than that of 



Ji;i,Y 18114.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 239 

other places in the same latitude. In general terms the 
climate may be described as liot, damp, and rainy, with 
a fair amount of bright sunshine, moderate winds, and 
occasional hurricanes of terrific violence. The higher 
parts of the island are much cooler, but very much 
damper and more rainy than at the coast. From observa- 
tions made at the Koyal Alfred Observatory, situated at 
Pamplemousses, and 179 feet above sea-level, I am enabled 
to give the following particulars of the climate of Mauritius 
near the coast. Mean atmospheric pressure, reduced to sea- 
level, 30"082 inches ; lowest, 27*95 inches in the great 
hurricane of 29th April 1892, when the wind reached a 
velocity of 121 miles per hour. The mean velocity of tlie 
wind is only 11 "-l miles per hour, and storms and gales 
very seldom occur. During the thirteen years 1876-88 
the wind exceeded 40 miles per hour on three occasions 
only. The mean temperature in the shade is 74°'8 F., 
highest 96°'2 F., and lowest 48° F. The mean annual 
rainfall is 47*02 inches, but the quantity varies con- 
siderably in different years, and it has ranged from 29*74 
inches to 71*86 inches. The average number of days of 
rainfall is 200. The relative humidity of the atmosphere 
is 73*7 per cent, of saturation, the highest recorded on any 
one day was 97 per cent., and the lowest 38*4 per cent. 
In 1888 the total duration of bright sunshine was 62 
per cent, of the possible bright sunshine, or, in other 
words, the sun was not obscured by clouds during 6 2 
per cent, of the time it was above the horizon. 

Mauritius is almost encircled by a coral reef, which 
in some places extends two or three miles out from the 
.shore. From one to one and a half mile beyond the 
outer margin of this reef the 100-fathom line of soundings 
is reached, except at the north end of the island, where a 
shallow sea extends 15 miles to the north. The sea over 
the greater part of this northern bank is under 30 fathoms 
deep, and on the bank there are numerous shoals and 
reefs, besides a few small islands of volcanic formation. 
The most distant of these islands are Ptound Island and 
Serpent Island. The former is situated 13 miles- north- 
east of the north end of Mauritius, and the latter lies 1 1 
mile north of Eound Island. Beyond the 100-fathom 



240 TKANSACTIOKS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

line the sea becomes rapidly deeper, and at a distance of 
only 8 miles from the coast of Mauritius the depth is 
1350 fathoms, and at 20 miles 1870 fathoms, or 11,220 
feet. It will, therefore, be observed that the islands of 
the Mauritius group form the summit of a huge volcanic 
mountain, the greater part of which is submerged beneath 
the waters of the Indian Ocean. Eound Island, though 
only 13 miles distant from Mauritius, and separated from 
it by a shallow sea nowhere exceeding 43 fathoms, con- 
tains several species of endemic plants and animals, which 
are not found on ]\Iauritius itself. If these two islands 
were ever connected together by dry land, it must have 
been at a very remote period, before such differences could 
have occurred in their floras and faunas. How much 
more remote then must have been the time when such 
islands as Mauritius, Bourbon, and Eodriguez were 
supposed to have formed part of an ancient continent, 
when these islands are now separated by an ocean over 
11,000 feet deep. The floras and faunas of the Mascaren 
Islands are of the same type, and the different islands, 
besides containing their own peculiar endemic species, 
also contain species common to the other islands of the 
group, as well as several species widely distributed over 
other parts of the world. 

Round Island is not surrounded by a coral reef ; and 
in consequence of its exposed position to the surf, caused 
by the prevailing south-east trade wind, it is only possible 
to land on the island after a spell of calm weather. Even 
then a landing is only possible at two points, one on the 
west and the other on the south-west side of the island. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. A. Lloyd, Surveyor-General of 
Mauritius, visited Round Island on 16th December 1844, 
and was storm-stayed for seven days. His attention 
was chiefly directed to the geology of the island ; and 
an account of his visit is published in the " Transactions 
of the Natural History Society of Mauritius " for the years 
1842-45, pp. 154-161. He also visited Serpent Island ,^ 
the most remote of the Mauritius group. Colonel Lloyd 
only refers to the flora and fauna in a general wa}', and 
the paper published by him deals chiefly with the geology 
of the island. 



JuLYlt<94.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 241 

Colonel K Pike, author of " Sub-Tropical Eambles," 
paid a visit to Eound Island ou 7th December 18G8, and 
investigated its fauna. He again visited the island, on 
10th Xovember 1869, in company with the Governor, Sir 
H. Barkly, and Mr. John Home, Director of Woods and 
Forests. Colonel Pike devoted his attention to the fauna, 
and Sir H. Barkly and Mr. Home investigated the flora, 
xlccounts of the scientific results of these two visits are 
given by Colonel Pike in his " Sub-Tropical Eambles," 
published in 1873, and in the "Transactions of the Eoyal 
Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius" for 1869. 

On 26th iSTovember 1889, after a long spell of calm dry 
weather, Mr. William Scott, Assistant Director of Woods 
and Forests, and I landed on Eound Island and resided on 
it for two days, with no other protection from the weather 
than that afforded by the fan-shaped leaves of a palm tree. 
As Eound Island is uninhabited, and contains no drinking 
water in dry weather, one has to bring everything in the 
way of food and drink from Mauritius, and it is especially 
necessary to bring a large supply of provisions in case of 
being storm-stayed, as happened to Colonels Lloyd and 
Pike. 

Having made arrangements beforehand to have a boat 
ready for us at Mapou, at the north end of Mauritius, Mr. 
Scott and I started from the Eoyal Botanic Garden at 
Pamplemousses, at three o'clock in the morning of 26 th 
November 1889. Mr. Scott and I drove together, and we 
were followed by two carioles conveying our two Indian 
servants, provisions, water-barrel, camp-bed, botanical 
apparatus, etc. After a drive of eleven miles we reached 
Mapou at five o'clock, at which hour we had ordered the 
boat to be ready ; but, with the usual unpunctuality of 
natives in out of the way places, it was seven o'clock 
before we set sail for Eound Island. After a short sail 
over the smooth shallow sea intervening between the land 
and the outer margin of the coral reef, we steered through 
a narrow channel in the reef, locally called a " passe," and 
soon found ourselves being tossed about by the long swell 
of the Indian Ocean. The morning was fine, bright, and 
dry, but, unfortunately, we had a light wind which was 
considerably ahead of us, and during the six hours 

TKAXS. BOX. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. Q 



242 TRAXSACTIOXS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

occupied in crossing we suffered considerably from the 
effects of sea-sickness. 

As we neared our destination and came into smoother 
water in the lee of the west side of the island, we were 
enabled to have occasional glimpses over the gunwale of 
the boat, and note the general appearance of the island. 
.As the name implies, the general outline of Eound Island 
is that of a rounded dome rising abniptly out of the ocean 
and reaching an elevation of 1055 feet above sea-level. 
The island is 1 mile long from north to south, and | mile 
broad from east to west. From a distance the island has a 
very barren aspect, its steep, brown, rocky sides ha^dng 
only small clusters and scattered plants of palms and 
screw-pines to enliven the desert appearance of the Lsland. 
In this respect it forms a marked contrast to the luxuriant 
evergreen forests of Mauritius. The tree-flora appeared to 
be entirely composed of palms and screw-pines, and, in 
this respect also, it differed entirely from the native forests 
of Mauritius and other tropical countries I have visited, 
where the great bulk of the trees belong to the Dicoty- 
ledons, and palms stand out only here and there, giving the 
landscape its well-known tropical appearance. 

At about one o'clock in the afternoon our boat approached 
tlie landing-place on the west side of the island. There 
was very little swell on at the time, but we had to exercise 
caution in landing on account of the exposed po.5ition of 
the coast, which is unprotected by any natural barrier. 
There is no beach, and the shelving cliffs rise out of water 
about two fathoms deep. As we neared the landing-place, 
which is formed of a flattish portion of rock 5 feet above 
the surface of the sea, one of the boatmen dropped a heavy 
stone attached to a rope over the stern of the boat, and 
allowed the stone to reach the bottom of the sea. Then 
by means of the rope he allowed the boat to drift towards 
the landing-place, until the bow of the boat was sufficiently 
near the rock to allow another boatman to jump on shore, 
and pass another rope, attached to the bow of the boat, 
through an iron ring fastened in the rock. By these 
means the bow of the boat was steadied within about a 
foot of the landing-rock, and watching our opportunity, as 
the boat rose and fell with the swell, we jumped on shore 



July 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 243 

at the proper moment ; and immediately afterwards we 
liad all our stores landed and carried to the top of the 
rocky shelving cliffs, where they were deposited under the 
shade of some palm trees. The boat returned to Mapou 
the same afternoon, and we were left to our own resources 
on the island for the next two days. 

Feeling the effects of sea-sickness, I confined myself to 
botanising in the inmiediate vicinity of our camp on the 
afternoon of our arrival on the island. On the following 
day I botanised during the greater part of the day, and 
ascended to the top of the hill, from which I obtained a 
good view of Serpent Island, which rises out of the sea 
like a haycock to the height of 530 feet. It lies If mile 
to the north of Eound Island, and it is about i mile broad. 
The steep sides of Serpent Island are almost destitute of 
vegetation, and they have a wdiite chalky appearance from 
the guano which has been washed down over them by the 
rain. Colonel Lloyd landed on Serpent Island in 1844, 
and he states that the three species of sea-birds he observed 
on it were different from the three species of sea-birds 
found on Eound Island. On the forenoon of our last day 
on Eound Island, I collected specimens of the three species 
of palms which are native on the island. The boat 
returned for us on 28 th November, and at about three 
o'clock in the afternoon we set sail with a fair wind for 
Mapou, which we reached in about three hours' time, and 
drove the same evening to Pamplemousses. 

Mr. Scott devoted his time to making collections of 
specimens of the rocks and animals ; and he also shot a 
couple of rabbits, which have been introduced into the 
island. With reference to the geological formation, Eound 
Island appears to have once formed part of a volcanic 
crater, as described by Darwin in the case of the Galapogos 
Islands. The eastern side of the island has a crescentic 
shape, and it is much steeper than the western side. The 
rocks also on the eastern side appeared to me to have been 
exposed to much greater heat than those of other parts of 
the island. From these circumstances the island appears 
to have been originally a volcanic crater, in which, sub- 
sequently, the continued action of the surf, caused by the 
prevailing south-east trade wind, has gradually worn away 



2-i-i TEAXSACTI0X3 AXD PEOCEEDI^'GS 01 THE [Sbss. lvjii. 

the soft friable volcanic tuft' of the eastern half of the 
crater. The greater part of Eound Island is formed of 
this volcanic tuft', which abounds in olivine, and occurs in 
well marked strata. On the western side of the island I 
observed that the strata dipped towards the west at an 
angle of about 35 degrees. In many places there were 
narrow fissures running east and west, and other fissures 
at right angles to these. The greater part of the surface 
of the island is composed of bare rocks of volcanic tuff, 
from which almost all the soil has been washed away by 
the heavy rains into the sea. Scattered over the surface 
of the island from the seashore to the summit of the hill, 
I observed large blocks of vesicular doleritic lava, rich in 
olivine. The summit of the hill is crowned with three 
remarkable blocks of this rock, about 200 yards distant 
from one another. I also observed blocks of limestone 
scattered over the surface of the ground from the seashore 
to the summit of the hill. This stone contains Diatomacefe 
and other organisms. "When struck with another stone, it 
gives out a metallic ring. 

Our knowledge of the flora of Eound Island is at present 
very unsatisfactory, because many of the plants found on 
the island have been either imperfectly identified or not 
identified at all, from the absence of flowers and fruit. 
Owing to the great di£6culty of landing on the island, 
except after a spell of calm weather, it has happened that 
the flora has been investigated at the same season of the 
year by the difterent naturalists who have visited the 
island. Colonel Lloyd \T.sited Eound Island in December 
1844, Colonel Pike in November 1868 and 1869, Sir H. 
Barkly and Mr. Home in Xovember 1869, and I in 
November 1889. 

The following table shows the number of species in each 
of the three divisions of the vegetable kingdom ; but it is 
probable that in some instances, owing to imperfect speci- 
mens, the same plant may have been referred to different 
species by the difi'erent botanists who have investigated the 
flora of Round Island. I have tried to obviate this source 
of error as far as possible. Further investigation and the 
examination of perfect specimens in flower and fruit, where 
these can be obtained, will clear up doubtful points, and it 



Ji:ly1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



245 



is probable that additional species will be found if the 
island is visited at another season of the year. 



Class. 


Native. 


Naturalised. 


Total. 


Dicotyledones 
Monocotyledones . 
Cryptogamere 


24 
12 
14 


1 
1 


25 
13 
14 


Total . 


50 2 


52 



Of the 50 native species of plants, the Dicotyledons 
include 24 species, or almost half of the total number. 
There are 12 species of Monocotyledons, so that these are 
exactly in the proportion of one to two of the Dicotyledons, 
which is also the proportion of these two classes to each 
other in the flora of Mauritius. There are 14 species of 
Cryptogams, only 3 of which were observed by the other 
botanists prior to my visit in 1889. The 52 species 
belong to 28 natural orders, or less than 2 species to an 
order on an average. The number of species in the larger 
orders are Lichenes 6, Gramineaj 5, and Ebenacete, Euphor- 
biace?e, and Palmse 3 each. 

Bojer, in his " Hortus Mauritianus," published in 1837, 
records 2 species of plants from Eound Island, but Bojer 
never visited the island himself; Lloyd records 12 species 
by their vernacular names ; Pike 1 1 species ; P)arkly and 
Home 29 species; and myself 39 species. Of the 39 
species observed and collected by me, 20, or fully half, 
were not observed by the other botanists. On the other 
hand, of the total 52 species recorded from Eound Island, 
13 were not observed by me; but, as I have already 
stated, some of these latter are probably identical with plants 
collected by me and recorded under different specific names. 

The type of the flora is essentially Mauritian, but many 
of the plants found in Eound Island depart considerably 
from the type of the same species in ]^,rauritius. So far 
as the plants have been identified, most of the Eound 
Island species are also native in Mauritius, but it is 
probable that several of the species which have not been 
identified may turn out to be new, and not occur in 



246 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. L^^^. 

Mauritius. The palm, Lcdania Loddifjesii, Mart., is 
endemic in liound Island, Flat Island, and Coin de Mire, 
but not in Mauritius. The screw-pine, Fcaidanus Vander- 
meerschii, Balf. fil., is endemic in Eound Island, Flat 
Island, Coin de ^lire. Amber Island, and probably in He 
Vakois, but not in ^Mauritius. Trichosandra horhonica, 
Dene., belonging to the Asclepiadacere, is found in Eound 
Island, but not in any of the other islands of the Mauritius 
group. It is native, however, in Bourbon, 100 miles dis- 
tant. Of the species that have been identified, two only 
are endemic in Eound Island and found in no other part of 
the world, viz., the Bottle Palm, Hyrypliorbe amaricaulis. 
Mart., and Sdagindla Barldyi, Baker ; and even this small 
number, I think, must be reduced to one, for in a note on 
specimens of >S'. olh'.sa, Spring, forwarded by me from 
Eound Island to Kew, ]\Ir. Baker writes : " I am afraid 
*S' BarMyi is only an extreme form of dbtusa." I did 
not find S. BarUyi in Eound Island ; but all the plants 
of S. oUv.sa I observed in Eound Island were much smaller 
and had smaller leaves than the plants of the same species 
observed by me iii Mauritius. Baker, in his " Flora of 
Mauritius and the Seychelles," writes with reference to two 
species of Diospyros from Eound Island, that both " may 
likely prove, when fully known, distinct from the Mauritian 
species." The leguminous plant and Phyllanthv.s found by 
me in Eound Island, but not identified, do not agree with 
the description of any species described in Baker's " Flora 
of Mauritius and the Seychelles." 

In a few places groups of palms and Pandani have 
retained the soil by means of their numerous adventi- 
tious roots ; but in most places these trees and the other 
plants grow on the bare rocks, their roots descending 
through the vertical cracks and then .spreading out to great 
distances between the stratified layers of volcanic tufif'. 
In some of the plants I dug up, the roots exceeded the 
stems several times in length. In dry weather the plants 
suffer from drought, on account of the greater part of the 
rain-water flowing down the steep, rocky slopes into the 
sea immediately after falling on the island. On. the lower 
slopes on the west side of the island I observed many 
shrubs of Fernelia hv.xifolia, Lam., dead from the effects 



July 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 247 

of the drought. The plants are very much exposed to 
the terrific hurricanes which occasionally devastate the 
Mauritius group of islands. It is not, therefore, to be 
wondered at that I nowhere saw any trees exceeding 20 
feet in height, although Sir H. Barkly writes that he saw 
plants of Latania Loddigesii, Mart., 40—50 feet high in 
one of the sheltered ravines not visited by me. This palm 
and the Fandanus Vandermcerschi i , Balf. fil., are the two 
most widely distributed trees on the island, extending from 
the seashore upwards to near the simimit of the hill. 
The other two species of palms, the Hi/ojihorhc amaricaidis. 
Mart., and Didyosperma album, "Wendl., were not so abun- 
dant on the lower slopes of the hill near the sea as the two 
former trees. The dicotyledonous trees and shrubs formed 
a small wood on the south side of the hill 450—550 feet 
above sea-level, and it was in this wood only where I 
found the Trichosandra horhonica, Dene. Although four- 
teen species of Cryptogams are recorded, they were by no 
means abundant in number, and most of them would have 
been passed over by me unobserved if I had not kept a 
careful look-out for them. 

The remainder of my paper contains a complete list of 
all the plants recorded from Eound Island by myself and 
others. I have followed the nomenclature of Baker's 
" Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles," so far as Eound 
Island species are described in it. The lower Cryptogams 
were identified by Mr. C. H. Wright of Kew Herbarium, 
and doubtful plants were referred to Mr. J. G. Baker and 
Mr. N". E. Brown, of the same institution. 

Under each species I have entered notes of my own, 

taken from living specimens ; and I have also, as far as 

possible, entered in chronological order the difierent names 

under which the other botanists have recorded the plants 

observed, by them. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

Rojer, Hort. Maur. — Hortus Mauritianus. By W. Bojer. 1837. 
Trans. Xat. Hist. Soc. Maur. — Transactions of the Natural History 

Society of Mauritius. 1842-1845. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. Maur. — Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and 

Sciences of Mauritius. New Series. Volume IV. 1869. 
Sub-Trop. Rambles — Sub-Tropical Rambles. By Nicholas Pike. 1873. 
Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych. — Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles. By 

J. G. Baker. 1877. 



248 TEAXSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lvni. 

' LiXACEiE. 

Lloyd, in Trans. Xat. Hist. Soc. Maur., 1842-45, p. 
158, records having seen in 1844 the " Bois de Eonde," 
Erthryoxylon laurifolium, Lam. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 35, in the belts of forest wood on the upper part of the 
island. This shrub, which is native in the Mauritius, has 
not been seen in Ptound Island by the other botanists who 
have since visited the island. 



LEGUMINOSiE. 

Among the trees on the south-east side of the hill, at 
460 feet above sea - level, I found a leguminous plant, 
which I have not identified, as it was neither in flower nor 
fruit. Boot woody, about a foot long, little branched. 
Stem about a foot long, woody, unbranched. Leaves 1—2 
inches long, equally bipinnate, without tendrils ; pinnae, 
3— 5-jugate; leaflets, 5— 15-jugate, \ inch long, oblong, sub- 
acute, glabrous, green above, pale purplish-green beneath. 

This plant was not observed by the other botanists who 
previously visited the island. 

Samydace^ ? 

On the south side of the hill, 480-520 feet above sea- 
level, I found several small trees, which, perhaps, belong to 
the Samydaceffi ; but I have not identified them, as they 
were not in flower, and only two unripe fruits were obtained 
by me. 

Tree 10-12 feet high, much branched, with terete, glabrous, 
brown branches. Leaves alternate, 1|— 3 inches long, 
round-ovate, obtuse, rounded at the base, glabrous, dark- 
shining green above, pale green beneath, coriaceous ; petiole 
\-\ inch long. Unripe fruit springing from the axil of 
a branch, \ inch broad, globose, beaked, glabrous, pale 
green. 

This tree appears to be the same as the one seen in 
1869 by Barkly and Home, and recorded by them in 
Trans. Boy. Soc. Maur., 1869, pp. 120 and 137 :— " Xo. 22. 
Sp. : A small tree about 12 feet high, somewhat resembles 
Blackiijcllia, but I cannot trace it to any of them." 



July 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 249 

* PaSSIFLORACE/E. 

*Passiflora suberosa, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 105. This tropical American species is naturalised in 
Eound Island, where I found it common all over the island, 
with its stems trailing on the ground, or climbing up other 
plants. It is also naturalised in Mauritius, where it is 
common in the forests. 

This plant was not observed by the other botanists who 
previously visited Eound Island. 

Combretace^, 

TERmNALiA Benzoin, Linn, lil., — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. Ill {fide J. G. Baker). This tree is rare on the 
south side of the hill, 520 feet above sea-level. It was 
neither in flower nor fruit. The leaves do not agree with 
the description in Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 111. Tree 
1 feet high, much branched, with contorted, terete, brown 
branches. Leaves 4—6 inches long, oval, sub-acute, narrowed 
at the base, obscurely crenate, glabrous, dark-shining green 
above, pale yellowish green beneath, sub-coriaceous ; petiole 
\ inch long. T. Benzoin, Lim. fil., is native in Mauritius. 

Lloyd, in Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Maur., 1842-45, p. 158, 
records having seen, in 1844, the " Benjoin," or Bois 
Benzoin, which is the vernacular name of the tree in 
Mauritius. 

Barkly and Home, in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 1869, 
pp. 119 and 137, record having only seen, in 1869, three 
trees without flower or fruit of " No. 15. Tcrminalia 
species," which, they considered, differed from all the 
Terminalias hitherto known in Mauritius, Bourbon, and 
Eodriguez. 

Myrtace^ ? 

Barkly and Home, in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 1869, 
pp. 119 and 137, record having seen, in 1869, "No. 16. 
Jossinia species, a small shrubby tree about 5—10 feet 
in height." 

This tree was not observed by the other botanists who 
have visited Eound Island. 



250 TEANSACnONS AXD PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sees. lviil 

POETULACE^E. 

PoETULACA OLEEACEA, Linn., — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 125. I only found one small plant on the rocky hill- 
side, 200 feet above sea-level, near the landing-place, on 
the west side of the island. This plant is also native in 
Mauritius. 

Lloyd, in Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Maur., 1842-45, p. 158, 
records ha\dng seen in Pound Island, in 1844, the " Pour- 
pier," which is the vernacular name of P. oleracea, L., in 
Mauritius. 

PtUBIACE^. 

FEE^^:LIA buxifolia, Lam. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 142. This shrub is common, and grows from 4-6 feet 
in height. On the west side of the island many of the 
plants were dead from the effects of the severe drought. 
I found no plants in flower or fruit at the time of my 
■sT.sit in November 1889. This species is also native in 
Mauritius. 

Barkly and Home, in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 1869, 
pp. 119 and 137, record having seen, in 1869, " Fenielia 
huxifoHa" (p. 119), which is the same as their " Ko. 17. 
Fcrnelia species" (p. 137). 

In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 142, under Fcrnelia 
huxifolia. Lam., one of the stations mentioned is " Pound 
Island, Sir H. Barkly : " 

On the south side of the hill, 500 feet above sea-level, 
I saw considerable numbers of a tree which was neither in 
flower nor fruit, and in which most of the leaves were in 
shreds, apparently from the attacks of insects. Mr. J. G. 
Baker, to whom specimens were sent, wrote to me the 
following note : — " Looks like a Plectronia, but cannot be 
certain without flowers." Tree 9—20 feet high, much 
branched, with spreading branches. Trunk 4:\ inches to 
3 feet in circumference, 2 feet from the ground, with brown 
longitudinally-wrinkled bark. Leaves opposite, 1|— 2| 
inches long, broadly oval, obtuse, slightly cordate at the 
base, entire, glabrous, dark-shining green above, pale green 
beneath, coriaceous ; petiole \ inch long. This tree appears 
to be the same as — "No. 18. Fyrostria species near P. 



July 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 251 

polymorpha" — seen by Barkly and Home in 1869, and 
recorded by them in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur,, 1869, pp. 119 
and 137. 

COMPOSITiE. 

Ageratum conyzoides, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 163. This annual, which is also native in Mauritius, 
is common in Round Island, but at the time of my visit in 
1889 all the plants were dead from the effects of the 
severe drought. 

Barkly and Home saw this plant in Bound Island in 
1869, and they record "No. 26. Ageratum sp." in Trans. 
Roy. Soc. Maur., 1869, pp. 119 and 138. 

In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 163, under Ageratum 
conyzoides, Linn., one of the stations mentioned is " Round 
Island, Sir H. Barkly ! " 

SoNCHUS oleraceus, Linn, ex parte. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 180. Barkly and Home, in Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Maur., 1869, pp. 119 and 138, record "No. 27. Sonchus 
sp. : Rare," which they saw in Round Island in 1869. 
Barkly states that this Sonchus is the same as the one 
which grows in Flat Island, viz. S. oleraceus, Linn, ex 
parte. It is also native in Mauritius and in several of the 
small coral islands of the Mauritius group. 

This plant was not observed by the other botanists who 
have visited Round Island. 

MyRSINACE/E ? 

Barkly and Home, in 1869, saw two plants at about 
800 feet above sea-level, which, in Trans. Roy. Soc. Maur., 
1869, pp. 119 and 136, they record under "No. 14. 
Badula species (?). A small tree 1 2 feet in height, with 
the habit of growth of some of the larger growing Ardisias. 
Comes very near Badula ovalifolia, V. Don V. II., p. 13." 

This tree was not observed by the other botanists who 
have visited Round Island. 

EBENACEiE. 

DiosPYEOS species. — On the south side of the hill, 
450-530 feet above sea-level, I found a species of Vios- 



252 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

pyros which I have not identified, as it was neither in 
flower nor fruit. It is probably one of the three species 
collected by Barkly and Home in 1869. Tree 6-10 feet 
high, much -branched with spreading branches. Trunk 
1| to 2 feet in circumference 2 feet from the ground, with 
glabrous smooth brown bark. Leaves alternate, 2|— 5 
inches long, broadly ovate, obtuse, cordate at the base, 
entire, glabrous, dark-shining green above, pale green 
beneath, coriaceous ; petiole q inch long. 

Lloyd, in Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Maur., 1842-45, p. 158, 
records having seen the " Ebony " in Eound Island in 
1844. 

Barkly and Home, in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 1869, 
pp. 118 and 137, record, under Xos. 19, 20, and 21, three 
species of Diospyros resembling D. pterocalyx, melanida, and 
chrysophyllos respectively. Specimens of these were for- 
warded to Kew, and they are referred to in Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych,, pp. 198 and 199. One is identified as 
D. leucomelas, Poir., which is also native in Mauritius, and 
the other two are doubtfully placed under D. mauritiana, 
A. DC, and D. melanida, Poir. 

D. LEUCOMELAS, Poir. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 198. 
" Eound Island, Sir H. Barkly ! " 

D. MAURITIANA, A. DC. — Baker, Plor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 198. "We have barren specimens of an allied plant 
gathered by Sir H. Barkly on Round Island, with slender 
zig-zag branches, very short petioles, and very glossy 
strongly veined leaves three to four times as broad as long, 
rounded at both ends. Both this and the other Eound 
Island forms may likely prove, when fully known, distinct 
from the Mauritian species." 

D. MELANIDA, Poir. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 199. 
" We have a plant from Eound Island, gathered by Sir 
H. Barkly, with a fruit-calyx just like that described 
above (' Fruit-calyx nearly flat, above an inch broad, the 
lobes produced at the border into a broad reflexed crisped 
wing '), but with larger leaves more rounded at the base, 
and veinins? more like that of D. tessdlaria." 



JuLYl89i.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 253 

BORAGINACE/E. 

TouENEFORTiA ARGENTEA, Linn. fil. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 201. Lloyd, in Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Maur., 
1842-45, p. 158, states that in 1844 " the shore to wind- 
ward is studded with Veloutiers." 

" Veloutier " is the vernacular name of T. argentca, Linn, 
fil., in Mauritius, where the plant is also native. 

Pike, in Trans. Roy. Soc. Maur., 1869, p. 15, records 
having seen in Round Island in 1868 " Veloutiers ( Tournc- 
fortia argentca, Linn.)." 

This plant was not seen in Round Island by Barkly, 
Home, and me, but it is likely to occur there. 

CONVOLVULACE^. 

Ipomcea pes-capr^, Roth. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 211. This plant, which is also native in Mauritius, was 
seen by Pike in 1868, and recorded by him as " Ijpomcea 
maritima " in Trans. Roy. Soc. Maur., 1869, p. 15, and in 
Sub-Trop. Rambles, p. 145. He saw it growing at 800 
feet above sea-level. 

Barkly and Home also saw this f)lant in 1869, and 
they record it under "No. 13. Iporrnxa maritima" in Trans. 
Roy. Soc. Maur., 1869, pp. 118 and 136. 

It was not observed by me in 1889. 

DiCHONDRA eepens, Forst. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 213. This plant was growing on the ground between 
the aerial roots of Pandanus Vandermcerschii, Balf. fil., on 
the east side of the hill, 720 feet above sea-level. It was 
first found by Mr. W. Scott, who showed me the place 
where it was growing. It is also native in Mauritius. 
The plants were in fruit. Leaves 7^-3^ inch broad, green 
above, pale green beneath. Capsule brown ; pedicel droop- 
ing. This plant was not observed by the other botanists 
who previously visited Round Island. 

SOLANACE^. 

SOLANUM NIGRUM, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 
214. I found only one plant, 2 inches high, on the rocky 
ground 180 feet above sea-level, near the landing-place on 



254 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

the west side of the island. This plant, which is also native 
in Mauritius, was not observed by the other botanists who 
previously visited Eound Island. 

AsCLEPIADACE.f:. 

Trighosandra borbonica, Dene. — De Candolle, Pro- 
dromus viii. 626 {fide X. E. Brown). This plant is not 
recorded from Mauritius in Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., but 
it is recorded from Bourbon by Petit — Thouars and 
Lepervenche — Mezieres, in De Candolle, Prodromus \dii. 
626, published in 1844. In Piound Island the plant is 
common in the forest belt on the south side of the hill, 
530-540 feet above sea-level. The following description 
was made from living specimens, by me, on 27th Xovember 
1889 : — A woody climber with a stem 3 inches thick 2 
feet from the ground, and long, slender, terete, glabrous, 
greyish-brown branches, twining right to left round other 
plants to a height of 10 feet ; juice milky. Leaves 
opposite, petioled, 1—3 inches long, |— 2 inches broad, 
oblong or obovate-oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, mucronate, 
rounded or slightly cordate at the base, entire, glabrous, 
dark green above, pale green beneath, coriaceous, penni- 
nerved. Calyx purplish green. Corolla-limb 5-lobed, pale 
whitish purple. Pollinia waxy. Stigma peltate, pale 
3'ellow, with a shallow, pale purplish-yellow pit on the top 
at the centre. Follicles one or two developed, divaricate, 
2-3 inches long, fusiform, glabrous, dark green, becoming 
brown after dehiscence. Seeds -^ inch long, obspathulate, 
liexuous, wrinkled, glabrous, brown, with the truncate apex 
crowned with a copious tuft of simple, spreading, white 
hairs 1 inch long. 

Barkly and Home, in Trans. Roy. Soc. Maur., 1869, 
pp. 118 and 136, record this plant from Eound Island, in 
1869, under "No. 2. Streptocaulon species." 

Tylophora laevigata. Dene. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 228. I found this plant, in flower and fruit, common 
all over the island, from the seashore to the top of the hill 
1055 feet above sea-level. It is also native in Mauritius. 

Barkly and Home saw this plant in Piound Island in 



July 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 255 

1869, and they record it under " No. 1. Tylopliora species " 
in Trans. Koy. Soc. Maur., pp. 118 and 135, 

In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seycli., p. 228, one of the stations 
mentioned under T. Icevigata, Dene, is " Eound Island, Sir 
H. Barkly ! " 

]S"yctaginace^. 

BoERHAAViA DIFFUSA, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 264. I found this plant in flower and fruit sparingly 
on the rocky hillside, 200—240 feet above sea-level, near 
the landing-place on the west side of the island. It is 
also native in Mauritius. Stems g— 1 foot long. Leaves 
dark green above, pale whitish-green beneath. Corolla 
^ inch across when expanded, purple. Filaments dark 
purple ; anthers pale yellow. In all the Eound Island 
plants the corolla is purple and the filaments dark purple, 
whereas in all the plants I observed on the coral islands 
lying off the south coast of Mauritius, the corolla was 
green with white lobes, and the filaments were white. 
This plant was not observed by the other botanists who 
previously visited Eound Island, 

Euphorbiace-^. 

Euphorbia thymifolia, Burm. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych,, p, 303, I found this plant, sparingly in flower 
and fruit, on the rocky hillside, 200 feet above sea-level, 
near the landing-place on the west side of the island. It 
is also native in Mauritius, Stems ^—2h inches long. 
This plant was not observed by the other botanists who 
previously visited Eound Island. 

Phy'LLAnthus Niruri, Linn. — Baker, Flor, Maur, Seych., 
p. 309. I found only three plants, without flowers or 
fruit, on the rocky hillside, 200 feet above sea-level, near 
the landing-place on the west side of the island. This 
plant is also native in Mauritius. It was not observed by 
the other botanists who previously visited Eound Island, 

Phyllanthus sp. — On the rocky hillside, 680 feet above 
sea-level, at the east side of the island, I found only two 
plants of a Phyllanthus, which I have not identified, as it 



256 TKANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lrai. 

was neither in flower nor fruit. Stems li-3 inches long, 
erect. Leaves -5 inch long, oblanceolate-linear, obtuse ; 
stipules deltoid-acuminate. This plant was not observed 
by the other botanists who previously visited Eound Island. 

LlLIACE^. 

LOMATOPHYLLUM BOEBONICUM, Willd. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych,, p. 374. I found this plant, without flowers or 
fruit, common on the rocky ground, 1020 feet above sea- 
level, near the top of the hill, at the north end of the 
island. It is also native in Mauritius. 

Barkly and Home saw this plant in 1869, and they 
record it, in Trans. Roy. Soc. Maur., 1869, pp. 118 and 
137, under "No. 23. Aloe sp." 

Pike, in Sub-Trop. Eambles, p. 145, states that he saw 
"a species of aloe" in Round Island in 1869. 

Asparagus umbellulatus, Sieber. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 377. I found only one plant in fruit, climbing 
on Pandanus Vandermccrschii, Balf. fil., on the rocky hill- 
side, 160 feet above sea-level, near the landing-place on 
the west side of the island. This plant, which is also 
native in Mauritius, was not observed by the other 
botanists who pre\dously visited Eound Island. 

Pal^^L'E. 

Latania Loddigesii, Mart., — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 381. I saw this palm common all over the island. 
The male plants were in flower, and the female in fruit. 
Palm 10—20 feet high. Leaves coriaceous, glaucous on 
both surfaces, with a dark purple margin ; petioles tomen- 
tose and pale yellow at the base, glabrous and green in 
the upper part, split at the base and perforated by the 
spadices in the outer leaves. Male flowers odoriferous. 
Perianth-segments, filaments, and anthers yellow. Pollen 
ellipsoid, glabrous, yellow. Drupe dull green. 

Bojer, who never visited Eound Island, erroneously 
recorded this palm from Eound Island under Latania rubra, 
Jacquin, in Bojer, Hortus Mauritianus, p. 307, which was 
published in 1837. 



July 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 257 

Lloyd, iu Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Maur., 1842-45, p. 158, 
states that in 1844 he saw in Piound Island the " Eavinal 
with its fan-like leaves," by which he evidently meant the 
L. Loddigrsii, Mart., which is the only plant with fan-like 
leaves on the island. The If a venal, Eavcnala madagas- 
(iariensis, Sonnerat, belongs to the natural order I\Iusacere, 
and it is a native of Madagascar. It is naturalised in 
Mauritius, where it grows in wet ground near water, con- 
ditions which do not exist in the dry rocky hillsides of 
Hound Island. 

Pike saw this palm in Eound Island in ISGS, and he 
records it as " Latania glaucopliyUa " in Trans. Eoy. Soc. 
Maur., 1869, p. 15, and in Sub-Trop. Eambles, p. 145. 

Barkly and Home also saw it in 1869, and they record 
it as " Latania glaucophyUa " in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 
1869, pp. 116, 117, and 138. Barkly states that he saw 
plants of this palm 40—50 feet high in the sheltered ravines 
in Eound Island. 

In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 381, under L. Loddigcsii, 
Mart., the following stations are mentioned : — " Mauritius, 
on Eound Island, Flat Island, and Coin de Mire. Indi- 
genous only on these islets, but introduced on the main- 
land, Home ! Endemic." 

Hyophokbe amapjcaulis. Mart. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 283. This palm is common, and I found it in 
flower, but not in fruit. Palm 10—20 feet high, with the 
stem bottle-shaped at the base or, rarely, at the middle. 
Leaf-sheath thick, glabrous, pale green ; midrib of leaf 
green ; pinnip sub-coriaceous, shining green on both surfaces, 
with pale yellow veins and margin. I\Iale perianth- 
segments pale yellow. Filaments whitish ; anthers pale 
yellow ; pollen ellipsoid, glabrous, yellow. Eudiraentary 
ovary yellow, with a pale-green apex. 

Bojer erroneously recorded this palm from Eound Island 
under C]iama:rops cxedsior, Boj., in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 307, 
which was published in 1837. 

Lloyd saw this palm in Eound Island in 1844, and 
records it as the " Cocoa-nut tree " in Trans. Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Maur., 1842-45, p. 158. 

Pike also saw it in 1868, and he erroneously records it 

THASS. EOT. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. E 



258 TEAXSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

as the " Juhcea spcdabilis " in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 1869, 
p. 15, and in Sub-Trop. Rambles, p. 144. 

Barkly and Home saw it in 1869, and they record it 
under " Xo. 24. Bottle Palm" in Trans. Boy. Soc. Maur., 
1869, pp. 114-116 and 138. 

In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. .383, under H. amari- 
caulis, Mart., the only station mentioned is " common in 
Bound Island, Barkly ! Home ! Endemic." 

The vernacular name of this palm in Mauritius is 
Palmiste Gargoulette or Bottle Palm. 

DiCTYOSPERiiA ALBUM, WcndL — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 384. I saw this palm common in Bound Island in 
fruit only. It is also native in Mauritius. 

Palm 10-20 feet high. Leaf -sheath thin, tomentose, 
pale whitish - yellow ; midrib of leaf green ; pinnae 
coriaceous, shining green above, glaucous beneath, with 
green veins and margin. Spadix 1 foot long, with per- 
sistent membranous bracts at the bases of the branches. 
Fruit i inch long, ovoid, glabrous, shining green, with a 
brown apex. Persistent perianth- segments pale green, with 
a brown margin and apex. 

Lloyd saw this palm in Bouud Island in 1 844, and he 
records it by its vernacular name " Palmiste " in Trans. 
Xat. Hist. Soc. Maur., 1842-45, p. 158. 

Pike also saw it in 1868, and he records it as " Areca 
alha" in Trans. Boy. Soc. Maur., 1869, p. 15, and in Sub- 
Trop. Bambles, p. 144. 

Barkly and Home saw it in 1869, and they record it 
under "Xo. 25 Areca sp. : Near A. alba" in Trans. Boy. 
Soc. Maur., 1869, pp. 116 and 138. 

In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 384, under D. album, 
"Wendl., the following note occurs : — " In a plant from 
Bound Island, Mr. Home says one or two of the lower 
branches of the spadix are subtended by membranous 
bracts." 

Paxdane^. 

Paxdanus Vaxdeemeeeschii, Balf. fil. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 398. I saw this plant common all over 
the island in fruit only. 

Tree 10-20 feet hi^h. Leaves channelled above, keeled 



July 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 259 

beneath, glabrous, shiuiug green above, glaucous beneath, 
rigidly coriaceous, with the midrib and margin pale green, 
and armed with reddish brown spines. Drupes pale yellow 
at the base, brownish-red at the middle, and pale reddish 
yellow at the apex. 

Lloyd saw the " Vacoa," which is the vernacular name 
of Panclanus in Mauritius, in Hound Island in 1844, and 
he records it by this name in Trans. Xat. Hist. Soc. Maur., 
1842-45, p. 158. 

Pike saw it in 1868, and he records the " Pandanus 
Vandermcenchii" in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 1869, p. 15, 
and in Sub-Trop. Eambles, p. 145. 

Barkly and Home also saw it in 1869, and they record 
'' Fanda/ius Va/idcnncerschii" in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 
1869, pp. 113 and 114. 

In Baker, Flor. ]\Iaur. Seych., p. 398, under P. Vandcr- 
meerschii, Balf. hi., the following stations are mentioned : — 
" Eound Island, Amber Island, Flat Island, and Coin de 
Mire, not on the mainland, Barkly ! Home ! Balfour ! 
Endemic." On 5th September 1889 I found one plant, 
without flowers or fruit, of a Pandanus, in He Yakois, 
which is probably P. Vandermcerschii, Balf. fil. 

In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., P. Vandcrrncerscliii is mis- 
spelt P. Va?ide7'meeschii. 

* Pandanus utilis, Bory. — Baker, Flor. ^laur. Seych., 
p. 398. — Barkly and Horne found several plants of this 
species in 1869, but they only occurred in one spot, 
scarcely more than 100 feet above the landing-place, and 
they came to the conclusion that the seeds had probably 
been planted there by some early visitor. 

Bojer, in Hort. Maur., p. 301, published in 1837, records 
P. utilis as native in Mauritius ; but Balfour in Baker, 
Flor. ]\Iaur. Seych., records it as " a native of Madagascar, 
is commonly planted in Mauritius for the sake of its 
leaves." 

This plant was not observed by the other botanists who 
have visited Eound Island. 

Cyperace-E. 

Fimbristylis glomerata, Xees. — Baker, Flor. Maur 
Seych., p. 418. I found this plant rare on the rocky hill 



260 TRANSACTIONS A^n'D PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

side, 110 feet above sea-level, on the west side of the 
island. It was neither in flower nor fruit. It is also 
native in Mauritius. This is probably the same plant seen 
by Barkly and Home in 1869, and recorded by them 
under "Xo. 6. Cyperus species: Perhaps Cyperus mari- 
timus" in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur, 1869, pp. 113 and 136. 

GRAMINE-E, 

Andropogon Schcenanthus, Linn. — Baker, ilor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 446. 

Lloyd saw this grass in 1844, and recorded it by its 
vernacular name, " Citronnelle," in Trans. Xat. Hist. Soc. 
Maur., 1842-45, p. 158. 

Pike saw it in 1868, and recorded it as the " Citronelle " 
in Trans. Pioy. Soc. Maur. 1869, p. 15. 

Barkly and Home found this grass the most common 
one in the island, growing in tufts among the trees at the 
summit of the hill ; and they recorded it by its proper 
name, " Androporjon Schcenanthus" in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 
1869, pp. 113 and 136. 

Chloris moxostachya, Poir. — Baker, Plor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 453 (fide J. Gr. Baker). I found this grass in a withered 
condition in fruit, 180-520 feet above sea-level. It is 
also native in ^Mauritius. 

It is not recorded by the other botanists who previously 
visited Piound Island ; but it is probable that it is one of 
the grasses observed by them. 

On the west side of the island, 200-460 feet above sea- 
level, I found a few specimens of a young grass, without 
flowers or fruit, which I have not identified. Stems 1-3 
inches long, erect, pilose; leaves i— If inches long, 
lanceolate-linear, acute, green above, glaucous beneath. 

This grass was probably observed by the other botanists 
who pre\'iously ^isited Pioimd Island. 

I found a common grass growing in withered tufts, with- 
out flowers, but with stems from which the grain had 
dropped off', on the rocky hillside, 180—520 feet above sea- 
level. I have not identified it, but it most probably was 
one of the Grasses observed bv the other botanists who 



July 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBUEGH. 261 

previously visited the island. Stems densely tufted, i-l| 
foot long, erect. Leavesi-l foot long, linear, acuminate, 
glabrous, firm. 

In addition to Andropogon Schcenanthus, Linn., recorded 
by Lloyd, Pike, Barkly, and Home, these naturalists found 
at least four other species of Graminese, which, however, 
have not been identified, with the exception probably of 
Chloris monostachya, Poir., found by me in 1889. 

Lloyd saw the " Chiendent " in 1844, and he records 
this name in Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Maur., 1842-45, 
p. 158. 

This is probably the same grass referred to by Pike as 
the "creeping Cynadon" which he saw in 1868, and 
recorded in Trans. Pioy. Soc. Maur., 1869, p. 15 ; and also 
the same as Barkly and Home's " No. 7. Cynodon species : 
Not common," seen by them in 1869, and recorded in 
Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 1869, pp. 113 and 136. 

Lloyd, in Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Maur., 1842-45, p. 158, 
records the " Gazon," Zoysia i^ungens, Willd., which is 
native in Mauritius, and which he states he saw in Eound 
Island in 1844. 

Pike, in Trans. Pioy. Soc. Maur., 1869, p. 15, records 
the " common Turfing grass," which he saw in Ptound 
Island in 1868; but which grass he refers to by this 
name I do not know. 

Barkly and Horne saw the following three grasses in 
1869, and recorded them as follows, in Trans. Pioy. Soc. 
Maur., 1869, pp. 113 and 136 : — 

" No. 5. Gramincv species." 

" No. 8. Gramince species : Ptare. Only one small plant, 
and it had been eaten by the goats." 

" No. 9. Gramince species : Not common. Perhaps 
Fanicum hrcvifolium or Panicum repcns, both are Mauritius 
species." 

FiLICES. 

Adiantum caudatum, Linn., — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 474. I found this fern sparingly in fructification, in 
the crevices of rocks, 200-460 feet above sea-level, on the 
west side of the island. It is also native in Mauritius. 



262 TEANSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lviir. 

Fronds 1—3 inches long, ^—h inch broad, shortly stalked. 

Pike saw this fern in 1868, and he records " Adiantum 
caudatum" in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 1869, p 15, and in 
Sub-Trop. Eambles, p. 145, with a drawing of the fern on 
p. 151. 

Barkly and Home saw it in 1869, and they record 
'•Adiantum caudatur/i" in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 1869, 
pp. 113 and 136. 

In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 474, under A. caudatum, 
Linn., one of the stations mentioned is " Eound Island, 
Sir H. Barkly." 

SeL AGIN ELL ACE.^-'. 

Selagint:lla Barklyi, Baker. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 522. Barkly and Home found this plant in 
1869, and they record it under '"' Xo. 11. Sela(jinella 
species: not common," in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 1869, 
pp. 112 and 136. 

In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 522, under S. Barklyi, 
Baker, the following note occurs : — " Eound Island, Sir H. 
Barkly ! and what is probably a more robust form of the 
same species with larger leaves from Coin de Mire, Home ! 
Endemic." This plant has not been found by the other 
botanists who have visited Eound Island, but Baker, in a 
note on specimens of S. ohtusa, Spring, collected by me in 
Eound Island in 1889, writes — " I am afraid S. Barklyi is 
only an extreme form of ohtusa." 

S. OBTU.SA, Spring. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 523 
[Jide J. G. Baker). I found this plant, in fructification, 
growing in the clefts of rocks, 580 feet above sea-level, on 
the south side of the hill. It is also native in Mauritius, 
but the Eound Island plants have smaller leaves than 
those I found in Mauritius. Stems 1— 3| inches long. 
Larger leaves y'^ inch long, minutely ciliated at the upper 
margin and apex. In Mauritius the plants I examined 
had the larger leaves ^2 inch long. In the Eound Island 
plants the leaves were considerably browned, apparently 
from the effects of the prolonged drought. 

"With the exception of one moss, none of the following 



Jiii-Yl894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGir. 263 

Cryptogams were observed by the other botanists who 
previously visited Eouiid Island : — 

Musci. 

Barbula sp. {fide C. H. Wright). Friable rocks, 220 
feet above sea-level, on the west side of the island. Plant 
yellowish brown. 

Barkly and Home saw one moss in 1869, and they 
record, in Trans. Eoy. Soc. Maur., 1869, pp. 112 and 136, 
"No. 12. Moss from trees: common on the higher parts of 
the island;" and Sir H. Barkly writes, "I presume it to 
be a sphagnum." 

Pike, in Sub-Trop. Eambles, in a footnote to p. 166, 
writes, " I believe it is Hypnv.s acicularis, Linn." 

I did not observe this moss in 1889. 

Hepatic.e. 

Lejeuxia sp. (fide C. H. Wright). — Growing on the 
stem of the " Bottle Palm," Hyoplwrhe, amaricaidis, Mart., 
630 feet above sea-level, on the south side of the hill. 
Plant pale green. 

LiCHENES. 

Eamalina calicaeis, Fr. (fide C. H. Wright). — Growing 
on the dead branches of Fcrnelia huxifolia. Lam., 240 feet 
above sea-level, on the west side of the island. Common. 
Thallus and fructification pale yellow. 

Parhelia conspersa, Ach. {fide C. H, Wright). — Eocks 
on hillside, 45 feet above sea-level. Common. Thallus 
pale yellow. 

Physcia picta, Xyl. {fide C. H. Wright). — Growing on 
the adventitious roots of Latania Loddigesii, Mart., 200 
feet above sea-level, on the west side of the island, Thallus 
white. 

Lecakoea subfusca, Ach. {fide C. H. Wright). — Grow- 
ing on the dead branches of Fcrnelia luxifolia, Lam., 200 
feet above sea-level, on the west side of the island. Plant 
white. 



264 TEAXSACnONS A^'D PEOCEEDISGS OF THE [Sess. lvih. 

Lecanora near phlogina, Xyl. {fide C. H. "SVright). — 
Growing on the dead branches of Ferndia huuiyLfolia, Lam., 
200 feet above sea-level, on the west side of the island. 
Plant brownish yellow. 

Psoeoma (?) if-de C. H. "Wright). — Piocts on hillside, 
720 feet above sea-level. Thallus greenish grey. 

FUIS'GL 

Capx ODIUM, sp. (fide C. H. T\"right). — Growing on the 
stem of Hyophorbe araaricaulis, Mart., 630 feet above sea- 
level, on the south side of the hill. Plant black. 

P0LYPOEU.S SANGULN"EUS, Fries, {fide J. G. Baker). — 
Growing on the dead branch of a tree, 460 feet above sea- 
level, on the south side of the hilL Plant red on both 
surfaces. 



XOTES FEOM THE PtOTAL BOTASIC GARDEN, EDINBURGH. 

I. PlEpoet ON Tempeeatuee and Vegetation during 

June IS 9-4. By Eobket Lind.say, Curator. 

The past month has been rather cold and wet for June. 
There was an absence of any really warm weather, still no 
frost occurred, and as re^rards vegetation the month was a 
moderately good one. The lowest night reading of the 
thermometer was 34^ which was registered on the ]st 
of the month, and the highest 52°, on the 27th. The 
lowest day temperature was 55°, on the 4th, and the 
highest 83°, on the 26th. The foliage of forest and 
ornamental deciduous trees is now complete. Variegated 
varieties of Biota, Cupressus, and 2'axus have developed 
bright, well-coloured foliage. Late rhododendrons and haw- 
thorn were full of flower during June. Hardy herbaceous 
plants generally have grown well, and flowered abundantly. 

On the rock-garden 288 species and varieties came into 
flower during the month. Amongst the most interesting 
were the following : — Anthylli^ montana ruhra, Achillea 
mongolica, A. Icucophylla, Anthcmis mcLcedonica, Aivdrosace 



Jri,v 189^.] ]50TANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



265 



foliosa, Cainpamda ahidina, C. Hcndersoni, C. " G. F. 
Wilson" Cacalia alpina, Choisya tcrnata, Cistus formosus, 
Cramhe cordifolia, Craspedia Eichci, Cyananthus lobatus, 
Cypripcdiicm Calccolus, Dianthus cdpinus, D. cossius, D. 
(jlacialis, D. neglcctus, D. supcrhus, D. hyhridus, Hcdysarum 
ohscurum, Hclonias asphoddoides, Myosotis lithospcrmifolia, 
Modiola ycranioidcs, Nardostacliys Jatamansi, Linum al- 
pinum, Lathyrus Drumniondii, Linaria origanifolia, Papavcr 
alpinum, P. pyrenaicum, Potentilla lanaginosa, Itamorulia 
pyrcnaica, Rodgcrsia podopliylla, Rosa alpina, Sajoonaria 
Boissieri, Saxifraga valdciisis, Troioceolum polyphyllum, 
Silenc quadridcntata, Veronica cataradm, V. carnosula, V. 
cupressoides, V. monticola, V. lycopodioides, etc. 



Readings of exposed Thermometers at the Rock-Garden of the 
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during June ISO-t. 



Date. 


Miniiiiuin. 


'.' A.M. 


Maxiiiniiii. 


Date. 


Minimum. 


!' A.M. 


Maximum 


1st 


34° 


55° 


65° 


16th 


40° 


63° 


74° 


2nd 


39 


52 


59 


17th 


50 


57 


64 


••kd 


44 


54 


62 


18th 


38 


55 


65 


4th 


45 


50 


55 


19th 


41 


57 


70 


5th 


41 


43 


57 


20th 


48 


60 


71 


6th 


34 


51 


63 


21st 


41 


63 


72 


7th 


36 


54 


70 


22nd 


42 


65 


72 


8th 


41 


57 


65 


23rd 


49 


63 


69 


9 th 


47 


54 


61 


24th 


44 


56 


62 


10th 


46 


54 


61 


25th 


46 


50 


71 


11th 


45 


50 


63 


26th 


50 


68 


83 


12th 


45 


60 


69 


27th 


52 


67 


74 


13th 


44 


65 


69 


28th 


48 


52 


69 


14th 


44 


54 


70 


29th 


50 


58 


73 


15th 


50 


62 


69 


30th 


49 


60 


74 



266 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 



II. Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of June 
1894. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Lovel, 
76"5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





"^ tr; 


Thermometers, protected, 














is 


4 feet above grass. 










,_^ 


o 








a 


Clouds. 




a> 


S. K. Ther- 




(^ 


2 


mometers for 












>2 


© 




preceding 


Hygrometer. 


G 








^— ' 




24 hours. 




a 
o 








3 

a 
















as 


s ?, 










,^ 




g 


1 


'S 


fi 


o o 

s< 3 

pq o 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


p 


Kind. 


a 
< 


2.1 


M 






o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


29-757 


54-3 


39-0 


53-8 


48-7 


N. 


Cum. 


1 


w. 


0-000 


2 


29-660 


59-7 


44-7 


51-4 


49-6 


N. 


Cir. 


7 


s. 


o-ooo 


3 


29-913 


54-2 


48-2 


.50-8 


48-7 


E. 


Cum. St. 


10 


E. 


0-01(1 


4 


29-872 


54-8 


48-1 


50-9 


49-7 


E. 


Cum. St. 


10 


E. 


0-755 


5 


29-719 


51-8 


45-2 


45-7 


44-8 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-375 


<> 


29-829 


621 


38-2 


51-5 


50-0 


N. 


... 







0-000 


■ 7 


29-769 


57-6 


41-8 


53-2 


52-8 


N.E. 


Cum. 


9 


N. 


0-005 


8 


29-818 


63-0 


45-2 


56-8 


53 9 


N.E. 









0-045 


9 


29-774 


59-6 


50-0 


52-6 


52-0 


N.E. 


Cuiii! St. 


10 


N.E. 


0-010 


10 


29-659 


54-6 


50-1 


54-6 


53 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-820 


11 


29-556 


56-4 


47-2 


56-1 


51-0 


N.W. 


Cir. 


4 


N.W. 


0-170 


12 


29-795 


59-0 


48-S 


58-0 


52-9 


N. 


Cum. 


5 


N. 


0-015 


13 


29-930 


64-1 


47-5 


59-7 


52-8 


S.E. 


... 







0-000 


14 


30-010 


62-7 


47-1 


53-8 


49-8 


W. 


Cum. St. 


10 


W. 


0-000 


15 


29-800 


64-4 


53-6 


62-1 


58-2 


8.W. 


Cum. 


9 


S.W. 


0-025 


16 


30-014 


64-3 


44-2 


57-2 


50-4 


W. 


Cum. 


5 


w. 


0-000 


17 


29-606 


65-7 


54-0 


57-7 


54-2 


s.w. 


Cum. St. 


10 


s.w. 


0-030 


18 


29-624 


58-4 


43-2 


521 


49-8 


w. 


Cum. 


7 


w. 


0-055 


19 


29-884 


58-8 


44-6 


53-9 


49-7 


s.w. 


Cum. 


10 


s.w. 


0-060 


20 


29-797 


61-0 


52-6 


61-2 


54-9 


w. 


Cum. St. 


10 


s.w. 


0-000 


21 


30-034 


63-6 


45-2 


58-3 


50-0 


w. 


Cir. Cum. 


8 


w. 


0-000 


22 


29-869 


66-0 


47-2 


62 2 


56-8 


s.w. 


Cir. St. 


6 


s.w. 


0-000 


23 


29-758 


65-1 


52-2 


58-9 


54-5 


s.w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


s.w. 


0-160 


24 


29-705 


60-8 


47-9 


54-9 


49-1 


w. 


Cum. 


3 


w. 


0-010 


25 


29-984 


60-8 


49-7 


61-4 


50-4 


E. 


Cum. St. 


10 


E. 


0-010 


26 


30-195 


65-5 


51-0 


65-5 


61-1 


N. 


Cum. 


o 


N.E. 


0-000 


27 


30-317 


72 7 


55-2 


63-9 


58-6 


E. 


Cum. St. 


9 


E. 


0-000 


28 


30-314 


652 


50-9 


54-2 


53-1 


E. 


Cum. St. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


29 


30-360 


62-2 


54-4 


57-7 


56-4 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


30 


30-385 


67-1 


51-0 


55-6 


54-2 


N. 









0-000 



Barometer.— Highest Observed, on the 30th, = 30'385 inches. Lo-west Observed, 
on the 11th, = 29-556 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 0-829 inch. Mean 
= 29-890 inches. 

S. R. Thermometers.— Highest Observed, on the 27th, =- 72°-7. Lowest Observed, 
on the 6th, =38° -2. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 34°-5. Mean of all the 
Highest = 60°-8. Mean of all the Lowest = 47° -9. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Kange, ^ r2°-9. Mean Temperature of Mouth = 54°-3. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 55° -8. Mean of Wet Bulb = 52° 4. 

Rainfall. —Number of Days on which Rain fell = 16. Amount of Fall = 2-555 
inches. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 10th, = 0-820 inch. 

A. D. KICHARDSON, 
Observer. 



July 1891.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 267 

III. On Plants in the Plant Houses, with Exhibi- 
tion OF Sfecimens. By 11. L. Hakkow. 

The past month of June has been prolific in the number 
of species of flowering plants in the houses of the Poyal 
Botanic Garden, about one hundred and fifty having 
flowered during that period. Tropical and temperate ferns 
have rapidly, and with remarkable vigour, perfected their 
numerous fronds, giving the houses devoted to them a 
healthy pleasing appearance. Many of the cacti and other 
succulent plants are now commencing another year's 
growth, the apex of the stems of such genera as Ccreus, 
Mammillaria, and others of like habit, presenting a much 
brighter colour. 

Palms and foliage plants in the tropical houses are now 
growing luxuriantly, while in those buildings devoted to 
the cultivation of the natives of more temperate regions a 
promise of equal growth is exhibited in the large number 
of expanding buds and leaves. Amongst the flowering 
plants most worthy of notice are the following : — 

Solanum Wendlandii, Hook. f. This is one of the finest of 
the species in cultivation of this genus, and is a native of 
Costa Plica. It was introduced by Dr. "Wendland, Director of 
Herrenhausen Pioyal Gardens, Hanover, after whom it was 
named by Sir J. Hooker. The plant is of a climbing habit, 
the stem branches and petioles of the leaves bearing small 
prickles. The foliage is variable both in size and form, 
the lower being generally pinnate or pinnatifid, while those 
at the apex are simple. The inflorescence is a large cyme 
which terminates the branches, the flowers being of a lilac 
blue and often more than two inches across ; these open 
successively, and thus each inflorescence continues in flower 
over a very lengthened period. 

Gcrbera Jamesonii, Bolus. " This plant is said to have 
first been discovered by the collector Eehman in 1878, and 
subsequently by Mr. Jameson in the goldfield district of 
Barbetown." See " Botanical Magazine," t. 7087, where a 
figure of this fine composite may be seen. The foliage is large 
and pinnatifid ; the flower stalk rises to a height of more 
than a foot : the inflorescence, although bright, is said to 
lose much colour under cultivation. The rav florets, under 



268 TKANSACTIO^'S AND rKOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lviii. 

natural conditions at the Cape, being described as of a 
much more intense colour. 

Comhrcttuii imrpureum, Tall. A native of Madagascar. 
This lovely stove climber, although often seen in cultiva- 
tion, is seldom seen in good condition. The flowers are 
small, of a rich dark scarlet colour, the stamens standing 
out from the petals in a very prominent manner ; the in- 
florescence is a branched panicle bearing numerous flowers. 
The leaves are opposite and oblong lanceolate in shape, 
being of a reddish-brown colour while in a young state, 
gradually assuming a dark green with age. This plant is 
now placed by the " Index Kewensis " under its original 
name of C. coccincum, Lamk. 

Musa coccinca, Eoxb. This old inhabitant of our gardens 
is a small growing species, coming from China and Cochin 
China, growing to a height of about four feet. The in- 
florescence is a very attractive one, the spathes being of a 
very bright scarlet tipped with a yellow band. The leaves 
are about a yard in length, and six to nine inches in 
breadth. 

Mijrtus Luma, Molina. This very free flowering species 
is a native of Chili, and in some parts of the country is 
said to be hardy. A fine plant is now flowering in the 
temperate house. The leaves are small ovate ; the inflor- 
escences are borne at the extremities of the branches in 
profusion ; the flowers are white, the petals being slightly 
concave, and the large number of stamens give them a 
light appearance. The flowers are slightly fragrant. The 
synonyms of Eugenia apindata, and E. Luma have been 
given this plant, and, under the latter name, a fine figure 
may be seen in the "Botanical Magazine," t. 5040. 

CypriiJcdium Stonei, Hook. Introduced by Messrs. Low, 
from Borneo ; this is a very fine species. The leaves are 
stout and leathery, about an inch in width and a foot in 
length. The scape, which rises from amongst these, 
generally carries about three flowers. The sepals are 
white, broad, and striped with purple lines. The petals 
are about five inches long, curved downwards, these also 
being covered with purple spots. 

Others worthy of note are : — Mitraria coccinca, Cav., — a 
plant of scandent habit with lovely scarlet flowers, a native 



July 18!M.] UOTANIGAL SOCIETY OF EDINliUKGH. 260 

of Chili ; Rhyncliostylis rchisa guttata, Pichb., fil. {Saccolallum 
guttat'um, Linn.), — coming from the East Indies, bearing 
fine racemes of flowers ; Si^atliyphyllnm hyhridum, Hort., — a 
pretty Aroid with a large pure white spathe, being a cross 
between S. cannafoliiwi and ;S'. Fatiiii ; Ardotis Lcichtliniana , 
Lynch, — a native of South Africa, belonging to the order 
(\)mposita', with large highly-coloured ray florets ; Ariatca 
capitata, Ker.-Gawl., — an iridaceous ])lant with pretty 
blue flowers, native of Cape of Good Hope ; Desfontainea 
spinosa, Euiz. and Pav., — a shrub resembling the holly, 
native of Peru, bearing solitary terminal scarlet and yellow 
flowers — a member of the order Loganiaceic ; Actinotus 
Hdiantliii, Labill,, — a curious umbelliferous plant, re- 
sembling somewhat a composite in the form of its 
inflorescence, a native of Australia ; Crossandra undidcefolia, 
Salisb., — sometimes called C. infwndihuliformis, introduced 
from East Indies in 1881, a pretty stove plant belonging 
to the order Acanthacea\ 






TRANSACTIONS AND PROCipiN^, 



', ^ ■ 



BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



VOLUME XX. 
Part II. 




KDINBUEGII: 



PRINTED FUJ^ THE BOTANICAI. SOCIETY BY (N 
MORJIISON AND GIBR. «t,' ^ 

MIK'CCXCV. \ 



,"\' 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 



BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



SESSION LIX. 

MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, November 8, 189 J:. 

Professor F. 0. Bower, President, in the Chair. 

The following Officers of the Society were elected for 
the Session 1894-95: — 

PRESIDENT. 

Professor F. 0. Bower, D.Sc, F.R.SS. L. & E., F.L.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
Rev. David Paul, M.A., LL.D. i Patrick Neill Fraser. 
Malcolm Dunx, | Stmixgton Grieve. 

COUNCILLORS. 



Colonel Fred. Bailey, R.E. 

Sir Alexander Christison, Bart., 

M.D. 
William Craig, M.D., F.R.S.E., 

F.R.C.S.E. 
Henry H-\lcro Johnston. M.B., 

CM. 



J. Rutherford Hill. 
Commander F. M. Norman, R.N. 
Robert A. Robertson, M. A., B.Sc. 

Edin. 
Andrew Semple, M.B., F.R.C.S.E. 
T. BoxD Sprague, M.A., F.R.S.E. 
Robert Turnbull, B.Sc. 



