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Founded, 1833. 
Ingobporated by Boyal Chabter, 1885. 

OFFICERS and COUNCIL for the Session 1894-96. 



The Bt. Hon. Lord WALSINGHAM, M.A., LL.D., F.B.S. 
Colonel CHABLES SWINHOE, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 


The Bev. Canon FOWLEB, M.A., F.L.S. 


The Bev. Canon FOWLEB, M.A., F.L.S, 


> Lord WALSINGHAM, M.A., LL.D., F.B.S. 

0» Resident Librarian. 

W. B. HALL. 

^ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

( vi ) 



or THE 


l*he Transactions can now be obtained by FelloTrs 
at the following reduced prices :— 


First 8mes. 4 Tolmnes (1834— 1849) Price £4 13 i;3 10 

Second Senei, 6 Yolamos (1860— 1861) 8 6 15 

Tbiid Series, 5 Yolumes (1862— 1869) U 4 10 

'i lie TransactioiiB for the ye&r 1868 1 0^ 

„ 1869 « 12 

„ „ 1870 18 0V 260 

1871 - 16 

1872 1 2 Ol 

1873 1 16 0l 

1874 1 12 

„ „ 1875 .„ 12 0V 800 

1876 *.... 1 12 

1877 1 4 Oj 

„ „ 1878 10 15 

„ „ 1879 12 16 6 

„ 1880 19 14 3 

„ 1881 1 16 17 

„ 1882 1 10 12 6 

„ „ 1883 17 10 3 

„ „ 18S4 18 110 

„ „ 1885 16 19 6 

„ „ 1886 « 16 19 6 

„ 1887 14 19 

„ „ 1888 1 15 10 3 

„ „ 1889 1 16 6 17 

„ „ 1890 1 19 o 1 10 

„ 1891 1 16 17 

„ „ 1893 19 119 

„ „ 181/3 16 6 19 3 

„ 1894 1 10 C 1 2 11 

Any sififlfle volaine from 1862 to 1877 half-price to Fellows. 

First Series, yoI. ▼., is out of print. First Series, toU. i.— it., anl 
f^ocond Series, vol. iv., cannot be sola separately. 

The other volames may be obtained separately, also the following : — 

VnicoQS* LongicorniaMal/ty ana' £2 12 i;l 19 

Baly's * Phytophaga Malay ana, Pt.L, Apottar- 

tncera* 16 12 

Saunders' * British Heterogyna and Fogsorial 

Hytnenoptera' 4 6 3 4 

Sannders' ' Synopsis cf British Hymenoptera,* 

Parti 6 4 6 

Newport's * AthaUa centifoUa ' (Prise Essay) 10 10 

The JoxTRNAL or Fboceedinos is bonnd np with the Tbansactions. 

Fellows who have paid their Subscription for the current year, are 
entitled to receive the Transactions for the year without further payment, 
and they will be f urwarded free, by post, to any addroM. 

Digitized by 


( vii ) 



Ezpfaumtion of the PUtes Tiii 

EmftA iz 

liist c^ FeUows — z 

AdditaoDfl to the Library m« zziT 


L On a ooUectioii of Lepidoptera from Upper Bnima. By 

Edwabd Meyrick, B.A.. F.Z.8 1 

IL Further obterratioiiB on the Tea-bnffs (Helopeltis) of India. 

By CHARr.BS Owbn Watkbbousk, F.E.8 31 

in. Notes on some Lepidoptera received from the neighhonrhood 

of Alexandria. By GcoRGl T. Bktbunb-Bakib, F.L.8. ... 83 
IT. The Bhynchophoroos Coleoptem of Japan. Part III. 

8colytide. By Waltkr F. H. BLANDroRD, M.A., F.Z.8. 63 
T. Description of the female of Hypochrysops scintillansy 

Bntl. By Hamilton H. Dbucs, F.Z.8 14S 

TL A list of the Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hills. Ftat II. By 

Colonel Chailrs BwiNHOB, M.A.. F.L.8., etc 14^ 

TIL An Entomoloncal Excursion to Corsica. By Groroe C. 

Champion, F.Z.8 225 

Till. A list of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera collected hy Mr. 
Champion in Corsica in June, 1893, with a description of 

one new species. By Edwabd 8aundibs, F.L.S 243 

IX. On the Phylogeny of the PieWikc, as illustrated bv their 
Wing«markings and Geographical Distribution. By Dr. 
Fbkdcrick a. Dixrt, M.A., M.D., F.E.8., Follow of 

Wadham College, Oxford 249 

X. Some notes on the MicrO'Lepidoptera whose lanr» are external 
feeders, and chiefly on the early stages of Erioeephala caU 
theUa (Zygffinidfls, LimaoodidsQ, Eriooephalidte). By Dr. 

TnoMAsA. Chapman, M.D.. F.E.S 335 

XI. On the Tenehrionid^sB collected in Australia and Tasmania by 
Mr. JiMirs J. Walkrr, E.N., F.L.S., during the voyage of 
H.M.8. ** Penguin," with descriptions of new genera and 

qiecies. By Georor C. Champion, F.Z.8 351 

XII. Description of the Larva and Pupa of PapUio foments. Fab. 

By OuARLRsB. Taylor, F.E.8 409 

XIIL Notes on porydium (?) Wetttwoodi^ Buchanan White, with 
observations on the use of the name Dorydium. By Wil- 
liam F. KiRBT, F.L.8 , 411 

XIT. Some new snecies of Memhracida, By the Bev. Canon 

FowLSB, M.A, F.L.8. , 8ec. Ent 8oc Lond. 415 

Digitized by 


( viii ) 

XY. TemperatoTe Ezpeiiments in 189S on seTeral species of 
Vanessa and other Lepidoptera. By Fbidebic Mebbi- 

FiKLD, F.B.S 425 

XVi. Mr. Herrifield's Experiments in Temperatore-Yariation as 
bearing on Theories of Heredity. By Dr. Frbdbrick A. 
DiXET, M.A., BLD., F.E.8., Fellow of Wadham College, 

Oxford 489 

XVII. Descriptions of new CieindeUda from Mashnnaland. By 

Loins PiBiNOUET, F.E.8. 447 

XYIIL On Pyralidina from the Malay Archipelago. By Edwaed 

Mrteice, B.A., F.Z.8 465 

XIX. Supplemental List of the Longioom Coleoniera obtained by 
Mr. J. J. Walkeb, B.N., F.L.S., dnrmg the rovage of 
H.M.S. ** Penguin," under the command of Captain Mooee, 

B.N. ByCHABLEsJ. Gahan, M.A.,F.E.& 481 

XX. Descriptions of a new species of Raphidia^ L , and of three 
new species of Trichoptera from the Balkan Peninsula, with 
critical remarks on , ranorpa gibberosa, McLaoh. By Pro- 
fessor Fran z Kl A palek,F.E.S. 489 

XXI. A Monograph of British Braconidir, Part Y. By the Bev. 
Thomas A. Marshall, M.A., F.E. 8., Member of the Social 

Entomologiqne de France 497 

XXII. Catalogue of the rterophoridcs, TortrieidcBt and Tineidos of 
the Madeira Islands, with notes and descriptions of new 
species. By the RightHonourableLord Walsinoham, M.A., 535 

XXni. Paleearctic NemoursB. By Kenneth J. Mobton, F.E.S. ... 657 
XXIY. Supplementary Notes on the ScolytidoB of Japan, with a list of 

species. By Waltbb F. H. Blandfobd, M.A., F.Z.S. ... 575 
XXV. Descriptions of the Pyralidw, CramhidfB^ and Phycidm col- 
lected by the late T. Vernon Wollaston in Madeira. By 
GboboeT. Bethune-Bakeb, F.L.S 581 

Proceedings for 1894 i 

President's Address 1 

Index 1=^ 


Plate L See pages 88—51 

„ IL See „ 145—228 

„ III.. IV., AY. 

See ., 249-334 

See „ 335-^0 

Plate YIIL See pages 851-408 

„ IX. See „ 425—488 

M X. See „ 489-495 

,. XLAXU. 

See „ 497-532. 

„ xm.&xiv. 

See .. 557-674 

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Digitized by 


{ ^ ) 





1894 FoREL, Professor August, M.D., The Univeraiiy^ Zurich, 
1884 MOller, Dr. Fritz, Blumenau^ Santa Catarina, Brazil, 
1884 OsTEN Sacken, Baron C. R. von, Wideplatz^ Heidelberg. 

1884 Packard, Dr. Alphsus S., Providence^ Rhode Island^ U,S.A. 
1889 Riley, Prof. Charles V., U.8, National Museum, Washington, D,C., 

1872 Saussure, Henri F. de, Tertasse, 2, Geneva, 
1871 Selys-Longcuamps, Baron M. E. de, Li^ge, 

1885 Snellen, Pieter Carl T., Rotterdam. 

1893 Wattenwyl, Hof rath Dr. Carl Brunner Von, Thereseinamagasse^ 
25, Vienna. 


Marked ° are Original Members. 

Marked f have compoundeifor their Annual Subscriptions. 

Date of 

1877 Adams, Frederick Charlstrom, 68, St. Ermin's Mansion^^ Caxton^ 

street, Westminster, S.W. 

1877 Adams, Herbert J., Roseiieath, London-road, Enfield, N. 

1885 Adkin, Robert, Wellfield, Lingard-road, Lewisham, S.E. 
1891 Adye, J. M., Brockenhurst, Lymington, Hants. 

1856 Armitage, EdWard, R.A., 3, HalUroad, St, John's Wood, N.W. 

1886 Atmore, E. a., 3, Haylett-terrace, Exton's-road, King's Lynn 

* tBABiNOTOX, Professor Charles Cardale, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c. 
Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge, 5, Brook- 
side, Cambridge. 

Digitized by 



1832 Baily, WilUatn Edward, Ljiwood Home^ Paul Churchtown^ near 

Pfnzanre, Cornfoall. 
18W Baker, Walter F., Trent llousey Gaiiuborough, 
1886 Baskes, Eustaco R., M.A., 2he Rectory, Cor/e Castle, Wareham, 


1890 Barclay, Francis H., F.G.S., Knott'e Green, Leyion, Essex. 

1886 Bargagli, Nobile Cavaliere Piero, Piazza S. Maria, Palazzo 

Tempi No. 1, Florence^ Italy, 
im Barker, H. W., 147, Gordon-road, Peckham, S.B. 

1884 Barrett, Charles Golding, Inland Revenue Department, Somerset 

House, W.O. ; and 39, Linden-grove, Nunhead, 8.E. 
1865 Barton, Stephen, 114, St. Michael's Hill, Bristol. 
1894 Bateson, William, M.A., F.B.S., Fellow of St. John's College, 

St. Johns College, Cambridge. 
1851 1 Beaumont, Alfred, The Red Cottage, Pond Road, Blachheath, 8.E. 
1893 Beddard, Frank E., M.A., F.R.S., Zoological Gardens, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 

1891 Beechino, Robert A, Dallas, 24, St. James-road, Tunbridge Wells, 

1882 Berg, Prof. Dr. Carlos, Director del Maseo Nacional, Buenos 
Aires {Rep. Argent.), South America. 

1885 Bethun e-Baker, George T., F.L.S , 19, Clarendon-road, Edgbaston, 


1892 Biddell, Walter Cathbert, 32, The Grove, Bolton Gardens^ S.W. 

1886 BiDDLE, F. W., M.A., Lanheme, Albemarle-road, Beckenham, Kent. 
1880 BiGSELL, George Carter, 7, Clarence-place, Stonehouse, Plymouth. 
1879 BiLLUPS, T. R., 20, Swiss Villas, Coplestone-road, Peckhant, 8.E. 
1891 Blaber, W. H., F.L.8., 34, Cromxoell-road, West Brighton. 

1894 1 Black BURN e-Maze, W. P., Shaw House, Newbury, Berkshire. 

1889 Blandford, Walter F. H.. M.A., F.Z.S., 48, WimjHtle-street, W. 

1890 Blatch, W. G., Knowle, near Birmingham. 

1885 Blathwayt, Lieut.-Col. Linley, F.L.S , Eagle House, Batheastott, 


1886 Bloomfield. The Rev. Edwin Newson, M.A., Guestling Rectory, 

1876 Borre, Alfred Preadbommo de, Vdla la Faucette, Petit Saconnen, 

1875 BoRRER, Wm., junr., F.G.S., Takyns Maxtor House, Hurstpierpoint, 


1876 BosCHER, Edward, Bellevue House, Twickenham. 

1891 Booth, Geoi^e A., Fern Hill, Grange-ocer-Sands, Carnforth, 


1892 BousKELL, Frank, 11, Lansdowneroad, Stoney Gate, Leicester. 
18«8 BowER, B.A., Langley, EHham-voad, Lee, S.E. 

1894 1 Bowles, E. Augustufi, M.A., Myddelton House, Waltham Cross, 

Digitized by 



1852 t Boyd, Thos., Woodoale Lodge, South Norwood Hill, S.E. 

1893 Brabant, Edouard, Chateau de Morenchies, par Cambrai (A'orJ), 


1894 Breyer, Professor H. Gr., M.D., Gymnasium, Pretoria, Transvaal^ 


1877 Briggs, Charles Adolphus, 55, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. ; and 

Surrey House, Leatherhead, Surrey. 
1870 Briggs, Thomas Henry, M.A., Surrey House, Leatherhead, Surrey. 
1894 Bright, Percy M., Boccabruna^ Bournemouth. 
1890 Bristowe, B. A., Durlstone, Champion Hill^ S.E. 

1893 Bromilow, Frank, Selbome, Poole road, Bournemouth. 

1879 Brongniart, Le Chevalier Charles, Assistant d'Entomologie an 

Mus^nm d'histoire naturelle de Paris, Memb. Ent. Soc. France, 
and Memb. G^ol. Soc. France, Foreign Corr. Geol. Soc. Lond., 
&c., 9, Rue LinnS, Paris. 

1878 Broun, Capt. Thomas Dmry, Auckland, New Zealand. 
1887 Brown, Henry Rowland, M. A., 3, Pump-court, Temple, E.C. 
1886 Brown, John, 5, King's Parade, Cambridge. 

1892 Browne, Capt. Clement Alfred Righy, R.E., c/o Grindlay & Co., 

55, Parliament-street, Westminster, S.W. 
1890 Bryant, George, Somerset Lodge, Old Shirley, near Southampton. 
1883 BucKTON, George Bowdler, F.R.S., F.L.S., Weycombe, Haslemere, 

1889 Burns, Henry, The Free Public Library, Fulluim, S.W. 
1868 1 Butler, Arthur Gardiner, Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S., British Museum, 

South Kensington, S.W.; and The Lilies, Penge-road, Beckenham, 

1 883 Butler, Edward Albert, B. A., B.Sc, 39, A shley-road, Crouch Hill, N. 

1886 Calvert, Wm. Bartlett, Liceo de Quillota, Quillota, Chili^ South 

1886 Cameron, Peter, The Rookery, Bridgemont, Whaley Bridge, 


1885 Campbell, Francis Maule, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.. Rose Hill, Hoddes- 

don, Herts. 
1860 Cand^ze, Dr. E., Glain, Liege. 

1880 Cansdale, W. D., Sunny Bank, South Norwood, S.E. 

1889 Cant, A., c/o Fredk. Du Cane Godman, Esq., F.R.S., 10 Chandos- 

street, Cavendish-square, W. 

1890 Capper, Samuel James, F.L.S. (President of the Lancashire and 

Cheshire Entomological Society), Huyton Park, near Liverpool. 

1886 Capron, Edward, M.D., Shere, Guildford, Surrey. 

1894 Caracciolo, H., H.M. Customs, Port of Spain, Trinidad, British 

West Indies. 
1886 Carmichael, Sir Thomas David. Gibson, Bart., M.A., F.L.S., 
Castlecraig, Dolphinton, N.B. 

Digitized by 



1892 Carpenter, The Honble. Mrs. Beatrice, Kiplm^ NorihallerU-n, 

1868 Carrington, Charles, Cart/Us^ Fay Oate, Sussex. 

1890 Carter, George Wm., M.A., F.L.S.. Cliff End Ilouse^ ScarbaroK 
1889 1 Cave, Charles, 13, Lowndes-sqttare, 8.W. 

1871 Champion, George C, F.Z.S., Librarian, Heatherside^ Eorsell, 
Woking^ Surrey ; and 10, Chandos-street^ Cavendish- square^ W. 

1891 Chapman, Thomas Algernon, M.D., Fir Banky Hereford. 

1890 Chatterton, Frederick J. S., 78, Clissold Road, Stoke Newington, 


1891 f Cuitty, Arthur J., M.A., 27, Hereford-square, S.W. 
1889 Christy, W. M., M.A., Watergate, Emsworih, Sussex. 
1886 1 Clark, John Adolphus, The Broadway y London Fields, N.E. 
1^7 Clarke, Alex. Henry, 109, Warwick road, EarVs Court, S.W. 
1886 Clarke, Charles Baron, M.A., F.R.S., President L.S., F.G.S., 

13, Kew Gardens-road, Kew, S.W. 
1891 Clarke, Henry Shortridge, 2, Osbome-ierrace, Douglas, Isle of Man. 

1891 CocKERELL, Theodore D. A., F.Z.S., Las Cruces, New Mexico, 

1874 Cockle, Major George, M.A., B.Mas., Oxon., 9, Bolton-gardens, 

1873 Cole, William, 7, Knighton Villas, Buchhurst Hill, Essex. 
1880 Copland, Patrick F.,. 2, Hope Villas, Buckhurst* Hill, Essex. 
1894 Cotes, E. C, The Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

1892 Cowan, Thomas William, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 31, Behize 

Fork Gardens, Hampstead, N.W., and Fenleaze, Fowey, Cornwall, 
1886 CowELL, Peter (Librarian of the Liverpool Free Public Library), 

William Brown-street, Liverpool. 
1867 Cox, Herbert Ed., c/o F. 8. Eve, Esq., 125, Harley-ttreet, W. 
1888 Cregoe, J. P., F.O. Box 1420, Johannesburg, South Africa. 
1890 Crewe, Sir Vauncey Harpur, Bart., Calke Abbey, Derbyshire. 
1880 +CRI8P, Frank, LL.B., B.A., Treasurer L.S., F.G.S., Treasurer 

B.M.S., 6, Lansdoume-road, Notting Hill, W. 
1888 Croker, A. J., 90, Albert-road, WaUhamstow. 
1883 Crowley, Philip, F.L.a, F.Z.S., Waddon House, Oroydon. 

1873 Dale, C. W., Glanmlle^s Wootton, Sherborne, Dorset. 

1887 Dai TRY, The Bev. Thomas W., M.A., F.L.S., Madeley Vicarage, 

Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
1886 Dannatt, Walter, F.Z.S., Ivy Dene, Westcombe Park, Blackheath, 

12/92 +DENNI8, George Christopher, 39, Blossom-street, York 

1885 Dent, Hastings Charles, C.E., F.L.S.. 20, Thurloe-square, S.W. 

1886 Dickson, The Bev. Prof. William Purdie, D.D., LL.D., Professor 

of Divinity in the University of Glasgow, Glasgow. 

Digitized by 



1876 Distant, Wm. Lncas, Box 352, Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa. 
1887 DiXEY, Frederick Augastus, M.A., M.D., Fellow and Bursar of 

WaiUiam College, Wadham College, Oxford, 
1891 DONISTHORFE, Horace St. John K., 73, West CromtDeH-road, S.W. 

1885 Donovan, Surg.-Captain Charles, M.D., Ist Boroia Eifles, Fort 

Dufferin, Mandalay, Burma. 

1873 DoELA, Marquis Giacomo, Strada Nuova, Genova. 

1886 Dormer, The Bight Honourable Lord, Cox's Hotel, Jermyn-street, 

1845 Douglas, John Wm., Dartmouth Lodge, 153, Lewisham-road, 

Lewisham, S.E. 
1889 Downing, John W., 59, Lvpus-street, St, Georgt's-square, S.W. 

1874 DowsBTT, Arthur, Castle HUl House, Reading, 

1884 Deuce, Hamilton H. C. J., F.Z.S., 43, Circus-road^ St, John's 

Wood, N.W. 
1867 Deuce, Herbert, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 43, Circus-road, St, John's Wood, 

1894 Dudgeok, G. C, 53, Montagu-square, W. 
1849 fDuNNiNG, Joseph Wm., M.A., F.L.S., FXS., 4, Talbot-square, 

Paddington, W. 
1883 DURRANT, John Hartley, The Cottage, Merlon Hall, Thetford^ 


1890 Eastwood, John Edmund, Enton Lodge, Witley, Surrey. 

1865 Eaton, The Rev. Alfred Edwin, M.A., care of B. S. Eaton, Esq., 

4, Belfield'terrace, Weymouth, Dorset, 
1886 Edwards, JfimQ»,Colesbonie, Andoversford, R.S.O,^ Gloucestershire. 
1884 Edwards, Stanley, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Kidhrook-lodge^ Blackheath, 

1886 Elisha, George, 122, Shepherdess-walk, City-road, K. 
1886 Ellis, John W., M.B., L.E.C J^., 18, Rodney-street, Liverpool, 
1878 Elwes, Henry John, J.P., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Vice-President, 

Colesbome, Andoversfordf jR.S.O., Gloucestershire, 
1886 Enock, Frederick, F.L.S., 21, Manor-gardens^ Holhway, N. 

1890 Farn, Albert Brydges, Mount Nod, Greenhithe, Kent; and 
Medical Department^ Local Government Board, Whitehall, S.W. 

1892 Farren, William, Fern House, Union-road, Cambridge, 

1861 Fenn, Charles, Eversden House, Burnt Ash Hill, Lee, S.E. 

1886 Fenwick, Nicholas Percival, Holmwood, South Bank, Surbiton 
Hill, Surrey, 

1881 Fereday, B. W., Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

1889 Fernald, Prot C. H., Amherst, Mass.^ U.S.A. 

Digitized by 



1878 FiNEi, John A., Hanover Lodgs^ 77, SL H^Un^^-gardeM^ N,^ 

KamngUm^ W. 
1874 FrrcUy Edward A., F.L^., Brick Hou$e^ Maldon, E»iex. 
lBd6 Fitch, Fredeiiek, BadUigh Bouse, Bighbury New Fork, N. 
1865 Fletchbs, J. £., 2,Bedwardin6-Toad, St Johau, Waree$ter. 
188St Fletcher, William Holland B., M.A^ i^Vtotcm, Worthing^ 

1892 Fleuti AUX, Edmond, 1, Bue McdtiSf Paris. 

1885 FOKKKR, A. J. F., Zieriksee, Zuland, Netherlands, 

1880 FowLUt, The Ber. Canon, MA., F.L.S.| Secretary, The School 
Bouse^ Lincoln. 

1883 Freeman, Francis Ford. Abbotsfieldj Tavistock^ South Devon. 

1888 Fremlin, H. Stnart, M.B.C.S., L.B.C.P., Mereworth, Maidstone, 


1891 Frohawk, F. W., 39, Domton-road, Balham, S.W. 

1855 Fry, AlexAnder, FJi.S., ThomhUl Bouse, Dulwich Wood Fork, 

Norwood, SJB. 

1889 Fryer, Charles John, 410, Wandsworth-road, aW. 

1884 Fuller, The Ber. Alfred, M.A., The Lodge, 7, Sydenham-hill, 

Sydmham, S.E. 

1887 Gahan, Charles Joseph, MA., British Museum (Natural Bistory), 
South Kensington, 8.W. ; and 16, Ashehurch-grove, Sh^herd?s 

1887 Galton, Francis, BIA, D.CX., F.Bil, F.G.S., 42, Butland Gats, 

1892 Garde, Philip de la, B.N., H.M.S. <'Baleigh,'' c/o Miss Porkis, 

12, Eoersfield-road, St. Leonard' s-on-Sea. 

1890 Gardner, John, 6, Friars-gate^ Bartlepool. 

1893 GiRBS. Arthur Ernest, F.L.S., Avenue Bouse, St. Albans, Bert- 

1865 fGoDMAN, Frederick Da Cane, F.B.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., South Lodge, 
Lower Seeding, Borsham, Sussex ; 7, Carlos-place, Grosvenor- 
tquare ; and 10, Chandos-street, Cavendish-square, W. 

1890 Goldthwaite, Oliver, 3, Duke of Edinburgh-road, Carshalton, 


1886 tGooDRiCH, Captain Arthur Mainwaring, Aubrey, Lymington, 


1856 GoRHAM, Bey. Henry Stephen, F.Z.8., The Chestnuts, Shirley 

Warren, Southampton. 
1874 GosB, Herbert, FX.S., F.G.S., Secretary, The Avenue, 

Surbiton-hiU, Surrey; and 11, Chandos-street, Cavendish- 

square, W. 
1886 Green, A P., Colombo, Ceylon. 

1891 Green, E. Ernest, Eton Estate, Punduloya, Ceylon. 

1894 Green, Joseph F., Wett Lodge, Blackheath, S.E. 

1865 Greene, The Bey. Joseph, M. A, Bostrevor, Clifton, Bristol 

Digitized by 


1890 Farn, Albert Br^ 
Medical Depart m< 
1892 Fabben, William, J 
1861 Fenn, Charles, Ev^ 
1886 Fen WICK, Nicholas 

Hill, Surrey. 
1881 Fereday, R. W., ( 
1889 Fernald, Prot C. ' 


X17 L 

1876 Distant, Wm. Luca- ^_ 

1887 DiXEY, Frederick A 

Wadham College, . 
1891 Donisthorpe, Hora* 
1886 Donovan, Surg.-Cap 

Buffering Afandala ""* 

1873 DOBIA, Marquis Giac 
1886 Dormer, The Right 

8W. , _ _ 

1845 Douglas, John Wn _ .^ ^ *• 

LewiBham, S.E. ^n -*-^ J 

1889 Downing, John W., ^ -•i.-^^ 

1874 DowsBTT, Arthur, ( " - - ?-* | 

1884 Deuce, Hamilton Ji 

Food, N.W. , ^ 

1867 Dbuce, Herbert, F *" " " .^ 

N.W. ^ " .^ 

1894 DuDGEOif, G. C, 5o. =■ " "' ^g^rJ 

1849 1 Dunning, Joseph ^ - 

Paddington,Yf. , -» «-' 

1883 DuRRANT, John U - ' ' 

iVbr/oO?. — ■ " 

1890 Eastwood, John E- _ i^l. • 

1865 Eaton, The Rev. .\ _« .«» 

A, Bel field-terrace. - ' _ ^ -»-* -^'^ 

1886 Edwards, James, G ' "" 

1884 Edwards, Stanley, ^ 

S.E. -^ 

1886 Elisha, George, VI. 
1886 Ellis, John W., M. 
1878 Elwes, Henry J< - 1^-'"' 

Cb^&om€, ^ificfor 
1886 Enock, Frederick, . 


— • .* 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1892 Jaffrev, Francis, M.U.C.S^ L.R.C.P., 8, QueenU Ride, Barnes, 


1869 Jakson, OliTer E.» Perth-road, Stroud Grem, N. ; and 44, Great 

JtuMell'g/reet, Bloomtbury, W.C. 
1886 Jevner, James Herbert Augustus, 4, Eaet-etreet, Lewes, 
1886 John, Evan, Llantrissant, Pontypridd, Glamorganshire, 
1889 Johnson, The Bev. W. F., M.A., Winder-terra^e, A rmagh, Ireland. 
1888 Jones, Albert H., Shruhlands, Eltham, Kent, 
1894 Jones, Frederic Whitworth, ''Sherwood,"* SetlagoU, British 

Bechuanaland^ Africa, 
1894 Jobdan, Dr. K,, The Museum, Tring, Hertfordshire. 

1884 Kane, W. F. de Vismes, M.A., M.R.I.A., Sloperton Lodge, Kings- 
town, Ireland, 

1884 Kappel. a. W., F.L.S., 5. Burlington-gardens, Chtswich, W. 

1876 f Kay, John Dunning, Leeds. 

1884 Keays, F. Liovell, F.L.8., 26, Charles-street, St, James s, S.W. 

1894 Keeble, Henry, 10, Coleman-strut, E.G. 

1890 Kenrick, G. H., Whetstone, Somerset-road, Edghaston, Bir- 
mingham . 

1890 Kimber, Mi88 M., Cope Hall, Enhome, Newbury, Berks, 

1899 Kino, J. J. F. X., 207, Sauchiehall-street, Glasgow. 

1861 KiRBY, William F., F.L.S., 5, Burlington-gardens, Chiswiek, W. 

1893 KiRKALDY, George Willis, St. Abbs, Worple-road, Wimbledon, 

1889 Klapalek, Professor Franz, Trebon, Wittingau, Bohemia, 

1887 1 Klein, Sydney T., F.L.S., F.R.A.S. (Hon. Treasurer, Middlesex 
Natural History and Science Society), The Bed House, Stanmore, 

1876 Kraatz, Dr. G., 28, Linkstrasse, Berlin, 

1868 Lang, Colonel A. M., B.E., 31, Shooter's Hill-road, Blackheath, S.E. 
1887 1 Leech, John Henry, B.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., &c., Vachery, 

Cranleigh, Surrey. 
1883 Lemann, Fredk. Charles, Blackfriars House, Plymouth. 
1892 Leslie, J. H., 58, Foxbourne-road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 
1876 Lewis, George, F.L.S., St, Begulus, Archer^s-road, Southampton. 
1892 LiGHTFOOT, R. M., Bree-st., Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope. 
1886 LiVETT, H. W., M.D., Wells, Somerset. 
1865 f Llewelyn, Sir J. Talbot Dillwyn, Bart., M.A., F.L.S., P<jn/for- 

gare, Swansea. 
1881 + Lloyd, Alfred, F.C.S., The Dome, Bognor, Sussex. 
1885 + Lloyd, Robert Wylie, St. Cuthberts, Thurleigh-road, Nightingalo- 

lane, Clapham Common, S.W. 


Digitized by 


Xviii List OF FELLOWS. 

1894 Lowe. The Kev. Frank E., M.A., SL SUphen's Vicarage, 

1850 Lowe, W. H., M.D., WoodcoU Lodgty Inner Park-road^ Wimbledon 

Park, S.W. 
1893 Lower, Oswald B., Bleak House, Park Side, Adelaide, South 

A ustralia, 
1850 1 Lubbock, The Right Honble. Sir John, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., etc., High Elms, Famhorough^ 

1880 LuPTON, Henry, Lyndhurst, North Orang^road, Headingley, 


1887 M'DouoALL, James Thomas, Dunolly, Morden^road, Blackhtaih^ 


1851tM*lNT08H, J. 

1888 MACKINNON, P. W., LynndaU, Muesoorie, N.W.P., India. 

1892 Mackonochik, The Rev. J. A., B.A. (Chaplain to the Earl 

of Home), Dougia$ Castle, Lanarkshire; and The Hirsel, 

1858 McLachlan. Robert, F.R.S., F.L.S ., F.Z.S., Treasurer, West- 

vine, 23, Clarsftdon-road^ Lewisham, S.E. 
1887 Maxdkrs, SarReon-Captain Neville, L.R.C.P^ M.R.C.S, Medical 

StrtfMsss, .ildmrskot. 
\^\ Mangkr. William T., 100, JUanor-road, Brockley, S.E. 
18i>2 M ANaBRiPUK. William, 21, Rosenau-crescent, Battersea Park, S.W. 
18i>4 1 Marshall, Alick, AnckiHraitK Bexley, Kent, 
18(;5 Maksiiall, The Rer. Thoe. Ansell, M.A., Botusfleming Bectory, 

1856 f Marshall, William, AHcMnraith, Bexley, Kmt. 
1874tMASi^N, Philip Brookes, M.RC,S,, FX.S., Trent House, Burton- 

oH- Trmt^ 
18r»5 Mathkw, GerTase F„ R^\, F.L.S^ F.Z.S,, FJt.O.S., Lee House, 

/>«>ivrroMr/, Ksitex. 
1887 Matthews, Coryndon, Plympton St. Mary, South Devon. 
1860 May, John William, K.NJi, Blenheim House, Parson^s Green- 
lane, Fulham, S.W, 
1872 1 Melih>la, Professor Raphael, F.R,S^ F.C.S., President, C, Bruns- 

trick-siiuare, W.C. 
1885 MELVim James Cosmo, M.A,, F.L.S^ B*^k House, Prestwich, 


J^ >^*''""^"'''''' ^'*^«"«- 2-». Vemon-Urraee, Brighton. 
i^ ™'=^eR-Darcis. G., CO Sogin A Meyer, WoA/wi, .s>.fcerte»rf. 
" Meybick, Edward, B.A.. F.Z.S.. Bamtbury, Uunger/ord, Berk- 

Digitized by 



1^4 MiALL, Professor Lewis Compton , F.R.S., Crag Foot, Ben Rhydding, 

1B83 MiLES^ W. H., The New Club, Calcutta. 

1879 HoNTEiRO, Senhor Antonio Augnsto de Carvalho, 72, JStia de 
Alecreon^ Lisbon, 

1863 MooRB, Frederic, D.Sc., A.L.S^ F.Z.S., Claremont House, Avenue- 
road, CroydoK-Toad, Penge, S.E. 

1886 Morgan, A. C. F., F.L.S., 24, Leinater-square, W. 

18^ i MoRicE, The Bev. F. D., M.A., Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, 
27, HillmorUm-roadfBugby, 

1893 Morton, Kenneth J., Olenview Cottage, Carluke, N.B, 

1889 MosLEY, 8. L., Beaumont Park, Uuddersfield. 

18G9 t MeLLER, Albert, F.R.G.S. 

1872 1 Murray, Lient-Colonel H., 43, Cromwell Houses, Cromwell- 

1886 Mutch, J. P., 359, Hornsey-road, N. 

1889 Nevinson, Basil George, M.A., F.Z.S., 3, Tedworth-square, 

Chelsea, S.W. 
1887 Newman, The Rev. W. J. H., M.A., The Vicarage, Steeple 

Barton, Oxon, 
1878 Newman, Thomas P., 54, Hattonrgarden, E.G. ; and Hazelhurst, 

Haslemere, Surrey. 

1890 Newstead, R., The Museum, Chester, 

1882 Nici^YiLLE, Lionel de, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., Indian Museum; and 13, 

Kyd-streetj Calcutta. 
18H6 Nicholson, William E., School Hill, Lewes, Sussex, 
1893 NOXFRIED, A. F., Bakonitz, Bohemia. 
1886 NoRRis, Robert £., 15, Market-place, Cirencester, 
1H78 NoTTiDGE, Thomas, Ashford, Kent. 

1869 ObkrthCr, Charles, Hetmes, France. 

1877 ObertuOr, Ren^, Rennes, France. 

1893 1 Dole, Bertram S., Steeple Aston, Oxfordshire. 

1883 Oldfield, George W., M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 21, Long ridge-road, 

EurVs Court, S.W. 
1893 Oliver, John Baxter, 12, Avenue-road, 8t. John^s Wood, 

1873 Olivier, Ernest, Rami lions, pres Moulins (Allier), France. 
1886 Olliff, Arthur Sidney, Government Entomologist, Depcwtment of 

AgricuUure, Macquarie-street^ Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

Digitized by 



1878 Ormerod, Miss Eleanor A., F.R.Met.S., Torrlngton Homey Holy- 

well Hill, St. Albans, Herts. 
1880 Ormerod, Miss Georgiana, Torrington House^ Holywell Hill, 
St, Albans, Herts. 

1893 Paulcke, Wilhelm, 33, Langstrasse, Baden-Baden, Germany, 

1888 Pennington, F., jun., 7, Fark-place, St. James's, S.W. 

1883 P^RiNGUEY, Louis, South African Museum, Cape Town, South 

1879 Perkins, Vincent Robt., Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire. 
1887 Phillip?*, Charles Edmund Stanley, Castle House, Shooters 

Hill, Kent. 
1891 Pierce, Frank Nelson, 7, The Elms, Dingle, Liverpool. 

1885 Poll, J. R. H. Neerwort van de, Heerengracht 476, Amsterdam. 
1870 1 PoRRiTT, Geo. T., F.L.S., Crosland Hall, Huddersfield. 

1884 1 PouLTON, Professor Edward B., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
F.Z.S., Vice-President, Hope Professor of Zoology in 
the University of Oxford, Wykeham House, Banbury-road 

1894 Pratt, John, The Cedars, New Bamet, Hertfordshire. 

1851 Preston, The Rev. Thomas Arthur, M.A., F.L.S., Thurcaston 

Rectory, Leicester. 
1878 Price, David, 48, West-street, Horsham, Sussex. 
1893 Pbout, Louis Beethoven, 12, Greenwood-road, Dalston, N.E. 

1887 Bagonot, E. L. (Ex-President Entom. Soc. France), 12, Quai de la 

Bapee, Paris. 
1882 t Bamsden, Hildebrand, M.A., F.L.S., 20, Upjjer Bedford-place, 

Russell-square, W.C. 
1874 Reed, Edwyn C, C.M.Z.S., Banos de Cauquenes, Chili. 

1893 Reid, Captain Savile G., late R.E., Thornhaugh, Swattage, 

1891 Reid, William, Fitcaple, Aberdeenshire. 

1890 Rendlesham, The Right Honble. Lord, Bendlesham Hall, Wood- 

bridge, Suffolk. 

1886 Rhodes, John, 360, Blackburu'road, Accrington, Lancashire. 

1891 Richardson, Nelson M., B.A., Monte Video, near Weymouth, 


1894 Riding, William Steer, B.A., M.D., Buckerell Lodge, Buckerell, 

near Honiton, Devon. 
1853 RiPON, The Most Honourable the Marquis of, K.G., D.C.L., 
F.R.S., F.L.S., etc., 9, Chelsea Embankment, S.W. 

1889 Robinson, Arthur, B.A., 1, Mitre Court Buildings, Temple, E.C. 

1892 Robinson, Sydney C, Goldsmith's Hall, ¥kQ. 

1869 1 RoBiN80N,DouGLAS, William Douglas, M.A., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., 
Orchardton, Castle Douglas, N.B. 

Digitized by 



1890 ROBSOX, John CxnmersoDj Hartlepool. 

1886 Rose, Arthur J., Brunnen Lodge, Upper WaUhafrutouhroadf 

1868 RoTHNEY, George Alexander James, 15, Versailles-road, Nor- 
toood. S.E. 

1894 Rothschild, The Honble. Nathaniel Charles, F.Z.S., 148, Picca- 
dilly ; and Tring Park, Tring, Herts, 

1888 Rothschild, The Honble. Walter, F.Z.S., 148, Piccadilly, W ; 
and Tring Park, Tring^ Herts. 

im Routledge, G. B., 50, Russell-square, W.C. 

1892 Russell, S. G. 0., 19, Lombard-street, E.G. 

1894 Rye, Bertram George, 212, Upper Parliamenl-rocul, Putney, 

1894 Ryl^nds, Thos. Glazebrook, F.L.S., F.G.S., Highfields, Thelwall, 

1885 Sabel, Ernest, F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., Lynton House, South Side, Clath- 

ham Common, S.W. 
1891 St. John, The Rev. John Seymour, B.A., 42, Castlewood-road, 

Stamford Hill^ N. 
1875 Sallj^, Augnste, 15, Rite Guy de la Brosse, Paris, 
1866t8ALViN, Osbert, M.A., F.R.8., F.L.S., V.P.Z.S., 10, Chandos^ 

street, Cavendish-square, W. ; and Hawkafold, Fernhurst, 


1886 Salwey, Reginald E., Sungate, Hook-road, Kingston-on-Thames, 
1865 + SArxDBR3, Edward, F.L.S., St, Ann's, Mount Hermon^ Woking, 


1861 1 Saunders, G, S., 20, Dents-road, Wandsworth Common, S.W. 

1886 Saunders, Prof. Wm., Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, 
Canada (President of the Eutomological Society of Ontario). 

1881 ScoLLiCK, A. J., Allandene, Dorset-road, Merton Park, Wimble- 
don, S.W. 

1886 ScuDDER, Samuel H., Cambridge, Mass,, U,S,A. 

1864 Semper, George, care of Bemhard Beer, Esq., 10, Newgate- 
street, E.G. 

1862 Sharp, David, M.A., M.B., G.M., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Haw- 
thorndene, Hills-road^ Cambridge ; and University Museum of 
Zoology and Coxfiparatire Anatomy, Cambridge, 

1883 Shaw, A. Eland, M.R.G.S., Fakenham, Norfolk. 

1883 1 Shelley, Capt. George Ernest, F.G.S., F.Z.S., 10, Thurhw 
square. S.W. 

1887 SiCH, Alfred, Burlington-lane, Chiswick, W. 

1887 SiDGWicK, Arthur, M. A., Fellow of Gorpus Ghriati College,'Oxford, 
64, Woodstock-road, Oxford. 

Digitized by 



1869 Smith, Henley Grose, F.Z.S., 5, Hri/amton-sqtiare, Hyde Park^W, 

1885 South, Blohard, Oxford-road, Alaccleftfieldy Cheshire. 
® t Spence, William Blandell, Florence, Italy, 

1889 Standen, Richard S., F.L.S., Thorpe Hall, near Colchester. 

1890 Stearns, A. E., 99, Gloucester-terrace, Hyde Park^ W. 
1862 Stevens, John S., 4, Pope's-grove, Twickenham. 

1837 Stevens, Samoel, F.L.S., Loanda, Beulah Hill, Upper Norwood^ 

1891 Still, Major John Nathaniel, 12, Seafield-terrace^ Seaton^ Devon ; 

and Junior United Service Club, Charles- street, St. Jameses, S.W. 
1889 Straton, C. R., F.R.C.S., West Lodge, Wilton, Wilts. 

1886 Surrage, J. Lyddon, B.A., 82, Morning ton-road, Regents Park^ 

1882 SwANZY, Francis, Stanley House, Qranvi lie-road, Sevenoaks. 
1884 Swinuoe, Colonel Charles, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Avenue House, 

Cowley-road, Oxford. 
1894 SwiNHOE, Ernest, Avenue House, Cotoley-road^ Oxford. 
1876 Swinton, a. H., Promemiden Gasse, 12, ZUrich, Switzerland. 

1893 Taylor, Charles B., Rae-street, Rae Town, Kingston, Jamaica, 
1892 Taylor, The Rev. George W., F.R.S. (Canada), St. Alban's Rectory, 

Nanaimo, British Columbia. 
1886 Theobald, F. V., M.A., Lecturer in Economic Entomology an^ 

Zoology to the South Eastern Agricultural College, Wye Court, 

near Ashford, Kent.. 
1889 Thornewill, The Rev. C. F., M.A., Calderlutll Vicarage, 

Whitchurch, Salop. 

1892 Thornley, The Rev. A., BI.A., South Lererton Vicarage, Lincoln. 

1893 TowNSENP, Professor C. H. Tyler, Las Cnices, New Mexico, 

1859tTRiMEN, Roland, F.R.S., F.L.S. (Curator of the South African 

Museum), Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
1891 TUFFNELL, Carleton, Langhy, Kenley, Surrey. 

1893 Turner, Henry Jerome, 13, Drakef ell-road, St. Catherines Park, 

Hatcham, S.E. 

1894 Turner, Thomas, Cullompton, Devon. 

1886 TUTT, J. W., Bayleigh Villa, Westcomhe Park, Blackheath, S,E. 

1893 Urich, F. W., Trinidad, British West Indies. 

1866 Verrall, Gkorge Henry, Sussex Lodge, Newmarket. 
1889 Vivian, H. W., Glenafon, Taibach, South Wales; and Triniiy 
College, Cambridge. 

Digitized by 



1876 Wakefield, Charles Marcas, F.L.S., Belmont, JJxhridge, 

1886 Walker, Alfred 0,, F.L..S., Nani Glyn, Colwyn Bay, Denbigh- 

18TO 1¥alker, The Rer. Francis Augustus, D.D., F.L.S., Dun Mallard^ 

Cricklewood^ N.W. 
1878 Walker, James J., B.N., F.L.S., 23, Ranelagh-roady Marine 

Town, Sheemen, 
1863 1 Wallace, Alfred Russel, D.C.L., Oxon., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

Corfe View, Parkstone, Dorset. 
1866 t Walsinoham, The Right Hod. Lord, M. A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 
F^.8^ Vice-President, High Steward of the University of 
Camhridge, Merton Hall, Thetford, Norfolk ; and 66a, Eaton- 
square, S.W. 
1886 Warren, Wm., M.A., c/o The Honhle. Walter Rothschild, Tring 

Park, Tring, Bucks. 
1869 WATERHOUSEy Charles 0., Ingleside, Avenue Gardens, Acton, W. ; 

and British Museum, Cromwell-road, S.W. 
1891 fWATSON, Capt. E. Y., F.Z.S., Indian Staff Corps, care of Messrs, 
King & Co^ 46, PaU Mali S.W. 

1893 Webb, John Cooper, 32, Henslowe-road, Dulwich, S.E. 
1876 1 Western, E. Young, 36, Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park, W. 

1882 Weymer, Gustav, Sadowa-strasse 21a, Etberfeld, Rhenish 

1888 Wheeler, Francis D., M.A., LL.D., Paragon House School, 

1865 White, The Rev. W. Parren, M.A., Stonehouse Vicarage, 

1884 White, William, The Buskin Museum, Meershrook Park, 

1882 Williams, W. J., Zoological Society, 3, Hanover-square, W. 

1894 Wilson, Edwin, Cherry Hinton-road, Camhridge. 

1894 WOLLBY-DOD, F. H., Box 225, Calgary, Alberta, N.W.T. Canada. 
1881 Wood, The Rer. Theodore, 23, Broderick-road, Upper Tooting 


1894 WooLP, Michael Yeatman, 1, Marlborough-place, St.John^s Wood, 

1891 Wkouohton, R. C, Conservator of Forests, Indian Forest Service, 

Bombay, India. 

1888 Yebbury, Colonel J. W., R.A., Army and Navy Club, Pall Mall, 

1892 Youdale, William Henry, F.R.M.S., 52, ^fain-street, Cockermouth, 

1886 Young, Morris, Free Museum, Paisley, N.B. 

Digitized by 


( xxiv ) 

During the Year 1894. 

Adlbr (H.)* Alternating Qenerations; a study of Oak Galls and €bll 
Plies ; translated by (i. R. Straton. 8vo, Oxford, 1894. 

The Tranalatiyr. 

Alcock (A-)' Natural Hbtory Notes from H.M.S. "Investigator," 
Deep-sea Dredging. Ser. II., No. 1. 
[Ann. A Mag. N. H. (6) xiii., 1894.] The Author. 

AsuMBAD (W. H.). Monograpb of the North American Proctotrypidaj. 
[BttU. U. S. N. Mas., No. 45, 1898.] The Author, 

Bartlett-Calvbbt (W.). Catalog© de los Lepiddpteros, Ehopaloceros i 
Heterooeros de Chile. 
[An. Univ. Chile, 1886.] The Author, 

BiCRO (C). ^olus pyroblaptwi, Berg. 
Las Cnestiones de Limites. 
[An. Soc. Cien. Arg., 1892.] 
[ZooL Anieiger, 1893.] 

Descripciones de Algunos Heterdpteros nnevos 6 poco conocidos. 
[An. Mus. Nac. Montevideo, 1894. J The Autlior. 

Bbrtolini (Guiseppe). lUustraxione dei prodotti natural! del Mosambico. 
Dissertazione intomo ad insetti Ditteri. 4to, Bologna, 1862. 
[Mem. Acad. Sci. Vol. XIL] The Author, 

Bigot (J. M. F.). Insectes diptdres pour servir k la faune du Gabon. 
[Thorns. Arch. Ent. it, 1858.] 
Enumeration des Diptdres recueillis en Tunisie par M. Yalery 

Mayet 8vo, Pans, im 
Descriptions de Dipt^res Nouveaui. 
[Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 1892.] 

Catalogue of the Diptera of the Oriental region. Parts II. and III. 
[Joum. As. Soc. Bengal, 1891.] Mr. Verrall. 

Blanoford (W. F. H.). Report on the destruction of beer-casks in India 
by a boring-beetle (Xylehoras per/orans, WolL). London, 1898. 
The Scolyto-platypini, a new Subfamily of Soolytidse. 
[Trans. Ent Soc. Loud., 1893.] 

Description d*un nouveau genre de Scolytides, Aricerus. 
[Ann. Soc. Ent de Belgique, 1894.] 

The Rhynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. Part III., Seolytidse. 
[Trans. Ent Soc. Lond., 1894.] The Author. 

Digitized by 


( 3txv ) 

BoLUfAX (C. H.). The Myriapoda of North America. 

[BnlL U. & N. Mas., No. 46, 1893.] The Author. 

BoocH^ (P. Fr.). BeiMge sar Inseotenknnde. 

[Not. Act. Acad. Leopold, 1833.] Mr. Venall 

Bkaukr (Friedrich). Uber die Stelliing der Oattang Lohogaster^ Phil., im 
[SiUb. Akad. WiMensck, 1883. j Mr. Verrall. 

Bioinr (Thomas). Manual of the New Zealand Goleoptera. Parts Y.—YII. 
8vo, Wellington, 1893. 
[CoL Mas. and Geol. Sarv. N.Z. j N,Z. Institute, 

Cavb&idob (O. p.). See Godman (F. D.) and Salyin (O.). Biobgia 

Cams&os (P.). See Godmak (F. D.) and Saltin (O.). Biologia Centrali- 

CA;n>i^B (E.). Elaterides recaeilUs par M. E. Modigliani aux bords dn lac 
de Toba, k Somatra. 
[Ann. Mas. Civ. St. Nat. Genova, 1894.] The Author. 


(T. L.). Coleopterological Notices, V. New York, 1893. 
^Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. VII. J The Author. 

Champiok (G. C). On the Tenebrionidse oollected in Australia and Tas- 
mania by Mr. J. J. Walker, B.N., daring the voyage of H.MS. 
*' Pengum," with descriptions of new genera and species (1 
[Trans. £nt Soo. Lond., 1894 J 
An Entomological Escorsion to Corsica. 
Trans. Ent. Sue. Lond. 1894.] The Author, 

See also Godman (F. D.) and Saltin (O.). Biologia Centrali- 

CoWAK(T. W.). The Honey-Bee. 12mo, London, 1890. The Author. 

Dalla Tobke (C. G. de). Catalogas Hymenopterornm hacasqae descrip- 
tonun systraiaticas et synonymicus. YoU. I., II., YI., YIl., 
IX. 8vo, lipsiae, 1892—4. Mr. Dunning. 

EiCBHOFP (W.). Earopaischen Borkenkiifer. 8vo, Berlin, 1881. 

Mr. Dunning, 

Ebichson ( W. F ). Natorgeschichte der lasecten Deatschlands. Abthe'- 
langl. Coleoptera. 8to, Berlin, 1893-4. 
Band Y., Lief. 2, 3, G. SeidUts, 1893—4. 
Band Yl., Lief. 6, J. Weise, 1893. Purchased, 

Fabxc (J. H.). Soavenirs Entomologiqaes (Ist Sen), 2nd ed. 8ro, Paris, 
1894. Purchased. 

Fka (Leonardo). Yiaggiodi • . . in Birmania e regioni vicine. 

Longicom Coleoptera. By C. J. Gahan. 8to, Genova, 18^4. 

The Author. 

FoRKL (A). Les Formicides des Indes et de Ceylan, I — III. 
[Jooroal Bombay N. H. Soc, 189*2.] 
Noorelles espdoes de Formicides de Madagascar (recoltdes pir M. 

Sikora). lere serie. 
[Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 1892. j 

Digitized by 


( xxvi ) 

FoRXL (A.), continued— 

QuelqaoB FounniB de la FAune Mediterran^ene. 

[Ann. 800. Ent Belg., 1892.] 

Note Bor lea Attim. 

[Ann. Soo. Ent Belg., 1898.] 

Abessinisobe and andere Af rikaniBohe Ameiaen. 

[MittheiL Sohweis. Ent. GeselL, 1893.] 

Nonyelles Foormis de rAnstralie et des Canaries. 

Note pr^Tentive sar on nouvean genre et une nonyelle esp^se de 

Formicide (Camiwnotide). 
[Ann. Soo. Ent. Belg., 1893. J 

Die Ameisen Nea Seelands. Attini nnd CryptocerinL 
[BCittheiL Sohweis. Ent GeeelL Bd. a 1893.] 
Etudes Myrmecologiqnes en 1879, 2e padde. 
Hermaphrodite de VAxteca instahilis, Smith. 
Observations nonvelles sur la biologie de qnelqnes Fourmis. 
[Boll Soo. Vand. So. Nat, XVI.. XXVIU., XXIX.] 
Die Ameisenfaona Bolgariens. 
[Verband. sooL-bot GeselL Wien, 1892.] 
Die Nester der Ameisen. Zurich, 1892. 
Les Formicides d'Oran (Algerie). 
[Bull. 800. Vaud. So. Nat, XXX.] 

Quelques Fourmis de Madagascar, de NouTelle Z^lande. ete. 
[Ann. Soo. Ent. Belg., 1894T] The Author, 

See also Oeamdidibr (A.). 

FoWLBB(W. W.). See Godman (F. D.) and Saltin (O.). BiologiaCentrali- 

Gaham (C. J.). Description of a new Longioom Beetle of the genus 
[Ann. and Mag. N. H. (6), ziii., 1894.] 

On the characters of a new genus and six new speoies of Longioom 

Coleoptera from New Guinea. 
[Ann. and Mag. N. H. (6), XUI., 1894.] 

See Fba (L.). Yiaggio di Longicom Coleoptera. The Author. 

Godman (F. D.) and Salvin (0.)* Biologia Centrali-Americana. 

Araneidea by O. P. Cambridge. Xnseota by P. Cameron, G. C. 
Champion, W. W. Fowler, F. D. Godman, H. S. Gorham, O. 
Salvm, and D. Sharp. Parts CXI1X.—CX1X. 1894. 

The Ediiors. 
GoRBAM (H. S.). See Godman (F. D.) and Salvin (O.). Biologia Centrali- 

Geandioiib (A). Histoire Physique. Naturelle et Politique de Madagas- 
car. 28e fascicule et suppl^ent, 
Les Formicides, par A. Fobel. 4to, Paris, 1891. The Author. 

GcnBRiN-MiNBYiLLK (F. E.). Situation, Maladies et Amtiioration des 
races du Ver i Soie. 8?o, Paris. 1857. Mr. BromUow. 

HampsoN (G. F.). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and 
Moths, VoL II. 8vo, Lond., 1894. The Author. 

Digitized by 


( XXVll ) 

HoFMAXsr (Enui). Die Banpeii der Gross-Schmetterlinge Enropas. 4to, 
Stattgart, 1893. Mr. Dunning. 

HoLUiND (W. J.). New and nndescribed (Genera and Species of West 
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[Psyche, 1894.] The Author. 

Imhoff (Lodwig). Stadium der Koleoptem. 8to, Basel, 1856. 

Mr, Dunning. 

Jaxkt (C). Snr les nematodes des glandes pbaryngiennes des Fourmis. 
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Etudes snr les Foormis, Notes 1>6. 

[Ann. Soc. Eat. France, &c., Ac. 1893—94.] 

Snr les Nerfs de I'antenne et les Organes chordotonanx cbes les 

Sor le Sjstdme glandnlaire des Fonrmis. 

[C.B. Acad. iSci. Paris, 1894.] The Author. 

Kaxuch (F.). Westafrikanische Dipteren. 

[Zeitschr. f.-d.-ges. Natorwiss. Berlin, 1879.] Mr. Verrall. 

Kino (Capt. P. P., B.N.). Descriptions, &c., of the Insects collected by 
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Hymenoptera (A. H. Haliday). 
Diptera (F. Walker). 
[Trans. linn. Soc. Lond., 1837.] Mr. VerralL 

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[Tufts' College Studies, No. I., 1894.] The College. 

Kimmr (W. P.). Synonjrmic Catalogue of Lepidoptera-Heterooera (Moths). 
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Mr, Dunning. 

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Digitized by 


( xxviii ) 

Lorvr(Hermanxi), continued-- 

Ober die bbher aaf der GWxiBcben Seite des Tatragebirges beobach- 

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[Jabrbnche Gel. Gesell. Krakau, 1870.1 

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[Ann. and Mag. N. H. (6) xiii, 1894] The Author. 

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Mr. Moaley. 

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The Author. 

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Zar Geschichte der sogenannten Brustgr&te (breast-bone) der 
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[Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., 1893.J 

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[Berlin. Ent. Zeitschr., 1892.] 

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[Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., 1894.] 

Svnonjmica about Tipulidas. 

Three Trochobohe from New Zealand and Tasmania. 

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[Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., 1894.] 

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The AuiJior. 

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Digitized by 


( xxix ) 

Packasd (A. 8.), ci^niinued— 

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[Proo. Am. Acad. ScL, 1894.] 

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[Ent Monthly Ma«., 1894.] 

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BsiD (Clement). Norfolk Amber. 

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Baljiv (O.). [See Godman (F. D.). Biologia Centrali- Americana.] 

Sacssurb (H. de), et Zehmtneb (L^). Notice morphologique sur lea 
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[See also Godman (F. D.) and Salvin (O.). Biologia Centrali- 

ScVDDEB (S. H.). The Butterflies of the Eastern United Spates and Canada, 
with special reference to New Enghmd. 3 Vols., Cambridge, 
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Tertianr TipuUds, with special reference to tliose of Florissant, 

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Digitized by 


( XXX ) 

ScoDDBB (S. H.), eonUnudd" 

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Sharp (D.). [See Godman (F. D.) and SALyiK(0.). Biologia Centrali- 

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SiNTBNia (0.). Neu gefundene Tipuliden. 

[Sitcungsb. Dorpat Naturf. Ges. 1884.] 

Six (G. A^. Eine Entomologische Wandeling in Augustus. 
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[BuU. U.S. N. Mui.. No. 44. 1898.] The Author, 

Snbllbn tan yoLLENHOVBN (S. C). BeschriJTing ran eenige Nieure 
Soorten van Diptera. 8vo, Amsterdam, 1862. Mr, VmraXl, 

Stbnhammar (C). FOrsOk till gruppering och revision af de Svenska 
.. Ephydrinse. 
[5fv.^ Vet-Akad. Fdrh. 1844] Mr, Verrall. 

Tbppbb (J. G. O.). Th^ Blattarix of Australia and Pojynei 
Descriptions of South Australia Braohysoeloid Galls. 
Notes and Remarks on Sooth Australian Bhopalooera. 
[Trans. Boy. Soo. South Austral, 1808.] The Author, 

Thomson (C. G.). Opusoula Entomologica, Faso. 17, 18. Purchased, 

TowNSEND (C. H.). A new Simulium from Southern New Mexico. 
[Psyche. 1891.] 

Description of a Sareophaga bred from Uelim, 

[Psyche, 1892. ] The Author. 

TuTT (J. W.). British Noctua and their Varieties. Vols. XL, TIT. 8vo, 
London, 1892. Pwrcha4ed, 

Digitized by 


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Torr (Je«n IE.). Beschreibangen uDd Abbildungen hartsohaaligter In* 
sekten. Coleoptera, Linn. Commentar von Dr. O. W. F. 
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Walkks (J. J.). A visit to Damma Island, East Indian Arobipelaga With 
notes on the Fanna by B. B. Sharpe and others. Parts I., IL 
[Ann. and Mag. N. H. (6) ziv., 1894.] The Autfwr. 

Watsost (E. T.). a proposed CUssification of the He$periidm, with a 
Beriaion of the Genera. 
[P. Z. 8. Lond., 180S.] The Author. 

Wno (Ckrenee M.). A Desoriptife Catalogoe of the Harvest Spidera 
(Phalangixdx) of Ohio. 1898. 
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Wbob (A. B. Holt). Bntterflies and Moths of Tenerifra (Edited by Bash, 
leigh Holt White.) 4to, London. 1891. Mr. Dunning. 

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[Proe. Am. Phil. 8oo., 1882.] 

Dipterous Larvae from the Western Alkaline Lakes, and their use as 

Hitman Food. 
[Trans. Conn. Acad., 1888.] 

On Uie Classification of North American Diptera. 

[Ent. Am., 1886.] 3fr. VerrdLl. 

ZKKimiBB (Leo). [See Saussubb (H. de), and Godman (F. D.), and 
Salvin (O.). Biologia Centrali- Americana.] 

Periodicals and Publications of Societies. 

CatbTowk. Soath African Philosophical Society. Transactions. Vol. VII.; 
VoL VIIL, Part 1. The Society. 



Halifax. Nova Scotian Institate of Science. Proceedings and Transac* 
tions. 2 Ser., VoL I., Part 3. The Institute. 

hoTDOif^ Ontaiio. The Canadian Entomoh)gist. Vol. XXVI., 1894. 

By EjDchange. 

MoBTBBAL. Boyal Society of Canada. Proceedings and Transactions. 
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Digitized by 


( xxxii ) 

ToBONTO. Entomological Society of Ontario. Report XXIY.. 1894. 

The Society, 

Frnit Growers' Association of Ontario. Beport for 1898. 

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Boston. Boston Society of Natural History. Proceedings. VoLXXYI., 
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Cambridob, Mass. MoBemn of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 
Annnal Beport, 1892—98. The Curator, 

Davenport, Iowa. Academy of Natural Sciences. Proceedings. YoL II. , 
Part 2 ; Vol. V., Part 2 ; VoL VI., Part I. The Academy. 

Philadelphia. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelpliia. Proceed- 
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Entomological News and Proceedings of the Entomological Section. 
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American Philosophical Society. Proceedings, 1898. 

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American Entomological Society. Transactions, 1804. 

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Washington. Insect Life, 1894 U,8* Dept ofAgric. 



Buenos Aires. Academia Nacional de Ciencias, Cordova. Boletin, 
Tomo XII. By Exchange, 

Bio DE Janeiro. Museo NacionaL Archives, 1892. The Museum, 

Santiago. Soei^t^ Scientifique du Chili. Actes, 1898. The Society, 

Jamaica. Institute of Jamuca. Journal. Vol. II. The Institute. 

Trinidad. Trinidad Held Naturalist's Cluh. Journal. Vol. II. 

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Bombay. Natural History Society. Journal. Vol. VIII.. F^rts 1^6 ; 
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Digitized byVjOOQlC 

( xxxiii ) 


Adelaide. B07&I Society of South Australia. Transactioins, Prooeedings 
and Beporte. Vol. XVIL By Eaclumge, 

Stdvst. The Agrieultaral Gasette of New South Wales, 1894 

Agric, DepL 
Tiinneftn Society of New South Wales. Proceedings, 2xid Series, 
Vol. Vin. By Exchange, 

Welukoton. New Zealand Institute. Transactions and Proceedinffs. 
Vol. XXVL The Institute. 



Bbunn. Katurforschender Verein in Brunn. Verhandlungen. Band 
XXXI. ByMmchtmge, 

VizicMA. K. k. soologisoh-hotanische Verein (Geeellschlift} in Wien. 
Yeihandlungen. Band XLTV. By Ex^uinge. 

Wiener entomologische Verein. Jahresberioht, 189S— 08. 

« By Purehaae. 

Wiener entomologische Zeitung, 1894. By Purchase, 


Brussbi^ Soei^EntomologiquedeBelgique. Annales. TomeXXXVIIL 

By Exchange. 


CoPEHHAOKN. Entomoloffiske ICeddelelser udnvne af Entomologisk 
Forening ved F. Meinert. Band 1— VII. 1888—94. 

Mr, Dunmng. 


Caen. Sod^t^ Linn^enne de Normandie. Bulletin, 1893. By Exeha/nge. 

Soci^ Fran^aise d*Entomologie. Bevue. Tomes I.— XIII. 
1882—94. Mr. Dmning. 

Lyons. SociM Linn^nne de Lyon. Annales, 1891—93. By Exchange. 

Paris. Society Entomologique de France. Annales, 1892. By Exchange, 

L'Aheille. 1894. By Purchase, 

T0VLOU8K. Soci^te d'Bistoire Naturelle. BuUetins, 1892— 98. 

By Exchange. 


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Zeitschnft. 1894. By Exchange, 

Deutsche entomologische Gesellschaft. Deutsche entomologische 
Zeitschrift 1^4. By Exchange. 

Entomologische Nachrichten. 1893. Dr, Fremlm. 

Bericht iiher die wiasenschafUichen Leistuugen des Jahres 1892. 


Digitized by 


( xxxiv ) 

Dbbsdin. ''Iris.*' Deatsohe entomologische ZeiUchrift. Band VI.* 
Hft 2. By Exchange, 

Feankfobt. Senokenbergisohen natorfonohendea Gesellschaft. Bericht. 
1894. By Exchange. 

Stettin. Entomologbche Verein. Entomologische Zeitmig. Jahrfc. LV. 

By Exchange. 

Werniobrodb. Naturwissensohaftlicbe Verein des Hanes. Band VIII. 
18W. The Society. 

Wiesbaden. Naesaoisoher Verein fur Naturkunde Jahrbacher. Jakr;;. 
XL VI. By Exchange, 


BiRMfKOHAM. Philosopliical Society. Proceedings, 1893. . The Society. 

Dublin. Royal Dublin Society. Transactions, Ser. 2, Vol. IV., pt 14; 
Vol. v.. pts. 1—4. Proceedings, New Ser., Vol. VII., pt 5 ; 
Vol. Vm.. pts. 1, 2. The Society, 

Essex. Essex NataraUst^ being the Joamal of the E^sex ileld Club. 
Vol. VII., pts. 6—12. By Exchange. 

Hkrtfobd. Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club. 
Transactions. VoL VII., pts. 8, 9. The Society. 

London. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 1894. By Purchcue. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society. 
Transactions for 1898. The Society, 

Entomologist (The). 1S94. T. P. Newman. 

Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 1894. The Editors. 

E ntomologist's Record and Journal of Variation. 1894. 

The Editor. 
Linnean Society of London. Transactions, Vol. V., pt. II ; Vol. VI., 
pts. 1, 2. Journal, Nos. 157, 158. By Exchange. 

Nature. 1894. The Publishen*. 

Nature Notes. 1894. The PuhlisherM. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. Journal. 1894. The Cluh. 

Royal Agricultural Society. Journal. 3rd Ser., Vol. V. 

The Society. 

Royal Microscopical Society. Journal. 1894 The Society. 

Royal Society. ProceedingF. Nos. 328—338. The Society. 

Year Book of Scientific Societies. 1894. By Purchase. 

Zoological Record for 1893. By Purcltase. 

Zoological Society. Proceedings, 1894. Transactions, VoL XIII., 
pt. 9. By Exchange. 

Zoologist (The). 1894. T. P. Newman. 


The Haqvb. Tydschrift roor Entomologie. Jahr. 1892 - 93. 

By Exchange. 

Digitized by 


( XXXV ) 


ThotLMMCK. Societa Entomologica Italians. Ballettino. 1894. 

By Exchange, 
Okvoa. Moseo Citico di Storia Naturale di Genora. Annali. Her. 2, 
VoL XIII. By Exchange. 


Moaoow. Society Imperiale des NatnraliBt^s de Hoscou. Bulletin. 1893. 
No». 3— 4 ; 1894, Na I. By Exchange. 


Stock BOI.M. £ntomologi«ka Fdrenigen i Stockholm. Eutomologisk 
Tidskrift 1894. By Exchange. 

Kon^liga Srenika Vetenskaps-Akademie Bihang. XVIII. Afd. 4 

The Academy, 


ScHArrHAUSKrr. Sehweixerische entomologische G^^sellschaft. Mitthei- 
Ixangen. 18M. By Exchange. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 








Fob thk Ykab 1894. 

I. On a collection of Lepidoptera from Upper Burma^ 
by Edward Miybick, B.A., P.Z.S. 

[Read Oct. 18th, 1893.] 

Thk species enamerated in this paper were collected 
by Surgeon -Captain N. Manders, whilst taking part in 
those military movements^ directed to the pacification 
of the Shan States and their neighbourhood^ which 
followed the annexation of the territory. Most of the 
country visited was previously unknown to Europeans^ 
and highly interesting. The unhealthy climate^ however, 
naturally kept Dr. Manders* hands fall of other work, 
and the continued presence of hostile natives made 
collecting always dangerous and often impossible ; whilst 
an unfortunate wound from an enemy in ambush 
eventually led to his being invalided home when just 
about to visit some of the most promising regions. 
Under these trying circumstances the collection is a 
remarkable record of persevering work. I had originally 
hoped to have worked out the whole, but in the face of the 
pressure of other work this has proved impossible, and 

TEANS. INT. 800. LOND. 1894. — PABT I. (MARCH.) A 

Digitized by 


2 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a collection 

part has been transferred to other hands. The families 
or groups here presented, however, are worked out in 
full, viz., the Arciiadce, Pyralidina, and Tineina. 


1. Pelosia tetrasema, sp. n. 

^ ?. 42 — io mm. Head aud palpi ochreoua-orange, apex of 
palpi blackish. Thorax whitish-ochreous, with an orange central 
spot, a ronnd blackish posterior spot, and a black longitudinal mark 
on patagia ; in ^ also two blackish spots on collar. Abdomen 
ochreous-orange. Foi-ewings whitish-ochreous ; a cloudy roundish 
blackish spot in disc posteriorly, and a second beneath it on fold ; iu 
^ 'both reduced to dots ; cilia yellow. Hindwings in ^ ochreous- 
whitish, hindmargin yellow, in $ wholly ochreous-yellow ; cilia 

Hab. Koni ; three specimens. 
Allied to P. pundicollis, Butl. 

2. Bizone javanica, Butl. 
Hab. Fort Stedman. 

3. Bizone harterti, Elwes. 
Hab. Koni. 

4. Ammatho defecta, Walk. 
Hab. Fort Stedman. 

5. Ammatho distich a, sp. n. 

$ . 27 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous-rosy. Abdomen 
pale rosy. Forewings ochreous-rosy ; a black dot near base ; two 
nearly straight transverse series of small round blackish spots, first 
of four, at If second of five, median. Hindwings pale rosy. 

Hab. Fort Stedman ; one specimen. 

C. Ammatho ejnxantha, sp. n. 

$ . 28 mm. Head deep yellow. Thorax deep yellow, with a 
transverse series of four black dots, and one near posterior ex- 
tremity. Abdomen ochreous-yellow. Forewings rather deep 
ochreous-yellow ; markings cloudy blackish-fuscous ; a black dot 
near base ; a transverse row of dots about i, angulated above 
middle ; a nearly stiaight transverse row of dots before middle ; a 

Digitized by 


of Lepidopiera from Upper Burma. 3 

third (teries from J of costa to I of inner margin, rather strongly 
curved outwards on upper J, five mediau dots produced into short 
streaks posteriorly, and two additional short streaks above upper- 
most of them ; cilia yellow. Hindwings and cilia pale yellowish. 
ITafc. Koni ; one specimen. 

7. Miltochrisfa rubricosa, Moore. 
Hah. Fort Stedman. 

8. Miltochriata sinica, Moore. 
Hah. Eoni. 

9. MUtochrista calltnoma, sp. n. 

$. 27 mm. Head pale rosy, face ochreous-whitish. Thorax 
pmle rosy, towards middle whitish, with two blackish dots. Abdo- 
meo pale rosy. Forewings rosy ; all veins except costal branches 
marked with blackish-grey lines, edged on both sides with grey- 
whitish shades ; these do not reach hindmargin, which is wholly 
rosy ; cilia grey- whitish. Hindwings light rosy ; cilia whitish. 

Hob. Koni ; one specimen. 

10. Miltochriata eccentropis, sp. n. 
^. 20 mm. Head white. Palpi dark fuscous, apex white. 
Thorax orange, posterior extremity white. Abdomen ochreous- 
yellowish. Forewings white ; a dark grey roundish spot near 
base, followed by two curved transverse series of similar spots, five 
in each series ; a curved orange antemedian fascia ; a small black 
discal spot beyond middle; a fine blackish transverse line from 
beyond middle of costa to J of inner margin, forming a rather 
angular bend outwards round discal spot ; beyond this all veins 
marked by blackish well-defined lines ; cilia white. Hindwings 
ochreous-whitish ; hairs towards base more yellowish ; veins 
towards hindmargin marked with short cloudy dark grey streaks, 
sometimes confluent, diminishing downwards and not reaching anal 
angle ; cilia white. 

Hab. Koni ; two specimens. 

11. MiltochrUta celidopa, sjp, u. 
$ J . 20 — 25 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-yellow. Abdo- 
men pale ocbreous-yellowish, anal tuft grey. Forewings whitish- 
ocbreooa, base, costa, and a hindmarginal band ochreous-yellow, 

Digitized by 


4 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a colhcUon 

sometimes wholly ochreous-yellow ; a black dot near base ; a round 
black discal dot beyond middle ; cilia ochreous-yellow. Hind- 
wings pale ochreous-yellowish, sometimes suffused with grey except 
towards bindmargin. 

Hub. Koni ; three specimens. 

12. Milfochrista geodetis, sp. n. 

i $. 18—22 mm. Head blackish, sides orange. Thorax 
orange, with black dots on shoulders and patagia, sometimes con- 
fluent, a black transverse mark in middle of back, and a spot near 
posterior extremity. Abdomen blackish, sides and apex orange. 
Forewings orange ; markings black ; a dot near base ; a small 
round spot on or near costa at |, another beneath it near inner 
margin, a third in disc at f , and sometimes a fourth on anal angle ; 
a streak along posterior half of costa round apex and bindmargin. 
to anal angle ; cilia blackish. Hindwings dull orange ; a blackish 
streak along bindmargin and round apex ; sometimes a more or 
less broad dark fuscous suffusion before this ; sometimes a small 
dark fuscous spot beneath costa at J ; cilia blackish. 

Hah. Koni ; three specimens. 

13. Oxacme dissimilis, Hamps. 
Hah. Koni. 

14. Lehena frag His, Swinb. 
Hah. Koni. 

15. Rajendra tnpartita, Walk. 
Hah. Fort Stedman. 

16. Phissama trans tens, Walk. 
Hah. Fort Stedman. 

17. Spilosoma tndica, Guer. 
Hah, Fort Stedman. 

18. Dciojwia pnlchella, h. 
Hah. Koni. 

Digitized by 


of Lepidoplera from Upper Burma. 5 


1. Margaronia nitidicostalis, Gn. 
Hab. Koni. 

2. Margaronia amphitritalis, Gn. 
Hab. Port Stedman. 

3. Margaronia unionalis, Hb. 
Hab. Koni : large but otherwise typical. 

4. Margaronia celsaliSy Walk. 
Ilab. Koni. 

5. Margaronia tyres , Cr. 
Hob. Koni. 

6. Margaronia callizonay sp. n. 

^ . 25 mm. Thorax dark fuscous, with two white stripes. Ab- 
domen dark fuscous, on sides and beneath white, above with a 
broad orange band occupying three segments before apex, edged 
with black. Forewings dark fuscous ; markings violet- white, 
thinlj scaled ; a small wedge-shaped mark in disc at } ; a narrow 
white streak along inner margin from base to f , indented in middle; 
a large oblique elongate pear-shaped blotch in disc befo^ middle, 
nearly reaching margins ; a pale grey transverse mark in middle 
of disc ; a large transverse oval blotch beyond middle, not reaching 
margins ; a transverse white spot beneath costa at |, emitting a 
fuscous- whitish line to inner margin before anal angle ; cilia dark 
fuscous, with a white patch above anal angle. Hindwings violet- 
white, thinly scaled ; a moderately broad dark fuscous hind mar- 
ginal band, including a cloudy fuscous- whitish line ; cilia fuscous 
with a cloudy dark fuscous line, on lower half of hindmargin 
white except towards anal angle. 

Hab. Fort Stedman ; one specimen. 

Distinct from all near allies by the orange band of 

7. Margaronia principalis, Walk. 
Ilab. Fort Stedman. 

Digitized by 


6 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a collection 

8. Botyodes asialia, 6n. 
Hal, Koni. 

9; Omlodes lianoralis, Walk. 
Hah. Koni. 

10. Omiodes vnlgalis, Gn. 
Hab. Koni. 

11. Agrotera effertalis, Walk. 
Hab* Koni. 

12. Conogethes rigidalis, Snell. 
Hab. Fort Stedman. 

13. Conogethes plagiferalis, Walk. 
Hab, Fort Stedman. 

14. Conogethes boteralisj Walk. 
Hab. Mono, Fort Stedman. 

15. Conogethes amyntalis^ Walk. 
Hah. Koni. 

LoxocoRYS, n. g. 
Face obliqae, forming a rounded-conical projection beneath ; a 
small erect scaletuf t on crown between antennas ; ocelli distinct ; 
tongue developed. AntennsB *, in $ stout, filiform, minutely 
ciliated {\), Labial palpi rather long, curred, ascending, shortly 
rough-scaled beneath, terminal joint moderate, lopsely scaled, 
pointed. Maxillary palpi rather long, filiform. Abdomen in $ 
with moderate anal tuf fc. Forewings with vein 7 from near 8, 
9 and 10 out of 8. Hindwings 1 ; veins 3, 4, 5 approximated at 
base, 7 out of 6 near origin, anastomosing with 8 to middle. 

16. Loxocorys sericea, Butl. (Scopula). 
Hah. Fort Stedman. 

17. Notarcha quaiemalis, Z. 
Hab. Koni. 

18. rhlyctvenia itemalesalisj Walk. 
Hab. Fort Stedman. 

Digitized by 


of Lepidoptera from Upper Burma. 7 

19. Phlyetcenia ferrugalis, Hb. 
Hab. Mone. 

20. ITyalobaihra dtalychna, sp. n. 
^. 20 — 21 mm. Head, palpi, antennse, thorax, and abdomen 
pale browoish-ochreoufl ; palpi 1^, base white; antennal dila- 
tion* IJ. Forewings with apex rectangular ; brownish-ochreous, 
posterior half suffused with reddish- brown ; lines indistinct, 
Uackish-grej ; first curred, indented in middle ; a cloudy blackish- 
grey blotch in middle of disc ; second line forming an oblique 
blackish mark on costa at -*, obtusely bent above middle, below 
middle again bent inwards to beneath discal blotch, and thence 
again rectangularly bent to inner margin at | ; a bright ochreous- 
yellow suffused blotch extending along apical third of costa ; cilia 
white, with a blackish-grey basal line. Hindwings pale brownish- 
ochreoua, towards costa whitish-ochreous ; traces of a grey discal 
blotch and some blackish dots indicating second line as in fore- 
wingB, but Tery indistinct ; an indistinct fine waved blackish-grey 
subterminal line ; cilia as in forewings. 
Rab. Koni ; two specimens. • 

21. Igocentris illectaliSj Walk. 
Hob. Koni. 

22. Pyrausta ahlacialis, Walk. 
Eab. Fort Stedman. 

23. Pyrausta miniosalis, Gn. 
Hab, Fort Stedman. 

24. Pyrausta celatalisj Walk. 
Eab. Fort Stedman. 

25. Pyrausta exiinctalis, Christ. 
Hab. Eoni. 

26. Pyrausta dbruptalis, Walk. 
Eah. Fort Stedman. 

27. Acharana otrealis, Walk. 
Hah. Koni, Fort Stedman. 

28. Titanio comparalisj Hb. 
Hab. Mone. 

Digitized by 


8 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a collection 

29. Tiianio fessalisj Swinh. 

Hob. Koni. 

Labial and maxillary palpi unasually long; frontal 
plate shorty rounded; hindwings with veins 4 and 5 

30. Hellula uiidalts, F. 
Hab. Koni. 

31. Metasia zanchgramma^ sp. n. 
9 . 14— 1 G mm. Head, antenn89, thorax, and abdomen ochreoas- 
whitish, shoulders irrorated or suffused with dark fuscous. Palpi 
white, terminal joint and apes of second dark fuscous. Legs 
whitish, anterior pair banded with dark fuscous. Fore wings 
elongate-triangular, costa hardly arched, apex ronudpointed, hind- 
margin sinuate ; pale greyish-ochreous, more or less irrorated with 
fuscous ; costa suffused with dark fuscous on basal half ; lines dark 
fuscous ; first from \ of costa to ^ of inner margin, curved ; two 
snbquadrate spots outlined with dark fuscous in disc ; a small 
blackish spot on costa beyond middle ; second line rising from 
posterior extremity of a small longitudinal black mark on costa at 
}, preceded and followed by a clearer whitish-ochreous spot, running 
nearly straight to anal angle, slightly indented in middle, obsoletely 
continued upwards to lower margin of second discal spot, thence 
again distinct to ) of inner margin ; a cloudy dark fuscous line along 
hindmargin from apex to near anal angle : cilia rather light fuscous, 
base whitish-ochreous. Hindwings with colour, second and hind- 
marginal lines as in f orewings, but second line without costal spot ; 
a small dark fuscous discal spot, connected with second line ; cilia 
fuscous-whitish, with a fuscous subbasal line. 

Hah. Koni; two specimens. 

Very like some of the other small obscure species of 
the genus, but distinguished from all by the dark costal 
mark from which the second line rises. 

Metasiodes, n. g. 

Characters of Metasia, but face without prominence, 
labial palpi ascending, terminal joint short, obtuse. 

32. Metasiodes hcliaula, sp. n. 
(J ? . 15 — 18 mm. Head ochreous- whitish, with two fuscous 
spots before antennae ; frontal prominence hardly perceptible. Palpi 

Digitized by 


of Lepidoptera from Upper Burma. 9 

white, terminal joint and apex of second dark fnscoos. Antennas 
whittsh-ochreous, ciliations in (^ J. Thorax and abdomen ochreous- 
yellow. Legs whitiah, anterior pair banded with dark fascons. 
Forewings elongate-triangalar, costa almost straight, apex round- 
pointed, hindmargin sinuate ; bright yellow, more or less ferru- 
ginoos-tinged ; eight small blackish spots on costa, the sixth double 
and tending to form a semicircular ring ; lines ferruginous, rather 
irregular ; first at ^ ; two quadrate spots outlined with dark fuscous 
in disc, separated by a quadrate semitransparent whitish spot ; 
second line waved, running from eighth costal spot near apex to 
anal angle, thence obsoletely continued to beneath second discal spot, 
and thence again distinct to f of inner margin ; a thick dark 
fuscous line along upper f of hindmargin, preceded by a ferruginous 
MiiFusion ; cilia yellowish, with blackish spots at apex and middle 
of hindmargin. Hind wings yellow ; a small dark fuscous discal 
spot : second line as in forewings, but rising from | of costa ; a 
ferruginous apical patch, bordered by a thick dark fuscous line 
along upper half of hindmargin : cilia as in forewings, sometimes 
with a cloudy dark grey subbasal line on upper half of hindmargin. 

Ilah. Koni, Fort Stedman ; five specimens. 

33. Nacoleia coniingens, Moore. 
Hah. KodI. 

34. Sameodes cancellalis, Z. 
Hah. Koni. 

35. Diasemia grammalis, Dbld. 
Hab. Eoni. 

36. Bocchoris insperaalis, Z. 
Uab. Eoni. 

37. Stegothyris diagonalis, Gn. 
Hab. Koni, Mone, Fort Stedman. 

88. Cnaphalocrocis m^dinalisy Gn. 
Hab. Mone. 

39. Dolichoaticha venilialis, Walk. 
Uab. Fort Stedman 

Digitized by 


10 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a collection 

40. Dolichosticlia martaaliSf Walk. 
Hah, Koni. 

41. Dollchostlcha perinpphes, Moyr. 
TTah. Tabet. 

42. Pagyda salvaltft, Walk. 
Hah. Koni. 

43. Filodes falvidor sails, Hb. 
Hah. Fort Stedman. 

44. Nausinoe onychinalls, Ga. 
Hah. Fort Stedman. 

45. Nausinoe geometraHs, Gn. 
Hah. Fort Stedman. 

46. Svnocauta testulalis, Hb. 
Hah. Koni. 

47. Cataclysta mesorplma, sp. n. 

$ . 12 mm. Forewings dark fuscous ; a moderate orange fascia 
at i, not reaching costa, preceded and followed by obscure pale 
leaden lines ; apical area orange, indented by a long leaden- 
metallic wedge-shaped projection from costa beyond -^^ and en- 
closing a leaden-metallic spot on anal angle, and a silvery- white 
narrow wedge-shaped fascia, margined with dark grey, from costa 
before apex to hind margin below middle : cilia dark fuscous-grey. 
Hindwings with vein 8 absent ; dark fuscous, sprinkled with white 
in disc ; a longitudinal orange streak near inner margin ; a slender 
whitish curved transverse line beyond -J ; four rather large round 
black spots on hindmargin, separated by orangp hindmarginal 
dots surmounted by golden-metallic sc&les, first and fourth spots 
including central golden-metallic spots ; cilia fuscous, base darker. 

Hob. Koni ; one specimen. 

48. Nymphula hifurcalis, Pryer. 
Hah. Fort Stedman. 

49. Nymphula turhata, Butl. 
Hah. Fort Stedman. 

Digitized by 


of Lepidopte^*a from Upper Bta-ma. 11 

50. Nymphnla myina, Meyr. 
Hab. Koni. 

51. Ni/mphula flftrhiosaligy Z. 
Ilab. Koni. 

52. Njfmphala depxindalisy Gn. 
Hob, Koni. . 

53. Mixophyla erminea, Moore. 
Hob. Fort Stedman. 

54. Crambostenia angusttfimbrialis, Swinli. 
Hob. Fort Stedman. 

55. Donacaula chlorosema, sp. n. 

i. 17 — 20 mm. Head, antemiao, thorax, and abdomen white ; 
aatanme snbdentate, ciliations J. Labial palpi 1 J, f asoous. Mazil- 
laiy palpi foacoos, apex white. Legs fnsoons, posterior . tibiss 
white. Forewings elongate-triangnlar, hindmargin rather strongly 
roonded beneath ; 11 running into 12 ; white ; markings pale 
ocfareoua-yellow, faint and cloudy ; two or three small spots in 
diac near base ; first line at |, bent aboTe middle, partially inter- 
nipted ; two spots on costa beyond middle, one at |, and an ereot 
mark from inner margin before anal angle, with some faint 
scattered scales in disc between these : cilia white. Hind wings 
white ; a small pale ochreons-yeUow spot at anal angle ; cilia 

Hah. Koni ; two specimens. 

56. Schcenobiiis punetelluSy Z. 
Hab. Koni. 

57. Scirpophaga xanthogastrella, Walk. 
Hab. Fort Stedman 


58. HercuUa psamaihopia, sp. n. 

i . 27 — 31 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen light brownish- 
odireoos, crown more yellow-ochreous. Antennal ciliations 1^. 
Forewings with costa slightly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin 
rounded, oblique ; light brownish-ochreons, irrorated with fuscous ; 

Digitized by 


12 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a collection 

first line faintly darker, almost obsolete ; second line thick, very 
clondy, fuscous, from J of costa to before } of inner margin, 
somewhat sinuate : cilia light brownish-ochreous, with cloudy 
fuscous lines. Hindwings with colour as in forewings, but lighter, 
hairs in disc towards base reddish ; second line as in forewings, 
but more distinct, somewhat curved ; cilia as in forewings. 
Hab. Koni ; two specimens. 

59. Pyralis vihicalis, Ld. 
Hah, Koni. 

60. Pyraliit pictalis, Curt. 
Hab. Tabet, Koni. 

Phosaei3, n. g. 

Face with projecting tuft of scales ; ocelli distinct ; tongue 
developed. Antennsd J, in (^ serrulate, ciliated (2). Labial palpi 
long, porrected, curved downwards, clothed beneath throughout 
with very long dense loosely-appressed hairs, terminal joint 
moderately long. Maxillary palpi rather short, thick, triangularly 
dilated with scales. Abdomen in ^ with moderate anal tuft. 
Anterior femora in (J with tuft of hairs beneath ; middle and 
posterior tibiae and first joint of tarsi in (J clothed with long 
rough hairs. Forewings with vein 1 shortly furcate, 7 and 8 out of 
9. Hindwings in ^ above with an erect triangular tuft of scales 
below middle, beneath with a large bladderlike swelling on vein 8 
towards base ; 7 out of 6, anastomosing very shortly with 8. 

61. Prosaris pemigralisy Rag. (?) 

^ . 21 mm. Head reddish ochreous, face mixed with dark 
fuscous. Palpi dark reddish-fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous mixed 
with ochreous, purplish-tinged. Forewings triangular, costa nearly 
straight, hardly sinuate in middle, apex obtuse, hindmargin bowed 
rather oblique ; deep purplish-reddish-fuscous, irrorated with 
blackish ; hindmarginal area lighter and greyer ; a suffused deep 
red patch towards costa near apex, surrounding a small clear 
whitish-ochreous spot on costa : cilia deep purple-reddish, mixed 
with blackish. Hindwings with colour and cilia as in forewings ; 
discal scaletuf t blackish, followed by a deep reddish suffusion, 
including a suffused whitish-ochreous dot ; a suffused blackish 
shade at J, parallel to hindmargin. 

Hah. Koni ; one specimen. 

Digitized by 


of Lepidoptera from Upper Burma. 13 

M. Bagonot described his pernigralis from a single 9 : 
hence he was not acquainted with the full generic 
characters^ and his specific description also differs in 
some particulars^ which are probably sexual; I have^ 
therefore, described uiy ^ in full, but I have little doubt 
that it is truly identical with his species. 

62. Hyboloma nummosalis, Rag. 

Hab. Koni. 

M. Ragonot's figure is poor; the ocelli are present; 
the face has a projecting tuft of scales ; in the forewings 
vein t5 rises out of 7, but this character is very probably 

63. Striglina idalialis^ Walk. 
Hab, Mone. 

6^. SUulodes subrosealis, Leech. 
llah. Fort Stedman. 

05. Heteroglypta ephippella, Rag. 
Hoi. Koni, Mone. 

66. Myelois robustay Moore. 
Hab. Koni. 

67. lilujdophcea duplicella, Rag. 
Hab, Koni. 

68. Canthelea gratella^ Walk. 
Hab. Koni. 

69. Piesmopoda steniellay Rag. 
Hab. Koni. 

70. Dera »purcella, Rag. 
Hab. Koni. 

71. Etiella zinckenella, Tr. 
Hab. Koni. 

72. Gritonia subconcinnellaj Rag. 
Hab. Koni 

Digitized by 


14 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a collection 


73. Lamoria planalis, Walk. 
Hah. Koni. 

74. Lamoria rujivena, Walk. 
Hab. Fort Stedman. 


75. Aquita iorrentella, Meyr. (?) 

Hab. Koni ; the single specimen differs somewhat from 
those originally described from Australia^ but I cannot 
venture to separate it specifically. 

76. Surattha invectalis, Walk. 
Hab. Mone. 

77. Alley lolomia tndica^ Feld. 
Hab. Koni. 

78. Ptychopseustis amwnella, Snell. 
Hab. Koni. 

1. Anacampsis seutata, sp. n. 
i . 12 mm. Head and thorax ochreous, face and palpi 
whitish-ochreous. AntennsB fuscous-whitish. Forewings elongate, 
narrow, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, hind margin 
oblique, hardly rounded ; dark slaty-f ascous ; a moderately broad 
whitish-ochreous streak along inner margin from base to j, pointed 
posteriorly ; a moderate triangular ochreous- white spot on costa 
about f ; some whitish dots round apical margin : cilia dark slaty- 
fuscous. Hindwings and cilia whitish-grey, slightly purplish- 

Hab. Fort Stedman; one specimen. 

HiERANGELA, n. g. 

Head smooth ; ocelli absent ; tongue developed. Antennas |, 
in ^ serrulate, simple, basal joint slender, without pecten. Labial 
palpi very long, recurved, smooth, slender, second joint somewhat 
thickened, terminal joint longer than second, acute. Maxillary 

Digitized by 


of Lepidoptera from Upper Burma. 15 

palpi rudimentary. Posterior tibiae clothed with hairs. Forewings 
with vein lb furcate, 2 from before angle, 8 and 9 out of 7, 7 to 
cosla (?), 11 from beyond middle. Hindwings *, narrow, parallel- 
sided, apex strongly and acutely produced, hindmargin beneath 
apex straight, oblique, cilia 3 ; veins 3 and 4 from a point, 6 and 
7 &om a point. 

2. Hierangela erythrogramma, sp. n. 

i . 14 mm. Head yellow, with red central streak on crown, 
face white. Palpi whitish, second joint red above towards apex. 
Antennae whitish-ochreous, towards base reddish above. Thorax 
yellow, with four longitudinal red stripes. Abdomen pale grey. 
Forewings very elongate, broadest near base, thence grttdually 
narrowed to apex, acute ; bright yellow ; a crimson-red costal 
streak from base to }, paler posteriorly, leaving extreme costal 
edge whitish ; a longitudinal median crimson-fed streak from ba^e 
to costa before apex, interrupted at f ; space between this and 
costal streak suffused with fuscous ; a small fuscous spot on lower 
margin of median streak before middle ; a transverse crimson-red 
spot from inner margin near base, meeting median streak ; a small 
red spot on inner margin beyond this ; a crimson-red streak along 
inner margin from before middle to apex, interrupted above anal 
angle and below apex : cilia grey, on costa pale ochreous, with a 
blackish apical hook and a small golden-metallic subbasal spot at 
apex, base beneath apex reddish. Hindwings and cilia grey, 
towards anal angle whitish- grey. 

Hah. Fort Stedman ; one specimen. 

8. Cladodes arotraea, sp. n. 

$ . 1 1 — 14 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, with three 
fuscous stripes. Palpi whitish-ochreous, with a dark fuscous line 
on each side of anterior edge. Antennae whitish-ochreous, spotted 
with fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, 
apex pointed, hindmargin almost straight, oblique ; pale whitish- 
ochreous, all veins suffusedly margined with dark fuscous ; a round 
black dot in disc at ^, a second nearly beneath it on fold, and a 
third in disc at ] ; a small suffused blackish apical spot ; cilia pale 
whitbh-ochreons, with an indistinct fuscous line. Hindwings pale 
grey ; cilia grey- whitish. 

Hab. Koni ; two specimens. 

Onebala, Walk. 
Head smooth ; ocelli almost concealed ; tongue developed. 
Antennse |, in i simple, basal joint moderate, without pecten. 

Digitized by 


16 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a collection 

Labial palpi very long, recurred, smooth, second joint rather 
thickened above middle, terminal joint as long as second, slender, 
acute. Maxillary palpi rudimentary. Posterior tibise clothed with 
hairs above. Forewings with vein lb furcate, 2 almost from angle, 
3 and 4 stalked, 5 absent, 7 to costa, 8 and 9 out of 7, 11 from 
beyond middle. Hindwings somewhat over 1, trapezoidal, hind- 
margin not indented, cilia J ; veins 3 and 4 stalked, 5 absent, 6 and 
7 stalked. 

Near Cladodes; Walker's description is of course 

4. Onebala hlaiidiella, Walk. 

Hab. Mone ; one specimen. Walker's typo is from 
Ceylon, and differs slightly in marking. 

TOEODOKA, n. g. 

Head smooth, sidetufts somewhat spreading ; ocelli absent ; 
tongue developed. Antennse |, in ^ serrate, ciliated (J-1), basal 
joint rather long, without pecten. Labial palpi long, recurved, 
second joint much thickened with appressed scales, somewhat 
rough beneath, terminal joint as long as second, slender, acute. 
Maxillary palpi very short. Posterior tibiaa clothed with rough 
hairs, posterior tarsi sometimes with basal joint rough-haired 
above. Forewings with vein lb furcate, 2 and 3 stalked from 
angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to apex or just below, 9 out of 7 or 
in 9 sometimes separate, 1 1 from beyond middle. Hindwings over 
1, trapezoidal, hindmargin more or less sinuate, cilia ^-^ ; veins 
3 and 4 from a point, 5 approximated to 4 at base, G and 7 stalked. 

Allied to Lecithocera. The three species described are 
very similar, but certainly distinct. Type, T, characieHa. 

5. Torodora characteris, sp. n. 

^ 9 • 1^^ — 22 uim. Head and thorax dark fuscous. Palpi 
whitish-ochreous, second joint dark fuscous except apex. Antennas 
whitish-ochreous, sharply serrate, ciliations 1. Abdomen fuscous. 
Posterior tarsi with basal joint hairy. Forewings elongate, costa 
gently arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin sinuate, hardly oblique ; 
7 to apex ; rather dark fuscous ; a rather irregular black spot or 
small blotch on submedian fold before J of wing, connected with 
inner margin by an indistinct darker suffusion ; a small transverse 
black spot in disc beyond middle ; a faintly indicated slightly bent 
pale transverse line about ^ : cilia fuscous, base pale ochreous. 
Hindwings rather light fuscous ; cilia as in forewings. 

Hah. Koni ; two specimens. 

Digitized by 


of Lepidopterafrom Upper Burma. 17 

G. Torodora parallactis, sp. n. 
c5 . 24 mm. Differs from T. characterls as follows ; (terminal 
joini of palpi broken) antenna: yellowish-tinged, less serrate, 
cUiations | : poBierior tai^i not rongh-baired ; forewings with 
'Vein 7 to below apex, anterior blotch triangular, more distinctly 
connected with inner margin, followed by some whitish-ocbreons 
scales, posterior spot absent, replaced by two transversely placed 
whitish-ochreotis dots ; hindwings paler, cilia more ochreous. 
Bah, Mono ; one specimen. 

7. Torodora ancyloia, sp. n. 

9 . 10 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, tinged with 
pale brown-reddish. (Palpi and antennse broken.) Forewings 
elongate, costa slightly arched, apex strongly produced, pointed, 
hindmargin hence concave, rather oblique ; 7 to below apex, 9 out 
of 7 ; ochreous-f usoons, irrorated with dark fuscous ; extreme 
costal edge yellowish ; a small black spot at base of costa ; au 
erect black bar from inner margin at j, reaching j across wing, 
dilated on snbmedian fold ; a smaU black spot on costa at f ; two 
dark fuscous dots transversely placed in disc beyond middle ; a paler 
bent transverse line, preceded by a darker suffusion, faintly indi- 
cated at { : cilia pale fuscous, base whitish-ochreous. Hindwings 
with apex more pointed, hindmargin more sinuate than in the 
oth^ ^>ecies; light fuscous ; cilia as in forewings. 

Hab. Fort Stedman ; one specimen. 

The peculiar shape of wing easily separates this species 
from the others. 

8. Lecithocera luticomella^ Z. 
Hab, Koni ; one specimen. 

9. Lecithocera pachyixtis, sp. n. 

i . 13 — 14 mm. Head fuscous, sides of crown ochreous-yellow. 
Palpi pale yellowish-ochreons, sometimes partially suffused with 
fuscous. Antennae as long as forewings, lower half thickened with 
scales, much more strongly near base, ochreous-yellowish, upper 
half annnlated with dark fuscous. Thorax and abdomen ochreous- 
fuscous. Forewings elongate, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, 
hindmargin obliquely rounded ; vein 9 separate ; fuscous ; a black 
dot in disc at -3, and another at ^ : cilia light ochreous, with two 
fuscous lines. Hindwings rather light fuscous ; cilia pale ochreous. 

Hab. Koni ; two specimens. 

THASa. BNT. BOC. LOND. 1894. — PABT I. (mABCH.) B 

Digitized by 


IS Mr. Edward JlejTick O'- ^ fj^Vc'/^/tt 

Zauthia, n. g. 

Had scryizh: cc^Vi pres<=.i; icnrrw dereloped. Antemue 5, 
in -• — r . loaI ;:ii:* slen-i-er. »-:iit pecien. Labul palpi long, 
recarred, sEiFTCii- se^x^i ;•:.-: n;^-* ihickeDed. t€>niiinal joint 
slcDder. »C3;<L MahHut polri T^ry sh'?rt. Posterior tibie with 
somevhas rccir^i scal^e*. Fcr«w.-ir? with rein lb furcate, 2 and 3 
sulked, 7 and S siAlked. 7 so c>*^a. 1 1 fr^-^a mi-idle. Hind wings 
oTcr 1, olIoQg-OTate, cil:a f : Tci -.< 3 \=d 4 from a point, 5 parallel 
to 4,6 and 7 closeir arrr:^xiicjL:ed as ba«e. 

iM. Z:'.*r'.i'i !. - •; ti>, sp. n. 

i . 15 mm. Head dark fuso-;i?, with bright bine reflections 
face brassT-ochreoos- Palpi ochreoa:*>Tcl!ow, antaior edge of 
terminal joint fuscous. Ahuht:* dirk fuscous, spotted with 
whitL^h-yeliDwish. Thorax dirk fuscous, with three blue lines. 
Abiiomen dark fu>c-:)as, beneath pale whitish-ochreons. Forewings 
elongate, rather narrow, cosu slightly arched, apex rounded, hind- 
margin rather obliquelr roundel ; orange-ferruginous, apical | 
coppery-blackish ; markings bright metallic green- blue ; a streak 
along anterior half of cosui ; a screak along submedian fold from 
Ijose to middle of wing ; a rather narrow fascia separating the 
ferruginous and black portions, interrupted below middle and not 
reaching inner margin* : an irregular apical fascia, broken into spots 
on lower part of hindmargln : cilia fuscous, basal half orange- 
ferruginous round apex, with a black subbosal line. Hind wings 
dark fuscous, darker and somewhat coppery- tin god on posterior 
half : cilia blackish-grey, terminal half whitish exci-pt towards apex 
and anal angle. 

Hah. Koni; one specimen. 

TiPHA, AValk. 
Head smooth ; ocelli present ; tongue developed. Antennas 
with more or less strong thickening or nodosity near base, rough- 
scaled above. Labial palpi moderately long, curved, ascending, 
second joint with appressed scales, dilated and somewhat tufted at 
apex, terminal joint very short (?), loosely scaled. Maxillary palpi 
very short. Posterior tibi© rough-haired. Forewings with cell 
extremely narrow, lb furcate, 2 and 3 stalked from angle, 4 absent, 
5 absent, 8 and 9 out of 7, 7 to costa, 11 from J. Hindwings over 
], elongate -ovato, cilia ^ ; in (^ with membranous thickening along 
basal third of costa, with a tuft of long hairs lying along it on upper 
surface ; veins 3 and 4 stalked from angle, 5 absent, in ^ G and 7 

Digitized by 


of Lepidoptera frcyin Upper Burma. 19 

stalked, in ^ 6 absent and cell narrowed and pointed posteriorly, so 
that 7 rises from a point with stalk of 3 and 4. 

1 do not possess Walker's typical species^ and tho 

spedtnens of the followlDg species are partly damaged ; 

bence the above generic characters are not quite complete^ 

but sufficiently so to show the great peculiarity of the 

structure. The genus is distinctly allied to Zalithia. 

11. TipJia helioclina, sp. n. 

<J $ . 20 — 22 mm. Head shining pale ochreous. Thorax metallic 
leaden>grey. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex 
obcase, hindmargin ohliquely rounded ; bright orange ; a dark 
leaden-metallic streak along inner margin from \ to base, thence 
along costa to 3, whence it crosses the wing in a rather strong curve 
to middle of inner margin ; a large bronzy-purplish-f uscoos patch 
oocapying apical area, its anterior edge forming a very strong 
rounded angulation which reaches to middle of wing ; cilia brassy- 
metallic. Hindwings and cilia rather dark purplish-fuscous. 

Hah. Fort Stedman ; two specimens. 


Ptochoryctis, n. g. 
Head with appressed scales, sidetufts loosely spreading; oceUi 
present ; tongue developed. Antennas }, in i bipectinated, to- 
wards apex simple, basal joint stout, without pecten. Labial palpi 
long, curved, ascending, with appressed scales, terminal joint 
shorter than second, acute. Maxillary palpi rudimentary.. Posterior 
tibisB clothei with long hairs. Forewings with vein lb furcate, 

2 from 1, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to hindmargin, 9 absent, 1 1 from beyond 
middle. Hindwings 1, trapezoidal-ovate, hindmargin sinuate, cilia ^ ; 
veins 3 and 4 short-stalked, 6. and 7 approximated towards base. 

Nefffly allied to Oryptophasa. 

12. Ptochorydis eremopa, sp. n. 
(J. 17 mm. Head, palpi, antennae, thorax, and abdomen 
wbitish-ochreous ; antennal pectinations blackish. Forewings 
elongate, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly 
rounded, rather strongly oblique ; whitish-ochreous, on posterior 
half thinly sprinkled with ochreous-brown ; inner margin indis- 
iiactly suffused with ochreous-fuscous : cilia ochreous- whitish, with 
two cloudy ochreous-brownish lines. Hindwings light grey ; cilia 
as in forewings. 
Sab. Koni ; one specimen. 

Digitized by 


20 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a collection 

Tbichernis, n. g. 
Head with appressed scales, sidetufts loosely spreading and 
projecting between antennas ; ocelli present ; tongue developed. 
Antennae J, in ^ with long fine cilia (3), basal joint moderate, 
without pecten. Labial palpi long, curved, ascending, second 
joint thickened with appressed scales, terminal joint shorter than 
second, slender, acute. Maxillary palpi rudimentary. Posterior 
tibias clothed with long rough hairs. Forewings with vein lb 
furcate, 2 from angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to hindmargin, 11 from 
middle. Hindwings 1, oblong-ovate, cilia J ; veins 3 and 4 stalked 
5 approximated to 3 at base, 6 and 7 stalked. 

1 3. Tricheimis centrias, sp. n. 

i . 15 mm. Head and thorax pale ochreous-yellowish. Palpi 
whitish-ochreous, second joint dark fuscous externally except at 
apex. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, moderate, 
costa gently arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin straight, rather 
oblique ; pale ochreous-yellowish ; a round black discal dot beyond 
middle: cilia pale ochreous-yellowish. Hindwings and cilia 

Hah, Koni ; one specimen. 


14. Phseosaces ton-ida, sp. n. 

(J V • 22 — 25 mm. Head and palpi ochreous-yellow, terminal 
joint of palpi in (J i, stout, in $ J, slender. Thorax light 
ochreous-fuscous, in ^ paler and more yellowish. Abdomen 
fuscous, margins yellowish. Forewings elongate- oblong, costa 
moderately arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin nearly straight, rather 
obHque ; in ^ unicolorous light ochreous-yellowish ; in ? rather 
light ochreous-brown, apex and costa more or less suffused with 
ochreous-yellow: cilia ochreous-yeUowish. Hindwings rather 
dark fuscous, in ^ lighter and somewhat suffused with ochreous- 
yellowish; cilia ochreous-yellowish, in ? base suffused v^ith 

Hab. Koni ; three specimens. 

HouosACKS, n. g. 

«,»^*f *!''* "PP^!*^ ««J««. sidetufte loosely spreading ; oceUi 

simple, basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial liilni lon^ 
curved, ascending, with appressed scales, terminal joint shorJe^; 
than second, acute. Maxillary palpi rudimentary. PrtSor 

Digitized by 


of Lepidoptera from Upper Burma. 21 

tibi» clothed with long roagh hairs. Fore wings with vein lb 
iuTcate, 2 and 3 stalked, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to hindmargin, 11 from 
before middle. Hind wings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia I ; veins 3 and 
4 from a point. 

Allied to Phceosaces. 

15. Hoinosaces anthocoina, sp. n. 
^ ?. 15—17 mm. Head and palpi yellow-ochreous, palpi 
externally infnscated. Antennse^ thorax, and abdomen dark 
fuscooa. Forewings elongate, moderate, costa gently arched, apex 
obtuse, hindmargin rather obliquely rounded ; dark fuscous, faintly 
purplish-tinged; cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings and cilia dark 

Hub. Koni ; fire specimens. 

P£BIACJL\, n. g. 
Head with appressed scales, sidetuf is loosely spreading ; ocelli 
concealed ; tongue developed. Antennas almost 1, in ^ filiform, 
simple, basal joint moderately long, without pec ten. Labial palpi 
loDg, curved, ascending, thickened with appressed scales, second 
joint short, terminal joint tbrice as long as second, pointed. 
Maxillary palpi rudimentary. Posterior tibias clothed with rough 
hairs. Forewings with vein lb furcate, 2 from near angle, 7 and 
8 stalked, 7 to apex, \h from middle. Hindwings mnder 1, very 
elongate-ovate, cilia 1 ; veins 3 and 4 from a point. 

Specially characterised by the peculiar structure of the 
labial palpi. Type, P.ferialis. 

16. Periacma ferialis, sp. n. 
^. 13 — 14 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax light orange ; second 
joint of palpi mixed with dark fuscous externally, terminal joint 
with a dark fuscous apical spot. Antennad ochreous-yellowish, 
spotted with dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish- 
ochreous. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex round- 
pointed, hindmargin very obliquely rounded ; bright orange ; 
markings dark slaty-purplish ; a streak along submedian fold from 
near base to middle of wing, tending to coalesce with a spot above 
its middle, and an oblique bar from inner margin near base ; a 
narrow slightly curved fascia from | of costa to anal angle ; an 
apical spot, sometimes ill-marked ; cilia orange, becoming pale 
whitish-ochreous towards anal angle. Hindwings grey ; cilia 
whitiflh-ochreouB, towards base greyish-tinged. 
Hab. Koni ; two specimens. 

Digitized by 


22 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a collection 

17. Periacma m'thiodes, sp. n. 
g. 15 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax rather deep ochreous- 
yellow. AntennsQ grey. Abdomen ochreoas-jellowish. Forewings 
elongate, moderate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin 
nearly straight, oblique ; orange-yellow ; markings rather dark 
purplish-fuscous ; an oblique spot from inner margin near base ; a 
streak along submedian fold from near base to middle of wing, 
with a spot above its middle ; a narrow slightly curved fascia from 
I of costa to anal angle ; a hindmarginal fascia, moderate at apex, 
narrowed to a point at anal angle ; cilia orange-yellow, tips whitish- 
yellowish, at anal angle purplish-tinged. Hindwings grey ; cilia 
yellowish, towards anal angle greyish. 

Eab. Koni; one specimen. Very similar to the 
preceding, but certainly distinct by the different form of 
-wing, unspotted palpi, grey antennaa, and yellow 

18. Peiiacma chlm^odesma, sp. n. 

^, 13 mm. Head orange-yellow, face and palpi whitish- 
ochreous. Antennae dark grey, base whitish-ochreous. Thorax 
rather dark purplish-grey. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish- 
ochreous. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex 
obtuse, hindmargin oblique, slightly rounded : rather dark fuscous, 
slightly purplish-tinged ; a whitish-ochreous streak along anterior 
half of costa, meeting a narrow straight ochreous-whitish fascia 
which runs from costa beyond middle to inner margin before anal 
angle ; a suffused ochreous-yollow streak along apical portion of 
costa and upper half of hindmargin ; cilia ochreous-yellow, at anal 
angle dark fuscous. Hindwings grey ; cilia light ochreous-yellowish. 

Hah. Koni j one specimen. 


19. Psecadia hilar ella, Walk. 
Hab. Fort Stedman. 


Aectoscelis, n. g. 

Head smooth ; ocelli absent ; tongue developed. Antennae J, in 

$ serrulate, shortly ciliated, basal joint moderate, without pecten. 

Labial palpi long, curved, ascending, second joint with appressed 

scales, somewhat rough beneath towards apex, terminal joint 

Digitized by 


of Lepidoptera from Upper Burma. 23 

sborter tban second, slightly roughened in front, acate. Maxillary 
palpi obsolete. Posterior tibiae and basal joint of tarsi with 
extremely long spreading erect spatulate hair-scales. Forewings 
with vein lb furcate, 2 from J, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to hindmargin, 
11 from before middle. Hindwings j, lanceolate, cilia 2 ; veins 
3 and 4 stalked, 5 absent. 

20. Ardoifcelis epijiyctia, sp. n. 

^. 11 mm. Head ochreous- white, crown sprinkled with 
fascoos. Palpi whitish, externally mixed with fuscous. Antenns 
ochreons-whitish. Thorax dark fuscous, somewhat mixed with 
whitish. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa moderately 
arched, apex pointed, hindmargin extremely obliquely rounded ; 
fuscous, closely irrorated with dark fuscous ; a white dot in disc 
before 3: cilia rather dark fuscous. Hindwings light fuscous, 
closely irrorated with dark fuscous ; cilia rather dark fuscous. 

JIdb. Koni ; one specimen. 


21. Cosmopteryx asiattca, Stt. 
Hab. Fort Stedman. 

Placoptila, n. g. 

Bead smooth ; ocelli absent ; tongue developed. Antennad almost 
1, in ^ shortly ciliated, basal joint elongate, without pecten. 
Labial palpi very long, recurved, smooth, slender, terminal joint 
longer than second, acute. Maxillary palpi rudimentary. Abdomen 
in ^ with claspers very large, exposed, their base covered above 
by a flat plate of expanded scales. Posterior tibis smooth-scaled, 
with whorls of scales at origin of spurs. Forewings with vein lb 
furcate, 2 from f, G absent, 7 to costa, 11 from middle. Hind' 
wings j, narrow-lanceolate, cilia 4 ; veins G and 7 stalked. 

Nearly allied to Cosmopteryx. 

22. Placoptila electrica, sp. n. 

^. 11—12 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark silvery-grey; 
eyes crimson. Antennae and abdomen dark grey. Forewings 
elongate, very narrow, pointed ; blackish ; markings violet-silvery- 
metallic ; base suffused with dark silvery-grey ; a straight slender 
fascia at y, dilated below middle ; two smaU marginal opposite spots 
at I ; a small spot on anal angle, and another beyond it on costa ; 

Digitized by 


24 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a collection 

space between these and preceding pair sometimes distinctly 
bronzy ; cilia blackish, at apex with a white spot on tips. 
Hob. Koni ; four specimens. 


23. Cerace sfqyatana, Walk. 

Ilab. Koni. I believe this genus is usually referred 
to the Tortricina, but it properly belongs here, and is 
allied to Oeta. 

Head with appressed scales, sidetufts loosely spreading, pro- 
jecting between antennsB ; ocelli present ; tongue developed. 
Antennas ^, in ^ shortly bipectinated, with streak of rongh scales 
on back near base, basal joint large, with dense pecten. Labial 
palpi moderate, curved, ascending, second joint loosely scaled, 
terminal joint less than half second, pointed. Maxillary palpi 
very short, filiform. Posterior tibias clothed with rough scales. 
Forewings with vein lb furcate, 2 from near angle, 7 to costa, 

11 from middle, with a subhyaline groove on lower surface beneath 

12 towards base. Hindwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia i ; veins 3 and 
4 from a point, 5 and G somewhat approximated at base. 

Allied to Oeta, but not closely. 

24. Comocntis olympia, sp. n. 

(J. 30 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white. Abdomen grey. 
Forewings elongate, moderate, costa rather strongly arched, apex 
rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded ; rather light ochreous- 
grey, densely mixed with blackish-grey ; a white basal fascia ; a 
broad white costal streak throughout, suddenly narrowed near base, 
lower edge cloudy and shaded off with blue- whitish, interrupted by 
a light ochreous spot on costa at ^ ; a longitudinal yellow-ochreous 
patch, marked with blackish lines on veins, extending through 
lower part of disc from near base to J ; a crescentic white spot in 
disc at ^, and a second, slightly ochreous-tinged, at | ; a triangular 
white spot on anal angle : cilia white, with a light fuscous patch 
on lower part of hindmargin. Hindwings grey, apex white ; cilia 
grey, round apex white. 

Hah. Koni ; one specimen. 


25. riutella cniciferarum, Z. 
Hab. Koni. 

Digitized by 


of Lepidoptera from Upper Burma. 25 

26. Gracilaria chalcanthes, sp. n. 

(J . 12 — 13 mm. Head shining whitiBh-ochreous, mixed with 
ochreoQs, face silvery-white. Palpi white. Antennce white, 
annalated with dark foscous. Thorax pale ochreous-yellowish. 
Abdomen pale grey. Anterior and middle legs dark fuscous, tarsi 
white ; posterior legs white, femora with a dark fuscous band. 
Forewings elongate, very narrow, parallel-sided, pointed ; ochreous, 
towards costa tinged, or costal ^ wholly suffused with light brassy- 
yellow ; margins marked with scattered black dots, mostly minute ; 
a black dot in disc before {, and another beyond middle : cilia pale 
ochreoDs-greyish, round apex ochreous, with rows of black points 
on terminal half. Hindwings rather dark grey ; cilia light grey. 

Hob, Koni ; two specimens. 

Antiolopha, n. g. 

Head smooth ; no ocelli ; tongue developed. AntennsQ 1^, 
basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial palpi moderately 
long, arched, subascending, second joint smooth, terminal joint as 
long as second, acute, with a triangular tuft of scales in front above 
middle. 3flaxillary palpi moderately long, slender, arched, por- 
rected, acute. Middle tibiae thickened with scales ; posterior 
tibiae rough-scaled towards apex. Forewings with vein lb furcate, 
2 from ^, 7 to costa, 8 absent, 11 from J. Hind wings J, linear- 
lanceolate, cilia 5 ; veins 5 and stalked. 

Nearly allied to Oracilaria, from which it differs essen- 
tially by the tuffced terminal joint of palpi. 

27. Antiolopha hemiconis, sp. n. 

9 . 8 — \) mm. Head and thorax white. Palpi white, apex of 
second and tuft of terminal joint black. Antennae white, annu- 
lated with fuscous. Abdomen grey. Legs ochreous, anterior and 
middle tibiie suffused with blackish, tarsi white with cloudy 
ochreous bands and apex of joints blackish. Forewings elongate, 
very narrow, parallel-sided, pointed ; light reddish-brown ; anterior 
half of inner margin suffused with ochreous- whitish ; a triangular 
blotch on middle o^ costa faintly outlined with blackish scales, and 
more or less distinctly tinted with whitish : cilia grey-whitish, on 
hindmargin with basal half pale brown-reddish, and four rows of 
black points on terminal half. Hindwings rather dark grey ; 
cilia light grey. 
Ilab. Koni ; two specimens. 

Digitized by 


26 Mr. Edward Meyrick on a collection 

28. Adela satrapodes, sp. n. 

?. 16 mm. Head ferruginons, face indigo-blae. Palpi and 
antemuB violet-black. Thorax metallic indigo- blue. Forewings 
moderate, posteriorly dilated, costa moderately arched, apex 
obtuse, hindmargin very obliquely rounded ; deep shining indigo- 
blue ; a broad bright orange fascia before middle, finely black- 
margined ; some scattered black scales beyond this, tending to 
form a transverse parallel line : cilia indigo-blue, tips round apex 
violet. Hindwings deep purple ; cilia bronzy-fuscous. 

Sab. Fort S ted man ; two specimens. 

29. Melasma invariella. Walk. (Torna). 
Hah. Koni. 

30. Melasina ochrocoma, sp. n. 
^ ?. 22-26 mm. Head pale yellow-ochreous, face fuscous. 
Palpi dark fuscous^ apex whitish ochreous. Antenn» fuscous, 
pectinations in ^ 6, in $ 2. Thorax and abdomen fuscous. 
Forewings rather elongate, somewhat dilated posteriorly, apex 
obtuse, hindmargin rather oblique ; light fuscous, mixed with 
whitish-fuscous and darker fuscous, tending to form faint 
strigulffi ; a darker fuscous suffusion tending to form a basal 
patch, a transverse spot from inner margin beyond middle, and a 
fascia from costa beyond middle to anal angle, but all very faint 
and sometimes obsolete: cilia whitish- fuscous, with a cloudy 
fuscous line. Hindwings fuscous, iu j paler ; cilia as in fore- 

Hah. Koni, Mone ; six specimens. 

It belongs to the group called Alavona by Walker 
which I do not think sufficiently distinct to be separated 
from Melasma; from its nearest allies it is separated 
by the yellowish head. 

Thisizima, Walk. 
Head rough-haired ; ocelli present ; tongue ob«>lete. Antenna 
over 1, broadly and flatly compressed, joints closely set, simple in 
both sexes, basal joint short, without pecten. Labial palpi rath^ 
long, curved, ascending, second joint with dense more or less 
roughly projecting scales or hairs beneath, with some long bristles 
near apex, terminal joint shorter than second, with appressed 

Digitized by 


of Lepidoptera from Upper Burma. 27 

mlea, pointed. Maxillary palpi obsolete. Posterior tibia shortly 
Toogb-soaled. Fore wings with rein lb forcate, 2 almost from 
angle, 7 to apex, 11 from before middle. Hindwings 1, elongate- 
OTate, cilia | ; veins tolerably parallel. 

31. Tldsizima ceratella. Walk. 
Hah. Koni. 

32. Thtsizima aniiphanes, sp. n. 

^. 1.^ mm. Head, palpi, and antennse pale yellow-ochreoos. 
Thorax and abdomen dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, costa 
moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded ; 
dark faaoons, with coppery-purple reflections ; a moderate straight 
yellowish-white &ucia from ^ of costa to | of inner margin, some- 
what widened downwards ; a moderate yellowish-white spot on 
costa before apex : cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings and cilia dark 

Hab. Mone ; one specimen. 

33. Seardia tholerodeSj sp. n. 

^. IG — 20 mm. Head light ochreous-yellowish. Palpi light 
yellowish, mixed with dark fuscous, second joint with short rough 
projecting scales. Antennse whitish-fuscous, towards base darker. 
Thorax fuscous mixed with dark fuscous and whitisb-ochreous. 
Forewiogs elongate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hind- 
mai^n very obliquely rounded ; 7 and 8 stalked, 9 absent ; whitish- 
ochreous, with scattered strigulsD of mixed fuscous and dark fuscous 
scales ; the confluence of these forms a suffused basal patch, an 
oblique cloudy fascia before middle, and a fascia from beyond 
middle of costa to anal angle : cilia whitish-ochreous mixed with 
dark fuscous. Hindwings pale grey, indistinctly irrorated with 
darker ; cilia whitish-ochreous, with a cloudy grey line. 

Hab. Koni ; three specimens. 

34. Blabophanes monachella, Hb. {longella, Walk,). 
Hab. Koni. 

It appears to me that the head of Walker's longella is 
not yellow as alleged, and that it does not in any way 
differ from monachella, which I have also recorded from 
the Hawaiian Islands. 

Digitized by 


28 Mr. Edward Mejrick on a collection 

85. Tinea plcUyntis, sp. n. 

(J 9 . 15 — 20 mm. Head light ochreoas-orange. Palpi dark 
fascoos mixed with ochreoas. Antennae whitish-ochreoos. Thorax 
light ochreoaa, anteriorly purplish-tinged. Abdomen light ochreons. 
Forewings elongate, moderate, coRta moderately arched, apex ronnd- 
pointed, hindmargin very obliquely roanded ; yellow-ochre<ius ; 
costal edge inf uscated towards base : cilia yellow-ochreons. Hind- 
wings bronzy- grey ; cilia whitish-grey. 

