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Full text of "The Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London"

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n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



TRANSACTIO^JS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



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TRANSACTIONS 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

LONDON 

1917. 



LONDON: 
SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S ROOMS, 11, CHANDOS STREET 

CAVXHDIBH SQO&RE, W., 

AND BY LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.. 

PATBRHOSTBR BOW, K.C. ; AND KBW lOHK. 

1917-1918. 



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DATES OF FUBLICATION IN PARTS. 



Part I. (TnASe , p. 1-287, Proc. i-xxiii) wns published 24 Nov., 1917 

„II,III1V. ( „ 269-426, „ xxxiii-xovi) „ 16 May, 1918 



264401 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 

POUKDBD, 1633. 

Inoobporatu) bt Rotal OoAnut, 1S86. 



PATRON: niS MAJESTY THE KINO. 



OFFICERS and COUNCIL for the SESSION W7-19J8. 
preelDent. 

C. J. QAHAN, M.A., D.Sr. 

T. A. CHAPMAN, M.D.. F.Z.S. 

G. B. LONOSTAFF, M.A., M.D. 

The Hon. N. C. ROTHSCHILD, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Qieasuier. 
ALBERT HUGH JONES. 

Secietarfee 

CoHHANDXR JAMES J. WALKOi,^ M.A., R.N., F.L.a 

Trb Rbt. OEOROE wheeler, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Ifbrnrun. 

GEORGE CHARLES CHAMPION, F.2.S., A.L.S 

9tbet AemlKM of Oouncll. 

A. W. BACOT. 
- E. C. BEDWELL, 

E. A. COCKAYNE, M.A., M.D. 

W. C. CRAWLEY, B.A. 

H. WILLOUGHBY ELLIS, F.Z.S. 

J. C. F. FRYER, M.A. 

S. A. NEAVE, M.A., B.Sc., F.Z.S. 

R. M. PRIDEAUX. 

A. E. TONQE. 



Retident Librarian. 
GEORGE BETHELL, F.R.HiST.S. 



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( vi ) 

Xaelneea aii& VubUcations Commfnee. 
ROBERT ADttlN. 
0. T. BETHUNE-BAKER. 
JOHN HABTLET DURRANT. 
REV. F. D. MORICE. 
. And the Executive Officers of the Council. 

ecftleb ttatlonal aommlttce of jentomologlcal DomeiiclatuK. 
Q. T. BETHUNE-BAKER. 
DR. C. J. OAHAN. 
DR. K. JORDAN. 
L. B. PROUT. 
REV. GEORGE WHEELER 
JOHN HARTLEY DURRANT, S«r«ton/- 



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CONTENTS. 



B7 B. 

I Id the Britiah Huaeam. Bj 
BowLAND E. Tdbnib,^.Z.S.,P.EB. 

III. New or littt^tenmi Hettroctra from Hadacaaou. B7 Sir 

Obobob H. Kmucit, F.E.8. 

IV. Additjons to tha koowladge of the Citoniidat of Britiah India. 

Bj Olitu B. JiHSON, F.B.8 



Collece, Cambridge (Lieut. B.A.H.O.) 

■ in BritUh Qaiasa. B7 

VIL The oondition of the sealea in Uw leaden malea of Agriaia 
Aitii, Bott., and in other Lycaenida. Bjp B. A. Coctxtsm, 

D.lI.,P.R.C.P.,TemporarT Surgeon, R.N 

VHI. On Mv uid little-known Lai/riidat froni Tropical America. 
Br Obobob CUBLEa Chupion, F.Z.S 

IX. A Reriaion of tbo genua Tarucui. Bv O. T. BcrHDHi-BiiiB, 

F.Lil., F.Z.8 : 

X. Kotea on mnw BritUb Quluu Himetoptera (eicluaife of the 
FarmieiAu). By ti. B. Bodb(M, B.A.. Dip. Agric. (Cantab.), 
F.Z.8,, F.B.S-.Ooi'eronient Economic Biologiat, Department 
of Science and AgTiciittore, Britiah Guiana • 

XL On a Collection ol Butterfliea taken Id Eaat Africa bj Mr. 
W. A. Lambom. Bj H. Kltbihoh*!!, M.A., D.Sc. With 
notea on the Fitrinat. by Dr. F. A. Diibt, F.R.S . and 
deacription of a new form of F. dardaiuu 1 , by Prof. E. B. 
PoDLTuH, F.HS ; 



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XIII. A PrelimiDBry Catalogue of Britiah Cieidomgidae (Diptrra), 
with Kpecial reterrore to the ti&ll-midgf* of Ibe North of 
GogLuid. By RicKiBD 8. BlaI•AL^ F.L.S^ and J. W. 
HisLOP Habrison. D.Sv. _ 



ProcMdtDg* tor laiT 
Aonual Meeting ... 
Balance Sheet 
Preaident'a Aildreai 
Gsneral Index 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES, TRANSACTIONS. 



PUtel. 






8eepa«« e5 Plate XL 


PUte II. 








86 Plate XII. 


Plate III 








92 PUte XIII. 


Plate IV 








83 Plate. XIV-XX. 


Plate V. 








S9 Plates XXI-XXIII 


PUleVI 








100 Sketch Map 


Plate* VII-X. 






. 1S2 










PROCEEDINGS. 




Plate A. 






See page «ii. 




PlaU* B. C 




., page >Ll»ii. 




Plato D 


E 


F 


„ pigea Ixim-UxT. 




Plates a 


H 


J 


„ page* «, iri. 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



HONORARY FELLOWS. 

Marked * hare died during the year. 
Klectlon. 

I9O0 AUBIVIU.IUS, Professor Cliristoplier, StvcMtiim. 
1915 Beblrsk, Professor Antonio, Wa Boiaana, 19, Fireate, Italy. 
1905 BoLiTAR, Ignaoio, itfiuai lUKional de Biatoriu naltiral, Hipodrinno, 
17, Madrid. 

1911 CouBTOCK, Prof, J. H., OiTwli Vniver>itij, Itha/M, New York, U.S.A. 
1894 FoRETi, Profeseor Aitgnete, M.D., Ckigay, p}-u ilorgef, Swilierland. 

1912 • FREV-QcnsNEIt, Dr. Eniilu, La Bageruit, Gtnive, SwitztrUind. 
1898 Orabsi, Profeaaor BdUista, The Universitg, Home. 

1915 Howard, Dr. L. O., Nutiontd M^aeum, WaiJtinglon, U,S.A. 

1914 Lambere, ProfesHorA., Brvxellet. 

1908 Oberthur, Charles, Rennet, lUe-el-VHaiiie, France. 

1913 Tian-ShaK8KI, a. P. SemeuolT, VaitUi Oitrot, 8 tin., 39, PtliiHjrad, 

Ruaaia, 
1911 Wasmann, Fr. Erich, S.J.,Vuil:enhiirg{L.) Iifimlht>Kolhg,Hollattd. 



SPKCIAL LIFE FELLOWS. 

1916 (1894) MiALL, Louis Oompton, F.R.S., (Cuuscil, 1903, 

Norttm Way N., Lelduvorth. 
1916 (18B8) Yehburt. Colonel John W., late R.A., F.Z.S., (Cot 

1896, 1903-5), 2, Byder-dreel, tSl. Jamet'i. S.W. 



Marked * have died during the year. 

Marked f hare coiiipouiuUd for their Anuual Siihscripti-ni. 
D*U "f _ . 

1914 A114IB, E. W,, B.A., Tvr/aiib, Cairo, Egypt. 
1913 Ahamb, B. G., 16, Fernahaiv-road, CheUea, S.W. 
1877 Adams, Frederick C\<M]HtTOtii,T.Z.S., 50, Athleij-ga,-de»ii, Vidoria 
ttrtet, S.W. 1. 



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( - ) 

1902 Adkih, B«naiah Wlutley, TiKnototth, Hopt-park, Bromiey, Kent. 

1885 Adkin, Robert, (CoDNCT^ 1901-^2. 1911-13), Hodedm, Meadt, 

1904 AOAii, E. A., La Haul, Dominica, B. W. Indies. 

1915 AlTAR, K. S. Padmanabha, Trivandrain, Travancore, India. 

1914 AtiAR, T. V. Ramakriahna, B.A., F.Z.S., I7t« AgrieuJtHral OoOege, 
Coimbatore, 8. India. 

1912 Allen. J. W,. M.A., 266, Waie»dtn-laHe, London, N.W. 2. 

1911 Ahdersom, T. J., SnUnnotogical Laioralory, Kabeti, Brit. E. 

AJrica. 
1910t Andreifbs, H. E., 8, Nmih Grove, Uighgale, N. 
1899 Andrews, Henry W.. Sttiley, WtUing S.O., Kmt. 
1901 Ansino, Williom, 39, Lime Street. E.C. 3. 
1908 1 Antram, Charlea B., Somerdait EUale, Ootacamund, Nilgiri EiiU, 

S. India. 

1913 Abmytaob, Edward 0., Petiroae, Uiiivek, Potindj^tock, Bade. 

1907 Arnold, 0., U.Sc., A.B.C.S., Curator, Bhodetia JUtiwum, Bviawayo 

S. Africa. ' 
1899 1 Arrow, Qillrert J., (Codncil, 1905-7), 9, BoBsdoie-roiMf, Futaes, 

S.W. 15 ; and BrUidt If.weum (Nalnral Sistonj), (VOTftweU-rood, 

S.W. 7. 
1911 Ashbv, Edward Bernard, 36, B^thlrode-nxid, Houtulow, MiddUtex. 
1907 t AsHBY, Sidney R., 39, Park-lnne. Wembley, Middlttex. 

1886 Athorb, E. a., 48, Hightlreel, King's Lijnii. 

1913 AviNOFF, Audrii, Liteyny, 12, Petrograd, Svma. 

1914 AwiT[, P. R., Medical Entomologist, c/o Qrindlay & Co., Bonkera, 

26, WestmoiiaTid-itreet, 0(Jc«((a. 

1901 Bacot, Arthur W., (COONCII, 1916- ), York Cottage, York-hm, 

Loti^htor^ Sttei. 
1904 1 Baonall, Ricijard S., Penthaw Lodge, Penshaw, Ihirkam. 
1909 Baowell-Purefoy, CapL Edward, Bail Farleigk, Matditmie. 

1916 Balfoor, Miss Alice, 4, Carllon-gardeiu, S.W., and Whittingehame, 

PretlorAirk. Scotlaiid. 
1913 Ballaxd, Edward, Qovt. Entomologist, Agricidlmxd College and 

BeKurch Institute, Cminbatore, Madras, S. India. 
1886 Bankea, Eustace R., M.A. 

1890 Barclat, Francis H., F.G.S., The Warreti, Ci-omer. 
1886 Baroaqli, Marcliese Piero, Fiona S. Maria, Palazzo Tempi No. 1, 

Florence, Ikily. 
1895 Barker, Cecil W., 244, Esstmcood-road, Durban, Natal, SoMh 

Africa. 

1902 Barraod, Philip J., Cheater Coltaije. Benhillroad, Svtton, Sitrrey. 

1907 Bartlett, n. Frederick D., 1, Myrtle-road, BoMrnenunith. 

1894 t Bateson, Prof. Williimi, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of St, John's College, 
Cambridge, The JUiinw House, Meiiou, Surrry 

1908 Bayfohd, E. O., 2, Bockiiigham-street, Banidey. 



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( "i ) 

1901 Batnb, Antinr P., c o Mevrs. FTeeninn, Oul/c-afrMt, Pramtingkmt, 

Snffalk. 
1912 Batnes, Edw&rd Stout Augustus IM, fTonndt-ifml, Bettaion- 

a^Hare, &W. t. 
I896tBUKE, Pn>r. T. Hndson, B.Sc., •F.aS.G.. (V.-Prb., 1910; 

COUKCIL, 1909-11), 10, lU^eiU Terraef, Ediubrtr^. 
1908 Bkk, Bicbaid, ITecfcVU, r;^ Park. Teoril. 
laOo Bbdford, The Dnke of, E.G., Pr«a. Z.a, etc., ira6i(r» AbUy, BttU. 

1912 Bedpobd, Oenld, Entomologist to tbe L'nion of South Afric*, 

Veterinary Bacteriological Lkboratonr, Oiulttlepvort, Prtloria, 
TVaiunxiJ. 

1913 Bediwbd, Capt. Hugh Wonen, Churrh FrtU^ HorUy. 

1899 Bkdwsll, Ernest C, (Cor\ciL, 1917- ), Bnuj-irn, firigA (on- nxuf, 
Cowltdon, iSurrrif. 

1914 Benderitteb, Eugene, 11, Rtit SI. Jiirqtin. Le Main. France. 
I901 Bbsotsso.n-, Simon, Ph.D., Lecturer, Unir*railii of Land, Sinden ; 

Curator, Entomological Collection of the University. 

1915 Bbsham, Prof. William BlaiUud, M.A., D.Sc., F.B.S.; I7iiiPfr«(y 

of Otago, Dunedin, Xew Ztalaitd. 
1906 BBNT»L^ E. E, The TotMn, Beybrid/ff:, S»K:t. 
19)3 Bb8T-Gakdhbr, Charlea C, Rooktcvod, ^'rt^lh, Glamorgtw. 
1885 Beibune-Baker. Geoige T.. F.L.S.. F.Z.S., (Pres.. 1913-14; 

V.-Pres.. 1910-11,1915; CoDNcit, 1895, 1910-I5:., IS.C/arcnrfoH- 

mad, EdgbatloK, B'lrtaiitgham, 
1891 Blaber, W. H., F.L.S., 34. Crommtirood. Hot*, Brijk(on. 

1901 Black. Jamen E., F.L.S., Nelhtrcroft, FttUe.-. 
1904 Blair, Kenneth G., S3, n>)( IIUI, Hl<^te, N. 6. 

1885 BuTHVAIT, Lt.-Col. Linley, F.L.S., Emjlc Houit, Balheailon, 
Balh. 

1904 Bliss, Maurice Fredericlc, M.H.C.S., L.R.C.P., 26 WoodrilU- 

gardeiu. Eating, W. 5. 

1916 Bococc, Charlea Uanslope. The Elms, Ashley, XriDiunkel. 

1912 Bodkin, G. C, Govt Entonjologiat. Gtonitlotrn, Britiuli Gniaita. 
1903 BoGDB, W. A., Tht Uaiik Hoiite, Watchel. 

1911 BolLEAU, H., 99, B'ltde la C>Ue St.. ThiboiiU, Boit de Cofomtw, 

iSeiiM, Frantf. 
1891 BooTB, George A., P.Z.S., M.B.O.U., The Ho-mihi;-. Kirkham, 

LaiKt. 

1902 BOSTOCK, E. D., OuJton Cross,. Stone, S(<i/a. 

1913 BOWATER, Captain WiUiaiii, 20, Ru*Mllroa<J, Moide;i, Birmingham. 
1888 BOWBR, Benjamin A., Langlrji, Willow Grote, Cliistehuisl. 

1894 1 Bowles, K Aiigustiw, M.A., M'lihMloit Hmisr, WiiUham Cros/. 

1912 1 BowRINO, C. Talbot, Hoihov; Hainan, S. CT.iiici. 

1916 Bos, Leonard Charies, F.B.H.9., Dominion Expt rim fatal St.itioH, 

Fredericlon, Nea Bruntioictc. 
1910 BOTD, A. Whitworth, The Attun, Allrincham, Chesliiie. 

1905 Bracken, Charles W., B.A., 5, Carfrae Ten-ace, Upson, Flyno\>l''. 



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( xii ) 

1917 BRBiJeit, Dr. H. O., Ph.D., Director of the Transvaal Musei^.ti, 

PrctoTui, Transnuil, 3. Afrim. 
1904 BBiDdKMAN, Commander Tlie Hon. Ricljard O. B., R.N., 44, Lownda- 

upiare, S. W. 1 ; and c/o Commander-in-Chief, Capt of Oood Hope 

Station, c/o G.P.O. 
IBTO Briqgs, Thomaa Henry, M.A., Roek Ilonie, Lyamoiilh 8.0.,N.IkvoH. 
1894 Briqht, Percy M., Clierilon, 26, Portcheater-roail, Bovnirmoutli. 

1909 Bbittbn, Harry, Myrtle View, Windmill-road, Beadington, Ox(m. 
1902 Brouobton, Major T. Delves, R.K, Mhoie, India. 

1878 Bbodn, Major Thomaa, Chev. Legion of Honour, Sfoutit Albert, 

Aitcl-liiiiil, N(vy Zealanil. 
1904 Brown, Henry H., Toioer Einue, 8, BntnUJUJd-terraet, Edinburgh. 

1910 Brownc, Horftce B., M.A., Park Htirsl, Morley, Yorka. 

1911 Brutzkr, Rev. Henry W.,GceatBotnIen Viairagf, Mai^t Harboro'. 
1909 Bryant, Gilbert E., Fir Grore, Edut, Surrey. 
ISftSfBuCHAN-HsPDORN, Sir Arcliibnld, Burt, J.P., D.L., SmeaUm- 

Ilepburn, Prtitoukirk. 
1917 BuLKLny, Dr. George Oranville, M.D., F.S.A., Ryt Croft SouiK, 
Maiu:he»ttr-rnad, Bury, Lane*. 

1916 BruNlON, Prof. E,, La Lticiolc, Aix-en-Provaice, Vranee. 

1907 Bdueid, Arthur, F.S. A., Wimboro, Midtomer Norton, SotnerKtAire. 
1896 1 Burr, Malcolm, D..Sc., F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S., A.R.S.M., (V.-Prm., 
1912 ; Council, 1903, 4, 1910-13), The DuUh Cuttage, Woking. 

1909 BDERUwa, The Rev. C. R. N., The Vicarage^ Mwhitig, Stanfont-le- 

Hope, fissar. 
lB68tBCTLBR, Artiuir G., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.a, (Sbc, 1875; CoOMCIL 

1876), Tbe Liliei, Beekenhamroml, Becktnham. 
1683 BuTLKR, Eilward Albert, B.A., B.Sc, (CouNcn, 1914-16), 14, 

Drt^jtds-road, Uurnsey, N. 8. 
1902 BuTLKR, William E., ifu^ing Emar, Oxfmd-road, Beading. 
190& BUTTBRFIELD, Jos. A., B.Sc., Oi-mesby, 21, DorvUleroad, Lee, S.E. 
1914 t BuTTERFiBLU, Roase, Curator, Corporation MvKam, KeighUjf, Yorkt. 
I912tBnxToiJ, Patrick Alfred, M.B.O.U., Fairhilt, Tot^ridge; and 40, 

Gidogtm Plfice, Londtm, S.W. 
1904 Byatt, Horace A-, B.A., The Palace, Malta. 

1917 Cambron, Dr. Alfred E., M.A., D.Sc, The Sntoinotogical Branch, 

VtjHiHm^nt of Agrieidlurt, 0»ch(v(, tVixurf-t. 
1902 Caueron, Malculin, M.B., li.N., 7, Blei«ngltm-road, Lee, S.E. 
1885 CAypBELi^ FraiiciB Mniile, F.L.S., F.Z.S., etc., BrynUwyd«yn, 

MachytiUeth, Mniitgomerydi'ire. 
1898 C'ANDiiZB, L^on, Mont St. Martin 7S, Liige. 
1680 Cansoalb, W. D., S«h«.v Hani; Simlh Norieooti, S.E. 25. 
1889 Cant, A., 33, Feftingroad, Pu/iwi/, S.W.j and c/u Fredk. Du Can* 

Godniaii, Esq., F.H.S., 45, PonZ-rfrerf, S.W. 1. 

1910 Carmer, E. Wace, M.D., F.R.S.E., Momiimside, GranvilU-road, 

Dorridge, and The University, Birmingham. 



ih, Google 



( "ii ) 

1692 Cabpinter, The Hunble. Mrs. Beatrice, 28, (frmrenor-road, S.W. 1. 

1910 Carpenter, Geoffrey D. H., D.M., B.Ch., Vgnnda Medical Sereice, 

Uganda ProtectoiaU. 
1895 Cahpentkr, Prof. Oeorge H., B.A., B.Su., Royni CoUfge of Science, 

Dublin. 
1898 Carpbntbb, J. H., Bedcot, Belmont-iwid, Leiitherhead. 
191fi Carb, Professor John Wesley, M.A.. F.L.S., F.G.S., Professor of 

Biolt^y, Vniverritij CtiUfgt, Nottingham. 
19ia Carr, William, B.Sc, Station-road, Bentham, Lanctiater. 

1911 Uabson, Oeoige Moffatt, Ei)tomolo>;itit to the GoveiDtnent of New 

Guinea, Pm't Mortshy, Papuii, rid Avatralia. 
1895 Cabtbr, Sir Gilbert, K.C.H.O., GreyHiffe. toirer IVarbeny-road, 
Tanfuay. 

1912 Carter, Henry Frani'is, AMiHtant Letlurer and Deinonstnitor in 

Uedical and Economic Enlonioliigy, LIrerpool Srhool of Tropical 

Mtdieitie, Vmrersily of Liverpool. 
190fl Carter, H. J., B.A., Ganmrillah, Kintore-slreH, Wnkroongn, 

Syditey, N.S. W. 
1900 Cakteb, J. W.. 15, WeUfidd-road, Heaion, Bradford. 
1889 1 Cave, Charles J. P., DiUham Park, Ptterffieid. 
1900 Chamberlain, Neville, WedboMrne, Edgbastoii, Biiiiiingham. 
1871 CHAMP10N,GeorgeC.,F.Z.S., A.L.S., Librarian, 1891- (COUNCIL, 

1875-7); liuilhereule, llondl, Wokii>g;&nA 45, f.m(-ir(cee(,S.W. 1. 
1914 Champion, Harry Geoiye, B.A., As»islnnt Conservator of Forests, 

W. Almora, U.P., India. 
I89t Chafhan, Thoinas A]){eriion, M.D.. F,Z.S., Vice -Prrsi dent, 

(V.-Pbeh., 1900, 1904-5, 1908, IDlti ; Ciiuncil, 1898-1900, 

1903-5, 1907-9, 191fr- ), BHida, ReigaU. 
1897 CUAn-NBR, Misa EUiel F., Forett Bank, L>jndhurat S.O., Hantt. 

1913 Cheavin, Harold S., F.R.M.S., F.N.P.S., The (ilenroy Hotel, S2, 

Wobam Place, Ku^M-nquuTe, W,C. 
1902 Chbbbhan, E. M. 
1889 Cheibtt, William M., M.A., F.L.S., Waltrijalf, Bingiixirth. 

1914 CBR¥HT4^ R. Neil, B.Sc., 377, Fimt-arenae, Oltatm, Canada. 
1909 Clark, Major C. Turner, F.Z.S., UiUtred, tit. A^guatitt^t-avenuf, 

8. Croydim. 
1908 Clark, Edgar L., Laureslim, llidije Koad, Overpmi, Vurhan, 

Natal. 
1914 Clbare, Ii. D,, Dcpt. of Scienoe and Agriculture, Qeorgetoim, 

BritiA Guiana. 
1914 Cleouorn, Miss Maude Lina West, F.L.S., 5, Alipore-road, 

CaleulUi, India. 
1908 Clditebbdck, Charles Q,, HeaOi^ide, 23, BeathviUe-road, Glonctaltr, 
1908 Clotterbock, P. H., Indian Forest Deparliaent, Naini 2'al, United 

Provinces, Inditi. 
1904 CoCEATNE, Edward A., M.A., M.D., (Couscil, 1915- ), 16, Cam- 

bridge'tquare, London, W. 2. 



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1917 CocKBRELii, Prof. T. D. A., Uiiirtraity of Colorado, Colorado, U.S.A. 

1917 C0CK8, Frederick, 26, Crotim-street, Reading. 

1914 CoLEHAN, Leslie C, Dept, of Agriculture, Bangalore, Mgaore, India. 

1899 CoLUN, Jauiea K, F.Z.S., (V.-Pres., 1913; Council, 1904-6, 

1913-1.^), Silfsfx Liidge, Neicmarket 

1906 COLLINGB, Walter E., D.Sc. (St. And,), M.Sc. (Birm.), F.I--S., 

Research Fellow of the University of Si. Aadrewfi, The Galty 
Marine Litboraiory, St. Andreu», Scotlatid. 
1813 COHEY, MisB Blanohe A., The Poplam, Pwklechiirch, OloucesUrAire. 

1916 CoRNFORD, The Rev. Bruce, 13, Bavelock-road, Porttmoath. 
1911 Cotton, Sidney Howard, 1a, Oieslerfield-atreet, Maiifair, W. 1. 
1913 Coward, Thomax Alfred, F.Z.S., 36, George- street, Manditster. 
1895 Crabtreb, Benjamin Hill, Crinyte Lodge, Leventliulnic, Maiichetltr. 
1913 Craog, Cajjt. F. W., M.U., I.M.S., i/o MeBsrs. Cos & Co., ffomfey- 

road, Madras, India. 

1909 Crawlby, W. C, B.A., (Codncil, 1917- ), 29, Holland Parkroad, 

W.4. 
1890 Cbewe. Sir Vauncey Harpnr, Bart., Calke Abbey, Derby fhtre. 
1880 1 Crisp, Sir Frank, LL.B.. B.A., J.P. 

1907 Ckopt, Eilward Oetaviua, M.D., 28, Clurtndon-rixid, Leeds. 

1908 COLPIN, Millais, M.B,, F.R.C.S., The Pak,ce Hold, Shanghai. 
1908 Cdrtis, W. Parkinson, Aysgnrth, P,«Je, Dorse*. 

1901 Dadd, Eiiivard Mftrtia(ftu/tfel/e)i Internment Gamj/). 

1900 Dalglish, Andrew Adie, 7, Keir-tfrfet, PnUnkshidds, Glasgow. 
1907 Uambs, Felii L., 10, LorlzingslTaate, BeHin-Lichterfelde. 

1886 Danmatt, Walter, 6V, LaMrenee, Gaitxd-road, Lee, 8.E. 

1911 Davet, H. W., Inspector of Department of Agriculture, Mdboume, 

Victoria, Awtlralia. 
1913 Davidson, Jamea, M.St., Imperial Cdlrge 11/ Science and Teeh- 

nolojfy. South E'ensinjrfoii, S.W. 
1906 Davidson, James D., 32, Druinsheiigh Gardens, Edinburgh. 

1918 Davis, Frederick Lionel, J.P., SLB.C.S., L.lt.C.P., Belize, British 

EonduToa. 

1910 DAW80.V, William Qeon{e, Manor Hviise, Upper Wi-k, Woi-ctiter. 
1903 Day, F. H., 26, Cnrroekderrace, Carlide. 

1898 Day, G. O., Sahiahlon, Ditneau') Stalion, Vanconvei- Inland, Britith 
Colundiia. 

1912 Dkwitz, Dr. John, Devunt-let- Fonts, Mttz, Loi-raine. 

1913 Dickinson, Barnard Oimiston, B.A., Beech Bill, Xewport, Salop. 

1917 DiCKSEE, Arthur, 24, Lij/ord-road, Wandsirvrfh Coiumon, W. 18. 
1675 Distant, William Lucas, (V.-Prb8., 18B1, 1900 ; Sec, 1878- 

80; Council, 1900-2), Glenni-Ie, 170, Birc)Mw,er-rv'id, South 
Norwood, S.E. 25. 

1887 DiiEY, Frederick Aii^^UBlus, M.A., M.D., F.E.S,, Fellow and Bursar 

of Wadhani College, (Pre«., 1909-10; V.-Pres., 1904-S, 1911 j 
CODNCIL, 1895, 1904-6), Wailham College, Oxford. 



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{ " ) 

1909 t DOBBOS', Thomas, 399, Ploddrrlanr, Famtmrih, nr. Bolton. 

1905 DoDD, Frederick P., Kuranda, via Oairtu, Qutendand. 

1912 DoiG, Capt. Kenneth Alan Crawford, R.A.M.C, M.aC.S., LR.C.P., 

c/o Messrs. Holt & Co., 3, W hiUtuUl-plact, London, S.W. I. 

1906 DoLLiiAN, Hereward, Hort Hmttt, Nemton-grote, Btdford-park, W. i. 
1903 DoLLHAH, J. C, Bore Souat, NtiBton-grore, Btd/ordparl; W. 4. 
1906 DONCABTBR, Leonard, M.A-, Tht Unitertity Mfueum of Zoology, 

Cambridge. 
1B91 DoHiBTBOBPK, Horace Si. John R., F.Z.S., (V.-Pres., 1911 ; 
CoraciL, 1899-1901, 1910-12), DurandtMiorpe, 19, nailetcrtt- 
road, Putruy,S.W. 15. 

1913 Dow, Waller James, 5, Grtat GAttgestretl, Wtstminster, S.W. 1. 

1910 DowhE8-Shiw, Rev. Archibald, Scollon Rictory, Gaiiuborough. 

1884 Drocb, Hamilton H. C. J., F.Z.S., (Council, 1903-6), TrtfuiU 

Lodge, 3, Nor/M-road, N.W. 8. 
1900 Drdkt, W. D., Olamufon, Laton-ivad, Boating*. 
1894 Dddokom, O. C, Director General of the Dept. of Agriculture, 

iltadi, Cairo. 
1913 DrFFiKLD. Charles Albaa William, Stowting Beiiory, Hyttie, and 

Wyt College, Kent. 
1906 DoKinriBLD Jombb, E., Gattro, BeigaU- 

1883 DuRRANT, John Hartley, (V.-Prb8., 1912-13; CollKCl^ 1911-13), 

Jfe./™, 17. Buritock'toad, Putney, S.W. 15; and BritiA MitM^m 
(Ifalurat Biatory), Cromnxllroad, South Kenainglon, S.W, 7. 

1910 Eales-Wbiib, J. Ciishnj, 47, Chetter-lerrare, Butonaqimre, S.W. t. 

1912 Earl, Herbert L., M.A., 1 2, AnondaU-road NuHh, Soiilhport, Lana. 

1885 Eatoh, Tlie Bev. Alfred Edwin, M.A., (Council, 1877-9), Rich- 

mond Villa, Norlhaia S.O., N. Dtron. 

1902 Edelstrn, Hdbert M., The Elnu, Forty Bill, E'\/ietd, Middlesex. 

1911 Edwards, F. W., KiTtgamar, Comwall-road. Barrow. 

1886 Edwards, James, Coleabnme, CheUenham. 

1884 Edwards, Stanley, F.L.S., F.Z.S., (Council, 1912-14), 15, St. 

aermant-plaee. BUckhmtk, S.E. 3. 

1913 Edwards, William H., Nattirtd UvA<ny Xkpt., The Mu»r><m, 

Birmingham. 
1916 ErPALATOUN, Hiaean, Chftuhrah-arentis, Cairo, Eyifjit, aiul 8.E. 

AgrictMural CoQege, Wye, Kent. 
1900 EmOTT, E. A.. 16, Bdaist Orere, UompsUad, N.W. 
1900 Ellis, H. Willoiighby, F.Z-S. (CovKCI^ 19ie- ), 3. Lauuisler- 

}iaee, BeUin Park, N.W. 3. 

1903 Eltrihoham, Harry, M.A., D.Sc, F.Z.S., (V.-Pbes., 19U; 

CoUKCIL, 19)3-15), IToorf/ioiwe, Slroxid, Gtimceslfrshire ; and Bope 
DepartmeiU, Cnirtraity Mvatum, Oxford. 
1878 Elwes, Henry John, J.P., P.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., (Pres,, 1893-4 ; 
T.-Pbim., 1889-90, 1892, 1895; Council, 1888-90), Coltabome, 
Ch^tKham. 



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( ^vi ) 

1914 Ehhftt, Capt. Charles P., 1, High Gliff Villa, Felii»lowv. 

1903 Etheridob, Robert, Citrator, A'tttralian Mntenm, Sydniy, N.H. W. 

1908 Eustace, EiiBtace Maltabone, M.A., Wi-liingUm CMege, Berk*. 

1909 EvANB, Frank J., Superintendent of Agriculture, Calabar, EaMem 

Fiwintt, S. Nigtria. 

1917 Farquhaksoh, Charles C^ilvie, M.A., B.Sr., Government Agri- 
cultural Department, hfoor Plantation, Ibadtin, Nigeria,. 

1907 Fbather, Walter, Kihivtzi, Brilith Enat Africa, 

1900 Fblthah, H. L. L., MtrriinfUe Buildings, S'lmmands-istrett, 

JofianHtibitrg, Traiuroal. 
1861 Fbnn, Chflrieo, Evenden Houte, Burnt Anli Hill, I.tt, S.E. 12. 

1910 FKslEe, A., M.D., 170, ffoHh Grange Gron-Arenut, Paiadeua, 

Califoraia, U.S.A. 
1889 Fernald, Prof.C. H., c/o H.T. Fern aid, Esq.. A mherst, Masx., U.S.A. 
1900 FiHTB, J. Digby, F.L S., Boi/,' Modei-n Schod, Letdt. 
1900 Flbmvhg, The Rev. Canon W. Westropp, M.A., Oxi/fin, FmOaiii, en. 

WaUrfoiiI. 
1898 Flbtchbr, T, Bainbrigge, R.N., Agricultitml Kesearch IiutiMt, 

FiUKi, Bihar, India. 
1683 1 Flbtcher, William HuDatid B., M.A., Aldwkk Mamir, Bngnur. 
1905 Flokrsheiii, Cecil, 1(1, KetiMngton dturl JtfutMtuiu, 8.W. 
1885 FoKKER, A. J. F., ZierXhxee, Zeeland, NelhrniaiuU. 
1914 FoHDHAM, William John, M.B.C.S., L.R.C.P.. The TiUa, Bnhrilh, 

Selbii, Yorbi. 
1913 FoBTKR, Arthur H., M.B.CS., L.R.C.P.(Eng.), M.K.O.U,, Sutiex 

Hmue, Hitchiu, HrrU. 
1900 FOULKBS, p. Hedworth, B.Sc, Ha^'per- Adunui Agri-mltuini CalUgt, 

Neioport, Salop. 
1893 FoUHTAINB, Miss Marfjaret, 1727, Wilcnx-ntenue, Lot AngeUt, 

Cali/.irniti, U.S.A. 
1880 Fowler, Tlie Rev. Canon, D.Sc, M.A., F.L.S, (Pbes., 1901-3; 

V.-Frbs., 1903 ; Skc., 18«(i-96), Eiiiiev Virar.ige, near Reading. 

1908 Fraber, Frederick C, Caiit., H,U, I.M.S., i/o The Ent. See of 

IB96 Frbke, Percy Evans, Soulhpi/iiit, Lima-road. Fotkesloiie. 

1888 Fremun, H. Stitart, M.R.C.8., L.R.C.P., 3tarhmth, Nelhtratreet, 

North Fiurhley. 
1910 Fribbt, G, E., 31, Daniley-road, Oraveaemf. 
1908 Frooqatt, Waller W.,F.Ii,S., Government Entomologist, 138, (?«(ti'ge- 

itreet, Sydney, New Soiilh Wales. 
1891 Frohawk, F, W., Stanley Ilimx, Fark-road, WaUington, Suirey. 
1906 1 Frt, Harold Armstrong, F.O. Bux 46, Johanneaburg, Transvaal 

Coloiiy. 
1900 Frier, H. Forteacne, The Prtoiij, OiatUris, Cambs. 
1907 Frter, John Claud Fortescue, M.A., (Codncil, 1916- ), Board 

of Agriculture and Fitherttt, NorthfUiAertand'avenue, W.C, 2. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



J87« Poller, Tlie Eev. Alfred, M.A., 3V Lodgt, 7, SyitfAam-kiU, 
S^detAam, S.E. 36. 

1898 FuLLEB, Claude, Government Entoniolt^lst, PielermarilzbiiTg, NataL 
1687 Uahan, Charlea Joflepb, M.A., D.Sc., Prbsidkkt, (7.~Prbb., 1918; 

Sue., 1899-1900; Council, 1893-5, 1901. 1914- ), B, LontdaU- 
road, Bt4ford Park, W. 4 ; and Brilith J/nmuhi {Natui-al 
Hutory), (7rOTlWPeH-r.Hu/, S.W. 7. 

1890 Qabdnib, John, Laarei Lodgty Hart, Weti Harllepool. 

1901 1 Oakdkir, WiUoughby, F.L.S., F.S.A., Dtgantoy, N. Waltt. 

1913 DB Gavk, J. A., Kin^a College, Lagos, S. Nigeria, 

1899 Geldaht, William HortiD, &[.A., 10, Chadiington-Toad, Oxford. 

1913 Gibb, Uchlan, 3d, BlactJitalh Park, Btackheath, S.E. 3. 
1906»tGiBBa, Arthur Ernest, F.L.S., F.Z.S., (CouNCl^ 1912-14, 1917X 

Houndtpath, Upptr Marthormt^-road, St. Albant. 
1915 Gibbon, ArtJior, Bntomologieat Branrh, Dept. of AgncuUvrt, 
OUaioa, Canada. 

1908 GlrFARD, Walter M., P.O. Box 308, Honolvlu, Baunii. 

1907 GiLU, U«nT7 Marray, Mead Keeper uf Zoologiral Gardens, Sovih 

Perth, W. Aiatralia. 
1904 QiLUAT, FnDcis, B.A., Windham dxtb, St. Jama'i-tquart, 

PtemdiUy, S.W. 1. 

1914 GoDrBET, B. J., Education Dept., Batigkok, Siam. 

1866 1 GoDHAS, Frederick Du Cane, D.CL., F.It.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S.,{PbM., 
1891-2 ; V.-Pbeb., 1882-3, 1886, 1889-90, 1903; CodkCTL, 1880- 
1, 1900), South Lodge, Lower Betdiiig, HoriAam; and 45, Pont- 
itreet, S.W. 

1886*tO<x>DRiCH, Capt. A. Mainwaring, Bridington Hmite, nr. BritM. 

1904 Goodwin, Edward, Canon Court, Watei-ingbitrt/, Kent. 

1898 Gordon, J. G. McU., Coiaemahie, Whauphilt S.O., Wtgloaiisliiri:. 
1898 Gordon, R. S. G. McH., Drumblair, Invemen. 
18S5 GoRiiAM, The Bev. Heniy Stephen, F.Z.S., (Codncil, 1882-3), High- 
croft, Great Malvern. 

1913 GoDOH, Lewis, Ph.D., Entomologist to the Govt, of Egypt, Depl. of 

AgriniUure, Cairo. 

1909 GOWDKV, Carlton C.,' B.Sc., Bioiogmd Laboratory, P.O. Box. 5, 

Kampalu, Uganda, E. Africa. 

1914 Gravslbt, F. H., The Indian Mtuenm, Cak'Uta. 
1911 Grates, Capt P. P., Tnr/auh, Cairo, Bgijpt. 

189ltGRE>N, E. Emeat, F.Z.S., (V.-Preb., 1915; Council, 1914-16), 
Wai/i End, BewA uwtnw, CanAerieg. 

1910 Green, Herbert A., The Cerdral fire Station, Durban, Natal. 
1894 Obebn, J. F., F.Z.S., 49, Fictoria-road, Eeneington, W. 8. 

1893 1 Grbenwood, Henry Powy^ F.L.S., WhiUsbury Hovae, Sati^Hry. 
1886 Griffiths, G. C, F.Z.S., PerAurit, 3, Lagh-r-xtd, Ciiftou, BriMtol. 
1894 QRiuaBAW, Percy H., Royal Seottiih Mueeuui, Edinburgh. 

1905 Grist, Charlea J., Tht Crofi, Carol Gretn, SerkitciU, Coventry. 

1906 Gurnet, Gerard H., Ketwiek Haii, Nonvich. 



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19)0 Gdbnbt, WiUiam B., Aut. Gov't. Entomologist, Departfiunt of 
AffrieuUim, Sydnty, Australia. 

191S Hackkr, Henry, BatttTfieidartet, Botoen Bridge-road, Britbant, 

Quetmlandi 
1906 Hall, Arthur, 7, Fark-lane-mantion*, Croydon. 
1890tHiL^ Albert Eraent, e/a City Librarian, Surrey-Ortet, Sheffield. 
1885 Hau^ Thomas William. Slaahope, The Crtieent, Croydon. 
1912 Hallttt, Howard Mountjoj, 64, lVe»a>ourn*-Toad, Penartlt, 

Qtamorgantkire. 
1898 Hamltn-Harkib, R., D.Sc., P.L.S., F.Z.S., FB.M.S., Director of the 

QueenaUnd Mnsenm, SL Bonatu, Wilston, Britbone, Aiutralia. 

1915 Hanm, Albert Harry, 22, Southfietdroad, Oxford. 

1891 HamFSOW, Sir George Fiancie, Bart, B,A., F.Z.S., (V.-Pbbs., 1698 ; 

CocxciL, 1890-8X 62, Slanhopt-gardent, S.W. 7- 
1891 Hanbdby, Frederick J., F.L.S., BroekhurtI, E. GrintUad. 
1905 1 Hancock, JoMph L., 5454, Unieerrity-arvniK, Chicago. U.S.A. 

1916 HANirmoTON, Frank, c/o Ueaars. Parry & Co., Madra*, India. 

1917 Habding, WiUiam G., A*cham, St. Finrmfs Mead^ BatOionmt. 

1903 Hakk, E. J., 4, New-i^uare, LtfKoin's Inn, W.C. S. 

1904 Harrib, Edward, 50, WiUon.tlmt, FinAury, E.G. 

1910 Hahwood, Philip Bernard, 2, Fern miat, M^ford-road, Sudbury. 

1910 Hawkshaw, J. C. 

1913 1 Hawkbhaw, Oliver, 3, HilUtreet, Maufair, W. 1. 

1910 HBDais, Alfred van der, Stvke Botat, Stoke Mandttaie, Buela. 

1910 Hbndkrsos, J., e/o Messrs. Osborne & Cbappel, Ipoh, PerA, 

Ftderattd Malay Stattt. 
1896 Hekon, Francia A., B.A., 9, Park Hmitt, Highbury Pari; N. 5. 
1003 Hirkod-Hkmpball, Williaui, W.B.C. Apiary, Old Bed/ord-road, 

Z.ut«n, Btdt. 
1908 HBwm, C. Gordon, D.Sc., Dominion Entomologist, Ztept. •/ 

AfricMltuTt, OttavM, Canada. 
1913 Hnrnr, John, B.A., Director, Albany Muieum, GrahamtUwn, 

S. Africa. 

1913 Hill, Geiald F., OotL Entomologist, Port Ztaricin, VorUent 

Territori/, Smith Afittralia. 
1876 t HlLLUAli, Thomas Stanton, Ba»(gate-»trttt, Ltttt*. 
1907 Hoar, Thomas Frank Partridge, Mercio, Albar\y-road, LetgUoa 

B'osard, 
1917 UocKIN, John W., CuMetlrtet, Launce^on. 

1914 HoDaB,Tbe itev. Prebendary Edward Grose. The Vicaragt, Pad- 

dington, W. 2. 
1912 HoDOE, Harold, St. Jamc, Maruioni. 54, Piecndaiy, W. 
1883 HoDSOS, The Rev. J. H., B.A^ B.D., Jlh[iddi,tgto.i, aiflon DrtW, 

Lytham. 
1903 HoLB, R. S., c'o aieesrs. King and Co., Boinkiy. 
1910 HoLTORD, H. C, Slttead Lodge, Godulminy, Sxtney. 



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< ™ ) 

1B87 Holland, The Rev. W. )., D.D., Ph.D., Camt^t JITiiMum, 

PitUbargh, Ptmi., U.S.A. 

1898 Holiia!.'-Hd!(t, C. B., Asst Entoniologist, Department of Agri- 
caltDK, Knala Lumpur, Federalnl Afnlay Slattt. 

1910 HoLVES, Edwud Morrell, itiifAmi, Semtoakt. 

1901 HopsoN, Montagu F.,L.D.S.,R.C.S.EnK,,F.L.S.,7.ffor(*y-»(rte(,W. 1. 

1897 HORKB, Arthur, Bonn- mi -(ml*, Mnrllr, AberdeaiihiTt. 

1903 HocoHTON, J. T.. 1, Purtlond-pdur*, WoThop. 

1907 t Howard, C. W., Cbnton CArutinn OoUegt, Canton, Otiaa. 

1900 UowEB, W. Geor)(e. 432, George-atntt, Dunidin, .V«((r Zwtand. 

1907 HoWLBTT, Frank H., M.A., Ws>notidkam, So}iolk. 

1865 t HODD, A. E., 106, Ptmbn>ke~road, Cliftou, Briitol. 

1888 HoDSOH, George Vernon, BUI View, Karori, Wellinglon, Nam 

Zealand. 
1907 HuoBSS, C. N., 178, Oarenre OaU-gankBi, Regent'a Parlf. N.W. 1. 

1912 UuiE, Miss Lily, HMyKOod, Cotinion-road, Edinburgh. 
1917 Udnter, David, M.A., M.B., The Coppice^ Nottingham. 

1897 Ihaqe, Prof. Selw)-n,U.A., (Council. 1909-11), 78, ParUunt-roo^J, 

Oamden-road, N. 7. 

1913 t Imub, a. D., D.Sc, B.A., F.L.S., Bntomdogiml Dept., THt {7m- 

vertUy, Manchtrler. 

1906 Ibbv, Col. Leonard Paul, Bvinglon-plact, Aihford, Kent. 

1907 Jaci£, Rupert Wellstood, Government Entomologist, Department 

of Agriculture, Satitbury, Bhodttia. 
1917 Jackbon, MiBB Dorothy J., Stcordalt, Evantoa, Bou-Airt. 
1907 JiCtSON, P. H., 112, BaUutm-park-Toad, S.W. 12. 
1907 Jacobi, ProtesBor A,, I'h.D., Director of the B. Zoological and 

Anihrop.- Ethnographical Uuseum, Drttden, Saxony. 

1911 Jacx^bs, Capt. J. J., R.E., 15, Paget-tlrert, OiUingham, Kent. 

1910 Jacobs, Lionel L., c/o Algoma Steel Corporation, Sault Ste, Maiie, 
Ontario, Giruirfa. 

1914 • Jannings, Bev. Frederic S. F., fFarmtreorth Rectory, DotwuUr. 
1914 Janbe, a. J. T., \>l-are4!t, Ge:iiw, Pretoria, S. Africa. 

ISea Janson, Oliver E., 44, Great Ranell-ttreet, Bloomebury, W.C. 1. ; 
and Cetlria, Claremont-road, HighgaU, N. 6. 

1898 Janbom, Oliver J., Ce»tria, Claremont-road, Higkgate, N. 8. 

1912 Jabdinb, Nigel K., SuntnwrAiK Ho^tte, WiBwioroiijA, nr. Aihford, 

Kent. 
1912 JKMHKrr, C, Withertdaw Hmise, Wye, Kent. 
I8S6 Jbnker, James Herbert Augiistue, Eait Oate Houm, Lewei. 

1899 Jknninqb, F. B., 152, SUver-iUreel, Vpptr Edmonton, N. 18. 
1909 Jepsos, Frank P., Department of Agrictdt^ire, Suva, Fiji Idaad*. 
1917 Jermts, Col. Tnrenne, Highcliffe, We»ion-mper-MaTt. 

1886 John, Evan, Llantritant S.O., Glamorganthire. 

1D07 JoBRBOK, Charles Fielding, West Bank, Didaburyroad. Heaton 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



( " ) 

1917 Johnson, Jaxe, 16 and !7, Mnnton-road, Stafford. 

1889 JoBNBON, The Rev. W. F., M.A., Acton UecUiry, PoynU Pan, 

CO. A nuagk. 
1908 JoiCBT, James J„ Tht HUl, WilUy, Sun-ty. 

1888 Josis, Albert H., Trkabuhbr, 1904- , (V,-Pres,, 1912, CoONCiI, 

1898-1900), Shrttbtamh, Eilhani, S.E. ' 
I894tJoRDAK, Dr. K., (V.-Prbb., 1909; CoiiNCii,; 1909-11). The 

ifmeum, Tring. 
1910 Joseph, E, G., 83, OanricanU-ganleni, W, 2. 

1910 Jot, Emeat Cooper, Etxr»lty, Dale-road, Furiey. 
1902 Joi, Norman H., M.R.C.S., L.RC.P., Theide, Berkt. 
1913 JoNK, WUhelm, 68, Sach*i»che-*tra>»e, Berlin, W. 15. 

1876 1 Kat, Jolm Dunning, Leede. 

1896 1 Kayk, William James, (CocBCl^ 1906-8), Cai-acas, Ditloii BUI, 

Surtitai. 
1907 Kbllt, Albert Ernest McClure, Division of Entomology, Department 

o( Agricultare, Fntoria, S. A/riea. 
1690 Kbukice, Sir George H., Whetttone, Somertel-road, BtigbaHon, 

Birmingham. 

1904 Kershaw, O. Bertram, IngUside, West Wk/clutm, Kent. 

1905 KlINES, John Neville, M.A., D.So., 6, Harvey-road, Cambridge. 
1900 Kbts, James H., 7, Whimple-itrwi, Ftyntoulh. 

1911 Khdnan, Kunui, M.A., Asst. Entomologist to the Govt, ot Mysore, 

BanyeUore, South India. 

1912 Kino, Haroltl H., Govt. Entomologisl, Gordon College, Kharioma, 

Stutan. 

1889 Kino, Prof. Jaraea J. F.-X., 1, AthUe Gnrdent-tenace, Kdvituide, 

GlaMgow. 

1913 KiRBT, W. Egmont, M.D., MUden, 48, Sutton Court-road, Gkiemrk, 

W. 4. 
1917 KiRKPATRICK, Thos. W., The De<inriij, Ely, and Room 270, iVnr 

Office, WhiMiaU, S.W, 
1889 Klapaler, Professor Franz, Karlin 263, Prague, Buhemia. 
1887tSLSiN, Sydney T., F.L.S., F.ll.A.S., Ilalheilow, RaglaH-rottd, 

1917 KuBBEZov, Nicholas J., The Imperial Aeademy of Srienrei, 
Petrograd. 

1916 Laiko, Frederick, Natwai Hiilnry Mmenm, Oromtcdl-road, S,W. 7. 
1910 Lakin, C. Ernest, M.D., F.R.CS., 2, Park-cretcent, Portland. 

place, W. 1. 
1911 1 Lamborn, W, a., M.R.C.3., LR.C.P., Zomba, Nyas<d<ind, R Africi. 

1917 LAHaHAH, Rir Charles, Bart,, Tempo Mniuir, Co. Fermanagh. 
191C Latta, Prof. Robert, D.Phil., Univerntij of Glatgow. 

1912 Latoor, Cyril Engeihart, Port of Spniii, Trinidad, BrUith Wttt 

IndU$. 
1895 Lattbb, Oswald H., M.A^ Oharterhovte, Godalming. 



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1899 Lea, Arthur H., GoTemmeut Entomologist, Uwtmm, Addaidt, 

S. Aa^ralia. 
1914 LXBOHMAK, Alleyne, M.A., F.L.S., F.C.3., Cbrpui ChriUi CoUegt, 
Oxford; and SI. Uiibcrt't, Mai»-ilrtel, Georgetoini, Britiih 

1910 Leioh, R. S., The Univerniy, Maneheder. 

1900 Leiqh-Phiujps, Rer. W. J., Bvrtie yicarage, Bridi/wattr. 
1003t Lrvett, Tito. B«T. Thomu Prinsep, Frtnehgale, Riehmond, Yoikt. 
1876 Lawis, Geoige, P.L.S., (CouNcI^ 1878, 1884). 30. Shvmcliffe-Toad, 

PUktttone. 
190St Lewis, John Spedaii, ChoM Fami,GruHfiyTdOntn,Sovlh Barrow; 
and 277, Oxford^treet, W. 

1892 LiOHTFOOT, R. M., Sooth Afriean M>ueam, Cape Tom*, Capt of 

QoodHopt. 
1914 LiSTKR, J. J., 8t. John'* OuUege, Cambridge; anil Mttion Houm, 

Oranichetter, CatahM. 
1903 LlTTLBB, Frank M., Box 114, P.O., LaMKt*Uyn, Tamiania. 
1865 1 Llewelyn, Sir John Talbot Dillwyn, Bart., M.A., F.L.S., 

PeulUrgare, Saatuea. 
1881 fLt^lD. Alfred, F.C.S., 7'lie Dome, Bognor. 
1885tLLoyp, Robert Wylie, ^CoDNCl^ 1900-1), I, 5 and 6, Albany, 

Pieeadia^, W. 1. 
1903 LOTTHonsB, Thoroa!) Ashton, The Ornfi, Linlhorpe, MiitdUibroagh. 

1908 LoNGHDOS, D., The Flower Hmae, Southend, Catford, S.E. 6. 
1904t LososTAir?, George Bluudell, U.A., M.D., Vic-if-pRRaiDBNT, 

(V.-Pre§., 1909, 1915 ; Council, 1907-9, 1915- ), HigUandt, 

Putney Neath, S.W. 15. 
1999 LouNflBDav, Cliarlee P., B.Sc., Government Entoniologiit, Box 513, 

Pretoria, 8. Africa. 
1694 Lowe, The Rev. Frank E., M.A,, Si. SUphen't Vieamge, Otienitey. 

1893 TjOwkr, Oflwuld B., Piiutrro, So>Uh Auttnilia. 

1901 Lower, Rupert S., DaBonporl-Urraee, WatfviUe, So^Uh Avdraiia. 
1909* Lucas, Dr. T. P., WakeJUld-buildinga, Addaide-Hred,, Bi-iabant, 

Av^Tidia. 
1898 LuCAB, Williaui John, B.A., (Council, 1904-6), 86, KnigM* Park, 

Ki aj/glou-on- Tha ma. 
1903 Ltbll, G., Gvbome, Fictoi-wi, A\^Hndia. 
1912 LiLE, Oeorga Trevor, MayfUld, Limfi^d-iixtd, Cambridge. 

1909 Lton, Francis Hamilton, 89, Clarence Oategardene, Upper Baker- 

Ureet, N.W. 1. 

18S7 M'DouOALL, James ThoniBi, Si. Lawrence, Itle of Wight. 

1910 Macdodoall, R. Stewart, M.A, D.Sc., F.R.S.K, EditAurgh Uni- 

1900 Mackwood, The Hon. F. M., M.L.C., Colombo, Ceylon. 
1899 1 Main, Hugh, B.Sc, (Coo kcil, 1908-10), Almondaie, Buckingham- 
road, South Woodford, N.E. 



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1914 Mallock, J. Rtusel), Sute Entomologiat's Office, Grbana, lUiioi*,- 

U.S.A. 
1905 Mallt, Charles Wm., H.Sc., Dtpt. of A^ricvltare, Cape Toien, 

5. Africa. 

1892 MtDBDRtDQE, WillUm, 4, Niavnch-tXKid, Wavertree, Lirtrpoal. 

1894 t Marbball, Alick. 

1895 Marbhall, Guy Anstruther Knoi, D.Sc., F.Z.S^ (Codkcil, 1907-8), 

6, Che*ter-plact. Eydt Park-tquart, W. 2. 

1806 Mabsball, p., M.A., B.Sc, F.Q.S., Vnirertity School of Minet, 

Dtiiwiin, New Zealand. 
1856«t Marbhall, WilliBin, V.M.H., F.RH.S^ Auehim-ailh, Berley S.O., 

Kent. 
1897 Mabtihkad, Alfred H., 16, AmmmorcToad, W. 14, 
1910'tMABON, C. W., at. Dmi>, Shafit^ury, Dontt. 
1895 Mabbet, Herbert, Ivy-Lea, Bumage, Didtbury, Manchttltr. 
1B6B Mathkw, OervoM V., F.L.S., Pay raaater-in -chief, R.N., (Council, 

IBSTX /■« HauM, Doverooarl, Harieicb. 
1887 Uatthbws, Corfndon, SUi\iu«>ay, Ptynuiock, S. Dtwn. 

1912 Madlik, SftmArenda, 211, Pu^cadiUy, W. 

1900 Maxwsll-Lbpkot, H., Imperud College of Science and Technology, 

SmUh KensingUm, S.W. 
1916 Mat, Harry Haden, BiackfTiari Houte, Plymo^Oh. 

1913 Meadsn. Louis, Melbourne, Dyke-i-oad, Preiton, Brightem. 

16BS Mbltill, James Coanio, M.A., F.L.B., Meole Brace Hall, Shrmr*- 

1007 Melville, Mrs. Cathariue Maria, Bedrers, Eaa-road, Saltath. 

1914 Menon, J. a, B.A., Trichur, Cochin StaU, S. India. 

1867 Merrifield Frederic, (Pkes., 190Li-6 ; V.-Pres., 1893, 1907 ; Sbc., 
1897-il ; Council, 1894, 1899), 14, aiftoa-tei-race, Brighton. 

1912 Metcalfe, Bev. J. W., The Vicarage, Ottery St. Mury, Devon. 
1880 Mbtrick, Edward, B.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., ThonJianger, Marlborough. 
1883 Miles, W. H., c/o E, Step, Esq., 158, Dora-road, WiaibUdon Park, 

S.W. 19. 

1913 Miller, F. V. Bruce, Liiingston, N. Rho-iesia, Africa. 
1906 MiTFORP, Robert Sidney, C.B., Tlwridea, Weybridge. 

1914 MlCAK^, Dr. Tsunekata, The Agricidttiral College, Tokyo Imperial 

Univereity, Komaba, Tokyo, Japan. 
1879 MoNTBiRO, Dr. Antonio AiiguslodeCarvallin, 70, Rita do Aleeiinar, 

I90S Montgomery, Arthur Meadowa, 34, Shaliniar Gardens, Pemhridge- 

road. North Actmv,Vf. 11. 
1899 Moore, Harry, 12, Loieer-road, Rollierkttbe. 
1916 Moore, Ralph Headley, B.A., Heathfield, Plynulock, Devon. 
1886 MoroaS, a. C. F., F.L.S., 135, Oahvood-cmirt, Ken»i,ujton, W. 14. 
1889 t MoBlCE, The Bev. F. D., M.A., Fellow ot Queen's College, Oxford 

(pREfl., 1911,1912, V.-Pbes., 1902,1904, 1913; Council, 1902-4), 

Brmuieick, Mount Hermon, Wok'mg. 



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ISSft t UOBLIT, Claade, F.Z.S., Monk Soham Hoiue, Suffolk. 
1907 MoBTUmB, Charlea H., Boytm Cha^ Bufleti, Stttrty. 
ISaS UoBTON, Kenneth J., 13, Blaek/ord-road, EdinlmrgK 
I&IO MoeSLT, U«rtin E., 21, Altxaitdra-eowt, Qtutt/t-gaU, aW. T 

1900 Hosu, JolioB, 69, BtUow^tratte, BeHin. 

1883 MoSLBT, S. L., The Muteum and TechnietU OolUge, Htiddtrsfitld 

1911 MOBB, Rev. A. Uiles, i/rim, Wxnderrture. 

1907 t MoDtTOs, Capt John C, M.A., F.Z.a, 4lh Wiltohire B^, Port 

Canning, Singapore, and The Bail, Bradfottl-on-Amn. 
1911 MocNSRr, J. Jaduon, S4, Olmcaint-creicent, fdtnfruf^A. 
1901 1 UotR. Frederick, H.S.P.A. BxptrimtHt Siatio», HoHoltdu, Oohu, 

1912 1 MULLAS, Jal Phiroishah, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Professor of Biology, 
St. Xatrier't CMege, Lamington-twid, Orant Bowl Poit, Bombay, 

IsesfHuLLiB, Albert,F.R.G.S., (Council, 1872-3), c/o Hen A. Hiiller- 

Hechel, GTtnsaeherdra$»e 60, A««fe, Swit:triand. 
1914 Udrbat, George H., Oovernntmt Station, Kikori, DtUa Divvion 

1917 McscHAJiP, Percy A. H., QmrUrhouae SdtooL, Qodalmittg. 
IDOg HcBHAM, John F., 48, Brook-dnet, Sdby, Torki. 

1903 NuvK, S. A., M.A., B.So., F.ZA, (Codncil, 1916- ), 24, de Vere- 
gardent, Kensington, W. 8, 

1901 NEVtNaON, E. B., ilmiand, Cubham, Surrey. 
1907 Nkwhak, Leonard Woods, Bexleg, Kent. 

1913 Newhan, Leslie J«hn William, Bemard'tireel, Clarentont, 

If. Jurfralia. 
1909 Newstkad, Alfred, The Oronenor ATdantm, Oieder. 
1890 Newbtead, Eobert, M.Sc., A.L.S., Hon. F.It.H.S., Dutton Memorial 

ProfeasoT of Entomology, I^ School o/' Tropieat Medicine, Univer- 

»ity of Liverpool. 

1914 Nicholson, Charles, 35, The Avenne, Haie-end, Chittgford, B. 4. 

1909 Nicholson, Gilbert W., M.A., M.a, (Codnco, 1913-15), Oxford 

and Cambridge Club, Pfdl Mall, S.W. 1. 
1906 Nil, John Ashbnmer, Tiigale, CratcUff, Sunex. 
1916 NoBIRA, Akio, Tehijoji, Otagigua, Kyoto, Japan. 
1914 NoBRia, Frederic de U Mare, The Agricultural Department, Kuola 

^umptir, Federated Malag Slate*. 
I&1& NoBTHOOTE, Dr. A. B., Blenimim Souse, Monigate, Tort. 
1878 NornDGE, Thomas, Ashford, Kent 
1895 NCBBB, Lt-Colonel C. G., Timuiorlh BaU, Bury St Edmund*. 

1877 ObbbthOb, Een^, Retme* {JUe^et-Vilaim), France. 
1893-f-OoLE, Bertrams., SteepU AiUm, Oxfordshire. 

1910 Oldakek, Francis A., M.A., The Btd Bouse, HasUnure. 
1913 OBinsroit, Walter, KiUupahani, HaldummvlU, Cej^an. 



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1B9& Paob, Herbert E., Berb-ote, OeUaay-road, SU Calherme't Park, 

8.E. 16. 
1916 Palkbr, Arthur Raj'inond, Jn^hoInM, Norton Way, LetektaoHh, 

Etrl*. 

1915 Paterbon, Edward J., Fairholme, Oroiobormigh. 
1911 Fbarbon, Donglas, ChUvidl Htnue, Chitindi, Notts. 

1916 Peebles, Howanl M., 13, Chesham-ttrttt, S.W. 1. 

1915 PsiLR, Major Harrj Diamond, I.M.S., c/o Alliance Bank </ SimI, 

Ftthaiear, Tndia. 
1914 Pendlbburi, Major Wm. J. tor Houti, Broadlattds, iShmcabun/, 

and StibU OoUegt, Oxjiird, 
1883 P^RtNarBi, Louis, D.Sc., F.Z.S., Director, South African Muteutii, 

Cope Town, South Affica. 
1903 1 Pkreins, B. C. L., M. a., D.Sc., F.Z.S., Park Hill Bouse, Paignton, 

Devon ; and Board of Agriculture, Division of Entomology, 

HoBoltiin, HauMii. 
1879 Perkins, Vincent Bobert, Wotto«-«nder-Eilife. 
1907 1 Perkins, J. A. D., 3rd Seaforth Highlanders, Datienham, Malvern. 
139T Phillips, Capt. Hubert C, M.RC.S., L.S.A., 37, Prineet-nquare, 

Bayswater, W. 2. 
1903 1 PHILLirs, Montagu A., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., Devon$liire Hmttt Prepara- 
tory School, Beigate. 

1917 PickardCambbiikie, Arthur D., M.A., Balliol C'uUege, Oxford. 
1891 Pierce, Frank Nelson, 1, The Elms, Diiiglr, Limrpool. 

1903 PiLCBBR, Colonel Jesse Oeoi^, I.M.S., F.H.C.S., 133, Gltnustgter- 

road, Kensingloti, S.W. 7. 

1913 PLATT, Ernest Edward, 403, Eistnicmd-Toad, Dmian, Niital. 

1885 Poll, J. B. H. Neerworl van der, Drieliergtn, Neiheiianda. 

1870 1 PoRRiTT, Geo. T., F.L.S., (Council, 1887), Elm Lea, Ifalton, 
Hudtteig/ielti. 

1884 1 PODLTON, Professor Eilward B., D.Sc, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.O.S., 
F.Z.S., Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford, 
(PRBa., 1003-4 ; V.-Pbes., 1894-5, 1902, 1905 ; Council, 1886-8, 
1892, I89S, 1905-7), Wykefmm Home. Banbury-road, Oxfoj-d. 

1905 Powell, Harold, 7, Rue MireiUe, Hyirei ( Var), Franee. 

1908 Pratt, William fi., 10, Lion Gate Gaidens, Richmund, Siirrty. 

1878 Price, David, 48, Wetl-etreet, Hor.ham. 

1908 Prideadi. Robert M., (Council, 1917- ), Woodlands, Brasled 
Chart, Strenoaks. 

1904 Prisrb, Richard A. R., 9, MeWovnie Jtfnfie, Wed Ealing. 

1893 Prodt, Louia Beethoven, (Col'HClL, 1905-7), 84, AlbtH-road, 

VaUtott, E. 8. 
1910 PoNNETT, Professor BegiRsld Crundall, M.A., Caius GMege, 

Cambriilge. 
19O0 Bainbow, William J., The Auntralian M^ienm, Sydney, N.S. W. 

1918 Bait-Smith, W., Hollybrook, Rose Eeyitortkroad, AUrtUUry, 

Monmouththire. 



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( "' > 

1913 Rao, B. Anuitbasiraiikj, Oundor 0/ Ihe Gonmtnent Mmtntm, 

BangaioTt, India. 
I»16 Rao, Telaali R«m«r.handim, M.A., Asat. Govt EntomologiEt, 

Agnctilhiral OoU^ye, Coiminlore, India. 

1907 Ratwakd, Atthor Italic, 91 and 93, SoiUkvati-Mrttl, S.E. 1. 
1898 Hbutkr, PnifeBaor Enilo, Helniu^on, Fintaint. 

1910 DB Rai-PHIUPK, G. W. v.. Chief Eiaminer of Accounts, North- 

Westeni Ry., Abholt-road, Lakare, l¥tdia. 
1912 Riley, Kurman Deab^h, 94, Bratf/UU-mnd, l'pi>tr Touting, 

&.V. 17. ; and BriliA Mturnm [Xalural Hiaurif}, S. KettnHfftw, 

&W. 7. 

1906 RiPFON, Cland«, M.A., 28. WiOtonilrrtt, Ox/otd. 

1917 ROBBRTS, A. W. Rjnier, M.A., Bolhantdttt Ii/pfriment.U Stiilum, 

Harpemdtn, 
19(A Robinson, Herbert C, Oiraior of Stale AfiiKHm, Kiutln Liimfnir, 

1901 Ronrssos, I«dy, n'ork*v Manor, NoU*. 

1869 1 ROBissos.DocoLAS, WillUm Douglas, M.A., F.L.S., F.aO.S., 
(hnJtarrllon, CatlU Doitglat. 

1908 RoGBBS, The Rev. K. SL Aubjm, H.A., Cfaorch Mistiooar; Society, 

Mombaia, Briti»h Had Afrita. 

1912 RoHBir, Kurt, Baron, ZoiAo^\t, iStoatniHimjMnif, MnnitK. 

1907 RosENBERo. W. F. H., 57, IhiTttaoA-tm, N.W. 3. 

1868 RoTRHKt, Geor^ Alexander Jiiiues, PnnJxiry, IWor-nxxt, Vp^tr 

Noraond, S.E. 
1888 t RoTHacliILD, The Rigbl Honble. Lonl, U.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

(Council, 1900), Zoulogieal Miueum, Tritig. 
1894 t RoTUs<;alLI>, The Honble. Nathaniel Charles, H.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

Vicb-Prkbidbnt, (Pkek., I91&-16 ; V.-Pres., 1914 ; Coiscir, 

1901, 1013- ), Arnnd^-honse, Keitiinglon P<tlart Oardms, W.8. 
1890 RouTLKiKiB, G. B., Turn Lodge, H^^adi Xook, CailiiU. 

1913 RowDBN, Alfred Oliver, 3, Ardiibaid-road, Exeter. 

1887 Rowland-Brown, Henrj-, M.A., (V.-Prbs., 1908, 1010; Sbc., 
1900-10 ; Council, 1914-16), Oxhey-gr^re, Harrow Wtatd. 

1910 RtiDaK, Chaclea Henry. 

1892 KussELL, S. O. C, M<mk; Wood, Henthrrnidt, Park-rond, Wi,kin<j. 

1905 St. QuiNTIN, W. H., S<ampUm Hall, Jmiugtoa, York. 

1906 Sampson, Cobnel F. Winn, Cotuinandant Prisoners of Wnr (Officera) 

C^nip, Di0'ryn AM, lAantantuin, Abergdf, X. WiiUs, and 

115, TanntJUld-road, SydenJuiin. 
1010 Saunders, H. A., Druokfitld'himM, Simiuuje. 

1901 ScaAva,Vi.,V.ZS.,U.S.NaliotudM'wum,WaAiiiylon,D.C.. U.S.A. 
1007 SCHMAHSHANN, W., Betttah Lodge, London-nad, Biijield, N. 
1912 ScHDNCK, Charles A., Eu.'dme, fyallinfiford. 
1881 * ScoLLiCK, A. J., Eimsimod, B, M<ddenn>ad, Xew Matden. 

191 1 ScOEBR, Alfred George, UOi Crtd, ChUvyoHh, Q»Mford. 



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I xxvi ) 

190» Scott, Hugh, M.A^ F.Ua, Curator in Entomology, Vnitemty 

JIfiueum of Zoologij, Camiyridge. 
1911 Scorr, Percj William Affleck, Chinese Imperial Ciutoms Service, 

Hatufluno, China. 
11)12 Seitz, t)r. Adalbert, 59, Bttmarekdraue, DarmOadi, Gtrmany. 
1911 Sblocs, Cothbert F., M.D., M.R.C.S.. L.R.C.P., SUa/ord, Pain 

Bin, Parktloie, Dortet. 
1911 t BBN!trrr, Noel StaotOD, 24, d« Vere-ynniett*, Ktnsinglon, W. 8. 
1882 Sharp, David, U.A., M.B., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., (Pbks., 1887-*; 

V.-Pbku., 1889, 1891-2, 1896. 1902-3; See., 1867; CouMcn,, 

1893-5, 1902-4), Laumtidd, Broekaihtinl, HnnU. 
1902 Sharp, W. E., (Codscil, 1912-13X THe JSiinjjaioir, Crowthwiu, 

Berk$. 

1915 Sbaw, Dr. A. ElanJ, to R. Kelly, Esq., Solicitor, 59, Siaintton- 

ttnel, MHboume, Vklima, AiutmlUi. 
1886 Srait, George T. (Librarian of the Liverpo')) Free Public Library), 
WiUiaifi Broien-Mtrat, Liverpool. 

1905 Shbldos, W. Ueorge, youlgreave, SofdK Croydon. 

1900 1 Shbpbeard-Walwtk, H. W., M.A., Dediehinnie, Kadry, Surrey. 
1887 1 SlCH, Alfred, (Oouncil, 1910-12), Cornqf Hovm, Chiguiietr, W. 4. 
191 1 BlMEB, James A., Mon Rejio, MoiMuim't-lant, Woodford-grttn,Sutx. 

1901 SlUlloSDs, Hul^rt W., 12, are-/i ChamUrt, Court HouteAaite, 

AucUiiJtd, New Ztnlaiid. 
1913 SiTWELI,, Capt. F., Woottrr, Norlhimbtrlaad. 

1902 Sladeh, Frederick William I^mbart, Depl. of Agricultvrt, Centrai 

ExpeTimtnlal Farm, Oltt.ty,, Canada. 
1902 Slopkr. Gerard Orl.y, F.Z.S., J.P., Badminton CTufc. Piixaditty, W. 1. 

1907 Sly, Han.lil Baker, Oxford Hook, Eail-drire, Brighton. 

1906 SlIALLUAN, Raleigli 8., Eliot Lodge, Albemaiie-road, Beckenham, 

Ktnt. 

1916 Smart, Capt. H. Douj^la!', H.A.M.C^ Shttlry, Hnddenjidd. 

1915 Smith, Adam Charlea, Norton, Momington-road, Woodford Orten. 
1901 Smith, Arthur, Count ir Miueam. lAneoln. 

1911 Smith, B. H., B.A.. Edgekill, Warlingham, Stirre-j. 

1912 Smith, Roland T., 131, Q.ieei.'s-rw.rf, Wimbledon, S.W. 19. 

1898 SoPP, Erasmus John Burtjew, F.R.Met.S., 34, FemdaJeroad, Hort. 
1B85 South, Richard, (CofNCII, 1890-1), 4, Mtii>fab,inj-eourt, Shoot-up 
Hat, Bnmde^wy, N.W. 2, 

1916 Sowerbv, Lieut. F. \Y., R.N.I)., Ctedhorp-.', Lincdnshirt. 

1908 Sfever, Edward R., Ridgehnrd, Shenley, Htrtt. 
I889»STANr)EN, Richard S., F.L.S., (Council, 1906), JVeiriyn, Bomrey, 

H-i,d,. 
1910 Stanley, The ReT. Hubert George, Marshfitld Vicarage, Cardiff. 
1898 Stareh, C. L. B., M.H.C.S., L.R.O.P., TTie Lh,>et,S,caidty Junetiim, 

Kent. 
1898 Stbbdino, Htiiry, Chasfieood, Ktmtxd Oak-road, Wei/bii'lgr. 
1910 Stestos, Rupert, St. Eduyird'i, SI. Mary Church, Torqtioy. 



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{ sxvii ) 

1910 SiONEH&u, Hngh Freilerick, Capt Ut Batt. K Surrey Begt, 

StoneUigK, Beigate. 

1913 Storki, Gilbert, Dept. of AgncydtHre, Caii-o, Eg^fpt. 

1915 Stott, Charles Ernest, Eaton, Beigate. 

1896 Stbicku-ND, T. a. Geralii, SotUhcotl, Fovlton, Fairford. 

1900 Stcdd, E. a. C, P.O. Box 906, Vancourer, BritiA Columbia. 
1895 Stodd, E. F., M.A., B.C.L., Oxion, Extltr. 

1906 SwiZRSTBA, Corn. J., Ist AssiHtant, Transvmd Mtueum, Pretoria. 
18e4 SwiSHOK, Colonel Charles, M.A,, F.L.S., F.Z.8., (V.-Pbim., 1884; 

Council, 1891-3 ; 1902-4), 4, aunUritont-roail, iVtit Kensing- 
(o», W. 14. 

1894 SwiNHOB, Ernest, 4, QuuUivtone-road, Went Ketiaingion, W. 14. 
1876 SwiNTON, A. H., Oak Villa, BraiAJietd, Romsey, Banti. 

1911 SwiN>-£RTOK, C. F. M., Oitngjotgana, Mel*etUr, S.-E. Ehodtiia. 

1910 Tait, Rnlit, jiinr., Boaentalh, Harboroti^road, AAton-on-Merity. 
1908 Talbot, G., MonplaUir, Womiletf, Surrey. 

1916 Tatcbell, Leonard Spencer, 43, Hiyrall Hall-road, WaruUad, N.E, 

1911 Tadtz, p. H., Craidtigh, Pimitr, Hiddltiex. 

1911 Tayi^r, Frank H., Aunlralian Institute of Tropical Medicine 

P.O. Box 207, ToivmvilU, Qjitendand. 
1903 Taylor, Thomas Hnrold, Si.A., Ywt>hire CoiUge, Ltsdi. 

1914 Tempkrlby, Reginald, c/o Dr. W. Qrlffitb, 43, Park-iquan, Lttds, 

snd L'AuroTt, Vm>ey-la-Tmir, Vaiid, Sailierland. 

1910 Thkobald, Prof. F. V., M.A., Wye Ourt, Wye, Kent. 

1901 Thoupsoh, Matthew LawHon, 40, Goifonl-tlreet, Middleibrough. 

1892 Thornlef, Tlie Rev. A., M.A., F.L.S,, " Ewglunden," Coppict-,-oad, 

NoUmghtim. 

1907 TiLiTARD, B. J., M.A., B.Sc., F.L.S., Liniiean Macleay Fellow in 

Zoology, Knraiida, Mnvnt Errington, Hornitty, Neto South Walea. 

1911 Todd, R. Q., 54, Horntey-lane, Highgute, N. 

1897 TOMLIN, J. R. le B., MJi., (CoUNCIi. 1911-3), Lakefoot, Hamilton- 

road, Beading. 
1907 TONGE, Alfred Ernest, (Cocncil, 1915- ), Aincrofi, Beigate, Surrey. 
1914 DE LA Torre Bdeno, J. R., 25, Broad-itreet, New y<irk, U.S.A. 
1907 Traoardi}, Dr. Ivar, The Univernty, Upiala, Sweden. 
1900 Tclloch, Col. B., TIte King's Otm Yorkiliire Light Infantry, o/o 

Messrs. Cox & Co.. 16. Charing Cro>», S.W. 

1895 1'uHALBY, Henry, CattlelvH, Searle-road, Famham. 

1910 TuRATi, Conte Emilio. 4, Piazia S. Alemindro, Milan, Italy. 

1898 Torher, A. J., M.D., The Manor War Hoapilal, Epiom, and 

Wiekhant Terraee, Briebane, Aiietralia. 

1893 Tcrner, Henry Jerome, (Council, 1910-12), 98, Bral-efell-road, 

New Orou, S.E. 14. 
1906 Turner, Rowland E.,{Council, 1909-10). 
1916 Tytlkr, CoL H. C, c/o Mrs. Tytler, Messrs. Griiidliiy & Co., 

Parliament-etreet, S.W. 1. 



ihyCOOt^lC 



1893 Uiticir, Frederick William, C.M.Z.S., Port of fi^in, Trinidad, 
BrilM Wtat Itidia. 

1904 t Vaughan, W., The Oid Sectary, BwkingUtn, Bath. 

1914 Veitch, itoberi, Entomologist, Natom, Nadi, Fiji Idanil*. 

1909 ViDLER, Leopold A., The Oimwiitt Stone Hotue, Ryt. 
1911 VlTALIS DE Salvaza, R,, Vientiane, Loot, Indo-Chttui. 

1895 Wachbr, Sidney, F.R.C.S., Dane John, Canterlury. 

1897 WitHWRioHT, Colbmn J., (Council, 1901, 1912-14), 45, Handtteorih 

Wood-roatl, JiamUwiirOi, Birmiaghiuu. 
1878 Walker, James J., M.A., ILN., F.L.S., Secbbtary, 1905- 

(V.-Pees., 1916; Cocncil, 1894 ; Sac. 1899), Aorangi, Lannlale- 

road. ISuiiimerloicn, Oxftn^i. 
1012 Wallace, Henry S., 6, Kayllroad ViOai, Sunderland. 
1914 Walsh, Mrs. Maria EmeaiTi&, Soekaioemi, Java, Dutch EaH India. 
1866 t Walbihhhah, The Rifbt Honble. Lord, (Pres., 1889-90 ; V.-Prks., 

1882, 1888, 1891-2, 1894-5; Co^)NCl^ 1896), Briiiah Miueum 

iNatural Uistvry), CromictU-road, S.W. 7. 

1910 Ward, John J., Rnginiirbe Home, Somtrtet-road, Coventry. 

1908 Warren, Brisbane C S., Hotel Moy, Oberlwfen, Lac de TImine, 

Sioitierlunrf. 
1901 t Watkrbocsb, Giistaviia A., B.Sc, F.C.S., AUonrie, Stanhtipt-road, 

KiUara, JV<io South H'nle*, Aiistialin. 
1914 WATERhTON, Itev. James, B.D., B.Sc., 32, Itlaudfmd-road, Beil/ord 

Park, W. 4. 
IflU Watt, Morris N., St. John') BiU, Wangtmui, Neto Zetilatid. 
1893 Wkdd, John Unoper, 89, Dulwkk filta, DuUick, S.E. 22. 
lH76t Wkhtkbn, E. Young, '27, Pemhrid^ - aqiiarf, Nolt'mg HUl 

Uaie, W. 3. 
190G Whkeleb, The Rev. GeoiBe, M.A., F.Z.S., Skckkiari, 1911- ; 

(V..PREfl., 1914), 37, aioiK'ealer-pUice, W. 1. 

1910 IVhitb, Edward Dnrlon, M.R.C.S., Canlif City Mental Ho^pilal. 

Cavdig. 
1913 f Whitley, Purcival N., Bi-anlvxiod, H'di/x^; and Nem CoUrge, 

Oj-furd. 
1913 1 Whittakbh, Oscar, Oi-mulale, Atlilatuh, Aslilon-nimn-Mersey. 

191 1 Whittinohah, Rev. Canon W. O., Gtiist'/n Eextory, Uppingham. 
1917 Wkkhaii, Rev. Prebendary A. 1'., Eatt Brent Viairage, High- 

bridyr, Sonieraet. 
1906 WiCKWAR, Oswin S., fhiirlemmil, Gregory-road, Calumho, Cei/on. 
1903 Wiggins. Clare A., M.K.C.S., Eiitrbbe, Uganda. 

1896 WiLKMAN, A. E., Thatehed Howe Club, at. Jameif- street, S.W. 1, 

1910 WiLLcocKS, Frank C, Entomoli^ist to the Kliedivinl Agrictiltural 

Society, Cairo, Egijpt. 

1911 WiLLUM8,C. B., M.A., JW((./5pat«, rriiiido./, and 20, Saiey-rood, 

Birkenhead. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



( xxix ) 

1015 WiLLlAMB, Harold Beck, 131, ^wnVnxid, IF"imW«(oti, S.W. 19. 
1915 WiSK, Albert F., Lihmnj :/ MrGiU UitirrrsUij, WtMmouiU, 

MoatrtiA, Cnnadn. 
1894 WOLLKI-DOD, F. H., JtfiH«»nVU P. 0., Aifftla, X.W.T., Oiiio'la. 
1905 WooDBRiDCK, Francis Charles, Briar Clax, Latchmort-imtiiw, 

Gtrrar<P» Oojw S.O., BwU. 
1914 WooDFOBDE, FrsDcis Oanlew, B.A., 2, Jus alrefl, O.rford. 
1912 Woodruffe-Peacock, Bev. E. Adrian, F.LS., F.(5.S., Cmlney 

Vifarngt, Brigg, Linenliuhire. 

less VocDALB, William Henry, F.R.M.S.,31, BtUe lAtalreet, \Voi1ii«glon. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 
DuBiNO THE Year 1917. 



AiNSLLB (G. G.)- fSeo Luqikbili (P.).]- 

Atein (E. E.) and BicoT (A ). The/clstion between the batching of the 
egga Bud the developmeiit of the larvae of Sltgomyia fasriala 
(Jed/s ealopai), aod the prcMDce of bacteria and yeiala. 
[Pataiitologf. Vol. IX, 1917.] The Jvtkors. 

Back (E. A.) aad Pehberton (C. E.). The Meloa Flj' in Hawaii [Bacfro- 
etra euatrtilat, Coq.). 
[n. S. Dept. Agric, Ball. No. 491, June 1917.1 

U. S, Dtpt. Agric, 
BlCOT (A,). The Use of loieclicideB ugalnet Liee. 
[Brit. Med. Journ., Sept. 30, 1916.] 

A simple means of BKertaiDing if a sterilising hut is hot enough lo 

destroy lies and uiti in clothing and in blankets. 
[Brit. Hed. Jouru., Aug. 4. 191T.] 

A contributioa t« the BioDomics of Ftdicului hiimanvi (ttilimeyili) 

and Pedinilti eapitiM. 
[Parasilologj, Vol. XS, IBH.] 
The LoUM Problem. 



. [See Amin (E. E.).] 

Baub(A. C.) and Davidson (W. H,). A further contribution to the study 
of £r(o»ina pyricol/i. the woolly pear Aphis. 
[Jonm. Agrlc. Besearch, Vol. X, July 1911.] 

['. S. Dift. Agric. 

[See QuAiNTiucE (A. L.).] 

BiVHELEN (J. F. ran). The colour pattern on Diptera wings, 

[Koninkl. Akad. Wet. Ameterdam, Vol. XIX. Nos. 9, 10, 1917.1 
The Avlhcr. 
BoLTOH (H.>. The "Hark Stirrup" collection of Fossil Insects from the 
Coal Ueaiures of Comroentry (Allierj. Central France. 
[Reprinted from the Memoirs Manchester Museum, Vol. LXI, 
No. 2, 1917.] O. C. Champim. 

BttTINO (A.). A Generic *;nopsia of the Cociinellid larvae in the United 
»Ut« National HaBcuni, itith a description of the larva of 
Hgptraipii biikotata. Say. 
[Proc. 11. S.Nat, Mui,, Vol, LI, Jan. 1917,] 

The SmHkioeian lnstilulim. 
BsofH (T,). Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleopten. 
PartV. 
[New Zealand Institute, Bull, No. 1, June 1917.] 

Tit A«thor, 
BuBOBSS {A. F.) and ColItns (O, W,). The genua Cilesoma, including 
studies of seasonal bistories, hshita, and economic importance 
of American species north of Mexico and of several introduced 
■peciei 



ih, Google 



Bdru(H. B.)- PUt-head<dboren(Bui>r«stidlarTie}BffeclipgfoTe(ttr 
'd the UnitFil 8' ■ 



[U. 8. Dept. Agric, Ball. No. 437, J«d. 1817.1 



. lit pi. Ai/ric. 



CkRPEKTKB (0. H,)* iDJDTioui InKrU iDil othrr AoimtU obwrvtd id 

I 

Tht Anthar. 

CstKpiOH (O. 0.)- ColeoptftB, Heteremer* (eicluciing TeDebrionidae) fiom 
.. ~... , ..... . . -undAldBb™. 

,., Ser. e, Vol. SIX, Feb. 1917.) 
n NfUaUud. 



A new Barid from s Coata Rican bromeliad. 

[EoL HoDtUr Ha«.. Vol. LIU, 1911.] 

Notes OQ Tropicftl Ameiicau Lasriidae, with descriptions of new 

[Est. MoDthly Mag., Vol. UIl, 1917.] 

New Xylophilii)* fiDDi Aaitrelii, India aud Borneo. 

[Eot. HoDtbly Hag., Vol. LIU, 1S)7.] 

Notes OD the Coleoptera recorded from " Retin Animd" bj tlie 

Rer.F. W. Hope, (11,(21. 
[Eot. Honthl; Htg., Vol. LIU, 191T.] 

On new and little-known lagriidat from tropical America. 

[Trana. Ent. &oc Load., 1917.] Tkt Anlktir. 

CHrmKDBH (F, H.). The bone-ndiah Fle»-beetle {Fhyllolrtla amioraciai, 
Koch) ; ita lite-hiatoi; and distribution. 
[0. 8. Dept. Agric, Bull. No. 53a, June 1917.] 

(f.S. Dipt. Agric. 
CntTnaL (R. N.). The Wertem Cedar-borer {Trachvkth Bp,), 
[Afrit. Qaiette o( Canada. Vol. V, Nov. 1917] • 

fanad. Dtpt. Agric. 
ClkhmmT (O. B.) and Heinro (W). Control of the Gipsy Math by forrst 
management. Part I : The Cip*; Moth in ^yuads. lij G. B. 
Clement. Part II : Management of typical wocxl lots iafeitnl 
with the Oipay Moth in the Wbile-pine region. By Wiliia 
Munro. 
[C. S. Dept. Agric, BoU. No. IM, April 1917] 

U. S. Dipl. Ayric. 
CoaD (B. R.). and HcQiheb (T. P.). Collection oF WecTiis and infenled 

Suareg aa a mean* of control of the Cotton Boll-WecTil in the 
iwiiHippi. 
[XJ. 8. Dept. Agric, Boll. No. 594, Oct, 1917.] 

V. S. Dtpi. Agric. 
CoCEBSCLt (F. D. A.). Some Beei from Aaatraiia, Tasmania, and the New 
Hebcidea. 
[Proo. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1918.] 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



( xxxii ) 

CoatBRBLt (F. D. A). TbB Centinid Bee* oF (he Philippine IsIsikIb. 
[Philippine Journ, Sci„ Vol. XI, IfllO,] 

A collection of Bees from QueeDsUoil. 

[H«moin Queenilaad Mua., Vol. V, July 1916.] 

Tbe Fbuiu or Boulder County, Colorado, InsecU. Ill, IT. 

[ViiiT. Colorado Studies, Vol. Xlt, No. I, Jan. 1911.} 
— — ^— New Tertinry Insecti. 

[Proc. U. S. NBt.Miu.,Vol. LIl, Fob. 1817.1 

The Dawn of Uintory : k dramH in three acti. 

[Amer. Mmeum .louro.. May IPIT.] 

DescriptioiK ot Foaii) Inseda. 

[Proc. Biol. Sac. WMbiogtou, Vol. XXX, Maf 1911.} 

Some Foiwil TmectB from FloiiBhaat. Colorado. 

[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mua., Vol. LIII, June 1917] 

Some Beea of tbe ^ous Pmtnythin ;Hyin.). 

[Ent. Newa, Vol. XXVIIl, July 19i:.] 

. — — Arthropodbin Burmeae Amber. 

[Psyche, Vol. XXfV, No, 2, 1817.] Tlu A«lk<.T. 

CoLB (A. C.) and iHHg (A. D,). Report on m infestation of larvae of the 
Antler Moth (Chiiracai gramims, L.) in the Peak District. 
[Journ. Boant Agric, Vol. XXIV, Aug. 1817] 

Dfpt. Agric. fntom.. ManeknttT. 
COLIIHS (C. W.). [See BrnoMS (A. F.).]. 

C01IB3 (A. F). Notes on a collection of Odonata from Schoolcraft County, 
Michigan. 
[OccBS. Papers Mua. Zool. ITniv. Micbigan, No. 41, May 1917} 
fBi'f, of Michigan. 
CtJMHINOg (B. F.). The Louse and its rdation to disease, its iife-bistorj 
[British Muaeum (Natural History), Economic Series, No. 2, 1815.] 
>— — — The Bed-bug, its habits ami life-bistory, and how to deal with it 

(Britiah Museum (Natural History). Economic Series, No. 6, 1911.1 
■JhiT,T.Hfa£Fit.3l«i. 
CuBBiE (B. P.). Oomphut parrid/iu, a new speciea of Dragon-fly from 
Maryland. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mui., Vol. LIII, June 1917] 

Thi SiiiithfORiaH InMution. 
CDaaHAN (R. A.). Eight new spncica of reared Ichneumon- Bias, with notes 
# on some other speciea. 
[Proc. U, S. Nat. Mus.. Vol. LIII, Aug. 1817.] 

A revision ot Hymenopteroui insects of the tribe Crrmaatiiii o! 

America north of Mexico. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat, Mua,, Vol. LIII, Aug, 19IJ,] 

Thi Siititksoiiian loaliltlioa. 
DaTioauN (W, M,), [See BiKKn (A. C,),] 
D'Ehicebbz i>b Chahkoy (D.). Uotli-horers affecting sugar-cane in 

[Dept. Agric. Mauritius, Scient. Series, Bull. No. S, 1817.] 

Tht Author. 
DiSTiNT (W. L.). Rbyiiohota, Part II : Sub-order Homnptora. Percy 
Slulen Trust Expeilition to Indian Ocean in lUOS. 
[Trans. Linn. Soc. Loud., Zool. 2nd Ser., Vol. XVII, 1017.] 

Jly Exehaugt. 
DOOMIH (P.). H^tcrocArfs de I'ArotTiqUB du Sud. 

[Faac. XUI. 1817,] Tkt Author. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



DONHTHOBPK <H.)l {Delie/ioderiii) (Hvfwelinea) micfryt, d, sp., » species 
a[ Ant new to Scirnt-e : niib s lew noUs on the geuua. 
[Botom. Becord, Vul XXIX, 191T.] Thr Juthor. 

BDwum (F. W.). HiMqnitues and their retation to diiesBe, tbeir life- 
biston. babita and control. 
[British Huseum (Nstural History), Economic Series. No. 4, 1914.] 
Till TnaUti £Hl. Mvl. 
Faqan(H. H.). [SeeRuHwiB (8. A.).]. 

FouoM (J. W.). North AmeriFaa CoUemboloua iuaecta ot the subtamily 
OnycbiuriDse. 
[Proc U. S. Nat. Mu« , Vol. LIII, Aug. IBIT.] 

The Umithioitias Iitilit^tioH. 

FitBD (G. H.J. Obaeriatioiis on the larval anil pupal stages ot Jifriolii 
oiinrvi. LiDDKua. 
[Add. Applied Biolog}, Vol. Ill, Jan. 1911.1 

J>epl. Ayric, t'lllom., MaKchetlrr. 

Fox(H.). Field Dote* on VirgioisD Orthoptera. 

[Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., VoL LII, Haruh 1917.) 

Ibt SMitkioAiaa iHUilulion. 

FbuOOATT (J. L.). [SteFHOOQiTTOV.W,).]. 



FBOOflAiT (W. W. and J. L,). Pb^f p-mnggot Flies, No. 3. Beport of work 
carried out iu the Itivirius Uistnct, during 1915-16, at the 
Oovernment SheefBy Eiperimeiit Station at Woolooodool, 



GiHAN (A, B,). Deierlptions of some new parasitic Hymenoptera. 
[Proc. U. 6. Nat. Hiu., Vol. I.Ut, Hay I91T.] 

Thi Saittluoaia'i Imtitiitha. 
Oeteb(E. W.). [8eeQDAiNT*NCK(A. I,.).]. 

Gibson (A.). A new species of Torlrii of economic importance from New- 
foundland (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae) . 
[Canad. Hntomologiat, Vol. XLVIII, IS16.] 

Tlu Jtithar. 

The Bntomological Record for 1918. 

[RepriDtcd irom 4Tth Anu. Rept. Ent. iSoc, Ontario, 1916.] 

tanarf. Dtpt. Aj/ric. 

nlilla, Zell.). 

*, I>rpt. Agric. 

K <E. B.). Notea on Coccidse accurriog in the Seychelles IsUnds, with 
deacriptions of new jipccies. 
[Bull. Ent. Keseatch, Vol. VII, Oct. 1918.] 



— Obserrations on Brilish Coccidse, with i 

No. m. 
[Eot. Monthly Mag., Vol. LllI, lOlT.] 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



( zxxiv ) 

Obekn (El B.)- ObwrTktkiM od Britiab Coccidw, with dc* 
tpraet. Ho. IV. 
[Bot. H<nithl7 H<g., Vol. LIQ, 10171 



iiBiw<l'. HO- AGuidetatheLilnmtureof BrituhDipton. 

[Proe. Rojril Boc Edinburgh, Snsiau I9I<I-17, Vol. XX, Put 3. 
The .IXAor. 
IK to (be Kpecimeof and mUned inadclK of inxectaaiid ticks exhjbitn) in 
tbc Ceotral HkII, Bntiab Humudi (Natural Hiitorj), illnitrat- 
<Dg tbeir importaiKe in Ibe wfrad of diwaae. 
[Sped*] Guide No. T. 1916.] T%t Trutlrri Brit. Mts. 



Vol. XUX, iei6,l Tki Author, 

Hahfson (Kir George). The DrtenninatioD of Generic Type* in tbe 
Lepidopten. 
[Bolom. N«w«, Vol. XXVJIJ, Dec. IBIT.] Tkt Autkor. 

Hawirr (C. G,). Reguiatiooa under tbe Dettnictive Insect and Pett Act, 
with iantructious to importen and eiportin of trem, pbntc 
and otber nuraery atock. 
[Canid. Dept. Agric, Entom. Bnncb, Circular No. 10, 1917.] 

Report of the DominioD EDtomoloaiat for tbe year ending March 

31,1917. 

RegulatiouB under the destructive Inaett and Peat Act, 1917. 

[Canad. Dept. Agric, Eutom. Branch, Circular No. lil.lBlT.] 
Vamii. itepl. Ayric. 

. — [See Report of (be Dominion Entomologiat, OtUwa, 1917.] 

HiBsT {%.). Species of Ararhntila and Hyriopoda (scorpiona. epiders, mitea, 
tick* and centipede*) injurious to man. 
[Britiab Husetim (Natural History), Rconomjc Series, No. 6, 1917.1 
The TTttiteri Brit. -Vbi. 
UoDoiiss (H. B.). [See Pakrott (P. J.).] 

Ihhs (A. D.). Tarred felt "disci" for protecting cabhagea and rela(«d 
vegetables from attacks of the root fly {Ch-rleMte /irauicat). 
[Joum. Board Agric, Vol. XXIII. March 1917.] 

Ilfpl. Auric. KatBm.. Manehtilir. 

[See C<>LK (A. C.),] 

Islti (Dwight). Control of tbe grape-berry moth in the Erie-Chalauqua 
Grape Beit (/•o/ycAra. - - '■' - • 






[U. 8. Dept. Agric.,"Kid1. No, 5.W, Aug, 1917.] 

U. S, litft. At/rie. 

R1K> iJ. Joauuia) Invesligsciones sobre el pHludjomo en Pnebla. 

[Piib'tshed by the (^olegiu del K-Uilo di- Puebla [Mexico], 1916.1 

Thf .Si«U Calftgt of FutMa. 

<an (H. 8.). I'ure lines in the study of genetics in lower orgaoiima. 

[Amer. Kal., Vol. XI.V, Feb. 101 1.] 

— The Numerical reanlta of iliireriu sy(ti;nis of breeding. 

[Geuetic*. Vol. I.Jan. IHlti] 

— Hereflity, Variation atid tbe Results uf Selection in the UBi- 

parental reproduction of DiMnyiii conma. 
[Genetic*, Vol. 1, Sept. 1916.] 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



XXXV ) 

jDniiN09(H. S.). The numerical mulUofJicerwijatomiiof breeding, sith 
respect to two pair* of cbsnctmt, linkeil or indepeDdent, with 
■pecial relation to tlie effect! of linkace. 
[Oenetics, Vol. 11, Hareh ]&1T.] 

Hodirjing ftetorii and multiple allelomorph! in relation to the 

reMilts or nelectioD. [Baaed on the fruit At I>naimhila.'\ 
[Amer. Nat., Vol. LI, Ha; ISIT.j 

Obeervi d change* in Hereditary characters in Relation lo Brolatimi 

[Jouro. Washington Acad. Sci., Vol. VII, Hay ISITJ 

The Author. 

Jo)iM(D, W.I. TbeEnroHan Barwig<fDn!ci>/n iiiiri<-ii(Dri*<i)and itacontrol. 
[U.S. ft'iH.Agrlc., Bull. No. 566, June 1917 1 

IJ. S. Dtft. Agric. 
Jones {T. H.). The 8ireet-pot»to leaf-folder (PiVktki* trimnelala. Fab.), 
[f. S. E>ept. Agtic, Bull. No. «», Nov. 1917.1 

('. S. Dcpt. AgrU. 
KiBiPtTnicK <R ). The Biology of Watcroorks. 

[British Museum (Natural Uirtor;), Bconomic Striea, No. 7. 1917. 
Thi TTi-stit> Brit. M«,. 

KRjiiTiiO.) [8«eKl'sTen(H. C,)] 

Edsteb (H. C.) Die Kafrr Eiiropa's. Kach der Natur bescbrieber. Heft 



Li RcB (Q. R.) Two new larial Trrmalodts from Thamnophit utareiajta 
and Tkemnopha tauei. 
[Occa*. Pnpers Hua, Zoo!. UdIy. Michigan, No. 35, Jan. 1917.] 
Unix, of Afiekigaii. 
LiTBM>p (F. H.). [Pee Pajiiiott (1'. J, ).] 
Lecas (T. p.). Memoir Ipubltnbcd in Brisbane 1917). 

tVr«r- »--.(-..-. fo., flriiion*. 
Lccl^■lLL (P.) an<l Aikblin (O. tl.). The Lesser I'omaUlk -borer (E/aimn- 
palpfs ligioidlvi. Zell.). 
[U. 8. Dept. Agric. Boll. No. 539, Sept. 1917.] 

v. S. Ihpt. Agrif. 
LoNPBICK (W.>. Diptera DaaiciL Parts IV, V, 1912, 1916. 

Th, Author. 
HarBB (U. O.). Life-history of /'lalella macuUptunii, the diamond-back 

[Joum. Aigric. Research, Vol. X, July 1917. 

('. S. Dipt. Agric. 
UcCrat (A. H.). Spore-formiDg Bacteria of the A|dary. 
[Joum. Agifc. Heseircb, Vol. VIII. Marrh 1017.] 

C..S. Iltyl. Agric. 
HcDoKovaH (F. L.). [Res HcfinKwu (B. A.).] 
HcGiHBB(T.F.). [SeeCoAD (B. K.).] 

HcObigok (B. A.>, Descriplions of seven new species of Red Spidera. 
[Proc. U. 8. Nat, Hus„ Vol. U. Jan. 1917.1 



HoJrwoh (E. a.) and HcDonoi^oh (F. L). .The Red Spide 
(Tttranychui bimactiatvs, Harvey). 
[U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. No. 4ia, Jan. 1917.] 



iM,Googlc 



MclMDOO (N. B.I linJ SlKTBBS (A. F.). (jlttMW f. 
inKCtiride. 
[Jouro. Agric. Kesearcli, Vol, X. Sept. 1917.J 



S. Iftpt. Ayri, 



HlSRAfC.S.). The ladixu Sugir-cim 

[M™. Dept. Agrie. tudia, ._ . . 

1917.] JaJiaOffift. 

UdbsisoM (H.). Monograph of the Nearctic Hjinenopt^n of the genua 
Bmen«, Fabric jus. 
[Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mu^.., Vol, Mi, Marcl. I1H7.] 

Tht .S«,i,h,o«ian Inititulio,. 

Mi-KBO (W.). [See CUOiKNT (G. K.)-] 

Mtb»(P. K.), AuAmerieuiJipecieiior the HymenoptiTouB genua H'fimatlta 
of Koerster. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Hint., Vol. LIII, May lfll7.] 

A new Ameriran pararile of the Hfuiaii fly | Majiniolii deitmclor, 

Say). 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. Vol. LllI, U*j IPIT.] 

Tht .SmithiBiinn /sjliJiKiojt. 



N0THAN(H.). Coleopten IlluMraU. Vol. I. No. 3. CaraMdae. 191T. 

The Avthor. 
OuERTHtiR (riiarlec). fitndeR de I.-pulo|)l4Tologie Company. XIII. XIV, 

1U17. Ti/ Autkor. 

P«INK (J, H.l. Ad aafnimetriral Biid-louae roiirul on three iliffereut apade* 

.MH/iunurton. 

R (J. B.). A Kevisioa of tlie Bembicin? wupa of America north of 

[Proc. U. S. Nat. Hu«, No. LIl, Feb. 1817.1 

Thf SmiihtBuiau liuUulim. 
R <R. R.). New flies of the genua Kircni^aga from Quam aud the 
Philippiuen. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Miu., Vol, I,1V. OtI. 1917.] 

Tht Satithioaiatt JnsliUition. 
1S.S (H, E,|, an.l Latmhop <K, 

._, pple orcharrit, II. 

[New York Agrir. 

PATtH (E. M.). Elm-lenf rosetle awl 
[Maine Agric. Biprr. Station 

Fiu*B« (L. M.). [See Sanderiion (E. 0,1.] 
m(U, B.). [KeeBAcafE. A.).l 

',.>and BakemCA.C). A Gintribution to onr KnonledKe 
of the Whit« Bies of the *tibfarotly Aleyrodinae (Al«yradidae). 
[Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. LI, Jan. 1917.] 

Thf SmilhtenlnH ftutilHlion. 
(JDAiNTAKCE (A. t..l and OifEn IE. W.). Life-hiitory of the Codling moth 
(Cari-rxvpia iHimoKr//". L.) in the Peros Valley. New Meiico. 
[U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. No. 42S, Feb. 1917.1 

('. .V. Dipt. Afrie. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



( XXX vii ) 

Rkpout of the DmninioD BntMnologiit for the jear ending M&rcb 31, 1917. 
By C. Qoflon Hewitt. 
[C»[uul« Dept. Agrir., Otlava. 1917] Oinml. Dipt. Agric. 

RiFOBT of the Manchester Museum for the year 1616-17. 

G. C. Champion. 
Report of the Froceeilingg of tbe Second EntomologietU Meeting heM at 
Piua 5th to i:»h February. ISIT. Edited by T. Bainbrisge 
Fletcher, 

Jgric. Rtsearch /a»tit«le, P.ia. 
RoRWER (S, A.l. A Report on a oullection of Hynienoptera (moilly from 
California) nude by W. U. Oiffard. 
[Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mns,, Vol. Llil, May 1817] 

I of Hymenoptera. 
at 1917.] 
The Smithaonias Institution. 

<R {S. A.) and F*o*N (M, M.). the Type^peeien of tlie genera of 
Cyuipoidea, or the gall-waspa imiJ paraaittc Cyuipoida. 
[Proc. U. S. Nat. Mua., Vol. LllI, June 1917.] 

The SmiHuonian luiliMiuii. 



Si-iiDBBa (O. B.) and Brittiin (W. H.). Sprayiag for ioaecta sffcctiug 
apple oTcliard* in Kora Scotia. 
[Canad. Dept. Agric. Eutom. branch. Ciccular No. S, 1916.] 

CanaJ. Dtpl. Agric. 
Sandrrsom (E, D.) and pRiaiu (C. M.). Su-hool Entomology and Elemen- 
tary Teit-book of Entomology. l«t Edition. New York, I91T. 
Heari. Chapman ^ Hall. 
ScHHUBBBit (A.). On the setal pattern of caterpillara and uupaf, Leiden 
1917. 

On the set*) pattern M caterpillam. M. 

[Koaiukl. Akad. Wet. Amaterdatn, Vol. XIX, No). 9, 10. 1917.] 
The AMhoT. 
SCHILSRI (J.). [SeoK[.'STKR(H. C,).] 

Scientific Repotta of the Agricultural Research Institute, Piua (including 
tl>e Report of the Imperial Cottou Specialist). 1916-17. Calcutta, 
1917. IfdiaOjfct. 

SiB*-ERS (A, F.). [See McInDoO (N. E.)]. 
Sphakr (A. T.). •Somspore/la Hvrlla and ita occurrence iu cutworms in 



a. Agric. Heaearrh. Vol. VIII. Feb. 1917.] 

U. S. Di 



rpl. Agiv. 
lU'ieerl against pink 



Bull. No. 14 



bo!l-*oriu {tlelifhia yoiiypittla, Saund.). 
[Ministry Agric. Baypt, Tedin. and Sci. Servii 
(Bntom. Sect.), July 1917,] 

MiHisliy Auric, Ei/apt. 
K (J. M.). (Isnidisn Lark-beetlen. Part I. Descriptions of new 
■pecies. 
[Caoad. Dept. Agric, Entom. Branch, Bull. No. 14, 191T.1 
— The False tusaock caterpillars of shade trees. 
[Agric. Gaiette of Canada, Vol. IV, Nov. 191T.] 

Canad. Oept. Ayric. 



ll,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



TsaoBALD (F.V.). TheApbidof the tea, roffMUMl cacao (Tuvplcracqirtiu, 
Nietner). 
[Bull. Bnt. Rfiseanh, Vol. VI], 1917.1 

Jilt Aulher. 
Tll.LVuD (R, J.>. The BiolDETot Dngonfliea (Odoiuta or Paranenroptc™). 
(Cambridge Zoologicsl Kcrin). Cambridge, ISII. 

The Author. 
TijRiT[ (CoDte Emilia). Uu genere nuoio hIIh fauna paleartini, Ennnaloetra 
jiatatarcttlla, nova speciei. 
[Bull. Soc. Botom. Ilal , Vol. ZLVIII. 1916 (leiTl]. 

RDvisione <lell« St/atoaiit paleortiche a iloppio cingolo giillo, e 

■agaio di una elaHlficiinDDe delle vane apede e (anna. 
[Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. N«t, Vol. LVI. 1»1T.] Tit Jylliar. 

TuBMrnn (K. E.). On a collecUon of Spt>teoidia KOt b; the Agricultural 
Reiearch Iiutituie, Piim, Bihar, 
[Mem. Dept. Agrie. India. Entom. Seriea, Vol. V, Sept. 1917.] 
India OJf(t. 
Wadswobth (J, T.), Report OD a trial of tarred felt"di»c«" for protecting 
cabbages atxt cauliBowers from attacks of the cabbage root-By 
{CkoTtopMo brasticfe). 
[Ami. Applied Biolog]-, Vol. HI, Jan. 1911.] 

}>tpt. Ayric. Enimn., Sfanchtiler. 
Watebston (J.). Fleas as a mcDace to man and domestic auimals, tbeir 
life-historj. habits and control. British Uuuum (Natural 
History), Economic Seriw, No, 3, 1819, 

Tht TnuUti Brit. Mm. 
W:CEUaH (H. F). New species of Fossil beetles from Floriasant, Colorado. 
[Proc, U S. Nat. Mui., Vol. LU, Feb. 1917.1 

Thi SinitHaoitian laHitMtinn. 
WiLDEBUUTU (V. L.), The Desert-corn flea-beetle (ChaeloeFiima tctypa, 
Horn). 
[U. 8. Dept. Agric, Bull. No, *«, Feb. 1917,] 

V. S. Dipt. Agric. 
..._n(E. B.). An Annotated list of tke UfonoM of Indiaoa. 
[Univ. of Michigan, Hus. Zool., Mi»c, Publ. No. 2, 1917] 

Tht Aulht^. 
(H P.). The Chicken mite (/>fr™,.nyjMi jafli-m,, VxAi) ita lil«- 
history and habits. 
[U. S. Dept. Agric, Bull, No. S53, Aug. I917-] 

('. S. Dipt. Aj/ric. 
rHLti (L. K.). Solid-stream spraying against the Gipsy moth and the 
Brown-tail moth in New England. 
[[:. S. Dept. Agrtc., Bull. No. 460, June 1917. 1 

V.S. Dipt. Agrie. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Periodicals and Publications of Societies. 
AMERICA (NORTH). 

CANADA. 
LosDOH. Ontario. The Canadiui Etitamologiitt. Vol. XUX, 1917. 

OlTMBio. Kntoinologiul Society of OnUrio, 4Tth Aiiiiiul Report. 1916. 
Toronto, 1917. The Soculg. 

UNITED STATES. 



adeui} of Nntunl Science- oT Philii 
Vol. LXVm, P«1.3.nd4,1616; Vol. LXIXj . _, 

Bg EfhaHSt. 

EntoDiobigiol Neim, Vol. XXVlll, 1917. £y Eifha«yt. 

Hemoira of the AmrrlcaD'ELtomoiogicAl Society, No. 3, 19II. 

Tkr *sci>(y. 
WittHiltaTOli, ^mJtbMnian Institution. Anniul Keport, 1918. 

United 8tat«K Natlonat Museiim. Proceedings. Vol. L, inl7. 
Americu Solomologicd Society. Tnouction^ Vol. XLIl, Noi. 3, 
4, 1917. Btf E^chanye. 

AMERICA (SOUTH). 
CHILE. 
Cojtoou. BirietiD de U Audemik NBcional de Cieociu. Tonio XXII, 
IB17. 

WEST INDIES. 

BaruIh'b. WeatlndUo Bulletin. The Journal of the Imperial Agricul- 
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1918-17. 
AcricDitnral Neva, Vol. XVI. 191T. 

Tht Agricfllaral lltpartmint. 

ASIA. 

INDIA. 
BoKBAT. Natural Hiltory Society. Journal. Vol. XXV, Parts 1,3, 1»I7. 

by Exehanj/t. 
CiiCCTT*. Asrieultonl Beaearcli Institute, Puia. Heport, lBltH7. 1917. 
The InitiMi. 
The iDdiiD Foreat Becords. Vol. V, Part 8, 1917 ; Vol. VI. Put 3, 
1917. /«dia q^et. 

Pusi. Uanunrt of the DepartmcDt of Agriculture in India, EDtomologtcal 
SerieB. Vol. 11. Noi. 8, 9, IBIO, 1912. Vol. IV, No*. I, 3, 5, 
ISia, 1913. India Offee. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



( xl > 
AUSTRALASIA. 



BUEOPE. 

FBANCE. 

FiRis. Sociiti Entomolagiqne de Frure. Aniules, Vol. LXXXV. ForU 3 
u>d i, 1BI6; Vol LXXXVI. P«ta 1-3, 1917. 
BvIletlD. 1817, No». 1-20. By Eirha>,sr. 

OKEAT BRITAIN AND UtELANn. 
London, AdiuU and Hagaiiue or Natural Hiatory. I91T. I'ltrchastd. 

Bitlletip of BDUmologial Beaearch. Vol. VI], Port 4, 1917 : Vol. 

VIII, P«rW I, 2, 191T. Parchaud. 

Eutomologiit (The). 1917. R. South. 

EuUiiDOlogiat'B Hontfalf Magazine. 1B17. Thi Editori. 

Eulcmologiit'B Becord and Jourual of Variation. Vol. XXIX, 

1U17. PKnhaatd. 



Linneui Society of LodiIod. ZoiAafy, TranaactiunB, Journal and 

Proceedings. 1917. Ill/ F.icha»yt. 

Loudon Natural History Society. Transactioiu. 1SI16. 

Tht Sociitg. 
Naturalist (The). 1S17. Bg Exeliai^. 

Nature. 1917. The J'ubliiker: 

Quekett Microscopical Club. Journal. No«. 80, 81, 1917. 

nt Cluh. 



Boyal Agricultural Society. Journal. Vol. XXVII, 1916. 

Tht Society. 
Royal Microscopical Society. Journal. 1917. By i'jr*aiufl. 
Rojftl Society. Vroceedings. 1917. By ErcAaayc. 

Royal Society. Philosophical TransacUons. 1917. 

By Exchange. 
South London BntoQiological and Natural Bistorr Society, Pro- 
ceedings, 1916-17. Tin .Socitly. 
LoinfON. Zoological Record. Vol. U (1914), 1916; Vol. LII (1915), 1917. 
FHrckaied. 
Zoolt^ical Society. Transactions aud Proceeding*. 1917. 

By ExrhamH. 
ZoologUt (The). 1917. Thi PublUkrr. 

ITALY. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



TRANSACTIONS 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

LONDON 

Fob the Year 1917. 



I. Descriptions of Soulk American Micro-Lepidoptera. 
By E. Meymck, B.A., F.R.S. 

[Read December flth, 1916.] 

The following descriptioos are from specimens in my -own 
collection. They include some further interesting material 
from high levels in the Andes (9000-12,000 feet elevation), 
amongst which are' examples of the genera Pkalonia, 
C'roddosema, Arislotelia, and Phtkorimaea. Altogether six 
genera and 102 species are described as new. 

PHALONIADAE. 
Amallectis, n. g. 

Palpi rather long, porrected, triangulsrly rough-scaled. An- 
tenaae in S strongly ciliated. Forewinga with 2 from towards 
angle, 3 absent, 8 absent, II from middle. Hindwings with 2 fiom 
towards angle, 3 and 4 stalked, 6 somewhat approximated, 6 and 7 
long-stalked. 

Probably a development of Phalonta. 
Amallectis devlncta, n. sp. 

$■ 13 mm. Head ochreous-whitish, sides more ochreous. Palpi 
oehieons-whitish, laterally more ochreoos, with a few dark fuscoua 
speoka. Thorai. oohreons -whitish, shouldera marked with dark 

TEANS. ENT. SOC. LOKD. 1917. — PART I. (NOV.) B 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



■_$ •. '"■ Mr. E. Meyrick's Desenpttmu of 

fuMXHU. Abdamen pale greyish, anal toft whitiah. Forewinp 
elongate, posteriorlj dilated, coata gently anihed, apex obtnae, 
t«rmeii obliquely rounded ; ochreous-whitiah ; a dark fnscoua ipot 
mixed with brownish -ochreonB on baae of coeta, and another near 
bejond it ; a transvene fascia from middle of costa, costal portion 
lather narrow, dark fuscous, mixed with ochreous-brownish, lower 
half formed of grej irroration, dilating to dorsum, where it extends 
over more than median third, and is marked with dark fuscous; a 
clondy grey spot on coeta towards } : cilia ochreous-whitisb. 
Hindwin^ whitish, with some cloudy grey stiigulae in diao and 
posteriorly; cilia whitish. 
Peru, Lima, in August {Parish) ; one Bpecimen. 

nuJonU subUmls, n. sp. 

$. 16 mm. Head whitish. Palpi 2}, pale oobieoos mixed with 
ferruginous. Thorax whitisb-ocbreouB tinged with ferruginous. 
Abdomen greyish. Forewinga elongate, rather nairow, posterioily 
■lightly dilated, coeta slightly arched, apex obtuse, tfimen hardly 
rounded, oblique; whitish-ochreous, almost wholly suffused with 
femiginous except towards costa beyond middle; some minute 
blackisb strigulae scattered along oosta; a tnodetate suffused deep 
ferruginous fascia slightly before middle pardlel to termen, this 
fascia and dorsal half of wing beyond it minutely speckled with 
black; several deep femiginous spots and mariu on apical fourth 
of wing forming a coarse reticulation : cilia whitish-ochreous, su(- 
fnsedly barred with grey. Hindwings whitish-grey, IndisliiMtly 
strigulated with grey ; cilia grey-whitish. 

Peru, Huancayo, 10,650 feet, in July {ParUh); one 
specimen. 

Phalonla galbanea, n. sp. 
S 9' 11-13 mm. Head and thorax pale brownish -ochreous, face 
whitish-ochreous. Palpi 2], oobreous-whitish tinged with brownish. 
Antennal cUiations of S 1- Abdomen rather dark grey. Forewings 
elongate, posteriorly slightly dilated, costa slightly arohed, apex 
obtuse, termen rounded, rather oblique; light brownish -ochreous; 
basal patch slightly darker, undefined, on costal edge often snfiFosed 
with dark fuscous; a rather narrow ochreous- brown postmedian 
fascia, obtusely sngulaled and interrupted above middle, its costal 
edge sometimes marked with dark fuscous; a more or less indicated 
ochreous- brown mark, sometimes with dark fusoous scales, on dorsum 
before torous; a rather narrow ochreous-brown fascia from j of 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



South American Mvcro-Le'piiopteTa. 3 

coat* to middle of tormeo, and three or four imall indistioot A»A 
fnflcooa costal atrigol&e oa or near tbie : cilia pale ochreoua, tsiuMj 
spotted with dark fuscous or blBckiah irroration. Hindwings 
blackish-grey ; cUia pole grey, vith darker grey subbasal shade. 

British Guiana, Bartica and Mallali, frum December 
to March {Parish); Peru, Pacaya, in August (Mounsey); 
eight specimens. 

Phalonla swrifluti, n. sp. 
S $. 8-1 1 nuD. Head, palpi, and thorax pale ochreons. Antennal 
oiliationB of (J 1. AbdomeD grey. Forewii^ elongate, poet«riorij 
BODMwhat dilated, oosta gently arched, apex obtuse, tennen obliquely 
nnmded; 7 to oosta; oohreoue, more or less silvery-irideeoent ; 
some minate scattered strigulae of black irroration along coeta; a 
qiiadnrte deeper spot on costa beyond middle, edged laterally with 
■trignlae of black irroration ; some indistinct darker suffusion, with 
inegoUr mariu of black irroration, in disc beneath this ; a more or 
leas developed biangnlar blotch of black irroration on dorsum before 
middle, and a small spot towards tonus; an indistinct spot of 
deeper snSnsion above tomus ; an indistinct deeper faaciat« streak 
from ^ of costa to middle of termen, its lower portion covered by an 
irregular patch of scattered black irroration ; cilia pale oohreouB. 
Hindwings with 3 and 4 closely approximated or connate; grey, 
thinly scaled in cell, veins darker ; ciiia pale grey. 

British Guiana, Bartica and Mallali, from December to 
March {Pariah); Dutch Guiana, Paramaribo; Brazil, 
Parana; twenty-six specimeoB. 

Phalonla enellUea, n. sp. 
S- 13-16 mm. Head whitish. Palpi 2), oohreouB- whitish, 
tinged or sprinkled with brownish. Antennal ciliations nearly 2. 
Thorax whitish, sometimes tinged with ochreous. Abdomen grey, anal 
tuft whitish. Forewings elongate, posteriorly slightly dilated, costa 
gently aiohed, apex obtuse, t«rmen nearly straight, oblique; pale 
brownish-OChreoQB, sometimes more or less whitish-tinged; a faint 
brownish basal patch, edge angulated, its lower portion marked by a 
more or less indicated darker streak; a moderate brownish post- 
median fascia angulated and more or less interrupted in disc, par- 
tially sprinkled and marked with dark fuscous on edges, lower portion 
forming a semioval spot ; a roundish brown spot on costa at ;), and 
one or two dark brown strigulae before and beyond it ; cilia pale 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



4 Mr. £. Ueyrick's Descripliont <^ 

oohreooB. Hindwinga grey; oUift whitiBh-grey, irith grey mibbMal 
shade. 

Ecuador, Alsusi, 9450 feet, in June (Pamh); five 
specimens. 

Phklonla mordax, n. sp. 

[}. 1&-I7 mm. Head, pali», and thorax whitish, more or leas 
sprinkled with fuscoDs and dark fuMoua, palpi 3. Ant«iiiial oilia- 
tloDB 2. Abdomen whitish -fosoons. Forewings elongate, posteriorly 
■lightly dilated, coata gently arched, apes obtuse, termen ronnded, 
obliqne ; whitish, strewn with pale ochreous strigolae more or less 
iiTonted with fusoous and dark fuscous; maikiogs brownish 
sprinkled with dark fuscous; thiee somewhat oblique spots from 
costa at i, middle, and }; three rather iiregnlar oblique fasoiate 
streaks from donrum, first at }-, reaching halt aoross wing, second 
from beyond middle, similar but more or less interrupted beneath its 
apex, third from lomus, more or less obsolete at tower extremity, 
reaching f across wing near termen; some small msrginal spots round 
apex and termen : cilia whitish, mixed of indistinctly barred with 
fuscous. Hindwings pale grey, strigulated with grey ; cilia whitish- 
grey, with darker subbasal shade. 

Aegentina, R. Parana; four specimens. 

Lasiothybis, n. g. 

Antennae in ^ ciliated. Forewings with 2 from J, 3 and 4 
approximated, 7 to costs, 11 from middle. Hindwings with 3 
and 4 connate, 6 hardly approximated, 6 and 7 nearly parallel. 

Apparently allied to Pharmacia. 

Lasiothyris linutula, n. sp. 

S- 9 mm. Head and thorax light ochreous, face whittsh-ochreous. 
(Palpi broken.) Anteimal ciliations 1. Abdomen grey, anal tuft 
grey-whitisL Forewings elongate, costa slightly arched, apex 
obtuse, termen rounded, oblique; light ochreous; costa marked 
with some minute indistinct dark fuscous strigulae, and with narrow 
elongate spots of ferruginous -fuscous suffusion at \ and middle : 
dorsal half suffuspd with ferruginous, more strongly posteriorly, 
with a few dark fuscous specks, crossed by some silvery-whitish 
iridescence beyond middle ; an oblique ferruginous -ochreous fascia 
from } of costa to middle of termen, preceded and followed by 
silvery -whitish iridescence : cilia ochreous, towards tips whitish- 
tinged. Hindwbigs hyaline with thinly strewn dark groy hoirscales. 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



South American Micro-Lepiioptera. 6 

tomrda tennen raSused vitb giey, veins uid t«rmin&I edge d&rk 
grey; oiliA whitish-grey. 

EcuAiK>R, Huigra, 1500 feet, in June [Pariah); one 
specimen. 

Ptitbuehnis praepositi, n. sp. 

^. 26-30 mm. Head and palpi fuscous. Anteonal ciliationa 
1|. Thorax white. Abdomen light grey. Forewingi elongate, 
posteriorly considerably dilated, costa anterioriy hardly, poBt«rioriy 
moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly rounded, rather 
oblique; silvery- white ; a rather broad somewhat oblique fusoous 
median fascia, tending to be partially interrupted above middle, 
extended along coeta as a suffnsed diminishing band t« base, on 
oosta marked with small darker spots or strignlae, in disc with some 
silvery iridescence and transverse markings of rained silvery acalee ; 
about seven dark fuscous dota on dorsal edge; a. rather curved 
traoBverae fuscous streak mixed with dark fuscous above tomua, 
and a small spot above upper extremity of this ; a triangular fuscous 
apical pateh, partially sprinkled with dark fuscous, extending over 
neariy \ of coeta and to below middle of termen : cilia grey (imper- 
fect). Hindwings pale grey, coarsely strigulated or marbled with 
grey; cilia whitish -grey. 

Colombia, San Antonio, 5800 feet, in November; two 
specimens. 

TORTRICIDAE. 
CApnk amett, n. sp. 

i^. 17 mm. Head and thorax brown, suSusedly irrorated with 
dark grey. (Palpi broken.) Abdomen grey. Porewings sub- 
oblong, costa anteriorly moderately, posteriorly slightly arched, with 
costal fold reaching nearly to J, apex obtuse, termen straight, 
somewhat oblique; ferruginous -brown, irrorated with dark grey 
costal fold and about Hvc costal spots suffused with blackish-grey 
central fascia and large triangular costal blotch represented by a 
broad indelinite general blackish-grey suffusion ; a tuft of raised 
scaJee on fold beneath middle of wing, and numerous scattered 
raised scales on surface of wing : cilia brownish, basal half spotted 
or mixed with dark grey. Hindwings grey, towards apex and upper 
part of termen paler and strigulated with darker ; cilia grey -whitish, 
with snbbasal line. 

Peru, Lima, in August {Parish); two specimens. 

iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



6 Mr. E. Mej'iick's Descriptunu <^ 

Ctpna lllsqusts, n. sp. 

$. 14 mm. Head and thor&x whitish-jellow, ant«rioi mugin 
of th<n«j( marked with brown. Palpi yellow-whitiBh, with two 
tranarerae fuscous ban on second joint, and one on base of tennuutl. 
Abdomen giey. Forewings elongate, posteriori^ dilated, oosla 
gently arched, apex obtuse, termen rounded, rather oblique; light 
brassy-yellow sprinkled with ferruginous, partially euffosed with 
eilveiy-white on margins of markings; markings lilac-brown, edged 
with some dark brown scales; a fermginous- brown spot along base 
of costs, enclosing two pale yellow atrigulac on costs ; a small 
ferruginous spot on base of dorsomi an irregular oblique fascia 
from \ of costa to below middle of wing, its extremity dibted and 
truncate ; a triangular blotch on dorsum about i ; a large spot on 
middle of costa and a smaller one beyond it, connected by a thick bar 
beneath ; a small costal spot beyond this ; an irregular fascia from 
costa before apex to tomua, including a pale yellow strigula on oosta, 
its anterior edge triangularly prominent above middle so as joat to 
touch angle of the subcoBtal bar and suSused here with fermginous, 
its posterior edge connected with termen below middle by a narrow 
bar ; some small silvery- white spots along termen and tomus : cilia 
pale yellow barred with ferruginous. Hindwings dark grey; cilia 
greyish with darker subbaaal shade. 

French Guiana, R. Maroni; one specimen. Allied to 
alumiiiias. 

Pseudatteria forniMU, n. ap. 

9. 30-38 mm. Head white spotted with black. Palpi nearly 6, 
slender, black, bssal joint white, second joint internally white. 
Thorax black, posterior margin of collar, a mark on each side of 
back, a dot in middle, and two posterior white. Abdomen black, 
segmental margins white. Forewings suboblong, moderately 
broad, costa strongly arched, apex rounded -obtuse, termen rounded, 
somewhat oblique; orange ; dorsal edge ochreoue- whitish ; a 
moderate evenly broad ochreous -white border running all round 
costa and termen, with purple-black markings as follows, viz. a 
basal bar, eight thick transverse spots crossing it between this and 
I of costa, four marginal spots round apex connected anteriorly 
by an irregular marking but first or second of these sometimes dis- 
cormected, and five semicircular marginal spots on termen, second 
conQuent with an anterior spot bo as t« form a bar crossing border; 
in one specimen a dot beneath this bar anterioriy, in the other a 
small spot above tomal spot : cilia white, barred with purple-black 
on markings. Hindwings coppery -orange, dorsum nsnowly suf- 



l„y,|,AJh,COOl^lC 



South Ammean Micro-Lepidoptem. 7 

fnaed iritb darii grey ; oine snuU nmioiroiUAr puiple-black moigiiiaJ 
■potB round «pex utd tennen; oilia whitiah, beooming oiwige 
tomrds tomtu and duk grey on domun, barred with ptir[Je- 
Uackioh on »pat«. 
Colombia, San Antonio, 6800 feet, in November; two 



CMoeda eheli^rapto, n. sp. 

(f. 13 mm. Head whitiah, aides of ototd mixed vith orinuon- 
foBcoOB. Palpi vhitiab, eli^tiy aprinkled with crimaon. Ant«uu1 
ciUatkniB }- Thor&x pale ochreoua, anterior margin aaffused 
with pnrjdiah-bniwTi. Abdomen ochreoua-orange. ForewingB tmb- 
obtong, moderately broad, rather dilated posteriorly, coata anteriorly 
gently, posteriorly hardly arched, without fold, apex obtiue, t«rmen 
•lightly rounded, neariy vertical ; pale glosay yellow-ochreous; an 
obliqne dark rcddiah-brown streak from middle of costa reaching 
half across wing, snSnsed with dork grey except on costa; a small 
dark brown spot on oosta at | : cilia whitish-ochieoua, on upper 
haU of termen aufinsed with reddish -blown. Hindwinga oohreotu- 
orange ; eilia light ochreoua. 

Fbbnch Guiana, R. Maroni ; one specimen. 

Caeoeoift MrobktlM, n. sp. 

i. 30 mm. Head blackiih-fuaooue on crown, face and palfn 
light greyiah-ochreona. Ant«nnal ciliatioiiB I. Thorax light glossy 
lilao-foBOOUa. anterior margin blackish-fuBcouB. Abdomen giey. 
Foiewings elongate, moderate, posterioriy dilated, ooata gently 
•rafaec^ without fold, apex obtuse, termen hardly obliqne, obtusely 
bent in middle; rather light purple-fuscous, finely strioUted tiana- 
Tersely with dark grey, along costa suffused with grey; an irregular 
txansrerse white spot in dise at { ; a large balloon-shaped blaokiah 
Uotoh before tennen, extending from near costa | acrosa wing, 
partially edged finely with white, especially on upper part anteriorly : 
oiUa purple-brownish (imperfect). Hindwings grey, with some faint 
da^er striguloe posteriorly ; cilia grey- 

CoLOMBiA, San Antonio, 5800 feet, in November; one 
specimen. 

Tortrli InfawnUiM, Zell. 

I think I have correctly identified this as a apecies of 
which I have eleven examples taken at Huigra, Ecuador. 
4500 feet, in June. If so, it ia a true Tortrix, very like 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



8 Hr. E. Heyiick's DtacripUont oj 

the North American peritana, bat Zeller ia not strictly 
correct in stating that the male has no costal fold; the 
costal edge is slightly rolled over on basal fonrth, and the 
posterior part of this is furnished with rather long project- 
ing scales, but so closely appressed to surface of wing as to 
be unnoticeable unless liftt^. 

Tortrix homophyla, n. sp. 

^. 12 mm. Head, palpi, and iiioras ochreoilB. Antennal oilia- 
tiouB 1. Abdomen pale whitiBh-ochreooB. Forewinga elongate, 
posteriorly somewhat dilated, costs gently aicbed, without fold, 
tffiex obtuse-pointed, t«nnen elightly Biniiat«, rather oblique; 
whitish-grey-ochreouB, stiigulatod with light giey, with several 
indistinct grey-yellowish striae ; edge of basal patch angulated in 
middle, marked with blackish in disc but obsolete towards margins ; 
central fascia moderate, oblique, grey, anterior margin straight, 
marked with blockish scales, posterior irregular and indefinite; 
costal patch large, semioval, dork grey, sending a well-marked dark 
grey line to termen below middle, continued a little down it; a 
dark grey streak along apical part of termen : cilia whitish-grey- 
ochreous. Hindwings ochreous-groy-whitieh, towards apex with a 
few grey strigulae ; cilia ochreous-grey- whitish. 

Colombia, La Cnimbre, 6600 feet, in May (Parith); 
one specimen. Very Bimilsr to preceding, yet easily dis- 
tinguished by. sinuate termen of forewings and whitish 
hindwings. besides other differences. 

Tortrlx eapnostlehs, n. sp. 

1^$. 13-16 mm. Head and thomx pale fuscous. Palpi oofareous- 
whitish sprinkled with dark fuscous. Antennal ciliations of 3 '' 
Abdomen fuscous. Forewings elongate-oblong, costa anteriorly 
moderately, posteriorly hardly arched, in (J with edge very narrowly 
rolled over from base to i and slightly rough-scaled, apex obtuse, 
termen straight, rather oblique; pale ocbreous irrorated with 
fuscous; central fascia moderate, oblique, rather dark fuacous, 
somewhat narrowed upwards, margins nearly straight, sometimes 
irregulariy interrupted above middle ; costal patch rather large, 
irregular- trapezoidal, rather dark tuBcous, with an indistinct lino 
running from it to termen below middle : cilia pale ocbreous, with 
line of fuscous irroration. Hindwings whitish, obscurely strigulated 
with groy towards apei and on termen, vein 2 and lower margin of 
cell beyond it suffused with grey ; cilia whitish. 

Peru, Lima, in August (Parish) ; six specimens. 



ih, Google 



South American Miero-LepidopUra. 9 

Torlrlz Ugnea, n. Bp. 
(J$. 16-18 mm. Head, palp, and thorax brown. AntemuJ 
aUatioiu of <^ |. Abdomen whitish-gKy. Forewingi sabobknig, 
coata vitbont fold, anteriorly strongly arched, posterioriy slightly 
sinnato, apex obtnae, termen samewhat bowed, little obtiqae ; brown, 
■omewbat tinged with fenuginona, abecorely fltaigalat«d with dark 
fuscous, especially on margins; basal pateh obeoorely darker, 
p&rtially aufinaed with dark fuscous irroration, especisJIy towards 
lower half pOBteriorly, edge angulated in middle; oential fascia 
daiker, broad, rather irregular, from before middle of oosta to 
dorsum before toruD-, narrower and irregularly mixed with dark 
fnsooua irroratioD .owarda oosta; costal pateh darker, flattened- 
triangalar, whence a thick streak runs to termen below middle; 
a short darker streak along upper port of termen ; cilia whitiah- 
oehreons, with dark brown Bubbaaal shade- Hindwings grey- 
whitish, strigulated with grey posteriorly; cilia whitish with grey 
sabbasal line. 

Ecuador. Huigra (4500 feet), Alauai {9450 feet), in June 
(Parish) ; six specimens. 

Tortrix Ossionlata, n. Bp. 

S9- lS-20 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax light brownish closely 
irrorated with dark fuscouB. Antcniml ciliationa of S 2- Abdomen 
grey. Forewings elongate, pOHteriorly dilated, costa moderately 
arched, withont fold, apex obtuse-pointed, termen somewhat 
sinuate, oblique ; brown suffusedly irrorated with grey, with inegolar 
anastomosing dark fuscous transverse striae ; the confluenoe of these 
forma a narrow somewhat curved fascia about |, a narrow irregular 
somewhat oblique fascia beyond middle, and a streak from ] of 
costa to tomoH, widest on coita : cilia whitish-fuscous, with dark 
fuscous subbaaal line. Hindwinga grey-whitish, more or less 
strigulated with grey ; cilia whitish, with grey subboaal line. 

Peru, Aqualani, in June; four specimens. 

Ealla atalodes, ii. sp. 
S- 14 mm. Head and thorax silvery-white, face, palpi, and 
sbouldera dark fuscous. Antenna! ciliations 1. Abdomen whitish. 
Forewings rather elongate, posteriorly dilated, costa slightly arched, 
straight in median ai«a, apex obtuse, termen slightly rounded, 
obUque; silvery -white, tinged with pale greenish -yellow; a dark 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



10 Hr. E. Bfeyrick'B DaenpUom r^ 

fuBcooB streak along basal fifth of costa, edged beneath b; an un- 
defined spot of pale yellow anffusion ; a laige dark fiuoous triangular 
bloteb extending on oosta from i to ^, and reaching half aorois 
wing; a emaU dark foBoous spot on oosta near apex; some light 
giey safhuion along median portion of teimen : oilia light gny, 
towards apex and tomus white. Hindwinfp pale grej, towards 
base whitish-tinged ; cilia whitish, with two pale grey linee- 

CoLOMBiA, .San Antonio, 5800 feet, in November; one 
specimen. 

Eulia melaneets, n. sp. 
$. 19 mm. Head and palpi whitish tinged with fuscous. Thorax 
iriiitisb, anterior margin inftuoated. Abdomen pale grey. Fi»e- 
wingi elongate, posteriorly slightly dilated, oosta gently arched, 
apex obtuse, termen rounded, oblique ; whitish ; costa mariced with 
a aeries of small dork grey spots, and in middle with a moderately 
large irregular spot; a dark grey patch occupying doraal half of 
wing from base to f, towards base extended to 04>sta, posteriorly with 
an irregular grey lobe above nearly reaching median costal spot 
marked with a subtriangulsj' black spot anteriorly and a black dot 
beyond this; a curved sabterminal grey streak, marked with some 
small black doU in disc ; a grey niarginal streak round apex and 
termen, marked with four small irregular black spots on Ha upper 
portion : cilia dark grey irrorated with whitish. Hindwings grey- 
whitish posteriorly marbled with grey; cilia whitish, with grey 
sabbasal line. 

Ecuador, Alaiui, 9450 feet, in June (Pariah); one 
specimen. 

Cnephisla utou, n. ep. 
^. 18 mm. Head and thorax whitish, sides of crown and shoulders 
mixed with dark fuscous. Ant«nnal ciliations }. Abdomen grey- 
whitish. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, 
termen straight, rather obUque; ochroous-whitisb, with a few 
scattered dark fuscous scales posteriorly, and some dots along coeta; 
a Bubtriangular dark fuscous spot on base of costa, and a smaller one 
at } ; a quadrate dark fuscous spot on middle of coBtA, an oblique 
fascia from dorsum before middle pointed above and reaching more 
than half across wing, and a curved elongate spot in disc beyond 
middle, these three all connected by a spot of grey suffusion; an 
irregular-trapezoidal dark fuscous spot on dorsum at J, and an 
insular bent fascia from oosta at ^ directed towards this but only 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lc 



South American Micro-L^doptera. II 

rnnrhmg half Miross wing : cilia wfaitisb (Impeifeot). HimtwingB 
oohieoiu-whitiBh; a brush of very long spreading black haino«JsB 
wiUiin odl; cilia vbitish. 