Honorarij Secretary — Professor Sir Douglas Maclagan, M.D., LL.D., 

P.R.S.E. 
Honorary Curator — The PROFESSOR OF BOTANY. 
Foreign Secretary — Andrew P. Aitken, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 
Treasurer — Richard Broavx, C.A. 
Assistant Secretary— J a}>ies Adam Terras, B.Sc. 
.Ir^/s^— Francis M. Caird, M.B., CM. 
Auditor — Robert C. Millar, C.A. 

TRAXS. EOT. see. EDIN. VOL. XX. S 

Issued November 1895. 



274 TRANSACTIOXS AND PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES. 

Aherdeeji—Froiessor J. V. H. Trail, M.A., M.D., F.L.S. 

-Bathgate— RoBEm Kirk, M.B., CM. 

BecJceyihajji, Kent— A. D. Webster. 

Berwick-on-Tined — Francis M. Norman, R.X. 

Birmingham — George A. Panton, F.R.S.E., 73 "Westfield Road. 

„ W. H. Wilkinson, F.L.S., F.R.M.S., Manor Hill, Sutton 

Coldfield. 
Bridge of Allan — Alexander Paterson, M.D. 
Bromley, Kent—D. T. Platfair, M.B., CM. 
Calcutta — George King, M.D., F.R.S.. Botanic Garden. 

David Prain, M.D., F.R.S.E., F.L.S., Botanic Garden. 
Cambridge — Charles C Babikgton, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Botany. 

„ Arthur Evans, M.A. 

Chirnside — Charles Stuart, M.D. 
Croydon — A. Bennett, F.L.S. 
Dundee — Professor P. Geddes. 

„ W. G. Smith, B.Sc. 
Glasgoic—ProftBiOT F. 0. Bower, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

„ Professor J. Cleland, M.D., F.R.S. 

Keho — Rev. David Paul, M.A., Lli.D., Roxburgh Manse. 

,, Rev. George Gunn, M.A., Stitcbel Manse. 
Kilbarchan — Rev. G. Alison. 
Lincoln — Geohge May Lowe, M.D., CM. 

London — William Carruthers, F.R.S., F.L.S., British Museum. 
E. M. Holmes, F.L.S. F.R.H.S. 
,, John Archibald, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Melbourne, Australia— Qaxon Ferdinand von ]\Iueller, M.D., 

K.C.M.G.. F.R.S. 
Melrose — W. B. Boyd, of Faldonside. 

Xova Scotia — Professor Geoi:ge Lawson, LL.D., Dalhousie. 
Otagj, New Zealand — Professor James Gow Black, D.Sc, University. 
Ottawa, Ontario — W. R. Riddell, B.Sc. B.A., Prov. Normal School. 
Perth— Y. Buchanan AVhite, M.D., F.L.S. 
Saharunpnre. India — J. F. Duthie, B.A., F.L.S. 
Silloth—Jouy^ Leitch, M.B.. CM. 
St. Andrews— Froi^i&soT M-Intosh, M.D., LL.D.. F.R.SS. L. & E. 

„ Robert A. Robertson, M.A., B.Sc. 

Wellington, New Zealand — Sir James Hector, M.D,, K.C.M.G., 

F.R.SS. L. & E. 
Wolverhampton — John Eraser, M.A., M.D. 



The Peesident made intimation of the death of L)r. 
Nathan Ppjngshedi, and of Professor Pieeke Duchaetee, 
Honorary Foreign Fellows of the Society. 

]\Ir. Tagg exhibited, from the Museum of the Pioyal 
Botanic Garden, fasciated inflorescence of Uraria crinita ; 
fasciated stem of Tanw.s communis ; and a series of models 
by Brendel, of Berlin, illustrating the construction of 
ovules and the taxis of members upon an axis. 



Nov. 1S94.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 275 

The PiiESiDENT (Professor F. 0. Bower) delivered the 
following address : — 

In selecting a subject on which to address the Society, 
I have thought that I could not do better than direct your 
attention to certain matters connected with the minute struc- 
ture of the cell and nucleus, in which great advances have 
recently been made in our knowledge ; and these at the 
present time especially demand our attention, since the 
questions do not now merely relate to minutia) of structure, 
but are acquiring a wide theoretical bearing upon some of 
the largest of our morphological ideas — even upon alter- 
nation of generations itself, which is one of the broadest 
morphological conceptions we possess. 

Perhaps no generalisation focussed attention more 
definitely on the nucleus than that of Strasburger, that free 
midair formation docs not taJce ijlacc. In the earlier periods 
of nuclear investigation, it was given out that new nuclei 
might be formed by a process of aggregation of nuclear 
matter derived from the cytoplasm round certain points. 
Such formation of fresh nuclei was styled free nuclear 
formation. As long as such a view was entertained, the 
nucleus would possess, as regards its origin, no greater 
interest than oil-globules or starch-grains. But closer 
observation showed that fresh nuclei are always derived 
from pre-existent nuclei. Naturally this suggested the 
intimate connection between nuclei and heredity. The 
conception of the origin of nuclei by lineal descent from a 
remote ancestry, naturally connected itself with that of the 
similar origin of the living organisms in which they are 
found ; and the idea thus arose that the nucleus may be 
the liearer of the hereditary qualities transmitted to off- 
spring. 

Xow we know that coalescence of nuclei is an essential 
feature in fertilisation ; and it has been shown by Van 
Beneden that the number of chromosomes in the two 
coalescing nuclei is the same : the resulting nucleus of the 
zygote will therefore acquire twice that number of chromo- 
somes — an equivalent quantum from each. Are we then 
to imagine that each succeeding generation will have twice 
as many chromosomes in its nuclei as the preceding ? 



276 TEAlsSACTIOXS AXD PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

Such a thing is clearly impossible, and investigation has 
disclosed a process of reduction of the number to one-half, 
at a period prior to spoie-formation. It is on this process 
of reduction, and on various matters connected with it, 
that I desire more especially to concentrate your attention 
this evening. 

The first general and authoritative discussion of this 
matter has been due to Strasburger, before the British 
Association at Oxford; and his paper, published in the 
current number of the "Annals of Botany," will un- 
doubtedly give a strong impulse to the study of this 
question. From various sources evidence has lately been 
accumulated that, as regards the nuclear condition, there is 
a difference between those two generations which alternate 
with one another so conspicuously in the life-history of 
archegoniate plants. Every elementary student knows 
that the life-cycle of a fern includes two phases, differing 
greatly in external form, — the fern plant, or neutral 
generation, or sporophyte ; and the prothallus, or sexual 
generation, or gamdophyte. A more advanced student will 
tell you that, on grounds of comparison, we may hold that 
the sexual generation was, in the progress of descent, the 
original one, and that the neutral generation or sporophyte 
arose as a derivative of the former, — a phase intercalated 
in the course of descent ; that it was apparently not pro- 
duced by a mere transformation of the sexual plant, but 
arose as a new growth by elaboration of the product of 
sexuality, — the zygote. Theorists, amongst whom I must 
class myself in this matter, have attempted to connect 
the origin of this wonderful development with the action 
of external causes. I believe myself that the expansion, 
though perhaps not the origin, of this most striking pheno- 
menon of antithetic alternation is to be closely correlated 
with the migration of li%dng organisms from an aquatic 
habitat to exposed land-surfaces. But whatever views we 
may hold as to the influences which brought it about, and 
whatever our morphological opinions based on comparison, 
we who are specially interested in alternation must feel 
that a crisis has now arrived in the progress of our study ; 
for facts are being rapidly disclosed which show that the 
distinction of the alternating generations is to be based not 



Nov. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 277 

merely on external form, but even on the minute structure 
of the nuclei of the component cells. 

This new aspect of the question of alternation was first 
opened up by Overton. It had already been ascertained, 
on ground of the observations of Guignard and of Stras- 
burger, that in Angiosperms the reproductive cells contain 
only half as many chromosomes as the vegetative cells. 
Overton suggested a widening of the thesis : " that the 
reduced number of chromosomes in the nucleus is a feature 
which is peculiar, not to reproductive cells, but to the 
whole sexual generation." This has now been shown to 
be the case for various Gymnosperms, by Overton, and by 
Strasburger and Dixon ; while Guignard, Strasburger, and 
Overton have shown it also for Angiosperms. But practical 
difficulties have presented themselves in the solution of the 
question in the Archegoniatae, though Overton concludes 
that such results as were obtainable by him are favourable 
to the hypothesis that the reduction takes place in the 
spore-mother-cells, and persists throughout the gameto- 
phyte. Observations of Humphrey and of Strasburger on 
Osnninda have since supported this conclusion for the 
Pteridophyta, while Farmer's observations on Pallavicinia 
lead to the same result for one of the Bryophyta. As 
regards the Thallophytes, it still remains as a question for 
future observation to decide, how, and at what time there 
follows the reduction in number of chromosomes after they 
have been doubled by sexual coalescence, a reduction which 
must undoubtedly occur. Strasburger thinks it probable 
that in these low forms the reduction takes place during 
germination, though, possibly, in such plants as Colcochcete 
and (Edogonium, not until the development of the spores ; 
a suggestion which seems from analogy a very probable 
one. 

The whole tendency of observations is thus towards the 
conclusion that the nuclei of the two alternating generations 
differ in number of chromosomes. The cells of the sexual 
generation showing on their division only half as many 
chromosomes as those of the neutral generation, while the 
critical points in the life-cycle as regards this difference 
are — the zygote, where coalescence of the two sexual nuclei 
results in a doubling of the chromosomes, and the spore- 



278 TEANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix, 

motlicr-ccll, where the reduction of these to one-half has 
been found to occur. 

I may be allowed to offer a few remarks on this broad 
conclusion — first, as regards the position of the second 
critical point in the spore-mother-cell ; secondly, as regards 
the possible bearings of apogamous and aposporous develop- 
ments upon this question ; and, thirdly, upon the theory of 
the process of reduction. 

The critical point of reduction having been now localised 
in the spore-mother-cells, these appear in a more important 
light than hitherto. In recent years, when tracing the 
development of spore-producing members, the attention has 
been more definitely fixed on the archesporium and the 
spore ; attempts were made to strictly localise and define 
the former, while the latter was recognised as bearing the 
importance of a separate detachable body, which served as 
the apparent starting-point of the new generation. Now, 
however, the physiological interest will certainly centre itself 
upon the spore-mother-cells, as being those in which the 
essential physiological change, as evidenced by the micro- 
scopic details, is actually effected ; they, as Strasburger 
states, initiate the new sexual generation. He goes on, 
however, to assert that : " Consequently the presence or 
absence of a well defined archesporium is not a matter to 
which importance should be attached. For the arche- 
sporium is merely the merismatic tissue from which the 
spore-mother-cells are derived, a tissue which is frequently, 
but by no means necessarily, differentiated from the 
surrounding tissues at an early stage ; so that its differ- 
entiation cannot be of fundamental importance." 

From the physiological point of view, I am prepared to 
subscribe to this statement ; but from the morphological 
side, it cannot be allowed that the details of origin of the 
tissues which give rise to the spore-mother-cells are 
unimportant. That tissue may be found, and, as I have 
shown at length elsewhere, is found to be various in its 
origin. It is not uniformly referable in all archegoniate 
plants to any one layer of cells; its lateral limits are also 
very variable, even in species of the same genus {Lyco- 
podium). But notwithstanding this, we, who maintain that 
spore-production was the first function of the sporophyte, 



Nov. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 279 

and believe that the sporogenous tissue of to-day is a residue 
which still performs the function to which the whole 
primitive sporophyte was devoted, should appraise at a 
fitting value all the developmental facts which lead up to 
the culminating point of spore-formation. I can conceive 
that in the future some of the most weighty comparative 
evidence may be found in the early steps of differentiation 
of the sporogenous tissue. 

I would, in the second place, draw your attention to the 
greatly increased interest which will now attach to the 
abnormal phenomena of apogamy and apospory. 

In entering upon the consideration of these abnor- 
malities, Strasburger first discusses the cpiestion of the 
maintenance of individuality of the chromosomes even in 
the resting nucleus. He concludes, that though they "may 
lose their morphological individuality, they do not lose 
their physiological individuality"; and it is the main- 
tenance of this individuality which determines on division 
the breaking up of the chromatin into a definite number of 
chromosomes. The reduction is due to the fusion into one 
of two chromosomatic individuals. The doubling of the 
number in fertilisation is due to the coalescence of two 
equal sets of chromosomes from the two conjugating nuclei. 

You will clearly apprehend that if the difference in 
nuclei in the alternating generations be such as has been 
described, there must be an abnormal change in their 
condition accompanying the phenomena of apogamy and 
apospory. It is true that variations in number of chromo- 
somes take place in somatic cells which have passed from 
the embryonic condition ; but this will not suffice as a 
general explanation of the changes in apogamy and 
apospory, since these growths commonly arise from cells in 
the embryonic state. It may be reasonably understood 
that the nuclei of the apogamous bud may by some means 
have acquired a double number of chromosomes, without 
any ostensible sexual coalescence. In the aposporous 
growths the nuclei will have undergone a reduction, and 
since many of those growths appear quite independently 
of the sporangia, we must conclude that other cells than 
the spore-mother-cells are capable of undergoing a reduc- 
tion of chromosomes. It is even to be noted that in many 



280 TKANSACTIO]S*S AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

of those cases where the aposporous developments originate 
from the sporangia, the archesporial cells — which would 
give rise normally to the spore-mother-cells — do not take 
part in the development, but become abortive (Linn. Trans., 
vol. ii. plate 57). Accurate observations have not as yet 
been made on either of these peculiar developments with a 
view to ascertaining their nuclear condition, — it is there- 
fore somewhat premature to discuss them ; but, putting 
aside apogamy for the moment", I wish to offer a few 
remarks on the phenomenon of apospory. In writing on 
the subject some years ago (1887) I concluded that "the 
phenomenon of apospory is a sport, and not a reversion 
bearing pregnant interpretations with it" (Linn. Trans., 
vol. ii. p. 323). This conclusion was thus stated in order 
to meet and oppose the suggestion of Pringsheim, that the 
phenomena of apogamy and apospory showed that the two 
generations were not fundamentally distinct by descent. 
Now their difference by history of descent is beginning to 
be more clearly recognised, and the main points have been 
stated by Professor Strasburger in very similar terms to 
those in my own paper in the " Annals of Botany," August 
1890. It is still true that apospory is not a reversion, in 
the sense that the sporophyte thereby does not revert to 
the primitive gametophyte. But in another sense it may 
probably be regarded as a phenomenon of reversion : in 
the primitive sporophyte, before vegetative development 
of the tissues, all the cells were probably spore-mother-cells, 
and capable of reduction of chromosomes. That faculty 
was lost by certain cells as the vegetative tissues (sterile 
or somatic ceUs) made their appearance, and thus the 
reduction was deferred. It need, however, be no matter for 
great wonder that, if this were the history, the cells which 
normally do not exercise that faculty should on occasions 
resume it : — that the unreduced somatic nuclei should on 
occasions resume the faculty of reduction of chromosomes. 
One point in the observed facts of aposporous develop- 
ment is interesting and significant, viz. that when the 
direct transition takes place from sporophyte to gameto- 
phyte, the new development commonly springs, not from 
one point only, but from many points, and, not from a 
single cell, but from a number of cells. In such cases 



Nov. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 281 

it would appear that reduction had taken place in a con- 
siderable number of cells. This would seem to indicate 
that the change of condition is a somewhat general one 
for the parts involved, depending probably upon some 
peculiarity of general physiological condition of the plant 
or part in question. What that physiological condition is, 
and how produced, it is difficult to suggest. In the case 
of the mosses in which apospory was induced by Pringslieim 
and by Stahl, moist culture was successfully adopted. 
This certainly assists the developments in ferns when once 
initiated, but I have found that attempts to induce 
apospory in ferns by moist culture of small portions of the 
fronds was entirely without success, though a large number 
of species were tried (Annals of Botany, vol. iv, p. 168). 
The conclusion was thus arrived at, that the phenomenon 
of apospory is by no means a promiscuous one, occurring 
readily and often, but a process which seems to appear 
spontaneously under conditions not yet understood, and is 
not readily induced. It may now be added that there is 
probably an internal initiative leading to the reduction, 
while conditions of moist culture are favourable to, though 
probably not the prime cause of, the subsequent prothalloid 
growths. 

While the phenomenon of apospory may thus be looked 
upon as in a sense a phenomenon of reversion, — cells nor- 
mally somatic having resumed their pristine faculty of 
reduction of chromosomes, it is more difficult to suggest 
any explanation of the apogamous condition ; and, in either 
case, we must wait for observation of the nuclear details to 
lead with any degree of certainty to the true interpretation 
of these interesting abnormalities. 

Turning now to the third point, viz, the theory of the 
process of reduction : As above noted, Strasburger concludes 
that the individuality of the chromosomes is maintained, 
even though their identity cannot be microscopically 
observed in the resting nucleus. No extrusion of chromo- 
somes, or absorption of them, has been seen in cells of plants 
which could account for the reduction ; it is believed that 
the reduction is due in each case to the fusion of two 
chromosomes into one. Further, each chromosome is 
recognised as being composed of alternating discs of 



282 TEANSACTIOXS AND PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

chromatin and linin. Accepting the term "Id" proposed 
by "Weismann, Strasburger applies it to these discoid 
elements composed of chromatin and linin, and concludes 
that reduction consists in "the fusion in pairs of the ids, 
and therefore also of the chromosomes." If this be so, we 
see in the process of reduction the last, and perhaps the 
most important step in the process of sexual coalescence. 
It may strike us with surprise that a considerable interval 
should elapse between the first and last steps of the process. 
Take the case of Coryplia unibracv.lifera, which may grow 
for sixty or eighty years without flowering. During all this 
period the initial, but, on the above view, not the final steps 
of sexual coalescence would have been taken. The neutral 
sporophyte would, throughout its vast body, developed 
through long years, retain the individuality of the ids of 
the two parents ; the final fusion only taking place in the 
spore-mother-cells of the inflorescence. But while con- 
templating with astonishment such extreme cases as those 
of the late-flowering Angiosperms, where a very long interval 
may thus elapse between the first and last steps of sexual 
coalescence, it is to be borne in mind that comparison 
teaches by how gradual steps that extreme condition was 
attained. In view of the facts derived from the Alg?e and 
lower Archegoniatfe, the acceptance of the above conclusion 
becomes less difficult. 

The idea of such an interval is, moreover, not an entirely 
new one, for Pringsheim, in 18V8, had written to the effect 
that two phases are to be distinguished in sexual coalescence 
of vegetable cells — conjugation and connubium. His 
definition of these is as follows : " Copulation appears as 
a fertilising relation of the mother-cells of the sexual 
elements ; connubium as a similar relation of the ultimate 
sexual elements." (Pringsh. Jahrb., Bd. xi. p. 18.) His 
application of this definition is, it is true, widely difierent 
from that which might now be based upon it ; but the 
fundamental idea is the same, viz, the elapse of an interval 
of time between the more apparent, and the ultimate and 
more intimate steps of the process of sexual coalescence. 
According to our present view that interval will amount to 
the whole vegetative period of the sporophyte, from the 
point of coalescence of the male and female cells to the 



Nov. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 283 

development of the first spore-mother-cells of the resulting 
sporophyte. And in most of the vascular plants, where 
'successive crops of fertile spores may be formed, the period 
may vary for different and successive parts of the same 
individual plant. 

Considerations such as those we have now discussed 
may be expected to modify our view of the meaning and 
origin of antithetic alternation. The neutral generation is 
now very generally regarded as a result of elaboration of 
the zygote, and thus it is a phase intercalated during 
descent into the life-cycle. I have suggested, elsewhere, as 
the chief cause of its origin the migration of aquatic forms 
to the land, in which case sexuality by motile spermato- 
zoids would be checked, and only take place at intervals, 
while the increase in number of individuals having to be 
attained by some other method, spore-formation in increas- 
ing numbers would come into effect. In view of the facts 
and conclusions brought forward by Strasburger, I see 
reason to modify, but not to abandon, that opinion. The 
migration to a land habit has probably been a dominant 
influence in leading to an increased output of spores, as 
illustrated by the ascending series of the Archegoniatae ; but 
it may be a question whether it was the prime cause of the 
sub-division of the zygote. The fact that such sub- 
division is found in Alg?e of the Confervoid series, and the 
further facts connected with the germination of zygotes of 
the Conjugatse, etc., appear to suggest that the initial 
impulse to sub-division of the zygote is to be sought in 
connection with the steps of sexual coalescence, and sub- 
sequent reduction of the doubled number of chromosomes. 
But until the facts are better known in such plants as 
(Edogonium, Sphceroplca, and Colcochccte, it is impossible to 
progress beyond the area of surmise. 

The above remarks are such as the stimulating paper of 
Professor Strasburger has impelled me to put before you. 
There can be no doubt that the detailed work of the last 
few years, culminating in the address at Oxford, will give 
a new impulse to the study of plants showing antithetic 
alternation. It remains for the investigators of to-day to 
carry on the work of Hofmeister. We may reasonably 
hope that their efforts may end in raising the whole 



284 TEA])?SACTIONS AXD PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

question of alternation of generations from the plane of 
mere morphological and comparative description towards 
the higher level of physiological explanation. 

List of the chief Memoirs referred to in the address : — 

Bower. — On Apospory, Linn. Trans., vol. ii., part 14. 

On Antithetic Alternation. Annals of Botany, vol. iv., p. 347. 

Attempts to induce Apospory. Annals of Botany, vol. iv., 

p. 168. 

Studies on Spore-producing Members. Phil. Trans. (1894). 

De Baet. — Ueber Apogame Fame. Bot Zeit. (1878), p. 449. 
Dixon. — Fertilisation of Pinus silvestris. Annals of Botany, 

vol. viii., p. 21. 
Farmer. — Studies in Hepaticae. Annals of Botany, vol. viii., p. 35. 
Farlow. — On Apogamous Ferns. Q.J.M.S. (1874). 
GuiGNARD. — Nouvelles Etudes sur la Fecondation. Ann. Sci. Nat. 

Ser 7, torn. xiv. 
Hertwig.— Die Zelle und die Gewebe (1892). 
HcMPHRET. — Nucleolen und Centrosomen. Ber. d. d. Bot. Ges. 

(1894), Heft. 5. 
OvERTOX. — On the Reduction of Chromosomes. Annals of Botany, 

vii., p. 139. 
Prds'GSheim. — Ueber Sprossung der Mossfriichte. Pringsh. Jahrb.. 

Bd. xi., p. 18. 
Stahl. — Ueber kiinstlich hervorgerufene Protonema - bildung. 

Bot. Zeit. (1876). 
Strasbl'RGEr. — Neue Beobachtungen. Bot. Zeit. (1879), p. 265. 
" The Periodic Reduction of the Number of the Chromosomes." 

Annals of Botany, vol. viii., p. 281. Where references to 

the above and many other works on the subject will be 

found. 

On the motion of the Rev. Dr. Paul the thanks of the 
Society were given to the President for his address. 



The President made the following announcement re- 
garding the Poll of the Society : — 

During the past year the Society lost by death : — 1 Honorary 
Biitish Fellow — Richard Spruce. 2 Honorary Foreign 
Fellows — Pierre Duchartre, Paris ; Nathan Pringsheim, 
Berlin. 3 Resident Fellows — Sir Thomas Buchan-Hepburn, 
Bart. ; Alexander Gellatly ; Robert Hutchison. 2 Non- 
Resident Fellows — Rev. George Gordon ; A. Stephen Wilson. 

1 Associate — Joseph Whittaker. — Total, 9. 

During the same period the Society received the following 
accessions: — 9 Resident Fellows — Sir A. Buchan-Hepburn, 
Bart. ; Mrs. A. Dowall ; R. C. Munro Fergmon. M.P. ; Lady 
Henry Grosvenor ; Reginald MacLeod ; Miss Katherine Millar ; 
Alexander Porteous ; A. Thomson ; Percival C. Waite. 

2 Non-Resident Fellows — James Grieve, M.D. ; J. J. Mooney, 
M.D. 2 Lady }*Iembers— Miss E. Madden: Miss C. C. 
Pearson.— Total. 13. 



Nov. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



285 



The Roll of the Society stands at present thus : — 
Honorary Fellows — 

Royal 3 



British ..... 


5 




Foreign 


. 19 






— 


27 


Resident Fellows .... 




133 


Non-Resident Fellows . 




147 


Corresponding Members 




49 


Associates 




24 


Lady Associate .... 




1 


Lady ^[embers .... 




5 


Total of Roll . 




386 



The following Papers were read :- 



CySTOPTERIS MONTANA, BeRNHARDI, IN STIRLINGSHIRE. 

By A. SoMERViLLE, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

Gystopteris montana of Bernhardi, the Mountain Bladder 
Fern, is one of our rare Pteridophytes. With what may 
be termed decidedly arctic sympathies, C. montana usually 
selects for its habitat a moist situation in cloud-land, at 
between 2300 and 3600 feet, with a northern (or, in one 
case, a north-western) exposure, where it will receive but 
little of the direct rays of the sun. 

When on Ben Lomond in August last (1894) in the 
company of Mr. E. Kidston, F.G.S., Colonel J. S. Stirling, 
of Gargunnock, and Dr. Pi. Braithwaite, F.L.S., author of 
the " British Moss Flora," I had the pleasure to meet with 
this interesting plant, previously unrecorded for Stirling- 
shire, recognising its deltoid very compound fronds and 
long stipes from having seen them on hills north of Glen 
Lochay, Mid-Perthshire, in 1888, when in company with 
Mr. Symington Grieve. Mr. Arthur Bennett, F.L.S., to 
whom the plant has been submitted, remarks in connection 
with it, — " I think the Cystoptcris must be C. montana, 
though certainly the glandular setse are much less 
numerous than usual." Fronds only were brought away 
by me, and it is to be hoped that this local species may 
spread at its newly found station, viz. the wet grassy 
ledges of the precipitous cliffs of the northern face of the 
hill, at about 3000 feet, and in company with its congener 
G. fragilis, Bernhardi. 



286 TRA^ISACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

It is somewhat remarkable that though Ben Lomond 
is but twenty-seven miles distant in a direct line from 
Glasgow, and is visited annually by many botanists, it 
should only at this late date be telling us that Cystopteria 
montana belongs to its flora, and to the flora of Stirling- 
shire. Through the kindness of Mr. Bennett I am in a 
position to give particulars in full of the other five counties 
in Britain in which C. montana occurs; they are (69) 
Westmoreland, on Helvellyn ; (88) Perth, mid, on the 
Breadalbanes ; (90) Forfar, in Caenlochan Glen; (92) 
Aberdeen, south, in Glen Callater ; and lastly in Argyle, 
main, on Ben Laoigh, on its north-western side, as I have 
been kindly informed by Mr. G. Claridge Druce, F.L.S., 
who was the discoverer of it there. ' C. montana was first 
found in Britain by Mr. W. Wilson, on Ben Lawers, in 
1836. Its foreign distribution, according to Sir J. 1). 
Hooker, is in " arctic and alpine regions in Europe, Asia, 
and America." 

XOTES FROM THE EOYAL BOTANIC GARDEN, EDINBUR(rH. 

* I. Eeport OX Temperature and Vegetation during 
July 1894. By PiOBErt Lindsay, Curator, 

The month of July was for the greater part chaugeable 

and inclement, there was a marked absence of real summer 

warmth. Thunder storms were frequent during the month. 

The lowest night temperature was 37°, which occurred on 

the 25th of the month, and the highest 54°, on the 1st. 

The lowest day temperature was 61° on the 25th, and the 

hishest 85° on the 6th. 

* In a note, printed iu the Transactions of the Society, vol. xix. (1890), 
p. 5. I indicated reasons why temperature records furnished monthly by 
the Curator of the Garden for many years, and published in the Society's 
Transactions, could not be considered trustworthy as a basis of scientific 
deduction ; and during the four years that have elapsed since then, a 
table of readings of the exposed thermometers has been furnished monthly, 
along with the accurate meteorological register now kept in the Garden 
for the purpose, as stated in my previous note, of comparison. As no 
useful purpose seems likely to be served by these records, and their 
citation mixst be entirely misleading for scientific purposes, they have 
been discontinued since the end of July, and the Eegister of ^leteoro- 
logical Phenomena from certified iustrmuents, in the manner adopted by 
meteorologists generally, is now the only record kept iu the Garden. — 
Isaac Bayley Balfour, Keeper of tlie Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 



Nov. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



287 



On the rock-garden 193 species and varieties came into 
tiower during July, as against 112 for the corresponding 
month last year. Amongst the most interesting were : — 
Aquilegia ^jz/rewa'ica, Adlumia cirrhosa, Aster Thomsoni, 
Anemonopsis macrophylla, Coronilla ibcrica, CalocliortiLS 
lufeus, Calliprora fiavci. Campanula ijulla, C. Haylodgcnsis, 
C. Tymonsii, Cerinthe alpina, Diantlius pulchcllus, D. 
mcesiacus, D. monspessnlansis, Epilohium obcorclatum, Erica 
Macldana, Erythrcea diffusa, Galax aphylla, Geniiana jpunc- 
tata, G. septemfida, Geranium Lamhcrtii, G. Traversii album, 
Hclenium purnilum, Hypericum ohjmpicum, Linaria cdpina, 
Linum roseum, Ligidaria Hodgsonii, Lilium pardalinum, 
Malva Munroana, Milla longipes, Mimidus cardinalis, 
Micromeria p)iperclla. Polygonum vacdnifolium, Ehodotyjms 
Jcerrioides, Rosa macrantha, R. lucida fi. pi., R. viridijlora, 
Spircea Bumcddce, S. hullata, Stobcea purpurea, Symphiandra 
Hoffmani, Veronica cuprcssoides, V. glauco-ccerulca, V. 
Hectorii, V. parviflora, V. lycopoclioides, Waldenhergia 
gracilis, etc. 



Eeadings of exposed Thermometers at the Rock-Garden of the 
Eojal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during July 1894. 



Date. 


ilinimum. 


A.M. 


Maxinmm. 


Date. 


?Iinimuin. 


9 A.M. 


Maximu 


ist 


54° 


62° 


73° 


17th 


50° 


56° 


*68 


2nd 


50 


62 


69 


18th 


49 


61 


73 


3rd 


49 


60 


73 


19th 


45 


62 


73 


4th 


42 


61 


71 


20th 


46 


65 


71 


.5th 


53 


60 


76 


21st 


42 


66 


68 


Gth 


47 


63 


85 


22nd 


45 


64 


72 


7 th 


51 


64 


77 


23rd 


42 


59 


74 


8th 


41 


58 


67 


24th 


46 


59 


69 


9th 


52 


57 


74 


25th 


37 


52 


61 


10th 


50 


54 


63 


26th 


51 


60 


63 


11th 


48 


59 


71 


27th 


54 


56 


68 


12th 


47 


62 


72 


28th 


53 


55 


69 


1.3 th 


50 


61 


70 


29th 


52 


57 


70 


14th 


48 


59 


75 


30th 


47 


59 


73 


15th 


53 


60 


76 


31st 


54 


62 


75 


16 th 


40 


53 


72 











288 TRANSACTIONS A^'D PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

II. On Vegetation during the Months of August, 

September, and October 1894. By Eobeet Lindsay, 

Curator. 

AUGUST. 

During the raonth of August the wet weather continued 
till about the middle of the month. Drenching rains and 
the absence of bright sunshine throughout the month told 
rather severely on herbaceous plants in flower. Trees and 
shrubs, however, made good growths and flowered well, 
Olearia Haastii being exceptionally fine. 

On the rock-garden 94 species of alpine and dwarf 
herbaceous plants came into flower during August, as 
against 72 for the corresponding month last year. Amongst 
the most interesting were : — Adcr Bigelovjii, Astilbe Thun- 
hergii, Cistus algarvensis, Cyananthus jpedunculatus, Comarum 
Salesowii, Ballota spinosa, Gaultheria procumlens, Gentiana 
asclepiadea, G. a. alba, G. arvernensis, G. tibetica, Hypericum 
Modeoides, H. patulum, Hyacinthv.s candicans, Monarda 
didyma rosea, Lilium auratum nioxranthum, Potentilla verna 
ft. pL, Papaver nudico.ule miniatum ji. pi., Sedum cijaneum, 
Senecio compacta, Statice minima, Veronica pimeleoides nana, 
V. loTigifolia suhse-ssilis, Yucca, gloriosa, T. filanientosa, etc. 

SEPTEMBER. 

September was most favourable throughout ; remark- 
ably fine dry weather characterised this month, indeed 
such good harvest weather is rarely experienced. Most 
kinds of herbaceous plants flowered freely and were at 
their best during the month ; the earlier flowering kinds 
ripened an abundant crop of good seed. Eoses were also 
very fine in flower during September. Autumn tints were 
late in showing on trees and shrubs, and were not nearly so 
effective as usual. 

On the rock-garden 30 species and varieties came into 
flower during September, as against 28 for the correspond- 
ing month last year. Amongst the best were : — Achillea 
ma/iropliylla. Aster siUcimensis, Centaurea alpina., Castan- 
opsis chi'ysophylla, ChrysantJiemum speciosum, ColcJiician 
speciosum maximum. Crocus speciosus. Cyclamen hedercefoliiim 
album, Diplopappus linearifolius. Gladiolus Saundersii, Poten- 
tilla formosa, Sedum cordifoliv.m, Siokesia cyanea, etc. 



Nov. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDliNIiUKGll. 1^89 

OCTOBER 

During the month of October good weather continued 
till tlie 19 th. Leaves of deciduous trees and shrubs fell 
off very slowl}^ the usual gales of wind being absent until 
the latter part of the month. All tender plants, out ol" 
doors, were injured by frost on the 19th of the month. 
Veronicas of the speciosa type had their foliage blackened 
slightly ; Polygomim vaccinifolium had its flowers destroyed, 
as were also the flower-buds of Lilimn spcciosum. 
Autumnal tints, though less interesting than usual 
generally, are exceptionally fine on Cotoneaster horizontalis, 
Galax ajjhylla, and various species of Saxifraga. The brown 
tint is also very marked on the tips of the branches of 
Biota clegantissima and others. Fruit is fairly abundant 
on holly and Perndtyia. 

On the rock-garden 18 plants came into flower during 
October, as against 3 during the corresponding month last 
year. These included — Apios tuherosa, Cimicifugajaponica, 
Colchicutn autumnale album fi. j)^-, Crocus mcdiits, C. 
asturicus, G. Salzmanni, Erica Watsoni, Knipliofict Pfitzcrii, 
K. Saundcrsii, 



[Table 

TKAXS. BOX. SOC. EDIN. VOI,. XX. T 



290 



TltAXSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 



III. (1) Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of July 1894. 



Distance from Sea, 


1 mile 


Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea- 


Level. 








76-5 feet. 


Hour of Observation, 9 a.m, 










'Z o 


Thermometers, protected, 












5 


5 01 


4 feet above grass. 


-i 








<i> 


2 
o 




S. E. 


Ther- 




^ 


Clouds. 




a 




OO 
0<N 


mometers for 
preceding 


Hygrometer. 


"c 










"o 

p 


1-2 


24 hours. 






ft 








«3 


Max 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Kind. 


o 


to 




«2 














S 


S'-^ 








o 


o 


„ 


o 












1 


30-278 


C6-7 


52-6 


54-9 


54-0 


N.E. 


St. 


10 


N.E. 


0-005 


2 


30-029 


64-8 


53-4 


55-0 


55-0 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-.570 


3 


29-943 


63-2 


52-2 


62-1 


57-0 


W. 


Cum. 


5 


W. 


0-000 


4 


29-971 


66-1 


46-4 


61-2 


56-6 


w. 


Cum. St. 


10 


W. 


0-000 


5 


29-967 


65-2 


57-9 


61-1 


57-2 


s.w. 


Cum. St. 


10 


S.W. 


0-000 


6 


29-909 


68-4 


61-8 


62-2 


59-0 


E. 


Cir. 


6 


S.W. 


0-350 


7 


29-771 


76-9 


55-3 


62-1 


56-1 


W. 


Cum. 


3 


W. 


0-000 


8 


29-783 


661 


460 


57-0 


53 


W. 


Cum. St. 


10 


w. 


0-015 


9 


29-668 


611 


53 6 


57-8 


54-6 


s. 


Cum. 


5 


s. 


0-150 


10 


29-449 


63-7 


54-3 


56-2 


55-1 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-210 


11 


29-2.33 


580 


51-7 


57-8 


55-9 


Var. 


Cum. St, 


10 


N.W. 


0-000 


12 


29-129 


64-1 


51-1 


60-0 


56-7 


S. 


Cir. 


8 


W. 


0-060 


13 


29-270 


67-0 


53-7 


57-5 


54-0 


S.W. 


Cum. 


6 


S.W. 


0-000 


14 


29-496 


64-8 


52-9 


59-0 


56-0 


W. 


Cum. St. 


10 


W. 


0-005 


15 


29-681 


64-0 


55-7 


58-1 


55-9 


S.W^ 


Cir. St. 


10 


w. 


0-085 


16 


29-606 


67-7 


48-4 


53-9 


52-9 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-090 


17 


29-403 


661 


53-6 


57-0 


55-0 


W. 


J Cir. 
\ Cum. 
Cir. St. 




W. 


0-000 


18 


29-403 


639 


520 


59-9 


561 


W. 


W. 


0-020 


19 


29-581 


66-6 


49-8 


52-8 


51-1 


N.W\ 


Cum. 


8 


N.W. 


0-000 


20 


29-697 


66-7 


49 9 


61-1 


54-9 


W. 


Cum. 


8 


W 


0-270 


21 


29-702 


64-7 


45-8 


60-0 


55-8 


e. 


{ Cir. 
\ Cum. 


2 

1 


S.W.I 

s. 1 


0-380 


22 


29-749 


631 


50-0 


61-4 


56-2 


N.W. 


Cum. 


2 


w/ 


0010 


23 


29-910 


65-2 


46-7 


56-8 


53-7 


e. 


Cum. 


8 


E. 


0-000 


24 


30-1-27 


64-8 


520 


57-8 


55 8 


e. 


Cum. St. 


10 


E. 


0-010 


25 


30-033 


62-2 


55-0 


56-0 


55-1 


N.E. 


Nim, 


10 


N.E. 


0-160 


26 


29-851 


58-8 


.55-3 


580 


57-8 


N.E. 


St. 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 


27 


29-923 


59-5 


55-4 


56-0 


5G-0 


N.E. 


St. 


10 


N.E. 


O-fiOd 


28 


30-056 


61-2 


55-1 


55-7 


.55-7 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-010 


29 


30-076 


61-8 


54-9 


59 2 


58-0 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-002 


30 


30-031 


62-0 


501 


54-8 


54-5 


E. 


f Cir. 
\ St 
Cir. St. 


4 
2 


N. 1 


0-000 


31 


29-885 


65-6 


54-2 


60-3 


57-6 


N.E. 


8 


0-140 



Barometer. — Highest Obsei-ved, on the 1st. =30-278 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 12th, = 29-129 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 1-149 inch. Mean = 
29-762 inches. 

S. E. Thermometers. — Highest Observed, on the 7th, = 76°-9. Lowest Observed, 
on the 21st, = 45°-8. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 31°-1. Mean of all the 
Highest = 64°-5. Mean of all the lowest = 52°-l. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Range, = 12°-4. Mean Temperature of Month = 58°-3. 

Hygrometer. — Mean of Dry Bulb = 58''-l. Mean of Wet Bulb = 55° 5. 

Rainfall. — Numlier of D.iys on which Rain fell = 19. Amount of Fall = 2-542 
inches. Greatest Fall in "24 hours, on the 2nd, = 0-570 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, Observer. 



Xov. 1S94.] 150TANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBUUGII. 



291 



(2) Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of August 
1894. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cisteru of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level. 
76 '5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





F-- O 


Thermometers, protected, 














1 s 


4 feet above grass. 










^ 


"S 












_d 


Clouds. 




to 










o 


O \_^ 


S.R. 


Ther- 






'^ 










u 


mometers for 






^— 










(D 


CO* 

"2J 


preceding 


Hygi-ometer. 


o 








^'•^ 


"o 


l5 


24 hours. 






_o 








= 


Q 


is 

P5 5 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 




Kind. 


a 
o 
S 

< 




« 






o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


29-627 


64-6 


56-0 


61-2 


60-1 


S.E. 


Nim. 


10 


s. 


0-040 


9 


29-473 


68-1 


55-0 


60-2 


66-9 


SW. 


Cir. St. 


10 


S.W. 


1-135 


3 


29-303 


64-0 


53-0 


53-9 


53-8 


N.W. 


Nim. 


10 


N.W. 


0-005 


4 


29-497 


66-3 


54-0 


58-9 


552 


S.W. 


Cir. St. 


6 


S.W. 


0-000 


.5 


29-596 


64-3 


50-2 


53-9 


52-7 


s.w. 


f Cir. 
\ Cum. 
Cum. 


!} 


S.W. 


0-020 


6 


29-531 


63-0 


51-0 


60-6 


53-9 


S.W. 


6 


S.W. 


0-000 


7 


29-628 


64-7 


50-1 


59-8 


55-0 


S.W. 


Cum. 


6 


w. 


0-040 


8 


29-451 


63-9 


55-0 


60-1 


56-3 


S.W. 


Cum. 


10 


S.W. 


O-lOO 


!) 


29-510 


69-0 


54-0 


60-1 


57-9 


N. 


Nim. 


10 


N. 


0-190 


10 


29-861 


67-3 


54-0 


58-8 


55-0 


Calm 


Cir. St. 


10 


N. 


0-025 


11 


29-939 


66-8 


48-0 


65-3 


52-1 


N.W. 


Cir. St. 


10 ' 


N.W. 


0-000 


12 


29-730 


61-8 


55-1 


57-1 


56-0 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-000 


1.3 


29-724 


63-0 


51-0 


61-0 


63-2 


N.W. 


Cum. 


1 


N.AV. 


0-765 


U 


29-396 


65-2 


50-7 


59-2 


57-7 


W. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-045 


l.i 


29-083 


63 1 


51-1 


51-0 


50-2 


W. 


Nim. 


10 


w. 


0-180 


1(5 


29-634 


61-7 


49-8 


56-0 


49-9 


N.W. 


Cum. 


2 


N.W. 


0-050 


17 


29-859 


63 


44-0 


53-2 


.52-0 


W. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-190 


18 


29-921 


65-3 


48-8 


58-1 


53-2 


W. 


Cir. Cum. 


8 


N.W. 


0-105 


19 


29-757 


64-3 


52-0 


54-7 


53-7 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-045 ! 


20 


29-6.57 


63-2 


48-4 


56-4 


50-9 


N.W. 


Cir. Cum. 


•> 


N.W. 


0-000 ' 


21 


29-684 


63-0 


44-8 


54-0 


50-0 


S.W. 


Cir. St. 


5 


S.W. 


0-045 ■ 


22 


29-693 


59-8 


45-0 


59-8 


.53-0 


w. 


Cum. 


1 


w. 


0-000 


23 


29-889 


63-2 


42-3 


58-0 


54-0 


E. 









0-000 I 


24 


30-100 


61-7 


44-0 


54-9 


51-0 


N.E. 


Cum. 


2 


N.E. 


0-000 


25 


30-190 


61-6 


47-8 


56-0 


51-3 


N. 









0-000 


26 


30-010 


59-0 


48-1 


62-2 


48-5 


E. 


Cir.'st. 


10 


e". 


0-380 


27 


30-036 


55-0 


50-4 


.54-2 


50-8 


E 


Cum. 


2 • 


E. 


0-000 


28 


30-113 


59-8 


48-3 


53-9 


51-1 


W. 


Cum. St. 


10 


W. 


0-000 


29 


30-110 


62-6 


49-8 


57-1 


53-2 


W. 







... 


0-000 1 


30 


30-095 


63-2 


54-1 


58-4 


55-0 


N.W. 


Cir. Cum. 


5 


N.W. 


0-000 


31 


29-987 


64-6 


52-0 


58-6 


55-1 


W. 


Cir. Cum. 


5 


W. 


0-020 



Barometer.— Hi2;hest Observed, on the 25th, = 30-190 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 15th, = 29-083 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, - l-lil7 iuch. Mean 
= 29-745 inches. 

S. R. Thermometers.-Hiahest Observed, on the 9th, = 69°-0. Lowest Observed, 
on the 23rd, = 42°-3. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 26°-7. Mean of all the 
Highest -68° -4. Mean of all the Lowest = 50°-2. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Range, = 13°-2. Mean Temperature of Month = 56''-8. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb =57°-0. Mean of Wet Bulb = 53°-5. 

Rainfall.— Number of Days on whiotj Rain fell -- 18. Amount of Fall = 3-380 
inches. Greatest Fall in 24'hours, on the 2nd, = 1-135 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, Observer. 



292 H{A^^SACTIO^■S AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. li.\. 



(3) Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of September 
1894. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
7G-5 feet. Hour of Obseiration, 9 A.M. 





_ ^> 


ThermomeierE, protected. 
















4 fe«t above grass. 










,-^ 


^ 


"t-. 








'i 


Clouds. 




!0 
S 

1 


S. R. Ther- 






_£ 


0£J 


mometers for 
preceding 


Hygrometer. 










^^ 


z, 


tT^ 


24 honrs. 














^ 


o 


_o £ 








— ^ 








ct 




c — 








^ 








*t^ 


5 '^ 


Max. Min. 


Dry. 


Wet 


i= 


Kind. 





• 

^ 

t. c 


'S 




CS 


1 










< 


5'-^ 








C i c 


















1 


30-039 


65-7 51-2 


52-9 


51-0 


E. 


St 


10 


E. 


0-050 


2 


30116 


57-7 46-1 


53-0 


48-0 


N. 


Cir. 


4 


N.W. 


0-010 


3 


30K)11 


60-2 39-7 


53-2 


48-8 


W. 


... 





... 


0-010 


4 


30-031 


59K) 45-1 


53-1 


47-8 


N. 


Cir. 


4 


N. 


0-015 


5 


30K)85 


59 


49 7 


54-6 


48-8 


U. 


Cum. 


9 


N. 


0-075 


6 


30-143 


57-0 


47-0 


52-2 


47-9 


W. 


Cir. Cum. 


8 


N. 


0-000 


7 


29-943 


58-8 


43 6 


51-8 


48-7 


W. 


Cir. St 


10 


W. 


0-000 


8 


29-903 


56-0 


41-0 


63-9 


48-3 


N. 







... 


0-000 


9 


30-281 


57-3 


38-7 


55-4 


50-4 


S.E. 


... 







O-O(K) 


10 


30-3-29 


61-0 


31*-2 


50-9 


491 


s.w. 


Cum. 


2 


S.W. 


0-li»»0 


11 


.SO-109 


61-6 


51-5 


58-0 


56-<J 


s.w. 


St 


10 


w. 


0-000 


12 


30-358 


65-1 


45-7 


54-5 


50-1 


w. 


Cir. 


3 




0-000 


13 


30-357 


59-9 


43-3 


51-2 


501 


w. 


St 


10 


w. 


0-000 


14 


30-317 


65-2 


49-0 


571 


53-9 


s.w. 


Cir. Cum. 


4 


N.W. 


0-00(1 


15 


30-357 


64-8 


53-5 


581 


55-9 


w. 


St 


9 


W. 


0-000 


16 


30-345 


63-0 


47-2 


54-1 


51-9 


s.w. 


... 





• -. 


0-000 


17 


30-332 


63-5 


44-1 


49-6 


49-6 


w. 


Fog 


8 


... 


0-000 


18 


30-281 


57-5 


49-4 


54-1 


50-8 


SE. 


St 


10 


E. 


0-000 


19 


30157 


56-0 


61-5 


53-8 


51-6 


S.E. 


St 


10 


S.E. 


0-000 


20 


30-129 


55-9 


51-8 


o4-C 


520 


S.E. 


St 


10 


S.E. 


0-000 


21 


3CK>18 


56-2 


45-6 


53-2 


51-4 


N.E. 


St 


10 


N.E. 


0-010 


22 


3<*-007 


56-6 


51-0 


53-7 


51-1 


e. 


Cum. 


8 


S.E. 


OOIO 


23 


29-816 


55-8 


491 


52-1 


50-0 


S.E. 


St 


10 


S.E. 


0-225 


24 


•29-881 


53-9 


48-9 


51-9 


50-1 


E. 


Cir. Cum. 


9 


S.w. 


0-010 


25 


29-8-24 


55-1 


42-8 


50-9 


49-8 


E. 


Cum- St. 


9 


E. 


0-025 


26 


29 856 


56-8 


44-9 


500 


46-6 


E 


Cir. Cum. 


9 


N W". 


0-000 


27 


30-143 


57-2 


37-2 


48-9 


44-4 


S.W. 







• >. 


0-000 


28 


30-330 


57-6 


36-6 


50-0 


45-.^ 


N. 







^ 


0-015 


29 


30-391 


54-8 


48-2 


51-1 


48-0 


N.E. 


St' 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 


30 


30-478 


53-1 


48 8 


50-1 


47-2 


X.E. 


St. 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 



Barometer. — Highest Observed, on the 30th, = 30 478 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 2.3rd, = 29-816 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, =0-662 inch. Mean 
= 30-145 inches. 

S. E. Thermometers. — EKghest Observed, on the 1st, = 65°-7. Lo-west Observed, 
on the 28th, = .>6--6. Difference, or Monthly Range, = i'9°-l. Mean of all the 
Highest = 58--7. Mean of all the Lowest = 46^-0. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Bange, = 12' -7. Mean Temperature of Month = 52^-3. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 52' -9. Mean of Wet Bulb = 49° -8. 

Rainfall. — Number of Days on which Rain fell = 11. Amount of Fall = 0-4oo inch. 
Greatest Fall in 24 hours, oa the 2ord, = 0-225 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDS nN,7 



W. DAVIDSON, 



Observers. 



Nov. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH, 



293 



(4) Meteokologigal Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of October 
1894. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Bai'ometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
76'5 feet. Hour of Observation, A.M. 







Thermometers, protected, 
4 feet above grass. 










t—\ 


a 
o 












Clouds. 




2 

o 


S. R. Ther- 








So- 


mometers for 
preceding- 


Hygrometer. 


"o 












-2° 


24 hours. 






o 

o 
■p 

s 








3 

« 


Max. 


Miu. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Kind. 


a 

o 

g 








o 


o 


o 















1 


30426 


52-3 


47-2 


52-2 


46-7 


S.W. 


Cir. St. 


3 


S.W. 


0-000 


2 


30-381 


50-9 


39-3 


52-0 


49-3 


S.W. 


Cum. 


9 


S.W. 


0-000 


3 


30-279 


59-8 


34-9 


43-5 


42-9 


W. 









0-000 


4 


30-258 


59-0 


36-0 


45-1 


44-8 


W. 


St." 


10 


w. 


0-045 


5 


30-146 


52-2 


44-7 


507 


50-0 


N.E. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-060 


(5 


30-060 


53-0 


49 


50-7 


50-0 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-030 


7 


29-990 


55-8 


48-6 


49-7 


49-1 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


8 


30-008 


54-1 


43-0 


50-1 


49-7 


E. 


Cir. Cum. 


9 


W. 


0-OUO 


9 


29-993 


55-8 


47-1 


61-9 


50-1 


E. 


Cir. Cum. 


3 


W. 


0-045 


10 


29-926 


59-6 


51-6 


56-9 


64-6 


S.W. 


Cir. 


1 


N.W. 


0-000 


11 


30167 


63-7 


392 


48-1 


46-6 


w. 









0-000 


12 


30-147 


56-8 


41-1 


60-9 


50-6 


w. 


St" 


10 


W. 


0-000 


13 


30-034 


64-3 


50-7 


58-8 


56-1 


S.W. 


Cir. St. 


8 


N.W. 


0-44O 


14 


.30-1.53 


63-9 


42-2 


46-0 


41-2 


X. 


Cir. 


1 


N. 


0-000 


15 


30-238 


51-0 


42-1 


46 1 


41-8 


N. 









0-000 


16 


30-220 


48-9 


38-2 


42-1 


39-8 


N.W. 


cir. 


8 


N. 


0-000 


17 


30015 


52-3 


42-0 


45-0 


42-2 


W. 


Cir. St. 


10 


N. 


0-060 


18 


29-810 


49-8 


41-2 


48-7 


40-0 


N. 


St. 


10 


N. 


0-000 


19 


29-738 


45-3 


27-1 


33-9 


31-9 


S.W. 









0-530 


20 


29-662 


44-8 


34-1 


43-0 


41-7 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


e'. 


0-2.S6 


21 


29-629 


45-9 


429 


45-9 


401 


E. 


(3uin. 


1 


E. 


0-000 


22 


29-777 


46-9 


29-4 


36-1 


34-7 


W. 









0-000 


23 
24 


29-950 
29-189 


48-9 
48-0 


25-4 

28-0 


•28-2 
47-9 


28-0 
47-4 


S.E. 
E. 


( Cir. 
t Fog. 
Nim. 


4 

5 

10 


W.) 
E. 


0-595 
0-170 


2.j 


28-608 


55-3 


47-8 


49-8 


48-0 


W. 


St. 


10 


W, 


0-030 


■2G 


29-392 


65-4 


33-2 


40-3 


37-8 


w. 


Cir. 


4 


w. 


0-115 


27 


29-232 


46-3 


40-8 


45-1 


42-0 


E. 


Cir. 


3 


N.W. 


0-010 


28 


29-518 


48-3 


34-8 


40-1 


37-7 


S.E. 


Cir. St. 


10 


W. 


0-050 


29 


29-238 


46-8 


39-8 


46-0 


43-4 


S.W. 


Cir. 


1 


W. 


0-085 


.•)0 


211-532 


51-3 37-1 


41-7 


41-3 


S.W. 


Cir. St. 


5 


N. 


0-055 


■61 


29-795 


51-2 35-0 


45-0 


43-7 


S.E. 


Nim. 


10 


S.E. 


0-240 



Barometer, — Highest Observed, on the 1st, = 30-426 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 24th, =29-189 inches. Difference, or ilouthly Range, = 1-237 inch. Mean 
= 29-855 inches. 

S. R. Thermometers. — Highest Observed, on the 13th, = 64°-3 Lowest Observed, 
on the 23rd, =25°-4. Diffei-ence, or Mouthlj' Range, ^ 38°-9 Mean of all the 
Highest = 53°0-. Mean of all the Lowest = 39°8-. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Range, = 13°-2. Mean Temperature of Mouth = 46° -4. 

Hygrometer.— Meau of Dry Bulb - 46°-0. Mean of Wet Bulb = 44°-0. 

Rainfall. — Number of Days on which Rain fell = 17. Amount of Fall =2-786 
inches. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 23rd, = 0-595 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, Observer. 



294 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. ux. 



IV. On Plants in the Plant Houses. By R. L. 
Hakrow. 

During the three months that have elapsed since the 
last meeting of this Society in July, a large number of 
species of plants have flowered in the houses of the Eoyal 
Botanic Garden. In August 120 species were noted, 
including many of special interest. The large-flowering 
Aristolochia gigas v. Sturtevafitii still retained a consider- 
able share of popularity with the visitors to the garden. 
In September the number increased to 145, while during 
October it fell to 125 species. Amongst the plants which 
have flowered two of particular interest may be mentioned, 
as they afford an illustration of the vitality possessed by 
some seeds. In the spring of this year Mr. W. Loudon, 
one of the Fellows of the Society, presented to the garden 
packets of seeds of fifty-five species of plants, originally 
received from the Botanic Garden, Saharanpur, on the 7th 
November 1849. The seeds were sown; those of two 
species only have germinated after their forty-five years 
rest, namely Cassia mimosoides, Linn,, v. WallicMana, and 
Ipomcea ^hainicia, Eoxb., now placed as a synonym of /. 
coccinea, Linn. Both of the species have flowered, and the 
former has produced seeds. The flowering climbers trained 
upon the roof of the palm house annexe being now estab- 
lished, have flowered very freely, and, as the selection 
includes species flowering at different seasons, the interest 
in this feature of the house is likely to be kept up during 
the winter months. Amongst the plants most worthy of 
note which have flowered, some of which we are able to 
exhibit, are the following : — 

Uraria crinita, Desv, This leguminous plant is widely 
distributed over British India, and other Asiatic tropical 
countries. It is of an erect habit, with a woody stem 
bearing large imparipinnate leaves, with, commonly, four 
pairs of large, bright green leaflets. But its chief feature 
is its terminal or axillary racemes, nearly two feet long, 
bearing many pairs of pinkish, caducous flowers. Our 
plant was received from Kew during the spring of the 
year, a very strong fasciated inflorescence, which has been 



Xov. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 295 

preserved and will be exhibited later. A figure will be 
found in the "Botanical Magazine," t. 7377. 

Scnccio Galpinii, Hook. Plants of this dwarf composite, 
which has foliage covered on both sides with waxy bloom, 
produced their orange-coloured inflorescences. In the 
"Botanical Magazine," t. 7239, it is stated to have been 
raised from seed sent by Mr. E. E. Galpin, of Barbertown, 
in the Transvaal Eepublic, in May 1890, collected at the 
top of the Saddleback Mountains, and flowered at Kew in 
1891. 

Mimosa latispinosa, Lam. Is a native of Madagascar, 
introduced in 1823. It has a climbing habit, the stem 
bearing broad flattened spines and reaching a height of six 
feet or more. The light green alternate foliage is the most 
remarkable feature of the plant, owing to the broad white 
spines that occur between each of the thirty, or more, pairs 
of leaflets, each of which usually bears twelve pairs of pinn?e. 
The few flowers in capitate terminal clusters are interest- 
ing on account of their white stamens, and they possess a 
hawthorn odour. 

Nepenthes hicalcarata, Hook. This Bornean species, 
which has a remarkable pair of fangs projecting downwards 
to the mouth of the pitcher from the base of the lid, is 
now flowering for the first time with us in Edinburgh, and 
Mr. H. J. Yeitch, of the Eoyal Exotic Nursery, Chelsea, 
informs us that it has only flowered once before, to his 
knowledge, in this country. Our plant is a male, the 
panicled inflorescence being a yard in length with numerous 
staminate flowers. It was first introduced to this country 
by Mr. E. W. Burbidge in 1879, being sent to Messrs. 
Veitch & Sons, of Chelsea. 

Pitccdrnia Roczlii, E. Morren. Amongst bromeliads this 
is one of the brightest coloured and most effective. The 
many-flowered racemes, which are about a foot in length, 
standing conspicuously above the foliage. The sepals and 
petals are of a bright red colour, the stamens and pistil 
just protruding beyond the petals, the stigma is slightly 
violet coloured. Tt is a native of the Andes of Peru, and 
was introduced to cultivation about 1882. 

Seshania exasperata, Humb. Under the name of aS*. 
Favlcnfiis seeds of this leguminous plant were received from 



296 TKAXSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. i.ix. 

the Botanic Garden, Eio de Janeiro, in January last. It is 
a slender growing plant, about nine feet in height, with 
pinnate leaves. The racemes are axillary, and bear a few 
golden yellow papilionaceous flowers, the back of the stan- 
dard being spotted with dark reddish coloured spots. A 
figure of this species in the Xovember number of this 
year's "Botanical Magazine," t. 7384, was taken from a 
plant flowered at Kew during the spring, raised from seed 
received from Senor A. Sampaio, of San Paulo, S. Brazil. 

Others worthy of note which have flowered are : — Cross- 
andra undulcefolia, Salisb., — an East Indian acanthaceous 
plant, with reddish-orange flowers ; Lycoris aurea, Herb., — 
a native of China, with bright golden yellow flowers, 
belonging to the order Amaryllidece, and rarely seen in 
cultivation ; Billbergia Porteana, Brong., — introduced in 
1849 from Brazil, a showy bromeliad with a drooping 
spike, the petals curled towards the base, and possessing 
violet filaments ; Jacquemontia violacea, Choisy., — a pretty 
tropical American climber belonging to the order Convol- 
vulaceae, figured in the "Botanical Magazine," t. 2151, 
under the name of Convolvulus pentcmthus, Jacq. ; Begonia 
Frocbdi, A. DC, — first flowered by Otto Froebel, of 
Zurich, in 1872, a fine scarlet-flowered species from 
Ecuador ; Saintpaulia ionantha,, H. "Wend., — a newly intro- 
duced plant from the Usambura ^Mountains of Central 
Africa, first exhibited at the Ghent exhibition of 1893. 



Dkc. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUUGII. 



297 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, December 13, 1894. 

Surgeon-Major H, H. Johnston, in the Chair. 

Intimation of the death of F. Buchanan White, M.D., 
Non-Eesident Fellow of the Society, was conveyed by the 
Chairman to the meeting. 

The TiiEASUEER submitted the following Statement of 
Accounts for the Session 1893—94: — 



Receipts. 

Annual Subscriptions, 1893-94, 77 at 15s., 
Do. do. 1898-94, 1 at 10s., 

Compositions for Life Membership, 
Transactions, etc., sold, . 
Diploma, Fees, .... 
Interest received, .... 
Subscriptions to Illustration Fund, 



Receipts, 

Balance of Payments, 



£57 15 

10 

18 18 

4 16 

7 

1 17 1 

5 12 

£89 15 1 

17 9 

£90 12 10 



Payments. 

Printing Transactions, £55, Ds. 6d. ; Billets, etc., 

£18, 17s. 8d., 

lithographing, 

Rooms for Meetings, and Tea, 

Commission paid to Collector of Subscriptions. 

Stationery, Postages, Carriages, etc., 

Fire Insurance on Books, .... 



T.ssued November 189.''i. 





£74 


1 


2 




5 


2 


6 




6 


2 










15 







4 


7 


2 




(,» 


5 







£90 


12 


10 



298 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

State of Funds. 

Amount of Fuuds at close of Session 1892-93, . . £65 11 

Deduct — Decrease during Session 1893-94, as above, . 17 9 



Amount of Funds at close of Session 1893-94, . . £64 13 3 

Being: — Sum on Current Account with Union 

Bank, .... £5 17 3 

Sum in Deposit Receipt do. 60 



£65 17 3 
Less due to Treasurer, . .14 



£64 13 3 



Edixburgh, Ith Decemher 1894. — Certified as a correct Abstract 
of the Treasurers Accounts, which have been audited by me, compared 
with the Vouchers, and found correct. 

PiOBT. C. Millar, C.A., Auditor. 

On the motion of Professor Bayley Balfoue, seconded 
by Mr. James Gpjeve, the report was adopted and the 
Treasurer thanked for his sersdces. 



The following donations to the Illustration Fund were 
announced : — 

Miss Pearson, . . . . £0 10 

Mrs. Do well, . . . . 10 



Professor Bayley Balfour exhibited portions of the 
inflorescence of Nepenthes licalcarata lately flowered in 
the Eoyal Botanic Garden, and a further communication 
regarding its special features was promised to the Society. 
A series of variegated foliage plants from the stoves in the 
Eoyal Botanic Garden were also exhibited. 

Dr. and Mrs. Speague exhibited some " Jumping Beans," 
and the former said : — 

Ha'vdng seen a paragraph in the " Times," stating that 
some "Jumping Beans" had been exhibited at a recent 
meeting of the Pioyal Botanical Society, London, and that 



Dec. 1894.] HOTAXICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 299 

a quantity of these beans had been imported by Messrs. 
^lelchers, liunge, & Co., of Fenchurch Avenue, we wrote to 
them to ask if they would sell us a few of the beans, and 
received the following reply : — 

"We have your note of 14tli inst,, and in reply we beg- 
to say that our broker has bought the last lot of about 
;"00 from us at lOd. each, and we are informed that he 
has sold them at considerably higher prices. We could let 
you have up to 500 at this price, but not in smaller lots 
than 50, and if you will take the whole lot of about 3000 
we would take a lower price into consideration." 

We wrote for 50, and having mentioned them to our 
son, Dr. Charles Sprague, who resides at Hochst-am-Maiu, 
he told us he had recently seen an account of them in 
the German scientific paper entitled " Promotheus." He 
.subsequently forwarded to us a copy of ^NTo. 262 of the 
paper, and the following is a brief abstract of the inform- 
ation contained in it : — 

The shape of the so-called beans shows a botanist that each 
is the third part of the fruit of a plant belonging to the 
Euphorbiaceie. Each bean contains the larva of a small 
moth, Carpoccvpsa saltitans, which is closely allied to the 
moth whose larva infests apples and pears {Carpoca'psa 
PomoncUa). Westwood described it in 1858 in the 
" Proceedings of the Entomological Society." It was very 
soon after described by Lucas, in France, who gave it the 
name Carpocapsa JDcliaisiana ; and it is still known by that 
name in France, but everywhere else, in accordance with 
the rule of priority, it is known by the name which West- 
wood gave it. 

Although the insect has been known nearly forty 
years, the plants which produce the so-called beans have 
only been known to science Cjuite recently. 

They grow in the neighbourhood of the Mexican town 
Alamos, in the province of Sonora, and belong to the genus 
Schastiania, three or four species of which harbour the 
insect. The juice of the plant is very poisonous, and the 
wood of Schastiania Pavoniana is so deadly that a dish of 
food or a cup of liquid will be rendered poisonous if it be 
simply stirred with a piece of the wood. 