Rab. Mone^ Koni; three specimens. Also from 
Mooltan in the Punjab. 

86. Tinea liomorpha, sp. n. 

$. 14 mm. Head light ochreoas-yellowish. Palpi fuscous. 
Antennas whitish- ochreous. Thorax fuscous-purplish. Abdomen 
light greyish-ochreouB. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa 
moderately arched, apex roundpoiuted, hindmargin very obliquely 
rounded ; purplish-fuscous : cilia purplish-fuscous. Hipdwings 
with veins 3 and 4 from a point ; light fuscous, with brassy re- 
flections ; cilia pale whitish-fuscous. 

Ilah, Mone; one specimen. 

The neuration of the hindwings is exceptional, but 
perhaps not constant. 

Sabidoscelis, n. g. 

Head rough-haired, face smooth ; ocelli present ; tongue 
developed. Antennse |, basal joint moderate, with pecten. Labial 
palpi rather long, slightly curved, porrected, slender, anterior edge 
slightly rough, terminal joint as long as second, pointed. Maxillary 
palpi short, porrected, filiform. Anterior tibiae and tarsi clothed 
with long rough scales above ; posterior tibiae smooth. Forewings 
with vein lb furcate, 2 from near angle, 7 to hindmargin, 10 absent, 
11 from before middle. Hindwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia f ; veins 
tolerably parallel. 

Allied to Calantica. 

87. SaridosccUs sphenias, sp. n. 
9. 12 mm. Head, palpi, antennsB, and thorax white. Fore- 
wings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex tolerably acute, 
hindmargin sinuate, oblique ; white, partially finely sprinkled with 
pale fuscous ; a few scattered black scales ; two oblique wedge- 
shaped fuscous spots, anteriorly margined with dark fuscous, on 

Digitized by 


of Lepidoptera from Upper Burma. ^ 29 

inner margin in middle and before anal angle, emitting from apex 
two partially obsolete and hardly traceable very oblique dark 
foacous lines, first apparently sharply angulated near costa, where 
it forms a short distinct oblique mark at ^, second running to hind- 
mai^gin beneath apex ; a short black interrupted dash before apex : 
cilia white, with two lines of fuscous or dark fuscous points. Hind 
wings and cilia grey. 

Hoi. Koni; one specimen. 

38. Crohylophora daricella, Meyr. 

Hub. Mone ; four specimena 

There is no doubt as tp the identity of this minute 
Australian species, whose occurrence somewhat surprised 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


(• 31 ) 

II. Farther observations on the Tea-bugs [HelopeUis) of 
India. By Charlks Owen Watkbhousb, F.K.S. 

[Read Dec. 6th, 1893.] 

In the year 1886, I read before this Society some 
descriptions and observations on the genus HelopeUis 
(Trans. But. Soc. Loud., 1886, p. 457), and in 1886 I 
supplemented this by the description of another species 
(Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend., 1888, p. 207). Until quite 
recently I had only seen a single female example of 
IlelopeUis theivora, I am glad to say the British Museum 
has now received a fair series of this species, with both 
sexes, and I can therefore give a description of the male. 

HelopeUis theivora. 

cJ. Black. Front of the head very pale yellow on each side. 
AnteniuB black, or nearly so, the basal joint obscure f usco-testa- 
ccons mottled with brown, very pale yellow at the extreme base. 
Temora nearly black, mottled with fuscous- testaceons, with a 
pile ring at the base. Tibiss nearly black, mottled with fuscous- 
testaceous. Scutellar horn about as long as the length of the 
proQotum, very distinctly curved, with the usual cup-shaped 
enlargement at the apex. Some examples show a little yellow at 
the base. Length 2| lines. 

From this description it will be seen that the male 
differs chiefly from the female in having the pronotum 
black. The antennae and legs are also darker, and the 
whole insect is more slender than the female. The 
scutellar horn is a trifle shorter and a little less curved 
than in the female. 

Many of the females have the dark brown at the 
base of the pronotum extending across the whole base. 

The following is an extract from the letter from Mr. 
Frank Austen, who sent the specimens. It is dated 
from Sylhet, July 1893 :— 

" The other day I sent you, per parcel post, a small 
box, containing a bottle in which are specimens of what, 
in the tea districts at any rate, is known as mosquito 
blight. It is to be found in many of the low-lying 

TBAHS. EHT. 80C. LOND. 1894. — PAET I. (mAUCH.) 

Digitized by 


32 Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse on the Tea-bugs of India. 

gardens sach as this^ and from the damage it does is one 
of the, if not the most, g-erious pests the tea bush has to 
contend against. It attacks the young shoots and 
appears to puncture thorn so that they shrivel up and 
turn quite black. As yet there is no known cure. 
The method we adopt here is to employ a large 
force of small children, catching the insects by hand. 
This at best can only check it at the beginning of the 
season, for when acres and acres of tea are black with 
it, the thousands of insects brought in every day seeni 
to make no difference. It is first noticeable about the 
beginning of the rains, i.v.y the early part of June, and 
continues to increase until the end ; the bushes attacked 
by it becoming gradually blacker, until after about the 
end of August or middle of September, they yield little 
or no leaf at all. There is apparently no other plant it 
attacks, even in the jungle, and as far as one can see 
there is nothing that preys upon it. Wet dull weather 
is especially favourable to its propagation. It does not 
appear to fly much, and in the cold weather, after the 
bushes are pruned, there is not a sign of it. We always 
bum all the prunings, but it is doubtful whether much 
good is gained by so doing. It seems to appear 
spontaneously, first of all a bush here and a bush there, 
often acres apart, is attacked by it, then it gradually 

Referring to Wood-Mason's suggestion (" Report on 
the Tea-bug of Assam,*' 1884, p. \S) that the indigenous 
tea-plant is not subject to the attacks of Uehpeltis, Mr. 
Austen writes, " TJbis is quite a fallacy, as this garden 
Maguracherra, consisting of some 450 acres, is composed, 
roughly speaking, of half hybrid and half indigenous, and 
last year the indigenous flats were badly blighted as well 
as the hybrid." ..." There was also another idea 
that heavy pruning eradicated the Uelopeltis ; but last 
cold weatbfer we cut back 60 acres of hybrid tea to a 
standard of iS inches (the average height of a tea-bpsh 
is, say, 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inches), and this year this part 
of the garden was the first to get blighted, and is by far 
the most blighted part of the garden ; there could have 
been very few leaf-buds left on the bushes. Also, each 
bush had its roots carefully forked round, and then the 
whole place was hoed to a considerable depth." — Letter 
Nov. 28th, 1893. 

Digitized by 


TTUfus.Eta.Srf.Loi.d-. 1894. PI. I. 


, . , ^ «, Djoiti-zed by VnOOQ IC 

LepulopUra frorrc AU^r/trufhm . O 

i'.:".! ■ r r. bio.M.d*. ft C'hro.-r.t- i.l.n 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

( 33 ) 

III. Notes on some Lepidoptera received from the 
neighbourhood of Alexandria. By Georoe T, 
Bethunb-Baebb^ F.L.S. 

[Read Dec. 6th, 1893.] 
Plate L 

Last year I had handed to me a collection of Lepidoptera 
from Alexandria for examination and determination, and 
during the present summer I had another collection also 
sent me, so that the two lots will give us some idea of 
the insects from this neighbourhood, and I therefore 
make no apology for cataloging the whole collection in 
detail, following the order of Staudinger's list. The only 
thing that strikes me as worthy of special note, is the 
entire absence of any species belono^ing peculiarly to the 
Ethiopian region ; with such a splendid migratory channel 
as the river Nile, this is not what I should have 

1 . Anthocharis belia, Cr. 
Two small but otherwise quite typical specimens. 

2. Oolias edusa, F., and var. Helice, Hb. 

The type species not rare, and, as usual, a few of the 
white variety appear with it. 

8. Deudorix livia, E3ug, 

Common. I have some dozen specimens in both 

4. The8torballu8,F.\ 
One specimen quite typical, but small. 

5. Lyccena boetica, L. 

Kot uncommon, the blue suffusion of the $ is un- 
osually bright in some of the specimens. 

6. Lyccena egyptiacaf sp. n. (PI. L, fig. 1.) 
^ . Upper side, primaries and secondaries dull violet-blue, very 

Digitized by 


34 Mr. George T. Bethune-Baker's notes 

slightly lustrous, outer margins very narrowly black. Secondaries 
with a blackish spot between the first and second median neryules, 
and another at the anal angle ; tail blackish. Underside, primaries 
and secondaries ochreous-cream colour, with transverse irregular 
f ascise margined with white, as follows : — Primaries, two across the 
cell followed by two across the centre of the wing, reaching almost 
to the inner margin ; between the two submarginal fascite is a short 
one from the costa to the central disco-cellular branch. Secondaries 
crossed by about eight whitemargined f asciaa ; some much broken 
and transfused. There are two brilliant metallic green spots, 
pupilled with bluish-black and margined with yellow, at the anal 
angle. Margins of both primaries and secondaries finely fuscous. 
Exp. alar. 23 mm. 

9 . Brownish, basal and discal area irridescent-blne, the under- 
side pattern showing through by transparency, and being decidedly 
intensified in the primaries ; the black anal spot is composed 
of two confluent ones, not one only, as in the ^ . The markings of 
the underside are similar to those of the ^ . Exp. alar. 23-24 mm. 

The wings of both sexes are somewhat transparent, 
but more so in the 9 than in the 6 . 

7. Lycceua If/simoUy Hb. 
Several typical specimjsns. 

8. Vanessa atalanta, L. 

Two specimens, one with the white dot in the red 

9. Vanessa cardui, L. 
One specimen. 

10. Danais chrijsippus, L. 

Common. Most of the specimens fine. 

11. Hespena mathiasj Fab. {Thrax, F.) 

Three typical specimens. 


12. Aeherontia atropoSj L. 
One specimen. 

13. Sphinx convolvuliy L. 
The few specimens of this insect are most unusually 


Digitized by 


on some Lepidoptera from Alexandria, 85 

14. DeilepJiila livomica, Esp. 
Specimens decidedly below the average size. 

15. Deilephila celerio, L. 
Typical, but possibly rather darker than usual. 

16. Deilephila iierii, L. 

Common. The specimens sent are fine and of beautiful 

17. Ea^ias insiilana, B. 

Very common and very variable, ranging from beautiful 
aniform green to yellow and straw colour. 

18. Nola aqualida, Stgr. 
One specimen only. 

19. Cletthara littora, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 2.) 

Primaries ochreous-grey, basal third dark brownish-grey bor- 
dered externally by a lighter band, which is edged by a perpen- 
dicokr wavy line of black with an internal edge of whitish ; the 
black line extends from costa straight across to the inner margin ; 
tlte central area is occupied by a patch of pale reddish-brown, bor- 
dering which, on the posterior edge, is a trace of a very interrupted 
dftrkline, rising at the centre of the costa and being produced 
ontward round this reddish-brown patch, and then receding to the 
internal margin ; there is a submarginal band of pale reddish-brown 
shading, edged internally by a toothed interrupted blackish line 
aridng in a small apical black patch. Posterior margin finely 
blickiah. Fringes brownish-grey with darker dividing line. 
Secondaries grey subhyaline with a dark border. Fringes whitish 
with darker dividing line. Exp. alar. 17 mm. 

There is one specimen, which may be a $ , but the body is 
absent, in which the primaries are all dark grey ; all the markings 
of the ^ are reproduced, with the exception of the reddish*brown 
central area, but the pattern is yery much intensified and darkened, 
and each of the dark transyerse lines .are accompanied by a pale 
border. Exp. alar. 18 mm. 

20. Deiopeia pulchella, L. 

Digitized by 


36 Mr. George T. Bethune-Baker's notes 

21. Ocnogyna loewii, L., var. Clathrata, Ld. 
Not uncommon. 

22. C088118 L-nigrum^ sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 3.) 

Primaries ashen-grey, basal area with scarcely any marks or 
reticulations ; on the submedian vein is a short dark rich brown 
dash beginning near the centre, and from the end near the anal 
angle rises a thinner dash up to the lower median branch, forming 
an L-shaped sigu, at the top of which is a small dark brown V ; 
the posterior half of the wings is reticulated and marked in the 
manner usual to the genus, but to a less extent than ordinary, 
whilst from a point on the costa about a third from the apex 
rises a dark brown waved stripe extending across the apical area, 
but curved, and reaching down to the anal angle ; beyond this is 
another bhort line just in front of the apex, going across and 
touching the posterior margin. Costa darkly dotted. Fringes ash- 
grey. Thorax as primaries. Secondaries dark uniform brownish- 
grey without markings. Fringes grey. Abdomen paler than 
secondaries. Exp. alar. 3G to 30 mm. 

This species is, perhaps, nearest Tcrebra, though not 
very near any of the genus that I have seen ; it can, how- 
ever, be immediately separated from Terehra by only 
being about half its size, and by the markless and 
uniform secondaries. 

23. Psyche (subgenus Manatha) hampsonij sp. n. 

Primaries, veins la and b anastomosing ; vein 6 present in both 
wings, but not emitted in primaries from lower angle of cell, as in 
Viciella^ Schiff ., the type of the subgenus Megalophanes ; veins 
4 and 5 and 8 and 9 stalked . The shape of the wing is contorted 
and the costa excised. No spine on the fore tibia. Wings are of 
a uniform luteoua grey, head paler, thorax darker than ground 

24. Orgyia dubia, Tausch., var. Judaea, Stgr. 
Not uncommon. 

25. Bomhyx serrula, Gn. 
Not uncommon. 

26. Bomhyx undata, Klug. 

One specimen, which I refer somewhat doubtfully to 
this species. 

Digitized by 


on sonie Lepidoptera from Alexandria. 37 

27. Megasoma repanda, Gn. 

28. Megasoma acaciw, Klug. 

Of this beautiful species described by Klug I have 
three fine specimens^ and also larvae well preserved. 

20. Bryophila fraudatricula, Hb., var. Pallida, nov. var. 
(PI. I., fig. 4.) 
Primaries pale greenish-grey, the black transverse lines and 
black dash in the centre of the median area as in the parent 
species, but the short dash just above the anal angle is absent. 
Orbicular and reniform stigmata moderately distinct, outlined in 
blackish, the latter beiog filled in with pale grey. Both are much 
more distinct than in the original form. Secondaries grey, paler 
than in Fraudatricula, Just beyond the centre the wing is 
crossed by a very distinct blackish line, following the course of 
the posterior margin, and extending from the costa to the inner 
margin. In the discal cell there is a dark grey spot. 

This is probably a good local form. I have three speci- 
mens all smaller than the type form, which agree closely 
inter se, but in one the median black dash is absent. It 
is evidently closely allied to Fraudatricula, so I have 
thought it better to make it a variety of that insect 
(from which it can be immediately separated by its very 
pale colour) rather than make it a new species. 

30. Agrotis pronuha, L. 
Not uncommon and quite typical. 

31. Agrotia puta, Hb. 
Common^ the $ being unusually dark. 

32. Agrotis deaertoi^um, B. 
One beautifully pale grey specimen. 

33. Agrotis alexandriensis, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 5.) 
^ . Primaries yellowish-grey, first transverse line from discal 
cell to inner margin fawn colour, but rather indefinite, preceding 
which are three small black spots — one on the costa, one on the 
median vein, and a third on the submedian, the latter being nearer 
the base than the preceding ones ; there is a dark dot close to the 
base on the coeta and median vein. The second transverse line 

Digitized by 


38 Mr. George T. Bethune-Baker's notes 

beyond the renif orm stigma is also fawn colour, extending from 
subcostal to submedian Teio, but rather broken, the area between 
the first and second lines is tinged with fawn colour, beyond the 
second line is a curved row of dark dots from subcostal to 
submedian vein. Orbicular stigma almost obsolete. Beniform 
stigma outlined in fawn colour, with a similar coloured crescentic 
continuation below the extremity of the discal cell ; directly above 
this stigma the costa is darkly dotted. Posterior margin darkly 
dotted ; fringes j'ellowish-grey with paler extremities. Secondaries 
silvery grey. Fringes entirely snow-white. Exp. alar. 42 mm. 

?. Primaries uniform brownish-grey, slightly lustrous, no 
marking at all visible except a small darker spot representing the 
orbicular stigma ; the reniform stigma is finely outlined and 
pupilled with darker grey. Posterior margin darkly dotted. 
Fringes whitish with dark extremities. Secondaries silvery-grey, 
brownish towards outer margin, slightly lustrous. Fringes silverj*- 
grey. Exp. alar. 40 mm. 

I have also one specimen, probably the same species, of 
an uniform pale ochreous-fawn colour, the first and 
second line as in type, but the former extended up to the 
costa and rather broken, the latter being followed 
immediately by a curved row of very fine dark minute 
dots, from which to the posterior margin the ground 
colour is rather darker, interrupted only by a doubly curved 
paler transverse line from the costa to the anal angle. 

This species will follow Besertorum, B. 

34. Agrotis nili, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 6.) 
(^ . Primaries grey, the first line close to the base, rising in a 
black costaldot, is only just traceable ; the second line, pale and waved, 
rises from a black costal spot, extends to the inner margin, though 
somewhat indistinct there, and is bordered externally by a fine 
blackish edge ; in the median area is a'small narrow oval blackish 
loop adjoining the second line, and filled in with pale ochreous. 
Third line very dark grey, curved outwardly, rising in a black costal 
spot and reaching to the inner margin ; this line consists of a series 
of minute distinct crescentic marks joined at the tips, and is edged 
by a fine line of slightly paler ground colour. Posterior margin 
finely edged with black, and preceded by a band of dark grey 
shading ; just in front of the apex there is also a patch of this dark 
grey shading. Orbicular stigma slightly ochreous-grey, very finely 
encircled, and minutely pupilled with blackish ; reniform stigma 

Digitized by 


on some Lepidoptera from Alexandria. 39 

dark grey edged with black. Between these two stigmata is a trace 
of an indefinite perpendicular band of dark grey shading right 
across the wing. Fringes grey with a dark dividing line. Thorax 
grey, abdomen paler grey. Secondaries and fringes white. Exp. 
akr. 38 — 39 mm. 

9 . Primaries pale gre3ri8h-cinnamon-brown, first line close to 
base indistinct reddish-brown, second line waved reddish-brown, 
third line very indistinct, followed by a curved row of white dots, 
from whence the ground colour of the wing becomes abruptly 
darker up to the hindmargin, which is finely edged by a light line, 
and preceding which is a series of dark grey shadings between each 
ncrvule. Orbicular stigma distinctly encircled with reddish-brow u, 
as is the renif orm, the latter being filled in with greyish. Between 
these two stigmata there is a perpendicular band of dark reddish- 
brown shading right across the centre of the wiog, and a similar 
coloured patch is in front of the apex. Fringes brownish* grey. 
Secondaries brownish-grey, darker near the hindmargin. Fringes 
pale grey. Thorax as primaries, abdomen as secondaries. Exp. 
alar. 35 mm. 

35. Agrotis auffusa, Hb. 
Not uncommon and quite typical. 

36. Mamestra afra^ sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 7.) 
Primaries pale ochreous-grey, the first line close to the base in 
black, toothed, extending from the costa to the submedian vein, and is 
followed by a whitish stripe ; second line in front of the orbicular 
stigma is composed of three crescentic dark marks starting from a 
dark grey costal spot, the central and inner crescents being preceded 
by a whitish edging. Orbicular stigma white, beneath which is a 
small dark crescent touching the middle of the second line and so 
making the letter G below the stigma. Reniform stigma marginal 
with black, except on the costal side, with a basal inner margin of 
white and filled in with dark grey, except at the apical corner, 
where the colour is ochreous-grey. Subterminal line, consisting of 
a very strongly serrated fine dark line, bordered externally by 
white, is curved out beyond the reniform stigma, but terminates 
on the inner margin nearer the base than is that stigma. The 
terminal line close to posterior margin, strongly serrated, is white, 
edged internally by a dark shading, and with a dark patch opposite 
the reniform stigma. The hindmargin is conspicuously edged with 
dark crescentic marks between each vein. Fringes grey tessellated 
with white, and having a dark dividing line; on the costa are seven 

Digitized by 


40 Mr. George T. Bethune-Baker^s notes 

dark grey spots, four near the base and three between the two 

Secondaries white, cell marked by a dark median vein and closed 
by a distinct dark crescent ; there is a broad dark grey band from 
the apex to the inner angle. Posterior margin edged by a fine dark 
line, which is preceded by a broad whitish band. Fringes white. 
Antennas finely serrated. Exp. alar. 33 mm. 

This species is allied to Sttgniosa, Chr., bat can be 
at once distinguished by the white secondaries with the 
crescentic termination of the cell. The primaries are 
much greyer in colour, the transverse lines more pro- 
nounced, whilst there is no trace of the triangular spot in 
front of the apex. 

37. Mamestra ahbas, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 8, a^ , b ? .) 
(J . Primaries uniform brownish-grey, first two transverse lines 
slightly paler, and finely margined on each side with dark brown, 
the third pale hne darkly margined internally only ; subterminal 
line fine, indistinct and interrupted, with three dark arrow-shaped 
marks emitted towards the base. Hindmargin darkly dotted. 
Orbicular stigma pale ochreous-grey, pupilled with the ground 
colour, and partly encircled with dark brown, beneath this is a 
distinct darkly outlined Q-shaped sign. Reniform stigma pale 
brownish-grey outlined with dark brown and pupilled with paler 
grey, which pupil is margined with dark grey. Fringes brownish- 
grey with a paler dividing line. Secondaries brownish-grey, 
darker around the posterior margin. Fringes pale grey. Exp. 
alar. 35 mm. 

9 . Primaries, ground-colour very pale ochreous-grey, pattern as 
in ^ . Secondaries very pale ochreous with a broad dark posterior 
margin. Exp. alar. 38 to 40 mm. 

This species will come next to Trifolii; it is easily 
recognized by its quite uniform and duller colouration 
and markings, by its much darker secondaries, and by- 
its exceedingly pale 9 . 

38. Uellophohns mamden'ty sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 9.) 
,^. Primaries brownish-ochreous, basal area much palnr, the 
first transverse line in front of the orbicular stigma is dark brown, 
interrupted and edged internally with pale ochreous ; beyond the 
reniform stigma is a pale ochreous transverse dentated and inter- 
rupted line edged internally with dark brown ; area between these 
lines darker than rest of wing : subterminal line pale ochreous, 

Digitized by 


on some Leptdopfera from Alexandria, 41 

interrapted and edged internally with dark brown ; posterior 
margin darkly dotted, orbicular stigma distinct, pale ochre, finely 
outlined with dark brown. Renif orm stigma indistinct, grey, with 
a pale dash on the basal edge ; costa with three pale ochreous spots. 
Fringes lustrous ochreous-brown. Abdomen greyish white. 
Secondaries very pale grey, slightly darker on posterior margin. 
Exp. alar. 30 to 32 mm. Antennae very strongly ciliate, almost 

9 . Similar to ^ , but the colours each intensified, i.e., the dark 
areas are darker, the light are lighter ; all the markings much more 
pronounced, and the reniform stigma distinct. Antennas simple. 
Exp. alar. 28 mm. 

The (5 differs somewhat in colouration, some being 
quite pale ccLreous with dark central areas, others dark 
greyish ochre, and much more uniform in general tone ; 
the pattern is however apparently quite constant. The 
primaries of ? are decidedly narrower than the (J . 

This species will follow Orana of Lucas, but is easily 
recognizable by its more variegated appearance, visible 
in even the greyest and most uniform specimens ; also by 
the basal line, the pale line beyond the reniform stigma, 
and the dark reniform itself. There is no pale patch at 
the apex as in Orana, 

The secondaries are very much paler, and the abdomen 
is whitish-grey instead of brown as in Lucas's species. 
I have named this insect after Mr. Marsden of Alex- 
andria, through whose kindness I have received these 

39. Miana trilinea, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 10.) 
Primaries ashen-grey, first line near base dark brown, strongly 
dentate on median vein ; second dark brown line touching orbi- 
cular stigma internally ; third line just beyond the reniform, hke- 
wise dark brown ; the area between the first and second lines is 
moch paler grey. Just beyond the third line is a band of paler 
shading ; orbicular and reniform stigmata pale grey darkly out- 
lined. Posterior margin finely edged with dark brown. Fringes 
lastrous grey. Secondaries pale grey, slightly lustrous, darker near 
posterior margin. Fringes paler grey. Thorax as primaries. 
Abdomen as secondaries. Exp. alar. 21^ to 23^ mm. 

40. Eriopxis latreillii, Dup. 
A common insect of the ordinary type. 

Digitized by 


42 Mr. George T. BetLune-Baker's notes 

41 . Prodenia liitoralis, B. 
Several specimens quite tj-pical. 

42. Sesamia cretica, Ld. 
Two nice specimens. 

43. Caradrina exigua, Hb. 
Not uncommon. 

44. Garadnna mediferranece, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 11.) 

Primaries asLen-fawn colour with the least trace of a greyish 
sub terminal transverse curved line. Just in front of the posterior 
margrin is an indistinct row of very pale ochreous- white spots, the 
middle spots having their inner margin dusted with golden-brown. 
Orbicular stigma obsolete, reniform stigma small dark brown 
encircled with pale ochreous. Costa with four indistinct black 
spots. Fringes lustrous greyish-fawn colour. Secondaries white, 
lustrous, very slightly greyish near posterior margin. Frioges 
lustrous greyish. Exp. alar. $ 30 mm. ; $ 25 mm. 

This species is perhaps nearest Quadripunctata, but at 
once separable by the almost entire absence of markings 
and by its much paler and cleaner appearance. From 
Flava of Fallou it is recognizable by the same 

45. GMcullia chamomillm, Schiff. 

I have four specimens of this genus, which are doubtful, 
but appear to be a very dwarfed race of this species, and 
I therefore place them provisionally under this name. 

46. Plima chalcites, Esp. 
Two ordinary specimens. 

47. Pliisia gamma, L. 
Not uncommon. 

48. Heliothia peltigera, Schiff. 
Not rare. 

49. Hclioihis nuhigcraj H. S. 
One specimen only. 

Digitized by 


Oil some Lepidoptera from Alexandria. 43 

50. Heliothis armigera, Z. 
One specimen only. 

51. Erastna scitula, Rhr. 
One specimen. 

52. Thalpochares phoentasa, Ld. 
Two typical specimens. 

53. Thalpochares ostrina, Hb. 
Similar to European specimens. 

54. Thalpochares parva^ Hb. 
Two specimens quite typical. 

55. Cerocala scapulosa, Hb., var. Insanay H. S. 
One specimen. 

56. Pericyma alhidentariay Frr. 

I have two specimens of this insect^ which form a 
sort of " transit to the var. Squalens, Ld. 

57. Leucanitis stolida. 
One specimen of the nsnal form. 

58. Grammodes lifasciata, Petag. 
Not uncommon. 

59. Pseudophta illunaria, Hb. 
A common insect. 

60. Pseudophta bciicnoiata, Warreu. 

A common species. In the National collection is the 
hitherto unique type which Warren described. It is a 
(J, and as I have several 9 before me it may be advisable 
to describe this sex. 

$ . Primaries pale ochreous-grey, with perhaps the least trace 
of pink ; both first and second transverse lines paler than ground 
eoloor, not darker as in the g ; the subterminal pale line is much 
more distinct, and the shading on each side of it is paler than in 
the opposite sex. Secondaries slightly ochreous-grey with broad 
dark borders and very pale fringes. Thorax and abdomen as 
primaries. Exp. alar. 26 to 30 mm. 

Digitized by 


14 Mr. Georgo T. Bethune-Baker's notes 

Specimens vary somewhat in depth of colour, some 
being paler and others rather darker than the type. 

Gl. Spintlierops exsiccata, Ld. 
Several specimens, calling for no remark. 

G2. Uypena ravalts, H. S. 
Not uncommon. 

G3. Hypena lividaliSf Hb. 
Three ordinary specimens. 

Gi. Hypena obsitaltSj Hb. 
A common insect. 

Go. Arrarde parva, sp. n. 
Primaries pale ochreous-brown, basal half decidedly darker than 
exterior half ; the subterminal waved line is paler and bordered 
internally by a fine line of darker ochreous, and externally by a 
broadish band of the same coloured shading. Apex with a small 
patch of blackish scales, a few similar coloured scales being 
scattered near the anal angle. Costa near apex lightly spotted. 
Fringes ochreous-brown. Secondaries brownish-grey, darker near 
the outer margin, with pale grey fringes. Thorax as pnmaries. 
Abdomen rather darker than secondaries. Exp. alar. 14 mm. 

I have but one specimen of this insect, but it so 
evidently a distinct species that I do not hesitate to 
describe it, though from a single specimen. 

66. Nemorta faustinata, Mill. 
Two specimens of usual form. 

G7. Acidalia coenosaria, Ld. 

One specimen. 

I have two other species of this genus, which I believe 
to be new, but I do not think it wise to describe them 
from single specimens, and I shall therefore await other 
specimens before naming them. 

G8. Macariaaestimaria^Wo., Ya,T.Sarepianar{a,Stgr. 
Two very handsome forms of this variety. 

Digitized by 


on some Lepidoptera from Alexandna. 45 

69. Fidonia Tnegiaria, Obr., var. Ohscuraria, n. var. 

(PI. I., fig. 12.) 
The specimens obtained around Alexandria are very 
dark indeed^ and appear to be quite a local race ; it is a 
common insect in the district. The ground colour is 
uniform dark greyish brown, the pattern being quite 
similar to that of Oberthur's species, but very considerably 
darker. Out of all the specimens before me the lightest 
is very much darker in every respect than the darkest 
Algerian form that I have seen. The Egyptian specimens 
are a very handsome variety of it. 

70. Sterrha sacraria, L., and var. Sanguinaria, Esp., 
and ab. Oranaria, Lucas. 

I have this species of all shades from Alexandria, from 
the palest forms up to var. Sangttinaria, also I have the 
dolier and darker insect described by Lucas under the 
name Oranaria. 

I have no doubt whatever that Stau dinger is right in 
Lis 1872 catalogue, where he says, on page 176, *' an 
sequ. ab.'' Sacraria being the following species. 

1 have preserved larvae of both forms before me which 
are quite similar, and I have also two very rich dark 
forms infinitely darker than Oranaria^ the oblique stripe 
being very dark ash-grey, thus showing that the species 
varies very extensively indeed. 

?!• Gidaria fluviata, Hb. 
Not uncommon. 

72. JEupithecia uUimaria, B. 
Two specimens, decidedly smaller than usual. 

73. Eupiihecia distinctaria, H.S. 
Two pretty forms of this wide-spread species. 

74. Eupiihecia [Oymnocelis) pumilata, Hb. 
Two or three ordinary specimens. 

75. Mnesixena quadripunctata, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 13.) 

Primaries brownigh-grey, with a transverse pale line near the 

bftse from the costa to the inner margin, the line being composed 

of three smtll crescents ; the submarginal pale hne, frequently and 

sharply serrated, recedes slightly from the apex to the subcostal 

Digitized by 


46 Mr. George T. Bethune-Baker's notes 

vein, where it curres oatwardf, receding again to the gubmediah 
vein, whence it recedes rapidly and. considerably to the inner 
margin, and has a very fine dark edging. In the central area of 
the wing are four distinct whitish spots, around each of which are 
sprinkled, in fresh specimens, some dark brown rough scales. Hind- 
margin finely and darkly edged. Fringes pale grey. Secondaries 
whitish, with a fine submarginal dark grey stripe a little distance 
from the hindmargin, but following its course. Hindmargin finely 
and darkly edged. Fringes whitish. Antennsd ^ ciliate; 9 simple. 
Exp. alar. 23 mm. 

76. Mnesixena hella, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 14.) 

Primaries pale-grey, irrorated with pale chestnut roughish 
scales ; basal area dark chestnut-brown with a patch of superim- 
posed rosy scales ; in the central area beyond the middle, near the 
inner margin, is another patch of rosy scales, having a dark 
chestnut basal border, which is edged by a white line, the inner 
margin beneath thb patch being chestnut colour. Posterior margin 
broadly but sparingly irrorated with rosy scales, which also extend 
along the inner margin from the anal angle to the rosy patch just 
mentioned. From the costa near the apex, a fine indistinct 
transverse white line extends half across the wing, forming the 
internal border to the posterior rosy scales. Fringes greyish, 
irrorated with pink. Antennas $ ciliate. Secondaries whitish, 
with whitish fringes. Exp. alar. 19 to 23 mm. 

In specimens that have flown much the rosy scales get 
almost entirely rabbed off. 

77. Hypotia syrtalis, Rag. 
The specimens are typical. 

78. Hypotia bilinea, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 15.) 
Primaries greyish-straw colour, central area bounded internally 
by an oblique dark brownish transverse line, and externally by a 
similar dark curved transverse line. In this area, beyond the 
centre, and near the costa, is a dark brownish-grey spot. Just 
before the posterior margin is a fine dark line, which in flown 
specimens is very indistinct. Secondaries very slightly paler than 
primaries, with a dark brownish-grey curved stripe beyond the 
centre, extending from the upper margin to the anal angle, and 
another similar stripe juet in front of the posterior margin. 
Fringes ochreous-grey. Thorax as primaries, abdomen as secon* 
daries. Exp. alar. 16-18 mm. 

Digitized by 


on some Lepidoptera from Alexandria, 47 

79. Talis afra, sp. n. (PL I., fig. 16.) 
Primaries dark ashen-grey irrorated more or less with blackish 
scales. Across the centre of the wing is a transverse whitish 
itripe, the upper half of which is waved, the lower half being 
straight and edged externally with very dark brown. The second 
whitish transverse line near the posterior margin is very irregularly 
toothed and waved. Sobmarginal ai^a with a broad ish band cf 
whitish shading. Between these two lines in the central area on the 
internal margin and near the costa is a very distinct white spot 
darkly encircled. Posterior margin very distinctly dotted with 
bUck. Fringes shining brownish-grey. Secondaries dark brownish- 
grey with white fringes, which have a very dark and broad 
dividing line. Exp. alar. 23^ mm. 
I have two specimens, one being paler than the type. 

80. Hellula tindaUs, F. 
Common and qnite typical. 

81. Odontia dentaliSj Schiff. 
Two small specimens. 

82. Anthophilodcs baphialis, Ld. 
Fairly C5ommon. 

83. Botys ferrurjalis, Hb. 
Several specimens. 

84. Eurychreon nudalis, Hb. 
Two specimens, just like those from Algeria. 

85. Orobe7ia isatidalisy Dup. 
A common species. 

86. Margarodes unionalis, Hb. 
Two specimens. 

87. Meiasid emiralis, Obr. 

Several specimens, which are somewhat yellower and 
tbe dark marks darker than the Algerian form. 

88. Synchra traducalis, h. 
Two specimens. 

Digitized by 


^8 Mr. George T. Beihune-Baker's notes 

89. Duponchelia fovealisy L. 
One or two ordinary specimens. 

90. Nymphula fuscO'tnarginata, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 17.) 
Primaries greyish-brown, with a short interrupted dark dash 
from the roots just beneath the discal cell! ; beyond the centre is a 
smallish dark brown circular sign, the circle being incomplete on 
the posterior side, beneath which is a trace of a cinnamon-brown 
transverse dash extending to the inner margin. Submarginal line 
white, edged externally with black, from where up to the posterior 
margin is a band of pale cinnamon- brown. Fringes greyish lustrous, 
with a dark dividing line. Secondaries whitish, with a large black 
spot on the upper part of the discal cell, whence to the inner 
margin runs a waved black stripe ; beyond this is a dark grey stripe, 
followed by a line of the ground colour, after which is a broad 
band of very dark grey, extending from the costa to the inner 
margin gust over the anal angle ; this is followed by a broadish 
stripe of the whitish ground colour edged externally by a fine 
dark line, the posterior margin itself being broadly bordered with 
pale cinnamon-brown, margin itself very finely black. Fringes 
whitish, with a fine black dividing line. Thorax as primaries, 
abdomen brownish. Exp. alar. IG mm. 

91. ScJioenohius dodateUus, Walker. 
One specimen. 

92. CliUo dubia, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 18.) 
Primaries pale brownish-ochreous ; all along the median area 
are very sparsely scattered a few dark- brown scales, which also are 
extended in lines between all the nervules on the hind margin. 
Secondaries whitish, somewhat lustrous, with white fringes. 3 ^ 
speoimens. Exp. alar. 28 — 32 mm. 

In some specimens there is an indistinct darkish spot 
closing the discal cell. 

93. Ancylolomia palpella, Schiff. 
Not uncommon. 

94. Crambus aleicandriensis, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 19.) 
g . Primaries pale-grey irrorated all over with greyish- brown 
scales, interspersed with patches of black irrorations ; about one 
third from the base is a whitish < shaped mark between the discal 

Digitized by 


on some Lepidoptera from Alexandria, 49 

cell and the inner margin. The sabterminal white transverse line 
is very sharply angolated outwards near the apex, whence it recedes 
in a wavy carved line to the inner margin ; the central area is 
occupied by a patch of black scales edged externally with white, 
over which on the costa is another small blackish patch also, and 
in the cell is a small blackish dash over the < shaped white mark. 
The hind marginal area is dark grey, the posterior margin itself 
being edged with a fine metallic-greenish line. Fringes whitish, 
brown at extremities, and having a brown dividing line. Secon- 
daries greyish-white, slightly lustrous, with white fringes. Thorax 
greyish, abdomen paler grey. Exp. alar. 24 mm. 

The $ is darker with less marking, much less black scaling, and 
having the > shaped mark and the subterminal line only just traced 
out. Exp. alar. 22 mm. 

This species is not very near any Palearctic Cramhus^ and 
though I am acquainted with nearly all the species from 
our region, 1 cannot now place it in its correct position. 
Perhaps when I get more specimens (I have only one pair 
before me), I may be able to settle this point. 

Oo. Crambus afra, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 20.) 
Primaries pale fawn colour, the first very oblique and sharply 
dentate rich brown line rises beyond the centre of the costa and 
recedes sharply to a point about one third from the base on the 
iDn^ margin, the subterminal line is the same rich reddish-brown 
cQlovr, is sharply angulated outwards near the costa, and is broadly 
edged externally by the pale ground colour, the rest of the 
marginal area being dark mauvish-grey ; from the roots to the first 
line the whole of the median area is of a rich dark brown, broadly 
edged all round by the pale ground colour. Posterior margin 
darkly dotted. Fringes brownish-grey tesselated with fawn 
colour. Secondaries brownish- grey with whitish fringes, which 
have a fine dark dividing line. Thorax brown, patagise fawn 
coloar. Abdomen greyish. Exp. alar. 19 nmi. 

This pretty species is nearest to Jucandcllus, H. S., 
but is decidedly smaller^ and can also be distinguished 
by the very dark and serrated lines, which are qnite 
different in shape to those found in that species. 

96. Eromene ramhunella. Dap. 
One poor specimen. 

TRAH8. Efn. SOC. LOND. 1894. — PART I. (mARCH.) D 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

50 Mr. George T. Bethunc-Baker's notes 

97. Ei'omene ocdlea, Hw. 

Not uncommon apparently, one or two specimens 
Laving been in each of the two collections received. 

98. Myeloid rhodocJirella, H.S., and var. Hellenica, Stgr. 
One specimen of the type, and also one of its beautiful 

99. Ematheudes punctellay Tr. 
One or two nice specimens. 

103. Melissohlaptes bipunctaniis, Z. 
These specimens are fine, but call for no special remark. 

101. Crocidoseina jylchcjana, Z. 
One specimen. 

102. Hapsi/era luridella, Z. 
Several specimens. 

103. Scardia viediierranece, sp. n. (PI. I., fig. 21.) 
Primaries slaty grey, a broadish loDgitudinal pale ochreous 
stripe extends from the base along the median area just beneath 
the cell, over which patches of dark brown rough scales are more 
or less scattered. Beyond the centre and near the costa is a short 
dfish of the same pale ochreous, in the middle of which is a distinct 
spot of these dark brown superimposed scales. Costa palely spotted 
near the apex. Posterior margin darkly edged. Fringes dark grey. 
Secondaries brownish-grey, paler at the base. Fringes brownish- 
grey, tibiaa dark grey frequently encircled with pale ochreous. 
Hindlegs whitish. Exp. alar. 19 to 20 mm. 

Specimens vary slightly inter se, some having the 
costa palely spotted all along, and having a few pale spots 
in the subcostal area, which -gives such specimens a more 
variegated appearance. 

104. Tinea tupctzella, L. 
Two specimens. 

105. Agdistis tamaricisy Z. 
Two or three ordinary specimens. 

106. Alncita monodadyla, L. 
Two specimens. 

Digitized by 


on some Lepidoptera from Alexandria, 51 

Explanation op Plate I. 

Xo. 1. Lycana egyptiaca, sp. n. 

2. CUithara Uttora^ sp. n. 

3. Couus L-nigrum, sp. n, 

4. Bryophila fraudatricula^ Hb., van Palliduj nov. var. 
b. Ay rods alezandriensiSy sp. u. 

6. Agrotis nili^ sp. n, 

7. Mamestra afta^ sp. n. 

J^. cJ a & 9 b Mamestra abbas, sp. n. 

V. Ueliophobus marsdeni, sp. u. 

10. Miana trilinea, sp. n. 

11. Caradrina mediterranea:^ sp. n. 

12. Fkloma meyiaria, Obr., var. Obtscuraria, nov. var. 

13. MncsUena quadripunclatay sp. n. 

14. JJne$ixena bella, sp. n. 

15. JlypoUa bilinea, sp. n. 

16. Ta/f* i'/^a, sp. n. 

17.» Nymphula fascO'inaryinata, sp. n. 

1><. CA//o dubiOy sp. n. 

r.». Cr ambus alexandriensis^ sp. n. 

2<). CVajniM« q/ra,8p. n. 

21. Scardia mediUrranecCjSp»n, 

Digitized by 



Digitized byVjOOQlC 

( 53 ) 

rV'. TJie Rhynchophorou$ Coleoptera of Japan. Part III. 
Scolytidae. By Walter F. H. Blandford, M.A., 

[Bead Dec. 6th, 1893.] 

The Rhynchophora collected by Mr. George Lewis in 
the Japanese Archipelago during the years 1880 and 
1881 have been described in part by Dr. Sharp in the 
* Transactions' of this Society for 1889 and 1891. In 
this paper I deal with the Scolytidce of that collection, 
four species of which I have already described in my 
paper on the ScolytO'plaiypini, 

To the present time our knowledge of Japanese 
Scolytids rests upon the materials brought together by 
Mr. Lewis up to 1872, before which date but one species, 
GeuycfCfTus adust ipennis, Motsch., was known as Japanese. 
Nothing resembling that insect exists in this collection, 
and I have nothing to say about it. The species of the 
earlier collection were submitted, the Tomicini to 
Eichhoff, the remainder to Chapuis, and the results are 
^'ven in the ' Annales de la Soci^t^ entomologique de 
Belgique/ 1874, pp. 195 — 203, in a paper entitled 
** Scolytiiies recueillis an Japon par M. G. Lewis." They 
distinguished 18 species, of which one occurred also in 
Europe; the rest were new. In 1878 Eichhoff in his 
" Ratio Tom icinorum " added six species (one European), 
and fully described those he had previously diagnosed. 

Nothing else has been written on the subject, and I 
have not found it necessary to rodescribe the species of 
Chapuis and Eichhoff, and have merely indicated 
localities, etc., and some points of distinction between 
them and new species. The original descriptions, and in 
the case of Tomicini the later ones of Eichhoff, are 
sufficient to identify them by. 

The number of species known to exist in Japan before 
my examination of this collection was 25 ; I raise it to 
104 by the addition of 79 species, of which 71 are new. 

TRAMS. BNT. SOC. LOND. 1894. — PART I. (mARCH.) i 

Digitized by 



54 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

Provided that I have correctly identified all the five 
new species described by Eichhoff in 1878, this collection 
contains all known Japanese species except Hylastes 
attenuatus, Xylehoriis hadius, and Geuf/ocei'us adusti^ 
j)enni8, and all types peculiar to Japan except of that 
insect and the five referred to. 

The number of species, 104,* is perhaps a little above 
the mark, because I have been obliged to describe under 
separate names three male Xyleb&ri which cannot be 
referred to their respective females. In a few cases I 
may have subdivided a species into two, but it is likely 
that these are counterbalanced by others where I have 
included distinct species as varieties. Students of the 
European forms know that species closely resembling 
each other in appearance may difier in habits, food- 
plants, and the form of their galleries. In dealing with 
an exotic collection one has to do without the assist- 
ance of such facts. 

They are divided into 25 generi, of which three are 
new, Ilyorrhi/ncJais, Sphccrotrypes and Acanthotomicus, 
The two first are quite distinct; Splicerotrypes is also 
found in India. Acanfhoioviicus is a separation from 
Tomicus, Latr. (1807). I have restored Taphrorychtts 
apntoideSf Eichh., to Dnjocates, and do not include any 
Japanese species in the former genus. 

So complete a collection testifies both to the ability of 
Mr. Lewis as a collector and to the richness of Japan in 
this family, for, though it is probably surpassed in this 
respect by many tropical countries, its 104 species compare 
very favourably with the 130 or so described from Europe 
and the rather larger number from North America. 
There must be many others to discover. Not a few 
species are unique, others have occurred here and there 
as single specimens, and 7 out of the 18 first described 
have not reappeared. The total number existing in the 
islands may be expected to exceed 150. 

The best represented genera are Ilyleshiiis (S species), 
Fhloeosinus (7 species), Scolytus (G species), Dryoccetes 
(8 species), and Xylchorus (29 species exclusive of males). 

^ The number varies from that given in the * Proc. Ent. Soc. * 
18D3, p. xxxix, as I have received, since then, additional specimens 
from Mr. Lewis's unmounted Coleoptcra, and a smali number from 
Colonel von SchOnfeldt. 

Digitized by 


Bhynchoplioroiis Coleoptera of Japan. 55 

Cryphalus and Ftiyophthortis with one species each^ and 
Tomicus with, two, are poorly represented, and are likely 
to be aagmented by future collectors. The Platypini 
consist of nine species in three genera. 

In origin the Japanese Scolytidce are partly Paltearctic 

and partly Oriental. From the former region come 

Hylastes attenuatus and glahratus, Myelophilus piniperda 

and minor, Crypiurgua pus^illus, Tomicua cemhroe^Dryo^ 

rcetes autographits, and Trypodendron quercus ; Xyle^ 

horus (uiumhratusy m., and sobrinus, Eichh., are little 

more than varieties of X. pfeill and saxeaeni respectively. 

Little is known of N. Asiatic Scolytidw and further 

identifications cannot be made. The only Oriental species 

I have recognised are X, ohliqiiccauda, Motsch., which 

occurs in Ceylon, and X. bad ins, Eichh. ; but in many 

other Xylebori, and in the genera Spbierotrypea, Cos- 

modcres, Crosaotaraua, and Diapua, wo have character- 

istically Oriental forms. There are no American species 

among them, though in one or two genera, as Scolytua, 

1 have not sufficient material from America to institute 
a comparison ; and none of the few Hawaiian species 
described by Dr. Sharp are to bo found. 

Though our knowledge of Asiatic Scolytidce is so im- 
perfect as to render such conjectures hazardous, I am 
inclined to think that Oriental forms predominate. There 
is no tendency of the Paloearctic species to be confined 
to the northern islands of the Archipelago. 

In describing these small insects it is important to 
obtain all measurements exactly, whether of the total 
length or of the relative dimensions. Estimation with the 
eye of the comparative width and length of a prothorax 
leads to error, as do rough measurements of length. 

Chapuis gives the length of Phlneoalnns perlafna as 

2 mm., whereas the type measures 3 mm., that is, 50 per 
cent, longer. Such an error in the measurement of a 
species an inch long would be gross, and it is hardly less 
so when made about a small insect. Except in a few genera, 
as Seal yt us, the range of size does not exceed one fourth 
of the average length, and may be much smaller. 

I have taken all measurements with a micrometer eye- 
piece, and a mechanical microscope stage fitted with a 
scale reading to 1-1 0th mm. This method is quite exact, 
and speedy in practice. 

Digitized by 


56 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

A large proportion of the type-specimens, both of 
genera and species in this family^ are in Chapuis' collection 
in the Brnssels Museum, which 1 have visited for the 
purpose of examining them. I desire here to warmly 
acknowledge the hospitable reception I have met with 
from M. G. Severin, Curator of the Articulata, and the 
admirable facilities he has afforded me for the study of 
that collection. 


Hylastks, Er, 

I have added three species to those described by 
Chapuis and changed one of his names. 

Table of Species: 

1. Third tarsal joint not wider than tho preceding joints ; meso- 

stemnm not prominent in front 

{Uylaste^ s. str.) 2 

wider than preceding joints ; mesostemum 
l>rominent {HylurgopSj Lee.) . f) 

2. Rostrnm carinate paralUlus^ Ch. 4 

not carinate 3 

3. Thorax not transverse, uniformly narrowed to apex ... 4 

transverse, constricted at apex amhiguus, 

4. Interstices with a single row of bristles from base to apex. 

attenuaiiui, Er. 

with an irregular double row from base to middle, 

thence single . . plumheus. 

5. Punctures of thorax of two sizes inter»tHialU^ Ch. 

uniform glahratus, Zett. 

Hylaatcs paraUchifi, Chap. 
Chap., Scol. Jap., p. 196. 
Common ; Yokohama, Bukenji, Kiushiu (Higo, &c.) 

Hylasfes attcntiatm, Er. 
One example, Hiogo {vo7i Schdnfeldt). 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Wiynchophorous Goleopiera of Japan* 57 

Hylastes plumbeus, n. n. 
H. obscuniSj Chap., Scol. Jap., p. 197. 

Common; taken with H. parallelus, also at Nikko, 
Kobe, <fec. 

Somewhat variable, in colour from black to obscure 
browD, in the width of the rostrum and prothorax, and 
in the depth of the elytral striae. I have changed the 
name, owing to the priority of Hylastes {Hylasiinxis) 
ijbscurns, Marsh, {trtfolii, Miill.) 

Hylast^ ambiguus, sp. n. 
Oblongus, snbnitidas, piceo-brunnens, capite granulato, froute 
h&nd carinata, punctata ; proihorace transverso, antice constricto, 
fortiter ptmctato, linea media elevata Isevi ; elytris basi singulis 
subtiliter rotundatisy prothorace laiioribos et dupio longioribus, 
ftriato-panctatis, striis aeqnaliter impressis, interstitiis rugosis 
Temis apicem taberculatis, sqaamulia breyibus vestitis et uniseriatim 
teUm ; tarsomm articulo 3o antecedentibas baud latiore. LoDg. 
:i*7 mm. 

Fnjisan, one specimen, in bad condition, apparently 
dead when taken. 

^ggesting in appearance the species of the sub genus 
Hfflmrgops, Lee, but without the prominent mesosternum and 
eiidently bilobed 3rd tarsal joint. Reddish-brown, somewhat shin- 
ing. Head black, finely granulate on vertex with a shining central 
line, rostrum wide, not carinate, front strongly punctured ; 
antennal club with first joint large, equal to the two succeeding 
joints. Prothorax transverse, constricted towards apex above and 
at sides, strongly and closely punctured, inconspicuously pubescent, 
with a fine central raised line from base to anterior constriction. 
Elytra wider than prothorax at base, and exactly twice as long, 
basal angles prominent rounded, sides slightly rounded to near 
apex, thence somewhat oblique and feebly sinuate, apex rather 
obtuse in middle ; above brown, lighter behind, striato-punctate, 
gtris not deep, their punctures strong, interstices rugose at base, 
with a single row of fine tubercles from middle to apex, covered 
with short scale-like hairs and a single series of scattered setas. 
Underside brown, punctured ; middle coxa) rather widely separated. 

Very like //. opacus, Er., but quite distinct in the 
shape of the thorax. 

Digitized by 


58 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

Hylastea inter atitialis. Chap. 
Chap., Scol. Jap., p. 196. 

A few more examples taken at Subashiri, Kiga, and 

Hylastea glahratua, Zett. 

Nikko ; two specimens. 

This European species is very similar to JT. interatitialia, 
but the finer uniform punctuation of the prothorax is 
quite different from the much coarser and variolose 
punctuation of interdiiialis, in which the coarse punctures 
are mixed with finer ones. II, innifex, Fitch, which I 
consider distinct from if. glabratua, has the thoracic 
punctures of two sizes, but not variolose or confluent. 

Myelophilus, Eichh. 

Ilylurgua, Latr. . . i Blaatophagus^ Eichh. 
Both the European species are found in Japan. 

Myelophilua inniperda, Fabr. 

Already recorded by Chapuis (Scol. Jap., p. 197). 

Taken at Nagasaki and Oyayama, both in Kiushiu. 
Some specimens measure as much as 5* 1 mm. 

Myelophilua minor, Eart. 

This species has been hitherto inserted in the Japanese 
list by error; Chapuis mentioned it (Scol. Jap., p. 198) 
as a species likely to occur, and stated that it was 
brought from China by Mr. Lewis, who has since then 
taken one specimen near Nagasaki. 

HY0RBHYNCHU3, nov. gen. 
Caput rostra turn, rostello lateraliter marginato. Oculi bipartiti. 
Antennae snb carina rostraH inter partes oculorum inferiores 
et mandibulas insertee, scapo recto, funiculo 7-articalato, 
articnlo lo magno, 2o obconico, ceteris transversis latitudine 
crescentibus, clava magna oblonga subcompressa, 3-articalata, 

Digitized by 


Rhyncho;phorou8 Coleoptera of Japan. 5S 

raturis rectis notata^ pilosa. Prothorax Bubdepressus, lateribns 

determinatis, non tamen marginatiS) basi immarginata. Elytra ad 

btfliiu singolatim convexa, theracem superantia. Coxae antics 

magnae globoece, a processu prostemi angnsto separata). Pedea 

longi, tibiiB sabcompressis, leviter dilatatis, ad apioem obliqae 

tmncatis, margine exteriore inermi. Tarsi articulo lo brevi, 2o 

pauUo longiore incrassato, 3o brevi, subtos produoto et prof ande 

emarginato, 4o minimo, 5o magno ceteris conjunctim aeqnali. 

Head ahortly rostrate, the sides of the rostrum caiinate, differing 

accoTding to sex in the single species. Eyes divided, their seg- 

menta distant, placed above and below the base of the rostrnm. 

Antennse inserted below the rostral carina between the lower half 

of the eye and the base of the mandible, short, the club nearly 

equal in length to scape and fanicalus together. Maxillas with 

outer border rounded, inner edge convex and narrowly produced at 

tip, set with straight fiat spines. Submentum produced into an 

angle at either side and broadly emarginate between, with a second 

emargination in middle at base of mentum, which is nearly twice 

ta long as broad, narrow at base and becoming dilated to middle 

with sides, thence parallel ; labial palpi long, with joint 1 as long as 

broad, 2 transverse, 3 longer than broad. Prothorax flattened 

above, its sides strongly inflexed to anterior coxse, forming an 

angle with pronotum which is not sharp or margined. Anterior 

coxae not situated near front border of prostemum, very large, 

prominent and globose, separated by a narrow process ; meso- 

fttemum not strongly depressed, middle and posterior coxae 

prominent, remote ; metastemum rather short with wide parallel 

epistema. First two abdominal segments little longer than two 

following, which are together equal to fifth. Legs long, tibi© quite 

simple, flattened, slightly curved, obliquely excised at apex, with 

inner angle shortly spinose; fourth tarsal joint inserted near base 

of third, which is produced underneath into a long split lobe, but 

not laterally widened. 

The one species of this genus has, at least in the male, 
more the appearance of a CurcuHouid or an Anthribid, 
than a Scolytid, owinpf to the prominent rostrum, the 
general shape of its body, the vestiture, and the unarmed 
tibiae. It is, however, a true Scolytid, and either one 
of the Hi/lesini, or not remote from them. I know, 
however, of no described genus with which it is 
closelj allied. 

Digitized by 


60 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

HyorrJiynchiis lewist^ sp. n. 

Oblongo-ovatas, opacas, niger, pube sericea f nsco-clnerea dense 
vestitus, antennis tarsisqae ferrugineis ; prothorace transYerso, 
bnsi bisinuata, lateribos postice parcius, antice fortias rotandatis, 
Hupra post apicem longitudinaliter impresso, dense granulato ; 
eljtris post mediam dilatatis, supra tenuiter striatis, fuliginosis, 
vitta transversa angulata et apice cinereis, interstitiia leniter 
convex is ad basim granulatis. Long. 3*5 — 5*3 mm, 

Mas. Capite fortiter longitudinaliter J sulcato, rostro longiore 
ad apicem in angolos prominentes lateraliter producto. 

Fem. Capite subconvexo, rostro breviore ; pro thoracis lateribns 
antice marioatis. 

Several examples taken at Sapporo^ in 1883, by a 
native collector. 

Head in the male produced obliquely forward into a flattened 
rostrum, the carinate sides of which form a sharp prominent and 
bnckwardly directeii angle ; upper divisions of the eyes rounded 
trinngultir, situated on either side of front, which is deeply furrowed 
between them, and finely carinate on the inner margin of each 
cyo- segment ; lower divisions of the eyes hidden from above by 
the lateral carina. Head in the female with a very short rostrum, 
narn>wly carinate and not prcnluced at sides, impressed over mouth 
and with a short median carina; in both sexes black, rugosely 
puncturtxl with short cloc«e-lying hairs. Antennae ferruginous. 
l*n>t borax narrowed in fnnit, widest at base, with sides rounded ; 
Hurfftco Wack, piKvso, with short cinereous hairs, closely granulate 
and murioato at isidea in the female, with a weak impression on 
cithor sude towanls the base, Scutellum rounded, pubescent^ 
VUn ti-a wider than proihorax, and more thin twice as long, dilated 
behind middle, separately rounded at ba:», and overlapping thorax, 
iutlextnl Wlow humeral angles to afford room for middle femora, 
»idivi m^rly sf might to behind middle, thence strongly rounded ; 
mu fuce iH^-ervxl with tine close lying hairs^ smoky-black except on 
Inimcral anjrUvs apex, and an oblique angulated vitta, where they 
«iHi oinmxHmsk with fiuo incised strije meeting at apex, as in 
//vVWh*,*, iuterstk\>e^ subconvex» granulate at base. Underside black 
with rtuo cUv4e punctuation. pube«ent. Legs piceoos with tarsi 

Tho 55o\wal diftoroucos in the rostrum are not found 
in m\y tUht^r Sivlvtid knoirn to me, and suggest those 
of the /uvu'vA^r. with which this insect has no affinitv. 

Digitized by 


Rhynchophorous Coleoptei'a of Japan, 61 

Spharoteypes^ no v. gen. 

Capat oblongum, in roetellam baud prodnctam. Oculi bipartici. 

AntennsQ lateraliter inter mandibulas et partem inferiorem 

ucnlorum insertse, breves, fanicQlo 7-articiilato, articulis latitu- 

dine crescentibuH, claTa ovata, rotnndata, compressay 3-articalata, 

vittis setamin transversis annulata, suturis transversis. Pro- 

thorax lateraliter marginatus. Mesosteroam brevissimum, inflexum : 

metastenmni breve. Coxie anticae et medi® late distantes. Tibia) 

amticaB ad apicem spinnla unica extus prodocta annatae, posteriores 

spinofise. Taraorum articoli 1-3 seqoales, 3o bilobo. 

Head flattened, oblong bat not rostrate; eyes bipartite, the 
diTisions fiat, subtriangular, granulate and widely separated, united 
poKterioriy by a fine carina. Antennas inserted at upper angle of 
lower division of eye, ^hort, their scape curved, slightly clubbed ; 
fooiculus with 1st joint large, globose, 2nd obconical, 3 — 7 trans- 
verse, increasing in width ; club rounded oval, flat, with transverse 
satures, Ist two joints transverse, together equal in length to 3rd, 
with transverse bands of short hairs, three on Ist joint, two on each 
succeeding joint, which give the club the appearance of being 
multi-articulate ; apex of 3rd joint spongy, covered with short thick 
serrate bairs. Mandibles stout, prominent, not toothed. Maxillae 
very hairy externally, inner margin convex, set with short flat 
opines ; maxillary palpi short with joints equal in length, hairy. 
Submentum inconspicuous, produced into a short pointed process 
on either side of mentum, which is oblong, slightly narrowed at 
base and in middle of sides, with apex truncate ; ligula small, ovate 
acuminate, inserted near apex of mentum; labial palpi short, 
joints 1 and 3 as long as broad, 2 transverse, densely hairy. 
Prothorax bordered at sides, excised in front to anterior coxae, 
which are widely separated by a transverse prostemal process. 
Mesostcmam very short, inflexed so that anterior and middle cozro 
meet when the thorax is depressed. Metastemum barely larger 
than 1st abdominal segment, its epistema moderately wide, dilated 
anteriorly. Posterior coxae separated by a broad rounded process 
of 1st abdominal segment, which is slightly longer tlian the 2nd, 
3rd and 4th successively shorter, 5th about equal to 1st. Anterior 
tibisD slightly dilated towards apex, outer margin almost simple 
except for a strong outwardly directed spine at apex and a smaller 
spine at inner angle ; hinder tibias slightly curved, spined exter- 
jiaily. Tarsi with 3rd joint bilobed,its processes long and narrow. 

In spite of the divided eyes, I think this very distinct 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

62 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

geuus may be placed at present in the Eylesini, near 
Dendrosinus, which resembles it in shape, and in the 
structure of the antennal club. The peculiarities of the 
underside are due to its globose form, and consequent 
compression. The elytra are separately curved at base, 
but are not elevated above the base of the prothorax. 

SphiBvotrypes pila, sp. n. 

Brevissime ovatus, fere globosus, niger, elytris piceis, antennis 
tarsisqne ferrugineis ; capite supra os transverse impresso, 
reticulato punctato, f rente pilosa ; prothorace valde transverso, 
anterius fortiter angustato, basi postico obtuse prod acta, sub- 
tilissime marginata, sapra post apicem transverse impresso, dense 
punctate, sabnitide, parcius squamese, linea media elevata laevi : 
elytris striato-punctatLs, punctis ebsoletis, interstitiis planb, 
squamatis, squamis pre maxima parte fascis, interdum praecipue 
versus apicem cinereis. Long. 2*4 — 3 mm. 

Hitoyoshi, several examples; it has occurred in the 
thin bark of a camellia. 

Very short oval, exceedingly convex. Head with front 
flat in female, impressed in male, punctured, and thinly hairy, 
the hairs ascending on to middle of vertex, which is smooth 
at the sides, finely reticulate and scantily punctured. Prothorax 
nearly double as wide as loDg, its base bordered and produced 
backwards to form an obtuse angle, and slightly concave on either 
side, basal angles acute, sides rounded and strongly narrowed from 
base to apex ; dorsum separated throughout from flanks by a fine 
ridge, convex, transversely impressed behind apex, with close rugose 
punctuation and a narrow elevated line from base to middle, some- 
what shining with a scanty covering of scales, chiefly at apex and 
on sides, its anterior border fringed with short hairs. Scutellum 
oblong, rugose. Elytra rather wider than prothorax and less 
than twice as long, conjointly emarginate at base, basal borders 
slightly rounded, crenate, not overlapping base of thorax, basal 
angles very broadly rounded, sides rounded from base to apex ; 
above dull brown covered with fuscous scales and with a dusty 
appearance, due to scattered cinereous scales ; striate, the striae 
rather deep, with obsolete and scattered punctures, interstices quite 
flat, rugose, more strongly at base. Underside black, punctured, 
thinly covered with scales. Legs blackish with tarsi lighter. 

[The following species, though not from Japan, is so 
closely allied that it may well be described here : 

Digitized by 


Rhynchophoroiis Coleoptera of Japan. 63 

Sphceroti'ijpes globulus, sp. n. 
BreTisslme ovatas, niger, elytris piceis, antennis et tarsia 
nifescentibus ; capite reticulato, punctate, fronte Bquamolosaf snb- 
taberculaia, obsolete carinata ; prothorace transTerso, anteriuA 
fortiter angnstaio, basi postice acutius producta, marginata, post 
apicem constricto, dense et rugose punctate, linea media elevata 
obeolescente, opaco, densios squamoso; elytris striato-punctatis, 
interstitiis planis, rugosis, squamis fuscis passim obscure dilu- 
tioribus obtectis. Long. 2*4—3 mm. 

India, Belganm ; taken by Mr. H. F. Andrewes. 
DiflFers from the preceding as follows : — 
Front of head tubercolate^ more strongly covered with short 
scales with a few longer ones at sides, and usually distinctly 
carinate over the mouth, sometimes throughout less impressed in 
the male. The carina is rariable, and a trace of it exists in 
•^*. pila. Prothorax more strongly angulate behind, its central line 
nearly obsolete, the surface quite dull with closer punctures and 
more scalee. Scales of the elytra brown, occasionally a little lighter, 
bat not evidently pale and cinereous, as in S. p'da^ except a few at 
the apex of the suture.] 

Hylksinds, Fabr. 

The six Japanese species are all new. They may be 
thus distinguished : — 

1. Prothorax not closely covered with scales 2 

and elytra closely covered with chequered scales 


2. Alternate interstices.of elytra elevated towards apex ... .'I 
Interstices similar towards apex 4 

3. Elytra glabrous, size under 4 mm cotftatus, 

hairy at apex, size 6 mm nohilis, 

4. Elytra unicolorous black .* • ^ 

with a transverse vitta of light scales . . . cingulatus, 

5. Form broadly ovate, elytra less convex longitudinally than 

abdomen lalicoUis. 

oblong ovate, elytra not less convex than abdomen triatU, 

Hyleainus costatus, sp. n. 
Oblongns, snbnitidus, fere glaber, niger, elytris picinis, antennis 
tarsisque fermgineis ; prothorace transverse, basi vix producta, 
kteribus rotundatis, granulate*punctato, linea media obsolete 

Digitized by 


64 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

clerata, lateraliter versus apicem muricato ; elytris prothorace 
plus quam duplo longioribus, subcylindricis, striato-punctatis, 
interstitiis nsquo ad declivitatem transverse rugosis, lo, 3o, 5o, 7o 
in declivitate elevatis, seriatim taberculatis, ceteris punctatis- 
Long. 3*4 mm. 

Junsai ; one specimen. 

Oblong, black, with elytra obscurely piceous. Head with 
labrum pitchy, separated by a transverse depression from front, 
which is flattened, shining, strongly punctured and glabrous ; 
vertex finely reticulate. Antennee ferruginous, club small, pointed, 
sutures transverse. Prothorax transverse, base biconcave, 
depressed, scarcely produced in middle, sides strongly rounded ; 
surface convex, finely reticulate and with strong asperate punctua- 
tion somewhat weaker at base, with traces of a central elevation : 
sides tuberculate before apex. Scutellum small, punctured. 
Elytra wider than prothorax and two and a half times as long, 
their bases convex, overlapping thorax, sides parallel to middle, 
then rounded to apex, surface convex cylindrical, strongly 
declivous behind, with strong punctured striae, the punctures 
round and distinct ; all interstices transversely rugose and punc- 
tured to middle, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 after middle with a series of 
transverse asperities which become strongly tuberculate on the 
apical declivity, where the interstices are elevated ; alternate 
interstices not asperate behind middle, multipunctate. Underside 
black, punctured, shortly pubescent, metasternum with a deep 
loDgiti^dinal impression, its episterna not very narrow ; abdomen 
scarcely convex longitudinally, its terminal segment rugose. 
Tibia) spined externally. 

In the flatness of the abdomen this species differs 
from the majority of , the genus, except the sub-genus 
Fteleobius, Bedel, to vhich it is not related. 

... Bylesinus nobilis, sp. n. 

Oblongo-ovalis, obscurus, niger, an tennis tarsisque piceis ; pro« 
thoirace transverse, basi products, lateribus versus apicem sub- 
angustatis, . aqqujiliter grauu^to-exasperato, brevissime piloso ; 
elytris prothorace plusquam duplo longioribus, ad basim angustatis, 
lateribus anterius subtiliter, posterius for titer rotundatis, apice 
emarginato, profunde striato-punctatia, interstitiis rugulose tuber- 
culatis versus apicem breviter pilosis, lo, 3o, 5o subelevatis. Long. 
6*2 mm*. 

Sapporo ; one specimen. 

Digitized by 


Bhynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 65 

Oblong-OTal, black, dull. Head finely aoicolate with scattered 
fmnctorefl, front flattened, shortly pabescent, antenna pitchy- 
favown with dub blackish, longer than funiculns, blantly pointed, 
its gotures obliqae. Prothorax transverse, base strongly produced 
behind and biconcave, sides sirongly rounded behind, contracted 
in front and sinuate, apex nearly straight in middle ; surface 
slightly impressed in middle behind apex, not distinctly impressed 
before base, uniformly and densely granulate, with short pube- 
scence. Elytra wider than prothorax in middle and more than 
twice as long, humeral angles very obtuse, sides rounded at base, 
beeoming wider, thence nearly straight, gradually and strongly 
roonded towards apices which are separately rounded ; surface 
convex^ more strongly towards apex, with deep indistinctly punc- 
tured stris ; interstices in front strongly tuberculate, with a few 
scattered hairs, posteriorly with rugosities weaker, hidden by short 
foaoous hairlike scales, and with a single row of erect setsB ; 1st, 
3rd and 5th elevated at apical declivity, the t^o latter conjoined. 
Underside punctured and finely pubescent, abdominal segments not 
vesy convex. Legs black, with tarsi lighter, anterior tibi» dis- 
tinctly spined on outer side of apex. 

The largest species in the genns. 

Hylesinus laiicollta, sp. n. 
Ovalis, convexus, obscurus, breviter pilosus, niger, antennis 
fermgineis, prothorace fere duplo latiore quam longiore, basi valde 
prodocta, lateraliter fortiter rotundato, supra rugose exasperato, 
lateribos antice muricatis, linea media obsoleta laevi, ante basim 
atrinque oblique impresso ; elytris prothorace plus quam duplo 
longioribos, versus apicem oblique declivibus, striatis, striis ad 
medium uniseriatim punctatis, postice laevibus ; interstitiis 
flimilibus, antice tubercnlatis, postice squamulis brevibus f uscis 
veadtis, margine lateral! breviter setoso ; abdomine valde convexo 
ad apicem setoso. Long. 4 — 4*2 mm ; lat. 2*2 — 2*3 mm. 

Three examples^ taken by a native collector at Sapporo 
in 1883. 

Broad oval, convex, bbck. Head strongly punctured, front 
flattened, shortly hairy ; in two specimens, probably males, im- 
pre«ed over mouth with a fine central carina, and with stronger 
pnbeacence ; in the other, probably a female, with impression and 
carina obsolete and hairs scantier ; epistoma shortly produced over 
mandiblet, vertex reticulate. Antennae ferruginous, club long, 

TRAHS. E»T. SOC. LOND. 1894. — PART I. (MARCH.) £ 

Digitized by 


6f> Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on lU 

Btont, with transverse sutures. Prothorax very tnuisvene, 
narrowed from base to apex, with sides rounded, base strongly 
produced in middle, surface aspcrately punctured, with short 
bristles, closer at sides, with au indistinct smooth central line, 
and an oblique impression on either side before and parallel to 
base ; sides muricate towards apex. Scutellum rounded, mgoee. 
Elytra wider than prothorax and two and a half times longer, 
widest in middle, base of each strongly rounded and crenate ; sides 
slightly rounded to middle, gradually more strongly towards apex, 
which is obtuse ; surface obliquely and not strongly declivoos 
to apex, with deep rather wide strise, obsoletely punctured to 
middle, thence smooth, interstices coarsely tuberculate at base, the 
tubercles becoming finer, and being replaced behind the middle 
by short fuscous scales, which give the elytra a brownish tinge ; 
the two outer interstices and lateral margin with a close covering 
of short bristles. Underneath coarsely punctured, shortly hairy ; 
abdomen more convex longit!idinally than elytra, first two seg- 
ments much longer than last three, fourth and fifth bristly. Spines 
of anterior tibia* nearly obsolete. 

Hylesinus tristis, sp. n. 

Oblongo-ovalifl, obscurus, niger, antennis tarsisque fermgineis ; 
prothorace transverso, basi brevius producta, lateribus rotundatis, 
versus apicem muricatis, supra asperate punctato, utrinque ante 
basim impresso ; elytris prothorace sesqui amplius longioribtis, 
lateribus ad medium subrectis, postice rotundatis, apice subtiliter 
emarginato, striatic, striis ad basim modo obsolete punctatis, inter- 
slitiis transverse asperatis, postice squamulis cinereis inconspicais 
vostitis, margine laterali in versura solum distincte setoso. Long. 
3—3-5 mm. ; lat. 1-5— M> ram. 

Ma8. Fronto impressa, interstitiis post medium seriatim 

Several specimens taken at Ichiuchi, May Ist, 1881, 
anil a few at Junsai. 

Similar in sculpture and appearance to H. laticolUa, but smaUer, 
more oblong-oval, less strongly convex, the elytra more declivous 
l>o)nnd, as convex as ventral surface. Front in male broadly im- 
proH^cd between eyes with a short central carina, pubescent ; in 
female, narn>wly impressed over mouth, flat between eyes, with 
pubexoenco thin. Prothorax less transverse than in JJ. laticoUis, 
with wides less narrowed to apex, and base less strongly produced 
in middle, its sculpture similar. Elytra narrower, subparallel to 
middle, less obtuse at apex, interstices less coarsely tul»erculate at 
bane, alternate interstices l>ehind middle with an indistinct row 

Digitized by 



sjM. stronger tubercles in the aaile : Uxcnl arts aborwr ;^rcubr.;.t, 
inconspicaoiift before middle of elrtn. Aatcnor ubve djcartl; 
Bpiooae on onter : ^~ 

H^lestHus c\n^jHla*'S, gp. n. 

Oblongo-OT&lia, obecnnu, niger, mt^gan taz^^ae rafescea- 

tibna, sat dense et breriier pflosB : procbsraee tnaireno, bui 

biainiuta, band prodacta, Imteribas M«)3ih*^r rots^ditsa. anuc« 

tabercolatifi, snpn dense gTmnnlato-exatficnto : elxtru id medivia 

lateribns snbpftnUelis, at lobsiBoatis, pomioe nxoadui^ sapra 

Rtntto-pnnctatift, sqnanuMaa. ritta f ii9Ci>^iikerra traiuTera latcra- 

liter Tersnaapicemcnrvata notatia, iaur«tiui* ad ban a tabermlius 

postice BubmgosLs. Long. 2*3 — t"^ am. 

L^e Junsai ; fire specimens. 

About ibe sixe and riiape of snail exaaplet of /T. frarimS. 
Bkck, dnlL Head cloaelj grannkte, front kiirj. imp reatd in 
male, snbconTex in female. Antenne fermginont, clob ratber 
brotd, obtnselj pointed, with dark pubescence. Protborax with 
btse bisinuate, not prodneed o in the two last specie^, sides roonded 
at base, tbenoe narrower and straigfater to apex : abore uniformlj 
eonvex, thinly hairy, without scales, granulate, the asperities 
stronger towards the sides, which are distinctly tnberculate in 
front Elytra as wide as protborax, and two and a half times 
longer, separately rounded at base, overlapping thorax, sides 
snbparallel, feebly sinuate to behind middle, thence rounded ; 
surface conrex, obliquely dediTons behind, striate, the stris pnno- 
tured to behind middle, interstices tnberculate at base, then rugose, 
ooTered with short hairs and scales, blackish except on middle of 
eljtra, where they form a transrerse cinereous-brown ritta, curved 
hackwards at sides so as to cover the apices of the oth to the 
marginal interstices, and continued narrowly along apical margin, 
forming an irregular oval. Underside punctured, with rather 
dense cinereous pubescence ; abdomen not strongly convex. Legs 
ferruginous or pitchy, with tarsi lighter, front tibia hairy, spined 

Hyletnnus acutulaius, sp. n. 
Oblongns, niger, squamulis cinereis fuscisque tesselatus, 
antennis pedibusque nigrescentibus ; protborace vix latiore quam 
longiore, basi bisinnata, lateribus rotundatis versus apicem tuber- 
culatis : elytris protborace latioribus et illo duplo longioribus, 
cyliodricis, striato-punctatis, interstitiis ad basim subtuberculatis, 
per totum uniseriatim sbtosis. Long. 2*7 mm. 

Digitized by 


68 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

One or two examples taken at Kiga, Subashiri, 
Nagasaki^ Omori, and Oyama. 

Oblong, cylindrical, black, tesselated with close-lying grey and 
brownish scales. Head granulate with front flattened, hairy, im- 
pressed and more densely hairy in the male. Antennas black, dab 
rather short, acuminate oval, its basal joint large. Prothorax 
rather broader than long, its base bisinuate, not produced, ades 
uniformly rounded, tuberculate in front, surface regularly convex, 
front and sides with short erect bristles. Elytra cylindrical, wider 
at base than thorax, and a little more than twice as long, base 
crenate, sides subparallel to behind middle, apex strongly declivous 
and convex ; with rather fine punctured striae, interstices flat 
with a single row of setae throughout, and with one or two 
tubercles at base. Underside strongly punctured with short scale- 
like hairs, metathoracic epistema narrow, abdomen not convex 
longitudinally. Legs black, with tarsi lighter. 

Two specimens are larger and broader than the rest, 
the scales are pale ashy-grey and yellowish, whereas in 
the others they are light and dark brown. I believe the 
two former to be females and not specifically distinct. 
This species may be referred to BedePs sab-genus 
PteleohixiSy and is nearest to H. vittatus, Pabr., of the 
European fauna, but is larger, more elongate, with the 
striae deeper and less clearly punctured, and the inter- 
stices more convex and distinctly setose. 

Phloeosinds, Chap. 

In the generic diagnosis given by Chapuis (Syn. Scol., 
p. 93), the third tarsal joint is stated to be simple. This 
is correct for the European P. aubei, Perr., and P. 
thuyce, Perr., but in the Japanese species it is bilobed, 
though M. Chapuis has made no mention of this point 
in the descriptions of P. lewisi and perlatus. It is also 
bilobed in the American species, according to Leconte, 
except in his Chcptophlcetts hystrix, which can hardly be 
separated from the genus upon the characters given, and 
in which the 3rd tarsal joint " is emarginate rather than 
bilobed.'^ This difference in structure is not here of 
generic value, and the genus is sufficiently recognisable 
by the structure of the antennae. 

Digitized by 


Bhynehophorous Coteoptera of Japan. 69 

There are seven Japanese species^ of which five 
are new. 

Table of Species. 

1. Head with a median carina immediately over month ... 2 

not carinate over mouth 5 

2. Eljta doeely covered with scales, interstices alternately lighter 

and darker . . 3 
thinly covered with hairs or scales, nnicolorous . . 4 

3. Protborax abmptly contracted in front, reddish-brown . . 

gradually contracted in front, black . . . duhius. 

4. Elytra black, interstices similar, size small .... minutus. 

red-brown, 2nd interstice depressed and narrowed at apex 

perlalus, Ch. 

5. Interstices without seriate bristles, let and 3rd tuberculate 

towards apex . . rudis. 
uniformly granulate, with seriate bristles ... 6 

6. Bristlee on 2nd interstice ceasing before apex, front subcarinate 

between eyes • . seriatus, 
on interstices, similar throughout .... Uwisi, Ch. 

PhUeosinus pulchelltis, sp. n. 
Oralis, ruf o-testaceus, antennis pedibusque ferrugineis ; capite 
nigro, punctulato, breviter piloso, vix rostrato, supra os fortiter 
catinato ; prothorace transverso, antice abrupte contractp, supra 
convexo, linea media subelevata, rugose punctate et squamis 
idpressia hand dense vestito ; elytris post medium subdilatatis, 
fortiter striato-punctatis, interstitiis planis, 2o, 4o, 6o muticis, 
•qoamis bmnneis, ceteris versus apicem subtuberculatis, squamis 
flsTo-testaceis vestitis. Long. 2'5 mm. 

One si>ecimen^ Wada Togo. 

OTal, convex, red-brown, elytra closely squamose with alternate 
lighter and darker stripes. Head impressed over mouth (probably 
a male character) with a strong frontal carina, punctured, 
and shortly hairy. Prothorax nearly one-half broader than long, 
strongly narrowed in front, sides behind nearly straight, then very 
conTex at contraction, becoming straighter in front ; base narrowly 
impressed, surface convex, slightly depressed at apex, and obscurely 
eierated in middle from base to apical depression, densely punc- 
tured and sprinkled with close-lying yellow scales. Elytra wider than 
prothorax and twice as long ; basal margin crenate, everted at sides, 
homenl prominence* obliterated sides subsinuate to beyond 

Digitized by 


70 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandfbrd (m ^Ae 

middle, thence rounded ; surface slightly dilated at posterior tlurdy 
then strongly convex to apex, closely squamose, the scales cinnamon- 
brown on the 2nd, 4th and 6th interstices, yellow on the rest of the 
elytra J striate, the striss rather wide, with distinct punctures, inter- 
stices flat, granulate at base, 2nd widened at base and on summit 
of declivity, 1st, 3rd and outer interstices inconspicuously 
tuberculate towards apex. Underside ferruginous, scantily pube- 
scent, strongly punctuate on metathorax and two first abdominal 
segments. Legs ferruginous, anterior tibiae with strong out- 
wardly directed spines at outer apical angle. 

Phloeosinus dnhins, sp. n. 
Ovalis, niger, subopacus, an tennis tarsisque fermgineis ; capita 
punctato-granulato, brevissime piloso, baud rostrato, f ronte supra 
OS deplanata, in medio carinata ; prothorace trausverso, antice 
gradatim contracto, supra convexo, linea media passim ele- 
vata, rugose punctato, parce squamoso ; elytris subcylindricis, 
lateribus post medium subrectis, striatis, striis obsolete punctatis, 
interstitiis squamosis, squamis f uscis, in interstitiis lo, 3o, 5o non- 
nihil dilutioribus, his versus apicem tuberculatis. Long. 2*2 moL 

One specimen^ Kurigabara. 

Very similar to P. pulchellusj with the appearance of being a 
colour variety, but differing in certain other points. Entirely 
black with only the antennae and. tarsi reddish ; head less strongly 
impressed over mouth, and frontal carina less acute. Prothorax 
narrower, flatter throughout with the sides more gradually sloped 
towards the apex, and not strongly rounded in the middle, so 
that the apical constriction is less marked; punctuation lees 
strong and interstices covered with fine reticulation, not evident 
in P. ptdchellus. Elytra more oblique at base, with borders 
straighter, not evidently dilated behind the middle, the sides 
consequently not subsinuate, but straight to near the apex ; 
humeral elevations small, distinct, black, covered behind the 
middle (the base is probably rubbed in the single specimen), 
with fuscous scales, which are obscurely lighter on the alternate 
interstices, as in P.pulchellwi. Striae finer, not evidently punctured, 
the 2nd interstice narrower and straighter throughout. Apical spines 
of the anterior tibiae longer, curved backwards, and connate for 
the greater part of their length. 

The two preceding species resemble small species of 
Hylesinus rather than Phlceoainus, owing to the thickness 
of their scaly covering ; but they present no characters 
to separate them from the latter genus. 

Digitized by 


RhynchopJtorous Coleoplera of Japan. 71 

Phloeosinus minuttia, 8p« n. 

Oralis, niger, sabnitidus, an tennis pedibosque infuscatis ; capite 

granulato, fronte subconcava, pilis flavb ciroamdata, supra os 

cuinata ; protkorace transTerso, antice contracto, lateribus in 

medio fortiter rotunda lis, supra subtilissime reticulate et 'disperse 

pnnctato, ponctis asperatis, elytris cylindrico-convexis, striatp- 

punctatis, interstitiis planis subrngosis^ aniseriatim sabtiliter 

tnbercalatis et squamulis erectis vestitis, lo, 3o, 5o in margine 

apicali spinola anica armatis. Long. 1*5 mm. 

One example, Ichiachi, 

Black ; head not rostrate, closely granulate, front impressed, 
coocare, strongly ponctured round margin, with a few longish hairs, 
carinate aboye mouth. Prothorax transverse, strongly contracted 
towards apex, base bisinoate, its angles broadly rounded, sides 
slightly rounded, more strongly at contraction, surface convex with- 
out median elevation ; scantily pubescent, closely reticulate and asper- 
ately punctured, the punctures strongest towards apex, sparser over 
sides behind middle. Scntellum piceous, shining, punctif orm. Elytra 
scarcely wider than prothorax and less than twice as long ; basul 
margins conjointly nearly straight, crenate at sides only ; siJes 
staight to middle, thence uniformly rounded ; above shortly 
cylindrical and very strongly rounded at apex, pitchy-black with 
punctured striae, the punctures not close, interstices flat, shining, 
subrugose, with irregular rows of erect scales and minute tuber- 
cles, 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th with one or two stronger tubercles 
towards apex and a sharp pointed spine just above lower border of 
elytra. Legs piceous with tarsi lighter. Third joint scarcely 

The smallest species as yet in the genus, with a 
deceptive resemblance to Phlieophthorus rhododadylus, 
Marsh, {spariii, auct.), but separable by the point of 
attachment of the antennae^ the broader and anteriorly 
contracted thorax, which is finely reticulate as well 
as pnncturedj and the apical spines of the elytral 

rhloeoainus perlatus, Chap. 
Chap. J Scol. Jap., p. 198. 

Originally from Hiogo ; one or two fresh specimens are 
without indication of locality. The only sexual character 

Digitized by 


72 Mr, Walter F. H. Blandford m the 

is that the front is impressed and concave in the males^ 
flat in the females. The length, inaccurately given 
by Chapuis, is 2*5 — 3 mm. 

Phloeosinus aeriatus, sp. n. 

Oblongo*oTalis, subopacus, breviter pilosus, niger, elytris rufo- 
brunneis vel nigris, antennb tarsisque ferrugineis ; capite sub- 
rostra to, fortiter pnnctato, fere glabro, supra os impresso ; pro- 
thorace antice constricto subtransverso, supra convexo dense ac 
fortiter punctato, linea media abbreviata la>vi nitida ; elytris 
pnbe brevissima vestitis, striato-punctatis, punctis rotandis sat 
freqnentibas, interstitiis passim convexis, rugosis, serie unica 
setarum omatis, lo, 3o versus apicem tubercalatis, setosis, 2o, 4o 
muticis, in declivitate baud setosis, margine laterali per totam 
spinnlis minutis armato. Long. 2*4 mm. 

Mas. Fronte media impressa, ot linea elevata laevi inter 
oculos omata. 

Fem. Fronte deplanata, linea media laevi band elevata. 

A pair, Higo. 

Oblong-oval, black, or witb elytra reddish-brown ; bead 
subrofitrate, strongly punctured, with an arcuate impression 
above mouth and a second smooth impression above that in male, 
at which ends the short frontal median shining line, which is 
elevate though scarcely carinate in the male, flat in the female ; 
antennro ferruginous. Prothoraz transverse, its basal angles 
rounded, sides strongly contracted towards apex, in the male almost 
angulated, above convex without central elevation, but with a 
median smooth line, which does not reach either border, covered 
with short close hairs, densely and strongly punctured and not 
asperate. Elytra with basal borders rounded, scarcely everted at 
sides, sides straight in front, rounded posteriorly and slightly 
sinuate at apex of 4th interstice when seen from above ; surface 
subdilated behind middle, thence convexly declivous, covered with 
short hairs, striae weak with large round close punctures ; inter- 
stices with traces of tuberculation throughout, evident at base and 
on alternate interstices towards apex, where the 2nd interstice i» 
depressed as in P, perlatus, more strongly in the male than in the 
female, and a single series of bristles, absent on alternate inter- 
stices, towards the apex ; marginal interstice with a row of short 
spines throughout, stronger towards apex. Legs pitchy with knees 
and tarsi reddish. Underside black, punctured and covered with 
squamous hairs. 

Digitized by 


Rhynthophorous Coleopteia of Japan, 73 

Very similar to P. perlatus, Chap., from which it may 
be distinguished by its smaller size, the absence of a 
carina on the epistoma, the frontal median elevation not 
reaching to the month, by the absence of a longitudinal 
elevation from base to apex of the thorax, by the 
shallower and evidently punctured elytral striae and the 
distinct rows of bristles on the interstices, which are 
alternate towards the apex ; a similar row of scale-like 
bristles occurring in P. perlatus cannot be distin- 
guished from the general covering with a lens. Tha 
alternation of these bristles will also differentiate it 
from P. lewisi, 

PJiloeosinus lewisi^ Chap. 

Chap., Scol. Jap., p. 198. 

Numerous specimens, Kashiwagi, Chiuzenji, Kobe and 

Varies in size from 1*8 to 2*3 mm. 

Phlceosinua rudis, sp. n. 

0?ataB, subnitidus, niger, elytromm apice noDnnnquam dilu- 
tiore anteuniB tarsisque ferraglDeis ; capite vix rostrato, oculia 
exacte planis, vix emarginatis ; prothorace transverso, basi in medio 
prodacta, latenbus rotundatis, versus apicem leviter sinnatis, supra 
coDTexo, dense et fortiter pnnctato, parcias piloso ; elytris 
obliqae declivibus sapra breviter pilosis, striato-punctatis, inter- 
stitiis plauis granulatis, versus apicem uniseriatim tubercalatis. 
LoDg. 2*7 — 3 mm. 

Mas. Interstitiis lo, 3o in declivitate tuberculis magni^, 
discretis omatis, 2, 4 inermibus. 

Feic. Interstitiis lo, 3o in declivitate subtilius tuberculati?, 
2o subtilissime. 

Kashiwage and Kobe. 

Black, OTal ; head strongly punctured, front flattened in female, 
impressed in male, almost glabrous, except for a few hairs over 
month and a few on vertex in female, eyes perfectly flat. Pro- 
thorax transverse, its base produced in middle towards scutellum, 
slightly contracted towards apex with sides rounded from base ; 
convex, somewhat shining, strongly and closely punctured without 
Iteration, usually with a median shining longitudinal lin«. 

Digitized by 


3Cr. ^ilcor F. 3. BLandford am ike 

iema^laaL anxuL xalL snmrsartiL EIrcra icarcelj wider than 
fg-vuusgxx. wad Tichirr jbs ^oaiL nrioe Ǥ loag, their btiaal borders 
TnnjBuiuL 'oeaas/t, ^yyiz'.j c««rttd. sdies straight at base, rooaded 
fmoi BbSiije u »ei: : aoiiv? sr^dsaHj decuToos almoat from base, 
Mck. v^di X9«x 4cazi£<z.ii0i paKci». wuh short scanty pubescence, 
tr:'Jsi->«;s seaLa <sr mx^zaa '^azn, fcnar rasher fine, indistinctly pnnctnred 
at \mm, acariT «nciv«a towards ^Pd« interstices granolate to 
■arVfV, thes ±&d a&d 4th is asaLe azsocth« mnlti-ponctate, with one 
or two t&berciea befcre opGE. in the female with a few fine 
tnbercles throozb:«t : Ist in icaLe with about 5, 3rd with about 7 
■Croc^ spfDoos tobencies, whkh do not unite to form a crest, in 
feaale with smaller tubercles : outer interstices towards apex with 
rows of tubercles in boih aexe?. Underside black, punctured, 
pubeKent : metastemum lather prominent. Legs black with tarsi 

The largest Japanese species and the only one allied to 
the Eoropean species in appearance and sexnal characters. 


Of all the genera of the family^ this one^ considering 
its small extent, is the most difficult to deal with. Till 
recently it included but two species, P. poUgraphvs, hm., 
nnd rufipenniti, Kirby, but Thomson has added three 
others found in Europe, of which I have seen but one, 
/'. grnndiclava, or rather an insect forwarded to me by 
llt'iT Reitter as P. poUgraphvs, var. grandiclava. 1 have 
filso had before me an Indian species, and there are 
apparently throe distinct forms from Japan. Well- 
umrlcod diflbreuces are wanting amongst all these insects, 
which are almost identical in structure and sculpture; 
and tlio difference of appearance which can be seen in 
tM>mpnriiion of examples vanishes in the most elusive way 
whtui iiu attompt is made to define and embody it in a 

1 1 in po«»il)lo that the structure of the male organs will 
III! ivf rmMithhi'*^ hon\ ws Liudeman has shown that they 
nvo uftiii ilt?*Uuct in closoly-allied Scolytids. But for 
(fciif iPi(VkH*7 t^xiuuiiiation of these, series of a certain length 
HHi riH^ionnl, fttul Imvo not been forthcoming. 1 can 
(tiikl^hM f^ liul IK Ho llu* wonls of Leconte who, in treating 
%\(\\s%^ i^lmofcl i^HUrtUy dtlHcwlt genus PeiiWroctowtiJr, wrote: 
** Ir I Imvn fti^M io iiuUo^lc more strongly the differences 


Digitized by 


Rhyiiehophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 75 

between these species it is becanse they are not dis- 
tinguished by any prominent or definite characters ; and 
the student, who may have difficulty in identifying the 
species as here defined, would have almost equal difficulty 
if the specimens in my collection were before him/' 

Polygraphun oblong us, sp. n. 

ObloDgus, subnitidas, ciger, elytris apice rufescentibo^, squamiii 
flATfM^nereift Testitos ; clypeo emarginato, oculis sabconvexis, 
antennartiin clara oblorga infuscata acuminata ; protborace antioe 
foiiiter conatricto, linea media subeloTata, panctis sobacicolatts 
Rat denais notato ; elytris Tersoa apicem aubdilatatlBf tenuiaidme 
striatia, ad basim graoulatis. Liong. 3*2 mm. 

Mas. Fronte sabconvexa, breriter pilosa. 

Fex. Fronte conTexa, bitabcrcalata, breviasime pubeacente. 

Fonr examples^ Chinzeuji and Subashiri. 

Oblong, black, with elytra becoming gradually reddish toward a 
apex. Head with front alightly convex in male, rogosely punctured 
and rather dull, pubescence short, in female convex, shining, very 
fthortly pubescent, with two distinct tubercles in middle, below 
them with slight impression, clypeus emarginate in middle, eyes 
feebly convex, more distinctly in female, antennal club rather large, 
infoacate and evidently acuminate at inner side of apex, more 
strongly in male than in female. Prothorax nearly half as broad 
again as long, strongly constricted towards apex with sides more 
convex behind constriction than at base ; surface rather shining, 
whh close aubaciculate punctuation and thin squamous covering ; 
median line slightly elevated, variable in length and distinctness. 
Elytra more than half as long again as prothorax, one- third longer 
than wide, alightly but discernibly dilated towards apex, dull, 
Bcalea doae, cinereous with a yellow tinge, strias faint but dis- 
tinguishable throughout, weaker at apex in female than in male. 
Legs dark, ferruginous, with tarsi lighter ; all tibiae spilled at apex. 

\VTien compared with P. poUgraphus, this species 
differs in its larger size^ infuscate elytral club^ thinner 
froDtal pubescence^ shorter and more constricted pro- 
thorax. The elytral apex is lighter in colour, and this 
does not appear to be due to immaturity. Tho punc- 
tuation of the head in the female is more distinct. 

Polygraphus proximus, sp. n. 
Antecedenti omnibus simillimus, sed brevior, elytns ad apicem 

Digitized by 


76 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

distinctiiu rafescentibas, non dilatatis, Btriis minos perspieaendis. 
Long, vix 3 mm. 

Two examples^ Sapporo. 

The two specimens I have inclnded under this title 
differ principally in shape from the preceding species. 
They are distinctly shorter, particularly in the elytra, 
which are not more than one-fourth longer than wide, 
and are not dilated towards the apex, which is slightly 
flattened. The head is similar, the antennal club less 
deeply infuscate. Prothorax transverse and strongly 
constricted, the median line well-marked and elevated at 
the base, more so than in the specimens of P. oblongus, 
where it is nearly obsolete, rather more shining and less 
closely punctured, the punctures subadculato. Elytra 
more abruptly and distinctly reddish towards apex, their 
striee less distinct. Posterior tibiaB feebly spined. 

One example is rubbed bare, and its appearance is 
materially altered, the pubescence on the other is not 
intact, but appears to be a little less close than in P. 
oblongus. Both are females. 

Polygraphus miser, sp. n. 

P. oblongo similis sed minor, angustior, antennarum clava vix 
acuminata, prothorace anterias minus angustato, post apicem hand 
constricto; elytris ad basim magis infuscatis, tenuiter striatis, 
squamis subtilioribus ; pedibus ferrugineis. Long. 2*4 nun. 

Four specimens, Nikko. 

Hardly to be distinguished from P. oblongus except by 
its smaller size, which is quite noticeable when the 
specimens from each locality are compared side by side. 

In shape narrower, with the prothorax less transverse and con- 
stricted in front, and the elytra proportionately shorter. AntennsQ 
entirely testaceous, with the club not acuminate ; prothorax more 
shining, less squamous and more sparingly punctured, the puncttires 
but feebly aciculate ; one example shows a median raised line, the 
other three not. Elytra with basal half darker and more abruptly 
contrasted with the shorter and lighter apical half, with rather 
thinner squamous covering, and more distinct strise. Head in the 
female duller, more punctured and less convex, front bituberculate; 
in the male narrower. 

Digitized by 


Rhynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 77 

ScoLYTUs, Geoff, 
One species lias been described by Chapnis. I add 
five more, and there is possibly one other. They present 
the uniformity in appearance characteristic of this widely 
distributed genus. The species were principally obtained 
from birch. 

Table op Speciks. 

1. Second abdominal segment unarmed 2 

with a median proceBs . . claviger, 
i. Abdomen concave, its Srd and 4th segments with a tnbercle 

on apical margin esuriens, 

not concave, Srd and 4th segments simple • . . 3 

3. Apex of elytra finely serrate near sntnre (size 4} mm.) . agnatus. 

simple 4 

4. Alternate interstices of elytra with an irregular double row 

of punctures frontalis. 

All interstices with a single row of punctures 5 

5. Elytra brown, strongly punctured in rows aratas, 

black, finely punctured, with oblique aciculate 

scratches japonicus, Ch. 

Scolytus esuneiis, sp. n. 

Kiiidus, niger, elytromm lateribus et apice nonnunquam 
mfescentibas, antennis pedibusque ferrugineo-piceis ; prothorace 
longitudine vix latiore, pnnctato, linea media lievi ; elytris 
lateribus sabrotundatis posterius vix angustatis, apice conjunc- 
tim subtmncatis, fortiter striato-pnnctatis, striis impressis, 
interstitiis planis subtiliter uniseriatim, 3o saltern biseriatim, 
ponctatis ; abdomine ooncavo, segmento lo margine prominulo, 
3o et 4o in margine medio tuberculo parvo ornatis. Long. 
3 "8 — 5*5 mnL 

Mas. Fronte deplanata breviter pilosa. 

Fem. Fronte subconvexa parcissime pilosa, vertioe subnitido, 
discrete pnnctato. Long. 3*8 — 5*5 mm. 

Several specimens taken at Junsai^ and single 
examples at Miyanosbita and Chinzenji. 

Nearly allied to 8. geoffroyi, Goetze. 

Black with aides and apex of elytra more or less reddish. 
Front of head flattened in male and not impressed, with short 
pubescence, snbconvex in female, impressed over mouth, and 
thinly hairy ; vertex in female convex, with a median impressed 
line shining and diffusely punctured. Prothorax with a shallow 
impression on either side, more strongly punctured than in 

Digitized by 


78 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on tie 

S, geoffroyi^ the central impnnctate line sometimes obsolete. 
Elytra not evidently narrowed behind, their apices conjointly 
rounded, nearly truncate, with stris deeper than in S. gtojfroyi 
and more strongly punctured, interstices somewhat less flat^ finely 
punctured in rows, the 3rd and in larger specimens the 5th or 7th 
with irregular double rows ; punctuation of outer interstices strong 
at base. Abdomen with apical margin of 1st segment prominent, 
thickened in middle and shining, 2nd segment concave, 3rd and 
4th with a small median tubercle on margin, 5th with a longitu- 
dinal impression near apex. Metastemum shining, diffusely 

Variable in size, in the width and number of pnnctures 
of interstices, which are sometimes partly striate. 

One example from Junsai is smaller^ with the elytra 
longer and narrower, and separately rounded at apex, 
the 3rd interstice has a double row of punctures at the 
base t)nly, and the outer interstices ore strigose with 
indistinct punctures. ITie underside does not diflFer, 
though the tubercles are inconspicuous. It appears to 
be an ill-developed example. 

Scolytiis agnatus, sp, n. ' 
Nitidus, niger, elytris apice rufescentibus, an tennis pedibusque 
piceo-ferrugineis ; prothorace latitudine et longitudine fere sequali 
in disco subtiliter, in lateribus fortius punctato ; elytris lateraHter 
subrotundatis, postice angustatis, in apice singulatim rotundatis, 
margine apicali subtiliter serrato, punctato-striatis, striis non 
impressis, interstitiis angustis subrugosis, singnlariter seriatim 
quam striis vix subtilius punctatis ; abdomine deplanato, segmentis 
3o et 4o muticis. Long. 4*6 mm. 

Fem. Fronte subconvexa, glabra, vertice obscuro, dense ao 
rugotte punctato. 

Two specimens taken at Junsai in company with the 
last species. 

Very like 8, esiiriens, and readily confounded with it. 

Black, with apex of elytra reddish. Head in the female (I have 
not seen the male) quite glabrous, its vertex dull, rugosely and 
closely punctured. Prothorax similar, but without lateral impres- 
sions. Elytra larger, more evidently narrowed towards the apices, 
which are separately slightly rounded, the whole posterior margin 
finely toothed. Punctures of the elytral stri» stronger, somewhat 
irregular and not distinctly impressed, interstices narrow, punc- 

Digitized by 


Hhynchophoroiis Coleoptera of Japan, 79 

tnred nearly as s^ronjly as the strisB in irregular series, which are 

not double, except at base ; somewhat mgose, and with slight 

longitudinal impressions. Punctures of the sides of the elytra 

much stronger than in S. emtriens. Abdomen not concave, margin 

of the 1st segment not prominent but sloped upwards, 3rd and 

4th unarmed, the 5th transversely impressed. Metastemum closely 

and rugosely punctured. 

Scolyttis frontalis, sp. n. 

Oblongus, nitidus, niger, elytris rufo-bmnneis, antennis pedi- 
busque f ermgineis ; capite (in maribus saltem) oblongo, fronte 
impressa, strigose aciculata, pib's longis crispatis circumdata ; 
prothoraoe hand transverso sat fortiter punctate, linea media 
laevi, punctis in disco paullo sabtilioribus, magis discretis ; elytris 
prothorace fere dimidio longioribus, lateribus subrotundatis, 
postice angustatiB, subtiiiter punctato-striatis, striis non impressis, 
interstitiis irregulariter vix subtilius seriato-punctatis, lo, 3o, 5o 
btseriatim, subrugosis ; abdomine subconvexo, margine segmenti 
Imi hand prominulo, cum ceteris matico. Long. 3'G— 4*3 mm. 

Three examples taken at Fakoshima. 

Besembling S. pruni, Ratz., in appearance, but with the pro- 
thorax more strongly punctured, and the elytral stricB much less 
regolar. Black with anterior margin of thorax and elytra red- 
brown. Head (in the male, to which sex the specimens belong) 
oblong, produced in front, and impressed, with long aciculate 
scratches from mouth to vertex, margined with long curled yellow 
hairs, median line finely carinate, epistoma subcircalarly emargi- 
listo. Prothorax about as long as broad with moderately strong 
oval punctures, closer and deeper at sides. Elytra as wide in 
middle as prothorax, and nearly one-half longer, narrowed behind, 
rather abruptly rounded at apex and feebly emarginate at suture ; 
surface little depressed round scutellum, with fine irregular rows 
of punctures, interstices narrow and flat, with slight transverse or 
oblique wrinkles, their punctures little finer than and not readily 
distinguishable from those of striss, forming an irregular double 
row on 1st, 3rd and 5th interstices, and a single row on remainder, 
except at base where they are irregular. Underside piceons, lighter 
at sides, thinly pubescent ; abdominal segments simple, margin of 
1st not prominent. 

Scolytus nratus, sp. n. 

Xitidus, niger, elytris piceo-brunneis, basi cum pedibus rufescente; 
capite conTexo, subtiiiter acicalato, parcissime piloso; prothorace non 

Digitized by 


80 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

transverse, fortiter punctato, panctis ovatis in medio disco magis 
discretis, subtilioribns ; eljrtris prothorace dimidio longioribas, 
lateribns subrotandatis, postice angustatis, margine apicali sab- 
truncatOy fortiter lineato-punctatis et substriatis, interstitiis 
angustis uniseriatim punctatis, panctis vix subtilioribus, seriebas 
nonnunquam irregalariter impressis ; abdomine convexo, mutico, 
piloso. Long. 3 mm. 

Mas. (?). Abdominis segmento 5o pilis longis omato. 

Fem. (V). Abdominis segmento 5o breviter piloso. 

Junsai^ two specimens. 

Allied to S. carpini, Ratz., but with stronger thoracic punctua- 
tion, and elytral striae more impressed with coarser punctures. 
Black with elytra pitchy-brown. Head convex, finely aciculate 
and glabrous, without sexual differences; vertex dull, closely punc- 
tured. Prothorax as long as broad, with strong oval punctures, 
scattered on disc, closer, deeper and rugose at sides and apex. 
Elytra as wide as thorax and one-half longer, with lateral 
margins slightly rounded to behind middle, then narrowed ; apical 
margin nearly truncate, feebly excised at suture, and slightly 
irregular, but not serrate as in S, agnatus ; surface with regular 
rows of strong punctures, deeper and closer at base, slightly 
impressed throughout, interstices narrow, with a single series of 
punctures rather weaker than those of stri88, and sometimes im- 
pressed, first and second with a few oblique wrinkles. Abdomen 
convex, covered with short hairs ; last segment in male (?) emar- 
ginate at apex and impressed, with a fringe of long hairs. , 

Smaller than any other Japanese species except 
S. japonicus, which is readily distinguished by its black 
colour, and the absence of striate impressions on the 
elytra, the punctures of which are fine and obscured by 
oblique wrinkles. 

Scolytus japonicus, Chap. 
Chap., Scol. Jap., p. 199. 

A single further specimen of this species, the repre- 
sentative of the European S, rugulosus, taken at Junsai. 
It attacks tho plum-tree. 

Scol yt us claviger, sp. n. 
Subelongatus, depressus, niger, elytris piceis, antennis pedi- 
busque ru fescentibus ; prothoracis disco parce punctato, punctis 
versus basim subtilioribus ; elytris regulariter striato-punctatis. 

Digitized by 


Hhynchophoroua Coleopiera of Japan. 81 

striis Tix impressis, interstitiis pauUo subtilias nniseriatim vel 
irregalariter biseriatim punctatis, depressione apicali ad latera 
eerie tnbercalomm intns marginata. LoDg. 3*7 mm. 

Mas. Fronte impressa, loDgias pilosa ; abdominis aegmento 2o 
processa oblongo deplanato yersus apicem incrassato et reoar?ato 

Fem. Fronte subconyexa, parce pilosa ; abdominis segmento 
2o tubercolo brevi oonico armato. 

A pair taken at Kiga. 

Elongate and depressed, black with elytra piceons. Head with 
front strongly impressed in male and margined with long curled 
hairs, in female sabconyex and strigose with scanty pnbescence ; 
Tertex strongly punctured in both sexes. Protborax as long as 
broad, with sides nearly parallel behind middle, not strongly 
contracted in front, its punctuation rather strong, not close, weak 
over base only. Elytra as wide as protborax and one-half longer, 
Terj slightly rounded at sides and narrowed behind, apex serrate 
and feebly emarginate ; surface with regular impressed rows of 
pQoctnres, interstices narrow with subimpressed rows of rather 
weaker punctures, tending to become double on alternate inter- 
stices. Apical impression extending along sides of elytra and 
bordered within, aboye outer angles, by six or seven small 
tubercles. Underside black, abdomen reddish at sides, its first 
yentral segment prominently bordered, second in male with an 
oblong process, flattened vertically, its tip thickened and recurved 
upwards; in female with a short pointed tubercle, and rather 
dense pubescence. 

Allied to 8. multistriatus fhxxt differing in the stmcture 
of the abdomen^ and the stronger punctuation, the thora- 
cic punctures being more scanty. The apical segments 
of the abdomen, nearly horizontal in the male example, 
are unfortunately missing in the female, which prevents 
comparison with another specimen from Nishi, which 
appears distinct, but cannot be separated by any definite 
characters ; it is rather larger, more convex, the thorax 
is more evidently narrowed in front, with the sides 
rounded behind; the elytra are darker and broader; the 
abdomen is nearly vertical, armed as in the female type. 
This insect does not show any differences in sculpture 
that are of specific value, though the thorax is more 
finely punctured behind the middle. It must be sepa- 
rated, if at all, on further examples of both sexes. 


Digitized by 


82 Mr, Walter F. H. Blandford on the 


Cryptubgus, Er. 

C. pusilluSf G^yllj ^sA already been recorded from 
Japan by Eicblioff (Rat. Tom., p. 74), who examined 
specimens taken by Hiller in Nipon, and coald discover 
no difference between them and European examples. 
Mr. Lewis has taken a series on Fujisan and at Sabashirl 
in which the pubescence on the elytra is scanty, fine 
and less distinguishable than in European specimens, but 
which have no other well-marked distinguishing fea- 
tures. The prothorax is rather strongly narrowed 
behind, but its shape is variable in European examples. 

Cbyphalus, Er. 

At present the Japanese Cryphali are represented 
by a single specimen only in Mr. Lewis's collection. As 
the genus is very common in the Oriental region, and 
there are some ten European species, it is probably much 
more numerous in Japan than it appears to be at present. 

Cryphalus exiguuSj sp. n. 

Oblongo-ovalis, convexas, opacus, niger, squamosas ; prothorace 
Bemi-orbiculato, margine antico bituberculato, antenus tubercolia 
discretift in plaga postice prodacta ezasperato, posterius mgoae 
punctate ; elytris latitudine longioribns, lineato-punctati?, inter- 
stitiis squamositt setis erectis raris omatis. Long. 1*3 mm. 

One example, Fukusbima. 

One of the smallest species in the genus. 

Oblong-oval, conyex, dull black with a covering of grey scales. 
Head with front subconTex, reticulate, punctured at sides, im- 
pressed over month and with an obtuse median elevation separated 
above from vertex by a sharp transverse shining carina ; eyes 
oblong-oval, anteriorly emarginate ; antennsa testaceous with club 
deeply infuscate, roundish oval, its basal joint shining, with 
superior apical border rounded, fringed, remaining joints pilose 
with border less strongly rounded. Prothorax narrowed towards 
apex, rather broader than long, its base bisinuate with narrowly 
elevated margin, basal angles rounded when seen from above, 
sides and apex rounded throughout, the latter more strongly, its 

Digitized by 


Rlnjnchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 83 

mai^ with two promineat tubercles in middle ; surface uni- 
formlj convex, not gibbons, anteriorly with scattered asperate 
elevations, forming a patch angulately produced behind but not 
reaching very near base, interstices and remainder of surface finely 
reticnlate and rugosely punctured, with thin covering of scales 
and hairs. Scutellnm very small, triangular. Elytra as wide as 
prothorax, and not quite half as long again, slightly and separately 
rounded at base, humeral angles rather obtuse, but not rounded, 
shoulders finely elevated, sides nearly straight and Subparallel to 
posterior third, then broadly rounded to apex ; surface transversely 
convex, subcylindrical to behind middle, then obliquely deoli- 
Toos and convex to apex, with distinct rows of punctures, the 
oater oDes obsolete towards apex, interstices narrow, finely 
zDultipunctate and squamous, with a single series of scattered erect 
sets. Legs fuscous with tarsi testaceous. 

This species can be distinguished from otber described 
Cryphali, in which the eyes are emarginate and the elytra 
not rounded from base to apex, by the two tubercles 
on the anterior margin of the prothorax. Among the 
European species it is most like C, abietis, Ratz, but is 
much smaller, with the elytral striaa not impressed, and 
the antennal club and legs darker. The transverse 
carina which borders the vertex of the head in front 
occurs in some Ceylonese species in my hands, and is 
probably a sexual character. As with other Oriental 
OryphaJi, the joints of the antennal club have a rounded 
margin on their superior surface, which is less evident 
below. In this respect they approach Thomson's sub- 
genus Emoparus, which can be characterised by the non- 
em arginate eyes alone. 

Hypothenemus, Westw. 

I take this genus, as has been done by Leconte and 
others, to be inclusive of Eichhoff's genus Stephanos 
deres, which it is not possible to separate by means of 
the number of articulations in the antennal funiculus. 
But it is not to be supposed, as Leconte has suggested, 
that the variations of this structure are of no generic 
value in Scolytidae, In the majority of genera which 
can be separated by them, there are other structural 
features, or at least a difference of facies, which tend to 
show that they are a reliable guide. In the Hypothenemi, 

Digitized by 


84 Mr. Walter F. R Blandford on the 

however, the smallest insects of the family, it would appear 
that reduction in size leads to a reduction in the number 
of joints, without involving other structural features. 
But we really require to study its structure in more 
species of this diflScult and little-known genus. 

I add two more species to the one already described 
from Japan. 

♦ Hypothenemua tristis, Eichh. 

Stephanoderes tristis, Eichh. Scol. Jap., p. 200; Rat. 
Tom., p. 150. No further examples have been taken, 
unless the following insect be a variety of this species. 

Hi/pothenemu^ periius, sp. n. 
Oblongus, subnitidns, fusco-piceus, prothorace in medio 
dilutiore, semi-ovato, antrorsum angastato, margine antico tuber- 
culis 4, duobus mediis majoribus, omato, anterius tubercolis 
magnis discretis notato, postice rugolose punctato ; elytris ad 
apiceni subacuminatim rotundatis, sobtiliter lineato-punctatis et 
setosis, interstltiis uniseriatim sqoamulatis. Long. 1'8 mm. 

One specimen, Nagasaki. 

Oblong, rather shining, deep fuscous, with surface of protborax 
lighter in middle. Head finely reticulate, front subconvex, punc- 
tured in middle. Autcnnte sordid testaceous, funiculus 5- jointed, 
suture of club distinctly fringed. Pro thorax very slightly 
broader than long, base subsinuate, basal angles obtusely rounded, 
sides slightly dilated before base and rounded, contracted towards 
apex and obscurely sinuate, apical margin with four tubercles in 
the middle, the two centre ones more prominent ; surface obtusely 
gibbous in middle, with thin covering of hairs and scales, anteriorly 
with a roundiiih patch of large scattered tubercles, becoming closer 
and smaller behind, interstices and base finely reticulate with 
scattered punctures, except over a narrow smooth line from base 
to middle. Elytra rather more than half as long again as 
prothorax, separately roanded at base, humeral angles rounded, 
sides parallel to posterior third, thence obliquely rounded to 
apex ; surface subcylindrical, obliquely declivous and convex 
at apex, with fine lines of punctures bearing minute hairs, the 
lines appearing impressed in certain light, interstices transversely 
rugose, with a single row of cinereous scales along middle and a 
few hairs on either side. Legs inf uscate with anterior femora and 
tarsi lighter. 

Quite like E. tristis, Eichh., but differing from the type 

Digitized by 


Bhynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan, 85 

in the fewer and stronger tubercles of the protborax, the 
more scattered punctnation of its base, which presents a 
smooth central line, and the finer elytral striae, which in 
H. iristis are strong and well-marked. It is also rather 
more elongate. 

Hypothenemtis expei's^ sp. n. 

Oblongos, sabnitidofl, piceo-niger, protborace medio dilutiore, 
snbrotundato, ante basim dilatato, margine antico*bitubercuIato, 
doFBo anterius tuberculis discretis in plaga rotundata compositis 
notato, posterios granolato ; elytris lineato-pmictatis, pilosis, 
ioterstitiis setis baud sqaamatis seriatis omatis. Long, vix 2 mm. 

Two examples, Knmamoto and Nagasaki. 

Closely allied to H. peri t us, but exhibiting the 
following differences : — 

Bather larger and more robust, darker in colour, being black 
with a pitcby tinge, tbe thorax pitchy-red in middle, and not 
obscurely testaceous. Front of head more convex, very finely 
reticulate and not punctured except oyer mouth, where it is trans- 
Tersely impressed. Antennas bright testaceous, basal joint of club 
deeply infuscate, funiculus 5- jointed. Frothorax more strongly 
dilated before base, which is truncate, sides more strongly rounded, 
its toberculation similar, but marginal tubercles less prominent, the 
two outer ones nearly obsolete, basal half closely reticulate and 
corered with small asperate eleyations, closer than the non-eleyated 
punctures in H, peritus. Elytra narrower than greatest width of 
prothorax, truncate at base, obliquely rounded at apex, striatiou 
as in H. peritus; interstices without evident scales, but with a 
single row of erect hairs, which are stronger towards apex, a few 
finer hairs are found between the rows. Legs clear testaceous. 

The absence of the conspicuous erect hispid scales on 
the elytra, which are replaced by hairs, will at once 
distinguish this species from either of the two former. 

CosuoDKRES, Eichh. 

This genus was founded by Eichhoff, "Rat. Tom., p. 495, 
for C. monilicollis, a single species from India, which 
difiTers from Hypoihenemus (Stephanoderes, Eichh.) in 
possessing a very short two-articulate antennal funiculus 
and dilated tibias with their outer borders serrate, the 
serration being absent in ffypothenemua ; the typical 
species is also more elongate than a Hypoihenemus, and 

Digitized by 


86 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

differs in colour, and the sculpture of the elytra, which 
have large dilated punctures and eubcostate interstices, 
so that they appear reticulate. There is in Mr. Lewis's 
Ceylon collection a specimen which corresponds in every 
respect to Eichhoff's description of (J, monilicollis, and 
is almost certainly that insect. In the Japanese collec- 
tion is a specimen which agrees with it in generic 
characters, but is much more closely allied in appear- 
ance to Hypothenemus, showing the near relationship 
between the genera, which are, however, sufficiently 

Cosmoderes consohriniis, sp. n. 

Oblongos, subcylindricus, opacus, niger, elytris nigro-piceis, 
antennarum scapo tarsisque testaceis ; prothorace aeque longo quam 
lato yersQs apicem subangustato, apice rotandato, bitubercolato, 
disco gibbo30, anterius cxasperato, posterios scabrose granulato ; 
elytris prothorace duplo loDgioribus, seriatim pilosis et stiiatis, 
striis leniter impressis, vix perspicue punctatis, interstitiis alataceis 
uniseriatim squamosis. Long. 2 mm. 

One example, without locality. 

Oblong, rather elongate, cylindrical, black, with elytra obscurely 
piceous. Head finely reticulate, front convex, finely and sparingly 
punctured, and very shortly pubescent, eyes oval emarginate : 
antennee testaceous with club infuscate, short oval, pubescent with 
a smooth patch at base, without evident sutures. Prothorax as 
broad ns long, contracted at sides towards apex, base truncate not 
margined, basal angles obtuse, sides slightly rounded behind, sub- 
sinuato and more rounded anteriorly, apical margin strongly 
rounded with two prominent median tubercles ; surface convex 
and gibbons in middle, obliquely impressed on either side behind 
median elevation, in front strongly declivous and rather finely 
asperate, base and interstices dull, covered with fine scabrous pro- 
jections, pubescence very short. Scutellum distinct, triangular. 
Elytra a little wider than base of prothorax and double as long, 
base truncate, humeral angles rounded rectangular, shoulders 
rather prominently elevated, sides subparallel, obliquely rounded 
at apex ; surface subcylindrical, very obliquely declivous towards 
apex, its texture coriaceous, with shallow impressed striffi, with 
barely distinguishable punctures and rows of minute hairs, inter- 
stices alutaceous, subcouvex, with a single scries of erect narrow 

Digitized by 


Phynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 87 

scales. Legs foaco-piceous with tarsi lighter, outer border of 
middle tibie distinctly serrate. 

This insect is very like Hypothenemua Uiatis and 
feriius, bat is more elongate ; the base of the thorax 
and the elytra are diflTerently sculptured, and the struc- 
ture of the antennas and legs will at once separate it 
without comparison. 


But one species has yet been found in Japan. It is 
likely that there are others as, in addition to the Euro- 
pean speciesj there are several from both N, and S. 

Pityi^hthoitis jucuiidus, sp. n. 

Elongatus, oblongus, nitidus, fere glaber, niger vol fasco- 
testaceos ; prothorace antice subconstricto, post medium utrinqae 
impresso, auterins exasperato, posterios fortiter punctato, linea 
media sabeleyata laevi ; elytris cylindriois, baud acuminatis, 
regukriter punctato-striatis, striia non impressis, interstitiis . f ere 
phnia hie illinc subruguloBis, apice impresso-retuso, striis obsoletin^ 
laieribofl elevatitt et sutura yersus apicem tuberculiB setigeria raris 
ornatia. liong. 1*6 mm. 

Fem. Fronte media Tillosa. 

Four specimens, near Nagasaki. 

Head black, finely reticulate, front strongly punctured, with a 
drciilar patch of yillotui pubescence in female. AntennsB f usco^ 
tettaceoim, their club oyate, tri-articulate with slightly carred 
sutures. E^thorax with base finely margined, truncate, basal 
angles obtvse, sides behind nearly straight, rounded in front and 
nnuate before apex, which is somewhat obtusely roanded, and 
feebly crenate, the apical constriction much slighter than in 
P. Uchtensteinij Batz ; surface depressed on either side of a median 
smooth elcTated line, reaching to the middle of the prothorax, 
with Tery short pubescence at sides and apex, its anterior half 
asperate, posterior half with rather strong submgose punctures 
becoming weaker on sides. Elytra rather narrower at base than 
prothorax, and nearly twice as long, sides straight to middle then 
feebly rounded, apex obtusely rounded, not acuminate but with 
sntnre slightly prominent ; glabrous except at apex, with regular 
lines of strong punctures, not impressed, interstices impunctate and 
flat, feebly rugose here and there, apex nearly vertically decliyous, 

Digitized by 


88 Mr. IValter F. H. Blandford an the 

impressed on either side of sature, the impression shining, impanc- 
tate, its outer margins more strongly elevated than sature, with two 
or three weak setigerous tubercles ; suture very slightly elevated, 
with traces of tuberculation near apex ; underside black, thinly 
pubescent. Legs fuscous. 

A slender narrow species, readily distinguished by the 
strong punctores of the thorax, with its elevated median 
smooth line, by the distinct and regular rows of 
punctures on the elytra, which are nearly glabrous and 
not acuminate. 

I add one more species provisionally to this genus. 

