(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature of the United Kingdom"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make no n- commercial use of The files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at http : //books . google . com/ 




ptrvo/. 



w 




p 



TRANSACTIONS 



ieiogal ^oartg of iitrrature 



THE UNITED KINGDOM. 



SECOND SERIES. 
VOL. VIII. 



LONDON : 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

TRUBNER AND CO., PATERNOSTER ROW. 



M.DCCC.LXVl. 



PSINTED BT 
J. I. TATLOB Aim CO., LITTUI QUVBK BTBXET, 

uitcoln's iNir 7[BU>a. 




CONTENTS. 



I, — Oft Ibe Discovery of the Lion at Cbserones, by a 

Partj of English Travellers in 1818 ..... i 
II. — Some Account of a Volume, conUiniDg PorttoDa of 
Ptokray's Geography, and of the "Geogrpphi Greeci 
Mit.ores" (Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 19, 391). By 
Jaueb Yates, M.A., F.B.S,. etc. etc 13 

EH. — On the Knowledge the Ancients posst-ssed of the 
Sources of the Nile. By W. S. W. Vaox, M.A,, 
Hon, Sec. R.S.L. (ffitft a Map,) 35 

IV .^ — On some old Maps of Africa, in which the Central 
Equatorial Lakes are laid dowu nearly in their true 
positions. By John Hugc;, MA., F.R.S., Hon. 
Sec. R.S.L., P.R.G.S., et<i. (fFifk Plotea.) . . 67 
V. — A Translatioi] of some Assyrian iQacriptioua. By H. 

F. TALBor. VP.R.S.L, ....,.., 10.7 

VI. — Remarks on Names of Places, etc.^ in the Crimea. 

By Thomas Watts, Esq., Hon. Memb. R.S.L. 138 
Vn. — On the Meatiiiig; of the Words in Gene^si^ xlix. 10, 
"Until Shiloli come." By the Rev. Stanley 
LxATUBS^ M.A., Profesaor of Uebrew in King's 

College, London 1-14 

VIII. — Remarks on a Pragmentof a MS. of Valerius Maximus 
in the Public Library at Berne, containing a portion 
of the Text ^npfiHed from the Epitome of Julius 
Paris. By Frederick W. Madden. {Ji'ith 
Piatet.) 155 

IX. — Papers contributed by the Hev. Mackenz^ie E, C 
Walcott, M.A., Praecentor and Prebendary of Cbi- 
cbester Cathedral 165 



IV CONTENTS. 

PAGK 

X. — M^'jnoire sur la. Ddcouverte)et I'Antiqnit^ du Codex 
Sinnltkus. Par M. Const. Tibchendorf. {With 

Pffifes.) 204 

XI. — Assyrian Translatioiiiis. By H. F. Talbot, V.P. 

R.SX. (TT'iih Plates.) 230 

XII, — On the Eastern Ongii) of the Name and WoTship of 

Dionysus. By II. F. Talbot, V.P.R.S.L. . . 296 
XIII. — On some Funert^iil Hieroglyphic Inscriptions founil 
at Memphis. By Sir Gharle& Nicholson, 

BRrt., D.C.L., LL.D 30t* 

XIV,— On Ihe Gaulish Ih script ion a. By D. W. N*stt, 

F.S A.. M.K.SX 326 

XV. — A Kew Tranatntion of the Inscription of BelLino, 
containing Annals of Two Years of the Reign of 
Sentiadiprib. By H. F. Tal^ot^ V,P.B.S.L. - 369 
XVI.— A Breviate of the Cartutary of the Priory Church of 
St. Mary Magdalene, Lnnercost. By Mackenzie 
E. C. Walcott, B.D., F.B.S.L., F.S.A., Prte- 
centor and Prehendary of Chichester .... 434 
XVII, — On n Greek Inscriptloa from SHloniki [Thessalo- 
nica]. By W. S. W. Vaux. M.A.. Hon. Sec 

R.S.L. {With Plain.) 525 

XVIII. — On n Greek Inscription at Mytilene, relating to the 
Coinage of that City and of Photi^a. By C. T* 

Nbwton, M.A 549 

XIX.— 'On Recent Additions to the Sculptures and Antiqui- 
ties of the British Museum By W. S. W. Vaux. 

{With a Plate.) 559 

XX.— Note on Mr.Strutt H Vase. By C. T. Newton, M.A. 

{With a Plate.) . 597 



TRANSACTIONS 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF LITERATURE, 



-ON THE DISCOVKRY OF THE LION AT CU^ERO. 
[NEA. BY A PARTY OF ENGLISH TRAVELLERS IN IBI8. 

(Read April Uth. 1863.) 

HAVE much pleasure in laying before the Society, 
this evenings a very interesting account of the discovery, 

[hy Mr. G. L. Taylor, of the famous Lion at Clieeronea, 
in a letter he was induced to address to Mr. Newton, 
on a notice having appeared in the newspapers of the 
receipt, at the British Museum, of a cast of this vener- 

[able relic from Athens, during the autumn of 18G2. 
The letter is as follows : — 



Sib, 



Jtthfiumim Club and Broadstairt, 
December \9ih, l»C2. 



A note in the 'Times* of 12th inst., respecting 
the Theban or Chaeronean Lion, has just been pointed 
out to me, in which it is stated that a cast of it is be- 
ing put together by you, at the British Museum. The 
original ought to have been ours ; and 1 beg to inform 
,you that I am tJie only surviving member of a party of 
four, who were tlje discoverers and disinterrers of, this 
relic of early Greek sculpture. Our party throughout 
VOL. viu. a 



2 



DISCOVERY OF THB LION AT CUXEONEA. 



Greece in 1818 were the late John Sanders (then a re- 
tired architect\and Soane's rirst pupil, the late William 
Purser, his artist, the late Edward Ci't:&y. my school- 
fellow, ft-llow-appreutice, iViend and companion for 
fifty years, and joint publisher with me of the * Archi- 
tecliiral Anticjuities oi' Rome,' etc, and myself. I 
perfectly recollect the circumstance, and on referring 
to my journal, find that " 1818, June 3, being all hos* 
pitably housed at Livadea, with Si^nor Logothetl and 
his family, the Arclion of that place, we made an ex* ■ 
cursion on horseback to Chteronea, two hours distant ™ 
to the N.W/' Pausanias was our handbook, and we 
had, as was onr custom, referred to las remarks the 
previous evening. When approaching the place, my 
horse made a fearful stumble over a stone nearly buried ^ 
in the road, and on looking back, I was struck with ™ 
the faint appearance of sculpture on the stone, which 
evidently had caused the stumble. The thought 
crossed my mind that it mi^ht be [? Catling a halt, 
we all turned back, and having satisfied ourselves, by 
removing the earth with our riding-whips, that it was 
sculpture, we engaged some peasants we saw working 
in the tie^lds, and did not leave the spot until we had 
dug up the colossal head of the Lion, and some of his M 
limbs separated. ^ 

On returning to Athens, we put in our claim to the 
discovery in every way in our pow^er, apprising our 
Consul, Mr. Salt, Gropius, Lusieri, etc. 

Subsequently I became Civil Architect to the Navy, 
Vid endeavoured, iued'ectually, to persuade the Admi* 
ralty Board to permit it to be brought home in one of 
Iheir vessels. j 

Soon after the discovery, notice of the subject was 



i 



d 



PISCOVBBV OF THE LION AT CH.IvUONEA. 3 

sent, and appeared in the ' Literary Gazelte*' and the 
Dilettanti Society were urged to assist in removing it 
to this country. Our endeavours were not successful ; 
but it sEiould be known that neither Greek nor A ustriaa 
were the discoverers. Some years afterwards, I heard 
it had Ibund its way into France, — wiiere, when, or 
how, I do not remember, but should much hke to 
know. No doubt you are fully acquainted with its 
modern history, excepting perhaps of that 1 am now 
telling you. 

Not having the pleasure of your acquaintance, and 
having only seen you once, when you kindly obtained 
for me a sight of the Etruscan relics in your Museum, 
I do not know whether this information will interest 
you, and probably I ought to apologize for troubling 
you. 1 have (like yoursell) been occupied in deve- 
loping architecture, etc, in England and abroad, — 
I, for about fifty years ; and as in Greece we were 
Dot so fortunate in our excavations as my valued friend 
Cockerell, I do not like to lose the merit, if there be 
any, of having, probably, been the cause of the dis- 
covery of this interesting object, 

I am, Sir, yours truly, 

Gborge L. Taylor. 



In a subsequent note, Mr. Taylor says that " during 
the time we were on our travels in 1817-18-19, Mr. 
Brilton communicated to Mr. Jerdan, the then editor 
of the ' Literary Gazette,* any points of interest in our 
letters home, and, we were told, announced this dis- 
covery in the 'Literary Gazette.' It would he some 
little time after the discovery, say the end of June to 
August, 1818." I regret that though I have looked 

b2 



I 



4 DISCOVERY OF THE LION AT CHjERONEA. 

through the 'Gazette' for many months after Juhq 
3rd» 1 have not been able to find this reference. 

In the same journal, however, for April 24th, 1824 
I have found the following narrative, which evidently 
refers to the same discovery, and though it differs la 
some respects from Mr. Taylor's own account, is almost 
certainly the communicatioa to which Mr. Taylor re- 
fers ; though why, if this be bo, the printing of it was 
deferred till six years after it was written, is not clear. 
It professes to be an extract " from an unpublished 
journal of a tour in Greece." 

'*On Wednesday, the 3rd of June, 1818, our partVi 
consisting of four, set out from the house of the Archoo 
Logotheti, a rich Greek merchant of Lihadea, whose 
kindness and hospitality to English travellers is well 
known. Our object was to explore the ruins of Chse- 
ronea, in Bceotia,— numeious pieces of sculptured or* 
namenls, collected together at a fountain, the remains^ 
of a theatre, etc.^ we had passed the evening before, pro- 
mising much subject for study, — and we encouraged 
a hope that the spade and a little exertion would re- 
ward us with some antique speciraens of art. In two 
hours we crossed the hills, partly by an anc ent paved 
road, and arrived at the edge of a plain » within a quar- 
ter of a mile of Chaeronea, and in sight of the foun- 
tain and theatre, Here we halted to examine a piece 
of white marble that lay by the roadside, a portion only 
of which was to be seen, the g:reater part being, as we 
afterwiirds discovered, buried under the earth, which 
rose like a flat tumulus, or gave the idea of a platform 
or base of a temple. 

'* Whilst our friend referred to the extracts and 

notes provided to direct our pursuits^ the eagerness 



I 



DISCOVEfiY OF TH£ LION AT CH£KONEA. 



of 



had encourased our attendants to remove the 



I 



soil, when the ohject of our research was found to be 
a colossal lion's head of huld and beauriful workman- 
ship. From the nose to the top of the head it mea- 
sured four feet six inches ; and from the forehead 
where broken off just above the shoulder, five feet nine 
inches. A part of one of the hind legs lay at &oQie 
little distance, two feet three inches in diameter, to- 
gether with the other parts of the statue. Arranging 
these masses, we decided that the attitude had re- 
sembled tiie one placed on the summit of Northum- 
berJand House. The earth removed contained pieces 
of stone and cement that had formed a part of the 
foundation, or pedestal on which it had been placed. 
Holland, in his very accurate and interesting tour, de- 
scribes the plain of Chaeronea, and alludes to the vic- 
tory obtained there, B.C. 338, by Pinlip over the com- 
bined armies of the Athenians and Tbebans, by which 
be gained dominion over Greece : and this author 
further observes, 'that nothing is here to be seen of 
theTheban lion ofChEeronea; but it is possibly buried 
underground, and may yet reward the search of some 
future traveller.' 

" Satisfied that this was the tomb of the Sacred Band 
of the three hundred Thebans, who till then had never 
been conquered, we began to consider the best means 
of removing (he Hon to our own Museum, where it 
might serve to assist the studies of the sculptor as well 
as afford much pleasure to the scholar, it being evi- 
dently the very statue described by Pausanias, lib. ix. 
ch. 40. 

** Calculating that the hend of this statue alone 
weighed upwards of three tone, and being some miles 



I 



UI9C0VERY OF THE LION AT CH^RONEA. 

t'mni llie seashore, we gave up all idea of removing 
the wliole, — 80 carefully buried the masses, and left 
them till otlier means than those we were possessed of 
could be adopted ; and indulged in the hope that, oa 
our arrival in England, a subscription might be set oa 
foot, for the purpose of impoi ting this vast statue to 
our shores, where it would serve to remind us how the 
Greeks commemorated their glorious achievements, 
and possibly incline our committee of taste to pay 
the same or greater tribute to the memory of those 
bands of heroes who, in like maimer, have fallen in 
^^ defence of the honour and liberty of this country." 

^H More than one attempt has since been made t(« 

remove the lion from its position on the plains of 
Chjerouea ; the last that I am aware of being recorded 
at a meetini; of the Antiquarian Society of Athens 
{'H ev 'A&^vaif 'Ap^awKoytfCJ} 'ETatpia), wbo held their 
third anniversary meeting on the 12th of Juuej 1840 J 
by moonlight, under the columns of the Parthenon. 
At this meeting, the Secretary, M. Rhangabe, stated 
that it was the intention of the Society to bring toV 
Athens during that year the colossal marble lion of 
Chffironea. This, however, was not done, and the lion 
is still in situ. The cast in the Museum was obtained 
_ through V. A. Drumraond, Esq., of H.B.M. Legation, 

^H Athens.' 

^^ The site of Chaeronea (Xaip^veia, now Knparna) 19M 

I well enough known ; and has many claims of great in-" 

I terest lor us. It was near the river Cephisus, on the 

I borders of Phocis, at the head of a plain, shut in by a 

^^ M 



' A restoration of the lioa has been publiehed by M. Siegel la 
Mon. of the Soc. Archeol. di Roma, 1866, Tav. 1. 




DiSCOVfifiY Of THE LION AT CHJ3R0NEA. 



high projecting rock, which formed in ancient times 
the ciladc'i of tlie town, and was called ll^rpa^os in 
Pausaoias (ix. 41), and Uerptax"^ '" Plutarch's ' Life of 
Sulla' (Suli. c. 17). It is said to have derived its later 
Dame from one Chaeron, who, according to Plutarch, 
built it towards the east^ whereas it has previously faced 
the west. ^Cf. Paus. ix. 40, § 5 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. ; 
Plut. de Curiosit. 1.) It is not mentioned in Homer, 
but has been supposed to be the same as the Boeotian 
Arne (Paus. ix. 40, ^ 5), Its position naturally ex- 
pitsed it to be the scene of extensive niiiitary operations ; 
indeed, it is to the great battles fought at or near it that 
CljEEronea owes whatever fame it possesses. Of these, 
the first took place in b.c. 447, the result of which was 
that the Athenians lost the supremacy they had for 
a sljurt time exercised in Btcotia. A parly friendly 
to the Atlienians had held the town ^ hut it having 
been seized by the opposite faction, Tolmidas was dis- 
patched agitinst it with a small party, and tliough suc- 
cessful in taking the town, was soon after defeated by 
the Bceolians, and hims<;lf slain, (Thucyd. i. 1 13 ; Diod. 
xii. 6.) 

The second and most celebrated battle was fought 
at Chieronea on August 7tb, b,c, 338 ; and, in this, 
Philrp of Macedon, by overthrowing tbe united forces 
of the Athenians and Bceolians, succeeded in crushing 
for ever the Uberltes of Greece. Strabo, ix, p. 41, 
states ihat it was in memory of a famous hand of 300 
Theban^, most of whom fell in this battle, that a se- 
pulchre was erected, and, Pausanias adds, surmounted 
by a lion, as the emblem of the spirit which bad ani- 
mated these Thebans,— a monument of even greater 
value for us, as no record has come down to our times 



I 



I 

I 
I 

I 

I 



Tiilh any details of that famous day- The words of 

Tausanias are as follows: — UpotnoxTtav S« rrj iraXei^ 
woKxHiphptov SijBaimv ^(rriv €v rat Trpor ^iXnnrov ay^vi airo- 
vavQirmyv' ot>* e'mytypa'mai /lei/ Srj eTrt-ypafifia, ejruTTffHi fie 
fTr^frtiit avT^ \fan> ' (f>fpoi 5 av ej Tail/ avhpav fj^iXio'Ta rov 
uvfiov ' emypafifia &€ aireimv {cfiat BoKetv) otl ovk eoiKora 
rp ToXfij} s^ioi, TO, £« rov Zaifiovo^ xiko\ov$t}<ts. " On 
approaching the city," says be, '* is the tomb of the 
Boeotians who fell in the battle with Philip. It has no 
inscription ; but the figure of a lion is placed upon it 
as an emblem of the spirit of those men. The in- 
scription has been omitted, as I suppose, because the 
gods had willed that their fortune should not be equal 
to their prowess." [Mure's Transl. i. pp. 220-1.) 

From the time of Pausanias to the visit of Mr. 
Taylor and his party, the existence of the lion re- 
mained wholly unknown ; and we have the successive 
testimony of Gell, Dodwell, Leake, and Hammond that 
they sought for it in vain within the district where 
they reasonably hoped to find it. 

Nay, what i* most strange is that though the pas- 
sage in the * Literary Gazette ' we have quoted had 
been then in print the best part of ten years. Colonel 
Mure, who visited ChBeronea in 1641, had evidently 
never heard the true history of its discovery, but sup- 
posed it had been excavated by some of the modern 
Greek authorities. Mr. Grote, too, does not allude 
to it in his history of the battle ; while the compiler 
of the article "Chseronea," in Smith's * Dictionary of 
Geography,' 1854, simply refers to the description of 
it in Colonel Mure's travels. 

As, however, the description of this distinguished 
traveller is remarkably clear and graphic, 1 have 



DISCOVERY OF THE IIO.V AT CH.tRONBA. 



iWight it might be not uninteresting to the Society 
to Iranscribe at length what he says. 

"About a mile, or little more/' says he, *' from the 
Khan, on the fight side of the road from Orchomenos, 
is tlie sepulchre of the Boeotians who fell in the battle 
of Chjeronea. At the period when this district was 
traversed by Leake, Dodwell, Gell, or any other pre- 
vious traveller to whose works 1 have had access, 
liotbing was here visible but a tumulus. The lion 
by which Pausanias describes it as having been sur- 
aoimted had completely disappeared. The mound of 
earth has since been excavated, and a colossal marble 
lion discovered, deeply embedded in its interior. Thia 
nobie piece of sculpture, though now strewed in de- 
tatlied masses about the sides and interior of the ex- 
cavation, may still be said to exist nearly in its original 
intfgrity. It ia evident from the appearance of the 
figments that it was composed from the first of more 
iWn one block, although not certainly of so many as 
its remains now exhibit. None of the fragments, how- 
fver, seem to have been removed. The different pieces 
at^ 80 scooped out as to leave the ioterior of the figure 
hollow, with the twofold object, no doubt, of sparing 
Dialerial and saving expense of transport. 1 could 
obtain no authentic information as to the period and 
the circumstances of this discovery. The story lold 
on the spot was, thai the celebrated patriot chief 
Odysseus, when in occupation of this district, had ob- 
served a piece of marble projecting from the summit 
of tlie mound, which he further remarked, when struck, 
produced a hollow sound. Supposing, therefore, ac- 
cording to the popular notion, that treasure might be 
concealed in the interior of the tumulus, he opened it 



ll 



DISCOVERY OF THE LION AT CH^RONEA. 



T3p, and, under the same impression, broke the lion, 
which was at that time entire, inlo pieces, or, bs llie 
tradition goes, blew it up. Another account is, that 
the lion was first discovered by that patriarch aniung 
the present race of Hellenic archseologers, the Aut^triafl 
Consul, Gropius ; Odysseus beiugonly entitled to th^H 
credit of having severed it in pieces. That the go^B 
verninent, durinj; the ten years of comparative trao- 
quillity the country has now enjoyed, should have domflH 
nothing for its preservation, is another proof how htlle 
the rei;eneration of Greece has done for that of her 
monufneiits. It would appear that the uiarble, with 
the lapse of ages, had gradvially embedded itself in tl 
soft material: Lhat formed its base, so as finally to h&\ 
sunk, not only beneatJi the surface of the tumuIuSj 
but, to judge trom the appearance ot the excavation," 
even of the plain itself, a remark.ible instance of the 
effect of time in concealing and preserving, as well as 
in destroying, monuments oi ancient art. 

^' This lion may, upon the whole, be pi'oncunc( 
the most interesting sepulchral monument in Greece,1 
perhaps in Europe. It is the only one dating from the 
better days of Hellas, v?ith the exception perhaps of 
the tumulus of Marathon, the identity of which is be- 
yond dispute. It is also an ascertained specimen of 
the sculpture of the most perfect period of GreeU art. 
That it records the last decisive blow beneath which 
Hellenic independence sank, never prominently to rise 
again, were in itself a sufficiently strong claim on our 
warmest sympathies. But the mode in which it records 
that fatal event renders the claim doubly powerful ; 
for this monument possesses the afl'ecting peculiarity 
of being erected, not, as usual with those situated like 



he 
as 

ceV 



J 



DISCOVERY OF THE LION AT CKXRONEA. 



11 



t 



itself on a Held of battle, to comtueraofale the victory, 
but the misfortunes of the warriors whose bodies re- 
pose in the soil benealb* — the valour, not the success 
of their struggle for liberty." {' Journal of Tour in 
Greece,' vol. i. pp. 218-220, 1841.) 

In Mr. Newton's recent work on ' Halicaruassus, 
BrdOchidee, and Cnidus/ vol. it- part 2, are some in- 
teresting notices uf the lion-moiiuments of the Greeks, 
with reference to the great lion procured by him from 
Cdldus, which once surmounted a building, ori;^inally, 
il would seem, a Poitjundrion. He adds an excellent 
remark made to him by the late Sir Thoruas Wyse: 
"that the lion of Chzeronea, being the emblem of a 
(lefeat, is placed in an attitude expressive of angry de- 
fiance; while that of the Cnidian lion, being one of 
natural repose, seems rather \\\e symbol of a victory.'* 
THis in great measure confirms the judgment of 
Colonel Mure. 

W. S. W. Vaux. 



While this paper was in type, T received the follow- 
ing letter from Mr, G. L, Taylor, which 1 have much 
pleasure in appending to this paper ; — 

Broadstairs, April 29M, 1864. 
Mr DEAR Sm, 
I was much gratified yesterday eveuiiig, on my return 
from LoiidoD, at fiudiiig your letter aud the pruuf, which is 
dnirii lip with eltamess and accuracy, 

^Vith regard to the extract (April, 1821) from an " utipuh- 
hihn] Journal of a Tour iu Greece," I am persuaded from its 
•tj'lc, and the circumstances detailed, that it was written by 
my&iend Mr. Creey himself, and selected by Jerdan, with 



12 DISCOVERY OF THE LION AT CH^RONEA. 

-whom he wai then on intimate terms. It would appear that 
the discovery had not, as I supposed, been inserted in 1818, 
but introduced in his Journal in 1824. 

I need scarcely remark that it corresponds with my account 
as much as the notes of two persons on the same subject 
naturally would, and evidently records the same event. I 
find in my notes the same observations respecting the theatre 
and fountains contained in his. The friend mentioned as 
** referring to our extracts and notes," was, I doubt not, him^ 
seff; and the other friend, " whose eagerness encouraged the 
attendants," meant your humble servant. 

This notice, and every circumstance in your paper, go to 
prove that this interesting piece of ancient sculpture was dis^ 
covered by us on the 3rd June, 1818. 

I am, dear Sir, yours truly, 

George L. TatloA. 




13 



II.-SOitE ACCOUNT OF A VOLUME. CONTAINING 
PORTIONS OF PTOLEMYS GEOGRAPHY, AND OP 
THE "GEOGRAPHI GR.ECI MINORES" (BRIT. MUS. 
ADD. MSS. 19, 391). 

BT 3AMSa TATBS. H.A., r.n.B., ETC. ETC, 



» 



* 



(Bead Apri] 14th. 1863,) 

The geographical writers of ancient Greece have 
been divided into two classes, viz. the four greater 
geographers, Strabo, Pausanias, Ptolemy^ and Sle- 
phanus of Byzantium, and the Oeographi Grtsei Mi- 
uores, including all the rest. Although many of the 
treatises belonging to the latter division have been 
found only in fragments or in single manuscripts, the 
matter contained in them is bo curious and important 
that they have engaged the attention and exercised the 
editorial bkill of the most eminent scholars. It has 
been my good fortune to find in the British Museum 
a volume containing not only a considerable portion 
of Ptolemy's Geography, but either the entire remains 
or considerable frftgments of nine of the Geograplii 
GfEci Minores, viz. Agathemerus, and the Conipen- 
(liura published under his name ; Dionysius of Byzan- 
tium, a fragment which had been lost ; Arrian's Peri- 
plus of the Euxine Sea, hi& letter to Trajan, and his 
^m Penplus of the ErythrEcan Sea ; Hanno's voyage on 



M3. OF TUB GEOGBAPHI GB^CI MINORES 

the coast of Africa ; Philo on the seven wonders of 
the world ; and a chrestumathy, consisting of extracts 
from Strabo. It appeared desirable to give an account 
of this volucne, in order that it might be used by those 
who are now engaged, or who raay hereafter be en- 
gaged, in editing the same authors. A general de- 
scription, written with this view, is nearly all that 1 
have attempted, and in this undertaking I have to 
acknowledge the kind assistance and encouragement 
afforded to nie by Sir Frederic Madden. K.H., Keeper 
of the Manuscripts in the British Museum, H. Ward, 
Esq.» of the same depiirtment, and W. S. W. Vuux, 
Esq., Honorary Secretary of the Royal Society of Li- 
terature. 

The volume is lettered on the back ' Tractatus de 
Geographic, Griece,' and it appears from a note in it 
by Sir Frederic Madden tJiat it was purchased of M. 
C. Simonides in March, 1853. It has been already 
noticed, as follows, by Sir F. Madden, in a letter pub- 
lished in the 'Athenseura.'iMarchSth, 1856, p. 299 :— 

" A Treatise on Geography, compiled from Strabo, 
Arrian, Ptolemy, etc. j with three rude maps. (Fifteenth 
century.)" ^ 

A fuller account of the contents of the volunSf 
describing them as six different MSS., has been pub- 
lished by Mr, Charles Stewart, in his ' Biographical 
Memoir of Constantine Simonides,' London, 1859, 
It is as follows : — ^ 

" I. Arrian's Description of the Euxine PontiS 
(Fifteenth century) 

"2. Arrian's Letters to Trajanus Adrianus, in 
which also is the description of the Euxine. (Fifteenth 
Wutury.) 



IN TH6 BRITISH MUSKUU. 



15 



"3. Arrian's Description of the Erytlirwan Sea. 
[Fifteenth century.) 

"4. Two books of the 'Geographical Guide' of 
Claudius Plolemy, together with two very curious 
geographical tablets, (Fifteenth century.) 

" 5. The ingenious Philo on the iSeven Wonders. 
(Thirteenth century ) 

'* 15- Passages from the Geojjraphy of Sirabo. 
Ififleenth century.) *' 



It appears to me that all these tracts are of the 
same age, and that " Philo od the Seven Wonders " 
nmsi be assigned to the tifleenlh century, with the 
olbers; alfio that Mr. C. Stewart's account, having 
been taken from verbal statements made to liim by 
Dr. Simonidcs, is very imperfect. It is important to 
observe, that the contents of the volume were delivered 
by Dr Simonides to the British Museum in detached 
portion?, and were afterwards bound together. 

I now proceed to give some account of the volume 
from my own observation. 

It is a folio of 21 leaves, and of parchment, in good 
preservation, so far as it is entire, AH appears to 
be from the same band^ altEiouj^h the former and 
ihelalter portions, which I shall distinguish hereafter, 
liave belonged orij^inally to two different volumes. 

The titles of the separate treatisi s are in red ink, and 
sftin mo8t cases affixed at the end as well as the be- 
ginoing of the treatise. The writint:; is in general 
disrinct and regular, except that it is very full of con- 
t^clions. The three tirst leaves are ruled, tlie ten next 
are not ruled; the eight nexl* containing ' Ptolemy,' 



16 



MS. or GEOaBAPUI GR^CI MINORES IN &^M. 



are ruled. The number of lines in a page varies ffom 
forty-three to iilty. Tlie lines are closer, and conse- 
quently more numerous, in the pages which are not 
ruled, than in those which are ruled. 

At the commencement is a Tahle of Contents, 
folhiwi :- 

'O T*i>v ypatfieiTiiiv oiSe ^i/SX/wi' irlva^ [iu red). 
a< 'TiroTi/Triwcrti ysritypaipias €V errnofi^.. fi. Aya&Tffiepav 
Opifu}i'Of yrtijypafptay vjTOTtrKwtrit. y, 'Avtf^tav Bdtxeis 
wpocnryopiat CK rwv 'ApurroT^Kov? iripl cr7j/taTQn». S. /Si 
vvatau Bir^avriov dpnir^ovs^ Buo^Qpov, e. ^Appiapov irtpi^ 
TrXtJUs Kv^eii'ou froi-TOv €KaT€pti)v toiv rjTretpmv Tav Trapa Tijv 
*Aaiav Kal 'EvpoiTTTiV £iijKOV(rait>. f". ToO avrov eTTttrroXif^^ 
wpos Tpaiafou iv ri tcai TreptVXoi/y Ev^etvov itdvtov. £1 To^H 
avTov irepnrXovs Ttjs MpvOpas $a\a<r<rt)\i. tj. Avuuivov Kxtp- 
Xfj^viQiv 0aa-t\^ws TTtptTrXom Tmv virkp riis 'HpaicXcov^M 

Kpoi-ov TejUCi-fi. 0. 4>iKaii'os Bv^avriau Tr^pi tuiv eirTu, Sea - 
/idrutp. I. '£« rrnp Srpu^(ifVos yewypa^iKmv if BiffXiay^^M 
j^ptjffTOfiadecai. lit. n\fHjTfip-^ov irtpt trorafiwv Koi QpQtv 
fjrwiJi/jUiay Kat Tbtv ev avTOii iVptrJKop.^i'wv. i^. Tlap$^pii 
TTepl epcaTiKtiiv TraBi^pruriitv. ly. ^Avrcovivov At^epaKti fiera- 
fiop^bitr£anf (rvi/ayaiy^. (5. ndrpia KaiVfTTavrivovTrdX^t^. 
Ka.ra JirTV)(iov iWvtrrpLOf. le. ^Xe'yovTOi TpaXKiavov 
aTT^XfvBepov Kaiaopoi v^pt Bavp.a<xiii}v Kat fioKpofficov. 
15", Tov avTDv irept OXv^xTTtfav ayiiiVdiv, i^, *j47roX.\Q)woU 
urropiai uavftti^iai, iij. Aimyovov laToptutv 'H'apaBo^toi/ 
cvvayaiyi}. id, ItnrQKpaTovs eiria-ToKrj Oefj-iaroKXeovt, 
K* Aioytvovf Tou Kwof. Ufa, BpovToii 'Pmiialtav uwaTov, 

The manuscript to which this title belonged mui 
Fiave been, when entire, a book o^' great value am 
interest ; and the original, from which it was probabh 



CQMPABED WITH THE PALATINE MS. 



17 



^ 



copied, must have been considerably, perhaps some 
centuries older, and of higher value in proportion. 
All the twenty-one articles in the list, except No. 4, 
have been puhlished. 

It may be useful to compare the titles in this \kt 
with those of the MS. No. SQH, formerly helonj;ing to 
the Palatine Library at Heidelberg, which is described 
bvBast, inhis'EpistoIa Critica,' Lips. 1809, pp. 2-98. 
It appears that eighteen out of the twenty-one titles 
in (he list recently brought to light hy Sjmonides agree 
almost word for word with the articles in tJie Palatine 
MS., and that they occur in the same order, except 
that the epistles of Hippocrates and Themistocles, 
wbich are entered as separate articles in the Pala- 
tine list, are put together as one article, No, 19, in 
the Simonides list. The four first articles in the 
Simonides list^ and the beginning of the fifth, aie 
wanting in the Palatine ; and the second in the Pala- 
tine, 'Appiai'ov RvvTiyrriKot is alone wanting in the Si- 
monides list. 

It will be necessary to refer again to the Palatine 
list in what follows. 

I now proceed to give some account of the tracts 
in the Simonides list in the order in which they 
occur. 

I, 'TwoTV7r(a<Tis yewypatfiia^ ee hnrofi^y — 'A Sketch ' or 
'Compendium of Geography.' This title is repetded 
in red before the treatise. It immediately follows the 
table of contents, and then the treatise itself fills the 
four first pages and part of the filth. The same tract 
18 described by HoTstenius, as he found it, a.d. 1628, 
in 3 Codd. Regii at Paris. See Bredow, Epist, Pari- 
sienses. Lips. 1812, p. 10; Holstenii Epist. ed, Boisao- 

VOL. vin, c 



h 



IRAPHI GHitCl MtNORRS. 

nade, Par. 1 8 1 7, p. 54 ; TTudson, Geogr. Gr. Min. vol. ii. 
Oxon. 1703, pp. 33-(il. It was tirst published by 
Tenulltus, Amstel. 1071, 8vo, and afterwards by Gro- 
novius, * Geographica Antitjua,' L, Bat. 1097, pp. 215 
—250, as the second book of Agathemerus, and 
in this Hudson follows Gronovius. It begins with 
the words 'H r^? oXtjv yfjf irepi^nTpos, and ends with 
fj /tej- hi) Ka&' jj/inp ^a'\aa-<ra Toiavri}. The Siinonides ci^^H 
dex shows that it is a distinct treatise by itself I^^ 
chap. ix. Trepi opibiif ^€yia-Tatv, where Athos IS mentioned, 
Bl marginal note in black ink refers to that circui 
stance. This illustrates the fact stated to me 
Simonides, that he obtained the volume from Moui 
Athos. 



2. 'AyaOijiiipov tou "OpBcovos yewypa^pias vTroTvirotai 
Immediately follows No. 1, ami breaks oH" at tl 
bottom of the sixth page with the words ^x Sc Btncpoi 
ejti TTOfTov Kai Trj ^ATTiKfj ' etm ytip fiaitpa. 1 liese WOfils 
occur in chap, v., and siiow that about half of the 
treatise is wanting in this manuscript. It is foni 
entire in various MSS. See Gronovius, Hudsoi 
Bredow, and Ilolstenius, uhi supra ; Fahricii Bibl. Gl 
?d. Tlarles. torn. iv. pp. 615-617, 

The title is repeated in red before the treatif 
Marginal notes in red refer to the contents of ea< 
page. The treatise itself is published as the first bot 
of Agathemerus by the above-named editors, w. 
seem to have taken great liberties in soa^e othi 
respects. 

3. The third article is entirely wanting, in cons* 
quence of the loss of several leaves. 



AGATHEMERUS. DIONYSIUS DYZANTINU3. 



19 



tract 
■ was 



I 



4, ^froi^aiof Bv^jniov at'ii-jrXovs BouTTopov, This article 
begins at the top of the seventh ptige, and may be con- 
gidered unique, since onl}^ one fragment of the same 
tract has been known to exist in recent times, which 
was its commencement, and this, now recovered, is its 
tnation. The exordium, having heen found in 
ain Vatican and Paris MSS.,' wasrirst pulilished by 
Du Fresne in liis * Constantinopolis Christiana/ and 
afterwards by Hudson, Geogr. Gr. Min. vol. iii. IIol- 
eteaius had found it, and expresses in his letter to 
Peiresc^ a.d. 16:^8, an earnest desire that tlie treatise 
itself might he discovered and published entire. See 
Bredow, Epist. Par. p. 15.^ 

Such being the importance attributed by scholars 
to the commencement of the tract, [ have not he&italed 
to copy the close of it as discovered by myself in the 

ISimonides MS. 
(Simonlde* MS., top of 7th pag-e.) 
To/p aiTo n^r Ri,Ouv:as 0aai\ia}v. Xi/^fjv tu dvTOf travv 
JcaXa* i^fB' ov uxptiiJiificav AteTou P'jJ^oi, Tovvo^a /lei/ airo 
Wm ayTifiOTOv ' Trerpiahes 5e airav Kai ay^i^aOes ' evdiv 
•oAiror AfiVKOf e7r(«XJ}(ref " xat Tptovir^ia -irtStojn virtiop ' 

IVTjpat if avTw KrjTutSsLt i^&vwu ' (^ fjs TTaXanSer a-jra rrjs 
' See Fabrictus, Bibl. Gr. ed. Uarlee. iv. p. 592, and Kluge, 
lnHdiiDonis Nav., p. 48. 
* Iti bin notes oti Stcpb. Bvz. p. XpiMTOTroX-Ls, ed. Dindorff Htil- 
■tenkiu Qsserts that the lrf!ftti» o( Diodysius -k&i, extaDt in the 
litffaries of Italv and Bavgria. " Hid antiqui&suniis auctor Luline 
*"3ituB est a Peiro GvHio cum cummentario eruiiili.-sinio de lliiS|ioro, 
*t txtut Grace in Bibliolfievft Halite et Bavuritt." Du Frefne'a 
"CorutBHliiiopoIis ChrUtinna " is the yecond Part of his " Historia 
^rttiHiua," Par. 1680. The account of this fragment, with the 
'^gtntal itself, is found after the Table of Conteata. 

c 2 



ao 



GHOGRAPHl GR.ECI MINORES. 



kqXttqs tx&votu K-rrajQiyos nij- f>v)( erepo$ ' fiaXXov Se, £i XPH^m 
ftij&fv vTro(TTti\afifvov raXijBes eiTrety, futvot ojSijpoT etc tij^^ 
Xa\KT}Zovuav axTifS' ra aXKa fiev yap &La(ft€p€i Toeraurov 
Twv Evptairnai' oaav BaXarra ttJs yfjs ' ctt avr^ Be O^t'ppovt 
OKpa * fied rfv TToXuj «at ^rn'rrtha? ai-yiit^oi ^pu^ov KaXara* 
XifiyPi fiiff Of raXXflj? opfios 4'i.e\a XaXKijhoi'iajn ruiv f^^ftx^^ 

hvVtjStVTOiV avSpOiV. FTTi S OUTJ) ^OlfjrOf ITTTTtDS KOI 7repl^€pl]pl^^ 

ttf Kvickov ff^/ia 'jrepiypii<jit^v Ttjv ^luriv ' Btarpov he 7ts 
HKa<Teiev opav aTrpovoT^rov errtTriBevfia ti/p ^vn^ats ' tovto 5 
apa Kat K€K\T}rai ' TrXijeriOF o axpn Atp^Qs ovop,a ' K^KKijre 
S OTTO TOV <r)(i]^aTQ? ' Kat crutfc)^tfs avroj aiytaXos ' icai 
crro/ia fie avTw VTjrro? Trdi/v ffpetvfcia ' ica& tju XtvKttivop,^ 
^v$Q9 vcj>u\of.s pa^itus €Tri Ti}v Evpanrrfv wrrorpeTrei. Ttl 
ij^Qocav TOV Spopov ' irroovfi^voi yap &t) ttjv o>friv erriif/opov 
pevpari Ttppouui tov iropov. BXnfijfv avrov XaXin^Sorc 
KpXov(H.v irotpoir opo/wt $ep,(.voi Koi TT} •nap' avrovs <rvp,^aLi'ov- 
Tos oiKslov ' tvBev TO icaXovp,(VQv TJarapfoviov ' Kal pitr' Kin 
NavaiKXeta ' xao rjVj tpno-t^ XaXKrfSoviOL vavpayia irepteyi 
vovTO Twv ^iravTia a^iai irX^ovTotv, ^E^aia re Treplppoi 

aKpaTTfpiOV ' Xrtl AUfCtiStOir KoXtTOS FTTlUKCitS ^U0VS ' *} f^O 

aTTo avSpos Meyapeass' KvfcXa^ioySi otto tivos t^v emj^aiaiwi'] 
Tr\i}ffiav 5e avrov Navtrtfia^wv ' aWi)s vaupaj^^iar iri 
ffTipov ^tiipioi' ■ o3ev KDcoutaVf tavofi-daOrf Bf Ka$ vTrep/SoXaa 
^aXeTToTTjiTos Kntr /io^07jj3(ar timk €TTOiiC7}f7avTfov * tnatT€i yat 
ot} 0ia(TD€VT€f £f CTrfcrow Tijs y^wpas ' KaToiriv £e avrov, to p.€i 
AKpai Poi^ovaat. Xeyof^evai ' tov vtpi airras dywp>dvQv 
pot^oOifTos Kvp.aTos ' TO Sc AitTtcoi ' p.tti^mv pep 5 wpf 
•TrapaTToXvs Se ' inro Se erepop ' ap<f>ia $€ xaB opotoTtjTa 
trj(ripaTas ' rovrtp <rvve-^es Kat tm irovr^p Kara ttjv Evp<i>7 
TrapdXXtjXoif " p^B or Xip.iiif KaXXto'TOS e« re prSySovg 
T}a^uy(iai ' TTiplypacf>€i S« avroO to fieye9os ^tov ^a$(ia Kt 
paXSaxTj. Ttl Sc inrep rijs Ba\do-av}s, veSlov hrdvTfs^ 



DJONYSIUS fiYZANTINUa. 



21 



^ 



rr;!' aicn)v ' K^xXyrat S^ Xpvcro-jfoXi} . wy fj.€if ^vlot ^amv ^trX 
7:75 Ufpaoiv riy7}fiovia5! evraCSa Troiou/ieviov tov trpoctiovroi 
airo TfcJi/ TTopoov j^verov tov uffpcia-fiov, wy Se ot wXEiovf 
Xptftrov iraiBuy Xpv<rt]iBof xat AyajAt/j-ifovos Tutpov. euravOa 
•yap avTov ^nrtotna Kara ficos 'At^yiadov tal KXfT«t^i/^crTpftff 
a^iuciffBat Biavoovfifvov cp Tavpovt ctf I^if^fetav 'TrtpaiovaQatr 
Tjpf aSit\<pitv ' ^S^i yap etvat ttji' ^Itfttyeveiav ^ApreptZos 
up€tap ' voa^ Be Kapovra /caraXiTretv atjb savrox/ t^ ^up{0> 
Toupofia ' BvvatTQ B av Kai Bia tijv tou \tp.^vos evxatpiav 
o&Tw it€'c\^(T&ai j^vtfw Trapofiotoi/vrrDV to Bavfiutrtov, Kp$€V 
OKpa TTpoTTnTTfi Tols Tf/* 0a\uTn}S' wXfjyatp eirtSpofiop " ttoXus- 
yap eir avnjv Qi9ovp.evQf TrXnvs TrpoT tov xaXovfievov avfia^ 
ftiKkarat Bovv. €<m Be otov atf>£Tr}piov tov Trpor nji' Evpw-mjv 
ZtaTrXov ' KfU kuop \i$ov X^vkov ' KaB' ijt ^ovs ' 3LaprjTos 
ABfjvattov OTpaTrjyou 'TraXXnitrjV BotBtai' epmuda KapjjVffttP 
mroK7}Sei/aav70s^ ' <ri)paiV€i te ij eiriypa^/j tov Xoyov raXijBef ' 
01 ^iv yap ftr>caLav xa\ araXalTTaipov 7rotovp,evoc r^v IcTOptav 
Horrof T^f apyala^ Xi^eaa elifai rrjv etKova " TrXettrrov diro- 
vXavot^evoi TaXi}6ovs ' /itra Se TifV jSow Hpayopa Kprjurj ' 
mi T€fiiVos TjpQiop Evpof^TTOv' ^cp ou aiyiaXos xjtttios 'I/^epar 
woTufAOf HaTapBopiJ'oy^ Kat ev avTtp np-evos At^pootji}? ' wapa 
? avTDV oXiyos terdphv ttoXXtjv TTavv ireptypa^u XepaovT\<Tov ' 

t(ft r}t IJ TToXif ftlKpOV VTTip XoXKTjBovaS TTOTUfiOV ' KOI Xip.€V€r 

up^OTipxaBev KaTo. tus cttI tox' laSfiov ilva^otpTjmis. avrtxftwjr 

nor O irpoT ^{TTT^paV atpopatv J^ef.pVTTOtTJTOS Of D TTpOs TTJtf CW 
jciu Bu^avTLOif ' aVTT} S aV€iTTrfK€ Xofffov fiev ^OafiaXaiTfpa, 
TfOiOV Se TpayiyTepa ' iroXXa he €v oirrjj 6avfiatrta Kara re 
apjfatonjTa Ttfs KruT^ta? xat Trpa^ci? Kot rv^as xtu ras eir 
afii^repas f^rraffoXas ' p.aXiUT'-i yi prijv rep^epo? Km ^t)<TTTiptov 
'AfroXXunpof ovhfvof Ttap (ifcpitiv uTrohteuTepos ' eo-Tw Se rtppxi 
T^ Xffyrpj TOVTOv 5e Ktu toIs eiriovffi tov BooTTopov ttjs. 
itnopias. 




S9 



OEOGRAPHI GR£CI MINORES. 



Under this we find in red, ^lawaiou Buptvrtou ava-rrKovs 
Boairopov, SO as to prove the authorship ol the tract, 
tlie title of each article having beea inserted both 
before and after. M 

The Tubricator^ has then added an important anno' 
tation. He says — 

^itpp$ci>Tai. ov TTpos 'TTeii'v tTTrouhtitav avTiypaipov. ^" 

The epigram referred to by Dionysius is also added 
exactly au it is found in Brunck's ' Analecta,' totu. iii. 
p. 187, and in the ' Anthologia,' by Jacobs, torn, iv, 
p. 155. It occupies a very small space, being com- 
pressed as much as possible, hut Is easily divisible 
into eight hexameters and pentameters. 

The original text of Dionysius Byzantinus having 
been lost, with the exception of the two fragments 
aboye mentioned, it is important to observe that the 
whole of it, omitting the exordium, still exists in a 
Lutin translation made by the learned Frenchman 
Pierre Oilles. This writer is best known by his work 
• De Bosporo Thracio,' in which he has incorporated 
bis translation of Dionysius, accompanying it with 
explanatory annotations. Jle died at Home in 15^5, 
and his account of llie Thracian Bosporus was first 
published by his nephew at Lyons, in 13GI. It has 
been often reprinted. I use it as found in the Venice 
edition of the Thesaurus of Gronovius, torn. vi. The 
entire Latin translation by Gilles was never published 

' After the capyist harf finished a manuFcript so far as he was re- 
quired lo accomplish his work, it was banded to the " rubricjalor " 
to add ih red the tttlies, the initiul lellcre, tuargirkal notet^^ and other 
exiilBnat]OD&. See Pfeiffer, * Ueber Bucber'HandschnfteOi,' pp. 55, 
66, 




DipNYSlUS BYZANTINUS. 



23 



I 



* 
* 



separately until it appeared in Ihe third volume of 
Hudson's ' GeograpliiGrseci Mitiores/ pp. 1-23. The 
MS. from which tlilles translated has long smce dis- 
appearedj but we may now form some judgment of its 
accuracy from the fragment of the original, which 
I have brought to light, and which appears to be 
about a seventh part of the whole. I here insert the 
corresponding part of the Latin translation. 

Tranilaiion of Dionysiug Bys. by Peter Gyilius^ an published 
in Gyllitts ' De Boapora 'fhracio* lib, ill. c. 6 [Grcnovu 
The$., ed. Vtitft., vul. vi. pp. 3197-3210). 

"... a Rege quodam Bithynise. Pcrtus in ipso perbonua* 
post quem eat prumontoriuoi d€T6pT}-)(^ov, a 6gura nomiTiatum : 
est autem petrusum toluin et proximum liabens mare pro- 
fundum usque ad Dram littoris. Inde sinus Amycus appeU 
latus, et Gronychia campus supinus et planus, in ipso autem 
pis^catiunea cetaceorum pittcium : deinde Paludes a simili ex- 
ft^erstione paluduiti, qU£e sunt in penitimo sinu nuncupato 
Cornu Byzaritii. 

** Post Paludes subi^equitur sinus nuncupatus Karayyeiov, 
ad se maxime alliciens pi&ces, siquis alter, ac potius (si nihil 
decet supprimere eum, qui veritatem dicit) solus ex littore 
ChalcedoniDrum est bene piscosus : verumtamet] tantum 
differt ab Europwo, quantum differt mare a terra. 'Ktt* ftit^J 
a^vppoV'i uKpa, hoc est, In ipso, vol post ipsum est promonto- 
rium Osyrrhoum. Post Oxyrrhoum succeders littus planum 
etniultuni appellatur Phryxi portus ; post quern alter portusj 
et Phiela Chalcedoniorum valde potentum. 'EttI Se ai/T^, id 
est, in ipso, vel post ipsum. I'hieEa est tumulun supinus et 
rctundus in circulo figuram circursiscrihena basim. Theaimm 
aiiquis cuiijectaret se videre improvisum a natura coiistitutuiu. 
Pnipe autcni est promontoriuin nominatum Lemhus, a simili- 
tadine lembi. Sub littus ilU contiuuuni est inaula valde bre- 
Tis, juxta quam maris vadum exalbescena cautibus sub aqua 
jacentibus in Europam avertit piscium cursuni, cujus aspectu 




54 



GEOGKAPnl SR^Cl MIN0RB3. 



exterritl fretum transeunt secundo Bospori fluxii. Chali 
donii ipsam insulam appellant BKa^rjVj apto nomine, et pf 
prio experieiiticerei qufe accidere solet. Indeest Potamonian : 
post Potamnnion succedit Nausicliji, apud quani dicunt Clial- 
cedo]iio3 bcUo navaU superasse Eidversarios contra se naW- 
gantes: inde Echtea, Trepi'ppow proniontoriurrij et sinus 
appellntus. Lycadium, satis profundus : illud quidem a. v'u 
Hegarensi, Lycadium, sive Cyul&dion, a quwdani iiidigena. 

" Prope Lj cadium proraontoriunT est Nausimachium, loct 
altera pugna navali iUustris; inde Cicanium nDniinatum 
excessu iimlitiffi inculariim. Seditione enitn viiolenta press 
ex luco exciderutit. A tergo autem Ciconii sunt p&rtii 
'Pot^ovaaL ^Axpat (ex eo nominatee, quod circa ipsas fragunn-" 
tur fluctusj et cursu muriuurante feruntur), partim Disci 
major quidem primusj multo minor secundus; ambo app( 
lati a simiSiitudine fifjuriSB- 

" Pust Discos sequitur portus niagiiitudiue et tranquilUtat 
pulctierritnus et optimus. Ipsius magnitudinem circui 
Bcribit littus profundom et moUe. Supra mare jacet campt 
acclivis in littus. Appellatur autem Chrysopolis, ut quidar 
dicunt, ex en^ quod Persre intperantes in hunc locum cogerent 
auri acervoa exactos al) urbium tributis ; ut vero niulti trv^| 
duiU, a Clirvse, fiHo Chryseitlis et Agamemnonia, ibi niortuo 
et sepultn. In hunc enim locum dicunt Cbrysen fugieiitets^^ 
tnetu j^g'tsthi et Clrtemncstrie perrenisae, cogitantein ^^| 
Tiiuros transire ad sororem Ipbi«;eniam, Sacerdotem initiatam 
Dianie; sed illuni morbo laborantem, hie sepultura afieetum 
fuissC] suoque es nomine loco nomen reliquisse* Posset 
etiam ob porCus eonimoditatera ita appellari, ab iis^ qui mira- 
biba Buro comparare sulent- 

" Post Chrysopolim promontariura maris ictibus expositum 
prominet; multa enim navigatio ad ipsum impulsa contra 
promonturium nominatum Bovem concertat. Est autem is 
locus tanquani e carceribus eniittens trajicientes in Europauni 
Iti hoc prumontorio exislit columna lapidis albi^ in qua extat 
Bo&;f Charetis Imperatoris Atbeniensium conjux, quam hie 
mortuam sepeUvit. Inscriptio autem signiticat sermoi 



DtONVSlUS BYZANTJNUS, 



S5 



v«ritatem : at ilH^ qui vanam reddunt historiaoi, putunt anti- 
qufe Bovis stntuam, aberraiites a veritate. 

"Post locum appellatum Buveni>sequitur fons nominatus 
Hermagora et deLubrum herois Eurosti. Secundum id ex- 
istit Uttus supinum et planum, lenissimo fluvio irrigatum, in 
ipsoque Veneris templum, atque juxt& ip&um parvus isthmus 
maltacn circumsc-ribit Chersonesum, in qua urbs Chalcedon, 
pBulo supra fiuviuiu appeliatum Chalcedonem sita, portus 
Qtrinque habens in flexibus in jslhmum recedentibug j unum 
quidem ad vesperam spectantem, altemm ad Solia ortum ; 
ipsa <iuideni effertur colle quidem buniilior, planitie vero 
asperior, Malta in urbe hac admiratione digna, ob antiqui- 
tat-enij et res gestas, et fnrtunas, ct in utramque partem 
mutationes : maxmie autem adniirabilta, Apullinis templum, 
et oraculum nulla summrirum oraculorum infenus, Verum 
finis e&to meae Bospori Liistorice." 



^ 



ANNOTATIONS. 

Line 1, Tbe account, as we now have it, both in the 
original and in the Latin translation, begins wRh the 
"Bay of Mucaporis, named after a king of Bithynia," 
and identical, as Von Hammer thinks,^ with the modera 
Chunkar Iskelessi* AUtov p'tx^^t eagle's thorn, may 
bare been the name of a low thorny bush, fit for 
makiQg hedges, the form of which was supposed to 
appear in this promontory. Observe the Ionic form 
of both words. 

Line 5. JIaXuSe?, the Latin jjo/wrfe^, 1 find "JTaXoijSt, 
palus, paludis," in the Glossarium Barbaro-Grcecum of 
Umgius. 

Line 15. The woj-d hriT^levfia, adaptation, is indis- 
tinct ; but I think it may safely be assumed. Through- 
out the whole codex there is an utter disregard of the 

* Contlautitiopolds, i. p. 291. 




26 



GEOGRAPHI GR.^CI MINOBES. 



division of words, aod yet they are not joined to- 
gether. 

Line 27. KuxXahiov seems to be a mistake of th< 
transcriber for AvKahov ; but it appears that Gillei 
found it in his copy. 

Line 31). Pierre Gilles has observed, that a clear 
proof of the antiquity and genuinetiesa of the treatise of 
Dionysius is atfbrded by the circumstance that Stepha«f 
Dus Byzanlinus, who wrote about a,d. 500, has quoted 
the passage on the origin of the name XpuaoiroXirt^ 
introducing the quotation with these words : — ^ 

Atovvaios fi* a Bu^iIutiq^ toj* dvuTrXovv tov BofTtropov 
ypcKJifOV Ttept ToiJ ovo^Laros a^rrou T«5e tf>'qtn. ifl 

The subsequent editors ami commentators liave^ 
repeated the observation of Gilles. The quotation i 
begins with KZKXTjTai and ends with *Ayafi('fivQvos', Theif 
only variations are these: — Instead of iropmv [wayft and 
vteatis) Stephaiius has TroXfaji' (cities). Instead of ots ht 
at 7r\€tQVs Xpva-ov, Stephanus has ol fie TrXaoyy utto XpvfTQO. 
From other circumstances it appears that Dionysiua 
wrote in the second century. fl 

Line 53. Here Pierre Gilles has taken the liberty o^ 
translating 'TraWaxiiv {concubine) by conjux. In thi 
epigram upon the marble monument, which the Ath< 
nian general Chares erected to her memory, he cal!( 
her eyvtVis. We find the same mistake in Smith's 
Diet, of Gr. and Roman Biography {i?. Damahs), where] 
Chares and Damalia are represented as husband am 
wife. In the same valuable work {v. Chares), the' 
character of the general is depicted in terras which 
justify the language of Diouysius, The iruXXafcq was 
often a slave, and she was not ^infrequently called by 
a name in the neuter gender, and this may explaiu 



i 



ARRIANI FERIPLUS EUXINI FONTJ. 



27 



I 



* 



why on this monument she is called B0t%Qv {caff), and 
in Codinus and other historians AufiaXiv {heifer), 
Gilles thinks that Codinus copied his account in great 
part from Dionj'sius. 

5. ^Appiavov, «.T.X. This tract immediately follows 
Dionysius Byzantinus. It occupies the remainder of 
the seventh page, the six pages following^ and the top 
of the fourteenth, tt begins, Kara tow BpaKiov Boa-iropov 

KOI TO OTOfia TOV Ev^€lVOV 7T0VT0V tV TOIS Sf^iOH TT}S Auia? 

}i.ip€<nv vTTfpean tov QlBvvojv iOvovs, and it ends, ttj^ 

Afflt(tfTi&>f \ifd,in)9. fa & fit a a. The only manuscript 
of this treatise hitherto known and used, viz. that 
which is at the commencement of the Palatine codex, 
is imperfect at the beginning. See Gronovii Geogr 
Ant p, 133; Bast, Ep, ad Boissonade, pp. 3-34 ; Hud- 
sou, voh i,* 

In Bredow's Epist. Par. pp. 12, 16, in a letter from 
Holstenius to Peiresc, a.d. 1G28, mention is made of a 
Codex Vaticanus, containing the first part of the trea- 
tise, and the writer expresses his '* vehement desire " 
that the whole might be discovered. This treatise is 
the raore remarkable from having been in great part 
originally written, as it appears, in Iambic verses, 
taken from the poem of Scymnus Chius. 

6. Arrian's letter to Trajan fills the remainder of 
the fourteenth page and the three following pages^ and 
is No. 3 in the Palatine MS. (Bast, pp. 35-40). It 



• This Codex Palatinu;, 398, was probably Been at Heidelberg by 
SalmEisiua abouE a, p. 1G08. See Is. Casauboni EpjaColse, No. 518, 
p. 585. ed, GrsP'/ii, p. 307, ed. Almeloveen. 



28 



GBOGRAPHl GR£C1 MLNOKES^ 



was first published by Sigismund Gelenius, together 
with Arrian's Periplus of the ErythrEean Sea, Hanno's 
Periplus, Plutarch de Fluviis, and Strabo's Chresto* 
mathy, all from the same MS., and printed by Frobeij, 
at Basle, 1533. Tbe tille of the volume is in Greek,, 
and is copied by Fabricius, Bibl. Gr. ed. Harles, iv.j 
p. 374, and by Siebenkeea iu his editioa of Strabo, 
Prffif. p. 34. 

7. Arrian's Periplus of tbe Erythreean Sea, si; 
pages^ is published by Gelenius, with the last, fron^ thi 
Palatine MS., which, according to Bast (p. 42), is 
replete with errors. At the end of the tract in th( 
Simonides AIS. the title is repeated as usual, and 
followed by the remark also in red ink, 

^uap6asrai av vpos tnrov^alov avrtypatftov. 

On looking back to No. 4 we find tbe same reraarl 
inserted by the rubricator with the addition of thi 
word wavv before inrov&aioif. The sentence looks liki 
a report or certificate from the rubricator to tht 
abbot {kegmnenos) of the monastery. We learn froi 
Bast (/. c.) thai the very same remark is found in th( 
Palatine MS., at the end both of this tract and 
tbe last. Its meaning seems to be, in each case, thai 
the transcriber had not used a good {airouSalov) oi 
very good {TraPvinrovBalQ*') copy. Can any inference bo] 
drawn from the comparison of tbe Palatine and Si-j 
monides MSS. in this as well as in other respects 
Assuming the Simoiiides MS. to have been writtei 
on Mount Athos, may we not now refer the Palatini 
to the same source ? 

8. Hanno's Periplus begins at the bottom of p. 23, 



ARftlAN. HANNO. 



29 



I 
I 



» 



and occupies rather more than half of p. 24. This 
article, though sometimes called a fragment, is evi- 
dently entire. The title, contained in the table of 
contents (see above), is repeated hefore the document 
itself. It was first published at Basle, by Sigismund 
Geleoius, as above related. No. 6. Numerous editions 
have been copied, witli little variation, after this, the 
Editio Princeps, which is now extremely rare. Bast 
says, that Gelenius published the MS. accurately, with 
one exception, viz, that instead of oprj (j^etna dv6pa}-ira»f 
aypitav he has published p-trd d. d. The next edition, 
ly Johnua. Jacobus MUller, (Argentorati, I (161, 8vo,) 
appears to be an exact copy of the first. The Greek 
text fills nearly two pages. An English translation 
which must have been made from the Editio Princeps, 
exists in manuscript in the British Museum (Cod. Harl. 
6356), and is published in Purchas's * Pilgrims,' 

On comparing the second edition with the Simonides 
MS. I find the following variations : — 

Second Edition, ManvscHpt, 

Title, Kapx^Boviatv Baart- BaffiXetos Kap)(ijBovL<i^v, 



6. 'Eco^ev. 

6. en-X-evcrey. 

1 5. OaXitTTTf KaXovfievas. 

1 G. yVTTtJV. 

33. uTTorTp^-^avTef. 



KVTTTJV. 



37. Sp(<n p^yaKott Sa<r€<nv^ ope<n SojjcV* p^yaKot^. 

38. ytvop.e6a, 

41. els TOVfLTTpOCrOev T)fi€- 
pas TTfl'Tf. 

1. 48. €« TTjtf BaXa-nav. 
L 51. rfKt^arOv tc itvp. 



€yevofie6a. 

eTre'ra. j^/xepar TreiTe e« TOVfj^ 
TrpouBev. 

^Xii^arov irvp. 




30 



QBOQRAFH) GH^Cl HINOKES, 



The critics have proposed certain conjectural emen- 
dations, one oi which only is justified by this manu- 
script, viz. iyijfdfieOa, wlijch wc find, as shown above, 
instead of yiva^effa,. On the contrary, in 1, 58, where 
we find fLcrptatf afiuvofievoi, for which Kluge (ed. Lips 
1829) has substituted ir^Tpots u/iuyo^fVot, as necessai 
to the sense, and Osann has proposed fiernopoir, tin 
conjectural emendations are unsupported by the Ml 
The same is the case in two instances (1. 15 and 1. 25j 
of the occurrence of /caraix^a-afxev^ for which It has bee< 
proposed to substitute Kar^xUa^^v. See Osann ii 
'Zeitschrift fiir Alterthums-wissenschaft,* no. 69, a.i 
1855, p. 549. Also the remark, that something hi 
fallen out of the text before Xperrf? (I. 28), is unsu] 
ported by the manuscript. 

Although it is not my intention to attempt a genen 
illustration of the geography or natural history of thii 
Periplus, I think it desirable to refer to two of tlii 
facts therein contained, on account of the confirmatiol 
given them by the discoveries of recent travellers 
The '* wild men" {avOpbiiroi ayplot), both male am 
female, " covered with hair " {&a<r£tai toIs (ru/iacrci'), &□< 
called "Gorillas" (yajfiWay), appear to have beei 
identical with those now known by the same name, am 
the skins, suspended by Hanno with his tablet in tb< 
enclosure of the temple at Carthage, must have bee 
similar to those now shown in the zoological gallei 
of the British Museum. Kluge, indeed, in his note oi 
the passage, asserts, that Hanno's Gorilla is undoubt- 
edly the same quadruped with the orang-outang, 
but the orang-outang, properly so called, is a ntilii 
of Java and Borneo, and is specifically different froi 
the gorilla^ being nituch smaller. In the second place. 



HANNO. PHILO BVZANTINUS. 



31 



r 



the description of "fiery torrents floAving into the 
sea," of " the ground impassable on account of the 
Heat," and of a '* mountain of immense size, as seen 
by day, and appearing by night to emit fire which 
reached the sky " (I. 48-53), the explanation of which 
has hitherto been variously attempted, as referring 
to the luminosity of the sea, to gleams of lightning, 
or to ilie native practice of setting the long grass 
and the woods on fire, suppositions adopted on the 
assumption that no traces of volcanoes were to be 
found on the western coast of Africa, seems now to be 
fully elucidated by Mr. G. Mann's recent account of 
the Cameroon mountains, opposite the island of Fer- 
nando Po. This gentleman, with his compauionB, suc- 
ceeded in reaching the highest summit of this group, 
which they called Mount Victoria, and on which in 
January, I8G2, ihey planted the British flag. They 
ascertained its height to be about 4 132 metres= 13,553 
English feet ; and they observed around it all the 
usual features of a volcanic country, tracts of ashes, 
craters, fields and streauis of lava, and clefts emitting 
smoke. See Proceedings of the Linnean Society, 
vol. iii. no. 25, a.d. 1863, pp. 1-12. 



9- Philo on tlie Seven Wonders of the World, occu- 
pies the remainder of p. 24 and the whole of p. 25, 
with two lines of p. 26, after which is a vacant space. 
This treatise has been hitherto known only from the 
Palatine MS.^ of which I have already spoken. The 
first edition was published by Leo Allatius, Romse, 
1640 ; the second by Boessius, Lugd. 1661. We have 
it also in the eighth volume of the ' Thesaurus' of Gro- 
novius. Orelli followed with a very eoDiplete edltioa 



Ha 



32 



OfiOGRAFHI OIl£CI MIN0RE5. 



(Lips. 1816). He says (p. v.) that the text, as hitherto- 
edited, was defaced by typographical and other errors^ 
without number. Baat (p. 4'2j makes a similar com- 
plaintt On this account the second MS., now happil; 
brought to hght, has a pecuhar value, although it is t< 
be regretted that it ends, as the editions do, with th< 
words Kal -Treptt tiie remainder of the 6th chapter^ " lh( 
Temple of Diana at Ephesus," and the whole of th( 
7tb, "the Mausoleum,*' being lost. 



10. Chrestomathies, or Extracts from Strabo, fiU 
the remainder of the 26th page. This is the seventl 
article in the Palatiue list, and the last of those in th< 
Simonidea list, which are preserved in the body of Ihi 
MS. It may possess an unusual value, from the cir-< 
cumstance that these Chrestomathies differ much froi 
one another, and have been made by different writeral 
See Fabricii Bibl. Graeca, ed. Harleg, iv, pp. 573-575 ;j 
Strabo, ed. Siebenkees, Prsef. xxxiv.-xxxvi. ; Bredow, 
Epist. Par. pp. 69-104. But I think it probable thai 
this is the same which has been published by Gelenii 
from the Palatine MS., and after him by Hudsoi 
Alraeloveen, Falconer, and others. Bast considerec 
the Palatine MS. aa unique, but Bredow says that h( 
had found part of the same text in another Paris M! 
See Bast, Epist. ad Boissonade, p. 47. 

In conclusion, I have to mention the remarkable! 
circumstance, that instead of the eleven authors whicbl 
follow the Chrestomathy of Strabo in the Simonides 
list, we find a considerable extract from PtoJemy'ai 
Gt'Ography written by the same hand with the pre- 
oedicg P^*"!- °^ *:^^^ volume and accompanied by thre< 



CHEB8T0MATHY. PTOLEMY. 33 

maps. One of these maps is iDtended to represeat 
the world, another the British Isles, and the third 
Portugal. The appearance of all three is very like 
that of the maps in other manuscripts, and even in 
the oldest editions of Ptolemy. The two portions of 
the codex, which I have now described, have evidently 
belonged to two separate volumes ; the shattered leaves 
have been bound together, because they related to the 
same subject and were in the same hand. The extract 
from Ptolemy begins with book vii., IvSl/aja rjjs evrot 
Fayyov, Including the maps, it occupies eight leaves, 
or sixteen pages, and this concludes the volume in its 
present state. 



POSTSCRIPT {ApHl 30, 1864). 

It is probable that this manuscript belonged to the 
monastery of Batopaidi, on Mount Athos. This mo- 
nastery was visited by Professor Carlyle and the Rev. 
Dr. Hunt, in 1801, and the result of their inquiries 
after its library was published in Walpole's ' Memoirs 
relating to European and Asiatic Turkey,' pp. 194- 
202 (compare also, p. 220). Their general account of 
the manuscripts is in the following terms : — ** These 
old tattered volumes were thrown together in the 
greatest confusion, mostly without beginning or end, 
worm-eaten, damaged by mice, and mouldy with 
damp." If so, this may explain why the * Geographi 
Graeci Minores ' and the * Geography' of Ptolemy have 
not come to us in a more perfect condition. The other 
part of Ptolemy's Geography may still be in the same 

VOL. Vlll. D 



34 



FOSTSCaiPT. 



convent. Carlyle and Hunt, having been deputed by 
the Bishops of Durham and Lincoln (Barrington and 
Pretymao-Ton^line) to eicplore the libraries on Mount 
Albos, made catalogues of the Greek manuscripts. Dr. 
Hunt says of those at Batopaidi, " We took an accu- 
rate catalogue, eitamining each mutilated volume se- 
parately and minutely.*' If this catalogue could be 
found, it would probably afford important information 
respecting some of the manuscripts which came into 
the possession of Simonides. 

James Yates. 




TOE inLt: 8rc as Kmrwn to Ptolemy ftjjd tJie AuUic.i of thi^ 




35 






ni.— ON THE KNOWLEDGE THE ANCIENTS POSSESSED 
OF THE SOURCES OF THE NILE.' 



BT W. 8. W. VAUXj M.&., BDH, IRC. S.B.t., 




(Read June 10th, 1863.) 



Thh success wliich Captains Speke and Grant have 
achieved during Iheir recent explorations of tlie pre- 
sumed head-waters of the !Nile, a brief notice of 
vhich has been given by Sir Roderick Murchison in 
bis Annua! Address to the Geographical Society for the 
present year, has led me to think it might not be unin- 
teresting to this Society if I were to lay lielore it, as 
brietly as I can, the principal facts which would seem 
to have been known to the Ancient World with refe- 
rence to the Upper Nile» /Etbiopi^i, and the sources 
qf this great river. In doing &o, I propo&e to confine 
what I have to say, as far as I possibly can, to the 
Nils southward of the Cataracts, as anything like a 

' portly after thia paper wu rcBcl, I received a copy of the &d- 
mirabJe memair bv M. YivieD St. Martin im the whole of the ancient 
geography of Africa. I at once rend it through carefiillv, and have 
learnt with much es^tisfflction thai, though Diuch more full than my 
paper^ It confiriDfit in uD essentia] particulars, the views 1 have prO' 
posed in the following notice, I have al^o referred in several in- 
tt&nces to the " Journal" of the expedition under Captiiins Speke 
and Grunt, which was alea published after this Fuper was read. — ■ 
W. S. W. V. 

D 2 




THE Kl^OWLEDGfi OF THE ANCIENTS 

detailed history of this river would be out of place here, 
indeed, has been treated so fully already in numerous 
accessible works, that it would be a waste of time to 
go over it again. I shall therefore simply follow the 
course of ancient classical history from century to cen- 
tury, with some notice at the conclusion of my paper 
of the principal results of the recent discoveries of 
modern travellers. By these means I shall hope to befl 
able to bring before you a consistent view of the geo- 
graphy of the head-waters of the Nile, such as it was 
known during the many ages which preceded the 
awakening up of modern interest in the investigation 
of the sources of this river. ^| 

The earliest reference to the Nile in classical writers 
is in jEschyl. Prom. Vinct. v. 807 (about b.c. 490), 
who states — 

Ti)Xftvpov Si yjjv 
iJtEt^ KtXaivov <^ijAov, oi irpot ijAiOu 
vawva^^■ Tnjyavi, aSa jroTOpjs AlOioij/. 
toJtou "Trap oj^a% tp^ , cws av eft'jcjj 
KOra^afTfJiov , €v6a Bu^AiVuiv opuiv aTFO 
n^t u'virrov Ne^Xos ciVorov peos, 
o{n-o? c o&iiH'ci T^v rpiyittvov es )(B6va- 
NciXiIrTiV, at} S^ rijv fioxpiof airoutiav 
1o2, Tftvputrat (rot rt Koi t(kvchk icrta-at-^ 

a passage in which Prometheus indicates to the fugi* 
tive lo the course she will have to pursue in order toA 

^ It IB not necessary that I should introduce here a critical dit- 
cueaion of various pointa suggested by these linea. It lb enoug-h 
if I cnll attention to the fact thiit in this, the earliest document we 
can quote with reference to the Nile, it is called jpoti^aos Ai&i'oi/', that 
on followicig its Btream the traveller arrives at what the poet calla 
xaTa^aiTfiov, that its water is described Bs evfroro;, a deecription 
fetUl remarkably true, and that, at its embouchure, we find t^ 
Tpi'yuvot- x^uKa NclXwtU', which is evidently the Delta. 



OF THB SOURCES OP THE NtLB. 



37 



reach the banks of the Nile. The second is in a frag* 
^ menl of ' Prometheus Solutua,' preserved by Strabo, 
■ i. p. 33 :— 

^^^^^H yipXnoxipavyov tc Trap' 'Otccai^ 

^^^^^1 XipkVtLV TrO.V7VtftQ^0V k^tOTTiaV, 

^^^^^^P )tpStT iWilvaTov KafiaroV ff nrttAiil' 

^^^^^T fUi\aKOv TTpo^oali avamivti. 

Both passages afe very instructive ; for, in the 6rst, the 

ttiOKpa airoiKia cati hardly tefer to anything else but that 
made by the lonians in the time of Psammetichus,^ 200 
years before ^schylus wrote j while the Kara^atrfiof pro- 
bably alludes to the cataract of Syene, though it is not 
possible to determine satisfactorily what the poet may 
have meant by the opj) Bv0Ktva. The phrase of troTafios 
Al0wrlr for iVftXoj, conveys the notion that the poet 
deemed the river to belong to those strange people, 
the i£thiopians, whose homes were far beyond the 
confines of Upper Egypt ; a race of whom we have so 
many coDtiicting notices among the enrher writers of 
classical antitjuity. In the second, we find the re- 

Imarkable words \ifivav tratno-rpo^v A\&io-naiv,^ in whicb, 
' This colony wouM seem lo have been made about b.c. 660 (cf. 
Herod, ii. 154). It is probably owing' to these coloniftte (iome Df 
•hom may ultimjitely hare found their way back to Greece) that the 
Iptrian GreelLK obliained their first definite notions with regurd to the 
f'p[»r Nile. The meatiing of Karaj^arrfio'v has been much diotusaed, 
"iii if, aa Is probable, the ferin reallv refers to the eataraet of 
, *]feiie, we are preptired f«r any amount of exng-geration when we 
H W in mind the well-kno-wn passage of Cicero, " Nilua ad ilia, 
^ ?<iv Catattupa nominantur, prEecipitaLex altissimis montihua'" (Somn. 

L'^wipioma). Cf. also Seaeca, QusbBt. Nat. iv. c. 1, 
* tt seems worth while to mention in a note the principal facta 



38 



THE KNOWLEDGE OF THB ANCIENTS 



besides the reference to the above-noticed jEthi< ^ 
we meet witli the earlk'st allusion to the *' marshes 
of the Nile,"— the existence of which, though often 
stated, as we shall see hereafter, in ancient writer3,fl| 
has only heen absolutely verified by the researches of* 
the last twenty-five years. The thirds and most im* 
portant passage is of the same date, in a fragment of 
the *^thiopifi,' a lost play of ^schylus (Fragm. 
ed. Didot), as follows : — 

ywo? fihf alvtiv iKfxa6i/v h-itrrafiai 

yavcy<i tojKtv&tL mnfta.Tait/ i-!roft.^pia 
Iv o' ijAcos TTvpoiwo^ fKKafiT^ai ^dovl 



recorded of this remarknhle people. The name occurs first in He 
(lLi4-23,sxiii.2nS; Odyen. i. 23-24), and rerer&either to .^-^ihiopia, 
pmp?rly eo called, — (he district south of lilgvpt. and beCwfcn it and 
Atlyf'EijKR, — or to the provinces near the month of the EuphmleF, 
known g-enerallv by the name of Kufih. Herodotus wbif the first 
writer to Jifford 13 nv details re^ati^'e to thi? countrv, whicb, for the rno<|^H 
part, belongs to the district soutb of Meroe. Besides Meroe he meo^^ 
lionfi however only one town, Nyaa, which he connects with a legend 
of the l)irlhaf Dionyeiie, or Bacchus. Ariatolle (m his ' Mtteorologicd.' 
i. c, 13, ed. DJdot) add* that two greht river?, the .Egon and Nv'iij 
60W down from the i^^thiopian mountaina. Most of the Diirralive 
Herodotus refer* to the story of the Automoli of PeammetichuB, tiT 
speaking of whom ErRto»ihenes renmrks that tbev were called Senn- 
brilK (iJl-rab. »vii. p. 786) t while Artemidorus of Ephesus calls them 
Scbritee (Strab. xv). p, 770)kand adds, that, not far from the i^'luod 
of Meroe, there is another Ulfind hI?o occupied bv ihe snme Auto- 
moli. probably nenr the present Senntinr. Plinv, quoting Bion and 
Ariptocreoii, gives some additi-mal particulars about this country 
of the Sembritx, or, as he writes the name, Semberricee. Bioa 
calls the capital of the Sembcrritir. Sembolitia ; Aristocreon^ Esar, 
a name we aUo find in Ptolemy, and prubabtv the same aa Sape, 
the modern Sobah. Pliny mentions, from the same authDrlties. as 
we shall tee presently, the names of a great number of other plecei. 



rn I 



J 



OF TBE SOURCES OP TUB NILB. 



I 
I 

I 



Atyiraro! ayyov voftarfK v\t}pov/j.€frj 
^ifpia-^uw A^/jL-rjrT^f diTcAA^t inix^v. 

In this passage, the true origin of the inundation of 
the Nile—namely, the melting of the snows under the 
inj]uence of the tropical sun of Ethiopia — Is clearly 
referred to ; a fact which, like that of the Nile marshes, 
had never been, till quite recently,'' established as a 
certainty, thouijh often conjectured by the more far- 
seeiog of ancient geographers. It seems to he a cer- 
tain coDclusiou from these passage*, that the Egyptians, 
frum whom .^schylus must have borrowed his state- 
ments, either directly or through the agency of Ionian 
Greeks, as suggested above, had already acquired a 
knowledge of the Upper Nile which the philosophers 
of Europe did not possess till more than a quarter of 
the present century had passed away. 

The next author of importance we come to Is He- 
rodotus (about B.C. 44H)^ whose life was nearly con- 
temporary with that of jEschylus, but whose history 
was probably not completed till after the poet's death. 
Of Herodotus we know that he visited Egypt himself 
about B.C. 448. and that he went up the river as far as 
Elephantine (Herod, ii. 3, 29). He tells us that none 
of those whom he met with during his journey pre- 
tended to any knowledge of the sources of the Nile, 
with the exception of the scril>e who kept the register 
of the sacred treasures of Minerva in the city of Sais 
(ii. 28}, who asserted that midway between two hills, 

* I have wed ths words "quite recently" advisedlv, without, 
however, intending to ignore certain indications preserved To ua by 
tome of tiie mediiflev&L maps, quoted by Lelewel and other geogra- 
]ibic*l writer*- 




THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANCIENTS 



called Crophi and Mophi, as you ascend from Syene 
to Elephantine, "are the fountains of the Nile, foun- 
tains which it is impossible to fathom. Half the water 
runa northward to Egypt, and the other half south- 
ward towards jEthlopia." Herodotus adds that his 
narrator did not seem very certain of his statement, 
though he averred that Psammetlchus had himself 
tested the unfathomableness of this fountain. It is cu- 
rious that the tradition of the existence of such a gulf 
has been preserved in much later authors ; thus, Ta- 
citus, in his notice of the expedition of Germanicus 
during the reign of Tiberius, declares that the Roman 
general was taken to see it (Annal. ii. 61) ; while Se- 
neca appears to have thought that the true Nile did not 
commence till the island of Philae (Quaest. Natur. \v. 2]. 
The fact is, Herodotus himself exhibits much better 
judgment than any of the persons he questioned ; for, 
besides bis doubt of the veracity or knowledge of the 
Saite scribe, he distinctly speaks of its being a jour- 
ney of 1 12 days (nearly four months) from Elephantine 
up the river to the place where the deserters from 
Psamraetichus {avro^Xot) dwelt^ (ii, 31). Beyond this 

^ Herod, ii, 29-31, gives a sketch of the joarner upwards from 
Elephnntine to Meroe. 

1, Four days* tracking, owing to the force of the atream. 

2, TweWe ir)(oivoi of nnvi^tioD, the river being a? lortaciiiiB 04 the 
Mxaiider. 

3, A plain and the istand of Tachompsi^]'. 
4' A grettt lake itito u-hich the Nile falU, 

5. Forty days' journey along ite banks. 

6. Tnelve d^ys' ubvigation to Meroe^ tho metropolU of the -<i^thi- 
opians. 

Ill PloK iv. p. 2E^0 (ed. Wrlberg)* we find mentioa of a place 
callfd Dodecafich<Ehus^a name wtiich mav hnve been handed down 
by tradition, ll 'hi probable that an island ouw called Derur repre- 



OF TUB SOURCES OF THE NILE- 



41 



» 



point, Heroclotua does not seem to have acquired any 
inrormation about the Nile, except the curious state- 
ment that, beyond the country of the deserters, the 
river flows from west to east, no one, however, hav- 
ing any knowledge of its further course, the country 
being uninhabited, owing to its excesisive heat [ii, 31). 
A note in Professor Rawlinson's Herodotus (ii. p, 44) 
suggests the probability that the country of the Auto- 
moli is coincident with Abyssinia, in which case the 
river which fliiws from west to east would be the Bahr- 
eUAbiad or White Nile, or, what is perlmps the more 
tikely, a great trihutary of the White Nile» the Bahr-aU 
Ghazal or Keilak, which falls into it from the west in N. 
lat. 9^ In confirmation of his view of the easterly course 
of the Nilo, Herodotus then proceeds to tell (on the 
authority of certain peojile of Cyrene) the story of the 
five Nasaraones (as SirGiirdner Wilkinson conjectures, 
A^flAsi-^man^negroes of Ammonitis, or Northern 
Libya), and their statement to Etearchus, the king of 
the Ammonii, that after travelling a long distance, ap- 
parently to the south, they fell in with a race of very 
6m<tll black men, who carried them to a city situ- 
ated on the banks of a great river running from west 
to east and full of crocodiles, which river Etearchus 



» 



seats Tachompso ; while Meroe is generally held to be the iSame ub 
Napata (in the Hieroglyphics called Nepet). Herodotua adds, that 
from Mcroc to the place where these ai'/ro/ioAfii were settled is 
■nother journey of two months; the some period which it took to 
gD from Ekphnntine to Meroe. Hence it has bFen supposed bv 
He«ren (v. lot) atid by Lepsiua (Lettre a. M.. Boeckh, in the Nouv. 
Annal. de» Voyag. iii. p. SdO), that the Meroe of Herodotus and of 
Ptolemy are really different plflces, and that the true Meroe was 
tnuch nearer to Egypt than other statements would naturally have 
determined. , 





conjectured to be the Nile (n. 32, 33), This opiaion 
of Eteai'chus Herodotus adopts, and contirms by a 
fanciful analogy between the course of the Istrus, or 
Danube (as supposed by him and also by Aristotle, 
Meteor, c. xiiiO, and this presumed cijurseof the Nile. 

With our present belter kuQwledi;e of the geogra- 
phy of Africa, we may be sure tliat it was nut any 
portion of the Nile which these travellers reached. 
Their whole course was evidently to the W. and 
S W.; and, if tliey did reach any river at all, it is more 
probable that they came upon some portion of the 
upper waters of ibe Niger. Herodotus describes, 
however, with singular accuracy, the present physical 
character of this northern part of Africa, and the 
euccesibive belts or zones of country through which 
these Nasamones passed, viz, first through an inha- 
bited district, then through a region full of wild ani- 
nialSi then throu^^h a perfect desert, till at length they 
reached a land full of trees and niarshes, and, ulti- 
mately, the banks of a great river. This is precisely 
the nature of the country through which all modern 
travellers have passed on their way to the Great Sah- 
ra.' It is most likely that these ISasamones started 
from somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Great 
Syrtis ; that they reached the desert at or near Glia- 
danies ; and that their suhpequent course was to the 
S. and W. of the great central chain of the Atlas, 

We know from Pliny (v. 10) that crocodiles were 

' The mu'lern Arabs m«ke a similiir division of the country which 
it 19 neccssRrv lo cross iti poinff southwards from the Syrtis. 1. The 
Sahel. or coast-land. 2. Beliitl al J^rid, the dale country. 3. Sahra^ 
or destrt. Cf. Berhrugger, Voy. dans le Sud de I'Ali^'^rie, ap. vol, 
U. de I Explor. Scienl. de \'A\g€rk, 1846. Cf. alsQ \V. H. Hodg- 
mi'k Travel*. 



I 
I 



OP THE SOURCES OF THE NILE. 



43 



I 



^ 



found during the reign of Juba in the lakes south of the 
Atlas; and, long before the lime of Juba, there was a 
prevalent tradition that one source at least of the 
Nile was to the N,W., at the foot of Atlas, a belief 
which Herodotus hiinseir supported in his statement 
that the Nile flowed out of Libya, dividing it in the 
middle, with a course (as we have stated) resembling that 
of the Istrus (ii. 33). It is remarkable that the story 
of the Libyan origin of the Nile has held its ground 
even to the present day among some of the native 
populations of Central Africa ; for, as is well known, 
Messrs, Denhiinii and Clapperlon ('Travels and Disco- 
veries in Northern Central Alrica,' li. p. 371) have 
published a map of Soudan drawn for them by the 
Sultan of Bello, in which the Joliba, or river of Tim- 
buktu, under the very name of Nile, is represented 
as flowing across Africa, till it joins the Egyptian river. 
The same notion, too, was put forth, in the fourteenth 
century, by Ibn liatuta, who made the river of Tim- 
buktu flow down to Dongota and Egypt. We may 
therelbre, [ think, fairly conclude that Herodotus ga- 
thered from the travelling merchants he would surely 
have met in Egypt some of the prevailing legends 
which referred t» the n^ore distant course of the Nile. 
There is one other passage in cnunection with this 
portion of my subject to which I must call attention, 
viz. the statement in the ' Meteorologita' of Aristotle 
(i. 13), that buth the river Chrernetes {most likely the 
Chretes of Hanno's Penplus, ap. Geog. Gra^c Minor., 
whose outlet was in the Atlantic) and the ninin slream 
of the Nile (toO NeiXov to ptO^a to irpiliTov) flowed down 
from the Silver Mountain (e* tov 'Apyvpov xakovfiitxtv 
Spovt), this Silver Mountain being, no doubt, a range 




44 



THB KNOWLEDGE OK THE ANCIENTS 



covered with perpetual snow, and not, as Livingstone 
has suggested, of micaceous Ihuestone. Tliis passage, 
like those quoted above, points to a similar early tra- 
dition of a connection between the Nile and the Niger ; 
and Dr.Beke has some 3 ears since suggested, with much 
reason, that this idea may have arisen from a know- 
ledge of the exi&tence of the preat western affluent of 
the White Nile, the Keildk or Bahr-al-Ghazal — which» 
as 1 have already remarked, probably represents the 
western arm of the Nile of Herodotus (Edinb. New 
Philos.Journ. xlv, p.247, 1848). Be this as it may, it 
is a very curious f;ict that such a tradition should have 
reached Aristotle so early as the fourth century e.c. ; 
that it should be found in the works of the mediaeval 
Arab geographers, Masudi and Edrisi ; and, still more 
so, that it should not even now be wholly forgotten 
(see a letter addressed to the traveller Ali Bey, in Voy. 
en Afrique et en Asie, i. G9. Paris, 1814.) 

From the time of Herodotus we hear no more of 
the Nile till we come to Eratosthenes, B.C. 240, who, 
of all ancient geographers, has shown most skill in 
working out the results of the various expeditions un- 
dertaken after the settlement of the Ptolemies in Egypt 
towards the close of the century preceding the one in 
which he lived himself. All these explorations, so 
far, at least, as we know of them, had for their object 
the examination of the countries beyond Upper Egypt 
or along the shores of the Red Sea. Thus, the one sent 
out by Ptolemy Philadelphus, who ascended the Egyp- 
tian throne in s.c. 285, for the first time entered 
Ethiopia, properly so called (Diod. i. 37), and proha- 
bly formed the basis of the sketch given by Era- 
tosthenes, and preserved for us by Strabo. It is in- 



I 



OP THK SOURCES OF THE NILE. 



45 



* 



teresting to know that modern travellers have, in great 
measure, conrirmed the essential particuhirs ot Litis 
narrative, and especially oi that portion of it which re- 
fers to the course of the Nile. After stating some facts 
which agree with the character of the river between 
Syene and Meroe, though the several distances given 
are cleorly erroneous, Eratosthenes proceeds to stale 
that "the Nile receives two rivers which flow down 
from certain lakes to the E.» and surround the great 
island of Meroe. One. named the Astaboras, bounds 
the eastern side ; the other is called the Astapus. 
Some say that the true name of this last river is the 
Astasoha, and that the Astapus is the stream which, 
flowing from certain lakes situated to the S., becomes 
the principal branch of the Nile ; and further, that it 
is the summer rains thtit cause its inundation," 

There can be no doubt that the Astaboras is the pre- 
sent Athara, Takazze^ or Brikr-al-Js/cad — the Black 
River (for it appears to bear each of these titles at 
different portions of its course), which joins the main 
river at Al-Damer in lat. 17° N. ; while the Astapus, 
which bathes the western side of the so-called island 
of Meroe, is clearly the more southern and eastern 
branch of the Nile, now called the Bahral-Asrek, 
the Ahai, or Blue Nile. The statement that the As- 
tapus in the above passage is also called the Astasoba, 
may he explained by the fact, that, near the junction 
of it and the Nile, was situated a city called Soba (now 
Khartum), extensive ruins of which are still to be seen, 
ll naturally suggests itself to the mitid that Asia, a 
portion of each of these oames, may have a local signi- 
fication, referring probably to the river ; but whether 
or QOt such a wnrd can be detected in any of existing 



46 



TMB KNOWLEtJGE OP THB ANCIENTS 



vocabalaries, I am not aware. I may observe that 
the position ot'the island of Meroe between theAtbara 
on the E. and the Blue Nile on the S.^ is well defined. 
In addition to, and in coTinection with the above, l^| 
may add, thatStrabo (ii. p. 77) mentions another writcr^^ 
named Philon, who gave an account of iElhiopia, with 
certain astronomical observations which Hipparchus 
made use of a century later ; and that these observa- 
tions are found to be more correct than those from 
which Pliny calculated the latitude of iMeroe and which 
were probably made during the reiga of Nero (H. N. 
vi. 35). 

Following the stream of history, we meet with no- 
thing new respecting the Nile for sevetii! centuries ; 
the effect of the Roman overthrow of Carthaije and 
the gradual acquisition of a great part of Northern 
Africa having been, indeed, to extend the knowledge 
of the countries west of Egypt, but to do little for 
Egypt itself or ^Ethiopia. Thus Strabo (a.d. 19-25) 
takes the Nile for the eastern boundary of his Africa ;^j 
so that, in point of fact, Africa, in bis estimation, waa^^ 
little more than the Mediterranean coast from the 
Delta to the Columns of Hercules. For all Upper 
Egypt he simply repeats what was known in the time 
of the Ptolemies and has been recorded by Eratos- 
thenes; describing, however, at some length the expe- 
dition of Petronius against Pselcis and Napata (b,c. 25 
or '24) , (xvii. p. 820). But though he gives but few 
details of Petronius's march, he adds, what he must 
have learnt from it, the definite statement that, whereas 
the ancients only knew by conjecture, the moderns 
have actualty ascertained by going to the places, that 
the inundations of the Nile are due to the summer 



I 



• 



I 



OF THE SOURCES OF THE NILE. 



47 



I 



• 



rains which fall abundantly in Upper ^-Ethiopia and in 
the most distant mountains — 01 ^ei/ ovv »px^**'* aroj^a' 
trpt^ TO fl-Xeov, ot S verrepav avToirrat yei/rfSetnet rfoBovto inro 
oii.$pfov ffffiivUfv irXijpov^fVQV TOff NetXov, t?Js Ai&iayirtas T75 
ai'oj KKvt^Q(iiVT}9, KOI, fiiiXta-Ta iv toi» fo-^tiTOif opftrt, iravcra- 
jtevan' St Twr Ofi^pfon ■navofL£in}v xar oKiyov ttjc TrktififLvpiBa 
(xvii, p. 7S9). 

Our next authority is Pomponius Mela (a.d. 40), 
who would seem to have been desirous ol" giving a 
tolerably systematic account of the geography of 
Africa. There can be no doubt that to him we 
owe many new and interesting details, though, like 
Strabo, he considered Africa as in form a rightani^led 
triansle, with the Nile for its base; and though he 
has interlarded his history with a more than usual 
number of legendary stories, and with many amplifi- 
cations of the more sober narratives of the earlier 
writers. With regard to the Nile, he has borrowed 
much from the Alexandrian writersj giving at the same 
time prominence to the curious theory that the Atlan- 
tic south of the Equator was prolonged till it met the 
Erythraean Sea, and that the Nile reached Ethiopia, 
after passing under the Ocean by means of subterranean 
canals, from a zone whose winter corresponded with 
the summer of the North. In this manner he attempts 
to account for the unusual period of the Nile-floods. 

With Pliny (a.d. 70) we begin to obtain more ex- 
tensive and fuller details, which rest mainly on the fa- 
mous expedition of Petronius (b.c. 23 or 24), and on 
that sent out by order of Nero to ascertain, if possible, 
the sources of the Nile. Petronius, Pliny tells us, 
penetrated southwards 970 miles beyond Syene (vi, 
3d), and took Napata, the royal residence of the kings 




48 



THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANCIENTS 



of Ethiopia, and several other towns. There ( 
no doubt, owing to abundant recent researches, that 
this place was at the foot of what is now called Mount 
Barkal, the hieroglyph ical inscriptions also, found^^ 
there, giving Nepet as the name of the city. It was^^ 
probably at this place that, as Lepsius has concluded, 
was situate the Murtloui, or Meroe, of Herodotus, lliej 
upper Meroe (a short distance beyond the confluence! 
of the Nile and the Albara) not having become thej 
capital till after the overthrow of the elder city. It! 
must also be borne in mind that, as Petronius marched 
970 miles from Syene, he must have gone, if theso-i 
numbers are correct, move than 300 miles beyond Na-I 
pata, which is distant from it only about 661, and that 
these additional 300 miles would bring him as nearly 
»s possible to the upper and more recent Meroe, It 
would seem that it was to this place that Candace, Ihi 
queen, had retreated, and that from it she sent hei 
messengers to the Roman general to treat for peace,, 
as stated by Strabo. 

The expedition to the Upper Nile by order of Nero is 
even more valuable for its details. Of this we have tw( 
accounts, in Pliny and Seneca respectively, each appa- 
rently derived from the lips of the two centurions who 
were sent in charge of the expedition, but varying the 
one from the other in such a manner that one stoi 
may be considered the complement of the other. Thuj 
Pliay chiefly contents himself with an admiration of 
the accuracy with which the explorers have recorded 
their distances between Syene and Meroe, togetbei 
with their account of the island itself; while Seneca, 
on the other hand, who had been Nero's tutor, and who- 
happened at the time to be studying the sources of the-l 



he^i 
irylfl 

lUS^I 



OK THE SOURCES OF THE MILE. 



49 



I 



k 



Nile, limits the information derived by him from these 
officers to such points as seemed to him to have a 
direct bearing on the state of the Nile above Meroe. 
To Seneca we owe the statement of the centurions 
that they made a long journey with the assistance of 
the king of iifiLliiopia, and wilh leltet-s from him to 
the Cfighbouring princes, and that, at the end of this 
journey, they arrived at immense marshes, in which 
fluviatile plants were so interlaced that it was not pos- 
sible to cross them, except in a boat so small as to 
carry only one person, and that, at this point, they 
came to two great rocks, over which a great river was 
tailing. It is of the highest interest to know, as we 
$hal! see hereafter, that the narrative of these centu- 
rions has been iti great measure confirmed by the ex- 
ploring parties sent up the river by Muhammad Ali 
between 1839 and 1842, who, after leaving Khartum, 
near the junction of the Blue and White Nile in lat. 
IS"* 30' N., followed the course of the White Nik- for 
seventeen days, first through a steppe country inha- 
bited by Arab tribes, then through a wooded countiy 
occupied but scantily by negro races, till at length 
they came to a marsh region remarkably resembling 
that described by Nero's officers. [Selim Bimbaschi, 
ap. Bull, de la Soc. Geogr. xviii. p. 84.) 

The river was found to be nearly blocked up by gi- 
^ntic reeds, the water itself was black with decom- 
posed vegetable matter. Crocodiles and hippopotami 
abounded ; and hosts of insects hovered over a plain 
reeking with pestilential vapours. This district com- 
mences at Sobat, lat.O° N,, and its character is shown 
roost markedly around a swampy lake through which 
the Bahr-al-Ghazal flows before it falls into the White 

VOL. VIII- . a 



m 



THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANCIENTS 



Nile; and it appears to extend through about i^'* of lali-" 
tude. We may gather IVotii this exploraUoQ tliat the 
centurions of Nero must have ascended nearly as far aqfl 
lat. 9° N., or about 800 Roman miles above Meroe, 
and we can understand that from this circumstance 
they were well able to give a far fuller account of 
jEthiopia than any traveller wlio had preceded them ^ 
it is equally clear that the river they ascended was the 
White Nile, which flows from the S.W., and not the 
Blue Nile, a fact entirely conflnuing of the ori^iual^ 
staten:)ent of Herodotus. | 

Pliny adds to the story that the centurions brought 
back with them what he calls " forma ^thiopi^" (xU,^ 
c. 8) ; probably a map or plan of the country, which 
must have exhibited much care, since we find the dia-^ 
tances they report from place to place coincide vei 
nearly with the results given by modern travellers 
Pliny also notices the return of verdure, after miles' 
of arid sands, in the neighbourhood of Meroe, and the 
occurrence of fresh grass and vvood (herbas circa Me-^ 
roen demum viridiores silvarumque aliquid apparujss 
vi, 30, 35), the natural result of the annual rains ii 
the highlands of ^Ethiopia, the limit of which rainfal 
appears to be about lat. 18° or 19° N. 

We owe to the lloman naturalist a list of nam* 
of places in Upper jEthlopiaj some of which maj 
still be identified. They are as follows :— Adabult, 
Megabarri (or Adiabarse), Macrobii, Memnones, Dabeli, 
Criteusi, Dochi, Gymnetes, AnderBe, Mathitse, Mes: 
gfbeSj Hipporeae, Medinmi, Olabi, SyrbotiE. Of' these 
the Megabari (noticed alr-o by Eratosthenes) are possL 
bly the Mekarebah ; and the Dabeli, the Debdailefi: oi 
the other hand, the Macrobii (iilso noted by Herodotus] 



OF THE SOUaCES OF THE NILE. 



51 



» 



I 



and Gymnetes are rather descriptive of the habits of 
the people than proper names ia the strict meaning of 
this terra. Some, too^ of the names will be touud to 
differ considerably in the different editions of Pliny, 
or to occur in forms slightly modified in other authors ; 
as, for instance, the Ander^e of Plitiy, who are probably 
the same as theinbabitanta of the Endera of Arle- 
midorus (Strab. xvi. p. 771). In the famous inscrip- 
tion from Adulis (Cosraas, ap, Montfaucon ColL Nov. 
Patrum i. p. 142} occurs a people called MerLvi^ who 
perhaps may he identified with the Medimni, In the 
same way the Hipporese may be the present Hafara 
(Antoine D'Abbadie, Bull, de la Soc. G^ogr. xiv. p. 
115), while the Matbitic much resemble the Matrnrai. 
of Ptolemy (iv. 7). 

Pliny adds a curious statement with reference to the 
great stature of the tribe of Syrbotae, which he makes 
no less than eight cubits ; an altitude, doubtless, grossly 
exaggerated, yet in some degree contirmed by the 
uniform reports of recent travellers on the remarkable 
height of the people of the far South ; six feet and a 
half being common, and seven feet even not unknown. 
This fact has been specially noticed in the case of the 
tribe of the ElUab (on. Speke's map^ Aliab), perhaps 
the OUbi of Pliny (see Werne, ' Expedition zur Ent- 
deckung der Quellen des Weissen Nil,' pp. 2C6, *292, 

Many more identifications will probably be made 
when we have before us the detailed results of Captain 
Speke's remarkable journey*^ I may add that a letter 

* It is with tbe sincerest rejp'ct that I have to state that this 
natural hope is in uo viay satisfied by tbe work Captaia Speke has 
just pabliahcd as 'The JoUfn&J of the DJEOPvery vX the Nile,' which 

E 2 





nun-uoii^?i in tiie Bull, de la ^oc. ueogr. (iv. 
41 1, 185:2) speaks of a tribe called the Poloudjg, appa- 
rently almost as far south as the Line, a name much 
resembling the Paluogges of PMn y ; and that the ^' ouba 
of Kordofau would seem as certainly to be the pre-tfl 
sent representatives of the great tribe of the Nubei. 
In conclusion, Pliny nancies five travellers who had left 
accounts of Ethiopia; among others, one Simonides, 
who had described his stay at Meroe for five years 
and Daliou and Aristocreon, who had ascended th^ 
river beyond Meroe. 

The next documents to which I must call your atten- 
tion, though briefly, are the famous ' Periplus of thi 
Erythraean Sea,' and the notes of Marinus of Tyre, pre- 

is smg'iiIorK* barren in such Dotices as the student of geogrRph] 
would most desire, and, considering the Bubject it Irents on, far lei 
interesting than anv other record we posEess of African reseiarcl 
Had Captain Speke been pleased to have nmitted some of the in* 
terminable disputes about the liongo, or present he wns expectec 
to give to each petty chieftain, or llirown Buch details (if worthy 
being' preserved at all) into no appendix, his book would have beei 
less wearying- to the reader, if not more usefuK Had he added soi 
scientiSc details relative to the tribes he pnsfed throjgh, or somi 
notes on the cliarscter of tbe different languages with which 
came in contactj (»uch as we meet with in the admirable memoir 
his former CDmrade, Burton, " Oci the Lake Kegions of Centi 
Equatorial Africa.') hia book would have possessed a va\as hie 
friends cannot claim for it. Aa it h, we lay It down with a [nixedj 
feeling: of fatigue, diss&tl&faL'tiDn, and dis'Sppo'ntinc-iiC, ng>;^ra(^atedai 
doubtleB&, by an uncertuinty we cannot wholly ehuke off. that, afterj 
bV\. other and still more remote sonrw* of the Nile may exist, thougl 
that from the Nvanza Lake may po»»ibly exhibit the greatest bod] 
of water. I sm bound to add> as I sball show presenilv, that ni 
confidence whatever can be placed in Captain Speke'e views at p. 2fi4] 
of bis " Journal," with reference to " the Mountains of the Moon," 
which he places, on bis map, in a semicircle, round Che Lake Rusizi.! 



OF THE SOURCES OF TUB NILE. 



53 



» 



served by Ptolemy, though it is true that these refer 
only incidentally to the central part of Ethiopia, or 
to the Upper Nile, They have, however, this positive 
value, that from them we get ourtirst clearideasof the 
lower portion of the Red Sea, and of the east coast of 
Africa as far south a* Zanzibar: in fact, from these 
two anlhoritjes we can trace ancient voyages to the 
very place from which Burton and Speke, seven years 
since, and most recently Speke and Grant, started with 
the object of completing by actual survey the history 
of the sources of the Nile Thus we learn that below 
Adulis the whole country to the Prom. Aromatum (Cape 
Gunrdafui, Arab. Jard-al-Hafun) bore the generic 
name of &ap&apt/crt ipretpos {Pev\p\.S-\2) i many of the 
tribes recorded as then living there being still trace- 
able upon the same spot after ISOfl years. Thus the 
Avalites of the ' Periplus,' the Avalitae of Ptolemy, are 
recognizable as the Hahr-Audl ; while, m all probability, 
even the name Barbarica fregio) is connected with the 
fact that a Berber race, like the present Gallas (who 
are so, unquestionably), then occupied that country. 
The very name Berberah, indeed, still exists as that of 
a port on the east side of the Gulf of Habr-Auai. 

The Prom. Aromatum had been, the limit of the 
geographical knowledge of Agalharcides and Arte- 
niidoriis, as quoted by Strabo, nay, even of Pliny and 
Mela. The 'Periplus' extends our knowledge along 
the E. coast of Africa beyond the Straits of Bab-aU 
Mandeb, for a journey of twenty six days, in the ac- 
count of which we meet with a number of details of 
great interest. The first principal station noticed is 
Opone (Haliln) ; then comes the district of Azania, in 
the ' Periplus' contined to the coast* but in Ptolemy 




54 



THE KNOWLEDGB OP THE ANCIENTS 



extended far inland (the Homin or Al-Khasain ol 
D'Ahbadie^s list, Bull, de la Soc. de G^ogr. xi. p. 339) ; 
a name not improbably connected with the Arabic title 
^injf the Zlyyiov of Cosmas Indicopieustes (Top. Christ^^ 
ap. Montfaucon, vol. ii. p. 139), and perhaps repre- 
sented in Ptolemy by the Promontorj' Zingis (vf, ^^r^ 
It has been suggested that from this Zinj we get thc^^ 
two more modern and modi6ed forms Zanguehar and 
Zanzibar (Quatremere, M('m. Geogr. sur I'^Egypte, 
etc., ii. p. 181, and Ibn Haiikal, wherein Zinghar oc- 
curs).^ The islahd of Menuthias, two days only short 
of Rhapta, the limit of the commercial voyages froia^ 
which the account of the ' PeHplus ' is condensed, may 
be either Peiuba or ZansibnT, probably the former, 
as it is stated to have been 300 stadia from the coast, 
which agrees very fairly with modern measures (Peripl. 
c. 15). Below these places the author of the * Periplus ' 
states that *' the ocean as yet unexplored turns to the 
west, surrounding the southern parts of ^Ethiopia, 
Libya, and Africa;" thus preserving the old tradition 
of a great Southern Sea, which we have already noticed 
as prevailing in the legendary fragments of geography 
preserved by tiie earlier Greek writers. ^ 

The date of these doubtless commercial voyages •^ 
cannot be accurately determined ; but we may reason- 
ably conclude that they were not known in Europe 
when Phny wrote his great work ; while we have the 

* Cajitaid Burton {Lake Re^iane, etc. ch. ii. p. 30) states thai 
the district from Cape Detgado, in lat. 10* 41' S., to the Juba or 
Govern! river, in kt. 41^ 15' S., wiis b^incd in early time? by the 
Gt^eks Zingis. ZiiigisiL, atid Zing'ttltn ; iij the insvrlpttOD from AduUs, 
Ziiigabeae ; and by Asiutics, Zinj, Zenj, and Zivizlbar. — Nigrilia, or 
Black Laud, — from the Pereiaii ^ng^ Arabic Zanjy a negro, and bar. 
ft country. 