If the bean is opened when the larva is full grown, the 



300 TEANSACTIOKS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. ux. 

interior is found to be entirely covered with a kind of 
yellow silk spun by the insect. The insect itself is of a 
bright yellow colour with a reddish head. The motions of 
the insect which cause the bean to jump have been 
described by Buchenau, in the " Transactions of the 
Botanical Society of Bremen," 1873. He found that, if 
the bean is laid on one of its flat sides, the insect can very 
easily turn it over so as to lie on the other flat side. It is 
more difficult to turn the bean so as to lie upon its rounded 
surface and then back again ; and before the insect can do 
this it must be considerably warmed, to 80° or 90° F, 
The motions are most energetic when the bean lies upon a 
roughish surface — for instance on the earth in a flower pot. 
In order to watch the motions, Lucas cut a hole in the bean, 
so as to make a sort of window through which he could 
look, but the insect immediately spun a curtain over this 
window ; but by making a second window on the opposite 
side Lucas was able to see the motions of the insect pretty 
distinctly. He states that the larva takes hold of its web 
by its hinder feet, then gives a violent jerk with its head 
and the forward part of its body ; and the head striking the 
opposite side causes the bean to move, the nature of the 
motion depending upon the portion of the bean to which 
the insect has attached itself. If an actively moving bean 
is held between the finger and thumb the blows of the 
insect on the interior can often be distinctly felt — eighteen 
or twenty in succession. They are generally fifteen or six- 
teen in a minute, but may be as many as two in a second. 
It is stated that after the larva is full grown it remains 
active for about nine months before it becomes a chrysalis, 
and during this time it seems to have no food whatever. 
The larva cuts a small round piece out of the curved 
surface of the bean, and this hangs loosely suspended as a 
sort of door. When the time comes for the perfect insect 
to emerge from the chrysalis, it pushes its way through the 
hole ; and the moth then flies away, leaving the skin of the 
chrysalis in the hole. It appears that there are several 
other kinds of plants, whose fruits are similarly occupied by 
insects and move in a similar way ; for instance, some 
species of Colliguaja growing in Brazil and Chili. 

The Belgian botanist, Mathias de Lobel, about the 



Dec. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBUUGH. 301 

year 1576, mentions that the fruit of the Tamarisk moved 
actively for three days ; the motion in this case being 
caused by the larva of a small beetle, Namodes Tamaricis, 
which so closely resembles the plant on which it feeds that 
it is difficult to find upon the plant. Similar motions are 
observed in some galls, particulars of which are given in 
the above-mentioned paper. 

As regards the objects of the motions, it is conjectured 
that the bean may by means of them arrive at a sheltered 
spot, where the insect will not be dried up and killed by 
the direct rays of the sun, or injured by excessive rain. 

Mr. EuTHERFORD HiLL exhibited a plant of Aspidistra 
datior in flower; also a photograph of Aristolochicc r/igas 
Sturtcvantii as it flowered in the Eoyal Botanic Garden 
during the year ; also specimens of emetin and cephalin, 
the alkaloids of Psychotria Ipecacuanha ; and a specimen 
of the bark of a Rliopcda said to be fire-proof. 

Mr. Lindsay exhibited photographs of Cliamccrops cxcclsa 
growing and fruiting in open air in the garden of Dr. 
Eamsay, Torquay. 



The following communications were read : — 

On Lathyrus Sativus, the Yetchling, with a Com- '^ 

PARATIVE EevIEW OF THE POISONOUS PROPERTIES OF SOME 

ALLIED Leguminous Plants. By E. Stewart M'Dougall, 
M.A., B.Sc. 

The natural order Leguminosai includes a very large 
number of plants having among them very diverse pro- 
perties, some being nutritious, others purgative and 
astringent, and still otliers poisonous. The order is divided 
into three sub-orders — 

a. Papilionacea?, 
h. Csesalpineie, 
c. Mimosete. 



302 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

The PapilionaceiP is the sub-order that concerns us, and 
contains such well-known plants as lupines, whin, broom, 
the clovers, medicagos, vetches, lathy rus, haricot bean, 
scarlet runner, peas, grain, lentiL 

In view of what I shall have to say later on it is 
worthy of note that among ancient nations some of the 
pulses were reckoned unclean, the bean, for example, which 
Pythajioras condemned to his disciples because the constant 
use thereof dulled men's wits and caused many dreams ; 
while others declared that therein dwelt dead men's souls 
and that, therefore, at least "the bishop should not eat 
beans." 

One of the tribes of the Papilionaceae is the tribe 
Vicieae, including such genera as Ercum, Pisum, Ciccr, 
Vicia, La.thyrws. 

The genus Vicia and the genus Laihyrus have many 
points of resemblance, and it is not easy to give absolute 
characters to emphasise their difference, but generally it 
may be said that, while both are climbing in their habit, 
the plants of the genus Vicia have more numerous leaflets, 
the leaflets of the genus La.tTiynts being few — one or two 
pairs and sometimes none. A more scientific distinction is 
that the style of a vetch is threadlike and ascending, with 
no conspicuous dilatation towards the apex, whereas the 
the style of a lathyrus is often bent and is dilated towards 
the apex. 

The genus Lotlujrus is made up of a large number of 
species of which ten or twelve are indigenous to Britain, 
among them L. sylvcstris (the narrow-leaved everlasting 
pea), L. Vitifoliv^s (the broad-leaved everlasting pea), Z. 
tuberosum (the tuberous vetchling), L. pratensis (the meadow 
vetchling), L. hirsidus (the hairy vetchling), L. Aplmca 
(the yellow vetchling), and so on. 

Incidentally I might call attention to one of the 
suggested derivations of Lathyrus, viz., "la," augmentative, 
and " thouros," anything exciting (in reference to the 
qualities of the seeds). 

Laihyrus sativus, an annual, is not native in Britain, 
although a correspondent in the " Gardener's Chronicle " 
reminds us that not so long acjo it was to be found in our 
gardens under the name of L. ccerulcus, and appeared in 



Dec. 1801.] BOTANICAL tiUGlKTY OF KDINHUlUiJl. 303 

seed catalogues under the title of X. nznrcus or Lord 
Anson's pea. It has beeu long cultivated in the south of 
Europe as a fodder plant, and, according to \)q Candolle, 
was indigenous before cultivation in the region extending 
from the south of the Caucasus or of the Caspian Sea to 
the north of India, " spreading thence towards Europe in 
the track of ancient civilisation." 

There are several varieties of L. sativus showing 
slight differences in colour of flower, size and colour 
of seeds, in colour of foliage (darker or lighter), and 
strength of growth. I wish to refer specially to two 
varieties, viz. : — 

1st, the L. sativus with small dark-coloured seeds, 
known in India as Khesari Pulse, or Latri, or Matar. The 
terms Matar, Muther, Mutter are all names used in India 
for peas generally, and the L. sativus seeds imported 
from India are well known in Britain under the name 
" Mutters." 

2nd, L. sativus, the white variety, with larger pale- 
coloured seeds, which are spoken of as the seeds of the 
" dog-tooth vetch or the dog-tooth pea." Many inquiries 
are being made up and down the country as to what genus 
or species these seeds are to be referred to. Through the 
kindness of Professor Balfour we have been able to rear 
plants from these large wedge-shaped seeds, with the result 
that the seeds are seen to belong to L. sativus, weisse, the 
white-flowered variety of the Continent, a result confirmed 
by one of the greatest living authorities on seeds — Professor 
Nobbe. 

As to a general description of the plant. L. sativus, 
although an annual, may be treated as a biennial hj plant- 
ing late, say, in early autumn, when by due care and in 
favourable conditions as regards soil the plant will flower 
in spring. The leaflets are in single pairs, oblong or 
lanceolate in shape, and witli a three-parted tendril between 
tliem. The flowers, which are solitary, may be bluisli or 
they may be white. The plant may grow to a height of 
three feet or so, obtaining support by its tendrils. The 
fruit is a small, smooth-winged, several-seeded pod. The 
seeds vary in colour and size, but all have the characteristic 
wedged, angled, or hatchet-shaped appearance. 



104 



TliANSACTlONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Se^s. lix. 



Here is a table showing colour, 
certain samples examined by Harz :— 



size, and weight of 



Locality. 


Colour. 


Largest 
diameter. 


Weight of ' 
100 seeds, 
in grammes. 


Cariiithia 


Greenish yellow 


10-1 


20-871 


Do. 


Keddish yellow 


10-3 


■25-830 


Austria 


Yellowish green 


9-5 


23-756 


Sicily 


Pea coloured, spotted 


12-0 


41-423 


Bohemia . 


Reddish pea coloured 


8-3 


16-637 


Verona . 


Pea coloured . 


15-0 


56-545 


Greece 


Partly faint pea coloured, 
partly brown 


7-6 


18-438 


Sicily 


Pale pea coloured . 


14-7 


48-991 


East India 


Dark marbled on a 
brownish ground 


7-1 


13-619 


Do. 


Deep reddish brown, black 
spotted 


7 '5 


16-527 



A note of different analyses may be found useful. 
Church, in his " Food Grains of India," gives for the 
seeds of the Indian variety: — In 100 parts, water, lO'l ; 
albuminoids, 31-9 ; starch and fibre, 53"9 ; oil, 0"9 ; ash, 3-2. 
The nutrient ratio is 1 : 1*75, the characteristic being the 
richness in nitrogenous constituents. 

Harz found the lathyrus to contain 84 per cent, of dry 
substance, 25 per cent, of proteid stuff, 1-9 per cent, of fat, 
54"5 per cent, of non-nitrogenous extract, 4-1 per cent, of 
fibre, 2-9 per cent, of ash. 

The seeds of L. sativus, weisse (so-called dog-tooth 
vetch), grown on chalky, loamy soil, contained in 100 
parts of air dry weight : — Water, 12-31 ; ash, 2*19 ; cellu- 
lose, 4'44 ; starch, 31-10 ; other non-nitrogenous substance, 
26-42 ; proteid, 23-63. 100 parts of the ash yielded : — 
Potass, 45-13; chloride of sodium, 2-28; lime, 10-86; 
magnesia, 3-72 ; iron oxide, 0-44 ; phosphoric acid, 21-86 ; 
carbonic acid, 9-78 ; sulphuric acid, 4'96 ; silicic acid, 
0-98. 

CULTIVATIOX. — In India it is sown aljout the close of the 
rains (October) in heavy clay soils, and on laud hardened 
through submersion, and occasionally in rice fields before 
the rice is cut. It may be reaped in March. ]\Iany 
thousands of acres may be under the crop. Full details 
as to methods of cultivation, and the number of acres 



Dec. 1^94.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 305 

under the crop, are given in Watt's valuable article. 
Apart from cultivation, it is very common as a weed, 
springing up after a preceding crop has been reaped. 

Parts of the Plant used as Food. — (a) The green 
parts may be cooked and eaten by the poorer people. 

(h) Grown as fodder for cattle in India (in an herbal, 
dated 1829, Z. sativus is mentioned as frequently sown in 
Switzerland for soiling cattle). 

(c) In India the young pod is eaten sometimes as a green 
vegetable. 

{cl) The seeds are eaten cooked, or ground into flour and 
made into bread. 

Other Uses. — {a) L^sed to adulterate the pigeon pea, 
Cajanns indicus, known in India as dal. This latter pulse 
is much cultivated in India, and is held in much favour, 
being eaten to a very large extent roasted, or in cakes or 
curries, etc. 

(h) The seeds are given to poultry. I have gone into 
several grain dealers' shops in Edinburgh and asked to see 
their " poultry feed," and have had no difficulty in recog- 
nising and picking out of the general feed seeds of L. sativus, 
weisse (the so-called dog-tooth vetch). Some of the grain 
dealers did not trouble aljoat the presence of the L. sativus 
seeds, while others, more careful, informed me that if such 
adulteration showed itself in a sample of ordered peas, 
they refused to have it. I found that the reason for refusal 
did not arise from any decided knowledge that the seeds of 
L. sativus had been known to be harmful, but the general 
impression was that they were " an inferior quality of pea." 

(c) Dr. Yoelcher has recorded several cases where mixed 
feeding cakes have been adulterated with the seeds of L. 
sativus, and with bad eftects. 

The Effects of continued Eating on Man. — I will give 
some evidence from representative accounts, but, generally, 
I may state that in the case of human lacings using the pulse 
as a daily article of food, paralysis is the result, — paralysis 
of the lower extreiuities, — the attack being sudden, and 
with no warning symptoms leading up to it. Curiously 
enough no pain is suffered, and the paralysed part, instead 
of becoming misshapen, continues to grow. As an old 
herbalist laconically puts it, " The disease is regarded as 

IRAXS. HOT. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XX. U 



306 TKAXSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

incurable, but being neither very painful nor fatal, those 
who are seized with it generally submit to it with patience." 

As we will see illustrated later in the case of the horse, 
the attack is worst in cold weather, and in wet, damp 
conditions. And now for some evidence from observers. 
Colonel Sleeman, quoted in Duthie and Fuller, tells how, 
from combined storm and drought, several villages in Oudh 
lost their cereal crops, and that thus deprived, the villagers, 
in 1831, took advantage of large growths of L. sathiis, 
giving the stalks and leaves to their cattle, and feeding 
themselves on the seeds. The evil effects of continued 
subsistence on this food showed themselves in 1833. " The 
younger part of the population," writes the Colonel, " of 
the surrounding villages, from the age of thirty downwards, 
began to be dexjrived of the use of their limbs below 
the waist by paralytic strokes, in all cases sudden, but in 
some more severe than in others. About half the youth 
of the \'illage, of both sexes, became affected during the 
years 1833 and 1834, and many of them have lost the use 
of their lower limbs entirely, and are unable to move. Xo 
person once attacked had been found to recover the use of 
the limbs affected, and my tent was surrounded by great 
numbers of the youth, in different stages of disease, implor- 
ing my advice and assistance under this dreadful visitation. 
Some of them were very fine-looking young men, of good 
caste and respectable families, and all stated that theii- 
pains and infirmities were confined entirely to the joints 
below the waist. They described the attack as coming on 
suddenly, often while the person was asleep, and stated 
that a greater portion of the young men were attacked 
than of the young women." One statement puts the pro- 
portion as twelve males for one female. 

In one of the British expeditions against Cabul, General 
Elphinstone's troops suffered much owing to their having 
to mix the seeds of L. sativus with their food. 

Dr. Kirk, refen'ing to Upper Sindh, says, " The natives 
know it to be a poison, but they eat it because it is cheap, 
thinking that they can stop in time to save themselves 
from its consequences. Dr. Irving gives his experiences 
in the ' Proceedings of the Government of the North-West 
Provinces ' for 1866, and from a pamphlet published by 



Dec. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 307 

him, and quoted largely in a very interesting account 
by Mr. Challenger, of the British Tramway Company, in 
the August numbers of ' Exchange and Mart,' I take the 
following : — ' One after another about fifty men, more or 
less lame, were questioned. "Without exception they all 
stated that they had become paralytic during the rains. 
Men who had gone to bed quite well had awoke in the 
morning feelinsf their legs stiff and their loins weak, and 
from that day they had never recovered the use of their 
limbs. At first the lameness w^as trifling, and amounted 
only to unsteadiness of gait and slight stiffness, chiefly of 
the knees. After a time the muscles of the thighs 
commenced to ache and feel weak, and also the loins. 
Many of the men appeared to be strong looking, and 
their legs did not seem to be much wasted, if at all so. 
Those affected stated that the complaint did not lead 
to other diseases, nor tend to shorten life, unless, indirectly, 
by preventing the individual working and thus procuring 
proper means of support.' " 

Not only in India have we records of attack, but in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries edicts were published 
in Germany and France respectively, forbidding the use 
of the pulse as food. There seems to be a strong opinion 
that the pulse may be used as food, provided a certain 
proportion be not exceeded. Dr. Irving states one-twelfth 
as able to be mixed in safety with flour and rice, and some 
put it as high as one-fourth. But I w'ill return to this in 
dealing with its effects on horses. 

How IT AFFECTS HoRSES. — A typical instance was the 
case reported by the Messrs. Leather, of Liverpool, in 
1884, w^here in a stud of 74 cart horses 35 became ill 
as a result of the Indian mutters being mixed with their 
food to the quantity of 3 or 4 lbs. a day. Of the 35, 
19 died, 2 were killed as useless, and 14 recovered. 
The symptoms, as described by the ^Messrs. Leather, 
were these : — Sometimes the horses said to be affected 
seemed, when at rest, in perfect health, but on being 
exercised, particularly if the weather was cold, they 
were seized with dyspnoea and roaring, some dying from 
asphyxia, others getting relief when tracheotomy had been 
performed. There is a great body of evidence that in 



308 TEA^'SACTIO^'S and PEOCEEDINGS of the [Sess. lix. 

cases of such attack tracheotomy gives an almost imme- 
diate and complete recovery, whereas no medicines have 
any effect. The Messrs. Leather reported another case 
from Eouen, where out of 54 horses belongincj to an 
omnibus company, 29 were seized with illness, 9 dying, 
and tracheotomy being performed on the rest. This com- 
pany had 300 horses, but only one stable showed attack, 
the one in which Z. sativus was used. A closing reference 
in this connection may be made to the now famous 
Bristol Tramways Company case, where 123 horses out 
of a stud of 800 fell ill, owing to feeding on Z. sativus 
seeds. As indicating the symptoms of attack, I quote 
]\Ir. Challenger, the manager of the Company : — " The 
horses suffered from what was styled, for want of 
a better name, ' an epidemic of falling.' They 
would fall suddenly without any accountable reason. 
Cab and carriage shafts were broken daily, as also were 
the car-poles." And again, " A horse being exercised was 
taken suddenly ill ; it roared, its flanks heaved, its mouth 
was kept wide open, the nostrils were distended, and the 
tongue hung out and became livid; it stared and staggered, 
and threatened every moment to fall down strangulated or 
suffocated, and during this paroxysm, which lasted several 
minutes, the perspiration ran freely off' every part of the 
horse." Severe exercise, or even ordinary exercise, is not 
necessarily the precursor of attack. ]\Iere excitement is 
sufficient to induce a paroxysm. Principal M'CoU, who 
has had a ver}' large experience in cases of Z. sativus 
poisoning, told me of a case at Bristol where he was 
called in, where a horse accustomed to be fed first was 
passed over, and his neighbours fed before him. The 
horse became very excited, and in a moment or two fell 
down, not recovering till twenty minutes later, when 
tracheotomy had been performed. 

Climatic conditions. — Just as we saw illustrated in 
the case of men being attacked, so also in horses, cold 
weather was the time when the illness asserted itself. In 
the Messrs. Leather's case the attack was in damp cold 
weather and biting east winds. In Eouen, the month of 
January. In cases dealt with by Professor M'Coll, the 
early winter ; and in Bristol, January, February, and March, 



Dec. 189-1.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 309 

As with man so with horses, the lathyrus is a cumula- 
tive poison, the symptoms of poisoning showing themselves 
the sooner the greater the proportion of L. scUivus seeds in 
the horses food. Principal M'Coll states that 2 lbs. a day 
could be continued for six weeks or so before symptoms of 
attack showed themselves, while, at Liverpool, the Messrs. 
Leather fed 4 lbs. or 5 lbs. a day out of 20 lbs. of grain 
for three months. There is generally a certain proportion 
of horses that do not seem to be affected. Indeed, it is 
curious to learn from the evidence in the Bristol Tramway 
Company case that corn merchants in different parts of the 
country were in the habit of buying quantities of Z. sativus, 
and that having sold it in mixtures for horses in proportions 
varying from two to ten per cent., they had received no 
complaints. As far as experimental evidence is obtainable, 
such would seem to show that boiling the seeds before use 
renders them innocuous. 

In a number of cases dealt with in Glasgow and 
neighbourhood, 100 bolls of the L. sativus seeds lay un- 
used for some time until by Principal M' Coil's, orders 
they were boiled, steamed into a pulp, and when fed in 
quantities of 1| lbs. per night per horse, no bad effects 
followed. 

Watt in his valuable article points out that there is a 
" certain capriciousness " in the effects of the poison on 
different individuals, and, adopting the view that the 
poisoning effects are due to a volatile alkaloid, he suggests 
that persons eating cakes made from Z. sativus grain do 
not suffer, as all parts of the cake being thoroughly exposed 
to a high temperature the poison is eliminated, whereas in 
food preparations exposed to only a moderate temperature 
sufficient of the poison remains to act injuriously on those 
partaking of such foods. 

In the examples quoted as to injury to human beings in 
India and to the horses in Liverpool, Glasgow, and Bristol, 
the small dark coloured seeds caused the harm. But there 
have been frequent references lately to horses showing the 
same kind of attack on being fed with mixtures containing 
the larger white-coloured seeds of Z. sativus, weisse, the 
so-called '•' dog-tooth vetch," in Bedlington, where a 
number of mine ponies suffered, at Eastwood 20 to 30 



310 TEAXSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

horses, at Newcastle 10 or 12, and again near Sheffield 12 
horses. I will take the last case as typical of the others, 
and it will be seen that the symptoms are the same as in 
the black-seeded variety, which, knowing that the dark and 
the light coloured seeds are both Z. sativus, is not sur- 
prising. ]\Ir. Abson, of Sheffield, to whom I am indebted 
for a large sample of the seeds, tells how the Sheffield 
horses, first fed with the seeds in January, began in April 
and May to become thick in their wind, how they fell to 
the gi'ound and how on gentle exercise they were seized 
with roaring until, as before, tracheotomy was performed to 
prevent asphyxia. 

Effects of L. sativus on other Animals. In swine, 
paralysis and spasm. In the herbal mentioned earlier I 
find it stated that swine fattened on the meal lost the use 
of their hind limbs, but grew very fat lying on the ground. 
Cattle. — Experimentally the records are too meagre to 
warrant any hard and fast statement, for while one breeder 
assured me that he fed the seeds ground and scalded, in 
the proportion of 3 lbs. at a time, to fattened bullocks and 
they did well, I have heard of cases where the seeds were 
blamed for injuring milch cows. There is a very large 
quantity of, these seeds sold all over the country, and 
in use by dairymen, etc. (thousands of bolls). That we 
have few or no complaints as regards cattle is doubtless due 
to the fact that it is the custom of dairymen, etc., to scald 
the cows' " feed " before giving it to the cattle, so as to 
prevent indigestion. 

Shc^j^ have been fed on small quantities without harm. 
As to other animals, "Watt quotes Don thus : " Pigeons 
lose their power of flight by feeding on the seed, especially 
when young. .Poultry will not readily eat it, but geese eat 
it without apparent damage." 

Theories as to the Poisonous Principle. — 1st. A 
volatile alkaloid not existing in the free state, but produced 
by some proteid ferment whose action can be destroyed by 
heat. The presence of ferments in the vegetable world 
is now generally admitted. Such are present in very 
minute quantities, and they are onl}' active within well 
defined ranges of temperature, being killed when exposed 
to a high temperature, say on boiling. 2nd. May be 



Dec. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 311 

due to an albumose or globulin. If this were so as 
suggested, by heat destroying the poisonous principle we 
could suggest an analogous case where in Ahrus precatorius, 
another leguminous plant with poisonous seeds, the 
poisonous action of which is destroyed by boiling. The 
seeds of this plant cause weakness and rapid breathing, but 
no paralysis. Their poisonous effect is gradually lessened 
as the temperature is raised from 50° C. to 70° C, until 
at 80° C. the activity is almost entirely reduced. 3rd. 
Poisoning by organisms. One observer made some cultiva- 
tions from L. sativKs seeds similar to those fed to a sufter- 
ing horse at Liverpool. These cultivations showed a 
bacillus resembling that of the mouse septiccemia, but as 
the seeds M^ere very dirty, covered with rodent excrement, 
the bacillus of the cultivations proves nothing. As the 
washed seeds showed no such organisms on being experi- 
mented with, the bacillus theory is no longer upheld. 

Whatever the poisonous principle may be, we hope that 
Mr. Irvine will succeed in demonstrating it and pointing 
out how the seeds, otherwise nutritious and cheap, may be 
used with safety. While the large light coloured seeds (Z. 
sativus, weisse) come to this country from the Baltic ports, 
large quantities of the small dark coloured seeds (one 
Liverpool merchant in the Bristol Tramway Company case 
stated he had sold 33,950 quarters since July 1890) come 
to us from India in the shape of ballast. Analysis shows 
them to be nutritious, while as regards cheapness Mr. 
Challenger calculated that by being able to use, without 
fear of evil effects, the Z. sativus seeds he would save, as 
regards feed in his stud of 800 horses, a sum of £300 per 
annum. 

Before passing on to review some of the better known 
home leguminous plants, I would like to make a few 
remarks on some Indian leguminous crops allied to and 
sometimes confused in their nomenclature with Z. sativus. 
Through the kindness of ]\Ir. Pdchardson I am able to show 
you at the same time a series of " slides " illustrating the 
Leguminosfe mentioned in Church's " Food Grains of 
India." (a) Ciccr aridinum, the chick pea or common 
gram, a plant which is erroneously mentioned as having on 
being fed to horses caused symptoms of poisoning similar 



312 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. ux. 

to L. sativus. Corresponding to some extent in distribution 
with L. sativus, Cicer is well known in Southern Europe, 
v/hile upwards of fifty names in the vernacular testify to 
its popularity in India. It is an annual, varying in height 
from one to two feet, has several pairs of oval leaflets with 
toothed edges and generally a terminal leaflet. The flowers 
are whitish or rose coloured, and as you see from the 
samples I pass round there are, just as in L. sativus, 
different varieties of seeds, some dark red coloured and 
some paler. Duthie and Fuller in their " Field and 
Garden Crops of India " mention a very large white- 
grained kind grown as a curiosity. Xo matter the colour 
the seeds are easily distinguished from those of L. sativits, 
as they simulate, often very successfully, the appearance of 
a ram's head, hence the specific name of the plant arietinum 
(arics, a ram). 

Its Uses. — (A) As food for Man. — Mixed with wheat 
and barley, in many districts of India it forms the prin- 
cipal crop of the poorer classes. The seeds are prepared 
for food in different ways. Sometimes ground into meal 
for cakes and puddings, or, according to Lindley and 
Moore, used as a substitute for coffee, and again as common 
in Paris for soups. The roasted seeds may be mixed with 
sugar and other ingredients, the whole forming a well- 
known sweetmeat in India ; or, again, the roasted seeds 
are carried, to be used as a sustaining food on long 
journeys. 

The vegetable is known as a medicine in India, although 
its too frequent use may induce calculi in the bladder in 
persons predisposed to the disease, owing to the large 
amount of oxalic acid which is exuded from glandular 
hairs on leaf and stem. Drury tells us in addition that 
this exudation is collected by the natives, and used in 
their curries instead of vinegar. According to ]\Ioore " the 
boots of a person walking through a dewy grain field will 
be entirely destroyed by the pungency of the acid given 
out by the leaves." 

(B) As food for Cattle and Horses. — The plant has con- 
siderable use as a fodder for cattle, which is often not very 
palatable owing to its bitter taste, and Duthie speaks of its 
being injurious as fodder to milch cows. 



Dec, 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 313 

For horses "Watt strongly recommends the importation 
of the seeds into Britain, the proportions of albuminoids to 
starch (21 : 59) being much better balanced than in our 
ordinary horse feeds. He suggests that oats and grain, or 
Indian corn and grain, would be found' to be much more 
nutritious and strength-giving than the ordinary English 
diet, " which contains an excessive amount of starch." 
Without dwelling on this opinion, I think it may be safely 
stated that any poisoning effects said to follow the use of 
its seeds as a feed for horses are quite imaginary. I have 
made a number of inquiries of gentlemen who have had a 
large experience in India as veterinary surgeons, both mili- 
tary men and civilians, and I find a unanimous testimony 
to the value of Giccr arietinum as a horse food. 

There are two other plants to which the name "gram" is 
sometimes applied, and which may thus be confused with 
" gram " proper, viz. (6) Phascolus Mim/jo, or green gram, and 
(c) Dolichos hijiorus, or horse gram. The former, with several 
varieties, varying in habit of plant and colour and size of 
seed, has a wide cultivation. Its seeds are eaten by rich 
and poor alike, while the stalks and leaves are given to 
cattle. Dolichos MJlorus, horse gram, found wild and cul- 
tivated, described in Church, where its haulms are said to 
be a good fodder, but the continued use of its seeds to 
cause oedematous swellings. 

{d) Cajanus indicus, the pigeon pea or dal, a wholesome 
and nutritious pulse. Duthie says the husks and broken 
grain, after being soaked in water, are given to cattle to 
keep them quiet when being milked. 

(c) Dolichos Lahlah. Its green pods are eaten as a vege- 
table, and its seeds, too, are used. 

(/) Vigna Catjang, the catiang bean. Its green pods are 
used, but the beans are inferior to those of Phascolus Mungo. 

(g) Phascolus aconitifolius, the moth bean. 

{h) Canavalia cnsiformis, the sword bean. 

{.)) Glycine Soja, the dry bean. Eich in albuminoids and 
oil. After the oil has been squeezed out of them the rest 
is compressed into a cake for cattle. Many other prepara- 
tions are made from the beans, wliile the whole plant is 
sometimes cut for fodder. 

{IS) Arachis hyjjogcca, the pea nut. With the oil squeezed 



314 TEANSACTIOXS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. ux. 

out, what remains is used as cake for cattle as above. 
Half their weight is oil. 

(I) Zens esculenta or Ervv.ni Lens, the lentil. To get rid of 
the bitter substance in the seeds, Church recommends their 
being steeped for 'a short time in water in which a little 
carbonate of soda has been dissolved. 

To return to the genus Lathyrus, I want to note four 
species, three at least of which may be poisonous. 

L. Clymemim. — A species belonging to the Levant region 
(both Europe and Africa), and also said to be found in 
Madeira. Its leaflets, nine to fourteen in a leaf, are very 
much shorter than those of L. sativus, and are blunt at the 
point. The flowers are in small racemes. 

There is another species found in Italy and very closely 
allied to L. Clymenvm, namely, L. cdatus, so closely allied 
that it is sometimes sunk in the last species, and by othei' 
authorities is spoken of as synonymous. On the Continent 
there are records of these two being injurious too. 

Then there is L. Cicera, with flat pods, a native of South 
Europe and Northern Africa, and known in these regions 
as a fodder plant. Its seed when used in quantities pro- 
duces harmful results, e.g., in Prance there are records of 
its use by human beings being followed by paralysis, and 
an epidemic of paralysis in a tribe of Arabs in Algiers 
some twelve years ago was traced by French experts to a 
similar cause. The brown smooth seeds of L. Cicera can by 
a casual observer be very easily mistaken for those of the 
Indian variety of L. sativus, indeed I know of their having 
been shown in an exhibition as those of L. sativus, and 
without remark. 

The last species of Lathyrus I will mention is L. Aphaca, 
the yellow vetchling cultivated in different parts of India 
as a fodder plant for cattle, and also found in this country, 
being not uncommon in tlie eastern and southern counties 
of England. The seeds and pods have been known to be 
used in soup in their young state and without harm result- 
ing, but the ripe seeds are narcotic and cause sickness and 
headache. In this connection one might also notice the 
haricot bean, Pliaseoivs vulgaris, whose unripe pods are 
much in use as a green vegetable, as are also those of the 
scarlet runner, P. multiflorus. The ripe seeds have been 



Dec. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 315 

known to cause illness, and some time ago, in Leith I 
think, several persons suftered from partaking of the raw 
seeds. The bad effects seem to follow only when the seeds 
are eaten raw, no harm resulting if the seeds are first 
cooked. 

The Lupines. — None of these are natives of Britain, 
but several species are well known in Southern Europe and 
in some parts of Asia. One of the best known is Lupinvs 
albus, grown for fodder, or the crop may be ploughed in as 
manure. Its seeds are eaten by man and also by cattle 
after steeping and boiling to remove the bitter taste. A 
bitter principle, probably alkaloidal, seems to be charac- 
teristic of the various species, and we have certain 
knowledge in the case of two at anyrate, viz., L. alius and 
L. angustifolius. From the seeds of L. albus an alkaloid 
has been isolated identical with an alkaloid from the seeds 
of Z. angustifolius. The alkaloid is called Lupauine. 
Bitter to the taste, it is said not to be hurtful to man, but 
it has been shown, experimentally, to be poisonous to frogs. 

Sarothamnus scoparius, Broom. — This plant, well known 
in the Pharmacopoeia as diuretic and cathartic, has had 
isolated from it a volatile liquid alkaloid called Sparteine, 
which is said to have narcotic properties. One writer 
speaks of sheep eating the broom pods and suffering from a 
kind of intoxication, and mentions, too, an old use of the 
broom tops in Wales as communicating a bitter flavour to 
beer. But we need not go so far afield, for those who know 
their Allan Eamsay will remember his " Elegy on Maggy 
Johnstoun." Last century this Maggy Johnstoun kept an 
inn near Ediuburoh which was a favourite resort on account 
of a particular kind of clear and intoxicating ale sold there. 
Eamsay who knew the place well, and recalling his exper- 
iences and singing Maggy's praises, writes : — 

" Some say it was the pith of bi-oom 
That she stirr'd in her masking loom 
Which in oor heads raised sic a scorn, 

Or some wild seed 
■\Vhicli aft the chafiiig-stoup did toom 
But lilled our head." 

In conclusion, I would refer to two well-known plants, 
Ulex europceus, gorse or whin, and Ci/tisus Lahurniim, the 
laburnum. Gerard has isolated from the seeds of the 



316 TRANSACTIONS AXD PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lis. 

whin an alkaloid Ulexine (the bark and the young tops 
also contain it, but in less quantity). The physiological 
action of Ulexine is interesting, as it may afford the key 
to the L. sativics poison, and therefore I give a few details 
of experiments made by Dr. Bradford, and reported in the 
"Journal of Physiology." A very minute quantity of the 
alkaloid was injected into the dorsal lymph space of a frog, 
and in five minutes respiratory movements had ceased. 
There was complete paralysis of all voluntary movement. 
The muscles, on being stimulated with electricity, directly 
responded, but the strongest currents applied to the sciatic 
nerve failed to produce any contraction of leg muscles. 
The alkaloid was thus shown to be a nerve poison, and 
administered in larger doses proved a muscle poison as 
well Further experiments, with such mammals as dogs 
and cats, again showed this Ulexine to be a powerful 
respiratory poison, e.f/., 3 mgrs. to a chloroformed cat killed 
the cat with convulsions in three minutes. The cat could 
be kept alive as long as artificial respiration was kept up. 

It is now admitted, without dispute, that this Ulexine 
is identical with the alkaloid Cytisine that has been isolated 
from laburnum seeds, and which has been detected as 
present in cases of poisoning by Cytisus Lahiirnum. As 
in the gorse, this alkaloid is not confined to the seeds, 
but its presence has been demonstrated in the bark, 
leaves, and flowers, and in this connection it is interesting 
to find record of a case of poisoning of a family of seven 
persons who had eaten the flowers of the laburnum in 
mistake for those of the locust tree, another leguminous 
tree. The eft'ects of eating the laburnum flowers were 
giddiness, accelerated respiration, and vomiting. Xo 
asphyxia showed itself, and the patients soon recovered. 

Cases of laburnum poisoning are not uncommon among 
childi-en, and cattle and pigs have been known to suffer 
after browsing on it. 

I may add a ver}' curious case of narcotic poisoning due 
to eating laburnum roots. Fifty-eight boys in an industrial 
school chewed the roots of an old laburnum tree cut the 
day before, mistaking it for " liquorice-stick." Soon many 
showed the symptoms of narcotic poisoning, viz., sleepiness, 
stupor, and staggering about. On emetics being given, 



Dec. 1S94.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 317 

even while in the act of vomiting and holding the basins 
in their hands, some dropped off to sleep, as did others on 
their feet while being walked up and down. It was found 
that in the worst cases no more than half an ounce could 
have been chewed. The day after, all had recovered. 

PvEPOET ON THE FlOEA OF ILE DES AIGRETTES, MAURITIUS. 

By Surgeon-Major H. H. Johnston, Army Medical Staft; 
D.Sc, F.L.S. 

He des Aigrettes is situated about ^\ mile north-east of 
Pointe d'Esny, on the south-east coast of Mauritius, from 
which it is separated by a shallow sea, 2 fathoms deep at 
the deepest part. 

The island is irregularly circular in form, about ^ mile 
broad, and at the highest part, in the centre, it reaches a 
height of 45 feet above sea-level. The surface of the 
island is rather flat, and the margin is considerably under- 
mined by the sea. The island is formed of coralline lime- 
stone, and there is no fresh water in it. At the north end 
there is a lime-kiln and a caretaker's house, in the neigh- 
bourhood of which there is some waste ground and a few 
cultivated plants. The mean annual temperature in the 
shade is about 75° Fahr., and at Anse Jonchee, about 4i 
miles north of He des Aigrettes, on the main island of 
Mauritius, the mean annual rainfall is 8S"58 inches. 

I botanised on He des Aigrettes on three occasions, viz. 
18th August 1888, 4th March 1889, and 20th June 1890. 

The following table shows the number of identified 
species in each of the three divisions of the vegetable 
kinQ:dom : — 



Class, 


Native. 


1 

1 Naturalised. 

t 


Planted. 


Total. 


Dicotyledones . 

Monocotyledones 
Cryptogamia 


21 

8 
1 


1 17 
! 1 


6 

1 


44 
10 

1 


Total . 


30 


1 

18 


7 


55 



The 30 native species include 16 herbs, 9 shrubs, 3 
climbers, 1 parasite, and 1 marine flowering plant. 



318 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

Lponuea (jlaherriina, Bojer, and PhyUanihus niauritiamis, 
H. H. Johnston, are the only native species which are not 
recorded from ]\Iauritius in Baker's " Flora of ]\lauritius 
and the Seychelles." The former was found in Flat Island 
by Home in July 1885, and by me in He Vakois in 1889, 
and in He Marianne in 1890, in all of which islands it is 
undoubtedly native. The latter is a new endemic species. 

Gymiio&jporia trigyna, Baker, Oldcnlaiulia Sieberi, Baker, 
and Phyllanthus mcmriticmus, H. H. Johnston, are the only 
three species I found on He des Aigrettes, which are 
endemic in the Mauritius group of islands, and not found 
in any other part of the world. 

The greater number of the 18 species of more or less 
naturalised plants occurred on the waste ground near the 
lime-kiln and caretaker's house. Three of the naturalised 
species, Soplwra tomcniosa, Linn., Ipomcea Nil, Both., and 
Nicotiana Tcibacum, Linn., are not recorded from Mauritius 
in Baker's " Flora of ^Mauritius and the Seychelles," pub- 
lished in 1877. 

With the exception of the waste ground at the north 
end of the island, the surface is clothed with a dense mass 
of shrubs, intermingled with climbing plants and a parasite, 
Cassytlia filiformis, Linn., belonging to the Lauraceae. 

In addition to the plants identified and enumerated in 
this report, I found one species each of the following genera, 
viz. Folyscias (?), Diospyros, Ficus (?), Draccciia, and Phyl- 
lanthus, but as the plants were neither in flower nor fruit, 
they have not been identified. I also observed among the 
cultivated plants a species of Cucumis and a garden plant, 
which have not been identified. I was informed by Mr. A. 
Daruty de Grandprc' that he had found an orchid on this 
island, but it was not observed by me. 

As He des Aigrettes is easily accessible, I hope to revisit 
it at some future time, and further investigate its flora, 
which will probably yield a considerable number of species 
additional to those recorded by me in my present report. 

The remainder of my paper contains a complete list of 
all the native, naturalised, and cultivated plants which 
were observed and identified by me in the island. I have 
followed the nomenclature of Baker's " Flora of Mauritius 
and the Seychelles." Under several of the species I have 



])Ei-. 1S94.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 319 

entered notes of my own, taken from living specimens. 
These notes, except in the case of Premna serratifolia, 
Linn., are svipplementaiy to the descriptions contained in 
Baker's " Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles," and they 
are not intended to be complete descriptions of the plants 
to which they refer. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

Kojer, Hort. Maur. — Hortus M:iuritianus. By W. Bojer. 1837. 
Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych. — Flora of the Mauritius and the Seychelles. 

By J. G. Baker. 1877. 
DC, Prod. — Frodromus Systematis Xaturalis Regni Yegetabilis, Parts 

i.-xvii. By A. P. aud A. de Candolle. 1824-1873. 
An asterisk before the name of a species or natural order means that 
all the plants belonging to that species or natural order are not native, 
but are more or less naturalised in the Mauritius group of islands. The 
names of cultivated species and natural orders of plants in He des 
Aigrettes are enclosed in brackets, thus [ ]. 



CLASS I.— DICOTYLEDONES. 

* Papayekace.e. 

* Aegemoxe jiexicaxa, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 5. Common on waste ground, •20th June 1890. 
Xaturalised. A native of America. 

[Mokingacej:.] 

[MORINGA PTEEYGOSPERMA, (ri^rtu. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 9. Only one tree 20 feet high, planted near the 
lime-kiln, 20th June 1890. A native of tropical Asia.] 

Meliace.i:. 

QuiYisiA MAUKITIAXA, Bakor, var., Q. ovata, Cav. — Baker, 
Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 46. Coralline limestone, 20 feet 
above sea-level, 18th August 1888. Xative. An erect 
shrub 7 feet high, with glabrous brown bark. Leaves 
subcoriaceous, shining green above, paler green beneath. 
Calyx obscurely thinly-silky on the outside, pale yellow ; 
teeth 4. Petals 4, obscurely densely-silky on the outside, 



320 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. i.ix. 

pale yellow with a pale, purplish, yellow base. Stamens 
8 ; filaments united in a cylindrical reddish-purple tube, 
glabrous except a few short hairs at the rim ; anthers 
sessile, purplish-yellow. Ovary tomentose, pale yellow ; 
style glabrous, whitish tinged with purple ; stigma glabrous, 
whitish. 

Celastrace^. 

Gtmnosporia tpjgyna, Baker. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 50. Coralline limestone, 5 feet above sea-level, 
18th August 1888. Xative. This species is endemic in 
the Mauritius group of islands. 

Branchlets stout, terete, glabrous, greyish-brown. Leaves 
obtuse or emarginate at the apex, coriaceous, green above, 
paler green beneath, with a reddish purple margin and 
petiole. Calyx-teeth 4-5, glabrous, reddish purple, per- 
sistent, finally becoming brown. Corolla I inch broad 
when expanded; petals white, round. Disk yellow. Stamens 
■±—5 ; filament incurved, glabrous, whitish ; anthers pale 
yellow ; pollen ellipsoid, glabrous, yellow. Ovary 3—4- 
celled, glabrous, pale purplish. Stigma 3-4-lobed, pale 
purplish yellow. Capsule l-^ inch broad, globose, glab- 
rous, pale purplish green, 3-4-celled, dehiscing loculicidally 
into 3-4 valves, which remain united at the base and 
become brown. Seeds I inch long, ellipsoid, triquetrous, 
convex on the back, flattened on the sides, glabrous, pale 
shining green, arillate at the base, turning yellowish brown 
after the dehiscence of the capsule, 1-2 in each cell of the 
capsule. 

ItHAMNACEiE. 

ScUTLA. Co:.DiEE.50Ni, Brong. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 51. Coralline limestone, 15—20 feet above sea-level, 
18th August 1888. Xative. Leaves shining-green above, 
paler green beneath. Drupe i%-^2 inch broad, globose, 
glabrous, dark purplish black, juicy ; persistent calyx-tube 
dark brown. 

*C0LUBRINA ASIATICA, Broug. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 52. Common on coralline limestone, 5 feet above sea- 
level, 20th June 1890. Xaturalised. 



Dec. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 321 

This species, which is a native of the Sej'chelles, Tropical 
Asia, and Polynesia, is recorded as naturalised at " la Petite 
Ptivi^re Noire," Mauritius, under Ceanthus asiaticus, Linn., 
in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 70. 

It is recorded as native on the shore and in the filao 
(Casuarina equisetifolia, Porst.) plantations in Flat Island, 
in Home, Notes on Flora of Flat Island, pp. 7 and 8, pub- 
lished in 1886. 

It was seen by me growing on coral sand, 5 feet above 
sea-level, lie du Morne, on 7th November 1889. 
Naturalised. Capsules ^ inch broad, globose, glabrous, 
brown, dehiscing by 3 valves. Seeds I inch long, trique- 
trous, with a convex back and flat sides, glabrous, brown. 



Leguminos^. 

* SoPHOKA TOMENTOSA, Linn. — DC. Prod. ii. 95. Common 
on coralline limestone, at the seashore, 5 feet above sea- 
level, 20th June 1890. Naturalised. Shrub 8-10 feet 
high, erect. Pod 1-8 seeded. 

One plant, 3 feet high, of this species was seen by me 
growing on coralline limestone, 10 feet above sea-level, He 
Marianne, 19th March 1890. Naturalised. 

In Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 83, it is recorded as naturalised 
in He aux Tonneliers, at the entrance of Port Louis har- 
bour ; but it is not recorded from Mauritius in Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych. 

>S'. tomeniosa, Linn., is a native of India and the West 
Indies. 

* C^SALPINIA BoNDUCELLA, Fleming. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 88. Coralline limestone, at the seashore, 5 feet 
above sea-level, 20th June 1890. Naturalised. Only one 
shrub, 5 feet high, was seen by me. Pod 1-2-seeded. 
This species is spread everywhere in the tropics, but in 
Mauritius it is naturalised. 

* Cassia occidentalis, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 89. Bare on waste ground, 5 feet above sea-level, 20th 
June 1890. Naturalised. This species is widely spread 
in the tropics, but in Mauritius it is naturalised. 

TRAKS. BOT. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. X 



322 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix 

[Tamarindus indica, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 91. Only one tree 25 feet high, planted near the lime- 
kiln, 20th June 1890. The native country of the Tama- 
rind is not clearly known.] 

Lythracej.. 

Pemphis acidula, For.5t. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 101. Coralline limestone, at seashore, 5 feet above 
sea-level, 18th August 1888. Native. Leaves, oblong- 
oblanceolate, green on both surfaces, slightly succulent. 
Calyx-teeth 5-6. Petals 5-6. Stamens 10 or 12. Cap- 
sule ^ inch long, sub-globose, glabroas, brown, crowned 
with the persistent brown style. Seeds I inch long, oblong, 
triquetrous, glabrous, shining pale yellow. 

* PaSSIFLOEACE/E. 

"* Passiflora suberosa, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 105. Coralline limestone, 20 feet above sea- 
level, 18th August 1888. Xaturalised. A native of 
Tropical America. 

COMBEETACE^. 

[Terminalia Catappa, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 111. Only one tree 15 feet high, and two young plants 
planted near the lime-kiln, 20th June 1890. A native of 
Tropical Asia, the Seychelles, and Eodriguez.] 

Portulace^. 

PoRTULiEA oleracea, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 125. Common on waste ground, 10 feet above sea- 
level, and on coralline limestone at the seashore, 4th March 
1889. Native. 

Cucurbitace^. 

[CucURBiTA Pepo, Linn, — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 
131. Planted near the lime-kiln, 20th June 1890.] 



Dec. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINDUUGII. 323 

RUBIACE.E. 

Oldenlandia Sieberi, Baker. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 138. Coralline limestone, at seashore, 5 feet 
above sea-level, 18th August 1888. Native. This species 
is endemic in the Mauritius group of islands. 

Stems l-Q inches long, terete. Leaves minutely-serrate, 
glabrous, green above, paler green beneath, sub-coriaceous. 
Calyx iV inch long, glabrous, green, persistent, finally be- 
coming brown ; teeth 4 as long as the tube, lanceolate, 
acute. Corolla y^ inch broad when expanded ; tube glab- 
rous, white ; limb 4-lobed, with 4 spreading, ovate-deltoid, 
mucronate, glabrous, faintly pinkish-white lobes. Anthers 
white. Capsule -^ inch long, turbinate-compressed, glab- 
rous, brown, dehiscing at the top between the persistent 
calyx-teeth. Seeds many, ,^V inch long, oblong or angular- 
globose, glabrous, finely wrinkled, brown. 



C o:\rposiTyE. 

BiDENS PiLOSA, Linn, — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 169, Waste ground, 15 feet above sea-level, 18th 
August 1888. Native. 

* Tridax peocumbens, Linn. — Baker, Flor, Maur. Seych., 
p. 170. Waste ground, 15 feet above sea-level, and 
coralline limestone, 18th August 1888. Naturalised. A 
native of Mexico and the West Indies. 

* PaPvTHENIUM Hysterophoeus, Linn. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 174. Waste ground, 15 feet above sea- 
level, 18th August 1888. Naturalised. A native of 
tropical America. 

SoNCHUS oleraceus, Liuu. ex parte, — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 180. Waste ground, 10 feet above sea- 
level, 18th August 1888. Native. 

Goodeniace^, 

Sc.EVOLA KcENiGii, Vahl. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 182. Coralline limestone, 20 feet above sea-level, 18th 
August 1888. Native. 



324 TKANSACTIOXS AND PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

BORAGINACK^. 

Ehretia petiolakis, Lam. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 201. Coralline limestone, 10 feet above sea-level, 18th 
August 1888. Native. 

Shrub 4-7 feet high, with terete, glabrous, brown 
branches and green branchlets. Leaves green above, paler 
green beneath. Calyx ^ inch long, 5 -toothed, glabrous, 
green, persistent, finally becoming yellowish-green ; teeth 
deltoid, half as long as the tube. Corolla j inch long, 
glabrous, white. Stamens glabrous, white. Ovary glab- 
rous, green ; style glabrous, pale green ; stigma capitate, 
2-lobed, green. Drupe |-i% inch broad, depresso- globose, 
glabrous, shining-red, juicy, crowned with the persistent 
black base of the style. Pyrenes 4, ^ inch long, triquetrous, 
3'ellowish with a whitish spot on the inner border, flat on 
the sides, convex on the back, which has 6 prominent 
longitudinal cartilaoinous ridges. 

TouRNEFOETiA ARGENTEA, Linn. fil. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 201. Coralline limestone, at seashore, 5 feet 
above sea-level, 20th June 1890. Xative. Only one 
shrub seen by me. 

COXVOLVULACE.E. 

*Ipom(ea nil, Pioth. (Convolvulus, Linn. Bot. Pieg. t. 
276). — Common on waste ground, 5-20 feet above sea- 
level, 18th August 1888. Naturalised. 

It was also found by me on coralline limestone, 10-15 
feet above sea-level, rare at the north side of He de la 
Passe, on 26th October 1888. Naturalised. 

This species, which occurs round the world in the 
tropics, is recorded as naturalised in great quantity at 
" Grand-Port," and in the ravines about " Eeduit," 
Mauritius, under " Pharhitis Nil" in Bojer, Hort. Maur., 
p. 227. It is recorded as naturalised in Ptodriguez by 
Balfour, in Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 209. 

[Ipomcea Batatas, Lam. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 210. Planted near the lime-kiln, 20th June 1890. 
This species is the common cultivated sweet potato.] 



Dec. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 325 

Ipo:mcea PES-CAPii^E, Eotli. — Baker, Plor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 211, Coralline limestone, 5 feet above sea-level, 4th 
March 1889. Native. 

Ipomcea glaberpjma, Bojer, in Hook. Journ. i. 357. — 
Common on coralline limestone at the seashore, 5-10 feet 
above sea-level, l-8th August 1888. Native. 

Stems stout, terete, glabrous, pale green, wide twining 
right to left round shrubs; juice milky. Leaves 2|— 5 
inches long, 2^-- 1| inches broad, green above, paler green 
beneath, membranous ; petiole 1—4 inches long, pale green. 
Peduncles 1—3 -flowered. Flowers inodorous. Sepals 
green, with a dark-purple obtuse apex, persistent, finally 
becoming reflexed, dry, pale brown above, and dark brown 
beneath. Corolla-tube 2i-3 inches long, pilose on the in- 
side, pale greenish-yellow ; limb 3-4 inches broad when 
expanded, white, with 5 radiating bands, which are pale 
whitish-yellow above, and pale greenish-yellow beneath. 
Capsule f-1 inch broad, depresso-sub-globose, longitudinally 
grooved on two opposite sides, glabrous, pale yellowish- 
brown, crowned with the persistent base of the style, 
2-celled. Seeds 1—2 in a cell, ^ inch broad, globose-com- 
pressed, when one seed in a cell, globose-triquetrous when 
two seeds in a cell, densely clothed with dark blackish- 
brown tomentum, encircled with a fringe of long pale 
brown hairs. 

This species was found by me growing common on coral- 
line limestone at the seashore, He Vakois, 5th September 
1889 ; and common on coralline limestone at the seashore, 
on the north side of He Marianne, 19th March 1890. 
Native on both islands. 

I. glcibcrrima, Bojer, which occurs from Polynesia to 
Zambesi-land, is not recorded from Mauritius in Baker, 
Flor. Maur. Seych. It is recorded as cultivated in the 
Eoyal Botanic Garden, at Pamplemousses, Mauritius, under 
Calonyction comospcrma, Boj., in Bojer, Hort. Maur. p. 
228. It is recorded as native in Flat Island by Home in 
Home, Notes on Flora of Flat Island, pp. 17 and 18, pub- 
lished in 1886. In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 211, it is 
recorded by Bojer and "Wright as native in the Seychelles, 
in bushy places near the shore. 



326 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

SOLANACE.E. 

* Lycopersicum Galeni, Miller. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 216. "Waste ground, 10 feet above sea-level, 
20th June 1890. Scarcely naturalised. This species is 
the cultivated Cherry Tomato. 

* NicoTiANA Tabacum, Linn. — A. • DC, Prod., xiii. 
sect. i. 557. Waste ground, 20th June 1890. Scarcely 
naturalised. 

On 2nd September 1889 I found this species, which is 
the common cultivated Tobacco plant and a native of South 
America, growing on coralline limestone, 3-40 feet above 
sea-level, on He aux Fouquets, where it is naturalised and 
common on the sheltered north-west side of the island. 

In Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 238, iY. Tabacum, Linn., is 
recorded as cultivated in Mauritius ; and in Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 218, it is recorded by Balfour as "sub- 
spontaneous " in liodriguez, but it is not recorded from 
Mauritius, where it is still cultivated. 



Asclepiadace^. 

Saecostemma viminale, E. Br. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 227. Coralline limestone, 5 feet above sea- 
level, 18th August 1888. Native. Corolla pale whitish- 
yellow, with a white outer corona. Stigma faintly 2-lobed 
at the apex, glabrous, pale green. 

Tylophoea l^vigata. Dene. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 228. Coralline limestone, 15 feet above sea-level^ 4th 
March 1889. Native. Stem-juice watery. Calyx I inch 
long, 5-lobed. Corolla ^ inch long, f inch broad when 
expanded, 5-7-lobed, greenish yellow, tinged purphsh on 
both surfaces of the tube. Stamens 5-7. Ovaries 2, free, 
glabrous, pale green, one only developing into fruit ; styles 
2, free, as long as the ovaries, subulate, glabrous, pale 
green ; stigma flatly convex on the top with an apical pit 
and a 5-7-angled margin, glabrous, pale green, except the 
pale purplish margin. Follicle 2— 3i inches long, fusiform, 
acuminate, with a hooked apex, glabrous, pale brownish- 
green, dehiscing by the ventral suture. Seeds numerous, 



Dec. 1S94.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY 01- EDINBUKGH. 327 

ascending, I inch long, oblong-ovate, with a compressed 
margin and truncate apex bearing a tuft of long white 
silky hairs, glabrous, brown. 

VeRBENACE/E. 

Staciiytarpheta indica, Vahl. — Baker, Mor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 251. Coralline limestone, 20 feet above sea- 
level, 18th August 1888. Native. The plants of this 
species observed by me in He des Aigrettes, and near the 
sea-level round Port Louis, Mauritius, had decumbent stems 
and paler blue corollas than those in the higher elevations 
of Mauritius, where the plants are more robust, with erect 
stems and deep blue corollas. 

* Lantana Camara, Linn. — Baker, Elor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 253. Waste ground, 20 feet above sea-level, 18th 
August 1888. Naturalised. Corolla yellow. A native 
of Tropical America, now very common in Mauritius. 

Premna serratifolia, Linn, — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 254. Coralline limestone, 5 feet above sea-level, 18th 
August 1888. Native. 

An erect shrub 4-5 feet high, with stout, terete, glabrous, 
brown branchlets. Leaves opposite, 3-5 h inches long, 2—4 
inches broad, oblong, rounded or slightly cordate at the 
base, narrowed to a short point at the apex, entire, glabrous, 
shining green above, paler green beneath, coriaceous, pen- 
ninerved, with 4—6 prominent erecto-patent main veins on 
each side of the midrib ; petiole i— 2| inches long, glabrous, 
pale green or purplish-green. Flowers copious, minute, in 
much-branched, peduncled, terminal, trichotomous cymes 
2—4 inches broad. Bracts j-'^ inch long, deltoid, puberulent 
beneath, pale green. Pedicels very short, puberulent. 
Calyx 12 i'^ch long, campanulate, 4-toothed, puberulent on 
the outside, marked with radiating veins on the inside, pale 
green, persistent, remaining pale green ; teeth minute, 
broadly deltoid, o])tuse. Corolla | inch long, campanulate, 
4-lobed, glabrous, except the pilose throat, pale green ; 
lobes nearly as long as the tubes, spreading, broadly oblong, 
obtuse. Stamens 4, inserted in the throat of the corolla- 
tube, alternate with the corolla lobes, exserted, glabrous ; 



328 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

filament pale green ; anther pale greenish-yellow. Ovary 
superior, glabrous, pale green, 4-celled, with 1 ovule in each 
cell ; style exserted, filiform, glabrous, pale green, bifid, 
with 2 short recurv^ed branches. Drupe s—\ inch in 
tliameter, globose, shining black, juicy ; endocarp bony, 
warted, 4-celled, with 1 seed in each cell. 

Amaranthace.^^.. 

* Amaranthus gangeticus, Linn. — Baker, Flor. ^Maur. 
Seych., p. 267. Waste ground, 10 feet above sea-level, 
4th March 1889. iSTaturalised. This species is commonly 
cultivated in the tropics of the Old World. 

[Alteenanthera paronychoides, a. St.-Hil. — A. DC. 
Prod, xiii., sect. ii. 358. Planted in a border at a road- 
side, 4th March 1889. A native of America.] 

* Chenopodiace^. 

* Chenopodium ambrosioides, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 270. Waste ground, 10 feet above sea-level, 
4th March 1889. Naturalised. A cosmopolitan weed, 
probably of Tropical American origin. 

LAURACEiE. 

*Tetrantheea laurifolia, Jacq. — Baker, Plor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 292. Coralline limestone, 15 feet above sea- 
level, 20th June 1890. ^Naturalised. Only two shrubs, 
8 feet high, observed by me. A native of tropical Asia. 

Cassytha filiformis, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 292. Parasitic on shrubs, 10-20 feet above sea-level, 
1 8 th August 1888. Kative. 

Stems 24"-iV inch in diameter, terete, striate, glabrous, 
green or greenish-yellow. Peduncle obscurely pilose, terete, 
striate, green, with 3 minute ovate ciliate bracts at the 
base. Bracteoles and outer perianth-lobes ovate, pale 
whitish-green, glabrous except the pale brown ciliate 
margin. Inner perianth-lobes glabrous, greenish-white. 
Anthers orange-yellow, introrse, dehiscing by two flaps 
from below upwards. Ovary ovoid, glabrous, green ; style 
and stigma glabrous, pale whitish-green. Persistent 



Dec. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 329 

perianth -tube i'^— /2 i"ch broad, globose, glabrous, green, 
crowned with the persistent dark brown perianth-lobes. 
Fruit -|- to under ^ inch broad, ovoid - globose, glabrous, 
finely wrinkled, black, crowned with the persistent black 
base of the style. 

* CaSUARINE/E. 

* Casuarina equisetifolia, Forst. — Baker, Flor, Maur. 
Seych., p. 294. Waste ground, 5—15 feet above sea-level, 
4th March 1889. Naturalised. Only one tree 16 feet 
high, and one young plant observed by me, A native of 
the Malay Archipelago. 

EUPHOEBIACE/E. 

Euphorbia pilulifera, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 303. Waste ground, 10 feet above sea-level, 4th March 
1889. Native. 

Phyllantiius mauritianus, n. sp. — Coralline lime- 
stone, 5 feet above sea-level, 4th March 1889. Native. 

Stems i-4| inches long, erect. Leaves green above, 
glaucous beneath, with a purplish margin. Bracts pale 
purple. Male and female flowers 1—2 in the axils of the 
leaves, either two flowers of the same sex, or one flower of 
each sex, in the same axil. Perianth-lobes 6, pale green, 
with a purple apex. Stamens 3 ; anther pale yellow. 
Ovary green ; styles 3, spreading, bifid at the apex, pale 
green. Capsule oV ii^ch broad, depresso-globose, glabrous, 
pale brownish-green. 

A full description of this new species will be published 
by me in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx., February 1895, 
in my "Eeport on the Flora of the Outlying Islands in 
Mahebourg Bay, Mauritius." 

Phyllanthus Niruri, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 309. Waste ground, 5-15 feet above sea-level, 20th 
June 1890. Native. 

*Eicinus communis, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 316. Waste ground, 15 feet above sea-level, 18th 
August 1888. Scarcely naturalised. The castor oil plant 
is a native of tropical Asia. 



330 TRANSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

CLASS II.— MONOCOTYLEDONES. 

Naiadace^. 

Halophila ovata, Gaud. — Baker, Flor, Maur. Seych., 
p. 393. Submarine coral sand, uncovered at ebb tide, 
20 yards from the shore, 20th June 1890. Native. 
Common. 

Gramine^. 

Paspalum distichum, Burm. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 431. Coralline limestone at the seashore, 5 feet above 
sea-level, 20th June 1890. Native. Stems 3-4 feet 
long, decumbent at the base, then erect. 

Panigum sanguinale, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 435. Waste ground, 5 feet above sea-level, 20th June 
1890. Native. 

* Panigum maximum, Jacq. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 436. Waste ground, 20 feet above sea-level, 18th 
August 1888. Naturalised. A native of Guinea. 

Stenotaphrum complanatum, Schrank. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 440. Common on coralline limestone, 
20th June 1890. Native. 

Eleusine indica, G?ertn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 451. Waste ground, 18th August 1888. Native. 

Dactyloctenium tegyptiacum, Willd. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 452. Waste ground, 15 feet above sea- 
level, 18th August 1888. Native. Stems tufted. Spikes 
2-3, l-^ inch long. Stigmas whitish. Inner empty 
glumes oblong, deeply boat-shaped, awned. 

Chloris barbata, Sw. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 453. 
Waste ground, 5-20 feet above sea-level, 4th March 1889. 
Native. 

Eragrostis tenella, Beauv. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 455 (fide J. G. Baker). Coralline limestone, 10 feet 



Dec. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUllGH. 331 

above sea-level, 20th June 1890. Native. Stems i-l| 
foot long, tufted, spreading. Leaf-blades 1-5 i inches long. 
Panicle li-O inches long, with a tuft of long white bristles 
at the base of the branches. Spikelets iV inch long. 
Flowering glume not ciliated. Pale conspicuously ciliated. 

[Zea Mays, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 458. 
Planted near the lime-kiln, 20th June 1890. This species 
is the common cultivated maize.] 



CLASS III.— CRYPTOGAMIA. 

FiLICES. 

PoLYPODiUM Phymatodes, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 508. Coralline limestone, 10 feet above sea- 
level, 1 8 th August 1888. Native. 



PiEPORT ox THE FlOEA OF LeS BeNITIERS, MAURITIUS. 

By Surgeon-Major H. H. Johnston, Army Medical Staff, 
D.Sc, F.L.S. 

Les Benitiers are two small rocky islets, situated about 
l mile west of He du Morne, near the south-west corner of 
Mauritius. The two islets lie north and south of each 
other, at a distance of about 200 yards apart. Between 
them and He du Morne the sea is only h fathom deep, and 
the bottom is formed of coral sand. The outer margin of 
the shallow coral reef, on which Les Benitiers are situated, 
lies about f mile farther out to the west of the islets. 

The north islet is the larger of the two. It is 11 yards 
long and 8 yards broad. It rises to a height of 14 feet 
above the sandy sea-bottom and 11 feet above sea-level. 
The edge of the islet is undermined by the sea. The south 
islet is 6 yards across at the broadest part, and it rises 10 
feet above the sandy sea-bottom, and 7 feet above sea-level. 

Both islets are formed of solid blocks of coralline lime- 
stone, which rise abruptly out of the sea. The surface of 
the rock projects upwards in sharp honeycombed pinnacles, 



332 TRANSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

and there is very little soil, composed of limestone debris, 
with a scanty clothing of vegetation. There is no fresh 
water on the islets. 

The west coast of the Black Pdver district, to which Les 
Benitiers belong, has a much drier climate than that of 
other parts of Mauritius, on account of its being situated 
on the leeward side of the island, and, therefore, sheltered 
from the prevailing moisture-laden south-east trade wind, 
which blows during the greater part of the year. The 
mean annual temperature in the shade is about 75° Fahr. ; 
and the mean annual rainfall at AVolmar, in this district, is 
only 2 8 '3 4 inches, whereas at Cluny, in the district of 
Grand Port, on the windward side of Mauritius, it is 
144*24 inches. 

In company witli Mr. William Scott, Assistant-Director 
of Woods and Forests in Mauritius, I visited Les Benitiers, 
on 20th January 1890, and botanised on both islets. 



FLORA OF NORTH ISLET. 

On the north islet I found 1 3 species of plants. The 
following table shows the number of species in each of the 
three divisions of the vegetable kingdoms : — 




Of the 10 native species of plants, the Dicotyledons 
include 6 species, or three - fifths of the total number. 
There is only one species of Monocotyledons, so that these 
are only in the proportion of one to six of the Dicotyledons, 
whereas in the flora of Mauritius, they are in the pro- 
portion of one to two of the Dicotyledons. The 10 native 
species belong to 8 natural orders. Solanaceae and Filices 
include 2 species each, and the remaining 6 natural orders 
1 species each. 



Dec. 1894.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 333 

One of the 3 naturalised species, Erigeron canadcnsc, 
Linn., a native of North America, is not recorded from 
Mauritius in Baker's " Flora of Mauritius and the 
Seychelles," published in 1877. 



CLASS I.— DICOTYLEDOXES. 

FlCOIDE.K. 

Sesuvium Poetulacastedm, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 108. iSTative. Common. 

PORTULACEiE. 