Colombia, San Antonio, 5800 feet, in November; one 
specimen. 



Ow^uuia pneelpna, n. ap. 
3. 18 mm. Head and thorax whitish. Palpi whitish, basal 
half sprinkled with dark fuscous. Anternial ciliatious J. Abdomen 
grey-whitish. Forewings elongate, posteriorly rather dilated, costa 
gently arched, apex obtuae, t«nnen nearly straight, rather obliqne; 
ochreoaa-wbitlsh, faintly tinged hei« and there with pale reddish- 
ochreooB ; markings dark f usooux ; several dote or strigulae on costa, 
and a small triangular spot at J ; a quadrate spot on middle of costa, 
an oblique fascia from dorsum before middle reaching haJf across 
wing, and a mark in disc beyond the interval between them; a 
large acute-triangular spot on doraum beyond middle ; a fascia from 
} of costa to it of dorsum, anterior edge with an irregular prcuninence 
in middle, posterior edge nearly straight : oilia ochreous- whitish 
(imperfect). Hindwings ochreous-whitisb, irregularly marbled with 
grey; cilia ochreous-whitish. 

Colombia, San Antonio, 5800 feet, in November; one 
specimen. 

Cntpbasia dentati, n, sp. 

^ 9- 13-14 mm. Head and thorax whitish, shoulden with some 
dark fusoons scales. Palpi dark fuscous, terminal joint and apex 
of second whitish. Antennal ciliations of g I. Abdomen whitish- 
grey. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, apeK obtuse, 
termen slightly rounded, lather oblique; oohreous- whitish, tinged 
here and there with light brownish ; some blackish dots or small 
atiigulae on costa ; a dark fuscous spot on base of costa, and a smaller 
one at } ; an oehreous-grey spot on middle of costa; an ochreous- 
grey inwardly oblique fascia from costa at }, reaching { across wing, 
contracted above middle, becoming pale ochreous in disc; a dark 
foeoons oblique fasciate blotch from dorsum before middle reaching 
half across wing, its upper extremity denticulate and connected 
by an irregular streak with a dark fuscous spot on dorsum at 
t ; some blackish strigulae on upper part of termen : cilia whitish, 
on upper part of termen suffused with dark grey, on costa barred 
with dark fnscous. Hindwings grey-whitish, irregulariy Btrigulat«d 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



12 Mr. E. Sbyrick'B Daaiftiaiu tf 

withgR?; eaMwUtMh. Fcaewn^ bcoMtb anfliMMl with reddiah- 

EcuADOB, Hmgia, 4500 feet, in June (Parish); two 
Bpecimene. 

Cne^iuis laaam, u. sp. 

1^. 12 mm. HcMi and tbonx wliiUsb-ocbreoua tinged with 
browniih. Palpi rotber short, whitish, irrorated with blockish. 
Antennsl cilistions 1(. Abdomen ochreons-gcej- whitish. Fore- 
wings elongate, costs slightly siched, apex obtDse, tecmen elightlj 
rounded, oblique ; whitisb-ochreona ; a broad datk grey tiansverse 
liand, mixed with reddish' blown and blackish, anterior edge nui- 
ning from ^ of coeta to beyond middle of doraiua. rather o 
potterioT edge from g of costa t« J of doisiun, slightly c 
cilia whitish^ochreons. Hindwings ocbreoiu-whitisb, poeterioriy 
iiT^^nUrly roSosed with grey ; cilia ochreous- whitish. 

Colombia, I a Ouinbre, 6600 feet, in May (Parisk); 
one specimen. 

Amorbia heliountha, n , sp. 

9. 24-26 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax deep purple-femginoiis, 
palpi 2|. Abdomen orange. Focewings oblong, coeta towards 
base very strongly arched and somewhat roughened with eoales, 
then almost straight, apex obtuse -pointed, termen almost Tertioal, 
sinuate below apex, rounded beneath; ferruginous-brown, strigu- 
lated with dark grey ; markings formed by darker ferraginous-brown 
suffusion, with purple gloss, very undefined, strewn with dark gtey 
strigulao and some small groups of bluish-grey scales; basal patch 
hardly defined, edge veiy oblique ; central fascia moderate, veiy 
oblique; a triangular apical patch, its edge running from J of costa 
to tomus, somewhat sinuate : cilia ocbreous-brown, with torruginons- 
brown basnl line. Hindwing deep orange; an apical spot of deep 
ferruginous suffusion, strigulatcd with dork grey; cilia orange, tips 
pale, round apex more or less milfuBed with deep ferruginous ; costa 
somewhat sinuate before prominent origin of cilia. 

Kbemh UriANA, li. Maroiii; eleven specimens. A 
sinjrie qj fr«ni the same locality is probably the other sex 
iif this specie^ ; tho costa of {ore\viii<:s is much less strongly 
arched, with moderately strong fold fn»m base to f, the 
hindwinfts dull light fulvous-ochreous, dee)>er posteriorly, 
with similar dark apical spot. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



South American Micro-Lepittoptera. 13 

Spa^CinotUs UlumiiutB, n. sp. 

$. 20 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fenogmoua' brownish, palpi 
4. Abdomen onnge. Forewingi oblong, costs anterioriy gtrongly 
arched, posteriorly nearly gtnight, apex obtuse, tennen Htraigbt, 
vertical ; feimginonB-hrawD with ailveiy-iridesceot-vialet reflections, 
strewn with tiansverae anastomosing greyiah-ochreons striolae with 
Htrigolse of dark fuscous scales adjoining them ; two slightly unnat« 
fine greyish -ochreous lines edged posteriorly with dark fuscous scalu, 
fintfromlotcostat« I of dorsum, second from g of oosta to tomns : 
cilia brownisb-ochreous, en termen with deep Tiolet-ferruginous 
batal line. Hindwings deep ontnge, towards apex and upper part 
of l«niien ccppery-tinged ; cilia coppery tinged with fuscous. 

French GmANA, R. Maroni; one apecimen. 

Spargsnothis sabaelds, n. sp. 

S- 15 mm. ; $. 22 mm. ^ad, palpi, and thorax greyish- 
ochreoos, slightly sprinkled with dark fuscous, palpi in :? 3, in $ 4. 
Antennal ciliations of S 1- Abdomen pale greyish-oohreous. Fore- 
wings elongate-oblong, costa anteriorly in 3 strongly arched, ah^tly 
bent oyer and roughened with scales to beyond middle, with more 
maAed subtriangular projection near base, in 9 veiy strongly 
arched, posteriorly nearly straight, apex obtuse, t«rmen slightly 
sinuate, little oblique ; biownisb^KhreouB, strewn with ferruginous- 
brown strigulae ; some blackish strignlae on costa ; in $ a ferruginous- 
brown spot on costa at i; costal pat«h elongate-triangular, ferm- 
ginous-hrown, in <J marked with black, in $ narrowly produced 
anterioriy to before middle of costa; a wedge-shaped ferruginous- 
brown streak along apical part of t«rmen, with some black scales : 
cilia light brownisb-ochreous, on termen with basal half ferruginous- 
brown. Hindwings light dull fnlTous, faintly darker-strigulated, 
in ij nther broadly suffused with grey towards dorsum; cilia 
whitish-oohreons. 

French Gitiasa, R. Maroni; two Bpecimens. 

Peronaa apheDotathra, n. ep. 
3. IB mm. Head and thonx light greyisb-ochreous sprinkled 
with fuscous. Palpi ^, funcoua, somewhat mixed with pale greyish- 
ochreouB- Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate, costa moderately 
and evenly arched, apex obtuse -pointed, tennen slightly rounded, 
oblique i pale greyish-ochreoue sufFused with light brownish; a 
wedge-shaped fuscous and grey blotch extending along basal fifth 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



14 Mr. E. Meyiick's DeBcriptioTu o^ 

of costa, reaching at bow to doTsnin; a dork leaden-grey apical 
patch irregularly spotted with dark fuscous, its edge numing from 
before middle of costa to tomne, nearly straight ; a tratuvene ridge- 
tnft on lower half of wing beyond middle, and another abore 
torouB ; gome sraall tufta at f above middle and towards apes : 
cilia grey, beneath toniiis pole greyiBh-ochreoos. Hindwings with 
6 from middle of transverse vein ; rather dark grey, lighter towaids 
base; cilia grey. 

BiuTiaH Guiana, Baitica, in Febraary [Pariah]; one 
specimen. Two other examples from the same locality 
ate in all probability the same species, the chaiacteristic 
tufts being in the same position ; in these the forewings are 
wholly fuscous with slight greenish tinge, sprinkled with 
dark fuscous, and more or less largely sufFused with dark 
leaden-grey; in one of them there is a cloudy white dot 
on costa beyond middle. 

Peronea euprata, n. sp. 

$. 13 mm. Head and thorax light greyish, patagia tinged with 
, coppery. Palpi 2, grey irrorated with whitish. Abdomen grey. 
Forewings elongate, posteriorly dilated, costa anteriorly slightly, 
posteriorly moderately arched, apex obtuse, t«rmen nearly straight, 
little oblique ; light brownish ; a leaden-grey basal patch somewhat 
8I»inkled with blackish, especially on edge towards costs, edge 
miming from ^ of costa to g of dorsum, slightly sinuate ; a broad 
t«rminal patch of deep coppery-brown suffusion, mixed with pnridisfa- 
grey suffusion, towards apex with a somewhat oblique trtuisvene 
light greyish streak and tome small spots round apical maigin, 
spaoe between these mixed with blackish ; small grey totta at angles 
(rf cell : cilia brownish irrorated with grey and grey- whitish. Hind- 
wings with 5 from middle of transverse vein; dark grey; cilia 
grey, with darker Hubbasal tine. 

British Guiana, Bartica, in January {Parish); one 
specimen. 

Peronea flexillnesua. Walk. 

British Gutana, Bartica, in April {Parish) ; ones peci- 
men. An undoubted example of this widely distributed 
Indo- Australian species, which hae not been previously 
recorded from America ; it is probably attached to some 
tree or shrub of cultivation. 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



South Amancan Miefo-Lepidopttra. 



EUCOSMIDAE. 
Spllonotft immliHiis, n. ap. 

,}9. 11-13 mm. BmA, palpi, and thonx grey irror&t«d with 
whitiih. Antoonae in <J with notuh at J. Abdomen AmA giej. 
Forewiuga elongate, po«terioiij alighU; diUt«d, coeta slight!; arched, 
in $ with strong fold from base fai middle, apex nhtuae, term w slightly 
ronnded, rather oblique; Taiying from li^t grej to pale brownish- 
ochreone, more or lees iiTomt«d with whitish, with a few blackish 
scales; some more or less developed oblique dark fuscous atrignlae 
fromcosta; int^coBtalhalf wh<^7 suffused with dark gtey from base 
to}or): cilia rather daik grey. Hindwtngs dark grey; oiliagrey, 
with daiker sabbasal shade. 

British Guiana, Mallali, in March {Parish); nine 
specimens. 

SpHonola vlridxns, n. sp. 
^ $. 12-13 mm. Head and palpi grey, pale-speokled. Antemute 
in S with not«h at \. Thorax grey, sometimee tinged with greenish 
or partially aaSused with dark fneoons. Abdomen dark grey, 
anal tuft in S grey-whitish. Forewinga elongate, poateiiorl; 
slightly dilated, coeta gently arohed, in S v>th strong fold from base 
U) beyond middle, filled with whitish hairs, apex obtuse, tennen 
slightly rounded, somewhat oblique ; grey suffused with dull greenish, 
with scattered blackish scales and short variable marks ; costa with 
short oblique blackish marks ; costal | from base to 1 in (^ mora or 
less wholly suffused with dark fuscous, this area projecting down- 
wards as an obtuse-triangular blotch marked with black crossing 
fold beneath middle of wing, preceded by a light grey tuft on fold, 
dorsal area beneath this mora or leas tinged or suffused with whitish, 
in $ tbe lower portbn and black marks of this araa appear as an 
irregular median interrupted longitudinal band ; a black longitudinal 
median streak from cell to near termen, and some shorter black 
longitudinal marks above and below this posteriorly; lateral 
margins of ocellus obecnrely indicated with leaden- metallic : cilia 
gray sprinkled with whitish and obscurely barred with dark fuscous. 
Hindwinga with 3 and 4 stelked ; dark gray, basal area aubhyaline ; 
cilia grey, with darker basal shade. 

British Guiana, Baitica, December to Februaty 
(Parish) ; twenty-seven specimens. 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



16 Mi. K. Meyrick's DescrifUons a^ 

Cbocidosema, Ze!l. 

I bad abandoned this genus, which, being originally 
founded on the single species plebeiana, seemed to be 
unnecessarily separated from Etuosma by a structure which 
could be regarded aa specific. As, however, I now describe 
iive other species undoubtedly allied to it and possessing 
the same diBtinguishing peculiarity of structure (the erect 
tuft at the base of hindwin^^ in (J), it becomes worth while 
to restore the generic validity of the group, which is 
evidently characteristic of South America, the wide dis- 
tribution of jdebeiana being doubtless due to artificial 
introduction. The interesting features of the genus would 
be concealed if merged in the extensive and cosmopolitan 
Evcosma. 

Crooldoseina rorarli, n. sp. 

1^ $. 1&-18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax grey. Abdomen in ij 
pale gnyiab-oohreoOB, basal half ochreoua-whitJBh speckled with 
black, in ? light grey. Forewings elongate, posteriorly Bomen^t 
dilated, coata gently aiehed. in S ^^^ edge shortly folded over at 
baae and large eiect tuft of scales beneath it, apex obtuse, tennen 
slightly sinuate in middle, somewhat oblique ; ptJe greyish -ochreous, 
in S sprinkled with fuscous and on costal half and towards termen 
rather suSuHed with fuscous, in $ with dorsal half suffused with dark 
fuscous from near base onwards, posteriorly extending to near 
coeta; cosla strignlated with dark fuscous, and on posterior h^f 
with pairs of indistinct whitish strigulae, two distinct white strigulae 
before apex followed by a small dark brown apical spot; in $ a 
quadrate whitish blotch on doraum beyond middle more or less 
apparent ; ocellus narrow, speckled with whitish, margined laterally 
by leaden -metallic streaks reaching more than half across wing and 
above by some more or leea developed irregular blackish maiiings, 
its apex connected with that of dorsal postmedian blotch by an 
oblique grey-whitish streak cutting off between them a triangular 
dark fuscous dorsal blotch, in £ less cleoriy indicated : cilia grey 
irrorated with whitish and blackish, towards tomus whitish. Hind- 
wings grey-whitish, in i^ towards dorsum speckled with black, lower 
margin of cell block, tuft rather short but extending nearly to vein 2, 
ochreous-whitisb, at base black, in $ suffused with grey towards 
termen; cilia whitish, with light grey subbasal line. 

Peru, Matucana, 7780 feet, in July {Parish); six 
specimens (1 (^. o 5). 



ihyCOOl^lC 



Micro-Lepidoptera. 



Croeidosenu eosmoptlla, n. np. 

^. 17 mm. Head ajid thorax grey mixed with blackkh. (Palpi 
broken-) Abdomen mostly black (partly defaced), towardsapexpale 
ochieons- ForewingB elongate, poBterioriy somewhat dilated, oosta 
gently arched, with nanow (old from base to near middle and rough 
scales beneath it basally, apex obtuse, termen slightly sinuate ia 
middle, somewhat oblique ; gKJ, mixed with whitish and suSused 
with doll greenish, on costal { dark riolet-grey ; coata blsckish, on 
posterior half with five pairs of whitish strignlaei basal patch 
suffused with blackish, undefined, cut by an irregular suffused white 
median streak from base, running int« a large trapezoidal median 
dorsal whitish blotch whose upper portion projects posteriorly so as 
almost to reach ocellus ; ocellus margined laterally by silvery-metallic 
streaks and limited above by a curved irregular outwardly oblique 
black streak, int«mally speckled with white and containing two 
block dots : cilia grey sprinkled with blackish (imperfect). Hind- 
wings dark grey, paler and thinly scaled in cell, veins dark fuscous; 
toft long, grey, posteriorly whitish, projecting downwards over an 
ochreons-yellow space surrounded with a few scattered black scales ; 
cilia grey. 

Aboentika, R. Parana, in April ; one specimen. 



CrooldOHma Impendens, n. sp. 

3 ?. 16-17 mm. Head whity- brownish, crown in J s 
suffused with dork grey. Palpi whitish. Thorax ochreous-whitisb, 
somewhat strigulated with dark fuscous, or in <} anteriorly and 
doisally suffused with dark grey. Abdomen whitish-grey. Fore- 
wings elongate, posteriorly somewhat dilated, costa gently arched, 
in (5 without fold, apex obtuse, termeu slightly rounded, faintly 
sinuate in middle, somewhat oblique; pole brovmish-ochreous; in 
(J a basal patch of dork fuscous suffusion extended on costal half 
almost to apex, on doraal half reaching to I and followed by an 
ochreous- whitish quadrate doisal blotch; in $ whole wing longi- 
tudinally streaked with dark fuscous suffusion on veins, most 
strongly subdorsally, costal and dorsal edges strigulated with 
dark fuscous; ocellos laterally margined with indistinct silvery- 
metallie streaks, containing three or four undefined block data near 
posterior edge ; cilia whitish -ochreous somewhat mixed with dark 
fuscous above middle and on base of lower part of termen, on 
coBta and a snbtomal spot dark fuscous. HLndwings whitish-grey 

TBANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1917. — PAIIT I. (NOV.) C 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



18 Mr. E. Mejrick's Deaeriptiont of 

Btngnlated witb grey; tuft in <} larg«> dense, ocbreoiu-wiiituh, 
basally BufEuaed with fuacons ; cilia whitish, with grey basal line. 

Ecuador, Alausi, 9450 feet, in June (Pnmh); three 
speciiQens. 

Croddosenui c»Ul<l», n. sp. 

,3. 17 mm. Head and palpi dark giey, collar paler. Thorax 
greyish -ochreoDB, anteriorly and centrally suffused with daric 
purpUsb-fnscouB. Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate, postenoriy 
rather dilated, costa gently arched, without fold, apex obtuse, ter- 
men slightly sinuat« in middle, little obUque ; fuscous suffused with 
purplish -grey ; basal patch suffused with dark purplish-fuscous. 
eEtending on costa to middle and on dorsum to |, followed by a 
quadrat« whitish donal blotch; posterior half of costa with five 
pain of obUque whitish strigulae, last more distinct and followed by 
a small dark fuscous apical spot ; ocellus filled witb white inoration, 
margined laterally with silvery- metallic streaks, and limited above 
by an outwardly oblique curved blackish-fuscous streak : cilia dark 
grey with rows of whitish points. Hindwings pale grey, veins and 
t«rmen suffused with darker grey ; tuft somewhat shorter and more 
extended towards dorsum than in phbeiana, grey-whitish, towards 
base suffused with blackish ; cilia grey, with dark grey basal line. 

Peri'. Choaica, 2800 feet, in July (Parish) ; one specimen. 

Croeidosenu ptiUdelplu, n. sp. 
S- 13-14 mm. Head grey, face and palpi whitish. Tbom 
dark grey. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish. Forewinp elcmgate, 
costa gently arched, without fold but witb a toft of scales near base, 
apex obtuse, termen sinuate, somewhat obUque; grey, sometimes 
tinged witb wbitisb-oclireous in disc poeterioriy ; basal patch darilc 
fuscous, extending on coeta to i and on donum to middle, edge 
obtusely angulated in middle, costal tnft grey or grey-whitish ; a 
subquadrate whitish blotch on dorsum beyond this, posteriorly 
soffused ; four or five indistinct pairs of whitish strigulae on costs 
posterioriy, with obscure oblique leaden stiigae running from them, 
a more distinct pair of white strigulae before apex; ocdtns wlitish, 
margined laterally with silvery- metallic streaks, enclosing three or 
four linear black dots, and preceded by some ochreons tinge, with 
a black subdorsal dash : cilia whitish, speckled with blackish ex- 
cept on tomns. Hindwings grey-whitish, veins and terminal ana 
suffused with grey, acterioHy semibyaline; tuft large, eit«xiding to 
basal portion of dorsum, ochreone-grey-whitiah, with a spot of grey 
raffusiMianterioriy; cilia grey-whitish, with faint gteysubbasal line. 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



South American Micro- Lepidoptera. 19 

9- 14-16 mm- DiSecB bom 1^ as follows : heAd mostly ochreoiu ; 
palpi whitish, Mcond joint euSused with gray towuda apex ; thorax 
p*le ocbnooa, putially mixed with grey; forewinga gt«yiah- 
ochreoua, paler or whitish-tinged anterioriy, Mmetimes strigulated 
with fnscooB ; lower half of basal patch more or leas mixed with 
dark fuBcons, remainder obsolete; doreal whitish blotch obsolete; 
other roarkings as in ,} : cilia euffuBed with pale ochreouB. 

Ecuador, Huigra, 4500 feet, in June; Perl-, Choaica. 
2800 feet, and Lima, 500 feet, in July and Atijrust {Parish) ; 
fortv-five specimens. The (J is easily distin^shed from 
pM>eiana by the costal tuft, dark thorax and basal patch ; 
bttt the 9, which differs much in appearance from the o- 
would sometimes be very similar to obscurely marked 
forms of that species. I have not, however, yet received 
jiebeiatta from South America. 

Eneosma proMllosB, n. sp. 

3 ?. 10-1 1 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax grey, more or less ino- 
lated or soffoaed with ochreonB'grey-whitisb, palpi moderate, aub- 
ascending, shortly rongh-scaled. Abdomen pale greyish -ochreous. 
Forewinga elongate, pOBteriorly slightly dilated, coeta slightly 
arched, in 3 without fold, apes obtuse, termen slightly sinuate, 
little oblique; dark fuscous iirorated with whitish; costa on 
posterior half with five paira of atrigulae of whitish irroration, 
fint and third pairs emitting very oblique blue-leaden strigae, 
second of these lunning to termen beneath apex, othera with short 
blue-leaden marks; a very undefined oblique patch of whitiah 
suSuaion or strigulation from middle of doisum reaching half across 
wing, aometimea little indicated; ocellus margined laterally by 
erect thick leaden -metallic streaks, and enclosing three black dots : 
cilia fuscous, with dark fuscous basal lino edged by whitish suffusion. 
Hindwings with 3 and 4 stalked ; whitish-grey, veins and a aufTused 
terminal band fuscous ; cilia whitish-grey, with darker basal shade. 

Peru, Choaica, 2800 feet, and Lima, 500 feet, in July 
and August (PamA); forty-two specimens, 

Eaeosma evldens, n. sp. 

3% 12-15 mm. Head whitish-ochreous, forehead aad collar 
sometimes spotted with fuscoua. Palpi porreclcd, second joint 
broadly rongh-acaled, whitiah-ochreoua, more or leas wholly suffused 
with fuflcouB except on a median blotch on upper portion, terminal 
joint fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous, posterior extremity whitiah- 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



20 Mr. E. MejTick'a Deaeriptiona of 

ochieoDB, patsgia more or leas suffused with whituh-ochreous. 
Ab^men fuacoua. Forewinga elongate, posteriorly slightly dilated, 
ooBta gently arched, in <J without fold, apex obtuse, t«nnen slightly 
annate, little oblique i brown, more or lees etrigulat«d with daric 
hucoua; dorsal area mote or leas miSused with dark fusooiu, with 
some indistinct whitish transveise strigalation towards base, and a 
postmedian subquadrate blotch formed of four suboonflnent whitish 
atrigae not reaching half across wing ; costa dark fuscous obscurely 
strigulated with whitish suffusion, posteriorly with more distinct 
paired white strigulae, whence arise violet-leaden oblique strigae, 
two beyond middle running respectively to anterior margin of ocelluB 
and termen above middle; ocellus margined laterally by thick 
leaden-metAlho streaks reaching more than half across wing and 
closed above by a curved black streak, internally bUckiBb closely 
speckled with white : cilia on upper part of termen blockish speckled 
with whitish, on lower part ochreous- whitish. Hindwings with 3 
and 4 stalked; rather dark grey; oiliagrey. 

British Guiajja, Bartica and Mallali, from December 
to March {Parish); Dutch Guiana, Paramaribo; Cuba. 
Holguin; twenty-two specimenB. 



EucostOA operla, n. sp. 

,J. 11 mm. Head and thorax grey. Palpi whitish, second joint 
with fuscous median spot and apical band. Abdomen fuscous. 
Forewings elongate, posteriorly rather dilated, costa gently arched, 
with moderate fold from base to beyond middle, apex obtuse, termen 
hardly sinuate, nearly vertical; brownish-grey; basal g obscurely 
strigulated with dark fuscous ; a dark brown triangular blotch extend- 
ing over posterior halt of costa, its apex reaching to lower angle of 
cell, marked with an irregular blackish longitudinal streak across it« 
middle, a blackish longitudinal mark on its margin above ocelhia, 
and on costa with four pairs of indistinct whitish strigulae whence 
rise faint oblique violet-leaden strigae; ocellus margined laterally 
by thick silvery -metallic streaks, anterior triangularly dilated 
upwards to adjoin costal blotch, internally crossed by five fine 
blackish dashes separated with whitish : cilia rather dark fuscous 
finely sprinkled with whitish, towards tomiis greyish. Hindwings 
with 3 and 4 stalked ; rather dark fuscous, near base thinly scaled ; 
cilia grey, with darker subbasal shade. 

British Guiana, Bartica, in December (P«mA); one 
Bpecim«n. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



South American Micro-Lepidoptera. 



Eneosnu religiosa, n. sp. 
S. 12 mm. Head white, aides of crown orinuon-fiucoua. FtJpi 
Bubascending, white, second jomt fuscous except rough anterior 
scales. Thorax white, patagia with a crimson-fnacous bar. Abdo- 
men grey, anal tuft grey -whitish. Forewings elongate, posteriody 
dilated, costa gently arched, without fold, apex veiy obtuse, termen 
somewhat prominent, slightly rounded; fuscous suffused with dull 
crimsoD, mixed with blackish in disc; a broad ochieous' whitish 
dorsal band occupying neaiiy half of wing, upper edge very inegular ; 
costal edge blackish with paits of whitish striguke , a violet-leaden 
striga from ^ of costa to terraen below apex ; ocellus limited beneath 
and poaterioriy by short silvery- metallic streaks not united, contMn- 
ing three ahort black marks partially surrounded by whitish : cilia 
whitish, on upper part of termen with reddish -fuscous subbasal lino, 
on tamus spotted with reddish. Hindwinga with 3 and 4 connate; 
rather dark grey ; cilia grey, with darker sobbasal shade. 

Beitish Guiana, Bartica, in January {Parish); one 
specimen. 

EncDsina ktrieapUla, n. sp. 

$. 12 mm. Head, palpi, collar, and shoulders dark fuscous, 
thorax otherwise ochreons- whitish, palpi asoending, shortly scaled. 
Abdomen dark grey. Forewings elongate -oblong, costa towards 
tase rather strongly arohed, then nearly straight, apex obtuse, 
termen hardly sinuate, nearly vertical; pale pinkish-ochreous, 
somewhat suffused with whitish anteriorly, and strigulated with 
violet-grey ; a, large rounded-triangular dark fuscous bloteh on 
dorsum slightly before middle, reaching more than half across wing ; 
an oblique ferruginous spot on middle of costa, whence a line of very 
tine transverse black and white striolation runs to near termen 
beneath apex, thence downwards to middle of termen, closely 
followed on subcostal portion by a very fine violet line ; coata 
beyond this with three small deep ferruginous marks separated by 
white strigulae, and then a wedge-shaped deep fciruginous spot 
occupying apical portion and cut transversely in middle by a dark 
leaden mark : cilia pale ochreoue. with interrupted violet-groy 
baa^ line, round apex dark brown with blackish basal line. Hind- 
wings with 3 and 4 connat« ; dork gi«y; cilia grey, tinged with 
whitish towards tips. 

British Guiana, Baitica, in Febraary (Parish); one 
specimen. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



22 Mr. E. Meyrick's Descriptions ^ 

Euoosma digni, n. sp. 

S- 11-12 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fulvous, palpi ascending, 
Bbortly scaled. Abdomen dark grey. Forewings elongate, pos- 
teriorly somewhat dilated, costa gently arched, without fold, apex 
obtuse, termen nearly straight, almost vertical ; fulvous, irregulariy 
ietioulat«d with rather dark violet-fuacous, costal area on posterior 
halt suffused with deep ferruginous ; costa strigulated with blackish, 
and on posterior j with whitish ; an iiregolar blackish line, angu- 
lated in middle and suffused with deep ferruginous, from | of costa 
to J of dorsum ; a slender oblique blackish streak from middle of 
costa reaching nearly half across wing, somewhat angulated near 
its extremity, with a tine acute projection from angle posteriory, 
followed by two small block marks; a short oblique blue-leaden 
striga running to tennen below apex, finely edged with ochreous- 
whitish beneath; ocellus Lmited beneath by a leaden dash and 
posterioHy by a leaden -metallio streak edged externally with 
ochreoua- white, and enclosing three strong black dots; oilja fulvous, 
on t«rmen with a leaden line, on tomus spotted with dark grey at 
base. Hindwings with 3 and 4 connate or short-stalked; dark 
fuscous ; cilia grey, with darker subbastJ shade. 

British Guiasa, Bartica, in December {Pamh); two 
specimens. 

Eueosraa ortygia, n. sp. 

35. 17-18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish -ochieous 
variably spotted or suffused with reddish -fuscous, palpi ascending, 
shortly rough-scaled. Abdomen dark grey. Forewmgs elongate, 
posteriorly dilated, costa gently arched, without fold, apes obtuse, 
lermen straight, nearly vertical; whitish -ochrcous strigulatcd with 
rcddlsh'fuscous mixed with dark fuscous, towards costa and pos- 
teriorly or sometimes wholly suffused with ochrcous-bronD ; costa 
strigulated with blackish and posteriorly with whitish; short 
violet-leaden marks from posterior pairs of whitish strigulae, and 
a striga from | of costa to termen beneath a]icx; ocellus limited 
beneath by a dark fuscous dash and posteriorly by a thick leoden- 
metollic streak edged externally with ochreous -whitish, containing 
three strong black dots or short dashes : cilia whitish-ochreous with 
reddish-brown line, broken up on tornus. Hindwings with 3 and 4 
connate; dark fuscous; cilia grey, tinged with whitish towards 
tips, with darker subbasal shade. 

British Guiana, Bartica and Mallali, from December 
to March {Parish); eleven specimens. The allied species 
transferrana. Walk. {= descriplana, Walk. = vincentana. 



ll,y,l,/eJh,G00t5lc 



South American Mtcro-Lepidoptera. 23 

WaU.). metaapilana. Walk., and leucomesana, Walk., were 
all received from Bartica in good series. 

Euoosma prudeiu, n. sp. 

t? $. 16 mm. Head in ^ ochieooB-wbitiBh somewhat spotted with 
duk fiucfxis, in $ ochieons spotted or almoet wholly suffosed with 
dark fnscona. Folpi subsacending, shortly rougb'Scaled, whitish, 
wcond joint soffiued with reddish 'fuscous except towards apex, 
baw of terminal joint dark fuscous. Thorax whitish more or lees 
mixed or suffused with fuscous, anterior fourth dark fuscous. Abdo- 
men dork grey, anal tuft in ^ grey- whitish. Forewings elongate, 
posteriorly dilated, coeta gently arched, without fold, apex obtuse, 
termen somewhat sinuate, vertical; fuscous, sprinkled with dark 
fuscons and blackish, in ^ irregularly mixed and sufFusedly striated 
with whitish, doisal half in $ suSnsedly striated with violet-leaden- 
grey; costa marked with paira of whitish atdgala«, and small 
blackish spote between these; edge of hssal patch indicated by 
an irregular dark fuscous streak, ongulated in middle, across fold 
with a blockish mark edged posteriorly with white ; central fascia 
Teiy irregolar, obUque, dork fuscous, suffused, only distinct on costa ; 
four bine-leaden oblique marks from pairs of costal whitish strigulae 
posteriorly, second running as a striga to termen beneath apex, edged 
beneath with white posteriory, others short; termen nonowly 
fnlvous -brown, with a fine oblique white stT^:ula before apex; 
ocellus Umited beneath by a whitish line and posteriorly by a 
leaden- metallio streak edged eztemally with white, and enclosing 
two btaok dote : cilia whitish, greyish towards tips on termen, with 
a leaden sabbasal line broken on temus. Hindwings with 3 and 4 
connate ; dork grey ; cilia grey- whitish, with grey subbasal line. 

Peru, Lima, in August {Parish) ; three specimens. 

Polyehrosis araucea, n. sp. 
^ $. 11—13 mm. Head, paJpi, and thorax ochreous- whitish or 
whitish-ochreous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft of ^ grey-whitish. 
Forewings elongate, posteriorly somewhat dilated, coste gently 
arched, apex obtuse, termen nearly straight, rather oblique; pale 
ochreons or whitish-ochreous ; costa with whitish strigulae, more or 
less sprinkled with blackish between them ; dorsal edge with very 
small blackish strigulae; a more or less developed blotch of darker 
suffusion about fold indicating angle of basal patch ; an oblique rather 
narrow deeper ochreous or brownish fascia from middle of costa 
reaching half aoroea wing, and some undefined sufCusion towards 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



24 Mr. E. Meyrick's Dexcri'pliont of 

domim beyond middle, seldom forming & diatinct tranarene blotch ; ' 
Hometimes a patch of blAckieh irrorKtion on coata beyond thia, or an 
oblique streak of blackislr irroration from above middle of disc to 
dorsum before tomns, or more undefined blackish irroration towards 
dorsum generally and across wing beyond middle, all very Tariablo 
and sometimes wholly absent ; a deeper ochreoua or brownish 
transverse spot on tomus, and a wedge-shaped upwards-ohUque 
streak from middle of termen, both often very faint; a slender 
streak of ftne blackish transverse striation along termen : cilia 
whitish or whitish -ochreous, with ochreous subbasal shade. Hind- 
wings groy-whitiBh, thinly-scaled, veins and termen suffused with 
grey ; cilia whitish, with faint grey aubbasal line. 

Ecuador, Duran, low swampy couotr)', in June {Parish) ; 
twenty-three specimeriB. Varies remarkably, but easy of 
recognition. 

Polychrosis oxymochla, n. sp. 

3 $. 12-14 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark grey. Abdom^ 
pale grey, anal tuft of ,$ grey-whitish. Forcwings elongate, pos- 
teriorly rather dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, t«nnen 
almost straight, rather oblique; dark fuscous finely speckled with 
whitish, variable in development ; costa strigulated with blaokish- 
fuscooa, with some small spots; basal patch dark grey, edge blackisb- 
fuBCOUB, angulated in middle, oft«n interrupted above angle, some- 
times followed by a fascia of grey-whitish suffusion; an oblique 
rather narrow blackish -fuscous fascia from before middle of 
coeta, reaching more than half across wing, extremity pointed; a 
quadrate blackish -fuscous blotch on dorsum before middle: a 
moderate blackish -fuscous fascia from below middle of termen 
obliquely upwards towards f of costa but not reaching it : cilia 
rather dark fuscous speckled with whitish, with blackish-fuscous 
subbasal line. Hindwings grey, lighter towards base, vems and 
termen darker-suffused ; cilia pale grey, with dark groy subbasal line. 

Perc, Lima, in August {Parish); twenty-eight speci- 
mens. Varies considerably in distinctness of niarkin<^: 
nearly allied to the preceding, notwithstanding difference 
of colouring. 

Bactn serla, n. sp. 

i. 18-21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax pale brownish -ochreous. 

palpi 3. Ant«nnal ciliations }. Abdomen light grey, anal tuft pale 

greyish -ocbreons. Forewings elongate, rather narrow anteriorly, 

posteriorly rather dilated, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse- 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



SoMh Ammoan Micro-Lepidoplera. 25 

pomted, tennen faintly sinuate, rather oblique; whitish-ochreoos 
tinged with browniah, tending to be nuu^ed with fine fnacoiu lines 
on veins, and fine brownish lines between veina; costs obUqnely 
Rtriguloted with brownish and fnaoous ; dorsal edge with a series of 
cloudy dark fnscous dots or marks ; some dark fusoona irroration 
towards lower margin of cell, tending to form dark fuaoous lines on 
veins, with a more or less developed irregular dark fuscous spot at 
}, sad one or two cloudy 6eak fuscous marks on end of oelli a 
more or leas developed triangular spot of fuscous suffusion on 
lennen bmeatb apex : cilia whitish-odueooa sufhised with grey, 
with obscure dark grey bars. Hindwings whitish-grey or light grey, 
somewhat darker posteriorly ; cilia grey- whitish, with grey snbbaml 

Peru, Aqualani; three Bpecimens. 

Ai^ropIoM fueta, n. sp. 

0*9' 13-14 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous -whitish suf- 
fnsedly spotted or marbled with red-brown. Abdomen dark giey, 
anal tuft of 3 grey-whitish. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, 
costa moderately arched, somewhat bent beyond middle, apex 
romided, termen rounded, somewhat oblique; ochreous-whitish to 
light of^treoua-brownish, irregutarly strigulated with brown-reddish 
and leaden-gi«y; basal patoh and central fascia coarsely strigulated 
with black but very indefinite, on coste suffused with dark tad- 
brown, edge of basal patch irregular, somewhat curved, central 
fascia l»oadeDing downwards, rather oblique ; beyond central fascia 
a very irregular blue-leaden stria; posterior half of ooeta black with 
vrhite strigulae, whence rise short blue-leaden marks, and a sinuate 
bhie-leaden stnga from jj of costa running to termen beneath apex. 
snbcoatal area round these deep fulvous or ferruginous; beneath 
this a cnrved dark red-brown fasoiate psteh crossed by black lines 
on veins extending to near termen below middle, its lower extremity 
followed by a blue-leaden terminal mark ; a very fine black terminal 
line ; cilia pale red-brownish, deeper towards base, spotted with 
lesden-grcy. Hindwings with 3 and 4 connate; blackiah-gi«y ; 
cilia grey, with dark grey subbasol shade. 

Bnmsii Guiana, Bartica, from January to April 
(Parish)', five specimens. 

Argyroplooe oataphracta, n. sp. 

ij$. 14^16 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, head 

tinged with crimson. Abdomen dark grey. Posterior tibiae in ^ 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



26 Mr. E. Meyrick's Desa-tpUom of 

clothed with long dense whitiBh haira above. Foiewin^ auboblong, 
rather broad, coeta anteriorly strongly, posteriorly slightly arohed, 
apex rounded, tennen rounded, slightly oblique; dark crimson, 
fuscous; hasal patch, lower half of central fascia, and an imgnlar 
patch above tomus marbled with dark blue-leaden; a whitish- 
ochroous elongate- triangular patch ezt«nding over poBt«rioi' half 
of costs, more ochreonB towards costa, anterior side tongeet, marked 
with an iridescent- violet-silvery streak dilated downwards, costs) 
edge deep ferruginous with five pairs of oblique white strigulae, a 
blue-leaden striga running from fourth pair obliquely across apex, 
apex suEFused with deep ferruginous round this; a very fine black 
terminal line, partly edged with silvery ant«rioriy : oilia leaden- 
grey, basal half deep ferruginous except towards tomfta. Hindwings 
with 3 and 4 comiate ; dark grey ; cilia grey, with dark grey haaal 
shade; dorsal edge in S thickened and rather contorted, with long 

British Guiana, Bartica, from December to February 
(Parish); seventeen specimens. 



Argyroploce eymotoma, n. sp. 
iJQ. 13-14 mm. Head whity- brownish, sides marked with dark 
red-brown. Palpi whitish, second joint suffused on lower part with 
grey, on upper part with red-brown marked with black. Thorax 
whitish mixed withgrey and irregularly spotted with dark red-brown, 
Bometimes much suffused with dark fuscous. Abdomen dark grey, 
anal tuft of S grey- whitish. Forewings elongate, posteriorly dilat«d, 
costa moderately arched, apex rounded-obtuse, termen rounded, 
nearly vertical ; red-brownish ; baa^ patch mixed and strigulated with 
white, spotted with black on its lower portion, suffused with fuscous 
on dorsum, marked posteriorly on costa with a dark red-brown 
blotch ; beyond this a somewhat angolated fascia of white striation, 
on costa forming a more conspicuous white blotch, followed on 
coHta by a dark red-brown blotch, narrow on costa aad produced 
posteriorly into a long acute prominence ben^th costs, and on 
domum by a triangular brown blotch edged with white; costa 
posteriorly dark red-brown with pairs of whitish strigulae, with 
more or less orange suffusion beneath these, and a sinuate blue- 
leaden striga running from edge of costel blotch to termen beneath 
apex, edged beneath with whitish posteriorly; ocellus narrow, 
whitish -speckled, containing three black marks and enclosed 
laterally by broad' erect spots of pale purplish iridescence : oilia 
red-brownish, on termen darker towards base. Hindwings with 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



SotUh American Micro-Lepid&plem. 27 

3 and 4 connate, 5 very closely approumatod ; dark grey; oilia 
grey, with darker aubfaosal shade. 

British Guiana, Bartica, in January and February 
{Parish) ; five specimens. Allied to alinmacula, Wals. 



Argyroplooe nonwei, n. sp. 
1$ $. ft-lO mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen dark leaden' 
grey. Foreiringe eloDgate-triangular, coata gently arched, spei 
obtnie, tennen rounded, little oblique ; dark leaden-grey; markinga 
blackish-fuscous; small spots along coata, separated by gioupa of 
two or three very fine indistinct whitish strtgulae; some scattered 
marks and Btrigulae on baaal area; an irregular streak from } of 
cOHta to j of domum, sharply angulated in disc; central fascia 
narrow, oblique, nearly straight or slightly curved, in one specimen 
thicker on lower half 1 ocellas containing three black dots, and closed 
above by a rounded -triangular blotch : cilia grey, with dark fuscous 
aubbaaal line. Hindwings with 3 and 4 connate; dark fuscous; 
cilia whitifih-grey, with dark fusooua subbasal line. 

British Guiasa, Bartica, from December to February 
(Parish); six Bpecimene. 



Argyroploee cyelidios, n. sp. 

^. 12 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax grey, patAgia terminating 
in expansible tufts of broad scales. Abdomen dark grey. Fote- 
wingB elongate, posteriorly dilated, costa gently arched, apex 
obtuse, termen rounded, nearly vertical; grey, mostly aulTused 
with glossy blue-leaden between the markings; markings blackish- 
fuscous, finely edged with white laterally and above ; some small 
marks and spots along costa; an irregular subcostal streak from 
base to 1 : a large rounded blotch extending on dorsum from near 
bsae to middle, and reaching more than half across wing; a smaller 
rounded praetomal blotch, not teaching half across wing; an 
irregular rather thick bisinuate streak from above middle of disc 
to near termen above middle : cilia grey, on termen with blaekish 
basal line. Hindwings with 3 and 4 connate; dark fuscous; cilia 
whitish-gKy, with dark fuscous subbaa&l line; dorsum with a short 
much thickened lobe clothed with soalee. 

British Gxhasa, Bartica, in December {Parish) ; one 
specimen. 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



28 Mr, E. Meyrick's Deacripliom of 

Argyroploce platyzona, n. sp. 

t^. 16 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax blackish -fuscoua. Abdomen 
dork grey. Fotewingi suboblong, moderately bioad, costa moder- 
ately arched, apex obtuse, tennen rounded, little oblique; rosy- 
ochreoDB, slightly sprinkled with daik fuscous on veins posteriorly; 
coeta with small blackish marks edged with whitish; basal patch 
blaokish-fuscoue, edge nearly straight, space between this and cen- 
tral fascia suffused with ochreous-whitish, of even width; central 
fascia blaokish-fuscous, moderate on casta, becoming very broad 
downwaids, anterior edge straight, posterior evenly curved, finely 
edged with whitish; a fine black whitish-edged streak along upper 
part of termen, with a strong oblong projection inwards beneath 
apex; a few leaden-grey strigulae in region of ocellus : cilia dark 
grey with blackish basal line, with Ught rosy-ochreous tomal patch. 
Hiudwings with 3 and 4 connate ; dark grey ; cilia grey, with darker 
basal line. 

Feench GriANA, R. Maroni; one specimen. 

Argyroploce Impolita, n. np. 

S- 24 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax rather dark brownish, tinged 
with reddish, especially on patagia. Abdomen grey. Porewinp 
lather elongate -triangular, moderate, costa moderately arched, apex 
obtuse, tennen haidly sinuate, little oblique ; rather dark brownish 
marbled with bluish-leaden on basal half ; basal patch edged with 
a suffused dark fuscous streak, obtusely angulated on fold; two 
pairs of whitish Btrigolae on costs between this and central fascia, 
and a blotch of whitish suffusion beneath these; central fascia 
broad throughout, dark fuscous, oblique, foUowed on upper portion 
by orange-ochtcoua sufFusion more extended posteriorly beneath 
coata, and on tomal area by a patch of whitish suffusion; costa 
posteriorly dark fuscous, with pairs of indistinct whitish strigulae; 
apical area ochreous-browDish : cilia fuscous, on tornus mixed 
with whitish. Hind wings with 3 and 4 connate; grey; cilia grey, 
towards tips whitish -tinged. 

Colombia, San Antonio, 5800 feet, in November; one 
specimen. 

GELECHIADAE. 

Anomoxena, n. g. 

Head smooth; ocelli absent; toitgue developed. Ant«nnae g, 

in i^ simple, basal joint moderate, without peoten. Labial palpi 

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Soath American Micro-Lepidopiera. 29 

Icxig, Tecmred, second joint thiokened with whorls of scaleA TOUghty 
projecting beneath or with whorla forming separate aonte projecting 
teeth of BCaJea, terminal joint as long as second or somewhat shorter, 
slightly thickened with scales, acute. Maxillary palpi minnte, 
filiform, appressed to tongue. Posterior tibia« clothed with rough 
projecting hairs above aitd beneath. Forewings with 16 furcate, 
2 from angle, 2-5 parallel, transverse vein very oblique outwards 
from 2 to fi, faint between 5 and 6, 6 and 7 stalked, 7 t« oosta, 8 
separate, appnndnutted to 6 at hose, 11 from near middle. Hind- 
wingB g, narrow-Uapemidol, apex acute, more or less strougly pro- 
dnoed, termen emarginate beneath apex, cilia 4; 2 remote, 3 and 4 
nearly parallel, 4 from angle, 4 and 6 somewhat approximated, 6 
and 7 approximated at base. 

Type sjnnufera. A remarkable genus, diiTeriiig from the 
whole of the family in having vein 8 of the forewings 
separate instead of stalked with 7; the atructiire is un- 
questionable, since all the veins are present, and is alike in 
both species. Nor can there be any question that the genus 
belongs to this family, and to the most advanced type of 
it, since the highly characteristic hindwin;^ (similar to 
those of Arislotelia) are foimd in no other. The genus must 
be supposed to have arisen from Aristotdia or a form of 
similar structure, and the peculiarity of aeuration can be 
explained by the reduction and eventual absorption of 
the stalk of 7 and 8 and apparently in this way only. 
I regard it therefore as a proved instance of a atruc- 
tuial change which is certainly rare, and would usually be 
difficult of demonstration. 

AnomoMDE splnlgers, n. sp. 
S $. 10 mm. Head ochreous-wbitish, crown with a few dark 
fnscons specks. Palpi whit«, second joint with eight rather long fine 
whorl-teeth edged with block above, terminal joint with block rings 
near boM and above middle. Antennae white ringed with black, 
towards apex with seveiaJ norrow grey black-dotted bands separated 
by single whit« rings. Thorax ochreous-wbitish, dorsally finely 
striated transversely with blackish. Abdomen blackish-grey. 
Forewings narrowly elongat« ■ lanceolate ; pole ochreous irr^ularly 
irrorated with blackish; an inwardly obUque slender fascia of 
blackish suffusion from costa at jj, not ot scarcely reoching dorsum ; 
costal area from this to apex fulvous, without dark irroration. with 
four oblique fine wedge-shaped pole ochreous streaks posteriorly 
edged with black : cilia grey, round opex whitish with three curved 



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30 Mr. E. Meyrick's Descriptions oj 

daj-k grey lines and a straight nther oblique black bar at base. 
HindwingB dork grey ; cilia gray. 

Colombia, La Crumbre, 6600 feet, in May {Parish) ; 
three specimens. 

Anomoxena tetraxoa, n. sp. 

(} ¥. 8 mm. Head and thorax nhitish-ochreous with a few dark 
faacoiu specks. Palpi white, second joint with four oonfnaed whorifl 
towards apes roughly ptrojecting beneath, irrorsted with dark fuscous 
on these, terminal joint with basal and median rings of dark fuscous 
iiToration. Antennae white ringed with dark grey, towards apes 
with bands of two dark rings separated by single whit« rings. Ab- 
domen grey. Forewings narrow-lanceolate ; light ochreous irrorated 
with dark fuBcous; a slender inegular inwardly oblique fascia of 
blackish sufFusion from f of costa, and undefined blotches at tomus 
and apex; costal area posteriorly narrowly orange, with four short 
slender oblique pale greyish-ochieous streaks edged posterioriy 
with blackish ; cilia light giey, ronnd apex speckled with black, 
with a rather oblique straight black basal line acrosa apex. Hind- 
wings and oilia light grey. 

Ecuador, Huigra, 4500 feet, in June {Parish); four 
specimens. 

Arlstotollk aulonota, n. sp. 

^ $. 7-9 mm. Head and thorax ochreous -white, pata^ dork 
fuscous. Palpi white, baaol f of second joint dark fuscous. Abdo- 
men grey, apex whitish. Forewings elongate -lanoeolat« ; 7 and 8 
out of fl; dark fuscous, slightly pale-freckled except on edge of 
dorsal streak ; a rather broad whitish -ochreous streak along dorsum 
from base to beyond tornus, posteriorly pointed, upper edge with 
two OF three slight irregular prominences ; a small whitish -ochreous 
Spot on costa at f ; cilia fuscous, blockish -sprinkled, towards tomua 
ochreous -whitish. Hindwings light grey, in j with expansible pencil 
of long ochreous- whitish hairs from costa near base; cilia grey- 
whitish. 

Ecuador, Duran, low countn.', in June {Parish) ; three 
specimens. 

Ailstottlia plumabt, ». sp. 

39' 10-11 mm. Head and thorax glossy grey or dark grey. 

Palpi dark fuscous, very finely lined with white irroration, terminal 

joint longer than second. Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate. 



Ij.y.l.AjhyCOO'^lL' 



South American Micro-Lepidoptera. 31 

naiTow, costs moderately uched, apex pointed, terraen extremely 
obliqnelj rounded; 6 separate; grey, sprinkled with blaokiah and 
tinged hen and there with whitish ; pUcal and second diacal stigmata 
moderate, achreous, edged with black marks above and beneath, 
first diBcal small, block, obliqnely beyond plical; tJiiok cloudy 
femiginonB-blBckish obliqne tasciate ban from coeta at J, }, middle, 
and }, reaching aboat hall across wing, second terminated by plical 
■tjgma, third shorter but with a more oblique projection reaching 
to apex of fourth, both these terminated by second discal stigma, 
fourth being little oblique; a cloudy darker spot on tomus; an 
irregnlor blackish praeapical blotch : cilia light greyish, with two 
blackish lines. Hindwings grey; cilia light grey; in ^ with two 
or three expansible enormonsly enlarged shuttle'Shaped pearly 
Bcalea (i length of wing) from towards base l3dng along oosta above, 
and a very large elongate chitinous process projecting obliquely 
from costa near base, beneath black and concave to receive a fine 
pencil of long hairs, partially covered beneath by a fringe of much 
enlarged flat pearly prismatic scales, the remainder covered by a 
fringe of very long ecalee projecting downwards from beneath costa 
of iorewings on basal |. 

British Guiana, Bartica, in December and January 
{Parish); eight specimens. The curious and exception- 
ally complex apparatus for protecting the scent- producing 
haiipencil of the hindwings suggests that the perfume is 
in this species unusually volatile and precious. 

Arlstotolla eryeina, n. sp. 

S $. ^10 mm. Head whitish -ochreous, sometimes sprinlded 
with fuscous. Palpi ochreous-nhitish, second and terminal joints 
each with two dark fuscous bands. Thorax pole greyish -ochreous 
sprinkled with dark fuscous. Abdomen whitish -ochreous more 
or less suffused with grey. Forewings elongate, narrow, oosta 
slightly aiohed, apex obtuse -pointed, termen extremely obliquely 
rounded; 6 separate; pale greyish, snffusedly irrorated with dark 
fuscous, irrognlaily tinged and spotted with light rose-pink; a very 
obliqne suffused blackish streak across fold about I, and an oblique 
blackish streak from costa to pLical stigma, space between these 
and towards doisnm anteriorly sometimes suffused with pale ochre, 
ous; stigmata black, rather elongate, plical obliquely before first 
discal; two or three small pole marks on costa towards ajiex; a 
more or le«s developed longitudinal blackish streak from second 
discal stigma : cilia pale greyish, with blackish subbaaal line round 
apex interrupted with pale losy-tinged spots on tomus, and dark 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



32 iSr. E. Meyrick's Descriptions of 

grey postmedian shade. Hindwings grey, in i^ with a HtreaJi of vwy 
fiiw bUckish-grey itriation along eubmedian groove ; cilia light grey. 
Forewings in ^ beneath with costal edge slightly refleied and rough- 
ened from near base to f, with a more or lesa developed patch of 
pale ochreous towards this anteriorly, rest of wing euCFiued with 
rather dark fuscous. Hindwings in 3 beneath greyiah^ochreooa, 
■uSused with rather dark fuscous towards costa posteriorly, and 
with a atieak of very fine blackish striation eJong submedian groove 

Ecuador, Huigra, 4500 feet, in June; Peru, ChoHica, 
2800 feet, in July (Parish) ; twenty-five specimeiia. 

AristolelU cyttaeiMa, n. sp. 

(J $. 8-10 mm. Head pale greyish .ochieouB. Palpi ochreoua- 
whitish, second and terminal joints each with two dartc fuscous 
bands. Thorax pale greyish KKhreous sprinkled with dark fuscous. 
Abdomen grey, anal tuft of 3 whitish Kwhreous. Forevringa elongate, 
narrow, costa gently arched, apes obtuse -pointed, t«niien extremely 
obliquely rounded; 6 separate; pale greyiah-ochreous suffosedly 
irrorated with dark fuaooUB, more or less tinged with rosy-crimson, 
especially posteriorly; stigmata strong, blackish, somewhat elon- 
gate, more or lees accompanied with spots of yellow .ochreous sufiusioo 
beneath and second discal also above, pUcol obliquely before Siat 
discal, an oblique suffused dork fuscous streak from costa to pliool ; 
two small pale spots on costa at | : cilia pale ochreous, with blackish 
Bubbaaol line interrupted on tomus with pale sometimes rosy-tinged 
spots and grey postmedian shade, towards tomus greyish-tinged. 
Hindwings grey; in ^ with expansible fringe of long grey-whitish 
hairs from costa near base; cilia light grey. Forewings in 3 with 
costal edge on anterior half ochreous- whitish and folded over 
beneath. 

Colombia, t'ali, 500 feet, in May (Parish) ; thirty 
flpecimens. 

Arlstotella eynthia, n. ap. 
3 $. 10-12 mm. Head whitish-ochieous. Palpi whitish, second 
and terminal joints each with base and two t>anda iirorat«d with dark 
fuscous. Thorax pale ochteous irrorstod with dark fuscous. Abdo- 
men grey, anal tuft of a P^lc ochreous. Forewings elongate, narrow, 
costa gently arched, apex pointed, termen extremely obliquely 
rounded; fl separate-; white irrorated with dark fuscous, doiaal 
half suffused with grey and partially mixed with ochreous; broad 



Ij.y.l.AjhyCOO'^lL' 



Souih American Mioro-Lepidojilera. 33 

blackuh-fnscons obliqoe ban from costa at i and ^ to fold, aooond 
m&rgined beoeatb by & brownish -ochreona mafk; a BubtruDguIar 
flark tuocoue blotch on costa beyond middle, tenniuated beneath by 
a brownish-ochreoOB mark; a BufiuBed dark fuscous apioal blotch, 
sometimes connected with preceding in disc but separated from it on 
coHta by a whitish spot : cilia whitish, sometimes with faint loej or 
ochreous tinge at base, with two wide sometimes oonfloent grey 
shades, on coeta wholly dark grey. Hindwings dark slaty-grey, 
pale in cell; cilia in <; whitish-ochreoos, in $ light greyish; in ^ on 
basal hall of costa with eztremdy long expansible cilia. Forewittge 
and hindwings beneath'in both sezes blackish-tinged, (orewings in 
^ clothed with ochreona bain in disc. 

Pebd, Lima, in August (Parish) ; sixteen specimens. 

AristotelU satnrnlna, n. sp. 

<J$. 11-12 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen grey. Palpi 
whitish or sometimee niffuaed with grey, second with two dark 
fnscons bands, terminal joint considerably longer than second, suSus- 
edlj lined with dark fuscous. Foiewings narrowly elongate-lanceo- 
late; 6 separate; rather dark fuscous, sometimes whitish-speckled, 
dorsal area more or less sufiused or marked with ochreous; obscure 
darker oblique bars from costa at } and i to fold, matked with black 
on fold, more or less edged with whitish towards one another ; discal 
stigmata blackish with a suffused hrowniah-ochreous streak beneath 
them ; a suffused pale brownish-ochreous spot on costa at { : cilia 
grey or grey-whitish, with two darker grey lines, towards base 
sprinkled with blackish or dark fuscous in indistinct bars. Hind- 
wings grey; cilia light grey; in (^ with basal portion of costa cloth^ 
with much longer expansible pale greyish cilia. 

Pkbu, lima, in August {Parish) ; ten specimens. 

AristotelU perfossa, n. sp. 

3 9- 10-12 mm. Head and thorax ochreous- whitish irrorated 
with foscons. Palpi whitish, second and terminal joints each with 
base, two bands, and tip dark foscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft 
of 3 whitish -ocbreons. Forewings elongate-lanceolate; 6 separate; 
whitish irrorated with dark grey; oblique bara of blackish suffusion 
from costa at ^ and ^, just crossing fold, plical stigma forming an 
elongate black mark on end of second; discal stigmata black, first 
obliquely beyond pUcal, second indistiQctly edged with ochreous 
beneath ; a suffused white spot on costa at j ; sometimes some indis- 
tinct ochreous marking near tomus ; cilia whitish, round apex with 

TKANS. ENT. SOO. LOND. 19X7. — PART I. (NOV.) D 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



34 T£i. £. Meynck's Deacriptioni of 

two dark fnacous Udm. HiiidwiDgigrey; cilia pole greyiob. Hind- 
wingi in S bwMth with ezponatble bruah of long light oohieouB Iwiim 
beneath basal portion of coato, and ainular hain clothing doisum aod 
tennen from base to beyond middle of wing.' 

Ecuador, Huigra, 4S00 feet, in June ; Peru, Chosica, 
2800 feet, and Lima, in July and August (Parish) ; thirty- 
five apecimene. 

ArlstotoUa piphfa, n. sp. 
S $. 10-12 mm. Head roej-whitiBb, more or teas or eometiiBea 
wholly Bufimed with grey. Palpi white, with two banda of seoond 
joint, and two bands and anterior edge of terminal joint blackish. 
Thorax grey, sometimes rosy-tinged, shoulders darker. Abdomen 
grey, apex yellowish or rosy. Forewinga narrowly elongate-lanceo- 
late ; 6 separate ; rather dark grey, dorsal area more oi leas mixed 
tnffosedly with light crimson-pink and sometimes with light oohie- 
ous; blackish oblique bars from costa at | and i, just crosmng fold, 
first posteiiorly and second on both sides more or leas distinotly 
edged with whitish tinged with criinBon-pink ; a rosy-white mark on 
middle of oosta; discal stigmata black, first sometimca oonneoted 
with apex of preceding bar, second larger, edged beneath by a light 
yeUow-ochieous spot; a pale rose-pink spot on costa at j, white 
on costal edge : cilia whitish-grey, with three dark grey lines, tips 
whitish. Hindwings grey; cilia light greyish. 
Peru, Chosica, 2800 feet, in July {Parish); sixteen 



ArlstotoUa aphUIra, n. sp. 
3 $- 10-12 mm. Head fuscous more or less mixed with whitish. 
Palpi Tety long and slender, whitish, second and terminal joints 
each with base and two bands dark fuscous. Thorax fuscoua nuxed 
with dark fuscou«, somewhat sprinkled with whitish. Abdomen 
grey, anal tuft whitiah. Forewin^ narrowly elongate-lanceolate; 
6 separate ; grey sprinkled with dark fuscous and whitish, dorsal area 
suffused with brownisb.ochreous ; oblique dark fuscous bars from 
costa at i and i to fold, space between these sometimes more mixed 
with white; a dark fuscons trapezoidal blotch narrowed downwards 
on costa about {, edged beneath by a brownisb-ochreous spot, beycmd 
this a white spot on costA, produced along margin of blotch, followed 
by a dark fuscous apical blotch : cilia whitish with two grey shades, 
on base spotted with dark fuscous irroration. Hindwings grey ; cilia 
pale greyish. 

Peru, Matucana, 7780 feet, in July (PomA); th»e 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lL' 



South Anurican Micro-Lepidoplera. 35 

Bpeumens. Two other examples (,J$) from La Crumbre, 
6000 feet, Colombia, I cousider also identical ; the (J has 
the vhite markings towards apex tinged with rosy. 
Another ^ specimen from Alauei, 9450 feet, Ecuador, may 
probably be the same species, but ia in poor condition. 

Arittotella ndleata, n. sp. 

S $. 9-10 mm. Head pale ochreona, more or leis Bprinkled with 
fnacons. Palpi whitish, Becond joint with three, terminal joint 
iritb four dark fnscouB rings, terminal joint longer than second. 
Thorax pale ochreons iirorated with dark grey, ahoulders with a dark 
foHMHU spot. Abdomen grey, apex pale gteyish^Kihreous. Fore- 
wings elongat«-lanc«olat«; 6 closely ap{«ozimat«d to 7; grey irro' 
rated wilii darii tnscoiu and aometimea with whitish; a HuSnsed 
ydlow-ochreoQS gradually attenuated streak along dorsum to near 
^Mx; oblique dark fuscous ban from costa at \ and }, terminated 
by himlfiah marks on fold ; a small cloudy whitish mark on middl« 
of costa ; discal stigmata blackish, second elongate, edged beneath 
by an elongate yelloW'Ochreoua spot ; a whitish spot on costa at }, 
formed of two subconflnent inwardly oblique strigulae, continued by 
an oblique white line to posterior extremity of preceding ochreons 
spot ; some white ma^pnal dots or scales round apex : cilia whitish. 
grey, round apex white with two Aaxk grey lines, baae sprinkled 
with blackish. Hindwings grey; cilia pale greyish. 

COLOMBU, Caldas, 4400 feet, in May {Parish); eight 
specimens. 

Aristotella oribatis, n. sp. 

$. li mm. Head whitish. Palpi white, second joint with base 
and two bands brownish-ochteous, terminal joint with base and 
three bands dark fuscous. Thorax ochrcous-whitish, shoulders dark 
fuscous. Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate -lanceolate ; 6 sepa- 
rate; blackish -fuscous; a suffused brownish-ochreoua streak along 
dorsum from base to apex, occupying about J of wing, partially 
eonflnent with a brownish-ochreous longitudinal streak above it from 
before middle to }, which is partially edged with white above ; an 
oblique white bar from costa at J almost reaching dorsal streak, and 
a similar inwardly oblique white bar from costa at J ; a white apical 
dot: cilia pale greyish, round apex with four dark grey lines, at 
base sprinkled with blackish, above temus with on indistinct whitish 
bar. Hindwings light violet-grey ; cilia pale grey. 

Fbbu, Oroya, 12,200 feet, in July {Parish) ; one specimen. 



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36 Mr. E. Meyrick's Descriptions of 

Aristotellft vioaiu, n. sp. 

3 $• 10-11 mm. Head grey-whitish. Palpi whitish, Becond 
and terminal joinla each with base and two bands dark fuscous. 
Thorax grey more or less sprinlded with whitish, shouldera dark 
fuacona. Abdomen gnty, apex whitish. Forewings elongate* 
laaceolal«; 6 closely approximated basally to 7 ; light grey irrorated 
with dark fusoons ; oblique dark fueoons bara from ooata at } tuid } 
t«rminated by black marks on fold, apace between these sufiused 
with white; a fascia of irregular white suffusion crotaiiig wing in 
middle ; discal stigmata black, second forming an elongate mark, 
edged beneath by an elongate yellow-oohreous spot; an inwardly 
obliqne triangular white spot on costa at }, and a mark on tomna 
sometimes connected with it; some undefined ochreous marking 
before temna and along termea ; two or three white marginal dote 
loond apex : cilia pole grey, round apex white with a blackish 
aatemedian line, on termen with ba«al groups of blackish irroration. 
on coate dark fuscous, white on costal spot. Hindwings grey; 
oUia pale grey. 

Peru, Lima, in August {Parish) ; seventeen specimena. 

ArlitotelU ephorit, n. sp. 

(J. 9 mm. Head white, slightly sprinkled with grey. Palpi 
whitish, second and terminal joints each with basal and supramediui 
dark fascans bands, terminal joint shorter than second. Thoiuc 
whitish iiTorated with giey. Abdomen light giey, anal tuft whitish. 
Forewings elongate -lanceolate ; 6 separate; grey sprinkled with 
whitish and dark fuscous ; a veiy oblique blackish mark on fold near 
base ; an oblique dork fuscous bar from costa at \, terminated by a 
blackish mark on told edged beneath with ochreous; discal stigmata 
blackish, edged beneath with ochreous, fint beyond plioal; some 
blaokish acales above tomus and at apex : cilia tight giey, round 
apex sprinkled with blackisL Hindwings light bluish-grey; cilia 
pole grey. 

Peru, Matucana, 7780 feet, in July {Parish); one 
specimen. Distinguished from all the preceding by the 
short terminal joint and different marking of palpi. 

Arlstotelia eosmographa, n. sp. 

3 $, 11-12 mm. Head and thorax brownish-ocfareooa. Palpi 

white, second joint with three and terminal joint with four dark 

fuscous bonds, terminal joint much longer than second Abdomen 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lL' 



Souih American Micro-Lepidoplera. 37 

gre;, ftpez grey- whitish. Forewings narrowly elongate-UnoeoIate ; 
6 aepuate; brownish -oohreons or deep yellow-ochreoua, costal 
edge anffiued with dark fuscous; on oblique interrupted silvery- 
white streak near base; three white streaks from casta terminated 
by nlvery-metallio subdorsal spots, first from i, oblique, edged 
anteriorly with blockish suffusion, second from middle, direct, 
third from |, inwardly oblique, second and third connected by a 
Boffused blaokieh streak in disc, a spot of silvery-white suffusion 
beneath costa between first and second connected with costa by a 
white strigula; a whit« dot on kpei, and somotimes two or three 
on termoi : cilia pale greyish, with indistinct blackish median shade 
and several slender wliitish bats. Hindwings slaty -grey; oilia pale 
grey. 

Peru, Chosica, 2800 feet, in July {Parieh); three 
speciinens. 

£Upau>sabi3, n. g. 

Head smooth; ocelli absent; tongue developed. Antennae ], 
in 3 simple, basal joint moderat«, without peoten. Labial palpi 
very long, curved, ascending, second joint above in ^ clothed with 
long fine expansible hairs, in $ with triangularly expoikded hair- 
scales towards apex, beneath smooth-scaled, terminal joint some- 
what shorter than second, slender, acute. Maxillary palpi rudimen' 
taiy. Posterior tibiae clothed with long rough hairs above. ForC' 
win^ with Ibfurcate, 2 from very near angle, 3 absent, 4fromangli 
approximated, 7 and 8 out of 6, 7 to costs, 11 from middle. Hind' 
wings }, elongate -trapezoidal, apex acute, termen obliquely bisinuate 
beneath apex, cilia 3 ; 2 remote, 3 and 4 almost coni)at« from angle, 
5 approximated, 6 obsolete. 

Albed to Compsosaris, which it closely resembles 
superficially. Vein 6 ol hindwmgs appears to be truly 
oteolete (represented by a weak fold parallel to 7), and 
not coincident with 7. 

Hapalosaris pelnlaiu, n. sp. 
3 9- 9-l\ mm. Head and thorax ochreous-whitish with a few 
fuacons specks. Palpi whitish, second joint with three rings of dark 
fuscous irroration, terminal joint with two black rings. Abdomen 
ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate-lanceolate; white, irregu- 
lariy irrotated with fuscous and dark fuscous, more thinly towards 
dorsum anteriorly; an oblique blackish bar from costa at | to 
fold; blackish spots on costa before middle and at {; s black 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



38 Mr. E. Meyrick'B Beacriptiona of 

■nbcostal dot at }; stigmata black, sometimes ringed witb iritite. 
pUoal rather obliquely before first discal, an additional dot betweoi 
second disoal and dorstuu ; a small blackish spot on donmm befiH« 
tomus; three blackish dots on costs towards apex, apical are* 
darker-snSused : cilia pale grey, round apex sprinkled witb dark 
fuscous. Hindwings light grey, in S thinly scaled and whitish- 
tinged ant«riorly i cilia grey-whitish, in 3 whitish -ochreoos on lower 
part of termen and dorsum ; in c? a long One pale ochreous-y^owi^ 
hairpencil from base of wing lying along abdomen. 

Colombia, La Cmmbre, 6*500 feet, in May; Ecuador, 
IIiiiRra, 4r)(H) feot, hi June ; Peru, Chosica, 2800 feet, in 
July (Parish); twenty-six specimens. 

Reourvarift xanthotrioha, n. sp. 

ij ?. 8-0 mm. Head ochreoua-whitish, sides of crown with some 
dark fuscous specks. Palpi whitish, second joint with basal halt 
irrorated with dark fuscous and a blackish subapical ring, terminal 
joint with two black rings. Thorax whitish irrorated with dark 
fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft of J pale ochreons. Forewings 
elongate, narrow, cosia slightly arch<rd, apex obtuse- pointed, tennen 
slightly sinuate, rathot strongly oblique; whitish, irregnlariy irro- 
rated with grey and dark fuscous ; markings suffused, blackish, more 
or less confused with the daib iiroration; a spot on base of costa; 
a curved oblique scries of thi«e spots (costal, plioal, dorsal) towards 
base, followed by a more or less developed narrow white fascia; a 
subcostal dot at \, spots on costa at | and f ; stigmata represented 
by cloudy dots, plical slightly beyond first discal ; a spot on tomns ; 
sometimes an irregular angulated fine whitish transveree line is 
traceable beyond this : cilia whitish-grey, sprinkled with daric fus- 
cous or black except towards tomus. Hindwings and cilia pale 
greyish; costa in £ rolled on anterior portion, with long ozpansible 
yellow-ochreous hairpencil from base. 

Peru, Chosica, 2800 feet, and Lima, in July and August 
(Parish) ; twenty-four specimens. 

Recurvaria thiodes, n. sp. 
(J. 10 mm. Head pale yellow. Palpi whitish-yellow, second joint 
with black snbapical ring, terminal joint with base and supramedian 
band black. Antennae dark grey. Thorax pale yellow, with two 
minute black marginal Aota posteriorly. Abdomen grey-whitish, 
anal tnft whitish -ochreoos. Forewings elongate-lanceolate; pale 
sulf^nr-yellow, riightly speckled with fnlvons; aa dongate Uaok 



n,g,i,.rjh,G00glc 



Sovtk American Mtcro-Lepidoptera. 39 

■potklongbaMlaiztlial ooitk; amall bkok seioioval qiota OB ooaU 
at } aad f ; {diottl and ■eoond duo«l Btigauta bUok; two or three 
HD»11 blkck dots on ooMa towuds Kpex; four narrow aemioTal dsrk 
gny nuika alwig termon, with & few bUek aokle* ; oilia grey, on 
oo«t« pale jellow. Hindwinga light grey; cilu pale greTioh. 

COLOMBU, La Crumbre, 6600 feet, in May (ParwA) ; one 



RMnrvarU Mquorea, n. Bp. 

(} $. 8 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreom-whitish, shouldera 
safiFneed with dark {dboohh. Abdomen in ^ grey-whitiah, in $ grey. 
Forewinga lanoeoUto; dark fuaeoiu, sprinkled with whitish; a 
cloud; whitish doraal streak from base to tonms, speckled with dark 
fDecoos, pointed posteriori^, edge irregnlai : oilia ochreous-whitiah, 
round apex and upper part of t«rmen irronit«d with dark fuscous. 
Sndwings in i^ pale slaty -grey, in $ grey; oilia ocbieoos-whitiah ; 
in 1^ with ochreons-yellawiah expansible hairpencil lying along ooeta 
from base to beyond middle. 

Pebd, Chosica, 2800 feet, and Lima, in July and Angust 
{Parish) ; foui specimens. 

OXYLECHIA, n. g. 
Head smootb ; ocelli present ; tongue developed. Antennae {, in 
1^ simple, baaal joint moderate^ without peoten. Labial palpi very 
long, recurved, second joint with short rough tuft beneath and hatn 
roughly expanded towards apex above, terminal joint longer than 
aeoond, slender, acute. Maxillary palpi nidimentaiy. Posterior 
tibiae clothed with hairs above. Forewings with lb furcate, 2 from 
Dear angle, 3 absent, 7 and 8 etalked, 7 to costa, 11 from middle. 
HindwingB j, elongate-trapezoidal, apex somewhat produced, acute, 
termen obliquely bisiauate beneath apex, oilia 4; 2-4 remote, 4 
frwn angle, 5 approximated to 4 at base, 6 and 7 connate. 

Oxylechla eonOrmata, n. sp. 
g. 8 mm. Head white. Patpi white, second joint marked with 
Uock towards base, tenninal joint with block submediau ring and 
snfnamediai^band. Thorax white, shoulders dark fuscous. Abdo- 
men gi«y> segmental margins and anal tuft white. Forewings 
elongate, very ikarrow, ooste slightly arched, apex pointed, termen 
very obUqndy rounded; white, tinged with ochroous-yellowieh in 
dvc, more atnmgly and sprinkled with fuscous posteriorly ; markings 
dark fuacouB, with some black scales on their edges, and maigined 



iM:,i,A J h, Google 



40 Mr. E. Meyrick's Detcrijilions cf 

with oleftr iriiite; & baeol patch, edge nmning from ^ of ootta^ 
atnight, obliqna ; an elongate narrow patch extending along ooata 
from before middle to apex, antenoriy pointed and pieoeded by a 
slight blackish strignla, beneath with slight proidinenoes at middle 
and { of wing tipped with black scales probably repiesenting disoal 
stigmata ; a small white costal mark intenecting this at ^ ; natiow 
elongate brownish spots sprinkled with black on dorsom beyond 
middle and on tamos ; a black apical dot ringed with white : cilia 
whitish, roond apex with two dark fuacona linea. Hiadwings 
whitish-greyj cilia ochreous-whitiBh. 

Colombia. La Cmmbre, 6600 feet, in May (Parigk) ; one 
Bpecimen. 

Tholekostola, n. g. 
Head smooth; ocelli absent ; tongne apparently obsolete. An- 
temiae ), in ^ serrulate, simple, bssaJ joint elongate, without pecten. 
Labial palpi long, recurred, second joint rather thickened and 
roDghened with scales beneath, terminal joint hardly shorter than 
second, slightly thickened with scales, acute. Maxillary palpi 
rndimentary. Posterior tibiae clothed with long hairs above. Fore- 
wings with 16 long-fnrcate, 2 from towards angle, 4 and 5 stalked, 
7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 11 from middle. Hindwings f, trape- 
Eoidal, apex rather produced, acute, termen obtusely emarginate 
beneath it, cilia 2 ; 2 from ) of celt, 3 approximated to 4 at base, 
4 and 6 connate or closely approximated from angle, transverse 
vein mostly obaolete except near lower extremity, 6 obeolete, 
repreeentcd only by a weak fold parallel to 7. 

Allied to Phihmmaea. 



Ttaolerostola omphaloiM, n. sp. 

3 $■ 6-7 mm. Head whitish, crown more or less speckled with 
dark foBCOns. Palpi white, with two bands of second joint, and 
baaal and median bands of terminal joint of blackish irrorsticm. 
Thorax whitish irrorated with dark fuscous. Abdomen light grey, 
anal toft of S grey-whitish. Forewiogs rather broad -lanceolate: 
whitish irrorated with dark fuscous or blackish ; marf|^ngs formed 
by denser blackish irrorstion or suffusion, undefined, vis. a rather 
oblique bar from costa at J to fold, a broad rather oblique fascia 
before middle, a broad fascia at j including an ochreous spot in 
middle, and an apical blotch : cilia pale grey, round apex su&osed 
with whitish and speckled with blackish. Hindwings grey; in ^ 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



South American Micro-Lepidoptera. 41 

an expuiHible pencil of long light gnyiBh-ochieous luitB from 
oostA neu base; cilia pale gre;. 

Ecuador, Duran, low country, in June {Pariah); nine 
specimens. 

PhthorinuM triehinupls, n. ap. 

S ?■ 9-10 mm. Head and thorax whitiBh-grey-ochreous, more or 
lees sprinUed with fnscona. Palpi whitish, Becond joint irrorated 
with dork fnacous except apex, terminal joint shorter than second, 
with basal and supramedian bands of dark fusooiu or blackish irro- 
ration. Abdomen whitish-ochieous, in 3 ^^h broad median dark 
fiuoons band. Forewings elot^^te -lanceolate; fl sometimes out 
of 7 near base; whitish-grey -ochieous, iiregularly iiTorat«d with 
dark foacoos; stigmata dark fuscons, obscure, plical slii^tly before 
first discal : cilia oobreous-grey-whitish, round apex irrorated with 
dark fuscoos. Hindwinga and cilia ochreous-whitiBh ; in ^ beneath 
with an elongate-oval patch of long black hairscoles below cell, 
covered by a fringe of very long obliquely directed ochreoos hain 
from lower median vein. 

Pbbu, Lima, in August {Parish) ; five specimeDs. 
Phthorlmae* tonte, n. ep. 

(j$. 10-11 mm. Head and thoiax ochieous-whitish irrorated 
with grey. Palpi whitish, second joint irrorated with dark fuscous 
except apex, terminal joint almost as long as second, with basal and 
supramedian bands of dark fuscous irroration. Abdomen grey- 
Fore wings elongate -lanceolate ; 6 separate; pale grey iirorated with 
darker. Obscurely and irregularly mixed with light ochreoos ; stig- 
mata blackish, plical beneath first discal : cilia pale grey, somewhat 
sprinkled with black. Hiudwings light bluish-grey; cilia pale 
gnyish-ochreoofl ; in ^ with long ochreons-grey-whitisb expassible 
haiipencil from base tying along costa. 

Peru, Lima, in August (Parish) ; eight specimens. 
Phthorimaeft perfldlosa, n. sp. 

(J. 10 mm. Head and thorax whitish irrorated with grey. Palpi 
whitish, second joint irrorat«d with dark fuscous except apex, ter- 
minal joint somewhat shorter than second, with basal and supra- 
median bands of dark fuscous irroration- Abdomen dark grey, anal 
tuft ochreous-whitish, claapeis very long, clothed with ochieous 
whitisb hairs suffused with yellow internally. Forewings elongate, 
narrow, coeta gently arobed, apex pointed, tennen very obliquely 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



42 Hr. E. Meyrick's Dettrijitions of 

ronodMl; 6 Mpttfate; grey-irliitiBh sprinkled with gny and dark 
fnsoons, more etrongly iirontod akmg oosU; plical atignu nthar 
large, bUckiah : cilia p«le grejiib, aprinUed with blBckiah towaids 
baae. Hindwinga bluiah-grej ; a strong oohreoaa-j'ellowiali ezpan- 
aible bairpenoil from base lying along coeta to beyond middle ; cilia 
pale ochieoufl-grey. 

Colombia, Caldas, 4400 feet, and La Crambre, 6600 feet, 
in May (Parish) ; two specimens. 

nithorimus ernslarls, n. sp. 

<}$. 11-12 mm. Head and tboi«x ochreons-wfaiti^ Bometimea 
sprinkled with giey. Palpi white, aeoond and tenninal joimU ettcb 
with baaal and nipramedion bands of blackish inoiation, terminal 
joint somewhat shorter than second. Abdomen ochreons-whitid), 
sometimes doraally greyish. Forewings elongate, narrow, ooeta 
gently arched, apes pointed, termoi eitremdy obliquely roonded; 
S separate; oohreoos- whitish, iiregnlarly and variably sprinkled 
with grey, ochreous, and blackish ; small cloudy spots of blaokiri) 
irroration on coeta at base and ^, aod a clovdy blaokiah dot on fold 
near basei atigmata rather large, black, sometimea tinged with 
ochreoos, plical rather obliquely before first diacali sometimes 
indications of cloudy dots of blackish irroration on coeta posteriorly 
and termen : cilia ochreons-wbitish, on basal half wit^ scattered 
dark giey and blackish points. Hindwinga light alaty-grey; cilia 
ochreons-wbitish, sometimea tinged with grey. 

Peru, lima, in August [Parish] ; fourteen specimeos. 
PhOioritiUM densata, n. sp. 

,J$. 12-Umin. Head and thorax grey, sometimea sprinkled witli 
whitish. Palpi white, second and terminal jointa each with basal 
and eupramedian bands of blackish irroration, tenninal joint aome- 
wbat shorter than second. Abdomen grey, basal segment aometimea 
with two small fulvous spots, segments 2 and 3 with fulvous doraal 
patches. Forewings elongate -lanceolate ; 6 separate ; whitish ino- 
ntted with dark grey or blackish; several indistinct blackish dots 
on baaal area, an obscure rather obli<]ne darker streak from coeta 
at i to plical stigma, sometimes edged with whitish antwioriy, pre- 
ceded and followed beneath coeta by oobreous marks ; stiginato 
moderate or large, black, edged below by ochreooa spots aod some- 
limee sonounded by irregular ochreous markings, plical rather 
obliquely before first discal; indistinct cloudy whitish opposite cost»l 
and tomal marks at j, sometimea united into a aUgbtly angaUt«d 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



South American MicTO-Lepidoplera. 43 

shade : cilia light giej, basal half mora or lees sprinkled with whit« 
and black. Hindwings slaty-grey ; cilia grey. 

Pebu, Lima, in August (Parish); twenty -Beven speci- 



PhtttorlmMa gngalls, n. sp. 

<}$. 12-13 mm. K^ad and tfaocax dark gcey, more or less 
■prinkled witii whitish, face sometimes sofFused with whitish. Palpi 
whitish, second uid terminal joints each with basal and sapra- 
niediaQ bands of blackish irroration, terminal joint somewhat shorter 
than second. Abdomen dark gray, apes tinged with ochieoos. 
Forewinp eloi^ate-lanceolate; fl separate; dark fuscous, speckled 
with whitish; sometimes short brownish.oohraoQS dashes beneath 
oosta at \ and \ ; stigmata small, black, sometimes edged with brown- 
ish markings, plical rather obliquely beforo first discal; sometimes 
some obscure brownish marking in disc pOBteriorly : cilia light grey, 
basal half sprinkled with black. Hindwings slaty-grey \ cilia light 
ochreous-grey. 

Peru, Lima, in August {Parish) ; five apecimens. 

Pbthorlmaea utosenut, n. sp. 
1^. 14 mm. Head ochreous -whitish, ciown irrorated with grey. 
Palpi whitish, second joint with two suffused [uacous bands, tenninal 
joint with two dark fuscous hands. Thorax pale greyish -ochreous, 
mostly sufiusedly iirorated with dark grey. Abdomen grey, anal 
toft ochraoDB-whitiah with a strong black mark on each side above. 
Forewings elongate-lanceolate ; Bseparate; gray ish-ochreoUB, some . 
what sprinkled irregularly with dark grey, costa suffused with dark 
grey irroration; three or tour cloudy blackish-grey dots towards 
base on dorsal half; an oblique transfeTse patch of ochreous .whitish 
auEFoaion from costa towards base followed on costa by a small 
blackish spot and in disc by an elongate blotch of blackish suffusion ; 
stigmata blackish, surrounded by irregular ochreous- whitish suffu- 
sion, plic^ obliquely before fint discal. a blotch of blackish suffusion 
in middle of disc lying between and beneath discal stigmata; costa 
towards apex with three small ochreous- whitish spots interrupting 
the dark grey irroration : cilia ochreous.grey- whitish, towards base 
spotted with dark grey irroration. Hindwings slaty-grey; cilia 
pale gtejiBh.ochreaiiB. 

Peed, Matucana, 7780 feet, in July {Parish); one 
specimen. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



44 Mr. B. Me3nick'B DeacrijilioM <^ 

PhtiiorlnuM melanoeunpta, n. sp. 

(J. 16 tnm. Head and tbonuc pile grej'iah-ochieoiu Boffnaed with 
grey. Palpi whJtiah, second joint Bprinkled with dork fuscoos, 
twniiiul joint with two blackish barab. Abdomen blsokiab becom- 
ing brawn towards base, aides and anal toft ochreotis-whitish. Foie- 
wings elongate-lanceolate ; 6 separat« ; light grejisb-ochreoiu, 
irregularly sprinkled with blackish-grey, ooata narrowly snSused with 
dark grey irroration; several cloudy black dot« on basal area; a 
thick black sufiused streak from coata at } rather obliquely half 
aoroes wing, thence abruptly bent and continued through middle 
of disc to apex, attenuated posteriorly, neaiiy interrupted by small 
pole spota repreeenting discal stigmata, and irregolarly intemptod 
near apex : cilia light greyish-ochreous, sprinkled with black towards 
base. Hindwings pale slaty-grey; oilia light gieyieh-ochreons. 

Peru, Lima, in August {Parish); one specimen. 

PhthorinuM kquUlna, n. sp. 

S $. 19-22 mm. Head and thorax varying from pale oohreous 
to grey. Palpi oohreous- whitish, second joint sprinkled with fuscons. 
terminal joint with basal and supramedian rings of daxk fuscous 
irroration. Abdomen ochreous- whitish, segments tinged with fuscous 
towards base, two basal segments more or less sufFused with yellow- 
ochreous. Forewings narrowly elongate-lanceolate ; 6 separate ; vary- 
ing from pale ochreous, sprinkled with ferruginous ($) to light fuscous 
(ij); A thick black (or in 9 deep ferruginoUB) ratherobliquestieak from 
costa at } reaching half across wing, in disc dilated posteriorly, form- 
ing base of an undefined cloudy wedge-shaped patch rather darker 
than ground colour extending along coeta to } ; indistinct cloudy spota 
ol darker suEFusion in disc at middle and j ; seTcral small obscure 
cloudy darker spota on costa and termen towards apex : cilia pale 
gieyish-ochreous or whitish- ochreous, sprinkled with fuscous ot dark 
fuscous. Hindwings pale slaty-grey ; cilia pale greyish-ochreous or 
whitish-ochreous. 

Peru, Matucana, 7780 feet, and Huancayo, 10,650 feet, 
ill July (Parish) ; four specimens. 

Phthorimaea absoluta, n. sp. 

cJ- 14 mm. Head whitish -grey -ochreous, crown sprinkled with 
grey. Palpi stout, ochreous- whitish sprinkled with grey, second 
and tenninal joints each with two bands of blackish irroration, second 
joint with longer rough scales beneath towards apex. Thorax 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



South American Micro-Lepidoptera. 46 

p«yiih-ochnoiu iirorated with whitish and dark grey. Abdomen 
grey, segmental margins and anal tuft oohreooB-whitiah. Fore- 
wing) nanowl; elongate-lanceolate; 6 aepante; greyiBh-ochreous 
s^inkled with dark grey and whitisb, here and there mixed with 
brownish, oosta snSnaedly iirorated with blackish-grey, Teina 
poateriorlj otwcarely inorated with dark grey; Bevetal obsonre 
blackish dots on basal area ; irregular rather obliqne transverse bars 
of blackish snSusion from ooeta at { and |, reachinghaU aoroas wing; 
stigmata blackish, plioal obliquely before first disoal ; costal irnira- 
tion towards apes interrapted by three or fonr small pale spots : 
cilia light ochreons-greyigb, on basal half mixed with ochreoua- 
whitish and sprinkled with fuscous and black. Hindwings light 
slaty-grey; cilia light ochieous-grey. 

Peru, Hiiancayo, 10,650 feet, is July {Parish); one 
specimen. Much like urosema, but readily distinguished 
by absence of the characteristic black marka on anal tuft. 

PhlborlnuM loquax, n. sp. 

j$. ^10 nun. Head and thorax grey, sometimes partially 
tinged with oohreone, face sometimes whitish. Palpi fuscous 
aprinkled with whitish, second and terminal joints each with baaal and 
snpramedian bands of blackish irroiation, terminal joint somewhat 
shorter than second. Abdomen in ^ dark grey, in $ whitish-giey. 
Forewinga elongate-lanceolate ; 6 separate; dark grey sprinkled with 
whitish, tinged here and there with oclireous; a black dot beneath 
COsta near base, and two or ttiree Other indistinct ones on bssal area ; 
» small black costal spot before } ; sometimes ochreons subcostal 
dasbee before and beyond this ; stigmata moderate or large, ochreons- 
brownish, sometimes accompanied by a few blackish scales, plical 
aligbtly before first discal ; a blackish dot on fold beneath middle of 
wing ; a small cloudy darker spot on costa at f ; a clondy darker dot 
above tomns; a cloudy spot of dork fuscous suffusion on termen 
above tomns ; an elongate blackish mark in disc near apex : cilia 
light grey, basal half sprinkled with whitish and dark grey- Hind- 
wings slaty-grey ; cilia pale ochreous-greyish, in ^ longer and darker 
towards basal portion of costa. 

Peru, Chosica, 2800 feet, in July {Parish); thirteen 
Bpecimens- 

Phthorlmaea alritascls, n. sp. 

3 $■ 9-10 mm. Head ochreons- whitish irrorated with grey. 
Palpi grey, sprinkled with whitish, second and terminal joints each 
witii basal and supramedian bands of blackish irroration, terminal 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



46 Mr. E, Meyrick'a Descriptions e^ 

joint nearly as long aa Becond. Thorax grey ipiinkW with ndiltiah. 
Abdomen whitiah-grej. Poaterior tibiae in 3 ^^ '^'T '""S 
whitish -oohreouB hairs. Forewinge eloDgate-lanoeoUte ; 6 aepante ; 
dark grey inorated with white ; a blackish dot beneath costa near 
base ; an oblique blackish bar from costa at } to lold ; discal stigmata 
blackish, indistinctly edged with ochreons beneath, plioal ochreous, 
■lightly before first discal; indistinct whitish opposite ma^s on 
ooeta at i and tomua : cilia whitish-grey, irrorated with dark giey 
and black round apex and towards base generally. Hindwings pole 
slaty-grey ; in d a very long dense black cxpansibls hairpencil lying 
along oosta fiom base to ] ; cilia wbitisb-grey. 

Peru, Ghoaica, 2800 feet, in July iParish) ; two specimens. 

PbthorinuM altlsona, n. sp. 

1^. 11-12 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous, slightly whitish- 
sprinkled. Palpi dark grey sprinkled with blackish and slightly 
with whitish. Abdomen dark grey. Forewings elongate-lanceolate ; 
6 separate; dark fuscous, slightly whitish -sprinkled, doisal area 
tinged with oohreoos -brown ; stigmata cloudy, black, plioal obliquely 
before first discal ; in one specimen some oohreous-brown streaking 
towards coflta posteriorly ; apical area suffused with blackish : 
cilia grey, round apex mixed with dark fusoous and somewhat 
epriokled with whitish. Hindwings bluish-giey ; cilia light grey- 

Peru, Huancayo, 10,650 feet, in July (Parisk); two 
specimens. 

FbthorimMa eueta, u. sp. 

S $. 11-12 mm. Head whitish, sprinkled with dark grey. Palpi 
white sprinkled with grey, second joint blackish except towards 
apex, terminal joint nearly as long as second, with black basal ring 
and supramedian band. Thorax whitish irrorated with dark grey. 
Abdomen grey, anal tuft in S ochreous- whitish. Forewings elongate, 
narrow, costa gently arched, apex pointed, termen extremely 
ofaliqnety rounded ; 6 separate ; whitish irrorated with grey and dark 
fuscous ; a small blackish spot beneath costa near base ; a suffused 
dark fuscous bar from dorsum at } to above middle ; blackish spots 
on costa at } and before J, stigmata cloudy, blaek, plical beneath 
fiist discal, second discal elongat«; blotches of darker suffusion on 
lomns and at apex : cilia pale grey mixed with dark fuscous. 
Hindwings grey, darker posteriorly; cilia light grey. 

British Guuna, Bftrtica, in January and February 
{Pariah); two specimens. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



South American Miorb-Lepidoplera. 47 

ntthoiiioMa epitrieha, n. sp. 
1^ $. 8-10 mm. Head whitish, more or leea eprinkled with grey. 
Palpi whitish, second joint irrorated with dark fusooos except apex, 
terminal joint as long as second, with subbasal and Bn|»amedian 
bands of dark foscons iiroration. Thorax whitish more or less ino- 
rat«d with dark grey. Abdomen grey, in 3 with raised lateral snb- 
apical tofts of long grey haira. Forewinge elongate, rather narrow, 
ooBta gently arched, apex pointed, tennen veiy obliquely rounded ; 
6 separate; grey-whitiah inoiated with dark fuscoua; a blackish 
spot or short obliqne bar from coeta near base ; a amall ochreous spot 
on fold at J, sometimes edged above and beneath with small blackiBh 
q)Ots; a t^ck obllqoe blackish streak from | of coeta to fold; 
stigmata ochreoos, more oi lees edged above and beneath with sm^ 
blackish spots, plica! obliquely before fiist discal, an elongate cloudy 
UachJsb spot on costa just above second discal, sometimes edged 
boieath by another ochreous dot; undefined spots of blackish 
snffnHion <m tomns and at apex : cilia pale grey sprinkled with 
black. Hindwings grey, snbhyaline in disc anterioriy and towards 
dorsum ; cilia light grey. 

BsTTiSH Gdiana, Bartica, fiom December to February 
(Parish); ten Bpecimena. 

PhthoiimMa InTOlate, n. ap. 
ij$. 9-1 1 mm. Head whitish sprinkled with giey. Falpi 
whitish, seoond and terminal joints each with subbasal and supra- 
median bands of dark fuscous irroration, terminal joint as long as 
seoond. Thorax whitiah irrorated with dark fuscous, patagia 
sometimes mSused with oclireoiu. Abdomen dark grey. Pore- 
wings elongate, narniw, coBta gently arched, apex jwinted, termen 
very obliquely rounded ; 8 separate ; grey- whitish or whitish-grey, 
iiroi«ted with black; a narrow oblique blackish bar from costa 
Dear base and broader one at ), both terminated by small yellow- 
ochreouB spots on fold edged beneath by black marks, second spot 
representing plical stigma; discal stigmata yellow-ochreous, edged 
above and below by black spots, Rrst obliquely beyond plical stigma, 
its margin separated by an ochrcous mark from a small blackish spot 
on coeta above it, maigin of second usually absorbed in a suhquad- 
rate blackish blotch on costa above it, its lower mai^ sometimes 
forming a oonaidetable spot ; a well-defined blackish apical blotch : 
cilia grey, inorated with black except towards tips. Hindwings 
daric grey, subhyaline in disc anteriorly and towsids dorsum ; cilia 
Mther dark grey. 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



48 Mr. E. Meyrick'a Descrijitionb of 

British Guiana, Mallali, in March {Parish) ; six speci- 
mens. Nearly allied to epUricha, but forewings rather 
narrower, yellowish markings clearer and larger, black 
markings also larger and better defined, hindwings darker, 
abdomen in S without praeapical tults of hair. 

Stegasta zygotoiu, n. sp. 

<;$. ^11 mm. Head wlute, often irrorated with dark grey. 
Folpi white, second joint with ill-defined basal and subapioal buidt 
of dark fuscous irroration, terminal joints with two blackish bands. 
Thorax dark fuscous, slightly whitish-sprinkled, with small ochreous- 
white posterior spot. Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate, narrow, 
oosta gently arched, apex pointed, termen very obliquely rounded; 
dark fuecons, sometimes sufiused with deep ferruginous- bronze, 
slightly whitish-sprinkled ; two connected ochteons-white triangular 
blotches occupying doranm from near base to near tomus, sometimes 
much sufiused with grey irroration, especially dorsally, first narrowly 
reaching costa at \, second reaching neariy half across wing, its apex 
oonnected with an indistinct whitish dot on middle of costa hy a 
ftunt grey or grey-whitish cloud in which is a more or less strongly 
expreoeed blackish dot (first discal stigma); second discal stigma 
close beyond this, blackish, sometimes edged below with white or 
yellowish, or obsolete ; a slightly inwards-oblique transveise white 
spot on coeta at \, landing to connect with a leaden-grey spot on 
tomus; apical area sometimes irrorated with grey-whitish : cilia 
whitish, with two indistinct lines of blackish irroration. Hindwinga 
giey or light grey, darker posteriorly; cilia grey or grey-whitish. 
Forewings in $ beneath with an expansible pencil of long whitish 
hairs from beneath base of costa, covered by fringe of projecting 
scales. 

Colombia, Cali, 600 feet, and Ia Crumbre, 6600 feet, in 
May ; Ecuadoe, Huigra, 4500 feet, in June ; Peru, Lima, 
and Chosica, 2800 feet, in August {Parish); forty-four 
specimens. The Peruvian examples have the white mark- 
ingB always much mote suffused with grey, whilst in the 
others they are nearly clear ochreous-white, but I can find 
no rehable distinction between them otherwbe. 

GeleeUa lactlconu, n. sp. 

fj. 10-11 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-wbitish, shoulders 

with a suffused dark fuscous spot. Palpi whitish, basal third of 

second joint dork fuacons. terminal joint as long as second, 

with blackish subapical band. Abdomen grey, anal tuft ochreous- 



ih,Cooi^lc 



South American Micro-Lepidoptera. 49 

whitish. Forevinga elongate, doitow, costa gently arched, apex 
tolerably pointed, termen very obliquely rounded; ochreous- 
whitish or yeUoW' whitish; marking fuscous, towards costa iirorated 
with blackish ; aa obUqoe wedge-shaped spot from base of casta to 
iokl ; a V-shaped marking from costa before middle, iU apex reaeb- 
iog fold, marked with black plical and first discal stigmata, latter 
obliquely posterior; an irregular fascia from } of costa to dorsum 
before tonins, second dieoal stigma fomuDg a black mark on its 
anterior ma^in; some more or less indicated blackish irroration 
towards apex : cilia ocbreous-whitieh, slightly sprinkled with blaok. 
Hindwings light grey; cilia ochreous -whitish. 

Pebd, Chosica, 2800 feet, in July (Parish) ; three speci- 
mens. 

Gelechla litlglosa, n. sp. 

ij$. ll-13mm. Head and thorax pale pinkish-fuscous or whitish- 
fuscous, mixed with dark fnscous. Palpi fuscous- whitish irroratod 
with dark fuscous, on terminal joint sometimes forming two dork 
bonds. Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently 
arched, apex obtuse -pointed, termen very obliquely rounded; 
dark fuscous, variably iirorated (sometimes very slightly) with 
whitish -fuacoua or whitish-ochreous ; stigmata doudy, blackish, 
plical slightly before first diecal; a small cloudy pale ochreous or 
whitjsh-ochreous spot on costa at | : cilia grey, somewhat mixed 
with dark fuscous. Hindwings and cilia grey. 

Ecuador, Huigra, 4500 feet, in June {Parish) ; thirteen 
specimens. 

Gflleohla dryobathra, n. sp. 

<;. 13-14 mm. Head fuscous, face paler. Palpi pale greyish- 
ochreous .irrorated with dark fuscous, terminal joint somewhat 
■hcvter than second. Thorax brown or fuscous. Abdomen grey. 
Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, faintly unuate in 
middle, apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded; dark fuscous, 
in one specimen streaked with brownish in disc posterioriy; a 
brown baaal patoh occupying about ^ of wing, edge irregularly 
curved or bent; stigmata blackish, approximated, plical somewhat 
obUqoely before firat discal ; a small pale brownish spot on costa at 
} : cilia pale greyish-ochreoue, with two lines of blackish innration, 
at base fuscous, on costa wholly fuscous. Hindwings grey; cilia 
light greyish-ochreoua. 

Colombia, La Crunibre, 6600 feet, in May {Parish) ; two 
specimens. 

TBANS. EST. 80C. LOND. 1917. — PART I. (NOV.) E 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



60 Mr, E, MeTTick'e Description of 

Gehetala eborata, n. sp. 

[}$. 14-15 mm. Head oohreous-whito. Palpi whit«, baoe of 
■eoond joint black, terminal joint aa long aa second, apical f black 
except ertreme tip. Thorax dark aBhy-fuaoouB, with broad oohreous- 
white doraal stripe. Abdomen dark grey; ForewingB elongate, 
rather narrow, costa gently arched, apes obtuse-pointed, termen 
rounded, rather strongly oblique ; dark ashy-fuscons ; stigmata hiaok, 
obecm:^, plical rather obliquely before first diacal ; a small cloudy 
white dot on costa at } ; sometimes one or two white scales on npper 
part of t«rmen : cilia dark grey. Hindwings dark grey ; cilia grey. 

CoLOMBU, La Crumbre, 6600 feet, in May {Parish) ; five 
specimenB. 

Geleohla consona, d. sp. 
$. 13 mm. Head ochreous-white. Palpi white, base of second 
joint blackish, terminal joint nearly as long as second, anterior 
edge blackish on apical half. Thorax ochreous-white, patagia darie 
purplish -fuscous. Abdomen grey. Fore wings elongate, narrow, 
costa gently arched, apex pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; 
dark purplish-fuscous ; a thick white streak along donom from base 
to J, irregularly terminated and uniting with a roundish white spot 
in disc beyond middle of wing; a roundish white spot on coeta at 
}: cilia grey mixed with blackish. Hindwings grey; cilia light 

Ferd, Lima, in August (Parish) ; one specimen. Allied 
to the North American unifasdeUa. 

Gelechia argosema, n. sp. 

(J$. 9-11 mm. Head ochreous-white- Palpi ochreous-white, 
basal third of second joint blackish, terminal joint as long as second, 
apical I blackish except extreme tip- Thorax ochreous-white, 
patagia dark purplish-fuacous. Abdomen grey- Forewings elon- 
gate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse-pointed, 
termen very obliquely rounded; dark purplish .fuscous; a sub- 
triangular transverse ochreous-white spot from doisum before 
tomns, reaching half across wing, and a smaller spot from costa at 
I ; cilia grey suffused with dark purple-fuscons. Hindwings grey; 
cilia light grey. 

Ecuador, Huigia, 4500 feet, in June (Parish); five 



South American Micro-Lepidoplera. 51 

GeheUa pentadon, n. sp. 

,J$. 12-14 mm. Head ochreoua-white. Palpi yellow- whitUh, 
second joint with baeedark foacous, terminal joint as long aasMond, 
with gobapical band and aometimea base blackiab. Thorai: dark 
purple-foscona, witJi yellow posterior spot. Abdomen dark grey. 
Forewings elongate, narrow, coata gently arched, apex tolerably 
pointed, tennen very obliquely rounded; dark pnrple-fuacona; 
markingB yellow; a alightly oblique oval transverse blot^sh from 
oosta at } reaching { acroas wing; a spot beneath middle of disc; 
an irr^ular inwardly oblique transverse blotch bom coata at f, 
reaching more than half across wing; a spot on tomus; a small 
apot before apex : cilia dark purple-fuscous. Hindwings and cilia 
dark grey. 

Fkench GciANA, R. Maroni ; three Bpecimens. 

Polyhynmo gladlata, □. sp. 

^. 9 nun. Head, palpi, and thorax white (partially defaced), 
■boulders dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft ochreous- whitish. 
Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa alightly arched, apex 
pointed, prominent, termen ainnate, oblique: costal half dark fus- 
cous, dorsal area ailvery-grey-whitish, these separated by a broad 
median longitudinal shining white stfeak from liase to g, pointed 
pCNterioriy, lower edge suffused; a very fine white line along costs 
from near base to middle, thence diverted aa a alender very oblique 
atreak to just above apex of median atreak; an oblique white 
strigula from costa about {, whence a rather thick angulated leaden- 
metallic line tuns to tomus ; beyond this a small white coatat strigula, 
followed by a small white triangular spot; apical and terminal 
areas round these markings biownish-ochieous : cilia pale grey, 
above apex with two white wedge-shaped marks separated with dark 
foscoos, on termen white towards base, with a very abort black 
■nbbasol mack beneath apex and two black subbaaal dote below 
middle. Hindwings and cilia light grey. 

Colombia, Cali, 500 feet, in May (Parish) ; one apecimen. 

Polyhymno confllota, n. sp. 
<J $. 10-13 mm. Head whitish. Palpi whitish, second joint 
fnacotui except apex, scales roughly projecting beneath towards 
apex, terminal joint fuscous anteriorly. Thorax fuscous-whitish. 
Abdomen whitish-fuscous, anal tuft fuscous-whitish. Forewings 
ehmgate, narrow, costa slightly arched, apex produced, acute. 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



52 Mr. E. Meyrick's Deacriplvm <^ Miero-Lejndoptera. 

termen uniiat«, oblique ; dark fuscous, with cloudy white or whitish 
markingi, vie a BubcoetAl line on haMal half, a aupramediaD line to 
g, where it meets ui attenuated stre&k from beneath middle of disc. 
Mid a confused and ittegular more or less confluent suSu^ion occupj- 
ing most of donsl area up to fold; a very oblique white line from 
middle of costa to near termen above middle; a white oblique 
strigula from coBta at j, whence a fine acutely angulated leaden- 
roetalUo line runs to tomos; two white wedge-Bhaped marks from 
costa beyond this ; apicalarea tinged with ochreous: cilia lightgrey, 
above apex with two white triangular marks separated with dark 
fuscous, at apex with a projecting dark fuscous book, beneath apex 
white towards base, with a very short black aubbasal mark beneath 
apex and dot below middle. Hindwings light slaty-grey ; cilia 
pale greyish. 

Peru, Choaica, 2800 feet, and lima, in July and August 
{Parish); twenty-seven apecimens. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



II. iVeic Specim of Hvmenoptera i» the British Musfom. 
By Rowland E. Tueseb, F.Z.S., FES. 



Family BETHYLIDAE. 
G«nuB DiCBOGENiuv, Stadelm. 

DicTogenium, Stadelm., Entom. Nachticht, zz. p. 201, 

1894. 
Nomineia, Kieff., Ann. Soc. Ent. France- lux, p. 453, 
1911. 
I consider that these are identical, and that Ashmead's 
action in tiansfemng the genus from the Bdkylidae to 
his Cosilidae was entirely unjustifiable. 

IMen^idwii maxbnaiB, sp. n. 

J. Niger; mandibolis apioe fusco-femgineis: alia fnacis, ^lioe 
fnsco-hyalinis. 

Long. IS mm. 

Q. Maodiblee strongly bidentate at the apex, the outer tooth ttte 
longest; clypeoa abort, transverse, with a strong median carina. 
Flagelhun ptmctnred, hair;, becoming slender towards the apex, 
scape smooth and shining, the antennae as long aa the thorac 
and median segment combined. Head very large, broader than 
the thorax, broadly emarginale posteriorly, closely and coarsely 
pUDctured- reticulate; cjee very near to the liase of the mandibles, 
separated from the posterior margin of the head by a distance 
exceeding their own breadth; the cheeks broader than the eyes, 
spanely but dce[dy punctured, bearing a stout, acute, spine. Prono- 
tam short, strongly narrowed antcrioriy, the anterior maigin raised, 
a deep groove along the posterior margin. Mesonotum coarsely 
pnnctored, more sparsely on the middle than on the aides, the 
parapetdal furrows shallow; scutellum very sparsely punctured; 
mcAopleonie cloaely and coarsely punctured, with a shining, almost 
Binooth, area behind the wings. Median segment irregularly 
rvgoloee, with two longitudinal csrinae close together, the narrow 
space between the carinae transveraelj striated, the sidea of the 
■eminent strongly horizontally striated, the apical slope moro finely 
TBASS. EKT. SOC. LOND. 1917. — PAST I. (NOV.) 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



54 Mr. R. E. Turner on New Spedes oj 

tnmevenely striated. Abdomen shining, almoat smooth; the 
seventh donal segment Hpaisely and ahallowljr punctuied, brosdly 
truncate at the apex; apical ventral segment closely punotuTsd, 
hairy, deeply divided longitudinally in the middle. Radial cell 
open at the apex, but the radius is indicated by a blown continua- 
tion almost to the apex of the wing ; cubitus indicated by a white 
scar beyond the fitst transveise cubital nervure, the latter indicated 
by a brown scar, the second transreise cubital by a white scar. 

Hah. Sierra Leone, TBiuadu (■/. 3. Simpson), June. 

There is no tooth on the inner side of the mandibles as 
there is in D. conradti, Stadelm., and the carina of the 
proatemum is not furcate as in D. rosmarus, Stadelm. 

Family MUTILLIDAE. 
Ephutomorpha eoDtlgoa, sp. n. 

$■ Nigra; mandibulis baai, tubercnliaque antennalibns fusco- 
femigineis; thorace rufo-femiginoo ; flagello subtus, tarsisque 
brunneo-terrugineis; segraento doraali primo apioe late luteo; 
segmento dorsali secundo obscure aeneo-vireecente. 

Long. 1 mm. ' 

$. Antennal tubercles well developed, rounded; second joist 
of the flagellum distinctly longer than the third. Eyes oval, with 
distinct facets, situated nearer to the posterior margin of the head 
than to the base of the mandibles. Head nearly as broad as the 
thorax, feebly rounded at the posterior angles, closely and not very 
finely punctured. Thorax closely punctured rugose on the anterior 
two-thirds, the apical third coarsely rugose, the aides of the apical 
slope feebly seirate ; the thorax broadest anteriorly, the anterior 
angles feebly rounded, the anterior maigin almost transverse, the 
length of the thorax greater by about one quarter than the greatest 
breadth, abruptly hut not strongly narrowed behind the middle, 
a small tuft of erect white hairs on the mesopleurae. Second dorsal 
segment a little longer than the greatest breadth, the sides rather 
strongly convex, closely punctured rugulose; with an apical pateh 
of white hairs, which is continued as a median band on the third, 
fourth and fifth segments. Pygidial area triangular, finely longi- 
tudinally striated. 

Hob. S. Qdeeksland, Brisbane {Hacker), December. 

Nearest to E. mrulerUa, Turn., from S.W. Australia, 
but the thorax U less strongly narrowed posteriorly than 
in that species, the colour of the thorax is much brighter. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



Hymenoptera in the British Museum. 55 

and the spots of pubescence on the dorsal segments 
are different, virvlenla having an apical fascia of white 
pnbesoence instead of an apical spot. 

Ephntomorpha Inrida, sp. n. 

$. Pallide terruginBa; aegmsnto doraali woimdo fascia in«diana 
l<»tgittidiiiAli nigift, Mgmentis qninto aextoqne fuscis; eegmento 
donali aectmdo macula magna ntrinque fawiaqne angnata apioali, 
t«rtioqiie macula medianaalbopilons; area pjgiduJi lat« triangaUri, 
delkatisaime punctata. 

Long. 5-6 mm. 

$. Head and thorax sparaely clothed with pole fulvompobeeoence; 
antonnal tuberclee fairiy welt developed, leoond joint of the flagel- 
hun very little longer than the thiid Eyea round, Btiongly oonvex, 
roach nearer to the poateriot maxpa of the head than to the base 
of the mandibles. Head narrower than the thorn, strongly rounded 
at the posterior an^ce, finely and closely punctured. Thorax fully 
half B8 long again as the greatest breadth, strongly narrowed poB- 
terioily, the apioal margin scarcely more than half as wide as the 
baaal; the aat«rior margin feebly arched, not quite tranaverae, 
rugose, more coanely at the apes than at the base, the posterior 
slope coaisely rugose. Second dorsal segment finely longitudinally 
tnguloBe ; fully half as long again as the greatest breadth, the sides 
very feebly convoi. Sides of the abdomen thinly clothed with 
Itrog fulTOOS hairs 1 pygidial area broadly triangular, very minutely 
pnnotored. Hind tibiae with one row of four spinea. 

Hob. N. Queensland, Townsville (F. P. Dodd), Sep- 
tember. 

This belongs to the gronp of E. dartoiniana, Andi^, and 
E. eccerpla, Tom., but differs from both in colour; from 
the formei in the more strongly narrowed apical portion 
of the thorax, the longer second abdominal segment and 
the sculpture of the pygidial area; from the latter in the 
more graduaUy narrowed thorax and in the less convex 
sides of the second abdominal segment. 

Ephatomorpha dlrarslpes, sp. n. 

$. Nigra; vertice lat«, front« lugro Intaminato, thoraceque 
fermgineis ; tubeiculis antennalibus, flagello articulo primo, taraiaque 
pallide testaceis; segmeoto doraali primo fascia apicali pallide 
hitea; calcaribua pollidis: segmentis dorsaibus 2-fi fascia mediana 
longitndinali oontinua albido pilosa. 

j/»)tf 5 mm. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



56 Bfr. B. E. Turner <m Sew Species <^ 

$. Antennal tnbercleB wdl devdoped, roonded ; Moond joint of 
the flagellnin distinctlj longer than the ttiiid. Head a little 
narrower than the thorax, rounded at the posterior angle* ; finrij 
and closely punctured on the vertex, more deeply but not so cloaelj 
on the front. Eyes nearer to the posterior margin of the head tluD 
to the base of the mandiblea, round and etrraigly convex. Thorax 
a little le«s than half as long again as the greatest breadth, broadly 
rounded on the anterior margin, slightly narrowed poateriorly. 
longitudinally rugose striate on the basal two-thirds, coanely mgoae 
on the apical third; the posterior dope almost vertioa], coars^ 
rugose, with two minute lateral teeth close to the basal angjes. 
Second donal s^ment findy longitudln^y rugose, about one-thiid 
longer than tJie greatest breadth, the sides moderatdy convex. 
Pygidial area very nanowly rounded at the apei, findy iMigi- 
tudiually striate on the basal half. Hind tibiae with two rows of 
four rather feeble spines. 

Hab. N. Queensland, Tow-nsville {F. P. Dodd), Novem- 
ber and June. 

Near E. vittigera, Aiidre. a variety of which occurs in 
October in the same locality. It differs in the sculpture 
of the thorax, which does not run into striae in rilligera, 
in the absence of fulvous hairs on the thorax, in the ferru- 
ginous colour of the head and thorax, in the feebler spines 
of the hind tibiae, and in the colour of the tarsi ; it is also 
a smaller species. 

Ephutomorplu unlUnwto, sp. d. 
$. Nigra; capite foaco-femiginco, fronts et vertice nigro in- 
taminatis; scapo fusco; flagello infra poUide testaceo; tborace 
rofo-ferrugineo, brevi, latitudine vix longiore; segmento dorsali 
prino fascia apicali pallide lutea; segmentis dorsalibus 2-^ fascia 
mediona longitudinali continua albopilosa; area pygidiali late 
triangulari, longitudinaliter striata; calcaribus pallidis. 

?. Antennal tubercles rather large, with a low transverse carina 
between them ; second joint of the flagellum short, no longer than 
the third. Eyes round, strongly convex, situated nearer to the 
bind margin of the head than to the base of the mandiblea. Head 
narrower than the thorax, broadly rounded posteriorly; the front 
rugose, the vertex closely punctured. Thorax closely punctured 
rugose, scarcely longer than the greatest breadth, slightly narrowed 
from the middle both anteriorly and posteriorly, the anterior margin 
straight, the posterior slope almost vortical, aballowly nigoee. 



Ij.y.l.AjhyCOO'^lL' 



Hymenoptera in the British Museum. 57 

[deurae almost Hmooth. First dorsal segment short, slightl^r 
depressed below the second, which is nearly half as long ag^n as its 
greatest breadth, finely and closely ponctoied, the sides somewhat 
coDTex. The sides of the abdomen sparsely clothed with long 
-whit« haira, intettiperBed with black near the apex. Hind tibiae 
wHh two rows ot four spines. 

Hab. S. Queensland, Briabane (Hacker), November. 

Allied to E. argmteolineala, Audr^, but may be die- 
tinguiahed by the colour of the legs, the difltinctly stronger 
sculpture of the head and thorax, the slightly different 
shape of the latter, and the distinctly longer second 
abdominal s^ment. 

Ephntomorpha setlsen, sp. n. 

$. Nigra; tnberculis antennalibns pallide t«Btaceis; segmento 
doisali primo margine apicali patlide tuleo ; segmento dorsali secundo 
in medio longitodinaliter late, tertio, quarto, quintoque in medio, 
aextoque basi bninneo-ferragineis; tareis fusco-femigineis. 

Long. 6 mm. 

Q. Clypeus small and flat, truncate at the apex ; antennal tubenlea 
iftther large, second joint of the flagellum a little longer than the 
thiid, less than twice as long as the first: a low carina from the 
anteonal tubercles not reaching the eyes. Head closely and rather 
strongly punctured, more sparsely on the front than on the vertex, 
sparsely clothed with close lying fulvous bristles, interspersed with 
which are a few long black hairs. Eyes round, strongly convex, 
aitnated nearer to the hind margin of the head than to the base of 
the mandibles ; the bead ronnded at the posterior angles, no wider 
tban the thorax. Thorax granulate -rugose, more coarsely pos- 
teriorly than anteriorly, nearly half as long again as broad, the 
Bides almost smooth, the posterior slope finely rugulose, tiie sides 
almost parallel, the anterior angles rounded, the doisal surface 
clothed with short setae as the head, but with rather more numerous 
k>og black hairs. Dorsal segments 1-5 with a small patch of sparse 
white hairs in the middle of the apical maigin; second segment half 
as long again as the greatest breadth, the sides convex, closely but 
not very coareely punctured, the punctures confluent longitudinally. 
Pygidial area triangular, finely longitudinally striated, the striae 
not reaching the apex. Base of the abdomen with long whitish 
hairs, the hairs on the sides of the abdomen whitish near the base, 
mostly black near the apex. Hind tibiae with two rows of four 

Hab. S. Queensland, Brisbane (Hacker), November. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



58 Mr. R. E. Turner on New Spedes o§ 

Family THYNNIDAE. 
Zas^thynnas strittUroiu, sp. d. 
(J. Niger; mandibnlia, apice excepto, dypeo macula BubapkwU 
fnaca vtiinqae, otbitk, macula srcuata inter antemiae, pronoto 
ma^ifie antico, ptapleuu, pronoto mvgine postico, tegolis, meso- 
□oto macola magna quadrat* postice, meeopleuris antice et maculA 
magna postice, sontello fascia latiwima, poatice sd apicem productA, 
scat«Ui angulis anticis, postecatello, Bcgmento mediano fascia lata, 
longitudinali ]at«ribiisc[ae, Begmentjs donialibiia 1-6, ventnlibtu 
2-4 fascia tronsveTsa anguate inteirupta, s^mento primo ventrali 
macula mediana, ooxisqne sabtus flavis; aegmento donali sexto 
apice, eeptimoqne, ventralibus sexto septimoque pedibosque 
fecTugineis ; alia aubbjralimB, venis feimgineis. 

$. Nigra; capite femigineo, pedibus bnmneo-ferragineis, femori- 
bus nigro-maculatii; Bt«mo, segmentiaqne ventralibna aecimdo 
tortioque brunneis; piotborace postice nigro-marginato, ecuteUo, 
poatscutello, aegmento mediano lateribus, segmentia doisalibus 
1-3 fascia transveiBa undulata, segmentoqae dorsafi quarto faaoia 
tranaversa interrupta flavis ; pygidio fusco. 
Long. 5, 15 mm; $. 13 mm. 

(J. 0ypeas pointed and prominent at the base and connected 
by a short carina with the interant«nnal prominence, very broadly 
truncate at the apex, the apical angles itot prookinent, Btiongly 
longitmliaally atriated. Interant«nnal prominence very broadly 
triangular, a low longitudinal carina from the apex reaching more 
than half-way to the anterior ocellus. Front rogosel; punctured, 
irregularly rugose striato above the base of the antennae; vertex 
more epusely punctured. Antennae abont as long as the thorax 
and median segment combined ; pronotum rather sparsely and finely 
punctured, with a shallow shining groove behind the slightly raised 
anterior margin j meoonotum very cloeely punctured between the 
deep parapsidal furrows, but much more sparsely in the middle. 
Scutellum very broadly rounded at the apex, subtruncate, rather 
closely punctured ; median segment oblique from the postscnlellum, 
finely rugulose, the middle rather sparsely punctured. Abdomen 
somewhat elongate, the basal dorsal segment oblique anteriorly, 
■B broad at the apex as the second segment, all the segments rather 
sparsely punctured and not constricted; sixth rential segment 
with a spine on each side at the apical angles; seventh dorsal 
segment produced into a broad flattened lamella, longitndirmlly 
striated and veiy broadly rounded at the apex. Hypopygium 
obliquely striated above, subtriangular, broad at the base with a 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



Btftnaioplera in the British Museum. 59 

distinct apine on each side at the basal angles, narrowly tounded at 
the apex. Maxillae with a few long liain at the base beneath. 
Wings sparsely clothed with very short hairs, third abscissa of the 
radius mnch longer than the second, first recurrent nervure reoeived 
a little beyond two-thiids from the base of the second cubital cell, 
second a tittle before one-third from the base of the second cubital 
celt. 

?. MandibJea acute at the apex; clypeus punctured, without a 
carina, truncat* at the apex. Front with a large concave area on 
each side touching the inner margin of the eye and extending nearly 
*to the vertex, smooth and sliining ; the ridge between the depressions 
not quite as wide aa one of them, smooth and shining, with a median 
longitudinal sulcoB and with a few punoturee on the sides ; vertex 
shining, with a few scattered punctnrea. Head ucarly twice as 
broad as long, rounded at the posterior angles. Pronotum broader 
tlian the head, the anterior margin straight, slightly narrowed 
posteriorly, the liind margin broadly arched, twice as broad anteriorly 
as long, shaltowly punctured, with a few large setigerous punctnr«a 
on the anterior margin. Scutellum smooth and shining, broadly 
truncate at the apex; poBtscutellam plainly visible, transverse. 
Median segment very short, the dorsal surface scarcely half as long 
aa the scutellnm, widened from the base, almost vertically truncate 
posteriorly, the dorsal surface smooth and shining, the face of the 
Inmcation microscopically punctured. Dorsal surface of the 
abdomen shining, with a few scattered punctures; first s^ment 
^most vertically truncate anteriorly, witb a deep groove close to the 
apical margin and a few indistinct, short, transverse striae close to 
the apical angles ; second segment with numerous transverse striae, 
which gradually increase in height from the base to the apex, the 
hssal striae strongly curved, those at the apex straight. Vential 
segments coamely, but not veiy closely, punctured ; the fifth seg- 
ment coarsely longitudinally striated. Pygidium narrow, trans- 
versely striated at the base, vertically truncate posteriorly, strongly 
compressed before the truncation, the dorsal plate of the truncation 
narrowly rounded at the base, broadly rounded at the apex, with 
about ten arched striae, longer than the greatest breadth, scarcely 
reaching beyond the middle of the truncation; the ventral plate 
rather broadly truncate at the apex, finely, but distinctly serrate 
at the sides. Basal joint of intermediate tarsi rather broad, with six 
*tout spines on the outer maigin. 

li(d>. Queensland, Stradbroke Island, Moreton Bay 
(ff. Hacker), September 17, 1915. 
Thifl is intermediate between Thynnus and Zasjnlo- 



ih, Google 



60 Mr. R. E. Turner an New Speciet <^ 

thynnus, and perhaps might be placed in the fonner g«nUB. 
The nearest ally seems to be Tkymnts britbanensis, Turn., 
but it is aiso very near Zaspilotkipmns rufolvteus. Turn. 
It differs from brisbanensts in the form of the hypopygiiim, 
in the more oblique median segment, and in the less trun- 
cate first dorsal segment, also in the colour of the legs and 
apical abdominal segments. The distinct post^cutellum 
of the female is remarkable. 



Family SCOLIIDAE. 

Stibfamilr ELIDINAB. 

Elis (Heu) nursel. Turn. 

Plesia nursei, Turn., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), iii, 

p. 480, 1909, (J. 
Elis (Mesa) nursei. Turn,, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 721, 
1912, cj- 

$. Nigra, capita thoraceque cntsse, abdomine Bparee panctatis, 
pygidio loDgitudinaliter rugose etriato, alls hyalinis, vends pallide 
tefitaceiB ; tegulis teataceis, calcaribus albidis. 

Long. 13 mm. 

$. Clypeus with a low carina, strongly punctured, tlie ^ueal 
margin smooth and transverse. Head coarsely punctoied, the 
punctures on the front more or less confluent; scape smooth and 
shining above, with a few strong piliferooa punctures beneath; 
pronotum coarsely punctured, mesonotnm and scutellum rather 
more sxHirsely punctured, the parapeldal furrows very distinct. 
Median segment more finely punctured, not margined poaterioriy, 
the posterior slope rugulose, two convergent longitudinal corinae 
from the base close to the middle of the median segment. Abdomen 
rather sparsely and shallowly punctured, the punctorefl latber 
large; sixth dorsal segment longitudinally rugose -striate, narrowly 
rounded at the apex. Basal joint of the hind tarsi with a row of 
close set hairs beneath. Second abscissa of the radius veiy Uttle 
shorter than the third, first recurrent nervure received just before 
the middle of the second cubital cell, second just before three- 
quarters from the base of the third cubital cell. 

Hab. Simla {Nurse). September. 

This is nearest to li. usltdata, Turn., but the sculpture 
is much coarser and the sixth dorsal segment much more 
narrowly rounded than in that species. E. nursei $ was 



n,g,i,.eih,.G00glc 



Bymeno^era in the British Museum. 61 

identified by Cameron for Colonel Nurse as anthradna, 
Sm.; but, as I liave pointed out in other papers, that 
insect is an Anthcbcaca and is Australian ; not Indian, as 
stated by Smith and Bingham. 

Elis (Hesa) heteroehroa, sp. n. 

$. Fusoo-fermginea ; mandibuliB apice, flagello, pleuris, St«nio, 
Gozia poatioii snbtiu, segmento ntediano, segmento Tentrali primo, 
ugmeittisqiie doraalibtu 1-4 margine apicali late nigris; calcaiibuB 
albidis; alis pallide flaTO-hyalinia, venia fuBcia; segmento doreali 
texto loQgitudinalitei etrkto, apice truncato. 

3. Niger; clypeo apice, maiidibnlia apice excepto, maonla 
tiansversa atrinque inter antenuaa, pronoto macula transveraa 
mediana, tegulis basi, segmentis dorsalibus 1-6 fascia angusta apioali 
lateribus dilatata, in medio angusto intemipta, segmentis ventra- 
libni 2-6 macula porva apicali ntrinque, coxis subtus, femoribos 
uitioii poBticisqne subtus et spice, intermediis apice, tibiis anticia 
intennediisque supra, posticis basi, tarsisqoe hie illio infoscatia, 
flavis; alia hyalinis, stigmate venisqne nigris. 

Long. $, 18 mm; 3, 17 mm. 

$. Clypeus sparsely but rather strongly punctured, with a low 
median carina which does not reach the broadly truncated apex. 
Head coarsely and closely punctured, more sparsely on the vertex 
than on the front, antennal tubercles well defined. Scape smooth 
above, beneath punctured, with long pale fulvous setae towards 
lite apex. Pronatum coarsely and closely punctured, subcarinate 
longitudiiiallj in the middle; acutellum and mesouotum rather 
more sparaely punctured; pleurae more finely and shollowly 
punctured. Median segment subopaqae, with a longitadinal 
impressed line on the dorsal surface, the puncturation sh^ow and 
obscnie, finer at the base than at the apex, the posterior slope 
■hallowly punctured- rugolose, the sides of the segment very finely 
and closely striated and clothed with short white pabescence. Abdo- 
men shining, sparsely punctured, more closely on the fourth and lif th 
than on the basal segments, ventral segments more coarsely punctured 
than the dorsaL Sixth dorsal segment closely longitudinally striated, 
the apical ■"a.pgin broadly smooth and rather broadly tnmcate at 
the apex. Second abscissa of the radius as long as the third, first 
nciirrent nervure received close to the middle of the second cubital 
ceil, second jost before two-thirds from the base of the third cubital 
cell. Basal joint of the hind tarsi with a close row of bairs l>eneath 
mingled with a few spines. 

j. Clypena finely punctured, clothed with white pubescence, 



u„,,i,A J.., Google 



62 Mr. R. E. Turner on New Speaes cf 

slightl; convex, aubcorinate longitudinally at the base. later- 
anteanal prominenoe bilobed ; the front rugose, the vertex punctond. 
Head much broader than the thorax i rounded at the poBterior 
angles; the posterior ocelli further from the ejee than from each 
other; antennae about as long as the head, thorax and median 
segment combined. Thorax punctured, more finelj and aparaelr 
on the ecutellum than elsewhere, mesopleurae finely rugose; pro- 
notum shorter than the mesonotum, the anterior margin straight, 
the angles not prominent. Median segment closelj and strongly 
punctured. First abdominal segment long; the petiole occupying 
rather more than the basal third of the segment, rather short«T than 
the baaal joint of the hind tarai; the apical portion moderately 
swollen, the extreme apex a little constricted; second segment 
flcaicely more than half as long as the first, broadened from the baae, 
longer than the apical breadth ; third segment a little broader than 
long; basal segment smooth and shining, the remaining segments 
gradually becoming more strongly punctured; the punctures on 
the sixth dorsal segment large but rather sparse ; seventh segment 
smooth at the base, with a few large punctniw before the apex, the 
apical emargination narrow, a little deeper than its apical breadth. 
Second abscissa of the radius about equal to the third. 

Sab. Nyasaland, Mlanje (S. A. Neave), December to 
June. 

The female is very near E. h^erogamia, Sauss., which 
0CCUI8 in the same district, and may prove to be only a 
variety of that species, but the difference in the colour 
of the legs and abdomen seems to be constant. The nine 
females in the collection were taken from January to June, 
seven of them in February, specimens of heterogamia being 
taken from December to June. The male has the fiist 
abdominal segment distinctly more elongate than in 
davata, Sauss., and the colour of the nervures is dilTeient. 
In some specimens of the male the clypeus is wholly black, 
and in some the yellow mark on the pronotum shows a 
tendency to disappear. 

Ells (Hesa) erythropoda, Turn. 

Plesia {Mesa) en/lhropoda. Turn., Ann. and Mag, Nat. 
Hist. (8), i, p. 505, 1908, $. 
The type was from Lake Ngami. Ulr. Neave has sent 
a series of the female from Mlanje, taken from January to 
May. In these specimens the head is more sparsely 
pimctured than in the type. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



Bj/meaoptera in the British Museum. 63 

Elis (He») arnoldl, sp. n. 

$. Nigra; nuuidifatilis dimidio apicoli fusco-fernigineiB ; fla^^o 
sabtua fuaco ; pronolo propleurisqoe rufis ; calcariboB albidia ; 
nnguicnlia pollide tefitBceia ; alia hyalinis, venia fuacia. 

Long. 9 mm. 

$. ClfpeuB subcarinate langitudinallj in the middle, the apical 
margin tranareiae and slightly depressed. Front oloeelj and 
atrongly, vertex and pronotam leaa closely punctured; mesonotum 
and scutellum eparaely ponctured. Propleotae sparsely, meeo- 
pleurae very doaely and atrongly punctured; median eegmeat 
more finely and veiy closely punctured, with the usual Bhallow, 
margined, longitudinal groove from the base, the sides of the segment 
fiitely and closely striated. Abdomen rather closely and shallowly 
punctured on the dorsal surface ; the ventral surface more finely 
and closely punctured at the base of the segments, the grooTe be- 
tween the two basal ventral segments very deep as in other species 
of the genus. Sixth dorsal segment closely punctured at the base, 
the punctures towaide the apex intermingled with fine longitudinal 
striae, the apical ma^in broadly smooth and pale t«Btaeeous, broadly 
rounded at the apex. Third abscissa of the radios twice as long as 
the second, recurrent nervures received distinctly beyond the middle 
of the second and thiid cubital cells. Basal joint of the hind tarsi 
with a Bcopa of fine whitish hairs beneath. 

Hab. 8. Rhodesia, Buluwayo {G. Amdd), March. 

In colour this species somewhat resembles Anlhobosca 
erythronota. Cam., but is generically distmct. The sculpture 
of the sixth doiBal segment separates it from all other 
African species of Elis, the segment being nearly always 
striated; in E. ■peringueyi, Sauss., in which it is punctured, 
the punctures are very coarse and sparse. 

Pteiombius wiUiamsl, sp. n. 

$. Niger; mandibulis ferrugineis; abdomine aegmentis tertio 
qnartoqne apice lateribusque,, quinto, sexto septimoque omnino 
mfo-femigineis ; alia hyalinis, venis nigris. 

Long. 7 mm. 

3- Head shining, sparsely and rather finely punctured ; antennal 
tubercles well defined, fonnuig short longitudinal carinae. Jlan- 
diblea bidentate at the apex; labrum transverse, with an apioal 
fringe of hairs. Fronotum distinctly longer than the mesonotum, 
tbe anterior ma^in distinctly raised, rather sparsely punctured; 
mesonotum rather more strongly punctured ; scutellum as long as 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



64 Mr. R. E. Turner on New Species of 

the meaonotum; median segment very coaraelj rngoee, the ddea 
finely and closely striated. Abdomen smooth and shining, petiolate ; 
the fint segment u long u the second and third combined, Tciy 
nanow at the baae, the apical half moderately swollen and slightly 
constricted at the apex ; the second segment twice aa broad at the 
apex aa at the base ; the recurved apical spine of the bypopygiom 
rather shorL First tecmrent nervure received just before one- 
quarter from the base of the second cubital cell, wcond just beforv 
one-third from the base of the third cubital celL Third ahscioaa 
of the radios as long as the second and first combined, second folly 
twice as long as the first. 

Hob. British Guiana, Bartica (C B. Williams), 
September. 

This is distinguished from other known males of the 
geuus by the black basal and led apical segments of the 
abdomen; the anterior margin of the pronotura is raised, 
which is not the case in tflabricollis, DUcke, or confusus, Sm. 



Family PSAMMOCHARIDAE. 

The two following species belong to the wide-ranging 
genus Episyron, in which the tarsal ungues are bifid in 
both sexes, the cubitus of the hindwing originating just 
before the transverse median nervure, the third cubital 
cell much shorter than the second and strongly narrowed 
on the radius, the first dorsal segment clothed more or leae 
densely with scale-like hairs, and the male antennae rather 
slender, with the ioints not arcuate beneath. The labrum 
is sUghtly exposed. 

1. Episyron hpldohlrtus, Turn. 

Anoplius (Episyron) lepidohirtus, Turn., Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, p.' 331, 1910, 2 (J. 

This is a true Episyron, nearly related to the European 
P. Tufipes, the type of the genus. It is very closely related 
to the New Guinea species E. papuensis, Sm. 

Hub. N. Queensland, Mackay to Cooktown. 

2. Episyron kurandensls, Turn. 

AnopUus (Episyron) kurandensis, Turn., Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, p. 333, 1910,?. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



Hymenoplera in the Briiiah Museum. 66 

The Bcale-like haiis on the Bist dorsal segment are not 
very stronglj' developed in this species. 
Aa6. N. QuEENSLAin), Kuranda. 

Genus Psahmochabes, lAtr. 

The Anstralian species still included in this genns fall 
into several eections, which will doubtless eventually be 
raised to generic rank ; but I consider it best to wait until 
a more comprehensive revision is possible, in the meantime 
defining certun groups of related species. One of these 
groups, somewhat allied to Batozonus, Ashm., and Episyron, 
8chiodte, has the tarsal ungues of both sexes bifid as in the 
latter genus, but has the joints of the fl^ellum in the male 
strongly arcuate beneath as in Balozonut, though shorter 
than in that genus, and diSers from both in having the 
cubitus of the hindwing interstitial with the transverse 
median nervure. The median segment of the female is 
truncate at the apex and more or less emarginate, with a 
distbct median sulcus on the dorsal surface ; and the third 
cubital cell is much narrowed on the radius. The sexual 
dimorphism in the group is great, much greater than in 
Episyron, though less than in Balozonus. The species 
included are — 

I. ftammoehares eonsimlUs, Sm. 

Pompilus consimUis, Sm., Descr. new speues Hymen., 
p. 152, 1879, ?. 

?. Nigra; front©, vertice, pronotoqne pilis breviHSimia auran- 
tiacis, eabeqasmo«is, etratis, dense obtectia; poatscatella macula 
utrinqnfl aegmentoque mediano angolis posticia albo-pUosts; seg- 
m«ntu dorsaliboB 2-3 fascia transversa grisea utrinque ; alis fosots, 
apice obBcurioribns, veoia fuscis. 

iJ. Niger; antennis fusco-femigineia, scapo supra infuscato, 
■^mento dorsali aexto albido; s^pnenlo mediano angolia posticis 
aJbo-piloHis ; fronts, pronoto, scgmentis doisalibos 1-3 fascia lata 
b«sali, qoarto quintoque omnino griseo-pubesoentibua; alls fusco- 
hjalinis, apice obscarioribus. 

Long. ?, 14 mm ; ,J, 12 mm. 