OF THE SOURCES OF THE KILB. 



55 



I 



I 



authority of Ptolemy Tor stating, that Marintis of Tyre 
was the first to employ the logs of the merchants who 
went to Azania, with a view of showing that the land 
extended far further to the south than geographers 
had hitherto been willing to admit. One of these 
voyagers, Diogenes, we learn, was carried by the N.E. 
moDSOon in twenty-five days from Cape Guardafui to 
Rhapta ; another, Theophilus, by the S.W, monsoon 
in twenty days from Rhapta to Cape Guardnfui : the 
stations mentioned in the * Periplus ' correspond appa- 
rently with those mentioned in the first of these voy- 
ages. To tlie same Marinu!« of Tyre we owe an account 
of the two expeditions of Septimius Flaccus and of 
Julius Maternus, which, severally, occupied from three 
to four months of marching cnnlinuoiisly S, from the 
fraramantes, till the Ethiopian country of Agisymba, 
atmunding in the rhinoceros (Mar. Tyr. ap. Ptol. Proleg. 
Geofcr. i. c. 8), was attained. Recent researches hy 
my friend Dr, Barth render it more than probable that 
this place was somewhere in the S. W. of Fezzan (Pha- 
eania), in or near the oasis of Asben, a name which may 
pOBBibly bave son^e connectioa with that of the Alex- 
andrian geographer. 

One further document remains to confirm in some 
measure the statements of Ptolemy and Miirinus of 
Tyre with reference to the interior of .^Ethiopia, and 
this is the inscription at Adulis, to which we have 
already alludt'd (Cosmas, i. p. 143). In this inscription 
many names may be recognized which still exist in the 
country. 

I have already alluded to Ptolemy in calling brief 
attention Lo the ' Periplua * and to Mannus of Tyre ; I 
proceed now to examine the seventh and eighth chap- 



ters of his fourth Book, wherein be states gi^nerally 
what lie knows of llie head- waters of the Nile and of 
the countries watered by that river from Syene up- 
I wards; premising that with him, about a.d. 140, An- 
^■cient Geography, fis directed to the portions of Africa 
^■south of Upper Kgypt, is brought to a close. 
^^ Now, according to Ptolemy, the generic name of the 
^Bbasin of the Nile S. of Syene is Ethiopia, the coast 
^Hine along the western shore of the Red Sea to the 
promontory of Uhapta being equally considered by 
him to be part of the same great district. Along the 
course of the Nile he speaks oJ Syene and the Dodeca- 
Schcenus; then of the Great Cataract and of various 
places between it and the island of Meroe ; stating, 
finally, that the Astapus (which must here be the As- 
tasoba. or lilue Nile) flows down from the country of 
Axum, and has its origin in a great lake in the neigh- 
bourhood of some very lofty mountains. 

Eratosthenes, as I have already pointed out (see 

fetriiho, xvii. p. 7Sb), bounded the island of Meroe by 

wo rivers : to the N. and E. by the Astaboras (Ta- 

kazze or Albara) ; to the W. and S. by the Astapus or 

Astasoba {the Blue Nile). 

Ptolemy gives tlie name of Nile to the western 

brunch ; but by calling the Astapus of Eratosthenes 

he Astasoba, which he conceives, as above stated, to 

flow from an Axumite lake called Cotoe, would seem 

have bad an indistinct notion that there was some 

nmiuwication between Astaboras and the Astapus : 

adds many additional facts to the narrative of Nero's 

ctntunons, who, as we have seen, were stopped, after 

juurney of 600 miles by the marshes of either the 

ite Nile or of the Bahr-al-Ghazal, and makes this 



m 



k 

H 



i 



OF THB SOUkCES OF THE NILE. 



67 



important addition to our previous knowledge, that 
S. of the Equator, at a distance he considers to be 
very great, there is a chain of mountains extending 
10° from E. to VV., and called XtXi^vTjp opos (or the 
Mountain of the Moon. iv. c. 8). This mountain, 
be says, is covered with snow, and, from it, the 
marshes of the Nile receive the melting snows^ i^* 
ov {ri/t XeKr^i'ijs opovs) vtroBe^ovrai tus j^iovas at tov 
NhXou Xifivai. He imagines that these marshes are 
situated at a considerahje distance the one frotn the 
other, and that, from each ol them, flows a branch of 
the Nile which afterwards unites so as to form one 
stream (iv. c. 7). Ptolemy, in his " Prolegomena," at- 
tributes Ihi^ information to Marinus, from whom we 
have so many other geographical facts, and he again 
refers to the Greek voyagers who had visited the shores 
of Azania, probably for coreimercial purposes. To 
MarinuSi as already noticed, we owe the story of Dio- 
genes, who, on his return from India, was driven by 
the N.E. monsoon within a short distance of the pro- 
montory of Rhapta to the hikes from which the Nile 
flows C«s TO.? \tfivaf o&ep 6 NelXos pel, Htol. i. c. 9), which 
are a little to the S. of the promontury of Rhapta; 
Marinus himself adding, as founded on this report 
from Diogenes, that the course of tlie ISile from the 
lakes where for the first time the river becomes plainly 
visible (ef ov irpcoTOv oparat napayivo^evos) can now be 
traced with accuracy, upwards to Meroe. 

We should perhaps Tiaturaily presume from these 
statements that the Nile-lakes were close to Rhapta, a 
result which modern research has clearly shown is not 
the case. Still, allowing for this error, we cannot but be 
Burprised how truly on the whole Marinus has ascer- 




58 



THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANCIENTS 



tained the principal facU. Nay, it is by no meant 
improbable that we may hereafter (hscover, as Dr. 
Beke has urged more than once, a source of the Nile 
in a ch»in of mountains to the S.E. of the Lak( 
Nyanza ; a discovery which will confirm in a signal 
manner all the essential inferences M^finus has de- 
duced from his informants. 

I believe I have now laid before the Society the prii 
cipal facts which were known to the Ancient worI( 
with regard to the basin of the Nile, its probabh 
sources, and the adjacent countries. And here 1 might 
bring my paper to a conclusion, did I not think that, 
with the news just arrived of the successful accoin^| 
plishment of Captain Speke's extraordinary jouraey 
from the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean, it might 
not be wholly uninteresting were I to add to my pre- 
vious remarks on the knowledge of the Ancients, a very 
brief outline of what we have gained in addition b] 
modern researches. 

In doing this^ I will not detain the Society with an^ 
references to the incidental notices which may be 
thered from the early records of the Portu^juese voy^ 
agerg and missionaries, though I am inclined to thiul 
that a mor<? careful study of the numerous data the] 
have preserved, might, had they been weighed scien- 
tifically, have solved this problem many years since 
I shall merely note what has been done most recently, 
by the French, Germans^ the Egyptian Government 
and the English. 

The first direct effort towards a solution of (b< 
great question of the origin of the Nile was ma( 
by the French expedition of 1798, supplemented as it 
was, in great measure, by the journeys of BurckhardI 



OP THE SOUhCeS OF THE NILE. 



59 



• 



k 



in 1813^1814. The journey of Cailland in 1820 es- 
tablished for the first time satisfactorily the identifica- 
tion of the ancient Meroe, while those of Huppell in 
1S23, and of Russeg^ger in 1836, have added many in- 
teresting ethnographical and linguistical detait.'j. Of 
these, Caillaud and Hussegger alone ascended higher 
than the junction of the Atbara and the Nile. A small 
portion, too, of the White Nile above Kliartutn was 
explored by M. Linant in 1827 (Jonrn. Roy. Geog. 
Soc. vol. ii.). 

In 1839, the first Egyptian expedition"^ of Mu- 
hammad AJi penetrated to Khartum, 154** south of 
Meroe in lat. 6" N. ; and was followed shortly after by 
a second nne, under the care of M. d'Arnaud, which 
reached lat. 4° N. Of this expedition M. Werne 
bas published an account, which has been translated 
into English by Mr, O'Reilly, and published by Bent- 
ley in 1849- The result of these journeys (as I have 
already stated) proved clearly that, between the 8th 
and 9th parallels of north iaCitiide, for a distance of 
more than 200 miles, there do really exist the vast 
marshes to which ^schylus referred five centuries be- 
fore the Christian era, and which checked the advance 
southwards of Nero's explorers. Still more recently 
the estabhsbment, in 1846, of the English Church Mis- 
sion at Mombas, about 4*^ S. of the Line, on the E. 
shore of Africa, has proved the existence of lofty raoun- 
taios^ covered with perpetual snow, and at no great 
distance from the coast) which may fairly be conceived 
to represent Ptolemy's "Mountain of the Moon." 
Nearly about the same period, that is, between 1840 

*" There appear to have been, in all, three Egyptian eipeditiaaa 
between 1839 and 1842. 



60 



THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE A^*CIENTS 



and 1843, Dr. Beke explored, together with Dr. Krapf, 
a considerable portion of the high table-land of S.E. 
Afrita. and discovered the watershed of the rivers 
flowing, respectively, to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans 
(.1. n. G. S. vol. xii.). 

In 1 848, and again in 1 849, during a journey towards 
the country of the Jagj^as to the N.W. of Monibas, 
M. Rebmann, one of the missionaries^ observed on 
the reniote horizon a mountain covered with snow. 
(Church Mission. Intell. vol. i. pp. If) and 273, 1849.) 
This mountain, which the natives call Kilimanjaro^ 
M. Rebmann places in lat. 3"" S., about 3° W.N.W. of! 
Mumbas. In the same year, 1849, and again in 
1350, another missionary, M. Krapf, travelled to the 
north of the Jaggas into the country of the Ukam- 
bani, and confittned Rebmann's idea as to the peren- 
nial snows on Kilimanjaro, and, at the same time, dis- 
covered another mountain, also covered with perpetual 
snows, called Kenia. This he places nearly on a line 
v.ith, but to the E. of Kilimanjaro,^' at the distance of 
about 2° N. of Kilimanjaro. M. Krapf, at the same 
time, heard of the existence of a great lake, called 
Baringo, which he imagined must be the head of the 
Nile. This lake was to the N. and N.W. of Mount 
Kenia.^- 



>' It is icnportant to notice here, that FemaQdez de Enci^o, in hia 
' Suinft de Geographia.' a.d. 1530, p. 54^ fivs, *' West of thi:! port 
(Mombas) stftnds the Mount Olympus of .Ethiopia, which !s exceed- 
ipgly liigli ; and beyond it are the Moutitains of the Moon, in which 
are the stiurcea of the Nile :" a fitatemetit which egetna to band down 
lo nt least the sixteenth century of our era n trmditioTi that, in eomKl 
chuin at no [J^^?■at di^tunce from the coast, men oU;;ht to seek for iho' 
fint spnos* of tlie great river, 

U These djqtaneet^ are not qdte Correct^ but iuffictently near forj 



OP TUB SOURCES OF TRE NILE. 



61 



His own words are, *' I made acquaintance in Ukam- 
bani with a merchant of Ueinbu, a country situate two 
days' journey to the north-east of the river Dana. 
This Qian gave me much important information. For 
instance, he told me thai at the foot of the snowy 
mountain, Ndur Kona (sometimes called Kirenia), 
there is a lake from which flow the three rivers of 
Dana, Tumhiri, and Nsamddi. The Dona and the 
7\imbiri flow to the eastern sea ; but the Nsaraddi 
flows towards a yet greater lake, called Baringo, the 
cud of which is many days' march off'. According to 
his reckoning;, it takes live days from Uejitbu to Mnunt 
Kenia, and nine more to Baringo, a word which signi- 
fies ' great water'" 

Leon d'Aviiuchers (Lettre Ji M. d'Abbadie, BuU. de 
la Soc. de Geogr. xvil. p. liU), who writes this name, 
Baharingo, confirms the existence of this and several 
othtT lakes in the same neiglibourhood. It was also 
already known that tlie tribe of Baris give to the 
upper part of the White River the name of Tumbirih 
(see Werne, 1. c.)) and that they count a month's 
journey from their country in lat. 4*^ N. to its origin; 
the inference from these statements apparently beintr, 
that the Tumbirih and tlie Bahr-al-Abiad (or White 
Nile) are one and the same river, and that it is in 
some way connected with a lake produced by the 
melting of the snows of Kenia. It is difficult, there- 
fore, not to believe that tlie mountains, two of whose 



I 



practical purposes. Recently, the Baron Carl von der Decken, with 
Dr. Kiirfiten. ha» ascended KilimaTijaro to the height of 13,900 ft., 
and ubfierved the well-defi;ned limit of perpetual m)ow at about 
I7,nOO (t. The principal ppuk he eElinmlefi at 20,0G3 ft., and a se- 
cond one Bt more than 17,0n[J ft (Froc. R. G. S. vol, viii. p. 6.) 




62 



THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANCIENTS 



;» 



peaks we know bear, respectively, the names of Kenia 
and Kilimanjaro, belong to the mountain chain which 
Ptolemy has called the Mountain of the Moon 
and that one of the two lakes of the Nile may be re- 
cognized in the Baringo. We may still further pre- 
sume that Ptolemy's Mountain of the Moon and Aris- 
totle's Mountain of Silver are one and the same, the 
same iact, that the Nile flows from it, being predicated 
of each : while it should not be Ibrgotten that Abul^i 
feda quotes an Arabian traveller who makes the sara* 
assertion that the true source of the Nile is in a White 
Mountain. 

It is only necessary to add that the most recent re- 
searcbes of Captains Burton iind Speke in l857-9> and 
of Captains Speke and Grant in 1859-63, have done 
much toward the setting at rest one portion of tlid^| 
problem of the sources of the Nile, or, at least, of the 
great basin from which this river must have its outlet. 
Captain Speke in his first expedition succeeded m 
penetrating as far as lal. 3° 30' S., to the southern 
shores of a very large iake, called Kyanza, or, from 
island in it, Ukerewe ; and Captain Burton reached thi 
eastern side of Lake Tanganyika, and surveyed a con- 
siderable portion of it, though, unfortunately, neither its 
northern nor southern ends: while in his second jour- 
ney, partly in company with Captain Grant, but more 
frequently alone, Captain Speke followed, though fo 
the most part at considerable distance from it, the lin 
of its western shores, till he arrived at a point a little 
N, of the equator, whence a great body of water i 
sues from the lake and flows in a direction nearly d 
N., at a spot he has called the Ripon Falls. From this 
point the stream was traced downwards for about fifty 



4 

ts 
r- 
re 

iu9 




OF THE SOURCES OF THE NILH. 



G3 



I 



* 



mites, when they were compelled to leave it ; and they 
ultimately arrived al Goudokorp in lat 5^ N,, after 
having followed what they believed to be two ftirtber 
portions of the same main stream. It is clear there- 
fnre that geography is indebted to the perseverance of 
Captains Speke and Grant for some knowledge of be- 
tween 500 and 600 miles of new ground i'rom Kaze 
in laL 5° S. to Gondokoro in lat. 5° N. j and, further, 
that they liave proved to demonstration the com* 
meucemeut at the Ripon Falls of one great affluent of 
tbe Nile. It must not, however, be forgotten that the 
result of their remarkable journey has further demon- 
strated the existence of another considerable affluent 
flowing from the E. called the Asiia ; and that there 
aeems some reason for supposing that this stream has 
its rise in the Lake Baringo mentioned above : it ia 
most unfortunate that nearly 200 miles of the distance 
between Hipon Falls and Gondokoro has not been ex- 
amined ; so that we cannot absolutely connect the 
stream issueing from the Nyanza with the one into 
ffbich the A-sita flows. 

It remains therefore to be ascertaine(3 whether there 
are not otlier sources beside that from the Lake 
Nyanza, and especially whether (he Asua does or does 
tot flow from the Lake Baringo ; and further, whe- 
ther the lake itself derives its waters from the chain 
of which Kenia and Kilimanjaro would apparently 
*eein to be portions. There would seem also to 
be no certainty as to the real course of the stream 
which flows in a direction S.E. to N.W , and which, 
perhaps, brings down the waters of the little Luta- 
Nxig^ Lake, supposed by Captain Speke to be a sort 
of " backwater " to the Nile. I cannot myself help 



U 



64 



THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANCIBNTS 



thinking that this Luta-Nzig^ Lake will be uUimatel; 
found to be one of a chain o( lakes of which the Tan- 
ganyika is the largest and most southern ; the more 
BO, as I have already stated I feel nocontidence in the 
emplacement of Captain Speke's " Mountains of the 
Moon," which, on hia map at least, would bar any out- 
lets fiom the sou'hern to the northern lake. It must 
not be forgotten that Captain Speke's former fellov^^^ 
Iravelller^ Burton, has already given ills opinion tha^^ 
the e:iistence of these mountaitis was '* wholly hypo- 
thetical or rather inventive" (* Lake Plegions,* vol. ii, 
pp. 90, 91) ; while in Speke's original map sent fro 
Egypt to the Royal Geographical Society in March, 
18(i3, and subseijuently published by Mr. Stanford in 
June, 1863, tins horse-s hoe-shaped range does not ap- 
pear, but instead thereof, two parallel ranges are inserted 
witii the name of " Vlountains of the Moon" along th 
northern portion of Lake Tanganyika, and more than 
"2° S. of the curved " Mounlaius of the Moon " of the 
present map- 1 cannot doubt that the ascertainment of 
these geogniphical details will be the reward of expedi- 
tions even now already proposed, and which will coQ' 
firm or show the futility of suggestions, long since pui 
forward, by Dr Beke, who, on paper at ieasE, or theo 
reticallyt has a right to claim the title of the " Disco- 
verer of one of the Sources of the Nile." 

In conclusion, I am bound to say that i think ni 
one, after a careful perusal of Captain Speke's Journal 
will readily admit that he has advanced any reasons, 
either from his own observation or Irom deri(red n 
tive information, why the chain, of which Kema a 
Kilimanjaro are probably the most elevated peaks» 
is not entitled to the appellation it has borne sin 



I 



OF TUB 9QURCES OF THE NILE. 



6fi 



Ibeir discovery by Rebmann and Krapf ; and which, 
on the whole, agrees so well with the position which 
Ptolemy assigns to his " Mountain of the Moon ;" 
or will see any reason why these should be deposed 
from their rank to make way for the " iMfumbiro Cone" 
(see Journal, p. 214), which Speke himself only " sup- 
poses " to have ao altitude of 10,000 feet. At the 
same time, H ought not to be forgotten that the 
rtceut researches of Cuptain Burton have tended, 
ai least incidentally, to contirm the accuracy of the 
Greek geograplier, in so far that Burton states that 
some of the iqhabitants of the east coast of Africa 
near Zanzibar are stilt eaters of human flesh. He 
particularly names the Wadoe as guilty of '* a practice 
which has made their name terrible even in African 
ears;" and he places the abode of the Wadoe in lat. 
■ 6^ S., that is, between Menuthias and the Mountain 
' of the Moon, exactly where Ptoleraiy places his AWiottc? 

oifBpiiiTiwJMyot, or man-eating Ethiopians,'^ 
I W. S. W. Vaux. 

^^^^^P Postscript. 

B The map appended to this paper is intended only to 
give the most general notion of the ancient knowledge 
on this subject. A few modern names have been 
added, which could not well have been omitted. The 
map has been mainly based on one in Oeograph, Grseci 
Minores, ed. Didot, in Paris, 1855, 8vo, 



I 
I 



» 



'* In bria^ing to a codcIusIod this paper" Od the Ancient Know- 
ledge of the Sources of the Nile." with Bonic refercncesi to the maia 
KBulta of moOem researcheB, [ cannot omit to notice the fact that 
for rasaij years Dr. Beke (hini&elf the recipient of one of the gold- 
Svedale given by llje Engtiiih Geograi^hical Society foi" hie refiearcbes 
in Ahy&einia) b^a t^eeQ the CQasisient advocate of the view that the 

TOL. VIII. F 




66 



SOUaCEfi OF THE NILE. 



head-atreatns of the Nile do flow froTU an elevated moantain'-Tange 
fcouth of the equator, and probably to be identified witb Ptolemy's 
Mountain of the Moon ; nav, more than this^ tbat he was the first 
to propose and to raise eubscriptions in aid of an expeditinn which 
should attempt the exploratio!i of the sources of the Nile from the 
east coast of Africa. I state thia the more dLsttnctly tis there has 
Ikcd evidently a de&ire to ignore the upioioa Dr. Bcke has so lon^ 
since publicly put forwnrd, aa thaugh the theoretical views of anv 
geographer could in the least detrnct from the accomplishment or 
realization of such viewa by the Bubsequent travetler- Any one 
who has paid attention to this subject must be well anare that bo 
long^ ago as 1846 Dr. fleke sugi^ested " that the source of the Nile 
i£ siloate at a comparatively short distance from the een-coOBt within 
the dominions of the ImSm of Maskat" (Geogr. Journal, vol. xvii.) ; 
that, in 184S, be proposed bd expedition for the dieeovery of tbe 
Bonrces of the Nile by penetrating- from the east coast of Africa 
near Zanzibar, and did hts nttno&t to enable Dr. Bialtohlotsky to 
make this attempt, which was not however aucceseful (Report of 
British Association for 1848, pp. 63, 64) ; that ibia opinion of Dr. 
Beke was entirelv endorsed by the then President of the Geographical 
Society, Sir Rodeiick Murchison, when , in 1 S52, he drew the natural 
conclusions of a scientific gco»;rapher from the acknowled^^ed discO' 
veries of Rcbmann and Krapf ; and lastly, tbat Dr. Beke has drawn 
up e Bubsequent and still more complete report on the whole subject, 
entitled, *' On the Mountains forming- the Eastern side of the basin 
of the Nile, and the origin of the desigoHtion 'Mountains of the 
Moon ' applied to them," which, tbough offered to the Gt-ogrBphicaJ 
Society on Mav 10th, 1861, was, for some reas'OEi or other, not ac- 
cepted by tbat body, and was, therefore, ultimitely read on August 
3Dtb. 1861, at the meeting of tbe British Association at Manchester. 
In aU these papers Dr. Beke has consistently adhered to the views 
first enunciated by himself in 1846. which have been nowhere either 
adequately met or answered. He has now the &atififaction of know- 
ing that a part of his theory has been proved to deraanstration, in tbe 
discover)- of one source of the Nile in a great lake nearly 4000 
feet above the aea. and south of the equator ; while he may reason- 
ably encourage the hope that, ere long, other and more remote 
sources may be traced to ibat famous range which manv geographers 
have, we beliete vvlth reason, accepted, as the true repreftcntative of 
Ptolemy's '" MouDtaln of the Moon." 



n 



67 



iy._ON SOME OLD MAPS OF AFRICA, IN WHICH THE 
CENTRAL EQUATORIAL LAKES ARE LAID DOWN 
NEARLY IN THEIR TRUE POSITIONS. 



■T JDHK HODO, H.i,., F.B.a., HON. FOU. BKC. B.S.L., T.R.Q.S., ETC. 



(Read November ^5xh, 1S63. and April l3th, 1664.) 



^MucH confusion has prevailed among some geo- 
graphers concerning the central lakes of equatorial 
Africa ; and others have thought that these large a/tas, 
H or tracts of fresh water, are only laid down in those 
B maps which have been derived from the Portuguese 
colonists and missionaries on the east coast of Africa, 
about Zanzibar, Melinda, and other places in the 
territory of Zanguebar. One of" some antiquity (I 
believe of the sixteenth century), which is said to be a 
copy of one of the earliest of such maps, is in the 
possession, according to Sir R. I. Murchison, of the 
College de Propaganda Fide, at Rome. And even in 
those maps it is asserted, that these great central 
lakes are erroneously placed, and very wide of their 
exact geographic<il positions, as ascertained by the 
recent and successful investigations of Captains Burton, 



' Tbia paper (exclusive of the Postscript) waa read to the Sec- 
taoD E of the British AsBOciatiou, at Newcastle-OD-Tyoe. od AaguBl 

w 2 




68 



ON THE CENTBAL LAKEa 




Speke, and Grant. But it seems to me not ualikely 
that the Propaganda map' may have lieen in part 
grounded upon that map copied by Diafar Mohammed 
Ben Musa in 883^ of our era, and given in the Arabic 
work entitled* Rasm,' and wbich^ according to Colone 
Sir Henry James, is to be seen m Lelewel's ' Geogr 
phie du Moyen Age/ The ISile is placed on it 
rising in a lake on the equator^ named " Kura Kavar, 
and in it is an island situate in Long. 30° 40' E. 
This, I find* precisely agrees with the island called 
" Gazi," in the unexplored lake " Little Luta Nzig^," 
as laid down in Captain Speke'a map. But 1 have 
also noticed in John Gary's map of " Asia/' including^ 
a part of Africa, and dated London, September Ist^^ 
1806, that he has placed a lake on the 10th parallel 
north latitude, and about long. 29° 30' E., which he 
calls " Tumi, or Kawar L,," and from which the 
*' Bahr Abiad, or White R." flows. If Gary has taken 
this lake from the Arabic work, he has mistaken the 
10th parallel for the equinoctial line. But Gary's lake, 
which he so terms Kawar, is, I think, intended for the 
Bahr el Ghazal.orthe Lake No of some cartographers, 
which is situated in that latitude, and about long. 
28^ E. 

That distinguished officer. Captain Burton, has ex- 
pressly written [' Journal of Royal Geographical So- 
ciety,' vol. xxix., 1859, p. 372), *' The Nyanza, as 

' Sir R. Murchi^oD, in his address to the Royal Geographical 
Society on the annivcrsarv, May 25lh, na^ntloned this map as pro- 
bably having been conatructed froin the iafonnation of the Portu- 
guese. 

' So ID the July number (1863) of the 'Quarterly Review 
278, from which I tooL thla accauJit. 



4 
I 



OF EQUATOHIAL AFRICA. 



63 



L 



re^rds nn.me, posit Ion, &nt\ even existence, hAs hitherto 
been unknown to European geographers ; but de- 
scriptions of this sea, by native travellers, have been 
nncoDsciously transferred by our writers to the Tanga- 
nyika of Ujijii. and even to the N^assa of Kilwa," or 
Quiloa, otherwise often termed the " Maravt Lake,'* 

Partly with the view of correcting these mistakes, I 
now proceed to exhibit and shortly to describe some 
old maps of Africa^ and especially two English maps; 
the first of these two lias been published about one 
hundred and fifty years, but the second only fifty-two 
years. 

The first is entitled " Africa,'^ corrected from the 
observations of the Royal Societies of London and 
Paris, by John Senex, F.R.S," It is dedicated by him 
to no less a person than " Sir Isaac Newton, Knight, 
President of the Royal Society, and Master of Her 
Majesty's Mints" 

It states that ft was " drawn and engraved by J. 
Senex," who was also " Geographer to the Queen " 
(Anne). 

It exhibits a large laVe of much the same form, 
eiccept on its eastern side, as the Lake Nyanza in 
Speke's map, and contains six islands. 

Its northern end is^ howeverj placed too distant from 
the equator by about one degree of latitude ; but its 
southern extreme point 19 accurate, as extending to 
about lat. 3° S. The 35th meridian of east longi- 
tude intersects about one-third of its western portion, 
instead of dividing it at about one-third of its eastern 
side. Senex says, " this great lake is placed there by 
the report of the negroes." Although he has omitted 
to lay down the Lake Zambre, yet he has mentioned it^ 



ii 



TO 



ON THE CENTRAL LAKES 



1 



and adds, thai " the negroes say that the river Cuabo 
(or Cuavo) rises from the Lake Zarabre, but this 
uncertain." 

The Lake " Zamhre " or Zanibere (sometimes con- 
founfjed with Zambesi), is an old name for the Lake 
Tanganyika, and it is much too central arid too distant 
to the nuith to allow of that river taking its source in 
that long freshwater sea. I beheve the river Cuavo 
do€B not Sow out of the Lake Nyassa (or Zambesi}^| 
but arise.s from the vicinity of it, from a high ridge ot^ 
the east. It Senex had drawn the Lake Zambre (Tan- 
ganyika), it would, according to that able geographer's 
view, be the source of the river Coango/ or ZairCi 
which would, according to his map, flow out of it, 
from its south-western side j and this he probably look 
from the old geographers, Fernand, d'Eacisa and De 
Barros. * 

I may also observe, that John Senex, in his '*Map 
of the World," places the " Great Lake (Nyanza). by 
report of the CatFres/* nearer to the equutor, and in 
about long. 33" E. which is a much more accurate 
position than that given in his *' Map of Africa." 

The second English map of Africa, to which I have 
particularly alluded, is a small one, published in 1811, 
by Walker (No. 4), in his ' Universal Atlas,' This, 
omitting the former equatorial lake, or the Nyanza^ 
exhibits a very long and narrow lake, called " Lake of 
Kambre,*' It presents, upon the whole, much of the 
shape of the Lake Tanganyika; its northern extremity 
being placed at about 3^ of south latitude, and its eastern 

* The names CiiavD, Cilabo ; Coan^, Congo ; NvBflso. Nyanxa ; 
Zambere. Ztimbesi, etc.. have been often confounded. I &a not 
know what Ngotsa sigoifiea, hutNj/ajua is a ' great water/ or ^lake.' 



or EQUATtiniAL AFKICA. 



71 



I 



* 



i tui 



position in the meridian of 31° (or nearly so) of east 
longitude. 

By comparing these bearings with Captain Speke 3 
map we shall find thai AValker has only niisplaeed the 
Lake Zamhre,orTans;anyika,by one degree of longitude. 
This is an extraordinary coincidence, when we consider 
the date of its execution, more than half a century ago. 

Although this small map is so far fairly accurate, 
still it presents a singular blunder in the southern end 
of that lake ; and this is, that the Lake Maravi ap- 
pears evidentEy to have lieeii added on to the Lake 
Zambre, and so incorporated with it, and thereby 
causing the southern extremity of the lake to be pro- 
Jonged by about 3^ 20' of latitude. Walker shows his 
error in having subjoined the word *' Moravi ** for a 
place on its south-western extremity. 

The Lake Maravi, or Moravi, is the same as that 
otherwise termed Nyassa, or by some Zambesi, as 
being the origin of the river Shire, a great tributary 
to the river Zambesi. It is placed in our recent m;tps 
of Africa much to the soutli-eastj close upon the 35th 
east meridi:m ; and in south latitude the lOth parallel 
divides it into two unequal parts. This is apparent from 
another map of Africa, — a Scotch one, — which I ex- 
hibit, and wliich was published only four years after 
Walker's; and yet, with remarkable carelessness, or 
probably scepticis^m^ it omits altogether the two former 
great lakes, Nyanza and Zambre, and only marks the 
third, and smaller lake» Maravi. It is, in other re- 
spects, a map entitled to some consideration, as having 
been engraved by Lizars, at Edinburgh, in 1815, for 
the supplement to the fourth and fifth editions of that 
able and excellent work, the ' Eneyclopiedia Britan- 
nica.' 



72 



ON THE CENTRAL LAKES 



Since each of these three maps only places a single 
and a different lake, it therefore foUowg, tbat it is 
necessary to have all tke three to constitute a more 
exact map of that portion of Africa ; and I may men- 
tion that in a very recent map. published in vol. xxx. of 
tiie ' Journal of the Royal Geographical Society,' in 
1860, by our esteemed African geographer Mr. Mac* 
queen, all the three lakes are inserted <, although it ia 
clear, with the exception of the last, that they are mis- 
placed. It will be seen that the Lake Tanganyika is 
put down too much to the west ; in fact, nearly as 
much to the west of the 30th parallel as Walker'8 
map had tixed it to the east of it ; besides, its northern 
end is too far to the south by about 30', and its ex- 
tremity should extend lurlher southwards than 6° 30*, 
even as far as 7^ 45', according to Messrs. Burton and^ 
Speke's maps. Again, it will be found that Macqueen*8 
Nyanza Lake is placed l-g°eaat longitude too much to 
the west j nor is it sufficiently long, for it should be 
produced to a degree further north, so that the equinoc- 
tial line should intersect it on that part. Indeed, this 
lake is not so accurately placed as that of John SeneJC 
in his map of the world, in 1711. 

The recent proof, by Captains Speke and Grant, 
that the White river^ or Bahr el Abiad* flowing from 
the west, is the true and important branch of the 
Nile, reminds me that the eminent French geographer 
M. D*AnviUe, was the tirst (I believe) to renew the 
promulgation of that view, which he, following^ Hero- 



I 



* Herodotus (Euterpe, c. 31) learnt that " the Nile Bowa/rom the ^^ 
evei]iL.g, aud (from) the eelting of the son." 'O titlXot piet. avA 
itnrtp-rf>s T< Kot I'jXiov Zva-fiiaiv, In this passag^e, m&rk the double force ^M 
of ^-/rom the west," io that no mistake might arise. It very cor- ^^ 



J 



OF EQUATORIAL AKRICA. 



73 



dotuSj Eratoslheries, and Ptolemy* did, in his com- 
munications to the Freach Academy of Sciences,* 
about the middle o( last century. He likewise showed, 
that the other, or smaller hranch of the Nile, the 
Azure or Blue river (Bahr el Azrek), otherwise named 
the Ethiopian or Abyssinian river, could iwt be con- 
sidered as the main river, or true Nile. 

In the commencement of the seventeenth century Ni- 
cola Godigno published (De Ahass. Kebiis, lib. i, cup. 1 1) 
a letter from Antonio Fernandez, a Jesuit missionary, 
which, speaking of the "extreme Hmits of the province 
of Gojam, where there is a bottomless lake, having 
perpetual and wonderful springsof bubbling-up waters," 
t'extremusprovincifeGoyanige rtnes, ubi palusest fundo 
careiis, perennes habens atque inirabiles ebullientium 
aquaruui scaturigines,') proceeds to say, *' here is the 
source of the Nile " (hie NUo principium est). But 
the Nile here spoken of is certainly the Blue river, the 
Astapus of Ptolemy, and its deep lake, or palus, is the 
Lake Dembea, or Coloe, now the Lake Tzana, which 
is its chief reservoir. 

So it wouM seem that the deeper and larger branch 
of the Nile, the Bahi" el Abiad, has .^■imifar reservoirs 
in three or more of the central equatorial lakes. ^ 
This has been lou^ known by report, und which has 
fortunately just been confirmed by Captains Speke 
aud Grant. Indeed, an earlier geographer, Feraand. 

lectly deBcribes tlie Bahr e) Abiad b« fur a& Lako No and the Bahr 
el GhnzJiK 

* See ' Mdmotrea de rAcad^mie des Helles'Lettre?.' vol. xivi. pp. 
46-81 : also vgK xxiv, p. 3.')9, etc. 

^ Namely, the Little Windermere, Victoria Nyanza, Baringo, and 
lillte Luts Nzig^ ; possihLv also the Ruaizi and Alcanyara. 



ItaHi 



74 



ON THE CENTRAL LAKES 



d'Endsa, in 1518, mentions that the natives of Coi_^ 
represented that the Zaire* rises in a central lake, (Votji 
wliich another large river, considered as the Nile, flows 
out on the other, or eastern side. Aho^ another writer^M 
Di Barros, states about 1552, as cited by Mr. W. D. ' 
Cjoley (p. 185, 'Journal of the Royal Geographical 
Society/ vol. xv.), that the Nile, the Zaire, and a third 
great river, flowing towards Monomotapa, issue from 
a vast lake in the centre of Africa, which " must b&fl 
100 leagues in length." This evidently is the Lake ^ 
Zambre, or Tanganyika, the length of which was thcsa 
perhaps over-estimated ; hut, in truth, its dimensions 
still remaia unknown.^ And according to Dr. Beke, 
who quotes De Barros, *' the Nile has its origin in a 
great lake (possibly the Tanganyika),*" and alter tra- 
versing many miles northwards^ it enters another very 



* I believe the Congo territory whs not discovered till 1487. 
Compare also the Arabic map of Ibn Sikid (1274). |>Iate it., the 
■Tubultt Rotunda Ilog'criBQB ' (3154), no. x,, and Ibe ' Talitla Iti- 
ueraria EjJrisinna,' ia Ldewel's Atlas, Medieeval Geography (Brux. 
IS50). (J. H., Jan 29th, 1864.) 

^ But the Lake Zambre, or Tang'anyika, has been ascertained to 
he much hwer [abtiilt 1900 feet) thnn the Victoria Nyanza lake. A 
river, called Maltigarazi, flows into the Zambre from the cast, aud it 
pratiably riaefi> m the north hilU ; so De Barros may have mUtaken, 
from hicorrect re|)cirl, that river for the early hcad-»tream of the 
Nile, and mnde it is-sue yrom that luke, A like error is eeen re- 
specting the river Mnrimgu, which is mmle bv Burton to flow inio. 
but by Speke out of, the south e:itreinity of the Lake Tangjiuviba. 

'" It cannot be the Tanf»-anyika for the reason given in the last 
note, Ihoug-h it may be the take termed " Little Witidernierej,"' from 
which flows on the norlh an utfluenl to ihe Luchuro, aflerwarda 
named the Kitangul^. and so united It enters the Kyanza at itsnortl 
West end, [ndeed. this affluent, and the adjacent and more westei 
fine itream, tailed " Ing^zi Kag^ra," aa far as we now knowj'br « 




OF EQUATORIAL AFRICA. 



75 



I 



large lake which lies under the equator." This vast 
sheet of" water is termed by the natives " a sea/' and 
is most probably identical with the Victoria Nvanza 
lake. — Ibr the word Nyanza is a native appellation for 
a ereat piece of water or lake. 

Further explorations are necessary to ascertain the 
rivers that are said to communicate with these lakes, 
and with the smaller Jiusisi ; and also to discover what 
(if any) waters join this last lake, and that at the 
equjitor, which is called '* Little Luta Nzigd," meaning 
the Dead Locust, with its Salt l»ilands, and supposed 
to he 1000 or 12UU feet lower than the Nvan&a. 

It would scarcely be worth mentioning here that An- 
toine d'Abbadie and Ayrton have both most erroneously 
sought the fountains of the White Nile in the moun- 
tains of Abyssinia, or in Inarya and Katl'it, in lat. 7*49' 
N. and long. 36° 2' E., seemingly in a branch of the 
Sobjat, were it not that the memoir of the latter 
is published in the ' Journal of the Royal Geographical 
Society ' for the year 1848, and created some tempo- 
rary interest. But Dr. Charles Beke, my fellow- 
labourer at the Swansea Meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation, in the same year (1848), with very correct 
judgment, placed ** the head of the Nile in about 
lat. 2^ S. and long. 34" E.," although, instead " of 300 
or 400 U]ilea from the island of Zanzibar," the dis- 
tance is 500 or 600 miles in the UnyamweziorMono- 

JIdm. being feeders of the Nyanza^ must be codsidered twq ^Qvrcea 
ot head-ttrrajfis of the "White Nile, Tlje only othee head-etreaina pf 
the NyatiEA as yet parify known, are the river Muingwira and 
Jordans NulEah, at ita extreme southero creeks thoug-b oeither of 
th^e Ktreama seems comparable with the noble Kitacgul^. (J. H., 
Jan. -2<>tb. 1864.) 




76 



ON THE CENTRAL LAKES 



I 



Moezi country, — llie word mwezl, m'ezi, or moezi, 
Bignifying in tbe local dialect, raoon.'^ 

Native tradition or report appears on the whole to 
have been fairly correct j and Ptolemy, about ad. 
136, had doubtless received his brief information con- 
cerning the sources or orij^in of the Nile, from some 
native merchants, or travellers, to whom these equato- 
rial lakes were known. Ploleniy has expressly told 
us that his predecessor Mannus received some of his 
information about the Nile lakes from Arabian mer- 
chants; and he (in book i. chap. 17) distinctly records 
that, " we learnt from merchants, who passed over 
from Arabia Felix into those parts of Africa, as 
Azanta, Rhapta (now Zanguebar), etc., that those 
lakes, from which the Nile flows out, are not near ^ 
the sea, but a very great deal further in the interior/*^^! 
This Greco-Egyptian geographer has assigned his 
" Mountain of the Moon," from which the lakes of 
the Nile received the (melted) snow, to lat. 1^° 30' S., 
and of the Upo lakes, one the weatermnost, is in lat. 6"^ S., 
but that to the east in hit. 7° S. His extreme limits 
of the *' Mountain of the Moon " (to n/s Xe\^i^» 
opov) occupy, according to his reckonings, ten de- 
grees of longitude, viz. from 57° to 67°; but these 
degrees cannot be easily reconciled with our modern 
compulation ; also his lat* 12"* SO' S. evidently shows 
that he has placed this range too far to the south of the 
equator. In all probability, however, this Lunar Range 
may in part correspond with that lofty district from 
about lat 1" to 3* S., and beginning at about the 29tli 
meriBian of east longitude j and, if so, it would include 

^' See 'Report of the Swad&ea Meeting of tbe Bntisb Acsocib 
tion/ 1849, p. 63. 



OF EQUATORIAL AFRICA- 



77 



* 



the very lofty Mount M'fumbiro, and the jnountaina 
called 'of the Moon," placed by Captain Speke on 
the north atid eastern sides of Lakes Kusizi and Tan- 
ganyika. The latter lake, which extends to beyond 
lat. (f S-, might be supposed to answer to Ptolemy's 
western (or S.S.W.) lake» and the still larger lake of 
Nyanza, to correspond with his eastern (or rather 
N.E.) lake. From the subalpine district, of which 
Mount M'fumbiro is considered the centre, ita streams 
flow on the eastern side into the Lake Nyanza, and, 
through that vast expanse of fresli water into the ISile, 
\s hilst its Eouth-western waters descend into Lake 
Zanibre, or as it is now termed Tanganyika, 

1 have taken Ptolemy's latitudes and longitudes 
from Dr. Wilberg's accurate edition of that ancient 
geographer's work in its original language, and which 
was published between the years iSIiSand 1845. 

Some geogrjiphers, as well as commentators on Pto- 
lemy, have confused the number of the " lakes of the 
Nile '*~-aj.TcvNei\ov\ifi.i>at, — their number being repre- 
sented as two with some, but three with others. This 
is soon determined, for Ptolemy (in Ub. iv. cap. 7) ex- 
pressly states ihem to be Suo \tfivr2v, ** two lakes ;" 
that is to say, a western and an eastern one, the former 
being one degree of south latitude nearer to the equi- 
noctial line than the other. I have already stated that 
Ptolemy held the White river to be the Nilus, or true 
Nile ; and his Astapus is certainly the modern Blue 
river. Through the kindness of Mr. F. Galton, F.R.S., 
1 am enabled to exhibit to you a very neat photograph 
of part of a map of Africa, which was copied from an 
Atlas on vellunii, which belongs to a very rare Latin 
translation of Ptolemy's Geography, and which was 




73 



ON THE CENTRAL LARES 



published at Rome in 1478. This valuable book is in 
the possession of Mr. Hudson Gurney, in Norfolk, 
From that, and a second larger photograph map, it 
will be seen how the translator* or cartographer, haa 
conceived the several branches of the Nile to have 
been placed. In both maps two chief branches of the 
(White) Nile issue from two " Paludes Nili," or laAes, 
at about 8° 30' south of the equator ; and further south 
of these lakes, three rivers feed the western, but /our 
rivers flow into the eastern lake ; and then all these 
seven streams have their sources on the north side of 
the *' Mountain of the Moon," which extends from 
about lat. 12° to 14° S. Under it is written " Mons 
Lunae, h quo Nili paludes nives suscipJunt." The 
east portion of Africa, between this mountain-range 
and the sea, which is called by Ptolemy, d jcdXttop 
^ap^apiKos, the Barbaric Gulf, — a most appropriate 
title, considering the '* men-eating" propensities of the 
savage inhabitants, who are termed ' Anthropophagi/ 
— belongs to that race of Ethiopians. 

But it will also be seen thet a third large river, or 
branch of the Nile, running to the south-east, terminates 
in a smaller lake* which is bisected by the "equinoctial" 
line. Under this is written *' Coloa Palus," Since 
the Lake Coloa, or Caloe, evidently is identified with 
the lake now called Denibea, this river must answer to 
the Bahr-el-Azrek, Azure or Blue river^ the former 
Astopus ; its geographical position, therefore, is given 
far too much to the south. '^ 



'^ Ptolemy (in lib. W, cap. 7) thus wi-ites;— ij KoXdi} kifiyrj, i$ 
Jfs fi 'Aardvm^ iroraftos pti, $6 uny/ieptvov, i. p. " the Lake Colofi, 
from whicb the river AstJijiua flows, 69° jEquinoc, Circ." If, as I 
have aftcrwarda euggeeied, this lungicude of Gy° is calcukted from 



OF tQUATOHlAL AFRICA. 



79 



* 



I likewise exhibit to you another sketch of a map 
froRi a later edition ol' Ptokmy. Although only sixty- 
four years later, still the cartographer^ or Latin Iraos- 
lator^ has taken a different view of his great author's 
" NilL paludes," by draiving ull the lakes, three in 
number, in the same south parallel, — the " Muntes 
Luuse " Ijeing in nearly the same latitude as in the 
former map, about twelve and a half decrees south of 
the equator. This rough sketch I made from tab. iiii., 
or map of Africa. — which the author spells Aphrica, — 
of the Latin translation of Ptolemy's Geography by 
Henry Peter, and published at Bile in the year 1542. 
This edition is preserved in Dr. Thomhnson's library, 
in St. Nichohis's Church, Newcastle-on-Tyne. These 
maps will be found of interest, as showing the received 
notions respecting the Nile, its equatorial lakes and 
lunar mountains, at the respective periods when these 
different editions were given tn the wurld. 

But some seventy years prior to Ptolemy, two explor- 
ing officers were sent by the Emperor Nero ** ad investi- 
gandum Caput Nili,"' expressly to find out the '* liead of 
the Nile." 8eneca, a coutempor<iry writer, about a.m. 
60, himself relates the accuunt, which is this: — "I my* 
self ind*ed have heard the two centurions, whom Nero 
Cssar, as beinji; the most ardent lover of other virtues, 
«<» especially of truth, had sent to find out the head of the 
Ni/e, narrate that, sifter they had accomplished a long 
journey, when, being furnished with assistance by the 
King of Ethiopia, and being recommended by him to 

8. ADtonio (Cnpe Verd Ulea), the lungitude eut of Greentvicli 
moM be nenr 43^ wiiich ib only about 5° too far to the east from 
the true poeitioD of Lake Culoa, but its Ptolemaean latitude ia 12^ 
too iar toutb. 



80 



ON THE CENTHAL I.AKE9 



the neighbouring kings, they penetrated into far dis- 
tant regions. In fact, s:ad they, ' ve came to immense 
lakes, the termination of which neither the inhabitants 
Itnew, nor could any one hope to do so, because aqua- 
tic plants were so densely interwoven in the waters, 
that neither persons on foot could pass over the waters, 
nor in a boat, which, unless a small one and only hold- 
ing a single man, the muddy and overgrown lake could 
not bear. Thereabouts,' they stated, 'we beheld two 
rocks,^^ from which the vast force of the river issued 
forth. But whether that was the head^ or an affluent 
of the Nile, or that it sprang there, or being received 
from a prior course it returns there upon the earth, — 
do you not believe that the water, whatever it is, rises 
up fromagreat lakeof those territories?' It is indeed 
necessary that the rocks should have the water dis- 
persed from many places, and collected in a very deep 
spot, so that they may be able to throw up with sucb 
impetuosity/"* 



'* These two rocks (dvas p tras) must not be confounded with 
two others {duo tcopvli) nientioued before by Sentca (in lib, iv, 
cap. 2), thus: — "duo eminent scopuli ; Niti vmm vocaot iocoW ; 
ex quibue magna via fundllur, non tamen quanta operire posset 
jEg-vptum," This account very probablv refer* to the cataract at 
VVad't Hal/vh, above 220 iiiileB eoutb of Assuan (Syene) ; for Seneca 
first describing the Isle of Philtr. says, " there is the first increase 
of the Nile ; thence, ' poet magnum eputSum.' the iwa recks, culltd 
by the natives 'the veins of the Nile,' are conspicuoue." 

•* As this narrative is of much interest, 1 bereaubjoiti Ihe original 
(L. Anniei Setiecee Nat. Qutcst. lib, vi, cap- B)\ — "Ego quidcin 
centunones rfnos, quos Nero Ciesar, ut aliarutn virtotum, ito veritalia 
in primia amantissimus, ad invesUgandum caput Niti miseriit. nudivi 
narrartes. longum illos ite'r peregisse, quum a rege vKlhiopiie in- 
■trueti uuxiEiu, cotntnenilatique proximis regibus, penetmeseDt nd 
ultenora. Equidan, aiebant, ptirveaimufi ad imiueosae paludeSj 



4 



OF EQUATORIAL AFRICA. 



8t 



The portion of this narrative which says that, the 
officers " came to iniraense lakes, the termination of 
which neitlicr the inhahitants knew, nor could any one 
hope to do so, because fiqnaiic plants were so densely 
interwovfji in the waters/* still agrees with many of 
Ibe very large sheets of water, pools, the sides of the 
lakes, and even some of the rivers in the upper and 
equatorial regions of the White Nile, &s related by our' 
recent explorers. Captain Burton writes tJourn. Roy. 
Geog. Soc. voh xxix. p. 290), some porttons of the 
rivers, which are supposed to fall into the Nyanza, 
"are crossed, according to the Arabs, over a thick 
growth of aquatic vegetation, which forms a kind of 
tualwork, capable of supporting a man's weight." So 
M- Werne often describes the hke " phenomenon on 
the White Nile, and inlands of lar^e and small dimen- 
sions, formed by water-grasses and green reeds, ca- 
pable of drawing round and arresting; -the progress of 
his boat." {Ibid. In note.) In fact, tall graasis, reeds, 
the lofty and graceful Byblus, or I'aper-rush, and other 
stout fluviatile and lacustrine plants at this day, pre- 
sent the mme obstructions to boats and canoes as they 
seem to have dona in the time of Nero. 

(josram exitum nee inculte novenint. cec sperare quisquam potest, 
ita implicitie aquis berbt? sunt, et qi^cic dcc pedili eluctabileg. nec 
navigiu. quod dIsi parvum et laniue capux, limusa et obi^ita paltiH nun 
fcnkt. Ibi. inquil, vidimug^ duaa petraa. ex tpilhus ingena vis fluminia 
exctdebat. Seil sive cnjiui ilia, fiive nrces^/o fsi XUi, sive tunc nasci- 
tatt M¥c in terra* ex priore recepla cursu redit ; nonne tu credje, 
iUam, quidquid est, ex magno terrarum lacn ascendere ? Habeant 
enim oportet pluribus locis sparsum humorem. et in '\tao coactam, ut 
Cructare tanto impctu poesint/' Pliny (NaC- Hist, lib, vi. c. 35) 
mentions briefly this expedition, and he describes the party as 
"mJBsi ub i\'crone militea PrijetoriitiDi cum tribuiio ad expluruLidum," 
etc. 

VOL. VIII. a 



■i 



S3 



ON THE CENTRAL LAKHS 



Again. Captain Burton, writing of the sides of the 
long Lake Tanganyika, states that its " borders are 
generally low, and a thick fringe of rush and reed con- 
ceals the watery margin." (Ibid. p. 230.)'^ These 
remarltable coincidences with respect to the natural 
phenomena afforded by the "implicit^ aquis herbse " 
seen in the time of Nero, as well as at the present day, 
will, 1 apprehend, strongly tend to prove, that the 
White river must have been the Nile, explored by the 
officers dispatched by that emperor. And lastly, this 
identification seems to be more likely, because the two j 
officers further added, in the presence of Seneca, *' wefl 
beheld two rocks, from which the vast force of the river 
issued forth"—" vidimus duas petras, ex quibus in* 
gens vis fluminis excitlebat." So. then, these rocks 
appear, with great probability, to have been no other 



I 



1' Still more recently, on March 2l8t, 1863, Madame Tinnd, de- 
scribing' her voyag'e ia the steamer on the Bahr el Ghazal {rivet of 
the Gazelle), observea i " We are near to an island which Petbericli 
calls Kyt, hut the natives Misr of Reg. Its longitade is 26° 45 
east of Greenwich." The Bahr el Ghazal ■" winds through high 
greus aud b til rushes." Again, "This is a very difficult place lu come 
to, aa the river, though deep, is choked with ruxhfs, and a soft^wooded 
Sort nf tree, which hrenks as our ahip ptisses, Ijut is very formidable 
Id look at. We came through it with the steamer, haviog- the 
paddles taken off." (Proceed. Roy. Geogr. Soc. vol, vii. p. 204.) 
And Captain Speke {ib. p. 2 18} relates from Arab mcrchanta. '' That 
■with the rising of the Nile, and consequently the lacreaacd violence 
of its waters, islands were floated down its surface, — which is really 
the ca&e, not composed of earth and stone, hut tangled roofs of treet. 
rv9fui$, oftrf groM, with even aotnetimee hute upon them, which, 
otherwige undisturbed, are torn away by the violence of the stream 
and carried down, perfect flyating islands." Thla account refers to 
tlie Nile, north of the equator, and beyond the Lake Nyanza. 
(J. II.. Jan. 29lh, 18640 



4 



i 



OF EQUATORIAL AFRICA. 53 

than those at the Karuma Falls,'*' where the united 
main stream of the White Nile rushes on with great 
impetuosity, well described by Captain Speke. 

Norton House, Stoekton-on-Teew, 
Amgutt 2Qth, 1863. 



POSTSCRIPT. 



Since this Paper was read, I have had an opportu- 
nity of examining some more old maps of Africa, and 
especially those contained in Lelewel's * Mediaeval 
Geography/ upon which I will now add a few re- 
marks. 

The first map that I have mentioned is the " Propa- 
ganda" map at Rome, which, according to Monsignor 
Nardi, was made by Jerome Verrazano (probably about 
A.D. 1530) ; a copy of it, as reduced by the German 
officer General Jochmus, may be seen at the Royal 
Geographical Society.'' 

On being favoured with a very neat tracing of that 

'* This fall or cataract answers to iEschylus's true description of 

" The fall. 
Where from the mountains with papyrus crown'd 
The venerable Nile impetuous pours 
His headlong torrent " — 

'Ii/ffi (Ttirrov NciXos tvnoTov p€(K, 

written (in his Prom. Vinct. v. 836) twenty-three centuries ago. 
^ See note, p. 193, Proceed. Roy. Geogr. Soc. no. iv. vol. vii. 

o 2 



84 



ON THE CCNTHAL LAKE9 



4 

* 
4 



copy, I was disappointed in findint; that that Italian 
map had not been taken from Ben Musa's Arabian 
map of A,D. 833- It merely delineates the two lakes, 
" Paludi Nili," south of the equator, much the same 
as those by Ptolemy's translators ; only it represents 
three rivers flowing into each lake of far greater lengths, 
and fifteen email and short branches uniting; with the 
BIX long streams, and rising at the northern base of a 
range of mountains. The last extends also more to 
the south, being in the same south latitude (13*^) as 
*' Mozambich,"'^ or the city of Mozambique, 

The statement which I have before niade respecting . 
Ben Musa's Arabian map, being taken from the July fl 
number (1863) of the ' Quarterly Review,' must be " 
corrected, for 1 find tliat the date of it is a.d. 833, and 
not " 883." And " the Nile is placed on it" as jlow- 
ing out of a large reservoir-lake, hut not '* rising in it," 
on the equator, named ** Kura-Kavar," and the 
sources or feeders of that lake are represented by six 
rivers which run into it from the south. See Plate I., 
'Tabula Almamuniana,' in Lelewel's Atlas, 'Geogra- 
phic du Moyen Age' (edit. Bruxelles, 1850). This is 
considered the first Arabic map, and to have been 
constructed in the time of Almamoun (or El Mamun), 
about A.D. 830. 

Lelewel states that the work called *Rasm,' — Ho- 
rismus, opto-^'f, — ' El Rasra al Arsi/ or 'The Mark- 



I 



^ As the map meniions on the west coast, "Manicongo" aadi 
"Regno di Manicongo,*' tneantng-, the kingdom of tbe sovereign of\ 
Costffo, wtiicli ia described by Krancis Alvares ill Ilis * Viaggio nel 
jEthiopiti/ vol, 1. p. 249, edit. Giav, Ramusio, who died m *,D. 
1540, tl(e date of tlie msip. I.'i30-40, is. I think, correct. Indeed 
CoriKQ was tiot discovered till 1487. 



OF EQUATORIAL AFRICA. 



85 



mg-oul of the Earth/ was by Djafar Mohanimed-ben- 
Mou$<t, the ClioLiaresKiian, an astronomer and keeper 
of the library at Bagdad, in the rtign of that catiph. 
Alaiamoun, ijvho was hiuiselfa lover of the sciences 
and an able astronomer, had ordered a translation of 
Ptolemy's Geography to be made, and some say that 
that Arabic work is compiled from that of the Greek 
author. 

Plate II. is by the astronomer Abu! Hassan AH Ibn 
Junis, A.D. 1008 i and that portion^ termed " Qua- 
drans Habitabilis," gives the same lake intersected by 
the equinoctial line ; but its sources are made to flow 
from a fangeof mountains called *' M, Komr,"^* which 
is situated about 15° further to the south. It seems 
to nie that this portion of the map has been taken 
from the Arabic translalicn of Ptolemy, which was 
ordered by the Caliph Almamonn; because Komr, or 
Kamr, or Kamar, signifies the same as Se\7jV7), the 
Moon; and the author, being an Egyptian, had most 
likely followed the great work of his countryman, the 
Greek astronomer of Pelusium. 

Plate IV. in Lelewel's Atlas is after a map by 
Hassan Nureddin Ihn Said, in a.d. 1274, and varies 
in a remarkable manner from the two former maps. 

It represents the Lake Kura on the equator, from 
which flows to the west a river, probably the Congo ; 
from that lake some (six) rivers communicate with 
two more lakes further south ; thence some (four) 



" Tlic word here and in the following map by Ibn Said is Komr, 
not Kamr or Kamar (ibe moon). " Thepractice of the older Araba," 
was, according to Silveetre de Sacy, to "pronouoce the word, Komr, 
as has beea proved by Malirizi/' (Humboldt's 'Views of Nature,' 
Boha'sedkt. UdO, p. 115.] 




86 



ON THE CENTRAL LAKES 



^5, and the island placed in it, in long. 30° 40' B., 
agrees with the islet laid down in the 



rivers run into each of those two lakes that have their 
sources — " Fontes Nili" — in the mounlaing "Komr," 
or the Moon. Here the Kura on the equator, would 
seem to be intended for the lake termed " Little Luta 
Nzig^," and of the two southern lakes, that on the 
east corresponds with the Nyanza, whilst the western 
one answers to the Tanganyika. I must, however, 
mention that the lake Luta Nzig^ (or Dead Locust) is 
only called ** Little'* in comparison with the two latter 
lakes. In fact, it is as yet entirely unknown ; but, 
accordhng' to Spcke's map, it is about three-fifths of 
the Lake Tanganyika in length,— perhaps ISO miles 
Ion 

called Ga'si 

* Tabula Almamuniana.' From the report of the na- 
tives it is resorted to by them, at certain times, for 
the obtaining of salt, although the lake water itself is 
stated to be sweet. 

Two other* important maps are given at No. X., the 
larger one being entitled ' Tabula Itineraria Edri- 
siana,' and the second 'Tabula Rotunda Rogeriana^' 
of the date a.d. 1154. In this last we see two lakes 
at the equator, from the north-western of which the 
river Kauga (or Kanga = Congo?) takes its origin^ 
and flows to the west. This lake, from its position, 
probably indicates the Little Luta Nzig^. The second 
or larger lake, on the e{|Uator, may be the Nyanza; 
the west lake, in about S° of south latitude, is perhaps 
the Tanganyika: and (he east lake, that called Ba- 
ringo, which has not yet been investigated, although 
it is evidently placed too far south. The head rivers 
of the two southern lakes proceed from the *'Mona^| 
Komr" and the " Fons Nih ;" but the range, being ™ 



4 



J 



or KQUATOfilAL AFRICA. 



87 



situated in lat. 12° S., is most likely given from 
Ptolemy. Leiewel calls the 'Tabula Rogeriana' the 
*' Mappe raonde " of the geographers of Sicily. It 
was preserved and described by Edrisi, and was the 
result of researches made and related by an African 
Mussulman al the court of Roger, King of Sicily, who 
reigned from a.d. 1 130 to 1 1 54. 

Plate XLIII. is a Portuguese sea-chart, or ' Charta 
Marina Portugalensium,' which was prepared for pub- 
licatioQ in 150S, but did not appear till 1513. Two 
takes are placed on it a little aoulh of ibe equator, one 
about 65'', the other in 69^ long, east of Ferro (=47^ 
and 51^ east of Greenwich), the " M. Lunie " being 
laid down in about lat,,^^ S. From each of the lakes 
a river flows to the north, and these at a few degrees 
in north latitude meet, and then furni one river, the 
Nile. This point of confluence would seem to answer to 
a spot near Madi, at the junction of the Asua river 
with the White Kile, indeed just opposite to Miani* 
Tree. 

About the same time (a.d. 1508) there was pub- 
lished at Rome * Nova Orbis Tabula/ for some edition 
of Ptolemyj and which was drawn up by the nionk 
Mariuos and another. See Plate XLIV., by Johannes 
Buysch, in Lelewel's Atlas. 

Another map of some interest is Plate XLV., the 
work of Uei-nard Sylvanus, of Eboli, in the year 151 1 ; 
it is entitled 'Tabula Ptolemsei Universalis Refor* 
mata.' In presenting some fresh additions to Pto- 
lemy* from the then recent discoveries, it delineates 
the " Lunae Montes*' as usual, but it adds to them a 
second range perpendicular to ibem, — Le, extending 
north and south, from the east and west line of the 



88 



ON THE CENTRAL LAKES 



Lunar Mountains, ami they are placed in long. 60*^ 
east of Ferro (or about 42^ east of Greenwich). 

Having already described the central equatorial por- 
tion of the map of Africa, which Mr. Hudson Gurney 
kindly forwarded to the section of the Bi'itish Associa- 
tion at Newcastle-on-Tyne, I will further observe that 
that map was taken from the rare folio edition of 
Ptolemy's 'Cosmographia,* published at Rome in 1478, 
and printed by Arnold Buckinck. 

I have lately seen a copy of it, which is preserved in 
the ''King's Library" of the British Muaeum (C. 3. 
d. 6.), and found it beautifully printed with red and 
blue cipitals, and an illuminated title-page, it is a 
Latin translation only, 

Tlie atlas, containing the maps roughly engraven on 
copper, is supposed to be the first book ever published 
" tabulis ffneis." See Bib Spenc. vol. iv. p, 537- 
Lclewel says of this tine edition (vol, ii. p. 907), that 
" it was begun by Conrad Schweinheim, and finished 
by Arnold (Panarlz) Buckinck ; and that it was trans- 
lated and edited by Doniitius Calderinus, from the 
Greek codex of Georgius Gemistns Pletho/* 

One more edition of Ptolemy deserves, as being 
one of the beat, to be here recorded, and that is by 
the French Regius Piofeasor of Mathematics, Pierre 
iheBert^ (Bertins) published at Amsterdam, 1619 ; it 
contains a coliection of maps supposed to have been 
drawn by Agathod^union, a geographer of Alexandria, 
who is thougtit to have lived about a.d. 200, and was 
the author of ' Deiineatio Orbis ex Libris Ptolemxi,' 
in Latin, A copy of the central part of Africa from 
one of these maps, fig. 1, is published by Dr. Beke 
with his paper (read at the Swansea Meeting of the 



I 



OF EQU^XTORIAL AKRICA. 



89 



British Association), entitled '* On the Sources of the 
Nile ID the Mountains of the Moon," in Jameson's 
'Edinburgh PhilosophicalJournal ' for Octohei*, 1848. 
1 will now briefly mention the noble atlas of the 
most distinguished geograplier of his age, Gerhard 
Kanffmann, but wlio is better known by his Latin name 
of Mercalor^ he having been the inventor of the geo- 
graphical Projection called after him. The edition to 
which I refer is the fifth, which was published at the 
expense of Henry Hondt \Hondins), at Amsterdam, in 
1623; it is illustrated with well-coloured maps, and 
engraven on copper by Mercatoi' himself. The parti- 
cular map to which I call attention ib entitled, '* Abia- 
sinorum sive Prutiosi Joannis Imperiura." All the 
maps and countries are described in Ltitin, Of the 
Emperor of the Abyssiniaus, whom he calls '* Pretio- 
sus, non Presbyter " (or termed in English, Prester)^ 
meaning 'high' or * mighty,* he writes, "hie inter 
maximos nosti'fe setatis monarchus procul dubio cen- 
sendus'^Cp. 337). That map delineates "*Nilusfl."as 
flowing a little to the west of south for about 5° 
south of the equator, where it issues from an immense 
lake, 8^ of latttude in length and about 4*^ of longi- 
tude in breadth, named " Zaire " or " Zembre Lacus." 
This lake, which certainly answers to the Tariga- 
nyika^ is divided by his meridian of 56^ of longitude 
east of the Azores, and exhibits a large island near its 
centre ; at its north-west end, the river Zaire is made 
to issue near a jdace also called '* Zaire." A large 
river flows iuto it from the east, which is evidently the 
Malag.irazi ; and at its southern extremity is placed 
the town Zembre, past which a river, doubtless the 
Marunguj enters that lake. All this has most likely 



90 



ON THE CENTRAL I.AK£S 



been laid down from the descriptions, already cited, 
of F- d'Encisa and De Batros. Another branch of 
the " Nilus/* at about 1" south of the equator, flows 
from a smaller nameless lake, at the north extremity 
of which is a place caUed '* Garava/* If this word 
be (which is probable) a cort'uption of Ukerewe, — the 
name of the island in the Lake Nyanza, as Kerewe, or 
Gerewe, or Garave, — it would show that that lake, al- 
though much too small, was intended by Mercator, 
Many other affluents to the Nile are inserted at the S. E. 
of the equator, and many of them proceed from dif- 
ferent lakes, only one of which I need notice : and this 
is the Barcena, which is doubtlesa meant for the Ba- 
ringa, fnr the word may be also written Barenca, or 
Baren^a. It is, however, too far to the east. 

Another very large lake, termed " ZaHan Lacus," 
the Zambesi of some authors, with six islands, on the 
east at about long. 66*^ E., and beginning near lat, 5° 
S., is laid down, which, though too large, corresponds 
with the lake now called Maravi or Nyassa, 

Mercator places his "LunEe Montes '* further south 
than Ptolemy, and consequently south of his two large 
lakes — Zembre and Zafian. 

Another large lake is given, which begins at about 
2° north of the equator. It is termed *' Niger Lacus," 
and from its north end the river Niger is made to flow- 
north. A town on its east side being named *' Maita 
Ga^i," would tend to prove that it answers to Captain 
Speke's Luta Nzige', since the island there inserted 
bears the same name of Gazi. Again, further north, 
at just about lat. ICf N., there is a smaller, but an 
unnamed lake laid down, which would seem to cor- 
respond with that now known as the Lake No, 



OF EQUATORIAL AFtUCA. 



91 



More than a century ago, the eminent French geogra- 
pher D'AQviile published (1749) his folio Atlas, under 
the auspices of the DuUe of Orleans. In his map of 
Africa his upper portion of llie Nile is chiefly Ptolemy'Si 
but somewhat modified after the Arabic maps, espe- 
cialiy that of 1274, by Ibn Said, and he djftbrs from 
all of them by his geographical positions. D'Anville 
has there delineated the hne of the " Montagues de 
la Lune,*' lu about lat. 5° N. ; tiience proceed some ten 
head-streams, which flow into two large lakes, the 
easternmost of which is in about long. 45° E. from 
Ferro (.27^ from Greenwich), One river then proceeds 
from each of the lakes, and enters a third lar^ lake 
on the parnllel of lat, 10** N. This lake is termed 
" Lac Couir, " having a town, or place, called Tmni, 
on its south side, and the river "Le Nil" thence 
issues out iu a single stream at its northern extremity. 
By comparing this third lake with a modern map 
it will at once be manifest that D'Anville's Lake Couir, 
which is clearly a corruption of Kavar, or Kura 
Kavar^ from the Arabian maps, is placed where the Lake 
No and river Gazelle (Bahr el Ghazal) actually exist. 

D*ADville has engraven the following judicious re- 
marks upon his map,-" respecting the *' sources of the 

^ These are ihe original wordu of D'Anville :■ — " Quoi qu'on se 
coit flatt^ daii^ le dernier si^cle, d'uvoir trouve les aources du Nit 
dana celled d'ua ^os fleuve de I'Abissmie, cepeodant T^tude dea 
g^og-raphea de Tautitjuite nous appreod^ qu'ila out cannu ce Beuve 
BOU8 le nam particulier d'Astspus, et bien distiiiicteiiient d'un autre 
plus reculd dans le cotititient de I'Africiue, et auquel le nom de Nil 
e«t doQD^ par pr^f^rence. Ain«i, dans le cb9 oil houb sommeB 
d'ignarer encore les vrahs savrcta de re fleuve, od n'est p&s en droit 
de rejeter eoti^retnent ce que non-seulcmetit Ptol^oi^e, mais encore 
les g^ograpbes orieataux, £1 Edrisl ct Abuirc'da, rapportcat de sup 
origiae, jusqu'^ ce que d'autrev connolssaaces nous aoient acqaiBu/' 



92 



ON THE CENTRAL LAK^S 



Nile :"— " Although one flattered oneself, in the last 
century, that the sources of the Nile had been found in 
those of a large river of Abyssinia, yet tlie study of the 
geographers of antiquity informs us that they had 
known thai river by the particular name of Astapus, 
and very distinctly of another (river) more remote in 
the continent of Africa, and to which the name of 
Nile is given by preference. Thus, in the case where 
we are still ignorant of the true sources of that river, 
we have no right to reject entirely what, not only 
Ptolemy, but also the Oriental geographers El Edrisi 
and Abulfeda, relate concerning their origin, until we 
Bhall have acquired further information about them." 

M. Vivien de Saint-Martin, in his recent work, 
* Le Nord de I'Afrique,' (Par. 1863) follows in a mo- 
dified manner M. D'Anville ; and I need scarcely say 
that he is greatly in error. He lays down in his 
"Carte No. I/' at the time of Ptolemy, the two 
" Nili Paludes/' in about lat. S° and 9° North ; into 
these flow rivers coming from 2" and 4^ North of the 
equator; and the longitudes of the two lakes are re- 
spectively about 46*^ and 48° east from Ferro, 

Since the best Greek editions of Ptolemy are rare, 
and the maps of Africa, by different cartographers, 
which are appended to the Latin translations, vary in 
the position of the equatorial lakes, or "Nili Paludes," 
I will next briefly state from Wilberg's excellent and 
collated edition (Essend. 1843), what that Egyptian 
geographer has actually recorded (Geogr. hb. iv. cap. 7) 
concerning them, both in his own words and iu my 
interpretations. 

Elra Ka&' 6 evoihai 6 NeiXos trorafios atra rwit p€avra>v 



OF EQUATORIAL AFRICA.. 83 

Ta>f Xifi-iJdiV 7) Bva-ft,iKfor€pa ..... I'f vot. s" 
^ uvardKuciitT^pa twv Xi^vmv . . . fe vot. ^ 

"Then where the river Nile {kMIc river) become* on*, by the 
unitiDg of the rivers that flow out of two lake* which are placed 

higher up . . . 60° north U^ 

The /aore western of ibe lakeq 57° ?outh 6* 

The more eastern of the lakes ..,.,. 65° »outh 7"^." 

Again Ptolemy writes (lib. iv, cap. 8), Totrroi^ fikv ouv 
Tov i£o\Trov TeptoLicotJaiu AtSimm ' Af6p(ii7roif}ayotj utv aVo 
BvcTfibtv BiTiK€i TO T^f ^fXiji^F opQs^ atfi ov inTo&f^omat ras 
j(iojiat tu 7QV Nn\ov Xl^Lvait xtu fTrt^e* fLolpas ra trtpoTA 
T^fr XeX'Ji'i;* 5pf)Vi — cf vot/ t/9 X' jta) ^^vor. tff\. 

Having mentioned the KqXttos Bap^aptieoi^ or the 
'* Barbaric Gulf," being that portion of the Indiaa 
Ocean which flows along the coast of Zanguebar, the 
author adds : — *' About ihis gulf (Barbaric) the iEthi- 
opian Anthropophagi inhabit, froni whom the Moun- 
tain of the Moon extends towards the tyest, wherefrom 
the Lakes of the Nile receive the (melted) snows ; and 
the extremities of the Mountain of the Moon reach 
th^e degrees^sr S. 12° 30', and 67° S. Vr 30'." 

From these accounts we learn that the Mountain of 
the Moon, or the range of that mountain, is placed by 
Ptolemy in 12' 30' south latitude,-' and that it extends 

" If 12° 30* here could be considered aji an error of copyiaCa for 
2'"' 30', then llie range of the Mountains of the Moon would include 
the mouDtains extending from 28° to 38^ east longitmle. Rnd bo 
comprise the mountains called by Sjjeke " of the moon," ns well bi 
KiliiDBiidjaro and Mount Keota. This is one view of the question. 
But a second andu better maybe alleged a& followfl i — From Che eectiong 
giTca ip Spekc*» map^ it would appear that the lake Little Windermere, 
at the east slope of Mount M'fumbiro, la isituute 3639 feet above the 
oceafli acid that fi-om thence to Kaz£, 3564 feet in south liititude 



94 



ON THE CENTRAL LAKERS 



from east to west, 10° of longitude ; that the streams 
increased by the melted snows flow northwards into two 
lakes, which are 8^ of longitude apart ; of which, the 
eastern one is placed in 65° of longitude and lat. 7** S., H 
but the western is in 57° long.'** and lat. if S. : that ^ 
the rivers which issue from them flow for about eight 
degrees of latitude more to the north, and then meet 
together at a spot fixed in long. 60° and lat. 2^ N, ; 
and tiience the uiiited stream constitutes the river Nile. 
This point of conjliience of the lake-rivers, the num- 
bers of which are not specified, although the lakes 
themselves are expressly said to be two^ would seem to 
correspond with the place named Koki,^oni& 15 miles ^| 
south of the Karuma falls, as laid down in Speke's " 
map ; that is, if we can consider Ptolemy's degrees of J 
latitude to be the same as our own ; but if not nearly H 
co-extensive, then the confluence of the lake-rivei'S 



at 5*, IhiB high range continues to exceed 3000 feet in height* 
Agiain, from Kax^ to East Ugngo in about G° 30' south latitude, tduch 
the same altitade ia continued ; thence succeeds the Rob6ho, given 
as 5148 feet high, and a chain of that name Chen eeems to v\m to 
the north towards MoutiIb Kilimandjaro and Ketiia. Why may not 
this Bweep of & maanlainoiis country, heitig somewhat lunate in 
form, and traversing, as it cJoes, the Montf Moezi, or rather the U-i- 
yamvesi, — kingdom or land of the moon, — have been esteemed at 
the more correH portion of the Lunar range ? With this view, 
Ptolemy, on the suppoBition that his degrees of latitude are equal to 
our modern, ones, would only he in error hy 6^ Bonth latitnde. But 
he would be rig'ht aa to the xtnvtkii, or melted snowa, descending from 
the snow-clad Kenia, and awelling moat hkely the Lake Bartngtt and 
its streams, which flow into the Aaua, or tributaries of the White 
River or Nile. 

^ Here GS" and 57** of east longitude, if computed from St. An» 
tonio, as I have supposed afterwards, would answer to 40° and 3'i^ 
of east longitude from Greenwich, which are more likely positiona. 



4 
4 

4 



OF EQUATORIAL AFRICA. 



9j 



may probi^bly be extended to about Miani's Tree. The 
corresponding degrees of Ptolemseati longitude are difli- 
cult to reconcile ; if reclconed from Feno, one of the 
Fortunate Islands, 60° of longitude wouid agree witb 
42°, instead of 32° or 33** east of Greenwiclij nearly 
the correct positions. But I think it probable that 
Ptolemy, who reckoned his first degree of longitude 
from the '" Fortunate Isles" (lib, i. cap, 12), included 
under that general name, the more western islands 
called anciently the Gorgades, or Gorgones, and now 
the •' Cape Verd Islands," So, by placing his first 
meridian through the island at this day named San 
Antonio (in about long. 25^^34' west), the most western 
of them, we should then find that his 60° would cor- 
respond nearly with Ion;?. 34° e;tst from Greenwich, 
which is a more exact approximation to the longitude 
of either Miani's Tree, or Koki in the Chopi district- 
It must therefore be acknowledged that these ac- 
counts of Ptolemy, which relate to the upper portion 
of the Kile, to the reservoir-lakes beyond the equator, 
to the head-streams of that mighty river, and to a 
range of mountains termed '* of the Moon,"' from 
whence descend, as well as from whose roots spring, 
the waters and sources that feed those central lakes, 
are in the main correct. 

Indeed, so accurate have his descriptions been proved 
by recent explorations, that they strongly confirm the 
opinion that that Egyptian geographer had received 
,tfaem from some natives, or from some merchants who 
lad actually visited those distant regions, for the pur- 
pose of obtaining (among other valuable things) tusks 
of ivory. Moreover, he has expressly stated that, " we 
learnt from we7-chants who passed over from Arabia 



96 



ON THB CENTRAL LAKES 



tmA 



Felix into (those parts of Africa called) Azania, Rha] 
etc. (about Zanguebar), tliat the Nile flows out of (cejj 
tain) lakes . . . very far in the interior."^' ^ 

Ptolemy's words are these : — Kai fi^p luu irapa r^v 
OTTO TTjs Apaffias ttJs Kv&ai/jiovos Bia'n£paiovfii.vo}v ^fiiroprnv 
eTTi Ta 'PaTTTO, . . . fiauOaifOfiev , , . ray "Kifj-easf &£ de^ M 
iVfitXos pel . . . (v6oTepa) fTvy^vp. (Lib. i. cap. 17.) 

Herr Ferdinand Werne, fifteen years ago, in his 
paper '* On the Sources of the White Nile," which was 
read at the meeting of the British Association at Swan- 
sea in IS48» publicly expressed the same opinions. 
That traveller, who one of the European officers of 
the expedition sent in 1840-41 by Mohammed All, 
Pasha of Egypt, to explore the Nile, and who, like the 
Roman officers dispatched by the Kmperor Nero for 
the same object^ seem to hnve turned back at places 
not so very far apart from each other. Werne reached 
4° of north latitude, '^^ near Laburu ; Miani cut his ini- 

"3 Captain Burton says (p. 44U Journal Ray. Geogr, Soc. vol. 
xiix.) : — " Zanzibar h tbe principal mart for perbaps the Ane&t and 
largest ivory in tbe wgrld,'* It collects the tusks of the elephants 
frequenting: " the lands lying between the parallels of 2° north, lat. 
and 10° south lat., and the area extends from the coast to tbe 
regions lying westward of the Tanganyika Lake," This being the 
ca£G, it ii very surprising that those countries should not have l>eeti 
well known for many years past. It is likely, however, that tbe 
akve trade, in a grent degree, was the cause of the civilized world 
being kept in ignorance of Iheci. 

'■^ But according to the French engineer Arnaud's Htatement 
(Bull, de la Sue. Gdograph., Feb. 18-42, p. 04), the more exact 
distnuce reached ia thus given ; Ibc expedition stopped for want of 
water in the river, at tbe season when they got there, lu 4° 42' 42* 
north latitude, and 31° 28' east longitude of Greenwich, where 
mountains close upon the White Nile on both sides. This spot 
would be in Sp>ek&'e map about Rijeb or Doro, aouth of Gondokoro. 
M. d'Arnaud then add?, that the river continue* for thirty leagues 




OF EqVATORUL AFRICA. i>7 

lials on a tree about 20' further south, and ihe Roman 
explorers most piobably advanced to the Rariima 
Falls,** to a distance of about I*' 43' further southward 
than Werne's expedition. 

After distinctly contradicting '*the supposed dis- 
covery' ntade by M. Antoiiie d'Abbadie, of the source 
of the Nile in lat. V 49' north," and Icng, 3U° 2' east of 
Greenwich, Heir Wcrne adda that he was " told by the 
natives^ that (he sources of ibe Nde lie still further to 
the south." 

*' Lakono, the king of Bari, and his people in- 
variably pointed to the south, when describing the 
situation of the sources of the river," and they could 
not be induced *' to deviate from their original state- 
ment, lliat the rher comtn fiom the snulk.'* Wcrne 
[*• expressed his conviction that Ptolemy and the natives 
of Bari will be found to be correct in their statements 
rCBpecting the position of the sources of the Nile, and 
that those sources are in the regions near the equator, 

further 9outb. when several braDchea unite, the chief nnc flowing 
from the east (Joum. Rhv. Geogr. Soq,. vol, xvijl. p. 73). Now, 
if we calcLilaTe iiiii<fty niLles ulong' the course of the Hr^r, the con- 
Jluenee t>( these liranohea will be found where the Asua, whidi is 
euppoftcd to flow out of Luke Baringo, joins the White Nile, indeed 
^kclofteDpon Miani'8 tree. With this evidence obtained in 1642, in 
addition to the Qccoimls of Herodotus, Seneca, Ptolecny, And the 
Arabian maps. It ia to me most remarkable that gcographeia should 
bave persisted in (heir own A^potAeitcal views of the sources of the 
Babr cJ Ahiad. or true Nile, for ^ome twt^nly years longer. 

^ This J8 most likely, from the narrative that SenetB hiis left us, 
and which I have before given. There are. however, other neigh- 
bouring falls in the liver, which proceeds lo the west towarda I^ke 
XaIa Nzig^. ADd which Speke did not iDveatigate ; he mentions 
(p. 568) " one within ear-Eonnd, down the river, &iiid lo be very 
i^giwid." S'gnor Miani left a record on a tree, and it ib poBsibk* that 
B VOL. Till. H 



ON THE CENTRAL LAEES 



'i 



where we shall also find the Mountains of the Moon."* 
**Iii the notes to the translation of Abd Allalifs 
' Description of Egypt,' M. Silvestre de Sacy^'' states, 
* the name of the mountains regarded by Leo Afri- 
canus as furnishing the sources of the Nile, has gene- 
rally been rendered ' Mountains of the Moon.' I do 
not know whether the Arabs originally borrowed this] 
denomination from Ptolemy/' 

" Reinaud, in his translation of Abulfeda (ii. pp.' 
81-82), regards it as probable that the Ptolenisean in- 
terpretation of the name of ' Mountains of the Moon ' 
(op^ a€\7]pata) was tliat originally adopted by the 
Arabs."^« m 

It may have been that the Arabs used this appella- . 
tion of the mountains from Ptolemj', after his work 
had been translated in the ninth century of our era, 
into Arabic; or it may have been received by the 
Greek geographer from some Arab merchants who 
knew the country ; although I think it more likely^ 
that the *' Mountain of the Moon " was a local am 
indigenous name. The uncivilized natives of that por- 
tion of equatorial Africa may have so called, in their 
own language, that range, eitlier from some crescent- 
like shape or disposition of the mountains, or from 
some high summit of them being considered, in cerfl 
tain appearances of the moon, to reach nearly to tliat 
orb ; or possibly from a religious motive, from their 
being in some degree {'^eXjjifoa-e^els) " worshippers 

■omc inscription cut upon a reck near the river by Nero's centurioiift 
may yet be discovered. 

•" Rfport of the British AsBociation. p. 78, 1349. 

^ Pages 7.353, edit. ISIO. 

** 'Views of Nature,' by A. vgn Hotoboldt. p. 115, Boba'a 
1850. 



OF EQUATORIAL AFBICA. 



m 



^f the moon ;" indeed, Captain Speke tells us of King 
^Umaaika's moDthly ceremony, which he terms " the 
^w-moou levee" (p. 224). This takes place every 
**e» moon in the kingdom of Karaguu on the eastern 
^ide of the roots of the cone of M'lumbiro, the loftiest 
of that traveller's Lunar Mountains. 

In concluding, I will notice only one more map, and 
Ibat is Ihe red portion of Keith Johnston's reduced 
map iQ Speke'g Journal. This is said to be taken 
from the Purans, or ancient Hindoos, by Lieut. Wil- 
ford. Captain Speke thus alludes !o il: — " I came to 
the conclu&ion that all our previous information con- 
cerDing the hydrography of these (equatorial) regions, 
as well as the Mountaicts of the Moon " {or the Soma 
Girt of the Purans, p. xv.) "originated with the ancient 
Hindoos, who told it to Ihe priests of the Nile." " Rea- 
soning thus, the Hindoo traders alone, in those days, 
I believed, had a firm basis to stand upon, from their 
intercourse with the Abyssinians, through whom they 
must have heard of the country of Amara, which they 
applied to the Nyanza, and with the Wanyatfiuezt, or 
* Men of the Moon,' from whom they heard of the 
Tanganyika aud Karague Mountains" (p, 264). 

This is clearly hypothetical, and I can by no means 
think that all our former information of that part of 
Africa, was made known by '* the Hindoo traders 
a]one ;'* for surely the early Egyptian writers had re- 
ceived some accounts of the more southern districts, — 

*lT]Kr( tTfTTTOV N<IAo? ciWoTtH' p«OS, 

** Where from the mountains with papyrus crown'd,^ 



100 



ON THE CENTRAL LAKES 



The venerable Nile impetuous pours 
His headlong torrent," 

just as Ptolemy had done ; and most likely from 
sinlan or Arabian merchants, who bad visited some 
portions of them in fjucst of gold, spiees, or ivory. 

Further, on examining the red portion of Johnston's 
map, in which *' the couive of the river (JaH, or Great 
Krishna^ through Cusha-Dwip without, and Slmnkha- 
Dwip proper, from the Purans by Lieut. Francis WiU 
ford," I felt great suspicions about the correctness of 
it, and particularly about the so-called " Lake of 
Amara," which is too like the Red Sea reduc^, in^d 
verted, and placed in the centre of Africa, to be in the 
least probable ; I therelbre directly (on December 20th) 
wrote tq an able Indian traveller, who is well ac- 
quainted with Hindoostanee, askins; him the supposed 
age of that so-called Puran map, and where WiIford*s 
description of it could he found. To this inquiry (oa 
January 4th} I received from him this information : — ■ 
'* The early Hindoo map is taken from vol. iii. of the 
' Asiatic Researches ' of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
(1792) p. 295, and explains a long paper *' On Egypt 
and other countries adjacent to the Cali river, or ^ile 
of Ethiopia, from the ancient books of the Hindoos," 

here translated BvpXiwv dpw-v, but tbc '^BylrliNe Mountains," i'.r. the 

mountaiQB nenr which, or at wbo?e IjHsea. the byblus or papyrus 
abounds, thence itic roots of tb^ SfX^jvaui op^ caQ be aUo appru- 
prliUely called Bu^A/va ofnf. The puper-rush, qr Pw/ji^r»s autiqnontm 
of Sprengel, wtia formerly, but not now, raft with in the lower Nile; 
at pres^eot it is abundant od the niargios of the lake& and rivers in 
equutorial Afnciv This aquatic plant \& well represented in the 
Plate of the Little Windermere Lake, situate near the eastern rauta 
of M'fuJiibiro, iu Speke's Journal, p. '223. See further on Lbe 
papyrus. Hogg-'a * Cla&sical Plants of Sicily ;' and the ' Magazine 
Nutural History ' for April, 1864. 



of £QUATUB]AL APRICA. 



lOl 



7 Lieut. F. Wilford. The map is not an ancient map 
at all, but merely one drawn to illustrate Wilford's 
theory, that the Cali of the Hindoo Puranas is identical 
witli the Nile. This, I think, he entirely fails to prove, 
or even to make appear probable. After reading the 
paper, I Iiave been unable to see any good reason for 
supposing that Cali (the name of a Hindoo goddess) is 
the river Nile, and not a Hindoo river. All the names 
of places on the banks of the Cali, the forests, lake, 
etc, are Hindoo, and have no resemblance to any 
names on or near the Nile. The materials for the 
paper are arbitrarily colkcted from numerous Puranas, 
and other Hindoo writings, extending over several 
^ centuries of years," This account strongly confirmed 
Bmy suspicions, and 1 felt certain that it must he es- 
l^teemed purely visiomtry. To my surprise, however, 
about a fortnight afterwards, my kind informant wrote 
to me again, as follows : — *' I have looked into vol. viii. 
(dated 1805) of the ' Asiatic Researches.' There, at 
p. 249. etc., Lieut. Wilford writes, in great distress, to 
say that hia former paper (in vol. iii.) was a complete 
■imposition, he having been taken in by his Pundit, or 
Hiudoo teacher. lie seems to have told this wily 
fellow * all cur ancient mytliology, history, and geo- 
graphy,' letting him know that he was anxious to tind 
evidence of the Hindoos having been acquainted with 
lhem» for their ancient writings. The Pundit sent ex- 
tracts (from the Puranas, according to him), and Wil- 
ford translated them without suspecting anything 
wrong. It was afterwards found out that the Pundit 
had invented legends to resemble those told him by 
rXV^ilford, inserted the names, Egypt, etc., and made up 
a story to please him. In the original MS. he erased 




102 



ON THE CENTRAL LAKES 



the real name of a country^ and pat in Egypt ; he took 
out leaves, and added others composed by himself^j 
which he thought would suit WiUbrd's views.'""^ ^| 

It is but just to the memory of so distinguished a 
man as the then President of that " Asiatic Society " 
(Sir Wm. Jones)^ to state what another correspondent 
has since told me, viz. that he " at Jirst dedined to 
acquiesce in Wilford's views, but he became at length 
convinced, when Wilford produced his apparent au- 
thorities, that is to say, the supposed oripnaL MSS., 
whereby the author had been himself imposed upon."^' 

* Having occaaion to write to Mr. Keith JohuBtan in Ediriburgh, 
I mentioned to him the worthlcasness of the red part of his reduced 
Mnp of Equatorial Arricu, and pDicited out vol. viii. of the * Asiatic 
Researches,' where he woiiUl fitid how [jeutcnant Wilford had been 
tricked, with the exprest; object that, in d new edition of Captain 
gpeke'a 'Journal.' the map tni^ht be corrected. To this Mr. John- 
iton replied {on Jtia. 26), th&t "he hail nothing' to do with the red 
map. hut he felt sure Captain Speke would be greatly amazed" 
when be learnt the particulari of the deception. 

*' Ttiis correspondent is the same able scholar who (I afterwards 
found) wrote the biogrtiphicral article in the * Penny Cyclopesdia,' 
under the title "Wilford." Having referred to Wilford'* essay 
(which was writteain or before 1791), in vol, iii. 'Asiatic Researches.' 
reprinted in London in ISOl, I read {p. 463) Sir W. Jones's owo 
* Remarks ' on itj and in whicti he confeaaes that *' he had abandoned 
the greate&t part of tbat natural distrust and [acrcdulity which had pre- 
viouely taken possession of bis tDind." (J. H., April l2tb, 1&64.) 



Norton House, Sioc/tlon-on-DfcB, 
Janvartf 29lh, 1864. 



OF EQUATORIAL AFBICA. 



103 



EXPLANATION OF THE MAPS. 



I 



[. m a portion of the map of " Africa " by John 
Seneit, Esq,, F.R.S., and dedicated to Sir Isaac Newton, 
President of the Royal Society. It was engrav^ed by that 
eminent " Geographer to the Queen" {Anne)y about the year 
1713. The "Great Lake," corresponding with the Nyanza, 
is laid down with considerable accuracy. 

Plate II., No. 1, is taken from a part of John Senex*s 
"Map of the World" bearing the date of 17U- Here it 
will be Been that the " Oreat Lake of the Caffrea'* is placed 
nearer to the equator, and therefore more correctly than in 
bis previous map. The longitudes are calculated both from 
Ferro and from Greenwich. ' 

No. 2 is copied from Walker's map of "Africa," which 
was published in his small ' Universal Atlas,' No. 4, in 181 1. 
Here the " Lake of 2ambre," now called the " Lake Tan- 
ganyika," is represented with much correctness. It would 
however seem, in the absence of any actual survey, to be 
prolonged by above three degrees of latitude too far to the 
soutb. 

No. 3 gives a portion of a Scotch map engraved by Lizars 
in 1815, which, having omitted the " Great Lake" (Nyanza) 
of Senes. and the long "Lake of Zombre" of Walker, and 
erroneously styling the country where those lakes had been 
previously notified, as an '* unknown territory," merely adds 
the "Lake Mora\'i." This is bisected by the parallel of lat. 
10* S., and by the meridian of 35° east from Greenwich. 

Plate HI. represents, in a surprising manner^ the actual 
condition of the physical character of that part of Central 
Equatorial Africa, viz. as abounding in lakes, rivers, and 
mountains. This is taken from a portion of the illustrious 
geo^apher, Mcrcator's, map of the " Empire of the Abyssi- 
niana, or of Preater John," as detailed in the beautiful work 
published by Henry Ilondt, at Amsterdam, in 1623. It ap- 
^ pears from this map, that nearly all the lakes of that African 



I 



104 CENTRAL LAKES OF EQUATORIAL AFRICA- 



district are laid down, although not with great exactness. The 
longitude is given from the Azores; this calculation, I ap- 
prehend, originated from the fact of the Flemings having 
been permitted in 1466 by the King of Portugal to colonize 
those islands soon after tiieir discovery ; and Mefcator, him- 
self being a Fleming, naturally cliose that western region as 
his starting^-point, wherefrom to calculate his longitudes. In 
addition to this, it is very probable that the Flemings had 
received from their friends and signiors — the Portuguese — 
much liiforrLiation concerning the real nature of that territory 
of Africa. 

Plate IV. is a map reduced by Mr. Keith Johnston, of 
Edinburgh, from Captain Speke's map of the " Outfall of 
the Xile," It is neatly executed ; but owing to its having 
been drawn before Mr. K. Joh-nston had received Captains 
8peke*8 and Grant's observations, it is not altogether accu- 
rate, One subject is worthy of remark, and this is not free 
from surmise, or even doubt,, — it is this! in the map pub- 
lished by Mr. Edward Stanford, June 22nd,, 1863, and signed 
by Captain Speke ":J6th February, 18G.V' the mountains 
termtd by that traveller the ''Mountains of the Moan," are 
placed at the north extremity of Lake Tanganyika; but in 
his own map published in his Journal in De,cemberla3t^ Cap- 
tain Speko (or the constructor of it) has altered their posl- 
tion^ and inserted them around the west and north sides of 
the more northern Lake Rusiaij and has also given them, a 
certain mythical, colt's-foot form, 



IMiito IV. 




s« 



Sketch Ha|> 

or TNI 

SOURCES of thfl NILE 




CAP- Sl'KBK A (JRANT. 

Rofliali lOIck 






^VHl'Jton. 







Um|.K. or Otvunwlfih 



F 




105 



v.— A TRANSLATIOX OF SOME ASSYRIAN 
INSCRIPTIONS. 

WV H, It, TAIhBOT, V.P.B.fl.L. 

(Read January 6th. 1 B€4.) 

No. I. 
A GRAMMATICAL TABLET JN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

This inscription on a clay tablet in the British Museum 
marked K. 39, was first published by Oppert (Expe- 
ditiOD scientifique en M^sopotaraie, p, 359). 

Although I agree with him as to some parts of the 
iDScription, yet 1 translate many words and phrases 
quite differently. 



1. HaikalAshurhanipal 
sar kissat, sar Ashur-ki ; 

2. sha Nabu, Tasmita, 
UZDU rapastu ishruku, 



3. ikhutzu ini namirtu- 



6U. 



Palace of Ashurbanipal, 
king o( nations, king of 
Assyria, 

to whom Nabu and Tas- 
mitahave given far-hearing 
ears, 

and have sharpened his 
far-seeing eyes. 



Observations. 



The name of the goddess Tasmita is derived, accord- 
ing to Oppert, from the verb i^D^, to hear. 



106 



ASSYRIAN INSCRIPTIONa. 



Nabu, who answers to Mercury, the god of eloquence, 
may be derived from naha, to speak divinely, Heb. 
N13, which also means to propliesy, and to be very 
eloquent ("Mercuri facunde, nepos Atlantis "j. Thus 
Nabu and Tasmita, as the deities who presided over 
speech and hearings were naturally united in the As- 
syrian mythology. 

Ashurbanipal was so ardent a patron of learning, 
that in his inscriptions be calls Nabu and Tasmita his 
father and mother, by whom he was educated (Oppert, 
p. 361). 

The epithet which accompanies the word " ears *' is 
expressed by a symbol, followed by the syllable tu; 
Oppert read3 it rnprfstn, and this is fully confirmed by 
the tablet K. 43, which I have examined in the Museum, 
and in which I find this passage repeated, with the 
word rapastu written at fdll length. Rapastu. means 
tPirfe, capacious^ and is used in the inscriptions as an 
epithet of the world, and of divers large countries, aucU 
as Syria, etc. 

When the king says that the gods have given him 
capacious ears, we are to understand far-hearing ears, 
and I haA'e therefore so translated it. 

Ishruku, ' they hate given : ' a very common word. 
Here K. 43 reads iskruku's for ishruMt-su, they have^ 
given to him. 4^ 

Ikhutzu, they have sharpened for him ; ikhniu-m- 
From the Heb. verb kknt or /Aurf, in, to sharpen ; 
which is used of sharpening a sword, the intellect, etc. 

Here the tablet K. 43 reads ihussu. 

Namirtu, far-seeing : from the verb nainar or amsr, 
to see. But K. 43 reads tamtrtu, which I think is 
better. 




GRAMMATICAL TABLET. 



107 



L {Conftnued.) Dippi 
sarruti 

4. shaas sarin alik 
makri-ya 

5. nia miru suatu 
ikhutzUf 

6. ninimNabuilukipir, 
antakkii mala as nasmu, 



7. as dippi asthur, 
i^buik, abriu, 



8. ana tamarti titashi- 



Va 



9. kireb haikal-yaukin. 



The tablets of elemen- 
tary instruction, 

which, among the kinga 
who went before me 

none showed solicitude 
for this useful work, 

by the favour of Nabu, 
god of learning, I pro- 
nounced the words with 
my breath, 

(then) I wrote them 
upoti tablets, I conjugated 
them, I dissected them, 

(and) for the instruction 
of the Teachers 

I placed them within 
ray palace. 



Dippi, tablets, is the Chald. P^l, tabula, — used in 
Rabbinic literature aUo for ' folium libri, pagina.' 

i^afTUti has, I believe, nothing to do with the cora- 
tnon word sarruti (kingdom). It here means elemen- 
tary instruction, and is derived from the Chaldee verb' 
NIU?, inchoavit. 

It is sometimes written siirrut, e. g. " fn the be- 
ginning (surrut) of my reign, as 1 sat on my throne," etc. 

However different these two meanings of sarruti 
maj^ seem, yet they had a common origin, to which 
the Latin language offers an exact parallel. On the 
one band we have princeps^ princtpalus, etc., implying 
foyal power (the tirst in ranA), while, on the other 
hand, we have principium, the beginning of a thing 
(the first in time), and principia, the first principles o( 




108 



ASSYRIAN INSCeiPTIONS. 



a science, its very elements. So a child's primer is his 



premier tivre 

There is anotlier remark which may be made. 

The Hebrew ly often changes to Ji in Syriac and 
Cbaldee, as lin, for TlU?, a bull ; hence there may be 
some connection between sarrut and the Chald. N^P, 
' docuit, erudivit,' and as a subst. ' ptedagogus, magister, 
doctor,' whence Nm"^Wn, taruta, doctrina. See Scbaaf, 
p. 6^0. 

JVtVi, no one. It is upon this word that the whole 
sense of the passage reposes. Fortunately, there are 
several examples of it. To cite one: in the inscrip- 
tion of Esarhaddon (Col. V. 1, 34), we find the follow- 
ing passage ; — " A great building. . . . 



which, among the kings 
my fathers who went be- 
fore me 

none had ever made, 1 
accomplished." 



** sha as sarin alikut 
makri abi-ya 

" nin la ebusu, anaku 
ebus. 

It may be added, as a further confirmation, that 
K, 43 adds the particle la (not) after miru sjtntu. 

Mitu suatu, ' this work/or ' this useful work/ is a very 
common phrase. For instance;^ on Beilino's cylinder, 
1. 42, we have, " Then I, Sennacherib, King of Assyria, 
resolved to accomplish tliis good work " {miri miatu). 

Ikhutzii. This word is differently spelt from ikhuUu 
in I. 3, and is, I think, of different origin. I would 
derive it from Heb. nakhatz, ypi3, to urge a thing on- 
wards ; to be solicitous about it. The sense is^ "no 
former king cared far education and literature." 

iVi'nm, "by favour of." In other passages it is 
ninumi. Instead of the final m, Oppert's text has 
Jctiy which, I think, may be an error. If the upper- 



4 

4 



OaAMMATICAL TABLET. 



109 



most wedse be removed somewhat to the left, it will 



)ecome a 



final 



m. 



Ilu kipir, I have rendered " god of learning," but this 
is conjectural It may be " lord of researcb, or study." 
Itn means a close searcb or exploration (Schindler, 
631), e. g., in Joshua icn is to explore (the land). 

Antukku is a very doubtful word. I have rendered 
it "I pronounced/' supposing it may be the t conju- 
gation of the verb nakakk, TO3, to declare or make 
manifest. As an adjective and preposition, TO'y is 
' proraplus, coram, ante oculos,' etc. 

The analogy of the Latin may help us : res in 
prompiu, is a thing displayed or declared j expromere 
is to utttr, e. g. * exprome leges ! ' declare the law ! * ex- 
prome sentenliam !' speak out your opinion ! 1 there- 
fore think it possible that antakkii means "1 spoke 
out." 

Mala. Ifeb. n^^. Syr. et Chakl. «Sa, verbum. 

NasmUf breath. Heb. DU^i, hahtuSj anhelitus, spi- 
ritus, anima. 

Asknik, I joined. The meaning of this expression 
is rather obscure ; but the verb has that meaning in 
the great E. L H. inscription. Perhaps it is a grum- 
matical term, and in that case we cun only guess at its 
meaning, which would probably be conventional. For 
instance, it may meau * I conjttfjated ' the verbs ; which 
is the case on some of the tablets. 

Abriu appears to be another grammatical term, " I 
dissected," viz. the words, which expresses very fairly 
the nature and arrangement of some of thei^e tablets. 

Moreover the word ahriu or ehriu (in Hebrew liri) 
occurs on Bellino's cylinder, 1. 20, where 1 long ago 
translated it dissecifi. But what chiefly makes me 



no 



ASSYRIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



think that this is correct, is the curious fact, that the 
verb isn ia used iu grammar for dividing a word into 
its members or syllables ; see Buxtorf" s Thesaurus, 
and my paper in the ' Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society' for 18G0 {vol. xviii. p. 91). Such a coin- 
cidence can hardly be fortuitous, aad we may therefore 
infer, that the Assyrian grammarians and teachers of 
youth employed it in the same sense. 

Tamarti, Instruction : properly enlightenment, from 
the verb namnr or atnar, to see. Perhaps, however, the 
king only meant to say, ' I placed them in the palace, 
for the sight of the Teachers/ or to be seen by them. 

Litashi, teachers or instructors. The Heb. U?I37 is 
to sharpen anything, as a sword, or the eyes. So the 
Latins say both acien gladii and acies oculorum. 

From hence (see Sch, p. 947) comes lutash, t?t317, 
a master or teacher. Thus in Genesis, Tubal-cain is 
the lutashj or teacher, of all workers in metal. The 
Talmud renders it rabbon, great master. 

The tablet K. 43 ends with an imprecation on any 
future sovereign who should eiface Ashurbanipal's 
name on the tablet, and substitute his own. It is 
broken, and what remainiS is only *'u mu-su itti mu- 
ya-isbaddaru, , , . sumu-su zir-su as mati likalliku." 

" And shall write his name instead of mine . . . (may 
the gods) sweep away from the land his name and his 
race!" 

I will add a fragment from the tablet K- 13U which 
commences with an invocation to some deity : — " Unto 
the king of the world, my lord, [l pray), , , , May 
Ashur and the other gods accompany my lord the 
King in his journey {allik} from the Kingdom unto the 
land of Egypt r" 

The original is, — 



« 



I 

I 



VOTIVE TABLET. 



lU 



Line 4, ana ear belm-ya 

5, likrubuni valtu sarti \\ 

6, ana mat Mitsir. 