Portulaca oleracea, Linn., — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 125. jSTative. Common. 

COMPOSITiE. 

Erigeron caxadense, Linn. — DC. Prod. v. 289. Only 
one plant on the islet, 6 feet above sea-level. Naturalised. 
Stem 8 inches long, erect. 

This species was also found by me on waste ground, 
1880 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 9th July 
1888. Naturalised. Stem 1-3 feet long, erect. 

K canadcnsc, Linn., a native of North America, now 
widely dispersed, is not recorded from Mauritius in Baker, 
Flor. Maur. Seych. 

SoNCHUS OLERACEUS, Linu. cx-partc. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 180. Native. Common. 

BORAGIXACE^. 

TOURNEFORTIA ARGENTEA, Linn. fill. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 201. Native. Common. 

SOLANACE^:. 

SolanUjNI NIGRUM, Linu. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 
214. Native. Only two plants on the islet. 

Lycium tenue, Willd., var., Sieberi, Duval. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 216. Native. Only one plant on the islet. 



334 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

Vekbenace^. 

*Lantana Camaka, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seyeh., 
p. 253 Xaturalised. Common. Corolla-limb yellow. 
A native of tropical America, now widely dispersed in the 
Old World, and very common in Mauritius. 

Casuarine^. 

* Casuarina equisetifolia, Forst. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 294. IN'aturalised. Only four plants on the 
islet, one 7 feet high and in flower, the others smaller 
and neither in flower nor fruit. A native of the Malay 
Archipelago. 



CLASS IL— MONOCOTYLEDONES. 

Gramine^. 

Dactyloctenium ^gyptiacum, Willd. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 452. Native. Common. 



CLASS IIL— CRYPTOGAMIA. 

FiLICES. 

At 7 feet above sea-level I found one dead plant of a 
native fern, which had grown on the islet ; but the species 
to which it belongs has not been identified. 

PoLYPODiUM LYCOPODioiDES, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 507. Native. Piare. 

AlG/E. 

Ch.eto:morpha sp. (fide C. H. Wright). Eare on the 
coralline limestone, 3-6 feet above sea-level. Native. 
Plant ^reen. 



Dec. 1S91.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 335 



FLORA OF SOUTH ISLET. 

CLASS L— DICOTYLEDONES. 

FlGOIDE.E. 

Sesuvium Portulacastrum, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 108. Native. Common. 

PORTULACEiE. 

Portulaca oleracea, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 125. Native. Common. 

CLASS IIL— CRYPTOGAMIA. 

AlGtE. 

Ch^etomorpha sp. (fide C. H. Wright). Native. Ptare. 
Plant green. 



Notes from the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

I. Report on Vegetation during the Month of 
November 1894. By Robert Lindsay, Curator. 

The past month of November has been exceedingly mild 
for the season, comparatively little frost occurred. No 
snow fell, and there was an absence of severe gales. There 
was a large amount of bright sunshine, and altogether the 
month was one of the most favourable Novembers on 
record. A good number of plants are in flower on the 
rock-garden, but only two varieties came into flower during 
November, viz. -.—Helleborus albicans and H. purpurascens. 



336 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 



II. Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of November 
1894. 



Distance from Sea, 1 Mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
76-5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





'S'2' 


Thermomete 


•s, protected. 










1 




s ^ 


4 feet above grass. 










/-^ 


a 
o 

o 

"o 

to 

?-. 

cS 

o 


^1 

"5 ^— ' 

? 

So* 
O (M 

..CO 

« S 










d 

E 

a 
_o 

"S 

o 

s 


Clouds. 




in 
<D 

.a 
o 

□ 

"a 


S. E. Ther- 
mometers for 
preceding 
24 hours. 


Hygrometer. 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Kind. 


a 

3 

o 


'" 2 




pq g 














a 


p"-" 








o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


29-556 


60-0 


44-8 


55-0 


52-2 


S.W. 


Cir. 


6 


S.W. 


0-150 


2 


29-394 


58-0 


50-3 


56-2 


53-8 


s.w. 


Cir. 


1 


s.w. 


0-000 


3 


29-469 


61-2 


50-3 


52-8 


50-2 


S.E. 


Cir. 


5 


s.w. 


0-090 


4 


29-481 


56-9 


47-1 


48-6 


45-5 


S.W. 









0-070 


5 


29-400 


.54-9 


48-7 


52-9 


49-1 


s.w. 


«.• 







0-000 


6 


29-841 


53-9 


46-0 


49-0 


46-1 


S.w. 


Cir. St. 


8 


n'.w. 


0-000 


7 


29-434 


54-8 


49-0 


54-7 


51-0 


s.w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


s.w. 


0150 


8 


29-255 


54-8 


42-1 


43-1 


41-2 


s.w. 







, 


0-045 


9 


29-398 


49-2 


43-0 


47-8 


45-6 


s.w. 


Cir.'st. 


10 


w. 


0-050 


10 


29-235 


51-9 


43-6 


46-4 


43-2 


w. 


Cir. 


1 


w. 


0060 


11 


29-092 


.50-0 


40-5 


421 


40-8 


s.w. 


Cir. 


2 


w. 


0-000 


12 


28-959 


49-1 


42 


45-0 


42-0 


w. 


Cir. St. 


2 


w. 


0-010 


13 


29-412 


48-0 


36-7 


38-0 


85-8 


s.w. 


... 





• ■* 


0-340 


14 


28-743 


50-7 


37-3 


43-0 


40-7 


w. 


... 







0-000 


15 


29-000 


48-8 


S9-8 


42-9 


39-8 


s.w. 


... 







0-000 


16 


29-484 


48-1 


39-1 


44-0 


40-9 


s.w. 


Cir."st. 


1 


w. 


0-000 


17 


29-7(10 


50-0 


43-6 


50-0 


46-9 


s.w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


s.w. 


0-000 


18 


29-970 


55-0 


39-7 


41-6 


39-1 


S.E. 


Cir. 


1 


w. 


0-030 


19 


30 016 


50-2 


41-3 


46-7 


45-6 


s.w. 


St. 


10 


s.w. 


0-020 


20 


29-706 


54-1 


46-7 


53-1 


50-9 


s.w. 


Nim. 


10 


s.w. 


0-175 


21 


30-150 


54-6 


39-4 


43 


411 


w. 


Cir. St. 


8 


w. 


0-005 


22 


29-941 


52-7 


42-8 


52-7 


49-0 


s.w. 


St. 


10 


s.w. 


0-000 


23 


30-182 


54-4 


33-9 


34-1 


34-0 


s.w. 


... 





... 


0-005 


24 


30-441 


49-2 


330 


38-1 


38-1 


S.E. 


Fog. 


10 




0-000 


25 


30-396 


45-9 


37-8 


45-8 


45-1 


Var. 


Stf 


10 


S.E. 


0-000 


26 


30-379 


48-0 


33-0 


33-1 


32-9 


W. 


... 







0-000 


27 


30-416 


40-8 


28-8 


32-0 


32-0 


S.W. 


St. 


8 


s.w. 


0-000 


28 


30-218 


47-1 


31-9 


47-1 


46-1 


W. 


St. 


10 


w. 


0-000 


29 


30-049 


51-2 


47-0 


51-1 


49-4 


S.W. 









0-000 i 


30 


30-434 


52-8 


36-1 


37-7 


369 


W. 


... 







0-000 



Barometer.— Highest Observed, on the 24th, =30-441 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 14th, = 28-743 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 1-698 inch. 
Mean= 29-<05 inches. 

S. R. Thermometers.— Highest Observed, on the 3rd, = 61°-2. Lowest Observed, 
on the 27th, = 28°-8. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 32°-4. Mean of all the 
Highest -= 51°-9. Mean of all the Lowest = 41°-2. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Range, = 10°-7. Mean Temperature of Month = 46°-5. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 45°-6. Mean of Wet Bulb = 43°-5. 
Rainfall.— Number of Days on which Rain fell =14. Amount of Fal 1 = 1-200 inch. 
Greatest fall in 24 hours, on the 13th, = 0-340 inch. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, 
Observer. 



Dec. 189-1.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 337 



III. Stem - Eingixg Experiments on Broad - Leaved 
(Dicotyledonous) Deciduous Trees. By A. D. 
Eichardson. 

The experiments detailed here were made, at Professor 
Balfour's sufrg-estion, in the winter of 1893-94, in order 
to ascertain what effects would be produced on broad- 
leaved trees possessing a heart-wood (duramen), as compared 
with those possessing no heart- wood, by the removal from 
their stems of a cylinder of bark along with a certain 
amount of the underlying wood. At the same time the 
familiar operation of ringing the bark was performed for 
purposes of comparison. 

For the experiments ten trees, consisting of five kinds, 
viz., two maples, two beeches, two horse-chestnuts, two 
laburnums, and two oaks (common and Turkey) were 
selected. From one tree of each kind there was removed 
a cylinder of bark (rind) and wood about six inches long, 
and from the other a cylinder of bark of the same length. 
The thickness of the cylinder of bark and wood varied 
with the kind of tree. In the maple, beech, and horse- 
chestnut its cross-sectional area amounted to one-half that 
of the whole stem (including bark) at the part operated 
upon ; but in the oak and laburnum it consisted of the 
bark and underlying sapwood (alburnum) only, which in 
the oak amounted to two-thirds, and in the laburnum to 
one-third of the cross-sectional area of the stem. 

Briefly, the results which followed these experiments 
were : — 

In no case, as was to be expected, was any perceptible 
effect upon leafage produced by the removal of bark only ; 
nor was any perceptible effect produced by the removal of 
both bark and wood in the case of those kinds which form 
no true heart-wood, viz., maple, beech, and horse-chestnut. 
Foliation and defoliation took place in these cases quite 
normally, and the density of the foliage did not seem in 
any instance to be less than usual. The oak and laburnum 
from which both bark and wood were removed fared 
differently. The oak was killed above the part operated 

TRANS. BOX. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XX. Y 



338 TEAXSACTIOXS AND PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

upon, but continued to live below that part. The laburnum, 
however, was killed outright. 

The results of these experiments point to the following 
conclusions : — 

1st. In those species which form no true heart- wood, the 
water ascends freely through the central portion of 
the stem as well as through the outer portion. 

2nd. In those species which form a true heart-wood 
(duramen), the ascent of the water is confined to 
the region of the sapwood (alburnum). 

The results are the outcome of one year's observation 
only, but the subsequent fate of the trees will be recorded. 

The following appearances were produced during the 
succeeding summer on the stems at the parts which had 
been operated upon : — 

Horse-chestnuts (^sculus Hiiopocastanum, Linn.). — 
Where the bark only had been removed, a callus was 
formed at the cut edge of the cambium both above and 
below, and from the under one a thick crop of shoots 
was produced. Where both bark and wood had been 
removed, a callus was formed both above and below, but 
from the under one a few shoots only were produced. 

Maples {Acer Pseudo-Platanv.s, Linn.). — "\Miere the bark 
only had been removed, a callus was formed above, but 
none was formed below. Where both bark and wood had 
been removed, a callus was formed both above and below, 
and a few shoots were produced from the under one. 

Beeches {Fagus sylvatica, Linn.). — "Where the bark only 
had been removed, a callus was formed both above and 
below (principally above), but no shoots were produced. 
Where both bark and wood had been removed, a slight 
callus was formed below, but none was formed above. Xo 
shoots were produced. 

Oaks {Qucrcus Cerris, Linn., and Q. Robur, Linn.). — In 
the Turkey oak, from which the bark only had been 
removed, a callus was formed both above and below, but 
no shoots were produced. (It may be interesting to note 
that in this case small isolated patches of phloem, which 
had been left adhering to the stem in the operation of 
barking, developed a well-marked callus all round their 
edges. The supplies of nourishment which these received 



Dec. 1S94.] BOTAXICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 339 

must have been conveyed through the medullary rays.) In 
the British oak, from which the bark and all the under- 
lying sap-wood had been removed, no callus was produced 
below, although the stem beneath continued to live and to 
send out shoots from its sides. 

Laburnums {Lahurnum vulgare, Presl). — "Where the 
bark only had been removed, a callus was formed above 
and a very slight one below, but no shoots were produced. 



IV. On Plants in the Plant Houses. By Pi. L. 
Hareow. 

The dull days of November have brought a large 
reduction in the number of flowering plants in the houses 
of the Eoyal Botanic Garden, not more than fifty species 
having during that period produced their flowers. In the 
cool houses, the chrysanthemums, acacias, and other 
winter-flowering plants have done much to relieve the 
dense green of the foliage. The mild weather experienced 
during that time ha\dng considerably hastened the blooms 
of several of the late winter and spring flowering plants. 
A group of Cypripediums and the deciduous Calanthes, 
especially C. Vcitchii and C. vestita, var. oculata, have 
given a rather pretty effect. Among the most interesting 
of the plants that have flowered are : — 

Bignonia venusta, Ker-Gawl. A Brazilian species, 
ranking amongst the most lovely of the genus ; and, 
although introduced to cultivation in 1816, seldom seen in 
our gardens. It is a vigorous growing climber, shoots 
nearly thirty feet in length having this year been made in 
the Palm House. The foliage at the base of the shoots is 
occasionally teruate, while at the extremities tendrils only 
are often produced. The inflorescences are clustered on 
short axillary branches, the flowers being of a rich orange 
colour, the tube of the corolla about two inches long. 

Melastoma maldbathricum, Linn. This also is seldom 
seen in cultivation, and is a native of India and Malaya. 
In the "Botanical Magazine," t. 529, this species is stated 
to be the one upon which the genus was founded by 
Professor Burman. The habit is shrub-like, the foliage 



340 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sees. lix. 

possessing the prominent veins common to the order 
Melastomacete. The flowers are solitary and terminal ; 
the petals dark purple. 

Lucidia gratissima, Sweet. The genus Lucidia contains 
only two species, the one under notice, which inhabits 
temperate regions of the Himalayas, and L. Pinceana, 
Hook., a native of the Khasia Hills. L. gratissima is one 
of the handsomest of our winter-flowering greenhouse 
plants ; the inflorescence forming terminal cymes of light 
pink flowers, which, as the specific name implies, are 
strongly perfumed. L. Pinceana is distinguishable from 
it by closer veins upon the foliage, and by the small 
interpetaline lobes upon the corolla. The genus is evidently 
heterostylic. Our plant of L. gratissima is short-styled, our 
plants of L. Pinceana are long-styled. 

Of other plants that have flowered the following may 
be mentioned: — Cattleya Bowringiana, Veitch, — a native 
of Honduras ; and C. lahiata, Lindl, — a variable species 
from tropical America, one of the best of winter-flowering 
orchids ; Oldenlandia Deppeana, DC, — a small-growing 
white-flowered plant of the order Eubiacese, inhabiting 
Mexico; Clitoria Terncdea, Linn., — with pretty blue papi- 
lionaceous flowers, common in the tropics. 



Jan. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 341 

MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, January 10, 1895. 
Professor F. 0. Bower, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. E. Stewart MacDougall, B.Sc, was elected 
Eesident Fellow of the Society. 

Intimation was made of the death of Lady Henry 
Grosvenor, Eesident Fellow of the Society. 

Mr. Dunn exhibited branches of Cedrus Libani, with 
cones, from Dalkeith Gardens ; also fruits of Amygdalm 
communis, from open air at Dalkeith. 

Mr. E. TuRNBULL exhibited specimens of a hybrid 
between the swede turnip and the green kail. 

Surgeon-Major H. H. Johnston exhibited specimens of 
Hieracium auratum, Fr., from Orkney, a plant new to its 
flora. 

Specimens of inflorescence of Musa coccinca, and of 
species of Hmnanthus, were exhibited from the Eoyal 
Botanic Garden. 

The following papers were read : — 

Supplementary Notes (No. 2) on the Marine Alg^e 
OF the Orkney Islands. By George Wm. Traill. 

ISLAND OF NORTH ROXALDSAY. 

(" i?/nnHse?/ " of the Saga.) 

This is the most northerly of the Orkney group, and 

is about flfteen miles in circumference, measuring by the 

shore line. The coast is, in general, rocky and exposed, 

and is surrounded on all sides by rapid currents. 

Issued November ISO.'i. 



342 TRANSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

The locality is of great interest to the Algologist, and 
is well deserving of being thoroughly explored, not only 
on account of the luxuriance of the Algfe, but for the 
information to be gained relative to the geographical 
distribution of species. The species will often be found to 
have different habitats, — as well as different host-plants, — 
from those commonly observed in the southern islands, and 
in Scotland generally. They are altogether more northern 
in character. 

At the west of the island, where the dip of the argill- 
aceous-sandstone strata is at a gentle angle to the west, 
the pools between tide marks are numerous at all levels, 
and are of greatly varying depths. In these pools, especially, 
the AlgfE are to be found growing in luxuriance, repre- 
senting many species. 

Notwithstanding indifferent health and failing sight, I 
succeeded in collecting 123 distinct species, including 
many rarities, in the course of a fortnight's work last 
August ; but that number would doubtless have been 
considerably increased had my time been less limited. 
Of these, the following ten have not hitherto been observed 
in Orkney : — 

1. Dictyosiphon Ghordaria, Aresch. ; forma gelatinosa, 
Eeinke. — In shallow pools at a high level. Not un- 
common at Eisegjo, also at Noustar, and at South Bay, 
S.E. from Howmae, sometimes in bushy, robust specimens. 
Mr. E. Batters, to whom I am greatly indebted for his 
kindness in examining part of my North Eonaldsay 
collection, and in identifying this, amongst other doubtful 
species, informs me that these correspond with the 
specimens gathered by Eeinke and sent out by him in 
the " Phycotheca Universalis," and that they, probably, 
should be referred to his forma gelatinosa, which comes 
very near to Dictyosiphon Mesogloia, Aresch,, and forms a 
connecting link between the two species. Dictyosiphon 
Chordaria was first found in Britain by Mr. Batters at 
Berwick-on-Tweed, and he subsequently found it at 
Cumbrae, while on the British Museum Working Com- 
mittee, which was formed for the investigation of the 
Marine Flora of western Scotland. It is properly a 
Scandinavian species. 



Jan. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 343 

2. Codiolum j^ysillum (Lyngb.), Fosl. {non Kjellm. Alg. 
Arct. Sea). — In shallow pools between tide marks, at a 
high level, near the " Natural Bridge," in abundance ; also 
at Scarvigjo. 

This Codiolum, after a careful examination, by Messrs. 
Batters and Foslie, has been referred to C. piisillum 
(Lyngb.), Fosl. The so-called species of Codiolum, how- 
ever, run into each other in a very puzzling manner. 
They differ chiefly in measurements, and — as Mr. Batters 
remarks — measurements are somewhat uncertain tests, 
especially if taken, as in the present case, from barren 
plants. 

Mr. Foslie writes to me as follows : — " In my opinion 
your Codiolum is most nearly related to C. pusillum 
(Lyngb.), Fosl. {no)i Kjellra. Alg. Arct. Sea). It differs 
from C. grcgarium, according to A. Braun's description in 
' Alg. Unicell.,' in that the stipe most often passes into the 
club without any limit, and the latter thinner in propor- 
tion to the length than in G. gregarmm. It is slightly 
larger than the form of C. piisillum collected by Lyngbye 
at the Faroe Islands, and agrees better with the form of 
that species found in Finmarken, and recorded by me in 
' Contrib.' I., p. 151, and not identical with the species 
mentioned by Kjellman under the same name in ' Alg. 
Arct. Sea,' which I have called C. ajlindraceum. These 
two species are certainly nearly related, but cannot in my 
opinion (and Kjellman's) be considered as forms of G. 
gregarium." 

Professor Kjellman, in "Alg. Arct. Sea," p. 319, writes: 
— " The genus Codiolum has shown itself of late to possess, 
in the northern seas, a considerable number of forms that 
are only slightly differentiated, and should possibly be 
justly regarded as forms of one and the same species. 
It is evidently a genus in the course of developing species. 
Nevertheless, the species distinguished ought to be kept up 
until more forms shall have been discovered at other 
places. This will, no doubt, happen now, since more 
attention has been directed to these small and easily over- 
looked Al^ae." 

3. Hydrocoleum lynghyaceum, Ktitz., forma rupestris, 
Kiitz. — At Xoustar, in shaded crevices, at a high level. 



S44 TRANSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. LIX. 

This form has been found only at two other localities, 
namely, Berwick and C umbrae, by Mr. Batters ; but the 
typical form is found at several stations along the coast. 

4. Ceramium circinnatum (Klitz.), J. Ag. — In pools 
between tide marks at Eisegjo, Xoustar, etc., sometimes 
epiphytic on Codium tomentosum, and other small Algae ; 
also in caverns, and damp shaded places. 

5. Clado-pliora utriuscida, Kiitz. — In clear shaded pools 
between tide marks at a high level, with Litliotharania and 
Corallina officinalis: especially in the vicinity of Pdsegjo. 
Common. 

6. Enteromorpha minima, Nag. — On rocks between tide 
marks, at a high level, at Sealskerry ; at the Lighthouse 
pier ; and at the north end of the Island, generally. 

7. PhyllopJiora Traillii (Holm.), Batt. — On rocks north 
of the lighthouse at low water, in the shade, in abundance, 
and often in well-grown specimens ; also at Xoustar, in 
dark crevices. All the year. Fruits in winter. 

8. Ectocarpus erectus, Kiitz. — Growing out of minute 
cracks or flaws in the smooth rock at the bottoms of 
shallow pools, at Xoustar, near high-water mark. 

9. Ectocarpus terminalis, Kiitz. — Epiphytic on Corallina 
officinalis, Cladopliora rupestris, etc., in pools between tide 
marks. Eisegjo, etc. 

10. Poli/siphonia pulvinata, Phyc. Britt. — In pools 
between tide marks at the " Natural Bridge," rare. 

Ectocarpus vclutinus (Grev.), Kiitz. (Elachista vclutina, 
Fries.). — Epiphytic on Himanthalia lorea ; usually assoc- 
iated with Elachista scutulata. Annual. June to October. 
Fruits usually in July and August. Omitted in my South 
Eonaldsay list. 

The following, though not new, are deserving of mention 
as specialties of the island : — 

Ceramium ciliatum, Ducluz. — In shallow pools at a high 
level, a little to the north of Eisegjo ; common, but of 
small size. This species was included in my " Marine 
Algae of Orkney," on Harvey's authority, but no definite 
locality has been recorded until now, 

Dcsrnarcstia ligulata (Light.), Ag. — Cast ashore in con- 
siderable abundance after gales, and often of large size. 
Fronds from 3 to 6 feet Ions. 



Jan. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 345 

Cladophora arda (Dillw.), Kiitz. — Abundant every svhere, 
and in various forms, in pools between tide marks. 

Callithamnion tetragonum (With.), Ag. — Cast ashore at 
the west of the island, after gales, in great abundance, and 
in fine specimens ; epiphytic on Laminaria hypcrhorca. 
These specimens are often associated with a Porphyra con- 
sidered by Mr. Batters to be a variety of P. miniata, J. G. 
Ag. ; non Diplodcrma miniata, Kjellm. 

After giving effect to the ten new species before men- 
tioned, and to those which I found in South Eonaldsay 
on a former occasion, the total for Orkney now amounts to 
253. 



Gnaphalium undulatum, L., a Cudweed new to the 
" London Catalogue," from Jersey. By A. Someryille, 
B.Sc, F.L.S. 

During the past summer (1894) there has been found 
growing on the island of Jersey a composite, Gnaphalium 
undulatum, not included in our Floras nor in the " London 
Catalogue " of British vascular plants. As it seemed quite 
naturalised where met with, it may probably hereafter be 
included as an addition to the British flora. I have 
received dried specimens both from Lliss Dawber, of 
Guernsey, and from the Rev. J. D. Gray, author of a 
" Flora of Suffolk," and these I have the pleasure to show 
to-night. 

Specimens of the plant have been submitted to Mr. J. 
G. Baker, F.E.S., Keeper of the Herbarium at the Pioyal 
Gardens, Kew, He confirms their identification, and in 
writing of the species says : " It is a native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. We have a French specimen labelled ' A 
plant indigenous to the Cape of Good Hope, naturalised 
now for forty years at Plouescat, and beginning to spread 
along the coast.' " 

On a reference to Xymau's " Conspectus of the Floras of 
Europe," I find G. nndulatum, L., stated to be a Cape 
plant, but also now a colonist on the western coast of 
France, occurring at Cherbourg, Lannevez, and elsewhere. 



346 TEAXSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lis. 



The Gents Gloiopeltis* By Professor Fr. Schmitz, 
Greifswald. 



Notes from the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

I. Eeport on Vegetation during the Month of 
December 1894. By Eobert Lindsay, Curator. 

The weather during December was exceedingly mild, 
with comparatively little frost or snow, and but for the 
severe gales which occurred towards the close of the month 
it would have been one of the most favourable Decembers 
on record. Owing to the mildness, spring-flowering 
bulbous plants, such as Iris reticulata. Narcissus incom- 
parahilis, X. minor, N. triandrus, Crocus verjius, Galanthus 
nivalis, etc., were well started into growth, the young 
shoots, in some cases, being nearly an inch above the 
ground. Bhododendron NoUeanum, Garrya ellijJtica, Jas- 
minum midijlorum, Schizostylis coccinea, and varieties of 
primrose were in flower during the month. 

On the rock-garden no new plants came into flower 
during December. The total number of species and 
varieties which have flowered on the rock-garden during 
the year 1894 amounts to 1143, as against 1114 for 
1893. The largest number came into flower during the 
month of June. 

The number of species which came into flower each 
month was as follows : — January, 2 2 ; February, 4 1 ; 
March, 75; April, 153; May, 227; June, 288; July, 
193; August, 9 4 ; September, 3 ; October, 1 8 ; Nov- 
ember, 2; December, — total, 1143. 

* Owing to the untimely death of the author, it has not been 
possible to have this paper prepared for publication in this part of 
the "Transactions," but it is hoped it may appear in a subsequent 



Jan. 1S95.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



o4 



II. Meteokological Observations kecoeded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of December 
1894. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
76"5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





-^1 


Thermometers, protected, 














§1 


4 feet above grass. 










/— s 


J 


-2 ^ 






a 


Clouds. 




OQ 






o 


o ^ 


S. R. Ther- 




% 








2 


1^ 


Si 


mometers for 












^ 


2 


sIj 


preceding 


Hygrometer. 


"o 








v-/ 


"o 


S3 


24 hours. 




_3 








2 


72 


ii 












_^- 




|a 


3! 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. Wet. 


s 


Kind. 


a 
s 
o 


ii 


'S 




K ? 












a 
< 


fi*" 








o 


o 


° 1 












1 


30-378 


45-7 


37-8 


42-8 


41-2 


s.w. 


Cir. 


4 


N.W. 


0-000 


2 


30-309 


44-9 


39-5 


39-7 


38-8 


s.w. 


St 


10 


S.W. 


0-000 


3 


30-036 


39-8 


32-3 


36-8 


36-8 


S.E. 


Fog. 


8 




0-000 


4 


29-801 


36-8 


31-1 


36-7 


35-7 


s.e. 


St. 


10 


S.E. 


0-020 


5 


29-830 


42-9 


35-0 


35-0 


35-0 


S.E. 


Cir. 


8 


S.E. 


0-020 


6 


29-811 


43-2 


35-0 


39-6 


38-2 


W. 


St. 


10 


W. 


0020 


7 


29-598 


43-7 


39-2 


41-1 ! 40-1 


E. 


Nim, 


10 


e. 


0-060 


8 


29-8-23 


47-0 


35-2 


35-6 


35-2 


w. 









0-000 


9 


29-950 


43-8 


29-0 


36-9 


35-6 


s. 


Fog. 


1 




020 


10 


29-683 


50-6 


36-1 


49-9 


47-8 


s.w. 


Cir. 


3 


s.'Vv. 


0-000 


11 


29-766 


53-4 


47-9 


53-4 


50-1 


s. 


St. 


10 


s. 


0-265 


12 


29-764 


54-0 


40-6 


41-4 


40-9 


s.w. 


Cir. 


6 


N.W. 


0-000 


13 


29-484 


54-2 


40-8 


53-1 


501 


s.w. 


Nim. 


10 


s.w. 


0-135 


14 


29-852 


55-3 


43-3 


45-0 


42-8 


s.w. 


St. 


10 


s.w. 


095 


15 


29-603 


47-1 


39-0 


39-2 


37-8 


w. 


Cir. 


6 


N.W. 


0-070 


16 


29-952 


43-3 


35-0 


35-8 


35-0 


w. 


Cir. 


3 


N.W. 


0-350 


17 


29-678 


43-2 


34-5 


42-1 


41-2 


w. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-190 


18 


29-003 


48-6 


40-4 


40-9 


39-1 


w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


W. 


0-010 


10 


29-182 


41-8 


35-1 


37-9 


35-9 


w. 


Cir. St. 


8 


N. 


0-000 


20 


30-015 


45-3 


37-7 


39-9 


36-9 


w. 









0-000 


21 


29-791 


47-1 


341 


43-6 


40-4 


s.w. 


cir. 


6 


N.W. 


0-480 


22 


28-319 


51-8 


38-8 


45-6 


43-1 


w. 


Nim. 


11) 


W. 


0-020 


23 


29-874 


46-0 


36-2 


42-6 


40-0 


s.w. 


Cir. 


6 


N.W. 


0-000 


24 


29-964 


45-1 


35-2 


39-8 


39-8 


N.W. 


Fos. 


8 




0-010 


25 


30-259 


47-4 


38-5 


47-4 


46-8 


w. 


St.^ 


10 


W. 


0-000 


26 


30-256 


50-7 


47-2 


48-9 


47-7 


s.w. 


Cir. St. 


9 


W. 


0-000 


27 


30-490 


49 


37-6 


40-0 


36-8 


w. 


St. 


5 


N.W. 


0-000 


28 


29-972 


44-7 


37-2 


430 


41-6 


s.w. 


St. 


10 


S.W. 


0-230 


29 


28-876 


47-9 


32-0 


33-6 


32 3 


N.W. 


• ■■ 





... 


0-000 


30 


29-308 


38-7 


30-4 


35-7 


32-4 


w. 









0-000 


31 


29-756 


36-9 


29-4 


32-3 


30-O 


N.W. 


St." 


5 


N. 


0-000 



Barometer. — Highest Observed, on the 27th, = 30-490 inches. Lowest Observed, 
on the 22nd, — 28-319 inches. Difference, or Monthly Range, — 2-171 inch. Mean= 
29-754 inches. 

S. K. Thermometers. — Highest Observed, on the •14th, — 55°-3. Lowest Observed, 
on the 9th, = 29^-0. Difference, or Monthly Range, = 26''-3. Mean of all the 
Highest — 46°-l. Mean of all the Lowest = 36^-8. Difference, or Mean Daily 
Ranse, = 9°-3. Mean Temperature of Month = 41°-4. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb = 41^-1. Mean of Wet Bulb = 39°-5. 

Rainfall. — Number of Days on which Rain fell = 16. Amount of Fall = 1-995- 
inch. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, on the 21st, =0-480 inch. First fall of snow for 
season, on night of 28th. A. D. RICHARDSON, Ohstrver. 

* The date inserted here, in this and in all p^e^^ous monthly reports, is that on which the 
reading was observed, and is that following the occurrence of the maximum. After now the 
date upon which the monthly maxima actually occur will be inserted. 



348 



TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 



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Jan. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 349 



IV. On Meteorological Observations recorded at 
EoYAL Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during 1894. 

Pressure. 

The mean atmospheric pressure, reduced to 32° at 
9 A.M., for the year was 29*792 inches, being 0-002 
inch above the average of the three previous years. 

Temperature. 

The highest shade temperature for the year was 76°" 9, 
on the afternoon of 6th July, being the lowest maximum 
for four years. 

The lowest shade temperature for the year was 11°'8, 
on the morning of 7th January, being the highest minimum 
for four years, with the exception of 1891. 

The range of the shade temperature for the year was 
65°*1, being the least for four years, with the exception of 
1891. 

The mean of all the highest shade temperatures for the 
year was 53°'8, being 0°*7 above the average of the three 
previous years. 

The mean of all the lowest shade temperatures for the 
year was 41° '3, being 1°"0 above the average of the three 
previous years. 

The mean shade temperature for the year was 47°'5, 
being 0°"8 above the average of the three previous years. 

July was the warmest month of the year, with a mean 
shade temperature of 58°*3 ; January the coldest, with a 
mean of 37°"6. 

Frost was registered in the shade at 4 feet above the 
ground on forty-three days during the year. 

Eainfall, 

The number of days on which rain fell during the year 
was 212, being the greatest number in any year for four 
years, with the exception of 1892. The total fall was 
2 9 "8 9 4 inches, being the greatest for four years, and 



350 TKA^'SACTIO^*S and PEOCEEDEsGS of the [Sess. le. 

4'607 inches above the greatest of the three pre%"ious years 
(1891). 

September was the driest month, with a fall of 0*4 5 5 
inch; February the wettest, with a fall of 6 "6 9 7 inches. 

Geneeax Eemarks. 

The outstanding features of the year were the un- 

precedentedly hesxj rainfall for February ; the excessively 

light rainfall for September ; the high mean temperature 

of November (4 6°'5) ; and the great gale of the 21st and 

-!2nd of December. 

A. D. EICHAEDSOX, 
Ohgtrver. 



V. Ox YABIAnOX IN THE LEAVES OF THE WhITE 

Beam Tkee (Pyeus Aria, Linn.), with Exhibition of 

DpJED SpECDIENS. By A. 1). PilCHAEDSON. 

The occurrence of two kinds of leaves in this species 
was observed in the autumn of 1894, when the leaves 
were falling from the trees. It was observed in two trees, 
one about 18 and the other about 16 feet in height. 
"Whether it is a constant character in trees of all ages of 
this species I am as yet unable to say, as at the time it 
was observed in these two plants most of the trees had 
shed their leaves. 

The leaves, which differ from the normal type of Pyrus 
Aria, are produced at the bases of the terminal buds on 
the elongated vegetative shoots, i.e., they are the last leaves 
pjroduced on these shoots for the season. They differ from 
the type in having fewer primary lateral veins, and in these 
being less prominent on the under side of the leaf. Also, 
the primary veins in these leaves are less regularly parallel 
to each other in arrangement, and the secondary veins are 
more prominent than those of the type, so that the venation 
as a whole has a more reticulated appearance than that of 
the typical leaf. 

It would appear that this fact may not be without 
significance, inasmuch as so much importance is attached 
to venation in the discrimination of the forms of this and 
allied species of Pyrus. 



Jan. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 351 



VI. On Plants in the Plant Houses. By Pt. L. 
Harrow. 

December may be considered as the least floriferous 
of the year, and not more than twenty-five species of 
plants have, during that time, produced their flowers in 
the plant houses. The majority of these are natives of 
the tropics. Among them the most interesting are the 
following : — 

HcBinanthus alhijios, Jacq. — A native of the southern 
provinces of Cape Colony, and an old, but seldom seen, 
introduction. Its stout peduncles, about 9 inches long, 
bear a dense umbel of white flowers, picked out by the 
protruding bright yellow anthers. 

Crinum Macowani, Baker. — This species, which in some 
respects resembles C. Moorci, Hook, f., is a robust growing 
species, with a large bulb ; the leaves attaining a length of 
from two to three feet. The peduncles are strong, of three 
or more feet in height, carrying an umbel of large, pinkish 
flowers. It was first figured from a plant flowered at Kew 
in 1878, but Mr. Baker, F.R.S,, states in the "Gardeners' 
Chronicle '"' that the plant had been known to him in 
cultivation at Kew for several years previous ; he was, 
however, unaware of its history until dried specimens 
were received from Professor M'Owan, of M'Gill College, 
Cape Colony. 

Others worthy of note are : — Antlmrium Anclrccanuvi, 
Linden, — a native of Columbia, possessing a large, red 
spathe, and one of the most showy species of the genus ; 
Oheronia iridifolia, Lindl., — an orchid of quaint appear- 
ance, with its flowers in dense cylindrical spikes, a native 
of India ; Trevesia palmata, Vis., — a member of the order 
Araliacese, which, in its native habitat, India, is said to 
reach a heisht of 15 feet. 



Feb. 1895.] BOTAXICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 353 



:meetixg of the society. 

Thursday, February 5, 1895. 

William Oliphant Gibe was elected Eesident Fellow 
of the Society. 

The death of Fr. Sciimitz, Professor of Botany in the 
University and Director of the Botanic Garden, Greit'swald, 
was intimated. 

Twigs of Erica australis, showing frost-crack, were 
exhibited from the Eoyal Botanic Garden. 

The following papers were read : — 

PiEPORT ox THE FLOEA OF THE OUTLYIXG ISLAXDS IX 

Mahebourg Bay, Mauritius. By Surgeon-Major H. H. 
JoHXSTOX, Army Medical Staff, D.Sc, F.E.S.E., F.L.S. 

On the south-east side of Mauritius there is a wide 
inlet of the Indian Ocean named Mahebourg Bay, which is 
protected by a broad coral reef from the surf caused by the 
prevalent south-east trade wind. This reef extends 13 
miles, in a north-easterly direction, from Pointe Yacoas, 
in Grand Port, to a point 2 miles distant from the mouth 
of the Grand Eiver South-East in Flacq. Between the 
reef and the south-east coast of Mauritius there is a 
shallow sea 3—20 fathoms deep. The reef itself is from 
f-2 miles wide, and a considerable part of it is uncovered 
by the sea at low spring tides. Towards the south-west 
end of the reef there is a broad gap, 600 yards wide and 
3-4 fathoms deep, called the South Entrance to Grand Port. 
At the outer margin of the reef, extending in a north- 
easterly direction from the South Entrance, there is a 
linear group of six small islands, lying between 20"^ 22' 

TKAXS. BOT. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. Z 

Issued XoTember 1895. 



354 TRANSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

and 20° 24' south latitude. On their south-east or wind- 
ward side the sea becomes suddenly deep, and the 100- 
fathom line of soundings is reached at a distance of 2 
miles from the shore. The surf breaks with considerable 
force on the windward side of the islands, and it con- 
tinually bathes them with fine clouds of saline spray. 

The islands range from 40—300 yards in length, and 
from 12—40 feet in height above sea-level at the highest 
part. They are all formed of the same kind of coralline 
limestone, and their formation is entirely different from the 
igneous basaltic rock of the main island of Mauritius. 
The surface of the limestone is considerably honeycombed 
by the action of the weather and sea-spray, and in many 
places the rock projects upwards in numerous sharp 
pinnacles. Beyond a little limestone debris here and there 
and a sprinkling of blown calcareous sand at some parts, 
there is no soil covering the surface of the rock ; and, at 
some parts of the islands, it is remarkable to see how well 
the rocky surface is clothed with luxuriant vegetation of a 
littoral character. 

There are no springs of fresh water on any of the 
islands, and when rain falls it quickly disappears through 
the porous limestone. 

The mean annual temperature in the shade is about 75° 
Fahr. The mean annual rainfall at Anse Jonchee on the 
adjacent coast of Mauritius, for the 9 years 1880-1888, 
was 88*58 inches, and the mean annual number of days 
of rainfall, during the same period, was 142 ; but it is 
probable that the rainfall of these islands is less, on 
account of their greater distance from the hills of 
Mauritius. 

I visited the islands of the group on three occasions, 
viz., in the cool dry season in October 1888 and September 
1889, and in the hot rainy season in March 1890, and I 
thoroughly investigated the flora at these different seasons. 
During my last two visits I resided for four days on each 
occasion in the lighthouse on He aux Fouquets. 

I am not aware of any published report on the flora and 
physical features of these islands, and I have, therefore, 
entered more into detail than I otherwise would have 
done, had the flora of the group been better known. 



Feb. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



355 



The following table shows the number of species in each 
of the three divisions of the vegetable kinadom : — 



Class. 


Native. 


Naturalised. 


Planted. 


Total. 

32 
10 
11 

% 

53 


I. Dicotyledones 
II. Monocotj'ledones . 
III. Cryptogamia 


17 
10 
11 


8 


7 


Total . 


38 


8 


7 



Of the 38 native species of plants, the Dicotyledons 
include 17 species, or less than half of the total number. 
There are 10 species of Monocotyledons, so that these 
are in the proportion of 1 to 1 iq- of the Dicotyledons ; 
whereas, in the flora of Mauritius, the proportion of these 
two classes to each other is as 1 to 2. There are 11 
species of Cryptogams (including 1 marine Alga), but these 
are by no means abundant. The 38 native species 
belong to 20 natural orders, or almost 2 species to 
an order on an average. The number of species in the 
larger orders are : — Graminese, 7 ; Lichenes, 6 ; Algae, 4 ; 
and Portulacece, Compositse, Boraginacete, Convolvulaceae, 
and Euphorbiacete, 2 each. Of the 27 native species of 
Phanerogams, the following 6 species are not recorded from 
Mauritius in Baker's " Flora of Mauritius and the 
Seychelles," viz. : — Sida diffusa, Portulaca psammotropha, 
Ipomcca glaberrima, Phyllanthus mauritianits, Fimhristylis 
ohtusifolia, and Lepturus repens. Of these, Phyllanthus 
mauritianus is a new species. 

The following table shows the number of species in each 
island of the group : — 



Island. 


Native. 


Naturalised. 


Planted. 


Total. 


He de la Passe 
He Vakois . 
He aux Fouqiiets . 
He aux Fous 
He Marianne 
Rocher des Oiseaux 


14 
25 
19 

1 


3 

' 4 

; 


1 to 1 Ol 1 1 


17 

25 

29 

1 

29 

1 



356 TEAICSACTIONS AXD PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

Of the 38 native species, Sesuvium PoHidacastrum is 
the only one which grows in all the six islands of the 
group; and in the two small rocky islets of He aux Tons and 
Eocher des Oiseaux this species is the only one which occurs. 

The native flora of this group of islands is of a tropical 
maritime character. The number of species is small. The 
rocky coralline limestone, the absence of fresh water, and 
the frequent saturation of the ground with saline spray, 
are all conditions unfavourable to the growth of a large 
number of species. The number of species to a natural 
order is only 2 on an average; and the 38 native species 
belong to 35 different genera. Portvlaca, Ijpomcea, and 
Ramcdina contain 2 species each, and the remaining 32 
genera only 1 species each. There is an entire absence of 
trees, and the tallest shrub does not exceed 6 feet in height. 
All the plants of Bocrhaavia diffusa, gro^ving on the 
coralline limestone have a pale green perianth-limb, with 
white lobes and white filaments, whereas all the plants of 
the same species, observ^ed by me, gi-owing on the volcanic 
tuff in Eound Island in 1889, had a purple perianth and 
dark purple filaments. 

There are 8 naturalised species, which all belong to the 
Dicotyledons. They occur in the two inhabited islands of 
He aux Fouquets and He Marianne, and in He de la Passe, 
which was formerly occupied by troops. Sophora tonLcntosa 
in He IMarianne, Ojyuntia monacantha and Ipomcea Nil, in 
He de la Passe, and Xicotiaim Tabacum in He aux Pouquets, 
are not recorded as naturalised in Mauritius by Baker. 

There are 7 planted species, which all belong to the 
Dicotyledons. They occur in the two inhabited islands 
of He aux Fouquets and He Marianne, near the lighthouse 
and caretaker's house respectively. 

The remainder of my paper contains a complete hst of 
all the plants observed by me in each of the six islands of 
the group. I have followed the nomenclature of Baker's 
" Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles," so far as the 
species are described in that book. The Cryptogams were 
identified by Mr. G. ^lassee and Mr. C. H. Wright, of Kew 
Herbarium, and I am also indebted to Mr. X. E. Brown 
and Dr. 0. Stapf, of the same institution, and to Mr. C. B. 
Clarke, for the identification of some critical species. 



Feb. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 357 

Under many of the species I have entered notes of my 
own, taken from living specimens. 

An asterisk before the name of a species means that the plants of that 
species are naturalised. The names of planted species are enclosed in 
brackets, thus [ ]. 

ILE DE LA PASSE. 

He de la Passe is situated at the South Entrance to 
Grand Port, and it lies three miles north-east of Pointe 
d'Esny, and the same distance south-west of Old Grand 
Port, on the main island of Mauritius. The island . is 
about 200 yards long from east to west, about 150 yards 
broad at the widest part, and 30 feet above sea-level at 
the highest part. At the south side of the island there 
is an overhanging cliff, 15 feet high, against which the 
ocean surf continually breaks. A considerable part of 
the surface is covered with the ruins of an old fort ; 
but the island has not been inhabited for a good many 
years past. The sheltered parts of the island are fairly 
well clothed with vegetation, mostly of an herbaceous 
character, with a less quantity of low shrubby plants. I 
botanised on He de la Passe on 26th October 1888, and 
18th March 1890. 

The following table shows the number of species in each 
of the three divisions of the vegetable kingdom : — 



Class. Native. 


Naturalised. Total. 


I. Dicotyledones 
II. Monocotyledones . 
III. Cryptogamia . 



4 

1 


3 12 

- 4 

1 


Total 


14 


3 17 



The 14 native species belong to 11 natural orders, or 
little more than 1 species to an order on an average. The 
number of species in the larger orders are Graminese 3, 
and Portulaceoe 2. Of the 13 native species of Phanero- 
gams, the following 5 species are not recorded from 
Mauritius by Baker, viz. : — Sida diffusa, Portulaca psammo- 
trojjha, Pliyllanthns mauritianus, Fimhristylis ohtusifolia, 
and Lcpturus repens. 



358 TKANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. LIX. 

SiDA DIFFUSA, H. B. K. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 19. 26th October 1888. Very common. This species 
is recorded as native in the Seychelles by Mr. John Home, 
but it is not recorded from Mauritius. 

Pemphis acidula, Forst. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 101. Seashore, 26th October 1888. Common at 
the north side of the island. 

Sesuyium Poetulacasteum, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 108. Seashore, 26th October 1888. Common. 

POETULACA OLEEACEA, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 125. 26th October 1888. Common. Stems ^-1 
foot long, procumbent. 

PoETULACA PSA]SBI0TE0PHA, Hance {fide X. E. Brown). 
18th March 1890. Ptare. For a description of this 
species, see under lie aux Fouquets, in this report. 

* CccUMis sp. Only one plant, in flower, observed by 
me at the south side of the island, 18th March 1890. 
Corolla vellow. The crenus Cucv.mis is not native in 
Mauritius. 

* Opuntia moxacaxtha. Haw. 26th October 1888. 
This species, which is a native of South America, is not 
recorded from Mauritius by Baker. It was also observed 
by me naturalised on a pasture, 10 feet above sea-level. 
Flat Island, 11th November 1887. 

SoxcHUs OLERACEUS, Linn, ex parte. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 180. 26th October 1888. Common. 

TouEXEFOETiA AEGEXTEA, Linn. fiL — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 201. Seashore, 26th October 1888. Common. 

*Ipomcea Xil, Ptoth. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 209. 
26th October 1888. Pare at the north side of the island. 
This species, which is dispersed throughout the tropics, 
is not recorded from Mauritius in Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
though it was found naturalised in Eodriguez by Balfour 
according to Baker ; but in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 22 7, it 
is recorded, under the name of Pharhitis Nil, as naturalised 
in great quantity at " Grand-Port," and in the ravines about 
" Eeduit," ]\lauritius. It was also observed by me natural- 
ised in He des Aigrettes, on 18th August 1888, and 
recorded in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx., 1894. 



Feb. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 359 

IroMCEA Pes-capk.e, Eoth. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 211. 26th October 1888. Common. Stem-juice milky. 
Corolla pale purple, ^Yitll a dark purple throat. 

Phyllanthus maukitiands, H. H. Johnston, in Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Ediu., vol. xx., p. 329. 26th October 1888. 
Very common. 

Eoots fibrous, brown. Stem short, with numerous simple, 
wiry, terete, glabrous, procumbent or rarely erect, leafy 
branches ^-Q inches long. Leaves moderately close, 
alternate, shortly petioled, l-^ inch long, obovate or 
roundish-obovate, entire, very obtuse, with a rounded or 
cuneate base, glabrous, dark green above, glaucous or pale 
purplish-green beneath, sub-coriaceous, penni-nerved; petiole 
^'s inch long, glabrous ; stipules ^ inch long, lanceolate, 
acute, entire, glabrous. Flowers monoecious, one male 
and one female together in the axils of most of the leaves, 
or rarely two male flowers without a female flower in 
the same axil, shortly pedicellate. Female flowers borne 
on glabrous pedicels 3*6 inch long. Perianth deeply 
6-lobed, persistent ; lobes 3 outer and 3 inner, 4^5 inch 
long, oblong-obovate, obtuse, entire, glabrous. Glands 3, 
opposite the inner perianth-lobes, oblong, truncate, entire, 
glabrous, membranous. Ovary glabrous, 3 -celled, with 2 
ovules in each cell ; styles 3, bifid, spreading, glabrous. 
Capsules oq-tV i'lch broad, depresso-globose, glabrous 
crowned wath the persistent styles. Seeds 4*0 inch long, 
triquetrous, with flat sides and convex back, glabrous, 
brown, finely ribbed longitudinally and transversely barred 
on the back. Male flowers smaller and borne on shorter 
pedicels than the female flowers. Perianth deeply 6-lobed ; 
lobes 3 outer and 3 inner, gV inch long, oblong-obovate, 
obtuse, entire, glabrous. Glands 6, alternate with the 
perianth-lobes, roundish, glabrous. Stamens 3, central, 
without a rudimentary ovary. 

P. mauritianus is distinguished from P. Urinaria, 
Linn., by having glabrous branches ; small obovate or 
roundish-obovate, non-mucronate leaves, ^-i inch long ; 
smooth capsules 20— iV i^^^ch broad ; and triquetrous seeds 
4'o inch long, transversely and longitudinally ribbed on the 
convex back, without any pits on the sides. In P. Urin- 
aria the branches are minutely hispid ; leaves \-l inch 



360 TRAXSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lk 

long, oblong, mucronate ; capsule ^ ii^ch broad, rugose ; 
seeds ^V i^^ch long, transversely but not longitudinally 
ribbed on the convex back, with 2-3 deep pits on each side. 

P. mauritianus is endemic in He de la Passe, He Vakois, 
He aux Fouquets, lie jNIarianne, and He des Aigrettes. 

FiMBRiSTYLis OBTUSIFOLIA, Kunth {fide C, B, Clarke). 
Very common, 26th October 1888. This species is not 
recorded from Mauritius by Baker ; and the description 
of F. glomerata, Nees, in Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 418 
appears to refer to F. spathacea, Eoth, Nov. PI. Sp.,p. 24. 

Paspalum distichum, Burm. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 431. 18th March 1890. Pare at the north and south 
sides of the island. 

Stenotaphrum complanatum, Schrank. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 440. 26th October 1888. Very common. 

Lepturus repens, p. Br. {fide E. Hackel). 18 th March 
1890. Pare at the south side of the island. See 
remarks on this species, under He Marianne, in this report. 

CiLETOMORPHA sp. Coralline limestone, 18th March 
1890. Common. 

ILE VAKOIS. 

He Vakois is situated about 200 yards east of He de la 
Passe, from which it is separated by a shallow channel 
only a few feet deep. The island is about 200 yards long 
from east to west, about 70 yards broad at the widest part, 
and 15 feet above sea-level at the highest part. The 
surface of the ground is well clothed with low shrubs of 
Suriana maritima, and a coarse grass, Stenotaphrum com- 
planatum, except at the east end of the island, where there 
are only scattered tufts of the fleshy-leaved Sesuvium Portida- 
castrum, among the bare sharp rocks, which are continually 
drenched with the spray of the ocean surf. He Vakois 
derives its name from the Vocoas (formerly spelt Vakoifi) or 
Pandani, -vvhich once grew on the island, but which have 
been exterminated by the fishermen, with the exception of 
one small plant I saw growing at the west end of the 
island. The island has never been inhabited ; and all the 
plants I observed in it were native. I botanised on He 
Vakois on 5th September 1889, and 18th March 1890. 



Feb, 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



161 



The following table shows the number of species in each 
of the three divisions of the vegetable kingdom : — 



Class. 


Native. 


I. Dicotyledones .... 
11. Monocotyle Jones 
III. Cryptogcamia .... 


13 

i 
8 


Total .... 


25 



There are 8 species of Cryptogams ; but with the 
exception of the two Algne, Chlorococcus ? and C]u€tomo7'pha 
sp., these are rare on the island. The 25 native species 
belong to 18 natural orders, or about Ij species to an 
order on an average. The number of species in the 
larger orders are Lichenes and Algfe 3 each, and Portu- 
laceffi, Couvolvulacea?, and Graminea3 2 each. Of the 17 
native species of Phanerogams, the following 6 species 
are not recorded from Mauritius by Baker, viz. : — Sidct 
diffusa, Portidaca psammotroijha, Tpomcea glalcrrima, Phyl- 
lanthus mauritianus, Fimhristylis ohtusifolia , Lciiturus rcjyens. 

The flora of He Vakois is remarkable in containing no 
naturalised plants. On the main island of Mauritius 
the naturalised species of Phanerogams amount to about 
a quarter of the total number. A common species of 
British sow-thistle, Sonchvs oleraceus, grows on the sea- 
shore in He Vakois, where the mean annual temperature 
in the shade is about 75° Fahr. It is undoubtedly native 
in this locality. 

SiDA DIFFUSA, H. B. K. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 1 9. 
5th September 1889. See remarks on this species, under 
He de la Passe, in this report. 

SuRiANA MARITIMA, Linn. — Baker, Plor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 42. Very common, oth September 1889. 

Pemphis acidula, Forst. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 101. 5th September 1889. Common at the west end 
of the island, and rare at the north side. 



362 TRANSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

Sesuvium Poktulagastrum, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 108. Very common on the seashore, 5th Septem- 
ber 1889. 

PoiiTULACA oleracea, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maiir. Seych., 
p. 125. Common, 5th September 1889. Stems ^-2i 
feet long. See remarks on this species, under He aux 
Fouquets, in this report. 

Portulaga psammotropha, Hance {fide N. E. Brown). 
Common, 5th September 1889. For a description of this 
species, see under He aux Fouquets, in this report. 

SoNCHUS OLERAGEUS, Linn, ex parte. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 180. Ptare, 5th September 1889. 

Sc^voLA KcENiGii, Vahl. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 
182. Common at the west end of the island, 5th 
September 1889. 

Tournefortia argentea, Linn. fil. — Baker, Flor. Maur, 
Seych., p. 201. Common at the west end of the island, 
5th September 1889. 

Ipomgea Pes-gapr.-e, Eoth. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 211. Common, 5th September 1889. Capsule not 
developed. 

Ipomcea glaberrima, Bojer. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 211. Common at the seashore, 5th September 1889. 
This species is not recorded from Mauritius in Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych. It is recorded by me from He des Aigrettes 
in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. p. 325, and from He 
Marianne in this report, in both of which islands it is 
native. 

Boerhaavia DIFFUSA, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 264, Common, 5th September 1889. See remarks on 
this species, under He Marianne, in this report. 

Phyllantiius mauritianus, H. H. Johnston, in Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. p. 329. Common, 5th September 
1889. For a description of this species, see under He de 
la Passe, in this report. 

Pandanus sp. Only one plant, neither in flower nor 
fruit, at the west end of the island, 5th September 1889. 



Feb. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 363 

Plant 4 feet high, entirely supported on adventitious 
roots. Leaves coriaceous, shining green above, glaucous 
beneath, with the purplish-gieen midrib and dark purplish- 
red margin armed with copious sharp spines, which are 
dark purplish red at the base and pale yellow or reddish- 
yellow at the apex. 

This plant is probably P. Vandermeerschii, Balf. fil., 
which is recorded in Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 389, 
as native in Eound Island, Amber Island, Flat Island, and 
Coin de Mire, but not in the main island of Mauritius. 

I was informed by Mr. Albert liose, assistant lighthouse 
keeper at He aux Fouquets, that the fishermen had told 
him that formerly Vocoas (Pandani) were common in He 
Vakois, but that they had been used as firewood by the 
fishermen, and at the time of my visit in 1889 only one 
plant was left in the island. 

FiMBRiSTYLis OBTUSIFOLIA, Kunth. Comiiion, 5th Sep- 
tember 1889. See remarks on this species, under He de 
la Passe, in this report. 

Stenotaphrum complanatum, Schrank. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 440. Very common, 5th September 1889. 

Lepturus repens, E. Br., Prod., ed. i. p. 207 (Jide E. 
Hackel). Pare at the rocky seashore, at the north side 
and west end of the island, 5th September 1889. See 
remarks on this species, under He Marianne, in this 
report. 

" Moss too imperfect to determine " ( Jide C. H. Wright). 
Pare on coralline limestone, 18th March 1890, 

The following three species of lichens were very rare, on 
the branch of a dead shrub, at the seashore, at the north 
side of the island, 5th September 1889 : — 

Pamalina homalea, Ach. (fide G. Massee). 

Lecidea leucoplaca, Fries ( fide G. Massee). 

Pektusaria sp. (Jide G. Massee). Plants sterile. 

Polyporus sanguineus, Meyer (Jide J. G. Baker). 
Very rare, on the dead stem of Sccvvola Kcenigii, Vahl, 
at the north side of the island, 18th March 1890. Eed. 
on both surfaces. 



364 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

ScYTONEMA sp. {ficU C. H. Wright). Coralline limestone, 
18th March 1890. 

Chlorococcus ? {fide C. H. Wright). Common on the 
living and dead branches of Suriana maritima, at the north 
side of the island, 1 8 th March 1890. Native. Plant yellow. 

Ch.'Etomorpha sp. Common on coralline limestone, at 
the north side of the island, 18th March 1890. 

ILE AUX FOUQUETS. 

He aux Fouquets is situated about 500 yards north-east 
of He Vakois, from which it is separated by a shallow 
channel only a few feet deep. The island is about 300 
yards long from north-east to south-west, about 100 yards 
broad at the widest part, and 40 feet above sea-level at 
the highest part. It is the largest and highest island of 
the group. The south-west end rises abruptly out of the 
ocean in an overhanging clifi", 3 5 feet high. In this cliff I 
observed fossil shells embedded in the coralline limestone. 
The lighthouse is situated on the summit of the island, and 
it is inhabited by the keeper and his assistants. The 
north-east end of the island is lower, and only reaches a 
height of 15 feet above sea-level at the highest part. The 
island is lowest at the middle, where there are some 
patches of coral sand, which has been washed up by the 
sea. At some places the ground is well clothed with 
low shrubs of Suriana 'maritima. The island derived 
its name from a sea-bird, called the Fouquet (Pi'fiinus 
chlororliynchus), which nests in the crevices of the rocks. 
I resided in the lighthouse, on the island, from 2nd to 5th 
September 1889, and from 17th to 20th March 1890. 

The following table shows the number of species in each 
of the three divisions of the vegetable kingdom : — 



Class. Native. 


Naturalised. 


Planted. ' Total. 


I. Dicotyledones .13 4 

II. Monocotyledones . 4 — 

III. Cryptogamia . 2 — 


6 23 

— 4 

— 2 


Total ... 19 ! 4 


6 29 



FsB. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 365 

There are only two species of Cryptogams, viz., Squa- 
maria (?) aud a land Alga, Ghcctomorpha sp., both of which 
are common. The 1 9 native species belong to 1 5 natural 
orders, or about 1^ species to an order on an average. 
The number of species in the larger orders are Gramineie 3, 
and Portulacese 2. Of the 17 native species of Phanero- 
gams, the following 4 species are not recorded from 
Mauritius in Baker's "Flora of Mauritius and the 
Seychelles," viz. : — Sida diffusa, Porhdaca 'psammotroplia, 
Phyllanthus mauritianus, and Fimbristylis obtusifolia. 

The 6 species of introduced plants occurred on the 
sheltered side of the island, in the lee of the lighthouse, 
where a portion of the ground has been walled in, and an 
attempt made to form a garden. 

Sida diffusa, H. B. K. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 19. 2nd September 1889. Eare at the north end 
of the island, and at the middle of the island. See remarks 
on this species, under He de la Passe, in this report. 

Suhiana maritima, Linu. — Baker, Flor, Maur. Seych., 
p. 4:2. Common all over the island, 2nd September 1889. 
The flowers are much frequented by small brown ants. 

Pemphis acidula, Forst. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 101. 2nd September 1889. Only two plants observed 
by me at the north-west side of the island. Flowers visited 
by small brown ants. 

Sesuvium Portulacastrum, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 108. Seashore, 2nd September 1889. Common 
at tlie north-east end of the island. 

[Tkrminalia Catappa, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 111. Only one young tree, 3 feet high, near the light- 
house, 4th September 1889. Mr. Albert Piose, assistant 
lighthouse-keeper at He aux Fouquets, informed me that 
he brought the seed of this species from Old Grand Port, 
Mauritius, and sowed it in He aux Fouquets, in 1887. 
T. Catappa, Linn., is a native of the Seychelles and tropical 
Asia, and Baker records it as " much planted in Mauritius."] 

PORTULACA OLERACEA, Limi. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 125. Common, 2nd September 1889. In my herbarium 
specimen the roots are 4 feet long. 



366 TEANSACTIOXS AXD PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. ux. 

PoETULACA PSAiDiOTEOPHA, Hance ; in Walp., Ann., 
voL ii. p. 660 {fide X. E. Brown). Common, 4th Sep- 
tember 1889. 

This species, which is also a native of Prata Island, in 
the China Sea, is not recorded from Mauritius in Baker's 
"Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles." It was also 
observed by me in He de la Passe, He Yakois, and He 
Marianne, 

A diffuse much-branched glabrous plant, with pro- 
cumbent stems 1—4 inches long. Leaves \—\ inch long, 
obovate-oblong, sub-acute or obtuse, thick, fleshy, purplish- 
green, shortly petioled ; stipules reduced to bristles. 
Flowers terminal, solitary, enclosed by 5 ordinary leaves 
and 2 minute undeveloped leaves at the base of the ovary. 
Sepals 2, \ inch long, oblong-deltoid, caducous. Petals 
h—Q,\ inch long, obovate, emarginate. Stamens 11-17; 
style cylindrical, divided two-thirds down into 4—5 simple 
papillose branches. Capsule ^^ inch broad, depresso- 
globose. Seeds -^^ inch long, reniform, finely wrinkled, 
glabrous, black. 

P. 'pmmmotroi^ha is specifically distinguished from P. 
oleracea by having small obovate-oblong leaves, ^—\ inch 
long, with stipules reduced to bristles, solitary terminal 
flowers, and a depresso-globose capsule, y'g inch broad, 
which is not beaked at the apex. In P. oleracea the 
leaves are h—1 inch long, obovate, and exstipulate, the 
flowers are in terminal clusters, and the capsule is g inch 
long, oblong, obconic at the base, with a small conical beak 
y'g inch long at the apex. 

Typical plants of P. oleracea are common in the four 
islands in which P. 'psarnmotroiplia occurs ; and I did not 
observe any intermediate forms between the two species. 

[MoMOEDiCA Chaeaxtia, Liun. Piare near the light- 
house, 5th September 1889. This species, which is widely 
spread through the tropics of both hemispheres, is recorded 
as cultivated in vegetable gardens in Mauritius, in Bojer, 
Hort. Maur., p. 148.] 

[Two plants of a gourd were observed by me, planted 
near the lighthouse, on 5th September 1889. The species 
was not determined.] 



Feb. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 367 

* Partiienium Hysterophorus, Linn. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 174. 10 feet above sea-level, otli Septem- 
ber 1889. Eare at the south-west end of the island, 
near the lighthouse. This species is a native of Tropical 
America, and it is recorded as naturalised in Mauritius 
and Eodriguez by Mr. Baker. 

Sc.EVOLA KcEXiGii, Vahl. — Baker, Flor. ]\Iaur. Seych., 
p. 182. Kare, 2nd September 1889. 

TouRNEFORTiA ARGENTEA, Linu. fil. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 201. Only one plant observed by me at the 
centre of the island, 2nd September 1889. 

Helioteopium indicum, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 204. Btare near the lighthouse, 4th September 1889. 

Ipomcea Pes-capr^, Eoth. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 211. 2nd September 1889. Very common at the 
south-west end of the island. Capsule not developed. 

[Lycopersicum Galent, Miller. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 216. One young plant, _ inches high, near the 
lighthouse, 5th September 1889, and several plants in the 
same locality, 18th March 1890, This species is culti- 
vated in Mauritius.] 

* Datura alba, Xees. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 
218. 4th September 1889. Eare at the south-west end 
of the island. This species, which is widely spread through 
the tropics of the Old World, is also recorded as naturalised 
in Mauritius and Eodriguez by Baker. 

* XicoTiANA Tabacum, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 218. 2nd September 1889. Common on the sheltered 
north-west side of the island. Stems 2—6 feet high, erect. 

Mrs. Batterby, wife of the chief lighthouse keeper at He 
aux Fouquets, informed me that, in 1874, there were only 
five tobacco plants in the island, and that since then the 
plants have spontaneously sowed their seeds and spread 
over the ground. 

In Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 238, JV. Tahacum is recorded 
as cultivated in Mauritius. It is recorded by me in Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx., p. 326, as scarcely naturalised on 



368 TEANSACTIOXS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

waste ground, He des Aigrettes, 20th June 1890. Baker 
records it, on Balfour's authority, as " sub-spontaneous " in 
Eodriguez. 

The common cultivated tobacco plant is a native of 
South America. 

[Sabcostemma vimixale, E. Br. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 227. Onh' one plant, which was brought from 
Anse Jonchee, Mauritius, and planted near the lighthouse in 
He aux Fouquets, in February 1887, where I observed it 
on 5th September 1889. S. viminale, E. Br., is a native 
of Mauritius, Eodriguez, and Tropical Africa.] 

Stachytakpheta indica, Vahl. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., j). 251. Eare at the north-west side of the island, 
4th September 1889. 