9. Clypeoa widely but vny shallowly emarginate at the apex, 
the Ulmtm exposed. Head somewhat flattened, the posterior ocelli 
Deariy twice aa fat from each other as from the hind margin of the 
head. Second joint of the flagellum lees than half as long again as 

TBAlfS. ENT. 80C. LOND. 1917. — PART I. (NOV.) F 



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66 Mr. R. E. Turner on Nea Speciea cf 

the third. Pronatum aiched poeteriorly, not angnlaUt, almcwt m 
long &B the mesonotam ; gcutellum depraoed ftt the sideft. Mediao 
segment looger than the meaonotum, Tith a distiiict median aulcoa. 
rather Btrongly emarginate at the apei, the apical alape almost 
verticaL Second ventral Kgment convex, pygidium smooth. 
Basal joint of the fore tarsi with four short spines, all the ungoM 
bifid Third cubital cell pointed on the radius, subpetiolate. 

cf. Cljpeus broadly and shallowly emarginate, the labniin ex- 
posed. Head flatt«ned, the front subcarinate longitadinallj' from 
the anterior ocellus but grooved on the lower part towards the base 
of the antennae, the posterior ocelli very near Uie hind margin of the 
bead ; antennae stout, tapering towards the apex, very little longer 
than the thorax and median segment combined, fifth to eleventh 
joints of the flageUum strongly arcuate beneath. Hind margin of 
the pronotum with a distinct angle in the middle. Median aegmcnt 
without a distinct sulcus, the apical slope less abrupt than in the 
female and leas deeply emarginate. First abdominal segment long, 
second ventral segment convex, with a distinct, though ahallow, 
transverse impressed line near the base. Third cubital cell not quit« 
pointed on the radius, but the third abscissa of the radius is ex- 
tremely short. All the tarsal ungues bifid. The distanoe between 
the base of the mandibles and the eyes is considerable. 

H(A. Queensland, Mackay iJ'uTner), March ; Brisbane, 
{Hncker), January and February. 

The naale has not been previously described ; the descrip- 
tion is taken from two Mackay specimens; the specimen 
from Brisbane is without the transverse groove near the 
base of the second ventral segment, but does not differ 
otherwise. The female shows no trace of such a groove, 
the presence of which in males is most remarkable. The 
female has a strong superficial resemblance to Paammo- 
chares frontalis, Fabr., which belonj^s to another section 
of the genus and has the tarsal ungues unidentate, not 
bifid. 

2. Pummoohares doddl, Turn. 

Anoplius doddi, Turn., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 328, 
1910, ?. 
j. Niger; fiagello articults secundo tertioque subtus fulvis; 
olypeo macula magna utnnqoe, pronoto maipne poateriore, aeg- 
mento dorsaU tertio fascia bssall intemipta, segmento dorsali 
septimo, calcariis, tibiisque posticis supra albido flavia; alis hyalinia, 
fascia apioali fusca, extiemoapice hyalinis. Vor. a 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



BymeKOptera in the British Muwum. 67 

Mignlni afHCAlibos, aegmoitoqae secimdo donali dmcuIa baaaii 
ntrinqne flftTiB. 

Long. S-d mm. 

^. ClypooB tnmcftte at the ftpex, the Ubrum expoeed. Fomth 
to eloTentb joints of the flagellum strongly uciute beneath; eyM 
only narrowly sepuated from the base of the mandibles. Head 
aomewhst flattened, the posterior ocelli very near the hind margin 
of the head. Hind margin of the pronotum strongly aiohed, not 
uigulate. Median segment with a distinct longitudinal sulcus, 
shorter than the mesonotum, steeply sloped posteriorly, but not 
abruptly truncate, with patches of white pubescence at the apical 
angles. First dorsal segment rather densely clothed with scale-like 
hairs, as in the genus Epitf/ron, fourth, fifth and sixth segments 
covered with grey pubescence; second ventral segment convex, 
aerenth with a longitudinal carina. Third abscissa of the radius 
about h^ aa long as the second. 

ffofc. Queensland, Townaville {Dodd) ; Mackay (Turner), 
January to March ; Brisbane and Stradbrolce Island 
(Hacker), October to February; Northern Territoby, 
Alexandria [Stalker), January ; Hermannsbui^ (Hillier), 
April. 

Tbe female iaeasily distinguished by the fasciate forewings. 

The following species are very closely allied to Episyron, 
bat differ in having tbe third cubital eel) much larger than 
the second and the cubitus of the hindwing in most speci- 
mens interstitial with the trans verae median nervure. 
The forewings are crossed by two fuscous fasciae. They 
form a generic group. 

1. Piammoetiues limpldns. Turn. 
Anoplius [Episyron) limpidva. Turn., Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, p. 332, 1910, ?^. 
This is not a true Epiayron, and pending a revision, 
most be retained in Vsamrnochares. 
Hah. N. Queensland, Euranda. 

2. Runmoehtru mulrl, sp. n. 

$. Nigra 1 mandibulia basi, clypeo dimidio apicali, scapo, pionoto 
margine postioo, pedibusque anticis brunnoo-ferrugineiB ; flsgello 
snbtns, t«giilisque fnsco-ferrugineis ; alis byalinis, antioia fusco 
bifaactatiB. 

Long. 8 mm. 

$. ClypeuB transverse at the apex, clothed with delicate white 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



68 Mr. R. E. Turner on Neu> Species of 

pnbeaoenae, microKopically panctured, with a veij ap&ise traiu- 
Tene row ol large puooturea neat the middle, from each of which 
Hprings a long bUok hur. Eyes diatinctlj diveigent towards the 
clypeUB ; the posterior ocelli as far from each other as from the eyea ; 
a distinct frontal Boloue reaching the anterior ocellua. Antennae 
slender, the second joint of the flagellum as long as the fiist snd third 
oombined. Pronotnm strongly arched posteriorly, not angulate 
in the middle; aontellnm nthet strongly compressed laterally, 
the dorsal surface small. Dorsal sutfoce of the median s^ment 
shorter than the scut«lliiffl, much broader than long, without a 
median sulcus; the posterior slope oblique and clothed with short 
whitish pubeecence. Abdomen opaque, the basal dorsal segment 
clothed with greyish soale-like hairs; uzth doisal segment finely 
punctured and sparsely clothed with long fuscous hairs, elongate 
triangular; second ventral segment strongly convex. Third 
abscissa of the radius longer than the second, as long as the second 
transverse cubital nervure, the cubital margin of the third cubital 
cell half as long again as that of the second ; first recurrent nervure 
received at two-thirds from the base of the second cubital cell, 
seoond just beyond the middle of the third cubital celL Cubitus of 
the hindwing interstitiaL Fore tarsi very feebly spined, the basal 
joint with three short spines ; hind tibiae feebly spinose. The basal 
fascia of the forewing is not very broad and is situated on the outer 
side of the basal nervuie, not reachirkg the costa; the second (asci» 
veiy broad, crossing the wing, and occupying the whole of the radial 
and second and third cubital cells. 

Hab. Ahboinj {F. Muir), October. 

Easily dUtingiiisheii from limpidus by the colour of the 
antennae and legs, but very close in structure. 

Another group has the tarsal ungues unidentate in both 
sexes; the joints of the Sagellum iu the male not arcuate 
beneath; the second cubital cell always longer than the 
third on the radius, though not always on the cubitus ; the 
median segment with a sulcus, usually strongly developed 
from base to apex; and the fore tarsi of the female in most 
species strongly spinose. The species are all black, with 
white or grey pubescence, rarely with orange close-lying 
hairs on the pronotum. To this section belong — 

1. hammoohares senex. Turn. 
Anopliu3 senex. Turn., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 327, 
1910, $. 
Hab. Victoria. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Hymenoptera in the Brituk Mttaeum. 69 

2. FsanunoehftTM itevoi, Tuid. 

Anoplius atamia. Turn., Proc. Zool, Soc. London, p. 326, 
1910, 9. 
Sab. N.W. AUSTRAUA. 

3. hammoohares ahrlnuuies, Turn. 

Anoplitts ahrimanea. Turn., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 326, 
1910, 9. 
H<A. N. QUEENSLAMD. 

4. fsunmoflbaies pinto, sp. n. 

$. Nign; alie nigro-vioUcetB ; Bagello aubtns taaoo; nnguioolia 
nnidentatia. 

(f. Feminae Bimillimag; scapo mbtus bnmeo, orbitia intemis 
angnato SA-ria ; ongiiiotiUB nmdentetiB. 

Lcmg. ?, 17 mm.; J, 14 taat. 

$. Clfpens broadly tnmcate at the apex, the labnim Dot exposed ; 
second joiut of the flagellum as long as the first and thiid oombined, 
the third distinctly longer tbaa the fourth. Eyes slightly divergent 
towards the clypeos, separated on the vertex by a distance equal 
to the length of the third joint of the flagellum. Fronotum shorter 
than the mesonotum, the posterior margin broadly arched, withont 
a distinct angle; scutellom narrowly truncate at the apex. Median 
segment broader than long, without tubercles, rounded at the 
posterior angles, gradually sloped posteriorly, with a deep median 
sulcus from the base. Abdomen opaque, with a few long black 
luurs on the sides near the apex; sixth doisal segment rather 
broadly rounded at the apex and sparsely clothed with long black 
setae. Basal joint of fore taiaus with three moderately long spines 
cm the outer margin, hind tibiae spinose, tanal ungues with one 
tooth. Third abscissa of the radius a little longer than the first, 
and more than two- thirds of the length of the second, submedian 
cell equal in length to the median, second recurrent nermre received 
beyond the middle of the third cubitjil cell, cubitus of the hind-wing 
interstitial with the transverse median nervure. 

3- Antennae not stout, the joints very slightly arcuate beneath, 
second joint of the flagellum scarcely longer than the third. Clypeus 
widely emarginale at the apex, the labnim exposed in the arch of 
the emaigination. Median segment as long as broad, without a 



u„,,l„eJh,G00glc 



70 Mr. R. E. Tomer m New SpecUs of 

Bulciu. T&nal nngoes miidenUto, hind tibiae modentely apinoae ; 
neoiHtion of wings u in the fenulc 

Hob. Mackay, Q. {Turner), 1 ?, November 1897; 1 <?, 
February 1899. 

5. Fsammoehana frontalis, Fabr. 

Sphex frontalis, Fabr., Syst. Entom., p. 349, 1775, 2. 
P<mp{lus frontalis, Fabr.. Syst. Kez., p. 188, 1804, °. 

The male is simiUr to the female, but has tbe pubescence 
on tbe head and pronotum greyish instead of oranp;e. 
The seventh dorsal segment is broadly truncate at the 
apex, the seventh ventral segment carinate longitudinally 
and produced into a short spine at the apex. 

Hab. Queensland, Brisbane and Mackay. 

6. hammocbantsamlluolnosm, Sm. 

Potupihis semilvcluosus, Sm., Cat. Hvm. B. M., iii. p. 166, 
1855, 5. 

This is a large species, with six long, slightly spatulate. 
spines on the basal joint of the fore tarsi. 

Hab. Sydney. 

7. PsuiinoehaTes berthondi, sp. n. 

$. Nigra, fronte, cljpeo lateribuH, pronoto maigmibns, meeonoto 
fascia transversa apicali, scuteUo angulis tuisalifaiu, poatscutello 
macula magna mediana. maculaque minore utrinque angolia 
apicalibus, meeopleuris fascia ofaliqua, eegmento mediana angulis 
baBalibuB et apicalibus, aegmento dorsali primo roacula utrinque. 
Begmentis dorsatibus 1-6 macula tranaversa apicali utrinque, aeg- 
mentiaque ventralibue secundo teitioque macula utrinque anf^ia 
apicalibuB albido-pubeacentibus ; alia fuacia. apice obacurioribns, 
venia nigria; metatareo antico spinis aeptem longis instmcto. 

Long. 23 mm. 

$. Clypeua broadly truncate at the apes; second joint of the 
flagellum very long, nearly as long as the third and fourth com- 
bined; front flat, without a distinct aulcua, posterior ooelii much 
nearer to each other than to the eyes. Pronotum strongly arched 
posteriorly, not angulat«; scuUllum with a broad donal surface, 
not very strongly compresaed laterally. Median aegment aoaicely 
longer than the pronotum, much broader than long, the sulcus on 
the dorsal suriace very deep, the lateral tubercles not developed. 



Ij.y.l.AjhyCOO'^lL' 



Hymenvptera in the British Museum. 71 

Sixtb aomtl Begment broadly rounded At the apex, with ap&ne 
ponctiiTes, each of which bean a long bUck h&ir. Baaal joint of 
the fore taisi with eeven long alightly apatulate Bpinea; inter- 
mediate and bind tibiae with a patch of grej pnbeaoence at boM 
and apex, tore tibiae with a line of grej pubeeoence on the onter 
ode. Tanal nngnes nnidentaite. Second abeoisia of the radiua 
more than half u long ^;ain as the third, the second cubital cell 
as long on the cnbitna as the third ; fint reoturent nerrure received 
at about one-sixth from the apex o( the eeoond cubital cell, seoond 
close to the middle of the third cnbital cell. Cabitiu of hindwing 
intcoMitiaL 

Hob, S.W. AusTRAUA, Waroona {G. F. Berthoud), 
January. 

Thifl 13 a western fonn of semiluauoais, differing little 
from that species except in the presence of an additional 
spne on the basal joint of the fore tarsi, and in the much 
more broadly interrupted abdominal fasciae. 

8. ^»mmoeh»res melanehoL'eiis, Sm. 

PompUus mdanckolicus, Sm., Trans. Eot. Soc. London, 
p. 244, 1868, ?,J. 

This species closely resembles semiluciuiMus in colour, 
but is much smaller, the joints of the flagellum are less 
elongate, the abdominal fasciae continuous, the sixth 
dorsal segment much more nairowly rounded at the apex, 
the basal joint of the foie tarsi with only three spines, 
and the median segment with an oblique band of cinereous 
pubescence on each side near the apex. The male has 
the apical ventral segment with a low longitudinal carina, 
the hairs on the segment and the apical fringe short ; the 
sixth ventral segment almost flat, not strongly convex. 

H(d>. S.W. Australia, Yallingup (Turner), October to 
December; Champion Bay {Du Boulay). 

Smith's type is unfortunately lost, but his description 
of the species as only 5 lines long agrees with the present 
species much better than with the larger allied species 
occurring in the same locality. Mv specimens measure 
?, ]3mm.i J, 7 ram. 

9. Psammochtres vassei, sp. n. 
S. DiSeiB from mtlaiKholKaa in the larger bim, the female 
mm., in the much broader apex of the aixth dorsal 

iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



72 Mr, B. E. Turner cm New Species cf 

B^ment, in the more convex baae of the seoond Tentral SegmeDt, 
and in the preeence of a fourth spine on the baoal joint of the fore 
tUBua. 

(J. DiSera from mda»eholicu» in the larget size, 11 mm. ; in the 
strongly oompieesed sides of the apical ventral segment, which 
leave the mediui carina veiy prominent, the segment is also covered 
with long haiis, vhich are especially conspicuous along the carioft 
and on the apical fringe ; the sixth ventral segment is more convex 
than in melawAolicaa, and the fasciae of cinereous pubescence 
which in melancholieat are confined to the three basal segments 
extend in vcuwi to the sixth. 

H(d>. S.W. AusTRAUA, YalliDgup {Turner), December, 

10. Psammocbftres basstanns, sp. n. 
$. Ooeely allied to vaseei, but has three spines only on the basal 
joint of the fore tarsi, the sixth dorsal segment is quite distinct, 
the apical half of the segment being smooth, shining, and slightly 
concave in bastianiu, the apex a little produced and not very 
broadly roundbd, in vassei the segment is slightly convex throughout, 
the apical half subopaque and very closely and minutely punctured 
and very broadly rounded at the apex; in mdandioUeui the Mo- 
ment is more noirowly rounded at the apex than in either, convex 
throi^DUt, the apical quarter shining and almost smooth. 

Hob. Tasmania, Eaglehawk Neck {Turner), February, 
Unfortunately I did not take the male. The group of 
mdaticholictis seems to be very extensive and the species 
very closely allied, but differing especially in the apical 
segments of both sexes. I have two oi three Eastern 
Australian forms, but have not sufficient material from 
which to describe them. 

II. haminoeliani bbills, Sm. 

Pompilus labilis, Sm., Descr. new species Hymen., p. 151, 
1879, (J (as ?). 
The thorax in this species is without pubescence in the 
female, but the pronotum of the male is covered with 
close-I}"ing whitish hairs, the head also being covered with 
similar hairs in both sexes except on a transverse band 
across the ocellar region. The colour of the pubescence 
varies from whitish to dull yellowish. The female has 
three long spines on the basal joint of the fore taiai. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lL' 



Hymenoptera in the BrUish Museum. 73 

Hab. Queensland, Townsville {Dodd), January and 
February; Nobtherk Territory, Port Darwin ((?, F. 
HUl); N.W. Australia, Nicol Bay (Dr. Clement). 

12. Fsammocharei baslUcus, ap. n. 

$. Nigra, captte Intco pnbescente, laaoia tiaiuverea in regions 
oc«llari nnda; s^mento donali faaoia Bngoata apicali BUbint«r- 
rupta, secundo tertioque macula transTeraa utrinque oinereo- 
pnbeacente ; s^mento mediano Uteribns ante apicem distinctiseinie 
tubercnlato. 

Long. 19 mm. 

$. Veiy near P. lo&ilis, but may be diBtingnisbed from that 
■peciee by the absence of the very broad abdominal fascUe, by the 
preeeDce of four long spines on the baaal joint of the fere tarai; 
tbe median aegment has a very deep median buIcub and a blunt 
tabeiole on each side before the apical angles, tbe tubercle being 
almost obeolets in labilis; in both the apical dona! segment is 
broadly rounded at the apex, but the puncturation of the segment, 
though Teiy minute in both, is more distinct in bibilU. Tbe second 
abscissa of the radius is scaroely twice as long as the third in baaUieu*, 
and in West Australian specimens of labUia, but about four times as 
long in Queensland specimens of labUis, 

Hab. N. Queensland, Townsvilie {Dodd). 

Nearly allied to this group but difiering in having the 
submedian cell distinctly longer than the median in both 
sexes and the tarsal ungues in tbe male bifid are the two 
following species — 

1. Fsammoebans unoflanlai. Turn. 
Anoplius amoemilus. Turn,, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
p. 329, 1910, $. 
HiA. Queensland, Brisbane and Mackay. 

,2. Rammoeharei elatus, Sm. 
PompUtts elaius, Sm,, Joum. linn. Soc. Zool,, viii, p. 82, 
1864,9. 
Hab. Queensland, Mackay and Townaville ; Moluccas, 
Morty Island. 

Another generic group is easily distinguished by the 
coarse granulation of the thorax, especially strong on the 
median segment ; by tbe very long submedian cell, which 
is much longer than the median ; by the very short third 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



74 Mr. R. E. Turner on New Species of 

cubit&l cell, which is twice aa long on the cubitus as on 
the radius, but no longer on the cubitus than the length 
of the third transverse cubital nervure ; by the red colour 
of the thorax and median segment, and by the unidentate 
tarsal ungues. To this group belong — 

1. Pummoeluns eirthroslelhiis, Sm. 

Pompilus erythrosteihua, Sm., Cat. Hvm. B. M., iii, p. 162, 
1&55, O. 

The male of this wide-ranging species is unknown, but 
I have seen a male closely resembling this female, but 
with red legs, from Western Australia. 

Hab. S.W. AusTRAUA, Yallingup (Turner), November 
to January ; Tasmania, Eaglehawk Neck (Turaer), 
February; Queensland, Mackay. 

2. FsammoflhareB perpuleher, sp. n. 

$. Bufo-femigiiiea; oapite nigro; scapo aabtns, maodibnlk 
cljrpeoque femigineiH; tarsis infoscatis; alii hyalinis, tertio apioali 
taaciaque mediona hiscis. 

Long. 7 mm. 

S. Second joint of the flagellum as long as the first and thiid 
combined; the olypeua and lower part of the front clothed with 
silver pubescence. Head finely and very cloeely punctured; 
posterior ocelli further from the eyes than from each other. Thorax 
closely and very distinctly punctured; pranotum veiy widely 
anihed posteriorly ; scutellum subqoadrate. Median segment 
coarsely granulate, without a sulcus, with short, spare, white 
pubescence. Abdomen shining, the punctures microscopic; sixth 
dorsal segment with a few large scattered punctures, broadly 
rounded at the apex. Fore tarsi with a short comb, the baaal 
joint with four short spinea. Cubitus of the hindwing originating 
just beyond the tiauaverse median nervure. 

Hab. Queensland, Townsville {Dodd], Aiigust. 

Differs from erylhroalethis in the smaller size, the sculp- 
ture of the thorax, the colour of the abdomen and legs, 
and the much shorter spine.'; of the fore taisi. 

Agenloldens ezpulsus, Bp. n. 
$. Nigra ; ptonoto margine poetico late, tibiisque posticis macula 
basali albidis; calcaribus palUdis; alis hyalinis, ontiois fusoo 
bifasoiatis, Tenis nigris. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



Bymatoptera in the British Museum. 75 

<J. Feminac amilis; tdbiie intermeduB etiom basi albido mftou- 
Ifttis; segmraito doiwdi septimo olbido; alia fascia baeali sub- 
obaoleta. 

Lraig. $, 7-8 mm. ; J, 7 mm. 

$. Clypena abort and btoodly truncate at the apex; antennae 
abont oa long oa the thorax and median segment oombined, the 
second joint of tbe flagellum as long aa the first and third com- 
bined. Pronotum broadly acouate poBt«riorly, no't angulatc; 
acutellum convex. Median segment alightlj convex, oblique, the 
dorsal and poeteiior surfaces. not separated, rather thinly covered 
with short white pnbeecence. Abdomen subopaque; the apical 
doTBoI segment aabtriongalar, with a few rather long dark hairs. 
Torvot ungues iuiidentat«. Cubitus of the hindwing received at a 
distance beyond the tranaveise median nervure equal to the length 
of the transverse cubital nervure ; submedian cell of the forewing 
very slightly longer than the median ; third abscissa of the radius 
scarcely more than half as long ss the second, the third cubital 
cell shorter on the cubitus than the second. The fascia on the 
basal nervnre narrow, that from the radial cell broad, filling the 
aeoond and third cubital cells. 

3- Tarsal ungues as in tbe female, but the tooth rather nearer 
to tbe apex. 

S(A. Queensland, Mackay {Turner), November to 
March. 

This seems to be undoubtedly congeneric with A, kumUis, 
Cress., from N. America, the type of Ashmead's genus. 
The description of tbe genus, however, is far from accurate. 
The cubitus of the hindwing in all species of the genus 
known to me originates well beyond the transverse median 
nervure, though not so far as in the present species. The 
Indian PompUus maadipes, Sm., also belongs to this genus. 



Genus Austbosalius, gen. nov. 

$. Head small, flattened, rather longer than broad; clypeus 
very short, broadly truncate at the apex ; the labrum exposed , 
emsrginate at tbe apex. Pronotum long, sometimes longer than 
the mesonotum, sometimes a little shorter; median segment either 
verticoUy or obliquely truncat«, opaque and smooth, with a median 
sulcus, the sides parallel, without tubercles; abdomen rather 
nuTow, convex, the sides of the four basal segments almost parallel ; 
the transverse line on the second ventral segment visible, but not 
deeply impressed. Fore femora very stoat; fore tarsi without a 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



76 Mr. R. E. Turner on New Species cf 

oomb; hind tibiae with a few gmall spines, not senate. Sooond 
absoisM of the radios st least as long as the thiid, the raonmott 
nermres received *t the middle of the second and of the thiid 
cubital cells; submedian cell of the foi«wing very slightl; longv 
than the median; cubitus of the hindwing either intentitial with 
01 originating just beyond the transverse median nerrure. Hale 
unknown. 

Type of the genos Ferreolomorpka artemis. Turn, 

1. Auitrosftlius artemis. Turn. 

Ferredonwrpha artemis. Turn., Froc. Zool. Soc. London, 
p. 325, 1910, $. 
Hab. Mackay, Q. (Turner), October to March. 

2. Anstrosallus mtllgnuB, Sm. 

Salius malignus, Sm., Joum. Froc. Linn. Soc. Zool., iii, 
p. 157, 1858, O. 

This is the only other species of the genus known to me. 
It is much lai^er than artemis, and the mesonotum b much 
longer, the colour of the antennae and of the wings is also 
different. It has not been recorded from Australia. 

ffofi. Asu {Wallace). 

Nearly allied to this genus are the South Indian Psettda- 
genia rava, Bingh., and an allied species which seems to 
be undescribed ; but in which the submedian cell is much 
longer, the head rather larcer and the labnim not so 
strongly exposed. The tarsal ungues are bifid in these 
»>ecie3, not unidentate as in Austrosalivs. For this genus 
I propose the name 

Cbyptosalius, gen. nov. 
Type of the genus PseuSagenia rava, Bingh. 

1 . Ciyptosallns nvs, Bingh. 

Pseudagenia rava, Joum. Froc. Linn. Soc. Zool., xxv, 
p. 426, 1896, 9. 

Hab. Bangalore {Bingham) ; Coimbatobe {T. V. Rama 
Krishna), Februarj-. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lL' 



Bjftnenoptera in the British Mateum. 77 

2. Cryptosalins pandiyinni, ap. d. 

$. mgn, albopiloea; mandibolis ferrnglDeis, apice nigra; (ui- 
tennie tuekque antiois fuBoia; alis flnvahyolinia, &pice late infn- 
matiB, venis tcstaceia ; vertioe, pronoto poatice, Begmento mediano 
poetice, aegmentis donalibus 1-4 fascia lata apicali, segmentoqae 
Bezto, dense albopabeacentibtu; pronoto elongate, meeonoto dnplo 
longiore. 

Long. 6-8 mm. 

$. Head longer than the greatest breadth; clTpens short, the 
apical margin wideijr and very shallawly emaiginate. Posterior 
oe^ about half as far again from the eyes as from each other; 
inner maigina of the eyes parallel ; the front with a distinct bnt 
Tuy shallow longitudinal sulcus extending to the anterior ocellus. 
P^ont, pronotnm and median segment, except broadly posteriorly, 
clothed with veiy short and sparse fulvous pubescence. Antennae 
short and stout, not more than twice as long as the head, second 
and third joints of the flagellum subequat. Pronotum at least 
twice as long as the meeonotiim, nanower than the head, as long 
■a the greatest breadth, very slightly narrowed ant«riorIy. Meso- 
notora very short; median segment shorter than the pronotum, 
obliquely sloped posteriorly, the sides paialleL Second ventral 
a^mcakt with a distinct transverse groove near the base. The 
whole ventral surface clothed with veiy delicate silver pubescence. 
Anterior tibiae produced at the apex without and ending in two 
spiues; hind tibiae smooth. Second abscissa of the radius longer 
than the third ; first recurrent nervure received close to the middle 
of the second cubital cell, second at about three-quarters from the 
hue of the third cubital cell; submedian cell much longer than 
the median, cubitus of the hindwing inteistitial with the transverse 
median nervure. 

Bob. CoiHBATOUE, S. India {T. V. Rama Krishna), 
January to August. 

This ia a much smaller species than C. rava, and may 
be distinguished by the very much longer pronotum, 
which in rava is much broader than long and no longer 
than the mesonotum. The third cubital cell is shorter 
than m rava and receives the recurrent nervure nearer to 
the apex. There ia some difference in the present species 
in the length of the third cubital cell, specmiens t^ken in 
July and August having the third abscissa of the radius 
as long as oi longer than the second. The type was taken 
in January. There ia also some variation in the position 



ll,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



78 Mr. R. E. Turner on New Species <f 

of the second recurrent nervure. But I regard these as 
individual variations only. 

Cnrptoehilni commixtBl, Turn. 

Cryplocheilus commixius, Tom.. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
p. 317, 1910, 5 J. 

This species belongs to the group in which the male has 
the tarsal ungues bifid, while they are unidentate in the 
female. This structure is found in a considerable number 
of oriental and Malayan species, also in one or two Ethio- 
pian species, but not as far as I know in any other Australian 
Cryplochilus. SuperficiaUy the species closely resembles 
Hanipepsis auatralasiae. but is not as plentiful and has a 
more Umited range. 

Hab. Mackay and Cairns, Q. 

The nearest ally is C. basimacula. Cam., from New 
Britain. 

Genus Cyphononyx, Dahlb. 
Cyphononyx, Dahlb., Hymen. Europ., i, p. 461, 1843. 

This genus was founded on the single character of the 
bifid tarsal ungues. But I am very doubtful if it will 
eventually stand, owing to the fact that a considerable 
number of species have males with the bifid tarsal ungues 
°\ ^yP^°*^^y^ aid females with the unidentate ungues 
of CryptocheUus. At present I retain the name for those 
species m which the tarsal ungues are bifid in both sexes. 
Taken m this sense there ia only one Australian species of 
the genus. 

Cfphononyi aspasU, Sm. 

Mygnimiaaspasia, Sm., Joum. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool., iii, 
p. 157, 1858, $, 

A beautiful large species with yellow wings and the 
abdomen glossed with blue. 

A ^l^ii/'J^^^Vf^.^V^"'"*' **■ trw"'«-); New Guinea; 
Am (WalUKe]; K6 {Stalker). 

Cyphononyx vitiensis, sp. n. 

Mo. poati^teUo apic«, «gmentu. shdominaUbna tertioTS 
qu»rto, qumu. «xtoque. pedibuaque fulvo-fenugmeta; <Ji. ^. 



Bymen&ptera in the Brtti^ Museum. 79 

auantiftcis, uiticia nutcuU nugns medi&iut fusco-purpuieft, apice 
leviter iofuscatis, Tenis ferragineia. 

(^. Feminae Bimilia ; meeoDoto fosco-fenugiDeo. 

Long. ¥, lS-21 mm.; ^, 18 mm. 

$. Clypens bnud and tnuuveise at the apex; labnim Boarc«ly 
expoaed, very btoAdly rounded at tbe apex and iritfa a fringe of 
long fnlrouB haira. Auteonal prominence somewhat ponect, veiy 
feebly bilobed and divided by a strong loagitadinal sulcna. Second 
joint of the flagellum a little longer than the firat and third com- 
bined- Posterior ocelli farther from tlte eyea than from each 
other. Kvnotam short, rounded at the anterior angles, the posterior 
margin vei7 broadly arched. Head and pronotum sparsely, mceo- 
notnm and acutelhim closely, covered with short dark golden 
pubescence, the mesonotum and Bcutellum very finely and cloaely 
punctured; scutellum with a flat dorsal surface, broadly rounded 
at the apex; poslacntelluni subcariuate longitudinally in the 
middle, slightly produced in the middle posteriorly and rounded 
at the apex. Median segment with a blunt tubercle on each side 
at the base, with a deep median sulcus from base to apex, opaque, 
with very minute and indistinct transverae striae; tbe posterior 
dope oblique, not abruptly separated from the dorsal surfaoe, 
spanely clothed with fuscous hairs. Abdomen highly polished, 
with a few small scattered punctures; sixth dorsal segment more 
coarsely pnnctuied, narrowly rounded at the apex, densely clothed 
with golden pubescence intermin^ed with coarse folvons setae. 
Hind tibiae rather feebly serrate; tarsal ungues bifid; spines of 
the fore tani rather short. First recurrent nerrure received at 
about three-quarters from the base of the second cubital cell, second 
just bc&re the middle of the third cubital cell; third abscissa of 
the radius nearly half as long again as the second; cubitus of the 
hindwing interstitial with the transverse median nervure; sub- 
median cell of the forewing longer than the baaaL 

<}. Antennae very long, measuring 16 mm., the whole length of 
the insect being 18 mm. ; groove near tbe base of the second 
ventral segment very distinct, quite as deep as in the female; 
seventh dorsal segment very broadly rounded at the apex; sixth 
ventral segment widely emarginate at the apex, with a short acnte 
spine on each side at the apical angles; seventh ventral segment 
flat, subqnadrate, broadly truncate at the apex. 

Hob. Fur {British Museum ex Crawley Coll.); Fiji 
(R. C. L. Perkins), Fiji, Natova, Nadi (ff. Veilck), October. 

Not very nearly related to any other species known to 
me, though nearer to the group of C.flavus, Fabr., than 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



80 Mr. R. E. Turner m New Species of 

to C. aspasia, Sm., and the related species C. trUrepida, 
Sm., and C. cmfector, Sm. 

Gentis Hemipbpsis, Dahlb. 
Hemipepsis, Dahlb., Hymen. Europ., i, p. 123, ISiS. 

I think this is a good genus and distinct from Crypto- 
ckeUvs, Panz. After muot consideration I disagree with 
Schulz, who uses Shuckard's name Mygnimia for the 
genus. This name was pubhshed in 1840, and therefore 
has priority over Hemipepsis. But no species are given 
in Shuckard's work, and the single character given, the 
position of the first recurrent nervure, would apply to other 
species not included in Hemipepsis, such as some species 
of Cyphononyx, equally well. Thus Shuckard's name 
should, in common with other names in the same work, 
be treated as a nomen. nudum, and only date from Smith's 
publication of the name in 1855. There is only one 
Australian species of Hemipepsis. 

Hemipepsis austnlutae, Sm. 

Mygnimia amtralasiae, Sm., Ann, and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 
xii, p. 259. 1873. 

This seems to me to be the Australian form of the 
Indo-Malayan H. atireosericeua, Gufir. It has a wide 
range in Australia, especially in the northern half of the 
continent. 

Bab. Cooktown, Cairna and Mackay, Q.; Hermanns- 
burg, Central Austraba; Fowler's Bay, S.A. 



Family CRABRONIDAE. 

Subfamily AMPVLICINAE. 

Ampules orawshayl, sp. n. 

$. Tiridi-cyanea: antennk taiaiaque nigria; m&ndibulis feiru- 

gineiB; alia tayalinia, venia nigris, onticia in cellulia radiali, oubitali 

seouudo discoidEiliqne secundo levit«r infuacatis; abdomine seg- 

mentia apicalibua fortiter comprMsia. 

Long. 20 mm. 

$. Carina of the clypeua sharply bent donnworda near the apex, 
produced into a abort blunt apical tooth. Second joint of the 
flagellum abont equal to the combined length of the third and 



ih,Cooi^lc 



Hymenoptera m the BrUish Museum. 81 

fourtli; tjee BepBrat«d on the vertex by a distance slightly leea 
thma the length of the second joint of the flagellum. Head etrongly 
ragoeely poDctured, less coaisely on the vertex than on the front, 
the median frontal carina not nearly reaching the anterior ocelitu, 
the Utera) carinae curved, not straight, and meeting above the 
anterior ocelloB. Fronotum rather long, narrowed anteriorly, 
■parsely punctured, produced posteriorly into a low tubercle, with 
a median eulciis reaching to the base of the tubercle, the anterior 
half of the buIcub with a few short transverse striae. Meeonotnm 
and Boutellum Hmooth, with a few scattered punctures. Median 
segment broader in the middle than long, the third carina in the 
middle as far from the fourth aa from the second; the tnberclefl 
at the apical angles elongate triangular, not curved. Second 
dorsal segment at least one-quarter longer than the breadth in the 
middle, the sides not strongly convex; the three apical eegmente 
very strongly compressed laterally. Hind tibiae very sparsely 
punctured; fifth joint of the tarsi inserted at the base of the 
fourth, the latter not reaching the middle of the fifth joint. Length 
of the radius beyond the third cubital nervure less than half of 
the length of the second transverse cubital nervure. Three cubital 
ceDs. 

BtA. Nyasaland, Kondowi, Lower Nyika (R. Craw- 
ahay), June. 

lit the compression of the apical segments of the abdo- 
men thia species resembles A. sUnrica, Fabr. {compressi- 
veiUris, Gu4r.) ; but in neuration ia close to aaaimilia, Eohl., 
which, however, differs much in sculpture and other 
points. 

Ampuht krlsteiiMiil, sp. n. 

$. Viridi-cyanea; olypeo antenaisqnenigris; tarais fusois; man- 
dibniis, tibiis antiois, femoribusque ferrugineis ; alis byalinia, venia 
nigris, cellula radiali leviter infnscata. 

Long. 16 mm. 

3- Clypeus strongly convex, porrect, the carina not produced 
into a tooth at the apex. Second joint of the flagellum as long as 
the third and fourth combined; eyes separated on the vertex by 
a distance scarcely exceeding the lei^h of the second joint of the 
flagellum. Head mgosely punctured, the median frontal carina 
ver; short, not nearly reaching the anterior ocellus, the lateral 
frontal carinae well developed. Prbnotum shining, feebly and 
im^ulariy tiansvetaely striated, with a median sulcus on the 
aDt«rior portion, raised inte a tubercle at the apex. Mesonotnm 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LORD. 1917. — PART I. (NOV.) 



u,y,i,Ajh,Coot5lc 



82 Mr. R. E. Timier on Not Species ^ 

in the middle and •coteUnm with a few BcAttcred pnnotmca, the 
wdee of the meeoDotnm more cloedj ponctared. Medun aegment 
as in eoHigera, KohL, but with the taberclea at the apcal an^ 
much amaller and leaB cnrred. Second doraal segmmt much 
broader than long, ahorter than in eotiigtn; second vecti^ aeg- 
ra&tt convex at the baae aa in amigtra. Fifth joint of the Um 
inH!rt«d cloee to the baae of the fourth joint. Three oabital oeUs, 
the length of the radius beyond the junction of the thiid transvtfse 
cnbital nermre equal to the length of the secood transveiae cubital 
nervure. 

S<d). Abyssinia, Uarar {Kristensen). 

Very nearly allied to conigera. Kohl., but differs, as 
pointed out in the description, also in the much greater 
length of the radius beyond the third cubital cell, and in 
the narrower apical portion of the dypeus and shorter 
frontal carina. 

SuhfamUy STIZINAK. 

Stizu* jwolfleui, sp. Q. 

$. Nigra ; labro, dypeo macnla magna utiinqne, oibitis interton- 
bna, scapo subtus, flagello subtus, callii humeralibua, meaonoto 
angulia posticia, scutello macula utrinque, postacntello taacia 
angusta inteinipta, 8^;mento meditmo angolia posticis. s^menlii 
dorsalibua 1~4 mm^iU transversa apicali utrinque, 2-6 atriga 
tiansverea apicsli in medio, tibiis anticis, intermediis subtua, t«r- 
aisque autiois subtus flavis; tibiis postiais torsisque ferrugineisi 
mandibulis fusco-ferrugineis ; alis hyalinis, leviter infuscatis, veiui 
fusoO'feiTugineis; segmento mediano angulis lateralibus fortiter 
excisia. 

Long. 10 mm. 

$. Eyes separated at the base of the clypeus by a distance haU 
aa gKat again as the length of the scape. Head and thorfkx sub- 
opaque, very closely and minutely punctured and covered with 
very short fuscous pubescence, which is closer on the meaonotum 
than on the head i median segment much more strongly punctured, 
thinly covered with short whitish pubescence ; abdomen rather Ice* 
strongly punctured than the median segment, with faint blue tints 
in certain lights, sixtii dorsal segment very closely punctured. 
Second cubital cell not petiolate, the first abscissa of the radius at 
least three times as long as the second. 

Hab. Fiji, Natova, Nadi (R. Veiuh), October. 

This belongs to the group of S. Irtdena, Fabr., but 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



BymmopUra in the Bntuh Museum. 8S 

differs in the colouring, especially of the legs, from the 
allied speciea. The infuacatioo of the wings is caused by 
numerous small hairs. 

Subfamily CSABBONISAB. 

Entomognalhiu msoiisslmu*, sp. n. 

?. Nigra; abdomine pedibusqne femgineis; coxia aotiois, tro- 
chuilflribtu antioia, femoribnaqoe antioia rabtus nigiu; tegoli* 
tMtaceii; alis faaow, venis nigrU; clypeo orgenteo-pabeMente. 

Long. 8 mm. 

$. Handiblea deeply eioised on the oater margin, simple at the 
apex. Clypeiu raised into a poirect toberole jnat above the middle 
of the ajHcal margin, with a very short blunt tooth on each aids 
near the apical angles. Eyes hairy, the faeets in front rather 
larger than elsewhere. Mead Urge, but not broader than tbe 
thorax ; front bioad, the eyes aeparat«d at the beae of tbe dypene 
by a diatance equal to tbe length of the scape ; antennae short 
and stoat, the third Joint of the flagellnm as Itmg as the second; 
ocellar region and vertex veiy coarsely punctured ; ocelli in a very 
broad triangle, the poeterior pair far apart, bat nearly as far from 
tbe eyes aa from each other, an irr^olu obliqne groove from each 
posterior oeellns reaching almost to tbe eye. Fronotum trann- 
vene, roonded at tbe anglea, punctured; meeonotum coarsely 
pnnctaFed-nigoae ; scntellnm with apatae large pnncturea; meao- 
grfenrae coarsely, bat rather sparsely, punctured, with a smooth 
groove in front for the reception of tbe anterior femora. Median 
segment very short, the dorsal surface only half as long as the 
scatellum; Uie basal area very broadly rounded at tbe apex, 
with aeveral strong longitudinal oarinae; tbe posterior slope 
abrupt, almost smooth, with a broad shallow median groove narrow- 
ing towards tbe apex. Abdomen seaeile, tbe basiJ segment the 
Imwdeet, the two baaal dorsal segments with spane, but rather 
large, puncturea; the remaining segments with small scattered 
punctores ; sixth dorsal segment rather narrowly triangular, clothed 
with golden pubeaoence. Hind tibiae hairy, almost imarmed, with 
feeble aeirationa near the apex; fore tani unarmed. Recurrent 
nervure received at three-qoartera from the baae of the cubital cell; 
radial cell broadly truncate at the apex, the laansverse cubiUl 
nemue received at the middle of the radial cell. 

Bab. Ntasaland, Mlange {S. A. Neave), January, 

This is very distinct in colour and sculpture from other 
species of the' genus, but does not differ much in structural 
cnaracteis. 



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84 Mr. R, E, Turner on Neio Species <^ Hymenoptera. 

Cnbro veltchi, sp. n. 

$. Nigra; flogello, pronoto, callis hnmeralibus, scutollo angulia 
tmticis, postecutetloque fa«cia transverBft flit vis; mandibulia &pioe 
exoepto, tegulie, segmentk donalibus secundo dimidio basali, aez- 
toque, TeDtralibuB primo, secundo dimidio basali, quinto, saztoque, 
pedibusque feirogineis ; alia hyalinia, leriter inf uacatis, Tenia foscis. 

Long. 11 mm. 

$. Mfuidiblee tridentat« at the apex; clypeus porreot, triaoga- 
larly emarginate at the apex, not carinata, clothed with ailver 
pnbescence. Ejres with veiy taige facets in front, separated at 
the base of the clifpena bj a distance equal to the length of the 
second joint of l^ flagellnm, a groove along the inner margin of 
the eyes near the summit. Second joint of the flagellum neariy 
u long aa the first and third combined. Head large and mssuve, 
broader than the thorax, minntelj and closely ponctured, the 
temples vei; broad and clothed with silver pubescence; ooelU in 
a wide triangle, the posterior pair as far from each other aa front 
the eyes, fully half as far again from the posterior margin of 
the head as from each other. Pronotum transverse, rounded at the 
anterior angles; mesonotum very finely pnnctnred-ruguloBe on the 
anterior half, more sparsely punctured posteriorly, » broad depres- 
sion from the anterior margin to the middle. Scutellum and post- 
Bcnlellum shining, with scattered jnmctures ; propleurae vertically 
striated; mesopleorae sparsely and rather coarsely punctured, 
without a groove for the intermediate or hind femora. Median 
segment closely and rather strongly punctured, the triangular 
basal area defined by grooves and with a median longitudinal 
groove, the sides of the segment closely and rather strongly obliquely 
striat«d. Abdomen petiolate, smooth and shining, the first seg- 
ment longer than the second and third combined, slender, the 
apical half moderately swollen, not constricted at the apex; second 
segment nearly as broad at the apex as the third, the second ventral 
segment with a amall, oblong, pubescent, opaque mark on each side 
near the base; fifth dorsal segment minutely punctured; pygidial 
area very narrow, lanceolat«. Recurrent nervnre received just 
beyond three-quarters from the apex of the cubital odi ; transverse 
cubital nervure received close to the middle of the radial cell. 
Hind tibiae serrat«. 

Hah. Fiji, Natova (fi. Veitch), April. 

The petiolate abdomen gives this inaect somewhat the 
appeatance of a Das'jprocltis, but it does not belong to 
that genus, but does not seem to be closely allied to any 
described Crabro. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



( 85 ) 



m. NeiB or liille-known Heterocera/roni Madagascar, By 
Sir Geo. H. Keneick, F.E.S. 

[Read May 2iid, 1917.] 

Plates I-VI. 

In continuation of a paper read before the Society on 
November 5th, 1913, I now submit a further list of insects 
taken in Madagascar by Mr. Felix B. Pratt in 1910, 

There still remain the Geometridae to be described, and 
among them there appear to be many interesting forms, 

I have again to thank Sir George Hampson and 
his assistants for their very kind help in the work of 
identification . 

I wish that it had been possible to compare the insects 
with types to be found in Continental cabinets before pub- 
lishing these descriptions, but as that is out of the question 
for the present, I let these go out as they are. 

NOTODONTIDAE. 
SUvropos malgasstoa, sp. n. Plate I. 
He&d, thorax, bue and shaft of antennae, apper part of palpi 
wbit« ; base of palpi and fringes round ejea dark brown ; antennae 
cheetnnt; legs white, tani blackish; abdomen, baae and last two 
aegments white, remainder grey. Fort-wing white; an oblique 
basal black line from coBta to cell; followed by an anlemedian 
black line, obliqne with strong angulation in the cell, and a thicken- 
ing at inner moi^in, which in the female develops into a ronnd 
■pot; the median line is faint and not visible beyond the middle 
of the cell; the postmedian line has three distinct angulations 
aod the enblerminal is composed of 6 V-shaped marks; there are 
4 dark dots on the costa beyond the postmedian line. Hind-tcing 
white, slightly fuscous towards the inner maj^, with a dark 
anbt«nninal line- Exp. SO mm. 

Stanropui lllaolna, sp. n. Plate I. 
Head, thorax, and legs pale grey; tibiae darker, antennae dark 
brown, abdomen grey, the two last segments lighter. Fort-wing 
TRAKS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1917. — PAKT I. (NOV.) 

u„,,i,A J 1^, Google 



86 Sir Geo. H. Eenrick m 

pale gray Bufiuaed with lilac vitb dark brown linea; baaal line 
oblique and difiiued, aiitcmediaii line obliqne and angnlated: 
median line faint and int«iiupted; postmedian double, tuignlated. 
and not vei; obliqne ; in the female with a round spot jiut before 
the inner margin ; eabtenninal line compoeed of 6 V-ahaped mark- 
ingB ; a more or lees pronoonced dark shade beyond the antemedian 
line, most conspicuous towarda coeta. Bind-mng dark grey, fringe* 
pale. Exp. SO mm. 



Soalmleaada obliqnllSaciats, sp. n. Plate I. 

Head and legs reddish brown, palpi paler, antennae and collar 
dark brown; thorax above pinkish; abdomen dark at the basB. 
then ochreouB, but tuft blackish. Fore-wing pinkish brown, with 
a brownish cloud, more or less intense, from cell to costa; a fine 
double line from middle of inner margin to apex; an irxegolar 
dark brown transverse line at base, reaching half acroM wing, 
followed by an angulated anteniedian tine; the 3 stigmata are of 
the ground-colour, but outlined by fine dark lines fringes dark. 
Hind-wing pale straw-colour with fringes conoolorous. Exp. 

Varies a good deal in intensity of colour, and the stig- 
mata in some specimens are more or less black. 

Scahnieaada ochteoploU, sp. n. Plate II. 

Somewhat like the foregoing, but has no obliqne line; the stig- 
mata are barely discernible, and in most specimens the ana at 
base of wing and at the angle is spotted with pale ocbrcons. Hind- 
vAng much darker than in the preceding species. Exp. 40 mm. 

Scalmleanda pratti, sp. n. Plate II. 

Head, legs, palpi, and thorax reddish brown, shaft of antennae 
pale; abdomen reddish brown, paler beneath, tuft of the same 
colour. Fore-wing reddish brown, mottled with pale ochreons, 
which forms a patch e;(tending from cell to near apex; a black 
spot at base of wing, and a whitish horizontal line extending from 
base to near middle of inner margin, where it meets an irregular 
transverse pale line extending to costa; a black streak at end tA 
cell, and a pale postmedian waved hne with dark border; 8 black 
dotfl form a subtermlnal line, and a pale line precedes the maigin. 
Hind-wing reddish oohieoua. Exp. 34 mm. 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



I 



: I 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



NttD or lU^hnown Beterocera from Madagtucar. 87 

NOCTUIDAE. 
TTMhu tTluigabtta, sp. n. Plate II. 
Head, lag^ P^lpu ^nd thor&z pi^'l'"'' oohreous, « pole line at 
baaa erf collar; abdomai ochiMHis at bsw and Uien pinkish, fore- 
whtg pale pinkiah brown, with a CMupioiKnis triangle having its 
ftpex on inner mwgiD, and of a dark cheetnnt coloor; inside the 
base of the trian^e ia a semioirciilar bond of the ground-colour. 
The triangular marking is edged with a fine [riak line, and there is 
a straight snbterminal line. Eind-wing whitish oohreous, hinges 
oi both wingH pinkiah. Exp. 30 mm. 

DueochMto nulgiulea, sp. n. FUte IV. 
Bead, legs, palpi, and thorax apple-green with blaok maridngs, 
antennae pale brown ; abdomen blackish with pale green tuf ta, the 
last s^ment bright gcten. Fort-viing apple-green, with 7 oi 8 black 
spote on coBta, a black basal patch and ontemedian, median, and 
postmedian interrupted black lines, the latter connected above 
die inner margin b; a black dash to the subtemunal line, which is 
ontwardfy bordered by a eilrerj white line; there are also black 
daahes dong the inner margin, and a row of black dots on the 
hind margin. Hind-mttg uniformly smoky with two tiansverse 
daricer striae, fringes paler. Exp. 42 mm. 

Hnopwlgei mlnuMuli, sp. □. Pi&te I. 
Head, l^s, and palpi ochreous with a pink tinge, antennae dark 
brown; thorax ochreous with scattered blaok scales; abdomen 
ochreons with a smoky tinge. Fore-wing dark brown with oohreous 
spots, the whole suffused with a faint purple gloss; a dark basal 
line is followed by two ochreous blotches and then an antemedian 
line; the postmedian line is parallel with tJte hind margin, and 
between them are tiiree ochreous blotches, besides a small one at 
end of cell ; both inner and hind margins have ochreous patches on 
them. Hind-wing uniformly smoky, fringes paler. Exp. 36 mm. 

Hy^per^ea variegata, sp. n. Plate I. 
Head and palpi reddish oohreons; antennae pale brown; legs 
ochrEons with dark rings on tarai; thorax whitish above, patagia 
dark; abdomen dark ochreous paler between segmentfl. Fort- 
wtnjr daik yellowish grey, with pale ochreous blotches; a whitish 
spot at base, with indications of a dark basal line ; an interrupted 
black antemedian line, and a curved and angulated postmedian 
line; the stigmata oatlined with black, and the reniform filled with 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



88 Sir Geo. H. KeDiick on 

white uid oontinaed beyond, making a large round spot. There 
are two pole blotohes on the inner margin, and two on the hind 
nuugin, with a dark Btieab between them. BtTul-mitg very pale 
with dtukf margin, fringee pale. Exp. 40 mm. 

Perlgea rubidita, gp. n. Plate I. 
Head, aQtonnae, palpi, and tegs reddish, the tarsi ringed with 
darker, collar dark with whitish crest; thorax and patagia dark 
with whitiah scsJes; abdomen reddish brown with darker creeta 
and jellowish tuft. Fore-wing dark brown suSuscd with pink, 
coeta broadly covered with whitish scales; a conspicuous curved 
central streak from base to costa very dark, and a dark spot on 
coBta beyond end of cell. The stigmata are pale, but the ctavi- 
form has a dark streak in it ; there is an indistinct pale Bubtermlnal 
line, and some dark streaks before the hind margin. Hind-wing 
reddish brown. Exp. 42 mm. 

Perlgea grlsetta, sp. n. Plate II. 
Head, antennae, palpi, and legs reddish, the tarsi ringed with 
darker; collar dark brown, patagia pale ochreous; abdomen 
yellowish ochreous, crcsla not developed. Fore-iving whitish 
ochreous, the stigmata, which ore large, outlined with black, with 
a block space between them ; an antemedian line starting from 
near base on costa curves outward to inner margin; a postmedian 
line is nearly straight, the space between these is filled in with 
dark blackish- brown ; there is a wared and interrupted subterminal 
line, and some dark streaks near it. Hind-wing unifonnly oohreons, 
fringes paler. Exp. 38 mm. 

BfaoroMmyra robusta, sp. n. Plate II. 
Near to Jf. ttatbrota, Butl., but the wings are aquarer, and the 
insect decidedly stouter. Head, legs, palpi, and anl«nnae brown; 
thorax and abdomen darker and shaggy. Fore-uring with sealea 
slightly raised, giving them a rough appearance, dark brown, but 
the coeta bright brown, especially underneath; indications of the 
beginning of a dark antemedian line on costa, and a stronger dark 
Bubterminat line begins on the coata before the apex and is con- 
tinued to vein 4. Hind-wing unifonnly dusky, fringes rather 
paler. Exp. 36 mm. One S- 

BoroUa carneatlneta, sp. u. Plate I. 

Antennae of male ciliated. Head, palpi, legs, and collar yellowish- 

oohreous, antennae darker; pats^a ochreous, abdomen smoky. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



New or little-knoum Heteracera from Madagatcar. 89 

toft ochiGOoa. Fon-wing yellowish olive snffiued with {^"t 
divided longitndiiuUly into three folds, the coeta aod edge of aeoond 
fold pale jrink ; indicsticnu of a dark Gist line ; a triaDgalar olive 
blot«h midway along cOBta, a blsck dot on vein 5 forming part of 
« postmedisn line ; the hind margin is broadly eoffiued with fosoons, 
and there are a few black enbtenninal pointa. Bind-wiag greyish 
with faint dark hmnle, fringes paler. Exp. 30 mm. 

Borolla pkrvula, sp. n. Plate 11. 
Antennae of male nearly umple. Head, palpi, le^e, antennae 
and thorax reddish ochreoos, abdomen rather darker. Fore-wing 
reddish ochieous, with veins paler, but rather more colour in tbe 
tsell ; a short dark streak from the base under the cell, two or three 
dark specks along the costa indicating a postmedian line, a small 
black dot below the middle of the cell, and another more oonspiouoas 
two-thirds along the inner margin from the base. Hind-wing 4rf 
male pale ochreoua, of female pale grey. £xp. 26 mm. 

Boroli* lithargyroides, sp. n. Plate II. 

Head, thorax, palpi, antannae, and legs pinkish oohreous, abdo- 
men less pink. Fore-tcing pinkish ochreous, with a centi^ shade 
and a triangolar shade below apex; on the central shade at the 
«nd of tbe cell is a short white longitudinal streak, and above this 
a black dot; both antemedian and postmedian lines aie repre- 
sented by a tew black dots, and the subterminal line by a complete 
row. Biwi-wing grey, fringes pinkish. Exp. 28 mm. One 2- 

Aeosmetlft nulgassiea, sp. n. Plate II. 
Head, legs, antennae and palpi grej^sh brown; thorax grey, the 
collar divided into two prominences; abdomen greyish oohreous. 
Fore-tcing dark grey with a purplish gloss; indications of ante- 
and post-median lines, subterminal line paler. Bind-miig pale 
grey. Underside whitish, thickly iriorated with grey. Exp. 
28 mm. 

Parscaroldes pratti, sp. n. Plate I. 
Head, antennae, palpi, and legs chestnut; thorax duker, hut 
with patagja paler; abdomen yellowish ochreous. Fon-wing: tbe 
disc is apaisely coveted with scales, while the margins have a thicker 
coat BO as to appear decidedly raised; pale ochreous, darker to- 
' wards margin, tbe oosta chestnut, with a few white scales ; the 
. inner and bind matguis have a pale band, followed by one nearly 
iblack; thereaie two small dark dote at end of cell; fringes purplish. 



iM-,i,Ajh,Googlc 



90 Sir Geo. H. Kenrick on 

Bind-wing ochreom, darker round tbe margiDB, fringea pale. Exp. 
38 mm. 

TnehM kueopieto, sp. n. Plate II. 

This species falls among the section in which the males 
have lateral tufts of hair on the abdomen. 

Heiuj, palpi, and lege black, vitik whit« spots, anUmnae ohest- 
nnt; thorax black with a donal white streak, and white on the 
patagia and back of collar ; abdomen ochreona, inclined to foscons 
above, the crests darker, tipped with white. Fort-mni/ black, 
with white mai^tings, the median area parttj' suffused with lilac, 
an irregular three-lobed white blotch at base ; the ant«median line 
white, angnlat«d, and numing into a square white spot on inner 
margin; the orbicular and reniform stigmata black with whit« 
margins. A large white blotch fills the remainder of the wing 
beyond the postmedian line, but it is interrupted by a square patch 
of black at the apez, with two white spots in it, and by an irregular 
black pateh at anal angle which is connected to the central area. 
Hind-wing fuscous, but whitish at anal angle. Exp. 40 mm. 

Elaeodes proteoldes, sp. n. Plate I. 
Head, palpi, antennae, and collar, pale pinkish ochreoua; li^ 
the same colour, with tarsi ringed with darker, the long bain on 
tibiae paler. Fort-icing greenish with purple blotchea; ante- 
median and poetmedian lines pale with darker maigins; reniform 
and orbicular stigmata with some pink and darker markings, ont- 
lined by a pate line; e. row of subterminal black dashes, fringes 
spotted. Hind-wing brownish with pale fringe, and paler at tbe 
base ; a faintly darker lunule and on the underside a dark stiia. 
Exp. 32 mm. 

Rjpooalymnla glorlosa, sp. d. Plate IV. 
The venation of tbe hind-wing does not agree with HampooD's 
figure, p. 186, in this insect there is a distinct vein 6 from just 
above the lower angle of cell. Head and thorax greyish ochre- 
ODS, legs, antennae, and palpi reddish ochreous. Fore-wing coppeiy 
shot with purple; an angulated pale stripe starting from thorai 
below costa reaches to inner margin, and turns at the bind margin, 
gradually becoming narrower; it is bordered on the outside by a 
chestnut semiciroular line; the orbicular and reniform stigmata 
are of the some colour, and towards the hind margin on the disc 
are two small dark dashea. Hind-wing and fringes pale ochreous. 
Exp. 40 mm. 



Ij.y.l.AjL.yCOO'^lL' 



Nae or liiUt-kniAen Seterocera Jrom Madagatcar. 91 

Stietoplen peetlinta, sp. d. Plate IV. 

If this insect does not constitute a distinct genns it 
shotild be placed in a separate division on account of the 
strongly pectinate antennae of the male, and the square- 
shaped wings; in other respects it follows the genus. 

Be^ and temiiiial joint of palpi ochreom ; l^s, Antennae and 
second joint of palpi nther d&rker ; collar reddifib ochreoiu, pstagik 
puridiBh brown; abdomm dark giey witb pale tuft. fon-uii»g 
dark marbled with grey, green, pnrple and brown ; baaal line dark, 
nwrgined witb pater extending to oell; antemedian obacarelf 
double, greenisb; metiiBn line sbarp and dork, but not extending 
to inner margin ; poetmedian line dark, angulated, and inteiinpt«d, 
followed by two brown blotches and a brown subterminal line. 
Bind-wing dark grey, aubbyaline at base. What I take to be tile 
female has plain antennae, and the patagia and baaal half of Ion- 
wing, t<^lfae( witb a postmedian area pale grey. Exp. 31 mm. 

Eutetla anreo^eta, ^p. □. Plate IV 
Head, antennae, legs, and palpi pinkish grey; thorax and creeta 
of abdomen coppery bronze, abdomen pinkish grey. Fort-wing 
bronze, with grey lines and chocolate blotches; basal line ill de- 
fined, followed by three chocolate patches; an antemedian angu- 
lated whitish line ; the orbicular, a darii dot outlined with white ; 
the renifonu large, oblique, outlined with white, with a dark edging 
of chocolate on the inner aide ; three ill-defined chocolate patches 
on the hind margin, and tiocea of a double white subterminal tine; 
beiore the middle patch ifl an oblique golden spot, followed by a 
minute dot of same colour. Hind-wing whitish, with a broad 
fuscous margin. Underude giey, with reddish suffusion towards 
the margins, and a white spot on coata before the apex. Exp. 

EuteUa oehreoplagata, sp. n. Plate II. 
Head, 1^, antennae, and palpi dark fuscous ; abdomen without 
cTWta, dark fuscous. Fort-wing purplish grey, with lines much 
daiker; basal line broad, antemedian line double, one portion 
joining with central line on inner margin; the postmedian line 
BugulBt«d below costa, and preceded by a slightly paler patch; 
beyond this the apex becomes abruptly pale ochreous, and pene- 
trating half of this patch is the subterminal line, consisting of six 
dark brown connected spots. Hind-wing purplish grey, inclining to 
ochreous at base, with three angulated transverse lines, the outer- 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



92 Sir Geo. H. Eenrick on 

most dark brown, frsngea dork. Undenide foaootu, pale at the 
base, the apioal patch dark yellow. Exp. 33 mm. 

Phlegetonla pratti, sp. n. Plate III. 

Near to artipars, but the male has the tibiae very heavily 
fringed with hairs, and the markings are somewhat different. 

Head, palpi, U^ and thorax entirely pale ochreout, aatemiae 
reddish ocbreoiu; abdomen oohreoua with darker cieots. Fort- 
wing pale ochreons, with a faint purplish gloaa and dark bbtches ; 
baoal line indicated by a dark dot on the coata, the antemedian is 
a dark and ainuoua line in the middle of a brown transverse blotch ; 
there is a dark central spot, and a fine indistinct median line, followed 
by two others nearly parallel ; the postmedian is a fine dark line, 
inwardly angled below cell and on vein 2; on its umer side near 
the costa is a pale blotch, surrounded by a dark triangolar patch 
on costa in which are three pale costal data; the subterminal line 
is fine and black, and there is a ronnd dark dot near the angle on 
inner margin. In ^e female the whole wing is darker, and the 
markings are obscured by a dark grey central band. Hin^-ving 
pale oohreona, with numerous striae and a double dark line from 
anal angle to middle of wing, Bubt«rminal line very fine and black. 
Exp. 40 mm. 

Blenina hyblaeoides, ap. n. Plate III. 

Palpi with second and third joint well developed; tennen of 
hind-wing very slightly excised. Head, palpi, thorax and 1^ 
greenish grey, tarsi ringed with black, antennae dark; abdomen 
blackish above, with orange margins to the segments, ochreous ' 
below. Fore-iinng greenish grey with faint pink ceflections; first 
line black, joining a black basal streak; antemedian line oblique 
and angulated ; three blaok dots at end of cell, followed by a much 
angulated postmedian black line, edged outwardly with paler; 
beyond this are some irregular dark brown tooth-shaped markings 
forming a subterminal line. Hind-wing orange, with broad fuscous 
margin and orange fringes ; in one specimen there is a wide black 
transverse band quite absent in the other. Underside fore-wing 
fuscoue, with paler costal band, interrupted by dark central spot. 
Bind-wirtg orange with dark marginal band. Exp. 33 mm. 

Chlorozada purpurea, sp. n. Plate IV. 

The position of vein 7 in the fore-wing differs from the 
type in leaving vein 8 beyond the end of the cell, but this 
is hardly sufficient for the creation of a special genus. 



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n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



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i 






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Nete or lit^knowm Heterocera Jrom Madagascar. 93 

Anteniue and palpi brown, head and patagiA pale alive; legs 
while, abdomen and thorax porplish grey, paler below. Fore- 
wing whitish, with a purple cloud occupying the centre of the wing, 
and leaving a narrow pale external margin ; traces of a dark basal 
blotch edged with while externally; a sinnous fine white ante- 
median line edged with darker; two dark dots in the cenlral area, 
followed by an oblique fine white angulated poetmedian line; the 
mbterminal line takes the form of six dark dots on the pale apical 
aiea; there ia a dark terminal line extending half way down the 
wing ; fringes pink. Hind-mttg uniformly giey, with pale fringes. 
Exp. 26 mm. 

Polydesnu reotefueUta, sp. n. Plate IV. 
Head and thorax fawn-colour; antennae, legs, and palpi dark 
brown with numeroas paJe grey hairs; abdomen fawn-colour above, 
the crests darker, paler below. Fore-wing hind-margin aubangular, 
fawn-colour; anl«mediaa line whitish edged with darker, much 
angulated and interrupted; stigmata repreeenled by three minute 
dots, dark, edged with paler; from jnst before the angle to the 
oosta there is a group of fine lines, nearly straight; the first is 
white, the second dark, the third pink, the fourth wider and dark 
brown, the fifth pale oohreous, forked at the top and expanding 
into an apit^l patch in which are two dark dote; beyond these 
lines there is a broad pink area. Bind-wing yellowish, broadly 
margined with fusoous, but again yellowish at the outer margin; 
» few whitish dots at the angle. Underside uniformly whitish 
diiokly irrorat«d with black, a black transverae stria and central 
dot in both winga. Exp. 42 mm. 



Polydesma tesselUta, sp. a. Plate IV. 
Antennae, bead, and thorax dark brown, palpi brown outside 
and ocfareooe inside; abdomen dark brown above, ochreoua be- 
neath, legs ochreouB. Fore-wtTig brown with violet shade, the 
coata with a seriea of dark brown spots; a baeat patch of ochreoua 
jrroraled with black, followed by aD,iiTegular double violet line; an 
indistinct daric median line and a strongly marked dark poHtmedian 
line; Aeroniform stigma outlined with a pale line, and with internal 
lunule; the anbtenninal line much angulated, double, and whitish, 
followed by a series of dark marks outlined with paler, and a thin 
terminal pale line, fringes rather paler. Hind-tinag umilar to fore- 
wing, the pattern of the outer portion forming a continuation of the 
pattern of the fiwe-wing. Underside ochreous, with lunules, and a 



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94 Sir Geo. H. Kenrick on 

enrred poatmedian line in both wings; a row of black doU along 
tha maqpn. Exp. SO nun. 

Builuu eaUastnths. Plate IV, 

After describing and figuring this insect, it was identified 
with Baniana caUaxcaniha, Roll., but the figure could not 
be withdrawn. 

Ptaytometra pratti, sp. n. Plate III. 
Head, antennae, palpi, and legs smoky grey, thorax and abdo- 
men rather paler. Fore-mng dark grej, with coppery reflecttona 
on the disc. Neither lines nor stigmata are visible, hut there is n 
fine silveiy line from inner margin near the base extending obliquely 
upwards to the cell, where it turns outward to fonn a silvery oblong 
spot, in continuation of which, but quit« distinct is a second silvei; 
oval spot. Hind-wing ochreous-grey. Exp. 40 mm. 

Nlgranuna malgassloa, sp. n. Plate IV. 
Head, antennae, palpi, and legs, reddish ochreous; tegulae 
oohreous, with two darker transvene bands, patagia dark brown ; 
abdomen reddish grey. Fort-mng pale ochreous clouded with 
reddish; a oonspicnoua oval basal blotch, edged with paler and not 
reaching either to the costa or inner margin ; there is an antemedian 
darker fine line, not very distinct, and a similai poetmedian line and 
three dark dots at end of cell; on the inner margin theie is a pale dot 
near the anal angle, and at the angle another pale dot, from irtiioh 
extends upwards a pale subterminal line ; on either aide of this is 
a row of black dots. Hind-wing uniformly dark grey, fringes paler. 
Exp. 34 mm. 

Corgatha sublndlcata, ap. n. Plate III. 
Head and thorax pale ochreous, palpi, antennae, and legs reddish 
brown; abdomen pale at the base, but darker on the remaining 
segments. Fore-wing pale oohreous, clouded with brownish grey; 
antemedian line whitish, slightly angulated at cell, and edged with 
darker; central shade oblique, straight, and brown, reniform 
stigma indicated by a white maigin; poatmedian white, angled 
outwards below costa and oblique, terminating in the middle of 
inner margin; a fine interrupted snbtenninal line extends front 
bdow vein 2 to vein 6 ; beyond this is a distinct pale patch, followed 
by an uignlated brown marginal line. Hind-wing pale ochreon^ 
with two oblique dark lines, the outer one maigined with white. 



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New or little-known Heterocera Jrom Madagaecar. 95 

And bejond this an & few dark dote, fringaa pale brown. Tha 
nndenide of both wings mnoh darker than the upper, and the 
hind-wing bee a well-defined daA margin. The angle of the hind- 
wing ia Btiongly orenulated, poaaiblj a eexual deTelopment. Exp. 
»nim. 

Corgfttha thyridoides, sp. n. Plate III. 

Head, palpi, anUmnae, and thorax leddiah oohreoua; legs reddiab 
ocbreone with the tarsi paler; abdomen reddiah above, paler beneath. 
Fore-iping pale ochreouB with reddish trrorations; baaal line darker, 
extending from ooeta to middle of cell; a dark angulated ante- 
median line, followed by a dark central dot, and this again by an 
outwardly angled median dark line, bejond which the reniform 
stigma is outlined with darker; the postmedian line ia etrongly 
angled outwards at coata, and then continued obliquely to middle 
of inner margin ; beyond this is a diffused reddish band, after which 
tbe wing is paler, with the snbt«rminal line indicated by three black 
dots : in the apex there is an indistinct mai^al row of dots. Hind- 
winy dull red, slightly ochreous at the base, with two transverse 
dark lines beyond which is a paler patch with some grey in it ; the 
anal angle of the wing is strongly crenulate, as in vubindieata. 
Underside paler, with similar markings. Exp. 28 mm. 

This insect ia figiireH by >SaalmulIer. but neither named 
nor described. 

OEUba vlridaria, sp. n. Plate III. 
Head and thorax ochreous, with a faint reddish tinge ; antennae, 
l^s, and palpi ratiker darker; abdomen pinkish ochreous. Fore- 
wing dark grey, marbled with green with whitish linee ; basal line 
indicated by dark dots on costa; an outwardly curved whitish 
antetnedian line; the reniform stigma pale margined with darker; 
tlie postmedian line whitish, strongly outwardly curved at costa 
aad margined on both sides with darker; beyond this the wing is 
whitish ochreous, with a half round dark spot on costa before apex 
and a grey cloud, with a few black t«nninal dots, before the hind 
margin- Hind-win^ uniformly grey with paler fringes. Exp. 



Goaepleronla Upunetata, sp. u. Plate III. 
Head, palpi, antennae, and legs dull reddish ochreous, tarai 
ringed with white. Fort-tping dull reddish, minutely itTorat«d 
with ochreous; lines darker, antemedian angulated, sloping out- 
wards from ooMa, median line nearly vertical, not reaching above 



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96 Sir Geo. H. Eeurick on 

reniform stigma; poBtmedian line much angnlated from coeta to 
vein 3, then turning inwarda abruptly and meeting the median 
line; eabterminal line faintly indicatod, pale ochreouB and much 
angnlated ; the orbicular stigma a minute white dot, and a aimilar 
white dot at the top of the reniform atigma ; fringes reddish. Bind- 
wing uniformly greyish ochreona, fringes paler. Exp. 43 mm. 

Xanthodesm» notugulita, sp. n. Plate III. 
Head, antennae, palpi, legs, and thorax ochreous-orange, abdo- 
men dull yellowish. Fort-uing dull orange, the veins all dark 
brown ; a short dark basal line, a straight antemedian line sloping 
outward from costa, a postmedian line, strongly angnlated on vein 6 ; 
from the middle of this a short line extends to the reniform atigma; 
the Bubterminal line is curved, and is followed by a distinct ter- 
minal line. Hind-wing uniformly dull yellow; fringes of fore-wing, 
orange of hind-wing dull yellow. Underside uniformly dull yellow. 
Exp. 44 mm. 

DELTOID AE. 

Singari albonuoiUs, sp. n. Plate III. 
Palpi well above vertex, second joint thickly scaled, third joint 
bare and sharp; antennae bipectinated, tibiae spurred; veins 3 
and 4 from end of cell, S from just above, 6 and 7 from upper end 
of oell ; costa nearly straight, hind margin rounded. Head, thorax, 
and patagia orange; palpi orange outside and paler inside; legs 
oohreous, antennae pale brown. Fore-wing orange irroratod with 
darker; a basal dark pateh, followed by an antemedian line curved 
inwards, a dark ohbque streak from apex to middle of inner margin; 
the orbicular a conspicuous white dot with dark margin ; the reni- 
form also white, with dark margin and dark centre. Hivd-mng 
ochreouB, the outer portion inclined te orange; a narrow median 
line extending te vein 3, fringes narrow, orange. Underude ochte- 
ODS, the fore-wing with three dark spots, and the hind-wing with 
dark central lunule. Exp. 40 mm. 



PYRALIDAE. 

Acara pratti, sp. n. Plate V. 

I cannot distinguish any generic character to separate 
this species from the genus, but the hind-wing is sqiiarer 
than in morosella, and vein 2 of hind-wing is not present 



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New or little'knoam Beterocera from Madagascar. VI 

as shown in the Sgure,* but this is not mentioned in the 
description. 

Head, lege, and tmtemiae reddish brown ; thorax ntber brightor, 
psJpi in female darker; abdomen shining ochreoua with leddiah 
BUffosion. Fore-udng unifonnly reddish ochreoua, the co«t« clothed 
with ochieone scales, and many tranaverw bars of the same. Hind- 
wing yellowish oohreous without markings. Exp. <} CO, $ TO mm. 

Haoalla malgassloa, sp. n. Plate VI. 

Somewhat like a small species from Natal. 

Head white, antennae, palpi and legs dark gny; thorax duk, 
with collar and patagia grey ; abdomen ochreoua. Fon-^ng pale 
gny, with darker markings; an antemediau and portmedian line 
indicated Ity dark dots, a darker patch in the c«ll; snbterminal 
Hno a series of dark dashes, fringes gKj. Hind-wing ochreotu. 
£xp. 24 mm. 

Taenuphoba, gen. nov. (Sub-family Epipaschianae). 
Palpi porroct, extending twice the length of the head, seoond 
joint fringed with hair above and below, third joint long and naked. 
Antennae of both sexes pectinated, but simple at the tip; tibiae 
with fairly long spines. Fort-mng vein 6 from end of cell, 7, 8, 
and B stalked. Hind-wing 3, 4, and 6 from end of cell ; median 
nermre not pectinated; no raised scales below the cell on the 
npper side, but on the underside of the fore-wing the scales in the 
cell are crowded together, and slightly raised ; the longitudinal fold 
below the cell in the fore-wing in the m^e has no scales, but a 
namber of vertical striae ; in the female the scales are uomiaL 

TienUphon tubnurgtaiats, sp. n. Plate V. 
^Ipi and antennae pale ochieous; legs the same, with reddish 
hairs on the tibiae ; thorax and patagia reddish ochreoua, abdomen 
paler. Fore-wing pole ochreous with fiiscoua inner and hind margin ; 
at the base of the costa is a blackish shade, followed by two dark 
■pots ; fringe oohreoos spotted with reddish ; at tbe end of the cell 
IB a conspicuous black dot, and beyond this a series oi fine black 
triangular tnarka margined outwardly with paler. Hind-wing pale 
ochreous, with a thin black marginal line and pale fringe. Under- 
side pale, broadly margined on tbe costa of both wings with reddish, 
and with a dork spot at the end of cell in both wings. Exp. SO mm. 

* Hampson's Moths of India. 
TEAN3. BNT. SOC. LOST). 1917. — PAST I. (NOV.) H 



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dS Siz Geo. H. Kenrick on 

Slndris leuoomelas, sp. n. Plate VI. 
Head, legs, antennae and palpi olive, patagia the same ; thorkx 
and abdomen orange. Fore-wing olive enfiiued with orange, and 
with three distinct white blotchea, one roundish on hind margio: 
one in the middle of the wing, rounded towards the body, bnt 
forming a hroad lateral stripe ontwardly; one at apex just joining 
the last, and with three pointed teeth on the ontode; fringes 
ochreoUB. Hind-wing uniformly golden. Exp. 38 mm. 



LoFHOCE&A, geD. nov. (Sub-family Pyralinae). 
Palpi aptnmed, the third joint well developed and acuta, pfo- 
bowis prraent; onteniute pectinated in the male, with a bunch of 
long haiia about the middle ; venation. Fort-wing 3, 1, and fi from 
lower end of oell, 6 from upper end, 7, 8, 9, stalked. Hind-ving 6 
from end of cell, 7 ansetemoong with ft. 

Lophoean flavlpuiieta, sp. n. Plate VI. 

Head, legs, palpi, and tboras black, patagia and collar onnge, 

abdomen orange, tuft black. Fore-wing black, with a huge yellow 

oblique spot beyond the end of the celL Htitd-wing orange with 

broad black border. Underside similar. Ezp. S 34 mm., $ 30 mm. 

Fllodes albotermlnalls, sp. n. Plate V, 
Paljn, head, antennae, and legs oohreous; antennae barely the 
length of the fore-wing; patagia of male long and darker; abdo- 
men golden above, paler beneath, tuft conspicuously white, ^ore- 
wing ochreoua with golden suSuaion; a dark spot at baae of ooeta, 
a dark antemedion line curved ontwatds; a conspionooa oblong, 
Innulated, oblique dark spot at end of oell ; a postmedian «.iignlf.tjiH 
dark line thickeet at costa; beyond this the wing is greyish; in 
some specimens a dark dot in the celL Hind-wing with oottxal spot. 
Exp. 36 nun. 

modes frlsMlls, sp. n. Plate VI. 
Head, palpi, antennae, thorax, and abdomen dark grey; lep 
and underaide silvery white. Fort-wing dark grey, with alight 
tinge of purple; the antemedian line central shade, and poat- 
median line more or leas distinctly divide the area into four nearly 
equal portions ; in the cell is a dark spot, and a da^er mark at the 
end of the cell. Hind-wing with central spot and tranavene lino 



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New or liule-knoton Heterocera from Madagascar. 99 

rather indistinct ; these ma.rfcing« are clearer on the onderBide. 
Exp. 32 mm. One $. 

Boeehorls rectUlimlli, sp. n. Plate V. 
Head, antennae, and palpi pole r>chreoua ; pectus and le^ silvery 
white ; thorax ochreona with two dark apats on collar ; abdontMi 
with a golden tinge, toft paler. Fore-wing ochreous miffiued with 
pale lilac, the ooeta paler; an indiatinct dork basal line, an angu- 
lated, broad dark antemedian line, a faint dark maHc at end of 
cell; a broad dark nearly Htraight oblique poatmedian line, followed 
by a lanab fainter thin parallel line. Hind-teing pole with d^rk 
central spot, angulated dork line and brood dark border, strongeet 
at apex ; a fine Babt«rminal pale line, fringes darker. Exp. 24 mm. 



Boedwria tenuilinwlli, sp. n. Plate V. 
Head, palpi, and legs pale ocbreouB, antennae pale brown ; thorax 
and abdomen whitish. Fort-wing semi-hyaline with golden sheen, 
the veins showing dark ; a dark basal spot, a straight obliqtie ante- 
median line, the angle formed by it and the inner maigin being 
darker, a very faint dot at end of cell, and a fine, dark, evenly 
curved poatmedian line. Hind-vnng pale at base, with an irregular 
darker Innnle, and a fine curved median line, the veins darker; 
fiingea pole golden. Exp. 23 mm. 



Sylepta malgsssiea, sp. n. Plate VI. 
Head aod antennae ochreous, palpi, flnt joint white, seocmd joint 
ochreona : legs pale ochreona and silvery; thorax and abdomen 
ochieoiiB. Fort-wing ffey, with gold and purple sheen ; a whitish 
blotch at base extending to first line, which is dark; the cell itself 
is whitish, with dork spots at either end ; beyond this is a strongly 
angulated dark line, followed at costa by a white blotch with two 
teeth ; below tbg cell is another white blotch ; at apex is a small 
dark streak. Hind-wing whitish, with dark Innule and angulated 
line, tile margin widely bordered with fuscons. Exp. 26 mm. 



SyhptB aeutlpeniulls, sp. n. Plate VI. 

Head doll orange, palpi darker, antennae pale brown; legs 

silvery, the tibiae of the median pair of 1^ with a long toft of 

yellow hair tipped with darker; thorax, a.bdomen, and patagia 

pale brown, toft blackish. Fort-mng pale brawn with buff patches 



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100 Sii G«o. H. Eenrick on 

— 'the two fitst in the cell, the third very amall at end of cell, the 
fourth large, extending in triangular form from the oosta to vein 4, 
and margined outride hy a dark line. Hind-wing with two faint 
striae enclosing a paler space. Exp. 26 mm. 

Glyphodes parftmlralis, sp. n. Plate VI. 

On comparing this iosect with Swinhoe's description of 
amicalis, and the type of this and of vubamicalis in the 
. Natural Hiatory Museum, I am convinced that this is a 
diflerent species. 

Head, antennae, palpi, and legs whitish; thorax and abdomen 
fnscOQS brown, collar and patagia dove^colonr. Fore-wing daric 
brown sofEused with purple, with two semi-hjaline bonds with 
violet refleotions; the first band oblique, and sharply angulated on 
the outAide; the second wide on the oosta, and tapering to a pomt 
a little below the third vein ; a taint pole dot at end of oelL Hind- 
wing similar, with one trioiigalar traosvetHe hyaline band bordered 
outside bj a double oblique dark line, beyond which the diso bos a 
greenish reflection; fringes paJe, but not white. Exp. 36 mm. 

Pyreosta aureoflnctalls. sp. n. Plate Y. 
Head, antennae, and palpi pale brown, legs and nnderaide of 
thorax white; thorax and abdomen orange, patagia oanajy-yellow. 
Fon-wing semi-hyaline with golden reflections; aotemediaa tine 
indieated by two dork dots; a dark dot at end of cell, and two 
dote nearer to inner margin, the postmedian indicated bj four faint 
dote. Hind-wing similar, with a row of dark marginal dote, fringes 
golden. Exp. 34 mm. 

Pynnita elutalis, sp. n. Plate VI. 
Head, antennae, and palpi dark brown, legs paler, and the tani 
ringed with dark brown; thorax and patagia greeniih grey; abdo- 
men pale brown, tuft pale. Fort-wing greenish grey mottled with 
paler; a cnrved antemedian line darker, a ainaoua median line, and 
a postmedian angulated line, curving outwards froro the casta but 
not reaching the inner margin. Hiiid-mng pole brown without 
mukings, fringes paler. Exp. 32 mm. 

pyraiuta marglnesorlptalls, sp. n. Plate VI. 

Head, palpi, and antennae dull red, legs red above, silvery below ; 

thorax and abdomen above dull ted, paler below, tuft pale. Fort- 



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JioD or UOle-hwtm Heteroeem from Madagaicar. 101' 

temg nniftMrnly doll pink with Inown inoratiotu ; a few black tcalea 
oUiqiKlj jdaced iitdicate tbe nntemediaD line, and there is a dark 
maifc at end of cell; tbe snbterminsl line is very distinct, cod- 
siating of fine black angolaUona. Hind-ioing aemi-hyaline and 
whitish, fringes of both wiu^ pale. Expt 34 mm. 



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( 102 ) 



IV. AddUi&ns lo the knowledge of the Cetoniidae o/" British 
India. By Ouvbr E. Janson, F.E.S. 

[Bead FebnuTy 7tb, IQIT.] 

The basis of this contribution is an interesting and well- 
preserved series of Indian Cetoniidae collected by the late 
Captain B, Selous, and placed in my hands for identification 
by his brother, Di. C. F. Selous, who has most generously 
allowed me to retain any of the specimens that I desired 
for my collection. A Ibt of the species with the collector's 
notes that accompany them is given below, followed by a 
description of the veiy pretty new Anatona that he bad the 
good fortune to discover, 

I have taken this opportunity to describe three other 
new Indian species that nave recently come into my posses- 
sion from other sources, and of giving references to the 
additions that have been made to the family since the 
publication, in 1910, of the admirable volume by Mr, G, J. 
Arrow, on the Cetoniidae of the " Fauna of British India." 
I have also added some notes on a few errors and omissions 
in that work, and relative to the subject of this contribution. 

List of the Cetoniidae collected by the Late 
Captain B. Selous. 

1. Anthracophora crucifera, Oliv. 

Mhow. " On grass, September 1905," one specimen. 
A common and widely distributed species, but not 
hitherto recorded from Central India. 

2. Analona selousi, n. sp. 

Mhow, " Found on Nil Gai dung, July 15th, 1905," 
one specimen. 

Of this very distinct and pretty new species a single male 
example only was found by Capt. Selous, 

3. Adhiessa bagdadensis, Burm. 

Quetta. " Found flying and on the ground, March lltb, 
1907," two specimens. 

TSAHS. ENT. 8O0. LOND. 1917. — ^FABT I. (ifOV.) 



Ml. Jaosoa'B Addiliims to Cetoniidae of Bnlish India. 103 

A rathet scarce species, occurrine in Armenia, Meso- 
potamia, Peisia and Afghanistan, and already recorded by 
Arrow from Baluchistan. 

4. Protaetia (Polosia) impavida, Jans. 

Kashmir. " On flowering bush, July 1906," one 
specimen. 

This species appears to be confined to the northern parts' 
of India and is not common. 

5. Protaetia (Potosia) negleda, Hope. 

Baodipur Nallah, Kashmir. " On flowering bushes, 
July and September 1906," three specimens. 

A common and somewhat variable Indian species, with 
a range extending northwards to E. Turkestan. 

6. Protaetia {Eumimimeltca) terroaa, G. F. 

Near Mhow, " July 27th, 1905," one specimen. 

7. Protaetia aU>oguUala, Vigors. 

Mhow. " On grass and flowering plants and flying to 
lamp, June to August, 1905," nine specimens. 

A common and generally distributed Indian species 
ext«nding into Ceylon, but not before recorded from Central 
India. Capt. Selous' series include blue, green and fine 
coppery-red varieties. 

8. Oxi/cetonia versicolor, !Fab. 

Mhow, " On Date Palms, July 7th, 1905," two speci- 
mens. 

Capt. Selous' specimens of this very variable and widely 
distributed species are the typical form (the " var. a " of 
Arrow), with a shining upper surface, and the prothorax 
and elytra extensively adorned witli red, 

9. CMoloba acuta, Wied. 

Mhow. " On grass, August and September 1905," four 
specimens. 

10. Bpicometia kirteUa, Linn. 

Quetta. " Eating Iris flowers, March and April 1907," 
nine spedmeus. 

This species is an addition to the list of Indian Cetoniidae. 
The very doseiy allied E. squalida, Linn,, is recorded by 



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104 Mr. Oliver E. Janson's Additions to 

Arrow from the same locality ; both are common Kuiope&n 
species and of wide distribution, ranging through Asia 
Minor, Mesopotamia and western Persia to Baluchistan, 
where the Indian fauna assumes a very Palaearctic char- 
acter. All Capt, Seloua' specimens have a second white 
spot on the outer discal costa, a httle before the middle 
of the elvtra, that I do not find present in any of the many 
.European examples that I have had an opporttmity of 
examining. 

Anatona salousi, n, sp. 
<^ Body of &D oval, compaot and convex form. Caat&nemu, 
shining; baae of head, the prothorax and elytra teataoeoos red, 
opaque, and with shining oaatoneooB matkinga diepoeed as follows : 
On the prothorax a mai^pnal band on each aide, and eight small 
apoto, viz. three placed in a nearly r^nlar longitudinal row on each 
aide of the disc and two in the middle (both prolonged anlariorly 
with a t«ndenoy t« form a median stripe); on the ecnt«llum an 
apical spot prolonged anteriorly ; on each elytron eight spots, viz. 
one in the middle near the baae, one near the suture and just before 
the middle, one about equidistant between the laet and the apex 
and close tn the suture, and four adjoining the outer margin, the 
first at the lateral sinus, the second and third (both small) behind the 
middle and the fourth close to the sutural angle. The pygidium and 
the sides of the prothorax, sternum and abdomen with irregular 
chalky-white markings. Head somewhat flattened between the 
eyes, coarsely and confluently punctured ; clypeus long, narrowed 
in front, with a slight median carina and slightly prodnced and 
strongly reflexed angles. Ftothoiaz nearly as broad in the middle 
as at the base, strongly narrowed in fiont, the base feebly tri-sinnat« 
and with the lateral angles rounded; the disc with a very fine and 
sparse puncturatioo which becomes coarser and very much closer 
in front and towards the sides. &cutellum large, slightly rounded 
at the sides, impunctate. Elytra feebly bi-coetat«, with six discd 
rows of small and rather remote pnncturcs, the sides with scattered 
fine punctures and the apex slightly strigose. Fygidinm spanely 
setose and remotely punctured, transversely strigose only in the 
middle. Underside thinly clothed with yellowish-grey pubescence 
and punctured at the sides ; metastemum with an impressed median 
line ; sternal process broad, rounded and with an impre«aed hii8Ut« 
line just before the apex ; abdomen with a broad central depression. 
Legs stout, anterior tibiae with two large margin^ teeth, and the 
apex rather obtuse, all the femora and tibiae thinly fringed with 
long golden-grey hair. I«Dgth 17 mm., breadth 9 mm. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



the knoteledge 1/ the Celwiiidae of Brititk India 105 

Mbow (Type, coll. Janson) ; Poona (c<^. Briiish Museum). 

Apart from the very peculiar coloration this pretty 
species differs from its nearest ally, A. aiboguUala, fiuim., 
in it£ narrower and less convex foim, in having the pro- 
thorax more abruptly narrowed in front, the clypetis more 
strongly caiinate and the pygidium strigose only in the 
middle. The darker markings on the npper side are pro- 
duced by the absence of the lighter coloured opaque 
indumentum, that covers the other parts of the stuface, 
leaving the derm exposed and with a talc-like lustre.* 
I have named the species after the discoverer, the late 
Captun R. Selous. 

Clerota rtglflca, n. sp. 

Black and veiy ahiiiiiig above and below, with <naiige-7ellow 
m^rfcingK cmmpiiBuig ft medifto atripe on the bead, a marginal band 
on each' Bide and a median atripe on the prothorax, a spot 000a j^ing 
neori; the whole of the Bcatellom, a broad and alightlj einooua 
longitudiiial stripe on each elytron and a large triangular patch on 
each lide of the pygidium. The sidee of the meeotboraoio epimera, 
metathoracic epistema and poBt-cozae, and a large spot at the mdea 
of the fint to fourth abdominal segmeato are aleo otange-yellow. 

Head finely and sparingly pnnotured in the middle, more ooanely 
panctored in the lateral fonows, olypeus aligbtly ainuoua at the udes 
and distinctly widened in front. Prothorax almoet as bioad ae the 
elytra at the baee and obliquely narrowed to the apex, broadly 
■nlcate behind, very minntely and remotely punctured at the sides. 
Elytia slightly narrowed behind and separately rounded at the apex, 
anlcate at the sntnie, the middle third of the disc with several rows 
of more or lees obsolete poncturee, the sntural stria feeble and 
becoming obsolete before reaching the middle, the apical third of 
the sides and the apex very cloeely and deeply strigose. ^rsidium 
btoad and transversely convex, closely and concentrically strigose. 
Underside of the body almoet entirely smooth, the flanks of the 
piDtltorax and sides of the basal abdominal segment feebly strigose ; 



Iritish HuBenm, has these shining spaoes covered 
to a large extent with a dense white sqaamose or farinose clothing, 
which is apparently very lightly attached and eaailj rubbed oS, and 
in my type specimen is only present to a small extent on the sides 
of the prothorax and on the pygidium. It would most probably 
be found that in fteehly emerged examplee the clothing entirely 
covered the spaoes, so that the markings of the npperside would be 
white instead of oastaoeons as I have described Uiem. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



106 Mi. Oliver E. Jansoo's Additions to 

meaosternal proocM vei7 broad at the baM, pointed and slightly 
onrved inwarda at the apex; anterior tibiae with the two lateral 
teeth and the prodnced apex acute. Length 36 mm., breadth 17 mm. 

MouLMEiN, Lower Bunna (Type in coll. Janaon). 

This fine species is closely allied to C viltigera, Hope, 
but is larger and of a more robust form, the prothorax is 
broader at the base and less sinuate at the sides, the elytra 
more parallel-sided and longer in proportion to the pro- 
thorax, and the aedea^rus of the mate is much broader and 
lees constricted before the apex. 

The type specimen, a male, was taken flying by the late 
Col. Bingliam in August 1894, and I have others from 
Penang; Mana Riang, Sumatra; and Euching, Borneo. 
This distribution would seem to indicate that it ia a Malayan 
^>ecies with a range extending northwards into southern 
Burma. 

C. bodhiiaUva, Kunck., an evidently closely allied species 
from Annam and Tonkin, and only known to me by descrip- 
tion, is of a much larger size (44 mm , in length) and luu 
yellow markings on the elytra only. 

Clerots amwl, n. sp. 

$ Shining hiaok, the outer edge of the epimera and posterior 
ooxae, and a Hmall spot on the sidee of the second, third and fourth 
abdominal aegmenta orange-yellow. 

Head stmngly punctured, the pnnoturee of an ovate form in hont 
and coaTHei, cloeer and irregularly confluent towards the apex, the 
extreme base smooth; clypeus a little narrowed towards the apes, 
the apical lobes rounded and with a strongly reflexed margin, the 
raised side margins becoming almost obsolete before teaching the 
eyes. Prothorax obliquely narrowed from the base, with the aides 
slightly sinuons and very narrowly margined, the basal angles 
obtuse, the entire surface, exoepting a narrow and rather indistinct 
median line, with a very strong punoturation that becomes more 
dense as it approaches the sides and strigiforro close to the lateral 
margins, the basal lobe broad and slightly depressed but not sulcata. 
Scntellum slightly snlcate and smooth in the middle, pnnctnred at 
the base, the apex very acute. Elytra gradually narrowed from the 
base and sub-truncate at the apex, the basal part very convex and 
smooth, strongly punctured on the median third, the pnnctur«e 
extending to the hnineral c^osity at the side and forming five or 
six tolerably regular rows in the middle, and one row next the suture 
that extends to the base, the apical declivity and the stdee, behind 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



the huftdtdge of the Cetoniidae of Britiak India. 107 

the middle finely and oloMly strigoae. I^gidinm and tbe aplul 
doml Mgmeiit of the abdomen finely and closely atrigofle, the former 
Tery prominent And feebly bi-nodoae at the apex. Underside ooanely 
bat rather spusely pnnctuied on tbe meta-eoxae and ddee of the 
metMteninm ; mesoatemal prooeas gradnallj narrowed to the apex 
wbere it ia acnte. Legs closely strigose on the femora and oat«r 
side of the tdbiae, anterior tibia with the two marginal teeth and the 
prodaoed apex veiy aonte. Length 33 mm., breadth 16 mm. 

Ehasia Hili^, Assam (Typ« in coU. Janson). 

The strongly raised mai^ns of the ftpical lobes of the 
clypeuB form a semicircular rim to a pit-like cavity on 
either Bide, and coalesce with the narrow median carina 
at the base of the excision : this peculiarity and the atrongly 
punctured and non-sulcate prothorax and closely strigose 
legs will suffice to at once distinguish G. arrowi from all 
the hitherto described members of the genus. In general 
aspect it most nearly resembles narrow examples of C. 
budda, G. P., that ate without the usual yellow markings 
on the uppeTside. 

Pseadoelwleothea rltsemae, n. sp. 
Body of a narrow oral form and deeply channelled along the 
median line of the npperside. Dark grass-green, shining; the 
wdee and suture of the elytra with a, reddish Unge in some lights; 
head, sides of the prothorax and onderside golden green; antennae, 
palpi, tibiae and torsi fatvona tinged in parts with green and coppery 
led. Head sparsely punctured, convex and smooth in the middle; 
olypeoB a little widened in front, margined at the sides and deeply 
notched at the apex. Prothorax strongly narrowed in front, th« 
ndes nnnouB and slightly emarginate at the basal half, the basal 
an^^ea prodnoed and snb-acnte, smooth on the diao, panctured and 
strigose at the sides. Soatellnm panctured at the base only. 
Hytaa gradually narrowed posteriorly, separately rounded at the 
apex, the mtnral an^^es a little produced and acnte, some scattered 
fine punctaree in the sntnral depression and a regular raw next the 
mtme, at the sides fonr or five rather confused rows of punc- 
tures on the bsaal half and thence irregularly strigose to the apex. 
Pygidium prominent ukd closely strigose, deeply grooved and hi- 
nodooe at the apex. Undenide of the body almost impunctate; 
■terool process broad at the base and obliquely narrowed to a point 
at the apex ; abdomen concave in the centre and broadly emarginate 
at the apex. Front tibiae slender, curved and withont marginal 
teeth; hind tibiae on the innerside with abroad, thin and flattened 



u„,,i,Aji^,Coot5lc 



108 Mi. Oliver E. Janson's Additions to 

appendage carving forwards, and towards ita extremity narrowed 
and strongly bent baokwards in the form of a sharply pointed hook. 
Length 26 mm., breadth 12 mm. 

In the female, besides the usual sexual characl«i8, the prothotax 
is broader in middle than in the male, the pygidium is only feebly 
bi-nodoBe, the apex of the abdomen is broadly rounded and the last 
segment and the apical part of the preceding one have a oouse 
setigerooB punotuiation, and the ont«r apioal spine of the hind 
tibiae is broad and bi-mncronate. 

Ranqoon and Penang (Types, ^, $, in caU. Janson). 

This species comes neatest to P. vtrene, Kitsema, but is 
smaller and of a much narrower and more parallel-sided 
form, and has the piothorax more strongly sinuate at the 
sides. The male difieis, moreover, in the form of the 
appendage of the hind-tibiae, and the female in having 
the pygidium sulcat* and the apical ventral segment of 
the abdomen rounded, instead of broadly emarginate as 
it is in vireite. 

P. riisemae is the first Psetidochdcothea (if kept as distinct 
from Pledrons) that has been discovered on the mainland, 
the genus being essentially an insular one, with its head- 
quarters in North Borneo, and the occurrence of this 
species at Rangoon brings it just within the Umits of the 
British- Indian fauna. Pledrone tristis, Westw,, b recorded 
by Wallace from Penang. 

Maaronota baliUifera, Bourg., Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 
1914, p. 292. 

This is the jiavofasciata. Arrow (nee Moser), and is de- 
scribed by Bourgoin as a distinct species, differing in the 
structure of the hind-fibiae in the male. It is recorded 
from Bhutan and Assam. 

The " female " specimen in ray collection referred to by 
Arrow (" Fauna Brit. Ind.," Ceton,, p. 52) proves apou 
dissection to be a male, and is the tme, fiav^asdata, Moser, 
from Tonkin. The females of both species are apparently 
still unknown. 

Clinleria sternalts, Moser, Deuts. Ent. Zeite., 1910, p. 532. 

This addition to the Indian Fauna would appear, from 
the description, to come nearest to C. modesta, Blanch., in 
coloration, but is stated to have the mesostemal process 
broad and flat, a character not found in any other member 
of the genus. It comes from Pegu, Lower^Buima. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



the knowledge of the Cetaniidae of British India. 109 

Qlycosia durdi, Pouill., Insecta iv, 1914, p. 187. 

From the description and figures this is evidently a 
slight vanety of G. luctifera, Fairm., with markings Bimilai 
to those of the Indian specimens described by Arrow. 
It is also from Bhutan. 

The FOLLowiNa Notes refer to the " Fadna of 
British India," Getoniinae. 

Macronata, p. 41. 

In the synonymy and sub-genera CoUodera, Hope, 1831, 
is cited as ondescribed ; it was later emended to Cododera, 
and characterised by Burmeister, Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, 
p. 320. 

M. diardi, p. 43. 

The two specimens referred to (p. 44) with black elytra 
and purple-black prothorax are in my collection, and came 
from the late M. Jacoby, labelled " Ceylon (W. Morton)." 
This locality is most probably incorrect, as I now have 
similar specimens, from the van de Poll collection, from 
Mana Riang, Sumatra, and this form has since been de- 
scribed as a distinct species, under the name maindroni, 
by Boutin, Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1916, p. 133. 

M. mearesi, p. 45. 

The type, as cited by Weetwood, was in the Party collec- 
tion, which was dispersed by auction-sale, and the par- 
ticular " lot " comprising this specimen was bought by 
Mr. R. Oberthur, in whose possession it should now be 
found. 

Cyphonocephtdus amaragdyluB, p. 69. 

Reference to Westw., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 29, 
pi. 1, %s. 3, 4, is omitted. 

TorynorrMna distinda, p. 82. 

Var, mlipes, Burm. Handb. Ent. iii, p. 779; Westw., 
Arcana Ent. i, p. 120 and 192, is omitted from the synonymy. 
This is the brassy green variety and usually has the legs 
tinged with blue. 

Rhomborrhina microcephala, p. 87. 

Var. staudingeri, Nonf. Stett. Ent. Zeit., 1890, p. 17, 
is omitted. Nonfried described this as a variety of micro- 



iM-,i,A J li, Google 



110 Mr. Oliver E. Janson'a AMUiotu to 

cephala, but the descriptioa applies to the typical form, 
and the name therefore sinks aa a synonym. 

The specimen bearing the " Type " label from the Parry 
collection, cited by Westwood, is in my possession. 

Helerorrhina sinuatocoUis, p. 96. 

The type is incorrectly stated to be in the Paris Museum. 
The specimen described and figured by Westwood (as a 
variety of degans. Fab.), as cited by him, was in the Parry 
collection, and is now in my possession. It bears Pany's 
" Type " label, and must be regarded as the type of this 
species, Westwood's description taking priority over that 
of smaragdina, Burm. [nee G. P.), and it is the type of the 
latter that is in the Paris Museum. 

AtuUona alboguUata, p. 115. 

Reference to Westw., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1874, 
p. 476, pi. 7, fig. i, is omitted. 

Glycyphana minima, Bates, Entomologist, xxiv, 1891, 
Supp. p. 21. 
This species, founded on a single specimen stated to have 
been received from Captain G. Young, from the Hill region 
of Kulu, Korth- western India, is omitted. Mr. Arrow 
informs me that he doubts the correctness of the locality 
assi^ed to it, and behoves it will prove to be of Malayan 
origm. I have at present seen nothing from India that 
agrees with the description. 

Ooliathopsis despedus, p. 206. 

The type of this species is undoubtedly the specimen in 
the Oxford Museum, which I have examined and found to 
agree with Westwood's description and figures. It, more- 
over, has the mouth-parts extracted and moimted on a 
card beneath the specimen, as is usually the case with the 
Westwoodian types. I have before stated (Cist. Ent. ii, 
1881, p. 610) that Westwood's figures were evidently not 
made from the specimen that is in the British Museum. 

The examination of the type of despectus has shown me 
that cervm, Jans., is not the same species. In comparing 
the two forms (the female type in both cases) I find that in 
cervus the clypeus is more broadly and strongly refiexed 
at the apex (especially at the sides, where it projects in an 
obtuse angle), the prothorax is conspicuously larger and 



n,g,i,.eih,.G00glc 



&e knowledge of the Cetoniidae of British India. Ill 

more convex and has the basal angles more prominent; 
it is also of an altogether stouter and more robust form 
than despetiua, and the mouth-parts differ, as will be seen 
on comparing the figures that accompany the original 
descriptionB of both species. 

The following that have been relegated by the author to 
the rank of varieties and synonyms, have, I coosider, 
sn£Bcient distinctive features to warrant their retention as 
species: 

Cypfumocephaltts stmiTagdtdus, Westw., sunk under C. 
Uivaceus, Dap., p. 69. 

Heterorrhina mitrata. Wall., sunk under Diceros divea, 
Westw., p. 72. 

Gtycifphana svbcincta, Jans., sunk under 0. torquata, F., 
p. 124. 

Protaeiia aerata, Er., sunk under P. orienUdis, G. P„ 
p. 143. 

Clinieria valida, Lansb., sunk under C. auronoUUa, Bl., 
p. 179. 

Clinteria decora, Jans., sunk under C. Idvgi, Hope, p. 187. 

Agestrata samson, Sharp, sunk under A. orichalcea, L., 
p. 192. 

GcAieUhopsis cervus, Jans., sunk under G. despectus, 
Westw., p. 206. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



( 112 ) 



Y, On the Protocerdmim of Micropteryi [Lepidoptera). 
By P. A. Buxton, B.A., F.E.S., M.R.C.S., Fellow 
of Trinity College, Cambridge (Lieut. R.A.M.C.). 
[BMd FebnMff Tth, 1917.] 

Plates VII-X. 
Table of CoNTENra. 

FoBiwoBD us 

iNTBODucnon . . . . . .Ill 

Thb Fkotoobbbbrdh of MlCaOPTBRYZ — 

I. The Neurilemma and Ganglion Cells . . 118 

n. The Protocerebral Lobea 120 

UL The Mushroom Body 124 

IV. The Central Body 133 

V. The Bridge 134 

VI. The Viaual Centres 136 

Vn. The Frotocerebral Tracts 136 

SVHMABT 138 

TXCHKIQIII — 

I. Fixation and Impregnation 141 

n. Section Cutting 145 

m. Staining 146 

IV. Note [Composition of BeagenU) . .148 

BiBUOOIUPBT 149 

Abboktiations 151 

EXFLANATIOir OF Pl^TES 152 

FOREWORD 

Moke than four years ago I commenced to study the 
internal anatomy of Micropteryx {Eriocephala) in the hope 
that I might be able to throw some light on the question of 
its systematic position. As is well known, most entomo- 
logists regard it as a primitive ]>pidopteron (Protolepido- 
ptera), though thete ia really gmte as good ground for 
regarding it as a Trichopteron.* I am now ia a position 
to publish my results only in so far aa they relat« to a 
portion of the brain of that insect. This I do with a feeling 

* Vidt, however, Dr. Chapman's paper (Trans. Ent. Soc., 1916. 
pp. 310-4, pL 81-93, (1917)), which raises ificropferyz to ordinal 
rank (order Zeugoptera). 

TRANS. ENT, 800. LOND. 1917. — PART I. (NOV.) 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lL' 



Mr. P. A. BuztoD on Prolocerebrum q^ Micropleryx. 113 

that aome apology should be made, because I do not at 
any rate describe the whole brain : it is owing to the war 
and pressure of other work that there is no likelihood of my 
being able to carry my investigations further. This paper 
is however complete in itself, and is not of the nature of a 
preliminary note. From the point of view of comparative 
anatomy, the Frotocerebrum, with which alone this paper 
deals, is by far the most important part of the insect brain, 
not only on account of its complicated stracture, but also 
because of certain qnestions relating to the homologies of 
some of its parts. Such questions of homology do not at 
present arise in connection with the Deuterocerebrum or 
Tritocersbrum, or ventral brain. My hope that my inves- 
tigations would throw Ught on the systematic position of 
MicTopUryx will not be fulfilled until we can compare the 
brain of this insect with a number of other Lepidopterous 
and Trichopterous brains, after they have been fully and 
properly investigated. 

I have made some attempt to render this paper useful 
also as an introduction to the study of the brain of insects; 
this I think is justified, because it is the first paper on the 
Babject published in Great Britain since 1878 (Newton), 
and I know by bitter experience how exceedingly difficult 
it is to obtain a clear knowledge of the subject from a 
variety of papers written by many men in many languages 
at different dates. My taak has been rendered difficult 
by the small size of Micropteryx, which is, I believe, the 
smallest insect of which the brain has been investigated 
in any detail. 

I take this opportunity of acknowledging how much I am 
indebted to many friends in the University's Zoological 
Laboratory at Cambridge, particularly to Mr. F. Balfour 
Browne for constant criticism and much good advice, and 
for reading through the whole paper before it was pubUshed ; 
also to Mr. L. A. Borradaile for helping me with the theory 
of the segmentation of the head of the Arthropoda ; also 
to Dr. D. Keilin of the University of Paris, and of the 
Quick Iiaboiato^ and Magdalene College, Cambridge, for 
putting at my disposal his deep knowledge of fixing and 
staining. Canon W, Brocas Waters gave me a room to 
work in, while I was stationed in Bury St. Edmunds on 
military duties. 

I must also acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. K. F. 
Kiihnle of Stuttgart for his paper on the brain of the 

TBAN8. airr, soc. lond. 1917. — pabt i. (nov.) i 



114 Mr. P. A. Buiton on the 

Earwig and other types (see Bibliography), which gives a 
full review ol insect neurology up to 1913, together with a 
bibliography and a table of the terminology of the insect 
brain, which has materially lightened my labours. This 
paper is by far the most important contribution which has 
yet been made to insect neurology. 

All my material has been collected in the neighbourhood 
of Cambridge, and I have worked entirely with Micro- 
jjteryx {Eriocephala) • adthdla (Linn.), and not with any 
other species. 

INTRODUCTION. 
The anterior part of the central nervous system of insects 
consists of a suprateeophageal portion, which is the biain in 
the narrow sense of the wonl. From this the circum- 
cesophageal conomissures pass round the (esophagus to the 
ventrocerebrura or subc^phageal portion of the brun. 
Most authors include this also in the brain of the insect. 
The supracesoph^eal ganglion, or brain in the narrow sense 
of the word, was foimd by Viallanea to be composed of three 
paired elements or neuromeres, which he believed to be 
segmental ; these give rise to the parts of the brain to which 
he gave the names Protocerebrum, Deuterocerebrum (or 
Deutocerebrum) and Tritoceiebnun. We now know that 
the Protocerebrum is not a segmental ganglion ; and it 
will be convenient at this point to give a short sunmiar>' of 
the results obtained by those who have studied the subject 
of the segmentation of the head of the Arthropoda, and the 
homologies of the various appendages throughout the class 
from the point of view of comparative embryology. The 
whole matter is one of great difficulty, and has been neg- 
lected by insect neurologists; as, however, it is a matter 
which bears directly upon the subject of this paper I give 
this summary of our knowledge in so far as it affects the 
insect protocerebrum. 

* The eubj«ct of this paper belongs to the true genus Mieropltrffx 
Hlibner. lliiH genus nas been referred to in some writings, e.g, 
Meyrick's Handbook, the Cambridge Natural History, etc., ander 
iU synonym Erioctphala Curtis : while the leaf-mining eenus erron- 
eously called " Micropleryx " in certain of the same works should be 
known as EHocrania Zeller. 

Sriocephala Curtis = MicTDpteryx Hilbner. 

" Micropleryx " auctt- (nee Hiibner) = Sriocrania Zeller. 

See Tutt, Brit. Lep., I, pp. 129-137 (1899). and Steudinger-Rebel, 
Cat.. U. pp. 246-8(1901). 



l„y,|,AjL., Cookie 



Protocere6mm <^ Mu^opleryx. 115 

The brain of the Arthropoda in its fullest development, 
tiiat is to say as exemplified in the brain of the embryo of 
Scolopendra (Heymons), consists of the following parts : 
au archicerebrum, which is median, unpaired and preoral : 
three lobes on each side, the ajiicerebral lobes, the outer 
two of which arise from a common rudiment ; these also 
are pteoral, and together with the archicerebrum form the 
syncerebrum : the preantenuary ganglion, or protocerebrum, 
which is the ganghon of the &:st somite, or true segment ; 
we believe that this was primitively postotsi, but it is 
preoral in all living Arthropoda : the deuterocerebrum or 
anteonary ganglion, and the tritocerebnim or premandi- 
bular ganglion, which correspond respectively to the second 
and tMrd somites. It may be said at once that the deutero- 
cerebrum and the tritocerebrum correspond in Heymone' 
nomenclature to the organs which I shall subsequently 
describe under those names. This is not, however, the case 
with the protocerebrum, for that word has been used in a 
great vanety of senses. In the development of the insect 
head that part of the central nervous system which entomo- 
lo^ts generally call the protocerebrum (Viallanes) is 
develop^ from the archicerebrum and the syncerebral 
lobes ; we do not yet know which parts of the insect brain 
correspond to which of these structures, except that the 
outer syncerebral lobe gives rise to the optic lobe, and 
Haller suggests that the mushroom body is formed from 
the archicerebrum. The preantenuary ganglion or proto- 
cerebrum of Heymons is not found at all in the insect 
head, and is to be carefully distinguished from that part 
of the br^Q which is commonly called by that name. The 
aynouymy is further complicated because the preantennary 
gangUon or protocerebrum of Heymons is the precerebnim 
of VerhoelT, and the word " protocerebrum " has been 
used ID yet a third sense to denote the procerebrmu of 
Heymons, that is the syncerebrum and preantennary gang- 
lion (protocerebrum] together. The word protocephalum 
has been used by Holste, and perhaps by others, to denote 
that part of the brain which is dorsal to the gut in the 
insects : »'. e. the syncerebrum of Heymons (the proto- 
ceiebnun of insect neurologists since the time of Viallanes), 
with the deuterocerebrum, and the tritocerebrum. 

I shall continue to use the word protocerebrum in the 
sense in which neurologists from the time of Viallanes have 
alvays employed it, though I should be glad to avoid a 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



116 Mr. P. A. Buxton on the 

word to which bo many meanings have been assigned. By 
it I mean a mass of nerve tissue arising from that preoral 
part of the embryo which is not segmented and which bean 
no appendages. It b the nervous element corresponding 
to the acron of some embiyologists, and it is not the serial 
homologue of the deuteioceiebmm and tritocerebrum 
(mesocerebrum and metacerebmm of some writers on the 
segmentation of the Arthropoda). The protocerebrum of 
insects is, in fact, the synceiebrum of Heymons, unless it 
contains some element not yet differentiated as belonging 
to the pteantennary ganglion. 

In tlus paper I propose as I have said to deal solely with 
the protocerebrum. I give, however, the following brief 
summary of the function and connections of the other two 
BupracBsophageal ganglia. The deuterocerebrum is the 
ganglion of the antenna, to which it gives motor and sensory 
nerves. The pair of ganglia fomung the deuterocerebmm 
are united across the middle line above the cesophagus, and 
lie before and below the prutocerebral lobes. They are the 
antennaiy or olfactory lobes of some authors. The deutero- 
cerebrum gives rise to the paired sympathetic system, which 
lies upon the lateral wall of the cesophagus on each side ; thia 
consists of two pairs of small gangha with nerves which con- 
nect them to each other, and, as is known in some insects, to 
the median or tritocerebral sympathetic system. The pair 
of ganglia composing the tritocerebrum lie on each side of 
the anterior part of the cesophagus and are generally fused 
above to the rest of the supraoesophageal brain. The lower 
part of the tritocerebrum is the circumoesophageal connec- 
tive or commissure. This ganglion supplies the labrum, 
but has no paired appendage connected with it in the 
insectfi; a band of fibres, the tritocerebral bridge, passes 
across from one side to the other beneath the oesophagus. 
The tritocerebrum also gives rise to a pair of fine nerves 
which run forwards and inwards to the frontal gangUon, 
which lies upon the upper surface of the anterior part of the 
oesophagus. This is the largest ganglion of the sympathetic 
system : from it a fine nerve runs forwards and another 
backwards. This latter, the nervus recttrrens of some 
authors, connects the frontal ganglion with a short chain of 
ganglia lying on the upper surface of the oesophagus, and 
from this unpaired sympathetic system the stomodaeum 
is innervated. 

The suboesophageal ganglia or nerve masses will not 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



ProtocerArum of Micropteryx. 117 

agwn concein us. They are formed by the fnaion of fonr 
segmental ganglia, the mandibular, the intercalary, the 
mazillaiy and the labial. The intercalary ganglion has 
hardly been noticed by insect neurologists ; the correspond- 
ing appendage is the maxilliila, which is vestigial or absent 
in adult insects ; the ganglion is accordingly ill-developed 
or absent. The other three ganglia are mainly if not 
entirely motor and sensory centres to their respective 
append^es. 

AH the nerve centres of insects consist of the following 
layers.* They are hounded externally by a neurilemma, 
which is a thin syncytial structure. Witlun this, and lying 
loosely in a qiiantity of fluid, are the nerve cells, or ganglion 
cells. The processes of these, the axons, pass inwards to 
form the innermost part of the centre; here they unite 
in very lai^e numbers to form the tissue known as axonic 
sabstance (or fibrillar material], which consists of innumer- 
able axons and their twigs bound together by a varying 
amount of neuroglia. Of this axonic substance two types 
may be distinguished; the first is that which is called 
Piuiktsubstanz, or Marksnbstanz, or neuroepongium ; its 
composition was first accurately explained by Viallanes. 
Until his day it had been known as a tangled web, bnt 
in it he distinguished very fine axis cylinders running 
in all directions, and their twigs, and also the neurogfia. 
In the second type of fibrillar substance, the Fasersub- 
stanz, the axons run in bundles and form welt-defined 
tracts in which there b little or no neuroglia. The 
distinction between these two types must not be insisted 
upon, for every degree of intergradation may be found; 
even in the most indisputable Funkteubstanz small tracts 
of fibres may generally be detected. Physiologically again 
the difference is one of degree, though Fasersubstanz 
is mainly a tissue of conduction, Funkteubstanz one of 
association, that is to say one in which impulses pass from 
one neuron to another. 

Two parts of the brain may be connected either by 
fusion of their component Punktsubstanz (Versckmdzuvgen, 
soudnrei), or by definite tracts of Fasersubstanz {Faaer- 
^>erbindungen). This distinction, again, has only a relative 
value. 

Before we pass to examine the structure of the various 



iM:,i,A J. ^, Google 



118 Mr. P. A. Buxton on the 

parts of the protocetebnim it should be realiaed that this 
portion of the brain ia not merely a complex but also an 
entity. We might compare it physiologically to the cere- 
brum of a vertebrate. Both are known to be the highest 
or governing centres of the organism ; both possess a soli- 
darity or unity of action ; both consist also of parts, each 
of which in its turn is not only an anatomical, but also a 
physiological entity. We are quite justified in regarding 
the protocerebrum of an insect as the headquarters from 
which are directed all those complicated reactions and 
instincts of the organism which give to it* activities what 
at any rate appear to be purpose, and adaptation to the 
surroundings. There is too great a tendency to lay 
emphasis on the potentialities for independent action 
which are undoubtedly possessed by the lower nerve 
centres of the insect. In all but the very lowest insects 
there is a marked degree of speciaUsation in the structure 
and function of the protocerebrum, and this fact of ita 
solidarity should not be allowed to pass from the mind while 
we study in detail the structure and perhaps something of 
the function of its parts. 



THE PROTOCEREBRUM OP MICROPTERYX. 

I. The Neurilemma and Ganguon Cells. 

The whole brain of Micropleryx, that is to say the axonic 
parts and the cells, is included in a limiting membrane or 
Neumlemma (Plate X). This is a very fine sheet of 
substance which stains well with the acid stains. It is 
certainly a syncytium in Mxcropteryx, and probably in all 
insects. In places where no ganglion cells intervene be- 
tween the neurilemma and the a.xonic part of the brain 
the two are closely applied to each other, and the neuri- 
lemma can hardly be distinguished, though in material 
fixed in the picro-chlor-acetic mixture it can generally be 
seen. Occasionally the nuclei of the neurilemma can be 
seen even when the layer itself la indistinguishable. The 
neurilemma is somewhat thickened mid-dorsally, partly 
owing to the fact that a number of tracheal tubes (Plate X) 
lie in it in this position, partly owing to the presence of a 
number of the nuclei, the celb corresponding to which have 
fused to form the syncytium of which the neurilemma con- 
sists. These nuclei are elongate and smaller than those of 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lc 



Pratocer^mim of Micropteryx. 119 

" normal " ganglion cells. They ettan deeply with hema- 
toxylin. The neurilemma is continuous over the whole 
brain dorsally and ventrally and also over the optic lobes ; 
it ia continued downwards to cover the ventral parte of the 
central nervous system. 

The Gakouon Celis.— These are spread over the whole 
anterior and superior parts of the brain, in a layer which 
reaches its greatest thickness mid-dorsally. The layer is 
discontinuoas or absent beneath the protocerebnim. On 
the upper side of the brain the cells may be as many aa 
15 ce\& deep, particularly near the middle line between 
the ocelli. Various types of ganglion cell must be distin- 
guished. They all possess a spherical nucleus and a very 
small quantity of cytoplasm. The normal cells (j. c.) 
cover the protocerebnim above, before and behind. Cells 
of this type, which is much the most abundant, are either 
motor or else cells of connecting-fibres (Kenyon). The 
cells of the mushroom body {mb.c.) are found as a rounded 
mass of cells lying just over the head of that organ. Their 
nuclei stain heavily with htematoxylin ; they are also 
smaller than the normal cells. The fibres from these cells 

Ess into the mushroom body. The distinction in size 
tween these cells and those of the normal type is not very 
great ; it can be best observed in material fixed in Gilson's 
fluid. The celb of the optic lobes (o. c.) are still smaller 
than those of the mushroom body; and their nuclei 
are absolutely spherical and stain very heavily and com- 
pletely. No structure within the nucleus can he detected 
in ordinary sections and this gives to the masses of cells a 
very characteristic appearance. The c}^plasm, per contra, 
is scarcely stained at all. These cells form a deep coating 
which completely envelopes the three optic ganglia; this 
layer is less deep above than below. In Mtcropleryx giant 
cells (gi. c.) are found in small numbers round the base of 
the mushroom body just where it passes into the proto- 
cerebral lobes (fig. 12, etc.). These cells are few in number, 
hardly more than a score on each side. Their nuclei are 
sphencal and about four times as large as those of normal 
cells ; there is a considerable quantity of cytoplasm, which 
can be stained with eosin; this distinguishes it at once 
from the cytoplasm of the other types of ganglion cell. 
The nucleolus is generally clearly seen. Haller states that 
these cells are mainly, but not entirely, concerned with 
conduction across the middle line, and that their axons 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



120 Mr. F. A. Buxton on the 

pass to the opposite side of the brain, to the antennary lobe 
or head of the mushroom body, or even into the optic 
lobe. Inside the brain are found small cells, lying singly 
or in ^ups (Plate X). Kiilmle refers to them as 
neurogha cells {ng.) and doubtless he is conect in so doing. 
They are found particularly in the space surrounding the 
central body and in the interval between the two capsules 
of that organ ; there are also a few on the surface of the 
stem of the mushroom body and in other places (PI. X). 
The nucleus of a neuroglia cell is pyriform or elongate and 
stains deeply, and its outline is generally irregular. The 
nucleus is smaller than that of a " normal " ganglion cell. 

The axons from the ganglion cells enter the axonic part 
of the brain vertically ; and they are generally united into 
small bundles at their point of entrance. It is to this that 
Kiihnle gives the name Eitislrommung. 

Spherical black granules occur among the cells in material 
fixed in osmic acid, or any mixture containing osmic 
acid; These granules are not found in material fixed in 
any other fluid, and I regard them as unsaturated fat. 
They are found among the ganglion cells and are quite 
definitely extracellular. 

A note on technique is given at the end of the paper; 
suffice it to say here the cells may be studied in material 
fixed in the picro-chlor-acetic fluid, but that some specimens 
may with advantage be fixed in Bouin'a or Gilson's fluids, 
especially for the study of the different types of cell. 

Trachkation. — In the brains of most insects fine 
tracheal trunks can be detected ramifying in the fibrillar 
part of the organ. This is not the case in Micropteryx, 
perhaps because of the extremely small size of the whole 
insect : ao far as I can discover there are no tracheae at all, 
either in the ganglion cell layer or the axonic fibrillar part 
of the brain. There is a considerable collection of tracheal 
trunks (tr.) in the neurilemma which lies over the mid-dorsal 
part of the brain (Plate X), and it is at lea.<;t possible that 
it is the fimction of these trunks, which are large and 
numerous, to oxygenate the brain by diffusion through the 
fluid which lies beneath the neurilemma. 

II. The Protocerebral Lobes. 
The protocerebnmi of insects is generally described as 
consisting of the protocerebral lobes and the various 
etructures such as the mushroom body, the central body. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



Protocerdmim of Micropteryx. 121 

the bridge, the ocellarj gloDienilus, and the optic lobes. 
The term " protocerebral lobes " is a compreheitaive term 
for the great mass of the protocerebrum in or upon which 
the other structures lie. The word " lobes " is perhaps 
unfortunate, but its use in all papers from an early date to 
the present day renders it a classical term. In all insects 
the protocerebral lobes {pc. !.) fonn by far the greater part 
of the brain ; they are bilaterally symmetrical about the 
middle line, but they are not divided from one another by 
a raphe. Eiilmle describes their fusion across the middle 
line (Versckm^zung), " above," " below," etc. This is per- 
fectly accurate, but it would give a clearer impression to 
say that the two lobes are united over their whole extent 
at the middle line, except that in the centre a space (la 
loge, Viallanes) is left in which lie the central body and 
ocellary glomenili, and the inner root of the mushroom 
body. 

The union of the two sides in Micropteryx is complete, 
but much less definite posterodorsally. Only a very vague 
web of fibres covers the central body in this region. It 
would, for instance, be possible for a micro-organism to 
swim down from the flmd in which the ganglion cells he 
through this web into the space surrounding the central 
body. The protocerebral lobes together form a rounded 
mass, with it£ longest axis in the transverse direction. 
The mass is flattened above, and prolonged downwards to 
fuse with the deuterocerebnim and the tritocerebrum. 
The dividing line between the deutero- and trito-cerebrum 
cannot be accurately determined. In the embryo they Ue 
behind one another. In most adult insects, and Micro- 
pteryx is DO exception to the rule, the deuterocerebrum is 
pushed forwards, and the tritocerebrum fuses directly 
with the protocerebrum, at any rate by a small part of its 
posterior surface. From the lateral side of the proto- 
cerebrum the optic nerve is given off. This connects the 
protocerebrum to the optic lobes (medullary masses of the 
eye). 

The relations of the protocerebral lobes are as follows 
(text fig. 1, p. 122) : mid-dorsally lie the rounded heads of the 
mushroom bodies, and between them the bridge. SUghtly 
in front of this the ocellary nerve is seen, disposed in a 
transverse plane with a slight inclination downwards and 
backwards. Various organs he within the protocerebral lobes 
in a space full of fluid which has been called la loge by 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



122 Mr. P. A. Buxton on the 

Tiallanee. These organs axe the central body and the ocellary 
glomemluB, and the Btem and inner root of the mushroom 
body ; the forward and backward roots are also buried in the 
protocerebral lobes, but they are not definitely separat«d 
from the surrounding parts by a free space. It may be 
mentioned here that the mushroom body system is com- 
pletely buried in the protocerebrum except at three points. 
The parta which project are the head, the lower end of the 
stem, and the tip of the forward root (see pp. 125 aqq.). 




TiXT noma 1. — General relationahipB of the parts of the proto- 
cerebrum. The organ is divided at tLe middle line and the left 
side is shown in the finue. viewed from in front. The cut surface 
shows the loge of VioUanes ajid the organs within it. No cella ore 
ahown; the whole organ as drawn here consisU of axonic substance. 
a, c, i. i, q, Kfet to traote of fibres (see p. 136). br. bridge, d. I. 
dorsal protocerebral lobe. hd. head of mushroom body. in. ea, 
inner capsule of central body. in. r. inner root of mushroom body. 
/. I. lateral lobes of protocerebrum. lo. la logo (Viallanes). mi. L a. 
and mi. L p. anterior and posterior parts of middle lobe of proto- 
cerebrum. oc gl. ocellary glomerulus, oc. n. ocellary nerve, cm. <n. 
outer capsule of central body. #u>. hd. swollen head of ascending 
branch <a mushroom body. ew. al. swollen foot of Bt«m of mnshroora 
body, to dm. tracts passing from protocerebrum to deuteroceie- 
brum. (tt. tumulus. vl.La. anteiior part of veotrolateral lobe. 



Ij.y.l.AjhyCOO'^lL' 



Protocerebnim of Micropteryx. 123 



Special names have been assigned to various parts 
of the protocerebmm (refer to PI. VII-IX), Thus doiBally 
there is the dorsal lobe (Haupllappe), below this the ventro- 
lateral lobe or Nd>enlappe, and midventrally the middle 
lobe (Mittdstuck). These parts may all be distiDguished 
in Mua-Mderyx, and perhaps the mere shape of the lobes 
merits description. The dorsal lobe {d.l.) is the widest 
part of the whole brain. In front its superior surface is 
flat ; further back there is a specialised rounded projection 
in the middle line, to which I give the name Tumulus ((«.). 
This lies between the heads of the two mushroom bodies, 
and consbts of a very tight homogeneous web of axonic 
substance more densely compacted than any other part of 
the brain. The portions of the dorsal lobe which lie around 
and beneath it are of an extremely loose consistency 
(see n. X). 

A large lateral lobe (l. I.) is present on each side.* ItA 
relations ate shown in figs. 10, 12, 13. 

The ventrolateral lob^ (N^yenlappe) consist of two very 
definite parts placed one in front of the other. The anterior 

ett of the ventrolateral lobe {v.l.l.a.) appears aa a swelling 
low the anterior extremity of the stem of the mushroom 
body ; in the region beneath the inner root of the mushroom 
body the lobe is insignificant; and behind this its posterior 
part (v.l.l.p.) appears as a large round lobe above the exit 
of the motor antennary nerve from the deuterocerebmm. 
The middle lobe (mi. (.}of the protocerebrum lies between 
the two ventrolateral lobes, hi most insects it consists 
of a single body, shaped like an honr-glass, and lying 
transversely between the inner roots. In After opteryz 
we can distinguish an anterior and a posterior part of the 
lobe. The anterior portion {mi. I. a.) is of the shape of an 
hoar-glass, and lies, as it should, between the ends of 
the inner roots; it is connected with the anterior part 
of the ventrolateral lobe on the same aide by a tract 
of nerve fibres (tract h). Behind it there is a transverse 
bar of axonic tissue, placed below the ocellary glomeruli 
and above the various bands which connect the two anten- 
nary lobes or deuterocerebra ; this is the posterior part 
{mi. I. p.) of the middle lobe ; to the antennary lobe and 
also to the protocerebrum above it this middle lobe is 
united by well-marked tracts of nerve fibres {tracts j and k). 



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124 Mr. P. A. Buxton m the 

Histologically the whole of the protocerebral lobea are 
very uniform iu structure, and consist of Punktsubstanz of 
a moderate degree of density. The tumulus, however, b 
very much closer in sttuctute, and the parts of the proto- 
cerebial lobes immediately below and aioimd it are ver}' 
loosely formed. The lobes aie penetrated in all directions 
by bundles of axons (Faseisul^tanz), some of which are 
enumerated below. 

III. The Mushkoom Body. 

(Stalked body — Packard. Pilz — Kiihule, etc. Gestielte 
Korper — Leydig. Lee Corps PSdoncul^s — Dujardin.) 

Before I describe the mushroom body of Micropleryx it 
may not be out of place to state that the organ consists 
typically of a cup-shaped or globular head {calice, PUzhut, 
Becker, Jobeei oonvdvtifms) supported by a stem {Slamm, lige, 
caulundus, pedunculus) which divides below into a number 
of roots or branches. The word Stiel is used by Kiihnle to 
denote the stem and roots together. An early worker, 
Newton, described the brain of the cockroach. In this 
insect the bead and stem of the mushroom body are double, 
and Newton named the two stems the cauliculus and 
pedunculus, respectively. A small number of insects have 
their mushroom body formed on a simpler plan, with only 
one head and one stem. It is better, therefore, not to use 
the terms cauliculus and pedunculus, which are responsible 
for the notion that two supports of the mushroom body are 
to be looked for in the typical insect biain. As will be seen 
later the homologies of the roots of the organ are very 
obscure. 

This exceedingly simplified account of the least complex 
type of mushroom body may serve to remind the reader 
of the essential characters of that organ. A full account 
of that of ^orjJcu^, together with a painstaking summary of 
previous work, is given by Kuhnle. This is valuable, but 
as I shall e7q)lain later I believe that Kuhnle has made 
a fundamental mistake in homology. The summary in 
Packard's text book is out of date and most difiScult to 
understand. 

At first sight it appears that the mushroom body of 
Microjiteryx is formed on a plan not altogether identical with 
that found in other insects. This is not very surprising, 
for nothing is yet known of the brains of the Lepuioplera 
or Tricko^era. I hope, however, to show that the diffi- 



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Prolocerelmim of Mieropteryx. 126 

cutties are rather apparent than real, and that Mieropteryx 
is leaUv one of thoae organisms froni the study of which 
we may draw valuable inference as to the comparative 
anatomy of the insect bmia. It is always a most difficult 
thing to form a picture of the mushroom body of an insect 
when that oi^n is described by another worker. This is 
dae, in part at least, to the complexity of the organs which 
lie in all three planes of space. I shaJl endeavour to make 
my meaning clear by giving several sketches of a mental 
reconstruction of the organ in question. Its structure in 
Mieropteryx is comparatively simple, and I have not found 
it necessary to make a wax-plate model. I have, of course, 
most carefully examined sections in all three planes of 
space (text figs. 2, 3, pp. 12&-9). 

The bead of the mushroom body of Mieropteryx is a single 
globular mass of axonic tissue, and belongs to the Rocker 
type of Kiihnle. It appears that a similar structure was 
described by Fldgel in certain moths; but it is never easy 
to understaad his descriptions, for he was much hampers 
by the defective methods of his time. 

The head of the mushroom body (Ad.) projects conspicu- 
oosly into the ganglion cells above and behind. It is not 
so large, however, as to make a prominence in the upper 
surface of that layer. 

From the cells of the mushroom body (p. 119) the fibres 
pass into the head of the mushroom body. We must notice 
that there are no points at which a number of fibres enter 
together ; the entry is general and spread over the whole 
surface of the head. Eenyon's application of the Qolgi 
method to the brain of the bee mi^es it clear that after 
entering the substance of the head the fibres give off a 
coUateral branch which in turn divides to form twigs. 
These twigs interlace with similar twigs from the collaterals 
of other cells to form a glomerular body {Faserhdllchen). 
There must be several score of these bodies in the head of 
tie mushroom body of Mieropteryx. They are very small 
and by no means easily distinguished. After giving off 
its collateral the fibre proceeds downward as a component 
part of the stem. The fibres do not form a definite tract 
within the head, but pass through in a diffuse manner. It 
is only when they reach the underside that they unite to 
form the stem. 

From the inner and inferior aspect of the head of the 
muahioom body a band of fibres sweeps downwards and 



126 Mr. P. A. Buxton on the 

inwards paat the side of the outer capsule of the central bod^. 
This band gives off a few fibres to the outer capsule (tract n), 
and then passes into that region of the protocerebral lobes 
which lies on each side of the central body (tract r) ; thete 
the band divides and is lost to sight (PI. VIII, fig. 12, and 
PI. X). Such a tract has not been described in other 
insects. 

The stem (st.) of the mushroom body leaves the ventral 
side of the head and passes downwan^ and forwards and 
also slightly inwards ; it is a single cylindrical rod of parallel 
fibres ; and whatever may be the case in other insects it 
is not penetrated by a canal. It may also be noticed that 
it is not surrounded by a sheath. (Even if it were I should 
not follow Kiihnle in calling the sheath a neurilemma. 
A neurilemma is a syncytial layer covering a brain or 
ganglion.) 

The stem is one of the most striking features of any 
section in which it occurs; it stains more heavily than 
the surrounding protocerebral lobes, and is a most use- 
ful landmark. The stem is a cylindrical structure, and 
well-fixed material shows that the greater part of its 
shaft is surrounded by .a space which is not developed 
at its top or bottom; at these pointe the stem simply 
pierces the surrounding parts of the protocerebral lobes. 
At its lower and anterior end the stem is swollen and be- 
comes superficial, that is to say it is no longer buried in 
the protocerebral lobes, but reaches the surface in the 
interval between the dorsal lobe and the anterior part 
of the ventrolateral lobe. At this point it is covered by a 
few nuclei ; some of these are merely nuclei of neuroglia 
cells, some are nuclei of true nerve cells, which send their 
axons into the foot of the stem. This is certainly remark- 
able, but I have satisfied myself that it is the case by 
examining a large number of sections through this region. 

At the bottom of the stem we should expect the roots to 
arise, and actually we find two processes of rather uncertain 
homologies, both of which make a marked angle with the 
stem. The first runs inwards and slightly backwards, and 
is the inner root (in. r. ; innere Wunel of Kiihule). It is 
straight and cylindrical and separated from its fellow of 
the opposite side by a very distinct part of the proto- 
cerebrum, the anterior part of the middle lobe. At its 
termination the inner root \a sotiiewhat swollen. 

The second structure which leaves the anterior end of 



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Prolocerdmim of Micropteryx. 127 

the stem may be called the ascending tnmk (as. tr.). The 
homologies of this organ are obscure and will be discussed 
later. It runs upwwds for a very short distance and 
divides into two portions. 

At its point of division it is swoUen. For the moment 
let us call one of its branches the ascending and the other 
the posterior branch.* 

The ascending branch {as. br.) runs up directly to the 
surface of the brain and is there swoUen into an acom- 
ahaped head. It is covered by a thin layer of ganglion cells 
of the normal type, and these send their axons into the 
branch. This is a point of interest, for here and also at 
the foot of the stem we have a few nerve cells which appear 
to belong to the mushroom body. Similar conditions have 
been occasiooally described m other insects, notably in 
Penplanela by Haller. 

The posterior branch ('po. br.) of the ascending tnmk runs 
backwards and sHghtly upwards and inwards. Its ter- 
minal part is bifid, but the two portions do not diverge from 
one another. It is completely enclosed in the protocerebial 
lobes, and even in fixed material is not always very easy 
to see. It is about two-thirds the length of the stem. 
Before we proceed to discuss the homologies of these organs 
it is absolutely necessary to grasp their anatomy and 
relationships. 

Let us now consider the homologies of these three 
branches of the stem. The first I have already identi- 
fied as the inner root {innere Wurzel of Kiihnle). This 
identification rests on its relations to other organs. 

The ascending trunk is an organ for which I find no 
parallel in any insect brain yet investigated. This b not 
very remarkable when we remember that the brains of no 
Lepi(kmleron or Truthajpfermt have yet been fully described. 
According to a view which I now put forward the ascend- 
ing trunk is to be regarded as the united base of the 
forward root (vordere Wund) and of the backward root 
[riicklaujige Wurzd). Great obscurity exists with regard to 

* I nae the term " trunk " and " branch " rather than " root " 
in ofder not to commit myself to way view as to homologies which 
are folly discuaaed later. The terms are of a provisional nature. 
It may be objected that I am adding to the synonymy, but it ia 
almost a necessity to have some unequivocal name for an organ 
until Um homolc^ies oie fixed. The word " root " I use as a full 
equivalent of the German Wvrstl. 