Likrubuni, may tbey draw nigh 1 from the verb 
kereb, lo draw nigh. This fragment is only important 
as showing that Ashurbanipal, on one occasion, made 
a journey to Egypt. 



No. II. 

AN INSCRIPTION OF SARGON. 

This inscription was first published by Oppert in hia 
* Exp^dilion Scientifique,' p. 333. My version differs 
from his in many particulars. It appears that Sargon» 
when building the palace of Khorsabad, constructed 
for each of the deiti^ whom he most honoured a sepa- 
rate chape), or rather, as I think, a small apartment 
richly embellished, in which stood the image of the 
deity, with an appropriate inscription on the wall of 
the room. Two of these have been preserved. The 
first of them is in honour of the god Ninev, the mythic 
founder of Nineveh. 



1. Ninev bel abari sha 
But-&u dannut-zu 

2. ana Sargina sar 
Itissat, sar Ashiir-ki, 
sakkauakku Babiiu, 

3. sar Sumiriu Akkadi, 
banu kumi-ka 

4. &ibut patlitzu ! lisbaa 
buhari 



O Ninev, Lord of the 
Celestials * whose hands 
are powerful, 

Unto Sargon, hing of 
nations, king of Assyria, 
high-priest of Babylon 

king of Sumir and Ak- 
kad, the builder of thy 
apartment 

protect his possessions! 
increase the rare animals 



112 



ASSYRIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



5, as kireb bit-shakdi u within his enclosures 

and preserves ! prolong his 
years 1 

protect his stud of 
horses ! keep safely his 
cliariots I 

give youth (a. «. renewed 
vigour) to his warriors un- 
conquerable ! fortify their 
valour ! 

and make his arrows 
good, to destroy his ene- 
mies I 



hit-khira ! kin pah-su ! 

6. karniski sutishir! 
Bulliraa tsindi-su ! 

7. sutah-su emukan 
lashanan 1 dunnu zikruti 1 



8. kuti-suButabi-u liaar 
gari-su ! 



Ninev, in the Assyrian mythology, was frequently 
identified with the Sun. In the invocation to him 
(B. M. pL 17), it is said that heaven and earth are 
radiant with his splendour {nukhutsu and ikdu). He 
was therefore properly called Lord of the Celestials ; 
although^ of course, a similar title might be given to 
Ashur and other gods, in invocations especially ad- 
dressed to them. 

Abari, Celestials. I agree with Oppert that this is 
the Heb. "iriN, whence l^llN is derived. Thts word 
■^''IM is applied, first, to the Deity himself; secondly, 
to the Angels, as in a passage quoted by Scbindler, 
p, 17, "Man ate the food of angels," D^'^^N, where 
the TargiTm has, " food which descended from the habi- 
tation of the W'^DmVo '' (angels) . Thirdly, to wings and 
birds, especially high-flying birds, as the ya, or acci- 
piter. Now the sun was considered a celestial bird in 
the Assyrian mythology. 

Kum, an apartment. The word occurs in that sense 
in the E. I. H, inscription more than once. 



VOTIVE TABLET. 



113 



Sibuia, wealth, occurs frequently. It is sometimes 
Epelt sahuttty as in B. M. pi. 15, 54, where there is 
this mention of a former king; '* he was very pious, 
and attained to wealth (mbuta) and old age." 

Potli-tzu. I would derive this word from Syriao 
hex curam gerere. Schaaf, p, 60, renders ""iSi by 
fifketp, * cuppB esse/ whence lie derives bathiluta, cura. 
I therefore think that sibut patli-tzu (bathili-tzu) may 
be rendered, " protect his possessions for him," fM^Xera 
tfot '}(fiiiiJ.a7<ov ai/TOt*. 

Lisbon is a very common word, 'may it be abundant !' 
or, 'may it be prosperous!' I derive it from yiiy, 
abundare (Ges. 955). 

Buhari also occurs very frequently in the sense of a 
hunting-expedition, or the result of such an expedilion, 
viz. a menagerie of rare animals. The Assyrian kings 
were extravagancy fond of this sport. 

It will be observed that our present inscription was 
dedicated to Ninev. Now, he was the god of hunting 
in conjunction with Sidu (wliose nsime comes from the 
Heb. T^, to hunt; n^, a hunting). Accordingly in 
pi. 28 of the B. M. series, it is said of the king Ashur- 
akhbal, that *' Ninev and Sidu have given him buhur 
gabar,— a vast menagerie." See line I ; but in line 32 it 
ie written ' mukiir gabar,' by a slight change of spelling. 
Bit shakdi. Bit is not merely a home, but a resi- 
dence, estate, property. Thus in the .Michaux inscrip- 
tion, line 3, a certain tield is said to lie in the n''D, or 
estate, of the man Killi. Shakdi might be translated 
custadia or cura vtgilis^ from the Heb, IpU^, vigilare, 
K curam gerere (Sch. 1930); but, on the whole, I 
W prefer to view it as an Assyrian form of shakri. The 
, Hebrew verb *i:iD, otherwise "^30, has the decided 
■ VOL. vin. T 



114 



ASSYRIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



meaning of enclosing^ or slmtling up. Bit shakdi is 
therefore an enclosure. I would render it '*a park." 

Bit kftira. The verb khira meatit to preserve, as 
we see in the frequent phrase napshat-sun ekhir, I 
Eaved their lives. 

Kin pali-su, prolong his years ! 

The correctness of this translation will, 1 think, ap- 
pear manifest, if we consider the votive tablet of Sargon 
which Oppert has pubhshed in hi& great work, p- 330. 
That tablet says in effect that Sargoa built a temple to 
the gods " pro palute vilBe suae et regni sui.*' 

Ana a su (for his own health), kin pali-su (and the 
duration of his years), etc. 

Pali * years/ occurs frequently. 

Kin mearii& firm duration or long duration. It is the 
Heb. p3, to stand firm ; in Hiph. J^3n, stabilivit, fir- 
mavit. Moreover the word is frequently used in As- 
Byrian. Nabonidus more than once prays the gods that 
the temples built by him may endure (likun) like heaven 
itself (kima shatuie). 

Ana ti su. This phrase occurs frequently. Ti means 
either life or health. It may be a contraction for tila, 
life. There is a votive inscription in the volume of the 
B. M. pi. 35, in which certain cities dedicate a statue 
to Nebo, ana ti sat (for the health of the king) u ti 
Sammiratnat (and for the health of Semiramis), the 
royal lady— his wife. Then, after giving the names of 
the cities, it adds : ana ti zi-su (for the health of their 
lives, — with the plural sign to zi) : buta-su (for their^ 
security, Heb. rTO3) : and for the length of their years, 
this statue, etc., they dedicated. 

Karniski^ horseSi and sutishir, to protect, are very 
common words. 




VOTIVE TABLET, 



115 



Suttima, from Heb. 07Cf, salvare, servare- 

Tsindi is, I think, frequently used for " chariots." 
They were bigts, drawn by two horses, and carrying 
two warriors. Frora Heb. "roa, Ishnid or isemed, jum 
gere ; per paria jungere, etc. The two warriors were 
called in Hebrew rakabim tsimdim (the two in the same 
chariot). The inscriptions have uslishir tsmdi-ya^ I 
disposed my chariots in battle array. 

SittalL It was first discovered by Dr. Hincks, that 
imperatives in Assyrian often hegio with the syllable 
gu. The meaning of that prefix is doubtful, but it liad 
probably an independent meaning- It is, of course, 
omitted where tlie verb itself begins with su, as sutishir, 
etc. I find so many instances of jt that 1 cannot do 
otherwise than adopt his opinion. 

I think that sutali may come from the verb (ate, 
WvSD» * juvenis fuit," which is found in Syriac, Talitha 
(damsel) is familiar to the readers of the New Testa- 
ment. 

In the next line we find the very similar form of 
verb, sutabi, ' make thou good !' which seems to be the 
imperative ol tab, bonus fuil, la. 1 think these two 
verbs confirm each other. 

Emukan is a very difficult word, though at the 
eame time a very common one ; in fact, it seems to 
occur in several senses. 

When Sennacherib fought with the Egyptians (B. 
M. 38, 75), the latter brought up against him emuld 
la nibi, which seems to mean ** warriors without nura- 
bef." I think theemufe (Heb. pjy) was a golden collar 
or torqueSf worn only by persona decorated for their 
eervices. So golden spurs denoted a knight, and a 
golden annulus a Roman equei. 

I 2 



116 



ASSYRIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



Lashanan probably means unconquerable; from sha* 
nan, to conquer. This verb, in the t conjugation, 
forms ashtanan, I conquered^ and ishtananii, they con- 
quered. 

Dunnu is from the root dan, strong : dannun ir meao^— 
to fortify a city (Jerusalem), ^| 

Zl/tTuH, valour, from TDl, ' masculus,' is often applied 
to the king himself. 

Kuti, arrows, ia a very frequent word. 

Linar, to destroy. When li or /w follows an im- 
perative, it answers to the Latin ut. "Acne sagittas 
11/ occidant inimicos 1" Linar comes from nar, to de- 
stroy, e.g. la maghi anar, I destroyed the unbelievers; 
zairi'SU iniru, he slew his eneoiiss (obelisk, 1, 20). 
All my enemies thou didst slay I [tanartt) [short ia- 
Bcription of Esarhaddon, CoL III. 1. 4]. H 

Guri, 'enemies,* is a very frequent word, from the 
Heb. garah, mj, to tight. 



No. III. 



J 



AN INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON ON A BLACK 
STONE FOUND AT NINEVEH, AND PRESENTED TO 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM BY THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 

This inscription is written in the hieratic character, 
and has been lithographed in pi. 49 of the B. M. vol. 
of inscriptions. A transcript of it into the ordinary 
character will be found in the following plate. It is 
full of obscurities, owing to the broken and mutilated 
state of the stone. 

The subject of the inscription is a religious revolt 
which took place in Babylonia, and which appears to 



M 



^^^■H 


K^^HH 


^^^^^^^F OF ] 


ESARHADDON. 117 ^| 


be the same that is mentioned in the great inscription ^| 


_ of Esarhaddon (Col. II. 1. 


42-54). ^^H 


H Column ^^^M 


H 1. Ashur-akbi-adanna, 


Esarhaddon, king ^^^| 


■ ^r 


^^H 


■ 2. kissati, sar A&hur-kij 


of the nations^ king of ^| 


1 


Assyria, ^| 


■ 3. shakkanakkuBabilu, 


high-priest of Babylon, ^| 


W A. sarSumiri u Akkadif 


king of Sumir and Ak* ^| 


1 


kad, ^^ 


1 5. nibu nadu, palikh 


the glorious ruler, the ^| 


^ 


worshipper ^| 


H €. Nabu u Marduk, 


of Nabu and Marduk. H 


H This preamble is usually 


followed by the word anaku^ ^H 


1 " I am be," which \& here 


omitted. ^^^| 


H 7. Vallanu-ya as bul, 


(Those who were) before ^^^B 


1 


me in life, ^| 


H 8. ear makrie as 


The ancient kings of ^^^B 


1 Sutniri 


Sumir ^^^H 


B 9. u Akkadi, itpuraha 


and Akkad, sought to ^| 


I 


make prosperous ^| 


1 10. itti, khuli, nisi, 


the standards, the army, ^| 


1 


and the people ^H 


1 11. asib tibbi suanna, 


dwelUngwithin that land ^| 


■ 12. valla . . . 


[Here two lines are lost, ^^ 


■ 13. ilu . . , 


which seem to have men- ^H 


K 


tioned the rise of a sacri- ^| 


1 


legious race of rulers or ^| 


H . 


princes.] ^| 


" 14. ana libbi bit- 


Into the holy temples H 


saggathu 


^ 



lis 



ASSYRIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



15. haikali iiim the palace- dwellings of 
rabrabim the great gods 

16. ubilu, khurassi theybrokewithviolence; 

the gold 

17. nisikti abni ana and precious stones they 

dispersed 

18. Nuva-ki ibsuru, into the land of the Su- 
makhirish sians 

19. iguku, Bel and melted U down for 

gain. 

20. Sin, Marduk ana Bel, Sin, and Marduk of 
tu8ut-zu their golden ornaments 

21. iUhulluku. . . . they stripped. . . . 



The last two lines, 22 and 23, of this Column are 
much injured and unintelligible. ^M 

The Princes who acquired power at Babylon some- 
times respected the established idolatry and at otbec^ 
times sacrilegiously plundered the temples. " 

When Susubi was king of Babylon in Sennacherib's 
time, *' he broke open the treasury of the great Temple, 
and cut off the gold and silver of Bel and Sarpanita 
from the temples of those deities, and sent H as a bribe 
to the kin^ of the Susians." ('Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society,' vol. xix. p. 160; see the original text 
in B. M. 41> 19.) ^ 

Itparaha seems to be the Hithpael conjugation o^^ 
Chald.t%iri, to augment, multiply. make prosperous, etc. ^ 

Khtdi, Heb. TH, an arroyj from root hvi. H 

Suanna generally signifies '" that game.'* Probably 
derived from suku (itself) and anna (that), plural an^M 
nati (those), Suatu is a similar compound. ^^ 

Rabrahim. This adjective, plT^I, ' summuSj maxi- 



8TONB OF B8ARHADDOM. 



119 



I 
I 



I 



mus/ is found in Chaldee, e.ff, Df)n. iii. 33, and in 
several other places. 

Ubilu, 'they seized, they make themselves mastere 
of,' 13 a third pkiral. Abilu, ' I conquered,' in the first 
person singular, is very common. Perhaps, however, 
itbiiu means " they ravaged," from the verb nVn. 

The jewels called ninkti are very often mentioned. 

It may be derived from nisik, a prince. 

Ihfturu, they dispersed ; from nn, sparsit, dispersit, 
dissipavit (Ges. 136). And "its has the same mean- 
ing. Tlie robbers got rid of their booty by sending it 
into the land of the Susians, who were probably their 
confederates. Ihe word is used of spoil m Daniel xi. 
24; disperget (ibzur)^ spolium ipeorum (Sch. p. 187). 

Mfikhirish, for gain ; for a price. Heb. "IITD, to 
buy or sell ; "ITTD, inakkir, a price. 

Iguku, they melted. Chald. ma, gukh, fluxit, effu- 
EU5 fuit. 

In line 20, there is an important error in the litho- 
graph. The first two signs mean the god Sin (or the 
Moon). But the vertical wedge (erroneously) inserted 
between them, alters the meaning to '* the gods." This 
should be rectified. 

Tusui appear to have been thin golden plates. 

These the robbers stripped off the very images of 
Bel, Sin, and Marduk without any scruple. 

In Tiglath Pileser's inscription we find the impreca- 
tion, "May his enemies melt down the golden orna- 
ments of his throne*' {tuaut guza-su). Tusu is evi- 
dently the Chald. DE3 or DlU, lamina vel bractea (Sch. 
p. 697). In the present passage the word is partly 
cfiacedi and only the first syllable tu remains. 

[khulluku, they robbed or despoiled i from Heb. 



120 



ABSYItlAN INSCaiPTlONS. 




p7rT» * to rob,' and as a substaative, " a robber," Job 
xrii. 5. The verb is very common in Assyrian, 
where it generally means " to make a clean sweep and 
leave nothing*" e.g. in the im]>re(;ation, "May the 
gods sum-su zir-su as matt Hkhallik!" — sweep away 
from the land his name and his race ! 

In line 21, I think the 6rst sign should be the 
vowel i. 

Column II. 

The King now cornea to the rescue : but unluckily „ 
the first tive lines are much destroyed. In line 2, S 
there only remains the word abubi, chafFi and as the 
kings very often boast, that they have dispersed their 
enemies, abubish, like chaff, it is probable that some- 
thing of that sort was said here. Part of hnes 3 and 
4, which remains, says, speaking of the gods, svhat- 
zu iskrieti-su, " their dwellings (or temples) and their 
shrines" ... a word lost, which was probably, "I 
restored." The next line may perhaps be read nabtku 
ushan or ushanna, "I restored the Oracle," for thiafl 
verb is found in the inscriptions. It comes from Heb. 
nJTI>, to renew, replace, restore. The inscription then^ 
continues, — 



6. Kari ilim ishtarat 



7* asib libbi-su elu. 



8. Shaba(ti) nisi asib 



The temples (or fortress- 
temples) of the gods and 
goddesses 

who dwell within it (i.e. 
within the city), I rai; 
up again. 

The prisoners, who wero' 
inhabit an tB 



I 



STONE OF ESARHADPON^ 



121 



9. gIrbi-sUf ana tsindi 

10. u birli tzukhut-zu 

11. illtku riesat 

12. mu-anna aiinut 

13. nidutisu ishthuru. 



of the city, with fetters 

aud chains coercing 
them 

(those who had done 
this impiety) 

to a 6xed number of 
years 

of degradation, I sen- 
tenced. 



Shahati or shabi probably means gangs of prisoners. 
They were chained together (see Col. IV. 32). 

It is the Heb. '^y^, captives, e.g. "^l^ nitt?, abducit 
captivos, Numbers xxi. 1 ; Ps. Ixviii. 19. 

.^'6 is short for asibut, 'dwellers,' in lines 7 and 8, 
and very Iretjuently in other passages. 

Girbi-su, within it, viz. the city. 

Tgindi. fetters i from the Heb. liySy ligavit, alligavit ; 
also ' jugura.' Perhaps the slaves were collared or yoked 
together, two and two, that they might not escape. 

Birti, chains ; sometimes written bijitu, e.g. B. M. 
40, 39, takmmmu hiritu almas addi-sUf *' I loaded him. 
with very heavy chains of iron." 

Tzukhut, binding or fettering them ; from Heb. jTia, 
anxit, arctavit^ constrinxit, coercuit. 

llliku, third plural ; ' they had attacked.* The first 
singular, alUk, ' I attacked,' is very common. 

Ricsut^ impiety. Heb. yiyi, impius fuit, tumultu- 
atus est (Sch. 952). i?Ty^, adj. impius, and subst. 
impietas, " sexcenties occurrit " (Gesenius). lUiku 
riesut, '* who had made this innipious attack." 
■ Minut, counted, numbered, and therefore "6xed" 

I or '* settled/' From Chald. m:d, numeravit- 



122 



ASSYRIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



Niduti, degradation ; penal servitude. It comes from 
the root mi, which signifies abomination, excommu- 
nication, anathema^ proscription (Sch.). 

L-ihthuru, I wrote J I sentenced them in writing. 

From what follows next, it appears manifest that 
this disturbance at Babylon took place at the very be- 
ginning of the king's rei^n, as almost always happened. 
For the succession was almost always contested among 
the late king's sons, and the Babylonians then seized 
the opportunity to try and establish their independence. 

•I will add a few wordsji as a preface to the following 
paragraph, wliich is full of ditficulties. I have said 
that when a king of Assyria died, a contest usually 
arose among his sons. Whoever proved victorious, 
easily gained over the priests of Ashur, at Nineveh, 
and those of Marduk, at Babylon. Thereupon the 
shrines of those gods were duly consulted, and aa 
oracalar response proclaimed to the people the name 
of their future Ruler. 

This results from a comparison of various passages of 
the inscriptions, and is probable enough in itself. 



i 



14. Riminu Marduk Then Marduk the su- 

preme 

15. shurrish libba-su clearly declared bis will, 
inukhu; 

16. emat ana shiput : and raised me to the su- 

prense power : 

17. usbaliku ana su He proclaimed unto the 

people 

18. mu-anna-ya shiput* my name, to reign over 
su, them. 

19. Yaati Ashur- akh- And I Esarhaddon 
adanna 



I 



STONE OF ESARHADDON. 123 

20. assuebshaeti sinati have made all these 

works of Art 

21. ana ashri-sina-tarri and have disposed them 

in their places 

22. as Iishan akhati as an expression of the 
rabbati great assistance 

23. (sha) tuddauniniia. which thou hast given 

me. 

Shurrish seems to mean clearly ; it is perhaps related 
to sharuriy brightness. 

Inukhu, he declared. This word occurs again,' 
Col. IlL 6, and in Kliammurabi's inscription we find 
nu/rhu's nisi^ " the people call it so." 

Emnt, he raised. Ileb. T2i^, to stand ; in Hiphil, to 
raise up. 

Shiput^ sovereignty. The last sign in line 16 is 
nearly effaced, but seems to have been vt in the 
original hieratic character (see pi. 49). Moreover the 
passages to be quoted establish the reading shiput. 

Much light is thrown upon the present passage by 
that in Col. IlL 6-8, ana nukki libbi iluti-ka rabti 
shiput A»hur-ki iumnlhi. And also by the passage 
(B. M. 15, 47) wliere Tiglath Pileaer calls himself 

Grandson of King , whom Ashur the great 

Lord, by an emphatic declaration {kun utut) of his will 
(libbi-eu), called to the sovereign power (ana shiput). 

Ushnliku is perhaps " he proclaimed." It may be 
the sha conjugation of 371, to speak loudly. 

The last sign of line 17 seems to be su in the 
hieratic text, and not si. 

Su is equivalent to Hfsat, ' the people,' in an often 
recurring phrase^ sur su, which is the same as sar hissat. 



124 



ASSYRIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



It is doubtful whether this word has the sense of 'people* 
JQ other phrases. M, Oppert thinks that it has, for 
he frequently renders su by " people," where it appears 
to me to he simply the pronoun " his." | 

Mu signifies both a year and a name. Mu-anna 
often signifies a year, but I have not found it elsewhere 
with the meaning of a name. 

Yaati, I myself. 

Assu, I have made ; from Heb. TTEj^y, to make. 

Atarri, I have placed, or disposed. Heb, "XVf, 
ordinavit. The first vowel is lost, owing to the 
preceding a; the three words, ashri sina atarri, being 
rapidly pronounced as one. 

LiA'han, vox ; lingua. But the cuneiform sign is 
doubtful. 

Akhi are allies. The word originally meant brothers, ^ 

Akhati seems to mean alliance. ■ 

The last word of the line, on consulting the original 
hieratic text, appears evidently to be rab, with a plural 
sigHj and therefore to be read rahbati. It is disguised 
by a small angular wedge placed before it, which I call 
the calligraphic u, as when it stands alone it has the 
value of u. In some texts it is prefixed to most of the 
signs. 

Sha. This word is effaced, but may be restored 
with some confidence^ 



I 



I 



Column III. 



1. (As) resh eli . . . 

2. . . . ya, kullat zahiri- 



ya 



At first, the ( , . . 
(of my . . . ) and 
foes 



STTONB OP K&ARHADDON. 125 

3. (ra)pish tasbunu» thou hast greatly dark- 
gimir ened, and all 

4. . . . ya tanaru. my (enemies?) thou bast 

6lam. 

These four lines are sadty fractured, and the missing 
words must be supplied by conjecture. 

in line 2j the third sign from the end is Mi or hi in. 
the hieratic text, making za-hi-ri. 

For the sign hid, see Col. III. 21. 

Jtapishj powerfully. This adverb occurs again 
(line 1 1) with the sense of " grandly." 

Tashunu is the second person of some verb implying 
injury; perhaps \t'£, occultavit 

Tanaru, thou hast slain. This verb occurs else- 
where, e. g, la magiri anar, I slew the unbelievers ; 
im'ni, he slew (his enemies). 

6. (tak}aidu nirubati (And) thou hast shown 

prosperous omcna 

6. ana nukhi libbi ilati- and by the declared will 
ka of thy 

7. rabti,rusukhkabitti- great divinity, and thy 
ka, , awful grandeur 

8. shiput Ashur-ki thou hast given me the 
tumallu. throne of Assyria. 

The first word in line 5 is broken, and we can only 
see that it is some verb. I think the lost word was 
probably the Chald, t2tI?S, prosper fuit. 

Nirubati, omens, prognostics ; from Heb. TIN, pro- 
Bpexit.observavit, See Co[. IV. 8. 

I^uihi, outspoken ; declared. 



126 



ASSYRIAN INSCBIPTI0N8. 



Hiistd\ awe. Kabitti, great. The awe was doubt- 
less that which surrounded the Oracle. 

Tumallu, thou hast given. This verb occurs fre- 
quently. 



9. As resh sarti-ya, as 
niakhri 
10. bul-ya, sha as guza 

] 1, sarti rapish usibu, 

12. tunanu itti 

13. (...) as shamami 
kaUkari 

14. (Khuru) ra 
iskimmu'a 

15. (ana) epish tniri 
suata, 

16. . , , ak si sha 
Shemesh 

17. (u) Marduk ditar 
rabi 

18. ill bieli-ya aktashid 

19. ikbi makhar-sua. 



At the commencement 
of my reign, in my first 

year, while upon ray 
royal throne 

proudly I sat, 

Thou didst show pro- 
digies ; 

[a darJdtess ?) of the 
heavenly orbs. 

The astrologers ex- 
plained it 

(that I was) tu do this 
work ; 

the enemies of ShemeBh, 
(the god of the Sun) 

and of Marduk, the 
great Ruler, 

the gods my lords, I was 
to destroy ! 

So the deities com- 
manded ! 



4 



This is a very interesting passage. What were the 
omens seen among the celestial orbs? As the king 
was sitting on his throne, it was probably during the 
daytime, and as the astrologers expounded that the 
sun had enemies, the omens had probably some con- 
nection with him. The most natural explanation is. 




STONB OF E3ASHADD0K. 



im 



that a solar eclipse occurred during the first year of 
Esarhaddon's reign. Mosl unfortunately a fracture of 
the stone has destroyed the principal word ; but I 
think that this iDscrlption recorded (a darkness) in the 
heavenly orbs. 

I pass to the examination of some of the terms 
employed. (J 

Tunartu, thou didst show omens. See Ges. 783 ; 
Sch. 1345. From the verb J^i?, anan (more probably 
enan), augurans, divinans 

The chief meaning of the word By is ' a cloud/ 

The augurs sought omens in the clouds, and in the 
sky, and in the flight of birds. 1 have no doubt that 
the Greek oucvos is connected with ti^e Semitic orian, 
and I also think it the same with the Latin omen, 
vhich word they inherited from the Tuscan sooth- 
sayers. 

Illi, signs, prodigies. This word is very common 
in the inscriptions. It corresponds to Lat. sipta in 
its different senses, e. ^- signs or marvels^ and military 
gtandards ; whatever, in short, strikes the eye much. 
It is the Cliald. PM, sijjnuin, portentutn, signum rei 
futurae : etiam signum militare. So also arj^^iov is 
(]) an omen, a sign from the gods, {'2) a standard or 
flag. 

Shamami, heavenly ; from shami, the heavens. 

Kakkari, orbs. In this word I follow the original 
hieratic text of pi. 49, which gives rt for the last 
fivllable. Kakkari is the Ileb. "^22, orbis, circulus. 
The value of the first sign was first shown by Oppert 
to be hiik or khak : and I think that this is its value 
iu the word kukkar, earth (formerly read as ehgar), 

A'Aura, or rather khurara, the Seers, i. e. Astro- 



128 



ASSYRIAN INSCniPTIONS. 



logers : from 1in, prospexit, observavit, spectavit, 
contemplatus est. Syr, ^l^n> khurur, observator. 
This Semitic root kkur or hur appears cognate with the 
Greek opaa, which latter word has some remarkable 
affinities. One of these is tupa, care, regard • which, 
as Liddell and Scott truly abserve, is akia to Lat. cura, 
e. g. oKiyatpos, in Italian poco-curante : tti/Xw/jos'^ a gate- 
keeper ; ' qui portas servat vel observat ;' -rrvXovposf, the 
same, hence ovpo^^ a watcher or warder, is connected 
with ^pa, 

Nestor, in Homer, h called ovpoi^ Axtii<av. 

Liddell and Scott say this is usually derived from 
opaca, but better from topa. They should rather have 
Baid, that all three come from the same origin. Let 
us now consider the word augur, and we shall see that 
it comes from avis and curare, as auspex (with the 
same meaning) from avis and spicio ; and auceps, a 
fowler, from avis and capio. 

Iskimmu's, they explained it : for iskimmu-su. 

This word, iskimmu, ' exphcaverunt,' I derive from 
the Syriac anti;, simplex : i. e. sine plic&. ' Espli- 
catio ' is literally an uvfolding. 

Jskimmu, they unfolded. 

In line 16 the first sign is effaced, but the word 
seems to have been nn-ak-si, whicli often means ene- 
mses or heretics^ but is a dubious word. 

Ditar rablf the great Ruler, is a very frequent epi- 
thet of one of the chief gods. 

Aklashid, is the ( conjugation of akshid, to cut down 
with an ase: or of kas/nd, to conquer. 

Ikbi, they commanded. The first singular of this 
verb is akhi, I commanded ; or in the t conjugation, 
aktahi. The third plural is usually ikbttni, they com- 




ffTONE OF ESARHADDON. 



129 



matided. This verb is almoBt always employed, whea- 
ever the gods give any command to the King. 

Makhitr sun, their divinities. Compare the Greek, 

I DOW take line 19 again^ to show the connection, 
19, ikhi makhar-sua. 



As sukalti 

20. ni&i akhuti, ammat 

2L tukulti, 
tushaknutsu. 

22. Kunu epish Babilu 

23. pardu's bit- 
shaggathu 

24. ushasdira ana mut. 



With destruction 

thy enemies, that rabble 

gf evil-doers thou didst 

subdue. 

Safe I made Babyion : 
the plunderers of the 

great Temples 

I sentenced to death- 



Sukalti may be Chald. 7pD, mors, pernicies. Or 
we n^ay read as su rethti, with the strong hand. 

Akhuti^ enemies ; generally written nfrA, with a plu- 
ral sign. I think the root is somehow connected wilh 
Greek e^^oj. 

Atnmat^ the populace, lleb. DV, populus ; noy, an 
assemblage. 

Tukulti, evil-doera ; verbal substantive from root 
nahal, 723, machinatus est malum, etc. The second 
sign is A'uL See Col. III. line 2. 

TtisfuiA'nuts- The first person of this verb> w^Aa^nw, 
* I subdued/ is extremely common. 

Kunu, fived or firm. Heb, (13, confirmavit ; from 
which many Hebrew words are derived. 

Pardu's for pardu-su, its robbers, viz. those of the 
temple. Schindler, p, 1479, gives the Rabb. Chaldee 
root •j'lC, fregit, aperuit, and at p. 1494, the Syriac 
rnc, rupit, disrupit. 

VOL, vui. K 



ISO 



ASSYRIAN INSCRIPTIOXS. 



Ushasdira, I wrote ; I sentenced in writing- 
Much the same as intkuru, CoL 11. 13, but in the 
gha conjugation, 

Mut, death. Heb. ni^. 



Column IV. 



1. Ana Annisunu-ki 

2. atemat kiema 

3. gimir ummanati-ya 
u nisi 

4. Karduniash ana 

5. sikhirti-sha itsallu, 

6. utarbitu emadda 

7. musikku as nitsakhi 
ganabu. 



At the city of Annisun 

I received certain news 

(that) ail my army, and « 
the people f 

of Karduniash, through- 
out 

its whole extent, had re- 
volted, 

and had excited au in- 
surrection 

of slaves, (who were) 
mere robbers. 



Annisun appears to be the name of some city. 

Atetnat is, ! think, the t conjugalioD of a verbamaf/ 
Tvhich is from the Heb. ncM, Veritas. 

Kiema J ' news,' is a frequent word, Atemat kiema^l] 
received true news. 

Itsaltff, they had shaken off (viz. the yoke) ; they 
had revolted. This is the Heb. hb\, to shake off. 

XJiarhitu, they had raised up. The participle tarhii, 
" raised up," occurs frequently. The root is m, altus. 
I have taken the syllable tar from the hieratic originalj 
text. 

EmaddQt an insurrection ; from Heb. Toy, to raise] 



BTONE OF ESARHADDON. 



131 



up. Gesenius, p. 775, says '"TDV, insurrexit adversua 
aliquem.** 

As nitsakhi answers, as I think, to the Heb. nsS 7, 
prorsus, omniiib. It means, slaves who were alto- 
geiher thieves; perfect scoundrels, 

Tlie Heb. TVJ2 is perfectus, abeolutus. 

Ganahti, thieves (written ga-ana-lu), is, in my opi- 
nion, the Heb. ganab, '21^, fur ; plural, ganubiu, fures. 
Schindier gives many examples of the word. 



8. Nirubunabitannam- 
sikfai 

9. kuri illili aplutsa 
usrabir, 



By advice of the pro- 
phets (who foretell events?) 

larrayed myself in splen- 
did raiiLieutj 



Nirvhu may be " prognostics ;" from niN, prospexiU 
Tanna is perhaps the Heb. niNH (Scli. 97), causa, 
occasio ; eventus fortuitus. 

iSilrhi may be npD, qu^slvit, scrutatus fuit, 
The last syllable in Ibis line is a hieratic form of the 
usual kh or Hh. 

Kuri, Heb. ^mp, telds; webs finely woven. The word 
has the same meaning in Arabic, " webs made oi 
gos^ypium'' (Ges-). Aplutza Is a doubtful word ; the 
root may be Chald, 373, otherwise Dv3, eminent, con- 
spicuous. 

The King now summons his great council^ and pre- 
sides over it. They doubtless advise the rebuilding of 
the Temples, which is forthwith undertaken and ac- 
complished. 

10. Kuduru as reshdu- My crown I placed on 
ya assima. my bead. 

Kudur may be the KtBapi» worn by Eastern monarcha. 

k2 



132 



AaSYRIAH KNSCKIPTIONS. 



It comes from Heb. "^113, diadema regis Persamra ; 

Esther vi. 6. , 

Assima, I crowned ; from simaj a crown. ™ 

Elsewhere it is said of the gods, mmu simati, *' they 

crowned me." 



1 1 . ushasab rabatii 

12. as itsuru ka-amsi 

13. its dan, its ku, its 
mushikanna 

14. atmitsa ana niri-ya. 



I seated my noblemen 
(or lodged them) ^d 

in halls (adorned with) 
ivory, 

dan wood, ^u wood, aud 
muxhU'anna wood^ ^| 

and I admitted them to 
my presence. 



• Rabanit from Raban or Bahhon, a nobleman. 

lisiiru. Heb. nan, atrium, a hall or court. 

Atmitsa, I caused them to be present. This appeal 
to be the f conjugation of tfl2T2, nwtsa, to be present 
(SeeSch. 1028.) 



15. Ushalbiaa libitti, 

16. Bit-shaggathu, bit- 
rab ilim, 

17. u iehrieti'SU 

IS, Babilu ir kitanni ; 

19. Imgur-Bel kar-su, 



20. Nibit-Bel shalkhu- 



SUf 



2L valtu ussha-sun adi 



Then I caused bricks 
made, 

The Temples, grt 
palaces of the gods, 

together with theshrini 

of Babylon the former 
city ; ^ 

Imgur-Bel, its great' 
fortress-temple, 

and Nibit'Bel, its ci 
del, 

from their foundations' 
unto 



STOffE or ESARHADDON. 



133 



22. nabtirri-sun sansish their summits newly 

23. usbapish, usarbi, I rebuilt, I raised them 

hi^h, 

24. ushakkij, usarrikh. I spread them wide, and 

I made them splendid. 

All these words are in frequent use, and require no 
cotneientary, except k'itanni^ which is ]Tp, an Assyrian 
form of the Heb. mp, priscus, antiquus, prior, primus. 

We see by line 16, that hit-ahng^alhu was a general 
name for any large temple. 

25. zalam Uim rabim The statues of the great 
utti^b, gods I restored 

26. as lulie iluti-sun in theirdivine chambers? 
usarba, I erected them, 

27. subat darati dika- and lasting habitations 
nin for them, worthy of their 

28. matluti ukin. grandeur, 1 established. 

UUiJtk^ ' I restored,' is a very common word. 

Lulie. The hieratic text has lul, followed by the sign 
"divine." 

Dika. Chald. H3% Heb, nsT, Justus^ meritus, vel 

_ ma fuit. 

Mattut, an Assyrian form of Heb. r>17Ute, domi- 
Batio, potestas. 

29. Tari Babilu, sha The common people of 

Babylon, who 

30. ana riesuti suluku, in their tumult had sub* 

verted {the temples) 

31. ana tsindi u birti with yokes and fetters 



134 



ASiSYRlAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



32. tzuhut-zu 
upakhiru ; 

33. ana Babilaya 

34. amnu. Kitannut- 
zu sans is h 

35. ashkuD. 



coercing them,! chained 
together ; 

and unto the inhabi- 
tants of Babylon 

1 distributed them {as 
slaves). All the old cus- 
toms, once more 

I re-established. d 



Tari, the common people ; literally ** small people, j 
RiesvtL See note to Col. il. II. fl 

Suhd^tt. Heb. iTt^j dejecit ; evertit, ut domum. 

(Ges.) ^ 

JJpitkkiru. Syriac, "13D, ligavit. ^^ 

Babilaya. This is written " people of Babylon," with 

the plural sign added. 

Amnu. The sign placed before this word in the 

"cursive transcript" should be erased, since it is not 

found in the hieratic text. 

iCitannut^ old customs ; from pp. See Col. IV, 

16. " I re-established the old order of things." 

The following is a connected translation of 
whole. 



Column I. 

Esarhaddoii, king of the nations, king of Assyria, 
high-priest of Babylon, king of Sumir and Accad, the 
glorious ruler, the worshipper of Nebo and Marduk 
{says) : — 

Tliose who were before me in life, the ancient 




STONE OF eSARIf^DDON. 



135 



ofSumir and Accad, sought to make prosperous the 
standards, the army, aud the people dwelling within 
that land. 

{A portion of the inscription is here lost^ which seems 
to Juive narrated how Habyhn fell into the power of 
sncritegious men.) 

Into the holy temples, the palace-dwellings of the 
great gods, they bioke with violence. The gold and 
precious stones they dispersed into the land of the 
Susians, and melted it down for gain. Bel, Sin, and 
Marduk they stripped of their golden ornaments. . . . 
{The last two lines of this column are defaced.) 

Column II, 

(T attacked the robbers and I dispersed thevt) like 
chaff The dwellings and the shrines {of the gods I 
repaired). The Oracle 1 restored. The fortress -temp lea 
of the gods and goddesses dwelling within the city, I 
rebuilt. The prisoners, who were inhabitants of the 
city, who had done this impiety, with fetters and chains 
coercing them, unto a fixed number of years of degra- 
dation I sentenced, TJ^en Marduk the supreme clearly 
declared his will, and raised me to the royal power. 
He proclaimed unto the people my name, to be their 
king. And 1, Esarhaddon, have made all these works of 
art, and have disposed them in their places, as a grate- 
ful expression of the great assistance which thou hast 
givea me. 



Column III. 

At first, the {counsels?) of all my enemies thou hast 
greatly darkened, and all my {assailanis ?) thou hast 



136 



ASSYRIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



slain. And thou hast shown prosperous omens, and 
by the declared will of thy great divinity » and thy 
awful grandeur, thou hast given me the throne of 
Assyria. 

At the commencement of my reign, in my first year, 
while I was sitting proudly on my royal throne ; thou 
didst show prodigies! {A darkness?) of the heavenly 
orhs. The astrologers explained it, " that I was to do 
this work : the enemies of Shemesh, the god of the 
sun, and of Marduk, the great Ruler, my divine lords, 
I was to destroy ! so the deities commanded 1 '^ 

With quick destruction thou didst smite thy ene- 
mies, that rahble of evil-doers. 

Once more I gave safety to Babylon, and the plun- 
derers of the great Temples I sentenced to death. 



Column IV. 



At the city of Anuisun, I received certain news, that 
all my army and the people of Karduniash through- 
out its whole extent^ had revolted, and had excited aa 
insurrection of slaves, who were mere ruffians. By 
advice of the prophets, who foretell events, I collected 
much treasure and jewels. I placed my crown upon 
my head ; I admitted to my presence my council of 
noblemen (whom I had lodged in the apartments of 
my palace, adorned with ivory and divers precious 
woods). After this> I began this work of rebuilding* 

The temples, great palaces of the gods, together with 
the shrines of Babylon, as it used to be in formei^fl 
times i Imgur-Bel, its ^reat fortress-temple ; and Nibit- 
Bel, its citadeU from their foundations unto their sum- 
mits, I rebuilt them new^ I raised them high, I spread 





STONE OF B8ARHADD0N. 137 

them wide, and I made them splendid. The statues 
of the great gods I restored : in their divine (chambers?) 
I erected them ; and lasting habitations for them, 
worthy of their grandeur, I established. 

The common people of Babylon, who in their tumult 
had subverted the temples, with yokes and fetters 
coercing them, I chained together : and unto the in- 
habitants of Babylon I distributed them as slaves. 

And the old order of things once more I re-esta- 
blished. 



138 



-REMARKS ON NAMES OF PLACES. ETC., IX THE 
CRIMEA. 

Br TH6MA8 WATTS, ESQ.. RON. MBMB. R.fi.L., SnFERlNTBNDBN: 
OF THB BSADIND BODM, BniTlfiH MUSGVM. 

(Read February 3rd, 1864.) 



The English geographer Arrowsmith made use 
some Russian maps as materiah for the completion 
bf his map of Asia, puhlished in 1822, but, unJuckily, 
he neglected to procure the assistance of a competent 
translator to interpret to him the Russian phraseaj 
which he found in the originals. The consequencf 
were both lamentable and ludicrous. Klaproth, who 
reviewed the map in the ' Journal Aaiatique' for 1825, 
pointed out that wherever the Russian maps indicated 
the existence of ruins in the Kirghiz steppe by the 
Russian word for *' ruiDS,'* Arrowsmith introduced in 
his English map the unaltered word " Razvalini," 
which would of course be taken by his readers for the 
name of a town or village. Where the Russians gave thdH 
information with regard to a river in Eastern Siberia, 
that it was "' Uieka po KaragasUi Sochem u nashikh 
Uda/'fe. " a river called by the Karagaskians Sochem, 
by us Uda/* Arrowsmith turned the whole sentence 
into one interminable name, " Pokaragnski Sochem OH 
nach louda River." Another sentence of the same 



KAMES OF PLACES IN TIIR CRIMEA. 



139 



kind was apparently found too \oi\^ to transplant, for 
the river il belongs to bears in Arrowaniith's map the 
paiiie Kazter kotoroia River, i.e, '* the river Kazier 
which," — the " kotoroia," or rather " koloraya/' thus 
made to form part of the appellation, being in reality 
the Russian relative pronoun agreeing in gender with 
the antecedent Rieka, or river, and, in the original, 
acting, no doubt, as the nominative to some verb which 
Arrowfiinith left out. 

In the (orty'years which have elapsed since the pub- 
lication of this map, the Russian hmguage and the 
Russian literature liave made a prodigious advance. 
As the language of about sixty milliona of men, who 
form an empire which has been thought by some sufH- 
ciently powerful to threaten Europe, and as the organ 
of a hterature which has of late been fertile in poets, 
historians, novehsts, travellers, and authors of all 
kind^, it might have been expected that a knowledge 
of il would have been by this time, to some extent, a 
favourite study among tlie literary classes of the West, 
who are apt to look back with some surprise on the 
generation of literary Englishmen which was contem- 
porary with Schiller and Goclhe, and yet contentedly 
ignorant of German. As yet. however, this interest 
does not seem to be aroused, and we are in general 
as surprisingly ignorant of Russian literature as the 
Russians are surprisingly familiar with ours. It is 
not uncommon to find parallels drawn between the 
character of ancient and modern languages, in which 
it is assumed that various characteristics belong exclu- 
sively to the ancient languages of Greece, Rome, and 
India, which are in full force in the language spoken 
at this day from St. Petersburg to Kamscbatka. That 



140 



NAMES OF PLACES IN THE CKIMEA. 




a very small degree of acquaintance with this language 
might often preserve learned inquirers from serious 
errors is shown in the instance of Arrowsmith's map, 
and may be confirmed by another instance in a re- 
cent number of the Transactions of this Society, — re- 
specting which it may be regretted that it did not fall 
under the observation of some student of Russian be- 
fore it was issued to the puhhc at large. 

In an elaborate memoir on the Scytho-Cimmerian 
origin of the Romanic or Catalan language which was 
read before the Society on the lUh of Junej 1862, 
the ingenious author assuines that from the names of 
places in a modern map of the Crimea are as old as 
the lime of the Scythians, and endeavours to prove 
from these data that the language of ancient Scylhia 
was allied to the modern Catalan or Provencal. One 
of the proofs which he alleges is as follows : — 

'Mlexiste encore un systeme de denommation ap- 
plique aux cours d'cau comme aux villages voisins ; 
c'est de les distinguer entr'eux, lorsqu'ils portent le 
mfime nom, par une benediction donn^e au premier, 
tandis que le second regoit une malediction, ou tout 
autre vceu qui se reunit au nom primitif. 11 y a lieu 
d'observer que la maMdiction est encore ici exactement 
celle de la langue catalane Maicint et Muliua ; la bene- 
diction a trea-peu vari^. Elle se compose du mono- 
syllabe hd on io/, par opposition ^ inal suivi de la 
meme terminaison, tantot ahx tantfit aja, en Catalan 
' qu*ilalt,' Ainsi un cours d'eau s'appelle Outitouka. 
En Catalan le mot oullou signifie source ; il est termine 
par le monosyllabe ifefl, qui est russe et se rencontre 
Eouvent. Tout pres se trouvent le b^ni et le maudit 
Oullioid'U, le premier precede du mot Bokhaia, et le 
aeooad du mot Malaia.*' 



NAMES OF PLACB3 IN THB CHIMEA. 



141 



Let us here stop for a moment. If the author of 
these speculations, who has not omitted to ootice that ka 
is a Russi[in termination, had pursued his researches 
by looking into a Russian dictionary, he would have 
learned that tlie two words Bolshaya and Alalaya, on 
which he grounds his hypothesis, are simply the Rus- 
sian words for " Great " and *' Little/' — adjectives in 
common use in the names of places in every language 
under the sun. The termination "aya" common to 
both is the feminine form of the nominative, which in 
Russian is declined thus, Bolshoy, Bolshaya, Bolshoe ; 
Maluy, Malaya, Maloe ;— as in Latin, Magnus, Magna, 
Magnum ; Parvus, Parva, Parvum. Let us proceed 
with the extract* 

" On rencontre encore le AlulnndJaUk auprfes du 
BotadjaliA', Je Brednii Kouialnil pr^s du Malii Kouiat- 
nik. Ici on ne donne pas la benediction au premier, 
mais on lui souhaite de se retenir. 11 existe un village 
compose sans doute de gens trop remnants qu'on n'a 
pas maudits plus que b^nis. On s'est contents de 
leur souliaiter plus de tranquillitc, par les mots Star 
Aia, qui viennent apres Chveds Kuia, nom du village, 
qui parait etre une colonic de Suedois." * 

A new word here appears, liie Srednli of Srednii 
Kouialnik, which is simply the Russian word Sredny, 
"mid," or "middling," applied probably in a case 
where "great" and "little'* had already been made 
use of The word " Staraya" is simply the adjective 
*'Old" in the nominative feminine, and " Shvedskaya" 
Is the adjective ^' Swedish '^ of the same case and 
gender. By some good fortune the author of the in- 
vestigations appears to have become informed that 

' Transactions, 3rd ser. Vol. VII. p. 503. 



142 



NAMES OF PLACES IN THE CRIMEA, 



the epithet " Shvedskaj'a" had some connection with 
Sweden ; but this has evidently not had the effect of 
arousing his Euspicions with regard to " Bolshaya," 
'* Malaya/* " Sredny," and " Slaraya." Even suppos- 
ing that these words belonged to some unknown and 
extinct language, it would be difficult to produce a 
ground for believing that they meant what they are 
assumed to mean in the dissertation before ua, — for 
believing that a river was called ** Sredny'* from a wish 
for its waters " de se retenir," and a village " Star aia" 
from a wish that its inhabitants should keep quiet. 
Geographical names of this nature are seldom to be 
met with, except, indeed, in the long list at the end 
of this very essay in which the names of various places 
in the Crimea are supposed to be derived from Cata- 
lan words, signifying in French " Tu prends garde en 
sautant," " soif Ik," "vient au sangj" *' aller k la 
noce," " maintenant je porte,'* '* quoi dans la besace/' 
*' taxe le lit,*' •' agit du derri^re," *'je te vols cher," 
*' qu'ils aient un prix fixe," "y prendre garde/* and 
finally, " rire stupide/' 

Seeing, as we have already seen, that the words in 
our quotations to which such singular meanings have 
been assigned are in reality no other than the com- 
monest words in modern Russian, the theory of course 
loses one of its bases. 

Most other passages in the same dissertation are 
based on similar misapprehensions with regard to 
words in Turkish, a language very closely indeed al- 
lied to the the Tartar which is spoken in the Crimea. 
One of the most usual Turkish names for a river la 
Karasu, literally " Black Water /' and '* Buyuk/' 
" Great/' and " Kuchuk/' " Little/' are words familiar 



NAMES OF PLACES IK TME CRIME^i. 



143 



to every one who has the slightest tincture of that lan- 
guage. The writer of the dissertation was, unfortu- 
nately, unacquainted with these facts, and writes ac- 
cordingly (p. 502) : — 

** Par exemple, une riviere qui porte Tancien nora 
de la Crim^e, le Kerso, que le eaitographe Handlke a 
6cnt Karassu^ se compose de deux branches, Tune droite 
et I'autre tortueuse ; cette derniere est appelee Ku- 
tschiikk, mot qui se relrouve surla carte toutes les foia 
qu'd s'agit dune ligne coudue. Or, Coutsout siguifie 
coudi'f en Catalan. L'autre porte le nom de B^iouk, 
toujours donne aux lignes droiles, et ee compose de 
deux mots : fie, qui signifie bien, et jouke, qui signifie 
il perche ou se tient droit, en parlant des volatiles de 
basse cour." 

There is much more of the same kind, hut enough 
has probably been said to render it unnecessary to 
pursue examination further. The hypothesis that the 
modern languages of Catalonia and the neiglibouring 
countries, instead of being derivatives from the Latin, 
as is universally supposed, are languages more ancient 
than Latin itself, is entirely based on such grounds as 
we have been examining, and when the supports are 
withdrawn, the necessary consequence is the immediate 
downfall of the hypothesis to which its author has 
given the name of Uie Scytho-Cimuierian, 



144 



VII— ON THE MEANING OF THE WORDS IN GENESIS 
XLIX. 10, "UNTIL SIIILOH COME." 



BT THI HSV, STANLVT LEATR^S. M.A.. PRursSiOa OF BESRBW 
king's COLLSaE, CONDON. 

(Read March 2nd, 1864.) 

Thb prophecy contained in the 10th verse of 
49th chapter of Genesis, " The sceptre shall not de- 
part from Judahj nor a lawgiver from between his feet^ H 
until Shiloh come/' will readily be acknowledged as ™ 
one of the most difficult in Scripture. It is difficulty 
whether we regard the actual rendering of the words i 
or investigate the grounds of their supposed fulfilment. ^| 
The remarks which I shall have the honour to make 
this evening will probably be considered as open to 
doubt, but I trust that if my suggestion is admitted, it 
will at least have the merit — though it should be thought 
neither learned nor scientific, which it does not pretend 
to be — of removing the principal difficulty of this pro- 
phecy, that, viz., which is connected with its fulfilmeat. 
Into the other difficulties 1 do not propose to enter, 
those, for instance which arise out of the interpreta- 
tion of the word Shiloh, and of any uncertainty there 
may be as to whether it is the nanie of a person or 
the name of a place — any further at least than to enu- 
merate the various opinions which have been advanced. 



MEANINCS OF THB WORDS "tjNTIL 8HIL0H COME." 145 



In the first place, it is well known that there is great 
doubt how the word Shiloh should bespi-U, MSS. vary- 
ing between 1?^* and *i7'EV, According to the evidence 
produced by Dr. Lee in his Lexi[:o!i,a. v., corroborated 
by Dr. Davidson, Hrb. Text Revued, the weight of 
it appears to be m lavour oi' ^'PC\ Gesenius, on the 
other haod, inclines to l^'EJ*, and says that the con- 
traction at" the pronoun "i^X into C? which is implied in 
1?b is not found elsewhere in the Pentateuch ; but 
however this may be, it is certainly found as early as 
the Song of Deborah, and as a matter of fact it oc- 
curs in Gen. vi. 3, llie interpretation given to Ibe 
word will of course vary with the form ot spelling 
adopted. Gesenius makes 17'£J^ to stand for pTll^, and 
this again forD'17'E;', and gives other instances of words 
thus formt'd, translating accordingly — loctis qnietin, pa- 
cta tranqitiUttatisve. It is remarkable, however, that 
all the ancient versions appear to favour the other or- 
thography and interpretation. The LXX. have eas av 
e\$Ti ra ti7roKafi€va avrift, the things reserved for him; 
Aquila, Symmachus, and several MSS. of LXX., the 
same slightly nioditied, m uTroKinat. The Targum of 
Onkelos renders *' until the Messiah shall come to 
whom the kingdom belongs ;" the Jerusalem Targum, 
"whose the kingdom is;"' Saadias, " wliose it is;" 
Rasbi and other Jews, and the Feshito, "whose it is;" 
Tbeodotion, Epiphanius. and Herodian follow the Sep- 
tuagint ; Juj^tin Martyr, in his dialogue with Trypho, 
agrees with Aquita. There is moreover a remarkable 
expression in Ezek. xxi. 3'2^ which, if it is really, as it 
fieems to be, an allusion to this word, decides the ques- 
tion at once, DS^S'Sn 1^ "^'4'^ ^'3 HV— '*Thus saith 
the Lord God : Remove the diadem, and lake off the 

VOL. Vill. L 



crown: this shall not be the saTue: exalt him that is 
low, and abase him that is high. I wili overturn, over- 
turn, overturn, it: and it shall he no more, vntil he 
come whose right it w; and I will give it him." Some 
also have thought that St. Paul has a similar aHusion, 
Gal. iii. 19: "Wherefore then ^erveth the law? It 
was added because ot" tianssjressions, till the seed should 
come to whom the promise was made ;" w eir^yy^XTai. 
Following once more the other mode of spelling, some 
among the Jews suppo<ie the word to be equivalent to 
"^^S, his son^ comparing the Arabic, J-d--, ftEtffs,JHius ; 
the Rabb. S^'?B', embryo; and the Biblical nfp:?, Deut. 
xxviii. 57. So Kimchi/'Shiloh, its meaning is, his son.'* 
Bechai, D^'lSi^^-S? '^-ins ntS^X rStt'P T^l/E' 13?; so 
Abul Walid, isJJj J dUL-, and among the Oermans, 
Illgen. Many moderns also, among whom are Ro- 
senmuller, Winer, Hengstenlierg, and Knobel, take it 
as an appellative denoting peace or q^iiet^ or, abs- 
tractum pro concreto, ifte prncfffd flne, or the pacifi- 
cator, and thus equivalent to DiSk* "li?. Is. ix. 5, the 
prince of peace. Lastly, Jerome renders these words 
" donee veniat qui mittendus est," mistaking, appa- 
rently, HTt? for mlt^', and probably bearing in mind 
certain passages of the New Testament where our Lord 
speaks of Himself as sent. It appears then that there 
are no less than four interpretations which have been 
advanced for the word Shiloh:-— 1. The sent one. 
2. His son. 3, The peaceiul one. 4. He to whom (he 
kingdom belongs. To the last of these 1 myself de- 
cidedly adhere, but the rendering 1 shall hereafter pro- 
pose will stand equally with either. 

TL Is Shiloh the name of a person or a place ? If 
we adopt the reading rtTK' there will certainly be con- 



I 
I 




'*IINTIL SHILOH COME.' 



14? 



siderable reason for supposing it to be tlie name of a 
place, for this is the only passage in the Bible where 
we cannot be quite sure that it does denote a place. 
It may therefore appear somewhat arbitrary to take a 
word» which whenever it occurs elsewhere has one 
meaning, in a totally different sense when we 6nd it 
here, more particularly when it is said that the only 
word in Scripture that is formed exactly on the model 
of it, Giloh* appears also as the name of a place i but 
may not these considerations be added to the others 
enumerated above as tending to furnish decisive rea- 
sons for preferring the alternative reading i^^? Those, 
however, who maintain that the word is the name of 
a place, among whom are Bunsen and many others 
of note, render the verse thus : The sceptre shall not 
depart from Jadah. till he shall go to Shiloh, — and be- 
lieve it to have been fulfilled in the primacy of Judah 
in the subjugation of the Promised Lrind, which was 
to liist till the ark was laid up at Shiloh. It would 
seem, however, that in the face of so much which lias 
been recognized as Messianic in this declaration of the 
patriarch, we are not at liberty to adopt a rendering 
which would deprive it of its chief prophetic features, 
and reduce it to a prediction of comparatively little 
weight or moment. Surety the prominence of Judah 
in the Canaanitish war was hardly a subject adequate 
to this occasion. If Jacob was really endowed with the 
prophetic spirit at his death, it must have been for 
some higher object than merely to enable him to pre- 
dict the temporal fortunes of his sons. Or supposing 
this to have been a temporal blessing, it seems to re- 
quire a longer range and a purpose of greater signi- 
ficance and importance generally than the proposed 

L'2 



148 



MEAXING OP THE TTOWDS 



rendering would give it, I conclurle therefore, on 
many grounds, that we are more likely to be rip;ht iu 
translating these vexed words, "until Shiloh, orSliello, 
come," than in understanding them "till he shall go 
to i^hiloh."' 

But starting with this supposition, now comes the 
greatest difficulty of all ; for if Jacob declared that the 
sceptre should not depart from Judah until Shiloh, 
that is, the Messiah, came, how are we to make out 
that his words have been fidfiUed? Is it possible to 
reconcile with the facts of history the apparent asser- 
tion of the prophecy that the temporal supremacy of 
Judah should last till the birth of Christ ? I confess I 
think not. In order to do so, it is necessary to resort 
to shifts which appear to be etjually unworthy of the 
Bible and its interpreters. It cannot be done without 
wresting Scripture in a way that Scripture itself con- 
demns ; and no good is ever done by forcing facts in 
a Procrustean manner to suit the assumed dicta of 
Holy Writ. Better by far to look facts in the face, to 
study Scripture honestly and believingly, and to wait 
with patience till the reconciliation of the two is esta- 
blished, as sooner or later it assuredly will be. Now, 
as a matter of certainty, we know that the throne of 
David had long passed away when Christ was born. 

' It must be borne in mind tbat it i^ not here proposed ta make 
the word ShttDb a name of the Me^^iuh, but to interpret it, or rather 
its more probable furm Shello, grumiciatfcally. " unlil Ar come wKo^e 
(it ie)," i.e. tbe Steptre or tlie kingrlom aiioki'U of iii the former pfttt 
of the verse. With all due deference to Geseniqs mid others. Instead 
of this beitig-^ as he says, an ellipfee which etr/re /et-as, it is common 
enough in Hebrew to have to ftupply in one member of the sentence 
a word wliicb i^ espressed in the other. Let two infttanoee. oat of 
many, auffice i Prov. xiii. 1 ; Pa, ci^. 19. 



4 




" UKTIL SUILOU COSIE." 



149 



He indeed sprang; from a royal fuiuily ; but His was a, 
family that iiad lor a^es ci:ased to reigQ. At the time 
of His birth Judaea was a Roman province, and Ilis na- 
tion tributary to the then mistress of the world. These 
are facts it is impossible to gaJn-ay^ and highly unsatis- 
'factory, as it seems to me, is the way m which the 
difficulties that arise out of them are commonly met. 
ll is affirmed that the prophecy relates to the birth of 
Christ as occurring in the reign of llerod^ just before 
Judapa became a Roman province. Howererthis may 
be, it is certain that AtUi pater, the father of Herod 
the Great, had already been appointed l>y Julius C*sar 
procurator of Jude^a in b.c. 47; and moreover, with 
respect to the exact position of Herod, we have the 
testimony of Jerome in his ' Commentaries on St Mat- 
thew,' Ub, iii. c. 2'2,who writes thus: *' Cfesar Augus- 
tus Herodem tiUum Antipatris alienigenam et prosely- 
tnm regem Judxis constituerat, qui tributis prttesxet 
et Romano pareret hiiperio." We cannot reasonably 
regard the tributary rule of Htrod the lcluiiia_'an as 
au instance of the sceptre btiiig still borne by Judah 
at the birth of Christ. But even admitting that it is 
possible so to regard it, there was, nevertheless, a long 
period in Jewish history when the aceplre of that kiug- 
dom was borne by no one. " About 088 years before 
Christ. Jerusalem had been takeu, its temple de^itroyed, 
and its inhabitants led away into captivity by Ncbu- 
cbadnezzar^ king of tlie Cbaldees ; and during the next 
fifty years the Jews were subjects of the Chalda^an 
empire. Afterwards, during a period of bumewbat 
above 200 years, from the taking of Kabylon by Cyrus 
(o the defeat ot Darius by AlcxunJer the Great at 
Arbeld, Judaea was a province of the Persian empire^ 



160 



HEANINO OF THE WORDS 



Subsequently, during a period of 163 years, froi 
death of Alexander to the rising of the Maccabees 
(who were themselves a family of the tribe of Levi, and 
not of the tribe of Judah), the Jews were ruled by the 
successors of Alexander. Hence, for a period of more 
than 400 years, from the destruction of the temple by 
Kebucbaduezzar. the Jews were deprived of their in«^ 
dependence, and, as a plain, undeniable matter of fact, 
the sceptre had already departed from Judah/'^ In 
the face of such evidence as this, I do not see bow we 
can wisely hold to the common interpretation that ia 
given to this prophecy. But what is to be done? If 
the rendering " till he shall go to Shiloh" does not 
seem to be more satisfactory, what remains to us? 
Manifestly we must either give it up altogether or en- 
deavour to find some other meaning ; and this should 
be, if possible, not a forced meaning, but one that 
arises naturally when we consider the circumstances of 
the occasion on which it was uttered. Assuming then 
that Jacob on his death-bed was in the highest sense 
inspired, and hearing in mind that as the heir of th«^ 
promise, *' in thee shall uU families of the earth he ' 
blessed," it was at least probable that some part at any 
rate of his benedictions would have a universal and not 
merely a national or family interest, we may reasoned 
ably suppose that he would hand on to one among his 
Bons that promise of which he was himself the heir* 
And if to any one, to whom could it be but to Judah ?^ 
I infer, therefore, that in the blessing of J\idah we ma^ 
expect to find some promise of the Messiah ; and prt 
bably such a promise is to be found in the first verse : 
"Thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise; thy^ 
» Smith's Diet, of the Bible. Art. Shiloh. 



3 




UNTIL SniLOli COME. 



15t 



father's children shall bow down before thee." But 
most assuredly we may find it in this one ; all antiquity 
would warrant us, as we have seen, in arriving at this 
conclusion. But, as 1 believe, the real point of the 
prediction has been lost. The JewI^, milled by their na- 
tional vanity, as was not unnatural they should be, in- 
terpreted the oracular words of the temporal sovereignty 
of one of their tribes, and nearly all Christians seem 
to have done likewise^ notwUhstaudini;; that the facts 
of history appear to be directly against them. All 
have alike believed tbtit Jacob foretold the leniporal 
pre-eminence of Judah up to a certain time, indicated by 
Ibe coming of Shiloh. In so doing, however, they have 
forgotten, or rather neglected to observcj a very common 
idiom in Scripture language occurring both in the Old 
and the New Testamerit-s — an idiom which might not 
unfitly be looked fw in a high poetic style such as that 
prevailing here, — an idiom, moreover, which is cer- 
tainly used twice in this identical Book of Genesis ; the 
idiom, viz. which gives a sort of unlimiting and con- 
tinuous sense to *' till " and " until ;" so that the action 
which those words would appear to conclude is clearly 
understood to go on and continue after the time spe- 
cified. The passages I reter to are the well-known 
one, Gen. viii, 7, quoted by Theophylact on Matt, i, 25, 
" And he sent forth a raven, which went forth to and 
fro, until the waters were dried up from oif the earth ;'* 
or as it is in the Greekj, " Ov^ VTrearpeylreif ea>* Tov 
^ftap^fvai TO vStitp OTTO ■njy "/fjy :' and Gen. xxviii. 15, "I 
will not leave thee until 1 have done that which 1 
have spoken to thee of." It is obvious that God did 
not leave Jacob then, and that the raven did not re- 
turn nor cease to go forth when the waters were abated. 



152 



MEANING OF THE WORDS 



1 



There are besides these, however, many other passages 
where the like idiom occurs, e.^. \ Sam. xv. 35, 
*' Samuol caine no more to see Saul until the day of 
his death ," 2 Sum. vi. 23, '* Michal the daughter of 
Saul had nn cliild unto the day ot her death/' etc. etc. 
Sup|>osing thtrelore the same usage to obtain here, 
the sense o\ the present passage will be as follows : — 
The sceptre shall not depart from Judah . . . until 
Shiloh come ; but neitlier shall it depart then : on the 
contrary, the comiat? of Shiloh shall mark the com- 
mencement rather than the termination of Judah's- 
truest sovereignty, in fact, the sceptre shall never de- 
part ivhen Shiloh is conie, — that is, according to the< 
interpretation now proposed, this passage contains not 
the promise of temporal dominion up to a certain 
time, but wJwt is equivalent to the promise of ever- 
lastin;r spiritual dominion /row that time. WhicK 
\A the more probable and appropriate meaning can 
hardly be a niatter of doubt. Jacob, in pronouncing 
this blessing upon Judab, virtually handed on to him 
that promise of universal benediction and sovereignty 
which was 6rst given to Abraham ; he becomes hence— H 
forth the depository of alt Messianic expectation and ™ 
hope ; from him is to spring the future monarch unto 
whom the " obedience of the people " shall be given-M 
To adopt such an interpretation as this is manifestly 
allowed by the whole spirit of the context, and as mani- 
festly removes all those diHicnIties that arise from a 
more rigid adherence to the letter, which seems to pro- 
mise to Judab an appointed duration o( temporal do- 
minion^ that can only by very lax and arbitrary explai 
nations be reconciled with history. 

I had thus far worked out the subject to this coo- 



1 




UNTIL 8HIL0H COME. 



153 



elusion when, on referring to Bunsen's ' Bibelwerk,' I 
found tijat my own position was mtUeriallystrengtfciened 
by a note ot" his upon the passage. He indeed, as we 
have seen, understands it ditterently, but observes, 
" Bis er komntt indicates by no means a period, with 
which Judah's pre-eminence was to cease ; cf. xxviii. 
15. When the children of Israel assembled them- 
selves in Shiloh and set up the tabernacle, a prelimi- 
nary termination was given to the conquest of Canaan. 
According to the sense of our verse then^ Judah is 
to be the leader of the other tribes until Canaan is 
subdued, and also afterwards to maintain his priority 
in peaceful possession of the Land." As he there- 
fore admits the principle of our interpretation, I think 
it can hardly be questioned that his own rendering is 
capable of amendment- riie force of the prophecy m 
every way is very much weakened if we refuse to regard 
it aa strictly Messianic. I may arid further that the view 
now advocated is also illustri\ted and confirmed by an 
expression that is found in the Targum of Oiikelos, 
which, after explaining "the scepire shall not depart," 
inserts the words Hth^ IJ?, for ever, and then says, 
till the Mesaiah come. Now had he said "the sceptre 
shall not depart until theMes^iah come, i.e. for ever," 
bis interpretation would have been precisely identical 
with our own. And lastly, Dr. Henj;;stenberf?, in the 
* Christolo^y of the Old Trstament/ says, ** The do- 
minion of Judah does not by any means terminafe in 
Christ: it ralber centrei? in Elim. Several interpreters 
have determined the verse as follows : the dominion 
of Judah should continue until the appearing of 
Shiloh^ but that then he should lose it. We, on the 
contrary, conceive the senst- to be this, ' that the tribe 



354 mkaning op the worus "until shiloh come.* 



of Judah should not lose the dominion until he attain 
its brightest realization by Siiiloh, who should be de- 
scended from him, and to whom all the nations of the 
earth should render obedience.' Against this inter- 
pretation no difficulty can be raised from the 'D ^'^, 
It is true that this term has always a reference to the 
terminus ad quern only, and includes it ; but it is as 
certain that very irequently a tenninvs ad quern is men- 
tioned which is not intended to be the last, but only 
one of special importance, so that what hes beyond 
it is lost sight of. If only sceptre and lawgiver were 
secured to Judah up to the time of Shiloh's coming, 
then as a matter of course they were so afterwards. 
That previous to the codaing of Shiloh great dangers 
would threaten the sceptre of Judah is indicated by 
Jacob, since he lays so much stress upon the sceptre'a 
not departing until thai time. Hence we expect cir- 
cumslances that will almost amount to a departing of 
ihe sceptre." If we did not believe that these circum- 
Gtacces actually did amount aud more than amounted 
to such a departing, there would be no occasion to 
seek for that amendment of Dr. Hengstenberg's inter- 
pretation which is here attempted. 



155 



VIII.— REMARKS ON A FRAGMENT OF A MS. OF VA- 
LERIUS MAXIMUS IN THE PUBLIC LIlillARY AT 
liEHN'E. CONTAINING A PORTION OF THE TEXT 
SUPPLIED FROM THE EPITOME OF JULIUS PARIS. 



BT rRSDERIC W. MADDEN. 



(Read April 13th, 1B64,) 



The facsimile attached to this paper is made Irom 
a portion of the first leaf of a MS. of Valerius Maxi- 
miis/ now in the Public Lihrary at Berne, which T 
have been allowed to examine by the kindness of M. 
Ch. L, de Steigez, Principal Librarian of that Insti- 
tution. Aa the leaf is only a fragment, and liable to 
be lost, it was tliought of sufficient interest to have an 
exact copy preserved of its appearance. 

My attention was principally directed to this subject 
by the fact, that many editions of Valerius have given 
the name of the Consul (whose name, fortunately, oc- 
curs on this fragment) as On. Calpurnius. It may not 
be uninteresting to trace briefly as far as possible how 
this reading has crept into the text, together with a 
short account of the MS. from which the fragment 
is taken. 

It was well known, even in the time of Aldus (1602), 

■ Na. 366, SiiiDer'i Caf. vol. t. p. 62\). 



fiEMARKS ON A FKAGMENT OF 



that a lacuna existed in most of the MSS. of Valerius 
Maxiiiius, extending Jrom book i. chapter i. to the end of 
chapter iv. ; that is, from " Milesia Ceres" to '* suffec- 
turam urbem." This missing portion was first inserted 
in the text by Aldus (ed. Veii. 15U2}, and supplied to 
him by Cuspiniau from a very ancient MS-* of Va- 
lerius Maximus at Vienna, and not from a copy of the 
epitome of .luliue Paris now lost, as supposed hy Mai.* 
The JVIS. seen by Cuapinian is said to hare had an ad- 
ditional portion at the beginnin^^ as is the case also 
with the MS. of Pi{;rre Daniel now at Berne, and it 
is probable that tlie two MSS. were the same. Iti the 
text printed by Aldas, the name of the Consul is givtn 
as L. Calp. [Luclutt Calpuinius], which may also be 
found in several other editions.* The reading Cw., as 
far as I have been able to ascertain, was first intro- 
duced into the text by Pigbius (8vo, Antwerp, 1574), 
and is agaiu found in two of his later editions (Svo, 
Lugd. Bat. 1594; ISmo, Lugd. Bat. 1596). In IGOI. 
an edition was published at Krankfort by Coler, who, 
although copying the text of Pighius, professes to have 
collated it with the MS. of P. Daniel. Here also the 
prEenomt^n is gi\en ra Cn,, as it is likewise in the edi- 
tion of Torreniua (4to, Leid. 1726)^ whose text has 
been considered the standard, and in Kappius [.Svo, 
Lips. 1782). With these facts to start from, it be- 
came desirable to inquire on what authority one class 
of editors printed the prsnomen of Calpurnius as 

^ " Vahrium nnfi'jvissmnm. in cujua princlpio quEedatn haberentar 
DitnqUHm ante at* CQ viEa." (Aid. Pr/rf) 

* Script. Vet. jK'ova Coll. vol. iii. Prir/. p. %xt. 

* Par. 1517: Lugd. Ijl2: Far, pp, ColiuseunK 1535. 1543; Aid. 
1534; Lugd. 1550: Par. 15S8; and doubtless many oCbere. 



I 



A MS OF VALERIUS MAXIMUS. 



157 



Lucivs, whilst the othei*s, without comment or stated 
authority, gave it as Cnmns. 

Upon examining all the MSS, of Valerius Maximua 
in the British Museum, of which there are twenty* 
two. I found that twenfff out of the twenty-two omitted 
the portion which had been supphed by Aldus, who 
states that it was missing in all the MSS. he had seen 
in Italy, This appears to be the case also with the 
majority of MSS. in all the European libraries. The 
two in the Museum which have it, read respectively L 
Caipuj'no^ {»ic) and lucio cfibsurino^ {sic). Jt will also 
be seen that in this fragment the name of the consul 
is given as L. Cnlpuniio. 

It has been often questioned whether the portion thus 
inserted is in the words of Valerius Maximus himself, 
or some epitomizer, and the question has been more 
especially discussed since Mai^ published from MSS. 
in the Vatican abridgements of the text of Valerius 
Maximus hy Ju/itts Paris and' Jamiarius Nepofiami/t. 
The work of the former certainly dates from the end 
of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century, and 
that of the latter is probably of the sixth century. Al- 
though Mai has assigned the age of the former MS. 
to the tenth century, yet it is most probable the MS. 
is earlier than, and the prototype of, the Berne MS., 
which is itself of the end of the ninth or beginning of 
the tenth century. Both these epitnmizers contain the 
portion in question, but in different words, affording 
a sufficient proof that they made their abridgements 
independently from an earlier prototype. In the 

' Baru, 209, fifteenth cent. 

• Jlarl. 2759. fifteenth cent. 

7 Script. Vet. Novn Cn}L vol. iU. pt. Hi pp. 1-1 16. 



158 



REMARKS ON A FRAGMENT OF 



epitome of Julius Paris (for Nepotian does not finish 
the sentence) the name is also given as L. Calptirnio. 
We may hence infer that this portion originally formed 
part of the text, but that subsequent to the fifth cen- 
tury it became lost by the carelessness of scribes or by 
accident, and was not restored till the end of the ninth 
or beginning of the tenth century, and then only from 
the epitomizer, 

We now come to the MS. of Valerius Maximus 
from which the facsimile of the fragment is taken. 
This MS. is the most ancient known to exist of Va- 
lerius Maximus ; and from the fact of the name of its 
former owner being written on the second leaf, is now 
known to be the one hitherto quoted as the Codex 
P. Danielis.^ It can with certainly be ascribed to the 
close of the ninth century. The fragment here re- 
.presented contains the supplementary portion pre- 
fixed to the MS. in anotker kmid, but nearly coeval 
with the original. The scribe states, In n^breviutore, 
qui et vetustus erat, qu<rditm reperta sunt qnee quoniam 
nostra deeranl, ncceifsario supplevL Then follows the 
missing portion of the first book of Valerius, evidently 
copied from the abbreviated text of Julius Paris,* 
T^masitheus liparensis creleram quam. tomani pythio 

* KcEopf (ed. Val. Berl. 1854, p. 80) thinks thai Ihia MS., be- 
fore it came ioto the poBfio&&ioii of P, DHTiiel, belonged to the monas- 
tery of St. Benedict, at Fleury, near Orleans.. If this ia so, it tnight 
he unfavourable to our opinion that this MS. and Ihe one aefa 
by CuepinlaD Ett Vienna were the same. Tbe library of Daoiel waa 
purchased in \6G'<i by Paul Petau and Jacob BoD^ars. and in the 
year 1 632 the books of Bong'ara were transferred to Berne, 

' The proof of this is, that the l^rst paragraph, Tiumgithfrut . , ■ 
delphos herfirerniani,is really no/ wanting in the text of Valerius Maxi- 
muB, but IB found there at greater length. 



I 



4 



A M9. OF VALERIUS MAXIMUS. 



159 



apollim miserant intercepiam a piratix cnravit delphos 
perfeTendam, and tfotn Mihsia Ceres to svffecturmn 
urbem. In this fragment (although, unfortunately, 
so much damaged by damp and vermin) we find still 
preserved the commencement of the lost portion, with 
part of the middle portion. 1 have transcribed what 
is flill remaining at the end of the paper. At the 
end of this MS. the scribe copies the name of the 
abbreviator of Maximus as C. Titus Probus, a person 
who is also recorded as finishing the epitome of Paris 
in the Vatican MS. published by Mai. ihe ques- 
tion as to this Titus (or Titius, according to KempO 
Probus seems to be involved in great obscurlty,^'^ and 
it would appear that even the scribe himself of the 
fragment in the ninth century was doubtful who was 
really the abbreviatorj lor in his extracts from the 
epitome, inserted on the margin of the MS., he some- 
times annexes the letters I. P. {i.e. Julius Paris), and 
sometinnes C. T. (I'.e, Caius Titus), or else merely BR. 
(i.e. Breviator).^^ 

'" This question has been diacussed in the reccut edilioD of Va- 
len'oi by Kempf (8vo, Berlin, 1854), lo whom every praise ia due 
for his careful cJiaminalion of several of the previoue editions, and for 
a clear statement aa to the provenance of moat of the principal MSS. 

'^ In the Vatican MS. published hy Mai, the' eitistle prefixed Is 
iddree:»ed by Paris to a Licinius Cyriacus, and claims the ten booke 
wbicti " ad uDum volumen epitomee coegi ','^ and bIbq in the heading' 
to the work, " JuHi Parldia epitoma decern librorum Val. Maximi.*' 
The ahridgiement of Pari?, a« we now have it, includes the whole of 
ihfr cine hooks ; but of the teath, although a list of &ix (.haptera is 
prefixed, onlj the first, De Pn^nommibua, haa survived, at the end of 
which Ib C. Till Prabi Jinil tpifvuta historiarum diversarum ejem- 
phrvfitquf Romaaorum,&s if 7'itus Prnhug was the roil author of the 
vbote. Tbi« last sentence, with the exception of the que, has been 
copied, as I have already obKrved, by the later scribe of the Berne 



REMARKS ON A FRAGMENT OF 



\ 



^ere can be but lUtle doubt that from this earl 
copy of Valerius all the later transcripts which retain^ 
ihe missing portion, and wliich do not seem to exceed 
eight OP nine, were made. The lacuna, which occurs 
ID most of the MSS, of Valerias, and which are chiefly 
ol the fourteenth or titteenth centuries, was probably 
caused at a very early age (as 1 have already observed) 
either by the carelessness of the scribe or by accident. 
There is, however, in the British Museum a AIS. of the 
twelfth century,'^ contninitig excerpts of Valerius, 
probably made by Fulbert, Bishop of Chartres, who 
died in I027or 1031,'^^ which also omits the portion in 
question. 

MS., wlilch ma^e& it prohalsle that the MR. liiC refers to in his head- 
ing wfiA the identical one now sX ibe Vatican. Twu short preface* 
were publiBhctl by Pighiija from MSS.i the first of which ascribes 
the teulb bonk tu Puris, the second uniita ihis. Kempf (p. 5-1) says 
that out of 100 MSS. be onb' fuutitl these prefaces in late MSS, of 
the fourteenth and fifleenlh centuries. He instances for the first pre- 
face, Brit. Mus. Arundel, 7 i^nd 2hQ ; sod fnr thepecntitl, //ar/, 2759. 
Pighius, aud before him Stb. Gryijhius. al^o puWi?.hed C Tilt Probi 
ill Epitomen summ Pre/etio j but FighiuB says that this heading is 
wanting in many MSS. Kctnpf only fourid It in one (Paris. 5??5!). 
The subscription in the Vatican Cvfif^x h the only resl authority with 
respect to Probus, but how it got there, it is not easy toeiplair, Kempf 
(p. 58) conjectures that Probua may have combined a number of 
wriCere intn one body, abridged by himBelf and other*, and added to 
it the title above copied. This seems very improbable. In any case 
he Bays (p 61) that this tenth book could not be by Valerius, for the 
composition tp later thanhi& age. perhaps of the fourth or fifth century. 
The corrector Rusticius Helpidius Domnulus. V.C. (Vir consularis), 
■whaae name ia affixed at the end of the MS. of Paris and the Berne 
MS., is conjectured to be (he same as the author of a poem edited 
by Fahricius, and who was physiciao to Ttieuduric the Great. It 
was therefore written about x.a, 500. 

'* Afid. 19,835. 

" Opera Varin, ed. by C. Le Villiers. Paris, I 608. 




A MS. OF VALERIUS MAXIMUS. 



101 



As to the Cn., the origin of which I have traced 
abovCt there seems to be really no MS- authority for 
it; and Coler, who professes to have collated his text 
with the MS, of Daniel, must have omitted to collate 
this particufar passage. Indeed Kerapf'"* says, " aH 
the MSS,oJ Vuleriwt read Lucius." In all probability 
the prBeooinen Cnaus was taken from the Chroniccn 
of Cassiodorus, who (as edited)'-' gives Cti. Piso. His 
statements are, however, considered of no value ; io 
any case» his statement here could hardly be held 
against the authority of all the MSS. of Valerius ; and 
the authority of the Maccabees, where the Consul is 
mentioned by bis pnenomen,'^ might still be adduced 
as another argument in favour of the pra>nomen of 
Calpurnius being Lucius. 



Teri of the Berne Fragment, ivitft the portions wanttnff sup- 
pficd in Itaiicf froia the ejntvmd of Juliwf Puris, a* edited 
by Mai. 

In adbreviatore, qui et vetustus erat, qufedam reperta sunt, 
quiE qooniam nostro decrant necessano supplcvi. 

^* Ell- Vftl. p. 12C, sole He, liowevcr. supposes thnt it is an 
error, and that we aboukl read C/kfu* as In XhnFasd, Wlial Faali? 
The Faati Capitolini are defective for b,C. 1 8D, anti only give the nnme 
of his fellow-coniuJ, M. Fopilliug Ltrnas (A/, jjoPIWu*, see Corpus 
Jnncript, Int. Trf. ed. Mommsen. 18G3. vol. i. p. 438 • cf. p, 532). 

'^ Corpus Intcript. Lot. Vet. vol. i. p. 633. MoiiiuiseD professes 
to have made his lisU frora two MSS., one ut pBrfs (-48(10). writlea 
in the middle of the tenth CEtilurv. and one iit Munich (14C31), 
eleventh century. A MS. of the eighth century is said lo bave b*;en 
■etit from Switrerland to Cuspinian at Viennu, but is now misgiog ! 
(p. 485). There is, wnfurluiiulely, no MS. of the Clironicon in the 
BritiJ^h Museqm, 

'■" AciJKtos vTroTo^ "Pu^aiMv. 1 Maccab. xv. 16. He was eonsiil in 

VOL. VIII. M 



163 



BEMARKS ON A FRAGMENT OF 



Tjmasitheus Liparensis creleram,'' quam Romanl Pythio 
Apolliiii^^ miserant, interceptam a piratis, curavit Delphos 
perferendata. 

+ Milesia Ceres Mileto ab Alexandro capta milites, qui 
teraplum spoJiaturi irruperant, flammaobjectaprivavit oculis. 

Prensa'" raille navium"*' nfHJmerfo Dehim] compulsi,-i 
tetnipio Apollinis relr' [^zc^as] potius manus quam rapaces 
iid[fiibuerun/^ . 

Atheniensea Protagoram'-'' ph\[losophuni] pepulerunt, . . . 
* * * * 

Diomedon, unus e-* de[c^m ductbtis], quibus \_Arffennu9(e 



B.C. 139 with M. Popillius Laenas, and is stated to have written 
leltere to King^ Ptolemy (Euergetes II., Phv&con) and other kings 
and nations, requesting them to renew the old friendship and league 
with Simoti MflccabseuB. For an accpunt of him aee Smith's P^cf, 
of the Bible and Kitto's Biblical Cyclop^diot new ed. s. v. Laeias. 

^' Creterram, Par. ; corr. cr^tcmm. Afai. The ivords of Valerius, 
from which these are abhrevinted, are. " Jd qUam ne incideret Tima- 
»itheua, Liparitanoracn princeps, consllio sibi panter atque anlveraic 
patn^ utili providit exeoiplo, fjccepta uamque in freCo a civifjus 
Buia piraticata cxercentibu9< magni pendens aurca cratcra, quoaiRo- 
roani Pythio ApoIHni dccimaruni nomine dicaverant^ incilato ad 
earn partiendara populo. iit comperit. earn Dctpho:& perfereadam 
caravil." (Kemp/.) Pigkias, Coler, and Torreniua give the last part of 
thia sentence as, " Cratera incitatocjuc ad eain partiendam populo. ut 
comperit a RomaniS' Pythio Apollini decimaruni aomiue dicatam, 
mambus venundantium ereptam Deu Delphoa perferendam curavit." 
Aldus gives the same from " cratera" to " dicatam," but omits from 
" manibus" to " Deo," inserting the word "earn" befare " Delphos." 

'* Not Appollini. as Kemp/ {p. 79). 

^^ PreensBe, Par. (= Persae). 

*" Navibus implevcre Delum, Nep, ; naves appiUer« Detum^ Mai. 

" Conpulsi, Par. ; complexi, add. Par. 

" Irrelig-JDsas, Coler. 

^ Pythagoras philoBophua ab Athenien&ibus puUuB est, Nep. ; 
DiBgoram, Aid. 

** Ex de[c«m dacibus] qui [ArgimieK eadem pujna Athetiiensi- 
liua] vict[oriam. sibi vero daamationemj, Torren. " Arginasae" is 



A MS. Of VALHniLTS MAXIMUS. 



163 



eadern pu^iia^ et vict[rjriu/» et diimnutiou€^n'\ 'p[epereruntj 
cum ad Jam meritHni]-'su[pplicium difceretur^ nt/iil aliud] 
locut[us^ est fpiam ut vrjfa pro inco]lumitate e\jterci/its ob ip$a 
fwn]cupata &oW[crefit»r]. 

DE SlMULAr[A RELIGIONB],'* 

"N um& Vompi\[ius ut populum'] Romanum \aacr is obligor et 

* * * * 
, . . uti jpjromissa maturaret. 

[Q, Sertcrim per asperoB i,]usitani[ie colles cervam albam 
rfr]abebatj [ab ea se ^u^enam mtt aganda out v]'\i\anda estent 
pTtedicans flrfmow]eri. 

[Mitto*, Cre/ert*tttm rexj ntrci*^ a]nno [in tjucfttdativ^ praal- 
tum e/] vetusta re\\[ffione consecratum spejcuar^ secedere 
[tol<;i/at, et in eo ;Ho?-]alus tantjuatii''* [a/r" Jove,t/uose or turn] 
ferebatj tro'''[rfiVns icffes perrogl^hat^ 

\^PisUtratua in recipe7'an]da"'^ tymnniclej [quam amiserat 
timuhtione r]edu [cenfw] . . . 

* * * * 

, . . sortes" Fortunte Prajnesiinffi adire. Auspicila enim 
patriis non atigenigenifi'''''retnpiiblicarn administrarijudicabaiit 
oportere.^'^ 

omitlei] by Aldus, but wus supplied by Pigkitts, and cppied by Coler, 
who aguin otntts to calkle the MS, of Daniel. 

^ Jam ad uieritum. Aid,; jam noD ad merituiDj Coler; jam ad 
intmentum, Torrm. 

•^ De reltgionc simalftta, Torren. ; qui religionem simuiaverunt, 
Nfp. 

^ NoDO quoque anno. Aid,, CoUr, Tarrnt.^ Kemp/. 

M Qtioddam, Aid., Caler. 

** Specum, J'ar. 

" TaiDquam, Par. 

" A Jove, Aid., Coler, Torren. 

w Traditaa sibi leges prjerogabat. Aid., Coler, Torren. 

*^ Recuperanda, Tomm. 

" Sortis, Far. 

" Alieoigenis, Par. 

** Oportere judicabant, Torren. 

h2 



164 REMARKS ON A FRAGMENT, ETC. 

Gn.^' Cornelius Hispalus,''^pra;torperegrinus,M.Pompilio^^ 
Loenatc, L.** Calpurnio Cos., edicto Clialcleos* circa'- de- 
cimum diem abire ex xirbe atque Italia jussit, levibus et 
ineptis ingeniis fallaci sideruin interpretati[on]e qurcstuosam 
mendaciis 5u[m cfl]Iig[i/i]em injici elites. 

[Idem JudaoSj*-^ gut] Sabazi** Jovis cultu^^ Romanos [I'n- 
^cjere conati erant,*" repete[re rfojmos suas coegit.*^ 

[Z«. ^milius Paulas, Cos.y ]cura senat[«»] . .* . 
* * * * 

» Cn., Par. ; C, Aid., Coler, Torren. 

** Hippalus, Nep. ; Ilispallus, Coler, Torren. 

^ Popilio, Coler, Torren. 

^ Cn., Pighiua, Coler, Torrenius, Kappius, but no MS. aathority 
for it. 

<i Chaldfflos, Par,, Aid., Coler, Torren. 

^' Intra, Nep, ; citra, Kemp/. 

^ This word occurs previously in no printed edition. Aldus even 
omitted it^ but perhaps by mistake. Can it have been in the Berne 
MS. (though there is barely room), and overlooked, with his usual 
inaccuracy, by Coler ? Mai conjectures that Sabazium is for Sabaoth, 
the name of the true God among the Jews. 

** Zahazi, corr. Par. In this fragment not Sabati, as Kemp/ (p. 
126); Sabazii, Aid., Coler, Torren. 

^ Add, sublato mores Romanos, etc., Aid. ; slmulato mores Ro- 
manos, etc., Coler, Torren. 




165 



IX.— PAPERS CONTRIBUTED BY THE REV. MACKENZIE 
E. 0. WALCOTT, M.A., PR.ECENTOR AND PREBEN- 
DARY OF CHICHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

(Read November 25th, 1863.) 

Thb following curious papers have been contributed 
by the Rev. Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, Pnccentor of 
Chichester Cathedral, and M.R.S.L. It has been 
thought advisable to print these together, under one 
heading, differing thougli they do materially in their 
subject matter. 

W. S. W. Vaux. 
Hon. Sec. R.S.L. 

The papers are — 

I. — Letter from Lord Chancellor Jeffreys to John 
Walcott, .Esq., of Walcot, Salop. [Walcott papers.] 

II. — The Will and Inventory of Goods of W. Hy- 
berdon, ofBoxgrove, A.D. 1518. [Reg. Sherb. fo. cxxvi.] 

HI. — Classified List of Mediaeval Sees. By M. E. 
C. Walcott, Pnec. Cath. Chich. 



The following letter by Judge Jefleries was addressed 
to one of my relatives. 

Mr. John Walcott, of Walcot, Salop, lord of the 
hundred of Clun, was baptized at Lydbury June 24, 
1G24; High Sheritf of Salop, IGGl ; M.W for Salop, 



166 



LETTER OF JUDGE J^EPtERIES. 



1687; Dep. Lieut for Salop, 1673 and 1088; High 
Sherirt" of Radnor, 1G61 ; Burgess of Ludlow, 168L 
In 1645 he was a prisoner of Sir Thomas Middleton, 
at Red Hill Caatle. He was a Royal Commissioner, 25 
Charles IL, for raisins; a levy of money in Salop. He 
died in 1702. His third brother, Sir Thomas, of Bit- 
lerley Court and Bencher, 1671, and Lent Reader, 
1677, of the Middle Temple ; Serjeant-at-Law and 
M.P. for Ludlow. 1679-81; Recorder of Bewdley, 
1671 (Nash's 'Worcestershire/ ii. 279); was knight- 
ed at Whitehall (Dugdale, Vis. Salop, pp. 38-9 ; Le 
Neve's Knights* Heralds' Coll. 281); and became 
Puisne Judge of the King's Bench, October 22, 1663 ; 
he died in Trinity Vacation, 1 685 (see ' State Trials/ x. 
15U 1198; 2 Shower. 434; Pari. Reg. 1741). The 
youngest brother, William, of the Middle Temple, 
]663, was page of honour to Charles I. on the scaf* 
fold; and the cloak worn by the King on that occa- 
BJon is preserved at Bitterley Court, and was exhibited 
by me at the Society of Antiquaries in 1861. A part 
of Lord Jefferies' house now forms the Chapel adjoin- 
ing St. James's Park- 

Letter of Lord Jeffreys to John Walcott, 

Slit, 

His Majestic having been pleased to doe me the honour 
to make me his Lieutenaiit of the County of Salop ; but his 
service requiring my attendance upon hira here, whereby I 
am prevented from the happiness 1 proposed to myself of 
waiting upon you in person in the country, and therefore I 
am cornniancled to give you the trouble of tliis by my ser- 
Tftnt, who I have ordered to attend upon you for that pur- 
pose. I doubt not. Sir, ynuliave perused and well considered 
bis Majestie's late Gratious Declaration for Liberty of Can- 



■ 
I 



LETTER OF JIJ13GE JEFFERIES. 



167 



science, and thereby are fuWy satisfied uf his Majestie's reale 
intetidons to us, his uttmost ecideavours to have the same 
establisht into a Law and for that purpose does very sud- 
denly design to call a Parliament, to have the same effected 
wherein He doubts not to have y* concurrence of His Housea 
of Parliament in the carrying out of so good a work, which 
la of Publick Advantage to all Ills Kingdome, and in order 
thereunto has commanded me and the rest of his Lieutenants 
to propose to the Deputy- Lieutenants and Justices of y* Peace 
within our severail lieutenancies these questions following, 
which I begg leave to propound to you and desire your an- 
swer thereunto by this bearer or as soon after as possibly 
you can. 

Ist. If you shall be chosen Knight of the Shire or Bur- 
gess of any Town when the King shall think Hit to call a 
Parliament, whether you will be for taking off the Penall 
Laws and the Teats ? 

2nd. Whether you will assist and contribute to y" Elec- 
tion of such Members as shall be for the taking off the 
Penall Laws and Tests ? 

3rd. Whether you will support the said Declaration for 
Liberty of Conscience by living friendly with those of all 
persuasions as subjects of the same Prince and good Chris- 
tians ought to doe P 

Sir, His Nfajestie having so fully eKprest his Royall Inten- 
tions in the said Declaration it would he impertinent in me 
to give you the trouble of any Discant or Comment upon 
the said questions. 1 cannott but humbly hope for a com- 
plyance in you to his Mnjestie's pleasure herein^ who is all- 
ready sufficiently satistied of your Loyall affection towards 
him with your true zeal for his service. I shall therefore 
give you no further trouble but to hegg your pardon for this 
and to assure you that I am with all sincerity. Sir, y' most 
fuithiuU friend and humble Servantj 

Jeffreys, C 

To John Walcott, Esq., this. 
March 24tfi.*Sl, 

From jaj house in Duke Street, Weetmiueter. 



IG8 THE WILL AND INVEMORV OF GOODS 

Received tliia letter March y*^ 30th, ^88, and returned the 
Answer tbe Slst next followinoj. 

AIy Lord, 

I have received y^ Lordship's letter, and in obedience" 
to y' Lordship's commands 1 humbly return this answer by 
y' servant y* bearer, that I cannot in conscience comply 
with y'^Lcvrdsliip's prnposalls in taking off)"' penall laws 
or tests. I slia.U always continue my allegiance to the King 
and live peaceably with my neighbours. My Lord, 1 am y' 
Lordship's most humble and obedient servant, 

J. W. 



Thb Will and Inventory of Goods of H. 
Hyberdon, of Boxgrave. a.d. 1516. 

To be buried in the parish church of Bujtgmve on the south 

aide; towards the repfiriicion xiij* iiy ; to the mother church 
of Chichester sx''; to the high altar within the said parish 
church xxj*" ; to Maister Prior of Duxgrave with hia consent 
for fetching <jf my body to funeracion vj" viij'^ ; tn the church 
of Eartham vj* viij'' to by a coue therewith, and the rent of 
the said coue to be divided in ports, one half unto the re- 
paradons of the said churche, and the otlier half to the curet 
to pray for me in hia bede ruU. Withyn the saide churche 
. . . there lie distiihuted and spent the day of my Ijurying the 
sum of sj*3 the day of my moneth niynde the sum of iiij'" 
xiij' iiij*^ ; immediately after my death there shall be proridcd 
an honest priest to pray for my soul . . , to continue for 
the space of lij yers, ij kyen for the mayntenance of an an- 
nucll obit, to be rented at the discrecion of the churche 
wardens for the most merite of my soull . . . whereof the 
curett to have viij'', and one other priest liij"*, the clarke ij", 
the bedman j, fot light i]'', for making the herse j'^ and the 
residue generally tu tlie reparocions of the saide churche. 
Unto my daughter Alys x'* to be paicd at the day of her 




OF H, HTBEilDUN, Of BUXGRAVE. 



1C9 



marriage, or at the furthest when she shall come to the age 
of xviij yers ... all my wifci's apparellj a tabtett of gold, & 
hope of golde, a ryng with a terrbes . * . to my lij yotiger 
sons Roger, Edward, Thorans, every of them viij" xiij' iiij'' 
when they shall come to age and discrecion of xviij yers. 
To my brother Henry ij of my gownes furred and one 
doublet of saten. To W"' Bedtll a doublet of fustian, a 
peticote, a payre of hosyn, a kendall cote, and vi' viij^. To 
J" Hill doublett of cbaucoletC, my beat iiosyn, and his quar- 
ter's wages. To W'" Cartar a goune of violett lyned and 
vj* viij''. To my cousin Elizabeth a goune cloth of Frensh 
touny and x*. My master my lorde have touards his kech- 
yng ij fatt stera. My lord Materface my blacke nagge with 
sadell and bridelh Sir Thomas West the yonger, knight 
my grey geldyng. The Executors, Sir Thomas West, knt., 
and Maister John Dawbrey of Peterworth, esquire, to have 
above their expenses a« executors either of them xx". 



Inveiftorij of Goods. 

ilii Fethcfbeds, lilj bolstars xsxij* ijij'' 

iiij payre of blankets , . . viij" 

A counterpoyut of verdor^ v" iij* 

iij heliuga^ ..,.,, viij* 

iij coverletts riissett . iij' viij^ 

A olde qnylt and a olde blanket iiij'' 

ij mattares and ij holatars . , ^ iiij' vij"* 

^•ii pellows iiij' iiij'* 

A spani'ar [bed canopy] of domex [coarse ditmask] viij" 

Stayned [paintedj cloths ,.,.,.,, ij" 

A Bparvar in the parlurc with bangjnga . . . ivi' 

' A qnilted covering', — a hanging^ reprcf^entin^ trees rather than 
figures. (See Susehx Arch^cah Soc. Publ. xii. 38.) 

- In the inventory of Sele (Dallaway, vol. ii. p. ii. 239) occur 
ootices of "blue helyng of say wilh a eelour," "another helyng," 
etc., a coverlet. 



170 THE WILL AND INVENTORY OF GOODS 

iij tcstai's at dyvers priees ij" iiij'^ 

Oone payre of fine abcta viij' 

viij payre of midill .,.....,.. xj» vLij'* 

XX case payre xivi' viij^ 

iji pclowbers [pillowcases] vij'' 

vij'' iij' iiij* 

Item, a table-doth of diaper iij' iiij'' 

iij playne * . . . . TJ* iiij^ 

iiij course ,...,....,,,. ij' 

iiij towells of diaper , , iij' iiij"* 

vi uapkyns of diaper xyj*" 

VI playne i xij*^ 

iij curtcna of whyt , . . , .,,.,. xviij"* 

xviij* TJ* 

Hangynigs in the Hall iij* iiij^ 

A bancar [carpet for a scat] viij^ 

Hangings in the litte Parlure ..,..,. iij' iiij^ 

Hangyugs over the parlure . . * viij"" 

viij' 

Plate, 
One salt with a cover, parcell gilt, vij uBceB . . xxj' 
xiij spones of xij unces, after iij* the uuce . . . xxxvj* 
A playue pccc of x unces xxx* 

iiij'' vij" 

Apareli, 

Oon dublett of "VVulatede ..,,..,. ij' viij'' 

A cote of tawncy iiij' 

A sleveless cote of tawney . ij* 

viij' viij^ I 

77ie Buttery, H 

A bason of pewter and ewar ....... xij ^M 

d 



OF H. HYBKRDON, OF BOXGRAVE. 171 

Oon bason. 

ij ewars of laten . viij' 

iij basons of pewter viij' 

Tj canddstiks ij" viij' 

A chafyng dishe viij*' 

ij cangesse xvj*^ 

vi* Tijj* 

Kychen. 

XT platen vij" Tj* 

z dysbes ij' Tiij* 

xj yered [iron] djshes xviij* 

Oon charger xij^ 

A grete cawdnen [cavdeyemes (Suss. Arch. Soc. 

Publ. yii. 39) cauldron ?] t' 

j pan T' 

ij ketells iiij" 

iij ketels, a chaficr xij^ 

ij bells ij' 

A akemer, a ladle, a pappe pan riij^ 

ij frying pans xij^ 

A litte pan ij^ 

A pan vj* 

A grete pott yj* 

iij' iij^ 

iij other potts and possnett [porringer] .... iij iiij^ 

iij trevetts x* 

jj racks xij** 

iij paire of pothoks \j* 

i pothanger, i fyre yron . . ■ viij* 

iij broches [spits] iij' iiij* 

ij andyrona ivj** 

ij knyves vj* 

A grete pare of potte hangyngs xvj* 

i^ x« 



172 THE WILL AND INVENTORY OF GOODS 

ii cupbords vi' viij'' 

iij new chayres xij'' 

ii cbambcr chayres ,' . xiij*' 

Oon rounde table ... t ...... . xj'' 

iiij oxen iii'* iiij' iiij* 

iiij drovyng steiys liii' iiij^ 

ij hefars 

yj bollocks of oon yere xxiiij' 

IV kyen vi"* viii* 

i bull 

V weners after iij' tbc pece [for waggons?] 
(great oxen for her wayne, Suss. Arch. Publ. 

vii. 33)» XV" 

c 

ii X wethers xvi a pece xiii^ 

cc 
viii e*es vii'* xvii' 

XX 

iii lames afteer viij^ lii' viij^ 

xxiv kebars afteer xyj'' [refuse sheep taken out 

of the flock] xxxii* 

xxvi' xij* 

iiij cart horses xxxvj" vij** 

Hames ij 




OP H. BTBBRDON, OF BOXORAVB. 173 

iiij plowes. 

ij culters. 

ij sheres. 

ij payre of start ropis [ropes attached to harrows] , 

vi plow chaynes. 

iij yoks. 

A gret euth. 

iiij finall. 

V n^ars [fire-dogs] 

iiij w^s [wedges ?] . 

ij axes with a hachet. 

j sawe. 

ij payre of pyncera. 

j cbeseli. 

A payr hynnes [collars for cart horses]. 

ij boshells. 

A sede lepe [seed basket] . 

A dong hoke. 

j pych of sholes [collar of wood for cattle? or pick and 

shovels ? or scales ?] . 
ij olde sadells. 
ij bridells. 

A panell [a treeless pad or pallet for riding on an ass] . 
iiij laders. 
viii'' of olde yron iiij^ 

Mylke-Houie, 
X chese mots. 
X bolls. 
A chume. 
A chest presse. 
A pothanger. 
xiii tobbes. 
iij stoTC, vi cheses. 
iij quarts of butter. 

Hamest. 
ij saletts [light helmets]. 



174 A LIST OF MEDIEVAL SEES, 

ii pair spleiita [little armour plates to protect the 

inside of the arm] . 
A pair of brigyns [pliable armour of iron sewn 

on quilted linen or leather] vij* iiij^ 

ij prongs. 

A hide lether. 

ij itajle [8 lbs.] of hcmpe viij^ herefore the kill [kiln]. 

viij saks. 

A payr of wull cards. 

iijJ' of blew wull. 

Oon toddc of flesh wull, 

A nayle blacks.* 

ij nayle [8 lb.] yam. 

ii quarters whete. 

XX quarters barleie. 

It qunrtera of oMc whet and newe. 

TJj quarters of barle afteer iij' iiij"*. 

iii quarters of otes. 

Ffeclies [vetches] ii lode. 

XV quarters malt. 

iij lode of hay. 



A List of Medi-cval Sees, Classified under their 
Latin Names. 

The difficulty of identifying the ancient with the 
modern names of Episcopal Sees has been sensibly felt 
by all whose studies have lain among IMediseval writers, 
seals, or numismatics ; and several authors of celebrity, 
for want of information on this head, have fallen into 
grave errors, and confounded at once the Sees and 

' For a yerde of blacke to make Master Richard a payre of hose. 
(Arch. xxT. 510.) 



^^^^ CLASSIFIED UNDBa THEIR LATIN NAMBS. 175 H 


places. Three years since I appended a glossary of | 


this kind to 


my ivork on ' Church and Conventual H 


Arrangement, 


* but I have now expanded it into a sys* ^M 


tematic form. 


founded on the researches of Frances, H 


Cluverius, Lelewel, Fabricius, Spruner, Labbe, Beyer- H 


liack, aod other writers. la some cnses 1 have en- ^| 


deavoured to 


indicate the country of the See, but iti H 


many instances the territorial limits have been so H 


changed, that a single archbishopric once included H 


suffragans now dismembered under different kingdoms. | 


The result of 


my inquiries will, I hope, not prove un- H 


serviceable when it apjiears in the Journal of thia ^| 


Society. 