BOEKHAAVIA DIFFUSA, Linn. — Baker, Flor. j\Iaur. Seych., 
p. 264, Only three plants observ'ed by me at the south- 
east side of the island, 2nd September 1889. 

*A3iAEAyTUS GAXGETiccs, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 267. Eare at the south-west end of the island, 
17th March 1890. 

[Peesea geatissbia, Gaertn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 290. One young plant, 1 foot high, in a dying con- 
dition, planted near the lighthouse, observed by me on 5 th 
September 1889. This species, which is the Avocado 
pear and a native of tropical America, is cultivated in 
Mauritius.] 

Phtllanthus maueitianus, H. H. Johnston, in Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx., p. 329. Common, 2nd September 
1889. For a description of this species, see under He de 
la Passe, in this report. 

Fi3,EBRiSTYLis OBTUSIFOLIA, Kunth (fide C. B. Clarke). 
Yery common on 2nd September 1889. See remarks on 
tliis species, under lie de la Passe, in this report. 

Paspalum distichum, Burm. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 431. 4th September 1889. Common at the north- 
east and south-west ends of the island. 



Feb. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 369 

Stenotapheum complanatu.m, Schrank. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 440. Common at the north-east end 
of the island, 2ud September 1889. 

Stenotapheum subulatum, Trin. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 440 {fide 0. Stapf). Eare, 4th September 1889. 

All the plants of S. subulatum growing on He aiix 
Fouquets are in a very reduced state, on account of the 
poverty of the soil and the exposed position of the island. 
In my herbarium I have a specimen of S. suhulatum, 
which is intermediate in size and habit between the 
dwarfed He aux: Fouquets plant and the typical form. 
It was collected by me on a rocky cliff at the seashore, 
10 feet above sea- level, at Le Gris Gris, Savanne, on the 
main island of Mauritius, on 14th January 1890. 

Squamaeia ? {fide C. H. Wright). Common, 18th March 
1890. Plants green, barren. 

Ch.etomoepha sp. {fide C. H. Wright). Common, 17th 
March 1890. Plant green. 

ILE AUX FOUS. 

He aux Fous is situated on the outer margin of the 
ccral reef, about 1 mile north-east of He aux Fouquets. 
The island is about 100 yards long from east to west, 
about 40 yards broad, and it slopes up from west to east 
to a heiglit of 20 fest above sea-level. In the limestone 
are numerous large cauldrons, worn out by the ocean-surf, 
which almost continually breaks ov'er the island. The island 
derives its name from a sea-bird called the Fous, several of 
which were on it at the time of my \\%\i, on 19th March 
1890. At high tide the surf breaks round the whole 
island, and it is impossible to land on it from a boat. I 
reached it at low spring tide by wading across from He 
Marianne, which lies about 150 yards north of He aux Fous. 

I observed only one species of plant, Scsuviam Portida- 
castrum, which, however, was common on the island. 

ILE MARIANNE. 

He Marianne is about 250 yards long from east to west, 
about 100 yards broad at the widest part, near the west 

TRiVXS. EOT. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. 2 A 



370 TE-lNSACnOXS AXD PKOCEEDDsGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

end, and 20 feet above sea-level at the highest part. 
The island is flattish on the top, and the surface is pretty 
weU clothed with a coarse grass, Stmotaphrum complan- 
atum. On 27th August 1887 a ship, laden with coals, 
was wrecked on the reef near He Marianne, and the coals 
recovered from the wreck were deposited on the west end 
of the island. A caretaker's house was erected the same 
vear, and it was inhabited up to the date of my last ^•isit 
in March 1890. I botanised on He Marianne on 3rd 
September 1889, and 19th March 1890. 

The following table shows the number of species in each 
of the three divisions of the vegetable kingdom : — 



Class. 


Native. 

15 

4 


j Naturalised, i 


Plantml. 


TotaL 


I. Dicotrledones 
IT. MoDOCotyledones . 
IIL Ciyptogamia 


1 


2 


18 
1 
4 


Total . 


26 


1 

1 


2 


29 



One of the Monocotyledons, HahphUa ovata, is a marine 
plant, and grows on the submarine coral sand, about 300 
yards from the shore. There are -4 species of Cryptogams, 
one of which is a marine Alga, Caul^rpa pluniaris, and 
grows on the submarine coral sand, about 500 yards from 
the shore. The remaining 3 species belong to the 
Lichenes, and only one of them, Lepraria fxiva, is common. 
The 26 native species belong to 17 natural orders, or 
about \h species to an order on an average. The number 
of species in the larger orders are Gramineae 5, Lichenes 3. 
and Portulaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Euphorbiacea; 2 each. 
Of the 22 native species of Phanerogams, the following G 
species are not recorded from Mauritius in Baker's " Flora 
of Mauritius and the Seychelles," viz. : — Sida diffusa, 
Portxdaca psammotropha, Ipomona. glaberrima, Phyllanthus 
mauritianus, Fimhristylis dbtusifolia, and Lepturus repens. 

Sida diffusa, H. B. K. — Baker, Plor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 19. Very common, 3rd September 1889. See remarks 
on this species, under lie de la Passe, in this report. 



Feb. 1895.] BOTANIC.VL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 371 

SURIANA MAUiTiMA, Liuii. — Baker, Flor. ]\Iaur. Seych., 
p. 42. Common. 

[Maxgifera indica, Linn. — Baker, ilor. Maur. Seych., 
p. Go. Only one seedling near the caretaker's house at 
the west end of the island, 19th March 1890. The 
Mango is cviltivated in Mauritius.] 

*Sophora tomentosa, Linn. Only one shrub, 3 feet 
high, at the west end of the island, 19th March 1890. 

S. tomentosa, Linn., is not recorded from Mauritius by 
Baker. In Bojer, Hort, Maur., p. 83, it is recorded as 
naturalised in He aux Tonneliers, at the entrance of Port 
Louis harbour. It is recorded by me as naturalised in 
He des Aigrettes, 20th June 1890, in Trans. Bot. Soc. 
Edin., vol. xx. p. 321. 

This species is a native of India and the West Indies. 

Pemphis acidula, Forst. — Baker, Plor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 101. Seashore, 3rd September 1889. Common at the 
north side of the island ; only one plant at the south side. 

Sesuvium Portulacastkum, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 108. Common at the seashore, 3rd September 
1889. 

PoETULACA oleuacea, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 125. Common, 3rd September 1889. 

PoRTULACA PSAMMOTROPHA, Hance (fidc N. E, Brown). 
19th March 1890. Common at the east end of the island. 
For a description of this species, see under He aux Fouquets, 
in this report. 

BiDENS PILOSA, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 169, 
Only one plant at the west end of the island, 19th March 
1890. 

Sc.EVOLA KcEXiGii, Vahl. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 182. 3rd September 1889. A large clump and one 
detached shrub at the north side of the island. 

TouRXEFORTiA ARGEXTEA, Linn. fil. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 201. Common, 3rd September 1889. 

Ipom(f:a Pes-capr^, Poth. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 211. 3rd September 1889. Common at the west end 
and north side of the island. Capsule not developed. 



372 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

Ipomcea glabekpjma, Bojer. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 211. Seashore, 19th March 1890. Common at the 
north side of the island. See remarks on this species, 
imder lie Yakois, in this report. 

[Lycopersichm CtALENI, Miller. — Baker, Flor. Maur. 
Seych., p. 216. Only three young plants, near the care- 
taker's house at the west end of the island, 19 th March 
1890.] 

Stachytaepheta indica, Vahl. — Baker, Flor. Mam\ 
Seych., p. 251. Only one plant, near the caretaker's 
house, at the west end of the island, 19th March 1890. 

BoEEHA-rVViA diffusa, Linn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 264. Common all over the island, 3rd September 
1889. 

Euphorbia prostrata, Ait. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 302. Near the caretaker's house at the west end of 
the island, 3rd September 1889. 

Phyllanthus :maueitianus, H. H. Johnston, in Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. p. 329. Very common, 3rd Sep- 
tember 1889. For a description of this species, see under 
He de la Passe, in this report. 

Halophila ovata, Gaud. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 393. Common on submarine coral sand, uncovered at 
ebb tide, about 300 yards from the shore of He Marianne, 
3rd September 1889. 

FiMBRlSTYLis OBTUSIFOLIA, Kunth. Common, 3rd 
September 1889. See remarks on this species, under 
He de la Passe, in this report. 

Stenotaphrum complanatu.m, Schrank. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 440. Yery common, 3rd September 1889. 

ZOYSIA PUNGENS, "Willd. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 442. 3rd September 1889. Common at the south 
side of the island. 

Eleusine indica, Gsertn. — Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., 
p. 451. 19th March 1890. Pare at the west end of the 
island. 



Feb. lS9f..] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUPxGH. 373 

Dactyloctenium .egyptiacum, Willd. — Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 452. 3rd September 1889. Eare at 
the west end of the island. 

Lepturus kepens, E. Br. {fide E. Hackel). Common at 
tlie rocky seashore, 3rd September 1889. 

Stems ^-3 feet long, decumbent, rooting at the lower 
nodes. Spikelets 2 -flowered, the upper flower herma- 
phrodite, the lower flower a mere rudiment. Empty 
glumes 2. Upper hermaphrodite flower with a flowering 
glume and palea. Stamens 3. 

This species, which is also a native of Australia and the 
islands of the South Pacific Ocean, is not recorded from 
Mauritius in Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych. 

In Bojer, Hort. ]\[aur., p. 372, Stcnotaphnim suhulatum, 
Trin., is erroneously recorded as Lepturus rcpcns, E. Br. 
See Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 4-40, and Lepturus repcns 
in Index Kewensis iii., p. 66. 

Eamalina homalea, Ach. (fide G. Massee). Living 
branches of Suriana maritima, 3rd September 1889. 
Eare at the north side of the island. 

Eamalina usneoides, Fries {fide G. Massee). Living 
branches of Suriana maritima, 3rd September 1889. Eare 
at the north side of the island. 

Lepeaeia flava, Ach. {fide C. H. Wright). Common 
on the living branches of Tourncfortia argentea, 19 th March 
1890. Plant greenish yellow. 

Caulekpa plumakis, C. a. Agardh. Submarine coral 
sand, in shallow water, about 500 yards from the shore of 
He Marianne, 19th March 1890. Plant green. 

KOCHEK DES OISEAUX. 

Eocher des Oiseaux is situated at the outer margin of 
the coral reef, about 80 yards east of He Marianne. The 
island is about 40 yards long from east to west, 
about 20 yards broad, and 12 feet above sea-level at 
the highest part. In the limestone are numerous large 
cauldrons worn out by the ocean-surf, which almost 
continuallv break over the island. In one of these 



3.74 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

cauldrons, full of sea-water, I observed a cuttle-fish. I 
botanised on Rocher des Oiseaux on 19th March 1890. 
I reached the island, with difficulty, by wading across, 
through the surf, from He Marianne at low spring tide. 
The island forms a resting-place for sea-birds, hence the 
name Rocher des Oiseaux, or the Bird Rock. 

I observed only one plant of Sesuvium Portulacastrum 
on the island, at 8 feet above sea-level. 



Excursion of the Scottish Alpine Botanical Club to 
Tyndrum, in 1894. By William Craig, M.D., F.R.S.E., 
r.RC.S.E., Secretary of the Club. 

On Monday, 6th August last, the Scottish Alpine 
Botanical Club met in Stewart's Royal Hotel, Tyndrum, 
for a few days' botanizing. There were ten members of 
the Club present, including our esteemed President, Mr. 
Boyd. We were most comfortably entertained, and the 
charges were very moderate. 

At the business meeting in the evening, reference was 
made to the losses the Club had sustained by the deaths of 
the two honorary members, Mr. Charles Jenner and Dr. 
Robert Walker. It was Mr. Charles Jenner, at a meeting 
of this Society on 12th March 1868, who first suggested 
the idea of such a Club, and Dr. Walker was one of the 
original members of the Club, and was present at its first 
excursion. 

Tuesday, 7th August. — The morning was wet and the hills 
were enveloped in mist, and consequently the day was quite 
unsuitable for mountaineering, and it was agreed that no 
hills should be climbed that day. As this was the first 
day that the West Highland Railway was opened for traffic, 
certain of the members resolved to explore the country 
through which this railway passes as far as Roy Bridge, 
chiefly with the object of ascertaining how much of the 
country between Tyndrum and Glen Spean could be ex- 
plored from Tyndrum as a centre. Some of the members 
went as far as Roy Bridge, whilst others went only as far 
as Inverlair. 



Feb. 1805.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 37'' 

Xear Eoy Bridge the following plants were gathered : — 
Potcntilla tormcntilla. Scop., yar. j^^'ociunhcns, Sibth.; Circcca 
alpina, L. ; Veronica scutdlata, L. ; and the rare fungus 
Boletus satcinas. Near Inverlair the following plants were 
gathered : — Halcnaria alhida, E. Br., and Sparfjaniuin mini- 
mum, Fries. 

Two of the members, instead of going with the others on 
the railway, spent the day fishing and botanising on Lochan 
Bhe, a small loch near Tyndruni. It is situated in Argyll- 
shire, and is 822 feet above sea-level. They collected 
some fine specimens of Lobelia Dortmanna, L., and abundance 
of a peculiar submerged form of a plant which was found 
by the Club in this loch during an excursion in 1891. 
On that occasion specimens were submitted to Bennett, of 
Croydon, and other botanists, who pronounced it Scirpus 
fluitans, L. The plant was in great abundance in many 
parts of the loch, but always in deep water, and though 
careful search was made, no specimens were obtained in 
flower or fruit. Xo plants of this Scirpus could be found 
on the sides of the loch. If the plant be Scirpus fiuitans, 
it is certainly a very remarkable form. 

Wednesday, 8th August. — The morning was fine, but the 
day did not look promising, nevertheless the Club resolved 
to visit Beinn Laoigh. We drove in a waggonette about 
eight miles down tlie valley of the Lochy to a point near 
the foot of Beinn Laoigli. From this point it is a very 
easy walk to the rocks on the west side of the mountain. 
The first part of the day was fine, but the after part was 
very wet and misty. On account of the mist we confined 
our examination to the rocks on the west and north of the 
mountain. We saw most of the alpine plants which are 
known to grow on these rocks, among which may be men- 
tioned a small form of Coclilearia alpina, Wats. ; Triglochin 
imlustre, L., at an elevation of 2500 feet, being 500 feet 
above the height mentioned in the last edition of Hooker's 
Flora ; Juncus triglumis, L. ; J. higlumis, L. ; J. castancus, L. : 
Kohrcsia caricina, Willd.; Car ex indict, Good.; Wooclsia 
hyperhorca, E. Br.; CystoiJteris montana. Link., in several 
places ; FoUjpodium Phegopteris, L., with some of the fronds 
crested. So far as the members of the Club knew, this 
was a new station for Kohresia. 



376 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

As we were leaving the rocks the mist became very 
dense, but we all got down safely. We found the Lochy 
in flood, and had to wade a deep water before we could 
reach our carriage. We were all drenched, but got back to 
the hotel in good time for dinner, and none of the party 
suffered afterwards from the drenching. 

Thursday, 9th August. — The morning was fine, and we 
resolved to visit Loch Lomond and Ben Voirlich. Accord- 
ingly we left Tyndrum about 8 a.m., per West Highland 
Eailway, for Ardlui, at the head of Loch Lomond, which 
was reached in forty-one minutes. Here the party divided. 
One party botanised on the sides of Loch Lomond, and 
amongst other plants collected may be mentioned Drosera 
anglica. Huds. ; Circcai cdpina, L. ; Carum verticillatum, 
Koch.; Scutdlaria galcriculata, L. ; Hymenophylluin tun- 
Iridgcnse, Sm. ; H. unilatercde, Willd.; and the moss Diphy- 
sciu7n foliosum. The other party ascended Ben Voirlich, 
a mountain 3092 feet high, being exactly 100 feet lower 
than Ben Lomond. The day was very hot, and consequently 
mountaineering was somewhat arduous. We reached the 
top about 1.30 P.M., and had a fine view from the summit. 
We saw most of the alpine plants which are known to grow 
on this mountain, a record of which is found in A^ol. XL of 
the Society's Transactions, at page 70, by the late Professor 
Balfour. We met with no plants not mentioned in that 
list, but we found a large quantity of Ptcris aquilina, L., 
with the fronds all crested. There would be at least an 
acre of the hillside covered with this fern, and nearly every 
plant was abnormal. It is somewhat remarkable that this 
variety had not been recorded previously from Ben Voirlich 
when we consider its abundance, and the fact that the hill 
has been so frequently visited by botanists. Several plants 
were dug up, and it is hoped that some of them will grow. 
This variety is not unknown to cultivators of ferns, but, so 
far as I am aware, is not common in a wild state. 

Friday, 10th August. — The morning was again fine, and 
after an early breakfast we started for Beiun Laoigh and 
Ben Oss. The whole party travelled together as far as the 
farm of Cuninish, when we separated into two parties, one 
going towards Beinn Laoigh, with the view of examining the 
rocks to . the smdh of the great corrie, a portion of the 



Feb. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 377 

mountaiu which had not heen previously botanised by the 
Club. On the way up to the corrie they found Kohrcsia 
caricina, Willd., on the well-known station for this plant, 
which is a very different part of the mountain from the 
place where the plant was found by the Club two days 
previously. They did not enter the great corrie, but at 
once proceeded to examine the rocks to the south of this 
corrie. Among the plants collected may be mentioned Arahis 
petrcca, Lamk. ; Drdba incana, L. ; Dry as octopctala, L. ; Saxi- 
fraga nivalis, L. ; nicraciuin lingulatum, Backh. ; II. vulgare, 
Fries; H. Iioloscriceum, Backh.; H. Oreades, Fries; Veronica 
humifusa, Dicks. ; Bartsia alpina, L. ; Carex vaginata, Tausch. ; 
Asplcnium viridc, Huds.; and the moss Lcskca riifesccns. The 
Hicracia were indentified by Bennett, of Croydon. A very 
curious form of Arahis was obtained on the rocks, which 
differed much from the ordinary form of Arahis pctrcca. The 
plants were all seedlings, and they are being cultivated with 
the view of identifying the species. These plants were 
sent to Bennett, and he has planted some of the specimens, 
and if the plant flowers we will ascertain whether or not 
it is a mere form of Aixihis petrcca. 

The day was remarkably fine, and the party went in the 
afternoon to the summit of the mountain, from which they 
had a magnificent view of the surrounding country. 

The other party crossed the river by the bridge at 
Coninish farmhouse, and went to Ben Oss, a mountain not 
previously examined by the Club. It is 3374 feet high, 
and is situated south-west of Beinn Laoigh. We found the 
rocks very unproductive. We saw many of the more com- 
mon alpine plants, but only those which are found on almost 
all our Highland mountains. The best plant observed was 
Saxifraga nivalis, L., and even this plant was rare. It was 
very difficult climbing among the rocks, but we all reached 
the top in safety, from which an excellent view was obtained. 
We were anxious not only to examine the mountain, but 
also Loch Oss, a small loch situated due east from the 
summit of Ben Oss. It is 2084 feet above sea-level, and 
the river from it runs into Glen Falloch, a short distance 
above the head of Loch Lomond. The loch, like the moun- 
tain, w^as somewhat disappointing. The two best plants 
obtained were Callitriche hamulata, Kiitz., and Potamogdon 



378 TRANSACTIONS A^"D PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

nitcns, "Weber, both of which plants were identified by 
Bennett. 

After examining the loch, we retraced our steps to the 
ridge a little to the east of the summit. It was a stiff 
climb, and from the summit of this ridge we descended by 
a steep and difficult ravine, in which we saw some of the 
more common alpine plants, such as Saussurca alpina., DC, 
and several others, but none which can be called rare. We 
managed to get to the bottom of the rocks in safety, and 
after a long walk we reached our hotel in good time for 
dinner, greatly delighted with our excursion. 

Saturday, 11th August. — To-day the excursion came to 
an end, and the members returned home, all greatly 
delighted with our sojourn in Tyndrum. 



Notes feom the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Edinbuegh. 

I. Eepoet on Vegetation dueing the Month of 
January 1895. By PiObert Lindsay, Curator. 

The weather of last month was more severe than any 
we have experienced in January since 1881. All open 
air vegetation has been held completely in check. It is 
fortunate that it was so, when such unusjially severe 
weather has been protracted into the present month, else 
many plants would have suffered much more severely. 

Not a single plant came into flower during January, 
while last year there were 20 during that month. Xot 
since 1881 has there been a January without our having 
some plants in flower to record. 



Feb. 1S95.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



370 



II. Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of January 
]895. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level. 









76-5 feet. 


Sour of Observation, 9 a.m. 










r— /— V 


Thermometers, protected, 














i| 


4 feet above grass. 










/-^ 


.£3 


-S" 






'S 










a 


® Q 










Clouds. 




J 


o 




S. R. Ther- 
mometers for 




^ 








o 

a 
1— ( 


t 

03 


go- 
ID "O 

S s 


preceding 
24 hours. 


Hygrometer. 


a 
.2 
o 








"a 
•3 












-• 


, 


fi 




Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


P 


Kind. 


< 




M 






o 


" 


o 


o 












1 


29-991 


35-2 


29-0 


33-0 


30-5 


N.W. 


Cir. St. 


10 


N. 


0-010 


2 


29-G17 


40-1 


32-7 


36-0 


34-0 


W. 


... 







0-000 


3 


29-546 


39-0 


27-6 


29-5 


29-0 


w. 


Cir. St. 


3 


N. 


0-000 


4 


30-143 


371 


28-4 


31-6 


29-9 


w. 









0-000 


5 


30-025 


35-7 


24 8 


30-6 


30-0 


w. 


Cir.'st. 


lu 


N. 


0-050 


6 


29-689 


34-8 


30-2 


34-6 


33-0 


w. 


Cir. St. 


8 


N. 


0-015 


7 


29-841 


37-2 


27-0 


35-8 


33-2 


N. 


St. 


10 


N. 


0-000 


8 


29-954 


35-9 


31-2 


32-2 


30-9 


N.E. 


Cir. St. 


8 


N.E. 


0-000 


9 


29-904 


34-7 


19-4 


20-7 


20-6 


W. 


St. 


10 


W. 


0-000 


10 


29-863 


29-3 


15-4 


16-7 


16-6 


w. 


St. 


10 


W. 


0-COO 


11 


29-777 


26-0 


15-8 


25-7 


24-7 


S.E. 


Cir. St. 


9 


S.W. 


0-000 


12 


29-524 


33-5 


22-4 


26-8 


24-8 


s.e. 


Cir. 


9 


S.E. 


0-010 


13 


29-107 


37-1 


24-6 


35-7 


34-1 


e. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-130 


14 


28-934 


40-1 


34-0 


40-0 


38-0 


s.e. 


Nim. 


10 


S.E. 


0-155 


15 


29-037 


40-1 


36-8 


37-8 


372 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-245 


16 


28-969 


38-8 


.36 


37-1 


37-0 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-080 


17 


28-942 


39-9 


31-8 


33-7 


33-7 


W. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-280 


18 


29-278 


36-4 


33-2 


36 2 


35-0 


w. 









0-000 


19 


29-734 


40-7 


29-9 


30-2 


30-0 


N. 


Cir.'st. 


9 


... 


0-260 


20 


29-694 


40-6 


30 


37-2 


36-4 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-060 


21 


29-912 


38-1 


31-6 


32-3 


30-0 


N. 


... 







0-040 


22 


29-732 


38-1 


30-2 


36-2 


350 


W. 


Cir. 


5 


N. 


0-000 


23 


29-647 


414 


33-2 


33-5 


31-2 


N. 


St. 


2 


N. 


0-060 


24 


28-927 


39-0 


29-7 


36-0 


35-1 


W. 


Cir. St. 


10 


N.W. 


0-050 


25 


29-536 


38-9 


29-6 


29-6 


26-8 


N.W. 


Cir. 


1 


N. 


0-0-20 


26 


29-648 


32-9 


27-1 


28 9 


28-7 


W. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-135 


27 


29-593 


32 9 


21-1 


20-8 


19-5 


w. 









0-005 


28 


30-047 


35-2 


17-9 


18-8 


17-5 


s.w. 







... 


0-110 


29 


30-028 


32-2 


18-2 


31-5 


.311 


e. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-020 


30 


30-663 


34-3 


16-2 


24-8 


23-5 


E. 


St. 


2 


E. 


0-005 


31 


30-506 


35-0 


16 


30-8 


28-8 


N.E. 


Cir. 


1 


N.E. 


0-110 



Barometer.— Highest, 30-663 inches, on the 30th. Lowest, 28-927 inches, on the 24th. 
Jlonthly Range, 1-736 inch. Mean, 29-671 inches, being 0-085 inch below the average for 
January for four preceding years. 

Protected S. R. Thermometers.— Highest, 41°-4, on the 22nd. Lowest, 15°-4, on the 10th. 
Montlily Range, 25°-3. Mean of all the Highest, 36°-5. Mean of all the Lowest, •26°-8. Mean 
Daily Range, 9°-7. Mean Temperature of Month, 31°-6, being 5°-0 below the average for 
January for four preceding years. Frost occurred on 25 days. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb, 31°-1. Mean of Wet Bulb, 29°-9. Temperature of Dew- 
point, 26°-7. Mean Humidity, S3-:j %. 

Radiation Thermometers.— Highest in Sun, 08° '2, on the 27th. Lowest on Grass, 10°-S, on 
the 10th and 11th. Frost occurred on Grass on 30 days. 

Sunshine.— Total recorded for month, 36 hours 30 minutes, being 15-5 % of the possible 
amount. The sunniest day was the 21st, with 5 hours 35 minutes, being 71-6 % of the possible 
amount. None was recorded on 13 days. 

Rainfall.— Rain or snow fell on 21 days. Total Fall, 1-S50 inch, being 0-705 inch above the 
average for January for four preceding years. Greatest fall in 24 hours, 0-280 inch, on the 17th. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, Observer. 



380 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix, 

III. On Plants in the Plant Houses. By E. L. 
Harrow. 

The severe weather experienced during January has 
retarded considerably the growth and flowering of the 
plants in the houses of the Eoyal Botanic Garden, rather 
more than forty species, however, have flowered during the 
month. The new plant houses, constructed in the autumn, 
are devoted to the culture of tropical plants, orchids, 
succulents, and filmy ferns ; the corridor connecting them 
beiiig planted with creepers and wall plants, and special 
efforts have been made to furnish them so that they may 
shortly be opened to the public. From among the 
number of plants flowered may be noted the following : — 

Impatiens auricoma, Baillon. This plant, which is a 
native of Madagascar, was first described by Prof. Baillon, 
of Paris, to v/hom specimens were sent by Mons. Leon 
Humblot, to whom we are indebted for its introduction to 
cultivation in a rather indirect manner. In a package of 
plants of orchids and tree-ferns forwarded by him to a 
friend in Paris, which arrived at their destination dead, 
some stray seeds of this plant had been entangled with 
the stems of the ferns, and these germinated, the plant 
proving to be the species which had been described some 
ten years previously. In habit like others of the genus, 
the plant has yellow flowers with a curious spur. It is 
interesting to note that /. Sultani, Hook, f,, a tropical 
African species, was also introduced accidentally in a 
Wardian case of plants sent by Sir J. Kirk to Kew some 
years ago. 

Brachyrilottis rcpanda, Porst. This plant, of loose 
shrubby habit, belonging to the ComposittTe, is a native of 
New Zealand, and has the foliage silvery pubescent on the 
under side, the leaves being ovate in shape. The flowers 
are about six in a head and these form large panicles. 
The stamens are coloured yellow. The flowers are 
strongly fragrant, of a violet perfume. It was introduced 
in 1834. 

Steudncra discolor, N. E. Brown. This is a member 
of a small genus of aroids inhabiting Burmah. The 
inflorescence possesses a yellow spathe with a reddish 



Feb. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 381 

brown blotch at the base. The leaves are petiolate, 
peltate in form, the under side being marked with purple 
patches between the veius. 

Vaccinium erytlirinv.m, Hook. Introduced in 1852 
from Java. This plant is still an uncommon one in 
gardens. It is a compact bush-like plant, with alternate 
coriaceous leaves, which when young are of a reddish tint, 
as are also the young twigs. The inflorescences are in 
terminal racemes, the corollas of a deep red colour, almost 
filled with nectar. 

Others worthy of note are : — Cymhidium fjigantcum. 
Wall., — a strong growing species from the Himalayan 
regions. Sclcnipediuni Dominianum, Hort., — with curious 
tail-like petals, a hybrid between S. ccuncinum and *S'. 
cmidatum. Vanda Amcsicma, Echb., — from the Shan States 
of Burmah. The flowers, which are in racemes, are very 
fragrant. Dalcchanqjia Boczliana, Mnell., — a native of 
Mexico, belonging to the order Euphorbiacea?. The 
curious inflorescences are enclosed between two large 
coloured bracts. This species is probably the only one at 
present under cultivation. Begonia " Gloire de Sceaux," 
Hort., — a pretty flowering hybrid between B. socotronfi, 
Balf. f., and B. suhiKltata, Wight. 



Mar. 1S95.J BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 383 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, March 14, 1895. 

Surgeon-Major H. H. Johnston in the Chair. 

Geokge King, M.D., CLE, LL.l)., F.E.S., F.L.S., Director 
of the Ptoyal Botanic Garden, Calcutta, was, on the recom- 
mendation of the Council, chosen British Honorary Fellow 
of the Society. 

Dr. Ed. Borxet, Member of the Institute, Paris ; Dr. 
WiLHELM Pfeffer, Gch. Hofrat, Professor of Botany, and 
Director of the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Leipzig ; Chahles 
S. Sargent, Professor of Arboriculture, and Director of the 
Arboretum, Harvard; Dr. M. Treub, Professor in the School 
of Agriculture, and Director of the Botanic Garden, Buiten- 
zorg; and Dr. H. De Vries, Professor of Physiology in the 
University, Amsterdam, were, on the recommendation of the 
Council, chosen Foreign Honorary Fellows of the Society. 

Dr. 0. Brefeld, Professor of Botany in the University, 
and Director of the Botanic Garden, Munster; Dr. F. 
Elving, Professor of Botany in the University, Helsing- 
fors ; A. Fkanchet, Attache in the Museum of Xatural 
History, Paris; L. Guignard, Professor of Botany, Paris; 
Dr. E. Stahl, Professor of Botany in the L^niversity, and 
Director of the Botanic Garden, Jena; Dr. H. Trimen, 
M.B., FP.S., F.L.S., Director of the Botanic Garden, Para- 
deniya, Ceylon; and Dr. H. Vuchting, Professor of Botany 
in the L'niversity, and Director of the Botanic Garden, 
Tubingen, were, on the recommendation of the Council, 
chosen Corresponding Fellows of the Society. 

Intimation of the death of Thomas Alexander Goldie 
Balfour, M.D., Piesident Fellow of the Society, was made 
by the Chairman. 

Issued November 1895. 



384 TKAKSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

Specimens of Lciicojum, Hcpatica, Do'plinc Mezereum, etc., 
sent by Mr. Campbell from his garden at Ledaig, Argyll- 
shire, were exhibited. 

Surgeon-Major H. H. Johnston exhibited a complete 
series of specimens illustrating his paper on the Flora of 
Mauritius, subsequently read at the Meeting. 

Cut blooms of Paulo- Wilhclmia speciosa, TmjMtiens auri- 
coma, Burchcllia capensis. Rhododendron argentcuni, B. 
ponticum x B. arhoreuin, and Thyrsacanthus rutilans, were 
exhibited from the Eoyal Botanic Garden. 



The following papers were read : — 

Notes on a Book of Photographs and Measurements 
OF PtEMARKABLE AYRSHIRE TREES, presented by Mr. George 
Paxton to the Library of the PiOYal Botanic Garden, 
Edinburgh. By Dr. D. Christison. 

The volume that I have the pleasure of presenting to 
the Library of the Pioyal Botanic Garden, in the name of 
the author, Mr. George Paxton, furnishes one of the first, 
if not the first, record of the remarkable trees in a whole 
county, made by means of photographic views combined 
with measurements. When Mr. Paxton began to take 
photographs of the best examples of the different species 
around Kilmarnock he had not the intention of producing 
so complete a work ; but, encouraged by the Eev, Mr. 
Landsborough, he was induced to extend his operations, 
until he overtook the whole of Ayrshire so exhaustively 
that probably very few of the larger trees in the county 
have escaped his notice. 

By. i\Ir. Paxton's request, in presenting the volume, I 
have drawn up the following brief re%dew of the general 
results of his labours, and I have also prepared a table of 
the trees, represented in the volume, showing their localities 
and measurements, the species being arranged in the order 
of the size to which they happen to have attained, although, 
of course, it may be by mere accident that one species has 
outstripped another in this respect. 



Mar. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



185 











Girth in 




Date of 
Measure- 


Species. 


Locality. 


Feet. 


Remarks. 






ment. 






At 5 


At 












Feet. 


Base. 




Feb. 


1891 


Ulmus montana 


Galstou 




*27-0 


* Measured a.d. ISOO. 
"The Boss Tree." 18 
■ft. 8j in. at 5 ft., and 
18 ft. 5 in. at 6 ft. in 
1881 (Landsborough). 


Sept. 


1894 


Do. 


Eglinton Castle 


11-2 






Sept. 


1894 


Ulmus campestris 


Do. 


12-7 






Sept. 


1892 


Do. 


Sorn 


11-9 






Sept. 


1892 


Tilia europt«a 


Kirkmichael House 


18-10 


28-'6 




April 


1892 


Do. 


Montgreenan 




21-0 


Not measurable higher, 
from undergrowth of 
twigs on the stem. 


Sept. 


1892 


Castanea vesca 


Cloncaird Castle 


18-5 


25-0 




Aug. 


1892 


Fagus sylvatica 


Stair House 


18-2 




86 ft. high. 


Sept. 


1894 


Do. 


Eglinton Castle 


17-3 


31-0 




June 


1894 


Do. 


Auchans 




25-0 


15 ft. 3 in. at 3 ft. Short 
stem. 


Oct. 


1892 


Fraxinus excelsior 


Hunterston 


16-1 






July 


1892 


Do. 


Ricliardland, Kil- 
marnock 


3-10 




Weeping Ash. Circum- 
ference of branches, 
100 ft. 


June 


1894 


yEscuIus Hippocas- 
tanum 


Cloncaird Castle 


13-10 


20-6 




Oct. 


1892 


Acer Pseudo-platanus 


Cassilis House 


13-8 




" The Dule Tree." 


June 


1891 


Do. 


Old Auchans 


13-4 


24-0 




June 


1891 


Salix alba 


Coodham, Kilmar- 
nock 


13-6 




Two of precisely this 
girth at gate of house. 


June 


1894 


Quercus Robur 


Old Auchans 


12-9 






Aug. 


1891 


Do. Ilex 


Fullarton House 




11-9 




Aug. 


1891 


Ilex Aquifolium 


Do. 


12-6 






Sept. 


1894 


Carpinus Betulus 


Eglinton Castle 






14 ft. 3 in. at 1 ft. Stem 
divides into three at 
about IS in. 


Sept. 


1892 


Juglans regia 


Kirkmichael House 


10-7 






June 


1894 


Betula alba 


Old Aucheudrane 


9-8 


11-4 


A most beautiful, lofty, 
wide - spreading tree. 
Only about 70 years 
old (Landsborough). 


Aug. 


1894 


Abies pectinata 


Old Auchendrane 


li-9 




Planted 1797 (Lands- 
borough). 


Sept. 


1892 


Do. 


Sundrum 


13-4 






June 


1894 


Taxus baccata 


Loudoun Castle 


14-2 




14 ft. 1| in. on higher 
side at 3 ft. 3 in. ; 13 
ft 4| in. on lower side 
at 1 ft. ; height of 
trunk, 20 ft. ; height 
to first branch, G ft. ; 
height of tree, 45 ft. ; 
branch spread, 76 ft. 
(Landsborough, 1894). 


April 1802 


Taxus hibernica 


Netherplace, 




10-10 


Narrowest at ground. 






(Hooker) 


Mauchline 








June 


1894 


Pinus sylvestris 


Cloncaird Castle 




17-0 


12 ft. 10 in. at 2 ft. of 
short stem. "The Bell 
Tree." 


June 


1894 


Larix europnea 


Kirkmichael House 


12-1 






Aug. 


1894 


Sequoia sempervirens 


Milrig House 


6-5 




About the narrowest, 40 
ft. high. 


Aug. 


1892 


Araucaria imbricata 


Cloncaird Castle 


5-5 




55 ft. high. 



Taking a general view of the table and of the photo- 
graphs, it is evident that Ayrshire is not remarkable for 
venerable ruins, such as in other counties testify, by their 
vast size, wasted limbs, and hollow stem, to a descent from 
remote antiquity. There is, indeed, but one veteran of the 



TRA2^S. BOT. 30C. EDIN. VOL. XX 



2B 



386 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

kind among Mr. Paxton's subjects, " The Boss Tree " at 
Galston, a Wych elm, of which merely the hollow stump 
remains. Mr. Paxton has not girthed it, but gives an old 
measurement at the base of 27 feet, taken about the be- 
ginning of the century. The photograph shows a stump 
about 10 feet high, and of tolerably uniform size from top 
to bottom. It has much the appearance of having been 
pollarded. Probably the largest Wych elm in a vigorous 
condition in the county now is at Loudoun Castle. It 
girthed 15 ft. 2 in. at 5 ft. in 1879 (Landsborough). 

The English elm {Uliiius campestris), that stately species 
so conspicuous in Gloucester, Somerset, Wilts, an.d other 
south-western English counties, is rare in Scotland, where 
it has nowhere attained any remarkable size. Indeed, as 
far as I know, the two largest are in Mr. Paxton's list, and 
their girth is only 1 2 ft. 7 in. and 11 ft. 9 in. The largest 
of the two, moreover, at Eglinton Castle, has evidently seen 
its best days. The smaller one, with a tall cylindrical 
stem, at Sorn, seems still vigorous. 

Some of the other larger forest species have fine repre- 
sentatives in the county. The lime at Kirkmichael House, 
the Spanish chestnut at Cloncaird Castle, and the beech at 
Stair House, all girth between 18 and 19 feet, fairly 
measured at 5 feet from the ground, and are apparently 
healthy, growing trees. A magnificent, tall and spreading 
beech at Eglinton Castle, 17 ft. 3 in. in girth, and a lime 
at Montgreenan, not measurable from a dense growth of 
twigs at the foot of the stem, follow not far behind these 
giants. 

But the remaining larger forest species are poorly repre- 
sented, as far as size goes. The handsome Hunterston ash, 
16 ft. 1 in. in girth, 5 feet up, gives promise, indeed, of 
climbing in no long time into the foremost rank, and an 
ash at Lanfine, 15 ft. 10 in. in girth at 5 feet, in 1879 
(Landsborough), ought by this time to have surpassed the 
Hunterston tree. But if Mr. Paxton's Cloncaird Castle 
horse chestnut {jEscuUls Hippoca sternum), Cassilis House 
sycamore {Acer Pscuclo-platanus), Coodham willow (Salix 
alba), and Old Auchan's oak (Quercics Bohur), are indeed 
the largest of their kind in the county, it will be long 
before Ayrshire can have the chance of showing giant 



Mar. 1S95.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 387 

specimens of these species, as the girth of the reputed 
premiers range only between 13 ft. 10 in. for the horse 
chestnut and 12 ft. 9 in. for the oak. The Cassilis House 
sycamore, 13 ft. 8 in. in girth, is indeed exceeded by one 
at Stair, 14 ft. 6 in., and another at Loudon Castle, 14 ft. 
2 in. ; but these are not great girths for the species, and 
Mr. Paxton has preferred the slightly smaller Cassilis tree 
for illustration, as it is a finer specimen. One does not 
expect so much from the walnut as from the other larger 
forest species in Scotland, but the Kirkmichael House 
specimen, although a fine tree, witli a straight clean bole 
about 20 feet high, is only 10 ft. 7 in. in girth at 5 feet, 
and falls far short of several examples in other counties. 

Although, however, we must admit the deficiency among 
these larger species, the county can boast of some of the 
best Scottish examples of two of the smaller species. The 
Old Auchendrane birch {Betula alha) is, indeed, inferior in 
girth to the Xewton-Don tree, in Eoxburgh, with its 
altogether exceptional measurement of 13 ft. 1 in. But 
this is at the narrowest part of a very short stem, only 
2i feet in length, and, as far as I have been able to ascer- 
tain, the Ayrshire tree, 11 ft. 4 in. in girth at the base, 
and 9 ft. 8 in. at 5 feet of a longer stem, is well entitled 
to the second place among Scottish birches, particularly as 
Mr. Paxton's photograph shows it to be a singularly hand- 
some, well-clothed tree, lofty and wide-spreading, its height 
being about 70 feet and the branch-spread about 55 feet, 
as far as can be judged by comparison with the figures 
introduced in the view. Nor is this the only fine birch in 
the county, as Mr. Paxton has photographed a weeping 
one at Eosemount, Ayr, with a stem 1 feet long before it 
gives off a branch, and 8 ft. 1 in. in girth half way up, 
also a very handsome tree. 

The holly {lleo: Aquifolium) at FuUarton House appears 
also to be one of the finest Scottish examples of its kind. 
It girths 12 ft. 6 in. at 5 feet up, but seems to be one of 
those trees that are narrowest near the base, as some years 
before Mr. Paxton measured it Mr. Landsborough made it 
only 9 ft. 8 in., 1 foot from the ground. Taking the two 
measurements tosiether, however, it is doubtful if there is a 
larger stemmed holly in Scotland. 



388 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

Another remarkable tree of the lesser species is the 
Eglinton Castle hornbeam {Carpinus Bdulus). Its girth at 
1 foot from the ground is no less than 14 ft. 3 in., but, as 
almost immediately above this it divides into three, there 
may be a question whether these may not originally have 
been separate trees, which subsequently grew together at 
the base. However, I have not been able to find any 
notice of other large hornbeams in Scotland with which to 
compare it, and the only English one recorded that I know 
of was as far back as 17G4, by Mr. E. Marsham, at 
Writtle, Essex, girthing 12 feet at 5 feet up. 

The evergreen oak {Quercv^ Ilex) at Eullarton is said by 
Mr. Landsborough to be the largest in the south-west of 
Scotland. Its girth is 11 ft. 9 in. at the base, and, 
accordin^T to Mr. Landsborough, was 10 ft. 11 in. at 5 feet 
up, in 1879: but there is one at Castle-Kennedy, 
Wigtownshire, that girths 15 feet at 1 foot, 14 feet at 
3 feet, and 15 feet at 5 feet. 

The ordinary forest pines, the Scots fir {Pinus sijlvestris), 
larch {Larix e^iropcca), and silver fir {Abies pectinata), are 
but poorly represented by premier specimens, girthing re- 
spectively 12 ft. 10 in. at 3 ft. up, on a very short stem, 
12 ft. 1 in., and 14 ft. 9 in.; but of more recently introduced 
species, the Araucaria inibricata at Cloncaird Castle, taking 
together its girth, 5 ft. 6 in. at 5 ft., and height, ob feet, is 
well to the front among Scottish examples ; and the TaxocUum 
sempcrvircns, 6 ft. 5 in. in girth at 5 ft., about its narrowest, 
and 40 feet high, appears to be exceeded only by the re- 
markable trees at Murthly Castle, 8 ft. 10 in. in girth, and 
45 feet high, and at Dupplin, 7 ft. 9 in. in girth, and 60 
feet high. 

The yew [Taxus hacca.ta) at Loudoun Castle, although 
exceeded in girth by several others in Scotland, is certainly 
one of the finest of the species that we have. It has a 
beautifully fluted stem, 6 feet high, and nowhere more than 
a few inches under 14 feet in girth. In its branch spread 
of 74 feet, it seems to be surpassed only by the short- 
stemmed yew at Craigends, Eenfrew. Of Irish yews {Taxus 
hiljcrnica) I have no records, but the one at Xetherplace, 
Mauchline. 10 ft. 10 in. in i^irth at the CTOund, breaking at 
once into many branches, must be an unusually large specimen. 



Mar. 1SP5.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 389 

As to the probable age of these premier trees, it is question- 
able if any of them, with the exception of the Boss elm and 
the Loudoun Castle yew, exceed much, if at all, two centuries. 
It may seem startling to limit the age of such giants as the 
lime, horse chestnut, and beech in the table to a couple of 
centuries, but there is no reason to assign a greater age to 
them, as my general observations tend greatly to prove 
that large trees have been unusually quick growers. More- 
over, I have shown that the great beech at Newbattle 
Abbey, the largest in Scotland, is probably not above 
250 years old. 

But the age of a huge decaying stump, such as that of the 
Boss elm, may very well be much greater, as some large 
trees seem to take nearly as long to decay as to arrive at 
maturity. As the yew is undoubtedly a comparatively slow 
grower, a prodigious age is often attributed to such large 
specimens as the one at Loudoun Castle, and legend often 
associates them with events of a very remote antiquity. 
It is rarely, however, that these legends can stand the test 
of a strict examination. Thus it is said that one of the 
family charters was signed beneath the shade of the 
Loudoun Castle yew in the reign of William the Lion, 
nearly 700 years ago, but there can hardly be a doubt 
that the tree did not exist till at least two centuries later. 
Measurements taken by Mr.Landsborough in 1 8 64 and 1894, 
show that the tree during that period was still increasing 
in girth at the annual rate of a third of an inch. Xow, 
even if no greater rate had been maintained for its whole 
life, the age w'ould only be 510 years. But it is well 
ascertained that the rate of yews, like that of other trees, 
is much greater in early life than subsequently. There are 
several well ascertained instances of a rate exceeding three- 
quarters of an inch annually for more than the first hundred 
years; and I found the rate of a yew in the Edinburgh 
Botanic Garden, 6 feet in girtli, to be very nearly half an 
inch for the last fifteen years. Taking this rate for the 
Loudoun yew till it was 6 feet in girth, and its own 
present rate of one-third of an inch as the subsequent rate, 
the age would be reduced to 438 years. But as the 
Botanic Garden tree cannot be compared with the other 
for apparent vigour and favourable circumstances, four 



190 



TEAXSACTIOXS AMD PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess, lex. 



centuries may be assumed as a very probable age for the 
Loudoun Castle yew. 

The rate of growth of two of the trees seems remarkable. 
The Auchendrane birch is said to be only about seventy 
years old. This will yield an annual girth-increase of 
1'65 inch. The few birches I have observed do not grow 
nearly so fast as this, and it is desirable that the alleged 
age of the Ayrshire tree should be verified if possible. 
The silver fir at Auchendrane is said to have been planted 
in 1797, giving an annual rate of 1"88 inch, which, 
although unusually high, I believe, is not unprecedented in 
Scotland. 

To complete this view of remarkable Ayrshire trees, I 
take the following examples of species, not included in Mr. 
Paxton's book, from Mr. Landsborough's observations : — 



Date, j Species. 


Locality. 


Girth at 

1 5 Feet. 


1 
Remarks. 








! Ft In. 


1 


1879 


Acer saccharinum 


Craig, Ayr . 




11 ft. 2J in. at 2 feet. 


jj 


Acer platanoides 


Loudoun Castle 


s'io 




J, 


Liriodendron tulipifera 


do. 




7 ft. 7 in. at 4 feet. 


,, 


Cratipgus Oxyacantha 


do. 


s'g 




,, 


Pyrus Aucuparia 


do. 


6 10 




" 


Robiuia Pseudacacia . 


do. 


4 


Bole,12ft.; Height, 51 
ft. Planted about 1834. 




Hedera Helix 


do. 




3 ft. at 1 foot. 


1893 


Do. ... 


Maybole . 




2 ft. 2* in. at 2 feet. 


1879 


Pinus strobn.s . 


Loudoun Castle 


8"6 




,, 


Pinus Pinaster . 


BeUfield, Ajt . 


5 10 




" 


Cedrus Libani . 


Loudoun Castle 


,14 7 





I cannot conclude without remarking how much the 
value of Mr. Paxton's measurements would have been 
enhanced had he been able to mark the trees at the 
measured point. We should thus have been able in a very 
few years to determine the probable, or at least possible, 
rate of girth-increase in very large trees of the different 
species, a point on which we have hardly any reliable 
information. Unfortunately, it is not sufficient to record 
in print the height above ground at which the girth was 
taken without marking the place, because at a subsequent 
observation the precise point may be missed, and a very 
slight change in the position may yield very difiFerent 
results, also because there is often a considerable differ- 
ence of level in the ground at opposite sides of a 
tree, so that even the approximate point of the recorded 
girth is uncertain. Perhaps Mr. Paxtou may yet see 



Mak. 1S95.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 



191 



his way to have the trees marked, with the co-operatiou 
of the proprietors and foresters, as this can be done without 
either injury or disfigurement. After a long period, indeed, 
say of twenty or thirty years, remeasuring of unmarked 
trees, at the recorded level, may yield tolerably satisfactory 
results. But when marked, and when the measurement is 
made with a reliable tape, a more precise result can be got 
in two or three years. 

Finally, it is to be hoped that Mr. Paxton's example 
may be followed by other observers, with the requisite 
leisure and skill with the camera, so that we may gradually 
acquire a knowledge of the finest trees in other counties, 
similar to that which he has so fully given us in his 
beautiful presentation volume of portraits and measure- 
ments of the remarkable trees of Ayrshire. 



Additions to the Flora of Mauritius, as recorded in 
Baker's "Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles." 
By Surgeon-Major H. H. Johnston, D.Sc, F.E.S.E., F.L.S. 

During a three and a half years' residence in Mauritius, 
from February 1887 to July 1890, I collected specimens 
of 485 species and varieties of plants. Of this number 
103 are not recorded in Baker's "Flora of Mauritius and 
the Seychelles," published in 1877; but 25 of these belong 
to the Vascular Cryptogams, which are not included in 
Baker's Flora. 

The following table shows the number of species in each 
of the three divisions of the vegetable kingdom : — 



Class. 


Native. 


Naturalised. 


Casuals and 
Escapes from Total. 
Cultivation. 


I. Dicotyledones 
IL Monocotyledones 
II I Cryptogamia . 


S 
18 
25 


31 
5 


12 51 

4 27 
— 25 


Total . 


51 


36 


16 I 103 



392 TEAXSACTIO^•S AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

Of the 51 native species 2 are new, viz. Phyllunthus 
viauritianus, H. H. Johnston, and Carpha costularioides, C. 
B. Clarke. 

Except where otherwise noted, the Phanerogamia have 
been identified by Mr. J. G. Baker, Keeper of the 
Herbarium, Piojal Gardens, Kew, and author of the above- 
mentioned work, to whom I am particularly indebted for 
his universal kindness in naming most of the specimens 
sent to Kew for identification. 

As the present paper forms the fifth and last of my 
reports on the flora of Mauritius, I take this opportunity 
of expressing my gratitude to Mr. "W. T. Thiselton Dyer, 
Director of the Eoyal Gardens, Kew, on whose recom- 
mendation every facility for making botanical collections 
was rendered me by the military authorities at Mauritius, 
and to whose Herbarium staff at Kew I am indebted for 
the identification of most of the plants. I am also much 
indebted, for kind assistance, to Mr. C. B. Clarke; Messrs. 
H. & J. Groves; Dr. E. Hackel; Mr. J. Home, late Director 
of "Woods and Eorests at Mauritius; Mr. W. Scott, present 
Director of "Woods and Eorests at Mauritius; and M. A. 
Daruty de Grandpre, Secretary of the Eoyal Society of 
Arts and Sciences of Mauritius. 

EXPLAXATIOXS. 

An * before the name of a species means that the plants of that species 
are naturalised in the Mauritius group of islands. 

A t before the name of a species means that the plants of that species 
are either mere casuals, or escapes from cultivation, which have 
not become naturalised. 



* FuMAEiA MUEALis, Sonder. — Border of a sugar-cane 
field, 1070-1100 feet above sea-level, Plaines Wilhelms, 
Mauritius, 3rd September 1888. Stems 3-5 feet long. A 
common European weed. 

*Cap.sella Buesa-pastoeis, Medic. — Pioadside, 1070 
feet above sea-level, Plaines "Wilhelms, Mauritius, 3rd 
September 1888. A common European weed, recorded as 
cultivated at " la Eiviere Xoire," Mauritius, in Bojer, 
Hort. Maur,, p. 11. 



Mar. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 393 

* Eapiianus SxVTIVUS. Linn. — Fallow sugar-cane field, 
1100 feet above sea-level, Plaines Wilhelms, Mauritius, 
10th September 1888. Two forms, one with purple and 
the other with yellow petals. This species is the common 
cultivated radish, which is recorded as cultivated in vege- 
table gardens, in Mauritius, in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 16. 

tSAPONAEiA Vaccakia, Linn. — Cultivated ground, 1880 
feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 7th September 
1888. 

* SiLENE Armeria, Linn. — Eoadside, 1850 feet above 
sea-level, Mauritius, 21st November 1888, A widely 
spread species, originally European, which has become 
established at roadsides, near gardens, at Curepipe. Re- 
corded as cultivated in Mauritius, in Bojer, Hort. Maur., 
p. 23. 

*Silene gallica, Linn. — Roadside, 1380 feet above 
sea-level, Plaines Wilhelms, Mauritius, 17th September 
1888. A native of Europe, now widely dispersed. 

*Sagina apetala, Linn. — Roadside, 1850 feet above 
sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 8th October 1888. A native 
of Europe, now widely dispersed. 

SiDA diffusa, H. B. et K.— He de la Passe, 26th 
October 1888 ; He aux Fouquets, 2nd September 1889 ; 
He Marianne, 3rd September 1889 ; He Vakois, 5th 
September 1889. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. p. 358. 

Cardiospermum microcarpum, H. B. et K. — Wood, 90 
feet above sea-level, Montague de Port Louis, Mauritius, 
28th March 1887; and field-side, 250 feet above sea- 
level, Pamplemousses, Mauritius, 27th May 1887. In 
Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 56, this species is recorded 
from the Seychelles by Perville and Home, and from 
Rodriguez by Balfour ; and the following note occurs : — 
"No doubt will be found also in Mauritius if looked 
for." It is found throughout the tropics. This is now 
considered a variety of C. Halicacahum. 

*Medicago lupulina, Linn. — Roadside, 1390 feet above 
sea-level, Plaines Wilhelms, Mauritius, 10th September 
1888. A native of Europe and Asia. 



394 TKAXSACTIONS AI^"D PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

* Medicago DEXTICULATA, Willcl — Eoadside, 1390 feet 
above sea-level, Plaines Wilhelms, Mauritius, 10th Septem- 
ber 1888. A native of Europe. 

tCiCER ARIETINUM, Linn. — Cultivated ground, 1880 feet 
above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 24th August 1888; 
and a road, 1820 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, 5th 
December 1888. Widely cultivated in tropical regions in 
the Old World, and occurs at Curepipe as a mere casual. 
It is recorded as accidentally cultivated in Mauritius, in 
Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 102 ; and as naturalised in Flat 
Island in Home's Notes on Flora of Flat Island, pp. 7 and 
8, published in 1886. 

*VlCIA ANGUSTIFOLIA, PiOth, var. SEGETALIS, Thuill. 

Eoadside, 1080 feet above sea-level, Plaines Wilhelms, 
Mauritius, I7th September 1888. A native of Europe. 

*Lathyrus Aphaga, Linn. — Cultivated ground, 1880 
feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 17th August 
1888. A native of Euroj^e, now widely dispersed. 

*MucuNA PRURIENS, DC. — Piiver-sidc, 15 feet above 
sea-level. La Grande Pdviere Nord Quest, Mauritius, 10 th 
August 1887. Eecorded as cultivated in the Eoyal Botanic 
Garden at Pamplemousses, and at Bois Cheri, in Bojer, Hort. 
Maur., p. 108. Vernacular name, Pois cl gratter. 

* SOPHORA TOMENTOSA, Linn. — He Marianne, 19th March 
1890; He des Aigrettes, 20th June 1890. See Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. pp. 321 and 371. In Bojer, 
Hort. Maur., p. 83, it is recorded as naturalised in He 
aux Tonneliers, at the entrance of Port Louis harbour. A 
native of India and the West Indies. 

tEosA sp. — Eoadside near abandoned habitations, 1700 
feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 5 th December 
1888. An escape from cultivation. Shrub 2-6 feet high. 
Petals pink. With reference to specimens forwarded by 
me to the Eoyal Gardens, Kew, Mr. J. G. Baker sent me 
the following note : — " Bosa probably a hybrid, of which 
imlica is the predominating parent.'' In Bojer, Hort. 
Maur., p. 128, Eosa inclica, and 14 other species of Bosa 
are recorded as cultivated in gardens in Mauritius. 



M AH. 1895. ] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 395 

t CupiiEA PROCUMBENS, Cav. — Eoadside, 1850 feet above 
sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 8th October 1888. It is a 
native of ]Mexico, and a common garden annual. 

*Gi^NOTnEKA ROSEA, Soland. — Ttoadside, 1850 feet 
above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 8th October 1888. 
Valves of dehiscent capsule recurved in the living plant, 
incurved in the dried plant. A native of Mexico, and 
recorded as cultivated at " la Kiviere Noire," in Mauritius, 
in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 135, 

PORTULACA PSAMMOTROPHA, Hancc {fidc N. E. Brown). — 
In Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. p. 366, this species is 
described by me and recorded from the following islands : 
— He aux Eouquets, 4th September 1889 ; lie Vakois, 5th 
September 1889; He de la Passe, 18th March 1890; He 
Marianne, 19th March 1890. 

tMoMORDiCA Charantia, Linn. — Stream-side, 15 feet 
above sea-level, Port Louis, Mauritius, 18th June 1887. 
An escape from vegetable gardens which has not become 
naturalised in Mauritius. This species is recorded as culti- 
vated in gardens in Mauritius, in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 148. 
With reference to a specimen sent by me to the Eoyal 
Gardens, Ivew, Mr. J. G. Baker wrote that this species had 
been sent by Mr. Neville from the Seychelles, and that it 
is widely spread through the tropics of both hemispheres. 

* Opuntia monacantha, Haw. — Pasture, 10 feet above 
sea-level, Flat Island, 11th November 1887 ; and He de la 
Passe, 26th October 1888, as recorded in Trans. Bot. Soc. 
Edin., vol. xx. p. 358. 

This species is erroneously recorded from Flat Island as 
the nearly allied 0. Tuna, Miller, in Home, Notes on Flora 
of Flat Island, pp. 13 and 14, published in 1886. 0. Tuna, 
Miller, is naturalised in the main island of Mauritius. 

* Opuntia Ficus-indica, Miller. — Paver-side, 1 5 feet 
above sea-level, La Grande Eiviere Nord Ouest, Mauritius, 
2ud November 1887. This species is recorded as almost 
naturalised in Mauritius, in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 156. 
Vernacular name, Raqiiette. 



396 TEANSACTIOXS AND PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

Oldexlandia Heynii, G-. Don. — Pasture, 1880 feet above 
sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 5th June 1889. Also a 
native of Tropical Africa, Natal, and India. 

t MoRiXDA CITRIFOLIA, Linn. — Stream-side, 1 5 feet above 
sea-level, Port Louis, Mauritius, 18th June 1887. An 
escape from cultivation which has not become naturalised 
in Mauritius. This species, which is recorded as native 
from the Seychelles by Bojer and Home in Baker, Flor. 
Maur. Seych., p. 153, is said to be cultivated in Mauritius, 
by Bojer. 

*Galinsoga parviflora, Cav. — Pioadside, 1100 feet 
above sea-level, Plaines Wilhelms, Mauritius, 1 7th Septem- 
ber 1888. A native of South America. 

*Erigeron canadensis, Linn. — Waste ground, 1880 feet 
above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 9th July 1888 ; and 
coralline limstone, 6 feet above sea- level, north islet of 
Les Benitiers, 20th January 1890. A native of North 
America, now widely dispersed. See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., 
vol. XX. p. 333. 

*Erigeron philadelphicus, Linn. — Abandoned planta- 
tion, 1300 feet above sea-level, Deux Mamelles, Pample- 
mousses, Mauritius, 18th July 1889. A native of North 
America. 

f Erigeeon mucronatus, DC. — Pioad, 1880 feet above 
sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 21st November 1888. A 
native of ]\Iexico. Is cultivated in the gardens at Curepipe, 
and also occurs as an escape. 

tBoLTONiA INDIGA, Bcnth. — Waste ground, 1870 feet 
above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 8th December 1888 ; 
and roadside, 1610 feet above sea-level, Yacoa, Mauritius, 
14th June 1889. A native of China and Japan, which 
has scarcely become naturalised in Mauritius. 

* Dichrocephala latifolia, DC. — Common along road- 
sides and on waste ground, 1880 feet above sea-level, 
Curepipe, Mauritius, 5th June 1889. This species is a 
widely dispersed weed, and it also occurs in Madagascar. 

* Taraxacum officinale, Wigg. — Eoadside, 1880 feet 
above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 15th March 1888. 
This species is recorded as cultivated at " la Eiviere Noire," 



Mar. 1895,] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 397 

Mauritius, in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 192, under " Leontodon 
Taraxacum, L." Vernacular name, Pisscnlit d'Uurope. The 
]\Iauritius plants belong to the type of the species. 

^Ipomcea purpurea, Eoth. — Eiver-side, 40 feet above 
sea-level. La Grande Pdviere Nord Quest, Mauritius, 30th 
August 1887; and edge of a forest, 1880 feet above 
sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 13th March 1888. This 
common garden plant, a native of America, is recorded as 
cultivated at " la Eiviere Noire," Mauritius, under the 
name of Pharhitis purpurea, in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 227. 
It is recorded as naturalised in Eodriguez by Balfour, on 
Mr. Baker's authority. 

^Ipomoja Nil, Eoth ; Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 209). 
— lie des Aigrettes, 18th August 1888; He de la Passe, 
2 6th October 1888. See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. 
pp. 324 and 358. 

Ipom(EA grandiflora, Lam. {Ipomcea gldbcrrima, Bojer, 
cf. Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 211). — He des Aigrettes, 
4th March 1889; He Vakois, 5th September 188^9; He 
Marianne, 19th March 1890. See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., 
vol. XX. pp. 325 and 362. 

This species, which occurs from Polynesia to Zambesi- 
land, is recorded as cultivated in the Eoyal Botanic 
Garden at Pamplemousses, Mauritius, under " Calonyction 
cornospcrma, Boj.," in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 228. It s 
recorded as native in Flat Island by Home in his Notes 
on Flora of Flat Island, pp. 17 and 18, published 
in 1886. In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 211, it is 
recorded by Bojer and Wright as native in the Seychelles, 
" in bushy places near the shore." 

*CuscuTA reflexa, Eoxb. — Parasitic on shrubs, 1100 
feet above sea-level, Moka, Mauritius, 18th June 1887; 
and in a forest 1350 feet above sea-level. Deux ]Mamelles, 
Pamplemousses, Mauritius, 18th July 1889. Common. A 
native of India. 

tSoLAXUM SODOJLEUM, Linu. — Footpath, 10 feet above 
sea-level, near a mill for grinding grain from India and 
Australia, La Grande Eiviere Nord Quest, Mauritius, 10th 
August 1887. Qne plant only was found by me. This 



398 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

Species, which is common in Tropical Asia, is recorded as 
cultivated in gardens, in Mauritius, in Bojer, Hort. Maur., 
p. 241. 

''^ NicoTiANA Tabacum, Linn. — He aux Fouquets, 2nd 
September 1889; and He des Aigrettes, 20th June 1890. 
See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. pp. 326 and 367. 

Triciiosandra r.ORBONiCA, Dene, {fide IST. E. Brown). — 
Round Island, 27th ISTovember 1889. Barkly and Home, 
in Trans. Roy. Soc. Maur., 1860, pp. 118 and 136, record 
this plant from Round Island, under " ITo. 2 Streptocaulon 
species." See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx., 1894, p. 254. 
It has not been found in the main island of Mauritius ; 
but it is recorded from Bourbon, 100 miles distant, by 
Petit-Thouars and Lepervenche-Mezieres, in De Candolle's 
Prodromus viii., 626, published in 1844, 

t Calceolaria mexicana, Benth. — Roadside, 1850 feet 
above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 8th October 1888. 
A native of Mexico, frequently cultivated in gardens, and 
also found as an escape, in Mauritius. 

* Antirrhinum Orontium, Linn. — Fallow sugar-cane 
field, 1100 feet above sea-level, Plaines Wilhelms, Mauri- 
tius, 10th September 1888. A native of Europe, Asia 
Minor, and North Africa. 

* Stemodia paryiflora, Ait. — Roadside, 1850 feet 
above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 8th October 1888. 
This weed, which is a native of Tropical America, was 
first found in Mauritius, at Curepipe, by Home, on 8 th 
November 1887. 

t Capraria biflora, Linn. {Capraria 2>cruviana, Feuill. ; 
cf. Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 240.) — Stream-side, 5 
feet above sea-level, Port Louis, Mauritius, 18th June 
1887. This species is a native of South America, and it is 
also recorded as naturalised in the Seychelles, by Home, in 
Baker's Flora. 

* Stachytarpheta mutabilis, Vahl. — Stream-side, 1400 
feet above sea-level, Vacoa, Mauritius, 25th April 1889. 
This species, which is a native of Tropical America, is 
recorded as cultivated in gardens, in Mauritius, in Bojer, 
Hort. Maur., p. 254. In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 
251, it is recorded as naturalised in the Seychelles. 



Mar. 1895. J BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUItGH. 399 

t CoLEUS ATrvOruRPUREUS, Bentli. — Eoadsicle, 1880 feet 
above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 14th March 1888. 
A native of Tropical Asia, which is frequently cultivated 
in gardens in Mauritius. 