Eidopheliis imita7is, Eichh. 
Eiclih., Scol. Jap., p. 200 ; Eat. Tom., p. 208. 
One example, very small, has occurred since, without 
recorded locality. 

Eidoplielus minutusj sp. n. 

Oblongus, nitidus, piceo-niger, fere glaber ; prothorace lati- 
tudine vix longiore, lateribus ad medium subrectis, inde cum apice 
subcirculare rotundatis, supra convexo, antice lineis tuberculorom 
concentricis exasperato, postice punctis discretis fortibus, in medio 
BubtiUoribus notato ; elytris ad apicem oblique declivibus, non 
impressis, lineato>punctatis, punctis post medium obsoletis, inter- 
stitiis subrugosis absque punctis. Long. 1*2 mm. 

One example, Chiuzenji. 

Oblong, piceous-black, with a few hairs on elytra and sides of 
thorax. Head reticulate, front strongly punctured, scantily hairy ; 
eyes oval, scarcely visibly emarginate ; antennie testaceous, funi- 
culus 4- jointed, club orbicular oval with weak curved sutures, 
pubescent at apex. Prothorax little longer than broad, base 
truncate, finely margined, basal angles obtuse but distinct, margined, 
sides straight, slightly narrowed towards middle, then subcircularly 
rounded, apex slightly flatter ; its anterior half with about six 
concentric rows of fused tubercles, forming a series of raised lines 
somewhat as in Cryphalus tilitey the anterior row occupying the 
apical margin when seen from above, posterior half with very 
scattered punctures, strong at sides, smaller and somewhat as- 
perate on middle Scutellum triangular, shining. Elytra rather 

Digitized by 


Ehynchophorous Coleopiera of Japan, 89 

narrower than prothorax, and half as long again ; hase truncate, 
its angles obtuse, sides weakly rounded to middle and subdilated, 
thence more strongly rounded to apex; surface with rows of 
rather small punctures, separately impressed and not striate, 
becoming weaker from base and nearly obsolete on declivity ; 
interstices slightly rugose, with one or two punctures at base ; apex 
obliquely declivous, conyex aod not impressed, with traces of one 
or two asymmetrical tubercles near suture. Underside piceous, 
leantily pubescent. Legs infuscate. 

This insect agrees with E. imitans in its antennal 
structure, but is separable by the absence of distinct 
pubescence and the sparseness of the punctures on the 
ninder half of the thorax. The entire absence of any 
thoracic constriction and the antennal structure will 
distinguish it from the Pityophthori. 

ToMicus, Latr. (1807). 

The Japanese fauna appears to be poor in this genus ; 
perhaps other species remain to be discovered. 

Tomicus cemhrae, Heer. 

Bosiriehus cembrae, Heer, Obs. Ent. 1336, p. 28. 

A series taken from larch on Fnjisan. 

The specimens show no essential difference from 
Earopean examples. Like the Japanese Myelophilus 
piniperda, they run very large, averaging 5*5 mm. The 
interstitial punctures of the elytra are very weak, but 
traceable. T. cemhrae is recorded from Siberia and 
Amnrland and no doubt occurs over the whole of N. 
Asia; in Europe it is con6ned to Pinus cembra, which 
is found in Japan, at least, a3 the variety pumilus. 
I cannot find any Japanese specimens which correspond 
with Motscbulsky's T. mibelongatus. 

Tomicus angidatns, Eichh. 
Eichh., Scol. Jap., p. 2C0; Rat. Tom., p. 258. 
Taken commonly in several localities from fir {Pinics 
mofiomana) ; Nagasaki, Fujisan, Nikko. 


Antennarum funiculus 5-articulatus, articulis 2—5 latitudine 
creeeentibiis, clara oralis, compressa, suturis fere obsoletis fort iter 

Digitized by 


90 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

cnnratis articulo lo OTali, ccteru Innatis. Prostemom prooessa naDo. 
Epifltema metathoracica linearia. Tibiap antics ad apioem dilatats, 
spinooB. Cotpas cylindricam, elytris ad apicem retosisy ambita 
retosionis fortiter malti-spinato, stria suturali yix impressa. 

Closely allied to Tomicus bat differing in the much 
stronger elytral armature, which in Tomicus exhibits a 
uniformly progressive diminution^ as the species grow 
smaller^ down to the genus or subgenus Pityogenes^ 
Bedel. The antennal club is oval, its sutures are quite 
superficial and only marked by a pubescent border, the 
first joint is long^itadinally oval and embraced at the sides 
by the succeeding joint, as in Xylocleptes, Ferrari, with 
which*the elytral structure has no affinity. The mouth 
parts do not differ from these of Tomicus, the maxilla is 
simply sinuate internally, and not produced into a 
rounded angle, but this angle is wanting in Piiyogenes 
and is not a generic character. 

Acanthoiomiciis spinosus, sp. n. 

Oblongus, cylindricus, nitidus, ferrugineo-testaceas, elytris ad 
apicem infuacatis, pilia longis paroe adspersus ; prothorace antice 
constricto, ad mediam subgibboso et utiinqne impresso, anteriua 
exasperato, poaterius snbtiliter panctolato ; elytris prothorace 
dimidio longioribns, punctato-striatis, ponctis ad basin sabtihbas, 
versus apicem dilatatis, ad apicem abmpte dedivibos, utrinqae 
8-spinati8, spinola 3a maxima, elongata, 5a — 7a minimis, 8a prope 
angulnm suturalem magna, intns carvata. Long. 2'5 mm. 

Two specimens taken at Oyayama and Nikko. 

Oblong, cylindrical, reddish-testaceous, with apex of elytra in- 
fuscate. Head with front subconvex, punctured, iirith a median 
raised line, thinly pubescent ; eyes broad oval, slightly emarginate. 
Prothorax longer than broad, its base truncate, basal angles obtuse, 
sides almost parallel to middle, then constricted and strongly 
rounded to apex, which is somewhat more obtuse, with a crenate 
margin; disc gibbous in middle and impressed on either side, 
asperate anteriorly behind with fine scattered punctures without a 
median impunctate or elevated line. Scutellum small; rounded, 
elytra half as long again as prothorax, their base truncate, 
sides subparallel, with lines of punctures, fine at base, becoming 
stronger, dilated and transversely rugose towards apex, the striae 
appearing impressed towards apex in a certain light only, interstices 

Digitized by 


EhynrJiophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 91 

sligfailj coDTex, very finely and sparingly punctured in rows ; apex 
neady vertically decliyous, margined with 16 spines at the apex of 
the 2nd and succeeding interstices, the 1st two short, 3rd very long, 
conred, 4th and 5th rather shorter, 6th and 7th small, 8th pair 
litoated cloee to apex of sutnre, curred inwards and as long as 
fourth. Impressed surface rather doll, irregular, strongly punctured, 
with sutnre elevated. Underside testaceous, glabrous. Antennas 
and legs testaceous. 

The following specimen is probably the female of the 
preceding insect^ but I cannot be positive. 

Acantliotomicus »pino8Xis, ? femina, 

Antecedenti differt fronte plana utrinque densissime aureo- 
rillosa, prothorace paullo longiore, minus constricto, margine 
aatioo fortius rotundato, hand crenato, dense villoso ; elytris pro 
portJooe elongatis, prothorace duplo fere longioribus, punctis 
strianim paullo f ortioribus et magis conf ertis, ad apicem singulatim 
\ff«Titer 6-8pino8i8, infra prope angulum suturalem in lobum 
hnrem 4-tuberculatum productis ; f undo retusionis punctis mi- 
Doiibos, conf ertis, et spinula intra spinam tertiam marginalem 
posita utrinque omato. Long. 3 mm. 

One example taken at Kasbiwagi. 

la the dense villosity of the head and prothorax, and 
the reduction in size of the apical spines of the elytra, 
its characters may be considered as simply sexual. But 
the greater length of the elytra and the closer and 
stronger panctnation of the striaSi the sutnral stria being 
impresRed at the apex^ together with the presence of a 
spine on the apical declivity internal to the <3rd marginal 
spine, prevent my identifying it positively as the female. 
The apical spines are all short, the 3rd and oth being 
the most prominent ; the lower border is produced on 
either side just outside the snture, into a short transverse 
lobe, which is evidently 4-tuberculate and represents the 
three inferior spines fused. 

DryoC(ETE8, Eichh. 

This genus, in which I include EichhoflPs Taphrorychm 
ffpatoides and two allied epecies, is represented by eight 
species, of which six are new. 

Digitized by 


92 Mr. Walter F. H. Bliuidford on the 

Table op Species. 

1. Prothoraxgradaally and aniformly rounded from base to apex 2 

cyliodrical at base with apex obliquely declivous 
(TaphrorychuSyBiehh.) 6 

2. Apex of elytra retuse, impressed or flattened (sire 2-5—4 mm) 3 

conyex (size under 2*5 mm.) 5 

3. Front of head not carinate 4 

with a sharp longitudinal carina . . . ajffinis. 

4. Striae of elytrafinely and uniformly punctured, autograpkus, Ratz. 

coarsely punctured, punctures dilated behind 
base pilofus. 

5. Elytra with strongly punctured striae luteuM. 

rows of feeble puncture* nubilut. 

6. Prothorax rounded at apex moestus. 

subquadrate, the apex obtuse, forming an angle 
with sides 7 

7. Interstices of elytra not elevated towards apex . dinoderoides, 

sub-costate towards apex, apatoides, Eichh. 

Dryoccetes auiographuSy Batz. 

Katz.^ Forst. Ins., i., p. 160. 

Eicbh., Berl. Ent Zeit, 1864, p. 89 ; Bat. Tom., p. 28 1. 

Two examples, ChiuzoDJi. 

The elytra are almost hairless in these specimens and 
very evidently retuse at apex, with the interstitial 
punctures almost obsolete ; but they are quite like 
German specimens in my collection. The species, which 
extends throughout N. Asia and the colder parts of N. 
America, is of variable form. 

Dryocoetes pilosus, sp. n. 
Oblongus, subnitidus, longe pilosus, piceo-niger, antennis 
pedibusque f errugineis, fronte plana baud carinata ; prothorace 
dense granulato exasperato ; elytris prothorace dimidio longioribus, 
transverse rugosis, fortiter pnnctato-striatis, punctis postice 
subtilioribus, stria suturali subimpressa, interstitiis subtiliter 
uniseriatim punctatis, apice retuso impresso, striis fere obso- 
letis, pilis longis circumdato. Long. 3 mm. 

One example, Nikko. 

Oblong, pitchy-black, head with front flat, dull, finely punctured, 
and with a faint transverse impression at sides, with long scattered 
hairs, mouth fringed. Prothorax a trifle broader than long, base 

Digitized by 


Bhjnehophoroua Coleopiera of Japan. 93 

trancate, hnmeral angles obtusely rounded, sides and apex rounded 
in % broad ellipse ; surface very convex, with uniform scattered 
gnnoktions, their interspaces shining, fringed at margins with 
kmg scanty hairs. Scutellum small, rounded, convex, shining. 
Elytra narrower than greatest width of thorax, and half as long 
tgun ; base tmncate, humeral angles obtusely rounded, shoulders 
nrrowly raised, sides subsinuate, slightly dilated behind and 
ttrosgly rounded at apex ; surface subcylindrical, depressed before 
middle, dilated posteriorly and strongly declivous at apex, with 
rows of strong punctures, the punctures dilated on middle third and 
then becoming finer, sutnral stria slightly impressed, interstices sub- 
oonrex, transversely rugose, with a single series of fine setigerous 
panctores; apical declivity convex, impressed on either side of 
ntore, shining, with strise obsolescent ; elytra set with long hairs, 
dott at sides and at margins of apical declivity, hairs of declivity 
itttlf shorter. Underside piceous, punctured ; abdomen with long 
pabescence. Legs ferruginous. 

Beadily distinguished by the long pubescence, the 
absence of a frontal carina, the strong punctuation of 
the elytral strise, and the punctured interstices. 

Dryoccetes affinis, sp, n. 
OUoDgos, niger, subnitidus, pilosus ; f route carinata ; prothorace 
viilongiore qnam latiore, granulate exasperate, postice paullo subti- 
biu ; elytris prothorace minus quam sesqui longioribus, cylindricis, 
tpice obliqoe declivi subretuso, subtiliter lineato-punctatis, stria 
iQiurali impressa, interstitiis subrugosLs seriatim pilosis. Long. 

A siDgle example, Oyayama. 

Black, elytra with a piceous tinge. Head with front impressed 
*nd longitudinally carinate, coarsely punctured and thinly hairy, 
ciliate over middle of mouth. Pro thorax a little longer than 
orotd, truncate at base with angles obtuse, sides feebly rounded 
behind ind very slightly dilated to posterior third, strongly and 
uniformly rounded in front to apex, the margin of which is 
tobercnlaie; surface uniformly convex, asperate, rather more finely 
it bsse, with scattered hairs. Scutellum small, rounded, shining, 
finely bordered. Elytra rather wider than base of prothorax and 
tbont one-fourth longer, truncate at base with shoulders narrowly 
derated, homeral angles rounded rectangular, sides rounded and 
•WMwhat narrowed at posterior fourth, then rather abruptly 
fiexed, ind nearly straight at apex, which is not conjointly 

Digitized by 


94 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

rounded; Bnrface subcylindrical, obliquely declivous behind, with 
rows of shallow punctures, their interspaces rugose, sutural stria 
alone slightly impressed, interstices rather narrow with series of 
setigerons tubercles ; apex flattened, shining, impressed on either 
side of suture with the stri» continued on it; first interstice 
widened. Underside piceous-black, nearly glabrous, first abdo- 
minal segment impunctate in middle, succeeding segments with 
a few very coarse punctures. Legs piceous, anterior tibias 
rounded, with six or seven outwardly directed spines on outer 
margin, and a curved one at inner angle of apex ; middle tibise 
with a close series of six forwardly directed spines at apex. 

In sculpture this insect is exactly like the one I have 
identified as Coccotnjpes grmiiceps, Eichh. (j.r.), bat 
may be distinguished by its cylindrical shape and the 
structure of the tibiae. 

Dnjoca^tea liiteus, sp. n. 
Oblongus, subnitidus, flavo-testaceus, parce et breviter pilosus ; 
prothorace oUongo, lateribus postice subparallolis, antice fortiter 
rotundatis, anterius subtiliter exasperato, posterius dense punctato; 
elytris profunde striato-puuctatis, stria suturali impressa, inter- 
stitiis subtiliter uniseriatim punctatis in declivitate tuberculatis. 
Long. 2 mm. 

Fem. Fronte densius pilosa. 

Nine specimens, without locality indicated. 

Bright yellow- testaceous, with short scanty pubescence on sides 
of thorax and apex only of elytra. Head strongly punctured, 
with front convex, scantily hairy in male, and ciliate over mouth ; 
in female^ with a circular tuft of yellow pubescence. Eyes broad 
oval, coarsely granulate, and emarginate anteriorly. Antennas 
testaceous with sutures slightly curved. Prothorax longer than 
broad, with base truncate, its angles obtuse, sides nearly parallel 
to middle, thence strongly rounded to apex ; above moderately 
convex, not gibbous, with close punctures, simple at base, and as- 
perate over anterior two-thirds. Scutellum rounded, shining. Elytra 
as wide as prothorax and one-half longer, base truncate, humeral 
angles rectangular, sides parallel to apex, then abruptly flexed, 
their apical margin being almost transverse when seen from above ; 

^ It would appear that in the Tom hi the possession of a villous 
front is a mark of the female sex, see Eichh., Eur. Bork., p. 203. It 
is not so in the genus Scolf/twf, and others. 

Digitized by 


Ehynchophorou^ Coleoptera of Japan. 95 

lorfaoe cylindrical, nearly vertically declivous at apex, but convex, 
vith regular impressed rows of strong punctures dilated after the 
btse, sntaral stria more deeply impressed and widened behind, 
intentioes flat with a single row of fine pnuctures, replaced by 
small setigerons tubercles on declivity. Underside and legs 
testaoeoos, the former scantily punctured and pubescent. 

Similar to immatare examples of D. villoaus, Fabr., 
bat twice as small^ with the prothorax not asperate 
behind^ with scantier pabescencej and the elytra! in- 
terstices more distinctly defined. 

Dryococtes nuhUiis, sp. n. 
Oblongus, subnitidus, parce longius pilosus, piceo-niger, an- 
tennis pedibusque testaceis ; prothorace oblongo-ovali anterius 
rugulii transversis exasperato, posterius subnitido, rugulose puno- 
Uto; elytrts ad apioem oblique declivibus, subtiliter lineato- 
ponctatisy stria suturali non ant vix impressa, interstitiis post 
mcdiom uniseriatim pilosis. Long. 1*7—2*2 mm. 

Ten specimeDS^ I^igaj Sayama. 

Obbng, lighter, or darker piceous-brown. Front of head 
Mutily punctured, weakly impressed at sides, and with a median 
rabdeTated longitudinal line, its pubescence long and thin, mouth 
cOiate ; antennas testaceous, with sutures of club straight. Pro- 
thorax a little longer than broad, its base truncate, basal angles 
obtusely rounded, sides rounded, slightly behind, more strongly 
towards apex ; surface somewhat depressed, asperate in front with 
eoocentric lines of transverse tubercles, becoming weaker behind 
and replaced at base by rugose punctures, except over an indistinct 
BeJian smooth line; sides and apex with long scanty hairs. Soutel- 
lom rather large, rounded, shining. Elytra rather wider than 
prothorax at base, and one half longer, truncate at base, with 
■boaldera nearly rectangular, sides parallel to near apex, then 
gradually rounded ; apex not obtuse ; surfeu^ cylindrical, obliquely 
and convexly declivous for posterior third, with rows of fine 
ponctures, the sutural stria alone with a trace of impression in 
•ome specimens ; interstices subrugose, with a single row of finer 
letigerous punctures, the setie becoming longer and more con- 
spicuous towards apex. Underside testaceous-brown, nearly 
glalrous and impunctate. Legs reddish testaceous. 

IKstiDgnishable from I), aim, Georg., by its smaller 
size, the weaker punctuation of the base of the thorax and 
elytra, and the absence of the lateral impressions and 

Digitized by 


98 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

elevated suture of the apical declivity. I can see no 
sexual characters, bat one example is more elongate, 
with the thorax more distinctly narrowed behind, and the 
median line subelevated. No specimens measure less 
than 2 mm., except one, which is very small (1*7 mm.), 
with the head finely punctured, and without long 
pubescence. It may be distinct, but I can find no 
characters by which it may be separated. 

The three following species difier somewhat in fades 
from Dryoccttes proper, but it is not possible to construct 
a new genus for them without dissection, for which more 
material is required. They can be distinguished by the 
shape of the prothorax, v?hich is not uniformly curved 
from base to apex, but is cylindrical at base and 
declivous anteriorly, so as to form an obtuse median 
elevatioD. Its anterior half is markedly scabrous, while 
the hinder part is smooth ; but a uniform sculpture of the 
prothorax does not occur in all the species of Dryoccetes. 
Eichboff described one originally as a Dn/occctes, but 
afterwards included it, doubtfully, in the genus Taphro- 
rychus. I cannot, however, see adequate grounds for 
this, and prefer to keep it at present in Dryocoetes, with 
which the other two species form a connecting link. 

Dryocwtes moestus, sp. n. 

Oblongus, cylindricus, subnitidus, pilosus, nigcr, antennis pedi- 
buBque testaceis ; prothorace aeque lato quam longo, apice rotnn- 
dato, tube^olato, supra transverse sabgibboso, antice exasperato, 
postice rugose punctato, linea media obsolete elevata ; elytris 
lineato-punctatis, stria suturali subimpressa, interstitiis uniseriatim 
subtiliter punciatis et pilosis, ad apicem fortiter declivibus, 
decliviiate deplanata, nltida, ad suturam utriuque impressa. Long. 
2*6 mm. 

A single specimen, Nikko. 

Black, cylindrical ; head with front convex, thinly pubescent, 
punctured, with an indistinct elevated longitudinal line ; antennaa 
testaceous, club with sutures curved, pilose, basal joint shining, 
equal in length to succeeding joints, apical joint sensitive, pubes- 
cent. Prothorax with length and breadth equal, base truncate, 
basal angles nearly rectangular, sides feebly rounded to near apex, 
then abruptly and broadly rounded, apical margin tuberculate ; 
surface cylindric^il at base, declivous at apex, with an indistinct 

Digitized by 


Uhynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 97 

trtnsyerse elevation in middle and an impression behind it on 
either dde of a median longitudinal raised line, somewhat shining 
in middle of base only, anteriorly with transverse mgosities, strong 
near apex, and gradually replaced over base by rugose punctures ; 
pobescence short, rather dose. Scntellum triangular, shining. 
Elytra as wide as protborax and less than twice as long, base trun- 
cate, humeral angles rounded, sides subparallel to near apex, which is 
nther abruptly and obtusely rounded ; surface moderately shining, 
with rows of shallow punctures which appear impressed in certain 
lights only, sutural stria rather more strongly impressed, interstices 
lomewhat convex, subrugose, with a single row of fine setigerous 
ptmctares, the setae longer and conspicuous towards apex, which 
is strongly but not abruptly declivous, more shining and flaHened, 
with an impression on either side of the suture, its stris nearly 
obliterated, interstices finely tuberculate. Underside black, nearly 
impanctate, with thin pubescence. Legs reddish testaceous, 
anterior tibiaa straight, dilated and obliquely rounded at apex, with 
fire or six spines, besides a longer spine at inner angle ; middle and 
poiterior tibisB with outer border curved and serrate. 

Dryocoetes dinoderoides, sp. n. 

Oblongns, cylindricus, subnitidus, pilosus, niger, antennis pedi- 
bnaqne testaceis ; prothorace quadrato, apice fere truncato, supra 
eleTsto snbgibboso, antice exasperate, postice rugose punotato, 
Imea media laevi ; elytris lineato-punctatis, stria suturali quam 
minime impresso, interstitiis uniseriatim subtiliter punctatis et 
pflosis, apioe convexe declivi, hand impresso. Long. 2*5 nmi. 

One specimen, Ichiuchi. 

Very like the last species and probably the male ; but I 
cannot unite them withoat fnrtlier evidence. It differs in 
the prothorax, which is very obtusely convex at apex^ so 
as to present an evident angle between the sides and 
anterior margin, as in the next species ; the anterior 
border is not crenate, the tubercles are less numerous 
and stronger before the median elevation, and the base 
less closely punctured. The elytral striae do not appear 
impressed in any light, with the exception of the first, the 
apex is not flattened or impressed along the suture, and 
the pubescence is finer though equally dense. The head^ 
antennad, and legs are similar. 

These two preceding species are easily distinguished 
from 2). apatoides by the interstices not being costate 
towards the apex of the elytra. 

TBAN8. XKT. 80C. LOND. 1894. — PAST I. (hARCH.) 

Digitized by 


98 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on ihe 

Dryocaetcs apatoides, Eichh. 

Dryoccetes (?) apatoides, Eichh., Scol. Jap., p. 201. 
Taphrorychus (?) apatoides, Eichh., Eat. Tom., p. 209, 

No further example has occurred. 

The legs of this insect are piceoas-black, not ferru- 
ginous as described by Eichhoff. They are rather more 
slender than in the two last insects, and, therefore, 
more like those of a Taphrorychus, but there is no real 
difierence in their structure. If the two last species are 
sexes of the same, the form of the prothorax in this 
insect is probably sexual. 


The species of this genus are closely allied to 
Dryocoetes, Eichh., and though differing in the maxillary 
armature and in habits, are not always easily separable. 
The prosternal characters seem to me to be of little 
value, and the basal border of the prothorax, which is 
absent in Dryocoeies, is not always readily distin- 
guishable in this genus. They can be differentiated 
without dissection by their shape, which (in the 
Japanese species) is shorter and more ovate, and by the 
tibiae, which are distinctly truncate, and not grooved for 
the tarsi; whereas in Dryocoetes, the anterior tibise at 
least have the outer margin rounded to the inner angle 
of the apex, without abrupt change of direction, and are 

I add two species. 

Coccotrypes graniceps, Eichh. 

Eichh., Rat. Tom., p. 314. 

Dryocoetes graiiiceps, Lewis, Cat. Jap. Col. 

One example, Nagasaki ; also at Hiogo {von Schonfeldt). 

I have not seen the type, which is not in Mr. Lewis's 
collection, but the specimen corresponds absolutely to 
EichhotF's description, except that the whole surface is 
uniform pitchy-brown. Legs ferruginous, the anterior 
tibise with border simple for basal half, then with 
two outwardly directed spines, apex with two forwardly 
directed spines, besides spine at inner angle ; intermediate 
tibiao with three forwardly directed spines at apex. Punc- 
tuation of abdomen finer than in Dryoaetes affinis. 

Digitized by 


Rhynrhophoroics Coleoptera of Japan. 99 

Coccotrypes perditor, sp. n. 

Ovalis, sabnitidnsy ferruginous, pilosus ; prothorace baud trans* 
Teno, adapicem snbangustato, margine antico tuberculato, anteriua 
toberculis concentricis vix transversis, posterius longitudinalibus 
omato; elytris linoato-pun«tatis, punctis setis adpressis, inter* 
ititiifl setis longioribus ereotis ornatis. Long. 1*5 mm. 

Five specimens, in the neighbourhood of Nagasaki. 

Oral, convex, lighter or darker ferruginous-brown ; head 
panctared, with rather long pubescence at sides and over mouth ; 
front elevated at sides and impressed in middle, with a fine 
mediin raised line. Prothorax scarcely broader than long, semi- 
elliptical, narrowed towards apex, and not evidently contracted 
It base, which is truucate, with the posterior angles nearly 
rectangular, sides feebly rounded to middle, fhence gradually 
more strongly and subsinuate to apex, the margin of which is 
crenate, with a series of fine tubercles ; surface rather strongly and 
nniformly convex, moderately shining, with scattered small 
aspeiations forming indistinct concentric lines in front and longi- 
todinal elevations over the base. Scntellnm small, punctiform, 
piceous. Elytra a little wider than base of prothorax and one- 
fourth longer, truncate at base with humeral angles rectangular, 
ndes sabparallel and straight for basal third, then gradually 
roocded to apex ; above convex, and rounded from base to apex 
lith rows of shallow setigerous punctures, their setse short, 
iotentices narrow and flat, with a single series of less frequent 
fine aciculations bearing long erect setas. Legs ferruginous or 

Easily distinguished from C, graniceps by its much 
smaller size^ and the absence of an apical impression on 
the elytra. Allied to C. pygmceua, Eichh., and, therefore, 
to C. integer, Eichh., from Siam, which latter I have 
not seen. Shorter and more ovate than C. pygmceus: 
the thorax rounder at the sides, and more convex, 
more shining, with far fewer asperities. Elytra less 
than one-sixth longer than broad (in G. pygmceus they 
are at least one-third longer, and appear comparatively 
cylindrical) ; their striae more distinctly and sparsely 
panctured, and wider apart, the interspaces with fewer 
and Bmaller setigerous tubercles ; strise continued on to 
the apex and not obliterated, as in C integer. 

Digitized by 


100 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

Coccotrypes advena, sp. n. 

Oblongo-ovalig, nitidus, pilosa?, piceo-ferragineas, antennis pedi- 
bosque dilatioribas ; prothonioe antice coniracto, angalis posticis 
obtosis, lateribos rotundatis, apice nonoihil deplanato, mutico, 
supra minus oouvexo, punctis baud frequentibus aciculatis Dotato ; 
eljtris fortius lineato-pnnctatLs, punctis baud setigeris, interstitiis 
uniseriatim setoais. Long. 1*6 mm. 

One example near Nagasaki. 

Oblong oTal, ferruginous- brown, with long pubescence. Front 
coarsely punctured, flattened and impressed over mouth. Protbo- 
rax contracted in front, as long as broad, basal angles obtusely 
rounded and not applied to humeral angles of elytra, sides and 
apex separately and not strongly rounded ; surface only feebly 
convex, shining, with long hairs, arisiug from scattered aciculate 
punctures, which are weaker on the disc around an indistioct 
median impunctate line. Scutellum rounded, piceous, shining. 
Elytra wider than base of prothorax, and more than one-third 
longer, humeral angles subrectangular, sides parallel to middle, 
thence obliquely rounded to apex ; surface subcylindrical for basal 
third, then dilated and convexly declivous, with rows of punctures, 
fttrong and dilated at bane, weak and shallow, but not obsolete, 
towards apex, without seriate hairs, interstices with a single row 
of fine aciculations bearing erect setas. Legs ferruginous. 

Readily confounded with C. perditor, but more 
elongate; the prothorax much less convex, with 
the apex and sides not conjointly rounded, and the 
posterior angles obtuse and not applied to the elytra, 
not tuberculate, the punctures being scattered and 
only slightly elevated ; punctures of the elytral striae 
ranch stronger at base and without setae. The shape of 
the prothorax, which is hardly more convex than that 
of most Dryocoetes, and its sculpture will distinguish it 
from other species of Coccotnjpes. I have not been able 
to dissect it, but the generic characters, as far as observ- 
able, agree with this genus. 

Xtlbbobus, Eichh. 

This genus is very well represented in Japan by 29 
species, exclusive of three males, which I have described 

Digitized by 


Rhynctiophoroiis Coleoptera of Japan. 101 

separately, as there is nothing to show to what species 
they belong. This is more than one-fourth of the genus 
as at present known, but only a small proportion of the 
species existing in collections have been described. 
Eichhoff in his *'Katio Tomicinorum '' groups the species 
by the shape of the prothorax, and thereby obtains a 
satisfactory result. I have found his table of species 
easy to work with, but cannot adopt it for the Japanese 
fonns, as in certain species, e.g., X. validus, praevius, 
'^tm, the form of the prothorax is either ambiguous, 
and could be used to place the species in more than one 
of Eichhoff 's sections, or is of a shape that would dis- 
sociate the insect; from its allies. Some previous 
familiarity with the forms met with in the genus is 
necessary in order to locate these doubtful species. 
I have, therefore, in drawing up a table, laid less stress 
on this character, and have aimed simply at differentiating 
the species rather than arranging them in a natural 

Suence. The three species of males referred to are not 
iaded in it ; their characters will be found on page 119. 

Table of Species. 
J- Elytra confusedly punctured, not in evident rows .... 2 
with distinct rows of punctures 5 

2. Fonn elopgate, prothorax longer than broad, peZ/<ctt/o«««,Eichh. 

short, prothorax not longer than broad 3 

3. Elytra ibmptly truncate at apex, black. 4 

gradually declivous at apex, ferruginous, 

semi'OpacuBy Eichh. 
^- Prothorax with two tubercles in middle of apical margin, 


without tubercles on apical margin . 6rei<>, Eichh. 

'•• Prothorax entirely dull, uniformly and closely asperate . . 6 

with posterior half more or less shining, punctured 7 

^ hiterstices of elytra with irregular double rows of punctures, 


with single rows . . • ruhricolUs^ Eichh, 
'• Prothorax subglobose, not longer than broad, or subrect- 
angular with sides and apex separately 
rounded ; declivity usually carinate below . 8 
oblong, cylindrical, with apex strongly rounded ; 
if not longer than broad, declivity of 
elytra not carinate below 16 

Digitized by 


102 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

8. Declivity very oblique, beginningabruptly before middle of elytra, 

opaque and squamoos concism, 

not abrupt, nor squamous 9 

9. Interstices with irregular double rows of punctures . apicalh, 

with a single row of punctures 10 

10. Basal half of prothorax strongly punctured, covered with 

short erect hairs . atratus, Eichh. 
not strongly punctured, nor uni- 
formly hairy 11 

11. Base of prothorax with a patch of hair before scutellnm, 

species short, small 12 

glabrous, species larger, elongate . . .13 

12. flairs at apex of elytra arising from interstices only, germanus. 

from both striae and inter- 
stices . . compactu»^ Eichh. 

13. First interstice of elytra tuberculate at apex 14 

not tuberculate at apex, 

obliquecauday Motsch. 

14. Elytral striae not impressed at apex, tuberculation of 

interstices weak prcevius, 

impressed, tuberculation of interstices strong 15 

15. Prothorax narrowed towards apex .... validus, Eichh. 

uniformly rounded at sides, not narrowed, aquilus. 

1 6. Apical border of elytra rounded, declivity not excavate . . 17 

truncate or emarginatc, declivity 
sulcate or concave 25 

17. Declivity of elytra sharply carinate below 18 

obtusely margined, not carinate ... 20 

18. Prothorax scarcely broader than long, elevated in middle 

of surf ace, distinctly punctured at hKSQ,festivu8f Eichh. 
Prothorax at least one-half broader than long, elevated 

t>efore middle, base feebly punctured 19 

19. Entirely piceous black, apex of elytra abruptly declivous, 

glabratuSf Eichh. 
Prothorax ferruginous, elytra inf uscate, gradually declivous 

at apex bicolor, 

20. Body narrowed behind from front of prothorax, 

attenuattii and sohrinus, Eichh. 
cylindrical 21 

21. All interstices with traces of tuberculation on apical declivity 22 
First and third interstices tuberculate on declivity, second 

unarmed 23 

Digitized by 


Rhynchophorous Coleopiera of Japan, 103 

All interstices taberculate above declivity, which is im- 
pressed and anarmed (length less than 2 mnu), minutns, 

22. Prothorax as broad as long, elytra with alternate series of 

longer and shorter hairs seriatus. 

longer than broad, hairs of elytra uniform, muticus, 

23. PiceoQS with thorax sometimes lighter adumhratus. 

Fermginoos or testaceous 24 

24. Elytra rather strongly striato-punctate . . . hadius^ Eichh. 

finely punctured in rows vicarim, Eichh. 

20. Declivity with a narrow sulcate impression along suture, 
each lateral margin with four or five small 

tubercles schavfussi, 

widely impressed, each lateral margin with two 

strong spines 26 

2$. Ferruginous brown, apical depression nearly vertical, feebly 

emarginate below defensm. 

Black, apical depression very oblique, strongly emarginate 

below exesus. 

Xyleborus mutilatus, sp. n, 
Fev. Curta, subnitida, f usco-pilosa, nigra, antennis pedibusque 
ferrngineis ; prothorace magoo globoso, lateribus leniter, apice 
fortitcr rotundato et tuberculis duobus omato, supra in medio 
wansrerse elevato et postice utrinque impresso, anterius exasperate, 
poeterins dense punctato, supra scutellam hirto ; elytris prothorace 
brerioribos, a basi fere oblique et abrupte declivibus, supra irregu- 
Uriter punctatis, declivitate striata, interstitiis granulatis, lateribus 
^ ^>ice infra marginatis. Long. 3 '5 mm. 

One example, without locality. 

Black, with the base of the elytra alone shining, covered with 
fine erect fuscous hairs. Head large, prominent, finely reticulate, 
front convex, punctured, and hairy ; mouth ciliate with yellow 
pabesccnce ; eyes small, flat, finely emarginate ; antennae ferruginous, 
dob round, basal joint large, shining, reaching nearly to apex of 
clab. Prothorax a little longer khan broad, its base bisinuate, 
produced behind, basal angles nearly rectangular, sides straight 
wd sabparallel behind, becoming more rounded in front with apex 
broadly convex, apical margin bisinuate, slightly produced in 
middle and armed with two prominent tubercles ; surface very 
WDTex, cylindrical at base, with an obtuse transverse elevation in 
"middle, in front of which it is declivous to apex, anteriorly 
Kparate and pilose, posteriorly densely punctured except over 

Digitized by 


104 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

two shining lateral impressions, with thin pubescence at sides and 
a dense patch before scatellum, which is large, shining, and 
rounded. Elytra as wide but not as long as pro thorax, basal 
borders feebly convex, shoulders narrowly elevated ; at first 
cylindrical, then obliquely declivous from basal fourth to apex, 
shining and irregularly punctured, the punctures rugose and con- 
fluent along basal margin ; apical declivity rounded oval with a 
sharp raised margin to sides and lower border, its surface subconvex, 
pilose, with impunctate striae, interstices closely granulate ; lateral 
border of elytra declivous, parallel throughout to margin of apical 
declivity. Uudeniide black, thinly pubescent, anterior coxro 
separated by a narrow prostemal process. Legs ferruginou?, 
tibis strongly dilated and obsoletely spined ; tarsi short, their first 
three joints compressed, and pilose beneath. 

The most extreme type of the truncate Xyleborl I have 
seen^ and a remarkable io stance of the divei'sity of form 
which the genus presents. 

Xylehorus brevis, Eichh. 

Eichh., Rat. Tom., p. 319. 

Four examples, Nikko; originally taken at Hagi by 
Hiller. Identified by the description. 

Xylehorus lewisi, sp. n. 

Fem. Oblonga, cylindrico-convexa, pilosa, rubra elytris infus- 
catis ; prothorace subgloboso, apice tamen deplanato, supra sub- 
aequaliter convexo, opaco, antice fortiter postice pauUo subtilius 
asperato ; elytris subnitidis, striato-punctatis, interstitiis subtiliter 
biseriatim punctatis in declivitate tuberculatis, apice oblique declivi 
ad suturam impresso. Long. 4*5 mm. 

Nikko, Hakono, Miyanoshita, nine specimens. 

Oblong, convex, and cylindrical, pilose with long hairs, red with 
elytra infuscate. Head coarsely and rugosely punctured, with an 
indistinct elevated median line, thinly hairy and ciliate over 
mouth. Prothorax transverse, nearly globose, but with sides and 
apex separately rounded and an tero -lateral angles more strongly 
rounded, base subsinuate with obtusely rounded angles ; above gib- 
bous and convex, but without median elevation, dull and entirely 
scabrous, the asperities a little weaker posteriorly. Scutellum 
rounded, shining, infuscate, anteriorly impressed. Elytra as wide as 
base of prothorax and more than one-half longer, truncate at base, 

Digitized by 


Bhijnnhophorous Coleopfera of Japan, 105 

vitb homeral angles rounded-rectangular, sides straight but sub- 
direr^nt to apex, which is rather abruptly and broadly rounded 
ind inconspicnonsly carinate below ; surface very convex with 
■ctroely impressed irregular striaj of large shallow punctures and 
l«g coarse pabescence, especially at apex, interstices finely 
paDctnred in irregular double rows, declivity very convex, with 
first intemice widened, impressed and finely tuberculate, the second 
very strongly, the rest less strongly tuberculate. 

The largest Japanese species of the genus ; very like 
X. rubrirollin, Eichh., in colour and in the completely 
asperate prothorax, but very much larger, and with the 
elytral interstices punctured in double instead of single 
rows. The prothorax is flattened in front, a feature not 
found in other species with a short subglobose prothorax. 

Xyleborus nibricollis, Eichh. 
Eichh., Scol. Jap., p. 202 ; Rat. Tom., p. 330. 
No farther examples taken. 

Xyleborus apicalis^ sp. n. 

Fem. Oblonga, subnitida, longius pilosa, piceo-nigra, an tennis 
pcdibnaqae fermgineo-testaceis ; prothorace orbiculato, transverso, 
""'^[ine intico tnberculato, disco transverse elevate, postice sub- 
^ter ponctato, margine basali hirto ; elytris prothorace sesqui 
Jooporibus, liueato-punctatis, interstitiis irregulariter punctatis, 
•^^^Jfl*! *d apicem convexe declivibus, praeter suturam impressis, 
intertitio 2o in summa declivitate obtuse spinato, 3o elevato, 
tobercoltto. Long. 3 mm. 

One specimen, without locality. 

Oblong, pitchy black with antennae and legs reddish testaceous. 
Head finely reticulate, front with scattered strong punctures, thinly 
™7» month ciliate. Prothorax transverse, truncate at base, basal 
*3gl€« obtusely rounded, sides and apex rounded, the latter more 
•^n^y and tuberculate ; surface with a median transverse 
elention, anteriorly exasperate, posteriorly with fine scattered 
zeolite punctures, with long pubescence scattered at sides and 
*P«x, denser along basal margin. Scutellum triangular, piceous. 
^ytn rather narrower at base than greatest width of prothorax, 
w one-half longer, humeral angles obtuse, sides rounded from 
"Middle to apex, which is somewhat obtuse ; surface cylindrical at 
"•■e, with roirs of punctures, very fine at base becoming strong 

Digitized by 


106 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on ike 

abont middle, interstices with an irregular series, nsnallj double, 
of finer setigerous punctures, apical declivity convex, strong but 
not abrupt, not acutely carinate below, impressed on either side of 
suture and margined by the elevated and finely tuberculate 3rd 
interstice, 2nd interstice with a short obtuse spine at upper angle 
of declivity, hairs long, especially towards apex. 

Not unlike X. atratus, Eichh., but distinguished by 
the prothorax being finely punctured behind, the elytral 
interstices being biseriately punctured, and the tubercle 
on the third. Separable by the structure of the pro- 
thorax fi:om Dryocoetes pilosus and affinis. 

Xyleborus atratusy Eichh. 
Eichh., Scol. Jap., p. 201 ; Rat. Tom., p. 324. 
A few more specimens taken at Kiga and Nagasaki. 

Xyleborus germanus, sp. n. 
Fem. Breviter cylindrica, nitida, picea, antennis pedibusque 
testaceis ; prothorace subgloboso, convexo, indistincte transverse 
elevato, anterius exasperato, posterius subtiliter punctulato, nuu-gine 
basali medio piloso ; elytris prothorace sesqui fere longioribus, ad 
apicem oblique declivibus et infra carinatis, subtiliter striato- 
punctatis, interstitiis rarius uniseriatim punctatis in declivitate 
seriatim pilosis. Long. 2 — 2*3 mm. 

Apparently common ; sixteen specimens altogether 
have been taken at various places, two or three at most 
from each. 

Ojayama, Nikko, Subashiri, Kiga, Miyanoshita. 

Short, cylindrical, piceous, shining. Head finely reticulate, with 
front convex, scantily punctured, mouth ciliate ; eyes flat, oblong, 
deeply emarginate. Prothorax as long as broad, base truncate, 
basal angles rounded, sides scarcely rounded behind, broadly in 
front ; surface convex with an obtuse median transverse elevation, 
auteriorly with concentric rows of exasperations, strong over apex, 
posteriorly shining with scattered fine punctures, pubescence short 
and sparse, except at apex and in middle of basal margin. 
Scutellum large, subtriangular, shining. Elytra as wide as thorax, 
and nearly twice as long ; humeral angles obtusely rounded, sides 
subparallel to apex, which is abruptly and broadly rounded and 
carinate below ; surface convex, somewhat rounded from base to 
middle, then obliquely but not abruptly declivous, piceous- brown. 

Digitized by 


Rhijnchophorous Coleoptera of Japan, 107 

with fine rows of panctures which appear impressed in certain 
light*, interstices ratiier wide, flattish, each with a row of very fine 
poDctnres, and behind middle with erect setaa arising from slight 
tubercles. Underside brown, punctured, pubescent. Legs tes- 

Closely allied to X, compactus, Eichh., but twice as 
large, with distract though feebly impressed elytrai Htria3 
and regular rows of hairs on the apical declivity, which 
ire confined to the interstices. 

Xyleborus compa cites , Eichh. 

Eicih., Scol. Jap., p. 201 ; Bat. Tom., p. 328. 

No further examples taken. The hairs are shorter 
and more depressed at the apex of the elytra than in the 
|a8t species, and arise from the strias as well aa from the 

Xylehorus semUopax^us, Eichh. 

Eichh., Rat. Tom., p. 330. 

Fire specimens, Konose, Kioto, Chiuzenji; also at 
HoDg-Kong in China {/. /. Walker). 

The type is not in Mr. Lewis's collection, but the 
species is unmistakable. In certain lights rows of 
panctores can be seen on the elytra, but they are not at 
aD clear, and cannot be confounded with the distinct 
lines occurring in most of the genus. 

Xylehorus concisxis, sp. n. 
ObloDgos, nitidus, ferrugineus, prothorace et elytris ad apices 
infuscatis, breviter ac parce pilosos ; prothorace transverso lateribus 
leoitcr, ipice fortius rotnndato et crenato, supra in medio obtuse 
ttiMTene eleyato, post ice discrete punctato ; elytris latitudine a 
wi cresoentibus, lateribus rectis, apice rotnndato, striato-punctatis, 
wt«^tii8 subtilius uniseriatim punctatis, declivitate valde obliqua, 
wte mediam incipiente, subconyeza, squamis obtecta, striata, 
hong. 2-4 mm. 

One example, without locality. 

Oblong, ferruginous, with apex of prothorax and elytra slightly 
'«rfo9cate. Head piceous, finely reticulate, front subconvex, sparsely 
™ strongly punctured towards sides and scantily pubescent, with a 
^'^nsTerse impression over mouth, above which is a somewhat 

Digitized by 


108 Mr, Walter P. H. Blandford on the 

tnberculate eleyation. Antennae testaceoos. Prothorax transverse, 
not narrowed towards apex; base truncate, posterior angles rounded, 
sides and apex rounded, the former very feebly, the latter more 
strongly, with margin crenate ; surface with an obtuse Unnsverse 
elevation in middle, rather finely asperate anteriorly, posteriorly 
with distinct scattered punctuation. Scutellnm triangular, shiniog. 
Elytra rather less than twice as long as prothorax, and as wide at 
base, which is truncate, with the humeral angles nearly rectangular, 
sides straight but divergent to apex, which is circularly rounded 
and narrowly emarginate at suture ; surface at base cylindrical and 
longitudinally convex, striato-punctate, interstices flat, with a single 
row of very fine punctures, apical declivity sharply marked, very 
oblique, beginning before middle of elytra, dull and clothed with 
cinereous scales, subconvex, impressed along inferior margin which 
is acute, striate, the interstices fiat. Underside testaceous, thinly 
pubescent. Legs testaceous, the anterior tibis obliquely tnmcate 
and uncinate at apex, middle and posterior tibise rounded. 

This species corresponds closely to Eichhoflfs de- 
scription of X. sordicatida, Motsch., from which it diflfers 
in no important respect except in size. X. sordicauda is 
said to be twice as large as X semi'Opacus, Eichh., 
whereas this specimen is rather smaller. 

Minor points of diflFerence from the description of 
X. sordicauda are found in the prothorax, which is not 
contracted anteriorly, and in the elytra being dilated 
posteriorly, with the apical margin more strongly rounded. 
I conclude that it is distinct, and that we have an instance 
of what is common in the genus, a well-marked form 
represented by more than one species. It may easily be 
separated from X. semi^apacus by the punctured striae 
of the elytra. 

Xyleborus validus, Eichh. 
Eichh., Scol. Jap., p. 202 ; Rat. Tom., p. 358. 

Taken in greater numbers than any other species; 
extending from Sapporo and Junsai in Yezo, to 
Nagasaki and Oyayama in Kiushiu, also at Nikko, 
Miyanoshita, etc. As there is a closely allied and hardly 
distinguishable species from Ceylon, it represents an 
Oriental rather than a PaleDarcticj type. It is found 
in firs. 

Digitized by 


Bhynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 109 

Xyleborus obliquecauda, Motsch. 

PkhBotrogus ohliquecauda, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, 1863, 
u, p. 513. 
Xj/khorus carinipennuf, Eichh., Berl. Zeit. 1868, p. 152. 
X obliquecauda, Eichh., Bat. Tom., p. 351. 

One specimen, near Yokohama, Oct. 7th, 1881. It 
•ppc«r8 to mo identical with examples taken by Mr. 
Levis in Ceylon, and corresponding to Eichhoff's descrip- 
tion of J. ofc/tgw^mMrf^t. The prothorax is a trifle more 
depressed, and the elytral strise more regular and not 
at all impressed ; but there is no more variation than might 
^expected between specimens from distant localities. 

Xylehorus aquilus, sp. n. 
Fem. ObloDga elongata, nitida, brcviter piloaa, ferrugineo- 
picea, tntennis pedibusque ferrugioeis ; prothonice subquadrato, 
atmbus et apice singulatim leniter rotundatis, ia medio transverse 
gibbojo, postioe subtiliter disperse punctate ; elytris ad apiccm 
oUiqne declivibus, infra subtiliter carinatis, leniter striato- 
pnncUtia, gtriia in declivitate impressis, interstitiis plants uni- 
xnitim setcsis, in declivitate convexis, tuberculatis. Long. 32 — 
3' J nun 

Six examples taken at Oyayama and Hitoyoshi in 
Kushio, one near Kashiwagi. 

Somewhat similar to X. eurt/graphun, Ralz, but narrower and less 
**0T«x, with the prothorax shorter and less evidently quadrate, 
^^Ijtiil itris much finer, and the interstices convex at apex, 
■we finely and evenly tuberculate. Ferruginous - brown or 
P*««oui; head dull, front punctured, thinly pubescent, with an 
*>bioJete median raised line. Prothorax a Utcle longer than broad, 
^fiutcite at base, with posterior angles obtusely rounded, sides and 
^x tepirately slightly rounded, antero-lateral angles more 
'^'^Ij ; surface gibbous in middle, the elevation transverse but 
*bort, its anterior half rather finely asperate, the posterior half 
■filing, scantily and finely punctured. Scutellum small, triangular, 
"tuning. Elytra slightly narrower than prothorax at its widest 
pirt tad about one-half longer, humeral angles rounded rect- 
^ogolsr, sides parallel to apex then subcircularly rounded and 
Ottrgioed ; surfiice slightly convex from base to declivity, which 
isotliqae, with fine punctured striae, little or not at all impressed 
before apex, where they are dilated, with a slight outward curve, 
inttfstices with a single row of setaj, flat anteriorly, convex at 

Digitized by 


110 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

apex and finely taberoulate, the first having traces of tubercles 
from the middle. Underside fermginonSj thinly hairy. 

There are two forms of this species^ one slightly 
shorter with the elytral striae not impressed at all on the 
declivity, which is impressed transversely, somewhat 
dull, and sub-acuminate at apex ; the tubercles are finer 
than in the other form, in which the striae are impressed, 
and the apex is shining and subconvex. One specimen, 
however, appears to be intermediate, and therefore I 
do not separate them, though at first sight they appear 
specifically distinct 

Xylehorus praevius, sp. n. 

Fem. Elongata, subcylindrica, nitida, parce pilosa, picea, 
antennis pedibusque t^staceis ; prothorace paullo longiore qaam 
latiore, lateribas leniter, apice fortiter rotundato et crenato, disco 
umbonato, postice sparsim distincte punctato ; elytris prothorace 
plus qaam sesqui longioribus, ad apicem oblique declivibns et 
infra carinatis, declivitate utrinque subimpressa, sapra subtiliter 
lineato-punctatiSf interstitiis rarius uniseriatim punctatis, postice 
obsolete tuberculatis. Long. 3 mm. 

One example, without locality. 

Similar to X. aquilus, but smaller, more slender and 
with the interstices flat on the apical declivity. 

Head dull with front flattened, coarsely pnnctnred at sides, 
with a smooth elevated area in middle, pubescence short except 
over mouth, eyes wide, not deeply emarginate, antennae testaceous. 
Prothorax a little longer than broad, its base truncate, basal 
angles obtuse, sides scarcely rounded behind, becoming gradually 
more strongly rounded to apex, which is crenate, surface elevated 
in middle, the elevation not evidently transverse, anterior half 
with rather scattered transverse asperities, becoming very fine 
over median elevation, posterior half shining, with irr^rular 
scattered but distinct punctures. Scutellum small, obtuse trian- 
gular, shining. Elytra as wide as base of thorax, and more than 
half as long again, humeral angles obtusely rounded, sides not 
quite parallel, slightly dilated in middle, subcircularly rounded 
and carinate at apex, surface slightly convex from base to apex 
thence somewhat obliquely declivous, with rows of shallow 
punctures, which are not impressed, interspaces between punctures 
transversely rugose, interstices with a single row of setao, arising 
from fine tubercles on the whole of the first two, and the apice 

Digitized by 


Bhynchopliorous Coleoptera of Japan. Ill 

of the remaiDing interstices. Apical declivity with a shallow 
impresaioQ on either side of the sutare. Underside ferruginous, 
with abdomen darker, very scantily punctured and pubescent. 
Legs reddish testaceous. 

Xyleborus serial us, sp. n. 
Fem. Oblonga, cylindrica, subnitida, pilosa, f usco-picea elytria 
dilatioribuay antennis pedibusque ruf escentibus ; prothorace longi- 
tiidine et latitudine aequali, apice f ortiter, lateribus pauUo rotundatis, 
npra transrerse subelevato, postice subtiliter reticulato et fortiter 
pooctato, linea media laev^i ; elytris ad apicem oblique declivibus, 
dediTitate subimpressa subtus baud acute carinata, setis alteme 
loQgionbas et brevioribus seriatis, lineato-pnnctatis, interstitiia 
nnLseriatim punctatis versus apicem tuberculatis. Long. 2*5 mm. 

Two examples taken at Nikko and Miyanoshita. 

Oblong, cylindrical, dull piceons with elytra lighter. Head 

finely reticulate, front nearly flat, scantily punctured and pube- 

•cent, with an indistinct median longitudinal eleyation, mouth 

dliate, eyes deeply emarginate, antennas testaceous. Prothorax 

16 brooul as long, truncate at base with posterior angles obtuse, 

siden slightly rounded, in front strongly rounded to apex ; above 

with an obtuse transverse elevation in middle, anterior half 

anperate, posterior balf finely reticulate and strongly punctured, 

the panctores becoming asperate at sides, with a smooth median 

liney pubescence short and scanty. Scutellum small, rounded, 

piceouft. Eljrtra as wide as prothorax, and more than half as 

long again, truncate at base with humeral angles rounded rect- 

angaUr, sides parallel to middle, then obliquely and gradually 

roonded to apex ; surface cylindrical to middle, obliquely declivous 

behind, tbe declivity impressed weakly at sides of suture, with 

inferior margin inflexed but not carinate, with scarcely impressed 

rows of strong close setigerous punctures, the setse very short and 

fine, interstices with a single row of punctures, a little finer and 

lemf* numerous, bearing longer setee, and very finely tuberculate 

for apical half. Legs ferruginous. 

This species resembles X. ilryographus, Batz.^ but 
the prothorax is shorter and more strongly punctured 
behind. The elytral punctuation is much stronger, and 
the rows of shorter and longer setsB are quite distinctive. 
It is allied to Eichhoffs section + + +, in which the 

Erothorax is defined as being cylindrical and oblong; 
at in this species the prothorax is so short, that it will 
not serve to separate it from tho insects of section +. 

Digitized by 


112 Mr. Walter F. H. lUandford on the 

Xylehorus pelUculosiis, Eichh. 

Eichh., Rat Tom., p. 336. 

Two examples, Kiga. 

I have not seen the type of this insect, and am less 
certain, than with other unseen species, that I have here 
the true X. pelliculosiis. But the description ^ts it, and 
my doubt is rather owing to the fact that there exist 
other at present undescribed species of similar facies 
in the Oriental region. It is quite easily distinguished by 
the i-ather dense and almost downy pubescence, and the 
confusedly and finely punctured elytra, which bear only 
the feeblest traces of striae. One example is black, the 
other sordid testaceous. The shape of the prothorax 
would lead me to put it in Eichhoffs group + + + rather 
than +, but it is a distinct form, and not very closely 
related to any other described species. I have placed 
it in the neighbourhood of X mxiticus, which is of 
similar build, without evident elevation of the prothorax, 
but that species has the elytra plainly lineato-punctate. 

Xylehorus muHcus, sp. n. 
Fem. Elongata, cylindrica, subnitida, pilosa, rufo-picca, 
antennis pedibusque ferrugineis ; prothorace oblongo, antice 
fortiter rotundato, supra parum gibboso, post medium punctis 
Rulaciculatis subtilibus notato ; elytrLs lineato-punctatis, inter- 
stitiis subtilissime uniseriatim pnnctatis et pilosis, apice fortiter 
declivi, ad suturam snbimpresso, striis impressis, interstitiis vix 
perspicue tnbcrculatis. Long. 3 mm. 

Two examples, near Kashiwagi. 

Ferruginous- pitchy, with rather long soft pubescence. Head 
ferruginous, dull, front convex, punctured at sides with a median 
impunctato slightly raised line, pubescence scanty and short except 
over mouth ; antennae ferruginous. Prothorax oblong, base 
truncate, basal angles obtusely rounded, sides straight, slightly 
divergent from base towards apex, which is strongly rounded ; 
surface with only the slightest trace of a transverse elevation, 
thinly pubescent especially at sides and apex, its anterior third with 
rather close transverse asperities which become weaker, but are 
continued back to posterior third, which is very finely reticulate, 
dull and subaciculately punctuate, the punctures rather close at 
the sides. Scutellum rounded, piceous, shining. Elytra slightly 

Digitized by 


Rhynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 113 

irider than prothorax at base and about half as long again, 
humeral angles sabrectangular, shoulders narrowly callose, sides 
parallel to behind middle, thence rounded to apex, which is not 
caiiaate below ; surface cylindrical with slightly impressed rows of 
oblong punctures, interstices narrow with a single row of very fine 
wtigeroaa punctures, about as numerous as those of striae, the 
blirs stronger towards apex, which is strongly but obliquely 
decHvoos, slightly flattened, and impressed along the suture with 
the punctures of the strise larger, rounded, and shallow ; interstices 
flit with microscopic traces of tuberculation, rather more evident 
on the third interstice. Underside and legs ferruginous, the former 
shining, punctured, and pubescent. 

In the feeble developmeut of any apical armatare to 
the elytra, this species differs from aay described by 
Eichboff. Other examples of the same type occur in the 
Oriental and Polynesian regions, e.g., X. obliquuff, Sharp, 
from Hawaii. 

Xyleborus festivus, Eichli. 
Eichh., Scol. Jap., p. 2o2 ; Rat. Tom., p. 366. 
No further examples have been taken. 

Xyleborus glabratus, Eicbh. 
Eichh., Rat. Tom., p. 381. 
Yokohama, Higo ; a few specimens. 

Xyleborus bicohr, sp. n. 
Fem. Elongata, cylindrica, nitida, subglabra, capite et pro- 
tborace ferrui^ineo-testaceis, elytris fusco-piceis, antennis pedi- 
l"ttque testaceis : prothorace oblongo, antice fortiter rotundato, in 
medio sabgibboso, postice sparse punctato, linea media obsolete 
«levata laevi ; elytris ad apicem oblique declivibus et infra 
^^oatis, subtiliter lineato-punctatis, interstitiis lo et 3o ad apicem 
tuberculatis. Long, vix 2 mm. 

Four examples, Nagrasaki, Feb. 2l8t, 1881 ; one at 
Anasa on Kashinoki [Ilex sp ). 

Oddish testaceous with the eljrtra piceous brown. Head finely 
^walate, front flattened, impressed on either side with a group 
^^ Punctures, pubescence very scanty, mouth ciliate. Eyes oval 
^^•i a deep angulate emargination. Antennas testaceous. Pro- 
'aorax oblong, base truncate, basal angles obtusely rounded, sides 


Digitized by 


114 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

nearly straight, slightly divergent from base to near apex, vhich 
is strongly roanded, surface somewhat depressed, declivous for 
anterior third, its junction with the posterior cylindrical part 
marked by a fine elevation at the apex of an indistinct raised line 
reaching nearly to base ; finely asperate in concentric lines before 
elevation, with sparse short hairs, ba«al half shining, feebly 
punctured, with a row of more distinct punctures on either side 
of central line. Scutellum rounded, piceous, shining. Elytra as 
wide as base of prothorax and half as long again, basal angles 
rounded rectangular, humeral callosities distinct, sides subparallel, 
apex circularly rounded and acutely margined below by the 7th 
interstice ; surface subdepressed, very obliquely declivous at apex, 
punctured in rows, interstices flat with a single row of very fine 
sparse punctures ; declivity with 1st and 3rd interstices elevated, 
finely tuberculate and setose. Underside and legs testaceous, the 
former i^pnctured at sides and at apex of abdomen. 

Beadily distinguished by its small size^ narrow form^ 
fine sculptore and colour. 

XyUhorus atteiiuatus, sp. n. 

Feu, Elongata cyHndrica,,a prothorace medio posterius sub- 
aogustata, subnitida, pilis erectis brevibus pubescens, picea ; 
prothorace oblongo, in medio transverse elevato, postice sublaevi, 
punctis minutis notato ; elytris ad amussim punctato-striatis, iuter- 
stitiis uniseriatim punctatis, apice subopaco, oblique rotundato, 
sutura elevata, interstitiis lo, 3o, et 4o tuberculatis, 2o inermi. 
Long. 2.6. mm. 

One example, Nikko. 

Very closely allied to X, saxeseni, Ratz., like the 
following species, but in my opinion distinct from either. 
From X. saxeseni it difiers as follows : 

The body is more elongate and evidently narrowed, especially 
towards the apex of the elytra, and is furnished throughout, 
including the posterior half of the prothorax, with short upstanding 
hairs ; thoracic tubercle more elevated, the surface behind less 
shining, more evidently and closely punctured ; elytral punctures 
stronger and rather closer, 2nd interstice more deeply impressed at 
apex, and the tuberculation stronger ; third stria also somewhat 
imprcRsed. From X, Hobrinus it can be distinguished by its larger 
hizQf the distinct and regular rows of punctures on the elytra. 

Digitized by 


Bhynchophoroiis Coleoptera of Japan. 115 

and the wider 8{>ace between the two inner rows of tuberdes on the 
apeXf which in difltinotly punctured in the line of the two firnt 

Xyleborus sobrinus, Eichh. 

Eichh., Scol. Jap., p. 202; Rat. Tom., p. 363. 

Four specimens added from Chiozenji. 

Somewhat variable in the sculpture of the elytra and 
the development of the ely tral tubercles, which are usually 
mach stronger than in any specimens of X. saxeaeni. 
The tubercles of the 1st interstice begin about th^ 
middle of the elytra, whereas in the single example of 
.V. attenuatus they are confined to the declivity. 

A specimen from Hiogo in Colonel von Schonfeldt's 
collection is not separable from saxeaeni by any cha- 
racters. As it is quite possible that there may -be two 
or three species allied to saxeaeni in Japan, I allow this 
and the preceding species to stand as a help for further 

Xyleborus adumbratus, sp. n. 

Fev. Oblonga, cylindrica, nitida, pills erectis adspersa, nigra vel 
pieea, prothorace nonnunquam rufescente, antennis pedibnsque 
teitaoeis, his infuaoatis; prothorace oblongioBcalo, apice fortiter 
rotnndato, in medio transverse elevato, postice sparse sabtiliter 
panctolato ; elytris punotato-striatis, interstiis subragosis, uniseri- 
ttim sabtiliter punctatis et pilosis, duobus primis a basi tuberculatis, 
ipice dediri deplanato, sutara ad apicem solum callose elevata, 
ioterstitiis lo et 3o tuberculis acntis omatis. Long. 3 mm. 

Eight examples taken at Nagasaki, Hitoyoshi, Oyama, 
and Snbashiri. 

Closely allied to X. pfeiliy Ratz., of which it is perhaps 
a mere geographical variety. 

It Taries in colour from black to piceous brown, with the thorax 
iometimes lighter than the elytra. Head as in X pfeiltf with 
the front strongly punctured, with a more or less evident longi- 
tudinal carina. Prothorax as in X, pfeili, but with the hairs 
longer, and the central elevation more prominent and trans- 
rerse ; its basal half very shining, diffusely punctured except 
behind elevation, where the punctures are closer. Elytra one half 
longer than prothorax, a little shorter and more convex than in 

Digitized by 


J 16 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

X, pfeili ; sides parallel at base, slightly narrowed and ronnded 
behind middle, apex feebly produced in middle, sinuate on 
either side ; their sculpture similar to that of A", i/ei//, but with 
the punctuation a little stronger and the points of insertion of 
the hairs on the two first interstices more or less evidently elevated 
and tuberculate. Apical declivity with suture not elevated except 
at apex, where it is callose, the tubercles more prominent, and 
surface less wrinkled and more clearly punctured. Underside 
piceous, or testaceous, with abdomen darker. 

Xyleborus hadius, Eichh. 

Eichh., Berl. Ent. Zeit., 1S66, p. 280; Rat. Tom., 
p. 379. 

Hiogo, one example {von Schonfeldt). 

I can see no difference whatever between this insect 
and a typical example from Madagascar. 

Xyleborus vicarius, Eichh, 
Eichh., Scol. Jap., p. 203 ; Rat. Tom., p. 376. 
No further examples taken. 
The apiftal declivity of the typical specimens is 

decidedly dull, as in X. affinis, Eichh., and not shining as 

described by Eichhoff. 

Xyleborus minutus, sp. n. 
Fem. Oblonga, nitida, pilis brevibus erectis omata, ferrugineo- 
tcstacea ; prothorace latitudine paullo longiore, lateribns leniter, 
apice fortiter rotundato, supra in medio eleyato-nodoso, postice 
discrete subtiliter punctulato ; elytris lineato-pnnctatis, interstitiis 
vix perspicue uniseriatim punctatis, ad apicem oblique declivibus, 
doclivitate deplanata, subimpressa, interstitiis omnibus subtilissime 
post medium tubei*culatis, versus apiuem muticis. Long. 1'5~ 
1*7 mm. 

Tiiree examples, luasa. 

At pre-ent the smallest species in the genus, shorter 
though more robust thau X. bicolor, 

Oblv^ng, subcylindrical, testaceous-brown, a little darker at the 
HXli^omitios, Head finely reticulate, testaceous with epistoma 
*lnrkor, front subconvex, punctured at sides and shortly pubescent, 
nilh a median longitudinal elevation towards vertex, carinate in 
iii»u oxamph\ month shortly ciliate, eyes oval, flat, emarginate, 

Digitized by 


Bhyyichophorous Coleoptera of Japan, 1 1 7 

anteniuB testaceous. Prothorax a little longer than broad, slightly 
roonded at base, basal angles obtuse, sides gently rounded to near 
apex, which is strongly rounded ; surface with a slight nodose 
elevation in middle, scantily pubescent at sides and apex, its 
interior half with concentric asperations, the posterior half shining, 
finely pnnctored with a groundwork of very fine parallel scratches. 
Scntellam rounded, shining, infuscate. Elytra as wide as base of 
prothorax and rather less than half as long again, base truncate, 
humeral angles subrectangular rounded, sides very feebly rounded, 
nearly parallel, apex strongly rounded, with the lateral margin 
inflexed below for a very short distance, but scarcely carina te ; 
rorface shining, convex from base to posterior third, thence 
obliquely declivous, the declivity flattened and more or less 
impressed, with rows of punctures which appear large, rounded, and 
dirk when strongly illuminated, interstices somewhat irregular, 
with ginjjle rows of very fine sparse punctuation and short erect 
^re, behind middle with fine tuberculation, obliterated on the 
impresBed apical area on which the striae are slightly impressed, and 
corred inwards at the tip. Underside and legs testaceous. 

Xylehorna achaitfussi, sp. n. 
Blongatas, cylindricus, nitidus, ferrugineo-brunneus vel piceus, 
pilosoa; prothorace oblongo, apice rotundato supra vix gibboso, 
P«tice sobtiliter punctulato ; elytra subtiliter lineato-punctatis, 
itriiBbaod impressis, interstitiis discretius uniseriatim punctatin, 
apiee letoso, laevi, ad suturam profunde impresso, lateraliter 
Btrioqae elevato, tnberculis 4 aut 5 ornato. 
lLi& Minor, angustior. 

Long. Mas.— 2*7 mm.; Fem.— 3 mm. 

Several examples taken at Lake Junsai and Nikko. 

Varying in colour from ferruginous-brown to piceous. Head 
dnil, front convex strongly punctured at sides, smooth in middle 
▼ith a alight longitudinal elevation over mouth ; pubescence grey, 
ather long, mouth ciliate with yellow hairs, eyes not deeply 
^iBarginate, antenna9 testaceous-brown. Prothorax oblong, nar- 
rower in male than in female, base truncate, basal angles rounded, 
•idea parallel, apex strongly rounded ; surface with only a trace 
of a central elevation, with very short scanty pubescence, longer 
at ndea and apex, its anterior third with rather fine imbricate 
^^P^ties, basal part shining, finely punctured with an indistinct 
■mooth central line. Scutellum very small, triangular, depressed. 
Elytra barely as wide as prothorax and rather more than half as 

Digitized by 


r " r Xr T'l^iLsr T ^ T*mi.L'zt2 :x the 

i-'sr v^-^ * " i> ; ^ i- -^ rir « ,rr^*^ rTiia£*-s at bftse, hoiDertl 
a^^f-* -r^- trr-" -,-* -r--t^L,rT*- mrsr^-^ T^djaett. sides parmllel 
-i» i*i^:rr il— i>. iife:.T? j.t. ^ 7- T-nnDt-c. Kpiset nearij troDeite, 
TT- ^ :u ^ •-"■" ^ .i:; :i-^ ^p-rj: -^^rx.- i&trsi ■ercr-riai.iiop ; snrfaoe 
•r^iLJiir fni* 7 Tirr.— rr^ rt t«tw* Tr-«r«:i"t* wni a single row of 
T :nr' :L. '*>i sr- ^r-nzr it- 1 - •■ f^^-ner: «» ii»"»se of atrne, and 
▼ ra. a «^!-i— f c imt i::.r^ -w:::'-! «r? i'c::r*r prt«:*rioriT : behind 
'-'ir*t-:L «rr— r - •- i^nr -nf=^" -^crriaJl-r 6^t'*2s. deeply impressed 
ij-rrx "L'Tir^ 3 r it-^^e-^ir "inrc nf t'T-ZT. ii>t c-ep^^saoo smooth, 
•-1.3'n.r ^t:i *j*'Tr:*-c sJj-*^ ft-i-rt ins-nnr f "^--r or fire tubercles 
VL i:t* "ii-r-i tiic i:z»er niH* it "u** ?.;.:—*■*>:: rr^r interstices, first and 
wiTTjixt iLi£r«::ir-* "»-rj. tv t ixr*^ foe rrbcrrle* before apical 
:ii.;r»r'^-»L Tnot-sil-f if^ra-? aH-trr-wx- pnsctarpd at sides lod 
Terr irvr-jr in ite-^-^ert- L«sr* le^a"^-*!:* wrth knees infoscate. 
ILla: B-s-ljr iL snlT'tcrf v fcaajt. '!»Lt *gnt"er and more slender. 

TLe nri'-e^^c:':: c*f ti* t-'T-rral ar^i is dqucIi deeper 
tiia ia A'- r- -.*•#, E.jiLi^ *rd resembles that of 

Fe»- E^'iirita, ?yl:nirra, ftrrL^^z>eo.lrannca, breviter pilosa; 
pf/tb'-Tao*- r 'O'-tgx ip;?e rcitin^t.-, «crva leniter gibboso, postice 
di^tincte »|:«ir*.m p-Dctato; c-TTr» ho*atcv-punctatis, interstitiis 
Obit^^riatim pTaDctalis, ap.j^e scbcsTTtilatim excarato retnso, infra 
emarginato. in retn^oni« margine decr.bas dnobas acatis ulrinqne 
armato. Long. 3 mm. 

One specimen, Sapporo. 

Similar to the last species, bat with the following 

distinctive features : 

Ji/xly Ktr^uter and more convex ; prothorax blightly narrowed 
towardu the apex and not regularly ronnded, median elevation 
('vi<l«;fit, thouj^h small, punctuation of the basal half stronger 
and rather irregular. Punctures of the elytra stronger and less 
numerous, internticeH somewhat rugose ; apex widely impressed, 
with the elevated calloHc margin subcircular, but not reaching 
tfie suture l)e1ow, so that the lower border has a shallow 
^murgination, impressed surface shining and impunctate ; there 
are, on each side, two minute tubercles before it close to the 
suture, and two spines just within the lateral margin, one near 
the upper extremity, the other about the middle. Antenncc, legs 
and undorsido ferruginous. 

Digitized by 


Rhyndiophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 119 

I have not seen A", fallax, Eichh., to which this 
species is allied in the stmcture of the elytra ; but the 
former differs according to the description in several 
points. It is more elongate, with the posterior half of 
the prothorax very finely punctured, the apical emargi- 
nation of the elytra deep, and the impressed surface 
ragosely punctured, 

Xyhhorus exesiis, sp. n. 
Fem. EloDgata, cylindrica, nitida, parce pubescens, piceo- 
nign, anteDnis pedibasqae fermgineis ; prothorace oblongo, parum 
gibboso, postice distinote ac discrete punctato, linea media laevi ; 
tljtris lineato-punctatis, interstitiis subtilius uniseriatim panctalin 
robnignloMs, apice oblique declivi» fortiter excavato-retuso, 
iQ&rgme eleTato nirinqne bispinato, infra subcircalatim emargi- 
into. Long. 3*6 mm. 

Two examples, Miyanoshita. 

Cylindrical, pitcby-black. Head dull, convex, with long thin 
pobescence, mouth ciliate, front punctured at sides, with an 
tlented smooth space widened behind and impressed in middle, 
«yM broad oval, anteriorly emarginate, antemue ferruginous. 
Prothorax about one-half longer than broad, base slightly rounded, 
Wangles obtusely rounded, sides subparallel behind becoming 
"^'ttded graduaUy and more strongly towards apex ; surface 
cylindrical behind, declivous in front, but without median elevation, 
its pubescence thin, rather long at apex and sides, absent over 
^ area, anterior half with fine imbricate asperities, posterior 
Wf shining, distinctly punctured, with a smooth central line, the 
pMctures stronger and more scattered towards the base. Scutel- 
1am small, rounded, not depressed. Elytra as wide as prothorax, 
and nthcr more than half as long again, base truncate, shoulders 
"obrectangular rounded, sides parallel to behind middle, thence 
gently rounded to apical border, which is strongly and almost 
abruptly rounded, with the median third subcircularly emarginate ; 
*^"^ shining, gently convex from base to apex, with a few 
^**i^ distinctly punctured in rows, first stria with punctures 
itronger towards base, but not impressed ; interstices rugose, 
vith a row of fine scattered punctures, the first widened posteriorly 
^th two or three fine tubercles before dechvity, which is very 
oblique, begimiing at the base of the posterior third of the eljrtra, 
and excavate ; the excavation smooth, impunctate, and shining, 
*ith the suture narrowly elevated, its lateral margins sharply 

Digitized by 


1 20 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

raised, crenate, fringed with a few long haire, and armed with two 
spines, one small, near the suture, at the apex of the 2nd 
interstice, the other about the middle, at the apex of the 5th 
interstice, longer and directed backwards. Underside deep ferru- 
ginous. Jiegs ferruginous with knees infuscate. 

Readily distiuguished from X. dcfensus by its larger 
size, colour, and the obliquity of the apex, the impressed 
surface of which is not circular but elongate ; the apical 
emargination is much deeper and more abrupt. It is 
allied to X, emarginatus^ Eichh., but as the apical 
impression in that species is described as being sub- 
rugose and somewhat closely punctured, it is obviously 
distinct. This type of Xyleboms, with an impressed, 
emarginate, and spined apex to the elytra, appears to be 
rather common in the Oriental region. 1 have other 
undescribed species in my collection, which can easily 
be separated by comparison, though they run very close 
in structural features. They are, in spite of their shape, 
true Xylebori, and show no generic differences lipon 

It is a peculiarity of this genus that the descriptions 
and differentiations of the species it contains are based 
almost entirely on the characters of the females. The 
males are so rarely taken, that but very few have ever 
been described among exotic species. As they are sub- 
apterous, and incapable of flight, they are not to be 
obtained except by a special search in the burrows they 
inhabit, a task usually too tedious to be attempted by a 
collector who is devoting his attention to one or more 
Orders in a foreign country. A further acquaintance 
with them would be of material assistance towards 
grouping the species of the genus, as, though small and 
ill-developed in comparison with the females, they 
present some well-marked differences of structure. In 
form they are of two types, one, short and subglobose, 
as X.dispar ^, the other, cylindrical and similar to the 
female, but shorter, often more convex and less robust, 
as X. saxeseni $, and X. schaufxissi $. For the insects 
whose males are of the former type, Ferrari has pro- 
posed the genus or subgenus Anisandrus, which is at 
present of no use, as one cannot yet say with certainty 
what characters of the female are connoted with that 
particular type of male, which probably merges into the 

Digitized by 


Rhynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 121 

other bj intermediate forms. Other differences, besides 
those of form, are found in the prothorax, which is 
frequently impressed in front, and famished with a 
stracture on its apical margin, varying from a minute 
tubercle, as in X. dryographus ^J, to a spine; in some 
species, as in X. coronatus, Eichh., from Venezuela and 
Brazil, and others from Madagascar, this median spine is 
strongly developed and bifid, and there are two lateral 
processes. In the present collection the males of but 
two species are associated with their females, X. vicariiLS, 
Eicbh., and X. schanfussi, m. ; there are, moreover, the 
niales of three species which I cannot assign with 
certainty to any female forms, and am compelled to 
dfticribe under separate provisional names. The dates 
Md localities of capture have proved of no assistance 
towards identifying them. In one species, X. cucullatus, 
the anterior margin of the prothorax presents a new 
modification, being produced obliquely forwards and 
downwards into a flat plate, which completely conceals 
the head, in a second, X. orbatua, there is no process of 
the prothorax, and the general type is that of X. dispar 
i, while the remainiog species, X. galeattts, has a deep 
anterior prothoracic impression with a strong apical 
spinous process which conceals the head, and is of the 
^of X, eurygraphus $, Eatz. 

Xyleborus cucullatus, sp. n. 

Mas. Breviter oblongns, subnitidus, pilosus, piceo-niger, 
*nt«Diiis pedibiuque femigiueis, prothorace longitudine et lati- 
todioe sabaeqaali, a basi fere obhque declivi, deplanato, et in 
lobnw trtDsrersum margiiiatam supra caput producto, dense 
poDctato, poDctis versos apicem exasperatis ; elytria lineato- 
pQQctatifl, ioterstitiis maltipunotatis, ad apicem fortiter declivibus, 
wbtnincatis, declivitate sabconvexa, immarginata, striata, granu- 
l»ta. Long. 2— 2-6 mm. 

Four examples, Kurigahara, and Konose in Higo. 

Short, oblong, slightly shining, lighter or darker piceous, with 
»»tber kmg pubescence. Head completely hidden from above and 
in front, fermginous, smooth and indistinctly punctured, pube- 
■c«nce almost absent, eyes very small, quite flat with few facets 
ioteniMj ferruginous, of the usual structure, the sensitive surface 

Digitized by 


1 22 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

of clob very oblique. Prolhorax rather broader than long (its 
apparent length varying according to the angle at which it is 
viewed), base truncate, basal angles obtusely rounded, sides 
rounded, above obliquely declivous and flattened anteriorly, the 
declivity prolonged backwards in the middle line to basal third, 
anterior border produced in a line with the declivous surface into a 
transverse lobe, covering head, its margin rounded and elevated ; 
surface obtusely elevated behind apical lobe and at sides of declivity, 
closely punctured, and with a more or less evident smooth median 
line from base to middle, the punctures finely asperate anteriorly 
for a variable distance, interspaces finely reticulate. Scutcllum 
small, rounded triangular. Elytra narrower than prothorax, an 
about one third longer, base truncate, basal angles rounded, humeral 
elevations scarcely traceable, sides parallel to behind middle, thence 
rounded to apex ; surface convex, subcylindrical at basal half, with 
indistinct rows of punctures, interstices multipunctate, apex 
very strongly but obliquely declivous, the declivity subconvex, 
circular in outline, not acutely margined, granulately punctured 
and indistinctly striate. Legs rather long, apices of anterior tibias 
subtruncate, outer margiu of middle and posterior tibiae broadly 
rounded serrate. 

The specimens vary in colonr, gloss, and the closeness 
and degree of asperity of the thoracic sculpture. One 
example from Higo is at first sight very different. It is 
smaller, darker, more truncate, with the prothorax 
shorter and the anterior lobe more declivous. It may 
quite possibly be the male of a different species, but 
presents no essential differences of structure or sculp- 
ture. X. cucullatus is perhaps the male of X. brevis, 
Eichh., and is certainly allied to it ; but the Higo ex- 
ample alone appears small enough to stand as the male 
of that species, and in all the rows of punctures on the 
elytra are more evident than in A', breois. The specimen 
from Kurigahara has been placed, by Mr. Lewis, on the 
same card with the next described species, as the 
corresponding sex. But I do not see my way to accept- 
ing this. If it be so, A\ cucullatus must be the female, 
and in all characteristics it is a male ; the generative 
organs, as far as I have been able to examine them, agree 
with those of X, dispar ^, the elytra appear to be 
soldered, and the wings are either completely absent or 
very minute. 

Digitized by 


Bhynchophorous Coleopfera of Japan. 123 

Xyleborus orbatus, sp. n. 

Mas. Brevis, subglobosus^ subnitidns, ferruginous, loogius 
pilosas, prothorace transrerso, aeqne rotundato convexo, anterius 
exasperato, posterius rngoso ; elytris a basi usque ad apicem 
roimidatis, lineato-punotatis, interstitiis subrugosis uniseriatim 
ponctatis. Long. 1*5 mm. 

One example taken with the last species at Kurigahara. 

Of the type of Xyleborus dispar, ^ , Very short and subglobose, 
somewhat depressed, ferruginous with very long scattered pu- 
b^cenoe. Head with front nearly flat, reticulated, sparingly 
ponctured and pubescent, eyes small, antennae testaceous. Pro- 
thorax one-third broader than long, base truncate, basal angles very 
brotdly rounded, sides and apex strongly rounded, surface 
uniformly but not strongly convex from base to apex, which is not 
pnidooed in front, asperate anteriorly, the asperities becoming more 
ic&ttered and punctif orm towards base, interstices finely reticulate 
except at extreme base. Scutellum triangular. Elytra as wide as 
prothorax and half as long again, with humeral angles rounded, 
ada roanded from base to apex, rather more strongly behind 
middle, surface uniformly convex with indistinct rows of shallow 
pODctores, interstices with a single series of punctures bearing long 
liMR. Legs long, slender, testaceous ; tibia; feebly dilated and 

This insect may be the male of X germanuff, M., 
or iemi-opacii^, Eichh. I have described it for the 
sake of completeness, and not because I think that any 
Mefal purpose is served by describing these isolated 
males unless they exhibit some salient features. 

XyUhorus galeaius, sp. n. 
Ma9. Oblongus, cylindricus, subnitidus, parce longius pilosus, 
fermgineo-pioens ; prothorace oblongo. versus apicem fortiter 
excarato sulcato, margine apicali in comiculum validum producto, 
nipra anterius exasperato, posterius disperse punctato ; elytris ad 
tpicem oblique et convexe declivibns, declivitate infra marginata, 
wpra lineato-punctatis, interstitiis rarius uniseriatim punctatis, lo 
et 3o in declivitate tuberculatis. Long. 3*5 mm. 

One specimen near Nagasaki. 

Oblong, cylindrical, shining, deep ferruginous-brown, pubescence 
tbia and long. Head completely hidden in front and below by 

Digitized by 


124 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

prothorax, antennee ferruginoas. Pro thorax longer than broad, 
sabtmncate at base with posterior angles rounded, sides slightly 
rounded, apical angles strongly rounded, apex transverse but 
produced in middle into a strong triangular spine directed forwards 
and upwards, anterior opening of prothorax horizontal, slightly 
produced downwards below spine ; surface convex, with a median 
obtusely pointed elevation, in front of which is a deep triangular 
impression reaching apical spine, its anterior half very finely 
asperate, its posterior half with distinct scattered punctuation. 
Scutellum very small, triangular. Eljtra narrower than prothorax 
and one-third longer, separately convex at base with margin 
elevated, humeral prominences obsolete, sides subparallel to apex, 
which is broadly rounded ; surface nearly cylindrical, declivous 
and convex at apex, the declivity finely carinate below for a short 
distance, with rows of fine punctures ; interstices flat, subrugose, 
with a single row of remote pilif erous punctut es, on declivity more 
distinctly and transversely rugose, 1st and 3rd with four or five 
fine tubercles, 2nd with traces of two tubercles on summit only. 
Legs ferruginous, tibiae strongly dilated and serrate. 

This insect is the male of a species in Eichhoff^s section 
+ + to which Xyleborus obliquecauda, Mots., JT. aquilus, 
M., and JT. validus, Eichh., belong. It is most like the 
last species^ but does not resemble it very closely, and 
may be the male of a species of which Mr. Lewis has 
not taken the female. 

Tbypodkndbon, Steph. 
There are at present two Japanese species, one of which 
is merely a geographical variety of the European Trypo^ 
dendron quercus, Eichh. 

Trypodendron quercus, Eichh., var. niponicum. 

Majus, prothorace pro maxima parte nigro, plaga basali testacea, 
elytrorum lateribos ad versuram apicalem angulatis, subproductis, 
apice utrinque distincte sinuato. Long. 3*6 — 4 mm. 

A dozen examples taken at Miyanoshita, and one at 

The black patches on the thorax and the elytral vittas 
are of the same shape as in the type, but better marked, 
the thorax being sufiPused as a rule with black except at 
the base, and the elytral vittce reaching the base in all 
mature specimens. The most distinct character is the 
prominence of the angle of junction between the sides of 

Digitized by 


Rhynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan, 125 

the elytra, and the apical margin which is thereby sinuate 
at the sides. This feature, though not usual in European 
examples, is distinctly traceable in a less degree in one 
specimen of my series from the Ardennes, and is therefore 
not specific. I do not think that the identification of this 
species with Fabricius* Apate signata is proved. 

Trypodendron pubipenne, sp. n. 

ObloDgom, sabnitidnm, pilis longis adspersnm, fasco-nigmm, 
elytris teetaceis, ratura et apice infuscatis, antennis pedibusque 
tesUceifl ; clara antonnaram oTali, haud acamiData ; prothoraoe 
obteoro, anterias exasperato, posterins in medio subtilissime 
lekoltto puQctatOf lateribus muticia ; elytris apice obtuso, vix 
peiFpicae iineato-punctatis, interstitiis subrugolosis, maltipuno talis. 

yixK Capite angosto, f route depressa, supra inter partes 
ocoloram superiores cannula transversa nitida ornata ; prothoraoe 
anterias fortiter angustato. 

Fem. Capite lato, f route subconyexa ; prothoraoe minus 
ugosttto. Long. 3 mm. 

Four specimens taken at Sapporo^ ^ga> Miyanoshita^ 
ttd Ichinchi. 

Oblong, fuscous-black with elytra dull testaceous, darker along 
ntore and at apex, moderately shining, with long downy 
pubescence. Head in male narrow with front flattened, longi- 
todimlly impressed, dull, sparsely punctured and pubescent, upper 
dirisiooi of eyes with a narrow raised glossy margin continued as a 
^fwarerse grooved ridge across vertex ; in female broader, sub- 
convex, transversely rugose, scantily punctured and hairy. Antennae 
vitb dob oval, not acuminate, completely pubescent. Prothorax 
^f^nsrene, strongly constricted in front in male, less so in female, 
iU sdes ronnded, apic il margin bituberculate. acuminate in male, 
tbe whole surface dull with very fine granulations, gibbous in 
female, depresse 1 in male, with scattered hairs, absent over slides of 
btse. in front with asperate tubercles, becoming finer and produced 
in middle Dearly t«> base, which is without acicolations at sides. 
Scotellum piceous, triingular, pubescent. Elytra less than twice 
u long as prothorax and narrower than its greatest width, sides 
mbparallel, apex obtusely rounded, surface with long pnbescence 
chiefly at sides and apex, finely punctured in rows, interstices 
molti-pnnctate, subrugose, the punctures as in the allied species 
not readily distinguishable from those of the striae. Underside 
fwcou^black, almost impunctate, pubescent. 

Digitized by 


126 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

In the weakness of the eljtral striad and the length 
of the pubescence this species is allied to Trypodendron 
politum, Say {unicolor, Eichh.), from N. America, which 
I have not seen. It has no trace of a sutare on 
the antennal club, nor is it especially narrow, both 
points being characteristic of T, poUtum (Lee. Rhyne, 
N. Am., pp. :557, 358). It differs from Eichhoffs 
description of T. unicolor, in being not elongate, in the 
absence of a transverse elevated line on the prothorax, 
which is constricted in front, and in the elytra being not 



ScolytO'platypus tycon, m. 
„ „ daimio, m. 

„ „ siomio, m. 

„ „ mikado, m. 

I have nothing to add to my account of these insects 
(Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud., 1893, pp. 425—442). 

The following species is new, and should be placed 
after S, tycon, 

Scolyto-platypus shogvn, sp, n. 
Oblongo-cylindricus, fere glaber, niger vel piceus, antennis pedi- 
busque ferrugineo-piceis ; prothorace transverse, sabopaco, parce 
et Bubtiliter punctulato ; elytris ante declivitaiem band striatis 
irregulariter punctatis, declivitate striata, interstitiis convexia 
seriatim tuberculatis. Long. 3*5 mm. 

Mas. Fronte ezcavata, opaca, pilis fulvis ciliatis circnmdataf 
antennarum scapo fortiter clavato, funiculo brevi, flexili, clava 
elongata acuminata, ad apicem oihata. 

Several examples, probably taken at Higo. 

Intermediate between 8, tycon and daimio, and closely 
resembling dark specimens of the former in shape and 
size, but the elytra show no trace of striae and are not 
pubescent at the apex. Male with head deeply excavate, 
dull with a thick marginal fringe of. coarse hairs, antennae 

Digitized by 


Rhynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 127 

constructed as in Si daimio S , but with the club elongate 
and pointed. Female with antennal club a little more 
elongate than in S. iycon ?. Elytra with the sutural 
Btria alone faintly expressed in the male, declivity with 
1st and 3rd interstices tuberculate throughout, the 
remainder more finely at the upper angle. Prothoracic 
foTe© of male distinct. Anterior tarsal joints trigonate. 

Hie male has theprostemum prominent in the middle, 
the prominence corresponding to a wide deep anterior 
" pocket '* ; the anterior margin of the presternum 
is constructed similarly to that of 8. mikado S , but the 
two hooks are replaced by a transverse chitinous plate, 
the anterior angles ot which are acute and prominent. 


One of the most admirable features of Chapuis*"Mono- 
graphie des Platypides,^* upon which our knowledge 
of this sab-family is almost entirely based, is the ability, 
almost to be called intuition, with which he has grouped 
forms, often widely different in appearance, as the 
respective sexes of the species which he described ; and 
w examination of his own collection, or of any other 
containing species named by him, affords proof that his 
jadtrment was in th3 main correct, which is remarkable, 
if it be remembered that he had to reduce to order a 
vast and heterogeneous mass of material from all parts 
of the world. For he raised the number of species from 
lo (excluding a few unrecbgnized forms) to 202 ; and 
entomologists have been so far content to accept his 
work as final, that since the publication of his " Mono- 
pTbphie '' they have added but six species to those therein 
described. But, identification of two forms as the 
respective sexes of a single species is obviously quite 
compatible with error as regards the reference of them 
to their proper sexes, and it is a matter of common 
opinion among entomologists that he has, throughout the 
work, reversed the sexes and called the male the female 
and vice-versa. This was first suggested to me by the 
lato Mr. Janson; it has not been, to ray knowledge, 
trxplicitly stated in print, but Kichhoff has indicated a 

Digitized by 


128 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

doubt as to the correct interpretation of the seres by 
Chapuis (" Die ear. Borkenk./' p. 306, note). M. Bedel 
(" Col^op. da bassin de la Seine/' vi., p. 40 i) inverts the 
sexes of P. cylindrus, as given by Chapuis, though with- 
out comment ; he has kindly informed me that he was 
led by EichhoflPs expression of doubt to dissect dried 
examples of P. cylindrus, which led him to the conclusion 
that Chapuis was wrong. Now Chapuis was probably 
guided by the generalisation of Perris, since dLisproved 
for the Tomidni by Lindeman and Eichhoff, that in the 
Scolytidce a greater development of the elytral armature 
was a female characteristic, and by the sexual features 
of certain species of Gr^S'iotarsus, in which the antennas 
have the scape remarkably developed in the sex that he 
indicntes as the male. Thin antennal development, 
together with the deeply excavate and fringed front in 
the same sex of some species, and the more developed 
legs of the opposite sex (in Crossofarsus), which agree 
with the sexual features of the Scolyto-plafypim, are 
not easily reconciled with the usual sexual characters, if 
the sexes are reversed ; but the opposite may be said of 
the constantly stronger elytral armature of the females 
(Chap.), and their occasional possession of abdominal 
armature {Crossotarsi genuini, Platypits blanchardi) or of 
a concave and short abdomen [Crossotarsi). It is 
obvious that external sexual characters are not constant 
among the Scolytidce, and that little dependence can be 
placed on them. The question can only be decided by 
direct examination of the generative organs. Like 
M. Bedel, I have examined them in dried specimens of 
P. cylindrus, and also of Cronfiotarsus wallacei. This 
examination has given results which leave me little doubt 
in the matter; but it so difficult, in these cases, to 
correctly int^^rpret the structures exhibited in dried 
specimens, that I do not feel justified at present in 
publishing my conclusions. I can, however, say that 
the sexes of those two species, as given by Chapuis, 
correspond, and there is no evidence of his having 
indicated them rightly in some genera and erroneously 
in others. He is entirely right or entirely wrong. For 
the present, therefore, 1 prefer to describe the sexes in 
accordance with Chapuis, as a matter of convenience 
solely, and without implying acquiescence in his views. 

Digitized by 


Rhynchophorous Coleaptera of Japan, 129 

This will cause no confasion, and the same cannot be 
said of a readjustment of the sexual characters which 
should eventually be proved to be itself erroneous. 

The question can be settled beyond dispute by the 
dissection of fresh examples ; and if I can obtain them 
1 hope to solve it in that way, 

CfiOSSOTARSus, Chap. 
This Oriental genus is represented by three species. 

Crossoiarsus chapuisij sp. n. 
Fem. Sub-elongata, picea, nitidissima ; capita dense ac rugose 
poDctato; prothorace irregulariter punctato, punctis ante 
foknm et yersas basim crebrioribus ; elytris striato-punctatis, 
intentitio 3o ad basim dilatato, laevi, ad apicem fiubangastatis, 
leoitor dediTibus, apice pilis aureis ciliato, snpra depressionem 
portieam aognstam snblinearem producto, angulo eztemo vix 
pcnpicQe elongate ; abdominis segmento apicali f ortiter excavate^ 
apreso; tibiis posticis dilatatis ad apicem in lobos productis. 

One specimen^ Higo. 

3Con elongate than the majority of the genus, shining piceons, 
*BooUi and regularly cylindrical. Head with front subquadrate, 
▼oyelosely and rugosely punctured, the punctures longitudinal, 
with an indistinct median depression, vertex with three shining 
k^ngitndinal vittae separated by punctured spaces, eyes rather large 
And prominent, subcircular, antennsd with scape enlarged towards 
the base or inner side, but not produced, funiculus inserted at 
*pez of scape. Protborax oblong, not strongly emarginate, 
P<)ateriar angles of emargination rather prominent, median sulcus 
fine, snrrounded by a smooth cordate area ; punctures longi- 
tudinally oval, sparse over apical half, closer at base and over a 
patch in front of sulcus, lateral margin with two or three deep 
ujnunetrical pore-like punctures behind middle. Scutellum 
indirtingnishable. Elytra double as long as protborax, with sides 
urrowed and slightly constricted at apex ; striate, the striae with 
an irregolir single row of punctures grouped in pairs, 3rd and 4th 
conjoined at base, interstices smooth, flat, with very fine irregular 
pODctores, 3rd dilated at base with a few stronger punctures; 
gtotJj depressed towards apex, with the strisB at first deeper and 
then oUiterated before posterior margin, interstitial punctuation 

TEiXS. IHT. 80C. LOND. 1894. — PART 1. (mAECH.) I 

Digitized by 


130 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

stronger, suture longitadinally impressed before apex ; posterior 
margin gently rounded and fringed with aureoua pubescence 
which conceals the very shortly produced apical angles; 
posterior impression narrow, sublinear, concave, hidden by 
apical margin. Underside ferrnginous, with scanty pubescence, 
abdomen concave, not strongly punctured, sides of 2nd and 4th 
segments scarcely produced, last segment with a large deep 
transversely oval impression, bordered in front by a fringe of 
aureous hairs, and reaching the prominent apical margin. Anterior 
tibiao with five carinas, and indistinct traces of others at base ; 
intermediate tibiae with a single carina on anterior surface ; 
posterior tibias dilated, with outer border convex, and apex 
produced into two serrate lobes on either side of tarsal articu- 
lation, densely ciliate, with yellowish hairs. Posterior coxas with 
a prominent free margin to inner and apical borders, which with 
the posterior margin of the trochanter is sharply serrate. 

I cannot refer this fine and distinct species to any 
of Chapuis' groups. I therefore propose for it a distinct 
group, Grossotarai mutici, characterized in the female 
by the gently declivous elytra, without elevated inter- 
stices or conspicuously produced apical angles, and with 
a narrow deep posterior impression, in which it 
approaches 0. minax. Walk. The structure of the 
posterior tibiae, and the abdomen, together with the 
absence of a distinct scu tell urn, are also characteristic 
features. The specimen is undoubtedly a female — in 
the conventional sense. 

Crossotarsus niponiciis, sp. n. 

Ferrugineus, elytris in medio paullo dilutioribus, postice 
infuscatis ; prothorace subquadrato, irregulariter punctato, punctis 
ad basim hand prof nndioribus ; elytris lineato-punctatis, stria 
suturali per totum, ceteris modo ad basim apicemque impressia, 
apice convexe declivi, angulis extemis productis, depreasione 
angusta ; abdominis segmonto primo spinula obliqua armato. 

Mas. Interstitiis elytrorum in declivitate non elevatia, ad 
basim granulatis, angulis extemis brevius productis, abdominis 
spinula brevi. Long. 6 — 6*5 mm. 

Fem. Interstitiis in declivitate subelevatis, striis subsulcatis, 
spinula abdominis longa, segmento 5o subconcavo. Long. 5*7 — 
6*2 mm. 

Digitized by 


Shynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan, 131 

Generally distributed; numerous specimens taken at 
Sapporo and Hakodate in Yezo^ also at Miyanoshita, 
Ynyama, etc.j and in Eiushiu. 

Lighter or darker ferroginoos-brown, with head and apical 
third of eljtia inf oscate ; the elytra sometimes evidently lighter 
in the middle, particularly in the males. Head with front 
flattened, doll, with longitudinal strigose punctures which are 
Wronger in the female, and with a longitudinal impressed lioe, 
iieariy obsolete in the male, vertex with three shining vittas ; 
mntenmB with scape simple, slightly dilated internally at base. 
Protbormx snbquadrate, its central furrow shallow ; in the female 
with the sides of the furrow slightly elevated, with irregular 
poDctores, the punctures closer and rather deeper towards sides 
behind emargination, internal to which there is a shallow depres- 
non ; in the female without sides of sulcus elevated, with fine 
irregular punctures, usually rather closer on two slight impressions 
oo either side of anterior extremity of sulcus, one or two 
imp ro— i ons along lateral margin are usually present but not 
at. Elytra longer in the male than in the female, in both 
i with rows of fine punctures, first stria impressed throughout, 
\ strongly at base, the rest impressed at base and on declivity, 
3rd and 4th conjoined at base ; interstices with a very fine ground- 
work of punctures, and one or two larger punctures, 3rd finely 
grvmlate at base in male ; apex gently declivous with external 
tnj^ produced more strongly in female, striae of male impressed but 
not dilated, interstices flat, pubescent, striffi dilated in female, sub- 
mkate, interstices pubescent, convex ; marginal impression narrow, 
•hining, tuberculate at extremities of 3rd and 4th interstices. 
Undenide ferruginous, Ist abdominal segment with an oblique 
•ptne, long in female, tuberculiform in male, apical segment 
airoogly punctured in female and concave. Legs ferruginous. 

Tliis species belongs to the Crossotarai subdepi'essi, 
and is closely allied to 0, fairmairei, Chap.^ from 
which it can be separated by the absence of the close 
rarioloee punctures at the base of the prothorax, and 
by the second interstice of the elytra not being im- 
pressed in the middle. The produced angles of the 
elytra are longer, and extend more obliquely backwards 
than in 0. fairmairei. 

Cro88otar8U8 contamiiiatus, sp. n. 
Fex. Pioea, f rente subconcava, opaca, disperse punctata ; 
prothorace oblongiusculo, in medio ntrinque impresso, irregulariter 

Digitized by 


132 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on fhe 

panctato, ante snlcam congerie pnnctorom confluentiam notato ; 
elytris sabtiliter striato-panotitis, striis ad basim impressis, inter- 
Rtitiis laevibns, rarias snbtiliter punctnlatis, ad apicem subde- 
cliyibns, angulis extemis subtus prodnctis, interstitiifl varioloBe 
pnnctatis, pilosis, depressione postice angusta, lonata ; abdominis 
segmentis inermibos, 5o sabconcavo. Long. 5*3 mm. 

One example, Higo ; three without locality. 

Piceous ; head with front snbconcave, shortly pnbescent, dull 
with scattered punctuation, more strongly over mouth, the 
punctures elongate towards vertex, and with a median impressed 
line, vertex with a median shining line and two indistinct lateral 
lines, antennae with scape simple, linear. Prothorax longer than 
broad, its lateral emargination very feeble, slightly impressed on 
either side at middle of surface, sulcus very fine, not reaching 
base, and terminated in front by an irregular patch of coalesced 
shallow punctures, punctuation of rest of surface scattered, 
irregular, stronger in front and on either side of a median smooth 
line running from central patch to apex. Elytra shining, finely 
striato-punctate, the strisQ wider and deeper at base, 3rd and 4th 
not conjoined, sutural stria impressed throughout, interstices 
scarcely convex, with a few fine scattered punctures, rather closer 
at base, without reticulate or punctured ground ; apical extremity- 
rounded and declivous, with interstices coarsely and rugosely 
punctured and pilose, not carinate, the punctuation of the 1st 
not extending farther forwards than that of succeeding interstices, 
external angles produced downwards in the plane of the terminal 
depression, which is narrow, lunate and subconcave, forming a 
marked angle with the surface of the elytra. Underside deep 
ferruginous, with metastemum and abdomen piceous, middle of 
former and latter strongly punctured; abdominal segments unarmed, 
2nd and 4th narrowly produced at sides, 5th concave. Legs 
piceous. Posterior coxae with a spine at internal angle ; posterior 
femora not crenate below. 

This species must, I think, be placed with the 
Crossotarsi subdepressi, though the interstices are not 
carinate at the apex of the elytra, and the marginal 
impression is more sharply separated from the surface 
than is usual in that group. It can be distinguished 
from C, niponicns by the absence of a spine on the first 
abdominal segment, and by the 3rd and 4th elytral 
strisB not meeting at base, so as to shorten the 4th 

Digitized by 


Rhynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 133 

Platypus, Hbst. 

The five species in this collection are all new ; the 
males of two alone are represented. 


1. Elytra with impressed striae 2 

-with rows of fine punctures 5 

2. Apex of elytra with a small terminal impression, unarmed . 3 

declivous and convex, with two small tu- 
bercles on declivity . . . modettus^ ? 
produced at external angles 4 

3. Prothorax quadrate, with a narrow patch of close punctures 

round sulcus, the anterior two or three large 
and porelike, elytra pilose from base to apex 

modestuB, (J 
oblong, with a broad cordate patch of uniform 
punctures round sulcus, elytra glabrous before ' 
apex ♦ . iewisiy (J 

4. Interatices spined at summit of apical declivity of elytra ;4th 

abdominal segment with two spines . . lewisi, $ 
Intersiicee not spined, 4th abdominal segment unarmed 

severinij $ 

5. Terminal impression oval, with an inferior emargination not 

reachiug middle .... calamus^ 9 
lunate, emarginate to middle . hamatuSf ? 

Platypus modeatuSf sp. n. 

Ferrogineus, protborace subquadrato, sparsim piloso ; elytris 
sulcatis, solcis postice latioribus, interstitiis subconvexis, nitidis, 
rarins pilosis ; apice convexe declivi, interstitiis opacis, granulatis, 
pube densiore vestitis. Long. 5 mm. 

Mas. Fronte valde concava, opaca, fundo bifoveolato ; protho- 
racis suloo congerie punctorum circumdato, punctis inaequalibus, 
depressione elytrorum postica parva, subtriangulari, granulata. 

Fem. Fronte quam minime concava, opaca ; protborace medio 
ntrinqae impresso, subaequaliter punctato, punctis in utroque sulci 
latere pauUo crebrioribus ; declivitate ad apicem interstitii 31 
spinula ornata. 

Four specimens, Nikko and Shimidzu Toge. 
Bather robust and not elongate ; ferruginous, ii'ith head and 
apex of elytra darker, the latter nearly testaceous at base. 

Digitized by 


l34 Mr. Waiter F. H. Blandford on the 

Male, with front of head rather deeply concave, its surface 
closely granulate, slightly shining in parts, with a fine central 
in? pressed line and a circular fovea on either side ; vertex convex, 
with a shining central and two indistinct lateral vittse. Prothorax 
subquadrate, median sulcus with a narrow patch of punctures on 
either side, the front half of each patch formed of the usual close 
small punctures, except for the two anterior punctures, which are 
larger and almost porelike, and those of the posterior half, which 
are larger, shallow, and less numerous ; remainder of surface rather 
regularly punctured and thinly pubescent. Elytra sulcate, the 
sulci punctured throughout, becoming a little wider towards apex, 
interstices convex, shining, very finely punctured and pubescent, 
3rd and 5th closely granulate at base, 2nd and 4th abbreviated 
at base with a few small granules ; apical extremity convex, the 
sulci shallower, interstices granulate, more thickly pilose, posterior 
impression small and not well marked, sub triangular, irregularly 

Female, with front very slightly concave, quite dull, very 
finely punctured above, with short median impressed line, vertex 
with median vitta alone shining. Prothorax subquadrate with an 
impression on either side about middle, nearly uniformly 
punctured, the punctures rather closer at sides of sulcus. Elytra 
with surface sculptured as in male, but with the sulci wider 
behind middle and their punctures coalesced ; all interstices granu- 
late for a short distance at base ; apical extremity convex, the 
strias ceasing before posterior margin, interstices dull, granulate 
and pilose, apex of 3rd marked by a small pointed tubercle. 

Underside and legs testaceous or ferruginous, abdomen more 
convex in the male. 

One pair is rather darker, and the surface of the 
thorax and elytra are hairless before the apex. This is, 
however, due to the specimens being more mature and 
having been rubbed. The species belongs to the 
Platypi sulcatiy and is not unlike P. jansoni, Chap., but 
the prothorax is shorter and the elytral interstices are 
less elevated, and are not spined at the margin of the 
apical declivity. 

Platypus lewisif sp. n. 

Ferrugineo-piceus, prothorace oblongo, elytris sulcatis, interstitiis 
convexis, glabris, nitidis. Long. 5*5 mm. 

Mas. Fronte plana, opaca, prothoracis sulco congerie punctorum 
magna, cordiformi, circumdato, elytrorum interstitiis subsimilibus, 

Digitized by 


Shynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. 135 

ad apicem, 3o et 5o etiam ad basim granulatis, depressione postica 
parra, BQbtriangalari, granulata. 

Feji. Fronte antice subconcava, opaca, prothoracis snlco con- 
gerie panctoram minore ovali circamdato, interstitiis lo et 2o in 
gomma declivitate in spinam commnnem magnam, So, 50| 7o in 
»pinola8 parras prodnctisy decliTitate ntrinque tubercolata, angalis 
extemis in lobos subqnadratos productis, abdominis segmento 
4o bispinato. 

Five specimens, Miyanoshita, Kiga, and Yuyama. 

Elongate, f errnginons, or inclining to pitcby. 

Male witb front of bead flat, dull witb very fine cross roticnla* 
tioD, pnnctnres rather fine, longitudinally strigose towards mouth. 
Protboraz oblong, diffusely punctured, rather closer at extreme sides, 
vitfa a porelike puncture within anterior angle of emargination 
and a broad cordate group of small uniform punctures round 
median sulcus. Elytra sulcate, the sulci with irregular confluent 
paoctnres, not widened behind and obliterated before apical 
imprewon ; interstices convex, shining, with fine scattered oblong 
panctnres, Ist narrow throughout, bases of 2nd and 4th abbreviated, 
impressed and more strongly punctured, the latter with two or 
three longitudinal asperities, bases of 3rd and 5th elevated with 
transverse granulations ; apical extremity with interstices dull, 
granulate, and pilose, terminal impression subtriangular, closely 
grmnulate, with erect hairs, suture shining. Underside reddish 
testaceous, abdomen unarmed. 

Female with head similar to male in sculpture, front impressed 
oTO' month and subconvex behind. Prothorax oblong, slightly 
imp rca a cd in middle of either side, sulcus surrounded with an oval 
patch of punctaation narrower than in male, rest of punctures 
seatto^ and rather fine, except along lateral border. Elytra snlcate, 
the sulci wider behind with punctures confluent, interstices convex, 
khining, with fine scattered oblong punctures, the 1st narrow 
tbrooghout, base of 3rd enlarged, more closely punctured, bases of 
2nd and 4th impressed, punctured, and asperate as in male, two first 
with a large common spine, 3rd, 5th, and 7th with small spines 
at Bommit of apical declivity, the rest unarmed ; declivity convex 
witb the sulci continued on it, and the interstices finely asperate, 
the third terminating at a stout tubercle, external angles produced 
backwards into a vertical sn*bquadrate lobe, with its posterior edge 
concave, so as to form two blunt teeth at angles. Fourth abdominal 
segment armed with two spines, the fifth flattened. 

Digitized by 


136 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford cwr the 

This species is allied in its main features to the Platypi 
ffulcati, with which I mnst associate it. It diflTers from 
the other described species in the strongly produced 
external apical angles of the elytra, which are not 
triqaetrons as in the P. trisptnati. The female 
shares with P. quadridentatus, 01. {blanchardt. Chap.), 
the pecaliarity of possessing two spines on the fourth 
abdominal segment, but is much larger and easily 
distinguished by the group of punctures on the thorax. 
The male is separable from that of P. modestus by its 
larger size, flat forehead, and oblong thorax ; the elytra 
are quite glabrous before the apical extremity. 

Platypus severini, sp. n. 
Fem. Piceo-fermginea, eljrtris postice inf ascatis ; fronte sab- 
concara, rugoea ; prothorace paullo longiore qaam latiore, utrinqae 
ad medium yitta obliqua subelevata, antice rarios irregnlariter, 
postice crebrins punctato ; elytris ad apicem sabdeclivibDS et in 
processus divaricatos attenuatis, striato-punctatis, striis impressis, 
interstitiis subconvezis ad apicem pilosis, duobus primis per totum, 
ceteris ad basim subtiliter punctulatis, processibus desuper aspectis 
bidentatlo. Long. 5 — 5*3 mm. 

Numerous examples of one sex only, taken from beech 
at Nikko, Chiuzenji, and Hakodate. 

Deep ferruginous brown, with elytra darker towards apex. 
Head with front subconcare, covered with close shallow rugose 
punctuation, rather smoother towards mouth, vertex rather abruptly 
separate from front, with three smooth vittse, interspaces coarsely 
punctured. Prothorax a little longer than broad, median sulcus 
fine but sharply marked, surface with very fine reticulation, and an 
indistinct oblique elevation at either aide of anterior extremity 
of sulcus, punctures of anterior half scattered, and absent over 
middle line, of posterior half closer, shallow, and longitudinally 
oval. Elytra declivous towards apex and produced into two 
divergent processes, with subsulcate striae, which are wider and 
shallower towards apex, with the punctures fused ; interstices convex, 
finely reticulate and punctured at base, the first and second with a 
single row of punctures along inner border, all interstices flatter 
towards apex, inconspicuously tuberculate, and with serrate hairs ; 
apical processes decHvous in the plane of the posterior termination, 
produced outwards to form an obtuse oval emargination at apex, 

Digitized by 


RhynchophoTotis Coteoptera of Japan. 137 

their apper border curved and continaous with second interstice, 
extremity two-spined ^hen seen from above, inner spine longer and 
tnmcate. Last abdominal segment snbconyex, rugoselj punctured. 

The species belongs to the Platypi ozyuri, and may be 
distinguished from the Pyrenean P. oxyurus, Dup., by 
the thoracic sculpture, and by the processes of the elytra 
being two-spined when seen from above instead of from 
the side, as in the latter species. From P. solidua, 
Walk., the divergence of these processes will at once 
separate it^ as will its larger size, and the convex 

interstices wliicb, except the first two, are impunctate 

after the base. 

Platypus calamus, sp. n. 

Fem. Elongata, angnsta, fermgineo-tejttacea, elytris apice 
infnacatis ; f ronte concava, linea media impressa ; prothorace 
eesqui longiore qnam latiore, in ntroqne sulci latere plaga punc- 
toram angusta ; elytris lineato-punctatis postice hand declivibus, 
interstitiis plauis^ vix perspicue punctatis, apice oblique excavato- 
impreaso, ovali, infeme emarginato, angulis extemis oblique 
prodnctis, margine extemo elevato sinuato, ad suturam supra 
Tilde obliqno, depressione nitida, ante angulos extremos impressa. 
Long. 3'7 mm. 

Sixteen examples of one sex only, taken at various 
places, Miyanoshita, Oshima, Kiushiu (Higo, Ynyama, 

Slender, reddish testaceous, elytra with apex darker. Head with 
front concave, anteriorly dull, with a deep longitudinal impressed 
line in middle, above it, with rather strong scattered punctures, 
upper part forming an obtuse angle with vertex, which has only 
the median elevated line present, narrow and inf uscate. Prothorax 
one half longer than broad, the sulcus fine, with a narrow group 
of punctures on either side, closer anteriorly, remainder of 
surface irregularly punctured, the punctures more evident towards 
the base, anterior and posterior borders with fine transverse 
reticulation. Elytra finely punctured in lines, sutural stria 
impressed throughout, remainder at base only ; interstices with a 
few fine punctures, 1st, 3rd, and 5th elevated at base, the former 
impressed with a fine line beginning behind base, 2nd and 4th with 
base evidently punctured. Apex of elytra with an oblique terminal 
impressed surface, its margin elevated and slightly everted, curving 

Digitized by 


1 38 Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

away from sutare so as to form an angle with its fellow above the 
terminal impression, and then sinuate at sides ; external angles 
produced in a curve downwards and backwards, their outer border 
serrate ; impressed sur&ce very shining, elevated at suture, aud 
concave above external angles, its outline an incomplete oval, 
emar-ginate below, the emargination deeper than wide, but shorter 
than the terminal surface measured along the suture, its sides 
nearly straight, not toothed, and apex rounded. Last abdominal 
segment concave. 

This species is one of tbe Platypi cupulati, and can 
be separated from all described species except the 
following, by tbe fact that in them the sutare is notched 
or narrowly emarginate above the terminal impression, 
and the sutural border forms a sharp and distinct angle 
with the upper margin of the impression, whereas in these 
species the sutural margin is gradually rounded into that 
of the impression without trace of any angle, so as to 
form a wide emargination. It can also be separated from 
most by the absence of any trace of a tooth on the lower 
apical emargination. 

Platypus hamatus, sp. n, 

Fem. Elongata, fermgineo - testacea, elytris apice paullo 
obscurioribus ; f route impressa, in medio foveolata ; prothorace 
oblongo, pnnclis magnis et parvis irregulariter notato, parte antica 
sulci utrinque punctis paucis circumdata ; elytris lineato- 
punctatis, interstitiis planis, parcissime punctatis, apice excavate- 
impresso, lunato, inferne late emarginato, angulis extremis longe 
productis, margine supra depressionem intus ad sutursm curvato, 
convexo. Long. 4'2 mm. 

Two examples at Yuyama and Miyanoshita. 

Elongate, reddish testaceous, with elytra darker at apex. Head 
with front subconcave, foveolate in middle, finely reticulate, and 
rather coarsely punctate above, vertex strongly punctured with 
a fine median elevated infuscate line. Prothorax more elongate 
than in P, calamus, sulcus deeper at extremities than in middle, 
with about a dosen punctures on either side of anterior extremity, 
remainder of surface with irregular punctures of two sizes, a 
slight impression on either side, about middle more closely 
punctured, anterior and posterior borders finely reticulate. Elytra 
with sculpture of surface similar to that of P. calamm, termi- 
nating in a vertical impressed surface, which is lunate and widely 

Digitized by 


^hynchophorous Coteoptera of Japan. I3d 

em&rgioate below, lateral borders meeting obliqaely at satare 
aboTe impreBsion, and curved out as in P. calamus^ and then 
nnuate, external angles produced downwards and backwards, 
longer and more curved than in the latter species ; terminal 
impression emarginate almost to middle, the emargination broader 
than long, with inferior sutural angles very slightly produced, its 
lorface shining, foToolate on either side, with suture elevated and 
toberculate. Last abdominal segment concave. 

This species, also one of the Platypi cupulati, is best 
separated from P. calamus by the structure of the apical 
impression^ the length of which measured along the suture 
is about equal to the depth of the emargination^ whereas 
in P. calamus it is about double its depth. The tuber- 
cles along the suture, the minutely produced sutural 
angles at the fundus of the interior emargination, and a 
fine serration of the superior border, where it curves 
away from the suture, are peculiar to this specie& P. 
hamatus is evidently closely allied to P.forficula, Chap., 
of which I have been unable to see a typical specimen. 
I have, however, an unnamed Platypus, taken by Mr. 
Wallace in Gilolo, which agrees with the description of 
P.forficula, and is probably to be referred to that species, 
as Chapnis appears to have seen all Wallace's PlcUypini. 
It most closely resembles P. hamatus, but the sutural 
border of the elytra makes a sharp angle with the upper 
margin of the terminal impression, which is much 
nuTower than in the latter species, being not half as 
deep as the inferior emargination. 

DiAPUs, Chap. 

An Oriental genus, represented in Japan by one 

Diapus aculeatus, sp. n. 

Feii. Picea, margine prothoracis postico et el3rtris ad basim 
dilutioribus ; fronte deplanata, in medio breviter carinata ; protho* 
twos disco nitidissimo, basi fortiter punctata ; eljrtrorum interstitiis 
lo, 2o, do elevatis, 3o, 5o ad apicem in spinulas validas productis ; 
7o breviter spinoso, extus cum 80 et 9o serratis conjuncto, angulo 
eztemo in spinulam obliquam angustissimam producto, depressione 
postica breviter bispinata. Long. 2-8 mm. 

Two examples, Higo. 

Digitized by 


UO Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford on the 

Bather slender and very shining, head and prothorax deep 
pioeons, the latter with basal border narrowly fosco-testaceons, 
elytra fosoo-testaceoos at base, becoming pitchy towards apex. 
Head with front nearly flat, impressed slightly over month, doll, 
with rather distinct and strigose pnnctnation below, the pnnctnres 
less apparent towards vertex, in the middle with a short median 
elevated keel, which is not perceptible towards vertex ; elevated 
lines of the latter very evident and shining. Prothorax very 
shining, rather deeply emarginate at sides, apex with a row of 
piliferous punctures, rest of surface quite impunctate, except at 
base which is closely and strongly punctured. Elytra with first 
two striflQ and marginal stria impressed throughout, third and 
fourth at. base only, outer stris indicated by lines of irregular 
punctures, which coalesce towards apex, interspaces almost im- 
punctate ; 1st interstice with a tninute spine at apex, 3rd and 5th 
with two long spines, 7th with a shorter spine, the outer border 
of which is conjoined with two serrations formed by the ex- 
tremities of the succeeding interstices, external angle with a very 
slender spine directed obliquely downwards, apex fringed with a 
few long ciliate hairs, apical impression oblique, subconvex, with 
two spines shorter than the three long spines of the interstices. 
Underside testaceous, metastemum and abdomen piceous, last seg- 
ment of the latter nearly flat, dull, fringed with long curled cilia. 

This species is closely allied to D. quinque-spinatus^ 
Chap.^ of which it may be the Japanese form. It 
presents the following distinctive features : the colonr is 
deeper and the surface more shining, the frontal carina 
is shorter, nearer the mouth, and not traceable towards 
the vertex as in D, quinque-spinatua, in which it appears 
to be longer and interrupted; the prothorax is quite 
impunctate except at the apex and base, and the basal 
punctures are more numerous; the interstices of the 
elytra are scarcely punctured, the spine of the 7th 
interstice is shorter and that of the 9th only represented 
by a small tooth, the spine at the external apical angle 
is peculiar to this species, as is the terminal fringe of 
hairs; the spines of the posterior depression are also 

Digitized by 


Hhynchophorous Coleopfera of Japan, 141 

{Genus incertce sedis.) 

Gekyocbbus, Motsch, 

Etad. ent. vii., p. 68. 

G. ddusfipenni^f Motsch., I.e. ix., p. 19..- 

Wliatever this insect may be, it cannot be a Scolyto^ 
platypus, as it is described in these terms: Fxgura 
Platypi csylindri, sed glabrior, etc. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Digitized by 


( 143 ) 

V. Deseripiion of the female of HTpochrysops sciniillans^ 
Bull. By Hamilton H. Dbuck, F.Z.S. 

[Bead Feb. 7th, 1894.] 

We bave lately procured a fine pair of this species ; 
tlie i only of which has been described, tod as the $ 
presents considerable differences I have written the fol- 
lowing description. They were received from Mioko, 
New Ireland, the i agreeing with the type in the 
National Museum from New Britain. 

Hypochrysops acintillans. 

MUetus aeintillans, Batl.^ Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(5),x,p. 150 (1882). 

Hypochrysops scintillans, H. H. Drace, Trans. Eot. 
Soc. Lond. (1890), p. 191. 

$. XJpperside brown with a creamy- white central patch on 
forewing ; no trace of bloe. Forewing rich dark brown, with a 
disc of creamy- white arranged much as the blue in H. cratevat $ , 
and extending from the base to beyond the cell, lightest in colon r 
towards the centre of the wing, and becoming gradually sub- 
merged in the brown borders, the inner margin being lighter 
brown than the rest of the wing. Hindwing brown, considerably 
paler than the forewing, darker along the subcostal nervure to 
the base of the subcostal nermle, where it becomes somewhat 
suffused ; the median nervure from about its middle, and the two 
median nervules from their bases, distinctly and evenly yellow. 
Costal margin from base nearly to apex pale creamy- white. 
Upper half of anal fold greyish, lower concolorous with wings. 
Cilia of both wings brown, that of hindwing being rather darker 
than ground colour. Underside much as in ^ , but the median 
space of forewing (bordered by the lower wall of the cell and the 
snbapical red band) creamy-white in place of greyish-brown ; the 
red bands of the hindwing being somewhat wider, and their 
metallic borders scarcely so brilliant. Thorax and abdomen 
brown ; head dark brown, with a whitish frontal line, and a yellow 
inner border to the eye ; legs and palpi yellow. Antennso black, 
white spotted belbw, yellow tipped. Expanse, ? ly^^ in., $ IJ in. 