■ 


K 


England and fVaks. ^^^H 


^^ 


(Will. Mfllmeslj. dc Gestis Pontif.) ^^^H 


H Cantuaneasis 


T^ Dorobcr- Canterhury, AB. Prim, and ^^ 


^1 nensis . 




^1 Loiidinensia . 




H "Wintonenais 




H Banchoreiisis 




H Bathonii^nsis 




H Bristoliensia 




H Coventreusia 




H EUensis ' . 


^^H 


^1 Kxonieiisis 




H Ciccstrcnfiis . 




H Glacestrensis 




H Ilcrefordcnsis 




H LiclicafeMcnsis 




H Lincolmensis 




H Laiidavensis . 




H Menevieasia 




^P NoririceasiB 




V RofTeasis 


Bocbester. ^^^^M 


L"^ " 1 



176 A LIST OF MEDIEVAL SEES, 

Petribttrgensis ..... Peterborough. 

Oxoniensia Oxford. 

Welleiisias. Footanetiaia . WcUs. 

Sa.riaburiensi3 SaliEbury, 

Wigorniensis ..... Worcester. 

Osiiciensis Osncy. 

IJelraoDcnsis, Helmehamensig Elmlmm. 

Doniuceiisis Dunwich. 

Tetfordiensia Tlietford. 

CridienaJa ...... Crcditon. 

Comubrensis . . . * . Cornwall. 

Dorce*trensis . . . , , Dorchesterj Oxon. 

Scliircburuiensis .... Sberborne. 

WDtuneiisis ...*.► Wilton, 

Lindisfarnensis .... Lindiafanie^ Holy Tsle. 

Legcscestrcusis Leicester. 

Liudisscnsta Lindisse or Scdiiach^ter. 

Castri Lcgionensia . . . Caerleou. 

Selcsegicnsis , . . « . Selsey. 

EboraceriBia ..,,.. York, AB. Prim. 

Duuclmcnsis ..... Diirbam. 

CaTliolensis Carlisle, 

[Cestrcnsia Chester for Liclifield.] 

Uipensis v. Herpcnais . . Hipon. 

Haguataldensis .... Hexliam. 



Ireland. 

(Cotton's F&Bti ! Ldand'ft Coll. i. 130; Spniner, 33.) 

Ardmachanua Armagb, AB. Prim. 1151. 

Clochoretisis v, Glowhorionsia Clogher. 

MidcDsis Meatli. 

Cliianensia ...... Clonmaciioise. 

Brefiniensia a. Tribumensia . Kilraore. 

ArdachadcDsis Ardagh. 

Conoreiisis Connor. 

Duuensis Down. 



CLASSIFIED UNDER THEIR LATIN NAUBB. 177 



Drammorensis Dromore. 

DErensis Derry. 

EathbotcDsis s. Aapotensis . Kapboe. 

Dublinen&is Dublin, AB. Prim. 1163, 

Bistagtieusie s. InBiitarum . Gtoiidaluugh. 

DarcDsis , . Eildare. 

Ossoricnsis ...... Oasoiy. 

Pcrnensia Ferns. 

Lcghkuensis s. Lagiucusis . Leighlin. 

CasailienMS .».,.. Casbel, AB. 

Laoneasia , Killaloe. 

ArthfertensU [s« Kerulse 

Fabric, siii. 44] . . . Ardfert. 

Lymbriceu^is Limerick. 

Clouenais Cloyne. 

EosseDsia Ross. 

FypnaboreusM &, Fenaboreusis Kilfenora. 

Corcagieiisia Cork. 

Himeluccusis ..... Emiy. 

Waterforflieneis .... Waterford, 

Liemoreoais Liamore. 

Ttismensis ...... Tuain, AB. 

EDacbduneusis AQnaghdown. 

Acbadensis Acbonry. 

Duacen&is Kilmacduagh, 

Cluanfertensig Clotifert. 

Elli ue Dsia ......£ I pliia. 

Achadoenais Aghadoe. 

Aladensis , , , . ^ . Killala. 

MaiuneusiE Mayo. 

Scotland. 
AndreopoUtanu&bySixtufilV. St. Andrew's, AB. Prim. 

Dunckeldensis ..... Dunkeld. 

Aberdoneasia Aberdeen. 

Morarietisis Moray. 

VOL. nil. H 



■ 173 A LIST OF 


MEDt£VAL SEE9, ^^^H 


Dumblancnsia .... 


Dunblane. ^^^^H 


Brechinensis , . . . 


Brechiu. ^^^^H 


CathaDenais 


Caithness. ^^^^H 


Orcadcusis 


Orkneys. ^^^^| 


Glaagiiensis b}' Sixtus IV. 


Glasgoiv, AB. ^^^^| 


Candidee Casie .... 


Whithern or Galloway. ^H 


Lismorensis 


Ar^yle. ^^^H 


lusularuai 


^^^^1 


RoBsenaia 


^^^^H 


Ostlenaia 


^^^1 


Vellitcnienaia .... 


Yelletri. ^^H 


Portuensia ..... 


^^^1 


S. KuBneo . . . ^ . 


S. Hufina. ^^^H 


TuBCulanua . . . , . 


Frescati. ^^^^| 


Sabmensis ..... 


^^^^1 


PrBeneatiima .... 


Paleatrina. ^^^^H 


Albanensia 


Albano. ^^^^| 


TiburtinuB ..... 


. TivoU. ^^H 


Farfensis 


'^^^M 


Anagaiuus 


Ana^ni. ^^^^| 


Segniuus , » , , , 


Se^i. ^^^^H 


Tereatinua 


TerentinO. ^^^^1 


Alatrinus 


Alatri. ^^^^H 


VetulanuB 


Yeruli. ^^^^1 


Soranqg 


^^^H 


Fundaniia . , . , , 


Fondi. ^^^^1 


Caictanus 


Gaeta. ^^^^| 


Terracmensis .... 


Terracina, ^^^^H 


Subiacensis 


Subiaco. ^^^^H 


Uortanua . , . . . 


^^^1 


Civitatia Castellauee . . 


Civita Castellana. ^^^^1 


Nepesinus 


Nepi^ ^^^1 


SutriDUB 


^^^M 


Viterbiensia 


Yiterbo. ^^^^1 


Toscanenais 


Toscanella. .^^^^H 


^^ VolaterranuB .... 


Yolterra. ^^^H 



CLASSIFIED UNDEB THEIR LATttJ NAMES. 

Casti-ensia Castro. 

Civitatis Plebia .... Civitfi de la Piebe, 

Moutis Faliii Monte Fiascone. 

Cometanus ...... Cometo. 

liucanus .,,,,,, Lucca. 

Limetisis, SarzaD^nals, . . Luna aud Sarzaua. 

Folitiancnsis Monte Fulciano. 

Balneorcgiensis .... Ba^areal . 

Orberetanus . ■ , , . Orvieto, 

Peru&inus Ferula. 

Civitatis Caatelli .... Civit^ di CaBtello. 

Spoletanus Spuleto. 

AssisieDsis Asaisi. 

Fulg:inaten6i8 Foligno, 

Nacerinim Nocere. 

Reatiniu Hieti. 

Tudertinus Todi. 

Ameriuus Amelia, 

Narniensis Nami, 

luteramnensia Terni. 

CamfuincasU , . . . . Camerino. 

^sinus • Jeai. 

FanensU Fano. 

Auxixnaniia Osioio. 

Asculaaua Ascoli . 

AECOnitanua Ancona. 

Laaretanus ..,.*. Loretto. 

Kecauareusb . . , . . Recanate. 

Piaeasifl Fisa, AB. 

Adiacensis Ajaccio. 

Alerieosis ...... Alteria. 

Sagonenaia Sagonia. 

Florentinus Florence, AB. 

Pesulanus Fieaole. 

Pistoriensia Pistoia. 

CorroneDaia Cortona. 

h2 



179 



180 A LIST OF MEDLEVAL SEES, 

Aretinu8 * Arezzo. 

CoUcusis Colic, 

Bur^ S. Sepulchri . . . Borgo S. Sepolcro. 

8* Minlatis ...... S. Miiiiato. 

Seneiisis . ^ . ^ ^ . . Sienna, AB. 

Suana Suana. 

ClusiDua ...*.. . Chiual. 

GroBseranus Grosseto, 

Masaauua ...... Massa. 

Ilciiieusis . ^ , . . . Moutulciuo, 

Fientinus Pienza. 

GenucDsis &. Janucnais . , Genoa, AB, 

Bonouiensis ...... Bobio. 

Albingamensig Albenga, 

NauleDais Koli. 

Nebiensis . . • . . . Nebbia, 

Aprumiateuais Brugnet. 

HaliaQensis ..»*.. Mauriano. 

Acciensia Acci. 

Turinensis ^ Turin, AB. 

Moutis Regalia .... Mendovi. 

Ca^salcuais .,.«.. Caasale. 

Salutiarum Saluszo. 

Fosaaucnsis Fosaauo. 

Mediolaneiisis , , . . . Milan, AB. 

Bergomenais BeTgamo. 

Albensis Alba. 

Vercellebais VercclH. 

Cremoneusis Cremona. 

Saoneasia Savoua. 

Viiittmilenais ..... VentimigUo. 

Aqueusia Acqui. 

BrixienaiB Brescia, 

Novariensia Novara. 

Asteusis ....... Asti. 



CLASSIFIED U.VDER THEIR LATIN NAMES. 181 

Liiudensia Lodi. 

Alexandrinus , , , , , Alessandria. 

TortoRcusia Tortona. 

Ippomgicnsia * . . . . Ivrea. 

Viglienavensia Vigevano. 

P&piensis ..*... Pavia. 

Firmanus (1595) » . . . Permo, AB. 

MacerateusiB Macerata. 

TolentenuB (1586) . , . Tolentino. 

RipanensTs (1571) . , , Ripatranaona, 

Montis alti (1586). . . . Monlalto. 

S. Severini (1586) . , , Severino, 

Urbinatensia Uthino, AB. 

PisauricnsiB Peaaro. 

Eugubinus Agubbio. 

Forosemproniensia . . . Fossombrono. 

SeiiogaUiensia . , , , , Sinigaglia. 

CaUienais Cagli. 

Feretranns Monte Fcltro. 

Urbanieuda (IBB5] . . . Urbania. 



RaTcnnatensis Havenna, AB. 

Adriensis Adria. 

Comaclensis Comachio. 

ForoliTiensis . , , . . Forli. 

Foropopilicnais Forlimpopolo. 

Ce^natensis Ce&ena. 

Sarsinatenaia Saraima. 

FaventinuiS ...... Facnza. 

Britonoricuaia . . , , . Bertiuoro. 

Fciraricnsis Ferrara. 

ArimineQeia » . . . . Rimini, 

Imolensia Imola. 

C^rviensis ..,,., Cervia, 

Galeacenais Galiatas. 



182 A LIST OF MEDIEVAL SEEB, 

Bonouieusis .,,.,. Bologna (1586), AB. 

PlaeeutiDus Fiucenza. 

Parmenais Parraan 

Iiheg:iensia Reggie. 

Mutinensis *..... Modena, 

Cremeusis Crema. 

Bui^ S, Domini .... Borgo S. Domino. 

Callaritanus {by Clement 

VIII.) Cagliari, AB. 

Sulcitanus Solci. 

LcsscdsIb Lessa. 

Turritanus ...... Torre, AB. 

Algaarenaia Alguer. 

Bo^^cncnsis Bosso or Bosi. 

FhausineDBis Terrauova. 

AmpuricDais ..... Ampuriiis. 

Arbonenais Oriatagni} AB. 

Ueselensis .,,.,. Ales. 

Aquilensia Aquileia, Patriarcbate. 

Mautuanus Mantua, 

Comensia Como. 

Tridentinua Trent. 

Veranensis Verona. 

Patavinua Padua. 

Vicentinus Vicenza. 

Tarvi&anus ..... . Trevitii. 

ConcordienBifl Concordia. 

CenitcnBia Ceneda. 

Feltrcnsis Feltro. 

BolluuenaiB Ci?it& de Bellufio. 

Polcnsia ...,,.- Pola. 

Parcntinua Parenzo. 

Tt-rge&tiuua Trieste. 

JustiaopoUtauua .... Capo d'latria. 



CLASSIFIED UNDER THEIR LATIN NAMBB. 1 S3 



Guaatalenaii Gu&stala, 

Corcyrensis' ,.,.., Corfu, AB, 

Ccphalanienaia Ceplialonia. 

Zacyntbiensis Zaute. 

Cyprus. 

Leucosiensis Nicosia. 

Fama Augusta , , , . , Famagosta. 

Amathuaicnais AmatLoa. 

Ceraiinicusis Cerine*. 

Sottensia SoU. 

Carpaiieusis Carpario. 

Arzensia . Arzo. 

Leuceneis ..,,.. Leuca, 

Gradettsis (1450) . > . . Orado, Patxiarcbate. 

ClediensiB Chiosa. 

^moiiiensiB s. Civ. Novte . Civiti Nova. 

Torcellanus Torcello. 

Caprulienais Caurli. 

Maoraniis ..... ^ Murano. 

Cretensis Candia, AB. 

Caucensis &. A^enaia . . La Canea. 

Kctimensis Kettiaio. 

Sitticnsia Sittia. 

H ierapetrensiB Hierapetra. 

Cheroneusis ..,.,. CheronGsso, 

Mellipotensis Molipotamo. 

ArchadieDsis Archadia. 

CiaBamoaeiiaia a. Sicchimenais Siccbimo. 

NeapolitanuB , . . . . Naples, AB. 

PuteolanuB ...*.. Pozzuoli. 

Nolanua « . Nola. 

Acerrarum La Cerra. 

IscUnos Ischia, 



184 



A LIST OF MEDIEVAL SKBS, 



Avemauijs Avcraa. 

Lachedoncnsis 8, Alcedonenais Laoedogua, 

Lancianensia Lanzano. 

Larenensis Lariuo. 

Capuanua ...... Capua^ AB, 

Theatieiisis Tlicaiio. 

Caluensia ,,.,,, Calvi. 

Ca&ertanua Caserta* 

Caiacensis Caiaisso, 

Carinoleusis . , , . . Carinola. 

Iscniieneis laemia. 

SuessanuB >»..... Sesss. 

Aquinatensia ..... Aquino. 

Cassiucusis Moutc Casino^ 

SalernitaDus ..... Salerno, AB. 

Campaiiicnsia ..... Campagna. 

Caputaquensis ..... Capciccio. 

FolicastrcDsis PoUcaatro* 

Nerscanensis ..... Nuxo. 

ArcenciiBia Acerno. 

SarnensiB ....*. Sarao, 

Maraicenaia Maraico. 

Oaveuais La Cava. 

Amalphitanus Araalfi^ AB. 

LitterenBia ...... Lettcre. 

Scakusis , Scala 

Capritanua Capri. 

Minorensis Minori< 

Ravellensia .*.... Havello. 

Surrentinua SorrentOj AB. 

VicanensiB Vico Equense. 

Ma&salubensis , , , . . Masaa. 

CastelU Maris Caatel k Mare. 



CLASSIFIED UNDER THEIR LATIN NAMES. 185 



BcncvcntanuB . . * , . Benevento, AB, 

Asculonus Aacoli. 

Thelesinus ^ . , . . . Telese. 

S. Agathae Gothorum . . S. Agatha. 

Montis Viridis ..... Monte Verde. 

AJipbanua Alife. 

Montis MarauL » . . . Monte Maraoo. 

AvelUnuB Avelliuo. 

Frisentinus , Friccnto. 

Trivicanua Trivico, 

Arianensia Ariauo. 

Boiancnsis ...... Boiano. 

BovinenaiB ...... Bovino. 

LcsiDCUsis Lcsina. 

TultTirariensiB Voltorara. 

Yarineosis LarinD. 

ThermiUarum ..... Tennuli, 

S. Severi S. Severo. 

Guardictiaia La Guardea Alferes. 

Lucerinns .,.*.. Luccra di Pagani. 

Trorarius Trora. 

Lanciaiiensia (by Pina IV.) Lanciano, AB. Patriarchate. 

Tbeatinus (15^6) .... Civitfl di Chieta. 

OrtonensiB Ortoiia. 

Camplcnsis Campli. 

Cmtatis Pritnse .... Civit4 di Pcnna. 

Arienais Atri. 

AquilanuB AquiU.> 

Valvenftis Valva. 

SulmODeuHifi Sulmona. \i 

Aprutemia Teraiio. 

Ciritatia Dacalia .... Ctvit& Ducale. 

Compsanus ...... Conza, AB. 

Muranus Muro. 

Satrianensis ..... Satriano. 



186 



A LIST OF MEDIEVAL SEE9^ 



CampanienBiB Campanift. 

Laquedoneuais ..... Lacedognia. 

S. Angcli Lombard OTum . S, Angeli di Lombardi. 

Bifacieiiais Bisaaccia. 

Aclierontinus . , . , , Acerenza, AB, 

Matheraneusis Matera. 

Venusinus , , . ^ * , Venoaa. 

Angloncnsia a. Turcenisis . Anglona. 

Potentinus .,,... Poteuza. . 

Graviuensis Gravina. 

Tricariceiisia Tricarico. 

Tarentinus Tareato, AB. 

Montulensift Moutula. 

Castellanatensis .... Castellaneto. 

Oritanua Orta. 

Bmndus^iaus Brindiai, AB. 

Hostunensis , . . , . Ostuna. 

NeiitoiieusU Nardo. 

Monopolitanxis ..... Mouopoli. 

Hydruntinua . , , . , Otranto, AB. 

Castrenais Castro, « 

Gallipotanus Gallipot!. 

Ugentinua •....*. Ugento. 

Lyciensis ...... Lecce. 

Alcssauensia Alessano. 

• 

Barcnsis ....... Bari, AB. 

Bituntinua Bitonto. 

MelpHitensis ..... Alalfetta. 

JuvcnacenBia , . . , . Giovenazso. 

Rubensis Kuno. 

Polignanensia , , , , . Polignano, 

Minerbisicnsia ..... Moudorvino. 

Conversanus Conversaioo. 



CLASSIFIED UNDER THEIR LATIN NAMES, 187 

BitettenBiB ..,.,, Bittetto^ 

Andriebsis Andri. 

Vigiliensis ..,,., Bigcglia. 

TranensU Trani, AB. 

Montis Pilosi ..... Monte Filoso. 

JRApoUeDBiis R&pollo. 

S^poutinus ManfredoniB,, AB. 

Vestanus Veste. 

Melpheaaia Melfi. 

KazarenuB (titular) in diocese 

of Trani ..,.., Nazareth, AB. 

Kheginensis . « . . , Reg;gio^ AB, 

Neocastrenaia Nicastro. 

Cathacensis Catanzaro. 

Cotrotensia Cotrona. 

Tropienaia ..*... Tropia. 

Oppidensia ...... Oppide. 

BoTeusis * . Bove- 

Hieracenaia ,.,,,. Geraci. 

Squilacensis Squillace. 

Castri Maris ..... Castel a, mare. 

NicotorenBia Nicotera. 

CuBentinns ...... Cosenza, AB. 

Maturancnsis Martorana. 

Cassaiiensis Casaano. 

Mdilensia ...... Melitb. 

8, Marcj S, Maroo, AB. 

BossaDCDsie Rossaao. 

Bisignaaensis Beaigoano, AB. 

S. Severini S. Severino. 

UmbriaticeDBia .... Umbriatico. 

Strougutenais ..... Stongoli. 




InsulfLnus ...... L'lsola. 

CatiatensiB Cariati. 

BeLlicastrensis ..... Belcastro. 

Panormitanus * . . , . PalermOj AB. 

AgrigeDtinuB Girgenti. 

Mazarensis ^ , , . , , Mazara, 

Mclevitanus v. Meletcnsis . Malta. 

MontisrealiB Monreale, AB. (1183,) 

Syracusanus Syracnae. 

CatanicQiBis Catania. 

Measanensis ..... Messina^ AB. 

Ccphaluoeosis Cephalonta. 

Pactensis Patti . 

LiparenaiB Lipari. 

Antibarensia » , , , . Antivari, AB. 

Stepbanenais ^ . , . . Stephana, 

Bondoncusis ..... Bouda. 

Albanen&is ,.*... Albano. 

Alexiensia Alcssio. 

ScutarCDsis v. Scordcnsia . Scutari. 

Saparensia s. Sardiinensia . Sepata. 

ProzrinenaiB Priectria. 

Sardiceuais Soffia. 

Buduaretisis ..... Buda. 

Culcincnsis DulcigTiO. 

DrivastrenaiB . . . , . Dcrivaate. 

Suacincnsis Suacino. 

Bulla&tvensis ..... Bolastro. 

Sierbienais Serbia. 

BagusiauB Kt^sa, AB. 

Stagnensis , Stagno. 

Mercaaensis Marcana. 

Trebinensia t, Trebreniensia Trebigne. 




Hosouensis ...... Klaano. 

Corzolensis Corzola. 

Cattarenais .,,*.. Cattaro. 

Garzalcn&ia Gozzola, 

Spalatreusia Spalatro, AB. 

Bareusis Lcaiiia. 

Tragurienaia Trau. 

Sibcniccusia Sebcnico. 

Segnicnsia ...... Segna. 

Scardonensia Scardona. 

Bosueusia Cosna. 

&amadicD»is* Semedcrevo. 

Modrissieusis Modruaaa. 

Corbaviebsis ..... Corliava. 

Damnensia . . . . . . Dumuoet. 

Macoreu&is Mucarsa. 

JadreDsLa ...... Zara, AB. 

Arbetisis Arbc. 

VegUanenais . , , , . Veglia. 

Auiareasia Ossaro. 

Nonensis None. 

Biuchiensis Durazzo, AB, 

BendeiiEis Bender. 

Crorensis [Crojensis in Novo Epiro, Fa- 
bric, xiii. 44). 

Lisieasis Lissa. 

C&uoiiieusis v. CuDobieasia . Canooa. 



190 A L13T OF MEDIAEVAL SEES, 

PIoccDsis Plock. 

Cracovicnsis Cracow. 

FrosnatiienBis Foznan. 

Camanccensia ..... Kamcen. 

Vilneosis Vilenzka. 

Vendeiisia ...... "Widin. 

Leopoliengis Luvon or Lwow, AB. 1361. 

CamcQeDsis Cammin. 

Culmensis ...... CKelmno. 

Varmiensi& Wafmia. 

Wlodomicien&is • . . . Wlodzimirz. 

LuceocienBis . * . . * Lucko, 

PoloceDsia ...... Polok. 

Fr^emisliensis ..... FrimiBia or Fozomist, 

Kioveusia Kiow. 

Cbdmensis Chelm* 

Cameueceusis Kamienlck. 

Fiscensis Piusko. 

Huasia. 

Rostoviensia . , , . . Rostow, AB. 

NoTogardienais .... Novogorodj AB. 

Cortizensis 

Kesaniensis ...... Keaan. 

Coloninensis ..... Colom^ 

CasaDiensiB Casano. 

VologdciisU Volga. 

TuericDaia Tver. 

Smolencienaia Smolcnsko. 

Bohemia, 

Pragensia Fragae, AB. 1344. 

Oloncnsis T. Olomuceusis . Olmiitz. 

YratiBlavienaU Brcslau. 

Hunffary. 

StrigoneusiB Graiij AB. Ffimate. 



CLASSIFIED UNDER THEIR LATIN NAME3. 191 



Agriensis Agria or Ella. 

Nitriensia Nitrft. 

Vaciensifl Vacz, 

Lauriuen&ia Raab. 

Quinqiie Ecdesiarum . , Pete. 

Vesprimiensia VeRprin or Uraprin. 

Coloccnsb Colocza or ColoUa, AB. 

Zabragiensia Zabrag. 

Vradieusis * V&rad. 

CKianadieDsis Chianad. 

Sirmiensia Szerem. 

Bosnicnsis Boaua. 

Trans^lTanise s. Albfe Julise Weissemburg. 
Cibinieusis b. Hermaustad- 

ensis Sbem. 

Trimieuais Thmini. 

Germany^. 

MoguntiDue Majence, AB. 

Eiatatensia AicbaCct, 

HerbipoleDBis . , . . ^ "Wurtzburg, 

Coastaaticaaia Coanitz. 

CurienHiB Cur. 

Ar^cutiuensis ..... Stra^burg. 

Spirensia ..,,,.. Spires. 

Wormatiensia Worms. 

Verdenais Verdun. 

Hildcsb em ensis .... Hildeabeini, 

Padcrbonenaia ..... Paderborn. 

HalbestadieDsis . , , . HalbcTstadt, 

Augustauus Augsburg. 

Bambergensis Bamberg, 

Misoenais Meissen. 

Coioaiensis CologQe^ AB. 

Leodiensia ...... Li^ge. 

Mouaaterteusis Muaater. 



192 A LIST OF M£DIjEVAL SEES, 

MindeuBis ...,,. Minden. 

OauaburgcuBis Osuabui^. 

Breraenaia ...... Bremeti, AB. 

LabacensiB L».mbac, 1468. 

Balduicen&is Burdwi&s. 

Selvicensis Sleswick. 

Kasebrugcusia Ilatzcmburg or RBccsbu^. 

Lubicausifi ...... Lubeck, 

Culnieusia ..... . Culm. 

Kcgcnais s. LivonieQsis . . Kiga. 

Rcuolieusls RevcL 

Curienda s. Garladeuais . , Ocrlaudi. 

OLsckusis Ocscl. 

Depteaais 8. Topatcusia . . Dorpat. 

Curomeuals ...... Zwariu, 

Magdeburgenaia . . , . Magdeburg, AB. 

Havclburgensis .... Havelbcrg. 

Brandcburgenais .... Brand etj burg. 

MerseburgenBb .... Mereabcrg. 

Ciczeuais s. Nauraburgeusis . Nuremberg. 

Saiseburgensis ..... Saltzburg (by Leo HI.), AB. 

Lavendrinus Lavermonde, 

Katispciiieusis ..... RatisboD. 

PassavicDsis ..... Passau. 

FrizingcuBiB Freisaingen. 

BrizincniaiB ...... Biixeu. 

Gurgensis ...... Gurk, 1463. 

Lavantiaus ...... Lavaotmutz, 1214. 

Secovtensig ...... Seckau, 1214. 

Chicmensis s. Kymenais . . Chiemse^ 1214. 

Novffi CiviEatiB ..... Nieustadt, 1468. 

Victmeusia YieoiiB. 

Trevcreusis ...... Treves, AB. 

Meteiiais Metz. 



CLA8SIFIXD UNDER THEIR LATIN NAMES. 193 

Tullensis Toul. 

VerduDenais Verdun. 

Tarentasiensis Tarentaise, AB. 

Seduensis Sedun. 

AnguBtanus Aosta. 

Bisantinus Besani^ODj AB, 

Basiliensis Basle. 

Lauauensis Lausanne. 

Bcllicensis Bellay. 

J^ance, 

Logdanenffls Lyons, AB. 

Educensis s. Augustodunensis Autun. 

Matisconensis M&con. 

Cabillonensis ChdIons-sur-SaSne, 

Lingonensis Langres. 

Farisiensu Paris, AB, 1622. 

Camotensis Chartres. 

Anielianeusis Orleans. 

Meldensis Meauit. 

Senonensis Sens, AB. 

Nivemensis Nevers. 

Autissidorensis Auxerre. 

Trecensis Troyes. 

Burde^ensis Bordeaux, AB. 

Pictaviensis Poictiers. 

Sanctouensis Saiacte. 

Engolismensis AngoulSme. 

Pebacoricensis Perigueux. 

Condanensis Condon. 

Malleacensis Mallezec. 

Agennensis Agen. 

Lodonensis Lu9on. 

. VOL. VIII. O 



194 A LIST OF MEDIEVAL SEES, 

Sarlatensis Sarlat. 

Arelatetisis Aries, AB, 

Mnasiliensis MarBeilles. 

ArausicCnsis Orange. 

Tri^jastiuenaia ..... Tficastin. 

Toloncnsis Toulon. 

Aqiiensis . ...... Aix, AB. 

AptCDsis Apt. 

Re^nsta Riez. 

Foro Julicueis ..... Frejitas. 

Yapiucensis Gap. 

Sistarieusis Si&teron, 

VieDuenais Vieuiic, AB. 

Valcutiiius ...... y&lGQce. 

VinariensU. ,..,.. Vivarrais. 

Diensis Die. 

OratmnopoUs Grenoble. 

Mauriancoais ..... Maurienne.. 

GabcQneiii&iB &. Geneven&is . Geneva. 

Ebreduneiisis EnibruUj AB. 

Bignensia ...... Digtie. 

Nicieiisis , Nisse. 

Grasscnaias. Autinopolitaniis Grasae. 

GlaudercQsis Claudesve. 

Senotensis ...... Seiiez. 

Veociensis S. Po! de Vence. 

Avcnionenfiis Avignon, AB. 

Carpentoractensia .... Ciirpentraa. 

Vasioiiensis Vaison. 

Cabellicciisiss, Cftbeilionensi* Cavaillon, 



Rheraensia Rheima^ AB, 

Suessionensis Soissons. 



CLASSIFIED UNDER THEIR LATIN NAMES. 195 

Cathaloneusis Ch^ons-sur-Marae. 

SilvaneteDsis Senlis. 

Toroaceusis Tournay. 

AmbianeoBis Amieus. 

Morinensis Teroua. 

Novionensis Noyon. 

Belluacensis Beauvais. 

Laudunensis Laon. 

Atrebatenais Artois. 

Rotbamagensis Koucn, AB. 

Batoccnsis Bayeux. 

AbrincenstB Avrauches. 

Ebriocensia Evreux. 

Sagicaais Sais. 

Lexoviensis Lisieux. 

Constantienais ..... Coiitances-, 

Turooensis Tours, AB. 

Cenomaaenais Mans. 

Redonensis Bennea. 

Andegavensis Angers. 

Nanneteosis Nautes. 

Corisopitensis Cornaorcailles. 

Venetensis Veniiea. 

Macloviensis S. Malo. 

Briocensis S. Brieu. 

Trecorensis Trigeur. 

Leonensis . . . . . . S. Pol de L^oa 

Doleosis Dol. 

Bituricensis Boui^es, AB. 

Claromentenais .... Clermont. 

Rutbenensis Rodez. 

Cadurcensis Cahors. 

Lemoviceosis Limoges. 

Mimateusis Mende. 

Albieusia Alby. 



19fJ A LIST OF MEDIEVAL SKKS, 

Castreosia Ca&tres. 

Vaoteiisis Vnuren. 

Tutellensia Tullea. 

S. Flori S. Pleur. 

AuiciensU ..,.., Le Puj. 

Auxitauuft Aux, A6. 

Aqueuensis .,.,,, Aqa. 

lisctorateusis Letotirs. 

Convetietifiia S« Bertrand. 

Couserariu^ »,,.,* S, Leger> 

Bigoriccnsia v. Tarvicnsis . Tarbes. 

Oloreusis ...... OIcro&. 

Lfidcarenais Lescar. 

Vasatetiaia Sasaa. 

Baiovensis v. Lapurdencis , Bayonne. 

Adurensia Aire. 

Narbonensis , . . . . Narbotiue, AB. 

CartassioneiisiB .... Carcossoue. 

Briterceusis Besiera^ 

Agathensis Agde. 

Lcdovenaia ..,.** Lodeve. 

NcmauseiiHia Nismes. 

Uticenaia Usez. 

S. Pontii Tomeriamm . . S. Pont. 

AJectcnsis .,.,,. Alex. 

Moutis Pcpulanij 1536 . . Montpelier., 



Tliolosamis ...... TonlousCj AB. 

"M irapiscciiaia Mirepoix,. 

Muutalbiensis Moutaubau. 

Vaureiisis Vaure. 

Eiveuiis Kieuji. 

Xfombcrienaia , . . . . Lombet. 

S. PanU S. PauL 

App^uii^i^tu^ ..... Appamea. 



CLASSIFIED UNDER THEIR LATIN NAMES. 197 

Spain. 

Tairaconensis Tarragona, AB. 

Barcinonensis Barcelona. 

Oemndenais Gerona. 

Ilerdensis Lerida. 

EInensis Ehia. 

Yicensis Vich. 

UigeUeosis Urgell. 

Bertosensis Tortosa. 

SoUonensia Solsona. 

Valcntious, 1492 .... Valencia, AB. 

Segobricensis Segorbe. 

Oriolensis Oreguela. 

Maiorensis Majorca. 

Ctesaraugustanus (by John 

XXII.) Saragossa, AB. 

Oscensis k Hercsca. 

Jacenais laca. 

Terulensis Teruel. 

Tyrasonensis Taragona. 

Barbastrenais Barbastro. 

Albaracinensis Albarracin. 

Granatensis (by Alex. VI.) . Granada, AB. 

Malacitanua Malaga. 

Almeriensis Almeria. 

Hispalensis Seville, AB. 

Cadicensis Cadiz. 

Guadicensis Guadix. 

Canariensis The Canaries. 

Tolelanos Toledo, AB. Prim. 

Cordubiensis Cordova. 

Segobiensis Segovia. 

Carthaginensis s. Marcieusis Cartagena or Murcia. 



lys 



A LIST OF MEDIAEVAL S££S, 



Murcensis ...... M urcia. 

SaguJitiDtia ...... Sfgueii^a. 

Oxommisis v, Uxaraenais . Osma. 

CouchcnsiB v. CoDqueosia * Cuetica. 

OiennensU ,,..,. Jaen. 

Abulenais Avila. 

Vallisoletanas ..... Valladolid. 

Biirgensia (by Gregory XIII.) Burgos, AB. 

FampUoneusia Pampcluna. 

Caloj^uritanus , . . . . Calahorra. 

Calceatenuia Calcada. 

Falentinus Paleucia. 

Compostellanua^ 1124 . . Corupostellaj, AB. 

Salaoiautinua Salamanca. 

Placentinus Placeutia^ 

Lcrccnsis Lergo. 

Asturiceiisis Asterga. 

Zatnotensid * Zamora^ 1123. 

Aurienais Orense* 

Paeenais ....... Tui, 

Mondeniensis * . . . . Mondenedo. 

Curiensia ....*. Cerja. 

Civitatensis ...... Ciudad Rodrigo, 

Lcgioncnats Leon. 

Ovetensis t. Poritoneuienais Oviedo. 

Septensia Ceuta. 

Portuyal. 

Bracftrenais t, Emeritensis . Braga, AB. Metrop. 

Portugaleusis Oporto. 

Viscnsifl ....... Viaen. 

Concinbrienais Coimbra. 

MiraudcDsis, 1545 . . . Miranda. 

Ulixboncnsis v. Olysipotteu- 

&ia, 1300 Lisbou, AB. 



CLASSIFIED UNDER THEIR LATIN NAMES. 199 

Kg;itanensia t. Igtetidanus . Guarda. 

Albensis EWas. 

Lamacensis Lamego. 

lieriensis Leirca. 

Portalegrensis Portalegre. 

Septensis (1475) .... Ceuta. 

Funchalen&ia Funchal. 

Angrensis Angra. 

Cougrensis Congo. 

Capitis Viridis Cape Verde. 

S. Thomse St. Thomas. 

BrasUiensia Brazil. 

Elborensis (Algaira by Paul 

III.) Evora, AB. 

Silvensis s. Faraonensis . . Faro. 

Tingitauus Tangier, 

Eloensis (by Pius V.) . . Elvas. 

Goensis (by Paul III.) . . Goa, AB. Prim. 

Coecinensis Cochin China. 

Malacensis Malacca. 

Sinensis China. 

Machiensia Macao. 

Japonensis (by Sixtus Y.) . Japan. 

Malabanensis Malahara. 

Meliaporensis !Meleapor. 

S. Thomae St. Thomas. 

Angamalensis t. Graugano- 

rensis, AB [Malabar.] 

Mexicanus, 1547 .... Mexico, AB. 
TIazcalensis s. Angelopolita- 

nu8 Tlazcala. 

Mechoacanensis .... Mechoacan. 

AntiquerensiB v. Gaaiacensis Antequere. 

Guadalaxerensis .... Guadalaxara. 



200 A LIST OF MEDIEVAL SEES, 

GuatiToalensis Guatemala. 

Jucataccnsis Yucatan. 

Chiappeusis. ..... Chiapo. 

Trixilleiisis ...... Truxillo. 

Verse PaciB Vera Paz. 

Nicaragueiisis , . , , , Nicaragua. 

Novie Gallicism Guadalajara. 

NoTffi Cakbriffi. 

Hondurensia S. Salvador. 

S. Dominici, 1545 . . . S. Domiugo, AB. 
B. JaanniEj de Portu v. Por- 

tu3 Divitis . . , . , Porto Rico. 

S. Jacobi in Cuba . . . Santiago. 

Vencnzolanua v. Caraqneiisis Venezuela. 

Jamaiceuais ...... Jamaica. 

Cubreni^ifi Cuba. 

Vegeucis .,..., Porto Vejo. 

Limcusis (by Paul III.), 

154-7 Lima, AB. 

Cuscencia v. Cuzquensis „ , Cuzco. 

Quitenais (by Paul 111.) . Quito. 

PanninenBis ...,,, Panama. 

Chilenais Chili. 

ImperiRlis ...... Imperial Cividad, 

Arequipeusis v. Arepurpeiisia Arcquipa. 

Guamangaucitsis .... Guamanga. 

Trugillensia ...... Truxillo. 

S. Jacobi. 

S. Couceptionis .... Conception. 

Platenais 8. Argentinua {hy 

Paul V.) La Plata, AB. 

PaceiiBia I>e.la Paz. 

Barraceusis Barranca. 

S. Jacobi Estereneia . . , Santiago. 

{Bonorum Aerums.Flumiuia Kio de la Plata. 1 

Argeiitei Bueuos Ayres. J 



CLASSIFIED UNDER THEIR LATIN NAMES. 201 

Paraguanensis Paraguay. 

S. Fidei S. Fe de Bogotfi, AB. 

Popayanensis Popay an . 

Cartbaginensis Cartagena, 

S. Marthse S. Marta. 

ManiliannSj 1545 .... Manilla, AB. ■ 

Segonse Novse . . > . . Luzon. 

Nominis Jesu Zebu. 

Carcerensis v. Caurensis . C. Vueva Carres. 

Denmark. 

Lundensis Lund, AB. 1092; Primate 

1159. 

Vibui^eusis Vibo!^. 

Arosia . . . . * . . . Aarhus. 

Ripa Ribe. 

Otbonium Odensee. 

Burglavensis ' Aalborg. 

Sweden, 

UpsallenBis Upsala, AB. (by Eugenius 



Scarensis, 1026 
Lincopensis . . 
Stiruniensis 
Aboensis 
Vellimensia . 



in.), 1148. 
Schara. 
Lineoping. 
Strengnas. 
Abo. 
Velliraen. 



Norway. 

Nidriosienais Dronthcim (byEugciiius 111.), 

AB. 1148. 

Bej^nsis Bergen. 

Stavagiensis Staveugar. 

Hamariensis v. Hamarcopi- 

enais Hammar. 

VOL. VIII. p 



202 



A LIST OP MEDIEVAL SEES, 



Ansloensis Analoe. 

Holamcnsis v. Hemeteusia . Holum. 

Gronclandensia , . ♦ , Greenland. 

ScaUioltaaus Scalholt, Iceland. 

Groenakdensis ..... Greeuland, 

Farensis .,...., Faro Islee. 

Belgium, Holland. 

CatneracenBisj 1558 , . , Cambray, AB. 

Atrebatenais Arras. 

Tornacensis Touruay. 

Naraurcensis Namur. 

Audamarensia , . , , . St, Omer. 

Gandaveiiais Ghent. 

Burgensis .,,.., Bruges. 

Iprensia Yprea. 

Boscoducensis Bois-lc-duc. 

Hunemundensia .... Kiiremond* * 

Ultrajectensis Utreclit, AB, 

Harlemensia . , , . , Haarlem. 

Daventricnsis Deveuter. 

Leovardiensis , * . . , Leuwarden. 

GrosningeDsis MLddleburg. 

Mechlinensis Mecliliu, AB. Prim. 

Antwerpienais Antwerpn 



Mr. Stubbs likewise mentions the following titulj 
sees held by suffragans in England : — 

Navatensis Pavada. 

Soltibrienais Selymbria [Thrace]. 

Tinensb Tenos. 

Sirmium Cyrene [or Szerem]. 

Kaonensia Rhcon [Athens]. 

Avieasia. 



CLASSIFIED UNDER THEIR LATIN NAMES. 203 

Magnatieusis [? Magnetensis, in Portugal] . 

Lycostomium. 

Aurensis [? A.uriensis, in Spain]. 

Recreensis. 

B. MarisB de Rosis. 

Naturensis, in the province 

of Heraclea. 
ChryBopolis [? Besan^oa, Fabric, xii. 38], 

or Naples. 
Aynbouensis. 

Poletensie p Pulati.] 

Lambergensis. 

Lambrensis. 

Cananagiensis. 

Prestinensis [? Pristinensis, in Servia.] 

Milienais \? Melito, or Militensis, in 

Calabria.] 

Sevastopolis [7 Sebastopol, in Thrace.] 

Fharensis .* [? Phariensis, in Armenia.] 

Ancoradensis. 
Soltaniensia, in Media. 
Surronensis. 
Arlatensis. 

Olensis Holum, 

Olenensis [POlencein Achaia, or Oloren- 

sis Oleron.] 
Salonenais [? in Achaia.] 



p2 



204 



MfiMOIRE SVR LA DfiCOUVERTiS ET L'ANTIQUlTfi 

ru CODEX siNAincus. 



PAB H. OONflT. TIBCHENDOBF. 



(La a la B^nce du 13 fi^vner 1865.) 



Jb ne sauiais commencer ce discours, auquel le Coa- 
seil de U Socu'te lloyale de Litteralure a biea voulu 
m'inviter, sans dire d'abord combien je suis heureux 
d'assister aujourd'hui ^ une reunion de cette illustre 
sociiUt- qui, il y a cinq ans, me fit Phonneur de rae 
nommer un de ses merabres honoiaites. Cette pre- 
cieuse distinctioa me fut accordce ct roccasiou de la 
decouverte de la Bible du Sinai ; c'est pour moi une 
raison de plus de me feliciter d'avoir aujourd'hui a 
parler devant vous de cette m^me di-couverte. 

Pendant que j'lHais occupi' k preparer ma premiere 
edition critique du Nouveau Testament grec en 1 839 
et 1840, je parvins h la conviction qu'il n'yavait rien 
de plus important a faire pour I'avancement de la Cri- 
tique Sacree que d'entreprendre des travaux nouveaux 
et conaciencieux eur les plus anciens documents Hibll- 
ques. C'est par cette raison que je commeh^ai dans 
I'autouine de Tan 1840, sous les auspices du Gouver- 
nement de Saxe, une st'rie de voyages dont le but etait 
lie visiter toutea les biblioth^ques riches en manuscrits 






N 



I? 

V 



082i 

' 0< 



V 







Sets 



— U; b- 



i/ 






J 



LB CODEX eiNAITlCUS. 



!i05 



que poss^de I'Europe. Aprfis avoir passe quatre ans 
dans ces rechercbes, fV-condes en R^suitats importants, 
je resolus de parcourir aussi les couvents d'Orieiit, 
dont I'Eui'ope a re^u en heritage les plus riches tr^- 
sors de ses biblioth^ques ; je ne croyais pas impos- 
sible d'y d^couvrir encore quelques restes precieux. 

Ah mois d'avril 1814 je m'embarquai pour I'Egypte; 
te mois suivant j'allai au Mont Sinai, pour visiter le 
couvent de Sainte-Catberine, qui, depuis sa fondation 
par I'erapereur Justinien, vers a.d. 530 n'a souffert 
aucune devastation. Eii p^ircourant ]a bibliotbt^que 
de ce couvent, j'y aper^us un ^ros panier, rerapli de 
debris d'auciens raanuscrlts. J'en retirai.a magrande 
surprise, une quantity de feuiiletg du plus grand format, 
contenant des fragments de I'Ancien Testament en 
Orec. Ayant exaniim', en vue d'une nouvelle Pal^o- 
graphiegrecque, tous les plus anciens manuscrits grecs 
de I'Europe, il me fut facile de reconnaitre ^ premiere 
vue que cea fragments ^taient de la plus haute anti- 
quite. Comme ils se trouvaient dans un panier dont 
tout le conteuu avait et^ deux fois mis au feu, a ce 
que me raconta le biblioth^caire qui m'acconqjagnait, 
j*obtias facilement que quelques-uns dea fragments, 
consislant en cent trente feuilles, me fussent cdd^s. 
Mais quand plus t<trd je demandai le reste, je rencon- 
trai des difficult^s. J'en copiai alors une page, k 
quatre colonnes, contenanl la fin du propbtte Isaie 
avec les premiers versets du prophete Jtivmie, et, tout 
en me r^servant le plaisir de revenir une autre fois au 
Mont Sina'i. je recommaudai instamment de bien con- 
server tous les fragments qui restaieiit, (il &'y Irouvait 
le lexte de plusieurs prophtites, les livrea des Mac- 
cabees, de Tobit et de Judith,) ainsi que tous les debris 



206 



M^MOIRE suit LA DECOUVERTE 



eeroblables qu'on pourrait encore d^couvrir ; en effet 
un reste d*une ancienne reliure attache a quekjiues 
feuilles m'avait fait supposer qu'il devait en rester en- 
core d 'autres fragments. A mon retour en Saxe je cedai 
a la bibliotheque de VUniversite de Leipsic tous les 
manu&crits que j'avais mppoit^s de I'Orient, y com- 
pris les pre'cieu^ restes Sinaitiques^ auxquels j'eus la 
satisfaction d*attacher le noni du Roi de Saxe, Fred^rfc- 
Auguste.' Je les publiai imraedialement, en donnant 
tout le texte de quarante-trois feuilles lithographic sur 
huit colonnes.- 

Malgre toute la publicite que je donnai k ce tresor, 
je gardai le secret du lit u d'on i| provenait : car je 
poursuivais activement les ne'gociations entamces pour 
Tacquisition des autres (Vagtnents restes au convent. 
J'en offris une somme considerable, en priant un ami 
inBuent au Caire de me servir d'intermudiaire. Mais 
il m ecrivit a ce sujet : " Depuis votre depart du 
convent, on y sait bien qu'on possede un tre'sor, (II 
est vrai que je n'avais su degiiiser ce que je pensai 
du nianuscrit.) II serait iiuitile d offrir uoe parellle 
somme, Plus vous offrirez, moins on cedera le MS." 
A la suite de ces renseignenients je pris la resolution 

' Un catalogue des autres MSS., ditf Manuscripta Tischendor- 

fiana, &e trouve daoa I'ouvrage : Aneedota sacrji et profana ex on- 
ente et occideiite allflta, sive Notitin codicum Gra*cdrum, Ambi- 
corum, Syriacorum* Coptitorum, ITc^brHiconim. .■Ethiopicorutn. La- 
tinoruin, cum cxcerptis multis mnjttmam partem Gitecig et 35 ^crip- 
turamra anCiquisBmarum specimiriibuB. (1855.) EdiCip repetita 
pluriljuaque ttddstaroentia auctn, (I860.) 

■ L'ouvfDge porte ce litre; Codex Friderico-Augq&tanjs, aive 
Fragmenia Veterii^ Tefclamejili e codice Gneco otHDlum qui m 
Eoropi BBpermnt facile antiquiesimo. In orienlc detcxlt, in u«- 
trtutn attulic. ad Qiodura codicis pilidit C. T. 1846, 



nU CODEX SlNAITtCUS. 



207 



de faire un second voyage en Orient, principalement 
dans le but de copier le manuscrit du Sinai, doiit je 
con6ai alore le secret au ministre de Saxe, le Baron de 
Beast Au commencement du mois de fovrier 1853 je 
me trouvai pour la seconde fois au couvent de Sainte- 
Catherine Mais ce fut en vain ceile foia que je cher- 
chai raon trcsor ; il me fut mi^me impossible d'en ob- 
tenir dee rengeignements. C*est ce qui me fit gupposer 
qu'il ^tait dcjii parti du couvent pour quelque biblio- 
thcque d^Europe. Bien que j'eusse manque le prin- 
cipal but de moil voyage, je revins satisfait, emportant 
avec moi une riche collection d'anciens et importants 
MSS., parmi lesquels se trouvaient seize palimpsestea 
et siijc manuscrits coptea, grecs et hi^roglyphiques sur 
papyrus. L'aunde suivante, en publiant le premier 
volume demes *'Monumenta Sacra Inedita, NovaCol- 
lectio,"^ je jugeiU k propos d editer anssi le fragment 
dMsaie et de J^r^nie, copid par moi en 1844 au cou- 
veol du Sinai, pour declarer Si cette occasion que toUB 
les autres fragmentf^i du in^me manuscrit, dont j'indi- 
quai le contenu, dans quelque mains qu'ils fusseat 
torab^ depuis, avaient ^t^ aussi retires par moi du 
malheureux panier et sauv^s par mes soina pour la 
post(?riti'. 

Mais la Providence en avait dispose aulrement. Tout 
occup^que j'^tais alors de diff^rentes publications, en- 
tr'aulres de la septicme Edition du Nouveau Testament 
("editio vn, critica major") qui roclamait de fortes 
Etudes, lid^e de nonvelks rccherches en Orient ne me 
quittail p<;s ; un pressentimenl, dont je ne eavais me 
rendre compte, m'entrainait de nouveau dans cette 

* TroiB volumes de eettc callection farent publifia en 1865j 1887, 
1 860. Ciaq sntrce volumes auivroot mceesammcnt. 



208 



HiMOIRB SUR LA DI^COUVKUTE 



direction. Plusieurs raisons me porterenl a propoi 
au Gouveriiement Imperial de la Russie tie me charg^ 
d'une mission scientifique en Orient, dont je presen- 
tai, par I'lnterm^diaire du Ministre Plenipotentiaire de 
Russie a Dreade, un plan detailld h M. de Noroff, 
alors Ministre de rinslrnction pubiique en Russie et 
avanlageuseuient connu par ses propres travaux scien- 
tifiques. Presque deux annees, pendant lesquellesj'etais 
parvenu h achever la septitme (Edition du Nouveau Tes- 
tament, s^etaient t'coulees, lorsque l^a Majeste lnn;pe- 
riale Alexandre II, grilce a Tentremisede I'luiperatrice 
Marie, me chargea de la mission que j'avais propnsee. 
Ce fut dans les premiers jours de Ian 18iJ9 que 
je quittai Leipsic pour TEgypte. Le dernier jour de 
Janvier je saluai pour la troi&ieme fois le convent de 
Sainte-Catherine, au pied du Mont Sinui. Ledignesu- 
p^rieur du couvent, Dionyse, touche de la mission qui 
m'amenait, m'accueillit en djsant: l)ieu veuille que 
vous trouviez de nouvelles colonnes pour soiitenir la 
Verite Divine ! Je fis des recberches dans les dittereiv- 
tes bibliotbeques du convent ; elles fuient couronuees 
d'heureux r^suUats, sans que je pusse touteibis ren- 
conlrer les precieuses feuilles de 1844. Le 4 fevrier 
je fis avec I'Economc du couvent une promenade datis 
les environs. iXotre eutretien rouiait beauconp sur 
les LXX, dont j'avais apporte plusieurs exeinplaires 
aux Fr^res Sinaites, ainsi que du Nouveau Testament. 
Quand nous rentrames au couvent, I'Econome nie 
pria de prendre quelques raffraichissenients dans sa 
cellule. J'y ^tais enlre et preuaisun verre de liqueur, 
lorsque I'Econome alia dans un coin de sa cellule et 
avec ces mots: "J'ai aussi 1^ un exemptaire des LXX," 
en rapporta un objet enveloppe d'un drap, qu'il pla^a 



DU CODEX SINAtnCUS. 



t>09 



devant moi sur la table. J'ouvre le drap et voie de- 
vant moi la Bible du Sinai. Mais c'^lait bien plus 
que ies teuilles retirees aulrefois par moi du panier; 
en feuilletant je m'aper^us tout de suite quil s'y Uou- 
vait m^me le Nouveau Testament tout entier.* Je pu6 
& peine maitriser la plus profonde emotion ; je deman- 
dai la permission de porter lout le paquet dans ma 
chambre. Quand je m'y trouvai seul, j'eus peine ^ 
croire que ce qui se passait etait bien r^el ; je tenais 
dans mes mnins la moili^ de I'Ancien Testament, le 
Nouveau Testam<-Mil complet, enriclii encore de I'epitre 
de 8. Bnrnab^ et de (ragintnts du Pasteur d'Hermas. 
Tous mes reves lesplushardis elaient d^pass^s; j'avais 
la certitude d'avoir trouv^ le plus important manuscrit 
du monde cbr^tien, une veritable "colonne pour sou- 
tenir la Verite Dirine," II ^tait passi' buit heures du 
soir ; une lampe a deux petites flammes oclairait ma 
chambre ; quoiqu^il fit assez (Void, il avait m^nie gele 
dans la matinee, il n'y avait aucmi moyen de cbauffage. 
Me trouvant cependant dans rimpos&ibilit^ dc me cou- 
cher ou de dormir, je me mis a copier I'epitre de S. Har- 
nabe, dont toute la pren^i^re pirtie, perdue jusqu'alors 
en Grec, n'dtait connue que parun manuscrit latin tres- 
faulif. J'l'tais certain qu'il me faudrail copier tout 
le manuscrit, si je nc pouvais obtenir Toriginal, A 
peine lit-il jour que j'appelai Tficonome chez moi. 
Le Sup^rieur s'^tant rendu deux jours auparavant an 
Caire pour I'ulection d'un nouvel Archev<3queje nmnus- 



I 

t 

I 



* li'aDgni^ntatiaq de mea feuilles &vait eu lieu bienl&t apr^a man 
depart do couwenl en IS44. On avait Irouvt^ le* autreB fraginent* 
dans une QUtrc bibtiolh^^juc da couvent; ^t 11 i'ftnit impoBsible de nepas 
TecoDDEiitre qu'ila provenaicnt de ce mSme mADUftcrit, d»rit lev Testes 

ucnt cli' par mo) &i chaleureuseinent rpcomEnatid^s aa cauveiit. 



210 



MBMOIRE sun LA DECOUVEilTE 



crit ne pouvait ra'etre contie tout de suite ; je m'em' 
pressai done de partir pour le Caire pour y rejoindre 
le Sup^rieur Dionyse avec ses coUfegues, J'arrivai au 
Caire le 13 aeptembre; les Superieurs que j*y trouvai 
reunis accueilllrent ma dematide si favordblement, 
quails envoyerent le jour m&me un de leurs Cheiks Be- 
douins pour rapporter le mauuscrit. Le 24 fevrier ils 
vinrent chez moi avec le manuscrit, dont, sans per- 
dre un seul jour, je commen^'ai la copie. Ce travail 
^tait enorme ; il s'agissait de 1 10,000 lignes avec une 
infinite d'anciennes corrections dans le texte primitif. 
Pendant que j'y travaillais, je lucbai de gagner les 
Superieurs a I'idee de faire hommage de I'original a 
rEmpereur Alexandre II, comme patron et soutien de 
la Foi Orthodoxe. Un jour un jeune voyageur anglais, 
auquel quelque pertsonne de ma counalssance avait 
communique ma decouverte.alla au couvent pour voir 
le manuscrit. Non content de levoir, il tit meme des 
offrts pour I'acheter. A mon retour le lendemain, on 
me racontace qui s'etait passe. " £h bien/'ileniandai- 
je, "qu'avez-vous r^pondu a ces offres?" "Nous ai- 
mons mieux," dirent-ils, *'en faire homraage k TEm- 
pereur que de le vendre pour de I'or Anglais." Je ne 
manquai pas de faireconnaitrea S.M. I'Empereur Alex- 
andre ce noble trait de df^vouement pour lui des Fr^res 
Sinaites. 

Mais a cette ^poque les affaires de la confrerie g'em- 
brouillaient ; tous les deputes des diff^rents convents des 
Sinaitesavaient fait^Tunanimit^ I'clection d'un nouvel 
Archevt^que; le Patriarche de Jerusalem s*y opposait 
et refusait de le contsacrer^ com me cYtait depuis long- 
temps I'usage. lis esperaient que dans trois mois tout 
serait arrange et qu'alors le nouvel Archevi^que pour- 



DU CUDBX SINAITICUS, 



2U 



rait disposer du manuscrit en ma laveur. J'allai done 
h Jerusalem, ou j'entrai au m^nie moment ()ue le 
Grand-Due Constantin, qui prit le plus viJ int^el k mes 
reclierches. De Jerusalem j allai u Smyrtie et h I'tle 
de PalmOS ; puis je revins au Caire. A ma grande 
surprise les aflmres n'avaient fait que se compllquer ; 
i'opposition du Patriarche a r^lection de TArchev^que 
restail in^Uranlable, 

Je r^solus d'aller h Constantinople pour appuj'er les 
inte'rets du couvent aupr^s de rAmbassadeur Husse. Le 
Prince LobanofFtumoigna une vive sympathie pour mon 
affaire; mais ies obstacles ^taient plus forts que toute 
intercession. La Porte, bien que pleinement convaincue 
des droits du couvent, auxquels le Patriarche portait une 
grave alteiute, troyait de son devoir de laisser k I'Eglise 
la decision des affaires de rEglibe. Apris cinq semaines 
d'inutiles effoi ts, 11 devint e'vident que le seul moyen 
d'arriver au bu(, etait d'aller engager I'Archeveque h. 

htendre lui-meme k Constantinople pour demander la 
jconnaissance des droits des Sinaites au saint Synode, 
qui devait se composer des Patriarcbes, Archeveques et 
Eveques presents a. Constantinople. Ce fut avec cette 
proposition que je partis de Consiautinople. Je pro- 
posal en merae temps au couvent de me ceder prbvi- 
Boirement le manuscrit pour le transporter sans re- 
tard & Saint-Petersboiirs;, afin d'en pouvoir executer 
I'^diliou la plus correcte. Le 27 septembre j'etais de re- 
tour au Caire ; le28septcmbre,au matin, les supi^rieurs 
et treres.apres m'avoirexprimetous leurs remerciments, 
accdd^rent a mes propositions et avec une contiance 
touchante plac6rent la Bible du Sinai dans mes main&.^ 

* De Bon cotif TArcbev^que obtmt en effet sa coo^dcratiou au 
moie tie decembre pa,r le sftint Synode. Le Putriarche de JM^raFalem 
reeta leiil en oppoaiticm. 



• 



I 

I 

I 



212 



M^MOIRE SUR I.A dScoUVERTB 



Je partis pour I'Euiope par le premier bateau du 
Lloyd d'Autriche; apros avoir passe par la Saxe 
j'arnvai au mois tie novembre a Saint-PL-tersbourg, 
ou I'Empereur et I'lmpuratrice daignferent me re- 
cevoir avec )a plus grande bienveillance. Une expo- 
sition de la Bible du Sinai et de tous les prt'cieiix 
Tiianu&crits rapportes par moi^eut lien pendant qiiinze 
jours dans les salles de la Biblioth^que Imperiale; 
le (irand-Duc Constanlin et son auguste t-pouse 
s'y rendirent le premier jour. L'Empercur charged 
son Ministre de I'Instruction publique, M. de Kovalev- 
sky, de s'enteadre avec inoi pour la publication de la 
Bible du SinaV. Je redigeai uq m^moire k cet effet ; 
TEmpereur approuva celle de mes propositions k ta- 
quelle j'attachai le plus d'iniportance. Ne pouvant 
consentir h nie fix^r a Saint- IViersbourg, j'emportai. 
lora de mon depart k Noel, une partic du manuscrit k 
Leipsic, pour y prdparer iuimcdiatement les caract^res 
qui devaient ser\nr h I'impressiou ou p]ut6t h. la repro- 
duction de I'original. De retour a Saint-Pi'tersbourg, 
au mois de mars 1 860, je proposai encore au Gouverne- 
ment de lEmpcreur que I'ouvrage parftt a I'occasion 
du Jubild millcnaire de la Kups^ie. I.' Kmperenr approu- 
va pleinemeiit cette id^e. Je travajllai done de toutes 
mes forces pour pouvoir completer jusqu'a Tan du Jn- 
bile 186*2 ce grand ouvrage, qui auraitpuoccuper bien 
des aunees. 

Malgr^ la hate que necessitait un terme aussi court, 

* Cette collection ee composait de 1*2 ralinipseite?, 20 MSS, Grecs 
en letlres onciales et 18 en lettres miiiu^cutes, MS&. Syriflqiies. 
II MSS. Coptee, 7 MSS. Arabes et un MS. Turc, 9 MSS. H^iireujt 
et 2 Samaritaiffs, 1 1 MSS. Abyss-ininn?, J Armimienp et quelques 
fragments Slavons. Elle renfernmit austi plusieurs Antiqiiit^s Egvp- 
tionnes, et Gvecqiie^; de plus un grand Pii]iyru? en Hi^rogtyphes et 
qn Papyrus Grec Fur tc I'liilo?np!ie St'cimdiiSi 



DU CODliX SINAITICUS. 



*2I3 



le r^sultat depassa toutes ies tenlatives pr^c^dentes, 
\a typographic n'a jamais produit — sans nienie excep- 
ter le Manuscrit Alexaiidrin publid par M. Baber sous 
Ies auspiceid de Georges IIP — d'imitatioii aussi scru- 
puleuse d'ua ancicn original. Je ne me suis pas con- 
tente d'lniiter par deux alphabets, taill^s d'upr^s des 
^preuves pbotograpliiques, ks diffcreiUes L^crilures du 
manu>crit, mais j'y ai ajouLe des formes particiili^res 
pour toutes Ies varietos qui s'y prcsentent, de sorCe qii'il 
y a jusqu'tl six, sept, huit t'ornies diffl'rerites pour la 
meme leltre ; Ies rapprocbtnients de quelques lettres 
y sont exprinids, aussi bien que Ies distances d'une 
iettre a I'autre : je fis executer pour cela deux a troia 
cent mille lignes fines de metal, destinees & ^tre inter- 
cal^'es partuut d*apr^s la mesure des intervalles. De 
meme tous Ies signes et toutes ks arabesques qui se trou- 
vent dans le manuscrit, ont et^ exactement reproduits. 
Kn outre, afin de mettre a m€nie tous ks savants 
de contrfiler Texaclitude de Timitatinn typographique, 
afin de faire connaitre toutes Ies pailiculantes pa- 
leo^THpiiiques de {'original, ks nuances d'rcrituie qui 
re^ultent de ce que quatre calligraphes se sont dis- 
tribu^ la copie de cette Bible, de mfime que Ies dcri- 
turea des nucietis correcteurs, qui en plus de duuze 
mille passages onl chang^ le texte primitif, et de plus 
pour ineltre sous lesyeux des savauts beaucoup de pas- 
sages d'une importance speciale, j'ai ajout^ au texte 
dix-ncuffeuilles photographi^es el lithograpbiees. Entio, 
pour faciliter la comparaison des ucriture? SinaUiques 
avec d'aulres (^critiires Grecques de la plus haute anti< 

' J'ai pa::\^ lorigucmcnt de en travail, execute de 1814 k 1828^ 
dans lea ProlL'gunitne& dc aiea cdd. des L\X. (Ed. in. Lipaiie, 1860.) 
Lea fraie de la publication se sont £lev£a & 30,000 livree elerling. 



214 



M^MOltiE SOU LA DiiCOUVERTB 



quit^, j'ai donne, d'apros mes propres collections eiitre- 
prises depuis 1S40, deux tables lithograpliiques, repre- 
seiitADt trente-six nianuscrits, ii partir des ecritures sur 
papyrus d*Herculanum. Des Proidgomfenes dtendus 
Bur toutes les questions importaiites que souleve ce 
maQuscrit unique a tant d'egards, remplissent le pre- 
mier volume de I'ouvrage ; ils sent suivis d'un com- 
meDtaire sur quinze milie passages, dana lequel scat 
indiqudee ou expliquces les corrections provenant de 
tant de mains diffdrentes. 

Vers la fin du mois d'octobreje me mis en route 
pour Saint'Petersbourg, suivi de tous les 325 exem- 
pkires de Tedilion, pesant chacun trente-trois livres. 
Le 10 novemhre j'eus I'honneur de presenter Kou- 
vrage ^ Leurs Majestes Imperiales, qui daignerent liai 
faire un accueil gracieux, Le Minist^re deMnst ruc- 
tion publique etait passe alors depuis quelques moie 
aux mains de M, de Golovnine; sur sa proposition 
la destination exclusive de l*ouvrage a des presents 
Imperiaux fut modifiee, en tant que 225 exemplaires 
furent reserves k TEmpereur et 100 me furent donnes 
h moi-m^me, afin que les bibliotheques qui n'en re- 
cevraient pas d'exemplaire de la libi-ralite de I'Empereur 
pussent en faire ^acquisition par la vole de la librairie. 
Toutefois ks donations, que j'avais proposres dans une 
liste dont j*avais etc chargd auparavant, ont 4t€ ap- 
prouvees et exucutees pour la plupart en faveur des 
Universites et grandes bibliotb^ques d'Europe* 

Apr^s ce rapport sur la dt^couverle et IVdition de la 
Bible du Sinai/ que j'ai tjtche de ne pas rendre trop 

^ La partie du maDUBcrit qui caxitienl le NauT$au Testaoient. y 
compria I'^pilre de S. Baroabd et les fragnienta du Pasleur d'Uermos^ 
fut public si^pardtnent h, Pftques IHti-S, Cctle t'dilioxi. tnut en repro- 



DU COUEX SINAITICUS, 



•215 



£tendu, permettez-moi, Messieurs, de vous presenter 
quelques reruarques sur I'antiquite et I'iinporlance de 
ce manuscril. 

II est inutile de chercher au couvent meme des ren- 
eeignemeuts sur I'age du manuscril. Comment ud 
manuscrit dont presque toute la premiere moitiu a i)uri 
et dont des restes aussi considerables ont echappu de 
61 pr&s au feu, pourrait-il avoirgarde une place dans les 
atinales, dans les traditions du couvent? Mais il y a 
un fait qui prouve evidemment qui! a appartemi de- 
puis bicn des siecles an couvent de Sainte-Ciitheiine : 
c'est que quelques restes mntilcs du manuscrit, frag- 
ments des livres de Moise, ont etc retires en 1861 par 
I'archiniandrite Purfiri d'anciennes reliurea d'autres 
matinscrits du couvent des Sinaites.* Vous avez, 
Messieurs, ces reliques sous les yeux ; rarchimandrite 
Porfiri a bien voulit me les envoyer ii ma demande.^" 

duiBant le teste page pour pagi?, ti^e pour ligne, lei qu'il se trouTe 
daoK roriginaJ, ^tait desHnt'eJk Tu^ag^e coininun dp.» philologiie^ et des 
thtelogien^. Tousles 1,000 exemplalres de celte Edition avuiit 6ik 
£paiee» en peii de mois, je fis pnrnitre vers la tin de Tan r6l!i4 Line 
noiivelle Edition da Nouvptiu Testament, portfiiit cc litre: Novura 
Tefltanieiitam Gnece. Ek Siaaitico codice omnium antiquissinno Va- 
ticana iteimiue Elzeviriana lectione aolata cdidit C.T. Cum tabula. 

* II y a beaiicoup de restes de? plu* imcicna Tmatiuscrits; qqj 5o»t 
pan"enu9 jusqu'^ nou? par suite de ce tmvail dea relrcHrs du Moycn- 
Age. J'ai ea moi-m^me le bonheur d'en tronver plusieurs de celte 
w>rte di) Sixi&me et du .Septi«"nie Sitclc. 

'" L'ArchiimmdrJte Porfiri a viaite, il deux reprises, le couvent de 
SaiDte-Cfttherine: en L845 O'^im^c aprvs ma d^couvcrle) ct en 1350. 
et il avail eu CDnnnh^nnce peudant cc sdjour de lu Bible du Siua'i. 
fl en a donn^ m&nie que^ues noticea dana un ouvrage Ru^se, publid il 
Saint-P^lersbourf; ISofi. Au mois de septembre 1859 le Priace 
Lobtnoff, dont j'tJtaia nlora I'bllite ii Bu}ukd^r£, me com muni qua 
le puMge de cet ouvrage qui se rapporte au nianu9crit du Sinai. 
J'en ai rendu cotnpte dans mee diSerentes (Editions du textc Sinnitique 



2IG 



MfeMUlKB SUR LA UBCOUVERTE 



Mais pour etablir la date du manuscnt, noiisn'avons 
qua consulter la paleographie el Thistoire du Texte 
Sacrc. Toutes les deux cowcourent a demontrer que 
le manuserit du Sinai doit fitre regardu comme le plus 
ancieii de tous les manuscrits grecs sur parcheiniD 
que nous conuaissions, et quMI remonte tr^s-probable- 
ment k IVpoque d'Euscbe (mort en 340). Occupons- 
noua en premier lieu de I'ecriture. L^onciale du Icxte 
Siiiaitique se distingue par une purete et sinipUcite ex- 
treme ; on n'y reinarque pas la moindre alteration du 
veritable type oncial carrii et roiid, bieii qu'il y ait peu 
de lignes qui iie pivsentent a la fin des !ettres contrac- 
tees ou de forme amincie. La meme purete de Ton* 
ciale se ren:;arque aussi dans la Bible du Vatican et 
dans I'Octateuijue de Sarravius. On la retrouve en- 
core h peu d'esceptions pr^s dans quelques autres de 

Voy. N. T. ex Sinaitico codice, etc. page jlxv. "Licet nutem Ule 
per totuTi) Hbrutn euum niultio modis rirunt «e docti^siwum perUu>> 
simuinqiie probaverit, ntique codicem rem pr^tio^Riin esse ignomverit, 
lamen quae de ecriplura notavit, tie tctate, tk lextw, in errore ver- 
sautur pleraquc, neque tnagis senBit, ut de reliquts taceam, ijuaittam 
litteria t-hristianJs iiicrementmn adlatura eEsenl eula folia extrema 
quFitlutfrdeciiii, qujbus tota Uarnabie episUilo cum Pasioris /rag- 
mentis coiitinetur. Quiequidem npn impediatit quomiftus gaudeunius 
quod doctufi ArcbimnTidrita eiusdem genti?. ad quam nostra opera 
tantus rei Chrietianfe tSiesaurue pervonit, primus de eo et quidetn 
patrio Bermone buo cotnmentatus est." Un ofBcier Anglais a eu austi 
la satiafactinii de vuir le tnanuBcrit pcadarit qu'i] £tait encore au cou- 
vent. Voy. Tregelles : Additiona to tbe Fourth Volume of tKe Iq- 
troduclion to the Holv Scriptures by Ibe Rev. T. H. Home, p. 775: 
" A little later (after Porliri), perhaps, Major Macdonahl described 
a very aDcient MS. which he had seea at Mount Sinai, containing the 
New Tefitameut in early uncial characttrs, which he staled dis- 
tinctly to be attributed to the fourth ccatury. Major Macdonald 
also mentioned the manner in which the monks deetroycd bv lire 
Rncicnt MSS." 



DU UUUeX ^INAITlCUa. 



217 



no8 plus aociens manusciits ; maia elle fait d^t'aut^ par 
suite du mi'-lariE^e, bien rare il est vrai, de formes aite'- 
rees, m^me dans le mauuscrit Alexandria de Londres, 
dans I'un des deux lilvang^iles Palimpsestes de Wolfea- 
biittel, daDs la Genfese de Vienne, dans Tun des deux 
MSS. de Dioijcoride a Vienne (du commencement du 
sixieme siecle). Pour le mauuscrit Sinaitique I'argu- 
ment fond^ sur le caract^re pritiiitit de I'^criture on- 
ciale se presente avec d'autant plus de force qu'il n'y a 
pas eu moins de quatre calligraphes qui se sont distri- 
bu^ la copie de cette Bible, sans qu'aucun d'eux se 
soit eiotgne du type ossentiel Je cette rcriture/' 

'^ Pour reneeignemeTita plus expltcitea Bur les pnrticularit^e de 
I'ecrilurp, je doia renvover lea Setteura aux Prolfigotni nea de mes 
L-dittous du luaDu&criL et uux vingt-et-unetublt!G <]U3 lunt un des orue^ 
tnenr;a de h grande Edition Imp^rcEtle. Montfaucon, qu'oD aime a 
regardei ^omme notorite pour la dil'terminBtiDn de I'Sge des manuscrits 
grfcs, n'avait vn pgur aa pal^Jographie que vingt &. trente manuscrits 
oQciauz. J'ai eu le bonheur d'en examiner de deux i. troia cents et dc 
m'en ortniper pendant vinpt-cioq amines en vue d'une iiouvclle Paldo- 
graphic grrcque, Toulefois il e^t ititertsfeant de voir que Montfaucon 
regardatt le MS. dc Sarruviua ccmme le plua ancien de touBi et tx 
manii^crit (public par icioi dans Le troJati'me volume des "Monunienta 
Sacra inedita, IS60") eat en effet on des deux qui ee rapprochent le 
plus du manawrit Siija'itique. C"e»t encore cette exjierience pratique 
de la pali^graphie greccjue qui, au Tnois de Janvier 1856, nie fit du- 
couvrir h premiere vue la fraude dee pultmpseeCee dp Slinunide?, qui 
avaieut trompi' tant dc suvgiit? distin^ut-s. Voir: Entjuillungen 
viber den Simonides-Dindorfsthen Uranioe. Zweite zu einem Ge- 
schichtea^sries uber Siiiioiiides, den Hertnaateit utid das Leipzig-Ber- 
iiner Palimpsest erweiterte suwie mil Beticlilen uud palaog'traphischeti 
£rltiuterung>eTi Prof. Tischendorfe und Huderer vtrtuelirtE AuHage. 
Vdd Alex. Lycurgos. Leipzig, 1S5G. Si Von avait coniia oc petit 
livro eta Ansleterre, lorsn^ue le fameux ^rtiHe Inn^a datie le Guardian 
du 3 teptj 1862 sii sottc fuble n^tfitivo au manuscrit du Sintii, on 
n'aurait probablement pas i^u la patieBce de sen occuper an settl 

ItlDIUCQt. 

VOL. VIII. Q 



218 



MEMUIRE SUU LA Di:CUUV£HT£. 



1 



Le inaniiscril du Sinai' iie conaait pas eacor^ 
I'lisage des lettres itilljakg, bieu qu'il se Irouve dans 
tuus lios auUes MSS. tie la plus baute antiquite/^ ex- 
cepts les papyrus, la Bible du Vatican et TOctaleuquej 
de Sarraviusv 

La ponctuatioD y est tr6s-siinple et tri^s-rare. il y a^ 
des coloniies eiitiores du texte qui u'ont pas uu scul 
point; voyez par exemple les premieres feulliesdu 
dex Frid,-Au(^stH, qui n'ont pas subi d'autres corre< 
tioQs que celles du premier correcteur ; il n*y a que 
qiielques feuilles du Nouveaa Testanieul quiprcsenlent^— 
quelques exceptions a cette regie. Mais dans uiie ia^^ 
finite de passages la poiictuation a el^ ajoulee par des 
mains poslerieures. ^ 

Le texle de chaque page, a I'exception des livres 
ecrits d'aprfesle plus ancien ustige en vers, eatdivis^ea^ 
quatre colonnes. II n'y a pas d'autre exemple de 
arrangement ; dans la Bible du Vatican et dans quel 
ques autres nianuscrits le texte est divise en trois co-' 
lonues. La disposition du manusciit du Sinai nous 
rappelle lea rouleaux de papyrus, dont on s'est servi 
generalenient jusqu'au Quatrieme Si&cleJ^ Ce fut^B 
sans doute, un de ces rouleaux de papyrus qui servit 
de modele aux calligraphes du manuscrit Sina'itique. 
Ce (jui monire que I'uriginal a ^td copid par eux ligne 
pour ligne; cest qu'en plusienrs endioils ils ont omis 
exactenient une de ces lignes on ui^me deux ou trois.'* 

'- Qunni j\ (]uelques fragmcule de peu dV'iendue, le jjiigement o'est 
paa por/nitenieiit srtr, 

'3 S. J^rOme. ^p. 34 (141). nous rapporte qu'on rettaum de 
temps lu hibliollitqpe de Pamphile ik Ceearfe, en rempla^ant le popyn 
par ie parchemin. 

" Voyez des exemples dans Ics Proli^^gomfenea du Nov. Test, ex 
Sianitico codice, etc., p.lvii. 



Seo^ 
aelS 



J est 

4 




DU CODEX SINAITICUS. 



219 



I 



L^ letlres qui servent k marquei* les cahiers du MS. 
(qualemiones) porienl rempreinte de I'^criture grecque 
des papyrus. Contraireinent h I'usage grec, deux con- 
sonnes lie && trouveot jamais eo tete de la ligae, ex- 
cepte 0fi, ce qui s'accorde parfailement avec I'usage des 
pap}ruf5 Coptes, 

La haute autiqiiiU du manuscrit se trouve confirmee 
par le grand uombre des correcteurs successifs, doat Jes 
dix premiers seservent encore de I'&riture oiiciale; un 
ouzieme au xii"^ siecle n'a ajout^ que quelques correc- 
tions en lettres minuscules. Parrai ces correcteurs il 
y en a UQ de U tin du liuiti^me ou du commencement 
du neuvi^me siecle » qui a reslaure sur beaucoup de 
pages niolles I'^criture eft'acee. La date de cette an- 
cienne restauration n'admet gu^rededoute ; eneffet le 
rcRtaurateui" a ajoutc dea notes Grecques el Arabes, 
dont ies premieres s'accordent parfaitement avec les 
foritures de I'tipoque que nous venons d'indiquer, a 
iaquelie I'ecriture Arabe se pr^te ^galeraent bien. Uo 
autre correcteur du Septieme Siecle a eu I'avanlage 
de corriger lea livres d'Esra et d*Esther d'apr&s un 
manuscrit qui avait passe par les maius de Pamphile 
le martyr.'* 



I 



I" La Dote du manuscrit du Sinai relative k I'exemplaire de Pam- 
phUe est trfes-curieuae ; mais c'est tviderament par erreur qu'elle 
A finit mettre eo doute ta dute du Codex SintuticoB, que nous mp- 
pDitoiis h. la precDLcre moilii^ du Quatri'L-me SiC'cle. La note dit tjue le 
tnanuecrit du Sinai fat coUutionn^ avec un trtta-ancien manuscrit 
corrige par la main de Pamphile, et que ce tri^e-aocien manuscrit, 
comoien^aat par le premier livre des Roii et finiBsant avec Elstber, 
portait cette note de la main de Paaiphlle le martyrt " Cgllntionn^ et 
conige d'aprfes lee Hexapiea d'Orig-tue corrig^B par lui-mema; An- 
toDJQ le confesBeur a collatJQnne; moi Pamphile j'ai corrig^ le texte 
eti pri90H par la grandc grtce de DJcu ; et ce n'c»t pas trop de dire 

(i2 




220 



MEMUIKG SVa L\ OEGOUVBRTE 



Aux litres paleo^raphiques proprement dits se joi- 
gaent d'autres particuUritds qui caracteriseat le manus- 

qu'il serait difficile de troaver une cojile semblable & celle-ci." Aprfea 
cctte citation de 9a note de Fumphile, celle du matiuscrit du Sinsa cod- 
tiime uiiiai : Ce tr^^-ancicn nmnuacrit diff'^ruit de cclui-ci pour quel- 
que» (le mofquelques" est iotruduit par correction ; l1 y avail d'abord 
m pour Tira) noma propres (? Kvpta o^/uxra). Pour pouTotr mettre 
celtc note ea opposition avec la date que nous assignons aa manuscrit, 
U fuudrait dtablir, d'iin cfiti' qu'elLe reroonte }k I'dpoquen ou presqoe h 
rfpoque, du MS. m£me, et de Tautre que le MS. dc Pamphile avait 
4l& ferit daos le t&mps nifime oix il ful coTtigS par lui. Or la pre^ 
miitre assertion e*t inadmissible. II y a une difference imraeoBe entre 
I'f^criture du texte dii Sjnai et cetle dc la note ainei que des nom- 
brcuBfis annotations de deat mains diff^rentee dans lea livres d'Esra 
et d'Esther, auxquellea elle se rapporle* Cea imia ecriturea post^- 
rieures n'offrent plua une seule leitre qncinle pure; elles portent tout 
il fait le caractfere de Tonciale alii^r^e. dant les premiiTes traces ne 
reraontent qu'au Sixitme Steele, Sans compter les difF^rentes moina 
qui ont travailld presque ^ la mi;cne ^poqiie h U confection et ilia pre- 
Tnifere annotatton du manuscdt, il n'y a pas iiioiii& de quatre des correc- 
teura qui Bont anc^eura & k collaCion aveo resemplaire de Pamphile. 
Purmi cee quatre it y en » un qui a ajout^ dans \e» parties revues 
par lui uti£ quantity d'sccecits et d'espritSr De plus les mSmes ccir- 
recteura (le einquieme et le aixJeme du. mBnuscril) qui ont collatiunn^ 
le SIS, dc Pnniphile, ont introduit duna quelques miUiers de pasaagea 
du Nauveau Testarnent une r<Sdactioti towte diffi^rente qui s'aceorde 
g^ni^ruleinent avec le Texte nyzantin. Tous ces fjijts noua portent 
k croire que I'auteur de la nutc en question n'est pna anl^rieur au 
Septieme Sif-clc. 

Reste le fait qu'il qualifie rcxetnplaire de Parapbile de tr^a-aucien. 
En suppoaant que cet exeraplaire etit L^t^ &;rlt & I'^poque oieme oil il 
fut corrig^ par Pampbile, 11 en r^aulterait seuleineut qu'au sfpti^oie 
sifecle cet eiemplaire, i6crit tri^-probableraent sur papyrus et porlant 
k note dc Ifl main de Pnmpbile, parut ^ I'auteur Uc la note beaucoup 
plus aiicien que le mianuscrit du Sina'i. dont le» pages fortes sont 
encore nujourd'bui — 1,200 ans apr^s la note dti Septii^me Si^cle — 
dana nn excellent etat de conservation. Mais les expressions de 
Paniphilefont reuiunter I'tingiiiicdeson cliemplaire & une ^poque bien 
^lusancienne; il parait mfime auttVieur uu travail d'Origfene; Fampbile 



DU CODEX SINAITJCU!*. 



•2-^1 



critdu Sinai corame manuscnt Biblitiuede la plus haute 
antiquite. Tellessont lea inscriptions etlessouscriptions 
des differents livres du Nouveau Testatneut, qui snnt 
de la plus grande siinplicite.'" Telle est encore I'absence 
des chapitres des fivangiles, qui manquent egatement 
dans le MS. du Vatican, tandis qu'ils se trouvent dans 
le MS, Alexandrin, dans le Paliiupse&le de Paris, etc.''' 

ct Autanin n'ont fait que le collatiooner et corrig^r d'jipTfes lea Hexa- 
plea (le Grcc porte : fieTfX'rffi.tf>&*} Kat 9iop9w6vf Trpo? tol t^airKa — 
remBrC|Uez blCfl qu'il est dlt w/jos to, nOn pa? €« aiiniroTujf — iif)iycyavs 

vw' aniTov otop6ui/Liva, tp qui se ifauve r^p^t^ plus eipliciti'intnt dauB 
lee OLOta qui ttuivenC; Avrtui'tvoc ofMX.irpjr'js ayrt^aXcv, IlafitfnXtvi 
otopOtiKTt TO Tfu^Qs). La rcmarque tl? Pmii])l]il!e qu'll me eerajt pas 
facile de troilver un excdiplaire parqil, rentl tr^B-prohiible que cC fut 
la bont6 du manuscrit qui I'engtigea ii y (aire rentrer sod propre 
travail. 

Dans left Prol^gornciie* du Nov. Teat, ex Sinait. Cod, p. Uiii., 
mes explicatians sur cette question ee tertniiient par les mots buI- 
vanls; " Subscriptiortes JIhe revera cum ^ecitentia Dostra pugnarent 
a! ab ipso codicis Simiilici ecriptore vel esdera ccrte cuin eo a;tale 
additee essent. In hac opininne h crat qui primus illia ad nos 
refutondos usus est, Errorc rero patefwcto, quo nihil evidentius 
eteC potest* iisdein ad menteB pertiirbftndas ahutj Inane prorsw? bc 
fnistrs est." 

'* II n'en e«t plus de mf^mc dans le MS, alexaDdrin, ou par 
exemple la preioifre £^pitre de H. Titnotlii^ ^orte la ^ouscription : 
irpK Tt/AO$tova.' fypa^ftr) airo AaoSiJtrtQ?, ladcuxi'nie EiJitrc am ThfiB- 
Falunieiis : xpo? ©eo-ir. f} typmpTj airo A&ijvmv, les Actes des Apfitrefl ! 
wpaifK Twc ayuov airotnoXiitv. (LcB MSS. du Sinai et du Vatican: 
trjoo^cif avtKTToXuiV. Le litre dans le MS. du Sinai n'est que Trpa^ti^, 
dans le MB. du Vatican frpa^w: awotrroKiav.} 

'" Les sections d'Aramoniua et les Canona d'Eust-be sont proliable- 
ment poEtiSrieuree. Les cbifFrcpmnt misavcc nt'gligs^nce ct manquent 
CDRipk^emetit pour la plus prande partie de rEvangile dc S. Luc. 
Mai$ on pourrait adniettre, sans porter alteinte k I'antiquit^ du ma- 
Duacrit, qu'elles v ont iti not^es dos rorig^iiie. En effet i1 n'eal pas 
douteux qu'£u&^be n'ait introduit ccts cbifFrcs duns lea cinqujmCe 
exemplttires qu'il fut char^^ dc procurer en 331 ponr I'Erapt-reur 



* 



232 



M^MOIRE SUR LA D^COUVERTB 



Le canon du Nouveati Testament a Tepoque ou fut 
ecrit le MS. Siiiaitique, eoniprenait I'^pitre de S. Bar- 
nab€ et le Pasteur d'llermas. Eus^be nous rapporte 
en effet que de son temps beaucoup d'Eglises adniel- 
taient encore ces deux ouvrages lians le Canon, ce qui 
avait eu lieu depuis la fin du Second Siecle. Ces 
raemes ouvrages se trouvent c^lement an nombre des 
Livrea Canoniques dans le vieux catalogue du Codex 
CJaromontanus, dent la re'daction parait remonler au 
Troisi^me Si^cie. Ce catalogue dc mcme qu'Kns&be 
y ajoute encore I'Apocalypse de S. Pierre et les Actes 
de S. Pan]. Or il est fort probable que ces deux 
ouvrages ont aussi tenu place dans le MS. du Sinai, 
Tun entre I'lJpitre de S. Barnab^ et le Pasteur, ou il 
manque six des huit feutllets qui forment un cahier 
{quaternio}, I'autre apriss le Pasteur, dont la derniure 
partie a pdri dvec ce qui suivait, C'est en 364, au 
Concile de Laodicee, que I'Kglise se pronon^a pour 
la premiere fois contre la Canonicite de ces ouvrages. 
On pent bien retrouver dans un MS. Biblique pos- 
t^rieur a cette decision de I'Sglise quelques-uns des 
anciens Antilegomkies, comnie le prouve Texemple 
du Codex Alexandrinus, ik la fin duquel se tronvent 
les deux Epilres de Ck'raenL ; mais un tuanuscritt qui 
s'accorde a cet egard avec Tusage de I'epoque d^Eu- 
B^be, a droit, a detitut de preuve du contraire, k etre 
rapporti; k cette ^poque. 



Constanlin. Quand Spiphane dcriviiit t'Ancoratus. il les regardait 
comme gien^ralement adapts?, et Jorflme (avant la fin du Quatrirmc 

Siecle) les a m^me plac'^B dane la Vulgate. Le MS. du Vatican 
pr^sente une autre di^^tributiou du texte, qui 5C retrouve dans le MS. 
palimpscstedeS.Lucdu tluttiimeSirclc, nppartCQBntnlabibliotliL'que 
de la Hritiah nnd Foretcrn Bible Socielv cl publid par M.Tregelles. 



DU CODEX SINA1T1CU9. 



223 



CVsl en demier lieu dans le texte n:\eme de notre 
manusciit que nous trouvons des preuves qui! a et^ 
ccrit au milieu du Quatritinie Siecle. 

Les onze derniers versets de I'Jllvangile de S. Mare 
etaient omis k I'epoque d'EusL'be et de S, Jerome 
dans presquc tous les manuscrits grecs corrects (tu 

•yoilj' lucpifirj Tuw avri^pinftttiv . . . trvthav fv airatri rots' tu<- 

rvypw^ts : Euseb. ad Marin., *' omnes Grseciie libri 
prone:" Hieron. ad Hedib.)' Nous possedons aujour- 
d'hui encore plus de cinq censt manuscrits ^recs, qui 
lous contiennent les onze derniers versets de S. Marc; 
il n'y a que le MS. du Sinai et celiii du Vatican 
qui soient d'accord avee les manuscrits d'Eus^be pour 
les omettre. 

Au com mencen lent de I'^Epttre aux Ephesiens les 
manuscnts grecs, les ancienncs versions el les Peres 
de TEglise s'accordent k presenter ces mots: "aux 
saints qui soot ii Eph^se" (rdjp cvyioif rots ovaiv ev E^dta). 
S, Jerome ne connait aucune variante, do sorte qu'il 
ne comprend pas ra6me le Coramenlaired'Origfene qui 
presuppose I'absencedes mots: "ti Eph^se." Orig^ne, 
de son cote, ne trouve pas dan-^ ses manuscrits les mots : 
" a l^pb^se," non plus que Marcion ; et S. Basile, au mi- 
lieu du quatri^me siecle, dit expressenient qu'il a trouv^ 
d'miciens manuscrits qui ne les contenaietit pas. Or 
le MS. du Sinai et celui du Vatican a'accordent seuls 
sur ce point avec les ancieus manuscrits de Basile'* 

Matth, xni, 35, les manuscrits portaii-nt au Troi- 
eicme Siijcle a P^poque de Porphyre, "par le Propbfete 
Isaie ;"'* la mcme lecon est constatee par les Homilies 

^8 C'e&t-1> rargumecit principal dont Leonard Hug s'eat eervi pour 
prouvcr 3'ftgc du MS. Vatican. 

'" Vovez HierDn. Breviar. in Psfitm, Lxvii ; Dciiiqueet itrpius ille 



I 

I 

* 



224 



M^MOIHE SUR LA DECOUVERTE 



de Clement el par Eusebe* Cette le<;on, qui contient 
une erreur de fait, se retrouve dans le MS. du Sii\aV, 
ainsi que dans cinq manuscrits en iettres minuscules 
dont le texte est des plus iemarqu:*bles, tandis qu'elle 
a disparu (Hier. ; " ([uod quia minime inveuiebatur 
in Isaia, arbitroi* postea a prudentibus virjs esse sub- 
latum ") dans rous les aulres nianuscrits onciaux et 
dans tou8 les autres documents qui pont parvenus 
jusqn'n nnus. 

S Aiiibrokse nous apprend que beaucoup de manus- 
crits grcce do Mill temps (" pierique Gca'ci") Lucvii. 
35 portaienl; " la sagesae est juslifi^e par aes oeuvres" 
(epyoitf) au lieu de : "par ses enfants '' (Teievav). Au- 
jourd'liui il nV a que le MS. du Sinai qui s'accttrde 
avec les manuscrits de S. Ambroise, 

Beaucoup d'nutrea lemons prouvent avecla m^nie Evi- 
dence que le MS. du Sinai repood au catact^re des ma- 
nusci'iU en usage au Quatrieme Si^cle. Nous sommes 
done bien tondes a nous servii de ce fait pour appuyer 
les autres arguments en f'aveur de I'antiquite du MS. 
du Sinai. II est d'une dvidence incontestable que tons 
les arguments que ki paleoj^Tapbie et la critique du 
texte puissenl fournir, concourent de la mani^re la plus 
frappante a en prouver la baute antiquitd- 11 n'v a pas 
de manuscrit, pas m€me ceiui du Vaticau, qui reunisse 
autant de preuves. 

Mai& nous avons encore h compMter nos observa- 
tions sur fe texte de notre manuscrit. Les exeinples 



ForphyriuB proptmit iicjvereum dus hoe ipeum et dtcit : Evange- 
listu vcf*h;r Matthtrus taiii iiij]!critus fuit iit diceret: '*qucjd Bcrip- 
tuni e&t per I&niaiii priqihetuin : Apeiiam," etc. Tout ce passage est 
long lie Liient discuii5 iJaDs noCre buiti^me ^itioD du N. T. fufcJc. i, 
p, 75. 



DU CODEX SINAITICUS. 



225 



que nous venons de donncr soiit bien insuffisanis pour 
en faire connaitre le caracterc? general, Hien nest plus 
propre k en faire appriicier la valeur toute sp^ciale que 
Taccord frappunt qu'il presente avec le plus ancien texte 
Italique, qui remonte an milieu du Deuxieme Siecle* 
Cet accord, qui ne se retrouve aujourd'hui dans au- 
cun autre manuscrit pureiutnt grec, ainsi qu*une foule 
de lemons reconnues par les plus aaciens Pdres at in- 
lerprfetes du Second et du Troisicme Si^cte, nous am^ne 
a la conclusion que le manuscrit du Sinai renferme uu 
des textes les plus r^pandus au Second Siijcle. Les cal- 
ligraphes Alexaudrins. par leur ignorance du Grec, ont 
servi Si conserver presque intact le texte qu'ils trou- 
vaient dans les manuscrits anterieurs a leur epoque. 
C'est ^ ce litre que le manuscrit du Sinai va consti- 
tuer une nouvelle ere pour la critique du texte Apos- 
lolique. II nous servira k r^tablir it texte du Second 
Siecle, tel qu'il ^tait en usage dans bien des !£glisea 
de ce temps. '^^ 

* Nous renvoyoQw toos ceux qui s'int^refisent ti (tutvre I'influencc 

<ln nqanuscrit du Sci>»i aur Ic travail deU critJtfU'q. i^ nulrc huili>^nie 
^itiiun (■' pctavq critica major") dii Nouveau Tealament, dent le 
pretnier faBcicnle vient de pnraitrc. Mais nous nous empresaans de 
donuer toul de suile une petite liftte des pnss^sges dfa EvHTlgilts, 
oil rauthcnt3cit<5 du tette Slnaitiqiie noiis parait t^vldente, bien que 
tuus les autres docninenTs lut eoicnt oppos^E ou qu'il nc soit cdd- 
firni^ que par un trts-petit UQnibre d'autoritus. Matth. in. 14, 
a 8< (»ine Iu)aviT;s) SkkcdAiiev avTov, Sitmitieus a prima mtinu cura 
solo codice Valicano ; i|i, 16, ai.ffr);{ftrpruf (Vat, ipftia^,) nine auTw, 
SinoitieuB cqra cudice Vaticana. interprelihus Sahidico, Syro Ciire- 
toni, Toletanp. Ireneeo ex codd. (Lntinia') omnibus et ililario. 
Ibideni yrvevfta @tav, pro to ttv. rov 0<., SiiiaiticuB cum Valicano solo : 
V, 28, tin&vfir}<r<n sine aimp- vel a.un7f, Siimiticus cuin oiiQU^culo- 
nim codicutn uuo, ClemeDte, Orig'tnc, uliia : vi, 33, tijv jSiuriAcioy 
eine odriiULtneiito, Sinaiticus cum Italae codd. duobus, Specula (Au- 






226 



M^MOIRK SUft LA I3KCOUVERTE 



Nous nc sommes pas d'avis qu'il faille pour cetle res- 
tauration se passer dee autres documents dune baute 



gustitii), Eusebio et P.aeiidathanasit>: vii, 13, omittit 17 -nvXT} Sinai- 
ticus cum Clementej, Origene et codd. Italre iintiquisaimis ; vii, IS 
bia (veyx*ci' pro -jroittv, Sinaiticua cum (Vat. priore Inntum loco) He- 
rRclcoQC, Origene, Dialogo contra Marcionitas : viii, 12^ titkivtrotrrm 
pro tK0X7]6Tj<TovTai. Sinaiticua cum Italee cudd. plerisquc, Syra 
Curetoni et Peschittho, Heracleone et IrenKo : xi, 8, t^XBart; 
a.v6{iiuiiTotf iSetc €v etc., pro t^kS. liiiv ; av&ptaTrov tv etc.. SinsiticuB 
eolue. Ibidem ev Totf otKOi; tihv ^atriXtMV sine cuTif, SinailicUB a 
prima mai^iu cum Yaticano boIo : xix^ 18, irt>tati linfmv pro Xcytt 
oimu irota?, Sinaiticus cmn solo codice L. Partsiensi ; xxir^ 30, 

SeuTtpa Ofiota pro S^urlpaSt aft.Dia (VatlcanUis SfVTfpa 0/io(ii/?). SlTial- 
ticus soSu4 : M&rc. Til. 3, irvKva pro irvyftTj, Sinaiticus cum Copto, 
Syro poBteriore. Gotliti et Latiiiis aliquot: tui, 7, lat euKoyija-aii 
avra iriffit&rfKO' pro Kai Tttvra tuAoyn^as ciircv TroftariGtitu. mat olvtcl 
(quffi veHia modis diiodpcim fluctuant!), Sinaiticus aolus, Luc. 11, 
15, cXoAovF wpo^ avTUP' XtyovT£ff. pio fiTTor n-pos avroy, SinaiticuB 
BoluB (item Vatic, omi&so XryotTif?) ; xxiv, al, Sutmj av avruv, omi^sia 
verbid Kat avtiftepero ci; tov ovfinvov, Sinuitivus cum CaiiCabrigiensi, 
Italie codd. antiquiEsiuiis et AuguElino : Juli. 1, 4, ^un; €utiv, pro fun; 
ijK, SinaiticuB cum Cantabrigiensi, codicibuB apud Origenem, Va- 
Icnlinianis Bpud Iremeum, Naassenis apud J-ilppolvtuin, item inter- 
pretibua abquot ; 11, 3, Kai oifov oux ttxov on fniV€Te\t(r&ij o oivot rou 
ytLfiav. ttra. keyei, pro xac vtrreprjiravTo^ oiivtr Keyti, Sinaiticua cum 
Latiniscodd. veterrirais, vEthiope et Syro pouteriore in margine : iii, 
5, irjv ^avikftav Ttay ovpavi^v pro t. fi- rov ©ton, Sinaiticue CUm 
miDQBCiiliai aliquot, Docetis apud Hippolytum^ Ju&tinoj Qrigene, 
(ex iuterprete), aliis : v, 2, to X-fyofievDv. pro »j eirLXtyo^itiTj. Sinai- 
ticua; aolus: VI, 51 (o apros priPCttlit), ov cyu Sf-wco inrey) rrjs tow ^ocr^ou 
f wiTi T^ (Top^ /iflii noTtv, SinaiticuB cum Tertulliano et Speculo (Au- 
gustini), pro ov cy« Suitrw :; aap^ jUioii timv tp' tyui Ztaas (hwc verba 
■qv «yw >5ti>{r<t> plurca codd. antiquJEsimi oniittuiit) vKtp njs tdv xwrjuov 
f<UT^ : VII, 8, DUN avajSaxctti, yro oi'VCD at'o^.. SInaiticuB cum Cauta- 
brigicnsi, minuaculia. sex, interprctibus multis ct Forphyrio (te&te 
Hierotiymo): vit, 39, m'evfia pine n.ytoi' aut S<Sofiaciv, Sinaiticua 
cum K. T. minufculis duiibuH, Origeiiu cpmter, aliJB : vii, '22, o 
Muftnj^ pro Sta towo Mwuaij;, Sinaiticus aolua: vii, 50, titrtv &< 



ai} CODEX SINAITICUS. 



227 



antiquite ; ils nous aideront au contraire, tout en eon- 
6rmant lautorite du texte Sinaitique, a le puri6er de 
nombreuses licences de copiste, provenani de I'usa^ 
des deux premiers Siecles- Mais nous sommes pleine- 
ment convaincu que la Providence, en transmettant de 
nos jours au Monde Cbrulien ce tr^sor, cache pendant 
tant de siecles au pied du Motit Sinai, a voulu que 
nous fassions dans I'histoire critique du Texte Sacre 
UQ pas immense vers la v^rite. 

CONSTANTIN TlSCHENDORF. 



Nous ajoutons k ce discours deux fac-similes de 
I'original. L'un (11.) repreeente un des restes retires 
en 1861 par rArchimancJiite Porfiri delavieille reliure 
d'un autre raanuscrit grec du convent de Sainte-Cn- 
therine. Le texte appartient au livre des Nombres. 



'Huto&r/ft.oi ifpos avrav^t omis^is verbie quBe mire fluctuant et ei six, 
39, hue illatn sunt, o tX0tav tt/hjs awoi' wportpov, Sinaiticus solus. 
([I vs. fant dire que l^ fameitjc passage de la fetnine adultfere tnanque 
compl^teraent dans le MS. dii Sinai. II ne se trouve dans aucunc 
de mes i^ditiona critiques du Nouv.Tesl. depuie 1840.) xiii, 10, ouk 
t^L jfpfULv vul/atr0ai. 6\ne addltamento, Sinalticas cum Italic codicibus 
paucia et Ortgene seiiea ; xix, 3S, t}XjSov aw koc nipav nwor, pro rj\&af 
ouv Ktti Tfpf TO tDHfui TOW lijcroif (Vat. ovrou pro rnu Iijtrou), Sioaiticue 

cum L>atiiLia antiquiMimis, Sahidico et Syro Ilierosulymitado : xxi, 
25, oiuittit verflucn Smaiticus a prima nmnu sqlus. 



228 



M^MOIHK sua LA DfeOOUVEETB 



Voyez le v. chap, vers 26-30, L'autre facsimile (I) 
est pri& de la fin du livre d'Esther, qui est suivic de 
la note du Septi^me Sifecle relative k i'exempiaire de 
Pamphile le Martyr, Voici le texte entier de cette 
curieiise note (voyez la traduction plus haut, P^gs 16)» 
dont le fac-simile ne contient que la premiere partie : 



rarov \iav avTiypa<^ov 

Tov ayiov ^prvpos 7ra/i 
^Oj3v' trpos Be tw reXei 
TOV avTou iraXauoraTov 
^i^tov tnrep apy7}v fiev 

6i;^fl' UTTO TTjS TTpatTI}: 

TOiv ^aaiXetaiV us he 
TTfV €<T0rfp e\i]y€v' 70* 
axmj Tis €v TrXflTf £ i&io^ 
')(;€tpos VTro<n)fX€itticris^ tow 
avTov fLapTvpoi t/irtit^iTO 
typvera oirrms : 
fteTe\i}fL^i] Kcu Siop 
0vlt0i\ ttpos ra efttTrXa 
tapiyfvovr mr avrou St 
op&iti(i.€va' ftfTiavLVOt 
oproKoyifnjs avre^aXe'' 
Trafi^\oT Btopfftaua to 
TOfj(ot (V rrf ^v\a.K7}' 
huz TT\v TOV 00 troXXtf 
fcai -y^apiv xai TrXaTvafio'' 
letu etye fir] ^apv ctTret" 
TouT6^ Tiu aitTtypa<^ 
TTapairXjiinoi'* evpeiv 



est. 



' « ex « coirrctuni 
rat, 

tum est. 



est [■% 'ff-IMf, 



DU CODSX SINAITICUS. 2*29 

atfTiypa^v ov paBiov > — 
>>> — >>> — >>> — 

tu^vr^ 8e TO avTO * ' Sic 

vaXatarrarov fi^ffkio 

irpo» ToBe to Tevj(p9 

eu Ttva^ tcvpta ovoaara * "»« ."»°" P*>"*^ 

' tenore ez rn 

> >^ >>> >>> factum c^ 



PLATE I 




230 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



IT H. r. TALPOT, T.F,B.B,l.. 



(Read June 7lh, 1&65.) 



A BATTLE SCENE. IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, 

I WILL here consider a short inscription which is foum 
on a great battle scene between Ashurbanipal and 
Tivumman, king of the Susians, which adorns the gal- 
lery of the British Museum, and which, it is highly 
probable, has preserved to us a real anecdote of the 
battle. 

The king of the Susians is drawing his bow, and a( 
the same time arresting a spear which an Assyriai] 
warrior is aiming at him. By his side kneels Tariti, 
his son, who has just been struck by an arrow in IhiSj 
which was perhaps his first and last battle. ^_ 

Over their heads ia this short inscription : — ^| 

Tivumman as tuiyuk Tivumman with a stern 
bilemi reproof 

ana tar^su Ikbu said to his son, ^| 

Ssulie kini 1 *' Never mind the ar- 

row !" 



:nl 



From which it appears that the youth had utte: 
a cry of pain 

When 1 first noticed this inscription, now several 



4 




PLATE I. 



A BATTLE SCKNS, IN THE BRITISH HUSBUM. 231 



I 



years ago, 1 was greatly ui doubt what the king's speech, 
of two words only, could possibly import. But we 
now see that it is in all probability the brief record of 
a warlike exclamation, which must have heen heard 
by many of the surrounding combatants, and which ap- 
peared to King Ashurbanipal too remarkable to be lost. 

The word 9mlie is the Heb. rr7D conlempsit, spre- 
vit, vilipendit, etc. etc. 

A/iyu/f, reproachful ; a participial adjective from the 
Hebrew verb ViT, in Aphel n31N, increpavit, repre- 
bendit, corripuit, castigavit. (Buxtorf, p. 950.) 