* Mentha aquatica, Linn., var. citrata, Ehrh. — Marshy 
border of a forest, 1880 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, 
Mauritius, 8th February 1889. This species is the Ber- 
gamot mint of gardens. 

*Emex spinosus, Campd. — Eoadside, 1070 feet above 
sea-level, Plaines Wilhelms, Mauritius, 3rd September 

1888. A native of the Mediterranean region, etc. 

*RuMEX CRISPUS, Linn. — Eoadside, 1700 feet above sea- 
level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 5th December 1888. A native 
of Europe, now widely dispersed. 

* PiLEA MUSCOSA, Lindl. — Eoadside, 1850 feet above 
sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 21st November 1888. A 
native of Tropical America. 

BcEHMEPJA MACROPHYLLA, D. Don. — Forest stream-side, 
1840 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 12th Feb- 
ruary 1889. This species is also a native of India and 
Burmah. 

Phyllanthus mauritianus, H. H. Johnston. — He de la 
Passe, 26th October 1888; He des Aigrettes, 4th March 
1889 ; He aux Fouquets, 2nd September 1889 ; He Mari- 
anne, 3rd September 1889 ; He Vakois, 5th September 

1889. See remarks on this new species in my " Picport 
on the Flora of He des Aigrettes, Mauritius," in Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. p. 329. For a full description, 
see under He de la Passe, in my " Report on the Flora of 
the Outlying Islands in Mahebourg Bay, Mauritius," in 
Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. p. 359. 

Hydrilla verticillata, Presl. — Eiver, 20 feet above 
sea-level, La Grande Eiviere ISTord Quest, Mauritius, 26th 
September 1887; Eiver, 1100 feet above sea-level, Eiviere 
de Moka, Mauritius, 7th July 1889 ; River, 740 feet above 
sea-level. La Grande Eiviere Sud Est, Mauritius, 19th 
November 1889. 

With reference to specimens of this species forwarded 
by me to the Eoyal Gardens, Kew, Mr. J. G. Baker wrote 



400 TEANSACTIOXS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

that specimens bad been received at Kew, from Mauritius, 
from Colonel Pike, autbor of " Sub-Tropical Eambles," 
since his '■ Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles " was 
written. 

The order Hydrocharidea; is new to the flora of Mauritius. 
H. verticilloM is also a native of Central Europe, Madagas- 
car, Tropical Asia, and Australia. 

Yallisxeria spiealis, Linn. — Eiver, 10-50 feet above 
sea-level. La Grande Ei%'iere Xord Quest, Mauritius, 10th 
August 1887. Common in running water. All the plants 
observed by me were male, and on 5th December 1887 I 
observed the male flowers floating on the surface of the 
water in the eddies of the river. This species is a native 
of the warm regions in the Old and Xew Worlds. 

t Hedychium cokonaeium, Koen. — Xear abandoned habi- 
tations, 1770 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 12th 
February 1889. Fruit not developed. This species, which 
is a native of Tropical Asia, is recorded as cultivated in 
the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Pamplemousses, and at Eeduit, 
in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 329. 

*Tkimeza LrpjDA, Salisb. — Forest, 1830 feet above sea- 
level. Eiviere de la Terre Eouge, Moka, Mauritius, 31st 
July 1888. A native of Tropical America. 

t Yucca aloifolia, Linn — Waste ground, 1 feet above 
sea-level, Baie du Tombeau, Mauritius, 29th November 

1887. Scarcely naturalised. Fruit not developed. This 
species, which is a native of America, is recorded as culti- 
vated at "Bois Cheri," "la Ei\dere Xoire," and "Mon 
Plaisir," in Mauritius, in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 343. 
Vernacular name, Youcca a fcuilles Mroites. 

t A.SPARAGrs OFFiciXALis, Linn. — Forest, 1870 feet above 
sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 4th June 1888. It is re- 
corded as cultivated in vegetable gardens, in Mauritius, in 
Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 350. Yernacular name, Asperge. 

Eriocaulon loxgifolium, Xees. — Stream-side in forest, 
1870 feet above sea-level. Good End, Mauritius, 23rd 
January 1888; and forest swamp, 1920 feet above sea- 
level, near the ^lare aux Yacoas, Mauritius, 2 8th September 

1888. Leaves erecto-patent. Scapes 3—16 inches long. 



Mak. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 401 

erect, 7-ribbed. Flower-heads whitish. Flowers dimerous, 
with 2 sepals, 2 petals, 4 stamens, and 2 stigmas. 

In Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 361, this species is recorded 
as native from the neighbourhood of " Grand-Bassin," 
Mauritius, but it is erroneously named E. qiiinquangidare, L, 

In Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 390, '' E. quinquangulare, 
Bojer, non Linn.," and " E. longifolium, Xees, " are erro- 
neously given as synonyms of " E. rcpens, Lam." Baker's 
description of E. rejpens. Lam., has been made up partly 
from this species, but chiefly from E. longifolium^ Xees. 

In Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 361, E. rcpens is recorded as 
native in Mauritius, from the same station as E. longi- 
folium, Nees. E. repens, Lam., was found by me in a 
forest stream, 1920 feet above sea-level, near the Mare 
aux Vacoas, Mauritius, on 28th September 1888. Leaves 
recurved-patent. Scapes 6-13 inches long, erect, marked 
with 6 longitudinal green lines, alternating with 6 paler 
green lines. Flower-heads greenish-brown. Flowers • tri- 
merous, with 3 sepals, 3 petals, 6 stamens in two rows 
of 3 each, and 3 stigmas. 

With reference to specimens of E. longifolium, Nees, and 
E. repeals, Lam., forwarded by me to the Eoyal Gardens, 
Kew, Mr. J. G. Baker wrote, in November 1888, that 
Bentham pointed out some time ago that these are distinct 
species, the former having dimerous and the latter trimerous 
flowers. 

E. longifolium is also a native of Madagascar. 

Naias graminea, Delile. — Pdver, 1100 feet above sea- 
level, Pliviere de Moka, Mauritius, 23rd October 1888. 
Also a native of Africa. The genus Naias is new to the 
flora of Mauritius. 

* Typhonodorum LiNDLEYANu:M,Schott. — Eiver-side,l 100 
feet above sea-level, Eiviere de Moka, Mauritius, 6th Decem- 
ber 1889. A native of Madagascar. 

Pycreus polystachyus, Beauv. var. laxiflorus, Benth. 
{fide C. B. Clarke). — Swamp, 1870 feet above sea-level, 
Curepipe, Mauritius, 15th March 1888. 

Cyperus stoloniferus, Ketz. {fide C. B. Clarke). — Coral 
seashore, 5 feet above sea-level. Bale du Tombeau, Mauritius, 

TR.\XS. EOT. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. 2 C 



402 TEANSACTIOKS AXD PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

29th Xovember 1887. This species is recorded from Mauri- 
tius, under the erroneous name of Cyperus tuberosus, Eottb., 
in Baker, Flor. Maur. Seych., p. 410. 

* Cypeeus madagascafjexsis, Eoem. et Schult. var. 
BiEPJNENSis, C. B. Clarke, in Durand et Schinz, Conspect. 
Fl. Afric, vol. v. p. 568 {fide C. B. Clarke). — Eiver-side, 
1100 feet above sea-level, Eiviere de Moka, Mauritius, 12th 
October 1887. This variety is a native of Madagascar. 

Kyllixga exigua, Boeck. " forma explicata " {fide C. B. 
Clarke). — Waste ground and roadsides, 1880 feet above 
sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 22nd April 1888. 

Caepha costulaeioides, C. B. Clarke, MS. in Herb. 
Kew. " Panicula elongata, oblonga ; spiculis longe-pedi- 
cellatis ; glumis inferioribus 5-6 vacuis ; flore uno perfecto ; 
setis 6, longis, antice scabris ; nuce levi luteo-brunescente ; 
rostro cum nuce subaequilongo, conico, scabro ; stylo ipso 
vix-ullo, cum 3 stigmatibus longis atro-rubro. C. Auhertii, 
Xees, var. yS exjjlicatior, Durand et Schinz, Conspject. FL 
Afr., vol. V. p. 655." 

Ehizome simple or once bifurcated, ^-f inch thick, 
clothed with the decaying bases of the old leaves. Stems 
4—6 feet high, tufted at the apex of the rhizome, erect or 
suberect, terete-compressed, glabrous, leafy. Lower leaves 
1|— 2 feet long, ^-3 inch broad, linear, acuminate, dilated 
at the base, channelled above, glabrous with scabrous mar- 
gins, green, coriaceous. Panicle 2— .3| feet long, oblong, 
copiously-branched, with ascending branches ; lower bracts 
h—l^ foot long, with sheaths 1-1 i inch long, glabrous, 
and split on one side at the truncate apex ; ultimate 
bracts 7*0-5 inch long, subulate, scabrous, with sheaths 
-^—Q inch long. Spikelets ^-^ inch long, linear or linear- 
lanceolate, compressed, 7— 14-glumed, pedicellate: pedicels 
x'5— f inch long, ascending, triquetrous, with scabrous 
edges. Glumes empty except the uppermost two, 
distichous, imbricated, gradually increasing in size from 
j'g— j'o inch long at the base to ^-^ inch long at the apex 
of the spikelet, ovate-navicular, acute or subacute, keeled, 
glabrous, subcoriaceous, reddish-brown with pale brown 
sides or with the keel green and the sides reddish-brown ; 
lower glumes 1—3, sometimes mucronate ; uppermost glume 



Mar. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 403 

completely hidden by the next glume below, ^- j- inch long, 
linear-navicular, acute, without a keel, glabrous, pale brown, 
subcoriaceous, bearing a hermaphrodite flower. Stamens 3, 
protruded from the apex of the spikelet, longer than the 
style ; filaments filiform, glabrous ; anthers -g— j^ inch long, 
linear. Hypogynous bristles 6, J,-| inch long, barbed. 
Style l-^ inch long, divided one-third way down into 3 
filiform papillose branches, protruded from the apex of the 
spikelet. Flower of second uppermost glume male, with 6 
barbed bristles and 3 stamens bearing rudimentary anthers. 

Habitat. — Bourbon, Boivin and Goudot ; Mauritius, H. 
H. Johnston. 

The name of this new species is published with the 
permission of Mr. C. B. Clarke, to whom I am indebted for 
the diagnosis in Latin. The description, in English, has 
been made by me from my Mauritius specimens, which are 
in flower, but not in fruit. 

Mr. C. B. Clarke, in a letter, dated Kew, 15th March 
1895, writes, with reference to 0. costularioides : "It has 
happened (and it is an accident that has frequently happened 
to me) that while I never saw the plant till you sent it me, 
I have since found it several times in old herbaria that 
have come to my hand, both from Bourbon and Mauritius ; 
it is Boivin n. 998, Goudot n. 1833, both from Bourbon." 

In Mauritius I observed this species growing in a forest 
swamp, 1920 feet above sea-level, at the Mare aux Vacoas, 
on 28th September 1888 ; and in a forest, 940 feet above 
sea-level, at Le Grand Fond, Flacq, on l7th June 1890. 

FiMBKiSTYLis OBTUSIFOLIA, Kunth (fldc C. B. Clarke). — • 
He de la Passe, 26th October 1888; He aux Fouquets, 2ud 
September 1889 ; He Marianne, 3rd September 1889 ; He 
Vakois, 5th September 1889. See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., 
vol. XX. p. 360. 

FiMBRiSTYLis COMPLANATA, Link (Jlde C. B. Clarke). — 
Marshy river-side, 60 feet above sea-level. La Grande Eiviere 
Nord Quest, Mauritius, 5th December 1887. Stems 1-3 
feet long, tufted, erect. 

Eleogharis ochreata, Nees (Jlde C. B. Clarke). — Stream 
1500 feet above sea-level. La Grande Eiviere Sud Est, 
Mauritius, 6th June 1888 ; Forest swamp, 1920 feet above 



404 TRANSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lis, 

sea-level, near the Mare aux Vacoas, Mauritius, 28th Sep- 
tember 1888 ; Clefts of rocks above water in the bed of 
a river, 740 feet above sea-level. Cascade Diamamouve, La 
Grande Pdviere Sud Est, Mauritius, 19th November 1889. 
Mr. C. B. Clarke, in a note on my herbarium specimens 
of E. ochreata, writes : " This Mauritius material belongs to 
the var. humilis, Boeck., or approaches that var." 

Cladioi anceps. Hook, fil. {fide C. B. Clarke). — Swamp, 
1910 feet above sea-level. Mare aux Vacoas, Mauritius, 
2Sth September 1888. The species is also a native of 
Madagascar. 

Mr. C. B. Clarke, in a note (dated 10th December 1894) 
on my herbarium specimen of C. anceps, Hook, fil., writes ; 
" There are two very dififerent plants in the Mauritius, viz. 
Cladii'.m OMceps, Hook, fil., and Cladiuni irklifolium, Baker 
pro parte." 

Paspalibi C0NJUGATU3I, Berg. — Forest, 1880 feet above 
sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, loth March 1888. This 
species is also a native of Central and Tropical America, 
"West Indies, Tropical Asia, and Tropical Africa. 

*Setaeia veeticillata, p. Beauv. — Eoadside, 1880 feet 
above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 9th July 1888 ; and 
roadside, 1070 feet above sea -level, Plaines Wilhelms, 
Mauritius, 3rd September 1888. A native of Europe, now 
widely dispersed. 

IscH^MUM KOLEO.STACHYS, Hackel {fide E. Hackel). — 
Eiver-.?ide, 5 feet above sea-level, La Grande Eiviere Nord 
Quest, Mauritius, 8th September 1887. This species is 
also native in Bourbon, from which Island it is recorded by 
Boivin. 

LSCH.ODIM PiLOSUM, HackeL — Swamp, 1910 feet above 
sea-level. Mare aux Yacoas, Mauritius, 28th September 
1838. This species is also a native of India and Mada- 
gascar. 

EOTTBOELLIA COMPEESSA, Linn, fil. var. FASCICULATA, 

Hackel {fide E. Hackel). — Abandoned sugar-cane field, 
1870 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, l7th April 
1889. Common. I was informed by Mr, M. Xoel, on 
16th January 1890, that this grass was introduced into 



Mar. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 405 

Mauritius, from Frauce, as a forage plant, by Mr. Denis de 
Bouclierville, then proprietor of Minissi Estate at Moka, 
Mauritius. 

Andropogon Isch^mum, Linn. — Forest, 1880 feet above 
sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 4th June 1888. This 
species is also a native of Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
Australia. 

*AiRA CAPiLLARis, Host. — Roadside, 1850 feet above 
sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 21st November 1888. A 
native of Europe. 

■ t AvENA SATiVA, Linn. — Road, 1820 feet above sea-level, 
Curepipe, Mauritius, 16th October 1888, 

The grain of the common cultivated oat is imported into 
Mauritius for feeding horses ; and on the turf roadways, 
among the sugar-cane plantations, at Curepipe, plants of 
this species are occasionally found in flower and ripe fruit. 

A. sativa is recorded as cultivated in the plantations, in 
Mauritius, in Bojer, Hort. Maur., p. 367. 

Lepturus repens, R, Br. {fide E. Hackel). — He Maria- 
anne, 3rd September 1889 ; He Vakois, 5th September 
1889; He de la Passe, 18th March 1890. See Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. p. 373. 



Tlie following orders are not included in Baker's " Flora 
of Mauritius and the Seychelles." 

Except where otherwise noted, the specimens have been 
identified by ]\Ir. C. H, Wright, Assistant in the Herbarium, 
Royal Gardens, Kew : — 

NiTELLA ACUMINATA, A. Braun {fide H. & J. Groves). — 
Stream 1840 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 
25th February 1889. 

Rhizogonium spiniforme, Bruch. — Trunk of a tree in a 
damp forest, 2050 feet above sea-level, Montague du Pouce, 
Mauritius, 7th July 1887; and trunk of a dead tree in a 
forest, 186 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 28th 
August 1889. 

Webera albicans, Schimper. — Wet rocks in a shady 
ravine, 360 feet above sea-level, Chamarel, Mauritius, 21st 
January 1890. 



406 TRANSACTIONS A^"D PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

Macromitrium eecuryum, Mitt. MSS. in Herb. Kew. 
— Trunk of a tree in a damp forest, 2050 feet above sea- 
level, Montagne du Pouee, Mauritius, 7th July 1887. 

Hypoptekygicjm tamakisci, Brid. — Eock at a stream-side, 
1740 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 27th August 
1888. 

Hypnum regulare, C. ]\Ixill. — Eock in a stream, 
1800 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 27th 
August 1888. 

Eaphidostegium Duisabonum, Schimper {fide G. 
Massee). — Trunk of a living tree in a swamp, 1910 feet 
above sea-level, Mare aux Yacoas, Mauritius, 13th June 
1888. 

Mastigobeyum decrescens, Lehm. et Ldbg. — Trunk of 
a dead tree in a forest, 1860 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, 
Mauritius, 2Sth August 1889. 

Cladonia coccifera, Schaer. — Trunk of a dead tree in a 
forest, 1890 feet above sea-level, Mare aux Vacoas, Mauri- 
tius, 13th June 1888. 

Cladonia squamosa, Hoffm. — Eock in a forest, 900 feet 
above sea- level, Le Grand Fond, Flacq, Mauritius, 17th 
June 1890. 

Eamalina calicaeis, Fries. — Eecorded by me from Eound 
Island in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. (1894) p. 263. 

Eamalina ho:malea, Ach. {fide G. Massee). — He Mari- 
anne, 3rd September 1889; He Vakois, 5th September 
1889. See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. p. 373. 

Eamalina usneoides, Fries {fide G. Massee). — He 
Marianne, 3rd September 1889. See Trans. Bot. Soc. 
Edin., vol. xx. p. 373. 

Lepearia flava, Ach. — Li%ang trunk of Casuarina eqni- 
setifolia, Forst., 45 feet above sea-level, Souillac, Mauritius, 
14th January 1800; He Marianne, 19th March 1890. 
Plant greenish-yellow. See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. 
p. 373. 



Mar. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 407 

Parmelia conspersa, Ach. — Eoimd Island, 27th Xov- 
ember 1889. See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. (1894) 
p. 263. 

Physcia picta, Nyl. — PiOimd Island, 27th November 
1889. See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. (1894) p. 263. 

Stictina tomentosa, Xyl. — Trunks of living trees in a 
forest, 1860 feet above sea-level, Curepipe, Mauritius, 29th 
May 1888. Thallus crisp, dark green above, brown 
beneath, with copious grey spots and grey at the margin. 
Apothecia saucer-shaped, reddish-brown. 

Sticta da^i^cornis, Ach. — Trunk of a tree in a damp 
forest, 2050 feet above sea-level, Montague du Ponce, 
Mauritius, 7th July 1887. Thallus green above, whitish 
beneath. Apothecia black above, brown beneath. 

Lecidea leucoplaca. Fries. — He Vakois, 5th September 

1889. See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. p. 363. 

Lecanoka sphincteina, Mont.— Trunk of a tree in a 
damp forest, 2050 feet above sea-level, Montague du Pouce, 
Mauritius, 7th July 1887. Thallus green above, white 
beneath. Apothecia brown. 

Lecanoea subfusca, Ach. — Pound Island, 27th Novem- 
ber 1889. See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. (1894) p. 263. 

Agaricus alveolus, Lasch. {fide M. C. Cooke). — Trunk 
of a living tree in a shady ravine, 360 feet above sea-level, 
Chamarel, Mauritius, 21st January 1890. Plant whitish 
on both surfaces. 

PoLYPORUS sanguineus, Meyer {fide J. G. Baker). — 
Pound Island, 28th November 1889, and He Yakois, 18th 
March 1890. Plant red on both surfaces. See Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. (1894) p. 264. 

Dacrymyces chrysospermus, Berk, et Curt, {fide M. C. 
Cooke). — Dead branch of a tree in a shady ravine, 360 
feet above sea-level, Chamarel, Mauritius, 21st January 

1890. Plant thick, coarsely corrugated, orange-coloured, 
with the consistency of a jelly-fish. 

Caulerpa plumaris, C. a. Agardh. — He Marianne, 19th 
March 1890. See Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xx. p. 373. 



408 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Ses8. Lix. 

Notes from the Koyal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

I. Eeport on Vegetation during the Month of 
February 1895. By Kobeut Lindsay, Curator. 

During the past month of February all out-door vegeta- 
tion has been completely retarded in consequence of the 
prolonged hard frost which prevailed during the entire 
month. It has been by far the most inclement February 
that we have experienced, and has not been exceeded in 
severity by any February of which we have any record. 
Not a single plant came into flower during the month on 
the rock-garden, a circumstance altogether unprecedented. 
The snowdrop did not come into flower till the 1st of 
March, while last year it came into flower on the 16th 
of January. Many plants have sustained great injury 
from, the prolonged frost, the full extent of which will not 
be known till later on in the season. Among the worst 
injured are the following : — Arundo conspicua ; Baccharis 
patagonica ; Bamhusa Simoni, B. Mitis, and B. Fortunei 
aurea ; Berheris dulcis, B. trifoliolata ; Ceanothus azureus, 
C. dentatus ; Cistus po2ndifolius, C. formosiis, C. lusitanicus ; 
Corokia Cotoneaster ; Cupressus macrocarjjci ; Dacrydium 
Franklinii ; Erica ciliaris, E. austrcdis, E. mcditerranea ; 
Edwardsia onicrophylla ; Helianihemum amabile and vars. ; 
Gyneriuin argenteum ; Garrya MacFadyena ; Iheris corifolia 
fi, pi. ; Litliospermum prostraUtm ; Olearia ilicifolia, 0. 
Gunniana ; Pieris formosa ; Pinus insignis ; Polygonum 
vaccinifolium ; PapMolepis ovata ; PMllyrea angustifolia, 
P. latifolia ; Phlomis fruticosa ; Veronica anomcda, V. 
Andersonii, V. cupressoides, V. cpacridca, V. chathamica, 
V. Cataractm, V. Bidwillii, V. Kirkii, V. Lewisii, V. 
parvijiora, V. Traversii ; Senecio Buchanani, S. Grcyii, 
S. comp)actus ; wallflower, stock, etc. 



Mar. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



409 



II. Meteorological Observations recorded at Royal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of February 
1895. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
76-5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





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Dry. Wet. 


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P= £ 












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30-222 


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0-235 


2 


29-989 


36-4 32-9 


34-0 


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Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-050 


3 


30-144 


37-2 ! 34-0 


35-9 


35-0 


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9 


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0-010 


4 


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38-2 . 34-6 


36-6 


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5 


30131 


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310 


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29-627 


34-8 


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26-1 


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Cir. St. 


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29-773 


299 


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29-945 


25-3 


12-9 


14-9 


13-0 


w. 


Cir. 


9 


W. 


0-000 


9 


30-0-29 


28-9 


13-0 


16-6 


16-2 


w. 


Fog 


5 




0-000 


10 


29-874 


32-0 


11-8 


13-3 


13-3 


w. 


Fog 


5 




0-000 


11 


29-747 


29-7 


12-8 


16-0 


16 


w. 


Cir. 


1 


n'.w. 


0-000 


12 


29-868 


33-1 


15-6 


23-8 


22-0 


w. 









0-000 


la 


30-042 


37-9 


161 


22-3 


21-9 


w. 


Fog 


5 




0-000 


14 


30-248 


34-2 


21-7 


25-9 


24-0 


E. 









0-000 


15 


30-428 


30-7 


24-1 


30-2 


27-7 


S.E. 


Cir. Cum. 


4 


S".E. 


0-000 


16 


30-580 


36-6 


21-8 


32-1 


31-0 


S.E. 


Fog 


5 




0-000 


17 


30-521 


41-1 


30-6 


33-1 


32-0 


E. 


St. 


8 


e'. 


0-000 


18 


30-337 


36-4 


27-0 


28-2 


27-5 


W. 


Cir. 


3 


N. 


0-000 


19 


30-298 


36-2 


18-8 


20-1 


19-9 


W. 


Fog 


5 




0-000 


20 


30-331 


40-9 


19-1 


23-8 


23-8 


W. 


Fog 


5 


... 


0000 


21 


30-295 


36-9 


23-4 


36-6 


34-4 


W. 









0-000 


22 


30-297 


470 


29-6 


35-0 


33-3 


W. 









0-000 


2.3 


30-166 


41-9 


35-0 


39-2 


38-0 


S.W. 


St"." 


10 


s.'\V. 


0-040 


24 


29-728 


47-4 


35-8 


35-8 


35-2 


N.E. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-030 


25 


30-017 


41-5 


30 


34-2 


32-7 


W. 


Cir. 


1 


N. 


0-000 


26 


29-622 


42-2 


30 3 


40-8 


39-8 


W. 


Cir. St. 


10 


N.W. 


0-000 


27 


29-780 


45-8 


33-9 


34-9 


32-4 


w. 


St. 


7 


N. 


0-000 


28 


29-735 


41-1 


29-7 


40-8 


39-1 


w. 


Cir. 


1 

1 


N.W. 


0-045 



Barometer. — Highest, 30-580 inches, on the 16th. Lowest, 29e-22 inches, on the 26th. 
Monthly Range, 0-958 inch. Mean, SO'OTl inches, being 0-312 inch above the average for 
February for four preceding years. 

Protected S. R. Thermometers,— Highest, 47°-4, on the 23rd. Lowest, ll'-S, on the 10th. 
Monthly Range. 35°6. Mean of all the Highest, 3"°-0. Mean of all the Lowest, 25'-l. Mean 
Daily Range, ll''-9. Mean Temperature of Month, 31°-0, heing 8°-3 below the average for 
February for four preceding years. Frost occurred on 22 days. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Drv- Bulb, 29''-3. Mean of Wet Bulb, 28°-l. Temperature of Dew- 
point, 23°-9. Mean Humidity, 79 %. 

Radiation Thermometers. — Highest in Sun, 97*-9, on the 23rd. Lowest on Grass, 9°-0, on the 
10th. Frost occurred on Grass on 28 days. 

Sunshine.— Total recorded for month, 75 hours 25 minutes, being 28-4 % of the possible 
amount. The sunniest day was the 21st, with 8 hours 15 minutes, being 82-8 % of the possible 
amount. None was recorded on 4 days. 

Rainfall. — Rain or Snow fell on 7 days. Total Fall, 0-460 inch, being 2-334 inches below the 
average for Februarj- for four preceding years. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, 0-235 inch, on the 1st. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, Observer. 



410 TRAXSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Se5= 



III. Ox Plants in the Plant Houses. By Pi. L. 
Harrow. 

A general activity of growth in the majority of plants 
in the plant houses seems now to have set in. This is 
naturally further developed in those houses devoted to 
tropical plants, where the many-hued colours of the young 
foliage is very attractive. About forty species have, since 
the last meeting, in February, come into flower. Among 
the most interesting of which are the following : — 

Paulo-Wilhelmia speciosa, Hochst. A plant belonging 
to the order Acanthaceae, and a native of Abyssinia. It 
has loose stems of a herbaceous character, swollen at the 
nodes, growing about three feet in height and bearing 
opposite cordate leaves, with irregular serrations. The 
inflorescences are in panicles, bearing pretty mauve blue 
flowers ; the lobes of the corolla arranged so as to give the 
appearance of a single lip. Plants were raised at Kew 
from seed obtained from a dried specimen collected in an 
expedition to the Cross Eiver, Cameroon, by Vice-Consul 
H. H. Johnston. A figure and description by Mr. X. E. 
Brown appeared in the "Gardeners' Chronicle" of 18S9, 
p. 749. The genus was founded by Hochstetter, and 
dedicated to Frederich Paul Wilhelm, Duke of AVurtem- 
burg, in 1840. 

Bhododendron argenteum, Hook. f. This beautiful species 
is a native of the Sikkim Himalayas, and is well figured in 
Hooker's " Pthododendrons of the Sikkim Himalayas," where 
it is stated to grow on Sinchul at an elevation of from 8000 
to 9000 feet. The tree-like habit of the plant is well 
known, and the large leaves with silvery under surface are 
characteristic. The large individual flowers are pink in 
bud, changing as the flower expands to pure white, with a 
deep purple blotch at the base. 

Philageria Veitchii, Mast. This plant is an interesting 
one on account of its being a hybrid between two genera, 
viz. LaiJageria and Philesia, two plants of widely 
differing habit, and the hybrid exhibits many intermediate 
characters. The stems are wiry, most resembling that of 
Lapageria, but the foliage is most like that of the poUen- 



Mau. 1S95.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF KDINBURGII. 411 

parent Philesia. The solitary flowers are of a waxy- 
texture, and bright rose-coloured. It was raised by 
Messrs. Veitch, of Chelsea, in compliment to whom it was 
specifically named by Dr. Masters in the " Gardeners' 
Chronicle "of 1872, p. 358. 

Burchellia capensis, K. Br. This plant is the only 
representative of this genus, which was named in com- 
pliment to W. Burchell, a botanical traveller ; and is a 
native of South Africa, introduced about the early part of 
the century. It is of a compact shrub-like habit, the 
terminal inflorescences being made up of generally six 
flowers. The corolla is inflated and of a scarlet colour, 
with the club - shaped stigmas protruding from the 
mouths. 

Of others that have flowered the following may be 
mentioned, viz.: — Vanda tricolor, L., — a native of Java, 
introduced by Messrs. Veitch in 1846, with axillary spikes 
of large scented flowers ; and V. tricolor, L., var. suavis, 
lichb. fil, — with longer racemes bearing more flowers ; 
Tricliopilia. sanguinole7ita, B.chh., — native of Ecuador, with a 
richly striated lip, and flattened pseudobulbs; Mitriostigmcu 
axillare, Hochst., — a small spreading shrub, with highly 
perfumed white flowers, belonging to the order EubiaceiB, a 
native of South Africa ; and Kopsia frutieosa, A. DC, — an. 
apocynaceous East Indian plant. 



Apr. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY' OF EDINBURGH. 413 

MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, April 11, 1895. 

Symington Grieve, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Chairman made intimation of the death of Chaeles 
Eyre Parker, Torquay, and of Dr. A, G. More, Dublin, 
Non-Eesident Fellows of the Society. 

Dr. W. G. Smith exhibited and commented upon a 
section of stem of horse chestnut, showing large callus- 
development. 

Mr. J. H. BuERAGE exhibited specimens of Pandanus 
temiifolius, Balf. fil., an endemic Eodriguez plant, which had 
been killed in the Palm House of the Eoyal Botanic 
Garden, through the attack of Melanconiun Pandani, and 
he described the phases of the life history of the fungus, 
which has previously been reported from the Botanic 
Gardens at Breslau, Berlin, Paris, Kew, and Glasnevin. 

Mr. Symington Grieve exhibited twigs of mistleto, in 
fruit, from his garden. 

The following plants in bloom were exhibited from the 
Eoyal Botanic Garden : — Philagcria Veitchii, Trichopilia 
sanguinolcnta, Vanda tricolor suavis. 

The following papers were read : — 

Notes on the Morphology of some British Legu- 
MiNOs.E. — II. Meliotus officinalis. By James A. Terras, 
B.Sc. 

Seeds. — Ellipsoidal, laterally compressed, embryo pleuro- 
rhizal, radicle extending from one end to about two-thirds 
of the length of the seed, and projecting strongly, especially 
at the apex. 

Issued November 1895. 



414 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

The whole seed is yellow or light yellow-brown in colour, 
with a smooth but not shining surface. 

The small, point-like, hilum scar is situated in the hollow 
formed by the projection of the apex of the radicle, while 
on the end of the seed, beyond the hilum scar, is a small 
patch darker brown in colour than the rest of the seed. 

Size, 2*75 mm. long X 2 mm. broad, including the 
radicle, x 1*5 mm. thick; or, according to Hartz, 
2*2 X 1'5 X 1 mm. 

Germination. — During the earlier stages of germination 
the rapid elongation of the hypocotyl carries the young 
crowing root out of the seed in a downward direction, 
forcing it into the soil, and when the root itself has 
reached a length of about 4-5 mm., the hypocotyl is at 
least twice as long, and the seed still below the surface of 
the soil. At about this time, however, the formation of 
the first root hairs may be observed taking place near the 
point of junction of the root and hypocotyl These soon 
attach themselves to particles of soil, and so anchor that 
particular part of the compound radicle that any further 
progress made by the root in the soil must be due to its 
own elongation. The hypocotyl, however, still continues 
to grow, and, as its lower end is now fixed, this increase in 
length has the effect of withdrawing the cotyledons from 
the seed-coat, which is retained below the surface by the 
weight of the superincumbent soil, while the liberation 
of the cotyledons is facilitated by the presence of the 
mucilaginous endosperm. 

In a normal germination, the first part of the embryo to 
appear above the surface of the soil is the bent upper part 
of the hypocotyl, followed at once by the bases of the 
cotyledons. As soon as these last are free from the soil a 
backward curvature of the hypocotyl takes place, the still 
closed cotyledons are swung round in a vertical plane till 
the erect position is reached, then each curves outwards 
laterally till it reaches its permanent horizontal position. 

Cotyledons. — The petiole is rather short, and the 
lamina is attached to its apex by a short slightly swollen 
joint. The lamina is, in general, expanded almost 
horizontally, and may even droop somewhat at its apex, 
while the petiole, on the other hand, is nearly, if not quite 



Apr. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 415 

erect, and diverges but slightly from the line of the future 
plumular stem. 

The lamina is equilateral, somewhat fleshy, and of an 
elongated elliptical outline. Both surfaces are quite 
glabrous, and pale green in colour, though the lower is of 
a distinctly paler tint than the upper, 

A midrib is distinctly visible on the lower surface, being 
represented by a median longitudinal line, but no ridge, 
while on the upper its position is indicated by a slight 
groove at the base. 

The petiole is generally about one-third or one-half the 
length of the lamina, and is rather slender, with a slight 
longitudinal groove on the upper face, which, however, dis- 
appears just below the joint by which the lamina is 
attached. The lower face is cylindrical, but not keeled. 

At its base the petiole expands laterally to form a small 
distinct vagina, which half surrounds the stem, but scarcely, 
if at all, unites with that of the opposite cotyledon, con- 
sequently no tube is formed round the plumule, the 
protection of which • is, however, assured by the upright 
petioles themselves. 

The cotyledons are not persistent, but after the first 
three or four plumular leaves are fully formed the lamina 
falls off at the joint, leaving the yellow withered petiole 
still attached to the stem. 

The hypocotyl is considerably elongated, and the two 
cotyledons are borne at a height of about an inch from the 
ground. 

Plumule. — The first leaf arises in a plane at right 
angles to that in which the cotyledons lie, and in most 
cases, before it has fully expanded, the internode bearing 
it has elongated to such an extent as to raise the first node 
clear of the cotyledonary petioles. 

This internode is in colour pale green, splashed with 
minute red spots ; it is always glabrous, quite smooth, and 
in many seedlings reaches a considerable height. 

The first leaf itself is composed of a simple unbranched 
lamina, borne at the apex of a long slender petiole, to 
which it is attached by means of a short joint, and may be 
expanded either horizontally or obliquely upwards. 

The petiole is generally long enough to raise the lamina 



416 TEAXSACTIOXS AXD PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix, 

of the leaf clear of at least the lower portion of the 
surrounding vegetation, and in any case to a considerable 
height above the terminal bud. It is provided with a 
slight groove on the upper face, and is smoothly cylindrical 
but not keeled below. At the base it expands laterally 
into a short but comparatively broad membranous vagina, 
which scarcely half surrounds the stem bearing on its 
upper free margin two long, linear, somewhat spreading 
stipules, each of which is crowned at its apex by a tuft of 
short delicate hairs, and bears on its inner side (that 
opposite the petiole) a short triangular tooth which projects 
from it almost at right angles. 

The lamina is composed of a single terminal leaflet of 
nearly orbicular outline, with an apical triangular sinus, 
from the base of which arises, in typical cases, an extremely 
short, blunt, spine-like process, which is, however, not unfre- 
quently absent. The margin of the leaflet is more or less 
distinctly undulate on at least the upper half of its extent, 
and the marginal projections correspond with the termina- 
tions of the lateral veins. A distinct midrib runs up the- 
median plane of the leaflet, and terminates in the short 
triangular apical projection after having given rise to three 
or four pairs of slender lateral branches, which, after again 
branching once or twice, terminate as above stated in the 
margin of the leaflet. 

Before the second leaf reaches its full development, the 
intemode bearing it has undergone a considerable elonga- 
tion, sufficient, at least, to raise it half an inch or so clear 
of the vaginal sheath of the first leaf by which it has been 
protected. It is placed almost opposite the first, but some- 
what approximated to it on the left-hand side, and is tri- 
foliate, all three leaflets being attached to the petiole by 
short cylindrical joints, one at the apex and the other two 
laterally opposite each other at about an eighth of an inch 
behind the terminal one. 

The petiole is considerably elongated, and in transverse 
section may be described as rather broadly triangular, the 
apex projecting strongly downwards, while a deep groove 
runs along the upper face from the base, where it expands 
into the vaginal sheath, to the point at which the two 
lateral leaflets arise, beyond which the petiole is narrower 



Ai'R. 1S95.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 417 

and the groove very much smaller. At its lower end the 
petiole is attached to the stem by a broadly sheathing 
vagina, the upper margin of which is prolonged into two 
long subulate somewhat spreading stipules, behind each of 
which is found a short triangular tooth with a sharp 
accuminate apex curved distinctly downwards, and some- 
what resembling a minute recurved rose prickle. Other 
tooth-like projections appear occasionally on the vaginal 
margin, generally in descending series below this main one, 
but, unlike it, they are not of constant occurrence. 

Of the three leaflets constituting the lamina, the 
terminal one is slightly larger than the other two, but this 
difference is not so well marked here as in the adult form, 
the leaflet being but slightly broader than the other, and 
not very much longer. The apical sinus, with its basal 
point, is generally more highly developed in this second 
than in the first leaf, and especially so in the terminal 
leaflet, but even there not so highly as in the adult leaves. 
In the same way the serration of the margin here is inter- 
mediate between that seen in the first leaf and that 
occurring in those formed later. The first three leaves 
may, in fact, be considered as embryonic structures, 
gradually increasing in complexity as they pass upward. 
The fourth leaf, on the other hand, differs but slightly if 
at all from that succeeding it, and must therefore be 
looked upon as the first adult leaf borne by the plant. 

The earlier leaves show, as regards their position on the 
axis, a gradual transition from the opposite arrangement, 
exemplified in the cotyledons, to the ^ spiral ascending 
from right to left, which is characteristic of the higher 
parts of the primary axis. As the stem increases in 
height the lower leaves fall off, leaving the vaginae each 
with its pair of stipules still attached to the axis. 

Branchixg. — The cotyledons and all the succeeding 
leaves on the primary axis bear in their axils branch buds, 
and these with the exception of the cotyledonary buds 
develop at once into branches during the first year. 
These branches bear leaves similar in all respects to those 
borne on the main stem, and arranged, like them, in a 3 
spiral rising from right to left, and consequently homo- 
dromous. 

TRAXS. BOT. SOC. EUIN. VOL. X.\. 2D 



418 TElXSACnONS AST) PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lis. 

Secondary branches arise in the axils of the leaves borne 
on the primary branches, and these in their turn bear 
similar leaves, but, as a rule, tertiary branches are not 
formed though they occasionally develop in particularly 
strong plants. 

Every leaf which bears a branch in its axil, whether on 
the main stem or the primary branches, bears also a small 
accessory bud placed directly below the axillary branch and 
completely enclosed by the vagina, which persisting after 
the leaf has fallen off, protects it from external injury. 
This accessory bud, however, does not develop under 
normal conditions, but enters on active growth only when 
the axillary bud of the same leaf is seriously injured or 
destroyed. Xo flowers appear on the primary axis or its 
branches during the first year of the plant's existence. 

During the late summer and early autumn of the first 
year, the subterranean parts of the plant, but especially 
the hj'pocotyl, become considerably enlarged owing to the 
storage in them of reserve materials ; during the same period 
the cotyledouary node is drawn below the surface of the 
soil, and the buds in the axils of the cotyledons have 
increased considerably in size. These buds, if examined 
towards the end of autumn, will be seen to consist of a 
number of scales, each composed of the vagina and stipules 
of a leaf, the petiole and lamina of which are either absent 
or only developed in the most rudimentary manner. 

These leaf organs, which are in general colourless and 
membranous, are placed alternately to right and left of the 
bud, and in strong plants one or more secondary buds may 
be observed in the axils of the lower scale leaves. These 
exactly resemble the primary buds, and may in their turn 
bear tertiary buds in the axils of their lower scales. 

During late autumn the whole of the aerial branching 
system of the plant dies down to the level of the ground, 
leaving only the subterranean hypocotyl and root system, 
with the above-mentioned cotyledouary buds, to persist 
during the winter. 

During the following spring these various buds elongate 
into shoots, which rise into the air and bear leaves arranged 
in a ^- spiral. In the axil of each leaf is to be found an 
axillary bud with a smaller accessory one, placed vertically 



Apr. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 419 

below it, but in the region toward the base of the shoot ; 
comparatively few of the former ever elongate, while the 
latter never do so under normal circumstances, but replace 
the axillary branches if these should chance to be injured. 
In the upper parts of the shoot, however, the axillary buds 
develop into racemose unilateral inflorescences, while in 
autumn, after the termination of the flowering period, their 
accessory buds frequently elongate into leafy branches, the 
leaves of which, themselves in most cases much smaller 
than those borne on the main axis, bear inflorescences in 
their axils, or only the leaves towards the apex of the 
branch do so while the lower bear leafy branches. The 
accessory buds themselves occasionally elongate into inflor- 
escences without the intervention of leafy branches, but in 
either case the result is the same, namely, the production of 
a second autumnal flowering period. Those of the axillary 
buds arising towards the base of the shoot which elongate, 
form branches which behave in the same way as the shoot 
itself. 



Notes fko.m the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

I. Eeport on Vegetation during the month of 
March 1895. By Robert Lindsay, Curator. 

During March vegetation made considerable progress, 
but the severity of the previous months has been such as 
to render the season a very late one. Trees and shrubs 
are late in developing their leaf buds. Hardly any 
perceptible change was noticed at the end of the month, 
many being still in their winter condition. The extent of 
injury done to various shrubs by frost during the pro- 
tracted winter is now more apparent, and is even greater 
than w^as anticipated. Herbaceous plants are late in 
flowering, the earlier kinds continued in bloom for a much 
shorter time than usual. Of the forty spring-flowering 
plants whose dates of flowering are annually recorded, 
the following twenty-three came into flower during 
March: — Eranthis hiemcdis on 1st March; Galanthus 
nivalis, 1st; G. plicahis, 4th; Corylus Avellana, 7th; 



420 TP.AXSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

Lev.cqjum vernum, 10th; Scilla ])rmcox, llt.h; Dondia 
EpiiJCidis, 11th; Bulhoeodium vernum, 13th; Tussilago 
fragrans, 15th ; Crocus susianus, loth : Nordmannia 
cordifolia, 16th; Crocus xernus, l7th; Scilla sihirica, 
18th; Syrnplocarpus fo3tidus, 24th; Iris reticulata, 2 b th ; 
Dajpline Mczcrcum, 25th; PJiododcndron atrovirens, 26th; 
Arahis cdhida, 27th; Narcissus immilus, 27th; Orohvs 
vernus, 28th; Scilla hifolia, 30th; S. hifolia aiha, 30th; 
Rhododendron Nohleanurn, 31st. 

On the rock-garden 44 species and varieties came into 
flower during the month, as against 75 for March last 
year. Amongst the most interesting were : — Androiiieda 
floribunda. Anemone Hepatica, A. angulosa, Bulhoeodium 
vernum, Colchicum crocijlorum, Chionodoxa Lucilice, Crocus 
Mfiorus, Daphne Blagayana, D. Mezereurii, Erica hcrhacca, 
DrcOaa Mavjeana, Gcdanthus Elwesii, G. Irnpcrati, Iris 
reticulata, Narcissus minimus, Saxifraga Burseriana, S. 
inibricata, S. juniperifolia., S. oppositifolia. pyrenaica, S. 
sancta, Scilla sibirica. 



Ai'H. 1S05.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



421 



11. Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of March 
1895. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
76 '5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 A.M. 





"^^ 


Thermometers, protected, 












^* 




4 feet above grass. 


a 








CO 


a 
o 

! ^ 


"5 ^^ 


S.R. Ther- 
mometers for ., 




M-l 


Clouds. 




a 


2 


is 


preceding 
24 hours. 


Hygrometer. 


o 
a 
.2 








s' 


a 


» — 

g H 










o 

o 

Si 




a 


1 


'S 


Q 


S 3 
cSt3 


Max. 


Miu. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


p 


Kind. 


a 
o 

a 
< 


u O 








o 


o 





o 












1 


21)-4M 


47-2 


36-8 


40-0 


38-1 


w. 









0-010 


2 


29-i;i)6 


46-4 


30-8 


33-7 


30-1 


N. 


Cir."st, 


5 


N. 


0-050 


3 


29-604 


37-2 


27-2 


30-8 


27-7 


■ N. 







• •• 


0-000 


4 


'29-902 


38-0 


30-1 


37-6 


33-7 


N. 


Cir. 


2 




0-035 


5 


29-794 


41-8 


32-1 


37-2 


35-8 


W. 


Gir. 


5 


N. 


0-015 


6 


29-517 


45 7 


37-0 


41-7 


39-8 


s.w. 


St. 


10 


S.W. 


0-050 


7 


29-620 


44 7 


36-8 


40-1 


39-1 


w. 


St. 


9 


w. 


0-000 


8 


29-519 


47-5 


34-2 


401 


36-9 


S.E. 


Cir. 


6 


s. 


0-080 


9 


29-504 


42-0 


36-7 


37-8 


37-4 


W. 


St. 


9 


s. 


0-000 


10 


29-309 


42-1 


37-1 


37-7 


36-9 


N.E. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-370 


11 


29-393 


38-1 


354 


36-0 


35-4 


N.E. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-025 


12 


29-680 


36-9 


33-0 


35 


33-2 


N.E. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 


13 


29-938 


38-2 


30-0 


348 


34-5 


W. 


Fog 


5 


... 


0-000 


14 


30-015 


46-2 


34-3 


40-0 


43-8 


S.W. 


Gir. 


6 


W. 


0-000 


15 


30-078 


50-7 


45-7 


48-0 


46-0 


w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


w. 


0-000 


16 


30133 


52-9 


44-8 


48-1 


45-0 


s.w. 


Cir. 


6 


w. 


0-000 


17 


30-122 


54-7 


409 


46-0 


41-0 


w. 


St. 


3 


w. 


0-000 


1 18 


30-042 


54-7 


33-4 


37-1 


37-1 


w. 


St. 


10 


w. 


0-060 


19 


29-765 


49-7 


37-1 


43-7 


41-1 


w. 


St. 


10 


w. 


0-035 


■20 


29-740 


48-8 


39-8 


43-8 


41-7 


w. 


St. 


9 


N. 


0-150 


21 


29-646 


49-7 


39-2 


49-7 


48-2 


w. 


Cir. 


6 


w. 


0-000 


22 


29-755 


55-1 


43-7 


46-3 


42-9 


s.w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


N.W. 


0-015 


23 


2ii-524 


53-1 


45-1 


48-1 


45-7 


s.w. 


St. 


10 


S.W. 


0-065 


24 


28-818 


53-0 


' 48-0 


48-3 


45-1 


w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


w. 


040 


25 


28-848 


oO-l 


37-0 


43-7 


40-9 


s.w. 


St. 


10 


s.w. 


0-030 


26 


28-999 


46-0 


33-7 


40-7 


38-9 


w. 


Cir. 


5 


N.W. 


0-020 


27 


29-107 


4X-6 


34-6 


38-8 


37-5 


N.E. 


Cir. St. 


10 


S.W. 


0-650 


28 


28 592 


41-5 


37-0 


37-9 


37-5 


N.E. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-165 


29 


28-927 


40-4 


36-9 


'40-4 


38 5 


N.W. 


Nim. 


10 


N.W. 


0-320 


30 


29-313 


42-0 


37-3 


40-2 


38-4 


N.E. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-050 


31 


29-452 


44-0 


38-0 


39-0 


38-0 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


N.W. 


0-060 



Barometer.— Highest, 30-133 inches, on the 16th. Lowest, 2S-592 Inches, on the 28th. 
Monthly Range, 1-541 inch. Jlean, 29-541 inches, being 0-2S0 inch below the average for 
March for four preeeding years. 

Protected S. R. Thermometers.— Highest, 55°-l, on the 21st. Lowest, 27°-2, on the 3rd. 
Monthly Range, 27°-0. Mean of all the Highest, 46°-0. Mean of all the Lowest, 30°-9. Mean 
Daily Range, 9°-l. Mean Temperature of Month, 41°-4, being l°-4 above the average for 
March for four preceding years. Frost occurred on 4 days. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb, 40°-9. Mean of Wet Bulb, 39°-0. Temperature of Dew- 
point. 36°-r.. Mean Humidity, 84°-3%. 

Radiation Thermometers.— Highest in Sun, 101°-3, on the 17th. Lowest on Grass, 21°-0, on 
the 3rd. Frost occurred on Grass on 12 days. 

Sunshine. — Total recorded for month, 58 hours 15 minutes, being 16% of the possible 
amount. The sunniest day was the 17th, with 7 hours 50 minutes, being 67-3 % of the possible 
amount. None was recorded on S days. 

Rainfall.— Rain or Snow full on 21 days. Total Fall, 2-295 inches, being 0-723 inch above the 
average for March for lour preceding years. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, 0-650 inch, on the 27th. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, Olserver. 



422 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 



III. Ox Plants in the Plant Houses. By E. L. 
Harrow. 

During the past month of March a large number of 
plants in the houses of the Eoyal Botanic Garden have 
come into flower; the houses in consequence have assumed 
a much brighter appearance. Ehododendrons, both species 
and hybrid varieties, and azaleas have flowered freely. 
Among ferns and foliage plants, the many colours of the 
young leaves are a very pleasing character. Since the last 
meeting of the Society, about 120 species have flowered, 
this being 80 more than was recorded for the preceding 
month. A few of the most interesting are as follows : — 

Crotalaria longirostrata, Hook, and Arn. This free- 
flowering leguminous plant is a native of Mexico, and has 
of recent years been introduced to cultivation in this 
country. The slender stems growing to a height of 4 feet 
or more, with numerous short shoots with alternate trif oliolate 
leaves, bear inflorescences at the ends of the side shoots, 
composed of bright yellow flowers. A figure prepared from 
a plant flowered at Kew may be seen in " Botanical 
Magazine," t. 7306. 

Bitdgca macrophylla, Benth. This plant, which belongs 
to the order Eubiacete, is a native of Brazil, and was intro- 
duced through the late Mr. Arthur Henderson of the Pine 
Apple Nursery. It is a stiff growing plant, usually with a 
crown of large, sessile, obovate, oblong leaves, and the 
terminal inflorescence is a dense head of many pure white 
flowers. 

Cystacanthus turgida, Nicholson. This plant is an ever- 
green perennial, of a shrub-like habit, with glabrous stems 
and foliage. The panicled inflorescences are terminal, the 
flowers arising in the axils of purplish coloured bracts. 
The white flowers are inflated at the mouth, and covered 
with reddish coloured lines. The throat is yellow, and 
bears numerous erect white hairs upon the lower surface. 
It belongs to the order Acanthaceffi, and was introduced 
from Cochin China in 1869. A figure may be seen in the 
" Botanical Magazine," t. 6043, under the name of Meninia 
Uirgida. 



Apr. 1805.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 423 

rsychotria jasminijiora, Hook. f. This is a handsome 
Brazilian shrub, of the order Rubiacea}, placed by Linden, 
by whom it was introduced under the generic name of 
Gloncria. In habit it is compact, and clothed with light 
green foliage, which upon the under surface is covered with 
a white tomentum. The terminal panicles of pure white 
flowers resemble somewhat the common jasmine, but the 
corolla tube and lobes bear numerous white hairs, the 
stamens protruding beyond the corolla. 

Mdia Azedarach, Linn. In its native habitat this plant 
reaches a height of 40 feet, and is of economic and 
medicinal value. It has several common names, as Bead 
Tree, Pride of India, etc. The terminal and axillary 
inflorescences are branched, and the flowers in bud are lilac, 
changing to white as they expand. The segments of the 
bipinnate foliage is deeply serrated. 

Others worthy of note are : — Streptosolen Jamesoni, 
Miers., — a native of Columbia, introduced in 1847, is a 
handsome plant, with corymbose panicles of orange- 
coloured flowers ; Begonia goego'ensis, Veitch, — introduced 
from Sumatra by Messrs. Veitch in 1882, is a very 
ornamental foliage plant, with pinkish small flowers ; 
Oncidiiim Crcesus, Rchb. f., — with small pseudobulbs, and 
slender spikes of flowers having a large golden yellow lip, 
is a Tropical American species, introduced in 1872; Tecoma 
Smitliii, Hort., — this plant is an Australian hybrid between 
Tecoma capcnsis and Tecoma stans, var. velutina, and although 
a climber is for horticultural purposes grown on a dwarfed 
system, and produces large terminal heads of yellow 
flowers. 



May 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 425 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, May 9, 1895. 

Symington Grieve, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The desirability of altering the hour of some of the 
meetings of the Society, to suit the convenience of country 
members, having been brought before the Council, the 
question was submitted to the members at this meeting 
for consideration and discussion. Ultimately it was 
resolved, on the motion of Professor Bayley Balfour, 
seconded by Mr. Symington Grieve, to refer the matter 
back to the Council, with an instruction to obtain a direct 
expression of opinion from the whole Society by post card 
or otherwise. 

Mr. Tagg exhibited from the Museum of the Eoyal 
Botanic Garden specimens of pine weevil {Hylohius abidis) 
upon spruce, received from Mr. GuNN, Strathpeffer, and 
taken from a young plantation at Fornabrock, which it had 
greatly destroyed. 

Mr.. Egbert Turnbull commented upon hybrids in 
flower between the swede turnip and the green kail, which 
had been grown in the Eoyal Botanic Garden from the 
plants exhibited by him to the Society at the meeting in 
January. 

Professor Bayley Balfour exhibited a monstrous flower 
of Cypripedium, in which the right labellar staminode had 
developed as a perfect stamen with filament and two-lobed 
anther, whilst the two normally perfect stamens were also 
developed to form distinct filaments bearing anthers. 

Issued November 1895. 



426 TRANSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. ux. 

Mr. Campbell sent for exhibition from his garden at 
Ledaig, Argyllshire, blooms of the following plants : — 
Orchis mascula, Trollius ewopceus. Lychnis diurim, Fotentilla 
alba, Pynis japonica alba, Azalea pontica, Erica mediter- 
ranea, Escallonia macrantha, Narcissus poeticus, and Phlox 
setacea. 

A collection of alpine plants in flower from the Eoyal 
Botanic Garden was exhibited, and also the following plants 
in flower: — Fetrecc xolubilis, Clavija Ernstii, Pi,uellia formosa, 
Begonia " President Carnot," Masdevallia ignea, M, amahilis, 
and Mesenibrya'iithcmum purjionifornu. 

Mr. CuTHBEET Day exhibited some barley corns, which, 
after being steeped for the usual time before malting, were 
frozen hard for fourteen days and then carefully thawed, 
and when placed subsequently in condition suitable for 
germination had sprouted. 

A collection of dried plants from South Australia, sent 
by ]\Ir. KiLGGUi:, Portobello, was exhibited. 



The following papers were read: — 

Notes from the PiOyal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

• I. PiEPOET on Vegetation during the Month of 
April 1895. By Egbert Lindsay, Curator. 

During the month of Apiil vegetation generally made 
fairly good progress, particularly during the latter portion 
of the month. The continuance of cold winds, together 
with a succession of frosty nights during the early part of 
the month, prevented any very rapid progress from being 
made, consequently the season is still very late. There 
was no very marked change in the leafage of deciduous 
trees till the 20 th of the month, after which time the 
foliage began to develop rapidly, in marked contrast to 
their condition at the same date last year, when the 
hawthorn, for instance, was not only in full leaf, but in 



May 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGII. 427 

flower also, as early as the 29 th of April, rruit trees and 
bushes, such as pear, apple, cherry, currant, and gooseberry, 
look very promising, being well set with flower buds, and, 
the season being so late, they are more likely to escape 
injury from late frost, and thus bear good crops of fruit. 

On the rock-garden 133 species of alpine and herbaceous 
plants came into flower during the month, as against 153 
for April of last year. Among the more interesting were : — 
Anemone nemorosa, var. Robinsoniana, A. Pulsatilla , var. 
hractcata, Androsaee Laggeri, Arnehia echioides, Arctia 
Vitaliana, A^ibrietia Hcndersoni, Bryanthu screctus, Corydalis 
ajigusti/olia, C. nohilis, C. Scoulcri, Dentaria •pcntajphylla, 
Dielytra formosa, Doronicum caitcasicum, Erythronium 
giganteum, Hclonias hullata, Iheris 'petrcca, Lathyrus vermis, 
L. cyancus, Menzicsia cccrulea, M. empetriformis, Narcissits 
calathinus, N. cyclamineus, N. juncifolius^ Podophyllum 
Bmodi, Primula ciliata imrpurata seedlings, Banuncidus 
amplexicaulis, Eliododendron ciliatum, R. Grievei, San- 
guinaria canadensis, Saxifraga imhricata, JS. ojjpositifolia, S. 
retusa hryoides, Thlaspi alpestre, Soldanclla aljnna, S. montana, 
Trillium erectum, T. grandifioruvi, Xanthorrhiza apiifolia, 
Synthyris reniformis, etc. 

Of the forty spring-flowering plants whose dates of 
flowering are annually recorded, the following sixteen came 
into flower during April, viz.: — 2\issilago nivea, on 3rd 
April ; T. alba, 5th ; Scilla hifolia tanrica, 5th ; Mandragora 
officinalis, 6 th ; Erythronium Eens-canis, 8 th ; Corydalis 
solida, 9 th; Drabaaizoides, 10th; Narciss^LS Pseudo-Narcissiis, 
10th; Hyoscyamus Scopolia, 11th; Adonis . vcrnalis, 11th; 
Ribes sanguincum, 13th; Sisyrincliium grandifiorum, 18th; 
S. grandifiorum album, 15th; Symphytum caucasicu7n, 
16th; A2ibrictia grandifiora, 16th; Om^jhalodes verna, 
22nd; and Fritillaria imperialis, on 5th May: thus 
completing the list which was completed last year on the 
25 th of March. 



[Continued on next page. 



428 



TEAXSACTIO^^? AND PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 



Eegister of SrpjxG-FLOTTERixG Plants, showing Dates 
OF Floweeen'g, at the Eoyal Botanic Gaeden, Edinbuegh, 

DURING the YeAES 1894 AND 1895. 







First Fio'wers opened. 




Ho. 


2sames of Plants. 










189i 


1895. 


1 


Adonis vernalis, . . . . 


March 


2-1 


April 


11 


2 


Arabis albida, .... 


February 


20 


March 


27 


3 


Aubrietia grandiflora, . 


March 


16 


April 


16 


4 


Balbocodinm vemnm. . 


1 January 


12 


March 


13 


5 


Corydalis solida, . 


! March 


22 


April 


9 


6 


Coi^lus Avellana, 


February 


8 


March 


■J" 


7 


Crocus EUBiann.s, .... 


,, 


6 


,, 


15 


8 


,, Temus, .... 


,, 


12 


,j 


17 


9 J 


Dapbne Mezereum, 


,, 


19 


?? 


25 


10 


Dondia Epipactis, . . . 


Dec. 28 (1833) 




11 


11 


Draba aizoides, .... 


March 


14 


April 


10 


12 


Eranthis byemalis. 


January 


19 


March 


1 


13 


Erythronium Dens-canis, 


March 


14 


April 


8 


U 


FritiUaria imperialis, . 


,, 


25 


May 


5 


15 


Galanthus nivalis, 


January 


16 


March 


1 


16 


„ plicatus, 


,, 


22 


»> 


4 


17 


Hyoscyamiis Scopolia, . 


March 


22 


April 


11 


18 


Ins reticulata, .... 


February 


19 


March 


25 


19 


Leucojum vemum, 


January 


18 


,, 


10 


20 


llandragora officinaUs, . 


February 


26 


April 


6 


21 


Narcissus Pseiido-Xarcissus, 


March 


20 


,, 


10 


22 


,, pumilus, . . . 


,, 


6 


March 


27 


23 


Nordmannia cordifolia, . 


February 


14 


,, 


16 


24 


Omphalodes vema, 


March 


13 


April 


22 


25 


Orobus vemus, . . . . 


,, 


6 


March 


28 


26 


Bhododendron atrovirens. 


January 


24 


,, 


26 


27 


„ Xobleanum, 


February 


3 


,, 


31 


28 


Bibes sanguinemn, 


March 


19 


April 


13 i 


29 


SciUa bif olia, . . . . 


February 


5 


March 


30 


30 


„ alba,. 


March 


6 


,1 


30 


31 


,, praecox, .... 


January 


22 


,, 


11 


32 


,, sibirica, . . . 


,, 


22 


,, 


18 


33 


„ tanrica, .... 


March 


6 


April 


5 


34 


Sisjrlnchimn grandiflorum, . 


,, 


18 


,, 


18 


35 


„ ,, album, 


,, 


12 


,, 


15 


36 


Symphytum cancasicuni, 


,, 


22 


,, 


16 


37 


Symplocarpus foetidus, . 


February 


13 


March 


24 


38 


Tussilago alba, 


March 


2 


April 


5 


39 


., fragrans. 


Dec. 25 (1893) 


March 


15 


40 


Divea, .... 


' February 


19 


April 


3 



May 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



429 



II. Meteorological Observations recorded at IiOyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of April 
1895. 

Distance from Sea, 1 milo. Height of Cistorti of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
7G-5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 A.m. 



1 


"^^ 


Thei-mometers, protected, 












o 


II 


4 feet above grass. 


a 


Clouds. 




O 

a 


S. R. Ther- 
mometers for 




5 


§1.' 


preceding 


Hygrometer. 


"o 








v-/ 


•3 

DO 


CO 

is 


24 hours. 




a 
o 

o 








.9 

'3 












^ 




ft 


Si 3 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


5 


Kind. 


o 


ii 


P^ 




o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


29-730 


46-4 


38-0 


41-0 


39-8 


n.e. 


Cir. St. 


6 


N.E. 


0-020 


2 


30-059 


42-8 


39-0 


41-0 


39-0 


ke. 


St. 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 


3 


29-836 


46-6 


37-3 


45-6 


420 


s.w. 


Cir. 


5 


N.E. 


0-086 


4 


30-090 


483 


310 


34-2 


31-8 


N.W. 


St. 


8 


N.W. 


O'OOO 


5 


29-961 


48-4 


31-0 


40-4 


36-3 


w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


W. 


0-020 


6 


28-979 


49-4 


40-1 


49-2 


47-0 


s.w. 


St. 


9 


W. 


0-065 


7 


29-342 


52-2 


2f--8 


40-2 


35-0 


N.W. 









0-000 


8 


29-596 


46-8 


30-2 


37-5 


34-8 


Var. 


Cir. Cum. 


9 


W. 


0-035 


9 


29 494 


51-8 


37-2 


50-0 


45-0 


s.w. 









0-015 


10 


29-500 


66-2 


48-9 


5.3-2 


48-5 


W. 









0-000 


11 


30-048 


55 2 


42-2 


49-8 


44-8 


W. 


Ciim. 


5 


W. 


0-085 


12 


30-271 


54-2 


36-2 


44-8 


41-2 


W. 


Cir. 


8 


N. 


0-(IOO 


13 


30-256 


53-6 


40-8 


43-0 


41-7 


N. 


St. 


10 


N. 


O-OOO 


14 


30-3-24 


46-2 


29-6 


42-8 


38-1 


N.E. 









0-000 


15 


30-256 


49-1 


36-7 


39-9 


38-2 


e. 


St'.' 


10 


e". 


0-000 


16 


30-047 


47-1 


37-1 


40-0 


39-0 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


17 


29-799 


46-2 


38-3 


39-1 


38-1 


S.E. 


Sr. 


10 


S.E. 


0-010 


18 


29-591 


42-0 


38-9 


40-8 


40-4 


E. 


St. 


10 


E, 


0-000 


19 


29-569 


50-9 


38-3 


50-7 


48-0 


W. 


St. 


8 


W. 


0-000 


20 


29830 


59-2 


40-1 


50-7 


47-3 


E. 


St. 


9 


S. 


0-000 


21 


29-606 


59-5 


50-8 


55-9 


50-6 


S.W. 


Cir. St. 


8 


S.W. 


0-000 


22 


29-663 


59-9 


45-0 


58-0 


514 


s.w. 


Cum. 


6 


s.w. 


0-010 


23 


29-309 


59-8 


60-8 


54-8 


50-8 


S.W. 


Cir. 


5 


s. 


0-000 


24 


29-488 


62-0 


47-1 


51-9 


47-9 


s.w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


s.w. 


0-160 


25 


29-453 


58-0 


45-6 


51-4 


47-9 


s.w\ 


Cir. 


2 


w. 


0-,S30 


26 


29-281 


55 7 


44-7 


45-9 


45-1 


Var. 


Nim. 


10 


N. 


0-215 


.27 


29-634 


461 


43-0 


45-9 


45 1 


N.E. 


St. 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 


28 


29-985 


48-9 


44-7 


48-9 


46-0 


S. 


St. 


10 


S. 


0-000 


29 


29-982 


65-5 


38-0 


50-9 


46-4 


S.W. 


Cir. St. 


8 


s.w. 


0-016 


30 


30-040 


58-7 


44-7 


50-7 


44-8 


w. 


Cum. 


2 


W. 