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128 



Mr. P. A. Buzton on the 



the homologiea of the ascending and posterior branches of 
the ascending trunk. 

It is probably best to consider the ascending branch as 
forward root {vordere Wurzd, Kiihnle ; tuberade anUrieur, 




Tkxt nouBS 2. — Oatline dnwingB of the right mushroom body. 
A, seen from the OQt«r side (lateral view). B, &om above. C, from 
in front. (The stem and head are behind and not sbown in this 
drawing.) The line aa repKsenla the median (sagittal) pluis. 
The CWA are not shown ; the whole organ as drawn here consiita 
of azonio substance. 

at. br. ascending branch, eu. Ir. ascending trunk, hd. head of 
mushroom body. in.r. inner root, po.br. posterior branch, tt. 
stem. «u>. M swollen head of muebroom body. sut. el. swollen foot 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



Prolixerebrum c^ Micropteryx. 129 




Tkxt nauBE 3. — Outline drawing of six longitudinal vertical 
Motions (A-F), to show tbe relations of the parts of the mushroom 
body to surrounding pc. L, the last being nearest the middle line. 
Tbe six sections are not consecutive. Dorsal is to the left; anterior 
(cephnUd) towards the top of the page. Only the asonio parts are 
here shown, the cells being omittod. 

a. tie nerve fibres of troot a (p. 136) and other tracts, passing 
from protocerebrum to lower parts of brain, tu, br. ascending 
branch, (u. Ir, ascending trunk, b. tract b. br. bridge, d. i. 
donal lobe. ti. Einstrommnng (p. 120). Ad. head of mttshroom 
body. tit. ea. inner capsule of centrt^ body. tn. r. inner root of 
ffiDshroom body, oc gt ocellary glomerulus, oe, n. ocelUry nerve. 
OK. ea. outer capanle. pc I. protocerebral lobes, po. br. posterior 
brsocb- A stem. mo. nd. swollen head of mushroom body. «c st. 
swollen foot of stem. vL I. ventrolateral lohea. 

TRANS. BUT. 80C. LOND. 1917. — PABT I. (NOV, 



j^, Google 



130 Hr. P. A. Buxton on the 

Viallanes). This is suggested by its genem! direction and 
by the fact that it ends on the surface of the fibrillar part 
of the brain, under a thin portion of the ganglion cell layer. 
With this we may compare the similar " free " ending of 
the tuberciile anUrieur in Acridians (Viallanes, 1887, p. 42, 
fig. 46), and of the vordere Wurzel in Apis (Jonescu, p. 137, 
Text &g. 10a) and in Tespa {Viallanea, 1886). The author 
remarks : " La premiere se parte directement en avarU pour 
gagner la surface antirieure du renjlemerU primaire ;' c'est 
la come anUrieure" 

If, then, the ascending branch is the equivalent of the 
vordere Wurzel, we must homologise the posterior branch 
with the rucklaujige Wtirzel, or backward root, in considera- 
tion of its backward direction and deeply buried termination : 
this would probably be accepted were it not that Eiibnie 
has asserted that the tubercule anUrieur of Viallanes is the 
homologue of the vordere Wun^H and also of the rUcidauJige 
Wurzel. Against this I must enter a most emphatic prot«st. 
In the first place, there ia an inherent improbability about 
it ; we cannot willingly believe that vordere and anUrieur 
refer to an organ which is described in other insects as 
"running back" {rucMauJige). We surely need good 
evidence before we can accept such a statement? In the 
face of that improbability Klihnle was dangerously bold in 
asserting the homology. When a great many more types 
have been investigated we shall be able to bridge many of 
the gaps which at present exist in our knowledge. Till 
then we can none of us be certain of any but the most 
obvious homologies, partly because the described types 
are so few, partly because no living man has first-hand 
knowledge of more than half a dozen insect brains. 

Kiihnle was probably led into this error by the fact that 
the majority of insect brains show only two roots, some of 
them lacking the forward, others the backward root. 

If, however, EUhnle's homology be accepted, the one 
which I have suggested must fall; for clearly I cannot 
give the terms vordere and rucMaufige to two structures if, 
as Kiihnle says, they are in this case synonymous. I do 
not wish to press my own convictions unduly ; but at any 
rate they are based on considerations of relative position, 
that is to say on actual fact. 

If, then, Kuhnle is right and I am wrong, we may either 
assume that the ascending trunk and its branches (ascend- 
ing and posterior) together form the backward {rucklaufige. 



ProUx^rebrum cf Micropteryx. 131 

vordere) root, or else that the poaterior branch represents 
that oi^tiD and that the ascending branch is a new organ. 
The first of these views is supported by the fact that the 
ascending and posterior branches leave the stem by a com- 
mon origin, the ascending trunk. On the other hand, so 
far as our knowledge yet goes there is no otlier brain in 
which the backwaid root is bifurcated, which b what this 
view impUes. 

As I have said, it is also possible to regard the posterior 
branch as the rCcldaufige Wund {vordere Wnnel, tubercule 
aniirieur) and the ascending root as an organ which cannot 
be homologised with anything yet described. This is quite 
a rational view to adopt, for practically nothing is yet known 
abotlt the brain of the Lepidoptera. Personally I do not 
see any necessity for dubbing this a new organ, but if 
Kijhnle's identification of the vordere with the TiicBauJige 
WuTzel is proved correct, then we shall probably find it 
necessary to find a name for what I have provisionally called 
the ascending branch. An investigation of other types 
might yield most fruitful results. 

This very small and abstruse point must be settled defi- 
nitely before the study of insect brains has gone further. 
Unfortunately it is not possible to attack the question from 
a comparative standpoint, but it is essential that we should 
atart work with our homologies correctly and clearly defined. 
There can be no compromise between Kuhnle's view and 
my own, and the point at issue is fundamental. I consider 
thAt there is, at any rate, very Uttle reason for doubting 
my identification of the innwe Wurzel, which agrees with 
the views of previous writers. 

These conflicting views may be expressed thus : accord- 
ing to my view, ascending trunk = common origin of — 

1. Ascending branch {vordere Wurzd, etc.) 

= Forward root. 

2. Posterior branch {rOcklaujige Wurzel) 

= Backward root. 
Eiihnle, however, asserts that riichlaujige WuTzd=vordere 
WvTzel. If this is so, then either — 

(i) Ascending trunk and ascending branch and posterior 

branch tt^ther = rucklanfge Wurzel, or else — 
(ii) Ascending trunk = common origin of (a) posterior 
bnuich {riicklaufige Wurzd) and (&) ascending branch 
(not homolc^us with anything yet described). 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



:C Ifr. p. A. Buxton on tMe 

I Safirc* xbaa the dunctos by vhich tbe three roots 
su' W jvetOKvd mn these : The inner root (in. r. ; innere 
Wtrst^ S^siijf: ttAtnsle itderne, Dujaidin; Balken, 
Vijt^' nsB Wlrvxrds and inwards and terminates 
iwrwuii u» ^jiale lobe and the inner capsule of the 
.ft:~3K! K-«^. ks cod is adjacent to that of its fellow on 
^M .'onwr-f sue. It appeus that this root is found in 
WKT' ^ :3w<Rs. TW (oHmd root (as. br. ; vordere TFurzel, 
"> -JweCT. I'll liii i* K. FlQ^ ; anterior root, Eenyon ; 
•■.>^~h< gmit^mr. I>c;>aidin) runs forwards and upwards 
v-i twas ' r:w " .-c tiie saiboe ot the ptotocerebial lobes, 

- > ~ Rtate ;i>F arur^irc tcOs ax else duectly beneath the 
•wj~.«a:Ti«. TV >ttd:van] root (po, br.; rwHaufige 
I '!!»'. Sij:Li.w rc» faactrods and terminates in the 
"s-s;.',-.'- .- !•?- .-£ li* |wc o oei»tgum without ever reaching 

•w -«.-ak'», 1: Bar.r hsects either the forward or the 
^itsrcK^ T.v*- s ajtiin:.: ; tlis has W Eiihnte to believe 

. -i' .i..r :.«» - ■ -ihe :iJ» tm^ oppoitonitT of answeiing 
■-? .-wt-- " v'l.t.-'iv^ZTn-^UT be made to the hypothesis 

■ - :*» r.,tt«trviii K'^ST is hs tjpical development pos- 
■cNM^ •■•>•» 'vfls, h M weD knowB from Eenyon's work 

*■- ;^ ^ nw~h>£.iLT^fannaftlie bee, that the axons 

* ■ : .- .■ -vw :iw ^cMi }kbdc^ dicltottHnously, and that 
-. • '.-I. ;i-> > im ;*ietwv toots of the mushroom body 

■ ■ .^ --«• \.* - may be craed that this division of 
^ x. ,- »- , » :.>.-i u revtiaKy diaiacteiistic of the 

t*— • -!-.•- .ir :.-. c»,>M i:: «oenl. would find its 

■«.'4.-. , ^■.'-ss-..: .:. a i:n^j\xd body with two roots. 

.*.,-- ^ If !■- »TiT tiat ii>e»e is no diGBcidty in 

-- -ki.>^ „ -*. »<fc : : :ir» jtf t: irjies snpjdies two of the 

>^ <~% .^. ii~»-. K* fc T&'f :^ dimity lonains whether 

1 «*.-•-. . BrjL x-K-fcvc fcx=x-i>es be M»e root or two, 

'. ■ ■, - s*,-s- .1- ^!•.T «aT.-cr.T «*a hardly be disputed. 

- •i-- . .-V »-, wn fcjnw.vr iiT,.L:.ar wi:h tie division of 

■1 *■, ,r^ -.1 :jw ;iTi.;-t> .c .vJKC 2SK^: DOW if the fibres 

> ■ , ^v i.v» ( ' vv .■*! iw rr.-cppd in faich » way as to 

-■■. .-. 1 r..-.'--*i ii 1 -iwT,xc 'riy jJn-Hild not the fibres 

- -.- - V < , ■ .-,■«*.■ » •■ stToiy a}ii»8t any number of 

• ^ V-,»» ■>■ \i' ti i>tt» jOMk^ described the mnsh- 

sv' \ t ^.ns.!. '.-. «u-. ,1 a TwaJte- both of which 

.M^ >% .>^ ■< tivi ■« ifcivc K> trasp the bearing of 

~ ?«- ..-.V ;.'i. ^n«>Tu 0W(!O.-e. <f hecDoiogy. The fact 

>. -aH.ivtw '■ ;»«e Tons T^ de ■nichiooin body is 



ih, Google 



Protocerdnntm <^ Micropteryx. 133 

not, then, a new discovery, but I trust that I have been 
enabled to put the homologies of the matter on a sound 
basis. 

IV. The Central Body. 

The central body of Mieropteryx consists of two capsules ; 
the lai^ei of these, the outer {ou. ca.), is superior and 
posterior, the smaller or inner capsule {in. ca.) is inferior 
and anterior. They are respectively the dussere SchaU 
and innere Schale of EiUmle. They lie together in that 
space in the middle of the protocerebral lobes to which 
Viallanes gave the name la loge; this contains also the 
ocellaryglomeruliand the inner roots of the mushroom body 
(PI. VIII, figs. 7-10). The space is bounded on all sides by 
the protocerebral lobes, and above by the tract/, in front 
by the tract c, behind by the tract d, and below by the 
double tract e (see p. 137). 

Micropteryx is one of those insects in which the central 
body is large and the mushroom body comparatively small ; 
that is to say, it falls within one of Bretschneidet's lower 



The outer capsule is slightly wider than the inner. The 
anterior edge of each is in the same vertical plane, but the 
outer extends back a considerable distance behind the inner, 
and this posterior part of it is very thick; thus the outer 
capsule overlaps the inner above and behind and is much 
the more bulky of the two. This condition is character- 
istic of nearly all the insect biains which have yet been 
described. Turning to internal structure we find that the 
outer capsule stains rather more deeply with eosin or 
oTange G than do the protocerebral lobes. There is no 
definite division of either capsule into bodies like the rays 
of a fan, a condition which has been described in the brains 
of various insects since the time of Dietl. The anterior 
part of the inner capsule is, however, divided into a number 
■ol small rounded masses arranged in no definite manner 
and separated from one another by bands of axons, the 
great majority of which pass into the outer capsule. These 
maases resemble to some extent the glomerular bodies 
{Faaerb&icken) of the antennary lobe. The 8catt«red 
neuroglia cells which lie in the space which surrounds the 
central body are referred to elsewhere (p. 120). There is 
no group of cells which can be said to belong to the central 
body either here or in any other insect, and we believe that 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



134 Mr. P. A. Buxton on the 

the oigan is a reflex centre not connected with any one 
motor or aenaory function. 

(The ocellary glomeruli, which are sometimes conBtdered 
with the central body, are described on p. 135.) 

V. The Bridge. 

(Die Himbriicke — Kilhnle, etc. Le Pont — Viallanes. 
Fibrillar Arch— Kenyon.) 

The Bridge (br.) ia a protocerebral structure found in all 
insect brains. In Microplerux it occupies its usual position 
as a transverse band of axonic material on the superior side 
of the prot^cerebrum. It lies behind the nerve to the 
ocellus, and between the lieads of the mushroom bodies 
(PI. VIII, IX and X). 

The bridfre consists in part of Punktsubatanz ; this is 
found at either end. The middle of the bridge is much 
attenuated and appears to consist entirely of nerve fibres 
passing from one aide to the other. The oi^an, then, is 
dumb-bell shaped, the swollen ends, or " heads," being 
preaumably centres, the narrow waist a decussating tract. 
The bridge is covered by some layers of ganglion cella, 
which appear to belong to the normal type.* 

The axona of these apparently " normal " cells pass down- 
wards to several parts of the brain. Some which proceed 
from the more lateral celb pass in front of, or behind, or 
round the end of the bridge, and enter the dorsal surface 
of the protocerebral lobes in a diffuse manner. Other 
axona pass through the heads of the bridge and so on- 
wards to the lobes of the protocerebrum ; it ia probable that 
these give off a collateral while they are within the aub- 
atance of the bridge. Other cells, again, send their axons 
into the bridge it«elf, where the fibre is lost to sight. It 
is probable that some of these fibres cross the middle line. 
The whole matter requires investi£;ation by the Golgi 
method. We have, then, a number of similar cella, some of 
which appear to be associated with the bridge, some with 
the dorsal part of the protocerebrum, some, again, with both. 
From this I am inclined to aigue that the bridge is of less 
importance as a physiological entity than some authorities 
have believed; that it is rather of anatomical than of 

* In Forficula Ktihnle distinguiBbes several types of cell in this 
region, but in every respect the ganglion cells of Micropttryx appear 
to have \ery little tendency to be mSeientiated into types. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



ProtoeerAntm c^ MicropUryx. 135 

phyBiological significance. Against this view is the ad- 
mitted fact that the bridge exists as a distinct structuie in 
all insect brains which have been investigated. 

I can find no visible connection between the bridge and 
the nerves auppljring the compound ejes, though a few 
fibres of the ocellaiy nerve enter the ends of the bridge. 
This perhaps supports Kiihnle and tends to contradict the 
contention of Bretschneider and others who regard the 
bridge as a centre for the co-ordination of visual impulses. 

VI. The Visual Centres. 

A. The Ocdiary Apparalut. 
In MicTOpteryx paired ocelli are present, but the median 
ocellus is not developed here, or in anv other Lepidopteron 
or Trichopteron. A stream of fibres, the ocellary nerve 
{oc. n.), leaves the back of the spherical chitinoua capsule 
in which the ocellus is contained. At the point where the 
fibres leave the capsule there is some tendency for the nerve 
to break, as it is very much narrowed. The sensory cells 
are contained partly in the capsule of the organ, and some 
of them lie along the course of the nerve away from the 
actual ocellus, and as the nerve proceeds inwards they 
become less and leas numerous. The nerve runs straight to- 
wards the middle line in a plane slightly anterior to the bead 
of the mushroom body (PI. VIIT, fip. 10 and 11). When 
it is over the external edge of the central body it bends 
backwards, and at this point a few fibres leave it to pass 
into the protocerebral lobes. From here it passes backwards 
and inwards and continually gives ofi more and more of its 
fibres, so that though there is no point at which the ocellary 
nerve as a whole passes into the substance of the proto- 
cerebral lobes yet the whole nerve ultimately does so. A 
few fibres may also be seen to pass into the swollen head 
of the bridge. 

Two small spherical bodies with rather indefinite margins 
are found in the space beneath the outer capsule of the 
mnahroom body, posterior to the inner capsule and to 
the middle lobe (PI. VIII, fig. 10) ; these are the ocellary 
glomeruli (oc. gl.) or " tubemdea du corps cerUral" (Viai- 
lanes). In Micropleryx I have been unable to demonstrate 
the connection between these structures and the ocellar? 
nerve, owing to the diffuse way in which the fibres of the 
nerve pass thioogh the dorsal part of the protocerebnun. 



136 Mi. F. a. Buxton on the 

Fiom a consideration of what is known about similai organs 
in other insects I do not consider that much doubt exists 
as to the functional connection between these small, round, 
deeply placed lobes and the ocellus. It is hardly to be ex- 
pected that we should be able to find more than a propor- 
tion of the smaller tracts in so minute a structure as the 
brain with which we are deahng. Fibres pass from the 
ocellary glomerulus to mapy parts of the brain, including 
the paired (deuteroeerebral) 83Tnpathetic system (tract «) 
and the posterior part of the antennary lobe {tract ()■ 

B. The Optic Lobes. 
Pressure of other work has absolutely prevented my 
devoting attention to the optic lobes {o. I.), and much special 
study of the literature would be required before I could 
hope to treat of them at all adequately; this would 
delay the publication of this paper almost indefinitely, 
and I have accordingly decided to leave them entirely 
undescribed rather than to deal with them in an inadequate 



VII, The Fbotocerebbal Tracts. 

Authors have frequently attempted to enumerate the 
tracts of fibres which connect one part of the brain with 
other parts, but they can only detect and describe the larger 
bundles and can never even attempt to follow the minute 
tracts which ramify in all directions through the Fnnkt- 
substanz. Such an enumeration must always be incom- 
plete even if one part of the brain is proved to have a score 
of paths connecting it with other regions : and even if the 
Golgi method is apphed to a very large number of individ- 
uals, definitive completeness can hardly be arrived at. In 
this present paper I make no attempt to give any complete 
list : I only describe a few of the more noticeable tracts 
which are useful either as landmarks or else as definite 
boundaries to regions. 

The following tracts should perhaps be noticed, because 
they are important features of the sections in which they 
occur, (a) A nnde tract of fibres arising from cells situated 
over the dorsal part of the protocerebrum, and passmg 
vertically downwards in the middle line over the fiwnt of 
the protocerebral lobes : this tract forks below and the 
fibres then pass to the antennary lobe of each side, and 



ihyCOOl^lC 



Prolocer^fTwn of Micropteryx. 137 

poesibly also to the tritoceTebnmi and the ventral parte of 
the ceotral nervoxis system (PI. VII, figs. 2-4). 

(b) A tract of fibres which is the Riechstrang, or Riech- 
bafin, of the Gennan autboiB. The cells from which the 
tract arises appear to be ganglion cells of the " noimal " 
tvpe. and are situated dorsal to the protocerebral lobes 
and slightly behind the bead of the mushroom body : the 
fibres pass downwards and forwards and slightly inwards, 
through that part of the protocerebral lobes which surrounds 
the space contMning the central body, etc, ; from here the 
fibres are directed downwards and outwards to the anten- 
nary lobe. Through most of their course the fibres lie 
in a free space. Owing to its diffuse structure, which ren- 
ders it difficult to distinguish it when it is cut transversely, 
the lower part of this tract can only be distinguished in 
longitudinal section (text fig. 3, D and E, p. 129). 

(c) A broad anterior commissure (PI. VII, fig. 6). 
{d) A deep commissure. 

(e) A double ventral commissure (the vordere und hinlera 
Brucken der Nebatlappen utUer sick of Kuhnle; PI. 
VllI, fig. 9), These three are the most definite tracts 
which unite the two sides of the protocerebnim, though it 
should be remembered that the lobes are united over the 
greater part of their internal aspects, and that a large 
number of smaller tracts pass from one side to the other. 
These three tracts fonn the boundary of the " loge" in 
front, behind and below : the anterior and ventral ones lie 
upon the surface of the fibrillar part of the brain, the deep 
commissure passes between the two protocerebral lobes 
behind the " loge " : the ventral commissure (e) arises on 
each side from the anterior part of the ventrolateral lobe. 

(/) A small but distinct band of fibres which runs trans- 
versely across the upper surface of the " hge." This tract 
is the Faaerhofoi Kuhnle, and possibly also the commessvra 
protocerdtrale anleriore of Berlese (PI. VIII, fig. 8). 

(y) A posterior commissure uniting the two protocerebral 
lobes at their most posterior part, where thev overlap the 
tritocerebrum (PI. IX, fig. 16). 

(h and i) Tracts uniting respectively the anterior part 
of the middle lobe to the anterior part of the ventro- 
lateral lobe, and the posterior part of the middle lobe to the 
posterior part of the ventrolateral lobe of the same side. 

(j) A tract running from the posterior part of the middle 
lobe to the deuterocerebrum. 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



138 Mi. P. A. Buxton on tie 

(k) A tract mimmg up from the middle lobe into the 
deeper parts of the ptotocerebral lobea which lie lateral to 
the " loge." 

(l-g) Tracts from or to the central body. 

[l] The two capsules of the central body are united 
especially along their anterior margin bj fibres which make 
the partitions between tlie " Facher " of the inner capsule 
(Pl.VIII, fig. 8). 

(m and mm) Both capsules are united to the protocerebral 
lobes by bands of fibres which leave their anterolateral 
margins; the band from the upper capsule (m) passes 
upwards, that from the lower [mm) downwatxls to the 
ventrolateral lobes (PI. VIII, &g. 7). 

(n) The outer capsule receives fibres which leave or 
possibly enter the head of the mushroom body on its under 
side. This is really a part of tract r. 

(o) A few fibres connect the outer capsule to the bridge. 

(p) A few also pass from the ocellary nerve to the outer 
capsule. 

[a) A well-marked band connects the anteonary lobe 
with the outer capsule. This band enters that part of 
the outer capsule which lies immediately superior to the 
posterior part of the inner capsule (PI. VIII, fig. 10). 

(r) The tract which has been mentioned on p. 126 as leav- 
ing the inner and inferior aspect of the head of the mush- 
room body, and passing partly to the outer capsule of the 
central body (tract n), but mainly to the deep part of the 
protocerebral lobes lateral and posterior to the " loge " 
(PI. VIII, fig. 12 ; PI. IX, fig. 13 ; PI. X). 

(a and I) These tracts pass from the ocellary glomerulus 
to the paired deuterocerebral sympathetic system and to 
the posterior portion of the antennary lobe respectively. 

(u) This consists of a few fibres which pass down from 
the swollen ends of the bridge to the dorsal lobe imme- 
diately below and to the tumulus (Plate X). 

It is, I believe, generally true that pured organs are 
united across the middle line, but I am unable to say 
whether this is invariably the case. 

Summary. 

The protocerebrum of Micropteryx might be described 
in the following terms. The neurilemma, which covers 
the whole central nervous system in one continuous sheet. 



Prolocer^mim <^ Microfteryx. 139 

is a thin B3aiC7tium, and bsneath it are found the ganglion 
cells and the axonic parts of the nervous syetem. Over the 
protoceTebrum the layer of ganglion cells ia deep, and four 
types can be distinguished : the normal type, the mushroom 
body cells, the cells of the optic lobes, and the giant cells. 
Neuroglia cells are found in the substance of the protocere- 
bnim in amall numbers. The tracheal system of the 
brain is very sightly developed. The protocerebral lobes 
are large, and in volume greatly exceed the other parts 
of the protocerebrum t<^ether. The various parts of the 
protocerebral lobes which have been described in other 
insects are all present, though Mie^opteryx presents some 
peculiarities, for the ventrolateral lobe and the middle lobe 
are each divided into anterior and posterior portions. A 
mid-dorsal lobe b also present, and to this I have given the 
name tumulus, an organ which has not been described 
before. The mushroom bodies are of a small, simple type, 
and only one is developed on each side : the head is remark-- 
able because of the shape, which M that of a rough sphere, 
wUhout any approach to theformali<m of a cup. In section 
it is seen to contain minute glomerular masses of nerve 
fibres, which are regarded as association centres : these 
are comparable to similar structures described in the mush- 
room bodies of many insects, and also in antennary lobes 
and central bodies. The origin of the stem ia below, not 
within, the head of the mushroom body, and it runs down- 
wards and forwards in a definite space; it ie rod-like, 
and not perforated by a canal. The stem divides below 
in a complicated manner which does not lend itself to 
summarisation. I have suggested several possible homo- 
Ic^es for the parts into which the stem divides, and 
my own view is that there are three rooU to the mushroom 
body in this insect — an inner, a forward, and a backimrd — 
aiid that this is the typcal number for the insect brain : 
other views are also discussed. I have also given what I 
betieve to be the normal relations and characters of 
tbeae roots ; and I beUeve that thb part, at any rate, of 
my paper has some permanent value. The central body 
is Urirge, and consists of two capsules, as usual ; the outer 
is the larger. There is no tendency tomards the division 
oj either capsule in a fanlike manner, but the inner capsule 
contains a number of minute glomerular bodies. The tracts 
passing from or to the central body are numerous and some 
of them are large. The nerves from the ocelli run inwards 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



140 Hr. P. A. Buxton on tJie 

ociosB the froDt of the bead of the miishioom body and 
paaa giadnaUy into the sntstonce of the pTotocerebial 
lobes, and a few fibres pass into the bridge. Two smitll 
bodies are found beneath the central body, and thcee aie 
preeomed to be the ocellary glomeruli of other antboie, 
though in the brain of Microptaryx there is no actual evi- 
dence of their connection with the oceDary nerve. The 
bridge is simple and straight; its ends are rounded and 
consist of Punktsubstanz, and into these pass the axons of 
a few celk which are situated in the immediate neighbour- 
hood ; the middle of the bridge iti formed of a large number 
of fibres which pass across the middle line. (I have undei- 
lined those characters which appear to indicate that the 
brain of Micropteryx belongs to a simple type, bo far as 
morphological points are concerned.) 

It would doubtless be interesting to compare the simple 
brain of this Frotolepidopteron with that of other Lepido- 
plera or Trichoptera. This is, however, impossible, except 
to a veiy slight degree, because the only work to which we 
can refer is the classic paper which Fliigel published in 1878, 
and a few lines in Berlese'a text-book. Flogel dealt with the 
brains of a numbet of larvae and imagines of Lepidoptera, 
and his fullest description is that of the biain of the imago 
of Gossus. He devotes his attention to the mushroom body, 
which differs from that of Micropteryx in several important 
particulars. The head is developed as two cups on each 
side, placed in apposition to one another. The two stems 
which proceed downwards from these unite to form a 
single cylindrical stem which stains deeply and lies in a 
space. An inner root is given off, and this occupies tbe 
usual position of that organ ; there is also a forward root 
which runs up to the surface of the brain and there divides 
in a complicated manner which is not further described; 
no backward root is described, but it is possible that this ia 
represented by one of the branches of the forward root. 
This suggestion is an attempt to bring Cossus into line with 
Micropteryx, and it may well be correct, for we must remem- 
ber that Flogel was hampered by the deficient methods 
of bis time, and that he was the earliest insect neurologist 
in any true sense of the word, 

Berlese describes the brain of Sphinx very shortly. The 
protocerebral lobes are large, the mushroom bodies of 
moderate size; two pairs are present, which lie one in 
front of the other : their stems do not unite. A mass of 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lc 



Profocerebrum oj Mtcropteryx. 141 

very large cells (c«U»I« maeatre) are developed behind and 
above the protocerebmm, and tbe fibres from these proceed 
over the front of the protocerebmm to the ventral brain 
by way of the aeaophageal connections. 

TECHNIQUE. 
I. Fixation asid Ihfbegkation. 

My early work on Micropleryx was all done upon material 
which had been fixed and stained by very simple methods. 
I became convinced that for insect neurology the employ- 
ment of complicated technique was not only desirable 
bot necessary. Accordingly I devoted the early spring of 
1915 to a somewhat extensive senes of experiments in 
staining and fixing the brains of cockroaches (Periplaneta), 
my object being to familiarise myself with some forms of 
technique which I proposed to apply later to Micropteryx. 
I shall describe my methods for both insects together, 
though some of them are only applicable to one or other 
of the insects. 

Owing to the chitinous cuticle of insects it is necessary 
to take every care to ensure the penetration of the fixing fluid. 
Unless there is good reason to the contrary Micropteryx 
should be cut in two with a sharp knife ; only the anterior 
end will be preserved and fixed. A cockroach, on the other 
hand, should be chloroformed and held between the finger 
and thumb, with the head resting on the thumb-nail ; the 
epicranium should then be punctured with a small sharp 
Imife, and also the eyes if the individual is a lai^e one ; 
the same knife should then be used to remove all the mouth 
parts and the labrum at one transverse sweep, the thumb- 
nail forming a block on which the cutting is done. All this 
can be performed without any damage being done to the 
brain by pressure. The head is then cut off and placed in 
the fixing fluid. 

Fixatives. OsHic Acid (osmium tetroxide). — This is 
perhaps the most generally used of all fixatives, ever since 
the time of Viallanes, who described it as " le riactif le 
plus pricieutc que nous possidions pour mettre en ividence 
le trajet dea fines." It has been used in strengths of from 
i% to 1 %■ Flemming's solution baa also been much 
used, and it is probable that its results are slightly better 
than those given by osmic acid alone. Bottger recom- 
mended its employment for periods of about three weeks ; 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



142 Mr. P. A. Buxton on tie 

I cannot see that anything is gained by leaving material 
in it for so long a time, thou^ it is well known that all 
fixatives containing osmic acid penetrate slowly even 
through small pieces of tissue. Forty-eight hours is quite 
sufflcieot, according to my experience, Borrel'a fluid also 
gives good results very similar to those obtained with other 
osmic acid fluids. Micropteryx tends to float in this and 
other fixatives ; if it cannot be caused to sink with the ud 
of shaking it may be lightly painted with 90 % alcohol in 
order to reduce the surface tension. All these fixatives 
are extremely useful, though they occasionally tend to 
shrink the cytoplasm of the la^r nerve cells. The nerve 
fibres (axons) stand out from one another with great clear- 
ness, and in this way the sections ate well suit«d for study : 
they are never distorted, and there is no tendency for 
the ganglion cells to break away in masses from the under- 
l3^g fibrillar substance. Great care must be exenused 
in washing the material veiy thoroughly in water after 
fixation, or the staining will be unsatisfactory. 

FoBUALiN.— Formalin has been recommended in various 
rather high percentages (10 %, 20 %, etc.) by more than one 
worker. It is customary to leave the heads in it for some 
days. I anticipate that the use of formalin will soon be 
discontinued, for though it gives a distinctly good denoon- 
stration of the tracts of axons, there is a great tendency for 
the formation of vacuoles in the fibrillar substance. The re- 
sult of this is that the tracts are pushed to one side and 
distorted. This vacuoUaation is not invariable, but it 
constitutes a grave defect in the method, which is one that 
I found unreliable. 

Picro-Chlor- Acetic Mixtobb. — I do not know to 
whom we are indebted for this very useful fixative; but 
it appears that it has not previously been used by insect 
neurologists. My own experience ia that it is the best 
general fixative I have ever employed, and I trust that the 
workers of the future will be as satisfied with it as I am 
myself. It possesses very great powers of penetration, 
and can be relied on to fix small insects completely without 
decapitation or any other precautions. Inaect histologiats 
will find that it is an exceedingly fine preservative of the 
details of cell-structure; as far as the brain is concerned 
this fluid demonstrat«d the tracts of axons with particular 
clearness, and in this respect it does not fall far short of 
osmic acid. The nerve cells are also well preserved, and 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



ProtocerArutn of Microptenfx. 143 

all the different types can easily be distinguished, though 
for a special study of the cells it is certainly best to have 
some material fized for that purpose in Bouin's fluid. 

Bouin's Fluid.— This fixative is only of use for a study 
of the nerve celb, and for this purpose it ie unrivalled. It 
fixes material in such a way that the tracts of fibres cannot 
be distinguished at all, but that is immaterial provided it is 
realised that the fluid is essentially a special fixative. 

AcBTic SuBUHATE SOLUTION.— This is Simply a satu- 
rated solution of mercuric chloride in dilute alcohol to which 
a small percentage of acetic acid has been added. It has 
been used by other authors but there is nothing to 
recommend it ; the tracts or bundles of axons are shown in 
much the same way as they are in material fixed in the 
picn>-chlor-acetic mixture, the cells are shrunken and the 
di£Ferent types cannot be distinguished, and the fluid has 
poor power of penetration. 

PEEEann's Fluid. — This is a fixative with very small 
power of penetration, even when used hot. Even if penetra- 
tion is secured the tracts of axons cannot be distinguished 
from one another, and the cells ate swollen and matted 
together. 

Gilson's Fluid. — The penetrating power of this fluid 
is so great that insects may be fixed in it whole. It is an 
exceUeat fixative of ganglion cells, and shows the differences 
between the types very clearly : tor this purpose it is 
valuable but it fails entirely to define the axons. 

BiCHBOMATE. — Potassium bichromate, apart from its 
use in the Golgi method, is quite useless as a flxative of 
insect nerve tissue, first because details of structure and 
the course of axons are not well preserved, secondly because 
material so fixed stains most intensely and generally with 
the aniline dyes, thirdly because these stains can scarcely 
be washed out or difTerentiat«d, and fourthly because of the 
great brittleness of sections which have been exposed to 
the action of these fluids. 

The Golgi Meh^od. — This method has been appUed 
by Kenyon to the brain of the bee, and with it be has ob- 
tained some very renuirkable results; his original paper 
(Kenyon, 1896, I) should be consulted for a full account 
of bis procedure. It is almost impossible to apply it to 
insects which are not available for the greater part of the 
year because it is extremely precarious, and even Kenyon 
himself only obtained good results with an occasional 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



144 Hr. F. A. BuxtoD on the 

qKcimen. I Iiare been unable to use it with any success 
upon Micropteryx. 

Mbtaluc bfPBEQSATioN.— The object of this method 
is to impregnate nerve cells and fibres with actnal metallic 
ulver and gold. The silver salt which is invariably used 
is the nitrate, and as it gives ezceUent results I have tried 
no other salts. The beads are dropped into a solution of 
this salt and kept in the dark for a period. I have devoted 
some time to discovering the best strength of silver solution 
and the period during which the heads shoold be exposed 
to its action. I find that the best reanlta are obtained 
by dropping them into 1 % silver nitrate in water, and leav- 
ing them in the dark for ten days. The ralver is very slow 
in penetrating the head, and if a 6 % solution is used there 
is great danger that the periphery will be blackened before 
the central portions are aSected at all. I believe that 
penetration can be accelerated by keeping the whole at 
aO'-SS" C. It is probable that the period during which the 
head lies in AgNOg is immaterial provided that the fixation 
proceeds in the dark and that sufficient time is allowed for 
the full and equal penetration of the silver. It was not 
found advisable to assist the silver to penetrate more quickly 
by employing an alcoholic solution of the salt. I have, for 
instance, experimented with a 1 % solution in 30 % alcohol, 
following this by the various processes which I describe 
below. The impregnation of the various fibres was not 
obtained at all, though the various parts of the bnun were 
coloured to diSerent degrees. In fact, the alcoholic solu- 
tion of silver gave quite a pretty differential stain of no 
particular value, but failed utterly to produce the sweeping 
black lines which are what is desired. 

The head, then, is fixed for ten days in I % silver nitrate 
in darkness. It is then washed. A few workeis transfer 
it to pyrogallic acid for a day, in order to reduce the silver 
and leave it in the tissues in a finely divided state. I am 
quite convinced that this is unwise. The reduction may be 
done much more evenly by a method which I shall now de- 
scribe. The heads are embedded, unreduced, in paraffin, 
fixed to the slide in the usual manner, and treated with 
xj'lol and descending grades of alcohol. At this stage the 
sections are sienna-brown in colour. From "a low grade of 
alcohol the sections are moved to distilled water. (I need 
hardly say that if the beads or sections are brought into tap 
water a fine deposit of chloride will be precipitated which 



Prolocer^rum oj Micropttryx. 145 

will completely ruin the preparations.) The slides are now 
placed in 1-2 % AgNOj and exposed to bright sunlight or 
an electric lamp for about ten minutes. After this they 
are washed for two minutes in distilled water and placed in 
1 % gold chloride for two minutes in a bright light. They 
are then again washed and placed in an aqueous solution of 
pyrogalUc acid until the reduction is complete, deposits of 
metal being left in the fibres. The sections are now brought 
up through the usual grades of alcohol, stained for a very 
few seconds in orange G, and mounted. These prepara- 
tions do not degenerate under the cover-slip in the same 
manner as Golgi preparations. 

This impregnation is only a modification of one intro- 
duced by Ramon y Cajal; a similar method has been 
employed by Jonescu. 

li it is successful it gives sweeping black lines of axons 
running through the brain in the most diagrammatic 
manner. It is unfortunately almost inapplicable to sb 
small an insect as Mu^opteryx, owing to the fact that the 
aqueous silver solution hardly penetrates the insect's 
minute neck even after decapitation. I am quite confident 
that this method will be found most useful in the study of 
the brains of insects which are large enough to admit of 
the brain being laid partly bare to the fixing fluid. 

II. Section Cutting. 
All material should be stored in 90% alcohol, rather than 
in a lower percent^e. Excellent material may be com- 
pletely ruined if the spirit in which it is kept has ever been 
in contact with cork, the tannin of which interferes with 
the action of mrist stains : glass-stoppered vessels must 
accordingly be used. 

Section Cutting, — It is well known that the cutting of 
sections through heavily chitinous insects presents great 
difficulties. Much may be done to overeome this, but be- 
fore discussing methods of softening chitin I should like 
to state my firm conviction that the one factor of prime 
importance is the microtome knife. In the absence of a 
really sharp knife no softening reagents and no care exer- 
cised during the euibedding are of the slightest value. The 
best softening reagent, so far as my limited knowledge goes, 
is spirit soap (German Pharmacopoeia), the use of which was 
first advocated by Kurt Bedau. The insects are placed in 

TRAHS. BNT. SOC. LOND. 1917.— PART I. (NOV.) L 



ih, Google 



146 Mr. P. A. BnztoD on the 

this for some days, well washed in 70 % and 90 % alcohol, 
and then embedded. The chitin is certainly softened by 
this solution, but will regain some of its hardness if it is 
simply embedded in hot paraffin. It appears that heat, 
absolutfi alcohol, and xylol, all ezeicise a marked harden- 
ing effect on chitin. It is beat, then, that the head or 
insect should be dehydrated as much as possible in 90% 
alcohol, left a short time in absolute alcohol, and.cleared in 
chloroform. I then place it for some days in a chloroform 
solution of paraffin, and finally drop it into the hot parafBn 
of the ordmary embedding bath. Here it remains only 
long enough for it to attain the temperature of the bath, 
and is then removed in the crucible or other vessel in which 
the paraffin is contained, and placed under a vacuum pump ; 
the pump nill quickly remove the chloroform, most of 
which has by now become diffused into the paraf&n. The 
mass may then be turned out into a mould and cooled. 
Terpineol has also been used as a softening reagent and 
it appears quite satisfactory, though I have not much 
experience of it. 

Celloidin, — I have used this to some extent, though 
I no longer do so, because I find it unnecessary if spirit 
soap is used as described above. It cannot be relied upon 
to penetrate a whole insect unless thin celloidin be employed 
for many days. 

Both with and without celloidin I have been able to 
obtain serial sections of the head of Micropteryx of con- 
siderable thinness. I have several series of 35 n, which is 
not by any means too thin, because of the smallness and 
complex structure of the brain. 

Practical experience teaches me that it is never safe to 
move either complete brains or sections from absolute 
alcohol to x}'lol or vice versa, but that an intermediate 
mixture of the fluids should always be employed. Unless 
this is done the ganglion cells will frequently break away 
from the axonic part of the brain. 

III. Staining. 
For general study sections should be stAined with Deia- 
field's HjEMatoxylin, and orange G (eosin may also 
be used, but I think that the orange G gives better result*). 
Such sections are excellent for preliminary work, and I 
always use this stain as a standard test for a fixative which 
is new to me. 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



Prolocerebntm oj Micropteryx. 147 

Another valuable stain is FiCBO-HiGBOsra. This bringa 
into special prominence the tracts of fibres which run 
throu^ the brain. Counter-staining should be avoided, 
and also over-stainiiig, because picio-nigrosin washes oot 
only with difficulty in add alcohol. The beet results are 
obtained with matenal &ssA in osmic acid or Flemming'a 
solution. 

Other hmnatoxylin methods have little to leconunend 
them. The Weigert-Pal method cannot be used because 
it is specific for myelin sheaths, which are never found on 
the nerve fibres of insects. 

5% IlSMATOXYLIN CONTAININO LITEIUH CABBONATB 

is a stain for nerve fibres, but picro-nigroein gives similar 
though more distinct results. Staining with Malloby's 
afUATOZYLm is very strongly recommended by Kenyon 
and by Altens. The process is complicated. At firat 
sight the stain appears much too general to be of use. 
Every tissue is stained a heavy dark blue, and differentia- 
tion in acid alcohol is useless. I have discovered that the 
sections may be quickly differentiated in a solution of 
sodium bicarbonate in distilled water. The stain becomes 
bright sky blue and most of the tissues are partly decolor- 
ised. The nerve fibres retain the stain. This complicated 
method produces results which are not really superior to 
those produced by staining with picro-nigrosin. The blue 
colour appeals to be permanent. The cytoplasm of the 

fiant cells retains even more of the stain than do the nerve 
bres. The ordinary small ganglion cells are very u:uch 
decolorised in the alkali. 

Mallobt's AmuN Blub. — This has been used by 
Bretachneider in his work on the brain of Periplanela. The 
method is one of great complexity, especially with the addi- 
tion of the modifications which he Introduces. The results 
are extremely beautiful, but most workers will probably 
consider them hardly worth the trouble and time expended 
on them. 

Maxn's Stain.— I am much indebted to Dr. D. Keilin 
for insisting on my giving a trial to this stain, which 
will be found of great value. I find it best to stain first, 
Kghtly, with Delafield, but this is not necessary or desir- 
able except for nerve cells; the stain is \^'idely known 
to insect histologists, and is strongly recommended to 
neurologists. It is seen at its best when applied to 
noateiial fixed in the fluids of Bouin, or Gilson, or in the 

iM-,i,A J h, Google 



148 Mr. P. A. Buxton on the 

picro-chlor-acetic mixture ; it should not be used upon 
OBRiic acid preparationa, 

I have tned several stains which have proved more or 
less useless, and I mention them below in order to save 
others from wasting time upon them. 

Methylene Blue and Methyl VroLET. — It appears 
that the cells have little affinity for these stains. This is 
remarkable when it is remembered to how lai^e an extent 
methylene blue has been used as a vital stain for the 
nervous systems of the Arthropoda. 

Van Gieson's Stain, — This stain is useless because it 
colours all the soft parts of the section a uniform jank 
colour, without any of the differentiation which it gives 
with sections of the tissues of Vertebrates. 

Varioua preparations of carmine were tried, because of 
its historic interest as the only stain used by the workers 
of thirty or forty years ago. It appears to have singularly 
little affinity for any part of the brain of Micropteiyx. 

The stains on which I ^ace most reliance are Delafield's 
hcemaloxylin wUh orange as cownter-stain for preliminary 
study, 'picTo-nigrodn and the reduced silver and gold method 
for the study of the course of nerve fibres, and Mann's stain for 
the nerve cms. 

IV. Note. — Some of the fixatives and stains to which I 
have had reason to refer are not very well known, and it 
will perhaps he helpful if I give their compositions. The 
picro-cklor-acetic mixture is 1 % picric acid in absolute 
alcohol, 6 parts; chloroform 1 part; formalin (40%) 
1 part ; glacial acetic acid J part. Fix twenty-four hours, 
then three days in 90 % alcohol. Borrd's fluid consists of 
osmic acid (08 04) 1 gm.; acetic acid 10 c.c; platinum 
chloride 1 gm. ; chromic acid TS gm. ; and distilled water 
175 c.c. 

The syiril soap which is recommended as a reagent 
for softening chitin is one of the official preparations of 
the German Fharmacopceia : 6 gms. of olive oil are 
saponified with 7 gnm. of a solution of potassium hydroxide ; 
to this is added alcohol 30 gms., water 17c.c. (Kurt Bedau, 
Zeitachr. f. wisa. Zoologie, Vol. 97, p. 418, 1910-11). 

Of the stains the following should perhaps be described. 
The piCTO-nigrosin I used was made up as follows : I vol, 
1 % aqueous solution of nigrosin ; 9 vols, saturated aqueous 
solution of picric acid. The fact that the various authors 



Prolooerebrum of Microfteryx. 149 

who have tried this stain give conflicting accounts of its 
value is due to the fact that there is no standard composi- 
tion for it. MaUory'a htBtnatoxylin. — ^The stain consists 
of htematozylin crystals 1 gm.; chloral hydrate 10 gms.; 
10% solution of phosphomolybdic acid in water 1 cc; 
distilled water 100 c.c. The sections are mordanted in 
5 % copper sulphate solution for twenty-four hours, washed 
in tap water, placed for i or J hour in the stain diluted 
with four times its volume of distilled water, rinsed and 
carefully decolorised in a solution of sodium bicarbonate 
in distilled water. Bretschneider's application of MaUory's 
anilin lAue, with some slight modifications of my own, is aa 
follows ; Delafield's hffimatoxyl 1 hour, or until the nuclei 
are faintly stained ; wash ; eosin twenty minutes ; wash in 
water; 1 % phosphomolybdic acid two minutes. Mallory'a 
stain one minute ; wash, dehydrate and mount. The com- 
position of the Mallory's stain is anilin blue (water-soluble) 
I gm., orange Q (water-soluble) 2 gms., oxalic acid 2 gnis., 
distilled water 100 cc. Mann's stain ; 1 % aqueous sol. 
methyl blue 35 cc, 1 % aqueous eosin 35 cc, water 100 c.c. 
Stain ten minutes or longer, for it is impossible to oveistain, 
tuid then wash in alcohol containing 1 % of pyridin, watch- 
ing the process of decolorisation under the microscope; 
with practice the right degree of decolorisation can easily 
be obtained. 

BlBUOaRAPHY. 
A very complete bibliography is given by Eiihnle. It 
is only necessary for me to give a list of the authors and 
papers to which I have referred. 

A. Works dealing with the Segmentation of the Arthro- 
pod Head, etc 

Brauer, a. (1) 1894. Beitrage zur Kentniss der En- 

twicklungsgeschicbte des Skorpions. Part 

I. Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., Bd. LVII. 

(2)1895. Ditto. Partll. Op.cit.,Bd.LVlX. 

Heymons, R. (1) 1895. Die Embryonalentwicklung von 

Dermapteren und Orthopteren. Jena 

(Fischer). 

(2) 1897. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Un- 
tersuchungen an I^episma sacchanna. 
Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., Bd. LXII. 

(3) 1901. Entw. gesch. der Scolopender. 
Zoologica (Chun.), XIll. 



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160 Mi. F. a. BuztOQ on the 

KoRSCHBLT and Hbidbe. 1899. Textbook of Embry- 
ology of Invert«bnite3, Vol. III. 

B. Works dealing with the Central Nervous System of 
Insects. 
Altem, Hans von, 1910. Zur Pkylogenie des Hymeno- 

pteiengehinis. Jen. Zdtecbi. f, Katurwiss., 6d. 

XLVI, pp. 511-590. 
Bbrlbsb, a. (1) 1907. GU Insetti, Vol. I, pp. 569-588. 
(2) MonogT. dei Myiientomata. Bedia, Vol. 
VI, p. 134. 
Bbetschnetder. 1914. Jen. Zeitschr. f. Naturwiss., 

Bd.LI. 
BouviBR, M. E. L. Henri Viallanes, sa vie et ses tiavaux. 

Ami. de Sci. Nat. Zool., S4r. VII, Tome XV (1893). 

(CoDtains a complet« bibliography of the papers of 

Viallanes, twenty-three of which deal with the nervous 

system of the Arthropoda.) 
DiETL, M. J. 1876. Die Oiganisation des Arthropoden- 

gehirns. Zeitschr. f. wise. Zool., Bd.. XXVII, p. 489. 
Fl6oel, J. H. h. 1878. Ueber den einheitlichen Bau 

des Gehims iu den verschiedenen InsectenoidDungen, 

Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., Suppl.-Bd. XXX. 
Haller, B. 1905. Uebei den allgemeinen Banplan des 

Tracheaten Syncerebrums. Aich. f. microscop. Anat. 

und Entwick., Bd. LXV, p. 181. 
HoLSTB. 1910. Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zoologie, Bd. XCVI, 

p. 420. 
J0NE8CU, C. N. 1909. Vergleichende Uatersuchungen 

iiber das Gehim der Honigbiene. Jen. Zeitechr. f. 

Naturwiss., Bd. XLV, p. 111. 
Kenyon, C. F. (1) 1896. The Brain of the Bee. Joura. 
ofComp. Neuiol., Vol. VI. 
(2) 1896. The Meaning and Stnicturo of 
the so-called " Mushroom Bodies " of 
the Hexapod brain. Amer. Nat., Vol. 
XXX. 
KOhnlb, K. F. 1913. Daa Gehim des gemeinen Ohr- 

wurm's (Forfic, etc.). Jen, Zeitschr. f. Naturwiss., 

Bd. L, pp. 147-276. 
LowMB. 1893. The Blow-fly, Vol. II, p. 432. 
Newton, E. F. 1879. On the Brain of the Cockroach. 

Q JJI.S., Vol. XIX. 
Packard, A. S. 1903. A Textbook of Entomology. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



Protooerebrum of Micropleryx, 151 

VuLLANES. (1) 1886. Le Cerveau de la Gu€pe. Ann. 
de Sci. Nat. Zool., Sdr. VII, Tome II. 
(2) 1887. Etudes hiatologiques et o^^o- 
logiqu^ BUT les centres nerveux. V°". 
M4moire. Le Cervean du Criquet (Oedi- 
poda and Caloptenus). Ann. de Sci. Nat. 
Zool., 86t. VII, Tome IV. 
ZiEGLER, H. E. 1912. Die Getiinie der Insectea. Naturw. 
Wochenschr., Bd. XI. 

Abbbbviations Used. 

In eveiy case the same abbreviations are used in the 
Plates as m the text figures. 

The letters a, b, c, a, etc., refer in all cases to tracts. 

a. b, c, d, etc. (p. 136). 

as. br. = ascflodjQg branch {= forward root) oi mushroom 
body. 

a^. ^ axonic substance ^ fibrillar substance. 

ag. It. ^ ascending trunk of mushroom body. 

hr. = bridge. 

br. hd. = head of bridge. 

d. I. ^ dorsal lobe of protocerebnun. 

dm. = deuterocerebrum (= antennary lobe). 

d. ty. s=s deuterocerebral or paired sympathetic system. 

ei. = Einstrdmmung (see p. 120). 

g. c. = ganglion cells of the " normal " type. 

gi. c. = giant cells. 

hd. = head of mushroom body. 

in. ca. =. inner capsule of central body. 

in. r. ^ inner root of mushroom body. 

1. 1. = hiteral protocerebral lobes. 

lo. = " la loge " of Viallanes. 

mb. = mushroom body. 

mb. c. = cells of musturoom body. 

mi. I. = middle lobe. 

mi. I. a. and mi. I. p. = anterior and posterior portions of 

middle lobe. 
mm. = tract mm. (p. 138). 
mo. n. = motor antennary nerve. 
ng. = nuclei of neuroglia cells. 
nl. ^ neurilemma. 
nn. ^ nnclei of the neurilenmia. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



152 Exj^naium of Plates. 

o. c. = cells of optic lobes. 

oc.gl.= ocellarj' glomerulus. 

oc. n. ^ ocellary nerve, 

0. 1. = optic lobes. 

ou. ca. = outer capsule ol central body, 

pc. I. = protocerebral lobes. 

po. br. = posterior branch (= backward root) of musb- 

room body. 
«. n. = sensory antennary nerve, 
5(. = stem of mushroom body. 
sw. hd. = swollen head of ascending branch. 
sw. St. = swollen foot of stem. 
Im. = tritocerebnmi. 
tr. = tracheal tubes. 
tu. s= tumulus. 

vl. I. ^ ventrolateral lobe of protocerebrum. 
vl. I. a. and vl. I. p. = ita anterior and posterior portions. 



Explanation of Plates, 



PUt«s Vll to IX (figures 1 to 16) Tepresent a series of Tertical 
transverse Bections through the protocerebrum of Mieroplerj/x, 
pftrtially diagrammaitic. Each figure represents a, BUcoeaHiTe sec- 
tion 3'5 li thick, except that single sections are omitted betweem 
figures 6 and 7, 9 and 10, 14 and 16, and 15 and 16. 

The neurilemma is shown as a black line, the cells of the mush- 
room body {mb. c. ) and those of the optic lobes (o. c ) hy black masses, 
and the normal ganglion cells {g.c.) by dork grey, except where one 
or two occur alone, in which case they are represented as indi- 
vidual black dots (e. g. fig. 6). Giant cells {gi. e.) are always drawn 
individually. Axonic substance is shown pale grey, except lbs 
Stem of the mushioom body, which stains heavily and is coloured 
dark, and certain other parts of the protocerebrum which aie 
shown in medium grey because they stain slightly moio intensely 
than other parts. Bands of fibres are shown as dark lines when 
they are striking features of any section. 

The upper part of each figure is dorsal, the lower ventraL 

Plate X (fig. 17).— This plat« is from a thin section, hence the 
amount of free space among the ganglion t^Us. The drawing ro- 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



Trans. Ent. Soc. Land., igi^, Plale VII. 



5 to 

BUXTON: PROTOCEREBRUH OF MICROPTERYX. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Trans. Enl. Soc. Lond., igij, Plate X. 



BUXTON : PROTOCEREBRUM OF MICROPTERYX. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Explanation of Plata, 153 

presents the npper put of the protc>cerebniin (i/. fig. 12), and ahovfl 
maahrooni body cells and nonnal ganglion cells lying in a loose 
mBBB beneath the nenrilenuna (nJ.), which here contains tracheae 
and chaiaoteristic elongate nncleL The minute glomenilar bodice 
on the head of the mnshioom bodj are indicated, and also the large 
tract r, typical of Faaemibetanz, and the donal lobe, on example 
of Fonktaabetanz. Note the maaa of imgolar neuroglial nuclei 
bcmeath one head of the bridge. 

The plates are in every case drawn with the aid of a drawing 
eyeiHece. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



( 154 ) 



VI. Some Notes on Butterfly Migrations in Brititk Ouiana. 
By C. B. WiLUAMS, M.A., F.E.S. 

With Sketch Map. 

[Read IhTCh IQi. 1017.] 

The whole problem of the migration of insects, and of 
butterflies in particular, is one of great interest, and, at the 
same time, one about which we have so little data that it 
is almost impossible at present to make any generalisations. 
With the exception of records of such well-known migratory 
insects as the locusts, most of the published accounts are 
fragmentary, inaccessible or iBolated records for a coimtry 
by passing visitors. From the records relating to butter- 
flies almost the only common fact which emeigee is that 
migrations are particularly abundant in the Pieridae, 
records in this group being known from all parts of the 
world. 

I have recently spent a few months in British Guiana, 
and have been fortunate enough to observe two migrations 
of the yellow Pierid, Callidryaa eubtde, one of which lasted 
for at least t«n days. I also questioned a number of 
residents of the district about migrations, which when 
large are noticeable even by the non-entomological public, 
and find that they are a phenomenon of regular occurrence, 
and that almost every one who has resided there for any 
length of time has seen the clouds " of yellow butterflies 
all flying steadily in one direction." Most of the accounts 
were too vague to be of any value, especially with regard 
to details ; but from among them I was able to get some in 
which the locality and the direction of flight was given 
with sufficient appearance of accuracy to make it seem 
worth recording. In addition to these I have given ex- 
tracts from a few published accounts of migrations in 
Britbh Guiana, chiefly from local pubhcations which are 
not readily accessible to the entomologist. 

The climatic conditions near the coast of British Guiana, 
to which district most of the records refer, consist of two 
wet and two dr>' seasons each year. In general, FebruaT>' 

TSANS. EMT. SOO. LOND. 1917. — PABT I. (NOV.) 



ii^,Cooi^lc 



Me. C. B. WUiiains' NoUa m BtMerfiy Migrations 155 

to April ia more or less dry ; May to the middle of August 
wet; the end of August to October the driest aeasou; 
and November to Febrnaiy again wet. Furtbei in the 
interior the second diy season is lost, and there is only 
one wet and one dry season each yeai. 

There are given below particulars of sixteen different 
migrations (really more, as some of the records refer to a 
number of similar migrations seen in the same locality in 
different years). All except one of these reler to CaUidryas 
eubide. Two are from my own observations, nine are 
collected from residents and are, I beheve, quite reliable, 
while five have been previously recorded. The exact 
locality and direction of all, except one, will be fo\md 
indicated on the accompanying map. 

1. This migration I saw in the North-west District of 
British Guiana within a short distance of the Venezuelan 
border. Most of the observations were made on the River 
Amka, between the junction with the Barima, of which it 
is a tributary, and lasororo about six miles further up the 
Aruka. The junction of the two rivers is about twelve 
miles in a direct line to the coast, and about nine miles from 
Venezuela. The district is chiefly a vast forest swamp, 
below the high-tide sea level, with here and there a smtdl 
rounded or &t-topped hill, one or two hundred feet high. 

The migration consisted almost entirely of the yellow 
Rerid CcSUdryaa ei^jule, interspersed with a very small 
proportion of at least three other species which I was 
unable to catch ; one of them, a large, dark, Fapilio-Iike 
insect, may possibly have been Cydimon [Urania] Idlus, 
a day'fl3ring moth which is not uncommon in the district, 
and which nas been recorded as having migrations of its 

OWTl, 

I first became aware of the migration on August 1st, 
1916, although three days before specimens had been 
noticed in the district. It was then two and a half months 
after the beginning of the first wet season. The migration 
was only at times really conspicuous and never attained 
a density which could without exaggeration be recorded 
as a " thick cloud." On many days only careful observa- 
tion indicated that anything unusual was occurring. In 
order to get a comparative idea of the density of the 
migration a distance of about two hundred yards was 
estimated from the observer in a line across the direction 
ot flight (in close spaces this sometimes bad to be reduced 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



156 



Mr. C. B. \^Uliamfi' Notes on 



to one hundred yards or leas), and the number of butterflies 
crossing this line per minute was counted. 

It will be best to give the actual observations taken 
at the time. 



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1st Auffu^. — The yellow butterfly, CaUidry<a eiAuIe, waa 
migrating in large numbers to-day. They were flying in 
an easterly to south-easterly direction almost across what 
is, for this district, a rather strong wind. They were first 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



Butlerfiy Mirations in British Outana. 157 

noticed crossiDg the Rivei Amka about half a mile from 
Issororo. At 1.10 p.m. I counted in a httle over five 
nuDUtes sixty-two CaUidryas, one orange butterfly of about 
the same size, one smaller yellow species, and two dark 
Paptlio-hke insects crossing a space estimated at two hundred 
yards (moving as our boat moved). They became rapidly 
more common, and from 1.30-1.35 I counted three hundred 
and fifty crossing the same estimated distance. They were 
then for some distance a bttle less common, but at the 
junction of the Aruka and the Barima, where we arrived at 
about 2.15, at least a hundred and fifty per minute were 
passing. Below this the flight thinned out, and at Mora- 
whanna, four miles below the junction, scarcely any were 
to be seen. The course of the rivers is far from straight, 
but the flight must have been at least five miles across. 
About one in a hundred of the butterflies was a bright orange 
species, and a smaller proportion of the dark FapUio-like 
species ; this latter may, however, have been more common, 
as it was difficult to see at a distance. 

Catching butterflies while standing up in a small boat 
is neither easy nor safe, but I managed to net two specimens, 
one male and one female. 

Ind August. — We left Morawhanna at 11.30 a.m., and 
were in the migration practically the whole way back to 
Issororo, where we arrived at 2.30 p.m. The butterflies 
were occasional near Morawhanna, almost as common as 
yesterday at the junction of the Aruka and Barima, and 
frequent all the way up until near the end, when a very 
heavy shower sent both ua and them into shelter. Even in 
the thinner parts ten to twenty per minute were crossing 
every two hundred yards. To-day I caught five specimens, 
four males and one female. 

3rd August. — At ten o'clock this morning the yellow 
butterflies were flying at the rate of two or three per minute 
past the bouse (in a clearing about one hundred yards wide 
and about half-way up a bill about two hundred feet high). 
At 10.15 none were to be seen ; at eleven o'clock they were 
again noticed for about five minutes; at 12.30 they were 
still passing over three or tour per minute, and again at 
two o'clock they were seen occasionally in intervals between 
showers. At 3 p.m. a few more were noticed. I caught 
to-day one more specimen, a female. 

4th August. — At 9.30 a.m. six or seven CaUidryas were 
seen passii^ south-east over the house; about 11 a.m. they 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



158 Mr. C. B. Willi&ms' Note* m 

were noticed whenever the snn was shining; between 
11.35 and 11.40 thirty-foor passed over on a hundred yards 
line. At 1 p.m. two or three per minute were Bying rapidly 
at the foot of the bill, all going south-east. At 2 p.m. they 
were still passing, bnt none were seen after three o'clock. 
One caoght to-day was a male. 

5lh Augtat. — Very wet, r38 inchee of run ; no butterflies 
seen. 

6th August. — They were first noticed to-day at 11 ajn.; 
from 11.30-11.35 sixty-three passed over the garden, 'i. e. 
thirteen per minute on a hundred yards line. 

llh August. — Iha butterflies are still migrating. At 
9.30 a.m. six or seven per minute were passing the house; 
at 10.15 a.m. eight a minute were paasmg on a hundred 
yards of garden ; and agun at mid-day and at one o'clock 
they were still flying. One specimen captured to-day was 
a male. 

&A August, — At 11.15 a.m. they were again noticed 
migrating. The sun seems to make a great diflereace to 
the flight. I started counting at 11.16 a.m., and in the 
first minute eight passed ; then the sun went in, and in the 
neit four minutes only three were seen ; in the first two 
minutes of sunshine after this fifteen passed. Do they 
follow the patches of sunlight, or settle when a shadow 
comes ^ The former does not seem possible, as they have 
always been flying across the direction of the nind. At 
1.15 occasional specimens were seen crossing the river, 
but they were far apart ; at a casual ghince it might not 
be noticed, but every ten seconds or so one would come 
into view going full speed south-east. 

9{A August. — The butterflies were still in migration, 
but only occasionally in intervals between heavy showers. 

10(i August. — The butterflies were plentiful to-day, 
crossing the river at Issororo at least twenty to thirty per 
minute on two hundred yards line. Half a mile between 
Issororo they thinned out and remained at three or four 
per minute right down to the river junction ; below this 
to Moiawhanna only very few were seen. I made an 
attempt to-day to estimate the speed at which they were 
flying; previously I had found it impossible to overtake 
them even when on a clear footpath, arid bad considered 
their speed as at the very least nine miles per hour. The 
river now gave a good opportunity of testing this, as they 
were passing directly across it and could be timed from 



BuUtrfiy MigraHona in British Quiana. 159 

one aide to the other with ease. The river waa at least 
a hundred and fifty, and poasibly two hundred yards vide. 
Tbiee butterflies were timed and took twenty, twenty-four 
and twenty-six seconds to cross. Taking twenty-four 
seconds as an average and a hundred and fifty yards as the 
distance, this gives twelve miles per hour (if the river were 
two hundred yards wide it would oe sixteen miles per hour). 
This ia, I think, a not unreasonable estimate. 

In flying the insects kept close to the surface over which 
they were passing ; over the forest they seemed never to 
be more than a few feet above the tops of the trees, and in 
any but the smallest clearing they descended rapidly to the 
ground and flew between small bushes and trees about four 
to eight feet up. On crossing the river they kept still 
lower, being seldoni more than three feet above the water 
and occasionally almost touching it. 

Any attempt to estimate the number of butterflies in a 
flight of this kind must of necessity he only an approxima- 
tion. Taking ten butterflies per minute per two hundred 
yards as an average, this gives 5,400 per hour per mile, 
or 135,000 for a day of five hours on a front of five miles. 
At the rate noted at the junction of the Aruka and Barima 
on the Ist August {150 per minute) 84,000 would pass in a 
single hour on a front of one mile. 

On the 10th August I left the district, and was later 
informed by Mr. A. A. Abraham, Manager of the Govern- 
ment Experimental station at Issororo, that the butterflies 
disappeared shortly after my departure. 

The chief points of the above migration may be summar- 
ised as follows : (1) The migration lasted at least ten days ; 
(2) both males and females were represented, the former 
predominating (my total captures were seven males and 
three females). (3) They Hew constantly in a south- 
easterly direction at a speed of about twelve miles per 
hour across the prevailing north-east trade wind. 

2, In the middle of October 1916 Mr. Abraham wrote 
to me from Issororo to say, " Since my last note to you [end 
of September] I have observed that the butterflies are 
returning at the same rate and numbers to the bank of the 
river from which they migrated." This is a particulariy 
interesting record, as it confirms several other records of 
migration in opposite directions in the same locality about 
wliich I had been doubtful. 

3. In September 1916 I observed a very diffuse niigra- 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



160 Mr. C. B. Williams' Notes on 

tion at Bartica at the junction of the Esaequebo, Cuyum 
and Mazanmi Kivers, and from there down towards the 
mouth of the Essequebo. On the 11th September 1 
noticed that all the CaUidryas passing over the garden of 
the house where I was staying (at H. M. Penal Settlement 
on the opposite bank of the Jlazanmi to Bartica) were 
flying in the same direction, towards the N.N.W., at full 
speed. They were not common, and in twenty minutes 
(12.40-1 p.m.) I only counted thirty-nine, i. e. about two 
a minute ; during that time not a single one was seen to 
settle, or fly in any other direction. They were still 
passing over about half an hour later, but after that the 
usual afternoon rains came on and they were not seen 
again that day. There was a slight east wind blowing at 
the time. On the following day (12th September) at 
Bartica, several were seen, again all fljing full speed N.N.W. 
On the 13th September I descended the Essequebo to the 
mouth by steamer, and during the early part of the journey 
CaUidryas were fl}'ing N.N.W. at the rate of four or five a 
minute on a two hundred yards line. There was then 
practically no wind. About 10.30 a.m. the north-eaat trade 
wind became stronger, and the flight changed to a westerly 
direction (almost directly across the river instead of down 
it). This would be the natural resultant of a N.E. breeze 
on an attempted flight in a N. or N.N.W. direction, 

4. Mr, Withers, Jilanager of Hills Estate, Bartica, who 
has resided in the district about seven years, tells me that 
he has many times seen the yellow butterfly migrating, 
sometimes for days together, alrcays in a N. to N.W. 
direction. These flights, he says, usually occur in October. 

5. Mr. Frear, Chief of H. M. Penal Settlement, tells me 
that about the beginning of August 1916 there was a small 
flight about ten miles up the Mazaruni River flying north- 
west. This would be about the same time as I saw them 
at Issororo, flying in an exactly opposite direction. 

6. Mr. Cameron, Acting Chief Engineer of the Govern- 
ment Steamer Ser\'ice, tells me that on the 8th September, 
1916, he saw a small number of yellow butterflies at 
Camaria on the Kiver Cuyuni, about eight miles above the 
Penal Settlement, all flying north-west, 

7. H. W. B. Moore, in " Timehri," the Journal of the 
Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society of British 
Ciuiana, 3rd Series, vol. ii (1912). p. -105. says: "In 
July ... I ohserved thousands of CaUidryas eiibule . . , 



ih,Cooi^lc 



Bviterfly Migrations in Briliah Guiana. 161 

flying across the Essequebo Bivei from Wakenaam to Hog 
Island and Great Troolie Island [all near the moath of the 
river]. They were fiying chiefly in ones, but twos and 
threes and higher numbers were not infrequent, whilst 
once in a way a flock of twelve to twenty could be counted. 
The great majority were males. . , , Soon after Kunibaru 
Islands were passed the butterflies were seen to be flying 
from the mainland towards Wakenaam. Going on towards 
Aoiora and Suddie on the west bank at the mouth of the 
river they were seen flying upstream, following, it seemed, 
the direction of the wind." All the directions mentioned 
are between south and east. 

8. Mr. Marshall, who was for many years Manager of 
s sugar plantation near Suddie, on the west bank of the 
mouth of the Essequebo, tells me that migrations of the 
yellow butterfly are a regular phenomenon there, chiefly 
in May and June, rarely July, always flying from the N.W. 
towards the S.E., wMch is across the prevailing N.E. 
wind. They come from the north-west, and frequently 
reach the coast just north of the Suddie ; thete they turn 
southward along the coast to the mouth of the Essequebo 
and then cross over via Tiger Island, Wakenaam, Leguan, 
etc. It must have been one of these migratiooB which 
Moore describes above (7). 

9. Mr, Humphreys, for many years Manager of a sugar 
plantation at Anna Regina, whidi is not far from Suddie, 
says that he has frequently seen migrations going in a 
northerly direction down the Essequebo Kiver and up the 
Coast. This is in the exact opposite direction to the last 
ivcorder, but there is, I think, no reason to doubt that both 
are possible. Mr. Humphreys made the further interesting 
remark that the butterflies were sometimes in a long, 
nanow band, only ten to twenty feet wide. 

10. Mr. Rodway, in " Timehri " (see above), 3rd Series, 
vol. i (1911), p. 131, says: " CaUidryas eubide ... is 
noted for its extensive flights ; for hours they have been 
seen passing over the Demerara River going east, probably 
billions in number, and all males. Whence they come and 
whither they go is a mystery. Their food-plants [Cassia] 
aie common everywhere, and there does not appear to be 
any scarcity of females," He refers again to this migration 
in "In the Guiana Forest," 2nd edition, 1911, p. 122, 
bat with no further particulars. 

11. Mr. Feteikin, of the Department of Agriculture, 
TEANS. ENT. SCO. LOND. 1917.— PABT I. (NOV.) M 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



162 Mr. C. B. Williama' Notes on 

telta me that about 1906 he saw a migmtioa of some 
thousands of yellow butterflies crossing the Demetaia 
River from PlaDtatioQ Diamond to Plantation Wales, 
that 18, from the east to the west bank about six miles from 
the mouth of the river. They were fiying with a strong 
wind behind them. 

12. The Rev. Mr. Salmon tells me that at ^lamar (about 
sixty miles up the Demeraia River) at the begimiing of 
August 1916 be saw a " procession " of yellow butterflies 
between his house and the river. They were flying in 
groups of ten to twenty, with a short interval between 
each group. The flight was first noticed at mid-day and 
lasted for several hours after this. It might have already 
been proceeding for some time. They were flying approxi- 
mately from N.N.W. to S.S.E. 

13. Messrs. Bancroft and Ward described to me a migra- 
tion that they bad seen a few days before, about the 20th 
September, 1916, at Murirato, about ten miles above 
Wismar on the Demerara River. The butterflies were all 
flying from the left to the right bank of the river, that is, 
from west to east. 

14. Richard Schombu^k, in " Reisen in Britisch Guiana," 
Zweite Theil, Leipzig, 1848, p. 157, describes a migration 
of yellow butterflies which flew from S.E. to N.W. in the 
interior of British Guiana neat Firaia about the 13th 
September, 1842. The flight lasted the whole day, and at 
mid-day and just before sunset the butterflies settled in 
countless numbers on the patches of sand at the edge of 
the river. According to the natives they were the butter- 
flies which came from certun caterpillius and chrysalides 
which they readily ate. 

15. Both Moote {I.e.) and Rodway ("In the Guiana 
Forest," 2nd edition, p. 122) refer to a record of a migration 
by Robert (not Richard) Schombui^k, of which, however, 
I have been unable to trace the original. Moore says it was 
observed by Sir Robert Schomburgk " on the 18th of 
October, 1838, when going up the Esaequebo, and it con- 
tinued crossing the coutse of the river for nine houis and 
a half, during which time his boat ascended nice miles. 
A thousand million b not too high an estimate for the 
number of individuals in the swarm." 

16. This last record relates not to CaUidryas eubide, but 
to another Pierid, Appias tnargarita, a small white species. 
Mr. A. Leechman, m the " British Guiana Handbook," 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



Buttafiy Migrations in Briiish €fu%ana. 163 

1913, p. 137, writes that he has " once witnessed a flight 
of white butterflies (Apjnas margartia) on the lower left 
bank of the Berbice River which lasted for over three days, 
and could only be compared during the whole of that time 
to a heavy sDowatorm. And the extraordinary thing waa 
that they were all flying directly out to sea. Mr. Leechman 
has informed me that this occurred in April 1909. 

It is difficult even from the above records to get any 
indication of what is happening. On the real problem, 
why the migration takes place, there is still no light, and 
many more correlated observations must be made before 
there can he any hope of solving it.* There are, however, 
a few points to which attention might be directed. In the 
first place, there are here two general directions of migra- 
tion for CaUidryas eubtde, roughly from the north-west to 
the soath-east, and vice versa. There is as yet no record 
of a migration in a north-east or south-westerly direction. 
The prevailing wind is the north-east trade wind, so that 
the migrations were across the wind. It is impossible to 
say if this is the real determining factor in the direction of 
the migration or not. 

Secondly, all the migrations of CaUidryas in which the 
date is recorded took place between May and October. 

Thirdly, it seems possible to distinguish between several 
different types of migration. At least one can make a 
rough bat convenient grouping into three classes. (1) The 
thick cloud, " like a snowstorm," a case which immediately 
attracts the attention of the ordinary individual and is 
most frequently recorded. (2) The diffuse migration, 
which may vary from distinctly noticeable to so attenuated 
that only a close observer would realise that anything 
nnnaual was happening. There is, of course, no strict 
line of demarcation between this and the last, and the 
edge of a " cloud " migration would probably be difiuse. 
A diffuse migration, however, can exist unaccompanied 
by a cloud. (3) A particularly interesting form is the 
" ribbon " migration, or " procession," in which a narrow 
band of butterflies a few feet or a few yards wide flies 
across the country in the direction of its length. The edge 
of such a migration is well defined. In this connection 
it might be mentioned that, even when not on migration, 

* firitash Qoiaiia would aeem to be a promuing field for each 
inyeatigations, bat they miut be extended over s. series of yaan, 
with a number of competent observeni atatioaed over the ooo&trjr. 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



164 Mi. C. B. Williams' NoUt on Butterfly Miffraiiont. 

CaUidryas eubvle has a habit of S.yiag round and round ft 
field in short stringB o{ about half a dozen almost head to 
tail, and closely following each other's movements. This 
habit may throw some light on the formation of the ribbon, 
but does not explain the movements of the leader. 

f^ally, we have the extremely inteieating question of 
the sexes Fepresented in the migration. Rodway records 
that all that he saw were males, but I understand that this 
was from observing their colour whilst in flight. The male 
and female of CaUidryas eubule differ distinctly in colour 
and markings, and perhaps any one very famiUar witA 
this species could tell them apart in this way. I found it 
impossible to do so, and could only tell the sex after capture. 
My specimens were, as mentioned before, seven males and 
three females. It does seem, then, to be a general rule 
that the males predominate, and this is confirmed by obser- 
vations in other parts of the world. This branch of the 
subject seems to me to be of fundamental importance, for 
if the migrations consist so largely of males, miat becomes 
of the corresponding females ? Mr. Bodway has bred this 
species and bids the two sexes to be more or less in equal 
numbers, and this is the general rule for other insects 
except in rare cases, such as parthenogenetic reproduction, 
whicn seems scarcely feasible here. There remains the 
possibility of the males developing more rapidly and 
emereing from the chiysaUdes earlier than the females, 
but there is no direct evidence for this, and against it is 
the fact that, except perhaps at the b^inning of the first 
wet season, the successive broods of insects in the tropica 
are ill-defined and usually overlap consideraUy. It may 
be contended that the females are lees fitt«l for long 
flights, being heavily laden with e^. Even if this is so. 
we are left with the question, " Why, then, do the males 
migrate? " 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.. 1917, Pari I. 



p 






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Skktch Map showixo Localities ov Hymknohtkha. 
Bkitish Guiaxa, 



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n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



( 165 ) 



VII. The condition of the scales in the leaden males of 
Agriades thetis, Rott,, and in other Lycaenids. By 
E. A. CoGKAYTre, D.M., F.R.C.P., Temporary 
Surgeon, R.N. 

[BMtd Uftroh 7tb, 1917.] 

Plate XI. 

The peculiar colour of the leaden males of Agriades ihetis, 
many of which were taken near Folkestone in 1916 and 
occasional specimens iu previous years, led me to think 
that a microscopical examination of theit scales might be 
of considerable mterest. 

In the nonual male thetts the wing is covered with lines 
of smoky scales, sbott and broad, which have strong 
longitudinal ribs and well-marked cross striations. Alter- 
nating with the rows of dark scales are rows of longer 
scales, which I call for convenience the "colour scales." 
These aro also longitudinally ribbed, but have weaker 
cross striation, and are yellow by transmitted light and 
brilliant blue by reflected light. The blue colour has 
generally been regarded as an interference colour due to 
the cross striae and not a pigmentary colour, but H. M. Sims 
(Canadian Entomologist, 1915, p. 161) considers that it 
is dependent on a fluorescent dye. In either case the 
dark scales serve to absorb any light which passes through 
(he blue scales, and to prevent the coloured scales on 
the underside of the wing from being visible on the 
upperaide. 

In addition to these two kinds of scales small colourless 
androconial scales are present in abundance. In the leaden 
males of ihetis, the smoky scales and androconia are of 
normal shape, size and colour, but all the colour scales 
are very thin, and have their distal part rolled up to form 
a tube. By reflected light the curled-up edges and tubular 
ends of these scales look silvery, and under a low power 
of the microscope appear as ghostly triangles overlying 
the dark scales, which are much exposed to direct view 
and give the leaden colour to the wings. 

TEAKS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1917. — PABT I. (NOV.) 



ih, Google 



166 Dr. E. A. Cockayne on the eoitdiHon of the scala 

Exatniiied under a high power (^ inch oil immenion) 
it is seen that they are quite colourless by transmitted 
light. The longitudinal nbs are present, though often 
crinkled, but no cross striae are present with the excep- 
tion of a few imperfect ones at tne extreme base of the 
scales. 

A few scales were found in which the lateral margins 
were turned up, and in which very pale yellow dye was 
present, but no cross striation. Unfortunately they were 
mounted in balsam, and I could not see whether they 
were blue by reflected light. K a scale of this natiue 
could be isolated and examined umuoimted it would settle 
the controversy as to the cause of the blue colour in the 
blue Lycaenida. 

Near the base of all four wings in both the specimens 
examined, and along the costal maigin of the right fore- 
wing in one of them, normal thick blue BceAes were found 
with the abnormal ones. 

Some of the scales on the fringes were tlumier and more 
hair-like than is usual, but the scales on the undersides of 
the wings were all quite normal. The peculiarity can 
scarcely be due to any pathological condition acting upon 
the scales from without. If this were so the neighbouring 
dark scales and androconia would not escape, nor would 
the scales of the underside be perfect. 

No injury, nor any infection by a pathogenic organism, 
would be hkely to affect the upper surfaces of aJl four 
wings in the uniform and complete way in which it is 
almost always affected in these leaden thais. It is much 
more likely to be dependent on some inborn error of 
development. 

The following observations of Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker 
lend strong support to this view. According to this 
author the blue scales in Pdyommatia dduB var. vUbUa 
are very similar to the abnormal scales of the abemtiou 
of thelis. I quote the description of these in his Frea- 
dential Address (Proo. Ent, Soc. 1913, p. clviii) : " An 
extraordinary character, however, obtains in the ordinary 
blue wing scales, the whole of which are curled round 
so as to form more or less short tubes ; the process ap- 
pears to be that each side of the scales turns over, and 
occasionally they meet thus in the centre, bat ■ mote 
generally one side will overlap the other and so form a 
more or less perfect tube ; by this I mean that the basal 

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m the katkn maUs 0/ Agriades tJutit. 167 

and ft|HC&l ends nmain open — a tube that is sealed at 
each end naturally ceases to be a tube, becoming a 
cylinder." 

ThiB description agrees very closely witt the condition 
met with in the " colour scales " of the leaden thetis, but 
in dolus the tubular scales are blue and preBOmably retain 
th^ cross striation or the fluorescent dye. Similar rolled- 
np scales have been described by Mr. Betbune-Baker in 
the " Menalcas " group, in which the wing colour is much 
wbit«r than in most I.ycaenids. 

I wrote to Mr. Bethune- Baker, who has examined micio- 
soopically several leaden aberrations in his collection, and 
liaB very kindly allowed me to publish hia notes on the 
condition of the scales in them. He has examined one 
Lycaetui arion, one Polyommatus icams, two Lycaenopsis 
{Cdatlrina) puspa, two Lycaenopsis platitn, and a single 
specimen each of three species of Tajuria, an exotic genus. 
In the anon, which is a dull bluish colour, the scales 
ate on]y curled up in a small percentage, in the majority 
bring merely tfain and inclmed to buckle at the edges. 
Id the icorus, which is greyer though not extremely leaden 
coloured, the scales are thinner and more curled than in 
the arion. 

In all three species of Tajuria, which are much mote 
leaden coloured, the acalee are rolled upwards and inwards 
at the sides, the roUing being deeper at the apices, so that 
in many tbey have a triangular shape. The rolled-up 
Kales are abnormally thin. This thinuess is readily demon- 
etiated in one Tajuria, which has one or two spots of 
blue on the wings, where the scales are flat, normal in 
colour and of much greater density. 

The two spedmenB of Lycaenopsis pmpa from Formosa 
ahow much the same condition as the Tajuria. The two 
L. ptanta from Borneo are quite unusually leaden coloured. 
Under an inch objective the " colour scales " are almost 
invidble, but imder a 12 mm. objective are seen to be 
excessively thin and rolled up absolutely tight, so tight 
as to look like a number of short thick pale hairs scat- 
tered over the surface of the wings. The fringes are also 
abnormal, the usual long, elegant, somewhat fan-shaped 
scales being replaced by scales like long thin haiis with 
the apex slightly split up. 

Breeding e:^riments with leaden thetis would be very 
interesting. These leaden aberrations, so widespread 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



1&8 Dr. E. A. Cockayne on the scales of Agriades thetit. 

tkiough the blue Lycaemde, may well be Mendelian 
recessives to the nonual blue males. The " dolus " and 
" merudcas " group may be examples of Mendelian reces- 
sives superseding the normal dominants through whole 
Bpeciea, as the recessive form of Callimorpha dominula with 
yellow bind-wings has entirely replaced the dominant with 
red hind-winga in certain parts of Italy. This suggestion 
is one put forward in order that some one may take the 
necessary steps to prove or disprove it. 

A further point of interest in connection with the leadoi 
thetis is that Mr. L. \V, Newman thinks that they are 
unusually fragile. It is quite possible that the whole 
wing membrane is thinner than that of normal males, 
and, if so, it may be correlated with the thiimess of the 
" colour scales." I have not been able to satisfy myself 
on the point, as I did not wish to destroy a specimen for 
this purpose. 

Explanation of Plate XI. 



1. " Colour " Bcalea of le&den taale AgriadM Aetie. 

2. Blue " colour " Boale of normal mole Agriadet lAefw. 

3. Smokj (light absorbing) scale of leadeD male Agriadtt lAefio. 

4. Andcocoiual ecale of leaden male Agriades IhtUt. 

The fine regular striae of the blue scale are onlj rougblf indicated. 
The drawings ai« magnified equally. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc ■ 



Trans. F.tit. Sac. Lend., 1917, PlaU XI 



E. A. Cockayne, del. 

SCALES OF AGRIADES THETIS. 



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VIII. On new and liUle-knmcn Lsgriidae frmn Tropical 
America. By Georob Chablbs Champion, F.Z.S. 

[Bead Hucli Tth, 1917.] 

Plates XII, XIII. 

The present paper gives an account of the unnamed species 
of Slalira from S- America, the Antilles, etc., in the British 
Museum, supplemented by those in the Hope Museum 
at Oxford, and a few Brazilian and Trinidad forms kindly 
supplied by Mr. G. E. Bryant. The study of these S. 
American insects had to be undertaken under exceptionally 
difiBcult circumstances, as not a single definitely-named 
representative of any of the numerous species described 
by Maklin was to be found in the collections in this country. 
It is therefore not improbable that some of them have 
been incorrectly identified by me from the descriptions 
alone, in which the sexual distinctions are not given, or, 
if seen, not recognised as such. The materia] examined 
is mainly that obtained by J. Gray, H. Clark, and A. Fry 
in the neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro, and by H. W. 
Bates on the Amazons, the specimens from other S. 
American localities being few in number. Dr. R. F, 
Stthlberg was in Brazil in 1850 and earlier, and a few of 
his captures (most of which have been identified in the 
Fry collection) were described by Maklin in 1875. H. W. 
Bates appears to have paid a good deal of attention to the 
genus Statira and ita allies ^ while he was resident on the 
Amazons, doubtless on account of the great resemblance 
of many of them to genera of Carabidae, e.g. Agra, Casnonia, 
Drmniua, etc. 

Statira, Lep. et Serv. 

Eighty-three members of this genus were recorded 
from Central America in the "Biologia" in 1689-1893, 
one only of which was known to me at that time to occur 
south of Panama. The collections from South America, 

> Tb«ae Utter are dMcribed in the "Entoniologitt'B Monthly 
Uasftzine," Vol. LIU, pp. 132-154, lSS-196, 218-223, pi. 2, Jont- 
October, 1917. 

TEANS. BHT. SOC. LOND. 1917. — ^PART I. (NOV.) 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



170 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

etc., aow under ezaminatlon, include repreBentatives of at 
least 130 more, showing that hundiads of Bpedes must 
exist on the southern continent. The following additions 
to the distribution, etc., of six of the Central American 
forms require notice : S. detUiculata, Colombia {Mus. Brit.), 
an insect with denticulate anterior femora, one of two 
placed under Sect. Aa in the table given in the " Biologia," 
the other, S. glabrata, having been found by BioUey as far 
south as Costa Rica; S. costarioensia, Colombia; 5. ingens, 
Costa Rica {BioUey) ; S. aibolineata, Belize, British Honduras 
{Mvs. Brit.); S. nigripennis, Makl. [not Champ.], var. y 
(Biol. Centr. Am., iv. 2, pi. 2, fig. 18), from Mexico, has 
been named ckampioni by Pic (Melanges ezot.-bntom. iv, 
p. 20, Sept. 1912). Amongst the South American Staiirae, 
some {S. catenata, etc.) have very remarkable characters 
in the legs, antennae, or aedeagus,' or in the clothing of 
the under surface, in the males. Other structural peculiar- 
ities to be noted are : the presence of a long curved spine 
on the narrow basal portion of the anterior femora • in 
both sexes of certain species {S. atUuTolis, etc.) ; two rugose 
stigmata on the disc of the protborax {S. dtsligma, ,J); 
a basal constriction of the anterior tibiae (S. degans, de- 
gantuJa, casnonioides) ; a deep, sharply-defined, triangular 
or oblong sulcus on the prothorax in front {S. vagegiUtata, 
etc.), etc. The apical joint of the antenna, too, is often 
greatly elongated in the male, as in Lagria. The species 
here enumerated may be grouped thus : — 

A. Anterior femon armed with t, long curved 

Bpine at base Noo. 1-6. 

B. Anterior femora unarmed at base. 

1. Species large, shining, oastaneous, with 
darkor, submetallic, oatenulato-tuberou- 
late elytra, and sharply dentate anterior 
tibiae No. 6. 



* Dr. Sharp has beem kind enough to examine this organ in two 
apeoiee (S. vtridipennis and S. geniculata), and he telu me that 
when two projeoting pieces are visible, one will be the conjoined 
lateral lobM (t«chiiioiilly "tegmen"), the other the median lobe, 
this being really tlie inner one. 

* A character evidently noticed by Hope or Weetwood, the 
speoimra of iS. cotUineenms in the Osford Huseum having an ante 
leg detached and mounted separately to ehow this stnictuie. 
was overlooked by Haklin in 8. tutwatie. 



ll,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



Hew and liliU-known I/ignidae. 171 

2. Speoies large, elongate, mostly i«eembling 

the Corabid-goius Agra, the elytra 
□snally metallic,* nigro-teaaellftte in 8. 
meUagria, and with two or more of the 
altoniftte intoTstieeB catanulato-tubenm- 
Ut« thiou^oat their Jengtb or at leaat 
teworde apes, the posterior femora 
bidcntato at base in 8. gemmifer; 3 eome- 
times irith BtrDD^y pronounced secondary 
sexual ebaracters in the legs or sedeagus,* 
or in the clothing of the antconoe or 
ventral surface. 

a. Elytra mucronate at tip Nob. T-16. 

b. Elytra not mucronate at tip Nos. 16-34. 

3. S^tcdes large, very elongate, with a long, 

conical, red prothoiaz and metallic elytra, 
the latter acuminate at apex and with 
almost smooth interstices No. 3tS. 

4. Species moderately large, narrow, black, 

with narrow head, elongate-cylindrical 
prothcrax aitd cyaneons elytra, the inter- 
stices of latter almost smooth . . ■ No. 36. 
fi. SpeoieBmoderatetyloi^, block, with brilliant 
green, non-tuberculate, mucronate elytra, 
and exti«mely slender antamoe (as in 
Othryadet) No. 37. 

6. Species moderately large or small, reeemblii^ 

some of those placed under B 2a, with the 
elytra unarmed at tbe tip, blue or green, and 
bearing small, scattered, rounded tubercles Nos. 3S-40. 

7. Species resembling some of those placed 

under B 2b, with uneven, very feebly 
striato-punctate, brilliantly metollicelytia, 
which are catenulato-tuberculate towards 
aides or apes Nos. 41-43. 

8. Species moderat^y large or small, the elytra 

usually metallic or with metallic lustre, 
with simple scattered setigerous impres- 
sions to tip (interruptedly catenulate 
laterally in 3. impreastpennU). 

* 8. agraeformit. Champ., from Panama, belongs te this section. 

• Penis-sheath {= conjoined lateral lob» of tegmen, sec. Sharp) 
twisted and asymmetric in males of S. eattnala, vmdipemua, geni- 
Cfiata, atgmmeiTka and Uaivpta. 



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172 Mi. G. C. Champion on 

a. Prothorax not or obeoletely cantlionlate 

oadiM NoB.«^40. 

6. Prothorax distinctly canaliculate on due . Noe. 61-6C- 
9. Species elongat«, with opaque black head 
and prothorax and purplish or dull black 
elytra, the latter bearing small rounded 
tuberclee, the legs long Nos. 60, 67. 

10. Species with a abort, broad head and pro- 

thorax, metallic elytra, and stout an- 

tonnaa • No. 68. 

11. Spcoies cBstoneouH in oolour, with broadly 

viridi-vittateolytraandatoutantramae . Noa. 69, 70. 

12. Spnoies teBtaceouB or brown, with the elytia 

(except in vara.) infuscate or metallic along 
the sides, and the antennae slender, 
o. Head and prothorax shining .... Noe. 71, 72. 

b. Head and prothorax opaque, scabrous . No. 73. 

13. Species testaceous, reddish, or brown, with 

the legs partly infuscate. 

a. Prothorax densely, more ooaisely punctate No. 74. 

b. Prothorax finely aoabroso -punctate or 

almost smooth Nos. 76, 76. 

14. Species teetaoeous or reddish- brown, the 

legs included. 
a. Prothorax feebly shining; eyes subap- 

proximate No. 77. 

6. Prothorax opaque, alutaoeous ; eye* 

distant No. 78. 

Ifi. Speoiee testaceous, with blackish, flavo- 

vittate elytia, the upper surface dull . . No. 79. 

16. Species oastaneous or pioeous, shining. 

a, Eljara with each alternate interstice more 

or lees tubetculate throughout .... No. 80. 

b. Elytra with scattered setigerous impios- 

siona, sometimes nigro-lineate .... Nos. 81-86. 

17. Species with red head and prothorax and 

blue or green elytra. 
a. Anterior tibiae compressed at liase; alMJo- 

men black No. 87. 

6. Anterior tibiae simple i prothorax (5) with 

two scabrous patches on disc . . . No. 88. 

* The Mexican S. eroMieomis, Champ, and the ColombiaD 
S. validieomit, Makl. belong to this section. 



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N^ea and litUe-hwum Lagri^e. 173 

IS. Speoiea Hmall, slender, with opaque bkok 
head and prothoiax, blue elytrs, uid 
yellow tarsi No. 89. 

19. Speoiei Blender, with large bead and narrow 

prathoraz, piceous or in part testaceous, 
resembling the Carabid-genera Dromiiu 
and Casnaniai elytra witli setigerous im- 
preaaions, preceded b; a more or leu 
distinct tuberole; anterior tibiae oam- 
prCKed at bass in iS. eatnonioidta Npa. 9(MI3. 

20. Species testaceous or teddish, the elytra 

(except in vars.) with metallic or black 
markings or tasoiae, these latter sometimes 
greatly extokded ox conflnent, the alternate 
interstioee, at most, with setigerous im- 
pressions, the protborax not incised on 
Oie disc in front, sometimes bivittate. 

0. Elytra with nnmeroua small tuba;clea . No. M. 

b. Elytra not tuberculate Nos. 9C-106. 

21. SpeciestestaceouB, withnigro-teesellat«elytra No. 107. 

22. Species teataceooB, with a deep incision on 

the disc of the prothorax in front, the 
elytra (except in vors.) with coalescent 
Uook markings or wholly black . . . Nos. 108-110. 
2J. Species rufo-t«taceons, shining, with nigro- 
birittate prothorax and nigro-fssciate, 
closely setose, elytra, each of the inter- 
stices of latter seriato -punctate . . . No. 111. 
^ Species testaceous, hairy, with coarsely 
punctate prothorax and nigro-maculate 
elytra, each of the interstices of latter 

Beriat«-punet«te Nos. 112, 113, 

^ SpedeB slender, tesUuteous, with bead and 
prothorax opaque and elytraJ suture, at 
least, inf UBoate. 
a. Elytra tuberoulat«; head small . . . No. 114. 
6- Elytra not tuberculate ; head la^e . . No. Ufi. 
S8. Species with prothorax distinctly margined 
laterally.' 
o- Body obscure testaceous, the elytra fusco- 

iHciate l^icaiagoa] No. 116. 

0, Body nigro-piceona or black, the prothorax 

,.^»ed, the elytra blue No. 117. 

varioos Central- and N.-American forms belong to this section. 



ih, Google 



Mr. G. C. Champion on 



174 

27. Species anull, Antiuoiform, with short be«d, 
small e3rea, Btout ant«iuise, and faintly 
striato-punotaM elytra, the elytra with 
irregularly distributed, aetigerouB impree- 
sions. 
a. Body shining black, the prothora 
patch on elytra often reddish 






b. Body blaotc, the 

dytra blue . 
e. Body and terminal joint of antennae t«8- 

taoeouB, bead and apex of elytra black 

28. Species resembling Uiose placed vinder 

sect. 27, but with longer, deeply punctate- 
striate elytn, teetaeeous, with apical half 
of elytra violaceous 

29. Species with head considerably developed 

behind the eyes, the latt«r small, the prO' 
thorax subeylindrical or cordate. 
a. Head and protboiax closely, coarsely puno- 
tate; antennae stouter; body reddish- 
brown, pioeous, or black, head and pro- 
thorax aometimee testaceous. 
"fElytra more elongate, with 
setigerous impressions on alternate inter- 

ttElytra shorter, with very few setigerous 
impressions; protboiax subcyliiulrical 
or cordate ; species small, Anthidform 
6. Head and protliOTSx much smoother, 
obsoletely punctolate; antranae wry 
slender; body obaoore t«ataceous, dytra 
black 

30. Species small, narrow, aeneo-pieeous, with 

very coarsely, rugosely punctured head and 
prothorax, small, depressed eyes, and each 
elytral interstice seriato-punctat«[Uexjca] 

31. Speciea elongate, Strongyliiform, hairy, 

acneo-piceous, with very coaieely punctate 
head and prothorai and ooarsdy punctato- 
striate elytra, the pro thorax subquadrate 

32. ^wcies narrow, elongate, shining, hairy, 

resembling ColparAruM, with very laige 
eyes in (J, a long, smooth prothor&x. 



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New and liule-huntm Lagritdae. 175 

metoJlio, ooareely punotato-striate elytn, 
with inoonapicuous setigerouB itnpreesions, 

aad olavate femora No. 130. 

33. Species narrow, elongate, leeembling Hoe- 
fHonia, with extremalj largo eyea, very 
long, snbeemte antennae, an almost 
smooth prothorax, andnigro-lineate elytra No. 131. 

Section A. 
1. Statlra eoitailMiuls. (Plate XII, fig. 1, anterior leg, S) 
Suuyra htMrio, Dej. Cat., 3rd. edit., p. 236 (1837). 
Statira costaricensia. Champ., Biol. Centr.-Am., Coleopt. 
iv. 2, p. 36 (1889). 

^. .Anterior femora greatly thickened, abruptly narrowed and 
angnlate near the base, the narrow basal portion armed with a long 
curved spine; anterior tibiae hollowed beneath, and twisted, befon 
tiie apex; ant«anal joint 11 nearly three times as long as 10. 

For. f EUytra more ooaiBety pimotat«-Btriate, the punctures on 
the diso transverse, the inteisticee slightly oonvez, the black mark- 
ing much more extended and subcoalesceat, the strongly angulate 
post basal fascia oontinned down the second intfirstice to beyond 
the middle and nearly joining the median transverse mark, the 
narrow, oblique subapical fascia reaching the suture and continued 
akmg it for a short distance, in front and behind. 

Hab. Costa Eica; Colombu (ifus. Oxm.; Mus. Brit., 
ex. coU. Le^erte). 

Described by me in 1889 from a mutilated example 
(without anterior legs) from Costa Biea. A specimen from 
Colombia in the Oxford Museum agrees with this insect, 
except that the black post-basal mark on the elytra is 
wanting. The variety?, ex coll. Lafert^, from that of 
Dejean, ia labelled SktUyra kistrio, mihi; it superficially 
resembles iS. vagegutUUa, Pic, and S. conspidlUda, Makl., 
specieB wanting the anterior femoral spine. The anterior 
femora themselves are more abruptly narrowed before the 
base (appearing angulate) than in the allied S. suturalis, 
M&kl. 

2. Statin flavoslgnata, n. sp. (Plate XII, fig. 2, ^.) 

3- Elongate, depressed, shining, pale reddish -brown, the l^s 

and under surface teetooeous ; the elytra each with an oblong mark 

near tJic suture at about the middle, two others obliquely placed 



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176 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

b«low this, and two more before the apex {these two coatesoent uid 
forming an oblique faaoia), yellow, the base also indeterminatety 
flATesoent. Head almost smooth, ahallowly foveate in the middle 
betwoen the widely separated eyes; antennae moderately long, 
joints 7-10 slightly decreasing in length, 11 about three times as 
long as 10. Prothonx oblong-suboocdate, slightly narrower than 
the head, as long as broad, almost smooth, the basal ma^in not 
much raised. Elytra long, twice as brood as tiis prothorax, gradually 
widening to the middle, somewhat acuminate at the apex; finely 
punotato^triate, the interstices flat, 3, 6, and with scattered 
■etigerous punctures, those on 3 est^iding forwards to near thfi 
base, the others placed on the apioal half. Anterior femora much 
tiiickoned, abruptly narrowed and angulate near the base, the 
narrow basal portion armed with a long curved spine; anterior 
tibiae hollowed and slightly twisted at the apex beneath. 

Length 8), breadth nearly 3 nun. 

Hab. EcuADOB (fiuoUey). 

One male. In this inaect the yellow markings on the 
apical two-thiids of each elytron are arranged into two 
oblique fasciae and an isolated submedian spot, the elytra 
thetuselvea are much elongated, and the anterior femora 
laid tibiae are shaped as in S. costaricsnsia, ^. 

3. Statlra splnlgera, n. sp. 

S- ElongKte, rather dull, piceo-aastaneous, the antennae, the 
margins of the elylnt. the barsi, and the bases of the temoia, obscnrely 
rufeaeeat. Head rather nanow, shining, ahnoat smooth, the eyes 
•epaniied by more than half the width of one of them; antamse 
comparatively short, moderate stout, joint 11 nearly as long sa 
T-IO united. Pruthi>nix lon^^er than broad, oUong, oonatricted at 
the base, m wide aa the head. alulaMous. oheoletdy punctolate, 
Iwhty i.<au^lii.'ukte c>a the di^ antenorty. and with two obliqiie 
duliuctly punvturcd lmpi«Esii«9 in the middle before the base, 
the ba&al itun:ut not muoh raised. Elytn long, twice as broad as 
lh» pivihorax. iirMludltr vitlaicd to the nuddle azkd somewhat 
t»vwUy n«Rvw1^t |«wtw^'rly: fini?{y punclato^triale, the inter- 
»!».■«« dJutci.t^'iu, »>iiw»!iat cvionM. iUiut od the diic anteriotly, 3 
"•nil »i5 *ia>^^v i^uratvd *Kull «t;j»ivtts punetaro and 5 and 9 
»iiS\ t*v>i>t ilitw oi:',rts loHttnb ih<f ape:!. JLattnc« femoi* greatly 
thi^-tvunl, ^t'rui'il^v iuttv>»«d ti«ar the bwdc the nanow banl 
j>i'tt.\-n atUHil *;s>, a U-n^ t.-uiT«il »[>in*. 

I*tv:t!i SI, ^^\*n!■.^ Iff mm. 



ll,y,l,7rJM,G00glc 



New and litAe-hiown Lagriidae. 177 

One male. This species has the elytra shaped as in 
S. flavosignata \ but the head aod piothorax are narrower, 
the antennae are stouter, and the upper surface is duller 
and almost unifonnly fusco-castaneous. 

4. Statira MuiUioiiieTa, □. sp. 

Hoderatelf elongate, Bhining, piceons or reddiah-bioNni, the darker 
example with the antennae in great part, the knees and toiai, and 
Uke Butuie of the elytra at the base, ferruginous. Head rather 
broad, almost smooth, ehollowly foveate in the middle between 
tbe widely separated eyes; antennae long, rather slender, joint II 
about aa long aa 8-10 united. Prothorai aubcordate, as broad aa 
long, about aa wide as the head, moderate]; constricted before the 
base; Bparaely, obeoletelj punctulate, the basal margin not much 
raised, the diso foveate in the middle behind in one example. Elytra 
moderately elongate, much brooder than the prothorax, gradually 
widened to the middle and rapidly narrowed posteriorly, trans- 
versely depressed below the base; finely puncta to -striate, the 
interstices flat, 3 with six and 6 with four widely separated oon- 
RjncnouB Hetigeroua punctures, 9 also with two or three punctures 
towaids the apex. Ventral segments 2 and 3 with a few fine pili- 
gerous punoturee between the usual double series of setigerous 
impreaaions running down 1-6. Anterior femora greatly thickened, 
abruptly narrowed and angulate near the base, the narrow basal 
portion armed with a long curved spine; anterior tibiae hollowed 
at the apex beneath. 

Length 8A. breadth 3 mm. dJ.) 

Hab. Colombia {Mus. Brit. : type) ; Ecdadob {BticHof). 

Two specimens, assumed to be males, the one from 
Ecuador smoother beneath and somewhat immature. 
Less elongate and more shining than 8. spinigera, the head 
and piothorax broader, the antennae much longer, the 
setigerouB punctures on the disc of the elytra larger, the 
anterior femora angulate before the base, as in iS. costari- 
centra and S. flavosignata. The Colombian example was 
acquired by the Museum in 1871. S. nigella and S.fueca, 
M^., from the same country, may be allied forms "> 

6. Statlia sutoialia. (Plate XII, £g. 3, anterior leg, ^.) 
Statira mtUTolis, Maid., Act. Soc. Fenn. vii, p. 157 (1862). 

{$. Antemiae moderately long, joints 3-10 subequal in length, 
11 about three times aa long aa 10. 

TRAB8. KST. SOC. LOND. 1917. — PABT L (NOV.) N 



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178 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

$. Antennae ahorter, joints 4~10 decreasing in length, 11 lees 
elongate. 

Var. Elytra with two or three dark lines on the disc extending 
downward from the base. 

,Hab. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Petropolis, Constancia, 
Tijuca. 

A leddish-brown, shining, rather convex insect, usually 
with the suture or two or three lines on the disc infuscate, 
these markings sometimes wanting; the anterior femora 
greatly thickened from near the base, and with the narrow 
basal portion armed with a long, curved spine {not noticed 
by M&klin] ; the anterior tibiae slightly hollowed before 
the apex beneath ; the elytral interstices 3, 6, and 9 with 
a few widely separated setigerous punctures. The aedeagns 
of the male is long and slender, tapering towards the tip. 
S. presuturalis, Pic {No. 81, infra), ftom the same region, is 
a very similar form, but it wants the anterior femoral spine. 

Section B 
6. Stattra denttgers, n. sp.. 

Elongate, broad, widened posteriorly, Bhining ; nifo-castaneouB. 
the palpi pioeous, the elytra aenea-piceous, the latter with scattered, 
long, erect, bristly hairs. Head rather small, not so broad aa the 
prothorax, almost smooth, foveate in the middle between the 
eyes, the latter very Urge, somewhat distant; ontcmnae long, 
slender, joint 11 equalling 8-10 united, Prothorax slightly longer 
than broad, rounded at the sides, strongly oonstrictcd before the 
prominent basal margin; sparsely, minutely punctate. Elytra 
long, broad, widening to the middle, and there twioe as broad aa 
the prothorax, arcuately narrowed posteriorly, and Bcununats at 
the apes; closely, finely punctate -striate, the interstices broad, flat 
on the anterior half of the diao, 3, 6, 7, and 9 with a series of rather 
large setigerous impressions extending throughout their length, 
the impressions (except those towards the base) each preceded by a 
rather prominrait tubercle, the tubercles gradually heooming longer, 
oariniform, and oatenulale towards the sides and apex, the first 
(sutural) interstice also with five impressions near the tip. Legs 
[posterior pair wanting] rather stout; anterior femora strongly 
olavata, sulcata along their outer half beneath, and also finely oiliate; 
tibiae pilose within, the anterior pair armed with a sharp triangular 
toolh at one-third from the tip. 

Length 15, breadth 6 mm. (ij I) 



Nea and littte-knoum Lagriidae. 179 

Hab. EcUADOB, Paramba {Rosenberg). 

One specimen. The ciliate anterior femora and toothed 
anterior tibiae (not necessarily (^-characters) bring this 
species neai certain Central American forms, S. gUibrata, 
Makl. and S. deMieidata, Champ., placed by me at the 
head of the genus in the arrangement adopted in the 
" Biologia." Compared with S. tiAercuUUa, Makl., the 
antennae are longer and more slender, the inter-ocular 
fovea is smaller, the prothorax is htrger and smoother, and 
the first elytral interetice is tuberculate (instead of un- 
armed) at the apex. The general shape is like that of S. 
laiicfiUis, Makl. 

7. StaUra gemmUer. (Plate XII, fig. 4, posterior leg, 3-) 
Suaira gemmijer, Makl., Act. See. Fenn. vii, p. 147 (1862). 

Poeterior femora in each sex with a truncate, exteriorly toothed, 
prominence at the baae, and a Bmall triangular tooth at about the 
tMsal fourth, beneath (fig. 4) ; antenna! joint 11 in i^ about equalling 
7—10, in $ 8-10 united; anterior tarsi slightly widened in ^, all the 
teni and tibiae a little more hairy in <J than in $; eyee distinctly 
more approximate in i^ than in $. 

Hab. Brazil {Miis. Brit., Mtis. Oxon.), Rio de Janeiro 
{Fry), Constancia {J. Gray and H. Clark, Jan. 1857), Minas 
Geraes [Mm. Brit.), Ilha Santo Amaro near Santos [G. E. 
Biyanl ; 23. iv. '12). 

This is perhaps the finest known species of the genus. 
It has very elongate, sharply acuminate, translucent, 
aeneous elytra, with the alternate interstices closely 
86 riato- tuberculate and catenulate throughout; the pro- 
thorax closely punctulate ; the legs very elongate, slender, 
the posterior femora feebly bidentate near the base beneath 
in both sexes; the tarsi and tibiae hairy; the antennae 
rather slender and infuscate. S. gemmijer may be the 
S. regina, Lac, of Dejean's catalogue, and his S. gemmata 
a var. of S. gaiitndata, Makl.?. Twelve specimens seen, 
iacluding three males. The penis-sheath, so far as visible 
without dissection, appears to be symmetric. 

8. Statin afioldes. (PlateXU.fig. 5, aedeagus, in profile, 3*-) 

Statira agroides, Lep. et Serv., Encycl. M6th., Ins. X. p. 480 
(1827); Makl., Act. Soc. Fenn. vii, p. 148 (1862). 



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180 Mi. G. C. Champion on 

Slatyra agroides, Dej. Cat., 3rd edit. p. 236 (1837). 
Statira armata, Makl., op. cit. x, p. 636. (1875) 

(J. Aedeogus (fig. 6) : basal piece elongate,' produced into a long 
oMt, apiniform prooees infericrly, the stout penis-sheatii Btill longer 
and with a sagittifcrm hook projecting from the tip (as seoi in profile). 

Var. I Castaneous, the elytra black, the aedeagas of S without 
projecting sagittiform piece at the tip ( } withdrawn). 

Hab.'SiRkm,{exMua. Dejean; Mus. Brit.; Mus. Oxon.), 
Kio de Janeiro, Santa Cathanna (Fry), (Ibnstancia {J. 
Gray and H. Ctark), Petropolia, Santa Rita and Boa 
Sorta {Dr. Sahlberg: types of S. antMla), Eapinto Santo 
(DescouTtils). 

This insect seems to be fairly common in Brazil, and is 
eaiiily recognisable amongst its allies by the mucronate 
apices of the elytra, the catenulate, posteriorly tubercutat« 
alternate interstices, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9, and the simple an- 
tennae and legs in the two sexes. The terminal joint of 
the antennae about equals B~10 united in 2, and is slightly 
longer in J. The colour varies from ferruginous or rufo- 
castaneous to piceous; the two examples with black 
elytra, from Constancia and Espirito Santo, may belong to 
a different species. The elytra in S. agroides are said to 
have a " bluish-violet reflection which ought to be more 
distinct in the living insect," a character of no importance 
in this genus. The imperfectly described S. interrupte- 
coatata. Fie,* from French Guiana, seems to be an allied 
form. 

9. Statin longlceps, n. sp. (Plate XII, fig. 6.) 
Very elongate, shining; fusco-testaceouB, the bead and antomae 
nifcBcent, the latter with joints 1-^ and 11 darker, the eyce, palpi, 
and labnim black or piceous, the prothorax (except at the base) 
also slightly infuscate ; elytra with a few long, bristly hairs. Head 
oblong, narrow, almost smooth, longitudinally grooved between the 
eyes, the latter large, somewhat depressed, well separated ; antennae 
long, rather slender, joint 11 as long as S-10 united. Prothorax 
wider than the head, much longer than broad, gradually narrowed 
from the middle forward, and constricted before the base, the 

* A large chitinous tube from which the penis^heath is extmded : 
it is usually withdrawn into the body, and not visible without 
diaaeetton. 

* Melanges exot.-entom. xi, p. 19 (Nov. 1914). 



u,y,l,/eJM,G00glc 



Neu) and Utde-hnmon Latfriidae. 181 

nised bsAftl in&rgin termiDating in a stout tubercle on each side; 
the gaiUoB with a few, widely Bcattered, minute puscturee. Elytn 
long, gmdually widening to the middle, aomtunate pogteriorlj, the 
Bjncee muoroiMte ; cIohIj, finely punctato-Htriate, the striae 
sinuate on the disc, the intetBticee 1 , 3, 6 slightly widened and each 
with ft series of somewhat closely placed, subquadrate, setigerous 
impreeeions extending throughout their length, 7 with a series of 
similar impressions down the apical half, and 9 with four othen 
towards the tip, the int««pacee between them longitudinally raised 
en the disc and tuberculate on the apical declivity. L^s very long, 
eimple. 

Lsngth 12, breadth 3} mm. ($ 1) 

Hab. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro {Fry). 

One specimen. A close ally of S. agroides, L. and S. 
(^ armaia, Makl.), and with the elytra mucronate at the 
tip and very similarly sculptured, differing from that 
insect in its oblong, narrow h^, with shallow longitudinal 
inter-ocuiar groove, the less prominent eyes, and the 
laterally tuberculate basal margin of the prothorax. The 
catenulate first (eutural) elytra! interstice and mucronate 
apez separate S. longtceps from S. catenata, meleagria, 
and others. 

10. Statint vemeosa, n. sp. 

Very elongate, widened posteriorly, moderately shining; nigro- 
piceons, the elytra with a faint brassy lustre; the elytra with long, 
erect bristly hairs, the antennae, tibiae, and tarsi pilose. Head long, 
narrow, almost smooth, shallowly depressed in the middle between 
the eyea, the latter large, moderately distant; antennae long, 
slender, joint 11 in ,£ about equalling 7-10, in $ 8-10, united. 
Protiiocax long, narrow, the sides obliquely convei^iTng from about 
the middle forward, and constricted before the raised basal margin ; 
cloaely, finely punctate, depressed in the centre at the base and 
longitudinally excavate behind the anterior margin. Elytra very 
long, widening to beyond the middle and there about three timee 
the breadth of the prothorax, mucronate at the tip; closely, rather 
findy, crenato -striate throughout, the striae sinuate and arranged 
in pairs, the alternate interatioee each with a series of approximate 
oblong, flattened spioulae, which become more prominent and 
earinifoim towards the sides and apex. Legs very loi^. 

LengOi 13, breadth nearly 4 mm. (<;$.) 

Hab. Upper Amazons, Ega {H. W. Sates). 

u,y,l,7rJM,G00glc 



182 Mi. G. C. Champion on 

Two specimens, assumed to be sexes, one having a longer 
apical joint to the antennae than the other. Closely ielat«d 
to S. agraeformis. Champ., from Panama (figured in 
B.C.-Am,, Coleopt. IV, 2, pi. 1, fig. 7), the head not so broad, 
the eleventh antennal joint in (J shorter, the elytra with 
narrower, smaller tubercles (and the striae, in consequence, 
less sinuous), the legs infuscate, etc. S. agroidea, S. gem- 
mijer, and S. catenata are somewhat similar forms, all of 
them superficially resembling the Carabid-genus Agra, 
which is numerous in species in the same regions. 

11. Statlra mucronata, n. sp. 

Elongate, widened posteriorly, Bhiiiiiig; vaiying in oolour from 
nigni-piceoiu to outaneouB, the anteonae more or leaa infoHcate and 
with at leaat the apical joist ferruginous, the elytra in the darker 
examplee braaay or greenish -aeneonB ; the elytra with numerous 
bristly hain. Head rather closely punctate, deeply, broadly 
foveate betwerai the eyes, the latter very large, somewhat narrowly 
separated ; antennae stout, moderately long in S< shorter in $, 
joint 11 in ^ equalling 0-10, in $ 8-10, united. Protborax longer 
than broad, slightly narrower than the head, feebly rounded at the 
sides, oonstricted before the prominrait basal margin; closely, 
conapiouously punctate, the interspaces polished, the disc trans- 
veraely depressed on each side anteriorly and also excavate in the 
centre at the baae. Ellytia long, widening to beyond the middls, 
more Uisn twjoe the width of the prothorax, mueronate at the tip; 
finely, deeply punota to -striate, the striae strongly undulate towards 
the sides and apex, the interstices convex, 3, S, 7, and 9 throughout 
their length, and 1 at the apex, with a scattered series of setigeioua 
impressions, the spaces between them longitudinally tubereulate, 
the tubercles on 7 and 9, and those towards the apex on 1, 3, 6, 
shorter and more closely placed than those on the disc Femora 
moderately thickened. 

Length ia-12, breadth 31-4} i™- (o'$-) 

Hab. Brazil, Ceara {Gmnelle). 

Three males and three females, two only with metallic 
elrtra. Verj- like S. nigrocofntUa, but with the alternate 
elrtral interstices 3, 5, 7 and 9 here and there tuberculate 
throughout their length, the tubercles on 7 and 9 shorter 
and more numerous, much as in iS. tvhercuUUa, Makl.; the 
prothorax longer and a Uttle more finely punctate; the 
antennae slightly stouter. 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



New and litUe-knoum Lagriidae. 183 

12. SUtin nlKroeMTOlea, n. sp. 

g. Elongate, broad, widened pmteriorly, Bhining; nigro-piceoos, 
llie derentfa antainal joint, the tipa of the toisi, and the head in 
one spedmcn, fenuginons or reddish, th« eljij^ blue or bluish-green ; 
the elytra wiUi a few bristly hairs. Head bioad, finely pnnctate, 
deeply, longitudinally impressed between the eyes, the latter very 
Urge, Bomewbat narrowly separated ; ant^mae rather long, slovt, 
joint II equalling 7-10 united. Prothorox as wide as tbe head, 
about as broad as long, feebly rounded at the sides, moderately 
eonstricted before the laterally-piojeGting raised basal margin; 
cloaely, ratber coarsely punctate, the intenpacee polished, the dise 
depressed in the centre at the base and also on each side anteriorly. 
Elytra long, more than twice the breadth of the prothorax, widening 
to beyond the middle, transversely depressed below the base, the 
apioee mucconate; closely, finely, deeply punctato-striate, the striae 
crenate and posteriorly undulate, the interaticee convex throughout, 
3, 5, and 7 with from three to five deep setigerous impreasions 
towards the apex, 9 with a scattered series of similar impteHsions 
along their entire Imgth, and I with three others near tiie tip, the 
spaces between them longitudinally tuberoulate and suboatenate. 
Iiep long, the femora moderately thickened. 

Length II-IU, breadth 31-4 mm. 

Hab. Bbazil, Jatahy, Province of Goyaa (Pujol, ex coU. 

fry)- 

Two specimens, one with the tip of the aedeagus exposed, 
agreeing veiy nearly with the description of the Brazilian 
iS. nigra, Makl. ; but as the author aays nothing about the 
stout antennae, ot the mucronate apices of the elytra, 
and states that the brood inter-ocular impression is almost 
obeolete and the eleventh antenna) joint (c^) about equals 
6-10 united, the Jatahy insect must be treated as distinct. 
The allied S. caeUUa, Er., from Peru, should have a smoother 
prothorax. 5. pertiana, infra, has more slender antennae; 
a non-foveate l^ad, the apices of the elytra obtuse, etc. 

13. Statin Intesi, n. sp. 
J. Elongate, rather narrow, shining ; piceous, the elytra with a 
brassy lustre, the apical joint of the antennae ferruginous ; the 
elytra with numerous long bristly bails. Head slightly broader 
than the prothorax, closely, finely punctate, with a deep oblong 
fovea between the eyes, the latter very large, somewhat narrowly 
separated; antennae rather slender, long, joint 11 equalling 6-10 
united. Prothorax rather narrow, oblongo-coidate, oonatrioted 



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184 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

before the prominent hind angles, the basal margin raised, the disc 
depressed in the centre behind ; sparselj, finely punctate. Ely^a 
long, gradually widened to the middle and there twice as broad as 
the prothorai, transversely depressed below the base, acuminate 
posteriorly, mucronat« at the tip; closely, finely, deeply punctoto- 
striate, the strifte undulate, the interstices more or less convex, 3, 
5, 7 and 9 with a scattered series of setigerous imprcBsions, each 
of which ia preoeded by a prominent tubercle, 1 also with three or 
four tubercles before the spex, 7 and 9 catenulate throughout. Legs 
slender [anterior pair wanting]. 
Length 10^, breadth 3^ mm. 

Hab. Upper Amazons Ega {H. W. Bates). ' 

One male. ThU species agrees with S. (uhercwiota, 
B mucronala, and S. nigrocaendea in having the bead 
deeply foveate between the eyes and the apices of the 
el)i;ra mucronate, differing from the first-named in the 
convex iiitetEtices, smaller foveae, prominent tubercles, 
and more strongly mucronate apex of the elytra, and from 
the two others in its narrower shape, less thickened antennae, 
and the more prominent small scattered tubercles on tbe 
disc of the elytra. 

14. Slatlra euspldata, n. sp. 

Elongate, somewhat robust, narrow, widened posteriorly, shining ; 
piceouB, the antennae (joints 1-4 excepted) femiginous, the elytra 
metallic golden-green, tlie colour changing to golden and cupreous 
laterally, and to green across the base ; the elytra with a few long, 
briatly hairs. Head about as wide as the prothorax, cloGely, minutejy 
. punctate, slightly hollowed betweoi the eyee, the latter large, 
somewhat distant; antennae slender, moderately long, joint 11 
about equalling 7-10 united. Prothorax considerably longer than 
broad, subcylindrical, constricted before the raised, lalerally-pro- 
jecting basal margin ; densely, minutely punctate, the diso longi- 
tudinally depressed in the centre behind. Elytra long, widening to 
the middle and there considerably more than twice the breadth of 
the prothorax, acuminate posteriorly, the apices mucronate ; closely, 
finely, deeply punctato-striate, tlie interstices more or less convex, 
3, 6, and 9 each with a seriee of small setigerous impreesions ex- 
tending from a little below the base to the apex (those on 3 closely 
placed on the apical half), 1 and 7 atso with three or four impres- 
sions before the tip, the spaces between them becoming m6re or leas 
raised longitudinally or tuberculate towards the sides and apex. 
Length 10, breadth 3) mm. ($ T) 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



Nob and litde-htoum Lagriidae. I8B 

EtA. LowsB Amazons, Para {H. W. Batex, ex coU. 
Patcoe). 

One example. Not xmlike the Peruvian S, vigifUi- 
punetaia (No. 46), but with a subcylindrical, subsulcate, 
densely, minutely punctate prothorax, and more nnmerous, 
much emallei setigerous impreasions on the elytra, those 
on the apical half of the third interstice somewhat closely 
placed, the elytral apices mucronste. The longer and 
narrower prothoraz, smaller head, deeply striate elytra, 
with more numerous smaller setigerous impressions in 
the iaterstices 3 and 5, separate S. cuspidata from S. semi- 
cuprea (No. 47). The sides of the elytra are brilliant 
cupreous towards the apex in the present species. 

15. Staflnt tubereoUtta. 
Staiira tuberculata, Makl., Act. Soc. Fenn. x, p. 637 (1876). 

Elongate, ehining; dilute rufo-castaneous, the bead and pro- 
thorax often moie or leas iofnacate, the patpi, and sometimee the 
antoinae also, piceoua, the upper Burface with a faint brassy luitie 
(in Hliklin's var. a the elytra are aeneous or green); the elytra 
with scattered long, bristly hairs. Head about as wide as the pro- 
Uioiax, almost smooth, deeply foveate in the middle between the 
eyes, the latter large and narrowly separated in ^, a little smaller 
and more distant in $ ; antennae rather slender, joint 11 in [J about 
equalling 5-10, in $ slightly longer than 8-10, united. Piothor&x 
a little longer than broad, moderately rounded at the sides, con- 
stricted befora the prominent basal margin ; finely punctate, often 
with one or two oblique impiessiona on each aide of the disc. Elytra 
long, twice as wide as the prothorax, very slightly widening to the 
middle, pointed at the apex; finely punotato -striate thiougbout, 
tlie striae undulate, the interaticee 3, 6, 7, and 9 each with a scattered 
•eoriea of lat^e, deep, subquadr&te, setigerous impressiona, separated 
towards the sides and apex by elongate tubercles, those on 7 and 9 
shorter and more prominrnt, the eighth interstice nanow and 
cariniform. Anterior femora strongly clavate, feebly ciliate. 

Length 8<i-l^i' breadth 2i-3i mm. (,?$.} 

Hob. Brazil, PetropoUs and Santa Rita {Saklberg : 
typee), Rio de Janeiro, Bahia (Fry), Espinto Santo {Des- 
courtils), Alto da Serra in San Paulo (Bryant). 

Eleven specimens (9 <J, 2 ?) before me are referable to 
this species, two of them belonging to the colour var. 
a of Maklin. There is also some variation in the shape 



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186 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

and puncturing of the prothorax, and in the number of 
tubeicles and setigeroua impressions on the elytra, the 
latter being always large and deep. The apices of the 
elytra are pointed or Bubmucronate. The frontal fovea is 
also deep. The sexual characters were not mentioued 
by the author. 

16. Stetira unetarenuw, n. sp. 

Very elongate, narrow, ebining; piceoos, the elytra giectuih- 
aeneous, the antennae in their outer half and the legs nifo-tcetacwoi 
or ferruginous, the knees slightly infuscato. Head rather small, 
sparsely, finely punotate, unimprMsed between the eyes, the latter 
la^e, narrowly Beparat«d ; antennae moderately long, rather simder, 
pilose, joint II equalling 8-10 united. Prothorax longer than 
broad, a little wider than the head, feebly rounded at the sides, and 
constricted beforo the raise)), laterally-projecting basal margin; 
closely, finely, oonspiouously punctate, the disc transversely im- 
pressed on each side before and behind the middle. Elytra very 
long, twice as wide as the prothorax, somewhat rounded at the side^ 
gradually widening to the middle, without mucro at the tip; closdy, 
finely punctate -striate, the interetices feebly convex, 1, 3, fi, 7, and 
9 each with a series of rather small, deep, setigerous impieeeioas 
extending throughout their length (olosely placed on 3 and 6, and 
scattered on 1, 7, and 9), the spaces between them longitudinally 
raised or tuberculate, the tuberolee elongate on 7 and 9. Tibiae 
pilose within. 

Lengthlli.broadthSlmm. ($1) 

Hab. Amazons, Santarem (H. W. Bates). 

One specimen, now wanting the elytral setae. Smaller 
and less elongate than S. verrucosa, the head narrow, the 
prothorax not excavate in front, the elytra narrower, with 
smaller elevations on the alternate interstices, the striae 
straighter, and the apices unarmed. 

17. Statira longleollis. (Plate XII, fig. 7, posterior leg, 3-) 

$. Statira longicoUis, Makl., Act. Soc. Femi. vii, p. 151 
(1862). 

<J. Lower surface of the anterior femora at the base, and that of 
the other femora to near the apex, and a broad space down the 
middle of the metastemnm and abdomen, thickly clothed with 
long, fine, projecting or eemi-ereot, hairs ; antennae cloeely piloee. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



Nob and Uule-lmown Lagriidae. 187 

joint 1 moderately thickened, 10 much shortcT than 9 and angolarly 
dilated at the inner apical angle, II {as in $) nearly equalling 8-10 
united; anterior tibiae gradually dilated on the inner aide into a 
broad, anbangiilar, concave plate; intermediate tibiae hollowed 
rithin; posterior tibiae (fig. 7) ezcaTat« along their inner face, 
broadly arcuato^emaiginate towards the middle (as seen from above), 
and nidoied thence to the apex, appearing strongly sinuate within. 

Bah. BRAzn. (Mm. Oxon.), Rio de Janeiro {Fry). 

Eight specimens seen, three of which are males. U 
correctly identified by me, S. lotigicf^lis is a close ally of 
S. mndipennia, Lep. et Serv. (and not of S. geniadata, as 
stated by Maklin), from which it differs in the narrower 
liead and prothorax in both sexes, and in the following 
(^-characterB : — antennae with joint 1 less thickened, and 
10 shorter and dentate at the apex within ; intermediate 
femora ciliate to near the apex and the ventral surface 
more hairy; posterior tibiae strongly sinuate within, 
the plate on the anterior pair less angular. The number 
and arrangement of the setigerous impressions on the 
elftral interstices 3, 5, and d are much the same in the 
two species. The colour is variable — ^piceoua or rufo- 
CBstaneous, the eljrtrs with an aeneous or greenish lustre, 
the two basal. joints of the antennae sometimes infuscate. 

18. Statlra mslsagris. (Plate XH, fig. 8, ^.) 

ij. Statira meUaffrie, Makl., Act. Soc, Fenn. vii, p. 149 
(1862). 

Antenna] joint 11 in ^7 equalling 7-10, in $ 8-11), united; inter- 
mediate femora in i^ gradually thickened outwards and then abruptly 
hollowed before the apex beneath. 

Hab. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro {Fry, Mva. Oxon.), Kspirito 
Santo {Mm. Brit.). 

Eight examples seen. A very elongate, pallid form 
allied to S. catenaia, Makl., with the widened, catenulate 
alternate elytral interstices 3, 5, 7, and 9 each bearing a 
series of somewhat closely placed, subquadrate, black 
impressions; the legs and antennae differently formed 
or clothed, and the abdomen almost glabrous (the usual 
setae only present), in the <J ; the head narrow and sulcate 
between the eyes. 



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188 Mr. G. C, Champion on 

19. Statin oalenata. (Plate XII, figs. 9, ^i 9a, b, 
penis'sheatli, ^.) 

?. Statira caUnata, Makl., Act. Soc. Feim. vii, p. 148 (1862). 
j. Statira plumicomis, Deyr. in litt. 

(J. Antennae thickened, joint 1 very stout, 2 quite short, S-10 
rapidly decreasing in length, 9 and 10 dentate at the inner apical 
angle, 11 very elongate, equalling 7-10 united, 3-10 wth a dttm 
fringe of long hairs within ; anterior femora Btnmgly incraMatc^ 
oiliate at the base beneath i anterior tibiae broadly, angolari; 
explanate towards the apex within; int«Tnediate femora oiliate 
beneath i intermediate tibiae hollowed along their inner faoe; 
posterior femora very etout, ouired, excavate and densely ciUatc 
beneath, angularly dilated before the apex ; posterior tibiae sinuond; 
bowed, broadly widened in their outer half, excavate and pubescent 
within, and furnished with a dense brush of very long hairs at about 
the middle of their upper inner edge; metaatemum and abdomen 
thiekly clothed with long hairs down the middle; penis -sheath '* 
stout, asymmetric, broadly, obliquely, subangularly dilated at the 
apex, serrulate along the upper edge. 

$. Antennae, slender, simple, joint II ncMly or quite equalling 
3-10 united. 

HcJ). Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catbarina (Fry), 
Constancia {/, Gray and H. Clark, Jan. 1857), State of ^ 
Paulo (QouneUe), Minaa Geraea {Mtis. Brit.). 

Nine specimens seen, including three males. The extn- 
ordinary combination of characters in the atracture or 
clothing of the legs, antennae and ventral suif&ce in this 
sex makes S. caienata easily recognisable, at least in the 
(J; the ?, however, is very like that of S. geniadata, Maid., 
differing from it in having the alternate elytral interstices 
a little broader, 5 and 7 nith more numerous setigerous 
impressions. The amount of catenulation of these inter- 
stices is somewhat variable in both iasecfaB. 

20. Statin rirldlpennls. (Plate XII, figs. 10, lOo, 
aedeagus, ^.) 

Statira riridipmnis, Lep. et Serv., Encyci. Mdth., Ins x, 
p. 480 (1827) ; Makl., Act. Soc. Fenn. vii, p. 149 (1863). 

" The oonjoined lateral lobes of the tegmen, seo. St»Tp. 

Ij.y.l.AjL.yCOO'^lC 



Neu> ani Uoie-known Lagriidae. 189 

(J. Antennae a little tbiekcr than in $, joint I Very stout, 10 
dcotete at the apex witUn, 11 aeorlj equalling 7-10 united, 3-10 
thicklf pilose on their inner side ; anterior femora very stout ; 
Ulterior tibiae angularly eiplanate towards the apex within ; inter- 
nudiate tibiae hollowed along their innor face; posterior femora 
doMdy cUiat« Along their basal half bmeath; paetarior tibiae 
Bicarata wiUiin, widened outwards, and broadly, shallow]; emarg^- 
ate »t about the middle, appearing sinuate on their inner edge; 
metastemum and abdomen thickly pilose down the centra, the fifth 
Bcgment bntadly depressed in the middle posteriorly. 

Aedeagus {figs. 10, lOa] : basal pieoe stout, curved, boat-shaped ; 
pcnk-eheath asymmetric, twisted, obliquely dilated outwards into 
U e)ongat«, apoon-ahaped piece, which is angulafe on the right aide 
at some distonoe before the tip. 

ffoA/BKAZiL {Mua. Brit., Mus. Oxon.), Rio de Janeiro 
[fry), Constancia and Tijuca {J. Gray and H. Clark, 
Jan. 1857). 

The long senes of this species before me vary in colour 
from piceouB to rufo-testaceous ; the prothorax and an- 
tennae (joints 1 and 2 excepted) are usually red; the 
elytra with a tranalucent green, aeneoue or cupreous lustre ; 
the legs in most of the specimens testaceous or rufo- 
Ustaceoufi, the knees and tarsi sometimes infuscate. The 
absence of the setigerous impressions along the seventh 
elytral interstice separates both sexes of 5. mridi-pennis 
from the very closely allied S. geniculata, Makl. 

21. Statint Eenionlata. (Plate XII. figs. 11, 11a, aedeagua, <?.) 

^.Statyra gemmata, Dej. Cat., 3rd edit., p. 236 (1837). 
StaUra geniotdata, l^kl., Act. Soc. Fenn. vii, p. 150 



3- Antennae very long and slender, joint 1 scarcely stouter than 
in S, 10 angulate at the inner apical angle, 11 nearly equalling 8-10 
nnited; eyes extremely large, subcontiguous; anterior femora very 
■tout, almost glabrous; posterior femora ciliate beneath; inter- 
"Kdiate and posterior tibiae closely pilose within, the latter Bimple; 
■iietagtemiim and abdomen thickly clothed down the middle with 
long, erect, fulvous hairs, the fifth s^ment broadly depressed in the 
"Wtm posteriorly. Aedeagus (figs. 11, 11a): basal piece long, 
curved 1 pcnis-Bheftth dongate, broad, twisted, deeply grooved, 
"w apical portion fiddle-shaped. 



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190 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

Hab. Brazil (ex Mas. Dejean; Mua. Oxon.), Rio de 
Janeiro, Bahia (Fry), Espirito Santo {Mus. Brit. ; Deectmr- 
tila). 

Numerous specimens seen, these varyio^ greatly in the 
colour of the body and legs, and in the mtensity of the 
metallic suffusion of the elytra ; the uitennae are osoaUv 
rufo-testaceous with the basal two or three joints infuscate, 
rarely black in their basal half. This species, if correctly 
identified by me, is closely related to S. viridipennis, difier- 
ing from it in the more ot less catenulate elytral iutersticas 
1,3,5, 7, and 9 (the catenulation on 7 extendmg along their 
entire length), and in the simple anterior and posterior 
tibiae, and the slender basal joint of the ant«nnae of tbe 
male. The flddle-shaped outer portion of the penis-sheath 
(= tegmen), too, is characteristic of the present insect, 

22. Statira asymmBtrioa, n. sp. (Plate XII, fig. 12, 
penis-sheath, ^.) 

cJ. Very elongate, narrow, shiningi pioeoua, the elytra with » 
tranalucent aeneoua lustre, the head, antennae (the slightly infiu- 
oate basal joint ezcepud), legs, and under surface testaceous or 
rufo-t«staoeooa, the elytia with a few long bristly hain. Head 
rather small, short, almost smooth, the eyes large, narrowly separ- 
ated; antennae very slender, extremely elongate, joint U aboal 
equalling S-10 united. Frothorax wider than the head, subooidaU, 
Bcaroely longer than broad, the basal maigin prominent ; alutaceous, 
spatsely, minutely punctate. Elytra very long, subparallel, Icm 
tiian twice the width of the prothorax, rounded at the tip; doasly, 
finely punatato-striate, the inteistioee flat on the disc, 3 widentd 
and with a series of about twelve, and S and 7 with from 8-10, deep, 
subqusdrate, setigerous impreesions.d also with several othera down 
the apical half, the spaces between the impressions longitudinally 
raised and cateoato-tuberoulate from about the middle to the apei- 
Metastemum and ventral s^ments 1-6 hollowed and thickly pihee 
down the middle. Penis-sbeath long, broad, asymmetrio, twisted, 
arcuately dilated on the right side at some distance before the tpa, 
the apical portion spoon'Shaped. L^^ very long; anterior femon 
thickened ; posterior femora closely ciliate in their basal half be- 
neath; posterior tibiae sinuously compressed, appearing hollovtd 
from a little below the base to near the apex, closely pilose vithin. 

Length 10, breadth 2} mm. 

H(A. Bb&zil, Bio de Janeiro (Fry). 

One male. A close ally of S. genwulata, M&kl., difienug 



New and UoU-kmnim Lagriidae. 191 

from the corFesponding sex of that species in having a much 
smaller, Bhoit«r head, a less elongate piothorax, more slender 
antennae, sinuously compressed, haiiy posterior tibiae, 
and the broad penis-sheath dissimilarly formed. The non- 
dilated posterior tibiae, etc., separate S. aaymmarica from 
S. tortipes, S. arcuatipes, and other forms with bowed ot 
twisted tibiae in the male. 

23. Statlnt tortipes, n. sp. (Plate XH, figs. 13, posterior 
leg; 13a, penis-sheath, (^.) 

Very donate, narrow, moda«tdy ahising; otMcaie teataceona, 
the eyes blkck, the elytra in some apecimeoa with a faint aeoeoua 
luatie, the latter with a few very long, briatly hairs. Head small, 
aJrooBt smooth, obeoletely aulcate between the eyes, the latter large 
and modnately diataot; anteonae long, alfliider, joint 11 in (J 
equalling S-10 united, very little Bhortcr in $. Prothorax wider 
than the head, oblongo .cordate; very sparsely, obeoletely punctate, 
slightly depressed in the middle at the ttase. Elytra elongate, aub- 
parallel ; closely, finely punot«t« .striate, the interstices almoet flat, 
3 with a series of about eight to ten, and S with five or six, setigeions 
impressions, 9 also with thiee impressions near the tip, 3 and 5 
c*t«Da]at« posteriorly. 