Gesenius quotes the substantive rr^^lD, reprehcnsor. 

Bilcnii is a command, or something said with firm- 
ness or severity. The word occurs frequently. Us 
root h probably the Hebrew D72. We find in Buxtorf 
apparently the word itself, nD"'?2, doniiuium quo 8ub- 
diti constrin^untur et coercentur ut sint obedientes. 

In an inscription of Darius we find Bilemi alttdan, 
I gave a command ; I made a decree. We must not, 
however, suppose that the Susinn king sj^oke in the 
Assyrian language. His words, of course, have been 
transluted by the scul|itor of the bas-relief. 

In another part of this large sculptured slab we find 
the tragical conclusion of the battle. Assyrian soldiers 
are there represented as slaying King Tivumman with 
a mace, and cutting off the head of the youthful Tariti. 
This apparent difference in their fnte was, however, 
adopted on artistic grounds, to avoid monotony ; for 
Tivumman's head was cut off afterwards, and borne 
swiftly in a chariot from the field of battle, to be sent 
to Nineveh. It is remarkable that the king is very 
plainly dressed, while his son wears a royal garment, 
with a handsome fringe to it. This again is surely 




Tivumman, king of the 
Susians, who in a great 
battle 

was overthrown, and 
Tariti his gallant son 

fled for their lives, and 
into a marsh, for a long 
distance 

they escaped ; and hid 
themselves anionji the 
thorns. 

But by the grace of 
Ashur and Ishtar I disco- 
vered them^ 

and I cut oif their heads 
by the side of one another. 

Jlkhalsu, he was overthrown or utterly defeated ; 
from the Heb. \rh, lakkatf^y afHixit, etc. etc. The 
first syllable is eli, which sometimes sounded il, as in 
the phrase, ii sha as tarai pani — more than in former 
dav8, 

Zakru is a doubtful reading, the word being much 
defaced on the stone. The epithet zahu is applied to 
Belibus iti Bellino, line 14, where he is called miranu 
zakrti, a gallant young man. 

Line 3, " they fled for their lives." In another part 
of the sculpture their flight is represented. The king 
is running fast, and dragginj; his wounded son by the 
arm. 



5. As mati Ashur 
Ishtar haiul sunuti, 



6. reahdu-sun 
mikbrat akhati. 



I 

1 
1 




A BATTLB HCKNE, IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 233 



I 
I 



The first sign in line 3 I am rather doubtful of. It 
- luis two small vertical strokes added, which usually de- 
notes some members ol* the human body, as the two eyes, 
earsj hands, feel, etc. Here it may mean the legs. 

They took to their legs (we should say their heels). 

Izbatu fre(|iiently means "they took.*' 

The sense appears to he that they fled for their lives. 

Batzu, a marsh ; Heb. TVIZ and ^3. This word is 
well known from the inscription of Esarbaddon, and his 
campaign in the marsh country of Lower Chaldcea. 

Arkunish, to a great distance ; from the Chald. ar^a, 
riDIW, longitudo, which is from the root "pN^ longus. 
Assyrian adverbs generally end in irVA, but sometimes 
in nisk, as abubish and abubanish, 

jkhlubit, tliey bid themselves. From the Heb. rpVi. 

Kishti^ thorns ; from the Heb. D^'Tlp, kutzim, thorns. 
Ex, xxii. 6. From the root nsp, to cut. This explana- 
tion of the passage, that the defeated monarch and his 
I son hid themselves among the thorns, is entirely due 
to Dr. Hincks, who published it some years ago. 
As mati Ashur appears to me to uieitn nutu divino ; 
from the Ileb. verb taiD, nnlare, Iherefore, as mati 
Ashur would be " by the grace, or gracious consent, of 
Ashur." Compare the Homeric uevo-e Kpovuav. But 

> since the preposition as is frequently exchanged for in, 
of the same meaning, perhaps it had sometimes the 
phonetic value of m. In that ca*e, line 5 would com- 
Imenee inuti Askur, by the grace of Ashur. Heb, J^n, 
gratia. 
Halul, I discovered ; Heb. 7711, aperuit ; from root 
brr, aperuit ; whence pSn, a window. 
_ Reshdu, their heads. TJiis word is defaced, but may 
H be traced with certainty. 

I VOL. Till. u 



234 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



Kutsi, I cut off : Ileb. mD. to cut off 



■K> 



Mikhrat nkkati, by the side of one another, 
translation also is due to Dr. Hiaeka. 



This 



THE INSCRIPTION OF KHAMMCEABL 

Khamraurabi was one of the kinge of the Proto- 
Chaldsan dynasty. He reigned at a very early epoch, 
the date of which cannot as yet be exactly determined. 
His tablets are written in a non-Semitic language, 
which has been called the Accadian or Proto-Chal- ML 
daean. Of this, only a small part has hitherto been ^ 
deciphered. But, by a fortunate discovery, atablet of 
this king has recently come to light, written in the 
Babylonian language; and though somewhat archaic 
in its idiom, yet, on the whole, wonderfnfly resem- 
bling what was spoken many centuries, or perhaps 
a thousand years afterwards. 

I attempted a version of this remarkable inscription 
in the ' Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society ' {vol. 
XX, p. ^43), accompanied by some very brief notes. 
iJut «ince my translation was published, I have re- 
ceived H copy of M. Menant's work, * Inscriptions del 
Hammourabi, roi de Babylooe, traduites et publi^es} 
avcc un commeutaire & I'appui, par M. Joachim 
M^nant ' (Paris, 1863). This work is accompanied by 
facsimiles of the inscriptions, on consulting which I 
see that some of the complicated hieratic signs havcj 
not exactly the form which I supposed, and there- 
fore my transliteration requires in some places to be 
amended. M. M<5nant'a commentary throws consi- 



I 

i 
I 




INSCRIPTION OF EUAHMtTHABt. 



235 



derable light upon the inscription, and moreover Mr. 
Norri8 lias had the goodness to give me his opinion 
respecting several passages, which has tended much to 
elucidate them. I am therefore now enabled to offer a 
considerably amended translation, and I believe there 
are at present very few words or phrases which re- 
main doubtful. Mr. Norris thinka that the final im^ 
which is frequent in this inscription, expresses in all 
cases what Oppert calls the mimmation^ and that it 
was an archaic form of speech, afterwards disused. I 
hare followed him in this suggestion, which seems to 
have much to recommend it. 

I think the inscription may be read nearly as fol- 
lows. The general sense of it remains the same ; 
the alterations only affect some of the subordinate 
phraees. 



Column I. 



1. Kharamurabi 

2. sar dalu 

3. sar Bahilu 

4. sar raustishimi 

5. kibrati arbaim 



Khamrourabi 
the exalted king, 
the king of Babylon, 
the king renowned 
throughout the world. 



Observations > 

Dalu may be the Chald. ^n, devattts (Schindler, 
389), fi. ^. in Isaiah xxxviii. 14, elevati sunt {"hi) 
oculi mer ad excelsum. 

J^usti^kimi may be an uhtaphcl participle, from 
yniy, renown. 

Line 5 means literally " the four regions," which I 
think signify the four cardinal points, f e. the whole 
world. " 

b3 



236 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



6. Kasit saniti 

7. Marduk ; 

8. ship mutib 

9. libbi-su anaku. 



Conqueror of the ene- 
mies 

of Marduk ; 

the king closely united 

to his heart, am L 



la line 8« M. Mdnant reads rihu, king, because the 
symbol is so explained on a tablet. This is not very 
material; riku is Semitic (Hi^'lj rexit), while proba- 
bly ship is its equivalent in the Proto-Chalda?an lan- 
guage. 



10. Ninu II u Bel 

11. nisi Sumirim 

12. u Akkadim 

13. ana bellim iddi- 
nunu ; 

14. Tsirra zina 

15. ana gati-ya 

16. umallu. 



The favour of God and 
Bel 

the people of Sumir 

and Accad 

gave UDto my govern" 
ment : — 

Their celestial weapons 

unto my hand 

they gave. 



It 13 not at all unusual to find // placed by itself, 
as in line 10, denoting the Supreme Being. Thus, 
we find persons spoken of as " serving God and the 
Kiug." 

Line 14 speaks of " their celestial weapons :*' among 
these were " the sceptre of justice," which Nebo gave 
to every good king, etc. etc. 



17. Nahar Khammurabi 
IS. nukhu's nisi 
19. babilat mie kanik 



The river Kbammurab 
{as the people call it) 
a canal of mingled 
waters ' 



INSCRIPTION OF K.HAMMURABI. 



237 



I 



20. ana nisi Sumifim 

21. u Akkadim 

22. lu-akhri. 



for the people of Sumlr 
and Accad 
I dug. 



The only difficulty of this passage lies in the ex- 
pression nu^'hu'snisi. M. M^nant translates it bonheur 
des kommes. In order to support this, he quotes the 
tablet of Hnmadan^ in which the following phrase oc- 
curs in praise of Oroniasdes: — aha gahhi nulch»ii> ana 
nisi iddinnu, " who gives every kind of prosperity to 
men." 

The word nukhu also means prosperity in this in- 
scription of Khammurabi, Col. U. line 7. 

But to this translation I object, that many passages 
prove that nukhsii signihes sunshine^ and that it only 
naeans prosperity by a metaphor. Now such a meta- 
phor would be entirely misplaced if applied to a canal. 
To call a canal '* the sunshine of men" would be 
quite a solecism. Moreover, I think that the termina- 
tion Hus cannot be that of a noun substantive in the 
accusative case, answering to felicitatem. 

Now we find here and there in the inscriptions, and 
on the whole pretty frequently, after an unusual word 
the parenthetic phrase " as they say," or " as they 
call it." 

Here such a parenthesis seems very appropriate. 
The King says, " 1 dug the canal called Khammu- 
rabi river." The very circumstance of its bearing his 
own name, rendered some such remark requisite. 

When the pronoun *m follows a verb ending in u, 
it very frequently drops its vowel and coalesces with 
the verb ^ thus, for example, nmnu, I counted, makes 
amnus, I counted it. This form I generally write 



238 



ASaYHIAN TRANSLATION! 



amnus. This contraction arises from su being an en- 
clitic, and having no accent of its own. in tact mer- 
ging in the verb when persons were speaking rapidly. 
These remarks having been, premised, I translate 
nukhufi nm, " men call it '* or " so men call it." And 
since my translation was tirst printed, I have found two 
examples of the verb nukha, to declare. The tirst of 
them is in an inscription of Esarhaddon, published 
in the British Museum volume, pi 50, Col. II. 1. 15, 
shuirvfh Uhba-su inukku, " He clearly declared his 
will." The other example is from the same inscrip- 
tion, Col. III. ti, ana nukhi tibbi iluti-ka rabii, '* by the 
declared will of thy great divinity;" where nukhu is an 
adjective. 

23. Kishadi-sha kilalin Its banks, which had 

fallen in, 

24, ana mirishim lutir, in my piety I restored ; 



2d. karie ashnan 

26. iu-astappak, 

27. mie daruti 

28. ana nisi Sumirim 

29. u Akkadim 

30. lu^askun. 



new supporting walls 
(or embankments) 
I heaped up : 
perennial waters 
for the people of Sumir 
and Accad 
I provided. 



Ana mirishim appears to mean piously. I have suc- 
ceeded in finding the phrase again, on the reverse of 
Sargina's slabs, where he says : The worship of the 
Queen of Heaven in my piety I restored {in miriski-ya 
ushatiru) mere grandly than in the days of any former 
king. 

Column II. 
_^ 1. Nisi Sutiiirim The people of Sumir 



INSCftlpTtON OF KHAMUUBABl, 



239 



I 



2. u Akkadim 

3. kali-sun (* , . ) 
apkhati 

4. Ju-pakhir. 



and Accad 

all of them, in general 
afi&emblies 

I passed in review. 



It seems plain that the king is speaking of a Tranj- 
yvpti, or general assembly ; but several words are 
doubtful. 

In line 3 I read kali-sun, and not nisi-sutit because 
the phrase nisi . . . kali-sun npalhir is so commonly 
found in other inscriptions, but never, as I believe, 
BMt . . . nist-sun, etc.. which seems a solecism. Then, 

the first sign ^2. is frequently used for kal, Heb. 

73, omnis, in this very phrase ; and the last sign, 

■^T>— is often used for li. 

The fifth sign in this line, according to M. Menant, 
occurs nowhere else. I suspect that it means a genera! 
assembly. 

Apkhati refers most probably to a national census 
or enumeration of the people. This will appear from 
the following remarks : — 

"TpS signifieg in Hebrew hstravil ; censuit populuni. 
Those who came to the census were called the pakudim 
D'mpQ (Oesen. 835). E. y. Saul, ^pD■< (numeravit) 
populum. iTpS, (numerate) populum, ut eciam nu- 
merum populi. These exymples are from the book 
of Samuel. 

Sights and shows 

I ordained every year. 



5. Mirita u maskita 

6. tu-askun sinasim. 



As the Hebrew adverb, DTDV, yomim, means " every 
day,*' 1 conjecture that dnasim may mean "every 



240 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



year," from 11311?, a year, — unless it be rather the 
Hebrew wl^yw, fdnatim, "every second year" (Gese- 
nius, biennium). 

7. in nnkliBim u kanik In prosperity !iud in ac 

versity 

8. lu-eri siiiati ; I walcbed over them ; 

9. subat nikhiti And in peaceful dwell- 1 

ings 
10. Iu-&basib sinati. [caused them to dwellJ 



Here we have the word nnkksu, prosperity, as iu the] 
tablet ot" Haraadan already quoted. KnnU' appears to] 
be adversity or humiliation, from Heb. ^22, humilis 
I'uit, fractus est^ depressus est animus, etc.. in which 
word the tinal i? may have had the force of gkam. ^j 

Eriy I watched over. This verb appears to be the^^ 
Heb. '^i?, vigilavit (a remark which I owe to Mr. Norris). 
jB. I/, in Cant. v. 2, " I sleep, hut my heart wakes," 11^.^ 

NiAhiti, tranquil, peaceful, Heb. nTO. quies; l>om^^ 
root rn3, quiescere. This explanation is due to M. 
Menant, p. 56. A very similar passage occurs in Tig- 
lath Pileser, Col. VII. '^B (see the British Museum 
volume, pi. 15}, where he says that he loved the as- 
semblies of his people ; Ammat nisi-ya ukhih ; where j 
ammat is from the Heb. QV, congreyavit^ and as ft^l 
substantive popuhts ; and td'hib. from the verb UTT, 
amavit. And he tben adds, that he caused tliem to 
dwell in peaceful dwellings, supta nikhita ushas'tb 
sunuii ; which four words are found in our present 
inscription, siibat ■nU'hiti lu-.'thasib sinati. 

So great a reseuiblance might lead one to the sii| 
position that Khanimurabi wus contemporary wit 



I 



« 



INSCRIPTION OF KHAMMURABl, 



241 



Tiglath Pileser In that ca&e his epoch would be about 
D.c, 1120. 

1 1, ninumi-su 



12. Khammurabi 

13. Bar dalu 

14. migir il rabrab 
anaku. 



by bis favour (viz. that 
ol* Mardiik, see line 17) 
Khammurabi 
the exalted king 
the worshipper of the 
supreme deity, 1 am. 

Let me explain brietly why I cannot concur with 
Menant and Oppert^ who rendei' ninumi by '* nous 
disoas ceci ;" uor with other inquirers, who render it 
" see now !" It is evident that *' nous disons " might 
commence any subject^ and might be followed by any 
manner of sentence ; and as ninumi occurs frequently, 
we should assuredly find various phrases following it. 
But, in point of fact, il is always followed by the name 
of some deity who has honoured or befriended the 
king v.'ho speaks. On the other band, I believe that 
mj explanation of ninu. (favour) suits every passage in 
which the word occurs, besides wbich, there is a verb 
unintty "1 showed hira favour or grace." 



15. in emukin 
11). gashrati 
17. sba Marduk 
iddinam 

19. Kar tsirani 

19. in ebiri rabuti 

20. sba risha-sun 

21. kima tisatuim, elia 

22. in resli nahal Kham- 
murabi 



According to the omens 

astrological 

whicii Marduk gave to 
me, 

a lofty Citadel 

on a high mound of 
earth 

whose summits 

rose up like mountains, 

on the bank of Kham- 
murabi river 



242 



ASSYBIAN TRANSLATIOSS. 



23. nukhu's nisi 

24. lu-ebus. 



(as people call it) 
1 built. 



Gashrati, astrological. From the Chaldee gozrin, 
plUiaetrologi: aruspices. This phrase, emuA/n gashraii, 
is found also in Sargon's inscriptions. 

JibirL Heb. 'IDV, terra ; argilla ; agger (Gesecius), 
Hence it signitied a mound of clay. 

Ssatuim may be a plural nouu. Menant translates 
" com me une montagne." A similar passage occurs 
in the Phiilipps cylinder, where the eummils of the] 
Imgur Bel temple at Babylon are said to be Aima\ 
asatu. 



25. Kar suati 

26. Kac ummu banilti 

27. abim alidi-ya 

28. ana sumbu lu-abbi. 



That Citadel 

*' the citadel of the mo- 
ther who bore me 

*' and the father who 
begot me " 

conjointly I named. 



In line 27, Menant places tbe ward pi after ahim. 
But as this troubles the sense, and as he says (p. 63) 
that in this portion of the inscription " le texte est de 
plus en plus a/itW," I understand that the word jot is 
merely conjectural especially as the sign um, which is 
immediately over it, is, he says, entirely effaced. 

In line 28, I believe I have made an important 
amelioration. The kin* says, T gave to the citadel a 
double name: I called it "the fortress of my mother" 
and "of my father," ana sumbu, conjointly. This 
word occurs on the cylinder of Sargina, where that 
monarch explains his name to mean " the guardian 
king," and says, "quod nomen conjunxerunt mecum 
Dii magni :" sumu-ya, ska sumbu inni Hi Rabi. 




INSCRIPTION OF KM AMMURaBI. 



243 



29. in Ri ummu banit 

30. abim pi alidi-ya 

31. in kibrati 

32. Ui-shaib ! 



in the lioly name of Ri, 
the mother who bore me, 

and of the father ^ho 
begot nie, 

(luring long ages 

may it last ! 



The 



tf li 



29. 3(J, 



Ri U7ttmu, 



\ 

I 

r 



constructK 
etc. (in nomine matrix mes K,i» etc.). 

The ditliculties which M. Menaut encounters in this 
final passage, disappear completely the moment it is 
understood that the king is not speaking of his real 
father and inother, but of the god Marduk and the 
goddess Hi, whom he calls his father and mother, 
according to a fantastic custom of which the inscrip- 
tions offer many examples. Thus Ashiirbanipoil calls 
JVebo and Tasmita his father and mother, by whom he 
was educated (see Oppert, ' Expedition Scientifique en 
M&opotamie'). In the inscription of Khaumiurahi, 
which Mdnant calls No. 2, which is in the Proto- 
Chaldsean language, the chief objects of the king's 
worship are still Marduk and Ri ; see especially lines 1, 
12, 14. 

Therefore the translation of the whole will stand as 
follows :— 

Column I. 

Kbamraurabi the exalted king, the king of Babylon, 
the king renowned throughout the world : Conqueror 
of the enemies of Marduk ; and the King closely united 
to his heart, am L The favour of God and Bel gave 
the people of Sumir and Accad unto my government. 
Their celestial weapons unto my hand they gave. 
The river Khammurabi (as the people call it), a canal 




244 



A.8STBEAN TRANSLATIONS. 



of mingled waters, I dug for the people of Sumir an< 
Accad. Its banks, wliich had fallen in, in my pietyj 
I restored ; new supporting walls F heaped up, an* 
perennial waters for the people of Sumir and Accad 
I provided. 



Column II. 



il 



The people of Sumir and Accad, all of theiti, in 
general assemblies 1 passed in review. Sights am 
shows I ordained every year. In prosperity and 
adversity I watched over them, and in peaceful dwell 
ings 1 caused them to dwell 

By the favour of Marduk, I am Khammurabi tl 
exalted king, the worshipper of the supreme deity. 

According to the pro&perous omens which Marduk 
gave to me, I built a lofty Citadel on a high mound of 
earth whose towers rose up like mountains, oa th( 
bank of Khammurabi river [as the people call it) 
That Citadel I named "the fortress of Ri-Marduk,' 
thus uniting the names of the Mother who bore mi 
and the Father who begot me. In the holy name of 
'Ri, the mother who bore me, and of the father 
begot me, during long ages may it last ! 



A CLAY TABLET IN THE BKITISH MUSEUM. 

1 propose here to translate a portion of the Tablet 

marked 162, and also 130 a and b. It will give some 

idea of the singular things contained in these ancient 

records, many of which we may hope will become ia 

Itelligible as Science advances. 




A CLAY TABLET IN THE BRITISH MtfSEl'M. 245 



I 

I 

I 



I 



The object or purport of the present tablet is veiy 
doubtful for more than one reason. In the Hrst place, 
I have not seen the original tiibletj but only a pho- 
tograph of it kindly presented by the Trustees ; and 
though one half of the tablet is given with sufficient 
clearness to be in general easily legible, the reverse 
half is considerably out of focus, so thai a haze enve- 
lops the writing, if 1 j^liould have an opportunity at 
a future time of inspecting the original tablet, and 
any further details are found to be legible, I will Iny 
before the Society aii additional note respecting tliem. 

Another cause of the obscurity of this tablet is, 
that the commencement of it is fractured and lost, so 
that the reader finds himself launched at once in me- 
dias res, without knowing what may have preceded. 
As far as I can conjecture the purport of the tablet, it 
is this : — Some queen or princess, probably the queen 
of Ashurbanipal, desired to borrow the ancient jewels 
of the goddess Ishtar, but with what view 1 know not. 
However that nrtay be, it appears that on tbisoccnsion 
there was a very solemn religious ceremony, which is 
described with the utmost precision in seven cliiuses 
of six lines each. On the other side of the Ubiet we 
find that the jewels were faithfully restored, with equal 
solemnity ; and this second ceremony is also dcscribf^d 
in seven clauses. 

There ia a passage in the inscription of Nebuchad- 
nezzar ^Phillips cylinder, col. 'H, I, 50} vs^hich throws 
some light on the subject of this tablet. I have trans- 
lated it in the Transactions of this Society. It states 
that some one, probably some former monarch, had 
taken the jewels of Ishtar and had omitted to restore 
them. Nebuchadnezzar repaired this neglect of his 




■J46 



A3&VttlAN TRANSLATIONS. 



predecessor, and restored the jewels to the temple of 
the goddess, 

I will now give the original text of the tablet and a 
translation, and the reader will then be able to form 
an opinion respecting the true purport of the tablet. 

For convenience of typography J have given Rom: 
numerals in the transcription. 

(.'fame 1 . 

J . I adan ushakal-si mamutsi 

3. ittabul mir raba sha re&hdu-aha: 

3. ammini nigab tatbul 

4. mir raba sha rcshdu-ya. 

5. Sabi bilti sha Niu kiti ! 

6. kiham panmi sha. 

Clame 2. 

1. 11 adan usbakal-si mamutai 

2. ittabul inzabati sha uznu-sha : 

3. ammini nigab tatbul 

4. inzabati sha uznu-ya. 

5. Sabi bilti sha Nin kiti 

0. kiham paoini sha. 

Clause 3. 

1 . Ill adan ushakal-si mamutsi 

2. ittabul abni birakhi sha tik-sha : 

3. ammini nigab tatbul 

4. abni birakhi sha tik-ya. 

5. Sabi bilti sha Nin kiti I 

6. kiham panini sha. 

dame 4. 
1. IV adan ushakal-si mamutai 



^^^ A CLAY 


TABLET IN THE HH1TJ9H MUSEUM. )147 ^^^B 


^^^H 


ittabut dudinati sh& gab-sha : ^^^^ 


^^^B 


ammini iiigab tatbul ^^^^ 


^^^K 


dudinali sba gab-ya, ^^^^ 


^^^V 


Sabi bilti sha Nin kiti 1 ^^^| 


^^^H 


kibam panini sha. ^^^H 


^^H 


Ciaitse 5. ^^^H 


^^^B 


Y adan ushakal-si inaniutsi ^^^H 


^^^^^H 


ittabut mibu taktu sha kabalti-sba : ^^^H 


^^^P 


ammini nigab taLbuI ^^^H 


^H~ . 


mibu taktu sha kabalti-ya, ^^^| 


^^^fe 


Sabi bilti sha Kin kiti ! ^^| 


^^^B 


kiham panini sha. ^^^H 


^^H 


Clause 6' ^^^H 


^^^B 


Yl adan ushakal-si mamutsi ^^^H 


^^^B 


ittabuL kharri idi-sha u ratti-sha : ^^^H 


^^^H 


ammini nigab tatbul ^^^^ 


^^^H 


kharri idi-ya u ratti-ya. ^^^B 


^^^^^K 


Sabi bilti sha Nin kiti ^^^H 


^^^H 


kiham panini sha. ^^^| 


^^H 


Clause ^^H 


^^^B 


VII adan ushakal-si mamutsi ^^^^ 


^^^H 


ittabul subibulti sha tzuri-sha : ^^^| 


^^^V 


ammini nigab tatbul ^^^| 


^^^■. 


subibuUi Bha tzuri-ya. ^^^| 


^^^H 


Sabi bilti sha Nin kiti 1 ^^^| 


^^^1 


kiham panini slia. ^^^^ 


^^^ 


Translation. ^^^H 


^^^^ 


CUiuse ^^^^k 


H 1. The first time I deprived lier of an ornament, ^^^B 


H 2. came 


o& the great Ruby on her head ; ^^^| 



^B 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



3. the right hand of tlie priest replaced 

4. that great Ruby upon my head. 

5. Swear by the deity of the Queeo of the Earlh 
G. to restore again her jewels ! 

Clause 2. 

!. The second time I deprived tier of an ornament 

2. came off the earrings of her ears : 

3. the right hand oi' the priest replaced 

4. those earrings in my ears. 

5. Swear by the deity of the Queen of the Earth 

6. to restore agaiti her jewels ! 

Clause 3. 

1 . The third time I deprived her of an ornament 

2. came off the jewelled necklace of her neck : 

3. the right hand of the priest replaced 

4. that jewelled necklace on my neck. 

5. Swear by the deity of the Queen of the Earth 

6. to restore again her jewels. 

Clause 4. 

1, The fourth time I deprived her of an ornament 
a. came off the small lovely gems of her eyebrows. 

3. the right hand of the priest replaced 

4. those lovely gems on my eyebrows, 

5. Swear by the deity of the Queen o*^ the Earlh 
G. to restore again her jewels 1 

Clause 5. 

1. The fifth time I deprived her of an omamei 
y. came off the precious mibu stones of her girdle 

3. the right hand of the priest replaced 

4. those precious mibu stones on my girdle. 



A CLAY TABLET IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. '249 

5. Swear by tlie deity of the Queen of the Earth 
6 to restore again her jewels I 

Clause 

1, The sixth time I deprived her of an ornament 
2 came off the gold circlets from her hands and feet : 

3. the right hand of the priest replaced 

4. those gold circlets on my bands and feet, 
3. Swear by the deity of the Queen of the T^arth 

6. to restore again her jewels ! 

Clause 7. 

1. The seventh time I deprived her of an ornament 

2. came off the sparkling gems behind her neck : 

3. the right hand of the priest replaced 

4. those sparkling; gems behind my neck. 

5. Swear by the deity of the Queen of the Earth 
0. lo restore again her jewels ! 

if we now turn to the opposite side of the tablet, 
we shall find that the borrower restored the ornaments, 
and what is very remarkable, she took great care to 

■ restore them in exactly the reverse order. That is to 

■ say, she first restored the ornament which she had 
borrowed the last; and so on. The passage stands 

I as follows, just the conclusion of it being broken off, 
which 1 have supplied within brackets. 

L Clause 1 . 

1 . I adan ushatzi simat tir-si 
2- subibulti sha tsnri-sha. 



Clause 2. 

1. II adan ushatzi siraat tir-si 

2. shamir idi-sha u ratti-sha. 

VOL. VIIJ 



^^ 250 


■ 


ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. ^^^H 


^ 


1. 
2. 


Clause ^^^1 
III adan ushatzi simat tir-si ^^^| 
mibu taktu sha kabaiti sha. ^^^H 


H 


2. 


Clauae 4. ^^^H 
IV adan ushatzi gimat tir-si ^^^^ 
dudinati sha gab-sha. ^^^H 


B 


2 


Ciame 5. ^^^H 
V adan ushatzi simat tir-si ^^^H 
abni birakhi sha tik-sha. ^^^H 


H 


1. 

2, 


Clause (J. ^^^H 
VI adan u^hatzi simat tir-ai ^^^| 
inzabati sHa [uznu-sha]. ^^^| 


I 


1. 
2, 


Clause 7. ^^^H 

VII adan ushalzi simat tir-si ^^^| 
haguraba [sha re?hdiE-sha]. ^^^^M 

Translation. ^^^H 




Clause ^^^H 
The first time 1 took off one of her ornamenf^^H 
it was the sparkling jewel behind her neck. ^H 




Cliiuse 2. ^H 
The second time I took off one of her ornamcuit^| 
it was the diamonds of her hands and feet. ^M 




Clause 3. ^H 
The third time I took off one of her ornaments ^M 
it was the precious mibu stones of her girdle. ^M 




Clause 4. ^M 
The fourth time I took off one of her ornament^B 
it was tlje small lovely ^ems of her eyebrows, ^t 



I 
I 



A CLAY TABLET IN TUlf: BHITI3M MUSEUM. 25L 

Clause 5. 

The fifth time I took off one of her ornaments 
2. it was the jewelled necklace of her neck. 

Clause 0. 

1. The sixth time I took off one of her ornaments 

2. it was the earrings of her ears. 

Clause 7. 

1. The seventh time I took off" one of her ornaments 

2. it was the great jewel of her head. 

Observations. 

In these texts there are several unusual words and 
phrases, which I shall endeavour briefly to explain : 
beginning with those in Clause 1. 

Jdan^ a time, is the Chald. pj?, tempus. 

Ushaal-ksi^ orbavi eam» I deprived her of (some- 
thing) is the Heb. 7^U?, orbavit. The addition of the 
feminine pronoun ai to the verb in this manner, i& fre- 
quent. 

Mamutei, wealth, is the Heb. Q'^MD, wealth ; which 
is used in the Book of Job (see Gesenius). The word 
occurs in Tiglath Pilcser's inscription, Col. V. 14, where 
it is applied, as here, to the wealth of a god. In that 
passage it is written maniit. Tiglath Pileser dedicates 
the whole of the spoil to i emaiu for ever in the temple, 
mamil Hi rabi, as the property of the great gods. 
Perliaps ou the clay tablet we should read mamtu-si ; 
her wealth . 

Ittabul is the t conjugation oi the verb nahaly 713, 
cecidit, decidit (Buxt.) ; it may be translated fell off, or 
came off, 

a2 




252 



ASSYRIAN THANSLATIONS. 



Mir, some jewel, wliich i lake to be a ruby. Mir 
for emir; so named from 'V2n, red. 

Amnini, the right liand. Heb. J'^*', ruaiius dextra. 

Nigab \ have conjecturally translated *'a priest/' 
It has before it the sign which means rani- or dass^ or 
profession. But i do not lind it in Hebiew, Perhaps 
the word is nigam, for b and m are nearly the same 
in Assyrian. In that case I would compare it to the] 
Heb. nifjan, ]22, a musician. For these people arei 
mentioned in the earlier part oi the inscription as it 
they were mui^icians. What is said is very obscure, 
indeed partly effaced or broken : it is, however, nearly 
as follows :~ 

1. Alik nigam pitash li baba(ti) 

2. uppitsi-Li kima pacni labiru(ti) 

3. iUik nigam iptash li baba(ti). 

Which I think may be translated : — 

1. Go, musician I and beat the drum, 

2. and strike it as in former times. 

3. The musician went, and beat the drum. 

Bitbat I take to mean a drum, from the root 113, 
vacuus. ^j 

Piiash is from the root ^i^D, malleus, any instrtti^^ 
ment for striking, for instance a drumstick. The 
verb U?tiD means malleo percussit. Hence Gesenius 
derives iraTafTtrta. 

Uppitsi may be from the verb yw, whence we find ■ 
the derived word yDD, malleus. The agreement of the^f 
two words pitash and uppitsi, both signifying malleo 
percusait^ is I'emarkable. Nevertheless the second line, 
uppitsi-u kima panni labiruti, may imply something very 




A Cl.\Y TABLET IN THE BfllTISH MUSEUM. 253 



different from what T have given. Tt may mean, '* take 
a pledge (or an oath) IVom her (uppU->:i) as in former 
times." For it appears from the sequel that an oath 
was administered. If this view of the line can be 
taken, uppU may stand for the Hebrew tJ^LV, which 
certainly hears a sense very suitable to this passage, 
namely, pignus dedit pro niutvio, and also, pignore 
dato mutuum accepit, actording to Gesenius. Bux- 
torf has, mutuatus est dato pignore, and pignemtus 
est. The Hiphil, I2"'iyn, has the same meaning, and 
comes nearer in sound to vppit. 

The line i7/(^ nigam iptash, etc. is followed by a line 
which says that the nigam administered an oath by the 
deity, shabt bilti, etc., but I cannot understand it. It 
geems to imply, " may ruiu befall thee, unless," etc, etc. 
Then follows the sevenfold delivery of the jewels. 
From what precedes, I conclude that the nigam was a 
musician, but he must have had some priestly autho- 
rity, and therefore, for the present, the word may be 
translated " pricsl.'' The text continues thus: Avi- 
mini nigab, the right hand of the priest^ tnthul, replaced 
or gave. This verb is in the third person, feminine 
^nder, being governed by ]^'', the right hand, which 
Gesenius says is usually, though not always, feminine. 
So in Latin, dcxtra. The verb tabul Is the t conjuga- 
tion of the Hebrew Tn*", one of the senses of which is 
to give : tulit^ obtulit ut munera (Ges). 

Sabl, swear ! This is the Hebrew i?!^, juravit. 

BiUi, deity. 

Nin, divine queen ; divine ruler. This word is fre- 
quently used, and applied indiscriminately to both 
gods and goddesses. Also in ihe IVoto- Chaldean 
inticriplions; ,and it interchanges with II, a god. 



254 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATltlNS. 



4 



Kiti, of the earth. 

Kiham, to restore again. Kiham, as an adverb, sig 
nifies again. This meaning was first discovered by 
Dr. Hincks, who obligingly communicated it to me. 

It will be observed i]ow well this clears up the 
meaning of the clause which recurs so often in the 
Behistun inscription. Darius sar kiham tgabbi \ Darius 
the king says again. It albo occurs in the inscription 
ot" Nabonidus^ Col. IL 55, Kiham ihbuni mnma: Again 
they said thus, (" we have searched tor it and we can- 
not find it"). See also I'ol. 11. 34. 

Panni, or pannini, in Hebrew written sometimes 
D'''*JS, fiometimes D^3''3D, were some kind of jewels, ^M 
Some render it pearU^ but others consider it to be of ^^ 
a red colour, pyroptta^ garnet. Geseniiis proposes red 
coral; but the general sense oi' jeiveh is much more 
probable, which would include all these varieties of| 
colour. 

litzabali, earrings. The Hfbrew word is OMj in- 
auris, an earring. But b and m are nearly the same^ 
in Assyrian. 

Birtikhi, some bright jewels, called in Hebrew ^^TO. 
But the proper meaning of pis i&ftilgur, and the pre- 
cious stones were so named because they emitted ^J 
bright flashes of light by reflection. ^M 

Tik, the neck. So in the phrase often used by the 
Assyrian kings, kabits tik aibi-m, treading upon the 
necks of his enemies. ^J 

Dudinati. These jewels evidently took their name ^^ 
from Tn, dud, to love. They were small, since they 
were placed on the eyebrow 

Gaba, the eyelirow. Hebrew '^, superciliuni 

Mibu. This precious stone is also named ii 



A CLAY TABLET IN TH£ BRITISH MUSEUM^ 255 



great E. I. H. inscription. Col. VIII. 1 1. That passage 
mentions precious stones, and adds : Mlbu sumu-sa 
snkurn; their narpe is the costly mibu-. 

KahaU't^ the midde ; i. t\ the girdle. 

Kharri were gold rings ; both bracelets and anklets 
had that name. Noblemen and officers wore thsm 
even on the tield of battle, so that alEer a victory Sen- 
nacherib cut off great numbers of them from the hands 
and feet of the skin. 

Subibftlti, sparlders. These gems were probably 
diamonds, The name is a diminutive [implying that 
they were small and beautiful), from 1^2ty, scintillator 
flamma, according to Buxtorf and Gesenius. 

Tzitri, the back of the neck. This is the Hebrew 
T>1N tzur, coUum, also urilten IMU'. That it was 
the hack of the neck is evident from the passages, 
where it is said to bear a burden or a yoke, Deut. 
xxviii. 48, etc. So in the Micbaux inscription, CoL IV. 
G ; " May the gods impose grievous burdens npon 
his neck !" {tzi/ri-su ) The following remarks apply 10 
the paf^sage on the other side of the tablet. 

Ushatzi, I lefl off, or 1 took off". It is the Hebrew 
N5rU\ finivit, which Gebeniua affirnis lo he the shaphel 
of MT", tthiie other lexicons myke it an itidepenilent 
root. Ttiat Gesenius is right is proved cltaily by the 
bilingual tablets in the British Museum, which render 
H:r by the Proto-ChaJdtean uft/w, and xtskatz'f.ov «rt2?, 
by tutan-utdu, a causative conjugation of the same 
rout. 

Simat, royal ornaments, is a trequent word. 
Tlr i^eems to be the Hebrew "^ntD, splendor, rnajes- 
tas, From this root 1 think we may derive tiara. 
SArtMiV, diamonds. T^rziU?, adamas ; lapis duriBbi- 



256 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



mus (Buxlorf). These gems must have been set in 
the golden bracelets and atiklets [Ikarri) previously 
mentioned. 

HaguTiiha ig named instead of emir rabu, which I 
translated the great Ruby. Harfur seems to be simply 
hagar, the stone. 

There is not much more in this well-preserved tab- 
let which is iDteliigihle to me. In one place a pecu- 
liar symbol is repeated five times, and each time is 
followed by the name of some part of the boily, viz. 
the eyes; the side [nkhi) ; the feet; the moulh {piUtiy 
Chald. DD) ; and the head. Hence, I think that this 
peculiar symbol is a (kierminathe of all members of 
the human body. There is much mention of Arnb- 
naki, one of the principal gods of Assyria, whom 1 am 
disposed to identify with Oceanus. It seems that his 
statue had been left in some neglected place, for we 
find that a command is ^iven : Arubiwki sazn ! bring 
forth Arubnaki ! m f^uzu khtiia,^m^ svsib ! seat him on 
a golden throne ! 

This injunction was accordingly obeyed, as we are told 
in the followinij words: — Arubntiki uaha^a^ he brought 
forth Arubnaki ; as ^uza khnrami wnhadfti^ and seated 
him on a golden throne. The verbs if%haza and us/iasi6 
are very common, but the imperatives suza and Kusilt '| 
are interesting, After this follows apparently a si- 
milar injunction concerning the statue of *'the god- 
dess of the waters," whom we may reasonably suppose 
to have been the wife ol Oceanus, answering to the 
T-q6v% of tlie Greeks. But the words are partially 
fractured, and not intelligible. I can only see that 

' This word it* deiflroycil. hut 1 have reelored it from the corre- 
-'ponding clause, wliith is preuerved entire, 



A CLAY TASLliT IN THE BRITr&H MUSEUM. 957 

the command /(7 /Ww//5 / is followed by the perform- 
ance la iUUkk. 

Additional Remarks. 

I should have mentioned that a previoas line also 
contains an injunction and its luttilment. It ia very 
obscure, and stands as follows ; putting A and B for the 
two divine names which are of doubtful pronunciation. 

llu (A) igahbi ana iln (B), {the god A said lo the 
god B) alik ih (B) makhash kaihd Gina. (Go ! god 
B, and sanctify the temple of Gina.) Then follows 
illik ihi (B), hukhask hailai Gina (the god B went, 
and aaoctified the temple of Gina). J translate mukhuxh 
" sanctify," from its resemblance to the word makhaNik 
or fttakhaz, a temple, or temple-palace, or holy city, 
which is a very frequent word. After this follows 
another injunction and its fulHIment : Zakin ! adorn 
or embellish ! (the stone statues of the gods) j and the 
corresponding line says, uzahiii, he did adorn (the sta- 
tues of the gods). The verb zahri, to adorn a temple, 
occurs several times in Nebuchadnezzar's inscriptions. 
The gods are here called //«, with a plural si^ added : 
the Ehhiiu of the more ancient Hebrews, The sign 
for"*Cctfc'' precedes, whicii shows that the siatucA q{ 
the gods are spoken of. Exactly the same phrase 
occurs in the Esarhaddon inscription, Col. V. 18, where 
the kinds of stone whereof the statues were made are 
specitied) as alabaster^ etc. etc. 

Immediately alter this follows the line, — "Bring 
forth Arubuaki,"etc, etc., which I have already given. 



258 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS, 



THE SIEGE OF MADAKTA. 

The historical inscriptions in the Assyrian Inngui 
which are found in our museums, are for the most part 
abridgments raade from much more voluminous re- 
cords. These tuller aunals of the kings' reigns were 
probably written on papyrus, and theretbre they buve 
not reached our times. The scribes selected, accord- 
ing to their judgment, more or less oi these records, 
and inscjib^d thetn on terra-cotta cyhnders^ of a con- 
venient size for reading and lor storing in the libraries 
of the richer and more intelligent classes of society. 

When two inscriptions written by ditt'erent scribes 
record the same events, it sometimes happens that 
they throw great lif^bt upon each other; because 
tliouEih they intend to express the same general mean- 
inii* they employ differenl words. And it may happen, 
that where the one uses obscure and unusual phrase, 
the other writes simply, and therefore bis text serves a^ 
a commentary upon that of the other. 

As an example of this, 1 propose to give the account 
of the siege of MadalUa by Sennacherib, as presented 
by two diH'erent narrators. It is very short, but has 
not hitherto been correctly translated. 

Sennacherib was at war with Shadu-Nakunda, king 
of the Susians, He invaded Susiana and committed 
great ravages. He plundereii and burnt thirty-four of 
their principal cities, those lying on the western side 
of Susiana. 

" The iftnohe of their burning, like a v\ighty cloud, ob* 
scured the face of high heaven" 

The king of the Susians took alarm, and consulted, 
rather ignobly, his personal safely by a rapid flight 



I 
I 




THE :^1EGE OF MADAKTA^ 



2S9 



to the mountains, leaving a body of troops to defend 
Madakta, his capital. Sennacherib soon invented the 
citVi and his scouts espyiag an undefended angle of 
the citadel, the troops assaulted it, and so captured 
the city. Such is the accoiuit given, as I understand 
it, of this military exploit. The weak point in the 
acropolis was probably neglected because it was deemed 
inaccessible j but the Assyrian soldiers appear to have 
been remarkably active, like the modern Zouaves. 
They are repeatedly said in the inscriptions to have 
assaulted towns perched on lofty crags, " which even 
birds could hardly reach.'' And see the prophet Joel 
(chapters 1 and 2) where they are compared to locusts 
" They shall run like mighty men ; they shall climb 
the wall like men (»!" war . . . they shall run to and fro 
in the city ; they shall run upon the walU they shall 
climb up upon the houses ; they nUuW enter in at the 
windows like a thief," 

The city of Madakta has been well identified by 
Sir IL Rawlinson with Badaca ut Diodorus, a city 
twenty-tive miles N.W. of Susa. 

Of the two accounts which I propose to compare, 
thai marked A is fouud in Taylor's cylinder (B, M. pi. 
xl- L 69) ; and that marked B in the ConstaiiEinople 
inscription (B. M. pi. xUii. 1. 39). 



Ishmiu kishitti iri-su 
Shadu-Nakundu Elamu 
imkutsu khattu : 

Sitti iri-su ana dannati 
u&harib : 



A. 

Hearing of the capture 
of his cities, Shadu-Na- 
kundu the Elamite was 
struck with terror. 

The best warriors of his 
cities he left as a guard : 



260 



A9SYRUN TRANSLATIONS. 



Suhu irMadakliirsarti- 
su etzibu, 

ftcia ir Kliaidala sha 
kireb shaddie tsiruti itzabit 
khuirauu. 

Ana ir Mudakti ir earti- 
su alaku akbi. 

Arki ta kUirinti aa- 
dannu 

eruba-amma. 

Shagabtu mabattu 
us b ash c in 

Ha ilu ! sha ha ilu I 

u raggu nukbali natakbu 
bhaddie aclura. 



I 



Tbe account given by B 

Sar Nuva-ki kashat iri- 
BU ishmiu, iinkutsu khatu. 



Sitti nisi mat-su aua 
daonati ushaU. 

Suhu ir Madaktu ir 
sarti-su etzibu 



But he himself escaped 
from Madakta, his capital ^j 
city, ■ 

and marched straight ^ 
t<» the city of Khaidala, 
which is seated among 
high mountains. 

Then I gave command 
to advance and attack 
Madakta, bis capital city. 

At the time of year 
when tbe days are of ex- 
cessive heat, 

! arrived before it. 

I ^assaulted a ruinous 
part of the Acropolis 

with shouts of victory, 

and 1 tiung the bodies 
of the slain down tbe 
rugged ravines (or water- 
courses) of tbe hill. 

is in tbe followinjj words :— 

The king of Susiana 
bearing of tbe capture of 
his cities, was struck with 
terror. 

The bestwarriors among 
the men of his land he left 
as a guard. 

But he himself escaped 
from Madakta, his capital 
city. 




THE SIEGE OF M^DAKTA, 



261 



ana ir KImidala slia 
kireb shaddie ishtukan 
khani-su. 

Ana ir Madakti ir sarti- 
su alaku akbi. 

Arki Ab kulsu dannii 
iksuda-amma. 

Shagabtu la zitzitu 
illiku, 

Kaggu nakalli natakhu 
shadi adura. 



and pitched his camp 
at the city of Khaidala, 
which is among the moun- 
tains. 

Then I gave command 
to advance and attack 
Madakta, his capital city. 

In the month of Ab (or 
July), a time of great heat» 
1 arrived there. 

[My sifldiers] attacked 
a pinnacle of the rock 
which was not fortified. 

And J flung the bodies 
of the slain down the rug- 
ged ravines of the hill. 



Both the copies A and B have imkutsu khattu, he 
was struck with terror : from the Hebrew \^TV2, per- 
cussit, and rin, terror; but B expresses the Hebrew 

n in the latter word by the sign pp » which usually 

stands for pa. This polyphony is one of the chief 
difficulties of the Assyrian language. This cuneiform 
sign also very frequently expresses the Hebrew n in 
the name of the Kbatti, or Syrians (in Hebrew Tirr). 
Again, it is used for n, in the word khani, a camp, to 
wliicli we shall come presently, 

The account in A goes on to say, that the king left 
choice troops (siUi.)^ to guard the city. This word 
is usually written sittfiti. It occurs very frequently. 
" He left," is expressed in A by uskarib, in B by 
uskali. These words, however, appear to be the same, 
and to be forms of the Hebrew shar, ^M^, reliquit. A 
little further on, A has itzabit kharranu, he marched 



262 



ASaYRItN TBAN3LATION3. 



straiji;ht away (to Kliaidala), where B has iskialan 
khani-su, lie pitched his camp (at that city). 

Itzabit is from Hebrew tsaba, NnS, to march (said of 
an army). Kkani is the Hebrew n^n, khana, a camp, 
for wliich Ihey also use vmkhana. I have already" re- 
marked that in the word khani, the Hebrew n is ex- 
pressed by ^^ I have thus given three examples of 

this usage: others occur here and there in the inacrip- 
tions, but not often. 

A/aiu akbi, i. e. akhi, I commanded ; alaku! advance ! 

^rki generally means " a moriith," but it may also 
be translated *'lime of year." 

In A it is called ta, the day (or the time), khirinti 
nadarinu^ of excessive heal : from Hebrew lllH, kkirun^ 
groat beat; sestus, ardor (Buxtorf): and dannu^ to 
make great or powerful. 

In B it is called the month of Ab, which Buxtorf 
says is July. Khn(m (Ihiuhc, i. e. (lempus) aestatis 
magnsEj from Ipp, ^stas (Buxtorf). The accounts 
therefore agree, though the words differ. This month 
is called on the tablet of Seleucus, in the British 
Museum, f/z't dannu^ which seems the same, only 
omitting the initial aspirate. 

A then has, eruba, 1 arrived there, or I reached the 
place. This verb is very common in the Annals of 
Ashur.ikhbal. For this, B substitutes iksuda, 1 arrived, 

Now, if we turn to the Behistun inscription, line Q^^ 
we find this verb. It is there said, " I sent troops 
to assist Ilystaspes. After these troops had vpached 
Hystaspes {iksuda), he advanced," etc, etc. So Raw- 
bnson translates the passage (postea quod copiae ad 
Hystaspem accedisucnl). 

Then A says, uHlmahnl/i, I assaulted^ or rather, I 



TKE gieOE OF MADAKTA. 



263 



caused to be assaulted ; the »hn conjugation of sltafum 
to attack. Ot this verb we also find iht: / conjuga- 
tion (tiiktaufnt, I fouglit ; as well as tbe simple foroi, 
e. g. hhananu^ they fought (B. M. pi. xvii. line I). 

A continues, I assaulted, dtatjabfu, the height or 
summit, or pinnacle This is the Hebrew 13ty, slmffuh 
(Ges. 9 jf>), which he renders altus luit ; subhniis (uit j 
and, therefore, tutum iecit (aliquem) ab hoste. And 
the derived word maslt^ub SJUra, he renders, locus 
editu?, rupes, refbgium ct secuntatem prrebens: inde 
dicitur de ipso refi^io. Psalm ix, 10, etc. I think all 
this is nearty expressed by the single word acropoliB. 

According to A, tbe sftnt/afjtft was toahalfu, or over- 
thrown and ruined. This is a participle from the 
Hebrew ilii?, »u6rertit, of which the participle ni3^T3, 
perversifs, is found in Eccles. i. 15 [see Buxioi'f)- 

But according to B, the shaffahtu was h ztfzitu, not 
fortified. It probably once had been so, but was now 
in a ruinous condition. This word ztfz m very fre- 
quent in Assyrian ; it uieiins to set up a thing tiruily 
and strongly. • It is the Hebrew tty fiziz, rohoravil, 
froEu the root \)S,forli9, and as a substantive, roOtu', 

When a king has engraved a tablet, recording his 
glories, be almost always says, iit^ha^iz, I caused it to 
be fixed up firmly (adding tbe name of souie public 
place). 

l/fiht, they attacked ; i. c. my soldiers attacked ; 
from nlffk, to attack, Hebrew "ttTt, 

Jla Hit! »Jia ha ilu ! This, I think, is the battle-cry 
of Senmicberib's soldiers, ' Hurrah! in the name of 
tbe gods I ' B omits it, but it adds to the spirit of the 
description. 

JiogifH, the corpses of the slain; frum the Hebrew 



ASSTBlAN THANSLAT10N3. 




264 



p5yi» otherwise ,71, to smite. This word is very fre- 
cjuenl Id the iascription of TiglatU Pileser, and it also 
occurs in plate xxxiv. of Ibe British Museum iascrip- 
tioQs, line 29, which was written several centuries later. 
The phrase is rak mala kuradi'^un, the dead bodies of 
their soldiers. 

Nakkah io A, nnial/i jn B, is the Hebrew hni nakhal^ 
a mouQtaia torrent, generally dry in the summer; 
hence, a ravine. 

XotiiHu, broken, precipitous ; from the Hebrew 
pru, rupit : and nrC has the same meaning 

Skaddi, lofty ; from n^* excelsus^ 

A'J'ifa, I hurled them down. The root is the 
Hebrew Jur^ ^'M, or~irn, in orbem egit ; cursu citato 
egit. 



FRAGMENT CONCERNING A WAR IN SYRIA. 

la the annals of Esarhaddoii, of which I gave a 
translation in the Transactions of this Society* there is 
a passage (col. iii. 19) which stands as follows :— 

19. Arka Hazael shimut After {ike death?) of_ 
iibil-su,* Hazael, 

20. lahu-luhu bal-su lahu-luhu his son 

21. As guza-su I placed upon his 
ushasibu. throne. 

It then goes on to say : — 

•' I fixed the amount of his tribulCt which was more 
than his father paid." 

3 The tablet K 1 1 eiplaina shimuUiv by dm, refit or sleep, whicK 
JB the Keb m, otherwiee D1"l, quievit. 



FRAGMENT CONCERNING A WAR IN SYRIA. 



265 



In looking over the photographs made in the British 
Museum, I have found, very unexpectedly^ a conti' 
I nuation of this history. It occurs on a tablet marked 
K 30. I am not certain whether it relates the annals 
of Esarhaddon or of his son Ashurbanipal, but I think 
more probably the latter. 

In that case, the events related are probably twenty 
years later thart those in Esarhaddon's tablet. 

The name of the son of Hazael is changed from lahn- 
luhu to lahu-tahu. 1 am therefore doubtful whether 
it means the same individual. Probably it may be his 
I brother, another son of Hazael ; because the account 
begins by his performing homage, which looks like the 
commencement of a reign. 

The following is my translation of the tablet, in 
which some inaccuracies must be excused, a& I have 
not seen the original, but only the photograph : — 

1. lahu-tahubalHazael lahu-tahu, son of Ha- 
zael, 

2. sar mati kizakkhu- the king of the land, 
su epish ardutl-ya. had bound himself to do 

homage to me. 

Kizakkhu is probably the Heb, ptH, he bound i «u, 
himseir 



3. ash su ili-su (holding) in his hand 

. . . , nu-ya issu-su, hia gods, {unto my via- 
jeHy /) he brought them. 

Compare the *' suppliant king," in Esarhaddon, 
col. iii. 7, bringing his gods in his hand to Esarhad- 
don 's presence. 

vol,, vni. T 



me 



ASSYBIAW TRANSLATIONS, 



4. Irakhar annima, 
utsala sarruti. 

5. Sumi ill rabi 
ushasdir-su. .... 



He i2:ave tlicra to 
and he supplicated 
majesty. 

I inscribed upon them 
of the sreat" 



tlie names 
gods : 

viz. Those of the Assyrian gods. This is what Esar- 
haddun did on a i^imitar occasion (col. iii. 11, of his 
inscription). 

Imhhar is from Heb. 13D mahir, tradidit. 

6. ilu Hadar-samain and then I gave him 
utaru attan-su. back his deity, called 

Hadar-samaio. 

So Esarhaddou i^raciously returned bis ^ods to the 
suppliant king, alter he had placed holy names upon 
them (col. iii, 12). 

The name Hadar-samain is very indistinct. I think 
it may be the name of some Syrian god, meaning 
" Glory of the Heavens," D^^y "IIM, probably some 
image of the Sun. 

7. Arkanu edi-ya ikhdi After my departure he 
as mashapti la (. . . .) was deceived by false as-^ 

trological predictions 

Edi-ya, my departure. Gesenius says: my, dis- 
cessit. Vox proprie Chaldaica. 

The rest of the line is nearly illegible. If ikhdi is 
right, it may be from nnM> a Chald. form of tJiM, cepit, 
so that i^h(H would mean caputs est, he was deceived. 
Mashapti, prediction ; from rit?N, astrologus, a ChaU 
dcean word. La, not ; followed by a word quite effaced, 
which probably meant " true." 



FRAGMENT CONCRItNINO A WaK JN SYRIA. 267 



8. Itsia suthitt ? To throw off {the yoke P) 
IidUiti-ya. of my majesty. 

This is written in a larger hand by the scribe, with 
more space between the letters, as if he was impressed 
by the audacity of the actwhicli he recorded, a resolve 
to rebel against so great a monarch. 

Itsla, from hh'S* to shake off; generally to shake 
off a yoke from the neck. This word is frequent in 
the inscriptions. The next word may be suthut, but il 
is almost illegible. It has the sign for woo^ prefixed 
to il» and therefore may mean "a yoke :'* compare the 
phrase isut/tu abshani. 

9. Ana . . . . ya nir-su On the ... . he broke 
ibrutzu. off his allegiance. 

Ihrtitzit, from yiD, rapit. The middle of the line is 
nearly destroyed. 

10. Ikla tamarli. And he refused to pay 

tribute. 

Again, a larger writing is employed, as if for em- 
phasis. 

IK Nisi mat Aribi The tribes of the Ara- 

itti-su ushabuliku. bians he caused to revolt 

along with him. 

The word ushabuliku is important. It is generally 
shortened io mbuliku or vasf/uliku, fis'm B M, xxxii. 41, 
mat iishtilUu, *' he caused the land to rebel." The 
root is huluk, to rebel, which is not found in Hebrew 
in that form ; but I think that it is closely related to 
the Heb, J*?D, to split or divide. In fact, schisvi and 
Tthellion are nearly the same. We often meet with 
such phrases as ibbuluk, he rebelled ; iblaku^ they re- 

t2 




268 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS, 



i 

i 



belled ; m bulukti-su rahti, during his great rebellion, 
etc. This verb in the causative conjugation becomes, 
shabuluh, to cause to rebel; whence the word in the 
text, ushabulilii. 

12. Ikhtanap (...) And he profaned the 
khubut Martu-ki. finest (temples ?) of Syria. 

This line is obscure, owing to the loss of a wordj 
which I think may have meant temples, 

Ikhtanap seems to be the i conjugation of the Heb. h 
verb kkanap, Fi^n, profanare. ^| 

Khubut, the finest or choicest : from root in, diiexit^^ 
amavit ; it implies preference and excellence. ^J 

The land of Martu is Phcenicia or western Syria. V 

13. Ummani-ya sha as My army, which I had 
mitsir mat-su ashli sent to guard the country, 

14. umahira tsirussu, 1 sent rapidly against 

him. 

Mitsir I consider to be a verbal substantive, fro 
the Heb. ^23^ natsiry custodire. It will therefo 
mean custodia. 

Ashiif I sent ; from nbuf, misit. 

Vmahira, from Heb. ^no, muhir, festinavit. 

Tslr^ against, is frequent, e. g. I marched against' 
Maniah {tsir Manifik)^ B. M. xl 2. 

15. Sisi-sun ishkunii. They destroyed hi 
Nisi mat Aribi army. The Arabian trib 

16. mala itbuni, urasibu who had risen up against 
as esku. me, they put to the swo 

hkkunu, they (viz. my soldiers) destroyed. 

Mah. This word occurs here and there, in the 
sense of the relative qui, quet, quod. In the Michaux 
and other similar inscriptions, we find Hi rabi mala in 



I 

ust 





FBAOMBNT CONCERNING A WAR IN SYRIA. 1269 



nari ttnnt, the great gods who are named on this tablet. 
Perhaps this word mala is connected with via (quod), 
which occurs on the tablets in such phrases as quod 
rex mihi jussit, id feci. This is the Chaldee rTO, qui, 
quae, quod. According to Buxtorf and Gesenius, 
7M or n7M or ]^7M, signifies hi, iUi, isti ; or hje, illse, 
istae, but always in the plural. It is possible that the 
Assyrian mala may be formed of TV2 and 7M coa- 
lesced. 

Itbuni, This word is very frequent, especially in 
the phrase ana gabi-ya itbunt., they advanced against 
my majesty. In the singular it is, ana tjabi-ya Uba, he 
advanced against my majesty. 

Urasibu as eskit, is a very common phrase. 

1 7. Bit gabir, mutari A great Building, which 
mushabi-sun was their house of assem- 
bly and their palace ? 

This line is found, word for word, in Sennacherib's 
inscription, B. M. xxxvii. 76. 

18. bil ushakhit-zu, (my soldiers) polluted 
ibkidu anaashut. and then condemned it to 

the dames. 

The first word Itil is of doubtful meanings perhaps it 
is related to 7^3, maculavit, inquinavit, so that the 
sense may be that they profaned the building and then 
destroyed it. 

Ushakhit, from Jimj?, perdidit, corrupit. 

Ibkidu, they condemned. Heb. "i,'7E, punivit. In 
Assyrian, paiit means jJ/(/ea?> 

The word for /re or flames is the usual symbol. 

19- ga, tsieni, pardi?, The oxen, sheep, mules, 
nisi zakus and people cbai ned tO'^ 

gether, 



270 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



20. nsib kitu ishluluai who lahabited the land, 
as la (mini). they carried off as a spoil, 

in great numbers. 

Ga or (jai (oxen) is not, as I think, the lodo-Ger- 
jnanic or Sanskrit word (?fl, although it has accidentally 
the same meaning. The Assyrian gai seems plain fy 
derived from the verb nif3 or MV;i, vmgut^ to low or 
bellow. 

Zahi^ is a doubtful word, and broken at the end. 
It is probably "chained/' from the Hebrew □"'pi, ca- 
tense, compedes. Foi', su in Lord Aberdeen's inscrip- 
tion of Esarbuddoii, chained gangs of people dwelling 
in the land {shabati niEt axib girhi su) are carried off 
for punishment. 

2 1 . sikhih mati kala mu The spoil of the land of 
ana . . . , every description unto . . , 

Sikhib, spoil, from Heb. ^HD, rapuit, 

Kala mu means, I think, " of every denomination." 
The phrase occurs in the name of Esarhaddon's palace, 
Hmkai pakidat kaia mu, *' Palace of protection of 
every kind," i. e. where every useful thing was stored 
up, protected, encouraged (see B. M. pb xJvii, col. vi. 
20, of Esarhaddon's inscription). 

Mu is a Pfoto-Chaldiean word, meaning " a name," 
but I think it was adopted into the Assyrian language 
like many others. 

The fractured state of Ihe tablet makes the rest oi\ 
the history unintelligible ; I will therefore only add ai 
connected trsiislalion of the portion which has been 
preserved. 

" lahu-tahu, the son of Hazael, the king of the coun* 
try, had promised to do homage to me. He came unto 



I 



raAGMENT CONCBANING A WA K lit SYRIA. 271 



I 



my majesty, holding his gods in his hand. He gave 
them unto me, and he supplicated my majesty. I in- 
scribed upon them the nam&g of the great gods of 
Assyria, and then I gave him hack his deity, called 
Hadar-Samain. But after my departure he was de- 
ceived by false astrological predictions, which told 
him to throw off the yoke of my majesty. On the ... . 
he broke oif his allegiance ; and he refused to pay 
tribute. The tribes of the Arabians he caused to re- 
volt along with him, and he profaned the finest tem- 
ples of Syria. My army, which I had sent to guard 
the country, destroyed his army. The Arabian tribes 
who had risen up against me they put to the sword. 
A great building, which was their House of Assembly 
and their Palace, my soldiers polluted and then con- 
demned it to the flames. The oxen, sheep, mules, and 
the inhabitants of the land, chained together, they 
carried off in great numbers ; and they took the spoil 
of the land of every description.'' 

This is all that remains of the Syrian war. In 
another part of the tablet the king says: — "The 
written records of my name and my heroic deeds which 
1 performed in foreign lands by the help of Ashur, the 
Moon, the Sun, Bel, Nebo, Ishtar of ISineveh, Ishtar 
of Arbela* Ninev, and Acherib, I made sculptured 
tablets of them, to preserve their memory unto future 
times." 

The last line is aakkun dananu Uzak{ri) . , , ana 
akhrut tami. 

Lizakri: to preserve the memory of it : from zakar, 
131, recordatus est, meminit ; and as a s^ubst. memoria^. 

Dananu is an image, or picture; or sculptured tablet. 

Thus in the Esarhaddon inscription, col. iii. 10, 



272 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



Bffnan AshiT U Ash< 



I think that the 



sion 



I 



image. I tnmK mat tne expres- 
-»-^ ^TTIi i/u rfnn, which frequently occurs, 

ought to be translated " a divine image/^ or the statue 
of some god. Take, for example, the following passage 
from the Annals of Ashuralthbal, B, M. xxiii. 132: — 

** I built a new fortress in Calah city. Within itftj 
precinct I built a temple to Ninev, my lord. When 
that temple of Ninev was tinished, I made a statue 

( >-*?- ^^^ ) of his great divinity, and I raised it 

up (elu) on a pedestal {dumuk) of white marble and| 
gold, and 1 gave it to his great divinity in the city of^ 
Calah." 

I have translated kuri stone, " white marble," because 
■>in, in Hebrew, means white. 

As to the origin of this sense of dan (which is quite ^ 
different from the word dan, fortis), I think it is tbe^f 
Assyrian form of the Syriac dam, DT, wliich means ^* 
resemblance or similitude. Such changes of final m 
into final n are frequent, A remarkable one is found ^j 
in the E. I. H, inscription (B. M. Ixiii. 26), where we^B 
read, " I have not built another city so splendidly, kirbi 
mati tati, throughout the whole country," wherein is 
an Assyrian form of the Hebrew taw, on, integer, entire. 

The Reverse of the tablet is greatly defaced. It re- 
lates to a war against a chief called Dunanu, king of 
the Buiu, who dwelt in the city of Shapi-Bel, situate ^H 
between two rivers, and trusted for aid to the king of the ^^ 
Su&iaiis,' — and refused to bow down before me. Never- ^i 
theless, he and his brothers were captured alive in the ^M 
battle ; the Assyrian army swept over the land of Bulu 
like a whirlwind [Hma im ^nhitH)And carried off his wife, 
sonsj daughters, men-sirvants, and women-servants. 



t 



PHAQMENT CONCERNING A WA tl IN SYRIA. 273 



In this inscription biga, or two-horse chariots, are 
sp(»]cen of. They are called rahibt tnUntti niri, chariots 
of double yoke. The city of Shapi-Bel is named in 
other inscriptions. 

As an Appendix to this brief account of a Syrian 
war, I will add ?ome remarks upon the name of 
lahu-luhu, the son of IJazaei, the king against whom 
it was waged. This name probably means " Jah is 
with him," or '*Ichb is with him,'' in Hebrew letters 
'>7rT', or ITirf. The name is not Assyrian, but He- 
brew. The Assyrian form would be lahu-itti-su. This 
king's name is very similar in meaning to that of the 
king of Hamath conquered by Sargon, lahu-biadi, or 
"Idni> is with me," in Hebrew letters ""TrirP, for Ge- 
senius explains that "^Tl, which is literally " in manu 
mcEi," is a Hebrew phrase signifying mecum. 

There can be no doubt as to the meaning of lahu, 
for in some of Sargon's inscriptions it has the divine 
sign prefixed, and in one of them (B. M. 36, 25) the 
name of lahu-biadi is changed to Uu-biadi, showing 
plainly that lahu meant *' god " in the Syrian language, 
which was expressed by ilu in the Assyrian. Gesenius 
remarks that though TV is frequent in Hebrew, as, for 
example, m ^hhT^ and yfy0 m (Jab est nomen ejus), 
yet irT' is only found at the beginning or end of propev 
names- He then goes on to observe (s, v. rTMT) that 
the true ancient pronunciation of the holy name rnn'^ 
was Jaw, and he produces several passages of ancient 
authors in confirmation of this. Diod, i. 94, says, 
loTopovat . . . Toys vofiov^ BtBavai . . . irapa Se rovs Jov- 

■ Hesych. v. OgtiBy; interp, ad Clem. Alex. Strom. 
H V, p. 666, xaXavat Be auro . . . lovBatot Se lASl. But 



274 



ASSYRIAN TKANBLATIONS. 



in Strom, v. 5fi2» lAOT On^). Gesenius then adds 
the testimony of the Gnostic gems, which give abun- 
dant examples of the name lav- Nevertheless the 
proofs which I have offered from the Assyrian sculp- 
tures of the seventh century before Christ appear more 
convincing still, and seem to leave do doubt about it. 
We may also add the name of Hezekiiih. which is written 
in Assyrian Hazak-iahii (B. M. pi. XKXviii. and xxxix.). 




ON INEFFABLE NAMES. 

The annals of Ashumkhbal, lithot^rnphed in platen 
xvii- to xxvi. of the British Museum volume of in- 
scriptions, commence with an invocation to the god 
Ninev, the Assyrian Hercules, who was reputed to have 
been the founder of Nineveh. This invocatioQ con- 
tains many mystical lilies hard to he understood, and 
which will probably require much study before their 
meanipg is well ascertained. But among them there is 
one which appears perfectly clear, and which, in my 
opinion, is very important. 1 shall make it the subject 
of the present notice. It occurs in pi. xvii. line 8. 
. Ninev . - . sha as lishan ilu sum-su ilati mamma la 
huluka ishtila. " Ninev . . . whose divine name, by 
which he is called in the langnntje of the gods^ no one 
must lightly pronounce in vain." 

This passage throws a flood of light upon many 
others, in which the " unspoken name" is alluded to 
more briefly. 

The attention of scholars, and indeed of all readers 
of Homer, has loug been drawn to those marvellous 



ON INRFF^ABLfi NAMBE. 



275 



lines in which he tells us that the gods conversed in a 
language of their own, quite different from that of 
mortal men. Thus he says of* the rivLT Xanthus, — 

TOP Hav0ov KoXsovcri ^eot, avBp^t Be XKafiavtpov, 

And ofa certain monument or lofty mound near Troy, — - 
" Men iitde^d Call it BaTKW ; but the Goda the lamb of Myrinna," 

And it has been doubted whether this bold fiction was 
the invention of Homer himselfj or was handed down 
to him from his predecessors ? But the very firmness 
of his assertion respecting the language of the gods, as 
a simple tact, ^hows tiiat he only spoke out the ge- 
neral belief. 

And we now see that an Assyrian monarch (who 
may well have been Homer's contemporary) affirms 
the same belief in express terms: "In the language 
of the gods,*' he says, " Ninev had a divine name." 
This adjective "divine" I have transcribed by iluii 
(of divinity), because I am not clear how it was pro- 
nounced. The pronunciation however is of little mo* 
ment, compared with the meaninfj of the term. 

Mamma or mnmman is a word which occurs fre- 
quently, and signifies none or no one. 

Buluk is the Heb.. pVn, vanus, vacuus, inanis. I 
have rendered it "in vain." 

hhtila, he may slight, contemn^ make light of, treat 
lightly, is the t conjugation of the Heb. TT^D, vili- 
pendit, elevavit, t, e. contempsit (levia enim parvi sunt 
momenti, says Gesenius). 

I will now pass on tn some other passages which 
lead to the same conclusions. 



276 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



Neriglis6ar'sinscription^col,U.31 (seeB.M.pKIxvii,). 




31. Marduk bcl rabu, O Marduk, great lord, 
bel ilu rabbu, 

32. Nui" ilu abbima ! 



lord of the great gods ! 



4 



33. in kibiti-ka tsirti 
elia la nakari 



34. Bit 

lusbu ! 



ebciSt lala - su 



Light of the gods I my 
father ! ^ 

In thy celestial name^^ 
which 18 never pronounced ^y 
aloud, H 

I have built this temple; 
may its glory endure ! 



The Assyrian term for " speaking aloud " is kara. 
This is the Heb. W"ip, clamavit, vel nominavit. From 
hence comes the Niphal or passive form nalara, to be 
spoken aloud ; to be openly named. 

Still more emphatic is the language addressed to 
Marduk in an inscription of Nebuchadnezzar, col. ii. 
27 J seeB. M. pi. 52. 



4 



In thy divine name which 
is not spoken aloud, 

may my days be blessed 

with a beloved offspring. 

In thy celestial name 
which is not even whis- 
pered, 
■ may, etc. etc. 

Subielti is probably from the Semitic subulj 72D, 
efflare. 

We have seen that Ninev was not the celestial name 
of that deity. What then was his celestial name? 
This seems to have varied according to the tradi- 
tions of various countries or of different temples in the 
same country. In H. M. pi. xvii. 2, it is expressed by 



27. In pi-ka illu sha la 
nakari 

S8. ibaraku tami-ya 

29. kini littuti. 

30. In kibiti -ka tsirti 
sha la subielu, 

31. etc. etc. etc. 



ON INRFFABLB NAMES. 



277 



a symbol, whichj for the present, I will render " Her- 
cules." 



Urrish >^Hf" WTI 
itik malik Hu. 



At the first he was called 
Hercules m the speech of 
the gods. 

Urrisk, (at first) might be a derivative from //r, 
which is used for early morning, oriens. But the 
grammatical tablet 156 a, seems to give this word as 
one of the derivatives from the root rink (first ; or 
head)* which etymology, if correct, would explain why 
a deity is sometimea called urrish i7u, first of the gods. 

ItU\ he was called ; from piai, locutusest (Schindler). 

MalU' seems put for ajf mali (in the speech) ; from 
n^D, sermo- But the syntax of words ending in k, is 
not yet well understood, such as kayanak, lahatlak, 
pithikak, etc. 

Two lines after this, we read concerning Ninev: — 

Sha la enu kibitaka-&u Wliom men do not call 
reshdan nisi. by his real name. 

Enn^ they speak ; they call ; is the Heb. 7MV, enah, 
to speak. 

Kibitak^ a name, is an emphtrtic form of tiie usual 
kihita. It occurs also as kibituk, e. g. Kibituk-ka, 
riminu Marduk, bit ehus. In thy name, O supreme 
Marduk, J have built this house. 

The next line (B. M. xvii. 5) is one of much interest. 
Ninev is there called— 



Shib sha la uttakkaru 
zigir ghipti-su, itik rapsu 
Rub-Mi-Ilu mutaliu 
shemesh (. . 



The King whom men 
call not by his royal name 
nor by his great title, 
" Chief of a hundred gods-" 
And mystically he is the 
Meridian Sun. 



278 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONB. 



The first word in this sentence is generally to be 
read rif, but sometimes shlb, ns in shibta, a dwelling, 



(the 



mi 



ta. 



le as subat) which is written 

Skib or ship frequently aigniJies a king, whence 
shipti, royalty. But if preferred, the word may be read 
as Ru, and viewed as being the Heb. mrij rex, pastor, 
TTOtfiijif Xcuai/. 

UttaMarti, they speak aloud, points to a root ?taXar. 

hik is a word we have considered before. Here it 
seems to mean nomen^ appellatio. 

RapsUy iiia^nus : e. g. rapsu nagu^ regio magna. 

Mutallu appears to mean, mystically called ; darkly 
called; from the Arabic. Vtsy, cahginosum esse. Ge- 
seniuB remarks that this verb compounded with Fpr, 
a bird, gives fri^tsy, vespertilio (quasi avis volans in 
calie;ine), which is found in Hebrew. The word mn- 
tallti is also found in B. M. xxvii. 7, where " Neho of 
the golden sceptre " is called by the simple epithet of 
ilu mutallu, " the mysterious god." 

The Sun in the South cannot at present be trJins- 
literated, because the South is expressed by a symbol 
which has not yet been read phonetically, 

" Chief of a hundred gods." The inscription of Pul 
(B. M. XXXV. line 3) gives this great title to Nebo, but 
in a slightly altered form, Rub-Mi-Shaliiklati, which 
may mean Cliief of a hundred angels, for the word 
may mean nuntius, ayyeXosj from the root mt?, misit. 
And it is there said that this was Nebo's cdeHhl name 
(kibit-su makhrat; from ma^Attr.cnelestis.vel suhlimis). 

But it seems singular that Ninev or Nebo should 
rule over a hundred, or any other limited number, of 
inferior deities or angels. I therefore remark (hat mi 
(which usually signifies a liundred) is also explained 



ON INEFFABLE NAME8. 



'J79 



in the Syllabary, No. 1 10, by kalu and hdu, that is to 
say, all [the Hebrew *rD]. If wc adopt that meaning, 
the title will import " Lord of all the angels.'* 

The inscription of the king whom Rawhnson calls 
Sharaas Phul (B, M. pK xxxii.) again invokes Ninev, 
and calls him the Meridian Sun, and mumahir gimriy 
inspector of all things, which is a well-known title of 

theeun. It then adds, ?;iM/t//// >->^ TT IT " niysti- 

cally called [Hercules] : '* sha la mmakharu danntit-zu 
reskdan ArubnaH al vmlli ilu^ '* whose real narat; they 
do not receive {do not know?) Arubnaki, in the lan- 
guage of the gods." 

This name Arubnaki was evidently very holy, and 
probably very ancient. It ia however by no means 
exclusively attributed to Kinev. Other guds nppear 
to claim it. I doubt if the last phrase, al malli ilu^ is 
correctly translated, becau-'e the Heb. preposition 7t4 
is very unusual in Assyrian. 

Otherwise it would suit well enough, as 7M has 
sometimes the sense of in ; e. g. 117 TM, in animo, 
□""Otl-n ^N, in ccelo (Ge&en.). 

On the Obelisk, I. 8, the Sun is called mumahir 
gimri, " Viewer of all/' and also has the same great 
title that Ninev has, Rub Mi llu. 

But of all these passages the one which I quoted 
first is the clearest j "Ninev . . . whose divine name, 
by which he is called in the language of the gods, no 
one must lig'htly pronounce in vain/' 

This prohibition bears a certain similitude to the 
third commandment of the Jewish Decalogue, "Thou 
ehalt not take his name in vain. ' 

But before going further, let us inquire what was 
the precise meaning of that cotnmandment ? 



* 280 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



Modern churches understand it as forbidding the^i 
vice of profane swearing, and of all light or disrespect-^B 
ful mention of the name of the Deity. But the Jews, 
heavy and grievous as their faults were in other re- ^d 
spectSj were entirely free, so far as is known, from the^^ 
vice of profane swearing: which is indeed unfortu- 
nately niore prevalent in modern times than it ever 
was ill any ancient nation. The ancient Jews them- 
selves gave a very different interpretation to the third 
Commandment. They understood it as a prohibition 
to pronounce aloud (even with all solemnity) the 
Sacred Name Jehovah, or rather another name of 
which we have lost the true pronunciation, and there- 
fore represent it by the name Jehovah. This com- 
mand could not be literally obeyed by Christiaa 
churches, and they have therefore given to it an in- 
terpretation which entirely fulfils its spirit though not 
its letter. 

Gesenius informs us that the ancient Jews, in read- 
ing the Scriptures, whenever the Holy Name occurred 
substituted for it the word Adonai (the Lord) : or if 
they pronounced the Sacred name, they disguised it 
by changing its vowels, and using instead the vowels 
of the word Adonai, He says (under the word mn^) 
that they did this, either following an old superstition 
or deceived by a false interpretation of Exodus xx. '^-^M 
But what reason is there to suppose that they were" 
deceived ? They doubtless knew from the tradition of 
their fathers the true meaning of the prohibition con- 
tained in that chapter. 

Now it is impossible to suppose that the religious 
doctrines of the Jews had any influence upon the 
minds of the distant Assyrians. Their religions fiys- 



I 



ON INEFFABLE NAMBIJ. 



281 



tems were too different : the Jews were Monotheists, 
the Assyrians Polytheists. 

The Jews abhorred the worship of images ; the 
Assyrians and Babylonians adored them. The As- 
syrians therefore must have received this behef, that 
the greatest of the gods had awful names which men 
dare not pronounce, from primaeval or patriarchal 
times. And if so, it must have prevailed in other 
countries likewise. In fact the Egyptians held the 
same belief. 

In ihe Todtenbuch, ch. 31, we read, "speak not 
the name of the great god/' and, doubtless, it would 
be easy to accumulate examples. I could wish there- 
fore that the learned Hebraists of the present day, 
the followers of Gesenius, would reconsider his opinion, 
that the ancient Israelites were faUd interpTetatione 
seducti. 

The passages which 1 have quoted from the sculp- 
tures are accompanied by many other remarkable 
phrases, which, when they come to be interpreted, will 
perhaps throw considerable light upon the religious 
systems of the East. 



rURTHEU REMARKS ON AN INSCRIPTION OF 
ESARH ADDON. 

I have given a translation, in Vol. VIII. Part 1 of the 
Transactions, of an inscription in. the British Museum, 
presented by Lord Aberdeen. 

1 find that I mistook the grammatical construction 
VOL. viii. u 



m2 



ASSYRIAN TRANSr.ATlONS. 



'1 



of a passage in the first column, and the correction 
of this greatly clears up the meaning I annex at 
amended translation of the passage in question. 

" Before my time, during the lifetime of the late 
King [Sennacherib], there was an outbreak of bands 
of wicked men living within the holy city. They had 
no reverence for the gods.^ Into the holy temples, 
tlie palace-dwellings of the great gods, they broke with 
violence. The gold and precious stones they dispersed 
into the land of the Susians, and melted it down for 
gain. The great chief of the gods, Marduk himself, 
they stripped of his golden crown . . . [the re;st of this 
column is lost).* 

I believe the grammatical construction to be 
follows : — 

Valianu-ifa, before me: as hvl sar maUhrie, in the 
life of the late king : Itpitrakha, there was an outbreak 
{a hithpoel form from the Heb. pns, rupit j liberavit) 
itti, of bands (compare the Latin manus, and tl 
Hebrew T, manus; robur; vires); dlilUi nisi o( mckt 
men. Here the meaning "wicked " is well established,^ 
but the pronunciation is doubtful, perhaps it is Mit^^^ 
nisi, from the Hebrew "h^^t fraudulentus, dolosuB, 
Svanna appears to be a name for Babylon, implying 
holiness: it occurs not unfrequently, but should be 
further examined. I originally translated it " that 
same," deriving il from suhu (itself), and anna (that), 

» Thta line is doubtful, tht> Etane being much broken. ^H 

* It ia strange that tbe fuith of tbc Babyloniana in tbeir idole wu 
not diminished by seeing that thcj were utterSy unuble to protect 
themselvcB from robber%. The Roman Satirist was more dear- 
fiigbted ; 

" £z quo Mara Ultor gateana quoque perdidiu «t res 
NoQ putait servare suos !" 



kis 

4 

he 
'ak 

ie<^* 




ON AN INSCttlPTlUN OF ESARIIADDON. 



283 



I 



in the same way that sitittu is composed. But 1 have 
not been able to ascertain this point. 

In line 20, I have fallen into an error in supposing 
that the lithograph required a correction. The fact is, 
that only one god is there mentioned* and not three. 
The translation should be — 

"The supreme chief of the gods, Mnrduk, they 
robbed of his crown." The word means either a golden 
crown or a golden throne. It occurs very often, but 
is expressed by a symbol which has not yet been read 
phonetically. My reading tusiJt is incorrect. 

Apparently the first act of Esarhaddon, on his ac- 
cession, was to repair to Babylon, and to repress these 
disorders. He then appears to have been solemnly 
proclaimed king [by the priests of course: but fae says 
it was by Marduk himself). 

And then there occurs a passage which may have 
some historical importance. This is at Col. II, 19, 
which ouj^ht perhaps to be translated thus:— 

" (Marduk proclaimed me as the new sovereign) ; 
and 1, Esarhaddon, undertook these public affairs, to 
restore them once more to order, with the consent 
of my elder brothers, whom thou hast given me." 

Yaati Ashur-akli-adanna assu ebshaeti sinati, ana 
ashri-sina-tarri, as lishan akhi rabbi sha tuddannima. 

The passage being a difficult one, 1 only offer the 
above translation as a suggestion, which may be veri- 
fied or disproved. 

Esarhaddon does Dot appear to have been the eldest 
son of Sennacherib ; for we read in the annals of that 
monarch (col. iv. fi3; see B.M. pi. xxxix.), *' I placed 
upon the throne of Babylon Ashur-nadan-mu, my eldest 

u 2 



984 



ASSYRIAN TRAN81-AT10NS. 



son, who was brougbt up at my knees (i. e. in my own 
house^ or under my own care : tarbit birli-ya)- Again, 
Adramraelecli and Sharezer slew their father Sen- 
nacherib, probably with the intention of usurping his 
throne; but in this they failed, "and they escaped 
into the land of Armenia/'^ Therefore all these may 
have been elder brothers (aHi rabbi) of Esarhaddon. 
Ska luddannima, whom thou hast given me. This 
seems to allude to his own name, Ashur-akb-adanna, 
i. e, " Ashur has given a brother." 

Rabbi: consult the hieratic original for this word. 

L'tshan: this letter or symbol is doubtful here. It 
much resembles ka, which on the tablets sometimes 
means "a voice:" hut whichever is the right reading 
here, I think it must mean " with the consent of" 

We frequently find the phrase, ^arrut Ashur ibusu, 
they reigned over Assyria ; therefore I translate assu. 
ehshaetlsinatit *'I have undertaken these public affairs," 
since ehshaeti and ibusu have the same root, TI?iV in 
Assyrian, "DV in Chaldee. 

After something in the nature of a civil war (perhaps 
between the brothers) alluded to at the beginning of 
Col. III. the authority of Esarhaddon became firmly 
established, and he then had leisure to punish the 
malefactors of Babylon, who had risen in rebellion 
(ana riesuti suluku, Col, IV. 30), where I think snluku 
means 'they had risen/ from Chald. p7D, to rise or 
ascend. 

These little corrections may serve to clear up this 
inscription, which deserves attentiOHi as it appears to 
contain some historical data, 



12 Kings xiz. 37. 



ANTIQUITY OF COJNED MONBY. 



285 



ON THE ANTIQUITY OF COINED MONEY. 

I resume this subject from Vol. VII. p. 169. I think 
1 can produce an argument for the antiquity of coin- 
age which has uot yet been brought forward. 

There is an inscribed stone, recently received from 
Ba!)ylon, at the British Museum, which records the 
sale of a field for the price of fil6 pieces of silver. 
The payment, howrver, wtis not made in money, but in 
merchandise. A whole liat of articles is given, with 
the value of each, beginning with a Chariot, valued at 
100 pieces of silver. The symbol wliich expresses one 
of these pieces is rather complicated. On turning to 
the great East India House inscription, we tind that 
it occurs frequently with the signification of silver. 
It is, however, rather more carefully and ornately 
drawn in the hieratic character of thai inscription, and 



is nearlv formed as follows 



In the cursive 



character it is written ^It ■<[• 

Now, it may be considered certain that in very an- 
cient times the Sun was denoted in these Eastern writ- 
ings by the natural hieroglyphic of a circle ; but when 
that style of writing was exchanged for the cuneiform, 
which consists of straight lines and angles only, then 
a true circle could no longer be drawn, and it was re^ 

placed by the very rude figure XTJ- . consisting of four 
oblique strokes. This was afterwards further abbre- 
viated into ^1 . in which stage all resemblance to its 
original form of a circle was finally lost. 



286 



ASSVaJAN TliAKSLATIONS- 



I 

I 



The symbols whicli signify gold and silver both com 
mence with a figure like the first of those which ! have 
reprcBented above, the origin of which is a mere mat- 
ter of conjecture. 

To ine it seems not impossible that it may have re 
presented a portion of a balance, viz. the beam wi 
one scale prejumderating. But, however this may be, 
this symbol is prefixed to both the precious metals. 
But silver is distinguished from gold by the second 

sign, namely, X^- Now, we have just seen that 

this hieroglyphic was originally a circle, and that in 
the days when the British Museum record of the sale 
of a field was written (twelfth century before Christ) it 
was employed to denote a piece of silver used for 
money. Money, therefore, was denoted in those an- 
cient days by a circle. And why should that be the 
case? 1 can imagine only one retison, viz. that the 
pieces of silver were round. But if round, is it not 
probable that they were either cast in a mould or 
struck with hammers in a mould ? For surely it 
would have passed the skill of those ancient times to 
roll the silver into sheets and cut out circular pieces ^^ 
with a punch, ^^ 

I have said that the Chariot was valued at 100 pieces 
of silver, but several of the articles are priced as low ^M 
as one piece. This again shows that they were coins, i" 
and not weighed masses of metal ; for the trouble of 
weighing one piece at a time would have been ex- 
cessive. 

The value of each article is said to be ki {i. e. equi- 
valent to) so tnany pieces of silver. This is the He- 
brew ^3, as, like as, ie. equivalent to. The price 



ANTIQUITY OF COINED MONEY. 



•287 



I 
I 



I 
I 



of each thing is given in the inscription as "so many 
silvers." The Hebrew Scriptures use the same phrase 
HD^, silver, meaning money, e. g. they sold Joseph 
to the Ishmaehtes for 20 silvers (authorized version 
has pieces of silver^ Genesis xxxvii.). And I see no 
reason to douljt that the silvers named in the British 
Museum inscription were nearly of the same value of 
those of Genesis. Thus, for iiislance, 616 of them 
form a price which might be paid for a field. And 
Ahraham gave 400 for the fietd of Macbpelah, with 
the cave thereof and the trees thereof. The ishmae 
ites gave 20 silotrs for Joseph ; and slaves (if [ trans- 
late the word rightly) are valued in the British Mu- 
seum inscription at from 15 to 50. 

These arguments, as ] think, go nearly to establish 
the great anti(|uity of coined money. I will now, in 
conclusion, add a few other remarks on this impor- 
tant newly-received Babylonian inscription. 

In examining the Hst of articles of merchandise 
there given^ my attention was arrested by the following 
item : — 

Thirty-four ( , . . ) of the value of 12 fta each, mak- 
ing in all 136 silvers. 

From this statement we find, by an easy arithmetical 
calculation, that a ha was the third part of a silver. It 
was written ^T 

The following line says : A dozen of the articles 
called (, , . ) of the value of 4 ka each, making in all 
Ifi silvers. Again the arithmetical calculation gives 
the same result, 3 /ia=\ silver. 

The number of a dozen is here expressed by " two 
with ten," like duo-decim in Latin, — that is, if I cor- 
rectly interpret the symbol as ^b to be the usual 



288 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



preposition as (with). But tbis seems to follow f 
the correct result of the arithmetical computation. 

It is singular that the purchaser of this field could 
not effect the payment of eg moderate a sum as GlS^H 
silvers in specJCj but was obliged to pay in luerchan-^^ 
disc* 1 am unable to identify several of the articles 
which he offered in barter, but some of them may, 
think, be thus enumerated. 

A chariot with its appurtenances [adi tihuti] w: 
worth 100 nlver/t. I believe liku is to drive^ e. 
Sar la tihu pani makhri-ya, " no king before me eve; 
drove into that region." 

Pa seems to mean a $l(iBe (related perhaps to paia, 
a servant), and shal kappa seema to mean a female 
slave, — perhaps from the ileb, root nD^, domuit, 
subegit (Ges.) . , . If so, we have next — 

1 slave of the tribes of the West, value 30 silvers, 

2 female slaves of the West, together 50 silvers. 
6 female slaves of the tribes of the East, togethe 

300 silverg. 

I slave of the tribes of the iXorth, 15 ailvers* 
Then we come to a numerous assortment of pieces 
of clolh ; for which the term is ku, which occurs fre- 
quently in Ashurakhbal's inscriptions, as hi thibhulti, 
dyed cloths, etc. I think it not impossible that it may 
be the Greek word «&>, a fleece (nom. Kiur). In this 
inscription a piece of cloth of the common sort is only 
valued at one silver ; and a better kind at two. But the 
ku kamanu is valued at aix silvers, which makes me 
think that kamanu may have been a colloquial expres 
sion for artfamanu, or scarlet^ Heb. TDiflN. Of thi 
word Gesenius says: Origo incerta. But suppose for 
a moment that the term employed in the inscrip- 




ANTIQUITY OF COINED MONEY. 



289 



I 

I 



I 



I 



tion, katiianu, was tbe true ancient name (or scarlet ; 
then nothing would be simpler than the etymology of 
aryamanu, from the Hebrew arg^ r\H^ cloth^ or a 
woven web, and kamanu, scarlet. Kamantt, in geo- 
graphy, was an important district of Syria, in the vici- 
nity of Mount Hermon, and often named in these in- 
scriptions. Did it give its name to this kind of Tyrian 
purple? There is also an extraordinary resemblance, 
which can hardly he accidental, between the name of 
Mount Carmel, T'D'i:!, and TOID, carmil, scarlet. 

The cloth called hi eli hilhi bore the same high 
value as the htt hanmnu, t therefore think its name 
meant cloth covered with embroidery, from eli (over), 
hillu (splendour^ royalty, etc.)) or it may mean dyed 
in a pattern, from hilUt, to stain. 

The inferior cloth, which was worth only one silver, is 
called ku arm. This, I have no doubt, is the Chaldee 
word yiM, firo, inferior. For instance, in Daniel ii. 
39: Post te surget aliud regnum, tuo inferius {arro 
men ka) "f^Q V1N- 

With respect to the passage from Sargon's cylinder, 
which I originally brought forward (see Vol. Vll. p. 169 
of the Transactions^, I am disposed to agree with Sir 
H. Rnwiinson, that its meaning is different from what 
I conjectured. 1 supposed it to relate to the inha- 
bitants of Nineveh, but it appears to refer to the city 
of Dur-Sargina, which Sargina founded a few miles 
from Nineveh, on a spot previously occupied by a 
small villaj^e which is named on his cylinder It was 

I necessary to remove the inhabitants of this village and 
take possession of their lands, which Sargina says he 

■ did with justice and clemency. 

H I may here refer to the lirst volume, new series, of 



290 



ASSYRIAN rnANSLATIONS. 



the Journal ol the Royal Asiatic Society, p. 208, wbere< 
the reader will find Sir H. Rawlinson's trandation. 

1 think 1 am able to confirm the view he takes of 
this niatterj hy offering a new transhition of one of the 
lines, which clears up the sense very materially- I 
refer to the phrase at the beginning of line 42 ; Assu 
riki-aii la rusie ; which probably signifies " I made 
removals which were not unjust/^and then, nearly as 
Sir H. R. translates it, " to those who did not wish for 
tnoney I offered lands in exchange." " Not unjust" 
of course means " very just." This mode of speak- i 
\xi^ is frequent : thus Nebuchadnezzar says in his in- H 
scriptions " a building which was not mean," i. e. wss 



a noble one : " an expense which was no* atinied,'* i e. ^ 
which was lavish. ™ 

So in the New Testament, St. Paul says,*' I am the , 
citizen of no mean city." ^H 

Now, in order to justify this new translation, I will ^ 
observe that rikkatl may mean compnlsory reitCovalst 
because Gesenius says that pTn, the Hiphil o( the 
verb pm, signifies (o remove a person or thing to 
another place, generally to a distant place. 

Indeed, this verb, pm, has Jong been known to be 
exceedingly common in Assyrian, where it is generally 
written rukku,a9,ana rukku innahit, he fled to a distance; 
ashar rukku, a distant place. But once at least, if not 
oftener, I have found it written rikku in the inscrip- 
tions. And the Chaldee has the vowel i in this word, 
p^rn^ in Ezra vi. 6,'* be ye far removed from that place." 

Mvsie may signify unjust, because the Hebrew iTZn 
has decidedly the meaning of injufitus^ for instance 
y^l ^31N0, unjust balances. 

Jssu is probably "1 madir;" from TTC^^, fecit. 



ANTrQUlTY OF COINHI> MONEY. 



2Bt 



!t will be well now to reproduce the passage of the 
cylinder (lines 40, 41, 42), and give a traiisitition of it. 
After mentioning various particulars^ soTiae of wliich 
are not easy to be understood, Sart^ina says of hisi newly 
founded city, " And I gave a name to it, like unto my 
own name." 

[40] Kima zigir mmi-ya sha ana nassariAH u 
mwhari-su,.'iutiskur la likki la kiibaiin simbu innilli Rabi: 

[41] Kaship ekilut ir skasu, ki pi dippati sha 
ymnanu-s'H, kmpa u tuJcahar ann helni-snn utaru. 

[42] Assu rikkuti la rujiie. Shu hiship ekil la tsibitt 
eHl mUkar^ eA-ii akhar^ panu-suti nttan ^unuti. 

In order to explain this, we must first premise that 
the king, having recounted his numerous victories in 
the tirst thirty-nine lines of the inscription, then con- 
tinues to the following effect : " But not only have I 
won glory in war ; my civil administration has been 
equally prosperous." Then he gives instances of his 
care for the welfare of the citizens. 

The name Sargina, and its probable meaning, have 
been a subject of speculation to modern scholars. 
That the first syllable, sar^ means king, all are agreedj 
but of the remainder of the name different etymologies 
have been proposed. 

Most unexpectedly, however, we learn from the 
king himself in this passage what was the meaning of 
his name. It meant "the guardian king;" or, ex- 
pressed more at length, the king who was the benefi- 
cent protector of his people. 

Light being thus thrown upon the name it is easy 
to perceive its derivation, which is from the Hebrew 
verb gina, p or ]3:i, protexit. For Gesenius says that 
this verb is used " nbique dc Deo homines protegente,'^ 



292 



ABSYRtAN TRANSLATIONS. 



and Sargon affected to be almost a deity, for he calls 
himself elsewhere, I thick, the incarnation of Beh 
The verb gina was therefore the most exalted which 
he could use as expressive of beneficence. 

I owe to Mr. Oppert, in a letter, the suggestion that 
Sargina, in line 40, is explaining his name. It will 
make the sense clearer to place the text and transla- 
tion in parallel columns. 



Kima zigir sumi-ya 
nassarikti 



sha ana 
misbari-su 



sutisbur 

la likhi, !a kabalin 

eiinbu inni ili rabi 



As is the signification 
of my name, 

which (rum its [tnenn- 
ing of] guardian care, and 
j ustice, 

and protection 

of the un warli ke and 
the peaceful, 

the great gods have af- 
fixed to me. 



Here it may be remarked> that Sargina wag a 
usurper, and his original name was quite different. 
When he mounted the throne a new name was coa- 
ferred upon him, and probahJy by the priests with 
solemn ceremony. He could therefore say with some 
truth that it was given to him by the gods. 

Nassarikti, from ^23, custqdivit — a verb usually de- 
noting the protection afforded by gods to men. Hence 
is derived, according to most authorities, the syllable 
ussvry which terminates many regal names, as Bel-sar- 
usaur, Nabo-Uudur-ussur, etc. 

From the root *i!ii, nassar, came a secondary root 
^"22, nassarik, having a more exalted signification; 
and thence the substantive nassariAti. So from the 



ANTIQUITY OF COINED MONEY. 



393 



the root IDD or I'lya, Geseniue shows tliat thei'e arose 
an intensive semi-Persian form "yWZ, the idol Nisroch. 

Miahari, from "1U?\ Justus^ rectus. 

Simbu inni, adjunxermnt milii. So in the Khammu- 
rabi inscription ana sumbu signifies conjointly. In 
that passage the king says, " I called it the Tower of 
Marduk and Ri, givine; it the aames of those two 
deities {ana sumbu) conjointly.'^ 

Kaship ekilut ir shasu^ The price of the lands 

in that city, 
ki pi dippati according to the words 

(or testimony) of the tablets 
sha yamanu sii, which certified them, 

kaspa u takabar in silver and copper 

ana belni-sun utaru. I paid to their owners. 



EHl has been determined by Sir II. Rawlinson, by 
whose remarks 1 have i>een chiefly guided in the last two 

lines, to be the Assyrian pronunciation of 

which appears to be a Proto-ChaldEean word, signify- 
ing a field or place, 

Yamanu, from Heb. pM, fidem fecit ; fulcivit ; fir- 
mavit. 

Utaru, I paid ; from Heb. natar, inJ, solvit. I have 
found this verb, used for " payment," in several inscrip- 
tions. For instance, in one of Botta's inscriptions, 
the king of Ashdod resolves to rebel against Sargina. 
The words are : Ana la natar bilti lib-su ikbutu. " He 
hardened his heart (i. e. obstinately resolved) not to 
paj/ tribute any longer." See M. Oppert's ' Grande 
Inscription du Palais de Khorsabad," line 90, whose 
version differs a little from mine. 



294 



ASSYRIAN TRANSLATIONS. 



Ajssu rikltati la rusie. 



Sha kaship ekil la tsibu, 

ekil mikhar, ekil akhar 
panu-sun attan sunuti. 



I made removals wbich 
were not unjust^ 

Those who did not wish 
for the price of their land 
{in money), 

land in front of it, or 
land behind it 

I gave to them (in ex- 
change). 
T^'6u, they wished. I referred in my former paper 
to an inscription of Darius which clearly proves the 
meaning of this important word. It is the Chald, t^32, 
voluit^ optavit. 

AkhnT is the Heb. inM, retrb, retrorsum. 
Mikhitr, in front. Tins word is common in Assyrian, 
but I do not Hud it in Hebrew. 

Panu-sun, to them. Panu is often written /T>— . ''• 

which appears to be nearly the same with the Hebrew 
preposition 7. 

When ^y> — or panu is prefixed to the names of 
witnesses on a tablet, it means " in the presence of." 
This is the Hebrew TVSi. The phrase '^^D 7N signifies 
" in conspectu alicujus " or " coram aiiquo." 



Additional Notes. 

The difficult lines considered at page 23 of this 
memoir, should perhaps be rendered 

Alik nigam pitassi Go Priest, and open 

babati. the gate. 

lllik nigam iptassi The Priest went and 

babati. opened the gate. 



ANTIQUITY OF COINED MONEY. 



■295 



I 



T[ie verb employed is perhaps the Semitic hittuth, to 
extend op expand, 

I remarked in p. 43 of this memoir, that the Assy- 
rians said dan for the Syriac dam ; and tan for the 
Hebrew tarn. So also they said tnnsil for tmnsily a 
pattern, resemblance^ or likeness. This is TC?Dn, 
similitudo, from the root h'^72, simiits fuit. In Sargon*6 
cylinder, line 54, we read : bit-khilanni iamfil haikal 
irtsit Kbatti : i.e. an edifice built after tkt pattern of 
the palaces of Syria. 

La ishtila (p. 40) may perhaps rather have the 
meaning of non efferat, "let him not pronounce:" for 
77D is rendered efferre by Gesenius. 

I have recently had an opportunity of inspecting in 
the British Museum the tablet K. 30, from which I 
copied the short account of a war in Syria contained 
in this Memoir. 

1 was sorry to tind, that the eiFects of time or acci- 
dent have already greatly injured it. Many words 
which are very plain in the photograpli are now with 
difficulty, if at all, legible. It is therefore fortunate 
Ihat the photograph was made, which has preserved 
fo us this little fragment of history. 



296 



ON TBB KASTERN ORIGIN OF THE NAME AND 
■ WORSHIP OF DIONYSUS, 

II H. r. TALBOT, V,r,R.B,L. 



(Rend January iStli. 1865.) 

In briugiog this subject before the Society, I think ^ 
it will be desirable, io the first place, to say a feiv^f 
words respecting the nature of the worship aQciently 
paid to Dionysus. 

The subject, indeed, is very well known to scholars, 
but as it is of a complicated nature, I wish to present 
it under one view, in order that surveying most of it4^| 
principal features at once, the reader may be able to^* 
judge whether the name and character of the god which 
I shall produce from the Assyrian sculptures has the 
connection which I suppose it to have with the Diony 
sus of the Greeks. 

The religious myth of Dionysus, and the worship 
which the Greeks and Romans paid to him, differed in 
* vast degree from that of most of the other gods. 
Their nature was believed to be comparatively simple ; 
that is to say, they presided over some one realm of 
nature, and in that one exerted almost unlimited 
power, but in other places their power was unseen, 
their influence unfelt> Thus Neptune ruled tht 



1 




ON THH EASTERN ORIGIN OF UIONVSUS. 



'J97 



and the timid 



lade offerings in his temple, 



anner i 

and invoked his favour for the coming voyage ; but 
the husbandman and the vinedresser regarded him but 
little, and i'ew, il any, meditated deeply upon his divine 
nature, or thought that he exerted any influence upon 
the souls ot* men or upon their happiness in another 
world. 

Dionysus — in Italy, and sometimes in Greece, called 
Bacchus — was regarded by the multitude as the god of 
wijie ; although this was only one, and that the least, 
of his attributes. The reason why it assumed such 
prominence in the vulgar estimation was probably on 
account of the frantic orgies ia which bis votaries 
indulged, during which they made the most copious 
libations. But in the view of the philosopher, of the 
enthusiast, of th(? deeply religious and contemplative 
mmd of the East, Dionysus was the Creator ot the 
World ; nay, be was the World itself, l^hen, again, 
he was rather to be viewed as an Emanation from the 
Creator, and as Kuler of the world, both visible and 
invisible. And as the Sun is that Being which, of all 
things visible to mortal eye, is the most glorious and 
beneficent and powerful to raise to life, therefore 
Dionysus was identified with the Sun, 

But the Sun sinks at night into the nether world, a 
region which was tenanted by the shades of the de- 
parted. Over this gloomy realm a mysterious Ruler 
was supposed to hold sway. The Greeks named him 
Uades, or AVdoneus; the Latins, Pluto ; the Egyptians, 
Osiris, And all were believed to be identical with 
Dionusus-Helios, the Ivocturnal Sun. 

But Osiris was not only the Rulei-, he was also the 
Judge of the departed souls. In the Egyptian paint- 

vol.. VIII. X 




293 



ON THE EASTERN OBIGIN OF THE 



ings we often see him silting on his throne : before h 
the Balance, in which he weighs the good actions of 
the soul white it lived ou earth, against its evil actions 
— while a Genius acts the part of a recording angel, 
and writes down on a tablet the result of the trial. 
This scene is represented on many papyri. The soul 
which had passed happily through this ordeal was theo 
said to be justified, and culled an Oilrian, that is^ 
united with Osiris, and thenceforth participating in 
his divine nature. 

Dionysus as a Judge* after death, — this was the 
myth that gave such feehngs of awe to bis worship- 
pers, and which gave origin to those secret religious 
rites which were denominated the Mysteries, in which 
things were told to the initiated, which they were pro- 
hibited, under the roost awiul threats, to divulge to the 
profane. 