0-030 



Barometer.— Highest, 30-324 inches, on the 14th. Lowest, -28-979 inches, on the 6th. 
Monthly Range, l-34.'> inch. Mean 29-767 inches, being 0-181 inch below the average for 
April for four preceding years. 

Protected S. R. Theriiioiueters.— Highest, C-2°-0, on the 23rd. Lowest, 28°-8, on the 7th. 
Monthly Range, 33°-2. Mean of all the Highest, 51°-9. Mean of all the Lowest, 39°-S Mean 
Daily Range, 12°-1. Mean Temperature of Month, 4.5°-S, being 0°-9 above the average for 
April for four preceding years. Frost occurred on 5 days. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb, 46°-3. 3Iean of Wet Bulb, 43°-0. Temperature of Dew- 
point, 39°-3. . Mean Humidity, 76-2%. 

Radiation Thermometers. — Highest in Sun, 113°-2, on the 23rd. Lowest on Grass, 19°-9, on 
the 7th. Frost occurred on Grass on 9 days. 

Sunshine. — Total recorded for month, 119 hours 45 minutes, being 28-3% of the possible 
amount. The sunniest day was the 14th, with 11 hours 20 minutes, being 80-8% of the 
possible amount. None was recorded on 3 days. 

Rainfall. —Rain fell on 14 days. Total Fall, 1-0S5 inch, being 0-046 inch below the average 
for April for four preceding years. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, 0-330 inch, on the 25th. 

A. D. EICHARDSOX, Observer. 



430 TKANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 



III. On Plants in the Plant Houses. By E. L. 
Harrow. 

The plants in the houses of the Eoyal Botanic Garden 
have during the month of April made considerable growth 
in the fine weather experienced. Flowering and foliage 
plants have generally a more bright appearance with the 
developing new foliage. The new houses are rapidly 
assuming a more established and furnished appearance. 
Additions have been made to the collections of orchids, 
cacti, and stove plants, which will increase their interest 
largely. The raising of seed received from home and 
colonial gardens is always a work of some importance in a 
Botanic Garden, and of those which have germinated may 
be mentioned Roridula Gorgonias,, Planch, received through 
the Eoyal Gardens, Kew, during the early spring months. 
Some years ago seed of Roridula dentata, L., germinated in 
the Botanic Garden, and fine plants were raised, but they 
unfortunately died, and no one else in the country has 
raised the genus. It may be hoped better success will 
attend our effort on this occasion. Eather more than one 
hundred species have flowered since the last meeting of 
the Society ; the following being considered worthy of 
mention : — 

Drosophyllum Insitanicum, Link. The only species of 
this genus of Droseracea?, is a native of Portugal, Spain, 
and Marocco. It is a small-growing plant about a foot 
high, with a woody stem. The linear leaves, character- 
istically recircinate in bud, vary in length, and bear 
numerous stalked glands, and others almost sessile, and less 
observable. These glands are apparent upon the pedicel 
and persistent calyx. The inflorescence is terminal, and 
bears a large showy yellow petalled flower which is short- 
lived, opening during the morning and closing before night. 

Petrea voluhilis, Linn. A native of Tropical America, 
this plant belongs to the order Verbenacese, and is in habit 
a twining shrub, with opposite coriaceous leaves. The 
inflorescence is a short raceme of violet-coloured flowers. 
The epicalyx is persistent, and is said to enlarge as the 
fruit grows. The corolla is deciduous, and possesses a short 



May 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 431 

tube. A figure may be seen in the " Botanical Magazine," 
t. 628. 

Clavija Ernstii, Hook, f,, inhabits the tropical parts 
of South America, and is straight-stemmed with large 
coriaceous glabrous entire leaves, in a crown at top. The 
flowers are in drooping racemes, appearing upon the old 
wood. 

Bucllia formosa, Andr. A Brazilian species introduced 
to cultivation in 1808, now seldom seen in our gardens. 
It is of a small spreading habit, with herbaceous stems, 
and light green opposite ovate leaves, densely covered with 
hairs. The inflorescences, 2—4 flowered, are axillary, rising 
well above the foliage. The corolla is bright scarlet, the 
tube being more than an inch long. 

Many others are still flowering, among which are 
Cypripcdium Chamherlainianum, — a New Guinea species 
imported a few years since by Messrs. Sander & Co. 
Begonia " President Carnot," Hort, — one of the best 
evergreen hybrids yet raised, with bold foliage and large 
clusters of carmine flowers. The parents are said to be 
B. olbia, Kerchove, and B. rubra, Bl. It was raised by 
M. Crozy. Masdcvallia ignca, Echb., — a species from New 
Grenada ; M. amahilis, Echb., — from the Andes of Peru ; 
Miltonia Warszeiviczii, Echb., — introduced to European 
gardens about 1868, has a remarkable lip of a reddish- 
brown colour, margined with white ; Mcscmhryanthcmum 
pitgioniformc, Linn., — one of the finest of the genus, with 
large flowers of a brilliant yellow colour ; Saintpaulia 
ionantha, H. Wendl., — a Central African plant, collected 
on the Usambura Mountains, is small and low-growing, 
with violet-coloured flowers, and belongs to the order 
Gesneracea? ; Euadcnia eminens, Hook., f., — a capparidaceous 
plant. 



June 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 433 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY. 

Thursday, June 13, 1895. 

Kev. David Paul, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Intimation of the death of Hugh Francis Clarke 
Cleghorn, British Honorary Fellow of the Society, was 
made by tlie Chairman. 

Mr. James Grieve exhibited from Pilrig Nurseries a 
fine series of hybrid violas and pansies. 

A collection of alpine and herbaceous plants from the 
Eoyal Botanic Garden was exhibited ; also the following 
plants : — Alhcrta magna, OrtJiosi^jJion stamincns, Fagelia 
hituminosa, Disa Langleyensis x, D. trijjetaloidcs, D. racemosa, 
and Sclenipedium nitidissiimcm 

The following papers were read ; — 

Notes from the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

I. Keport on Vegetation during the Month of May 
1895. By Robert Lindsay, Curator. 

The weather of the past month of May has been warm 
and dry, and if not all that could have been desired, has 
been very favourable to vegetation generally, which has 
made very rapid progress. The foliage of all the ordinary 
deciduous trees and shrubs is now in perfect condition, 
being most luxuriant and healthy. Ornamental and fruit 
trees have flowered very profusely; among the finest in 
blossom were the single and double cherry, pear, apple, 
horse chestnut, laburnum, and pavia. No frost having 
occurred when the trees were in blossom, a heavy fruit 
crop may safely be anticipated. 

TRANS. BOT. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. 2 E 

Issued Xovemher 1895. 



434 TEA^'SACTIOXS A^'D PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

The rock-garden was very attractive during the month, 
many more plants having come into bloom than we usually 
find in May, No less than 346 species and varieties came 
into flower, as against 227 for May of last year. Among 
the most interesting were : — Anemone alpina, A. sulphurea, 
A. narchsiflora, A. polyanthes, Androsace villosa, A. lactea, 
AnthyUis montana rubra, Aquilegia ccerulea, A. Witt- 
7)ian7iiana, A. glandulosa, Arctostaphylos californica. Aster 
alpinus spcciosus, Aiibrietia Camphellii, A. Lciclitlinii, 
Campanula Allionii, Cassiope fastigiaia, Cornus canadensis, 
Cypripedium calceolus, Cytisus Ai-doini, C. decumhens, C. 
purpurcus, DajjJuie Cneorum, Dianthus glacialis, Didytra 
spectabilis, Doronicum grandiflorum, Dryas octopetoXa, Erica 
australis, Erodium Manescavi, Gentiana verna, Geum mon- 
tanum, Gnaphaliuni dioicum roseum, Gypsophila cerastioides, 
HomogynjC sylvestris, Horminum pyrenaicum, Kippocrepis 
helvetica, Hyacinthiis ameihystinus, Heuchera sanguinea, 
Litlwsperniurii Gastoni, Marina hetonicoides, Meconopsis 
simplicifolia, Melittis Melissophyllum, Mertensia sibirica, 
Myosotis alpestris, Narcissus poeticus grandijlorus, Phlox 
can^.densis, P. nivalis, P. setacea vars., P. stolonifera. Primula 
cortusoides, Polemonium humile, PotentUla lupinoides, Pcnt- 
stemon Menziesii,Papaver pyreyvxica, PJiododendron lepidotum, 
Rodgersia podopliylla. Ranunculus montanus, R. uniflorus, 
R. speciosus, Saponaria ocymoides, Baxifraga corsicana, S. 
Cotyledon, S. longiflora, S. muscoides atropurpurca, S. 
Wallacei, Sileiu acaulis alba, S. odontopctala, Sobolewskia 
clavata, Veronica saturecefolia, V. saxatilis alba, Vinca 
Jierbacea, Wulfenia carinthiaca, etc. 



June 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



435 



II. Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of May 1895. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 









76-5 


feet. 


tlour 


f Observati 


on, 9 A.M. 












Thermometers, protected, 














q o 


4 feet above grass. 


. 








o 


o 


1& 




a 


Clouds. 






S. E. Ther- 1 


2 


'^h 


mometers for 
preceding 


Hygrometer. 


"o 








^ 




IS 
2 ^ 


24 hours. 




o 

s 








3 

t— t 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. Wet. 


Kind. 


3 


2 c 




K £ 












< 


p'^ 











o 


o 


o 












1 


2;»-900 


58-1 


46-8 


49-8 


44-7 


w. 


Cum. 


5 


W. 


0-000 


2 


30-445 


54-S 


39-0 


49-9 


45-0 


s.w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


S.W. 


0-000 


3 


30-529 


57-9 


40-0 


62-8 


46-9 


N.E. 


Cir. 


3 




0-000 


4 


30-505 


59-7 


41-3 


45-1 


42-8 


N.E. 


Cir. 


4 




0-000 


5 


30-393 


54-1 


39-0 


52-9 


48-1 


. E. 









0-000 


G 


30-468 


62-0 


44-0 


48-8 


47-2 


E. 


St!' 


5 


e! 


0-000 


7 


30-433 


55-7 


43-0 


52-2 


49-1 


N.E. 









0-000 


8 


30-161 


69-0 


417 


52-2 


49-0 


N.E. 









0-000 


9 


29-949 


65-5 


43-9 


48-7 


47-5 


E. 


St.' 


3 


e". 


0-010 


10 


29-984 


66-6 


48-2 


61-3 


53-2 


s.w. 


Cir. 


3 


N. 


0-000 


11 


30-093 


65-1 


40-8 


67-2 


49-8 


S.E. 


Cir. 


3 


E. 


0-000 


12 


30-127 


63-8 


42-4 


49-1 


48-6 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-090 


13 


30-155 


60-4 


49-0 


60-0 


56-0 


W. 


Cum. 


8 


W. 


0-000 


14 


30-147 


67-9 


50-8 


55-6 


63-0 


W. 


St. 


10 


W. 


0-110 


15 


29-923 


60-7 


48-0 


55-8 


50-3 


N.W. 


Cir. St. 


10 


N.W. 


0-000 


1(3 


29-894 


64-9 


40-2 


46-3 


39-9 


N.E. 


Cum. 


5 


N.E. 


0-000 


17 


29-757 


52-8 


39-1 


41-7 


37-0 


N. 


St. 


10 


N. 


0-196 


18 


29-744 


47-0 


40-6 


47-1 


45-0 


W. 


St. 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 


19 


29-791 


55-7 


42-6 


46-8 


43-1 


N. 


St. 


10 


N. 


0-010 


•20 


29-734 


53-7 


40-2 


44-0 


40-8 


W 


Nim. 


10 


N. 


0-005 


21 


29-723 


51-7 


43-1 


46-4 1 46-0 


S.E. 


St. 


10 


S.E. 


0-050 


22 


29-852 


52-9 


46-1 


46-8 


46-2 


N.E. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-030 


23 


29-872 


55-7 


42-7 


53-4 


60-1 


Calm 


Cir. 


5 


S.E. 


0-025 


24 


29-865 


58-8 


44-4 


46-8 


46-8 


E. 


Fog 


8 




0-095 


25 


29-934 


54-8 


440 


45-7 


45-2 


E. 


St. 


10 


'e. 


0-380 


26 


29-076 


60-1 


42-1 


60-0 


53-6 


W. 









0-000 


27 


30-249 


64-5 


46-6 


62-2 


56-0 


Var. 


Cum. 


1 


s.'w. 


0-000 


28 


30-174 


69-8 


44-9 


62-1 


55-2 


S.W. 









0-000 


29 


30-022 


70-9 


47-1 


661 


56-7 


W. 


cir. 


5 


w. 


0-000 


30 


29-841 


71-2 


61-1 


56-3 


53-2 


S.E. 









0-000 


31 


29-587 


74-2 


50-6 


56-9 j 54-0 


S.E. 


cir. 


9 


s.' 


0-000 



Barometer. — Highest, 30 529 inches, on the 3nl. Lowest, 29-oS7 inches, on the 3Ist. 
Jlonthly Range, 0942 inch. Mean, 30'043 inches, being 0-198 inch above the average for May 
for four preceding years. 

Protected S. R. Thermometers.— Highest, 74°-2, on the 30th. Lowest, 39°-0, on the 2nd and 
5th. Monthly Range, 30°'2. Mean of all the Highest, 60°-3. Me.in of all the Lowest, 44''-0. 
Mean Daily Range, le'S. Mean Temperatiu-e of Month, 52°-l, being 2° -6 above the average for 
May for four preceding years. 

Hygrometer. — Mean of Dry Bulb, 52° -3. Mean of Wet Bulb, 43°-4. Temperature of Dew- 
point, 44"'-5. Mean Humidity, 74°-S /, . 

Radiation Thermometers.— Highest in Sun, 126°-0, on the 28th. Lowest on Grass, 2S°-0, on 
the Sth and 11th. Frost occurred on Grass on 7 days. 

Sunshine. -^Total recorded for mouth, 186 hours 25 minutes, being 37-1 % of the possible 
amount. The sunniest day was the 8th, with 11 hours 45 minutes, being 74-7 % of the possible 
amount. None was recorded on 2 days. 

Rainfall. — Rain fell on 11 days. Total fall, rOOO inch, being 1-171 inch below the average 
for May for four preceding years. Greatest fall in 24 hours, O'SSO inch, on the 2")th. 

A. D. RICHARDSOX, Observer. 



436 TKAXSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDTNGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 



III. On Plants in the Plant Houses. By Pt. L. 
Harrow. 

About two hundred and twenty plants have flowered 
since the last meetmg of this Society, rather more than 
two hundred of these being species. This exceeds the 
number recorded for the month of May 1894 by nearly 
a hundred species. Of these a large number are new to 
the collections, to which they have recently been added. 
Of those most worthy of note the following may be 
mentioned : — 

Gcelogyne Dayana, Echb. A species from North Borneo, 
introduced by Messrs. Veitch, and flowered by them at 
their nursery at Chelsea in 1884. The pseudobulbs are 
long, with large deep green leaves. The inflorescences are 
produced with the young growth, the pendulous racemes 
varying in length with the strength of the plant, but 
sometimes more than two feet long. The sepals and petals 
are dull yellow, the lip dark brown streaked with white. 
It is stated to grow in the hot districts on the branches of 
trees near the coast. 

Alhcrta magna, E. Mey. This is an erect bush-like 
rubiaceous plant from South Africa. The opposite ovate 
foliage is coriaceous, the inflorescences terminal panicles 
of bright crimson flowers ; the tube of the corolla being 
about an inch long. Two of the lobes of the calyx 
enlarge after flowering, and assume a scarlet colour. The 
plant has been in cultivation for several years, but was 
recorded at Kew last year as having flowered for the first 
time in this country. 

Orthosiplwn stamineus, Benth. This is an old introduction 
to our gardens, but is seldom met with in cultivation. It 
is a native of Malaya, India, and other tropical countries. 
Of a herbaceous habit, it grows a foot or more high, and 
bears ovate deeply-toothed leaves, and crowded terminal 
racemes of lilac-coloured flowers. The corolla is bilabiate, 
and has long conspicuous filaments and style projecting 
about two inches beyond the mouth of the corolla. The 
plant belongs to the natural order Labiatte. 

Adcnocalymna nitiduon, Mart. This climbing plant, of 



JCXE1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXBUEGII. 437 

the order Bignoniacene, is a native of Brazil, introduced in 
1848. It is a sturdy -growing plant, with glabrous stems 
and foliage ; the leaves being trifoliate, or with two 
elliptic leaflets and a tendril ; the inflorescences are in 
terminal or axillary racemes of bright yellow flowers with a 
trumpet-shaped corolla. The calyx bears large glands 
upon the surface. When in full flower it has a handsome 
appearance. A good figure may be seen in " Paxton's 
Flower Garden," t. 2. 

Fagelia hihiminosa, DC. Belongs to the order Legu- 
minosea?, and is of a twining or trailing habit, the slender 
stems and trifoliate leaves being densely clothed with 
clammy hairs. The axillary inflorescences bear generally 
four yellow flowers, the keel tipped with dark brown 
blotches. It is the Glycine hituminosa figured in the Bot. 
Reg., 261. 

Others are : — Oiicidium Harrisoniamtm, Lindl., — dis- 
covered on the Organ Mountains, Brazil, in 1832, a 
small-growing species, with slender panicled inflorescences 
of bright yellow, blotched with red flowers ; Bisa Lang- 
leyensis x, Hort., — a hybrid raised by Messrs. Veitch & Son, 
Chelsea, between D. tripetaloides and D. raccmosa, possessing 
strong spikes of flowers tinged with a lilac tint ; Sdenijjcdium 
nitidissimum, Hort., — raised by Xormau Cookson, Esq., 
Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne, the foliage is strong, and the 
spike bears generally from three to four flowers of large 
size, greenish-yellow in colour, the petals lengthened, and 
shaded with dark brown striations ; Masdevallia ccmdata, 
var. Shuttlcworthii, Echb., and M. caudcda xantliocorys, 
Rchb., — both pretty varieties, from New Grenada ; Solaiuim 
2}ensile, Sendtn., — a native of Demerara, with large pendant 
racemes of dark purple flowers ; Columnea Schicdcana, 
Schlecht, — the corollas of which are covered with glandular 
hairs, the stems and foliage being also covered with 
numerous purplish hairs. 



July 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGII. 439 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursdcay, July 11, 1895. 
Symington Grieve, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Ealph Stockman, M.D., was elected Eesident Fellow of 
the Society. 

The following plants were exhibited from the Eoyal 
Botanic Garden : — Strcptocarpits Saundcrsii, Tussacia pul- 
chclla, Ureocharis Clihrani, Nertera deprcssa, Lambertia 
formosa, Covibretwn puiyureum, Platytheca galioidcs, 
Crinum augustum, Cypriiiedium Parishii, Aristolochia 
tricaudata. 

The following papers were read : — 

Obituary Notice of Hugh Francis Clarke Cleghorn, 
M.T)., LL.D., F.II.S.E., F.L.S. By Andrew Taylor. 

Dr. Cleghorn joined this Society in 1837. The first of 
several medical students who have left our table to 
demonstrate the richer yields of descriptive Indian botany, 
he also opened a new career to the professional botanist. 
He was born in Madras in 1820, but returning to Fife 
in infancy, the love of nature beset the boy. He studied 
medicine in Edinburgh, as he himself from our chair 
recommended the future travelling botanist to do, mainly 
as a profitable life-opening in which he could also follow 
his future studies. In 1841 our young M.D. sailed for 
Madras, joining the Medical Establishment of the H. E.I.C.S. 
in the subsequent year, aged twenty-two. 

How the six years were spent ere Cleghorn left India 
in 1848 on sick-leave may be judged from the following 
extracts from a paper " On the Hedge Plants of India," 

Issued November 1895. 



440 TRAXSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

contributed to our " Transactions "in 1850 : — " Since my 
admission on the Madras Establishment in 1842, I have 
traversed a considerable portion of that Presidency in the 
execution of duty, including the Southern Division, the 
territory of Mysore, with parts of Canara and the Southern 
Mahratta country. Along the line of march, and in the 
course of botanical rambles, I made rough camp notes as 
to the vegetation and general appearance of the country." 
The traverse embraced the area of a European kingdom, 
and included the arid sands of Madras, the undulating 
plateau of the Mysore, the primeval forests of Coorg and 
Malabar, the woodless plains of the Carnatic, where 
European furniture cracks and warps, and the Malabar 
ghauts, where in the south-west monsoon the lancet, in 
pocket, coats with rust. How did the author of this paper 
so quickly acquire his power in describing Indian botany ? 
A reply is found in the obituary of Dr. Wight, F.E.S., 
also a Fellow of our Society, contributed by Cleghorn in 
1872. The veteran botanist, who began his official career 
in 1826, had to learn solely by self-instruction the 
gorgeous flora of the East, and displayed an ardour, the 
wonder of civilians. Near Cape Comorin he had collected 
2000 species; but what to do with them? They would 
be downright ruin to him to transport, as he already 
required, when on march, six carts to carry his books and 
kit. After eleven hours on his legs, during another 
traverse, he felt little fatigued, and only ceased march 
when every sheet of paper was filled, so that he could 
dry no more plants. As the fruit of all this travel, and 
mindful of future Indian classification tyros, he essayed 
the publication of " Illustrations of Indian Botany " and 
the " Icones," describing 2101 Indian plants. Wight 
learned lithography with a view to this project ; under- 
took publishing at his own risk, and kept a stafif of 
native collectors, draughtsmen, and painters to perfect 
their execution. Cleghorn issued an index to the 
" Icones," published by the Madras Government. At the 
instance of this new botanical master, Cleghorn carried 
tracings with him on his journeys of Eoxburgh's Coro- 
mandel plants, and of the same author's unpublished 
drawings, then housed at the Calcutta Gardens, syste- 



July 189').] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 441 

matically arranged in portfolios. He learned from him too 
•so to arrange his time that the busy day of a departmental 
surgeon always atibrded leisure for the study of at least 
one plant. 

When Cleghorn came to Madras, in 1842, Wight had 
for some years been allocated to a special office, under the 
Custom's Department. This, in the near future, developed 
into the Special Department of the Government of India 
having cognisance of Agriculture, Eevenue, and Commerce, 
which includes the Forest Department. In truth, the 
former garrison surgeon was then busy at the Government 
Experimental Cotton Farm at Coimbatore. The paper 
■already quoted, on hedge plants, so modestly designated 
as rough botanical notes, abounds in sympathy with the 
depressed ryot ; trusting that by better hedgerows, in- 
creasing cultivation, and diminished periodic famines, and 
by persuasion, patience, and perseverance, the upraising of 
the downtrodden cultivator of the soil might become to the 
dominant western race the brightest triumph of peace. 

Cleghorn's special life-work even now stood right to the 
front, though not by this track. Dr. Gibson, better known 
as " Daddy Gibson," first appointed Conservator of Forests 
in 1846, with the view of keeping up the supply of teak 
for the Bombay Dockyard, is quoted by him in the paper. 
Before leaving for Europe, in shattered health, Cleghorn 
made representations on the national injury caused by 
denuding hill slopes of their forest coverings, as well as 
by the injurious native system of kumri cultivation. In 
1848, when he sailed home, suftering shipwreck on the 
voyage, Colonel, now General Michael, C.S.I. , entered on 
his duties as Conservator of the Anamala Teak Forests, in 
the Madras Presidency, where he continued till forced to 
retire, in 1856, through ill-health, brought on by inde- 
fatigable exertions. Our invalid, though uncertain of 
returning to India, had a committee appointed by the 
British Association, at its Edinburgh meeting, in 1850, to 
draw up a report on the probable effects, in an economical 
and physical point of view, of the destruction of tropical 
forests. The members were Professor Forbes Eoyle, 
Captain Pi. Baird Smith, Lieutenant-General E. Strachey, 
and Dr. Cleghorn as convener, who drew up the report. 



442 TRANSACTIONS AXD PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lis. 

This, presented in the following year at Ipswich, coupled 
with Colonel Michael's now assured work in Madras, 
according to Sir George Birdwood, induced the Court of 
Directors H.E.I.C. to inaugurate, in systematic fashion, a 
regular Forest Department over the Madras Presidency, 
and also over all the Peninsula. 

Dr. Cleghorn, two years after returning to India, sub- 
mitted a report to the Government of Madras in 1856, 
with proposals, which were sanctioned by the Government 
of India in November of that year. He was appointed 
Conservator of Forests for the Presidency on 19 th 
December. Holding this position for five years, he gained 
a crowning success in the prohibition by the Government, 
in 1860, of kurnri cultivation in the forests by the natives. 
The people loved and trusted him, for his kindly ways as 
well as his medical serv'ices. Those at the head of affairs 
in Madras knew how the good of the people lay near his 
heart, and placed confidence in his calm judgment. So 
resulted the successful carrying out of such a drastic 
measure in Indian rural economy. 

From this time onwards Dr. Cleghorn sent frequent 
communications to this Society, no doubt incited thereto 
by his correspondent, Professor J. H. Balfour. In our 
"Transactions," up till 1861, we may trace his early 
progress in Forest Conservancy. All things came under 
notice in those great traverses of Southern India, from the 
Indian gutta tree, to the growth of yams and mangoes, 
invaluable to the natives in famine times, to gigantic 
cabbages in Orissa. The vegetable oils of Southern India, 
as well as Sir F. Abel's best means of preventing timber tires, 
and, above all, the preservation of teak forests, which alone 
occupied two-thirds of his time, were brought under notice, 
and a manual of Indian Botany was in course of prepara- 
tion. The climates and soils of different localities were 
given patient study, so far as suitable for the growth of the 
new industries of tea and cinchona. Clements Markham 
returned from South America to India with the young 
plants which were to create a revolution in medicine and 
planting in 1859, the year Dr. Cleghorn came home in 
ni health, a circumstance depriving the latter of inspecting 
the placing of the seedlings in their proper soil. 



JULT1S95.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 443 

Dr. Cleghorn was a member of Council, and made 
several communications and presentations to the Society 
during his temporary sojourn in Scotland from 1860 to 
1861. He also published at this time his book on "The 
Forests and Gardens of South India," a work which. Sir 
D. Brandis says, had much influence with the now Imperial 
Government in its adoption of great measures for Forest 
Conservancy. In October 1861 he wrote to Professor 
Balfour of perils from inundation at Alexandria on his 
return voyage, this time accompanied by a bride, Mabel, a 
daughter of the late Charles Cowan, formerly M.P. for 
Edinburgh, and a cinchona glass case given him at Kew. 
At our first meeting in 1863, Professor Balfour announced 
receipt of another letter, dated 2ud December 1861, 
announcing transference of cinchona plants, after safe 
arrival at Madras, to jSTilgiris to be planted, but that the 
other newcomers were on their way to the Punjaub to 
examine the forests there. So, in consequence of this 
order of the Governor-General in Council, the honeymoon 
spread over three years on the slopes of the Himalayas. 
In this home stay Francis Appavoo, native surgeon, was 
made an Associate at Cleghorn's instigation. His assistant 
dresser, when district surgeon, also assistant to Cleghorn 
when teaching Materia Medica and Botany in the Madras 
Medical College, he had followed his master, in 1859, into 
the Forest Conservancy Office. His death is touchingly 
noticed in the opening address by Sir Douglas Maclagan 
to our session 1863—64. 

The magnificent Deodar forests, the gorgeous vegetation 
of the valleys, and the natives eager for medical advice, 
furnish several papers to our " Transactions " from this 
Himalayan pilgrimage. They are to be found in volume viii., 
including a " Detailed List of the Principal Plants of the 
Sutlej Valley;" "Notes of an Excursion from Simla to the 
Valleys of Giri, Pabur, and Tonse ; " and "Supplementary 
Notes upon the Vegetation of the Sutlej Valley." This 
last, read 1.3th July 1865, was followed by a like paper 
by Dr. Brandis, now ten years in the Indian Forest Service. 
Professor Balfour remarked on the presence that evening 
of Drs. Wight, Brandis, Cleghorn, and John Kirk, then of 
Zambesi fame. Brandis, first Inspector-General of Indian 



444 TKAXSACTIONS AXD PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

Forests, had associated Cleghorn with him in his duties in 
1864. He was now in Europe, partly for health, but also 
to inaugurate the initial stages of this new departure in 
Indian administration by obtaining European candidates 
for its service, trained in the Imperial Eorest systems of 
Erance and Germany. Whilst Brandis remained for a 
year on furlough, Cleghorn returned to be sole chief of the 
department. On retiring to Madras in April 1867, the 
temporary Inspector-General received the thanks of the 
Government of India for his long and successful labours in 
the cause of Eorest Conservancy in India. In a previous 
resolution from the same quarter, he had been designated 
in 1865 as the founder of the movement. Thus, when 
Cleghorn retired from active work in India in 1870, the 
small seed had grown into a mighty tree. By " persuasion, 
patience, and perseverance " there had been secured a 
reserved forest area of 46,000 square miles, a net revenue 
of £300,000, and a capitalised value of the great forests, 
else doomed to destruction. At an expense, something 
like £190,000 per annum, a staff of some hundreds of 
officers now actively engage in reducing droughts and 
famines to a minimum — indeed, in keeping all India, 
within the solstitial line, from becoming an inhospitable 
desert like Northern Afghanistan. 

Dr. Cleghorn's remaining years in Britain as in India, 
were spent in constant travel. With the hours of day and 
week systematically apportioned equally to public aud 
private duties, his weeks were as systematically devoted 
to business visits to St. Andrews, Cupar, and Edinburgh, 
varied by periodic journeys to the India Office in London, 
in pursuance of his duties as confidential adviser to the 
Government in the selection of candidates for the Indian 
Forest Service. He loved his young men. Years after 
18 70 — when a class of seven forest aspirants, then driven 
into Edinburgh by the Franco-Prussian war, studied 
petrology with me — he would stop on the street to tell of 
recent Indian intelligence regarding them, one having shot 
a tiger, or another trapped an elephant. A splendid group 
of men has resulted from his twenty years' selection. May 
I instance Professor Fisher, of Cooper's Hill, who has just 
issued, as vol. iv. of Dr. Schlich's Manual, a valued treatise 



JULY1S95.] BOTAXICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 445 

on Forest Protection. So too, as examiner in Botany to 
medical aspirants, or in Forestry, for the Highland and 
Agricultural Society's Diploma, Dr. Cleghorn's kindly 
manner put spirit into the disheartened candidate. A 
power of specific individualisation, which extended alike to 
men and trees, constituted a main element in his successful 
career. 

The visitor to the ancestral home at Stravithie, rebuilt 
after his fiual return from India, could not fail being 
struck with the sympathy, arising from intimate personal 
knowledge, manifested to fishermen or cottagers of Boar- 
hills, the neighbouring hamlet. He would mark, too, the 
enthusiasm glancing from the doctor's eye as he pruned 
with bill-hook some excrescence on a favourite pine, for he 
knew every tree in his woods. Mrs. Cleghorn died several 
years before himself, yet the doctor continued steady work. 
County meetings, scientific councils, examination boards, 
and an enormous heap of correspondence filled up the busy 
hours. The Edinburgh Forestry Exhibition, of which he 
was a chief promoter, was perhaps the greatest break in 
this systematic routine. The spare lithe form of the 
doctor fleeting about its halls, was well-known to the 
general visitor. Only those acquainted with the inner 
workings became aware of the time spent on almost every 
committee ; of his editing foreign catalogues, involving an 
immense study of specific floras and herbarium specimens, 
borrowed from our institutions ; of his taking a house in 
the neighbourhood so as to be close to the, as yet, hazardous 
undertaking ; of his hospitality to savans and Indian forest 
officers. AVhat looked at first to be a financial failure, 
turned out a magnificent success even in this age of steel. 
Dr. Cleghorn was an old hand at exhibition work, serving 
his novitiate, under Dr. Forbes Eoyle, in the Mother of all 
British ones in 1851, classifying the exhibits of the Indian 
section. Hence the perfect arrangement of this new one 
at Murrayfield, the Indian court of which was magnificent : 
and the special catalogue of which, a pamphlet of lltj 
pages, is of permanent value. Sir George Birdwood, C.S.I., 
thus concludes his editorial preface : " It is a happy omen 
that the first International Exhibition should have been 
held in the stately capital of Scotland, where scientific 



446 TEAXSACTIONS AXD PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 

forestry throughout the British Empire received its earliest 
impulse, and that the Exhibition should be so much 
indebted for its prosperous issue to the co-operation of 
Colonel Michael, the pioneer of practical forestry, and of 
Cleghorn, the father of scientific forestry in India." 
Though chill October saw this gorgeous exhibition of woods 
and woodmen dispersed, its permanent results at least have 
been — the Parliamentary Forestry Commission, the Indian 
Eorest School at Cooper's Hill, lectureships at Edinburgh 
and Durham Universities, together with the Hugh Cleghorn 
Memorial Library in the Edinburgh Museum of Science 
and Art. 

Dr. Cleghorn busied himself in the administration of 
our Society, once occupying the presidential chair, obtain- 
ing valuable papers from influential correspondents, as well 
as devotincr infinite time and trouble in editing the 
" Transactions." Li\dng at Stra%dthie, he arranged his 
weeks so as to be present either at the monthly Council 
or general meeting. He was elected one of our British 
Honorary Fellows in 1890, an honour reserved to six 
botanists of our own blood and kin. 

Two years ago Cleghorn resigned connection with the 
India Office. As he said to the writer, " I dropped the 
serAace before it could drop me." Yet days of activity, as 
of old, sweetened by the company of his nephew's little 
children, seemed before him ; so we thought, shaking hands 
with him, tall, erect, and bustling, on an Edinburgh street 
last Xovember. It was not so to be, for on the IGth May 
1895 he was summoned, at Stravithie, to the acti\dties of 
immortal youth iu Christ, in his seventy-fifth earthly year. 

CHROXOLOGY. 

Born in Madras. 9th August 1820. where his father was Adminstrator- 
General in the Supreme Court. — Gra'luated as M.D. in 1841. — 
Joined Madras General Hospital, 3 842. — Returned to Great 
Britain in 1848. — Juror on Indian Products, Great Exhibition, 
1851. — Author of Report of Brit. Asso. Report on Tropical 
Forests. Ipswich. 1801. — Joined Linnean Society, 1851. — Chair 
of Botany and Materia Medica, Madras Medical College, 1852. — 
Requested by Lord Harris. Governor of Madras, to organise a 
Forest Department for the Presidency, 1855. — Joint-Conservator 
of Forests for India with Sir D. Brandis, 1861.- — Elected FeUow 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 18G3. — Inspector-General of 
Forests, 1867. — Retired from Indian life, 1869. — President of 



July 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 447 

Botanical Society, 1868-69.— Made LL.D. of St. Andrews Uni- 
versity. — Conducted Summer Session of Prof. Walker Arnott's 
Botanical Class, University of Glasgow, during his last illness, 
1868. — President of Koyal Scottish Arboricultural Soc, 1872-74, 
1883-86. — International Forestry Exhibition, 1884. — Presenta- 
tion of Testimonial (money part given by Dr. Cleghorn to form a 
Forestry Library) and Portrait, 1888. — British Honorary Fellow 
Botanical Society, 1890. 

BOTANICAL PUBLICATIONS. 

On the Hedge Plants of India, and the conditions ■which adapt them for 
special purposes and particular localities. — Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., 
vol. iv. Read 1850. 

Report of the Committee appointed to investigate the Probable Effects, 
in an economic and physical point of view, of the Destruction of 
Tropical Forests. — British Asso. Reports, 1851. 

Remarks on Calysaccion loiigi/oUum, Wight. — Pharm. Jour., 1851. 

Note on the jEgle Mai-mehs. — Indian Annals, 1851. 

Note on the Sand Binding Plants of theMadras Beach. — Hooker's Journ. 
of Bot, viii., 1856. 

Note on the varieties of Chiretta used in the Hospitals of Southern 
India. — Indian Annals, iii., 1856. 

Expedition to the Higher Ranges of the Anamalai Hills, Coimbatore, 
in 1858. —Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. 

On the Pauchontee, or Indian Gutta Percha Tree, on the Western Coast, 
Madras Presidency. — Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. vi. p. 148. 

Report on the Conservation of Forests in India. — Ibid. p. 237. 

On Tea Culture in Southern India. — Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. vii. p. 30. 

On Introduction of Cinchona Trees into Southern India. 

On Timbers suited for Railway Sleepers in India. — Ibid. p. 55. 

On a Species of Dioscorca (Yam) occurring in Southern India. 

Notes upon the Coco-nut Tree and its uses. — Ibid. p. 155 (Two plates). 

List of Plants growing in the Bangalore Garden, Mysore, drawn up by 
Mr. New, at the request of Dr. Cleghorn. — Ibid. p. 223. 

Extracts from Letters written during the Vovace to Cairo, Sept. 28, 
1861.— Ibid. p. 250. 

Extracts from Indian Letters. — Ibid. p. 500. 

Memorandum of Local Museums in Punjaub. — Ibid. p. 531. 

Notice of the Chinchona Cultivation on the Neilgherry Hills. — Ibid, 
p. 585. 

On some Economic Plants of India. — Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. viii. 
p. 63. 

Principal Plants of the Sutlej Valley, with Hill, Botanical, and English 
Names; together with Approximate Elevations and Remarks. — 
Ibid. p. 77. 

Notes of an Excursion from Simla to the Valleys of the Giri, Pabur, and 
Tonse Rivers, Tributaries of the Jumna. — Ibid. p. 306. 



448 TRAXSACTIOXS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. ux. 

Supplementary Xotes upon the Vegetation of the Sutlej Valley. — Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. viii. p. 309. 

Xotes on the Travaucore Government Garden at Peermade. 

On the Deodar Forests of Himalavas. — Brit. Asso. Reports, vol. xxxv. 
p. 865. 

On the Distribution of the Principal Timber Trees of India.- — Brit. Asso. 
Reports, vol. xxxv., 1868. 

On the Supply of Wood-fuel to Indian Railways. — Trans. Bot. Soc. 
Edin., vol. ix. p. 56. 

Communication : On the Cultivation of Sumach (Rhus coriaria) in the 
vicinitv of Colli, near Palermo. Bv Professor Inzenga. Trans- 
lated by Colonel H. Yule, C.B.— Ibid. p. 341. 

Biographical Notice of the late Dr. "Walker Arnott, Regius Professor of 
Botany in the University of Glasgow. — Ibid. p. 414. 

Communicated Notes on Vegetable Morphology. By Colonel CoUinson, 
R.E., Malta.— Ibid. 480. 

Notes on the Flora of Malta and Sicily.- — Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin.. vol. x. 
p. 28. 

Obituary Notice of Professor C. F. P. von Martius, Munich, and Adalbert 
Schneizlein, Erlangen. — Ibid. p. 30. 

Notes on the Botany and Agriculture of Malta and Sicily. — Ibid. p. 106. 

Obituary Notices of the late Dr. William Seller, and of Prof. Bertoloni, 
of Bologna. — Ibid. p. 202. 

On the Parasites which affect the Government Timber Plantations of 
Southern India. — Ibid. p. 245. 

Opening Address as President. — Ibid. p. 261. 

Communicated : Memorandum on Ipecacuanha. By Clements R. Mark- 
ham, Esq. — Ibid. p. 391. 

Obituary Notice of Dr. Robert Wight, F.R.S. (with portrait). — Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xi. p. 3G3. 

Obituarv Notice of Dr. J. L. Stewart. — Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xii. 
p. 31. 

Obituary Notice of Deputy Surgeon-General W. Jameson, CLE. — Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xiv. p. 288. 

Introductory Remarks as Vice-President, Session XLVII.-XLVIII. 

Communication of Note on Ruhns Idiens, var. Leesii ; and Notice of 
some Plants from Inverness-shire. By Dr. Mactier, St. Andrews. 
— Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xvi. p. 15. 

Obituary Notice of WiUiam Traill, M.D. — Trans. Bot. Sec. Edin., vol. 
xvii. p. 17. 

Obituary Notice of Sir Walter EUiot. — Ibid. p. 342. 

Obituary Notice of Dr. Boswell, of Balmuto. — Ibid. p. 516. 

TREATISES. 

Forests and Gardens of South India. — London, 1861. 
Arboriculture. — Last EL Eucy. Brit. A. Black & Sons, London. 



July 1S9.j.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDIXDUIJGH. 449 



Obituary Notice of Dr. Thomas Alexander Goldie 
Balfouk, M.D., F.E.C.P.E., F.RS.E. By Andrew Taylok. 

The announcement that this loved physician had 
suddenly succumbed on 10 th March, during the pheno- 
menally severe weather of the early days of 1895, sent a 
wave of sorrow through Edinburgh circles — medical and 
seneral. The members of the Botanical Society, besides 
his patients and members of his private circle of friends, 
felt how one whose cheery presence, wit, and warm 
sympathy did so much to enliven social intercourse was 
now lost to them. 

St. John's Hill, Pleasance, where the subject of this 
notice was born in 1825, was built by Hutton, the 
geologist. Eeally situated in the Queen's Park, and till 
those later years having all the surroundings of a mountain 
home, far from the crowded city's ceaseless roar, it was in 
the early decades of this century the home of a family of 
naturalists. The fame of John Hutton Balfour, the eldest, 
is European. If the exigencies of a crowded professional 
life prevented the youngest from climbing to like heights 
on the rung of the scientific ladder, the few papers by 
Thomas A. G. Balfour in our " Transactions " show what 
he might have done had he followed a strictly scientific 
career. 

Though John Hutton Balfour removed to Dundas Street 
in 1834, his influence was paramount at St. John's Plill. 
The large section of garden ground, of the half acre now 
so well cultivated by the venerable survivor of a happy 
company of eleven, the Eev. Dr. William Balfour, specially 
set apart for the growth of wild plants by the future 
Queen's botanist, still remained. The herborisings first 
begun by the father in the King's Park had extended, 
under Professor Graham, into Sutherlandshire and like far 
ofi" parts of Scotland, and the help of all the family group, 
male or female, was called in for the nurture of such new 
plant finds. Here, indeed, began our Botanical Society, 
which was formed some two years after, and it was the 
better of this private garden. Standing near the spot, and 
pointing to the jagged outlines of Salisbury Crags, the 

TRANS. BOX. SOC. EDrS'. VOL. XX. 2 F 



450 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 

venerable pastor occupying Holyrood Free Manse ex- 
claimed, " Who could not help being a naturalist in such 
surroundings ? " So the boy Thomas Balfour caught the 
family enthusiasm, and became a botanist, though he did 
not appear as an attender of our meetings till late in life. 
Other surroundings of his home affected him. He became 
a zealous collector of insect.s, rare species of which used to 
abound in the neighbouring hill, and doubtless scrambles 
up its Cat's Nick, and like celebrated habitats, gave him 
that taste for minerals wliich stuck to him through life, 
the monument of which remains in his little work, " God's 
Jewels." 

Dr. Thomas Balfour did not remove from the old 
paternal home to George Square till about five years after 
taking his degree of M.D., which he did in 1851, at the 
time twenty-eight years of age, thus more matured than 
brother graduates. Button's Chemical Laboratory, an out- 
lying building to the family home, had not yet been taken 
down, so a taste for chemistry was incited, as shown by his 
graduation thesis on " Alcohol as an Etiological Agent," 
which was commended, and a prospective career as lecturer 
on Materia Medica. As it was, he spent three years of his 
student course with Messrs. Duncan, Flockhart, & Co., an 
experience which he found invaluable whilst writing out 
physician prescriptions. This came also to be of service 
when he succeeded Professor Fraser in 1874 as Curator 
of the Museum of the Eoyal College of Physicians. Here 
his knowledge of plants and minerals found ample scope. 
Till the end he was zealous in keeping up to date this 
great collection which the College purchased from Dr. 
Martius, of Erlangen, " a unique one in this country, being 
an almost complete collection of the 'Medicamina Simplicia' 
of the Materia Medica as it stood at the time of its 
purchase." The second brother, then the Eev. William 
Balfour, imbibing Dr. Chalmers', his preceptor's, enthusiasm, 
had devoted his life to working out Home Missions on 
the territorial principle, and the young doctor thus began 
that attendance on the forlorn inhabitants of Edinburgh's 
wynds and closes which was his life habit. Besides, the 
late Professor Pulteney Alison, his professor, became his 
hecm ideal as a Christian physician. So it came about 



JOLY1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 451 

that busy medical practice oiitruled scientific tendencies, 
which asserted themselves, however, during immense 
practitional activity in the publication of a much 
esteemed little book, — " The Typical Character of 
Nature." 

Dr. T. A. G. Balfour joined our Society in 18G8. He 
became President, in succession to Sir Eobert Christison, 
in session 1877—78, and continued to occupy the chair for 
the next term. He afterwards served the Society for many 
sessions, either as Vice-President or Councillor. A list of 
papers, the result of much patient labour in the laboratory 
of the Eoyal Botanic Garden, chiefly experiments on 
Dioncca Muscipula (Venus' Fly-Trap), is given at the close 
of this notice. They were highly valued by experts. But, 
beyond such contributions of work, his ready wit, urbanity, 
patience, and warmth of heart contributed much to the 
success of the meetings over which he presided. 

Dr. Balfour contributed also many valuable professional 
papers both to the Medico- Chirurgical and Obstetrical 
Societies. He became a member of the Eoyal College of 
Physicians in 1867, rising to the Fellowship in 1869. 
He joined the ranks of the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh 
in 1870. 

AVhen death suddenly came to the busy worker— he had 
just entered his seventieth year — professors, reverend 
doctors of divinity, and over a hundred working men and 
women joined the funeral procession. 

LIST OF DR. T. A. G. BALFOUR'S BOTANICAL PAPERS. 

1. Observations on Mr. Darwin's Views of Climbing Plants. — Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. xii. p. 451-477. 

'2. Experiments on Dionxa Muscipula (Venus' Fly-trap}. — Ibid. vol. xii. 
p. 334-369. 

3. Presidential Remarks. — Ibid. vol. xiii. p. 165-171. 

4. Note on the Effects of Soot on some Coniferae. — Ibid. p. 343-351. 

5. Presidential Address: On Dionoia Muncijnda (Venus' Fly-trap). — 

Ibid. 353-389. 

6. Presidential Address. — Ibid. vol. xiv. p. 49. 

7. Obituary Notice of Dr. James Gilchrist, Dumfries. — Ibid. vol. xvii. 

p. i\ 



452 TEA^;SACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. Lix. 



XOTES FROM THE EOYAL BOTAXIC GARDEN, EDINBURGH. 

I. Eeport on Vegetation dueing the Month of June 
1895. By PtOBERT Lindsay, Curator. 

The past month of June has been remarkable for the 
great heat and drought which prevailed generally, and also 
for occasional frosts at night. As regards the Botanic 
Garden, vegetation did not suffer much from this abnormal 
weather, but throughout the country the results have been 
rather disastrous. 

Hardy herbaceous plants have flowered very profusely 
during the month, and are fast ripening an abundant 
supply of seeds. Deciduous trees and shrubs generally, 
though scarcely up to the average in richness of blossom, 
have developed remarkably fine and luxuriant foliage. 
Insect pests are not very abundant, notwithstanding the 
drought. More plants came into flower in June this year 
than has happened since 1889. Xearly all variegated 
plants have developed lichly coloured leaves. 

On the rock-garden 402 species and varieties came into 
flower during the month, as against 288 for the corre- 
sponding month last year. Among the most effective in 
flower were : — Arenaria graminifolia. Aster alpinus, A. 
alpinus alhus, A. alpinus sjjeciosus, A. Stracheyi, Astragalus 
TragacantJia, Anthyllis eriruicea. Arnica montana, AqvAlegia 
ca:rulea Intca, Campanula pulla, C. persicifolia grandijlora, 
C. '' G. F. Wilson" Cranibe cordifolia, Dianthus alpinus, D. 
ca'sio-caricinus, D. ncgledus roseus, D. superhis and varieties, 
Edraianthus Purnilio, Erica Mackaiana, Gillenia trifoliata, 
Galax a'phylla, Helianthcmurn amabile Jl. pi., Morina 
betonicoidcs, Midgediurn cdpinuin, Onosma taurica, Oxcdis 
lasiandra, Oxytropis uraleiisis, Fhlox Carolina, Potentilla 
nitida atrorubens, P. lajiuginosus, Pohertia taraxacoides, 
PJiododcndron ferrugineum alhum, Sphceralcca rivularis, 
Trifoliuni alpimim, Veronica satureo folia, etc. 



July 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



453 



II. Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of June 
1895. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Heij^lit of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
76-5 feet. Hour i^f Obsei-vation, 9 a.m. 





"^ a 


Thermometers, protected. 
















4 feet above grass. 










/-N 


^ 


a a 








a 








i 


5 

<D 


So* 
o '>> 


S. R. Ther- 
mometers for 
preceding 


Hygrometer. 


"o 


Clouds. 




■3 

a 


CD 


-"5 

So 

C 2 


24 hours. 




_o 

"5 








3 

_a 












^- 


' , 


fi 




Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


s 


Kind. 


3 

o 




Ph 






o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


29 -098 


69-6 


52-0 


63-1 


56-9 


s. 


Cum. 


5 


S. 


0-125 


2 


29-891 


70-2 


52-0 


53-8 


52-0 


e. 


St. 


8 


E. 


0-0-20 


3 


.30-120 


55-0 


50-4 


51-8 


51-1 


E 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-000 


4 


30157 


59-8 


51-5 


56-0 


53-6 


N.E. 


Cir. 


5 


W. 


0-050 


5 


30-388 


63-0 


52 


58-1 


52-2 


N.E. 









0-000 


G 


30-380 


637 


43-7 


58-9 


51-1 


E. 









0-000 


7 


30-293 


68-2 


45-8 


60-5 


54-2 


N.E. 







... 


0-000 


8 


30-131 


76-1 


54-7 


63-0 


56-8 


W. 


Cir.'st 


10 




0-000 


9 


29-927 


70-5 


49-1 


60-1 


55-7 


N.W. 


St. 


10 


nIw. 


0-000 


10 


29-8G9 


70-7 


51-4 


60-0 


50-7 


W. 


Cum. 


1 


w. 


0-000 


11 


29-749 


649 


47-2 


56-4 


47-9 


N.W. 


Cum. 


2 


N.W. 


0-075 


12 


29-942 


59-7 


40-1 


52-3 


45-8 


W. 


Cum. 


5 


N. 


0-010 ' 


IS 


30-059 


55 9 


37-1 


53-9 


47-1 


W. 


Cir. 


5 


N.W. 


0-060 1 


U 


30-088 


61-9 


44-2 


53-4 


46-0 


N.W. 


Cum. 


8 


N.W. 


0-000 


15 


30-126 


56-0 


37-6 


53-2 


47-7 


N.E. 


Cir. 


3 


N. 


0-000 


16 


29-973 


64-5 


40-1 


58-0 


49-3 


W. 


Cum. 


3 


W. 


0-005 


17 


29-881 


61-4 


40-0 


52-3 


45-9 


Var. 


Cir. St. 


10 




0-275 


18 


29 054 


57-8 


45-7 


50-8 


48-8 


E. 


St. 


8 


s! 


0-675 


19 


29-567 


56-0 


47-7 


55-0 


51-7 


E. 


Cum. 


2 


E. 


0-465 


20 


29-849 


58-0 


44-5 


57-1 


51-6 


W. 


Cum. 


1 


w. 


0-065 


21 


30033 


641 


48-7 


61-1 


56-9 


W. 


Cir. 


3 


W. 


0-050 


22 


30-143 


64-0 


49-0 


55-7 


51-1 


sw. 


Nim. 


10 


W. 


0-000 


23 


30-205 


71-1 


57-8 


63 9 


59-1 


N.W. 


Cir. St. 


8 


N.W. 


0-000 


24 


30-408 


74-0 


47-5 


55-2 


52-8 


N. 


Cir. St. 


8 


N. 


0-000 


2h 


30-315 


62-1 


51-0 


579 


54-3 


N. 









0-000 


26 


30-029 


64-2 


50-1 


62-8 


56-4 


N.E. 


ci 


2 


S.W. 


0-000 


27 


29-810 


77-7 


59-1 


63-9 


576 


S.W. 


Cir. St. , 


5 


w. 


0-000 


28 


29-700 


71-4 


48-9 


63 5 


56-2 


S.W. 


Cir. 


5 


S.W. 


0-215 


29 


29-532 


64-2 


51-1 


61-4 


57-4 


Var. 


j" Cir. 
\ Cum. 


=} 


S.W. 


0-140 


30 


29-456 


62-4 


49-8 


60 1 


56-2 


W. 


Cum. 


5 


w. 


0-330 



Barometer. — Highest, 30-40S inches, on the 24th. Lowest, 29-456 inclies, on the 30th. 
Jlouthly Range, 0-952 inch. Mean, 29-970 inches, being 0-007 inch above the average for 
June for four preceding years. 

Protected S. R. Tlierniometers. — Highe.st, 77°-7, on the 20th. Lowest, S""-!, on the 13th. 
Mouthlv Range, 40°0. Mean of all the Highest, tj4°-6. Mean of all the Lowest. 48°-0. Mean 
IJaily Range, 10°-6. Mean Temperature of Month, 50°-3, being 0°-' above the average for 
June for four preceding years. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb, 5"°-S. Mean of Wet Bulb, 52°-5. Temperature of Dew- 
point, 47-T. Mean Humidity, 69-1 %. 

Ra<liation Thermometers. — Highest in Sun, ISl'-O, on the 9th. Lowest on Grass, 2S°-8, on 
the 15th. Frost occurred on Grass on days. 

Sunshine. — Total recorded for month, 191 hours, being 36-6% of the possible amount. The 
sunniest day was the 6th, with 13 hours, 30 minutes, being 73'3 % of the possible amount. 2fo 
sunless days occurred during the month. 

Rainfall.— Rain fell on l.j day.«. Total Fall, 2-560 inches, being Q-Oll inch above the average 
for June for four preceding years. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, 0-675 inch, on the isth. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, Observer. 



454 TRANSACTIONS AND PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lix. 



III. Notes on Plants in PLA^'T Houses. By E. L. 
Harrow. 

About 130 species of plants have flowered during June 
in the plant houses of the Eoyal Botanic Garden. Of 
these the majority have been natives of tropical countries, 
and the houses devoted to these plants have, in conse- 
quence, presented an attractive and interesting appearance. 

This being, ijar excellence, the growing season of orchids, 
the least quantity of bloom is produced, and the plants 
which have flowered have been chiefly species of Cypi^i- 
pedium, Stanhopca, and Cattleya. 

The creepers upon the roof of the Palm House annexe, 
and also in the corridor, include some showy species of 
Allamanda, ClerocUnclron, and Solanum, etc., and these are 
now becoming established and clothing the house. 

The following are a few of the most worthy of plants 
flowered : — 

Lambertia formosa, Sm. This plant is a native of Aus- 
tralia, and like many of the hard-wooded plants introduced 
to cultivation during the end of the last and beginning of 
the present century, is now rare in our gardens. The small 
number of species representing the genus are all natives of 
Australia ; the natural order to which they belong being 
Proteaceae. The species under notice is of a shrub-like 
habit, the branches springing from below the surface of the 
soil, and bearing linear leaves generally in whorls of three. 
The terminal involucres enclose seven flowers with a red 
corolla, the lobes of which are reflexed and hairy, the style 
protruding about an inch beyond the mouth of the corolla. 

Urcocharis Clihruni, Hort. This bigeneric hybrid was 
raised by Messrs. Clibran, Altrincham, the parents being 
Eucliciris grandijlora, Planch, and Linden, and Urceolina 
pendula, Herb. It resembles most the fii-st-named in 
foliage and in the colour of its flowers, but differs in the 
flowers being produced in greater number on its inflor- 
escences, and in its period of flowering. The umbels 
consist of six or more white flowers upon an erect peduncle 
rising well above the foliage. 

Tricliopilia Galeottiana, A. Eich., is a native of Mexico, 



July 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 455 

discovered by Galeotti, an Italian explorer, in 1845, but 
was not introduced to European gardens until about 1859. 
It is a distinct orchid, with long pseudo-bulbs, and a single 
elliptic coriaceous leaf. The flowers spring from the base 
of the pseudo-bulbs, the sepals and petals are greenish- 
yellow in colour, the lip is large, light yellow at the edges, 
and darker yellow around the column. 

Ci/prijjcdium Pnrishn, Echb. This is a stout growing 
plant, with large coriaceous green leaves, the scape bearing 
from four to seven flowers, the petals of which are twisted, 
and bear along their margins patches of blackish hairs. 
It is said to have been first discovered by the Eev. C. 
Parish, in compliment to whom it is named, in 1859, but 
was not introduced to this country until 186 8, when it 
was imported by Messrs. Low & Co. 

Crinutn augushim, Eoxb., is a large plant, the bulb being 
from six to eight inches across at base. The peduncles 
bear umbels of flowers up to thirty or more, which, in bud, 
are bright red, the inner surface of the segments being 
lighter. 

Oxijpctalum cccrulcnm, Decne. A native of Brazil ; is a 
slender growing plant with bright blue flowers and 
tomentose foliage ; formerly known as Twcedia caridca. 

Tussacia ■p^dchdla. Belongs to the order Gesnerace^i?, 
and grows to about a foot in height. The axillary 
inflorescences bear flowers, the calyx of which is red, the 
corolla orange colour. The leaves are deciduous in winter. 

Impatiens HawJceri. A native of the Sunda Islands, 
and one of the most brilliant in cultivation, the flowers 
being dark purple-red and large. Introduced in 1886. 

Solanum Wendlandii, Hook, f., the finest of the climbing 
species of this genius in cultivation. 

Aristolochia tricaudata, Lem. A shrubby species, 
flowering from the older parts of the stems, the flowers 
being of a dark purple colour. A native of Mexico. 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 



■*XK' 



BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINB0R(1h. 



VOLUME XX. 
Part III. 




EDINBURGH: 

PRINTED FOR THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY BY 
MORRISON AND GIBB LIMITED. 

MDCCCXCVr. 



M-«1. 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEKDIXGS 



BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



SESSION LX. 



MEETIXCI OF THE SOCIETY, 

Thursday, Xovember 14, 1895. 

Professor F. 0. Bower, President, in the Chair. 

The following Officers of the Society were elected for 
the Session 1895-96 : — 

PRESIDENT. 
AxDHEW P. AiTKEX, M.A., D.Sc. F.R.S.E. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

Patrick Neill Fraseu. Professor F. 0. Bower, Sc.D., 

Symin-gtox Grieve. F.R.SS. L. & E., F.L.S. 

Colonel Fred. Bailey, R.E. 

COUNCILLORS. 

Sir Alexander Christjsox, Bart.. J. RuTHEiiPORD Hill. 

M D. Commander F. M. XoRiiAX, R.N. 

William Craig, M.D., F.R.S.E., Robert A. Rubertsox. M.A., B.Sc. 

F.R.C.S.E. Edin. 

T. Clthbert Day. I Andrew Semple, M.B.. F.R.C.S.E. 

Professor Cossar Ewart, M.D., Robert Tlrxblll, B.Sc. 

F.R.SS. L. &E. Willi.^m Watson. M.D. 

Honorary Secretary — Professor Sir Douglas Maclag.\n. M.D., LL.D., 

P.R.S.E. 
Honorani Curator — The Professor OF Botany. 
Foreign Secretary — Andrew P. Aitken. M.A.. D.Sc. F.R.S.E 
Treasurer — Richard Brow.v, C.A. 
Assistant Secretary— J. \yiES Adam Terras. B.Sc. 
.Ir/w^—FRANCis M. Caird, M.B., CM. 
Auditor — Robert C. Millar, C.A. 

TR.\XS. BOX. .SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. 2 G 

Issued Js^ovember 1896. 



458 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lx. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES. 

^hcr(/mi— Professor J. W. H. Trail, M.A., M.D., F.L.S. 

Bathgate — Robert Kirk, M.B., CM. 

Beckenliam, Kent — A. D. Webster. 

Berwick-on-Tweed — Francis M. Norman, R.N. 

BirmiiKjliam — George A. Panton, F.R.S.E., 73 Westfield Road. 

W. H. Wilkinson. F.L.S., F.R.M.S., Manor Hill, Sutton 
Coldfield. 
Bridge of Allan — ALEXANDER PateRSON, M.D. 
Bromley', Kent—D. T. Playi-air, M.B.. CM. 
Calcutta — George King, M.D., F.R.S.. Botanic Garden. 

David Prain, M.D., F.R.S.E., F.L.S., Botanic Garden. 
Cambridge — Arthur Evans, M.A. 
Chirnside — Charles Stuart, M.D. 
Croydon — A. Bennett, F.L.S. ' 
7)«Hr/fe— Professor P. Geddes, F.R.S.E. 

AV. G. Smith, B.Sc. Ph.D. 
GZasi^oif— Professor F. 0. Bower. Sc.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

,, Professor J. Cleland, M.D., F.R.S. 

Kelso— R&v. David Paul, M.A., LL.D., Roxburgh Manse. 

,, Rev. George Gunn, M.A., Stitchel Manse. 
Kilbarclian — Rev. G. Alison. 
Leeds— Dr. John H. Wilson, Yorkshire College. 
Lincoln — Geouge May Lowe, M.D., CM. 
London — William Carruthers, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

E. M. Holmes, P^.L.S. F.R.H.S. 

John Archibald, M.D.. F.R.S.E. 
Melhonrne, Australia— ^mon FERDINAND VON Mueller. >[.D., 

K.CM.G.. F.R.S. 
Melrose — W. B. Boyd, of Faldonside. 

Nova Scotia — Professor George Lawson, LL.D., Dalhousie. 
Otagj, New Zealand — Professor James Gow Black, D.Sc, University. 
Ottawa, Ontario — "W. R. Riddell, B.Sc, B.A., Prov. Normal School. 
Perth— Sir Robert Pullar. F.R.S.E. 

Philadelphia, U.S.A.— Froiessor John M. Macfarlane, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 
Saharunpore, India — J. F. Duthie, B.A., F.L.S. 
Silloth—JoHi^ Leitch, M.B.. CM. 
St. .4H(/;-f«-.>;— Professor M-Intosh, M.D., LL.U., F.R.SS. L. & E. 

Robert A. Robert.son, M.A., B.Sc. 
Wellinqtov, New Zealand — Sir James Hector, M.D., K.CM.G., 

F.R.SS. L. & E. 
Wolverhampton — John Eraser, M.A., M.D. 

Dr. AViLLiAM Craig exhibited specimens of Fistulina 
he/jjcitica which had reappeared upon Castanea vesca in his 
garden at Bruntsfield Place. See Trans. Bot. Soc. P^din., 
vol. xix. p. 3. 

Mr. Campbell sent lor exhibition blooms of Cytisus 
fragrans, Potentilla alba, Myrtus communis, Escallonia 
macrantha, and other plants from the open ground of his 
garden at Ledaig, Argyllshire. 



Nov. 1895.J BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 459 

From the Eoyal Botauic Garden were exhibited :— Vanda 
Kimhalliana, Cestnuu aurantiacitm, Rucllia macrantha, 
Tibouchina moricaiidiana iu tiower, and Vitis hetcroiyhylla 
humulifolia (the blue-berried vine) in fruit. 

The President (Professor F. O. Bower) delivered the 
following address : — 

It is, I believe, usual for a retiring President to address 
the Society from this chair on some topic of current 
interest to botanists. On casting round for a subject for 
this eveniucr, I have thought that I could not do better 
than turn your attention to the works of the celebrated 
botanist, Eobert Brown, and consider them from the point 
of view of their bearing on the science as it is at the 
present day. You will all have been made aware, through 
the medium of the newspapers, of the main facts of Brown's 
life ; for, in connection with the recent dedication of a bust 
to his memory in Montrose, his native town, by his kins- 
woman Miss Paton, the story of his life was eloquently told 
by Mr, Carruthers, and thus found its way afresh into the 
public prints. I shall therefore refer you to those sources 
of information, and devote our time this evening to the 
discussion of his life's work. 

The botanists of his time were fully aware of his great 
merits ; beyond the fact that Humboldt expressed his 
opinion in the often quoted epithet, that he was " facile 
botanicorum princeps," we have a substantial proof of 
appreciation in the two volumes of the Pay Society's 
publications, into which his papers were collected, and 
edited by J. J. Bennett — his successor in office at the 
British Museum. Such testimonials come to but few men 
of science ; it is, however, in my opinion a still higher 
proof of the value of the work of this great man, that after 
the lapse of half a century his writings should hold the 
place that they still do. It is only the great buildings of 
a town which appear to tower above the rest in the distant 
view ; and so in the growing distance of time it is only 
the great minds which maintain, or it may be increase their 
prominence above their more common-place contemporaries 
Brown's reputation stands above that of his fellow-botanists 



460 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. LX. 

like one of those landmarks, a church spire or a castle, 
which remain visible after the meaner buildings of the 
surrounding town have sunk in the distance. 

Such landmarks are the guides of men ; and I wish that 
our younger writers would hold them as such. In the 
classics it is customary before writing a composition of 
Latin prose, to read a few pages of Cicero, Livy, or Tacitus ; 
before writing elegiacs, to read Ovid ; before hexameters, 
Virgil ; and by such exercises classical scholars induce, as 
far as may be, a feeling for the best style of composition. 
How many botanists, before they rashly liasten into print, 
consult those models which a writer like Brown provides 
for them ? Instead of this they will post themselves up 
with the latest, often trivial details of their text, presented 
it may be in the formless inaugural dissertation of a man 
of little more experience than themselves ; and will absorb 
almost unconsciously his heavy style, and ill- balanced 
estimate of the relative value of facts. I would earnestly 
advise any young writer to study the collected papers of 
Brown, as models of clearness (the very foundation of 
style) and of brevity, which is nowhere more truly the 
soul of wit than in scientific writing. Lastly, his trans- 
parent honesty of purpose should be a lesson to us all : he 
did not write to make or maintain a reputation, but he made 
a reputation because he had knowledge of value to his fellow- 
men to write down, and this he did with brevity and clearness. 