^. Femora ciliate beneath, the anterior pair very stout, the inter, 
mediate pair clavate, and the posterior pair angularly dilated towards 
the apex; posterior tibiae abruptly, bisinuately twisted, broadly 
dilated, concave and thickly clothed with fine hairs within, appear- 
ing closely ciliate along their inner upper edge (fig. 13); metaster- 
num pilose down the middle, the ventral segments 1-3 and 5 (except 
on the basal half) also with numerous long erect hairs down the 
centre ; penis-sbeath (fig. 13a) twisted, asymmetric, angutate on the 
Irftside, the apical portion somewhat shovel .shaped. 

$. Hetast«TQum pilose down the middle; anterior and inter- 
mediate femora ciliate at the base. 
Length 10-11, breadth 3-3^ mm. (,}$.) 

Bab. Brazil, Ceara {Gounelie : <J$), Rio de Janeiro 
(fry : $), Alto da Sierra in San Paulo (G. E. Bryant, 16. 
iii. '12 : $). 

One male (somewhat injured by an Ayuhrewts) and 
three females from Ceara, and a female from each of the 
other localities. An immature-looking insect related to 
S. longiccUis, Makl., with a shorter head and prothorax. 
smaller eyes, etc. ; the posterior femora angularly dilated 



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192 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

(as in S. catenata), and the po8t«riot tibiae abruptly, biu- 
nuately twisted, pilose, and dilated, in the i^, the tibiae 
moie strongly sinuate and more hairy than in the same 
sex of iS. arcualipes and S. fusdtarsis, these latter more- 
over wanting the pilosity down the middle of the abdomen. 
The penis-sheath is asymmetric, and shaped somewhat a« 
in S. virtdipennis and its allies. 

24. SUtira arouatipei. (Plate XII, figs. U, <^; 14a, 
aedeagus, ^J.) 

c^. Slatira arcuatipes. Pic, Melanges ezot.-entom. iv, p. 14 
(Sept. 1912). 

Very elongate, rather narrow, the head uid prothorax dull, the 
rest ol the upper surface moderately Bhining ; piceous or nigro- 
pioeous, the dytm bluish-green or green, sometimea with cupreous 
reflections, the antennae often in part fermginoua; the eljtra with 
a few, long, bristjj haira. Heed almost smooth, feebly groOTed 
betweoi the eyes, the latter very large and somewhat narrowly 
separated; antennae long, slender, shorter in $, joint II in ^ equal- 
ling 6-10, in $ about 8-10, united. Frothorax oblongo-ooidate, 
rather sparsely, minutdy punctulate. Elytra long, aubparallel in 
tkeii basal half in d ; closely, finely puncta to -striate, the inteistiMa 
simoet flat on the disc, 3 and 6 tuberculato-catenate towards the 
apex, 3, 6, and 7 (thoea on 7 pres^it in one ij-specimen only) with 
•ereral widely scattered setigerous impressions, and 9 with three 
impressions near the tip. 

,}. Intermediate femora gradually widened to near the apex, and 
abruptly hollowed thence to the tip, the angle thus fanned clothed 
with short hairs externally; posterior femora towards the apexvwy 
broadly, arouately dilated, and deeply sulcate beneath, gjabroua; 
posterior tibiae sinuously twisted, broadly dilated, hollowed and 
pubescent within ; penis-sheath symmetric, long, comprMsed, the tip 
triangularly dilated as seen from aboTe, hooked beneath, the tube in 
which it is enclosed produced into a long spiniform process on each 

Var. Femoraand tibiae, except at their apicee, testaceous. ([^$.) 
Length lO-lli, breadth 2i-3^ mm. <iJ?.) 

Hab. Brazil. State of San Paulo [type], PetropoUs [J. Gray 
and //. Clark, Feb. ISJi). Rio de Jaaeiro (Fry). 

Seven males in the Fr}' collection, including two of the 
variety with pallid femora and tibiae, are undoubtedly 
referable to ^. iireHatipe.s, Vx; and throe females with 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



Xet and lAde-bmni Lt^idae. 19S 

fiimilailr ooknued legs, two of them from Petropolis. most 
alao belong beie. These insects were labelled by Fry aa 
the sexes of the same species. The variety nearly agreea 
with the description of S.fuieitanu. Makl., cf. infn. 

25. Statin tudtanis. (I^ate Xn. fig. 15, posterior leg, <5.) 

°. Slatva fuacitartis. Maid., Act. Soc. Fenn. x, p. 638 
(1875). 

Very like 8. aremUipeg, Pic, the bead and piothoiax nigro-pweooB, 
the eljtr» brilliant metallic green or braasy-green, the femora (eio^t 
Kt Ute apex in one example, $) and tibiae dear rafo-teetAoeoua (o) 
or teetAoeoDS ($) ; the apical ant<nnal joint of ^ still moie etongale, 
eqnalliiig fi-lO united; the tyta aa large aa in tliat spedee; the 
elytial intasticea 3 and S with from three (o five widely separated 
setigecouB impreeoicmB down the diac and both tabercnlaU>.catcnate 
on the apical decliritjr ; the intennediate and poaterior femois, and 
the poeterior tibiae, ebaped exactly aa in the 3 o^ ^- amiatipe*, 
except that the posterior tibiae (Gg. Ifi) bear a daiae brush of hairs 
at about the middle of the concave inner (ace ; the peDi8.sheath (ao 
far as vioit^) shaped aa in S. oreuatipea. 

Hab. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro {Fry, J?}, Petropolis 
(Dr. SaMbery : type). 

A pwr from the Frv- collection are provisionally referred 
to this species, the type of which was captured at Petropolis. 
The male of S. calenato has a somewhat similar brush of 
much longer haiis on the posterior tibiae. S. fugcUarais is 
said to have four additional setigerous impressions on the 
seventh elytral interstice, and those on the disc large, but 
too much importance need not be placed on these characters. 
Maklin ignored, or overlooked, the marked sexual peculiari- 
ties of many of these insects, and it is therefore impossible 
to certainly identify some of his Statirae from the descrip- 
tions alone. 

26.' StaOra tibialis. 
cJ. Siatira tibialis. Pic, M^iangea exot.-entom. iv, p. 14 
(Sept. 1912). 
,J. Antennae rufo-testaoeoas, with joint 1 1 equalling 6-10 united ; 
intermediate femora gradually widened to near the apex, and hol- 
lowed thence to the tip, concave along their lower face, glabrous; 
posterior femora inloate beneaUi, gradually, arouately dilated on 
TRAKS. EST. SOC. WIND. 1917, — PART I. (NOV.) O 



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194 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

theic lower edge to near the apex ; posterior tibiae aimply sinuate, 
broadij dilated, hollowed and spanely pubeaceot within; elytia 
metallia green, theint«iBtioe8 3 and 5 with four or five widely eepar- 
ated setigeroufi impreasione, becoming taberculato-oatenate towaidi 
the apex; penia-aheath simplj acuminate at the tip. 

Hab. Brazil, Salobro [type], Ilha Santo Amaro neat 
Santos (G. E. Bryant : 4. iv. '12). 

A male found by Mr. Bryant ia perhaps referable to this 
species, a very close ally of S. arcualipes, according to its 
describer. The shape of the penis-sheath (examined in four 
out of the seven males seen of the last-named insect) shows 
that S. tibialis cannot be a form of S. arcualipes. 

27. Statira rimpUdpu, a. sp. 

"Very like S, arcuatipet, Pio, the eljtra relatively narrower, nib- 
parallel in <J, green or biaaaj, the prothorsx also with an uneoua 
luatie, the antennae (the baaal joints exoept«d) testaceous ; antennal 
joint II in ^ nearly equalling 7~I0, in $ 8-10, united ; cyee sli^tly 
smaller ; prothorex a little less rounded at the aidea, Bubc}riindrieal 
anteriorly in some speoimons, distinctly punctate; elytra! inter- 
atioee 3 and S with more numerous aetigeious impressions (3 with 
fromten to twriTeand5witfaaboutBix),oateiiato-tuber(nilateat the 
apex ; legs long and slender, those of the ^ simple, as in $ ; ponia- 
sheath ot <J acuminate at tip. 

Var. The femora and tibiae, the knees excepted, testaceous. 

Length »-I0|, bieadth 2H nun. ((J$. ) 

Hab. Brazil [Mtis. Brit., Mua. Oxon.), Petropolia and 
Conatancia (J. Gray and H. Clark, Feb. 1857 : var.), Sio 
de Janeiro {Fry : type). 

Eight specimens, three only belonging to the dark-legged 
form, one of each of them acquired by the Britbh Museum 
in 1871. Extremely like S. arcuatipes, and with the legs 
varjTng m colour in the same way ; the legs simple in the 
two sexes, the apical joint of the antennae mucn shorter 
in the S< >uid the aedeagus not dilated at the tip. Compared 
with 5, amoena, Makl., which also haa simple intermediate 
and posterior lefjs in the J, the mote numeroua setigerous 
impressions on the third and fifth elytral interstices, and 
the less elongate apical joint of the j-antenna, will serve 
to distinguish the present species. These three forms occur, 
with many others, in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



New and little-known Lagriidae. 196 

28. Statin unoena. 

9. Stalira amoena, M&kl., Act. Soc. Fean. vii, p. 152 (1862). 

Vw; dong^te, narrow, Bhiniiig; piceous or nigro-piceous, paler 
benefttb, the Apical antomal jomt UBnall^ femiginous, the elytra 
translucent green, aeaeouB, or ftmeo-cupieooB, the latter with 
scattered, long, briatlj' hairs. Head rather small, almost smooth, 
the ejea very laige and Habapproximate in ^, more distant in $; 
antennae long. Blender, joint lOsnbtriai^nlar and 11 about equalling 
6-10 united in ,?, 11 aa long as S-10 in $. Frothorax oblongo- 
coidate, oloaelj, minutely punctiilat«,tiie basal margin very promi- 
nent. Elytra long, subpaiallel in their basal half, finely punctato- 
atriate, Uie interstices flat, 3 with about eight or nine and 5 with sis 
or sevea setigerous impressions scatteied between the baee and apex, 
and 9 with two or tliree similar impreesiona near the tip, the spaoea 
between Uiem longitudinally raised or tubeniulate on the apical 
declivi^. ^. Anterior femora thickened, glabrous ; intermediate and 
poetcnor femora gradually widened to near the apex, and hollowed 
thenoe to the tip; posterior tibiae closely pilose along their outer 
half within. 

Length 10-12, breadth 2{-3 mm. (<;$.) 

Bab. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro (Fry). 

The above description ia taken from four males and two 
females captuied by Fit. It is one of several extremely 
closely allied Brazilian fonna, the females of which are 
scarcely distinguishable inter se, though the males poaseas 
marked speci&c characters in the structure of the legs, etc. 
&laklin*s descriptioii of S. amoena must have been taken 
from a ?, and it would apply almost equally well to the 
same sex of S. arcuatipes. Pic. 

29. Statira mieans. 

Suutfra morbiOosa, Dej. Cat., Srd edit., p. 236 (1837). 
(J. Stotira micans, Mftkl., Act. Soc. Fenn. vii, p. 153 
(1862). 
Exttemdy like S. amoena, Makl. (as here identified), bat with 
several setigerons impressions on the seventh elytral interstice (alto- 
getliei wtuiting in 8. amoena), 3, fi, 7, and ft tuberculato -catenate 
tow&rds tJie apex; the head longitudinally grooved or impressed 
between the eyee, the latter not bo large in ^ ; the Seventh anlennal 
joint of 3 nearly equalling 6-10 united ; the 1^ variable in colour, 
simple in 3 ; the aedeagus narrow, acuminate, the sheath straight, 
tnincato at tip. 



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196 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

Sab. Brazii. (ex coU. Dejean), Rio de Janeiro (Frif), 
Bahia (Reed), Corcovado (G. E. Bryant). 

Seven examples seen, the one from the Dejean collection 
being labelled with the MS. name S. morhUlosa. Compared 
with the variable S. geniculata, it ia a little smaller and lesB 
elongate, the setigerous impressions and tubercles on the 
eljrtral interstices 3, 5, 7 and 9 are reduced in number 
(especially on 7) ; and in the ^ the abdomen is glabrous 
down the middle, the legs are simple, and the penis-sheath 
of a totally different shape. Maklin does not mention the 
longitudinal inter-ocular groove (also present in his S, rufi- 
frons), and the identification of the insect before me with 
his species is not certain. 

30. Statlra formou, n. sp. 

1^. Very elongate, rather narrow, ahining; pioeoiu, the elytra 
brilliaiit golden-greMt, cupreous along tbe apical maigin and on the 
humeral callus ; the elytra with numerous, and the head and abdo- 
men with a few, long, fine, enot bristly hairs. Head rather narrow, 
not wider than the piothoiax, with afewminuteaoatteredpuiictuTee, 
the eyes veiy large, somewhat narrowly separated ; antennae long, 
slender, joint 11 very elongate, equalling 6-10 united. Protboisz 
narrow, considerably longer than broad, the sides obliquely conveig- 
ing from the middle forward and sinuately compreesed before the 
base, the basal margin raised ; sparsely, minutely punctate, the disc 
with a posteriorly widened, interrupted, rather broad median chann^, 
and an oblique curved depression on each side of the disc, the trans- 
verse basal sulcus not extending across the middle. Elytra very 
eloi^te, subparellel, rather more than twice the width of the pro- 
thorax, fiatt«ned on the disc, and witii an oblong, deep, intra -huTneral 
depicesion ; closely, finely, sinuately striate. punctate, the intersticet 
flat, 1, 3, 6, and 7 with numerous small sBtigerous impressions scat- 
tered throughout their lengtli, 9 also vrith seveial rather large im- 
pressions along the apical half, those towards the apex on 7 and 9 
each preceded by a tubercle or short carina. Legs very long, slender. 

Leogtli 121, breadth Sf mm. 

Hab. Ecuador (Buckley). 

One male. An Agraeform insect allied to the Colombian 
S. steinheili, Makl., with hrilhant golden-green elytra, the 
alternate interstices of which have numerous small setiger- 
ous impressions scattered throughout their length, the 
seventh and ninth cat«nulate towards the tip. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lL' 



Nob and H^e-knovm Lagmdae, 197 

31. Stalin latieoIUs. 

9. Statira hlicoUis, MSkl., Act. Soc. Fenn. x, p. 637 (1875). 

Eloogftte, rather faroiid, widened postftriorly, mod^atel^ shmiiig ; 
rufo -testaceous, costaneous, or piceous, the dytra with a more or 
less distinct aeneous lustre, the setigerouH impressions towards the 
apex indicated by darker subquadrate epota in the light-«olonred or 
imtnatore individuala, the elytra with a few erect bristly hails towards 
the apex. Head closely, finely punctate, the eyea large, somewhat 
distant; antennae long, slender, joint 11 in (} as long bb the four or 
fire preceding joints united, in $ about equalling S~10. ProtJiorax 
as wide as the head, not or very little longer than broad, moderately 
ronnded at tbe sides, oonstrioted before the base, the basal roai^ 
very prominent; densely, finely punctate. Elytra long, widening 
to beyond the middle in both sexes, and there more than twice as 
broad as the prothorax, the sides arcuately converging thence Ui the 
apex; closely, finely puncta to -striate, the interstices broad, almost 
flat on the disc, 3 and 9 with four or five, and 6 and 7 with two or 
three, deep setigerous impressions on the apical half or third, the 
spaces between them more or less rajsed longitudinally or tubercu- 
late. Anterior femora moderately clavate, bare. 

Length lOi-12, breadth SMi'k mm. (5?.) 

Hab. BEA!aL, Santa Rita (Dr. Sahlberg, Aug. 185tt : type), 
Petropolis, Conatancia (J, Gray and H. Clark, Jan. and Feb. 
1^7), Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo (Fry). 

This insect is apparently not uncommon in the neigh- 
bourhood of Rio de Janeiro, to judge from the numeioua 
specimens before me. It is extremely probable that 
S. laticollis is a dark ? of the previously described S. rufa, 
Makl., and that the latter is an immature <J of the same 
species; but as the author makes no comparison between 
them, the identificatdoQ is uncertain. The apically tuber- 
culate, subcatenulate alternate elytral interstices 3, 5, 7, 
and 9, and the finely impressed striae, are characteristic 
of the present species. In paUid examples the setigerous 
impressions are indicated by dark spots, much as in typical 
S. niffroaparsa, Makl. A specimen (9) before me from Rio 
de Janeiro, rufous in colour, with testaceous elytra, and a 
fovea on each aide of the disc of the prothorax behind the 
middle (not mentioned by Makhn), may be referable to 
5. rufa, the type of which must be a ij, with a verj- long 
eleventh antennal joint. 



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198 Mr. a. C. Cliampioii on 

32. Ststlra vlridltinoU, n. sp. 

Elongate, widened poeteriorly, moderately shining ; pioeotu or 
nigro-pioeoQH, the femora paler at the baoe, the elytra. with a braaaj 
or greenieh Iiutie, Uie antennae (except two or more of the basal 
joints) fenuginouB, the elytra with a few brietly haira towards the 
apex. Heed densely, minutely punctate, smoother in front, slightjy 
hollowed between the eyes, the latter very large, somewhat distant; 
antennae long, slender, joint 11 as long as five or six of the preceding 
joints united. Prothorax as wide as, or a little wider than, the head, 
as broad as long, moderately rounded at the sides, strongly con- 
strioted before the raised basal margin; densely, very finely punc- 
tate. Elytra long, widening to beyond the middle, anniately nar- 
rowed posteriorly; closely, finely punctato-striate, the striae deeply 
impressed towards the tip, the Jnterstioee more or lees convex, 3 with 
five or six scattered setigerous impreesions down the apical half, 
and S, 7, and 9 with from two to four (tboee on 7 sometimes want- 
ing) similar impreesions towards the apex, the imprMiions each 
pieoeded by a small tubercle. 

Length 9-11, breadth 3-4 mm. (<;.) 

Hob. Amazons, Santareid, Ega (ff. W. Bates). 

Six examplea, poxaibly all males. This is an Amazonian 
form of S. lalicoUis, Makl., that requires a distinctive name. 
The more deeply impressed striae (especially at the apex) 
and the convex interstices of the elytra, the relatively 
longer apical joint of the antennae, the blackened basal 
joints of the latter, and the darker body, are sufficient to 
distinguish S. viriditincta. A still more nearly allied fonn, 
S. peruana, occmB at Chanchamayo, Peru. 

33. Ststlra ptnuna, n. sp. 
Elongate, widened posteriorly, modemtely shining ; nigro-piceous, 
the apical joint of the antennae obscure fermginons, the elytra with 
a greoi or bluish-groen lustre; the elytra with a few long bristly 
haira towards the apex. Head closely, minutely punctate, the eyes 
very large, somewhat distant; antennae slender, moderately long, 
joint 11 about equalling the four preceding joints united. Pro- 
thorax a little wider than the head, scarcely so long as broad, rounded 
at the sides, strongly oonstricted before the raised baeal margin ; 
closely, minutely punctate. Elytra long, widening to beyond the 
middle, and there considerably more than twice the brewltb of the 
prothorax, srcuatdy narrowed posteriorly; finely, closely, deeply 
punotato-slriate, the interstices convex, 3 with five, and fi, 7, and 



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New and little-hiown Lagriidae. 199 

S Moh with three or four, Mattered deep setigwoiu itnpnssiiHtB 
tovnrdn the bpex, the apaoea between th«n ItmgitndiiuUly swdUco 
and aubcatcnnlate. 

Length llf-lS, breadth 4 mm. ($T) 

Hab. Perd, Chanchamayo (ex coU. F. Bales). 

Two examples, sex not ascertained. This is yet another 
form of iS. lattcoUis, approaching S. caeUUa, Kr., and S. nigra, 
Hakl., these latter having the ninth elyttal interstice intei- 
rnptecUy catenulate for nearly its entire length . The creoate 
elytral striae in S. pervana are still more deeply impressed 
at the apex than in the Amazonian S.viridUincta, and the 
elevations between the setigeroua impressions are strongly 
convex longitudinally, instead of shortly tuberculate as in 
the last-named insect. 

34. Statira raUrons. 
9. Slatira ntfifrons, Makl., Act. Soc. Fenn. vii, p. 152 (1862). 

Elcnigat«, iBther narrow, shining; obscure tcetaoeoiu above, 
darker beneath, the pnithoiaz aeneoua, the reet of the upper 
auifaoe (tba front of the head excepted) with a faint aeaeoua luatre ; 
the dytn with a. few long, aoatteced, biiatly haira. Head broad, 
■pareely, minutely ponctate, longitudinally Boloate and foveat« in 
the middle between the eyes, the latter large, moderetely distant; 
antennae long, alender, joint 1 1 in (} about equalling 7-10, in $ S-10, 
miited. Prothorax aa wide as, or a little wider than, the head, 
IcHiger tiian broad, oblongo4ordat«, oonatrioted before the promi- 
nent baaal margin; oloaely, finely, oouapiouonsly punctate, the 
interapBcee poliahed, the diao aometimea with a faint traoe of a 
median channel. Elytra long, twice aa broad aa the prothorax, 
gndnally widaied to the middle, somewhat acuminate post«riorly; 
doaely, finely punctato-striate, the striae deeply impressed at the 
apex, the interstices flat on the dieo, 3 and 5 each with five or six 
deep setigeroua impresBions scattered between the baae and apes, 
and 9 with three or four (and 7 sometiniea with one) similar impree- 
sions near the tip, the interspaces between them raised and sub- 
catflnnlate towards the apex. Anterior femora moderately clavate, 
bftie. 

Length 8^-10, breadth 2}^^ mm. 

Hab. Brazil {Mus. Oxon.), Rio de Janeiro {Fry). 

Six examples agreeing very nearly with Maklin's descrip- 
tion. Smaller and narrower than 8. JcUicollis, Makl., as 
here identified ; the head and prothorax more polished, 



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200 Mr. G. C. CIiampioD on 

the former longitudmsUy siilcat« and foveate between the 
eyes, the prothoraz oblong, less densely punctate, and 
aeneous in colour; the elytra lens dilated, translucent 
aeneo-testaceous, with the atriae deeply impreH»ed at the 
apex, the aetigeroua impressions on the interstices 3 and 
5 extended forward to the base. 

35. Statirs sphenodera, n. sp. (Plate XII, £g. 16, 3.) 
Very elongate, narrow, shining; pioeouB, the prothorax, under 
surface, and sometimea the femora at the base, mfouH or nifo-teetscfl- 
0U8, the elytra with e, translucent greenish or cupreous lustre, the 
latter with a few brietly hairs towards the apex. Head long, narrow, 
somewhat closely punctate, Bhallowly, loDgitudinaily, grooved 
between the eye«, the latter very large and subappraximate, the 
neck rugose ; antennae very lot^ and slender in both bcsbs, joint 1 1 
in S equalling about five, in $ rather more tlian three, of the pre- 
ceding joints united. Protboras elongate, narrow, suboonical, 
sinuate at the sides before the base, the basal and apioal margins 
slightly raised; closely, finely, irregularly punctate. Elytra very 
elongate, twice as wide oh the prothorax, subparallel, acuminate at 
the apex; finely punctato -striate, the interstices almost flat, 1, 3, 5, 
7< and each with two or three setigerous impressions towaids the 
tip. Legs very elongate, slender, the femora gradually thickened to 
near the apes in both sexee. 

Lengt 121-131. breadth 3-3| mm. (SS-) 

Hab. Brazil {Mu^. Oxon.], Rio de Janeiro {Fry), Per- 
nambuco (ea: coU. F. Bates). 

Seven specimens. A very elongate, narrow insect, not 
unlike S. longicollis, Makl., and easily recognisable by ita 
long, suboonical, red prothoraz, very elongate, slender 
antennae, with an extremely elongate terminal joint in i^, 
the metallic elytra, with the interstices smooth to near 
the apex, and the simple legs in both sexes. The general 
facies is that of an Agra. 

36. StaHra slenoeaphala, n. sp. 

^. Very elongate, narrow, shining; nigro-piceous, the femora 
paler at the base, the apical margin of ventral segments 3 and 4 
testaceous, the elytra with a oyaneons lustre, the latter with a few 
bristly hairs at the tip. Head oblorkg, narrow, sparsely puncUt«, 
foveate in tbe middle between the eyes, and with two small fove«e 
on each aide adjacent to them, the eyes latber small (as seen from 



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New and UtHe-known Lagriidae. 201 

Above), Bomewhftt distant; antemuie long, quite almder, joints 7-10 
T^idlr deoiwing in length, II rather longer than 6-10 unitad. 
I^thonx a little wider than the head, maoh loi^;er than broad, 
Bubcylindrical, slightly narrowed and constrioted before the apex, 
and very feebly sinuate at the sides before the base, the basal margin 
a little raised, the hind angles not prominent; very sparsely, finely, 
irregularly punctate, the disc trsjisversely depressed on each side 
before and beJiind the middle, and indistinctly so in tbe centre at 
the base. Elytra elongate, scarcely twice the width of the pro- 
thorax, subparallel to far beyond tbe middle, rounded at the tip; 
closely, finely slriato-punctate, striate at the apex, the interstices 
flat, transrereely wrinkled, without definite coarser setigerous im- 
pressitms on the alternate inteisticee. Legs long, slender, the 
anterior femora feebly clavate. 
Length 10, breadth 2} mm. 

Bob. Brazil [Mus. Brit.). 

One male, acquired by the Museum ia 1871. An i3olat«d 
form, tecogniaable by its narrow head, slender antennae, 
long, cylindrical, polished prothoraz, and nigro-cyaneous, 
long, subparallel, non-foveolat« elytra. It beats some 
resemblance to Hypoatatira variicohr, Fairm., from Minas 
Geraes,^^ but the present insect cannot be referred to that 
genus as defined by its describer. 

37. Stollra viridlnltolu, n. sp. 

?. Very elongate, somewhat convex, polished; head and pro- 
thoraxnigro-piceoUB, the elytra brilliant metallic green, with cupre- 
ous or gold^i reflections at the sides and apex, the legs, antennae, 
and under surface piceous, the elytra with a few long, bristly haiis. 
Head almost smooth (the covered rugose neck excepted), foveste 
in tie middle between the eyes, the latter moderately large, separ- 
ated by the width of one of them as seen from above; antennae 
extrentely slender and elongate, the joints slightly thickened at the 
tip, 11 equalting 9 and 10 united. Prothorax about as wide as the 
head, not longer than broad, cordate, almost smooth, the basal 
margin laterally projecting, raised. Elytra very elongate, at the 
base twice as broad as the prothorax, gradually widening to beyond 
tbe middle, acuminate posteriorly, the apices pointed; closely, 
finely puncta to -striate, the interstices broad, almost flat, 3, 5, and 
7 with several widely separated setigerous impressions scattered 



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202 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

between the (mm and ftpex, 9 also with three impresBiotu towaids the 
tip. Legs very long and Blesder, the femora moderately thifkfn"^ 
Leogth 12, bieadtb 3| mm. 

Bab. CoLOMBU (ex ctM. F. Bates). 

One female. An insect with brilliantly metallic elytra, 
as in S.sumtuosa, M&kl.,and other allied Colombian and 
Ecuador forms, the head and piothoraz relatively short, 
the elytra very long, posteriorly acuminate, and mucrooate 
at the tip, the antennae and legs as slendet aa in OtAryadet 
jTogilicomii, Champ., from Panama. The last-named 
species has the mandibles tridentate at the tip, which is 
apparently not the case in the present insect, so far as can 
be ascertained without opening them. S. anguslala, Yic, 
from Ecuador, must have equally slender antennae. 

38. StaOra aegnte. 
cj. Suaira aegrola, Makl., Act. 8oc. Fenn. vii, p. 149 (1862). 
S- Antennae simple, joint 11 abont equalling 7-10 (in $ S-10) 
imited; anterior femora stout; intermediate femoia gradoally 
thickened to beyond the middle and ali^tly hollowed thence to 
the apex. 

H(A. Brazil (Mxta. Oxon.), Kio de Janeiro {Fry), Espirito 
Santo (Schmidt). 

Four specimeus before me are probably referable to this 
species. They differ from Maklin's description in having 
the small rounded tubercles preceding the setigerous im- 
pressions placed on the alternate interstices 1, 3, 5, and 9, 
mstead of on 1, 3, 5, and 7, as stated. The tubercles are 
distributed along the whole length of the three dorsal 
iotetstioes mentioned, varying greatly in number, but on 
the ninth they are reduced to a short series near the apex. 
An elongate reddish insect, with the elytra translucent green 
or bluish-green, the prothoraz sometimes infuscate; the 
head broad, almost smooth, unimpressed between the eyes, 
the latter large and somewhat distant; the antennae 
slender; the prothoraz cordate (9) or oblongo-cordste (J), 
densely pimctolate, with very prominent basal mai^^n ; the 
elytra Imely putictato-striate, the interstices (except just 
in front of the setigerous impressions) almost flat; the 
femora and tibiae simple in (J. S. n^tnthorax. Pic," from 
San Antonio da Barra, Brazil, seems to be an allied fomi 
t> Melange* eiot.-entom. iv, p. U (Sept. 1912). 



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NeiB and little-knoum Lagriidae. 203 

with a subopaque head and prothoraz, and black antennae, 
knees, tibiae, and taisi. 

39. Stallta sdntiUans, n. sp. 

5. ElougBto, tiAiTow, Tery shilling; aeneo-piceous, the head, 
uitennM, and lege reddish ; the head and elytra with numeroue very 
long, subject bristly hairs, the antennae also setose. Head rather 
small, sparsely pnnotnlate.Iongitndinally grooved betweco the eyes, 
the Utter large and narrowly separated ; antennae long, slender, 
joint 11 extremely dongate, about equalling 3-10 united. Pro- 
thorax as wide as the head, much longer than broad, rounded at the 
sides, obliquely narrowed from the middle forward, and constricted 
before the prominent basal margin ; closely, very minutely punctate. 
Elytra long, nearly twice as wide as the prothorax, subparailel in their 
basal half, flattened and uneven on tike disc ; very minutely atriato- 
punotate, the interstices broad, flat, 1, 3, S, 7, 9 with from six to ten 
setigerous impressions scattered between the base and apex, the im- 
pressions each preceded by a small tubercle, these beooming slightly 
dongated towards the tip. I«gB rather stout, the femora strongly 
davate, the tibiae slightly curved at the base. 

Length 7, breadth 2-2^ mm. 

Hab. Amazons, Santarem, Ega {H. W. Bales). 

Two males. A narrow, elongate fonn related to the 
Colombian S. mnUuosa, Makl., but mach smaller, with the 
a]ncal joint of the (J'-antenna nearly half the length of the 
entile organ, and the surface of the elvtra so uneven as to 
appear scintillate. 

40. Statlra sphenoptora, n. sp. 

S- Elongate, narrow, attenuate posteriorly, rather dull, the elytra 
and under surface shiniiig; black, the elytra cyaneous on the disc, 
aeneous at the sidea, the antennae (joints 1~3 excepted) and legs (the 
bLack knees excepted) testaceous, the abdomen piceous ; the elytra 
with scattered long, erect, bristly haiis. Head large, broader than 
the prothorax, deosely, very finely punctate, t)>e eyee extremely 
large, narrowly separated ^ antennae long, slender [joints 10 and 11 
mining). Prothorax much longer than broad, oordate, strongly con- 
stricted before the raised, laterally-projecting basal margin ; densely 
nunulely punctate, traosverBely excavate in the centre at the base. 
£lytra moderately long, less than twice the width of the prothorax, 
narrowing from the base, unarmed at the tip; very finely, closely, 
puiKtat«4triate, the interstices feebly convex, 1, 3, and 6 with a 



n,g,i,.rjh,G00glc 



204 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

MvieB of eight or nine setigerouB impTcaeioDt, ench pieoeded hy a 
anudl tubercle, scattered between the ba«e and apex, and 9 with 
four ■mall tubercles along the apic«l half. Legs long, slender, the 
anterior femora stonter than t^e others. 
Length S, breadth 2 mm. 

ffoi. Upper Amazons, Ega (ff. W. Bates). 

One male. A narrow, graceful form, with a black head 
and prothorax, very large, subapproximate evea, sub- 
cuneiform, tuberculate, blue elytra, and long, flavescent 
legs, the black knees excepted. 

41. Statin sumtnoia. 

Statira tumiuota, Makl., Ofv. Finska Vet.-Soc. Forh. xx, 
p. 350 (1878). 

2- Elongate, widened posteriorly, shining j nigro-piceons, the 
elytra brilliant greeniah-aeneous, the elytral depieesions and apex 
golden-cupreous in certain lighte, the antennae and 1^ rufo-piceoos ; 
the elytra with a few long, bristly hairs. Head sparsely, very findy 
punctate, longitudinally depressed in the middle between the eye«, 
the latter very large, somewhat narrowly separated; antnmae 
sl«ider, joint 11 equalling 6-10 united. Prothoraa a little wider 
than the head, about as long as broad, moderately rounded at the 
sides, constricted before the raised baeal margin ; closely, oon- 
spionously punctate, shallowly, interruptedly sulcate down the 
middle, and with an oblique depression on each side of the diao 
posteriorly. Elytra long, widening to beyond the middle, twice oa 
broad as the prothonts, flattened on the disc below the base, and 
longitudinally depieesed within the humeri; extremely finely, 
shallowly atriato-punctate, the punctures becoming obsolete towards 
the apex ; the interstices flat, 1 , 3, 5, 7, and 9 each with a scattered 
series of small setigerous impressions, most of which are placed in 
large, broad, shallow, coalescent foveae, the interspacea between 
those on T and 9 carinate. I^egs long and slender. 

Length 12^, breadth 3J mm. 

Hab. CoLOtiBiA (ex <M. F. Bates). 

One specimen, agreeing well with Maklin's description, 
80 far as it goes. Recognisable by the bhltiantly metallic 
uneven elytra, with interruptedly carinate seventh and 
ninth interstices, the cloaely punctured, interruptedly sul- 
cate prothorax, and slender limbs. The femora are probably 
abraded. 



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New and Uule-lmown Lagriidoe. 205 

42. Stotirft ehaloopten, n. sp. 

Elongate, widened posteriorly, very shining i lugro-piceoue or 
black, the elytra brilliant brassy-green, partly cupreous when viewed 
in certain lighta, the lags rufo-teetaceouB, the antennae ferruginous 
orfnsco-feiTUgiiiouBj the elytra with a few long bristlj hairs. Head 
nther narrow, not wider than the prothorax, sparsely, minutely 
punctate, obsoletely impressed in the middle between the eyes, the 
latter very large, somewhat narrowly separated; antennae long, 
slender, joint 1 1 in $ equalling 8-10 united [broken of! in ,}]. Pro- 
thorax slightly longer than broad, rounded at the sides, moderately 
constricted before the prominent basal margin; sparsely, minutely 
punctate (almost smooth in one example], with a deep, oblong- 
triangular excavation in the middle at the base and an oblique im- 
praesion on each side of it anteriorly. Elytra long, widening to 
beyond the middle and there more than twice the width of the 
prothorax, tranaversdy exoavate below the base, and also longitudi- 
nally deprcBsed within the humeri; extremely finely, shallowly 
■triato -punctate, the inlentioee flat, 1, 3, S, 7 and 9 each with a 
Nattered series of small, shallow, setigerous imprwaionB, the im- 
pressions on 7 and 9, and those towards the apex of I, plaoed in large 
shallow foveae. Legs long; anterior and intermediate femora 
sparsely oiliate baneatii. 

Length lli-12|, breadth 3t mm. ((?$.) 

Hab. Colombia {Mm. Brit.). 

Two examples, one with the head and prothorax almost 
smooth. This is a form of S. sumtuosa, Makl., vith the 
elytra deeply excavate below the base, the broad, shallow, 
foveifonn depressiona on the disc restricted to the sides 
and apex, and the short carinae between them on the inter- 
stices 7 and 9 wanting ; the prothorax deeply triangularly 
excavate in the middle at the base ; and the legs wholly 
red. 

43. SUtira eaveniosa, n. sp. 

$. Elongate, depieased, widened posteriorly, shining; nigio- 
inceouB, the elytra metallic green, the depreasioos, sides, and apex 
aaneo-cupreouB, the legs fusco-oastaneous, the mandiblee nifeacent; 
the elytra with scattered, erect, bristly haiia. Head a little broader 
than the prothorax, veiy minutely punctate, with a shallow fovea 
in the middle between the ejee, the latter moderately large, distant ; 
aDtmmae slender, moderately long, joint II equalling ft and 10 
nikited. Prothorax slightly longer than broad, narrow, oblongo- 
eordate, constricted before the prominent basal margin; closely. 



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206 Mt. G. C. Champion on 

exoeaaiyely minuted; punctate. Elytn long, oomprMHed below tbe 
hnmeri, widaiing to bcTCHid tiie middle and then three timw tiie 
breadth of the piDtborax, transversely depressed below the beae. 
Mid with a deep, oblique poat-baasil excsvation ; minutelj, sinuoual;, 
strialo-punctat«, the interatiocB dat, 3, S, 7, and each witii four or 
five large, ahallow,8etigeioua impreesioDB on the apical half,l trans- 
rereely notched along the sutnte and also with three or four foveae 
towards the tip, the larger impresaions each preceded by a small 
tuberele or short carina, the carina on 7 extoiding uninterruptedly 
forward to the humeral callus. Legs lorkg, slender, the femora 

Length 9^, breadth 3 mm. 

Hab. Colombia (Mus. Brit.). 

One specimen, acquired in 1847. Xear S. imprestipenms, 
Makl., with a narrower, oblong, smoother prothoraz, smaller 
eyes, and very minutely striato-punctate, uneven elytra, 
the large shallow setigeious impiessiona on the apical half 
diverting the linear arrangement of the striae, the spaces 
between the impressions interruptedly carinate or catenu- 
late. S. sumtuoea ia an alUed larger insect. 

44. SUtira Impresripennls. 

Statira impreanpennie, Makl., Ofv. Finska Vet.-Soc. FSrh. 
XX, p. 351 (1878). 

Elongate, depressed, widened posteriorly, rery shining; nigro- 
pioeous, the head and prothoraz with an aeneous lostre, the elytra 
metallic green, brassy at the tip, the tarsi and joint 1 1 of the antennae 
fraruginous ; the elytra with numerous very long, erect, bristly hairs. 
Head narrower than the prothorax, sparsely, finely punctate, deeply 
foveate in the middle betweai the eyee. the latter very large, some- 
what narrowly separated; antennae slender, rather short, joint 11 
equalling 8-10 united. Prothotax not longer than broad, rounded 
at the sides, constricted before the prominent bssal margin ; some- 
what closely, finely punctate. Elytra very long, twice as broad as 
the prothorax, widening to beyond the middle, broadly depttesed 
for some distance below the base ; closely, very finely, aballowly, 
punetato-striate throughout, the intetstices flat, 1 (except along 
median third), 3, 5, and d with numerous Betigerous impressions 
scattered between the base and apex, 9 interruptedly coetate pc«- 
teriorly. Legs very long, slender ; anterior and intermediate femora 
finely eiliate beneath; tibiae pilose within. 

Length lOi, breadth 3i nun. ($1) 



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Nea and UtHe-known Lagriidae. 207 

Hab. GoLOHBU (Mils. Brit.). 

One specimen, almost certainly referable to S. impressi- 
pennis, Makl., the type of which was found by Steinheil in 
the same country. It is related to his S. aumiuoia and 
other Colombian fonns. 

45. StaUra eapeovirfdls, n. ap. 

Elongate, ntber narrow, depresaed, ahining; black with an 
aeneotu lostre, th« dytra brilliantly metallia green or golden-greoi 
at the base, cnpreons from tiie middle onwaida, the anUnnal joints 
4—11 obeoore ferrugiiKins, the tarai rnfo-teetaceous ; the elytra and 
abdomen with a few long bristly hain. Head small, not wider than 
the prothoraz, very spaisely, finely pnnctate, de^ly foveate in the 
middle between the eyes, the latter larg«, separated by about half 
the width of one of them; anteonae atender, joint 11 in $ [that of 
^ wanting] sli^tly longer than S--10 united. Fiothoraz narrow, 
longer than broad, obliquely narrowed anteriorly, and deeply con- 
stricted before the prominent basal ma^in ; sparsely, minutely punc- 
tate, depressed in the middle at the base. Elytra long, flattened, 
more than twice the width of the prothorax, subparallel in their 
basal half, the biuneri prominent and with a deep oblique depreasiaa ; 
very finely striata -punctate, the interstices broad, flat, feebly convex 
at the apex, 3 with five or six widely aoatterod, 5 and 7 each with 
two on the apical half, and 9 with one at the middle, setigerous im- 
piessions, each of which is placed in a large shallow fovea, 9 also 
widi lOTeral other impressions towards the tip. Le^ long, slender, 
anterior femora feebly clavate. 

Uaglh 9H01> bieadth 3-3} mm. (3%) 

Bab. Peru, Chanchamayo {ex coU. F. Boies). 

One pur, the tip of the antennae wanting in one of them. 
AbiiUiantlv metaUic insect allied to the Colombian S. sum- 
tuota. Maid., with a narrower head and prothorax, differ- 
ently sctdptuied elytra, and ruio-teataceoua tarsi. The 
large shallow foveae on the apical half of the el3i^ra give 
an uneven appearance to the surface; the general shape 
is hke that of an Agra, fam. Carabidae. 

46. Stattra viglntlpunetata, n. sp. 
Elongate, widened posteriorly, shining; black, the elytra metallic 
green, cupreous at the sides and apex, the antennae (exoept at the 
base) obscDie femiginons, the legs nigro-piceoue ; the elytra with 
a few Tery long bristly hairs. Head small, cloaely, finely punctate, 
tlie eyes moderately large, distant; antennae slender, joint 11 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



208 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

Bqnalliiig S-IO united. Prothorax about ae nide aa tlie head, con- 
iidfliably longer than broad, oblongoHx>rdBte, ooiutricted heton 
the moderately raised basal margin ; closely, finely punctate. Elytra 
long, widening to bejrond the middle and t^ere more than twice the 
width of the ptothomx, flattened below the base; oloeely, finely 
punctatO'Striate throughout, the intersticce almost flat, convex at 
the tip, 3 with six, and 6 with four, rather large, deep, setigerons 
impresBions scattered between the base and apex, 9 also with two 
smaller impressions towards the tip. Legs long; anterior femora 
moderately ctavate. ' 
Length 9}, breadth 3 mm. ($ T) 

Hab. Peru, Chanchamayo (ex coil. F. Bates). 
One specimen. Differs from S. cupreoviridia, from the 
same locality, in having the elytra shorter, less brilliantly 
coloured, punctato-striate to the apex, and with the 
setigerouB impressions smaller, deeper, and otherwise 
arranged, the head and prothoiax closely punctate, the 
tarsi infuscate. The sharply-defined elytral foveae are 
suggestive of those of various species of the Carabid-genus 
Pterostickus. 

47. StKflra semienprsa, d. sp. 
Elongate, widaied posteriorly, somewhat robust, shining ; piceous, 
the elytra aeneoos at the base, the oolour ohaitging to cupreous 
from about the basal thiid onwards, the cupreous coloration enclosing 
an oblong green patch on the disc near the tip ; the elytia with a tew 
long bristly hairs. Head short, barely as wide as the prothorax, 
closely, finely punctate, the eyes large, distant; aoterinae moder- 
ately long, slender [tip broken off]. Prothorax transverse, rounded 
at the sides, deeply constricted before the prominent basal margin; 
closely, finely punctate. Elytra long, broad, more than twice tha 
breadth of the prothorax, gradually widened to the middle, and 
somewhat acuminate posteriorly; very finely, closely striato- 
punctate, the int«rstices broad, flat, 3 with four or five, and 6 with 
three, large setigerous impreasions towards the apex, 9 also with 
a aeries of impressions down the apical half, the interspaces between 
them cariniform. Anterior femora moderately olavate. 
Length 11^, bit^th 3} mm. ($T) 
Hab. Pebu, Chanchamayo (ex cdl. F. Bates). 
One specimen. Larger than the Central American 
S. glabrata, Makl., with more elongate, smoother, partly 
cupreous, apically foveolate elytra, more slender antennae, 
a less constricted prothorax, simple anterior femora, etc. 



n,g,t,7rJM,GOOglC 



New and liaIe-]cnoti>n Lagritdae. 209 

The elytral sculpture is rather like that of S. cupreoviridu, 
the lai^ eetigetons impres^oiiB, however, in the present 
species are mostly placed near the apex. 

48. Statin splendleans. 

$. Siatira apletidicatis, Makl., Act. Soc. Fenn. vii, p. 151 
(1862). 
Vetylike S. mkant, HaJcl. (No. 29), the altenwtd elytral inWrsticee 
not catenulate towards the apcE, I, 3. and 5 with a scattered series 
of aetigeroiis impreaaioiiB, those on 7 wanting, S witii two or thiee 
impieeaions near the tip; head a little broader, the inter-ocolar 
grooveonly just indicated, the eyes men distant; antenna! joint II 
in J oqualling 7-10, in $ 8-10, onited ; legs slender, simple in i^ ; 
aedeagua slender, thickened and slightly hooked at the tip above. 

ffoi, Brazil {Mus. Oxon.), Constancia {J. Gray and H. 
Clark, Jan. 1857), Rio de Janeiro {Fry), Minas Geraes 
(Mus. Oxon.). 

Two males and four females seen. 

49. Stittrs TOtundieollls, n. sp. 
Uoderatelj elongate, somewhat robust, shining; piceoos, the 
bead and prothoraz with on aeneous lustre, the elytra brassy, the 
antennae obscure ferruginous, the elytra with a few long, bristly 
hairs. Head about as wide as the prothorax, almost smootli, a 
tianaverse foveate depression between the eyes excepted, the latter 
iatge, distant; antennae slender, joint 11 nearly as long as 7-10 
onited. Prothoraz convex, about as broad as long. atroDgty 
rounded at the aides, deeply constricted before the prominent basal 
margin; sparsely, very minutely punctate. Elytra long, twice 
as broad as the prothorax, gradually widened to the middle, and 
somewhat acuminate posteriorly; closely, finely, deeply punctato- 
striate, the interstices becoming more convex towards the apex, 
3 with five, and S witb three or four, widely scattered, setigerous 
impressions, 7 also with one at the shoulder and 9 with two impres' 
■ions near the tip. Anterior femora clavate; anterior tibiae feebly 

Length 8^, breadth 2| mm. {^ T) 

Hab. Colombia, Bogota {Mus. Brit.). 

One spedmen. Narrower than the Central American 
8. ^abrata, Makl., the prothorax not wider than the head, 
the anterior femora unarmed, the elytra more deeply 

TRANS. ENT. SOC, LOND. 1917. — PART I. (NOV.) P 



iM-,i,A J h, Cookie 



210 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

striate, with the interstices convex at the apex. More 
shining than S. jmncticeps (No. 53), the head and pro- 
thorax almost smooth, the tatter deeply constricted before 
the base. 

60. Statin dlviu, n. sp. 

Elongate, d«pieeeed, widened poetesnotij, very Hhining ; ofaecuie 
teetMMOOB, the hwd, antennae, and palpi in great part pioeons; the 
djtta of a brilliMit braaay tint, ting^Bd with cupteons lUong the 
inferior maigin, the autnn tMtaoeoiu throughout, the teataoeoui 
ooloration gradoallj becoming more extended towaids the apex; 
tiie elytra with a few long bristly hairs. Head about aa wide u 
the piothorax, eporedy, minutely pnnctete, ahallowly 'loveate in 
the middle between the eyee, the latter moderately large, distant: 
antennae long, alaider, joint 11 barely the length of 8-10 united. 
Prothoraz about aa broad as long, rounded at the aides, constricted 
before the raised basal margin ; very sparsely, obeoletely punctulate. 
Elytra long, widening t« beyond the middle, and there more thu 
twice the width of the pro thorax, subacuminate post«riorly, depieseed 
below the bsse, and with oa oblique intra-humeial depression: 
closely, minutflty punctato-atriate, the sutural stria deeply im- 
pressed at the apex, the interstices flat, 3 with about eight, S wi th fonr 
or five, and 9 wi^ numerous, deep setigerous impressions scattered 
throughout their length, and 1 with two small impressions near 
the tip. Legs long, slender, the femora glabrous. 

Length 8^, breadth 3 mm. ($ T) 

Hob. Venkzuela (Dyson, in Mm. Bnt.). 

One specimen, somewhat immature and discoloured, 
but otherwise perfect, acquired in 1847. Smaller than 
the Colombian S. impressipennis, Makl., the piothorax 
narrower, the elytra testaceous along the suture, with fewer 
setigerous impressions on the disc, the femora gtabioiu 
( ? abraded), etc. The numerous deep impressions scattered 
along the whole length of the ninth elytral interatice is a 
marked feature of the present species. The much larger 
;S. nubeculosa, Makl. (length 13 mm.), from Colombia, also 
has a Butural stripe. 

51. Statlra dUnta. n. sp. 

Elongate, shining; piceous or mfo-castaneous, the antennas 

and legs paler, the femora slightly infusoate, the elytra with s 

cupreous or greenish lustre, the latter with a few bristly bain 

towaids the apex. Head as brood as the prothorax, sparsely, wj 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lc 



Hew and little-knoim Lagriidae. 211 

minntelr puncUt^ with eevtnJ ooaner panctona between the 
ofM, tbe bttot modentely large, diatant; antaDnae almder, long, 
joint 11 nesitj or qait« eqnaJling 8-10 nnitcd. Frothor&x aboat as 
Intg aa broad, romtded at the sidea, deeplj ocmstrioted before tbe 
raised basal nuugin; apandy, very minnteij ponotate. Eljrtn 
long, flattened on the disc, twice aa broad aa tbe protborax, grada&Dy 
widened to the middle, and somewhat aonminate poaterioriy; 
doeely, finely, shallowly punctAto-Btriate to the tip, the inlerstices 
broad, fiat, 3, 6, 7, and 9 each with from two to fooi eetigeioDB 
impraesiona on tbe apical half (those on 7 wanting in one specimen). 
Length 9i-10i, breadth 3-31 !»)>>• 

Hab. EcoABOB, Macas (SuoU^). 

Three Epecimens, possibly including the two sexes. 
Near the Venezuelan S. divisa, the elytra uniformly cotouied, 
simply flattened on the disc, the setigerous impressions on 
the inteistices 3, 5, and 9 fewer in number and mostly 
placed near the apex. The much smoother, polished 
prothorax separat«s S. dUula from S. UUtrdlis (No. 71), 
timonis, aufffisa (No. 72), caeruUotincta (No. 59), etc.; 
and ita larger size and more elongate elytra from S. 
tran^ludda (No. 56). 



52. Statfrs slmonls. 
Statira nmonis, Fairm., Ann. Soc. Ent. Pr. 1892, p. 95. 

Elongate, somewhat depressed, widened posteriorly, shining; 
nifo-testaoeouB, the eyes black, the elytra with a faint brassy lustre, 
(he tatter with a few long bristly hairs. Head not so broad as the 
proUiorax lOlosely. piinotulate, transversely impiessed between the 
eyes, the btt«r moderately large, distant; antenns« slender, long, 
joint 11 not quite equalling S-10 united. Prothorax a little broader 
than long, moderately rounded at the sides, deeply constricted 
before the raised basal margin; densely, finely punctate, transversely 
grooved on each side of the disc just behind the middle, the basal 
groove complete. Elytra long, twice the breadth of tbe prothorax, 
widening to b^ond tbe middle, the sides arcuately oonvet^ing 
thence to the apex; closely, very finely stria to -punotate, the inter- 
stioea broad and fiat thronghont, 3 with six (scattered betweoi 
the base and apex), 6 with four (on the apical half), and 9 with three 
(towards the apex), large, deep setigerous impressions. AaUaioz 
femora moderately olavate. 

Length 10, breadth 3^ nun. ($t) 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



212 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

Hah. VEiTBZtmLA {Dyson). San Eeteban, Colonia Tovar 
{Simon : type). 

One specimen, acquired by the Museum in 1847, agre^g 
with the description of S. simonis, Fairm. Neat S. iateralu, 
Makl. (as here identified), and separable therefrom by the 
broader, laterally-grooved prothoraz, and the very finely, 
shallowly striato-punctate elytra, the interaticeB of which 
are fiat throughout, 3, 5, and 9 with a few large deep 
Betigerous impressions. S. divisa from Venezuela, S. 
caendeolinaa, from Colombia (No. 59), and S. testacea and 
S. ameotincta, from Central America, are also alUed fonns. 

53. Statira functieeps, n. sp. 

Moderately elongate, niUTOV, feebly shining ; greenish .aeneoiu, 
theontennae, legs, and undersurfaceingreat part or wholly pieeona; 
the head and elytra with scattered long, erect, pallid, bristly liain. 
Head rather small, somewhat coarsely, closely punctate, smoother 
in the middle between the eyea, the latter large and well separated; 
antennae slender, long, shorter in $, joint 11 in <} about equalling 
7-10, in $ barely as long as 8-10. united. Prothorax obtong, longer 
than broad, as wide as the head, constricted before the base, t^e 
basal margin moderately raised; closely, conspicuously punctate, 
without trace of median channel, the interspaces alutaoeous. 
Et]rtrs rather long, about twice as broad as the prothorax, sub- 
parallel at the base; closely, finely, rather deeply punctata-striate, 
the intersticee becoming oodtcx towanls the apex, 3 with six or 
serai, and 5 with four or five, setigerous impressions scattered 
between the base and apex, 9 also with two impressions near the tip. 
Anterior femora strongly clavate. 

Var. a. Antennae (joints 1 and 2 excepted) rufo- testaceous, (o-) 

Var. ^. Prothorax and abdomen rufo-piceouB, \egi and antennae 
(joints 1 and 2 excepted) rufo -testaceous. ($.) 

Var. y. Prothorax, a large apical patch on the elytra extending 
narrowly up the suture to the base, antennae (joints I and 2 ex- 
cepted), legs, and under surface ferruginous or rufo -testaceous, (o-) 

Length 7-fl, breadth 2-3 mm. (,J?.) 

H<A. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro (Fry), Conatancia {J. Gray 
and H. Clark. Jan. 1857 : type). 

Four males and two females, certainly belonging to one 
variable species, the darker eitamples ((J$) selected as tyjKB. 
More elongate than the equally variable S. incoratmu. 
Champ., from Central America, the elytra subparallel in 
male, the head and prothorax closely, conspicuously punc- 



ihyCOOl^lC 



New and liiie-knovm Lagriidae. 213 

tate, the eyes larger and more approximate. The longer 
elytra, with deeper striae and more numerous setigerous im- 
pressions, the more coarsely pnnctured head and prothorax, 
the 1att«r without trac« of median groove, easily separate 
S- puncticeps from S. sericea (No. 65). The colour of the 
antennae and Legs proves to be of no value as a speofic 
character in the present species. S. fiavkomis, Makl., 
must be a very (fifferent insect. 

54. Statin gritlosa. 

Statira gratiosa, Makl., Ofv. Finska Vet.-Soc. Forh, xx, 
p. 353 (1878). 

S. Elongate, narrow, ghining; rufo-castaneoue, the antauae 
(joint 11 excepted) and upper surface darker, the elytra brilliant 
violaceo-cupteooB, metallic grerai along the Buture and at the sides, 
the green colontion extending across the base. Head smalt, not 
wider than the prothorax, coanelj, cloeelj punctate, smoother in 
front, the eyes moderately large and separated by about half the 
width of one of them; antennae rather slender, joint 11 extremely 
dongate, about eqnalling 4-10 united. Prothorax longer than broad, 
oblongo-cordate, as wide as the bead, constricted before the rather 
prominent basal margin ; ctoaelj, conspicuously punctate. Elytra 
moderately l<mg, twice as wide as the prothorax, subparallel at the 
base, narrowing from before the middle to the apex, the intra- 
humeral depression oblong, deep; minutely striate- punctate, the 
pnDctureH becoming still smaller towards the tip, the interstices 
qnite flat throughout, 3 with sis large, shallow setigerous impressions 
scattered between the base and apex, 9 with two smaller impiesaions 
near the tip. Legs sparsely pilose; femora oiliate with long haira 
beneath, the anterior pair strongly clavate. 

Length TJ. breadth 2^ mm. 

Hab. Colombia (Mus. Brit., ex coll. F. Bales], 
One male, assumed to be referable to Maklin's S. gratiosa ; 
but as the author does not mention the sculpture of the 
head and form of the antennae, and describes the body as 
black (an unimportant character), the identification is 
not altogether certain. S. cupripainis, also found by 
Hteinheil in Colombia, is said to have similarly cupreous 
and golden-green elytra, with setigerous impressions on the 
interstices 3, 5, and 7, an almost smooth prothorax, etc. 
The specimen here described is one of two Colombian 
insects from the F. Bates collection labelled " S. mridi- 
pennis, Dej,," a name used by Serville for a very difieient 



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214 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

Brazilian fotm. The present species is nearly allied to 
the Central-American S. variabilis. Champ., which has 
ciliat« ant«rior femora in both sezee. 

55. SUtlm dejeani, n. sp. 

Slalyra viridipennis, Dej. Cat., 3rd edit., p. 236 (1837) 
(nee Serv.). 

,J. Elongate, narrow, ahiiJng ; castaneous, the elytra tranBlucent 
metallic green, except along the auture posteriorly. Head clceelj, 
rather coarsely punctate, the eyes large and somewhat narrowly 
separated; antennae with joint 11 neariy equalling 4-10 united. 
Prothorax considerably longer than broad, oblongo-cordate, the 
basal margin raised; closely, conspicuously punctate. Elytra 
moderately long, narrowing from the middle, the oblong intra- 
humeral depression shallow ; closely, rather finely punctata -striate, 
the Butural stria deeply impressed posteriorly, the inteistices flat, 
3 with five widely separated deep setigerous impreBBioiiB scattered 
betweoi the base and apex, 9 also with two smaller impressions 
towards the tip. Femora sparsely ciliate, the anterior pair olavate. 

Length 7}, breadth 2^ mm. 

Hob. Colombia, Carthagena (ex coU. F. Bates). 

One male, from the Dejean collection, and included 
by him under S. viridip&inis. Extremely like S. gratiosa, 
but with the elytra translucent metallic green (except along 
a common elongate space on the disc posteriorly), more 
coarsely punctato-striate, and with the similarly-placed 
setigerous impressions deeper and less extended laterally; 
the prothorax longer, and less rounded at the sides ; and 
the head a little more sparsely punctured; the eleventh 
antennal joint slightly shorter. S. terminalis, Makl., 
must be similarly coloured. 

56. Statira trausliidda, n. sp. 
Moderately elongate, widened posteriorly, shining ; ruf o-teetaceous, 
the eyes blaok, the palpi sometimes more or lees inf uacate, the elytra 
(the epipleura excepted) suffused with green or golden-green, the 
latter with a few long, erect, bristly hairs. Head sparsely, minutely 
punctate, obsoletely foveate in the middle between the eyas, the 
latter distant, moderately large; antennae rather sIraideT, joint II 
in j nearly as long as 8-10 united, in $ a little shorter. Prothorax 
almoet or quite as wide as the head, about as broad as long, cordate, 
strongly constricted before the prominent hind oitgles, the basal 



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New and lHUe-lcnovm Lagriidaf. 215 

BMrpn feebly isised ; apandy, minDtdy punctata. Elytn modB'- 
aMj long, twice u btoad as the prothoiftx, wideoed to the middki, 
and mpkUy lufrowed thence to the somewhat oonminate apex, 
trMMT o ra o ly dapreeaed below the base; cloaely, finely punctato- 
■triate, the intenticn beconting convex towards the apex, 3 witii 
' from five to eight, and 6 and 9 with foor or five setigeions impna- 
aions {those on 3 and 5 scattered between the base and apex), 1 
also with one or two impressions near the tip. 
Lengtii «{-71, breadth 21-21 mm. ((}$.) 

Hab. Brazil (Mua. Oxon.), Rio de Janeiro [type] (Fry), 
PetiopoliB {J. Gray and H. Clark, Jao. 1857), Eapirito 
Santo (Degcourtils). 

Nine apedmena seen, inclading the three in the Oxfoid 
HoBeoin. A rather amall, mfo-testaceous form, with dilute 
golden-green or green, very shining elytra, which in both 
sexea are widened towards the middle and acuminate 
posteriorly, slender antennae, and a relatively narrow 
head and prothorax. Maklin's description of S. svbaenea, 
from Santa Catbarina, nearly appUes to the present insect ; 
but the former is said to have the head shallowly, longi- 
tudinally foveate between the eyes, the basal margin of 
the prothorax moderately raised, the elytra linear or very 
feebly widening in their basal two-thirds, and the five 
setigerons impressions on their third interatice restricted 
to the apical half. S. cupreolincta. Champ., from Panama, 
is a larger and more elongate insect, with a wider pro- 
thorax and less uniformly coloured elytra, the latter with 
much larger setigerous impressions. 

57. Stadia sabglabrata, n. sp. 

Moderately dongate, widened posteriorly, shining ; ru{o -testaceous 
or testaceous, the eyee black, the elytra aeneo-piceous, the latter 
almost gkbrotu. Head spanely, minutely punctate, the eyes 
moderately large, distant; anteimae rather stout, comparatively 
short, joint 11 not or very little longer than 9 and 10 united. Pro- 
thorax as wide SB the head, about as long as broad, cordate, slightly 
dilated at the base, the basal margin feebly raised; spaiaely, 
minatdy punctate, findy, obsoletely canaliculate on the disc 
aaterioTly. Elytra not very elongate, in their widest part twice as 
bioad aa the prothorax, gradually dilated to the middle, and arouately 
narrowed posteriorly ; closely, finely punctate -striate, the inter- 
■ticee feebly convex, 3 with three or four widely scattered setigerous 



ll,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



216 , Hi. G. C. Champion on 

impreasiona aJong their apical half, and 9 usually with one or tvo 
impTOBaions near the tip. 

Length 4^-6}, breadth 21-21 mm. (<;$.) 

Hob. Amazons, Ega, Santarem [type] {H. W. Boies]. 

Seven examples, including three males with the aedeagus 
partly exposed. This insect is of about the same size and 
shape as S. viridicincta (No. 96), differing from it in having 
uniformly aeneo-piceous elytra, with the setigeious impres- 
sions OQ the disc reduced to three or four on the apical 
half of the third interstice, shorter and stouter antennae, 
with the terminal joint not much longer than 9 and 10 
united in (S, and an obsoletely canaliculate piothorax. 

58. Statira caliensls, d. sp. 
Moderately elongate, depremed, Bhining ; aeneo-piceous or rufo- 
ptoeoua with an aeneous lustre; the elytra with a few long, erect, 
bristly hairs. H«ad sparsely, very minutely panctale, transversely 
depreesed between the eyes, the hitter lai^ and well separated; 
antennae long, rather Bt«ut, joint 11 in (J as long as 7-10, in $ the 
length of 8-10, united. Prothorax in (J as hroad as, in $ broader 
than, the head, not so long as wide, subcordate, strongly constricted 
before the base, the basal margin prominent and laterally projecting; 
rather sparsely, minutely punctate. Elytra moderately long, at 
the middle twice as broad as the protliorax, gradually widened in 
their basal half; closely, finely crenato-striate, the interstices be- 
coming convex towards the sides and apex, 3 and 6 with soattered 
conspicuous eetigerous impressions along their entire length, 7 also 
with one, and 9 with two or three, near the apex. L^s lather 

Length S^9, breadth 2^-3 mm. (3^.) 

Hab. W. Colombia, Call (Rosenberg). 

One pair. Near S. laieralie, Makl. (No. 71), as here 
understood but aeneo-piceous in colour, the antennae 
stouter, and the el^'tra with a scattered row of setig«Y>u8 
impressions along the interstices 3 and 5 from the base to 
the apex. 

59. SUOm oaeruleotineta, n. sp. 

Elongate, somewhat robust, moderately shining; castaneous, the 
riytra with a translucent bluish lustre on thedisc, the colour changing 
to brassy towards the sidee and apex ; the elytra with a few bristly 
hairs. Head nearly as broad as the prothorax, sparsely, minotdy 



u„,,i,Aji^,Coot5lc 



New and liUle-knovm Lagriidae. 317 

punctste, the eyes Ui^, aomewbtit distant; antannae long, Blender, 
joint II «a long as 7-10 united. Protboraz rather broad, about u 
long M wide, rounded at the eidea, constricted before the prominent 
lateratty -projecting baaal margin ; closely, minutely punctate. 
Elytra long, broad, slightly widening to the middle, about twice as 
wide as the prothorai, somewhat acuminate at the tip; closely, 
finely puncta to -striate, the interstices flat, 3 with four or five deep 
setigerous impressions scatteied along the apical half, and fi and 9 
also with two or three otheis towards the tip, 3 and 5 subcatenulate 
posteriorly. Anterior femora clavate, bare. 
Length 9i, breadth 3 mm. (St) 

Hab. CoLOMBU (Mwt. Brit., ex coU. F. Soies). 

One specimeD, from an old French collection. Not onlike 
the Brazilian S. rrtfa and S. mfifrons, Makl., the elytra 
bluish OD the disc, the setigeroue impressions fewer in 
nombei (wanting on the seventh interstice), the head not 
sulcate as in ;S. rufifrons, the head and prothorax formed 
nnich as in S. laticollis. The Mexican S. caeruleipennis, 
Champ., is somewhat similarly coloured. 

60. Statin puietlooUls, n. sp. 
Moderately elongate, shining; reddish -brown, the femora paler 
ftt the base, the eyes block; the elytra with a faint metallic lustre, 
and bearing a few bristly hairs. Head broad, sparsely, minutely 
punctate, with a shallow fovea between the eyes, an oblong depres- 
siott in front of this, and a deep fovea ('/accidental) on the epistoma, 
the eyee very large, narrowly separated; antennae moderately 
long, tatber stout, joint 11 nearly equalling 7-10 united. Prothorax 
•a wide as the head, not longer than broad, subquadnite, strongly 
ccoutricted before the base, the basal margin raised ; closely, very 
finely punctate, the interspaces polished. Elytra moderately long, 
•t the middle twice as wide as the prothorax, somewhat acuminate 
posteriorly; closely, finely punctato-striate, the striae deeply im- 
piesMd at the apex, the interstices flat on the disc, 3 and 6 with 
from six to eight small setigerous impressions scattered throughout 
tbeu- Imgtb, 9 also with two othera near the tip. 
Length 7}, breadth 2^ mm. (£!) 

H<A. Amazons {H. W. Batea). 

One specimen, exact locality not given on the label. 
Near the variable S. muUiformis, Champ., from Central 
America, S. insularis {No. 77), from Trinidad, and S. 
(Wruieodnda, from Colombia, difiering from all of them in 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



218 Mr. G. C. Ghampion on 

the inteiTuptedly aulcate inter-ocular portion of the head 
(the deep fovea on the epistoma being pmbablj accidental), 
the antennae stoutet and the prothoras more shining and 
leas densely punctate than in the first two species, the eyes 
more approximate and the prothorax not so convex and 
less rounded at the aides than in S. caendeolincta. 

61. SUflra ehloropten, n. ap. 

Eloag&t«, nth«r oonvox, robust, very ahining ; piceoiu, the dytn 
brillimt metdlic green, Uve latter witli a few very long, erect, pallid, 
brietl; hairs. Head rather Bmall, narrower than the prothoi 
almoHt smooth, the eyes large, distant ; antennae moderately long, 
stout, joint 11 equalling 9 and 10 united. Prothorax broad, t 
verse, arouately dilated at the sides, narrowed and deeply con- 
stricted posteriorly, the baaal ma^in prominRit ; almost amootb, 
transversely excavate in the middle in front, and sballowly, 
terruptedly grooved down the middle. Elytra long, broad, neariy 
twice as wide as the prothorax, subparallel in their basal haK. 
with rows of fine, approximate punctura plaoed in deep striae, 
the inteiBtioea here and there transversely wrinkled, becoming mora 
convex towards the apex, 3. 5, and 9 with several widely sqiarated 
inoonspicuous setigerous punctures. Ijegfl rather atoot, anterior 
femoia clavate. 

Length 10, breadth 3^ mm. ($1) 

Hab. Pbbu (ea: coH. Pascoe). 

One specimen. This insect has stout antennae and s 
short, arcuately dilated prothorax, somewhat as in iS. 
eurydera (No. 68), but the general facies is more like that 
of the much larger S. ingens, from Central America. The 
brilliant metallic green, rather broad elytra, the small head, 
and somewhat convex body are also characteristic. 

62. StaUra eanalienlata, n. sp. 

$. Elongate, shining; nifo-piceous (obscure testaceous in the 
immature example), the head and legs paler, the elytra with a dilute 
aeneous lustre, the latter with a few long bristly hairs. Heed broad, 
almost smooth, the eyu large, distant; antennae short, slender, 
joint 11 nearly equalling 8-10 united. Prothorax not quite so broad 
as long, a little wider than the bead, transversely cordate, strongly 
oonstrioted before the raised basal margin ; very spsiselj, finely, 
unequally punctate, interruptedly oanaliculate down the middle, 
the groove widened before the base. Elytra very long, twice as 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



Nea and litUe-lcnown Lagriidae. 219 ' 

broad aa tiie protboros, gndnaJly widening to the middle, and 
Bomenriiat acuminato poateriorly; ctoaelj, finely pnnotAto-afcriate, 
the etoiae deeply impteosed at the apex, the intentioea almost fiat 
to near tbe tip, 3 with nine or ten, and 5 with five or six, setigenoB 
impreeetMw Matt«Ted thronghoat their hngth, 9 alio with two or 
three impreMiona towards the apex. 
Length ll^^- breadth 3i-4 mm. 

Hob. Peru (ex coU. Fry), Chanchamayo (ex coU. F. 
Bateg). 

Two femaJes, possibly obtuned by the same collector, 
Tliamm. Nanower than the Brazilian S. lattco&is, Makl. 
(No. 31); the prothorax much smoother, interruptedly 
canaliculate on the disc ; the elytra lelatively ]oot;;er, with 
a Bcatteied series of setigerous impres^ons along the 
interstices 3 and 5, the latter not catennlate at the apex. 
The short, convex, conspicuously canaUculate, compara- 
tively smooth prothorax also separates the present species 
from various other allied species. Compaied with the im- 
maculate form of the Colombian S. Irisdlata (No. 103), the 
eyes are larger, the antennae shorter and not so slender, 
and the elytra less acuminate at the apex, with the seriate 
punctures much &ner and the interstices almost flat. 

63. Statlra ranteua, n. sp. 

S- Elongate,narrow,depnHsed,TeryBhiiiing,theprothoraiduUer; 
bead and prothorax aeneooa, the elytra brilliant metallic green, 
the antamae, t^s, ajid under surface black; the bead and elytra 
with a few long, fine, erect, bristly hairs. Head a little wider than 
tbe prothorax, sparsely ptmctulate, foveate in the middle betwe^i 
tlie eyea, the latter large and somewhat distant ; antennae slender, 
joint 11 equalling S-10 united. PrDthonx longer than brood, 
sobo^indrioal, strongly constricted before the prominent baaal 
maigin; sparsely, minutely punctate and finely canaliculate, the 
iatorspaoes alutAceous. Elytra long, about twice as broad as the 
prothorax, snbpaiallel at the base, very little wider at the middle, 
the intia-bnmetal depression oblong, deep; very finely, olosdy 
punotato-striate, the interstices broad, flat on the disc, convex at 
(be apex, 3 with four scattered setigerous impresaions on the apical 
half, and 9 with two similar impreesions towards the tip. Lega 
long, slender, the anterior pair with strongly clavate femora, curved 
tibiae and broadly dilated tarsi, the tarsal joints 2 and 3 ti 

Lcngti) S, breodtii 2} mm. 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



220 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

Hab. Brazil, Caraca (P. Germain], 

One example. An insect veiy like S. versicolor, with 
wholly black legs and antennae, a lees deeplv canalicnlate 
prothorax, a relatively shorter eleventh antennal joint in 
(J, and briUiant metallic green elytra. Compared with 
S. sericea, the elytra are more elongate, the head has a 
single fovea between the eyea, and the legs and antennae 
are black. The dilated anterior tarsi are obviously indica- 
tive of the male sex. S. degans, Makl. (No. 87), is a 
somewhat similar differently-coloured form. 

64. Statirs vertfeolor, n. sp. 

(J. Elongate, narrow, depreeeed, Bhining; piceo-castaneoae, the 
head and prothorax with a faint aeneous lustte; the elytra in the 
esample selected as type met«llic blue-green in the sutural region, 
the colour changing to golden exterior to this, and to cupreous along 
the sides and at the apei, in a second specimen aeneo-cupieous ; 
the head and ejj^ra with a few long, erect, bristly hairs. He«d 
large, a little wider than the prothonix, sparsely, minntely punctate, 
flattened, punctulate. and laterally impressed between the eyes, 
the latter large and rather distant ; antennae slender, long, joint 1 1 
a little longer than S-10 united. Prothorax longer than broad, 
oblongo-cordate, constricted before the prominent baaal tnaigin; 
sparsely, very minutely punctate, the interspaces alutooeous, tiie 
disc strongly, interruptedly canaliculate. Elytra long, twice aa 
wide as the prothorax, subparslle] in their basal half, the intra- 
hnmeral depression oblong, deep; closely, finely pusola to -striate, 
the interstices flat on the disc, convex at the apex, 3 with about 
four widely separated setigerous impressions on the apical half, 
1 and 9 also with a single impieesion near the tip. Lc^ long, 
slender, the anterior pair with the femora moderately clavate 
and the tibiae feebly curved. 

Length 7t-9, breadth 2i-2i mm. 

Hab. Brazil {Mm. Oxon.), Bio de Janeiro (Fry : type). 

Two males, one of them immature, with the elytra 
almost uniformly aeneo-cupreous and the legs testaceous. 
Very near S. sericea, the elytra partly cupreous, the pro- 
thorax more deeply canaliculate, the head a little broader, 
the terminal joint of the antenna longer. The stron^y 
canahculate prothorax, the more metallic elytra, with fewer 
setigerous impressions (those on the third interstice not 
extending beyond the middle anteriorly), and the absence 



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New and Uule-knoum Lagrii^ae. 221 

of the median sulcns on the head, separate S. i-ersicolor 
from S. nififrons, Makl. (No. 34). 

65. SUtiia serieea, n. sp. 

Moderately elongate, narrow, shining, the prothoraT dull ; a«meo- 
piceoua, or nifo-castaneoua with a faint aeneous lustre, the elytra 
aeneous or golden-green, becoming oupieouB or golden towards the 
Bidee and apex, the ant^inae t«etaoeous, the two basal joints, the 
eyee, and palpi black or blackish ; the elytra with a few long, erect, 
bristly hairs. Head rather broad, very sparsely, minutely punctate, 
shallowly bifoveate between the eyes in <J, the latl«r large, some- 
what distant; antennae slender, rather long, joint 11 in J aa long as 
7-10, in $ equalling S-10, united. Prothorai narrower than the 
head, longer than broad, oblongo -cordate, strongly constricted 
before the raised, laterally prominent, basal margin; sparsely, 
minutely punctate, the interspacea atutaceous, and finely, distinctly 
canaliculate down the anterior half. Elytra moderately long, twice 
aa broad as the prothorax. gradually widened to the middle, and 
obliquely excavate or depreesed within the humeri ; cloe^y, very 
finely punctato-striate, the interstices flat on the disc, convex at 
the Apex, 3 with four or five widely scattered setigerous impieesions, 
also with one or two others towards the apex. L^b slender. 

Length 6-6J, breadth l,V-2 mm. {(J?.) 

Hab. Brazil [Mus. Ozon. : <^), Constancia (J. Gray and 
H. Clark, Jan. 1857 : type, cJ), Rio de Janeiro {Fry : $). 

Three males and one female. Narrower and less robust 
than the Central American S. variabilis. Champ. ; the 
antennae more slender, testaceous (the two basal joints 
excepted), with a less elongate apical joint in (J; the 
head and prothorax smoother and not so shining, the latter 
finely canahculate; the elytra cupreous or golden at the 
sides, with the seriate punctures finer and the interstices 
convex at the apex. S. subaenea, Makl., from Santa 
Catharina, and S. gratiosa, Makt., from Colombia, are 
similarly coloured forms. The upper surface in the 
present insect is not very highly polished, appearing 
somewhat sericeous. 

66. Statira purpuielpennls. 

SUUira purpureipennis. Pic, Melanges exot.-entom. xi. 
p. 19 (Nov. 1914). 
tfafc. Bbakil, Jatahy, Prov. of Goyas {Pujol). 



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222 Mr. 6. C. Champion on 

In the Fry collection there is an example ($?) of this 
species from the same locality as the type. It is a very 
elongate, narrow insect, nigro-piceous in colour, with the 
elytra moderately shining, purple ; the abdomen castuteous ; 
the head and prothorax opaque, and densely scabroao- 
punctulate, the fonner large, the latter longer than broad, 
cordat«, with rained, laterally-projecting basal mai^in; 
the elytra elongate, subparallel in their basal half, the 
alternate interstices 1, 3, and 5 with a complete series, 
and 7 with a row down the apical half, of rather cloeely 
placed, setigeroufl impressions, each of which is preceded 
by a small tubercle, 9 also with three impressions near the 
tip ; the antennae long and slender [apical joints wanting] ; 
the legs unusually elongate, the antenor femora not much 
thicker than the others. 

67. StaOrs nmbrosa, n. sp. 

Elongate, nktiier luknow, opaque; piceous or oaHta&eoiu, the 
femora p&ler at th« base, the elytra black, the latter with numeroiu 
VBiy long, ereot, bristly hairs. Head lai^ dauely, Boabrooo. 
punotulate, the eyes very lai^ modarately diataut; antatmae 
Blender, long, joint II in <} about equalling 6-10, in $ S-IO, onitcd. 
Prothonx aa wide as the head, laager than broad, oordaM, atnai^y 
oonatriotnd before the raised, Uterally-projeoting hind angles, tlie 
tmnsverse basal groove not extending aorasa the diso; dcoady 
soabroao-punotulate. Elytra long, aubparallel in their baaal haU, 
barely twioe the width of the prothorax; closely, finely punctab>- 
striate, the striae deeply impreBsed at the spex, the inleraticea morn 
or less convex, alutaoeoua, 1, 3, and 5 with a scattered series of 
setigerouB impreesiona extending throughout their kngUi, (he 
impressions each preceded by a small tubercle, 9 also with two 
impresBions near the tip. legs ve^ long, the tibiae and taisi 
pilose; antenor femora atnwgly dsvate, intermediate fentora 
thickened before the apex boieath, awl intermediate tibiae widened 
from near the base and clueely pubesocnt within, in S- Pmia- 
sheath very lorkg, stout, curved, concave above, rounded at tip. 

Length 10, breadth 3 mm. (3i.) 

Hab. Braziu Ceara {GoaneUe, (J : type), Jatahy, Prov, 
of Goyas (Pujol, ?). 

Two apeoimens— a J with the penis-sheath ftUly extruded, 
the other assumed to be a ^ of the same species. Very tike 
iS. purpumpeHHts. l*ic, also from Jatahy, but with sericeous, 
opaque, black elytra, and fewer setigeroua impressktnB on 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



Nea aitd liole-knoiim LagnHae. 223 

the inteistiGes I, 3, and 5, those on 7 wanting. The sexes 
differ in the form of the intermediate legs, the anterior 
femora of the ^ are also stron^y cUvate. 

68. Statin euydns, n. sp. (Plate XD, fig. 17, J) 
Elongate or moderately «longAt«, robust, ahfaung ; ruf o-cutsiieoiiB, 
oastaoeoDB, or piceoiu, the npper anrfsce more or len araieons, the 
dftn OBually metaJlic greoi, the spicai joint of the antom&e 
femiginoiu in one or two of the darker ezsmplea; the elytn with 
a tew long, erect, hriatljt haiia. Head short, bn»d, dauelj, finrijr 
punctate, the ejes very large, nanowly sepaiated ; antennae stout, 
moderatdy long, joiata 3-10 anbeqaal in length, II in ^ abont 
eqnalling 7-10, in $ S-10, united. Prothorax stronf^y ttansveree, 
aa wide as tiie head, anmately dilated anteriorly, in some speciiuens 
diatincUy angulate at abont one-Uurd from the apex, marpned and 
rapidly narrowed thence to the deep boaal groove, the basal ma^in 
much TBised and laterally projecting; densely, minutely punotat«, 
the narrow intenpacea still more minutely punctate or scabrous. 
Elytra lather dongate, one-half broader than the protiiorax, 
gradually widened to a little beyond the middle, rounded at the 
apex; olosedy, findy punctato-Btriate, the intersticea 3, 5, and 9 
with from about six to eight conspicuous setigerous tmpicsaiouH 
aoattered between the base and apex. 
Length Sf-lO^, breadth 2-3J mm. ( j$.) 

Hab. Amazoks, Ega [type], Santarem, Para (H. W. Bates), 
Bahia (fry). 

Eleven specimens, all but two from the Amazons, these 
insects varying greatly in size and in the relative length of 
the elytra. S. earydera is a southern form of the Mexican 
S. crassicomis. Champ., differing from it in the much 
rougher, more densely punctulate prothorax. The pro- 
thorax is obliquely compressed along the flanks posteriorly, 
so aa to appear marked above. 

69. SUtlra latevlUata, n. sp. 
$. Eltuigate, narrow, robust, moderately shining; rufous or 
caataneous, the eyes black, the palpi piceous, the prothorax slightly 
infuscate, or with the sides piceous, the elytra with a broad metallic 
green s^pe extending down the out«r half from the base to near 
the apex. Head broad, densely, finely punctate, the eyea very 
large, narrowly separated ; antennae moderately long, stout, joints 
4-10 slightly increasing in length, 11 as long aa 9 and 10 united. 



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224 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

Prothorax a« wid« as the heftd, much broader than long, tnni- 
votmIj coidate, strongly oonatrict«d before the prominoit hind 
angles, the basal margin much raised; densely, finely pnnctaU, 
the narrow interspa<Ma somewhat scabrous. Elytra long, about 
one-halt broader than the prothorax, very gradually widened to 
beyond the middle, flattened on the disc, and rounded at the apex ; 
closely, finely striato-punctate, the interstices alutaceous, flat, 3, 
6, and 9 with one or two inconspicuous setigerous impressions towards 
the apex. 

Length 6)-8, breadth 2-2} mm. 

Hob. Amazons, Para {H. W. Bates). 

Two examples, one with the tips of the antennae wanting. 
This species has the head, eyes, and antennae shaped as in 
S. eurydera, and the body coloured as in iS. vindh-ittata, 
all three insects inhabiting the Amazon region. The 
brilliant green lateral stripe on the elytra extends downward 
to the epipleural margin in <S. kUevitUita. The Colombian 
S. medialis, Makl., must be an allied foim, with a longer 
and smoother prothorax, the dense puncturing of the latter 
giving; it a scabrous appearance in the Amazonian insect." 

70. StattTB vlridlTltUta, n. sp. 

J. Elongate, narrow, robust, flattened above, shining; rufo- 
oaslaneous, the elytra each with a broad golden-green submarginA] 
stripe (between the striae 4 and 7) extending from the base to aeur 
the apex, and with a few long, erect, bristly hairs towards the tip. 
H<«d not wider than the prothorax, sparsely, minutely punctate, 
longitudinally impressed between the eyes, the latter very large and 
somewhat narrowly sep*nted; aatamae very stout, rather short, 
joints 4-10 rapidly decreasing in logth, 6-10 traosveise, II veiiy 
elongate, about equalling S-IO united. Prothorax longer than broad. 
Rubeylindrical. obliquely narrowed anteriorly and sinuate at the 
Rides before the base, the basal margin not much raised ; spandy, 
minutely punctate. Elrtra limg. one-half wider than the pro- 
tliOMX. nubparallel in their basal half, rounded at the tip; doeely, 
Knel,v Hi riato- punctate to near the apex, striate posteriorly, the 
inlfrstiom bn^ad, flat on the disc, 3. 5. and 9 with two or three 
iiiot>i)apioui>ua uidoly !>catler«d fine, setigerous impressionB, each 
111 uliii'h is prr^^lixl bv a minute tubercle. Anterior femora 
Mr,..4:l.v.l«v«r. 

Uunil. fij. brf«.lii. 21 u.m. 

» ^'. n'W*;^..!.'... IV. M>'Ua«es exot.-ent. xxr. p. 20 (Aug. 1917}. 
fiMiw Itraait, w i><nii>an>l »ith .■^. -tlutlii. Makl.; but it is impos- 
«bl<» t.i Hlt>uiif\ -ii.h iM«sts from ■ ileacriplions abr^g^es." 



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Hew and Utde-known Lagriidae. 226 

Hab. AiuzoNS, Santarem (H, W. BaUa). 

One male. A robust, elongate, Bhining, castaneous 
insect, with a broad brilliant metallic green submarginal 
stripe on each elytron, the antennae very stout, with ths 
outer joints tiansveiBe and the terminal one as long as the 
preceding six united, the prothorax subcylindrical, the 
head rather narrow. It is just possible that S. viridiviOata 
may be a male of the Colombian 5. validicomis, Makl. 
(described as subcylindrical, with a narrow green sub- 
mai^al stripe on the elytra, and very stoat antennae, 
the apical joint equaUing 8-10 united) ; but without com- 
parison of the types, it would be unsafe to refer insects 
from such distant localities to one species. The general 
fades is not unlike that of 8. vremturalta, Yic. 



71. Statira lalaraUi. 

Siat^ lateralu, Makl., Ofv. Finska Vet.-Soc. F6rh., xz, p. 
357 (1878). 

$. Elongate, depraaaed, widened posterioily, Bhining; testaceous, 
the eyM black, the eJytn with a taint, indeterminate, metallio green 
marginal stripe extending (rotn the base to about two-thirds of their 
length and curving inwards to the middle of the disc poeteriorly; 
the eljtiA with a few bristly hairs near tbe apex. Head lai^, 
sparsely, minutely punctate, with a shallow arcuate impression 
between the eyes, the latter large, well -separated ; antennae slender, 
nther short, joint 11 equalling 8-10 united. Prothorax about as 
wide as the head, as long as broad, cordate, dilated at the base, the 
basal margin prominent; closely, finely, conspicuously punctate. 
Elytra elongate, twice as broad as the prothorax, widening to beyond 
the middle, and somewhat acuminate at the apex; closely, finely 
panetato-striata, the interstices becoming convex towards the apex, 
3 only with one or two setigerous impressions near the tip. 

Length 9, breadth 3 mm. 

Hab. Colombia [type], Ibt^e {Mus. Brit.). 

One example, labelled with the MS. name S. scapularis, 
Germ. This insect agrees with Maklin's diagnosis of 
S. lateralia, but as there are allied forms in Brazil, it is 
advisable to redescribe the single specimen before me. 8. 
aeneoUncta, Champ., from Mexico and Guatemala, is of 
about the same size and shape. 

TBANS. BNT. SOC. LOHD. 1917.— PAST 1. (NOV.) <) 



ih, Google 



226 Hr. 0. 0. Champion on 

72. Statin suffusa, n. ap. 

$. Elongate, depteased, rather narrow, shiiuDg; piceoua, the 
antminae, tarsi, bases of the femora, and elytra teetooeovs, the 
elTtra with a broad, uidet«ntimato, metallic green marginal stripe 
extending from the base to the apex, the disc with a ver;^ faint 
aeneous lustre; the eljtni with a few long, eroot, bristl]' hairs. Head 
rather narrow, sparsely, minutely punctate, obsoletely foreate in 
the middle between the eyes, the latter large, distant; antennae 
slender, rather short, joint U nearly eqnsJling 8-10 nnited. Pro- 
thorax a little longer than broad, oblongo -cordate, dilated at the 
base, the basal margin feebly raised ; sparsely, minutely punctate. 
Elytra elongate, twice aa broad as the prothorax, gradually widened 
to beyond the middle, and somewhat aouminate posteriorly ; closely, 
finely punctate -striate, the intoraticea becoming convex towards the 
tip, 3 and 5 with from six to eight aetigerous impiesaiona scattered 
between the base and apex, 1, 7, and 9 also with from one to three 
similar impressions on the apical half, 

(?. Rufo-teetaoeous, the elytra with a distinct aeneous lustre, the 
green maipnal stripe wanting; antennae much longer, joint II tc^ 
elongate, nearly equalling 7-10 united; alternate elytral interstioes 
with fewer aetigeroua impressions — five on 3, and two on 6, those on 
I and 7 wanting. 

Length 8, bieadtii 2f-21 mm. 

Hab. Brazil [type], Parana {ex coU, Fry : (J). 

Two specimenft, almost certainly the sexes of the same 
species, the Parana male differing as stated above. Very 
near the Colombian S. lateralis, Makl., but with a much 
narrower head and prothorax, the latter very sparsely, 
minutely punctate, the el}^ra with scattered setigerous 
impressions, along the interstices 3 and 5, the marginal 
stripe (when present) extending to the apez, the apical 
joint o{ the antennae (9) shorter. A simiUr variation is 
common to other members of the genus. 

73. Statira Miwomarglnata, n. sp. 

$. Elongate, depneeed, shining, the head and prothorax sub- 
opaque; teetaoeDiu,theeyee black, theheadondprothoraxnifeeoent, 
the aides of the elytra indeterminately aoieo-piceous from the base 
to far beyond the middle, the elytra with a few bristly hairs. Head 
d«iselyscabroso.punotulate,the eyes small, distant; antennae short, 
slender, joint 11 equalling 8-10 united. Prothorax a little ni 
than the head, longer than broad, moderately romided at the si 



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Nea mtd liuUrhwvm Lagriidae. 227 

feebly conatricted towaida the base, the haa&l margin not raised; 
deasely sonbroso-punctnlate. EiytiH long, at the base twice as wide 
as the protboTBi, widening to the middle, somewhat acuminate 
posteriorly; cloaely, finely, shallowlj punctato -striate, the inter- 
stices flat throughout, 3 with four small setigerous impressions scat- 
tered along the spical half, 5 also with two other impressions, and 
7 with one, towards the tip. Legs slender. 
Length 7|, breadth 2) mm. 

Hab. Brazil, Eio de Janeiro (Fry). 

One specimeD. A small pallid insect, not unlike the 
Colombian S. lateralia, Makl., and the Brazilian S. suffvsa; 
but with a dull, scabrous head and prothorax, shining, 
aeneo-marginate elytra, the latter with the inteistices flat 
throngbout. 

74. Statin fraohyden, n. sp. 

Very elongate, narrow, feebly shining ; piceous, the front of the 
head, elytral sutnre, tarsi, bases of femom, and under surface oaa- 
t«neoas or ferruginous; the elytra with scattered bristly hain. 
Head rather small, closely, coarsely pimctste, longitudinally im- 
pressed between the eyee, the latter large, narrowly sepanted; 
antennae moderately thickened, rather long, joint 11 equallii^ 8-10 
united. Prothorax a little wider than the head, longer than broad, 
rounded at the sides, constricted before the raised basal margin ; 
coarsely, irregularly, confluently punctate. Elytra very elongate, at 
the middle about twice as wide as the prothorax, somewhat acumin- 
ate poeteriorly; closely, finely, deeply punctate -striate, the inter- 
stices convex, flatter on the disc, 3 and 5 with a series of small 
aetigGTDuB Impreesions scattered throughout their length, 9 also with 
three impressions near the apex, and 1 with sevenil others near ths 
base. Tibiae pilose within. 

Length 11, breadth H mm. ($T) 

H(d>. Brazil, Jatahy, Prov. of Govas {Pujol, ex cdl. 
F. Bates). 

One specimen. This insect is of about the same eize 
and boild as S. jmrjnireipennis, Pic, from the same locality, 
difietiog from it in the small, closely punctured, subsulcate 
bead, the coarsely, confluently punctate prothorax, and the 
non-tuberculate elytra, the elytra with fewer, differently- 
arranged aetigerous impressions, those on the interstices 
1 and 7 mostly wanting. 



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228 Mr. G. C. ChampioD on 

75. Stfttln soabrieoUls, n. sp. 

$. Elongate, dull, the eljtra more shining; pioeous, the elytn 
brown, the antomae (joint 1 excepted) and legs (the infnecate outer 
halvee of the femora excepted) testaceous; the head, elytra, and 
under surface with a few long, erect, bristly hairs. Head barely as 
wide as the prothorax, densely, minutely punctate, hollowed between 
the eyee anteriorly, the latter large, narrowly separated ; antennae 
moderately long, quite slender, joint 11 equalling 7-10 united. Pro- 
thorax slightly longer than bioad, oblongo -cordate, constricted before 
the prominent, laterally-projecting basal margin ; densely, minutely, 
soabroao-punctate, thediscwith two small transveraely-plaoed toveae 
before the middle ( I accidental). Elytra long, twice as wide as the 
prothorax, widening in their basal half, acuminate pOHteriorly; 
closely, finely, deeply puncta to -striate, the interatioea convex 
throughout, 3, 6, and 9 witJi several small setigerous impressions 
aoattered between the base and apex. Femora rather stout. 

Length 8}, breadth 3 mm. 

Hab. Upper Ahazonb, Ega (H. W. Bates). 

One female. A close ally of S. iTistdaria {No. 77), from 
Trinidad, with the elytra moie acuminate at the apex, 
deeply punctato-striate, and the interstices convex through- 
out ; and the femora nigro-piceous in theii outer halves. 
The eleventh antennal joint is no doubt equally elon- 
gate in c^, to judge fiom its length in 9- The Brazilian S. 
flamcomis, Makl., is probably another allied form. 

76. Statira convexluuula, n. sp. 

$. Elongate, rather convex, shining; testaceous, the head and 
prothorax rufescent, the eyes, palpi, femora (except at the base), 
and tibiae black or pioeous, the elytra with a few bristly haira. Head 
ratlieF small, ikotquitAso wide as the prothorax, densely, very finely 
punctate, obsoletely foveolate between the eyes, the latter moder- 
ately large, distant ; antennae short, slender, joint 11 nearly equaling 
8-10 united. Prothorax oblongo-oordate, constricted before the 
baae, the basal margin raised, but not very prominent laterally; 
almost smooth, except within the transverse basal groove, which is 
shallow in the centre. Eljftra moderately elongate, aboot twice 
as wide as the prothorax, narrowing from the middle ; oloeely, finely, 
rather deeply punatat« -striate, the interstices feebly convex, 3 and 
6 with three or four uiconspicuous, setigerous punctures scattered 
down the apical half, and 9 with three others near tiia apex. L^a 
rather short, the anterior femora olavate. 

Length 3}, breadth 2} mm. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



New and Ultle-kHown Lagriidae. 229 

Hd>. Brazil, Bahia (Reed). 

One female. Not unlike S. scabricoUis (9), from Ega, 
but in great part testaceous and more shining, the eves 
smaller and more distant, the ant«nnae shorter, the pro- 
thorax almost smooth, the tibiae and the basal halves of 
the femora black. S. mdanocephala, Makl., from 0«ntTal 
America, is a somewhat similar insect, except that it has 
the bead and antennae infuscate or black. 

77. Stetira ImnUrls, n. sp. 

Elongate, the b«Ml and prothorax sabopaque, the elytn Bhining ; 
teetaoeooB, tb« head and prothoraz obBoure ferruginous, the eyes 
black i the elytra with a few long, bristly hairs. Head rather small, 
closely, minutely punctate, longitudinal ly depressed down the middle 
betweoi the eyes, the latter extremely large and narrowly separated 
in the two sexes ; antennae long and slender, shorter in $, joint 11 
in ,; as long as 6-10, in $ the length of 8-10, united. Prothorax as 
iride as (3) or rather wider than ($) the bead, about as broad as long, 
feebly rounded at the sides, strongly constricted before the base, 
the basal margin prominent and laterally projecting; alutaceous 
and closely, very minutely punctate. Elytra long, at the middle 
twice as broad as the prothorax, somewhat rapidly widened in their 
basal half, and acuminate posteriorly! closely, finely, deeply puno- 
tato-striate, the intersticee becoming oonvex towards the sides 
and apex, 3, 6, and 9 each with from three to six widely scattered 
setigeroue impressions. 

Length S-8}, breadth 2i-2i mm. (3^.) 

Hab. Tbinidad {G. E. Bryant, iji. 1903; /. Birch, 1904). 

Three males and one female. Very like the Antillean 
iS./u2va, but with a long apical joint to the antennae, espe- 
cially in (7, ft comparatively small bead, extremely large, 
subapproximate eyes, and rathei convex, mesially widened, 
postenorly acuminate elytra. S. tdefisis. Champ., from 
Panama, is not unUke S. irutularis, but the latter has the 
elytra less elongate, etc. Mr. Bryant's specimens have 
been examined by M. Pic and returned unnamed. 

78. Statlta Inlva. 

Stalira fulva, Fleut. et SallS, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1889, 
p. 431." 



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230 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

Elongate, somenlut deprewed, th« bead aad piothoiax opaque, 
0x0 elytra Bhining; teataceoua, the bead and prothorax obsoura 
ferniginouB, the ejee black ; the elytra with a few long, eieot, bristiy 
hairs. Head obsoletely punctulate, the eyes large and wdl aepanted ; 
antennae long, alender, joint II about as long as 9 and 10 united in 
die two sexes. Prothoraz aa wide aa the head, oblongo-oordate, 
dilated at the base, densely alutaceoua, the minute scattered pnnc- 
turea just traceable. Elytra long, widened to the middle and there 
twice as wide as the prothorax, acuminate posteriorly; oloeely, 
finely, deeply punctato-striate, the interstices rather convex, 3 and 
6 with several widely scattered setigerous impreeaionB, 1, 7, and 9 
also with one or two similar impressions towards the apex. 

Length Ti-lOi, breadth 2i-3 mm. (^5-) 

Hab. Antilles, Guadeloupe [type], Dominica {Mus. 
BrU.). 

Two specimens from Dominica, one of them received 
from Mr. E. F. Becher in 1908, are no doubt referable to 
the imperfectly -described S. fnlva from Guadeloupe. In 
the Museum there is also another example, without locality, 
from the Dejean collection, apparently belonging to the 
same species ; it is labelled " S. humeralis ^^ var. ? (Dupont)." 
S. ftdva is a form of S. viUala, Champ., from the Lesser 
Antilles and Trinidad, with a densely alutaceous, opaque 
prothorax, and slightly longer, wholly testaceous elytra. 
It has been found " at light " in both islands. 

79. Statin vlHata. 

Slatira vitUUa, Champ., Tians. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1896, p. 37, 
pi. 1, fig. 9 (J). 

Hab. Lesser Antilles ; Trikidad. 

In the British Museum there is a series of this insect 
captured long ago in St. Vincent by Lansdown Gailding, 
also two from Trinidad, in Fry's collection. 

80. SUtira asperata. 

Stalira asperata. Champ., Biol. Centr.-Am., Coleopt. iv, 2, 

p. 49, pi. 3, fig. 4 (,?) (1889). 
Stalira anliUarum, Champ., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1896, 
p. 36. 
Hab. Panama; Lesser Antilles, St. Vincent, Grenada, 
" Neo S. hvmeralis, Makl., a Mexican insect. 



New and fiule-^notra Lagriidae. 231 

Grenadines; Colombia; Venezuela; Tbikidad (&. E. 
Bryant); Bbazil, Femambuoo {Fry). 

The long series before me connect the Antillean with the 
mainland form, Panama examples having conapicuoua 
tubercles on the alternate elytral interstices 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. 
One of the Pemambuco specimens is rufo-castaneous with 
the elytra piceous, and another is rufo-castaneous with the 
sides of the elytra broadly piceous. 

81. Statira presnturalb. (Plate XII, fig. 18, $.) 

Slatira preauturalis. Pic, L'£change, zxviii, p. 76 (Oct. 
1912). 

Aatawae not longer in (J Uian in $, rather atont, joint 1 1 equalling 
9 and 10 united in the two sexes ; head with a targe shallow inter- 
ooolar fovea; prothorax elighttj longer than broad, veiy finely, 
spoTMly punot«t«; etTtni depressed below the base, very finely, 
closely striato-punctate, the punctures usually placed in fine striae 
on the besal half, the interstice 3 with several, and 5 and 9 with one 
or two, widely separated setigerous impieesions on the apical half; 
body nther convex, castaneous, shining, the palpi and prothorax 
sometimes mfuscate, the juxta«utural blackish stripe on the elytra 
often oontinoed to the apex, dilated beyond the middle into a com- 
plete or interrupted tronaverM fascia, and widened again at theapes; 
femora strongly olavate; aede^naof S rather broad and acuminate. 
Femora more or lees clavate. 

Length SHI' >»»^th 2-3 mm. 139-) 

Hah. Brazil {Mus. Brit., Mus. Oxon.), Blumenau {coU. 
Pic : type), Bio de Janeiro (Fry). 

The long series of this insect before me agree sufQciently 
well with Pic's brief diagnosis to render the identification 
certain. Froni the somewhat similar 8. siUuralis, Makl. 
(No, 6), from Rio de Janeiro, etc., it is at once separable by 
the absence of the long spine at the base of the anterior 
femora, the stouter antennae, with shorter apical joint in 
t^, the longer prothorax, etc. The juxta-sutural stripe is 
often dilated into a poet-median fascia and an apical patch. 

82. Statira oetollneata, n. sp. 
Somewhat robust, moderately elongate, shining; obscure cas- 
taneous, the le^ and antomae ferruginous in one speoimoi, 
ibe alternate elytral interstices 2, 4, 6, 8 each with a narrow 
blackish stripe extending to near the apex; the elytra wiUi a 



n,g,i,.rjh,G00glc 



232 Bli. 0. C. Champion on 

few, erect, briBtly hairs. Head almost emooth, excavate or 
foveate in the middle between the eyes, the Uttm moderately 
lai^ Hid separated by about the width of on« of tbem ; antennae 
rather slender, moderately long, a little shorter in $, joint 11 as 
long as 9 and 10 united. Prothorax as wide as the head, aa 
long as broad, oblong-ooidate, dilated at the base, very sparsely, 
minntely punotulate. Elytra moderately long, broad, twioe ae wide 
as the prothorax at the base, flattened on the dlao anterioily, 
slightly widening to the middle and a<!ununat« posteriorly, the apioea 
distinctly macronata; closely, finely punotato-atriate, the inter- 
Btiae« becoming feebly convex towaids the apex, 3 and S each with 
about five very widely scattered settgerouB impressions, B also with 
two or three similar impresBions towards the tip. Femora more or 
leas olavate. 

For. The elytra uniformly caatoneous, t^e setigerons impreesiiMU 
wanting on the baaal half of the third interstice. {^.) 

Length Sf-S^, breadth 2i-2i( mm. 

Hab. Brazil, Kio de Janeiro (Fry), Constancia {J. Gray 
and H. Clark, Jan. 1857). 

Two specimens of the Imeate lonn, assumed to be (? and 
$, one of them having longer antennae than the other, 
and one of the variety. More elongate than 8. presutundis. 
Pic, the head and prothorax a little broader, the elytm 
longer, moie acuminate at the tip, and with the alternate 
interstices nigro-lineate to near the apex. 

83. SUtira triUneala. 
Statira trilineata, Makl., Ofv. Finska Vet.-Soc. Forh. xr, 
p. 357 (1878). 
<}. Antennae rather short and stout, joints 4-10 decreasing in 
length, and 10 traoavene, 11 very elorkgate, as l<Hkg ae 6-10 united ; 
head deeply foveate in the middle between theeyesj the elytra with 
an elongate intra-humeral depression, the scattered setigerons im- 
preeeions along the entire length of the alternate interstices 1, 3, 5, 
7, and 9 each preceded by a small tubercle; femora more or less 

Hab. Colombia {Mus. Hdaingjors : type ; Mus. Brit.]. 

A male in the British Museum, from the F. Bates col- 
lection, is almost certainly referable to this spedes. It 
diiTers from the description in having the nometous setiget- 
oiis impressions along the alternate elytral interstices 
deeply impressed and each preceded by a sm^, tumid, 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



Nob and tittle-known Lagriidae. 2S3 

tubetcniifonn space. There is conaiderable variation in this 
respect in the allied S. asperata. Champ. S. triXinetUa is 
of a bright nifo-caataneous colour, with a blackish line along 
the elytral suture and another down the fifth interstice. 
S. prestUuTolis, Pic, is a very similar form. 

84. Statira tennis, n. sp. 

ModeTat«ly elongate, narrow, Bhming; CMtaneous or obsouie 
oostaneouB, the anUnnae in the male piceouB with the apical Joint 
f emigiiKius ; Uie elytra with a few very long, erect, bristly hairs. 
Hwd ratiiet small, rounded, almost sntootit, the eyee very large and 
narrowly separated ; ant^mae {ij) slender, long, joints 7-10 decreas- 
ing in length, II extremely elongate, about equalling 3-10 united, ($) 
Bhortet and stouter, 11 barely ^e length of 7-10 united. I^thorax 
about as wide as the head, longer than broad, oblong, moderately 
constricted before the base, sparsely, minutely punctate. Elytra 
about twice as broad as the prothorax, moderately long, but little 
widened towards the middle and acuminate posteriorly ; very finely, 
closely, striato-punotate, the interstices flat, 3 with about six promi- 
nent setigerouB impreaaions scattered between the base and apex, 
and 6 and eacli witli thi«« or four similar impressions on the apical 
half. 

Length ef-7j, breadth 1^-2^ mm. 

Hob. Amazoks, Ega [type], Santarem {H. W. Bates). 

Two males and one female. Not imlike the Brazilian 
S. stenodera, but with an extremely elongate apical joint 
to the (^-antennae, large, subcontiguous eyes, and much 
narrower elytra, with flat interstices. The general shape 
is similar to that of the Colombian S. IriliTieata, Uakl., as 
here interpreted. 

85. Statita atenodera, n.sp. 
Moderately elot^te, shining i rufo-caataneous or oastoneous, or 
piceo-oaataneouH with the antemiBe and legs in great part reddish, 
the elytra often faintly streaked with piceous on the alternate in- 
l«TBtioea; the head and elytra with a tew long, erect, bristly hairs. 
Head sparsely, very finely punctate, well developed behind the 
eyes, and with a large, shallow, punctured fovea between them, tlie 
eyes rather smalt (as seen from above) and distant ; antennae slender, 
joint 11 the length of 9 and 10 united in the two sexes. Prothorax 
slightly longer than broad, nearly as wide as the head, oblong, 
modeiately oonstrioted before the base; sparsely, minut«ly pun<!- 
tate. Elytra not very elongate, at the base twice as broad as the 



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234 Mr. 0. C. Champion on 

prothoTAS, gToduall; widened to the middle and npidly narrowed 
poatoriorif, muoronate at the tip, tianBTereely depiened on the disc 
antoriorlj; oloaely, finely punctato-etriate, the intereticee feebly 
oonTBX, 3, S, and 9 with from two to f oor widely Boatt«red setigennu 
impieeaioiu. Anterior femora clarate. 

Length 6-6}, breadth 2-2t mm. (,?$.) 

Hob. Brazil (Mus. Brit., Mus. Oxon.), CoDstancia, 
Tijuca {/. Gray and H. dark, Jmi. 1857), Rio de Jafleiro 
{Fry), Sao Antonio, Bahia ((lOuneUe). 

A long serieB, those in the Oxford Museum in very bad 
condition, some of them (immature) obscure testaceous in 
colour. Separable from the closely allied S. presuturalis. 
Pic, by the relatively narrower bead and prothorax, the 
smaller eyes, the more slender antennae, etc. ; from S. octo- 
lineata by the much shorter elytra, narrower head and 
prothorax, and smaller eyes ; and irora 8. svtwalis, JA&ki., 
by the absence of the anterior femoral spine, etc. This 
is one of several members of the genus with the eleventh 
antenna) joint similar in length in the two sexee. 

86. Statin egaen^ n. sp. 

Moderately elongate, widened poateriorly, shining ; rufo- or fuaoo- 
castaneoiu, the eyee blaek, the eljrtra and legs (the knees and bases 
of the femora eiccepted) nigio-piceoue or piceous, in one specimen 
almost oonoolorous witik the rest of the surface; the elytra with 
numerous long bristly hairs. Head broad, well .developed behind 
the eyes, Bparaely, 6jiely punctate, the eyee moderately large, dis- 
tant; antennae slender, comparatively short, joint 11 equalling 9 
and 10 united. Protfaoias as wide aa the head, broader than long, 
transversely cordate, constrioted in front of the promintDt hind 
angles, the basal margin not much raised; sparsely, finely, con- 
spicuously punctate. Elytra not very elongate, in their widest part 
more iJian twice the bieadth of the prothorax, rapidly dilated to 
the middle, and arouately narrowed thence to the apex; somewhat 
ooarsdy, closely, orenato-striate, the punotureeon thedisc tranavetBe, 
the inleraticee more or lees convex, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 each a row of 
rather closely placed setigerous impressions extending from the base 
to the apex. Anterior femora strongly clavate. 

Leagth 9i~l, breadth 2i~2i mm. ($T) 

Hab. UppEK AMAZ0N3, £ga {H. W. Bates). 

Three specimens, varying in the colour of the elytra and 
legs, as is frequently the case in this genus. S. egaensia 
resembles S. slenodera in it« general faaes ; but the head 



l„y,|,AJh,COOl^lC 



Nea and ItUle-known Lagriidae. 235 

and prothoiax an much broader, the piotbonuc is trans- 
verse, and the alternate elytral mteistices have each a row 
of setigerous impressions extending throughout their length, 
much as in the Central American S. microps, Champ. 

87. Statlra eleguu- (Plate XII, fig. 19, anterior leg, ^.) 

Statira d^ans, Makl., Act, Soc. Fenn. vii, p. 156 (1862). 
Var. Slatira /estiva, Makl., loc. cit. 

Antennae in ^ with joint 11 about as long aa 7-10, in $ as long 
aa 8-10, united; anterior femora davate; anterior tibiae abruptly 
oaiTOwed and oompreeBed at the base externally, subangulale at 
basal third in ^. 

Hab. Brazil, Petropolis {J. Gray and H. Clark, Feb. 
1857), Rio de Janeiro, San Paulo, Espirito Santo {Mus. 
BrU.). 

A dozen specimens before me from the above-mentioned 
localities agree with Maklin's description of S. degans, 
except that they have the prothorax very finely alutaceous 
(thus appearing eubopaque), instead of shining, as stated 
by him ; but this is probably an error of observation. A 
rather narrow, moderately elongate form, with the head 
(the eyes excepted), antennae, prothorax and legs testace- 
ous or rufo-testaceouB, the elytra uniformly green or bluish- 
green, and the metastemum and abdomen black; the 
antennae slender ; the eyes la^e, the space between them 
longitudinally impressed in the middle; the prothorax 
strongly constricted before the base, canahculate on the 
disc, and almost impunctate ; the elytra closely, finely 
punctato-striate, with seven or eight setigerous impressions 
scattered along the third interstice and one or two others 
at the apex of the ninth ; the anterior tibiae compressed 
at the base. S./estitxt, to judge from the description, is a 
variety of S. degana with the head (except in front) and 
prothorax piceous. The head in one of the specimens before 
me is infuscate, but not the prothorax. These insects might 
easily be mistaken for similarly-coloured Carabids. 

88. Statint dlstipiu, n. sp. (Plate XII, fig. 20, prothorax, S) 

3. Uoderately elongate, narrow, ehiimig; testaceous, the eyes 
and abdomen black, the elytra metallio blue, the apical joint of the 
antennae and the posterior femora (except at the base) and tibiae 
tl^tly iufoBoatei the elytra with a few long, erect, bristly hairs. 



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236 Ifr. G. G. Champion on 

Head raUier large, sparaely, ehallowly BufafoveoUte between tlie 
eyes, the latter large uid somewhat distant; antennae slcoder, 
joints 8-10 deorea«ing in length, 11 as long as 7-10 united. 
Frotlioraz nanower than the heed, about as long aa broad, 
oblongo -cordate, strongiy constricted before the base; sparsely, 
minutely punctate, obeoletely canalioulate at the middle of the disc, 
and with a la^e, subtriangular, rugose, depressed area on each side 
(fig. 20). Elytra moderat«!y long, at the middle about tnice oa wide 
aa the prothorax, rounded at the apex, longitudinally deprceaed 
within the humeri ; very finely, closely punctato-atriate, the third 
interstice with six widely scattered setigeroue iropreesions, the 
ninth oiao with two others near the tip. hegp long; anterior 
tibiae rounded externally at the base. 
Length 7}, breadth 2} mm. 

Hab. Peru, Chanchamayo (ex c<M. F. Boies). 

One male, probably collected by Thamm. Very like 
the Brazilian S. eUgans, Makl., and similarly coloured; but 
with the prothorax mote shining, distinctly punctured, 
and with a large, subtriangular, rugose, depressed area on 
each side of the disc (somewhat as in the Central American 
S. fovekoUis, Champ., ^, and possibly confined to that sex), 
the posterior femora and tibiae partly infuscate, the anterior 
tibiae not compressed at the base. 

8d. StaOra oyuoptera, n. sp. 

[J. Elongate, narrow, depressed, slender, opaque, the elytra and 
the front of the head somewhat shining ; black, the elytra cyaneous, 
the palpi at the base, joints 4-11 of the antennae, the tArsi, and in 
one apecimen the legs entirely, testaceous; the elytia with a few 
long, erect, bristly hairs. Head rather narrow, sparsely, finely 
punctate, shallowly aulcate between the eyes, the latter large, 
separated by about half the width of one of them; antennae long, 
slender, joint 11 extremely elongate, equalling 6-10 united. Ite- 
thorax nearly as wide aa the head, much longer than brood, oblongo- 
oordat«, feebly dilated at the baee, amooth, the basal margin not 
laiaed. Elytra moderately elongate, twice as broad as the pro- 
tiiorax, somewhat acuminate posteriorly; closely, finely punctato- 
atriate, the punctures transverse on the disc, the inleratioee feebly 
convex, 3 with five or six, and 5 with three, widely scattered aetiger- 
ouB impreasiona, 1 and 9 also with one or two near or before the tip. 
li^B long and slender. 

Length OiV-'i^j. breadth 2-2jV mm. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



New and litUe-kiunon Lagriidae. 237 

H(di. Brazil {Mus. Brit. : type), Rio de Janeiro (Fry). 

Two examples, one with the tarei only, the other (from Bio 
de Janeiro) with the legs entirely, teataceoua, showing that 
no reliance can be placed on the colour of the legs as a specific 
character. A narrow black insect, with the elytra blue and 
slightly shining, the prothoraz long, smooth, and opaque, 
the antennae and legs long and slender, the antennae 
testaceous, with joints 1-3 blackened. 



90. Statlra eai&miloldss, n. sp. (Plate XII, fig. 21, 3.) 

Uodeiatelj elongate, narrow, depreesed, rather dull, the elytra 
Bhining; pioeotu, the head black in one speoimea the femora and 
tibueBOmetimeBpalerthan the bodj, the ant«mnae (joint 1 exerted) 
and tarai testaceous; the head mmI elytra with very long, ereot, 
HCattored bristly hairs. Head large, broad, sparsely, finely punc- 
tate, in two speotmens, longitudinally depressed between the eyes, 
the latter large and moderately distant in t^, a little smaller in $; 
antennae slender, moderately long, joint II in (^ about as long as 
7-10, in $ not quite equalling 8-10, united. Prothorax narrow, 
longer than broad, oblong -camponulate, sparsely, minutely punctate, 
the interapaces alutaceous, the basal margin prominmt. Elytra 
moderately long, at the base, twice as wide as the protborax, sub- 
pandlel in their basal half in 3, with a very deep, oblique depression 
on the disc below the base; shallowly, minutely striato -punctate, 
the intATstioes flat, 3 with about five, and 5 and 9 with thi«e or four, 
widely scattered conspicuous setigerous impressions, 1 also with a 
single impieasion near the tip, Hie imprMsions eaeh preceded by a 
minute taberole. Legs slender, long ; ulterior tibiae in both sexes 
abruptly rkanowed at the base externally. 

Loigth 6[^7i, breadth Ii-2i mm. {3^.) 

Hab. Bbazil {Mua. Oxon.), Constancia (J. Gray and B. 
Clark, Jan. 1857 : type, <J), Rio de Janeiro [Fry : $). 

Five specimens, the one in the Oxford Museum immature 
and almost wholly testaceous. Near 5, dromioides, infra, 
from which it diSers in having a narrower and smoother 
prothoiax, a shorter apical joint to the (^-antennae, deeply 
excavate elytra, with fewer setigerous impressions, and 
pecuharly formed anterior tibiae, the body also being 
uniformly piceous. The large head and narrow prothorax 
^ve the insect a Casnoniiform facies. S. el^ana, Makl., 
has somewhat similar anterior tibiae in the two sexes. 



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238 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

91. Slattn eanvwiiilata, n. sp. 

Elongate, lunow, dull; piceoaa, the antennae (joints 1 and 2 
ezaept«d} obscure fermginone, the dytra with Mattered loDg, eiect, 
black briatty haira. Head large, broad, cloeelj punctate, longitu- 
dinally grooved betwem the eyes, the latter large and narrowly 
separated; antennae Bhort, rather eleoder, joint 11 about equalling 
7-10 united. Prothorax narrower than the head, longer than 
broad, campanulate, closely, somewhat coarsely punctate, the basal 
margin very prominent. Elytra moderately long, about twice as 
broad as the prothorax, subparallel at the base ; closely, finely pnno- 
tato-Btriate, the intecBticea with nnmerouB setigerouB imprcBsions, 
each of them preceded by a small tubercle — thtee near the apex of 1, 
ten scattered between the base and apex of 3, five or aix on 6, and 
eight on 9, those on 6 and 9 placed along the apical halt. Legs 
moderately slender, roughly punctured and setnloHe, the tibiae 
shallowly suicate externally. 

Length 8}, breadth ^ mm. ( j T) 

Hab. Upper Amazons, Ega {H. W. Bates). 

One badly preserved axatnple. iMtgexthtta S.dromimdes, 
wholly piceous, the eyes more approximate, the apical 
auteimal joint shorter, the prothorax longer and more 
coarsely punctate, the legs roughly punctured. The seti- 
gerouB impressions on the elytra are similar in number and 
position in the two insects. 

92. Statira dromloidM, d. sp. 
S- Elongate, narrow, depressed, moderately shining; testaceous, 
the eyes black, the elytra piceous i the head and elytra with a few 
very long, erect, bristly hairs, one behind each eye being oonspico- 
ouB. Head large, broad, rather convex, sparsely punctete, longi- 
tudinally grooved between the eyes, the latter very large, modetat^y 
distant; antennae rather long, alender, joints 4-10 gradually de- 
creasing in length, 11 extremely elongate, equalling six or aeven of 
the preoeding jointe united. Frothorax much narrower than the 
head, a tittle longer than broad, obi ong-campanu late, closely, eon- 
apiouously punctate, the interspaces alutaceous, the basal margin 
sharply laiaed. Elytra moderately elongate, twice as broad as the 
prothorax, not much wider at the middle than at the baae^ narrowly 
rounded at the tip; very finely ponctato-striate, the intereticee 
alutaceous, almost flat, 3 with about 7 setigeroua impressions scat- 
tered between the base and apex, 5 and 9 also with tour similar 
impressions along Uieir apical half, and 1 with two or three near the 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



Nod and liide-known Lagritdae. 239 

tip, each of them pieceded by a sin&U tDbe««le. Legs long and 
■lender. 

Length 6-7, biewlth 2 mm. 

Hab. Bbazil, Ceara {GouneUe, ex coU. Fry). 

Two males. A narrow, moderately shining, testaceous 
form, with piceous, sparsely seriato-tubennilate elytra, a 
very broad head, a conspicuously punctured, subcsmpanu- 
late prothoTaz, and an extremely elongate apical joint 
to the (J-antenna. 5. dromioidea is very Uke various 
similarly coloured species of the Carabid-genus Dromius. 

93. Stafira ifenoptera, n. sp. 

Elongtit«, narrow, the head and protboraz dull, the elytra shining ; 
tcstaoeooB or obsonie teataeeoiu, (he eyes black, the aides of the 
elytm broadly and indeterminately, the prothorax, and the poaterior 
fflmora in t^eir outer half, more or leu inf luoate ; the elytra with a 
few very long bristly hairs. He«d large, transrersely convex, much 
broader than the prothorax, closely punctate, the eyea Utge, narrowly 
separated in ^, moi« distant in $; antennae Blender [outer joints 
missing]. Prothonx much longer than bioad, oblong-oampanu' 
l»te, constricted before the bii«e, the basal margin raised ; somewhat 
closely, conspicuouHly punctate, the intenpacee olntaceous. Elytra 
long, narrow, slightly widened at the middle and there twice as 
wide as the prothorax, somewhat acuminate posteriorly, deeply, 
obliquely depressed on the disc below the base, and also longitudin- 
ally hollowed towards the sides just below this; closely, finely 
punotato-striate, the interstices almost flat, 3 with five or six setiger- 
cms impreesiona scattered between the base and apex, and 1 and 6 
with one or two, and 9 with three, similar impreeBiona towards the 
tip. 

Laigth 6-ef, breadth 1$ mm. 

Hab. Amazons, Ega, Santarem {H. W. Boies). 

Two specimens, assumed to be <^ and $. A narrow, 
fragile form, with a larce head, alUed to S. dTomimdea and 
8. casnonioides, the head and prothorax punctured as in the 
former, and the elytra deeply excavate below the base as 
in the latter; the prothorax is long and narrow, as in 
S. dromioides. 

94. Statlra qnadristgnata, n. sp. 
(J. Elongate, narrow, shining, the eljrtra dull ; testaceous, the 
eyes and two brood transTeree fasciae on the elytra (one ba«al, nar- 
rowed outwards, the second broader, post-median, straight, neither 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



240 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

reaohing the Butui« or outer margin) black ; the el jtn wi tb scattered 
long, erect, bristly haira. Head Bparaely, very minutely punctate, 
canaliculate between tlie eyes, the latter very large and narrowly 
separated; antennae moderately slender, joint 11 as long as 8-10 
united. Prothorax longer than broad, almost aa wide as the head, 
subcotdate, dilated at the base, sparsely, very minutely punctate. 
Elytra long, rather narrow, rapidly narrowed from the middle, and 
pointed at the apex; closely, finely, shallowly punctate -striata, the 
alternate interstices 1,3, 6, 7, and 9 with a series of scattered, deep, 
setigerous impressions extending from the base to the apex, the 
impressions each preceded by a small tubercle. , 
Length 6|, breadth S mm. 

Hab. AuAZONS, Santarem (H. W. Bates). 

One male. Not unlike S. bryatUi, Pic, fiom Trinidad, 
but with the elytral aculpture similar to that of the widely 
distributed S. aaperata. Champ. ; the elytra longer and more 
acuminate than in the Trinidad insect, and very differently 
marked, the tvo broad black fasciae (basal and poet-median) 
not leaching the suture and thus forming two large trans- 
verse patches on each wing-case. 

95. atattra brjranti. (Plate XII, fig. 22, ^.) 

Suuira bryatUi, Pic, L'Ek;hange, xzviii, p. 100 (Jan. 1913). 

Antennal joint 11 in ^ about as long as 7-10, in $ equalling 8-10, 
united. 

Hab. Trinidad (0. E. Bryant : iii. 1903). 

There are two niales and three females of this specdes in 
Mr. Bryant's collection. A narrow, testaceous form allied 
to the Central American S. conspiciUata, Makl., the pro- 
thoraz with a black submarginal line on each side of the 
prothorax, and the elytra with two transverse fasciae 
(one just below the base, broad, the other narrower, curved, 
median), usually connected along the first interstice, and an 
oblong streak on the disc towards the apex (in one specimen 
extending forward to the median fascia), blackishormetallic. 
The elytra are closely, finely punctato-striate to the tip, 
the third and ninth interstices each with from 2-4 scattered 
setigerous impressions on the apical third. The prothorax 
is rather closely, minutely punctate and more or less dis- 
tinctly canaliculate. The description of the similarly 
coloured S. quadrimaculaia, Makl., from Colombia, applies 



ll,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



New and tittle-knovm Lagriidae. 241 

very neariy to the Trinidad insect, except that the pro- 
thorax in the former is said to be almost impunctate and 
the fine median channel is not mentioned. 

96. Stetln vlrldtelnett, n. sp. 

Uoderately elongate, narrow, shining; toetaoeouB, the eyes black, 
the protliorax wilh a nigro-fuBcoua gubmargmal vitta on each side 
(abbreviated or wanting in iinmature exampie«) ; the elytra with 
two tranBTeiBC metallio green fasciae of variable extent — ona baaal, 
not reaching the humeri, and Bometimea enclosing an oblique tes- 
taceous spot on the disc, the other median, angulate, the two aome- 
tintee ootmeoted along the suture, and in two apecimena at the sMee 
ako ; the elytra with a few long, erect, bristly haiis. Head sparsely, 
minutely punctate, tranversely depressed in the middle between the 
eyee, the latter large, distant; antennae long, slender, joint 11 in (J 
About as long as 7-10, in $ as long as 8-10, united. Prothorax 
narrower than the head in ,J, slightly wider in ?, not longer than 
broad, cordate, dilated at the base, sparsely, minutely punctate. 
Elytra moderately long, gradually widened to tbe middle and there 
twice as wide aa the prothorax; closely, finely, deeply punctato- 
striate, tbe interaticee somewhat convex, 3 with from aix to eight 
oonspiououe setigeroua impressions scattered between the base and 
ufiex, 9 also with three similar impreesions towards the tip. 

Length 6t-6|. breadth 2-2^ mm. {3<f.) 

Bab. AuAZONS, Santarem, Ega (H. W. Bates), Para 
{GounsUe). 

Nine specimens, varying in the development of the pro- 
thoracic and elytral marlangs, and in the puncturing of the 
piothoraz. The metaUic coloration on the elytra in the 
Para example is so extended as to leave two oblique fasciae 
on the disc of each of them, and a common apical patch, 
testaceous. It is quite posaible that these insects will 
prove to be inseparable from the Colombian S. quadri- 
maculala, M&kl., which, to judge from the description, has 
a longer, almost impunctate prothorax, fewer setigeroua 
impressions on the third elytral interstice (and those 
placed towards the apex), and a dark ante-apical epot. S. 
bryatUi, Pic, from Trinidad, which ia similarly coloured, 
has shorter antennae, a longer and distinctly canaliculate 
prothorax, and fewer setigerous impressions on the elytra. 
8. viridimitata, Pic, from Cumbase, Peru, must be another 
allied form. 

TRANS. ENT. 80C. LOND. 1917. — PART I. (NOV.) K 



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242 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

97. Statin eonneu, n. ap. (Plate XIII, fig. 23, 3.) 

Rather short, narrow, somewhat convex, shining, glabrous ; 
testaceous, the ejee and the base of the antennae, and the elytra with 
two transTwse fasciae (one close to the base, the other submedian, 
connected along the suture), and in one example (ij) a common, 
transverse, subapical patch at th« termination of the narrow Bulural 
streak, black or fuscous. Heed large, broad, sparsely, obsoleteiy 
punotulate, flattwed between the eyes, the latter Ibi^ and moderately 
distant; antAnnae (,}) elongate, slender, joint 11 as long as 9 aitd 10 
united, ($) much shorter, joint 11 lees elongate. Prothorai l<mger 
than broad, oblongo-subcordate, the basal constriction moderately 
deep ; closely, findy punctate. Elytra rather short, twice as wide as 
the prothorax, subparallel in their basal half in S> dilated posteriorly 
in $, transversely depressed below the base ; closely, somewhat 
deeply punota to -striate, the punctures rather coarse on the basal 
half, fine on the apical declivity, the interBtioee convex towatds the 
sides and apex. Femora strongly clavate. 

Length 41-5, breadth li-lln™- (39-) 

Hah. Amazons, Santarem [(J. type], Ega [$] {H. W. 
Bales). 

One pair, the male with the elytial marMngB more 
developed than in the female. A small, comparatively short 
fonn, not unlike an Anthicua, with the el3^ra fasciate much 
as in S. viridicinOa from tlie same Amazonian localities, 
and S. bryanti, Pic, from Trinidad. iS. connexa would 
perhaps be better placed in the genua Colparthrum; but 
till the structure of the mandibles, etc. has been examined, 
the insect ia better left under Slalira, The apical joint 
of the labial palpi is securiform and rather small; the 
femora abruptly clavate. 

98. SUtira viridltasdata, n. sp. 
EUongata, narrow, shining ; testaceous, the eyta black, the elytra 
with two broad, transverse, metallic green fasciae— one baaal, not 
induding the humeri, the other post'inedian, the two connected 
along the suture, the second extending a short distance down the 
first interstice poeteriorly j the elytra with a few long, erect, bristly 
hairs towards the apex. Head almost smooth, with a shallow, 
transverse, sparsely punctate fovea between the eyes, the latter very 
lai^; antennae long and slender, joint 11 as long as 7-10 united. 
Prothorai longer than broad, oblongo-cordate, strongly oonstriolcd 
before the dilated base ; closely, finely punctate. Elytra long, paralM 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lL' 



Nae and little-ibunm Lagriidae. 243 

their basal half; oloselj, finely, deeply punotato-Btriate, the 
interatioee convex beyond the middle, 3 with four deep setigeroiu 
lesions scattered along the apical half, 1 with one and 9 with 
two similar impressions near the tip. Legs long; anterior femora 
strongly cIsTate ; anterior tibiae ronnded estemally at the base. 

Length 9}, breadth 2} mm. (^ T) 

Sab. Uffeb Auazons, Ega (H. W. Bates). 

One specimen. A close ally of S. calophaenoides, infra, 
with the broad elytral faaciae green and connected along 
the sutoie, the setigeious impressions deep and veiy few in 
number, foui only being present on the third interstice. 
The elytra are paiallel, not widened towards the middle. 
S. vindinataUt, Pic (Melanges ezot.-entom. iv, p. 15), from 
Cumbase, Peru, must be very similar; but as nothing is 
said about the testaceous humeral patch, and it apparently 
has more numerous setae on the elytra, the identification 
cannot be accepted without an examination of the type. 

99. SlftUra elegaatnls, n. sp. (Plate XIII, fig. 24, <^.) 

ij. Moderately elongate, narrow, depressed, shining; testaceous, 
the eyes black, the elytra, except the basal margin, an ante-median 
tmoBTerse fascia (widened outwards and not reaching the suture], 
and the apex, metallic green or bluish green ; the elytra with a few, 
long, erect, bristly haira. Head almost smooth, with a shallow, 
transTerse, punctured depression between the eyes, the latter 
moderately large ; sntemtoe long and slender, joints 7-10 decreasing 
in length, 11 extremely elongate, about as long as 4-10 united. 
Prothorax narrower than the head, longer than broad, oblongo- 
cordate, dilated at the base; sparsely, minutely punctate, in one 
specimen obsoletely canaliculate on the disc anteriorly. Elytra 
moderately long, subparallel in their basal half, nearly twice as 
broad as the prothorax; closely, finely, deeply puncUto -striate, 
the interstices convex, 3 with four or five widely scattered setigerous 
impressions, and 9 with two similar impiessions at the base. Legs 
l<mg, slender; anterior femora stout, clavate; anterior tibiae 
obliquely narrowed externally at the base. 

length fit-6l, breadth 1^2 mm. 

Hob. Ahazons, Ega and Para (H. W. Bates). 

Three specimens, showing no variation. Smaller and 
more slender than S. vindifasciata; the elytra less elongate, 
and with the green coloration more extended, leaving the 
basal mai^in, fui inwardly-narrowed, abbreviated, ante- 
median fascia, and a small patch at the apex testaceous ; 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



244 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

the apical joint of the antennae (^) extremely elongate. 
The anterioT tibiae are compresBed at the base mnch as 
in S. elegant, Makl., but the species seems b«8t placed next 
S. viridyasdata. 

100. Statira ealophaenoidei, n. sp. 

Elongate, narrow, depieeaed, Bhining; tMtaceoua, the eyes and 
two broad straight fasciae on the elytra (one basal, the other poit- 
median) black; the elytra with scattered, long, erect, bristly hairs. 
Head sparsely, minutely ponotate, ehallowly foveate betwetn the 
eyes, the latter large and not very widely separated ; antennae very 
long and slendw, joint 1 1 in ij nearly equalling the preceding five, 
and in $ a little longer than the preceding three, joints united. 
Prothorai as wide as the head in $, slightly narrower in ij, long^ 
than broad, cordate, dilated at the base, sparsely, minutely punctate, 
obaoletely canaliculate anteriorly. Elytra moderatdy long, at the 
middle twice as broad as the prothorax, gradually widened in their 
basal half, flatteoed on the disc, rounded at the apex; closely, 
finely crenato-striate, the interstices feebly convex towards the tip, 
1, 3 and 6 with scattered setigerous impreeaions throu^iont their 
length, and 7 and 9 with three or four similar impressions on the 
apical half. Lega long; anterior femora stout; anterior tibiie 
rounded estemally at the base. 

I.eiigth ^-^, breadth 21-2f mm. 

HtA. Peru {ex coU. F. Bates). 

Two examples, assumed to be sexes. This insect 
superficially resembles a small Calophaena (a Tropical 
American genus of Carabidae], some of the species of which 
are similarly nigro-bifasciate. It is of about the same aee 
and shape as S. elegans, Makl,, the latter having metallic 
green elytra, etc. 

101. Statin Hgregata, n. sp. 

3. Extremely like S. caiophaewndM, and similarly coloured, 
except that the transverse black basal fascia on the elytra is broader 
than the submedian one; antennae very long and slender, joint II 
nearly as long as 6-10 united; the prothorax more narrowed 
anteriorly ; the setigerous impressions on the eljrtra fewer in number, 
reduced to six along interstice 3, and two or three only towards 
the apex of 1, C, 7, and 9. 

Length %^, breadth 2} mm. 

H(A. Upper Ahazoks, Ega (H. W. BaUs). 

u.,.w,,t; Google 



New attd liOlfr-inown Lagriidae. 245 

One male, sufficiently difierent from ;S. cahphaenoidea 
to leqnite a diBtiiictive specific oi varietal name. 

102. Stelira uminign, n. sp. (Plate XIII, &g. 25.) 

Elongate, narrow, shining ; mfo-teetaceouB, the eyee and the 
apical half of the elytra black ; the elytra with a few, long, erect, 
briatly hairs. Head almost amooth, shallowly foveate in the iniddle 
between the eyee, the latter large and moderately distant ; antennae 
long and slender, joint 11 as long as 8-10 united. Prothorax aa 
wide as the head, not longer than broad, cordate, deeply oonstricted 
before the base, the basal margin much raJEed and laterally project- 
ing; almost smooth, obeoletely canaliculate at the apen. Elytra 
long, subparallel in their basal half; closely, finely puncta to -striate, 
the interstice 3 with aii, and 5 and 9 each with three or four, widely 
scattered setigerous impieesione, 1 also with two impiessions at the 
apex. Femora more or leas clavate. 

L^igth 7}, breadth 2i mm. ($t) 

Hob. Upper Auazohs, San Paulo [de Olivenca] (H. W. 
Bales). 

One specimen. Differs from the allied S. adophaetwides 
in having the apical half only of the elytra black, and the 
bead and prothoraz shorter and broader, the latter almost 
smooth, the elytra with scattered setigerous impressions on 
the interstices 3^ 5, and 9. 

103. Statira Irlsdlata, a. sp. (Plate XIII, fig. 26, <$.) 

S- Very elongate, shining; rufo-teetaceoua, the eyea and three 
oblique, angulate fasciae on the elytra (one before and one just 
beyond the middle, neither reaching the suture, and one, narrower, 
Bnbapical, the last-named continued down the first interstice and 
oater margin to near the tip) black ; the elytra with a few, long, 
erect, bristly hairs. Head almost smooth, longitudinally grooved 
betwetm the eyee, the latter lai^e, moderately distant; antennae 
slender, long, joints S-10 decreasing in length, 11 extremely elongate, 
as long as 6-10 united. Prothoraz as wide as the head, a little 
broader than long, subcordate, dilated at the base; sparsely, finely 
punctate at the base and with two deep widely separated f oveae on the 
diso poetoriotly. Elytra somewhat convex, very elongate, twice aa 
brood as'the prothorax, gradually widened to the middle, acuminate 
at the tip: closely, finely crenato-striate from base to apex, the 
interstices convex, 3, 5, and 7 with scattered setigerous impreesions 



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246 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

throughout their length, I and 9 also with several aimilar impteB- 
sions OD the apical half. Legs veiy long, i«ther alaider. 

Var. The upper Burfaee uniformly oastaneoos. 

Length HH^. breadth 3)-3i °>°>- 

H<A. Colombia, Ibague {Mus. Brit.). 

Two specimens, acquiied in 1846. A very elongate, 
somewhat convex, shining, rufo-testaceous or castaneouB 
insect, with sharply, obliquely, nigro-trisellate elytra 
in the form selected as the type, the elytrsl striae 
lather deeply impressed and crenato-punctate, the alter- 
nate interstices with scattered setigerous impressions. The 
two {oveae near the base of the prothorax cannot be acci- 
dental. The aedeagus (partly exposed in the type) is 
narrowed to the tip, and a pair of narrow carved claspers 
are visible beneath the fifth ventral segment. S. triadlala 
cannot be identified amongst the 28 Colombian SUUirae 
described by Maklin in 1878; it is coloured somewhat as 
in Colparthrum gerstackeri, Kirsch. The immaculate form 
must come near his S.femtginea : the latter is said to have 
a somewhat densely punctured prothorax and the elytral 
striae evanescent towards the apex. 

104. Statlra puaensis, n. sp. 

Moderately elongate, narrow, the head and prothorax subopaque, 
the elytra shimng; t«etBceouB, the eyes black, the elytra with a 
narrow, nlgro-fuscouB, traneverse, undulate, poet-median fascia — 
sometimee extending narrowly forwards along the suture and dilated 
anteriorly into a faint triangular scutellar patch, sometimes not 
reaching the suture or altogether wanting; the elytra with a few 
very long, erect, bristly hairs. Head almost smooth, longitudinally 
impressed between the eyes, the latter large and somewhat widely 
separated; antennae long, slender, joint 11 in <} aboat equalling 
8-10, and in 9 ^ and 10, united. Prothorax as long as broad, 
nearly or quite as wide as the head, coidate, dilated at the base; 
ajmoHt impunctate. Elytra moderately long, gradually widened to 
the middle; very Gnely, oloeely punctato^tiiate, smoother at the 
apex, the interstices flat, 3 with about seven conspicuous setigetous 
impressions scattered along ita entire length, 6 and 9 with three 
or four similar impressions on the apical half, and 1 with one or two 
near the tip. Aedeagus of j strongly acuminate at the tip. 