But there are many more points of connection be- 
tween Osiris and Dionysus, which it would be too long 
to enumerate. The Cretan Dionysus* worshipped 
under the name of Zagreus, was torn in pieces by the 
Titans. Osiris was torn in pieces by Typhon, the 
emblem of the Evil Spirit. Penlheus, who seems to 
have been a Theban Dionysus, was torn in pieces by 
the Bacchte-Mff^nades, but the tree on which he sat 
was worshipped as if it were Dionysus himself (accord- 
ing to Pausanias), and two images of that god were 
carved out of it. 

Again, Dionysus, when an infant, was placed in an 
ark and thrown into the sea. The waves cast him ^ 
ashore on the coast of Brasiee, in Laconia ^Pausanias). ^| 
Osiris also was slain by Typhon, then enclosed in an 
ark, which was thrown into the Nile, and floated toj 



NAMr: AND WOHSHIP UF UIONVSUS. 



299 



Bylilos, in Pha:nicia. Having thus established, and 
chiefly on the authority of Creuzer, Mhich will not be 
disputed, the miittiroini and mysterious character of 
Dionysus, and especially that he was identified with 
the Sun and with Osiris-llehos in Hades, judging the 
souls of men, I proceed ta inquire into the origin of 
his name. It was very ancient, since it is found in 
Homer's Iliad, and it is important to observe that 
the name is spelt Amvvuat in Homer, and not Awwaos, 
as, for example, — 

'Os TTOTf [ia.LitOfi.evQio Atmntfttoto Ttffrjvatj etC, etc. 

Now, what was the origin ol this name ? 

To the ear of an ancient Greek, Roman, or Italian, 
hearing it for the firet time^ the name of Dionysus 
would most probably suggest the meaning of " the god 
of Nysa."^ But where was Nysa? Tlmt was just 
what nobody could tell. But when once the worship 
of the god had become popular in Greece, Nysa was 
discovered in twenty places at least, each of them 
claiming to be the only true one. In Thrace, In Caria, 
in Egypt, in Lib3'a near the liikeTritonis, in Arabia, in 
India, in Ethiopia, and probably in Lydia (according 
to Creuzer). The only just conclusion to be drawn 
from this is that Nysa existed really nowhere. It is 

' The Greek word 0eoT is ©(vs hx Calliinaciiu?, which is plulnlv 
the Latin Dcvs and liie Itwlian Dh. So 0e<i. i^^ Dea. Agnin, Ibe 
Greelts culled t^ieir suifreuie deity Ams, A(i, anti Am in Us various 

■ cases, whicli is nothJiig elsetTian the Itallqn Dio, Tlie modern Celtic 
in Brelagne has 7Vm, whence the French Dieii, though of couijiij 
equally near to Dio, The WeUh has Diim, the tJHii^krtt Dn'n and Dfo 
(aa in DeO'dara, the divine Irre, the Cetfur ; and MufiaOeo, one of the 

H great divinitiea), Moreover, the Latin Deus, through the "Xitit of the 
I LacedoMnoniEins, \a identical with Ztfs^. Therefore this holy nante 
H iraa aa univeraal as it was aeieient. 

■ X 2 



300 



ON THE EASTERN ORIGIN OF THE 



I 



true that a human warrior, king, or prophet may 
chance to be born in a very obscure village, which ever 
after becomes illustrious through him. But it is far 
otherwise with a personage fabled to be divine : there 
being no reaUty in the fact of his birth, the fabled 
place of his birth could be no other than some illus- 
trious locality. Thus Apollo was said to have been 
born at Delos ; but that was a most celebrated island , 
and temple. ^H 

We may pass, then, from the fabulous Nysa, and^^ 
seek the origin of the name elsewhere. Now, there is 
one point in which \ believe all scholars are agreed, 
namely, that the worship of Dionysus had its origin 
in the East. He was fabled to have conquered the 
Indians. His expedition IhiHier lasted three years, or, 
according to some writers, even fifty'two years (an 
allusion, probably, to the number of weeks in a year). 
His army was composed of Pans, Satyrs, and Bacchfe. 
He civilised the natives, introduced the vine, founded ^B 
towns among them, gave them laws, and left behind ^1 
him pillars and monuments. Thenceforth the grateful 
Indians worshipped him as a god. His worship was 
celebrated with frantic orgies, alien from the com- 
paratively sober and quiet rehgions, and sacred rites, 
which originated in the West. All this, I think, 
marks an originally Oriental deity. To the East, 
theO;. we should look for the origin of this name, 
and 1 therefore turn to the Assyrian inscriptions. In 
these inscriptions we meet with frequent references to 
the gods. Sometimes they are simply named, some-^i 
times they are accompanied with titles of honour^f 
or reverence, and sometimes those titles stand alone, 
and imply the name of the deity, without mention 



* 




N;\ME ANU WORSHIP OP DIONYSUS. 



301 



iiig it. Thus, when the priest in Homer prays to 
his god, KXvOt iiev ApyvpQTo^\ no reader ol Homer's 
time could fail to understand that ^oi^os AiroXkav was 
invoked. 

The titles aud epithets of the Assyrian gods would 
repay a deep and searching study. But at present I 
shall only consider the titles of the Sun. One of the 
principal of these, and which, when it occurs, often 
lakes the precedence of all otherSj i6^y5^>->-^ 

followed by nisi, which signifies men. The first letter 
is di, the second has the various values of iar, kuty 
and AA«.t. between which the choice is doubtful. I 
have been, however, in the habit of reading it Ditar 
ni^it and provisionally translating it " Ruler of men." 
It is evidently something of that sort, and is gene- 
rally followed by the title mumahir gimri, *' viewer of 
all," or '^overlooker, inspector of all" The verb 
umahir occurs frequently, and signifies " I passed in 
review.*' Mumfthir gtmri, then, implies that the Eye 
of the Sun sees all men, or perhaps all things. Other 
titles in other inscriptions imply "slayer of wicked 
men," etc. 

But of all these titles, the principal one is ^f>^ 
K->^ nisi, and the question is, How is it to be pro- 
nounced ? whether as dttar nisi, dikut nisi, or in some 
other manner? 

Much light has recently been thrown upon this 
question in an important paper by Sir H. Rawlinson^ 
printed in the ' Journal of the lloyal Asiatic Society/ 
new series, vol. L From this paper, p, 213, 1 will 
make the following extracts : — 

In the great inscription (E. 1. H, col. 4, 1. 29J, Dainu 




^J|: > »\ . ™i ■*» vcnfied br the 

fu 2I3L Bit <^ 9loDe repre- 

fn» to ^%e- Wag ^xptaioed io tbe 

ry NoL IM, br <y;^ tff ^. In 

fet ^^ aod >^-*-^ are brvketed k^etlicT, tbe 

«^P»"i«^ ^7 <T^ t^ V^ <^. 

»d tbe htlcr br >^?7T-^ dkaii, aad, in the epithets 

of tbe pidi. tbe two ■^saecm to be used indifiefeatly. 
FtOB thae npart»t rtB^oieBta of Sir H. RawUn- 

1 tbiak it IbOowe tbU <y^ >->-i^ ie probeblT to 
be read as Dmym, or rather, pcfbapB, a^ the French 
woold proocKmoe Diame, or as tho Italkns pronoaQce 
Dwaio tbe name of tbe goddess Dim. 

I bcnr refer again to this title of tbe Sun as we find 
it written in the E. I. H. instriptioD, col. 4, I. 39, 
connstio^ of three letters. (See the former voodcut of 
ibis word.) Tbe first letter is da, the second fit, and 
the third nu, or simplr n, for the abort final vowi^t is 
not always souoded. 

We have thus, I think, established two points : first, 

that the word ^[^ *- ^v sounded Dion orDayan; 
and, secondly, that it signified a Judfft, being identical 
with the Hebrew pr (a judge), which also sounded 
either dayan or dii/an. 

Having thus acquired a knowledge of the true pro- 

puncialion of the chief title of the Sun (^^p *^*^ 

lain, let us try what result follows from that know- 

leilgt? It follows thai hi& title in I he Assyrian Ian- 



NAME AND WORSHIP OF DIONYSUS. 



303 



I 



guage sounded as Dian-nisi or Driifan-nisi. Am I 
wrong in considering this name to be the Aiwvv<ros of 
the Greeks ? 

And the meaning of the title is '* Judg« of Men,'* 
respecting which point I think there can be uo differ- 
ence of opinion. 

Tiiere is a passage in the curious Michaux inscrip- 
tion, published by the Britisli Museum (new aeries^ last 
plate), which is worth noticing. After saying. May 
all sorts of evil befall the man who shall destroy this 
tablet ! it says in col, iii. 13: — 

15. Shemesh dayan labu shamie u irtsit 

IG. Lu-din zirdi su ! as paharti lizbil su ! 
May the Sun, the great Judge of heaven and earth, 
condemn him, etc. 

Here we have t]ie Hebrew verb din, pi, to judge, 
put in connection with the Sun's title dai/an, which 
still further corroborates what has been said before. 
With respect to the remainder of the line, 1 may as 
well say a few words; but should they be incorrect, 
this would in no way affect the truth of the preceding 
statements. 

Zirdi is violent death, applied to the punishment of 
a criminal. 

As paharti lizbil-su, means in Oreo, sive in Tariaro 
colhcet eum ! Pahar is the Hebrew lj?D, Orcus, sive 
Inferi; as in the remarkable passage of Igaiah, v. 14, 
where it is said that Orcus has opened his mouth 
without measure, and all the glory, pomp, and multi- 
tude of the revellers (denounced in lines 1 1, 12) shall 
descend into it. The metaphor here is very striking, 
since "lys is properly, aperuit os magno hiatu, quod est 
bestiarum sanguinolentarum (see Job xvi. 10), poetice 




304 



OK THE EASTERN ORIGIN OF TUB 



de Oreo insatiabiH. From hence cotues the name 
the idol Baal Pelior, "lys hyi {Domimis Oici)^ called 
simply lil'D, Orcus, in Numbers xxiii. 28, and some 
other texts (see Gesenius). Therefore the Hebrew 
pehoT was in Assyrian pahar. I believe this to be a 
new observation, and, should it be established, it would^j 
follow that the Sun was held to have dominion (!ike^^ 
Osiris-Dionysus) in the nether world over the eouU of 
the departed. 

Lizhil, coilocet, seems to be the optative of TOn,| 
coliocare, which is the HiphiJ of 7IT, habxtare. 

One of the most curious traditions respecting Dio- 
nysus, was that he sometimes asscmed the shape of a 
bull with a human countenance, and was then called 
Hebon. Kepresentations of this occur on coins and 
other ancient monuments of Italy. In Greece a similar 
tradition prevailed - 

Kai ravpos ijfttv 7Tpoa$£v -riyettTBat BoKits 

fcai <r/p Ktpare Kpari TrpOfT'n'eipvicevai, 

aW T[ TTOT rf<r$a Oqp ; reTavpatrai yap ovv. 

Bvrip. Bacch. 

lie is thus identified with Osiris-Apis, of the E^ptia 
mythology, a deity who, in a very ancient hieroglyphic^ 
inscription recently published by Brugsch, has the re-j 
markable epithet of " twice born," or " living twice.** 
Now, it will be remembered that one ol the epithets of 
Dionysus was Bip,7]Twp (the blmatru of Ovid). But in 
the form of" a bull with a human head, his story takes 
us back to the old times when the cities of Assyria 
flourished, among whose ruins the human-headed bull 
is frequently found. 

In Rawlinspn's 'Ancient Monarchies,' p, 1C8» a figuj 



NAME AND TpTOHSUIP OF DtONTSUS. 305 

is given of this Man-Bull > which he considers to be 
an emblem of Nin or Ninev. But Nin was identified 
in the Assyrian mythology with the Sun. 

A few additional remarks may here be made on the 
mythos of the Nocturnal Sun, as ruling over Hades, 
and judging the souls of men. 

In the Greek mythology, one of the judges of the 
infernal regions is named Rbadamanthus. 

" Gnossius haec Ithadftmaiitlius habet durisairaa regna." 

This remarkable name is clearly not of Greek origin. 
It first appears among the traditions of Crete, and the 
Cretans derived it certainly from their neighbours the 
Egyptians. I coiijeclurcd many years ago that the 
name of Rhadamanthus was the Greek mode of ex- 
pressint^ the Egyptian Rti-iUe-Amenli,^' the Sun of the 
Amenti," that is, the Sun in the infernal regions. 
For, the nether world, where Osiris reigned, was called 
in Kgypt the Amenti. 

In order to make this etymology more clear> I mii5t 
obi^erve that the Egyptians having no letter d in their 
language, supplied its place by the combination nd, 
as we see in the name of Darius, which appears jn 
the hkroglyphic inscriptions as Ntareios. Hence the 
particle nte (of) sounded nearly as de in French ; and 
the name Ra-nte- Amenti sounded Mud' amenti. But 1 
have since found this etymology in Creuzer and other 
authors, therefore I think it may be accepted as nearly 
certain. It follows from it, since Ra signiHes '* the 
sun" in Egyptian, that the Judge of the infernal re- 
gions was identified with the Sun, at any rate by the 

■ Cretan Greeks (and probably throughout Greece in 

I the celebration of the Mysteries). 



306 



UN THE EASTERN ORIGIN OF THE 



There is a very remarkable passage in the / 
of Ashurakhbal (B. M. 18, 44), where the Sun has the 
following title, Shemesh dian-nisi zalul-su khi^a^ mean- 
ing the deity *' whose flail is good.'^ Zaiul is a fla^H 
{fiagellum), derived from 771, concussit, effudit. (S^^ 
GescniusO Now this almost identities the Assyrian 
Dian-nisi with the Ea^yptian Osiris : for, it is well 
known that Osiris usually holds in his hand an emblem 
of authority, which some consider to be a flail, and 
others a whip. And the vvjstica vannits lacchi is 
be referred to the same mythology. 

Nebuchadnezzar built a temple to Dionysus in Bab] 
Ion. It is recorded in his great inscription, col. iv. 

He says : 

"Ana Shemesh dainu tsiri ... bit Dian-nm Wt-s 
in Babilu-ki in kupri u agurri shakish ebus." 

" Unto the Sun, the heavenly Judge . . . the tempi 
of Dian-nisi, his temple, in Babylon city, in bitumen 
and brick splendidly 1 btiilt." 

TI»e adverb shakish is probably from Chald. wjir, 
am plus. 

In a collection of photographs with which the ai 
thorities of the Britisli Museum kindly favoured me/ 
I have found two plates numbered 163n and 163 6 
(and also bearing in common the number 204). which 
contain a list of about forty-eight titles of the 
/[Hp ►- »■■< ■ and doubtless contained many moi 
in the part of the tablet which is lost. This 111 
seems very carefully drawn up ; the smallest variatioi 
(such as the addition of the word ralfUy great) being 
considered as a new title. The simplest of these titles 
I read as Din rrtbu, the great Judge. Others appes 
to me to have a resemblance to Adonis and ATdoneusi 



NAMK AND WORSHIP OF tJlONYSUS. 



307 



the first of which is a Hebrew word piM, Dominus, 
which word (see Gesen. 239) is also from the root 
]'n, judicare. Some titles end with tila (life), their 
beginnings being fractured or illegible. I think they 
may have meant " giver of life/' Another title is 
muddin ar rabu, which I render " Great judge of the 
earth," from the Chaldee V"lMj ora, terra. A similar 
profusion of titles was given to other ancient gods ; it 
will be sufficient to instance Isis fivpmwfw?. 

The Greek worshippers of Dionysus sometimes^ gave 
to hitn the mystical title of Saffoi, and shouted during 
the orgies Euot Sa^oi! In a list of the twelve or four- 
teen great gods of Assyria, preserved on a clay tablet 
iu the British Museum, marked 101 and 73 a, I find 
the name of Sabbi, who may possibly be the same 
with Sa^oi. He is likewise mentioned on several other 
tablets. His name is very singularly written. It con- 
sists of the numeral seven {Sab in Hebrew and Assy- 
rian), followed by the syllable hi. He may have ruled 
specially over the seven planets ; and his worship may 
have been connected with that of Jupiter Sabazius, an 
Oriental deity. 



308 



ON SOME FUNEREAL HIEROGLYPHIC INSCRIPTIONS 
FOUND AT MEMPHIS. 



ST SIR C'HilHI<B9 »lCHOLtDN, BAHT., D.C.L., LL.U. 

(Read January 4tli. 1865.) 



J 



During a short visit which 1 made to Cairo, in the 
year 1862, 1 had an opportunity of purchasing from 
Mr. Massara, the Dragouiaii of the British Consulate, 
several atelaCj fragments of sculpture^ and other incised 
stones. Amongst the latter were six blocks of lime- 
stone, each about teu inches square, and of unequal 
length, varying from sixteen to eighteen inches. The 
material out of which they are formed is a calcareous 
fitoLie of unequal density, so that whilst some portions 
are of almost 6inty hardness, and present, on being frae- 
tured, a jagged uneven surface; other poilions of the 
structure are so soft and friable as to be easily scratched 
by the finger-nail. With such an intractable material 
for working upon, the original artist has been obliged 
to supply many accidental inequalUies of the suHace 
by cement, so as to render the surface generally smooth 
and fit for the operations of the chiseL From this in- 
equality in the density and structure of the material, 
the fragments about to be described are in a somewhat 
mutilated stale, and the greater fart of their surface 
is, moreover, unfortunately covered with a thick cry^| 
taUine effervescence, the apparent result of slow dis- 
integration aided by the influence of damp. 




INSCRIPTIONS FOUND AT MEMnilS. 



303 



I 



I 



I 
I 



The fragments, when purchased, were represented by 
Mr. Massara as having been brought from Memphis, 
a statement that derives confirmation from the terms 
of the inscription they contain. No certain or reliable 
information could, however, be furnished as to the exact 
locality from whence they came. Mr, Bononii thinks 
he can almost identify them aa belonging to one of the 
several tombs excavated by the Prussian mission in the 
neighbourhood of the Great Step Pyramid of Sakara. 
He says that he distinctly recollects one such tomb 
having six square piers or columns. Tbe roof-stones 
were gone, and but little of the walls left. Mr* 
Bonomi further suggests that the fragments of only 
five of the pieces herein referred to had been preserved, 
those of the sixth having been too much mutilated to 
be considered worth the trouble of transport. 

Notwithstanding tbe eroded condition of the stones, 
the traces of sculpture left are, for the most part, deep 
and well defined, and display a style of execution not 
far removed from the best examples of ancient Egyptian 
art. Portions of the original colouring applied to the 
surface are still discernible. The outlines are given in 
deep intaglio^ and the forms of the kneeling as well as 
of the standing figures, with their flowing drapery, are 
well delineated, and are not without grace. With 
these preliminary remarks, I shall now proceed to de- 
scribe each of the fragments with somewhat more of 
detail. 

The two blocks, delineated in the lithograph plate 
). A, probably constitute only two-thirds of the whole 
of the pier to which they originally belonged, tbe upper 
block having disappeared with the roof which it sup- 
ported, The aide marked I, represents n figure kneel- 



310 



EGYPTIAN FLTNEREAL INSCRlPTrOKS 



ing on the right knee, with the hands either in me 
form of supplication or supporliug the column sur- 
mounted by the disk, and pendent vreci. The head 
is shaven, the face beardless, and the contour of the 
features of the ordinary Egyptian type. The nose is 
perhaps a liUle more arched than usual. A double 
necklace 18 worn. The dress, closely fitting round the 
waigt, is furnished with broad but short sleeves, whi^^ 
the skirl is adorned M-ith a broad band or flounce. 
The inscription commencing above the left hand of 
the figure is continued to the opposite side» and con- 
veys a simple intimation of the name, family, and pro- 
fession of the person it commemorates. The central 
line, that above the head, is separate and distinct from 
the two lateral inscriptions. Commencing with tl 
latter, we have as follows : — 



Asar na n Ptnh MeS machru sel na 

Osiris (vel Oairianua) Bcrilia Flali Mes jnstificatus filiua aciilKe = 

— pa-hat n Pta Hid machru 
^ donius alhfe Toif Fcah Kiii justlficati. 

Tlie Ostrian Bcribe of tlie God Ptah, MeS, the Bon of Oni, 
&cribe {or clerkj of tbe white house (or temple) of Plah jus-^ij 
tiSed (deceased). ^^M 



1 

!CiilKe= 



The symbols engraved on the centre column above 
the head of the figure would, in compliance with the 
form of construction hitherto employed, be regarded 
as merely intimating the fact, that an olfering is made 
to some special divinity to whom Ihe ordinary titular 
appendages to which he is entitled are assigned, and 
not Its any part of an express liturgical invocati 
My friend Mr. Goodwin gives a new, and as I w 
some diffidence venture to think, more appropria 



inu 

I 

ate" 




FOUND AT MEMPHIS. 



311 



explanation of this oft-recurring formula. Instead of 
"Suten-ta-hotep " being "regia oblatio," " piuni mu- 
nus dedicatum," or any equivalent term relating to a 
religious offering, he regards it as a verbal form of 
some such word as " propitio," and instead of the 
readin.2; of the passage in question being a royal ob- 
lation to Talannen, his interpretation would be, " May 
the God Tatannen be propitious/' as equivalent to the 
old Roman form of supplication, " Mars pater te precor 
quffisoque uti sies volens propitius mihi, domo, fanii- 

^liQeque nostrae," or thepropitietur of ourChristian tomb- 
stones: "Cujus animse propitietur Dens,'* 



8uten-ta-liotep Tatannen Ur em aebt 
Propitius sit Tatannen qai prteest tol; muna. 



I 
I 



Tatannen, a synonym of the tutelary god of Memphis^ 
is here designated Ur, the elder or Lord, and this 
title is regarded by Mr. Goodwin as the equivalent of 
Sem m Sebt, mentioned in Brugsch^s ' Geographic,' 
vol. i. p. 235, fig. 1095, 

Plate I. A., Compartments 2 and 3. — In each division, 
we have the entire figure of a man standing erect with 
the hands raised in the attitude of supplication; that 
in compartment 2 has the head shaven, whilst in the 
next division 3, the hair or a wig is worn. In the 
horizontal lines immediately above, we have a re|)eti- 
tion of the titles contained in the inscription just re- 
ferred to, except that MeS, instead of being simply 
designated " na tn Ptah," priest or scribe of Ptah, is 
here represented as filling the office of his father, he is 
na pa hat^ scribe, priest, or treasurer of the temple 
(domus argentere)of Ptah. The figure below is probably 
intended as a portrait of Hui deceased, as the two lost 




312 



EGYPTIAN FUNEREAL INSCEt [^[ONS 



Ol 

1 



signs with the determinative of his name, are distiactljr 
legible in front of the tigure : — 

Asar na pa hat n Ptah MeS 

OAirianuH ecriba (thesaQrariu5)domu!i ar^enteie roS Ptah Mes 

= em-hotep tnachru 

^ in piLce jusliEicatus. 

The vertical tines in the second compartment A, a 
only (Vaginentary, and are the concluding portions of 
inscriptions commencing in the superimposed stone 
that Is wanting. Beginning with the first column on 
the left, we have the characteristic sign of Memphis, 
doubtlessly the sequence to an eDumeralion of some of 
the offices of the defunct, 

. . . Sebt hat MeS machru m hute 

. . . FrsposituB regiani MeniphiticK Mea ji]9Cificatu& in pace. 

In the succeeding column we have what seems to be^ 

a fragment of an address to the Sun ; the name of 

Maneen, a region of E. Thebes, occurs, and alkiding t 

tlie diurna] course of the sun it may be read — 

Manecn t en 

Mancent {regioneui) qui circumamljulat. 

And in continuation of the same hymn in the ne 
line — 

r MST n ha nev h r 

qui facit (in ortu suo) renatuzn esse : in diebus singulis progreditur. 

The last line in the compartment may be regarded 
as the conclusion of the invocation. 

Ha f ta k m hotep 

tempore ejua prOgrcBSU* CS in pace. 

1. Presiding over the Memphitic nome Mes justified tn peawT 
y. He who journcyeth through Maneen, 

3. Who causeth him lobe regenerate. who daybjrdaygoethifartli: 

4. In hie day thou hast departed in peace* 





FOUND AT MEMPHIS. 



313 



Passing over the first column of the third compart- 
ment, which merely contains, with tiresome tautology, 
a repetition of titles and offices, we proceed to the re- 
maining fragments, in which we have, according to the 
opinion of Mr. Birch, what seems to be a quotation 
or paraplirastic transcription from the ' Book of the 
Dead.* It i-i difficult to collect the sense of these dis- 
jointed passages, from the absence of the context, each 
column being a continuation of a missing portion. 



Line 2 



Neteriu nev rn chu user t 

Dii omnes cum poleatate et facultote, 



Line 3 



Sen) .... m 11 .s 

qui ducit (et imago eat) domo (?), 



Line 4 



Ta m aa sent 

(e) TerrA io mogno terrore. 

AU the Gods, with power and knowledge. 
Who leadeth forth . . . . iu the bouse. 
From the land in great terror. 

In the remaining fourth compartment there is pro- 
bably an error in the hieroglyphic symbol succeeding 
the name of Ptah, and which instead of being k should 
be new, so that the designation of the god would be 
"Lord of Truth." The centre inscription, though 
partly effaced, may he read as follows:— 

Suten hotep Ptah mes-enti Tannen = 

Fropitms bit Ftah qui natus eiit in loco ditto TanneD = 

— nev huhu tt 

= Dominus in sajcuUfi. 

May I'tah he propitiims ; be wbo Was born in the land of 
Tutipqp ; Lord for cverlnstiflg, 
VOL. VIII. Y 



314 



£0YPT1AN FUMEREAL INSCRIPTIONS 



In the block marked B, we have again to regrei tti€ 
absence of the upper division, and the consequent im- 
perfection of the lines inscribed on the second and^ 
fourth compartments. On the side 1, is a dedicatoi 
inscription to Osiris — 

Sutn hotep Asar iiev Rusett (Rosta) =; 

Propitiua sit OBiris Domious terrrc cui nomcn llosett ^= 
= neter aa auten anchu 
= DeuB magnuB Rex viventium. 

May Osiria, Lord of RosBett (or Rosta), king of the Hving^ 

be propldotLs. 

Compartment 2, Col 1. — We have here designated 
with greater precision than formerly the several offio 
filled by Mes or by his father. 



Asar na hcsbn hat nub nub n Neter 

OsirianuB scriba (thesaararius) argenti (et) auri (rot) Dti Ra. 

The Ofiiriau cterk or registrar of the silver and gold of the 
Gad Ra. 



3 
I 



The two succeeding columns appear to be portions 
of the ritual of the ' Book of the Dead' (chap. xv. plate 
V. 33, Todtenbuch), and forming part of the invo 
tion to the Sun. 

... Ra r neteriu nev ;^aa m » . . 
Ave ! Sol maxime Deorum orient e (ctxlis) 
Hail, Siui, greatest amocgat the Gode, ariung- in the heaf' 

Nearly the whole of the remaining portions seenl 
hopelessly undecipherable ; the fourth column, it may 
be, containing a portion of the fifteenth chapter of the 
' Book of the Dead * (Todtenbuch, pi. iv. col. 7). The 
horizontal lines above the figure seem to form a part 
of the adjuration uttered by the defunct. 





FOUND AT HAMFHia. 315 

Nnti hu an « « « 

Ta qui sempiterDus (cs)^ per ^ . . 

Tboa who art styled the cvcrlasLing, by ... 

Compartment 3 {PL B.) presents a few variations of 
terms previously employed. New hoaoriiic titles are 
applied to the divinity ; he is — 

Nev Neter Neter &a iri t p ta 

Dotninus Deufi Deus magTiua creator coeli et terrse. 
The Lord God, the great God, creator of tteaveti and earth. 

Whilst the deceased scribe, Mes, is designated keeper 
of the Treasury of the Lord of Truth. 
Compartment 4 (B). — 

En Asar na ii Ptah Mes Macliru. 

Iiivocatue est ab Oainano scribfl (toD) Plah Me* justificato. 

Khu ouaer p t . . .= 

Gloria (ad Solem) qui preevalet in coclis ct =^ 
=: hr p hu 

=. progreditur ab horizonte. 

U keper ast r n U naa 

Transformationes multaa ct nomina cnpil: lEla. 

He is adjured by the Oeirian scribe of Ptah, by Mee the jm- 
tJEed, 

Glory to the Sun, who prevaileth in the heaveuB and goeth 
forth from the horizon. 

She BEBumiog many traiiBfgrniations aitd [jiimea^ 

It is difficult to make any definite meaning from the 
remaining portion of the block. The line last quoted 
refers to some unspecified female divinity. 

Plate III. C, Compartjiient 1. — In the first column, 
on the right, we find Mes represented as filling a sepa- 
rate office from any hitherto mentioned ; he is here 
designated, — 

¥2 



S16 



EGYPTIAN FUNBRBAL INSCRIPTIONS 



na hesbn neter Kotep n neviu = 

The^Eiumriua teirsc Diis sacratce ruv DominDrum == 

= sebt 

= mcenium alboriim. 
Clerk or treasurer of the glebe lands of the lords of the 
white walU. 

In the centre line, the great tutelary god of Mem- 
phis ie invoked with additional titles of honour ; he is 
addressed as — 

Ptah && pehti bar as ur = 

Ptuh ma^nua glonQBiasimuSj, et dominus BedJs magnse,^: 

=: neter irl m ka 

^ Deus factuB et facieaa ab initio. 

Ptah Omnipotent^ most glorious, presiding in the sacred balU. 
God created and creating from the begiuning. 

Compartment 2, transverse line. — We are told thai 
the subject of this elaborate record was not only 
" treasurer or accountant of the glebe lands," aa pre- 
viously specified, but that he exercised a similar office 
with respect to the lands of the " Lords of the White 
Walls/' 

In Compartment 3, beginning from the first colunrn 
on the right, we have disjointed fragments, derived from 
liturgical forms connected with the worship of Ra. 

Ao f Ra m 

Adorat ilk Ha rum. 

T&m hr m ta-ti 

Tarn DominuB duoruni horlzontum. 

Rampa t m Atin 



Infane factus 



di&co 9oIari 



He adores the eiui with . . , 
Tam, lord of ihe two horiyooB^ 
Born with the *olar disk. 



FOUND AT MEMPHIS. 



317 



Compartment 4. — In the column to the right there 
is an intimation that, added to all his other employ- 
ments, Mes was not only clerk and treasurer, but ac- 
countant of the measures of silver and gold ; the de- 
terminative of "measure" is given as qualifying the 
sign "hesbn," clerk. In the centre column Ptah is 
adored as — 

T&ta as ner anch ta Neter aa ^ 
Tula illuQtris dominus teiriD vivificantU DeU:& magnua = 
= nev ma 

== Dominus veritaEie. 

Tata the iUuetriou^, brd qf the living: land, gr<i$,K God. 
Lord qf Truth. 

Plate IV. D. and E> — The blocks here delineated 
belong to different piers, the upper portions contain- 
ing figures alternately standing and kneeling on the 
right and left knee. In compartment 3, appended to 
the usual term machru, "justified/' we have the em 
hotep,'-* in peace." Mr. Goodwin remarks that the 
Coptic writers in subscription constantly use the Greek 
eifyrjvti (^). The banishment of this common Egj'p- 
tian word, hotep, and the substitution of eiprjw^, is re- 
markable; it may have been the result of some religious 
objection to a form of heathendom. 

Id the centre compartment of No. 1, we have^ — 

At neteriu retu m kam n f 

Creator Deonim hominumque, qaaodo crcavit ille. 
Who, in creatiag', made both Goda and nien4. 

Compartment 3.— Centre line: 

Chenti Taianen neb ma Suten tati 
Habitan& Tannen dominaa veritatis Rex terrarum duBnim = 
= (i*Egypti eui>erioria el inferiaris). 



318 



EOyPTIAN PUNBKBAL INSCKIFTIONS 



In the line to the left, we are finally told that amongst 
the multifarioua employments oi Mes was that of — 

rut men em ha Ptah. 

rcnovnna cjua; Bculpta sunt in doiuo Ptah. 

EntruBted with the repairs of the eacred carviogs in tlic 
Temple of Rah. 

Notwithstanding the fragmentary and disjointed 
character of the foregoing inscriptions, and their ex- 
hibiting so much of the wearisome and pleonastic tau- 
tology, characteristic of nearly all similar records, they 
nevertheless furni&li materials for inquiry and specula- 
tion. The name of Mes in an uncoinpounded form ; 
the office and functions discharged in succession by 
him and his father, together with the locality in which 
they resided, are all interesting points. The affinity, if 
not absolute identity of the name Mes, as found in 
these monumental inscriptions, with the name borne 
by the Hebrew Moses, lends to them additional import- 
ance. I am under especial obligation to my friend 
Mi'. C. AV. Goodwin, for his critical views on the ety- 
mology, inflections and combinations of the word Mes, 
mid 1 shall, in the subsequent remarks which I am 
about to oHer, avail myself largely of the notes with 
which he has kindly furnished me. 

The word MeS ^p signifies to bring forth, corre- 
sponding with the Coptic Uec, natus^ nasci, parere. 
It is also sometimes, but less frequently, employed as 
conveying the idea ' to beget/ We have in the Coptic 
ihc following forms of tlje root : — 

U^c, pullus, infans, gigni. 
UiC€, natus, K^neratus. 




rOUND AT HEMPma. 

Ulci, puerperium. 
U|.£JLLici, priniogcnitus. 
Uoci, veotrem gerere. 
UeciA., obstetrix. 
UA.ce, vitulus. 



3L9 



mesu, or lJS((Virr7/fi ^riesi, to bring 



Tbe Egyptian forms are as follows : — 

forth. 

m P V mes, calves. 

The root enters into the composition of many royal 
names, beginning with the 18th Dynasty, It is true 
that the first two kings of the ]2th Dynasty, Amen- 
emha I. and Uaersen I., iiave the honorific titles of 

ifni" "^™ mesu, and ■¥• fR^? anch niesu, respec- 
tively, but these words are differently compounded 
from the names of the iBth Dynasty. 

The first of these is ^^ffjpN A-ha-mes, and amongst 
his family we find "^Tl fRP Ouat-mes (masc), i ****** ffifl 

Amen-mes(mascO,^|Jj|' i^a-nifis (mascO, and M ffj 
Ka-mes (fem.)^ The name of Thothmea is written 
^V f|[Vj Tet-mes ; and we find also two princes, one 

bearing the name of 'Sff^-flL ^^-"^^^j ^'^^ other that 
p( ^*==^i\\{t]\^ Meriu-mes, and at a later period 
we have a prince simply fJ|P Mes. 



330 



EGYPTIAN FUNEHKAh INSCRIPTIONS 



Jn all these names the verb |Hp enters into the com- 
pound in its simple form, without addition of a vowel 
or inflection of any kind, and this is observed in the 
hieratic transcriptions, which are usually profdse of 
vowels, and often supply them where the hieroglyphic 
text omits them. The names are therefore differently 
formed from the titles of the two 12th Dynasty kin^s, 

^/fSY (written also ^ fj^?) and ^/fj^* {written 

also-S-zn ; \. The first of these words, nem-mesu, 

means "reduplicating births/* the other, anch-mesu, 
means " life of births.'* (See Chabas, 'Melanges jftgypto- 
logiques/ 2od series, p. 62.) Some light is thrown 
upon these epitliets by a passage in the Berlin papyrus 
No, I. It is therein said of Oserseseu 1. thnt ever 
since his birth, his countenance multiplied births (or 
conceptions), viz., his eye was supposed to have the 
power of niaking women fruitful. 

In the names of the kings of the 1 8th Dynasty and 
(heir families, the verb ^p seems to be in regimen; 

thus, '^^fliP aba-mes, the moon begot ^CfRP 

Tela-mes, Thoth begot, Offip ra-raes, the sun begot> 

and in '^^^■^^[VftlP "leriu-mes, the beloved begot, 
whilst in the simple jj^P the meaning is " he begot," 
leaving the name of the deity uncertain. 

When we arrive at the first Rameses, a change 

takes place. Rameses L is named (OfRP^^jDI 
ra-ines-su. The pronoun su having been added, the 
is therefore " Ra begot him." The name of 
Raincscs II. is spelt in the same way, with the 

vnrintion of |I instead of J^y i'l some cases. Thus 



FOUND AT MEMPHIS. 



321 



(^ 



ra-mes-s. The same modes of spelling are 

used Tor all the Ramessides of the 20th Dynasty. We 
have therefore two distinct classes of names, and we find 
that Manetho baa transcribed them in different ways. 

Thus (^^^ and (S^^ Ah-mes and Tetiaes, he 
changes iuto Afia)a-t?,TovOfi'Coa-is or Tefffiotn^^ wherein the 
Jl^P is equivalent to Moto-t*, -eeov. On the other hand. 

^ffiT^S^ is translated Pa>reffcrijs (with variations, 

PafiEffTis, Pa;iyfrr}?, and in the LXX. -Pn^cffd^). It follows 

that the name of Prince ^ffjpjj in the beginning of 

the 18th Dynasty would be lianscribed Pa/iwffir, and 
bence an additional argument is supplied for the futi- 
lity of the suggestion that the city or land of Pa^so-iu; 
was named after this earlier prince, for in that case it 
would have been called the city of Pa^ia}tjif. 

The Hebrew transcription of (offiP^^J ra-mes-sa 
is Dp&yi, ra-mes-scs. 

Here DDD answers exactly to /Rp^J- ^^' fflPP 
It might perhaps be inferred that the name /fin would 
be transcribed 0^ Mes, but we have seen that Manetho 
turns n\n into MuKns^ hence perhaps originally in 
Hebrew it might be transcribed 0T2, Mos. In the 
older forms of the Hebrew language, Samech and Shin 
were not distinguished ; in later times l^t Shin, was 
marked with a diacritical point on the right side, to 
give it the sound of sh, with one on the left, U?, to in- 
dicate that the old sound, s, was retained. Now the 
inference seems unavoidable, that the author of Exodus 
must have modified the name a little, to give it a 



322 



EGYPTIAN FUNEREAL INSCRIPTJONS 



Hebrew etymology. The Egyptian princess who found 
Moaes called his name H^O, Moshi, because, she 
says, 1 drew him (^nn*£i't) moshithiu) out of the water. 
The daughter of Pharaoh talks Hebrew, and uses the 
Hebrew word I^K'D, masha, to draw out, but it i& evi- 
deat that there has been an adaptation of the name. 
If tlie name of Moses be really Egyptian, it most pro- 
bably was ffip the same with that of the prince Mcs 

of the Uamesses family (477 in the Konigsbuch), with 
that of Mes, the son of Hui the scribe, treasury clerk 
of Ptah, at Memphis. The LXX. and Josephus con- 
vert HE^D into Mwuffi/s. The Vulgate follows the LXX. 
and writes Moyses, and hence the French Moise. We 
have by accident preserved the classical reading Moses.' 
Juvenal, Pliny, and Strabo have Moses, T'acitus Moyses. 
The name of Hui may not have been uncommon, 
for we find it bonie by a prince of Kush in the 18th 
Dynasty, — contemporaneously > as it would appear, with 

princes designated 7/!)^ Mi mes, and 7'=>^|^f[)P 

Meriu-mes. (Konigsbuch, taf. xxviii. and xxx., fig. 
382, 383. 408.) 

^ Josepbufl (Antiq. Jad, lib. il. cap, ix. 6) gives a different eiyinq- 

logy from that assig-ned in Exodas, anil one which, though faociful, 
implicB some knowledge on hie part of the actual lauguage of Egypt. 

K«t' nynp r^ hrtKXrjtrtv Tavnjv Kara TO avfX^t^jjKo^ Wtro tU tw 
iTOTa/iic (ftTTftrovTi, Ty yip vlWp ^tu oi A.tyvjmot Kokotitriv, virrf^ St 
Tov<; (if vActTos) {Ti^iOivTai, ^vf^^eyns ovv cf ofit^ortfHav t^v trpotniyopiav 
avTu ravnjv Tl0€VTat. 

According to this derivation of the Jewish historian, fttif is proba- 
bly taken as the equivalent of mak (Copt. Uo^J ojua, whilst some 

word allied to '3^ J^T^ ' ^^'^ *^ ^^* ™*'y '^"''^ suggested the 
element for the second eyllable, vttTp. 



FOtlND AT M^MfHlS. 



323 



As the name of no contemporary king is given in 
any part of the inscription which we have just been 
considering, it ie, of course, impossible to do more 
than arrive at an approximation as to the period when 
Hui and his son Mes hved. It may he observed that 
the popular use of names belonging to persons of 
princely rank often affords a satisfactory clue as to 
dates. Thus the fact, that individuals in the lower 
grades of life had been designated Victoria, Albert, or 
Alexandra, would in times to come, and in the ab- 
sence of other data, afford a strong negative presump- 
tion, that the epoch during which they lived did not 
at all events precede that of the august persons whose 
names they had adopted, It may therefore be assumed, 
as a matter ahnost of certainty, that Mes did not live 
before the end of the iSth or beginning of the 19th 
Dynasty, during which period the designations he and 
his father assumed had become fashionable, from their 
association with the vocabulary of royal names. The 
probabihty is, that the period in which they lived, was 
during or soon after that of the Ramessides. 

The hieroglyphic determinative of the name of 
Memphis, as the City of the White Walls, is a cnrious 
illustration of the remote antiquity of the synonym^ and 
of its perpetuation, up to the period when intercourse 
was established with Greece, It affords an incidental 
proof of the fidelity with which Herodotus framed his 
narrative, that he should have spoken of the \€vkov 
T€ixos, and in so doing, literally translated one of the 
vernacular names, by which the citadel of Memphis 
was known to those Egyptians with whom he con- 
versed. 

Mes, as well as his father and his immediate pre- 



324 



EGYPTIAN FUNEREAU INSCRIPTIONS 



decessor in some, if not all the offices he held, tnl 
have been a pluralist in the real sense of the word ; and 
from the elaborate and costly character of his tomb 
must hare been a man of fortune. His multifarious 
duties were those of scribe, treasurer, or steward of the 
lands belonging to the gods of the temple, as well as of 
those of the " Lords of the White Wall." He seems 
to have exercised the calling of a surveyor, in being 
specially entrusted with the sacred carvings. As na 
hesbn hat nuh en nab ma, registrar of the silver and gold 
of the "Lord of Truth/' his position must have been 
one of great dignity as well as responsibility. He had, 
moreover, not only charge of the treasury and re- 
venues belonging to the temple, of the funds specially 
dedicated to its service, but also of the glebe lands 
attached to it, and irom which the othciating priests 
may have been supported. ^H 

The precedence given to silver in the enumeration 
of the precious metals is in conformity with what we 
notice in the Bible. Of silver and gold, the former 
was perhaps the more higiily esteemed of the two. 
Its hieroglyphic designation of nub hat, " white gold," 
clearly implies that its discovery must have been 
subsequent to that of gold, nub.^ Such a fact might 
almost have been assumed, a priori, from the pecu- 
liar character of gold as contradistinguished from 
silver, and indeed from all the metals with which 
the ancients were acquainted. Gold, in its native 
state, is alone found unoxidized and unaffected by any 
alloy it may have of baser metal, so far as regards its 



' In the sEime way, llic dcsignntioii of quicVsitver, with us, implies 
tiiat tbe discovery of mercury muat have followed tbat of silver. 




FOUND AT MEMPHIS. 325 

general appearance and characteristics, whereas silver 
and the other metals are almost invariably found in a 
state of oxidation or combined with other mineral sub- 
stances rendering their recognition difficult. There is 
therefore the strongest presumption that gold was the 
first metal with which mankind became acquainted. 
The reduction of silver ores is only effected by a 
tedious mechanical process, and implies a considerable 
degree of knowledge in chemistry and metallurgy, arts 
which no doubt the Egyptians possessed and practised 
from a period coeval with their earliest monuments. 



326 



XIV.— ON THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 



DT D. W. NASH. P.S.A.. H.R.8.L. 



(Read May 3rd, 1845.) 

The inscriptions in the old Gaulish tongue hitherto 
discovered are few in number and scanty in materiahj 
They are, however, of very great importance, for the 
elucidation of many questions connected with the early 
history of Gaul and Britain. They are for the most « 
part in the ordinary Roman character, and present in H 
many instances tlie well-known contractions, ioter- 
punctuations, or ornaments of Roman votive, dedica- 
tory, or funereal inscriptions, which they also resemble 
in form, style, and mode of thought. It is indeed 
probable that ail those inscriptions with which we are 
acquainted have been the work of Romanized Gauls, 
and that the language itself of the inscriptions is not 
devoid of marks of Roman influence. Two inscrip- 
tions from southern Gaul in Greek characters, point 
rather to the later period when the Greek language^^M 
was that of the higher classes of Romans, and conse-^^ 
quently of the Gallo-Roman aristocracy, than to any in- 
fluences exercised by the neighbourhood of the Greek , 
colony of Massilia. 

One inscription in particular, to be hereafter noticed, 
is remarkable for the fact of its being bilingual, Latin 
and Gaulish, and that the Gaulish part of the inscrip- 



I 




ON THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 



327 



X\on is in the characters called by Moinmsen West- 
Etruscan, the inscription itself having been found in 
Italy, north of the Tiber. 

As to the general character of the language in which 
the inscriptions are framed, it has been observed,' that 
they reveal to us words which not only do not yield 
in antiquity of form to those of classic Latin, but even 
contain, in many instances, specimens of the archaic 
language of the Romans. They show beyond a doubt, 
that the inflections the Irish has retained belong to a 
period older than that in which the inflections ceased to 
prevail in the Welsh, and that the wonderful phonetic 
peculiarities of modern Celtic^ the wnlauti the aspira- 
tions, and the nasals, are foreign to the Old Celtic. 

In the analysis of the inscriptions, the grammatical 
forms, and the interpretations of the words they con- 
tain, it is not pretended to offer anything new, but 
rather to collect together the results of the investiga- 
tions to which these inscriptions have been subjected 
by others. The learning on the subject will be found 
in the following works and essays : — 

RoGBT D£ Belloquet: Eihnoffinie Gatilohe. Frcmiere 
partic; Glossaire Gauhts. Paris, 1858. 

Pictet; Essai sur fjuchjues Inscriptions en Langue Gau- 
loise. Geneve, 1859. 

Whitley Stokes: Papers in the Bdtrage zur VerglH- 
chenden Sprachforschung. Htmusg. von A. Kulin und A. 
ScEilcichcR. Vol. ii. Berlin, 18GI. 

Becker and Lottneh, inth>G5anic periodicul^ vols, ii.iii, and 
iv. 1861-3-3. 

Lottneh: On /he Gatillsh Inscription of Poitiers, Dublin, 
1863. 

'■ Dr. SolllivBii, in preface to Ebd'e 'Celtic Studies/ p. 15. and 
Dr. Lottner, in Beitrage zur Vergleich, Spr&chforMb,, ii, 309. 



328 



ON THE GAULISH I NSCfilPTlONB. 



The greater part of lhes€ inacpiptione merely record 
the name ot the individual making an oflering or dedi- 
cation of some object to a local deity, with occasionally 
the name of the locality at which the shrine or temple 
of the deity may be supposed to have existed. One 
only, the bilingual inscription of Todi, is of a sepulchral 
character,and one^ No. 13, is in the nature of a charm 
Of incantation, an amulet to wear as a preservative 
against the influence of evil demons, or a protection 
against danger or disease. 

One of the most simple among these inscriptions is: 



No. l. 

An inscription on the handle of a metal patera, found 
near Dijon, in the department of the Cote d'Or, the ter- 
ritory of the ^dui or of their dependent tribes. Gallia 

DOIROS SEGOMARI 
lEVRV ALISANV 

Doiros, tbe son of Segomaro4, has dedicated (this) to Att?n»os. 

Doiros, a nominative singular inos, the name of the 
person making the offering or dedication. Mr. Stokes 
compares the old Irish doir, a servant ; but all these 
etymologies of proper names appear very uncertain. 

Segoniari, the gen. of Segomaros, a proper name 
occurring again in these inscriptions. 

leuru. This word, which occurs in most of the in- 
scriptions, is evidently the verb of the sentence. It 
has been variously interpreted by "made," "conse- 
criited/' *' dedicated/' and the latter meaning seems to 
apply best to the ordinary sense of an inscription, 




ON THB QAULiaH INSCRIPTIONS. 



329 



though Mr. Stokes has poiated out an old Irish root 
tur, ior, and, with loss of the initial vowel, or, uerj with 
the meaning " make," iurad " factum est.*'^ The 
grammatical connection of the word as a third person 
sin^^ular of (he preterite is made clear by the form of 
the verb karnitu in the bilingual inscription ol Todi, 
No. 11. 

Alisanu. The name of the local deity to whom 
Doiros^ the son of Segomaros, made the ofTeiing. It 
is therefore a dative singular of Alisanos, which is pro- 
bably a topical name of a divinity, derived from a place 
unknown, perhaps Aiisa, 

No. 2. 

¥Vmnd at Nevers, anciently Noviodunumj a city of 
the ^dui. In the Antonine Itinerary it is called 
Xevirnum. Gallia Celtica. 

ANDE 

CAMV 
LOSTOVTI 
SSICNOS 
tEVRV 

Andecainulos Touliasicnoa ieuru. 

Andecamolos, 9on of Tautiasos, hae dedicated (thi«] . , , 

Andecamxdos. This name is compounded with that 
of the Gaulish deity Camulos, like Camulo-genus, and 
the Gaulish British city Caraulo-dunum. The prefix 
Ande is common in Gaulish proper names of men and 
places; Anderitum, Anderitiani, Andecari, Andebro- 
cirix, Andedunis, Andecumborius The meaning of 
the particle is not clear. 

■'' In the Book of Armag-h, See Beitrage zur Verglcich. Sprach- 
forach., ii. 

VOL, vni. Z 



330 



UN THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 



Another inscription containing the name of the peo- 
pie Andecaraulenses was found at Rancon, the ancient 
Amkcaraulum, in the country of the Lemovices, 
Gallia Ceitica. 

NVMINIBVS AVG 
FANVM PLVTONIS 
ANDECAMVLEISIS 
SES DESVOPOSVE 

TowfiWcrtoa, A patronymic form, especially Gaulish, 
of which there are numerous examples. The other < 
patronymic, of which no example appears in these in- 
scriptions, is apparent in the names Camulo-genus, ^ 
Verbi-genus, hke the Greek Dio-genes. ^M 

A name Tarhios, in Etruscan characters, found 
near Este, in northern Jtaly^ appears to be in the same 
form. 



jfAfKro/^on^yo 



Tarkno Vosgeno. 



No. 3. 

Found at Autun, the ancient Autjuetodunum, capital 
of the jEdui, in GaUia Ceitica. 

LICNOS CON 
TEXTOS . TEVRV 
ANVALLONNACV. 
CANECOSEDLON 

Licnos Contextos, ieuru^ AnvaUanacu canecosedlon. 
LicDoa Contextua dedicated (thia) ... to Anvallonacos. 

Ucnos. Mr. Stokes suggests that this also is a pa- 



ON THfi OAULlSH INSCRiPTIONS. 



331 



tronymic, and that the inscription is imperfect . . . 
tic-nos ; but the name appears also in an inscription 
from Glemona, in the neiglibourhood ot" AquUeia. 



M . FOVSCVS.C . F. 

LICNVS 

PEREGRINATOR 

C . FOVSCVS . C . F 

BALBVS -V. F 

SlBl ET SVIS. 

in whicli Licnns is a cognomen o(Foneais ; in the Gaul- 
ish inscription it stands as a prsenomen. 

Contextos, the cognomen of Licnos. Mr. Stokes 
refers it to a root iex^ Sanskr. Nfksh^ and suggests the 
meaning of the name to be *' well built, strong." It 
seems, however, very doubtful whether it is a Gaulish 
word at all, and is not rather simply a Latin word ap- 
plied as an epithet, Licnos, with which it is joined, 
may have some relation to the Latin licium, '* the woof 
or warp of a web, thread, yarn," Savage or semi-civi- 
lized tribes afford many personal names more strange 
than "twisted yarn/' 

Ani^aUanncu is also a dative sing, of Anvallonacos, 
This latter is a derivation in ac, like other Gauhsh 
names, Juliac-uns, Corboaiac-nm, etc. The name of 
the place from which the divinity is named must 
have been AnvfiUo or Anvallon. The Aballon of the 
Itinerary was in the country of the iEdui. 

Canecosedlon. The meaning of this word, which is 
the name of the object made or devoted to the god, is 
unknown. The most strained inrerpretations have 
been obtained from the Irish and Welsh dictionaries, 
but none satisfactory. It is a compound, like so many 

z 2 



J 



332 



ON THK OAULt&H INSCRIPTIONS. 



Gaulish 
magus. 



names 
etc. 



of places, Augusto-dunum^ Rigo- 



No. 4. 



Found at Volnay, near Beaune, in the Department 
of La Cate d"Or. 38 kil. S.E. of Dijon, in the territory 
of the iEdui. Gallia Celtica. 

ICCAVOS. CP 
PIANICNOStEV 
RVBRIGINpOM .. 
CANTABOEIX] 

fceavoa Oppianicnus ieuru Biif/indon . . , cantabon. 

Iccftvos, ibe BOB of Oppianoe, dedicated (Itla) , , . to BrigiiT" 
danos. 




Tb 



p 



Iccarus Oppiftnirnos: I., the son of Oppianos. 
name, like that of the chief of the Belgic Remi men^ 
tinned by Caesar, may be connected with the Irish ^^| 
Welsh iach, health, — an opinion conrirmed by the fact 
thai in an inscription found near Cologne the name 
locianus appears, with the Latin epithet Mcdictis, 
which, as M. Pictet remarks, may be a translation of 
the former. |fl 

Oppianicnos, patronymic, formed upon the Latin 
Roman name Oppianus. 

Briyindon. The last letter, V, is probably wanting, 
and the word ehould, like AlijianUi AnvaUonacu, be 
read, Brigtndonu, a dative singular of Brigindonos. 
The first part ol' the name occurs abundantly in Gaul, 
Britain, and Gaulish localities, Brigantia, Brigantium,. ^ 
Brigantes, etc. ^H 

The name of a town, Briginu, occurs in connection 
with other names of places on a pillar stone* found at 
Anduze, near Nismcs ; — 




W THB OAULlSff^Mfe'RlWi 



333 



ANDVSIA 

BRVGETJA 

TEDVSIA 

VATRVTE 

VGERNI 

SEXTANT 

BREGINN 

STATVMAE 

VIRINN 

VCETIAE 

SEGVSTON 

Vantubon. 1 his word, of which qo explaaatioD can 
be offered, is suj>posed to represent tlie object dedi- 
cated to the deity, like Tiemeton^ canecosedton, etc. 
As, however, there are a number of well-known Dames 
of places with the termination bona, it is probable that 
the word may be an adjectival epithet of Brigxndonos, 
or the name of the place at which the offering was 
made to that supposed divinity. It w^ however, stated 
that the true reading of the word (the inscription be- 
ing much defaced at this point) is not cantahon^ but 
cantalon. The first part of the word is no doubt the 
same as in Canto be unicos inotis, mentioned by Gregory 
of Tours. 

No. 5. 

Found at ALjse, Alisia^ chief city of the Mandubii. 
Gallia Celtica, 

MARTIALIS. OANN^i* 
lEVRV . VCVETE . SOsk 
CELICNON^^ETIC 
QOBEDBI , DUGllONTllo 

l^VCVETIN 

IN ALISrlAjS 



334 ON THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 

Martiuiis DannoiaH ieuru Ucuete sosin celicTum etic gobedbl 
duyiiontiio Ucnttm in AHma* 

Martialh. The father'R name, Dannotalos, is truly 
Gaulish, that of the son Roman. The higher classes 
of the Gauls appear to have given Roman names to 
their children immediately after the conquest, and pro- 
bably even in the time of Caesar. An inscription, 
which may not impossibly relate to the family of the 
great Gauhsh chief of the ^dui, Eporedorix, meo- 
tioned by Csesar, dedicated, in gratitude for benefits 
received by the grandson of Eporedorix from the use 
of the warm baths, to the local deities Boromis and 
Damona (both names derived from Celtic roots de- 
scriptive of the hot springs), shows how soon the name 
of Caius Julius became fashionable in Gaul. This in- 
scription was found at Bourbon Lancy, the ancient 
Aquffi Nisinije, in the department of Sa6ne-et- Loire. 
Qaliia Celtka. 

C . IVLiVS . EPOREDORIGIS . F . MAGNVS 

PRO. IVLIO. CALENO FILIO 
BORVONI ET DAMONAE 
V. S. 

The names of the same guardian deities of hot springs 
have been found at the springs of Bourbon-les-Bains* 

DEO APOLLINI 
BORVONI ET DAMONAE 

Another inscription, evidently relating to the same 
noble jEduan family, has been found at Chatillon^ 
near Autun, Augustodunutn, the capital ot the j^dui. 

C . IVL.G. MAGNI . F.CI. 1 
EPOREDORIGIS . N . PROCVLVS . D . S . F 

The name of Martialis appears as an agnomen in 



I 



ON THE GAULtSK INSCRIPTIONS. 



335 



an inscription found in Ihe ruins of the thermfE of a 
Roman villa at Verteult, in the same ^daan district 
as that to which the inscription of Martialis Daunotali 
belonged. 

This inscription was found at a place called Lau- 
saine, near Vertault, in the department of the C6te- 
d'Or. Gallia Celtica.^ 

I . H . D . D. L. PATRIC 
MARTIALIS . ET , PATRIC 
MARCVS . LING . FRATR . OMNIB . 
OFFIC . CIVILIB . INCIVITATE 
SVA FVNCT .CELLAMVE... IBVLAM 
EREGIONE COLVMNAE CVM 
SVIS OMNIB .COMMOD . D. S. P. 
VIKAN . VERTILIENSIB . LARQI 
Tl SVNT 

In houorem do7m*$ divinte. L, Patricius Martialis el 
{Titus ?) Falridus Marcus Lmgones, fratres, omnihus oj^ciia 
civiiibtts in civilate J«a Jimcti, cellam (vest)ibulatn e refftone 
cvlumvis cum siiis omnibus comviodis de sua pecurtia vicanis 
VerliUf^nsibus largiti sunt. 

Dftnnotalit gen. of Dannotalos, a compound name 
like Argio-talus, "while foreheadt" Vepotalus, "fair 
forehead," may be rendered " bold forehead." These 
names correspond in meaning to such Welsh names 
as Tal-iesin, "shining forehead," Tal-haiarn, "iron 
forehead," but the order of combination of the ele- 
ments of the names is different, 

Ucuete, a dative of Ucuetis, supposed to be the 
name of a deity, otherwise unknown, worshipped in 
AUsia. There was a town Ucuetia, near Nemausus, 
which appears in the inscription a/ite, page 8, as 
Ucetian. 

* * Revue Archeologique,' A|>ril. 1863. 



336 Oti THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 

Celicnon. This word has been identified by Dr. 
Graves, of Dublin, with the Gothic likn. a tower, 

Sosi/i, the demonstrative pronoun. An example 
occurs in the Irish (Zeues, Gr. Celt., p, 354, Cose in- 
nammoge sosjn, "inatitutio servorum hocce'^), which 
leaves no doubt as to its meaning. M. Pictet has ob- 
served, " that what gives peculiar interest to this word 
is the fact, that the corresponding form in the Cymric 
is korf, kyn;" but the opinion of Zeuss (Gr. Celt., 
pref.), that the change of the Cymric s into h occurred 
after the date of the Roman occupation of Britain 
would, ii assented to, deprive the observation of all 
importance. 

The remaining words of this inscription have not 
been satisfactorily explained ; Mr. Stokes makes go- 
bedbi a verb, and dugiiontiio a nominative, and reads 
the whole — 

Martialie, the sop af Dnnnolalia, b&s made tbia tower for UcuetU ; 
and tbe wtirk pleBfied Lit ueli^ in Alicia. 

It would seem from the tenor of the other inacrip- 
lions that Ucueth should be taken to be the name of 
the deity locally worshipped at Ucuetia^ and that it 
was at the shjitie of this deity, in the city of Alisia, 
that Martial is Dannotalos offered the celicnon, suppo- 
sing this to have been a portable object, perhaps a 
model or representation of a purgos, or altar. 

Two Gaulish inscriptions, in Greek characters, come 
from the south of France. 



ON THE &ACU9U INSCRIPTIONS. 



337 



No. 6. 

Found at Vaison, ia the department of Vaucluse, 
the ancient Vasio, chief city of the Vocontii, in th? 
Provincm Narbonensh, afterwards separated from that 
province, and included in Gallia Viennensis. 

CErOMAPOC 

OYIAAONEOC 

TOOYTIOYC 

NAMAYCATIC 

eiWPoYBHAH 

CAMICOCIN 

NEMHTON. 

Sffffufiaros Villonevs foouiiout Namausatii tidrou BSlitami 
tosiit netn^ton. 

Segomaros. The name of the iodividual described 
as making or dedicating the offering. Like the majo- 
rity of the Gaulisli compound names, the first element 
of the word ends in o, or this is to be looked upon as 
a combinative voweh No instance of such a form is 
to be found in the oldest historical or traditionary 
Irish or Welsh names of persons or places, though 
Zeuss (Gr. Celt.) conceives that traces of such a form 
are to be found in some Irish words. The second 
element of this name, maros or marus, enters into a 
i;reat number of Gaulish personal names, Indutio- 
marus, Cuno-marus, Virdo-marus, etc. 

In an inscription from Brescia, the name Stgomarus 
appears as a cognomen :'' 

DIS DEA3VS 
OMNIBVS 
L. VETTVRIVS. L,L 

* Gruler, iu 1005. 4, 



338 



ON THB GAULISH INSCRIPTIONa. 



I 



SEGOMARVS 
PRO SE ET SVIS 

It is worthy of remark that in the inscription ia Greek 
characters the termination is written oa, in that io 
Latin characters it takes the Latin form us. 

Vilhneos is the cognomen of Segomaros. The meaD- 
ing of the word is not clear, but it has been derived 
from a supposed Gaulish word like Jill, a horse (En- 
g\\%hjllty), interpreted '* horseman." 

In connection with this interpretation we may com- 
pare the (in that case) curious combination Villoniui 
AsELLUS, Gruter, 485. 5. 

Tooutious. Translated by Dr. Siegfried '* a citizen.' 
Ir, tuath, Old Cymr. tut, people, gens. 

Namausatis is clearly an adjective derived from th( 
name of the city Nemausus, the modern Nismes. 

EltOPOY. The Greek mode of writing the word „ 

^H 

Belisami. Dative singular of Belisama. In an in-^^ 
scriptiou found at St. Lizier, this deity is represented 
aa a lemale, the Gauli&h Minerva. 

MINERVAE 
BELISAMAE 

SACRVM 
Q. VALERIVS 

MONTANVS. 

In an inscription given by Montfaucon^ it seems pro- 
bable that this deity was sometimes represented under 
a male form. It is thetigure of a young man, clothed 
in a pepluni fastened on the right shoulder, holding a 
bunch of grapes in the right hand, a fruit (apple?) in 
the left ; a bird perched on the left hand- On the 




THEOACLiaH INSCRIPTIONi 



339 



atone at the right side of the figure, the following 
niulilatetl inscription (Montfaucon, Antiq. Expl., vol. 
ii-pl. 192) :— 

DEO BE 

MILVCIO 

VL 

which was no doubt originally — 

DEO BE 
LISAIMI LVCIO 
P0S3VI 

Nevieton. This word belongs to all the Celtic dia- 
lects in the sense of something sacred set apart. It 
occurs in composition in the names of several Gaulish 
towns, Vernematum, Augustonemetum, Nemetocenoa, 
etc, 

'* Nomine Veraemetis voluit vocitare vetcstaa. 
Quod quiis'i /ianmti ingens Gallica lingua refert."^ 

Tn the Brehon (Irish) taw it is said, *' a nemedh is any 
place set apart ; the nemedh of the church is the ce- 
metery ; the nemedh of the d!«7i is the enclosed green ; 
the nemedh of the fair is the green," etc. A Jidnemed 
was a sacred grove. " Erecacafeada acht fidnemead," 
— '* All woods may be cut, except sacred groves." " 
What the nemeton of this inscription may have been 
does not appear, but the inscription may be read — 

SegoDiaros ViUoneos. a citizen of Nemauaua, has dedicated thii 
nemeton to Bel is a ma. 

The epithet '* mmidU," apphed to " mountains " in 

* Venant. FDrtotiot. i. 9, 

* Petrie, Ecclee, Arch, of Irdan^. 



340 



ON TH£ GAULISH INSCRIFTIONe. 



Ihe sense of ** holy," *' inhabifed by the gods," occuH 
iQ an inscriptiou found at the foot of the Pyrenees, al 
present in the museum at Toulouse. 

SILVANO DEO ET 
MONTIBVS NiMlDls 
QIVLIVLIANVS ET PVBLIC 
VSCRESGENTINVS QVIPR 
MIHINC COLVMNAS VICE 
MARIAS CELAVERVNTET 
ET EXPORTAVERVNT 
V,S.L. M. 



No. 7. 

Inscription on a stone tablet found at Nemausns, 
the chief city of the Volcae Arecomici, in Gallia Nar- 
bonensis, not far from the mouth of the Rhone. It 
was a Roman colonia. Gallia Narhonensis. 



lAPTAI AAANOITAKOXAEAE 

MATPEBONAMAYSIKABOBPATOYAE 



I 



litrtaifovj . . Uunoitakoa dede matrebo NaniauMkabo bratou 



de. 



entl? 



lartaiCbs) . . Uanoiiakos, the second word evident! 
ot the person making the offering, is* the name of the 
town or place to which he belonged, . . Uanoiiacum^ 
like Nemetacum. ^H 

Dede. There can be no doubt that this is the Gaul- 
ish form of the Latin '* tledit.'* It replaces in this in- 
scription the word iev.ru oi' the others, and shows that 
this is a record of some donation made by lartaios to 
the temple or revenue of the priesthood of the Matres. 
The reduplicate form of the word is very remarkable, 
and no corresponding form exists in the Neo-Ceitic 




ON THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS 



341 



I 



i 



dialects. It has been compared with the form ** rere " 
of an Umbrian inscription from TodL' 






'A 



<^e U 



^ 



AHAL TRVTITIS RVNVM RERE 



Matrebo Nam^usiJcnho , the " dese matres" of Ne- 
mausiis^ are divinities frequently named in the Itoman 
inscriptions of Gaul and Britain. These two words 
have supplied the form of the Gaulish dative plural 
case-ending in -bo, a form evidently closely resembling^ 
the Irish -ib. the Latin -bus. In other inscriptions, 
however, we have the form " matrabus." 

Inscription over three female figures robed, stamJ- 
ing» the centre figure holding a basket of fruit. Mont- 
faticon, Antiq. Expliqu/'e, etc., vol. ii. pi. 192. 



IN 

HONORE 

DOMVS DIVI 

NAEDIS MATRABVS 

VICANI VtCI PACIS 



lo another, preserved at Besanpon, the ancientVesontio ; 
'' Anfrecht and Kirchci^ff. ' Umbriscbe SpmchdenkmAler ' p. 392 




ON THE GAULISH INSCRIFTIONS. 

MATRA 
BVS SACR 
VM OXIA 
MESSOR 
FILIA-. V . S 
M . 

Bratotide. No satisfactory explanation of this wo 
can be given. Dr/^Sieglried^appears to have divide 
it hratou rf^, and interpreted " ex imperio ipsaru 
dearum," that is of the '■' Matres" before mentioned. 
From its j^ositlon, it should represent the object giv 
or dedicated bj' iartaios to the '* Matres." 
,." lartaioa ^ » Haoqitacos, has given (o the NeoJAueiui Matre«." 

No. 8. 

Inscription on a menhir or standing-stone at Vieujr 
Poitiers, on the road from Tours to Bordeaux, — the 
ancient Limonum, city of the PictoncB. GaUia Celtica. 



^ 



Buin Brimliom Ftontu Tarhlttnos ieuru. J 

Rain. M. Pictet explains this word by the Irish 
rath, a mound, a fortified tumulus, and Br(w/-tiom by 
the word ftnW, which he considers the Gaulish for 




Off THE GAULISH IN8CttIJ*TION8. 



343 



bridge. That places in Gaul compounded with briva 
were in some way connected witli the passage of a 
river, and that at such places the Roinaii& erected 
bridges, seems clear, but there is no evidence that briva 
meant a bridge in Oatihsh. M, Pictet reads the in- 
scription " Tumuluni ad pontem Fronto Tarbiiilinos 
vovit." 

Becker, on the other hand, considers Brivatiom as 
representing the object dedicated, like Nemeton, etc., — 
in this case a pillar-stone, — ^and suggests that ra^n may 
be a demonstrative pronoun. It is however most pro- 
bable thai this rude inscription has no reference to the 
stone monument on which it is found, and which may 
be centuries older than the inscription. 

Fiontu, a proper name for Fronto, who is quaJihed 
as Tarbellinos, a native or citizen of the city of the 
Tarbelli, now Dax, on the Adour, at the foot of the 
Pyrenees. The fact that the writer was a native of a 
place distant from that at which the piltar-etone is 
situate, may serve to show that the inscription is pro- 
bably the work of an idle traveller, and has no re- 
ference to the original character of the monument. 



No. 9. 

Inscription traced with a pointed instrument on the 
neck of a wide-mouthed black earthen vessel ; found 
at Bourges, the ancient Avaricum, capital of the Bitu- 
riges Cubi. It is seated at the confluence of the rivers 
Auron, Yevrette, Langis, and Meudon, which unite to 
form the Eure, the ancient Avar. Gallia Celtica. 

BVSCILLASOSIOLEGASITINALtXIEMAGALV 
Busciliu Soiio legasii hi Alixia Maffah. 



344 



ON THB (i^Uh^BH INSCRIPTIONS. 



Buscilta. A female name, like Flacilta, mother of 
Martial, the epigrammatist, Barbilla, Vindilla, Tas- 
gilla, etc. 

Sosio. From its position in the sentence, this word] 
would aeem to he a cognomen or epithet oi BuscilLa^J 
hut its meaning is altogether obscure 

Legasit. The position of this word in the senrence 
seems to indicate that it is the verb, but we have no-i 
thing to offer as to its interpretation. 

In Aitxh'. It seems doubtful whether this meanftl 
the city Alixia, the capital of the Mandubii, and ac-j 
cording^ to Diodorus, iv. 19* the ancient metropolis oi 
Gauh The inscription comes from a place remote 
from the Mandubian Alisia, but being on a portable 
object, no difficulty arises on that account. 

Magalu, This, like Alisanu, Anvalonnacu, must bej 
a dative singular, the name of the deity to whom the] 
offering is made. The word appears as the second 
element of the Gaulish personal names, Taxi-raagulus* 
Cuno-meglus, Seno-macilus, and in the first place 
Maglo-cunus, with the meaning *' youth, servant, dis- 
ciple." ^H 

To the same deity is probably to be attributed the^^ 
Maglos, with the epithet Matonios^ of an inscription 
from Saint-Beat, in the Pyrenees. 



I 



MAGLO 
MATONIO 
ATTOMArMO 
RARIVS 
V.S. U. M 



To Magha Matonios (by) Attos Marmpraritti. 
The celebrated monun^ent, found in the foundati 



i 

itions^l 



ON THE GAULISH INRCRIPTIONS. 



345 



5^ 
o ■= 

°i 

- g- 

■» ^ aa 










CO 


■^ s ^ 

" ffl c 


^ CO ^ 


1 

a 

Id 








^1 


3 






£fl O 

O z 






QC -5 








1 


2 u 






> 


< 

□: 




_ i 

> c 

UJ 53 








I 


Hi ^ 






< 


< 


g>J5 .S 


O 


m 








(0 H 








|~ G 


b^ 




CO S 








■ 


E 












• a « 

S s 




-a 

a 




1 

* 




fl 


■ 












■^ a 




n 




<u 




_g 


l ^ 












a 3 


A^ 


CO ^ 


i 


§ 




Q. 


:! 
" w s 












"ij 


O fcD 


ta 


in 

V 




"5 








n 




g « z g 


a 


bD 




^a 












to t: •= 




z - 


u- 


1^ 




,jj 


UJ ^ 

« 1 

> 








> 




t> a bo's 
6J5 *S -O w 


z S 

LU a 


G 

o 


if 




a 
a 

"fc 


111 








1—1 




U^ 


b- 1 


o S 










G 

> * 

^1 










1—) 








_ 


•o 










c^ h E 












1 

1 3 


1 

s 










8 a a 












s 


^ • I 


J 










9 "^ « 




■ 








^ 


c4 • § 


■s 






(Ti > 

z 




> jl 










V 


o 

• ID 
V 

t- 

a 

to 


I) 


2 




< 
o 

o 




o at -^ 
J, j3 .a- 
»- -. '" 

3 a cj 














Pm 








> 




N 




w CO 














5 
< 

CO 

q: 


> 1- 






M 




t3 


to 






g 




o 


LJ 
CO 

o 






tT 
V 




1 

V 

u 
J 


3 






1 


5g 


o 

> 


< 

CL 
LJ 
< 


Q. 
UJ 

o 

-J 


<0 




'a. 
or a. 


■" 


SI 

1- ^ 


a 


i 




1 


t- < 


< 


> 
< 

z 


> 

0. 


> 

o 








CO E 


SB 


a 




1 


VOL. 


VIII 












2 4 








■ 



I 



ON TUB QAULISR INSCRITTIONS. 



347 



and Gaulish divinities is not by any means clear, but 
amongst tbem we have the celebrated Gaulish deity 
Esus, mentioned by Lucan, in whose honour the bloody 
sBcritjces of the Druids were performed. 

" Et qui1)ua immitis placatum sang'uiiie (!ira 
Teutates, horrensque feris BtlaribuB Hems, 
Et Tarania Scylliicx non mitfor ara Diante." 

Zucojif rkaraal. lib. v. 444. 

The appearance of the ^^od Esus, as figured upon thi^ 
monument, is not at all consistent with the character 
given of iiiin by Lucan, The Welsh antiquaries have 
heen iu his " horrensque feris altaribus Hesus" the 
fictitious leader of the Cyrary, Hu Gadarn, the inventor 
of aij'riculture and vocal song, and refer to this figure 
in proof of the cliaracter they assign to him. The 
name appears in composition in personal names of 
men, as Esu-nertua, '* strong in Esus," Esu-maylius, 
*' servant of Eaus/' etc. This last occurs in an in- 
scription found near Orleans, the ancient Gnabum, a 
city of the Carnutes.** GalVm Cellicn. 

AVG . RVOIOBO . SACRVM 
CVR CASSICl/VTE D.S.P.D 
SER ESVMAGLVS . SACROVIR . SERIOMAGLIVS . SEVERVS 

And in another inscription, with the epithet Mopasos : 

ESVMOPASOCMVSTICVS V.S.L.M' 
Em Mopaso Caias Mttsticus Vvium solvit libene meriio. 

The name Sacrovir, in the inscription to Augustus 
Rudiohos. was borne by two distinguished Gauls, one, 

* Revue Archeol., X-S. vol. tv. 

' Roget de Belloqwet, ' Ellinogi'nic Giiulolsc.' p. 113. 

2 A 2 



348 



ON THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 



ail jEduan, Julius Sacrovir, the olher a Treviran, 
Julius Ftorus Sacrovir. Both were concerned in an 
ineffectual revolt against the Roman power about a.d. 

The name of the human fijtire with the horns of a 
stag, in the third line of this monument, d^nunnos, 
is evidently an epithet descriptive of this peculiarity, 
meaning the '* horned/* W. corn, a horn, pi. cym, ^M 

Taruos Trigaranos. The figure of the bull with " 
three hirds perched on his head and back, atfords the 
explanation of the epithet Trigaranos, " llie three 
craned " or " of the three cranes," Welsh ^nran^ a 
crane. Nothing occurs either in the classical writers 
or in any inscription, to explain the nature of the 
symbol or its connection with the Gaulish mythology. 
The same may he said of the other Gaulish names and 
figures of this monument, Eurises, Senani v . . ilwn, 
and Sevi-ri-os, ^ 

As the monument was erected in honour of Tiberius " 
hy the sailors of Paris, we may be tempted to connect 
tlie name jSmaniff, who, according to Pomponius Mela, 
were priestesses of a deity or oracle peculiarly wor-fl 
shipped by and propitious to navigators. The appear-^ 
ance of the images of Castor and Pollux on the same 
monument may perhaps be referred to the same cause.'" 

The only Gaulish inscription of a well-ascertained 
sepulchral character hitherto discovered, is the bilin- 
gual inscription of Todi, and this not within the area^ 



4 



'* "Sena in Britaimico man, Osi'amicis adverea litoribus, Gnltlci 
numinis oracuto inaignis est, ciijits antistitea perpetua virginitalc 
pntictae, numero no%'era esse traduntdr ; Galli Sctiaa vocant piitant- 
qiie scire futurn. et priedicare, sed non niai dediloB naviganlibus." 
(Pomp- Mela. lib. i». c. 6.) 




ON THE GAUI.I9H INSCHIPTIONS. 



340 



of Gaul proper, but in Italy, ou tlie northern or Etrus- 
can bank of the Tiber. 

This inscription is both bihngual and double, being 
l^Qgraved on two sides of a slab of travertine limestone, 
with a slighi variation in the word descriptive of the 
sepulchral monument referred to in the icscription. 
The Latin pari is written in Roman characters, the 
Gaulish in those of the alphabet called by Mommsen 
the West-Etruscan. 

Fucsimile of the inscription of Todi, from Aufrecht 
and Kirchoff, ' Umbrische Sprachdenkmaler/ 



. RATER- 0^> 



. . .15 






No. il. 
The bilingual inscription of Todi. 

I. II. 



S . . V 

OISIS. DRVTtP 



MEP.CRVM 
IS 



350 



ON THE GAULISH INSCH I PTIONS. 



RATER EIVS 

INIMVS LOCAVIT 

. ATVITQV 

. EKNATI .TRVTIK. 1 

. .NITV. LOKAN. .OISIS 

. VTIKNOS 



DRVTEIFFRATER 

EIVS 

MINIMVS LOCAV 

IT . ET STATVIT 

ATEKNATI TRVT 

IKNI. KARNITV 

ARTVAXKOISIS.T 

RVTIKNOS 



Ateknati, gen. of Atekiiatos, the sod of Atis, proba- 
bly the name of a deity> Atis was the name of a chief 
of the Gaulish Boil. 

The name is precisely like those frequently occur- 
ring, Boduo-gnatiiS, " son of victory," Cintu-grmtits, 
"first-born," Crito-gmdus, eic. The juxtaposition of 
the two names Ateknatos Drtttilmon, *' Ateknatos, the 
son of DfQtos,'* marks the difference between the two 
compositive words, gnatos and cnos^ the first of which 
seems never to be used to Indicate the relationship of 
filiation, the latter always does so. The relationship 
of the two sons, Coisis and Ateknatos, to their father, 
Drutos, is expressed by the same word, Trutiknos, in 
the Latin DnUi fiiius, a patronymic like Oppianicnos, 
Totitissicoos. 

The meaning of the name Drutos is, no doubt, to be 
found in the Welsh drut, " strong, powerful, a hero. 
The female form of the name, Druta, occurs in an in 
script ion — 

No. 12. 

Found at Vieil-Evreux, Mediolanum, capital of the 
Aulerci Eburovices ; it is in the department of L'Eure, 
outh of, and bordering on the Seine. Gallia Celfica, 
Armorica. 



I 



I 



ON THE GAULISH INSCRH'TIUNS 

CRISPOS BOVl 

.. RAMEDON 

. . AXTACBITIEV . . . 

DO CARADITONV . . . 

VTASEIANISEBODDV . . . 

REMIFILIA 
DRVTA GISAGICIVIS SV _ 

Crisfios Bovi . , . ramedon , - . fdjo . . - Caraditonu 
ulaaeiajiise boddtt . . . EemiJiHBt Drnta Ghaci civis Su . , . 

TliJs Druta is called a citizen of Gisacura. Several 
places of this name appear to have existed in Gaul, 
which in modern times have taken the name of Gi- 
say. A Villa Gisiaca is mentioned in the Breviary of 
Evreux, ed, 1587 (Becken.in ' Beitr'age/ iii.4, p. 417), 
to which place the following inscription, found in the 
neighbourhood of Vieil-Evreux, must certainly be re- 
ferred. 

At Vieil-Evreux^ 

AVG DEO GISACO 
. VRIGIVS AR( 
. . . LADESVOPO 
SVIT 

A similar inscription from Amiens (Samarobriva) 

GESACO. AVG 

SATVRNINVS 

SECCI . FIL 
V , S . L. M , 

Kamitu. The Latin portion of the inscription has 
rendered this word by locavlt statuitque. The root of 
the word is evidently the Celtic earn, a sepulchral 
heap of stones, and the form of the verb Aamit-u cor- 
responds with that of the verb ieur-u of the other 
Gaulish inscriptions 



352 ON THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 

Logan and Artvfis^ or Artvan, are the correepol 
Gaulish names of the monument erected by Coisis 
the memory of his brother. The first of these JV 
Stokes considers to be the accusative singular of 
feniiniue nomi.loga or /o^ns, derived from the sai 
Celtic root, log, as appears io the old Irish //(/e, 
grave ; later Irish, tuighim, " 1 lie down." The h 
letter of the word Artvas, or Artvan, is of a peculi 
form J and some donbl exists as to what it represen 
But the word is either the accusative singular or t 
accusative plural of a uouu ttrtva or artvas^ t 
meahing of which is found in the old Irish art, a stoi 
arteine, a little stone, a gravestone. ^| 

The whole of the Gaulish part of the inscripln 
therefore reads :— ^_ 

Coisis, the son of Drutoe, has raiBed the eepalcliral stone [to^ 
of AtekuBtoB, the eon of Drutoa. ^^B 

Coisie, the 6on of Drutos, has raised (heaped up together) tJiy 
pulchral atanea {ur^aa) of Ateknatoa, the son of Drulos. ^H 

In one respect the Latin part of this inscription 
more full than the Gaulish. In the former, Coisi 
the son of Drutos, who has raised the monument, 
said to be the youngest brother, " f rater ejus mit 
mus/' of AteUnatos, while nothing appears in tl 
Gaulish inscription to correspond with this descriptio 
Nor, in fact, do we derive from the Gaulish inscriptii 
the knowledge that these two persons were brothers 
any other way than by implication, from the circur 
stance that each is called Tiutikiios, the son olTrntc 
while the Latin portion expressly adds the statemec 
" fraler ejus." 



ON THE GAULISH INSCKll^TlONS. 



3o3 



The collocation of the words also in the Gaulish 
part of this inscription is remarkable. In all the 
others the nomiDative case, the name of the person 
dedicating, etc., precedes the verb, id this it follows. 

In order to form an accurate notion of this inscrip- 
tion we require to turn It into Latin. 

1. 
Ateknati, Drutijilii, congt'sait lapidem «epulcftralem Co'uis, 
Drulifiiius, 

2. 
AteknoU^ Druti jtiiij congesait lapides sepukhrahs CoisiSt 
Druti Jilias. 

This arrangement is not according to the Neo-Celtic 
idioms, nor, as it would appear from the other Gaulish 
inscriptions, is it according to the Gaulish idiom. 
The Gaulish is not, however, a translation of the Latin 
part of the inscription, which appears to have beea — 

Ateknati, DruH f., sepulchrum Coisit, Druti /., f rater ^it» 
mhiimug locavU et slatu'U, 

The doubtful character which in this inscription has 
been written as the final letter of the word Artvas or 
Artvan appears in another apparently Gaulish inscrip- 
tion, in mixed characters, found near L.imoiie, or Lago 
dl Garda, in upper Italy. 

TETVMVS 

SEXTI 

DVGIAVA 

SAxiADlS 

::OWfe5tECAfM 

OBRAJPFM/If?;: I\AJ? 

None of these votive inscriptions have furnished us 




Gallo-Rotnau inscriptions the words '* deo/' " diis," 
" genio " are frequently prefixed, as in those to th« 
Dece Matres m an inscription found at Aiguillon, be- 
tween Agen and Bordeaux. Agen was the chief cityj 
Agianum, of the Nitiobriges. Gallia Celtica. 



IVLIVS. ACCEPTVS 

GENIO. AMBISSOV 

CVM . BONA 



4 



In others the name of a Roman deity has been pre- 
fixed to the name of the Gaulish divinity, as in the 
inscription to Minerva, as BeUsama, No. 6 ; in one to 
Mercury » as Vassos Caletis, found at Bitburg, in 
Rheaieh Prussia, the ancient BeUa. It is thirty-three 
miles north-east of Luxembourg^ and eighteen miles 
from Treves. 

N .H . D 
DEO . MERCV 
VASSO . CALETI 
MANDALONIV 
GRATVS' D 

To the god McrcuriuB Vassos Caletisj, Mandalonius Gratus 
cates. 




d^ 



For the meaning of Vassos we have Irish has, death, 
and hassa, *' fate, fortune;" but the interchange of thfl 
Gaulish v is generally with the Irish/. The observa- 
tion of Gregory of Tours (Hist, lib. i. c. 30), " Veniena 
(Chrocus rex) vero Arvernos, delubrum illud quod 
Gallica lingua Vasso Galattr vocant," etc., shows that 
there was in tlie sixth century, in Auvergne, a temple 
dedicated to the deity mentioned in this trans-Rhe- 
nane inscription. According to O'Brien, the Irish 




ON THE GAULISH INaCRIPTJONS. 



355 



means *' to preserve, protect," which might aiford a 
verj^ reasonable meaning of the epithet Caletis, 

Another inscription qualifies Mars with the two 
epithets " Divannonos" and " Dinomogetimaros," 
treated as two deities in the plural *'Martibus;" and 
another is dedicated to Mara, Hercules, and Mercury, 
with the epithet *' Ambiomarcis " combined with the 
genius loci. 

On a votive altar, found at St. Pons de Commi^res, 
department of Herault, the chief town of which is 
Montpelier. Provincia Narbonensis. 

L.COELIVS RVFVS 
IVL1A. SEVERA. VXOR 
L.COELIVS. MAMGIVS. F. 
DIVAISINONI 
DINOMOGETIMARO 

MARTIB. 
V.S. L. M 

Another to Mars Cicollius, found near Dijon — 

DEO MARTI 
CICOLLVI 

PVDENS 

PVDENTIANI 
FIL. 



Found al the remains of a Roman station, between 
Colonia Agrippina and Burginacium— * 

I . OMVI 

ET . GENIO . LOG 

MARTI . HERCUL. 

MERGURIOAM 

BIOMARCISMI 

LITES. LEGXXXVV 



""'^^^^^^^ 



356. QH TBI OAV^SH ,IDaCEIFf^l|8. , 

MVLPPANNO 
TMAN8MARCU8 
MVLPLELLAWO 
TAVRLAVINV8 
V 8'L M 

We know very little of the mytholpgj (^ .the Celtic 
naUons, but it is evident that, besides those divinities 
in whom the Romans saw some reaemblance to the 
principal deities of their own Pantheon, the Oauls^re- 
verenced or worshipped a crowd of minor divinities, 
whose names have not always been indicated. in the 
Roman inscriptions. Such is the otherwise unknown 
deity Sumelia, with the epithet VorretOB, to whom an 
unknown object, iubrorit appears to have been dedi- 
oated, by one Vtrttw, in a fragmentary inscription 
from Vaison, Gallia Geltica, to a deity otherwise 
unknown, " Sumelis Vorrctos." 

No. 13. 

Inscription on a silver plate, found at Poitiers, Li- 
monum. Gallia Celtica. 

IVBRON 
SVMELl 
VORETO 
VIRIVSoF 

Anotlier of these is a minor deity, or demon, named 
in a very remarkable inscription found at Poitiers, 
which has been tlie subject of a learned essay by Dr. 
Lottner. 



358 



ON THE GATJtlSH INSCRIPTIONS. 



This silver plate was originally enclosed in a kind of 
case, which was unfortunalely destroyed by the finder. 
"This circumstance is not without some importance 
for the interpretation of the inscription on the plate ; 
for the natural inference would seem to be that tlie 
inscription was intended to be carried about on the 
person, which again renders it very probable that it 
contained a charm, and that the plate was a kind of 
amulet or talisman. The inscription itself is in Latin 
characters, such as were employed in public docu- 
ments of the Merovingian or Gallo-Roman times. 
The nearest approach to them is said to be found in 
the alphabet of two documents of tbe sixth century, — 
one a charter of the year 'oG5, the other a sermon of 
St. Ililarius, written at about 570. This would uol, 
however, necessitate the assumption that the inscrip- 
tion must he of the same century, but it might belong 
to a date somewhat more remote." " Dr. Lottner looks 
upon the Dontauruis of this inscription as a demon or 
evil spirit, " the destroyer of the embryo/' against 
whose influences the charm is intended to protect the 
person named in the inscription, Justinq qttem peperit^ 
"Justina, the daughter of Sarra.'' For the reasons 
given for this opinion, and the relation which tbe in- 
scription hears to certain incantations contained in the 
Hymns of the Atharvaveda, we must refer to the papers 
by Dr. Lottner, before cited. 

Dr. Lottner's reading and translation of the inscrip 
tion are as follows : — 

Bis iloiittiiiHaQ anala bis 
Bis dontaurion cteanftln bis 



'• Dr. Lottner, on the Gaulish iDscnption nf Poitiers. Dublin^ 
1863. 



ON THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 

Bis dontaurioa datala gea 
(Sa) vim daiiimavitn 

(S) pater nam csio 
Mjigi nrs secula te 
Justina tjaem pcperit Sarra, 

Breathe at the Dontaurios, 

The Dontnurios breatlie down upon ; 

Accuse the Dontuurii 

With holtleat cliamip. 

Pater nam esto ; 

Magi Etrs ^ecata te, 

Jtistina quem 

Peperit Sarra. 



3S9 



The great rarity of these inscriptions in the Gaulish 
tongue is very remarkable. If none at all had heen 
diiscovered, we might have concluded that the Oaiils, 
who certainly obtained their alphabet from the Romans, 
had not committed their language to writing before 
the Roman tongue had taken its place in all official 
and public matters. From those that we posse&s, we 
n:iust, 1 think, conclude that the practice of making 
votive or dedicatory inscriptions was imitated by the 
Oauls from the Uonians, while for the most part the 
Latin language was employed for the purpose. That 
the earheat British coins bear inscriptions in Roman 
characters, struck at a time when southern Britain, 
though thoroughly penetrated by Gallo-Roman influ- 
ences, was potitically independent of, though nomi- 
nally tributary to Rome^ is decisive as to the fact that 
the Britons possessed no native written characters, 
no alphabet other than that which, equally with Gaul, 
had been derived from Kume. 

Considerable interest attaches to the question of the 



360 



ON THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 



localities of these inscriptions. The language In whicl 
they are written appears to be more nearly related to 
the Gadhelic than to the Cymric branch of the Cellic. 
We ought not, perhaps, to lay too much stress on this 
supposed relationship, because we have not yet ob- 
tained from the inscriptions themselves any of the 
Gaulish numerals, or, in fact, any series of words 
which can afford a means of correct judgment. l^H 
the grammatical forms yielded by the inscriptions pre-^^ 
sent a strong likeness to those of the oldest Irish, it 
must be recollected that the modern Cymric or Welsh 
dialect has been reduced lo writing at a much later 
date than the Irish, after, too, the disappearance from 
the former language of all case-endings, and that those 
who first reduced it to writing wrote according to (he 
current pronunciation, having, it would seem, no an- 
cient models from which to obtain and indicate the' 
true original forms of the language. ^^ 

A comparison of the Manx with the Irish, or J^i 
collation of the original current Gaelic of the Ossianic 
poems, with the modern improved and grammatical^^ 
version of the same in 'The Dean of Lismore's Book,'^^ 
will show what form the Gadhelic dialect would have 
taken had it been committed to writing for the first time, 
as lute as, and by the same illiterate class as the Welsh,! 
Nevertheless, it is probable that the most marked case- 
ending in the Gaulish inscriptions, that of the dative 
plural in ^60, which bears so marked a relation to the j 
Irish -aiby -ibk, the Latin -bus, never had its countcr-^| 
part in the Cymric, which in this, as in other points of ^ 
relationship, perhaps more nearly resembled the Greek 
than the Lathi. Apart from, and outside as it were, of 
the inscriptions, are certain words, such aa petorrilum 



ON -rilE GAOLiSH iNSCftlPTIONS. 



3GI 



I 
I 



and pempedula^ given as Gaulish by the classical writers, 
and Cebennu. mons and Penainus mons, which have de- 
cidedly Cymric affinities. Assuming, then, that the 
language of the Gaulish inscriptions helonga to the 
Gadhelic branch of the Celtic, we have evidence of the 
co-existence, within the limits of geographical Gaul, 
of the two main dialects of the Celtic language ; and 
it would be a matter of considerable interest and im- 
portance for the early history and ethnology as well of 
Gaul as of Britain, if we were enabled to define the geo- 
graphical limits of these two spoken dialects in Gaul. 

Three views may be taken of this question : — 1st. 
That geographical Gaul, always excepting the Aqui- 
tania of CKsar, was divided among the two Celtic 
branches, one of which occupied the territory north, 
the other that south of the two rivers, the Seine and 
the Marne, under the respective names, as known to 
the Romans, of Belgge and Celtae, or Galli. This view 
rests on the well-known statement of Cajsar. 

2nd. That of the various tribes of Gaul some were 
of Cymric, others of Gadhelic origin, living upon the 
Gallic area, each in its own territory, but not sepa- 
rated in mass by any determinate line of frontier. 
For this view, though not impossible, and» if admitted, 
capable of solving many difficulties, no evidence can 
be offered ; we must, therefore, dismiss it from con- 
sideration. 

3rd. That the Gauls, the aristocratic classes, or 
Ecjuites and Druidoe of Csesar, were a master race of 
Celtic origin, neither Gadhels nor Cymri, who had 
conquered and enslaved the earlier occupants of Gaul, 
consisting of mixed tribes of both branches of the 
Celtic race, 

VOL. VIII. 2 B 




362 



ON THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 



Perhaps the first ami the third of these views majl 
be fouud not to be iDcompatible. 

The first rests upon the statement of Caesar, thai 
the BelgiE and the Celtie were so far distinct nations, 
that under each appellation were included a number 
of separate tribes ; that each occupied a distioct terri- 
torVi sepai'ated by a well-defined boundary formed byj 
the two rivers the Seine and the Marne, and that thesel 
two nations or con fed e rations differed from each other] 
in lanj^uage as wel] as in manners and customs. Tak- 
ing into consideration the character and position of 
the author of this statement, his literary attainments,] 
his well-triiined mind, his clear-headedness, his powers 
of observation, and opportunities of obtaining, as well 
as the necessity, in his position, that he should obtain, 
accurate information on all matters connected with the 
Gaulish tribes, —this slatenient is one which caunol be 
ignored even if it cannot be explained, nor can we allow 
the modified view of Strabo to weaken the force of the 
direct assertion of Csesar. There must have been a 
difference, both as to language and customs, bctweeaj 
the Belgic and the Celtae, sufficient to attract Cajsar't 
attention, and to make it worthy of being recorded. 
Tlie appreciation of this difi'ercnce is of the highest 
interest for the history of Britain, since the Belgae fur 
nished so large a portion of the inhabitants of the: 
southern portion of the island. 

It is not to be denied that this statement of C^esar'i 
has been the source of eodless confusion, and still re 
mains a stumbling-block for the history of the Gauls,; 
By some writers the Belgte have been supposed to be 
Uermans or Germanized Gauls, chiefly on the strength 
of the information given to Cnssar by the Remij, that 



ON THE GAULrSH tNSCRJPTIONS 



363 



most of the Belgfe were originally from Germany, 
" plemsque Belgas esse ortos a Germania," who, Iiav- 
ing crossed the Rhine, had expelled tlie Gauls, then 
the occupiers of the soil. It seems extremely pro- 
hable that the Belgic confederation may really have 
been a political union of Gaulish tribes, whose lan- 
guage, manners, and customs had to some extent be- 
come affected by (in the time of Caesar) an ancient 
Germanic intermixluje, " Rhenamque antiquittis trans- 
diictos," so that, without ceasing to be Gauls, they 
differed to a sufficiently appreciable extent from the 
tribes south of the Seine who did not belong to their 
confederation, and had not been subjected to these 
trans- Rhenane influences which had given to the Bdgffi 
their distinctive character. In this and all similar 
speculations, however, we are met by the objection 
that the names of places, of tribes, and of individuals 
within the Belgic area are not to be distinguished from 
those that belong to the specially Gallic portion of 
Gaul. The German admixture must, therefore, have 
been but a minority absorbed in the more numerous 
Gallic population, who still retained their political and 
Ecciiil superiority^ 

M. Tliierry, in his ' Histoire des Gaules,' has endea- 
voured to show that the division of Gaul between two 
Celtic races was in accordance with the natuml features 
of the country, and that a due appreciation of the to- 
pographical character of the land throw^s a clear light 
on the history of its occupants. GmuI, he says, is 
naturally divided into two great regions, well marked 
by the direction of its rivers; the one an eievaled 



eastern region, comprismj 




the country between 



the crest of the At[)s and the last elevation of the 



364 



ON THE {JAUUSH iNSCKiPTlONS. 



Vosges, the iB^duan mouatains, the plateau of Au- 
vergue, and the Cevennes ridge; the other, the low 
and western region which extends to the ocean. The 
true Gaubj or, as M. Thierry caWa them, the Galls,^ 
once occupied the region of the plains and the river 
valleys as well as the eastern highlands; but, driven 
from the former by successive hivasions o( a Cymric 
race coming from beyond the Rhine, had found refuge 
in the eastern highland region. Unfortunately, how-^H 
ever, for the historical application of this theory, the^* 
line of demarcation drawn by Ciesar between the Belgae 
and the Celtge, the course of the two riverSj the Seim 
and the Marne, cuts the lowland region into tw 
unequal parts ; and M. Thierry has been obliged t 
invent for the occupation of the southern division o! 
this region a kind of tertium. quid, in the shape of a 
Gallo'Cymric race^ or Cymry of the 6rst invasion 
who, mixed with Gallic blood, occupied the valleys 
the Loire and the lowland region between the Seine 
and the (laronne, while the northern division between 
the Seine and the Rhine was occupied by the Cym 
of the second invasion — a purely Cymric race, th 
Belgae of Cipsar. 

The strong distinction drawn by M. Thierry between 
these two branches of the Celtic race goes far beyond 
anything that can be drawn from the expressions use 
by the Roman commander. 

In support of these views, which assign to the Bet 
gic Gauls a Cymric, to the Celtic Gauls a Gadhelic 
origin, the Gaulish inscriptions afford a negative testi- 
mony which is not to be disregarded, though, restmg 
u\\ an unsubstantial basis, it may at any moment 
ovcrlhrown. At present, however, it is a fact^ 3 



I 

a 

4 

tie ^ 

I 

d 

1 



OK THE GAULISH INSCaiPTIONS. 



365 



forms a not unimportant part of the question at issue, 
that all the Gaulish inscriptions hitherto discovered 
have been found, with one doubtful exception, south 
of the Seiae and Marne, that is within the Celto-Gallic 
area; or, as it would be better slated, since they have 
been found outside the proper limits of this area, that 
is, within the Provincia Narbonensis, similar inscrip- 
tions have not yet been discovered within the limits of 
the territory occupied by the Belgee of Caesar. 

To this fact we must add another, namely, that the 
fi'agments of the language spoken by the rustic popu- 
lation around Bordeaux, as obtained from them, and 
preserved by the physiciao Marcellus in the third cen- 
tury, have been declared by Grimm and Pictet to be 
the remains of a Celtic dialect more nearly related to 
the Gadhelic than to the Cymric, an opinion to which, 
though at first opposed hy him,'^^ Zeuss is said after- 
wards to have assented.*^ The opinion of scholars so 
eminent must be received with deference and respect ; 
at the same time, it may be permitted to express a 
wish that the matter of these Marcelline formulBc had 
admitted of a more satisfactory, or, it" we may venture 
to say so, a more common-sense interpretation. 

The evidence afforded by the Marcelline formulae 
as to the Gadhelic character of the dialect spoken in 
the third century in the neighbourhood of Bordeaux, 
would only go to show that their dialect prevailed in 
that immediate neighbourhood ; but the Gaulish in- 



1* "Qaae apud Marcellum Burdigalensem.Virgiliutn grammaEicum, 
in glossa Malhergica, leguntur, peregriria, inaudita. vd incognita, in. 
his oti]nibti9 eiiiim equidcm nee itiveni vocem Ctlticam nee invenio." 
(HramtiK Celtica^ prirfat. p. xSviii.) 

" Piclet, ■ Esfai sur (luclqiiefr Inscripttona Gaulotees," p, 54. 



366 



OS THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 



4 



ficriptions, spread, as we have seen, over tl;e whole 
noiJ-Belgic area, extend the hiiiits of this dialed to the 
whole of Celtic Gaul. As to the language or dialect 
spoken by the Belgse, we have no more infonnatioa^ri 
thaa before the testimony of the inscriptions was ^^ 
brought to hear upon the question. Zeuss, the great- 
est authority ujjou this subject, who, in his * Grani- 
matica Ceitica/ took no notice of Ibe inscriptions, 
treated the language of all Gaul as homogeneous, 
without distincEion of Belgic or Celto-Gallic, and in- 
cluded the Gaulish as a branch of the " Lingua Bri- 
tannica," that is, of the Celtic tongue to which the 
Cymric dialects, the Armoric, the Welsh, and the 
Cornish, belong. 

The arguments advanced by the great Celtic philo- 
loger in support of the Cymric relations of the Gaulish ^ 
language are certainly not convinciDg, nor have his ^M 
conclusions on this point met with universal accept- " 
ance; but they suffice to show that, apart from the 
evidence afforded by the inscriptions, the remains of 
the Gauhsh language derived from names of places, 
tribes, and persons, and the few words preserved by 
the classical writers, do not point to Gadheiic affini- 
ties. The opinion of Professor Leo, founded on a con- 
sideration of the Malhcrg glosses, that the language of 
the Belgic Gauls was Gadhehc, that of the Celtic 
Gauls Cymric, is now generally admitted to have been 
louuded on an erroneous estimate of the nature of the 
documents on which that opinion was based. There 
yet remains the hypothe>iis which has been insisted on 
by M. Roget de Belloguet, th<it the Gaulish language, 
without distinction of locality, was a Celtic dialect, 
homogeneous in itself, dilfering alike from the Ga- 



ON THE GAULISH INSCRIPTIONS. 367 

dhelic aad the Cymric. To this conclusion perhaps 
!he evidence in our possessiou points, but not deci- 
sively. The names of places and persons throughout 
all Gaul appear to belong to a common Celtic dialect, 
but the absence of inscriptions from the Belgic part of 
Gaul leaves the question open to be influenced by 
future discoveries. At present, the only inscription 
which has been discovered in the Belgic Gaul of 
CiEsar is too fragmentary to admit of any inference 
being drawn froni it. 

No, 15. 

Found at Scarpone, on an island in the Moselle, 
in the department of La Meurllie, Arrond. of ^iancy. 
It was in the territory of the Mediomatrici^ or the 
Leuci, in Gallia Belgica (of Cresar). 

NAMANDEi 
DENTEEL A 
RMIA MOAI 
I 
PPPII& SC 

I conclude this very imperfect account of the GauU 
isli inscriptions with the following quotation from 
M. Roget de Belloguet:'* — 

" It appears to me very singular that almost the 
whole of the Gaulish words transmitted to ue by the 
classical writers find in the modern Celtic either tlieir 
counterparts or near analogies, while we are scarcely 
able to explain with any certainty a siugle one of the 

" 'Ethnogdnie Gauloise:' Partie l.inguiEtlqm^t p, 296. 



368 



ON TttE GAULISH INSCRIFFIONS. 



lapidary inscriptions. Part of the wards of these in- 
scriptions seem, indeed^ altogether foreign to the ex- 
isting Celtic idioms." 



ERRATA. 

OiTing; to Mr. Nash's absence from Eiiglaod at the time bU paper 
passed through the prcsSj many errata have occurred, -which the 
reader is requested to correct by the following Ust : — 

Pag'e 327, line 23>/or Schleichexi read Schleicher. 

PagG 329, line 3 from bottom, /or Andecari VMd Andecavi. 

Page 332. Une \4,/ar Iccarus read Iccavoa. 

PagB 332, line 19, /or locianus read Iccianus. 

Pag-c 332, line 30,/or Briginii read Briginn. 

P«gc 334, line X'ly/of Boromis read Borvonis. 

Page 339, line 14^ /or Vemematiim read Veraemetam. 

Page 344, line 20, /or Cuno-TDe-g-lus read Cuno-maglufi. 

Page 345, line 2 from bottom./or ndgea read ringg. 

Page 347, line 19,/or Gnabum, read Gennbum. 

Page 348, line 21, read to coDDcct with the Senani^ the Sens. 

Page 3Jl, line I4,/or Becken read Decker. 




(Read March 21st, 186G.) 

The inscription on the cylinder of Bellino is one of 
the most important which remains to us, The text is 
in an admirable state of preservation, and has heen 
most faithfully copied by Bellino. 