A peculiar feature of his writings is how he leads his 
readers on from an apparently trivial point to the discussion 
of matters of the widest possible bearing, thus from the 
investigation of Kingia,^ he leads us to his far-reaching 
study and comparison of the ovules of phanerogams and 
gymnosperms. His examination of pollen grains and their 
contents leads to his description of the " Brownian move- 
ments." His investigations on the fecundation of orchids, 
leads to the recognition of the nucleus as a frequent, per- 
haps even constant feature in the vegetable cell. These 
are all object lessons in research ; they show how the strong 
mind, pursuing a legitimate channel of observation, is not 
merely directed passively by it, but of its own motion 
widens and deepens the channel till it emerges into the 
vast sea of general interest. 



Nov. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 461 

And, before we consider some of Brown's writings in 
detail, we may pause to admire the catholicity of his taste. 
In these days of specialisation, when a man who knows 
Fungi is probably ignorant of Algit, a man of Pteridophyta 
is probably weak in physiology, and a systematist may use 
the microscope only occasionally, and then with low powers; 
it is a useful corrective to note how large a field Brown 
covered. A specially expert collector, he, more than any 
man of his time, knew how to do justice to his collections 
when made. He had the true classificatory instinct, and it 
is fortunate that circumstances gave him an unusually wide 
field for its exercise. Starting, as so many great botanists 
have done, as a local collector in the district of his birth, 
his first contribution to the literature of the science was in 
the field of critical and topographical botany, in a paper on 
the plants of Forfarshire, his native county ; in this paper 
is described, perhaps for the first time, Eriophorum alpinuon, 
L., a plant now virtually extinct in Scotland. But, on the 
other hand, many of his most important writings were 
structural and physiological, and they covered the ground 
from the Gulf weed {Sargassum) and mosses to the angio- 
sperms. Even fossils were not beyond his sphere of 
interest, and I can personally testify, from a detailed 
examination of the classical fossil known as " Brown's 
cone," how accurate and far-reaching were his observations 
in this most attractive, though specialised, region of our 
science. Specialism is doubtless an inevitable evil, which 
follows as a consequence of the advancement of our science; 
it was probably easier in Brown's day to avoid it ; but I 
hope that the botanists of the present may continue to 
regard it as an evil, against which they must be on their 
guard ; and not, as some are even beginning to do, glory in 
specialism, which is at best but a confession of human 
weakness. 

After these general remarks we may turn to a more 
detailed consideration of some of Brown's memoirs. But 
I do not propose to discuss his larger contributions to 
systematic and geographical botany at any length. Over 
and above the very numerous additions which he made to 
the sum of known species, his writings developed in the 
most practical way the natural system of classification, 



462 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. LX. 

He did not construct, or even reconstruct, any system; 
but his works served as the most spontaneous ilhistration 
of what the principles of a natural system, then in its 
infancy, should be. As Sachs points out (History, p. 143), 
" he discovered that marks which are of great value for 
classification within the limits of certain groups of affinity, 
may possibly prove worthless in other divisions," a con- 
clusion which one must examine in the light of the science 
of his time in order to fully estimate its value as a 
discovery. Some of his works were purely systematic, as, 
for instance, the "Prodromus Flone Novae Hollandi*," which, 
though the original edition in England was withdrawn from 
circulation owing to Brown's sensitiveness to criticism on 
its Latinity, was repeatedly republished in Germany. But 
most of his descriptive works are interspersed with general 
observations, led up to by the study of the plants in 
<;iuestion. I have already alluded to his papers on Kingia 
and on the Orchidacefe as examples of this. It is great 
minds which thus are able to enlarge the area of what 
might at first appear a small subject, and by the touch of 
genius, the true philosopher's stone, convert what in other 
hands might be mere base metal to pure gold. 

Probably the strongest and most general interest will at 
the present day be felt in those papers which in his 
miscellaneous works are collected under the heading of 
" Structural and Physiological Memoirs." In a short 
paper on the "Fructification of Mosses" Brown satisfactorily 
disposed of the erroneous idea of Beauvois, that the spores 
are of the nature of pollen and fertilise " seeds " embedded 
in the cohmiella. A more careful mode of preparation, 
together with comparison with Phascum, which has no 
developed columella, were the foundation of Brown's 
argument. 

The paper on " Seeds and Fruits " is chieHy remarkable 
for its concluding paragraph, which foreshadows so much of 
his important later work. He points out that the ano- 
malous structures which he has been studying "especially 
demonstrate the necessity of carefully ascertaining the 
state of the unimpregnated ovarium ; for while its struc- 
ture remains unknown, that of the ripe fruit can never be 
thoroughly understood." This passage, published in 1818, 



Xov. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 463 

strikes the key-note of several important researches. 
Obeying his own injunction, he examined the ovule of 
various angiosperms and gymnosperms in the young state, 
with the result that he was the first to distinguish the 
integuments from the nucleus (nucellus) of the ovule ; he 
showed that the hilum represents the point of attachment, 
and recognised the micropyle as a canal leading to the apex 
of the nucleus ; he noted the different relative positions of 
these parts in different types of ovule, and that the embryo 
is always attached at the point in the embryo-sac (amnion) 
nearest to the micropyle, while its root points towards the 
micropyle. He also recognised the true nature of the 
endosperm, perisperm, and arillus. In fact, though many 
of these parts had previously been the subject of less strict 
observation. Brown may be said to have laid out the broad 
lines of the morphology of the ovule, in a manner the per- 
manence of which has been the sufficient proof of its 
excellence. 

But the examination of the angiospermic ovule led him 
to that of the gymnosperms, and it was he who established 
on a comparative basis the view that what had previously 
passed as a female flower is really a naked ovule. It doubt- 
less required Hofmeister's detailed and brilliant work to 
fully develop the importance of the comparison ; never- 
theless it was Brown who first showed the way. Moreover, 
his first communication on this subject in 1825 to the 
Linnsean Society, was followed by one read before the 
British Association in Edinburgh in 1834, in which he 
describes and figures the endosperm (" amnios or albu- 
men "), the archegonia, the " funiculi or suspensors," and 
numerous embryos. In fact, though it remained for 
Hofmeister to perfect the comparisons and fill in the 
details, Brown was the pioneer in this most important 
line of research. 

The pollen, also, from time to time occupied his atten- 
tion. His paper " On the Organs and Mode of Fecun- 
dation in Orchidese and Asclepiadene," contains many 
interesting observations. In a footnote (p. 514) we find 
a description of the division of the pollen-mother-cells of 
Tradescantia to form the tetrads, and of the maturing of 
the pollen grain. On p. 507, he confirms the observa- 



464 TKANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lx. 

tions of Amici and Brongniart relating to the formation 
of the pollen tube ; he also observed, as Amici had done, 
that the tubes make their way to the micropyles of the 
ovules. He was, however, in doubt whether all the tubes 
originated from the pollen grains, or whether they were 
indirectly generated by them. He says (p. 539): "It is 
possible, therefore, that the mucous cords may be entirely 
derived from the pollen, not, however, by mere elongation 
of the original pollen tubes, but by an increase in their 
number, in a manner which I do not attempt to explain." 
No one was better aware than Brown of the incomplete- 
ness of this statement. He remarks (p. 538): "My 
observations on the origin of these tubes are not altogether 
satisfactory." One may express the wish that all writers 
would be equally candid at their own expense. 
* But the part of this remarkable paper which is the most 
generally known is that which connects Eobert Brown's 
name, perhaps more than that of any other man, with the 
discovery of the nucleus of the cell. We will endeavour 
to place his contribution to the subject in its correct light. 
He was by no means the first to see, and represent in 
drawing, the nucleus of the cell ; the earliest notice of it 
of which we at present have record is by Fontana, in his 
work " Sur les Poisons et sur le Corps Animal," Florence, 
1781 (vol. ii., pi. 1, figs. 7, 10). He examined the cells 
detached from the slimy skin of the eel, and described how, 
after partially drying, there appeared "a small body within, 
situated in different positions in each globule." In his 
fig. 10 he represents one of the cells on a larger scale, 
plainly showing the nucleus in a central position. Thus, 
probably, the earliest representation of the nucleus appears 
to have been in the animal, not in the vegetable cell, and 
to date a full half century before Brown's paper. Doubt- 
less an exhaustive study of the publications from 1780 to 
1830 would disclose other isolated observations of a like 
nature, and Brown himself refers to such by Meyer, 
Purkinje, and Brongniart (I.e. p. 514) in the vegetable cell. 
Certainly in the atlas to Meyer's " Phytotomia " (1830) 
several of the drawings indicate the nucleus more or less 
clearly. Without following out or enumerating such sporadic 
notes, it may be stated that up to 1830 no general importance 



Nov. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 465 

was attached to the granules described or figured. It is 
to Brown that the credit is due of extending observations 
of the nucleus to cells of many different parts of the same 
plants, and to plants of various families, chiefly of Mono- 
cotyledons, but also in some cases of Dicotyledons. It is 
peculiarly interesting to us now that he observes its 
occurrence in the cells of the ovule, and in the pollen- 
mother-cells and tetrads. He thus approached at once the 
focal point of interest, viz. the relation of the nucleus to 
reproduction ; but the demonstration of the part which it 
plays in this process did not come for nearly half a century 
after he wrote. 

A noteworthy feature in the three pages of print into 
which he compressed his account of the nucleus or areola, 
is the caution displayed. It is a plain statement of facts 
of observation. He does not generalise on insufficient 
crrounds ; he does not even dwell on cases where the 
nucleus has not been seen, but he states where it has been 
seen. He does not state that it is a constant feature of 
the cell, but his attitude is distinctly that of expectancy 
that it will be found if properly sought for. His imme- 
diate followers, however, were not so reticent, and the 
varying size, position, and prominence of the nucleus, 
together with its elusive behaviour in division, greatly 
delayed further progress. These circumstances, doubtless, 
explain the position of Meyer, which we may place in 
antithesis to the truly scientific attitude of Brown. In his 
"Bflanzen-Physiologie" (1837, vol. i. p. 209) he remarks: 
" The occurrence of these nuclei within the cells does not 
seem to be constant at all times in the plant, and where they 
do occur, these structures are only to be recognised in a few 
cells. In the majority of cells they are absent. Perhaps 
the nucleus also is a sort of nourishment-reserve." And so 
was initiated the idea of a coming and going, a breaking up 
and reconstitution of the nucleus, while there naturally 
followed the view that free nuclear formation is a matter of 
common occurrence. This view largely dominated the 
expressions of Schleiden and his follov^^ers. It was not till 
forty years later that Strasburger (1879) summed up his 
evidence on the continuity of existence of the nucleus in 
the memorable sentence (Bot. Zeit., 1879, p. 278): "I 



466 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. LX. 

am no longer able to quote any case of free nuclear 
formation preceding cell-division." This laid the founda- 
tion for connectini,^ the nucleus with opinions on heredity. 
But, as above noted, the tendency of Brown's statement 
was such as to avoid the misconceptions which delayed the 
progress of the science, while his observation of the nucleus 
in the cells closely connected with reproduction, seems to 
indicate an opinion, or at least a surmise, of its importance 
in that process. 

We may with advantage try to inquire what the verdict 
of so careful and reticent a theoriser as Brown would be, 
could we see the structures of hypothesis (not always 
built upon the most scientific principles, and apt at times 
to fall about the ears of their originators) which have 
ari.sen in recent years on the basis of cb-servation of the 
nucleus. I have theorised myself on the subject in last 
year's address to you, and must not therefore be too out- 
spoken ; but I can confidently recommend the reading of 
Brown's three pages on the nucleus as a corrective against 
rash speculation. 

Before leaving the consideration of this paper, I would 
direct your attention to another footnote (p. 513), in which 
he gives a minute account of the staminal hairs of Trade- 
scantia ; he there describes, as observed under a lens 
magnifying 300 to 400 times, the "circulation of very 
minute granular matter," and how the currents pass towards 
and from the nucleus. This is, I believe, the earliest 
description of the circulation of protoplasm, though a much 
more complete account of it is given by Meyer in his 
■' Pflanzen-Physiologie "(18 3 7). But he also dealt with more 
minute movements which he successfully distinguished 
from those of circulation. It was three years previous to 
the memoir we have been discussing (1827), that Brown 
had printed for private circulation his account of " the 
general existence of active molecules in organic and in- 
organic bodies ; " the.se observations of what are now called 
" Brownian movements " were all made " with a simple 
microscope, and indeed with one and the same lens, the 
focal length of which is about -^^ ^^ ^^ inch." The in- 
vestigation arose in connection with the pollen, and its 
mode of action in fertilisation; since the ideas which then 



Nov. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 4:67 

prevailed are now entirely superseded, the chief interest of 
this paper will be in tracing how a skilful investigator 
attacked a difficult question with imperfect instruments, 
and arrived at a sound conclusion. 

But it would be more than could be compressed into an 
address like this to remark on tlie many points of interest 
in Brown's works. I cannot do more than merely mention 
his masterly treatment of some most difficult families : the 
morphology of the flower of Orchidacere and Asclepiadacece, 
and their mode of fecundation occupied his attention, perhaps 
the attraction was the very difficulty which attended their 
study ; while his treatise on that newly discovered wonder 
Rafflesia, in which he grouped together that extraordinarily 
aberrant form with Hydnora, Brugmansia, Cytinus, etc., 
and his constitution of the natural family Eaffiesiacea:', will 
always remain as one of his most notable works. 

Enough will now have been said to revive your interest 
in this most e.xtraordinary man. And while we feel a 
peculiar satisfaction in noting that he was a Scotchman by 
birth and education, and that his work commanded the 
respect and admiration of foreign as well as British 
Botanists, we may for our own advantage draw the moral : 
we mark as special features of his work his clear and 
concise style ; his reticence, which prevented him from 
rash hypothesis, so subject to later demolition : lastly, his 
transparent honesty, which led him at times to indicate to 
the reader where the weak point or deficient observation 
lay. If only those who now write on kindred subjects, 
with perhaps a mere fraction of Eobert Brown's ability, 
would follow him in these characteristics, how much fewer 
would be the obstacles which writers themselves unwittingly 
place in the way of the progress of their science. I should 
like to see the Structural and Physiological Memoirs of 
Eobert Brown prescribed as a classic to be read by all 
aspirants to a degree of Bachelor of Science in Botany ; 
such experience would bring untold aiivantages to style and 
accuracy of thought, at the same time the information 
actually so gained would be such as ?till maintains its 
value, for the writings of this most remarkable man, though 
often dealing with freshly broken ground of the science, 
have maintained their position as much as those of any 



468 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lx. 



writer ; and it is this, combined with a native originality, 
which make his name respected to-day as highly as it was at 
the time of his death some forty years ago. Permanence 
of influence may be held as a title to high rank in the 
scientific world, — on this ground Eobert Brown's place is 
among the highest. 

On the motion of Dr. William Craig the thanks of the 
Society were given to the President for his address. 

The President made the following announcement re- 
garding the Eoll of the Society : — 

During the past year the Society lost by death : — 2 Honorary 
British Fellows — Charles Cardale Babington ; Hugh Francis 
Clarke Clegborn. 3 Resident Fellows — Thomas Alexander 
Goldie Balfour: Lady Henry Grosvenor ; Henry E. Hole. 
3 Non-Resident Fellows — Dr. Robert Brown, Ph.D. ; A. G. 
More ; Charles Eyre Parker. 1 Corresponding Member — 
Professor Fr. Schmitz. — Total, 9. 

During the same period the Society received the following 
accessions : — 1 Honorary British Fellow — George King. M.D. 
5 Honorary Foreign Fellows — Ed. Bomet ; Wilhelm Pfeffer ; 
Charles S. Sargent ; M. Treub ; Hugo de Vries. 3 Resident 
Fellows — William OUphant Gibb ; R. Stewart Macdougall : 
Ralph Stockman, M.D. 7 Corresponding Members — Oscar 
Brefeld ; Fred. Elving; A. Franchet: L. Guignard ; E. Stahl ; 
Henry Trimen ; H. Ybchting. 



The Roll of the Society stands at present thus : 
Honorary Fellows — 

Royal ...... 

British 


3 

4 




Foreign ...... 


24 


31 


Resident Fellows ..... 




126 


Non-Resident Fellows .... 




139 


Corresponding Members 

Associates ...... 




51 
24 


Lady Associate ..... 
Lady Members 




1 
5 


Total of Roll . 




377 



The following papers were read : — 



Fungi observed in Glen Urquhart, Inverness- 
shire. By Eev. Dr. David Paul, Eoxburgh. 

The Cryptogamic Society of Scotland held their annual 
meeting for 1895 in Glen Urquhart, Inverness-shire, using 
the Drumnadrochit Hotel as their headquarters, under the 



Nov. 189.'..] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OK EDINBURGH. 469 

Presidency of Professor Trail of Aberdeen. The day of 
meeting was 16th September. Owing to the remoteness 
of the Glen the number of members present was small, 
consisting of the President, Dr. Stevenson, of Glamis, 
the Secretary ; Professor King, of Glasgow, the Treasurer ; 
with Dr. Paul, of Eoxburgh, Dr. Watson, of Edinburgh, 
and Messrs. Poison and Crawford. 

On Tuesday the 17th it rained nearly the whole day, 
and very little could be done in the way of exploration, 
but next day, Wednesday the 18th, was fine, and the 
whole party, under the guidance of ]\lr. Angus Grant, a 
local botanist, spent the day in the woods surrounding the 
Earl of Seafield's mansion-house. Fungi were tolerably 
abundant, more rain having fallen there than in the eastern 
and southern parts of the country. About a hundred 
different species of Hymenomycetes were noted, most of 
them being those that may be found in suitable woods 
anywhere in Scotland, and v/hich need not be specially 
mentioned here. A full list, however, is set down at the 
end of the paper as a contribution to the geographical 
distribution of Fungi in Scotland, the locality having prob- 
ably not before been specially examined. But some of the 
less common and rare Fungi found on the first day may be 
mentioned. Xot far from the mansion-house rises a knoll 
covered with rocks on the top, and clothed with old Scotch 
firs everywhere but on the very summit, whose dark-green 
foliage forms a striking contrast to the lighter tints of the 
mixed woods around, and presents a conspicuous object as 
seen from the neighbourhood of the hotel. Many of the 
trees are magnificent specimens of the Finns silvcstris. 
On one side of this knoll a great number of specimens of 
CortinariiLS armillatus, Fr., were found along with Ladarms 
vietv.s, Fr., in still greater abundance. One specimen of the 
rare Trametes pini, Fr., was discovered. Near the path 
leading from the house to this knoll a minute and beautiful 
Polyporus was detected on a fallen and decayed birch 
bough, which proved to be Pohjporv.s ciliatns, Fr,, and 
which, so far as is known, has not been found before in 
Britain, In another part of the grounds a fine Hydnum 
occurred, which has been identified as Hydnum compactum, 
Pers. These were the principal finds of the first day. 



470 TRANSACTIONS AND PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lx. 

On the second day, Thursday the 19 th, only two of the 
party remained to go out again with Mr, Grant, and they 
were moderately successful in their search. On the knoll 
already mentioned were found Sparassis crispa, Fr., and 
Polyporiis Schvjeinizii, Fr., both rare Fungi. Laciarias 
uvidiis, Fr., was also found. In a fir wood on another 
part of the property Hydnum zonatum, Batsch, was seen in 
considerable quantity, at one spot forming a nearly com- 
plete circle of 9 yards in diameter. It was not observed 
in any other place. Ag. porrigens, Pers., Ag. pyrotrichus, 
Holmsk., Elapliomyces granulattis, Fr,, Boletus pachypits, Fr., 
Canthcirellus infundihdiforiiiis, Fr., Craterellus cornu- 
copioides, Pers., and Clavaria abietinus, Pers., were also 
observed. As only a small part of the ground could be 
carefully gone over in the limited time at the disposal of 
the members, the results obtained seem to warrant the 
conclusion that the district, where it is wooded, would 
repay a more prolonged and minute search. A great deal 
has still to be done before we can be said to have much 
knowledge of the Hymenomycetes of Scotland, and the 
number of observers in this department of botany is so 
few that progress is but slow. The Society has mapped 
out the whole of Scotland into carefully defined districts 
with the view of gradually obtaining lists of the Fungi 
found in each, and hopes soon to publish a full list of 
Scotch Fungi as a guide for the tabulation of the different 
species. When this is done it may be expected that the 
finds of competent observers will so be chronicled as not to 
be lost sight of through being either not noted at all except 
on the margin of a private flora, or else recorded here and 
there in different publications. Greater interest may thus 
also be aroused in this sphere of Cryptogamic Botany, and 
the number of workers being by degrees increased the 
accuracy of their work will be increased also, and its 
permanence secured. 

Fungi found in Glen Urquhart during the Annual 
Conference of the Cryptogamic Society of Scotland, 17th 
to 19th September 1895, inclusive: — 



Agaricus mappa, Fr. 

muscarius, L. 

rubpscens, Pers. 

spissus, Fr. 



Agaricus vaginatus. Bull; also var. 
fulvus, 8cb»ff. 

granulosus, Batsch. 

melleus, Fl. Dan. 



Nov. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EUlNJiUKGH. 



471 



Agaricus equestris, L. 

niaximus, Fl. Wett. 

resplendens, Fr. 

albobruuiieus, Fers. 

rutihius, Scliaifif. 

vacciuus. Fers. 

terreus, Schii'ff. 

saponaceus, Fr. (?). 

virgatus, Fr. 

sulphureiis, Bull. 

clavipes, Fers. 

fragraus, Sow. 

■ laccatus, Scop; also var. aiiie- 

thystinus. 

radicatus, Rehl. 

maculatus, A. and S. 

• butyraceus. Bull. 

coiitlueus, Fers. 

tuberosus, Bull. 

tenacelius, Pers. 

drj-ophilus, Bull. 

purus, Pers. 

galericulatus, Scop. 

polygrammus, Bull. 

aiumouiacus, Fr. 

.>-auguiuoleutus, A. aud S. 

epipterygius, Scop. 

niuralis, Sow. 

porrigens, Pers. 

cerviuus, Scba-ff. 

rhodi'polius. Fr. 

pruuulus. Scop. 

pascuus, Pers. 

variabilis, Pers. 

squarrosus. Milll. 

flaminans, Fr. 

niutabilis, Scbasff. 

liirsutus, Lascb. 

rimo<us, Bull. 

geopbj'lius, Sow. 

ghitiuosus, Lind. 

arveusis, Scop. 

bajiuorrboidarius, Kalcbbi. 

iiTuginosus, Curt. 

capuoides, Fr. 

epixanthus, Fr. 

fascicularis, Huds. 

pj-rotriclius, Holmsk. 

velutiuus, Pers. 

semilauceatus, Fr. 

Coprinus atramentarius, Fr. 
Cortinarius cajrulesceus, Fr. 
elatior, Fr. 

auomalus, Fr. 

ciunamomeus, Fr. 

torvus, Fr. 

annillatus, Fr. 

bemitriebus. Fr. 

'xompbidius glutinosus, Fr. 
Paxillus involutus, Fr. 

atrotomentosus, Fr. 

Hygropborus cerasious, Berk. 

pratensis, Fr. 

virgineuf, Fr. 

coccineus, Fr. 

conicus, Fr. 

cbloropliauus, Fr. 

Lartarius tonninosus, Fr. 

turpis, Fr. 



Lactarius blennius, Fr. 

uvidus, Fr. 

piperatus, Fr. 

deliciosus, Fr. 

quietus, Fr. 

vietus, Fr. 

rufus, Fr. 

glyciosmus, Fr. 

voiemus, Fr. 

Russula nigricans, Fr. 
adusta, Fr. 

vesca, Fr, 

foetens. Fr. 

fellea, Fr. 

emetica, Fr. 

fragilis, Fr. 

— — alutacea, Fr. 

vitelliua, Fr. 

Cantbarellus cibarius, Fr. 

aurantiacus, Fr. 

infundibuliformis, Fr, 

Nyctalis parasitica, Fr. 
Marasmius peronatus, Fr. 

androsaceus, Fr. 

Boletus luteus, L. 

flavus, Witb. 

piperatus. Bull. 

cbrysenteron, Fr. 

.sxibtomeutosu-', L. 

pacbypus, Fr. 

edulis, Bull. 

luridus, Seba^ff. 

versipellis, Fr. 

scaber, Fr. 

Polyporus Schweinizii, Fr 
ciliatus, Fr. 

perennis, Fr. 

var i us, Fr. 

betulinus, Fr. 

iguiarius, Fr. 

annosus, Fr. 

radiatus, Fr. 

versicolor, Fr. 

Tranietes piui, Fr. 
Dajdalea quercina, Pers. 
Hyduum repandum, L. 

rufescens. Pers. 

zonatum, Batscb. 

compactuia, Pers. 

Cratcrollus cornucopioides, Pers. 
Sparassis crispa, Fr. 

Olavaria rugosa, Bull. 

abietina, Pers. 

vermicularis. Scop. 

Calocera viscosa, Fr. 
Treniella albida, Huds. 

meseuterica, Retz. 

Lycoperdon gemniatum, Fr. 
Sclerodernm vulgare, Fr. 
Leotia lubrica, Pers. 
Geoglossuni irlabrum, Pers. 
Spatbularia flavida, Pers. 
Pezizi ruacropus, Pers. 

scutellata, L. 

Xylaria bypoxylon, Grev. 
Bulgaria iuquinans, Fr. 

sarcoides, Fr. 

Elapboinj-ces granulatus, Fr. 



472 TRANSACTIONS AND PliOCEEDlNGS OF THE [Sess. Lx, 

Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

I. Report on Vegetation during the Months of July, 
August, September, and October 1895. By Robert 
Lindsay, Curator. 

JULY. 

The weather of July was, for the most part, cool and 
unsettled, with heavy falls of rain during the latter 
portion of the month. There was a marked absence of 
real sum.mer warmth, consequently, most outdoor plants 
did not flower so freely as they usually do in July. 

On the rock-garden 190 species and varieties of alpine 
and herbaceous plants came into flower during the month, 
as against 194 for the corresponding month last year. 
Amongst the most interesting were : — Anemonojysis macro- 
fhylla, Aster ramulosus, Campanula Hcndersoni, C. grandi- 
flora alba, C. Waldsteiniana, Cassinia fidvida, Cistus 
algarvcnsis, Ccdtha lejjtosepala, Coronilla iberica, Cyananthus 
peduncidatus. Cyclamen europceum, Dianthus Atkinsonii, 
Fuchsia magellanica, Gentiana ascicpiadea, Geranium Lam- 
berti, G. polyanthcs, Goniolimon speciosum, Ilaberlca rhodo- 
pensis robusta, Microtneria Piperella, Mimidus Jeffreyanus, 
Monarda didyma rosea, M. KalmiaMa, Nard.ostacliys 
Jcdamansi, Pa.rnassia nubicola, Fhlomis setAgera, Polygonum 
vaccinifolium, Phyteuma orbiculare, Sedum Aizoon, S. 
Maximoioiczii, S. oijpositifolium , SUene monachorwn, S. 
quadridcntata , Spircea Biimalda, S. bidlata, S. kamtschatica, 
Symphyandra pendida, Tropceolum polyphylhim, Tricyrtis 
macropoda, Veronica loganioides, V. pinguifolia, V. parvi- 
jiora, V. rakaiensis, Viola Munbyana, etc. 

AUGUST. 

August was a most inclement month, being wet and 
cold throughout, with frequent gales and thunderstorms, 
altogether a most unfavourable month for vegetation. 

On the rock-garden 59 species and varieties of hardy 
plants came into flower, as against 94 during the previous 
August. Amongst the most interesting were ; — Alyssurn 
argentcuvi, Campanxda isophylla alba, Carlina subcanlescens, 
Centaurea alpina, Clematis Jachnanni, Geranium Endressi, 
G. Wallichianum, Dictamnus tauricus, Helianthus multi- 



Nov. 1895] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 473 

Jlorus, Gi/psophila paniculata^ Inula ensifolia, Liiuim fiavum, 
Linaria alpina, Lilium tigrinum Fortunei, PotentiUa sitb- 
caulcsccns, Seclum cyaneum, Scahiosa lucida, Veronica 
satureioidcs, V. longifolia subsessilis, etc. 

SEPTEMBER. 

September was an unusually fine and warm month, in 
marked contrast to the preceding months, the absence of 
rain and prevalence of bright sunshine were quite phenom- 
enal. Herbaceous plants flowered extremely well, and 
were at their best during this month. Eoses were also very 
fine, the blossoms being as good as those developed in July. 

On the rock-garden 41 species and varieties came into 
flower, as against 30 during last September, a few of the most 
interesting were: — Aster spectahilis, A. sikkimensis, A. Thom- 
soni, Achillea rupcstris, Castanopsis chrysophylla, Coreopsis 
lanceolata, C. verticHlata, Colchicitm autumnale album Jl. pi., 
Colchicum speciosum, Dianthus Seguieri, Hypericum patulum, 
Pardantlius chinensis, Scahiosa Parnassi, Thymus comosus. 

OCTOBER. 

The month of October was remarkable for the very cold 
weather experienced. Frost set in early. From the 16 th 
till the end of the month there was a succession of frosty 
nights. The cold experienced was almost as abnormal, for 
the time of year, as was the excessive warmth experienced 
at the end of September. All plants in flower, out of doors, 
were severely injured. The various asters or " Michaelmas 
daisies," rudbeckias, helianthus, Japanese anemone, and 
lilies were more or less destroyed for the season. Leaves 
of deciduous trees and shrubs began to fall early in the 
month, and by the end, most trees were stripped bare. 
Autumn tints were most effective on oak, beech, magnolia, 
pyrus, cratrt'gus, liquidambar, and azalea, many kinds, 
however, shed their leaves quite green. Fruit is not very 
abundant on trees and shrubs generally. Hardy rhodo- 
dendrons, azaleas, and andromedas are fairly well set with 
flower-buds this year. 

On the rock-garden the following six plants came into 
flower, viz. : — Campanula garganica, Hellchorus niger grandi- 
Jlorus, Marina longifolia, Stachys densijlora, Verbasc^nn 
Chaixii, Veroriica Bachofcnii. 

TRANS. BOX. SOC. EDIX. VOL. XX. 2 H 



474 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lx. 



II. (1) Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of July 1895. 

Distajice from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
76 o feet. Hour of Observation, a.m. 







Thermometers, protected, 














0) 


4 feet above grass. 










/^ 


o 






i 


Clouds. 




a 
1— 1 


S. R. Ther- 




^ 


mometers for 




t« 










i|? 


preceding 


Hj-grometer. 


o 
a 








v^ 


"o 


J^ o 

CD "^ 


24 hours. 




o 

p 








"3 

a 
















1— Qi 


















'I-* 


c8 
P 


Is 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


P 


Kind. 


I 


p*" 








o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


29-536 


68-9 


47-8 


56-9 


54-8 


e. 


Cir. St. 


10 


S. 


0-210 


2 


29-425 


63-8 


56-7 


61-0 


57-2 


N.E. 


Cir. St. 


5 


N. 


0-430 


3 


29-824 


66-2 


53-6 


57-8 


56-1 


W. 


St. 


10 


N. 


0-366 


4 


30-122 


63-6 


51-5 


56-8 


52-1 


N.E. 


fCirCum. 
I Cum. 


1} 


N.W. 


0-000 


.5 


30-153 


61-4 


47-2 


58-9 


54-6 


N.W. 


Cum. 


2 


N.W. 


0-000 


6 


30-092 


67-0 


50-9 


66-0 


59-2 


W. 


Ciim. 


1 


W. 


0-000 


7 


30-005 


74-2 


54-0 


66-5 


59-4 


s.w. 


Cir. 


2 


S.W. 


0-000 


8 


29-908 


71-9 


53 7 


67-2 


58-2 


s.w. 


Cir. St. 


5 


S.W. 


0-000 


9 


29-791 


71-8 


50-9 


61-1 


53-1 


s.w. 


Cir. St. 


6 


s.w. 


0-010 


10 


29-722 


62-2 


51-7 


61-8 


53-0 


w. 


Cum. 


1 


w. 


0-000 


11 


29-678 


66-0 


51-1 


56-9 


52-2 


w. 


St. 


10 


w. 


0-230 


12 


29-536 


61-2 


46-2 


56-1 


50-8 


S.E. 


St. 


8 


N. 


0-000 


13 


29-684 


63-8 


44-7 


56-9 


51-3 


w. 


Cum. 


8 


w. 


0-010 


1-1 


29-430 


60-9 


50-3 


59-0 


53-7 


w. 


fCir. 
tCum. 

St. 


2 
2 


N.W.-> 

w. ]■ 

W. 


0-010 


15 


29-693 


60-1 


54-1 


65-7 


51-1 


w. 


5 


0-000 


16 


29-726 


64-3 


47-8 


66-7 


62-7 


w. 


St. 


10 


W. 


0-096 


17 


29-659 


61-2 


50-7 


61-2 


55-8 


w. 









0-030 


18 


29-608 


669 


54-9 


60-8 


57-2 


s. 


St.' 


10 


s". 


0-370 


19 


29-314 


67-9 


52-9 


64-9 


64-9 


E. 


St. 


10 


E. 


0-160 


20 


29-390 


60-2 


51-2 58-8 


55-9 


s. 


Nim. 


10 


S. 


0-285 


21 


29-332 


61-2 


52 -0 1 52-3 


51-7 


N. 


Nim. 


10 


N. 


0-130 


22 


29-466 


63-8 


51-2 63-4 


55'6 


, w. 


Cir. 


5 


N. 


0-000 


23 


29-677 


66-6 


45-9 57-9 


53-6 


w. 


f Cir. 

( Cum. 

St. 


2 
3 


N. ) 
W.f 

s. 


0-000 


24 


29-615 


65-1 


49-8 1 52-8 


60-9 


Calm 


10 


0-000 


25 


29-737 


62-2 


50-8 


55-0 


51-7 


E. 


fCir. St. 
t St. 
Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-435 i 


26 


29-786 


56-2 


52-7 


53-1 


52-8 


E. 


E. 


1-335 


27 


29-565 


53-5 


51-2 


51-9 


51-9 


N. 


Nim. 


10 


N. 


0-695 


28 


29-614 


65-9 


51-9 


54-9 


.53-2 


N. 


St. 


10 


N. 


0-100 


29 


29-771 


59-1 


52-1 


53-9 


52-7 


N.E. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E 


0-000 


30 


29-921 


65-3 


46-8 


58-8 


54-9 


W. 


Cum. 


5 


W. 


0-000 


31 


29-991 i 


64-1 


50-0 


59-9 


54-1 


W. 


St. 


7 


W. 


0-000 



Barometer. — Highest, 30153 inches, on the 5th. Lowest, 29-314 inches, on the 19th. 
Monthly Range, 0-S39 inch. Mean, 29'702 inches, being 0-086 inch below the average for July 
for five jjreceding years. 

Protected S. R. Thermometers. — Highest, 74°-2, on the 6th. Lowest, '14°-7, on the 13th. 
Monthly Range, 29°-o. Mean of all the Highest, 63° -S. Mean of all the Lowest, oO°-8. Mean 
Daily Range, IS-" 0. Mean Temperature of Month, 57°-3, being 0°-4 below the average for July 
for live preceding years. 

Hygrometer. — Mean of Pry Bulb, 58° -5. Mean of Wet Bulb, 54°-l. Temperature of Dew- 
point, 50°'l. Mean Humidity, "3°-7 ?. 

Radiation Thermometers.— Highest in Sun, 126°-1, on the 5th. Lowest on Grass, 35°0, on 
the 13th. 

Sunshine. — Total recorded for month, 133 hours 15 minutes, being 25-5 % of the possible 
amount. The sunnie.st day was the 15th, with 11 hours 35 minutes, being 68 % of the possible 
amount. None was recorded on 5 days. 

Rainfall. — Rain fell on 17 days. Total Fall, 4 900 inch, being 2665 inches above the average 
for July for five preceding years. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, 1-335 inch, on the 26th. 



Nov. 189;'..] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



475 



(2) Meteorological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of August 
1895. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-LeveL 
76-5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





tj'J 


Thermometers, protected, 














5 2 


4 feet above grass. 










,_^ 


a 


c a 








a 


Clouds. 




« 

'o 


S. R. Ther- 
mometers for 






2 


8°^i 


preceding 


Hj'grometer. 


o 








^— ' 


CO 

>^ 

CO 


CO 

S i> 


24 hours. 






o 








3 

.9 


1 








-^- 


, 


Q 


z o 


Max. [ Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


5 


Kind. 


5 

G 


03 H 


« 




w 2 
















P''^ 








o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


29-824 


62-7 


50-1 


58-8 


53-0 


w. 


St. 


9 


W. 


0-110 


2 


29-449 


61-6 


53-1 


57-2 


651 


N.E. 


St. 


10 


N. 


0-105 


3 


29-246 


62-8 


53-4 


59-8 


54-9 


S. 


fCir. 
\ Cum. 
Nim. 


3 

5 


f.} 

N.W 


0-425 


4 


29-218 


62-5 52-4 


53-3 


52-3 


N.W. 


10 


0-135 


5 


29-303 


59-0 53-4 


55-8 


54-9 


S.W. 


St. 


10 


S.W. 


0-715 


(5 


29-330 


57 8 54-0 


57-2 


55-0 


N.W. 


St. 


8 


N.W. 


0-085 


7 


29-555 


65-2 54-1 


59-2 


56-3 


S.W. 


St. 


7 


S.W. 


0-000 


8 


29-733 


66-4 51-0 


59-1 


55-2 


SW. 


St. 


o 


S.W. 


0-010 


<) 


29-484 


G7-9 52-9 


55-6 


55 


N.E. 


Sr. 


10 


N.E. 


0-075 


10 


29-O90 


66-9 54-6 


59-3 


55-2 


S.W. 


Cir. 


3 


S.W. 


0-265 


11 


29-317 


66-4 


56-9 


63-8 


60-8 


e. 


Cir. 


8 


S. 


0-150 


1-2 


29-397 


68-4 


52-8 


67-8 


54-8 


S.W. 


St. 


10 


S.W. 


0-020 


13 


29-550 


62-9 


53-1 


56-9 


55-0 


S.W. 


St. 


10 


S.W. 


0-160 


14 


29-773 


64-2 


47-3 


60-8 


57-8 


N. 


Cir. Cum. 


9 


w. 


0-000 


15 


.SO -105 


66-9 ; 48-9 


59-2 


57-1 


S.W. 


Cir. 


9 


S.W. 


0-010 


16 


30-070 


68-8 


57-2 


60-7 


59-2 


N. 


St. 


10 


N. 


o-oio 


17 


30-059 


68-8 


58-0 


65-6 


62-1 


N.E. 


Cir. 


8 


S.W. 


0-.390 


18 


29-976 


76-7 


59-3 


66-2 


61-3 


S. 


Cir. 


8 


s. 


0-020 


19 


29-882 


74-7 


59-1 


63-6 


59-8 


S.W. 


St. 


!) 


S.W. 


0-000 


20 


29-934 


68-0 ' 57-1 


62-9 


58-2 


w. 


Cir. 


6 


w. 


0-090 


21 


29-852 


71-0 54-2 


58-9 


57-7 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-595 


22 


29-739 


67-7 1 57-2 


62-4 


60-3 


w. 


St. 


10 


w. 


0-075 


23 


29-642 


69-7 i 51-1 


60-7 


66-8 


S.W. 


St. 


8 


S.W 


0-150 


24 


29-763 


62-9 


51-1 


56-8 


53-8 


w. 


St. 


2 


w 


0-100 


25 


30-023 


60-4 


45-7 


57-1 


51-7 


w. 


St. 


3 


w. 


0-100 


26 


29-774 


60-2 


51-0 


55-0 


54-0 


w. 


St. 


10 


w. 


0-575 


27 


29-380 


65-0 


54-8 


57-0 


55-0 


w. 


Cir. 


4 


w. 


0-070 


28 


29-848 


63-2 


51-8 


57-5 


53-0 


w. 


Cir. St. 


10 


w. 


0-145 


29 


29-789 


62-9 


56-2 


61-1 


57-9 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-035 


30 


29-656 


67-1 


55-8 


58-5 


55-1 


w. 


St. 


s 


w. 


0-025 


31 


29-912 


63-2 


55-3 


56-8 


54-4 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-000 



Barometer. — Highest, 30-105 inches, on the 15th. Lowest, 29-218 inches, on the 4th. 
Monthly Range, O'SSr inch. Mean, :i9-683 inches, being 0-028 inch below the average for 
August for tive preceding years. 

Protected S. K. Thermometers. — Highest, 76° -7, on the 17th. Lowest, 45°-7, on tlie 25th. 
Monthly Range, 31'0. Mean of all the Highest, 05°-5. Mean of all the Lowest, 53°-6. Mean 
Daily Range, ll°-9. Mean Temperature of .Month, 59°-5, being l°-5 above the average for 
August for tive preceding years. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of "Ury Bulb, 59°-2. Mean of Wet Bulb, 5G°-2. Temperature of Dew- 
point, 53° -5. Mean Humidity. Si -5%. 

Radiation Thermometers. — Highest in Sun, 12S''-8, on the 17th. Lowest on Grass, 39°-8, on 
the 15th. 

Sunshine. — Total recorded for month, 92 hours 15 minutes, being 198% of the possible 
amount. The sunniest day was the Sth, with 7 hours, being 44 9% of the possible amount. 
None was recorded on 3 days. 

Rainfall. — Rain fell on 27 days. Total Fall, 4-635 inches, being 1-032 inch above the average 
for August for five preceding years. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, 715 inch, on the 5th. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, Ohserver. 
W. H. WAITE, Interim Observer. 



476 TK.V^'5AC^0^•5 A>"T) proceedings of the [Sess. lx. 



(3) Meteobological Obseryatioxs recorded at Eotal 
BoTAXic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of September 
1895. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cist«m of Barometer above Mean Sea^Level, 
76-5 feet. HoTir of Observation, 9 am. 



•CO ' Thermometers, protected, 
§ G I 4 feet above grass. 



■^ ! =?* 



S. E. Ther- 
mometers for rr 
preceding [Hygrometer. 

2-1 hours. I 



Clouds. 



Max. Min. Drv. Wet. "^ 



Kind. 



1 


29-811 


62-1 


550 


62-0 


572 


S.W. 


Cir. 


3 


S.W. 


0-000 


2 


29-7oSr 


69-2 


482 


60-0 


56-9 


X.W. 


St. 


3 


N.W. 


0-105 


3 


2Jt-772 


711 


57-9 


59-0 


57-1 


S.W. 


St. 


10 


S.W. 


0-<iOO 


4 


2<i-«5-_> 


66-9 


55-5 


569 


53-8 


S.W. 


Cum. 


9 


S.W. 


0-005 


5 


29-825 


61-0 


541 


59-8 


55-7 


S.W. 


Cum. 


8 


S.W. 


0-000 


6 


29-999 


61-6 


44-9 


56-8 


56-8 


S.W. 


St. 


8 


S.W. 


0-005 


7 


29-774 


61-9 


54-7 


60-1 


57-1 


s. 


St. 


7 


s. 


0-000 


8 


30-153 


65-1 


56-4 


59-1 


54-9 


S.W. 


Cir. 


8 


S.W. 


0-0<JO 


9 


29-967 


64-0 


47-2 


58-9 


56-0 


N.E. 


Cir. 


2 


S.W. 


0-060 


10 


29-572 


65^ 


58-7 


65-4 


59-0 


w. 







... 


0-015 


11 


29-180 


68-0 


55-0 


58-9 


53-4 


W. 


Cin 


2 


W. 


0-000 


12 1 


29-716 


61-0 


52-2 


57-1 


52-7 


w. 







... 


0-000 


13 


30-126 


628 


441 


55-0 


50-1 


W. 


... 





... 


0-000 


14 


30-135 


64-6 


46-2 


57-3 


53-7 


W. 


Sr. 


10 


w. 


0-000 


15 


30-214 


62-6 


oQ-O 


61-3 


58-1 


W. 


Cir. 


2 


N. 


0-000 


16 


30-K>4 


64-3 


48-3 


60-0 


55-7 


S.W. 


Cir. 


2 


N.W. 


0-350 


17 


29-852 


64-7 


57-2 


58-7 


57-2 


S.W. 


Nim. 


10 


S.W. 


0-030 


18 


29-633 


641 


58-1 


63^ 


60-1 


S.W. 


St. 


10 


S.W. 


O-OOO ; 


19 


30-009 


649 


47-4 


56-0 


51-9 


w. 







... 


0-000 


20 


30-311 


65-0 


43-8 


50-2 


47-1 


w. 


cir. 


2 


w. 


0-000 i 


21 


30-246 


56-0 


381 


53^0 


49-1 


E. 


• •• 





... 


0-000 


22 


30-219 


644 


43-1 


54-9 


51-8 


Tar. 







... 


0-000 ' 


23 


30-106 


65-9 


41-5 


58-0 


53-7 


S.W. 


... 





... 


0-000 


24 


30 065 


6»-4 


50-7 


56-2 


54-7 


S. 


Cir. 


2 


s. 


0-105 


25 


30-062 


652 


503 


57-9 


57-1 


Tar. 


Cir. 


9 


S.W. 


0000 


26 


30-124 


70-2 


57-5 


65-0 


60-(( 


W. 


Cir. 


8 


w. 


0-000 


27 


30-161 


73-9 


5S-1 


57-7 


57-1 


S.W. 


f Cir. 
t Fog 


2 

1 


s.w.i 


0-000 1 


28 


30196 


69-0 


53-6 


59-1 


57-4 


Tar. 


Fog 


1 




0-010 


29 


30181 


65-9 


54-2 


55-0 


55-0 


Calm 


Fog 


5 




0-010 


30 


30^30 


58-6 


45-2 


49-0 


49<t 


Calm 


Fog 


10 




0-005 



Barometer. — Hi^iest, 30-311 inches, on tbe 20tb. Lowest, SO'180 inches, on the 11th. 
lIoBtUy Rtntpf. 1*131 indii. Mean, ^-972 iuches, being O'lTO inch above the average for 
Septemtwr for fire preeeding years. 

FroteetedS. R. ThemuMneters. — Hi^iest, 73'-9, on the 26th. Lowest, 3S'-1, on the Slst. 
NontUy Bange, So'S. Mean of all the Highest, 65°-0. Mean of all the Lowest, 50°-7. Mean 
Daily Range, 14'-3. Mean Temperatnre of Month, b't'S, being 3°-3 above the average for 
September for five preceding yeaxs. 

Hygrometer. — ^Mean of iSry Bolb, 5S°-1. Mean of Wet Bulb, 5o°-0. Temperature of Dew- 
point, 32°-2. Mean Homidity, 80-9 X- 

Radiation Tbermometos. — ^Hi^best in Bon, 123° -1, on the 1st. Lowest on Grass, 27°-4, on 
the 2lBt. Frost oocmied cm Grass on 3 days. 

Sunshine. — XMal leooided for month, 148 hoirrs -50 minutes, being 38-9 % of the possible 
amounts The canniest day was the 23rd, with 9 boors 20 minutes, being 76-7 % of the possible 
amoimt. None was reotHxied on 2 days. 

Bain fall — Bain fell on 11 days. Total Fall, 0-700 inch, being 1-329 inch below the average 
for Septonber for fire preceding years. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, 0'350 inch, on the 16th. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, Observer. 
W. H. WAITE, Interim Olserrer. 



Nov. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIKTY OF EDINBURGH. 



477 



(4) Meteokological Observations recorded at Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Month of October 
1895. 

Distance from Sea, 1 mile. Height of Cistern of Barometer above Mean Sea-Level, 
76'5 feet. Hour of Observation, 9 a.m. 





is 


Thei-raometers, protected, 
4 feet above grass. 


a 










o 

"o 
m 

P 


_2 h^ 


S. R. Ther- 
mometers foi 
preceding 
24 hours. 


Hygrometer. 


"o 

a 
_o 

o 

© 

5 


Clouds. 




H 
>-• 

a 
'3 


Max. 


Min. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Kind. 


o 


2 o 




p; a. 














a 
< 


q'-^ 








o 


o 


o 


o 












1 


29-639 


65-1 


46-3 


51-9 


51-9 


S.E. 


Fog 


10 




0-620 


2 


28-960 


62-8 


43-8 


44 3 


43-4 


W. 


St. 


10 


w. 


0-060 


3 


29-063 


50-3 


38-5 


43-9 


41-0 


S. 


Nim. 


10 


S. 


0-145 


4 


29-219 


45-8 


37-5 


45-2 


41-1 


W. 









0-000 


5 


29-366 


52-9 


40-8 


52-9 


48-8 


w. 









0-160 


6 


29-431 


55-8 


41-8 


50-0 


46-7 


S.W. 









0-040 


7 


29-408 


54-7 


40-2 


45-9 


43-0 


s.w. 


Cir. 


2 


S.W. 


0-0-20 


8 


29-374 


51-2 


38-0 


47-2 


45-9 


Calm 


Cir. 


3 


S.W. 


0-515 


9 


29-226 


52-0 


45-9 


49-1 


45-2 


n.e. 


Cir. St. 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 


10 


29-634 


61-9 


44-0 


47-0 


42-0 


N.W. 


Cir. 


1 


N.W. 


0-0-25 


11 


29-916 


53-0 


411 


48-4 


43-4 


N.W. 


Cir. Cum. 


10 


N.W. 


0-010 


12 


29-678 


56-7 


47-9 


56-7 


64-2 


W. 


St. 


10 


W. 


0-000 


13 


29-896 


61-3 


51-5 


53-1 


50-8 


W. 


St. 


10 


w. 


0-380 


14 


29-809 


55-4 


50-9 


510 


51-0 


W. 


Nim. 


10 


w. 


0-.320 


15 


30-016 


516 


45-1 


45-1 


43-9 


E. 


Nim. 


10 


E. 


0-400 


16 


30-198 


45 2 


34-1 


42-0 


39-3 


W. 









000 


17 


30-480 


49-8 


323 


40-0 


37-8 


N.W. 


Fog 


1 




0-000 


18 


30-428 


54-3 


29-8 


36-0 


35-8 


N.W. 


Fog 


5 




0-000 


19 


30-275 


53-0 


34-9 


48-1 


45-7 


S.W. 


Cir. St. 


2 


n!w. 


0-070 


20 


30224 


53-9 


43-6 


44-6 


42-6 


N.E. 


Nim. 


10 


N.E. 


0-250 


21 


29-927 


41-3 


39-9 


40-9 


38-7 


N.E. ' 


St. 


10 


N.E. 


0-000 


22 


29-967 


41-9 


37-1 


39-5 


36-1 


N. i 


Cir. St.. 


3 


N. 


0-000 


23 


29-687 


43-2 


33-0 


38-7 


34-9 


N.W. 1 


• •■ 







0-000 


24 


29-343 


43-9 


30-5 


35-2 


33-2 


w. 1 









0-000 


25 


29-341 


44-6 


33-0 


36 8 


34-1 


W. 1 


Cir.""st. 


10 


W. 


0-160 


26 


29-612 


45-2 


30-1 


38-3 


36-1 


N. 









0-000 


27 


29-631 


45-8 


30-1 


380 


34-8 


N.W. i 


Cir. 


1 


N. , 


0-000 


28 


29-585 


44-6 


28-2 


34-0 


32-2 


W. 


Cir. 


2 


N.W. 


0-040 


29 


29-875 


42-2 


32-9 


38-6 


35-6 


N.W. ; 


Cir. 


1 


N. 


0-000 


30 


29-829 


45-8 


31-5 


41-1 


38-7 


S.W. 


Cir. St. 


10 


W. 


0-015 


31 


29-903 


48-0 


41-0 


43-0 


40-6 


N.E. 


Cir. St. 


5 


N.K , 

1 


0-000 



Barometer.— Highest, 30-480 inches, on the 17th. Lowest, 28-960 inches, on the 2nd. 
Monthly Range, 1-5-20 inch. Mean, 29-708 inches, being same as the average for October 
for five preeedinct years. 

Protected S. R. Thermometers.— Highest, 62°-8, on the 1st. Lowest, 28°-2, on the 2Sth. 
Monthly Range, 34°-6. Mean of all the Highest, 50° -4. Mean of all the Lowest, 38° -5. Mean 
Daily Range, H°-9. Mean Temperature of Month, 44°-4, being 2°-5 below the average for 
October for five preceding years Frost occurred on 6 days. 

Hygrometer.— Mean of Dry Bulb, 14°-1. Mean of Wet Bulb, 41°-6. Temperature of Dew- 
point, 38°-t3. Mean Humidity, 81 %. 

Radiation Tliermoineters.— Highest in Sun, 107°-", on the 12th. Lowest on Grass, 14°-9, on 
the 2Sth. Frost occurred on Grass on 18 clays. 

Sunshine. — Total recorded for month, 107 hours 40 minutes, being 33-4% of the possible 
amount. The sunniest day was the 4th, with 8 hours 55 minutes, being 79% of the possible 
amount. None was recorded on 5 days. 

Rainfall.— Bain fell on 17 days. Total Fall, 3230 inches, being 0-635 inch above the average 
for October for five preceding years. Greatest Fall in 24 hours, 0-620 inch, on the 1st. First 
Snowfall for season on 25th. 

A. D. RICHARDSON, Observer. 
W. H. WAITE, Interim Observer 



478 TRANSACTIONS A]S'D PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. LX. 

III. — Notes on Plants in the Plant Houses. By. 
E. L. Harrow. 

Since the last meeting of the Society in July, a succes- 
sion of plants in flower has been kept up, comparing well 
with that of previous years. The plants occupying the 
new houses erected in 1894 show the good effect of their 
better accommodation. Of the plants which have flowered 
during the months since July may be mentioned : — 
Dijdadcnia insignis, Hort., with racemes of rich purple 
flowers ; Bouga.invillea glabra, Choisy, in the corridor was 
for some weeks a mass of colour ; jEscliynantlius ohconicus, 
C. B. Clarke, introduced recently by Messrs. Veitch, from 
Malacca, has a blood-red large calyx enveloping the corolla. 
Besides these Passifloras, Allamandas, Bignonias, and other 
genera, have been attractive in the stoves. Among Orchids 
the most noticeable in flower have been : — Oncidmm 
Lanwanum, Lindl. ; 0. varicosum, Lindl., var. Itogersii, Hort. ; 
Odontoglossum citrosmum, Lindl. ; Cattleya guttata Zeopoldii, 
Hort. ; Vanda Kimhalliana ; Bhyncliostylis retusa, var. guttata, 
Hchb. f. ; and Catasetum Clirutyanum, Echb. f. During the 
past year the collection of Orchids has been more than 
doubled in species, and several genera not hitherto in- 
cluded have been added, so that the exhibition of this 
interesting group of plants will be more attractive in the 
coming and succeeding years than it has been in the past, 
and we shall hope to be able to show at the meetings of 
this Society many interesting forms. 

The reconstruction of another section of the plant houses 
has been completed since the Society last met, and satis- 
factory accommodation is now provided for the large group 
of Succulent Plants and for Economic Plants, These 
houses when opened to the public, as they will be in course 
of the spring, should prove to be not the least instructive 
and attractive of the rauge. 

Of the plants flowered during October, the few following 
may be noted : — 

Monodora grandiflora, Benth. One of the Anonacete, 
a native of tropical Africa. One plant in the Palm House 
is about 20 feet high, and this is its first recorded flowering 
here. The large coriaceous light-sreen leaves are shed and 



Nov. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 479 

replaced by a new crop several times in the year. The 
solitary flowers are pendulous and axillary with an outer 
and inner series of petals of a greenish colour. 

BigiiGnia magnifica, Bull. This is decidedly one of the 
most gorgeous coloured of these usually showy climbing 
plants. The flowers, produced in terminal panicles, having 
a rich purple coloured corolla, with a yellowish throat. 
This is the first time the .species has been recorded as 
flowering with us, and only a few solitary flowers have this 
year expanded. Mr. W. Bull, of Chelsea, is credited 
with the introduction of this plant from Columbia in 1870. 

Cattlcya ScMUeriana, Echb. The flowers of this species 
are amongst the most pretty of this section of the genus, 
and are produced at variable times of the year, often 
twice within the year on one plant, upon short thickish 
pseudo-bulbs ; the spikes bearing from two to five flowers. 
The crimson magenta lip is especially attractive. A native 
of Brazil, this species was first flowered in the gardens of 
Consul Schiller, of Hamburg, and is supposed by some to 
be a natural hybrid between C. Adandicc and C. guttata. 

Ai^helandra nitens, Hook. This Columbian species, 
which was introduced in 1867, is an erect small growing 
plant, with large glossy purplish green ovate foliage. The 
inflorescence is a terminal spike, the bright vermilion 
scarlet flowers appearing from among rather large lanceo- 
late persistent bracts. Seeds of this plant soon lose their 
germinating power, and we have many times sown them 
when received from foreio-n gardens with no success. When 
sown as soon as ripe, the greater number will produce plants. 

Others of note, and some of which we are able to 
exhibit, are : — Vitis heteropliylla, Thunb., var. liitmvlifolia, 
Hort., remarkable for its turquoise blue berries, borne in 
great abundance upon slender side shoots, a native of 
China and Japan ; Rucllia macrantlia, Mart,, — a Brazilian 
winter flowering species ; Cesimm anrantiacum, Lindl., — 
an old introduction from Guatemala, with showy yellow 
flowers; TihoucJdna moricandiana, Baill., — a native of 
India and Malaya, and one of the brightest winter 
flowering plants we have, the large flowers being deep 
purple in colour. Should be planted out in a stove to 
develop its beauty in perfection. 



i 



Dec. 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 481 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY. 

Thursday, December 12, 1895. 
Dr. A. P. AiTKEX, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. SoMERViLLE Gkieve was elected Eesident Fellow 
of the Society. 

The following specimens, in flower, from the Eoyal 
Botanic Garden were exhibited: — Asystasia scandens, 
Luculia gratissima, Ednivardtia trigyna, Catasctum Chris- 
tyanum, Corynost'ylisHyhanthus,EucharisSanderi,A'phelandra 
Chrysops, Ipomcea Horsfalli, \ar, Bnyysii. 

The following Papers were read : — 

Excursion of the Scottish Alpine Botanical Club to 
Tyndkum, in 1895. By William Craig, M.D., F.E.S.E., 
F.Pt.C.S.E., Secretary of the Club. 

On Monday, 5th August 1895, seven members of the 
Scottish Alpine Botanical Club assembled at Tyndrum, 
where they were most comfortably accommodated in 
Stewart's Eoyal Hotel. In the evening they were joined 
by Professor Bower, of Glasgow, and Professor F. W. 
Oliver, of London. The Caledonian Eailway very kindly 
provided the Club with a fine saloon all the way from 
Edinburgh to Tyndrum. On the following morning 
the Club were joined by Mr. A. Somerville, B.Sc, 
Glasgow. 

Tuesday, 6th August. — The morning was fine and the 
forenoon was hot and sultry. The members of the- Club 

Issued November 1S96. 



482 TRANSACTIONS AXD PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lx. 

took the morning train to Bridge of Orchy, on the West 
Highland line, which was reached about 10 a.m., and after 
a walk of two miles due north, we ascended Beinn an 
Dothaidh, a mountain in Argyllshire, 3267 feet high. 
This is one of a chain of mountains which extends from near 
the Moor of Eannoch southwards, and terminates in Beinn 
Doireanu, a mountain 3523 feet high. The object of the 
Club's visit to Tyndrum on this occasion was to explore 
these mountains. The rocks on Beinn an Dothaidh were 
high and precipitous, and though they faced the north 
we found them most unproductive. Shortly after we 
reached the rocks the hill was enveloped in a thick 
mist, and in the afternoon the rain came down in 
torrents, which greatly interfered with the comfort of 
the members and with a proper examination of the 
rocks. 

Amongst the plants collected may be mentioned : — 
Saxifraga oppositifolia, L. ; S. stellaris, L. ; S. aizoidcs, L. ; 
Droscra anglica, Huds.; Cormis suecica, L. ; Vaccinium 
uliginosujn, T,.: V. Vitus-Idcea,\i.; Ardostaphylos Uva-ursi, 
Spreng ; Erica Tetrcdix, L., white ; Gentiana campestris, 
L., white ; Ehynchospora alia, Yahl. ; Carejz paucifiora, 
Lightf.; Hymcnophyllum unilateralc, Willd.; Asplenivra 
viricle, Huds. On Carcx rigida was found the fungus 
Ustilago caricis, Pers. 

The members were all thoroughly soaked before they 
reached Bridge of Orchy Station. They returned to Tyn- 
drum by train, but none of the party suffered any bad 
effects from the rain. 

Professors Bower and Oliver having only one day 
to spend, went to Beinn Laoigh, and gathered many 
interesting plants, but of course the mist and rain 
greatly interfered with a successful exploration of the 
mountain. 

Wednesday, 7th August. — After an early breakfast the 
members of the Club left Tyndrum about 7 a.m. in a 
waggonette, and drove via Bridge of Orchy and Loch 
Tulla, as far as the wood of Crannach, a distance of 18 
miles. There is a good driving road for the first 10 miles, 
but the latter part of the road is a mere track, and we 
could only go at a walking pace. The members divided — 



Dec, 1895.] BOTANICAL SOCIKTY OF EDINBURGH, 483 

one party botanising Crannach Wood, and the other party 
ascending Beinn Achallader. 

Crannach AVood is part of the old Caledonian Forest, 
and it was thought that some good plants might be found 
in the wood, but it proved very unproductive. 

Among the plants found in the wood may be mentioned : 
— Soidago Virgaurea, L. ; Vaccinium Vitis-Idcca, L., in 
fruit ; Pyrola rotundifolia, L. ; Trientalis europcea, L. ; 
Euphrasia gracilis, Fries.; Listera cordata, Br. ; FJiynclio- 
spora alba, Vahl. ; and Carex pauciflora, Lightf. 

Eev. Dr. Paul, who was one of the members who 
botanised the wood, made a careful inspection of the 
Fungi, and says, " There are no very particular ones among 
them, nor are they very numerous, it being too early for 
them by a month ; but it might be worth recording those 
that were observed, as the wood may not have been 
examined for Fungi before. It would be a good place for 
them later in the season." Dr. Paul has sent a list of 
those Fungi observed, and it is here recorded : — 

1. Agaricus (aiimnita) vag-inatus, Bull. 1.). Lactarius torminosus, Fr. 

"2. (Aniiillaria') melleus. Fl. Dan, It). Eussula ochroleuca, Fr. 

3. (Ciit icybe) lacoatiis, Scop. 17. Canthavellus cibarius, Fr. 

4. (Collybia) dryophilus, Bull. 18. Marasmius androsaceus, Fr. 

a. (Xlyc-na) fralericulatus, Scop. 19. Boletus luteus, Linn. 

(^ ( ) haematopus. Pers. 20. bovinus. Linn. 

7. (Nolanea) pascuus. Per?:. 21. badiu.-i, Fr. 

X. (Flamraula) scambus, Fr. 22. piperatus, Bull. 

n. (Stropharia) semiglobatus, 23. subtomentosus, Linn. 

Batsch. 24. edulis.Bull. 

10. (Psilrcybe)semilaDCPatiis.Fr. 2.5. scaber, Fr, 

11. (Panffiolus) separatus, Linn. 2(5. Polyp'irus varius, Fr. 

12. Cortinarius elator. Fr. 27. betuliuus, Fr. 

13. i-iuamonieus, Fr. i 28. ■ versicolor, Fr. 

14. Paxillus involutus, Fr. l 

Trametes pini, Fr., though carefully searched for among 
the old Scotch firs of the Caledonian Forest was not 
found. 

The members who ascended Beinn Achallader were more 
successful. Beinn Achallader is a mountain 3399 feet 
high, partly in Argyllshire and partly in Perthshire. The 
rocks, however, are all in Argyllshire. The day was fine, 
and a good view was obtained from the summit. This hill 
is one of the chain of mountains referred to in the beginning 
of this paper, and lies north of Beinn an Dothaidh and 
south-west of Beinn Creachan. 

Among the plants collected may be mentioned: — Cock- 



484 TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE [Sess. lx. 

learia alpina, Wats. ; Silene acaulis, L. ; Solidago Virgaurea, 
L. ; Saussurea alpina, DC. ; Vaccinium uliginosum, L. ; 
Armeria vulgaris, Willd. ; Trientalis curopoea, L. ; Gentiana 
campestris, L., white ; Salix phylicifolia , L. ; (?) S. Lap- 
ponum, L. ; Juncus triglumis, L. ; J. trifidus, L. ; Luzula 
spicata, DC. ; Garex hinervis, Sm., — this specimen was sub- 
mitted to Eev. Mr. Marshall, and he says, " It is the very 
dark-brown form frequently above 2000 feet " ; and Grypto- 
gramme crispa, Br. 

After descending the mountain we rejoined our carriage 
at Beinn Achallader farmhouse, near the old castle of that 
name, and famous as the scene of a bloody battle between 
two clans about 200 years ago. After partaking of the 
kind hospitality of Mr. Stewart, the venerable farmer, we 
left for Tyndrum, which was reached after a very enjoyable 
drive. 

Thursday, 8tli August. — The day was again fine, but 
rather hot for mountaineering. We took the train to 
Crianlarich and ascended Cruach Ardran, a mountain 
visited by the Club in 1891, On that occasion we 
botanised the rocks on the right hand of the corrie going 
upwards, but only the base of these rocks, and afterwards 
went to the summit by the south ridge, and gathered some 
good plants near the summit, which is 3428 feet high. 
On this occasion we wished to examine the high rocks on the 
south of the corrie. We accordingly ascended to the summit 
of the south ridge and carefully examined the ridge, and 
then went into the rocks from abov