Digitized by 


144 Mr. H. H. Drace on Hypochrysops scintillayis. 

Hab. Mioko^ New Ireland (Mas. Druce). 

In December 1890, 1 published, in the 'Transactions' 
of this Society, a short monograph of the genus, 
recognizing thirty-two species of these gorgeous little 
butterflies, and to that number must be added a new 
species, since described by Mr. .Miskin in the '' Anns. 
Queensl. Mus./' No. 1 (Supp.), p. 85 (1891), under the 
name JJ. apollo, from Herbert River, W. Queensland, 
and two other Australian species described by the same 
author in the "P. Z. S. N.S.W/' (ser. 2) iii, pp. 1517 & 
1518 (1888), viz.: JJ. eudides and JJ. ollijffi; the former 
allied to JST. chysanthis, Feld., the two latter to ff. 
ignita, Leach. 

Digitized by 


( 145 ) 

VI. A list of the Lemdoptera of the Khcma Hills. Pt. II. 
By Colonel ^hables Swinhoa, M.A.^ F.L.S. 

[^ad Oct. 18th, 1893.] 
Plate II. 



Ih arraDging the order in which the Heterocera should 
stand I have been working on the lines set forth in 
Hr. Hampson's excellent classification in Faun. Brit. 
Ind., but I cannot altogether follow the order in which 
he has, for the sake of convenience, put the different 
families, and prefer dividing them into three groups. 

Ist Fore wing with vein 5 (lower radial) from 
centre of discocellnlars, or nearer 6 than 4. 

2nd. Fore wing with vein 5 from lower angle of 
cell, or nearer 4 than 6. 

3rd. Fore wing with veins 4 to II arising from the 
cell at almost even distances apart. 

Group I. 
Snb Groap 1. No. 1. Sphingidse - Frenulum present. 



1. SatumiidsB 

2. Brahmseidse 

3. BombycidsB 
1. Eupterotidse 

-Frenulum absent. 

2. Cymatophoridae \ '^ 

-V mentary or ab- 
-J sent. 

- Frenulum present. 

- Frenulum present. 

1. Emcopiidse -^Frenulum rudi- 

2. ifraniidse 

3. Microniidse 

4. ^^piplemidas 
1. (feametsrs 

Snb Group 1. No. 1 

Group II. 

2. Drepanulidss 

} Frenulum sometimes 
present sometimes 

T&AK8. EliT. SOC. LOND. 1894. — PART I. (MARCH.) 

Digitized by 



146 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

Sub Group 1. No. 3. Limacodidse -^ 

„ 4. Lymantriidx - 

„ 5. HypMa^ - Urenulum present. 

0. A-TCtXtCLBc • I 

7. Agaristidfe 

„ 8. CaMniidw> - ' 

„ 2. Pterothysamdies 

3. „ 1. P«ycAtd/B - JFrenulum present. 

4. „ 1. ^lelidse -Urenaluni absent. 
„ 2. Hepialidae -f 

5. „ ]. Synfomufaj -brenulum present. 
„ 2. Zygaenidse -j ^ 

6. „ 1. Noctuidss - Frenulum present. 

Gkoup in. 

Sub Group 1 . No. 1. Sesii^ - - ) Frenulum present. 

Group I. 

Sub Group I. 

Family SPHINGID^. 


Genus Acherontia, Ochsen. 

1. A. Styx, Westw., Cab. Or. Ent., p. 88, pi. 42, fig. 3. 

2. A. lachesis (Fabr.), Ent. Syst. Suppl., 434, 26, 

A. morta, Hiibn., Verz., p. 140 (1816). 

Genus Langlta, Moore. 

3. i. zeuzeroides, Moore, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 567. 
i. khasiana, Moore, Z.c, p. 568. 

Recorded from the Khasias ; not received by me. 

Digitized by 


Leptdoptera of the Khasia Hills, 147 

Genus Calymnia, Walker. 

4. C. panopm (Cram.), Pap. Exofc., iii., p. 50, pi. 224, 

figs. A, B (1779). 

Recorded from the Kbasias. 

Genus Ambulyx, Westw. 

5. A. subatrigtlis, Westw., Cab. Or. Ent., p. 61, pi. 30, 

fig. 2 (1848). 

Shillong- and Cherra Punji. 

C, A. semifervens (Walker), xxxi, p. 38 (1864). 
A. iurhata, Butler, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 252. 
Cherra Punji. 

7. ± deucalion (Walker), viii., p. 236 (]8o6). 
Becorded from the Khasias. 

8. A. gigantea, Rothschild, Nov. Zool., i., p. 96 (1894). 
Becorded from the Khasias. 

Sub Fam, CH^ROCAMPIN-^. 
Genus Acosmebyi, Boisd. 

9. A. sericens (Walker), viii., p. 181 (1856). 
Many examples ; Shillong. 

10. A. einerea, Butler, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 245. 
Seyeral examples; Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

11. A. naga, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C, i., p. 271 (1857). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. Out of the numerous 
specimens of this genus received there has not been a 
single typical anceua, Cram. Hampson has put these 
fonr very distinct species together ; they appear to me 
to be very distinct, easily distinguishable and without 
intermediate forms. 

Digitized by 


148 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

Genus CHiEROCAMPA, Dap. 

12. C. macramera, Butler, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 7. 

13. C. aledo (Linn.), Syst. Nat., i., p. 803 (17G7). 

14. C. theylia (Linn.), I.e. 

C. rafflesii, Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc, 1876, p. 556. 
Examples of both forms of this species. 

15. C. oldenlandice (Fabr.), Sp. Ins., ii., p. 148 (1781). 

16. C. vagans (Butler), 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., v., 

p. 4, pi. 78, fig. 7 (1881). 

One example ; Shillong. 

17. a mydon (Walker), viii., p. 155 (1856). 
Three examples ; Shillong. 

18. C. olivacea (Moore), P. Z. S., 187;!, p. 567. 

19. C. velata (Walker), xxxv., p. 1853 (1866). 
Pergesa aegrota, Butler, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 246. 
Metopsilus albomarginatus, Rothschild, Nov. Zool., i., 

p. 78 (1894). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; in great numbers. Hamp- 
son has included aurifera, Butler, and acuta, Walker, with 
this species ; they appear to me to be distinct ; they have 
broad pale yellow prominent bands on each side of the 
thorax, a character wanting in velata. The form albo- 
marginatus is nob uncommon in the Khasias ; I cannot see 
how it can be separated from velata : in this variable 
species there are scarcely any two examples identical. 

20. C. castor (Walker), viii., 153 (1856). 

Many examples, a common species in the Khasias; 
omitted by Hampson. I have it from both Shillong and 
Cherra Punji, it seems to be a link between velata and 

Digitized by 


Lepiilopfprn of the Khasin Hills. 149 

olirncea, having the colouration of the former with the 
white marginal suffusion on the fore wings above, of the 

21. C. bunris (Walker), viii., p. 158 (1856). 
Panacra hamilioni, Eothschild, Nov. Zool., i., p. 82. 
Cherra Punji. 

The tjpe specimen is much faded, but I have a fine 
series and feel certain of my identification. 

22. r. helops (Walker), viii., p. 180 (1856). 
Phtlampelus orientalis, Felder, Reise Nov. Lep., pi. 77, 

fig. I (1874). 

One example ; Shillong. The type of helops is recorded 
bom Port Natal, which must be a mistake. 

23. r.chtho (Drury), 111. Exot. Ins. ii., p. 48, pi. 28, 

fig. 1 (1773). 
Sphinx hutiis, Cram., Pap. Exot, ii., p. 88, pi. 152 

. (i777). 
D^ilephila cyrene, Westw., Cab. Or. Ent., p. 13, pi. 6, 
fig. 1 (1848). 

Many examples. The type of cyrene is in 0. M. ; it 
is identical with clotho, 

24. C. punctivenata, Butler, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 248. 

Many examples. I have both sexes from Cherra Punji. 
It should not be confounded with clotho, Gonograpta 
from Southern India also appears to be a good species. I 
have a long series in my Museum. 

25. C. lineosa, Walker, viii., p. 144 (1856). 

26. C. major, Butler, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 249. 

27. C. minor, Butler, Z.c. 

Shillong and Cherra Punji; in great numbers. At 
first I put them together, following Hampson, but with 
the numbers now before me I cannot do so. They are 
undoubtedly somewhat alike, as are all the species of 
this group, but each has its own distinctive wing 
markings, and m,ajor has a pale yellowish broad longitu« 
dioal shade, central on forewings, discal on hindwings, 
which is very characteristic. 

Digitized by 


150 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

28. 0. pallicosta, Walker, vlii., p. 145 (1856). 
Three examples ; Shillong. 

Genus Daphnis, Hiibn. 

29. D. nerii (Linn.), Syst. Nat., i., 2, p. 798 (1767). 
Recorded from Elhasiaa. 

30. D. bhaga, Moore, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 794. 
Numerous specimens from Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Th£R£t&a, Hubn. 

31. jP. neasits (Drury), 111. Ins. Exot., ii., p. 46, pi. 27, 

fig. 1 (1773). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

32. T. actea (Cram.), Pap. Exot., iii., p. 93, pi. 248, 

fig. A (1779). 

Genus Elibia, Walker, 

33. E, doUchiis (Wesbw.), Cab. Or. Ent., p. 61, pi. 30, 

fig. 1 (1848). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Sub Fam. SPHINGIN^. 
Genus Peotopabce, Burmeister. 

34. P. crientalis, Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 609, 

pi. 91, figs. 16, 17 (larva). 


Genus Pseudosphinx, Burmeister. 

35. P. inexacta (Walker), viii., p. 208 (1856). 
Many examples. 

36. (Walker), viii., p. 195 (1856). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

37. P. discistriga (Walker), viii., p. 209 (1856). 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hilts. 151 

38. P. khaslanum (Rothschild), Nov. Zoo!., i., p. 90 (1894). 

Recorded from the Khasias ; must be closely allied to 
if distinct from the preceding which is a very variable 

Gen as Nephelb, Hiibner. 

39. N. hespera (Fabr.), Syst. Ent., p. 546 (1775). 
Becorded from the Khasias. 

Genus Apocalypsis, Butler. 

40. A. veloxy Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc, 1876, p. 641. 
One example ; Shillong. 

Genus Psbddodolbina, Rothschild. 

41. P. teloxina, Rothschild, Nov. Zool., i., p. 91, pi. 6, 

fig. 18 (1894). 

B^orded from the Khaaias. 

Genus Gueblca, Kirby. 

42. 0. hyas (Walker), viii., p. 107, 1856. 

43. G. masuriensis (Butler), P. Z. S., 1875, p. 244, 

pi. 3663. 

Numerous specimens, the common form apparently. 
I have received it from both Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Rhopalopsyche, Butler. 

4t. R. nycterie (Eollar), Hiig. Kasch., iv., 2, p. 458, 
pi. 19, fig. 5 (1844). 

Cherra Panji. 

Genus Macboolossa, Scop. 

45. if. helis (Cram.), Pap. Exot., i., p. 147, pi. 04, fig. c 


46. M. gilia, Herr Schiiff., Samml. Ausser. Eur. Schm., 

pp. 59, 79, pi. 23, fig. 107 (1850). 
Several examples. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

152 Colonel Charles Swintoe on the 

47. M. proxima, Butler, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 4, pi. 1, 6g. I. 
Three examples ; Shillong. 

48. M. imperator, Butler, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 243, pi. 37, 

fig. 4. 
Cherra Punji. 

G^Dus Cephnodes, Hiibn. 

49. C. hylas (Linn.), Mant., i., p. 539 (1771). 
Recorded from the Kbasias. 

Genus Sataspss, Moore. 

50. 8. inf emails (Westw.), Cab. Or. Ent., p. 61, pi. 30, 

fig. 3 (1848). 

Sub Group II. 


Genus Actias, Leach. 

51. A. selene (Hiibn.), Samml. Exot. Schm.^ i., pi. 172, 

fig, 3 (1806-19). 

52. A.msenas, Double., Ann. Mag. N. H., xix., p. 95, 

pi. 7, fig. 1 (1847). 

Genus Attacus, Linn. 

58. A atlas, Linn., Mus. Lud.-Ulr., p. 366 (1764). 

54. A. edwarJsi, White, P. Z. S., 1859, p. 115, pi. 57. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

55. A. Cynthia, Drury, Exot. Ins., ii., pi. 6, fig. 2 (1773). 
Very plentiful. 

56. A. ricini, Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (3), ii., p. 755 

Many examples. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Lepidoptera of the Khasia Sill 8, 153 

Genus Anthebjea, Hiibn. 

57. A. roylei, Moore, P. Z. S., 1859, p. 256, pi. 64, fig. 1. 
Cherra Panji. 

58. A, paphia (Linn.), Syst. Nat., i., p. 809 (1767). 
Cherra Panji. 

59. A. hd/eri, Moore, P. Z. S., 1859, p. 257, pi. 64, fig. 2. 
Cherra Panji. 

60. A. knyvetti, Hampson, Faun. Brit. Ind. Moths, i., 

p. 19 (1892). 
One female ; Shillong. 

This species has been in my collection for some years 
under Moore's M.S. name of tumida. 

Grenus Satubnia, Schrank. 

61. S. extensa (Butler), 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., v., 

p. 61, pi. 94, fig. 2 (1881). 
Two examples ; Shillong. 

Genns Loepa, Moore. 

62. L katinka (Westw.), Cab. Or. Ent., p. 25, pi. 12, 

fig. 2 (1848). 

Nnmeroos examples. 

Genus Salassa, Moore. 

63. Salasia megastica, sp. n. 

i 9. Of the same brick-red colour as in S. lola, bat very 
mach larger, the antemedial line of forewings much closer to the 
l«e, white outwardly edged with brown, very much outwardly 
corred and runs close into the base on the hinder margin ; the 
hTiiine spot is large, ringed with a black and a white line deeply 
cxcarated on the outer side, the excavation filled up by a deep 
hUck patch ; on the hindwing the difference is greater, the hyaline 
vpot is larger than on the forewings, but of a similar nature, the 
nogs round it are black, white, and again black, then a broad light 
rtd space, which on the outer side is very broad and extends well 
beyond the diecal black and white spotted band, which is thin in 
the disc and curves broadly round the ocellus, the space between 
it and the red portion being filled in with dark grey; halfway 

Digitized by 

Google 1 

154 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

between this discal band and the oater margin is a duplex brown 
band, the inner portion straight, the outer dentate. The female, 
instead of being brown, as in 8. lola^ merely differs from the male 
in having the brown bands darker, and the hyaline spots very large 
on both wings, being nearly half an inch in diameter, and of 
about equal size. Expanse of wings ^ ? , 6,%, Gf*^ inch. 
Three males and one female, from Cl^erra Panji. 

Genus Cricula, Walker. 

64. C. trlfenestrata (Heifer), Journ. As. Soc. Beng., vi., 

p. 45 (1837). 

Genus Braum^a, Walker. 

65. B. wallichii, Gray, Zool. Misc., p. 39 (1832). 
Many examples ; Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

66. B. hearsayi, White, Proc. Ent. Soc., 1861, p. 26. 
Eleven examples ; Shillong. 

Genus Ocinaea, Walker. 

67. 0. signifera (Walker), Journ. Linu. Soc, vi., p. 130 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

68. 0. cyproba, sp. n. (PI. II., fig. 1.) 

(J ?. AntennaB reddish grey, body and wings pure white, 
wings thinly clothed, almost semi-hyaline, with many grey bands ; 
first ante-medial, indicated on hindwing by cell spot and a short 
band at abdominal margin, second discal third sab-marginal, both 
complete, these bands on the f orewings are crossed by longitudinal 
similar bands, which fill np the second, third, and fifth interspaces, 
almost from the base to the centre margin, and are crossed by the 
white veins on both wings. Expanse of wings ^ 1 ,'o, ? 1 ,% inch. 

Many males and two females, from Cherra Punji and 

Far more thinly clothed than 0. signifera^ and with- 
out any spots. 

Digitized by 


LeptJoptera of the Khasia Hills, 155 

69. 0. apicalis, Walker, Journ. Linn. Soc, vi., p. 130 


Shillong and Cherra Panji. 

Sub Group III. 


Genus Ganqarides, Moore. 

70. G. roseus (Walker), xxxii., p. 513 (1865). 
Two males and one female, Cherra Punji. 

Genus Dbeata, Walker. 

71. D. hades, Walker, iv., p. 908 (1855). 

ShQlon^ and Cherra Punji. Many males and females. 
The females only differ from the males in their larger 
size and brighter colour, having sometimes a reddish 

Genus Palirisa, Moore. 

72. P. lineosa (Walker), iv., p. 912 (1855). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. One male and several 

73. P. cervina (Moore), P. Z. S., 1865, p. 807. 
Shillong, one pair. 

Genus Tagora, Walker. 

74. T.patnla, Walker, v., p. 1189 (1855). 
T. undtdosa, Walker, v., p. 1196. 
Cherra Punji. 

75. r. khasiana (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., i., 

p. 77, 1879. 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

76. T. pallida (Walker), iv., p. 912, 1855. 

Sphingognatha asclepiades, Felder, Eeise Nov. Lep., 
iv., pi. 94, fig. 1 (1868). 

Cherra Punji. 

I have received numerous specimens of patula and 
hha$iana, and one male and two females of pallida^ 

Digitized by 


156 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on (he 

Hampson puts the first two together, but there are un- 
doubtedly three species and not two. There is a small 
pale fawn-coloured species, 6 3,o, ? 4 inches in expanse 
of wings, similarly coloured in both sexes, identical with 
Moore's type of khasiana, very uniform in size ; it has a 
black head and pale tuft of hairs at basal joint of antennae. 
A medium sizea form, 6 4,*o, 9 5 inches, uniform in size, 
very variable in colour, from pale fawn colour to dark grey 
and dark reddish fawn colour in the male, always of the 
latter colour in the female, the females of which fairly 
well correspond to Walker's types of patula and un- 
dnlosa. This species has also in the male a black head 
and pale tuft of hairs. Finally, there is a large species 
of which I have received only one male and two females, 
measuring, cJ 5, ? 6,o inches. The male is coloured 
pale fawn colour like the males of j^^^^^^ from Java and 
Malayana in my collection. It has an ochreous-red head 
and tuft of hairs a little darker than in the other species. 
The females are dark reddish-fawn coloured like the 
females of patula, and also identical in colour with 
Malayan and Javan females of pallida. 

Genus Fskudojana, Hampson. 

77. P. incandescens (Walker), iv., p. 910 (1855). 
Cherra Punji ; two females. 

Genus Ganisa, Walker. 

78. G.posticaj Walker, v., p. 1190 (1855). 

79. O. pandya (Moore), P. Z. S., 1865, p. 807. 

Genus Apha, Walker. 

80. A. aubdives, Walker, v., p. 1180 (1855). 

Genus Eupterote, Hiibn. 

81. E. lineosa (Walker), vi., p. 1410 (1855). 

Murlida fraterna, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1884, 
p. 371. 


Digitized by 


Lepidopiera of the Khasia Hills. 157 

82. E, calandra, sp.n. 

(J ?. AnteniMB (of the male) with the plumes grey; palpi, 
bead, and fore part of thorax ochreons ; shaft of antennse, body, 
•od wings, above and below, bright citron-yellow, absolutely with- 
out any markings ; thorax beneath and legs ochreous. Expanse of 
''"««» <J2/ot ? 3^-inch. 

Cherra Panji and Shillong. Numerous examples of 
both sexes. AntennaD of the male weak, with the pec- 
tinations short as in E. gemiTiata, Walker, but the wings 
are broader, with margin of fore wings less oblique. 
The absence of all markings makes it very distinctive. 

63. £. ammilisi Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1884, p. 363. 

Jf. dissimilis, Moore, l.c, p. 368. 

Cherra Punji. 
84. E. tesiacea (Walker), iv., p. 906 (1855). 

Shillong; common. 

^. E, axesta, sp. n. (PI. IL, fig. 2.) 

(J. Plumes of antennae grey ; palpi and head red-brown ; body 
and wings above of a uniform sandy-yellow colour ; wings crossed 
by tereral brown bands ; first antemedial outwardly curved, indis- 
tinct, obsolete in hind wings ; second medial, macular curved in on 
to the costa of fore wings, followed by three equidistant discal 
bands, outwardly curved, and composed of small spots. The 
lut on hind wings is linear, a sub-marginal darker band of double 
Innolea, which on hind wings is single and sinuous, cilia brown, 
nndernde darker, with the inner band obsolete on both wings ; all 
the other bands present and prominent ; legs pink-brown, covered 
with yellow hair ; 9 pale reddish-brown, with the inner lines more 
or less obsolete. Expanse of wings, 2/*, inch. 

Shillong and Cherra Panji ; several examples. 

Allied to E. teatacea, but the bands on the latter are 
linear and mostly straight. 

Genus Nisaqa, Walker. 

86. N. simplex, Walker, iv., p. 885 (1855). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

The female of this species, of which I have received 
two, has simple antennae, the body is dark, the wings 
pale brickdust-colour, slightly tinged with pink. 

Digitized by 


158 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

Sub Group IV, 
Genus Taesolkpis, Butler, 

87. T. fulgurifem (Walker), xiv., p. 1347 (1857). 
Cherra Panji ; one example. 

88. T. remicauda, Butler, Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), x., 

p. 125, pi. 8 (1872). 

ShiUong ; one example. 

Genus Dddusa, Walker, 

89. D. nolilis, Walker, xxxii., p. 447 (1865). 

Shillong; one female. 

This is the first record of this species within Indian 
limits ; the type came from North China. I have it also 
from Celebes and Singapore, 

Genus Bababesa, Moore. 

90. B. lithosioides, Moore, P. Z. S., 1883, p. 17, pi. 5, 

fig. 2, 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; numerous specimens. 

Genus Phalera, Moore. 

91. P. parivala, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C, ii., p. 434 


Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

92. P, raya, Moore, I.e., p. 434. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Garqetta, Walker. 

93. G. costigera, Walker, xxxii., p. 455 (1865). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; common. 

94. G. curvaria, Hampson, Faun. Brit. Ind. Moths, 

i., p. 136 (1892). 


Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hills. 159 

Genus Tornaca, Walker. 

95. T. delineivena, sp. n. 

5 Palpi dark brown with pale tips to the hairs, antennae 
reddish-brown, forewings and thorax grey, forewings with the 
median and outer veins dark brown and with brown bands on each 
of these veins, more broadly and better defined in the median vein 
tloDg its whole length, hinder portion of the wing also suffused 
with brown, bindwings brown with pale costal margin. Expanse 
of wings, 2/^ inch. 

Cherra Panji ; two examples. 

Genus Thacona, Walker. 
PoTsica, Walker. 

96. T. ingens (Walker), xxxv., p. 1823 (1866). 
Shillong ; two examples. 

Genus Pydna, Walker. 

97. P. tesiacea, Walker, vii., 1754 (1856). 

^i, P. kamadena (Moore), P. Z. S., 1865, p. 812. 

Shillong. I have both sexes of this species, it is 
quite distinct from the preceding, differing in size, 
markings, and colouration. 

99. P. decurrens (Moore), Desc. Ind. Lep. Atk., i., 

p. 66 (1879). 
The type came from Cherra Punji, not received by 

100. P. notata, Swink, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1891, p. 479, 

pi. 19, fig. 16. 

Shillong ; one example. 

Hampson makes this a synonym of P. pallida, Batler, 
from Japan, but it cannot even belong to the same 
section of the genus, having simple antennse in both 

101. P longivitta (Walker), vii., p. 1754 (1856). 
Shillong ; two males, one female. 

102. P. hela, sp. n. 

Antennae grey ; upper side of palpi dark brown ; underside 

Digitized by 


160 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

yellowish-grey ; head, thorax, and f orewings dark reddish-ochreooa ; 
abdomen and hindwings white, tinged with ochreoos ; forewinga 
irrorated with brown atoms; these, clustered together, form a 
longitudinal fascia in the centre up to the apex and indications of 
another fascia below it ; some indistinct brown spots in an cot- 
wardly curved line from centre of hinder margin towards apex, 
only apparent in one example ; hind wings with the outer border 
tinged with red. Expanse of wings, 1/^ inch. 
Cherra Panji ; three examples. 

Genus Cbira, Walker. 

103. C. aurata (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., i., 
p. 64 (1879). 
Recorded from the Khasia Hills, by Moore. 

lot. C.fasciata (Moore), Z.c, p. 66. 
Shillong ; two specimens. 

Genus Someba, Walker. 

105. S. viridifmca, Walker, iv., p. 882 (1855). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; many examples. 

Genus Cebcra, Schrank. 

106. C. lituraia, Walker, v., p. 988 (1855). 

Genus Htpeb^schra, Butler. 

107. H. pallida, Butler, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5) vi., 

p. 65 (1880). 
Shillong; numerous examples. 

108. H. hasalis (Moore), P. Z. S., 1865, p. 813. 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Aktheua, Walker. 

109. A. servula (Drury), Ins. Exot., ii., p. 20, pi. 11, 

fig. 11 (1773). 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Anticyra, Walker. 

110. A. conibusta, Walker, p. 1092 (1855). 
Cherra Punji. 

Digitized by 


Lepidopiera nf the Khasia Hills, 161 

Genus F£NT0NIA, Butler. 

111. JP. argentifera (Moore), P. Z. S., 1865, p. 813. 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Nbtru, Walker. 

112. N. viridescens (Walker), vi., p. 150i (1855). 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Spatalia, Hiibner. 

113. S. argentifera (Walker), Joum. Linn. Soc, vi., 

p. 140 (1862). 

114 8. auritracta (Moore), P. Z. S., 1865, p. 811. 

115. 8. plasioides (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., i., 

p. 62 (1879). 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Lophoptertx, Stephens. 

116. L. ferruginosa, Moore, Descr. Ini Lep. Atk., i., 

p. 67 (1879). 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Bbsaia, Walker. 

117. B. ruhiginea, Walker, xxxii., p. 459 (1865). 
Recorded from the Khasias. 

Genus Mstaschalis, Hampson. 

118. M. disrupta (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., i., 

p. 62 (1879). 

Cherra Punji. 

Genus Ichthtuka, Hiibner. 

119. Lfulgurita, Walker, xxxii., p. 433 (1865). 

120. I. pallida (Walker), v., p. 1077 (1855). 
Shillong, one example. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 

162 Colonel Charles Swinlioe on the 

Genus Habrosyne, Hiibner. 

121. H. indica (Moore), P. Z, S., 1867, p. 44. 

122. H. armata, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., ii., 

p. 90 (1882). 

Recorded from the Khasia Hills. 

Genus Thyatira, Hiibner. 

123. T. batis (Linn.), Syst. Nat., i., p. 836 (1735). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Gaurkna, Walker. 

124. G. florescens, Walker, xxxii., p. 620 (1865). 
Recorded from the Khasias. 

Genus Polyploca, Hiibner. 

125. P. albicosta (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 45. 
Cherra Punji. 

Sub Group V. 


Genus Epicceia, Westw. 

126. E. polydora, Westw., Arcana Ent., p. 19, pi. 5, 

fig. 1 (1843). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

127. E. varunea, Moore, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 799. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Nyctalkmon, Dalman. 

128. N. zampa, Butler, Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 273 


Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Lepidopiera of the Kha^ia Ui'.W. l^»o 

Genus Urapteeoidss, Moore. 

129. U. astheniata (Ga^n.), Phal., ii., p. 24 (ISOr. 
Cherra Ponji. 

Genus Stbophidia, Huboer. 

130. 8.faseiata{GThm.), Pap. Exot, ii., P- 12, pi. 1">4, 

fig. D (1779). 

Genus Micbonidia^ Moore. 

131. M. simpliciafa (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. GW. 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Miobonia, Gu^n. 

132. M. aculeata, Gu^n., PhaL, ii., p. 12, pi. 13, 

fig. 8, 9 (1857). 

M. gannata, Z.c, p. 26, ^ 

M. sparsaria, Walker, xxiii.^ p. 818 (1861). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; common. 

Genus Pseudomiceonia, Moore. 

133. P. coelata^ Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii,, 

p. 257 (1887). 

Shillong ; one example. 

Genus Acroptbbis, Hiibner. 

134. A. siriataria (Clerck.), Icon., pi. 55, fig. 4 (1759). 
Shillong and Cherra Ponji. 

135. A. iphiata (Gu6n.), Phal., ii., p. 29 (1857). 
Micronia pontiata, Gu^n., I.e. 

if. convexaria, Walker, xxiii., p. 819 (1861). 


The type of convexaria came from Landoor, it was 
omitted from Cotes and Sunbury's catalogue by ove- 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

164 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

136. A. ciniferaria (Walker), xxxv., p. 1642 (1866). 
Micronia obliquaria, Moore, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 622, 

pi. 60, fig. 17. 

Shillong and Cherra Ponji. 

ITie type of ciniferaria from Siam is in the 0. M., 
the type of ohliquana is from the Andaman Islands; 
they are not separable. 

137. A. vagata (Moore), P.Z. S., 1877, p. 622, pi. 60, 

fig. 18. 

Genns Auzsa, Walker. 

138. A. rufifrontata, Walker, xxvi., p. 1487 (1862). 
Cherra Ponji. 

Genus Chatahla, Moore.- 

139. Cflavescens (Walker), ii., p. 406 (1854). 

Genus Avana, Walker. 

140. A. angulifera, Walker, iii., p. 662 (1855). 
Shillong and Cherra Ponji. 

Genus Dkcetu, Walker. 

141. D. mimicusariay Walker, xx., p. 95 (1860). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; several examples. 

Genus Paradbcetia, Nov. 

With the veination of Deceiia, but with very different 
antennae. In Decetia the antennae are pectinated in both 
sexes. In this genus the antennae of the male are 
dentated, the teeth with flat ends and very close 
together ; in the female the rudiments of the dentations 
only are present. 

142. P. albistellaria (Walker), xxvi., p. 1522 (1862). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

I have it also from the Shan States (Manders). The 
type is in B.M., without locality. 

Digitized by 


Lepidaptera of the Khasla Hills, 165 

Genus Epiplema, Herr Schuff. 

143. E. retkulaia (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 259 (1887). 

144. E. himala (Butler), Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., 

p. 221 (1880). 

145. E. ituolita (Walker), xxxv., p. 1648 (1866). 

Dirades conchiferata, Moore, Lep. Ceylon, iii., p. 403, 

pi. 186, fig. 11 (1887). 
Cherra Punji. 

146. E. fulcilinea, Hampson, III. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., 

vui., p. 103, pi. 150, fig. 19 (1891). 

I have this also from the Nilgiri Hills, and from Fort 
Stedman, Shan States. 

14?. E. quadricaudata (Walker), xxiii., 847 (1861). 
Erom varisaria, Walker, xxiii., 848, and xxvi., 1 757 

Cherra Punji. 

148. E.moza (Butler), Ann. Mag. N.H. (5), i., p. 402 

Cherra Punji. 

lie type of this species came from Japan, the Cherra 
Pnnji are almost identical with it. 

149. E, ocusta, sp. i?. 

i' Pkle chocolate* brown, irroratcd with black and brown 
'^^^ both wings crossed by two pale lines, ante and post medial, 
^'iiiog from coeta of f orewings, from which they are first extended 
^^twards, then abruptly carying inwards run direct to the hinder- 
^'pQ) are extended across the hindwings, both being deeply 
^bowed outwardly in their centres, the inner line edged outwardly 
^ the outer line inwardly with black, the black edgings being 
b'^ in parts^ the outer portion of both wings are suffused with 
b^ md brown, two indistinct black spots near hinder angle of 
^orewiogs and an ochreous patch near outer margin above the 
niiddle on the bind wings ; on the forewings there is a sub-marginal 
pile line outwardly edged with black, from the apex, stopping at 

Digitized by 


166 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

one-third before the hinder angle, at which part of the margin 
the wing is pi-oduced into a small angle ; marginal line white, 
cilia dark brown edged with ochrQous grey. Expanse of wings, .''o 

Cherra Punji ; three examples. 

150. E. sreapa, sp. n. 

(J . Blackish brown, nearly anif orm in coloar, stiiations black, 
two black transverse lines across both wings, ante and post 
medial most distinct on costa of fore wings from which they mn 
outward, and then become sinuous, directly descending to the 
hinder margin, the outer one haying white points; on the hindwings 
they are not sinuous, the inner one is almost invisible, the outer 
one is double, an ochreous line between them, it is bent acutely 
outwards in its centre where it has two small teeth, and some 
white pointd in its lower half, a black sub-marginal streak on 
forewings below the apex, marginal line ochreous, fringe blackish 
brown. Expanse of wings, 1 /^ inch. 

Cherra Panji ; one example. 

Genus Dirades, Walker. 

151. D. bicandata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 643. 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Oeudiza, Walker. 

152. 0. protheclaria, Walker, xxiii., p. 858 (1861). 

Sub Group VI. 

Genus Sarcinodes, Gu^n. 

153. S. carnearia, Guen., Phal., i., p. 188 (1857). 
Very common. 

154. S. restitutaria (Walker), xxvi., p. 1527 (1862). 
Auxima sumatraria, Walker, xxxv., p. 1577 (186(3). 
Sarcinodes wgrota, Butler, 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., 

vi., p. 60, pi. 115, figs. 3, 4 (1886). 
Very common. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Lepidopiei'a of the Khasia Hills, 167 

15o. S. xquiUnearixi (Walker), xxi., p. 292 (1860). 
Shillong ; several examples. 

156. 8. lUacina, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 234 (1887). 

Cherra Panji and Shillong; common. 

157. 8. debUaria (Walker), xxvi., p. 1527 (1862). 
Cherra Punji and Shillong ; several examples. 

158. 8. susatui, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1891, p. 488. 
Shillong and Cherra Panji ; many examples. 

Genus Nobeia, Walker. 

159. N. ajaia (Walker), Joum. Linn. Soc, iii., p. 195 


Genus Eometja, Duncan. 

160. E. roaalia (Cram.), Pap. Exot., iv., p. 152, pi. 368, 

fig. F. (1782). 

161. E. fiavata^ Moore, Lep. Ceylon, iii., p. 440, 

pi. 198, fig. 3 5 (1887). 

Shillong ; one example. 

162. E. aureltaia, Gu6i., Phal. i., p. 394, pi. 22, fig. 6 



Genus Ozola, Walker, xxiv., p. 1080 (1861). 
Carima, Walker, xxvi., p. 1630 (1862). 
Zarmtgethusa, Walker, I.e., p. 1637. 

163. 0. mieroniaria, Walker, xxiv., p. 1080 (1862). 
Cherra Punji. 

164. 0. extersaria (Walker), xxiii., p. 926 (1861). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Digitized by 


1 68 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

165. 0. biangulifera (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., lii., 

p. 263 (1887). 

Shillong and Cherra Pimji; common. 

The inner band of forewings is acutely bent in on to 
the costa, but this species can more easily be distin- 
guished from exteraaria by having the discal band 
waved up to costa near apex, whereas in extersaria it is 
acutely angled inwards on to the corta at one-third from 

Genus Bambaba, Moore. 

166. jB. efila, sp. n. 

^ . White, both wings with a brown ringlet at the end of the 
cells, almost lunular in shape, a brown mark in centre of hinder 
margin of forewings, and a short brown streak before centre of 
abdominal margin of hlndwings, giving with the cell marks the 
appearance of a broken medial band across both wings ; an 
indistinct discal sinuous brown line on hindwings with slight traces 
of one on the forewings, a large black sub-apical spot on fore- 
wings, and black dots on the outer margin of both wings between 
the veins. Expanse of wings, 1/^ inch. 

Cherra Punji ; two examples of this fine Rambara. 

Genus Naxa, Walker. 

167. K textilis, Walker, vii., p. 1743 (1856). 

Shillong; two examples. 

Orthoatixis hugell, Felder, Beise Nov. Lep., pi. 130, 
fig. 19 ^ (1874), is generally made a synonym to the 
above, but this wrong : there are two distinct species, 
although the pattern is very much the same ; hiigeli has 
antennae very much more deeply pectinated than in 

Genus Celerena, Walker. 

168. 0. dimsa, Walker, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 72. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus, Iotaphora, Nov. 
Palpi short, covered with short stiff hairs, last joint depressed ; 
antennse of male bipectinate, with short stiff branches to the tips, 
the pectinations ciliated. Female with simple antennse ; hind- 

Digitized by 


Lepidoplera of the Khasia Silts, 169 

▼ings with vein 2 one foarth from lower end of cell, 3 just 
before the end, 5 above the centre of disco-cellnlars, rather close 
to the upper end of cell, 6 and 7 from end of cell ; f orewings with 
reins 2 and 3 as in hindwings, 5 from centre of disco-eellulars ; 
hind tibiae with two pairs of short spars. 

169. /. iridieolor (Butler), Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., 

p. 227 (1880). 
Cherra Panji ; one pair. 

Genus Tosauba, Swinh. 

170. T. falcipennis (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 266, pi. 8, fig. 29 (1887). 
ShilloDg and Cherra Punji ; common. 

171. T. picaria, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, p. 16, 

pi. 1, fig. 16. 
Shillong ; many examples. 

Fam. GEOME^rRID^. 

Genus Euschema, Hiib. 
Hazis, Boisd. 
Heleona, Swainson. 

172. E. militaris (Linn.), Mus. Lud. Uk., p. 375 (1764). 

17:3. E. excuhiior, Moore, P* Z. S., 1878, p. 846. 

Genus Pachyodes, Goen. 

174. P.hsematana (Herr Schuff.), Exot. Schm.,fig8. 205, 

206 (1850-69). 

P. omataria, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 249 (1887). 

175. p. vigens (Butler), Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., 

p. 127 (1880). 

176. P. apicalis (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 247 (1887). 

Digitized by 


170 Colonel Charles Sviinhoe on the 

177. P. codistrigaria (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 633. 
ShilloDg and Cherra Panji. 

178. P. similis (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 248 (1887). 

P. ruficosta, Hampson^ 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., viii., 
p. 108, pi. 150, fig. 16 (1891). 


179. P. erionoma, Swinh., Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., 

p. 219 (1893). 
Shillong ; numerous examples. 

Genus Absala, Swinh. 

180. A. dorcada, Swinh., Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., 

p. 149. (PI. II., fig. 6.) 
Shillong; three males, one female. 

Genus Pskudoterpna, Hiibn. 
Hypochrama, Gu^n. 
Dindtca, Moore. 
Pingasa, Moore. 

181. P. polyphsenaria (Guen.), Phal., i., p. 280 (1857). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; common. 

182. P. para (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 490. 
Shillong; many examples. 

183. Pcrenaria (GucJn.), Phal., i., p. 278 (1857). 

Hypochroma distenta, Walker, xxi., p. 434 (1860). 
H. sublimhata, Butler, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), x., p. 232 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

184. P. chlora (Cram.), Pap. Bxot., iv., p. 233, pi. 398, 

fig. c (1782). 

Hypochroma lariaria, Walker, xxi., p. 433 (1860). 
H, irrorataria, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 632. * 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; very common. 

185. P. rufofasciata (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii.^ 

p. 247 (1887). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Digitized by 


Lepidaptera of the Ehasia Hills. 1 71 

186. P. ruginaria (Gn^n.), Phal., i., p. 278 (1857). 
Hypochroma perfeciaria, Walker, xxi., p. 434 (1860). 
H. nyctemercUa, Walker, Z.c, p. 444. 

ShilloDg and Cherra Punji ; very common. 

187. P. alba (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 491, 

pi. 19, fig. 6. 
Shillong ; several males. 

Genus Chlobodontopeba, Warren. 

188. C. dUcospihia (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 621. 

189. C. chcUybeata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1872, p. 580, pi. 34, 

lig. 4. 

Shillong and Cherra Pnnji. 

Genus Epipbistis, Meyrick. 
Terpnidia, Warren. 

190. E. minimarta (Gu^n.), Phal., i., p. 279 (1857). 

Hypochroma parvnla, Walker, xxi., p. 435 (I860). 
Acidalia truncatariay Walker, xxiii., p. 774 (1861). 

Shillong and Cherra PunjL 

Genus Hebochboha, Swinh. 
Actenochromay Warren. 

191. H. haba, Swinh., Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., p. 148 

Shillong ; many specimens. 

Mr. Warren's paper on Indian Geometers in Coll. 
Elwes was published in the same month as mine in the 
Annals, but Part ii. of P. Z. S. was not issued from the 
printers until three weeks later than the issue of the 
August number of the Annals and Magazine of Nat. 
Hist in which my paper appeared. 

\n. U. Buhiepens (Walker), xxi., p. 438 (1860). 

fihiUong ; numerous examples. 

The type in the O.M. came from Sarawak, it is, how- 
ever, a common species in the Khasia Hills, and the 
Khaaia Hill examples are identical with the type. 

Digitized by 


172 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

193. H. mridarta (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 632. 
Shillong and Cherra Panji ; common. 

194. R. muscicoloraria (Walker), xxvi., p. 1543 (1862). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Maxates, Moore. 

195. M. cwlataria (Walker), xxii., p. 552 (1861). 

196. M. macariata (Walker), xxvi., p. 1562 (1862). 

Genus Lissolica, Nov. 

Differs from Maxates in the simple anieimsc in both sexes ; in 
the genus Maxates the antennas in the male is bipectinate for two- 
thirds its length, in the veination also vein 2 of the hindwings 
arises mnch nearer the end of the cell 

197. L. polygrapharia (Walker), xxi., p. 435 (1800). 
Macaria vagata^ Walker, xxiii., p. 927 (1861). 
Shillong; common. 

Genus Episothalha, Swinhoe. 

198. E. sisunaga (Walker), xxii., p. 550 (1861). 
Thalassodes macruraria, Walker, xxvi., p. 1561 (1862). 
Shillong; nine specimens. 

199. L\ ocellata, Swinh., Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., p. 218 

(1893). (PI. U., fig. 9.) 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; two examples. 

Genus Cacamoda, Nov. 

^ . Antennae simple, hindwing produced into a tail ; veins 6 and 
7 stalked at end of cell, 5 emitted very near 6, f orewing with vein 
3 emitted before end of cell, 6 and 7 stalked before end of cell. 

200. C. viridata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 623. 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hills, 173 

Genus Agathia^ Guen. 

201. A. lycwnaria (Kollar), Hiig. Kasch., iv., p. 48C 


202. A. prasina, Swinh., Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., 

p. 219 (1893). 

Shillong; three males. 

203. A. Ixiata (Fabr.), Ent. Syst., lii., 2, 164 (1793). 
Shillong; four specimens. 

204. A. quinaria, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 639. 
Cherra Pnnji and Shillong ; many examples. 

Pat with hilarata, Gu^n., in the B.M. collection, but 
ia certainly distinct ; hilarata only differs from Icetata in 
the medial transverse band of forewings : Uetata, hilarata, 
and quinaria are closely allied, but the three forms 
appear constant without intermediates. I have many 
examples of each from different parts of India. 

205. A. gemma, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, p. 8. 
ShiDong ; five examples. 

206. A. hemitheariQ, Gu^u., Phal. i., p. 381 (1857). 

207. A. beata, Butler, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., p. 218 


208. A. arcuaia, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 64. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; very common. 

209. A. codina, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 18D2, p. 7, 

pi. 1, fig. 3. 

Shillong ; four males of this fine species. 

Genus Takaobhinus, Butler. 

210. r. viridUuteata (Walker), xxii., p. 515 (1861). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji; apparently a common 
species in the Khasias. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

I'i Colonel CLhrlt^ ^irinboe o»i the 

211. T. re^iprooata (Waier\ niL, p. h\h 'ISSlt. 
Georru:ira dimUsa, Walker, Lc^ p, 516. 
ShilloDg; two examples. 

212. T. h'lna, Swinb., Ann. Mag. X. K '0 , xii., p. 150 

(l!5.':jj. ^PL IL, fig. 15.) 
Shillong; four males. 

Genos Apoeasdeu, Xot. 
Anteniue of male deeply pectinated for tvo- thirds it6 k-ngUi, tfe 
pectinatiozL« ciliated ; palpi upttimed. thickly ooTered with hair, 
Urt joint ftbort, tip frqnare ; hindwings with reins 3 and i and 
C and 7 forked one- third tbeir distance beyond the cell, rein i 
emitted lets than half the distance from the base to the fcffk of 
vfeinii 3 and 4 ; forewing with rein 3 emitted a short distance before 
cell, rein 2 from the middle, Tein 6 one-fifth beyond ceD ; hind 
tibia: with two iihort terminal spnrR. 

213. A. specfdarta (Guen.), Phal., i., p. 342 (1857). 

Genus Loxocbila, Batler. 

214. L. variegata, Batler, III. Typ. Lep. Het. B. If., 

vii., p. 104, pL 136, fig. 3 (1689). 

Genns Mioalochloha, Meyrick. 

215. J/. viHata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 636. 

216. M. avicularia (Gn^n.), Phal., i., p. 342 (1857). 

Genus Euculobis, Hiibn. 
Thalassodes, Gn^n. 

217. E. quadraria (Gn^n.), Phal., i., p. 360 (1857). 
Thalassodes inconcliisaria, Walker, xxii., p. 556 (1861). 

218. E. lunifera (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii.i 

p. 270 (1887). 
^ Type Cherra Punji in Coll. Staudinger : I have not 
seen this species. 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptei-a of the Ehania Hills, 175 

219. E. opalinu (Butler), Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., p. 214 


ShiUoDg and Cherra Punji. 

Yeiy closely allied to the preceding, but uniformly 

220. E. liliana (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, p, 7, 

pi. 1, fig. 2. 

221. E. acte, Swinh., /.c, p. 6, pi. 1, fig. 13. 

222. E. ihalassica (Moore), Lep. Ceylon, iii., p. 430, 

pi. 194, fig. 6 (1687). 

Cherra Punji. 

223. E. devexata (?) (Walker), xxii., p. 573 (1861). 

Agathia scintiligera (<?), Butler, Ann. Mag. N.H. (5), 

Ti., p. 216 (1880). 

Genus Thalebdba, Nov. 

CeQ of hindwings larger than in EuchloriSj vein 7 emitted 
Marer its apper end, antennaB bipectinate for three-fourths from 
liifle, ihe pectinations evenly ciliated. 

224. T. gomaria (Felder), Reise Nov. Lep., pi. 128, 

fig. 3 ? (1874). 

Cherra Punji. 

225. T. urapteraHa (Walker), xxxv., p. 1608 (1866). 
Shillong; two examples. 

Genus Gelasma, Warren. 

226. G. iheiydaria (Gue'n.), Phal., i., p. 358 (1857). 
Thalassodes hifasctata, Walker, xxvi., p. 1562 (1862), 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 


176 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

227. G. gnseoviridU, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 353, 

pi. 31, fig. 6. 
Cherra Panji. 

Genos OiInospila, Swinhoe. 

228. (E. lyra, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc., 1892, p. 5. 
Shillong and Cherra Ponji ; many specimens. 

229. CE. strlx (Butler), 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., vii., 

p. 105, pi. 13G, fig. 8 (1889). 
Cherra Ponji. 

Genus Nkmoria, Hiibn. 
Hemithea, Dnp. 

230. N. insularia (Guen.), Phal., i., p. 315 (1857). 

Thalera insular ia, Hampson, HI. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., 
viii., 28, 777 (1891). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

The Cherra Punji examples are much larger than 
those from Shillong, but there is no specific difference 
between them. 

Genus Thalera, Hiibn. 

231. T. diyuncta, Walker, xxii., p. 595 (1861). 

232. T. graminea, Hampson, 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., 

viii., p. 109, pi. 151, fig. 1 (1891). 

Cherra Punji. 

Genus Euceostes, Hiibn. 
Comibsena, Hubn. 
UliocnemU, Warren, 

233. E. sanguUineata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 638. 
Cherra Punji. 

234. E. partita (^) (Walker), xxii., p. 573 (1861). 

Comibaena f elicit ata, (?), Walker, Lc, p. 579. 
Thalera concisiplaga (^), Walker, I.e., p. 598. 
Cherra Punji. 

Digitized by 


Lepldcrptera of the Khasia Hills, 177 

235. E. tntegranota (Hampson), 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., 

ix., p. 146, pi. 170, fig. 13. 

Cherra Panji. 

236. E. kafebera, sp. n. 

^ White, forewings with a green transverse sub-basal band, a 
broader discal band, and between these a large green spot separated 
from the bands by a fine white line ; this discal band is continued 
on the hindwings as a medial band, bent outwards in the middle ; 
both wings with a submarginal macular green band, the spots 
formed by the white veins and a white outer festoon ; these bands 
have between them white bands, through the centre of which runs 
a fine sinuous green line, outer margin and cilia green, the veins white 
and white streaks in the cilia opposite the veins ; thorax green, 
abdomen with green segmental band ; underside white. Expanse 
of wings, l^s Inch. 

Cherra Panji ; two examples. 

I feel uncertain as to the genus of this insect, and 
as Mr. Hampson is now working out the genera of the 
Geometridse, I prefer leaving it to him to determine. 

Genus Bebta, Walker. 

237. B, chrysolineata, Walker, xxvi., p. 1621 (1862). 

Genus Tixandsa, Dap. 

238. T. aventiara (Guen.), Phal. ii., p. 3 (1857). 

239. T. convectarm (Walker), xxiii., p. 800 (1861). 
Timandra comptaria, Walker, xxvi., p. 1615 (1862). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

240. T. responsaiia (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 255 (1887). 

Shillong and Cherra Panji. 


Digitized byVjOOQlC 

178 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

GenuB Pbrixera, Meyrick. 

241. P. ohriiiaria (Guen.), Phal., i., p, 414 (1857), 

242. P. absconditaria (Walker), xxvi., p. 1580 (1861), 

Genus Mesotrophk, Hampson. 

243. M, expunctaria (Walker), Joum. Linn. Soc, iii., 

p. 195 (1859). 

A. ovisignata, Moore, Lep. Ceylon, iii., p. 444 (1887). 

Genus Teirachopoda, Hampson. 

244. T. obstataria (Walker), xxiii., p. 769 (1861). 

Anisodes subroseata, Walker, xxvi., p. 1582 (1862). 
A, acuta, Moore, Lep. Ceylon, iii,, p. 445, pi. 215, 
fig. 9 (1887). 


Genus Anisodes, Guen. 

245. A. lichenaria, Swinh,, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, p. 8. 

246. A, intermixtaria, Swinh., Lc, 

247. A. pulverentula, Swinh., Z.c, p. 9, pi, 1, fig. 8. 

248 . A, heydena, sp. n. 

(J. Yellowish straw colour, upperside of palpi black ; wings 
irrorated with brown atoms, forewings with a very large chocolate- 
brown oval patch in the centre, a suffused, sinuous short band 
running upwards from it, hind wings with a similar central smaller 
spot, pale in its centre, a sub-basal transverse brown line, an ante- 
medial thin brown band touching the inner side of the spot, and a 

Digitized by 


Lepidopiera of the Khasia HilU, 179 

disoal brown line running evenly with the outer margin across 
both wings ; on forewings there are two small suffused brown 
patches on the margin, one at the apex and the other below it ; 
marginal points black, one on each vein and one between each 
vein. Expanse of wings, 1^^^ inch. 

CheiTa Panji ; one example. 

249. A, dotilla, sp. n. 

^ Dark pinkish-grey, wings densely irrorated with minute 
brown atoms, a white dot at the end of each ceU, those on the 
hindwings ringed ^ith black, both wings with a discal row of black 
dots on the reins and a similar row of marginal dots, cilia pale 
grey. Underside body and wings suffused with pink, a discal 
sinuous pale brown indistinct line with pale black points across 
both wings, marginal line brown, legs pink, abdomen grey. 
Expanse of wings, \-^\ inch. 

Cherra Panji ; one example. 

Genus Dithalha^ Meyrick. 

250. D. idixa (Swinhoe), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1892, p. 6. 
' Shillong and Cherra Panji. 

251. D, crina (Swinhoe), Lc, p. 14, pi. 1, fig. 14, 

252. D, albivertex (Swinhoe), Lc, p. 15. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

253. D. hampsoni (Swinhoe), Lc, p. 14. 

254. D. mecysina, sp. n. 

(J $ . Dark mouse colour, wings very minutely irrorated with 
grey, an indistinct black dot at the end of each cell, both wings 
crossed by ante-medial and post-medial nearly straight brown 
lines, the latter a little outwardly bent below the middle on the 
hindwings, forewings with a discal similar line, and both wings 
with brown marginal lines, cilia grey, underside grey, lines as 
above. Expanse of wings, -^ inch. 

Cherra Panji ; namerous specimens. 

Digitized by 


IN) Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

Genus Erithbolophcb, Swinh. 
Or^jan'»j'i*Ja, Hampson. 

255. E.fascirorpm, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc. 1892, p. 11. 

256. E. carnearia (Walker), xxii., p. 644 (1861). 
Shillong. The cell spot in both wings is very variable 

in size, and sometimes in the forewings it is obsolete. 

Genns Stkkgiodis, Swinh. 

257. S. diffmifascia, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, 
p. 11, pi. 1, 6g. 9, and Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., 

p. 150 (1893). 


258. S. histrionaria, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 12. 

Genns Stbkptopteeon, Swinh. 

259. S. posticamplum, Swinh., Lc, p. 10, pi. 1, fig. 12. 

Shillong. The type specimen is the only example 
received of this extraordinary insect. 

Genus Chrtsocraspbda, Warren. 

260. C. ahhadraca (Walker), xxii,, p. 630 (1861). 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Acidalia, Treit. 

261. A. walkeri, Butler, P. Z. S., 1883, p. 170. 

A. extimaria, Walker, xxiii., p. 794, No, 280, nee. 
782, No. 252 (1861). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

262. A. op^naria, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc. 1892, p. 15. 

263. A. similaria (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 841. 

Digitized by 


Lepidaptera of the Khasia Hills, 181 

264. A. aiUntata, Walker, xxii., p. 754 (1861). 

265. A.patularia, Walker, xxxv., p. 1633 (1866). 

266. A. retnotata, Guen., Phal., i., p. 458 (1857). 

267. A. nesciaria, Walker, xxii., p. 750 (1861). 
A, negataria, Walker, xxii., p. 751. 

Cherra Punji. 

268. A.Jibulata,Gnen., Phal., i., p. 490, pi. 15, fig. 5 (1857). 
Cherra Punji. 

Genas Craspidia, Hiibn. 

269. C. pallivittata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 641. 
Shillong and Cherra Panji. 

270. C. arenosaria (Moore), Lop. Ceylon, iii., p. 445 


271. C. addictaria (Walker), xxii., p. 749 (1861). 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Rhodostrophu, Hiibner. 
Phyletis, Qu4n. 
Velocharis, Butler. 

272. R. stigmatica, Butler, 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., vii., 

p. 110, pi. 136, figs. 19, 20 (1889). 

273. R. prasonaria (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, 

p. 12. 

Tanaotrichia trilineata, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 361, 
pi. 32, fig. 2. 


274. R.pelloniaria (Gu^n.), Phal., ii., p. 169 (1857). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji; common. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

182 Colonel Charles Swinhoe an the 

275 R, hha.nana ^iloore}, Desc. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 
p. 2r>4 (1867). 
Cherra Panji ; a very distinct species. 

276. R, similata, Moore, Desc. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., p. 264 


The type came from the Khasia Hills, not in my 

This genus links the ArldfiJid^ with the Geometrid^. 
vein 5 in both wings being emitted above the centre of 

Genns Hteia, Steph. 

277. H, ferruginaria (Moore), P. Z. S., 1807, p. 654. 

278. H. marginata, sp. n. 

(J . Bosy grey, minutely irrorated with rosy red atoms, fore- 
wings with a black maik at the end of the cell, both wings crossed 
by indistinct sintioos red lines, ante-medial, medial, and post- 
medial, the first obsolete on hindwing, the last with brown points 
on the veins, costa of forewings and marginal line on both wings 
dark reddish brown, thick, and very prominent, cilia rosy. Ex- 
panse of wings, '^^ inch. 

Cherra Punji. 

Genus Defoa, Swinh. 

LIpomelia, Warren. 

279. JD. iistata, Swinh., Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., p. 151 


Lipoynelia siibusta, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 360, 
pi. 32, fig. 24. 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Somatina, Gu^n. 

280. S. rosacea, sp. n. 

(J . Front white, collar and abdomen rosy, thoras white, abdo- 
men with darker segmental bands ; forewings greyish white with 
the interior portions suffused with rosy, a black point at end of 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hills. 183 

oeH a patch of darker rosy grey in the disc, limited outwardly by 
a pale whitish sinoated line which commences on the hinder mar- 
gin near the angle, and curves inwards round the top of the cell. 
On the inner aide of this line there is a brownish suffusion, a sub- 
marginal grey band arising from a small black patch near the hinder 
angle, and corring inwards in to the centre where it is double, 
leaving the apex white, marginal line black, slightly lunular ; hind- 
wings rosy, a more distinct black point at the end of cell, a sub- 
marginal pale sinuous line, inwardly broadly edged with brownish ; 
a marginal white band with the ground colour running into it in 
parts, and a black marginal line as in forewings, cilia of both 
wings white, interlined with rosy grey. Expanse of wings, 
l/o ">ch. 
Cherra Punji ; two examples. 

Genus Runeca^ Moore. 

281. fl. ferrilineata, Moore, Desc. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 252, pi. 8, tig. 13 (1887). 

Cherra Punji. 

Genus Problspsis, Led. 
ArgyriSf Gu^n. 

282. P. apollinaria (Gn6n.), Phal., ii., p. 13 (1857). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

With the discal ocelli of forewings very large and 
quite round. 

283. P. deliariay Walker, xxiii., p. 808 (1861). 

Very doubtfully distinct from apollinaria. 

284. P. delphiaria, Gu^n., Phal., ii., p. 14 (1857). 

P. vulgarisy Bo tier, 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., vii., 
p.43, pi. 125, tig. 2 (1889). 


285. Rextrusaria, Walker, xxii., p. 637 (1861). 
Cherra Punji. 

Digitized by 


Idl Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

Genus Albx^ Walker. 

Orgcdmia, Walker. 
Gramoruna, Moore. 

286. A. palparia (Walker), xxiii., p. 988 (1861). 

A. nigrozonata, Walker, xxvi., p. 1754 (1862). 
Gamoruna palpatio, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 
p. 265 (1887). 

Shillong and Cherra Panji ; common. 

Genus Geoglada, Nov. 

Closely resembles Alex in appearance, but in the male 
the antennad is serrate ; in Alex it is bi-pectinate. The 
cell is longer, vein 5 of hindwings is free; in Alex it is 
stalked with 6. 

287. (?. helicola, n. sp. 

(J . Olive-brown, without the red colour alwajrs to be found in 
A. palparia^ the transverse band and other markings very similar. 
Sometimes there is a large blackish-brown spot on f orewings near 
the hinder angle, but this is often absent ; the underside, howerer, 
is very distinctive ; the bands are more like lines, and well defined ; 
the medial band is farther away from the base in the hindwings 
than in Alex^ and is well curved ; the sub-marginal band in a semi- 
dentated line, not a diffuse band ; and on the forewings there is an 
inwardly curved thin band inside the middle band, and rising from 
its lower end, runs up towards the costa. Expanse of wings, 
2 inches. 

Shillong and Cherra Panji. Many examples, bat not 
nearly so common as Alex, the type female of which in 
the B. M. has been carefully examined. 

Genus Teyqodes, Gu^n. 

288. T. divuaria, Walker, xxiii., p. 927 (1861). 
Shillong and Cherra Panji. 

Genus Gonanticlea, Swinh. 

289. G. aversa, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, p. 4. 
Shillong; common. 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hills. 185 

290. G. occluaata (Felder), Iteise Nov. Lep., pi. 132, 

fig. 16 (1874). 
Shillong and Cherra Panji. 

Genus Colux, Guen. 

291. C. hypospitata, Guen., Phal., ii., p. 358 (1857). 

292. C. ghosha, Walker, xxiv., p. 249 (1862). 

Genus Remodes, Gu^n. 

293. E. abnormis, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 271, pi. 8611 (1887). 
Cherra Punji. 

294. i?. decussata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 655, pi. 33, 

Cherra Punji. 

295. B.fasciata, Moore, Z.c, p. 270. 
The tjrpe came from Cherra Punji. 

296. R, interruptaria, Moore, Z.c. 
Recorded from the Khasia Hills. 

297. R. lineosa, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 270, pi. 8610 (1887). 

Genus Cabiqe, Walker. 

298. C. rachiaria, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 492. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji« 

299. C. luntUineata, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 263, pi. 8, fig. 26 (1887). 
Cherra PunjL 

300. C. zalakaj sp. n. 

(J. OchreouB grey, striated with brown; forewiogs with the 
coBta marked with black and pale spots, crossed by an inner in^ 
distinct and incomplete brownish band, a discal, sinuous brownish 
lii^ doable in parts, and with two or three square black spots in 
pttcfaet on its outer side above the hinder angle, where there are 
Alio Bome black and white striations marking the wing, and 

Digitized by 


' <*' Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

f^fi^i.^huii »!• • UmMike form op the onur marpii ; hmdwings 
w.h fh. onUr |H,rlion darkly and thickly striated wvoh hri^ 
»r»lAfo I,, ,^1*,,., wilh blmk ntriatioMand band on the ovto- poc- 
fioTM ^,f \^,iU wMn^M, KxpaiiHu of wings, .^ inch, 
('hiirr* Piiiiji. 

A V0ry olmciiro-looking little insect, aUied to notiiin^ 
I k»i''W of, mMivrd in great numbers. 

(lonuH PHiBAijinERYx, Steph. 
'i^'l r. rfunllnrafn, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk m 
p. 27.S (1887). "^ *' * 

/' lii'ninUtatu, Wnrren, P. Z. S., 1888, p. 327 
/' fnyu^nuii'tatu, Wnrren, /.c, p. 328. ' 
.^i»»ill'M,i/. Idoiitiettl with my Thundiani examples. 

(ionuM ZiRiDAVA, Walker. 
/i^'-'. / r,iU,u'n,ia, VVulkor, xxvi., p. 1.550 (186'>^ 

^/^.o/,/u. (V) n^l.rilisru^ Hampson, 111. Typ. £ep. Het. 

M. M.. vui.. p, 10(1, pi. 150, fig. 8 (189 ). 
.'•fiilloh^ j (UJiuinon. 

OoiiuM Ardonis, Moore. 
''^^'•»; ;'' 'I'loro^'hilata (Walker), xxvi., p, 1768 (1862). 


(Ji-ntM KiM'iTHKCtA, Curt. 
'I" I, h\/,i;r„l„, Swiuh., Tmus. Ent. Soc. 1892 p 1 
^ HI.1II....H «i..l (MuMTH I'uujI ; many examples. 

ao.v a;, ,•,,/;«/„/,(, swiiih., p. z. s., isso « 4.30 

<>nurrtt I'unji, 

«0.!. /.;. '/''''i/am... H«.up«ou 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., 
vn.., p. I <2. pi. i.,o^ fi ,^ (jgp-Jj 


no:, i?. r/i,,V/«, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc. 1892, p. 2. 

80i*. i?. infeatala, Swinh., P. Z. S., 1889 p 480 
Clierra Punji. > f- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hills, 187 

309. E. atroviridvf, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 384, pi. 31, 

fig. 19. 

310. E. grtseipennis, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 269, pi. 1, fig. 28 (1837). 
Cherra Punji. 

311. E, incurvata, Moore, Z.c, p. 2(58. 
The type came from the Khasias. 

312. E, rufifascia, Hampson. 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., 

ix., p. 152, pi. 171, fig. 15 (1893). 
Cherra Panji. 

Genus Lygbanoa, Butler. 

313. L. rectilineata, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 272 (1887). 
The type came from the Khasia Hills. 

Genus Babdakbs, Moore. 

314. B. plicata, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., p. 251, 

pi. 8, fig. 22 (1887). 

Genus Lobophoba, Steph. 

315. L. decorata, Moore, Z.c, p. 272. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

316. L. pulcherrima, Swinh., Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., 

p. 224 (1893). 

Genus Dysethia, Warren. 

317. D. ocyptaria (Swinh.), Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., 

p. 157 (1893). 

Genus Cambooia, Gu^n. 

818. C. pulchella (Hampson), 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., 
viii., p. 124, pi. 153, fig. 22 (1891). . 
Cherra Punji. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

188 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

Genus Laciniodes, Nov. 

Antennas simple in both sexes ; palpi depressed, short, coTered 
with hairs ; hindwing with the lower portion of cell much 
extended, vein 3 emitted from the end, 2 at one third before end, 
5 a little above middle of disco -cellular, 6 and 7 forked at nearly 
half the distance beyond upper end. of cell ; forewing with vein 3 
emitted a little before end of cell, 2 at one third before end, 5 a 
little above centre of disco-cellular, 6 and 7 at upper end of cell ; 
mid- tibia with one pair of terminal spurs ; hind-tibia with two 

819. L, plurilinearia (Moore), P. Z. S., 18(37, p. 645. 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

There are two forms of this insect, one being without 
any of the usual dark markings on the wings. 

Genus Plemyrta, Hiib. 

320. P. catenana (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 655, pi. 33, 

fig. 9, 

Genus Polynesia, Swinh. 

321. P. truncapex, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc. 1892, p. 5. 

Genus Ceyptoloba, Warren: 

322. C. aerata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 654. 

Genus Xanthoehoe, Hub. 
Coremia, Gu^n. 

823. X, con^w^a^a (Walker), xxvi., p. 1703 (1862). 


Genus Epirehoe, Hiib. 

324. E.exliturata (Walker), xxiv., p. 1195 (1862). 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Khasla Hills, 189 

Genu8 CiDABiA, Treit. 

325. G. relata, Butler, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., p. 229 


326. C. aliena, Butler, I.e., p. 230. 

327. O.fecumla, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soe. 1891, p. 493. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

328. 0. scortea, Swinh., l.c, 

329. C. deleda, Butler, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., p. 229 

Shillong; common. 

330. C. curcumata, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 278 (1887). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

331. C. decurrens, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk,, iii., 

p. 276 (1887). 
Cherra Punji. 

332. C. bareconia, sp. n. 

(J 9 . Palpi, antennte, head and body black ; fore wings with 
the basal half dark blackish- brown, with its outer edge somewhat 
sinaoas and bent slightly outwards above the middle, crossed in its 
centre by a pale thin band which has a thin black line in it, is 
sometimes indistinct and sometimes obsolete, a transverse brown 
line close to the outer edge of the basal half followed by a 
pale pinkish-grey band, and then a number of transverse lines 
close together right up to the outer margin, where there is a black 
patch near the hinder angle, another below the apex, and a third 
in the costa near the apex ; sometimes the outer lines are obsolete, 
and the outer portions of the wings grey with the black patches 
showing more prominently ; hindwings dark brownish-grey, with 
indistinct transverse grey bands, which however, are often 
obsolete ; underside dark grey, crossed by indistinct central and 
discal darker bands. Expanse of wings, /^ — /^ inch. 

Cherra Punji ; manj examples. 

Digitized by 


190 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

333. C. suhsiituia, Walker, xxxv., p. 1691 (1866). 

3:3 k 0. chalyheana, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 663. 

335. C. cervinaria, Moore, /.r., p. 664. 

336. C. nivicincta, Butler, 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., rii., 

p. 119, pi. 137, fig. 20 (1889). 

337. C. viridata, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 661. 

338. C aurata, Moore, Z.r., p. 664. 

Genus Pabalophia, Warren. 

339. P. pustulata, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 371, pi. 30, 

fig. 7. ' 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Eustboma, Hiibn. 

340. E. disseda, Moore, Lep. Ceylon, iii., p. 488, pi. 207, 

fig. 9 ? (1887). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

341. E, trianguUfera, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 275 (1887). 

Shillong; common. 

342. E. obscurata, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 633, pi, 33, 

fig. 7. 
Shillong; very common. 

343. E.furva (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 494. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

344. E, dentlfera, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk,, iii 

p. 275 (1887). 

The type came from Cherra Punji, 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Lepidoptera of the Khasia HUh. 191 

3 to. E. monana, Swinh., Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., 
p. 224 (1893). (PI. II, fig. 10.) 

34«5. E. multifaria (Swinh.), P. Z. S., 1889, p. 429, pi. 44, 

fig. 9. 
Cherra Panji. 

347. E. aurigena (Butler), Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., 
p. 230 (1880). 
Cherra Panji. 

Genus Scotosia, Steph. 

3t8. S. sordidata, Moore, Doscr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 
p. 274 (1887). 
Shfllong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Gandabitis, Moore. 

349. G.flavata, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 660. 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Photoscotosia, Warren, 

350. P. miniosata, Walker, xxv., p. 1354 (1862). 

Genus ANTHtBiA, Swinh. 

351. A. grataria (Walker), xxii., p. 663 (1861). 

352. A. iole, Swinh., Trans. Ent. See. 1892, p. 2. 

353. A» lunulosa (Moore), Lep. Ceylon, iii., p. 450, 

pi. 200, figs. 5, 5a (1887). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Pomasia, Gu6n. 

354. P. moniliata, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 367, pi. 32, 

fig. 9. 

Tjpe, Khasia Hills, in coll. Elwes. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

192 Colonel Charles Swinboe on the 

Genus Asthkna^ Hiibn. 

355. A. ochracea, Warren, P. Z. S., 1888, p. 231. 

A. ochracea, Elwes, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 264, pi. 32, 
fig. 10 ?. 

Recorded from Shillong. 

Genus Psilocamboqia, Hampson. 

356. P. rajnstnaria (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, 

p. 210, pi. 7, fig. 9. 

357. P. deviaria (Walker), xxii., p. 664 (1861). 

Genus Bhodombtra, Meyrick. 

358. P. sacraria (Linn.), Nat. i., 2, 863, 220 (1766). 
Cherra Punji. 

Fam. BOARMnDiE. 


Genus Ubapteryx, Leach. 

359. U. multistrigaria, Walker, xxxv., p. 1535 (1866). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

360. U. scUicaudaria, Walker, xxvi., p. 1480 (1862), 

361. U. picticaudata, Walker, xx., p. 12 (1860). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

This species, the type of which is in O.M. from Borneo, 
is quite distinct from the yellow form ; sciticaudaria is 
uniformly much larger, and with difierent markings. 

362. U. primularis, Butler, 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., vi., 

p. 49, pi. 113, fig. 4 (1886). 


Digitized by 


Lt'pidoptera of the Kliasia Hills, 193 

Genus Tainoptebyx, Butler. 

3G3. T, crocopterata (KoUar), Kasch von Htigel, iv., 
p. 4S3 (1848). 
ShilloDg and Cherra Punji ; very common. 

3C4. r. jprxforaria (Felder), Raise Nov. Lep., pi. 122, 
fig. 13, s (1893). 

365. T. nehulosa, Butler, Journ. Linn. Soe., 1883, p. 203. 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. Quite distinct from the 
preceding*. I have a fine series of both of them without 
any intermediates. 

Genus Xebopteryx, Butler. 

366. X columhicola (Walker), xx., p. 11 (1860). 

Genus Sibinoptebtx, Butler. 

367. S, nifivindaia (Walker), xxvi., p. 1747 (1862). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; very common. 

Section II. DEILINim^. 
Genus Bapta, Steph. 

368. B. margarita (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 6 J 7. 
Coryna alba, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., p. 261 


369. B. platyleucata (Walker), xxxv., p. 1628 (1866). 
Cherra Punji. 

370. B. indUtinda (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 261 (1887). 
ShilloDg and Cherra Punji. 

371. B. inamata (Walker), xxii., p. 755 (1861). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Deilinia, Hiibn. 

372. D. luteifrons, sp. n. (PI. II., fig. 14.) 

"J . Pure white ; front luteons ; wings crossed by three indis- 
tinct dentat«d grey lines ; ante-medial, medial, and discal at even 
TEAMS. BHT. 800. LOKD. 1894. — PART I. (mABCH.) N 

Digitized by 


194 Colonel Charles Swinhoe oti the 

difltanoes apart ; fore legs with ochreous tibiss ; bind legs with 
brown bands on the tarsi. Expanse of wings, 1| inch. 

Cherra Punji. Two examples. 

Genus Petelu, Herr Schiiff. 

373. P. medardaria, Herr Schaff, Exot. Schm., pi. 94, 
fig. 534 (1856). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

874. Rfasciata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 634, pi. 32, fig. 8. 

375. P. riobearia (Walker), xx., p. 129 (1860). 
Shillong and Cherra Ponji ; common. 

376. P. capitata (Walker), xxiii., p. 1019 (1861). 
Alana rubiginata, Walker, xxxv., p. 1568 (1866). 
Cherra Punji^ 

377. P. albopunctata (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc, 1891, 

p. 491. 

378. P. cervinaria (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 23JJ (1887). 
Cherra Ponji. 

Genus Tasta, Walker. * 

Diisophthalmtis, Butler. 

379. T. micaceata, Walker, 3txvi., p. 1570 (1862). 

Dii/sophthalmus iridis, Butler, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), 
vi., p. 219 (1880). 

Cherra Punji. 

Genua Mtbteta, Walker. 
Orthocabera, Butler. 
Microniodes, Hampson. 

380. M.planaria, Walker, xxiii., p. 831 (1861). 

381. M. ocernaria (Swinh.), Ann. Mag. N. H, (6), xii., 

p. 152 (1893). (PI. II., fig. 8.) 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hills. 195 

382. if. brunneiceps (Warren), P. Z. S., 1893, p. 387, 

pi. 31, fig. 23. 
SIuRoDg and Cherra Panji. 

Genus Cabebodes, Gn^n. 

383. C. achromaria, Gu^n., Phal. i., p. 136 (1857). 
Shillong and Cherra Ponji. 

384. C. costalis (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 616. 

Genus Heterosteqanb, Hampson. 
3do. H. subtessdlata (Walker), xxvi., p. 1648 (1862). 
Shilkng, Cherra Punji. 

386. E. lala (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, p. 13. 

Genns Steoaioa, Gn^n. 

387. 8. UUifasciata (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 200 (1887). 
Cherra Ponji. 

388. 8. peralba, sp. n. (PI. II., fig. 5.) 

i ^, Of a uniform white colour, tinged with grey. Above 
there are Terj few markings. Costal line of forewings flesh colour , 
marked with black ; and on the hind wings the cell spot and black 
band of the underside is slightly visible ; on the underside there is 
t ainiite black dot at the end of cell on f orewiogs ; and on the 
bindwings the black spot and black discal band are very promi- 
nent ; legs flesh-colour. Expanse of wings, ^ -f^, $ 1 j'^ inch. 

Cherra Ponji ; two males, one female. 

Genus Micbonissa, Swinh. 

389. M. depJUnaria, Swinh., Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., 

p. 152 (1893). 

Genns Plutodbs, Ga6n. 

390. P. Jlavescens, Bntler, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., 

p. 223 (1880). 
ShiUong; common. 

Digitized by 


1P6 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

I?91. P. eaqiiisata, Butler, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., 
p. 223(1880). 

Shillong ; a fine series. 

3fl2. P. subcaudata, Batler, I.e., p. 224. 
Shillong ; many examples. 


388. P. prasina, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, p. 13, 
pi. 1, fig. 10. 

Shillong and Cherra Panji. 

;39L P. costatug, Butiev, 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., vi., 
p. 53, pi. lU, fig. 4 (1886). 

P. triangularis, Warren, P. Z. S., 1803, p. 388. 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; very common. 

This is a variable species, and Mr. Warren conld 
nofc have had a suflBcient number before him when de- 
scribing triangularis ; none of the points of difference 
mentioned by him hold good. I have examples from 
Solon, near Simla, and a long series from Shillong and 
Cberra Punji. The costal band of forewings varies in 
width, the triangular central tooth varies in size; in one 
example it is continued in the form of a yellow bar right 
across the wing to the hinder angle, and similarly the 
nntemedial transverse line in some examples runs into 
the yellow band just before the first tooth, but in others 
it runs into the tooth. 

395. P. lamisca, 3p. n. 

cJ. Bright ochreous yellow, thorax (except the collar) and 
nbdomen chocolate-hrown ; wings patched and marked with the 
name colour ; forewings with a patch at base extending also down 
the abdominal margin of hindwings, as. in all the species of the 
Cf/elaria group ; a large discal patch on forewings with dentated 
margin all round, and joined to the basal patch by an irregular 
band ; on hindwings two bands of small spots, discal and snb- 
m^^inal, with a diffuse patch between them below the middle. 
Ejt pause of wings, 1^^ inch. 

Cherra Punji ; three examples. 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hills, l97 

Section III. ENNOMIN^. 

Genus Dalima, Moore. 
Panisala, Moore. 
Metoxidta, Butler. 
Hololoma, Warren. 

396. D. intncata, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 396. 

397. D. patnaria, Felder, Reise Nov. Lep., pi. 122, 

fig 12, cJ (1873). 
Shillong; common. 

398. D. truncatana (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 620. 
Cherra Punji. 

399. B.patnlaria (Walker), xx., p. 247 (1860). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. A very variable species, I 
have them in all colours, from dark purplish brown to 
pale yellowish grey. 

400. B. calaminia (Butler), Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., 

p. 121 (1880). 
ShilloDg ; many examples. 

Genus Hypochrosis, Guen. 
Omiza, Walker, 
Marcala, Walker. * 
Celenna, Walker. 
Phcenix, Butler. 

M, H.pachiaria (Walker), xx., p. 247 '(I860). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

402. H. hyadana (Gue'n.), Phal. ii., p. 537 (1857). 
Marcala ignivorata, Walker, xxvi., p. 1764 (1862). 
Shillong and Qherra Punji. 

403. H. venusa, sp. n. 

(J. Of a aniform dark pink brown, with a greenish tinges 
intenns bhick, fofewings with the costal line ochreous, dotted 
▼ith brown, a dark pink upright line or thin band from the hinder 
n»rgin before the middle, which bif arcates at the end of the cell, 
the oater branch outwardly elbowed before reaching the costa 
biodwing with the costal space pale pinkish, underside pale 

Digitized by 


198 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

ochreoQs red, an marked, darkest on forewings with the hinder 
marginal space of that wing whitish. Expanse of wings, l-^^ inch. 

Cherra Ponji ; one example. 

The general colouration above is somewhat similar to 
that of H. hyadaria, Gvicn,=ngnivorata, Walk., but the 
markings are different to any other species of this genus 
yet recorded. I have very fine series of all the diflFerent 
species of Hypochrosis mentioned in this paper ; all the 
females are more or less like each other^ but can easily be 
separated ; the males are very distinct, and I have never 
seen any intermediates. • 

404. H. ahstractaria (Walker), xxxv., p. 1559 (1866). 
Marcala irrorata, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 232 (1887). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji; common. A somewhat 
variable insect ; many of the examples have black 
patches on the hinder margin near the angle of various 
sizes, some of them very large. 

405. JT. obliquaria (Moore), Lc. 

Shillong and Cherra Panji ; very common. 

406. E. festivana (Fabr.), Ent. Syst., iii., 2, 152, 84 

Geomeira saiurataria, Walker, xxii., p. 519 (1861). 
Cherra Punji. 

407. H.iris (Butler), Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., p. 122 

Cherra Panji. 

Genus Achrosis, Gucd. 

408. A. quadrariay Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 409. 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Pbionia, Hiibner. 
Osicerda, Walker. 
Celesdera, Walker. 
Ismtscu, Walker. 
Zomia, Moore. 

409. P. tncitata (Walker), xxiv., p. 1085 (1862). 
Zomia miscella, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1891, p. 144, 
Shillong and Cherra Panji* 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Kha^a SiUs. 199 

410. P. squalidaria, Hiibner, Zutr., iv., p. 40, figs. 787, 

788, 5 (1832). 
P. squaUdaria, Cotes and Swinh., Cat. Moths of India, 

iv., No. 3691 (1888). 
IsmUca cyclogonata, Walker, xxvi., p. 1765 (1862). 
SbilloDg ; a fine series. 

411. P. codimaculata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 650. 

412. P. irinotaria (Moore), Ic. 

Cherra Panji ; one example, mnch smaller than nsnal. 

413. P. intexla (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, p. 145, 

Sbflio-g. P>-8,«g.n. 

Genns Hetebomiza, Warren. 

414. B.Jlava (Moore), Descr. Tnd. Lep. Atk., iii., p. 233, 
<,,,, pi- 8, fig. 5 (1887). 

415. H, sanguiflua (Moore), /.c, fig. 4. 

416. E. cruentaria (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 616. 
Cherra Ponji. 

Genns Nadaqaba, Walker. 

417. N. inordinata, Walker, xxiv., p. 1094 (1862). 
ShiUong. The type from Sarawak is in the O. M. I 

ksve received two males from Shillong which are 
identical with Bornean and Maylayan specimens. 

Genns Eilicbimia, Hubner. 

418. E.flava (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., p. 233, 

pi. 8, fig. 2 (1887). 

Genns Spilopbba, Warren. 
JErinnia, Warren. 

419. S. umbraia, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 403. 
Cherra Ponji. 

Closely allied to S. gracilis^ Butler, from Japan, 
aniformly smaller, and differing in the disposition of the 

Digitized by 


200 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

420. S. hepadcata, sp. n. 

(J . Chocolate-brown, wings smeared with whitish in parts, a 
black dot at the end of each cell, forewings with a straight 
transverse brown line one-third from base, an irregular sinaous 
brown line from costa of forewings near apex to hinder margin, 
one-fonrth from the angle, continned on the hindwings, where 
it is disc»l and curved, corresponding to the curves of the outer 
margin, the portion of the wings outside thb line is darker and 
suffused towards the apex of forewings with a red tint, and there 
is a white smear on the outer margin below the apex and another 
smear in the disc below it. Underside paler, uniform in coloor, 
suffused with grey, the cell dots distinct and both wings crossed 
by a discal sinuous chocolate line. Expanse of wings, 1 .'^ inch. 

Cherra PoDJi ; two examples. 

421. S. combusta, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 415. 
Cherra Pnnji. 

422. S. obliquilinea (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 229 (1887). 

Leptomiza straminea, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, 
p. 407, 9. 

Shillong and Cherra Panji. 

The type of Warren's genus Leptomiza is calceariay 
Wk. Of the three new species he describes in the 
same paper all are from female types, and it is impossible 
to tell what genus they really belong to until the males 
are examined ; out of one hundred and seventy-four new 
species described in this paper, no less than fifty-fonr 
are erected on female types, and of many of them he 
appears to have had only single specimens before him. 

Genus Fasckllina, Walker. 

423. F, chromotaria, Walker, xx., p. 215, 5 (1860). 
Geometra usfa, Walker, xxxv., p. 1602, ^ (1866). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; common. 

424. F. plagiata (Walker), xxxv., p. 1601 (1866). 

F. viridis, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 79, pi. 7, fig. 4. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Lepidopiera of the Khasia Hills, ^01 

425. F. subsignata, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 399. 

R cuHaca, Swinh., Ann. Mag. N. H. (6) xii., p. 220 


426. F. dacoda, Swinh., I.e., p. 221. (PI. II.> fig. 7.) 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

427. F. cyanifera, sp. n. (PI. II., fig. 13.) 

i ?. Chocolate-brown suffused with ochreous, and smeared 
and striated in parts with white ; forewings with two indistinct 
brownish transverse straight bands, first one-third from base, 
second in the middle ; a thin white line, edged with brown on both 
sides, and more or less sinuous, extending from a white sub- 
apicd patch on costa of forewings to hinder margin, one-fifth from 
the angle, and continued across the disc of the hindwings, where 
it is^ bent at its centre ; inside this line on the hindwings is a broad 
chocolate-brown band, and outside it on both wings are several 
white smears ; on the underside the body, legs, and wings are 
t^hreons, wings striated with brown, suffused with white and yellow 
on forewings, uniformly bright ochreous on hindwings ; on the 
forewings, a white line edged with brown runs from the costa of 
forewings where it is deeply elbowed outwards, and then nearly 
straight down to the hinder angle, one-third from the angle, a broad 
'*ddish-brown band on its irmerside, narrowing downwards, and all 
the wing outside the line of the same colour and smeared with white 
•n parts ; the hindwings are crossed by two discal brown lines, the 
uioeronebent in its middle. Expanse of wing, (J 1-/^, ? 1-^% inches. 

Cherra Punji ; one pair. 

Tbe female only differs from the male in having rounder 

Genus Obsonoba, Walker. 

*28. 0. ckUa (?) (Cram.), Pap. Exot., lii., p. 172, 
pi. 288, figs. B, c. (1780). 
0. rajaca (^), Walker, xx., p. 219 (1860). 
O.jHilUda, Butler, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., p. 125 (1 880), 
Cherra Panji. 

Digitized by 


202 Colonel Charles Swishoe on the 

Genas Hyposidra, Guen. 
Lagyra, Walker. - 

429. H. talaca (Walker), xx., p. 59, ^ (1860). 

430. H. aquilaria (Walker), xxvi., p. 1485 (1862). 

431. H. umbrosa (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 203, 

pi. 7, fig. 4. 
Macaria aquilaria (nom praeoc*). Walker, xxvi., 

p. 1562 (1862). 

Genus Htalinbtta, Nov. 

^ . Differs from Hyposidra in having ciliated anfcennse, 
not pectinated as in that genus ; veins 3 and 6 of both 
wings emitted from the ends of the cells, the cells being 
closed by a hyaline mark bent outwards in the middle. 

432. JJ. megaspila (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 616. 
Shillong. . 

Genus Gae^us, Moore. 

433. G. discolor, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 400, 

Genus Psyra, Walker. 
43*. P. cuneata. Walker, xxi., p. 483 (1860). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Crocallis, Treit. 

Odontopera, Steplu 
Coroiia, Moore. 
Niphonissa, Butler. 

435. C. translineata (Walker), Char. Undescr. Lep. Het., 
p. 93 (1869). 
Odontopera nemea, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1891, 

p. 485, pi. 19, fig. 5. 

Walker's type is in the Devon and Exeter Museum, 
and Mr. Warren, who has seen it, says it is identical 
with my type of nemea ; Walker described his species as 
a Deltoid of the Genus Selenis* 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hills. 203 

436. C. cervinaria (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. C25, 

pi. 32, fig. 10, 

437. C. decorata (Moore), 7.c., p. 621, pi. 32, fig. 9. 

438. C. codra (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc, 1891, p. 486, 

pi. 19, fig. 8. 

439. C. murina (Swinh.), Ic, p. 487, pi. 19, fig. 13. 

4i0. C. heydena, sp. n. 

({. Dark ochreoos grey, forewings densely irrorated with 
minote dark greyish-brown atoms, a brown dot at -the end of the 
ceU, indications of an inner brownish ontwardly-corved band at 
ooe-Udid from the base, a nearly straight blackish-brown thick line 
^rom the coeta near apex to the hinder margin one-fourth from the 
»ngle, edged with whitish on the outer side, this line slightly curves 
inwards below its centre ; black points in the interspaces close to the 
ooter margin, cilia brown with pale tips, hindwings pale ochreous- 
grey, unmarked except for a pale grey dot at end of cell. XJnder- 
wie pale ochreons-grey, a blackish spot at end of each cell, and the 
diacal Hne showing through the wing. Expanse of wings, 1^ inch. 

Shillong; many examples. 

Allied to C. bilineata, Swinh., which, however, is a 
Itfger insect, has a discal band on hindwings and has 
two teeth below its semi-falcated apex of forewing, 
» character entirely wanting in all the specimens I have 
jet seen of this species, the outer margin of the forewing 
being produced above the middle and evenly concave 
between that and the apex. 

Gtenns Metbocahpa, Latreille. 
*41. M.haliaria (Walker), xxii., p. 518 (1861). 
Shillong and Cherra Pnnji. 

Genus Hetebolocha, Led. 
-^2. H. patalaia, Felder, Reise Nov. Lep., pi. 132, fig. 9 

Uarcala varianSf Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1891, 

p. 487. 

Digitized by 


204 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

GcDus Cbocota^ Uiibn. 
44a C. niguzaria, Walker, xx., p. 129 (1860). 
Sbillong; many examples. 

Genas Anthypekythba, Swinhoe. 

VU. A. hemearia, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1891, p. 485, 
pi. 19, fig. 9. 

Genus Hypirythpa, Guen. 

'U5. H. lutea, Cram., Pap. Exofc., iv., pi. 370 figs, c, d. 


Genus Pseupekythra, Nov. 

Differs from Hypenjthra in the absence of the sexual 
patch of androconia on forewing, the cell being longer in 
bath Eexes. 

4 i6. P. phuenix (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc, 1890, p. i89. 
Shillong ; a long series. 

447. P.khasiana (Swinh.), Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., 

p. 221 (1893). 
Shillong; many examples : the females of the above 
two species are rather difficult to distinguish from the 
females of Hypcrythra lutea ; they have, however, large 
purplish spots all along the outer side of the discal band 
ou both wings, whereas in lutea these spots are duller 
coloured and more restricted ; the cell also is shorter in 
In ha : from each other they can be separated by the 
diH'orence in the colouration of the underside. 

Genus Scabdamia, Guen. 

448. 8. metaUaria, Guen., Phal, i., p. 89 (1857). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Peratophyoa, Nov. 

Antennffi of male with paired ciliations to the tips ; of the female 

with very minute ciliations; palpi upturned, covered with hairs; 

liind wings with vein 4 curving downwards before end of ceU,'- 

tmitted from middle of cell, .3 and 6 from the ends, foreif iug with 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Lf^pLdoptera of the Kha^ia Hills. 205 

7ein3 from ead of cell, 5 emitted from 6 beyond end of cell, 
mid tibia with two terminal spurs, hind tibia with four. 

149. P. serata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 643. 

Genus Hypdlia, Nov. 

? . Antennae dilate, palpi upturned, last joint short, depressed, 
•oooth ; hindwings with vein 3 emitted before end of cell, 6 at 
the end, 2 beyond the middle ; f orewing with vein 3 before end 
of oeU, 5 in the centre of discocellulars, 6 bent at its origin before 
oppcrcnd; hind tibiie with two pairs spurs, one long and one short 

^l 8. dirempta (Walker), xxii., p. 595 (1861). 

Shillong and Cherra Panji : I have this species from 
8e?eral parts of India and from Singapore, all females, 
and have never seen a male. 

Genus Pericallia, Stephens. 

^1. P. gynopteridia (Butler), Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi., 
p. 123 (1880). 

SMIloDg and Cherra Punji; many examples of both 


•^^2. P. angulifascia (Moore), P. Z. S., 1878, p. 851, 
pi. 53, fig. 11. 
Shillong ; several males and one female. In this species 
vein 6 of the hindwings is emitted a little further inwards 
from the end of the cell then in gynopteridia, and the 
Mtenn® of the female has the pectinations very short and 
invisible to the naked eye. 

Genus Efione, Dup. 

^y^l E. adudata, Moore, /.r., pi. 8, fig. 20. 

Type Khasia Hills in coll. Staudinger : not known 

Genus Synegia, Gu^n. 

Borbacha, Moore. 
Parasynegia, Warren. 

4o4. S.pardana{Gu6a.), Phal, i., p. 420 (1857). 

Digitized by 


206 Cokmel Cfaaries Swinlioe am Ou 

455. S. catnptogrammaria (Gneo-), PhaL, L, p. 42»J (1S57'. 

Caberod^M injijcaria. Walker, xxtL, p. 1513 (1562-. 

Hhilkmg and Cherra PaojL 
4.'>6. S. diJiuFarla (Moore), P. Z. S., 1S67, p. ML 

AnUodes punHifera, Batler, Ann, Mag. N. H. (5^, ri., 
p. 22U (ISiHJ,. 

Cbem Pnnji. 

457. 8, plurudriaria (A^alker), xxtL, p. 1-581 (1862), 
Shniong and Cherra Pnnji ; common* 

458. Synegia gopterana, sp. n. 

(J. Ochreous, sparseljr irrorated with red, tbonx with a red 
band in front ; abdomen with segmental bands, wings with a Uack 
dot at the end of each cell, hindwings with a short baaal red band, 
and a corresponding thick red band near the base of the abdomen, 
both wings crossed by a red band from the centre of the abdominil 
margin of hindwings, where it is doable, to the apex of forewings, 
where it joins a band which cnnres from the apex to the costal 
third ; on the f orewings there is another corred band attached to 
the upper half of the medial band and a red mark against the centre 
of the outer margin, and on the hindwings there are some inegnlsr 
red lines in the disc and a straight red band from the apex to the 
anal angle. Expanse of wings, 1 ,'^ inch. 

Cherra Panji ; two examples. 

Allied to 8. lidderdaln, Bntler, 

Genns Coeymica, Walker. 

459. C. armaria, Walker, xx., p. 231 (1860). 

460. C, caustolomaria, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., 

iii., p. 231 (1887). 
Cherra Panji. 

Section IV. MACARIIN^. 

Genns Luxiabia, Walker. 
Bithia, Walker. 

461. L. phyTXoaaria (Walker), xx., p. 82 (1860). 
L. alfenxisaria, Walker, l,c., p. 232. 

Digitized by 


L&pidoptera of the Khasia Hills. 207 

462. L. conligaria (Walker), xxii., p. 754 ? (1861). 

Acidalia turpisaria, Walker, xxiii., p. 771 ? (1861). 
A. tephrosaria, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 643 ^J. 

Verj common. 

463. L. subrasaia (Walker), xxiii., p. 773 (1861). 

Shillong and Cberra Panji ; a fine series. 

ForewingB yery narrow; underside ochreoos-brown with the 
usual markings brown, and with a white patch at apex of fore- 

464. L. gubmonstraia (Walker), xxiii., p. 772 (1861). 

Shillong and Cherra Panji ; many examples 

The smallest species of the genus, of a pale grey 

16-3. L. fa^ciosa, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lap. Atk., iii., 
p. 254 (1887). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji; common. 

466. L. exclma (Walker), xxi., p. 320 (1860). 

If. exclusa, Cotes and SwinL, Cat Moths of India, iv., 

Na 4006 (1888). 
Acidalia inexactata, Walker, xxxv., p. 1600 (1866). 


467. L. obliquata^ Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 254 (1887). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; many examples. 

Genud Macabu, Curtis. 

Acadra, Herr Schaff. 
Evarzia, Walker. 
Azata, Walker. 
Gubaria, Moore. 
Oonodela, Boisd. 

468. if. emersaria (Walker), xxiii., p. 925 (1861). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; common. 

469. If. oliva, sp. n. (PI. II., fig. 16.) 

^. Olire grey, with slightly darker irrorations ; wings crossed 
hj oUre brown liDes, all bent in on to the costa of forewings, Ist 

Digitized by 


^_"f s^-'-i In-. "W 72k 

-■X - »T 

^^:^ JI L • '. ZJ -^- T^-^^ luL IrT- Aih^ in^ 

■^'::''.-T.r lAi^^ 7l:*'^tt 1 ^ : "iir r:' form of tie 
p-t -r^ci'c r^iTcz n. iit^ CiiiteUi^ iiuT I liBTe never receiTed 

471. JIT. fi'—^-'f r-v-iLL ., _^T.r.. \xh^. X. H, tV, lii., 

T. - -**♦ - *" - . 

SLiljoiJir ; f "re maiefv. 

Siiillong and CheTra Per;: ; twelve male?. 

47<l- if. mciagoiia'-'ia nA'^Jter., ixri., p. 1518 (1862). 

Common ; in the B. M. Cc>]L this is made a synonym of 
8. elvirafa, Gneo., but elvirota belong-s to the suffiafa 
group. I have it from the Shan States; it is the largest 
fipL'cies of that gronp. 


Digitized by 


Lepiiloptera of the Kh(Uia Hills. 209 

477. M. xanthonora, Walker, xxlii., p. 935 (1861). 
Shillong; many examples. 

478. M. inchoata, Walker, xxiii., p. 931 (1861). 

M, nora, Walker, I.e., p. 934. 
M. necmora, Walker, I.e. 

Very common ; neonora is from the Philippines, ifc has 
the central white band very broad, bnt I have an 
example from the Khasias identical with the type. The 
type specimen of inchoata is a female ; some females of 
this extreme form look very distinct, but among the many 
hundreds in my museum, from many localities, there are 
all three, forms with all the gradations between them. 

479. M.fasciata (Fabr.), Syst. Ent., p. 629 (1775). 

Shillong; appears to be more rare in the Khasias than 
any other species of this group, only three or four 
examples having been received. 

480. if. acutaria, Walker, Char. XTndescr. Lep. Het., 

p. 100(1869). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; many examples. There 
are two distinct forms of this species, one much darker 
than the other. 

481. M. per»pieuaria, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 647. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; common. 

482. If. odataria (Swinh.), Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., 

p. 154 (1893). (PI. II., fig. 17.) 
Shillong ; five examples. 

483. M. trilineai-ia (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 263 (1887). 

484. M. quadraria (Moore), Lep. Ceylon, iii., p. 469, 

pi. 205, fig. 1 (1887). 

Azata ferrtiginafa, Moore, I.e., p. 470, fig. 2. 
Shillong; many examples. 

485. M. subfasciata (Hampson), 111. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., 

viii., p. 112, pi. 151, fig. 20 (1891). 

Shillong ; nine examples. 


Digitized by 


'■»" .•r:-;* Tzta iat x«a daeirf with* 

■ * - ' 1^ ' i L zii tiL :ime aaasTcne 

-.- -^ ^ ^- :^.,1i. SB nr*^ uaxtKiT bent 

.-^ r'TI >.fi2£L 


:. -.- -r 


. ^♦x . . i^ *i 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Lepidoptera of the Khasia Hills. 211 

Z. aureata, Moore, Descr. lod. Lep. Atk„ iii., p. 263, 

6 (1887). 
Cherra Punji. 

Section V. ABRAXINiE. 


Genas Cistidia, Hilbner. 
Halthia, M^n, 
Obeidia, Walker. 

493. C. nigripars (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, p. 16, 

pi. 1, fig. 1. 
Shillong ; one example. 

494. C. lucifera^ sp. n. 

^ $. Head and body ochreoas, thorax with brown spots, 
abdomen with brown segmental bands, wings white, with a broad 
band on all the margins, the bands are ochreous, spotted with 
brown in some examples, but in others the band is brown marked 
with ochreous. In some examples, especially in the females, the 
bands are macular, mnch as in the Chinese species, C. tigrata^ Gu^n. 
On the hindwing there is also a brown macular band. Expanse of 
wings, <J 2/5, 9 3 inches. 

Types, India, $ $ in O. M. 

Shillong; one female. I have it also from Sikkim. 
Differs from 0. tigrata in its smaller size, and the colour 
of the wings being pure white instead of ochreous. 

Genus Pabicterodbs, Warren. 

495. P. tenebraria (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 653. 

Genus Icterodks, Butler. 

496. I. hamiltonia (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, p. 17, 

pi. 1, fig. 15. 

497. J. lapsariata (Walker), xxiv., p. 1121 (1862). 
Cherra Punji. 

498. J. fasciata, sp. n. (PI. II., fig. 11.) ?• 

^ 9 • Pectus, palpi beneath and shafts of the antennae ochreonn, 
plumefl and upper side of palpi black, abdomen ochreous with 
black spots, wings white with broad grey transverse bands, one at 

Digitized by 


212 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

the base where there are some ochreous marks, an incomplete band 
in the middle, obsolescent in the hindwings, followed by a broad 
discal band across both wings, and an almost equally broad mai^al 
band with a white ainnous line running down its centre. Body and 
legs below ochreous. Expanse of wings, 2 inches. 
Cherra Punji. I have it also from Kurseyong. 

Genus Calcula, Moore. 

499. 0. exanthemata, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 266 (1887). 

Genus Abraxas, Leach. 

500. A. leopardina (Kollar), Hiig. Kasch., iv., p. 490 

A. martaria, Gu^n., Phal. ii., p. 205 (1857). 
A. intermedia, Warren, P. Z. S., 1888, p. 324. 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; very common : it is im- 
possible to separate the above three. Amongst the 
hundreds I have received from the Khasias there are 
typical examples of all three, and very many intergrades ; 
it is a species very variable in both pattern and size. 

501. A, Jchasiana, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1892, p. 17. 
Shillong ; five examples. 

Genus Pkrcnia, Gudn. 

502. Rfelinaria, Gu^n., Phal., ii., p. 216, pi. 19, fig. 1 

Common ; I have two or three curious sports of this 
species from Cherra Punji. 

503. P. helluaria, Guen , Ic, p. 217. 
Very common. 

504. P. guttata, Felder, Reise Nov. Lep., pi. 130, 

fig. 15 $ (1874). 

P. suhmissa, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 391. 

Shillong ; three examples. I have it also from Simla 
and Kurseyong, the antennse of the male is quite 
different in this species to that in felinaria or bell- 
nana, having well separated thick spine-like branches 
densely ciliated. 

Digitized by 


Lepidopiera of the Khasia Alls. 213 

^05. P. coryneta, sp. n. 

^. White, pectus, top of head and thorax ochreous ; abdomen 

pey tinged with ochreous ; the two latter with black spots as in 

hrcnia ; forewings ochreous at the base, both wings with spots 

nuchas in P,fdniaria, but there are black streaks at the base of 

reins 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the forewings, and the sub- marginal row of 

spots are in pairs, except those in the 2nd and 3rd interspaces ; 

iod tb&ie spots being somewhat near the margin they leave a white 

di«al band between them, and the central duplex row ; in the hind- 

ving the central band of spots are in pairs in the middle, being 

near the origin of veins 3 and 4, and 6 and 7, these being emitted 

from the lower and upper ends of the cell. Expanse of wings, 


Sliilloiig; one example. 

Genus Milionia, Walker. 

506. If. ptdchrinervis, Felder, Reise Nov. Lep., pi. 104, 
tig. 6 ? (1868). 

M, latiuiUa, Moore, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 570. 

Section VI. BOAEMIIN^. 
Genus Amraica, Moore. 
507. A, recursaria (Walker), xxi., p. 374 ? (1860). 

Boarmia ferrolavata, Walker, xxvi., p. 1536 ? (1862). 
B. soUragaria, Walker, xxxv., p. 1586 ^ (1866). 
J. fortissi'nia, Moore, Dcscr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 
p. 245 $ (1887). 

Shillong ; a fine series. The above is a very good 
instance of the futility of erecting types on female 
examples in the Geometers : the above three females all 
vary inter se, but are all undoubtedly one species, easily 
proved by the examination of a loug series of this 

Genus Eubyja, Hiibn. 

Amphidaris, Treit. 

WB. E. regalia (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 
p. 2U (1887). 

Digitized by 


214 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

Genus Cosiala, Moore. 

509. C. hengalaria (Guen.), Phal., i., p. 210, pi. 4, fig. 2 

Shillong ; many examples of both sexes. 

510. C. contecfaria (Walker), xxvi., p. 1529 (1862). 
Shillong and Cherra Panji. 

511. C. angidata (Harapson), 111. Typ. Lep. Hot. B. M., 

viii., p. 107, pi. 150, fig. 7 (1891). 

Cherra Panji. 

Genus Buzura, Walker. 

612. B. suppressaria (Gu^n.), Phal., i., p. 210 (1857). 

B, muUipunctaria^ Walker, xxvi., p. 1531 (1862). 
B. atrigariu, Moore, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 416. 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; common. 

Genus Chorodna, Walker. 

513. C. erchusaria, Walker, xxi., p. 314 (1820). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

514. 0. metapheearia (Walker), xxvi., p. 1482 (1862). 

Erehomorpha semwlnsariay Walker, Z.c, p. 1552. 

E. prwtextaia, Felder, Beise Nov. Lep., pi. 126, fig. 16 


515. C. tedaceata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 615. 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Erebomorpha, Walker. 
Vindueara, Moore. 

516. E.fulgurita, Walker, xxi., p. 495 (1860). 

E. xanthosoma, Felder, Beise Nov. Lep., p\ 126, 
fig. 17 (1874). 

Shillong j many examples. 

517. E. fulguraria, Walker, xxi., p. 495 (1860). 
Shillong; seven examples. 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Khasia Silts, 215 

518. E, compodiala (Guen.), Phal. ii., p. 207 (1857). 

Genus Opthalhodes^ Gaeu. 

519. 0. herbidaria, Guen., Phal., i., p. 283 (1857). 

0. dtumaria, Guen., Z.c, p. 284. 

Baarmia pertusaria, Felder, Reise Nov. Lep., pi. 125, 
fig. 17 (1874). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

520. 0. infmaria, Walker, xxi., p. 448 (1860). 
Shaiong and Cherra Punji ; very common. 

521. 0. pulsaria, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1891, p. 489. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; many examples. 

522. 0. cordularia, Swinh., Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xii., 

p. 155 (1893). (PL II., fig. 4.) 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Amblychia, Guen. 

523. A. angeronaria, Gu6n., Phal., i., p. 215, pi. 4, fig. 9 


Genus Elphos, Guen. 

524. E. hymenaria, Gu6n., Phal., i., p. 285, pi. 16, fig. 4 


E. pardkelata, Walker, xxvi., p. 1544 (1862). 
E. prseumbrata, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 433 ?. 

Shillong ; common. Warren's species is erected on a 
female from Perak: in the Oxford Museum and in 
my own museum are examples from several parts of 
India, Borneo, Sumatra and Singapore, with many vari- 
ations of females bearing many of the characters 
described by Warren. 

525. E. scolopaiea, Drury, Exot. Ins., ii., pi. 22 fig. 1, 

App.ii. (1773). 
Shillong; common. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

216 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on thd 

Genns Boaruia^ Treit. 

526. B. adviiasaria, Guen., Phal. i., p. 239 (L857). 

B. pleniferata, Walker, xxvi., p. 1538 (1862). 

Alcis vidua, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., p. 243 


ShilloDg. A splendid series of this very variable 

527. B. perspicuata, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 630. 

528. B. alienaria, Walker, xxi., p. 370, ^ (1860). 

B. geltdaria, Walker, xxvi., p. 1537, ? (1862). 
Chogada fratema, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 
p. 245 (1887). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; very common ; a very 
widely distributed species: I have it from Sylhet, 
Sikkim, Khasias, Andamans, Nilgiris, and Ceylon. 

£29. B, propuharia, Walker, xxi., p. 385 (1860). 
B. contigiiufa, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 631. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; common. 

530. B. semiclarata (Walker), xxiv., p. 1029 (1862). 
Shillong ; many examples. 

531. B, aemialha (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 241 (1887). 
Cherra Punji. 

532. B. latifasciata, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 427. 
Cherra Punji. 

533. B. nebulosa, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1891, p. 488. 

534. B. rahtana, sp. n. (PI. II., fig. 18.) 

(J . Brown ; the colour caused by minute brown irrorations 
densely packed on a grey ground ; wings with a lunular-shaped 
ringlet at the end of each cell, and crossed by several dark-brown 
lines, 1st one-third from base^ and indistinct ; 2nd medial, out- 
wardly denlated, regularly curved on hindwing outside the ringlet. 

Digitized by 


Lepidopiera of the Khasia Hilts, 21 7 

doable on forewing, the two lines gradually widening on to the 
costa ; 3rd discal somewhat close to the margin, more or less 
oatwardlj dentated, and edged iu places with whitish on its outer 
lide, marginal sinuous line dark brown ; underside pale brown, 
discal ringlets and central thick black transverse line prominent on 
both wings. Expanse of wings, l/^ inch. 

Shillong and Cherra Pntjji ; many examples. Allied 
to B. gemmaria, Brahm., but diflTers in the absence of 
the discal marks^ evanescent bands above, and band on 
hindwings more elbowed outwards. 

Genus Racotis, Moore. 

535. R. boarviiaria (Gu^n.), Phal. i., p. 282 (1857). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. There are two forms, one 
darker and smaller than the otheir. It is a very common 
species in the Khasias. 

Genus Xakdeames, Moore. 

536. X dholaria, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 634. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

537. X laiiferaria (Walker), xxi, p. 445 (1860). 

Shillong. Six males. The type came from N. China, 
but these specimens appear to be identical with the 

Genus Midasina, Moore. 

538. M. 9trixaria (Gu^n.), Phal. i., p. 217 (1857). 

539. M. creataria (Guen.), Z.c. 
ShOlong and Cherra Punji; common. 

540. Jf. maurarta (Guen.), I.e., p. 218. 

Shillong and Cherra Punji. In Cotes and Swinhoe^s 
" Moths of India,'' No. 3264, if. parisnatei (Walker) is 
put as a synonym of the above. But this is not correct ; 
pari^natei is uniformly much larger than maurarta, and 
has a large pale-yellowish spot in the centre of the outer 
margin of the forewings in both sexes, besides other differ- 
ences. I have both sexes from the Chin Hills, and many 
examples of both sexes of mauraria from the IChasias. 

Digitized by 


218 .Colonel Charles Swinboe on the 

541. M. nigrovittata (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 626. 
ShilloDg and Cherra Panji. 

Genus Callocasta, Nov. 

(^. AntenDae bipectinated to the tips, p>ectiQation8 densely 
ciliated ; hind wing with vein 2 emitted from the centre, 3 from a 
little before end of cell, vein 6 from the upper end ; forewing with 
vein 2 from the centre, 3 from before the end of the cell, 6 bent 
upwards beyond the upper end of the cell, emitting vein 5 at a 
little distance beyond ; hind tibia with two pairs of spurs. 

542. C. similis (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 235 (1887). 

543. C. haststrigaria (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 626. 
Shillong ; one female. 

Genus Pseodangkeona, Moore. 

544. P. separata (Walker), xxi., p. 381 (1860). 

Boamiia retracfaria, Walker, Z.c, p. 386. 
B. intectaria, Walker, xxvi., p. 1535 (1862). 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; many examples. 

545. P. reparata (Walker), xxi., p. 380 (1860). 
Shillong ; five examples. 

546. P. leciularia (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc, 1891, 

p. 489, pi. 19, fig. 4. 

Shillong j one example. 

Genus Catascia, Hiibn. 

647. C. eolarta (Gu^n.), Phal., i., p. 294 (1857). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; common. 

548. (7. ventraria (Gu6n.), Phal., he. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; common. 

Genus Catoeia, Moore. 
649. C. suhlavaria (Guen.)> Phal., i., p. 256 (1857). 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Khasta HilU, 219 

C. oluescens, Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 
p. 244 (1887). 

ShilloDg and Cherra Punji. A fine series; typical 
ex»imples of suhlavaria and olivescens look very distinct, 
but I have many intergrades. 

Genus Darisa, Moore. 

550. D. mucldaria (Walker), xxxv., p. 1581 (1866). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Lassaba, Moore. 

551. L. albidana (Walker), xxxv., p. 1582 (1866). 

Genus Hembbophila, Steph. 
Menophra, Moore. 

552. H. delineata (Walker), xxi., p. 387, ? (1860). 
H. camdorsata, Walker, xxxv., p. 1578 (1866). 

553. H. reiractaria, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 627, pi. 32, 

fig. 7. 

554. jBT. humei-aria, Moore, Z.c, p. 627. 

555. H, contubemalis (Moore), Descr. Tnd. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 238 (1887). 

556. H. mdlis (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., p. 238, 

pi. 8, fig. 9 (1887). 
Cherra Punji. 

Genus Hibasa, Moore. 

557. H. icripturaria (Walker), xxxv., p. 1590 (1866). 
Scolopterijx permuscosa, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 432. 
Cherra Punji. 

Digitized by 


220 Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 


Antennas of male with short paired bristles ; hindwing with cell 
open, vein 2 at less than one-third from end, rather dose to 3 ; 
forewing with veination normal, vein 5 in centre of disco-cellolare ; 
mid tibia with one pair terminal spurs ; hind tibia with two pairs, 
the inner pair the longer. 

558. R. cessaria (Walker), xxi., p. 383, g (1860). 
Angerona praeclaina,Y^Qlker, xxvi., p. 1499, $ (1862). 
A. paUicostaria, Moore, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 620. 

Shillong and Cherra Punji ; common. 

559. R.figlina (Swinh.), Trans. Ent. Soc, 1890, p. 205, 

pi. 7, fig. 5. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Gyadroma, Nov. 

(J . Antennae fasciculate ; palpi upturned, first two joints 
covered with long hairs, last joint short and depressed ; wings long, 
rather narrow ; fore wing with costa slightly arched, outer margin 
much rounded ; hindwiog with outer margin produced and 
scalloped, both wings with veins 3 and 6 emitted before ends of 
cells ; hind tibia thick, with two pairs of short stout spurs and 
fringed with long hairs. 

560. G. tesfacearia (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 623. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji ; in great numbers. 

Genus Serraca, Moore. 

561. S. iransciasa (Walker), xxi., p. 380 (1860). 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Astacuda, Moore. 

562. A. cineraceaj Moore, Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii.> 

p. 241(1887). 

563. A. ampla, Moore, Ix, 
Cherra Punji. 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Khasta Hills. 221 

Genua Ectropis, Hiibn. 

564. E. dentilineala (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 631. 
Shillong and Cherra Punji. 

565. E. pallidaria (Moore), Descr. Ind. Lep. Atk., iii., 

p. 237 (1887). (PI. II., fig. 12.) 
Pseudocoremia dendrellaria, Swinh., Ann, Mag. N. H, 

(6),xii., p. 156 (1893). 

566. E.pannosaria (Moore), P. Z. S., 1867, p. 629. 

567. E. simplaria, sp. n. 

$, Grey, irrorated with black atoms ; abdomen with black 
^finaX bands, the last two or three duplex ; wings crossed by black 
ODQoasand semi-dentate transverse lines, ante- medial, medial, and 
poet-medial, these lines more or less furnished with black points, 
nitrgiiial Innoles black ; cilia yellowish-grey, with black streaks 
oppodte the veins. Expanse of wings, l/o inch. 

Cherra Ponji. 

568. E. planaria, sp. n. 

(J. Grey, striated with brown ; the striations thick on the 
tpical portions of the fore wings, making them much darker than 
the rest of the wings ; a black lunule at the end of each cell ; a 
Mnoated ante-medial transverse brown line more distinct on the 
hindwiDgs ; another similar medial line, bent outwardly on foro- 
vings before reaching the oosta, an indistinct, pale, very sinuous 
diacal line and marginal black festoon ; cilia yellowish-grey, with 
<ltfk grey patches ; underside grey, with the medial line very 
toinct. Expanse of wings, l/d inch. 

Cherra Panji and Shillong. 

Allied to E. ochrifasciata, Moore, Lep, Atk., iii., 
p. 240, bnt qnite distinct. 

Genns Ascotis, Hiibn. 

569. A. selenaria (Schifif.), Wien. Verz., p. 101. 

Boarmia reciprocaria, Walker, xxi., p. 366 (1860), 
B, imjyarata, Walker, I.e., p. 372. 
B. promptaria, Walker, /.c, p. 379. 

Digitized by 


222 -Colonel Charles Swinhoe on the 

OphthnI modes creta^ea, Butler, Ann. Mag. N. H., ii., 
p. 373 (1879). 

Shillong and Cherra Ponji ; common. A very widely- 
spread species occurring in Africa, India, China and 

Genus Anohychia, Warren. 

570. A. grUea, Butler, P. Z. S., 1883, p. 172. 
Shillor»g and Cherra Punji. 

Genus Abichakka, Moore. 

571. A. trnmesata, Moore, P. Z. S., 18G7, p. G58, pi. 33, 

fig. 2. 

572. A. marginata, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 423. 

573. A. transfasriata, Warren, P. Z. S., 1892, p. 425. 
Cherra Pnnji. 

Genus Scotopteryx, Hiibn. 

574. S. albisfellaria, Warren, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 432. 
Type Khasia Hilb in collection Elwes. 

Genus Obbasu, Nov. 
AntennaB of both sexes simple ; bindwing with vein 4 much 
bent upwards towards end of cell, 2 emitted beyond the middle, 3 
before the end, C at the upper end ; forewing with vein 2 at one- 
third before end, 3 before the end of the cell, 5 from jnst above 
centre of disco-cellular, 6 before upper end of cell ; bind tibia with 
one pair of stout terminal spurs. 

575. 0. spurcataria (Walker), xxvi., p. 1498 (1862). 
Shillong ; one female. 

Genus Psilalcis, Warren. 

576. P. breta, Swinh., P. Z. S., 1889, p. 426. 

Shillong; in HI. Typ. Lep. Het. B. M., ix., p. 36, 
Hampson makes breta a synonym of inceptaria. Walker, 
the type of which is a unique and very much rubbed 

Digitized by 


Lepidoptera of the Khaaia Hills. 223 

female example from Flores, in the Oxford Museum. 
This is mere conjecture ; Flores is a long way from 
India, and the type specimen is too much rubbed for 
identification : it does not even resemble hreta, and until 
we can find a male 'we cannot be certain it even belongs 
to the same genus as brela. On this rubbed female Warren 
states he has erected his genus Psilalcis; but he has 
erected his genus on a male, and as the male of inceptaria 
is not known, that species cannot stand as the type of 
the geons. 

Explanation op Plate II. 

1. Ocinara cyproha^ p. 154. 

2. Eupterote axeskiy p. 157. 

3. Zamarcula cosmiaria, p. 210. 

4. Opthalmodes cordularia, p. 215. 

5. Stegania peralha, p. 195. 

6. Abnala dorcada, p. 170. 

7. FascelUna dacoda, p. 201. 

8. My r tela ocemaria^ p. 194. 

9. Episothalma ocellata^ p. 172. 

10. Euslroma monana^ p. 191. 

11. Icterodes fasciata^ p. 211. 

12. Ectropii pallidaria^ p, 221. 

13. Fa$cellina cyanifera^ p. 201. 

14. Deilinia luteifronSy p. 193. 

15. Tanaorhinus Jcina, p. 174. 

16. Macaria oliva, p. 207. 

17. Macaria odataria, p. 209. 

18. Boarmia ratolaria, p. 21G, 

Digitized by 


.,.,Goo,. J 

TraJis^£nJt^Soc.londl8B4^ Pt^M^ 

«# 1^ 

Leuidoptera. of tKe 




Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Trans.£rvt.Soc.lonci.l894. Pi.Il. 

Digitized b'^MIPWQlC 

Leoidoptera, of tKe 

Digitized by 


( 225 ) 

VII. An Entomological Excursion to Corsica. By 
Gkorob C. Champion, F.Z.S. 

[Bead Feb. 28th, 1894.] 

Mt friend^ Mr. R. S. Standee, having determined to 
make an entomological expedition to the monntains of 
Corsica^ I^ at the last moment, decided to accompany 
him, and, accordingly, we started together on May 28th 
last, arriving at Ajaccio on the morning of May 30th, 
aDd at the hotel at La Foce de Yizzavona, onr proposed 
head-qnarters, the same evening. Here we remained 
aboat a month, being joined later on by Mr. A. H. Jones, 
Colonel Yerbary, R.A., Mr. Lemann, and others, Mr. 
Raine of Hyeres having preceded ns by some weeks. 
Altogether, we were qnite a large party, all, however, on 
Lepidoptera intent, myself and Colonel Yerbury excepted. 
Mr. Standen has already (Ent. 1893, pp. 236—238, and 
pp. 259 — 263) given ns an account of his experiences 
with the Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera), for most of which we 
appeared to be too early, the season in the mountains 
being very backward compared to the semi-tropical coast 
region. I devoted myself almost exclusively to the 
Coleoptera and Hemiptera-Heteroptera ; and it is 
proposed here to give an account of the species met 
with, adding to my list some others (chiefly Longicomia 
and finprestidas) subsequently obtained by Colonel Yer- 
bory — who remained till August, — which he kindly 
banded over to me on his return. The Hemiptera- 
Heteroptera have been entirely determined by Mr. E. 
Saunders. Our head-quarters at Yizzavona, on the 
summit of the Col between Bocognano and Tattone, on 
the main road between Ajaccio and Bastia, at an 
elevation of about 4,000 feet, and commanding a splendid 
view of the lofty Mont d'Oro, proved to be a capital 
centre for collecting. In the immediate vicinity of the 
hotel, though it is not visible till the summit of the Col 
is reached, is a splendid forest, composed almost entirely 
of beech and Corsican pines (Pinus laricio), some of the 
trees being exceedingly lofty, the beech ascending 

TRAH8. IKT. 80C. LOHD. 1894.— PAET I. (mABCH.) P 

Digitized by 


226 Mr. George C. Champion on an 

higher, up the mountain slopes than the pines. The 
beeches are more or less covered with moss, indicating a 
humid climate, though the coast region is excessively dry 
and arid at this season. The forest entirely fills the head 
of the valley on the northern side of the Col, and in it 
there was an abundance of fallen timber just ready for the 
Coleopterist ; this being partly due to the fact that a 
large number of trees had been felled for the purposes 
of the new railway, which passes in a long tunnel right 
under the forest. Lower down, on either side of the 
Col, to Bocognano on the one side, and Tattone on the 
other, there are plenty of magnificent chestnuts and 
other trees, with green meadows and small patches of 
cultivation. Below Bocognano, right down to Ajaccio, 
the hill-sides are in many places covered with a 
dense bush or '^ macchie,*' chiefly composed of arbor- 
escent heath, arbutus, evergreen oak, myrtle, and Cistus, 
with, in the opener places, an abundance of aromatic 
Labiates and other plants. At Ajaccio itself there is the 
usual semi-tropical vegetation of the Mediterranean 
region, the abundance and thriving condition of the in- 
troduced Opuntias, etc., recalling to my mind visions of 
distant tropical climes. The mountain slopes for some 
distance above the limits of the forest are clothed in 
many places with a dense, almost impenetrable, growth of 
dwarf alder, such as I have seen nowhere else, the alders 
coming into flower directly the snow melts, the ground 
beneath them at this time being bright with crocuses, 
though no gentians were seen. The mountain summits 
are more or less serrated, excessively rugged, and barren, 
and it is not easy to find workable spots, nor, indeed, to 
get about, many of the ridges being impassable without 
a long detour. There is also a scarcity of water; even 
in some of the valleys the streams are small, the Gravone 
itself being lost in the marsh and sand before reaching 
the Bay of Ajaccio. In the forest at Vizzavona not 
many flowering plants were to be seen, beyond foxgloves, 
a beautiful Pancratium, an asphodel, a Cyclamen and a 
Sambucm; but lower down at Tattone, etc., there were 
plenty of Umbellifera), Orchidaceos, Compositao, etc. 
Though Monte d'Oro and Monte Retondo were within 
comparatively easy distance of Vizzavona, I did not 
attempt an ascent of either of them, contenting myself 
with working to the summit of the Col between the hotel 
and Ghisoni, to an elevation of a Httle over 6,000 feet. 