I gave a translation of it in 18S0, in the eighteenth 
volume of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
p. 76. But since that time the progress of cuneiform 
decipherment has elucidated the meaning of many 
passages which I was formerly obliged to leave un- 
explaJLied. I am, iherefore, now enabled to offer a 
n:iore perfect translation ; in which most of the dubious 
passages have, I hope, been cleared up. 

Among t}te many remarkable questions which arise 
from the study of this inscription of Bellino, not the 
least curious is a faint allusion (if I am not entirely 
mistaken) to the ancient legend of Pyramua and 
Thishe. 

That this was a genuine Babylonian tale there can 
be little doubt ; or rather^ I should say, an Assyrian 
one, for it inlroducea the tomb of Ninus, and he was 
the founder of Nineveh. His wife, Setiiiratuis* founded 

VOL. VIIK 2 c 



370 



A NEW TRANSLATION Of 



I 

ied a ^ 

I 



Babylon, and after her death she was changed into a 

dove, and worshipped in the East with divine honours: 

"Alba PalestiDO sacra columbaSyro." 

But their history is purely mythical. In fact, Ninus 
and Semiramis were two great divinities of the Eastern 
Pantheon. 

The name of Thisbe also appears to have signified a 
dove. Homer says (B, 502),— 

— "and Thiabe abounding in doves."* And Ovid 
(Met. xi. 300) gives to all doves the epithet of "This- 
bsese columba?." 

Now, 1 find in the present inscription, if I interpret 
it correctly, that the clay cylinder deposited in the 
foundation-stone of the palace of Nineveh, by its first ^| 
founders, which was exhumed by Sennacherib and 
found uninjured, was impressed with the figure of a 
dove (ifwrwm), and I fancy that I see in this word some 
trace of the name of Jli^pa^op. The b^ood of the 
lovers, as Ovid sings, turned the white fruit of the 
mulberry-tree into its present dark-purple colour. 
Perhaps, however, in some other version of the ancient 
tale, the two dying lovers were turned at once into 
doves, as Philomela was changed into a nightin^le, 
Procne into a swallow, and Tereus and Itylus into other 
birds. In that case, the names of thiibe and burum 
may have given rise to the legendary tale. 



^ This city Thiebe was in Bicotia, but the legend of Cadmus shows 
that Bceotia was colonized by emigrants from Phreiiicia and the farther 
East. There wa& likewise a city Thisbe in Asia (see Book of Tobil, 
chapter i.], and Bellino's inscription tnentioDa the citvof Kflr^Thisbr, 
or Castle of Thi*be, 



I 




TUB INSCtilPTION OF BELLINO. 



THE INSCRIPTION. WITH ITS TRANSLATION. 

The first line being altogether unconnected with the 
rest, 1 will reserve the consideration of it to the end. 
The inscription proper commences with line 2. 




Line 2. 



SzNAKHiRBA sar Fahu, 
sar dannu, sar Ashur-ki, 
sar la shanan, ribitu 
mutninnu, pata Ui rabi. 



SENNACEiEaiB the great 
king, the powerful king, 
the king of Assyria^ the 
king irresistible, the 
heaven-appointed mon- 
arch, the servant of the 
great god 53. 



I 



Observations. 

Mutninnu. This reading was communicated to me 
by Mr. Norris. In the great E. L H, inscription, 
Nebuchadnezzar calU himself /mja mutninnu (Col. I. 
1. 18), where imga i^ an old Proto-Chaldaean term for 
* high priest.' The meaning of the terra mutninnu is 
uncertain. Perhaps it is a Hithpael form from py, 
tmgurari, and may mean that Sennacherib's title to 
the throne was confirmed by heavenly auguries at his 
accession. 

So aUo when bis son Esarhaddon succeeded him, 
good omens were seen in the heavens. (See my trans- 
lation of Lord Aberdeen's stone in the British Mu- 
seum: Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, 
Vol. VlTl.p. 126) 

2 c 2 



372 



A NfiVr TRANSLATION OF 



Line 3. 

Natsir ikti, rahim The observer of treaties^? 
mishari, epish ufzati alik the lover of justice : 
gaDaki, tsakiru damgati, » * * 

Natsir ikti, faithful observer of treaties ; irom Heb. 
TJ^, custodire. Gesenius says (p. 684) that this verb 
is specially used concerning treaties: 123, observavit, 
firmiter tenuit/ee(/ws, Deut. xxxJii. 9. Psalm xxv. 10. 

Ikti I would render *' bonds" or "treaties," and 
derive it from the root ipi?, eked, which means ''to 
bind firmly.'* This word is used in Genesis xxii. 9 
'* And be bound Isaac his son/' 

Another explanation of natsir ikti is '* Observer o| 
the Law," especially the religiotts law, or the statutes^ 
and ordinances of religion ; for this is one of the mean- 
ings of npn, or i/cti^ in Hebrew. For instance, in 
Exodus xxvii. 21, DTlJ? lyTf, lex acterna, i.e. lex Dei 
(Gesen.). 

Rahim, lover ; from Heb. oni, rahem, aroavit. 

Mishari, justice ; from Hebrew "jTi?"', rectus, probuE 
Justus. 

The rest of this line is of uncertain meaning. 

Line 4. 



itlu buli, zikaru gardu, 
asharaddan malki, rabbu 
laliit lamaj^irijinushipriku 
zamani. 




the noble warrior, 1 
valiant hero, the first 
all kings, the great 
punisher of the unbe- 
lievers, the breaker in 
pieces of their wicked 
conspiracies. 




THK INSCRIPTION OF BELLINO, 




Lakli, punisher The participle mulait, chastiaer, 
also occurs* The root may be mi7, a Chfildaized form 
of the Hebrew yn7, afflixit. 

Mushipn'ku. The ska conjugation of the. Hebrew 
parak, "pS, to break. 

Zamani, for the Hebrew zamaml. Gesenius sa5^s the 
verb QDt means insidiatus est, mala molitus est; it 
seems to be a reduplicate form of the root Httt^ con- 
silium scelestum (Ges. 303). 



Line 5. 



Asbur bilu rabu sarut 
la shanau ushathma 
annimM. Eli gimir ami 
parakki usarba kuti-ya. 



Ashur the great Lord 
has given to me enduring 
power. Overall heretical 
nations he raised trium- 
phantly my arms. 



La tthunan, unchangeable j from Heb. HJ^, fiftann, to 
change ; in Chald. NJUV 

Avii; Heb. Dir, populus. 

PantM'i; from Heb. jiHTfl/'jTlB, separavit, violenter 
fregit, rupit. This verb implies in Assyrian, schism 
or heresy, as is manifest from the derived substan- 
tive par't/cti: see the Esarhaddon inscription, where a 
wicked king near Babylon is described who seduced 
the common people and plunged them into heresy, as 
parikti ithalu. And when Nebuchadnezzar boa&tingly 
calls himself nadu la muppnrlru, perhaps he means a 
king never tainted with heresy. 

Bilu, lord. It would appear from this passage that 
the cuneiform sign ^^ which has so many values, 
ijas also that of bil. To avoid this complication, we 





374 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF 



may perhaps transcribe it shndti, which means doviinns 
in Hebrew, whence Slutddfti, '>~ni?, is a name of Je- 
hovah :—Dommus altissinius; Oniuipotens. 

Line 6. 



In resFi sarti-ya, sha 
Marduk-bal-adanna sar 
Karduniash adi urumanati 
Nuva-ki iu tamirti Kush- 
ki a&htakan sigi-su. 



In the begmning of my 
reign I destroyed the 
armiesofMarduk-baladan, 
king of Babylonia, and his 
aUies the Susians, in the 
plains near the city of 
Ku&h. 



Taviirtit the fields ; from omir, y*r^V* grass. See 
line 59. 

Asktakan, I cut in pieces ; siai-su, their troops. 
That this is the meaning appears from the passage 
where Saryon calls himself shakin sisi Kuviba-nikask^ 
the sword, i.e. the slayer, of the troops of Kumba 
nikash, king of the Susians. But here an important 
remark has to be made. There are two verbs shakartt 
ptt?, distinguished, according to Schindler (p. 1858), 
by the dots on the letter UI^. 

The verb -pvnciQ sinistra means to cut with a sword; 
that puncto dextro means habitavit, and hahttare fecit, 
i.e. coUocavit Both are common in Assyrian and are 
written the same, viz. ashhun, in the first person. And 
both, in the T conjugation, become as/itakan. This 
naturally causes confusion. The substantive p3ty, 
skakin, a sword, and the Chaldee form of it, ^20, is 
given by Schindler, ibid. See also Buxtorf, p, 1477. 



4 





THfi tNSCHlPl'ION or BKLLINO. 



Line 7. 



In kabal takhari suatu 
etzib kililaUzu, edish 
ipparsidu, ana ir Gutzum- 
mam innabit, kireb agam- 
mi u apparati eruTxiaia 
napishtu ekhir. 




In the midst of that 
battle he quitted his army^ 
fled alone on horseback, 
and escaped to the city 
Gutzun:iman, and (hiding) 
among the reeds and 
rushes of the river, he 
saved his life aloiie. 



So Marius saved his life in the marshes of Mintumse, 
plunged up to his neck and bidden in the reeds. How 
events repeat themselves ! 

Agammi is the plural of the Heb. agam, Q^ifc*, a 
reed. The sign for "water" is prefixed to it. DJM 
also signifies a marsh. Geaenius has palue, stagnum, 
arundinetum. Its plural is "^SMi. 

Apparati is the Chald. aparat, a rush, fT^DM. See 
Buxtorf, p. 197, who quotes from Exodus ii> 3, the 
account of Moses hidden among the rushes: "And 
she placed him niElb? n (among the rushes), on the 
surface of the river." 

Erumma may be nude in Latin. " He saved bars 
life." In German, *' er hat bloss das Leben errettet." 
From erum, D1*>y, nudus (Ges. 797). 

But the Hebrew root liy has, besides the meaning 
of nakedness, also tlie meaning of darkness; perhaps 
that is the meaning intended here, viz. that Marduk- 
Baladan hid himself in a dark or very concealed 
place. 

Line 8, 
Rakabi, sumbi, kurra, The chariots, waggons. 






IS, mares, u 
camels, and . . . , which 
in the confusion of the 
battle they had abandoned, 
were captured by rayi 
hands. 



Line 9. 

Ana haikal-su sha kireb 
Babiki khatish erumraa; 
aptiu bit-nitsirti-su ; khu- 
rassi, kaspa ; hunuta 
khurassi, kaspa ; agartu 
sutaksu ; shasu, shaga, 
nitsirtu kabittu, 



Then I plundered com- 
pielely his palace in the^j 
city of Babyinn ; I broke H^ 
open his royal treasury; 
gold and silver ; vessels of ^H 



gold and silver; precious 
stones; goodsand valuables 
and much royal treasure. ^| 



Khaiish ernmma. The root tiH in Hebrew siCTiifies 



a thorough search ; Gesenins has 
Ernrnwa is probably nudavi. 



perscrotatus est," 



kirat-zu, shal (....) 
kal-su ; nisi rabuti, nisi 
nishzfjsh pani sikhirti 
ummani malvasu ; muttap- 
biluthaikal; ushaza-amnia 
shallatish amnu. 



Line 10, 
hai- His wife, and the female 





inhabitants of his palace ; 
the noblemen and the 
royal treasurers? who 
stood first among all his 
men of trust, and were 
clothed with the chief 
authority in the palace^ I 
carried off and I counted 
them as a spoil. 



Ummaiti in this passage most probably means the 



4 




THE INSCRIPTION OF BELLlNO. 




king of Babylon's most trusted friends. And perhaps 
multap-bilut haikal means that lliey wore the gorgeous 
palace dress, that worn by high officers of state. 

Muttap appears to be the participle of the verb fp^, 
vestitus esl, whence tnutapat, rnsIsyD, vestes (Ges. 
755). In the inscription of Tiglath-Pileser, Col. 1. 15, 
the gods are said to be mutfap-bilut (clothed with the 
sovereignty of) Heaven and Earth ; where the first 
word is written mttMt.tftp. But in our inscription of 
Sennacherib it is written with two signs only, mut.tap. 



Line 11. 



Ashbitu arka-su ana Ir 
Gutzummani : muntakhi- 
tzi-ya aua kireb agammi 
u apparati umahini. V 
tami iparunu, val innamir 
ashar-Bu. 



I marched after him to 
the city Gutzumman, and 
I sent off my soldiers to 
search thro' the marshes 
and reeds. Five days they 
moved about rapidly, but 
his hiding-place was not 
discovered. 



I 

1 



Muntakkitzi^ some kind of soldiers. Probably a 
participial form, from the verb unhiiitz, which implies 
extreme activitv. See in line 22 the word aitalkitz. 



Line 12. 



In emuk Ashur bel-ya 
89 ii'i dannuti, bit-sarini 
sha mat Kaldi ; u 820 iri 
tsLikhiri sha limiti-sun alini 
aksut ashlula shallat-zun. 




In the name"? of Ashur 
my lord, 89 large cities 
and royal dwellings in the 
land of Chaldfpa, and 8-30 
small towns in their neigh- 
bourhood I assaulted, 
captured, and carried off 
their spoils. 




378 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF 



Line 13. 



Nisi shimbi Araiuu u 
Kaldusbakireb (. . . .)\ii, 
Bel-ki, Kush-ki, Khairi- 
shunu-ki, Tiggaba-ki^ adi 
(. . .) bel-kbiddi usbaza- 
amiiia shallatish amuu. 



The skilled workmen 
botb AramEEans and Chal- 
d^aDS who were ia the 
cities of (. . .) Bel, Kushj 
Kharrishun and Tiggaba ; 
and also the commoa 
people of the land who 
had been in rebellion, 1 
carried away and 1 distri- 
buted them as a spoil. 



Shimhi is perhaps the same as shimdi, skilled work- 
men. (See notes to 1. 5S of this inscription.) 

Kharrishun, the city of Soothsayers, from Chald. 
Mti?"in, incantator, magus (Gesen.). 

Line 14. 



Bel-ebus pal ansha ma- 
mukut as bit 7 ill suanna- 
k'i, sha kima mirani zakhri 
kireb haikal-ya irbu^ ana 
sarrut Leshan u Akkadi 
aehtakan eli sun. 



Belibus the son of the 
high-priest {or governor?) 
of the temple of the 7 
planets in the holy city, 
who had been educated as 
a young nobleman in my 
palace, 1 placed over them 
as king of Leshati and 
Accadi. 



Bel-ehm, This proper name signifies "Be! created 
(him).'' The sign j:_ is to be read ebus, as is amply 



THK INSCftlPTlON 0^ BBLLINO. 




proved by the examples given by Oppert (pp. 343 
and 344). 

Another value of the sign is bani, which also sig- 
nifies *' he created, or made;" Heb. banah, n2X This 
occurs in the proper name AshurbanipaL 

But the most usual value of the sign is eb, probably 
because this is the first syllable of ebus. 

His father's rank is denoted by the word mamukui, 
which I think means toTquatitf;, wearing a golden 
collar, from amu^\ an alteration of the Heb. anuAj pZif, 
a collar. 

Miranit a young man. 

Znkhri may be the Heb. ^TO, candidus, nitens. 
Noblemen wore white dresses, hence called in Heb, 
□"""nn, Khurim, or Hurim, from T*n, albus. 



1 



Line 15. 



In tayarti-yaTuhamuna, 
Rihikhu, Yadakku, Hu- 
budu, Kipri, JVlalikhu, 
Gurumu,Hubuli,Damunu, 



During my return, the 
tribes of the Tuhamuna, 
Kihtkhu, Yadakku, [iu- 
Imdu, Kipri, Malikhu, 
Gurumu.Hubuli.Damunu^ 



Line 16. 



Ganibulu, Khindaru, Hu- 
ll uha.Bukudu,Khamranu^ 
Khagaranu.Nabatu, Lihu- 
tahu, Aramu la kansu 
belkharish aksul. 



Gambulu, Khindaru, Ru- 
huha, Buikudu, KhamraQU, 
Khagaianu, Nahatu, and 
Lihutahu (Aramaeans all 
ot them and rebels), I 
completely conquered. 




380 



A NKW TRANSLATJON OK 



Line 17. 



208,000 nisi, zikru u 
slial ; 7:200 kurra, susi ; 

1173 ( ); 5230 gam- 

mali; 80,100 gai; 800,600 
bukludi ; shallatu kabittu 
ashlula ana kireb Ashur- 
ki. 



208,001) inhabitants, 
male and female ; 7200 
horses and mares-, 1173 
mules ; 5,230 camels ; 
80,100 oxen; 800,600 
sheep ; a vast spoil, 1 
carried off to Assyria. 



The numbers are very crowded in Bellino's facsimile 
text, hut I think they are correctly rendered above. 
Hnldudi is the Chald t^rh^. 

Line 18. 

Tn mitik girrl-ya, sha In my firet year I re- 

Nebo-bel-mii kipi ir Kha- ceived the great tribute 

rarati, khurassi, kaspa, its of Nebo-beUmu, chief of 

meshukanni rabi, (. . . .), Ararat; gold, silver, me- 

gammali, gai u hukludi, shukan wood of great size, 

tamarta-su kabittu am- mules, camels, oxen, and 

khar. sheep. 



Line 19. 

Bahuliiti ir Khismi The people of the city 
yabu aksu, sha valtuUaana of Khismi^ enemies and 
niri-va la iknusu, in kuti heretics, who, from old 



uwekku. Napishtu va! 
elzib. 



liahvlttfi, citizens, from Ileb. hah'lat or haalnt, a 




times, had never bowed 
down to my yoke, I de- 
stroyed with my arms. 
Not one soul escaped. 



THE INSCniPTION Oi' BELLINO. 




city, r*7373 ; whence citizens are called in Hebrew 
■'T'yi. See examples in Gesenius, pp. 161, iiVS. 

ValtuUa; composed of the preposition valtu, from, 
and ulla, before, or former. 

Ji^apishtu, a living thing ; a soul. 

Line 20. 



Nagu suatu ana sansuti 
ashbit. 1 ga, X In, X tap- 
tanni, XX kali-rnarishati- 
6u, ana ili Adhur-ki bili- 
ya ukin ebriu. 



That city I built again, 
One bull, ten sheep, ten 
fathngs, twenty animals 
called '*strongheads/' I 
olTered in sacrifice to the 
gods of Assyria, my lords. 



% 



Taptanni ; from the Chald. DBS, to fatten (Bust. 
I71G). 

Markhati, " heads," is found also in Hebrew (see 
Ges. p. 615). 

Examples t marishati-u, ad caput ejus, 1 Samuel 
xix. 13. Irad manshali-kum^ etc, your crown of 
honour falls from your heads, Jeremiah xiii. 18. 
Ebriu, irom ■^SHi dissecuit (Ges, 266), The sense is, 
I cut up the victims and distributed them on the altars 
of the gods. These sacrifices were in order to purify 
the city of Khismi from the taint of heresy before re- 
buUding it. 

Line 21. 

In n girri-ya, Ashur In my second year, 

belni utakkil annima, ana Ashur the lord giving me 

mat JBisi u Yatsubi-gailaya confidence, I marched 

yabu aksi, sha valtulla ana againat the laud of the 





382 



A NEW TaASaLATION OP 



saria abUya la ikausu lu- 
alLik. 



Bisi and the YaUubi-gai- 
laya, enemies and heretics, 
who, from old tiaies, had 
never submitted to the 
kings my fathers. 



Yatsuhi-gallaya, The name of this tribe meaos 
" the strong-bodied race,*' or " the tall race," from Ueb. 
WSV, atsum, corpus. 



Line 22. 



Kireb karshani zakruti, 
ekil tiamratsi in kurra 
aredu, rakab nir-ya in 
tikkati ushasli. Ashru 
ruseuku in nir-ya nma- 
nish attakbits. 



Through the thicl 
forests^ and in the hilly 
districts, I rode on horse- 
back, for I had left ray 
two-horee chariot in the 
plains below. But in dan- 
gerous places I alighted 
on my feet, and clanjbered 
like a mountain goat* 




Ushasli. I l^ad it secured, or I left it fast: from 
asli, T fastened. See line 43. 

Attakhits. This appears to be the T conju^tion of 
yn3, nakhita, just as abhul makes attahtd, and amkhar 
makes aitakhar in the T conjugation. The verb WT 
is explained in the Lexica, ire celeriter vel festinanier. 
The king was as active and agile as a chamois. 

So we read in 2 Samuel ii. 18, that David's nephew 
Asahel was " light of foot as a wild roe." 



THE INiJCItlPTION OF BBLl.lNO. 



Lint; 23. 



Ir Beth-Kilamzakh ir 
dannuti-suD almi aksut : 
nisi tari rabi; kurra, susi; 
(. . . ; gai ; u hukludi, 
valtu girbi-su ushaza- 
amma shallalish amnti. 




The city of Beth-Ki- 
lamzakht their great city, 
I attacked and took. The 
inhabitants email and 
great ; horses, mares, 
mules, oxen, and sheep, I 
carried off from it and dis- 
tributed them as a spoil. 



Line 24. 




Iri-fiun tzakhiri shaniba 
la isu, abbul, aggur, 
ushasib karmi. Bit-gahbir 
mutari tuzirti-sun in ashut 
akmu, dirilish ushali. 



Their smaller towns 
without number 1 over- 
threw and reduced them 
to ruins. A vast building 
which was their Hall of 
Assembly 1 burnt with fire, 
and .... 



Mutari, a hall, from "mn, used for the Hebrew 'ym, 
atrium, a Hall. 

Another inscription relating to the Bame event haa 
mutari muskabii *' hall of sittings." 

Tuzirti, an assembly of the people. From Heb. 
rr(2y, -n-avriyvpisj concio populi. 

Ushali may be from Heb. 77U?, diripuit; or perhaps 
from 77M, the root of h'hi^, inania, which would give 
the sense *' I annihilated." 

Diriliiih may be " in flames i'* from m, dur^ py^j 
rogus. (Duxt. 5*22. ) But if vshali stands for ushalik 
(see note to line 30) the sense may be, " I left it in 
flames/' 





384 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF 



iine 25- 



Utaru ir Beth-Kilara- 
zakh Buatu ana birtuti 
ashbit. Eli sha tami pant 
udanain eli nir. Nisi 
mati kishitti idi-ya as libbi 
ushasib. 



Eli nir, m jugo, on a bill 

Line 

Nisi mat Bisi u Yatsubi- 
galiaya sha lapan kuti-ya 
ipparsidu valtu kireb sbadi 
usharid-amma, in ir Kar- 
Tishpi, ir Beth-Kubitti 
usarsib. 



Once more that city oi 
Betb-Kilamzakb 1 erected^ 
into a strong fortress. 
Higher than in former 
times, I rebuilt it on a hill. 
People drawn from lands 
eubdued by my arms 
placed to dwell within it 



26. 

The people of Bisi and 
Yatsubi-gallaya, who had 
fled away from my arms, 
1 brought down from the 
mountains, and in the 
cities of Kar-Thisbe and 
Beth-Kubitti, 1 caused 
them to dwell. 



Isine 27. 



In idi 6utrin-ya, nisi 
bel-nam ir Arrapakha, 
amnu sunuti. 

Naru ahna ushapishu, 
lita kishitti kati sha ell- 
sun a&htakkanu, tsirus-su 
U6hasdiru>asgirbi ir valbit. 




In the hands of my 
officers, men ot distinction 
of Arrapakha city, i dis- 
tributed them, 

A stone tablet I made: 
I wrote on it the victories 
which I had gained over 
them, and within the city 
1 set it up. 



4 




THE INSCRIPTION OF BELLfNO. 



385 



Zine 28. 
'. Pan niri-ya utaru, ana I turned round the front 



mat lUipi asliz^bit kliar- 
ranu illamu-ya. Ispabara 
^ar-sun iri-sa dannuti bit- 
nibsirti-6U umashiru, ana 
rukt€ti innabit. 



of my diariot, and I 
marched straight before 
me to the land of Illipi. 
Ispabara their king aban- 
doned his strong dtiea and 
his treasuries, and fled to 
a distance. 



Line 29. 



Gicnri mat-su rapashti 
kima im kabim ashkhup, 
Ir Marupishti.ir Akkuddu, 
iri bit'Sarti-su, adi 34 iri 
dannuti u iri tzakhiri sha 
limiti-sun sha niba la isu, 



All his broad country I 
swept like a mighty whirl- 
wind. The city Maru- 
pishtj, and the city Ak- 
kuddu, his royal lesidence?, 
and 34 great cities with 
numberless smaller towns 
in their neighbourhood, 



Ashkhup, I swepL Hebrew P|nD, to sweep. The 
Latin scopa, a broom, appears to hare the same origin. 



Line 30. 



abbul, aggnr, in aaha 
akmu. Shari-suQ akshid : 
ell agari ^un sissuti sha- 
kiiarrat atbuk. Mat Illipi 
ana kal gimri-sha arbuta 
usbalik. 




VOL. vni. 



I destroyed, and I burnt 
them with fire. I cut 
down their finest trees, and 
over their cornfields I 
spread blackness. Inevery 
direction I left the land of 
Illipi a desert. 

2 D 



386 



A NBW TRANSLATION OF 



Agnr, a field. Compare Ihe Latin oger^ Greek 
aypos, Geru^an acker. In Hebrew we tiud "TDM, akr, 
agricola; Syriac, a]ira; and Geyeniua says^ p. 54, 
'* vide nuni ex eodem fonte fluxennt ay/sop et ager." 

In the second line of the inscription of Michaux, 
we read Agar ir Kur-Nebo, a field of the city of Kar- 
Nebo. The gift of that field forms the subject of that 
inscription. 

Sissuti, corn-land : from MDKDj an ear of corn. 
Buxtorf, 1519. 

Shakharrat^ blackness, or ashes : from Heb. "nnt!?, 
sfuilhur, nigredo : atror : carbo : which is from irTC?, 
niger. 

Athuk^ I spread, is a common word. From the 
Heb. nDI3, to spread. The king says he burnt all the 
standing corn. 

Arhuia, a desert, is the Heb. HQIi?, desertum. 

Ushalik, from the Heh.shahtk^'lhx?, abjecit: disjecit: 
evertit : dejecit, etc. 

Line 31. 
Nisi tari rabi, zikru u The inhabitants small 



shal, kurra, susi ( ), 

gai u htikludi lamlnam 
asblula-amma, adi la basi 
ushalik suQuli. 



and great, male and fe- 
male, horses* mares, mules, 
oxen, and sheep, beyond 
number, I carried off, and 
divided them as a spoil, 
among 



It ifl very doubtful what is the meaning of adl la 
basi: il may be, among those of my soldiers who were 
not of low degree. 

Ushalik, Heb. p^n, to divide the spoil. 



Jb 



THE INSCRIPTION OF BflLLlNO. 



387 



lAne 32. 



Ir Sisirtu, ir Kukunli, 
iri flannuti, adi irii tsakhirl 
sha liniiti-suii ; Beth-Bar- 
rua nagu ana gimirti-su, 
valtu kireb mat-su abratu, 
eli mitsir Ashur-ki uraddi. 



The strong cities of 
Sisirta and Kukunli and 
the smaller towns in tbeir 
neigbbourhood, together 
with the whole province of 
Beth-Barrua, I cut off 
from his land and added 
them to the empire of 
Assyria. 



Line 33. 

Ir Ihnzash ana ir sarti I raised the city of llin- 

zash to be the royal city 
and metropolis of that 
province. 1 abolished its 
former name and I gave it 
the name of the city of 
Sennacherib. 



u dannat aagie suatu ash- 
bit. Sum-su niakhra 
unakkir, ir Kar-Sena- 
khirba attabi nibit-zu. 



Line 34. 



I 



In tayarti-ya, sha Ma- 
daya rukuti sha in sarin 
abi-ya mamman la ishinu 
zigir mati-sun^ mandata- 
sun kahitta amkhar, ana 
niri belluli-ya ushaknit- 
zunuti. 




During my return I 
received a great tribute 
from the distant iVIedians, 
who, in the days of the 
kings ray fathers, no one 
had ever heard even the 
name of their country ; 
nnd I made them bow 
down to the yoke of my 
majesty. 

2 D 2 



388 



A NEW TRANSLATION' Ol> 



Line 35. 



In tami su-hu Niriua 
makliatzu tsiru, ir naram 
Ishtar, sha kharkhar ku- 
(ludie ilu u ishtarut basu 
kireb-su, 



I 




In those days Nineveh 
the exalted city, the city 
beloved by Ishtar, which 
cherishes every kiod of 
worship of the gods and 
goddesses within it, 

The phrase, in tami suhu, generally indicates the 
commencement of an entirely new subject. Suhu 
means ifle or ipse, as in such phrases as the following: 
— "I defeated the army of that king; he himself [auhu) ^M 
fled to a distance," etc. It is, therefore, quite a dif- ^^ 
ferent word from sii (him or his). 

In taint suhu, in illis diebtis, is a loose or general 
expression meaning *' much about that time." In fact, 
as the kings relate on their Tablets their civil works, 
and the magnificence they displayed at home, after 
giving an account of all their wars, it is plain that the 
former must have been intermixed in point of time 
with the latter. 

Isktanit, goddesses, plural of is'htnr, a goddess. 
But there was one goddess more exalted than the rest 
to whom the name of Ishtar {the goddess) was es- 
pecially given. Her name, also, occurs in this line. 

Kududie, from the Hebrew verb htdud, np, to pros- 
trate oneself in reverence, for example, before Jehovah. 

BasH means they love and cherish. It is a form of 
the Hebrew DUf3, otherwise DDl, dropping the final 
wj, or only sounding it slightly ; as the Latins dropped 
the final m in retjnum, and other neuters, till it became 
a vowel sound, as in the Italian regno. 





Dt£?3 properly means sweetnc&s, but it is applied to 
the love of God and of his Law (see Buxtorf). It is 
used in the phrases "sweet sleep," "sweeter than 
honey/' etc. etc. It is also metaphorical sweetness 
(as that of the words of the law), 

Mmo^'Dl, besimut, is delightfuliiess, ex. j/r. jucunditas 
Domini J jucunditas horti Edenjs (Psalms). To con^ 
firm thi5 explanation of the verb basu, I will refer to 
its use in the great inscription of Nebuchadnezzar, E. 
I. H. viii. 32, where he calls his god Marduk, basu 
Hbbu't/a, " the delight of my heart.'* So it stands in 
the original engraving, but has got a Httle altered in 
the copy publli^hed by the British Museum. In the 
syllable ba, the upper and lower horizontal strokes 
frequently toucii each other, and appear to form a 
connecting line ; but this is accidental, and not intended 
by the original scribe. 

The passage before us, in a few expressive words, 
gives a reniarl^ablsi picture of the city of Nineveh: 
" Every kind ol" worship of the gods and goddesaes 19 
cherished within it." 



Line 36. 



Timinnu daru duru's, 
%ati sha valtulla, itti sidhir 
burummi itsrat-zu isshidu, 
subu t^iudu-su. 



In its tiviin, meant to 
last for ever and ever, those 
of old time deposited a 
clay tablet, impressed with 
the figure of a dove j and 
along with it they placed 
its fellow-tablets. 

The timin was the clay tablet or cylinder deposited 
the foundation stone, or sometimes at the four 



390 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF 




corners of a building- It was regarded with peculjai 
reverence. So the Hebrews appear to have regarded] 
the ** corner stone.'' U was intended to remain foi 
ever. Jf found by a subsequent king, it was to be read 
with reverence and restored to its former place. 

Daru duru^ eternal lleb. "n and Tn have the sanw 
meaning, 

JJuru's is for duru-su. 

Znt'i, iili, illae, ilia, a pronoun, is a form of the Heb.] 
n^, feniin. HMT, uit. 

Valtulla or valtu valla, " of old time." 

Valtu is a preposition meaning " from," and of verjr] 
frequent occurrence. Valla or uUa signifies ^'before,'*] 
as ill the phrase vnllanu-ya, " before me." We shall 
find it in line 33, " the kings of old time who reigned^i 
vaUanu-yfi, — before me." ^H 

I rather think that the sellable id or uUa tneant^^ 
prior, anterior, and if so, this will give us the simplest 
etymology of the Hebrew word tamulj b^^^^, *' yester- j 
day," which has hitherto baffled the researches offl 
etymologists. I think it signified '* dies prior/' tarn ul 
or titmu-uh. for Unmi is the Assyrian word for dies, 
Gesenius says: "Etymon obscurum. Radix fen 
ejusqui3 in linguis cognatis significationes nil lucis 
pnebent, nisi forte obvelandl, ohtegendi significatum ei 
tribuere vis, ila ut tempus praeteritum tanquam ob- 
scurum cogitetur." But assuredly the events of 
yesterday cannot as yet be considered to have become 
obscure. 

Zaii ska valtulla ^ " those of former days.'* 

lUiy signuni. Sidhif, adj., insculptus, inscriptuSt 
ex, gr. musharu sidhir svmi-ya, lineas inscriptiK nomine 
meo ; see the Esarliaddon inscription in Tians. Roy. 




THE INSCRIPTION OF CELLING. 



39 



Soc. of Literrtture, Vol. VII. p. GIG. Both words are 
very common, 

I read thus : itti sidhir hurummi, gigno insculpto 
columbae; isskidu, deposuerunt; jisrafsu, argillam ejus. 

Itsrat, potter's clay, or a tablet or figure formed 
thereof, Heb, 'IT', to make a vessel of clay, as a 
potter does. TTC*, a potter. These tablets are called 
ussurati or ulsarati in other inscriptions. 

Isshidu, deposuerunt ; from the Chald, Mlt^, to lay 
a foundation stone, ex. gr. Job xxxviii. 6, f|uis jecit 
lapidem angularem ejus? This example is taken from 
Buxtorf, p. 2330. Perhaps, however, isshidu. comes 
from the Heb. TD'', fundavit sedificium. For the 
substantive ishdi, " foundations," is very common in 
these inscriptions. 

Subu, collocarunt ; probably from m?**, collocavit ; 
for the common word subatt sedes, locatio, certainly 
comes from that root. 

T/mdu-su, pares suos, its companions. For there 
were usually four cylinders similarly inscribed, depo- 
sited at the four corners of a buildiHg. Tsindn^ from 
Heb> "^212, par [a pair), also conjunctus, copulatus. 

Burumi. I would derive burum, a dove, from its 
plaintive murmuring note, which sound the Latins 
expressed by rfntrnmr : compare also the German 
brummen (to raurmurj. I also find in Schindler, p, 
252, the verb □11, which he translates by murmuravit. 
1 think D11 may be pronounced huram. 




Line 37- 



Ashru naklu, snbat 
eshti-sha sutaksu, banut 



A splendid place, a rich 
building, for her sanctu- 



39-2 



A NEU TRANSLATION OF 



nikitti giniir belludle, 
nitslrti I:^litar, sutabulu. 
kirebsu. 



ary ; and a tre-asure-house 
for all tbe jewels, tbe re- 
galiaof Isbtar,lhey erected 
wilbin it. 



Naktu, splendid, and ibe adverb naklish, splendidly, 
occur fiequently. 

Pireshti-ska, ber sanctuary. Parash is tbe temple 
or sunrUun of a deity, here of Isbtar. 

Bamit nt/cfZ/i', a bouseof sbuttiiig up; i.e. a treasury: 
compare beth kilt, a closed apartment or a treasury. 
Heb. mSd, clausit. 

Sutalm, precious or beautiful. We bad tbis word 
before in line 9, as an epithet of agarta, precious stones. 
In tbe Esarbaddon ioecription, col. iv. 1. 55^ we Imve 
ffimir ST/iaksu, "all manner of precious objects." 

Belludie^ jewels. Tbe belludie of Isbtar are again 
mentioned in the Pliillips cylinder, ii. .01. Tbey bad 
been stolen ancieuEly by some rapacioisis king, just as 
tbe jewels of tbe Madonna of Lorelto bave been made 
prize of in modern times. But the piety of Nebu- 
chadnezzar restored them to their former temple. 
They are there called belludi hHmitti, or ber ancient 
jewels, from mp, ancient or primitive, 

Nitdrii, regalia, is a very common word, I derive it 
from ne;:cr, "il3, a kin'j, 
^m iSiildhulu is tbe T conjugation of tbe Cbaldee verb 

B suhul, VsD, erexit (Ges. 702). .They (viz. those of old 

■ time) erected, within tbe city of Niueveb, a fine build- 

H iiig called " tbe treasury of Ishtar." 

H The king now proceeds to say that his ancestors had 

H spent a vast deal of money upon Nineveh, but they had 

^^^ giiuandered it injudiciously. 



THE INSCRll'TlOJ) OF BELLINO. 



393 



He pulled down their work (line 49) and rebuilt it 
ail anew, in a style of great splendour. 

Line 38. 
Sliavaltunasariiiialikut Of all the kincs of for- 



makhri abi-ya vallanu-ya 
billut Ashur-ki ebugu, 
umahiru bahiiat Bel, 



mer days, my fathers who 
went before me, who 
reigned before me over 
Assyria, and governed the 
city of Bel {i.e. Nineveh), 

ValtuUa, see line 36. 

Bilhit ebus is the usual phrase for *' he reigned." 

Uma/iifu, they directed, is a very common verb. 

Bahiiat is the Heb. rOV^t " a City " (see Gesenius, 
p. 163). Another .passage may be compaied with this. 
In the third line of the Puiilips cylinder, ^'ebuchad- 
uezi^r is called mustlshir bahulot Bd^ ruler of the citv 
of Bel. 

Line 39. 



u matti la naparkaya 
erebsu libbati, tikuuu's ki 
kiprat arbah imdanakharu 
kireb-su. 



and with no sparing mea- 
sure increased the size of 
their buildings, and there 
treasured up all their re- 
venues, which they re- 
ceived from the four 
countries. 

Malti, Hebrew TO, uiensura. 

La naparkoya, unsparing, /. e. profuse, extravagant. 
This phrase, maiti la naparkayii, occurs in the Esar- 
liaddon inscription (Trans, Uoy. Soc- of Literature, 
vii. p. bli'). 




394 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF 



Mrebm mfatis, 1 think, they greatly augmented. 
From an Assyrian root V^y^, to enlarge, exalt, etc. 
Thus, rapm nagu means " a large kingdom ;" rapashtUj 
"very large,'' seems to be another form of the word. 
Hence, also, urappisk, I augmented, murappish, an 
augmenter, etc. This root is very common. 

Libbati, I think, means biLtldings, the same nearly as 
libnati. Perhaps, indeed, libnati is the reading on the 
cylinder, or the scribe may have written bn for na, as 
the difference between those two signs in this inscrip- 
tion is a very slight one. 

TSiunus^ for tikunu-su, their revenues. 

Kiprat arbak, the four countries, is a very common 
phrase for the Assyrian empire. It often seems to 
mean ihe whole world, hut in the present passage must 
be restricted to the dominions of the monarchs iwho 
are spoken of. 

Imdunal'hnru. This word, according to the usual 
rules of the language, should be imdoAfwru, a tense of 
the T or U conjugation of the verb makhar, TTID, to 
put into a treasury : to treasure up. 

Liidanal'haru may be correct, or perhaps the syllable 
na may he a mistake of the scribe. The regular form 
would be imdakfwru. So we find umdasluiru^ from the 
verb viashar, to abandon. 



Line 40. 



Yamu in libbu-sun ana 
bit-rab girbi su, kummi 
ribit belluti'Sba, sukhar 
subat tzulit-zu val idakha 
libbu's val akhitzu's. 



Not one among Iheui 
all repaired the great 
central edifice which was 
the royal dwelling of 
their greatness, nor ever 




THE INSCRIPTION OF BELLINO* 



395 



brightened up tlie interior, 
nor yet the exterior, of 
the dingy building which 
formed its keep. 

YamUj nnllua. In libhl sun, inter eoa. 

Kummi, a dwelling, Sargonsays to the god Ninev, 
*' I am the builder of thy apartment," hanu himi-A-a, 
(See Trans. Roy. Soc. of Liter. Vol. VIII. p. lU.) 

Ribttf royal. Ribitu, a king, occurs frequently. 

Sfikhar is the Heb. ^ntl?, niger, ohscurus. 

Tzuii or tzitlit, praesidium, a fortress, from Heb, 7if» 
lutela, pnesidium. The /sv/e, or defence, or citadel of 
Babylon, is frequently mentioned in the great E. I. H. 
inBcription. 

Idakha, he made bright, from Chald, M3i, purus, 
inundus, whence thknta, Nm3T, purgatio, purificatio. 

Libhu's for iibbu su, the interior of it. 

Alhftzu*s for khitzu su, the exterior of it. The 
initial ^ is a breathing. 

Khitzu, Heb. "^n, exterior, see Gesenius, p. 336 ; 
and ^nn, the outer wall of a building, GeseniuSj 3*25. 

Line 4 1 , 



Ana sutishur kutar u 
takkiribati kharie, zakap 
tsippati, ulzun-su val 
ibsimu, val uslabil karat- 



zu. 




As regards the health of 
the people and the bring- 
ing of streams of water 
into the city, and the tind- 
ing of new springs : they 
neither kept the tbuntaios 
sweet, nor led the water in 
fertilizing streams. 



;9G 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF 



Sutishitr, a very frequent word, means good govern- 
ineQt, care, protecUon. 

Kutar, the multitude. This root seems wanting ia 
Hebrew and Chaldee ; the Arabic, however, has pre- 
served it. iro, muUitudo, see Schindler, p. 909. 

TaU'iribati, the introduction (viz. into the city), 
from lireb, intr*l. 

Zafcap, to cause to rise, to lift up. See the note on 
line 5P. Here it is a substantive, *' the uprising/' 

Tstppati, fountains, or natural springs (Ges. 859), 
from tsitp, t\V2, to overflow, to spring forth. 

Utzun, sources, springs, from Heb. M^^, exire, (o 
spring forth. Mntzu is also used ; for instance, id line 
49 of this inscription, mut^u-sha, its springs. 

Ibsimu, they made sweet, from Heb. DDl, besintf 
dulcis, euavis. Buxtorf gives an exauipie which is 
very much in point, W^D TO'^DUI, u besimu miaj"et 
dulces redditje sunt aqu;£ istBe," Exod. xv 25. 

Ustahil seems to be an i"s(laj?AeZ conjugation of the 
root T'T, copiosu fluxit ; also flumen, rivus. From 
71'', Gesenius derives 7*'Hn, produxit (terra) j and 
SlS^, proventus ; and 73n, tubal, terra fertilis. We, 
therefore, see that uslah'd probably means " he caused 
fertilizing streams to flow." 

Karat, rivulets, i'rotn Heb. n~i3» foveie, cistemtE, etc. 
(Ges. 501)^ from rniD, fodit. Artiticial watercourses 
or rivulets may be meant. 

Line 42. 



I 




Yaati SENAKtiiRVA sar 
Ashur epish miri suatu 
ki bilim ili in uzui-ya 



Then I, Senoachen 
king of Assyria, by com- 
mand of the fe'ods, took 




ebsim. 
amma 



THE INSCRIPTION OF BELIJNn. 397 

Kabitti upla- delight to complete this 
.... work. Multitudes I col- 
lected together 

Ebsim, 1 took delight, from U^'^X besim, delight ; of 
which word I treated in the line preceding this. 

In uznUya, is added. If this is the Heb. "'JTN, uzni, 
the ears, we must translate '* 1 heard with dehght the 
command of the gods." But in some other j}assages 
vzni seems to be pectus, and then the sense would be, 
" 1 took delight in my heart." 



Line 43. 



tebshid Kaldi, Aramu, 
Mannaya, Kue, u Kilakku 
sha ana niri-ya la ikmisu, 
assukha-amnia musikki, 
ushash sunutim ilbinu 
libitti. 



of the workmen of the 
lands of Chaldica, Aram, 
Manna, Kue and Cilicia, 
who had not bowed down 
to my yoke : I brought 
them away as captives, and 
I bound them together in 
gangs to make bricks. 



I 



Tebshid, workmen; from ebshid, work. A palace 
is said to be tsirti ebshid^ "of lofty architecture or 
work.'* The root is U^li', to work, in Hebrew, ill?. 

As8ukh<i, I led away captive, I led into exile. This 
word occurs very often. Us Hebrew correlative was 
first made out by Dr. Hincks. This is nD3, which 
Gesenios interprets, evellit aliquem e domo sua ; vel e 
terra; hoc est, m exilium egit. 

MmiHi, captives ; literally " bound together with 
cords/' from pin, heznk, " arete ligavit," '* fortius con- 
strlnxit vincula.'* This word often occurs. 




;i98 



A NBW TRANSLATION OF 



Ushadi^ I bound together with cords. The Ifebrew' 
verb corresponding is IDN, " ligavit," and thence 
" cai)tivum fecit ;" but the Assyrians always use TDN 
instead of IDW- From thence conies the adverb 
asidish, " bound together," said of a gang of workmen, 
Ushadi is the sha conjugation. 

They were tied together lest some should run off, 
the overlookers being few in comparison. 

The phrase is varied in many ways, as " udibbu 
bakhulati," from pyi, conjungere, etc. 

Line 44. 



Api kupie sha kireb 
Kaldi aksbiduj appari-sun 
ukhuti in bakhulati nakiri 
kisliitti kati-ya ushaldida 
aaa epish miri-sha. 



In baskets made of reeds 
which I cut in the land 
of Chaldaea, I made tlie 
foreign wotktnen bring 
their appointed tasks ofi 
clay, in order to complete 
this work. 

The clay was wanted in order to raise tlie mound 
on Avhicli to build the palace. This toil of the slaves 
iti repi-esented in one of Sennacherib's bas-reliefs, now 
in the British Museum. 

Apiy plural of Hebrew rtlM, arundo vel papyrus. 
The rivers of Chaldsea were full of tall reeds, which 
are represented in the sculptures found at Nineveh. 
Pliny says that the real papyrus was found at Bahylori. 

Kiipiey baskets; see Schindler, p, 1634, sub v. r|£p. 
He says NEp, caaislruiu ex juncis factum, cophinus, 
sporta. 

Appari, clay, from Ileb. 13ir, lutum ; argilla ui 
paiietes fiunt ; agger {Gesen.), 



THE INSCRIPTION OF DELLINO. 



399 



UL'kuti or ukhui^ measured task; participle from the 
Heb. verb pn, which seems to have been pronounced 
hukh. 

Gesenius says pn, demensum ; pensum laboris. 

If we refer to Exodua v. 14, "Wherefore have ye 
not fulHIIed your task in making brick both yesterday 
and to-day as heretofore?" we shall find that the 
original Hebrew employs this very word pn, in the 
sense of a daily task. 

Bal'hulati nakirt, foreign workmen: kishitti kati-ya^ 
taken prisoners by my arms. 



Line 45. 



HaikaL makritu, sha 
360 , . , . bu vas, in kutsi 
zami beth-ziggurrat ; 80 
.... hu rapashtu, in 
kutsi beth namari betb 
Ishtar ; 134 . . . . hu ra- 
pashtu, in kutsi beth 
namari beth-mishmiri ; 95 
. . . . hu rapashtu .... 



The former palace, of 
360 measures long, adjoint- 
ing the gardens of the 
Great Tower; 80 measures 
wide, adjoining the watch- 
tower of the temple of 
Ishtar; 134 measures 
wide, adjoining the watch- 
tower of the house of 
worship, and 95 measures 
wide * * * * 



The measure employed is the half of the Au or cubit. 

A^wisi, finis, terminus. In /f-u^^t, conterminous with, 
a^ljoining to. 

Zami: the translation " gardens " is conjectural. 

Beth namari may be a watch-tower or specula, per- 
haps a minaret, if such existed in those days. The 
'* Song of Songs " speaks of a watch-tower in a garden 
of cucumbers. 



400 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF 



Mishiiiiit worship, from the Heb. ncU?, coluil 
Deura, 

It will be observed that the sense of this line isl 
truncated, the scribe, not having room for more in thej 
line, amitted the remainder, which probably slated 
what buildins; was opposite the fourth side of the 
palace. 

Line 46. 



sha sarin alikut makhri 
abi-ya ana rimiti belluli- 
8un ushapisu, la unakkilu 
paniit-Bha. 



which the kings my fathers 
who went before me built 
for their royal residence, 
but did not beautify its 
front (or fai^ade). 



Rimit may be rrcH or riD"l» a high place, from root 
mi or DQ"1, altus fuit. 

Una kkilu, from nswla/.splemlidus^ whence the adverb i 
na/rHsh, spleudide, which is used of buildings. 

Panut is a doubtful reading If correct, it would 
mean the front or fa{,'ade, ]□, of the building. 

' Line 47. 



agurat 



Nahar lihilti 
miru.shainnaU IVgigunie 
kabulti lr» huabbitu. 



The (so named) Canal 
of Fertility, lined (or 
banked up) with brick- 
work, which once traversed* 
the central part of the city 
in four delightful streams, 
had fallen into ruin. 



The symbol for "water," followed by the syllable Ti^ 





THE INSCRIPTION OF BBLLINO. 

generally means " a canal/* Here it seems part of the 
name, tibilti. 

Tibilti may mean " fertility " (a name given by its 
first constructorSj though in the days of our inscrip- 
tion become very unsuitable). Gesemus says that from 
the root 71*" "fluxit " we have 7in, terra fertiUs. 

But if ti is not part of the name, the remaining part 
bttlti may be derived frotn the same root, for Gesenlus 
has 712, but, pluvia ; and another sense of it is '*pro- 
ventus," the produce of the land, 

Gigunie h an unknown word, but I think it must 
be nearly related to the following word (see Buxtorf, 
p. 404) : friyjJJ'J, rivus aquse rapldus. Another form of 
the same word is □''i^iayj, meaning *' delicise ;" in which 
it will be observed that the first two sj llabks differ, 
and seem to represent the j/t. gu. of the Assyrian word. 
The n in gigunie seems to be a relic of the plural form 
in in. Buxtorf saya, the root of these words is ^^:i, 
to delight. The name of Gyges, king of Lydia, is 
written on the cuneiform records, Gugu. If this 
should be a Semitic word, it may have meant " Joy " 
or ■' Dehght," which would be a good name for a king, 
and boiil aminis. 

HuahhitUy was destroyed, a conjugation of 12M, to 
destroy. 



Lin& 47, — Continued, 



Its ki makhi'Sun nak- 
muti ukallimu anna-su. 



VOL. VIII. 



Their beautiful Ki trees 
had been cut down for 
fire-wood, all the finest 
of them. 

2i 




402 



A NBW TRANSLATION OP 



Its, a tree» Heb. ^y. But perhaps this word is 
here a simple sign, not to be sounded. 

Makki or makkhi, an epithet of the Ki trees, meaning 
" prime " or " excellent' Compare ^a makkhi, prime 
oxen: sar makkhi, beautiful Sar trees (see line 56). 
Ki makhi-sun ; the plural sun refers to the four canals, 
along whose banks these trees were planted. 

Nahnutt a burning. 

VkaUi'mUj '' men cut them down with axes," From 
halma or h'lma, an axe ; hence likiimu, may they cut 
down ! From the same root comes another Assvrian 
word, i'dlabat, an axe. 

Anna is " beauty." Anna-su, the beauty of them; 
i. e. the finest of them ; flos eorum. 

iine 48. 



U valtu tami tsiri dikhi 
haikal ibakhu. In adan- 
sha muli^ in vassl-sha abbu 
ushipsu,uribbu timin-gha. 



And from extreme old 
age the front of the palace 
was split and rent. Us 
base was t raversed by 
cracks and its foundations 
by wide fissures^ while its 
timin (or sacred platfornn) 
was all in confusion. 



Most of these words I have explained in the Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xviii. p. 99. 

Uribhu, from the Heb. y^^^ to mix, to commingle; 
ex. yr. water n"iyo (mixed) with wine. Hence it! 
means confundere conturbare, perturbare : eiv. gr. 
Exodus xiv. 14, "confundamus eos " (Buxt.). 



TH£ INSCRIPTION OF BELLINO. 




Line 49. 

Haikal turra shatu ana Tliat shabby palace I 
sikbirti-sha agguru. pulled dowa the whole of 

it. 

Turra is probably poor, mean, or shabby. "^VS or 
"i^i^It, vilis, contemptus : see Gesenius. In Syriac 
M")1*S, ignominia, dedecus (Scbindler). 

This word has become lyu in Assyrian. The same 
change occurs in many other words, as the city of 
Tyre, from lia, rupes, Gesenius says, *' AraniEei 
pkrumque ponunt a pro Hebrseo 3." 

Line 49, — Continued. 

Sha nar tibilti ashrat- Of the Canal of Ferti- 
shusti sanna ha abbuslu ; lity, during sixteen years 
ushatzir mutzu-sha, its water had been dried 

up by the sun. I collected 
together its springs (or 
sources). 

Were the sixteen years those of his father Sargon's 
reign ? The commencement of the neglect of the 
city may, perhaps, be dated from the revolution which 
placed Sargon on the throne. Rawlinson attributes 
nineteen years to Sargon's reign, but admits that the 
proof from the monuments only extends to fifteen. 
(Herodotus, vol. i. p. 472.) 

Ha, water. I think this pronunciation is more 
probable than ya, which I formerly proposed (Journal 
Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xviii. p. 366). It seems an 

3e 3 




404 



A NRW TRANSLATION OF 



Indo-Germanic word, but hardly Semitic. It agrees with 
the old German A and Aa, which are now only the 
names of certain rivers, but formerly meant water in 
general. To these may be added the Aar in Switzer-] 
land and the ancient river Arat, and also Aach^ the 
German form of the Latin Aqua, whence Aachen, iaj 
French Aix [la Chapelle] meant " the waters.'* 

Abbuslu, it was dried up by the sun: from the Heb. 
vtr3, coctus est Bolia ardore (Gesen.). 

Ushfitzir, I collected together, the ska conjugatioa] 
of atzer^ ^"J^^, congregare. 

In the Bamian inscription, Sennacherib hoa&ts that 
he collected together no less than eighteen springs orj 
small rivulets, and led them into one channel, which 
he brought near to the city. This appears to have 
been a different work from the present oue, though 
similar to it. 



Line 50. 



Kireb katiti ashur raklii 
sha shiplanu gi(ri) elanish 
abni mati danni itti {mie 
nari) Sima alib. 



Among the rocks I 
found a copious source, 
which {rvnn'mg) down the 
hills over rocks of mighty 
size, unites itself with the 
waters of the river Sima. 



Katiti, rocks, or broken ground. The word is found 
in Gesenius, nn3, broken. Also nnn, with the same 



meanmi 



Ashur, I caused to spring up, rakki, a copioua' 
source, ie. 1 found one in the mountains. The wc 
axhur is from y\'0, exsilire facere (Buxt. 2354). 




THE INSCRIPTION OF fllCLLINO. 




Rakkiy a copious source, from ,711, effuncii vei 
effundere se (Gesen.)- 

S/uplanu, adverb "down" or "downward," from 

Gi (with the plural sign added). This I read giri or 
gini (mountains), 

Etanish, adverb *' above," 

Mati danni, of vast size, Heb. "TO, tnensura. We 
find a similar phrase in the Esarhaddon inscription^ 
coL V. 9, ^*piH mati danni," stones of great size. 

The sign for watery followed by the syllable ut, I 
translate "waters." Then comes again the sign for 
water^ followed by sima, which I render '^ the river 
Sima." 

Mib, unites itself, from lib, the interior of anything. 

Line 50, — Continued. 

Valtu mami ushala- With the waters of it 
amma nabalish utar. {which) 1 conducted (to 

Nineveh), I filled the 
canal again to overtlowiug, 

Mami. Heb. D''Dt waters. 

Ushala, This verb may be compared with the Heb. 
rhuf, aquam ducere vel aquam mitlere. Esarhaddon 
(col. vi. 20), in describiug how he united the streams, 
uses the expression ushashar-amvia^ which may be 
from tiie verb liyN, duxit. 

Nabalish, adverb, "most copiously,'' or "to over 
flowing," from V22, also Ni:, copiose effudit. 

Utar, I restored as formerly, from Chald. TH, 
reddilio, restitutio. 




40fi 



A NEW TAANSLA-TION OF 



Line 51. 



\ 700 as shukli rabti 
vas : 162 as shukli rabti 
rapashti, anta ini Sidi: 
217 as shukli rabti ra- 
pashti, kabalti. 



1700 measures long: 
162 measures wide, oa 
the upper side towards tht 
north: 217 measures wide, 
in the centre, 



These measures are much larger than those of the 
old palace (if the httlf-ku and the shuklu rahtu are of 
the same length), but they correspond in one respect, 
viz. that the first side of the building, and much tbi 
longest, is described as vas (or long)^ while the thr< 
others are described as rapashtu [or broad). 



Line 52. 



386 as shukli rabti 
rapashti, kita, im irlu, 
vassadu nar Maatiggar ; 
tala umalli, amsukh nni- 
aikhta. 



386 measures wide am 
the lower side towards thej 
south, fronting the rivef-j 
Tigris. T completed the 
mound and I measured! 
the measure. 



Line 53. 



Labarish tami, in adir 
kishati, timin-su laenisb 
Rshdupat. 




I deposited once moi 
its sacred timin, which wi 
still well remembered, 
owing to the popular 
veneration for it from thi 
most ancient times. 



The following I believe to be the grammatical cuii- 





THE INSCRIPTION OF BELLINO. 




struction of this passage, Askdupat, I deposited (i. e. 
once more) (ijnm-SM, its inscribed tablet, la enisA-, which 
was unforgotten (or still well remembered), in adir 
/iWiaH, owing to the popular veneration for it, labarisk 
tamif from the most ancient times. 

There is here so much terseness and brevity in the 
original text, that it is difficult to render it into English 
without using circumlocutions. 

Askdupat or ashtnpat is the T conjugation of shapat, 
rstt?, posuit ; collocavit. It is used in Hebrew for 
" laying a thing low in tlie dust," etc. 

La enish, unforgotten, from nijika, nu?3, to forget 
(Ges. 692). We find in another inscriptiod, labarisk 
{ami timin-sha ewwAw, " from length of time its timin 
was lost/' or its place was now forgotten. (B. M. 
plate 42, 1. 32.) 

In adir Hahati, through the veneration of the people. 
Adir may be Heb. ITTI, honor. *' From the honour 
paid to it by the people." 



I 



Line 53, — Continued. 

Pili rabbati ashuru-su Then with large stones 
uahaskir, udannin subuk- I closed it all round and 
su. I made its deposit secure. 

Askuru-m, its place ; usually written ashar-su. 

Vskaskir, I enclosed with a wall, is a very common 
verb ; ex, gr. in the Phillips cylinder^ col. iii. L 40, 
we find " kar dali, with a high wall, ushaskir-su, I 
enclosed it.^' It is the sha or causative conjugation 
of Heb. saffar^ ^JD, clausit, and means, *' i had it en- 
closed,'" or " I gave orders to enclose it.'' 




408 



A NIIW TRANSLATION OF 



Udanninj T mude very strong, from dan, strong. 
Suhuk^ a deposit ; relictum, anything tliat is left by 
itself, alone. From Heb- py^t reliquit, deseruit- 



Line 64. 



Mushari sidhir sumi-ya 
160 tibki tali kireb-su 
alihuru ; shiplanu in vassi- 
su etzib akhralik. 



The written records of 
my name, 160 fathoins of 
baa-reliels, I sculptured 
within it ; but the lower 
part of the wall next to 
the ground I left to be 
tilted up in future limes. 

The tibik, Heb. nou, iJ* a measure derived from the 
verb fTDTD, expandit, extendit. The Hebrew noa was 
the full stretch of the fingers Gesenius says, '* manua 
expansa/* But it is plain that the Assyrian tihii was 
the full stretch of the arms, like the Greek opyvia (frum 
opeyetv), and the Italian bracciQ and French brc 
which we render a fathom. 

The 160 fathoms, or 960 feet, seems an extent of 
sculpture probable enough in an Assyrian palace. 

The tali were either bas-reliefs or pictures. It is the 
Chaldee 7D, froni the verb 7*^13, umbrare, for which 
the Hebrew uses 7S. So the Greeks called a painter 
crKtajpaijiof^ from (Txta, a sbadow ; and so the Latins said 
adumbrare, because a picture is but the umbra of the 
real thing which it tries to represent. 

Etzib, I left. Heb. 2X% ezib or etzibt to leave. 

Akhralik^ posterity, from akkar, Heb. inN, sequens» 
alter; and aliky Heb. ^Xl,\.Q come. " vEtas veniens." 
I find in another inscription the phrase okhralik taml. 




TH£ IN3CaJPTI0N OF BELLINO. 



409 



Line 55* 



Arkanu susku tali kabiti 
upla-anima. 20 tibki 
tsitsa makri isutzibu ; 180 
tibki u&hakki elaoish. 



Ol new imagery 1 
brought together. a great 
number of bas-reliefs. 
Twenty fathoms in extent 
of the ancient sculptures 
were preserved, so that I 
spread out in all 1 80 
fathoms of them. 

Arianu, future, or new. Sar arht, the future king, 
In arkut tami, in future days. Nu is added as in 
ghiplanu, " down," from 'TDtt? ; danu, " up," from Vy. 
Arhmu follows the same analogy; m. gr. arkanu edi- 
ya^ after my departure. 

Sasku ia properly sculpture tir imagery, from root 
n3^. Chald. M3D i whence the Heb. rPlSt?, imago 
(Gesen.). Couxpare the Greek axuij and the verb 

Tai'i^ as 1 have said, wt-re sometimes in all proba- 
bility pictures. For, Mr. Layard says (' Nineveh and 
Babylon,' p. 131) that '^the walls of the chambers were 
in part painted with subjects re&embling those sculp- 
tured ou the alabaster panels." See Rawlinaon's 
Herodotus, vol i. p. 474. 

I observe en passant that these sculptures were on 
alabaster. Now^ Seunacherib in his inscriptions says 
that his workmen made bas-reliefs (which he calls 
bhallnt zazatl) on the beautiful alhutar stone, which was 
white or brilliant as the sky or heaven 1 think that 
the Greek aXa^atnpov is derived from alhutar (or else 
vice versa). This stone was quarried by Sennacherib, 
in the mountains of Nypiir, somewhere in Media. 



I 





410 



A NEW TBANBLATION Of 



Upla generally means " I brought home." It repre- 
eents the Heb. ^nn, a coDJugation of the verb yj^. 
Gesenius says, *?3in, allalus est. Another conjugation 
is ^rn, attulit. 

Tsitsa^ Heb. V'^TJ. This is an interesting word, for 
it occurs in 2 Chronicles iii. 10, in the account of 
Solomon's temple. The authorized version has, "And 
in the most holy house he made two cherubims of 
image work, and overlaid them with gold." Here 
Gesenius renders CiT^li'^i rriTi^'S " opus statuarium," 
which is the same as the English version " work ol 
images/' or '* image-work." 

The V^TJ were» therefore, sculptured images. 

This word also occurs in another important passage, 
where one of the gods is called nuni tzit;=Uy i, e, the 
Sculptured Fish. For, in fact, he was so sculptured, 
half-man and half-Hsh, and there is one of these 
sculptures in the British Museum. 

L-utzibu, they were preserved. Heb. Ittl?, to save. 

180 iibki ushakki. I think we have a proof here 
that a single vertical wedge means tiO, and not 50, as 
i.ome have stated. For the iiuuibers here given are 
160 and 20, whose sum is 180. But in order to get 
180, we must give the value of 60 to the vertical 
wedge. 

Ushakkl, I spread out in width, from shtkki^ wide. 

Eianish^ in summa^ or altogether. 



Line 56. 



Tarkha suhu it sha as 
tarai pani uearhi ; tsir 




The enclosure itself 
augmented beyond whi 



THB INSCRIPTION OF EELLINO, 




misikhti haikal riiakriti it was in former days; 

uraddi, ushandib sikta's. above the measure of the 

former palace 1 enlarged 
itj and I liberally increased 
its coursing grouode. 

Tarkha suhu, the enclosure itself, i. e, the enclosed 
grounds (or park) which surrounded the palace. See 
the word Mpnc, an enclosure, in Buxtorf. The root 
is pia, clausit. 

// is a remarkable word, it is usually written eli, and 
means *' beyond" or "above." It is the Heb. 7y, 
super, supra. 

Uraddi almost always means " 1 augmented." 

Ushandib, I enlarged much, from the root nadab, 
Heb. ^,^3, largus fuitj '* to be liberal." 

Siita's for siha-sha^ its si^ta. ilespecting this 
word I will quote what Esarhaddon says concerning 
his palace (col. vi. 19) : falkikta-iiha inahatish urappish, 
ana viasuk kurra kireb-sha, "its coursing grounds I 
greatly extended, for the exercising [mamik) of horses 
within it." 

Sennacherib alludes to something similar m the 
present passage. Masuk is the Heb, ptI?Q, discureitatio 
(Gesen. 632). The root is ptT. discursitavit. 

iSiAta is from the same root. JTpt?, cursus sive 
locus exercitationis. Ushandib sikta-sha is, therefore^ 
'^I liberally extended its coursing grounds." 



I 



1 



Line 57. 

Bit-rabi ka-amsi, itz Fine buildings of ivory, 
dan, ilz ku^ itz meshu- dan wood ^'i* wood, mesAw- 




412 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF 



kanni, itz kinrat ? itz 
shurman bishli, u itz 
butani: bit-rabi zakdi nur- 
ya, ana mbbip sarti-ya 
ushapislia kireb-su. 



fcfln wood, cedar wood, 
cypress wood dried in the 
sun, and pistachio wood ; 
these buildings (as spark- 
lets of my splendour) for 
ray royal residence 1 
erected within it. 



The cedars of Lebanon arc generally called imi and 
irsi in these inscriptions. Here they seem to be called 
kinrat^ hut this is very uncertain, because the com- 
ponent signs of the word vary so much in other texts 
that they may be mere arbitrary symbols for this pre- 
cious kind of wood. 

If Hnrat is the true reading here, a slight change of 
pronunciation, viz. Hnrat^ klndrat, kidrat (plural femi- 
nine), would give us the name of the Cedar, known to 
the Greeks as KsBpos (feminine), mentioned even by 
Homer. 

The ahurman wood appears to be » kind of juniper 
or cypress. It is named in Hebrew, and may even be 
the same as the Latin iiabina, whence English srwin. 

It is true that this name is usually derived from the 
Sabine nation, or territory, but what proof is there 
that the ancients obtained this wood specially tVoni the 
Sabine country ? On the contrary, Crete is given as 
its native place. 

Bishli^ 1 think, means " dried in the sun/' from 
vtt^D., Bolis ardore coctus est. 

Butani is the pistacia lentigcus, or terebinth or 
mastic-tree. iieb. ^2m, named in Genesis, chap, 
xliii. U. 

Zakdi nur-ya is of uncertain meaning. It may be 





THE INSCRIPTION OF BEX-UNO- 

a fancy riaiue for these smaller royal apartments, these 
lesser lights as it were encircling the central splendour 
of the Palace itself. Nnr is a well-known word, 
Chald. 115, fire or brightness, splendour, and snkdi 
raay represent an Assyrian form of the Heb, ^\y)p^t 
scintillcE ; for a good many Assyrian, words ending m 
ihi vary to dt, thus, bel-hhikhi varies to bel-khidi So 
in Greek, tf and x sometimes interchange, as o/jn^i for 
opmGa, etc. 



Itine 58. 



Itz shar makkhn nakut 
mati Khamanu, sha gimir 
shimdi zir-bel tsippati itzi 
ratlat ehadi u mati Kaldi 
kireb-su kharru-su,itakha- 
sha ashkup. 



I made its porticoes 
with lofty shar trees, cut 
down in the land of Kha- 
mana, which all persons 
who are judges of the best 
sort of pine-trees prefer, 
as being the choicest trees 
either in the hills or in the 
land of Chald5ea. 



*' Land of Chaldaea" stands for the low countries in 
general. 

Nakut means "cut down." It is a participle from 
the Hebrew verb nn/aft, rr33, percussit. 

But the essential part of the root mikah seems to 
be only nSfr?. This is found in Chaldee, viz. "^^M, 
feriit, percussit, which is also very frequent in Assyrian 
in the sense of "feriit victimatn," ea?. gr. "victims of 
rare perfection I sacrificed to their divinities'* (makhar- 
sun akki). 

Shimdif having knowledge of (a thing], skilled in it, 





■114 



A NKW TRANSLATION OP 



or good judges of it : in French, connaivsmrs : from 
intiUf, cognoscere (Buxt. 2443). 

Zir-bel. This complicated sign, with nine wedges, 
is more distinctly sculjitured in some othei inscriptions, 
and then it is seen to be compounded of the four wedged 
of zir (a race or family) and the iive wedges of bei 
(first or principal). But how it was pronounced 1 
know not, probably not as zh bel. At atiy rate, how- 
ever, its meaning is evident : " the best kind." 

Tsippati. The sense of this word is totally different 
from that of tsippati in lines 59 and 61 (though Tvritten 
with the sanie symbols). There it signifies spring:s of 
water, from the Heb. ryvs, tzup, to overflow ((ies. 
859), So in the Tahnud we find mhti tzipin^ " flowing 
waters." 

But in our present line 58, tzippati signifies ^r- J reM, 
or any tree which yields pitch, from tzipa or zipn^ 
*' pitch," in Chaldee «DT (see Buxtorf, 683 and 684), 
which name was also given to the tree itself, as is piain 
from the passage there quoted, "they light no light 
on the Sabbath-day i neither riDt, zipat {torches of the 
pilch-pine), nor waxlia;hts." 

I need not observe that the letters X, zain, and 2, 
tsaddty interchange frequently : see Gesenius, 850, who 
gives for example y7V for tbj?. So r€t became PES 
in Assyrian. 

As the Assyrians named the fir tribe (,or conifers} 
from the pitch they produce, so did the Greeks and 
Latins call them irnus and 7rev>^and picea. Pliny says, 
" picea montes amat,*' etc. Ovid has, 

" Est neinus elpiceia ei frondibus ilicls Btniin." 

Is it not possible that the celebrated city of Barzippa 




THE INSCRIPTION OF BELLINO. 



I 

I 




or Borsippa may have taken its name from some over- 
flowing well of pitch or bitumen which originally 
existed there ? Heb. 1N3, bar, a well, and friDl, zipa, 
pitch. For such pitch-wells were found in the neigh- 
bourhood, especially at the town of Is or H'U, as 
Herodotms mentions. 

Ratlat^adj, in the feminine plural, "very excellent 
or noble." This word occurs frequently, but I find no 
equivalent to it in Hebrew. " Ir ratlati su " is equi- 
valent to *'ir dannuti su,'' his principal cily. 

Kireh-su, among themselves ; i, e. in tbeir business 
or craft. But these two words seem quite supei-fluous. 

Kharru a-m, they love it, they prefer it. KharrUt they 
love, is from Heb. "l|T, carus fuit, pretiosus fuit. That 
this is the true meaning of Aharru is proved beyond 
doubt by the substitution for it in another passage of 
the verb iskmuA-ha, they delight in. See the first series 
of the British Museum inscriptions, plate 42, line 46, 
where the passage stands : marub isbmdhu, from the 
verb rro^y, hilaris fuit, gaudet. (Schindler, p. 1888.) 

Itakha. Heb. p^nN, peristylon, porticus, a colon- 
nade or portico. 

Askkup, I built or put up (said of wooden build- 
ings). Heb. Fiptt?, contignavit (Ges. 1036). But here 
the bull inscription B. M. pi. 42, seems to have askhun, 
I made. 

The above passage, about the preference given to the 
shar trees, is found in many other inscriptions. We 
read in the annals of Esarhaddon (Trans. Hoy. Soc. of 
Liter. Vol. VII. p. 605) :— 

Shari makkhi takut With lofty shar trees 

mati Khamanu, sha kala cut down in the land of 



I 





416 



A NEW TRANSLATiON OF 



shimdiu itzidi kharru-su, Khamana, which all vrbc 
itakha-sha emit. have knowledge of tre 

like best, I erected its par* 

ticoes. 

In comparing the two passages we see that Che] 
Esarhaddon replaces gimir (all). Heb, -^rii, by Xviia, 
tall), Heb. 73, and the verb ashhip by emit. It also 
omits the word of double &igniHcation» tsippatu In] 
other respects they cooHrm each other. 



Line 59. 



Ashsu zakap tsippati 
ekil tamirti ehii arpiU-ani 
ana tari Ninua-ki bilku 
ubulliku, ushatkil panus- 
sun. 



By my care I caut 
the uprising of springs in 
more than 40 places of 
the plain ; I divided them 
into irrigating canals, fot] 
the people of Nineveh, and 
^dve them, to be their own 
property. 

Ashsu, curavi, I took care for, took pains about, 
managed. So in the Constantinople inscription, line 
66, ri.shsu karniski, " curavi equos." This verb is the 
Chaldee \myn, ashask or hashash, curare, curam gerere. 
Buxt. p. 846, 

Z(d'ap, the uprising, is from the Heb. DpT, elevare, 
attoUere. it is often used in a very good sense; for 
instance, " to lift up the afflicted heart," Psalm cxlv. 14. 

Tamirti, meadows, plains, or fieldsj from amir, 
y^V, grass, ex. gr. " all flesh is grass," N'^'^J', quoted 
by Buxtorf, p. 1G28, 

As the root An is specially used of water, both aa 




lEIK INSCRIPTION OK BELI.INO. 



417 



I 



n noun and a verb, I think I recognize it in biUu and 
ubuUU\ We rind in Gesenius J^d, divisit (ut canales). 
J7D, rivus, fluvius parvus, etiam fluvius tnajor. He 
adds, " proprie canalem esse volunt, a dividendo dic- 
tum ; cf. verbum, Job xxxviii. 25. JTilAs, rivi 
{Judges V, 15)." 

Zine 60. 



Ana birali takmulchi, 
vnitu padi ir Kishri adi 
tamirti Ninua-ki, ir-ya, 
(....) birut in akzirlati 
ushattaru, ushatsir nari 
karru. 



To obtain water to turn 
the flour mills, I brought 
down from the borders of 
Kishri unto the fields of 
Nineveh, ray city, pure 
streams conveyed in pipes, 
and I collected them into 
reservoirs. 



Birati, plura! fern, of Heb. 1^1. Here it means mill- 
ponds. 

TakmuAhi^ of or belonging to flour. From the 
Chaldee l-amahh, rrsp, farina (Bujct. p. 2053), The 
word before hirut is effaced. 'Whateveril was, it must 
have meant "waters.*' 

Bifut, plural fem. ''pure," from Heb. ^1, jjurus. 

Akzirlati. This is a most important passage. It is 
repeated on one of the bulls (see the British Museum 
inscriptions, first series, plate 42, line 42). But 
though the inscription on tb? bull is nearly the same, 
yet it adds a word of the greatest consequence. After 
saying, " 1 brought water from the distant city of 
Kishri to the plains of Nineveh in 'akzirlati," it adds, 
"of ikon." From this it follows ihnt the akzirlati 
were pipes or tubes, since nothing else constructed of 

VOL, VIII. 2 F 



418 



A N£W TRANSLATION OF 



iron could have been of any service in conveying wat 
to Nineveh. 

It has often been saiU that the gigantic aqueducts 
of the ancients show tliera to have heeu unacquainted 
with tlie fact that water will rise nearly to the level 
of its source if conducted through a pipe. But here 
we Imve decisive proof that pipes of metal were known 
to the Assyrians in the eighth century before Clirist 
Moreover, pipes made of cast-iron imply a great 
advance in the arts, and since they extended many 
miles they could hardly have heen made of wroughl- 
iron. 

Ushaitaru, I brought down, I conveyed downwards ; 
sha conjugation of "irC, nalar^ defluere (see Buxt. p, 
1409), also decidere- The ska conjugation would J 
mean " descendere feci.^* H 

Uahatsiri I collected together (the waters). This 
is the ska conjugation of etsir, Heb, tSi?, congre- 
gavit. 

Nari karTu, great reservoirs of water : laTru is the 
Chaldee N12, kara^ Heb. rriD, cisterna. 



4 



Line 6 1 , 



[Di-mdium) kasbu hak- 
karu valtu kireb nar Ku- 

ttzuru mami daruti ashar- 
sha ushirda kireb tsippati 
shatina; ushabibapatti-sh. 
■ ^ I 



I brought down 



the 
perennial waters of the I 
river Kutzuru from the 
distance of half a kmbay 
into those wells, and I 
feurroutided their margins 
{imth wails). 

The hasbu was a measure of time, two hours. This 
was discovered by Dr. Plincks, who found a tablet in 




THF. INSCKlPnON UP BflLLiNO. 



419 



I 



ihe British Museum saying that on the day of the 
equinox the day and night are equal ; six ka^bu of 
day and six kasbu of night. In order to he able to 
measure time so accurately, the Assyrians must have 
employed clepsydrae, vessels filled with water and 
emptying themselves through a small orifice in a 
determined period of time. And Dr. Hincks has 
made a felicitous conjecture as to the origin of the 
word kashu, which he derives from the lieb. ^aztih, 
inanis, 27D. In Hebrew this root is used for " delu- 
sive," "deceitful;" in Assyrian it means '*empty:'* 
thus a re^on completely uniuhahited is said to be 
iakkazabit, ** emptied." Hence ^mhu would mean 
one emptying of the clepsydra. 

The kasbu h^al^-aru, or " kasbu of land," was naturally 
the distance which an ordinary pedestrian would walk 
in two hours at an ordinary pace^ say six miles. So 
the Germans measure distances along high-roads by 
the stunde, which is one hour of tiiiie^ meaning one 
hour's walk to an ordinary pedestrian. 

Hahkaru^ earth. This word I formerly transcribed 
as ehkaru, hut later I came to the conclusion that the 
first syllable should be read hah, and finding that 
M. Oppert also gives that as one of its values, I 
have adopted it. The word seems related to the IJeb. 
12M, agricola. 

Ttnppati shatina^ those wells. The bull inscription, 
B. M. pi. 43, 1, 43, substitutes h\rati shat'ma, those 
wells, from Heb. bir, a well. 

Ushabibu, I surrounded : Heb. aiD, to surround. 
Gesenius says circumdedit, cinxit. 

Pattish, for patii-.<^ha, their margins. From Heb. 
rs, otherwise HQ, ora sive margo. In Proverbs viii. 

2 F 2 



i 




420 



A N£W TRANSLATION Or 



20, it 13 the niargin (of the sea). riD b 7TC» from oi 
brink to the other. 

Line 62. 



Sha Ninua ir beiluti-ya 
subat-xu usrabbi, ribati-su 
ushan labinti, u tzukani 
u&pardi ; uuaramir kima 
tatni. 



Ot* Nineveh, my myi 
city, 1 greatly enlarged its' 
dwelhngs. Its streets, i^ 
reno'rated the old onesj^l 
and I widened those which 
were too narrow. I made 
them as splendid as the 
sun. 

Tzukanit narrow, lleb. tzuk, ,7l2, angustus (Ges.). 

Uspardif 1 widened, 1 opened out. Heb. "TlB, parat 
aperuit, solvit, expandit (ut avis alas suas). The verb 
occurs on the Phillips' cylinder, col. ii. 38, under the 
form usparzikhu : t&altuk illm rabhn usparzUhu^yiUd^^ 
just rights (or the offerings) of those great gods f^^ 
avf/Jiiented or extended.^' The final ^-hu or hu appeal^ 
to be only a breathing. Uspardi and ttsjubbi are ii 
the ska conjugation. 



Line 63. 



In future days, under ^ 
the kings my sons, whom 
Ashur shall call to the 
sovereignty over this land' 
and people; when this 
palace shall grow old and 
decay, 



Mnu, when, may he derived from a word n^J?, time, 



Ana arkut tami, in sarin 
tari-ya sha Ashur alia 
ribitut mati u nisi inambu 
zigir-su ; enu haikal shatu 
ilabbiru innakhu, 




Till? INSCRIPTION OF BELLINO. 



I 




for which the Chaldee has SV^ (Buxt. 1636). Trans* 
late, therefore^ enu kaikal sfwtu ilahbirv, '* eo tempore 
quo hoc palatium perierit/* Buxtorf gives for example 
wn^l? i, etc. etc. "tempore prandii," when it waa 
dinner-time, 1 think I see this same ancient word, 
n^y or w:37, *' time,*' in other phrases of the Assyrian 
inscriptions. The usual name lor " a year" is mu, 
but as that syllable has other meanings also, for the 
sake of clearness annff, " time/' is added, and the word 
becomes ?//« anna^ "a year's time,'' i.e. "a year.'* 
Hence, perhaps, was derived the LatiA annus, a year, 
a word received, probably, from the Etruscans, who 
bronght it from tlie East. 

Another use of the word M33?, tempns, is seen, as 1 
think, in the syllable an, hitherto unexplained, by 
which numerals are sometimes terminated. Thus, 
when Sargon says that 350 kings reigned before him 
over the land of Assyria, the numeral employed is, 
350 an or hon. It appears to rae somewliat similar 
in its use to the Latin pleXy in duplex, Greek hirXovf. 
Pecuniam qnadniplicem auferam (Plantus), "four 
thnes as much." Plex is added to Latin numerals 
even when it is quite unnecessary, ej?. gr. quadnjplices 
Stellas, *' four stars." 



Line 64. 



Ankltut-sa luttishj mu- 
sbari sidhir sumi-ya ii- 
Vharu, {....) libsu.vashi 
(.*,.) likki, ana ashri-su 
htar, Aghur ikrihi-su 
ishimmi. 



He who shall renew its 
solemn dedication, shall 
read aloud the written 
record of my name^ shall 
make a stone altar and 
sacrifice a male victim, 




422 



A NKW TRANSLATION OF 



and shall then replace it 
in its place, Ashur will 
hear and accept bis 
prayers. 



Ankhut or anakhiti is the Chaldee and Heb. word 
r02n, "a dedication." It is the term employed ip 
Daniel^ chap. iii. 2, where it is said that Nebuchad- 
nezzar sent for all the princes, rulers, etc. to come, 
to the dedication {ankhut) of the golden image which 
he had set up. Also in I Kings viii. G3, where it is 
fiaid that Solomon and the children of Israel dedicated 
the house of the Lord, The verb ^;n is initiavii as 
well as co7t8ecravU, etc. 

A ruined palace when aliout to be built again re- 
quired a new initiation and a new sacrifice of conse* 
cration. 

Lutiish, he (who) may or shall renew : optative or 
potential of a verb of which we find some other 
tenses, uHish "I renewed," and muttish '*the restorer, 
repairer, or renovator.'* I consider that this Assyrianj 
verb represents the Heb. ttrtn* renovare. If this waS'j 
pronounced hedisk or hetij^h, it would become uttifh 
in the first person of the preterite, according to the 
Assyrian mode of forming that part of the verb, by 
prefixing the vowel u, as in ushan and unamnnir (see 
line G?). 

Likki, he (who) may or shall sacrijice : optative ol 
the verb of which aHi, " I sacrificed/' is the first^ 
person preterite. This verb is the Heb. nahak^ n33, 
percussit : the n falls off in most of its tenses, as ii 
ikJdiy " they were smitten,'* etc. {see Gesenius, p. 667.] 

LitaVi he (who) may or shall re^ftore: optative of the 




THE INSCRIPTION OF BELUNO. 

verb of which ittar, "I restored/' is the preterite. 
Chaldee "XTn^ redderc, restituere (Buxt.)- 

Having thus given a version of this important in- 
scription, I come to consider the meaning of the first 
line, which is unconnected with the rest. 



Line 1. 



I 



LXIII raukal mishaii, 
arkhi sibuti, limmu Nebo- 
liha shavat ir (. . . .), 



r 



Sixty-three inscribed 
lines : (written) in the 
seventh month of the year 
of which Ncboliha was the 
eponymustVfho was Suffete 
(or prefect) of the city 
[Arbda?). 



This inscription actually has 63 lines, as the Assyrian 
scribe has stated. It was a frequent custom to number 
the lines on a tablet. Thus for instance, the tablet 
195 b says, "I sus 4\ mikai niishari:" sixty and forty- 
one inscribed lines. Tablet 227 (otherwise K 268) 
says: " (hnes) XX mukalim,'' I. c. twenty inscribed 
lines. The first word is, however, efl^aced. On count- 
ing I find that 18 lines are left, and part of the 19th, 
the rest being broken off. Tablet 170 (otherwise 137 
m), which contains a list of the sacred nnmbera of the 
gods, is headed MukaL Other examples "might easily 
be adduced. 

Midal, sculptured: from Heb. kalakf vhp, insculpsit 
or sculpsit (Ges. 893), whence we find in 1 Kings vi- 
18, and in three other passages, the derived word 
mukalut, r\J^7ptt, sculptura. 

Miithari is a common word, meaning '* lines of 
writing." 



424 



A NEW TftANSLATIOPi OF 



Nebo-liha: this name means "Nebo is victorious" 
Hincks reads it NabuUaU (Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy for 1856, p. 36). According to a 
statement in the * Athenseum' (p. 725) the name of 
Nabuliah has been found on a tablet, as eponym in 
Sennacherib's third year. This is a remarkable con- 
firmation of the truth of the ann&la inscribed oa 
Bellina*s cylinder. 

Shavat, a word composed of the signs sfta and vwt 
or vat, appears to be the Heb, I32U^, shnfat^ the chief 
magistrate of a city or region, a term which becanie 
known to tlie Romans, who altered the word into *w/w, 
Gen. snfetis. There was also a norain^tWe sufetus : 
"referentibus sufetis." The D''t2DlTl?, sufetim, "judges,'' 
were once the chief rulers in Israel. 






ADDITIONAL NOTES. 



Zine 3G. Dur frequently means a habitation or 
resting-place, from Chald. "Vn, habitare, commorari. 
But that does not alter the meaning of the passage: 
" its timing which was intended to remain lor ever.'' 

" Those of old time " is quite a Scripture phrase, 
for we know that landmarks placed by *' those of old'' 
were to be held sacred by the Israelites. 

Isshidit, 1 suspect that this verb means " they 
stamped.^* The phrase will then mean " they stamped 
the clay with the figure of a dove." This meaning is, 
at present, conjectural, but reposes on the following 
grounds: many clay tablets are found containing con- 
tracts between private individuals, to which they have 




J 




THE INSCRIPTION OF BEl.LINO, 



425 



affixed the impression of their seals on the soft clay. 
Over each of these is written, '*seal of the man A," 
"seal of the man B," etc. The word for seal is 

» — I I [ and the most usual sound of this sign is 

shid. It is always preceded by the sign for ** stone/' 
by which we perceive the impression froin a stone seal 
is meant. From this substantive it would be natural 
to make a verb isskidu, "they sealed." But for the 
present this is only a conjecture. 

Ilti siilliir, etc. etc. It is possible that this may be 
the preposition itti (with) and not the substantive itti 
(sigaum). The phrase will then mean, " tliey stamped 
the clay with the mark of a dove," etc. etc. 

Line 41. Several words in this line are of doubtful 
meaning. In the first place karask-m may mean alveus 
9UUS, i,e, the bed of the river, or its channel. Heb, 
UnD CGesen. 505). If so, sittishur hilar may mean 
the preservation of the rain-water ; since one of the 
meanings of kuiar is "rain." 

Then, (a/iiri7iH^VanV,'*the introduction of rivulets," 
would mean their being turned into the channel of the 
river to augment its waters. 

In the same Hne ?;«/ usiahU may mean, " they never 
thoroughly cleansed (or flooded) its channel.*' From 
the verb Vl"", copiose fluxit, Gesenius derives 6wi, 
jiluvia, and mabnl, 713?3, Noah's deluge, which suffi- 
ciently sliows that the conjugation itstnhi! may have 
the force of " a thorough scouring by means of floods 
of water," In a similar passage of the E. L H. in- 
scription we find pal(fa-su la etstkir, " its channel was 
not cleansed or purified,'* from lleb, ^ns^ to make 
bright or pure. 



I 




420 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF 



Line 48. Another explanation of uribbu timin-sha 
IS, '* its platform was ravaged/' In Sargon's cylinder, j 
line 19, he is called mwn6» the ravager, of the land of H 
Beth Kumria, from the root nn, to destroy (Tr ravage. 



I will now add a connected translation of the whole 
inscription. 

Sesnacherib tbe great king, the powerful king, the 
king of Assyria, the king irresistible, the heaven-ap- 
pointed monarch, the servant of the great gods. The 
observer of the Law, the lover of justice, the noble 
warrior, the valiant hero, the first of all kings, the 
great punisher of the unbelievers, the breaker in pieces 
of their wicked conspiracies. 

Ashur the great Lord has given to me enduring 
power. Over all heretical nations he has raised trium- 
phantly my arras. 

In the beginning of my reign I destroyed the armies 
of Marduk-Daladan, king of Babylonia, and his allies 
the Susians^ in the plains near the city of Kush. la 
the midst of thai battle be quitted his army, fled alone 
on horsebackj and escaped to the city Gutzumman ; 
and hiding among the reeds and rushes of the river, 
he saved his life alone. 

The chariots, waggons, horses, mares, mules, and 
camels, which in the confusion of the battle they had 
abandoned, were captured by my hands. Then 1 
plundered completely his palace in the city of Babylon; 
I broke open his royal treasury^ gold and silver; vessels 
of gold and silver; precious stones ; goods and valuables 
and much royal treasure : his wife, and the male and 
female inhabitants of his palace ; the noblemen and 



4 




THE INSCRIPTION OF BELLING. 



4J7 



the royal treasurers who stood first among all his men 
of trust and were clothed ^vith the chief authority in 
the palace, 1 carried off and I counted them as a spoil. 

Then I marched after him to the city Gutzumman, 
and I sent off my soldiers to search through the 
marshes and reeds. Five days they moved about 
rapidly, but his hiding place was not discovered. 

In the name of Ashur my lord, 89 large cities and 
royal dwellings in the land of Chaldasa, and 820 small 
towns in their neighbourhood, } assaulted, captured, 
and carried off their spoils. 

The skilled workmen, both Aramaeans and Chal- 
deans, who were in the cities of Bel, Kush, Kharrishun, 
and Ti|rgaba, and also the common people of the land 
who had been in rebellion, I carried away and I distri- 
huted them as a spoil. 

Belibus, the son of the high priest of the Temple of 
the Seven Planets in the holy city, who had been 
educated as a young nobleman in my palace, 1 placed 
over them as king of Leshan and Akkadi. 

During my return, the tribes of the Tuhamuna, 
Rihiku, Yadakku, Hubudu, Kipri, Maliku, Gurumu, 
Hubuh, Damunu, Gambulu, Khindaru, Ruhuha, Bu- 
kudu, Khamranu, Ilagaranu, Nabatu, and Lihutahu 
(Arameeans all of them and rebels), I completely con- 
quered- 208,000 inhabitants, male and female ; 7200 
horses and mares ; 1173 mules; 5230 camels; 80,10f^ 
oxen ; 600,600 sheep ; a vast spoil, I carried off to 
Assyria. 

In my first year I received the great tribute of 
Nebo-bel-mu, chief of Ararat; gold, silver, meshukan 
wood of great size, mules, camels, oxen, and sheep. 

The people of the city of Khismi, enemies and 




428 



A NEW XnANSLATlON OF 



lieretics, who from old times bad never bowed down 
to my yoke, I destroyed with my arms. Not one soul 
escaped. 

That city I built again. One bull, ten sheep, ten 
fallings, twenty animals called " strongheads," I offered 
in sacrifice to the gods of Assyria^ my lords. 

In my second yenr, Ashur the lord giving me con- 
fidence, I marched against the land of the Bisi and 
the Yatsubi-gallaya, enensies and heretics who from 
old times had never submitted to the kine^smy fathers. 
Through the thick forests and in the hilly districts I 
rode on horseback, for I had left my two-horse cha- 
riot in the plains below. But in dangerous places 1 
alighted on my feet and clambered like a mountain 
goat. 

The city of Beth-Kilam&akh, their great city, I 
attacked and took. The inhabitants small and great, 
horses, mares, mules, oxen, and sheep, I cairied off 
from it and distributed them as a spoil. Theirsmaller 
towns without number 1 overthrew and reduced them 
to ruins. A vast building which was their Hall of 
Assembly I burnt with fire. 

Once more that city of Betb-Kilamzakh I erected 
into a strong fortress. Higher than in former times 
I rebuilt it on a hill. People drawn from lands sub- 
dued by my arms 1 placed to dwell within it, 

The people of Bisi and Yatsubi-gallaya who had 
fled away from my arms I brought down from the 
mountains, and in the cities of Kar-Thisbe and Beth- 
Kubittl I caused them to dwell. In the hands of 
my officers, men of distinction of Arrapakha city, I 
distrihuted them, A stone tablet 1 made, I wrote 
on it the victories which 1 had gained over them, and 
within the city 1 set it up. 




THE INSCRIPTION OF DELLINO. 



429 



Tlien I turned round the front of my chariotj and 
1 marched straight before me to the land of lUipi. 
Ispabara their king abandoned his strong cities and 
bis treasuries and 6ed to a distance. All his broad 
country I swept like a mighty whirlwind. The city 
Marupishli and the city Akkuddu, his royal residences, 
and 34 great cities, with numberless smaller towns in 
their neighbourhood, I destroyed and I burnt them 
with fire. I cut down their finest trees, and over 
their cornfields [ spread blackness. In every direc- 
tion I left the land of lllipi a desert. 

The inhabitants small and great, male and female, 
horses, mares, mules, oxen, and sheep, beyond number, 
I carried off and divided them as a spoil. The strong 
cities of Sisirti and Kukunli, and the smaller towns in 
their neighbourhood, together with the whole province 
of Ueth-Barrua, I cut off from his land and added 
them to the empire of Assyria. 1 raised the city of 
llinziish to be the royal city and metropolis of that 
province. I abolished its former name and I gave it 
the name of the City of Sennacherib. 

During my return I received a great tribute from 
the distant Medians, who in the days of the kings my 
fathers no one had ever heard even the name of their 
country : and 1 made them bow down to the yoke of 
ray majesty. 

In those days Jvineveh the exalted city, the city 
beloved by Ishtar, which cherishes every kind of 
woraljip of the gods and goddesses within it,— in its 
tivuit (or sacred platform) meant to last for ever and 
ever, those of old time deposited a day tablet im- 
pressed with the figure of a dove ; and along with it 
they placed its fellow-tablets. 



430 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF 



A Splendid place, a rich building lor her sanctuary, 
and a treasure house for all the jewels, the regalia of^_ 
Ishtar, they erected within it. ^M 

Of all the kings of former days, my fathers who 
went before nie, who reigned before me over Assyria 
and governed the city of Bel (»'. e. Nineveh), and with 
no sparing measure increased the size of their build- 
ings, and there treasured up all their revenues which 
they received from the four countries ; no one among 
them all repaired the great central edifice which was 
the royal dwelling of their greatness, nor ever 
brightened up the interior, nor yet the exterior, of the 
dingy building which formed its keep. 

As regards the supply of water, they neither kept 
the fountains sweet, nor cleansed the river- channel, so 
as to preser\'e the rain-water, collect the streams and 
rivulets, and search for new springs and cause them to 
rise. 

Then I, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, by command 
of the gods, took delight to complete this work. 
Multitudes 1 collected together of the workmen of the 
lands of Chald^ea, Aram, Manna Kue, and Cilicia, 
who had not bowed down to my yoke : I brought 
them away as captives, and I bound them together in 
gangs to make bricks. In baskets made of reeds which 
I cut in the land of ChaldEea, I made the foreign 
workmen bring their appointed tasks of clay in order 
to complete this work. 

There was an ancient palace, of 360 measures long, 
adjoining the gardens of the Great Tower ; 80 measures 
wide, adjoining the watch-tower of the Temple of^M 
Ishlarj 134 measures wide, adjoining the watch-tower^^ 
of the house of worship ; and 93 measures wide 





THE INSCRIPTIOX OF Dl^LLlNQ. 



431 



the remaining side), which the kings my fathers who 
went before me built for their royal residence but 
never beautified its front (or facade). 

The (so named) Canal of Fertility, lined (or banked 
up) with brickwork, which once traversed the central 
part of the city in four delightful Btreams, had fallen 
into ruin. 

Their beautiful ki trees had been cut down for fire- 
wood, all the finest of them. And from extreme old 
age the front of the palace was split and rent. Its 
base was traversed by cracks and its foundations by 
wide fissures, while its timtrt (or sacred platform) was 
all in confusion. 

That shabby palace I pulled down the whole of it. 

Of the Canal of FerliHty, during 16 years its water 
had been dried up by the sun. I collected together its 
springs (or sources). Among the rocks I found a 
copious source> which^ running down the hills over 
rocks of mighty size, unites itself with the waters of 
the river Sima. With these waters, which I conducted 
to Nineveh, I filled the canal again to overflowing. 

I made a mound of earth 1700 measures long; 162 
measures wide, on the upper tiide towards the north ; 
217 measures wide, in the centre ; 386 measures wide, 
on the lower side towards the south, fronting the river 
Tigris. I completed the mound^ and 1 measured the 
measure. 

I deposited once more its sacred tiinin, which was 
still well remembered, owing to the popular veneration 
for it from the most ancient times. Then with large 
stones I closed it all round, and 1 made its deposit 
secure. 

The written records of mv name, 160 fathoms of 




432 



A N£W TKANSI^ATIO^ OF 



bas-reliefs, I sculptured within it; but the lower part 
of the wall next to the ground 1 left to be filled up in 
future times. 

Of Dew imagery I brought together a great number' 
of bas-reliefs. Twenty fathoms in extent of the 
ancient sculptures were preserved, so thai I spread out 
in all 180 fathoms of them. 

The enclosure itself I augmented beyond what it 
was in former days : above the measure of the former 
palace 1 enlarged it, and I liberally increased its cours- 
ing grounds. 

Fine buildings of ivory, dan wood, ku wood, meshu- 
X'an wood, cedar wood, cypress wood dried in the sun, 
and pistachio wood ; these buildings (as sparklets of 
my splendour) for ray royal residence I erected within it. 

I made its porticoes with lofty shar trees, cut down 
in the land of Khamana, which all persons who are 
judges of the best sort of pine trees prefer, as being 
the choicest trees, either in the hills or in the laud of 
Chaldaea. 

By my care I caused the uprising of springs in more 
than 40 places of the plain, I divided them into irri- 
gating canals for the people of Nineveh, and gave them 
to be their own property. 

To obtain water to turn the 6our-miUs, 1 brought 
down from the borders of Kishri unto the fields of 
Nineveh, my city^ pure streams conveyed in pipes, and 
I collected them into reservoirs. 

I brought down the perennial waters of the river 
Kutzuru from the distance of half a Aasbu into those 
wells, and I surrounded their margins with walls. 

Of Nineveh, my royal city, I greatly enlarged its 
dwellings. Its streets, 1 renovated the old ones, and 





THE INSCRIPTION OF BELLlNO. 

I widened those which were too narrow. 
as splendid as the sun. 

la future days, under the kings my sons, whom 
Ashur shall call to the sovereignty over this laud and 
people, when this palace shall grow old and decay, the 
man who shall renew its soleram dedication, shall read 
aloud tlje written record of my name, shall make a 
etone altar and sacritice a male victim, and shall then 
replace it in its place, Ashur will hear and accept his 
prayers. 




Tn studying this inscription, it is necessary to consult 
either the original cyliader or Bellino's faithful fac- 
simile ; for the copy published by the British Museum 
(first series of inscriptions) is full of errors. 

In order not to exceed the limits of this paper, I 
have left many words and phrases without note or 
coraaient. But of most of these an explanation will 
be found in a former translation, to which I have 
ab*eadv referred. 






A DREVIATE OF THE CARTULARY OF TOE PRIOHI 
CHURCE OF ST, MARY MAGDALENE, LANERCOST., 

BY MACKENZIE K. C. WAtCOTT, B.D.j r.K.S.L., y,fi,A., PRArUXTDRj 
AND pttEBBNDARr or CHICUBSTEK. 

(Read February 21, lafifi.) 



f 



The following paper relates to a class of literati 
which has been always neglected, owing to the ap-^^ 
parently uninteresting, and, at first sight, uninvitin^^^ 
character of the documents in which it is contained^ 
Conventual Cartularies. The one before our notice be- 
longed to the Priory wherein was compiled tlie excellent 
chronicle which bears its name, and was published in 
1837 by the Maitland Society: the original, formerly 
at Nawortb Castle, and in parts annotated by Lord Wil- 
liam Howard, "famous Belted Wilt," had disappeared 
in the time of Hodgson, the historian of \orthum- 
berland ; and Mr. Sydney Gibson, the celebrated anti- 
quary of the Northern district, informs me that it wi 
missing when he made a search for it. The same fate 
has attended those of Newminster and lirinkburne. 
We possess now only a transcrij)t in the library of the , 
Dean and Chapter of Carliele, which was presented U^^ 
them in 1777, by Joseph Nicolson, of Hawkeahead^^^ 
Esq., one of the editors of the history of Cumberland ; 
from this MS, I have made the breviate which follows, 
omitting no particular of importance, and merely cut- 



"^ 



} 



CARTULARY OF ST. MARY 8, I,ANERCOST, 




ting out repetitions and recitals of former grants. The 
scene of the Charters lies in the historic and most 
beautiful part of Cumberland, from Triermain and 
Gillesland, immortalized in the verse of Walter Scott, 
by Naworlh, the walks of Corby, the banks of Eden 
to AVarwick Bridge and the gates of merry Carlisle, 
while the names of De Vaux, Blamire, Denton, Castle- 
cayrock, Multon, Brus, Baliol, Dacre, Ireby, Lascelies, 
Luvekss, Windsor, Ulvesbyj and Vipont are recorded 
as benefactors or witnesses to grants. 

The Priory of St. Mary Magdalene, Lanercost, 
founded by Robert de Vallibus, 1116, for Austin 
Canons, is raosl beautifully situated under the shelter 
of low hills, near the Irtbing, and within the distance 
of a mile from Nawortb (or Naward) Castle. The 
single round arch of the great western gate-house 
remains : and the Prior's lodgings at the south-west 
of the nave have been rebuilt. The nave, hke that 
of Hexham, has no south aisle: the transept and the 
eastern arm (which has aisles attached through half 
its length, forming our Lady's Chapel on the north, 
and St, Catharine';* on the south) are wholly unroofed. 
The entire eastern side of the capitular buildings has 
disappeared: the beautiful cellarage of two alleys, re- 
sembling that of Carlisle, is preserved, with the plat- 
form of the refectory, which was reached by stairs 
from the cloister gartli ; the western buildings, pro- 
bably the guest-houses, have evidently been rebuilt 
since the devastations and fires, which will be found 
mentioned as having occurred in the 14th century. 

The Cartulary gives us little information with regard 
to the Church except mentioning St. Mary Magdalene's 
or the high altar (iv. 2\), St. Catharine'ti altar in 1186 

2g2 



I 



436 CARTULARY OF THE PRIORY CHURCH 

(viii. 17). St. Mary's altar (xii. I, ii. 1 1), and the Prior's 
Chapel, dedicated to StCuthbert (iii. 4), but a mar- 
ginal note lo the first charter mentions its dedication 
by Bernard, Bishop of Carlisle, 1 IG9. It contains refer- 
ences to the harass endured by the Convent, owing to 
the f^tay of Ihe King a-tid his army, on one occasion, 
during several months ; the fires and ravages inflicted 
by the Scots ; and its ruiuons hospitality to strangers, 
tli<3 poor pilgrims and travellers (viii. 6, x. 14, xii. 2, 
3, 4) ; whilst the remarkable letters of Popes and 
English Bishops bear ample evidence to the piety and 
zeal of the Prior and Canons, affording us a bright 
view of the Conventual system in its belter times. 
Pope Alexander III. permitted the Priory to receive 
lay persons desirinc admission (or as it was technically 
termed ''conversion"); and after *' profession '* no 
Canon might leave without the Prior's license. Their 
Vicars of parish churches were to be responsible tiiH 
Iheniselves in temporal matters, and in spiritual to Ihe^ 
diocesan. In times of a general interdict they might 
celebrate with a low voice in their church, without 
ringing of bells and with closed doors, persons imde^H 
interdict or excommunicate being excluded. nuriaT^ 
within their church might be given to atl persons wlio^ 
had desired it, and the Priors were to be elected b^| 
the Convent (viii. 18), a ripht originally granted by 
the founder (i. 14). Lord Rohert, son of Ralph de 
Vaux, bequeathed his body to be buried in the Prio 
Church (ii. 14). 

Lord WiUiam Howard gives the following list 
Priors from the Register; the dates 1 have added: 
Symon ; John ; Thomas ; Walter [1 158] j John ; Sy- 
mon [ll8ti] ; Henry (viii. 4, xi- 4) ; Rohert; Willia 



ae 

I 





OF ST, MARY MAGDALENB, LAN EliCOST. 




[1256]; John; John [retired on a pension, 1283 
(Chron., p. 113),]; Symou de Driffield [1283, Aug. 
16]. 

One of the last scenes in the history ol the Priory 
\s thus related : — 

Letter of Henry Vlll. to the Duke of Norfolk, 
1536-7. Forasmuch as all these trouhles have ensued 
by the solicitations and traitorous conspiracies of the 
Monks and Canons of these parts, we desire and pray 
you, at your repair to Sallay, Hexham, Newniinater, 
Lanercost, St. Agatha, and all such other places as 
have made any manner of resistance, or in any way 
conspired, or kept their houses with any force, you 
shall without pity or circumstance, now that our 
banner is displayed, cause all the Monks and Canons 
that be in any wise faulty, to be lied up without fur- 
ther delay or ceremony, to the terrible example of 
others.' 