Length 6i-6, breadth li-2i mm. (^9-) 

Hob. Lower Amazons, Para (H. W. Bates). 

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New and litite-kiwwn LagnOae. 247 

Five BpeciineD — ^three fas<^ate, two immaculate. A 
fono of tne Central American 8. picla, Champ., with the 
apical joint of the antennae shorter in both sexes (ju S. 
picta, ^, equalling 7-10 united), the head with a deeper 
longitiidinal groove between the eyes, and the elytral 
markings, when present, showing a tendency to extend 
forward along the suture to the scutellar region (instead of 
along the outer margin to the humeri, as in 5. picta), the 
scattered setigerous impressions along the third interstice 
very conspicuous. 

105. SUtfnt einnmduflta, n. sp. 

3. Moderately elongate, depi«aeed, Bhining; nifo-testaoeooa, 
tlie eyes black, the elytia with the suture narrowly, and a common, 
transTBTse, curved median fascia, which is continued forwards along 
the outer part of the disc to tlie basB, nigro-fuscous ; the elytra with 
» few long erect setae. Head broad, spaisel;, minutely punctate, 
grooved down the middle betweco the eyes, the latt«r large and 
separated by about the width of one of them ; antennae moderately 
long, rather Blender, joint II slightJy longer than S-10 united. Pro- 
thorax narrower than the head, about as long as broad, auboordate, 
dilated^t the baBe ; almost smooth, faintly canaliculate down the 
middle anteriorly. Elytra twice as broad as the prothorax, moder- 
ately long, gradually widened to the middle, obliquely depressed 
below the base ; olosdy, finely punotato-striate, the interetioea 3, 6 
and 9 each with about six widely separated setigerous impicsBions, 
and 1 and 7 with one or two similar impreesions near the apex. 

Length 8, breadth 2) nun. 

Hob. Ecuador (Buckley). 
f One male. Very like 8. vageguUata, Pic, and its allies, 
but wanting the deep lanciform sulcus on the front of the 
prothorax, the dark markings on the anterior half of the 
elytra partly enclosing a broad, elongate, subquadrate 
patch of the testaceous ground-colour on the disc of each 
of them. 

106. Stattra snUentstrata, n. sp. 
Moderately elongate, narrow, shining, testaceous ; the eyes 

black, the elytra with a broad basal and a narrow median fascia, 
connected along the suture and approaching one another at the sides, 
nigro-piceous ; the elytra with a few long, erect, bristly hairs. Head 
laige, broad, obliquely narrowed and well developed behind the 
eyes, sparsely, obsoletely punctate, the eyes smell, widely eepaislf d ; 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



248 Mi. G. G. Champion on 

aatoimae very slender, moderately long, joint 1 1 barely the lengtii of 
9 and 10 united. Prothoras narrow, longer tlum broad, coidate, 
widened at the base, apaisely, finely punctate. Elytra moderately 
riongate, twice as broad as the prothorax, gradually widened to the 
middlp, acuminate posteriorly; ahallowly, minately striato-punc- 
tate, smooth at the apex, the inteistices flat, 3 and 5 with four or five 
widely scattered oonspionous aetigerous impressions, 7 and 9 also 
with two or three similar impressions towards the tip. 
Lengths}, breadth 1{ mm. ($T) 

Hab. AuAZONS, Santarem (H. W. Baiet). 

One specimen, imperfect. A very narrow, testaceous 
insect appioacIuDg S. vageguUala, Pic, with the elytra 
somewhat similarly maculate ; the head large, the eyes small, 
the antennae miusually slender, and with a feebly developed 
apical joint, the prothorax qmte narrow, punctulate, and 
without sulcus in front, the seriate elytral ptmctures very 
fine and shallow. The piothorax and elytra aie differently 
shaped from those of 8. paraensis. 

107. Statir» multino'tata. (Plate XIII, fig. 27, ?.) 

Suuira muUinobUa, Pic, Melanges exot.-entom. iv, p. 15 
(Sept. 1912). 

Ant«mal joint 11 in (^ as long as 7-10, in $ as long as 8-10, 



Hab. Bkazil (coU. Pic : type), Minas Geraea (Mus. 
Brit.). 

Three examples in the Museum, two of which ate from 
Minas Geraes, are doubtless referable to this species. A 
narrow, elongate insect, 8^9 mm. in length (Pic gives 
10 mm.), rufo-testaceous in colour, the elytra flavous, with 
the numerous scattered setigerous impressions along the 
alternate interstices each placed in a sharply-defined, 
subquadrate, blackish or fuscous spot, those on the fiwt 
(sutural) interstice confined to the apical half. The eyes 
ate large and somewhat narrowly sepatated, the space 
between them depressed down the middle. 

108. Statira vagegutUta. (Plate XIII, fig. 28, S.) 

Stalira vagegiUtaia, Pic, L'Echange, xxviii, p. 75 (Oct. 1912). 
Statira vagenolata, Pic, loo. cit. p. 76, 



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New and litde-lmmon Lagriidae. 249 

Var. Piot^orai with a dbttow bUutk vitU on each Bide near the 
outer maigiti. Joint 11 of uitamafl in (^ as long aa four or five 
of the piecedmg jointa united, in $ about equalling 8-10 united. 

Length 5-8}, breadth l|~2f nun. 1,$^) 

Bab. Brazil {Mus. Brit., M\ts. Oxon.), Rio de Janeiro 
{Fry), Constancia (J. Gray and H. Clark, Jan. 1857), 
MatUBinhos [type of 5. rojeywUata] and Sens de Bemarda 
[type of S. vagenofata] {cdl. Pic) ; Amazons {H. W. Bates, 
ex cdl. Fry). 

This seems to be one of the commonest species of the 
genus in the neighbouthood of Bio de Janeiro, but it was 
apparently unknown to Maklin. The long series before 
me, including many specimens belonging to the Oxford 
Museum, illustrate the great variation in the development of 
the elytra! maridngs, the additional variety here noted (eight 
specimens seen) simply differing in having a submarginal 
black line on each side of the prothorax. The commonest 
form has three dark angulate fasciae on the elytra — one 
just below the baae, another at the middle, these connected 
along the sntnral and outer margins, and a narrower one 
towards the apex, this latter connected with the median 
fascia along the suture and outer margin and down the 
middle of the disc (the fuscous markings thus enclosing 
on each elytron a la^e ante-median discoidal patch, and 
two transversely placed oblong marks behind it, of the 
yellowiah gronnd-coloot) ; the dark coloration sometimes 
eztends over the whole of the apical portion, or it may be 
almost entirely or in great part obHterated. S. vageguUata is 
Teadily recognisable by the deep, sharply-defined, elongate- 
triangular sulcus on the disc of the prothorax in front; 
the prothorax iUe\i ia sparsely, very finely punctate, and 
usually shining, sometimes opaque. The elytra are finely 
ponctato-striate, the interstices 3, 5, 7, and 9 each with from 
two to four, and 1 with one or two, scattered setigerous 
impressions on the apical half. There is a specimen before 
nie from the Dejean collection labelled with the MS. name 
S. pkta, Buq. [nee Champ.] and one from the Oxford Museum 
is ticketed 8. varians, Hope. The general resemblance of 
this insect to a spotted Drmnitis is rather striking. 

109. 8taflralnd)leollU,n.Bp. (Plate XIII, figs. 29, antenna; 

29a, prothorax, {^.) 

(J. Moderately elongat«, narrow, depressed, shining; rufo- or 

fiaro-testaoeouB, the lltb anl^awal joint slightly infuscate, the eyes, 



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250 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

the elytra to a little beyond the middle, esoept around the soutellom 
and on an obljqae or subtriangular space on the disc, and in one 
speoimm a nanov, tnuuverse oblique mark on Ihe disc before the 
apex, black ; the elytra with several erect bristly hairs towaida the 
tip. Head broad, sparBcIy, minutely panctat«, obeoletely canalicu- 
late between the eyee, the latter Urge, separated by about tjie 
width of one of tbem; antennae (fig. 29) elntder, moderately long, 
jointe 3-10 rapidly decreasing in length, 7-10 moniliform, II es- 
tremely elongate, about as long as 3-10 united. Prothoras (fig. 29a) 
narrower tlisn the head, about as long as broad, cordate, dilated 
at thebaMi sparsely, minutely punctate, and with a deep lancif onn 
BulouH on the disc in front. Elytra moderately long, gradually 
widened to the middle; closely, finely punctato-striate, the iuter- 
Bticea broad, feebly convex at the apex, 3, G, and 9 with threeor four 
scattered setigerous impreaBions on the posterior Iialf, 1 also with a 
single impression near the tip. 

Var. The prothorax broadly inf usoate along the sides, the blackish 
portion of the elytra more extended, reaching the subapioal 
mark. (tS.) 

Length 6)-6- breadth 11~2 mm. 

HrA. Lower Auazons, Santarem {H. W. Bates : type); 
Brazil, Pemambnco {Fry : var.). 

Described from three specimens, one of those from 
Santarem now wantmg the antennae. A very close ally 
of S. vagegvUata, Pic, with the apical joint of the ^ antenna 
nearly as long as the rest united, and the joints preceding 
it moniliform. There is also a corresponduig vanety with 
a laterally fusco-vittate prothorax. It ia just possible that 
these insects may be forms of S. brasUiemia, ^c (Melanges 
exot.-entom. iv, p. 19), which is said to have a long terminal 

{'oint to the antennae ; but without comparison, it would 
le unsafe to identify them as such. 

110. Slatlra xanlhodera, n. sp. 
Moderately elongate, shining, the elytra sericeous; black, the 
prothorax, the femora at the base, and the tarsal claws testaceous ; 
the elytra with a few long, erect, bristly hairs. Head almost smooth, 
well -developed behind the eyee, the latter small and widely separated ; 
antennae short, not very slender, joint 11 equalling S-10 united. 
Prothorax as wide as the bead, transverse, subcordate, dilated at the 
base i smooth, with a very deep, sharply defined, oblong excaT&tion 
on the disc in front. Elytra moderately long, about twice as broad 
as tlie prothorax, gradually widened to the middle, rounded at the 



ih,Cooi^lc 



New and little-known Lagriidae. 2S1 

Rpex; olo«riy, minutelj, very shallowly pimota to -striate, the inter- 
stices flat, 3 with five, and S, 7, and 9 with two or three, scattered 
setigerouB impreuiona on the apical half, 1 ^bo with a single impies- 
aion near the tip. 

Length 6, bnadth 2^ nun. ($ T) 

Hab. Brazil, Sasta Cathaiina (Fry). 

One specimen. This is one of the veiy few species of the 
genus known to me with a deep, oblong, buIcob on the disc 
of the prothoisx in front. This character brings it near 
S. vageguttata, Pic, from which it differs greatly in colour, 
and in having short antennae, araaller eyes, and very faintly 
striate elytra. The wholly black body and testaceous 
prothoraz, too, ate characteristic. 

HI. SUtfn flfforato. (Plate XIII, fig. 30, $.) 

Statirafyurata, Makl., Act. Soc. Fenn. vii, p. 158 (1862). 
IStaiiTa lunidala. Pic, Melanges exot.-entom. iv, p. 18 
(Sept. 1912). 

Elongate, rather broad, very abioing; nifo-, the elytra flavo- 
teataceoiu, the eyee, the prothorax with a submarginal line on each 
side, and theelytrawithanaTTow,anguIatep08t'baBalaada broader 
carved median fascia — these markings connected along the suture 
and outer margin (the eutural stripe extending don-nwards to near 
the apex), and the post-basal fascia with a curved ramus extending 
forwards along the middle of the disc to the scutellum — black; 
the elytra and the sides of the head thickly set with rery long, erect, 
eetiform hairs, the l^s, antennae, and under surface also with 
(easily abraded) hairs. Head broad, finely punctate, slightly 
impressed in the middle between the eyes, the latter separated by 
about the width ol one of them; antennae with joint 11 about as 
long as three ($) or four of the preceding joints united. Prothoras 
a little narrower than the head, as broad as I<Hig, subcordate, dilated 
at the base; rather closely, finely, conspicuously punctate. Elytra 
twice as broad as the prothorax, long, gradually widened to the 
middle ; closdy, finely punotato-striate, the interaticee each with an 
irregular row of rather coarse, somewhat closely placed setigerous 
impressions extending from the base to the apex. 

Length l\-9, breadth 2)-3 mm. 

Hab. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro {Fry), Constancia (J. Gray, 
Jan. 1857). 

The two specimens here described, possibly (J and ?, 
agree with Makhn's description of S.fyvrata, from " Brazil," 



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252 Mr. G. C. Champicin on 

except in having the apical portion of the elytra flavo- 
teetaceous, instf^ of black; but as some of the allied 
forma vary in this way, no importance need be attached 
to Buch a colour-difference, the five yellow spots on the 
basal half being exactly as be describes. S. lunulala, Pic, 
from Tijaca (a place near Constancia), which is compared 
with my figure of S. coTispicillaia, Makl., in the " Biologia," 
is said to have an irregular black ring enclosing a yellow 
patch on the anterior portion of each elytron. 'Die specific 
identity of these insects, therefore, must remain in doubt 
till types are compared. 

112. Staiira annuUta. (Plate XIII, fig. 31.) 
Stalira annulata, Makl., Act. Soc. Fenn. x, p. 6i3 (1875). 

Elongate, rather nurow, shining; testaceous, the eyes black, the 
elytra flavous, with three common, angulate fasciae, connected along 
the suture, the first two along the sides also, and the second and third 
nearly coalescent along the fifth interstice, the first with a brancli 
on the disc extending forwards to the base, nigro-fuscous (the dark 
markingB enclosing nine spots, ananged 3, 2, i, of the yellowish 
ground -col out] ; thickly clothed, the legs included, with long, soft, 
erect hairs. Head sparsely, rather coarsely punctate, the eyes 
somewhat narrowly separated ; antennae moderately long and 
slmder, joint 1 1 as long as 9 and 10 united. Prothorax longer than 
broad, oblong-subcordate, a little dilated at the base ; very coarsely, 
sparsely punctate. Elytra long, about twice as wideas the prothoras, 
gradually widened to the middle; closely, finely punctato-striate, 
the interstices each with on irregular series of closely placed pili- 
gerous punctures. 

Length 7}-8|. breadth 2^2| mm. 

Hah. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo (J^ry). 

The two specimens, probably ^ and 9> from which the 
above description has been taken agree with Maklin's 
diagnosis of his S. annulata, from Brazil, except that they 
apparently have relatively narrower elytra. The differences 
given by bim to separate S. annuUOa and S. jigttrata (as 
here recognised) also apply, so that there cannot be much 
doubt about the identification of either of them. A fresh 
description, however, was required in each case. 

113. Statlra quadriplaglata, n. ep. (Plate XIII, fig. 32, ^J.) 

1^. Moderately elongate, narrow, shining j testaceous, the eyes 

black, the elytra flavous, with a broad, common, triangular soutellar 



iVcw and liUle-lmown Lagriidae. 253 

pateh (reaching the humeri), a large triangular patch on the onter 
pttrt of the disc jiut beyond the middle (extending inwards to the 
second stria), and a common apical patch, nJgio-hucouB ; thickly 
clothed, the Ic^ included, with long, soft, erect hairs. Head rather 
small, coarsely punctate, the eyee large and somewhat narrowly 
separated; antennae comparatively short, rather etout, joint II aa 
long as S-10 united. Prothorax convex, about sa long aa broad, 
somewhat oval , scarcely dilated at the base ; coarsely, rather closely 
punctata. Elytra about twice as wide aa the protboras, long, 
gradually widened to the middle; closely, finely punctato-striate, 
the interstices each with an irregular series of rather closely placed 
piligerous poncturee extending from the base to the apex. Aedeagus 
slender and acuminate at the tip. 

Length 61, breadth 2^ mm. 

Hob. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro {Fry). 

One male. Closely related to S. annulata, Makl., but 
with very differeotiy marked elytra (resembling <S. scutd' 
larig. Pic, S. evanescena. Champ., etc., in thia respect), 
the ant«miae less elongate, the prothorax not so long, and 
still more coarsely punctured. The piligerous punctures 
on each elytral interstice are closely placed and extend 
from the base to the apex, as in iS. annulata and S.jigurala. 

114. Statlra blfureata, n. sp. 

$. Elongate, narrow, opaque, the elytra moderately shining; 
tMtaoeouB, the eyes black, the elytra with a narrow sutural stripe, 
which is obliquely bifurcate before the base and nearly reaches the 
apex, and three longitudinal streaks at about the middle (on inter- 
atioes 3, 6, and 7, that on 7 longer than the others), nigro-piceous; 
the elytra with scattered long, erect, bristly haira. Head slutaceous, 
closely, roughly punctulate, the eyes large and separated by about 
half the width of one of them; antennae rather slender, joint 11 
neariy as long aa S-10 united. Prothorax longer than brosd, as wide 
as &e head, cordate, dilated at the base ; closely, very finely scabroso- 
punctalate, the basal groove almost obsolete. Elytra long, at the 
middle twioe as wide as the prothorax, rapidly narrowed and acumi- 
nate posteriorly; closely, very finely punctato -striate, the alternate 
interstices 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 with a series of somewhat closely placed 
setigerous impressions extending throughout their length, the 
iropreesions each preceded by a small tubercle. 

Length 6^. breadth 2 mm. 

ffoi. Brazil, Jatahy, Province of Goyas {Pujd, ex coll. 
Fry). 



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254 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

One female. Not unlike S. ^uadripkiffiata, the head 
and prothoraz opaque and scabroBO-punctulate, the 
piothotax longer and with shallower basal groove, the 
elytra very differently marked and with more nimierouB 
tubercles along the alternate interstices. Pic has described 
various SUUirae from the same Province, but the present 
insect is not included amongst them': iS.^oyasenm*" (length 
9 nam.) also has the elytra testaceous, with a black sutural 
stripe enlarged towards the acutellum, but the other 
particulars given do not accord with S. infuTcata, and the 
tuberolea are not mentioned. 

115. Statira tennipes, n. sp. 

iS, Elongate, narrow, depiessed, alender, opaque above, ahining 
beo«atli; testaceouB, the eyes block, the elytra with the sutuie 
narrowly pioeoiu to near the apex, the latter with a few bristly hain. 
Haid broad, alutaoeoua, obsoletely oan^iculate betwerat the eyes 
and obliquely narrowed behind them, the eyes laige, somewhat 
distant ; antennae moderately long, slender, joint 1 1 nearly equalling 
7-10 united. Prothoraz much longer than broad, oonaidenbly 
narrower than the head, rounded at the sides, the latter deeply 
sinuate before the base, the basal margin not raised, the surfaoe 
alutaoeous. EUytra elongate, at the middle about twice as wide as 
the prothotaz somewhat acuminate poeteriorly ; closely, very finely, 
ahatlowly punctato-atriate, the inteisticcs feebly convex, 3 and S 
with about six widely scattered setigerouB impreeeions, I also with 
three others near the tip, and fl with five impressioni bey<»d the 
middle. Legs long and slender. 

Length ?{, breadth 2} mm. 

Hab. Brazil, Bahia (Reed). 

One specimen. This b one of several pecuhar forms 
obtained by Reed at Bahia. It resembles S. bifurcata, 
from Govas, but has a much broader head, a longer and 
smoother prothor&x, non-tuberculat« elytra, with the 
autur«> only infuscate. and longer legs. 

no. Statin eniaiata, n. sp. 

KklnplI•^, niiher broad, mxletatety ahining; teetaceoos, the 
lifsid and piMtliorax mMi>h. th* eyes blarlc; the elytra with an 
ill-ilrtiiKil. wintmm. ourrrd piet-nwdian faaria, extending forwards 



'• M<^«>,w Mot.-nju.m. iv. p. 20 (S^t- 1912). 

u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



New and lioie-knoum Lagriidae. 255 

aJoQg the oater margiD to the humeral calhie, a&d th« imee in- 
determinately, infiiBcato, the eurfoce bearing a few bristly haira. 
Head small, narrower thui the prothonz, closely, finely, con- 
Epicuoasly ponctate, unimpiesaBd between the eyes, the latter 
moderately large and somewhat distant ; antennae slender, short, 
. joint 11 equalling 7-10 united. Prothorax oblongo-eubquadrole, 
distinctly margined laterally, slightly hollowed at the sidee anteriorly, 
and sinuously narrowed towards the base, the anterior angles 
obtuse, prominent, the hind angles very slightly projecting, the 
basal margin but little raised, the transTeree groove in front of it 
deeply impressed laterally; deosdy, minutely punctate. Elytra 
widening to the middle and theif twice as wide aa the prothorax; 
finely, closely, deeply punctato-striate, the interstices convex, 3 
and 5 with four or five widely scattered setigeious impreasicms, 
and land 9 with two or three othersnear the apex. Legs moderately 
long- 
Length 9, breadth 3 mm. ($ ?) 

Hab. NiCARAGDA, Chontales [Janeon). 

One specimen, differing from all the Central American 
forms enumerated by myself in the " Biolo^ " in 1889, 
It is perhaps nearest related to the Mexican S. i«mecr«m, 
from which it is separable by the less rugnse, shining head, 
the longer, lai^r, and less scabrous prothorax, and the 
conmioti, ili-defined, fuscous post-median fascia of the 
elj^tra. 

117. Statira haltlflnsis, n. sp. 

Elongate, rather dull ; nigro-piceous or black, the prolkoiax and 
tarsi rufous or rufo -testaceous, the elytra nigro-cyaneous, the 
antmnae Bometimee wholly or in part ferruginous ; the elytra with 
a few fine, long, erect hairs. Head rather short, narrower than the 
prothorax, sparsely, minutely punctate, the eyee large, somewhat 
distant; antennae slender, moderately long, joint 11 equalling the 
three or four^receding joints united. Prothorax transverse, faintly 
margined laterally, rounded at the sides, constricted faefoie the 
prominent hind angles, the basal margin raised and the tianBTerse 
sulcus in front of it sharply defined; sparsely, minutely punctate. 
Elytra long, gradually widened to the middle, and there twice as 
«ide as the prothorax; finely, clocely, deeply punctato -striate, 
the interstices more or lees convex, 3 with nine or ten, ar^ 5 and 9 
with several, sotigerous punctutee scattered between the base and 
apex. L^s moderately long. 

Length 6i-7i- breadth 2j(-2f mm. {?.) 



u,y,i,A"jM,Googlc 



25^ Mr. G. C. Champion on 

Hab. Haiti, Port au Prince (ex coll. Fry). 

Four examples, possibly all females. This species 
bears some resemblance to the Antillean S. vittala, Cttamp., 
but it is very differently colonred, and has a shorter head 
and prothorax, and the latter finely margined at the sides. 
Also approaching S. croceiccHis, Makl. (from Florida, 
Georgia, and Alabama), and other N.-American forms. 

118. Stallra falfleoUts. 

Anthiciis ftdvicdlis, Fabr., Syat. Eleuth. i, p. 290 {1801).i 
SlalirafulvicoUis. Makl., Act.jSoc. Fenn. vii, p. 160 (1862).» 
Vor. a. Elytra each with a reddiab or tcetaoMiuB apot below the 



SlalirafulvicoUis, v. discoidaiis, Pic, Melanges exot.-entom, 
iv, p. 13{1912).» 
Var. $. Prottaorai black, the elytra eometimee fueoous or pioeous. 

Anihicua fusci^cnnis, Fabr., loc. cit.* 
S(at\ra ftiscipmnis, Makl., Act. Soc. Fenn. vii, p. 160.* 
Sifttira exigua. Makl., Ofv. Fineka Vet.-Soc. Porh. xx, 
p. 360 (1878).' 
Var. y. Prothonz black; the elytra and abdomen Ustaoeona 
at the base, or the elytra (a triangular scutellar patch and the auton 
excepted) teetaoeous in their baaal h&U. 

Anihiai.i aMominatis. Fabr., loc. cit.' 

Statira abdominftlis. Makl., Act. Soc, Fenn. vn, p. 160.' 

Var. 3. Prothorax black, the elytra with an oblong yellowiah 
mark on the disc before the middle. 

Staimi atricotlis. Pic, M4lan<.:es exot.-entom. iv, p. 20 
(St'pt. 1912).* 
Var. •. Prothorax black, the elytra «Mih with a ydlow atripe on 
the disc extending from the base to b^md the middle. 

Stitlini f?.itv..'f.i/.i. Pic. M^lances exot.-entooi. xi. p. 18 
tXov. nil4>." 
rV»r. i. IVxIiorsi. a brD«d ol>tt>n^ stripe od the dkc of eadi 
el.vl)vn tciintilitic fn'm a litile below the base to beyood the middle 
aitd «luK*.t rtwiiiitw the suture), under sDrfaw. femora, and tibiie 
liW anterior (Mir eii-«|>ted> tevtaeevus or ttavoos. 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



Hoe and Uole-biOKn Lagriidae. 267 

Hab. South Ahebica u*>^; Colombia *, Bc^ta; 
GuUKA, Cayeime ' ; Brazil >° (Miat, in Mia. Oxtm. : -m. 
JlavoviOata), Rio de Janeiio, EsiHiito Santo, Babia, Per- 
nambaco [var. C]', Amazons, Pais, Kanta [var. a]; 
Bolivia*. 

The muDerons specimens before me oomiect the Daic«d 
fonna of this veiy variable Stalira, and it is not impossible 
that S. {AtUhicus) ruficoOis, Fabr., which has a red head 
and piothorax, appertains to the same species. Makhn 
did not identify any of these Fabrician insecta amongst the 
material examined by him ; but there can be little doabt 
that the three named quoted above refer to one and the 
same species, that with a red or yellow prothorax being 
apparently confined to Brazil and Guiana. An example of 
the var. a (= discoidaiis. Pic) from the F. Bates collec- 
tion (from that of Dejean) is labelled with the MS. name 
Pedtlus sanguinicoUis." The allied S. irregularis and iS. 
aibofasciaia. Champ., from Central America, are almost 
eqnally variable in colour. iS./uivtcoJJts is a small, polished, 
Aiithiciform insect, wholly or in part black; the elytra 
feebly striato-punctate, with an irregular series of numerous 
larger, rough, setigerous impressions along each of the 
intetsticea; the antennae gradually thickened outwards, 
the apical joint about as long as the two preceding joints 
united in both (S and $; the head transverse, foveate in 
the middle between the eyes, the tatter small ; the tibiae 
somewhat curved in <^. There is a broken specimen of the 
var. flavovUtata in the Oxford Museom. These forms, 
shoold perhaps be removed from the genus Statira. 

119. StaUra oyanipennis. 

Statira cyanipennis, Mfikl., Ofv. Finska Vet.-Soc. FdrB. 

XX, p. 36 (1878) (nee S. cyanipennis, Matd., Act. Soc. 

Fenn. vii, p. 591, and x, p. 647). 
Statira colombica. Champ., Biol. Centr.-Am., Coleopt. 

iv, 2, p. 62, nota (nom. prov.). 

Bab. Colombia [type], Bogota (ex coll. F. Baiea). 

Two specimens from the F. Bates collection agree with 
Uaklin's description, except that they have the abdomen 
black, instead of dilute fulvous. They are separable from 
typical S. ftdvic(Mis, F., by the prothorax being more 

>' C/. B. C-Am., Coleopt. iv, 2, p. 46. 
tbams. ent. soc. lond. 1917. — part I. (NOV.) s 



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?68 Mr. 6. C. ChampioD on 

dilated ftat«rioriy (thus appearing nairowei at the base) 
and a little shorter, and tne elytra brilliant cyaneous in 
-colour. The first species described by Maklin under the 
name S. cyanipetmis (1862) was selected in 1889 as the 
type of Sphrafftdcphonu. 

120. Staflra eajrsiuMUls, n. sp. 

Moderately elongate, somewhat robuat, widened posteriorly, very 
■hining; testaceous, the head and palpi, the antennal jointa t and 
-4-10. in part or entirely, nearly the apical half of the elytra (a spot 
on the outer margin near the tip excepted), and the abdomen in 
part, blank, the tibiae and tarsi nigro-piceous ; the elytra and legs 
somewhat thickly, and the head sparsely, clothed with long, fine, erect 
OT projecting, pallid haiis. Head short, barely as wide as the pro- 
thotax, well developed behind the eyes, veiy spatsdy punctulate; 
eyes small, widely separated; antennae moderately long, gradnally 
thickened outwards, joint 11 equalling 9 and 10 united. Piothorex 
almost smooth, scarcely as long as broad, tranaverEely coidate, 
strongly constricted before the base, the basal margin raised and 
thickened, preceded by a deep groove. Elytra moderately long, 
widening to the middle, and there twice as wide aa the prothorax, 
somewhat acuminate posteriorly; finely, shallowly, confusedly 
punctate, the seriately-arranged punctures barely distinguishable 
from those of the interstices. Legs rather stout, the femora clavate. 

Length «, breadth 2 nun. 

Hab. Guiana, Cayenne {Miis. Brit.). 

One specimen ( ? sex), injured by pinning, acquired in 
1858. An insect reaembling S. fncol-or. Champ,, from 
Panama, except that the head is black, but with the an- 
tennae (less the flavoua apical joint) and elytra formed 
much as in the Central American S. albofasciata, Champ. 
S.fulvicollis, ¥., is also an allied insect. The Peruvian S. 
nigroapicoXis, Pic, compared with S. Incolor by its describer, 
must be a very different species, simply resembling the latter 
in colour. 

121. StaUra semlTlolaoea, n. sp. 

moderately elongate, robust, very shining; mio-testaeeous, the 
vpical half of the elytra and the sutuie narrowly thoioe to tlie 
base, Dupreo- violaceous, the eyee, joints 2-7 of the antennae, the 
metastenium, abdomen, tibiae, and tarsi black or piceous; the 
elytra with a few bristly hairs. Head small, much narrower than 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



New and l^tU-knovn Lagriidae. 259 

the prothorftx, apandy, fiaely pnnctete, foTMte on eaoh •id*' 
betwe«n tbe «7ea, and nftnowing behind thno; eyta tmuvuM, 
aawU, dist*nt,feeb);ooDTes.iK>trMu;hii)g the bueof the head; an- 
tctmae rather short. modeTfttd; stout [joint 1 1 niissiiig). Prothoias 
smooth, broader than long, arcuAtely dilated At the sidee, n«iTOw«d 
and constricted at the base, the basal margin preceded hj a deep 
groove; the disc with a veiy lai^, deep, ronnded excavation on 
each side just behind the middle. Elytra modeTstely long, at the 
middle about twice as wide as the protborax, conjointly rounded at 
the tip; closely, finely, deeply punctato -striate, the interstices 
convex, flatter on the disc, 3 with tour setigerous impreesions 
scattered between the base and apex, 5 and 9 also with two or three 
widely separated impreasions. Legs rather short and stout, the 
aJiterior femora strongly clavate. 
Length 6}, breadth 2} mm. l^.) 

Bab. Upper Amazons, San Paulo [de Olivenca] {H. W. 
Bates). 

One specimen. Near S. biador. Champ., from Panama, 
the protborax more dilated at the sides and with a very 
large, deep, rounded excavation on each side of the disc 
( ? accidental) ; the elytra conjointly rounded at the apex, 
sharply punctato-striate, and unth the apical half and 
suture cupreo-violaceous, the setigerous impressions fewer 
in number. The apical joint of the antennae wanting in 
the type, is probably elongate, at least in the male. 

122. SUtlra eribrinpB, n. sp. 
Elongate, narrow, widened posteriorly, shining; reddish-brown 
or obscure rufo- testaceous, the femora paler at the base, more or lees 
infuscate in their outer half, the eyes black; somewhat thickly 
clothed with long, fine, erect, bristly hairs. Head large, broad, 
well developed behind the eyes, rounded at the sides posteriorly, 
closely, coarsely punctate, with a shallow, transverse, inter-ocular 
impression, the frontal groove deep and almost straight; eyes 
small, convex, widely separated; antennae long, slender, joint II 
in both sexes about equalling 9 and 10 united. Prothorax nearly 
OS wide as the head, convex, longer than broad, rounded at the sides 
anteriorly, feebly sinuate and gradually narrowing towards the base, 
the basal margin slightly raised ; closely, coanely punctate. Elytra 
rather convex in ^, flatter in 9, moderately long, rapidly widening 
to the middle, and there about twice the bre«dth of the prothorax, 
atonately narrowed and somewhat acuminate posteriorly, the humeri 
obtuse; Boarsely, closely striate -punctate, the punctures transveite 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



260 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

&nd impinging on the aarrow raised interetioee. tbe allemate iatet- 
stioes 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 each with & row of somewhat oloselj placed, 
fine, setigerous imprMsiona. Legs moderately long, the femon 
rather stout. 
Length 6-6*, breadth If-2i mm. (,J¥.) 

Hah. Brazil, Espirito Santo (Fry : ,^, type), Parana 
(ex coU. F. Bales : 2). 

One pair. A peculiar form related to S. ajlindricdlis, 
&Iakl., from Colombia, Venezuela, and Trinidad ; but 
much larger and longer than that insect, with a shorter, 
broader head, and long, slender antennae, the elytra with 
TOWS of closely packed coaiae crenate punctures separated 
by narrow raised interstices, the alternate ones each 
bearing numerous long bristly hairs, the humeri less 
prominent. 

123. Statlra melanoptara, n. sp. 

9- Elongate, narrow, widened posterioriy, shining; rufo-tes- 
tooeoufi, the eyee, palpi, elytra, and legs (the bases of the femom, 
and the tibiae and tarsi in part, excepted) black or piceoue, the 
abdomen and basal joints of the antennae also in part infuscate; 
the elytra with numeroua long, fine, bristly hairs. Head large, 
broad, well developed behind the eyes, rounded at the sides pos- 
teriorly, closely, rugosely punctate, the frontal gtouve deep and 
almost straight; eye« email, convex, widely distant; antennae long, 
slender, joint 11 equalling 9 and 10 united. Prothorax slightly 
longer than hroad, narrower than the head, oonstricled before the 
prominent hind angles, the basal margin moderately raised; rather 
coarsely, closely punctate. Elytra long, somewhat convex, rapidly 
widening to the middle, somewhat acuminate posteriorly, the humeri 
obtuse; closely, deeply, rather coarsely punctato-atriate, the 
punctures transverse, crenate, the interstices more or less convex, 
OS wide as the striae, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 each with a series of numerous, 
conspicuous, setigerous impressions. 

Length 7, breadth 2j, mm. 

Hab. Brazil (ex ct^l. F. Bates), 

One specimen, A close ally of S. cribruxpa, with the 
elytra and the outer halves of the femora black, the head 
not so coarsely punctate, the prothorax less constricted 
behind, the elytra with smaller seriate punctures and 
broader inteistices, the alternate ones with conspicuous 
eetigerous impressions, as large as those of the striae. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



ATew and lHOie-known LagrHdae. 261 

124. StiOn qrHnditooDis. (Plate XUI, fig. 33, 3.) 

Suaira cyUndricdlis, Maki., Ofv. Fioska Vet.-Soc. 
Forh. II, p. 361 (1878); F«nn., Ann. Soc. Ent., Fr. 
1892, p. 97. 

Hab. CoLOMBU [type]; Vbnkzuku, Caracas and San 
Esteban (Simon), Cumana (ex cott. F. Bates) ; Trinidad 
{F. Birci, G. E. Bryant, cofl. Fry). 

A small blackish or niip-piceouB, Anthiciform insect, 
with a long head and a narrow snbcylindrical prothorai, 
both of which are coarsely, closely punctate ; the antennae 
mfo-testaceons to about the middle, thickened and infus- 
cate towards the ap<nc, joint 11 stout and about as long 
a8 9and 10 united in both seies; the eyes small, prominent, 
distant from the base of the head ; the elytra rather short, 
comparatively broad, strongly, transversely impressed 
below the base, deeply punctato-striate, the interstices 
more or less convei, 3, 6, 7, and 9 with several widely 
scattered setigerous impressions, 1 also with two or three 
others near tne apei. The peculiarly shaped, elongate 
head ia not mentioned in the descriptions of either of the 
above-quoted authors. A Trinidad specimen is figured. 

125. Stafira anthteoides. 
St4aira anthteoides, Kirsch, Berl. Ent. Zeitschr. 1873, 

p. 412. 
Slatira anthteoides, v. alaudingeri. Pic, L'Bchange, ixviii, 
p. 76(1912). 
Hab. Peru, Chanchamayo {ex coll. F. Bates). 
A close ally of S. cylindricoUis, Mnkl., with the upper 
surface more shining ; the head larger and broader; the 
prothorax deeply constricted before the base, and much 
more finely punctate; the elytra varying in colour from 
rufescent, a common, elongate, black patch at the base 
of the suture excepted, to entirely black (var. staudingeri), 
the interstices flatter, the striae shallow.^^ 

126. Stotira flUcornis, n. sp. 

Moderately elongate, ateader, widened posteriorly, Bhining; 

obeoure teeteoeouB, the eyes &nd elytrs black, the beaal Jointe of 

tbe Bnteniue fosoo-annulate, the tarei slightly infuscate; the 

•• This ia the Peruvian insoct mentioned in the " Biologia " 
(Goleopt- IT, 2, p. 73) under the description of the genuB Bboaaua. 



ih, Google 



262 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

dytn with a few bristly bain. H«ad aJmoat smootb, veiy laige, 
much broader than the prothorsx, greatly derdoped bdund the 
small, widely separated, convex eya, and arcuatdy narrowed behind 
them, the inter-ocnlar space transvetsdy bifoveate in the middls 
posteriorly; antennaeTeryeleoder, rather short (joints ^11 misaing)- 
Prothorai narrow, loikger than broad, oblongo -cordate, constricted 
befoie the moderately prominent basal margin; closdy, finely 
punctate, smoother on the anterior half, the disc obsoletely canalico- 
late anteriorly and slightly depressed in the middk at the baae. 
Elytra moderately long, at the base twice as broad as the prothoni, 
wideoing to the middle, areuately narrowed posteriorly, transTiTEely 
flattened anteriorly, and rounded at the tip; very finely striate- 
punctate to near the apes, the interstices almost flat, sJutaceous, 
3 and S with a sniee of five or six widely soatteied, small setigerous 
impiesaiona, 1, 7, and 9 also with two or three impreeeions neaj' the 
tip. Legs slender. 

Length 6, breadth 2 mm. 

HiA. Peru (ex coa. F. Bates]. 

One specimen. The large, poateriorly developed head 
and small ejes bring this species near S. antkicoida, 
Kirsch, also from Pern. S.JUicomis, however, differs from 
the latter in its much more slender build, the smoother 
testaceous head and prothorax, the siibfiliform antennae, 
the longer, duller, less convex, non-excavate elytra, and 
the pallid legs. 

127. SUUm perforata, n. sp. 

S' Elongat«, narrow, depressed, shining, somewhat thickly 
clothed with soft, fine, semi-erect hairs (now mostly abraded in (he 
t3'pe}; piceous, the head and anternioe black, the elytra with a 
greenish lustre. Head rather short, coarsely, confluently, rugosely 
punctate, the eyes small, widely separated, depressed, the labnun 
large; antennae moderately long, thickened outwards, joint 10 
transverse, II stout, about equalling 7-10 united. Prothoias 
uneren, wider than the head, longer than broad, feebly romided 
at the sidee, the latter slightly sinuate before the base, the bassi 
margin moderately prominent; very coarsely, oonfluraitly, foveo- 
lato-ponctAte. Elytra barely twice the width of the prothoni. 
not very elongate, rounded at the apex, depressed below the base; 
closely, rather finely crenato -striate, the interstices feebly convex, 
narrow, each with a row of piligerous impressions, which are of about 
the same size as the transverse punctures of the striae. Lege rather 
stout, the intermediate and posterior femora transv««ely strigose 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Trans. Enl. Soc. Land.. 1917, Pi XII. 



Tropical Amehican Lagriidae. 



, CToo"^'- 



Explanation of Plate XII. 



Fto. 1(J. Slatira eoilarieenait. Champ. [Costa Rica and Colombia], 
anterior 1^. 

23. fiavoriffriata, a, ep. [Ecuador]. 

3^, „ »tituTalit, Mskl. [Brazil], anterior l<^. 

4J. „ gemmifer, Mikl. [Brazil], posterior leg. 

StJ ,. agroidts, Lep. et Serv. [Brazil], a«deaguB, in profile, 
shoning the targe bsaal piece. 

6. „ longicept, n. ep. [Brazil]. 

7|J. „ loagicMU, Makl. [Brazil], posterior leg. 

8(J. „ meUagria, MakJ. [Brazil]. 

9cJ. „ calenata, Hitkl. [Brazil]; On, penia-sheath, in pro- 
file; 9 b, ditto, from above. 
lOtJ. „ vindi'peimU, Lep. et Serv. [Brazil], aedeagus. 
showing the lai^ basal piece; 10a, ditto, in 

llt^. „ nenicuiaia, Hiikl. [Brazil], a«deagus, showing the 
large basal piece; llo, ditto, in profile. 

12cJ. I, agg-Mmetrica, □. sp. [Brazil], penis-sheath, 

\Z^. „ iortvpea, n. sp. [Brazil], posterior leg; 13a. penia- 
aheath. 

I4(J. „ areuatipea. Pic [Brazil]; 14a, aedeagua. 

Ifi^- 11 futeilartis, Makl. [Brazil], posterior leg. 

16J. „ »phtnocUra, a. sp. [Brazil], 

17i}. „ curydera, n. sp. [Amazons]. 

18$. „ pruuttarttU, Pic [Brazil]. 

Ids. » *itvm», Makl. [Brazil], anterior \eg. 

20(J. „ disligma, n. Bp. [Peru], prothorai. 

21(J. „ ca«n<mioi(^, n. sp. [Brazil], 

223. „ Slalira bn/anti. Pic [Trinidad], 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



h,Googlc 



. OF Plate Xm. 



Amazons). 
Amazon;]. 

I'lliimbia]. 
linuill. 
r.nml]. 
; Ilrazil], antaon*; 29a, {vo- 



Colombia, Vcnezada, and' 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Trans. Ent. Sac. Land., 1917, PI. Xllt. 




/ V 



Tkopical American Laghiid^ 



,L.oo^k 



Explanation of Plate Xm. 



Statira Bonncm, n. ep. [Amazons]. 
elefantiiia,n. ep. [Amazooa]. 
teminigra, a. sp. [AmsMiw]. 
IriteBata, n. sp. [Colombia]. 
muUinUala, Pio [Brazi)}. 
vagfipUlala, Pio [Brazil]. 
ineiticoUit, n.Bp. [Brazil], uitenna; 29a, pro- 

fiffurata. Makt. [Braul]. 

amulaia, M&kl. [Brazil]. 

qvadriplagiata, n. ap. [Brazil]. 

cylindHeofiH, Makl. (Colombia, VenezueiR, and. 
Trinidad], 
„ pUoaa, a. sp. [Brazil]. 
M AacfflonioulM, n. sp. [Brazil]. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



New and lUUe-hwwn Lagriidae. 263^ 

on tbeirinnerftuw, the tibiaeBomewhAtcarvedatthebase. AedeaguB 
Btoat, Bcumiiwte and curved upwards at the tip. 
Length 5J, bieodUi I J mm. 

Hab. Mexico {Truqiii, ex coU. Fry). 

One male. An isolated form, with the general facies 
of an Arthromacra. Smaller and narrower than the 
Mexican 5. brevipilis. Champ., the head and prothorax 
very coarsely, con fluently punctate, the latter sub- 
cylindrical, the elytra more deeply crenato-striate, with 
each of the intetstices uniseriato-punctate, much as in 
S. nigroaenea, Champ., from the same country. S. perforata 
seems to approach the S.-American genua Statiropais, 
Borcbm., which is unknown to me. 

128. StaUra pUota, n. sp. (Plate XIII, fig. 34, S-) 
Elongate, narrow, rather convex, ahining, thicklj clothed, the 
legs included, with long, soft, erect or projecting, pallid hairs ; piceous 
or ruto-piceous, with a brassy or aeneous lustre above and beneath, 
tbe antaina« and legs sometimea reddish. Head short, ooanelj, 
coafluently, nigosely punctate, the eyes rather email, separated in 
both ae»B by about the width of one of them aa seen from above; 
VitMinae rather atout, thickaied outwards, in <J about reaching 
the middle of the elytra, in $ much shorter, joint II in :? a little 
longer than, in 2 not equalling, 9 and 10 united. Prothorax sub- 
quadrate, the sides slightly rounded anteriorly and feebly sinuate 
before the base, the transverae basal groove well defined, the margin 
feebly raised ; very coarsely, oonfluently, foveolat« -punctate. Elytra 
long,subparalleI in their basal half, somewhat acuminate posteriortyj 
ooaisely, closely crefiato-atriate, the interstices transversely rugu- 
loee (except near the suture), each with an irr^ulai row of inconspicu- 
ous piligeroDB pimctures, 4, 6, 8 smoother and subcostate. Ventral 
aegmeDta with scattered piligeroua punctures, glabrous along the 
median line. Legs moderately long, the femora clavate, the tibiae 
roughly punctate. Aedeogus of ij very long, slender, acuminate, 
aoeloeed in a long, narrow sheath. 

Length THI.>>re(ulth2f-3i mm. (,^?.) 

Hab. Brazil {Miers, in Mua. Oxon.), Rio de Janeiro 
^F,y). 

Four males and three females, varying greatly in size. 
The description of S. t^cura, Makl., from Santa Rita, 
Brazil, applies to some extent to the present insect : it 
is, however, here assumed to have been taken from the 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



261 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

female of a species of Dtsema. The following is an 
extremely closely allied fonn. 

129. StaUrs itrongyllold«, n. sp. 

(J. Very like S. pih»a and simiUrly coloured, but more spareelf 
pilose; the Mitennae more slsDder (joint II misaing); the beftd 
sparsely, much more finely punctate, Bmoother between the eyes, 
the latter mora approximate; the prothorax shorter, transveiBely 
Bubquadnite, the very coarse, irregularly scattered punctures re- 
duced in number, separate one from another, the transverse baaal 
groove uninterrupted ; theelytralinteratioee smoother, the piligerous 
imprSBsions coarser, reduced in number, and placed along 1, 3, G, 7, 
and 9, those on 7 and 9 larger and more closely placed, 4, 6, S very 
Jittle raised. Aedesgus, so far as visible, very similar to that of 
S. piloia. 

Length 81^-10, breadth 2i-2,% mm. 

Hab. Brazil, Constancia and Petropolis {J. Graff 
and H. Clark, Jan. and Feb. 1857). 

Two males, one with the femoia black, except at the base. 
This is a form of S. pilosa requiring a distinctive name. 
The sparser vestiture is not wholly due to abrasion, but 
to the more scattered pimctuiing of portions of the surface. 
Both these insects, when abraded, are so like some of the 
smaller species of SlTongylium {a genus of Tenebrionidae 
numerously represented in the same region) that they 
might easily be taken for such, if the dilated penultimate 
tarsal joint were not noticed. 

130. SUtlra gradlls. 

^. Statira gracilis. Makl., Act. Soc. Fern, x, p. 646 
(1875). 
c^. Elongate, narrow, shining; piceous, the elytia aeneous with 
the suture castaneous, the antennae (except towards the tip), 
lege, and ventral surface ferruginous; somewhat thickly clothed, 
the legs included, with long, fine, erect or projecting hairs. Head 
broader than the prothorax, rugosely foveolate between the eyes, 
the latter larger, eubapproximate ; antauiae long, rather slender, 
the joints becoming stouter and subserrate outwaida, II equalling 
9 and 10 united. Prothorax smooth, much longer than broad, 
oblongo-cordate, constricted before the raised basal margin, the 
transverse groove in front of it complete, deep. Elytra long, barely 
twice the width of the prothorax, subparallel in their basal half, 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lc 



iV«u> and lUtU-krwwn Lagriidae. 265 

wmminsto posteriorly; coarsely, closely Btriato- punctate, the 
ponctum beoomtng obaolete before the apex, the intentioM narrow, 
trknavenety wrinkled, 1, 3, 6, 7, and 9 eftoh with a loattered seriei 
of Bmall, indiatinot, setigerous impieeHiona. Le^ very long, slender, 
bairj, the femon cUvate, 

$. Rufo-outaaeoua, the protborax and elytra slightly infuscate, 
the latter with a faint metallic lustre; antennae shorter, more 
thickened outwards, joint II not equalling 9 and 10 united; head 
smaller and narrower, trifoveate between the eyes, the latter 
mnch Hinaller, distAnt; elytra gradually widened to the middle, 
rounded at the sides posteriorly. 

I/ngth 8-8}, breadth 2-2J nun. (^$.) 

Hab. Brazil, Petropolis [Dr. Sahlberg, Dec. 1850, 
type, (J; J. Gray and H. Clark, Feb. 1857, S), Rio de 
-Janeiro (fry : $). 

Redescribed from two males from Petropolis, and from a 
fem&te taken much later by Fry, the latter almost certainly 
belonging to the same speciee. S. gracilis approaches 
ColpariKrum, but so far as can be seen without dissection, 
the mandibles are not tridentate aa in that genus, and the 
apical joint of the labial palpi is narrow. 

131. SUtira hMmonloldes. n. sp. (Plate XIU, fig. 35, 3.) 
Elongate, rather convex, dull above, Bhining beneath ; testaceous, 
the eyes, antennae, palpi, and acutellum, the elytra with the intersticM 
-4 and 6 (or t^e greater part of tbeir length, and the suture to near 
the tip, the under surface in part (the abdomen excepted), the tarsi, 
aod the intermediate and posterior knees, block or pioeous ; the 
eljtra with a few bristly hairs. Head alutaceous, the eyes extremely 
large, auboontiguous: ant«mae very elongate, rather stout, feebly 
serrate, joint II equalling 9 and 10 united. Prothorax wider than 
the head, a little longer than brood, rounded at the sides, constricted 
before the base, the baaol margin thickened and raised ; alutaceous, 
-obsoletely canaliculate anteriorly. Elytra elongate, about one-half 
■wider than the prothorax, slightly broader at the middle than at the 
base, and produced at the tip, the humeri not prominent ; closely, 
finely crenato-stri ate, the interstices convex, 3 and S with sevecal 
conspieuoua setigerous impressions scattered between the base and 
apex, the striae arranged in pairs, obsolete at the tip. Legs very 
■elongote, slender, simple. 

Length 10}, breadth 2J mm. (^ ?) 

Hab. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro (Fry). 

n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



266 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

One specimen, assumed to be J, on account of the very 
lar^e eyes and long antennae. This insect has the general 
facies of a Haemonia [a auhaquatic genus of Phytophi^a 
not known in America from south of Mexico) ; it approaches 
the Central American S. albolineala. Champ., but has 
stouter and more distinctly serrate antennae, much larger 
eyes, an almost smooth prothorax, aod nigro-lineate elytra. 
There is no trace of an opaque stigma on the elytra. jS. 
haemonioides cannot be included under Disema, certain 
species of which are somewhat similar. The other de> 
scribed nigro-lineate Slatirae are all very different from the 
present insect. 



ju^fhabbtical numbered list of the sfgoies of 
statisa enumerated in the preceding paqbs 
(excluding synonyms), the new forms indicated 
by an asterisk. 



'aoanthomero, 4 


•cnapidata, 14 


latJcollii, 31 


Mgrota,38 




'melanoptera. 123 




•cyanoptera, 89 


ogroides, 8 


cylindricollis, 124 


ainoena, 28 


•dejeani, 55 


mdeagriB. 18 


aimulata, 112 


•dentigera, fl 


mi cans, 29 


anthicoides. 125 


•diluU, 51 


*mucronBta, 11 




•diatigma, 88 






*divi8a, 50 




*aayinmetrica, 22 


'dromioidee. 92 


*octolineata, 82 


•batesi, 13 


•egaenaiB. 86 
elegans. 87 


•paraensifl, 104 


•bifurcata. 114 


•perforata, 127 


bryuiti, 95 


•elegantula, 99 


*penuu)a. 33 


*caeruleotiDcta, 59 


•eurydera. 68 


•pUoaa, 128 


•calieneie. 58 


fiaurata. Ill 
•fiSconus. 126 


presutnraUs. 81 




•punctieeps, 53 
•puocticoUis, 60 




*flavMignata, 2 


•oanaUculata, S2 


•formo«a.30 




•caracana, ea 


fulvft, 78 










catonaU, 19 


fimcitaraia, 25 


•rotundicoUis, 49 


•cavernosa, 43 


gemmifer, 7 


ruafrons, 34 


•cayonnenaui, 120 


geniculata. 21 




•chalooptera, 42 


gracilia, 130 






Kratio8a,54 




■circumducta, 105 


•aegwgata, 101 


•conneia, 97 




■semicuprea. 47 


'convexiuacula, 76 


•incisicol^. 109 


•wmiiugra, 102 






•cribricep*. 122 


•inaulftiis, 77 


•8erioea,06 


•oTDciaU, 116 


latoraliB. 71 


aiinoni8,52 


'cupreoviridiH, 45 







l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



New and litUe-known Lagriidae. 



*i[^DOdem, 36 
"aphenoptera, 40 
^pinigera, 3 

■plendicanH, 48 
"atsnoceph&ls, 36 
*Btenodera, 86 
^tenoptera. 93 
*atrongylioide8, 129 
"■nbtenestrata, 106 
*aabglat)rata, 67 
*auf^Ba, 72 

aumtuoso, 41 



*tei»upee, 115 



•torn 



>, 84 



tibialia, 26 
*tortipeB, 23 
•tracliYdeni, 74 
■traoHiucida, 66 

trilineata,S3 
•trisellaU, 103 

tnberculata, 15 
*ambroea, 67 

vogeguttaU, 108 



- 10 

•Teraicolor, 64 
•vigintipunctata, 46 
•yiridicioota, 96 
*TiridifafK;Uta, 98 
*Tiridiiutens, 37 

TiridipenniB, 20 
'Tiridltincto, 32 
•viridivittata, 70 

vittata. 79 
'xanthodera, 110 



SYNONYMS AND VARIETIES. 



■Dtillaium [80] 

«nnata[81 

*tria)lli8[118] 

<;olombica[1181 

4i9coidalu[118] 


fostiva [87] 
fl«Tovittat«[lI8] 

hiBtrio [1] 
tannlataflll] 


morbiliosa [29] 
plui»icomis[19] 

Tiridipennis [55] 



EXPLANATIOK OF PlATES XII, XIII. 
[Ste StrplaTialiojta facing the Plate».] 



November 24, 1917. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



IX. A Revision oj the genua Tanicus. By G. T. Bethonk- 
Bakeb, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

tR»d April 4th, 1917.] 

Plates XIV-XX. 

A YBAR 01 two i^o Mr. Rowland-Brown queetianed me 
on the distinctness of the Euiopean species of the genus 
Tamcus, Moore, and my answer was that the clasping organs 
of the males were difierent, and that therefore I considered 
the species were distinct. This conversation led me to 
look up the whole matter afresh, and in doubtful cases 
to make more preparations of the genitalia, thus bringing 
to light the fact that one of the Indian or a new species 
occurred in Egypt and Algeria as well as the well-known 
and first-described species iheophTOStus, Fab.; this dis- 
covery involved a more extended research of the Indian 
species of this complex and very difficult little genus. 

My investigations have caused me great searchings of 
heart, not on the distinctness of the species themselves, 
but rather on the questions " What is a species? " and 
" On what characters are we to form species V It is quite 
obvious that in this genus it is scarcely possible from the 
pattern alone to decide, in certain cases, which is which, 
and yet it is equally certain that Butler's and Moore's 
species, which de Nic^ville called so strongly into question, 
are quite distinct from theophrastua, their clasping organs 
are quite different, an4 they also are difierent from each 
other in addition to differing from that species described 
by Fabricius. 

I have endeavoured to make a table of differences in 
the pattern between the species, but in vain, for whilst 
there is a general look that enables one to assign a name 
to the specimens, and as a rule the assignment is right, 
yet it often breaks down ; for instance, I have specimens 
from Egypt and from Algeria that I had placed under 
theophrastus, but theit clasps proved that they were in 
reality a new species altogether; again, specimens from 
I^ahe] (Arabia) and from India, that I had no doubt were 
nara, proved by their genitalia to be ikeophraslvs. There 

"TRANS. ENT. 80C. LOND. 1917. — PARTS II, ni, IV (MAY '1 8) T 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



270 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

is, of course, an explanation so far as the patt«m is con- 
cerned, for Lahej and Bhuj vere both dry-season specimens, 
and this would account for the pattern being small and 
but finely marked, even though the specimens themaelvea 
were of an average size. The difBcuJty generally occurs 
just with such specimens as these ; localities unfortunately 
do not render much assistance, for if we are to rely on the 
determinations of observers and authors like Moore, de 
Nic4ville, Bingham and others (and I think we can rely 
on them, as in some instances I have been able to confirm 
their identifications from my own collection), the three 
commonest Indian species overlap each other. The whole 
matter is very difficult and complex, but it shows that 
we must not depend entirely on pattern when dealing 
with closely allied species. On the other hand, I believe 
that in the formation of genera we ought not to com- 
pletely ignore pattern, especially where there is a strong 
dominant arrangement of it that enables us to identify 
the genus of the species directly it ia seen. 

The genus is so closely allied to CasUtlim that reference 
to the species usually placed therein became necessary, 
and I found that in one species at least — ananda, de Nic^ 
ville — the genitalia led me to think that it mu^ be included 
in Tarucus, whilst an examination of the wing scales con- 
finned it, for in Castalius there are no " battledore " scales, 
but in Tarticus they are plentiful, as they are also in ananda. 

The distribution of the genus is interesting; in the 
Palaearctic region three species occur which are confined 
in that area to the Mediterranean subregion, two being 
peculiar to it; six species occur in the Ethiopian region 
(including Socotra therein), of which five are peculiar to 
it; in the Oriental region twelve species obtain, only one 
of them (T. tkeophraslus) occurring outside its limits, and 
this one is the most widely distributed of all, obtaining 
in each of the previously mentioned regions ; the Australian 
legion is just invaded in its Austro -Malayan or Papuan 
subdiatrict, for on its extreme western limits a single 
species has been recorded from Celebes, and thb, as would 
be premised, is peculiar to that wonderful island. 

The genitaha are essentially Lycaenine, and they belong 
to the Lampides section; they have, however, certain 
characters that are quite peculiar, there is no " furca " 
— the usual " furca " is a bifurcate organ arising from the 
clasps near the base. In the place of this there b another 



ih,Cooi^lc 



A Reviaion o^ the genus Tarucus. 271 

organ of special design, there is also a long hom-Iike 
sderite attached to each clasp arising from the same 
point, or very near the same point as the special organ 
just referred to, but developed in the opposite direction. 
These Bclerites appear to me to be capable of independent 
movement; this, howevei", would not prevent combined 
action with the other organ should occasion arise; they 
lie within the hollow of the clasps just above the lower 
mai^ns, and rise slightly upwards and forwards, often 
extending beyond their (the clasps) apices. It is difficult 
to believe that they can assist the clasps at all in gripping 
the abdomen of the female, but they might easily drop 

rt below the abdomen and be useful as excitatory agents 
tapping each side of the lower area of the stemite; 
they might well be called the " virgae excitatae." The 
special organ leferted to above can be termed the " tec- 
torius " (used for a covering); it seems to me to be different 
from the "anellus," being in no sense a cone-like tube, 
nor anything like it ; it also quite differs from the " manica," 
and is a distinct and peculiar development that I have not 
hitherto met with. The " tectorius " rises from a point 
in the very rear of the clasps, expanding immediately 
hindwards {i. e. towards the abdomen) into two broad 
chitinous curtains — one on each side — lying within the 
cingulum; these taper more or less rapidly in different 
species and assume different contours. At the penal 
aperture the anellus becomes apparent in the shape of a 
solid ring, or, as in iheophratlua, a loosely fitting tube 
through which the aedoeagus passes; this nng is soldered 
on to the lateral curtains of the tectorius, which rises 
slightly above the anellus, forming a small hood over it. 
The whole organ is capable of considerable movement 
fore and aft, and in the latter case can be moved right to 
the back of the cingulum, in which case it takes with it 
the aedoeagus, which is then thrown right out of its usual 
horizontal position into a sharply angled one. It is most 
probable that this organ (the tectorius) may be the per- 
sistence of a very ancient character; it is very closely 
similar to the cingulum or girdle, keeping the aiedoeagus 
strictly in position, and it appears to me to be a reasonable 
proposition to consider it a reversion to the original 
structure when there were two seta of armatures, one around 
the anus and another protecting the sexual organs; oi it 
may be an instance of the survival of an atavic character. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



272 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

De Nic^ville, when he dealt with this genua in 1890 
(Butt. Ind., Ill, p. 187), wrote, " Omitting T. jdinuis, 
which is cAsily recognised and belongs to a. difieient groap, 
six fonns of T. theopkraslus have been recorded from 
India, and are maintained as distinct species by Mr. Butler. 
I am able to recognise as satisfactorily distinct two only of 
these forms, T. theophrasltis and T. venosus." The author 
then goes on to record the various species in the usual way, 
but states definitely under each name that he regards it 
as a form of tAeophToalus. The very celebrated French 
entomologist, C. Oberthur, also records, in his incomparable 
" Etudes de Lepidopt4rologie Comparde," fascicule iv, 
p. 158 ef seq., a similar opinion, only he goes further and 
treats vawsus also as a form of theophrasltis, and he con- 
firms this in vol. x, p. 377. Both Bingham and Swinhoe 
have followed de NicSville's lead, going further, however, 
in that they give as synonyms all the other species except 
venosus. I believe I wrote to my old correspondent, de 
Nic6ville, and informed him after the publication of his 
third volume that both T. baikanica and some of the 
Indian species had genitalia quite different from T, theo- 
jArastus. I have long intended to revise the genus and 
the time has now come when it ought to be done, because 
I have no doubt at all that all the species Butler refers to 
will stand as entirely separate species from the European 
one. He (Butler), however, was not correct in his idea that 
Iheophrastus would turn out to be confined to Europe; it 
is quite a common species in many parts of India, and it 
occurs in Africa south of the Sahara. 

The species group themselves by their genitaUa into 
three well-marked sections, viz. the baikanica section, 
including nara, callinara, extricalus, aUeralus and venosus; 
these all have short, broad clasps that are provided with 
longish, strong, horn-like sclerites; theophrasttts will form 
another section; it has a long, narrow clasp, and a long 
aedoeagus ; whilst sybaris and grammica and quadralus 
have short very broad clasps, with no hom-like sclerites, 
di&erent in shape to either, but more nearly allied to 
baikanica than to theophrastus ; the last of the three, 
quadralus, forms the connecting link with Fabricius's 
species in the increased length of the clasps and the long 
tooth at the apex. 

It is interesting and curious to find that both in this 
genus and also in Castalivs, the species that have been 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



A Revision ef the genus Tarticus. 273 

selected as the types of the genua have both long har- 
pagones (clasps), by no means typical of the bulk of the 
genera, but in each case there are connecting links between 
them. The two genera are evidently closely rehit«d. 
They can, however, be separated by two characters; the 
species of Tamcua have androconia (i. e. battledore scales), 
none of the species of Casbilius have them; there are 
only two or three that I have not had the opportunity of 
examining, and I believe I am correct in thinking that 
those I do not know are not Ukely to have these scales. 
The second character is the genitalia, the general form of 
the clasps is quite different, the aedoeagus differs also, 
whilst the shape and position of the cingulum and tegumen 
conErm the previous points; there ia also no tectorius. 
It will be seen that my conclusions have been brought 
about in the first instance solely by my investigations of 
the genitaha; these led to the necessity of re-grouping 
most of the species and very many of the individual speci- 
mens, and in so doing I have discovered other species, 
evidently quite distinct, that had always hitherto passed 
under other well-known names. Under these circum- 
stances it was manifestly advisable to confirm these points, 
and for this I turned to the uidroconial scales that are so 
marked a character in the males of the majority of the 
Jjycaeninae; these amply confirm the correctness of each 
of the specific identifications I had made, and they also 
confirm the re-grouping of such species as ananda and 
bowkeri, neither of which had hitherto been included in 
the genus. The South African species (bowkeri) is, I admit, 
abenant ; its pattern differs from the rest of its allies in 
certain particulani, its clasps differ also, but the androconia 
are so close to theophrasltis that I have included it with 
the others. In cases of this kind it appears to me to be 
better to do this, indicating the small divergencies, rather 
than to create a new genus for a single species that otherwise 
groups itself very naturally with its close allies. 

Tarueosnara, Eollar. Plates XIV, figs. 1, la; 
XV, fig. 1, and XIX, fig. 19. 

Lycaena nara, Eollar, Hiigel's " Kaschmir," iv, pt. 2, p. 
421 (1648). 
The general consensus of opinion on the identification 
of this species seems to me to be correct ; it is almost as 



iM:,i,A J 1^, Google 



274 Mr. G. T. Betbune-Baker on 

laree as venoms, but the primaries are more triangular 
and look broader at the termen. In colour it is lustrous 
violet with narrow dark borders. Below it is white with 
blackish spots, the postmedian and subt«rmiii&l lines 
being strongly marked and but slightly interrupted at the 
veins, the former is sharply turned round (almost angled) 
at vein 6 basewards to the costa ; in the secondaries the 
postmedian line is continuous and slightly crenulated, 
whilst the spots are well separated. I think it would be 
well to say that I know of no pattern or mark that holds 
true in a long series of any species in this small genus with 
the exception of sybaris and its allies; they all seem to 
gravitate towards theophrastua, whilst theophrastus in its 
dry-season forms gravitates towards one or two of the 
Indian species such as caUinara or ejirkatus. I have 
never experienced such difficulty in separatilig species 
as I have done with these. There are only three that I 
have not made mistakes with even after the utmost care, 
and had it not been for the very distinctive genitaUa of 
each species, I should have found it quite impossible to 
decide with certainty what some forms were. In diagno«ng 
the pattern I have picked a good average specimen, but 
with either the dry or wet season forms the diagnosis 
will not be absolute. It is fortunate that the genitalia 
are quite distinctive, otherwise it would have been im- 
possible to say, as we can say now, that Moore's and 
Butler's eyes served them well and correctly, when, without 
any knowledge of the reproductive organs, tbey described 
the forms they had before them as new spedes. 

The genitalia {of fiom) are easily separable from iU near alliea. 
The olaaps are subovate with the upper margin slightly flattened, 
the rounded front edge being furnished thronghout with a row of 
sharp teeth. The hornlike sclerites (virgae eicitatae) are wedge- 
shaped, tapeting to a point, and not extending beyond the apex 
of the claep. The tegumen is typical of the fiist SBCtJon of the 
gcnuH, being deeply divided with only a narrow connecting ridge at 
the rear; the falees are shortish and stout. The aedoeagna is ^so 
fairly typical of this section, it is moderately stout, shortish, with the 
front portion beyond the zone suddenly reduced, and rapidly 
tapering to a point The claspe an famished with kuig Strang 
bristles, and the tegumen with finer and shorter onea. llie teotorius 
is very broad at the base, tapering at its tnat edge rapidly np to 
the aneltua. The androconia are rounder and shorter sad anuUler 



Ij.y.l.AjL.yCOO'^lL' 



A Bevinon ^ the genua Tarvcus. 275 

than any of ita allies; the apex or distal extremity being mora 
deeply convex; tbeie are fourteen rows of laminft with minute 
tabercles, the eighth row being the longest, though the row oa each 
side runs it reiy close, the eighth, however, marks the summit of 
the csonvex apex; the proximal or basal portion of the scale is 
asymmetrical, being more rounded on one aide of the Coot-stalk 
than the other. 

I should, perhaps, explain that in this genus, as generally 
with the Lycaeninae, the foot-stalks are quite straight, 
arising from near the centre of the androconia, and that 
when I refer to the proximal end or base I always mean 
the contour of the scale itself, not the nanow foot-stalk, 

Tameiu venosus, Moore. Plates XIV, fig. 2 ; XV, fig. 2 ; 
XVIII and XIX, fig. 20. 

T. venosus, Moore, P.Z.S. Lond. 1882, p. 245, pi. xii, ff. 6, 
6a S. 
With the exception of T. balkanica, a much amallei 
species, this is the darkest of the genus, and it does not 
appear to vary in size like the other species, its <^ average 
size being about 26 mm., the $ being slightly larger (both 
tiara and iheophrastus reach these sizes not infrequently, 
but their average is certainly less) ; the colour of the male 
is dull sublustrous violaceous, with a single brown spot 
at the end of the cell, which is frequently almost absent 
in the secondaries. Moore says it has a broad marginal 
dusky border (the type form has the border increasing 
from the aper very rapidly in the primaries to a quarter 
of the inner margin), but this varies, and occasional speci- 
mens occur with barely more than a lineal dark border. 
The underside is more nearly related to T. theophTOSttis 
than to the others; the pattern being spotted, without 
lines, t. e. the rows of spots do not form continuous lines, 
the postmedian and submarginal series consisting of uniform 
and almost parallel rows of large spots in both wings. 
The Cashmire form is spotted above as is balkanica, but 
below it is typical. 

The genitalia are more nearly allied to ballamica, but are decidedly 
larger and more robust. This is very noticeable in the clasps and 
«ven more so in the hom-Uke sclprites (virgae excitatae), which are 
as large again. The clasps are similar in shape, being broad and 
rounded on the upper edge, but being suddenly reduced and excised 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



276 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

near the apei. The tegumen is hood-ahsped, open aboTC, except 
for the rounded ridge at the nor ; the falcea are BmoUer in propor- 
tion than in balka»iea. The aedoeagus is short and broad, and is 
suddenly leduoed at the lone (for this name see Chapman in these 
Transections, 1916, pp. 168, 159), where it topers off to a fine point 
with two lai^ comuti in the vesica. The hristles on the clasps are 
not plentiful and are fine, those on the tegumen equally fine but 
longer than usual. The tect«riu8 is developed on the same linee as 
in nara, but is shorter, less ample, and somewhat different in outline. 

The androconia are oblong, evenJy rounded distally; 
the sides oi the oblong are of unequal length owing to the 
proximal end of the scale being quite different on one 
side of the foot-stalk to the other ; on the one side it is evenly 
rounded, the other being excised, the foot-stalk is not in 
the centre and thus causes one side of the base to be 
longer than the other. There are sixteen rows of lamina. 

Tarueus watorstradtl, Dnice. Plate XVII, fig. 16. 

Tantcus waterstradti, Druce, P.Z.S. 1896, p. 585, pi. xxxii, 
f . 21 ?. 
This species is desciibed from a female, and Druce says 
that the upperside is very similar to the upperside of the 
9 of T. theopkraslus, Fab. 

" Underside perhaps nearest to T. venogtu, Moore. Fore-wing : 
basal streak shortar and much broader, and extending down to the 
Bubmediau nervure, the streak beyond broader and placed at a 
much greater angle, the spote beyond the middle more in Une, 
the submarginal row distinctly separated, and the marginal row 
smaller. Hind-wing : a brood basal streak from just below the 
costal margin to the anal angle ; a broad streak beyond, also from 
the costal to the anal mo^n ; then a series of spots as in 7. venotu», 
which are more inclined to run parallel with the streaks; then a 
submarginal row of targe distinct spots followed by a marginal 
row of small spots, the three upper being simply dots, the three 
lower gradually increasing towards the anal angle and dusted 
thickly with mel-allic green scales. The ground-colour of both wings 
is slightly tinged with yellowish and all the markings are black; the 
cilia of both wings black. 

•'Kina Balu (Wateretr,), Type, Mus. Stand." 

The Bomean spedes is evidently a close ally of venoms, 
but the imique type is not available for comparison. I 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



A Revision of the genus Tarucus. 277 

have given a photographic reproduction of Druce's excellent 
figure in which the underside showa the pattern as well 
as the original drawing. 

Tarueua balkanica, Freyer. Plates XIV, figs. 3-36; 
XV, fig. 3, and XIX, figs. 21, 22. 

L. balkanica, Frr., v, p. 63, pi. 421, ft. 1, 2 (1844). 

J. Deep lustrous violet, spotted with black-; in the primary 
there is a spot closing the cell, a series of six postmedian spots, the 
second, third and fourth irregular and shifted outwards from the 
first, the fifth and sixth confluent, shifted veil inwards ; these 
occupy the same position &e those on the underside, but are not 
merely showing through as they are definitely pigmented on the 
upper surface ; there U also a small dark cloud in the tomus of the 
primary. The underside is white with the spots almost formed 
into lines or dashes; the postmedian line is almost cienulate and 
practically continuous in both wings; in the primaries it is curved 
to the coata from vein 6 and not infrequently is fractured at that 
point; the submarginal series on the primaries is prominent and 
generally interHecfed at the veins. The principal distinguishing 
feature is its deep violet colour with prominent black spots on the 
nppeiBide. 

The form from the Transcaspian region is unusually large 
and fine and is quite distinctive enough to be described as 
a local race; I propose for it the name of T. balkanica 
areshaTia, vat. no v. 

The blue though dark is much moie lustrous than the fonn from 
Asia Minor or Syria, whilst the underside pattern is much more 
heavily marked, the postmedian and submarginal bands being 
more than as wide ^ain and most commonly taking the form of 
broad bands, rather than rows of spots. Again, the siie also is 
decidedly larger, my specimens of the type form measuring 2 1-22 mm. 
against the Aresh form, 26-29 mm. 1 have a series of a dozen speci- 
mens which were captiued for mo at Geok Tepe by my friend. 
Captain Malcolm Burr. 

The species looked so different that at first I mistook 
it for ikeophraslus, and it ia referred to again under that 



Ttie genitaUa are usually small and slight, the clasps are brood 
and very saddenly excised very near the apex, which is reduced 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



278 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

and has more or lew a Htreight terminaljon, finely seml«d; the 
homy solerites are aickle -shaped with the blade portion only moder- 
ately curved ; the bristles on the claapa are long but not very numer- 
ous; the tegumen is of the usual shape, vith large, strong (propor- 
tionately) falces, the bristles being fairly long, but not very numerous. 
The aodoeagus is short sjid moderately stout and has the apical 
portion reduced as in most other species. The teclorius is of 
moderate siEe, of the usual shape, with the anellus rather definite. 
The androconia are almost oval, the sides being nearly straight, 
but not quite bo; they are evenly rounded distally, but not quite 
evenly rounded proximally, possibly caused by the foot-stalk being 
given off somewhat away from the centre ; there are fourteen rows 
of lamina, the sculpturing of which is rather uneven. 

It is intereating to find that the androconia of the Axeah 
race are markedly diiTerent to those of the type form ; the 
scale ia broader proximally almost evenly oval, but in- 
creasing in width to near its distal extremity, which is 
evenly but sUghtly rounded. The foot-stalk is given off 
almost at the centre, and there are nineteen rows of 
lamina which are heavily sculptured. The naming the race 
areahana is, I think, fully confirmed by the androconia. 



Tuuotu eaUinara, Butler. Plates XIV, fig. 4 ; XV, fig. 4 ; 
XVIII and XIX, fig. 23. 

T. caUinara, Butler, Ann. and Mag. N.H., vol. xviii, p. 185 
(1886). 

^. Type form. Both wings lustrous violet blue with a single 
dark spot closing the cell in the primaries only. Underside entirely 
spotted, not in lines or dashes; the postmedian and terminal series 
ofspots are parallel and are composed of definite spots in both wings; 
the basal marks of the secondaries are also spots. 

T, eaUinara nigra, forma nov. 

3. Pale, BubluHtrous lilac with a large dark spot closing the cell 
in the primaries only, beyond which are one, two, or more dark 
spots, smaller than in balkanica, but quite distinct; the marking 
of the underside is finer than in the type form and inclined to resolve 
itself more into lines, i. e. the spots are apt to become confluent. 

This form seems to be commoner than the type. I 
have a aeries from Cutch, from Karachi and Campbellpore. 



Ij.y.l.AjL.yCOO'^lL' 



A Revision (^ the genus Tarucua. 279 

It appeals to me to be prpbable that this species and 
extTKotus have been mizecl together not infrequently, ae it 
is most difficult to separate the type fonu (i. e. the form that 
is not spotted on the upper surface) from extricattts, Butler ; 
both species are to be found at Karachi at the same time, 
as also is nara, but whether they obtain in exactly the same 
locality together I have been unable to find out. I fear 
I could only separate the type form of callinara from 
txtricalus by an examination of the prehensores. These 
in callinara ate very close to balkanica. 

The clasps are ver; similar, but are decidedly larger and broader, 
the sclerites are also larger and heavier in shape and are not so 
■hiuply sickle -shaped ; the falceg are also proportionately larger 
and lue without the reduced apical hook; the aedoeagus is, how- 
ever, narrower than in balkanica and slightly longer; the bristles 
on both the clospe and the t«gumen are much finer and ore less 
nnmeroua. The tectorina is very ample and broad at the base and 
is curved round at the rear up to the anellus, fronUd it is convex 
and is strengthened at its edge by extra thickened cbitin folded 
over to the upper edge of the organ. 

Th« androconia are of a long oblong shape with atraightish 
Rides, a fairly even oval base (with the foot-stalk nearly central), 
uul bat slightly curved distally ; there are twelve rows of 
lamina, of which the sculpturing is very definite and wide 



Tanieiis eztrieatas, Butler. Plates XIV, fig. D : XV fig 5 
and XIX, fig. 24. 

T. exlricatus, Butler, P.Z.S. Lond., 1886, p. 366, pi. xsxv 
f . 2 (J. 

3. The type is a diminutive specimen from Campbellpore 
dated "31.v.'85," the abdomen is missing, so we cannot 
decide the point from the genitaUa. 

The colour is hiac blue, of a pale tone, the pattern is 
composed of fine lines rather than spots ; the specimen 
however, is very small indeed, so that the pattern b com- 
preesed into a very small area, and would therefore almost 
of necessity faU into Unes. The type is a dry-season speci- 
men. Those taken m September and onwards are nuire 
violet bine, and the underside pattern, though still fine 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



280 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

resolves itaelf into spots &nd lunulea and is less fine than 
in the type. 

I see no reasoa to doubt the correctDeea of tb« general identiGca- 
tione of Ibis insect; the genitalia are distinct from other species, 
they are small, the clasps are broad, rounded on the npper edge 
and slightly dentate, the lower apex being produced forward some- 
what and is very slightly deiitBt«; the homy sclerites are fine 
and curved; the tegumen is similar to the usual pattern, but the 
falces are very short and angled sharply at the rear; the aedoeagui 
is fine and waved with the pointed apex generally obtaining 
in the genus. The tectorius is very simple and of moderate 

The uidrocouis are oblong, subovate proiimally, and slightly 
curved distally; there aie twelve rows of lamina, the sculpturing 
of which is rather small and well separated; the foot-stalk is given 
oS rather out of the centre. 

Tarnens aitontos, Moore. Plates XIV, fig. 6 ; XV, fig. 6 ; 
XVIII and XIX, fig. 25. 

T. aUeratus, Moore, P.Z.S. Lend., 1882, p. 245, pi. xii, 
ff. 4, ia (J. 

^. Uppetside : the blnest of the genus with less violet than any 
of its allies; it is perhaps the only one that can truly be termed 
blue; the spot closing tho cell, in the primaiies only, is not very 
prominent, whilst the spot in the secoadaries at the anal angle is 
distinct. The terminal dark lino is linear. The underside is gre3ri£h 
rather than white ; the pattern is small, very much broken up, 
the spots and dashes being rusty red; in some females this may 
become tawny brown. 

The genitalia ore distinct and large, the clasps being much the 
shape of a ham with the apes sharply serrate at the knuckle end; 
the hom-Uke sclerilfs are strnighl, stout and long; the bristles are 
long, strong and abundant; the tegumen is not bo deeply divided, 
with rather finer and shorter bristles and with the falcee Urge and 
very strong; the oedoeagus is short with the front part suddenly 
reduced and tapering to the tip. The tectorius is rather small, 
of the usual shape with the anellus very pronounced. Tlie andco- 
conia are large and broad, somewhat ovale |a«ximally, the base 
being evenly oval with the footstalk central; the sides are veiy 
slightly curved; the distal curve is slight also and not quite even; 
there are sixteen rows of lamina, the sculpturing being wide apart 
and very distinct. 



ll,y,l,/eJh,G00t5lc 



A Revision t^ the genus Tarvcus. 281 

Tarneus bengalensfa, sp. nov. Plates XIV, fig. 8 ; 
XVl. fig. 8, and XIX, fig. 27. 

1^. Both wings pale riolet-blue tinged with lilac, the colour being 
BcJid and not showing the nndeniide through, except to & veiy slight 
extent. Primaries with a conspicuous spot closing the cell. Ter- 
nmutl linM blackish. Underside very similar to mediUmmtae, 
bnt tbe small series of spots just bejond the celt in both wings nearer 
the cell than in that speciee where they are close to the postmedian 
tines. Poetmedian and submarginal Unes parallel and decidedly 
broader than in the previous species. 

Genitalia nearer to T. aittrattt*, but very different from T. mtditer- 
rantae, the clasps are Urge aad are suddenly excavated in a deepish 
arc midway along the upper edge, from whence they extend in a 
broad curve to the apex, which is straigbtish but sharply aerrated ; 
the bom-like scleritea aie very long, rather narrow at the base and 
tapering quickly to a fine point, they are curved the revetse way to 
those of tJie Bpeciee already mentioned and extend well beyond the 
apex of the clasp, the bristles are fine, longish, but few in number; 
the tegamen is of the usual pattern, less ample and with very long 
faloes; the aedoeagus is quite different from either of the species 
referred to previously, being more of the bathtnira pattern ; it is, 
however, decidedly longer with the apex suddenly reduced at rather 
more than a third from the tip, and having a shorter pointed process 
from the point of reduction. The tectoritis is of mcdcrate size and 
well developed. 

Expanse 25 mm. 

HiA. Cauctta. 

Type in my collection. 

The genitalia are so diflerent to the nearest alhes that 
there can be no question as to the advisability of aaming 
the insect, even though at present it is unique. 

The androconia are broadly oval, the curve iliHtatly being slightly 
broader than the proximal section and the sides are also somewhat 
rounded ; there are eighteen rows of lamina, the sculpturing being 
fine and rather close. 



Tarnous medlterraneae, sp. n. Plates XIV, figs, "l-lb; 

XVI, fig. 7; XIX, fig. 26. 

(J. Upperside lilac blue, with a black bar closing the cell in the 

prinuuies only, anal spot in secondaries distinct, terminal borders 

very nurowly blackish. Underaide, white with dark markii^s. 



u,y,l,/eJh,C00glc 



282 Mr. 0. T. Bethune-Bakei m 

Primariee with tjie basal and subbasal marks as osual, but well 
separated ; a long narrow dash from close to tRe costs across the 
end of the cell, directly below which is a broader waved dash, theee 
are followed by a subcostal spot with a second spot projected far 
out between veins 6 and 6, a dash almost below the subcostal spot 
between veins 3 and 6 ; postmedian line continuous, obtusely angled 
between veins 6 and 6. Submarginal line consisting of a series of 
internervular spots. Secondaries with a basal stripe, directly below 
which is an inner marginal spot, a median row of fonr spots below 
each other, the two lowest of which may be confluent, a dasb closing 
the cell, two spots below the cosia generally united, three united 
spots projected outwards between veins 3 and 6, two united spots 
below the daah closing the cell, a continuous curved line just beyond 
these spots, followed by a series of submai^inal spots with metallic 
blue gteen suffusion, the second anal spot being the most prominent. 

$. Upperside : both wings brown with whitish traces in the discal 
area. Underside as in the male. 

Expanse, £ 23-26 mm; $ 22-23 mm. 

Bab. EoYPT (Alexandria) ; Ai^iria ; Paleotink. 

Types in my collection from Alexandria. 

Specimens from Cairo are paler above with finer markings 
below, whilst the form from Palestine is much paler above 
and ia sbghtly larger also. A pair from Biski« (Algeria), 
collected by Eaton in 1895, are more heavily spotted below, 
whilst the female is well suffused with blue in the basal 
area of the primaries. 

Lord Rothschild has in the Tring Museum a series 
collected in different parts of Algeria, and several hundred 
miles into the Sahara. I shall, however, refer to these 
again under the species theopkrastus. 

In Section I of the genus this species is an excellent 
example of the instability of pattern, specimens from 
Alexandria and Cairo difiering to some extent, both difier- 
ing more markedly from the Biskra pair, whilst these from 
Biskra differ quite perceptibly from those in the Tring 
Museum from other Algerian localities. 

The genitalia are fortunately easily lecognisable and differ from 
others of the genus ; the clasps ate large and broad, rapidly tapering 
for the apical third, the whole of this portion beingsharply and deeply 
dentate, the ajiex itself consisting of two sharp t«eth ; the hom-like 
•olerites are very bioad at their base, tapering narrower for two- thirds 
where they are angled downwards and are rapdly reduced to a 



ih,Cooi^lc 



A Reomon cf the genua Tarucue. 283 

fine pcHiit extending to the apei of the claspa; the bristles are 
longisb, moderately stoat, but not numerous ; the togumen is fairly 
large of the usual pattern with strong falces; the bristles being 
finer &nd shorter than thoee of the clasps; this is, hoverer, usual; 
the aedoeagus is long and vaved ; the vesica being finely shagreened, 
and the tectorius ample and of the usual shape ; it is, 1 think, the 
largest in the genus. The androconia are very broad, and were it 
not that one side of the proximal extremity is excised, it would 
form an evenly-shaped oblong; the foot'Slalk is given ofF centrally; 
there are seventeen rows of lamina rather widely separated, whoee 
sculpturing is somewhat small. 

Section II contains three species, T. grammiea, G. -Smith, 
T. starts, Hopffer, and T, madralus, Grant. The first is 
a species from Mombasa and from Somaliland, the second 
a widely-spread, if local, S9Uth African insect, and the laat 
a species from Socotra, 

The genitalia in all of these lack the horn-like sclerites 
which are so peculiar a character of the first section; 
guadralus, however, has developed a tusk-like extension 
of the upper apex of the clasps, and thus forms a connecting 
link with Section III, containing only the type of the 
genua. All three species in Section II have the same type 
of aedoeagus as has Section I. 

Taraetu grammiea, Grose-Smith. Plates XIV, fig. 9, and 
XVI, fig. 10. 

Lycaeneslkes grammiea, Grose-Smith, Rhop. Exot., ii, 
p. 102, pi. xxiii, ff. 3, 4 (1893). 
(J. Both win^ dark brown. PrimarieB with a darker, spot 
closing the oell ; secondaries with a, terminal row of Bpot« encircled 
with white, more prominently on the inner side. There is a trace 
of a similar row of spots on the tecmen of the primaries, but it is 
very obscure. Underside white with the markings of the primaries 
large. From the spot closing the cell in the primaries there is a 
short, broad dash forming an L with the cell spot; the broken series 
of marks outside this is imited into an irregular band, very broad 
below vein 2; the postmedian series of spots is pushed far out, 
near to the eubterminal series, the former being composed of fair- 
sized spota increasing in size towards the. inner margin where they 
coalesce, the latter consists of six intemervular smaller spots; 
the nsual basal dash and subbasal wedge-shaped mark are present. 
Secondaries : a basal subcostal dash with a spot below it, followed 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



284 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

by four short distinct dashes; ft short costal and subcostal con- 
fluent mark touching the spot closing the cell, below wbich is another 
short dash ; outside the cell spot are three irregular confluent spots, 
beyond which is the postmedian row of spots moderately evenly 
ourred, followed by the subterminal row, some of which are slightly 
iridescent. 

Genitalia : the clasps are very brood and are evenly curved, but 
if flattened somewhat wedge-shaped; the bristles arc fine and not 
long; the tegumen is of moderate size, and the falces are small; 
the bristles line and shortish; the aedoeagus is shortish, suddenly 
reduced all round about the middle, from whence it gradually tapers 
in a curve to a fine point. The tectorius is very reduced. 

This is a very distinct species and was first described by 
Grose-Smith as Lycaenesthea grammica in 1893 (l.c.). 
In 1898 Miss Sharpe described, her huisae, as it had not 
at. that time been discovered that the former species had 
nothing to do with the genus LycaenesOiea ; louisae therefore 
falls as a synonym to grammica. 

Tarvom sybarls, Hopffer. Plates XIV, fig. 10 ; 
XVI, fig. 9, and XX, fig. 28. 

Lycaena sybaris, Hopfi., Monats. K. Preuaa. Akad. Wis- 
senach.. p. 642 (1855). 
3- Blue tinged with mauve in both wings. The primartea with 
a black spot closing the cell, and broadish black margins; the 
secondaries with a submarginal row of black spots from the uial 
angle to the costa, decreasing in size as they approach the costs; 
outside this row is a fine white line, which ia succeeded by the black 
termen of uniform and moderately narrow width. The fringM 
have the basal half black and the outer half gi^y wilh a slight 
indication of tessellation. Underside white spotted with black, 
the contrast being sharper than in any other species. The primaries 
have the usual basal marks, the wedge-shaped mark being genemlly 
somewhat L-ehaped ; a large spot closes the cell with a small one 
between it and the costa, beyond which is another somewhat larger 
one between veins 6 and ft, between veins S and 3 are two conBuent 
spots, and two more confluent spots further inwards are below vein 3, 
between S and 6 is a single isolated spot, shifted right out on to tbe 
poBtmedian curved series of six inlemervular spole, this being near 
the margin and very close to the subtcrminal series of intemervular 
Bpole. Secondaries with three basal spots and four subbasal spols 
below each other ; the upper two basal epote are connected to each 



lj,y,l,Ajh,COOl^lc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Explanation op Plate XIV, 



Fio. l-la. Tarueusnara,^, p. 273. ,» 
«n(««.,cJ,'p.27V 
baltaniea,!^, p. 277. 
eallinam, ^, p. 278. 
etiricafiM, J, p. 279. 
alUmtug, 1^, p. 280. 
vtediUrranrae, (J, p. 281. 
mtditerraneae, $, p. 281. 
6ensaferwM, (J, p. 281. 
grammica, p. 283. 
a7,baTie,^,p. 284. 
7uadralu«, (^, 28S. 
Iheophmsliit, ^, p. 286. 
anando, ^, p. 289. 
ttm'jfceft, (J, p. 294. 
dharla, J, p. 291. 
efalhratus, $, p. 293. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Trms-Ert. Socloni ,1917, PI XK 






6, 

If 

31>. 



EC Kniyit drt.et chTOBO. 

THE GENUS TARUCUS. 



U. 

12. 
12b.. 

^ 13. 

™^ 

14. 
15, 

1' 



ih, Google 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Trans. Ent. Soc. Land., igij, PlaU XV. 



G. T. B.-B., Photo. Andrt. Sltigk &■ Anglo. Ui. 

GENITALIA OF THE GENUS TARUCU5. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lL' 



■ Explanation of Plate XV. 



IS nam, p. 273. 
venogM, p. 275. 
balkaniea, p. 277. 
cattinara, p. 278. 
txtricatua, p. 279. 
alttratui, p. 260. 

The figures of the genitalia are magnified 30 diameters. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Explanation of Plate XVI. 



7. Tamcut medUtrrantat, p. 281. 
bmgalengis, p. 281. 
Bffbaria, p. 264. 

10. ,. grammica, p. 283. 

11. „ quadralva, p. 285. 

12. „ Ihfopkraglus, p. 280. 

The figures of the genitalia are magnified 30 diameters. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



TVawr. Ent. Soc. Lond., igi?, Plate XVI. 



^ 



<-^ 



G. T. B.-B., Pkolo. Andrl, SlHgk &■ Anglo. Lti. 

GENITALIA OF THE GENUS TARUCUS. 



u,y,i,Ajh,Coot5lc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



TVam. Ent. Soc. Loud., igjy, PlaU XVIT. 



M.W 



G. r. fi.-S., PAofo. Andri, SUigh &. Anglo. LU. 

GENITALIA, etc., OF THE GENUS TARUCUS. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Explanation of Plate XVII. 



Fio. 13. Tarvciuananda, p. 280. 
dharia, p. 291. 
bowktri, p. 294. 

laiteratmdii, p. 278. 
fageialua, p. 292. 
Itapardag, p. 2!i:t. 

The figures of the genitalia arc niagnitied 30 diamelcri>. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Explanation of Plate XVIIl. 



Each Fiovre is named ok the Plate. 

Tamcus calUnara, p. 278, upper left-hand figure. 
„ venoiiia, p. 275, upper right-hand figure. 
„ alUralus, p. 280, lower left-hand figure. 
„ Iheopkragtvi, p. 286, lower right-hand figure. 
Tlie figures od Plate 3CV11I of the virgae exeiUilae and teettiHvt 
are magnified about 66 diameteis. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Tratu, Ent. Soc Lortd., zgij, Plate XVIIl. 



G. T. B.-B.. dtl. Andri. SWgk &■ Anglo. Lid. 

VIRGAE EXCITATAE AND TECTORIUS OF THE GENUS TARUCUS 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7fdh,G00glc 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



TYans. Ent. Sac. Lend., 1917, PlaU XIX. 



G. T. B.-B.. dtt. Andri. Sltigk & Angh. Ltd. 

ANDROCONIA (Battledore SoUea) OF THE GENUS TARUCUS. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Explanation of Platb XIX. 



Fia. 19. Tanew nam, p. 273. 

80. , „ lenoffMi, p. 275. 

21. „ baiJcaniea, p. 277. 

22. „ Ixdkaniea aruhana, p. 277. 

23. „ ealliTuiTa, p. 278. 

24. „ txiriealue, p. 279. 

25. „ alteralus. p. 280. 

26. „ medilerrantat, p. 281. 

27. „ bengalenaia, p. 2S1. 

The scales ore magnified 500 diameters and the palpi 
diameters. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



EbcPLAMATION OF PLATE XX. 



FiQ. 2». Tarueiu tybarit, p. 284. 
Vttophnutui, p. i 





30. 


a«anda, p. 289. 




31. 


bmritri. p. 294. 




32. 






33. 


rtropArartiijr, p. 286. 




34. 


(AropAnwhM, p. 286. denuded of it* 
scales. 


The scales 


re magnified 


600 diametera and tl>e palpi 30 


ameters. 







n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



TraHs. Ent. Soc. Land., igij, PlaU XX. 



AvM, SUigh &• Anglo. Lti. 

AHDROCONIA (BftttledoK Scales) AND PALPI OF THE 
GENUS TARUCUS. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



,t,7.dh,Googlc 



A Revision of the genua farucus. 285 

other by a fine line ; a. Uigish spot closes the cell, beyond which are 
three pain of spots, two oblique ones below the costo, two simiUrly 
oblique between veins 3 and 5, and two below each other, shifted 
inwards between veins 3 and la ; a spot shifted out close to the post- 
median row between veins 6 and 6; the postmedian row of eight 
intemervular spots is strongly curved, beyond which is the sub- 
terminal row of seven spots, the lowest anal oi» being in the shape 
of a short dash, that and the two above have inet«llic blue scales 
BQperimposed. 

This is also a very distinct species easily separable from 
any of the otheTs. 

Genitalia : the clasps are broad and wedge-shaped, but do not 
taper down to a point, the apex t>eing somewhat rounded ; the 
tegumen is deeply excavated as usual, but has lobed cheeks or sides ; 
the falces ate of moderate length and strength, and rise from just 
below the upper lobes. The aedoeagus is of moderate length and 
width, reduced suddenly at the middle by the excision of the upper 
half, the lower half tapering laterally to a fine point. The tectorius 
is developed, but slightly. 

The androconia are of a long, oblong shape, with an asymmetrical 
ovate base, the distal extremity being very evenly curved, with the 
sides straight and long, the footstallc is given ofi from near the 
centra, but not centrally ; there are seventeen rows of lamina, the 
sculpturing being smallish but veiy diattnct. 

Tarmus quadratus, Grant. Plates XIV, fig. 11 ; XVI, fig. 11. 

Tarticus quadratus, Grant, Bull. Liverpool Mua., ii, 
p. 10 (1899). 

The blue of thia species is very similar to that of T. 
ttfitaris with a prominent black spot at the end o£ the cell 
in the primaries. The underside is similar in the strong 
contrast of the black markings on a very white ground; 
the pattern conaiate of spots, but by no means so isolated 
as tney are in aybaria. The inner wedge-shaped mark at 
the base of the primaries is very large; the postmedian 
line in both wings does not consist of isolated spots as in 
sybam, but rather of lunules intercepted by the veins; 
the subterminal rows of spots in both wings are composed 
of isolated spots, but the subbasal and median series of 
spots are by no means so isolated as in Hopffer's species. 
TRAKS. EMT. 8O0, LOND. 1917. — PABTS !(, Ill, IV (MAY '18) U 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



286 Mr. G. T. Bethnne-Baker on 

The genitalia are very distinctive ; the clasps are unusuaJlf broad 
and are somewhat excised on the upper margin near the base, as will 
be seen from the flgiue (PL XVI, fig. 11), after which they rise in 
an even curve, and at a third from the tip they taper off into a 
tusk-like projection at the upper apex, below which the front edge 
recedes and is faintly dentate lo the lower apex, which is produced 
very slightly forwards in n dentate termination; the bristles ar« of 
moderate length and are not numerous ; the tcgumen ia of moderate 
dimensions, deeply excavated to the back ridge, which is nairow; 
the cheeks or sides are almost lobed, and the falcee are stout and of 
a fair length ; the bristles are very flue and plentiful on the lobes ; 
the aedoeagus is of the usual type, shortish, rather narrow, the 
reduction taking place near the centre, from where it gradually 
tapers off to the pointed apex. The tectorius is but weakly 
developed. 

I regret I have been unable to procure specimens of this 
insect so as to figure the androconia, the ouly specimens 
X have been able to examine being those in the National 
Ck>llection. 

Taruous Iheophrastus, Fabricius. Plates XIV, figs. 12, 12a; 
XVI, fig. 12; XVIII and XX, figs. 29, 32-31. 

Hesperia Iheopkrastus, Fabricius, Ent. Svst., iii, p. 281, 
No. 82 {1793). 

If it has been difficult to give a satisfactory diagnosis 
of the pattern in most of the species dealt with in Section I, 
it is even more difficult to give one for the type species 
of the genus. Even Moore, whose eye for minute differ- 
ences in pattern and general aspect was far more keen 
and critical than any one I have known, failed with this 
species. 

The colour of the upperside may be violet blue or lilac 
blue. I have specimens from Souk Arras (Algeria) that 
are violet blue of a solid texture, and in one case it has a 
very large black spot, closing the cell with an angled dash 
beyond it. Examples from Asia Minor, in my collection 
(exact locality unknown) may be very similar in colour 
to the Algerian ones, but more generally they are lilac 
blue and are decidedly transparent; all, however, have 
a prominent spot Closing the cell. Bhuj (India) and 
Labej (Aden) specimens are similar to the lilao ones, but 
with a finer mark closing the cell, whilst a pair from Senegal 



n,g,t,7rJM,GOOglC 



A Revision q^ the gernu Tameue. 287 

are of a mach more delicate lilac blue, with a small spot 
closing the cell; in all the black t«nneD is moderately 
narrow, not Unear. 

The underside of the Medit«rranean form is usually 
strongly spotted, the spots being often large and very 
black, excluding, of course, the basal streal^, that is to 
say, the spoU are generally more or less distinct in both 
wings. The form from Asia Minor and from India has 
the postmedian band in the secondaries as a series of 
lunules, or a more or less broad lunular baud. In my 
specimens from Senegal the <? pattern is very fbe, but the 
$ pattern is heavier and more Uke the type form. 

The genitalia are totally distinct in some particulars from all 
others in the genns; the clasps are quite diverse, as also is the 
aedoeagna, whilst the parts represenling, perhaps, the hom-lite 
sclerites rest in an entirely different position. The clasps are long 
and of moderately even width, tcnninating in thrtM) tusk-like teeth, 
one at the lower eitremity and two deeply -divided at the upper 
extremity; the bom-like sclerites, instead of lying along the hollow 
of the cl«Bp,*rise immediately from their origins at the extreme 
base of the clasp, and occupy a position just above its upper margin 
at the rear, they do not extend much beyond the centre; whilst in 
the first section they lie almost " perdu " in the hollow of the basal 
part of the clasp and rise into prominence well beyond the centre, 
and are always within the clasp itself, their apices only extending 
occasionally outside. The acdoeagus is very long, of moderately even 
and narrow width, tapering slightly to the apes; the vesica iscchinoid 
in form bat without the spines, it is a very delicate and beautiful 
object. The tegumen is very deeply divided, with narrow wedge- 
shaped cheeks which carry prominent falcea; the hristles are fine, 
of moderate length and number; there are, however, very few on 
the clasps; the tectcirius is well developed, but quite diflerent in 
shape to all its allies. 

At first sight it would appear that the Mediterranean 
specimens with heavily marked undersides would probably 
be theophrastus, but that is not really the case, and it is 
very far from being so with those that have a finer under- 
side pattern. I have a series from the Caucasus that I 
bad no doubt were this species — large, heavily-marked 
spectraens; but the pattern was very confluent, and this 
impelled me to examine the genitalia ; these proved quite 
conclusively that the species was T. balkanica, whilst part. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



288 Mr. G. T. Bethime-Baker on 

of a series that is in the Tring Museum from Algeria with 
a finer pattern, that was flying freely with T. mediterraneae, 
also proves (o be balkanica, thus extending the range of 
this species in a very unexpected manner. 

In the Tring Museum is a large series of specimens 
collected in Algeria, with a few from Egypt and Morocco. 
They belong to three species; tkeophrastus is the most 
abundant, mediierraneae is leas so, whibt balkanica is 
much the rarest. There are in all some 477 examples, 
and when first I sorted and examined them I must confess 
to a sense of complet« bewilderment so far as regards the 
first two ; the upperside of balkanica marks it out fairly 
distinctiv from the others, but it took a long study before 
I was able to sort out with any degree of certainty tkeo- 
phraatus and mediierraneae, and in the end I found the 
only way of coming to any satisfactory conclusion was to 
dissect a good number of specimens ; this Lord Rothschild 
kindly let me do. I had considered at first that nearly 
all the specimens were my mediierraneae; the genitaUa, 
however, proved that the great majority were Aeophrastus. 
At Guelt-es-Stel, in the Hautes, there are 164 of Fabricius's 
insect to nineteen of my new species ; they were, however, 
flying together on the same ground and at the same time, 
in June, July and August, though it was in the last month 
that they were moat abundant; at Nedroma (Oran) 
nine specimens of tkeophrastus only were taken ; at El 
Kantara rather more than twice as many tkeophrastus 
as of mediierraneae occurred; at the desert post of £1 
Hadrada ten of my species were taken and one balkanica, 
but no tkeopkrasltts, whilst at Ghardaia, far in the Sahara, 
one Iheopkrastus, twenty- one meditenaneae, and five 
balkanica were captured, and at St. Oued Mya (Sahara) 
eight of the latter and a pair of mediierraneae were collected ; 
the other localities yielded much the same results, except 
that at Biskra eleven mediierraneae and three iheopkrastus 
were taken, and at Batna there were thirteen of the latter 
to nine of the former. In Morocco both species occurred, 
from the Masser Minea only theopkrastus was sent home, 
and from Zoudj-et-Beghal only nCediterraneae; there were, 
however, but a few in each instance. 

We see therefore, on the whole, that mediierraneae 
appears to thrive better than tkeophrastus in the desert 
localities and vice versa. The distribution of the species 
is so unusually interesting that I have given it somewbafc 



ih,Cooi^lc 



A Revm<m <^ the genus Tarucus. 289 

in detail, though I have omitted a number of localities 
from where very few or only one specimen were sent home. 

M. Oberthur writes me that he has Iheopkrastus in 
considerable numbers from Biskra, Bon Saada, Djurjura 
and Sebdou. From the second-named locality there are 
two medUerraneae and one tkeophraslm in the Tring 
Museum ; no doubt, taking into consideration my dissec- 
tions, both species will be found in the Rennes Museum 
also. 

After my dissections had been done, I sorted the species 
in accordance with those results, and they gave me 8 
fwrly easy rule of separation. I foimd that all my tfieo- 
■phrastus dissections came from specimens in which the 
postmedian lines in both wings were separate spota, not 
confluent ; in the hind-wing they were frequently more or 
less fine lunules, but not a continuous crenulated line ; whilst 
in medUerraneae these lines were continuous, sometimes 
fine, but often very broad and heavy. This would, there- 
fore, seem to be a fairly safe character whereby to separate 
the specimens. 

I found that this was confirmed in tkeophraslus from 
India and other p^rts of Africa, in all of which the post- 
median lines are composed of separate spots or lunules. 

The androconia are somewhat ovate, but truncated diatally into 
a, broad arc, tbe proximal extremity being asymmetrically ovale 
with the foot-Btalk given off noD-cenlrally ; there are twelve rows 
of lamina widely separated with the sculpturing very defined and 
well apart It frequently happens that abnormal androconia are 
present, and I have figured one of theMe found on the same wing 
vith the normal one of this Bpeciee. 



Tamous ananda, de Nic^ville. Plates XIV, fig. 13; 
XVII, fig. 13, and XX, fig. 30. 

CasUdius ananda, de Nic4ville, Joum. A.8.B., lii, pt. 2, 
p. 75, pi. i, fi. 11 ,S, llo ? (1883). 

(5. Uppeiside deep luatrous violaceous with a distinct dark border 
of moderate width in each of the wings, quite markless except that 
the undcrude apola show through indistinctly . Underside, whitish 
iFitb dark marks and spots. Primaries with a broad baaal costal 
stripe, and an irregular, broad (not wedge-shaped) dash ascending 
to it from the inner margin, outdde which is a, sbo^, very broa^ 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



290 Mr. G. T. Bethtme-Bakei on 

da«h from the costa to the end oE tbe cell ; postroeiliiui line composed 
of two confluent spots on the coata, a spot between veins 6 and 6 
projected right out into the subroarginal row, two confluent spoU 
between veins 3 and 6 below the firet two, and two confluent spot« 
between veins 1 and 3; theee ore stiift«d inwaids, and tbe lower 
spot is quite snuJl, outside these is the submarginol, veiy even row 
of six moderate-siied intemervular spots, this being roughl j parallel 
with the terminal row of six smaller inteitoervniar spots; tennen 
finely dark. Secondaries with a broad basal band right across the 
wing; four sabbasal large spots below each other, tbe upper 
three more or loss confluent, a spot cloning the cell: poatmedian 
series consisting of three pair of confluent spot« followed by one 
on tbe inner margin, tbe second pair of spots is shifted outwaids ; 
submarginol row composed of seven intemervular spots, the third 
from the costs being largo on account of its coalescence with tbo apot 
projected out from the fioetniedian series; terminal row composed 
of six spots, the two anal ones having a very few superimposed 
blue scales that are easily rubbed off; termen finely dark. 

$. Entirely brown in both wings; a whitish cloud in the disc^ 
area, the underside discal pattern showing through. In the secon- 
daries there is a prominent terminal row of dark spots edged in- 
wardly with pale dashes. Underside like the male. 

Genitalia : the clasps are shovel-shaped, broad, with the whole 
of the upper and apical margins irregularly and widely serrate, the 
apical margin being somewhat concave; the bristles are very fine 
and very few; a sclerite arises from the base of each clasp as in 
thtophrattut, but is longer and B(«uter, extending along twO'tJiirds 
of the upper margin ; the cingulum is ample; the tegumcn is deeply 
excised with long, strong falces; the bristles are more numerous 
than on the clasps, but are very fine; the aedoeagus is raodcmtely 
long, stout, and tapering to a fine tip near the apex; it is provided 
with two long sclerit«B, lying internally, one on each side, the vesica 
is furnished with two rather long haiiy brush-like processes — like a 
fox's tail — which are capable of inflation and thenassumean almost 
spherical shape; the tect«rius is small, being reduced to a broad 
column thrown right back in the rear of the clasps. The androconia 
are proiimatly asymmetrically ovat« with the foot-stalk given off 
slightly sideways; the sides are very slightly curved; the distal 
extremity being slightly and evenly convex; there are sixteen or 
seventeen closely placed lamiita whose sculpturing is irregular and 
rather smalL 

This well-known Indian species is easily recognised from 
all its neighbours but one, for here also I hav« found two 



l„y,|,AJh,COOl^lC 



A Revision o/" the genus Tarucus. 291 

species mixed together that have revealed themselves 
by their sexual oi^ans. 

I have placed these species in the type section on account 
of the position of the sclerites that replace the " vii^ae 
excitatae," and on account of the aedoeagus and reduced 
tectoiius. 

Tuaeas dharta, sp. nov. Plates XIV, fig. 15 ; XVII, fig. 14. 

(J. Upperside sublustroua violaceous with brown borders to each 
wing of moderate width. Underside whitish with brown markings. 
Nroaries with a broad costal band and a broad erect subbasal 
dash (not wedge-shaped), both much shorter than in T. ananda 
and more separate; a broad dash aciOBS the end of the cell sur- 
mounted by a spot shifted somewhat outwards; postmedian lino 
consisting of three pair of confluent spots and a single one shifted 
well outwards, but not touching the submaiginal series; the 
second pair of spota is shifted slightly outwards and the third pair 
well inwards; submarginal row composed of six fair-sized inter- 
nervular spots followed by the terminal row of six intemervular 
daahes ; tennen finely dark. Secondaries with a broad basal 
dash, followed by four largish spot« below each other, the upper- 
most costal spot being very large ; these spots are almost confluent ; 
a leniform mark closes the cell; postmedian series composed of a 
pair of confluent subcostal spo<«, three confluent spots shifted 
outwards and almost forming a broad dash, a pair of confluent 
spota shifted inwards under the renlform spot; postmedian row 
composed of eight intemeural spots followed by a trace of a terminal 
row of dashes represented by three fine intemeural dashes at the 
apex and two spots at the anal angle ; t^rmen flnely dark. 

$. Both wings brownish with whitish discal areas and moat of 
the undeiside pattern showing through. Frimariea irrorated on the 
fold and the discal area with brilliant lustrous blue, and the post- 
median TOW of spots showing prominently through. Secondaries 
with a trace of the blue in tlie diecal area, and a line series of whitish 
intemeural dashes outside the postmedian row of spots showing 
through. Underaide precisely like the male. 

Expanse, ^ 25; $ 26 ram. 

Hab. SiXKm, Darjeeling. 

Types in my collection. 

This species may be recogniaed from ananda in the 
greater separation of the underside pattern throughout, 
and especially in the submarginal and terminal lines ; the 
female is markedly difierent. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



292 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

Genitalis : tiw clasps ue of moderate size, broad at the rear, 
but tapering gradually to the apex and temuDating in a rounded 
extremity; the ",virgae excitatae " are replaced by a peculiar 
structure, and is for nearly two-tbirds of tbe basal portion a portion 
of the lower margin of tbe clasps, then it suddenly develops into a 
longish narrow rod wbich extends well beyond tbe end vi the clasp ; 
tbe cingulum u narrow, ■ncieasing in width as it approacbee the 
tegnnien, which is of moderate sue, deeply excavated with fairly 
developed (aloee ; the aedoeagns is peculiar of moderate uze at the 
rear behind the mi^, but for the apical two-thirds it is very narrow 
indeed, and tapera gradually into a fine point; tbe tectorius is 
reduced, thrown right behind tbe clasps, as in tbe previous species, 
having no hood, but being of a different structure, and in a different 
position from tbe furca. 

There remain four other descriptions to be considered, 
Taructis (P/efctW) fasciattts, Bftber, from Banks, Tarucua 
Uopardvs, Schultze, from the PhiUppines, Tarucus dath- 
ratus, Holland, from Celebes, Tarvcus flumalis, G. -Smith, 
also from Celebes. These form a small section wherein 
the spotted pattern is transformed almost entirely into a 
" banded " pattern, the spots having become confluent 
so as to form broad definite bands across the wings, thus 
making them separable at a glance from any others of the 
genus. 

Tarucus fasclatus, Bober. Plate XVII, fig. 17. 
Plebeius fasdatus, Bober, Ent. Ver., " Iris," i, p. 194, 
pi. ix, f. 15 (1887). 

Bober describes the species (freely translated) as 
follows : — 

" $. Upperside smoky grey with the median ares of all the wings 
whitish, the basal area being weakly irrorated with tight blue ; at 
the termen of the hind-wings tbe black border spots of tbe under- 
side show through; hind-wings with a white terminal line, shortly 
tailed at vein 2 (M'). Underside yellowish white with blackish 
grey bands, and terminal rows of spote- 

" Expanse, 27 mm." 

Hab. Banka Island {H. Kuhn). 

There is an excellent photograph of the insect (" Iris," 
1887, pi. 9, f. 15, p. 194), so sharp and defined in all 
particulars that there can be no difficulty in identifying the 
species. I give a reproductioo of it on PI. XVII, fig. 17. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



A Revmon <^ the genus Tarucus. 293 

Taruens eUthralus, HoUand. Plate XIV, fig. 16 $. 
T. cUahratus, HoUand, Proc. Boafc. Soc., xxv, p. 71, pi. 5, 
f. 8 (1891). 

Holland describes his species thus : — 

" Near T. {Plebeiug) fasciaiaa, Boeber (' Iris,' vol. i, p. 194), but 
smeller and differently marked. Tbe uppenide of the wings is 
lilac, with Bmoky grey margins. The black msrkipgs of the under- 
Etide are distinctly visible from the upperaide. In faaciaiu* the 
submarginal black line is narrow, in dathratnt it ia broad. In the 
former the two succeeding black lines are distinct throughout; in 
the latter they unite, forming a nido figure of the letter V, There 
are many other minor differences which readily reveal themselves 
upon a comparison of the two Bpeeles, and which are mote enaily 
seen than described. The type, a male, is in my collection." 

The habitat is Celebes, and I quite concur in Dr. Holland's 
opinion that his species is distinct from Rober's. I have 
no doubt, however, that Grose-Smith's T. fluvialis is the 
female of Holland's clcUAnUus. Smith gives a long and 
careful description of his species, a female, which also 
comes from Celebes, saying that it is nearest to T.fasciatus, 
Rober, but that the arrangement of the bands on the 
underside is quite different, and then he goes on to say 
that " it may not improbably be the female of T. dathratus, 
HoUand, but that his figure is so diminished that it is 
impossible to decide with certainty whether this is the case." 
I have enlarged Holland's figure, and find that the pattern 
is precisely the same below, only in the original, being a 
male, the bands ate narrower than in the Tring tvpe. 
The underside shows through in just the same manner, 
and I do not think there can be any doubt as to tbe identity 
of the two insects. 

Tarucus leopardus, Schultze. Plate XVII, fig. 18. 

T. kopardus, Schultze, Philippine J. Sci. D., 5, p. 161, 
pi. l,f. 9(1910). 
The species was described in the Phihppino Journal of 
Science. The following is a copy of the description : — 

" i^. Uppereide of wings irideBcent, purplish blue with a narrow 
dull black line along outer margin; cilia white. Tail black, tipped 
with white. Hind-wing with two indistinct submarginal spots at 
posterior angle. Underside of wings whit« with a faint ochraceous 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



294 Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker on 

tinge fUid nmaerons dark brown markiDgB aa foUown : a narrow 
subcostal band from base to. middle of fore-wing, thence obliquely 
toward posterior outer angle ; basal area with three triangular 
patches, the medial one being most prominent; outer area with 
three oblique bars from the costa; the second, which ia the longeet, 
reaching vein IV; a prominent, nearly round, poetmedial spot 
between veins III and IV ; a submarginal band and a marginal row of 
six very small spots, each between two veins, and a veiy fine mar^nol 
line. Cilia white. Hind-wing with a baeal bar, six antemedial 
transverse streaks, two medial transverse etreake, two postmedial 
streaks, and a~ postmedial band from inner margin to vein VI ; a 
prominent submarginal band, six submarginal spots and a fine 
ant«ciliary line. The submarginal area between veins I and 111 ia 
dark ochraceous, and the two black spots upon it ace surrounded 
by a highly metallic, green line. 

" $. Upperside of wings grayish brown with a bluish iridescence 
on basal half. Discal area whitish. All markings on underside 
similar to those above, although less diffused. Hind-wing with the 
submarginal row of spat^ large and distinct. Underside similar 
to that in ij; all markings somewhat larger. 

"Length of wing, S i' miUimetera; $ 13'5 miUimct^rs. 

" Luzon, Province of Camarinea, Paracale, P.I, (J. P. 
Iddings collector). Type (J, $ and co-type No, 12743 in 
Entomological Collection, Bureau of Science, Manila, P.I." 

From the figure referred to, which I reproduce on PI. 
XVII, fig, 18, I believe that this species is allied to 
dalhratus, Holland. 

This brings us to the last two species of the group, 
that I should perhaps have hesitated to include in the genus. 
The pattern is different, but the androconia have quite 
the same shapes and facies, and the genitalia have the 
remarkable form of the " tectoriua " strongly developed, 
but modified ; they are, therefore, better placed here than 
elsewhere, at least, for the time being. Trimen himself 
indicated an alliance between them and sybaris. 

Tarueus bowkerl, Trimen. Plates XIV, fig. 14 ; 
XVII, fig. 15; XX, fig. 31. 

Lycaena bowJceri, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1883, 
p. 351. 
{J. Both wings on the upperside are lustcous pale violet blue. 
PcimatieB with a dark indefinite spot oloaing the cell, with a IoomI 



n,g,i,.eih,.G00glc 



A Revision o^ the genus Taructis. 295 

black tormen and black and white tessellated fringe. Secondaries 
with an indefinite spot closing the cell, a very obUque row of dark 
poetmedian spots and a complete row of dark eubmarginnl spots, 
both these rows occupying the position of the underside pattern, 
bat not being merely the showing through of that pattern; a 
terminal series of dark spots merging into the black termen around 
tbe apex; fringes white with black teesellations at the ends of tho 
veins. Underside white with ash brown spots. Primaries with 
the snbcoBtal basal stripe, a spot in the middle of tho cell with 
two other spots below it, representing the usual wedge-shaped 
mark; a good-sized spot closing the cell with one or two above it, 
beyond which are three very oblique spots from tho coata, with two 
confluent ones below tho lowest of the three, but shifted inwards; 
two confluent squarish spote almost below the one closing the cell, 
a series of six intenteurol submarginol marks fallowed by a terminal 
row of six distinct spots; termen consisting of finoblsckdasheemter- 
aected with white intetneurolly. Secondaries : a costel basal spot 
below which is the basal stripe which is very irregular, four subbasal 
spots below each other with another small spot from the second 
connecting it with the spot closing the cell ; postmedian series 
{composed of eight spots) widely separated between the second and 
the third spots, the lower six forming a very oblique row from vein 6 
to the inner margin ; all the spots hitherto referred to in the second- 
N7 are somewhat darkly encircled; submarginal row of seven 
marks very irregular; terminal row compoi^ of seven distinct 
spots, the iiiBt above the apex very small ; termen with dark dashes 
intersected with white intemeurally. 

Genitalia : these organs are very lai^e indeed when compared 
with those of the rest of the genus ; the clasps an long, very broad 
at the base, but taper rapidly to a narrowish rounded extremity; 
the cingulum is of moderate and even width ; the tcgumen rather 
email and less excised proportionately; the falces are highly 
developed, being deeply curved and longish, but of only moderate 
vidth; the aedoeagns is of moderate size, brood and slightly 
increostng in width to the zone, from whence it gradually tapers 
for two-thirds of the remaining length; the apical third tapering 
very rapidly to a sharp point; the tectorius is ample and well 
developed, being somewhat of tho theophrastiis type, but much 
more ample basally. The androconia are very similar to those in 
iMeophraatus, but somewhat larger altogether, they have thirteen 
rows of lamina that are sculptured rather more finely than in 
Fabricius's species. 



,t,7.dh,Googlc 



296 Mi. Bethune-Baker on Revision oj the genus Tarncut. 

Tanieus IhMpis, L. 

Papilio ihespis, Lumaeus, Mug. Ind. Ner., p. 318, N. 136 
{1764) ; id. Syat. Nat., p. 791, N. 236 (1767). 

TliU species is very close to T. bowkeri, but difiera in 
the following particulars. It is of a decidedly brighter 
and clearer blue on the upperside, and has quit« narrow 
almost linear black borders, the fringes are longer and 
more definitely tessellated ; it has not in the secondaries 
a terminal row of spots as obtains in bowkeri. On the 
underside the predominant colour is brown, not whitish 
as in Trimen's insect. The markings are similar, but 
decidedly larger and the terminal row of spots, well marked 
in bowkeri, is lacking in theapis. In the primaries the fold 
and inner marginal area ia entirely brown, except for quite 
a small whitish patch at the tornus ; the tail is Uttle more 
than a dentition in the fringe. 

The 9 ia almost entirely brown above in both wings 
with no white areas, as in bowkeri, but with a sUgbt, 
restricted, basal blue suffusion, which, in the secondaries, 
extends to the inner marginal area; a small white spot 
edges exteriorly the spot ckising the cell and has three 
or sometimes two white spots beyond it. 

It occurs in Cape Colony, where it is widely distributed 
over the eastern and western districts, and has also been 
recorded from Natal. 

The genitalia are of the eame type as bowkerif the cl&sps being 
large and long, but easily differentiated. The tegumen is distinctly 
dIfFereot; it ia much smaller, with a veiy narrow apex, and very 
much smaller and slenderer side lobes, whibt the falcea ore longer 
and much more slender; the aedoeagua originates of moderate aiae, 
but very rapidly widens up to the zone, where it is suddenly excised 
and tapers more gradually to a point, this front portion being half 
as long again as the rear part. The vesica is a beautiful object, 
its oriRce being elegantly trumpet- shaped, and being very finely 
shagrpcned all over; the virgae excitatae are abecnt, but the 
t«ctoTius is developed in a modified fortn, Bomewhat as in bowteri. 



Explanation of Plates XIV-XX. 

[See Explanation facing the Plates.] 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



( 297 ) 



X. Notes on some British Guiana H3nnenopt€ra {exclusive 
of the Formicidae). By G. E. Bodkin, B.A., Dip. 
Agric. (Cantab.), F.Z.8., F.E.S., Government Eco- 
nomic Biologist, Department ot Science and Agri- 
culture, Britisb Guiana. 

(Pnblisbed by permission of the Director of Science And 
Agricultare, British GuianB.} 

[lUad December 6tb, 1916.] 

Plates XXI-XXIII and Sketch Map. 

Up to the present time very little has been known of the 
habits and life-histories of the Htpnenoptera of Britbh 
Guiana. Schomburgk,* in his " Fauna and Flora of British 
Guiana," devotes six pages to the Hymenoplera and gives 
a few observations with regard to their biology as observed 
by himself, but unfortunately many of the scientific 
names are quite impossible to trace. Peter Cameron has 
published in "Timehri"'!' a comprehensive list of the 
Hymenoplara of this country, with descriptions of many 
new species, but no biological notes are attached. Scat- 
tered references have appeared from time to time in many 
scientific publications, but the majority of these are 
descriptions of new species. 

The present collection in this laboratory' was commenced 
in 1911 and has been formed chiefly by myself as oppor- 
tunities have occurred. All the commoner species have 
now been collected, and in many cases observations made 
on their life-histories and habits. The accompanying map 
indicates in red dots the areas where collections and 
observations have been made. These necessarily follow 

* Schomburgk, B., "Fauna und Flora von British Guiana." 
Leipsig, 1948. 

t Peter Comeran, Hymeaoptcra of the Georgetown Museum, 
" Ttmehri." Joumal of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial 
Society, 1911-12. Pt. I. Parasitica, I. pp. 153-186 (1911). Pt. 2. 
Parasitica, I, pp. 306-330 (1911). Pt. 3. Marabuntaa or Waspa, 
II. pp. 207-231 (1912). Pt. 4. Fosaores, 11, pp. 412-440 (1912). 

TRANS. KNT. SOC. LOND. 1917. — PARTS U, UI, IV (MAY '18) 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



298 Mr. G. E. Bodkin's Nolea on 

the chief commuDication routes either by wat«r, road, or 
trail. Vast areas consequently remain untouched. 

The collection at present contains 1,600 specimens, of 
which 161 species are named. All these identilicationB 
have been made either by specialists in the British 
Museum, through the co-operation of the Imperial Bureau 
of Entomology, or by speciaUsts in the U.S. National 
Museum. 

The present work clearly shows that in scope it can 
hardly pretend to do more than outUne the vast field which 
awaits entomologbts in this part of the world. 

There is a distinct difference between the Ht/menoptera 
of the fiat, cultivated and inhabited coast lands and those 
of the forest-clad area. Many species of common occur- 
rence on the coast lands are never found in the forests, 
and vice versa. The climate of these two areas also varies, 
the interior districts having a higher rainfall and a some- 
what higher temperature. The trade-winds which sweep 
the coast lands most of the year are not experienced to 
any extent inland. No opportunity has yet occurred 
to investigate the large tracts of savannah lands which 
exist at the back of the Colony near the Brazilian 
frontier. 

The observations on the habits and Ufe-histories are 
mostly my own, but a number of interesting notes by the 
following gentlemen must be acknowledged : Mr. C. B. 
Williams, Mr. L. D. CIeaT«, Jnr., Mr. H. W. B. Moore, and 
Mr. A. A. Abraham. 

I have endeavoured to give as full information as pos- 
sible concerning each species. Where only one specimen 
of a species has been collected I have given the locality of 
collection. 

The Ants have not been included in these notes, as 
Mr, W. ('. Crawley has already published • an account of 
the Family. 

Family APIDAE. 
Subfamily 8PHEC0DINAB. 
Genus TE.MNO^iOMA, Snuth. 
T. (leruginasitm. Smith. Issororo, N.W.D. 

• " Ania from Rritiah Guiana," W. C. Crawley, B,A Annals 
and Magazioe of Natural History, Ser. 8, vol. xvii. May, 1016. 



l„y,l,Ajl^,COOl^lC 



some British Guiana Hymenojptera. 299 

SubfamUy ANDBENINAE. 

Genus Augochlora, Smith. 

A. graminea, F. 1 Taken while feeding on flowers 

A. ihalia. Smith. V of " woiiralli " (fish-poison plant), 

A. calypso, Sm. ) lasororo, N.W.D. 

SnMamily PANUJtOlNAE. 
Genua Meqalopta, Smith. 
M. sodalis, Vachal, Ibsoioto, N.W.D. This species ia 
frequently attracted to artificial light. 

Subfamily XTLOCOPINAB. 
Genua Xylocopa, L. 
X. fimbriata, F. The commonest wood-boring bee in 
British Guiana. The female is black and the male an 
ochreoufi yellow with green eyes. The proportion of 
females is greater than males — about 4 to 1. Both sexes 
may frequently be seen collecting honey from a number 
of commonly occurring flowers, especially those of the 
large red Hibiscus and the flowers of the Pigeon Pea. 
It possesses a powerful sting, and the flight is accompanied 
by a loud buzzing sound. I have never observed the 
species in the interior. Any Ary decaying wood is utilised 
for nesting purposes, such aa rotten paling-posts or tree- 
stumpe. The softer kinds of wood are preferred. I^ogs of 
wood infested by these bees soon become literally riddled 
with their borings, and large quantities of frass may be 
seen piled up at the foot of the log. If such a log is sharply 
tapped a shrill buzzing noise may be heard caused by the 
contained bees. A log of wood 5 feet long by 2 feet in 
diameter on being split open was found to contain 20 
imagos and 25-30 larvae and pupae. There were about 
three entrance holes, and these led directly into galleries 
bored at right angles to the grain of the wood. In such 
galleries the cells are formed, usually three or four together, 
never more. Each cell is about an inch in length and 
about I inch in diameter. The cells are separated from 
one another by a partition or " wad " of sawdust cemented 
together and hardened by the bee. These partitions are 
\ inch in thickness. The galleries and cells are perfectly 
smooth and very neatly executed. Each cell is stocked 
with a small, fairly solid mass consisting apparently of a 
mixture of honey and pollen. It is a dark yellow in 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



300 Mr. G. E. Bodkio's NoUsjm 

colour with a peculiar though not unpleasant odour. 
These masses of foodstuff weigh about 25 grammes, and 
an equal quantity is deposited in each celt. On this mass 
the egg is finally deposited and gradually incieasea in size 
as development proceeds; later, the segmentation of the 
future larva may dimly be perceived through the envelop- 
ing shell. It is sausage-shaped, slightly curved, and almost 
transparent in the earlier stages, I^ength I'Tcm., diameter 
0"4 cm. During development one end becomes somewhat 
larger than the other. Eventually the extremely thin 
pelhcule strips off and the wrinkled larva is exposed, 
which starts feeding immediately. The larval excrement 
is hard, and formed in short rods black in colour. The 
full-grown larva measures 39 cm. in length, and is creamy 
white in colour. The larval stage lasts about three weeks, 
(iiradually the outlines of the pupa may be seen through 
the larval skin, which eventually peels off. The period 
between the full-fed larva and the final stripping of the 
larval skin is 48 hours. The pupa is at first creamy white, 
and in form roughly resembles the future adult insect. 
Length of pupa 2*5 cm., breadth Vi cm. Within the firat 
week of pupation a general darkening of colour takes 
place, the eyes going almost black ; hardening of the 
mtegument occurs simultaneously. These two processes 
progress rapidly till the perfect insect is formed in about 
3 weeks. It then makes its exit from the cell by gnawing 
away the wad of hardened sawdust. 

X. barbala, F. A fairly common species on the coast 
lands. 

X. brasHwnorum, F. A not uncommon species within 
the forest area. Rockstone, Essequebo River, and H.M. 
Penal Settlement, Mazaruni River. 

X. aurulenta, F. An micommon species within the forest 
area. Rockstone, Essequebo River, 

SuMaraUy PR080PID1NAE. 

Genus Caupoucana, Spinola. 

C. eximia. Smith, Essequebo River, in vicinity of 



SubfamUy ANTHOPHOSINAE. 
Genus Eucera, Scopoli, 
E.fesliva, Sm. Vicinity of Georgetown. 



u,y,l,7rJM,G00glc 



s&me Britiah Guiana Hymenoptera. 301 

Genus Exomalofsis, Spioola. 
E. globosa, F. Botauic Gaidens, Georgetown. 

Genus Epicharir, Klug. 
E. rttslica, Oliv. Rockstone, Eseequebo River. 

Genus Mbutoma, Latr. 
M. englossoides, Lep. From cultivated Cotton blosBoms, 
Georectown. This bee has a curious habit of clinging to 
the edges of blades of Para grass, with its mandibles finnly 
embedded in the tissues. The reason for this is not 
apparent. They remain quite motionlesa in this position, 
and at times may be seen in considerable numbers. Fairly 
common about coast lands. 

Genus Centris, F. 

C. longimana, Lep. A common species both on the 
coast lands and in the interior. It is attracted to strong- 
smelling substances such as salt fish, and will folluw boats 
with this substance on board for long distances up the 
rivers. Frequently seen about buoys moored in the centre 
of the tidal passages in the big rivers and elsewhere. It 
is apparently attracted there by the excreta dropped by 
sea-birds on these objects. It has a swift, noisy flight. 

C. tanipes, F. Fairly common on the coast lands and in 
the iatenor. Has been taken at flowers and also in the 
act of collecting soft mud from a pathway. 

C. tersicdor, F. Taken on one occasion while atlracted 
to artificial light. Appears to occur only in the interior. 

C. personata, Sm. It has similar habits to V. longimatKi, 
I«p. Taken under similar conditions in the North-west 
District. 

C. Utbrosa, Friese. An uncommon species. H.M. Penal 
Settlement, Mazaruni River. 

Genus Tbygater, Hohnb. 
T. rubrifola, Sra. Rockstone, Essequebo River, 

Genus Euglossa, Latr. 

E. dimidiaia, F. A fairly common species in most 

parts of the Colony. Observed on several occasions to 

collect mud from a pathway, A somewhat clumsy insect, 

TRAHS. ENT. SOC. LOND, 1918. — PARTS U, ni, IV. (MAY '18) X 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



302 Mr. G. E. Bodkm'a Notes on 

easy to capture, but when alarmed assumes a rapid flight. 
Frequently observed Aying about and alighting upon the 
bark of certain trees, though on closely inspecting the bark 
no feature which might attract the bee conld be observed. 

E. cor data, F. The commonest Euglossa in British 
Guiana. Observed in all areas visited. It will construct 
its somewhat sticky nest in all sorts of curious places, 
such as the inside of a disused reel of cotton, interior of 
empty cartridge case, eye-piece of polariscope, keyholes, 
small cavities in timber, etc. It also takes over the 
disused celb of Scdipkron fislulare, Dahlb. In the forest 
areas I have observed thb bee to construct its nest on the 
under surface of a leaf. The nest varies in the number 
of its cells, some only containing two or three, others as 
many as six. The cells are roughly about 1 cm. in length 
and about 5 mm. in breadth, with the ends neatly rounded. 
Each cell is stored with a viscid mixture of honey and 
pollen, on which the larva feeds. The waifs of the cells 
are thin and soft, being constructed of some dark vegetable 
substance. The whole exterior is sticky. This insect has 
an extremely rapid, darting flight, and is particularly fond 
of the white, sweet -smelling flowers of a certain species of 
prickly wild Solanaceous plant. While the bee is within 
the white blossoms it emits an exceedingly shrill buzzing 
sound, which is often difficult to locate. 

E. surinamensis, L. Another very common species of 
Euglossa throughout British Guiaua. It is greatly attracted 
to the flowers of the same Solanaceous plant as attracts 
E. cordala, L. Its loud buzzing and somewhat slow flight 
makes its presence conspicuous. The nest is constructed 
sometimes in artificial holes in timber, in cavities in the 
trunks of trees, and at times on the t^p of roof-beams. 
The substance of the nest is thin flakes of bark, or some- 
times flakes of white plaster from houses, exceedingly 
strongly cemented together. Several cells are usually 
formed united in an irregular mass. Each cell is stored 
up with a quantity of honey and pollen of moderately 
hard consistency. The cells are about 15 cm. in length, 
with a diameter of about 1 cm., ovoid in shape, with a 
perfectly smooth lining. 

E. nigrita, Lep, Not a particulariy common species. 
So far only observed on the coast lands. On one occasion 
the bees were observed to be nesting within a hollow beam 
in the large dining-hall of one of the largest hotels ia 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lc 



some British Guiatui Hymenoptera. 303 

Georgetown. The bees passed to and fro, apparently quite 
Tega^ess of the proximity of human beings. 

E. pUiventris, Gu^r. An micommon species from Upper 
f^ssequebo River. Attracted to flowers of the wild Sola- 
naceous plant previously mentioned, 

£. analis, Lep. An uncommon species. A large nest 
consisting of many ovoid cells was once taken from the 
soil on the East Coast of Demerani. The cells were hard, 
dark in colour, and joined together. Only one bee hatched 
from this nest. 

E. caycnnensia, Lep. {= fandata, Jjep.). A fairly common 
and widely distribute species throughout the Colony. 
Nesting habits not observed. 

E. decorata, Sm. An uncommon species from the interior. 
Essequebo River. 

Genus Exaerete, Hoffm. 
E. smaragdina, Gu4r. A conunon species in some parts 
of the interior, especially the N.W.D. All of my specimens 
were collected while flying about piles of cordwood from 
which a strong-smelling sap was exuding, and on which 
the bees were feeding. Occasionally seen on the coast 
lands and in the Botanic Gardens, Geoi^etown. Nesting 
habits unobserved. 

Subfamily MEQACBILINAB. 
Genus Meuachile, Latr. 

M. Idbiiarsis, Smith. An uncommon species with a wide 
distribution, 

M, Uinata, F. This insect has only once been collected, 
and that beneath the Government laboratory, George- 
town, The mud cells were situated within a disused 
J-inch iron pipe. The nest was cylindrical in shape and 
contained about four cells. The nest was very firmly 
cemented together, making the whole structure exceed- 
ingly strong and hard to break. This bee is well known 
in India.* 

SubfamUy COBLIOXTNAS. 

Genus Coelioxys, Latreille. 

C. siviiUima, Smith. Apparently a widely distributed 

though not common species. Nest observed in cyhndrical 

borings in a wooden post. 

* Lefroy, H. Maxwell, " Indian Insect Life," p. 219. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



304 Mi. G. E. Bodkin's NoUs on 

SnblwoUy BOMBINAE. 
Genus Bombus, Latr. 

B. cay^nensis, F. A common species found only in the 
interior. 

Genus Melipona, 111. 

M. inlerrupa, Latr, This species ia widely distributed 
and common. The specimens in the collection were all 
t&ken while they were collecting soft mud from paths. 

M: pallida, Latr. A fairly common species in the 
interior, A small neat on one occasion observed in a 
rotten log of timber with a small circular hole formed of 
wax for exit. When the nest is disturbed they swarm 
out and attack by biting the exposed parts of the head 
and neck, emitting at the same time a shrill buzeing 
sound. These small bees possess a peculiar odour which 
ia characteristic. 

M. favosa, F. A common species on the coaat lands, 
where it is known as the Courida Bee, from a supposed 
habit of collecting honey from the flowers of the maritime 
Courida {Awennia nitida). The nests are found in hollow 
trees, etc., especially in old Courida trees, but they have 
been found in disused drain-pipes and other unlikely 
places. This bee possesses no sting, and I have never 
observed it to attack in any way; when the nest is dis- 
turbed the bees swarm out, but do not demonstrate their 
resentment in any more practical manner. This bee is 
frequently domesticated, and when the nests are found in 
the field they are removed, taken home, and put in wooden 
boxes with a small exit hole. They thrive in captivity. 
The honey which they produce is thin and of a somewhat 
insipid flavour; mixed with other ingredients it is utilised 
by the natives as a cure for cold in the throat or cheat. 
The honey is stored in egg-shaped cells constructed of wax, 
about lJ-2 inches in length; similar cells are also con- 
structe<i containing nothing but wax. The cells contain- 
ing the larvae are 8 mm. in length and about 5 mm. in 
breadth. 