Digitized by 


Entomological Excursion to Goritica, 227 

From Vizzavonay excursions were made to Tattone, 
Vivario, Corte, BooognaDO, Tavera, Ajaccio, etc., the rail- 
way helping a good deal for this purpose ; but most of the 
time was spent in the mountains. At Corte, about half- 
waj between Yizzavona and Bastia, in the northern central 
part of the island, to which we made a pleasant three 
days' excursion, the heat notwithstanding, there is more 
water, the united streams, the Restonica and Tavignano, 
forming a river of considerable size, the banks of which 
were productive in small Coleoptera. Of the cork-oaks, 
of which there are forests in some parts of the island, 
we saw very few in any of the places visited. At 
Bocognano we received a good deal of assistance and 
kind hospitality from Dr. Trotter, this place producing 
many of the species peculiar to the *^ macchie '* and to 
the low country. Still, my list contains but a meagre 
assortment of these latter, it being already much too 
late in the season for most of them, everything being by 
this time parched up near the coast. One thing struck 
me as peculiar, viz., the scarcity of Cryptocephalm ; a 
similar amount of work in the south of France or Spain 
would have produced many species. 

Corsica contains a large number of Coleoptera 
peculiar to itself, upwards of two hundred beino^ given 
in the last European Catalogue (v. Heyden, Reitter, and 
Weise, 1891) from Corsica alone, the Staphylinidab and 
the Rbynchophora . each having over thirty peculiar 
species ; and perhaps a still larger number of species are 
common to Corsica and Sardinia, and which do not 
extend on to the Italian mainland. One of the most 
characteristic genera, and one most in evidence, is 
PercM (a close ally of Pterostichus), which is represented 
bj several peculiar species, its other members inhabiting 
Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, the Balearic Islands, and Spain. 
Oue abundant insect in the island, Cetonia auraia, 
affords an instance of the extraordinary amount of 
variation possible within the same species, the different 
varieties occurring together indiscriminately, and quite 
irrespective of a varied geographical distribution, or of 
t difference in altitude of the locality. Two very in- 
teresting papers have already been published on the 
Coleoptera of the island: (1) "Bin entomologischer 
Ausflug in die Berge Siid-Corsica's,'' by G. Dieck (Berl. 
ent. Zeitschr., 1870, pp. 397 — 404). This exceedingly 

Digitized by 


228 Mr. George C. Champion on an 

snccessful collector paid special attention to the 
Pselaphido9, Scydma9nida3, Dytiscidce, etc.; he gives a 
most interesting account of his entomological experi- 
ences in the southern part of the island^ where he made 
excursions with M. Reveliere, a well-known Coleopterist 
residing at that time in Corsica, and to whom we are 
largely indebted for our knowledge of its insect-fauna. 
It is to be hoped that some day Dieck's paper will be 
translated into English and published here, as has 
already been done with his paper on Andalusia (r/. Ent. 
1888, pp. 38 et seq,). (2), "Notes on some Corsican 
Insects/' by the Rev. T. A. Marshall (Ent. Monthly 
Mag., vii., pp. 225—228). In this paper Mr. Marshall 
gives a most accurate description of the general features 
of the parts of the island he visited, with a list of all 
the Coleoptera he had captured and been able to name; 
but no Dytiscida) or Staphylinid83 are mentioned, nor 
many of the smaller species. Amongst my captures are 
many species not noticed by either Dieck or Marshall, 
and I propose to give here a list of all the species I have 
been able to identify, adding to my list, as I have stated 
above, some others subsequently obtained by Colonel 
Yerbury, chiefly at Tattone, where a saw-mill was started 
soon after I left. MM. Fauvel and Bedel, the well- 
known French Coleopterists, have kindly assisted me in 
determining many of the more obscure species, the 
former with the Staphylinidce, the latter with the 
Carabida?, Curculionidao, etc. Representatives of aboat 
510 species were obtained in all, including a good many 
of the peculiar Corsican forms. 

Before commencing my list, it is perhaps as well to 
give a short account of the general run of species met 
with in the different localities visited. 

At Vizzavona, in the forest, under the bark of the 
decaying beeches, were to be found Endophl(eus 
spinulomcs, Coxelus jnctus, Brontes planatuft, Bolitochara 
lunulata, etc., in plenty; and Colydium elongatum, 
Ipidia qnadrinotata, two species each of Paromalus and 
Cerylon, Litargns bifa.*tciahis, Orchesia tindulata, Melan- 
drya caraboides, Melasis buprestoides, Sipalia scabripenttisj 
Phlwocharis Corsica, Pla^cusa, sp. n. (?), etc., sparingly : 
in the older trees, with looser bark, Pterostichus 
ambigiius and Pristonychus carinatxis, both commonly; 
and in those with plenty of moss and fungi on the bark, 

Digitized by 


Sntomotogical tlxcurston to Corsica. 2^9 

Platyrrhinus latirostris, Peltis grossa, Diaperis boleti, 
Triplax rvjipes, etc., the first and last-named in numbers. 
Under the bark of the dead pines, especially of those 
still standing, Helops superbus, a very fine species 
pecaliar to the island, and JT. caeruleus, Menephilus 
cunipes, Uloma culinaris and U. perroudi, Adelocera 
carlnmaria, Elater prsevstus and E, pomonse, and Brachy- 
temnm porcatus, more or less commonly, and Tenehrioides 
maroccanus, Nudobius collaris, etc., sparingly ; on the 
bark of these trees Chalc^phora mariana and Dictyoptera 
muguinea were sometimes to be met with. In recently 
fallen pines Acanthocinus griseus, Pogonochserus perroudi, 
Pi^aodea notatus, two species of Emohtus, Salpingus 
nitidus, Helops genei, etc., were to be found on the 
braocbes ; and in or under the bark, in addition to plenty 
of Scolytidae and the abundant Clerus formicariusy Platy- 
foma ohlongum, two species of Plegaderus, Nemosoma, 
AuUmium bicolor, two species of Corticeus, Clems 
quadrimaculaius, Xylita revelierei, etc. One specimen 
of Lucanus tetraodon was found in a rotten pine stump 
(numerous others were subsequently obtained by Colonel 
Yerbnry) ; and the gigantic larva or pupa of the large 
Prionid, Ergaies faber, sometimes occurred in similar 
fiituations, or under the bark of the lofty standing dead 
pines, lliree species of the characteristic Carabideous- 
genos Percus were not uncommon under stones, logs, 
etc., two of them also occurring on the barer mountain 
sides ; a Telephorus {praecox) frequented the foxgloves ; 
and Morimus lugubris was abundant all over the place, 
it being especially fond of a heap of cut beech logs near 
the hotel. On the mountain sides a pretty little 
Halacoderm, Malachius longicollis, frequented almost 
every flower; an Asida, a Thylacites, some Harpali, 
etc., occurred beneath stones, and Meloe brevicollis was 
occasionally found crawling on the grass. Higher up 
in the mountains a Brachyderes {anali»^) frequented the 
growing pines; and still higher, on the Col between 
Vizzavoua and Ghisoni, Otiorrhynchus guttula swarmed 
on the alder catkins on sunny calm days, and with it a 
single specimen of the rare Ceuthorrhynchus duvali was 
obtained ; under stones in these high places an Asida 
was abundant, and a second Otiorrhynchus (corsicus)y not 
uncommon, also one of the species of Percus found lower 

® Originally recorded from Ajaccio, but certainly in error. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

230 Mr. Geoi*ge C. Ctampion on dti 

down ; and on the snow, an Omophlus. In a very 
shallow mountain pool, supplied by the melting snow, 
Hydroporus griseostriatus was plentiful, and on its banks 
were two species of Bembtdium, also in plenty. 

Below Vizzavona, on the road to Bastia, at Tattone, in 
the meadows, Cetonia aurata, showing extraordinary varia- 
tion in colour — black, blue, green, coppery, green with 
coppery thorax and scutellnm, etc., — abounded on flowers, 
and with it were C. floricola and C morio, Trichim 
zonattis, Trtchodes, Bostrychus capudnus, Leptura hasiata 
and L, fulva, Strangalia hifasciata, Stenojpferus rufm, 
Agapanthia cardui, Clytua rhamni, Clytanthus massU 
llcnsisy Rhagonycha Corsica^ Malachiua sardous, various 
iEdemerse, etc. In the roads, etc., were found a handsome 
variety of Cicindela campestris, not uncommonly, and Galo- 
soma sycophanta, occasionally ; also about stercore, Smj- 
pirns, Aleiichus, Gymnopleurus, Oniticellus, Onthophagus 
schreheri, Geotrupes geminatus — ^abundant everywhere, 
even on the higher parts of the mountains where the cattle 
are pastured in summer, — Hister inasgualis, H. pxistu- 
losus, H. major, H, sinuatus, etc. 

By working downwards on the road to Ajaccio, from 
Bocognano to Tavera, representatives of a good many 
interesting species were obtained. In the "macchie," 
by beating the arborescent heath, evergreen oak, etc., 
the rare Cleonua tabidus, Caulostrophus delarouzei, 
two species of Nanophyes, Metallites parallelus — one of 
the commonest weevils in the mountains — Smicronyx 
corsicus, Pachybrachys scriptus, Styhsomus depilis, two 
or three species of Clythra, etc. By sweeping the 
scattered flowering plants (most of which were very 
aromatic) on the slopes and in the meadows lots of 
Coleoptera came to light, as a Lixiis, two species of 
Cardiophorus, in plenty, an Athous, a Xylefinus, two 
species of Danacsea and various other small Malacoderms, 
Throscus corsicuft, numerous species of Bruchns, Olihrm, 
and Meligethes, Hadrotuma variegata, Silaria suturalis, 
various (Edemerse, Grymnetron, Antfirentut, Omophlm, 
Anthicus corsicns, Hispa atra, etc. 

At Ajaccio, Pimelia sardoa was abundant all round the 
sandy shores of the bay on both sides of the town, 
though more dead than living examples were seen, 
where also, Calathus, Pcdinus, Colpotus, Crypti^is, 
Dendarus, Tcntyria, Asida, Phaleria, Chrysomela^ etc., 
were represented by one or more species; Ammoph- 

Digitized by 


^tomoiogicat llxcuraion to Uorsicu. , 231 

ihfru9 ruftut abounded at the roots of plants; Capnodis 
tenehricosa flew aboat in the hot sun ; Sajrrinus semi- 
punciatus abounded in a dead horse, etc. Cetoiiia morio, 
two species of Anthaxia, an Actnseodera, Stenapterua 
akr, Phytcecta virescens, a Coptocephala, a fine large 
Bruchus (longicomis), Troglops silo, Colotes, etc., oc- 
curred on flowers ; Corsehus rubi, commonly on bramble 
bashes; Anthicus corsicus, swarming on a variety of 
bashes and trees on the slopes at the back of the town ; 
Parhypus comutus (^), on the wing in the town towards 
evening; Bembidium hiiateri rarely, and Cicindela 
Utloralia commonly, at Campoloro, on the sand at the 
moath of the Gravone, etc. 

At Corte, at an elevation of about 1,300 feet, some 
interesting small species were to be found on the banks 
of the Tavignano, as Lionychus aturmiy Tachys apristoides, 
Perileptm, the very minute Cryjytohypmis meridionalis, 
Anthicus lonf/icollia, two small blue Philonthi, Lathro- 
bium labile, Scopseua, Medon, etc. In the mountain 
ravines, Sisyphus, Ateuchus, Ahis punctata, etc., were 
common about stercore on the roads ; and at a trickling 
mossy waterfall two Steni {Iwvirjatus and strigosus) 
occurred sparingly. In the meadows and about the 
riverside near the town a good many species already 
met with at Bocognano were to be had by working, 
with the addition of Zaiiitis mutica and Larinua latus 
on thistle-heads, Malachiua rvfua on Umbelliferous 
flowers, etc. 

List of the Speciis met wit?, so fab as at presekt 

[Those marked with a * are given from Corsica only in 
the Catalogue of v. Heyden, Reitter, and Weise.] 

Cicindela campestria, L., var. connata, Heer, not un- 
commonly on the main road at Vizzavona, Corte, etc.; ono 
dark specimen, perhaps belonging to the var. funebria, 
Sturm, Corte ; C. littoralia, F., commonly, on the sandy 
beach at the head of the Bay of Ajaccio, at the mouth of 
the River Gravone. 

Carabtia morbilloaua, F., on the beach at Ajaccio ; 
C. genei, Thorns.,* fragments of a specimen found at 
Vizzavona. Caloaoma aycophanta, L., a few specimens, 
Vizzavona. Leiatua apinibarbia, F., Vizzavona. J5cm- 

Digitized by 


232 Mr. 6eorge C. Champion on an 

bidium bipunctatum, Gyll., and B. agile, Duv.,* both 
commonly^ on the banks of a shallow pool in the 
moantains, at about 5^500 feet elevation, on the Col 
between Vizzavona and Ghisoni; B. rufescenSj Guer., 
Yizzavona ; B. husteri, Schaum, on the coast, Ajaccio \ 
B. condnnum, Steph., river banks, Corte; B. nitidulum, 
Marsh., Vizzavona ; B. prsmstum, Dej., and B. fasciola- 
turn, Dnftschm., Bocognano. Tachys apristoides, Rott., 
a few specimens beneath shingle on the banks of the 
River Tavignano, at Corte. Tachyta nana, GyU., rarely, 
under bark, Vizzavona. Perileptus areolatus, Creotz, on 
the banks of streams, Bocognano and Corte. Synwhus 
nivalis, Panz., Vizzavona. Calathus circumseptus, Germ., 
sea-coast, Ajaccio. Pristonychus carinatus, Chaud.,* 
commonly in the beech-forests at Vizzavona, beneath 
loose bark. Pterostichus {Adelopterus) amhiguus, 
Fairm.,* commonly, with the preceding. Percns reichei, 
Kr.,* P. corsicus, Dej.,* and P. loricatus, Dej.,* under 
stones, old logs, etc., in the beech-forests, also in bare 
places on the mountains, Vizzavona, the first-named 
commonly, the others more rarely ; P. ramburi, Lap.,* 
under rotten Opuntias, Ajaccio. Amara ovata, h\, 
A, familiaris, Duftschm., and A, trlvialis, Gyll., Vizza- 
vona; A. striatopunctata, Dej., on the mountain?, 
Vizzavona. Harpalus bellieri, Reiche,* commonly, at 
Vizzavona, in company with Percus ; H. consentaneus, 
Dej,, H.distinguendus, Dnftschm., H.rubripes, Duftschm., 
and If. honestiis, Duftschm., Vizzavona. Ophonu^s jmmilio, 
Dej., Ajaccio. Anisodactylus hinotatus, F., Vizzavona, 
Stenolophu8 teutonus, Schr., Vizzavona. Chlwniu^ 
vestitus, Payk,, Ajaccio. Lebia cyanocephalu, L., Ajaccio. 
Lionychua aturmi. Gene, rarely, beneath shingle, on the 
banks of the Tavignano, Corte. Dromius meridiimalls, 
Dej., and D. quadrisignatus, Dej., Vizzavona, the latter 
not uncommonly, under bark of beech. Bra^hinus 
adopeta, F., Ajaccio, on the beach. 

Hydroportis griseostriattis, Deg., commonly, and 
H, planus, F., singly, in a shallow pond on the mountains, 
supplied by the melting snow, on the Col between 
Vizzavona and Ghisoni, at an elevation of about 6,500 
feet ; H, memnonius, Nicol, and H. corsicus, Wehncke ?*, 
singly, in a slightly running stream, Vizzavona. Agabus 
bipustulaius, L., Vizzavona; A, binotaius, Aub^, not 
uncommon, in a small sluggish stream at Vizzavona; 
A. conspersus, Marsh., a single specimen, on the Col 

Digitized by 


Entomological Excursion to Corsica. 233 

between Vizzavona and Gliisoni, not differing from 
examples from the English coast. Gryrinus natator, L., 
Corte and Vizzavona. 

Anacsena globulus^ Payk., Hemisphaera infima, Pand., 
and Limnebius perparvnlus, Key (?), in shallow pools on 
the sandy banks of streams^ Bocognano ; L, picinus, 
Marsh. (?) and Laccobius, sp., Corte. Sphseridium 
fcarahxoides, L., and S. marginatum^ F., Vizzavona. 
Cyclonotutn orbiculare, ¥,, Corte. Ueloj^horuSj two or 
three species, Vizzavona. Elmis oblongus, Kuw., Bocog- 
nano. Pamus intermeditiSj Kuw., in plenty, on the banks 
of a stream, Bocognano. 

Ocalea castanea, Er. (?), Vizzavona. Aleochara spissi^ 
comis, Er., Vizzavona; A. m^sta, Grav., Corte. Ocyu^a 
picta, Rey,* Haploglossa pulla, Gyll., Homalota nigri- 
comis, Tboms., Oxypoda referens, Rey, and 0. fusina, 
Rey, fortuitously, Vizzavona. 0. altemans, Grav., in 
foDgus, Vizzavona. Phlreopora reptayis, Grav., P. tran^ 
fita, Key, and P. corticalis, Grav., Ischnoglossa prolixa, 
Grav., and /. corticina, Er., Lepiusa fumida, Er., and 
L, (Sipalia) scabripennis, Rey,* Placusa, sp. n. (?), 
Homalota cuspidata, Er., Conurus pubescens, Payk., 
sparingly, nnder bark of beech or pine, Vizzavona. 
Homalota fragilis, Kr., on the banks ot the Tavignano, 
Corte. Bolitobiu^ irimaculatus, var. kraatzi, Pand., in 
plenty in ftmgns on an old dead beech, Vizzavona. 
Gyrophsena sp. (?), G. manca, Er., and G. boleti, Linn., 
in fungus on beech, Vizzavona. Bolitochara obliqua, 
Er., in plenty, and B, lunulata, Payk., rarely, under 
bark of beech, Vizzavona. Quedius impressUrS, Panz., 
Corte. Ocypus olcns, Miill., and 0. cyaneus, Payk., in 
the road, Vizzavona. P/tilonthus alcyoueus, Er., and 
P. luxurians, Er., beneath shingle on the sandy banks of 
the Tavignano, Corte. P. nigritulus^ Grav., Corte. 
AcU}bius prolixus, Er., banks of streams, Bocognano and 
Corte. Lathrobium labile, Er., rarely, with the Philonthi 
at Corte, on the banks of the Tavignano. Xantholinus 
f^lgidus, Fabr., Corte. Nudobius collaris, Er., a few 
specimens under beech-bark, Vizzavona. Mcdon nigri- 
'«/u«, Er., banks of streams, Bocognano. Scopsctis 
ffiinuius, Er., banks of the Tavignano, Corte. Stenus 
l^cigatus, Rey, about running water, on mossy stones, 
Vizzavona and Corte ; 8- strigosus, Fan v.,* in company 

Digitized by 


234 Mr. GeOtge C. Champion on ait 

with the preceding, Corte; 8. ater, Mann., Corte; 8. 
aitphaltiniis, Er., Vizzavona and BocogDano ; S. fum- 
corniit, Er., and S, erichsom, Rye, Vizzavona. Trotjoph- 
Ifeua arcuatus, Staph., Bocognano; T. corticinus, Grav., 
Ajaccio; T. ptmlliis, Grav., Vizzavona. Homalium 
Jtorale, Payk., H. fossulatum, Er., H. piisilltim, Grav., 
and H. vile, Er., Vizzavona; Jff. concinnum, Marsh., 
Bocognano. Antkohium tempestivum, Er,, Vizzavona. 
Phhvocharis cornica, Fauv.,* under bark of beech, very 
rare, Vizzavona. 

BryaxU revelierei, Saulcy (?), on the banks of streams, 
Corte and Bocognano. ' Euphdus punciatus, Mols., 
under bark, Vizzavona. Neuraphes duhms, Reitt.,* 
under bark, Vizzavona, very rare. 

Silpha granulata, Thunb., in the road, Vizzavona. 
Liodca humeralis, Kug., in fungoid growth on beecb, 
Vizzavona. Arthrolips sp., Corte and Ajaccio. TnV/io- 
pteryx, sp., Vizzavona. Sphwrius acaroiJes, Waltl, on 
the sandy banks of the Tavignano, Corte. Cyhocephahts, 
sp. (?), Corte. Phalacrus coruscus, Panz., Bocognano. 
Olihriis stierlinif Flach, Ajaccio and Bocognano; 0. 
hiplagiatxLSy Guill., Ajaccio; 0. affinis, Sturm, Bocog- 
nano. Triplax rufipesy F., in plenty, in fungus on beech, 
Vizzavona. Endomychus coccineus, L., under bark of 
beech, Vizzavona. Cryptophagiis dentatus, Herbst, C, 
dwtinguendtcs, Sturm, and C scanicus, L., Vizzavona. 
Enicmns minutus, L., Vizzavona; E, testaceus, Steph., 
and E, kirtus, Gyll., one specimen of each under beech- 
bark, Vizzavona; E. transveraus, Oliv., Corte. Lathri' 
diu8 productus, Rosenh., Ajaccio, one specimen. Garti- 
carta pxihescens, Gyll., C. obacura, Bris. (?), and C. 
gihhosa, Herbst, Vizzavona. Litargus bifasciattis, F., 
under bark of beech, Vizzavona. Mycetopha^us quadri- 
piisiidatus, L., including the var. hipHntfdatua, Schilsky, 
in fungus on beech, Vizzavona. Ipidia quadrinoiata, 
F., rarely, under bark of beech, Vizzavona. Meligethes 
wnens, F., and three other spp., Bocognano. PUyopliagus 
ferrugiiieus, L., Rhizopliagus depressus, F., and R. 
ferrugineus, Payk., under bark of Pinus laricio, Vizza- 
vona. Nemosoma elongatum, L., one specimen, on the 
bark of a fallen pine, Vizzavona. Tenehrioidea maroc" 
canus, Reitt., not very rarely, under bark of pines, 
Vizzavona. PMis grossa, L., one specimen, in moss on 

Digitized by 


Entomotogicat Excursion io Corsica, 235 

the trunk of a dead beech, Vizzavona. Coxelus pictus, 
Sturm, abaDdant, Endophlceus sjnnulosus, Latr., rather 
commonly, Colydium elongatum, F., rarely, Ditoma 
crenata, F., rarely, and Broiites planattis, L., in plenty, 
beneath the bark of decaying beeches, Vizzavona. 
Aulonium bicolor, Herbst, commonly, in the burrows of 
Scolytidae, in the bark of pines, Vizzavona. Cerylon 
hUteroides, F., and 0. ferrugineum, Steph., under bark of 
beech, Vizzavona. Lsemophlwus pusilluSy Schonh., and 
Silvanus utiidentatus, Oliv., rarely, under bark, Vizza- 
vona. Dermestes mdpinus, F., Ajaccio. Hadrotoma 
tarUfjata, Eust., on flowers, not rare, Ajaccio, Bocog- 
nano, Vizzavona, Tattone, Vivario. Anthrenus varius, 
F., and A, sp. (?), common, on flowers, Ajaccio, Bocog- 
uano, etc. Limnichus incanus, Kies., Corte. 

Platysoma ohlongum, F., Plegaderus saucius, Er., and 
P, sanatus, Truqui, all three not uncommonly, beneath or 
in the bark of pines, apparently preying on the laiTae of 
Scolytidae, Vizxavona. Hister major, L., If. insequaliff, 
Oliv., JT. A-maculatus, L., H. cadaverinus, Hoffm., H, 
nnuatus, F., and H. purpurascens, Herbst, on the roads, 
in dang, etc., Vizzavona ; H. pustulosus, Gen^, Bocog- 
nano. Saprinus semipunctatus, F., commonly, and t!. 
jurtus, Er., rarely, under a dead horse, on the beach, 
Ajaccio; 8. chaldtes, 111., under dung in the road, 
Ajaccio. Paromalus parallelopipedus, Herbst, and P. 
jlaviccmis, Herbst^ under bark of beech^ Vizzavona. 

Lucanus tetraodon, Thunb., a single i, found in a 
rotten pine- stump, and another example seen on the 
wing, flying about the top of a tree, cTune 27th, Vizza- 
vona; subsequently found in some numbers by Colonel 
Ycrbury. Dorcus parallelopipedtis, L., in rotten beech, 
etc., Vizzavona, not uncommon. Ateuchus plus, 111., in 
the roads, Bocognano and lattooe; A. laticollis, L., 
abundant about dung, Corte, Tattone, Vizzavona, 
Ajaccio, etc Sisyphus schsefferi, L., abundant, with the 
preceding. Gymnopleurus sturmi, Macl., Ajaccio; G. 
mopsus, PalL, Vizzavona. Onthophagus amyntas, Oliv., 
0. taurus, Schr., 0. nuchicomis, L., 0. fracticomis, 
Prejssl., and O. schreberi, L., Oniticellus jlavipes, F., 
Vizzavona, Corte, etc. Aplujdius erraticus, L., A» 
pujtilluSf Herbst, A, scrofa, F., A, Juemorrhmdalis, L., 
Vizzavona. Geotrupes geminatus, Gen6, abundant every- 

Digitized by 


236 Mr. George C. Champion on an 

where in the mountains, at an elevation of 2,500 feet 
and upwards, Vizzavona; G, hypocrita, Serv., Ajaccioj 
G, stercorarius, Linn., Vizzavona. Oryctcs yrypus, 111., 
Ajaccio, one (J. Pachypus comutus, Oliv., one ^, flying 
in the town of Ajaccio, towards evening. Rhizotropa 
heUieri, Reiche, four specimens, found by Colonel Yer- 
bury in July, Vizzavona. Polyphylla fuUo, L., Vizza- 
vona. Anomala junit, Duflscbm., Ajaccio. Cetonia 
atirata, L., very abundant on flowers at Tattone, Vizza- 
vona, Vivario, Corte, etc., and exceedingly variable, 
green, blue, coppery, or black, often green with the 
thorax and scutellum coppery ; Cjloricola, Herbst, rarely, 
in company with the preceding ; C, opaca, Gory, and C. 
viorioy F., Ajaccio, the latter very abundant on thistle 
flowers, and difficult to extract therefrom, also at Corte, 
etc. ; G. hirtella, L., and C stidica, L., Vivario, Vizza- 
vona, Corte, etc. Trichius galh'cu^, Heer [ahdominalu, 
Dej.), Ajaccio, and 1\ zonatxis, Germ., rarely, Bocognano 
and Vizzavona. 

Chalcophora mariana, Lap., a few specimens on the 
trunks of pines, Vizzavona; subsequently found by 
Colonel Yerbury in some numbers with various other 
Buprestid83 at a new saw-mill at Tattone. Capnodis 
teiiebricosa, Herbst, not uncommonly on the coast at 
Ajaccio, flying about in the hot sun. Ancylochira 
rusticay L., A, faiwinaculata, ¥,, and A, octoynttata, L., 
at the saw mill, Tattone, Colonel Yerbury. Melanophila 
appciidtculala, F., and Phcenops cyanea, F., rarely, pine 
forests, Vizzavona. Anthaxia inculfa, Germ., and 
A. grammica, Lap., not rarely, on flowers, Ajaccio; 
A, willefolii, F., Ajaccio. Ptosima 9-inacuhia, F., on 
bushes, Ajaccio. Acmseodera adspersula. III., not un- 
commonly, A. taeniata, F., rarely, on flowers, 
Ajaccio. Sphenoptera lineata, F., Ajaccio. Chryso' 
bothrys affinh, F., saw-mill, Tattone, Colonel Yerbury. 
Coraihiis rubi, L., on bramble bushes, Ajaccio and Corte. 
Agiihis vitndisj L., Vizzavona; A. roscidus, Kies., 
Ajaccio ; A, solieri, Gory (?), Corte and Ajaccio. Trachys 
pygtusea, F., on flowers, Ajaccio. Throscus carinifrcms, 
l)e Bon v., not rarely, by sweeping bracken towards 
evening, in the pine forests, Vizzavona; T. corsicus, 
Keitt.,* three examples by sweeping, Bocognano and 
Vizzavona. MeloMS buprestaides, L., in dead beech, 
Vizzavona. Adclocera carbonaria, Schrank, commonly, 

Digitized by 


Entomological Excursion to Corsica. 237 

nnder bark of dead pines, especially where charred by 
fire, Vizzavona. Elater prxustus, F., commonly, under 
bark of pines, Vizzavona, varying greatly in the amount 
of black at the apex of the elytra ; E. pomonw, Steph., 
foar specimens, with the preceding, inseparable from 
others from England (from the New Forest). Crypto- 
hypnns meridionalis, Lap., rarely (and very difficult to 
secure), on the banks of the Tavignano, Corte. Cardio- 
phorus ulcerosus, Gen6, and 0. eleonorw, Gen^, com- 
monly, by sweeping, Bocognano. Athotis rhomheus, 
Oliv., one specimen, Vizzavona; A. Jepresstfrons, 
Desbr. (?),* a few examples, by sweeping, Corte 
and Vizzavona; A, corsicus, Desbr. (?), one specimen, 

Helodes genei, Gn6r., damp places, Corte, Vizzavona, 
Bocognano. Hydrocyphon deflexicollis, Miill., Corte. 
Gyphon, sp. (?), Vizzavona. Dictyoptera sanguinea, Scop., 
pine forest, Vizzavona, rarely. Telephorus prsecox, 
Gen^,* not uncommon, on flowers of foxglove, forest 
of Vizzavona. Bhagonycha Corsica, Reiche, on flowers 
of UmbellifersB, etc., Vizzavona, Bocognano, Vivario, 
Corte. Malthodes, 3spp. (?), Vizzavona. Troglops silo, 
£r., three specimens, on the coast at Ajaccio. Charopus 
concolor, F., by sweeping, Bocognano. Colotes macu- 
latus. Lap., on flowers, Corte and Ajaccio ; C punctatus, 
Er., rarely, on the sandy beach at Ajaccio. Sphinginus 
apicalis, Perr., a few specimens on flowers, Vizzavona. 
Attains {Antholinus) sericans, Er., and sp. (?), Corte and 
Bocognano. Malachius ruftis, Oliv., Corte ; M. sardous, 
Er., Bocognano ; M, hipustulatuSf L., Vizzavona and 
Corte ; M. {Oogynes) longicollis, Er., commonly, on the 
flowers of low plants on the mountains, between 
2,000-5,000 feet, Bocognano and Vizzavona ; M. cyani- 
pennis, Er., Corte. Dasijtes tibialis, Muls., rarely, in 
flowers, pine forest, Vizzavona; D. fusctdus, 111., and 
D. plumbetLS, Miill., commonly, Vizzavona, Ajaccio, etc. ; 
D. pilicomis, Kies. (?), one specimen, Bocognano. 
DoUchosoma nobile, Kies., common^ on the coast at 
Ajaccio. Haplocnemus impresstts, Marsh., on flowers, 
Bocognano and Vizzavona; H. xanthopus, Kies.,* 
Vizzavona ; If. cribricollis, Muls.* (?), Corte and Ajaccio. 
Danacflea piciconiis, Kiist., and sp. (?), commonly, on 
flowers, Vivario, Vizzavona, Bocognano and Ajaccio. 
Cleric formicarius, L., abundant on cut pines, Vizza- 

Digitized by 


238 Mr. George C. Champion 07i an 

vona; C. 4'maculaius, Schall., one specimen, on a fellen 
pine, Vizzavona. Trichodes alvearius^ F., Vivario and 
Vizzavona. Plinusfur, L., in the H6tel Dependance at 
Vizzavona ; P. duhitia, Sturm, Vizzavona ; P. Uchenum^ 
Marsh., Vivario and Corte. Dryophilus denstpilis, Ab., 
four specimens, by sweeping, Corte. Ernohiua jiarens, 
Muls., and Emohixis, sp. (?), by beating dead pine tops, 
Vizzavona. Xestohium rufovillosum, Heg-, Vizzavona. 
XyletinuH laticoUw, Dailschm., rarely, by sweeping, 
Bocognano. Metholcus cylindricus, Germ., Ajaccio. 
Lasioderma bubalus, Fairm., Corte. 

Bostrychus capttcinns, L., fortuitously, Vivario and 
Vizzavona. Cis boleti, L., C. setiger, MelL, C. lufipidhis, 
Gyll., and C. sp. (?), Vizzavona. 

Pachychila servillei, Sol., and Teniyria ramburi^ Sol, 
on the sandy shores of the Bay of Ajaccio. Akis 
jrunctata, Thunb., on the roads, not rarely, near Corte. 
AfriJa carinata, Sol., abundant on the Col between 
Vizzavona and Ghisoni, at about 6,000 feet, nnder stones, 
also occasionally on the lower slopes, and on the roads 
about La Foce ; A. Corsica, Lap., two specimens, on the 
coast at Ajaccio. Pimelia sardoa, Sol., crawling abont 
everywhere along the shore of the Bay of Ajaccio. 
Crypficus gibbulus, Quens., common, under stones, 
Ajaccio. Dendarus iristis, Rossi, Ajaccio, Vivario, and 
Vizzavona. Pcdinus meridianus, Muls., Ajaccio and 
Corte. Colpotus godarti, Muls. (one ^)^ Ajaccio, under 
stones. Opalrum puffillum, F., and 0. rustlcum, 01., 
Ajaccio. Ammoplithorus rufus, Luc, abundantly, PAa- 
laAa oblonga, Kiist., commonly, and P. cadaverina, F., 
rarely, along the shores of the Bay of Ajaccio. Diaperis 
boleti, L., one specimen, in fungus on beech, Vizzavona. 
Corticeus castaneus, F., and C. pint, Panz. (?), under 
bark of pines, common, forest of Vizzavona ; C. bicolor, 
Oliv., under bark of beech, Vizzavona. TJloma culinaris, 
Linn., rarely, and U. perroudl, Muls., and Menephilm 
curvtpes, F., more or less commonly, under the bark of 
pines, Vizzavona. Helops superbus, Muls., one of the 
finest species of the genus, and apparently confined to 
the mountain-forests of Corsica, and Jff. cssrulem, L., 
both common, beneath the loose bark of pine stamps, 
or of dead standing pines, Vizzavona ; JET. genei, Allw^, 
four specimens, beaten from branches of a fallen pine, 
Vizzavona. Isomira Corsica, Muls., Bocognano; J. 

Digitized by 


Entomohgtcal Excursion to Corsica, 289 

murina, L., Vizzavona. Omophlus lepturoides, F., 
Ajaccio and Corte ; O. picipes, i\, Ajaccio and Vizza- 
vona. Lagria hirta, L., Vizzavona. Orchesia undulatOf 
Kr., in fungns on beochj Vizzavona. Xylita revelierei, 
Mnls.^ fonr examples, in the crevices of the bark of a 
fallen pine, Vizzavona. Melandrya caraboides, L., not nn- 
common, under bark of beech, etc., these specimens have 
the elytra bluer in colour than those from England. 
Salpingus nitidtis, Chevr. (= reyi, or exsanguis, Abeille), 
four specimens, by beating dead pine branches, Vizza- 
vooa ; originally recorded from Algeria. RldnoHimus 
planirostris^ Vizzavona. Notoxus c^mutus, F., Bocog- 
nano. Anthicus longicollis, Schmidt, on the sandy banks 
of streams, beneath stones, Corte and Bocognano; A. 
fenestraius^ Schmidt, Corte; A. corsicm, Lap., swarming 
on bushes (including olive) on the hill-sides near Ajaccio, 
also at Bocognano. Mordella aculeata, h,, M.fasciata, 
Fabr., and If. bipunctata, Germ., Ajaccio and Corte. 
Mordellistena pumila, Gyll.> Ajaccio. Anaspis thoracica, 
L., A. pulicana, Costa, and A. spp., Vizzavona, Vivario, 
etc. iSilaria suturalis, Em., Corte, Vivario, Bocognano, 
and Vizzavona. Meloe brevicollis, Panz., two specimens, 
on the mountain slopes above Vizzavona, at about 
4,500 feet elevation. Zoniiis mutica, Scriba, abund- 
ant, on thistle-heads, Corte. (Edemt^ra podagrariw, L., 
0. barbara, F., 0. flavipes, F., 0. nobilis, Scop., and 
0. lurida, Marsh., Ajaccio, Bocognano, Corte, etc. 
Stenostoma roslratnm, k ., on the beach, Ajaccio. 

Otiorrhynchus guttula,* Fairm., swarming on the 
catkins of the alder, on the summit of the Col between 
Vizzavona and tihisoni, occasionally found lower down; 
0. intrusus,^ Reiche, Bocognano; 0. corsiciis,^ Fairm., 
a few specimens under stones, in the same locality as 
0. guttula, Peritelus parvidus,* Seidl., one specimen, 
Vizzavona ; P. {Meira) lattscrobs,* Desbr., two specimens, 
by sweeping bracken in the pine-forest of Vizzavona. 
Phyllobiits pellitus, Boh., swarming on alders, Vizza- 
vona. Metallites parallelus,* Chevr., commonly, by 
beating arborescent heath, pines, and other trees, Bocog- 
nano, Vizzavona, etc. Polydrusus leucaspis, Boh., Corte. 
Strophosomus coryli, F., Vizzavona. Caulostrophus 
delarouzei, Fairm., by beating various trees, Bocognano 
and Vizzavona. Brachyderes analis, Desbr.,* in plenty 
on pines at the upper limit of their growth on the 
mountain slopes above Vizzavona. Thylacites fritillum, 

Digitized by 


240 Mr. George C. Champion on an 

Panz., Ajaccio, and T, lapidarius, Gjll., Bocognano and 
Vizzavona, under stones. Cleonus {Plagiographis) 
tahidua, Oliv. (pelleti, Fairm.), one specimen, beaten 
from arborescent heath, Bocognano. Lixus scolojmjt^ 
Boh., not rare, Ajaccio and Bocognano ; L, cribricollus, 
Boh., Yizzavona. Larinus latus. Herbs t, on thistles, 
Corte; L. genei, HoIl, Corte, Bocognano, and Ajaccio; 
L. turbinatusj Gyll., Corte. Hypera pedestris, Payk., 
Bocognano; H. trilineata, Marsh., Corte. Pissodes 
notatus, F., commonly on pines, Vizzavona. Smicronyx 
corsicus,*^ Fairm., not uncommonly, by beating arbores- 
cent heath, Bocognano and Tattone. Anoplvs rohoris, 
Suffr., Vizzavona. Brachytemnus porcaUis^ Germ., 
common, under pine-bark, Vizzavona. Acalles aeiuli- 
pennis* Desbr., and A. henoni, Bedel, Vizzavona; the 
latter hitherto only known from Algeria. Coelwdes 
exiguu8, Oliv., Ajaccio. Ceuthorrhynchus echii, F., 
Ajaccio and Bocognano ; C duvali, Bris., one specimen, 
beaten from alder-catkins, on the summit of the Col 
between Vizzavona and Ghisoni ; C. smaragdinus^ Bris., 
Corte; C. cyantpennis, Germ., Corte and Ajaccio. 
Ceuthorrhynchidius troglodytes, F., Bocognano. Bans 
insularis, Desbr.,* one specimen, Ajaccio ; B, cwrvlescms, 
Scop., Corte. Balaninus elephiis, Gyll., Vizzavona; B, 
turbatus, Gyll., and B. glandium, Marsh., Bocognano. 
Sibinia arenarlas, Steph., Ajaccio ; 8. attallca, GyU., not 
uncommonly, Bocognano. Miccotrogus suturatus, Fer- 
ris (?),* one specimen, Bocognano. Orchestes erythropus, 
Germ., var. tricolor, Kies., and 0. fagi, L., Vizzavona. 
Mecinvs circiclatiuf, Marsh., Bocognano; M. pyraster, 
Herbst, Corte. Gymnelron pascuorum, Gyll., Bocoff- 
nano; (7. tetnim, ¥., on Verbascum, Vizzavona; tf. 
lanlgerum, Bris. (?), Bocognano. Miarus camjiannlXj L., 
Vizzavona. Ciomts hortulanus, Marsh., Ajaccio, Bocog- 
nano, Corte. Nanophycs niger, Waltl, Bocognano and 
Vizzavona; N, nitidulus, Gyll., Bocognano. Apion 
favofemoi^atum, Herbst, A. viciec, Payk., Ajaccio; A. 
frumentdrlum, L., A. wneum, F., A. malvae, F., A. 
Iwvicolle, Kirby, A. brevirostre, Herbst, and other 
species, Corte; A, nigritarse, Kirby, and A. violaceum, 
Kirby, Vizzavona; A, tubiferum, GylL, and A. subparai- 
hlum, Desbr. (?), Bocognano. Attelabus curculionioides, 
L., Bocognano, Vizzavona, Corte. Platyrrhiuus latiros- 
trie, F., not uncommon in fungus on old decaying beech- 
trees, forest of Vizzavona. Scolytus rugulosus, Ratz., 

Digitized by 


En{mnoI<M^ical Excursion to Corsica. 241 

Ajaccio. Myelophilus minor^ Hart., in pine-bark, Vizza- 
▼ona; these specimens are nnnsually large^ and have 
strongly tabercnlate elytra. Hylastes atei', Payk., and 
n. attenuaius^ Er., on the pines, Yizzavona. Oryphalus 
numiiieusy Eichh., Toniicus sexdentatus, Boem., T. 
itUuralis, Gyll., T. longicollis, Gyll., and T. proodmus, 
Eichh., PUyophtlwrus glabratus, Bichh., and Pityogenes 
hidridentatus, Eichh, (?), in or nnder bark of Pinus 
laricio, Yizzavona. Crypturgus cinereus, Herbst, in the 
small branches of the same trees, Yizzavona. Xyleborus 
•caeteni, Batz., rarely, and Taphrorychus bicolor, Herbst, 
commonly, on beech-logs, Yizzavona. 

Bruchtu Umgicomis, Germ., common, Ajaccio and 
Vivario; B, atomarius, L. (?), Corte; J3. diapar. Germ., 
Bocognano; and various other species of the genus. 
SpermopJuigus cardui, Boh., Corte. 

Spondylis buprestoides, L., saw-mill at Tattone, Colonel 
Yerbuiy, three examples. Ergatesfaber, L., fragments of 
dead specimens only, in the rotten pine-trees at Yizza- 
vona, in Jnne ; one male bred from a pupa after return 
to England ; female subsequently obtained in numbers 
at Tattone by Colonel Yerbury ; the enormous ^ larvaD 
sometimes found under bark of dead standing pines. 
Lipiura rubra, L., L, fulva, Deg., L. scutellata, F., 
*nd L. hastata^ Sulz., Yizzavona. Strangalia aura- 
lenta, F., 8. maculata, Poda, Yizzavona ; 8, bifasdata, 
Mull., Corte and Ajaccio. 8tenopterus rufus, L., Yizza- 
vona, and 8. ater, L., Yivario, Corte, and Ajaccio, on 
Umbelliferous flowers. Cerambyx scopolii, Fuossly, 
Criocephaltts rusticus, L., Hylotrupes bajulus, L., Yizza- 
vona and Tattone, also found by Colonel Yerbury. 
Clytus arietUy L., and C. rhamni, Germ., Yizzavona 
snd Corte. XylotrecJius arvicola, Oliv., Yizzavona. 
Clytanihus nuissiliensis, L., common on flowers, Ajaccio, 
Bocognano, Yivario, Corta Morimus Vugubris, F., 
common, in the beech-forest at Yizzavona, about logs, 
etc Aeanihocinus griseus, F., about twenty specimens, 
on a fallen pine, Yizzavona. Pogonochserus perrovdi, 
Mak,a few specimens, in company with the preceding, in 
the pine-for^ at Yizzavona. Ansesthetis testaeea, L., 
one specimen, Yizzavona. Agapanihia cardui, L., Yizza- 
vona. Phyiaeda virescens, F., Ajaccio, Bocognano, and 
Corte ; P. ephippium, F., Ajaccio. 

TW1I8. nrr. soc. lond. 1891. — paet i. (march.) q 

Digitized by 


242 Mr. G. C. Champion on an Excursion to Corsica. 

Lalndostomis t€uicomis, ¥., and L. centromacuhiaf 
Gen6^ not uncommon^ Ajaccio^ Bocognano^ and Corte. 
LacKnwa sexpunctcUa, Scop., abundant, on bashes, in the 
hot son, Ajaccio, Bocognano, Yizzavona, Corte, etc. 
Clyihra Iwviuscula, Ratz., Corte. Titubcea btguttaia, Oliv., 
var. dispar, Lnc, Corte. Coptocephala scopolinOj L., com- 
mon, flying in the hottest son, Ajaccio. Crypiocephalut 
pygmwtLS, F., Ajaccio, Bocognano, and Yizzavona; G. 
morsd, L., and C ocellcUus, Drap., Yizzavona, rarely. 
Paehybraehys scripius, H.-S., and Stylosomus depilis, Ab. 
(nee mintUissimiLs, Germ.), not uncommon, by beatmg 
arborescent heath, etc., Bocognano. Colaspidea oblonga, 
Blanch., Ajaccio. Chryuomela banksi, F., and C hsmo' 
piera, Lu, Ajaccio ; C qtuidrigemina, Suffr., Bocognano. 
Lina populi, L., Yivario. Prasocuris {Hydrothasia) 
pumHa, Keiche, Yizzavona. Lupoiis flavipes, L., Yizza- 
vona. Galeruca Corsica, Joann.,* Yizzavona. GaleruceUa 
luteola, Mull., Corte. Podagrica intermedia, Katsch., 
Corta Crepidodera rubicunda* Ferris, Corte. Haltica 
sp., Longitarsus spp., Bocognano. Psylliodes sp., Corte. 

Eispa atra, L., Bocognano. Cassida equestris, f., 
Yizzavona ; C hemisphwrica, Herbst, Bocognano. 

Epildchna chrysomelina, F., Ajaccio. Coccinella ohlm' 
goguttata, L., and C 18 guttata, L., on the pines, Yizza- 
vona; C. W-notata, Schneid., Bocognano and Corte; C. 
revelieri, Muls., Corte; C conglobata, L., Yizzavona; 
C. 7 -punctata, L., C, 22'punctata, L., Ajaccio, etc. ; C, 
bipunctata, L., C. variabilis, 111., and C. li^pundata, L, 
Yizzavona, etc. Ohilocorus bipustulatu^, L., Ajaccio. 
Exochomus 4'pustulatus, L., Yizzavona, Bocognano, etc. 
Platynaspis villosa, Fourcr., Bocognano. Scymnus fas- 
ciatus, Fourcr., 8, damryi, Weise,* and spp., Bocogoano, 
Yizzavona, etc. 

Digitized by 


( 243 ) 

Vin. A list of the Hemiptera-Eeteroptera collected by 
Mr. Champion in Corsica in June, 1893, with a 
description of one new species. By Edwaed 
Sauhdbes, F.L.S. 

[Read Feb. 28th, 1894.] 

Odontoscelis fuliginosa, Linn., Ajaccio. 

Odontotarsus grammicus, Linn., "Vivario and Vizza- 

▼ona. (2500—4000 ft.) 
Eurygaster maura, Linn., Vizzavona. 
Ancyrosoma aibolineatum. Fab., Ajaccio, Vizzavona. 
Graphrosoma Uneatum, Linn., Ajaccio, Vizzavona. 
Brachypelta aterrima, Foerst., Corte. 
Seioeoris sulcatus, Fieb., Corte, Bocognano. 
Dryoderes margtnatus, Fab., Corte. 
-^Ua acuminata, Linn., Vizzavona, Vivario. 
Peribalus vemalis, Wolff, Corte. 
Carpocoris fuscispinus, Boh., Vizzavona, Ajaccio. 
Pahmena viridissima, Pod., Vizzavona. 
P^fdaloma juniperina, Linn., Bocognano. 
Piezodorus incamaius, Germ., Bocognano and 

Rhaphigaster grisea. Fab., Ajaccio. 
Eurydenna omatum, L., Corte. 

„ decoratum, H.-S., Corte, Vizzavona, Ajaccio. 
„ pictum, H..S., Ajaccio. 
„ oleraceu/m, Linn., Vizzavona. 
Elasmosteihus interstinctiis, Linn., Vizzavona. 
Spaihocera hbata, H.-S., Bocognano, Vizzavona. 
Cenirocoris sptniger, Fab., Bocognano, Vizzavona. 
Syromastes marginaius, Linn., Corte, Vizzavona. 
Verlusia rhombea, Linn., Ajaccio, Bocognano, 

I, suldcomis, Fab., Bocognano. 
Oonocerus insidiator, Fab., Bocognano. 
Oeraleptus sauaUdus, Costa, Vizzavona. 
Loococnemis dentator. Fab., Vivario. 
Coreus affinis, H.-S., Bocognano, Corte, Vizzavona. 

„ denticulaius. Scop., Corte, Vizzavona. 
BWobilotoma typhsecomis, Fab., Corte and Vizzavona. 

TBAN8. rar. 80C. LOWD. 1894. — PART I. (mABCH.) 

Digitized by 


244 Mr. E. Saunders on EemipterorHeteroptera 

Campiopus lateralis, Germ., Vizzavona, Ajaccio. 
Therapha hyoacyami, Linn., Bocognano^ Vizzavona, 
Corizua crassicomis, Linn., „ „ 

„ capitatus, Fab., Vizzavona. 
„ parumpunctatuSf Schil., Vizzavona and Bo- 

Megalomerium meridionale, Costa, Ajaccio. 
Lyssua militaris, Fab., Ajaccio, Cforte, Bocognano, 

„ equestria, Linn., Vizzavona. 

„ saxatilis, Scop., „ 

„ apuanus, Rossi, „ 

Lygxosoma reticulatum, H.-S., Vizzavona, Vivario. 

Nysitcs ihymif Wolff, Bocognano. 

Cymtcs melanoceplialus, Fieb., Ajaccio, Vizzavona. 

lachnorhyncKus geminatus, Fieb., Vizzavona. 

Geocoris lineola, Bamb., Ajaccio. 

Heterogaster affinis, H.-S., Vizzavona. 

Micropkuc interrupf<i, Fieb., Vizzavona. 
„ albofaadata, Costa, „ 

Metopoplax dttomoides, Costa, Vizzavona. 
Macroplax fasciata, H.-S., Bocognano, Ajaccio, Vizza- 
vona, Vivario. 

RhyparocliTomus praetextatus, H.-S., Vizzavona. 

Stygntis pedestris. Fall., Corte. 

Peritrechus geniculaius, Hahn, Vizzavona. 

Trapezonoius agrestis, Fall., Vizzavona, Vivario. 

Calyptonotus rolandn, Linn., Ajaccio. 
Aphanus inarimensts, Costa, Bocognano, Vizzavona. 
„ douglasij Fieb., Vizzavona.* 

Digitized by 


coUecied in Corsica by Mr. Champion. 245 

Beasus erythropterus, Bmll^^ Yizzayona^ Corte. 
,, hueus, Fab., Corte. 

EremocorisfrcUerniis, Horv. (?), Yizzavona. 
Scolopostethvs cogncUiLs, Fieb., Vizzavona and Bocog- 

Gdstrodes ferruginetis, Linn.^ Yizzavona. 
Pyrrhocoris apterus^ Liim., Ajacdo. 
Serenthia Usta, FaU., Yizzavona. 

Mananlkia carduij Linn.^ Ajaccio, Corte, Yizzavona. 
„ „ var. cognata, Fieb., Yivario.* 

„ auriculcUa, Costa, var, (?), Yizzavona, 

„ angustata, H.-S., Bocognano. 
„ uDolffii, Fieb., Bocognano, Ajaccio, Corte. 
„ nasscUa, Pat., Ajaccio. 

Aradus cinnamomeus^ Panz., Yizzavona, Bocognano. 
„ hrueperi. Bent., Yizzavona. 
„ varius^ Fab., Yizzavona. 
„ depressus^ Fab., Yizzavona. 

Oerria najas, De Geer, Yizzavona. 
„ fhoracica, Schnm., Yizzavona. 
„ gibhifera, Schnm., Corte. 

Rarpador erythropus, Linn., Ajaccio, Corte, Yivario, 
„ iracunduSf Poda, Corte.^ 

Coranus mgyptiuSf F., Ajaccio. 

t(ahi8 UUiventris, Boh., Corte, Yizzavona. 
„ rugosus, Linn., Yizzavona. 
„ fetus, Linn., Yizzavona. 

Salda eocksii, Cart., var. geminata, Corte. 

Piezosteihus obUqut^, Cost., Ajaccio. 
Seolaposeelis angusta, Bent., Yizzavona. 
Blatophxlus nigricomis, Zett., 
Anthocoris confusus, Beat., 
Triphleps nigra, Wolff, Ajaccio. 
M horvathij Beat. (?), Corte. 


Digitized by 


246 Mr. E. Saunders on Etemiptera-Seteroptera 

Miria UsvigatiMt Linn.^ Yizzayona. 

Lopiia lineolaius, BmU^^ Yizzayona. 
ff matf Bossij Yizzavona. 

Phytocoris femoralis, Fieb., Bocognano. 

Calocoris vandalicus, Bossi^ Corte. 

,, sexpundatuSf Fab., Ajaccio, Vizzavona, 

„ hipunctaius, Fab., Bocognano, Vizzavona, 

„ trivialia, Cost., Bocognano. 
„ ventralis, Rent., Corte. 
Lygus pratensis, Fab., Vizzavona. 

„ . pastinacw, Fall., Vizzavona, Ajaccio. 
„ cerrinw^, H.-S., „ 
Poeciloscytus gyllenhali, Fall., Corte. 
Campfobrochis pundulata. Fall., Vizzavona, Bocognano. 
Capsua laniaritis, Linn., Corte. 
Pilophorus dnnamopterus^ Kb., Bocognano, Ajaccio. 

Strongylocoris ohscui^us, Ramb., Bocognano. 

Orihocephalus championi, Sannd.* 
(See deecription at ihe end of the list.) 

Dicyphua hyalinipennis, King, Ajaccio. 
„ geniculatua, Fieb., Bocognano. 

Globiceps sphegiformis, Rossi, Corte. 

Heterotoma diversipes, Put., Corte, Ajaccio. 

Pldcochilvs selddonicus, Fall., Ajaccio. 
Pachyxyphiis UneellvSy M. & R., Corte, Vizzavona. 

Macrotylus longirostris, Fieb., Bocognano. 

Psallus mollis, M. & R., Vizzavona, Bocoguano. 
„ anchorifer, Fieb., Bocognano, Ajaccio. 

Criocoris crassicomis, Hahn, Corte. 

Oorixa aemiatriata, Fieb., Vizzavona. 

Digitized by 


collected in Corsica by Mr. Champion. 247 

Orthocephaltis championi, sp. n. 

Pioeo-niger nitidiosculas, Isovis, pilia nigris, pilisque squami- 

formibos albis, facillime divellendis, vestitus ; capite transverso, 

ocolis rotimdatis, prominalis, vertice inter eos quam ocalo ( (} ) fere 

daplo, ( 9 ) duplo et dimidio latiore, postice aoate carinato, aDtennis 

pilosolixy articolis primo et secundo incrassatis, testaceis, hoc versos 

Apioem pioeo nigro, dnobas seqnentibas simol samptis longriore, 

marts lateribus snbparallelis, feminas fusiforme ; tertio qoartoqae 

filif ormibiiSy tertio basi testaceo, quarto dnplo longiore ; prothorace 

Isevi, trapezoidale, planinscnloy angolis anticis rotandatis, lateribus 

rectis, callis discretis ; scntello IsDvi ; hemielytris (^) corio iuteme 

plus minus late pallido-testaceo, membraua inf umata, venis nigro- 

pioeis, basi areolisque pallidis, (9 brach.) abdomine breyioribus, 

apicibus oblique truncatis, corio maigine intemo basi arete pallido ; 

pedibns testaceis, f emoribus piceo nebulosis, tibiis nigro punctatis, 

•etis gpiniformibus omatis ; snbtus nigropilosus et albo squamiger. 

Long.: <J 4J mm., ? 4 mm. 

Hah. Bocognano^ Corsica, on aromatic plants. 

This is a beantiful addition to the European fanna, 
which I have pleasure in naming after its discoverer. 
I have sent examples of it to Dr. Beater^ who has kindly 
examined them, and agrees in considering them as 
belonging to an undescribed species allied to bivittatus, 
Fieb., though at once distingaishable by the form, etc,, 
of the antennse. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Trxins KwL Soc. Lorixl ^"^9-/ PL W. 

.:?KcrraL social is 

1/9 2d 19 

Coita.stictsL bilhys 

CatastictSL c\,Gix\encLP! 

a. S 7 

i-s ny 

-5ts nys^ o 

,^ . H-up>iiTia phryiij - 

Meiaporia GLgaiiioTL ^ ^ j ^ 

Y/mgs of Piei'i-rLc^. Digitized by GoOglc 

Digitized by 


( 249 ) 

IX. On the Phyhgeny of the Kerinae, as illustrated by 
their Wing-markitigs and Geographical Distri- 
bution. By Frederick A. Dixet, M.A., M.D., 
F.E.S., Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. 

[Read February 7th, 1894.] 
Plates III., IV., V. 

Table of Contents. 
I. Introductory .... 



IL The Wing-markings 

1. The snbmarginal series of dark spots 
The dark marginal area or spots 
The light series between 1 and 2 
The discoidal spots . 
The markings on the underside of 

a. The yellow precostal streak 

b. The pinkish basal patch . 

c. The red basal areas . 
HL Phylogenetic conclusions . 

1. The evidence of the Wing-markings 

2. The evidence of Distribution 
IV. Index op Species mentioned . 





I. Introductory. 
In \he present paper my object has been to apply to 
the study of the sabfamily Fierinse the methods which I 
used in investigating the phylogenetic relations of another 
groap of Lepidoptera^ as recorded in a former communi- 
catioii to this Society.* I have in the first place 
endeavoured to work out the homology of the various 

• " On the Phylogenetic Significance of the Wing-markings in 
certain genera of the N'3rmphaIid£B,'' Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1890. 

T&UIS. KMT. soc. LOND. 1894. — PART II. (JUNB). R 

Digitized by 


250 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

markings to be found thronghoat the gpronp^ and ha^e 
then attempted to state the phylogenetic conclusions to 
which this evidence appears to lead. Though my 
principal aim has been the elucidation of the Pierine 
wing-markings, which so far as I am aware have ne?er 
before been systematically studied from this point of 
view^ I have not ignored those other features that are 
usually known as " structural " ; and I have also tried to 
estimate the bearing upon phylogenetic questions of the 
facts relating to the present distribution of the Pterinss 
in space. The serious limitations under which anyone 
who wishes to constract a phylogeny for snch a group as 
this must necessarily labour have been elsewhere acknow- 
ledged; it is of course manifest that little or no help 
can be expected from embryological or paladontologicai 
sources. There are, however^ many compensating features 
to be reckoned on the other side ; and in view of certain 
comments that have at times been passed on previous 
work of this kind, I may perhaps be allowed to quote a 
few sentences from the writings of one of our leading 
naturalists^ which seem to me to state the special ad- 
vantages afforded by these and similar researches with 
a force and cogency that it would not be easy to gainsay. 
After pointing out the pre-eminent value of the Diurnal 
Lepidoptera to the student of distribution and variation, 
the writer I refer to proceeds as follows — " Bat besides 
their abundance, their universal distribution, and the great 
attention that has been paid to them, these insects have 
other qualities that especially adapt them to elucidate the 
branches of inquiry already alluded to. These are the 
immense development and peculiar structure of the wings, 
which not only vary in form more than those of any other 
insects, but offer on both surfaces an endless variety of 
pattern, colouring, and texture. . . . This delicately 
painted surface acts as a register of the minutest differ- 
ences of organization, — a shade of colour, an additional 
streak or spot, a slight modification of outline continually 
recurring with the greatest regularity and fixity, while the 
body and all its ouier members exhibit no appreciable 
change. The wings of butterflies, as Mr. Bates has well 
put it,'!' ^ serve as a tablet on which Nature writes the 

^ See " The Naturalist on the Amazons,'' 2nd edit, p. 412. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Phytogeny of the Pierinad. 251 

story of the modifications of species ' ; they enable us to 
perceive changes that woald otherwise be uncertain and 
difficult of observation^ and exhibit to us on an enlarged 
BoaJe the effects of the climatal and other physical con- 
ditions which influence more or less profoundly the 
organization of every living thing."* Whether any par- 
ticolar investigator is or is not competent to undertake 
this kind of research may be open to question, but I think 
that the study itself needs no further vindication than 
Uieae words of Mr. Wallace. 

In treating of the details of the wing-markings I have 
tried to be intelligible and explicit, even at the cost of 
being somewhat lengthy. I have, however, been obliged 
to content myself with selected examples; a complete 
treatment would run to a vast length, and in most oases 
the h'nes here laid down may be easily applied to the 
insects not mentioned in this paper. Some of the iden- 
tifications of markings may at first sight seem startling ; 
for instance, that of the straight orange-coloured line 
crossing the disc of the wings in Dercas with the series of 
black spots in the females of Oanoria ; but I believe that 
in every such case it will be found that the homology can 
be certainly traced, step by step. It is hardly necessary 
to point out the importance of being on one's guard 
agamst the misleading suggestions of merely superficial 
resemblances, and also of giving due weight to the 
disturbing influence of mimicry. The details of this 
Utter process, when minutely examined in a favour- 
able group such as the Fierinx, are seen to be of so 
oompUcated and interesting a character, that I may 
hope to be excused for having treated of some of 
these details with considerable fulness, and even for 
having ventured to introduce a new term in order to 
distmguish a special case of the phenomenon known as 

" Convergence.^'t 

The generic names employed in this paper are those 
of Mr. Bntler in his well-known " Revision '* (Cistula 
Entomologica, vol. i., 1870, p. 38), supplemented by sub- 
8e({iient memoirs from the hand of the same author, and 

• "On the F^pilionidas of the Malayan Region," Trans. Linn. 
8oc,xxT.,p. 1(1866). 
tSee page 29a 

Digitized by 


252 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey an the 

by the arrangement at present adopted in the National 
Collection nndar his charge. I confess that I am not 
always in agreement with this arrangement^ bnt the 
importance of a definite and accessible standard is obyioos^ 
and no better one could be foand for my purpose. Even 
if the genera are not in every instance distinguished by 
characters of real ''generic value/' they are usually 
natural groups, and in most cases of great convenience in 
practice. The list of genera and species which I have 
appended may be found useful as indicating the exact 
insects which are mcDtioned in the course of the paper, 
and also as giving an idea of the scope and contents of 
those genera whose names may still be somewhat un- 
familiar. A paper of this kind is not the place in which 
to introduce changes of nomenclature or to discuss 
questions of synonymy ; and as regards classification I 
have done no more than, throw out a few suggestions 
which, perhaps, may one day be taken up. 

n. The WiNG-MABKiKas. 
1 . The Bubmarginal series of dark spots. 

Comparing together the three species of the subfamily 
PierinsB that are commonest in this country, viz., Oanom 
brassicae, O. rapas, and O. napi, we find that the females 
of all three resemble one another in the possession of a 
series of black spots on the upper surface of the forewing. 
One of these spots (Fig. 16, S 8) occurs between the 
second and third median nervules ; another (ibid., 8 10), 
between the first median nervule and the submedian 
nervure ; and the third (ibid., S 11) between the 
submedian nervure and the inner margin of the wing. 
The latter spot, which varies considerably in the amount 
of its development, takes the form of a streak nearly 
parallel with the inner margin. In the males, this series 
of spots is evanescent. The whole series is normally 
absent in 0, brassicsB 6, and in some specimens of 
O.rapsei, and Gf. napi 6 ; the males of the two latter 
species, however, generally have the spot between the 
second and third median nervule more or less developed, 
though the other two are not present. Turning to the 
underside of the wing in these species, we find the first 
two spots usually present in both males and females; 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the PierinsB. 253 

the tilird is bnt faintly visible in the female^ and in the 
male not visible at all. These three spots are all that 
can be seen in ordinary specimens of O. brassicw, rapw, 
andnopt; bnt in some specimens of Q. napi, and less 
distinctly in some of G, rapas, the series is continued 
towards the anterior border of the wing by a fourth spot 
placed jast behind the junction of the third and fourth 
sabcostal nervnles, and traversed by the first discoidal. 
The spots that have now been referred to can be seen in a 
very well-marked form in G. gliciria. 

These indications of a submarginal series of black 
markings become more pronounced in Synchloe daplidice. 
Here, in the female^ a submarginal row exists in easily 
recognisable form, three of the constituent spots of 
which are clearly homologous with those already des- 
cribed in G» napi, rapce, and brassicoe (Fig. 15). 
In this region of the wing nearly every interspace be- 
tween nervnles contains a spot ; the spots tending to 
become conflaent^ especially towards the costal margin. 
There is generally no spot between the first and second 
median nervnles, and often none between the submedian 
nervnre and the inner margin of the wing. In the male, 
the anterior portion of the series is distinct enough, the 
large spot, however, between the submedian nervure and 
first median nervnle is absent from the upper surface, 
thoagh regularly present beneath. The female 8. daplidice 
also shows a continuation of the same series on the 
hindwing, well-marked at the costa, but usually becoming 
less plain as the anal angle is approached. In the male 
8, dapUdice, one term of the series is generally all that is 
present in the hindwing ; and turning back to G. brassicce, 
rap(E^ and napi, we find the same spot invariably 
present on the upper, and often on the lower surface of 
the costa in the hindwing of both sexes (Figs. 15,16, 
S 14^18). 

Other species of the genus Synchloe present the same 
nbmarginal series in greater completeness. 8. callidice 9 , 
for instance, has the whole series well developed on the 
forewing, and in most specimens on the hindwing also. 
A comparison with 8. daplidice will show that the series 
is really homologons in the two cases, and will, moreover, 
demonstrate that in 8. callidice the smallest spot of the 
series belongs to the interspace between the first and 
second median nervules, which in 8. daplidice is usually 

Digitized by 


254 Dr. Frederick A. Dixoy on the 

not famished with a spot at all ; and that the largest and 
best- marked member of the group, namely that between 
the second and third median nervules, corresponds with 
the spot which we saw to be most persistent in the males 
of G, brdssiccBj rapes, and napi. This spot, moreover, as 
well as the next most persistent (that between the 
first median and submedian), is usually picked out with 
black on the underside of lioth S. callidice and 8. daplidice, 
where the markings corresponding to those of the upper 
surface are, as a rule, chiefly composed of green or yellow 
scales with but small admixture of black. The hindwing 
of 8. callidice ? shows a continuation of the series; 
though here the markings as they approach the inner 
margin tend to assume the appearance of chevrons rather 
than of spots, which tendency is still more marked on the 

The South American genus Tatochila presents the 
same series on both fore and hindwings, the females as a 
rule most completely (as in T. autodice). The male of T. 
theodice^ however, exhibits the whole series quite plainly ; 
and in both of these species the markings in question 
tend to assume the form of a line of chevrons, the apices 
of which point towards the margin of the wing, instead of 
towards the base, as in 8. callidice. 

I propose to distinguish this series of spots as S 
(for Submarginal), numberiug the constituent markings 
according to the interspaces they respectively occupy. 
In all the forms as yet mentioned the full number of 
marginal interspaces, from the costal nervure to the anal 
angle, is in the forewing 11, in the hindwing 8. Another 
space may be reckoned in the hindwing, that, namely, 
between the costal margin and the costs^ nervure. The 
corresponding space in the forewing is exceedingly narrow, 
and never carries a separate spot. We may take then 
the number of spaces potentially containing spots as 11 
and in the fore and hindwing respectively, and may 
dusignate all possible terms of the series as S 1 — 20, 
beginning at the costa of the forewing. None of the 
Hpecios above referred to exhibits the whole range of spots 
from 1 to 20 in a discrete condition, some being generally 
absent and others fused ; the series may, however, be seen 
complete on the upper surface of the forewing and lower 
surface of the hinawing in many specimens of Oallidryas 
phika e^nd C. thalestris ? (Fig. 22, S 1—11). 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the Pierinaa. 255 

In eerUin genera {Eroniaf Euchloe, etc.)> the presence 
(^ » fifth sabcostal nervale giVes rise to an additional 
interspace in the forewing; this^ however, causes no 
difficnlty, inasmuch as the extra interspace so formed is 
never occupied by a distinct spot. If necessary, the 
additional subcostal interspace may be referred to as 
5a ; by which plan we shall avoid throwing the number- 
ing out of correspondence with that adopted in the other 
genera (see Fig. 23). In those genera {Pereute, Delias, 
etc) which possess only three subcostal nervules in the 
forewing, I shall for convenience consider S 4 as 

Having identified the series S in the species named, 
we shall find no difficulty with the remaining members of 
the genera Synchloe and Tatochila, all of which possess it 
in a condition of greater or less development. In all these 
cases, if the sexes differ, the female invariably presents 
the series in greater completeness ; though such of the 
spots as are present in the male are sometimes more 
distinct. Thus in S. hellica 9 , the whole range occurs 
with the exception of S 9 (this being also the spot 
which is regularly small or absent in 8. callidice and 
8. daplidice 9 ), and the spots show a great tendency to 
fose into a submarginal band, especially towards the 
costa of the forewing. lu the male, however, all are 
absent from the hindwing, and S 9 — 11 also from the 
forewing ; S 8 is distinct ; S 7 hardly visible ; and S 2 — 5 
are fused into a single spot which is more distinct than the 
corresponding patch in the female. 

The same submarginal series can be traced with equal 
certainty in the genus Belenoia. Here again the series 
is as a rule more complete in the females, while the 
mdividual spots are more distinct in the males. This can 
be well seen for example in B, mesentina (Fig. 13), where 
the males show a submarginal band on the forewing which 
can without difficulty be resolved into a series of five spots, 
representing S 2 — 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8. On the upper surface 
of the females the spots show a greater tendency to fuse 
wi^ one another, and with the dark area of the apex and 
hindmargin ; they are nevertheless in most specimens 
recognizable on the upper surface, and nearly always 
fiuriy distinct beneath. Much the same is the case with 
the submarginal series on the hindwing; this is constantly 
present in a distinct form on thet under surface of both 

Digitized by 


256 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

sexes, and also to a variable extent on tbe upper snr&ce 
of the male. Tbe whole range (except tbe last member, 
S 20) occurs constantly on the upper surface in the 
female, but shows a strong tendency to inse with the 
dark marginal band of the wing. In both male and 
female of this species the conspicuous and persistent spot 
S 8 occupies a prominent position, being pushed back as 
it were towards the centre of the wing, and so causing^ 
indentation in the subraarginal row. In B. severirui the 
series is generally less well-marked than in B. mesentina, 
being to a great extent fused with the dark marginal 
band; S 10 and 11, however, which are absent in the 
latter insect, are mostly visible in JB. severina 9. 
B. calypso is noticeable as having the present series 
particularly well-marked on the underside of the hind- 
wing ; in the female it is also well in view on the upper 
surface. Pinacopteryx larima, again, has the series well 
developed on the hindwing, and recalls some species of 
Synchloe and Ganorishy the prominence given to S 8, 10, 
and 11. In several species of Belenois, as for instance 
B, teutonia ? and B. coronea, the fusion of the spots of 
series S with one another and with the dark apical and 
marginal area is almost or quite complete. (See B. 
peristhene, Fig. 14). 

The genera Appias, Catophaga, and Hiposcritia pre- 
sent us in many of their members with the same series, 
more or less developed. In H, lalage, for instance, S 
1 — 9 are fairly well marked on the forewing (most 
distinctly on the underside); while some spots of the 
series are also in most cases visible on the hindwing. 
In the greater number of species, however, the series 
is so fused with the dark apical and marginal area as 
to be hardly distinguishable (as in 0. zamboanga9), or is 
altogether obsolete (as in most specimens of A, nero). 
It is noticeable that the spot S 8, to which I have before 
drawn attention, is usually the last to disappear from the 
forewing; and that in many cases where S no longer 
exists as a separately recognizable series, the place of S 
8 is indicated by a prominent projection inwards of the 
fused marginal area (Figs. 9, 10, 11). The underside of 
the hindwing often retains traces of the submarginal 
series when the upper surface of one or both wings has 
entirely lost them (C, lankapura 9 and some specimens of 
A. nero)» 

Digitized by 


Phylogeny of the Pierinae. 257 

In the geDQs Delias the same assemblage of spots 
meets us again^ though scarcely in a very definite form. 
The well known I>. eucharis (Fig. 6) shows the series on 
both sorfaces of each wing^ the spots being to a great 
extent merged with one another ; the band formed by 
their fusion is nevertheless quite distinct, and its in- 
dentations correspond with the usual disposition of the 
spots on the wing in those species where they exist in a 
more discrete condition. The series is also visible in D. 
hyparete (underside) ; and the same range of markings is 
present as a sinuous band in the Australian D. aganippe 
(best seen in the female^ and on the underside) ; in less 
distinct form in 2). harpalyce, and still recognizable, 
though now almost completely merged, in the closely 
allied D. nigrina. A comparison of the upper surface of 
the wings of the last named insects with those of other 
species of the genus Delias, such as D. belladonna (Fig. 4), 
D. pasithoe, and D, thisbe, serves to suggest the manner 
in which the submarginal series (in common with other 
features) may have arisen — namely, as a survival of an 
original dark ground-colour, which has become broken 
op, first into irregular bands and finally into spots, by 
the appearance and gradual enlargement of touches of 
a lighter colour in the spaces between the nervules. 
Farther reference will be made to this point when other 
markings, whose history appears to be similar to that of 
the present series, come under consideration, 

Metaporia agaihon (Fig. 7) presents the series in 
moch the same condition as D. eucharis, the band is, 
however, somewhat thicker and less defined. It is easy 
to trace the same feature through many species of the 
genera Poniia and Huphina; thus in P. soracta it is met 
with in the hindwing as a series of faintly-developed 
acnte-angled chevrons, pointing outwards (as in TatO' 
chila). in the forewing, S 3, 5 — 9 are easily visible. It 
is noticeable that S 8 is in this insect exceptionally 
small; it retains, however, its usual tendency to break the 
line of the series by advancing further than the others 
towards the centre of the wing. In Pcmtia cratcegi the 
whole series has vanished ; but in Huphina coronis, H. 
phryne (Fig. 8) and others, it is well marked ; the most 
persistent spots being, as in other genera, S 6, 8 nnd 10 ; 
and the same general difierences between the sexes, in 
relation to the series, being observable here as in Synchhe 

Digitized by 


2&8 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey <m the 

And GanorU. IiidicmUoiis of the smes, more or lees pro- 
i^<><n)ced, eui alao be seen in H. timnaiha, H. aspasiOf 
H, Judith^ H. namMy and other species. 

The strong reeembknoe to Delias beUadanna borne 
by Prioneris tkesiylis is Tory probably due to mimicry) 
^8 Boggested by Wallace ('* Pioridsd of the Indian and 
Anstnilian Begions/' Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 3rd series, 
!▼•> pp. 309, 383). Bnt 6t»n the presence of traces of the 
sabmarginal smes in other species of Prioneris (as in P. 
•utothishe and P. demaniKe)^ it seems likely that it is 
rather the retention than the origin of the snbmarginal 
aeries in P. theMylU that is attribntable to this caose. 
Material for the prodoction of a likeness of D. beUadowM 
was no donbt already to hand in the existence of an 
homologous smes of markings in both insects. Other 
species of Prioneris, not having the same reason for 
keeping doee to the original design^ hare strayed away 
mare or less widely finom it. 

Mr. Wallace hms also pointed out the agreement in 
some respects between Delias and the South American 
genus Euterpe {ibid., p. 344). It, with Mr. Butler, we 
divide Swainson's genus Euterpe into Pereute, Leodonta, 
Catasticta and Euterpe proper^ we shall find that while 
all the normally coloured species of the g^o^ip ''^ 
demonstrably lii^ed with one another and with DeUas 
by their general system of marking and scheme of 
coloration, two of the genera {Pereute and Leodonta) 
fiirther suggest a near relation^p with Delias by the 
peculiarities of their neuration; there being in these 
mstances only Uiree instead of four subcostal nenniles 
in the forewing (Butler, ''Revision of the Grenera of 
the Subfamily Pierinx/* Cistula Entomologica, voL i, 
1870, pp. o9, 40, eta). The appearance of several 
species of this group of genera (notably Euterpe tereas) 
has been profoundly altered by mimicry; but patting 
aside such forms as these, we shall find no difficalty 
in tracing a common pattern throughout most of the 
remaining members of the group. This pattern is not 
dissimilar from that which charsM^rizes those species of 
Delias which we have seen to be probably the older 
{eg., D. belladonna, D. pasithoe and D. thisbe). To thia 
part of the subject I shall return later^ at present it will 
be sufficient to point out the distinct presence of the 

^marginal series S in such examples as Catasticta 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the PierinsB. 259 

nimbiee, C. anaitis, C. biihys, and to a less degree in 
Leodonta dysoni and L. tellane. The close resemblance 
between the remarkable Pierine Eucheira aodalis and 
C. hUhys, in respect of the marking of the upper 
sorface^ may warrant us in identifying the corresponding 
portion of the wing in the former insect with the sub- 
margiDsl row S undoubtedly present in the latter 
(Pigs. 1,2). 

The series S having now been traced through several 
genera, until it, so to speak, loses itself in such gene- 
rdised, and apparently primitive forms as those pre- 
seated by Delias belladonna^ Cata^tieta bithya and jEru- 
cheira socialis, it will be advisable to return to the genus 
Synchloe, and seek thereabouts for a new starting-point 
from which to pursue the same series through its 
developments in a fresh assemblage of genera which 
lisTe not at present been noticed. Such a starting- 
point may be found in a comparison of 8. daplidice 9 
with the female of almost any species of the genus 
Colias, A short examination will show that the same 
sabmarginal series exists in the latter genus. A good 
species for the purpose is C. hyale (Fig. 2())> in which 
lx>th sexes exhibit the series distinctly. The consti- 
tnent spots broaden out towards the costa and telnd to 
become fused with one another and with the black patch 
at the apex. This tendency is carried further in many 
species of Collar, particularly in the males, where, as in 
C. ednsa, marginal and submarginal markings are fused 
together into a deep dark border. The females, how- 
e? er, preserve the spots of the submarginal series in a 
more discrete condition. In most species of Colias S is 
well developed on the under surface, the component 
spots being usually black on the forewing, and on the 
mndwing orange or pinkish. In a few species, such as 
C. phicomone and C palwno, the series is obscured or 
absent. Meganostoma, which resembles Celiac so closely 
in other respects, shows also the submarginal series on 
the under surface ; usually as a row of somewhat faint 
pinkish dots, which are clearly identical with S in 

Through Meganoetoma the passage is easy to Gonep- 
ieryx and Amynthia. In G. rnamni and G. cleopatra no 
Testige of S is to be seen on the upper surface ; on the 
lower surface, however, of many of the males and most 

Digitized by 


260 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

of the females, it is visible in the hindwing, and near 
the apex of the forewing, as a series of minute brownish 
dots ; similar to, but as a rule even smaller than^ those 
of Meganostoma. Rhodocera leachiana and Amynihia 
moerula show exactly the same feature^ the spots being 
dark brown or black, and a vestige of the series 
is present in A. clorinde. In the closely-allied genus 
Dercas, S is curiously modified into a brown or orange 
streak passing in an almost straight direction from the 
apex of the forewing to the anal angle of the hindwing. 
In D. walUchii, S 8 is large and prominent; hot the 
remainder of the series is scarcely visible on the upper 
surface, though easily recognisable below. 

In the genera Callidryas, Catopsilia, and their allies, 
the extent to which S is developed varies within wide 
limits. Callidryas philea 9 has already been noticed as 
presenting, on the upper surface of the forewing, in many 
specimens, a complete set from S 1 to S 11 (Fig. 22). In 
this, as in other species of the genera named^ it is usually 
S 7 and not S 8 that breaks the hue by advancing towards 
the centre of the wing. The series is not usually continued 
on the upper surface of the hindwing, but both wings show 
it tolerably well below. S is well developed on the upper 
surface of Catopsilia flava ? (Fig. 21), and is visible to 
a variable extent on both surfaces (except the upper 
surface of the male) in C catilla, Aphrissa godartiana, 
and others. In some of these insects S on the under 
surface forms part of the characteristic brown or pink- 
ish mottling of the wing ; in others, as the male of C. 
phlegeiLs, it is almost or quite reduced to the condition 
of minute pink spots, like those of the genus Gonepteryx, 
It is worth noticing that on the underside of Fhoebis 
trite, S takes in the forewing the form of a straight 
streak, not unlike that in Dercas lycorias, leading diago- 
nally across the wing. On the hindwing a similar streak 
appears, which, however, does not represent S as the 
apparently corresponding streak in Dercas undoubtedly 
does, but is at least partly developed from another 
system of spots which will be noticed later. Attentive 
examination will disclose the existence of traces of the 
true S between the streak in question and the hind 
border of the wing. 

In Hebomoia the series is always at least partly visible 
on the fore wings, and often on the hindwing^ as well. 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the Pierinee. 261 

The component spots are nsoally large and distinct^ as 
may be especially well seen in H. glaucippe 9 (Fig. 19). 
The same insect also shows the series tolerably well on 
the under snrfacej where it is in other members of the 
gCDDS, as a role^ somewhat lost in the general mottling 
of the wing. 

S is often well seen on the underside of species be- 
longiDg to the genus Ixias, where it assumes a condition 
very like that which obtains in Colias. In L marianne 
it is especially well developed, and the component spots 
on the hindwing are often furnished with pale centres. 
Some members of the series are frequently also visible 
on the upper surface, as in J. marianiie 9 , where S 6—9 
are conspicuous (Fig. 18). 

The genera Teracolus, Swains., Idmais, Boisd., and 
Callosune, Doubl., are united by Mr. Butler as Teracolus. 
In most of the species included under this head, the 
series now being discussed is distinctly visible, especially 
in the female and on the under surface. Good examples 
of the series are furnished by T. danae and T. etrida. 
In T. eucharis S it has mostly vanished from the upper 
sutCbk^; S 8, however, remains, as in so many other 
instances, and is, moreover, in this insect often reinforced 
Inr the presence of S 13 and 14, which spots have been 
aLso seen to persist in our common species of Ganoris. 
The female of T. regina possesses S in a well-developed 
condition on both surfaces, S 10 being especially con- 
spicnous. The same series is visible to a less degree in 
the female of T. tone. The males of both species show 
indications of S on the lower surface, but none on the 
upper. The series may also be seen in a well-developed 
state in T. hewitsonii and T, amata (Fig. 17). 

In Euchloe the series has almost oisappeared. A relic, 
however, persists near the apex of the forewing in some 
species, best seen, perhaps, in E, tagis, E. attsonia, and 
K hyantis ; while E. reakirtii 9 shows S on the upper 
side of the forewing very distinctly ; S 8 indenting the 
line as in the genus Synchloe. A comparison of the 
under surface of the hindwing in E. cardaminea and 
E, eupheno with the somewhat similar system of marking 
in 8. daplidice suggests also the probability that part of 
the green mottling in Euchloe represents the submargiual 
series. The same series is certainly visible on the upper 
surface of the hindwing in some specimens of E, lucilla $ . 

Digitized by 


262 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

Certain species of Nepherania^^for example^ N. jdbM 
9 and N. Valeria 9 — bIu)w the series S in a form that 
strongly recalls the condition of the same series in 
M^iaparia agathon. In both Nepheronia and Eronia, 
however, S is very apt to be merged, especially on the 
upper surface, with the dark marginal area. The female 
of E. leda (Fig. 23) shows the first few spots of the 
series on the upper side of the forewing in a condition 
resembling that in some species of Callidryas, wliich 
resemblance applies also to the lower sur&ce, where S 
occurs in a modified form on both wings, traces of the 
same series being likewise visible in the male. 

iSuTntmzry.^-Most of the members of the subfiimily 
Pierinss possess, in a greater or less state of develop- 
ment, a submarginal series of dark spots. The genera 
Stfnchloe, Belenois, Tatochila, and some species of Colia$^ 
amongst others, present the series in a fair state of 
completeness. In other members of Colia^, and in 
several genera such as Ixiae, Hebomoia, and Teracolua, the 
series i& often less distinguishable, owing either to fusion 
of its constituent spots with each other and with the 
dark marginal area, or to suppression of some of tbdr 
number. Belies of the series remain in Ganoris, Euchloe, 
and other genera, being especially persistent in the 
female sex ; in Gonepteryx, Derea^j Callidryas, Phcebis, 
Cafopstlia, and other allied genera, the series often 
undergoes curious modifications. The aspect of the 
series in such genera as Pontia, Huphina, Metaporia, and 
Nepheronia, suggests its development from portions of 
the original ground-colour left (by the formation and sab- 
sequent fusion of lighter patches in a dark or dusky area) 
as a dark band following the contour of the wing ; and, 
finally, by an extension of the process, as a submargind 
chain of spots. The possibility of such a mode of origin 
is well illustrated by the condition of the wings in many 
species of the Eastern genera Prioneris and Delias, and 
the Western Leodonta, GataMicta, and Ettcheira. 

2. The dark marginal area or spots. 

In nearly all our common Pierinm we find a dark 
patch at the apex of the forewing; better marked, as a 
rule, in the females than in the males. In O. brassicm 

Digitized by 


Phylogeny of the PierineB. 263 

it is large and crescent-shaped^ extending for some 
distance along both costs and outer margin of the wing. 
In 0, fupm $ it is not as a rale prolonged very far on 
the outer margin, but it still reaches some way along the 
oofita. In the male of the same insect it is generally 
small, and confined to the actaal region of the tip. In 
neither of these species is there much indication of 
resolution, except that in most specimens of G. braaaicae, 
especially in the females, the hinder arm of the dark 
crescent shows an irregularity due to the massing of 
blade scales about the marginal terminations of the 
nenrules. But in G.napi (Fig. 16) resolution is generally 
well marked; and it becomes evident that the dark 
crescentic or triangular area of the tip is really formed 
by the fusion of the anterior members of the series S, 
which we have just been considering, with another 
series, which may be called M, occupying the actual 
margin of the wing, and consisting, in its fully resolved 
condition, of a row of dark spots, each of which is 
traversed by the peripheral portion of one of the ner- 
Toles. It is noticeable that in this species the black 
marginal spots are often found extended, especially in 
the female, in the form of a powdering of dark scales 
ak>ng the coarse of the nervules towards the base of 
the wing. 

Taming to 8. daplidice (Fig. 15), we find the consti- 
tuent elements of the i^ical patch still better shown 
than in G, napi. The marginal and submarginal series 
are always distinct, being separated from one another by 
portions of the general white colour of the wing, which 
take the form of a row of white spots on the dark apex, 
QsuaUy four in number. Either of these two species 
serves well to illustrate an important difierence between 
the spots of the two series, S and M. The spots of the 
former series occupy, as we have seen, the interspaces 
between nervules; and when fusion between adjacent 
members of the series takes place, it does so by an 
extension of dark scales across a nervule. On the other 
hand, each of the spots of the latter series is centred, 
not in an interspace, but around the peripheral portion 
of a nervule or nervure. Thus the spots of the two 
seriea tend to alternate with one another, though this 
effect ia to some extent interfered with by the frequent 
tomoa of some of the spots with others of the same 

Digitized by 


264 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

series. It is farther noticeable that in both of these 
insects the marginal series M is nsoally continaed in the 
form of a row of dots smaller than those helping to 
oonstitate the apical patch, bat still distinct, along the 
oater border of both fore and hindwing. In 8. dapUdtce 
9 (Fig. 15), the snbmarginal series being also distanctly 
present on the hindwing, the alternate arrangement of 
the two series is in this situation very apparent. The 
constitaent spots 6f series M may be nambered for con- 
yenience, in the forewing 1 — 11, in the hindwing 12 — 20, 
one being coanted for each nervare or nervnle that 
reaches the margin; and the same allowance may be 
made as was saggested in the case of S for the occa- 
sional suppression of a fonrth or addition of a fifth 
subcostal nervule (see p. 255). 

Many examples of the occurrence of this marginal 
series can be found among the near allies of the species 
just named, and in .all of them there is a tendency 
towards the formation of a dark apical patch by the 
union near the tip of the forewing with the anterior 
members of the snbmarginal group S. In G. glidria 
many members of the series are usually present, often 
tend^g in the females to form by fusion a broad mar- 
ginal band in both fore and hindwing. Other species of 
the genus Synchloe besides 8, daplxdice present M in a 
fairly well-developed condition. It is usually conspicu- 
ous in the female 8. callidice, 8. protodice and 8. hsUiaij 
and to a less extent in the males of the same insects ; 
where it clings longest, as in the common species of 
Ganoris, to the region of the tip. Taiochila aviodice and 
T, theodice show M in very nearly the same condition as 
the species of Synchloe last named. 

Turning to the genus OoliaSj we find that the mar- 
ginal series has undergone some modification. In the 
males it is often completely fused with the submarginal 
series, the two together forming a broad outer band to 
the wing, as in 0. edusa S . The same may also take 
place in the female, as in 0. paheno ; but in most cases 
the two series, S and M, are in the female more or less 
distinct, being marked ofi* from one another by areas of 
ground colour which take the form of a row of light- 
coloured spots, not unlike those present in many species 
of Synchloe (see p. 263). In some instances, as in 
C. hyale and C phicomotie, this description applies also 


Digitized by VjUUy It: | 


rrxi/i, Kr,t/<oc Lorul 1^94 Ft TV 

■W Af net 

'/Zing's of Fieri n as. 

M fS 

West,I'IoA^ma^:rviJth . 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Phylogeny of the PierinsB. 265 

to the males. Most species show a strong tendency for 
the spots S 8 and M 8 — 9, and, in a less degree, S 10 
and M 10 — 11, to become fased with one another by the 
obliteration of the separating patches of pale ground 
colour. The individual members of series M are usually 
more distinct from one another on the hind than on the 
forewing. Not infrequently they are fused into a com- 
plete band in both. On the lower surface M is in this 
genus rarely if ever visible ; thus offering a strong con- 
trast to S. 

In Meganostoma the fusion of M with S is usually 
complete on the forewing ; the females, however, of some 
species show traces of a separation ; a few patches of the 
yellow ground-colour, like those in the females of many 
species of Colias, appearing in the midst of the dark 
border. In some forms, as M. philippa $, these light 
patches become much enlarged, and the two series S and 
M are as distinct from one another as in any species of 
Col%€is. M. cesonia usually shows the spots well on the 
upper surface of the hind wing ; and in most species of 
this genus, M is often visible beneath as a row of minute 
pink^ dots on the terminations of the nervules at the 

In Gonepteryx, Rhodocera, Amynthia, and Dercas, the 
series is not as a rule strongly developed. G. rliamni 
usually shows on both surfaces a row of marginal dots, 
dark red or brown above and pinker beneath, at the 
outer extremities of the nervules, which are undoubtedly 
relics of M. These are best marked at the tip of tho 
forewing, where they often tend to run into a thin con- 
tinuous marginal line, and are generally more apparent 
in the female. The apical band is more strongly accen- 
tuated in Rhodocera leachicma, especially in the female, 
in which sex also M is often found on the hindwing in a 
feirly developed condition. Traces only of the series are 
visible in the species of Amynthia ; but iu Dercas M is 
reinforced by the anterior portion of S, and helps with it 
to form a conspicuous dark area at the region of 
the tip. 

The condition of M in Hebomoia needs no special 
remark, except that on the under surface its separate 
existence appears to be sacrificed to the exigencies of 
the protective pattern. 

In Callidryas, Metura, Phoebia, AphHssa, and Catop" 

TEAH8. IHT. 800. LOND. 1894. — PART II. (jUNE.) S 

Digitized by 


266 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

ailia, the development of M varies. Most of the species, 
however, show the usual tendency of M to expand into 
an apical patch, either with or withoat reinforcement 
from S. The members of the series are generally 
rednced on the lower surface of the hindwing to a row 
of marginal dots ; and the g^reat characteristic of the 
present series, namely that it belongs to the nervnles, 
and not, like the former one, to the interspaces, is kept 
np thronghont. On the npper surface of CatopsUia 
fiava 9 (Fig. 21), M and S are both well developed, and 
their relation to one another closely resembles that 
which obtains in Colids. 

The same series is often present in the genera Ixicls 
and Teracolus ; being, as nsnal, most constant in the 
females, and most prominent on the npper surface. It 
appears occasionally as a chain of spots, as in the hind- 
wing of many specimens of T. ione 9, and some of 
T. regina, bat more often as a simple marginal band, as 
in /. marianne (Fig. 18). This band may be com- 
pletely fused with S, as in the hindwing of T. phisadia^ 
or partially so, as in T. amata. A plain marginal band, 
in the forewing expanding at the tip and more or less 
indented opposite the branching of the median nervure, 
in the hindwing sometimes breaking into a chain of 
spots, is also the usual condition of M in the genus 

In Nepheronia and Eronia M is generally present as 
a well-developed marginal band sometimes more or less 
fused with S, and often sending dark prolongations 
inwards along the course of the nervules. In some 
species, however, as N. thalassina and E» leda^ it is 
mostly confined to the apical region; in the latter 
indeed it is absent from the hindwing of the male 
altogether, and barely visible on that of the female 
(Fig. 23). The series in Euchloe is eenerally recognis- 
able as a row of dots, sometimes fused at the apex with 
the anterior members of S ; but often, as in E. tagis and 
E. auaonia, preserving its independent existence. 

The condition of M in the genera Meiaparia and 
Huphina recalls that in Nepheronia; the constituent spots 
being generally fused into a marginal band from which 
dark ofishoots run inwards, accompanying the coarse of 
the nervules. A similar description will apply to PonHa, 
thongh in this genus the dark markings are often greatly 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the PierinsQ. 267 

redaoed. P. sorada, however, shows M with safficient 
difitinctness ; and even in P. cratcegi M itself is in some 
instaDces visible, while the dark prolongations along the 
coarse of the nervnles is a well-known and conspicnous 

Delias and PHoneris help to show us what is in all 
probability the earliest condition of the present as well 
as of the former series. The upper surface of both fore 
and hindwing in the female of D. eucharis presents once 
more the familiar pattern of Metaporia agathon and 
Nepheronia gsea 9 . It has already been pointed out that 
there is an easy passage from this system of marking 
to that which we tind in D. belladonna, D. paaithoe, and 
several other species; while the same features are un- 
doubtedly visible with but slight modification in the 
American genera Euteipe, Catasticta, Leodonta, and 
Eueheira (see p. 258). A comparison of the insects just 
named, to which may be added Prioneris thestylia and 
other species of the same genus, can hardly fail to suggest 
the probability of the origin of both M and S as portions 
of the original dark ground-colour marked off from one 
another with gradually increasing distinctness by the ap- 
pearance, enlargement, and confluence of whitish patches 
in the interspaces between nervnles. The alternate 
character of the two series S and M, when broken 
np into spots, is seen to be a consequence of the shape 
and position of the original dusky white touches that 
first bring them into view. These touches may be seen 
for example in D. belladonna (Fig. 4) to be divisible into 
two sets, which we may call marginal and basal, both 
occupying the central areas of the interspaces. Between 
the two sets is included the portion of ground colour cor- 
responding to S, the constituent spots of which, when iso- 
lated, will necessarily have their centres in the interspaces. 
But the marginal set of light marks tends to reach by 
tapering extremities to the edge of the wing (see Fig. 5) ; 
so that the interposed marginal patches of unaltered 
ground colour, forming the first beginnings of M, are of 
necessity focussed round points in &e nervnles an d not 
in the interspaces. And when in consequence of the 
further development and fusion of the white or pale 
markings, the marginal relics of dark ground colour 
become reduced to a row of isolated dark spots, these 
spots are, as we have already seen in S. daplidxce (p. 263) 

Digitized by 


268 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey cm the 

and other cases^ always traversed by the peripheral 
portion of a nervule or nervure. This fact is well 
exemplified by M. agathina, M. poppea, and several 
other species of JlfyZof Am (Fig. 12). 

The invasion of white, which is already considerable in 
D. eucharis 9, becomes still more predominant in the 
male of the same insect, where, however, the original 
ground-colour still persists, not only in the series S and 
M, but also in the form of the dark streaks accompanying 
the nervures and nervnles, a feature which we have seen 
to be common in many other genera, especially Pontia, 
Huphina, Metaporia, and Nepheronia. 

Without leaving the genus Delids we can find several 
examples where the intrusive white has ousted the whole 
of the original ground-colour, except at the margins and 
apex. This is the case for instance in D. descombesiii , 
D. agostina S, D, cceneus ^, and D. momea. In most of 
these species the dark marginal area is plainly composed 
of S and M in a more or less complete state of fusion, 
and it is noticeable here as elsewhere that the female 
almost invariably retains a larger proportion of the 
original ground-colour than the male. 

Many species of Belenoia resemble the last mentioned 
species of Delias in the tendency towards fusion of the 
marginal and submarginal series. B. peristhene (Fig. 14) 
is exceedingly like D. momea in this respect, and in B. 
teutonia ? and B, coronea the fusion is still more com- 
plete. But in very many species of Belenoia and 
Pina/^pteryx, S and M are plainly distinguishable from 
one another ; and in some, as in B, calypso (as also in 
Pinacopteryx capricornus), the resolution of both into a row 
of dots is complete. The formation of a series of rings 
along the margin of the hindwing (as in Synchloe caUu 
dice ? , 8, proiodice ? , etc.), by the union of the horns 
of the crescents or chevrons belonging to series S with 
the spots of series M, is a noticeable feature on both 
surfaces of many specimens of B. mesentina i (see 
Fig, 13) ; and the identity of the whole arrangement of 
the submarginal and marginal series in Belenois with that 
in Synchloe becomes perfectly evident on a comparison of 
B, mesentina with 8. johnstonii or 8. hellica. 

In Appias the two series when present are not sharply 
marked oflF from one another. In some species, however, 
S has almost or quite disappeared, and M may persist 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the Pierinas. 26d 

alone as a marginal band^ showing more or less ten- 
dency towards resolution (Appias lyndda i, A. celes* 
tina i, etc.). 

Summary, — The present^ Kke the preceding series, is 
thus seen to be a relic of the original dark ground-colour. 
It is intercepted between the margin of the wing and 
a series of pale touches (best seen in certain species of 
Delias and Cata^ticta) that making their appearance in 
the submarginal region of the interspaces, more or less 
isolate, indent and divide up the dark marginal area. It 
may eventually disappear altogether (as in some speci- 
mens of G. rapoB 6), but usually persists on the forewing, 
at least, in the region of the apex. When present, it 
■hows great variation in the extent to which it is resolved 
into separate spots, and also in the amount of fusion it 
undergoes with the neighbouring series S. As a general 
mle it is, like the last-named series, more constantly 
present in the female sex, and more completely resolved 
in the male. 

3. The light series between 1 and 2. 

The region of pale ground-colour included between 
the two dark-coloured series S and M, becomes of 
necessity more sharply defined and circumscribed as the 
constituents of each dark series become fused together 
into bands instead of remaining as rows of spots. The 
tendency so often seen of the two dark series to become 
partially fused with one another, by the extension 
between them of dark lines following the course of the 
nervules, leads, when carried far enough, to the splitting 
np of the included pale area into a series of pale spots, 
which sometimes attain a very distinct and definite 
character, especially at the apex of the forewing. These 
pale spots have already been incidentally noticed during 
the discussion of the two series between which they lie ; 
it will not be necessary to do more in this place than to 
i*oggest that, for the purpose of separate reference, the 
letter I should be taken to represent the whole series, 
the possible constituents being numbered 1 — 20, in corre- 
spondence with the dark spots of series S which bound 
tnem on the inner aspect. (See Figs. 1, 2, 5, 21, etc.) 

4. The diseoidal spots. 

In none of our three common species of Oanoris does 

Digitized by 


270 Dr. Frederick A- Dixey on the 

there exist a trae discoidal spot. The nearest approach 
is to be found in G. napi, where the disco-cellulars of the 
forewing, together with the other nervules, are in many 
specimens accompanied by a sprinkling of black scales ; 
which in some instances are sufficiently numerous in this 
particular region to give almost the appearance of a 
black discoidal spot or patch. This may be best seen in 
specimens of G. hryonise^ but dusky specimens of the 
ordinary G. napi will sometimes show the tendency 
almost equally well. The same tendency is carried a 
little further in Tatochila autodice, while T. theodice 
shows the corresponding marks in a condition of strong 
development; with a slight indication of a similar feature 
on the hindwing as welL Passing to the genus Synchloe, 
we find the discoidal spot invariably present, at least in 
the forewing ; and in most species large and distinct, 
especially in the females. 8. daplidice (Fig. 15) has the 
spot well developed on both surfaces; on the lower sur- 
face it is more or less shaded with green. The same is 
the case with the somewhat smaller discoidal spot in 
8. callidice. Another example of a large and conspicuous 
discoidal spot is furnished by 8. hellica. 

In Oolias, a discoidal spot is nearly always present on 
each surface of both fore and hindwings. On the upper 
surface of the latter it is sometimes independently 
present and sometimes only shows through from 
beneath ; but it is seldom absent altogether. The spot 
on the forewing is in this genus, as in 8ynchloe, usuaUy 
dark brown or black. It may be ringed or pupiUed with 
orange ; in the former case the orange is of a deeper 
shade than the general ground-colour. Examples of 
this may be seen in 0. meadii, C, cunninghamit, and 
others. In (7. fieldii and 0. edtisina the discoidal spot in 
the forewing is unusually large ; in no species of Colias, 
however, does it overpass the boundaries of the sub- 
costal nervure in front and the third median nervule 
behind. It may be very small, as in C. barbara; or 
entirely absent, as in some specimens of 0. palaeno and 
C. pelidne. On the lower suiface it is often centred with 
white or silver. On the upper surface of the hindwing, 
the spot when present is not dark, but varies in different 
species from the palest yellow to a full orange. It is 
distinguished from the general surface of the wing either 
by its different shade of yellow or orange (as in C. hyale) 

Digitized by 


Phylogeny of the Kerinae. 271 

or by its freedom from admixture with the darker scales 
that often give the hindwing in this genus a compara- 
tively dusky appearance (as in some specimens of G. 
edusa). In many species a small companion is visible 
in the interspace between the second sobcostat and dis- 
coidal nervnre. On the under surface the discoidal spot 
is much more distinct. Its centre is silvery white^ and 
it is nsoally encircled with a brown or orange ring, 
which in some species is sharply marked off both 
internally and externally by thin marginal lines of a 
darker colour. The companion reproduces the discoidal 
spot on a smaller scale. It always occupies an inter- 
space, whereas the chief discoidal spot is situated upon 
the second disco-cellular nervnle. (Fig. 20, D 4.) 

No doubt is likely to arise as to the identity of the 
discoidal spot in Synchloe with that in Colias so far as 
the forewing is concerned The chief difference between 
them is that in the former genus the spot is less sharply 
defined and less regular in outline ; moreover in Synchloe 
it freanently reaches forward to the costa, and it may 
extena backward to the space between the first and 
second median nervnle ; whereas in Colias, as we have 
seen, it does not pass the limits set by the subcostal 
nenrure and the third median nervula But there can be 
no reasonable question that the spots are homologous in 
the two cases; and a comparison of the two genera 
further suggests the probability that in Synchloe we 
have an older, in Colias a newer and more specialised 
form of the marking. This conclusion accords with 
what has been already said about the marginal and sub- 
marginal series of markings, which in Colias, especially 
in the males, have depart^ somewhat further from the 
original type than in Synchloe', and it will be seen to 
receive further confirmation from what is to follow. 
With regard to the discoidal spot on the hindwing, 
although it is perhaps not at first sight clear that the 
markings in the two genera are really homologous, it is 
nevertheless quite possible, on an attentive examination 
of aUied forms, to trace the steps by which the passage 
from one to the other is effected. In the hindwing of 
many species of Synchloe there is no indication of a 
discoidai spot at all; in others, however, a definite 
aggregation of black scales is yisible about the disco- 
cellular nervnles. In some species, such as S.protodice 9 , 

Digitized by 


272 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

the nerynleSj though Borroanded with black scales, are 
themselves covered with white^ or (on the underside) pale 
yellow scales; alight-coloured centre being thus provided 
for the dark discoidal patch. In the genus Tatochila 
this light-coloured centre acquires greater importance. 
On the under surface of T. autodice the white scales are 
seen not only covering the disco-cellular nervules, but 
also intruding some way upon the yellow of the general 
surface ; in this species, however, the pale patch thus 
formed has no dark border. But there can be little 
doubt, on a comparison of T. autodice with Oolias palseno, 
that the whitish area surrounding the second disco- 
cellular nervule in the one is homologous with the silvery 
patch in the corresponding region of the other ; while 
the identity of the discoidal marks in Tatochila with 
those in Synchloe, and of the same marks in C. palseno 
with those in other species of Colias, is a matter of 
certainty. The brown ring surrounding the silvery 
pupil on the under surface of most species of Colias is 
indicated in C. palseno, where its general appearance 
points to the probability of its origin from the dark 
scales that have already been noticed as gathering about 
the region of the disco-cellular nervules in Synchloe. 
In C.palwno itself, however, the central pale patch (as in 
Tatochila) becomes far more prominent than the sur- 
rounding dark border. An examination of the discoidal 
spot on the underside of the hindwing in Oonepteryx 
rhamni 5 and Amynthia mserula will disclose the same 
general arrangement of a pale area traversed by the 
second disco-cellular nervule, and surrounded by a ring of 
darker scales, that we have already seen to be character- 
istic of the spot in other genera. In these insects, how- 
ever, as in Rhodocera leachiana, the spots, though clearly 
identical with those in Colias, are in a lower state of 
development and specialization. Turning again to the 
discoidal spots on the forewing, we may at first sight 
hesitate to identify the bright orange spots in (?. rhamni 
or 0. cleopatra with the black spots or patches in 
SyncJdoe and Collar, But in Amynthia clorinde we have 
what is unmistakably an intermediate form of the spot, in 
which the vivid orange of the one closely encircles the 
deep brown or black of the other, and from which either 
the Oonepteryx or Colias type of spot might be easily 
derived. Much the same is the case with U. leachiana ; 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the Pierinas. 278 

but in this insect the black markedly predominates. 
The discoidal spot in the forewing of B, leachiana is also 
noticeable as having a small companion, of similar 
character but with a greater proportion of orange, in 
the root of the interspace between the subcostal and the 
first discoidal nerynre. 

The discoidal spots in Dercas, when present, corre- 
spond closely with those in the genera just named. The 
spot on the forewing of D. lycorias is like that in 
G. rhamni ; it is, however, less compact, and surrounds 
both disco-cellular nervules instead of the second only, 
M in the latter insect. The spot on the upper surface of 
the hindwing is scarcely visible, but those on both wings 
beneath nearly resemble the corresponding marks in 
R. leachiana. On the underside of D. wallichii the 
maiks are of the same character, but reduced in size ; 
from the upper surface they are almost or quite 

In Meganostoma the discoidal spots, both above and 
beneath, so closely correspond with those in Colias as to 
call for no special remark. In Callidryas, Metura, Phoebis, 
Apkrissa, and Catopsilia, they present also the same 
general appearance. On the upper surfaoe of the hind- 
wing, the discoidal spot is seen as a rule faintly or not at 
all ; but on the forewing there is often a well-marked 
dark patch, enclosing either the second disco-cellular, 
as usually in Catopsilia thauruma and C. catilla ?, 
or both disco-cellulars, as in Aphrissa godartiana 9 . On 
the underside the form of a silvery circular patch, 
sarrounded by a pinkish or brownish ring, is almost 
universally kept up. There is in some species (as in 
Callidryas philea) a tendency for the discoidal spot in 
the forewing to divide into two parts, one for each disco- 
cellnlar nervule ; while in the lundwing the small com- 
panion which has been already noticed in Colias is nearly 
always present in the interspace between the discoidal 
and subcostal nervures. One or two species (as G, 
ficrella 9) possess a second companion within the cell. 
The present series, when fully resolved, seems thus to 
consist of five spots, two belonging to the two disco- 
oeUnlar nervules m the forewing, the third belonging to 
the interspace between the subcostal and discoidal 
nenmres in the hindwing, the fourth to the second 
disco-cellnlar nervule, and the fifth to the discoidal cell. 

Digitized by 


274 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on ihs 

also in the hindwing. I propose to designate the system 
as D 1—5.* 

The hist-named genera exhibit a good deal of yaria- 
tion in the size of the constitnent spots of D, and 
also in the breadth of the encircling darker ring. In 
C. c€U%lla 9 , the latter, spreading widely ont from the 
silver centres^ and being reinforced in the hindwing 
by a similar development fi*om certain of the spots of 
series S, forms a conspicnons dark red patch on the 
nnder snr&ce of both primaries and secondaries. A 
similar tendency is seen in many specimens of Callidryas 
tiialestris and other members of that genns. In all these 
cases the border of the discoid&l spots on the nnder 
sarfioM^e is assimilated in colour to the general character 
of the darker mottlings that form the prevailing featnre 
of the wing-pattern. It is interesting to observe, in the 
case of Phoebis trite, that the straight diagonal streak 
already referred to (p. 260) as crossing the under snrfetce 
of the hindwing is made up of elements beloDgiug to 
both series S and D, as follows : The part between the 
two subcostal nervules is S 14 ; that between the sub- 
costal and discoidal is D 3 ; the next, where the streak 
intersects the second disco-cellular, is D 4 ; it then skips 
a space, and reappears between the median and sub- 
mecUan nervures as S 19. That the homology of the 
different parts of this line has been correctly stated will 
be evident from a comparison of P. trite with C. euhule 
and G. thalestris, in which species the elements of the 
streak are visible in a separate condition. It is in P. 
trite particularly worthy of note that in those interspaces 
where D 3 and 4 form part of the streak, the corre- 
sponding members of S, viz., S 15, 16, and 17 (which 
are not wanted for this purpose), are visible well to the 
outer side of the streak ; whereas in the other inter- 
spaces there are no marks between the streak and the 
margin, the members of S having been, so to speak^ 
used up for another purpose^ and having thus caused an 
apparent interruption of the usual submarginal pattern. 
In the interspace between the first and second median 

^ This use of D is open to the objection that the same letter 
has also been used for an entirely different set of markings in the 
Nymphalid89 (see Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1890, p. 91). But I do 
not think that this circumstance is likely to give rise to any 
practical difficulty. 

Digitized by 


Phylogeny of the PiorinsD. 275 

neimles^ S 18 appears as a submarginal spot of tho usual 
kind. Now^ inasmuch as no member of series D ever 
occupies this interspace^ there is no material at hand for 
continuing the streak ; and^ carrying the eye up to the 
apex of the interspace, where the streak should cross, 
we find it, in fact, deficient at that place.* This may 
8eem a small point, but it is of interest as illustrating 
the absence of anything that might be called violent or 
arbitrary in the evolution of these various patterns, in 
-which, indeed, the closer the examination the more 
difficult it is to find anything efiected per saltum. 

In Ixia8 the condition is again much the same as in 
Colias; the discoidal spot of the forewing, however, is 
often nnited on the upper surface with a dark band 
running across the wing from the costa to the anal 
angle. A similar feature occurs in Hebomoia glaucippe 
(Fig. 19) and other species of the same genus. On the lower 
surfiu^e the discoidal spot vaiies considerably in size, and 
in a few cases (as sometimes in J. marianne) may be 
absent altogether. When it is large, as in other 
specimens of J. marianne, it is frequently centred with 
white. In the hindwing the series is absent from the 
upper surface, and represented below only by D 4, which 
may also be white-centred, or may exist as a simple 
black dot of varying size. 

In Teracolus, D is usually well marked. In some 
species, such as jT. vesta, T, hewitaoniif and T. puellaria, 
it occurs on the forewing as a conspicuous black patch 
covering both disco-cellular nervules, and usually merged 
anteriorly in a dark or dusky band which extends along 
the costal border. In other species, as T. evanthe, T. ione, 
T. regina, etc., it takes the form of a circumscribed black 
0pot, sometimes minute or absent. On the lower surface, 
the scales on and surrounding the disco-cellular nervules 
are often whitish, thus giving D a pale centre. D in the 
hindwing, when present, is usually small j on the under- 
aide of some species, as T, danae, T. evippe, and T. 
<nnphale, it is centred or shaded with orange; — this 
tint belonging primarily to the disco-cellular nervules, 
and spreading more or less widely from them. 

^ * As above noted (p. 260), the corresponding streak in the fore- 
wimg of P. trittf and the somewhat similar feature on both wings 
of Jkrcat lycoriai^ are entirely formed out of series S. 

Digitized by 


276 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey an the 

In Terias and Sphsenogona, D is constantly absent 
from the upper surface, but is usually visible below, 
where it may appear as a small black dot or pair of dots 
in each wing (T. lisa), or as a group, of more or less 
regular narrow-bordered rings {T. hecabe and T, floricola) , 
or in various intermediate forms {T:deva and S, gratiosa). 
The transition from the condition of D in OoUm to that 
in Teria^ is well indicate^ by Xanthidia nicippe, most 
specimens of which correspond pretty closely in the 
markings of the lower surface with the latter genus; 
while the upper surface of the forewing bears a discoidal 
spot much like that in some species of Colias. In the 
closely allied genus Pyrisitia, D has altogether disap- 
peared (see P. proterpia). 

The genus Euchloe shows the discoidal spot on the 
forewing in a well-marked condition (Fig. 24). It may 
exist as a distinct spot, as in E. cardamineSj usually 
larger in the female ; or as a more or less quadrangular 
patch reaching up to the costa, as in E. lucilla. On the 
underside it is often white-centred, as in E. belemia and 
others. On the hindwing, D is in many species of Euchloe 
not visible at all. In some, however, it appears as a 
small, at times very minute, patch of black scales sur- 
rounding the second disco-cellular nervule (some speci- 
mens of E, genutia and E. cardamines) ; in others, as 
E. chixrlonia and E, Ittcilla-, it takes the form, on the 
under surface, of a pale circular patch, closely resembling 
D 4 of Colias palseno in the same situation. 

D in Belenois is usually well marked on the forewing, 
as a ' rule enclosing both disco -cellulars, and often 
prolonged anteriorly to join the outer extremity of a dark 
costal band ; this is especially the case in the female, and 
on the under surface in the male, as in B. mesentina, B. 
teutonia, B, calypso, etc. The spot is sometimes small 
and quite distinct, as in B. creona, D 1 being absent ; 
sometimes, on the other hand, it is large and almost or 
quite merged in the general dark field of the outer 
portion of the wing, as in B, coronea. In the hindwing 
there may be no discoidal mark at all, as in jB. creona ; 
or all the nervores may be covered with dark scales 
(as generally on the under surface of jB. mesentina), 
the disco-cellular nervules not being specially dis- 
tinguished; or there may be a definite discoidal spot, 
imposed of D 4, as in B. mesentina 9 , upper surface ; 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the Piermas. 277 

and in B. calypso, under surface of both sexes ancl upper 
surface of female. 

In Appiaa and Gatophaga a discoidal spot can scarcely 
be said to exist ; but in Hiposcritia and Pieris various 
members of the series D are often well marked. R. 
lalage $ (Fig. 11) has a conspicuous discoidal spot on 
both surfaces of the forewing, formed by D 2 ; and on 
the under surface of the hindwing there appears a minute 
representative of D 4. In Jff. pandione, D 1 and 2 com- 
pose a large spot which joins the dark costal band; while 
on the under surface of the hindwing, D 4 is sometimes 
indicated by a paling of the first disco-cellular nervule 
and the immediately surrounding area. In Pieris the 
forewing often shows a conspicuous discoidal spot, formed 
by D 1 and 2 or by D 2 alone ; the hindwing as a rule 
possessing only a small dark representative of 1) 4 on the 
under surface, which in P. bunice merely touches the 
second disco-cellular, but in P. pylotis encloses it. 

In Pontia and Huphvna (Fig. 8), D in the forewing 
appears generally as a mere darkening of the wing in the 
region of the disco-cellular nervules, more pronounced 
than the darkening of other nervures which is common 
in these genera, but not forming a definite spot. In the 
hindwing it is much less distinguishable or even absent 
(P. cratcegi, P. soracta, H, phryne, H. timnatha, etc.). 
In Metaporia agathon (Fig. 7) the same darkening of the 
disco-cellular area occurs, which in JIf. phryxe takes the 
form of a definite and conspicuous patch. A like condition 
is seen in N, gcea, and other species of Nepheronia. 

The correspondence in pattern of the genera Delias and 
Prioneris with those just discussed, already referred to on 
p. 267, applies to the present as well as to other features 
in the marking. Delias, moreover, shows in many 
species that paling of the disco-cellular nervules them- 
selves, and sometimes of the immediately surrounding 
area in the midst of the dark discoidal patch, which we 
have seen to occur in Synchloe and other genera, and 
which in GoliaSf Ixias, and their allies leads to remarkable 
modifications in the general appearance of the discoidal 
spots (see Delias a^antppe, D. descomhesij D, crithoe, 
etc.). In D. belisama ?, the nervules remain dark, 
though there is a surrounding pale area. 

Nothing special needs to be said about the genera 
Euterpe, Cata^ticta, Leodonta, and Eticheira, Their 

Digitized by 


278 Dr. Frederick A, Dixey on the 

general correspondence in pattern with the old-world 
genera last named^ which has been already referred to, 
involves a similar condition of the present series D. In 
none of them does any member of D assume the condition 
of a definite circumscribed spot ; but in nearly all, the 
series exists as a portion of the original dark ground 
colour between the touches of intrusive white or yellow. 
In C. toca, D on the underside of the hindwing consists 
of an irregular dark ring with a yellow centre travers(»d 
by the disco-cellular nervules, this representing an early 
condition of the homologous ocellus in OoUas. 

Summary, — This series also, like those already treated 
of, represents a local survival of the original dark ground- 
colour. Appearing in the first place as an ill-defined 
accumulation of dark scales around the disco-cellular 
nervules, it takes the form of definite spots as the in- 
vasion of white or other pale ground tint progresses. As 
in the case of the other series, resolution is generally best 
marked in the males; the females showing a greater 
tendency to adhere to the ancestral condition. When 
fully resolved, the series consists of five spots, two for 
the disco-cellular nervules in the forewing, and one for 
the second disco-cellular in the hindwing, with two extra 
spots, also in the hindwing. In many instances the 
diisco-cellular nervules, with a varying amount of neigh- 
bouring ground-substaiice, may appear as pale streaks or 
Satches in the midst of the primitive agglomeration of 
ark scales; and in the further development of the 
pattern it may happen that either the pale or the dark 
markings alone persist; or both may be retained and 
worked up as in species of Oolias, Oallidryas, Ixias, etc., 
into a system of more or less elaborate ocelli. 

5. The markivga on the underside of the hindwing, 

a. The yellow precostal streak, — A constant feature in 
our common species of whites is a deep yellow or orange 
streak which occupies the margin of the precostal space 
on the underside of the hindwing, and is clearly dis- 
tinguishable from the pale yellow of the general ground- 
colour. This yellow precostal streak is conspicuous in 
other species of Ganoris, as Q. gliciria, and may also be 
seen in 8, daplidice, 8. hellica, and many other members 
of the genus 8ynchloe. It is, I believe, never found in 
Pontia cratwgi ; in the closely allied P. hippia and P. 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the KerinsB. 279 

ioracia, however, it is well marked. Metaporia agathon 
and Jf. phry^BS, which resemble the last-named species 
in other respects^ also show a deep yellow mark in the 
same situation ; but in this instance it occurs only as a 
spot bounded outwardly by the precostal nervure, and is 
not prolonged as a streak along the costa.* Many 
genera present this mark in much the same condition as 
tiie species of Ganorie first referred to ; of which good 
examples may be seen in Nepheronia thalassina, N. argia, 
the curious Herpoenia eriphia, Pinacopteryx pigea and P. 
ccqyricomus, Mylothris chloris and M. agathina (deep 
orange in these), Tatochila theodice, Olutophriaaa mar^ 
garita, Appids zelmira, Phrissura syhia, Daptonura 
lycimnia, Teracol%t8 tone, T. regina, T. eiia, etc. 

Looking back to Synchloe helliea, we find that the 
yellow precostal streak forms in that insect only one of a 
series of yellow marks, one or two of which partially 
occupy each interspace. A similar condition obtains in 
many species of Belenois ; see for instance B. mesentina 
and B, teufonia. On the underside of the hindwing in 
these species, the dark lines following the course of the 
nenrures, and the dark markings belonging to the yarious 
series above described, are laid down upon a ground 
colour which is usually white or pale yellow, but which in 
many specimens is relieved here and there by streaks and 
touches of a deeper yellow or orange. One of these 
streaks occupies the costa, and is plainly identical with 
the yellow precostal streak in Synchloe, Ganorie, and the 
other genera named. Although in the species of Belenoie 
just referred to, as in several others, this streak is easily 
seen to form but one member of a series, it is never- 
theless more constant and persistent than any of its 
companions. This is evident in those not uncommon 
specimens of B. mesentina^ in which the general 
gromid colour on the underside of the hindwing 
takes on so deep a yellow tinge as to approach that of 
the yellow streaks and touches. In these cases all or 
some of the latter set of markings may cease to be 
separately recognizable; the precostal streak, however, 
is always the last to disappear. In certain species of the 

® A specimen of if. agathon in Coll. Brit. Mns. has, however, a 
few onnge scales in the outer division of the precostal space. 
t /.«., the form known as B. auriginea. 

Digitized by 


280 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

present genas, as jB. gidica, the ground colour remaiiis 
pale ; bat the precostal streak is die only member of its 
series present. In others again, as B. coranea, the black 
spots of S exist in a state of enlargement and fosion, 
while the orange touches occupy nearly the whole of 
the spaces that are left. The light spots of series I (see 
p. 269) between S and M, which in B. teutonia are only 
touched with orange, are entirely of that colour in most 
specimens o{ B. coronea. In B. periHhene the amount 
of light ground colour is smaller still, but the orange 
costal streak and orange series I are present as in B. 
coronea. Both of these insects, B. perUthene in especial^ 
suggest at once a comparison with certain members of 
the genus iJelias, particularly D, nysa and D. momea. In 
these two species the yellow precostal streak and the 
yellow or orange series I are unmistakably present. In 
1). nyaa, as in £. peri^thene, these constitute the only- 
relief to the general dark colour of the wing ; while in 
D. momea S is partially defined by the presence of pale 
touches on its inner aspect in addition to the spots of 
series I along its outer margin. 

While the species named suggest a passage in inspect 
of this pattern of the underside of the hindwing between 
Belenois and Delias, there is not wanting evidence of 
the same import in the case of other species in which the 
blackening of the hindwing is a less conspicuous feature. 
On the underside of D. belladonna we cannot fail to 
recognize the counterpart of such a hindwing as that of 
B. teutonia ; the dark and light areas occupy with slight 
modification the same relative positions, and the same 
spaces of pale ground-colour that are in B. teutonia 
touched up with deep yellow, are wholly or partially of 
the like colour in D. belladonna ; among these, of course, 
being the precostal margin. The basal portion of the 
hindwing in such species as D. eucharis and D. hyparete 
shows a more general yellow tinge than in D. belladonna ; 
but in both of these, as in other allied species, the 
deeper-coloured precostal streak is perfectly recognizable. 
In very many species of Delias we meet with a new- 
feature, much of the ordinary yellow being displaced by 
a brilliant red; but the former colour still displays a 
tendency to cling to the region of the precostal space, as 
may be seen in D. thisbe ; where, however, the precostal 
yellow hardly reaches further outwards than the pre- 

Digitized by 


T-r(uvj. HnJ . ,v,r . Ic^^J. . 1894^. I'i. V. 

r^e ^ J 

18 \ 

-racj^us re';vTl6:s2iL 

S X 

Callidi'yas tKale-otris^ 


^ '-' 

E^aclil'je char Ionia. 

"Wr^l, Newin^irv hth 

V^Tings '.f Pierinae. Cr\r\ci\o 

O Digitized by VjOOyiC 

Digitized by 


Phylogeny of the Pierinffi. 281 

costal nervnra In the veiy similar X>. paMhoe it has 
been driven even from this position. 

PricnerU exhibits a condition very similar to that of 
Deltas. The underside of P. thestylis closely corre- 
sponds with that of D. belladonna, and the resemblance 
applies to the precostal streak no less than to other 
features. In some specie of Prioneris, as C. clemanthe 
and P. autoihishs, the precostal yellow is again ap- 
proached, and sometimes dislodged, by a greater or less 
atnoont of bright red, as in D. panthoe, D. thisbe, 
D. crUhoe, and other members of the former genos. 

Leaving the red patches and other features of the 
pattern of this region in Delias and Prioneris for dis- 
cussion at a later stage, we may pass on to the 
American genera Euterpe, Pereute, Leodonta, and Caicu^ 
tida. In the two last-named the arrangement of light 
and dark markings corresponds generally with that in 
Delicts and Belenois, and similar touches of deep yellow 
are mostly present in the same relative positions. One 
of these, usually to be seen on the costal margin, is 
clearly homologous with the precostal streak in the 
insects already referred to; in many specimens of C 
nimbice, C. semiramis, C. toca, and others, it bears very 
much the same i^pearance as in the old-world genera 
above mentioned. It may be noticed in passing that 
in many instances, such as L. zenobia, L. dysoni, and 
C. anaitis, the yellow precostal streak is found sharing 
tiie precostal space with a greater or smaller amount of 
brillumt red, as we have seen to be often the case in 
Delias and Prioneris. The same struggle between 
yellow and red is visible in the genera Euterpe and 
PeretUe. In E. tereas the space is shared, the red keeping 
to the inner, and the yellow, when present, to the outer 
side of the precostal nervure. In P. charops the space is 
osnally all yellow ; in P. autodice and P. leucodrosime it 
is all red. In these two genera the other yellow marks 
are reduced in number or completely abolished; P. 
charops, however, generally has a conspicuous yellow 
patch between the costal and subcostal nervures which 
ondoubtedly belongs to the series. 

In the genus Pieris, which is also American, some 
species, such as P. loaista and P. habra, show on the 
under surface of the hindwing a pattern which is 
evidently only slightly modified from that seen in many 

TIULhS. KHT. SOC. LOND. 1894. — PAST U. (JUMS.) T 

Digitized by 


282 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

species of Catasticta ; i^d in these also the red or o^nge 
of the costa is a prominent feature. In other species of 
Pieris a farther alteration has taken place, and the 
markings have been swept from the basal portion of the 
wing (as in P. demophile), or away altogether (P. buniae). 
In most, however, if not all of these cases, the precostal 
streak persists, again taking a yellow rather than red or 
orange colour ; and, in the absence of other yellow or 
well-defined dark marks on the wing, it comes to 
resemble very closely the corresponding feature in so 
many species of Synchloe and Ganoris. 

Summary. — The facts adduced in the course of the 
foregoing remarks seem* so far to allow of little doubt 
as to the history of the yellow precostal streak. It is 
evidently a survival of a series of yellow or orange marks 
which is found, in many genera of both eastern and 
western PierinsB, on the underside of the hindwing, 
partially or wholly occupying the paler areas left between 
the relics of the original dark ground colour. The 
greater number of these marks may disappear with a 
general lightening of the wing, or the whole wing may 
become so yellow as to render them almost or quite 
indistinguishable ; but the particular yellow streak that 
occupies the margin of the precostal space is more per- 
sistent than any of the others, and may remain, as in our 
common species of Ganorisy after every other character- 
istic of the ancestral marking has departed. It will be 
seen later that this account of the precostal streak, 
though no doubt correct as far as it goes, in all pro- 
bability needs supplementing. 

b. The red basal patch, — In both British species of 
Colias, there occurs at the base of the hindwing, on the 
under-surface, a pinkish patch, which occupying the 
apices of the cell and of the median and snbmedian 
interspace, and also in most cases a small area at the root 
of the precostal space, is often prolonged for a short 
distance along the middle of the cell. This patch, which 
is almost always present throughout the genus Colias, is 
found in most if not all species of Meganostoma, and 
also very commonly in Catopsiliay Callidryas, Pha^bis, 
Aphrissa, and Metura^ It is present, too, in Dercas, 
Ganepteryx, Bhodocera, and Amynthia: in these, however, 
it does not as a rule extend far from the body itself. 
Beyond the limits of these closely-allied genera this 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the Pierinae. 283 

special feature does not often occor in a very clearly- 
marked condition ; it is, howeyer, present in Xanthidia 
nieippe, and in several species of Teriaa and Sphcenogona, 
as T. agave and 8. mexicana; it may also be seen 
occasionally in Teracolus, as in T. antevippe, T. eupompe, 
and (sometimes) T. eris, assuming in this genus a some- 
what di£fiase appearance. In some species of Appias, as 
A, hambronii (occasionally), and A. lyncida, as also in 
Herpwnia eriphia, there are deep yellow marks near the 
root of the wing, which are probably homologous with 
part of the patch now under discussion ; and in the 
genera Belenois and Tatoehila touches of deep yellow 
often occur at the base of the median space, though not 
in the cell, which appear to correspond wif^ the marks 
jost referred to in Appias and Herpssnia (see B, mesentina 
and jP. auiodice). These yellow touches in Belenois are 
andoubtedly members of the series spoken of on p. 279, 
and so far it would seem that the well-marked pink patch 
at the root of the cell in Golias, Oonepteryx, etc., is at 
least in part developed from a portion of that series, of 
which another member has given rise to the yellow 
precostal streak. It is certain, however, that other 
fsbctors besides the series now indicated are chiefly, 
Uioogh probably not entirely, answerable for the com- 

C'tion of the pink basal patch in Collar ; and it is at 
t possible, as will presently be seen, that the pre- 
oostid streak itself owes something to their assistance. 
These other factors are the red basal areas to which 
reference has already been made^ and which will now be 
examined in greater detail. 

& The red basal a/reas. To begin with the under* 
side of Delias pasithoe, we find the base of the hind- 
wings occupied by a bright red patch forming about 
a quarter of a circle on each wing, the body itself and the 
immediately surrounding area of the wings being black. 
The spaces affected by the red patch are six ; namely, the 
precostal, costal, subcostal (or cell), median, submedian^ 
and internal — all those in fact whose apices reach to the 
base of the wing. In X>. thisbe there occurs a similar 
red patch, occupying nearly the same spaces. In this 
insect, however, there is no red in the precostal space, 
which is occupied (as above noticed, p. 280) by the ordinary 
yellow precostal streak ; while the red patch, which in this 
bntterfly is visible on the upper as well as the underside 

Digitized by 


284 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey ov the 

of the wing^ inclades the apex of the space between the 
first and second sabcostal nervules in addition to those 
above enumerated. D. egialea shows the same condition 
as D. pasitlioe ; bnt in D. crithoey otherwise similar^ the 
precostal space is black. In D. descombesi and X>. belisama 
the red is confined to the costal interspace (i.e. the space 
between the costal and subcostal nervnres); while in 
D. cceneus a submarginal set of roughly-defined red spots 
or dashes continues round to the anal angle the series 
begun by a red mark in the costal interspace^ corres- 
ponding with that in the two preceding species. The 
submarginal series which^ so to speak, becomes infected 
by the red coloration, is undoubtedly that spoken of above 
as series I (see p. 269). This latter feature of the Pierid 
pattern, somewhat indefinite in D. ca*neus, becomes much 
more distinct in such species as D. nigrina, D. harpaiyce, 
D. aganippe, D. euchans, and D. argenthona. The latter 
of these has another well-marked red spot surrounding 
the second disco-cellular nervule, which represents a 
difiused reddish area in X>. duris, and a more circumscribed 
patch in the same situation in D. cceneus. In D. hyparde 
S is going from the underside of the hindwing; in 
D. hierte it is gone ; but in both cases the red spots of I 
remain in their full development. D. mysis, D. iste, 

D. echo, and other species exhibit the same feature in a 
more or less conspicuous manner. 

The same red coloration is visible, as we have seen, on 
the underside of many species of Prioneris in the form of 
a basal patch ; and in one species (P. sita) it spreads to 
the submarginal spots of series I, exactly as in D. 
eticharis. In P. dutothisbe the red is found in the costal 
and subcostal interspaces ; in P. clemanthe and P. vollen^ 
hovii only in the inner division of the precostal space, 
whence it spreads inwards upon the body. 

In the American genera Euterpe, Pereute, Leodonta, 
and Catasticta, the red is usually present; but as in 
Prioneris and the pasithoe group of Delias, it is mostly 
confined to the basal portion of the wing.* In E. 

* An exception to this rale is furnished by Euterpe tereas and 

E, critias^ in which species the area of light ground oolour 
immediately internal to that region of the wing which correeponds 
to the submargind series S, is on both suiSaces more or less 
deeply tinged with the same red colour as that of the basal 
patches. This feature is due to mimicry, the two species named 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the Pierinae. 285 

tereaa, E. critiaa, C. bithys, and C. anaitia, it most com- 
monly occurs in the inner division of the precostal and 
the internal space ; in Leodonta zenobia and L. dysoni, in 
the precostal and costal. In L. tellane^ besides the bright 
red patches of the precostal and costal spaces, scales of 
the same colour occur in the apices of the subcostal, 
submedian, and internal spckces— of all, in fact, except 
the median. Pereute leucodrosime has the precostal and 
costal red patches ; so also has P. awainsonii ; but in 
P. charops these spckces are occupied by yellow streaks 
with no accompaniment of red. 

Even in the genus Dimnorphia, profoundly altered as 
it has been by mimicry, the same marks occur. X>. melia 
has a conspicuous red spot in the inner division of the 
precostal space ; while X>. astyocha, D. prdxinoe, and 
others possess a very clear representative of the same 
spot, with another one in the median interspace. The 
colour in these latter species is seldom so bright as in 
the first-named ; it displays, in fact, a tendency to become 
assimilated to the chestnut tinge of other portions of the 
wing ; the spots are nevertheless quite recognizable, and 
undoubtedly correspond with those in the former genera. 
In some species, such as D. nemesis, there is no red, but an 
indication of the yellow precostal streak is plainly visible. 

offering a very close resemblance to the females of Papilio poly' 
metus and some of its allies, in bringing about which resemblance 
the red areas of the hindwing take a considerable share. It is 
interesting to observe that good as is the general effect of the 
imitation by these Pierines of the Papilio pattern, the imitative 
process has its limitations, and is seen on a strict examination to 
fail in more than one particular. Thus, (1) the Pierine is able to 
produce an excellent representation of the Papilionine reds and 
yeUows, but apparently it never reproduces the metallic blues and 
greens, of which touches are found in the males of several of the 
mimicked species ; (2) the costal and submedian spaces in the 
Pierine invariably retain their yellow patches on the underside ; 
these are never yellow in the Papilio ; (3) the red basal patches 
on the underside of the Pierine give just the same general effect as 
similar patches on the Papilio ; but a close scrutiny will reveal the 
curious fact that the patches of the Pierine belong always to the 
wing, and those of the Papilio^ in almost every instance, to the 
body. The wide distribution of the red basal patches among the 
PierincB forbids us to suppose that they were evolved for the pur- 
pose of mimicry in these few species ; but it is worth noting that 
their presence affords material ready to hand for a sufficiently 
deceptive though not absolutely exact copy of a conspicuous 
Papilionine feature. See also note on p. 298. 

Digitized by 


286 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on ths 

In those species of Pieris (such as P. habra and 
P. locusta) which present on the underside of the hind- 
wing a pattern only slightly modified from that of 
Leodonta and Oatasticta, the red basal marks are clearly 
to be distinguished. A bright red patch characterises 
the inner division of the precostal space^ and in most 
specimens is also prolonged into the outer division, while 
the apices of the median and internal spaces are likewise 
provided with conspicuous red touches. Comparing* 
the underside of P. locuata with that of any of the 
American mimetic forms of Mylothris, we cannot well 
resist the conclusion that the central horizontal red or 
chestnut band in the latter species represents the touches 
of red in the median and internal spaces of P. locusta. 
The relation is best traced in the case of M. lypera, in 
which insect the part played by the yellow streak of the 
costal interspace in the production of the mimetic 
pattern is also clearly to be seen ; but other species^ such 
as M, lorena and if. pyrrha, whose mimicry of Heli- 
conine forms is further advanced than that of M, lypera, 
still show the origin of the central red band almost 
equally well. In Hesperocharis hirlanda a somewhat 
similar effect is produced by slightly different means. 
The basal red is here confined to the precostal and 
internal spaces^ not being found (as in Pieris) in the 
median. The horizontal red band is therefore not 
central but costal, its innermost extremity being con- 
stituted not (as in Mylothris) by the red patch of the 
internal space, but by that of the inner division of the 
precostal. The whole of the precostal red, which is 
absent in the three species of Mylothris just referred to, 
is prominent in H. hirlanda. Although these differences 
involve a change in the relative position of the horizontal 
bands of red and pale yellow in the latter species, yet 
the general resemblance of the underside to that of 
M. pyrrha ^ is considerable, and is probably quite 
enough to tell perceptibly in the insect's favour. Other 
species of Hesperocharis, which are unaffected by 
mimicry, show the basal marks in the same position, 
but, as a rule, not very definitely, except at or near the 
root of the precostal space. Here there generally 
occurs an orange spot which partly represents the red 
precostal patch in H. hirlanda (see ff. nereis, H, mar^ 
chain, and H. anguitia), but which in some species (as 


Digitized by 

Phyhgeny of the Pierinse. 287 

H. erota) can be distinctly Been to belong to the apex of 
the median interspace as well as to the root of the pre- 
costal.^ A similiar orange spot is visible in several 
spedes of Pieris, snch as J?. bunisB and P. thaloe ; and 
of Leptophobia^ as L. elodia and L. eleusis. In the last- 
named insect again it can generally be made out that 
the orange spot does not belong entirely to the root of 
the precostal space^ bat is famished with a constitaent 
from the apex of the median interspace as well. This 
doable character of the spot is mach more evident in 
Zr. tooaria ; and on referring once more to almost any 
species of Colias, the conviction forces itself strongly 
upon as that in these basal marks in Leptophobia, 
Hesperocharis, and Pieris, and so in Eutetpe, Leodonta, 
Caiasticta, and conseqaently even in Delias and 
Prwnen's, we see represented the chief material oat of 
which the pink basal patch in Coliaa, Oonepteryx, Catop- 
Mia, and their allies is constmcted.- It is probable that^ 
as above suggested^ another element may enter into the 
composition of the basal patch in these genera, namely 
one or more members of the series of yellow streaks ; a 
coQclasion which seems to be somewhat favoared by the 
condition in Belenois, Herpsenia, and Appias; bat the 
two series are distinct enongh from one another in sach 
genera as CataMicta and Leodonia; and an annamed 
species of Hesperocharis in the British Mnseam shows, still 
more plainly than those above mentioned, the co-existence 
of a reUc of the basal red in the sitnation of the pink 
patch in Collets, with a series of yellow streaks in the 
interspaces like those of Catastida and Belenois, 

Summary . — With regard to the whole assemblage of 
red and yellow marks on the nnderside of the hind- 
wing, the following appear to be the most probable 
conclusions : — 

The yellow precostal streak so commonly seen in 
butterflies of this gronp, inclading oar common British 
species of Ganorisy as also the pinkish patch at the apex 

^ In order to avoid a possible ambigaity, I may here mention 
ibat I regard the ^ apices " of the interspaces as pointing towards 
the** base'* of the wing. When a precostal nervule is present, I 
^etk of an " outer " and " inner *' division of the precostal space, 
toe nervnle forming the line of demarcation. By the ** root " of 
tbe precostal space, I mean the part immediately adjoining the 

Digitized by 


288 l)r. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

of the cell^ of which our native species of CoKas and 
Chnepteryx present good instances, are relics of a more 
elaborate system of marking seen in a high condition of 
development in varioas exotic genera. This system 
consists essentially of a series of red and yellow markings 
occnpyiug more or less completely the pale spaces in- 
cluded between the radially disposed dark lines that 
coincide with the nervures on the one hand^ and the 
concentrically arranged dark spots or bars of the marginal 
and submarginal series on the other. That this system 
of markings is a very primitive one is rendered probable 
by the fact (1) that it is represented by vestiges in so 
many genera of both hemispheres ; and (2) that it occurs 
in a well-developed condition in genera so widely 
separated in a geographical sense as the South American 
Leodonta and Uatasticta, and the Australian and Indian 
Delias and Prioneria. As a general rule, the spaces at 
the base of the wing tend to be occupied with red^ and 
those on the disc and at the periphery with yellow ; but 
in some cases^ as has been seen, the red may encroach 
upon the submarginal yellow (as in Delias coeneus, 
D, eucharis, D. argenthona, etc.), or may be prolonged 
from the base in various directions across the wing 
^Hesperodiaris hirlanda, M. lypera, M. pyrrha, and other 
American species of Mylothris). In the first-named 
genera, which exhibit the system in its full state of 
development, the distinction between the red and yellow 
markings is a perfectly easy one ; but in such genera as 
Pieris, Leptophobia, Hesperocharisy Belenoisy Oanoris, 
Synchloe, and Colias, whose markings are no doubt 
ultimately derived from the Catasticta and Delias pattern, 
it is not always to say to which part of the original 
system the relics that are present belong. On an in- 
spection of all the forms, it would, however, seem to be 
. the case that those members of the yellow part of the 
system most often persist which are capable of being 
reinforced, as it were, by a neighbouring red patch 
towards the base of the wing. For instance, the most 
persistent marking of all is, as we have seen, the yellow 
precostal streak. This is in most species of Leodonta 
and Catasticta closely bordered on by a bright red spot 
in the inner division of the precostal space ; and on tracing 
the condition of that space from these more ancestral 
genera downwards, through Pieris, Leptophobia, and 

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Phylogeny of the Fieri nae. 289 

Heiperoeharis, we find it become tolerably evident 
that the dark yellow vestige which at last alone 
remaios is the resolt of a kind of convergence both in 
coloar and position of the yellow and red markings that 
at first lie simply side by side and are clearly dis* 
tingaishable the one from the other.* A further instance 
of possible convergence is supplied by the basal pinkish 
patchy found in the group of genera headed by Colias, 
which we have seen reason to identify with original 
markiugs of both the red and yellow kinds.f In other 
cases, t£e persistence of various members of the present 
system is determined by the exigencies of a mimetic 
pattern^ as in the species of Mybthris and Hesperocharia 
above referred to (p. 286). 

III. Phtlogbnbtic Conclusions. 

1. The evidence of the Wmg-marJcings. 

We are now in a position to consider as a whole the 
various sets of facts that have been above recounted^ 
and to endeavour to construct, from the evidence at 
hand, a theory of the phylogenetic history of the entire 
group. This, of course, is only attempted under the 

^ This, it is true, applies only or mainly to the New World 
forms ; the similar oasal red patch that partly occupies the pre- 
oosUl space in certain species of Delias and Frioneris not seeming 
to have left any traces in those Old World genera (Belenois and 
Teraeolus), which appear to stand in much the same relation to 
Dtliat and Prionerin as Pieris and Hesperocharis do to Leodonta 
tnd CatoMticta, The deep orange, howeyer, of the precostal streak 
in some Old World species of Mylothris (as M. chloris and M. 
agatkina), and in some species of Belenois (as B. helcidd) which 
resemhle them, may perhaps be derived wholly or in part from the 
precostal red ; bat if so, it does not bear in itself a plain record of 
Its origin as does the like feature in the corresponding genera from 

t Again, in Pieris pyloUs the only marking to be seen on the 
aodersorfsceof the hindwing (besides the basu spot) is a short and 
auTow orange streak near the apex of the median interspace — 
tn interspace that in more primitire formp, such as P. locusta, 
Mfflotkrit lypera^ and others, is provided with an apical red patch. 
It is also worthy of notice that in many species of Belenois the 
■poli of series I are apt to retain or assume an unusuallv deep yellow 
or orange colonrin^ like that of the precostal streaK — this series 
being in gome species of Delias^ and at least one of PrioneriSj a 
■barer :n the bright red of the basal patches (see p. 284). 

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290 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

limitations aboye referred to^ and is not to be taken 
as more than a connected statement of the probable 
import of the facts derivable from one particular 
source— those facts, namely, which relate to the colours 
and markings. I need hardly say that I recognise to 
the full that any phylogenetic conclusions founded on 
these data must of necessity be open to checking and 
correction in the light of information arrived at in other 

The evidence that has now been examined seems to 
indicate that the wings in the earliest form of Pierine 
were uniformly overspread with a dark neutral tint.* 
The first variation from this condition appears to have 
occurred by the paling of certain areas in the principal 
interspaces between the nervures; a modification that 
may be seen in probably its simplest extant form in the 
remarkable American Pierine Eucheira sodalis (Fig. 1). 
Here each interspace, including the discoidal cell in both 
wings, possesses a more or less definite pale patch, those 
of successive interspaces being so arranged as to form a 
somewhat indistinct and interrupted band crossing the 
disc of both wings from the costa to the inner margin. 
Besides this central series of pale patches, there is also 
a submarginal row of much smaller and fainter spots of 
the same greyish-white hue. The whole pattern is 
repeated with very little change on the under surface, 
but on the hindwing with even less distinctness than 
above. The underside of the hindwing in this insect, 
indeed, probably exhibits the very oldest kind of Pierine 
colouring to be seen in any existing species.f 

The primitive system of marking manifested by 
Eucheira sodalis persists with little alteration on the 
upper surface of many species of Catastictay as, for 

^ This accords generally with the opinion expressed by Mr. 
Wallace : " There are, in fact, many indications of a regular 
succession of tints in which colour development has occurred in 
the various groups of butterflies from an original grayish or 
brownish neutral tint." — "Darwinism," 2nd edition, 1889, p. 274. 

t While entirely agreeing with Stand inger and Schatz that the 
remarkable forms Styx infemalis and Peeudopontia paradoxa are 
probably of great antiquity, I cannot but regard the special 
Pierine affinities claimed for them by these authors (and especially 
for the latter) as more than doubtful. See Staudinger, Schatz, 
and Rober, " Exotische Sohmetterlinge," 1892, 9uh toe 

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Phylogeny of the PieriDaB. 291 

instance, C. bithys (Fig. 2), C. toca, and C. colla. In other 
species of the same genus^ the next steps are shown by 
the enlargement of Uie pale spots (as in C anadtia ^), 
their assumption of a purer white colour (as in 0. 
anaUis 5)^ and the confluence of those of the inner row, 
as in 0. troszene and 0. ctemene ^ . In the latter insect 
the enlar^ment and confluence of the white patches has 
proceeded so far that the white must now be considered 
the ground colour, the original dark neutral tint being 
confined to the base and apices of the forewings, a 
narrow and interrupted marginal band on the hind- 
wings, and the course of the nervures with their branches 
(Fig. 3). In C. corcyra, the same process is continued 
almost to its furthest limit, the new ground colour has 
sapplanted the old in every place except the apex and a 
narrow slip along the costa of the forewing. 0. corcyra 
is thus practically a '' white " butterfly; and so within the 
single genns Caiasticta a complete transition is to be 
found, from a dark almost black ground colour, with 
small and indistinct pale greyish patches, to a ground 
colour of dead white, with hardly more than a trace 
remaining of the original dark surface tint. This 
passage from C. bithys to C. corcyra is really an epitome 
of the whole range of variation in pattern throughout 
the entire group of Plerinx. 

In such species of Caiasticta as C. semiramis, where 
the pale patches are tolerably distinct, and have not yet 
coalesced, the dark marginal and submarginal series of 
spots, so characteristic of the Pierines as a whole, are 
visible at an early stage of their emergence. As has 
been shown above, on p. 267, the marginal series (called 
M) is formed by the remains of the dark ground colour 
between the outer series of primitive pale patches 
and the outer border of the wing; while the sub- 
inarginal series S comes into view between the outer and 
inner series of pale patches. Besides these, a relic of 
the dark ground colour is seen to remain about the 
disco-cellular nervules in the forewing, which forms the 
first beg^inning of a definite discoidal spot ; and another 
row of minute pale patches, each occupying the centre 
of an interspace on the extreme outer margin of the 
wing, begins to split up the marginal series in the 
manner already spoken of. The definite character of 
leries M is assumed sooner on the forewing than on the 

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292 Dr. Frederick A. Dixej on the 

kmdwmg, and in tbe Utter situation the disooidal spot 
ham at tfaia stage searoelj become recognizable ; in some 
speei c a, kowerer, a patch of pale*colonred scales coyera 
tbe lower disoo-celhilar nenmie of the hindwing in the 
■idst of a wide and not sharply-defined ar^ of dark 
ground colour. 

So fitf little or no essential difference has been noted 
firoiB tbe primitire pattern of Eueheira socialis; the 
Tariations piodnoed haTing simply resulted from a 
greater or less extension of Uie intmsive pale tint along 
the tines originally marked oat. But^ on turning to the 
vnderside d any species of CcLicLsticia, we find what at 
first sight appears to be a very considerable divergence. 
A careful examination, however^ soon makes it plain 
that the pattern of the lower sur&oe is throughout the 
genus essentially the same as that of the upper sorfiioe, 
though one or two new features are superadded. Con- 
fining oor attention in the first place to the forewing^ 
for instance in C nimbice, we find the submarginal series 
S and the discoidal spot shown at least as clearly as on 
the upper side; while firom the greater prominence of 
the pale spots at the extreme margin, M is brought still 
more plamly into view below than it is above. On the 
hindwmg, the central pale band may be easily traced 
across the disc of the wing, leaving on the one side of it 
a basal, and on the other a broad marginal dark lurea. 
Traversing the latter can be seen a row of elongated, 
more or less wedge-shaped, yellow streaks, which repre- 
sent the more easily recognized series I of the forewing ; 
while a distinct row of yellow spots on the extreme 
margin continues the similar series from above. Though 
S and M are not yet sharply marked off from one 
another, the portions of dark ground colour to which 
they respectively belong are already separately recog- 
nizable. The undersides of C. nimbicey C. colla, C, toea, 
and C corcyra will be found to make a very good 
transitional series, showing the gradual emergence of S 
and M and the subsequent reduction of each to a mere 
festooned line.^ The superadded features above alladed 

* An annamed species of Catasiicta in the British Maseom 
presents a condition of the underside of the hindwing more ezsdly 
intermediate between C, corqfta and the usual type than any of 
the species mentioned. An individual of the same species is in 

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Phytogeny of the PierinaB. 298 

to are (1) the streaks and toaches of yellow that begin 
to occupy much of the area of the original pale patches, 
indading, as has been seen, the spots of I on the hind- 
wing; and (2) the bright red patches visible in the 
basal region of the same wing close to the body. These 
hare been already discussed at some length (see 
pp. 281, 285), and their importance has been shown in 
reference to the markings of more recent groops. In 
this place it is only necessary to note once more that 
their ancestral character seems to be proved not merely 
by their existence in a fnlly developed condition in 
genera so widely separated geographically as the 
Western Catasticta and Leodonta and the Eastern 
Prianeris and DeliaSy but also by the fact that there is 
scarcely a genus throughout the whole sub-&mily, 
whether in the Old or New World, that does not show 
some relic of their former presence. With regard to 
their origin, no clue appears now to exist. It seems 
impossible to trace them further back than to the 
Eastern and Western genera named ; and the probably 
still more primitive form, Eucheira sodalis, to which we 
should naturally turn for an indication of their develop- 
ment, affords us in this particular no information 

In the genus Leodonta we find some modification in 
the shape of the wings, and only three instead of four 
branches to the subcostal nervure of the primaries. But 
the wing pattern remains much the same as in those 
species of Catasticta where the white central band has 
erown into a well-defined area and the two series S and 
M have not yet become clearly distinguishable. The 
yellow streaks and red basal marks are still prominent 
on the hindwing beneath, and the separation between 
S and M is, in this genus also, more evident on the 

In PeretUe and Euterpe, which are undoubtedly very 
clo8e allies of the genera just referred to, the development 
of the pattern has taken a somewhat different direction. 
The primitive dark ground colour is ill the males of 
several species of PereiUe, as P. charopa, P. autodyca, and 

tbe Hewitson collection labelled as C. notha. This is undoabtedly 
«iTooeoa«, as the underside of the true C notha is almost exactly 
like that of C. corcyra. 

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294 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

P. swainsonii, relieved by dustings of pale pinkisli or 
bluish grey^ which do not seem to bear any particular 
relation to the lighter patches in CataaUcta or Euchsira. 
These greyish areas are often^ especially in the females 
(including those of the species named), brightened up 
into bars or broader expanses of vivid red (P. Uucodro- 
sime) or blue (P. telthusa), and the aspect thus produced 
is very unlike that of nearly all the members of the allied 
genera. But as has been shown above, at pp. 281 and 
285, an indication of affinity in coloration with those 
genera is preserved in the red and yellow patches of the 
underside of the hindwing ; and, what is very remarkable 
indeed, there are two species of Catastida, namely C. 
teutamis and C. ctemene, the males of which are of the 
usual Catasticta type, while the females present, together 
with the ordinary Catasticta neuration and structure, the 
aspect characteristic of P. charops 9 and other highly 
coloured members of the genus Pereute. In the case of 
these two Catastictas there can, I think, be no doubt 
that it is the male rather than the female that represents 
the ancestral colouring of the group, and we are thus led 
to the conclusion that some common cause has brought 
about the divergence in the same direction of these 
female Catastictas and both male and female Pereutes 
from the ordinary character of their nearest relatives. 
This cause I believe to be mimicry, the models for which 
in the present instance are to be found in certain species 
of Heliconius, particularly H. melpomene, R. phyllis, and 
their allies.* The resemblance is not perfect,t but in all 
probability is quite sufficient to be of much service to the 
Herine mimics; and we find exemplified here, as in 
many other cases, the much greater readiness with which 
the female assumes the protective coloration. As we 

^ I also think it exceedingly likely that Papilio euterpinus, Godm. 
& Salv. (Ecuador), forms one of this mimetic group. It is, how- 
ever, remarkable that its range seems not to coincide with that of 
the Pierine, namely P. charopa $, which probably resembles it 
most closely in size as well as colour. 

f The red colour of the species of Heliconius here mentioned (to 
which may be added H, vulcanvs and H, hydara), as they occur in 
collections, is by no means so vivid as that of their supposed 
imitators. But Mr. A. G. Butler and Mr. F. A. Heron both 
inform me that the red in Ueliconii has a special tendency to lose 
its brightness, even in specimens carefully preserved in the dark. 

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Phylogeny of the Pierinee. 295 

hare seeD^ the male Cataatictas are not affected at all ; 
wbOe in most species of Pereute the males have not 
adyanced nearly so far along the mimetic path as have 
the females. Another point worthy of observation^ which 
is paralleled elsewhere^ is the fact that the males show a 
much closer approach to the complete mimetic pattern on 
ike lower than on the upper sorface.* 

A similar explanation will apply to the even more 
remarkable divergence shown by the genns Euterpe, 
though here the phenomena are so curious and complex 
as to require a more detailed treatment. This genus (as 
restricted by Butler, Cist. Entom. i., pp. 34, 42) does not 
contain a single form that reproduces in general aspect 
the typical Pierine features ; every species indeed is the 
sobject of a mimetic change, and such marks of their 
origin and relationships as they retain, are used up in a 
more or less modified condition to help in the production 
of the deceptive pattern. Thus we have seen how in 
Euterpe critioB, E. tereas, E. rosacea, and allied species, 
the area representing the white central band on the hind- 
wing, now tinged with rosy pink, has become an im- 
portant ingredient in the general imitation of Papilio 
zacynthus $ ; the red basal patches on the under surface 
also taking their part in the picture. There is, moreover, 
htUe doubt that the white spot on the forewings is 
identical in origin with the usual white central bar, while 
for the marginal yellow spots a counterpart is easily 
foand in Catasticta nimbice and many of its alhes. In 
Euterpe bellona we find the patch on the forewings 
bright yellow instead of white, while the rosy patch is 
intensified in colour and split up into three or four 
brilliant streaks radiating from the base towards the 
margin of the wing. The general effect is not very 
dissimilar from that of E. eritiaa, and the identity of the 
maikiogs is beyond question ; nevertheless the changes, 
sUght as they are, are highly significant, for they import 
nothing l^s than the suDstitution of a member of the 
Heliconioe for one of the Papilionine group as a model 
for imitation. Euterpe bellona undoubtedly mimics 
the Heliconine group of which H, thehdope and H^ 
bumeyi are conspicuous members; and it would be 
difiScult to find a better instance to show how slight a 

° See Weismann, " Stadies," vol. i., pp. 7, 8 (English Edition). 

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296 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

modification of an existing pattern may suffice to produce 
an effective copy of an entirely different insect. Facts of 
this kind seem to go a long way towards answering such 
objections to the theory of mimicry as those alluded to 
by Mr. Beddard in his ^^ Animal Coloration/' 1892, pp. 
214, 215. 

It is very remarkable that red basal patches, like those 
of the mimicking Pierines, occur on the underside of 
the hindwing in most, if not all, of the Heliconii and 
PapilioninsB mimicked by members of the genera Pereute 
and Euterpe ; and in some, e.g., H. melpomene, there is 
even a well-defined yellow precostal streak. Now 
although there is no difficulty in ascribing most of the 
features in the coloration of these Pierine genera to the 
operation of mimicry, it would seem, for the reasons 
given above (p. 285, note), that the origin of these par- 
ticular marks, which are so wide-spread and so persistent 
throughout the whole Pierine subfamily, must be 
excepted. Nor, in the absence of any evidence of a 
direct causal relation, does it seem to my mind more 
satisfactory to consider the occurrence of these patches 
in the three diverse groups, Papilionines, Heliconines, and 
Pierines, as the effect of similar external conditions. 
If we assert them to be purely *' accidental,'* we are met 
by the fact that although they are found in some species 
of both Papilio and Heliconius that are apparently not 
the subject of mimicry, yet they are most distinct and 
most prevalent in those species that are copied by 
Pierine imitators ; and the same considerations (amongst 
others) seem to show that the supposition that they are 
simply due to inheritance from a common ancestor of all 
the groups must be inadequate. Before the phenomenon 
is dismissed as inexplicable, it may be worth while to 
consider the following suggestion. 

According to the well-known principle laid down by 
Fritz Miiller and expanded by Meldola, by wliich these 
authors have been enabled to account for cases of parallel 
resemblance between the species of protected genera, 
and also of the grouping of allied inedible species into 
distinct sets, each with its own scheme of coloration,* it 

• F. MuUer in *« Koamos," 1879, p. 100 ; Meldola in " Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Lond./' 1879, p. xx., and " Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.," Dec., 
1882. See also Wallace, " Darwinism," 2nd ed,, 1889, pp. 249-257, 
and Poulton, "Colours of Animals," 1890, pp. 192-195. 

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Phylogeny of the Pierinffi. 297 

18 ad?antageoiis for any two or more protected species 
to join their forces, in order to share the toll levied upon 
them by inexperienced enemies. In such cases it no doubt 
often happens that one species serves as the standard to 
which the others conform, whether by way of convergence 
or of arrested divergence; but there seems no reason 
why, especially if there is no conspicuous inequality of 
numbers, there should not be a kind of ''give and take '' 
arrangement betw^n mimicker and mimicked, the latter 
advancing some way to meet the former for their mutual 
benefit. In other words, when two species, A and B, 
form an association of this kind, it need not be supposed 
that the form of A remains fixed, while B assimilates 
itself to it, or vice versa ; but the association may really 
be formed by both A and B converging towards a point 
between them, or, in short, mimicking each other. 
The acceleration of the process which in many cases 
would result, must of itself be an advantage. Now if 
the grouping of kindred inedible forms in associations of 
this kina is beneficial, it would seem that the benefit 
might extend to members of families far removed from 
one another, like the three now under discussion, as well 
as of the same fisimily or genus ; * the only requisites 
being (1) that all should be more or less inedible, and (2) 
that all should have patterns capable of assimilation to 
one another. Nor does there seem to be any reason why a 
mutual convergence of the kind indicated should not 
take place under these conditions also. With respect to 
(1), it has, I think, nearly always been assumed that the 
Pierinm which resemble the members of other families 
are edible; and this is no doubt the case with the 
namerons members of the genus Dismorphia f {Leptalie 
of Dalman), which were among the first to attract notice 
to the subject of Mimicry in general. But no direct 
proof seems to exist that the species of Euterpe and 
Pereute now under discussion are edible; and indeed 
Mr. Wallace considers (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 3rd 
•eries, iv., pp. 309, 310; Darwinism, 2nd ed., 1889, 

^ Such an aoBociation is already well known to occur between 
HtUccnidct and Danaida. 

t This, however, has been questioned by Mr. Beddard, who cites 
tome obterrations of Scndder as tending to show the contrary. 
See " Animal Coloration/' 1892, p. 215. 

TEAMS. IMT. soc. LONIX 1894.— PART U. (jUNK.) U 

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298 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

p. 244) that the genus Deltas {Thyea of Wallengren)^ 
which is probably nearly related to Euterpe and Pereute, 
possesses a disagreeable flavour, or some other special 
means of protection. If this is shared by its American 
relatives, the first of the above requirements would be 
satisfied, while the second (2) has been shown to be met, 
in the special instance of the red basal patches, by the 
occasional presence of somewhat similar spots or 
patches (whose origin is not now under discussion) in 
other species of both the Papilionine and Heliconine 
groups, which afford quite sufficient material for the 
assimilative process to work upon. Until, therefore, 
direct proof is forthcoming of the edible qualities of the 
Pierines in question, it will not be unreasonable to sup- 
pose that they have joined an ''inedible association,** 
and to attribute this curious agreement in a detail of 
pattern between members of such diverse groups to the 
operation of what may perhaps be called "reciprocal 
mimicry/'* The Pierines have no doubt moved furthest 
from their original form, having in most respects clothed 
themselves in Papilionine and Heliconine colours, but 
the latter have themselves advanced some way to meet 
the Pierines, in adopting from them a more distinct 
and characteristic employment of the red basal patches.f 

♦ This, it will be seen, is distinct from " convergence *' in the 
nsnal sense, inasmach as that term has hitherto been employed 
(as by Poulton, " Colours of Animals," 1890, p. 195) to signify the 
assimilation of one form to another, rather than the matnal 
approach by two forms to a mean between them. 

t Fritz Muller notes (*' Kosmos," 1879, p. 100, and translation 
by Meldola, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. xxiv.) that "in the 
province of Santa Cathanna, Euterpe tereas is common in the 
forest-paths almost thronghout the entire year, while its model, 
Papilio nepfiaUoHf is, on the other hand, a rare butterfly." This is 
so far in favour of the supposition that the resemblance is not due 
to mimicry by the Pierine, at least in the strict sense. 

Ther& is one more piece of evidence that seems to favour the 
conclusion arrived at above. So far as I am aware no explanation 
has yet been offered of the fact that it is the females and not the 
males of Papilio polymeiusj P. zacynthuB^ etc., that are resembled 
by Euterpe tereas and E, critias ; whereas the males, which display 
brighter colours, afford at least as ffood if not better models for 
imitation. I would suggest that this is reaUy due to ^' reciprocal 
mimicry.*' The protection gained by the resemblance between the 
Pierines and Papilios is not all on the side of the Pierines, but 
mutual ; and the female Papilios hav€L as is usual, felt the need 
of it more urgently than the males. For this reason the female 


Phylogeny of the PierinsB. 299 

Euterpe theano and E. eurytele present nn with another 
kind of departure firom the ordinary Pierine condition^ 
the latter being an excellent copy x of Lycorea atergatia 
and Ceratinia (Ithomia) dionwa ; while E. theano ex- 
hibits the form of E. eurytele with a coloration much like 
that of Pereute charops $ . 

We find then that, thus far back in the growth of the 
Pierine stock, a large section has been diverted under 
the influence of mimicry from the regular course of 
development of the Pierine pattern; and in order to 
continue the history of the latter, we must retrace our 
steps and take up the thread where we left it before 
beginning to discuss the mimetic forms of Pereute and 

Although it does not appear that the Old World can 
show any truly Pierine form so ancient as Eucheira 
toctalis, there does exist a genus which seems to repre- 
sent in the East nearly the same stage of development as 
Catastida, Leodanta, Pereute, and Euterpe in the West. 
This is the genus Delias, the close relationship of which 
with the western forms mentioned has been indicated by 
Donbleday and Westwood (Genera of Diurnal Lepi- 
doptera, vol. i, p. 33), and more distinctly suggested by 
Wallace (Trans. Ent. Sdc. Lond., 3rd series, iv., p. 344).* 
The pattern of Delias belladonna is essentially similar to 
that of the early UaiastictaSj consisting as it does of a 
dark ground-colour relieved by paler touches in the 
interspaces, between which touches the ground-colour is 
already beginning to show a rudimentary division into a 
marginal and submargpnal chain with a vaguely indicated 
discoidal patch in each wing. On the underside we have 
the same pattern in a slightly more distinct form ; while, 
as in CatasUcta, the pale areas of the hindwing and the 
apical region of the forewing are furnished with yellow 
streaks. The red basal patches, so characteristic of 

Papilioe hare been led to meet the Pierines by discarding, or at 
toy nte by not adopting, the bright metallic blues and greens that 
onument the other sex. This was no doubt a shorter and easier 
way to the formation of an '* inedible association/' than would 
hare been the acquisition by the Pierines of colours more nearly 
reaembling those of the male Papilios. 

• Delia* affrees closely in neuration with Pereute and Leodonta. 
See Butler, Cist. Entom., i.. p. 40. Staudmger and Schata, " Ezot. 
WmietterL ,» 1892, TheiL ii., p. 63. 

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300 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

CaiasKda and its allies, are not represented in D. heUa-- 
donna, bat in all the members of the pasUhoe group they 
are not only present, but have become a very oonspicnoos 
feature in tiie coloration. It is not difficult to bring the 
other markings of D. panthoe, D. thisbe and their allies 
into relation with those of D. belladonna, though the 
dark series S and M are as a rule less clearly indicated. 
The pasithoe and belladonna groups of Delias may thus 
be considered as on the whole the most ancient.* In the 
well-known D. eucharis we have the series S and M 
complete ; the female, as is usual, showing less departure 
than the male from the more generalised form. As in 
Caiasticta, no sooner have the dark series emerged into 
distinct existence than they begin to disappear ; they are 
much less recognizable in I), hyparete and D. agosHna 
than in D. eucharis, and in D. hterte they reach the 
vanishing point. JD. eucharis and its immediate allies < 
follow the early condition of Delias in having the inter- 
spaces on the underside of the hindwing more or less 
filled in with yellow, but they depart from it in having 
lost the red basal patches, and in possessing a conspicuous 
submarginal band of red spots (series I) between the 
dark series S and M ; these are best seen in D. eucharis 
itself. An early stage of this red series is probably 
present in D. coeneus and the closely allied D. phUotis, 
which seem to be linked with the still more primitive 
butterflies of the pasithoe group through such forms as 
P. belisama and JD. descombesi (see p. 284). B^^arding 
then D. co^ieus as a new starting-point, we may trace 
from it in one direction the Indian group headed by 
D. eucharis, and in another the Australian forms 
D. aganippe, D. harpalyce, and D. nigrina. It is to be 
observed that both D. eucharis and D. aganippe, though 
probably more recent than D. coeneus so Ce^ as r^ards 
the underside of the hindwing, nevertheless retain in 
other respects more of the primitive pattern ; from which 
we may probably conclude that some form now lost, 
rather than Z>. coeneus itself, supplies the true link with 
the belisama and pasithoe groups, while Z>. c^jeneus and 
D. phUotis survive to show how *' series I " acquired in 

• I follow, in neiriy every jMriicQlar, Mr. Wallice's divisioii of 
this genus into groapa See Tnus. Ent Soc. Lond, ard aeries, iv. 
p.3Heta —»'->» 

Digitized by 


Phylogeny of the PierinsB. 301 

the eucharis and aganippe forms its conspicuoas character. 
I have little doubt that the curious form 2>. a^anippe is 
one of the oldest existing species of Deltas in the 
Australian region, inferring this firom its retention of the 
primitive series S and M with the discoidal patch in the 
forewing in fairly distinct form, from the presence of 
yellow streaks in the interspaces of the under surface, 
and firom the occurrence of a basal red spot in the pre- 
costal space of the underside of the hindwing. Many of 
these points assimilate it to the pasithoe group, and even 
more closely to D. belladonna* D, harpalyce and 
D. nigrina seem to follow naturally on from D. aganippe^ 
thongh in respect of the costal red they are perhaps a little 
nearer the still more primitive D, helisama. Another 
Australian oflshoot of the 2>. coeneus stock is probably 
represented by D. argenthona, D. mysis, D. tssSj and 
B. dorhnene. The Indo-Malayan and Australian nysa 
group is probably derived from the pasithoe and bella- 
donna groups through Z>. orphne and D. momea. It 
would be most interesting to attempt to trace in detail 
the phylogenetic history of the whole of this extensive 
genus, but it must here suflSce to have indicated what ap- 
pear to be the principal lines of derivation. Two points 
of analogy with the Kindred neotropical genera may be 
noted before we pass on. The first is that although the 
invasion of a paler tint does in Delias tend to split the 
original ground-colour into marginal and submarginal 
series quite similar to those of Catasticta, and though 
these series in various stages of development and sup- 
pression, as also in Caiasticta, meet us here and there 
thronghout the entire genus, yet in many cases the series 
never emerge in any recognizable form, and there seems 
in several species a tendency for the white invasion to 
begin near the bases of the wings, and simply sweep the 
dark ground-colour away towards the margins. Even in 
these cases, however (as in D. belisama and D. descom- 
htsi), the females, on the underside, will usually show 
some indication of the primitive series. The second 

?)int to be noted is the way in which the resources of 
ierine coloration are taxed to give the insects of this 
genus a brilliant appearance. As in the case of some of 
their neotropical congeners, this is effected not so much 

^ See WftUioe in Trans. Ent. See. Lend., drd serieS) It., p. 349. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

302 Dr. Frederick A.. Dixey on the 

by tbe importation of any new feature as by the 
briffhtenim^ np and extension of features already present, 
and indeed often commoii to the whole subfamily. The 
reason for this ornamentation is doubtless the same in 
both cases — ^namely, to call attention to inedible quahties. 
The Eastern genus^ however^ seems to have itself become 
a model for mimicry (Wallace in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
3rd series^ iv., pp. 309, 344), while the Western genera 
have modified their ancestral form in order to join an 
alien company of inedible insects. 

The genus Prioneris, though differing slightly firom 
Delias in neuration and other structural characters, is 
probably nearly akin to it, and represents, so &r as the 
colouring is concerned, a similar degree of antiquity in 
the Pierine stock. The close resemblance of pattern 
between different species of Delias and Prioneris, to 
which reference has already been made (pp. 258, 284, 
etc.), is no doubt a true case of mimicry, but represents 
probably the result rather of arrested divergence than 
of the acquisition by Prioneris of new imitative features. 

The two groups that have just been discussed, namely, 
those formed by Delias and Prioneris in the Old World, 
and by Cata^Hcta, Leodonta, Euterpe, and Pereuie in the 
New, thus constitute together a second grade, as it were, 
in Pierine development. Tbe only earlier species yet 
mentioned is Eucfieira socialis, but there exist certain 
other forms which appear to be but little inferior to that 
insect in antiquity ; and to these, with Eucheira, tie 
name of *' Pierines of the first g^de " may be applied. 
One of the forms now referred to is Metaporia agaihon* 
This remarkable insect is probably the representative of 
an ancient group of Pierines, among which were to be 
found the common ancestors of the two second-grade 
assemblages already mentioned, and which, no doubt, 
supplied the link at present wanting between Eucheira 
and Catasticta. The relation of Metaporia with the Eastern 
assemblage is more direct than with the Western, for 
although it offers points of structural difference from 
Delias, it shows, nevertheless, a condition of the primi- 
tive Pierine pattern which is in all essentials identical 
with that of the earlier kinds of that genus. The cor- 
respondence of its markings on the upper surface with 
those of Delias belladonna and D. eudiaris is at once 
evident, and, like D. belladonna, it has a patch of bright 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the Pierineel. tOi 

yellow in tiie precostal space on the nnder surface of the 
lower wings. This, however, is usually confined to the 
inner division of the space.* Mr. Wallacet considers 
that Metaporia agathon forms with Pontia nahellica the 
fragments of an extensive natural group. He also 
points out the readiness with which the pattern of 
M. agathon can be traced through P. nahellica, P. aoracta, 
and P. hippia, to its final disappearance in P. cratmgi. 
In this range of species, to which may be added 
P. oberihuri, P. leucodice, P. belucha, and others, . we 
recognise the now familiar phenomena of the emergence^ 
establishment, and evanescence of a marginal and sub- 
marginal series of spots, together with a discoidal patch, 
formed out of relics of an original dark ground-colour. 
Another primitive Pierine feature, namely the per- 
sistence of dark ground-colour along the course of the 
nenmres and nervules, is found throughout the group ; 
and in P. craUegi survives the disappearance of almost 
every other indication of the original coloration. 

The line thus marked out ends with P. cratmgi ; but 
in another direction there is little difficulty in linking 
Pontia with Eucheira, and so demonstrating the intimate 
connection with one another of the three last-named 
^enoB. Thus Pontia recalls Eucheira by the outline of 
its wings, especially the concave costal margin,^ and in 
pattern P. nahellica shows no very great departure from 
the same eenus. But a more striking sign of affinity 
exists in t£e common larval habitation, which, though 
merely rudimentary in P. cratsegi^ and belonging only to 
the early larval stages, is no doubt a degenerate or 
undeveloped form of the elaborate silken nest con- 
stmcted by E, socialie. Webs of a structure apparently 
comparable with the latter are made by Neophasia ter- 
tootii and an allied species mentioned (though not 
deflcribed) by Behr.§ The affinity of the two latter 
niaects with the genus Pontia appears certain; and 
though Behr is perhaps wrong in making them con- 

^ One specimen of M. agathon in Coll. Brit. Mas. has a few 
onnge scales in the outer diyision of the precostal space as weU. 

+ Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 3rd series, ir., p. 313. 

X Noticed by Staudinger and Schatz, who compare it to that of 
Pomotitiu, Exot. Schmetterl., Th. ii., p. 62. 

J Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., 1869, p. 303; Proc. Oalif. Acad. 
So., second series, toI. ii., 1890, p. 91. 

Digitized by 


304 t)r. tWerick A. Dixey on the 

generic with E. aodalis (which he does not seem to have 
seen.),* his description^ nevertheless, renders it extremely 
probable that they are more closely related to that 
species than any otner known butterfly. The Pierines of 
the first fsprade may accordingly be said to consist of 
Eucheira, with Behr^s two " Neophasids/' Pontia and 
Metaporia, The prevalent larval habit of spinning is no 
doubt an indication of the high antiquity of the group^ 
and suggests^ as do other features^ a relationship with 
the Parnassids. This suggestion is further borne out by 
the aspect of Mesapia peloria, which is no doubt an off- 
shoot of the genus Pontia. But such relationship is 
certainly of no close or direct kind, and is probably only 
referable to an extremely remote ancestor of the two 

Leaving the genus Pontia for a time, we may make 
a fresh start with Metaporia agathon, from which point it 
is not difficult to trace another principal stem, with 
numerous and important ramifications. The females of 
several species of Mr. Moore's genus Huphina, for 
instance H. phryne 5 , show what is to all intents and 
purposes the same pattern as M. agathon (Figs. 7, 8) ; 
and the males differ only or chiefly by the more ready 
admission of the white invasion, at the expense of the 
remains of dark ground-colour. The pattern of such a 
form as H. nama $, seems at first sight to belong to 
a different category, but a very good transition from 
that of M. agathon is afforded by H, eperia 9 , which 
shows how the arrangement of white patches in H. nama 
9 has grown out of the discal and cellular white, while 
the more marginal series I sinks gradually into the back- 

round, and with its disappearance the two dark series 
and M lose of course their distinctive character. In 
one ancestral point, namely the filling up to a greater 
or less extent of the interspaces of the hind wing under- 
side with yellow, Huphina shows a closer resemblance to 
Delias and Prioneris than to M. agathon, in which insect 
this feature is only slightly indicated. In many species 

* N. menapia^ included by Behr in the same genus, differs from 
Eucheira is neuration and other points. 

t Davidina armandi has been spoken of as a transitional form. 
But, as remarked by Staudinger and Schatz {op, ciL, Th. ii., p. 57), 
it is shown by Ob^htir's figure (Etudes, iv., pi. ii, ^g. 1) to be 
without any of the points dha^teristic of the I'apilionidse. 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the PierinaB. 305 

rf Huphina the yellow is very vivid, in some it is 
warmed into a rich orange^ and it not infrequently, as in 
H, naomi, H. lea, and H. judith, appears on the upper 
surface as well. 

From the pattern of Huphina to that of Catopha^a the 
passage is easy through such species as E. easaida, H. nabis, 
0. paulina (Fig. 9), and C. ega. In the latter genus, as 
in the former, the dark ground-colour is retained in 
much larger measure by the females than by the males ; 
the latter indeed (as in most specimens of C. galena ^) 
have often lost it altogether. Other marks of speciali- 
zation shown by the male Catophagae are the sharply- 
pointed shape of the wings, and, above all, the presence 
of a tuft of long hairs springing from the base of each 
of the* anal valves. All these characters belong equally 
to the next genus Appiae (which indeed is not easily to 
be distinguished from Catophaga), though here the 
^>ecialization of the males has in many forms been 
carried to a much greater extent, and is occasionally in 
some respects shared by the females, as in ^. nero. In 
this insect the female shows the remains of the usual 
dark marginal and submarginal series standing out upon a 
ground colour of rich red tSmost as brilliant as that of the 
male, and altogether different from the ordinary Pierine 
white or yellow. The females, however, of A. ceUstina, A. 
Clementina (Fig. 10), and others, do not depart, like the 
males, from the ordinary &ciea of the group, * and are 
indeed, barely distinguishable from the females of C. 
jaequinotii, C. alope, and other species of Catophaga. 
The assemblage of species united by Mr. Distant as 
Saktara (including S. panda, 8. cycinna, etc.) is un- 
doubtedly an offshoot from the celeetina group of Appias. 

In the three last-mentioned genera, although the two 
series S and M are generally more or less traceable, and 
although in most cases a decided remnant of ancestral 
black persists along the costa of the forewing, there is 
as a rule no relic of the original ground-colour in the 
region of the disco-cellular nervules; that is to say, 
there is no discoidal spot or patch. In Hiposcritia, how- 
ever, which is apparently an early and purely Indian off- 
shoot of Catophaga, some species (as a. pandione) 
exhibit an incipient discoidal patch, still in connection with 

* Pee Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 3rd series, iv., p. 301. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

806 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

the dark- coloured costs ; in others (as H. lalage) this has 
become a distinct discoidal spot (Fig. 11). Hipoacritia, 
by its anal tofts^ belongs decidedly to the Catophuga and 
Appias gronp ; bnt the shape of its wings and the occa* 
sional persistence of dark gronnd-colour about the disco- 
cellular nerroles indicate that its origin is to be placed 
somewhat far back towards Huphina and Metaporia, 

Starting again from Metuporia and Pontia, we find in the 
small Sibei*ian P. lexieodice an unmistakable link between 
these genera and Synchloe. In 8. calUdice, which per- 
haps come nearest to Pontia, the female shows S and M 
in a well-defined condition, together with a large distinct 
discoidal patch ; the nervures and nervules are also in 
many instances clothed with black scales. From 8, 
callidice we can advance in one direction through 
8, chloridice to 8. glauconome, 8, johnstoniif and 8. 
hellica ; while 8, daplidice and its immediate allies form 
another slightly divergent branch from 8. chloridice, 
8. callidice again in all probability marks the point at 
or near which the assemblage of species grouped as 
Ganoris leave the main 8ynchU>e stem ; G, napi being no 
doubt the species which is closest to the original stock, 
as is shown by the large persistence of S and M, the 
tendency towards blackening of the nervures, the 
occasional indication of a discoidal spot, and the peculiar 
coloration of the underside of the hindwings. It is 
noticeable that Ganoris generally, including G. napi, 
retains the precostal yellow streak, which, though 
present in most species of 8ynchloe, happens to be 
absent in 8. callidice. 

Most species of the genus Tatochila strongly resemble 
Pontia in pattern (the resemblance between Tatochila 
and P. leucodice has been pointed out by Mr. Butler, 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1872, p. 62), while T. autodice $ comes 
nearer to M. agathon than does any species of 8ynchloe. 
The whole neuration of Tatochila is very similar to that 
of Pontia; and even the peculiar arching of the 1st 
subcostal of the hindwing (well seen in P. cratsegi) is a 
noticeable feature in T. theodice and other members of 
the same genus.'*^ Tatochila may, therefore, be considered 
to be a derivative from the Pontia stem at a point some- 
what further back than the existing species of 8ynchloe. 

* See Mr. Butler's figures in ^'-^ *-*'»m.,vol. i^ pi. iii., figs. 7 and 9. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Phylogeny of the Pierinee. 307 

A compurison of Tatochila (especially of T. thsodice) 
with Phutia nymphula will show an almost exact identity 
of pattern^ the correspondence extending even to the 
chevron-shaped spots of S in the hindwing, and to the 
peculiar triple striation of the nervules on the nnder 
surface. The neoration of Phulia is distinct, bat not 
really far removed from that of Tatochila, some species 
of which show a near approach to its most remarkable 
feature ; viz., the emission of the second radial from the 
subcostal, and the consequent obliteration of the upper 
disco-cellular. Phulia again is closely allied in structure 
with Mr. Moore's genus Baltia,* which, however, retains 
the short 3rd subcostal nervule lost by Phulia and 
several species of Synchloe. Phulia and Baltia are thus, 
in all probability, the terminal twigs of another branch 
which issued from the Pontia stem between the departure 
of Tatochila and Synchloe. Neophasia menapia appears 
to me to be an offshoot of the same stem at an earlier 
stage than Tatochila. It may possibly belong to the 
Eucheira group, but it is not known to make a social 
web,t *Dd Behr gives no real grounds for making it 
congeneric with " N." terlootii. As above noted, its 
neoration is very distinct from that of Eucheira. 

The African species of the genus MylothrisX appear 
to hold a somewhat isolated position. Their neuration 
shows points of likeness with the equally isolated 
Australian genus Elodina and the widely-spread and 
probably ancient Nychitona, || which genera they also 
somewhat resemble in texture of wing. In pattern 
they are chiefly remarkable for the strong and distinct 
development of series M, and of the precostal orange-red 

** Moore's type is " Mesapia" shami of Bates, which is certainly 
generically distinct from M. peloria, and much nearer Synchloe, 
The butterfly described by Moore in Proc. Zool. Soc, 1882, p. 234, 
u Synchloe butUri is undoabtedly a Baltia, 

f Stretch, however (Papilio, ii, pp. 106, 107), describes the 
Urr© of N, menapia as suspending themselves from great heights 
tt the end of long silken threads. Even the pupaa were, in some 
fun, Bospended. It is probable that the numerons threads cover- 
ing the bark of the trees seen by Stretch (ibid,), were also made 
hj these larvs. 

t I cannot bnt agree with Mr. Trimen (South African Butter- 
fiies, 1887, voL iii, p. 29) that the American P. pyrrhuj Fabr., 
and allies, are not generically akin to the African m, agathina^ M, 
ehlorUj etc., with which Mr. Butler unites them on account of 
their oorreq)ondence in neuration (Proc. ZooL Soc., 1892, pp. 37, 38). 

!, Distant, Bhopalocera Malayana, 1882—1886, p. 287. 

Digitized by 


808 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

on the Dnderaide of the hindwing. We may, perliaps, 
regard all three genera as relics of an ancient faana of 
the Eastern Hemisphere coeval with the earliest forms 
represented by the present Delias stock, and anterior to 
the various branches which have diverged from thst 
genus or from Metaporia. The precostal orange suggests 
a kinship with Delias on the part of Mylothris, thoogli 
no such link exists in the case of the other two genera, 
and, as pointed out by Mr. Trimen, who considers 
Mylothris and Thyca (^Delias) to be allied genera, the 
former genus, like the latter, undoubtedly contains 
subjects of mimicry by Pierinm of other g^ups. Thus, 
" The imitation of M. agaihina by P. thysa, Hopff., is 
deceptively close in both sexes, and M. poppsea, Cram., 
is similarly copied by P. rhodope, Fabr., on the West 
Coast. 3f. a^gaihina is also mimicked by the female 
Eronia argia, Fabr."* 

We now have to deal with the genus BelenoiSf which 
presents some special diflSculties. In the first place, we 
find an assembhige of species {B, lasti, B. nasare, B. 
majungana, and B. isokari) from East Africa and Ikbda- 
gascar, with respect to which Messrs. Grose Smith and 
Kirby, after noting that they are now placed with Phris- 
sv/ra in the Collection of the British Museum, go on to 
observe that they " diflFer entirely in neuration from the 
types of Phrissuroj agreeing in this particular with 
Belenois, in which genus we prefer to include them.^'t 
The type of Mr. Butler's Phrissura is apparently 
P. illana, Feld.,t and in 1872 (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1872, 
p. 51) the only other species of Phrissura admitted by Mr. 
Butler was P. polisma, which is undoubtedly a very near 
relative of P. illana. Both of these species ofier differ- 
ences in neuration from B. lasti and its allies. 11 Now, 

^ South African Butterflies, vol. iii., p. 39 (1887). 

+ Rhopalocera Exotica, Oct. 1892. 

X Mr. Butler first gave it as P. cynU (Cist. Entom., iii, 1870, 

L49), but afterwards corrected it to P. illana (Trans. Ent. Soc 
•no., 1871, p. 171). Mr. Distant has since made cymt the type 
of his new genus Udaiana, (Bhopal. Malayan., 1882 — 1886, p. 286 
and note). 

II In P. illafia (forewing) the discoidal ceU is unusually abort, 
the second subcostal starts from the end of the cell, and the 
second and third median nervules come off near together; m 
B, lasti the cell is of the ordinary length, the second subcostal is 
emitted before the end oi^ the cell, and the second and third 
median nenrules do not start particularly near together. 

Digitized by 


Phylogeny of the PierincB. 309 

however^ oeitain forms are included under Phrissura in 
the Collection of the British Museum (P. phaola, P. 
Sylvia^ P. eudoxia, etc.) which appear to me to agree in 
stmctoral characters with B. lasti, and to differ from 
P, illana. If, therefore, Messrs.. Grose Smith and 
Kirby are right (which I do not doubt) in separating 
B. lastif etc., from Phrissura as represented by P. illana^ 
I am strongly of opinion that P. phaola, P. svlvia, 
P. eudoxia/^ and P. coniata should go with them; 
and to this assemblage I would add every so-called 
Belenois that is furnished with anal tutls, together 
with "Belenois" or " Olutoph/rissa" saba. We should 
then have a natural group of African and Malagasy 
Pierines, between which there would exist no assignable 
difference in structure, while they would be all alike 
characterised by the possession of anal tufls like those 
of Caiophaga and Appias. They may, perhaps, be 
considei^ as a section of Belenois, but to my mind they 
seem by their neuration, no less than by the obvious 
character of the anal tufls, to come much nearer to 
Appias, of which genus I am disposed to regard them 
as an African offshoot. The South American species 
Gluiaphrissa poeyi, G. margarita, G. castalia, etc., are 
very closely related to the present section.t 

Although the structural affinity of the forms that have 
just been discussed with each other and with Appias 
seems undeniable, there is no doubt that in pattern they 
mostly show a marked divergence from that genus. 
This appears to be due to mimicry, the models for which 
are usually supplied by the genus Myhthris. Thus B. 
lofiU is said by Messrs. Grose Smith and Kirby to be 
"nearest to B. trimenia, Butl.'' ; the latter, however, is a 
true Myhthris with the characteristic neuration of that 
genus. Considerable resemblance also obtains (as men- 
tioned above, p. 308) between P. rhodope, Fabr,, and M. 

^ P. eudoxia, Cram., is apparently identical with P, aylvia $ , 

t Hr. Wallace {he, cit, p. 312) inclades these American and 
AErictn forms with Appia$^ Catophaga, and Hipoacritia in his 
geons TachyriM, For toe purposes or the present paper it will 
pethaps be sufficient if I refer to the .^erican and African 
■peciet with Appias-like structore and anal tufts collectiyely as 
** Pkri99ura B" while designating poliama and illana as " Pkris- 
1 AJ* 

Digitized by 


310 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

poppea, Cram.* The peculiar fades of G. aaha 9 eeeins 
to be most likely due to mimicry of Nyetemera apiedis, i 
protected moth. Thoee members of the group that haye 
not been affected by mimicry retain few traces of tlie 
original groand-colonr, and present very much the 
appearance of an ordinary male Appias {G. saba i, G, 
e(utalia, etc). 

The other species nsoally incladed under BdenoUf 
besides differing in points of structuref from those just 
discussed, show as a rule a greater persistence of daric 
ground-colour. Both S and M are usually present in 
fair development, either separate or fused, and the 
discoidal p^tch on the forewings is generally well 
marked. The markings in several species show a strong 
resemblance to those of Syn^hloe hellica and S.johnstmii ; 
but notwitbstandiufi^ this, I am disposed to think that 
Belenois proper reeSlj represents an offshoot of another 
part of the Old World Pierine stem, that, namely, re- 
presented by Delias and Prioneris. The distribution of 
dark and light ground-oolour in such species as B 
mesentina might easily be derived from those of D. 
belladonna and D. eiLcharis, and the underside of the 
hindwing in this and other forms of Beleyiois offers only 
slight modifications from that of D. belUidonna. B, 
peristhene exhibits a curious resemblance on both sur- 
faces to I), nysa which may perhaps be due to mimicry, 
although the ranges of the two insects only coincide for a 
small part of their extent ; it is not improbably in any case 
an indication of real affinity. In neuration, those species of 

^ I adopt Mr. Trimen's unravelling of the strange confusion 
that surrounds the synonymy of rhodopcy Fabr^ and poppeoj Cram. 
(South African Butterflies, vol. iii, p. 35, and note). Tne upshot 
no doubt is that a true Mylo(hris {Papilio pojapea of Cramer 
according to Mr. Trimen) is closely copied by at least one Pierine 
of the " B " group of PhrUsura {Papilio rhodope of Fabricius 
according to the same authority). I do not propose to emlnrk 
upon the question further than to observe that the *' Synonymic 
Catalogue" identifies the two, and that Mr. Trimen himself 
unfortunately speaks of rhodope in the text, when he must mean 
poppea (ibid. p. 35). 

t Negatiyely by the absence of anal tufts, positively by the 
presence Tin many) of anal hooks, also by the straight direction and 
greater relative length of the upper disco-cellular nervule in the 
f orewing. In many species of this group, which we may designate 
BelenoiB proper, the first subcostal branch anastomoses with the 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the PierinaB. 311 

Belenoie in which the first subcostal is distinct are very 
near PrioneHa, and the remainder seem to approximate to 
Delias by the partial loss of a subcostal branchy as well 
as by the contour and direction of the disco-cellular 
nenrules. It is to be observed that some species of 
Belenoie proper, like those of the '' Phrismra B " group, 
are mimics of various species of Myhthrie, as B. thysa of 
if. agathina. Pinacopieryx is probably a collateral or 
derived branch of Belenois ; the female of P. capricomiM 
retains S and M on both surfaces in a well-marked 

We now come to a large and important group of 
genera which appears to take origin from the older 
Pierine stock at a point nearest to the genus Synchloe, 
An early stage of divergence is reached by Teracoliie ;* 
many species of which show the primitive series S and 
M, together with the discoidal spot and the precostal 
yelbw of the underside of the hindwing. The curious 
genus Herpsenia is probably a survival of the links that 
once united Teracolus with Synchloe ; in neuration it is 
intermediate between the two, and in pattern, together 
with aberrations peculiar to itself, it shows points of 
contact with both. The pattern of the upper surface in 
Teracolus is easily derivable from that of Synchloe, the 
nearest approach to Synchloe in this respect being made 
by the Idmais group ; compare, for instance, T. dynamene 
with 8. hellicn $ . But the passage from the underside 
of the hindwing in Synchloe to that of Teracolus is more 
difficult; Herpaenia, however, enables us to bridge over 
the interval very fairly, for if H. tritogenia and H. 
lacietpennis be interposed between S. glaucon^mie and 
7. puellaris $, the abruptness of the transition is 
removed. The pupa of Teracoltis tends to be boat- 
shaped, with a sharply-pointed rostrum and large 
prominent wingsf — which characteristics we shall find 

• I follow Mr. Butler (Cist. Entom. vol. i., p. 36), with whom Mr. 
Trimen is in agreement (South African Butterflies, voL iii., p. 82), 
in uniting Teracolus^ Idmais^ and CalloBune under the single head 
of rdrooolMt. 

t These features are not equally well developed in all species of 
TerotokLi, They are very distinctly shown in pupae of T. evame 
(ColL Hope) ; pupae of T. Calais (ColL B. Mus.), on the other hand, 
m slender, less recurved, and nearer the Qanoria or Synchloe form. 
The pupa of T» pleiane (CoU. B. Mus.) is stout, and not unlike 
that of Chnepteryx rhamni; compare Mr. Trimen's description, op. 

Digitized by 


812 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

in a greater or less state of development in all the 

fenera of the particular group of Pierines now under 
iscussion. Other features, which appear first in Teracolui 
and will be met with again later on in the history of the 
group, are the pinkish fiinge of the wings in some specie 
(as T. wallengrenii, and often in T. protractus) and the 
faint pinkish ColiasAike spot or patch at the root of the 
cell in the hindwing underside of others (as T. tri' 
punciatus, T. ccelestis ? , T. eupomp^y and T. theogone). 

The genus Ixias follows easily upon Teracolus, the 
females of the two genera showing, as usual, a greater 
affinity in colouring than the males (compare, for instance, 
the males and females of T. tone and /. marianne*). 
Series S is often well preserved in Ixias, especially on the 
underside and in the female ; the discoidal spots are also 
prominent, and begin on the lower surface to assume an 
ocellate character. In neuration, lanaa differs only 
slightly from Ter<icoliis; while the pupa, as shown in 
drawings by Captain Boys of J. marianne and J. evippe 
(Coll. Hope), has the same characters as Teracolu$ in a 
more strongly-marked condition. 

From the usual system of colours and markings in 
IxiaSy there can be little doubt that that genus represents 
the transition from Teracolus to Colias. The underside 
of several species of the latter genus (for instance, C. 
suhaurata) is strongly recalled by that of 7. marianne, 
in which the OoZio^-like condition of the discoidal spots 
is one of the most noticeable features. The affinity 
suggested by the colour-pattern is borne out by the 
structure of the antennsd, which in Ixias show a distinct 
approximation to the gradually thickened form so 
characteristic of Colias and its immediate allies. The 
pupa in Colias, as in Teracolus, seems to vary somewhat 
m form ; but in all known cases it shows a tendency, 
sometimes strongly pronounced, towards the acuminate 
and boat-shaped outline characteristic of this group of 

city vol. ill., p. 82. I refrain from using the terms "wing-covers'' 
or *^ wing-cases/* the inapplicability of which has been eiiown by 
Prof. Poolton (Trans. Linn. Soc., 1890, series ii., vol. v., part 5, 
p. 188). 

^ Mr. Bntler points out the intermediate character of the two 
African species, IxiaB eulimene and J. veriaiut. Proc ZooL See, 
1871, p. 254. 

Digitized by 


Phylogeny of the PierinsD. 313 

The genus Xanthidia is transitional between OoUas 
and Terias, in neuration coming nearer the latter. The 
pattern on the upper side is scarcely modified from that of 
Coliaa; on the under surface^ however, S has lost much 
of the distinctness it possesses in so many species of the 
latter genus, and its relics take part in a general 
mottling which is very probably protective in object. 

In Terias the resolution of series S and M, which is still 
visible in most of the females and many of the males of 
Colias, has usually disappeared from the upper surface ; 
the underside of the hindwings, however, generally shows 
S in a somewhat modified condition. The pink edging 
to the wings, so characteristic of Colids, and occasionally 
visible in Xa/nthidia nictppe, is indicated in several 
species of Terias, as T. measaUna, T. delia, and T, rhodia. 
The pupa of Terias is more sharply acuminate and re- 
carved than that of Colias (see pupa of T. mandarina and 
T. exeavata in Coll. B. Mus.). 

Sphsenogona presents in pattern no marked differences 
from Terias, with which genus it is so closely allied. 
8, graiiosa, like T. agave, X. nicippe, and some other 
species of these genera, shows a relic of the pinkish CoUas' 
patch at the root of the cell on the underside of the 
hindwing. In neuration, Sphsenogona, while generally 
resembling Terias, is peculiar in emitting the first and 
second subcostal branches of the hindwing from a short 
footstalk beyond the end of the cell. In this respect it is 
intermediate between Terias and Leuddea, which latter 
genus presents no markings to guide us, but has no 
doubt taken its origin directly or indirectly from Terias.^ 
Another probable descendant of Terias is the genus 
Nathalis, which agrees very fairly with Terias in neuration, 
except that it wants one nervule in the forewing, probably 
a branch of the subcostal. There is a striking resemblance 
of pattern between N. iola and T, elathea i . In the 
absence of paronychia Nathalis reverts to the condition of 

Pyrisiiia seems to represent an early offshoot of the 
stem leading from Colias to Terias. In most points it 

^ Standiiuier and Scbatz (op. city TheiL ii, p. 66, etc.) consider 
LeucwUa to be more closely related to Pontia {NycJUtona) than to 
Eurewia {Terku), The balance of evidence seems to me to be 
tgtinst this view. 

TBAM8. KHT. 80C. LOND. 1894. — PART U. (jUKB.) X 

Digitized by 



Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on ths 

agrees with the latter genns^ bat in the position of tlie 
snbcostal nervnles of the hindwing it retains the conditioii 
of the former. 

A fresh departure from Colias is headed by the genns 
Meganostoma, which oflfers a close resemblance to CoUas 
iu both strnctore and pattern.* The series S and M, 
fairly distinct in the female of M. philippa, are also 
indicated on the upper surface in the males of some of 
the species. In the males of some other species they 
are fused above, but in all they are distinguishable 
beneath. In the outline of the wings Meganostoma 
shows a close approach to Gonepteryx, from wluch genns 
indeed the females of some of the species are hardly to 
be distinguished. 

From Gonepteryx the line passes on to Amynihia and 
Rhodocera. All these ' genera retain many Colias-Vke 
points, particularly the pinkish patch at the apex of the 
cell on the hindwing undersurface. The males of the two 
latter, like those of Meganostoma and many species of 
Colias, also possess the well-known patches of raised 
scales above tiie subcostal nervure of the hindwing ; and 
in the same two genera is seen for the first time the 
contrast between areas of flat and raised scales over the 
whole upper surface of the wings which is so conspicaous 
a feature in Catopsilia, Phoebis, and Callidrya^, 

Dercas appears to be an Indian offshoot of Oonepteryz. 
A good transition from the latter to the former is 
afforded by D. wallichii, as pointed out by Mr. Wallace, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend., 3rd series, iv., p. 398. 
Kricogonia is probably an analogous derived form in the 
Neotropical Region. 

The Eastern genus Catopsilia forms with the Western 
CallidryaSy Aphrissa, Metura, and Phoebis, a group which 
clearly belongs to the present section. Their strnctore 
and coloration relate them closely to Oonepteryx, thoagh 
in some respects they show signs of a more ancient 

^ Mr. Butler (Cist. Entom., iiL, p. 46) describes the nearstion in 
the forewing of Meganostoma as being like that of Chnepterfx^ 
" excepting that the second subcostal is emitted just before the end 
of the cell." In some individuals, at any rate, the second sabcostsl 
is emitted at the end of the cell, and in If. cesonia it may eyen be 
thrown off after the end of the cell, as often in Coliae, This indeed 
ia the condition represented in Cist. EntonL, voL i, pL ii., ^^ 4. 

Digitized by 


Phylogeny of the Pierinae. 315 

ancestry. The refcention of the pink patch on tiie under- 
side of the hindwing, and (in several species) of the pink 
fringe^ brings them near to Coliaa ; to which they also 
approximate by the form of the antennae^ by the very 
general occurrence of special patches of raised scales on 
the hindwing of the males^ by the frequent presence^ 
especially in the females^ of the series S and M and the 
discoidal spots in a more developed condition than that 
characteristic of Gonepteryx, and by the common 
tendency of the latter spots on the lower surface towards 
ooellation. The oldest forms of the whole group appear 
to be those contained in the genns CatopMia, 0, florella, 
for example, is very closely related to Oonepteryx, and 
still more nearly to Amynthia, with which it corresponds 
in colour and in texture of wings (compare especially 
the undersides of C.florella $ and A. chrinde). The 
peculiar thickening of the nervures, especially the sub- 
costal and median, on the under surface of the hindwing, 
whidi in Chmepteryx and Amynthia give almost the 
effect of a folding of the surface, is plainly visible in 
C. fiorelUu In neuration, 0. florella agrees minutely 
with A, clorinde. Another indication of the superior 
antiquity of the Eastern Catopailia as compared with the 
Western Callidryas is found in the shape of the pupa. 
This in Catopsilia (as remarked by Mr. Trimen, op. dt, 
voL iii., p. 184) is only moderately acuminate and slightly 
recurved, thus showing no very great departure from 
the Colias and Oonepteryx form ; in CallidryaSy however, 
so &r as is known, it is always very sharply acuminate 
and strongly recurved, showing an exaggeration of the 
" boat-shaped " condition almost as marked, in a differ- 
ent way, as that of Euchloe.* The Colias-like pink 
edging appears also to be found more frequently in 
Catopsilia than in Callidryaa (though it occurs in Gallic 
dryas senna) ; and while the CoZto^-like spot at the root 
of the cell on the underside of the hindwing occurs in 
both tho Eastern and the Western divisions of the 
group, it has in tlio latter lost the ancestral pink tinge 

* I ftgnse with Mr. Butler that the pnpa figured in Lep. 
IS10I,, pL xlv., fig. Ui, as r. (jrjtmthe is very probably that of 
C viUltfl. It closel J resembles ^ pnpa of C euhule in the Hope 
CiJlaataoa, ^hicfa last exactly corresponds with Burmeister's figure 
In tba ^ Atlas de ia DQscriptbn Physique de la B^p. Argent./' 
"- ,pit,rig.2. 

Digitized by 


816 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

wliich it uBoally retains in the former. It is not very 
easy to form an opinion as to the relative antiqoity of 
the foor Western genera ; if we are to jndee from the 
pnpse, so far as they are known^ it wonla seem that 
Aphrisaa has undergone less modification than either 
Phcebis or Callidryas. Another possible indication of 
the greater antiquity of Aphrissa is afforded by the 
shape and size of the palpi, which in this genus, 
especially in the females, show less departure than is the 
case in either Phoebis, Metura, or Callidryas, from the 
Colics and Oonepteryx type. Phoehis wiUi its offshoot 
Metura, from which it differs only in the contour of the 
wings, is probably the most highly specialised genus of 
all; this being shown by the possession of a tuft of 
long hairs on the hindwing of the male, which is not 
found in Aphrissa and Callidryas, and by the absence in 
most species of nearly all indication of dark ground- 
colour from the upper surface. It is remarkable that 
the Western genera just treated of are less closely akin 
to the South American Amynthia than is the Eiststem 
genus Catapsilia, and especially the African (7. florella. 

The genus Eronia seems to represent a branch of the 
present section which leaves the main stem somewhere 
between the points marked by Tera^colus and Ixias. 
With the exception of the presence of a fifth subcostal 
in the forewing (which, however, is sometimes wanting), 
the neuration of Eronia agrees fairly with that of 
Teracolus, The antennae in Eronia differ in different 
species, but are all intermediate between the Tera^coliis 
and the Celiac type ; and the pupa of E, cleodora, with 
its very convex and prominent keel, is like that of one 
of the stout forms of Teracolus, e.g., T. evame. The 
assemblage of species distinguished by Mr. Butler as 
Nepheronia is probably older than Eronia proper, as is 
shown by the tendency of its antennas to temunate in a 
definite club, like the more ancient genus Teracolus. 
N. thalassina also retains a primitive Pierine feature in 
the yellow precostal streak of the hindwing udderside, 
which again is found in some species of Teracolus, 
Eronia proper, on the other hand, is slightly nearer to 
Teracolus in neuration. The curious Eronia (?) luca^sii 
from Madagascar, which has only four subcostal nervules 
in the forewing, and whose antennas are slender, with a 
definite club, is probably one of the oldest and most 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the Pierinad. S17 

generalised members of the Eronia and Nepheronia 
group now extant.* 

The last-named insect presents points of resemblance 
with Hebomoia, which again seemd to be an offshoot of 
the same stem^ that^ namely^ leading from Teracolus 
towards Ixiaa and Coliaa. The papa of Hehomoia 
glaudppe, as figured by Horsfield (E. I. C. Catalogue^ 
see IMstant^ Rhopal. Malayana^ 1882 — 6^ p. 288) and 
Moore (Lep. Ceylon, 1880 — 1, pi. 49, fig. 16), is stout, 
moderately acuminate, and much recurved, in which 
particulars it agrees well with the pupa of Ixias. 

Most of the insects of the genera Eronia, Nepheronia, 
and Hehomoia, retain in greater or less measure some por- 
tions of the primitive marginal and submarginal series. 
These, as usual, are most often to be met with in the 
females, and in several species of Nepheronia are utilised 
in the formation of mimetic patterns modelled on those 
of various £)anaids and sometimes of other Pierines. A 
noticeable feature in some members of this group, per- 
taining chiefly to the males, is the brightenmg of the 
pale ground colour of the apex of the forewing into a 
brilliant yellow or orange patch. This character is first 
seen in Teracoliis, where the orange of the apex may 
further deepen into crimson or violet ; it passes on to 
Hehomoia, to Ixia^ and to Bhodocera ; in Coliaa, however, 
it gives place to a general yellow or orange suffusion of 
the pale ground colour, still strongest in the males.f 
It is found in Eronda (?) Ituxisii and E. leda, but not in 
other members of that genus; it is also absent in 

* E. (?) lucasii was originally described (as Callidryas lucaai) by 
Grandidier (R6y. et Magas. de ZooL, Auff. 1867, p. 273). He, 
however, took the ^female for the male, and bis supposed female 
C, lueasi is really the female of Catopsilia thauruma, MabiUe in 
the Hist Phys. Nat. et Pol. de Madagascar, vol. xviil, 1887, 
p. 281, gives a correct description of both sexes under the name of 
Eronia lucasii^ bat makes no mention of Grandidier's mistakes. 
This species will not come into the genns Eronia as at present 
defined. By Braner and others it has been called a Ptychopteryx ; 
the latter genus, however, was characterised by Wallengren from 
a species of Teracolu$ {T. sub/asdatua, Swains., Yidl Trimen. 
South African Butterflies, vol. iii., 1889, p. 92), and has no real 
claim to stand. 

t In many species of the latter genus, indeed, the females may, 
as is well known, revert almost entirely to the ancestral white. 

Digitized by 


S18 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

This last feature in coloration is again met with in 
Eroessa and EtLchloe, the nenration of which genera 
corresponds pretty closely with that of Eronid, not only 
in the presence of five subcostal branches in the forewing^ 
but also in other particulars. The general likeness 
between Eronia leda and EucMoe lelia, Linn.j is very 
striking^ aud strongly suggestive of a near affinity 
between them. The well-known form of the pupa in 
Euchloe is an exaggeration of that seen in Eronia 
cleodora.^ In some other points, however, Euchloe is 
nearer to Coliaa, as in the strone development of the 
discoidal spot in the primaries, and in the possession by 
some species of pink legs and a pink edging to the wings. 
This last feature is characteristic of the charlonia group 
of Euchloe, and is best seen in E. Itudlla. The underside 
of the hindwing in the same group has very much the 
character of the corresponding region in Coli€M palceno, 
including the pale undeveloped discoidal spot. The 
antenneB, however, of Euchloe are very distinct in form 
from those of Colias, and indeed are not much nearer 
those of Eronia. On the whole it seems most likely that 
EtLchloe is a somewhat aberrant branch which takes its 
rise firom the Pierine stem at a point near the divergence 
from the same stem of Hebomoia on the one hand, and 
E. (?) huMsii with the rest of the Eronia and Nepheronia 
group on the other. The isolated form Eroessa chilensisy 
which in neuration approaches the older Eronias (as 
£. (?) lucasii) and Hebomoia, is perhaps a survival of a 
once more widely-spread and numerous assemblage, 
among which were to be found the immediate ancestors 
of the present-dav Euchloes, Zegris seems to be a some- 
what lughly modified ofiEshoot of the Euchloe branch. 

We must now retrace our steps as far as to the group 
which I have called '' Pierines of the second grade," those, 
namely, that are typified by Delias in the Eastern and 
Oatasticta in the Western hemisphere. The latter genus 
with its near ally Leodonta forms a starting-point for a 
New-World division of the Pierine stem, which, if not 
equal in magnitude to the great division headed in the 

* The pupa in Euchloe is not always recurved. See Edwards's 
fiffores of Anthocharis {Euchloe) genuiia and A. ausonides in 
"Butterflies of North America." See also Schatz, Exotische 
Schmett^ Theil ii., 1892, p. 71. 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the t^ierinaa* 319 

Old World by Delias, Prioneris, and Metaporia, is never- 
theless of high importance and very great interest. 

The first departure from the condition of Catasticta 
seems to be that taken by the butterflies of the genus 
Pieris as restricted by Butler, closely associated with 
which must come the American species of Afylothris. The 
underside of Pieris locusta exhibits a pattern which is but 
little removed from that of Catasticta, the yellow streaks 
and red basal patches being still apparent on the under- 
side of the hindwing ; while the upper surface of both 
wings is shared between the original dark and intrusive 
light ground colour in much the same manner as in 0. 
ctemenSy C. corcyra, and other species of Catasticta. In 
Pieris as a whole, the dark ground-colour has to a great 
extent disappeared from the upper surface; several 
species however (as P. pylotis and P. birnice) retain a 
discoidal spot in the forewing, which in some, as P. 
thaloe ? , is connected with a dark streak along the costa, 
and in others, as P. demophile $, is included in a larger 
remnant of ground-colour which passes as a dark fascia 
obliquely across the wing from the costa to the outer 
border. The underside of the hindwing in this genus 
tends to lose the Oo^o^ic/a-like character preserved in 
P. locusta, in consequence of a general paling which takes 
effect first in the basal half and spreads outwards (as in 
P. demophile), until in such species as P. btmice it reduces 
the wing to very much the same condition as that seen 
in Ganoris brassicce or G. rapi. The ground-colour in 
P. bunise and P. pylotis is indeed even paler than in 
these species of Ganoris, being without the powdering of 
black scales which the latter possess; the hindwiug 
however of both P. bunicB and P. pylotis retains a dis- 
coidal spot, and, as has been already noted (pp. 287, 289, 
note), tne predominance of the paler colouring is never 
so great as not to leave unmistakable relics of the yellow 
streaks and red basal patches. 

The genus Leptophobia appears to be a kind of con- 
tinuation of Pieris. The arrangement of light and dark 
ground-colour preserves a parallel course in the two 
genera, and the inclusion of the discoidal spot of the 
forewings in a dark fascia which passes from the costa 
for a greater or less distance obliquely towards the outer 
margin is a common feature in Leptophobia as well las in 
Pieris. In the present genus the underside of Ae hind- 

Digitized by 


820 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

wings is almost nniformlj pale^ bat distinct indications 
of the primitive red patches are nevertheless still to be 
met with (see p. 287). 

There woald also seem to be little donbt that the 
American species allied to M. pyrrha, which are included 
by Mr. Butler* under Mylothris, with the neuration of 
which they agree, are closely related to Pieris. The patteni 
of every one has been more or less altered by mimicry, 
but in those males whose upper surface is unaffected by 
this kind of modification, the arrangement of the dark 
and light ground-colour is seen to present the ordinary 
features of Pieris or Leptophobia (compare, for instance, 
the upper side of 3f. pyrrha 6 with that of P. thaloe). In 
M. lorena is found an oblique dark bar crossing the 
forewing just as in P. demophile and L. stamnaia, this 
mark being utilised, both in M. lorena and the female of 
Jf. pyrrha, for the formation of the mimetic pattern. 
It has already been shownf how the primitive yellow 
streaks and red basal patches have been turned to account 
in the same direction on the underside of the hindwing, 
which, from the additional necessity for protection ex- 
perienced by the insect when at rest with its wings 
closed, becomes the most important field for the mimetic 
process. It may be here remarked that the antennaB of 
these American forms, whil^ agreeing in character with 
those of Leptophobia, Pieris, Gatasticta, Leodonta, and the 
genera allied to these last, differ conspicuously from those 
of M. agathina, M. poppea, and the other African species 
of Mylothris. 

Hesperocharis diverges somewhat widely from the 
genera last discussed, both in neuration and in the 
character of its antennae ; it retains, however, in many 
cases indications of the primitive marginal and sub- 
marginal dark series in a more recognizable form than 
any (see, for instance, the chevrons on the underside of 
H. erota, which represent series S). The yellow streaks 

♦ Proc. ZooL Soc., 1872, pp. 36-38. It appears to me that the 
neuration of the American forms of Mylothria is simply that of 
Pieris. mintis the third subcostal nervule in the forewing, which 
branch is already almost obsolete in the latter genus. 

t See above, p. 286. The transitional series which is there made 
to begin with M. lypera and M. lorena might easily be carried back 
to P. thaloe, which shows the true Pierine pattern all ready, as it 
were, to take on the mimetic condition of the other species. 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the Kerin89. ^ 321 

and red basal patches^ present in all species of Hespero* 
charts, are in some (as Jff. nereis) marked with special 
distinctness. The curioas manner in which these have 
been made nse of in H. hirlanda for the production of 
a mimetic pattern^ has already been follj discussed 
(p. 286). 

I cannot but think that U. monuste shows by its 
pattern that it stands on a level with Pieris as a 
derivative from the Cataaticta group. Its neuration 
hardly differs from that of Pieris, and it would probably 
be more appropriately placed (together with its imme- 
diate allies, U. joppe, U. suasa, etc.) in or near that 
genus than with If. cynis in Mr. Distant's genus Udaiana, 
as at present in the National Collection. 

The position of the genus Dismorphia is not easy to 
determine. The pattern of those species that appear to 
have undergone least modification may, however, be 
derived without much diflBculty firom PierU or Lepto- 
phobia ;* and the persistence in some cases of the red 
basal spots has already been remarked (see p. 285). The 
structure of the antennas points to the same line of 
ancestry. On the other hand, the very remarkable 
neuration is quite unlike that of Pieris ; a certain 
approach to it, however, is made by Hesperocharis, which 
is almost without doubt a close ally of that genus. 
Moschonev/raf is very nearly akin to Dismorphia, from 
which it differs only slightly in neuration; while the 
Palaearctic genus Leptosia has characters which link it 
with both.J We may probably regard the three last- 
named genera as terminal twigs of a branch now lost, 
which left the main stem at or near the genus Pieris, 
and of which Hesperocharis is a still earlier offshoot. In 
Dismorphia and a few species of Moschoneura much of 
the original colouring has been retained and modified for 
purposes of mimicry. In Leptosia and the remainder§ of 
Moschoneura this colouring has given way to the usual 
Pierine invasion of white. 

^ A somewhat different and^as it seems to me, less probable view 
is advanced by P. Miiller, Jenaische Zeitscbr., x., p^. 1-12. 

t The fiffpre in Gistnla Entomologica, vol. L, pi. iv., fig. 9, omits 
the second oiscoidal of the f orewing. 

X The forewing is nearer to DismorpTUa and the hindwing to 

§ PaeudopiertB of Godman and Salvin. 

Digitized by 


322 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

2. The evidence of distribtition. 

It now remains to briefly indicate the bearing of the 
geographical distribntion of the various forms that have 
been mentioned upon the question of their kinship and 
relative antiquity. 

As we have already seen, the oldest form of Pierine 
now extant is probably Eucheira sodalis. This insect 
appears to be as limited in its geographical range as it is 
isolated in its zoological position, for it is found only in the 
mountain-ranges of Mexico, which may be considered as 
a southern extension of the " Eocky Mountain '' division 
of the Nearctic Region.* Its nearest allies appear to be 
Bohr's two species ofNeophasia (see p. 303), which inhabit 
the same region with itself, and the Pontiaa and Metaporias 
of the high lands of Central Asia, most of which forms 
are known to retain the ancient larval habit of spinning. 
.These facts seem to point to the conclusion that Eucheira 
is the relic of an archaic group of Pierines which once 
occupied the great mountain regions of both the Palss- 
arctic and Nearctic continents, and whose immediate 
descendants, still represented in the East by Metaporia 
and Pontia, have in the West become extinct (unless 
Bohr's Neophasia be a survival) after giving origin to 
the group of genera headed by Catasticta. 

From one or other of these two primary stems, the 
Eastern or the Western, nearly the whole of the existing 
genera of Pierines may be derived. There are, however, 
a few exceptions, which, perhaps, constitute relics of an 
ancient Pierine fauna coeval with the groups above 
mentioDed, but not, like them, the progenitors of a 
numeroua and varied offspring. The chief of these are 
the genera Elodina and Nychitona, the former of which 
is eutirely confined to the Australian Region, while the 
latter has a very wide distribution throughout the 
Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian. The African 

* I bore follow Mr. Sclater^s division of the earth's surface into 
mix Zoological Be^ons, which arraDgement, adopted by Mr. Wallace 
in his '' Qcographical Distribntion of Animals^'' 1876, has stood the 
t'est of time and experience better, in my opinion, than any alterna- 
tive distribution that has been proposed. I also adopt, for conve- 
nience, the fimaller dirisions, or " sub-regions,'' as determined by 
Mv. Wallace in the above-named work. 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the PierinsB. 823 

species of Mylothris belong possibly to the same 

l£e genera derived from the Catasticta group remain, 
for the most part^ within the confines of the Neotropical 
Begion. This is the case with Pieris, Leptophobia, 
Hesperocharisy the American species of Mylothris,^ Dia^ 
morphia, Moschonewra, and those species allied to 
monwde at present included in the genus Udaiana.f 
It is remarkable that the Nearctic Region does not 
furnish a single species that can be supposed to be 
derived from the present stem.;]: Inasmuch^ however, 
as the Palaearctio genus Leptosia seems to belong 
rather to this than to any Eastern branch, the conjecture 
may be hazarded that connecting forms now extinct 
once occupied the Nearctic Region, from which the 
PalsBarctic continent received the forerunners of its 
present Leptosias, probably by way of Behring Strait. 

Turning now to the Eastern Metaporia, which inhabits 
the borderland .between the PalsBarctic and Oriental 
Regions, we find it emitting one clearly-defined branch 
in the Palsearctic direction. This is the branch to 
which belong the various species of Pontia, as P. nabeU 
Ika, P. sorada, P. hippia, P. helucha, P. leucodicey and 
P. cratasgi. In the Chilian or Andesian division of the 
Neotropical Region we find the genus Tatochila^ which 
appears not to belong to the regular Neotropical Pierine 
stock, but to be closely related to the Palsaarctic 
Pontiaa. It is conceivable that the latter stem may 
have spread from Asia into the western portion of the 
Nearctic continent, and thence down the mountain- 
chains to the south. Neophasia menapia, at present 
inhabiting the Califomian and Rocky Mountain sub- 
regions, seems to me to be more nearly allied to both 
Pontia and Tatochila than (as Behr thinks) to Eucheira 
socialis, and may very possibly be a relic of the original 
invasion. Another indication of the same invasion is 
afforded by the genus Phulia, now found with the 
nearly- allied Tatochila only in the Andesian or Chilian 

* See p. 820, note. 

f See I). 321. 

X The instance of U, monusUy which straggles into the southern 
districts of the Nearotio Region, hardly forms an exception to the 
above statement. 

Digitized by 


324 Dr. Frederick A. Dixej on the 

sab-region, to which it do doabt made its way along the 
gpreat mountain-chains in a similar manner. Its close 
bUj, Baltia, remains in the high lands of Central Asia, 
where it bears mnch the same relation to Synchloe as 
Phulia to Tatochila. Another early offshoot from the 
Eastern Pontia stem is Mesapia peloria,* which has no 
representative in the Western Hemisphere. 

The above descendants of the monntain Metaporias 
belong, as has been seen, in the first place, to the 
Palaearctic and western portion of the Nearctic Region, 
only reaching the Neotropical by extension along the 
chain of the Andes. Other derivatives of Metaporia, 
however, took their conrse directly sou&wards. The 
first of these is the Delias and Prioneris gronp, the more 
ancient members of which are, speaking gene>rally, to be 
fonnd in the northern portion of the Indian peninsula, 
while the Australian and other southern forms represent, 
as a rule, a somewhat later stage of development. 
Another is the important branch headed by Huphina, 
which genus, like Deli<is, has spread downwaids through- 
out the Oriental Region, and by way of the Indo- 
Malayan and Austro- Malayan islands to the Australian 
continent. The Australian species of Huphina are 
clearly derived from the Oriental, and those forms (such 
as H. phryne 9) which are nearest to M. agatium in 
colouring are also its closest neighbours geographically. 
Of the two genera (Htposcritia and Catophaga) which 
appear to be immediately derived from Huphina, the 
former is confined to the Oriental Region; while the 
latter, like Huphina itself, has spread along the Austro- 
Malayan Islands to the Australian mainland. This is 
also the case with App{as,f the origin of which genus 
from the Catophaga stock is no doubt to be assigned to 
the Oriental Region. But, unlike the other genera, 
Appias seems to have extended its borders westwards, 
and to have given rise to the " Phrissura JB''J group in 
the Ethiopian Region, and even to Glutophrissa in the 
Neotropical. If this be the real origin of these two 
latter genera, we have to enquire how they reached the 
African and South American continents respectively. 

* See p. B04. 

t It would seem, however, that no trae Appias actually reaches 
the Australian contiuent. 
J See p. 309, note. 

Digitized by 


Phylogeny of the PierineB. 325 

With regard to the first, there is little diflSculty in 
supposing the passage to have been effected by land 
either now or formerly existing, the Ethiopian Region 
having been in this, as in so many other instances, first 
entered from the north. But it is not easy with our 
present knowledge to imagine an overland passage for 
these butterflies from the Oriental or Ethiopian Region 
to the Neotropical. The northward route, which we saw 
to be the one probably adopted by the ancestors of the 
Chilian Phuliaa and Tatochilas in spreading from Central 
Asia, is excluded in the present instance by the entire 
absence of any trace of such a passage from both 
the PalsBarctic and Nearctic Regions; and although a 
transit by way of a formerly existing " Antarctica *' is 
conceivable, it would seem more likely that the crossing 
from east to west was effected in the region of the tropics. 
After all, however, the difficulty of supposing an Atlantic 
sea-passage is not overwhelmingly great. The unusual 
facilities possessed by insects for crossing large extents of 
sea have been remarked by many writers,* and among 
insects the butterflies of the Pierine group are especially 
given to migration for great distances in countless hordes, t 
It is worth noting that in the case of each of the other 
three chief Pierine genera whose present distribution 
seems to have involved one or more long sea-passages, i.e., 
Terids, Colias, and Callidryas, special observations exist 
of their migratory propensities. In 1874 a large swarm 
of Teriaa lisa reached the Bermudas from the American 
continent ;:( the swarm of butterflies described in a well- 
known passage II by Mr. Darwin consisted chiefly of a 
species of Colias ; while descriptions of the migratory 
flight of Catopsilia and Callidryas are numerous, 
among the most striking pieces of testimony being that 

^ See especially Wallace's "Geographical Distribution," 1876, 
vol. i, p. 32 ; and the same author's " Darwinism," 1889, p. 359, etc. 

t Trimen, Trans. Ent, Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 382 ; " South- African 
Butterflies," 1887, vol. iii., p. 32. Moore, " Lepidoptera of 
Ceylon," 1880, 81, p. 116. Distant, "Bhopalocera Malayana," 
1882 — 86, p. 285, etc. Mr. Trimen suggests that there is ''an 
evident connection or relation between these wonderf n} migrations 
of certain species of PierincB and the well-known habit of nearly 
all the members of the Sub-family of flying straight onward in 
one direction." 

t "Psyche," Dec. 1875, p. 121. 

(I "Voyage of the Beagle," ed. 1860, p. 158. 

Digitized by 


326 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

of Mr. Spraoe^ who saw Callidryas " laanohing boldly 
oat over tne Pacifio Ocean.'^* 

The earliest species of Synchloe were undoubtedly 
differentiated from Pontia or Baltia in the PalsBarctio 
Begion^ from which the genus spread (probably east- 
wards) into the Nearctic. Synchloe proper can hardly 
be said to enter the Indian Begion^f ^^^ ^^ ^ts progress 
westwards it has sent an offshoot downwards into the 
Ethiopian^ consisting of 8, johnstonii and 8. heUica. 
8* glauconome of Arabia and Egypt remains to mark the 
course of the inyasion. Ganoris, a further Palssarctic 
deyelopment of 8ynchloe, has accompanied that genus 
into the Nearctic Begion and has also spread into the 
Oriental. A curious extension of the range of the 
PalsBarctic G. rapm into the Nearctic Region hs^ been in 
progress during the last thirty-three years^ the first 
transatlantic specimens having been seen at Quebec in 
the year 1860.$ This introduction was undoubtedly 
effected by human agency^ and differs from the natural 
passage of species between the two Begions in having 
taken place by the Atlantic instead of the Pacific route. 

Though Synchloe itself is far more characteristic of 
temperate than of tropical districts^ it has given rise to a 
larffe and important Pierine branch which has spread far 
and wide through tropical and temperate parts alike. 
The birthplace of Herpssnia and Teracolus, the two 
earliest members of this extensive section^ is apparently 
the eastern portion of the Mediterranean division of the 
Palaearctic Begion ; from which locality the former has 
spread throa^h Arabia and Abyssinia into the African 
continent^ while the latter has not only followed Eerpsenia 
into Africa^ but has also largely occupied the two western 
Oriental sub-regions. Those forms of the genus loBias 
that show least divergence from Teracolus are found in 
the Nile provinces of Eastern Africa, but the bulk of this 
genus has moved eastwards, its distribution being 
characteristically Indian. A few species^ however^ are 
found in some of the Indo- Malayan islands^ and in 
Austro-Malaya as far east as Timor. 

® Journal Linn. Soo^ ZooL, ix^ pp. 355 — 357. 

t See Wallace, Trans. Ent Soc. Lond., 3rd series, iv., pp. 242, 3. 

t Scndder, ''Batterflies of the Eastern United States,'' 1889, 
vol.ii.,pp. 1175-1190; Edwards, "Butterflies of North America," 
vol. i., 1868-72, 9ub, voc. P. virginiensis. 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the PierinaB. 327 

To the same borderland of Western Afiia and Eastern 
Africa may be assigned the place of origin of Nepheronia, 
which has sent a western branch into Africa^ and an 
eastern into the Indian peninsula and Malayan islands^ 
one species reaching the Australian continent. The 
African branch has given rise to Eronia proper. Attention 
has already been drawn to the curious fact that the form 
which links the Eronia group most closely with Teracolus, 
viz., E, (?) lucaaii, survives in Madagascar. Eebomoia, 
another offshoot of this part of the Pierine stock, is now 
almost entirely Malayan; its place of origin was, however, 
in all probability further west. The birthplace of Euchloe 
is problematical, but the present distribution of the 
charlonia group, which seems to contain the oldest 
members of the genus, would appear to make it probable 
that the Mediterranean sub-region witnessed the rise of 
this, as of so many other more or less direct descendants 
of Synchloe, from which central area it successively over- 
spread the Palaearotic and Nearctio continents. The 
isolated geographical position of Eroessa ehilensis is very 
remarkable, its affinities being apparently with Eastern 
rather than Western forms. It is probably, as before 
suggested, a solitary survival of a once more widely- 
spr^id group, among which were to be found the 
immediate ancestors of the present-day Euchhes, 

No other genus in the whole sub-family has so extensive 
a range as Uolias, species of which are found in every one 
of the six great Zoological Begions. Here again, I have 
little doubt that the site of original divergence is Asiatic, 
and is most nearly represented in the present condition of 
the earth's surface by the borderland between the 
PalsBarctic and Oriental Begions on the north-west 
frontier of India. From this centre one or two species 
have ranged into South Africa and the Indian peninsula ; 
but the greater number have turned northwards, and 
after populating the Palsearctic and Nearctic continents 
with numerous species, have penetrated to the circum- 
polar lands within the Arctic Circle, have passed down 
the great mountain chains of Central and South America 
to Chili and Patagonia, and have even established outposts 
in Venezuela and the Sandwich Islands.* 

The powers of dispersal possessed by the genus Terias 

® The oocnrrence of OoUcu in the last-named locality is, how- 
eyer, not entirely free from donbt. 

Digitized by 


828 Dr. Frederick A. Dixey an the 

are almost as remarkable as those of Ooliaa ; perhaps 
even more so when we take into acconnt their weak 
flighty and the fact that their migrations mnst have been 
iotertropica]. Mr. Wallace, however, has drawn 
attention to their habit of frequenting '^ gardens and 
plantations and skirts of forests rather than their deeper 
recesses/' and also of '' assembling on the margins of 
streams and on the sea beach,'' and has remarked that 
'^ these habits lead to their being frequently carried off 
by winds," and that '*it is thus. perhaps that some of the 
species have so wide a range and offer such perplexing 
variations."* Whatever may have been their means of 
dispersal, there can, I think, be no doubt that they took 
their rise from the Coliaa stock in the Western Hemi- 
sphere, the line of descent passing through Xanthidia 
to Terias and Sphcenogona; Pyrisitia, NathaliSf and 
Leucidea being given off by the way. All these genera 
are mainly Neotropical with Nearctic extensions. Terias 
itself, however, as is well known, so far from remaining 
within these limits, has overspread the warmer portions 
of the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian Regions, and is 
even found in the Manchurian sub-region of the PalsB- 

It seems on the whole most probable that the origin of 
Gonepteryx is also to be referred to the Western Hemi* 
sphere, where Meganoatoma marks the transition from 
Colias. Gonepteryx itself seems to have passed to the 
north by way of California and so across into the 
Palsearctio Region, while Ehodocera and Amynthia re- 
present a Neotropical development of the same stock, the 
Central American genus Kricogonia perhaps remaining 
near the original seat of divergence. Gonepteryx having 
reached the Palasarctic Region has extended to its 
westernmost extremity. Its only o&hoot appears to be 
Dercas, which probably arose in the debateable Man- 
churian area, where the Palaearctic and Oriental faunas 
are much mixed, and thence spread southwards through 
the Indo-Chinese sub-region to Sumatra and Borneo. 

Oatopsilia and Callidryas, like Terias, must, it would 
seem, have undergone intertropical migration. Their 
oldest forms appear to be Oatopsilia florella, C> hyblsea, 

• Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 3rd series, iv., p. 320. See also 
above, p. 325. 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the PieriusQ. 329 

C. thav/ruma, etc., which are probably derived from the 
Neotropical genus Amynthia, coming nearest to A, 
elarinde. Inasmuch as all these are African insects, and 
the New World Callidryas, Phcebis, and Metura are less 
closely allied to Amynthia, it seems necessary to suppose 
that the earliest forms of this group in the Neotropical 
Kegion have become extinct, the present CallidrycLs 
group surviving as their modified descendants ; while an 
early dispersal of these ancestral forms took place across 
the Atlantic to Africa, of which invasion C.florella, etc., 
remain as comparatively unmodified relics. The Oriental 
and Australian Catopsilias are the ultimate developments 
of this invasion. 

The distribution of Belenois is remarkable, the bulk of 
the species belonging to the Ethiopian and Australian 
Regions. The Oriental Region is poorly supplied, except 
for the abundant B. mesentma, which is found in all 

Sarts of the Indian peninsula, and even enters the 
[editerranean district of the Palaearctic Region as far as 
Asia Minor. Notwithstanding the present poverty of 
the Oriental Region in species of Belenois, it seems 
probable that this area is really the birthplace of the 
genus, which, as we have seen, appears to be derived 
from that primitive part of the Pierine stem now repre- 
sented by Delias and Prioneris, B. mesentina and 
B. taprohana, of India and Ceylon, may probably be 
regarded as survivors of the original race of Belenois, 
whose descendants have spread south-eastwards to 
Australia, and south-westwards to Madagascar and the 
African continent. Pinacopteryx is in all probability a 
local modification of Belenois within the Ethiopian 
Region, while Daptonura, whose history is otherwise 
hard to account for, may perhaps have originated from a 
branch of the AfHcan Belenois which at some remote 
period found its way westwards across the Atlantic. 

In concluding this paper I wish to express my great 
indebtedness to several friends who have given me 
valuable help during its progress. It was by the kind- 
ness of the late Professor Westwood that I was enabled 
to begin the study of the Pierine group in the Hope 
Collection at Oxford, and the facilities for work afforded 
me by him have been continued and increased by his 
successors in the charge of the department, first by 

TEANS. ENT. 80C. LOND. 1894. — PART II. (jUNE.) Y 

Digitized by 



Dp. Frederick A. Dixey on the 

Mr. W. Hatchett Jackson^ and now^ in a special manner, 
by Professor Poolton, F.R.S.^ the present occupant of 
the Hope Chair^ at whose request I have undertaken the 
arrangement of this part of the Hope Collection. I am 
also under great obligations to Colonel Swinhoe^ who 
has very kindly helped me in various ways^ and 
especially in the determination of the Eastern species^ of 
which he has so intimate a knowledge. Lastly^ my 
thanks are due to the members of the staff of the 
Natural History Department of the British Museum, 
particularly to Messrs. A. G. Butler, W. F. Kirby, and 
F. A. Heron, who have given me every assistance in 
examining the fine series of Pierinse preserved in 
the National Collection. 

IV. — ^Indkx or Species Mentioned. 

The Order is that of the National Collection in the 
British Museum. 


Prioneris thestylis, Doubl, 258, 267, 

„ cleinanthe,Z>0M6/., 258,281,284 
„ voUenhoYii, Wall. . . 284 
„ autothisbe, Hubn., 258,281,284 

„ Bit&y Feld. 284 

Delias eucharis, Drury, 257, 267, 

268, 280, 284, 288, 300, 310 

„ hyparete, Linn., 257, 280, 284, 

„ hieri^, Hubn. . . .284,300 
„ agostina. Hew. . . 268, 300 
„ mysiBj Fabr. . . .284,301 
„ isse. Cram. . . . 284, 301 

„ echo. Wall 284 

„ argenthona, Fa&r., 284, 288 

„ philotis. Wall. ... 300 
„ csBneos, Linn., 268, 284, 288, 

„ duris, Hew, .... 284 
„ dorimene. Cram, . . 301 
„ belisama, Oam., 277, 284, 
300 301 
,, descombesi, Boisd., 268,^277, 
284, 300, 301 
„ nigrina, Fabr., 257, 284, 300, 


Delias harpalyce, Don., 257, 284, 


„ aganippe, Don., 257, 277, 

284, 300,301 

„ thisbe, Cram,, 257, 258, 280, 

281, 283, 300 

„ belladonna, Fabr.^ 257, 258, 


„ nyBa,Fa^. . 280,301,310 

„ momea, Boisd., 268, 280, 301 

„ egialea, Oram. ... 284 

„ pasithoe, Linn., 257, 258, 2fi7, 

281, 283, 300 

„ orithoe, Boisd., 277, 281, 284 

„ orphne, Wall. ... 301 

Pereute aatod73 Boied,, 281, 293 

„ Bwainsonii, Gray , . 285, 294 

„ charops, Boisd., 281, 285, 293 

„ leucodrosime, KolL, 281, 285, 

„ telthnsa, Hew. ... 294 
Euterpe tereas, Godi., 258, 281, 284, 
295, 298 
„ critias, Feld., 284, 295, 298 
„ rosacea, Bull, ... 2^' 
„ bellona, Cram, . . 295 
„ theano, Boisd, . . 299 
„ eurytele, Hew, , . 299 

Digitized by 


Phylogeny of the Piermas. 


Mylothris lorena, Hew, . 286, 320 
„ pyrrha, Fahr., 286,288,307,320 
„ lypera, KolL, 285, 288, 289, 320 
„ chloris, Fabr. . 279, 289, 307 
„ agathina, Oam., 268, 279, 289, 
307, 308, 320 
„ poppea, Oam., 268, 308, 310, 


„ Thodo^, Fahr,^ . .308,310 

„ trimenia, ButL . . . 309 

Elodina ^iiatia, Godt. . . 307, 362 

Nychitona xiphia, Fabr., 307, 322 

Hesperocharis hirlaDda, Stoll.^ 286, 

288, 321 

„ marchalii, OtiSr. . 286 

„ erota, Luc. . . 287, 320 

„ anguitia, Godt . . 286 

„ nereis, Feld, . , 286, 321 

Encheira socialis, Westw,, 259, 290, 

303, 322 

Leodonta senobia, Fe2i. .281,285 

„ tellane, Hew. . . . 259, 285 

„ dyroni. Z>ott&/. 269,281,285 

Gatasticta nimbice, Boitd., 259, 281, 

292 295 

„ collsi, Doubl. . . .291)292 

„ bithys, Hubn,^ . 259, 285, 291 

» anaitis, Hew., 259, 281, 285, 

„ Bemiramis, Luc . . 281, 291 
„ toca, DomW. . 278,281,292 

„ nothA, Luc 293 

„ ientamia, Hew. . . . 294 
„ ctcmene, Hew., 291, 294, 319 
„ corcyra, Feld. . 291, 292, 319 

„ troBzene, Feld 291 

Nathalis iola, ^oi>c{ 313 

Colias cnnningbamii, Butl. . 270 

„ meadiif Edw 270 

„ ficldii, Jf^^^. ... 270 
„ ednaina, fVW. ... 270 
„ edasa, Fabr. . 259, 264, 271 
„ pbicomone, Eip, . . 259, 264 
,, hyale,Zifm. . 259,264,270 
„ sabaurata, Butl, . . . 312 
„ barbara, H. Edw, . . 270 
„ pelidne, Boied. ... 270 
„ palieno, Xiim., 259, 264, 270, 
272, 276, 318 
Xanthidia nicippe, Oram.^ 276, 283, 


Terias lisa, Boisd, d Lee, 276, 325 

„ deva, Doubl 276 

„ mandarina. Be VOrz. . 313 
„ floricola, Boied, . . . 276 
„ becabe, Linn, .... 276 
„ excavata, Moore . . . 313 
„ messaUna, Fabr. . . 313 
„ agave. Cram. . . . 283, 313 

„ delia. Cram 313 

„ rhodia, J^'g/d 313 

„ elathea. Cram. , . . 313 
Spbffinogona gratiosa, Doubl, db 

Hew. . ,276,^313 

,, mexicana, Boisd,, 283 

Pyrisitia proterpia, Fabr., 276, 313 

Gonepteryx cleopatra, Linn., 259, 


„ rhamni, Linn., 259, 264, 

272, 311, 328 

Amynthia moerula, Fabr., 260, 272, 


„ clorinde, Godt., 260, 272, 

315 329 

Dercas wallicbii, Doubl., 260, *273, 

314, 328 

„ lycorias, Doubl, 260, 273, 


Meganostoma pbilippa, Fabr., 265, 

„ cesonia, Stoll, 265, 314 

Teracolus Calais, Oaw». . . . 311 
„ dynamene, Klug. ... 311 
„ amata, Fabr. . . . 261, 266 
„ protractus, Bull, ... 312 
„ pbisadia, Godt, , , , 266 
„ puellaris, Butl. , . 275, 311 

„ eris, Klug 279, 283 

„ vesta, Reiche .... 275 
„ bewitsonii, Kirb., 261, 266, 275 
„ tripuDctatus, Butl. . . 312 

„ pleione, Klug 311 

„ coelestis, Swinh. , , , 312 
„ subfasciatus, Svxiine. . 317 
„ regina, Trim., 261, 266, 275, 

„ ione, Godt., 261, 266, 275, 279 
„ d&nsLe,Fabr. . . .261,275 
„ enpompe, Klug, . . 283, 312 
„ wiulengrenii, Butl, . .312 

„ etrida, Boisd 261 

„ evanthe, Boisd. . . , 275 

^ Probably not a Mylothris ; see Trimen, " South- African Butter- 
flies," vol. ill., 1889, p. 35, note. 

Digitized by 



Dr. Frederick A. Dizey on the 

Teriioolus eucharis, Fabr, 


„ eyame, Klug. . . 

,, theogoue, Boisd. . 

„ antevippe, Boisd. 

„ omphale, Oodt, 

,, evippe, Xf'nn, . , 
Ixias eolimene. jBTZu^. . 

„ venatos, J9u/2. . . 

„ evippe, Drury . , 

,, mananne, Oam., 

311, 316 
. 312 
. 283 
. 275 
. 275 
. 312 
. 312 
. 312 
261, 266, 
276, 312 

Hebomoia glaucippe, Lirm,^ 261, 

275, 317 

Ptychopteryx IncasiL Grandid., 316, 

317, 318, 327 

Bhodocera leachiana, GodL, 260, 

265, 272, 273, 328 

Callidryas thalestris, Hiihn,. 254, 


„ pMoa, Linn,, 254, 260, 

273, 315, 329 

„ sennae, Linn, . .315 

„ eubale, Linn, , 274, 315 

Metura rurina, FeW. . .316,329 

PhoBbis trite, Linn, . 260, 274, 329 

„ agarithe, Boisd, . . 315 

Aphrissa godartiana, Svoaim,^ 260, 

273, 316 

Catopsilia flava, £a//. . .260,266 

„ catilla. Cram, , 260, 273, 274 

„ phlegeus. Wall ... 260 

„ hyblsBa, Boisd,^ . . . 328 

„ thauruma, Reak,, 273, 317, 329 

^ florella,JPa6r. .273,315,328 

KricogODia lyside, HUbn,^ 314, 328 

Leptophobia eleasis, Xtu;. . . 287 

„ elodia, ^oiW. . 287 

„ stamnata, Luc, • 320 

„ tovaria, JPeW. . 287 

Pieris habra, Douhl, , , , 281, 286 

„ locusta, Feld., 281, 286, 289, 

., thaloe, Oodt,, 287, 319, 320 
;, demophile, Linn., 282, 319, 

„ pylotis, Oodt, 277, 289, 319 
„ buniaQ, Hiibn,, 277, 282, 287, 

Hiposcritia pandione, HUbn,, 277, 


„ lalage, Doubl,, 256, 277, 306 

Catophaga ega, Boisd, , , , 305 

,, zamboanga, Feld,, 256 

„ paulina, Cram, • 305 

Catophaga lankapora, Moore . 256 

„ pHeos^, Feld, , , 305 

„ jacquinotii, Wall,^ 305 

,, alope, Wall, . . 305 

Appias celestina, Boisd. . 269, 305 

„ clementiiia, Feld. , , 305 

„ nero, Fabr, . . . 256. 305 

„ hombronii, Luc, • . 283 

„ lyncida, Cram, . . 269, 283 

„ zelmira. Cram, . . . 279 

Glutophriasa poeyi, Butl, . . 309 

„ margarita, HUbn., 279, 309 

„ castalia, Fabr, , , 309, 310 

„ saba, Fo^. . . .309,310 

Saletara panda, Oodt, . . . 305 

„ cycinna, Hew. , . . 305 

Phriasora phaola, Doubl, . . 309 

„ Sylvia, Fabr, . . 279, 309 

„ eudoxia, Cram. . . • 309 

„ coniata, Butl. • . . 309 

„ illana, Feld, . . . 308, 309 

„ lasti, Grose Smithy 308, 309 

„ nagare, Grose Smitju 308 

„ mAinng&ati^Grose Smithy SOS 

„ isokari, Grose Smith . 308 

„ polisma. Hew. . . 308, 309 

Daptonura lycimnia, Oam., 279, 329 

Belenois heldda, Boisd, . . 289 

„ thy8a,Hop/. ... 308 

„ peristheDe,^oiW., 256, 268, 

280, 310 

„ taprobana, Moore . 329 

„ auriginea, Butl, . . 279 

„ meseutina. Cram,, 255, 268, 

276, 279, 283, 310, 329 

„ calypso, Drury, 268, 276 

„ creona, Oram, , , , 276 

„ teutonia, Fabr., 256, 2G8, 

276, 279, 280 

„ ooronea, Cram,^ 256, 268, 

276, 280 

„ gidicsk, Godt. . . . 280 

„ severina. Cram, , . 256 

Synchloe daplidice, Linn., 253, 254, 

259, 263, 267, 270, 278, 306 

„ glauconome, Klug., 306, 


„ johnstonii, Crowley, 268, 

306, 310, 326 

„ hellica, Linn., 255, 264, 

268, 270, 278, 279, 306, 


„ callidice, Esp., 253, 254, 

2G4, 208, 270, 306 

Digitized by 


Phytogeny of the Pierinas. 