M. dacipes. F. A common species in most parts of 
the Colony, The nests are usually constructed in hollow 
decaying logs. The following notes on the nesting habits 
of this species were made from a nest which was found in 
a hollow log of Tr>-sil wood (Penladetkra filamattoaa). 
The extreme length of the hollowed-out portion containing 



Ij.y.l.Ajl^yCOO'^lL' 



some British Guiana Bymenoplera. 305 

the nest was 32 inchea. Three distinct layers of various 
kinds of cells were observed on splitting open the log 
longitudinally. The layer next to the entrance consisted 
of wax cells about \ inch in length and J inch in diameter; 
ovate in shape. The length of this layer was 8 inches. 
These wax cells were yellowish in colour and contained 
solid wax. To the taste the wax had an exceedingly bitter 
Savour, and a sour smell which seemed to pervade the 
whole neat. The layer next to the wax cells contained 
honey cells; tbis layer was 9 inchea in length. The cells 
themselves were slightly smaller than the wax cells, same 
shape and dark brown in colour. The contained honey 
was thick, very sweet and possessed quite a good flavour, 
but if the slightest trace of the wax coating of the cell 
got mixed with the honey the bitterness of the wax entirely 
obliterated the pleasant flavour of the honey. The next 
layer consisted of the cells with embryonic bees in various 
stages of development; it was 9 inches in length. These 
cells were about \ inch in length and dull yellow in colour. 
In shape they were cylindrical. Apparently the nest was 
entirely enclosed, with the exception of the eat. This 
exit was by no means a conspicuous object, as it was 
constructed of wax much the same colour and texture as 
the surrounding bark. It was slightly raised above the 
surface of the bark, and roughly cone-shaped with a very 
small exit hole. Attention was drawn to the presence of 
this nest by the bees hovering around the exit. Thb 
species is by no means so pugnacious as some of the other 
species of Melipona. 

M. recurva, Sm. An imcommon species from the N.W. 
District. 

M. lin&ila, 1/ep. Bartica, Essequebo River. 

M. jiavij>enni3, Sm. Taken on one occasion while 
attending flowers of Guava. 

M. varia, Jjcp. A nest of this species observed in a 
large greenheart beam supporting the hotel at Rockstone, 
Essequebo River. A non-pugnacious species. The entrance 
to the nest is funnel shaped and constructed of wax, 

M. guianae, Ckll. A most pugnacious species. If the 
nest is only slightly disturbed the bees swarm out and 
attack the intruder by biting the exposed parts of the 
head and neck, at the same time emitting a shrill buzzing. 
The nests (which are large) are usually constructed in the 
branches of trees at some distance from the ground. The 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



306 Mr. G. E. Bodkin's Nc^es m 

bees posBCBs a peculiar smell, due to the character of the 
substance which they collect on their hind-legs. A lai^e 
nest observed on one occasion on the branches of a Pimento 
tree {Pimenta ^cinalis). 

M. rufiventris, Lep., var. Jlavolineala, Friese. Tumatu- 
mari, Essequebo River. 

Mdipcma amaUhea, F. A common and widely distributed 
species. May be observed on the blossoms of most garden 
plants, and is particularly fond of feeding on overripe 
fruit. It may also frequently be seen collectint; mud 
from damp paths, creeks, etc. Known locally as " Tarbaby 
bees." It has a habit of collecting the scrap-rubber from 
recently tapped trees of Hevea brasili^isis. 

M. mfivenlris, Lep, Rockstone, Essequebo River. 

M. daliatorreana, Friese. East Coast, Demerara. 

M. mulata, Lep. Upper Demerara River. 

Genus Api.s, Ijinn. 
A. mfHifera, L. Only a small number of hives of the 
domestic bee are kept in the Colony, and these are prin- 
cipally owned by the Chinese and Portuguese. The honey 
produced is of good quality and very sweet. Fresh stock 
IS usually imported from the United States. They are 
mostly " Italian bees." The Wax Moth (GaUeria mdlonetta, 
L.) is common and causes much damage. 

Family VESPIDAE. 

Subfamily VESPINAE. 

Genus Polistes, Latr. 

P. pacificus, F. Essequebo Coast, An uncommon 



species. 

P. analis, F. A fairly common species in the interior. 

P. versicdoT, OUv, A common species on the coast 
lands. 

P. goddii, Ducke. A rare species in the interior. 

P. canadensis, Tj., var, amazonicvs, Schulz. The com- 



monest species of Pdistes in the Colony, occurring every- 
where. Unless severely molested it rarely attacks people, 
but its sting is both powerful and painful, and causes a 
severe swelling. lian^e nesta are rarely seen, the usual 
number of cells being about twenty. Beneath bridges, 
homes, on the rafters, under the eaves, beneath the plat- 
form of railway stations, behind pictures, etc., are favourite 



ih,Cooi^lc 



sfime British Guiana Htfmenqplera. 307 

nesting-places for this species. It appears to prefer 
domestic habitations for its nesting- places. The short 
wooden bridges which spaa the navigation trenches on 
sugar estates are always thickly infested beneath with the 
nests of these insects, and passing beneath such bridges 
in a small boat is always an exciting and quite occasionally 
ft painful experience. In dwelling-houses they are always 
a source of danger, especially when children are about. 
The local name is " marabunta." Destroying marabunta 
nests with a wad of dried palm leaves attached to a long 
pole soaked in kerosene and ignited is an interesting 
operation for an onlooker at a respectful distance. At 
times these wasps will remain quite motionless in an alert 
position OD their nests for hours together, as though on 
guard. From the economic standpoint they are exceed- 
ingly useful, for they may often be seen hunting for and 
consuming the larvae of various agricultural peats, espe- 
cially the Rice Worm (Lapkt/gma frugiperda, S. & A.). 
The nests are irregular in structure and not strongly made, 
for pieces are frequently falling from the nest. The flight 
of this insect is somewhat clumsy. 

P. crinitus, Feltou. An uncommon species on the coast 
lands. 

Genus Polybia, Lep. 

P. fulvofasciala, de G, (= phlhiska. V.). A common 
species on the coast lands ; the nests are frequently found 
attached to the under surfaces of leaves, especially those 
of the mango tree. Large nests are seldom encountered. 

P. occidentalis, Oliv. An exceedingly common species 
throughout the coast lands, and at times encountered in 
the interior. The nests are found attached to the under 
surfaces of many species of palms. The nests are never 
lai^e, more or less circular in shajw, and constructed of 
exceedingly light and fragile material. This small wasp 
is not unduly pugnacious, and seldom attacks unless the 
nest is damaged; it is thus frequently encountered when 
felling the branches of young coconut palms. The sting 
has no great lasting effects, but the first shock is exceed- 
ingly painful. On one occasion a gardener who was 
trimming a hedge of Barbados Cherry (Malphigia glabra) 
brought into the laboratory a good-sized nest of this 
species which he had very carefully removed with some 
of the wasps in sUn on the outside of the nest. The local 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



308 Mr. G. E. Bodkm'a NoUs on 

name is " honey marabunta," A native method of 
destroying such nests is to seize the nest quickly and 
firmly with both hands and then crush it. An individual 
possessed of large and tbick-akinned hands is likely to be 
the most successful. 

P.faslidiomscula, Sauss., var. sampaioi, Bucke. Appears 
to take the place of the foregoing in the interior, where it 
is common. It has never been taken on the coast lands. 
The nest is often met with attached to the under surfaces 
of palm leaves. 

P. fasei/Ua, Lep. A species by no means of infrequent 
occurrence both on the coast lands and interior. A email 
nest was taken on one occasion attached to the floor-boards 
beneath a house ; the structure is somewhat peculiar 
(see photo). Length about 2^ inches; length of single 
cell I inch. 

P. fxtscicomis, I^ep. A rare species from the interior. 

P. chrysoOiorax, Web. A fairly common species only 
encountered on the coast lands. Large pendant nests nearly 
a foot in length and roughly cylindrical are constructed ; 
the one actually observed was attached to a bush only a 
short distance from the ground. This nest was imfor- 
tunatejy destroyed in an attempt to secure it. 

P. diniidiata, Oliv. Rockstone, Essequebo River. 

P. conslTuclrix, Sauss. Tumatumari, Essequebo Eiver. 

P.jurinei, Sauss. Isaororo, N.W.D. 

P. seric&i, Oliv. Tuniatimiari, Essequebo River. 

P. sycophanta, Gribodo, An uncoDUUon species with a 
wide distribution. 

P. vdulina, Ducke. Issororo, N.W.D. 

P. TfQecta, F. A species with a wide distribution, but 
uncommon. 

P. obidensis, Ducke. Puruni River. 

Genus Protopolybia, Ducke. 
P. labariosa, Sauss, Rockstone, Essequebo River. 

Genus Mbtapolybia, Ducke. 
M. pediculata, Sauss. A fairly common species which 
builds its nests on beams beneath bouses. The nest, 
which is constructed of papery material, is usually about 
5 inches in diameter and about 1 inch in thickness und 
of a flattened irregular appearance. It is by no means a 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lL' 



softie British Guiana HymaiojAera. 309 

conspicuoiis object, and is often of much the same colour 
AS the beam to which it is attached. This insect shows 
no hostile tendencies, and the taking of the entire nest is 
quite a safe undertaking. It has only been observed in 
the interior. 

Genus Charterou-s, I^peletier. 
C. chartarius, Oliv. A fairly common species in tbe 
interior. The nest of this species is a well-known object 
and has been previously described by a number of authois. 
They are prized by many colonists as " curios," and fetch 
a very fair price in Geoi^etown. These nests may some- 
times be seen attached to the branches of trees overhang- 
ing the river. The taking of the neats is by no means an 
easy matter, as the insects resent any interference with 
their home. Nests, however, which overhang the river 
may be taken by getting a native to ascend quietly the 
particular tree to which the nest is attached and with one 
well-directed blow of a sharp cutlass sever the branch 
bearing the nest so that it falls into the river, whence it 
is eventually retrieved as soon as the wasps have left. 
An unsuccessful blow, however, spells disaster, and there 
is a case on record where such an incident occurred, and 
the unfortunate native rather than suffer jumped into the 
river many feet below and thus evaded the infuriated 
wasps. 

Genus Chartercinus, Fox. 
C paUiAHineaius, Cameron. Issororo, N.W.D. 

Genus Nectarina, Shuckard. 

N, hilineolala. Spin., var. moinana, Sauas. A species so 
far only taken in the Botanic Gardens, Georgetown. The 
nest was found attached to the end of a dried " arrow " 
of sugar-cane. Greatest diameter about IJ inches — depth 
3 inch. 

N. satteUuris, F. Issororo, N.W.D. 

N. lecheffuana, Latr. Issororo, N.W.D. 

Genus Synoeca, Saussure. 

S. suriTtama, h. A common species on the coast lands 

and occurs at times in the interior. The nests of this 

species, which are irregular in shape, may usually be seen 

attached to trees in the Botanic Gardens, Georgetown. 



ihyCOOt^lC 



310 Mr. G. E. Bodkin's Notes on 

The whole of one Bide of the nest is attached to the tree, 
and the exi«mal wall exhibits a slight " ribbing." The 
nests are often a foot or more in length. The sting of this 
. species is particularly formidable, and it does not hesitate 
to use it when occasion arises. The adult wasps may 
often be seen feeding on decaying fruit which has fallen 
on the ground, and they frequently visit certain spedes 
of flowers. I have taken specimens of this insect with 
the " polhnia " of a species of Euphorbiaceous plant 
attached to its legs; this is by no means a common 
occurrence. 

8. irina. Spin. An uncommon species in the interior. 

Genus Apoica, Lepeletier. 

A. pallida, Oliv. A common species on the coast lands. 
The nest, which is invariably attached to a tree and never 
far from the ground, ia disc-shaped. The under surface 
consists of innumerable cells, the ends of which are exposed. 
The under surface is invariably crowded with adult wasps, 
which attach themselves each to a particular cell and re- 
main motionless, an aspect is thus presented of a cluster of 
wasps adhering to the under surface of the nest ; in this 
position the bright yellow tips of their abdomens are very 
conspicuous. They do not readily move from this position, 
and if slightly disturbed will only make a slight move- 
ment. Once while observing a large nest of this species 
I happened to approach rather too near, when one wasp 
left the nest and stung me on the forehead immediately 
between the eyes, and returned at once to its original posi- 
tion. The effect of the sting was as though a blow had 
been delivered, and in a short space of time a swelling the 
size of a fowl's egg made its appearance, accompanied by 
considerable pain. The species is readily attracted to 
artificial light. 

A. pollens, F. Issororo, N.W.D, 

Genus Mischocyttahus, Saussure. 
M. labialtis, F. A fairly common species on the coast 
lands. Only small nests are constructed. 

Subfamily EUMENIDINAB. 

Genus Montezumia, Sauss. 

M. leprieiiri, Spin. (1841) {= M. rodwayi. Cam. (1911). 

An uncommon species taken in the vicinity of Georgetown, 

n,g,i,.eih,.G00glc 



same British Guiana Hymeno^era. 311 

M. nigriceps. Spin. One of the commonest species of 
Htftnem^era on the coast lands. Also a species of par- 
ticular economic value, as it hunts for and destroys the 
larvae of many agricultural pesta, including the Rice Worm 
(Laphygma frvgiperda, S. & A.) and the Para-grass Worm 
(Mods repanda, F.). This wasp may frequently be seen 
Bearchtng for its prey amongst grass and tall rice. A large 
pendant, irregularly -shaped nest is formed, which is some- 
what fragile in its structure. These nests contain a large 
and active community. 

M. infemalis. Spin. An uncommon species on the coast 
lands. According to C. B. WiUiams, who has observed 
the habits of this wasp, it constructs burrows in the clay 
banks of the canals or trenches to be found on all sugar 
estates. Green caterpillars are stored up in the nest, and 
an egg is deposited, which is hung from the roof of the 
burrow by a long stalk. The opening of the burrow ia 
small in comparison with the size of the wasp. 

M. infundHndiformis, F. Issororo, N.W.D. 

Genus Eumekes, Latreille. 
E. canaliadata, Oliv. An exceedingly common species 
to be met with mostly on the coast lands. Its dome- 
shaped mud cells, in small colonies of live or six and some- 
times more, are objects of common observation attached 
to the rafters beneath houses and in sheltered spots on 
walls and palings. These mud cells (see photo) are usually 
about \ inch in height and with a diameter of about \ inch. 
Some cells possess a kind of " neck " at the top of the 
cell, giving it the appearance of a squat-shaped earthen 
bottle. These cells are stored with Lepidopterous larvae 
usually slightly over an inch in length and, of course, 
paralysed by the sting of the wasp at the time of capture. 
From four to six such larvae are stored. The wasp larva 
becomes mature in ten days to two weeks from the time 
of emergence from the egg. The pupal stage lasts shghtly 
over a week. The adult wasp emerges from the cell by 
biting a circular hole in one side. These empty cells are 
afterwards utilised by a species of Trj/patylon for its nest, 
and stored with spiders. A small species of black ant 
(Cremaetogaster, sp.) finally colonises these disused cells. 
In constructing such cells the adult wasp holds the piece 
of moist and plastic mud in position on the half- constructed 
nest by means of the two front pairs of legs, and the deli- 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



812 Mr. G. E. Bodkin's Notes on 

cate process of moulding the mud around the edge of the 
nest 18 performed with the mandibles, which are long and 
well suited to the work. During the operation the long 
antennae are bent downwards and kept rapidly moving 
about the work as though guiding it and preserving the 
symmetry of the structure. A small species of Chrysid 
was bred on one occasion from the mud cells of this 
Eumenes. 
E. calUmorpha, Sauss, Vicinity of Georgetown. 

Genus Pachymenes, Sauss. 
P. pallipes, Oiiv. Ondemeeming, Essequebo. 

Genus Zethus, Fab. 

Z. mexicanus, L., var. hiffubris, Perty, An imcommon 
species on the coast lands. 

Z. gigaa, Spin. Issororo, N.W.D. 

Z. sichdianus, Sauss. Inhabiting disused borings in 
timber, Courantyne Coast, Berbice. 

Genus Odynerus, Latr. 
0, nasidens, Latr. Courantyne Coast, Berbice. 
O. davilineatus, Cameron. An uncommon species in the 
interior. 

FOSSORES. 

Family MUTILLIDAE 

Genus Mutilla, L. 

M. (ThaumalmmUilUi) parallela, Khig. A fairly common 

species on the sandy soils of the interior. 

M. mediata, F. From Courant\-ne Coast, Berbice. Taken 
while issuing from some disused borings in timber. 

Genus Thaumatomutilla, Andr6. 
T. ocellaTis, Klug. Tumatumari, Essequebo River. 

Family SCOLIADAE. 

Subfamily TIPHIINAE. 

Genus Tiphia, Fab. 

T. paralkla. Smith. The larva of this wasp is parasitic 

on the larva of Dysdnelus indeniatus, Burm. (Coieoptera) ; 

fairly common on the coast lands. 



l„y,i,AJL.,COO'^lC 



8<mte Britith Guiana Bymeno^era. 313 

Genus Dielis, Sausa. 

D. doTsata, P. Of common occurrence in most parts of 
the Colony. 

D. hyalina, Lep. (= D./altax, Sauss.). Fairly commoo 
in most parts. 

D, vari^ata, P. Issororo, N.W.D, 



Genus Eus, F. 
E. Jlavopicta, Smith. Turkeyn, East Coast, Demerara. 

Family RHOPALOSOMIDAE. 
Genus Ruofalosoha, Schulz. 
R. gutanertfe, Schulz. At light, Rockstone, Essequebo 
Biver. 

Family PSAMMOCHARIDAE. 
Genus Pskudaoenia, Kohl. 
P. cmnparala, Sm. Tumatumari, Essequebo River. 
P. chiorosoma, Sm. Punmi River. 

SnbfttmUy PEPSIN AE. 

Genus Cryptochilus, Panz. 

C. puTpuT^pes. A common species on the coast lands. 

Genus Pepsis, Fab. 
P. tinctipennis, Smith. Issororo, N.W.D. 
P. sappkiria, P. de B. Rockstone, Essequebo River. 
P. jucunda, Mocs. Rockstone, Essequebo River. 
P. chlorolica, Mocs. Ondemeeminp, Essequebo. 
P. nigreacens, Smith. Rockstone, Essequebo River. 
P. dimidiata, F. Rockstone, Essequebo River. 
P. ametkystina, F. A common species in moat parts of 
the Colony. 

P. aeladonica, Dahlb. Issororo, N.\V.D. 

Subfanuly PSAMMOCHABINAE. 

Genus Pompilogaster, Ashm. 

P. philaddphka, Lep. A common species on the coast 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



' 311 Mr. 6. E. Bodkin's Notes on 

Snbfanulr SPBECISAE. 
GeDUS SCELIPHEON, Klug. 
S. fislulare, Dablb. This species is widely distributed. 
Its mud nests are common objects on palings, beneath 
houses, and at times within the bouse iteelf, behind pic- 
tures, etc. The nesta are somewhat irregular in shape and 
may contain as many as eight or ten cells. Sometimes 
only two cells are constructed together, when the archi- 
tecture is then better demonstrated. The usual procedure 
is to build one cell and attach it firmly, and then to build 
other cells around it. Each cell is stored with spiders, 
from sixteen to twenty according to the size of the spiders. 
As soon as the requisite number of spiders has been obtained 
the cell is closed up. The egg, according to C. B. WiUiams, 
is deposited on dorsal surface of the abdomen of the first 
spider placed in the ceil. The following observations by 
Mr. Williams on the habits of this wasp are of interest. 
A wasp which was engaged in constructing its mud cells 
was observed, and its movements recorded as follows— 

12.5' 30" p.m. gone for mud, 
12.9' 10" p.m. returned, 
12.10' 15* p.m. gone, 
12.17' 58' p.m. returned, 
12.19' 20' p.m. gone again, 
12.22' 20' p.m. returned, 
12.23' 10' p.m. gone. 

At 12.37' 45' the wa.ip entered its nest and remained 
inside; 12.38' 50' the wasp flew away, and on inspection 
the neat was found to contain a spider (Fam. Argiojndae — 
Ga-ileracatUhinae) with an egg on dorsal surface of abdomen. 
This spider was eventually removed by myself. At 
12.51' 15' the wasp returned with another spider, and 
went away 12.02' 15'. At 4.10 p.m. the nest was almost 
completely closed. The egg of this species is sausage- 
shaped and slightly curved, dull yellowish white in colour, 
with small almost transparent areas towards each end; 
length 3'4 mm. Young larvae when first hatched out are 
almost 4 mm. in length. They soon attach themselves 
to a spider, which they proceed to consume, leaving only 
the legs. Development is completed in about two weeks. 
The larva then commences to spin its cocoon, which 
occupies several days. The cocoon is dark brown in 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



some British Guiana Hymenoptem. 315 

colour, and of a papery consistency, easily broken. Pupa- 
tion lasts a little over a week, and the adult wasp then bites 
its way out through the mud wall of the nest, leaving a 
neat circular hole. The small green metallic bee, Euglossa 
cordata, L., often utiUses these disused cells for its nest. 
A fungus occasionally destroys the stored spiders and 
finally the young larvae. Ko actual parasite of the species 
has been observed up to the present. It appears, however, 
that only about 60 % of the stored celb produce an adult 
wasp, 

S. figvlus, Dahlb. Closely allied to the above species, 
and with similar habita and distribution, though not so 
numerous. 

Genus Sphex, L. 
S. ichneumoneus, L. A common and widely distributed 
species throughout the Colony. For its subterranean nests 
it usually chooses a dry piece of soil, often in the centre 
of a path or other places where people are frequently 
passing. While constructing the initial excavation for its 
nest it is a most conspicuous object, moving rapidly about 
on the surface of the soil. The following observations 
made by Mr. C. B. WilUams are of interest. " In this 
instance the insect was boring into soft pegass soil on 
swampy land at the foot of a hill. High spring tides 
from the river invariably cover the land. TTie burrow 
was commenced about 1.40 p.m., and at 1.45 p.m. it was 
about ^ inch deep. At 2.19 the wasp entered the hole 
backwards, remaining below a few minutes, and then 
came out again. Burrowing continued till 4 p.m. These 
nests are stored with four or five short-winged grass- 
hoppers, either nymphs or brachypterous species; the 
neat is not closed up between the insertion of each 



Sphex (Isodonlia) coslipatnis. Spin. Issororo, N.W.D, 
S. {Harpaclopus) ihomae, F. An uncommon species 
which does not occur on the coast lands. Constructs 
burrows in soil and stores them with a single grasshopper, 
which is placed head first in the nest. The egg is attached 
at the base of the grasshopper's hind-leg (C, B, Williams). 

Genus Podium, F, 
P. ^tUiculalum, Sm. An uncommon though widely 
distributed species. 



n,g,i,.rjh,G00glc 



316 Mr. G. E. Bodkhi'a NaUs on 

SnblamUy PHILANTHISAB. 
Genus Cerceris, Latt, 
C. [Trackyjms) mexicanvs, Cameron. Aii 
species. Taken while emeri^ting from its burrow in sandy 
soil at the base of a tree. Plantation Bath, Berbice. 

Subfanuly BEMBICINAE. 
Genus Bembidula, Burm. 
B. dtsdsa, Tasch. Upper Demerara River. 
B. variegala, 01. Upper Demerara River. 

Genus Monedui^, Latr. 

M. pantherina, Handl. A fairly common species in some 
parts of the interior, especially where sandy soils exist. 
It is quite the largest and fiercest of these insects to 
be found in the Colony. Its burrows are stored with 
Tabanidae. 

M. 'punctata, Lep. An uncommon species in the interior. 

M. signata, Latr, The commonest and most widely 
distributed Bembex in British Guiana. It may frequently 
be seen about mules and cattle in the pastures waitin)^ to 
carry off the Tabanidae which are always present about 
these animals. Their burrows may be seen iu sandy soil, 
and usually occur in colonies of twenty or thirty. A 
large species of Bombyliid fly may be seen about these 
burrows, occasionally entering them. Its exact relation- 
ship to the wasp has never been actually traced, hut it 
is quite possibly parasitic. The fly belongs to the genua 
Anthrax. 

Subfsauly OOBYTINAE. 

Genus Gorytes, Latr. 

G. brasiliensis, Shuck, Rockstone, I^quebo River. 

Subfamily LASSINAE. 

Genus Tachytes, Panzer. 

T. amelina, Cameron. Rockstone, Essequebo River, 

Genus Larra, Fab. 
L. rubrkata. Smith, Rockstone, Essequebo River. 



u,y,i,A J h, Google 



some British Quiana Hym^ioptera. 317 

Subfamily TRYPOXYLISAS. 
Genus Trypoxylon, Latr. 

T. paUidUarse, Sauss. A fairly common species on the 
coast lands. 

T.fugax, F, This insect has been bred from the disnsed 
cells of Eumenes camdiculala, 01. It is of fairly common 
occurrence. 

T. breificarinalitm, Cameron. A common and widely 
distributed species all over the Colony, It usually con- 
structs its nest of mud cells beneath a palm leaf. Some- 
times as many as twenty-five cylindrical cells are found 
cemented together. The largest cells are nearly an inch 
in length and about i of an inch in diameter. Small 
spiders are stored up by this species. 

T. albilarse, F. Bred from a large-sized rounded mud 
nest. Potaro River. 

T. nitidum, Sm. Issororo, N.W.D. 

T. cinereum. Cameron, The habits of this species have 
been observed by Mr. C. B. Williams. " An elongate mud 
cell was constructed by one of these wasps in the angle 
of the woodwork of a door. When making these nests a 
' ball ' of mud is collected and applied to the side of the 
nest, gradually drawing it downwards as it adheres, A 
shrill buzzing sound is emitted the whole time. Thirty 
seconds to one minute are occupied in applying one ' ball ' 
of mud. Spiders are stored." 

Family TRIGONALIDAE 

Genus Trioonalyh, Westw. 

T. melanoleuctt, Westwood. A number of these insects 

emerged from the pupae of the Noctuid moth Amyna octo, 

Guen., which had been taken from just beneath the surface 

of the soil on a sugar estate. 

Family CHRYSIDIDAE 
SubfamUy CHBT8IDINAE. 
Genus Chryris, L. 
C. pundalissinHi, Spin. A common species on the coast 
lands. 
C. distinctissima, Dahtb. Bartica, Essequebo River. 
C. parvula, F, East (Joast, Deraerara. 
TRAN3. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1917. — PARTS 11, III, IV. (mAY '18) Y 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



318 Mr. G. E. Bodkin's Notes on 

Family BRACONIDAE. 

Subfamily OHBLONISAE. 

Genus Foknicia, Brull^. 

F. dathrata, Brull6. A larval parasite of the Limacodid 

moth, Sibinefusctt, Stoll. This is a verj- abundant moth 

on the coast lands and attacks a large variety of economic 

plants. The parasite emerges before the lar\-a is half 

developed. The percent^e of parasitism is never very 

high. 

Subfamily BSACONINAE. 
Genus Lasiophorus, Hal. 
L. forttspinus, Cameron. A fairly common species on 
the coast lands. 

Genus Iphiaolax, Forater. 
/. meAianus, Cameron. This is the well-known parasite 
of the several species of Dialraea (Lepidoptera) which 
bore into sugar-cane in British Guiana. The species is a 
common one, it being an easy matter to capture either 
sex in the cane-fields. The life-history of the species has 
been observed in the field by Mr. Harold Moore, and the 
following is his own description : *— " On the mominp of 
the 13th, in a field at Non Pareil, I noticed a female alipht 
near the top of a cane-stump, run down the shoot, tapping 
it the while with her antennae, till she got to a Diairaea 
hole near the base. Into the timnel she began pushing 
her ovipositor, when a slight movement on my part, in 
an endeavour to obtain a closer view of the proceedings, 
disturbed her. Off she flew, but merely to wheel round 
and ahght again on the shoot, when she found the hole 
the same way, and began inserting her ovipositor. I lay 
prostrate on the trash bank, as motionless as possible, and 
watche<l. It was 9. "28 a.m. Soon after her ovipositor had 
been inserted she gave a slight quick backward jerk with 
her abdomen, showing she had evidently felt something. 
Back down went her abdomen and again a similar jerk. 
This occurred three or four times, after which she kept 
quite still for several minutes, her ovipositor being well 
in the caterpillar's tunnel. She withdrew her ovipositor 
at 9.38, thus occupying about ten minutes in parasitising 
the caterpillar, of the presence of which I had no doubt. 
• Pablbbed in the " Daily Argosy," Demerara, Maroh 1813. 



Ij.y.l.AjL.yCOO'^lL' 



some Brituh Guiana Bymenorptera. 319 

I cut out the cane-shoot and took it home. I could not 
examine it till next morning (13th), when I found it con- 
tained a caterpillar, and in the same tunnel with it was 
the egg of the parasite. It is about 3 mm. bv about 1 mm. 
at the widest part — whitish, translucent, firm or leathery^ 
narrow, elongated, tapering to a long point posteriorly, 
where there is a small curved blackish hook. The hook 
at the end is evidently for the purpose of keeping the egg 
in place. From the above it seems that the caterpillar 
is paralysed bv the parasite at the time of oviposition. 
From observations made on previous occasions, however, 
it would appear tliat paralysis does not, or at least does 
not always, occur immediately, but cornea on gradually. 
The firm texture of the egg prevents it from being injured 
should the caterpillar happen to wriggle against it. At 
3.30 p.m. on the same day (13th) I observed that the egg 
had hatched and that the young larva was peacefully 
feeding, attached to the side of the ninth segment of the 
caterpillar. It had probably hatched during the forenoon. 
The egg-period is therefore very short — about one day. 
On the morning of the sixteenth the caterpillar was dead, 
almost the whole posterior half having been devoured by 
the parasite larva. By the morning of the 17th the 
parasite larva had completely devoured the caterpillar, 
and was spinning a cocoon in order to pupate. The 
larval period, too, is very short — about four days. The 
sbortnesa of both the egg and larval stages can be very 
readily understood, when it is remembered that the larva 
requires fresh food, and has only a single caterpillar on 
which to feed. It of necessity therefore has to get through 
it rapidly, before extreme decomposition is reached, and 
do all its growing in that short time. The larva pupated 
at the angle between the shoot and the glass jar. It left 
the tunnel, probably on account of the latter shrinking 
through drying of the shoot. From other observations I 
know that the larval period is sometimes certainly a week. 
On the morning of the Slst the perfect insect emerged. 
Pupal period therefore about fourteen days. Time from 
egg-laying to adult is therefore about nineteen days." 
The cocoon ia transparent and constructed of closely 
woven silk, giving a membranous appearance. In shape 
cylindrical, blunted at both ends. Colour whitish. Length 
2'1 cm., diameter 4 cm. 

/. obscuricarinaliis, Cameron. Issororo, N.W.D. 



u,y,l,7rJM,G00glc 



320 Mi. G. E. Bodkin'B Notes on 

SubfamUy RBOOADINAB. 

Genus Meoaruogas, Szep. 

M.fusdpaljHs, Cam, Rockstone, Essequebo River. 

Subfamily AGATHINAE. 

GeiiuB Spilomicrodus, Cam. 

S, n{gr{ce/)S, Cam. Bartica, Essequebo River. 

Family CHAIX^IDIDAE. 

SubfamUy TRICHOOEAXMATINAE. 

Genua Trichogramma, Westw, 

T. miniilum, Riley. This we! I -known parasite is of 

common occurrence in the Colony ae an egg-parasite 

of the Oane Borers {Diatraea) and several other species of 

Lepidoptera. Its life-histor^' and habits when parasitising 

the ova of Dialraea have been fully worked out by myself 

and published in the Journal of the Board of Agriculture, 

British Guiana, vol. vi, No. 4. 

Subfamily OHALCIDINAE. 

Genua CHAi-ns, F. 

C. pandora, Cwfd. Bred from the pupa case of a species 

of Hesperid (sp. indet.] butterfly feeding on cane blades. 

An uncommon species. 

C. annulaUt, F. A common parasite of Brassulis sopkorae, 
L. (Lepidoptera) and also Caligo iUoneus ilioneus, Cramer 
(Lepidoptera). It is widely distributed and the commonest 
Chalcid in the Colony. 

Genus Smicra, Spin. 
S./vh'Omaciilfila, Cam. Bredfrom the pupa of a Hesperid 
butterfly (sp. indet.). An uncommon apecies. 

Family EVANIIDAE. 

Subfamily BVANIINAE. 

Oeims Evania, F. 

E. ert/thrajipis, Cameron. Issororo, N.W.D. 

E. append>ga,iler, L. This insect emerged from a large 

box containing a quantity of seed rice packed in bt^. 

Innumerable Blattid egg-caaea (Periplanfia americana L.l, 

as well as adult insects, were in the bnz. 



ll,y,l,7rJM,G00glc 



Tram. Enl. Sot. Land., igij, Plate XXI. 



Attdri, Sleigh &■ Anglo, Ltd. 
BRITISH GUIANA HYMENOPTERA. 



h,Googlc 



some British Guiana Hymenopiera. 321 

Family ICHNEUMON ID AE, I«ach. 
Subfamily OPHIONINAE. 
Genus Eiphosoma, Cresaon, 
E. aztecum. Cress.? lasororo, N.W.D. 
E. texanum. Cam. Botanic Gardens, G«orgetowii. 

Genus Henicospilus, Stephens. 

H. major, Morley. Attracted to artificial light. Bock- 
stone, Essequebo River, 

H. nigricomis, Bmll^. Attracted to artificial light. 
Bockstone, Essequebo River. 

H. fiavoscutellalus, Brull*. Attracted to artificial light. 
Bockstone, Essequebo River. 

H. maculiceps, Cam. Bred from the pupa-case of a 
Noctuid moth, Amyna octo, Guen. An uncommon species 
on the coast lands. 

Genus Itoplectis. 
/, pUUana, Morley. 

Subfamily ICHEUMONINAE. 
Genus Joppa, F. 
J. atUennat(/r, F. Rockstone, iissequebo River. 
J. geminata, Vriich. Courantyne Coast, Berbice. 



Explanation op Plates XXI-XXIII. 
plate xxi. 

FlO. 1. Synoeca surinama, L. 

2. S<xliphTonjistulaTf,l>eAAh. 

3. Xylocopafimbriala, V.^. 
4 , F. ^. 

5. Mud neKt of Melipona jruuinae. C'kll. 

6. Mud ncHt of Trypoiglon breviatriiuilwm. Cam. 

7. Eumenes canalicuhta, Oliv., on its mud cell. 

Figs, 1, 2, 3. 4. 6 and 7 arc about the natural size. FJg. 6 is 
considerably reduced. 

PLATE XXII. 

Borings of Xyltxopa fimbriala, F,, in softwood. Note the "wad " 
of sawdust wbich divides the cells. Considerably if duccd. 

PLATE XXIII. 
1 fittu!are, Dahlb. Slightly smaller than 



n,g,l,.rJM,GOOglC 



{ 322 } 



XI, On a CoUeclion of BuUerflies taken in East Africa by 
Mt. W. a. Lambom. By H. Eltrinqham, M.A,, 
D.Sc. Wiih tiotes on the Pierinae, by Dr. F. A. 
DixEY, F,R.S., and descripdon of a new form of 
P. dardanuB ?, by Prof. E. B. Poultom, r.R.S. 

[Read JuDB eih, 1817.] 

The Hope Department at Oxford has recently received a 
Collection of Lepidttplera, chiefly Rhopalocera, taken in 
1916 by Mr. W. A. Lambom in the northeni central part 
of what was German East Africa, and it may be not with- 
out interest to give particulars of one of the first conaign- 
ments forwarded from one of our newly acquired territories. 
The dates and localities with notes as to the type of 
country are as follows. The elevations are approximate. 

May 3-6 New Moahi 37° 24' E. 3° 21' a Thin woodland, 



»-20 Kikuletwa- 

Darjama R., 

Noisinak 

Bridge. 

) Loldiloi 



Muruangoin, 

Sseiije Drift 
Lolkissale 



. Plain, 2900 ft. 
. Dense evetKi*«n 
forest, 4550ft. 
Tbombush, 3500 



36° 50' I 
36°42'i 



June 1-0, ID (Jlionii (plain) 
„ 2-6 Uflomi (wood- 
land) 



„ 20 Taranjere River, S 

A 

July 1 New Moshi 3' 

„ 10 Tanga-MoHhi 

Railway, Sami 
TBANS. ENT. 8O0. LOND. 



CSe'S. Wooded borders of 

river, dry plains 

beyond, 3000 It. 

J'aS'S. Thorn-bush, 3550 

ft. 

E. a'eO'S. Thombush, 4- 

6000 ft. 
E. 4= 16' S. Dried plain. 4440 ft. 
' R 4° 16' S. Green river gorge, 
woodland, with 
large trees. 
E. 4''30'S. Thorn-bush and 
woodland, 4500 
ft. 
S. of, Thom-bnsh and 

36° E, 4° S. woodUnd, 3800 ft. 
E. 3°24'S. Thin woodland. 
2925 ft. 
37° 46' E. 4° 8' S. Thom-buah, 2900ft. 

1917.— PAKTS II, ni, IV. MAY '18 



Dr. H. Eltringham on BuUerJlies taketi in East Africa. 323 

July H Tanga-Moehi 37° 56' E. 4° 36' S. Thorn-buah. 
Railway, Mabirioni, 
("Gonnan Bridge") 
„ 23 Handeni About 38° E. 6° S. Woodland and 

thom-buBh, 2800ft. 
Sept. 6 Bagamoyo, 37 m. N. of Dar-e«- Coco pluitation, 
Salam, on coast 100ft. 

,, 13 Ngerengere, on Central Railway, Thick thora-buah. 

100 m. W. of Dar-ea-Sslani. 
„ 30 KondutBchi, 10 m. N. of Dar-ee- Coco plantation, 

Salam, on coast fiOft. 

Nov. 10-14 Tanga 5° S. on coast. Coco plantation, 

50 ft. 

At the above dates and localities the wet season prevailed 
until about June 16, when the dry began. The rain of the 
next change was first encountered on September 6. 



Dani^d* formoss, Godm. 
A nice series in fine condition. 
Same, Mabirioni. 9 S<S, 3 ?9. May 16-July 14. 

D. petiverana, Doubl. 
Ufiomi (woodland). 1 (J. June 4. 

D. chryslppus, Linn. 

Forty examples, of which only three are typical chry- 
sivpus. One approaches ahippoides, Moore, and three are 
of the aMnus, Lanz, form. The rest are all dorippus, 
Klug.* The remarkable corresponding predominance of 
the daira form of Acraea encedon in this collection is 
referred to under that species. 

All dorippts unless otherwise stated. 

Kikuletwa, Darjama River (thorn-bush)— 1 ? Mar. 19; 
Ix>ldi]oi (wooded river-side) — 11 S^, 1 cj ckrysippus, 1 S 

• In Seitz" " Macrolepidoptera," Profesaor Aurivilliua aeparatea 
tbe dorippiig form as a distiiitt species, with the remark that there 
ia not BuJficient evidence of its Bpecific identity with chryaippua I 

Any good series, hoicever, thntpg many rtmarkaWe inlennedlales, 
and sptcimmn in Ihe Hope Department bred by the late t'l/l. Manders 
ahoip in a large number of spedmena the in*labiMy of ihe fvre-u-ing 
apical black. There can be no doubt that dotippus is a form of 
chrysippua jusl as inaiia is a form of misippua 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



324 Dr. H. Eltringham on a 

aJbinus May 20; Lolkissale (thom-busb)— I $ May 26; 
Same (thom-bush) 4 (J(J, 3 $5, 1 ^ chtysippus July 10; 
1 tJ, 1 ?, 1 (J chrysippus, 1 ^ aUtinus Jaly 1 1 ; Mabirioni 
(thoro-bush) 6 cJ(J, 5 $9. 1 cJ chrysipjms (appcoacbing 
tdcippoides), I $ aibinus July 14. 

Amanrli oehha, Boisd. 
Thirty examples, a)] typical. 
Bagamoyo. 11 (J(J, 19 ?$. Sept. 6. 

A. damocles f . damocUdes, Stgr. 
Loldiloi. 1 <?. May 20. 

A. nlavlus domlnicanus, Trim. 
Mabirioni, Bagamoyo. 3 tj<?- July 14-Sept. 6. 

A. alblmaculata, Butl. 

New Moshi, Saiija R., Ufiomi (plains). 23 ^^, 5 $?. 
May 3-June 6. 

[Note. — A. eckeria is rare in Kikuyu, common on Kili- 
manjaro (Rogers, Trans. Ent. Soc, p. 511, 1908), and 
aUnmacuUua relatively very rare at Entebbe.] 



SATYRINAE 
Gnaphodes parmeno diversa, Butl. 
A single example of the southern and eastern race of 
6. parmetto. 
tJfiomi (woodland). 1 $. June 3. 

Neocoenyra duplex, Butl. 

A single example, apparently of this species, though 
differing from typical examples in having the fore-wing 
eye spot area merely dusted with red brown scales, instead 
of being distinctly red brown. 

Ufiomi (woodland). 1 cJ. June 4. 

Physcaeneura leda, Oerst. 
Six specimens somewhat variable in size, but otherwise 
normal. 
Tanga. 5 <?, 1 ?. Nov. 10-14. 



n,g,t,7rJM,GOOglC 



CoUedion oj BuUerfiies taken in East Africa. 325 

ACRAEINAE. 
Acrua quirina, Fab. 
Five females of the uauat brownish form. The note 
accoDipanying these examples describea the focality aa 
dense evergreen forest. This may account for the absence 
of male specimens, which probably frequent more opeu 
situations. 
Anisha. 5 ?$. May 16. 

A. neobule, Doubl. 

Five examples of this widely distributed species, all of 
tjrpical pattern and colour. 

Utiomi (plains), Muniangoin, Same. 5 ^^. May 22- 
July 10. 

A. zetes, Linn. 

One male of the acara form so greatly modified in re- 
semblance to A. fseudolyda aslrigera, Butl., that the male 
armature gives the principal evidence of its distinction 
from that species. Zetes and pseudolyda are certainly 
closely allied, and the resemblance would appear to be due 
to affinity rather than to mimetic association. 

Kikuletwa-Darjama River. 1 (J. May 19. 

A. Inslgnls, Dist. 
A single female approaching the siginna form. 
Handeni. 1 $. July 23. 

A. chila, Godm. 

Of the twelve examples received, ten are of the crystaUina 
form of female, the remaining two are males of the ordinary 
form. It is remarkable that whereas the female chUo 
becomes more transparent as it extends southward, the 
female braesia, and to some extent its male also, becomes 
more transparent towards the northern limit of its range. 
The male cnilo, on the other hand, shows some tendency to 
heavier spotting as it extends southward. The localities 
where the present examples were taken are further south 
than any yet recorded. 

Same, Mabirionl. 2 SS, 10 52- July lO-l^- 



ll,y,l,7rJM,G00glc 



326 Dr. H. Eltringham on a 

A. egina. Gram. 

Ten Bpecimens, three of which are distioctl}' of the foim 
harrisoni, Sharpe, wbibt two other males have slight red 
streaks in the fore-wing apical area. The harrisoni form 
has previously been reported from Bukuba, L. Kivu 
district, by Griinbere, who renamed it kivuensts, and 
occasional examples nave been noted from Uganda to 
JS^yassa Land. It is merely an intermediate between the 
type and the form areca, Mab. 

Uflomi. 7 (JJ, 3 ??. June 2-19. (One harrisoni J, 
June 2, woodland, the rest plains.) 

A. acrita manca, Thur. 

A fine series of this interesting form. The characteristic 
fore-wing subapical spots show considerable variation in 
number and size, and in one or two examples they are 
present only on the underside. The fore-wing apical black 
IS slightly broader and the black rings on hind-wing margin 
are more pronounced than in typical tnanca. The exampes 
are thus to some extent intermediate between manca and 
manca f. Itdtca. Nearly all the females have a brownish 
ground-colour, though in one or two examples there is 
in the hind-wing a tendency towards the typical Same 
orange of the male. The wet season continued till abont 
June 16, BO that these females are fairly consistently of 
the wet form. 

Ufiomi (plains). 19 <?(?, 21 ?$. June 1-6, 19 (wood- 
land). 1 (^, 1 $ . June 5; Ssalanga. 2 $. June 9. 

A. ealdarena f . neluska, Oberth. 
Two examples of this form occur. They present no 
unusual features. The form is rather rare in collections. 
Handeni. 1 ^, 1 ?. June 23. 

A. pudorella padorella, Auriv. 
One dwarf male example. 
Ufiomi (plauia). 1 J. June 1. 

A. braesia braesla, Godm. 

In a long series of this species there is one male example 

of the regalis form, and several somewhat int«rmediate 

thereto. No specimen shows the peculiarities of the 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



Coaeciion of Butterflies taken in East Africa. 327 

Somaliland foim mentioned in my monograph, though 
several of the females are more than usually transparent. 
Ufiomi (plains), Same, Tanga Moshi Ry., Ssalanga, 
Mabiiioni, Handeni. 34 <J(J, 8 ??. June 5-Ju]y 23. 

A. equatorlalis, Neave. 

A single male example in tine condition, presenting the 
coloration of true equaiorialis combined with the larger 
size so usually found in equatorialia anaemia, Eltr. Ako 
one other specimen of the anaemia form, imfortunately 
without data. 

Kikuletwa-Darjama R. 1 ^. May 19. 

A. natallca natallca, Boisd. 
Five examples of this common species all of typical 
appearance. 
New Moahi, Sanja R. 4 ^(J, 1 ?. May 6-11. 

A. uacieon, Trim. 

Two examples of this species were taken, one m^Ie and 
one female. Though somewhat faded and worn they are 
btereating as showing an intermediate condition between 
anacreon bomba f . induna. Trim., and anacreon atiacreotUica, 
Gr. Sm, As in the latter, the fore-wing apical black is 
very much reduced and the outer half of the wing is 
ochreous ; the base of fore-wing and the whole hind-wing 
is deep orange as in the induna form. They thus support 
my contention that anacretm, bmtAa, and anacr&mtica are 
all forms of the same species. The resemblance of the 
female example to the specimens of acrita nuxTuxt, with which 
it was taken, is very striking. 

Ssalanga. 1 J. June 9. 

Ufiomi (plains). 1 ?. June 19. 

A. encedon, Linn. 

Of twenty-one examples there is no specimen of true 
encedon. The daira form largely predominates, and 
flfcippiMo is absent. It is interesting to note that of forty 
examples of D. chrysippus in the same collection, three 
Ue typical, one is the (dcippus form, three aUnnus, and all 
tfe test are of the doripjms form to which enced(m t. 
daira corresponds. 

Daira. — ^New Moshi (thin woodUnd) 5 (J(J May 6; 



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328 Dr. H. Eltringham <m a 

Sanja Kiver (plains) 2 $? May 10; Arusba (dense forest) 
1 $ May 10, 2 9$ May 16 ; Muruangoin (thom-bush) 1 ^ 
May 22 ; Ufiomi (plains) 1 $ June 2 ; (woodland) 1 $ June 
5 ; Mabirioni (thom-busb) 2 S3 Ju'y 1* ! Handeni (wood- 
land and thotn) 1 ? July 23. 

Encedon (near infiiscata) — Arusha 1 $ May 16. 

Encedon, worn, with rather dull coloration — Ufiomi 
(woodland) 1 $ June 4 ; Mabirioni 1 ^ July 14. 

Zj/cia New Moshi 1 2 May 6 ; Handeui 1 J July 23. 

The above analysis of localities shows that there is Uttle 
or no correspondence between the form and the character 
of the habitat. 

A. sotikensls, Sharpe. 

All the specimens are of the form rowena, Bltr., dis- 
tinguished from the typical form by having the inner 
marginal part of hind-wing patch yellow instead of 
red. This form has hitherto only been reported from 
Mt. Ruwenzori. 

Uflomi. 8 SS, 2 9?. June 1-5 (1 ^, 2 ?$ plains, the 
rest woodland). 

A. cabira, Hoppf. 

Three examples of the typical fonn not calling for 
special comment. 

Arusha, Sanja R., Mabirioni. 3 ?$. May 10-July 14. 

A. acerata. Hew. 

Three examples in marking somewhat intermediate 
between the type and the vinidia form. One female is 
intermediate to the form lenella. 

Uflomi (woodland). 1 ^. June 4. 

New Moshi. 2 ?$. July 1. 

A. terpsichore, Linn. 

A long series of this abundant species. All the males 
are of the form r&ugett, Guer. The females are not so 
variable in form as is usual in this species. Four resemble 
the males, the remainder are largely of the form having 
dusky fore-wings with more or less whitish subapicol 
patch, one or two having a jrreat deal of white on the fore- 
wing. Only two ()f the males have any red marks on the 
hind-wing underside. 

Kikuletwa-Darjama R., Ufiomi, Same, Handeni, New 



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CoOection of Bvtterfiies taken in Bast Africa . 329 

Moshi. 9 S6, 34 ??. (5 SS, 27 ?$. Ufiomi plains, 1 $ 
woodland.) May 1&-July 23. 

A. phanalus, Ward. 
Two males of the fonn pharsaimdes, Holl., which seems 
generally to replace the typical form in these localities. 
New Moshi, Arusha. 2 3^. May 6-16. 

A. perenna, Doubl. 

One iemale example of the form thesprio, Oberth., in 
which the red colour extends over the greater part of.the 
fore- wing. 

New Moehi. 1 ?. May 6. 

A. oreas, Sharpe. 

Two examples of which the male is of the alinmacvJata 
form, the other, a female, has the tip of the left fore-wing 
sienna brown instead of black. 

Arusha. 1 ,J, 1 ?. May 13-16. 

A. eiebrla, Hew. 

A series showing the usual variability. The majority 
are of the fonii jacksoni, Sharpe. Two are of the form 
pTotea, Trim.; one female is form vumletronis, Butl., and 
one female intermediate between motOeironis and nubilata, 
Elti. 

Aiusba, Ufiomi (woodland). Same, Mabirioni. 9 (J(J, 
6 S$. May 14-July U. 

A. tyooa, Gcodt. 
Two examples of the tona fallax, Bogenh. This ia the 
most southern locality I have for this form. 
Amsha. 2 $$. May 10-13. 

A. johnstoni, Godm. 

One male is typical. The other two are of the variety 
of confuaa, Rogenh., which haa the hind-wing discal 
patch white as well as the fore-wing spots. (See Trana. 
Ent. Soc.. p. 342, 1912.) 

New Moshi, Mabirioni. 3 (J^. July 1-14. 

PUnema aganlce montana, Butl. 
Kikuletwa-Dariama R., Ufiomi (woodland), Mabirioni, 
Anuha. 1 J, 8 $?. May 16-July 14. 



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330 Dr. H. Eltringham an a 

P. ifuadrloolor, Bogenh. 
Arnsba. 1 $. May 13. 

PardopslB pimetaUssiiiu, Boisd. 

Same. 1 J, 1 ?. July 10. 

With reference to the position of this speciea Professor 
Aurivillius ezpresBes the opinion (in Seitz' " Maciolepi- 
doptera ") that pending a knowledge of the early stages it 
should remain with the Acraeinae, with which it agrees in 
certain particulare, including the structure of the fore- 
legs. I was at some pains in my monograph of the Genua 
Acraea to point out that the species does not agree with 
Acraea in this last particular. 



NYMPHALINAE 

Euxanihe wskefleUi, Ward. 
Handeni. 1 (J, 1 ?. July 23. 

Charazes etheocles. Or. 
New Moshi. 1 ^. May 6. 

C. eandiope, Godt. 
Ufiomi (woodland). 1 (J, June 4. 

C. elthaeron, Feld. 
Eikuletwa-Darjama R. 1 (J. May 19. 

C. zoolina, Westw. 
This dimorphic species is represented by two examples, 
one zoolina and the other neanlhes, Hew. 

Kikuletwa - Darjama R. $ {zoolina). May 20 (wet 

New Moshi. (J [neanthes). July 1 (dry season). 



Ufiomi (woodland). 1 <J. June 2, 

Euryphura achlys, Hoppf. 

Ngereugere. 2 <JcJ. Sept. 13. 



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CoUedion of BuOerfiies taken in East Africa. 331 

Euryphene senegshnsis ortenUs, Eaisch. 
Kondutachi. 4 ^$, 2 $$. Sept. 30. 

EphMdra neophron. Hoppf. 

Two males of the ordinary form, and one male which 
appears to be a rather worn and faded specimen of the 
form vwlacea, Batl. 

New Moshi. 1 <^ (tnolacea). May 6. 

Ngerengere. 2 ^t^ (neophrmi). Sept. 13. 

Hamanumlda daedal us. Fab. 
Handeni. 1 cJ. July 23. 

Neptisagfttha, Stoll. 
Ufiomi (plains). 2 ??. Jmie 1. 

N. saclava marpessa, Boisd. 
The marpessa form is the continental representative of 
the Madagascar saclava, and-is very widely distributed. 
Ufiomi (woodland). 2 $$. June 5, 

Byblla lUthyla, Dnir. 
Same. 1 ^, 1 ?. July 10. 

B. aohelola, Wallingr. 

Wet f. vulgaris, Stgr. 

Ufiomi (woodland). 1 ^. June 2. 

Eurytela hlarbas tila, R. & J. 
Tfae East African race of kiarbas, Dnir. 
Ufiomi (woodland). 1 ^. June 2. 

E. dryope angulata, Auriv. 

The early stages of kiarbas and dryope are, according to 
Miss Fountaine, indistinguishable, though their specific 
identity seems not yet to have been established. 

Ufiomi (woodland). 1 $. June 4. 

Hypollmnas mlsippus, Linn. 
Ooe female of the typical form. 
Same. 1 ?. July 11. 



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332 Dr. H. Eltringham on a 

Hypollmnas duUa, Pal. 

Four examples of the wahJbergi form, showing consider- 
able variation in size, the smallest 70 mm. in expanse and 
the largest 100 mm. Also four specimens of the mima 
form, of which one, a large female, has the hind-wing pale 
area white dusted with yellow. 

Arusha, Mabirioni. 4 ^^ {uKthlhergi). May 14-JuIy 14. 

Ssalanga, Ufiomi (woodland), 2 ^,$, 2 $$ (mima). 
June 4-'9. 

Pseudaenea lucretia expansa, Butl. 
Handeni. 1 ?. July 23. 

Salamis parhassus aethiops, Pal. 
Two fine examples. The species difFers from anacardU, 
L., in having a glossy surface on the underside of both 

Ufiomi (woodland). 2 $$. June 4. 

^rameis cardui, Linn. 
A female of this ubiguitouis species taken at an elevation 
of 4500 ft. 
Ssalanga. 1 $. June 9. 

Catacroptera cloantbe obscurior, Stg. 
One female of the dry form of doanthe, though taken 
towards the end of the wet season. 
Ufiomi (plains). 1 $, Jime 2. 

Precis octavia. Gram. 

A series of this species of which twelve are of the sesamua 
or dry season form, and one naialensis. The first example 
of sesamus was taken on June 2, and the wet season con- 
tinued till about June 16. The remaining dates extend 
to June 19. One seaamus taken June 19 shows, by the 
red in the fore-wing cell, an approach towards an inter- 
mediate form and to the usual dry fotm of the west coast. 

Ufiomi. 6 ^^, 6 5$ (sesamus). June 2-6, 19 (3 ^$, 
6 $9 taken June 19, under eaves of native hut, Ufiomi 
plains; 3 SS i" woodland, June 2-5). 

Ufiomi (woodland). 1 ? {natalensis). June 4. 



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CoUedion of BvUerfiies taken in East Africa. 333 

P. UmnorU taveta, Rogenh. 
New Moshi, Same. 1 tj, 1 ?. May 6^uiy 11. 

P. antllope antilope, Feisth. 
The diy season form. 
Handeni. 1 S- ^^J 23. 

P. terea elglva. Hew. 
Ufiomi (wcodland). 1 J. June 6. 

LYCAENIDAE. 
Teriomlma fraya, S,-& K. 
Handeni. 4 cJc? (one doubtful). July 23. 

SpalgU lemolea, Dnice. 
Tanga. 1 <J. Nov. 10-14. 

Dranothauma lalkeostelni. Dew. 
Ufiomi (woodland). 1 S- J'"ie 4. 

Vliaehola antalus, Hoppf . 
Ufiomi (plains). 1 ?■ J^e 2. 

Polyommatus boeticus, Linn. 
Ufiomi (plains). 1 $. June 2. 

Azanus mlrta, Plotz. 
New Moshi. 2 SS- May 3. 

Azanus slEillAtus, Butl. 
New Moshi. 1 cJ. May 3. 

PIERINAE. 
Terias brigitta. Cram. 
NewMoahi. 1 <?. May 3. 

Terias r^ularls, Butl. 
New Moshi, Tarangere R., Ufiomi (woodland). 9 tjcj- 
May3-Juae20. 
TRAN9. EHT. SOC. LOKB. 1917.— PARTS II, m, IV. (MAY '18) Z 



&34 Dr. H. Eltringham on a 

Tencolas enponve. King. 
Taiangeie R. 1 S- June 20. 

TeneoliB evafore. King. 
The form antigone, Boisd. 
Same. 1 J. July 11. 

Teraeolns baUmede, Klug. 
TarangereR. 9 (JfJ, 4 $?. July 10-11. 

Teraeolns ehrysonome, Klug. 

Loldiloi, Ufiomi (plains), Tarangere R. 3 S3, 9 ??■ 
May 20-June 20. 

Note. — From the last-named locality there were eight 
females and only one male. 

T«raeolus protomMlia, Klug. 
Same. 1 ?. July 10. 
" Damaged before capture." 

Colias electo, Linn. 
Ufiomi (plains). 4 (J<J, one being white. June 2-3, 

Eronia teda, Boisd. 
Handeni. 1 J. July 23. 

Eronia cleodora, Hiibn. 
Handeni, Mabirioni. 1 (J, 1 $. July 14-23. 

Leueerotiia argia, Fabr. 
Ufiomi (woodland), Handeni. 3 (J(J. June 3-July 23. 

Leuceronia thatassina, Boisd. 
Ufiomi (woodland). 1 ?. June 3. 

LeuceronJa buquetil, Boisd. 
Handeni, Same. 1 (J, 1 ?. July U -23. 

Pinacopteryx vidua, Butl. 
Ufiomi (woodland). 1 $, June 5. 



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CoUedion of Buflerfties taken in Bast Africa. 335 

PioMoptciyi irifva, Boiad. 
New Moshi, Ufiomi. 4 (J(J. May 6-Jime i. 

i. ssUrto, Butl. 
Ufiomi (woodland). 1 (J. June 4. 

Beknois severiiu. Cram. 
TarangereR., Ufiomi, Same. 1<?,2?? Jiine4-July 11. 

B«lenols mesentiiu. Cram. 
Handeni. 1 J. July 23. 

Belenois nurK&rftaMS, Sharpe, 
Sealanga. 1 ^. Jmie 9. 

Hjrlotfarls afalhina. Cram. 
Ufiomi, Handeni. 6 ^3, 5 9?. June 2, 19, July 23. 
1 (J, 4 $? Ufiomi (plaina) ; 2 (J^, 1 ? (woodland). 

Nycbiloiia mednsa f. aleeita. Cram. 
Ufiomi (woodland). 4 .JcJ, 4 ??. June 2-6. 



PAPILIONINAE. 
Papilio Qiraus lyaeus, Doub). 
Difiera from true niretis in having a much shorter blue 
spot in area 2 of hind-wing. 
New Moahi. 9 <S<S- May 3. 

P. laonldas leonldas. Fab. 
One female example, unfortunately without data. 

P. dardanus tibullos, Kirb. 

2 f, nov, lamborDl, Poult, 

The single female was captured June 3, 1916, at Ufiomi 
(woodland). A male was taken in the same locality on 
June 6; a second on June 9 at Ssalanga, and a third on 
July 14 at Mabirioni. 

The female is an extremely interesting form, being very 
similar to that described from much further north in Trans. 
But, Soc, 1906, p, 290 — ^a Iropkonius form from the Kikuyu 



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336 Dr. H. Eltringham on a 

Eflcarpment (6500-9000 ft.) near Nairobi, with the pale 
markmga not white but letaimng the piimitiTe yellowish 
tint of trimeni, and the broad orange marking incompletely 
developed, so that it does not quite fill its usual area, the 
outer end of the fore-wing patch remaining yellowish. It 
was pointed out in the paper referred to, that this specimen 
supported the conclusion that Irophonius had arisen direct 
from trimeni and not indirectly from it by way of kippocoon. 
The existence of another specimen of the same form from a 
very different locality aSotds confirmation. The differ- 
ences between the two specimens are only such as are found 
between different individuals of each of the female forms 
of dardanus. Thus, the southern specimen from a lower 
altitude ia considerably larger, being just over 90 mm. 
in expanse as against just under 80 mm. ; but a small MZe 
is characteristic of both males and females of dardamis 
polt/tropkus from the high Kiknyu Escarpment. The 
southern specimeh is darker and richer in colouring, but 
this difference is intensified by its freshness; its hind-wing 
orange patch is squarer, with a more pronounced angle 
in area 5, and is more encroached upon by the broader 
black margin. A vestige of the " tail " involving the 
lengthening of vein 4 is seen in the' northern specimen but 
not in the southern, just as it is present in some trimeni, 
but not in others. 

In the fore-wing the band of black ground-colour between 
the sub-apical bar and the orange patch on the inner margin 
is about twice as wide in the southern specimen, and there 
is also far less invasion of the cell by this orange patch. 
Furthermore the sub-apical bar and the spot in the cell 
are fused in the Kikuyu example, quite distinct in the 
southern. The cell spot itself is double in the latter, single 
in the former. 

In spite of these and other differences both females belong 
to a characteristic form for which I propose the name 
hmborni. It may be defined as a trimeni form in which 
the yellowish ground-colour of the main area of both wings 
ia replaced, but incompletely in the fore-wing, by orange. 
The specimen from Ufiomi is probably more typical, and 
I therefore select it as the type of this female form. 

The three males are all of the tibullus form with the black 
discal band of the hind-wing heavily marked, although not 
so strongly developed as it conmionly is in this sub-species. 
The band of the specimens taken June 6 and June 9 shows 



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Collection of Butler/lies taken in East Africa. 337 

in area 5 a marked " costal gap," closed on its outer side 
by a narrow black V with apex outwardly directed. In the 
male of July 14 a slight indication of the " anal gap " ia 
represented by a t hinn ing of the black baod, from without 
inwardly, in area 3. 

The pattern of these three males together with the 
geographical distribution of all four specimens shows that 
this laTnbomi female belongs to the subspecies tibullue. 
The Kikuyu example of tms form, on the other band, 
belongs to pdytrojAus. 

E. B. P. 



HESPERIIDAE. 

Tagiades flesus, Fab. 

Ufiomi (woodland). 1 J. June 6. 

Cyclopldes, sp. 1 

One example not yet ideotiEed. This specimen is 
evidently closely allied to Cychpidei Irisignatus, Neave, 
from which it differs principally in the total absence of 
orange spots in the hind-wing. 

Ufiomi (woodland), Jime 6. 



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XII. Further notes on recapilulalory attitudes in Lepi- 
dopteta. By T. A. Chapman. M.D. 

[Read OoUibec 3rd, 1917.] 

I HAVE made a few more observations on the methods 
followed by some Lepidoptera in passing from the attitude 
of drying their winf^s after their expansion to their ordinary 
attitude of rest. The subject is interesting from any point 
of view, and especially as it points to each si>ecies that has 
a special resting attitude adoptingduring this period cerlain 
positions that are actually, or in some degree recjill, the 
ordinary resting attitude that b not theirs but that of the 
group to which they belong, or that is most frequent in 
Lepidoptera. 

I have only had opportunity to observe three more 
species of butterflies. They agree with those reported on 
last year, in making certain opening and closing wing 
movements, not after the wings are dry, but during the 
process of drying ; so far as my few observations go nothing 
of this sort occurs in the Heterocera. 

In P. rapae this was seen to suggest an effort, which the 
limpness of the undried wings prevented being successful, 
to spread the wings flatly, as in the resting attitude of so 
many Lepidoptera. The other species noticed had similar 
alternations of opening and closing the wings, but through 
a much smaller angle that would not suggest an eSort to 
extend them flatty, but for the fact that they were obvi- 
ously of the same character as in P. rapae. Though this 
curious habit may have some other meaning, none has 
occurred to me but that mentioned in my previous paper. 

With regard to the Heterocera observed, the Geometers 
follow broadly the same procedure as did those reported in 
the previous paper, and suggest that the habit they exhibit 
will obtain in all similar (ieometers, that is, similar in having 
resting positions other than the typical deltoid one. My 
examples come from each of the three largest sub-families 
of our British Oeometers, so that the habit is in no way 
of classificatory value. This conclusion is confirmed by 
finding that precisely the same reminiscence of the typical 
resting position occurs in the quite unrelated F.fahataria. 

TBAN3. EMT, SOC. LOND, 1917. — PAST.S U, ID, IV. (MAY '18) 



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Dr. T. A. Chapman on alfUvdes in Lepldoplera. 339 

The detailed notes taken minute by minute duriug the 
obaen'ations, as I gave them in my firnt notes on this 
subject, seem of little value, except as proof that the 
observations actually were made, so I do not append them, 
but rather describe the general succession of events in each 
species, instead of leaving them to be worried out of memo- 
randa made hurriedly during the observations, and not 
perhaps easily understood, owing to their abbreviated 
nature, except by myself. 

The species observed were — 

P.brassirae. The wings expand to a position the same 
as the normal resting position, that in which most Lepi- 
doptera dry their wings. Almost as soon as one can say 
expansion ia completed, the wings are opened apart to a 
position in which the fore and hind wings being together, 
the mid-costae are 8 to 12 mm. apart, and the apices 3 to 
8 mm., BO that the attitude corre-sponds to that which in 
P. rapae I have described as bell-shaped ; but the separa- 
tion is so slight in comparison that this attitude would not 
in brasskne suggest any resemblance to the outline of a 
bell. It is, however, essentially the same, in that the wings 
being limp the apices approach each other, more than 
the mid-costae, and are in fact 3 to 8 mm. apart instead 
of 12 to 20, as they would be if the wings were stiff. They 
maintain this attitude for about thirty-five seconds and then 
close, so that the costae are in contact to within 4 mm. 
of the thorax. They remain so for about forty-five seconds 
and are again opened to the open position. This alterna- 
tion is repeated about fourteen or fifteen times. The 
actual opening and closing takes about ten seconds. 
The period during which the wings are open is very similar 
to that during which they are closed, viz, about thirty- 
five to forty-five seconds. These vary a little in the same 
specimen and between different specimens, but only by a 
few seconds. I ought to have said that when open there 
is the variation of 8 to 12 mm. at mid-costa in different 
specimens, not in the same specimen, and that 8 mm. at 
Diid-costa corresponds to 3 at apices, 12 mm. to 8 at 
apices. At the fifth or sixth opening the hind-wing tends 
to open a little before the f()re-wing, separating from them 
by a millimetre or two in the process. About the seventh 
or eighth opening, the wings are seen to be stiffer than at 
first, and the apices are as wide apart as the mid-costae. 
About the tenth the apices open wider then the mid-costae, 



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340 Dr. T. A. Chapman's FuTther NoU^ on 

the wings being stiffer and holding themselves straighter. 
About this time the bird-wings tend to be a little separate 
from the fore-wings when open. Then the fore-winga open 
but little and the hind-wings rather more. Gradually by 
about fourteenth opening the hind-wings only open, or the 
fore-wings hardly pereeptibly; gradually the separation of 
the hind-wings diminishes, and somewhere about the six- 
teenth to twentieth alternation one may say the process 
has finished. When closed, the wings at first close very 
close up to the thorax, their limpness causing no resbtance 
by the further portion of the wings to this approximation ; 
as the wings get stiffer they do not close so far up, only 
sometimes for a third or half-way from the apex. Later, 
when the final resting attitude is assumed, they close 
further up, nearly as far as at the first closing. One or 
two specimens opened more than the usual 8 or I'2 min.. 
one as much as 20 mm. and might fairly be described as 
in the bell attitude. 

Throughout the process the butterfly at inteivala, with- 
out reference to the wings being opened or dosed, makes 
a shivering movement, at others rocks to and fro a little — 
this more frequently on closing the wings, and more frequent 
in later stages— and makes a few fluttering movements of 
the wings of an amplitude of about 05 mm. All this lime 
the antennae are well separated, much as in the mature 
butterfly, but are directed slightly behind a line at right 
angles to the line of the body, .which is reached by them 
about the time the wings finally close, but do not reach the 
final somewhat porrect position tiU an hour or more after ; 
their advance to this position is gradual and impereeptible. 
The hind-wings have the costae nearly level with those of 
the fore-wings when mature, during the opening and shut- 
ting movements they are usually a millimetre or two behind. 

We have here, though less obvious, just as in P. rapae, 
an effort to assume the Lepidopterous resting attitude, t. e. 
with the wings flat, but as in P. rapae it occura not after 
the wings are Ary but during their drjing. being as it were 
pushed backwards in the ontogeny. 

Pien's napi. The process in napi is almost intermediate 
between those of rapae and brassicae, the Ml attitude 
results from the wings being depressed to an angle of about 
45^ (90^ between the opposite wings) instead of the 90° of 
rapae or the 10^ or 20'^ of brassicae. The details differ a 
little, but hardly to a degree worth full description. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



recapitulatory altitudes in Lepidopfera. 341 

Ckrysophanus dispar. var. rulilus emerges about 9.30 a.m. 
Winga expand very rapidly in from six to ten minutes, 
Ihey expand to butterfly resting attitude, i.e. wings 
closed doTsally. There then begins a succession of what 
must be called opening and shutting the wings, though 
the opening only amounts to a separation of 2 or 3 nun. 
When closed, the wings (costae) are in contact for four- 
fifths of their length, when open, though the wings are 
elsewhere separated, the apices nmy in some cases meet. 
They remain closed for about thirty seconds and open for 
forty-five seconds, but the time varies a little, for about 
sixteen times in twenty minutes and then for several times 
more, but so slightly as to be almost doubtful, settling 
down to the distal two-thirds of the winga touching at the 
end of half an hour. About the middle of the period the 
hind-wings open from the fore-wings, so that their tips are 
6 01 7 mm. apart during several periods of being open. 
Various minor details as to movements of proboscis and 
positions of antennae are not perhaps worth reporting. 

Smeriiithis populi and ocdlalus only afforded me three 
observations ; they have a habit, very trying for this pur- 
pose, of emerging hardly before and usually a good time 
after midnight. They expand the wings into the drying 
attitude, and then gradually and imperceptibly open tbem, 
during about half an hour, to the oniinary resting attitude 
for the fore-wing; the hind-wing is then only partially 
advanced to show its costa, not more, in fact, than is 
compelled by its greater width ; they project about 7 mm,, 
and it is some time before they advance to show nearly 
double this width. 

It cannot be said, so far as my meagre materials justify, 
that these species show any attempt to exhibit the normal 
Lepidopterous resting position, 

FtUcaria falcataria follows very closely the habits of the 
Georaetere, Epkyras, Acidalias, etc. It emerges about 5 to 
5.30 a.m., rarely or never after 6.30. It expands the wings 
under an hour, then throws them back into usual drying 
attitude with a little sudden jerk, remains so for perhaps 
forty minutes, then gradually lowers thera, i. e. with no 
sudden jerk to flat attitude, with inner margins against 
body, J. e. to normal Geometer resting attitude. Some speci- 
mens advance the fore-wings gradually and veiy slowly to 
the resting attitude of the species, i. e. exposing much of 
the hind-wings; others remain in the triangular position 



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342 Dr. T. A. Chapman's Further Notes on 

much longer, probably till period of evening flight in moat 
cases. 

Pkalera bitcepkala. The resting attitude in most Noto- 
donts is the normal one with the wings in pent-house 
position. In Inicephala this is, one may say, exaggerated, 
HO that the wings curl round the body in such a way that 
the costae of the fore-wings approach each other beneath 
the insect, and the apices are never more than a few milli- 
metres apart, and may touch if the object on which the 
moth rests permits or favours this. 

The wings expand to a position in which their surfaces 
form a flat arch over the dorsum, then they are thrown back 
in the usual way into butterfly attitude. They remain so, 
drying, for half an hour, and are then deflexed to about 
the arched position to which they expanded, the surfaces 
of the fore-wings being at an angle of about 1 10°, the inner 
margins in contact and the apices 25 mm. apart. In about 
an hour the angle of the wing surfaces to each other i? 90°, 
and the apices are only 16 mm. apart. The wings have 
already a little curvature. In another hour the tips are 
only 9 mm. apart, and in successive hours they are noted as 
6 mm., 4 mm. and 3 mm. apart. Three hours more they 
are observed to be touching; this movement, from the 
rather flat pent-house position, to that of the wings being 
so curled round the body, is gradual, with no actual move- 
ment observed at any time, and would appear to depend 
on the gradual acquirement by certain wing muscles of 
the necessary tonicity. 

H. abriiptaria emerges in the afternoon about 4 or 5 p.m. 
A specimen kept the wings in ordinary Geometer position 
(triangular) from 5.30 to 7.30, though disturbed once about 
the middle of this period. Ten minutes later (7.40 p.m.) 
it had assumed the ordinary resting attitude of the species 
with the fore-wings advanced, 

T. consomrria emerges about 4 p.m. An hour later the 
wings are expanded and the butterfly attitude taken, and 
in another half-hour they are deflexed to the ordinary 
triangular Geometer reaiing position, which is maintained 
for at least two hours and probably as a rule till the time 
of flight, but on earlier disturbance the usual resting posi- 
tion witlt adva!iced fore- wings is assumed on resting again. 
I did not ascertain after how short a period in the triangular 
position tliis would occur. 

. In Tephroclifsfis isoijrammnta the wings were maintained 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



recapUulaiory atlilvdes in Lepidoptera. 343 

in the drying (butterfly) attitude only twelve minutes, and 
were then placed in the Geometrid (deltoid) position. Being 
disturbed some five minutes later, so that it ran two inches, 
it settled again in the same attitude. The two costae form 
an angle of about 100° ; an hour later it was about 150°, 
and in another hour the usual resting position was attained, 
with c<ratal angle of 190° to 200°, i. e. with the wings forward 
of having the costae in line. 

Selenia illuslraria. This species differs 8 good deal from 
S. illitnaria in its methixis of proceeding from wing expan- 
sion to the normal resting position. Though in a warm 
room, specimens would occasionally be more than half 
an hour after emergence before any sign of the wings 
expanding could be detected. The winp then expanded 
rather rapidly, taking, however, usually about or a httle 
over thirty-five minutes to expand. When expansion is 
completed the wings hang backwards, but only the tips of 
the fore-wings touch each other, not indeed always doing 
BO. Then gradually the wings approximate to the butter- 
fly attitude, that is, closely pressed together dorsally, so 
that the costae are coincident for their distal halves. 

The moth selects a vertical or, if possible, a slightly 
overhanging position in which to expand, so that now they 
hang downwards, more or less, whilst in this backward 
position. A special feature is that this dorsal position is 
gradually attained by quite imperceptible movement, and 
this peculiarity continues throughout the whole evolution 
from the beginning of expansion to the attainment of the 
normal resting position ; there is no sudden itiovement as 
is so common, either of throwing the wings back, or assum- 
ing the resting position. This closing backwards is attained 
in ten or fifteen minutes after expansion is completed ; the 
wings are kept ao for about twenty minutes and then are 
gradually separated in a minute or two till the costa of 
fore-wings are separated to an angle of 10° or 15°; the 
separating movement b continued in the same gradual, 
haidly noticeable manner, till in about two more minutes 
the angle is 60°, in two more 90°, and in two or three more 
finally 100° or 110°. Usually the process is rather slower, 
and varies a good deal in its rapidity at different stages. 
In the position of the moth, gravity no doubt tends to 
make the wings hang directly backwards ; nevertheless, the 
po-sition of the wings at this stage is with the costae of 
the anterior wings at an angle with each other of about 



ih, Google 



344 Dr. T. A. Chapman's Further Notes on 

120°, and of the flat surfaces of the wings of about 140"; 
the costae not beiii;; so far advanced as to be in a plane 
transverse to the line of the insect body, but behind this 
in a plane that slopes backwards from it at a consider- - 
able angle. This position, which appears to represent the 
memory of the normal (triangnlar) resting attitude of Geo- 
meters, may last about thirty minutes, and in another 
thirty minutes the wings close again doreally to a costal 
angle of about 45°. At thus point the costae of the fore- 
and hind-wings on either side are nearly coincident. 

In the same gradual imperceptible way in which the 
other movements occur, the fore-wings advance from the 
hind-wings. Measured from costa to costa at the post- 
discal line it takes about two hours for the fore-wings to 
be 3 mm. in advance of the hind-wings, the fore- and 
hind-wings being still in the same plane. Then, still 
very gifldually, the fore-wings assume the curious bend in 
a line below vein 2 that characterises the ordinaiy 
resting attitude of the species, the inner part of the wing 
being in the same plane with and close against the hind- 
wing, the greater (costal) portion being raised at a con- 
siderable angle. At the end of another hour oue may 
think this attitude is attained, at the end of two one has 
no doubt it is. All the progress and the movements 
involved are so gradual and imperceptible that it is difficult 
to divide them into stages and say when each is complete. 

Itliislraria emerges in the morning about 6.30 to 7.30 
a.m. 

Ennomos lunaria. The wings are thrown back when 
expanded, and some ten minutes later and when appar- 
ently dry are opened gradually, so that in about six minutes 
they nearly approach a flat position, instead of 180° (flat), 
between the two fore-wings they are about 160° or 170°. 
In some ten minutes the angle diminishfes to that of norma! 
resting, perhaps 80°, but there is still no angulation of fore- 
wing, and the hind-wing is only 3 or 4 mm, behind 
fore-wing. The complete resting attitude with fore-wit^ 
advanced and with the longitudinal fold is not attained 
till an hour or two later. 1 see that in one specimen I 
noted the wings were opened till quite Sat; in another 
they did not get quite as far, but I did not note the angle. 
The costae of fore-wings made an angle of 90°, but the wing 
surfaces were much more. 

Fidohia pinUiria cniei^os C to 8 a.m. The wings expand 



J,., Cookie 



recapUukUory atlitudes in Lepidoplera. 345 

to the dor»al (butterfly) position in about twenty minutes; 
in about (en minutea more they are gradually separated, 
80 that in two or three minutes the wings are separated so 
that the apices are some 18 mm. apart, the an^le between 
the wings being about 40°. They remain thus for about 
six or seven minutes, the wings appearing to be quite dry 
and stiif. They then gradually close, at the rate of about 
ImiD.(foreachwing)aminute, andin ten or twelve minutes 
the butterfly attitude (the normal resting attitude of 
piniaria) is reached, to appearance, but they arc not tightly 
closed for ten or twenty more minutes. The whole process 
is gone through very rapidly (compared with most other 
species). After the wings are dry they are separated, but 
not widely, so that the reminiscence of the flat deltoid 
attitude, though still present, is comparatively brief and 
slighf. The process reminds one of that obtaining in the 
butterflies, but the important difference is that it takes 
place after, not during drying; also, of course, it is one, 
not a succession of movements. 

iS, illunaria and F.ptniaria both have a normal resting 
attitude similar to that of the butterflies, with the wings 
raised over the back ; but the reminiscence of the ordinary 
Geometrid attitude which they display, in the interval 
between the" completion of the drying of the wings and the 
assumption of their resting attitude, two attitudes that are 
identical and that one would expect to find continuous, is 
curiously different in the two species. In both species, 
however, the reminiscence is there. 

In the Etudes de Lepidopterologie Comparee, Fasc. V (n), 
p. 115, Mr. H. Powell records how St/ricklkus mohammed, 
Obthr., having expanded its wings in the closed (" butter- 
fly") attitude, depresses them to the CJeometrid or tri- 
angular position, and gives photographs on PI. Hj, Fasc. 
VI and PI. Hb, Fasc. V (n) and of S. proto on PI. 27, 
Fasc. VII. He says this position is kept for only a short 
period. In complete repose the wings are closed in butter- 
fly attitude ; when basking, the depressed wings have the 
costae ftt right angles to the body ; when resting briefly 
the fore-wings are well raised. This merely summarises a 
valuable demonstration that the recapitulatory attitude is 
very manifest in Syrichthus. In this habit the " Skipper" 
appears to be nearer the Helerocera than to the butterflies. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



( 346 ) 



XIII. A PreHminary CtUalogtie of Bntisk Cecidomyidae 
(Diptera) u>ih special reference to the Gail-midges 
oflhe North of England. By Richard S. Bagnall, 
F.L.S., and J. W. Heslop Harrison, D.Sc. 

(Read H&y2Dd. 19170 

For many years tbe Cecidomi/idae, a family of Diptera, 
familiar enough to naturalists in a cursory sort of way 
(because it embraces the little flies known as " Gall- 
midges "), has been neglected by British entomologists, in 
spite of its extent and great economic importance. 

Of its members a considerable proportion are purely 
gall- causers, each producing its particular gall on its 
host-plant or plants. These galls are characteristic of the 
species and are therefore part of its specific characters, but, 
unhke many such distinctions, they can be thoroughly 
relied upon as a means of determining the species. They 
are not, as many entomologists unacquainted with their 
stability think, unworthy of consideration; such an 
opinion simply displays ignorance on the part of its 
holder. 

Any one taking up the study of the group in real 
earnest will soon find that many do not fall into the 
categorj- of genuine gall-makers. Their modes of life are 
exceedingly varied, and thereby render the subject the 
more interesting. Some feed as larvae under bark, in 
decaying wood, in stems of grasses, sedges, fungi and 
mosses; others, again, find their food in epiphytic fungi 
such as rusts, smuts and mildews. We find still more 
figuring as commensals and inquilines in the galls of 
Cynijiiiiae, Gall-midges and other insects, and also of the 
Gall-mites (Eriophyidae). whibt others have larvae ecto- 
parasitic or predatory- on Aphididae, and Eriophrid and 
other mites. Of the remainder, a small number are 
Endoparasites, the larvae li\*ing in the abdomens of certain 
Hemiptera {Aphkh'dae. PsyUidae and Tingidae). 

Some of the Lcxtreminne, Uke those of the genus Miaslor, 
reproduce their kind bv paedogenesis. and are of extreme 
TRAMS. EKT. SOC. LONO." 1917.— PABTS II, lO, IV. (MAY '18) 



ih,Cooi^lc 



MeasTS. Bagnall and Harrison's British Cecidomt/idae. 347 

importaDce in biology as suitable subjects for studying the 
early segregation of germ-ceLs. 

There is no excuse for our naturalists to continue this 
systematic neglect of the group. Houard (1908-X913) 
includes descriptions of all the then-known Cecidomyid 
galls of the western section of the Falaearctic area in his 
great work on the Zoocecidia. Furthermore, there has 
been in recent years a steady Sow of literature as the 
result of the researches of continental entomologists such 
as Kieffer, Trotter, Tavares and Rubsaamen. The first- 
named author's monograph in Wytsman's " Genera 
Insectorum " (fasc. 152), which appeared in 1913, will, 
with the fine productions of Dr. Felt, in America, form 
the groundwork of much further work. Lastly, an 
Itahan periodical, " Marcellia," edited by Prof. Trotter, 
keeps one up to date with new researches. 

It will thus be seen that in the Cectdoniyidae we have a 
group not only displaying abundant and varied interest in 
its biology, but one provided with a. Uterature unusually 
rich for a " neglected order." 

During the past three seasons we have devoted much 
of our leisure in this fascinating study and with consider- 
able success. We have therefore been tempted to publish 
the present list as a record of our labours and as a basis 
tor future work and workers. We have included references 
to (a) original descriptions of genera and species, (6)Kieffer's 
1913 Monograph, and {c) to Swanton and Houard as far 
as Gall-midges are concerned, quoting only the authors' 
Dumbering of the gall. In addition we have appended 
an index to the host-plants. Owing to the fact that 
Connold's works on galls are very far from complete, and 
also because Swanton supersedes them, we have not 
deemed it necessary to refer to that author. 

Soon we hope to prepare a book on British Zoocecidia, 
and later, when we have bred out and studied, as far as 
our Umitations will allow, the hfe histories of the insects, 
we shall, in all "probability, proceed with a more elaborate 
monograph of the Cecidomyida. It is, then, for these 
reasons that we characterise this as a " preliminary " hst. 

The species noted from the north of England, c. g. from 
the counties of Northumberland, Durham, Cumberlind, 
Westmoreland, Lancashire, Cheshire and Yorkshire, are 
shown in heavy type. Species not yet reported from that 
area are shown in italics, whilst those ascribed to older 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



318 MesBiB. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. HamBon's 

authors and requiring confirmation (see italicised names in 
Collin, 1904) are enclosed in square brackets. Although 
most of Walker's species are capable of being correctly 
assigned to Kiefier's genera, as species they are insufficiently 
defined and thus unrecognisable by students; they are 
therefore neglected here. 

By keeping in close touch with each other we have been 
able to dupbcate the records of very many of the most 
interesting occurrences; in fact, the wealth of records is 
a welcome feature. Except where a name is added all 
records are our own; outside the Northumberland and 
Durham area the first-named author is almost entirely 
responsible for the records from Lancashire and Cheshire 
(see Bagnall, 1917-1), and the few from Cumberland and 
Westmoreland, and from Redcar and Leeds, whibt the 
second-named author is similarly responsihle for the 
Cleveland area, Yorkshire. We also add Mr. Burkill's 
Yorkshire records (Burkill, 1916, 1917). 

An asterisk in the main list denotes species not shown 
in the hste of Colhn, 1904, and Swanton, 1912. 



CONTENTS 



L Classified List of British Cecidomyids with 

North of England Records . . pp. 348-41 1 
II. Check list of named species . pp. 411-417 

III. Index to Host-plants . • PP- 417-422 

IV. Literature ; references in brief , pp. 4'i2— 426 

I. Classified Llst of British Cecidomvidae with 
North of Enoland Records. 
Subfamily CECIDOMYINAE. 
Group Lasiopterariab. 
CUnorrhyncha H. Loew, 1850, p. 21. 
•1. C. ohrywmtheml H. Loew, 1850, p. 39; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 19. 
Affecting achenes of Matricaria inodora and AtUhemis 
Coinla. See Houard, 5722 and SGO.'J. 

Records from all counties excepting Westmoreland. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



Prdiminary Caialogue of British Ceddomyidae. 349 

«2. C. mUfcloUi Wachtl, 1884, p. 161 ; Eiefier, 1913-2, 
p. 20. 

Ailecting acheaes of Achillea MiOefolium and more rarely 
A. Ptarmica. See Houard, 5672 and 5701. 

More sparing than C. chrymrUhemi ; records from all 
counties excepting Lancashire and Weslmoreland. 

*3. C. leDUDtbeml Kieffer {chrysanthemi Scbiner non H. 
Loew), 1889-1, p. 285; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 20. 

Affecting achenes of Chrysanthemum Lewanthemiim. 
Houard, 5726. 

NoRTBUHBERLAND, Whitfield, Durham, Birtley dis- 
trict, Fatfield. Also from Scotland. 

Trolteria (for ChoriMoneura (praeocc.) Riibs.) Kieffer, 

1901-1, p. 561. 

*4. T. lalU Riibaaamen, 1912-1, p. 376; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 22. 

Gall on Gaiium verum, = Cecidomyid sp., Houard, 5290. 

Lancashire, several, in a field near Ainsdale. North- 

UUBBRLAND, Bamburgh and Warkworth, not rare. Durham, 

Blackball Rocks, three examples only. Also from Scotland. 

*5. T. svoUuunnl Kieffer, 1890-1, p. 136 (Lasioptera); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 22. 

Galling seed-pods of broom. Houard, 3411. 

Northumberland, near Ovingham; and Durham, Gib- 
side; rare, lane between Rowley and Lancbester; Birtley. 

•5a. T. nmlMUUerarnin Kieffer, 1913-1, p. 47; 1913-2, 
p. 22. 
On An^riscus. 
Durham, Gunnergate. 

Usioptera Meigen, 1818, p. 88. 

6. L. alinpennis Meigen, 1804, p. 40 (Cecidmnyia) ; Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 31, 

7. L. anindlnU Schiner, 1854, p. 175; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 31. 

GaUing Phragmites communis. Swanton, 49; Houard, 
241. 

Northumberland, Warkworth. Durham, Bilhngbam. 
trans, ent. soc, lond. 1917. — part* ii, hi, IV. (may '18) aa 



ih,Googlc 



350 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

•8. L. eaUnugrostldis Riibsaamen, 1893, p. 164; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 31. 

On Pkalaris arundinacea. 

NoRTHUMBEKLAND, Warkwortt. Durham, Birtley and 
Gibside. 

•9. L. earopUla F. Loew, 1874, p. 149; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 31. 

Abroad this midge galls many species of Umbelliferae. 

Durham, Wolviaton on Antkriscus, and Penshaw Hill 
on PimpineUa Saxifraga. Not recorded from the AnthTteciK 
in Houard. 

10. L. rubi Heeger, 1851, p. 203; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 32. 

Galling stems of Ruhvs. Swanton, 478, 483 and 489; 
Houard, 2964, 2976 and 3024. 

NoRTHUMBEBLANn, Warkworth, not uncommon. Dur- 
ham, on bramble, Ryliope; Tinkler Fell; Birtley. York- 
shire, Nunthorpe. 

*11. Lirioptsra ap. RUbsaamen; Schlechtendal. 
Molinia caerulea, stem. Houard, 251. 
Durham, near Lanchester, 

Baldratia Kieffer, 1897-3, p. 6; 1913-2, p. 24. 
*12. B. salicornlae Kieffer, 1897-3, p. 7; 1913-2, p. 26. 
On Saliaymia radtcans. See Houard, 2240, 
Durham, Greatham. 

Steranlella Kieffer, 1898-2, p. 55; 1913-2, p. 28. 
*13. S. brevipalpis Kieffer, 1898-2, p. 53; 1913-2, p. 29. 
On Alriphx {OUone) porttihcoides. Houard, 2224. 
Durham, Greatham. 



Group Oligotrophariae. 
[Meoeerata Coquillett, 1900, p. 47.t 
•13a. [H.rhodoph«a Coquillett, 1900,p.47; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 41. 

■f Felt sinks thiansanynonym ot /)(i«yneura (= Perritia). 



ih,Cooi^lc 



Prdiminary Catalogue of British Ceddomyidae. 351 

Northumberland, examples taken in the buds of 
cultivated rosea at Ninebanks are possibly referable to 
tbis species. 

Rhopslomylk RubBaamen, 1892, p. 370. 

14. R. mUlerolU (achilleae Inchb, I860) H. Loew, 1850, 

p. 37 (Cecidomyia); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 44. 

Gallfi on Achillea Millefolium and more rarely on A. 
Plarmica. Swanton, 815, 816, 817, 818 and 823, 824; 
Houard, 5673, 5680, 56a5, 5691. 

Northumberland and Durham, sparingly but widely 
distributed. Lancashire, once only, near Ainsdale. 

15. B. UiUMtiMla Karsch, 1879, p. 27 (Oligofropkvs) ; 

Kiefter, 1913-2, p. 44. 

Somewhat similar galls on Tanacetiim milgare. Swanton, 
830, 831, 832-, Houard, 5750, 5752, 5754. 

Northumberland, near Chathill; Warkworth. Dur- 
ham, several records for the Wear and Team valleys. 

Hisopatba Kieffer, 1913-1, p. 48. 
•16. M. tloram Kieffer, 1890-3, p. 37 {Ceddomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 45. 
On Artemisia vulgaris. Houard, 5817. 
Durham, between Lambton and Cox Green ; Greatbam 
and Port Clarence. 

17. M. [oUoram H. Loew, 1850, p. 36 (Cecidtmyia) ; 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 45. 

On Artemisia vulgaris and Abrotanum. Colhn {1904, p. 
94} pla«es abrotani of Trail (1886, p. 250} as a synonym of 
this species. Swanton, 834 ; Houard, 5824. 

Northumberland, Budle Bay. Durham, Billingham; 
Birtley. 

18. H. ptarmJoae Vallot {forica Winn), 1849, p. 98 

(Ceddomyia); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 46. 
On Achillea MiUefolium and A. Ptarmica. Swanton, 813, 
814 and 822; Houard. 5676, 5681 and 5706. 
Sparingly, all counties excepting Cheshire. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



352 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

*19. H. sfDgsnosiae H. Loew, 1850, p. 39 {Cecidomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 46. 

On Anihetnia CUuUt and Matricaria inodora. Houard, 
5666 and 5723. 

Apparently widely distributed ; records from all counties. 

AreeoUiomyia Kieffer, 1913-1, p. 49. 
•20. A. valeril Tavares, 1906, p. 299 {Rho^paimnyia); 
KieSer, 1913-2, p. 48. 

On Juniperus communis. Houard (supplement). 6277 
(see H. 135). 

Lancashire and Westmoreland, Hampsfelt and Meat- 
hop Fell near Grange -over- Sands. The species was origin- 
ally described from the Mediterranean on Junipems 
oxycedrus, but in 1912 Cotte recorded it from France on 
the common Juniper, 

OUgotropbus Latreille, 1805, p. 288-1 

21. 0. Junlperinus Unn4. 1758, p. 588; Kiefler, 1913-2, 

p. 49. 

On Juniperus communis. Swanton, 11; Houard, 129. 

Durham, near Chester-le-Street. Lancashire and 

Westmoreland, Grange-over-Sands district. 

*22. 0. pantoli Kieffer, 1898, p. 18; Kieffer, 1913-2. p. 49. 

On Juniperus communis, known throughout Europe. 
Houard, 126. 

Lancashire and West.moreland, Grange-over-Sands 
district, locally common. 

*23. Oligotrophus sp. Riibssamen and others. 
On Juniperus communis. Houard, 125. 
Lancashire, Hampsfell near Grange-over-Sands,' rare. 

*24. 0. alopecuri Rent.. 1895, p. 3; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 50. 

In seeds of Alopecurus pralensis. 

Cheshire, Chester. Miss Ormerod, 1885, p. 32. See 
Supplemental Note, Collin, 1904, p. 97. Northumber- 
land and Durham, locally common. 

t 0. jitniperinus, 0. 'panltli ftnd another Juniper species truly 
belong tu tliiH (icnuH as now Ijmiled, but all otlier species ate placed 
here temporarily pending further research. 



ll,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



Prdiminary Cataloffue of British Ceddwntpdae. 353 

25. 0. humrius Breroi, 1847, p. 52 (Cecidomyia) ; Kieffer, 

1915-2, p. 50. 
Galling leaves of Glechoma hederacea, Swaaton, 706; 
Houard, 4809. 
Records from all counties. 

*26. 0. [agineus Kieffer, 1909, p. 7 (gall) ; 1913-2, p. 50. 

Leaves of Fagvs, parenchymatous gall, = Cecidomyid. 
Houard, 1156. 

Northumberland, rare, Warkworth. Durham, Lamb- 
ton ; Gibside. Yorkshire, Leeds. 

*27. OUKotropbus sp, Kiibsaamen, Trotter, 

A very distinctive gall on beech leaves, previously only 
known h^m Russia and Asia Minor. Houard, 1157. 

Northumberland, Ninebanks (Rev. J. E. Hull). 

•28. 0. harUgi Liebel, 1892, p. 283 (Hormomyia) ; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 50. 

Leaves of TUia, parenchymatous gall; local. 

Northumberland, Warkworth and Ovingham, sparingly. 
Durham, Gibside, local ; Castle Elden Dene. Cumberland, 
near Alston. Lancashire, Grange-over-Sands. York- 
shire, Leeds. 

*28a. O. loewlinos Kieffer, 1909, p. 4; 1913-2, p. 50. 
On Carex arenarius. 
Northumberland, Warkworth. 

*29. O. rMumnrianus F. Loew,t 1878, p. 387 {Hormomyia} ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 50. 

An interesting gall on leaves of Tilia spp. 

Yorkshire, Gunnergate, on one tree only. Also re- 
corded by Mr. Burkill from W. Gloucestershire. 

*30. O. tympanUex Kieffer, 1909, p. 6 (gall); 1913-2, p. 50. 

In leaves of Corylus, parenchymatous gall, = Cecido- 
myid, Houard, 1061. 

Local, though apparently widely distributed ; records 
from all counties. 

t Referable to the genua Didyomj/ia Biibsaamen, characterised by 
Kieffer oa insufficientTy described. 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



354 Meaars. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

•31. 0. ulml Kiefler, 1909, p. 31 (gal! and larva); 1913-2, 
p. 50. 

In leaves of Ulmvs campeslm and V. montana, 
parenchymatous gall, = Cecidomyid, Houard, 2046 and 
2064. 

Also widely distributed; records from all counties 
excepting Westmoreland. Very plentiful in 1917. 

PhyotidobU Kieffer, 1912-1, p. 220. 
32. P. soltnsi Kieffer, 1906, p. 179 (Oligotrophus) ; 1913-2, 

p. 51. 
Galls on leaves of Viburnum LanJanu. Swanton, 774; 
Houard, 5349. 

MlkomyU Kieffer, 1912-2, p. 2. 
•33. H. ooryU Kieffer, 1901-2, p. 22 {Oli^rophua): 
1913-2, p. 52. 
On leaves of Corylus. Houard, 1060. 
Rare ; records from all counties excepting Westmoreland. 

Semudobla Kieffer, 1913-1, p. 55. 
•34. S. belulae Winnertz, 1853, p. 234 {Ceddomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 52. 

Galling fruit of Befwio. Houard, 1067. Note: Swanton 
suggests that the species recorded by Bionie and Connold 
(= Cecidomyid, Houard, 1068) may be this species. The 
following records excepting one are of Houard, 1067, 

Northumberland, Crag Lough (H. 1068).' Durham, 
several records. Lancashire, Freshfield, Cheshire, Bid- 
ston. Yorkshire, Eston. 

Itaomyla Kieffer, 1913-1, p. 55. 
35. 1. cai^eafl Winnertz, 1853, p. 291 {Cecidomyid) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 55. 
Leaves of Salix Caprea and others. 
Not uncommon ; records from all counties. 

•36. I. malor Kieffer, 1898-2, p. 22 {Olif/. capreae, vat. 
tnaj&r); 1913-2, p. 55. 
Rarer than capreae; our records are from SdUx atirila 
only. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



Preliminary Cataioffae of BrUish Cexndomyidae. 355 

Durham, Waldridge, Hart and Easington ; rare. 
Lancashire, Ainsdale. Yorkshire, Redcar ; Leeda district. 

Janetlella Kiefier, 1898-2, p. 23. 
37. J. tomeei Kieffer, 1904, p. 71 {Oligotropkus); 1913-2, 
p. 59. 
Gall on midrib and nerves of Vlmvs nu»Uana. Swanton, 
300; Houard, 2061. A very local species. 

Northumberland, Stocksfield and Ovingham (H. S. 
Wallace) ; Warkworth. Durham, Winlaton Mill ; dene 
near Fencehonses ; Urpeth. Lancashire, Grange-over- 
Sands. Yorkshire, Bardsey, near Leeds. 

Specimens were taken at Warkworth on U. cantpeslris 
and U. suberosa also. 

•38. J. thyml Kieffer, 1888, p. 100 (CecicUmyia) ; 1913-2, 
p. 59. 

On Thymus. Houatd, 4912 and 4917. 

Records from all countiea excepting Cheshire and York- 
shire. 

•39. J. thymlcola Kieffer, 1888, p. 102 {Cmdomyia); 
1913-2, p. 59. 

Also on Thymus, gall hke preceding, but pilose. Houard, 
4921. 

Northumberland, Seahouaea, Warkworth, Crag Lough. 
Durham, near Sunderland, rare. Lancashiee and West- 
moreland, Grange-over- Sands district. Also from Scot- 
land. 

•40. J. (ubercoli Rubsaamen, 1889, p. 61 .f 
GalUng stem of broom {Sarotkamntis). Houard, 34:J4. 
Northumberland and Durham, Derwent banks be- 
tween Esperehields and Edmiindbyers ; and Durham, in 
a lane between Newbiggin and Rowley, not common. 

•41. JanetleUa sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 207. 
On Thymus. 
Durham, Stanhope and Penshaw Hill. 

1 KiefTcr, 1913-2, unless it is 



u,y,l,/eJh,C00glc 



356 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. HarrisoD's 

ZyioUa Kieffer, 1913-1, p. 55. 

42. Z. carpini F. Loew, 1874, pp. 157 and 322 {Cecidomyia) ; 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 60. 
Galling leaf of Carpinus. Swanton, 211 ; Houaid, 1045- 

Craneiobla Kieffer, 1913-1, p. 55. 

43. C. comi Giraud, 1863, p. 1301 (Cecidomyia) ; Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 60. 
Gall on Cornus sanguinea. Swanton, 672; Houaid, 
4543. 

Phegobia Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 61. 

*44. P. tonulella Bremi, 1847, p. 13 {Cecidomyia) ; Kie&ei, 

1913-2, p. 61. 

A glabrous gall (like that of the common Harligida 

annulipes) on the upper surface of leaf of Fagua, = Houard, 

1154. 

Northumberland and Durham, several records. Cum- 
berland, Alston. 

HayetloU Kieffer, 1896-1, p. 89. 
^45. H. aveiuw Marchal, 1895, p. 272 (Cecidomyia); KieSer, 
1913-2, p. 62. 
Gall, stem of Avena Jatva. See Houard, 223 {Avma 
saliva). 
Yorkshire, Nunthorpe. 

*46. M. dac^lldis Kieffer, 1896-2, p. 217; 1913-2, p. 62. 
Gall, stem of Daciylis glomeraia. Houard, 258. 
Durham, banks of the Wear neat Penshaw. 

47. H. destructor Sav, 1817, p. 45 iCecidotnyia) ; Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 62. 
On Hordeum imlgare. Houard, 346. 
Durham, Penshaw. 

48. M. hold Kieffer, 1896-2, p. 333; 1913-2, p. 62. 

On Holcxis hnatm, stem, Swanton, 46; Houard, 215. 

Northumberland, Seahouses, once only; Warkworth. 
Durham, Birtley, Gibside, Edmondsley. Lancashire, 
liftthom. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



Prdiminary Catalogue of British Cecidom^idae. 357 

•49. H. Jouinld Kieffer, 1896-2, p. 116; 1913-2, p. 62. 

Gall, stein of Poa nemoraUi. Houard, 263. 

North CM BERLAND, Warkworth. Dukham, between 
Wolviaton and Billingham. Lancashire, Grange-over- 
Sands. 

*50. BL ventrieoU Riibaaameii, 1899, p. 566 (Oligotrophm); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 62. 

On MoHnia caerutm. Houard. 249. 

Northumberland, between Whitfield and Langley. 
Lancashire (Grimshaw). Yorkshire, on all the Cleveland 

•51. H. hardel Kieffer, 1909, p. 9 {gall)t; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 62. 

On Hordeum vulgare, = Cecidorayid, Houard, 347. 
Durham, between Vigo and Birtley. 

*52. MsyeUota sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 228. 
On Bromtis erectile. 
Durham, Gibside. 

Chortomyla Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 63. 
53. C. bellwlgl Rubsaanicn, 1912, p. 217 (Poomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 63. 
On stems, Bmckypodiums sylraiicum, = Cecidoniyid, 
Swan ton. 62, and Houard, 297. 

Northumberland, Warkworth, local. Durham, Pen- 
shaw, Ryhope, Easington, and Horden. locally common. 
Lancashjre, Grange- over- Sands, probably not rare. York- 
shire, Leeds district. 

*o-l. C. moUnlae Rubsaamen, 189">, p. 180 (Oligolropkus); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 63. 
On Molinia caenileti. Houard, 250. 
Durham, Birtley Fell. Che.shire, Bidston Hill. 

55. C. poae Bosc, 1817, p. 133 (Ceddomyia); Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 63. 
On Poa nemoralis. Swanton, 50; Houard, 264. 
t The generic position of thia Bpocies is not yet oerUin. 

u,y,l,7rJM,G00glc 



358 Meflsrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

NoHTBUMBERLAND, Warkwoith. DuBHAH, Pciishaw, 
Birtley, Gibside. Cumberland, Alston. Lancashire, 
Grange -o ver- Sands . 

•56. C. ndletflca Rubaaamen, 1895, p. 179 {OligolrophM) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 63. 

On Poa nemoTcdis. Houard, 265. 

Northumberland, Ovingham and Langlev Woods 
(H. S. Wallace). Durham, Ryhope (H. 8. Wallace); 
Fenshaw and Blackhall Rocks. Cumberland, Nentbead 
(H. S. Wallace). 

Cystiphon Kiefler, 1892, p. 212. 
*57. C. hleracU F. Loew, 1874, p. 145 (CecMfoniyifl); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 64. 
On Hieracium ap., apparently very rare. 
Durham, Hylton. Lanc;ashibe, Ainsdale, and West- 
moreland, Ravenstondale. 

•58. C. (anxaci Kieffer, 1888, p. 98; 1913-2, p. 64. 

On Taraxacum officinale, very local and rare. Houard, 
6090. 

Northumberland, coast near Hamburgh ; Warkworth. 
Durham, Blackhall Rocks; Pcnphaw. once only. Cumber- 
land, Alston. Lancashire, Grange-over-Sands, once only. 

•59. C. leonlodontis Kieffer, 1909, p, 14 (gall) ; 1913-2, p. 64. 

On Leemtodon hispidum. Houard, 6053. 

Northumberland, Warkworth. Durham, very local, 
Fenshaw and Washington. 

•60. C. pllosellae Kieffer, 1892, p. 213; 1913-2, p. 64. 

On Hieracium Pihsella. Houard, 6207. 

Very local ; records from all counties excepting Cheshire. 

61. C. sonchi F. Loew, 187.5, p. 18 {Ceddotnyia) ; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 64. 
On Sonckus arven^. Swanton, 880; Houard, 6100. 
Northumberland, abundant in N.E. Northumberland; 
Ovingham. Lancashire, Ainsdale, one plant only. Also 
Stirlinosribe, very common. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



Preliminary Catalogue of British Cecidomyidae. 359 
•62. (^slipbora sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1916 (iv), p. 248. 

On Hf/poehoeris radicata. Apparently a new species. 

NoBTHU-MBERLAND, Warkwortb, Durham, Fenshaw and 
Edmondsley. Cumberland, Alston. 

Hurolabis KiefFer, 189'2, p. 214. 
63. H. comigans F. Loew, 1877, p. 11 (CecMfomyta); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 66. 

(a) On Heracleum Spkondylium. Swanton, 667 ; Houard, 
4512. 

In all counties; common. 

(•6) On H. SphoTidylittm, vat. anffuslifoUum. 
Lancashire and Westmobbland, Grange-over-Sands 
district. 

{*c) On Lamium album. Houard, 4840. 

Northumberland, Warkwortb and Ovingham. Lanca- 
shire, Lathom. Durham, Biddick; Lambton Park and 
Blaydon. 

("rf) On Stachys sylvatica. 
Durham, Penshaw. 

This species is recorded by Houard from six different 
Umbels and from three species of Lamium. Swanton (870) 
(ref. Connold) records it also from Hieracium boreale, but 
this is almost certain to be M. hieracii. 

•64. H. hieracii Kieffer, 1888, p. 112.t 

Recorded by Houard from Hieracium boreale, H. umbd- 
bUum and other species of Hieracium. Apparently the 
species (see above) recorded from H. boreale as M. corrugans 
by Connold (Swanton, 870). 

Durham, Hylton. Lancashire, on Hieracium sp., 
Birkdale. 

•65. M. Uppocrepidis Kieffer, 1898-2, p. S9; 1913-2, p. 66. 

On Hippocrejns amwsa. Houard, 3683. 

Westmoreland, Meathop Fell, near Grange-over-Sands 
in October, gall only, too late for larvae. 

t We have aa ;et been unable to trace this in Kieffer, 1013-2, 



360 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

•66. M. marteU Kieffer, 1892 (-1), p. 215; 1913-2, p. 66. 
On Hypericum kirsutum. 
Durham, Middleton-one-Row. 

67. M. piloseltae Binnie, 1877, p. 179 (Cecidem^); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 66. 
On Hieracium Pihsdla. Swanton, 863 ; Houard, 6199. 
Records from all counties excepting Cheshire ; local. 

*68. H. stellaiiae Liebel, 1889, p. 282 (Cectdomyia]; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 66. 

On SlelUiria graminea. Recorded by Houard from 
StdUiria medut. 

Durham, Birtley. 

Amotdla Kieffer, 1895, p. 7. 
*69. A. quereicola Kieffer, 1909, p. 21 (gall and larva); 
1913-2, p. 67. 
On Quercus. Houard, 1211. 

Northumberland, near Whitfield. Durham, neat Fat- 
field. 

70. A. querais Binnie, 1877, p. 179 (Cecidomtfia) ; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 67. 
On Qiiercus. 

•71. Amoldia sp. Kieffer; Lem^e. 
On Quercus. Houard, 1212. 
Durham, West Cornforth. 

Geocrypta Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 68. 
•72. C. brauerl Handlirsch, 1884, p. 135 (Cecwfomyw). 

A root-Ral! on HyjKricum jmlchrvm; recorded by 
Houard (4213) from H. perforatum only. Apparently 
very local. 

Northumberland, near Staward. Durham, near Lan- 
chester. 

Rhabdophaca Westwood, 1847, p. 588. 
•73. R. alUpennis H. Loew, 1850, p. 35 (Cecidomyia); 
Kieifer, 1913-2. p. 70. 
On Siilix spp. Houard, S. 32. 



n,g,t,7.dt,'G00glc 



Prdiminary Caialoffue of British CecidomyHae. 361 

Apparently not uncommon; recorda from all counties 
excepting Westmoreland. Also recorded by Mr. Burkill 
from Derbyshire, and from Scotl^d. 

*74. B. oUvUex Kiefler, 1892-2, p. 441 (Cecidmnyia); 
1913-2, p. 70. 
On Salix app. Houard, S. 14. 
Lancashire, Ainsdale, rare. 

•76. B. dubiosa Kieffer n. nov. for Cecidmnyia dvbia Kieffer, 
1893-2, p. 255; 1913-2, p. 70 (= Cecidomyia 
griseicoUis Zett. non Meigen). 
On Salix spp. Houard, S. 41. 

NoRTUCMBERLAND, Ninebanks, Warkworth. Durham, 
Waldridge. Lancashire, near Ainadale. 

*76. B. giraudlaUA Kieffer {salidperda Giraud n<m Dufour), 
1898-1, p. 159; 1913-2, p. 70. 

On Populus alba; also known from P. IremtiUi abroad. 
Houard, 475. 

Lancashire, Ainsdale and Freshfield, only two examples. 

77. R. heterobta H. Loew (saliffna Hardy), 1850, p. 28 
{Cecid<mifia); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 70. 
On Salic Bpp. Houard, S. 10; Swanton, 88, 89 and 154. 
NoRTHUUBERLAND, Warkwoith, on S. alba. Durham, 
Birtley, on 5. repeiu, also affecting the male catkins; 
Waldridge, Swalwell ; Tinkler Fell, on S. Caprea. Lanca- 
shire, Birkdale and Ainsdale. 

•78. R. iteobia Kieffer, 1890-3, p. 201 (Cecidoniyia); 
1915-2, p. 70. 

On Salix cinerea. Houard, S. 11, Perrisia ile<Aia. 

Northumberland, Ninebanks. Durham, near Blancb- 
land. Lancashire, Ainsdale. Also from Scotland. 

•79. H. kuHhl Kieffer, 1892-2, p. 251 (Cecidomyia); 
1913-2, p. 70. 

On Salix spp. Houard, S. 34. 

Northumberland, Ninebanks, on S. cinerea, and 
Warkworth, on S. dnerea and alba var. Durham, Birtley, 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



362 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

on S. repens, rare. Lancashire, Freehfield, on 5. cinerea. 
Tare. Also recorded by Mr. Burkill (on 5. aJha) from 
Derbyshire. 

80. H. nurginemlorquens Winnertz, 1853, p. 223 (Ceddo- 
myia); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 70. 
On Salix spp. Houard, S. 5\,PeTrisia marginemJorquens. 
Generally distributed ; records from all counties except- 
ing Westmoreland and Cheshire. 

*81. B. nervorum Kieffer (nodnli Riibs.), 1895-2 {Dirhe- 
hmyia); 1913-2, p. 71. 

On Salix spp. Houard, S. 49. 

Durham, River Wear near Cox Green, on 5. alba, Gibside 
on S. aurita, and Ryhope on S. /ragUis, rare. Lascashibe, 
Ainsdale and Freahfiefd, local, on young S. alba. North- 
umberland, Oyinghatn and Warkwotth, on S. cinerea, 
S. alba and the var. vUellina. Yorkshire, Nunthorpe on 
8. viMlina, also see Burkill, 1916, " Entomologist," p. 7, 
on S. Caprea. Also recorded by Mr. Burkill from Derby- 
shire on 5. aiba and 5. cinerea, and from Surrey on iS. 
Cajtrea. 

•82. R. pleml Kieffer, 1896-2, p. 218 (Sertieria); 1913-2, 
p. 71. 

On Salix repens and S. cinerea. rare. Houard, S. 37. 

Northumberland, near Warkworth. Durham, Birtiey, 
lare. 

*82a. B. pseudoeoecns, Riibsaamen 1890-2, p. 307 {Ced- 
dotnyia]; Kieffer 1913-2, p. 71. 

Flat, broad larva under a scale-like covering on under- 
side of leaves of Salix Caprea, gregarious. 

Durham. Plentiful on isolated trees in Ryhope Dene 
and Hesleden Dene. 

*82b. R. pulvlnl Kieffer {salidna Giraud, non Schrank; 

khigi? H. Loew mm Meigen) 1891, p. 244 (Ceet- 

domyia); 1913-2, p. 71. 
On Salix anrita and S. litelUna. Houard, S. 19. 
Northumberland, Ovingham. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Prdiminan/ Cataiogue <^ Brifish Cfcidomyidae 363 

83. B. TosuU-f- H. Loew {saiicina Auct.. cinermrum 
Hardy), 1800, p. 35; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 71. 
On Salix spp. Honard, S. 8. 
Generally attributed ; records from alt counties. 

*&1. R. mariella Kieffer, 1901-1, p. 494 (gall); 1913-2, 
p. 71. 

On Salix spp. Houard, S. 9. 

Durham, \Valdridge, on S. aurila and cinerea; Gibside, 
on S. repens. Lancashire, near Ainsdale, and Freshfield, 
on S. repens. Also recorded by Mr. Burkill from Suirrey 
on iS. repens . 

85. R, saUeipeNa Lhifour {(erebram H. Loew), 1841, p. 262 

[Cecidmnyia); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 71. 

On Salix spp. Houard, S. 36. 

Northumberland, Newham. DintHAM, Billingham and 
Waldridge. Cumberland, Alston. Lanca.shire, near 
Ainsdale. Yorkshire, Eston. 

86. R. lalicis Scbrank (degeeri Bremi, galhrvm saU<ns 

Hardy), 1803, p. 69 (Tipula) ; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 71. 
On Salix spp. Houard, S. 40. 

Records from all counties excepting Westmoreland and 
Cheshire. 

*87. R. snpema Kieffer, 1897, p. 24. 

On Salix. Recorded by Houard, S. 26, from S. Caprea, 
aurila and cinerea; we have not succeeded in tracing the 
species in Kieffer, 1913-2. 

Durham, on a hybrid S. cin«rea x vimifuilis; Billingham. 
The larva is distinctive. 

88. R. tarminaUs H. Loew, ia50, p. 3-5 (Cecidom\fia)\ 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 72. 
On Salix spp. Houard, S. 14, Perrisia terminalis. 
Common ; records from all counties. 

[89. R. Mmirt«lw,Westwood, 1847, p. .588; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 72. 

t The Daayaeura aaiicina of Swanton's Catalo^e must be re- 
fCarded aa e, synonym, the gall being but't)ic incipient stage of the 
" Roee-gall." 



ih, Google 



364 Messrs. B. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Hairiaon's 

PwrisU Rondani, 1846, p. 371. 
•90. P. abieOpwda Henschel, 1880, p. 371 {Cectdomyia) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 73. 
Gall on Picea ftrceisa. Houard, 10(). 
NoRTHUMBERLAKD, near Hexham. Durham, Gibside 
and Eastgate. La^ica.shire, Grange-over-Sands, rare. 
YoRKsHntB, Nunthorpe. 

*91. P. aeereri^ans Kieffer, 1888-2, p. 266 (Cecidomyia) ; 
1913-2, p. 73. 
On sycamore. Houard, 3984. 
Durham, dene near Fencehouses. 

•92. P. acenrispans vat. rtibella Kieffer, 1896-2, p. 37. 
On Acer campeslre. Houard, 4025. 
Recorded by Mr. Burkill from Monmouthshire. 

93. P. aerophiU Winnertz, 1853, p. 233 (C«-tffomy»a) ; 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 73. 
On Fraxinus. Swanton, 681 ; Houard, 4643. 
Local ; records from all counties excepting Lancashire 
and Cheshire. 

94. P. annis Kieffer, 1886, p. 330 {Cecidomifia); 1913-2, 

p. 73. 
On Viola spp. Swanton. 632, 634, 635 and 637 ; Houard, 
4281, 4283. 4284 and 4290. 
Local ; records from all counties excepting Cheshire, 

•95. P, alni F. Loew, 1877, p. 2 {Cecidotnyui) ; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 73. 
On Ahi'is. Houard, 1127; known throughout Europe. 
NoRTHiMBERLAND, Ninebauks, once only. 

96. P. alplna F. Loew, 18A>. p. 110 {Cecidomyia) ; Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 73. 
On Silene acmtlig. Swanton, 344 ; Houard, 2274. 

97. P. anylir., Kieffer, 19<»9. p. 31 (gall and lar\-a) ; 

1913-2, p. 73. 
On TfiocKiixiH ri/(,v-i(f'(«i, = Cecidomvid ep. Swanton, 
676, and Houard, 4071. 



ih, Google 



pTdiminary Catalogue of British Cecidomyidae. 365 

9S. P. apvlnes Kieffer, 1889, p. 208 (Cecidomyia); 

1913-2, p. 73. 
On Galium Aparine. Swanton. 763 ; Houard, 5303. 
Northumberland, Wylam, Belford. Durham, several 
localities. Cheshire, Bidston. 

*99. P. aueuparla KiefFer.f 

On Pynis Auctiparia. Houard, 2907. 

Northumberland, Ovingham. Durham, Gibside. Also 
from Scotland. 

*I00. P. uiUaris Kieffer, 1896-1, p. 87; 1913-2, p. 74. 

On Trifdtum sp. On T. medium Houard, 3593. 

Lancashire and Westmoreland, once near Grange- 
over-Sands. Durham, coast near Horden; Birtley, on 
T. froffiferum. 

*]01. P. IwlloUa Riibsaamen. 

On BaUota nigra, flowers remaining closed. 

Northumberland, Denton Burn (H, S. Wallace and 
R. S. B.). 

•102. P. bACkUna Mik, 1885, p. 140 {6V«fo»nyw); Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 74. 

On Inula squarrosa (= /. Conyza). Houard, 5623. 

Lancashire, Grange-over-Sands. J. W. H. H. has ob- 
served similar galls on Pulicaria dysenlerica at Cowpen 
Bewley in Durham. 

103. P. bfMSleae Winnertz, 1853, p. 213 [Cecidojntfia) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 74. 
On Brassica spp. Swanton, 415, 420; Houard, 2591 
[Dasyneura brassicae). 

Durham, Hylton, on *Brassica oleracen (Houard, 2573). 

•104. P. brnnellae Kieffer, 1909, p. 3 (gall and larva); 
1913-2, p. 74. 
On Prunella rtilgaris, = Oecidomyid sp. Houard, 1818. 
Northumberland, O^nngton. Yorkshire, Stainton. 

t We have been unable to trace tliia in Kieflcr, 1913-2. 
TRAKa.EHT, SOC. LOND. 1917.— PARTS II, III, IV. (MAY '18) Bt 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



S66 Messra. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

*I05. P. bryonlae BoucM, 1847, p. 144 {Cecidom^); 
Kiefter, 1913-2, p. 74. 
On Bryonia dioka. Houard, 5476. 
Durham, near Lamesley. 

''lOG. P. eampanulae Riibsaatnen. 

On Campnnula media and C. fersicaefalia. 
Durham, Bittley. Cumberland, Alston. 

107. P. capitigena Bremi (Eiipkorbiae paitim H. Loew), 

1847, p. 50 (Cecidomyin); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 74. 
On Euphorbia Esiiia. Swanton, 597. 

108. P. earil»mines Winnertz. 1853, p. 225 (Cecidmttyia); 

Kieffer, 1913-2. p, 74. 
On Cardamine spp. Swanton, 390 and 393; Houard, 
2672 and 2G65. 
Durham, in the Derwent Valley. 

109. P. eerasUi Binnie, 1877, p. 181 {Cecidomyia); Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 75. 
On Ceraslium ridgalum. Swanton, 348; Houard, 2338. 
North iMBER LAND, Warkworth, on *C. semidfcandntm 
and C. ruigatiim. Durham, Ryhope Dene. 

*110. P. elTsU Riibsaanien. 1890. p. 236 {Cecidomyia); 
Kieffer. 1913-2, p. 75. 
In heads of i'irsium nrrenne. Houard- 5927. 
Not uneoninioii ; reconls from all counties. 

•111. Perrista sp. Rignall and Harrison. 1916 (iii). p.l99- 
In heads of Cir.-'i'iiii arveiixe. like P. cirsii, but larvae 

vellowish to orange instead of red ( i form or stage of 

P. arsii). 

Not uneonminn; nivnls from all counties excepting 

Cliesliire. 

•112. Perrlsia sp. Ri-juall and Harrison, 1916 (iii). p. 199. 

Heads of Vifsi'ni' iiri\n.''e cWt'd ; a (ew petals to one 

side only brfiikiiiw dul ; larva solitary, deep vermilion to 

NoBTiu MUKRLAND. Nint'Kuiks. Di-RHAM, Pensbaw, 

l-attU-ld. and iiiUide. 



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Prdimittary Catalogue of British Cecidomyidae. 367 

*113. P. Mtnrositanun KieSer, 1888-2. p. 310 Ifiecidmnyia); 
1913-2, p. 75. 

Heads of Viraium. lanceolatum. Houard, 5911. 

NoRTHtfMBERLAND and DuRHAM, numerous records. 
LANCA.smRE, Lathom. Yorkshire, ilarton ; Bardjtey near 
Leeds. 

•114. Perriala sp. Bagnall and Harrieon, 1916 (iii). p. 199. 

Heads of Cirsium Uinceolatum. heads remaining closed 
or not opening fully; often bent or twisted; florets 
apparently normal; larvae wtiite to yellowish. 

Records from Northumberland, Durham, Cumberland, 
Yorkshire and Lancashire. 

*115. P. wrylina KiefTer for cwyli Riibsaamen, 1912, 
p. 288; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 75. 

In catkins of Corylus. 

Lancashire, Grange-over-Sands, October. Yorkshire, 
Guiflbrough, October. 

116. P. cralaegl Winnertz, 1853, p. 238 (Ceridomyia); 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 75. 
On Crala^uB monogifna. Swanton, 540 ; Houard, 2942. 
Common everywhere ; records from all counties. 

*117. P. daphnes Kieffer, 1901-2, p. 18; 1913-2, p. 75. 
On Daphne Laureoh. Houard, 4312. 
Yorkshire, Gunnergate. 

•118. P. engstfeltU Rubsaamen, 1889, p. 375 (Cecidomyia) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 75. 

On Spiraea Vlmaria Houard, 2832 and 2837. 

Local but widely distributed ; records from all counties. 
Also from Scotland. 

•119. Perrisla sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1916 (iii), p. 200. 

On Spiraea Vlmaria, on the underside of leaf, like P. 
engstfddi, but always adjacent to midrib or nerve, which 
is considerably swollen in such manner as to become a 
shelter to the larva. 

Extremely local, but plentiful where it occurs. Durham, 
Gibside and near Lamesley; Billingham. Cumberland, 
Alston. 



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368 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. HamBon's 

120. P. epIIobU F. Loew, 1889, p. 201 (Cccitfomyia) ; 

Kieffer, 1913-2^ p. 76. 
On Ejnldbium anffuslifoUum. Swanton, 641, 642; 
Houard, 4345. 

NoETHUMBEBLAND, Seahouses, Spindlestone, Budle Bay, 
etc. Durham, Gibside. 

*121. P. erleins F. Loew, 1885-2. p. 76 {Cedd^myia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 76. 
On Erica dnerea. 
Durham, Waldridge. Yorkshire, Great Ayton Moor. 

121a. p. flUclns Kieffer, 1889, p. 191 (Cecidomyia); 
1913-2, p. 76, 
On Pteris nqmlina. Swanton, 3; Houard, 68. 
Records from all counties excepting Cumberland. ■ 

•122. P. florlperda F. Loew, 1888, p. 231 (Cecidomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 76. 
On Sifene infiala. Houard, 2261. 
Durham, Fatfield and Fencehouaee. 

*123. P. nosculorum Kieffer, 1890-3, p. 200 {Cecidomyia); 
1913-2, p. 76. 
Flower of Trifolium pralense. Houard, 3579, 
Durham, Penshaw. Lancashire and Westmoreland, 

near (■ range-over- Sands. 

124. P. fraxinea Kieffer, 1907-1, p. 523; 1913-2, p. 76. 
On Fraj-iiuis,^ Dasyneura /raxinea, Swanton, 678; 

Houard, 4647. 
Apparently widely distributed ; records from all counties. 

125. P. rraxlDi Kieffer, 1897-2, p. 301 ; 1913-2, p. 76. 
On Fraxiniis. Swanton, 679, 680; Houard, 4644. 
Records from all counties excepting Cheshire. 

*126. p. Inicluum Riibsaamen, 1895, p. 258 (Dichdmnyid) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 76. 

On Cerasliiim vidgainm. Houard, 2330. 

Northumberland, Warkworth, Ovingham. Durhau, 
Fatfield, Penshaw, Birtley, Greatham. Cheshire, Bidston. 



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Prdiminary Catalogue of British Oeddomytdae, 369 

Yorkshire, Marton, Cleveland district; Leeds district. 
Also taketi (at Warkworth) on Geraslium semidecandrum, 
and in Cleveland on C. viscos^im. 

127. P. galeobdoUmtis Winnertz, 1853. p, 238 (Cecidomyia) ; 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 76. 
On Lamium Galeobddon. Swanton, 716; Houard, 4847. 

128. P. galU H. Loew, 1850, p. 37 (Cecidomyia]'; Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 77. 

On Gcdium venim. Swanton, 747, 748; Houard, 5284, 
5292. 

Northumberland, Seahouses, Bamburgh, Warkworth, 
Ovingham. Durham, Blackball Rocks; Hylton; Pensliaw 
Hill; near Cornforth. Lancashire, Birkdale, one only. 

On Galium vliginosum. Houard, 5268. 
Durham, Waldridge Fell. 

•129. Perrisla ap. Schlechteiidal, etc. 
On Galium verum. Houard, 5289. 
Durham, on one patch of bed-straw near Penshaw. 

130. P. gaUloola F. Loew, 1880, p. 33; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 77. 
On Galium spp. Swanton, 7.53; Houard, 5209, also 
•5286 and •5275. 

Northumberland, Bamburgh, Warkworth. Durham, 
coast near Hartlepool, Penshaw Hill and Catcleugh ; rock 
neat Sunderland, on G. verum. Cumberland, Alston, on 
G. verwrn. 

•131. P. genUtamtorquens Kieffer, 1888-2, p. 311 (Cm- 
domyia); 1913-2, p. 77. 
On Genista Hncloria. Houard, 3371. 
Durham, Oibside, rare. 

132. P. genistleola F. Loew, 1877, p. 4 {Cecidomyia); 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 77. 
On Genista titiOoria. Swanton, 548, 549; Houard, 3368, 
3369, It also occurs on G. anglicn {Swanton, 547 ; Houard, 
3349). 
Northumberland, Ovingham, Durham, Gibside. 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



370 Messis. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 
*133. P. KMittaiiu Kieffer, 1909, p. 9 (gall); 1913-2. p. 77. 

In flowers and seed-caaea of Genllana campestris and 
G. ArtmrdUi. ~ Cecidompd sp. Houard, 4696. 

North UMBERLASD, between Alnmouth and AVarkworth. 
DoiHAM, Peiishaw Hill and Blackball Rocks. (This species 
is recorded in Houard (4696) from British Isles only, but 
in Kieffer {1913-2) it is recorded from Central Europe. 
Examples from seed-caees cause chloranthia as well ae a 
swelling of the ovary, and are possibly referable to a 
second species. 

• *134. P. Beranil Kieffer, 1907-2, p. 44; 1913-2, p. 77. 

We have not cleared up the question of CWidoniyids 
affecting Geraniaceae. The records here refer to P. geranii 
on Erodium cicularium only (Houard, 3826); but we 
append also our notes under the names of various species 
of Geranium. 

Northumberland, Budle Bay, very common; Wark- 
worth. Durham, Cowpen Bewley- one only. LA^■CA.SHIBB, 
Freshfield, two only, Yorkshire, Redcar. 

Other notes :— 

(1) Geranium •prntense. 

(fl) Yellow larvae in seeds (Dasyneura geranii). 
Northumberland, Budle Bay and Ninebanks. 
Durham, Birtley, Eastgate, Wolsingham and Horden. 
Cumberland, Alston. 

(6) Bright orange-red larvae in seeds with above. 
Northumberland and Durham, all above records, 

(2) Geranium sylialiaim. 

(a) Yellow larvae in seeds (Dasyneura geranii). 
(6) Bright orange-red larvae in seeds in company. 
Records from Northumberland and Durham. 

(3) Geranium sanguimnm. 

Yellow larva in seeds, 

Durham, Horden and Blackball Rocks. York- 
shire, in a moraine garden, Linthorpe. 



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Prdiminary Catalogue of British Ceddomyidae. 371 

(4) Geranium disseclum. 
Yellow larva in seeds. 
Durham, Fatfield. 

(5) Geranium molle. 
Yellow larva in seeds. 
YoEKSHraE, Redcar. 

(6) Geranium pusilliim. 
Yellow larva in seeds. 
NoETHUMBERLAND, Warkwoith. 

(7) Geranium pusilliim. 

One or more transparent, lemon -yellow larvae 
amongst seeds and in the flower. 

Lancashire, Freshfield and Ainsdale, common. 

(8) Erodium cicHlanum. 

Cream ish-yellow larvae amongst seeds and in the 
flower. 

Yorkshire, Redcar. Northumberland, Wark- 
worth. 

135. P. gUchonuK Kiefter, 1889-2, p. 2C3 {Cecidomyia) ; 

1913-2, p. 77. 
On Glechoma hederacea. Swanton, 7(17, 708; Houard, 
48D7, 4808. 

•136.1 P. glycipkylli Rubsaanien, 1912, p. 286; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 77. 
On Astragalus hypoghtlis. 
Records from Scotland. 

*137. P. holDst«M Kieffcr, 19()9. p. 29 (gall and larva); 
1913-2, p. 77. 

On ^SteUaria graminea. 

Northumberland, between Langley Woods and Whit- 
field. 

On Stdhria Holoslea. 

Northumberland, Stocksfield (H. S. Wallace). Dur- 
ham, Gibside, Winlaton Mill, 



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372 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. HarriBOn's 

*138. P. hyKTophlU Mik, 1883, p. 209 {Ceddomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 77. 

On Galium palustre. Houard, 5278. 

Northumberland, Ninebanks. Durham, near Gibside, 
Low Fell and Waldridge. Lanca.shire, not uncommon, 
Freshfield, Ainsdale aod Lathom. Yorkshire, Nunthorpe ; 
Bardsey near Leeds; also recorded by Mr. Burkill. Mr. 
Burkill also records this species from Derbyshire, Stafiord- 
shire and Surrey, 

139. Perrisia sp. Trail, 1878. 

On Galium- palvslre. Swanton, 758; Houard, 5277. 

140. P. hyperiei Bremi, 1847, p, 53 {Ceddomyia); Kiefier, 

1913-2, p. 77, 

On Hypericum spp. Swanton and Houard. Recent 
records from H. ■perjoraium, H. pulckrum, H. hutnifiisum 
and * H. monlanvm. 

Records from all counties excepting Cheshire and York- 
shire. 

*141. Perristasp. Burkill, 1916. 

On Hypericum elodes. Terminal leaves thickened at the 
base, folded over and crinkled, turning brown at the tips. 
Larvae yellow, several in each gall. 

Yorkshire, Mr. Burkill's record. 

142. P. ignorata Wachtl (medicaginis Bremi. gall; ««>- 

brychidis F. Loew mom Bremi), 1884, p. 163 
(Ceddomyia); KiefTer, 1913-2, p. 77. 
On Medicago salim. Swanton, 561 ; Houard, 3515, 

143. P. Inchbaldiana Mik (1 clavdlia Bremi), 1886, p. 317 

{Ceddomyia); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 77. 
On Salix alba. Houard, S. 52; Swanton, 98; Houard, 
627. 

Records from all counties. 

144. P. loclusa Frauenfeld, 1862, p. 1175 {Ceddomyia); 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 78. 
On PhragmUes communis. Swanton, 50;* Houard, 245. 
Durham, Bilhngham. 



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Prdiminary Caialogue of British Ceddomyidae. 373 
*145. P. WeBeri Marchal, 1896, p. 99 ; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 78. 

On Hedara Helix. Houard, 4362. 

Northumberland, Warkworth district. Lancasbibe 
and Westmoreland, Grange-over-Sanda district, common. 
Durham, Oibside and Low Fell. Yorkshire, Middles- 
brough and Gunnergate; Leeds. Also from Scotland. 

*146. P. klefferlana Riibsaamen, 1891, p. 5 (Cecidomyia); 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p; 78. 

On EjnUjbium angustifoUum. Houard, 4348. 
Durham, Gibside, rare. Yorkshire, see Burkill. Also 
recorded by Mr. Burkill from Surrey. 

*147. fP- lamii Kieffer. 

On Lamium macuUUum, = Cecidomyid sp. Houard, 
4836. 

Durham, Birtley, in a garden. 

•148. ; P. Uriels F. Loew, 1878, p. 393 [Ceddomyia) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 78. 

On Larix decidua. Houard, 86. 

Durham, Lanchester, Winlaton Mill ; Gibside. Lasca- 
SHiRE, Grange-over-Sanda. Yorkshire, Eaton. 

*149. P. Uthyri Kieffer, 1909, p. 13 (gall and larvae); 
1913-2, p, 78. 

On Lathyrus pralensis, = Perrisia sp. Houard, 3775. 
Records from all countiea excepting Cheahire. 

*150. P. lathyrlools Riibsaameu, 1890, p. 26 {Cecidomyia) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 78. 
On Lathj/THS pratensis. Houard, 3771. 
Records from all counties. 

151. Perrisia sp. (lalhyricola Swanton). 
On Lathyrus praiensis. Swanton, 595 ; Houard, 3776. 
Records from all counties. 

t We have been unable to trace this name in Kiefler, 1913-2. 
I = KeOne-Ti HeoBchel (gall). 



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374 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

•152. Petriiia sp. Burkill, 1917, p. 83. 
On Laikt/nis -praleim*. 
Recorded by Mr. Burkill from W. Gloucestershire. 

*153. P. Utorm Kieffer, 1909, p. 21 (gall); 1913-2, p. 78. 
On Oak, = C«cidom)-id sp. Houard, 1310, 
Northumberland, Warkworth; Ovingham. Dckham, 
several records. Lancashire, Granfje-over-Sands. York- 
shire, Leeds district and near Middlesbro'. 

*153a. p. Utho^ermi H. Loew, 1850, p. 36 {Ceddonufta); 
Kieffer. 1913-2, p. 78. 
On LUhospennum officinale. Houard, 4741, 
Northumberland, Ovingham; on an isolated patch of 

the host- plant. 

154. P. lotharli^as Kieffer, 1888-1, p. 107 (Cecidmnyta); 
1913-2, p. 78. 
On CerasHum viilgalum. Swanton, 346, 347; Houard, 
2331,2334. 
Records from all counties excepting Cheshire. 

♦155. P. loti Kieffer, 1909, p. 14; 1913-2, p. 78. 
On Lofus comicuhlMs, — Cecidoniyid sp. Houard, 3622. 
Durham, Gibside, apparently rare. 

156, P. loUeoU Rubsaamen, 1889-2, p. 52 {Cecidomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 78. 
On Loins major and occasionally *L. comiathtia. 
Swanton, 584; Houard, 3626, *3010. 
Records from all counties excepting Westmoreland, 

*157. P. lupuUnaa Kieffer, 1891, p. 258; 1913-2, p. 78. 
On Medicngo lupuUna. Houard, 3507. 
Durham, near Burnmoor. 

•158. PerrUa sp. Kaltenbach and others. 

On Medi<vi<fo liipuUna. Houard, 3509. 

Durham, Hylton and Penshaw. Recorded by Mr. Burkill 
from W. Gloucestershire. 



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Prdiminary Catalogue of British Cecidomyidae. 375 

•159. P. lyehnidis Hevden, 1861, p. 98 {Ceddmnyia) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 78. 

On Lychnis alba. Houai^, 2292. 

Northumberland, coast near Hamburgh. Durham, 
Lamesley, Fencehouses. Lancashisb, Ainsdale. 

160. P. nuU Kieffer, 1904-2, p. 345; 1913-2, p. 78. 
On Pyrus Mains. Swanton, D33; Houard, 2885- 
DuRHAM, near Stanley. 

•161. P. malplgUi Kieffer, 1909, p. 21 (gall) ; 1913-2, p. 78. 

On Quercus. Houard, 1354. 

Northumberland, Warkworth, rare. Durham, Gibside, 
Laxca.shire, Grange-over-Sande. Yorkshire, Leeds; 
Bardfiey. 

•162. P. miki Kieffer, 1909, p. 6 (gall); 1913-2, p. 78. 

On (a) CerUaurea nigra and (6) C. Scabiosa, = Cecidomyid 
sp. Houard, 5981. 

Northumberland, near Staward (a). Durham, Fat- 
field (a), Billingham (6), Hylton (b), and Gibside (a). 
Cumberland, near Nenthead (a). Lancashire and West- 
moreland, near Grange-over-Sands (a). Yorkshire, 
Mar ton. 



•163. Perrtola sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1916 (iii), p. 199. 

Head of (n) Centavrea nigra swollen, breaking round 
edges; larvae in large numbers, yellowish to pink. Also 
in (6) C. Scabiosa. 

Northumberland and Durham, several records in (a) 
and (6). Cheshire, Ridston Hill, plentiful (a). Cumber- 
land, Nenthead (o). 

•164. Perrlsia sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917 (v), p, 14. 

In old heads of Centaiirea Scabiosa, larvae gregarious, 
orange-red to copper-red, small ; not the above species. 

Northumberland, Warkworth. Durham, Catcleugh 
Rock, near Sunderland ; Ryhope ; Fulwell ; Eaaington. 
Also in old beads of C. nigra. 