Synchloe protodice, Boisd, <k Lee, 

264, 260, 27J 

,, chloridice, Euhn. . 306 

Tatochila autodice, Huhn., 254, 264, 

270, 272, 283, 306 

„ theodice, Boisd,, 254, 264, 

270, 279, 306 

Phalia njmphala, Blanch,, 307, 323 

Xeophaaia menapia, Feld,^ 304, 307, 


„ terlootii, Behr,^ 303, 307, 322 

„ %i^.Behr. . . 303,307,322 

Pontia cratsegi, Lirnu, 257, 267, 277, 

- 278,303,306,323 

„ bippia, Brem., 278, 30^ 323 

„ soracta, Moore, 257, 267, 277, 

279, 303, 323 

„ belucha, MarBhaU^ 303, 323 

„ lencodice, Evenm,^ 303, 306, 


„ nabellica^ Boisd,, 303, 323 

„ oberthfin, Leech . . 303 

Meaapia peloria, Hew.y 304, 307, 324 

Baltia sbawii. Bates . . 307, 324 

„ butleri, 3fo(>r« . .307,324 

Metaporia agathon, Qray, 257, 267, 

277, 279, 302, 304, 324 

„ phryxe, Boisd,, 277, 279 

Ganoris napi, Liim,, 252, 253, 263, 

„ bryonise, Ochs. . . . 270 

„ brassicsB, Z^tiin., 252, 253, 263 

„ gliciria. Cram,, 253, 264, 


„ rapse, Lim, 252, 253, 263, 

Pinacopteryx pigea, Boisd. . 279 

„ larima, ^otW. . 256 

„ caprioomus, Ward, 

268, 279, 311 

Hophina cassida, Fabr,, . . 305 

„ phryne, Fabr,^ 257, 277, 

304, 324 

„ coronifl. Cram. . . 257 

„ timnatha, Hew,, 258, 277 

HnphiDa eperia, Boisd, . • 304 
„ naomi. Wall, ... 305 

„ lea, Doubl 305 

„ aspasia, Stoll, . . 258 

„ Judith, Fabr , . 258, .305 

„ nabisy Lucas . . . 305 

„ nama, Moore , , 258, 304 

Udaiana cynis, Hew. , , 308, 321 

„ monuste, Linn, .321, 323 

„ snasa, Boisd. . . . 321 

„ joppe, l^oMc?. . . . 321 

Herpeenia eriphia, Godt,, 279, 283 

„ tritogenia, Klug, . 311 

„ lacteipenniB, BuU, . 311 

Nepheronia Valeria, Cram, , 262 

„ g8Ba, Feld, . 267, 277 

„ iob®a, Boisd, , . 262 

„ thalassiiia, Boisd., 266, 

279 316 

,, argia, Fahr.^ 279.' 308 

Eronia deodora, HUhn. . 316, 318 

„ leda, Bouhl, 262, 266, 317. 


Euchloe belia, Linn 318 

„ enpheno, Esp. . . 261 

„ cardamines, Linn., 261, 276 

„ reakirtii, Edw, . . 261 

„ genutia, Fabr. .276, 318 

„ belemia, E^. . . , 276 

„ ansonia, EUbn., 261, 266 

„ ausonides, Luc. • • 318 

„ hyuntiByEdw. . . 261 

„ tBLg}a,mbn. . .261,266 

„ charlonia, Donz., 276, 318, 


„ lucilla, Butl., 261, 276, 318 

Zegris eupheme, Esp, . . . 318 

Leptosia sinapia, Linn. . .321, 323 

Eroessa chilensis, GiUr. . 318, 327 

Moschonenra methymna, Oodi., S21 

Di^morphia melia, Godt, . . 285 

„ astyocha, EUbn, . 285 

„ praxinoe, Doubly 285 

„ nemeaia, Latr. . 285 

Lyooreaatergatis,2>ou&/.<§ JETeu^. 299 | Ceratinia (Ithomia) dion8Ba,£r(0U7.299 


Helioonins hydara, Hew, 

Helioonins melpomene, Linn,, 294, 


„ thelxiope, HUbn. . 295 
„ Taloaniis, BtUl. • 294 

phyllis, Fabr. . 
bameyi, HUbn, 


Digitized by 


334 On the Phylogeny of the Pierin®. 


Pipilio nephalion, Godt 298 

/ acynthns, Fa hr. . 295, 298 
" t poljmetiu;, GodL . 285,298 
^ ent^rpinns, Godwu S Salv^ 294 

IxcEBTJE Sedis. 

Styx inf emails, SUiudgr .... 290 

Psendoponti* paradox^, Feld^ . 290 

Daridina armandi, Oberikr. . . 304 


FlO. 1. Eucheira sodalis. 

2. CatasUcta biiky$, 

3. C. cUmene. 

4. BtUcts belladonna. 

5. D. eucharU ? . 

6. D. ny$a $ . 

7. Metaporia agathon, 

8. Huphina phrifne ?. 


Fig. 9. Calophaga pcmUna ?. 

10. Appias Clementina 9 , 

11. Hipoicritia la lag e ^. 

12. MylothrU ctgaUUna. 

13. Belenois mesentina i . 

14. B. peri$thene, 

15. Synehloe daplidice $. 

16. GanorU napi $ . 


Fig. 17. Teracolus hewitsomi. 

18. /ri<w marianne 9 • 

19. Hehomoia glattcippe ? . 

20. Cb/jcM Aya/<J 9 . 

21. Catopsilia crocale^Y^.Jlava ?. 

22. Ckillidryas philea ?.<> 

23. ^ronia /e^a ? . 

24. Euchloe charlonia. 

These figures are only designed to illustrate the actual points 
mentioned in the text. They are not intended to show specific 
characters. The same letters and numbers stand for the corre- 
sponding markings throughout all the figures. See explanations 
in the text, pp. 254, 264, 269, 273, 274. 

Note. — ^In Fig. 15, S 8 is placed one space too high up. 

* This figure was drawn from a specimen in the Hope Collec- 
tion, which had been erroneously laoelled C. thalestris. The error 
has unfortunately found its way into the plate. 

Digitized by 


( 335 ) 

X. Some notes on the Micro-Lepidoptera whose lat'vse are 
external feeders, and chiefly on the early stages of 
Eriocephala calthella \Zygmnidse, Limacodidse, 
Eriocephalidse). By Thomas Alqsbnon Chapman^ 
M.D., P.E.S. 

[Bead Feb. 7th, 1894.] 

Plates YI. & VII. 

I PBESSNT these notes now, as there seems little pro- 
bability that I shall^ at an early date^ be able to carry 
farther my observations on Eriocephala, and it is 
desirable to pot them^ so far as they go^ at the disposal 
of anyone wno may wish to continue them ; and I pre- 
sent along with them sundry notes that tend to confirm 
the view, that the Zygsemdse, Limacodidse, and EriocO" 
phalidse form a group which^ though the last member is 
as low as the lowest Tinese, and the first as high as Butter- 
flies or Noctu89, has nevertheless been evolved on its own 
Unes, from a common source, as a separate branch of 

The broad facts of the pupal structure, and the slug- 
like form and habit of external feeding of the larva, pro- 
bably suffice to support this view ; but further points of 
alliance are no doubt most useful in confirmation. 

It becomes necessary, in the first place, to relate my 
observations on Eriocephala calthella, since it is largely 
to these observations that I owe the confidence I feel 
that this grouping of families is justified by fact. 

The genus Micropteryx was divided by Stainton (^' A 
Monograph of the British Species of the Genus Micro- 
pteryx of Zeller,*' Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend., new series, 
vol. i., pp. 26-40, 1850-1) into two sections — A. Erioce- 
phala, of Curtis, and B. Micropteryx, Hiibner. At that 
time the larv89 were unknown, and the division was made 
by the neuration. Shortly after, the larva of Micropteryx, 
Hiibner, was discovered, and very soon material was accu- 
mulated that would have justified what must now be 
done, viz., separating the Eriocephalse from the Micro- 
pteryges, not only as a distinct genus but as a separate 

TBAN8. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1894. — PART IT. (JUNE.) 

Digitized by 


836 Dr. T. A. Chapman^s notes on Mkro-Lepidoptera 

family ; and the following might be a brief outline of the 
characters^ distinguishing them from each other and from 
other forms. 

MicropterygidsB. Ovum : Ovoid in shape^ delicate^ trans- 
parent^ and nearly colourless ; laid in the parenchyma of 
a leaf. 

Larva : Leaf-mining, without legs. 

Pupa : In a dense subterranean cocoon, escaping there- 
from for emergence ; segments of abdomen all " free ; *' 
has large jaws, used for assisting the pupa out of cocoon, 
like those of Trichoptera, but larger and more elaborate. 

Imago : Large six-jointed maxillary palpi, no trace of 
jaws, 9th and 10th abdominal segments of 9 form a knife 
arrangement for piercing leaves for oviposition ; 8th is 
an external ordinary (but terminal) segment. (In Adelidse 
the 8th is absorbed in the piercing apparatus, and the 
7th is the external terminal segment.) 

EriocephalidaB, Ovum: Spherical, opaque, covered with 
a snow-like coatiug, laid externally. 

Larva: Short, square, and angular, with 8 rows of 
globular appendages, and 8 pairs of abdominal legs, an 
anal sucker, long antennas, feeding exposed. 

Pupa: (Probably not unlike a Nepticula, and in a 
cocoon above ground.) I have only seen the head and 
antenna piece, and cannot build up the whole pupa from 
that with any confidence. 

Imago: Six-jointed maxillary palpi, used as feeding 
hands: well-developed, serviceable jaws; ovipositor simple, 
tubular, of three pieces, last abdominal segment the 7th. 
There is also the neurational difference noted by Stainton. 

I propose, then, to accept and accentuate this division, 
leaving the name Micropteryx for the " higher *' group, 
whose larvae have been known for so long, and as to 
whose oviposition and corresponding structure of the 
imago I had the pleasure of assisting my friend. Dr. 
Wood, in his researches, though in view of my observa- 
tions on their pupae, I think it must be very doubtful 
whether they can be called the "higher*' group any 

The Eriocephalida3 attracted my renewed attention 
when engaged in working out the oviposition of the 
Micropteryges, In the far-off days, when the life-histories 

Digitized by 


toJiose larvsa are external feeders, 837 

of Micropteryx were being recorded in the " Annnals/' 
I was mnch impressed with the resistance of the Erioce- 
phalidw to investigation; but looking^ as I then did, 
on the Tineina generally as subjects fit only for the work 
of past masters, I had little idea that they would con- 
tinue this resistance for so many years, and that it would 
be left for me to make the first impression against it. 

It was evident, on comparing the structure of calthella 
with that o{ purpurella, or other Micropteryx — as indeed 
it was to a great extent without that knowledge— that 
the habits of Eriocephala must be very difierent from 
those of Micropteryx. 

I believe my observations have been made on both 
calthella and aeppella, and I have not always been very 
careful to determine which species I had in hand, and 
may have had others. But in the observations I have 
made I have not determined that any decisive differences 
were observable. 

In calthella, then, the ovipositor is quite short, simple, 
and tubular ; no knives, or rods, or other complex appa- 
ratus, as in pv/rpurella. The egg, therefore, must be 
laid in a very easy, simple way. This is confirmed by 
noticing that the egg is large and spherical, not, there- 
fore, to be slipped into any narrow chink or crevice. It 
seemed also certain that it was not laid on the leaves 
of any plant, so I assumed it must be laid in moss or 
rubbish, on the ground. By providing a number of 
moths with such materials in May, 1891, I succeeded in 
obtaining a large number of eggs, and in hatching the 
young larvBB ; but I altogether failed to induce them to 
eat. The egg and young larvas are, however, so very 
remarkable — so unlike all our ideas of a Lepidopterous 
insect — that even so meagre a measure of success was 
worthy of note. I delayed doing more than mention the 
result for two reasons. Firstly, because one of our lead- 
ing — ^perhaps I ought to say our leading lepidopterist — 
was pleased to suggest that the beast I had under 
observation was an Julus, or a Crustacean, or some un- 
known monster, and that repetition was very desirable, 
with many precautions, to make sure I had Micropteryx, 
i.e., Eriocephala^ and nothing else. This advice I was 
very willing to follow, because not only was it obviously 
a great compliment to the extraordinary nature of the 
observation, out as a second reason for delay I hoped to 

Digitized by 


338 Dr. T. A. Chapman's notes on Micro-Lepidoptera 

be able to make my observations more foll^ and even 
perhaps to rear the larv89. 

I accordinelyj in June^ 1892^ secured a good supply of 
moths and plaiced them in many different jars. In three 
of these I gave them nothing but moss, which I had 
obtained in winter^ then cleaned and boiled it^ and kept 
it in a dry condition until it was wetted and given to the 
moths, Eges were freely laid in this sterilised moss as 
in the other jars. I may say that I myself considered this 
precaution to be absolutely unnecessary^ as the eggs laid 
agreed precisely in size and form with those dissected 
from the moth— they were seen against the deceased moth 
that had laid them, they were laid in several different 
jars, and finally Dr. Wood had, by repeating my procedure, 
induced moths to lay, and had in fact confirmed all 
my observations. However, the sterilised moss experi- 
ment has been made successfully, and several dozen 
batches of eggs have been laid, so that there is no room 
for the most severe scepticism to suggest a doubt. 

In 1892 I supplied the moths with flowers of Ranun- 
culus repens (common buttercup), and though I believe 
observations have been made on the mouth-structures 
and habits of these moths, in which they are in truth very 
anomalous, as in so many other ways, I may mention 
my own observations. They use their great claw-like 
maxillary palpi with sharp knife points to scrape and 
tear at both the pollen of the stamens and the surface of 
the petals, in the latter case perhaps coUectiug fallen 
pollen. They certainly do something very like eating as 
regards this pollen, and dig^t and use it, as would appear 
from two circumstances : firstly, that very slender moths 
ftet very fat and lay many eggs, and, secondly, their 
dejecta are very abundant. There is obviously room for 
much detailed observation in this matter, which I did 
not make, as I wished all my material to be devoted to 
making sure of eggs, and I had not too much time to 
give to the subject. 

Moths will live in confinement for three weeks if fed 
in this way and kept damp enough. 

They pair readily, and apparently do so more than 
once. When laying, the female moth creeps down 
among the moss to a depth of an inch or more, and 
seems anxious to get to tne bottom and lay her eggs on 
the bottom of the jar, sand or earth. If the stratum is 

Digitized by 


wJiose larvsB are external feeders. 339 

too deep for this she will lay them on a spray of the moss, 
always in little groups^ rarely as few as two or three, 
usually six to ten and even more. I have counted as 
many as twenty-five. She will often remain and die 
heside her last batch of eggs. I prepared various jars 
with mosses of different sorts, and especially several with 
growing Mni/um, which I thought might be the proper 
food, but in this I proved to be mistaken. 

About the middle of August, 1892, 1 found several larvae 
of cahhella about 1*5 mm. in length in ajar in which sotne 
moss was growing, but I could see none in my specially 
prepared pots of Mnium, nor indeed in any of the other 
jars ; these larva, though so much larger than the newly- 
hatched ones, were precisely the same in all respects, so 
far as I could see without disturbing them. They were 
kept very wet, the moss dripping and the sand below 
under water, in consequence of my directions to keep them 
moist during a temporary absence being misunderstood. 
The result, however, was decidedly satisfactory, and at 
the end of September the moss was still growing, and 
there were two larvae usually to be seen of a length of 
about 2 mm. On October 21 I found there were three 
larvae in this jar, the two largest measuring with the head 
retracted 3'5 mm. in length, and therefore probably full 

I also foimd several about 1'3 mm. in length in another 
jar in which moss was growing, but which had been kept 
much too dry. In one of the Mnium jars there was abo 
one about 1*5 mm. long, seen for the first time close by 
where a bit of moss (not Mnium) was growing. I was 
on this date successful in making two other observations. 
One was in seeing one of the larvae in my best jar actually 
eating the delicate stem of growing moss, of which a con- 
siderable piece of one side had disappeared. The other 
was due to one of the larvae having got on to the glass, 
when not only was it easy to see that it resembled the 
newly-hatched larvae as to processes, abdominal legs, etc., 
bat that it also possessed the trefoil sucker. These 
larvae seemed to be constantly on the move, at times 
not to be seen, and when seen always in a fresh place ; 
they walk slowly but steadily, using the abdominal 
appendages as legs, and often raising the fore part of the 
body and stretching about as if in search of something. 

They are not cannibals, as one walked straight along 

Digitized by 


3i0 Dr. T. A. Chapman's notes on Mirr^-Lepvloptera 

another and neither attempted to injare the other in any 
way. As judged by the sizes of their heads, there were 
at least three sizes of larro on October 21st, which with 
the newly-hatched one makes fonr sizes ; bat there is little 
donbt that there would be one or two intermediate sizes 
between the young larvae and the smallest seen at this 
date. The intestinal contents, so Cur as they are visible 
through the larva^ were in one instance green, in two 
others brownish. Occasionally a good end view of the 
larva is seen, and then its angularity (on cross section) is 
very evident, the spaces between the doable rows of 
processes being hollow and the processes placed on the 
angles of a flat, raised surface. None of the drawings I 
have bring out this peculiarity quite satisfactorily. 

These larvaa preserve also the long antennas; these 
have an elegant curvature, and are placed on the head so 
as to look, as it moves from side to side, ridiculously 
like the horns on a Hereford ox — the proportionate 
length of horn to head being not very difiisrent in the 
two cases. 

The moss on which these larvaB thus happened to be 
reared was named for me by the Rev. A. Ley as 
Hypnum praslongum, a common species. There were 
also present, though it was doubtful if these were 
growing, two other common species, Hypnum tamari- 
scinum and swartzti, and possibly others. 

I must admit that I was nearly as much astonished at 
finding the full-grown larva retain the peculiar structure 
of the young larva, as I was when I first saw the newly- 
hatched larva. Having so few and wishing very much to 
obtain the pupa if possible, I did not sacrifice any of 
these, for closer examination; but one that died, of 
2'5 mm. long, though not quite satisfactory, gave me a 
good view of the abdominal legs and ball appendages ; 
the head was unfortunately retracted and could not be 
satisfactorily made out. All these larvas perished during 
the winter, and left no trace, except some remains that 
make a rather poor slide. 

In 1893 I prepared eight jars with various mosses and 
succeeded in having plenty of eggs laid in them, but for 
some reason or other the young larvae, which hatched 
abundantly, appeared to have all perished, until I was 
pleased and surprised early in November to observe two 
full-grown larvae in one of the jars. 

Digitized by 


whose larvae are external feeders. 341 

In January^ 1894, I observed some threads of Isaria 
in tliis jar, and found they proceeded from what tnmed 
oat to be a cocoon of calthella, with a dead fall-grown 
larva carled ap inside; the cocoon was fairly tough, of 
yellowish silk and with scraps of moss coating it, ovoid, 
3 mm. long and 1*5 broad. The contained larva was 
somewhat damaged by the fungus and in removing it 
from the cocoon. The abdominal legs are all present, 
but the structure seems a little more modified, either 
really or by the Isaria^ than in the two-third grown larva 
already referred to. The antennas are very long, the 
first lon^ joint being very long, the second reduced as 
compared with younger larvae. The ball appendages are 
proportionally rather smaller. The dots in the sulci 
between are now large, round, smooth, disc-like plates, 
comparing markedly with the rough surrounding skin, 
and having a central pigment spot. 

The ova are spherical, 0'46 mm. in diameter, of 
ealthella almost white; of seppella 0*41 mm., a very 
Uttle smaller and distinctly yellow. They have a snowy, 
mealy look, owing to a provision of a close coating of 
minute roda standing vertically on the surface of the egg 
and often tipped with a small bulb (of fluid ?) ; whether 
these are adpressed to the surface of the egg when laid, 
or whether they afterwards develop in some way, I 
do not know, but I think the latter. Their function 
would appear to be to protect the egg from too close 
contact with the possibly very wet surface on which 
it lies. 

The young larva is difficult to examine owing to its 
delicacy, to its retracting its head when disturbed, and to 
its rapid shrivelling by desiccation, when removed from 
its natural habitat in damp moss. 

The peculiarities of its form and structure may be 
stated to be its angular outline, the possession of a 
number of remarkable appendages to each segment, of 
eight pairs of abdominal legs of unusual structure, and of 
an oval sucker ; that the antennas are remarkably long 
for a lepidopterous larva, and that the head is retractile, 
so far, that it may occupy the interior of the 2nd thoracic 

The larva does not appear to alter these characters 
during its growth to maturity. The antennas of the adult 

Digitized by 


342 Dr. T. A. Chapman's notes on Micro-Lepidoptera 

larva are not perhaps proportionately so long^ and the 
abdominal legs have shorter and thicker bases. 

The description, therefore, and figures of the larvae, 
though chiefly taken from preserved specimens of the 
young larva, are not probably far out, if applied even to 
the full-grown one. 

The larva is thick and short and fairly cylindrical, 
apart from its angular section, and tapers very little, ter- 
minating rather abruptly at either end, especially when 
sulky and with retracted head. The angular outline is 
due to eight rows of peculiar appendages, so disposed 
as to form two subdorsal rows and two lateral rows 
on either side, each double row arising from the 
angles of a raised ridge, and the intervening spaces 
being rather hollowed. The general surface is raised in 
ridges, or rather marked by sulci that are chiefly trans- 
verse in direction, but communicate with each other to 
form a network, and in places forming a beautiful resetted 

The general result is a division of each segment into 
five subsegments, the balls or appendages are on the third 
of these. The fourth and fifth, in the centre of the 
dorsum, and again in the centre of space between the 
subdorsal and lateral pairs of ridges, are united into 
one by a circular area, in the centre of which is a dot or 

This description applies to the 2nd and 3rd thoracic 
and 1st to 7th abdominal segments. The 1st thoracic 
segment has two transverse rows of ball appendages, with 
six in the first row and four in the second. 

On the 8th abdominal segment the appendages are 
similarly in two rows, but deficient in number, there 
being only eight altogether ; whilst on the 9th segment 
are only six. 

These appendages on 8 and 9 abdominal are longer, 
larger, and more club-shaped, and project backwards from 
their points of attachment ; those on the other segments 
shorter and more rounded, are directed forward — those 
on the Ist thoracic are, however, similarly a little larger 
and longer than the others. 

These appendages arise from special ball-like points, 
encircled by a special area, and are globular in form, or 
in some cases nearly pyriform, with a definite neck or 
stalk J they are dotted as though with spicules in a rect- 

Digitized by 


whose larvas are external feeders, 343 

angular pattern^ and appear to have some internal ribbing 
or skeleton, which remains stiff in a mounted specimen, 
whilst the surface loses its plumpness and shrivels. The 
abdominal legs are eight pairs on the first eight abdominal 
segments, arranged so as to suggest that this double row 
is a modification of the double rows of appendages on the 
upper surface. 

These legs are, however, of a very different structure 
from the hsSls of the upper surface, and also from the true 
legs on the thoracic segments. 

Thej consist of a long stem or shaft with, both towards 
its base and apex, some doubtful spicular projections; 
this shaft is apparently cylindrical, and contains a body 
which is either a vessel or tube, or a tendon to the ter- 
minal claw. The shafl arises from a conical base, to 
which it is not distinctly jointed, bat is rather continuous 
with it. 

The terminal piece is a very distinct and separate 
structure, in general outline much like the terminal joint 
or claw of a thoracic leg, but with the sharp apex rounded 
off; the convexity is directed forwards (not inwards). It 
is of homogeneous semi-transparent texture, but marked 
by oblique lines, which suggest, whether correctly or not 
I cannot say, that the surface between them is raised in 
rounded ridges, which pass round the anterior and 
posterior edges and make it look like a conventional 
cornucopia. In preserved specimens the shafts of these 
legs seem laterally compressed. 

Another structure is a sucker on the under surface of 
the 9th and 10th abdominal segments, its form is trefoil 
with one leaf forwards, or possibly only on 10th, the 9th 
being very narrow in front of it. 

This sucker, on a lepidopterous larva, is of course very 
unusual, and is a further point of relationship to Limaco- 
dids. The 14th segment carries dorsally two hairs. 
The true legs, besides the base, which is a Uttle full and 
raised, consist of three joints, and much resemble the 
thoracic legs of an ordinary lepidopterous larva. The 
first large joint has two spurs on its inner margin, about 
the middle, and two or three hairs on the same zone, 
laterally and dorsally ; the second more slender joint is 
rather longer, and narrows about the middle, where there 
is a spur or bristle on its inner margin ; on the outer 
side, at its extremity, is an indication of a bristle or two. 

Digitized by 


344 Dr. T. A. Chapman's notes on Micro-Lepidoptera 

but no definite appendage. The last joint is again rather 
shorter^ and terminates in a sharp point. 

The head is rather longer than broad, and narrows a 
little forwards ; there are two strong mandibles, with four 
brown teeth. The antennaB are very long, about equal in 
length to the transverse diameter of the head ; there are 
two short thick basal segments, as to the first of which I 
am not very sure whether it is a true segment or a basal 
projection ; there are two long segments about equal in 
length, and a nearly as long terminal joint, which is little 
more than a seta in thickness. Two pairs of palpi are 
also visible — two and three-jointed, apparently those 
usual in lepidopterous larvss, but I have not defined their 
relations. There is also a central point (spinneret f ). 

I have also one observation bearing on the pupa. A 
moth that I placed on a slide was found to have a defec- 
tive antenna, and was accompanied by the head-piece of 
the pupa case, which was of the ''Incompleted'' or 
"Micro" type, that is, consisted of the covering of 
antennaB, hec^d, and head-appendages in one piece. This 
observation renders tolerably certain what was antece- 
dently probable, that the pupa is of '* micro " type, with 
3rd and following abdominal segments free. 

The pupal structure of Zygsena and of Limacodes 
showed them to be micros, of a rather early type, whilst 
their ova also presented peculiarities nowhere to be met 
with among macros, and though not at all resembhng 
closely those of Eriocephala, not at all unlike some 

The larv89 of these two groups, however, present very 
wide difierences from other micros. 

The only other micro-larva having similar form, and 
the habit of not mining or feeding internally, or under a 
web, was curiously that of Eriocephala. Unfortunately, 
though the pupa of Zygsena and Limacodes are of nearly 
the same micro^type, and that a low one, and Eriocephala 
must also have a pupa of low micro-type, I have, after 
trying to obtain it for three years, failed to do so. It 
cannot be taken for granted that it is of the same type as 
they are. We are therefore deprived, for the present, of 
the light that would throw on these relationships. It 
occurred to me, however, that if this relationship was 
real, and not a mere resemblance, some other points 

Digitized by 


whose larvss are external feeders, 345 

of similaritj of structure and habits would be dis- 

The first point that occurred to me was that traces of 
abdominal legs, like those of Eriocephala, might perhaps 
occur in newly-hatched larvas of some species of Zygsena 
or Ltmacodea. So far, I have failed to detect such a 
structure, but find it recorded that the larva of Lagoa 
crispata possesses additional abdominal legs. I have not 
yet succeeded in obtaining eggs of this species. The 
pupa is unquestionably Limacodid, though Packard calls 
it a lAparid. Though many systematists consider Liparids 
and Limacodids to inosculate, the pupse prove them to be 
about as far apart, phylogenetically, as they well can bo. I 
aucceeded in obtaining eggs and young larvae of Parasa 
chlcris, and in rearing one larva ; but though this is a 
most curious and interesting larva, it did not present any 
extra abdominal legs. It confirmed, however, the obser- 
vations on Limacodea testudo, which afibrded me some 
very curious facts, and some very unexpected confirmation 
of the suspected relationship to Enocephala, 

Limacodes has suckers to the first eight abdominal 
segments, though the first and last of these are poorly 
developed ; these suckers are probably homologous with 
prolegs, and also with the eight pairs of abdominal legs 
of Eri^cephalfi, 

When the larva of Limacodes testudo has completed 
its development within the eggshell, which is very easy 
to watch, owing to its transparency, flatness, and the 
facility with which the moth can be induced to lay them 
on glass, it is free from any spines or processes, but at 
the period of hatching certain long spines are rapidly 
developed; of these there are at least four on each 
segment, arranged as a dorsal and lateral series on either 
side. The ordinary tubercles can be detected as faint 
dots, but these spines are quite independent of the ordi- 
nary tubercles, and difierently placed, and correspond in 
position to no larval processes I am aware of, except 
those of Erioc^hala, 

In testudo the dorsal series on one side, though con- 
sisting of one spine on each segment, has them placed as 
though they were the double rows of Eriocephala, with 
alternate spines omitted, i.e., the inner spine is wanting 
on the first abdominal segment, the outer one on the 

TRANS. KNT. 80C. LOND. 1894. — PART U. (jUNE.) Z 

Digitized by 


846 Dr. T. A. Chapman's notes on Mtcro-Lepidoptera 

second^ and so on alternately ; laterally the spines appear 
to belong to the lower row of the lateral series of Enoce" 
phala, but the upper row is represented on the thorax by 
two spines. 

A further point of resemblance in these spines to those 
of Eriocephcua, is in their peculiar spiculate apex^ which 
reminds one much of the peculiar stellate spicul89 of the 
knobs of Eriocephala, 

The rapid development of these spines occurs in this 
way : In the unhatched larva a circular mark exists at 
the site of each spine, and is the summit of a cylindrical 
body deeply imbedded in the larval substance. This body 
is, in fact, the spine, of which the upper third appears to 
be already stiflf and solid, with its apex at the surface 
ready to emerge, whilst the lower two-thirds form a soft 
invaginated sheath surrounding this upper part. As the 
spine emerges, when half of the soft portion has emerged 
there appears upon it a spur, and when the emergence is 
complete, and, in fact, at any time, a distinct joint is 
visible at the base of the upper portion. The soft por- 
tion appears very rapidly to become hard. 

I had the good fortune to observe this emergence take 
place in many instances, and have preserved specimens 
at all the stages. 

These spines are in length about equal ^n length to the 
diameter of the larva, and are divisible into three portions. 
The basal is rather thick and smooth, and terminates at 
the lateral spur. The middle portion is continuous with 
the basal, and is structurally the same— only narrower — 
and is also quite smooth. The terminal third is separated 
from the middle portion by a joint, or transverse line of 
union, and has a series of minute points or teeth, appa- 
rently arranged in a somewhat spiral manner along its 
shaft, and terminates at the apex in a slight enlargement 
and a coronet of angular points, six to nine in number. 
The lateral points are difficult to see except where taken in 
profile, though I have some preparations showing them 
to be really rather numerous and spirally arranged. 
Like the structural framework of the knobs of Eriocephala 
they are less evident during life. 

The inner structure of these spines has all the appear- 
ance of consisting of a separate included tube running 
the whole length, and having a branch to the lateral spur. 

On the first moult these spines disappear, and are 

Digitized by 


whose larvse are external feeders. 347 

replaced by straight spines^ that is^ they have a smooth 
oatline, and taper continaously from base to apex. They 
have, however, a joint about |th of their length from the 
base, the apex looking harder, browner, and more solid, 
and they appear to have a central tube. I need not 
allude to their apparent origin from deep tissues, and the 
skin looking like a thick coating of glass, through which 
they come, as this is, I think, a well-known peculiarity 
of these kurvae (as also of many Lycaanids). 

But the dorsal set of spines are now double, that is, 
the double row, of which the alternate members were 
wanting in the larva of the first stage, is now complete, 
and they remain so even in the adult larva, though they 
are now merely prominences, and not spines. In the 
second and third stages there are, especially in the tho- 
racic regions round the bases of these spines, very minute 
spines, apparently of a structure very similar to the last 
joint of the spines in first stage. 

The spinneret in this larva is remarkable up till the 
penultimate stage, in being not a pointed organ, but 
flattened out like a fish's tail, and the silk it disposes on 
the leaves for the larva to walk upon, is not a thread, 
but a very thin ribbon. 

This larva has other very interesting peculiarities, most 
of which are, I imagine, well known. These I need not 
touch on, indeed all I am at present interested to touch 
on is the remarkable disposition and structure of these 
spines in the newly-hatched larva, parallel with nothing I 
know of in any other family than the similar arrange- 
ments in Eriocephala, 

Prof. A. S. Packard has some excellent observations on 
spines of Idrruicodids, but on none, so far as I know, that 
quite parallel these in structure; and he does not, I 
think, refer to their disposition in the newly-hatched larva 
as similar to that I find in teatudo. 

He figures, however, the young larva of Lithodia 
fasciola, which seems to be very like that of testudo, 
though less well-developed, and for this reason, want of 
sufficient material, and insufficient amplification, appears 
not to have noted any of the points I have here drawn 
attention to. 

Among many figures he gives of Ceratocampid and 
other spines, and similar figures elsewhere, and amongst 
my own observations, there are abundant instances of an 

Digitized by 


348 Dr. T. A. Chapman's notes on Micro- Lejridoptera 

inflated or elongated base^ carrying an appendage articu- 
lated to it, or several such ; but these appendages are 
always simple hair-like or spinous, just as they are in 
teatudo after the first skin. 

In the case of Zygwna I have failed to detect any 
structures in the young larvss I have examined at all 
parallel to these, and must still rely on the structure of 
the egg, the form and habit of the larva, and the very 
primitive form of the pupa, for its alliance with this 

I have examined the eggs of Limacodes teatudo, Hetero- 
genea dsellus, and Parasa chloris. They are all flat, 
oval, colourless, transparent, with lozenge-shaped net- 
work of cell-structure of the shell, easily seen if examined 
in suitable light and with moderate magnifying power. 
Such eggs occur amongst the Micros and in some Pyrales. 
Nothing like them is anywhere met with, so far as I 
know, amongst Macros. 

The pupa also is of evident Micro type. The wing 
and appendage cases are not attached to ab<]ominal seg- 
ments beyond the second. They are not difficult to 
detach, in some species, from each other. The mastillsB 
are small, but are prolonged outwards, and after pass- 
ing through a narrow neck terminate in a (sometimes 
rather twisted) club between the eyes, antennae, and 
legs. This represents the maxillary palpus, which no- 
where in Macros has any such development. 

Then movement exists in the 3rd and 4th abdominal seg- 
ments and in the <J pupa, also in the 7th. Further, the 
larva lies unchanged in the cocoon all winter, and moults 
to pupa in the spring, and the pupa escapes from the 
cocoon for emergence. 

These characters apply to the following species which I 
had alive last spring : Limacodes testudo, Parasa chloris, 
Limacodes scapha, Heterogenea asellus, Empretia stimulea, 
and Lagoa crispata. 

I do not know that a detailed description of each 
would carry us much further. They vary in the propor- 
tion of parts, the extent of toothed armature on the back 
of the abdominal segments, and other sculpture. Other 
features that do not so much interest us in the present 
connection are the possession of a beak between the eyes 
(for rupturing the cocoon); the projection backwards 
of the meso-BCutellum, so that its sharp apex almost 

Digitized by 


whose larvse are extei-nat feeders, 34d 

reaches the 2nd abdominal segment ; a very remarkable 
stractnre that exists in other families^ but nowhere else so 
well developed as here, and which I have called an eye- 
flanpre. Where, in most pupaa, the eye abuts against the 
antennad, it is here rather separate, and a flat flange-like 
margin, with sharp edge, and in some marked with 
radiating linos, surrounds the eye without quite joining 
the antenna. 

In Lagoa crispata the antennas of the male are a very 
marked feature of the pupa. Unfortunately, I had only 
this one pupa, and so failed to obtain eggs. The cocoon 
is very like the others except in one very important point, 
it has a practicable lid. 

In Zygssna the egg is of an ovoid form, with a delicate 
colourless and apparently structureless shell. The con- 
tents divide into two portions — a yellow at one end, and 
a nearly colourless at the other, and till one is familiar 
with them one is persuaded they are addled at least. 

The pupa (I have examined filipendulse, lonicerw, 
trifolit, exulans) is very different from that of Limacodes 
in form and colour, but in the most essential points the 
number of free segments, the looseness of attachment of 
the appendages, and in the dehiscense, it is practically 
identical. The maxillary palpus is nearly or quite obso- 
lete, and in some other points the appendage-cases have 
a structure differing from Limacodes, The dorsal head- 
cover is still well-developed. 

I may note that Syntomis, placed in Zygsenidae or left 
close by in 8yntomida5, not only has, as has been often 
remarked, a very Arctioid larva, but, as is demonstrated 
by the pupa, is really an Arctia, with no aflBnities what- 
ever with Zygsena. The ovum is also an Arctia ovum, 
not indeed very far from Gaja, but differing fi'om Zygxna 
toto ccelo. 

I am indebted to Dr. W. G. Clements for the privilege 
of examining a cocoon and pupa of Euchromia fulvida, 
a species also credited with Zygasnid affinities. The 
pupa in no way resembles Zygasna, but though very 
delicate and transparent, affords no characters that I can 
certainly seize to separate it, much more than generically, 
from Lubridpeda, 

It presented a curious Arctioid peculiarity, viz., the 
adherence of the cocoon to the pupa. Gaja cocoon, for 

Digitized by 


350 Dr. T. A. Chapman's notes on Micro-Leptdoptera. 

example^ can hardly be touched without the cocoon 
adhering to the pupa^ as if they had been wetted. 

These two instances seem as sufficient as a thousand^ 
to illustrate that Zygcena has been placed among Arctiid 
families^ on the strength of some analogies of the 
imagines^ which cannot be homologies^ as they do not 
affect the earlier stages. 

Explanation of Plates VI. &. VII. 


Larva of Eriocephala calthella. 

Fig. 1. Larva 6rst skin, slightly grown, dorsal view, X 100 diam. 

2. Larva first skin, newly hatched, dorsal view, X 50 diam. 

3. „ „ lateral view, X 50 diam. 

4. Antenna, X 600 diam. 

6. Abdomind leg. x 900 dianu 

6. „ „ x 1200 diam. 

7, 8. Ball appendages, X about 900 diam. 


Eriocephala calthella. 

Fig. 9. Ball appendage and rosetted structure of skin, half-grown 
larva, X about 300 diam. 

10. Thoracic leg, X about 200 diam. 

11. Abdominal leg of larva, two-thirds grown, X about 300 diam. 

12. Ova in moss. X 30 diam., the upper ovum near hatching. 

13. Form of sucker, ventral aspect of 13th and 14 th segments. 

Larva of lAmacodes testudo. 

Fig. 14. Newly-hatched larva, dorsal view, before emergence of 

spines, X 100 diam. 
15. „ „ lateral view, X 100 diam. 

16, 17, 18. Stages in emergence of spines, X 100 diam. 

19. Terminal portion of spine, X 150 diam. 

20. Thoracic leg, X 160 diam. 

Fig. 1 from drawing by Mr. A. Hammond, F.L.8., from a living 

Figs. 2 and 3 from drawings by ]VIr. H. Knight, from living larva. 
Figs. 5, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20 from drawings by Mr. E. Wibon, 

from preserved specimens. 
The others from my sketches. 

Digitized by 


( 851 

Xr. On the Tenebrionid89 collected in Australia and 
Tasmania by Mr. Jamos J. Walker, R.N., F.L.S.. 
during the voyage of H.M.S, "Penguin " with 
descriptions of new genera and species. By Geobgk 
C. Champion, P.Z.S. 

[Bead Feb. 28th, 1894.] 

Plate VIII. 

It is proposed in this paper, wliicli is in continuation of 
one contributed by Mr. Gahan on the Longicornia (Trans. 
Ent. Soc. Lond. 1893, pp. 165—197), to give a list of 
the Tenebrionidaa collected in Australia and Tasmania by 
Mr. J. J. Walker in the years 1890 — 1, during the 
voyage of H.M. Surveying-Ship ''Penguin,*' reserving 
for the present the Cistelidae, Melandryidae, Anthicidee, 
and the remaining families of the Heteromerous series, 
and also the Tenebrionidse subsequently obtained by him 
in other places. The material examined has been for- 
warded by Mr. Walker partly to myself and partly to 
the British Museum, but the whole of the specimens 
collected have been examined. Some few species are 
represented in the Museum-set only (mostly single 
examples), and these are specially noted below. Five 
new genera and thirty-three new species are described 
oat of a total of 110 species. All the new genera and 
thirteen of the new species are from Tasmania, the 
remaining species being from North-west or West 
Australia. Three genera have not hitherto been recorded 
from the Australian continent, viz., Crypticus, Corticeus, 
and Palorus, Lyphia (= Lindia, Blackb.) is new to the 
Tasmanian fauna. Judging from the collection made by 
Mr. Walker, there is still much to be done in Tasmania, 
not only in the TenebrionidaQ, but in the other families 
of the Coleoptera. I am indebted to the Rev. T. 
Blackburn for a good deal of assistance in the pre- 
paration of this paper, for the purposes of which I have 
carefully studied the collections of Pascoe and F. Bates — 
both very rich in Australian species, and containing a 
large number of Australian types, — and also the Hope 
Collection at Oxford. 

TBAMS. INT. soc. LOMD. 1894. — PAttT 11. (JUNE.) 

Digitized by 


352 Mr. G. C. Champion on the TenehAonidsp 


Cotulades, Pascoe, Joorn. Ent., i., p. 119 (I860). 

Cotulades fasdcularis, 

Cotulades fascicularis, Pascoe^ Joum. Ent., i., p. 110, 
t. 7, fig. 5. 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

This insect is closely allied to C. (Tagenia) leucospila, 
Hope, the type of wluch I have examined, but differs 
from it in having the punctures of the elytral series finer 
and more closely placed, the thorax depressed in the 
middle, etc. Under bark (Walker). 


Docalis, Pascoe, Joum. Ent., i., p. 121 (1860). 

Doca I is fa ne ros us. 

Tagenia funerosa, Hope, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1845, 

p. 107. 
Docalls exoletus, Pascoe, Journ. Ent., i., p. 121, t. 8, 

fig. 7 (I860). 
Docalis degener, Pascoe, loc. rit., \). 122. 

Ilah. Tasmania — New Norfolk, Launceston, Franklin, 

Found in plenty by Mr. Walker, under loose bark of 
Eucalyptus. Fresh specimens have numerous fascicles 
of white or brownish- white scales on the elytra, these 
not being apparent in worn or dirty examples. The 
insect varies greatly in size. I have examined the type 
of Tagenia funerosa, Hope (which is completely abraded), 
and also that of D, exoletus, Pascoe. JD. degener is, 
apparently, missing from the Pascoe collection. In the 
Catalogue of Gemminger and Harold, and also in that 
of Masters, T, funerosa, Hope, is incorrectly placed 
under Cotulades. 


Elascus, Pascoe, Joum. Ent., i., p. 119 (1860). 

The species of this genus have wholly the facies of 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 353 

certain ColydiidaB, i.e., of Corticus and Sarrotrium. 
They are found under bark of felled Eucalyptus trees. 

Elascus crassicomis. 

Ehiscus crassicomis, Pascoe, Jonm. Ent., i., p. 120, 
t. 7, fig. 7. 

Eah. Tasmaniar— New Norfolk. 

EUlscus lunatus. 

EUiscus lunaitis, Pascoe, loc. cit., t. 7, fig. 8. 

Eah. Tasmania — Lannceston and Hobart. 

Three specimens, agreeing with the type in the Pascoe 

Edylius, n. gen. 

Mentum strongly transverse, trapezoidal, carinate down the 
middle ; mandibles bifid at the tip ; last joint of the maxillary 
palpi oblong-OTate, that of the labial pair similarly shaped ; 
maTJIliB with the inner and outer lobes coarsely ciliated ; labrum 
moderately prominent, emarginate in front ; head large and broad, 
deeply sank into the prothorax, arcuate-emarginate in front, the 
antennary orbits rather broadly expanded, parallel behind, and 
extending outwardly nearly as far as the eyes, the latter small, 
strongly transverse, and almost entire, the epistoma not clearly 
defined ; antennae not reaching the base of the prothorax, joint 3 
twice as long as 2, shorter than 4, 4 and 5 equal, 6 a little shorter 
and broader, 7 — 11 widened, 7 as broad as long, 8—10 strongly 
transrerse ; prothorax large, transverse, convex, broadly, horizon- 
tally explanate at the sides, with very prominent angles, the 
anterior ones subangalarly produced in front, and nearly meeting tjie 
antennary orbits, the base feebly bisinuate ; scutellum transversely 
triangular, moderately large ; elytra about twice as long, and of 
about the same width, as the prothorax, connate, broad oval, rounded 
at the sides in front, acutely margined, the humeri obtuse, declivous, 
not meeting the bind angles of the prothorax ; presternum convex, 
rather broad, declivous behind, margined on either side between 
the COZ8B ; middle coxal cavities widely open externally, the 
trochantin large; hind cox» widely separated, the intercoxal 
process broadly rounded at the apex ; epipleursa entire, broad at 
the base, gradually narrowing to the apex ; third and fourth ventral 
segments with coriaceous hind margin ; legs elongate ; anterior 
tibin flattened and dilated, strongly produced at their outer apical 

Digitized by 


864 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenebrionidss 

angle ; intermediate and hind tibise slender, asperate, setose, the 
hind pair slightly bowed inwards in both sexes ; tarsi sparselj 
clothed with long bristly hairs beneath, the two hinder pairs rather 
elongate, the first joint of the hind pair nearly as long as 3 and 4 
united, the anterior pair with the basal joints a little stouter and 
furnished with a brush of long silky hairs beneath in the male ; 
body oblong-oval, rather broad, apterous, sparsely clothed with long, 
appressed, silky hairs, the prothorax and elytra sparsely ciliate at 
the sides. 

This genus is proposed for a single species which 
appears to be not uncommon in Tasmania. It belongs 
to the '^ Pedinides *' of Lacordaire. E. canescens has 
much the facies of a small Asida. 

Edylius canescens, n. sp. (Plate VIII., figs. 5, 6a, 6,<y.) 
Oblong-oyal, rather broad, convex, ferruginous or obscure fer- 
ruginous, slightly shining ; above and beneath sparsely clothed 
with long, appressed, whitish, silky hairs, the pubescence denser at 
the sides of the prothorax and on the elytra, and on the pro- and 
epipleune forming cilias, the four hinder tibiae also with long hairs 
on their inner face. Head densely, rather coarsely punctate ; pro- 
thorax strongly transverse, much broader at the base than at the 
apex, the sides parallel behind, arcuately converging from about 
the basal third, the apex (viewed from above) very broadly trun- 
cate-emarginate, the base feebly bisinuate, the hind angles obtusely 
rectangular and very prominent, the anterior angles stnDugly pro- 
duced in front, the surface densely, moderately finely punctate, the 
punctures more scattered on the middle of the disc ; elytra con- 
fusedly punctured throughout, the punctures more diffuse, and 
much finer and shallower than those on the prothorax ; beneath 
shining, closely and rather coarsely punctate. Length 74 — 8J, 
breadth 4— 4i mm. ( cJ ? ). 
Eab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

Many specimens, found buried in the sand at roots of 
maritime plants, a few feet above high-water mark. 


hopteron, Hope, Col. Man., iii., p. 112 (1840). 
Cestrinus, Erichson, in Wiegmann's Archiv, 1842, i., 

p. 172. 
Mitua, Hope, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., v., p. 56. 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 355 

I have examined the type of Isopteron opatroides, 
Hope, and it is inseparable from CestrinuSy Er. Opatrum 
piceitarse, Hope, also belongs to the same genus. His 
definition, " Tibiae anteriores dentatsB,*' is incorrect and 
misleading : it, perhaps, refers to the subangnlar dilata- 
tion of the anterior tibiae beneath — a male character of 
some of the members of the genus. As Hope did not 
describe his typical species of Isopteron till 1842 (and 
then under a diSerent name to the one mentioned in the 
^'ManuaP'), it is not advisable to change Erichson's 
name. This genus really belongs to the group 
" Pedinides,'' and it should be placed near Blapstinus. 

Cestrinus trivialis. 

Cestrinus trivialis, Er., loc. cit., p. 173; Lacord. Gen. 

Col., Atlas, t. 53, fig. 6. 
Cestrinus longus, Blanch., in Dumont d'Qrville's 

Voyage au Pole Sud, iv., Ins., p. 156, t. 40, fig. 14. 

Hob. Tasmania — Hobart, Launceston, George's Bay. 

Originally described from Tasmania. The male has 
the anterior tibiae abruptly widened on the inner side 
from about the middle to the apex, and the basal joints 
of the anterior tarsi a little thickened. Isopteron 
opatroides, Hope, is closely allied to this insect, but 
differs from it in having ferruginous antennae and the 
elytral interstices granular. Opatrum piceitarse, Hope, 
is also very near C. trivialis, but it has the sides of the 
thorax less sinuous behind. 

Cestrinus aversv^, 

Cestrinus aversus, Pasc, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 

ill., p. 278. 
Cestrinus posticus, Pasc, loc. dt. 

Eab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

Numerous specimens; some with fully-developed, 
others with rudimentary wings. The anterior tibiae are 
simple in the male. This and the preceding species 
occurred under stones not far from the sea-shore 

Digitized by 


356 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenebrionid^ 

Cestrinus punctatissimus. 

Ceatrinus punctatisnmusy Pasc, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (4), lii., p. 278, 

Eah. Tasmania — Hobart. 

One example. 

Cestrinua hrevis, sp. n. 

9 . Oblong ovate, moderately convex, opaque, pitchy- black ; the 
upper surface thickly clothed with rather coarse appressed brown 
hairs, amongst which are scattered yellowish-cinereous hairs ; the 
antennse ferruginous ; the legs f usco-ferruginous, the tarsi ferru- 
ginous. Head short, deeply sunk into the prothorax, densely, 
rugosely punctured, the antennary orbits extending about half- 
way across the eyes ; the epistoma short and limited behind by a 
deep transverse groove, feebly arcuate-emarginate in front ; an- 
tennsB about reaching the base of the prothorax ; prothorax trans- 
verse, arcuate-emarginate in front, truncate at the base, widest at 
the middle, the sides obliquely converging thence to the apex, and 
sinuously converging behind, the hind angles rectangular, the 
anterior angles sharp and prominent, the surface coarsely, rugosely 
punctured, the interstices very densely, minutely punctate ; elytra 
a little wider than, and about two-and-a-half times the length of, the 
prothorax, with rows of rather fine, deep, subapproximate punctures 
placed in shallow grooves, the interstices feebly raised, very densely 
minutely punctured, and with fine scattered granules ; anterior 
tibisB slightly curved inwards, rather slender, the outer apical angle 
obtuse ; anterior tarsi simple. Length 6i, breadth 2-^- mm. 

Hah. W. Australia — Fremantle and Darlington. 

Two specimens, apparently both females. Less elon- 
gate than C. trivialis, Er. ; the head much shorter, the 
epistoma especially ; the thorax more transverse, and more 
narrowed in front and behind ; the seriate punctures on 
the elytra less coarse, the interstices more sparsely and 
more finely granulated; the pubescence of the upper 
surface not unicolorous. C brevis is less elongate than 
any of the other species of the genus known to me. I 
have receired a specimen of a closely-allied undescribed 
form from the Rev. T. Blackburn. 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Ta>»mania, 357 


Csedius, Lacordaire, Gen. Col., v., p. 261 (1859), {nee 

(?) Plesioderes, Mulsant efc Rey, M^m. Acad. Lyon, x., 

p. 34 (1860). 

Blanchard (Hist, des Ins., ii., p. 13) gives as characters 
for Csedivs : — " Antennae with the last five joints broad 
and compressed ; tibise slightly widened, not crenalated ; 
body oval." It is clear, therefore, that he had some 
other genus in view. Lacordaire's description was 
taken from Opatrum sphssroidea, Hope. Plesioderea is 
probably distinct from Gssdius, Lac. 

Gssdiua sphaeroides, 

Opatrum sphmroides, Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1842, p. 77 ; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1845, p. 107. 
Cssdiua aphaeroides, Lacord., Gen. Col., v., p. 2(52. 

Hab. W. Australia — Fremantle, Condillac I., Trough- 
ton I., Jones I. 

In the typical examples (2) of Opatrum aphseroidea, 
Hope, in the Oxford Museum, the elytra each appear, at 
first sight, to have two rows of prominent rounded 
elevations, the inner one extending on to the base of the 
thorax : these elevations, however, are partly formed by 
dense fascicles of scaly hairs, and are not always distinct. 
Found rather commonly under stones, near the sea-shore 


Paeudocwdiv^, Blackburn, Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr., 
xiii., p. 9 (1890). 

Paeudocsediua aquamoaua. 

Paeudocaediua aquamoaua^ Blackb., loc, cit, 

Eab. N. W. Australia — Roebuck Bay. 

Found in plenty by Mr. Walker, at roots of grass on 
the sea-shore. Mr. Blackburn's specimens were obtained 
from the same locality. 

Digitized by 


358 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenebrionidas 


Csediomorpha, Blackburn, Trans. R. Soc. S. Anstir , 
X., p. 272 (1888). 

Cwdiomorpha australis. 

Casdiomorpha auatralis, Blackb., loc. cit. 

Hah. W. Australia — E. Wallaby I. in the Houtmann's 
Abrolhos Group, Fremantle, and Cape Leeuwin. 

Many specimens, found by Mr. Walker on sandy sea- 
shores, at roots of bent grass. This species is said to 
be widely distributed in South Australia. 


Prionotus, Mulsant et Rey, M^m. Acad. Lyon, ix., 

p. 150 (1859). 
Achora, Pascoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), iii., 

p. 279(1869). 

Prionotus serricollis, 

Aaida aerricollis, Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1842, 

p. 77; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1845, p. 108. 
Opatrum denticolle, Blanch., in Dumont d'UrviUe's 
Voyage an Pole Sud, iv., Ins., p. 154, t. 10, 
fig. 13 (1853). 
Prionotus denticollis, Muls. et Rey, M^m. Acad. Lyon, 

ix., p. 151. 
Eab. Tasmania — Hobart and Launceston. 
I have examined the type of Asida serricoUis, Hope, 
from Adelaide; it does not differ from the Tasmanian 
insect. The lateral thoracic teeth are almost or quite 
obsolete in some specimens. Under stones and logs 
in dry places, common (Walker). 


Opatrum, Fabricius, Syst. Ent, p. 76 (1775) (part.). 

This genus is apparently well-represented in the 
northern parts of Australia, whence very few species, 
however, have been described as yet. Of the five species 
received from Mr. Walker from that continent, four are 
apparently new. Opatrum seems to be replaced in 
Tasmania by the ^enus Cestrinua. It may be noted here 
that the descriptions of Opatrum seriatum and 0. aus- 
trale, Boisd., are perfectly unintelligible. 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 359 

Opatrum villigerum. 

Opatrum villiger, Blanch.^ in Damont d^Urville's 
Voyage au Pole Sad, iv., Ins., p. 154, t. 10, 
fig. 10. 
Hah, S. Australia — Port Adelaide. 
Two examples, perhaps belonging to this species, the 
original specimens of which were obtained at RaflBes 

Opatrum torridum, n. sp. 

Bather elongate, subparallel, moderately convex, black, opaqne, 
gparaelj pubescent, and usually tbickly covered with an adherent 
earthy coating. Head broad, thickly punctured, the epistoma very 
deeply emarginate, the sides of the front broadly, obliquely, sub- 
angularly dilated, and extending more than half way across the eyes, 
the latter rather large ; antennsa almost extending to the base of the 
prothorax, the penultimate joints transverse ; prothorax strongly 
trausverse, not very convex, moderately explanate at the sides, 
broadly and deeply emarginate in front, strongly bisinuate at the 
base, which is also feebly emarginate in the middle, the sides 
moderately rounded, obUquely converging in front, and slightly 
sinuous behind, the anterior angles sharp and prominent, the hind 
angles sharply rectangular, the surface thickly and finely punc- 
tured, the interspaces densely, very minutely punctate and also 
finely granulate ; elytra about four times as long as the prothorax, 
and a little wider than it, subparallel in their basal half, and with 
subrectangular somewhat prominent humeri, moderately deeply, 
rather finely punctate-striate, the interstices almost flat, densely, 
very minutely punctured and also finely granulate ; anterior tibiae 
gradually widening outwardly, their outer apical angle sharp ; 
anterior tarsi sparsely clothed with rather coarse hairs beneath ; 
body fully winged. Length 8i — 8 J, breadth 3i — 4 mm. 

Eab. N. W. Australia — Adelaide River. 

Two examples, apparently male and female. This 
species (of which I have also received a specimen from 
the Rev. T. Blackburn) closely resembles some of the 
common European forms, such as 0. {Gonocephalum) 
rmticum, Oliv. As is frequently the case in this genus, 
the sculpture is almost completely hidden by an adherent 
earthy coating; when this is removed, the minute 
punctuation and the granular elevations of the inter- 
stices of the elytra are easily seen. 

Digitized by 


360 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenebrionidm 

Opatrum walkeri, n. sp. 

Moderately broad, snbparallel, not very conyex, black or brown- 
ish-black, opaque, clothed with a short, fine, decambent, greyish 
pubescence, which is nsually bidden by an adherent earthy coating. 
Head rather broad, deeply sunk into the prothoraz, the sides of the 
front broadly, obliquely, subangularly dilated (forming almost a 
continuous outline with the sides of the prothorax) and extending 
far beyond the eyes laterally, and about half-way across them 
posteriorly, the epistoma deeply triangularly emarginate in front 
and limited behind by a fine groove, the surface densely, roughly 
punctured ; antennae short, not reaching the base of the prothorax, 
joints 8-10 strongly transverse ; prothorax twice as broad as long, 
feebly convex, broadly explanate at the sides, widest at the middle, 
broadly and deeply emarginate in front and bi sinuate at the base, 
the sides strongly rounded at the middle, rather obliquely converg- 
ing in front, and constricted behind, the hind angles acute, the 
anterior angles rather sharp, the surface densely, rugosely punc- 
tured, the interspaces finely granulate and very minutely punctate, 
the disc with traces of a fine median groove ; elytra about three 
and a half times the length of, and at the base a little wider than, 
the prothorax, subparallel in their basal half, trisinuate at the 
base, with prominent rectangular humeri, closely and moderately 
coarsely punctate-striate, the interstices densely, very minutely 
punctate, granulate, and rather convex, the third, fifth, and 
seventh a little more raised than the others ; the legs and under 
surface densely, roughly punctate and pubescent ; anterior tibis 
gradually widened to the acute outer angles ; anterior tarsi 
sparsely clothed with rather coarse hairs beneath ; wings fully 
developed ; the ventral segpnents 1-3 depressed along the middle in 
the male. Length 7} — 9^, breadth 3^— 4^ mm. 

Hah. N. W. Australia — Adelaide River. 

Found in plenty by Mr. Walker. This species may 
chiefly be recognized by the explanate rounded margins 
of the prothorax and the rather convex elytral interstices, 
the third, fifth, and seventh a* little more raised than the 
others. In dirty specimens the minute dense punctu- 
ation of the surface is completely hidden, and the granu- 
lations are more distinct. 0. walkeri is closely allied to 
0, moluccanum, Blanch., numerous specimens of which 
were obtained by Mr. Walker at the Islands of Amboyna 
and Damma. 

Digitized by 


J ^ ^ s> J -> ri. ^}> > ^ 

,V„U S.. //IXi-'Ji' .'.tt-.. 

Digitized*by VljOOQ IC 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 361 

Opatrum dispersum, n. sp. 

Moderately elongate, subparallel, not very convex, rather 
narrow, pitchy-brown, opaque, somewhat sparsely clothed with 
moderately long, appressed yellowish-cinereous hairs, which on 
the elytra form a very irregular treble series on each of the 
interstices. Head somewhat exserted, densely punctured, the 
epistoma very deeply emarginate and confounded with the front, 
the eyes rather large and completely divided, the orbits narrow 
and rounded off behind ; antennro scarcely reaching the base of 
the prothorax, joints 8 — 10 transverse ; prothorax convex, twice as 
broad as long, rather feebly arcuate-emarginate in front (sub- 
truncate if viewed from above), strongly bisinuate at the base, 
moderately rounded at the sides, widest a little before the base, 
the hind angles subrectangular, the anterior angles rather obtuse, 
the surface densely, rather finely punctured ; elytra about four 
times the length of, and scarcely wider than, the prothorax, 
subparallel in their basal half, finely and lightly punctate-striate, 
the interstices almost fiat, finely and closely punctured, the 
punctures slightly muricate ; tarsi thickly clothed with long silky 
hairs beneath, the anterior pair simple; anterior tibise slender, 
gradually widening outwardly, the outer apical angle sharp. 
Length 6^—7, breadth 2J— 3 mm. 

Hab, N. W. Australia — Port Darwin. 

Two examples, apparently including both sexes ; three 
others have also been sent to me by Mr. Walker from 
Damma Island. This insect is perhaps generically 
distinct from Opatrum, the tarsi being clothed with 
silky hairs beneath ; but in the present imperfect state 
of our knowledge of the somewhat numerous Australian 
species of this group, it is inadvisable to separate it. 
The punctures of the striaa are fine and very closely 
placed, not coarser than those of the interstices. It is 
not impossible that this insect may be referable to 0. 
seriatum, Boisd., from Radack ; the description of that 
species, however, is wholly inadequate, consisting of 
seven words only. 

Opatrum vagabundum, n. sp. 

Moderately elongate, rather narrow, convex, subparallel, black 
or brownish black, opaque, sparsely clothed with short brownish 
hairs, which are subserially arranged on the elytral interstices. 
Head somewhat exserted, densely, rather coarsely punctured, the 
epistoma very deeply triangularly emarginate and confounded 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1894. — PART II. (jUNE ) 2 A 

Digitized by 


362 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenehrionidse 

with the front, the eyes small and completely divided, the orbits 
moderately broad and rounded off behind ; antennae extending to 
the base of the prothorax, joints 9 and 10 transverse ; prothorax 
convex, nearly twice as broad as long, rather deeply emarginate in 
front, strongly bisinnate at the base, moderately rounded at the 
sides, widest a little before the base, the hind angles subrect- 
angular, the anterior angles rather sharp, the surface densely, 
somewhat coarsely punctate ; elytra about three and a half times 
the length of, and of the same width as, the prothorax, parallel in 
their basal half, finely and rather deeply punctate-striate, the 
interstices slightly convex, flat toward the suture, sparsely gran- 
ulate, and feebly transversely wrinkled , tarsi sparsely clothed 
with rather coarse hairs beneath ; anterior tibiae slender, gradually 
widening outwardly, the outer apical angle sharp. Length 6| — 6J, 
breadth 2J— 3 mm. 

Hab. N. W. Australia — Baadin Island and Roebuck 

Two specimens. Easily separable from 0. dispersum, 
which also has completely divided eyes, by the distinctly 
granulate, rather convex elytral interstices, and the more 
convex, more coarsely punctured thorax, which is more 
deeply emarginate in front, the broader antennary orbits, 
and the shorter pubescence. 


Crypticus, Latreille, Regne Anim., ed. 1, iii., p. 298 

Crypticus suhmaculatus, n. sp. 

Elliptic, narrow, moderately convex, glabrous, piceous or obscure 
ferruginous, slightly shining, the elytra each with one or two faint 
oblong spots on the disc at about one-third from the apex, the sides 
anteriorly, and in one specimen the apex also, rufous or rufo- 
testaceous, the legs and antennae ruf o-testaceous. Head very densely, 
minutely punctate; antennse short, about reaching the base of the 
prothorax, joints 6 — 11 strongly transverse; prothorax strongly 
transverse, the base feebly tnmcate-emarginate and with oblong, 
distinct f ovese, the sides rounded aud converging from the base, the 
entire surface densely, minutely punctate ; elytra about two and 
one- third times longer than the prothorax, and at the sides forming 
a continuous outline with it, finely and rather deeply punctate- 
striate, the interstices almost flat, and closely, minutely punctate ; 
prosternum produced, lanciform, and received by the narrow 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania, 363 

V -shaped process of the mesostemum ; legs moderately long, 
slender, the tibial spurs long ; the first joint of the hind tarsi 
elongate, nearly as long as the other joints united. Length 2| — 
2^ mm. 

Hah. N. W. Australia — Eoebuck Bay. 

Two examples, found on the sandy sea-shore. This 
minute species possesses all the chief characters of 
Crypticus. In one specimen the markings on the elytra 
are scarcely visible. The genus has not hitherto been 
recorded from Australia. 


Hyods, Pascoe, Joum. Ent., ii., p. 457 (1866). 

The species of this genus live at the roots of maritime 
plants on sandy sea-beaches, according to Mr. Walker. 

Hyocis hakewelli. 

Hyocis bakewellii, Pasc, Joum. Ent. ii., p. 457. 

Hab. W. Australia — Fremantle, Albany, E. Wallaby 
I. in the Houtmann's Abrolhos Group. 

Sent in plenty from both localities. Mr. Pascoe's 
description was taken from a single specimen, and he 
gives the colour as *' dark ferruginous." In most of the 
Fremantle specimens the elytra have a common, ir- 
regular, O- or U-shaped mark a little beyond the middle, 
and some spots before and behind it, black. Those from 
E. Wallaby I. are testaceous, the elytra usually with some 
small black spots.* The locality given by Mr. Pascoe is 
Victoria. Two other species of the genus have been 
described by Macleay. 

Hyocis siihparallela, n. sp. 

Oblong-oval, moderately convex, opaque ; piceous or pitchy 
brown, sometimes with the sides of the head, the sides, base, and 
apex of the prothorax, and some ill-defined patches on the elytra, 
ferruginous ; the upper surface thickly clothed with yellowish- 
cinereons appressed scaly hairs ; the antennse and legs ferruginous, 
the apical joints of the antennae more or less piceous. Head densely, 
rugosely punctured ; antenme short, not reaching the base of the 

♦ Specimens similar to these are labelled in Pascoe^s collection 
H. punctipenms, Pasc. ; but I am unable to find any published 
description of this insect. 

Digitized by 


S6i Mr. G. C. Champion on the TenehrionicUe 

proihorftX) joints 8 — 11 much wider than those preceding, 9 and 10 
strongly transrerse ; prothorax strongly transverse, widest before 
the middle, the sides moderately rounded and gradually converging 
to the rather obtuse hind angles, the anterior angles somewhat 
prominent, the base feebly sinuate on either side, the disc rather 
convex and with a shallow median groove which becomes deeper 
behind, the entire surface densely, rugulosely punctured ; elytra 
three times as long as the prothorax, subparallel to about the 
middle, deeply punctate-striate (the punctures moderately coarse, 
approximate, and transverse), the interstices narrow (not wider than 
the stria)), slightly raised, and thickly, finely punctate, the humeri 
subrectangular ; beneath densely, rugulosely punctured, the punc- 
tures on the abdomen finer than those on the metastemum. Length 
2J— 3 mm. 

Hab. W. Australia — Fremantle. 

Six examples. Longer and more parallel than R. 
baJcewelli, Pasc, the thoi*ax not sinuate at the sides be- 
hind, the seriate punctures on the elytra finer and closer, 
the antennae much shorter, with the ninth and tenth 
joints strongly transverse. In Pascoe's collection there 
is a much more closely-allied form, labelled H. griseipilis, 
Pasc, type, but I am unable to find the description 
of it. 


Phycosecis, Pascoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), xvi., 
p. 213 (1875). 

This genus, of which four species were described by 
Pascoe (two from Australia and two from New Zealand), 
has five-jointed hind tarsi, the basal joint of all the tarsi 
being small and not easily seen. ' It cannot, therefore, 
be retained in the Heteromera. Pascoe refers it to the 
" Phaleriides '' without hesitation, and does not even 
mention the form of the tarsi. Phycosecis should perhaps 
be placed in the Clavicorn-series, near Trogositidae or 

Phycosecis litoralis, 

Phycosecis litoralis, Pascoe, loc, cit,, p. 214, nota. 

Hab. W. Australia — Fremantle. 

Described from King George's Sound. In sand, under 
tidal refuse (Walker). J 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 365 


Trachyscelis, Latreille, Gen. Crust et Ins., iv., p. 379 

Trachyscelis ciUaris. 

Trachyscelis ciliaris, Champ., Ent. Monthly Mag., zxix., 
p. 254. 

Eab. W. Austrah'a — E. Wallaby I. in the Houtmann^s 
Abrolhos Group, Fremantle, and Cape Leeuwin. Many 

Trachyscelis Isevis. 

Trachyscelis laevis, Champ.^ loc. cit. 

Hah. W. Australia — Port Darwin, Cape Leeuwin, 
E. Wallaby I., Cassini I., Baudin I., and AdMe I. 

Found in plenty at Baudin and AdMe Islands, more 
sparingly elsewhere. 


Scymena, Pascoe, Journ. Ent., ii., p. 455 (1866). 

The Rev. T. Blackburn remarks (Trans. R. Soc. S. 
Austr., X., p. 270), that this genus (as represented by his 
8. australis) belongs to the " Pedinides,^' according to 
Lacordaire's system; nevertheless, it seems to me, as 
stated by Mr. Pascoe, to bo nearest allied to Phaleriay 
which Lacordaire places, with some hesitation, in the 
" Trachyscelides.'' 

Scymena amphibia. 

Scymena amphibia, Pascoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(4), v., p. 94. 
Scymena australis, Blackb., Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr., 

X., p. 270. 

Hah. W. Australia — ^Albany. 

Mr. Pascoe's specimens of S. amphibia, which I have 
examined, were collected by Mr. Masters at King George's 
Sound. Under tidal refuse on sandy beaches, common 

Digitized by 


366 Mr. G. C. CbampioD on the Tenebrionidss 


Ueterocheiray Lacordaire, Gen. Col., v., p. 335, nota 
(1859) ; F. Bates, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1872, 
p. 266. 

Heterocheira australU, 

Uloma australisy Boisd., Voyage del' Astrolabe, Ent. ii., 
p. 258 (1835). 

Ueterocheira australU, Lacord., Gen. Col., v., p. 336, 
nota; F.Bates, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.,1872,p. 266. 

Var. : Smaller, duller, and less elongate, the pro thorax and 
olytiti not so finely punctured, the striae deeper and more coarsely 
punctate, the interstices towards the sides and apex convex ; 
anterior tarsi with the second and third joints considerably widened 
in the male. Length 5 — 6 muL 

Hab. N. W. Australia — Baudin 1., Adele I. 

Found in plenty at roots of grass on the sea-shore 


hiphyrhynchus, Fairmaire, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1849, 
p. 445; F. Bates, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1872, 
p. 267. 

Acanthosternus, Montrouzier, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1860, 
p. 290. 

Mr. F. Bates refers this genus and Heterocheira to the 
" Diaperides," without hesitation. He seems to have 
completely overlooked the very close aflSnity of Diphyr' 
rhynchus and Phaleria. Lacordaire's Groupe " Phal^- 
riides'' would probably be better removed altogether 
from the " Trachyscelides/' and placed as a separate 
section between the " Trachyscelides '* and the " Diape- 

Diphyrrhynchiut, so far as at present known, has pre- 
cisely the same habits as Phaleria, its species being 
found on the sea shore. It has the epistoma deeply 
emarginate, as in Scymena, and the intermediate joints of 
the four front tarsi are similarly dilatate in the male. 
Heterocheira resembles the parallel forms of Phaleria 
{P. parallela, Woll., etc), but has the anterior tibiaa much 
less widened. Mr. F. Bates {op. cit.) states that in both 
Diphyrrhynchus SLud Heteroclieira, the first four joints of 
the intermediate tarsi are strongly, and those of tha 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 367 

anterior more broadly^ dilated in the male than in the 
female : this is not so in any of the species before me, 
the second and third joints only being dilated and the 
penultimate one small. Diphyrrhynchtis chiefly differs 
from Phaleria in having a much more prominent tro- 
chantin to the middle coxae. 

Diphyrrhynchus elhpticus, n. sp. (Plate VIII., fig. 1, ^.) 

Regularly elliptic, convex, pitchy-black with a brassy lustre, 
opaque or slightly shining. Head short, deeply sunk into the 
prothorax, rather convex, finely and sparsely punctured ; the 
epistoma very deeply emarginate for the reception of the labrum, 
separated from the sides of the front only by a faint (sometimes 
quite obsolete) oblique groove ; eyes coarsely granulated, oblique, 
small, the lower portion slightly larger than the upper portion, the 
antennary orbits as seen from above) extending nearly half-way 
across them ; antennse f nsco-testaceous, short, scarcely reaching the 
base of the prothorax, the onter five joints gradually widened, 
8-10 transverse, 11 twice as long as 10, rounded at the apex ; pro- 
thorax short, at the base about two-and-a-half times as broad as 
long, convex, the sides rapidly converging from the base, a little 
rounded anteriorly, and sharply but finely margined, the base feebly 
trisinuate and with a very shallow triangular fovea on either side, 
the anterior angles rather prominent, the hind angles subrectangular, 
the apex broadly and somewhat deeply emarginate, the disc very 
minutely and sparsely punctured, the lateral portion more distinctly 
punctate; scutellum broadly triangular, short, large, minutely 
punctate in front ; elytra regularly convex, scarcely wider than the 
prothorax at the base and forming almost a continuous outline 
with it, very sharply margined and somewhat rounded at the sides, 
obeoletely and minutely punctate-striate, the striaa becoming deeper 
towards the apex, the interstices very minutely, sparsely punctate, 
flat at the base, slightly convex towards the apex, the punctures of 
the striae closely placed and very little coarser than those of the 
interstices ; beneath piceous or pitchy-brown, shining, sparsely 
pubescent, and sparsely, moderately finely punctured ; legs pitchy- 
brown or fusco-testaceous ; the tibiaB coarsely roughened and setose, 
flattened and dilated, the anterior pair very broad ; prostemum 
horizontal, widened and produced behind, ovate, the mesostemuup 
obliquely carinate on either side and excavate in the middle for it« 
reception. ^ . Anterior and intermediate tarsi with the second 
and third joints broadly dilated. Length 4; — 0, breadth 2^ — 3 
mm. (<J?). 

Digitized by 


368 Mr. 6. C. Champion on the Tenebrionidw 

Eab. N. W. Australia— Baudin T., Troughton I., Port 

Many specimens. Closely allied to D. ovalis, P. Bates, 
from New Caledonia, but more convex, duller, and more 
distinctly punctured, the elytra very finely punctate- 
striate. The elytra, at first sight, appear to merely have 
a series of very shallow, fine, longitu(Unal grooves, which 
become deeper towards the apex, the punctures in them 
being very little coarser than those of the interstices. 
The punctuation of the head is distinctly coarser than 
that of the prothorax and elytra. The Port Darwin 
specimens are less opaque and rather narrower than the 

Diphyrrhynchus apicalis, n. sp. (Plate VIII., fig. 4, ^ .) 
Oblong-ovate, sabparallel, convex, castaneous with a faint brassy 
lustre, opaqne ; the upper surface very sparsely and exceedingly 
minutely punctate, the punctures on the head a little more distinct. 
Head short, deeply sunk into the prothorax, rather convex ; the 
epistoma very deeply emarginate for the reception of the labrum, 
separated from the sides of the front hy a very shallow oblique 
groove ; eyes coarsely granulated, RmaH, almost hidden beneath 
the anterior margin of the prothorax, the antennary orbits not 
extending half-way across them ; antennae testaceous, very short, 
about reaching the middle of the prothorax, thickening outwardly, 
joints 7 — 10 transverse ; prothorax at the base barely twice as broad 
as long, the sides parallel behind, rounded and converging 
anteriorly, and sharply margined, the base very feebly trisinuate 
and with a shallow fovea on either side just within the margin, 
a narrow longitudinal space down the middle impunctate ; 
elytra at the base not wider than the prothorax, parallel to about 
the middle, the sides rounded and converging thence to the apex, 
the surface with regular rows of exceedingly minute punctures, 
which are scarcely distinguishable from those of the interstices and 
on the apical declivity are placed in rather deep striae, the inter- 
stices quite flat to about one-fourth from the apex, slightly convex 
beyond ; beneath obscure reddish-testaceous, slightly pub^cent, 
sparsely, moderately finely punctured ; legs reddish- testaceous ; 
the tibiae very broadly widened, coarsely roughened and setose, 
the inner face of the anterior pair smoother ; prostemum hori- 
zontal, widened and produced behind, lanciform, the mesoster- 
num slightly excavate in the middle for its reception. ^ . Anteiior 
and intermediate tarsi with the second and third joints moderately 
dilated. Length 5 mm. ( ^ .) 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania, 369 

Hab. W. Australia— Roebuck Bay. 

One example. Easily distinguishable from 2>. elltp^ 
ticus by its subparallel shape^ the shorter antennae, the 
less transverse thorax, its wider tibiae, and the still more 
minute punctuation of the upper surface. The elytral 
interstices are perfectly flat to about one-fourth from the 
apex and thence to the apex abruptly, moderately, con- 
vex; the striae are scarcely visible, except under a 
strong lens, though they are sharply defined on the 
apical declivity. 


Corticeus, Filler et Mitterpacher, Iter per Pos. Sclav., 

p. 87(1783). 
Hypophloeiis, Fabricius, in Schneider's Neu Mag. Ent., 

i., 1, p. 24(1791). 

Corticeus australis, n. sp. 

Moderately elongate, subcylindrical, shining, varying in colour 
from castaneous to black, the bead always paler in front ; the 
antennas and legs testaceous or fusco-testaceoas. Head closely, 
finely punctate ; the eyes very large, oblique, coarsely granulated, 
separated by a space about equalling the width of one of the eyes 
as seen from above ; antennas not nearly reaching the base of the 
prothorax, joints 5^11 stout, 5—10 very strongly transverse ; pro- 
thorax convex, not longer than broad, a little narrowed in front and 
behind, the hind angles distinct, the entire surface closely, finely 
punctate ; el3rtra about two and a fourth times longer than the pro- 
thorax, and a little less closely punctured than it. Length 2^ mm. 

Hah. N. W. Australia — Adelaide River. 

This minute species is the first of the genus recorded 
from AustraUa. It has unusually large eyes, the inter- 
ocular space not wider than the diameter of one of the 
eyes as seen from above. Found under the bark of 
Ficus sp. Many specimens. 

Palorus, Mulsant, Col. Fr., LatigSnes, p. 250 (1854). 

This cosmopolitan genus is not included in Masters's 
Catalogue. Its species are sometimes found out of doors, 
under bark. Palorus is probably of Eastern origin. 

Digitized by 


370 Mr. G. C. Champion on the TeiiebrioniiUe 

Palorus melinus. 

Hypophloeus melinus, Herbst, in Fuessly'u Archiv, v., 

p. 37, t. 21, figs. B, & (1784). 
Hypophlcdus depressus, Fabr., in Schneider's Neu Mag. 

Ent., i., 1, p. 25. 
Ip8 unicolor, Oliv., Ent., ii., No. 18, p. 12, t. 2, 

figs. 8 a, b. 

Hah. N. W. Australia — Port Darwin, Adelaide River, 
Koebnck Bay. 

Nameroas specimens, found under bark, away from 
habitations. These examples are smaller, and have the 
head and prothoraz more finely punctured than usual in 
P. melinus. A cosmopolitan insect, occurring all over the 
world; I have similar specimens from such widely- 
separated localities as Damma Island (Walker), Marocco, 
and Mexico. It is probable that two species are confused 
in collections, but I hesitate to separate them at present. 
P. delicatulus, Reitter, from the East Indies, the frag- 
mentary type of which has been lent me by Mr. Reue 
Oberthur, is a shorter and broader insect than P. melinus. 
A third species, from Damma Island, at present un- 
described, has been sent to me by Mr. Walker. 


Lyphia, Mulsant, Opusc. Ent., ix., p. 166 (1859) ; 

Jacq.-Duval, Gen. Col. Europ., iii., p. 305. 
Lindia, Blackburn, Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr., x., p. 275 


Lyphia tasmanica, n. sp. (Plate VIII., fig. 6.) 

Elongate, narrow, subcylindrical, subopaque, obecure ferrugin- 
ous, the head and prothorax infuscate. Head densely, finely 
punctate ; antennas ferruginous, very short, the apical four joints 
abruptly widened and strongly transverse ; prothorax convex, a 
little longer than broad, the sides parallel behind and feebly 
roujided in front, the hind angles acutely rectangular, the disc 
slightly depressed in the middle before the base, the entire surface 
very densely, finely punctate, the punctures showing a tendency 
to become longitudinally confluent ; elytra nearly two and a half 
times as long as, and slightly broader than, the prothorax, densely, 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 371 

very finely, confusedly punctate, here and there very distinctly 
transversely wrinkled, and with numerous interrupted darker lines 
resembling faint striae ; legs ruf o-testaceous. Length 3^ — 3^ mm. 
Hab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

Two specimens^ found under bark. This insect agrees 
with the description (so far as it goes) of Lindia 
angusta, Blackb., from Port Lincoln, except as regards 
the form of the antennaB : as long as the head and thorax 
together in L. angusta, very little longer than the middle 
of the head in L. tasmanica. Narrower and smaller than 
the European L. tetraphylla, Fairm. {:=ficicola, Muls.), 
the upper surface much more finely punctured. The 
elytral punctuation is confused^ but in certain positions 
indistinct rows of punctures are visible. The dark 
lines apparently show through from beneath. The size 
of L. angusta is not mentioned by its describer.* 


Oplocfphala, Laporte et Brull^, Ann. Sciences Nat., 

xxiii., p. 838 (1831) (nomen praaocc). 
Arrhenoplita, Kirby, Faun. Am.-Bor., iv., p. 235. 
Evoplus, Leconte, New Sp. Col., p. 128. 

Two species of this widely-distributed genus have 
already been described from Australia. 

Arrhenoplita pygmsea, n. sp. 
(J. Oblong, very convex, castaneous or ruf o-testaceous, shin- 
ing, finely pubescent. Head short, very shining, smooth and 
depressed between the eyes, armed on either side above the point 
of insertion of the antennae with a very long, erect, nearly straight 
horn, the epistoma very short, limited behind by a deep groove ; 
the eyes black, large, very coarsely granulated, almost entire ; 
antennffi short, not nearly reaching the base of the prothorax, 
joints 3 — 6 slender, very short, 7 — 11 greatly widened and forming 
a large 5- jointed club, 7 — 10 perfoliate, strongly transverse, equal in 
width, 11 very short, much narrower than 10 and closely articu- 
lated to it ; prothorax tranversely convex, nearly twice as broad as 
long, rounded at the sides, densely, finely punctate and with a 
smooth central line ; elytra about two and a half times longer than 
the prothorax, confusedly punctured, the punctures a little coarser 

• The specific name is preoccupied, Jlypophlaus anguBtus, Luc, 
from Algeria, being a Lyphia {cf. Bedel, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1887, 
p. 1U9). 

Digitized by 


872 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenehrionidm 

and more scattered than those on the prothorax ; legs short, the 
tibias slender. 9 • Head unarmed, with the interocular space less 
shining and somewhat thickly punctured, the transverse groove 
behind the epistoma apparently deeper ; the prothorax narrower, 
less convex, less rounded at the sides, more parallel behind. 
Length 2—2^ mm. 

Hah. N. W. Australia— Port Darwin, Adelaide River. 

Numerous examples. This very small species ap- 
proaches the European Iphicorynus chrysomelaides, Rossi 
{melanophthalmus, Muls.), but it is best placed in 
Arrhenoplita. It resembles a Cis. The tenth and 
eleventh joints of the antenna3 are so closely articulated 
as to appear subconnate. Found in dry fungus on old 
posts in company with A. exilis (Walker). 

Arrhenoplita exilis, n. sp. 

i . Oblong, very convex, castaneous, shining, glabrous. Head 
very shining, smooth and depressed between the eyes, and armed 
on either side between them with a long, erect, straight horn, the 
epistoma rather large and limited posteriorly by a shallow groove, 
the anterior margin sharply, triangularly raised on either side in 
front ; the eyes large, coarsely granulated, almost entire ; antennaa 
nearly reaching the base of the prothorax, joints 3^6 slender, 3 
much longer than 4, 4—6 short, 7—11 perfoliate, widened, and form- 
ing an elongate gradually widening club, 7 — 10 transverse, 8 — 10 
strongly so and much wider than 7, 11 twice as long as 10, constricted 
at the middle, and truncate at the apex ; prothorax transversely 
convex, near\y twice as broad as long, rounded at the sides, very 
finely, densely punctate ; el3rtra about two and a half times longer 
than the prothorax, closely, confusedly, very finely punctured. 
$ . Head unarmed, densely, minutely punctured, with the trans- 
verse groove behind the epistoma deep ; the prothorax less convex 
and more parallel. Length 2^ mm. 

Hah. N. W. Australia — Port Darwin. 

One pair. This species resembles A» pygmwa, but it is 
a little larger and more finely punctured, and destitute of 
pubescence. The antennas are more elongate, and have 
their apical joint fully as wide^ and twice as long, as the 
tenth ; in A. pygmma the apical joint is extremely short 
and much narrower than the tenth. At first sights the 
antennaB appear to be 12-jointed, the apical joint being 
constricted at the middle and shaped like the united 
apical two joints in A, pygmasa. 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 373 


Platydema, Laporte et Brulle^ Ann. Sciences Nat.^ 
xxiii., p. 350 (1831). 

Platydema limaccndes, 

Platydema limacoides, Pasc, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (4), iii., p. 280. 

Eab. Tasmania — New Norfolk, Franklin, and Hobart. 

A few specimens, agreeing perfectly with the type. 
The locality given by Pascoe is Victoria (?). Under 
Eucalyptus bark (Walker). 

Platydema tetraspilotum. 

Neomida tetraspilota, Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1842, p. 78 ; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 18i5, p. 108. 

Alphitophagus ta^manus, Mars., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 
(5), vi., p. 110. 

Platydema pascoei, Macl., Trans. Ent. Soc. N.S.W., 
ii., p. 280. 

Eab. Tasmania — Hobart, Launceston, New Norfolk, 

I have examined Hope's type in the Oxford Mosenm. 
Common, under bark (Walker). 

Platydema bicinctum, n. sp. 
Elongate-oyal, narrow, very depressed, shiniDg ; pioeoas or 
pitchy-brown ; the front of the head, the sides, base, and apex of 
the prothorax narrowly, and a broad transverse fascia on the elytra 
a little below the base, and another jast before the apex, connected 
along the suture, reddish-testaceous ; the antenn», legs, and under 
surface rufo-testaceous. Head densely, minutely punctate; the 
eyes large, coarsely faceted, oblique, and deeply emarginate ; 
antennaB about reaching the base of the prothorax, joints 4—1 1 
widened, 5— 10 transverse, 11 nearly twice as long as 10 ; prothorax 
convex, about twice as broad as long, widest a little before the base, 
not much broader at the base than at the apex, the sides strongly 
rounded anteriorly, and sharply margined, the base bisinuate, the 
apex (viewed from above) truncate, the hind angles rectangular, the 
anterior angles obtuse, the basal fovesB oblique and rather deep, 
the entire surface densely, finely punctate ; scutellum triangular, 
rather large ; elytra nearly four times as long as, and slightly 

Digitized by 


374 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenebrionidw 

wider than, the prothorax, snbparallel to a little beyond the middle, 
regularly pnnctate-striate, the punctures rather fine and very 
closely placed, the interstices flat, densely, very finely punctate ; 
beneath closely, finely punctate, the metasternum smoother ; pro- 
sternum very narrow, parallel, produced behind ; epipleurse ex- 
tending to the last ventral suture ; legs slender. Length 3j — Bj, 
breadth 1| mm. 

Hab. N. W. Australia — ^Adelaide River. 

Seven examples. This species is allied to P. tetras* 
pilotum, Hope^ bat is smaller, flatter, and more 
parallel, the thorax rounded at the sides, and distinctly 
narrowed behind. This last-mentioned character, com- 
bined with its snbparallel shape, gives it a different facies 
from most of the other representatives of the genus. 
P. hicinctum varies in the extent of the light markings 
on the elytra, according to the predominance of the 
light or of the dark colour ; the anterior fascia does not 
reach the base, but it sometimes extends to the lateral 
margin. Pound under bark of a dead Acacia (Walker). 

Platydema deplanatum, n. sp. 

Oblong-oval, narrow, very depressed , black, shining, the labrum and 
antennas ferruginous, the legs ruf o-testaceous. Head closely, finely 
punctate, the eyes moderately large, deeply emarginate ; antennas 
as in P. hicinctum ; prothorax convex, twice as broad as long, widest a 
little behind the middle, not much broader at the base than at the 
apex, the sides rounded and rather sharply margined, the base 
bisinuate, the apex (viewed from above) subtruncate, the hind 
angles rather obtuse, the basal foveas distinct, the surface closely 
and somewhat coarsely punctured, the punctures a little more 
scattered on the middle of the disc ; elytra about three and a half 
times as long as, and slightly wider than, the prothorax, snbparallel 
in their basal half, rather coarsely punctate-striate, the punctures 
closely packed and deep, the interstices almost flat, each with an 
irregular row of fine punctures ; legs slender. Length 3, 
breadth 1^ mm. 

Hah. N.W. Australia — ^Adelaide River. 

One specimen, found under bark. Allied to P. hicinc- 
tum, but less elongate, the punctuation of the upper 
surface much coarser, the elytral interstices each with a 
single row of punctures only, the thorax more rounded 
at the sides behind, and with more obtuse hind angles, 
the upper surface shining black. 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania, 375 


Enneboeus, C. O. Waterhouse, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1878, p. 228. 

Ennehoeiis, so far as at present known, is confined to 
Tasmania and tropical America,* the species from such 
widely diflTerent regions being exceedingly closely allied. 

The species of this genus are found under bark, 
according to Mr. Walker. 

Enneboeus ovalis. 
Ennehceus ovalis, C. O. Wat., loc, cit, p. 229. 
Hab. Tasmania — Franklin, Huon River. 
Originally described from Tasmanian examples. 

Enneboeus australis, n. sp. (Plate VIII., figs. 2, 2a.) 
Oblong-elliptic, pitchy-brown, shining, tbe legs and antennae 
nifo-testaoeous ; the entire upper surface very densely, minutely 
punctured, and clothed with yellowish-cinereous pruinose pubes- 
cence. Antennaa rather long and slender, joints 5 — 8 subequal, 
longer than broad, 9 — 11 forming an elongate club, 9 triangular, 
slightly longer than broad, 10 and 11 transverse, 11 very abruptly 
truncate at the apex ; prothorax strongly transverse, rapidly 
narrowing from the base, the latter deeply sinuate on either side 
of the middle ; elytra more elongate than in E. oralis^ with 
numerous scattered coarser punctures, which are partly arranged 
in irregular series. Length 41 mm. 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

Larger and more elongate than E. ovalis; the an- 
tennas longer, and with the ninth joint more elongate ; 
the elytra with numerous scattered coarser punctures on 
the disc, the punctures showing a tendency to form 
striaa. One specimen. 

Enkebceopsis, n. gen. 

Last joint of the maxillary palpi moderately stout, oblong- 
oyate, obliquely truncate at the tip ; eyes moderately large, almost 
entire, rather coarsely faceted ; epistoma short, separated from the 
front by an impressed line ; labrum moderately prominent ; an- 
tennas about reaching the base of the prothorax, joint 1 stout, 2 

o Cf. Champ. Biol. Centr.-Am., Col. iv., 1, pp. 539, 540 (1893). 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

376 Mr. 6. C. Champion on the TenehriunidsB 

short, slender, 3 nearly twice as long as 2, slender, 4 almost as 
broad as long, 5 — 11 perfoliate, very strongly transverse, widening 
outwardly, 5 twice as broad as 4, 11 abruptly rounded at the tip ; 
prothorax strongly transverse, with broad median lobe at the base, 
the base deeply sinuate on either side ; scutellum strongly trans- 
verse ; elytra cFosely embracing the base of the prothorax, and at 
the sides forming almost a continuous outline with it ; prosternam 
strongly horizontally produced, widened behind the coxse, and 
deeply excavate beneath for the reception of the mesosternum, the 
latter convexly raised in the middle in front, and obliquely grooved 
on either side; epipleuras extending to the apex of the elytra, 
moderately wide in their basal third, narrower beyond ; middle coxai 
cavities widely open externally, the trochantin large and prominent; 
hind coxse transvei'se, narrowly separated, the intercoxal process 
narrow, triangular; tibiae slightly widened and compressed, obliquely 
truncate at the apex, subequal, the spurs short ; tarsi slender, thickly 
clothed with short silky hairs beneath, the anterior pair feebly 
dilated in the male, the first joint of the hind pair a little longer 
than the following two joints united ; body convex, elliptic, 

This genas is proposed for a single species from 
Tasmania. EnneboeopHs has entirely the facies and scalp- 
ture of Enneboeus, Wat., but differs from it in the per- 
foliate, strongly transverse outer joints of the antennaB. 
The presternum is similarly shaped in both. Enneboeopsis 
connects Ennebceus with the more typical genera of 

Ennebceopais pruinosus, sp. n. (Plate VIII., figs. 3, 3a.) 
Pitchy-black, shining, the entire upper surface very densely, 
exceedingly minutely punctate, clothed with fine pruinose pabes- 
cence; antennae and legs rnfo-testaceous. Prothorax strongly 
transverse, the base deeply sinuate on either side of the median 
lobe, and with distinct foveae, the sides converging from the base ; 
elytra more than three times as long as the prothorax, with in- 
distinct rows of coarser punctures on the disc ; beneath varying in 
colour from piceous to testaceous, very densely, minutely punctate, 
finely pubescent ; fifth ventral segment triangularly emarginate at 
the apex, and the anterior tarsi feebly dilated, in the male. Length 
3— 3} mm. ((J ?.) 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

Four examples; found under the loose bark of a 
Eucalypiua stump. 

Digitized by 


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Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania, 377 


IHpsaconia, Pascoe, Journ. Ent., i., p. 123 (1860). 
Dipsaconia australis, 

EndophlaBm australis, Hope, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

1845, p. 108. 
Dipsaconia bakewellii, Pascoe, Journ. Ent., i., p. 124, 

t. 7, fig. 6. 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart and Launceston. 

In none of the specimens before me are the blackish 
markings of the elytra symmetrical. I have examined 
the type of Endophlmus australis^ Hope, from Adelaide, 
and also that of D. bakewelli, Pascoe. D. pyritosa, 
Pascoe, is a closely allied form, bat has much shorter 
hairs on the prothorax and elytra. Under bark of 
Eucalyptus (Walker). 


Ulodes, Erichson, in Wiegmann's Archiv, 1842, 1, 
p. 180. 

Ulodes verrucosus. 

Ulodes verrucosus, Er., lac, cit., p. 181, t. 5, figs. 1, a,b, 

Endophlaeus variicomis, Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

1842, p. 78; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1845, p. 108. 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart and Launceston. 

Many specimens, chiefly found under the dry loose 
bark of " sassafras'' trees (Atherosperma moschatum), 
Erichson's insect was from Tasmania, that of Hope 
from Adelaide. 


Ganyme, Pascoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), iii., 
p. 32 (1869). 

Ganyme sapphira. 

Boletophagus sapphira, Newm., Entom., i., p. 104. 
Ganyme sapphira, Pascoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(4), iii., p. 33. 
Hab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

TEANS. ENT. SOC LOND. 1894. — PAET II. (jUNE.) 2 B 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

378 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenehrionidm 

One specimen, diflTering from the type, which is con- 
tained in the National collection, in having the eljtral 
pubescence almost entirely black, with the exception of 
two small patches on each elytron. G, honitti, Pasc, 
is probably only a small variety of the same species with 
the pubescence of the prothorax and elytra almost 
entirely reddish-ochreous. 

Caanthus, n. gen. 

Mentum strongly transverse ; last joint of the maxiUary palpi 
stout, oval, that of the labial pair slender ; mandibles bifid at the 
tip ; gula feebly grooved behind the suture ; epistoma truncate in 
front ; eyes coarsely granulated, small, entire, projecting laterally 
beyond the antennary orbits, the latter not prominent ; antennsQ 
not reaching the base of the prothorax, joints 1 and 2 stout, longer 
than broad, 3 — 9 slender, 3 considerably longer than 4, 4 — 9 very 
short,? — 9 strongly transverse, 10 and 11 forming a very stout club, 
10 transverse, 11 about as broad as long, obliquely truncate at the 
tip ; prothorax longitudinally convex, strongly compressed towards 
the sides, and with the apex broadly produced in the middle over 
the head^ (partly hiding it when viewed from above), the base 
with broad median lobe ; scutellum not visible ; elytra about twice 
as long as the prothorax; prosternum very narrow, declirous; hind 
coxsB widely separated, the intercoxal process broad, truncate in 
front ; epipleursa broad at the base, gradually narrowing to the 
apex ; ventral sutures deep ; legs short, without distinct tibial 
spurs, the tibise convex on their outer edge ; tarsi simple, clothed 
with silky hairs beneath ; the basal joint of the hind tar&i scarcely 
equalling joints 2 and 3 united, the three together not longer than 
4 ; body elongate, convex, thickly covered with brownish scales, 
the upper surface with coarse scattered granular elevations. 

This genus is proposed for a minute insect from 
Tasmania. The general shape is suggestive of that of 
the American genus Calymmus, of the Bolitophagides, in 
which group it must be placed. The stout 2-jointed club 
of the antennaD, the gibbous, anteriorly produced, ' com- 
pressed thorax, and the very small, unemarginate eyes 
are its chief characters. 

Caanthiis gibbicollisy sp. n. (Plate VIII., figs. 7, 7a, 5.) 

Elongate-oval, narrow, moderately convex, pitchy-black, the head 
ferruginous in front; densely covered with brownish scales, the pro- 

o Our artist has omitted to show this in the figure. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

collected in Australia and Tasmania, 379 

thorax and elytra with numerous Coarse, granular elevations, those 
on the elytra serially arranged, these elevations bearing long, erect, 
fine bristly hairs ; antennse and legs ruf o-testaceous. Prothorax in 
the middle about as long as broad, the sides rounded and coarsely 
crenate, the anterior angles produced and prominent, the base 
rather deeply sinuate on either side of the broad median lobe, the 
hind angles obtuse, the broad anterior prolongation truncate in 
front (when viewed from above) and extending forwards nearly 
as far as the front of the head; el3rtra not wider than the prothorax, 
subparallel to beyond the middle, with the shoulders rounded, the 
granular elevations closely placed and forming about six irregular 
rows on each elytron; beneath, when denuded of scales, ferruginous, 
shining, the flanks of the prosternum and the middle of the meta- 
stemum with coarse, scattered granular elevations. Length 2 

Hah. Tasmania — Launceston and Hobart. 

Two specimens, found under bark. The upper surface 
is so densely covered with adherent, earthy-looking scales 
that the granular elevations are alone visible, the rest of 
the sculpture being completely hidden. The hairs on the 
thorax and elytra are perfectly erect. 


Tribolium, Macleay, Annulosa Jav., 1825, p. 47. 

This cosmopolitan genus is not included in Masters's 

Triholium ferrugineum, 

Trogosita ferruginea, Fabr., Spec. Ins., i., p. 324. 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

Alphitobius, Stephens, IlL Brit. Ent., v., p. 11 (1832). 

Alphitobitcs piceTis, 

Helops piceusj Oliv. Ent., iii., No. 58, p. 17, t. 2, 

figs. 13, a, 6. 
Alphitobiiis piceus, Muls., Col. Fr., Latig., p. 237. 

Hab. N. W. Australia — Adelaide River. 

One specimen of this cosmopolitan insect has been sent 
by Mr. Walker to the British Museum. The species is 
not included in Masters's Catalogue. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

380 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenebrionidas 


Toxtcum, Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Ins., ii., p. 167. 
Toxicum punctipenne, 

Toxicum punctipenne, Pascoe, Joum. Ent., ii., p. 454. 
Toxicum addendum, Blackb., Proo. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 
iii. (2), p. 1481. 

Hab. N. W. Australia — Port Darwin, Adelaide River. 

Many specimens of both sexes. In the male of this 
insect the anterior femora are subangularly dilated on the 
inner side towards the base ; of this no mention is made 
by Mr. Blackburn. I have examined the types of T. 
punctipenne, Pasc. ; the length given "2^ millim." is 
evidently a misprint for " 5 J milfim.'' Mr. Blackburn's 
specimens of T. addendum were from the northern 
territory of South Australia. Found under logs and 
loose bark (Walker). 

Pakatoxicuii, n. gen. 

Mentom nearly as broad as long, widest in front and gradually 
narrowing behind ; last joint of the maxillary palpi broad ovate, 
short, very obliquely truncate at the tip, that of the labial pair 
narrow, ovate ; inner lobe of the maxillaB armed with a curved 
claw at the tip ; labrum not prominent ; mandibles bifid at the 
tip ; head unarmed, short, almost trai>ezoidal, sunk into the pro- 
thorax up to the eyes, the antennary orbits a little swollen, 
extending completely across the eyes behind and obliquely con- 
verging in front, the epistoma broad, truncate in front, and limited 
behind by a rather deep groove ; eyes small, oblique, moderately 
coarsely granulated, the upper and lower portions equal ; antennae 
about reaching the base of the prothorax, similarly sculptured 
throughout, stout, gradually widening outwardly, joints 1 and 2 
short, 3 about twice as long as 2 and considerably longer than 4, 
4 — 11 decreasing in length and increasing in width, 8 — 11 strongly 
transverse, 11 bluntly rounded at the tip ; prothorax transverse, 
bisinuate at the base and apex, the apex broadly, feebly lobed in 
the middle ; scutellum short, transversely triangular ; elytra nearly 
three times as long as, and at the sides forming a continuous 
outline with, the prothorax, parallel for two-thirds of their 
length, sharply margined laterally ; prosternum narrow, produced 
behind, the mesostemum not excavate for its reception ; inter- 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 381 

mediate cozal cavities open externally, the trochantin prominent ; 
intercoxal process of the abdomen snbtriangnlar ; elytral epiplenras 
entire, broad, equal in width from opposite the metathoracio epimera 
to near tiie apex, widened towards the base ; legs rather short ; 
anterior tibiaa flattened and subtriangnlarly dilated, with rather 
long spurs, the four hinder tibiss with ve^ short spurs ; tarsi 
simple, sparsely clothed with long hairs beneath ; posterior tarsi 
with the basal joint short, joints 1 — 3 united very little longer than 
the apical one ; body elongate, parallel, winged. 

This genus is proposed for a Tasmanian insect allied 
to Toxicum (and Anthracias), from which it 'chiefly 
differs in having the head unarmed, the antennas 
gradually widened to the apex (their three or four outer 
joints not forming a club nor densely punctured and 
pubescent), and the epi pleurae broad and entire. Epi* 
toxicum, F. Bates, is also an allied genus. The head is 
not swollen on either side near the eyes as in the females 
of Toxicum, nor cornute. The antennal joints are shining 
and similarly sculptured throughout. The sex of the two 
specimens received has not been ascertained. 

Paratoxicum iridescens, n. sp. (Plate VIII., figs. 8, 8a-c.) 

Elongate, narrow, parallel ; the head, oral organs, antennn, and 
legs ferruginous, the prothorax and elytra dull black, the prothorax 
in one specimen indeterminately ferruginous towards the sides and 
apex, the entire upper surface iridescent Head densely, very 
minutely punctate, the epistoma a little smoother; prothorax about 
one-third broader than long, rather convex, strongly bisinnate at 
the base and feebly so at the apex, the sides parallel from about the 
middle to the base and rounded in front, the hind angles acutely 
rectangular, the anterior angles rather sharp, the base very finely 
margined and obsoletely foveate on either side, the entire surface 
densely, minutely punctate ; el3rtra a little flattened on the disc, 
with regular rows of fine punctures, the interstices flat, smooth ; 
beneath shining, obscure castaneous, closely and finely punctured 
along the middle, the sides of the metasternum (but not the 
episterna) with coarser punctures, the ventral segments 1 — 3 more 
sparsely punctured towards the sides, the flanks of the prothorax 
finely strigose. Length 5f , breadth 2 mm. 

Hah. Tasmania — New Norfolk. 

Two specimens, found under bark of Eucalyptus. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

882 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenebrionidss 


Eelwusj Latreille^ Regno Anim., ed. 1^ iii.^ p. 801 


Helwiis perforatus, 

Helaeus perfaratuSf Latr., Regne Anim., ed. 2, iii., p. 
32, t. 3, fig. 6 ; de Breme, Essai Monogr. Cossyph., 
i., p. 55, t. 6, fig. 2, and t. 1, figs. 1, 2, 5—8; 
Macl., Proc. Linn. Soc, N. S. W., il (2), p. 641. 

Hab. W. Australia — Fremantle. 

Originally described from Kangaroo Island. Under 
stones in sandy places (Walker). 


Pterohelams, de Breme, Essai Monogr. Cossyph., i., 
p. 27, t. 1, figs. 1—4, B (1842). 

Pterohelseua nigriAMmis, n. sp, 

Pterohelseiis nigricomia, F. Bates, in litt. 

Broad oval, moderately convex, above and beneath, the legs 
and antennas black, the upper surface opaque. Head smooth, the 
epistoma separated on either side from the front by a fine oblique 
grooTe, the sides of the front broadly arcuately expanded, slightly 
raised, and projecting beyond the eyes ; the latter not prominent, 
very finely faceted, and separated by a space about equalling the 
width of one of the eyes as seen from above ; prothorax almost 
smooth, strongly transverse, fully three times as wide at the base 
as it is long in the centre, very deeply emarginate in front, deeply 
bisinuate behind, the sides arcuately and very rapidly converging 
from the base, the disc moderately convex and sometimes with 
indications of a fine impressed central line, the margins broadly 
explanate, the outer edge reflexed, the anterior angles rounded, 
the hind angles sharp and prolonged backwards; scutellum smooth; 
elytra a little wider than, and nearly four times the length of, the 
prothorax, rapidly arcuately narrowing from the middle, obliquely 
truncate on either side at the base, and with rather obtuse humeri, 
the disc moderately convex, somewhat abruptly declivous beyond 
the middle ; each elytron with seven or eight equidistant costse, 
which become altogether obsolete on the apical declivity, the 
interspaces each with a double row of very fine, lightly impressed, 
punctures not extending to the apex ; the margins broadly ex- 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Ta^smania. 383 

planate, the outer limb reflexed ; beneath slightly shiniDg, almost 
smooth, the ventral segments 1 — 3 feebly longitudinally wrinkled ; 
prostemum produced behind and received by the rather deeply 
excavate mesosternum. Length I7i~18^, breadth 12^ — 13^ mm. 
Hab. N. W. Australia — Port Darwin and Adelaide River. 

Three specimens, two of which have been sent by Mr. 
Walker to the British Museum; also contained in Mr. P. 
Bates's collection, where it is labelled with the name I 
have adopted. Less elongate and more oval than P. 
walkeri, de BrSme, P. jnceus, Kirby, and P. co'rnutv^, 
Macl., the elytra smooth at the apex, the legs and 
antennee entirely black. Two of Mr. Walker's specimens 
were dead and mutilated when found. 

Pterohelmus reichei, 

Pterohelasus reichei, de Brfime, Essai Monogr. 
Cossyph., 1., jp. 35, t. 2, fig. 2; Macl., Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N. S. W. (2), ii., p. 531. 

Hab. Tasmania-^Hobart. 

Several specimens, agreeing well with de Brfime's 
figure. Found under loose bark of Eucalyptus. 

PterohelaBus parallelua. 

Pterohelseus parallelus, de BrSme, Essai Monogr. 

Cossyph., i., p. 33, t. 2, fig. 7 ; Macl., Proc. Linn. 

Soc. N. S. W. (2), ii., p.542. 
Hab. W. Australia — Fremantle. 

One specimen of this species has been sent by Mr. 
Walker to the British Museum. The type was obtained 
at Swan River. 

Pterohelmua bullatus. 

Pterohelseus bullatus, Pascoe, Journ. Ent., ii., p. 462 ; 
Macl., Proc. Linn. Soc.N. S. W. (2), ii.,p.536. 

Hab. W. Australia — Fremantle. 
One specimen. 

Pterohelmua peltoides. 
Pterohelseus peltoides, Macl., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 

Hab. S. Australia — Port Adelaide. 
One specimen. 

Digitized by 


384 Mr. G. C. Champion on the TenebriontdsB 

Pierohelwus peltatus. 

Cilibe peltata, Er. in Wiegmann's Archiv, 1842, p. 175. 
Pterohelasus peltatus, de Breme, Essai Monogr. 

Cossyph., i., p. 34, t. 2, fig. 1 ; MacL, Proc. 

Linn. Soc. N. S. W. (2), ii , p. 545. 

Eab, Tasmania — Launceston and Hobart. 

Originally described from Tasmania. Found under 
loose bark of Eucalyptus. 

Sympetes, Pascoe, Journ. Bnt., ii., p. 464 (1866), 

Sympetes tricostellus, 

Encephalus irieostellus, White, Voy. Capt. Grey, App., 
p. 4)4 (1841) ; de Breme, Essai Monogr. Cossyph., 
i., p. 53, t. 5, fig. 6. 

Sympetes tricostellus, Macl., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 
ii (2), p. 652. 

Hah, W. Australia — Albany. 

A specimen of this species in the Hope Collection at 
Oxford bears the MS. name of latipennis, Hope, in his 
own handwriting. Sandy places, under stones (Walker). 

Sympetes patelliformis. 

Saragus patelliformis, Pascoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(4), v., p. 100. 

Sab. W. Australia — Fremantle. 

One example, agreeing pretty closely with Pascoe's 
type, but differing from it in having the prothorax more 
densely punctured and with sharper anterior angles, A 
specimen of this species is contained in the Hope 
Collection at Oxford, with the name subrugosus, Hope, 
attached, but it does not agree with the description or 
figure of S. subrugostis, de Brfime; and there is also 
another in Mr. F. Bates's Collection, from Champion Bay. 

Sympetes diiboulaii. 

Saragus duboulaii, Pascoe, " Journ. Ent., ii., p. 466 ; 
Macl., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., ii. (2), p. 670. 

Hab. W, Australia — E. Wallaby Island in the Hout- 
mann'fl Abrolhos Group, and Fremantle. 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania, 385 

The type of this species was from Champion Bay. 8. 
duboulaii seems best placed in Sympetes, the presternum 
being declivous behind and not received by the meso- 
sternum. At roots of bent grass, on sandhills (Walker). 


Saragtis, Erichson, in Wiegmann's Archiv, 1842, 1, 
p. 171. 

Saragus Isevicollis. 

Silplia lievicollisj Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 73; Oliv., 
Ent., ii., 11, p. 12, t. 2, fig. 5. 

Saragus laevicollis, Er., in Wiegmann's Archiv, 1842, 
1, p. 172, t. 4, figs. 7, a, b; de Breme, Essai 
Monogr. Cossyph., i., p. 44, t. 3, fig. 1 ; Hope, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1848, p. 56, t. 7, fig. 5 ; 
Macl., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., ii. (2), p. 657. 

Oilibe costatus, Sol., Studi Ent., p. 355, t. 13, figs. 
10-13 (1848). 

Hah, Tasmania — Hobart and Launceston. 

Sandy places, under stones and at roots of herbage 

Saragus bicarinatus, n. sp. (Plate VIII., fig. 10.) 

Moderately elongate, broad, convex, subparallel, very obtnse 
behind, brownish-black, opaque. Head deeply sank into the pro- 
thorax (the eyes only just visible from above), thickly and finely 
punctate, the epistoma limited at the sides and posteriorly by a 
shallow groove ; prothorax strongly transverse, deeply emarginate 
in front, the sides rapidly conyerging from the base, a little 
rounded anteriorly, the base slightly emarginate in the middle, 
rounded to the outer limit of the disc, and then very obliquely 
truncate to the acute, defiexed, posteriorly-produced hind angles, 
the anterior angles rather obtuse, the disc convex, obsoletely 
canaliculate in the middle, and very finely, closely punctate, with 
the interspaces (viewed under a strong lens) densely minutely 
punctured, the margins broadly, horizontally explanate, shagreened 
and minutely granulate, the exterior edge not reflexed ; elytra 
about two and a half times longer than the prothorax, and of the 
same width at the base, parallel to about the middle, very obtuse 
behind, strongly trisinuate at the base, with subacute, deflexed. 

Digitized by 


386 Mr. 0. C. Champion on the Tenebrionidm 

outwardly directed humeri, each elytron with three longitudinal 
equidistant costss extending to considerably beyond the middle, the 
inner one stout, smooth, and shiniug, and strongly raised, the other 
two faint and slightly crenulate, the external one carving inwards 
at the base, the space between the first costa and the suture (which 
is not raised and slightly sbioing) quite flat, and between it and 
the lateral margin obliquely declivous, the interspaces shagreened 
and very minutely granulate, and with rows of subobsolete punc- 
tures, a row of coarser impressions midway between the outer 
costa and the margin, the margins moderately horizontally ex- 
planate, the exterior edge not thickened ; the legs and under 
surface fusoo-ferruginous ; the prostemum granulate, longitudin- 
ally wrinkled at the sides, the prostemal process rugosely punctured, 
the latter subhorizontally produced, and received by the deeply 
excavate V-shaped mesostemum ; the rest of the under surface 
thickly punctured and wrinkled, the pleurs smoother ; anterior 
tibiaa with a short fine tooth at the outer apical angle. Length 16^, 
breadth 10 mm. 

Hah. N.W. Australia-— Roebuck Bay. 

One specimen. Very near 8, confirmatus, Pasc, from 
W. Australia, but much larger, broader, and more robust, 
the legs much stouter; the innermost costa on the 
elytra stouter, more raised, and shining, the other costsB 
faint (not being any more prominent than they are in 
S. confirmatus) ; the prothorax not wider than the elytra 
at the base. Another closely allied, perhaps undescribed, 
species, from Nicol Bay, is contained in Mr. F. Bates^s 
collection. 8, bicarinatus is apparently not described in 
MacLeay's monograph of the genus. 

Saragus intricatiis, n. sp. 

Oblong-oval, very convex, black, subopaque. Head sparsely 
and very finely punctate, the interocular space more coarsely and 
more closely punctured ; prothorax at the base more than twice as 
broad as long, broadly and very deeply emargiuate in front, the 
sides rapidly and arcuately converging from the base, the base 
feebly emargiuate in the middle, broadly rounded to the outer 
limit of the disc, and then very obliquely truncate to the sharp 
posteriorly-produced hind angles, the disc transversely convex, 
shallowly longitudinally grooved in the middle behind, and thickly, 
very finely punctate, the margins strongly horizontally explanate, 
and finely shagreened, the outer edge not reflexed, the anterior 
'^ngles rounded ; scutellum smooth ; elytra slightly wider than, 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 387 

and three times as long as, the prothorax, parallel to about one- 
third from the base, arcuately and rapidly narrowing posteriorly, 
conjointly rounded at the apex, and with rather obtuse humeri, 
each elytron with three sinuous subequidistant feeble carina (the 
first straight and more sharply raised anteriorly), and with a still 
more feeble carina midway between each of these, all connected 
here and there by transverse or oblique rami, the interspaces with 
interrupted series of coarse, exceedingly shallow punctures, the 
space between the first costa and the suture (which is not raised) 
flat, the sides abruptly declivous, the margins very slightly dilated 
at the base; beneath very sparsely minutely punctate, and also 
longitudinally wrinkled, and clothed with a few scattered hairs ; 
the prostemal process thickly punctured, strongly horizontally 
produced, and received by the deeply excavate V-shaped meso- 
stemum ; the femora very sparsely, the tibia closely and roughly, 
punctured, the anterior tibss feebly toothed at the outer apical 
angle. Length 14^, breadth 9^ mm. 

Hah. N,W. Aostralia — Adelaide River. 

Three examples^ two of which are contained in the 
British Museum. Apparently distinct from all the 
numerous described species of the genus. In the sculp- 
ture of the elytra it approaches S. reticulatus, Haag^ 
from Endeavour Eiver. 

Saragiis infelix. 

Saragtia infelix, Pasc, Joum. Ent., ii., p. 466. 

Hob. Tasmania — Launceston. 

One specimen of this species has been sent by Mr. 
Walker to the British Museum. The type was from 

Saragus sp. (?). 

Hah. N.W. Australia — Montalivet I. 

One mutilated specimen (without head)^ perhaps be- 
longing to an undescribed species, sent by Mr. Walker 
to tne British Museum. 

Saragus hrunnipes, 

CeUbe bru/nmpes, Boisd., Voyage de TAstrolabe, Ent.^ 

ii., p. 264. 
CiUbe brunnipes, de Brdme^ Essai Monogr. Cossypb., 

i., p. 87, t. 8, fig. 4. 

Digitized by 


388 Mr. 6. C. Champion on the Tenchrionidse 

Saragus brunntpes, MacL^ Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 
(2), ii., p. 669. 

Hah. W. Australia — Cape Leeowin. 

Three examples, probably belonj^g to this species. 
They closely resemble 8. macleayi, Blackb., bat are flatter, 
and have the expanded margins of the thorax and elytra 
ferroginoos, and the humeri more angular. 


Nycto2oilu$, Gu^rin, Voy. Coquille, Ent. ii., p. 92 

Sphenogenius, Solier, Stadi Ent., p. 35, 

Nydozoilus sexcosiatus, n. sp. (Plate VIII., fig. 9.) 

Oblong ovate, convex, rather broad, doll black, yery sparsely 
clothed with exceedingly short, fine, appressed, yellowish-brown 
hairs. Head broad, slightly depressed in front, thickly and finely 
punctate, the epistoma feebly arcnate-emarginate at the apex, the 
antennary orbits prominent and extending more than half-way 
across the eyes ; antennas piceoos, ferroginoos at the tip, not 
reaching the base of the prothorax, thickening a little outwardly, 
joint 3 elongate, about two and a half times as long as 4, 4 — 7 
decreasing slightly in length, 8 as broad as long, 9 and 10 strongly 
transverse, 11 twice as long as 10, rounded at the tip ; prothorax 
transrerse, widest at the middle, a little wider at the base than at 
the apex, moderately convex, with the sides flattened and hori- 
zontally explanate, the apex broadly and deeply emarginate, the 
base (viewed from behind) very broadly and feebly arcuate- 
emarginate, distinctly margined, the sides strongly rounded at the 
middle, obliquely converging anteriorly, and constricted and deeply 
sinuate before the base, the anterior angles sharp and very pro- 
minent, the hind angles obliquely produced behind and overlapping 
the elytra, the lateral margins, and the apical mai^n (except in the 
middle), feebly reflexed and slightly crenulate, the entire surface 
very minutely shagreened and with shallow, scattered, fine irregular 
punctures (each bearing a short hair), which are more crowded 
towards the middle of the disc, the latter with an indistinct 
median groove and a broad shallow depression on either side of it 
a little behind the middle ; elytra very much wider than, and about 
twice as long as, the prothorax, a little rounded at the sides, 
strongly bo at the base, each with three fine, sharp, slightly 
sinuous, smooth carinas (the first and third almost confluent behind 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 389 

and enclosing the shorter median one, the first earring a little 
outwards, and the second and third curving a little inwards, at the 
base), the suture smooth and similarly raised, the interspaces very 
minutely shagreened, feebly transversely wrinkled, and with 
scattered fine setif erous punctures, which become coarser towards 
the sides; beneath blackish-brown, dull, more thickly pubescent 
(except at the sides), very minutely shagreened, and somewhat 
closely impressed with fine, muricate punctures, the propleursB with 
widely scattered, simple, shallow punctures, each bearing a hair ; 
presternum very broad, horizontal, strongly produced, rounded at 
the tip ; mesostemum broad, subangularly raised on either side in 
front ; metastemum very short ; intercoxal process exceedingly 
broad, subparallel, rounded in front ; epipleurse very broad at the 
base, gradually narrowing behind, and extending to the apex ; legs 
pitchy-brown, rather slender, closely punctured. Length 14, 
breadth 7^ mm. 

Hab. N. W. Australia — ^Adelaide River. 

I am unable to identify this very distinct species with 
any of those described by F. Bates, Macleay, or Haag ; 
it agrees with the type, N, obeaus, Gu^r., in its structural 
characters. One specimen, found under a stone on a dry 
bank (Walker). 


Hypauloj^, F. Bates, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1868, 
p. 259, Nat. Hist. (4), xiii., p. 16. 

Hypaulax ampliata. 

Hypaulax ampliata, F. Bates, Am. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(4), xiii., p. 19. 
Hah, N. W. Australia — Roebuck Bay. 

Numerous examples, found under the dry bark of 
stumps, etc. Originally recorded from W. Australia. 

Hypaulax irideacens, 

Hypaulax irideacens, Blackb., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 

(2), iii., p. 1433. 
? Platynotua insularis, Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

1842, p. 77 ; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1845, p. 107. 

Hob. N. W. Australia — ^Port Darwin, Adelaide River. 

Digitized by 


390 Mr. G. C. Champion on the !tenebrion%dm 

Many specimens ' from these localities^ varying in 
length from 9i — 17 mm., agree very nearly with the 
Rev. T. Blackburn's description of R. iridescens, the 
original examples of which were obtained in the northern 
territory of S. Australia, The species is distinct from all 
those described by Mr. F. Bates. It is not improbable 
that this is the Platynotus insularisj Hope,* from Melville 
Island and Port Essington. I am unable to find the type 
of Hope's species in the Oxford museum. The hairy 
mentum is a mark of the male sex. Under loose bark 
and also under logs lying in dry places (Walker). 

MenepUlus, Mulsant, Col. Fr., Latig., p. 291 (1854). 
The Australian species of this genus are found under 
dry bark and in dry rotten wood, according to Mr. 

Menephilua longvpennis. 

Tenehrio hngipennis, Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1842, p. 79 • Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1845, p. 110. 

Hah, Tasmania — Franklin, New Norfolk, George's 

Originally recorded from Adelaide. I have examined 
Hope's type in the Oxford Museum. 

Menephilua corvinua. 
Tenehrio corvinua, Er. in Wiegmann's Archiv, 1842, 

l,p. 175. 
Tenehrio cyanipennis, Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1842, p. 79; Trans. Ent. Soa Lond., 1845, p. 111. 
Hah, Tasmania — Launceston. 

It is uncertain which name has priority, both having 
been published in 1842. Erichson's type was from 
Tasmania, that of Hope from Adelaide. 

Menephilua colydioides, 

Tenehrio colydioides, Er. in Wiegmann's Archiv, 1842, 
1, p. 175. 

Hah. Tasmania — Hobart, Launceston, and George's . 

Apparently a common insect in Tasmania. 

® Incorrectly referred to Cestrinus by Pascoe and Gemminger 
& Harold. 

Digitized by 


collected' in Australia and Tasmania. 391 

Menephiltis rujicomis, n. sp. 

^. Moderately elongate, convex, shining, piceous or obscure 
oastaneons, the head more or less ferruginous in front, the elytra 
violaceous, asneous with a violaceous lustre, or aeneous; the antennas 
rufo-testaceous ; the under surface pitchy-brown or castaneous ; 
the legs piceous with the knees and tarsi castaueous, or entirely 
castaneous. Head short, somewhat deeply sunk into the prothorax, 
coarsely, closely punctured between and behind the eyes, the 
punctures oblong in shape, the anterior portion much more finely 
punctate, the epistoma limited at the sides and behind by a rather 
deep groove ; the eyes moderately large and prominent, coarsely 
faceted, the orbits impinging on them in front; antennas moderately 
stout, thickening outwardly, scarcely reaching the base of the 
prothorax, joint 6 wider than 5, 7 — 11 perfoliate, much wider than 6, 
8 — 10 strongly transverse, 11 twice as long as 10, bluntly rounded at 
the tip ; prothorax convex, broader than long, very little wider at 
the base than at the apex, the sides sinuate behind and rounded 
anteriorly, the base strongly bisinnate, the hind angles rectangular, 
the anterior angles obtuse and declivous, the surface coarsely, closely 
punctured, the apex smoother ; scutellum subtriangnlar, about as 
long as broad, faintly punctured ; elytra about three times as long 
as, and considerably wider than, the prothorax, subparallel in their 
basal half, with rows of coarse subapproximate punctures placed 
upon rather shallow striae, the punctures becoming finer towards 
the suture and coarser towards the sides, the interstices feebly 
convex, sparsely, very distinctly punctate ; beneath shining, the 
flanks of the prothorax with coarse, scattered punctures, the ventral 
segments rather coarsely and moderately closely, the metastemum 
very sparsely and finely, punctate ; prostemum slightly declivous 
and strongly produced behind the anterior coxae, grooved on either 
side, the apex raised ; epipleurae extending as far as the last 
ventral suture, rather broad; tibiae slightly curved, pubescent on the 
inner side towards the tip, the two hinder pairs feebly sinuous 
within, the anterior pair with their outer apical angles obtuse. 
Length 7—7^, breadth 2^ mm. 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart and George's Bay. 

Three examples^ apparently all males. Allied to M. 
corvinus, Er., and If. cserulescens, Haag^ but mnch 
smaller than either of these species^ with the head^ thorax^ 
and under-snrface mnch more coarsely punctured^ the 
frontal suture deeper, etc. The elytra vary in colour 
from violaceous to seneous. Found under bark (Walker). 

Digitized by 


392 Mr. G. C. Champion on the TenehHonidx 


Meneristesj Pascoe^ Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)^ iii., 

p. 150 (1869). 
Asiris, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xlv., 2, p. 24 (1872). 

Pascoe states that this genus only differs from Mene- 
philua in the following characters — "tibi89 calcaratse^ 
femora incrassata.'* He has overlooked the fact that the 
tibiae in his typical species, M, laticollis, are very dis- 
tinctly channelled on their outer edge; if. servulus^ 
Pasc, has the tibisB rounded on their outer edge^ and it 
cannot be included in the same genus. 

Meneristes auatralis. 

Tenebrio attstralis, Boisd., Voyage de PAstrolabe, Ent. 

ii., p. 254 ; Bless., Horse Ent. Boss., i.^ p. 94. 
Meneristes laticollis, Pasc, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(3), iv., p. 150, 1. 11, fig. 2 {nee Boisd.). 
Asiris angulicollis, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xlv., 2, p. 80. 

Hab, Tasmania — ^Hobart and Launceston. 

Under Eucalyptus bark, common (Walker). 

I am unable to follow Pascoe in regarding this species 
as the Baryscelis laticollis of Boisduval, though it may 
be the Tenebrio australis of that author. The Rev. T. 
Blackburn (Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr., x., p. 282) unites 
Boisduval's species under the one name, Meneristes 
australis ; but to judge from the imperfect descriptions 
(Voy. de 1' Astrolabe, ii., pp. 253, 254) they cannot 
possibly be synonymous. An insect sent me by Mr. 
Blackburn as the Tenebrio australis, Boisd., agrees 
with the type of M. intermedius, Pasc ; it differs from 
M. laticollis in its smaller size, and in having less acute 
hind angles to the prothorax. 


Promethis, Pascoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), iii.^ 

p. 148(1869). 
Mederisj Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xlv., 2, p. 24 (1872). 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania, 393 

Promethis angulafa, 

Upia (Iphthinus) angulatiLs, Er. in Wiegmann's Archiv, 

1842, 1, p.l74. 
Promethis angulata, Paso., loc. cit, 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart and New Norfolk. 

Previously recorded from Tasmania and Victoria. 
Under Eucalyptus bark^ generally in company with 
Meneristes (Walker). 


Pachyccelia, Boisduval, Voyage de 1' Astrolabe, Ent. ii., 

p. 248 (1885) (nomen prseocc). 
Lepiapilus, Westwood, Arcana Ent., i., p. 44 (1841). 

Lepispilus sulcicollis, 

Pachycoelia sulcicollis, Boisd., Voyage de FAstrolabe, 
Ent. ii., p. 248. 

Belops sulcicollis, Boisd., loc. cit, p. 268, t. 7, fig. 5. 

Lepispilus sulcicollis, Westw., Arcana Ent., i., p. 44, 
t. 12, fig. 4; Blanch., in Dumont d'Urville's 
Voyage an Pole Sud, iv., p. 172, t. 11, fig. 14. 

Hah. Tasmania — George's Bay and Hobart. 

Originally described from Tasmania. To judge from 
the type, L. stygianus, Pasc, appears to me to be nothing 
more than a worn (female) example of the same species. 
Found on foliage and by sweeping low plants (Walker). 

Omolipus, Pascoe, Joum. Ent., i., p. 127 (1860). 

Omolipus oblongus. 

Omolipus oblongus, F. Bates, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1873, p. 379. 

Hah. W. Australia — Cossack. 

Found in plenty by Mr. Walker in sandy places on the 
seashore, at roots of bent grass. These specimens difier 
from the mainland type in their smaller size, more 
shining surface, and more obsoletely striate elytra; but 
I do not think they represent more than a local form of 
0. oblongus. The type is from Champion Bay. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1894. — PART II. (jUNB.) 2c 

Digitized by 


394 Mr. G. C. Champion oij tit Teuehrionidx 

OmoUpvs ryaneipennis, n. sp. (Plate VIII., fig. 12, cf .) 

Moderately elongate, obovate. black, the eljtra cyaneous or 
cyaneo- violaceous, the entire upper surface subopaque. Head very 
minutely and sparsely punctured, the epistoma separated from the 
front by a fine impressed line, the eyes small ; antennsB black, about 
reaching the base of the proihorax, thickening outwardly, the 
penultimate joints transverse, the apical one twice as long as the 
tenth ; proihorax broader than long, moderately convex, very finely 
margined at the sides, more distinctly so at the base, the sides 
rounded anteriorly, obliquely converging behind, and feebly sinuate 
just before the base, the hind angles distinct, the surface still more 
minutely and more sparsely punctured than that of the head (the 
punctures only visible under a strong lens) ; elytra about twice as 
long as the pro thorax, and a little wider than it at the base, sharply 
margined at the sides and with the humeri rather prominent, 
widest about the middle and then rapidly narrowing to the apex, 
punctate-striate — the striae shallow, the punctures oblong in shape, 
not very coarse, and rather closely placed, and becoming finer 
towards the apex, — the interstices smooth and slightly convex ; be- 
neath dull pitchy-black, the two basal segments of the abdomen 
with a faint cyaneous lustre, the apical two or three segments 
slightly shining, the venter sparsely and very minutely punctured ; 
the presternum canaliculate on either side, and declivous behind, 
the apex conically raised ; legs black, shining ; the anterior tarsi 
slightly dilated in the male. Length 5i — 8 J, breadth 2J— 3J mm. 

Hal, N. W. Australia — Bandin Island. 

This beautiful species was found in some numbers by 
Mr. Walker, under fragments of ironstone on the summit 
of the island, at an elevation of about 250 feet, in 
compapy with Ectyche cierulea. The island upon which 
it occurred was named by the officers of H.M.S. " Pen- 
guin,'' during their surveying expedition to the coast of 
N. W. Australia. 0. cyaneus, Pasc, is an allied form. 

Omolipus parvus. 

OmoUpus parvus, F. Bates, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1873, p. 379. 

Hah, W, Australia — Fremantle. 

A single male example, agreeing perfectly with the 
typo ; the latter is from Swan River. 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania, 395 


Vecialma, Pascoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), iii., 
p. 291 (1869). 

Decialma erichsoni, n. sp. (Plate VIII., fig. 11.) 

Decialma erichsoni, F. Bates, in litt. 

(J . Moderately elongate, black, the upper surface with a cseruleous 
lustre, shining, glabrous. Head coarsely, rugosely punctured, the 
vertex with a small transverse impunctate space in the middle ; 
antennae pitchy-brown, slender, extending to a little beyond the 
base of the prothorax, joint 3 nearly as long aa 4 and 5 united, 9 
and 10 a little longer than broad, obconic, 11 one-half longer than 
10, bluntly rounded at the tip ; prothorax short, very strongly 
transverse, convex on the disc, broadly and deeply depressed 
towards the sides, with a large broad space between the middle and 
the base more deeply excavate, the lateral margins explanate and 
stronglyuuptumed, the sides feebly rounded, slightly convergent at 
the base and more distinctly so in front, the apex very broadly 
truncate in the middle, the anterior angles rounded, strongly, very 
broadly produced, the base deeply bisinuate, the hind angles sub- 
rectangular, the surface thickly, moderately fiuely punctate, a 
median line on the disc and the lateral portion anteriorly almost 
smooth ; scutellum smooth ; elytra considerably broader than, and 
about four times as long as, the prothorax, subparallel in their basal 
half, moderately convex, thickly, irregularly, and rather coarsely 
punctate (the punctures becoming much finer at the apex), and 
with indications of irregular faint raised lines ; beneath very 
shining, the metastemum at the sides and the adjacent part of the 
epipleura with coarse scattered punctures, the flanks of the pro- 
thorax feebly wrinkled, the sides of the ventral segments longi- 
tudinally wrinkled and with a few scattered punctures, the median 
part closely and more finely punctured ; prosternum horizontal, 
very strongly, convexly produced behind, and received by the 
exceedingly deeply excavate mesosternum, the latter U-shaped, 
horizontal, with the strongly raised sides vertical in front ; legs 
pitchy-black, the tarsi paler ; anterior tarsi slender ; hind tibisa on 
the inner side subangularly widened at about one-fourth from the 
base and slightly sinuous. Length lOJ, breadth 4 J mm. 

Hah. Tasmania — Denison Gorge, near Launceston. 

Specimens of this insect are also contained in Mr. F. 
Bates's collection, labelled with the name I have adopted. 

Digitized by 


Ctt.tcl fro It 0..*"de.,a, Lr. 


Td;^ux, EncLsoi:, in Wiegnxacn's ArcLir, 1S42, 1, 
p. 1 ;>5 ; F. ilateSy Ann, and lUg. ^NaL Hist. {Aj, 
xm., p. 102. 

TitSRT^a columbiruL, 

Tiliena columhina, Er., in Wiegmann's Aithir, 1842, 
1, p. 179, t. 4, figs. 9, a,b; BlanclL., in Dmnont 
d'Cnrille'a Voyage an Pole Snd, iv^ Ins., p. 178. 

Htrrm^ylvim nujoium, Blanch., loc. ciL, t. 12, fig. 2. 

Hah, Tasmania — Hobart, Lannceston, and Franklin. 

Not uncommon, under bark of Acacia decurrens and A. 
dm Wat a, locally known as wattle- trees. 

TUsena alcyonea. 

Tiliena alcyonea, Er., in Wiegm. Archiv, 1842, 1, 
p. 180. 

llab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

One specimen ; also sent by Mr. Walker to the British 
MuHoum. Examples of this insect are separated from T, 
aln/rmra, Er., in Mr. F. Bates's Collection and labelled 
with the MS. name of cyanea, Bates; Mr. Walker's 
insect, however, accurately fits Erichson's description. 

Titfena iasmanica, n. sp. (Plate VIII., fig. 18.) 

Titnma taamanica, F. Bates, in litt. 

Klongate, narrow, very oonvex, eBneous or oapreo-aBneoiu, the 
head and pro thorax usually of a greener tint, glabrous, the antenn® 
and log* rufous or pitoby-red. Head coarsely, conflnently pone- 
turedi the punctures on the epistoma finer and separate one from 
auothi^ ; prothorax very convex, as long as broad, widest at 
the middle, about equal in width at the base and apex, the apex 
trunoato, the base rounded at the middle and feebly sinuate on 
either side, the sides a Uttle rounded in front and slightly oon> 
verging l>ohind, the anterior angles deflexed and obtuse, the sor^use 
c<>Ar«tily and donsoly punctured, the punctures here and there 
longitudinally cHuitluent ; elytra rather more than three times as 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania, 397 

loDg as, and considerably widor than, the prothorax, a little 
narrowed in front, closely and very coarsely punctured, the 
punctures variolose, here and there transversely confluent, and 
arranged in irregular, closely packed, longitudinal series ; beneath 
pitchy-brown, very coarsely punctured, the ventral segments more 
finely punctured in the middle. Length 6—6^, breadth 2^ mm. 
Hab, Tasmania — Lannceston and Hobart. 

Specimens of this insect are also contained in Mf . F. 
Bates's Collection, where they are labelled with the name 
here adopted. Much smaller, shorter, and less parallel 
than T. columbina or T. alcyonea, Er., the upper and 
nnder surfaces glabrous. Found in rotten wood, old 
posts, etc. (Walker). 


Melytra, l^ascoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), iii., 
p. 34 (1869). 

Melytra ovata. 
Melytra ovaia, Pascoe, loc, cit., t. 10, figs. 1, la, b. 
Hab. Tasmania — Hobart. 


Eymsea, Pascoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), iii., 
p. 35 (1869). 

Hymaea succinifera, 

Hymsea succinifera, Pascoe, loc, cit,, p. 36, t. 10, figs. 
3, 3a, 6. 

Hah. Tasmania — Lannceston and Hobart. 

Under bark of Atherosperma moschatum and Eu^ 
calyptus coccifera, at elevations above 2,500 feet 


Ectyche, Pascoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), iv., 
p. 143 (1869). 

Ectychs cserulea, n. sp. (Plate VIII., fig. 15, <J.) 
Cffiruleous or Tiolaceous ; the head and thorax dull, the elytra 
shining and of a brighter metallic colour; the upper surface clothed 

Digitized by 


398 Mr. G. C. Champion (m the Tenehrionidse 

with Tery long, erect blackish hairs, those on the elytra serially 
arranged and arising from the interstitial punctures. Head im- 
pressed with oblong, rather coarse, scattered punctures, the 
epistoma separated from the front by an impressed line, the eyes 
strongly transverse ; antennae pitchy-brown, hairy, extending a 
little beyond the base of the prothorax, thickening a little out- 
wardly, the joints perfoliate and submoniliform, 3—7 moderately 
elongate, 8 — 11 shorter, 11 stouter than 10; prothorax feebly 
transyersely convex, strongly transverse, as broad as the elytra, 
widest at the middle, the sides greatly rounded, explanate, and 
abruptly notched immediately before the base, the entire surface 
with scattered, oblong, coarse setiferous punctures, between which 
are some very much finer and shallower non-setiferous impres- 
sions, the disc with traces of a smooth space down the middle ; 
elytra more than twice as long as the prothorax, ovate, parallel 
anteriorly, coarsely crenate-striate, the punctures becoming finer 
towards the apex, and not very closely placed, the interstices 
moderately convex, each with a row of scattered, fine, transverse, 
setiferous impressions, the base truncate, the humeri obtuse ; 
beneath pitchy-black, very shining, with widely scattered, rather 
coarse setiferous punctures ; l^s piceous or brownish, hairy, with 
intermixed much longer erect haira. 

$ The anterior tibiae with the single spur at the inner apical angle 
longer and sharper, the anterior and intermediate pairs more 
curved ; the first ventral segment triangularly depressed in the 
middle behind. Length 7 — 8 mm. ( (J ? ) 

Uah, N. W. Australia — Parry Harbour, Troughton I., 
Baudin I., Condillac I. 

Easily known from the allied forms by its large size 
and the bluish colour of the upper surface. E. scahri- 
penniH, F. Bates, from Nicol Bay, is also a large species, 
but differs from it in many respects, apart from colour. 
Not rare, under large fragments of ironstone on the 
summits of Baudin and Condillac Islands (Walker). 

Edyche erebea. 

Ectyche erehea, Pasc, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 
iii., p. 144, t. 11, figs. 1, la, b. 

Hah. W. Australia — Fremantle, 

Originally described from the same locality. E. sculp- 
turata, F. Bates, from Nicol Bay, approaches this species 
very closely. 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 399 


Micrectyche, F. Bates, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1873, 
p. 362. 

These insects are found at the roots of low plants on 
sandy beaches, according to Mr. Walker. 

Micrectyche intermedia, 

Micrectyche intermedia, F. Bates, loc, cit,, p. 363. 

Hab. W. Australia — E. Wallaby Island in the Hout- 
mann's Abrolhos Group. 

One specimen, agreeing perfectly with the type from 
Champion Bay. 

Micrectyche ferruginea, 

Micrectyche ferruginea, F. Bates, loc, cit.^p, 364. 

Hab. W. Australia — Fremantle. 

Three specimens. The type is stated to be from Swan 

Ph^nnis, n. gen. 

Head short and broad, sunk into the prothorax up to the eyes, 
with the sides of the front obliquely converging and not at all 
prominent (not projecting over the points of insertion of the 
antennae) ; the epistoma very short, truncate at the apex, limited 
behind by a shallow groove ; labrum prominent, separated from 
the epistoma by a coriaceous space ; the eyes small, transverse, 
moderately prominent, rather finely faceted, feebly emarginate ; 
last joint of the maxillary palpi ovate ; antennae hairy, moderately 
slender, extending to a little beyond the base of the elytra, joints 
1 — 8 more or less ovate, 1 stout, 2 about as long as 4, 3 nearly as 
long as 4 and 5 united, 4 — 8 equal in thickness but gradually de- 
creasing in length, 9 nearly twice as long as, and very much wider 
than, 8, triangular, longer than broad, 10 triangular, as broad as 
long, 11 oval, narrower than 10, blunt at the tip ; prothorax trans- 
versely cordate, sub truncate in front and behind, coarsely, irregularly 
dentate at the sides, the latter slightly expanded; scutellum strongly 
transverse, transversely convex; elytra fully one-half broader than, 
and about three times the length of, the prothorax, truncate at the 
base, parallel in their basal half, each with ten rows of coarse deep 
punctures ; anterior coxal cavities closed behind ; legs rather short. 

Digitized by 


400 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenebrionidae 

hairy, moderately slender, the penaltimate joint of all the tarsi 
small, simple, the tarsi clothed with long hairs heneath, the first 
joint of the hind pair not longer than the following two joints 
united, the tibial spurs short but distinct; the upper surf ace clothed 
with long, erect bristly hairs, with intermixed short, appressed, fine 
hairs, the latter forming well-defined patches on the elytra. 

This genus is proposed for a single species from 
Tasmania. It seems to be best placed near Ectyche, 
The clothing of the upper surface resembles that of the 
" Amphidorides/' except that the finer hairs on the elytra 
form well-defined patches. The form of the antennao is 
peculiar — the ninth to the eleventh joints being stouter 
than those preceding, the ninth and tenth triangular, the 
ninth longer than the eighth or tenth. 

Phmnnis fasciculata, n. sp. (Plate VIII., fig. 14.) 

9 . Moderately elongate, rather convex, pitchy- brown, the front 
of the head and the anterior margin of the prothorax paler ; the 
elytra with an oblong humeral patch and the suture indeterminately 
testaceous, the interstices also paler towards the base ; the antennse 
fusco-testaceous, with the three apical joints piceous ; the legs 
fusco-testaceous, with the femora darker towards the base ; the 
upper surface sparsely clothed with long, erect, bristly, brownish 
hairs, which are serially arranged on the elytra, and with intermixed 
short, appressed, yellowish-cinereous hairs, the latter forming well- 
defined patches on the elytra ; the legs and antenns clothed with 
long, fine, bristly hairs. Head thickly, shallowly punctate ; pro- 
thorax transversely cordate, much narrower at the base than at the 
apex, transversely convex, coarsely and irregularly dentate at the 
sides (with about six teeth on each side), the surface thickly covered 
with coarse, rounded, very shallow punctures ; elytra parallel to 
beyond the middle, flattened on the disc, with rows of coarse, deep, 
closely placed punctures, the punctures subtransverse on the disc, 
rounded towards the sides, the interstices narrow, sparsely, very 
minutely punctate, the third, fifth, and seventh snbcostate. Length 
4}, breadth 1} mm. 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

Of this species Mr. Walker has sent three specimens 
to the British Museum, and one to myself; the description 
is entirely taken from the latter. They were all tound 
under the bark of Eucalyptus, 

Digitized by 


coUected in Australia and Tasmania, 401 


Coripera, Psscoe, Journ. Ent., ii., p. 488 (1868) ; F. 
Bates, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), xiii., p. 112. 

The name Pseudhelops, Gu6r., is incorrectly adopted 
for this genas in the Munich Catalogue, cf. F. Bates, 
op. cU. 

Coripera deplanaia. 

Adelium deplanatum, Boisd., Voyage de 1' Astrolabe, 
Ent. ii., p. 277, Ins., t. 7, fig. 6 (1835). 

Hah. Tasmania — Lannoeston and Hobart. 

Not uncommon. Under logs and stones in rather 
damp places, especially between 2000 and 4000 feet 
elevation, on Mount Wellington (Walker). 

Adelium, Kirby, Trans. Linn. Soc, xii., p. 420 (1818). 

Adelium licinoides, 

Adelium licinoides, Kirby, Trans, Linn. Soc, xii., p. 421; 

Boisd., Voyage de 1' Astrolabe, Ent. ii., p. 276. 
Adelium cisteloides, Er. in Wiegmann's Archiv, 1842, 

1, p. 176; Blessig, Horaa Ent. Boss., i., p. 101. 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart, Launceston, and Franklin. 

Not uncommon. Erichson*s A. cisteloides was from 

Adelium vicarium. 

Adelium vicarium, Pasc, Journ. Ent., ii., p. 480. 

Hab. W. Australia — Darlington. 

Two specimens, apparently belonging to this species ; 
they are much larger than the type. 

Adelium scytalicum, 

Adelium scytalicum, Pasc., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(4), iii., p. 137. 

Hab. W. Australia — Fremantle. 

Three specimens, perhaps referable to this species, 
from the type of which they differ in their loss shining 
thorax and elytra. Described from Swan River. 

Digitized by 


402 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tcnebrionidai 

Addium abbrevudum. 

Adelium abbreviatum, Boisd, Voyage de I'Astrolabe, 

Ent. ii., p. 281. 
Adelium imj/ressumy Blanch, in Damont d'UrviJle's 

Voyage au Pole Sud, iv., Ins., p. 177, t. 11, fig. 18. 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart, Launceston, and Franklin. 
Not nncommon. Ascends to 4,000 feet on Mount 
Wellington (Walker) . 

Adelium latum, 

Adelium latum, Pasc, Joum. Ent., ii., p. 482. 

Hab. Tasmania — Launceston. 

Four specimens, agreeing with the type. This species 
is a very close ally of A. abbreviatum, but it has the 
thorax more convex and with more obtuse hind angles. 

Adelium brevicome. 

Adelium brevicome, Blessig, Horas Ent. Boss., i., 

p. 101, t. 3, fig. 2. 
Adelium neophyta, Pasc, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(4), iii., p. 13d. 

Hab, S. Australia — Port Adelaide. 
Numerous examples. 

Adelium porcatum. 

Carabus porcatus, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 239 ; Ent. Syst., 
i., p. 147 ; Oliv., Ent., iii., 35, p. 37, t. 7, fig. 84. 

CaloMoma porculatum, Fabr., Syst. Eleuth., i., p. 211. 

Adelium caraboides, Kirby, Trans. Linn. Soc, xii., 
p. 466, t. 23, fig. 7 ; Boisd., Voyage de 1' Astrolabe, 
Ent. ii., p. 274. 

IIab» Tasmania — Hobart. 

Adelium strigipenne, 

Adelium (Seirotrana) strigipenne, F. Bates, Trans. 
Ent. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 365. 

Ilab. N. W. Australia — Adelaide River. 

Three specimens, apparently referable to this species, 
and difienng a little inter se in the intricate elytral 
sculpture. The type of A. strigipenne, which I have 
examined, is labelled ''Australia.*' 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania. 403 

Adelium sp. (?) 

Hob. W. Australia — Albany. 

One specimen^ perhaps an extreme form o( A. lindense, 
Blackb., from Port Lincoln. 

Adelium commodum. 

Adelium commodum, Pasc, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(4), iii., p. 139. 

Hab, Tasmania— Hobart and New Norfolk. 

Not uncommon. Described from Tasmania. The 
entire upper surface is brassy in all the specimens 
received, Pascoe describes the insect as black, with the 
elytra sBueous. 

Adelium tasmanicum, n. sp. 

Rather elongate, narrow, moderately convex, black or pitchy- 
brown, with a brassy lastre, feebly shining ; the oral organs, 
antennae, the base of the tibiae, and the tarsi and coxss ferruginous. 
Head broadly flattened anteriorly, thickly and finely punctured, the 
epistoma arcuate-emarginate in front and limited behind by a well- 
defined groove ; antennse rather elongate in the male, about reaching 
the base of the prothorax in the female, the penultimate joints 
transverse, the apical one stout ; prothorax as long as broad, 
truncate in front (as viewed from above), broadly and feebly 
emarginate at the base, slightly narrower at the base than at the 
apex, the sides a little rounded anteriorly, gradually and somewhat 
obliquely converging behind, the anterior angles rounded and 
dechvous, the hind angles obtusely rectangular, the base obliquely 
foveate on either side, the surface closely, finely, distinctly 
punctured, and with a few widely-scattered setiferous impressions ; 
elytra about two and one-third times as long as the prothorax, and 
wider than it, feebly rounded at the sides, which are sharply 
margined anteriorly, a little flattened on the disc, with rows of fine, 
distinct, approximate punctures placed upon almost obsolete striss, 
the interstices flat, thickly and minutely punctured, the second, 
fourth, sixth, and eighth with a few widely scattered setiferous 
impressions, the humeri very obtuse ; beneath thickly and finely 
punctured ; anterior tarsi with the four basal joints n^oderatoly 
widened in the male. Length 7^ — 10, breadth 3 — 3^ mm. 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart and Launcestou. 

Digitized by 


404 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenebrionidas 

Three examples. Closely allied to A. commodum, 
Pasa^ and occurring at the same localities, bat differ- 
ing from it in having the thorax closely and distinctly 
ponctored, the elytra with rows of fine bat distinct panc- 
tares placed apon almost obsolete strisB (in A. commodum 
the strisa are sharply cut and indistinctly punctured) ; the 
setiferous punctures on the elytra are less distinct than in 
A. commodum, and placed on the second, fourth, sixth, 
and eighth, instead of on the third, fifth, seventh, and 
ninth interstices. 

Adelium nodulotum, n. sp. 

9 . Rather elongate, narrow, moderately convex, pitchy-brown, 
the eljrtra obscure castaneons in their outer half, the entire upper 
surface with a brassy lustre and feebly shining ; the oral organs, 
antennas, the base of the tibias, and the tarsi ferruginous. Head 
somewhat flattened anteriorly, thickly and moderately finely 
punctured, the epistoma feebly arcuate-emarginate in front and 
limited behind by a well-defined groove ; antennaB extending to a 
little beyond the base of the prothorax, the penultimate joints as 
long as broad ; prothorax as in il. tasmanicumy but more densely 
and more distinctly punctured ; elytra as in ^i. to«maiucum, but less 
rounded at the shoulders, with rows of fine, distinct, approximate 
punctures placed upon almost obsolete striae, the interstices flat, 
thickly, very distinctly punctate, and each with a series of feeble 
nodular elevations, which become more distinct and subtuberculif orm 
towards the apex. Length 8^, breadth 3, mnu 

Hah. Tasmania — Lannceston. 

One example. This insect closely resembles A. 
tdsmanicum, but differs from it in the denser punctuation 
of the thorax, and in having a series of rather closely 
placed nodular elevations on each of the elytral interstices, 
these elevations becoming tuberculiform at the apex. 
From Brycopia tubercuUfera (which has somewhat similar, 
but fewer, elevations on the elytra) it may be known by 
the more transverse and less prominent eyes, the much 
finer punctures of the elytral strisB, the coarser punctures 
of the interstices, etc. The elytra are subtroncate at the 


Dinoria, Pascoe, Ann. and Hag. Nat. Hist. (4), iii., 
p. 141 (1869). 

Digitized by 


collected in Australia and Tasmania, 405 

Dinoria pida, 

Dinoria picta, Pasc, loc. cit. 

Hah. Tasmania — Hobart. 

Apparently a common insect at Hobart. Under bark 
and among chips in damp situations (Walker). 

Dinoria cadioidea. 

Dinoria cselioides, Pasc.^ Ann. and Mag. Nat. EUst. 
(4), v., p, 103. 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

Originally recorded from Qneensland. Same habits as 
D. picta (Walker). 


Brycopia, Pascoe^ Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), iii^ 
p. 141 (1869). 

Brycopia tuberculifera, n. sp. 

Brycopia tuberculifera, F. Bates, in litt. 

Moderately elongate, rather narrow, convex, pitchy-black with 
an ssneous lustre, shining ; the oral organs and antennse ferru- 
ginoas, the basal joints of the latter usually darker ; the legs 
pitchy-brown, the tarsi ferruginous. Head sparsely, finely, irre- 
gularly punctate, and also with a few coarse setiferous impressions 
in front, the epistoma not clearly defined, feebly arcuate-emarginate 
in front, and limited behind by a rather broad transverse 
depression ; the eyes moderately large, coarsely granulated, convex, 
prominent, rounded as seen from above ; antennsD rather elongate, 
thickening outwardly, the apical joint very stout ; prothorax 
subquadrate, convex, as long as broad, subtruncate in front (as 
viewed from above), feebly bisinuate at the base, the sides 
moderately rounded anteriorly and sinuous and converging behind, 
the hind angles acute, the anterior angles obtuse and dedivous^ the 
base obliquely depressed and foveate towards the sides, the surface 
very finely and rather closely punctured, and with a few coarse, deep, 
widely scattered setiferous impressions ; elytra about two and one- 
third times as long as the prothorax, and wider than it, somewhat 
oval, with rows of moderately coarse, subapproximate punctures 
placed upon almost obsolete strisB, the interstices flat, sparsely, 
finely punctate, and with scattered, feeble tubercular prominences, 

Digitized by 


400 Mr. ft, C. Champion on the Tenebrionidfe 

which become more distinct towards the sides and apex, the third, 
fifth, and seventh each with three or four setiferous impressions, 
the humeri very obtuse. Length 8}— 9^, breadth 3J — 3J mm. 

Hah, Tasmania — Hobart^ Lauuceston^ and Franklin. 

Fonr specimens have been sent to me by Mr. Walker, 
and others are contained in Mr. F. Bates's collection, the 
latter bearing the name I have adopted. B, tuberculifera 
has very much the facies of Adelium commodum, Pasc, 
an insect occurring in the same localities ; but it may be 
easily known from that insect by the prominent and 
more rounded eyes, the imperfectly defined epistoma, the 
tuberculate elytra, etc. 


Ghalcopterus, Blessig, Horae Ent. Ross., i., 1, p. 103 
(1861) ; Blackburn, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (2), 
vii., p. 415 (1892), and viii., pp. 53—56 (1893). 

Chalcopterus longipennis. 

Amarygmus longipennis, Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc. Loud., 
1842, p. 79; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1845, p. 109 
(? nee Blackburn). 

Hab. W. Australia — Fremantle. 

One specimen, also another in the British Museum-set, 
agreeing with Hope's type. The Rev. T. Blackburn in 
his description of this species (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 
(2) vii., p. 456) states that the tarsi are clothed with 
black hairs beneath ; in the insect before me the hairs are 
fulvous, but as I did not examine the tarsi of Hope's 
type, the identification with his 0. longipennis is perhaps 
not quite certain. 

Ghalcopterus howitti. 

Amarygmus howitti, Pasc, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(4), iii., p. 348. 
Chalcopterus cupripennis, Blackb., Proc. Linn. Soc. 

N.S.W. (2), vii., p. 422 (nee Hope). 

Hab. Tasmania — Hobart. 

Not hitherto recorded, I believe, from Tasmania. It 
is a common species in Southern Australia. 

Digitized by 


collected in Aiistralia and Tasmania. 407 

Chalcopterus iridicolor. 

Chalcopterus iridicolor, Bless., Horse Ent, Boss.^ i., 
p. 107, t. 4, figs. 3, 6 (1861) ; Blackb., Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N.S.W. (2) viii., p. 67. 

Sab. Tasmania — Hobart 

I refer with some doubt a very variable Chalcopterus 
obtained in plenty in Tasmania by Mr. Walker to this 
species, the type of which was from Melbourne. The 
Kev. T. Blackburn in his recent papers on the genus 
Chalcopterus does not mention any species specially as 
from Tasmania. 

Chalcopterus semitictis. 

Amarygmus semiticus, Pasc, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(4), iii., p. 349 (1869). 

Ilah, N. Australia — Cape Bougainville. 

One specimen of this species has been sent by Mr. 
Walker to the British Museum. It agrees well with the 
type from Port Denison. C semiticus is apparently 
unknown to Mr. Blackburn (c/. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 
(2), viii., p. 69). 


Amarygmus, Dalman, Anal. Ent., p. 60 (1823) (par- 
tim); Blackburn, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (2), 
vii., p. 415 (1892), and viii., p. 87. 

Amarygmus fyrrhenus, 

Amarygmus tyrrhentis, Pasc, Ann, and Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (4), v., p. 105; Blackb., Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W. (2), viii., p. 91. 

Hah. W. Australia — Albany. 

One specimen. 

Amarygmus perplexus. 

Amurygmu^ perplexus, Blackb., Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W. (2), viii., p. 102 (1893). 

Hab. N. and N. W. Australia — Port Darwin, Adelaide 
Biver, Roebuck Bay. 

Digitized by 


408 Mr. G. C. Champion on the Tenebrionidsp. 

Sent in plenty by Mr. Walker. The numerous speci- 
mens from Adelaide Biver have the elytra more or less 
cyaneous^ instead of black, as in the type and in the 
examples from Port Darwin. Mr. Blackburn's specimens 
were from the North Territory of S. Australia; he has 
examined some of Mr. Walker's examples. 

Explanation oj Platb YIII. 

Fio. 1. 

Diphyrrhynchui eUipUcuB^ i . 


EnnebcBUi australis. 


„ „ antenniB. 


EtmebceopM pruinosus. 


„ „ anteniWB. 


Diphyrrhynchus apimlis, '^. 


Edyliui canescens, i. 


„ „ labium. 



Lyphia tasmanica. 


CaanthuB gibhicoUis. 


„ „ maxilla and maxillary palpus. 




Paratoxicum iridescens. 


„ „ maxilla and maxillary palpus. 


„ „ labium. 


„ „ ant6nn». 


Nyctozoilus sexcostaius. 


Saragus bicarinatus. 


Dec i alma erichsoni. 


Omolipui cyaneipetmiMy (J. 


TiUma Uumanica. 


Phcennis fasciculata. 


Ectyche ccsrulea^ (J. 

Digitized by 


Tmi,.s.Ent.Soc.Lorul. 1834 .Pi.VUl. 


^ M' ^ M+ 







1 1' *• HI' 

GMint«rr| Btob- irr^. 
^ ^^ . ooqIc 

leneorioiiiaae ^ o 

from Australia &.TsLsmani a.. 

Digitized by 


( 409 ) 

XII. Description of the Larva and Pupa of Papilio 
homerus, Fab. By Charlbs B. Taylor, F.E.S. 

[Read February 28th, 1894.] 

About two or three years ago, a lady residing in the Bath 
district of the Parish of Saint Thomas, and a diligent 
collector of insects, discovered seven examples of a large 
Caterpillar of a beautiful green colour, on a tree bearing 
large subovate glossy green leaves (botanical name un- 
known) growing near a certain locality known as the 
*' Fountain Road/' Of these she was good enough to 
send me four specimens, which unfortunately, however, 
never reached my hands, as they were lost in transit, 
while I shortly afterwards heard that the other three 
examples had died before assuming the pupal state, as a 
result of confinement and want of proper attention. 
Towards the middle of last year Mrs. Swainson found 
another of these Caterpillars, which she sent down to the 
Museum of the Jamaica Institute for identification. It 
arrived at a time when there was no experienced 
Entomologist in charge (the post of Curator being then 
temporarily vacant), but on seeing it I ventured to express 
the belief that it was the larva of P. Jwmerus. This 
individual also died during the process of casting the 
larval skin. Through the kindness of Lady Blake I was 
enabled to make a special expedition to Bath during 
November last, in search of this larva, and the day after 
my arrival (the 27th) had the good fortune to find an 
almost full-fed specimen, which developed a male 
homerus on the 29th of December following. It is 
worthy of note that all these Caterpillars were obtained 
from the same tree, notwithstanding that there were many 
others of the same species in the immediate neighbour- 

Larva. Length about 2\ inches, general appearance incraaaated, 
the body being thickest from the 3rd to the 5th segments, from 

TRANS. £NT. SOC. LOND. 1894. — PABT II. (jUNE.) '<i D 

Digitized by 


410 On the larva and pupa of Papilio homerus. 

thence tapering gradually to the anal extremity, which is abruptly 
truncated. Head small, pale ochreons or brown, deflected, and, 
when the larva is at rest, almost completely obscured by a pro- 
jection of the anterior margin of the 1st segment. 

Colour proteotiye, harmonizing closely with the tint of the leaf 
of the food plant. Upper surface a rich deep chrome-green 
extending down to about the spiracular region, where it terminates 
with a more or less irregular or sinuous outline, most pronounced 
towards the posterior segments, where the green is sharply divided 
from the colour of the under surface by a narrow edging of 
white. Ist segment with a short transverse dorsal bar of pale dun 
or ochreous brown ; a broad, curved band of the same colour, 
bearing a few lines and spots of black, runs in a posterior direction 
across the dorsal surface of the 3rd segment, and down to the sides 
of the 4th segment, where, curving slightly upwards, it ends in 
club-shaped dilations, enclosing a simple ocellus coloured as 
follows : On a comma-shaped ground patch of black is drawn a 
rather broad ring of dun, bordered below with bluish-grey followed 
by a black iris, with a bluish-white pupil. Across the posterior 
margin of the 5th segment is drawn a most conspicuous luniform 
stripe of white, having a raised appearance, as if laid on with 
several coats of body colour, and which is in turn marked with 
little transverse bars of pale lavender, five in all ; the horns of the 
crescent have this time a slightly anterior direction, and terminate 
at the sides between the 4th and 5th segments just at the junction 
of the green with the brown of the under surface. 

Anterior margin of the fifth segment, immediately in front of 
the white stripe, finely irrorated with white ; between the 5th and 
6th segments is a broad transverse band of deep black, more or less 
completely hidden by the segmental fold, except when the larva is 
in motion, when it is very conspicuous. Ventral surface, including 
abdominal legs, dull dark brown. A broad band of this colour, 
suffused with a lavender-grey tint, bearing a few scattm^ spots of 
blue-grey, and having a very irregular or jagged outline, is con- 
tinued obliquely upwards in a posterior direction from the 8th 
segment, and, meeting on the dorsal surface of the 10th se|^ent, 
descends again, obliquely, narrowing rapidly however before joining 
the brown of the under surface, thus enclosing an irregular 
diamond-shaped patch of green. Segmental folds strongly marked 
on the ventral surface. 

Pupa, of usual shape, not greatly angulated. Colour, wholly 
dark wood-brown, with two pairs of white tubercles on the dorsal 
surface of the middle abdominal segments. 

Digitized by 


( 41] ^ 

XIII. Notes on Dorydium (?) westwoodi, Buchanan 
White, with observations on the use of the name 
Dorydium. By William F. Kibby, F.L.S., F.B.S., 
Assistant in Zoological Department^ British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.), South Kensington. 

[Read February 28th, 1894.] 

A PEW days ago I received a letter from Mr. Herbert 
Clark, of Christchurch, New Zealand, enclosing two 
specimens of a very curious Horaopterous insect, which I 
have succeeded in identifying with Dorydium westwoodi, 
Buchanan Whifce. 

Mr. Clark writes, '' I found it on the rashes which grow 
in damp situations. In colour and shape it so much 
resembles a piece of dried rush that I have never been 
able to find a specimen except by switching the net 
amongst them. I think they are scarce and very local, as 
the specimens I have captured were taken in a space a 
few yards square, and I have never been able to collect 
them elsewhere. The place where they were found was in 
a plantation of Pinus insignis about a quarter of a mile 
from the sea, and a few chains from the river. The time 
of appearance is from the beginning of November to the 
end of the year." 

The insect belongs to the] family Jassidce, and the 
references are as follows : 

Dorydium westwoodi. 

Buchanan White, Ent. M. Mag., xv., p. 215 (1879) ; . 
Signoret, Ann. Soc. Eat. France (5), x., p. 43, 
pi. 1, fig. 38, details (1880). 

One of the specimens received from Mr. Clark is a 
perfect insect (a male, I think), and the other a pupa, as 
may be seen by the rudimentary tegmina. The mature 
specimen measures 9 lines in length, and agrees with 


Digitized byVjOOQlC 

412 Mr. W. F. Kirby on Darydium (?) trestwoodt^ 

Bachanan White's description better than with Signoret's, 
except in size (Signoret gives 11 mm .^ and Bachanan 
White 14). The insect is probably variable in size and 
markings^ or in the absence of markingSy or there may 
be more than one allied species ; without a good series, 
and perhaps observation of the living insects, it might be 
difficult to clear up this point. 

Buchanan White received three specimens firom Wake- 
field, which had been taken by Fereday near Christ- 
church. He remarks, "This curious species strongly 
resembles the seed of one of the larger grasses.'* 

Signoret received his specimens from John Scott ; they 
appear to be darker than the types; but the allied 
Australian species described by 6. R. Waterhouse 
(Trans. Ent. Soc.,ii.,p. 195) under the genus Cephalelus, 
differ much in size and colour. They differ, too, from the 
species referred to Dorydium by the longer and more 
tapering frontal prominence. 

There is a curious confusion relating to the genera 
Cephalelus and Darydium which I will try to dear up. 
In 1832, Percheron (Mag. Zool. CI. ix., pi. 48) described 
and figured a species from an unknown locality, which he 
called Cephalelus infumatus. 

In 1839, Burmeister (Handb. Ent., li./ p. 106) de- 
scribed an insect from the Cape under th6 name of 
Dorydium paradoxiim, but at p. 1006 stated, that his 
insect was identical with Percheron's, and shortly after- 
wards figured it as such in his *^ tienera Insectorum.'^ 
Instead of dropping the generic name, as he was bound 
to do, he used it again for an allied insect from Sicily, 
which he described and figured as Dorydium lanceolatum. 
This figure is referred to at p. 1006, and appears to have 
been published while Part II. of the '^ Handbuch *' was 
passing through the press, and would, therefore, have 
priority over it. 

Nor does the confusion end here. In 1837, Herrich- 
Schaffer described (Panzer, Hefb 144, pi. 6) sm insect 
from Nuremberg as Jassus paradoxus -, oddly enough, 
another species with a long frontal prominence, though, 
judging from the figure, I should say that it is certainly 
not congeneric with either Dorydium I. [Cephalelus), or 
Dorydium II. Signoret (Ann. Soc. Ent. France (5), 
ix., pp. 259-265) confuses everything. Firstly, he gives 
the genus Gephalelm with four species : infumaiits, 

Digitized by 


v)iih observations on the name J)orydium. 41^ 

Perch., and perchei'oni, Gu^r.,* from South Africa, and 
C. marginaius and brunnetcs, G, R. Waterhouse, from 
Aostralia. I may say that the two latter are closely allied 
to, if not actually congeneric with, Don/dinm (?) west- 
woodi, and do not belong to the South African genus 
Cephaleltis. Next to Oephalelus, Signoret places the 
genus Dorydium, with the two species, D. lanceolatum 
and paradoxum, Burm. ; but for the latter he gives the 
locality Paris ; and his insect is evidently paradoxus, 
Herrich-Schiiffer; Burmeister's species being, as we have 
seen, Cephalelus infumatus, Perch., or a closely-allied 

It is clear that D. lanceolatum, Burm., must be 
regarded as the type of Dorydium^ and that most of 
the species referred to Dorydium will have to be 
removed either to Oephalelus or new genera formed for 
them, if necessary. But this task I will leave to the next 
specialist who takes np the Jassidw. 

^ I cannot find a reference to this species, and suspect it may 
be an error. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


( -415 ) 

XIV. Some new species of Membracidw. By the Rev. 
Canon Fowleb, M.A., F.L.S. 

[Read 14th March, 1894.] 

I HAVE for some time past been engaged in working oat 
the Memhracidse for the Biologia Centrali- Americana^ and 
in the coarse of my work I have received a large nnmber 
of specimens from the Vienna Museum through the 
kindness of Dr. Ganglbauer and Herr Handlirsch, and 
from the Belgian Museum through the kindness of M. 
Severin ; I am also much indebted for help to Dr. 
Aurivillius of the Stockholm Museum^ but as the 
specimens he has sent me are exclusively Central Ameri- 
can there are none that I can here notice; among the 
others^ however, there are several interesting species 
which lie outside the scope of the Biologia, and a few of 
these I have described below. 

At present there is great confusion with regard to 
certain of the genera of this very extensive and interesting 
group of insects, partly owing to the fact that Walker^s 
work, though embracing a large number of genera and 
species, was very slight, and in some cases most con- 
fusing, as he places the most dissimilar insects under one 
genus, and partly because Stal, if in doubt, appears to 
have disregarded Walker's work, and redescribed the 

Tropidoscyta transiens, sp. n. 

Parva, brevis, testacea, aoreo-pubescens, capite magno, antice 
rotnndato, pronoto inaequali, antice in cornu brevissimum rotun- 
datnm foscum prodncto, carinis duabns supra humeros valde 
elevatis, humeris ipsis prominulis, dorso remotius punctato, carina 
centrali instracto, a latere viso pone mediam fortiter sinnatim 
depresso, apice f usco perobtuso ; tegminibus apicem prothoracis 
longe snperantibus, hysdiDis, venis testaceis, maculisque qnibusdam 
obscure brunneis ; corpore subtus fusco, postice testaceo ; pedibns 

TRANS. INT. 80C. I/)ND. 1894. — PART II. (JONB.) 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

416 Rev. Canon Fowler on some 

A small short species, testaoeoos, with the metopidinm, the very 
short blantly ronnded horn of proDotum, the apical portion of the 
two strong carinse above shoulders, and the very blunt apex fuscous: 
the dorsum if viewed from the side is much depressed behind 
middle, and is extended into a short, blunt, very slightly deflexed 
apex ; if viewed from the front the metopidium is large and broad, 
and appears to be furnished with five points formed by the anterior 
horn, the apex of the two suprahumeral carinse and the slightly 
prominent shoulders ; tegmina hyaline, with obscure dark markings, 
underside fuscous, hinderpart testaceous ; legs testaceous. Long, 
cum tegm., 5 mm. ; lat. int. hum., 3 mm. 

Hcib, Rio Janeiro. ? . (Belgium Maseom Collection.) 

This species is closely allied to Erecthia bicolor, Walk., 
and also resembles Trirpidoscyta torva, Stal (Membracis 
iorvay Germ.) ; it is one of the species that complete the 
transition from Memhracis to Bolbonota ; no two genera 
can well be less alike than these, yet connecting forms 
occur which make it almost impossible to separate the 
intervening genera satisfactorily. 

Bolbonota rufo^notaia, sp. n. 

Parva, nigra, pronoto carinato, a latere viso fere sequali, apice 
depresso, humeris, dorsoqne plus minusve, ruf o-ferrugineis ; 
tegminibus pellucidis, basi nigr& vel nigro-brunne&, venis fuscis ; 
pedibus rufis vel ferrugineis. 

A small species, variable in colour, black with the shoulders and 
more or less of the disc of the pronotum of a ferruginous red 
colour, sometimes the black and sometimes the red colour pre- 
vailing ; the pronotum is carinate and uneven if viewed from above, 
but if viewed from the side the central carina is almost level to 
apex, where it is depressed ; punctuation coarse but obscure ; 
tegmina transparent, hyaline, with the base black or brownish-black, 
sometimes ferruginous internally, veins dark and conspicuous ; legs 
red or ferruginous. Long. 2 mm. ; lat. int. hum., 1| mm. 

Hab. New Granada (Nolken), (Vienna Museum 
Collection) ; five examples. 

The species is allied to B.j)usio, Germ., but the latter 
species is considerably larger, longer in proportion, quite 
black, and more coarsely punctured, with the dorsum 
more level and the apex diflerently formed; it is also 
closely akin to B. insequalis. Fab., but, apart from the 
colour, it is much more finely punctured than that species 
and has the dorsum more level il* viewed from the side. 

Digitized by 


new speciea of Memhraddse, 417 

Bolbonota aurchsericea, sp. n. 

Opaca, dilute-testacea, pube aureo-serice& dense vestita ; capite 
pronotoque sat dense subtiliter pnnotatis, illo elongato sat angusto, 
hoc caring centrali integr^ carinisqne tribus utrinque supra humeros 
instrncto, dorso a latere viso eeqnali, recto, mox ante apicem de- 
preaso, apice utrinque carin4 brevi obliqn& ; tegminibus flayis, ad 
medium dilutioribus, ad basim apicemque bijjnnneo-yariegatis ; 
corpore subtus pedibusque testaceis, pectore femoribusque ad 
partem infuscatis. 

A rather large light testaceous species, thickly clothed with fine 
golden pubescence ; pronotum very finely punctured with the 
central keel and three abbreviated keels on each side above 
shoulders, and a small oblique keel on each side of apex, distinct, 
the rest of the surface even, dorsum almost straight, if viewed from 
the side, depressed just before apex ; tegmina yellow, dark before 
apex and near base ; underside and legs testaceous, chest and 
upper part of femora inf uscate. Long, cum tegm., 5 mm. ; lat. 
int hum., 3 mm. 

Hab. North America. ?. Coll. Signoret (Vienna 
Mosenm Collection). 

As far as I know this is the only species of Bolbonota yet 
recorded firom North America ; the genus is omitted in 
Dr. Goding's synopsis (Trans. Am. Ent Soc.^ xix., 253) ; 
it is a veiy distinct species. 

Triquetra obtusa, sp. n. 

Testacea, unicolor, pronoto tectiformi| sat fortiter ad latera 
subrugosius punctato, dorso recto antice altissimo in oomu baud 
producto, sed obtuse angulato, metopidio longo, fere recto, comubus 
humeralibus porrectis, acutis, apice longo, acuto usque ad apicem 
tegminum extenso ; tegminibus totis hyalims, venis dilute testaceis; 
pedibus testaceis. 

A large species of a unicolorous testaceoos colour, with the pro- 
notum tectiform, rather strongly and at the sides subrugosely 
punctured, with the dorsum continued in a straight line from apex 
(which is long, sharp, and acute) to the metopidium, which is then 
abruptly declivous in almost a straight line ; at the place where the 
dorsum and metopidium meet there is no trace of a horn as in the 
allied species ; tegmina entirely hyaline, with the veins light 
testaceous ; legs testaceous. Long. 14^15 mm. ; lat. int. com. 
hum., 10^ mm. 

Digitized by 


418 Rev. Canon Fowler on some 

Uah. New Granada (Nolken), (Vienna Museum Collec- 
tion), three specimens ; Ecuador (E. de Ville), (Belgium 
Museum Collection), four specimens. 

This species may easily be distinguished from T. grossa 
(with wkich latter species T. virgata and T. virescens are 
synonymous) by the shape of the front part of the 
prothorax. I found the specimens above referred to 
among the unnamed material of the Stockholm and 
Vienna Museum Collections, and set on one side as a 
new species ; it may possibly be referred to Triquetra 
grossa as a hornless variety, but I have examined a very 
large number of the last-named species, and have not 
found one specimen like T. obtusa among them. 

Potnia jansoni, sp. n. 

Testacea, capite sat magno, metopidio supra caput plicato, 
pronoto antice in comu breyissum, obtusum, ruf oscens late nigro- 
marginatum extenso, fortiter punctato, caring centrali, costisque 
utrinque quattuor vel quinque sat regalaribus instmcto, humeris 
leviter prominolis, lateribus seDsim in processam longam extensis ; 
tegminibus prothoracem vix superantibus testaceo-hyalinis, apice 
ipso fumoso ; corpore subtus pedibusque testaceis. 

Somewhat elongate for a Potnia^ testaceous, with the pronotom 
strongly punctured, produced in front into a very short blunt horn, 
which is reddish, with the margins broadly black, the black colour 
being extended for a short distance on the dorsum, central keel 
and four or five regular costse on each side well marked, apical 
process long, very slightly deflexed; tegmina produced very slightly 
beyond prothorax, testaceous hyaline with the apical margin 
smoky ; legs and underside testaceous. Long, cum tegm., 8 mm. ; 
lat. int. hum., 3^ mm. 

Hab. Demerara (Janson), S. (Belgium Museum 

Potnia perobtuaay sp. n. 
Prsacedenti afl&nis, sed minor, colore dilutius testaceo, pronoto 
antice minus porrecto et perobtuse angulato, processuque postico 
breviori et rectiori, apice magis obtuso, distinguendus. 

Very like the preceding, but smaller and lighter coloured and 
less strongly punctured, with the pronotum very obtusely angled 
and not extended into a horn, and with the posterior process 
shorter and straighter ; the tegmina are hyaline with the veins 
testaceous. Long, cum tegm , 7 mm. ; lat. int. hum.j 3 mm. 

Digitized by 


new species of Membracidai. 419 

Eab. Rio Janeiro and Botafogo^ Brazil ; a fair series. 
(Belgium Museum Collection.) 

Both these species have the facies of Mnchotype, rather 
than of Potnia, the pronotum being distinctly and 
regularly ribbed ; but the presence of four apical areas on 
the wings prevent their being classed with the former 
genus as at present constituted. 

Enchotype concinna, sp. n. 

Parvula, castanea, pronoto fortiter rugose ponctato, linea cen- 
trali aliisque utrinque irregnlaribus utrinqne elevatis, hnmeris a 
fronte viso obtuse prominulis, cornu antico fere recto, brevi, lato, 
acuto, unicarinato, apice postico longo, acuto ; tegminibns hyalinis 
yenis testaceis, apicem versus f uscis ; pedibus testaceis. 

A small dark castaneous species, with the pronotum coarsely 
and mgosely punctured, with the central line and others on each 
side elevated, and with the shoulders, if viewed from the front, 
obtusely promineut ; anterior horn situated just above metopidium, 
short, broad, and almost upright, and sharp at apex ; tegmina 
vitreous, with the veins testaceous towards base, darker towards 
apex; legs testaceous. Long, cum tegm. 6 mm., lat. int. hum. 4 mm. 

Hab. Cuba (Mayr., Vienna Museum Collection), 

This species is closely allied to Enchotype fairmairei, 
Stal. {Hoplophora fairmairei, Gudr.), but differs in the 
shape of the prothoracic horn, which is much shorter, 
less porrect, and more upright, and also in the smaller 
size, less strong pubescense and darker venation of the 

Enchotype is a sub-genus of Stal, which is closely 
allied to Potnia, from which it is chiefly separated by the 
fact that the wings have three instead of four apical 
areas ; it is very distinct from Hoplophora, of which it is 
by some authors reckoned as a sub-genus. The species 
above described is plainly an Enchotype, but it has 
besides the three apical alar veins a very minute fourth 
one on the exterior margin, which appears to be a thick- 
ening of a vein and to be quite distinct from the exterior 
area of Potnia. 

Hoplophora unicolor, sp. n. 
Longa, lata, parallela, capite et pronoto toto rufo-f^rugineo 
nnicolori, illo parvo, hoc fortiter punctato, humeri's prominulis, 

Digitized by 


420 Rev. Canon Fowler on same 

done a latere yiso fere recto, haud eleyato, lineft centrali et tribns 
yel qnattDor aliis utrinqae sat regalaribiu, elevatis, apice acato ; 
tegminibas elongatia, testaceo-byalinis, immacnlatiB, yenis totis 
testaceia ; oorpore sabtos inf uaoato, pedibus rafo-testaceia. 

A long, broad, parallel species, with the bead and pronotnm 
entirely rofo-f emiginons, nnicolorous ; bead small, thorax very 
coarsely punctured, with a central raised line and three or four on 
each side which are almost regular and very little broken, apex 
sharply pointed ; tegmina long, testaceo-hyaline, without any dark 
spots, and with all the veins testaceous ; underside inf uscate, legs 
rufo- testaceous. Length sine. tegm. 10 mm. ; cum tegm. 15 nmi. ; 
lat. int. hum. 7 mm. 

Hab. Colombia. 

Two female specimens (Vienna Mnsenm Collection). 
This species is related to H. gigantea, and is very closely 
allied to a new species which I have described bom 
Mexico^ under the name of H. signoreti. 

Hille ecuadorensis, sp. n. 

Elongata, brunnea, pronoto dense et fortiter subnigose punctate, 
carina centrali, lineisque quibusdam elevatis utrinque instructo, 
comu dorsali lato obtuso tricannato infuscato, in metopidium 
dorsumque sensim descendente ; tegminibus brunneo-hyalinis, parte 
dimidi& basali fortiter punctata, opacA ; oorpore subtus nigro ; 
f emoribus infuscatis. 

A small elongate castaneous-brown species, with the pronotum 
thickly and strongly and subrugosely punctured, with a central 
keel and four or five elevated lines on each side, and with an obtuse 
dorsal horn, which is tricarinate and inf uscate and slopes gradually 
down to the metopidium and the dorsum ; tegmina brownish 
hyaline, with the basal half strongly punctured ; underside black. 
Long. 7 mm. ; lat. int. hum. 3^ mm. 

Hab. Bcoador (Coll. Signoret. Vienna Museum 

Telamona prsealta, sp. n. 

Fusco-brunnea vel fusca, carinft centrali prothoracis nigrd, 
capite pronoto multo angustiori, illo fortiter punctate, humeris 
prominentibus, subauriculatis, ad latera rugose carinato, protu- 
beranti& dorsali magnft, prsealtft, apice antice late rotundato, postice 
minus alto margine recto, angulo postico obtuso, ad baaim utrinque 
fortiter impress^ ; tegminibus exteme hyalinis, ceteris, prascipue 
ad apicem, fumosis ; corpore subtus pedibusque fusco-brunneis. 

Digitized by 


n6w species of Memhracidse, 421 

Dark fuscous browj, with the central carina of the pronotum 
and sometimes apical portion of the dorsal protuberance black ; 
pronotum strongly punctured with a very large and elevated dorsal 
protuberance ; this is strongly declivous behind and in front, and 
in front is broadly sinuate before metopidium ; its apex is broad, 
rounded and elevated in front, less high and with a straight margin 
behind, and with the posterior angle obtusely rounded, but marked; 
tegmina hyaline externally, with the base and apex dark and the 
central portion smoky ; underside and legs fuscous. Long, cum 
tegm., 9 — 10 mm. ; lat., 5—6 mm. 

Hah. Saguenay, Brazil (V. Huart) ; several speoi- 
mens (Belgium Museum Collection). 

Telamona ruficarinata^ sp. n. 

Sat angusta, capite nigro ruf o-variegato, pronoto rugoso, f ortiter 
punctato, brunneo-testaceo fusco-variegato, carin& centrali ruf ft a 
capite usque ad apicem extensft, et carinis quibusdam intequalibus 
et rugosis utrinque instructo, protuberantift dorsali paullo ante 
medium^ magnft, latft, rotundatft, comubus anterioribus ad humeros 
latis, porrectis, subauritis, paullo reflexis, ad apicem rotundatis ; 
tegminibuR nigro testaceoque variegatis, venis rufescentibus, apicem 
versus dilutioribus ; abdomine, basi segmentorum flavescenti 
excepta, nigro ; pedibus testaceis, ad partem infuscatis. 

Comparatively narrow, with the pronotum testaceous-brown 
variegated with black, and with a red carina running from just 
above head to apex; tegmina variegated with fuscous and testaceous 
and with the veins ruf escejit ; abdomen black with the apex of the 
segments yellowish ; chest black ; legs testaceous, partly infuscate; 
prothorax rugose, strongly punctured, irregularly carinate on each 
side of the central line, with a large broad protuberance a little 
before middle, descending in front abruptly to the dorsum, and so 
leaving a flat and level space before metopidium ; anterior horns 
porrect, broad, rounded at apex ; apex of prothorax extending 
nearly to apex of tegmina. Long, cum tegm., 10 mm. ; lat. int. 
hum, 5 mm. 

Hah, Bogota (Coll. Signoret. Vienna Museum Collec- 
tion) j one male specimen. 

Lucilla iniemrsdiay sp. n. 
Elongata, angusta, ab humeria pronoti leviter obtuse prominulis 
ad apicem sensim angustata, griseo-brunnea, capite sat magno, 
pronoto perobseure fusco-variegato, carinft centrali, lineisque 
utrinque tribus vel quattuor, sat regularibus, instructo, dense et 
fortiter punctato, dorso a latere vise late et persensim ad medium 

Digitized by 


422 Rev. Canon Fowler on some 

eleraio postice depresso ; t€^minibn^ hjalinis ad bisiiii ext^ne 
panctatis, opaciw, pcdibujt te>tact:is. 

An elongate narrow species, of a griseons brown oc^nr, with a 
few obsoore fnaoons markings on procotnm, wfaidi is almost nni- 
oolorons ; bead rather large, ooeili distinctly nearer to one mnotba- 
than to eyes, central keel strong and distinct throa^iont from jost 
abore head to apex, which reaches beyond or at least as fv as ^>ez 
of iegmina and is yery gra'^ually and bluntly pointed ; the lateral 
carinie are fairly regalar, three or four on each side ; the dorsum if 
Tiewed from the side is very broadly and slightly elevated, depressed 
towards apex, and almost im[>erceptib]y and broadly truncate to 
metopidinm t iegmina hyaline, pnnctared towards base ; legs testa- 
ceous. Long., 7 mm. ; lat. int. hum., 3 mm. 

Hah. Ecuador (Coll. Signoret. Vienna Moseom 

I have referred this species to Stal's genus LuciUa, as 
it is very closely allied to Oxygonia viridula^ Faima., 
which Stal mentions as his type of the genus. I am 
somewhat doubtful, however, as to the generic value of 
Ennya and LuciUa, and they cannot be separated from 
the Hille group on the character assigned by Stal (v., 
Ofv. af. Kongl., Vet. Ak. Forh., 1867, No. 7, p. 555), 
'' corio areola discoidali destituto/^ as a discoidal area is 
certainly sometimes present. L, intermedia differs from 
L. viridula in its more elongate form and in the shape of 
the dorsum, which is much flatter and highest behind 
middle, whereas in the last-named species it is highest 
before middle ; the sculpture is also different. The two 
types of Oxygonia viridula in Signoret's collection, from 
the Vienna Museum, are before me. I believe, how- 
ever, that they belong to two different species. 

Paradamoides, n. g. 

Oblongns, capite longitudine latiori, fronte angost^ ocellis 
inter se quam ab oculis distincte magis remotis, ocolis promi- 
nentibns ; pronoio ad humeros leviter obtuse prominulos latissimo, 
deinde sinnatim angustato et in processum longum, ad basim latum, 
postice subparallelum, a latere viso leviter deflexnm, acntom, 
utrinque ad latent ab hnmeris usque ad apicem profunde im- 
preisam, producto, dorso a latere viso ad basim processus leviter 
sinuato, carina centrali per totum percurrenti ; tegminibus apicem 
prothoracis vix superantibus, areis apicalibus quiuque, discoidalibus 
tribas ; alia areb apicalibus quattuor. 

Digitized by 


new species of Memhracidse. 423 

Oblong, subparallel, with the ocelli evidently further removed 
from one another than from eyes, which are prominent ; pronotnm 
with the shoulders, which are set far back, obtusely prominent, 
behind these gradually narrow, with a gentle sinuation and con- 
tinued into a long process, which is strongly and broadly impressed 
at margins from shoulders to apex, and if viewed from the side is 
gradually deflexed and evidently carinate, the carina being con- 
tinued to the frontal margin of the metopidium ; tegmina slightly 
exceeding the apex of prothoracic process, with five apical and three 
discoidal areas, the areas being for the most part subequal and 
oblong ; wings with four apical areas ; legs rather slender. 

This genus appears to be allied to Damoides as re- 
presented by its type Damoides limbata, but may be 
easily known by the position of the ocelli, the more 
prominent eyes, and the fact that the tegmina have three 
discoidal areas ; the form, moreover, is more subparallel 
and less narrowed behind, and the shape and sculpture 
of the prothorax behind shoulders is very diflFerent. 

Paradarnoides severini, sp. n. 

Major, capite fusco, rugoso, pubescenti, metopidio rugosS punc- 
tato, f usco-testaceo, maculis duabus fusds ant ice convergentibus, 
interdum fere deficientibus, pronoto pone humeros fortius piinctato 
vitt^ lat^ f USC&, deinde dilute testaceo, apice longo fusco ; tegmini- 
bus f usco-hyalinis, ad basim punctatis, venis testaceis ; corpore 
Bubtus fusco pubescenti ; pedibus testaceis plus minus ve inf usoatis. 

Head rugose, pubescent, fuscous, pronotnm testaceous in front, 
then broadly fuscous behind shoulders, and then light testaceous, 
the apex being fuscous or reddish fuscous ; on the metopidium 
there is a broad fuscous patch on each side of the central carina 
(which is testaceous) ; these however are sometimes confused or 
almost wanting ; punctuation of prothorax rugose, strongest be- 
hind shoulders ; tegmina fusco-hyaline, with the base more or less 
broadly fuscous and punctured, veins testaceous, underside fuscous, 
strongly pubescent in front; legs testaceous with the femora and 
tibiae more or less inf uscate. Long, cum tegm., 9 mm. ; lat. int. 
hum., 3^ nmi. 

Hah. Gaadaloupe (Delauney), (Belgian Museum Collec- 
tion); three female specimens. 

There is a larva of this species in the Belgian Museum 
Collection ; it is onisciform, broad and subparallel, but 
rather wider behind, with the front parts uneven, and the 

Digitized by 


424 Rev. Canon Fowler on new species of Membracidm. 

abdominal segments fomislied at the sides with broad 
oblong processes, fringed with setas ; the colour is dirty 
testac^os, but has probably considerably faded. 

Paradarnoides ignipes, sp. n. 

Prsdcedenti affinis, sed minor, colore nigro,imetopidio longiori, 
processn pronoti ad medium albido-marginato, protborace dis- 
tinctias et minus rugose punctato, pedibusque miniatis facile 

Allied to the preceding, but smaller, with the shoulders set very 
far back so that the metopidium is only slightly declirous ; of a 
black colour, with the margins of the pronotum narrowly edged with 
white behind shoulders, and the apex ferruginous ; the eyes are 
very prominent, and the front part of the head is clothed with 
golden pubescence ; the pronotum is more closely and less rugosely 
punetnred than in the preceding species; the tegmina have the 
base of the claws and the external margin of carina towards base 
black, and the veins large and fuscous ; the underside is black with 
the front parts strongly pubescent, and the legs are bright scarlet, 
with the exception of the coxsb and tarsal daws, which are fuscous. 
Long, cum tegm., 7^ mm. ; lat. int. hum., 3 mm. 

Hab. Guadeloupe (Delauney), (Belgian Museum Collec- 
tion) ; one male specimen. 

It is just possible that this may be the male of the 
preceding, but I do not think that this can be the case, 
as the insect differs considerably in the structure of the 
front part of the pronotum, which in P. ignipes is much 
longer from the shoulders to the eyes than in P. severini; 
in general appearance they are quite distinct. 

Digitized by 


Irans.Ent.Soc.LoTuL.189i- PL IX. 

T.WBVahjtWk ad tlsi Lth 

We 3t . Ntrwinan imp. 

Effects of temperature on certain speci^'S'^^ *' i 

Digitized by 


( 425 ) 

XV. Temperature Experiments in 1893 on several species 
of Vanessa and other Lepidoptera. By Fkedebio 
MsBBirisLD, F.E.S. 

[Bead March 14th, 1894.] 
Plate IX. 

In my last paper (Traos. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1893, p. 57) I 
described some experiments on pupad of P. napi, off- 
spring of the spring emergence, and mentioned that I 
had some papae offspring of the summer emergence. 
The parents consisted of two males and two females, 
taken at Hailsham, and kindly sent to me by Mr. Vine 
on tbe 30th July, and two females taken at Petworth on 
the 5th Aagnst, and kindly given to me by Mr. Fletcher. 
From these I had several hundred eggs, which were laid 
much more freely on cardamines than on cabbage, 
though the larvad seemed to feed as willingly on the 
latter as on the former. 

Early in September nearly all pupated. Ten were 

E laced at 90® for ten days, a period amply suflScient to 
ave caused their emergence had they belonged to the 
earlier brood, but it produced no effect either on the date 
of their emergence, when afterwards placed out of doors, 
or on their markings or colouring. The rest were kept 
out of doors. Some were forced about the middle of 
February, and some more early in March, emerging in 
from eight to seventeen days. The difference in appear- 
ance between these and the rest, which emerged out of 
doors between the 20th April and 9th May (except one 
which emerged 6th June), is the same in kind (though 
somewhat less in degree) as the difference between 
those of the summer emergence, which were forced all 
through, and those of that emergence which were cooled 
for the greater portion of their pupal period, as 
described Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1893, p. 57. 

Consequently I may apply to the winter pupating 
brood the general remark made there, as to the brood 
which pupates in the summer, viz., that a part but not 
all of the characteristic seasonal colouring of this species 
depends on the temperature to which the individual is 


Digitized by 


426 Mr. F. Merrifield on Temperature Experiments 

subjected^ adding that the spring emergence appears 
to be less sensitive than the sammer emergence is to 
temperature. Neither of the broods experimented on 
by me has proved so sensitive as those operated on 
by Prof. Weismann, and described by him (" Studies in 
Heredity ''). 

Pararge egeria. This insect has two well-known climatic 
forms^ the light spots in the South European form 
having the bright ochreous colouring of P. megsera, 
instead of the straw colour of the English var. 
{egerioides). But the experiments tried afford little or 
no reason for supposing that these differences in appear- 
ance are the direct result of temperatura 

I obtained, between the 25th May and the middle of 
June, more than one hundred pupee, which were sub- 
jected to various temperatures from between 80^ and 
90^ down to 33^ (for many weeks), with various trans- 
fers from the lower to the higher temperatures. 

The chief difference, in general appearance, is between 
Classes I. and II. (forced) on the one hand, and Classes 
IV.-XIV. (those at 56^ and under). The former have 
the light spots smaller and less clearly defined, and the 
dark ground colour considerably lighter, and in many 
cases freckled with small dark brown spots. Class III. 
(open air, at about (S^^) are not quite so dark as Class 
IV., but much nearer to them than to the forced. 

Though the light spots in those forced are smaller 
than in the others, they are somewhat more numerous. 
Class YIII. (iced and then forced) have the ground 
colour dark, but the light spots as numerous as in those 
which were forced, and as large as are the spots in those 
at the lower temperatures. One of these indeed, which 
I exhibit, has an inner row of Ught spots or traces 
of them on the secondary wings in nearly all the 
interspaces, and on the underside a perfect submarginal 
chain of six light spots, pupilled with dark brown, on a 
light ground colour. 

A few examples I reared from eggs laid in August 
showed the same effects generally as those from the 
eggs laid in April and May, so that there does not 
appear to be any marked constitutional difference in this 
respect between the spring and summer emergences of 
this species ; my experiments would, however, lead me 
to expect those which emerge in spring to be in general 

Digitized by 


on Vanessa and other Lepidoptera. 427 

more viyid in their markings and coloaring than those 
which emerge later, after a spell of hot weather. 

Cidaria silaceata. This is known to be very variable 
in its markings, and I was tempted to experiment on it 
by the remark of M. Guen^e that the spring and summer 
broods appear to vary as in the Selemas, and by other 
observations (Ent. Record, ii., 297), to the effect that 
the summer brood is smaller, and the band across the 
forewings less broken. 

Mr. Nicholson kindly gave me some eggs early in 
April, from which I had pnpad, which were subjected to 
about the same variety of temperatures as were the 
pup89 of P. egeria, above mentioned. 

The main difference is between those at or over 80^ and 
the rest ; the latter being more strongly marked than 
the former, the transverse band perhaps showing a 
slightly greater tendency to be broken, and their 
light markings being of a rather more ochreous tint ; as 
a consequence, those at 80^ or over have a duller and 
more uniform appearance than the others. 

But the most distinctive feature is in the size. 
Those at or over 80^ are, as a class, smaller than 
the others. This species, therefore, must be added to 
those in which temperature, during the pupal period, 
affects the size of the imago. The difference in colour- 
ing and marking is hardly as great as I should havo 
expected, and seems scarcely so great as that some- 
times met with between the spring and summer natural 
emergences, though it is in the same direction. I 
intended to experiment on the winter pupating brood, 
but a brood which I had from the second emergence 
came out as a third emergence, and were nearly all 
spoiled before I discovered that they had emerged. 

Araschnia levana. Desiring to experiment with pupsd 
of the summer emergence (var. prorsa) for their whole 
pupal period, I obtained, through Mr. Edwards, fi^m 
North Germany, a large number of pupad from which I 
had, towards the end of April, thirteen good pairs, which 
I placed over growing nettle, in headless casks, and 
fed on orange, etc. All circumstances, including abun- 
dant sunshine, appeared most favourable; but I only 
obtained thirty- two eggs, laid (I believe by a single 
parent) mostly in strings of from two to eight, pro- 
jecting from the undersides of the leaves. Only eleven 

Digitized by 


428 Mr. F. Merrifield on Temperature Experiments 

hatched^ beginuing 15th May, and all of tbem papated. 
Three were forced at 80®, producing in from six to 
seven days the characteristic black prorsa form; four 
others were, at from one to eight hoars' old, placed in 
the refrigerator on the 18th June, and remained there, 
at about 48^, till 30th or 31st August (seventy-three or 
seventy-four days), when, observing signs of emergence, 
I placed them in the room at about 65^ to 70^, and there 
three of the four emerged in a day or two, the fourth not 
until thirty-two days more, i.e., on the 2nd October. 

The remaining four were placed at 33^ till 29th Sep- 
tember (eighty-four days), then moved to the refrigerator 
at about 48^, whence, after twenty days more, they were 
moved to the room, about 59®, three of them emerging 
respectively in ten, eighteen, and twenty days more 
(total 114-124 days). The first of them was a cripple, 
and the fourth died. This left six of the eight subjected 
to a low temperature. These six all emerged in perfect 
condition, and were unmistakably of the true levana type; 
two of those cooled, without having been iced^ showing 
slight traces of the intermediate porima form,but the other 
four being of the pure levana type, and nearly as different 
in colouring from the three that were forced as one of 
the common fritillaries — say A. selene — ^is from a " white 
admiral^' (L. sibilla) . I exhibit examples of the two forms. 

I now proceed to describe some experiments on four 
species of the genus Vanessa, In reference to these I 
have had the great advantage of submitting the speci- 
mens experimented on in the manner described in this 
paper, to the careful examination of Dr. Dixey, whose 
paper on the phylogenetic significance of the wingr 
markings in certain genera of the Nymphali^ae will be 
found in Trans. Ent. JSoc. Lond. 1890, p. 89, and he has 
favoured me with valuable observations upon them, 
which I am permitted to append ; they are distinguished 
by being placed within brackets. The "series^' and 
** spots '' referred to in these observations are described 
in Dr. Dixey's paper, and may be indicated generally as 
follows, V. urticse and V, polychlmos being convenient 
examples for the purpose : — Four dark patches on the 
costa, continued in series more or less perfectly across 
the wiugs, distinguished by the Roman numerals I., II., 
III., lY., the latter including the dark submarginal band. 

Digitized by 


on Vanessa aud other Lepidoptera. 429 

Fonr lighter areas, A, B, C, D, alternating with the dark 
ones, A being the innermost, and coming before I.; these 
also continued in series more or less across the wings. 

Vanessa polychloros. There were sent me on the 6th 
May, a brood of between 130 and 140 larvBB found on 
sallow in the New I'orest ; they were about three- 
eighths of an inch in length. I found they would eat 
cherry and birch, but seemed to prefer willow, on which 
accordingly I placed them, at first in two, and after- 
wards in four, large sleeves. On the 27th May, one had 
begun to spin, and all were brought indoors and fed on 
cut willow. There were 138 ; by the 31st 127 had spun 
up, and the rest followed in a few days. Their pupae 
were subjected to temperatures ranging from 100° to 
32*^, being in many cases transferred, after a time of 
varying length, from the lower to the higher tempera- 
ture, or vice versa. I proceed to give their treatment in 
detful: — 

' Class L, forced at from 90** to 100** (Plate IX., fig. 1). Most of 
these died, but a few at 90®, or a few degrees lower, did well; forced 
as pupating larvte or pupra under twelve hoars, they emerged in seven 
days. A second lot of ten (Glass 11.) were pat in a shady place 
oat of doors, where the temperature averaged aboat 62®, and all 
emerged in from twenty to twenty-two days. A third lot 
(Class m.) were placed in a cellar at a temperatore averaging 
aboat 56^, where all emerged on the fortieth day. A fourth lot 
(Class rV.) were placed in the refrigerator at about 48®, and, after 
periods ranging from fonr teen to forty-six days, transferred to 
(a) the forcing box at 80®-90^, emerging in from three to five 
days more ; (6) the cellar at 58^, emerging in from twelve to 
twenty-five days more ; or (c) the room, at 68**-75®, where they 
emerged in from four to five days more. A fifth lot (Class Y.) 
were iced for periods ranging from fourteen to forty-two days, and 
then (a) placed at 80®-90®, emerging in five to seven days more ; 
(6) in the cellar at about 69^, emerging in twenty-seven to thirty 
days more ; or (c) the refrigerator at about 49^, for from six to 
thirty-two days, and then, either the cellar at 58^, emerging in from 
twenty-two to twenty-three da3rs more, or the room at about 
68^-75^, emerging in two to twenty-eight days more. With the 
exception of a few that were injured by accidents, of those that 
were killed by excessive heat, as mentioned before, and of four or 
five among those longest iced, all emerged, and except among some 
of those iced, there were no cripples. 

Digitized by 


430 Mr. F. Merrifield on Temperature Experiments 

The effect on colouring was as follows : — 
Class I. (forced at about 90°, or upwards), emerging in seven 
days). The ground colour of a lighter and yellower hue of brown 
than is norma), with many yellowish clouds and broad streaks, 
especially in the interspaces of the nervures on the outer half of 
the forewings. [Black spots generally are more sharply defined 
than in normal specimens. There are no blue submarginal cres- 
cents in the forewings, but many bluish scales on the extreme 
margin. The spots in ^'Series D" are particularly well-defined 
near the costa, and are not pupiUed.] 

Class n. (shade, out of doors, at 51<>-69^, averaging about 62^, 
emerging in twenty to twenty-two days). Ground colour of a 
redder brown, and with few yellowish clouds ; the yellow sub- 
marginal outer line is especially reduced, and the dark band inside 
it widened and darkened. 

Class III. (cellar at 54*^, rising to 58®, averaging 56^, emerging 
in forty days). Effects intensified ; the yellow submarginal line 
has almost disappeared, and there is a scattering of dark spots on 
the ground colour, in some coses forming a streak in front of the 
inner edge of the forewings. [There are indications of blue sub- 
marginal crescents in the forewings, but less blue in the fringe or 
extreme margin than in I. The spots in " Series D " sometimes 
bear minute black pupils.] 

Class TV, a (refrigerator, about 49°, fourteen to forty-six days ; 
then forced at 80^-90®, emerging in five days). Effect rather a 
mixture of those in Classes I. and lU. ; the scattering of dark 
spots exists, but the yellowish clouds and yellow submarginal 
streaks are partially restored ; in those exposed to the low tempe- 
rature for forty-two days, there were several that died or were 
crippled, and the dark markings in some others are varied with a 
paler hue, giving rather a ** greasy " appearance to these dark parts. 
[The spots of " Series D " often with minute black pupils ; 
** Series C *' is indicated in the hindwings by a row of black points; 
a new dark spot tends to be formed between " II.8 " and " III.8.*'] 
Class IV. 6 (refrigerator at about 49°, fourteen to forty-six days; 
then cellar at 56°-60°, emerging in twenty-five to twelve days, or 
room 65°-75°, in five to four days). Much like Class III ., except that 
the ground colour is duller, and the submarginal blue tends to be 
supplanted by black ; in those longest exposed to cold, the dark 
parts tend to spread. [Tendency to formation of new dark spots 

Class V.a (iced at 33**, fourteen to thirty-eight days, then foroed 
at 80*'-90°, emerging in seven to five days). These, unless iced 

Digitized by 


0)1 Vanessa and other Lepidopiera. 431 

twenty-nine days or more, are very like IV.a ; iced for that or a 
longer period, they are darker ; in all cases they show a return of 
the yellowish markings. 

Class Y,b (iced at 33°, fourteen to forty- two days, then at various 
temperatures, such as cellar at 59®, emerging in twenty-seven to thirty 
days ; or refrigerator at about 49®, six to thirty-two days, and then 
in cellar or room, emerging in twenty one to two days more). These 
are classed together, because the effects seem to depend on the 
duration of the icing. No groat effect is produced under twenty- 
nine days* icing ; the extreme darkness, often without crippling, is 
produced by icing thirty-six days, followed by the refrigerator 
at 49®, for six to nine days (Plato IX., fig. 3); but some taken 
straight from the ice to the cellar are nearly as dark. Of those 
iced from thirty-eight to forty-two days nearly all died, or were 
more or less crippled ; one of the latter has nearly all the four spots 
on the forewings obliterated ; and it may be observed that the 
icing for thirty-six days or more, followed by the refrigerator, 
which produces the extreme dark effect, has a tendency to cause 
the normal spot near the inner edge, which is nearest the base of 
the forewing, to disappear. 

As regards the general appearance of those which show the 
extreme effect of the low temperature, it may be said that they 
much resemble F. xatUhomelas, [Tendency to formation of new 
dark spots continues. An additional dark spot may also appear in 
cell (forewing) below " I '* and ** II.*' The border may become 
uniformly dark.] 

A second company of V. jyolychloros, just changing their last 
skin, reached me on the 2nd June, also on sallow. Sleeved on 
cherry they did very well. Some were forced, 'emiBrging in six and 
a half to seven days. Others, placed out of doors at a temperature 
ranging from 67® to 59®, averaging about 64®, emerged in sixteen 
to seventeen days. This was a rather lighter coloured company 
of butterflies. There is the same kind of difference in appearance 
between the forced and the others, as there is between Classes L 
and U. of the first company, but it is less in quantity. 

V. polychloTOs, general conclusions. The ooloaring is 
considerably affected by temperature in the pnpal stage^ 
low temperatures producing a deepening of the ground 
colour and an extension of the dark markings ; and high 
temperatures producing a lightening of the ground colour 
and an extension of the yellowish marking^. The blue 
and bluish markings are strongest in those at moderately 

Digitized by 


432 Mr. F. Merrifield on Temperature Experiments 

low temperatures^ Classes III. and IV., in many of which 
they form some rather bright crescents on the forewings ; 
but at the extremely low temperatures they tend to be 
supplanted, in some cases entirely so, by black. 

[Forcing invariably tends to produce yellow, whether 
pupa previously warmed or cooled. Refrigeration pro- 
duces increased breadth of dark brown, whether followed 
or not by forcing.] I may add that among the specimens 
I exhibit, one belonging to Glass tV.a (refrigerator thirty- 
eight days, then cellar four days, and forced three days) 
(Plate IX., fig. 2), to which my attention has been directed 
by Dr. Dixey's observations, is particularly interesting, 
showing " Series D '' as a nearly complete chain of faint 
yellowish spots, or rather clouds, on both forewings and 
hindwings, the anterior three or four on the forewings, 
and all those on the hindwings having each a small black 
point in the centre. It seems as if it required cold, 
succeeded by heat, to cause this chain of yellowish spots 
centred with black to be brought out. 

Nothing has been said about the colouring of the 
under sides. This varies moderately in darkness or 
lightness, but I have not been able to associate this 
variation definitely with temperature. 

Vanessa atalanta. In looking carefully, and aided by 
a strong light, at the F. atalanta upon which experiments 
were made in 1892, as recorded. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
1 893, pp. 58-62, 1 noticed a feature which had escaped me 
before, viz., that eight out of the ten which were subjected 
to the high temperature of 80°-90° had a few dull orange 
scales on the upper side of the forewings, between the 
large white costal blotch and the row of smaller white 
spots nearer the hind margin. 

I determined to develop this tendency by exposing 
some pupsB to a greater heat. The effect was a great 
development of this orange colour, both in intensity, it 
becoming distinctly scarlet, and in quantity, so as to form 
a scarlet cloudy patch sufficient to attract attention on 
casual observation. I exhibit several examples. This 
patch is between the large white costal patch and the 
third of the row of white spots beyond, and tends to form 
a scattered ring around this third spot ; other scales, from 
golden brown to scarlet, are developed along the outer 
part of the costa and near the base, and elsewhere on the 

Digitized by 


on Vanessa and othei* Lppicfnptera. 4SS 

The following is a description of the treatment to 
which the papas were subjected, and of its results : — 

A considerable nnmber of pupsB were placed at a temperature of 
about 100°, at wbich nearly all died, after progressiDg so far as to 
. show their imaginal colouring. I then lowered the temperature to 
about 90°-95°, with the result that the great majority of them 
show these markings, the scales being scarlet instead of dull orange, 
and in several cases being so increased in quantity as to form a 
scarlet clouding sufficient to attract attention when the insect is 
held at arm's length and more. These scarlet scales follow the 
nenrure which separates the second from the third of the row of 
white spots above referred to ; they are not on the neryure, but on 
each side of it, and in some cases extend to the nervure next below, 
and have a tendency to form a scattered ring round the third of the 
white spots. These scarlet scales are also to be found on the costa, 
extending in some cases from the beginning of the large white 
costal patch almost to the apex of the wing (an ochreous colouring 
in this region is to be observed in captured specimens). Asso- 
ciated with these markings is an increase of the brightness and 
warmth of the golden-brown colouring of the costa and nervures 
in the basal part of the wing ; in some crippled specimens this 
golden-brown is very vivid, and makes some approach in hue 
towards the scarlet band across the wing ; in some of these also a 
patch of the scarlet scales is to be found between the middle of the 
scarlet band and the large white costal spot 

In my paper on the experiments of 1892, I mentioned that on 
the underside of two out of ten specimens at from 80^ to 90°, a 
new small scarlet spot appeared between the scarlet band across the 
f orewings and the inner edge. In only six individuals out of those 
subjected to a high temperature in 1893 do I find scarlet in this 
region. I find it occurs in two places, both below the median 
nervure, viz., (a) just before it forks, (b) a little below the lower 
branch of the same nerrure. One specimen (No. 4) shows both 

(a) and (6); three (Nos. 21, 39, and 49) show (a) only, and 
two of them but slightly; and two (Nos. 48 and 188) show 

(b) only. 

The scarlet scales on the upper side are found in the great 
majority of those (about thirty) that were subjected to a tempe- 
rature of 90°, or upwards, during their whole pupal period, and in 
three out of thirty-three that were subjected to 80°- 100° during 
the earlier part of their pupal period ; they are not found in any 
of the forty or so that were subjected to lower temperatures. The 

Digitized by 


434 Mr. F. Memfield on Temperature Experiments 

scarlet patches on the under side are only found in six out 
of forty-eight which were subjected to 99** or upwards, and five 
out of the six were so exposed for practically their whole pupal 

In the opposite direction of low temperature, I tried 
farther experiments with V. atalanta, the most marked 
results of which I exhibited at the meeting of the Ento- 
mological Society on the 8th November, 1 893. They con- 
firm, and in some cases carry further, the rssults obtained 
in the previous year. The low temperature causes much 
substitution of white, lavender, or metallic blue-green 
scales (one of these colours seeming readily in this insect 
to pass into another of them) for the black in normal 
specimens ; the large white spot on the costa is greatly 
enlarged and spread, and the tendency of the third of the 
row of submarginal spots to ocellation which is above 
referred to, as caused by a high temperature, is shown in 
a different manner by the low temperature, which tends 
to form a whitish ring round, and very near to it 
(this third spot is on the underside ocellated in normal 

The extreme low temperature forms are, on the 
whole, so decidedly smaller than the average, that I am 
inclined to think the low temperature is a cause of 
reduced size in this species, more especially as those at 
the high temperatures, even where this is so extreme as 
to kill some of them, are all of full size. 

[Forced. — ^Resolution of inner margin of red band fairly 

Refrigerated, — Marginal blue much extended, especially 
about anal angle of hindwing and in centres of spots of 
*' Series IV.'' ; spots of " Series D '* often ringed with 
pale blue, apart from ocellation ; indications present of 
blnish centres to *' Series III.'' in hind wings ; greater 
general blackness.] 

Mr. J. J. Walker has kindly given me a specimen from 
Gibraltar which resembles, in its main features, some of 
my earliest individuals. It was taken, recently emerged, 
on the 17th February, and I find that the mean tem- 
perature of Jannarj and February at Gibraltar may be as 
low as 48'7® and 50*9^. Dr. Chapman has kindly sent 

Digitized by 


on Vanessa and other Lepidoptera. 435 

me some atalanta of a very late brood reared last 
October and November at Hereford, which also present 
some of the characteristic appeai*ances of my cooled 

Vanessa {Grapta) c-album. Owing to the kindness of 
Mrs. Hutchinson, who sent me some eggs laid by hiber- 
nated butterflies in the spring, and of Mr. Nesbitt, of 
Llandogo, who sent me larv89 of the second brood at the 
end of July, I have been able to ascertain that while both 
broods are affected by temperature in the pupal stage, the 
first brood is much the more sensitive of the two. It is 
remarkable that there should be so great a difference in 
constitution between these two broods, as, under natural 
conditions, the pupad of both broods are exposed to tem- 
peratures differing by a very few degrees, the one passing 
the pupal stage in England about June, and the other 
about August. It is entirely consistent, however, with 
Mr. W. H. Edwards' experiments and observations on 
the two closely-allied American species, Grapta inters 
rogationis and Grapta commas as described in the 
''Canadian Naturalist'' for 1877 and 1878, and much 
light is thrown on the subject by Prof. Weismann's 
observations on Mr. Edwards' experiments, in the Pro- 
fessor's " Studies in Heredity," by Prof. Meldola, vol. i., 
p. 149. The individuals experimented on, eight of the 
first brood and eleven of the second brood, were not 
sufficiently numerous to justify me in describing the 
results in detail; but I hope to try experiments on a 
much larger scale during the present year. 

Vanessa io. Mr. Morris, of Lewes, kindly gave me a 
company of about one hundred and twenty larvdd, all in 
their last skins, or nearly so, on the 15th June, which in 
the extraordinarily early season of 1893 was late for 
them. I was much occupied in other ways, and perhaps 
it was owing to insufficient attention that I did not 
obtain more than about sixty pupae, and those were a 
little under the full size. They were subjected to various 
temperatures from about 100^ downwards. Those at 
100® all failed to emerge. Sixteen, which were at 90® 
for six days, and then at 80®, all emerged in one day 
more, making seven days. As the temperature was 
lowered, there appeared a gradual tendency to disinte- 
gration of the ocellus on the forewing, until in one 

Digitized by 


436 Mr. F. MerriBeld on Temperature Experiments 

(Plate IX., fig. 4), iced at 33° for twenty- two days, then in 
the refrigerator for twenty days, and then in the cellar for 
eighteen days, it ceases to be an ocellus, being resolved 
into a chain of small white spots, which are bright, with 
only a very slight bluish shade about them, and affording 
a remarkable confirmation of t)r. Dixey's views of the 
origin of that ocellus, as exemplified in the plate attached 
to his paper in the Transactions for 1890. In these 
iced and cooled specimens the blue becomes more vivid, 
and a narrow dusky marginal band, slightly darker in hue 
than the chestnut brown ground colour, appears, with a 
submarginal incomplete row of small dusky spots, very 
distinct. On the hind wing there is little change, but a 
tendency to disintegration of the blue in the ocellus. 

Dr. Chapman kindly sent me, on the 30th August, 
part of a second brood he had found rather more than 
half grown. From about forty larv® I obtained thirty- 
eight fine and healthy pnpas, but nearly all were killed 
by the severe cold to which I subjected them, though 
only a little in excess of that to which No. 61 was 

[I. Forced : a tendency shown to the development of 
dark spots at the apices of the interspaces ('^ Series II.''); 
tendency towards fusion of bluish constituents of ocellus 
in hindwing. 11. Cooled: tendency of "IV.'' (marginal 
chain) to separate from "1)" (light apical spots); 
" IV." rendered more distinct in forewing. III. Iced : 
separation of *' D " and " IV." as in II. " Claw-mark " 
tends to lose regular curve, and to become angnlated. 
Bluish constituents of ocellus in hindwing tend to be- 
come separated into two parallel series — "III." and 
" IV.," I.e., a marginal and submarginal.] 

F. aniiopa. About seventy pupsa, mostly rather 
fresh, were obtained for me from near Berlin by Mr. 
Edwards, on the 19 th July, and were subjected to 
various temperatures from about 100^, emerging in from 
three to five days, and 80°, when they took a day or two 
more, downwards. The most severe temperature sur- 
vived, without injury, was twenty-seven days in the 
refrigerator, at about 47°. All that were placed in ice 
(33°) for twenty days or upwards died, except one that 
was a cripple. The results are negative, as none show 
any marked differences in marking or colouring that can 
be assigned to temperature. The absence of positive 

Digitized by 


on Vanessa and other Lepidoptera. 437 

results is very probably owing to the circumstance that 
the pupae were all of them several days old when they 
reached me. 

The experiments now recorded confirm in general the 
conclusions drawn from such as have preceded them, and 
some of which may be briefly enumerated as follows :^ 
(1) The efiects of temperature are different when applied 
at different periods of the pupal stage. (2) A great range 
of temperature may cause but little difference in appear- 
ance, while a very few degrees near the top or bottom of 
the range the insect will bear may cause a great 
difference. (3) There may be a great constitutional 
difference in sensitiveness to temperature between two 
seasonal emergences of the same species. (4) This . may 
be so even when both pass the pupal period at about the 
same temperature (this is in accordance with Mr. W. H. 
Edwards* observations above referred to). (5) While 
some kinds of effect seem to be what may be called the 
direct result of temperature, in others, and perhaps the 
most important, temperature appears to operate by 
causing the individual to ^Hhrow back^' to some 
ancestral form ; this last circumstance has been con- 
sidered to explain the I'eason why a low temperature in 
some species causes darkening of the colours, and in 
other species produces the opposite effect. (6) In these 
cases of '* reversion,'' the kind of effect produced appears 
to depend on the stimulus applied, low temperatures 
producing one class of effects and high temperatures 
a different class of effects. 

The whole subject is ono of much complication, and 
calls for further experiments in many directions. The 
direction which mine have taken, following in the lines 
initiated by Weismann and W. H. Edwards, especially 
if pursued with species belonging to regions where the 
seasonal or other occasional differences of temperature 
are extreme — North America, Siberia, Japan, or the 
vicinity of mountains — will help to trace, and separate 
from the rest, such of the causes of variation as depend, 
directly or indirectly, on temperature. Systematic 
experiments on a number of well-selected species 
belonging to countries where the seasonal difference is 
hygrometrio rather than thermometric, would probably 
produce valuable results. The nature of the food-plant. 

Digitized by 


438 Mr. F. Merrifield on Temperature Experiments. 

which nndoubtedlj infiaencea size and vigour, and is 
generally considered also to influence markings and 
colour, offers another line in which experiments of a 
more systematic and comprehensive character than any 
yet tried would undoubtedly well repay the labour 
attendant upon them. There are other natural sur- 
rounding, most potent for many purposes, the effect 
of which might usefully be tested by experiment, such 
as light and electricity and magnetism. As to light, I 
tried, in 1891, some experiments on B. cynthia and 
8. illustraria, recorded in the Trans. Ent. Soc. for 1892, 

?. 42 ; but, so far, with negative results. And in 1891 
tried some experiments with strong magnetic currents 
on some Lepidoptera in all their stages; but these 
yielded no positive result. 

Note. — As this paper and Dr. Dixey's, which succeeds it, con- 
tain obsenrations on some of the same facts by two different and 
independent observers, there is necessarily some repetition, bat in 
order to reduce this as much as possible, I have greatly condensed 
my own observations. 

Explanation op Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. Vanessa polychloros : pupa at 90*^-96**, emerging in seven 

Fig. 2, V. polychloros: pupa about 49°, for thirty-eight days, then 
about 58° for four days, then about 85^, emerging in 
three days more. 

Fig. 3. F. polychloros : pupa at 33° for thirty-six days, then about 
49° for nine days, then about 58°, emerging in thirteen 
days more. 

Fig. 4. V, io : pupa at 33^ for twenty-two days, then about 49** 
for twenty days, then about 60**, emerging in eighteen 
days more. 


( 439 ) 

XVI. Mr. Mmrifield^s Experiments in Temperature^ 
Variation as bearing on Theories of Heredity. By 
Frederick A. Dixey, M.A., M.D., F.E.S., Fellow of 
Wadham College, Oxford. 

[Bead March 14th, 1894.] 

The results of Mr. Merrifield's experiments on the varia- 
tions produced in butterflies by the exposure of the pupa 
to difierent conditions of temperature, are in themselves 
of great interest. But the interest becomes enhanced 
when it is recognized that many of the new features 
which make their appearance under these conditions are 
identical with those occurring normally in other species 
more or less closely allied to the subjects of experiment ; 
that in not a few instances the disturbance of natural 
temperature-conditions appears to have caused reversion 
to an earlier stage in the phylogenetio history of the 
species; and further, that the ancestral features thus 
revived seem to vary with the nature of the disturbance. 
Examples of these phenomena, from a previous series 
of experiments, were given in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. 
1893, p. 55, and were commented on by me {Ibid. p. 69). 
The latest results obtained by Mr. Merrifield, besides 
confirming many of the former, furnish further instances 
of the same nature, as follows : — 

I. Vanessa atalanta. 
A. Warmed. 

(1) The occurrence of red scales in the dark ground- 
colour between the middle of the scarlet band and the 
large white costal spot c. This is an approach to the 
condition in V. huntera and F. myrinna, and more 
remotely to that in Orapta and Argynnis. A correspond- 
ing feature is seen in F. io, which in this respect is 
more ancestral than F. atalanta. 

(2) The tendency towards the formation of a scattered 
ring of red scales round the spots fi and 7 of Series D. 


Digitized by 


440 Dr. F. A. Dixey on Mr. MerrifieWi Experiments 

This again recalls a common condition in F. myrinna and 
F. huntera, 

(3) The appearance of a new red spot on the nnder- . 
side of the forewing^ jnst below the stem of the median 
nenrure before bifurcation. This represents a pale patch 
of various shades in F. caliirrhoe, V. myrinna, V. huntera, 
F. cardui, etc. 

(4) The appearance of another red spot on the under- 
side of the forewing, just below the tirst median nervnle. 
This represents a patch visible on both surfaces of F. 
caliirrhoe, and fully developed in all the species nearly 
allied to F. cardui. 

(5) The tendency towards resolution of the inner 
margin of the red band, as in F. caliirrhoe, 

(6) The suflfusion of the dark ground colour vrith 
golden brown, also as in F. caliirrhoe. 

Of these, Nos. (1) (2) and (3) are points now 
observed for the first time ; while (4) (5) and (6) are 
confirmations of previous results. (See a former paper 
by the author in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. 1893, p. 70.) 

B. Cooled, 

(1) Much substitution of lavender or metallic blue- 
green scales for black. This points to the ancestral 
condition seen in the females and parts of the males in 
many species of Argynnis, e.g., A. paphia, var. valeeina, 
A. sagana ? , A, niphe i and ? , and A, diana ? . 

(2) The presence of minute patches of bluish scales 
near the margin of the dark ground-colour in the hind- 
wing, indicating the blue centres of the almost com- 
pletely merged Series III. — an ancient feature of Vaneesa 
and Grapta. 

(3) The marked increase of marginal blue, especially 
about the anal angle of the hindwing. This appears to 
represent the condition seen in Argynnie niphe, and 
ultimately to point back to the primitive Argynnid 
colouring of A, valeeina and A. diana ? . 

These are all confirmations of former results. 

II. Vanessa io. 

In this species, warming tends to revive, in the fore- 
wing, a series of dark spots (II), occurring normally in 

Digitized by 


in Tefriperature'Variation. 441 

Araschnia levana. Cooling tends in the first place to 
separate certain constituents of the ocellus^ and when 
carried to a high extent has the remarkable efiect of 
causing an unmistakable resolution of the ocellus in the 
forewing, the appearance finally produced being that of 
the ordinary Vanessa character in a comparatively un- 
modified form. It is interesting to see how completely 
these cooled specimens bear out the views which 1 ven- 
tured to express, some years ago, on the origin and 
constitution of this ocellus (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1890, pp. 99, 100, pi. i., fig. 12). The ocellus of the 
hindwmg is also afifeoted in the same direction. 

III. Vanessa polychlobos. 

Cooling tends to produce several features which 
appear to be ancestral. The chief of these are (1) the 
pupilling with black of the spots of Series D in the fore- 
wing ; (2) the occasional indication of Series III. in the 
hind wing; and (3) the tendency towards the formation 
of a new dark spot between II. 8 and III. 8. These 
points approximate towards the condition in Grapta. 

rV. Grapta c-album. 

In both broods cooling tends to induce or increase a 
darkness of ground-colour; this being undoubtedly an 
ancestral character.* 

In all cases of this kind the obvious question occurs — 
are we to consider these phenomena as true instances of 
reversion, or is it merely that like causes have produced 
de novo a like efifect in descendant and ancestor f The 
latter explanation may account for some of the facts, but, 
I think, not for all. It may perhaps give the reason for 
a genenJ difiusion of bluish scales, or for a change of the 
ground-colour from black to brown, but it is scarcely 
adequate to explain the special formation of a definite 
pattern, as of Series III. with its blue centres in F. 
(Uaianta, or the reduction of the ocellus in F. to to the 
primitive Vanessa condition. Without raising the vexed 
question of sexual selection, we may yet affirm that 

* The observations on the three last species are new ; those on 
F. atalanta, as has been seen, are partly new and partly old. On 
the whole sobject of the ancestral markings in Argynni$ and 
Vatus^a^ see the anthor's paper in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1890. 


Digitized by 


442 Dr. F. A. Dixey on Mr. MerriJieWs Experiments 

among the features induced or revived by altered tem- 
perature-conditions, there is at least a residuum which 
must have owed its first origin to causes other than the 
direct action of temperature on the organism. Nor^ 
again, are these to be considered as cases of '* arrested 
development ^' ; for the stages reproduced are stages in 
the phylogeny of the species, not in the ontogeny of the 

If, then, these revived features are really ancestral, 
how is their revival to be accounted for? The whole 
subject of reversion aboauds with difficulty. An expla- 
nation commonly offered is that the characters last 
developed in the history of a species, or of an individual, 
are less stable than those that have a longer history 
behind them, and that have become firmly established 
under the operation of a loDg- continued process of 
heredity. Any disturbance — such as an exceptional con- 
dition of temperature — of the normal course of growth, 
may therefore be expected to act in the first place on the 
newer and less stable features, interfering with their 
usual line of development, and shaking back the species 
as it were to an earlier and more firmly- founded stage 
of its development — just as in an earthquake the freshly- 
built wing of a house, where the mortar was not yet diy, 
might fall and leave the older portions standing. Such 
an explanation, however, is in itself at best but partial, 
for it gives no real reason why the newer features should 
be less stable than the old ; and indeed it comes to little 
more than restating the difficulty in another form. 

The two attempts to find a more definite explanation 
of reversion which may be said at present to hold the 
field, are those which pass respectively under the names 
of Darwin and Weismann. If the Darwinian assumption 
of centripetal " gemmules '* be granted, the commonest 
case of reversion, that namely which results from hybridi- 
zation, especially between recently-established species, is 
capable of explanation under the hypothesis of pan- 
genesis. But it may be questioned whether pangenesis 
as st>ated by Darwin is capable of accounting for such 
cases as the present, inasmuch as in them the condition of 
full maturity is almost reached before the introduction of 
the modifying disturbance. Although the ovum from which 
the individual has originated may under the Darwinian 
hypothesis have contained numerous gemmules of an 

Digitized by 


in Temperature-Variation, 443 

ancestral type, which though usaally dormant might 
under certain circumstances become active in the onto- 
genetic process, it would yet seem a legitimate conclusion 
from the hypothesis, that the introduction of any cause 
analogous to hybridization in its action on the developing 
organism must belong to a far earlier stage in the onto- 
geny than the beginning of the pupal condition ; it must 
belongs in fact, to the stage of fertilization of the ovum. 
There are, however, a few facts on record, such as the 
assumption of ancestral characters by an old hen (Darwin, 
'^Animals and Plants under Domestication,*' 1868, voLii., 
p. 54), and the appearance of an earlier vertebrate con- 
dition in limbs of Amphibia reproduced after amputation 
{Ibid,, ii., p. 15), which seem in some respects analogous 
to the present instances, as being apparently cases in which 
a disturbance of normal conditions at a comparatively 
late ontogenetic stage has in some way led to reversion 
in the course of the individual growth. These cases are 
regarded by Darwin as not incompatible with pangenesis, 
though not fully explained by it. 

If, on the other hand, we postulate with Weismann the 
existence of " ids *' and *' determinants,*' endowed with 
the nature and properties that he supposes, the instances 
that we are considering become more explicable. For 
according to this theory every feature in the structure of 
the individual organism is the result of a '' struggle of the 
ids '' in ontogeny, the final character of each histological 
unit being fixed at the moment of the liberation of its 
proper determinants by the disintegration of the ''ids.*' 
The competition between the carriers of heredity, many of 
which must under the theory be ancestral in character, so 
far from being confined to the ovum, is being waged 
throughout the entire ontogeny, and is renewed at every 
successive stage of development. This being the case, it 
is to be expected that any external influence, such as 
temperature, on coming into force at any given stage, 
should be able to exert an effect upon the struggle pro- 
ceeding at that particular time between determinants 
which are just beginning to play their parts in the onto- 
geny, and should in consequence be able to modify pro 
tanto the resulting adult organism. It would be, more- 
over, natural to expect the different determinants to be 
affected by different temperatures, nor would it be sur- 
prising to find that temperature-conditions, which are 

Digitized by 


444 Dr. F. A. Dizey on Mr. Merrifield's Experiments 

ex kypothesi diverse from those normal to tlie speoies, 
shoidd favour one or other set of ancestral determinants 
at the expense of those more proper to the species. This 
would explain why the efifect of heat differs from that of 
cold, though both lead to reversion. 

There is, however, one fact which shows that the above 
explanation is not entirely adequate — the fact, namely, of 
the hereditary transmissibility of certain temperature 
modifications, as determined in the case of Polyommatvs 
phkeaa by Weismann himself (" The Germ-Plasm,'' 1893, 
p. 399). This phenomenon admits of a ready explanation 
under the theory of pangenesis ; the point that pangenesis 
fails to explain is the reversionary character of the original 
change, unless, indeed, we suppose a '' struggle of gem- 
mules,'' analogous to the '' struggle of determinants," and 
continued, like the latter, throughout the ontogeny ; in 
which struggle certain conditions favour the ancestral 
rather than the modem gemmules. But just as the 
theory of pangenesis seems to require some such addition 
as that suggested, so also, under the rival hypothesis, it 
seems necessary to supplement the explanation above 
given with another supposition already propounded by 
Weismann, namely, that the temperature-conditions are 
capable, in some cases, of actually altering the consti- 
tution of unexhausted determinants wherever they occur, 
even in the germ plasm of the ovum itself. 

I am myself inclmed to think that, granting Weismann's 
general theory of heredity, the more special cases of 
reversion are to be chiefly explained, as above, by the 
critical influence of the temperature-conditions on the 
struggle of the determinants, rather than by an intrinsic 
effect on the determinants themselves. The latter may 
account for such cases as a general lightening or darken- 
ing of the ground-colour, as in Weismann's P. phlceas, 
which strictly speaking are not really but only acci- 
dentally reversionaiy ; it will not, however, account in 
my opinion for the special ancestral marks shown by 
Mr. Merrifield's F. atalanta and F. io. 

The point is capable of verification. K it be true that 
there is a selective influence which is exerted upon the 
actual struggle of the determinants, that influence would 
find a different expression in the adult according to the 
particular stage in the ontogeny at which the influence 
was applied, as it would affect those determinants only 

Digitized by 


in Tcm})erature'Variation. 445 

between whicli at that time the straggle was being 
waged.* If, on the other hand, there is no such influ- 
ence, but the effect is entirely a direct one and modifies 
the individual determinant, then all the as yet unex- 
hausted determinants that are capable of reacting to this 
particular disturbance would be affected in some degree ; 
though no doubt, as Weismann supposes, to a greater 
extent if they had reached the point of disintegration than 

Again, it seems to me to be of great importance to 
ascertain if possible which of these modifications are 
transmissible to descendants. If all the modifications, 
including those which I have supposed to be produced 
in the first way, can be shown to be hereditarily traas- 
missible, this would amount to a demonstration that the 
second explanation is adequate ; and the first may then 
be abandoned as unnecessary. Should only some be 
inheritable, the presumption would be in favour of the 
co-existence of both modes of action; moreover, the 
greater the number of non-transmissible variations that 
can be produced, the more will the case be strengthened 
against pangenesis, and in favour of the " centrifugal ^' 

I am anxious to see, if possible, the results of breeding 
experiments on specimens like these for yet another 
reason. It seems to me that by comparative experi- 
ments, with and without artificial selection, on such 
variations as may be transmissible, a measure might be 
obtained of the relative importance of selection and the 
mere action of external influences in the transformation 
of a species. I think, too, that no better group for such 
experiments as these of Mr. Merrifield's could be selected 
than the Yanessas. For, in the first place, it is only 
among poikilothermic animals that the direct effects of 
temperature can be fully studied ; then among these the 
Lepidoptera are pre-eminent for the extremely delicate 
register of variation afforded by their wings ; and, lastly. 

♦ The fact that in F. polychloros f oroinff invariably tends to pro- 
daoe a certain effect, whether preceded by warming or cooling ; 
while refrigeration brings about another definite effect, whether 
followed or not by forcing, seems bo far favourable to this hypo- 
thesis. See above, p. 432. 

Digitized by 


446 Dr. F. A, Dixey on Temperature'Variation. 

among the Lepidoptera the Vanessaa belong to bxi 
assemblage the phylogeny of which may claim to be at 
any rate partially known.* It is hardly necessary to point 
out how much service may be rendered to researches of 
this kind by the careful working out of the true internal 
affinities of Lepidopterous groups. In proportion as their 
phylogeny is placed on a secure basis, we shall be able to 
pronounce with confidence on the real character, whether 
reversionary or not, of these remarkable variations ; and 
shall accordingly be able to estimate at its proper value 
the evidence they bring towards the solution of the great 
problem of Heredity. 

^ See the author's paper already referred to, in Trans. Enfc. 
Soc. Lond., 1890, p. 89. 

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( ^47 ) 

XVII. Description of new CicindoiiddQ from Mashunaland. 
By Louis Pkkinguey, F.E.S. 

[Read March 28th, 1894.] 

In my '* Catalogue of the South African Cicindelidee " 
(Trans. South Afric. Phil. Soc. vii, 1893), I expressed, 
as my opinion, that this catalogue could not be regarded 
as final, as Gazaland and Ovampoland would, in all 
probability, yield new forms of the wingless genera, 
Myrmecoptera, Dromica, and Coamema; but I was not 
prepared to receive, a few months later, no less than five 
Myrmecoptera and one Oosmema, hitherto undescribed, 
and all found in one locality of the newly- opened-up 
northern territories of South Africa, which wUl be known 
hereafter as Zambezia. 

All these species were captured round Salisbury at 
the beginning of the rainy season, by my esteemed cor- 
respondent, G. A. K. Marshall, Esq., who has gone lately 
to reside in Mashunaland. Matabeleland and Mashunaland 
would seem to be the home of Myrmecoptera, for besides 
the five new species here described, Mr. Marshall has 
also captured the hitherto extremely rare M. polyhir^ 
moidea, Bates, and M. bilunata, Dohm. Mr. F. E. 
Selous, while recruiting at Buluwayo from the effects of 
a wound received in the Matabele war, captured there 
the equally rare if. mauchi. Bates, and M. limpopoiana, 
P^r. These two species were very abundant, I am in- 
formed by Mr. Selous, who, however, captured only one 
example of each species, as he had no means of storing 
them. Mr. Marshall also writes that M. invicta ana 
some of the other species were fairly common. I have 
now recorded twelve species of Myrmecoptera from 
Matabeleland and Mashunaland, and two Coamema. 

The other Cicindelidae captured near Salisbury by Mr. 
Marshall were Megacephala regalia,^ Cidndela clathrata, 

o Oooors also near Buluwayo. 
TSikNS. INT. soc. LONP. 1894. — PART III. (SIPT.) 

Digitized by 


448 M. Louis P^ringuey otv descriptions of 

C. disjuncta, Jansenia angusticollis, and Coanema lepida. 
He had not met with any Mantichora as yet. 

Gen. CiciNDiLA, linn. 
C, mashuna, sp. n. 

Sapra obscure caprea, sabnitida, labro flavo ntrinqae bipnnc- 
taio ; prothorace qoadraio, subtiliter granulaio, albido pUotso ; 
elytris granalosiB, margine sat lata, utrinqne breviter tri-hamata 
maoulisqae tribos pallide flavis notata. 

Obscure bronze on the upper part, with the underside of the 
prothorax glowing-red, and the abdomen dark blue, legs glowing- 
red with the tarsi green ; labrum elongate, convex, tridentate 
at the apex, white, and with two setigerous punctures on each side, 
one near the median tooth, the other near the outer angle ; head 
aciculate, with a few white decumbent hairs ; prothorax short, 
quadrate, rugose, covered with white decumbent hairs ; elytra 
elongate, subparallel, finely granulose, and having on each side a 
moderately broad, pale-yellow marginal band, sending out three short, 
blunt rami, and also three round spots of the same colour on each 
side of the suture, the posterior one of which is nearly connected 
with the apex of the median marginal ramus, but the median one 
is not at all connected with the humeral ramus, and the basal one 
is placed far above it ; the marginal band and also the dorsal round 
spots are edged with dark bronze. Length, 10 ; width, 3 mm. 

This species, which might be taken at first sight for a 
variety of 0. marginella, Dej., is easily distinguished 
by having a sub -basal spot on each side of the sntnre^ 
which could not be the interrupted end of the lateral 
humeral ramus, whereas the other two spots following 
the sub-basal one might be the continuation of the two 
lateral spurs. 

Hab. Mashunaland (Salisbury). 

Gen. Mybmecoptbba, Germ. 

M, angusticollia, sp. n. 

Supra ffineo-nigra, subnitida, subtus cyanea ; capite strigoso, 
labro albido, nigro-marginato ; prothorace cylindrico, angusto, 
valde elongato, transverse plicato ; elytris elongatia, pone medium 
ampliatis, profunde punctatis, utroque plaga humerali elongata, 

Digitized by 


new Cicindelides from Mashunaland. 449 

fascia transyersa post medium posita yittaque postica supra- 
marginali albis ornato. 

Dark metallic blue, moderately shining on the upper part, 
underside cyaneous ; labrum white, narrowly edged with black in 
the male, broadly in the female ; joints of antennse foliate from 
the fifth to the apical one ; head strigose ; prothorax very narrow, 
cylindrical, nearly twice as long as broad, very slightly narrowed 
in front and behind, and finely plicate transversely ; elytra very 
narrow at the base, gradually ampliated from the base to two-thirds 
of the length, convex with the sutural part ending on each side in 
a spine, longer and sharper in the male, broadly and deeply pitted, 
with the punctures deeper in the interior part, and having on each 
side a white humeral narrow band, a discoidal transverse post- 
median band narrowed in the centre, and reaching from the outer 
margin to two-thirds of the width of the disk, and a supra- 
marginal narrow longitudinal band of the same colour, reaching 
from the rounding of the posterior part to the apex ; legs cyaneouF, 
with the knees slightly reddish. Length, 12|-13 ; width, 3-3^ mm. 

In shape, size, colour, and sculpture this species 
resembles mucli M. spectabilis, Per.; the joints of the 
antenn89 in M. arigusticollis are foliate from the fifth to 
the apical one, whereas in M, spectabilis only the 4th, 5th, 
and 6th joints are foliate ; the prothorax is still narrower 
than in the last-named species, and the punctures on the 
elytra are not so broad; the humeral white band is 
similar, but the posterior one is shorter, and does not 
unite with the transverse discoidal one. 

Hab. Mashunaland (Salisbury.) 

M, mashuna, sp. n. 
iEneonigra, supra snbnitida ; capite strigoso, labro nigro, 
macula albida in medio ; prothoraoe cylindrioo, transverse plicato ; 
elytris elongato-ovatis, utrinqne quinqne-costatis, oostis longis, 
sub-undulatis, interstitiis alveolatis. 

Black, moderately shining, with a bluish tinge on the head and 
prothorax, elytra dark bronze ; labrum black, with a median yellow- 
ish white patch in the male, this patch being hardly distinct in the 
female ; head conspicuously plicate ; prothorax cylindrical, longer 
than broad, distinctly constricted in front and behind, and trans- 
versely plicate ; elytra elongated, gradually ampliated from the base 
to about two-thirds of the length, convex, the male with two 
moderately long sutural spines, the female without any, and having 

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new Cicindelidae from Mashunala/nd. 451 

^^■^^i to be more ovate and more convex, with the labrum 
, r ' ^ ■- .- nearly totally black. 

' *-'='^ In general facies, this species approximates to M.poly- 
- ^: * hirmoides, but the markings are different from those of 
* -*^^ . any other Jtfyrmecop^ra known up to date. 
Hab. Mashunaland (Salisbury). 

"-' -ir-r M. formosa, sp. n. 

^neo-nigra, supra subnitida, capite strigoso, labro nigro, in 
medio albo-yiitato ; protborace subquadrato, autice posticeque 
consiricto, disco ntrinque elevato, transyerse plicato ; elytris elon- 
gato-ovaiis, ntrinque qninqne-costatis, costis nndnlatis, interstitiis 
secnndo qnartoque prof unde-alveolatis, vitta basali alba medium 
disci ntriusque attingente plagaqne triangulari ad apioem posita 

^■^j.^ Bronze-black, moderately shining on the upper part, dark 

r^i^^ metallic-blue underneath ; head conspicaouslj strigose; labrum 

black, with a median whitish longitudinal band in both sexes ; pro- 
thorax nearly quadrate, narrowed in front and behind, with the 
^^ disk raised on each side and plicate ; elytra gradually ampliated 

from the base to about two-thirds of the length, convex, ending in 
two moderately long apical spines, longer and sharper in the male 
than in the female, each elytron with five costsB, the first and second 
near the suture ^ery wavy, and reaching from the base to two- 
thirds of the length, the third costa equally long, while the fourth 
and fifth extend further, reaching to three-fourths of the length ; 
the intervals between the suture and the first costa and those 
between the second and fifth are broadly plicate, that between the 

\ first and second costse divided into six or seven broad, deep foves, 

and the space between the fifth costa and the outer margin also 
broadly foveate ; in the fourth interval runs a basal yellowish- white 
band, reaching about the median part of the disk, and there is a 
supra-apical, more or less triangular, broad patch of the same 
'^lour, placed below the fourth and fifth costsd ; legs very dark 
lue. Length, 18-20 ; width, 5-7 mm. 

Allied to M. mamhi, Bates, bat differentiated by the 
broad and deep fove® in the second interval on the 
elytra; the dorsal longitudinal white band is longer in 
proportion, and the apical one more broadly triangular. 

Hub. Mashunaland (Salisbury). 

Digitized by 


452 M. Louis Perioguey oh descrlptiontt of 

M, invicta, sp. n. 

^Deo-nigra, supra-subnitida ; capite strigoso, labro mgro medio 
albo-vittato ; proihorace qaadrato, aDtioe posticeqae conatrioto, 
disco utrioqae elevato, transverse plicato ; eljtris elongato-oTaUs, 
quiDque-ooetatis, interstitiis reticulaiis linea basali medium disci 
hand attingenie, plagaque sapra-apicali lata in singulo elytro albis. 

Bronse-black, moderately shining on the upper side, underside 
and legs cjaneous-bkck ; head strigose ; labrum black, with a 
median yellowish- white longitudinal band in both sexes ; prothorax 
quadrate, narrowed in front and behind, with the disk raised on 
each side and plicate ; elytra gradually ampliated from the base to 
about two-thirds of the length, convex, ending in two acute spines, 
long in the male, short in the female, each elytron with five coetsB 
reachiDg from the base to two- thirds of the length, with the first 
and second a little shorter than the other three, and the intervals 
reticulate ; on the second costa runs a narrow white line, running 
from near the base to about one-third of the length, and behind, 
edging the dorsal costsB and extending more or less diagonally 
from the outer margin to the inner costa, is a sinuate silvery patch ; 
this patch is generally broader in the ^ than in the $ , and I have 
seen a ^ example where it had disappeared altogether. Length, 
15-20 ; width, 6-6 mm. 

A near ally to M. mauchi, Bates, but half the size ; the 
sonlpture of the elytra is ideDtical, bat the costsd are 
better defined ; the inner one is shorter than the others, 
the fourth and fifth unite towards the apex in the male, 
but seldom in the female, while in the $ of M. mauchi the 
first and fiflh costsd are the longest, and unite below the 
others, and the posterior patch in the last-named species 
is triangular, short, not transverse, nearer the apex, and 
below the fifth costa. 

Hob. Mashunaland (Salisbury). 

Gen. CosMEMA, Bohem. 
C. doloaa, sp. n. 

Elongata, snea, elytrorum lateribus cyaneis; capite strigoso, 
antenniB subcompressis, foliatis; prothorace cylindrico, postioe 
constricto, transverse plicato ; elytris elongatis, postice leviter 
ampliatis, crebre profundeque punctatis, convexis, ad apicem 
utrinque bi-mucronatis, puncto humerali maculisque rotondatis 
supra marginem positis albis. 

Digitized by 


new Cicindelidse from Mashunaland. 453 

Dark bronze, with a greenish tinge ; the lateral parts of the 
eljtra cyaneous; underside and legs dark greenish-blue, tibiss 
rufescent ; antennae subcompressed and slightly foliate ; head finely 
strigose diagonally ; labrum black, with the apical part somewhat 
yellowish in the male, totally black in the female ; prothorax narrow, 
cylindrical, constricted