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376 Mesera. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. HamBon's 

*105. PerrisU ap. Bagiiall and Harrison, 1917 (v), p. 14. 

In a garden Hdianthus; gregarious larvae in heads, 
golden -yellow-orange to orange -red. 

Durham, Fatfield. 

106. P. muricatae Meade {caricia H. Loew), 1886, p. 153 

(Cectdotnyia); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 79. 
In utricle of Cnrex viilpina, C. contxgua, *C. petuiula, 
C. hetrigata, C sylvalica and C palkscms. Swanton, 69, 
70; Houard, 361, 362. 

Northumberland, Warkworth, on C pendula. Dub- 
ham, Gibside, on C. pendula, C. sylvalica and C. paUescens; 
Waldridge, on C. laevigata ; Billingham. Lancashire, near 
Grange-over-Sands, on C. vulpina. 

*167. P. nenrioola Kieffer, 1909, p. 9 (gall); 1913-2, p. 79. 

On Hieracirim Pihsella, = Cecidomyid ep. Houard, 6205. 

Durham, very local, Birtley Fell, Roker. Yobkshirk, 
Huddersaeld district (W. Falconer). 

168. P. otwhrychidis (giraudi Prauenf.) Bremi, 1847, p. 53 

{Cecidotnyut); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 79. 
On Astragalus danicus. Swanton, 585; Houard, 3646. 
Probably P. glyciphylU. 

•168a. p. pantoU Kieffer, 1909, p. 21 (gall); 1913-2, p. 79- 
On Oak. Houard (Cecidomyid), 1315. 
Northumberland, Ovingham, 1 only (H. S, Wallace). 
Yorkshire, Leeds, plentiful on one old tree. 

169. P. papaverU Winnertz, 1853, p. 229 (Cecid(mpi); 

Kiefier, 1913-2, p. 79. 

In capsules of Papaier Rkoeas. Swanton, 377 ; Houard, 
2479, 
Durham, an isolated record, in field near Hylton. 

*170. P. perlclymeni Rubsaamen, 1889-2, p. 54 (Cecido- 
mijia); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 79. 

On Lonwera Pcrkhjmenum. Houard, 5361. 

Northumberland, Warkworth; Ovingham. Durham, 
Gibside (Barry Stewart and R. S. B.), Waldridge; Urpeth; 
Winlaton; Foncehouses and FasingtOQ. Cueshibb, 
Bidaton Hill. Yorkshire, Bardsey, near Leeds. 



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Prdimitiary Calahgue of British Cecidomyidae. 377 

171. P. penleulae Linn4, 1767, p. 977 (Tipula); KieSer, 

1913-2, p. 79. 
On Polygonum ampkOnum. Swanton, 321, 325 ; Houard, 
2157, 2159. 
BoBHAM, Urpeth. 

172. P. pUwtrIx ft. Loew, 1850, p. 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 79. 
On Rubm spp. Swanton, 479, 482, 490; Houard, 2966, 
2978, 302D. 
In some districts very common ; records from all countiea, 

•173. P. polygalM Kieffer, 1909, p. 18 (gall); 1913-2, p. 79. 

In Polygala vulgaris, larvae in flower. See Houard. 
3855. 

Durham, Birtley, Horden, Lanchester district (H. S. 
Wallace and J. W. H. H.). Cu.mberland, Alston, 

•174. P. popDletl Rubsaamen, 1889-2, p. 57 {Cecidomyia) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 79. 

Od Poptdm tr^nuh and. P. IremuUte x alba. Houard, 503. 

Durham, Gibside and near Winlaton Mill. Nobthum- 
BBRLAND, on the Alnwick road four milea north of Morpeth, 

175. P. polerUillae Wachtl, 1885, p. 193 {Cectdomyia); 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 79. 
On PotenlilUi. 

•176. P. pratfooU Kieffer, 1892-1, p. 216 {Cendomyia); 
1913-2, p. 79, 
In flower Lychnis Flos-cuaiH. Houard, 2290. 
Durham, Gibside, Billingham. 

*177. P. ptoridioola Kieffer, 1901-2, p. 19 (Cecidomyia); 
1913-2, p. 80. 

On Pleris aquiUna, local. Houard, 69. 

Northumberland, Ninebanks. Durham, Fatfield, Birt- 
ley. 

•178. P. puilulani Riibsaamen, 1889-1, p. 378 {Cecidomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 80. 
On Spiraea TJlmaria, local. Houard, 2838. 



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378 MesBTB. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. HamBon's 

Eecords from all counties excepting Lancashire and 
Westmoreland. Mr. Butkill records it from Derbyshire. 

179. P. pyri Bouchfi, 1847, p. 144 (Ceddomtjia) ; Kiefier, 

1913-2, p. 80. 
On Pyru.* communis. Swanton, 526; Houard, 2864. 
Durham, Gibside. Lancashire, Lathom. 

•180. f P. plerreana Kieffer. 

On Salix cinerea, =^ Perrisia sp. Houard (S. 42), 892. 
DuKUAM, Waldridge. Lancashire, near Ainsdale. 

181. P. nBimeuli Bremi, 1847, p. 54 (Cecidomyia) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 80. 

X)a Ranunciilus spp. Swanton, 362, 366, 370; Houard, 
2423, 2431, 2438. 

Records from all counties excepting Cheshire and 
Cumberland. 

*182. P. raphanlstri Kieffer, 1886, p. 324 {Cecidomifia) ; 
1913-2, p. 80. 

On Brassica Napus. Houard, 2594 {Dasyneina rapka- 
nislri). 

Northumberland, Warkworth. Durham, rare and 
local, Fatfield, Fencehonsea and Penshaw. 

*183. P. rhododeQdroni Kieffer, 1909, p. 95; 1913-2, p. 80. 

On Rhododendron ferrugineym. Houard. 

YoRK.SHiBE, in a moraine garden at Linthorpe, near 
Middlesbrough. 

184. P. rosarum Hardy, 1850, p. 186 {Cecidomyia); 

Kiefier, 1913-2, p. 80. 
On Bosn spp. Swanton, 503, 507, 512; Houard, 3135, 
3186. 

Records from all counties excepting Westmoreland and 
Cheshire. 

•185. Perrtda sp. 

On Sosu Bpp. like P. rosarum gall, larvae white. 

Northumberland and Durham, several records 
(= Dirkha rhodophiUt). 

-f We hAve been unable to trace this in Kiefler, 1913-2. 



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Prelxminary CaUdogue of British Ceddomyidae. 379 

•186. p. roBtruplans Kieffer, 1909, p. 29 (gall and larva); 
1913-2, p, 80. 

On Spiraea Vlmaria, = Cecidomyid 8p. Houaid, 2836. 

Not common ; records from all counties excepting 
Cheshire. 

•187. ?P. rubsauneni Kieffer, 1909, p. 6 (gall); 1913-2, 
p. 80. 

On Carpinus Beiuhts, parenchymatous, = Cecidomyid sp. 
Houard, 1041. 

Circular clear-cut holes observed in leaves of honibeara 
(counties Durham and Lancashire) in October are prob- 
ably the results of this insect. Requires confirmation. 

•188. P. saUeariM Kieffer, 1888-1, p. 96 (Cecidomyia) ; 
1913-2, p. 80. 
On Lythrum Salicaria. Houard, 4325, 4326. 
Northumberland, not uncommon near Bamburgh. 

•189. P. sangulsorbae Kieffer, 1890-1, p. 26 (Ceddomyia) ; 
1913-2, p. 80. 
On Sanguisorba officinalis. Houard, 3100. 
Durham, near Penshaw. 

•190. P. scsUosae Kieffer, 1888-1, p. 97 (Ceddmnyia); 
1913-2, p. 81. 

On Scabiosa C<Aumbaria, Houard, G466, 5470. 

Durham, Penshaw Hill, common ; and Catcleugh Rock, 
near Sunderland. 

•191. P. schlechtendali Kieffer, 1886, p. 328 Ifieddomyia); 
1913-2, p. 81. 

On Lathyrus macrorhizus. Houard, 3781. 

Durham, Birtley ; Fatfield ; Fencehouses ; Gibside, com- 
mon; Winlaton (H. S. Wallace), and near Lanchester. 
Northumberland, Ovinghara. 

•192. P. sebmldU Rubsaamen, 1912, p. 284; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 81. 
Heads of PlatUago lanceohla. 
Durham, Greatham. Lancashire, Grange-over-Sands. 



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380 Mesere. R. S. Bagnali and J. W. H. HarriBon's 

193. P. sarotina Winnertz, 1853, p. 316 {Ceddmnyia); 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 81. 
On Hypericum spp. Swanton; Houard. 
NoETHUMBERLAND, Dear Staward and Ovingham, on 
H. ptdchrum; Warkworth, on H. kumifusum. Durham. 
near Lanchester and Winlaton Mill, on H. pulchmm; 
Gibside, on H. perforatum and H. pukhrum; Dinsdale and 
Castle Eden, on H. kirsutum. Lascashire, Hampsfell, 
Grange-over-Sands, on H. pukhrum, very local. Yobk- 
SHiRB, Bardsey, near Leeds. 

*194. P. sUvleola KieSer, 1909, p. 30 (gall and larva); 
1913-2, p. 81. 

On *StdUtria graminea. 

Northumberland, between Langley Woods and Whit- 
field. 

On SteUaria Holoslea = Perrtsta sp. Houard, 2311. 

Northumberland, Warkworth; Ovingham. Durham, 
Gibside and Easington. Yorkshire, Bardsey, near 
Leeds. 

*195. P. similis F. Loew, 1888, -p. 232 {Ceddomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 81. 

On Veronuxi spp. 

Northumberland, Warkwortb, on V. officinalis and 
V. Chamaedri/s. Durham, Gibside, on V. scutellala and 
V. officinalis ; Lanchester and Stanhope, on V. officinalis; 
Castle Eden and Birtley, on V. Chatmedrys. 

196. P. sisymbrii Schranck, 1803, p. 83 {Tipula); Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 81. 
On various Crucifers. Swanton; Houard. 
Durham, Swalwell, on Sisymbrium officinale. 

•197. ? P. sodalis F. Loew, 1877, p. 7 {Cecidomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 81. 
On Prunus. P. tortrix and this species produce identical 
galls, and it will be necessary to breed out specimeua 
before this can be definitely included in our Ust. See 
records under P. tortrix. 



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Prdiminary Cgtfdogue of British Cecidomytdae. 381 

198. P. staeliydtc Bremi, 1847, p. 55 {Cecidomyia) ; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 81. 
On Stachys sylvaltca and ^palustris. Swanton, 711-714; 
Houard, 4860-62. 

Records from all counties excepting Westmoreland. 

*199. Perrmo sp. Burkill, 1916. 

On Stachys palnstris ; buds galled by white larvae. 
Recorded by Mr. Burkill from Derbyshire. 

*200. P. strobi Winnertz, 1853, p. 234 {Ceddomyia) ; 
Kiefler, 1913-2, p. 81. 

In cones of Picea excdsa. 

Northumberland, near Corbridge. Mr. Evans records 
this species from Perthshire (" Ent. M. Mag.," 1909, p. 17). 

•201. P. tetend Rubsaamen, 1892, p. 400 (Ceddomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 82, 
On leaves of Ribes app. 
Durham, Gibside, on R. GrossuUiria; Birtley, on R. nigra. 

•202. P. tetrahit Kieffer, 1909, p. 8 (gall and larva) ; 1913-2, 
p, 82. 

In GaUopsis Telrahil flowers, = Perrisia sp. Houard, 
4831. 

Lancashire, near Lathom. 

•203. P. thomulana Kiefier, 1888-1, p. 95 (Cecidotnyia); 
1913-2, p. 82. 

On Tilia vulgaris and platyphylloa. Houard, 4124, 4155. 

Northumberland, Ovingham, Warkworth. Durham, 
several records. Cumberland, Keswick and Alston. 
Lancashire, Grange-over-Sands. Yorkshire, Ounner- 
gate. Also from Scotland. 

•204. Perrisia sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917 (v), p. 14. 

On TUia, like P. ihmnasiana, but larva milk-white. 

NoBTHUMBEELAND, Plesscy. DuRHAM, near Chester-le- 
Street; Stanhope. 

TRANS. BNT. 8O0. LOND. 1917. — PARTS H, HI, IV. (MAY '18) CO 



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382 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

205. P. tlliamvolvens (tiliae Schr., gall), RiibsaameD, 
1889-2, p. 55 {Cecidwnyia) ; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 82. 

On TUia ap. Swanton, 618; Houard, 4160. 
Durham, Castle Eden Dene. 

*206. P. tortrlx F. Loew, 1877, p. 6 (Cectdomyia) ; Kieffer. 
1913-2, p. 82. 

On (a) Prunus domealica, wild, and (t) P. spinosa. 
Houard, 3269, 3274, 3282. 

NoBTHUMBFRLAND, near Minsteracrea, {a) H. 3269 and 
3274.t YoBKSHiEE, Bardsey near Leeds. Lancashire, 
gall (a) H. 3274 only, near Lindale; Blackburn diatrict 
(G. W. Nixon), perhaps referable to P. sodalis or both 
species. Mr. Burkill, 1916, records this species from P, 
spinosa, Devon, 

207. P. traehelif Wachtl, 1885, p. 195 {Ceddotngia) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 82. 
On Campanula rolundifdia. Swanton, 796, 797 ; Houard, 
5513. 
Durham, near Wolsingham. 

•208. P. (reili Kieffer, 1909, p. 25 {gall); 1913-2, p. 82. 
On Ranunculus acris, = Cecidomyid sp. Houard, 2420, 
Northumberland, Ovingham. Durham, near Penshaw. 

209. P. (rifolii F. Loew, 1874, p. 143 {Cecidomyia] ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 82. 

Onrri/o/iuwspp. Swanton, 568, 569, 572, 577 ; Houard, 
3589-91-96-64. 
Records from all counties excepting Westmoreland. 

*210. Perrisia sp. Burkill, 1916. 

On TrifoUnm pralense. leaflets folded into a pod resem- 
bling the gall caused by P. trlfoUi, but each gall is occupied 
by a white larva. 

Durham, ncarHylton. Northumberland, Warkworth. 
Recorded by Mr. Burkill from Derbyshire. 

t Ptrrieia sodalis may alxo occur in the gail 32T4, but the presence 
of 3269 enables one to definitely record P. lortrix. 



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Preliminary Catalogue of British Ceddomyidae. 383 
*211. Perrisia sp. Burkill, 1916. 

On Trifolium repens, leaves thickened and forming a 
firm Seshy gall, with aborted buds inside, among which 
live several larvae. 

Recorded by Mr. Burkill from Surrey. 

212. p. tublcola Kiefter, 1889-1, p. 188 {Cectdomyia); 
1913-2, p. 82. 
On Cylisus scoparius. Swanton, 559 ; Houard, 3423. 
Northumberland and Durham, several records. Cum- 
berland, Keswick. Lancashire, Freshfield. 

*213. P. nUcis Kieffer, 1909, p. 31 (gall); 1913-2, p. 82. 

On Vlex, = Cecidomyid sp. Houard, 3396. 

Northumberland, between Alnmouth and Warkworth. 
Durham, Gibaide, Waldridge (gall only). LANCASHrRE, 
Grange-over-Sands (signs). Yorkshire, Bston (old galls). 

214. P. ulnuriae Bremi, 1847, p. 52 (Cecidomyia) ; Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 82. 
On Spiram JJlmaria. Swanton, 475 ; Houard, 2839. 
Common ; records from all counties. 

215. Perrisia sp. 

On Spiraea Filipendula. Perrisna ulmaria of Swanton, 
476 and Houard, 2830. Swanton (1912, p. 64) suggest* 
the name P. jiUpenduUte for this gall, but that name has 
already been used by Kieffer (1909, p. 29) for another 
species affecting the same plant. 

•216. P. ulmicola Kieffer, 1909. p. 31 (gall and larva); 
1913-2, p. 82. 

On Ulmus. 

Durham, Bummoor, Gibside, Norton. Northumber- 
land, Warkworth, rare. YoRKf^HiRE, Bardsey, near Leeds. 

217. P. urtteae Perris, 1840, p. 403 (Ceddomyia); 1913-2, 
p. 82. 
On Urticadioicn and (more rarely) on U.vrenti. Swantcn, 
312, 316 ; Houard, 2095, 2099. 
Very common everywhere. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



384 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Hamaon's 

•218. P. noeinlvonun Kieffer (nom. nov. for nux^nii 
Rubs, turn Smith); Riibsaamen, 1895, p. 258 
{Dichelomi/ia); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 82. 

On Tacdnium Myrtillua. Houard, 45W. 

DcRHAM, rare, Birtley, Waldridge. 

219. P. veronicM {chamaedrys Inchb.) Vallot, 1827, p. 93 

(Cecidomyia), Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 83. 

On Veronica Chainaedrys. Swanton, 728; Houard, 5080. 
Recorded also in Houard from the British Isles on *V. 
officinale (ullSo) and "F. serpyUifolia {5105). 

Yen- common; records from all counties. Taken by 
J. W. H. H. at Ninebanks in Northumberland on V. 
monttwa, and by R. S. B. at Warkworth on V. officinale. 

220. P. vteiM Kieffer, 1888-1. p. 105 (Cecidomyia); 

1913-2, p. 83. 

On Vicia spp. Swanton, 590, 594 ; Houard, 3731, 3696, 
*3723. 

General ; records from all counties excepting Westmore- 
land. 

221. P. violae F. Loew, 1880. p. 34 (Cecidmnyia): Kieffer. 

1913-2. p. 83. 
On Viola an-ensis. Swanton. 640; Houard, 4293. 
Dl'rha.m, Gibside, rare. Cumbeblakd, near Nenthead, 
rare. 

•222. P. virgae-aureae Liebet. 1889, p. 283 {Cecidomyia); 
Kieffer, 1913-2. p. 83. 
On SoUdaffo Viryaiirea. Houard, 5560, 5564. 
N0RTH1.-MBERLASD, near Staward. 

*223. Perrisia sp. Kieffer, 1898. 

On Solidago Virgniirea. Houard, 5559. 
Records from all counties excepting Cumberland. 

*224. P. vitis-ldaeae Kieffer, 1909, p. 31 (gall); 1913-2, 
p. 83. 
On Vaccinliim VUt.s-idaea. Houard, 4570. 
Cumberland, summit of Skiddaw. 



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Preliminary Catalogue of British Cecidomyidae. 385 

*225. PertisUsp. Bagnall and Harrieon, 1917 (v), p. U. 

On Myosotis arvensis; flower closed and slightly swollen, 
containing larva. 

Lancashire, Grange-over-Sands. Kieffer has described 
two species of Perrieia from the flower of Myosotis paluslris. 

HartigtoU Riibsaamen, 1912, p. 161. 

226. H. annuUpes Hartig (jyUiger H. Loew), 1844, p. 162 

{Cecidomyia); Kiefter, 1913-2, p. 85. 
Gall on beech-leaves. Swanton, 292; Houard, 1153. 
Records from all counties excepting Westmoreland. 

Taxomyla Riibsaamen, 1912, p. 216. 

227. T. taxi Inchbald, 1861, p. 76 {Ceddomyia); Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 86. 

On Taxus baccata. Swatiton, 14; Houard, 150. 

Northumberland, Felton. Durham, Gibaide, Fatfield, 
Birtley. Lancashire, Grange-over-feinde, Silverdale. 
Yorkshire, Gunnergate. 

Group A.HPHONDYLARIAE. 

Sehiiomyla KiefEer, 1889-1, p. 183. 

228. 5. KaUorum Kieffer, 1889, p. 184; 1913-2, p, 89. 
On Galium spp. Swanton, 746, 756; Houard, 5281, 

5248. 

Records from all counties excepting Westmoreland and 
Cheshire. 

*228a. S. Ugustrl Riibsaamen 1899-1, p. 598; Kiefter, 
1913-2, p. 89. 
In flowers of privet. Houard, 4679. 
Durham, Hemlington; Hesleden Dene. Also taken at 
Bath. 

KleOeria Mik, 1895, p. 96. 

229. K. plm^ellae F. Loew (umbellataTuin F. Loew) 

1874, p. 157; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 90. 
On UmbeUiferae spp. Swanton, 657, 666, 670 ; Houard, 
4445, 4499, 4529. 

Dubhau, abundant on a plant of * Angelica sylvestris^ 



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386 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

Lamesley; once only on PimpineUa saxifraga, Penshaw. 
On Daucus carota, Hart (J. Gardner), This species is not 
recorded in Houard on Angelica. 

Asphondylla H. Loew, 1850, p. 21. 

230. A. dorycnii F. Loew, 1880, p. 37; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 93. 
On Lhrifcnium. 

231. A. genistae H. Loew, 1850, p. 38; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 93. 
On Genista (germanica, Houard, 3345). 

*232. A. Inpultnae Kieffer, 1909, p. 14 (gall and nymph); 
1913-2, p. 93. 

On Medicago lupulina, = Aspfumdylia ap. Houard, 3506. 

Northumberland, Warkworth, Durham, Birtley ; near 
Penshaw. Cumberland, near Alston. 

233. A. mayari Liebel, 1889, p. 266; Kieffer, 1913, p. 93. 
On Cylisus scoparius. Swanton, 558; Houard, 3412. 
Northumberland and Durham, many records. Lanca- 
shire, Freshfield. 

*234. ?A. mikli Wachtl, 1880, p. 535; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 94. 

" Medicago hipulina. Perrisia sp. Seeds swollen and 
enlarged, each containing a yellow midge larva."— Burkill, 
1916, p. 5. 

Yorkshire, Burkill's record. 

*235. A. melanopus Kieffer, 1890-1, p. 31; 1913-2, p. 93. 

Seed-pods of Lotus corniculatxis, rare. Houard, 3613. 

Northumberland, Warkworth. Durham, Birtley, 
Tinkler Fell, Penshaw Hill. Lancashire, near Freshfield. 

•236. A. ononidls F. Loew, 1873, p. 139; 1913-2, p. 94. 
On Ononis repens. Houard, 3501. 

Northumberland. Warkworth. Durham, on the coast 
etween Horden and Hart. 



l„y,|,AJI^,COOl^lC 



Preliminanf Catalogue of British Ceddomyidae. 387 

*237. A. prozima Kiefter, 1909, p. 30 (larva and gall); 
1913-2, p. 94. 
On Thymxis Serpyllum, = Cecidomyid sp. Houard, 4914, 
Durham, Stanhope. Cumberland. Alston. Lanca- 
shire and Westmoreland, Hampsfell and Meathop Fell, 
near Grange-over-Sanda. 

238. A. urothsmni H. Loew, 1850, p. 38; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 94. 
On Cylisus scoparitis. Swanton, 556, 557 ; Houard, 
3414, 3422. 

Records from all counties excepting Westmoreland. 

239. A. thyml Kieffer, 1898-2, p. 59; 1913-2, p. 94. 

On Thymus Serpyllum. Swanton, 699; Houard, 4913. 
Northumberland, Warkworth. 

240. A. uUcis VerraU, 1875, p. 225 (gall); Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 94. 
On Vkx europaeus. Swanton, 552 ; Houard, 3395, 3397. 
Conunon; records from all counties. 



Group Brachyneubahiae. 
Phaenotautbla Kieffer, 1912-2, p. 2. 
♦241. P. cardui Kieffer, 1904-2, p. 346; 1913-2, p. 111. 
In galla of Trypela cardui. 
Durham, Penshaw and Edraondsley. 

BUUoIa Kieffer, 1896-3, p. 5. 

242. H. tagl {Tipuh rubra Hermann) Hartig, 1839, p. 4; 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 105. 
Gall on leaves of Fagus. Swanton, 291 ; Houard, 1151, 
Northumberland and Durham, several records. Cum- 
berland, Alston. Yorkshire, Marton. 

Lasiopteryx Stephens.t 1829, p. 240. 

243. L. obfuscaia Meigen, 1818, p. 90; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 117. 

t Doubtful genus. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



388 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

Braohyneura Rondani, 1840, p. 18 [type fuaco-grisea 
Rondani). 

244, B. slygia Walker {nee Meigen).t 

Group Cecidomyiariae (Diplosariae). 
Hormomyia H. Loew, 1850, pp. 20 and 31. 

246. H.fischeri Frauenfeld, 1867, p. 781 ; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 138. 
On Garex limosa. Swanton, 72. 

•246. H. fritenl Kieffer, 1909, p. 5; 1913-2, p. 138. 

Durham, Gibside, on Carex binervis; Birtlev Fell, on 
C.fiava. 

247. ff . yrffn(/i«, Meigen, 1804,p. 39 (Cecid<miyia); Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 138. 

*248. H. kneuokeri Kieffer, 1909, p. 5; 1913-2, p. 138. 
On Carex sleUulata. — Hormomyia sp, Houard, 368. 
Durham, Waldridge. 

Dishormomyfa Kieffer. 1912-2, p. 2. 
•249. D. oornitex Kieffer, 1898-2. p. 60 (Hortnomyia); 
1913-2, p. 139. 

On Carex slricta and C. fiava. Houard. 373. 
Durham, near Chester-le-Street. Che.shire, BidstOD 
Hill. 

Trishormomyla Kieffer, 1912-2, p. 2. 
•250. T. tuberlflca Riibsaamen, 1899, p. 603 (Hormomyia); 
Kieffer. 1913-2, p. 140. 
On Carejr spp. Houard, 376. 

Cheshire. Bidston Hill, not rare. ? Durham. Gibside, 
on C. bineri-is, and coast between Horden and Hart, on 
C. glaucn. Northumberland, Warkworth, on C. glauca. 

t See Collin, 1904, note (3). 



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Prdiminary CaifUoffue of British Ceddomyidae. 389 
Cyrtodiplosis Kiefler, 1912-2, p. 1. 

*251. C. erassiurva Kieffer, 1901-2. p. 172 (Clitwdiplosis) ; 
1913-2, p. 144. 

On Slachys sylvatica. Houard, 4859. 

Durham, Birtley, Lamesley, LambtoD and Fatfield. 

HoDartliropalpiis Rubsaameu, 1892, p. 381. 

252. M. buxi Geoffrey, 1764, p. 545 {Scatiypse); Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 150. 
Yorkshire, Nunthorpe. 

Dlehrona Riibsaamen, 1899, p. 542. 
•253. D, gallanim Rubsaamen, 1899, p. 542; Kiefier, 
1913-2, p. 151. 
On Carex app. 

NoRTHUMBBRiAND. Bamburgh, on C. dxstana. Durham, 
Waldridge, on C. fiava. Cheshire, Bidston Hill, several, 
on C atricUi. 

Arthrocnodsx Riibsaamen, 1895-2, p. 189. 
254. A.fraxindla Meade, 1888, p. 77 (Diplosis); Kieffer. 
1913-3, p. 156. 
In galla of the Eriophyid, E. fraxini, on Ash. 

Phaenobremla Kieffer, I9I2-2, p. I. 

*255. Phaenobremia sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 

208. 
Durham, West Cornforth, larvae feeding on Aphis mali 
on apple. 

Aphidoletes Kieffer, 1904-2, p. 385. 

•256, A. abletls Kieffer, 1896-2, p. 382 (Bremia); 1913-2, 
p. 164. 

Durham, in galla of Adelges abielis, Gibside. 

*257. Aphidoletes sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 229. 
Durham, in galls of Adeiges strobtlobius, Gibside; larva 
entirely red. 



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390 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

Anabramla KieiTer, 1912-2, p. I. 
*258. A. DelkToyel Kieffer, 1896-2, p. 384; 1913-2, p. 169. 

On Latkyrus pratensis. Clinodiplosis bdlevoyei, Houard, 
3774. 

Records from all counties, 

*259. A. vIclM KieSer (nom. nov.) {Clitutdiphsis longiven- 
tris larva, but- not imago), 1909, p. 32; 1913-2, 
p. 169. 
In flowers of Vida sepium. C. longivetUris, Houard, 
3694. 
Durham, Fatfield, taken by Mr. W. Hall. 

Hadrobremia Kieffer, 1912-2, p. L 
*260. H. loaglvenlris Kieffer (imago, not larva ; trifolii 
Kieffer larva, I.e. p. 31), 1909,p.34(CIt"norfipfewM); 
1913-2, p. 170. 
On Trifdium pratense. C. Irifolii Kieffer, Houard 
(supplement), 0922. 
DoKHAM, Birtley. 

Endaphls KieSer, 1896-2, p. 383. 
*261. E. perfidus Kieffer, 1896-2, p. 383; 1913-2, p. 172. 
Endoparasite of Aphis plaianoides. 
Northumberland, Warkworth. 

•262. Endaphis sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 208. 
Endoparasite of an Aphis on Ononis. 
Durham, Penshaw Hill. 

Thuraula Rubsaamen, 1899-2, p. 38. 
•263. Thuraula sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 208. 
Durham, Waldridge Fell, in leaf-sheaths of Carex 

Goodenovii, submerged. 

Syndiplosis Rubsaamen, 1910, p. 425. 
•264. S. iDDieerearum F. Loew, 1877, p. 17 {Dipiosis); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 178. 
On Viburnum Opuhts. Cant. Umicereamm, Houard, 5338. 
Northumberland, Ovingham. Durham, Fatfield, Gib- 
aide, Waldridge Fell. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lL' 



PreHminary Catalogue of British Cecidomyidae. 391 

265. 5. pe/ioi* Kieffer, 1898-2, p. 37 (ffarmandia) ; 1913-2, 
p. 178. 
On Popidus Iremula. H. petioli, Swanton, 173, 174; 
Houard, 493, 497. 

Contarlnia Rondani, 1860, p. 287. 
♦266. C. awtosu Kieffer, 1901-2, p. 31 ; 1913-2, p. 179. 

In flowers of Rumex Acetosa and AcdoseUa. Houard, 
2128, 2136. 

Northumberland, Watkworth. Durham, Greenside 
and near Lanchester; Beamish. Cheshire, Bidston Hill. 

♦267. C. anthobU F. Loew, 1877, p. 16; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 179. 

In flowers of Crataeffus OxyacarUha. Houard, 2941. 

Northumberland and Durham, several records. York- 
shire, Gunnergate. 

•268. C. barbiehei Kieffer, 1890-1, p. 29; 1913-2, p. 179. 

(a) On Lotus comicukUtts. Houard, 3617, 
Not rare ; records from all counties. 

(b) On Lotus major. Houard, 3627. 
Durham, Gibside and Tinkler Fell. 

*269. C. totaUcola Kieffer, 1889-1, pp. 155 and 171; 
1913-2, p. 179. 

On Betula (dba. Houard, 1069. 

Northumberland and Durham, several records. Lan- 
cashire, Freshfield, Grange-over-Sands. Cheshire, Bid- 
ston Hill. Yorkshire, Elston. 

270. C. betuUna Kieffer, 1889-1, p. 153; 1913-2, p. 179. 

On Belubt alba. Swanton, 192; Houard, 1076. 

Northumberland and Durham, several records. Lan- 
cashire, sandMUs near Freshfield, plentiful. Yorkshire, 
Eiston; Leeds. 

271. C. eammnulae Kieffer, 1895-3, p. 9; 1913-2, p. 180. 
On Campanula rotuiidiftdia. Swanton, 795; Houard, 

KU, 

NoBTHUMBBRLANT), Warkworth. 



n,g,t,7.dh,GoOglc 



392 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

•272. C. coryU KiefEer, 1909, p. 31 ; 1913-2, p. 180. 
On Corylus Avdlnna. = Diplosine s^t.. Honard, 1062- 
North ITMBEBLAND and Durham, several records. Lak- 
CASHiRE, Grange-over- Sands, rather rare. Westmoreland, 
Kirkby-Stephen. Yorkshire, Bardsey, near Leeds. 

273. C. craccae Kieffer, 1897-3, p. 15; 1913-2, p. 180. 

On Fw-w spp. Swanton, 589, 593 ; Houard, 3721, 3693. 
Not uncommon ; records from all counties excepting 
Westmoreland. 

*274. C. cucuball Kieffer, 1909, p. 28; 1913-2, p. 28. 
On Silene inflala. =■ CotUarinia sp., Houard, 2266. 

Durham, Birtley, Fatfield and Hytton. 

*275. C. gei Kieffer, 1909, p. 9; 191 J-2, p. 180. 

On Geum rirah. = Diplostne sp., Houard, 3091. 

Cumberland, near Nenthead. 

276. C. bellantheml Hardy, 1850, p. 187; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 180. 

On Helirmthemiiin rulgare. Swanton, 631 ; Houard, 
4269. 

Northumberland, Cheviot district (Hardy). Durham, 
Byhope, Easington, Horden and Blackhall R^cks, 
Lanl'a.shire and Westmoreland, Silverdale, Lindale, 
and U range -over- San da neighbourhood. 

277. C. taeraclel Kiibsaanien, 1889-1, p. 274; Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 180. 
On Herachum Sphondylitnn. Swanton, 668; Houard, 
451.1. 
Nobthu.mberland, Langley W'oods. Durham, Birtley, 
; Hylton and neat Washington, rare. CuM- 
I, Nenthead. 



•278. C. lalhyrl Kieffer. 1909, p. 13; 1913-2, p. 181. 

In flowprof lAilhyrxs praleti.iis. = CorUarinia sp., Houard, 
3770. 

Durham, Penshaw, a few; Lamesley, one only. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



Preliminary Catalogue of British Cecidomyidae. 393 

279. C. HnwiM Winnertz, 1853, p. 260; Kiefter, 1913-2, 

p. 181. 
On Linaria vulgaris. Swantoii, 724 ; Houard, 5028. 
Durham, Biddick and Fatfield (B. S. B. and W. Hall), 
Birtley. Lancashire, near Freshfield. 

280. C. loU De Geer, 1776, p. 420; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 181. 
(a) On Lolus comiculatus. Swant<in,583; Houard,"3614. 
Northumberland, Ninebanks. Durham, several records. ' 

Cumberland, Alston. Lanca.shibe, Birkdale, Ainsdale, 
Freshfield, in numbers. 

*{b) On Lotus major. Houard, 3625. 

Lancashire, Ainsdale, rare. Yorkshire, see Burkill, 
1916. Mr. Burkill also records this from Surrey and 
Staffordshire on L. major. 

•281. ?C. medicaginis Kieffer, 1895^, p. 150; 1913-2, 
p. 181. 

On Medicago falcata. Swanton, 562. 

The species recorded by Connold and Swanton (562), 
" Flowers and seed-pod swollen, reddish. Tjar\'ae gre- 
garious," would seem to refer to this species and (in the 
aeed-pod) Asphondylia mikit. Certainly not to C. loti. 

282. C. melanoeera Kieffer, 1909, p. 76; 1913-2, p. 181. 
On Genista iincloria. Swanton, 550; Houard, 3372. 
Durham, Gibside, plentiful. 

•283. C. nastmtii Kieffer, 1888-2, p. 263; 1913-2, p. 181. 
See Carpenter, 1911, pp. 68-71, on Brassica Rapa. 
Houard, 6701 (supplement). 

•284. C. nieolayi Bubsaamen, 189.5-1, p. 183; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 181. 

On Heracleum Sphondiflium. Houard, 4509. 

Durham, many records. Cumberland, Alston. Lan- 
cashire, Grange and Liiidale. Yorkshire, Redcar. 

•285. C. ononidis Kieffer, 1889-3. p. 93; 1913-2, p. 181. 
On Ononis repens. Houard, 3.500. 
. Northumberland, Warkworth. Durham, between 
Horden and Hart; also Kyhope. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



394 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

286^ C. pyri?ora Riley, 1886, p. 283 {Diplosis); Kiefier, 
1913-2, p. 181. 
On Pyrus communis. Swanton, 525 ; Houard, 2855, 
Durham, Wear and Derwent valleys, a few old records. 

287. C. quercina Riibsaamen (dryophila Kiefier), 1890, 
p. 21 ; Kiefier, 1913-2, p. 181. 
On Quercus. Swanton, 278; Houard, 1207. 
Durham, Gibaide, Fatfield and West Comforth. York- 
shire, Bardaey, near Leeds. 

*288. C. rubloola (Kiefier, 1908, gall and larva) Rub- 
saamen, 1910, p. 424; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 181. 

In flowers of Rulms caesitis. Houard (supplement), 6775. 

Northumberland, Warkworth. Durham, Birtley, Bid- 
dick. Lancashire and Westmoreland, near Grange- 
over- Sands. 

289. C. ruderalis Kieffer, 1890-3, p. 198; 1913-2, p. 181. 
On Sisymbrium officinale. Swanton, 403 ; Houard, 2576, 
Durham, Birtley. Yorkshire, Redcar. 

*290. C. seaUosae Kieffer, 1898-2, p. 60; 1913-2, p. 182. 

On Scafnosa Columbaria. Houard, 5463. 

Durham, near Birtley ; PenahawHill; TunBtal Hill, near 
Sunderland ; Horden and Hart. Cumberland, near Alston. 

•291. C. sooparil Rubsaaraen, 1889-2, p. 48; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 182. 

On Cy(isMS scoparius. Houard, 3421 and 3430. 

Durham, Horsleyhope and between Newbiggin and 
Rowley ; Wolsingham. 

•292. C. sorbi Kieffer, 1896-1, p, 99; 1913-2, p. 182. 

On Pyrus Aueuparia. Houard. 2909. 

Durham, Westgate. Cumberland, near Alston, 
Cheshire, Bidston. Yorkshire, Great Ayton Moor, 

293. C. steini Karach, 1881, p. 227; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 182. 
On Lychnis alba and *L. dioica. Swanton, 345 ; Houard, 
2291 and '2294. 

Records from all counties excepting Westmoreland. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



Prelimnary Catahffue of British Ceddomyiiae. 395 

294. C. tUiarum Kiefler, 1890-2, p. 193; 1913-2, p. 182. 

On Tiha platypkyllos and T. vulgaris. Swanton, 615-17, 
619; Houard, 4122-23-25-54. 

Records from all counties excepting Westmoreland and 
Cheshire. 

♦295. C. tngopogonis Kieffer, 1909, p. 30; 1913-2, p. 182. ' 
On Tragopogonpratensis.^CorUariniaRp., Houard, 6077. 
DaRHAM, Wear Valley, from Chestet-le-Street to Hylton; 

Byhope, Lancashire, Birkdale. Cheshire, Bidston. 

Yorkshire, Redcar. 

296. C. tralU Kieffer, 1889-2, p. 262; 1913-2, p. 182. 
Flowers of Pimjnnella Saxifraga. Swanton, 658 ; Houard, 

4446. 

Durham, near Penshaw, galls only, rare. 

297. C. iTemuhe Kieffer, 1909, p. 78; 1913-2, p. 182. 
On Popttlus tremula. =^ Contarinia sp., Swanton, 172; 

Houard, 502. 

298. C. trUid, Kirby, 1797, p. 246 {Cecidomyia) ; Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 182. 

*299. C. Valerianae Riibsaamen, 1890, p. 231 ; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 182. 
Valeriana sambucifiAia. Houard, 5421. 
Durham, Gibside. 

*300. C. ?ibamorum Kieffer (nom. nov. for C. vibumi 
Kieff. non Pelt), 1912-1, p. 230; 1913-2, p. 182. 

In flowers of Viburnum Opulua. 

Northumberland, Ovingham. Durham, many records. 
Cumberland, Keswick. 

*301. Contarlnia sp. Riibsaamen; Lagerheim. 

On Oalium ventm. Houard, 5288. 

DuRHA.M, Penshaw Hill. Northumberland, Hamburgh, 
Warkworth. Also from Scotland. 

•302. Contarfnia sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 229. 
On Bupleurum tenuissimum. 
Durham, Greatham. 



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396 Means. R. S. BagnaD and J. W. H. Harrison's 

Stielodiploais Kieffer. 1891, p. 28. 
303. S. ewrSm P- Loew, 1878. p. 366; Kieffer. 1913-2, 
p. 183. 
On Coryliu Af^lana. Swanton, 215; Houard, 1053. 

La>'cashibe. Grange-over- Sands, not uncommon. Dur- 
ham, wood near Fatfield. Northumberland, Warkworth 
and Ovingham. Yorkshire, Bardsey, near Leeds. 

*3M. S. hjpoeboeridb Rubsaamen, 1891, p. 52; Kieffer. 
1913-2, p. 183. 
(a) On Hypochoeris radicata. Houard, 6034. 
Records from all counties. 

(6) On Crepis biennis. Houard (supplement). 7538. 
Yorkshire, Stainton. 

305. S. )aeobaea« H. Loew, 1850, p. 29; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 183. 
On Senecio Jacobaea and *S. erucifolifU. Swanton, 841 ; 
Houard, 5865. 

Records from all counties excepting Cumberland, bui 
only once on 5. emcifolius (Cowpen-Bewley, co. Durham). 

*306. S. pUosellae Kieffer, 1896-1, p. 100; 1913-2, p. 183. 

On Hieracium Pilosella. Houard. 6197. 

Durham, Fatfield, and Tunstal Hill, near Sunderland, 
rare. 

307. S.sorophul»riae Kieffer, 1896-1, p. 100; 1913-2, p. 183. 

On ScTophularia nodosa. Swanton, 726; Houard, 5063. 

Northumberland, near Staward. Durham, Oibside, 

locally plentiful ; Fencehouaes. Lanca.shtre, Grange-over- 

Sands, rare. 

♦308. 5. umbellatarum Riibaaamen, 1910, p. 422; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 183. 
Flowers of Pimpinella magna. 
Lancashire, near Grange -over* Sands. 

Tbecodlplosis Kieffer, 1895-2, p. 194. 
309. T. braehynlera Schwagrichen, 1835, p. 162 {Cecido- 

myin]; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 184. 
On Pinus sylreslris. Swanton, 21 ; Houard, 76. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



Prdiminaty Catalogue of British Cectdomtfidae. 397 

Northumberland, neat Warkworth. DtmHAM, Tinkler 
Fell. Lancashire, Oiange-over-Sands. 

Hyrleomyia Kieffer, 1900, p. 470. 
•310. H. nuditerranes F. Loew, 1885-2, p. 485 (DtpUms) ; 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 186. 
On Erica Telralix. 

Northumberland, Blanchland. Durham, Waldridge, 
Birtley, Kilihope and Waakerley. CuMBBBLAND, Killhope. 
Yorkshire, Eaton and Ayton. 

Zeuiddiplosis Kieffer, 1904-2, p. 349. 

*311. Z. KUrdl Kieffer, 1896-2, p. 383 {Theeodiplosis 

giardiana Kieffer, 1898) ; 1913-2, p. 187. 

On (a) Hypericum perforatum and (ft) H. pulcknim. = Z. 

giardiana, Houard, 4"210, 4202. 

NoRTHUMBEBiwiND, near Staward (fc), rare. Durham, 
Gibside (a), rare. Cumberland, near Nenthead (b), rare. 

Atrtehosenu Kieffer, 1904-2, p. 347. 
312. A. aceris Kieffer, 1904-2, p. 348; 1913-2, p. 189. 
On Acer campeslris. Swanton, 606, 607 ; Houard, 4030. 

Trlehodiplosis Kieffer, 1912-1, p. 229. 
*313. T. oartsts Kieffer, 1898-2, p. 61 (Antichira); 1913-2, 
p. 191. 

In leaf-sheatha of Carex Goodenovii and C, glnuca. 
Durham, Waldridge. Northumberland, Warkworth. 
Cumberland, Alston. Cheshire, Bidaton, 

Antichirldlum Rubsaamen, 1911, p. 168 (for Antichira 
Rubs. 1911, won Eschscholz). 
*314. A. strUtiiin Riibsaamen. 1911, p. 122 (Antichira); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 192. 
In leaf-sheaths of grasses and sedges if large and coarse. 
Northumberland, Warkworth, on Varex jtenduh. 
Durham, Birtley, on Typha UtfifoUu; Oibside, on Carex 
pendula; and near Swalwell, on Phrngmites. Lanca.shire, 
near Grange-over-Sanda, on Pkragmiles. 
TRANS. ENT. 80C. LOND. 1917. — PARTS II, III, IV. (mAY '18) DD 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



398 Meflsra. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison'B 
Lestodiplosis KieSer, 1894, p. 28. 

315. i. callida Winnertz, 1853, p. 255 {Diphsis); Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 197. 

316. L. cerUralis Winnertz, 1853, p. 277 {Diphsis) ; 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 197. 

Pseudhormomyia Kieffer, 1898-2, p. 57. 

317. P. granHex Kieffer, 1898-2, p, 57-8; 1913-2, p. 204. 
On Carex aiespitosa, *C. paniculaia, *C. slrttta and 

C. flava. Swanton. 71 ; Houard, '374. 

Cheshire, Bidston Hill, on C. slricta. Durham, Birtley, 
on C.jiava. 

Taphodlplosis Kieffer, 1912-2, p. 2. 
•318. T. lubterranea Kieffer el Trotter, 1905, p. 65 (Pseud- 
hormontyia); Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 205. 

On Carex spp. Houard, 366. 

Northumberland, Hamburgh, on C. distans. Durham, 
near Lanchester, on C. divuUa ; Waldridge, on C. ftava ; 
Gibside, on C. binervis. Lancashire, Grange-over-Sands. 

Dyodlplosis Riibsaamen, 1912, p. 49. 
•319. D. arenariae Rubsaamen, 1899, p. 602 {Hormmnyia). 
On Carex arenarm. 
North u.mberl AND, Bamburgh, rare. 

Loewiola Kieffer, 1896-3, p. 5. 

320. L. centaureae F. Loew, 1870, p. 25 (Diplosis) ; Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 207. 
(a) On Centaurea nigra, very local. Swanton, 855, 856, 
Durham, Fatfield and Ryhope. Lancashire, Lathom. 
•(&) On C. Scabiosa. Houard, 599(». 
Durham, Ryhope. 
Recorded by Mr. Burkill from Surrey, on C. Scabiosa. 

Putoniell* Kieffer, 1896, p. 4. 

321. P. marsupialls F. Loew, 1889, p. 536; Kieffet, 

1913-2, p. 209. 
On Primus spinosa. Swanton, 456; Houard, 3295. 
Durham, Ryhope Dene, plentiful. 



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Preliminary Cataloffue of Brititk Ceeidomyidae. 399 

RaidodlplMis Rubsaamen, 1911, p. 393. 
•322. H. oquestris B. Wagner, 1871, p. 41; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 210. 
See Houard, 333. 

Lancashire, Grange-over-Sands, on a common grass — 
Triticum sp. or ally. Brought forward aa British by the 
late F. Enock. 

CeeMomyU *Meigen, 1803, p. 261.t 

323. C. pini de Geer,* 1776, p. 417 {Tipula); Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 215. 

324. G. flava Meigen, 1818, p. 99 {DipUms Theobald) ; 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 215. 

325. a «mia Curtis, 1827, p. 178; Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 220. 

HMTOdlplotis Kieffer, 1895-2, p. 194. 

326. M. dryoUa F. Loew, 1877, p. 14; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 223. 

On Quercus. Swanton, 279; Houard, 1306. 

NoRTUUUBERLAND and DuRHAM, Several records. Cum- 
BERLAm), Keswick. Lancashire, Grange. Yorkshire, 
Bardaey near Leeds and Nuntborpe. 

327. H. volvens Kieffer, 1904-1, p. 79; 1913-2, p. 223. 
On Quercua. Swanton, 280; Houard, 1307. 
Northumberland and Durham, several records. Cum- 
berland, Keswick. Lancashire, Grange-over-Sands, rare. 

Xenodi^ods Felt, 1911, p. 61 {= AUodiphsis Biibs. non 
Kieffer). 
*328. X.Ueviu8euliRubsaamen,1911,p.85; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 228. 
On gall of Neuroterus laevinsculus. 
Durham, Fatfield. Northumberland, Warkworth. 
Yorkshire, Bardsey near Leeds. 

t Ajlapeciee in this genus excepting the type pini are insufflciently 
deecrib«d, and therefore cannot be relegated to any known genuB. 

X Synonyms ftr« lalereHa Zett,, pihaa Btemi, and pini-maritimae 
Dup. 



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400 Meesrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harriflon's 

PsnIModiplosis Riibsaamen, 1910, p. 287. 
•329. P. gaUiperda F. Loew, 1889, p. 202 {Diplom); 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 229. 
On gall of Neurotems lefUicuIaris on Oak. 
Northumberland, Warkworth and Ovingham. York- 
shire, Nunthorpe. 

Rarmandia Kieffer, 1896-3, p. 5. 
330. H. tnmulae Winnertz, 1853, p. 263 ; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 234. 
On Populm tremi/la. Swanton, 175; Honard, 506. 
Durham, Low FeU. 

•331. H. pustulani Kieffer, 1909, p. 18 (gall), and 1912-1, 
p. 230 (larva); 19ia-2, p. 234. 
On Pojmliis tremula. = Diplosine sp., Houaid, 513. 

Yorkshire, Nunthorpe, very rare. 

Dichodlplosls Riibsaamen, 1911, p. 171. 
•332. D. lanKeni RubBaamen, 1911, p. 171 ; Kieffer, 1913-3. 
p. 235. 
On dried plums. 
Durham, Gibside. 

CUnoiUplosIs Kieffer, 1894-2, p. 121. 
•333. C. betonicae Kieffer, 1909, p. 3 ; Kieffer, 1913-2, p- ^^'^' 

In flower of Betonica officinalis. 

Northumberland, Ninebanks; Warkworth. DuJtP* 
Gibside. 

334. C. bolulaiia Winnertz, 1853, p. 266 (DipU^^' 
Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 237. 
Inquiline in galls of Perrisia fraxini. ' , 

Northumberland, near Staward. Durham, PeO»**fL 
Hill Cumberland, Alston. Yorkshire, Bardsey ** 
Leeds and Gu uncinate . 

•335. c. rosiperda Rubaaaraen, 1892-2 p 54- Ki«*^^' 
1913-2, p. 238, 

On Rosa vilhrn (abroad on Rosa centifolia ool/r ^ 
Houard, R2, 3128). 

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Prdiminary Catalogue of British Ceddomyidae. 401 

Durham, Billingbam, Latnesley and Gibside. North- 
UUBBRLAND, Ovingham. Yorkshire, Bardsey near Leeds. 

*336. C. seUechtendftU RUbsaamen, 1911, p. 16; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 238. 

On Convolwlus septum. 

Northumberland, Warkworth. Durham, between 
Wolviston and Greathara. 

Hyeodiploris Rilbsaamen, 1895-1, p. 186. 
336a. M. coniophaga Winnertz, 1853, p. 267; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 242. 

*337. Hyeodiplods sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 208. 
On the aecidia of Ur&myces jund, larva orange-red. 
Durham, Billingbam. 

•338. Mycodlplosissp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 208. 

On Crepia paludoaa, larvae otange-pink, feeding on 
Puannia major. 

Durham, Waldridge Fell. 

*339. HyeodiplMb sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917 (v), 
p. 14. 

On Cirsium arvense, larvae crimson, feeding on Puccinia 
suavoletts. 

Durham, Fatfield, Fulwell near Sunderland, Fenshaw. 

NORTHUMBBRLAND, WarkwOfth. 

*340. Hyeodlplo^ sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, 
p. 229. 
Larvae yellowish-oiange on Puccinia hieracii on H. boreale. 
Durham, Winlaton Mill. 

Hassalongla KieETer, 1897-3, p. 12. 
341. H. rubra Kiefler, 1890-3, p. 199; 1913-2, p. 246. 
On Bdula alba. Swanton, 193 ; Houard, 1075. 
Northumberland, four miles north of Morpeth ; 



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402 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Haniaon's 

Ninebanks. Durham, Gibside, Waldridge, Tinkler Fell, 
Urpeth, Castle Eden dene. Cheshire, Bidstoo Hill, local, 
Yorkshire, E^ton Moor ; Leeds. 

Ametrodlplosis Riibsasmen, 1911, p. 278. 
342. A. thalictricola Riibaaamen, 1895-1, p. 257; Kieffer, 
1913-2, p. 246. 
On Tkaliclrum minus and jlatmm. Clinadtj^osis thalic- 
tricola. Swanton, 356, 358; Houard, 2441, 2448; and on 
* T. flexuosum, Houard, 2451. 

Honodiplosls Riibsaamen, 1910, p. 289. 
*343. H. llebell KiefEer (Schizomyia sociabUis Riibs.), 
1889 (-1), p. 174; 1913-2, p, 248. 
Living in galls of Macrolabis dryobia and volvens. 
Northumberland, Ovingham, with M. voh-ena. Dur- 
ham, Gibside, Fattield, with M. dryobia. 

Atylodjplosis Rubsaamen, 1910, p. 338. 
*344. A. rumjcii H. Loew, 1850, p. 190; Kieffer, 1913-2, 
p. 257. 
In flowers of Rmnex AceloseUa. Houard, 2128. 
General and sometimes common ; records from all 
counties excepting Westmoreland. 



Group PoRRITONDYLAKIAE. 
Dirhita H. Loew, 1850, p. 21. 

345. D. rhodopUla Hardy, 1850, p. 186 {Cecidomyia); 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 269. 
Northumberland and Durham, several records. See 
No. 185. 

Porrlcondyla Rondaoi, 1840, p. 14. 

346. P. hngipes H. Loew, 1850, p. 38 {Epidoais); Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 272. 

Winnartila Rondani, 1860, p. 287. 

347. [W. teneUa Walker, 1856, p. 129 {Asynapla); Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 283. 



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Prdiminary Catalogue of British Cecidomyidae. 403 
Subfamily LBSTREMINAE. 

Group Campylomyzariae. 
Csmpylomyza Meigen,f 1818, p. 102 (also 1830). 

348. [C. aceris Meigen, 1818, p. 102; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 296. 

349. [C. btcoloT Meigen, 1818, p. 102; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 296. 

350. [C. flavipes Meigen, 1818, p. 102; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 297. 

351. C. ghbifera Haliday in Walker, 1856, p. 62; Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 297. 

352. [C. hatlerala Zctterstedt, 1852, p. 43.51; Kieffer, 

1913-2, p. 297. 

Amblyspatha Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 299. 
•353. A. ormerodi Kieffer, 1913-la, p. 52; 1913-2, p. 300. 
Only known from Scotland. 



Group Lestbemiabiae. 
Catoclia Haliday, 1833, p. 156. 

354. [C. brennernn Zetteratedt, 1851, p. 3770 ILeslremia) ; 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 307. 

355. C. latipes Haliday, 1833, p. 156; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 307. 

Lettremia Macquart, 18^6, p. 173. 

356. L. camea H. Loew, 1844, p. 324 (Cecidomyia) ; 

Kieffer, 1913-2, p. 308. 

357. [L. cinerea Macquart, 1826, p. 173; Kieffer, 1913-2, 

p. 308. 

t Due to iiwufficiency of deseriplion, many of the Bpeciea in 
KieSer's liat are doubtfully included in tlic genus, doubtless including 
eome, if not all, of tbe abuve. 



ll,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



VH Memn. R. 8. Bsgnall and J. W. H. HftTriaon's 

VjH. L./u»raMeigen, 1830,p.309; Kieffer, 1913-3. p. 3U8. 

3ij!). L. leiicnphaea Meigen (Juniperina Fabr. non linn), 
1818, p. ;i88 iSciara); Kieffer, 1913-2. p. 308. 

BubfamUy HETEROPEZISAE. 
(!<>nuH MiAHTOR Meinert, 1864, p. 42 ; EieSer, 1913-2, p. 313. 
*3ri<).A HUilor Bp. Bagtiall and Harrison, 1918, p. 61. 
UiFKiiAM, Hirtley, increasing paedogenetically. 



The f(»lIowin(( cloven CeciAomyid spp. are recorded in 
Kwiiiiton'tt Itrititth Catalogue. 

;i(SO. ('fruhmyitl ap. Swanton, 1901. 
On OphioglonHum vulgtiftim. Swanton, 9. 

301. (\iulnmyul sp. Fitch, 1883. 
i)\\ J Hni[ierHS communis, ^wanton, 12; Houard, 134' 

3(12. (Widomifid ap. Zimmerniann, 19(17. 
On i'mUiHPti mtn-n. Swanton, 289; Houard, 1167- 

363. Cvoldomyid sp. Trail, 1878. 
{)i\ Atitliyllus Viihternria. Swanton, 583; Houard, 360*- 
1)||RIIA.M, Hirtley. 

361. (Wi<hmuulap. Trail, 1878; Kieffer, 1901. 
On Vv-iii .tylmlim, Swanton, 591 ; Houard, 3730. 

3li'i. Ceoidomyid sp. Binnie, 1877, and others. 

On Aiii/rh'fii .tijhvfilrvi. Swanton. 66i; Houard, ^^ "i . 

DrmiAM, Vigo; Hillingham, in countless thou*^" ' 
l>tiiiiei4loy. YoRKsHiRK, tireat Ayton. 



306. r,rii!iw!fiil sp. IJebel, Kieffer and others. 
On Vrii'iiiiii strpitlliftJii). Swanton, 737; Houard, 

367. (Wi,lo„i>/i,l »p. Trail. 1878; Kieffer. 1901. 
On tlolium bomile. Swanton. 744; Houard, 5196. 



ih,Cooi^lc 



eitfi. 



PrfHiminary Catalogue of British Ceddomyidae. 405 

368. Ceddrnnyidti^. Trail, 1878; Kieffer, 1897; 1901. 
On Galium Aparine. Swanton, 764 ; Houard, 5304. 

369. Dlploslssp. Trail, 1878; Kieffer, 1901. 

On Valeriana sambucifolia. Swanton, 783; Houard, 
542-2. 
Durham, Waldridge. 

Zlfi. CMldomyld sp. Trail, 1878; KieSer, 19(11. 
On Senecio Jacobaea and S. aquatica. Swanton, 842, 
845; Houard, 5864, 5a58. 

Northumberland and Durham, several records. 

■k * * * * * 

The following three species are shown in Houard as from 
the British Isles, but not in Swanton. 

*371. Ceddomt/id ap. Trail, 187^; Kieffer, 1901. 
On Rhinanfhm Crista-galli. Houard, 5129. 

*372. Ceddomyld 8p. Kieffer, 1901. 
On Tkalidrum dunense. Houard, 2456. 
Northumberland, Watkworth. 

*373. Cecidomyid sp. Kieffer, 1901. 
On Rosa sptnosissima. Houard, 3237. 

The following species are new or recent records. 

•374. Ceeidomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 230. 
On Gmim urbanum, flowers remaining closed. 
Durham, Norton and Fencehouses. 

*375. Ceoidomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1916 (iii), 
p. 203. 
On Betula alba. 
Durham, Waldridge and Gibside, 

•376. Ceeidomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1916 (iii), 
p. 203. 
Seeds of Trolliits europaeus. 
Durham, Billingham. 



n,g,t,7.dhvC00glc 



406 Messrs. R. S. Bi^alJ and J. W. H. Hftrriaon'B 

*377. CecidomyidBp. Burkill, 1916, p. 7. 
Salix aurUa and S. aurita cinerea, $ catkins. 
Recorded by Mr. Burkili from DerbTshire. 

*378. ! CHldomyld sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1916 (iii), 
p. 203. 
Pod of Cylisits scoparius; cauaer doubtfully Cecidomyid. 
Records from NoRTUUMBERLANDaand Durham. 

*379. Ceddomyld sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917 (v), 
p. 15. 
Acorns of Quercus Robur and ceirU. 
Records from Durham, Yorkshire and Lancashire. 

•380. Csoidomyld Bp.f Bagnall and Harrison, 1916 {iii), 
p. '203. 

In seeds of Geranium pralense and G. sylmliaim with 
Das. geranii, larvae bright orange-red to red. 
Records from Northumberland and Durham. 

•381 . Ceeldomyid sp. ( ? P. geranii). B^nall and Harrison, 
1916 (iv), p. 2ry2. 
In seeds of Geranium dissecium; larva yellow. 
Durham, Fatfield. 

•382. Ceoldomyld sp. ( ? P. geranii) Bagnall and Harrison, 
1916 (iv), p. 252. 
In seeds of Geranium molle; larva yellow. 
Yorkshire, Redcar. 

•383. Csoldomyld sp. ( ? P. geranii). Bagnall and Harrison, 
1917-3, p. 230. 
In seeds of Geranium pmillum. 
Northumberland, Warkworth. 

•384. Ceiddomyld sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1916 (iii), 
p. -203. 

In Sowers and amongst seeds of Geranium pusiUum; 
larA'a almost transparent lemon-yellow. 

Lancashire, Freshfield and Ainsdale, i 



I regaid to these Ger&niam 



l„y,l,Ajl^,COOl^lC 



Prdiminary CaUdogue of British Cecidomi/idae. 407 

*385. CMidomyld sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1916 (iv), 
p. 252. 

Erodium cicutarium, in flowers and amongst seeds; 
larvae creamy-yellow. 

Yorkshire, Redcar. 

*386. Ceeldomyld sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1916 (iv), 
p. 252; 1917-2, p. 207. 
On Pimpinella Saxifraga. 
Durham, Fenshaw HiU. 

•387. CMldomyld sp. (Perrisia sp.). Bagnall and Harrison, 
1916 (iii), p. 200. 
On Vaccinium Myrlillvs. Houard, 4566. 
Cumberland, Skiddaw, Durham, Gibside. 

*388. Csoidomjrid sp. ( 1 Janetidia). Bagnall and Harrison, 
1916 (iv), p. 252. 
On Euphrasia officinalis. 
HeconiB from all counties ; local. 

*3S9. Ceeldomyid sp. B^nall and Harrison, 1916 (iv), 
p. 252. 
On Atriplex paluta. 
Records from Yorkshire and Durham. 

•39a Ceddomyid ap. Burkill, 1916, p. 7. 
On Slachys ■paluslris. 
Recorded by Mr. Burkill from Derbyshire. 

•391. Cealdomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 230. 
On Slachys lanaia. 
Durham, in a garden at Fenshaw. 

•392. Ceddomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, I9I6 (iii), 
p. 203. 
On Camjxirivla rotuvdtfolia. 
Records from Durham and Cumberland. 

•393. Ceddomyid ap. Burkill, 1916, p. 8. 
On AdiiUea MUUfoUum. 
Recorded by Mr. Burkill from Sussex. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



408 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 



•394. Ceeidomyid sp. Bagnall and HamBon, 1917-2, p. 230. 
On Achillea Millefolium. 
Durham, Hart. 

*39[>. CsaldDmyid sp. Bagnall and Hamson, 1916 (iii), 
p. 203. 
On Taraxacum officinale. 
Northumberland, Ninebanks. 

*396. Cvcidomyld sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1916 (iii), 
p. 203. 
In Hieracium boreale seeds. 
Durham, Birtley Fell. 

*397. Ceoldomyld ap. Bagnall and Hamson, 1917-3, p. 230. 
Laivae feeding on mildew on Oak, yellowish. 
Northumberland, Warkworth. Durham, Gibdde. 

*398. CeeMomyld sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 230. 

Larvae feeding on mildew on rose; yellonish. 

Durham, Oibside. Known to the late Dr. Hardy 
(Hardy, 1850). 

•399. Cvcldomyld ap. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 230. 
Yellow larvae in galls of Andricus fecundaior, 
Northumberland, Warkworth. Durham, Winlaton 

Mill. 

*4(HI. Ceeidomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 230. 
I^rva milk-white, in leaf-sheaths of a small Carex. 
Durham, Waldridge Fell. 

*401. Ceoidomyld sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 230. 

I>arva white, red at each end; in leaf-sheaths of a small 
Carex. 

Durham, Waldridge Fell. 

•402. CeofdomyEd sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1907-3, p. 230. 
Larvae bright rose-red, under leaf-sheath of Carex fiava. 
Durham, Birtlev Fell. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Preliminan/ Caialoffue of British Ceddomtfidae. 409 

*iaZ. CMidomyld sp. Cotte, 1912. 

Thomlike gall on Galium verum. Houard (supplement}, 
7372. 

Durham, Penshaw and Seaton Carew, rare. Records 
from Scotland (Forth area), where it is plentiful. 

*404. Ceeidomyld ep. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 209. 

On Tkcdifirwn dunense. See Houard, 2443. 

NorthumbesljUxv, Warkworth. Durham, coast near 
Hart. Also from Scotland. 

■405. Cecidomyid ap. Bagoall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 

209 (o). 

*406. CecidomywL sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 

210 (t). 

On Aaragalus kypoghllis. 
Records from Scotland. 

*407; Cetidomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 210. 
I^rva yellow, in spikelets of PMeum ■pralense. 
Durham, Penshaw. 

*408. Cseldonvid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 210. 
Minute yellow larva in the spikelet of Poa sp. 
Northumberland, Ninebanks. 

•409.. CKidomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-2, p. 210. 
Larvae in spikelets of Dadylus gUymerala. 
Durham, Penshaw and Edmondsley. 

*410. C«idomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 229. 

On privet, flowers remaining closed, leathery, containing 
a solitary orange-yellow larva. Not Sclnzomyia liguslri of 
Riibsaamen. 

NoKTUUHBEBLAND, Warkworth. 

*4n. Cecidomyid sp. Bagnal! and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 230. 
On dead fungus- attacked seed-cases of Lapsana. 
Durham, Gibside. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



410 MeBBTfl. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 

•412. Ceoidomjid ap. Tavarea, 1907. 

On Oak. Houard, 1306a. 

NoRTHUMBERLuUJD, Warkwoitt. Durham, Fatfield. 
Lamcashihe, Grange-over-Sands. 

MIS. Cwldomyld sp. ( ? CorUarinia). Bagnall and HarrUon, 
1917-3, p. 229. 
On Angelica sylveatris. 
DuKHAM, Billingham. 

*414. CMldomyld sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 229. 

Minute rose-red larvae on dead seed-cases of Scropkulana 
nodosa. 

Northumberland, between Warkworth and Alnmouth. 
Durham, Gibside. 

•415. Ceoldomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 229. 

Yellow-orange larvae feeding and pupating under the 
epiderm of stems of Heradeum Sph<mdylium growing in 
marshy place. 

Durham, Gibside. 

'*'416. Cecidomyld sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 229. 

Pale reddish larva feeding externally on what look like 
parenchymatous galls on Lonicera. 

Northumberland, Warkworth. 

•417. Cvcldomyid sp. (f = Lasioptera sp.). Bagnall and 
Harrison, 1917-3, p. 228. 

A rather large bright salmon-coloured larva feeding in 
spikelets of Carex vesicaria. 

Durham, Billingham. 

•418. Ceotdomjrid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p. 230. 

On Helianthemuvi Chamoedslus, flower remaining closed, 
larva solitary, pinkish -yellow. Houard, 4267. 

Durham, coast between Horden and Hart. 

•419. Ceoidomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1917-3, p.230. 
Larvae semi-transparent, whitish, sometimes with yellow- 
ish tinge, feeding gregariously in the inner leaf-sheaths of 
Carex gUtuca. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Prdiminary Catahgue of British Ceddomyidae. 411 

NoBTHUMBBBLAND, Dear Warkworth. Durham, coast 
between Horden and Hart. 

*420. Ceeldoinyld sp. Bagoall and Harrison, 1918, p. 61. 
On Achillea Ptmmica. 
YoRSSHiRB, Bardaey near Leeda. 

*421. Ceeldomyidsp. Houard, 5450. 
On KnatUia arvensis, leaf pustules. 
NoKTHtiMBKRLAND, OvingtOD. DuRHAM, Ryhope. 

*422. CMidomyid sp. Houard, S. 60. 

On Salix. 

NoRTUUMBERLAMD, Ovingham on S. aurita. Durham, 
Easisgton on S. Caprea. 

*423. CMldomyid sp. Bagnall and Harrison, 1918, p. 61. 
In rotting turnips. 
Durham, Birtley. 



II. Check List op Named SreciEs. 

CECIDOMYIDAE. 

Subfamily CECIDOMYINAE. Genus Sletaniella Kieffer. 

Group Lasioftbbabuk. 1- S. brevipalpiB Kioffer. 

Genus CUnorrhnielu H. ,, . . < „ ,.. < . 

Log„ ^ Genus Ladoptera (Meigen). 

1. C. chrn^anlhemi H. Loew. '■ f »«""P«»r* M^!««»- 

2. C. miOefolii Wachtl. f ■ f ■ »'■""'*""* ^.^'.""^ ■■ ., 

3. C. UamTUhemi KieSer. '■ ^- calamagrost^u RubsM- 

Gmua Trotlerla Kieffer, 
= CAon'^oncura (praeocc.) Riibs. 

1. T. gain Rubsoamen. 

2. T. mrothamni (Kieffer). Group Ouootkophabiak. 



3. T. umbdU/eranim Kieffer. 
Genus Baldratia KielTer. 
I. B. aalieormtu Kieffer. i. N. rhodophaga Cuquillett. 



[Genuf 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



412 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 



Genus RboiahttnyU Rabsaa- 

1. fl. miOffoiii (H. Loew). 
= aehiUeae Inclibald. 

2. B. lanaeelicola (Karech). 

GeDUB Hlsopatha Kiefier. 
i. if. fiorum (KielTer). 

2. M. foliorum (H. Loew). 
= abrolani Trail. 

3. M.plarmicae {VMot). 
= fiorica Winnerti. 

4. M. gyageneaiae (H. Loew). 

Otavm AreeuthaniyU Kiefier. 

1. A. valtni CVavarea). 

Genue OUgotropliUS Latreille.* 

1. 0. jutaperinas (LinnS). 

2. 0. pante/i Kieffer. 

3. 0. alopecuri Reuter. 

4. O. burgariua (Bremi). 

5. O. fagijtfua Kieft^T. 

6. O. hartigi {UeM). 

7. O. Teaaimtrianus (F. Loew). 

8. O. lympanifex Kieffer. 

9. 0. ulrai Kieffer. 

10. O, hewianua Kieffer. 

Genua PhyctidObia Kieffer. 

I. P. so/nwt {Kieffer). 
Genus Hlkomylk Kieffer. 

I. if. cori/K (Kieffer). 

Genus S«mudobia Kieffer. 

I. S. betulae (VVinnertz). 

Genua Itoomyla Kieffer. 

1. I. capnae (Winnertz). 

2. /. ma^r (Kieffer). 

Genua Janetiella Kieffer. 

1. J. fanwei (Kieffer). 

2. J. l/iymi (Kieffer). 

3. J. Ihgmkola (Kieffer). 

4. J. lubtrculi Rlibaaamen. 



Genus ^rgoUa KieS«r. 
1. Z. carpini (F. Laev). 

Genua Cnuieiobia Kieffer. 
1. C. comi (Giraud). 

Genus Phegobla Kieffer. 
I. P. Umtatttta (Bremi). 

Genua MayetloU Kieffer. 

1. M. avenat (Marchal). 

2. «. rfnrfyitrfw Kieffer. 

3. if. ikilraelor (Say). 

4. M. hoki Kieffer. 

5. M. joaimisi Kieffer. 

6. M. venlricola RiibsoaDiai. 

7. M. kordei Kieffer.-f 

Genua Chorlomyia Kieffer. 
\. C. hMwigi (RiibBaamen). 

2. C moliniae (Riibsaamen). 

3. C. poae (Boac). 

4. C. radicifica (Riibsaamen). 

Genus CysUphon Kieffer. 

1. C.hUracii{F. Loew). 

2. C. laraiaci Kieffer. 

3. C. Ifonlodmitia Kieffer. 

4. C pUoi^iat Kieffer. 

5. C. aonchi (f . Loew). 

Genus Haorolabls Kieffer. 

1. Jf. corragaria (F. Loen). 

2. if. hieracii Kieffer. 

3. if. hippocrepidia Kieffer. 

4. M. jnartdi Kieffer. 

5. M. piioaeUae (Binnie). 

6. if. 8(eUarta«(Liebel). 

Genua Arnoldia Kieffer. 

1. A. qnercicoia Kieffer. 

2. ^. guercua (Binnie). 

Genus G«oerypt« Kieffer. 

\. Q. braueri (Handlirsch). 



• Tlie first two species truly belong to tlua genus aa now 1 
but all tbe otiier H|)Ccies arc placed here temporarily. 

f Tbe generic position of this species is not yet certain. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



Preliminary Catahffue of British Cecidomyidae. 413 



Genus Rhtbdopluiga We«twood. 

1. A. ofin'pfnnig (H. Loew). 

2. B. cUtvifex (Kieffer). 

3. R. dttbiomt Kieffer, 
= dubia Kieffer, 

= griaeicoUit Zett. no» 
Heigen. 

4. It. giraudiana Kieffer, 

= aalieiperda Giraud noH 
Dufuur. 

5. B. hflerMa (H. I>oew), 
= ^igiia Hardy. 

6. R. iieobia (Kieffer). 

7. B. iwwAi (Kieffer). 

8. B. margiiifmioTiitiens (Win- 

fl. fl. nerrorum (Kieffer), 
= nodali Biibfia&men. 

10. B. piercEi (Kieffer). 

11. B. pteiutoeoecus RubeaaaieB. 

12. B. patvini Kieffer, 

= gnluina Glraud turn 

Schrank. 
= T Hugi H. Loew non 

Meigen. 

13. R. roiaria H. Loew, 
= Mlicina Auct, 

^ cinemirum Hardy. 

14. B. Toaarietla Kieffer. 

15. B. galifiperda (Dufour), 
= lerfbnirti H. l^oew. 

16. B. miticia (.Schmnk), 
= digeeri Bremi. 

17. A. jiipema Kieffer. 

IS. it. terminatia (H. Loew). 

GenuH Pairisla Rondani. 

1. /*. oiic/iperda (Heiuichel). 

2. /*. ac«rcri«paiM (Kiellcr) and 

var. rubeUa (Kieffer.) 

3. P. aerophUa (WinnertE). 

4. P. oy^TiM (Kieffer). 

5. P. alni (F. Loew). 

6. P. alpina (F. Liiew). 

7. P. anglica Kieffer. 

8. P. aparinea (Kieffer). 

9. P. aiicupariae Kieffer. 

10. P. ajMirig Kieffer. 

11. P. balhlM (Rubsaamcn). 

12. P. beckiana (Mik). 

13. P. braaticae (VVinnerIz). 

14. P. bnmdUK Kieffer. 

15. P. brgtmiat (Bouc)i^). 

TRAK8. EKT. SOC. LOND. 1917.- 



16. P.campanulae{Rab6iMmBo). 

17. P. capiligena {Brtmi). 

18. P. eardamintt {Witmertz). 

19. /•. cn'a<(H(Binnie). 

20. P. rt>ni(Riib8aamen). 

21. P. amtpoaitarum {KAefln). 

22. P. con/lina Kieffer, 
=3 coryli Riibeaaoien. 

23. P. erataegi (Winnerti). 

24. P. daphnes Kieffer. 

25. P. engglfeldi (Rubeaainen). 

26. P. Epifo6.i(F. Loew). 

27. P. erieina iF. Utev). 

28. P. fUkina (Kieffer). 
2D. P. fionperda (F. Loew). 

30. P. fioiculorum (Kieffer). 

31. P. /rajTinai Kieffer. 

32. P. fraiini Kieffer. 

33. P. /rtiduum (Riilieaamen). 

34. P. gaieobdokmlis (Winnertz). 
33. P. gain {a. Loew). 

36. P. galiieola F. Loew. 

37. P. ^enM<anifoi^e>M(Kieffer) 

38. P. genidicola (F. Loew). 

39. P. gentianat Kieffer. 

40. P. gtranii Kieffer. 

41. P. fffcfiowuw (Kieffer). 

42. T P. gli/cipki/Ui RUbaaamen. 

43. P. holosleae Kieffer. 

44. P. hffgrophita {m^L). 

45. P. Ayperic."(Bremi). 

46. P. ignorata (Waclitl), 
= medicaginia Bremi, 

= onobrychidis F. Loew non 

47. P. inchbMiana (Mik), 
= ? daugitia BreDli. 

48. P. inrJUMi (Frauenfeld). 

49. P. tiel/en Marclml. 

50. P. hie/feriaHa (Kiibeaamen). 

51. P. Utmii Kieffer. 

52. P. laricig F. I»ew, 
= keUneri Henscliel. 

63. P. lalAgn Kieffer. 

54. P. kUkyricaUi (Riilmaaiiieu). 

55. P. libera Kieffer. 

56. P. fo(Aan"n(jiae (Kieffer). 

57. P. loti Kieffer. 

58. P. /oltco^ (Riilwaamen). 
50. P. hipuUme Kieffer. 

60. P. Iffch^UU IH^ydm). 

61. P. mtJj Kieffer. 

62. P. malpighii Kieffer. 

63. P. «»jtii Kieffer. 

-PAETS II, III, IV. (may '18) EE 



u,y,i,Ajh,Cooglc 



414 Messrs. B. S. BagnaU and J. W. H. Harrison's 



64. P. muricatat (Meade), 

65. P. jttrvieola Kieffer. 

66. T P. onobrychidit Bremi, 
= gimudi Frauenfeld. 

67. P. papaveria (Winnertz). 

68. P. pmcl^menHRnhBoamm). 

69. P. perskariaf (LiimS), 

70. P. plieatrix (H. Locw). 

71. P. folygaiae Kieffer. 

72. P. popufc/t(RubBaainen). 

73. P. ■poteidiOae (Wachti). 

74. P. praiicola (Kieffer). 

75. P. pleridicola (Kieffer). 

76. P. pMtulane {Rvibamiaen). 

77. P. pyri (Bouch^). 

78. P. pierrcana Kieffer, 

79. P. ranimeuli {Bremi). 

80. P. raphaniefri (Kieffer). 

81. P. ThododtndToni Kieffer. 

82. P. Toaariiitt (Hardy). 

83. P. rosirupiana Kieffer. 

84. P. rubaaanuni Kieffer, 

85. P. aalicariat (Kieffer). 

86. P. Mtiffaisorbae (Kieffer). 

87. P. saOiosae (Kieffer). 

88. P. achkchleiidali (Kieffer), 
8fl. P. achmidli Riibaaamen. 

90. P. «erolina (Winnertz). 

91. P. ailmaila Kieffer. 

92. P. similia (F. Loew). 

93. P. msymbni (ticliranck). 

94. i P. mdalia (V. Laev.). 

95. P. gtadiydis (Bremi). 

96. P. glrobi (Winnertz). 

97. /*. (e/enstfRiibsaamen). 

98. P. lelrakil Kieffer. 

99. P. Ihomasiana (KiefieT), 

100. P . liliamvolveitB (RUbaaa- 

= tiliae iSchranck, 

101. P.lorlrirlF. I.oew). 

102. P. tracheliHWacM). 

103. P. train Kieffer. 

104. P. Mfolii (F. Ijoen). 

105. /■.(u6(coia (Kieffer). 
I0«. P. vlieia Kieffer, 
107. P. vlmariae (Bremi). 
loa P. ulmicola Kieffer. 

109. P. urtUae (PerriM). 

110. P.wiwwuwMm Kieffer, 
= vaecinii Riibaaamen m 

i^mith. 



111. P. veronieae (Vallot), 

= chamaedryt Inchbald. 

112. P. vtctiM (Kieffer), 
in. P.violae{F. Loew). 

114. P. virgae-aurtae (Uebel). 

115. P-vUie-idataeKieBer. 

116. P. lilhofpermi H. Loew. 

117. P. panf^i Kieffer, 

OenuB HartiglolS Riibeaameo. 
I, H. anmdipa (Hartig), 
= pHifffr H. Loew, 

Genus Taxomjris Rubea*men. 
1. T. taxi (Inchbald). 

Group ASPHONDYLARIAF. 

Genus SchiiomyU Kieffer. 

1. S. po/ioT-iim Kieffer. 

2. S. Iigu4lri Riibsaanien. 

Genua KieOeris Hik, 



Genus Asphondylla H. Loen-. 

1. ^. dorycnii V. Luew. 

2. A. genUtae H. Loew. 

3. A. lupalinat Kieffer. 

4. A. moueri Liebel. 

5. A. tniki Wacbtl. 

6. A. mtlaaopue Kieffer. 

7. A. (Monidie F. Loew. 

8. A. proximo Kieffer. 

9. A. sarothamni H. Loew. 

10. -i.%mt Kieffer. 

11. A. u/tcM Verral. 

Group Brachynkhkaeub. 
Genus PhMnatsuthla Kieffer. 
1, P. cardui Kieffer. 

Genua HJklola Kieffer, 
1. Jf./a^"(Hartig), 

= Tipula rubra Hermann. 

Genus Brschjmeun Rondani. 
1. A slygia Walker (n«; 
Meigen).* 



• See Collin, 1904, note 3. 



u,y,l,/eJt,G00t5lc 



Prdiminary Catahgue of British Ceddomyidae. 415 



Group CEciDOHnABUB. 
Genue Harmomyia H. Loew. 

1. H. /M^W Frauenfeld. 

2. ff./rirentKieffer. 

3. H. grandis (Meigen). 

4. H. knmckeri Kieffer. 

GenuB Dishormomyia Kie&er. 
1. D. comi/tt (Kieffer). 

Genna Trisbormomyia Kieffer. 
I. T. tvitHfica (RUbBaamen). 

Geniu Cyrtodiplosls Kieffer. 
1, C. crasstnerva (Kieffer). 

Genus HoBarthrop«lpus RQb- 

1. M. bazi (Geoffrey). 

Genua Dlchrona Rubea«nien. 
I. D. gaOaram Rubaaamen. 

Genus Arthroenodax RUbsaa- 

1. A.fTaxinella (Meade). 

Genus Aphldoletes Kieffer. 
1. A. abi^is (KiefTer). 

Genus Anataemla Kieffer. 

1. ^.brffeMjyi (Kieffer). 

2. A. viciae KieRei, 

=. Clinodiplona longiventrU 
Kieffer (larva, not imago). 

Genua Hadrobremla Kieffer. 
1. H. hngiventrig Kieffer, 
= ClinodijiIoeM trifolii Kief- 
fer (larva, not imago). 

Genus Endaphts Kieffer. 
1. E. perfidtit Kieffer. 

Genus SyndlplosiS Riibsaamen. 

1. S. lonkertarum (F. I»ew). 

2, 8. p^ieii (Kieffer). 



Genus Contkrinla Bondani. 

1. C. acdoaae Kieffer. 

2. O. ajitbobia F. Loew. 

3. C. barbickei Kieffer. 

4. C. bflulicola Kieffer. 

5. O. betidina Kieffer. 

6. C. eampamilae Kieffer. 

7. C. corsit Kieffer. 

8. C. craccae Kieffer. 

9. C. cucubtdi Kieffer. 

10. (7. sei Kieffer, 

11. C. hdianthemi (Hardy). 

12. C. heraelfi Riibeaamen. 

13. C. lalhyn Kieffer. 

14. C. linariae (Winnerti). 
16. C. hli (De Geer). 

16. T C. mfdicaginis Kieffer. 

17. C. jnekmocera Kieffer. 

18. C. naetUTtii Kieffer. 

19. C. nicoiajfi Riibsaamen. 

20. C. tnumidit Kieffer. 

21. C, pyrivora (Riley). 

22. C. qutreina Riibsaamen, 
= dryophila Kieffer, 

23. C. nOicola (Kieffer) RUbs. 

24. C. nuUrrdia Kieffer. 
26. C. gcabioeae Kieffer. 

26. C. acopuHi Riibsaamen. 

27. C. #of6i Kieffer. 

25. C. «f«ini Karsoh. 

29. C. tiliarum Kieffer. 

30. C. tragopogoaie Kieffer. 

31. C. (roi(i Kieffer. 

32. C. tremulae Kieffer. 

33. a Iriiiei (Kirby). 

34. G. vaierianat Riibsaamen. 

35. C. vihruTUomm Kieffer, 

= vibami Kieffer Turn Felt. 

Genus SUctodlplO^ Kieffer. 

1. S. corylina (F. Loew). 

2. 8. hypodiotridis (Rubsaa- 

3. S. jaaAaeae (H. Loew). 

4. S. piloidlae Kieffer. 

5. S. aeropkulanae Kieffer. 

6. 8. umbeOalarum RUbsaamen, 

Genus Thecidodiplosis Kieffer. 

1. T. brackyrUera (SchwSg- 
richen). 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



416 Messrs. R. S. Bagn&U and J. W. H. Harrison's 



GenuB Hyrioomyis Kieff«r. 
I. M. medUerranea (F. Luew). 
Genua Zeuxidiplosls Kiefler. 
1. Z. ffwrrft (Kieffer), 
= giarduma Kieffer. 

Genua AtrlchoselU^ KiefTer. 
1. A.acerisKieSleT. 
Genus TrichodiplosiS Kj«fTer. 
1. r. carim (Kieffer). 

Genua Anticblrldium RUbsaa- 

= ^n/tcAi>aRilbsaamenntm 

KacliHcholz. 
1. A. ttriatiim (Rubeaamen). 

Genua Lestodiplosis Kieffer. 

1. £. coHiiia (Winnertz). 

2. L. ctiiiralie (Winnertz). 



Haerodiplosls Kieffer. 

1. M. dryobia (F. Loew). 

2. Jtf. volvtns Kieffer. 

Genus Xenodip[osls Felt, 

— Allodiplogig Riibsaamen 

turn Kieffer. 

1. X. laeviuxtili (Riibeoamen). 

Genua Pwallelodlpla^ Riib- 

aaamen. 
I. P. gatiiperda (F. LoewJ. 
Genus Hsrmuidis Kieffer. 

1. H. Iremviof. (Winnertz). 

2. H. puaulans Kieffer. 

(ienu9 ClinodiploslS Kieffer. 

1. C. belonieae Kieffer. 

2. C. bolularia (Winnertz). 

3. C ro«tp<nia (RiibsaaitKn). 

4. O. scUechlendali RQbsaamen. 



Genua Pseudhofinomyia Kieffer. '^™"" Myeoilpl"!* Rubsaameo. 
1. P. granifex Kieffer. 
Genus Tftpho4[plosis Kiefler. 
I. T. subtermnta (Kieffer tt 
Trotier). 

Genus Dyodlplosls Rubaaamen. 
1. i*. (imiariCTe (Rubsaamen). 

Genua Lo«Wio|g Kieffer. 
I. L. renlmiTtat (V. Jxtevi). 
Genua Putoniell* Kieffer. 
1. P. mursupialu (F. Loew). 
Genua Haplodlplotis Riibsaa- 
I. H. etjiiealris (B. Warmer). 
Genua Ceeidomyla Meigen.* 
I. C. yin »■ (de Gecrj.-f 



niojAaga (Winnertz). 
Genus Massalongia Kieffer. 
i. M. ruhra (Kieffer). 
Genus Amstrodlplosis Riibeaa- 
1. A. Ihalw-fnfola (Rubsaamen). 
Genua MoDodlpIosiS RDbsoamai. 
I. M. lifbdi iKiftSer), 

= Seh izomyia «or.iahilis Riiba. 

Genua Atylodl^OSlS RUbMameo. 
I. A. rumtcis (H. Loew). 

Group PORRICONDYLABIAE. 

Genua Dlrtliu H. Loew. 
1. D. rhodophila (Hardy). 
Genua PoiricondylA Rondani. 
"■ ^- ^'^"^ ^^'"■"S' 1. P. longipes (M. Loew). 

,1 J" '^''T*^'^'"/^''* /«"""' eJicepting the type pini, ape^uflufficientiy 

deeenbed, and therefore ^nnot be relegated to any kno>™ genus. 

t bynonyma are lalerella Zett.. piloM Bremi, and pini-maritijnae 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



Prditninary Catalogue of British Ceddomytdae. 417 
SuMamily LESTREMINAE. 
Group Cahpylomyzariae. 



OenuB Cunpylomyza Meigen 
1. C. ghbifera Hftliday. 



Genus AmblyspiUu Kieffer. 
1. A. ormerodiKi^Ser. 



Group Lestbemiariae. 
Genus CatOCha Haliday. 
1. C. {aftpe« Haliday. 

Genus Leslremla Macquart. 

1. L. camta (H. Loew). 

2. £./u«ca Meigen. 

3. L. Uucophafa (Meifien), 

= junipeTtJUi Fabriciua no 



III, Index to Host-plants. 

N.6. — The capiUil initiala of spedfie plant-names are in accordance 
with the usual Botanical practice. 

In using the following index it is well to note the follow- 
ing points: (1) that when a Cecidomyid galls all of the 
species of a plant genus, then that fact is notified thus, 
" Salix spp." ; (2) that in a few cases an aggregate plant 
name is used; (3) that when any Cecidomyid feeds on 
rusts, smuts, mildews, aphids and the like, found on any 
particular plant, then these are indexed under the name 
of ttiat plant; (4) that the numbers refer to the numbering 
of the Cecidomyid species in the classified list. 

Acer. AnthrUcua. 

Anthriacus aylveelria HolTin.. 
54, 9. 
AntkyUU. 

Anthyllis Vulneraria L., 363. 
Arltmieia. 
Artemisia Abrutanum L., 17. 
vulgaris L,. 16, 17. 



Acer Pseudoplatanus L., 91, 
261, on -4pA«» pio/an- 
oidta on tliia tree. 
„ campestre L., 92, 312. 
AdiiUta. 
Achillea Hillefolium L., 2, 14, 
18, 393, 394. 
„ Ptamiica L., 2, 14, 

18,420. 

AInuB rotundifulia Mill, 96. 

AtopecuruB pratensia L,, 24. 

Angelica sylveetria L., 229, 
366, 413. 
Aidhtmia. 
AnthemiB Cotula L., 1, 19. 



Astragalus 

Astmgalus liypiiKloti 

136, 168, 406, 406. 

Atriplej: (boo also Obione). 

Atriplex patula L., 389. 

Avena fatua U, 46. 
BitOola. 

BallotA nigra L., 101. 
BelaUi. 

Betula alba L., 34, 269. 
341, 375. 



D. a. 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



418 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Hairison's 

BratAypodium. Centanrea ScsbioHa L., 162, 

Braohypodium sylvatioum R. 163, 164, 320. 

and 8., 53. CeraHium. 

Cerastium Tulgatum L., 109, 
126, 154. 
„ Tiscosura L., 109. 
„ semidecandrum L., 
109, 126. 
CItTffsanlhemum. 
Qiiyaanthemum Lencanthe- 
mumL.,3. 
Ciraium. 
Ciraiumsp., 241 an inquiline 
in galls of Tryptta 

„ arvemBe Scop., 110, 

)U, 112, 339 on 

Puedma suavoltMt, 

„ lanceolatum Soop., 

113,114. 

Corivolvulue. 

Convolvulus aepium L., 336. 

ComuB sanguinea L., 43. 
Corytus. 

Corylus avellana L., 30, 33, 
115,272,303. 
Cralaegu*. 
Crataegus Oiyaoontha L., 
lie. 267. 

Crepis biennis L., 304. 

„ paludoea Hoench, 338 
on Pvtxinia major. 
Cytiaus. 

Cytisus BCOpariuH Link., 5, 40, 
212,233,378. 
DaclylU. 
Dactylia glomeratA L., 46, 
404. 
Daphne. 

)>aphne Laureola L., 117. 
Daiicut. 
Daucus CaroUi L., 229. 

Doryonium sp., 230. 
Epiiobiiim. 
Epilobium at^ustifolium L., 
120, 146. 
Erica. 

Erica cinerea L., 121. 
.. Tetraliz L., 310. 
Erodium. 
Erodiumctcutaiium, 134,385. 



BraBsica spp., 103, 182, 283. 
Brvmus. 

Bromtu erectus Huds., 52. 
Bryonia. 

Bryonia dioica Jaoq., 105. 
Bupleurum. 

Bupleurum tenuimimum L., 
302. 

BuxuB aemperviveni L., 262. 
Carnpanvia. 
Campanula media L., 106. 

persicifolia L.,106. 
rotundifolia L., 
207, 271, 392. 
CardamiTu, 
CaTdamine spp., 108. 

Carex spp., 253, 400, 401. 
„ binervis Sm., 246, 250, 

„ arenariaL.,280,319. 
„ vulpina L., 166. 
„ pendulaUuds., 166,314. 
„ helodee Link. (= C. 
laevigata Sm.), 166. 
„ palleacens L., 164. 
„ sylvatica Huds., 166. 
„ acutiformia Ehr., 166. 
„ limosa L., 246. 
„ flava Host., 246, 249. 

253, 317, 318, 402. 
„ echinata Uurr. (= stel- 

lulata Good.), 248. 
„ elaU All. (= C, stricto 
Good.), 249. 250, 253, 
317. 
„ Goodenovii Gay, 263, 

313. 
„ paniculata L., 317. 
„ divulsa Stokw, 318. 
„ distatiR L., 318. 
„ giauca, 250, 313,419. 
Carpi HUB. 

Carpinua Betulua L., 42, 187. 
Ca^anea. 

Castanea aativa Mill, 362. 
CerUaurea. 
Centaurea nigra L., 162, 163, 
164, 320. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



Preliminari/ Catalogue of Briltsk Ceddomyidae. 419 



Evpiorbia. 

Euphorbia Eoula L., 107. 
£uphnuia. 

Eupbntsia officinalis U, 388. 

Farus sylvatica, 26, 27, 44, 
226, 242. 
Fraxinus. 

FraxinuB excelsior L., 93, 124, 
126, 254 in naHot EriophytM 
fraxini; 334 inquiiiae in 
gall of Per. fraxini. 
Oakopsit. 

GaleopBiB Tetrahit L„ 202. 
Oalium. 
Galium epp., 130, 228. 

„ verumL..4, 128, 129, 
301, 403. 
paluBtreL., 138, 139. 
„ twreale L., 367. 
„ Aparine L., 98, 368. 
Oenliana. 
Gentiana campestris L., 133. 
Amarella, 133. 

Genista tinctoria L., 131, 132, 
231, 2S2. 
Geranium. 
Geranium pratense L., 134, 
380. 
„ sylvaticum L., 134, 

380. 
„ dJBaectum L., 134, 

molle L., 134, 382 
pusillum L., 134, 
383, 384. 
„ saDgiiineum L., 134. 

Geum rivale L., 275. 
„ urbanum L., 374. 
Qlec&imia. See Sepeia. 

Hedera Helii L., 145. 
Htiianthemum. 
Helianthemum Chamaecistus 
Mill, 276, 418. 
Utlianikus. 

HelianthuB sp., 165. 
BeracUutn. 
Heracleum Sphondylium L., 
63,277,284,415. 
„ var. angustifo- 

lium, 63 



HieTocium. 

Hieracium spp., 57. 64. 

Pilosella L., 66, 67, 

167, 306. 
boteale Fr., 396, 
340 on Piteciiiia 
hieracii. 
Hippocrepis. 
Hippocrepis comosa L., 65. 

HolcuH laaatuB L., 48. 
Hordeam. 
Hordeum rulgare L., 47, 
51. 



„ pulclirum L., 72, 

140, 103, 311. 

„ humifuaum L., 

140, 193, 
„ perforatum L., 72, 

140, 193, 311. 
„ montaDumL.,140, 

elodeaL.. 141. 
Hypochaerie. 
Hypoohaeris radicata L., 62, 
304. 

Inula squarroaa Bern., 102. 

JuniptTna. 

Juni{)eni8 communis L., 21, 
22, 23, 361. 
Kiuinlia. 

Knautia arvenais, 421. 
Latniuirt. 

Lamium album L., 63. 

„ maculatum L., 147. 
„ GaleoWoIon Crantz, 
127. 
LMpaana. 

Lapsana communia L., 411, on 

Larix decidua Mill, 148. 
Lathyma. 

LatliyruB pratensis L., 149, 
150,151,152,258, 
278. 
„ nmcrorhizus Wim., 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



420 Messrs. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison's 
I vulgare h., 228a, 



410. 
Liimria. 

Linaria vulgaris Hoench., 279. 
Li t kosptrmv in. 

liithospprmum officinale 163 a. 
Jjonieera. 

l»nicera Periclymenum L, 
170, 416. 
Lolut 






:ulat 



156, 



Lychnis. 

Lychnis dioica L., 293. 
„ albn Mill, 15U, 293. 
„ FIcw.cuculi L., 176. 
Lythnim. 

Lvtlinim Salicarift L., 188. 
Matricaria. 

Matricaria inoduia L., I, 19. 
Medicago. 

Medicagi' Hativs L., 142. 
falcata L., 281. 
• „ lupulina L., 157, 
158, 232, 234. 
Midiuiit. 

Molinia cacruleo Muench, II, 
50,64. 
Myiimlia. 

MyoHotis sa)riiioidcH L. (= ar- 
venxiM Lam.), 225. 

Xf|icia liederacen 



lioler 



I Hoi 



.rd). 



25, 135. 
Obione. 

Ubiiine i>ortulne(>ides Mug., 

Oiionia. 

Ononis rcj>enB L., 236 ; 265 on 
A^is on Ononis ; 285. 
Ophioghisitiim. 

OpliiiiBluBsum viilgatum L., 
360. 

Faliaver Rlioeas L., 169. 
Phragmiieii. 

PliraKniitea eommunis Trin.i 
7. 144, 314. 
Phaturis. 

PtiBlariB anindinacea L., 8. 



Pioea excdaa Ijam., 90. 200; 
256 and 257 botli in 
Adelges galls. 
Pimpinella. 
Pinipinella Saxifraga L., 9. 
229. 296, 386. 
„ magna, 308. 

PinuB aylTeetrie L, 309. 
Planlago. 

Plantagu lanceolaU L., 192. 
Poa. 

Poasp., 408. 
„ nemoralis L., 49, 35, 56. 
Potygala. 

Polygala vulgaris L, 173. 
Polggonum, 
Polvgonum amphibium L. 
171. 
Pnpulug. 
Pupulus alba I^, 76. 

„ tremula L., 76, 174, 
266. 297,330.331. 
„ alba X tremula, 174- 
PolfitliUa. 

Polentilla ap., 175. 
PrunfUa. 

Prunella vulgaris L., 104. 

PninuBspp.. 197. 206. 
„ sjiinosa Toum., 321. 
„ (on dry pluma. 332.) 
Pifris. 

PteriH aquilina L.. 121a, 177. 
Pviiraria. 

Pull carl a dysenterica S. t- 
Qray, T102; 337 on Uro- 
mgces junci. 

Pyr'us communiH L.. 179, !8B. 
Aucuparia L., 99, 292. 
„ MaluH L., 160; 255 on 
Aphis mali. 
Quercus. 

Qiiercus Robur L. and seaailis 
Ehr., 69. 70, T. 
163, 161. 168a, 
287. 328, 327. 379. 
412; 328, inqoi- 
line on A'turoKr*' 
latviusculvt; 329, 



ll,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



Prdiminary Catalogue of British Cecidomyidae. 421 

ScnypKniaria. 
^rophotftria nodosa L., 307, 



inqiiiline on A'mro. 
tentt laUicHiant ; 
343. inquiline on 
MaCTolabig dryolria 
and valrtns; 397, 
nokk: 



399, inquilii 
ffalls of Aadrieus 

Quercua cenis, 379. 
Ratiuneuhis. 

Ranunculus spp., 161. 

aciis L., 208. 
AAiiHinfAtM. 

Rhi nan thus Criata-galli U, 
371. 
Bhododatdron. 

Rhododendron femigineum, 
163. 
BibrM. 

Ribea GroHBularia L., 201. 
„ nipnim L., 201. 
Rom. 

Rona Bpp.. 13o, 184, 185. 335. 
34.'}; 398 on mildew. 
,. HpinoEissima L., 373. 

Rubuaspp., 10, 172. 

.. caesiuB L.. 288. 

Rumex Acetosa L., 206. 

AcetOHPtIa 1^, 266. 
344. 
Satirnmia. 

Salicomia radicana Km., )2. 
tiatix. 
Sftlixspp., 35, 73. 74. 75, 77. 
79.80.81,828.83,84, 



87, 



„ aurita L., 36, 

89. 422 auri 

rea. 377. 
.. cineiea L., 78, 82, 87. 

180. 
., rcpens L., 82. 
, Caproa L.. 82a, 87. 422, 

cinerea x viminalic, 

87. 
., allia L., 143. 
Sanjuiaorba. 

Kanguisorba officinalis L., 189. 

Scabioaa Columbaria L., 190, 



414. 
Sfntcio. 

Senecio Jacobaea L., 305, 
370. 
„ erucifoliua L., 305. 
„ aquaticus Huda.. 370- 
SOtnt. 
Silene acaulis L., 96. 
„ inflatttSm., 122, 277. 
SigymiiTiam. 
Sisymbrium officinale iSoop., 
196, 289. 
StUdago. 
Solida^ro Virgauiea L., 222, 
223. 
Sonchug. 

Sonchus arvenais L., 61. 
Spirata. 
tjpiraea Ulmana L., 118, 119. 
178. 186, 214. 
.. FUipendula, 21S. 
Slachys. 

yiachys sylvalica L., 63. 198, 
251. 
„ palustria L.. 198, 199, 
390. 
Belonica Benth., 333. 
lanatua. 391. 
StrOaiia. 

IStellaria graminea L., 68. 137, 

HoloBtea L.. 194. 
Tanartlam. 

Tanacetum vulgare L., Ifl. 
TaToiacum. 

Taraxacum officinale L., 58, 
395. 
Tiurua. 

Taxus baccata L., 227. 
Thalidrum. 

Tlialictrum minus (agg.) U, 
342, 372. 
Thymus. 
ThvmuB S«rpvllum L., 38, 39, 
41, 237. 239. 
TUia. 

Tilia Bjip., 28, 20, 203. 204, 205. 
Tragiypogon. 

Tragopogon pratensis L., 296. 
Trifolium. 

Trifoliumspp., 100. 

„ Iragiierum L., 100. 



iM-,i,A J h, Google 



422 Messra. R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harriaon'B 

Tiifoliiun piutense L., 
210, 260. 
repens L., 211. 



Triticum ap., 322. 
TroUius. 

TrolliuB europaeuB L., 376. 
Typka. 

Typha latifolia L., 314. 
Vki. 

Ulex euiopaeuB L., 213, 240. 

Ulmus spp., 216. 

„ campestriB L., 31. 37, 

var. BuberoBs, 37. 
„ montana Sm., 31, 37. 
Urtica. . 
Urtica dioiCB L., 217. 
„ ureDB L., 217. 
Vaccinivta. 
Vscciniutn Myrtillus L., 21S, 
387. 
Vitia-idaea L., 97, 
234. 



VakriaTta. 
Valeriana sambucifolja Hik 
(= officinalis auct,), 299, 



369. 
Veronica. 
Veronica ofBoinaiiB L., 195, 
219. 
„ ChainaediTe L., 196, 

219. 
„ Berpyllifolia L., 219, 
366. 
soutellaU L., 196. 
„ montana L., 219. 
Vifeufnum, 
Viburnum Lantuia L., 32. 
„ Opulus L., 264, 
300. 
Vicia. 
Vioia Bpp., 220, 273. 
„ aepium L., 259. 
„ sylvatica L., 364. 
Viola. 
Vioja app., 84. 
„ arvraiBia Murray, 221. 



IV. References in Brief. 

Bagnall, R. S. 1916. (II) The EntomologUt's Eecord, 
V. XXVIII, pp. 158-159. 
„ 1917. Lanes, and Cheshire Naturalist, 

pp. 253-262 and 282-290. 
•Bagnall, R. S., and Harrison, J. W. H. 1916. Jbidm, 

(I) pp. 51, (III) pp. 197-203, (IV) pp. 247-252. 
Bagnall, R. S„ and Harrison, J. W. H. 1917. Ibidem, 

(V), V. XXIX. pp. 206-210. 
Bagnall, R. S., and Harrison, J. W. H. 1917-2. IbiJm, 

V. XXIX, pp. 12-15. 
Bagnall, R. S., and Harrison, J. W. H. 1917-3. Ibidm, 

V. XXIX, pp. 228-230, 
Bagnall, R. S., and Harrison, J. W. H. 1918. Ibidem, 

v.XXX, pp. 61. 
BiNNiB. 1877. Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Glaegow, v. 3. 



ii,y,i,/ejh, Google 



■Preliminary Catalogue of British Cecidomyidae. 423 

Bosc. 1817. Bull. Soc. Philomat., Paris. 
BoucHE. 1847. Stett. Ent. Zeit., v. 8. 
Bremi. 1847. Beitr. zu einer Monogr. der Gallmiicken. 
BuBKiLL, H. J. 1916. The Entomologist, v. XLIX, 
pp. 4-8. 
1916-2. Derby- Arohaeol. and Nat. Hist. 

Soc. Joum., pp. 29-48. 
1917. The Entomologist, v. L, pp. 
82-85. 
Carpenter, G. H. 1911. Journ. Econ. Biol., v. 6. 
CoNNOLD. Plant Galls of Great Britain, 1909. 
CoQUiLLETT. 1900. Bull. U.S. Dept. Agric. Washington, 

V. 22. 
COLUN, J. E. 1904. Ent. Monthly Magazine (2), v. 15, 

pp. 93-99. 
Curtis. 1827. Brit. Ent. 
De Geeb. 1776. M^m. Hist. Ins., v. 6. 
DuFOUR. 1841. Ann. Sc. Nat. (2), v. 16. . 
Felt, P. 1911. Joum. New York Ent. Soc., v. 19. 
Frauenpeld. 1862. Veih. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, v. 12, 

1867. Ibidem, v. 17. 
Geoffrey. 1764. Hist. Ins. Paris, v. 2. 
GiRADD. 1863. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, v. 13. 
Hauday. 1833. Ent. Mag., v. 1. 

in Walker. 1856. 
Handlirsch. 1884. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, v. 34. 
Hardy. 1850. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2), v. 6. 
Harrison, J. W. H. 1917. Entomologist, v. L, p. 244. 
Habtig. 1839. Jahresb. il. Forstschr. d. Foretwiss., v. 1. 

,, 1844. In Ratzeburg's forstinseklen, v. 3. 

Heegeb. 1851. Sitzber. Akad. wiss. Wien, v. 7. 
Hentschbl. 1880. Centralbl. f. d. Ges. Forstwesen, v. 6. 
Heyden. 1861. Correspondenzbl. fiir Sammler von In- 

sekten, v. 2. 
HouARD, C. Les Zooc^idies des Flantes d'Europe. 3 

vols. 1908-1913. 
Inchbald. 1861. Ent. Weekly Intellig., v. 10. 
Karsch. 1879. 7 Jahresber. \Vestf. Prov. Ver. 

1881. Beri. Ent. Zeitschr., v. 25. 
KlEFFBR. 1886. Zeitschr. f. Naturwiss., v. 59. 

1888(-1). Verb. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, v. 38. 

„ -2. Ent. Nachr. Berhn, v. 14. 
1889(-1). Ibidem, v. 15. 
„ -^2. Wien Ent. Zeit., v. 8. 



n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



424 Heasn. R. 8. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison'^ 

KrEFPEB. 1899-3. Bull. Soc. Amis. Sc. Nat. Roneo, 
V. 34. 

1*<9*>{-I). Wien Ent. Zcit.. V. 9. 
.. -2. Ent. Nachr. Berlin, v. 16. 
.. -3. Verb. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, v. 40. 
1891. Berl. Ent. Zeitachr., v. 36. 

189-i{-I). Wien Ent. Zeit., v. 11. 

„ -2. Berl. Ent. Zeitachr., v. 36. 
1894(-1}. Bull. Soc. Ent. Franw, V. 63. 
„ ., -2. Feuille Jeunes Natural., v. "24. 

1895(-1). Wien Ent. Zeit., V. 14. 
„ -2.. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, v. 64. 
„ .. -3. Feuille Jeunes Natural., v. 26. 

„ -4. Miscell. Ent., v. 3. 
1896(-1). Wien Ent. Zeit., v. 15. 
„ „ -2. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, v. 65. 

„ -3. Miscell. Ent., v. 4. 
1897(-1). Berl. Ent. Zeitachr., v. 42. 
„ -2. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, v. 66. 
,, ., -3. Meine Antwort au den Herm Zei- 

chenlehrer Rilbsaamen. 
]898(-l). Miscell. Ent., v. 6. 
„ „ -2, Synopse des Cecidomyes d'Europe et 

d'Algerie. 
19l)(). Ann. Soc. Ent. France, v. 69. 

l'JOl(-I). Ibidetn,v.70. 

„ -2. Bull. Soc. Hiat. Nat. Metz, v. 21. 
19(I4{-1). Ibidem. V. 2Z. 
„ ,, -2. Ann. Soc. Scient. Bruxelles, v. 28. 

19()6. Mitt. Philom. Gea. Strassb., 1905, 

V. 3. 
19»7{-1). Naturw. Zeitschr. f. Land and 
Forstw., V. 5. 
„ -2. Marcellia, v. 6. 
I1HI9. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Metz, v. 26. 

1912{-1). Marcellia, v. 11. 
,. ,, ~2. Neue Gallniiicken-Gattuugen, Bitech. 

1913(1). Bull. Soc. Hiat. Nat. Metz, v. 28. 
,, „ -In. Marcellia, v. 12. 

,, ,, -2. In \\'ystraan'3 Genera Inaectonim, 

fasc. 152. 
KiEFFER anil Trotter. 1W).">. Marcellia, v. 3. 
KiRBY. 1797. Trans. Linn, Soc. London, Zool., v. 4. 
Latreillk. 18(1."). Hiat. Nat. Oust, et Ins., v. 14. 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



Preliminary Catalogue of British Cecidomyidae. 425 

LiEBEL. 1889. Ent. Nachr. Berlin, v. 15. 
Linn£. 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 

1767. Ibidem (ed. 12), v. 2. 
LoEW, F. 1873. Verb. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, v. 23. 

1874. llyidem, v. 24. 

■ 1875. „ V. 25. 

1877. „ V. 27. 

1878. „ V. 28. 
1880. „ V. 30. 
1885(-1). Beri. Ent. Zeitschr., v. 29. 

„ -2. Verb. Zool.-bot. Gea. Wien, v. 35. 

1888. Ibidem, v. 38. 

1889. „ V. 39. 
LoEw, H. 1844. Stett. Ent. Zeit.. v. 5. 

1850. Dipt. Beitt., v. 4. • 
Macquakt. 1826. R«cueil. Soc. Agric. Lille. 
Marchal. 1895. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, v. 64. 

1896. Ibidem, v. 65. 
Meade. 1886. Tbe Entomologist, v. 19. 

1888. Ent. Mo. Mag., v. 25. 
Meioen. 1803. Dliger's Mag. Ins., v. 2. 
""■ Klasaif. Dipt., v. 1. 
Syet. Bcschr., v. 1. 
Ibidem, v. 6. 
. Naturhiat. Tidsskr., Kopenh. (3), v. 3. 
ien Ent. Zeit., v. 2. 

1885. Verb. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, v. 35. 

1886. Wien Ent. Zeit., v. 5. 
1895. Ibidem, v. 14. 

Ormerod. 1885. Eigbtb Rep. Injurious Insects. 

Ferris. 1840. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, v. 9. 

Reuter. 1895. Acta Soc. Fauna ct Fl. Fennica, v. 11, 

No. 8. 
Riley. 1886. Annual Rep, Dept. Agric. Washington, 

1885. 
RoNDANi. 1840. Mem. per Servire alia Ditterol. Itabana. 
1846. Nuovi Ann. Sc. Nat. Bologna (2), v. 6. 
1860. Atti Soc. Sc. Nat. Milano, v. 2. 







1804. 






1818. 






1830. 


Meinert 


1864 


Mil. 


1883. W 



BSAAMEN. 1889{-1) 


Zeitschr. f. Naturwisa., v. 62. 


„ -2. 


Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., v. 33. 


1890. 


Verh. Naturh. vcr. Preus. RheinI 




Bonn, V. 47. 


1890-2. 


Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 40. 


1891. 


Beri. Ent. Zeitschr., v. 36. 



ll,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



426 Messrs. Bagnall and Harrison's British Ceddomytdae. 

Rdbsaambn. 1892. Betl. Ent. Zeitschr., v. 37. 

1892-2. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, v. 42. 

1893. Ent. Nachr. Berlin, v. 19. 

i895(-l). Ibidem, v. 21. 

„• -2. Wien Ent. Zeit., v. 14. 

1899H)- Biol- Centralbl., v. 19. 

„ -2. Wien Ent. Zeit., v. 18. 

„ 1910. Zeitschi. Wias. Insektenbiol., v. 6. 

1911. Ibidem, v.T. 

1912. „ V. 8. 
ScHiNER. 1854. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, v. 4. 
SCHBANCK. 1803. Fauna Boica, v. 3. 
ScHWAGRiCHEN. 1835. In Pfeii'B Krit. Bl. f. Forst.-v. 

Jagdwiss., V. 9. 
Stephens. 1829. Syst. Cat. Brit. Ins. 
gwAKTON, E. W. 1912. British Plant Galls (Catalogue, 
pp. 130-261). 
„ 1916. The Journal of Botany, pp. 

24-29. 
Tavabes. 1906. Brot«ria, v. 3. 
Trail. 1886. Scottish Nat. (2), v. 1. 
Vallot. 1827. Act. Acad. Sc. Dijon. 

1849. M6m. Acad. Sc. Dijon. 
Verrall. 1875. Ent. Mo. Mag., v. 11. 
Wachtl. 1884. Wien Ent. Zeit., v. 3, 

1885. Ibidem, v. 4. 
Wagner, B. 1871. Stett. Ent. Zeit., v. 33. 
Westwood. 1847. The Gardener's Chronicle, No. 36. 
WiNNERTZ. 1853. Linnaea Ent., Stettin, v. 8. 
Zetterstedt. 1851. Dipt. Scandinav., v. 10. 
1852. Ibidem, v. 11. 



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PROCEEDINGS 

or THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

LONDON 
1917. 



LONDON: 
SOLD AT THE SOCIBTY'S ROOMS, 11, CHANDOS STREET 

OAVBNDlt>H sqtJARB, W., 

AND BY LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO., 

P&TBEtNOSTER ROW, K.C. ; AND HEW YORK. 



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n,g,t,7.dh,G00glc 



PROCEEDINGS 

OP TBI 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF 

LONDON 

For the Year 1917. 



Wednesday, February 7th, 1917. 
Dr. C. J. Gahan, M.A., D.So., President, in the Chair, 

Nomination of Vice-PreaidenU. 

The pRBSiDEKT announced that he had nominated Dr. 

T. A. Chafuan, Dr. Q. B. liONOSTAFP and the Honble. 

N. Charles Bothschild as Vice-Presidents for the ensuing 

Tear. 

Death of a former Praident. 

The President also announced the death of Mi. C. 0. 

Watebhouse, a former President of the Society, and a vote 

of condolence with his daughter was passed on the motion 

of Mr. Champion, seconded by Mr. Bethune-Baker. 

Ekaion of a Feiiow. 
Mr. A. W. Rtuek Roberts, M.A., Rothamsted Agri- 
cultoial Experiment Station, Harpenden, and The Common, 
Windennere, was elected a Fellow of the Society. 

New Bye-law read. 
The new Bye-law pioposed by the Council was read for 
the third time. 

FSOC. ENT. BOC. LOND., L 1917 A 



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Exkibitiotu. 

Lepidofteka fboh Salonica. — Mr. A. H. Jones ex- 
hibited on behalf of Capt&in E. F. Studd, R.F.A., a Fellow 
of the Society, at present serving with the Btitisb Expe- 
ditionary Force at Salonica, Tatioua Lepidoptera taken hy 
him in 1916, in the neighbourhood of Salonica. He also 
furnished notes relating to these captniea and other speciee 
observed by him. 

PapUio podaliriut, not uncommon on the mountaioB near 
Gllvezne on June 1. 

Papilio machaon, at Lembet, in April, apparently umilai 
to British specimens; a fresh specimen taken on Sept. 17, 
near Senikos. 

Aporia araiaegi, common. May 16, Lembet. 

Pierit brassicae, common (larger than English specimena); 
P. rapae and P. napi, common, apparently typical ; P. da^idice, 
occasionally met with in June, Akunbar, common from 
Aug. 31 until Oct. 8. 

Coliaa edma, quite common, still flying plentifully on 
Nov. 19 ; one var. kdice seen at Lembet. 

Gonepleryx rhamni, several males seen, one on Nov. 18. 

Nordmannia (Tbeda) ilieii var. cem. May 30, near 
Gilvezne. 

Chryaophanut diapar var. mtilui, two i^ taken among 
rushes in Langaza Lake, in about two feet of water. They 
were the only ones seen, just at this one spot surrounded on 
all sides by wat«r. 

Rumicia phlaeai, seen occasionally; common in Oct., and 
still seen up to Nov. 18. 

Aricia medon {Polyommatus aatrarche), Polyommatut icarut, 
PJe&etus argus, common, June 2, near Gfivezne. 

Vanetsa io, Pyrameia atalanta (first seen April 14, last seen 
Nov. 1), common. 

Pyrameis cardvi, not uncommon, last seen Sept. 17. 

Meliiaea didtpna var, ocoidenUtUs, one 3 June 23, Akunbar ; 
M. trivia, two ,Js May 31, near Guvezne. 

M. pftoe&e, common. 

Brenlkis seiene and Iiioria lathonia, not scarce. 



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( iii ) 

M^ntM^ laritsa, Hay 16 to June 3, Lembet ; not tin- 
common. 

Salynu lemeie commoD on mountains. 

Pararge m^gaera, conimon &nd typical. 

Bpineph^ jurtina, abundant on mountaina ; E. tiUumue, 
not unconunon. 

Coenonympha pamphihu, very abundant, still out on 
Nov. 19. 

Syrichthve malvae and Nitoniadss tages, common. 

Augiades sylmnm, several 

Proktparce convolvuU, taken in lines, Sept. 19. 

Macrogtoisa aleSotarum, occasionally seen. 

Setitta fflMomeRd, Lithosia complanula and Procris ttaHoet, 
common. 

Zygaena JUipetidulae and Z. punctum, locally conimon. 

Noctua pleda, common. 

Mania maura, in t«nt, Sept. 12. 

Amphipyra livida, one specimen, Lembet, June 26. 

Plvsia gamma, came to lamp in tent, Nov. 14. 

Acontia luctuoaa, Ardia vilUca and Coseinia slriala (gram- 
mica), common, locally, May 29, near Guvezne. 

Zeuzera pyrina (aescndi), one iS- 

AspikUes ochftana, common. 

Addalia omata, occasionally seen. 

Ematurga aiomaria 3, locally; the yellow coloration of 
Wicken specimens. 

Co&era pusaria aad PeOonia vAicaria, several; Abraxai 
gnttulariata, one specimen only. 

Anaitit j^agiata and Cidaria fivctuaria, common. 

Camptogramma biUneaia, common. 

Commander Walkek said that many years ago he had 
taken almost all the species exhibited in the nei^bouihood 
of Port Baklar, at the head of the Gulf of Xeros, near the 
Boulair Lines. He had found the larvae of M. trivia feeding 
on Verbascum in the greatest abundance. The only species 
he had not met with there was C. dispar; he remarked 
on the very small size of the specimens of this species ; those 
of M. larissa were, on the other hand, exceptionally large. 

The Pbesident and Hr. W. Q. Sheldon commented on 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



( i» ) 

the abnndance of butterflies in Macedonia, the Utter ob- 
serving also that North Macedonia and Albania were among 
the least known of European localitiw for Lepidoptent. 

Local forms op Aobias CLAin>tA. — Mr. G. Tai.bot ex- 
hibited on behalf of Mr. J. J. Joicey a series of Agriat dauiia, 
Schulz, showing its distribution and local forms. These in- 
clude the forms tahlkei, Honr., daudia, Schulz, and amaamica, 
Stgr., all from St. Jean de Maioni, French Guiana. A. tiaudia 
is the Surinam race, and amazonica an Amazon race, which 
are thus shown to occur in French Guiana as aberrations, 
the form sahikd representing the Guiana race. 

A transitional series may be shown to connect the various 
races. 

The distribution of daudia follows the coast, riTer-vallejm 
and foot-hills. It ranges from Dutch Guiana in the north to 
South Brazil in the south. It extends eastwards to Ecuador, 
Peru and BoUvia. 

Some BsmsH Rhopaloceba. — Dr. £. A. Cockayme ex- 
hibited : — 

(1) A series of Pararge egeria, bred Nov. and Dec I9I6 
and Jan. 1917 from ova laid by several females taken in 
August, at Limber, N. Lincolnshire. They showed consider- 
able variation. Most of them had very large yellow spots. 
One female had a great extension of the yellow colour and 
thin scaling over the central portions of all four wings. One 
nnderaide aberration was very dark with a deep brown hand 
OD the hind-wing. 

(2) An aberration of Polyg<m\a c-a/&um taken by Loid 
Oanick in Sept. 1916 in Montgomeryshire, the tund-wing^ 
being nearly black and the fore-wings with costal spots 
united into a crescent. 

(3) A Qynandromorph of Poh/ommatus tcartM, a dark 
female except for stripe and blue scales, with androconia 
from the base to the termen of the left fore-wing; taken at 
Boyston. Aug. 1916. 

(4) A Gynandromorph of P. icarus with a stripe of bright 
blue scales on the right fore-wing; no androconia; taken at 
Folkestone, June 1915. 

(6) A female Agriadeg coridon with one hind-wing marked 



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( ▼ ) 

with blue like ab. semUi/ngrapha, th« other hind-wing having 
only a thin Bprinkling of blue scales over the same area; 
taken at Royston, Aug. 1916. 

FuBTBEB Note dealing with the question of the 

SPECIFIC IDENTITY OF PeDICULUS CAflTIS AMD PbDICULUS 

HUUANUS (VESTiMESTi).— Mr. Baoot redd the following note : — 
" At a previous meeting (see p. xiv, 1916), when referring to 
this question, I suggest«l that the disparity in the propor- 
tions of the sexes in the F. 1 generation resulting from a cross 
pairing between a P. capitis ^ and P. humanvs $ lent support 
to the view that these insects were distinct species. In a 
subsequent conversation the Rev. James Waterston challenged 
this view, on the ground that it was necessary to prove that 
normal sex- proportion resulted from pairings within the two 
races, a point I. had taken for granted, owing to the parity of 
the sexes in my stock boxes. 1 have now obtained details 
of the sex -proportions of a number of broods of P. kumanvt, 
which I propose to lay before you. Faired couples of P. 
kumtmtu were taken from a stock box, segregated in small 
boxes, and their offspring reared to maturity, with the following 
result : — 

So. ol F«i«. A A 9 ? 

1 



1- 2% 


43- 98% 


44 = 49% 


46 = 61% 


31 = 66% 


17- 36% 


m. 


67 - 100% 


119 - 73% 


43- 27% 


39 = 66% 


20- 34% 


116 - 68% 


56 = 32%, 


Nil. 


46 - 100% 


64 - 92% 


6 = 8% 


Na 


49 = 100% 


10 = 71% 


4- 29% 


Nil. 


39 - 100% 


Nil. 


48 = 100% 


7- 9% 


74= 91% 


42 = 68% 


20= 32% 


463 = 46% 


676= 66%, 



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( vi ) 

la a numeioas colony of a giegaiions inaect casnal Bex- 
production on the part of any given pail will result in a nearly 
equal proportion ot S 3 and $ $, and might serve to tninimia e 
tlie dangers of too close inbreeding. In this series, however, 
aex-production does not appear to be entirely casual, as there 
is an evident bias on the $ $ side. 

The sez-percentages of the F. 1 generation of four cross 
pairings between <J P. cajiitU and ? P. htimanua are as 
follows : — 



No.1 


71 = 


= 74% 


25 = 


= 26% 


No. 2 


130 = 


= 86% 


22. 


= 14% 


No. 3 


51. 


- 61% 


49 = 


-49% 


No. 4 


76 = 
328 = 


-68% 
- 71% 


36 = 


- 32% 




ii^ 


= 29% 



It will be seen that in this series the bias is heavily on 
the S aide, which is possibly due to the effects of crossing. 
I must admit, however, that in view of the emtio per- 
centages from normal pairings of one of the parent races 
my argument on tlie basis of abnormal sex- production on the 
part of the hybrid insects can carry but little weight. 

As experiment dealing with the egg-laying instincts of the 
two species affords clearer evidence. The following method 
was adopted. Glass-bottomed boxes of 1} inch diameter and 
i an inch deep, were lined on the vertical sides with a strip 
of flannel, such as is used for Army shirts, human hairs being 
placed in central area so as to form a web, but not a felted 
mass. The hairs came in contact with the glass bottom, the 
flannel-lined sides and the gauze cover through which the 
Uce were fed. An equal number of pairs of P. capitit and 
P. humanm were placed in each box. At the end of a week 
the ? ? of i", capUia had laid 80% of their eggs on the hair 
and 20% on the flannel, while the P. humanw $ $ had laid 
20% on the hair and 80% on the flannel As the insects had 
been taken from congested stock boxes that had been in use 
for many months, the P. capitis box containing a felted 
mass of hairs and the P. humanut box a rolled flannel strip 



l„y,|,AJh,COOl^lC 



( vii ) 

which filled the box, it is poaaible that theit egg-Uying in- 
stinots had been dulled daring captivity under these coa- 
ditione. The eggs laid were separated into four lots: P. 
Aumonuf laid on haii, P. kamanut laid on flannel, P. capitis 
laid on hair, and P. capitis laid on flannel. Individuals were 
reared from these eggs, and 12 ^ ^ and 12 $ $ of each lot 
were placed in boxes containing human hairs and lined with 
flannel, similarly to those used in the former experiment. 
After five days, during which all four batches were fed and 
exposed to the same conditions, the eggs were counted and 
their positions recorded as follows : — 

P. hvtnanus, bred from eggs laid on hairs : — 



12 and 12 
produce 359 



on hairs 38 = 11% 

on gauze cover of box ... 1 

on flannel, side next box 37 = 10% 

flannel, exposed side . . 283 = 79% 

The eggs teere laid on hairs only where these came in contact 
with fianttel. 

P. hamanus, bred from eggs laid on flannel : — 

12 and 12 / on gauze cover of box i= 1% 

produce 34i j on flannel, side next box . . 66 = 16% 
Q flannel, exposed side . . 285 = 83% 



P, capitie, bred from eggs htid on hairs : — 



12 and 12 r on gauze cover of box ... 1 
produce 274 .| on flannel, exposed aide only . 14 = 5% 
\ on hairs 269 = 95% 

P. capitis, bred from eggs laid on flannel : — 

-- , ._ f on ganze cover of box ... 4 = 1% 

ji «/in I on flannel, exposed side only . 2= i% 

produce 390 < l ■ . a i o lo/ 

' 1 on haira close to flannel 2 = t/a 

•^' I on hairs 382 = 98% 

Ahhoogh this result leaves the question of specific identity 
still nndet«nnined, it suggests that there is a clear line of 
demarcation as regards the egg-laying instinct, provided the 
inaecta an left an element of choice. 



u,y,l,/eJh,G00glc 



( viii ) 

SPECIAL MEETING. 

The Special Meeting summoned to consider the new Bye- 
law proposed by the Council waa then held. 

The Secretary read the proposed Bye-law, which runs as 
follows :— 

" Chap, xxiil. Prohibition in respect of FantU. 

" The Society shall not and may sot niake any dividend, 
gift, division or bonus in money unto or between any of its 
members." 

This Bye-law was needed to comply with the Act of Pariia- 
ment regulating the Registration of Scientific Societies so that 
they may he free from local rates. 

On the motion of Mr. Beth one-Baker, seconded by Mr. 
Stanley Edwards, it was passed without diacussioB. 



Wednesday, March 7th, 19)7. 
Dr. 0. J. Gahan, M.A., D.Sc., President, in the Chair. 

Death of a MenAer of Coundi. 
The death of Mr. A. E. Gibbs, a member of the Council, 
and for five years a most valued member of the Busineu 
Committee, was announced. 

Exhibitions. 

South Indian Heuipteba, &c,^Mr. E. A. Butler tx- 

hibit«d two species of 8. Indian Hemiptera received from 

Mr. T. V. Campbell, M.B., who captured them at Chikka- 

ballapuia in the Mysore State; viz. : — 

(1) Ureniius echinus, Dist., a species of Tifigididae, which 
is a pest feeding on the leaves of the Egg-PUnt {Sdtanvm 
melongemi), the larvae living on the under-side of the leaves, 
and the adult insects on the upper. 

(2) ApoUodolus praefectus. Diet., a species of CapsiJae, 
which is found on the same plant, and the larvae of which 
prey upon those of the Tingid bug. 



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( ix ) 

AIbo several recently described species of S. Indian Ftdgo- 
ridae, together with the S of EurybrwAyt Uymentota, Fabt., 
which has only recently been iec<^niBed. In this sez the 
green colour of the t^:niina has almost disappeared, the pale 
fasciae are almost obliterated, and the wings are dark with 
a white band on the apical area. 

Notes ok Miucry in Oriental BUTTERruBS b7 Col. 
T. JiBUTH. — Prof. PoDLTON said that he had recently received 
the following interesting notes, and had tried to induce the 
author to communicate them in person. CoL Jermyn, being 
unfortunately prevented from coming, had forwarded with 
his manuscript the illuattative specimens now exhibited to 
the meeting. 

" I have one or two examples of mimicry, which have 
atrock me ior some time as rather specially interesting, in a 
collection of Indian butterflies made daring the last twenty 
years or so. I have long intended to write to you regarding 
them, but going on duty again put them out of my mind. 
Being at home again, and having just read yoor very interest- 
ing address to the Linnean Society, I am now doing as I 
intended. 

" 1. Two teriet thowing steps in devdopmetU of diaposematic 
or redprocai resemblance b&ween Papilio agestor. Gray, and 
Danais tytia. Gray. — In the model Danais (Caduga) tytia, 
Oray, there is a characteristic black marking nmning from 
base of f.-w. along the coata across the end of the cell and 
along vein 4 to the ma^;in. This is copied in typical P. 
agettor by a stmiUr line, which, however, cute diagonally 
acroea the cell at some distance before the end, and is, aa far 
aa I have seen, constant. In the specimens of ageslor govindra, 
Hoore, however, which I have from Mussoorie, this marking 
grades from almost complete absence to a perfect copy as in 
Epical agestor. This marking seems to me interesting as 
being an attempt to obliterate part of t^ outline of the 
large Papilionlne f.-w, cell, thus producing a superficial resem- 
blance, in shape aa well as size, to the smallor Danaine cell. 
It is also interesting that this mimetic feature is apparently 
not yet entirely established, or possibly is undergoing reversion, 
in the geographical race govindra. 



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( r ) 

" The specimens eent in iUustiatiioii are five govindra tnm 
MnaBoorie (4fi00 ft., Apr. 22, 1907), one govindra from Moiree 
(6000 ft., Apr. 29, 1898) and one typical agator from the 
Ehuis Hills (1908). The fint six are arranged to show a 
gradaal transition in the development of the diagonal mark- 
ing across the f.-w. cell and in the filling up basall; of area 5 
in the f.-w. with black, in mimicry of area 1 in the model 
tyUa. The same series also shows the cutting o5 by a black 
lunular line of a row of submarginai spots from the Papilionine 
streaks in 1-w. areas 1-4 to match those in tytia. 

" A series of the model D. tytia — one from Chakrata (Sept, 
1893), four from Tehri Oarhwal, near Hussoorie (May 1-6, 1907) 
— ^has been arranged to show the gradaal disappearance of 
the black lines separating the disoal and postdiscal spots in 
f.-w. areas 2 and 3, thus matching the streaks in oge^or. 
The three characteristic spots in areas 2 and 3 of this Danaine 
group (conf. meUmea, Cram., agUa, Cram., and mdanotdei, 
Moore, sent herewith) and the Fapilionid streak hare thus by 
reciprocal variation become a spot and a streak in the inter- 
spaces of both species, the PapiUo producing a submarginai 
spot out of the end of its streak, the Danait producing a 
streak by the fusion of its discal and postdiscal spots. 

" 3ome of the imperfections, due to difficulties of structure, 
etc., seem almost more interesting than the perfections. 
D. tytia, in reducing the black pigment, has lost the streaks 
in the interspaces, conunon to both famihes, and fairly pro- 
minent in agestor. The difierence in the arrangement of the 
median and discoidal nervules seems to be a cause of cross- 
purposes. Agetlor is filling f.-w. area 6 with black in imita- 
tion of area 4 of tytia, while tytia seems to be clearing area i 
in imitation of the same area in agator. On the hind-wing 
the difEerence in size of the respective cells seems to he the 
cause of a great deal of variation in the proportion of reddish 
colouring. Papilios and Fiends seem to have considerable 
difSculty in accurately copying the markings about the 
S Danaine scent-glands; Nymphalines are much more 
successful. 

" Calinaga buddha, Moore, appears to be an outlying mem- 
ber of the tytia-^igeitor combination. It has no red on the 



l„y,l,Ajh,COOl^lC 



{ = ) 

wings, bnt its red thorax is vary conspicaons, and in tho 
only valley I have fonnd it (the only plsc«, I tiiitik, when it 
has been seen in any nomben) it used to be out in the eariy 
spring with agalor, and looked distinctly like it. 

" 2. Some pointt in the mimetic retemtlance <4 ^ ^V^ 
}>&ilifle Parhettinajermyni, S. S. Drwx, to the Pierine Aporia 
agathon. Gray, rate phryxe, Boitd. — One specimen of P. jermyni 
was taken on Jane 19, 1907, in the Tons valley behind Chakrata, 
beyond Hosaoorie, N.W. Himalayas, with a nomber of A. 
phryxe, flying about a small detached clump of trees and 
shrubs. Another (sent for exhibition) was taken on Jane 25, 
1907, farther up the valley, flying by itself in bold circles of 
half a mile or so, round the junction of a smaller stnam with 
the Tons. It was obviously not A. phryxe, and was secured 
on its third circle. One of the specimens of pkryxe shown was 
taken with the first Parhestina on the 19th, the other in the 
same neighbourhood later. The ParhetUtM forms an interest- 
ing contraat with PapUio agettor, because in the Nymphaline 
mimic the apparent size of the f.-w. cell has to be increased 
and Dot reduced aa in the Swallowtail The bats across the 
middle and end of the cell of P. fernmOit, Westw., have 
disappeared entirely in jermyni, but there is a dustang of 
black scales to indicate the end of a la^er celL It may be 
inferred by comparing the sexes of penimiUt that this latter 
marking, which has been regained or retained by jermyni, was 
tiie first of the three L-w. bars to ondergo reduction. The 
black dusting beyond the cell is undoubtedly useful in in- 
creasing the leaemblance to the Aporia model, althou^ as 
yet not nearly so dark. It b identical in both specimens, 
and can be cleariy seeo in Plate XXIX, fig. 1, of Trans. Ent. 
Soc., 1911, p. 187, where P. jermytti w described by Mr. H. H. 
Druce. 

" 3. V»e of proboscis of Parhettina perrimUit, Westa., in 
mimiory of Aporia caphusa, Moore. — I have watched at 
Hussoorie (4-6000 ft., 1906) one or two individuals of P. 
persimilis drinking with a crowd of A. caphusa. The resem- 
blance is distinctly enhanced by the yellow proboscis of 
pertimilis, which harmonises with the yellow spot at the base 
of the hind-wings in eaphuaa. This spot shows up much 



ih, Google 



( «i ) 

moie thui vonld be expected, when the wingi ue dosed ow 
the back. The proboecis of penmQie is very blight yellow 
in life, and when extended, and probably distended, in drink- 
ing, is quite conspicuous. In tiie diied specimens the yellow 
colour fades to a conuderable extent. There is no yellow on 
the underside of persimiiit, of which D. limniace, Cism., is 
the model (as ia rendered probable by the leeemblance to tha 
pattern around the <3 scent-glands). In P. jemyni, which ia 
evidently a direct mimic of phryxe, there b a good deal of 
yellow on the h.-w. under surface. It is not 8uggeet«d that 
the yellow cotoor of the proboscis has been evolved for the 
purpose; all ParheBtinas have it in common with Hf^nii 
and the yellow Ditipas. Its use in mimicking Aporia has 
possibly preserved it. It does not occur in Euripua. 

" i. Syiu^Koematic eutociationt of btue Euploem, Ac., tdbeM 
on the same day. — I am sending you one or two sets of mim*iti« 
speoiea caught on the same date, as I saw in your separata 
you were collecting soch groups. All are common, but yoa 
may not have the following five blue Euploeas taken together : 
mulciber. Cram, Hvgii, Moore, hofei. Fold., Aomn, Feld., 
and Apfendetu, Buti. Muldber was in swarms, but it was 
quite difBcolt to get the others, especially the last two, out 
of the throng. I only got one Papdio leleanAvt, Hew. I am 
sorry I haven't got Byblia UUhyia, Drury, to complete tix 
other little associations of Tddiinia vtoloe, F., and SvUiaUa 
nais, Forster, from Central and S. India. I have never {oimd 
it common and have only two bad spedmens, both from 
Sangor, Central Provinces." 

ProL Poulton when exhibiting the specimens sent by Cd. 
Jermyn remarked that the example of PapHio ageabjr govindra 
from Munee was transitional between the five from Moasoorie 
and the typical agator, not only in the development of the 
diagonal f.-w. marking, but also in the amount of brown 
jugment in the h.-w. and in the size of the specimen. It 
would be interesting to compare a long series from these two 
localities. The associated characters in which the Mussoorie 
specimens differed from the typical agettor rendered it far 
more probable that the butterflies from this locality wen 
truly ancestral than that they had undergone levereion. 



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( xiii ) 

With regard to Calinaga buddha it wu very intoresting 
that CoL Jenayn had noted in the field the reaemblance to 
the tyHa-agalor combination. It could hardly be doubted 
that the Calinagaa were themselves models for certain Chinese 
and N. Indian Chalcosiine moths in which the reddish thorax 
of the butterfly was represented by a patch of colour — orange- 
brown in dried specimens — at the extreme base of the foie- 
wingB. Thus Ckdura dejeani, Oberth., and Agahpe davidt, 
Oberth., probably mimicked Calinaga davidia, Oberth.; 
Cketura eronioides, Moore — Calina^ saka, Moore; and Ch. 
banflava, Hoore — CtUinaga gaulama, Moore. Furthermore, 
the patterns of these ChalcosiiDe moths were associated with 
other species of the same subfamily, which seemed to bear 
no direct mimetic relationship with the Calinagas. The 
patterns of these anomalous butterflies appeared to belong 
to a la^ combination of Lepldoptera, including Vanainae, 
NymphaUnae, Pierinae, possibly one or more species of Par- 
natsius, and day-flying moths. In addition to this relation- 
ship, probably for the most part Miillerian, there was the 
teaemblance to the lytia-agesior association, observed by 
Col. Jermyn. 

With regard to the combination of blue Euploeas, which 
had been captured in the Naga Hills