Tbere are many interesting notices of boundaries 
and landmarks ; the sike, fossatum, stipula?, and drata ; 
the poles found in moor and moss as now in the New 
Forestj the pollard oak {fjuercus detonsa, iii. 14), the 
oaks marked with crosses (i. 16, iv. 14, vi. 25) ; the 
St. Mary oak (i. C) ; the oak named Wiskerhutton [ili. 
7) ; the Peter Gate, the Ked Gate, the Maiden Cross 
on the Maiden Way, dividing Cumberland and North- 
umberland, the stone cross, and the cairn or heap of 
stones (iii, 19), such as doubtless have puzzled the en- 
terprise of archaeologists mistaking it for a funeral 
mound, and were in later times supplanted by *' great 
grey stones " and " Edole stane." The various kinds 
of roads and paths are mentioned : magna strata (v. 25) , 
^ Leinoii'e Slate PaijetPj i. 537. 



I 




438 



CARTULARV OF THE I'HIOaV CHURCH 



probably a Roman highway ; the via re^a (iv. II, vl 
7) ; the green mountain path ; the road of the wai 
{quadrigftTumy iii. 7, iv. 14), which we find were ilra 
by eight oxen (xii. J3) ; and the Buttes {W. 9). The 
Hnes for cattle straying are also mentioned (ix. 5, I 
16); and the condition on which hedges were mai 
tained and common rights of pasturage permitt 
The curious ri;^hts of Husbole and Hayhote (ix. 19) 
a rent of salt (vii. 15) ; the Neotegeld (U. 1 1) ; Hon 
gabel (xii. 1), and burgage (v. 27) ; the nominal ren' 
of [d, or 2d., or 4d. (v. 25, 26),40d. (xiv. 14), or one 
pound of cumin paid at a fair (v, 24, xii. 12, vi. 18, 
xiii. 7, xii, 12), or one pound of pepper, or 6*, (iv. 19) 
or one pound of wax (xii. 25). The principle o 
which repairs of church and provision of ornamen 
were adjusted betweijn a convent and its vicars (i 
14) ; the transfer of villeins ["drengage'* op giving 
drudges, see Burn and Nicholson, i. 21] with thcii 
following (i. 17, iv. 17, vi. 3, 13, xiv. 8) ; the defini- 
tion of a carucate as containing sixty-four acres (xiii. 
6) J and ''putura" (xv. 11); the right of refreshment 
claimed by the forest officers [see Burn and Nichol 
son, i. 22], are all told us. 

There are several curious illustrations of tbe history 
of topographical nomenclature in tbe Dynychere (xv. 
7), Pylffrym St, (xv, 7), Bretherchere of Newcastle, a 
lane so called from the Friars Minors, who had a house 
in it, Mimkhareshonch (P. x. c. xii.), the new name 
given iu the thirteenth century to Haresione or llare- 
chonch by the people of the locality, hecansie belonging 
to the canons, vulgarly called monks, Kusiace-Ridding 
(xii. 23), called after its former tenant (ii. 14), as w 
have Presl-riddiug, aiul Fiere-bnde (x. 7.), a wi 






it 

I 





OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE. LANERCOST. 



439 



named immediately on its appropriation to the brethren 
or canons of Lanercost ; Vicus Ricardi (xv- 8, 9), now 
corrupted into Rickergate; Vicus Bocardi (vi. 11), 
which appears now as Botchergate, and may be con- 
nected witli the famous Norlhgate of Oxford, which 
was called Bocardo [(Peshall, 198; Ingram, lii., St. 
Michael's, 8). W, de Bochardeby is mentioned (viii. 
14)j] Via Plscatorum (xii.l); andVia Frrmcorum [1287] 
(x. 19) ; there was a street of the same name at Bury 
St. Edmund's. A fountain of St. Makedran is men- 
tioned (iv. 9), and a subterranean aqueduct for the use 
of the convent (ix. 17). The same family appears as 
Aketon and Acton (xv. 8, 9). The name of Poer was 
derived probably not from pauper but puer, as in seve- 
ral charters puer is used as a designation (iv. 21, 22 ; 
ii. 1 2) ; and that of Capel from the chaplnin or chapel ; 
and Drake from draco ; and Fleming from Flandrensis, 
through Flamand and Flamang, 

The lands before transfer by the lord to the Priory 
were perambulated by lawful and honest men, and the 
extent of damage by the convent cattle was viewed and 
assessed by a jury of the neighbours (ix. 2). Bark for 
their tannery was given hy the founder (i. 13), and by 
a benefactor in 1578 (x. 11). The proportion of cat- 
tle on certain lands was sixty cows and one bull, with 
their following (calves) of two years old, ten mares 
with foals of three years old, and plough horses and 
oxen. On other pastures there might be two hundred 
cows, one bull and eight oxen, two averes (horses), 
and thirty goats (ii. 3, iv. 14). The Iambs were not to 
be removed until the feast of St. John Baptist, and the 
kids only at Easter ; mares also might he folded (vii. 8). 
The crops mentioned are grass and cereal, '^ bladum 



I 




440 



CARTLfLARV OF THB PKIOUV CHURPII 



et fenum," and we hear of gardens 'Mini et caoabi. 
Milch sheep are mentioned (iii. 10, vi. 8), and ewi 
milk cheese 19 still in use on the other side of the 
Cheviot Hills. Lands given as marriage dowries occur 
(v, 24, 2G ; vi. 26; xii. 18); and some were planted 
for money already given (vi. 2; vii. 17). Granges and 
tithe barns were allowed to be built (vi. 17 ; x. 11), at' 
which the garbs were tithed (x. 3 ; xiv. 4). Pasturs 
was allowed after the removal of crops (ix. 3 ; ii.lj jj 
fuel and building materials were also given (ii. 5).' 
The Prior's foresters might walk through the woods j 
with bows and arrows; and a restriction was placed 
on their making covers or interfering with the range 
of beasts of the chase (ix. 4) ; and on trespassing in 
park or orchard ; while the right of the lord's mills 
was jealously maintained until the first grain was in 
the hopper (xi. 1). 

Pen is a Celtic word, but held (spring), byre (the 
cow-house), n^ath, duie, with, croft, holme, gate (a 
street), by, bee, toft^ garden ton (a farmyard), scaU, 
brigg, kirk, the ridding or trithing (xii. 19, 23 ; xjii. 
24), betray a Danish influence, whilst garth^ buryk^ 
hirst, and dene were Saxon importations. For the 
Ibrmer see Nicholson's Glossary, a paper already read 
by me before the Royal Society of Literature. As re- 

Lgards Latin, there are peculiar terms employed, such as 
aurasime7itumyappruynmenta,harra,patria and patriotee 
(for country and countryfolk), drata, hleda^ cunrfus, ^ 
kerbergare, salterium, nketta, esA'eppa, siipttlec, clohesl, H 
garcifer^ which will be unfaniiliar to many archaeolo- 
gists, some being untranslatable. 
In matters ecclesiastical we have a remarkable ver- 
dict of division between, the parishes of Cambock and 



I 
I 



* 





OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANRRCOST. 

Lanercost in 1359 (xv. 18); the notice of an almoist 
unique example of a cliurcli built of wattlework at 
least as late as the eleventh century (vi. 6; xv. 17)^ the 
land attached to which was called kirkland as designed 
for the maintenance of the chaplain ; when the chapel 
was given to Lanercost the canons served it either 
personally or by secular priests, the parishioners re- 
sorting for sacraments, and paying their offerings to 
the mother church. We have also early notices of 
the urban deans of Carlisle and the rural deans of 
Gillesland , of a hermitage (i. 5J ■ of a composition of 
two marks a year in lieu of tithes paid by Newminster 
Abbey for the grange of Keylaw (xv. 15); in 1311 
the convent was to pay twenty-tive marks a year to the 
vicar of Mitford (who was to hold a manse and twelve 
acres of church soil) under pain of excommunication 
(xv. 12); a payment of two bezants of gold out of 
Leysingby church to Kelso Abbey was made on St. 
James's day at Rokeherow fair (x. 16 ; xiii. 25). 

In 1287 the vicar of the parish church of Walton 
received all the altarage, with land and garden of eight 
acres (viii. 12), four shillings of silver paid half-yearly, 
and twelve marks yearly as his portion, the canons 
still providing for the services in Treverman chapelry 
(xi. 2). The vicar of Irthinglon was to have tithes 
within certain limits, paying an eskep and a half of 
oatmeal yearly to the canons, 1275 (x. 8). The vicar 
of Leysingby, 1272, received two eskeps of oatmeal in 
lieu of the tithes of garb which went to the priory, 
being levied in the lields ; he held the house and land 
('* pratum "), the altarage and all offerings, tithes of 
flax, and small tithes, paying synodals, and finding 
lights, vestments and other ornaments, and maintaining 



I 




442 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIORY CHCRCH 



hospitality; the parishioners to find the missal, the 
Priory repairins; the chancel, and dividing with the 
vicar any extraordinary expenses, as in providing 
books or putting land into cultivation (\x. 14) ; in 1228 
he was bound to pay two eskeps of oats and two 
of brasium (x. 0). In the vacancy of the dependent 
churches the canons held the keys (viii. 3) ; they pre- 
sented their own nominees to the diocesan (viii. 6, 16, 
18). At first they paid half a mark to the vicar of 
Old Denton (viii. 16), hut in 1273 received out of the 
church a pension of three marks (x. 4). 

M'e hear of a quit-claim by King^s letters 8ought to 
be evaded, or because a charter had been burned ; or 
gained by a gift of money (vi. 1 7 ; xiii. "24), or freely 
(xii- UK 17); an honest promise not to burden a gift 
of land by the acceptance of corrody or Hvery in I '289 
(xiii. 19); pensions which in many instances hopelessly 
loaded a convent with debt ; a most amusing account of 
the inquisition touddng tithe in Gelt, in which wit- 
nesses are examined from great Sir Roland de Vaux 
and canons down to the humble forester, cook, and 
cook's boy of the convent (xiii. 10) ; an award l>y four 
referees that if the lord of the manor believed that the 
canons* sheep exceeded the numbers to which he al- 
lowed common pasture, he might take stock of them 
yearly (xiii. 9). For the right of having a chantry. 
1293, oni^ pound of wax was paid to the convent (xii. 
25), which was to have all the offerings. 

The confirmations of charters by Popes Innocent 111., 
1302 (xiii. 96; viii, 22), Alexander III.. 1181, (viii 
23, 18), Honorius III., 1224, (viii, 21, 19, 24), Lucius 
III., 1184 [viii. 39), and Gregory XL, 1370 (xv. IG); 
and of Kiujis Edward III., I33G {x. 6 ; xv. 6), Edward 




OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANERCOST. 



44a 



I, 138-J(xv,4,5), 1307 (XV. 2), 1309 (xii.6), Richard I. 
(viii. 1), Henry II. (viii. 25.26), show the high estima- 
tion in which the Priory was held. 

We trace in these pages the gradual growth of sur- 
names, such as Tailor, Forester, Hunter, Chamberlain, 
Weaver, Despenser, Falconer, Cook, Miller, etc. 
Pelliparius has no representative, but Trute has become 
Troyte ; and the assumption of local names as patro- 
nymics, such as Farlam by a branch of the Windsors, 
and de Denton by the sons of one Anketin j Cougate, 
Leversdale, Croglyn, Carlatton, and Vaux, only 
another forni of de Vallibus, a Latin trjinslation ol 
Gill(esland) ; or of the father's christian name by affix 
or prefix, Fitz Halph, Richardson, Fitzwiliiam, WiU 
liamson, Robertson^ Rogerson ; or personal character- 
istics, Black, White, and Brown. Among the rarer 
names of women occur Ysanda, Avicia, Theffania, 
Rachgilda, Pavia, Ada, Helewisa, Mariota, Havisa, 
Christiana, and Gyliana. The names of men include 
a curious series of Jewish names, in one family, Sa- 
muel, David, Solomon, and Israel; Enoch and Elyas 
also occur< The seneschal or land-serjeant of Gilles- 
land had to govern the tenants and to levy forfeitures ; 
he was bound to bring the tenants to attend their 
lord prepared for travelling under pain of the loss of 
the best of their goods (MS, charter of W. de Dane, 
1397). The clergy certainly were married, for their 
sons are distinctly named, whether chaplains or parish 
clerijy, 1271, (xii. 13), as will he seen by reference to 
the index. The dedications of two churches, St. 
Kentigern's, Greendale (ii. 19), and St. Thomas, M., 
Farlam (i, 20), and the names of several heads of mo- 
nastic houses, anti ecclesiastics of Carliele, and sheriffs 




444 



CARTULARY OF Tll£ FKIORY CUUACII 



of Curaberland, will be found (ov the first time iu 
Ihese charters ; in which occur also the noble or 
ancient names of Vaux, Multon, Ireby, Denton, Mul- 
caster, Flemyng, De la Ferte, Ulvesby, Windsor, 
Featherslonhaugh, etc. Earl Runulph de Meschines 
of Cumberland gave the barony of Gilsland to hie 
relation Hubert de Vaux ; the grandfather of Thomaii 
de Multon married Matilda, the heiress of that family^ 
and Thomas was summoned to Parliament as Baron 
Multon, 25 Edw. 1. ; his daughter aad heir married 
Ralph de Dacre, summoned to Parliament as Lord 
Dacre of the South, 1 Edw. IL The male line of the 
Deiitons of New Denton died out after five descents 
from the middle part of the eleventh century. The 
Warwicks descended from Odoardus, to whom was 
given the nmnor by Earl Ranulph de Meschines. The 
Castkcarrocks, extinct temp. Edw. I., are supposed to 
have been the descendants of Eustace de Vaux and 
Vaux of Ilayton. The Boyvilla or Levmgtons, whoise 
heiress maried a Baliol, died out in the reign of Henry 
III.^ and the younger branch in that of Edward IV. 
One of the coheiresses of Ireby married a Lascelles 
and a Chartres ; and a coheiress of Morvjlle, extinct 
temp. John, married a Multon. Staffold became ex- 
tinct temp. Hen. V. A coheiress of Tylliol of Scaleby, 
extinct 14 Hen. VI., married a Moresby. Vaux of 
Tryermain became extinct temp. Edw. IV. A House 
in Pilgrim Strtiet, Newcastle, in I33(i paid a rental or 
ground rent of 40d. to Lanereost, and G*. Sd. to the 
original possessors (xv. 7). There are curious exam- 
ples of legal decisions, one in 1269 oi Thomas, otficial 
of Carlisle, on William de Neuby of Leversdale for 
refusing to tithe his garbs at tlie grange door ui the 




OF ST. MAliY MAGDALENE, LANERCOST. 




canons instead of in the fields, with threat of excommu- 
mcatton (xiv. 15); a judgment in the Archidiaconal 
Court of Carlisle, 1303, on EuHodeSkyrwith for non- 
payment of half a mark yearly, which then was equal 
to 3s. 4c/. (xiv, 1 1). We find cases before the justice 
itinerant and :> selection of jurymen, two by each party 
to the suit, and the remainder selected by the&e referees 
(x. 12, 1255}. The canons kept hounds, and if they 
trespassed into the domain of Lady Matilda de Vaux, 
the dog^s were to be given back, hut the chase ("fera") 
was to be delivered to the lord of the manor (x. 7). 
In 1256 Tbomas de Multon permitted the pack to 
consist of four harriers and four brachetts to hunt 
hares, foxes and all other animals coming under the 
designation of clohest (ix. 4). For e&capium or tres- 
pass they paid ]d. for all kinds of cattle, and the same 
for ten sheep (x. 16), and in 1273 for four horses \d., 
for eight Vine Irf., for four pigs Jd., for twenty-four 
sheep Irf., and if ready-money was not forthcoming, 
surety lor double the amount was exacted, and forfeit- 
ed if satisfaction was not made within a week (x. 15). 



THE CHARTER OF ROBERT DE VACX CONVEYED 

The land of Lanercost faphvetn the old waJl and Irthiii, and be- 
tween Burth and Poltro&. 

Tlie laud of Walton from tbp old wnjl by the long sike next 
Cospatricscye tu Irthin, by Trillin to tlic junction of the 
Cainboc niid Irthin, and up by Ciunboc to the aike 
whicii goes down by Black Oak ontlie way to Cumque- 
ciitb, anJ on the oilier eide of Black Oak to the sike of 
rokerheved fidliug into King, and by King to the wall 
and common pasture round it. 

The fhiirchps of Walton with Trevermaii chnpch Irthinton, 
Brnmpfon, Karlaton, Fttrlnm, and their appurtenances. 





446 



CARTULABY OF THE PUJOKV CHURCH 




The lands of Warthecolman, Eoswrngeth^ and Apeltrethwajtc, aa 
Scchenent fulls into Uertlniiburn, and lowartls TinJalo' 
by the bounds which Giikj son of Bueth, hold, and 
iliose which K. Henry gave tn Hubert de Vaux, and 
the cximraon pasture of the whole moofj atid a wiater 
scalinga in a fitting pljice bejond riertingburn, 

LicrncE to have thirty cows hi the forest of Walton, twenty swiuc 
(" suibus "), with their produce of two years, and pas- 
ture for ploughing oxen, and free passiige for swiiie 
("porcis") reared or bought. 

Ali bark in woods of the barony from the. lands belonging to 
Gille, son of Bueth, dry wood and lying wood in the 
forest to maintain thtir houRt*. 

Percniasion to hnvc a right of way and paths to go to their 
churches nnd houses, towards Brampton, WaUo?i, Tre- 
verman, Walhcoleuifln, Uoswrageth, Denton, and Beu- 
kibcth, and from laud to laud. 

T^nd in Brampton wood to make barns mid collect their tithes 
near Laysing'sliedge^tohave [ashcepfold (K. fiiclmrd'i 
cliarter},] a mill, aud lisheries in the Irthing, King, 
Hertiugburn, and elsewhere in their own lands, without 
detriment to the lord's mills or Gumtiiienecach town. 

To make a pool in the domain. 

Henry 11. confirms these grants and that of Ada, 
daughter of'Williani and Eustachia En^yn, viz. three 
acres of laud for cultivation in Burgh Mnrsh, two acres 
in Etana to build liouses, two salt-pans, pasture in flit: 
marsh for two hundred sheep and ploughing oxen, a 
free net in the Eden and tbe right of drying it on their 
own land, two mansurae to make bnthies in Scade- 
bothes, and a carucate of land in Blencraic (Blencraye) 
and common pasture there for the service of St. Ca- 
th^nne's altar in Lanercost Church, and celebration of 
a daily mass for the soul of Simon de Morevil, her 
husband, three marks of silver in Burgh Church, Lay- 



I 



OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANEBC03T. 



447 



singby Church, and Grenesdale Churchy and Little 
HaresioD, with common pasture also of her gift. 

Richard L confirms these and c. ii. p, I, and the 
hermitage which Laysinges held of the gift of David, 
son of Terricus, and Robert, son of Anketii, and com- 
mon pasture of Denton ; the tilhe of Corkeby Mill of 
the gift of Alexander de Wyndesoveres ; the toft with 
the land once belonging to the hospital by Corkeby 
Mill at an annual rent of William, son of Edard (or 
Hodard) ; eight acres of arable land and half a meadow 
in the same town of the gift of Simon de Teillol ; two 
acres of the gift of Henry Norreys ; a carucate in Hay- 
ton with wood of the gift of Eustace de Vaux ; half a 
carucate in Denton with pasture for a niilch sheep, 
twenty cows, one bull, and their produce of two years, 
the gift of Robert, son of Bueth, and Robert, son of 
Asketill. 

In 1181 Pope Alexander confirms also Distinton 
Church, of the gift of Gilbert, son of Jeserlun ; Cum- 
quenecach, given by Israel, chamberlain of Robert de 
Vaux ; a toft ** in Scalis eane novalium," given by 
Peter de Teillol, confirmed by Pope Lucius, 1184. 

The remaining charters give full details of later gifts 
extending to the later half of the fourteenth century. 
Where Roman type is used, additions have been maile 
from the body of the charters to the headings printed 
in italics. For convenience I have put references 
within brackets to connect charters relating to the 



same matters. 



I 



FIRST PART. 



1. Tie ciarler of lio&ert de Fnlt'ilua, sen. [Printed iii Monas- 

licoii.j 

2. The charier of Lord Hvbeit de VtiUibui for fhe tithe of ail 






CARTULARY OF THE PRIDRY CHUHCH 



Aitnth^, M Will iu fiesh as la Aiiles and skimt of Joxc9t a 
foHckhff lakes ami teaite. 

Universis S, M. Ecclesis film Jlobcrlus de Vallibus fiUus H 
berti dc Vallibus saliitem. Sciatis me coiicrssiase dedtsst: el hac 
men cFirtd caulirmns.'^ iu puram et perpetuaiti eletuosiDani Deo et 
Ecclcsiie S. M. Magilalenae de Lancrcost et Cauniiicis ejusdem 
luci dccjimas totiiia venatiouis mese tain in cariiibus quain in coriis 
ft vellibus vdpitim; ci. dccim^ de lads meis et piscntiouibus ^ et 
otuiics decimationcs de vasto meo in puUis in vtlulis jii aguis et 
piirccllis, in kuis et cnsiis, in butiris. £t si forle infra vastum 
nieuin alitiua terra culta fuerit, concede ctiam eis decimas ipsiua 
terror, Quare volo ut predict! Canoniei predictas decimas libere 
et ptenarie habcant de me et bicredibus meis, pm anima Haberti 
de Voli. patris inei, et pro salute nniinff meffi et AiIeg uxorjs ircft 
et oninium autcccat^oruiii mL-aruiii. 

3. The eActrier of Lord Robert de VaUihns, mn of Hubert de 

VaUibu9tfor ike tithe of Httnting in, f^sh, hides, and skin* 
of fores, of laie and fisberj, and waste in foals^ calve?, 
hmbs, pigs, wool, cheese, niid butter. 

4. Tffe charter of the Lord de Vallihnt for the church of Denton 

and the hermkat/fj tchicA hei^nin^as held, honndcd, as Dairid 
son of Tern, and Robert son of Aakeliil, showed in my pre- 
sence, and confirmed bj charter, mth the fiihe of the miU 
nfUUh Corhhf, He. (Sec iii. 1,13, 16.) 

5. The charf-er of Robert de VaUt^us for the church of Denton^ 

and a hermitage^ toilh the tithe of Corkeby 3{ilf, which Alex- 
andef de Wyodesover gave them, and two shillings in 
Leversdflle, which Bernard de Leveresdalc gave, {xiv» 13J 

6. The charter of liinhert de VaUifjus for Lfinrerhayfh^tt. {See 

XV. 18.) 

The houndflries of LnnTecha}'th)'n {see xv. 17. ix. ]9) are thas 
given: — Per divisas quas ego cum probis honiinibcis meis peTam- 
bulavi, scil. A Cruce de Pctr!\ usqtie ad Itiirtlieavcd, et inde, 
sicul Burth depcendit ad caput ejusdem I&ndfe versus Walton, ad 
qyercum cruce signatam, cui in ipsa perambulatione imposuimus 
nomeit, ?cil. Qiiercus S, Mfiriac; et ab ilia quercu per quercas 



OF ST, MAKV MAGDALENE, LANERCOST. 



449 



cruce ?igiiatas usque in Eing, et iude [jcr Bing fluraam usque ad 
locum, ubi Transpoil cadit iu Ring, et inde per TraiiapoU sursum 
ad Crucem juxta caput fos3uti et uide per foasatum usque ad pre- 
nomiiiatani Crucem de Petra. 

7. 2%e charter of Robert de Vatlibua for a earucaie of land (« 
HayUmt given by Eu&lace de Vallibus with a wood ; and 
received bj liim for service ; with commcrn pasture iu that 
town. 

S. The charter of Lord Rohert do FaUiZit.! /br the icaaie belweem 
HerllebuTn and Bisckebarn, from the Cauona* ditch to the 
Bires of Hertleburn. 

9. The chartsT of Lord RohsH d$ Vattihta for laad bsttee&n 
Sed^nent and Neulhemenon to luuke their houses ^ and a 
Bcalinga beyond Hertliingburu in a fit place; with the 
common pasture of Tinnelaide. 

10. The charier of Adam de Tindalefor a ^it-claim ef land in 

Brenh/lelh Moor. 

11. The charter of Adam de Tindale for certain land in Brenk^' 

l^lh Moor, with common pasture of the moor. 

12. The charter of Nicolas de Bolieby for land in Breni/tiiet 

Moor, which Adam de Tjodale gave to the Canons. 
J 3. The charier of Lord Robert d« VaUihusfor bark In GUlesland, 

The grant runs t-hu8:^Corticem de meiremio* meo proprio et de 
toto ilia quod dedero L:uicuuquc illud dedero iji boscia mcis omni- 
bus iufra baroiiiain quam dom^ rex Henricus Aagliae dedit patri 
meo el niibi in t^na que fuit Giile fiUi Bucth. Hanc vera con- 
cessionem et donalioueui eis feci pro salute dotu. Henrici rcgia 
II*", et pro auima patris raei Hubertij et pro ammB.bus predecea- 
soTum meoram. Quare volo quod Prior et Cauonici predicti 
habcant prenominatum corticem ad sustentacionem Tanarie domus 
d^ Lanercost. 

14. Tht eharier of Lord Robert de rallibus granting the elecium 
ff a prior to ike Canoni of Laaercoai. 

Noverit uiiiveraitaB vcstra me concessisse et hae preseuti carta 



Timber. 





450 CARTULARY Of THK PUIOBY CHURCH 




conliniias^c Cauonicie de Lanercost Libcram electionem quare vt 
quod, obeunte dom. Priore vel qtiolibet successore ejus, ilJe 
Prior queni jflin dicti Canonici vel mnjor para coram vel sanior'* 

secundum Bcum elpgcriiit. 

15. 2'Jie charter of Robert de Vallibui for Cumqu^eiaeh, (See^j 

iv. 3.) ■ 

16. The charier of Itohtrl de Valtihttfi und Ada his wife for ikt ' 

(iihe if LUik Qu-kthj Mill. (Sec 4, 5.) 

17. The charier of lioberl de J'alli&jiafor Geofrey PicA, Ms ici/e, 

and children. 



I 



Smut priEsentcs et futuri qutid ego Rob. dc Vail, filias Hn- 
berti de Va|]. cofitessi ct dedi ct bftc mcfi CHrtfl coa&rinavi Deo et 
B. M. Magdaleiijc et Ecclcsia; de Lanercost et Canoiiicis ibidem 
Doo scrvientibus in Jtbcram et jiutain et pcrpetuam elrinostuaia 
Gdrriduin FicU et iixorom snam et pueros stios in perpetuum. 

18. The covjirmaliott of Lord Ralph de VaUibus, ton <f titibert' 

ifc Vallibtig,for alt l-ande, churches, and fcjtemenia given l^ 
Jjord Rohrt de Vallthti* (o f/te church of Lanetcoat. 

19. The charter tf Lord Ralph de rallO/iaftr the two Askertmit, 

Tlio grnrit is made per has divisaSj, sell, sicut Poltros inter duas 
Wilinvela dc rnusgn desctfiidit in Camboc et per eandctn mussain 
usque ad caput Troutbeck, t±t a Troutebeck asqae in Riitg^ et a 
Ring Q$quc fid rivulum qui oritur subtns Nigros Colli-s, ct indo 
picut idem rivulus dcsreiidit in Knavrciij ct imle sicut Knavren 
dc^ccttdit ill Cainboc, et nb eo loco sursum per Camboc usque ad 
locum ubi Poltros vadit m Camboc. 

&0i The coiijrrjnatmi of Lord Raljih de TallihnAfor (he landffiren 
hg il'. de IVifudexovre to St. Thomas the Mnrtyr's Churchy 
Farkm. 

ill. The conjirmnl-'on of Lord Robert de VuHOiun for 30 acrct of 
aradfe flucrabilis) Und^ and imo acret of Woodland^ ffipen hj 
}}'. de jrjfnde$oire to Farhtm Church. [See ii. 9, 19, 20.) ■ 
The coufnualism <f Lord Robert de Valitbu*, jkw of Raljjh ^H 




de FitUibus, fr lauds, rcnls, and chnrchci ffiven &j/ Lard 
I'allibKS to Lanercosi Chnrch. 





OF ax. MAllY MAGDALENE, LaNEKCOST. 



SECOND PART, 

1. The charter of Robert d€ VaUidua, son of Ralph de FalHitig, 

for common patttive of Camboc and Wallon, 

The charter gives liberum ad istam jiasturani iiigressura et re- 
gressum abf^que uUa vcj^atioue aut iiupctliaieuto, el pasturam scil. 
ad eadem averia sua et homiuum suorum per totura boscucfl meuiD 
de Walton in landls nioris uuscia et luariscis. 8cd licet mihi efc 
hmredibos meis si voluerimus lerraa lucrabtles inrra predjctum 
boscum assartare et iDabladicare, ita tamen quM essartas tali clau- 
3ur6 clauderc debemus, qutid averia predicta non impediantur uti 
pnst.ura predicts exUa sepeg essartirum, et post amotJQuetn bindi 
singulis aniiis predicta averia uteutur herbagio iufra ipsas essartaft 
usque aJ aliam imbladiationcm. 

2. Th ckarUr of Eoberi de Tallibm, »m of Ralph de Falliiut, 

f(tF all laud beSween LanercoH and Denton. 
The grant is mada per divisas scil. a Stagno eornndein Canoui- 
corum aursum per Erthinnni uaque ad locum ubi Folthledick 
vndit in Erthinam, et inde per Polthledick usque ad m&gtmcn 
Cundos quod vocatur Barras, et sic per illud rnagnani Cundos 
descend en do, sicut ego illud perambukvi cum tiberis et prabia 
liominibus meis usque ad Polterternan, et exiude ubi ipsiira Jol- 
lerteman' vadit in ErtSiiuam, cl ab illo loco per Erthiaam usque 
ad predictum Stogtium. 

3. T/is charter of Lord R</l/eri de Vidlibut^ son cf Ralph de Val- 

lil/u»,for Und of Brukerthwail and SummerskUi, and for 
. com, etc. 

This land David filius Tevcth inclusit de sepe et fossn; with it 
are to go cattle, cum Ix vaccis et lij tauria^ cum secta ij annorum, 
et cum X equis matricibus cum secta iij Aiiinorum,, et cum x suia 
eum secta iij annorum, et cum equis et bobus qui illam terrana 
arabuut, habeudam in (orreiiit^ mea iTi Geltesdale ct de Tinelside. 
(See iv. U.) 

* Mfp Burn, in a MS. note, says the land (including six screa 

given bv the Mnltons) between Polterteman jind Becfarloni is called 
Tenterbank. Cundus may be the Trough in Gillesliind. 

2 H 9 



I 




452 



CARTl/LARY OF THE PRIORY CHUKCH 



J 



I 
I 



4. TAe cAar/cr qf Lord E, de Vallibua, son. of KatpK de VaUibut, 

bequeathing his boti^ to he buried in the church of SL Mary 
Maffd, of Laitercost. ^H 

Sciatis mc conce^aissc Canoiucis de Lanercosl ubicunque et ^^ 
{juandoculiquc ex biic vil& migraverim corpus meum. 

5. TAe charter of Lord Jhbert de VaUibus, sou of Ralph de Vol- 

libus,for a ha^ carucaie of land vi Ha^ioa, which Lail- 
reuce de tlnyton held. 

The bouiiils arc given scil. per semilam qus dc^codit od 
Waodliuses versus Molendimini de Gelt usque ad in^uam dra- 
tam, quR} est infra boscum de Brampton, et sic asccndendo per 
dratam iUain us<jiic ad pnnatn valleni quic est propc eiiitum illius 
bo?ci versus occidciitcm, et sic per vallem illam ascendendo usque 
ad Maydsne Gross,' et de Maydan Cross usque ad Musekelde, et 
de Muskeltle usque ud Sywardkelde, et de Syirpj-dtelde derceii' 
dendo per quanilBm vallcai usque ad Jonewinekelde et indo usque 
ad sicam de Hamesby, et inde sicut terra ses extcudit per divisas 
de Wodeliuses. Et prderea dcdi et concessi et presenti carta 
confirjuavi prL'dJcto AJaiio et heredibus suia xx acras teriK, wj 
scil. acraa in Crosflat, et- iiij acras quas Stephanua Venator* tenuit 
de dominio xnco jacentea prope Cro??nat versus orientenij et pre- 
terca j vaccaHatn de xxv vaccis, et j lauro cum sccta sua in Laure- 
cornisan. . , , . , Et Heebit Alano et heredibus suis et eoruin 
boDiinibas cxsartare et ediiicare colere et sepes claudere iafra pre- 
dictas di visas ubi tneliil^s volueriiit nd commodum suooi; ip», 
hcredes sui et hoini]ie3 eorum molcnt ad Mulcudinum de Gelt 
sine iDultura ct quieti emut panagio, et capient in eodcm bosco 
de BrauipEou de viridi suffiGieiiter ad edificanduni per visum 
forcstiariorum, et dc sicco et mortuo sufiGcienter ad combureudum 
et sepes claudeudum sine visa forestariomnij et b&bcbunt pas- 
turaiii omiiLgeEiam alibique habueriut secundum quantitatem teue* 
menti $ui intra bo^cum dc Brampton. 

^ Probablv ao called from staudiug dB the Romau Road called iha' 
Maiden Way [Lyeons, 135], and that Cross which is sojd eUewhere, 
td divid>e Northumberland and Cumberland, near Blackburn. 

* He is a nimeas to the chbirter of Eestace de Vtdlibu^ (xiii. C). 




OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANERCOST. 



453 



6. T/ie chnrfer of Lord Robert de Fdllibmj sen ^f Ralph de Val- 

libtiSfff^ iand ffweu and p'anted to Alan Malecake and his 
heirs for their hoiunge and service, two carrucates in Wood- 
kuses, and two essarts being westward in Gelt, and one car- 
rucak m Brampton and ehemhere, with ihe increase of the 
earth and wood. [One of the witnesses is Lord Robert do 
Bru?, who signed a charter 12:73. (xlv. 4.)] 

7. The charter of Alan Makcakefor lands in BrantpfoA, Wode- 

huses, and Majf den cross. [Ijund for building houses in 
Crosflat between fl'oodlinses and Maydencrosis, two essarts 
in Gelt, and an acre of building ground beside Laypol to- 
wards t!ie east.] 

S. The charUr of Eusi<ice de Vail, for one carucate of land in 
iht territory of Casileca^Toe [viz. Ix. acres (xiii. fi) which 
llobertj son of Hubert de Vans, gave him for service] it is 
called Greenwell. (iii. C.) 

0* The charier ofiValler de Wyndeseverfur ihe land of Fitrlam, 
a latere occidentali illius ecctesiaj usque ad aham terrain 
iilius ecclesijE sicut via ducit de ilia ecclesia usque ad aliam 
Farlam, et exindc usque ad rivnlum fortis S. Mrikedrani in 

prnto et in alueto et terram quam Tebbe tcnuit 

bejond the churchyard southward. 
10. 7'ke charier of JqAu de Failihuafor land in Kinrfeaton. (See 
vii. 18.) 

The land was j toftuni et j cnlturara in territorio de Kingiston 
que vocatur Withelan, et j culturam in territorio de I'entoa juxta 
mtiripcnnaj sciL totam terram ilium que jacet inter terrain Roberti 
Flandrensis et exifutn de Kingistoti U5f[ue ad marEsium, et do 
maresio usque ad viato que lejidit de occidentiiili parte de Fenton 
usque ad Karurmdath et iij acms IcrrEC justa setleui ovilis quod 
fait lUcordi Mil Micaehs. 

n. ^%e chsrfer of Ada Engayne, davghhr of Witt, Engayne^f^ 
Litiie Ilaresio^ with its appurtenances. [See 12, and x. la.) 

' Now called IlBTCscough or HarescDW, in Kirk Oswald imrisH 
(Lysona, 128), passing through the stag-ea of Ilorcscowe and Hares- 

choncb. 




454 



CAllTULARY OF THH PKIOilY CHURClt 



Predict! vero Canonici pro prcfatR terra talc seri'itiuin facient 
sciK {\ahd invenient Canoiiicum qui ad altare S. M. Virgiuis in 
predieta ccclesia de Lanercost celebmbit Missam de S. Maria cum 

lioris ct matiitinia cotidie in perpetiium et uie prefatam 

ten-am dedisse dicte Ecclesie de Looercost pro me et spoiiso ineo 
Eobertu de Vail- ot pro animabus patria et matris et aiiima 

S_jraDni3 de Monille spousi mei * . The Canons were to 

hold the land freely, salvo servitio dom. regis sell, viij denarionU 
de^ Neoutegeld predicte terrae pertiueutibus. 

12, The tonfirmation vf Hugh de Mwrviltefor LiUle Hareaion. 

The bounds arc given acil. sicut mngna via venit de Appelbt 
usqoe ad KavcTi (see v, 22, iv. 11) et inde sursutn per Haven 
UBque ad caput ujuadem tH|UK, et a capite Raven usque ad Croa- 
eerin et a Croserin usque ad ITartishevede usque ad Snartegill^ et 
sic per aquam quae descendit a Siinrtcg'ill usque ad Mussam, el 
deinde usque ad Sicnm que de^cendit usque fld Keucrhau, u^que 
ad viam predictam de Appleby, et in marisio de Burc. daas solinss 
libenitas cura airiia et cum aiaiamcntia certarum cotnodius et 
vicintUB quantum $iuHicit ad ij satiuaa, et quoddam rete libemm 
in Edene et exsiccationem ejuadem retia liheram in lerrn mea 
de Burc. 

13, The churter of Hugh deMor^iilfor Ilarctwn and txo talt- 

pils in Burgh Marsh, aud a net in Uie Eiitn. 

14, The charier if Hugh de Morvill for Lw^aingb;^ Churchy and 

pasture for £00 ahmp in Burghs 

Tbe bounds are given sciL per rivuluui qui vocatur Wilkine- 
bec (xii. 23) juxta terram Eustachii sur^um versus atjiiilonem, 
usque ad Antiquum Murutn, et sic per eundcm Murum versus 
occidentem nsqae ad Lairigappe, et exinde versus auatrutn 
usque ad quercura detonaain, et ab iUil quercu usque ad Uaith- 
wartegarlh ct inde usque ad terram Johaunis de Denton et sic 
usque ad locum autiijue sepis, et inde per sicam usque in Irtlii- 
nam, et sic per Irthinnm usque ad proxiuinm sicam versus occi- 

' A payment ia entile (neat-g^lt), when monev waa scarce, id lieu 
of perfiODiil service of coraa^. (Burn and NicaUon, i. 18.) 




OF ST. MARY MAGDALET^E, LANEUCOST. 



433 



dentem juxta terram predict! Joliannis de Deaton, et iude us^nuo 
ftd antiquum sepem, ct aic per eandein Gepeni usque ad predictum 
rEviiJum qui vocatur Wylkeuebec. 

15. Thi charier of Ada Mnga^ne for ihs rent of three mark* in 

Bargh and Ltt^slnghy Churches. 

16. The charier of Mttgh de Mwvillfor the g'tft of Layiingth^ 
• CAttrch. [See ix. 14, xiii. 25, xiv. 2.) 

17. The charter of Hugh de Morciil for GrenmdaU CAureh (St. 

Ketitigern's), wUk its appurienances. {See v. 4.) 
IS. The charter of Alexaudsr de ff'^fftuJesovre for the tithe of the 

whaie meal ground (uiultura) of Corkehif Mill. 
10. The charter of H^alter, aoa of Walter de Wffiideio]>re,for the 

fight (f pafrcnage tf Farlam Church, wliicli he abjured with 

touch of the Holj Gospel, and for il acres in Closegill 

which his fatlicr had given. 

20. The charier of Walter de Wyndtsovre for his domain wiihi/i 

the teit'dofg (f Furlam. 

The bounds are given acil. a Fulpot sursum versus meridieia 
per quoddain fossatuin factum inter terram Tcinpli (^ee vi, 221) 
et Lfimbergart!i, usque ad quoddam autiquum foasatumj et ale 
per illud fossiituiu versus occidentem usque ad terram dictorum 
Cauonicorum, etsic justa (trrani illani contiguc. usquo iiiClosegill 
descendendo iiaque ad quoddum novum fossutum tendons versus 
Aquilonem, ex utraque parte nqutc do Cloveagill, et sic per quod- 
dam novum foss-atuni quod drcuit Eiresbusche versus oct-tdeutem 
usque od Patcfjii, ct inde per ipsam aijUam uaque in Fuipot, et 
per Fulpot sic descendendo usque ad prcnominatnm fos^atuin 
inter terram TumpU et LanibcH garth. (See xiii. 13.) 

21 . The charier of Roland de VaUibutfor the land held bg Nicho- 

las Netttele ?iear the land of Jfarthcolmun, mth two eaaarttj 
enclosed mtk a ditch and hedge. 
2i. The charier of Akisander de Valtihus for ih^ commoning of 
titrhfries of Trercrman, and for the common jjasture for 
cattle of ff'tuthecolman and tioamragel fc. 12(13. Sue ix. 

5, 18): 





456 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIORY CHURCH 




THIRD PAItT. 

1. The chaffer (f Buethham fur Denton Church. (See i. 4, 5.) 

2. Hie cfrnfiTination of Uobert, ton, of BuetA, for Denton Church. 

3. The chartif ofRofiert, son of Suelhtfor one carueate o^ IomJ 

in Benton, witli common pasture, 

4. TAe eharitr of Robert, son of Bueiky for land ffiven and 

granted £a maintain a light before St. Cathbert* s altar in 
the Prior*3 Chapel {which Robert Albus holds). 

6* The charter of Kohni^ son of Bueth, for land tn Dalevai 
cunin, to find a light before St. Cuthbert*3 altar in the 
Prior'a chape!, ftnd a messuage in Lanrekereint lying be- 
tween two sjices which descend to Dalrclin, etc. 

6. The charier ^' Eobcrt, ton of BustA, and Bober(, son of 
Aiketyll,for dry toood and lying wood, and for streTigthemng 
the j}Qol on their domain. 

1, The chart'er of John de Denton for the whole land of Pjfrihon. 
(See V. 2fl; xi. 8.) 

8h The charter of quit-etaim of John, eon of Roiert, ttm of 
Askelin, made to Lord Robert de Vallibus, of the wiole 
land ia Bttetholmes, between Folteman and PoUhediih. 

9. The confrmation of John, S07t of John de Denton, of all lands 
iu Lenton-, given by John, hit father, and Ankdyn, hit 
■uncle, fo the Home of Lanercost; with free access and 
egress from tbdr house in Pihbon to Dentou Faatore for 
all cattle. 

10. TAe charter of Robert, son of Bneth, and Robert, eon of 

Mkatyn,fcr ihirty-two acres of land in CartAutelan, with 
pasture for one "milking sheep" and plough oseu, twentj 
cows and a bulL 

11, The charter of Robert^ son of Robert, son of Anketyn de 

Benton, of the whole land in Carutelaw, enclosed with 
hedge and ditch. 
13- The charter of AHketin, son <^ Robert, son of Anketyn, for 
nine acres of arable land, five in Lanerton, in Ilnlverhirst, 
and four m Denton, one acre in Whiven, one in Cretton, 



« 



4 




0¥ ST. MARY MAODALBNE, LANERCOST. 



457 



and two in Pendraveuj and three roods in Crettoa, which 
Henry the Clerk held. (See v. 24.) 

13. Tie charter of David, son of Teri^ and Roherty son of AlkeliUt 

for the Church of Denton and the hermit^e, which Letsiikg 
held. (See i. 4. 5.) 

14. The charier of Eohett de Denton for HulverUrstj with its 

Uiieriiea audfree common, and other easements, belonging to 
the toiffn of Treverman. {See xv. 19; v. ^3.) 

15. Tks charier of qalt-claim of John, son of Eustace de Dintcn-f 

for land m Denton and UuhenhjfrsL 

16. The charter of Robert, son of Asket^ltf fayr 4f eeriain toft^ 

with a croft in Denton, which WerriciM the prieat held. 
17.^ The chftrter of quil-clahn of Robert, Jun., de Denton for the 
escort of IFerri. 

18. The charier of Aahet^n, mn of Robert, son ff Anketyn, for 

the Innd of Lanreton, which William, the Fnor'a nephew^ 
held. (See v. 24.) 

19. The chdfter of Robert, ftw <f Robert, ion of AnJce(in,for the 

land held iy WilUamf the Frior'i nephew, and the land of 
Denton. (See vi. 23 ; v. 24.) 

20. 7Mp ciimtet of Alice de BetUon, daughter of Robert Alhus 

(ill. 4i),for a quit-claim of land i» the territory of Denton, 




FOURTH FART. 

1. The charter of William Ward^ son of Richard de DentQn,for 

a quit-claim of Innd in the territory of Dmton^ 

2. The charter of Sycherych, sometime wife of Robert Wyiehard, 

and Affnes, her davglder, of land below the brow of the 
wood in the territory of Denton. 

3. The charter of Agnes, daughter of lyUliam, son qfdonette, of 

CariiJrleffor a quit-claim of Cumqnenciath. (See i* 15.) 

4. The charter of Eudo, son of Angketin de Benton, and John, 

ton of fVillutm Leyrj for quit-claim in an eetart near 
Warthcoleman, given hy Roland de Vaux, with right of 
enclosure and emparking. 

5. The charter of Robert, jun., of Denton, and Lord John de 



458 



CARTULARY OF TltE PttlORY CHURCH 




Hentoat his brotJier^ and J,, son of Osan,/t/r ihee9*aH Heaf\ 

WarthcolmaK, 

6. The charter of HuJ/ert 'k Van t for land in TrcremaH, wliicll 

Roland de Vaux, his uncle, gave for the support of &j 
chaplnin atjd ck'rk in Uil' ehjpel there. (Sec xv. 17.) 

7. 'Hie charter of Mabel, sometime mfe of Walter de IfptdetoreA 

for the third part of (wo acres in Clovesgitl m Farlara, witlrj 
licence to fuld mares. 
Ttie bounds are given acil. sicat sica oritur sob B irk an hirst:] 
(Bircliai<hirat, v. 26) et descendit per Pirihon, et sic justa quer- 
cuin rjuc vocatur Wiskerhittoii (VVreskeuhiiltou, v. 26)^ et cxinde 
ad qucrcum jam dictam et ab illn qucrcu iu directo usque ad! 
siiperciltiiuri Coltis de Diiriiiihoii, et sic usque nd vaileiu quo jacet 
inter ij colics, et ab ilhi ViiUe usque lul sujjeraHuru collis Qcciden- 
talis, et sic usque ad viani quadriijaruTn que ducit ad Darelin ini 
Pirihon et usque nd Glaiiales et a Glangles usque ad antifjuam* 
fos5iifo, et per eandfin t'ossacn usque ad uodosam quercum ct ab 
illfl querco usque nd prcdictam (Steam de v. 26) Wiskerhittom 

H. T^e charier of IFalter dc iVpitlesore for lu?o aeret in Furlam\ 
to make n fold and pasture fof oue miJch sheep. (1S« 
xiii. 1 4.) 

9. 7he charter of Eda, davghter of MioAael de Date for Jirt^ 
aert'S of lawl iu Jpn^fiipdl^fk, scil. v rodas in tofto et 
crufto que jaceiit iuter tloinurri Klerie sororis dicte Edc, et 
dpmuio Thomffi filii Yug^ili. Et in Presterlddiug, acnun 
et dimidiam et rodam ad diniidiam acram jiixta herkerjan* 
Gdfridi de Crogelyn et extcndit se versus australeai ct 
borealem, et iij rodas que sc estetiduut super dictam dimi- 
diam acram, et super viam de Kuhccroft versus sdIciu, ell 
le Guldidale que sc cxtcudit super le Ellerisic et versu§! 
viam de Rudecrofte et le Buttes jh Ara.sti, et illani terrara' 
que se cxtendit super Maynresgate et Kclduspaksic. 
10. The ckarkr of Elletia, daughter of Michael ffo Dale, for ftt 
acres of land^ m Ai/nstapdUfi^ given bj her sister Eda, 

' V, 26 reads for " aatiquam ..... quercu/' predictata UircUim-^ 
hirst ct sic in directa. 
^ A sheepfold. 



OP ST. M4RY MAODALRNe, LANERCOST. 



459 



11. The charier of WalUf (k Wyitdeaore for certain culUvaied 
ffroand in Little Farlam, called Raven {see v. 2S ; ii. IS), 
which Salomoti, sou of David^ and Becniurd, boh of H&un^ 
gave; per has divisas scil. sicut sepes extendit a capite 
taagni moatis asque in Becrarlam, ctiiim per Bccfarlam 
usque ad sicam juxta Eegiatti viam, ek itide usque ad pre- 
dictum caput ma^ii montts, sicut viridia aemita deacendit 
a regia via usqoe ad terras cultaa. (See v, 1^,) 

12.. The ckarUr of Walter de Wj/ndesore for two acret of land in 
Seperig, in the territory nf Farlam, lying between the land 
which Robert the Clerk lield and t!ie brook which flows 
from Clashet, an the east, to the land given by the father 
of W. de Wyndesor oti the west. (See siii. 14.) 

13. The charier of Walter de IV^nde^orfor Farlam Church, wilh 

the tUhas therelo appertaining. 

14. The ehfi-Tter of liohert de Caalelcaifrocfor land in C&iteledi/roe 

{in exchange for land wliich Wm. de la Veiilc {x.iv- 22) 
pave the convent), soil, inter Midelhec et sicam anstrEdem 
descendendo a quercubus cruce signatis in latere montia 
usque in Stavnedathbec, et pastuiam ad cc ovea et %%. 
viginti cum sequela j aiini et viij boves et j tanrum {see 
ii. 3) ad predictaa vaccas, et ij avcrea, et xxx capraa et j 
scaHnguam apud Brcutscale ad niemoratas vaccas cacQ 
tnnro auo, et libernm et expeditum esituni a capite siccB 
australis, per viam quadrigarum versus austrum usque ad 
crucem ad austrum aitam, et ab ilia cmce versus orienlem 
• usque ad motitem et terram 1 pedum, iti latitudine per Intua 
australe essartum Orm' usque ad moram occideiitaleiul * . . 
Yolo et concedo ut dicti Canoiiici et pustorea earum et 
homines eorum qui monsuri sunt et babitaturi super pre- 
fatum terrain libere et sulficienter habeaut ct capiant ad 
edificaudum; volo ctiain ut agni predictarum ovium sint 
cum matribtis suis quolibet anno usque ad proxime sequcns 
festum 3. .Tohannis 13apt]ste,et capells dictacum cuprarum ad 
proximum Puutecost de terra mca amoveautur. (See xiii. 8.) 

15. The charter of liobert, son o/" Robert de tbHelca^roc, for 
confirmation of land in Castelca^rocli. 



I 





460 CARTULARY OF THB PRIORY CHURCH 

Dabimus annuatim ego ct hereJea xnei pro predkta. terra At 
Caruthdauc nd firmnm xx aolidorum argcnLi per medielatem ad 
Pentecostcu el medietatera ad festum S. Miirtim pro orauibttj Mf- 
vitiis, consuetudinibus et demandis ; dicti auktm Prior et can- 
ventus Labebunt ij acras (crrse infra Carutbelauc ad quandaoi 
bercbariam faciendam, et cc oves per advocattouem donntionis 
predictffi terrie de Carutlielaiic, si autein dicta: oves matrices fue- 
rint, eruiit cum eia agiii ciirum donee ablactali snnt> 

16. TAe charter of Robert, son of Roland d^ Castelcajfroc, in 

change for hnd givm to the canons <^ Lanerecat by fVUliam 
de VeyU. 

17. The charter qf Jiohert de CatteUaifroe for GamHmde f^aUcn 

andhisfoliovring (et ejus sei[uela). 
Novcritia me caritatis iiituitu eoitcessisse ct de me et beredibus 
meis quiete clamassc neo et S. Mar. Majd. de Lanercost et 
Caiionici? ibidem Deo servieatibus Gameliii de Walton cum totA 
sequela ejus in posterum potuerimus iwHularfij sed licebil eis id 
terrain nieam redire et de terra raea exire quandocunqiie voluerint, 
sicut liben et quieti de omni nativitatfi et serritute. Et ego et 
burcdes mei dictas libertates dicti Gameli et universe sequele sae 
dictis Cajionicis contra omnes gciites in perpetmim warantizabi- 
reus. Teat. dom. Job. de Mora, tunc Kenesclialb dc GiUesIand 
dom. Rolando de Valiibus et Ada de Cumren, WiU. de Warth 
wjk, Walt, de Wyudesore, Joh, de Blatune et aliis. 

18. The charter of CAriaiiana de W^ndele^skora for i/ iovat-egf 

with toft and croft, in Scotland, in Patestun, which Martin, 

son o£ William^, held near the land of Hugo de Hodene on 

the wt'st, and common pasture, and right of using the mill 

of PatestuTi (c. 1202). 

J U, 7'A^ charter of G^offreff, 4on of Gerard, for half a caracafe o, 

/and, in the vill if Ointqueat^cafky which he sold to Walter 

Benny, to be held by him under the Canons of Lanercost, 

at a yearly payment of one pound of pepper, or six Bhillinga^ 

fit Carlisle Tair. 

The bounds are given scil. Messuagium qnod fnit Willelmi de 

Bariievill, cntn crofto, ct parvuin estinrtum et longas terras juxtn 

Spiij.'int, ct qiiandaiti terram sicut foisatutn descendit usijue ad 



i 

1 

:i 
.ill 

''4 





OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANr.KC08T. 



461 



I 



I 



lachrabilem tcrraia, et eiinde uuqae ad Fulfwith et de Fiilfwitti 
usque ad Fretlnir et sic sursum per sumumm margiuem briiscas 
usque ad viam qac teadit inter duas Dcntouas et de ipsa via. 
Eursum usque ad fosaatuiUji et inde us^que ad aggerem lapidum, et 
de ipso aggere i)sc}ue ad prcdictum fossatunL et essartum quod 
fuit Samuelis ex utraquo parte Eulbrig juxCit teiram Aiiketini, et 
pratum rpiod jacet in directo ecclesiaj a fuiite in occidente, . . . 
£t predicti Caaotiici et heredes eorum qui niauebuiit super pre- 
diictna tttrras quleti eruut de pannagio et multura et inoUnt post 
prcmiuui bladuui quod fuei-it iu treiauil. 

20. TAe charter of Waller Bcuu Jbr the land of Cmigvenecath 

which Galfridus held, ond land which Bernard held In the 
territory of Askerton^ to be granted at hia death to the 
canons of Ltinercost. 

21. The charter of Israel, the CAamder lain, for all lands in Cum- 

queneeath, with the consent of his brothers, according to 
the hounds contained in the charter of Robert de Vniix^ 
which he (Israel] otfered at the altar of St. Marj Magda- 
len, Lonercost. 

£^, The charier of Israel, ike Chamberlain, for land in Cursgne- 
necath. 

33. The charter of Ro^er, son of Roger de Lemngtonj for tettacres 
of laiid in West I^everlon, with a meadow near the niead of 
TVilL de Astinebi, sciL iij acras juxta caput de Lewine- 
brigg, et iij acra:^ de sub Bmalethornca ct ij aera» super 
Cliff que dependuut super predictas iij acrasj et ij acraa in 
Nerehcrbrokesj with comuion pasture. 

24. TAe Charter of William, son of Aniitt,for xHi acres of land 
in Astinebi, with the consent of Eva his fl'ife, scil. iij acraa 
ct quartara partem unius in tofta quod Johannes fiiius 
Umfrei lenuit, et ij acras et quartiim partem j acrtc in 
holmo et vij acras et ditnidiam iti cainpo versus Karliolum 

quiete ab onini cousuetudiue et cxactione, donaiido 

multorani Bolummodo ad aioleudinum domtni mei de blado 
proveniente de prcdicta terra ; with common pasture. 

£5. The eharUT of William^ son of AHin, of Aadmbi, forj acre 
of land in Jsliiteii. 





402 



CAATULARY OF THS PRIOKY CHURCd 



PART FIFTH. 



4 



1. TAe charts of Draco, and Affnet &i4 feifc, for two and a Unlf 
acres in Smh<jaHh ip exchange for two and a lialf acres 
given by Waieis in Conkatcnes. (See vi. 9.) 

%. The charier qf Witl. Mu^e^ for a (fHU-cl&m of land in 
Scalfb^. (Comp. vi. 4, 39; xi. 1.) 

3. The charier of Wili., son ef Ofdurdrnf^ for a toft and hnd 

rented at %t. a ^ear near SVartAiryc Bridge, 

4. The ekarter of Lord Richard dc Denton for Griuadale (^urci 

(St. Keiiitigern'*}. 
6. TAe conjirmafion of Rolert U Sorfor Grinesdale CAnrcA. 

6. The confrmathn of William ie Sorfor Grtrietdalc C^nrcA. 

7. The charter of Jfill. le Sorfor land \n GrineadaUf vkirk 

Jocelin tlic priest held. 

8. T&e charter of WW, U Sor for knd beiiDfea the Old Walt 

, and th^ Church lands, except t^e acre of Alan, son o^^d 

Oninus. ^H 

9. The charier of Will, le Sorfor four acres of land with a met- 
mage in Grijieailale, quod fuit GoceL'ni sacerdotis, scij. j 
acram terne juxta Murum et iy acrus pertinejitcs in supe- 
riori Ilovercroft juxta ternc Ecclesiai, portim in With Haver- 
croft parlim. versus Kardul super certas bulla?, pa.rtim juicta 
ij acras juxta Morntn, ct j acram iu Haverigi?. 

10. Tke charter of Will, le Sor for a new hotise in. Grinnetdalf, 

and (and of xjTvii feel broad aiid loiig, next the land 
lijilph, the chaplain. 

11. The charier of Will, A? Sorfor an acre of laud in Haverig. 

12. The charter of Will, le Sor for all the land in Hatwig 

tweeci the lands of KicharJ and Heginald, brothers. (See 
xiv. 20.) 

13. The charier of Will, le Son for a kowte and land of xA^ 

jierches in Grinesdale, m length from the road lying through 
tht! midst of the town as far as the ditcli weslward, and in 
brijudth three ^icrchea and eight feet near the land of Balph 
the chaplmu, 
14* The charier of Will, le Sor for a neto home, with the la 




OF ST. MAllY MAGDAL^NK, LANERCOST^ 



403 



I 



appertaininff in Grineadaie, between the land of Ralph the 
clmpluin and my dwell iug-ho use, from the street of Grines- 
ilale town towards the town of KirkandreeSj except two feet 
next iqj dwelling-house wall. 

15. TAe charter of Will. It Sar, son of Will le Sor, for a £of( 

and crofi hi Grinesdaiet which his tnother held, Ijing he- 
twefin the Toft of Michael, &oti of Jocelin, the cliaplaiii, 
and the toft of widow Matilda. 

16. Tha cAarfer of Alan, hon of GiU/ert di Tnlkan,foY ietmi and 

a half rood* ff lands in Tall-an, and for MarUAcrofi (vi. 3) 
l/tere. 

17. TAe chaHer of Adam and Gilbert di Talhm for Jive acre* of 

laud in Talkan, scil. in Castelcayrociona de terra lucrabili 
proximas^ scmitoe que se eiitcndit a Ttdkan usque ad Costei- 
cajroc. 

IB. The charter of Salomon, ton of David, and Bernard, son of 
HaimcTtfvr cuUwaCed land calkd Raven, {See iv. 11.) 

1 9. The charter of Salomon, son of David, for four and a half 
acref of land in Sputehld^, inter domum que fnit patris 
roci ct locom qui appellatur Spntckelde sicut haga extendit 
versus Collcm in parte meridiouali cum toto crofto Chris- 
tiaDfe matris race, et totara terram qnatn habeo inter lacnm 
El locum qui appellatur Hallebankc^ sicut ij culturaa j que 
sppcllatur Redegatc et aliam que appellatur Rufaldek, quaa 
Bob. de ValUbus reddidit mihi sicut jus mcum. [See vi. S.] 

SJO, Th£ tjuit^chim of Adam, wn of Hertacrus, made to Lord 
Moberl de Vanjffor land in HamesLif in exchange for land 
and the -wood of Northwode, and two bovates of land 
which belonged to Odard do Karcherin. 

21. The charter of Roberl, ion of Bu^lh, ^)'/i«/'<'i/ to William 

Crispiit for ten acres of land in DeiitoH, viz. Baleitascutnia, 
far service and homage ; at a rent of one pound of cumin 
at the feast of the assumption et molendo bladum.siium nd 
xvi vaaculnm. 

22. The charier of Eiihert, son of Bueth, for ien acres in Denton 

called Dalcimslon (Dalowoscumin), on the same tenure, to 
Hubert Albus. 



464 



CARTULARY OF THE PKIoaV CHUBCH 





23. TJke charts of AnketiU, wn of Bobert, 9m of AKkeiiU, for\ 
nine acres of land in Lanreton |p-anted EustachJo cum' 
Agnete sorore men id liberurn mariiagium, scii. v acr&$ m 
Hulverhirst, et iv acras iii territorio de Denton, sciL j acrain 
in Ulwen, et j acrani in. Crechon et ij acms in Peridravea^ 

qU33 Henricus Ai(!us pro \v acris tciiuit Mihi lu- 

nuatim et heredibua meis reddent dicii. libram, piperia ad 
DQiidLiias Karl, pro oomi servitio coiisueiudine et eiactious' 
que ad mc vel a<l hercdes meos pcrtineut. (See iii. 12.) 

34. The charter of Robert de Denton for a messuaffe and land t% 
Detiiorij granted Willeltno Prioris iiepoti i» liberum mBri* 
tagium cum soTore uiea. Tbe land is the same as that 
described iii. 19, but provision is made for the rent of one 
(louud of cummin to be paid ut Otrlislc Fair yearly: Ihe 
doing tlie Kiiig^s service for a carucate of land in tlie town, 
and mokat post primum bbdum quod fuerit in tremiUo 
(tbe hopper). 

25. The cftarier of Jnketin de Denton to Gilchrist^ son of Richard 
Bruii, for homage and acrvice, for a viessuoge in IIW/- 
Au^e^, quod fuit Westiiiuger lijii Met' ; et totam terrani a 
riwulo U3(jue Peter-gnte in latitudine et de iiisa Petergate 
usqut: ad Briulcelbust et inde u^ue ad eundeoi nvuJum 
et a rivulo illo versus aquilonem usque ad Petergate, et 
iij rodas apud Akcstul in parte aquilonarl Ma^ia3 Stratis 
et viij acnts in Kiacoiluu ..... habeudas sibi et Will, 
filio suo el hcredibus suis de Agneta fiUa nieil provcdcnti- 
bus, at a yearly rent of \d. at Epipha?!/. Si vero con- 
tingat qubd Ipse Willelmus hcredem non liabeat de ipsa 
filia men, dom. GilchrJBt et heredes sui habe^iut et teneant 

preiiomiiiatas terras de mc ct bercdibus meix in 

fojdo et hereditate per idem servitium quo tenere ?oleut 
unlequam luatrimouium contractuiii inter predietum Willel- 
mum et predictam iiiiam meam, scil. pro liv denariis per 
annum, ?cil. medietatem ad Pascham, ct medietatem ad 
Festum S. Michndis. 

26i TAe chacter of John, eon of Eohert^ *?» of Aukeiittf fur land 

' The bead of Raven. (See iv. 11 ; ii. 12.) 



OF 8T. MARY MAGDALENE, LANERCOST. 465 

m Pirihon {ace iit. 8)^ granted Eustachio cum Agnete mmov 
raea in liberum maritagiuin, at n rent of one pound fe 
cummin at Carlisle Fair. Ipse et heredes aui quieti enint 
de multura in molendino meo de Denton de blndo suo pro- 
jirio tam de einpto de tota culturfl suS proveuieuti, et quieti 
erunt de operibus stagni ct moleiidini, 
27. 17ie charier of Adam Salsarlus for a meaauage and foft in 
Kirko6t^aldj quod Willelmus de Hamsam, homo^ Willelmi 

de llmiisum de Cumrehoii tf uuit reddendo inde 

apnuatim ij denarioa de Bnrgpgio. 



SIXTH PART. 

1. Charier ofquil-clairn of Mam Suharitis for land m Kirkos- 

iftald, quod Averay, servicnSj tenuit. 

2. Charter if qmi-ciaim of Alice, aomviime mfe of Adam Sul- 

saria^, for land of Kirhmt'-i^i^, infra illud burgngium in 
burgo de Kirkoewald^ quod Alfridus pater meus et postea 
Adam vir meua teuucrunt de domo de Lanercost pro^uadam 
snmmS. pecuuie, quam mihi dcidenint in mea necessitate. 

3. The charter of Alan, son of Gilbert de Talkan, for luml in 

Tufkan, quam Ricardus de Bosco de me tenuit, scil. per 
has divis^Bs, sicut HvuLub molendini ititrat per mediam se- 
pem et deacendit in Kelt^ ct ^ursum per Kelt usque ad 
aepem que est super Senebirliolmeg, et totam partem mrani 
infra sepem que depcendit de Stnebirholmeg usque ad lo- 
cum nbi rivulus molendini iiitrat per mediam ?epem, Dt 
licebit Caiiomcis et eorum tenentibua uhjcunque volaeiint 
infra has divisas domos edificare^ toftum et croftum faccre, 
et omnia alia aisitimeiita focere et quicquid potumiit esaar- 
taiB, Preeterca dedi eia ij ocraa terr^ in territorio ejusdem 
villa?, j acram scil. que jacet jnxta Arthesic in parte aqui- 
laris, quam "Will, de Octona cssartavit, scil. a Crogelaudside 
usque in Gelt. Insuper et dim. rodam terrte in occideutoli 




Homo, Spelman eays, meauB — L, a Tftsg&I, a tenant bound to 
render homage and military service; 3, a tenant i 3, a eerviint, 
underling. (Gloa. 297-8.) 

VOL. VIIK 2 I 



4U6 CARTULARY OP THE PBIORT CHURCH 

captte de Mariolcroft {v. 16) ail horrcum euuui facienJum 
et introitom liberum et exitum cum carria et carrettis usque 
■d dictum horreum, et communi dicte ville de Talkan tn 
bosco et pluDOj ill pratis et pascuis et aqiiis, et molent bta- 
duut suum de dicta term ad uiolendiiium tie Tidkan sine , 
multura post primum bladum In tremello ioveatum^ ex- ^H 
cepto bladu doiniiii, et quarterium de pautioj^o. ^^ 

^4. J%e charter 0/ Simon th T*!Uhtl /qv n ioft ictU iAe increaae 
of eight acres in Scalebjf [see £0 ; xi. 1 ; v. 2), quftm patei 
meus eis dedit in viUn de Sewcales et de increiueiito viii 
acras terra: Jncrabiles in eadem villa iv &cil. acras in cuUnra ^1 
que nomioatur Newlandes^ et ij in cultura que appeUatur ^H 
Brictriceflat, et ij in cultura que dicitur Halleflatj et dim. ^^ 
acraoi dc Frato cuia cointQuni pastura. 

5. TAe charier of Hermerua de Hamedy for two iovaCet of land 

in Ilamei&y, quas Tboitiias molendiuarius tennit. 

6. The charier of Robert de Karlatonfor land in lAttle Farlam, 

which Richard, sou of Gilchrist, held. 

7. Tfie chtirkr of Robert de Karlalon for land in a croft is 

Little Farlam, which Daniel held, 

8. The quitclaim of Eoh^rt lU Kariaton,f0r {n>o cuttivaied Undt 

in fJte territory of Farlam, one called Bedgate, the other 
Rufaldik. (See v. 19.) 

9. The charier o/'widaw Agnea, danyhter of Walei»,for land id 

Schalegarthf two and u half acres in exchange for two and a 
half acres which her ftitlier gave in Coiikatenes. (See v. 1.) 

10. The charttr of Richard, son of Uhiie, of Bamptuu, ^or Ifijuii 

tcfithoui the gaU of Bochardtts, Carlisle, two tofts which 
belonged to Eistarius tlie wilier. 

11. The couJirmaiioK of Richard, Jun. son of Richard, son of 

TrutCjfor two fofls wiihont Bocktird^e gate. 
1£. The charter of John, of Crofton, for land juiihin Carlisle, in 

vico Frtincoruw, lying between Augustine's house and the 

house of Peter de Huntington. 
13. Charter Anaelmi d« Nevbjf for Henr^^ *pi» of Ledmer et ejw 

tequela, naiivo auo. Sciatis me, consensu et assensu Ri- 

cardi tilii inel, conceaaiese, dedii^aeij et quietum clomasde 





OF JST. MARV MAODALBNB, LANEHCOST. 




Deo et EcclesiEc S. M. Mogd. de Laner. Heiiricum Qlium 
Ledmeri cuin tota secta suo, Quare volo ut ipse et omues 
qui de eo exierint sint do me et heredibiu meis pro salute 
et succe&sorum et antecessorum mcoruoi. 

14. The charter of Waiter de Fifkermg for a rent of 1 Id. in my 

house next the fosse of Corlble CfL&lle, to be paid half at 
PcEitecost and half ot Martinmas. 

15. The e/tarter of Hlcliard de Haldanefeld and HavUe hit wife 

/or land within the terriiory q/' Farlam cultam et incul- 
tam infra hajani ia parte occidenlali ville de Talkan siue 
aliquo retiQemeuto^ et j acram ad Ragarth exteodentem ad 
HiJDiire usque od ostium Nicholai de Bagarth, et si quid 
defuit ibidem de j acra preficimuK in cultata que appellatur 
Tofles et totauGL pertinentem nostram de Linholm ante 
ostium Nich. 

1 6. The charter of Alan de Tulkan Jhr land ("a Tifidalebeckf in 

parte orientali de Tindolebec^ seil. infra hayam sicut cxten- 
dit Be ad Hukerbancke jate usque ad Tiiidalebec> et sicut 
Begia Via extendit usque ad PrestescUalegarth. 

17. Th^ cAarter of Aluttj scm of Gilbert de Talkan^for halfn rod 

of land in Talkan in orientali capite de Smithecrofte juxta 
Eegiam Viam ad quoddam Horrcum faciendum ubi deci- 
maa auas cotligere potuerunt. 

13. The charter of Alan ds Talkan for jive acres with the appur- 
tenancea in Castelv>ra [Castelcajrocwra] to Hugo his brother, 
and wliich his brother Adam held aforetime,. 

19. The charter of William. NorrefisU for a meadow itt Dilate to 
Aukelia de Scales. 

SO, The charter of trailer Ic Sauva^efor half a camoate of land 
in Newbiging, which he bought of Thomaa de Dickebui^, 
viz. three bovatea which Thomas de Kerebi held, and one 
bovate adjoimng, vhieh Adaoij son of Lambert, held. (xiii. 
23.) 

21. The charter of William, son of Elias, de Cr^elin for jive 
aere^ in Cro^elin, que jacent in parte occidental! terrae 
Templi (see ii. 20), et iij acraa in eadem cultura de Sub 
Quinnefel. 

2i 2 





468 CARTOLAIlY OF THE PRIORY CHURCH 

22. The charter of Rvbert dc Karlaton f^r all the iand in tke^^ 

icf/'Uvry of Farlam culled Ympegarde, ^| 

23. TAe qii'il-ctaim of RoOeH, 90ii of Jdam, for on^ carueaU of 

land ia the lerrilorif of Halloa. 

24. Tkt th&fhr of Aiexa-mler, son of Roger, son of Baldwin, ft^ 

eevea acres of land between, the wall [on the DOrth and tlie 
wny from Walton Wood through the midst of the land to] ^Uj 
and Kin^. ^M 

35. TAs charter of Walter de Gresley for licstice to euart in iAe 
territory of Ctimqnenecach, inter has diviaa?, scil. a sepe 
Hugonis filii Molmes usque ad quercuoi cruce signatain ^j 
versus orientem, et sic nb ilia quercu de^cendeiida usque ad ^| 
valJem juxtn llardkriat, et sic ab iata valle descendeDflo ^* 
usque nJ vallem que descendit a capite dicte sepis; et in- ^J 
super promisi Priori et CDUVeiitui de Lutiercost et tactis 59. ^| 
Evangdiis juravi me nunquam moturum querelam corilra 
COS super predicta terra nee super aliqua essrtrta sive sepe 
levata in territorio de Cumqueuecach a principio mmidi 
usque ad Festum S. Mattiui A.C. MCC. iliij [1243]. ^ 

26. The charter of quit-clahii of IValter, son of Will, le 5fln«f, ^^ 

for half a cafucate of land in Haifton atid a rent of 2</. 
yearly in that town, payable at Carlisle fair from the four 
acres which he gave to Koger, son of Turgit, with Ada liis 
sister as her dowry, in consideration of money wliich the 
Convent gave hitD ia bia great necessity. 

27. The charter of Herbert Runcus for three and a hfilfacre» in 

Lai/sijtffby, one acre m Forsfiat^ one acre in Seteiikou, one 
acre under Setenhow, and three roods on LinglandeSj ntid 
one rood at Paddorpoltes, and half his cioft adjoining the 
land of Thomas de Seveucs on the west aud half an acre of 
meadow laud. I 

28. The charter of Walter Bemiyfor cultivated land in Burthot* 

wald, scd. ad aquilouem Antiqiii Muriper istos divisas, viz. 
sicut aica argillosa descendit de Muro versus aquiloncm 
Usque ad Mussain de Yethvoch, et sic versus orieutcm 
inter ipsam Mussam et prefaLum Murum usque ad fotitcm 
qui oritur sub domo Gilberli, et ab ip^o fgnte versus aqui- 
lonem usque od Mussam de Vethcoch. 



I 




OP ST. HAllV MAGDALENE, LANBRCOST. 



4G9 



39, Tht charUf of Simon de T^UoU for (he lami of Scaleiy, a 
toft and croft in Scalea wliicli Eustace and Margaret iield 
iti exchange for a toft and croft whtcli his father hfid given. 
(See vi. 4.) 



SEVENTH PART. 

1. The charier of Walter de Ftctmant lind Rachvilde hi^ mfefor 

five acrta of laud in Milneioltie. 

2. TAe charter of IfuUer Baurt^ for half a carucale if land in 

Camquenecack, which he bought of Geoffrey, son of Gerard, 
Canonici accotninoiSavicruiit luihi tantam in vita mea terram 
quani teneo de eis in Askerfcon. 

3. The charter of Robert, aoa of Auffer, for land ia Sehale&y a 

sepe Prioris usque ad interiorpin fontcm super Schaberj, et 
n fonte illo ile^ccudendo usque ad pmpinquiorein sicam 
versus meridiem, et pic per pratum illud usque ad divisasj 
et sic per ipsas divinsias uaque ad scpcm Prioris. 

4. The charter of Jn/L dc Rodif f?r twenty acrea of land in 

h<itireqii<&^!hill, which Itobertde Vans gave him for homage 
and service, viz. twelve acres which Eicardus Cnretarius 
sforetime held, and eight adjoining on the E. and >'. 

5. The charter of William, son of Edward de Warthmc,for a 

iqft with a rent of 29. near Warthv^c Bridge. 

6. 77te quil-cluim of Alice daughter of Renry the chaplain, fur 

land called Cumheveritt and Snflithelanda in the territory of 
Walton. 

7. T^e quit-claim ff Alice, daughter of Senry the chaplain, for 

stj^ acrei in Kiiig^agUL 

8. The a/freemen( made between the Conveni of Lanercast and 

Utoberlt son (f WilliaT>t,for the wnnd (neinore) and pasture 
between Torcroasoc and CttmqueuecacA, quiJd omne neniua 
et psstnra inter Torcrossnc etCumquenecacherunt in com- 
mune inter Canonicos et bominea suos de Cumquenecadi 
ad propria averia sua et estuveria, et Robertum et homines 
sQoa. Boscum vero de parva Glasimth erit iu cummune 
inter Canonicos et homines slios de diinbis AsJcertonis ad 
i>ropria averia &ua et estuvaris sua propria el Rob. et ho- 




470 CARTULARY OF THE PRIORY CHURCH 



miiH^ SUM. Omne neinus iutcr Suiueseterig et Torcrosfoc 
et Kin^, qtiDil vocatur Magna Gla&lceitb quielum remaDebil 
Eoberto et heredibus suis. Tota pastara in boeco et 
piano inter Camboc et King et Torcrossoc et duas Asker- 
tonas crit in commnne inter Canouicos et homines suos de 
ipsis Aakertonis ad propria averiji ana, et Rob. et homioes 
snos, null^ vcro ^pea removebunttir nee scaliagie erigentur 
inter Torcrossoc et CumqueBecach nee inter Torcrossoc et 
dufis Askertonas in uliia locis qu^ faertint die quA bee 
quieta Clouiocio facta fuit inter ipsos, Kobertus Tero 
Canoniiris faldare equas suas per totum boscum, per visum 
forestarii sui concessit etiam canotiicis coromanam in pas^ 
pnstuni de Torcrossoc ad propria averia iiominum suonim 
de terra: ecclcsic de Treverroan, 
9. The charter of Will, tie Trebijbr jiasttiTsge of Glaxaane&y and 

GamtUsby. [Temp. Hen. Ill,] 
to. The charier of Henry de Ulveion, son (f WUl. de Wyggeton, 
far the laud of AppeUreaie and MUnepol, scil. S" partem 
totius lernc inter divisas jncenti?, scil. mcut Appletresic 
ftscendit de Wistlielpo! usque ad Pontem de Appletresie, et 
exbide siciit magna sica ascentlit per medium Kneterlan- 
demir^ asque ad aicam pro.\iuiani Kskerig, que ascendit per 
medium Filebrig^ et ita a^tcendeudo usque at] Stokkebrig, 
et inde aacendendo per Lant^ic inter Werdeholra et \^ inn- 
crig usque ad magnam Mus^am^ et ex altera parte versus 
aquiloneui ?icut Milnepo) ascendit de Watbelpol usque ad 
caput Milnepol .... reddendo multuram domino ville de 
blodo de ipsa terra prevenJentem. 

11. Zlfitf eAarter of Adam, eon of Htrmerus, for the land of 

Nor*ektm inter dominicamctilturam raeatn que tcndit versus 
Wliytekelde et terram Will, tiliimeij que jacet juxta terram 
de Parra Fnrlam^ et inter magnam sicam que cadit in 
Whytekelde et viara latam que tendit per medium Norse- 
ebon ab aquiloDe versus Parvam Farlam. 

12. The chAftst of Will, de Warthwye for licence of tnulding, 

cultivating, and making easements, in ike land of Caaf^l- 
i^ayroc, vhich the canons bold of tbe gift of lord Kobert dc 




nt" ST. MAHY MAGDALENE, LANBRCOSr. 



471 



Castelcayroc, infra sepes suas quas iion alibi removebuut 
(juam Duuc aunt. 
1 :k Tie charter of lord Ralph de la Fertefor the Peteret {PetUes) 
perlaimn^ ts the salt-piia which Ada, daughter of Will. 
En^jre, gave, 

14. The charier of Lord Ralph de la Ferte for a toft and lieo 

iwrg^ ift Bejimttifd, in cispite ejusdetn ville apinl Bore, quas 
Donaklua tenuit, et j rcte nbique liberuni cum homiriibus 
meis ejusdeiu vitle in EdenH^ et ubique com liomimbus de 
Brunescayd iu Edena et E-^k, et exsiccatiotiem ejusdem retia. 

15. The charter of the Afjbot and Convent of Holm Cultrnm for 

ien bleda of salt ^eatl^, to he delivered by their cellarer at 
Martinmas. 

16. The charter of Osberl de Pridewans for ten acres in Pride- 

liteiHJt, uni/t a meaauage r^iVA liegrel held. 

17. The qtdt-claim of Will, de Emiii, made Ij) Lord Robert de 

Faux, of the land which the aaid Robert gave to hira in 
Brampton, in coiisi deration of money given to him by the 
said Robert in his sore (masima) need. {c. l!il5.] 

\H. The ehart-vr of Boherl, mn of Walter de Conkilton for land in 
Kiitgeston in Scotland; be saya be has received from the 
Convent of Lauercost for homage and service, to be com- 
pounded for in feodo et hercditate by a payment of one 
pound of cummin at Carlisle Fair, the land which Will., 
son of John de Vaux, gave to the canonsj and was held 
aforetime by Robert de CUfford, a toft and croft with one 
bovate of land quam Rddulphus Petliparius tenuit et j cul- 
turam in terntorio de Kingeston que vocatur Quitelan, et 
aiiain cu3tiiram in terntorio de Fenton juxta maresium, et 
tolam iliam cultiimm que jacit inter terram Roberti Flau- 
ilrensis et exitum de Kingeston usque ad marcsium, et a 
maresio usque ad viam que teudiit de Occidentnli Fenton 
versus Carnundac, et iij acras terrEe juxtii sedem ovilis quse 
fuit Ric. fil. Miebaelis. 

19. The charter of Robert, aon of An-ketin, with the consent of his 
son Jolmj/ftT commoninff of Denlott gtanied to his non An~ 
ket'in, infra divisaa scil. Hermitebec et Folternan in bosco 





472 



CflRTULARY OF THU PRIORY CHURCH 



4 




et plnoo inpastumjinfia ^ep(;9 ct extra, in mora, in mnssa, i 
in marisco, in viis, in aquis, to be held bv tliis service, quixj 
ipse et herede? sui servient in doiuo isetLet licreduia meoruoi 
die Nfttalis Domini Bingulia anuis, si aniiunciavero eia riij 
dicbus proume futuria ante predictuoi tempas qabd sint 

parnti ad iiluin scTvitium facieiidum Prseteren con- ^H 

ceasi eis focalia et oiajfeinitimi ad cdificia facicnda dc bosco ^^ 
meo ubiGunque eis necesaariuni invemre possintj aalvo mihi 
pomerio mco .... facere atngnum quoddam super partfiu 
meam aquffl de Hermitbec si aliquod molendinuin super 

pnrtem suam facere voluerint et si ad oieum cum . 

blaJo $uo veueriut molent nbsi^ue multura et moIendiDator ^M 
mens bladum suura aicut lit tneum pro nihilo pambit, et ^^ 
mulent propinquiores lllo blado quod est in illo vase cjiiod 
Tocatum eat IToper. Preterea pannagium non dabuQt de 
bcFitiis siiis ubicLinque icriiit infra dictoa divisas. 

20. T&e cAarter of H'UL, mn of Will, //c Uh'eJiiiy,Jor iuientf-^vi 

aares in the territory of Uheabt/^ which RicEiard, his graftd- 
&tber, gave to Odo, son of Encine, ftith liis daughter ^H 
Ewanda in raarrisge, vi?,. fifteen acres which Dundan held ^B 
inter KyliSj et five acres with a wood adjacent as far as 
Aykclcbcc which Eich. de Ulveaby gave them, with a sea- ^1 
liuga of Borvauis. ^Bj 

21. Th quii-fkim of Adam de Crakehovefor e\ght acra of land, 

with teood and meadow, in Ulvesbi, to Walter, Prior of 
Lonercost, viz. land which Jnlianjii, daughter of Odo, of 
Ulveabj, gave, with a scalingn in Borjganis, and a piece 
which reaches from South Moor to the Prior of Carlisle's 
Park. 

22. l%e charier of Rich, de Ulve^iyfor ien acr&i in hie domain of\ 

Ulveabi, near the land of the canons of Carlisle on the' 
north, with his part of BorvaTn$ which he held to make a 
Bcaliiigu, und all the wood as far aa Aikegilebec. 

23. The gnil-claim of ho de Crakehove for land *ft Ulvubi, for, 

ten acres which Odo de Ulvesbi held aforetime, [siv. 9,) 
%-i. Thi quif-claini of Oih de Ulvesbi for ten acres in fjirei&i- 
(xiv. 10.) 



OF 9T. MAaY MAGDALENE, LANERC09T. 473 

^5. The charier of confirtnatlon of the Lord Hgnr^ [^^•]> ^y ^^^ 
fftace <if God King tf England, for ike giftn and granli of 
Lord Robert de Vaux in tawdf ehureheSf and poMesslon^, 
dated Wnodatocli. 

£6. ITte confirmation cf (He Lord Il&tiry IL, ^ l/ie grace of God 
Kittff of EKglaiid,for the fvfls ofRoheri de VauT and oikerx 
for landA and churches granted to the chnrcA if Lanercost, 
dated Woodstock. 

EIGHTH PART. 

1. The CGnfrwafion of Lord Richard, bjf the grace of Cod King 

of England-tfor the gifts of Lord lioleri de Faux ofc/iurche» 
granted to Lanercod. [Porcheater Kal. Apr (no year given.) 
Frinled in the Mouasticon.) 

2. The confirmation of Lord Amerie, Arc/iden^on of Carlisle, for 

churches and vicarages appertaiiting to the church of Laner^ 
COif. 

3. The charier of B&mard} Sishop of Carlisle, for the land^ and 

ehurehes of Lanercostf quod liccat Canonicis omncs terraa 
Ecclesmrum deciinatiouea et proventua in proprioj asua 
eonvertere, et in propriis personis vd per CapeUftnos si 
maluerint miuistrare, ita tainen, qufid preditti Canouici tam 
de sinodaiibua et episcopalibus quam de nuxiliis et hospitjia 
nostris et de aiiccessoribus nostris pro ipsis ecclesiis respoii- 
debunt. Decedeiitibus vel cedentibus pt-rsoiiig vel vicarus 
in Ecclesiis suis ministrantibus, ingredi poiiiaeitsionea eccle- 
sianioi ip^arnm auctoritate propria Canonicis liceat et clavea 
in manibus $uis rctinere^ 

\. The confirmation of the Chapter of Carliaie for the gifts and 
grants of B., Bishoj) of Carlisle. 
Item alia carta Henn. de prefato dom. B. Karleoleu, Epo. 

5. Composition belweeji the Prior G. and Convent ^Carlisle and 
I/ord Sobert de Vauw for the churches of IrthirkgUm and 

^ Bernard occu|)ied the see from 1157 to 1LS6. Aumeric de 
Tailboys, R- of DaJston, nephew of Bishop PoicticTS of Diirbani. be- 
came Archdeacon 1 196, and hdd it till 1204. (^. WiUxs, 305) 





474 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIOftV CHUhCIf 



Brampfon; a renunciation of their rights in those dUurchw 
before Robert, Archdeacon of Carlisle, mid many derks and 
lawmen [The date is determined to be before 1180], the 
ckurcL of Ibiton being given, to the Convent of C*rbsle. 
H. T^e charier vf Lord Huffh, Bhhop of Carlisle, /ot the ckurcket 
of fJirthipgtoH^ WaUon^ Brampfoitf Forlam, <tnd GrtMJtdaU 
[Hugh, Abbot of Bcaulicu, was consecrated Feb. 24, 1218, 
and died June 23, 1223], euro omtiibu^ pf-rtinentiis et 
obventionibus suis ad sasLentationem paupenim et pere- 
grinoruiD quos freqneiit'er canonici suscipiunt. Ita tamen 
quod vicarios idoncos Kpo. Diocesano presejitatoa in eisdeio 
cccleaiis ponant, qui curam genint ammaniui, et respoo- 
deant Episcopo ct inintatris ejus in hiis que pertinent ad 
Episcopalia jura, as^signuta cifdeta vicarii^ eompeteBti por- 
tione, siciit eis potprit convenire. 

7. The confiTTnation of Lofd Hugh, Bithop of Carlule, for poi- 

session of cJiurcAt'A fur their ou>k me. Vicarii dummodo 
idonei sint qui Eptscopo respondeant de spiritulibus et 
Priori et Canonicis de temporalibus. 

8. 7j4i? eonfrmadon (rata et firma hahita/h) if Bartholomew' 

Prior and the Cenivnt of Car! isle for having chnrchis far 
their (iiFH use. 

9. The letters testimonial of Lord Christian, Bishop of Whitheme, 

for the gift ofUttber/ de rattx,fftr holding churckeifor tAeir 
own use. Sjinoii Was Prior of Lancrcost. 

10. The taxation of Lord 17., Binhop of Carliafe^ for Ihe Fifar 

of Brampton, Mask'r Thomas, clerk, collated to all the 
altarage there, the tithes, oblations, and ol^enngs at the 
said altar. [Mr. Burn says c. 12^0.] 

1 1. The charier of Sylvesterj Bishop of CartisiSf on the (axadon 

of Fatlam Vicarage ; a second mediety of land granted to 
augment Ihe vicarage, except an acre as-'^igned to the caiions 
for building a grange on. [a.d. 1331, dated at BeauHea on 
Whitsuu Mondny.] 



' Tlie 4th Trior of Carlisle. iIhIp unknown. 
- Hugh de Beaulieu, 1218-2^. 



OF ST. MAKY MAGDALENE, LANERCOBT. 



475 



12. The charter of Lord Sylvester,^ BUhop of QiriUie, on (he 

laxaiion of Walian Vicaraffs [St. Thomaa's Day^ 1253], 
The Vicar was to have the altar&ge and six acres next the 
church ; the canons to have the tithea of their two mills in 
Walton, and the cbapel of Treverman, except mortuariea 
for those dying in tlial parish, the Convent being respon- 
sible for the semcea in it. (See xi. 2.) 

13. The eonfrmaiion ofCarliale Chapter on the taxation of Walton 

Vic'iragif 1262. Laurence Oliver renounces the vicarage. 

14. 7'he eoajirmation. of Lard Roger? Archbiahop of York, for all 

lauds, renla, and churches granted fiy Til. rfc Vaux and otkera 
tc Lanerccsl Church* 

15. The charier of Geojfreyy Archbishaj} of York, for the land of 

Lanercoit and Walton, churches, land^^ aad rsntf ffieea b^ 
R. de Faux, Ada Enga^ne, and others. 

16. The ehartf.t of Hugh, bjf Dipiae grace Bishop of Durham, for 

the church of Olti Denton on the presentation tf R. Je Faux 
and Rob., son of AsketilL The canons, on a vacancy, were 
to present to the Bishop of Durham a perpetual ViCHf, qui 
nobia Episcopales consuetudines reddat qui etiara victum 
pcrcipiat, et Canonicis antiuam penaioneiu tlimidiee tantiliii 
marcffi persolv&t, ni&i eia nos ex nostra autoritate juxtn 
ipsius Ecclcsiie augaientum et facultatem in poaterum ptua 
jjercipere concesserinias, quod tamen in vit^ guerri, quern 
primum rccepiinus, ullatenus fieri volumus. [Hugh Fud?ey, 
Bishop, 1153-94.] 

17. the chai'ler of GiUtert;^ bg Divine grace Bishop of Carlisle, 

for the remission of a pension far Karlalon Church, viz. two 
marks of silver hitherto paid to the Bishop of Curliele from 
the chamber of the Prior- 

18. The confrmatinn of Pope Alexander III., a.d. J 181, for the 

possession of the churchei of Lanercost, iFaltottf H^irlhtng- 
ton, Brampton, Karlaion, Farlam, Grenesdale, and other 
sums, renti, lands, possessions, and other matters pertaining 

' Sylvester de Everdon. Bishop, 1246-64. 

" Roger, Archbishop, 1154-BL 

3 Gilbert dc Wellon, Bishop. 1353-62. 




d 



476 



CAHTUI-ARV OF THE PfttORY CHlfHCM 



to Ltinercoat Church, directed to Symon the Prior and 

Convent. , 

Quoliens a nobis petitiir quod religioiii et honestati c^ouvenii 
dignoscitur, anitno nos decet libenti ooncedera et petentium desi- 
sideriia congruuni sufTragium iuipertiri, (l.) eapfopttr, ddecti in 
Domino filii, veatrisjustia postLdationibus dementer aunuimus; el 
prefalam ecdesiatn in quii Divino mancipati estis obseqaio sut 
B. Petri et nostra protectione suscipimus et presentis scripti pri-'- 
vilegEo comniuniniLLs, iiipricnis siquidcm statucutfs ut ordo Caiium-. 
CU8, qui secundum Deum et B. Angustini regulam in dome vestr»j 
inslitutus esse dinoscitur, purpetuis ibidem tetnporibus inviola- 
biLitcr obsLicvetur. Prettrea qtiascunqiie possessiojies^ quecunque 
bona eadem Eccleeia inprasseutiarutii juste et canonice jiossidel, 
Biit iti futunim eancessioDe pontificum, brgitioise regum, vel prin- 
ci[)utn oblatione fidelium seu aliis justia raodis prBestaiite Doniioo 
polerit adipisci, firoia vobis veattisqiie succes$>onbu9 et illibal*] 
permaiieat. In quibus hec propriis duximus exprimenda voca-j 
bulia. The grants ure ilien recited. Liceat qiioque vobis derico* 
et laieoa e eeculo fugieiiles liberos et absolutos absque ftlicujus 
contradictioDi ad conversionem reciperc, et in vestra ecclcsia re- 
tiuere. FrDhibemusinaupcr ut nulli fratrma veatrorum po&tfactam 
in eodem loco professionem sine Prions sui licentiaj nisi arctioris 
rcligionia obtemtu, fas sit rle eodem luco discedere. Discedeuleui, 
vcro oommtiiu lilerarucn cautione nuUus audcaC retinere. lal 
parocbialibus autem ecclcsiis, qnas tenetis, licent vobis Presbilero* j 
eligere et diocesano episco[io prescutare, quibus si iiloiiei fuerint^j 
Episcopus curatn nnimaram committat, et ei de spiritualibus vobiS 
verb de temporalibus debcant rcs|inndere. Cum vcro generale 
Inlerdictum terne fuerit liceat vobis jannis clausi?^ non pulsatis] 
canipatiis, eicdusiii eKcommunicnQtis et interdictisj submissa voce 
Divina ofBcia celebrare, (ii.) Sepulturam quoquB ipsius loci 
libcram esse decerniitius ut eorum dt!votioni et extreme vuluntati, 
qui se illic sepeliri deliberaveririt, nisi forte excointnunicati vd 
iuterdicti sint nuiliia obsistatj, salvi tamen justitia illarura ecde- 
siarum e quibus mortuorum corpora assuinuntur, (m.) Obeunlel 
verb {^ nunc ejusdeni loci prinre^ vd luoriim quolibet succcssomm 
nullus ibi qualibt'l subrcptionis astutia seu violentia prepouaturj 




UF ST. MARY MAODALENB, LANERCOST. 477 

nisi quern t'rattcs comuiuui corist-nsu vel fratruiu pars consilii 
sdnioria sccumlum Deuin et B. Augustini regulam provideriut 
eligendum. Deceruimus ei^o ut nulli ocnniuo bomiiii liceat 
ecclesiam vestram tetnere perturbare, aut ejus poaseasiones aufcrre, 
vd ablnlus retinerc luiuiiere seu ijuibuatitift veKatioiiibua futignrc, 
sed omnia integra eon serve ntur eortim pro quorum goberBatione 
et susteutatioiie concc'^sn Biiit usibus umnimodis profutura. Si 
qua igitur in futurum occlesiustica eecuWisve persona banc uos- 
trse eoDstitutiouid pagiriain !>cieDa contra cam temere temptaverit, 
aecimdo tertiove commonita nisi presumptionem son digna satis- 
factione correxerit pote*tatis honorisquc sui dignitate carcatj 
reamque se divino jtidicio exislere de perpetratie iniqaitatc cog- 
noscat et o gacratissimo corporc et sauguine Dei et Doni. Ee- 
demploris iiostri Jesu Christi alieiia Sat atqne, in extremo examine 
distincte ullloui eubjaceat. Cunctis autetn eideiu loco sua jura 
servanlibus sit pax Dotn. nostri J. C. quatenus ct hie fnictum 
bone aclionis percipiaiit &l apud diatrictuin Judicem prcmia cterne 
pacis inveniant. Ameii, Teat. CardinaJibus ac eorura Presb. Dine. 
Subdiaconis, et clericis cum aubscriptiouibus eorundent in litera 
pnnQ-tpali coiiteatis. Datum Viterbii pet mauum Alberti S, Horn, 
Kcc. Prcsb. Cariliii. etCancellarii ■i,'^" Id. Aug. Indict, xiv* tncarn. 
Dom. a" urtcLxxx.!. Pont, vero Dom. Ales. P. III. a" ssii". 

19. [1184-.] The charier of Pope Ludui HI. for possession of the 

latiils of Lsvercmly ffariAcoleman, BrejikiiielA, the town of 
Waitoti, Koswrageth, dpplelretAioa^fe, and (he cAurcA0s of 
WaUoti, Byatitpfon, Orihlntfton, Farlata, and Greneadale, 
tediA Treverman. chapel, and otAer rents mid Unds, addressed 
to Friot Sitnoti, Dat. Verronse, id. Febr^ Indict, iii% In- 
carii. Dora a" mclsxxiiij., Pont, vero dom. Lueii P. III. a* 

20. [ia24.] Tke confirviationof Pope Honorius in.for potaeeaion 

aitd Teats of churckea and landi belotiging to LunercosL 

The Fame as that of Pope Alexander, exccpi in the ibllowing 

passages :^ 

(l,) . , , Rebgioaain vitam eligentibus Apostoiicum conveiiit 

ade&se preaidiuin iic fori* cnjnalibet lemeritahs inciirsus aut eos a 

proposito r<;Tocet aut roburj quod absit, Sacrce religionia infriugat. 





► 



478 CARTULARY OF TH8 PBIORY CUUHCH 

(tu) > . ■ CIirismA vero oleum sacrum consecraiionis alUriiira 
BUt Basilicarum, ordiuntiones clericoiacD> qui ad sacros ordioes 
fuerixnt promovendi, a diocesano suscipietia Episcopo, si qaidfm 
catholicus fuerit et cotmnunioncm SS> Homamc sedii' habuent, et^_ 
earn vobis voluerit sine pravitatc nliqua exhibere, alioqiiin lioeift^H 
Tobis qucmcLuquc maluerilis cattioLicum adireaotistiteai, gratiam 
et oomniunioiieiD apostolic^ sedis liabeiitecn, qui nostra frvtus 
auctoritate vobia quod pustulatis impE:adat. Frohibemus iosupec 
lit infra fines parochiffi vestra nullua sine assensq dioc«saiii cpi- 
acopi et veatro capellam sea oratorium de novo coostruere aodeii 
fialvLs pcivilegiis Pontificuni RoiuanDrum. 

(ill-) Decimas preterea et posaessio&es ad jus ecclesianim ves- 
irarum spectantes, que a lujcis detinentur, rtdimendi et legitime 
liber^ndi de mauibua eorum, et ad ecclesias ad qaas pertinent re- j 
vocandi, libera sit vobis de nostra auctoritate facultas. ^M 

Dat, LatcrflTii per manuin Gwjdonis dom. Papee notarii »' 
Kalend. Jun,, IiidicL xii., Incam. Dom. mccxxiiy*', Ponlif, Hon. 
P, III. ft" viii". 



I 



21. TAe lelter of Lord RonortM, Popeffor the recovery oflaniii, 

poasemions, rmia, churches, and goods alienated from 
Lanisrcoii C'AnrcA, 

22. Tie Ittter of P. Innocent for protection of tAs C'AitrcA ^^| 

Lanercoit in tand4, rents, potiemMn^, and alt other ekurcku 
heloHpng to the same cAmrA, 

23, The CQTifrmaiioit of Lord Pope Aiemander for Walton vicar- 

age with ii.a taxation. 

24, Tke conjlrmation of Lord Pops Innocent for Walton cAnrrA. 

PART NINTH. 

1. TAe confirmation of Lofd Tho9. de Muleton for ail landtj 
rents, poasessions, and ienements, icith their ptnt*e*»oiu 
lehicA the Prior and Convent of Lanercost hold and held at 
lAe time of this writing. 

%. A covenant cyrograph made between J. the Prior and Convent 
of Hexham, and the Prior and Consent of Lanereoit, fnt 
bounds in Brenkibei and for Byres. At the in&tmicp of 
Tho. de Muleton tlie Convent of Heiham have granted to, 





OF ST. MARY MAODAL^ENE, LANEftCOST. 




tile Convent of Lancrcost for the aiinuali rent of one pound 
of cuiuujiii to be paid at Hexham at the nutivity of 
•St. John Baptist, transitum per medium terrffi iio&trte de 
Bjtis et de LacigeJon, Eid uveria sua propria et homitium 
suorum in terram suam de Loftoleis et de BreiikibEth, ibi 
maneutium in rcoiotiore parte mone bastrs versus divisas 
de Cumberland, sciL iiieipiendo versus oocideutem ad finem 
magoi fossati uos^tri qugd circuit AJigscclerban ei traoa- 
Terao per metas ibi appositas usque in Brcnkibetburne, et 
iude ex transverse mone nostrae in Langedon per roetas ibi 
appositas usque in Karldgate. The Convent of Lanercost 
-granted, at a similar rent paid at Lanercost, to that of 
Hexhaoi, Jicence to atrcngthcn their mill-pool at Bjres on 
their land of Loflelei? and Brenkibet^ et liberuin transitum 
cum carris et dliis necessi^nis per terrain suam ad terras 
nostras circa Loftelcys, salvA indempnitate blodorum et 
fenQfum suorum, ct si cis per transitum nostrum factum 
fuerit dampnuin per visum vicinorura iitriuBque partis da 
sine contentioue satisfiet. 

3, [1259.] The final agre^mtnti in the presence of the Abbot 

of Holme,* the Prior of Wedderhall, and their commiasion- 
ers, Ifstw^n the Prior and Convent of Ca^rlule and the Frkn- 
and Concent of Lanei-cast for new cultivated lands in 
Gretieicdl, in Hayton pariah^ viz. ten acres, of which the 
Convent of Lanercost should receive the great and little 
tithes, paying 5*. vearljf to that of Carlisle, the latter being 
permitted to remove all buildings on Ha^-ton Common 
within three years, and to have right of pasture in Grene- 
well after the removal of the crops. 

4, [1256.] The final agreement matle heiioeen Lord TAot., son 

ofThci. th MuUton, and the Prior and Convent of Laner- 
cost for a claim of the two AsJcertons before the juatif^es 
itinerant^ John, Abbot of Peterborough, Roger de Then- 
kelhy, Peter de Percy, Wic de Haulo, John de Wyvill. 
The Prior Walter was to hold the land within these bounds : 
sicut Sikeiiet descendit in Hertlebuni, et de Hertleburn 

■ Henry (Monut. v* 393). 



I 





480 CARTULAHV UF THE PRlORY CHURCH 

linealiter usque in Blakeburn, ct sic de&eendeiido usqt 
Bj.Tes, et de Byres aaceadendo per Ilerlleburn usque ad 
sas inter GiltealiaTid etTyndidy et ab cisdem divisis ad uovutn 
fossatQtu quod eat iriler Breukybetet morauj ejo&deiu ville, 
et eic versus occideiitem usque ad vetus rossatum Canoni- 
corum, sicut illud fossatam descendit in Sekenet : licence 
to build tweiit_y messuftges witbiri these bounds, to hare 
one scaJiiiga in Tjnelside aext Ilellegille where Hellegille 
wtiter flows iuto Farnebek, etc. In case the Caucus' cattle 
strayed into the lord's domains of A^kertoii, or from Banks 
Burtbolm ami EyketoUj nou dabunt cskapjuoi sed dampnusi 
quod feceriat per risum emcndabant. The Conveut" might 
enclose with ditch or hedge their park uf Warthcolmaii, 
and have & satterium* therein. Their two noodwards, 
before they could exercise power in bulliva saa, were to ap- 
pciir ID Tho. de Multou's court at Irthiugton and (here 
6delitatem f;itiGnt dc venatione iideliterobsLTvanda nd opus ^j 
Tho. et Mutilde, but the Prior aud Convent might have i<r.<^| 
leporarioa et iv. brachettaa' cnrrentea L'ilrn volaerint ad 
capifndum in dominicia term et bo.scis sui^, vulpes et 
lepores et omnia alia anitnalia que vocantur clobest. Et 
licebit hominibua suis portare arcus c( sngiKas in vita et 
semitis per tutam barDiiif^m de Gilleslaod sine datnpno 
faciendo fcria iti eadetn forresta de Gillealand; and iiidoie 
on their own land diim tanien fere bestic liberum po^iut 
habere ingressura et cgressuin, per omnes predictas terras 

pretcrquara in parco de Warthcolman quam Prior includeie 

potest pro voluntato sua in perpetuum. ^M 

Tran-acnpi of chatiers, cj/^rograjfa, and qttlt-cfmTHi ftyr tundi^^^ 

rents, and common paHttrca, lelongiitg to thechnrch of Lanev' 

cost for ever, in tie time of Lo^rd John the aecond. Prior 

Lanercoaf, tovght or given wUA final agreement. 

5. The charter of Alexantier de Vallibus, (f IS'ttentum^ for 

moninff of Treverman, 1263. Made in presence of Pet< 

' I. 9., aaltus, a cover. 

- Bradiet, a dog that runs by accnt. Brach is frequently Med W 
ShaltBpeare. 




OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANERCOST. 



tie Percj, justicifiry, nnJ Robert, Bishop of Carlisle,, his 

assessor (associato). Excepta placea vocata Warttidreggele 
and! his park; et qiibd omnia averia per totum pascniitur 
icifm sepes et slipulas' et BKtra iu pastura singulis aunis a 
festo Oni. Sanct. perpetuo duraturis usque ad novum in- 
bladiatiouenij salvis sibi et hoEnimbus suis semiiiiliua hye- 
malibcis. Alexander might inclose fortj acres in Thowe- 
dewire. If the cattle of Walton or Ctimquenacli sliould 
tftepass oil Treverman pasture, )ie should pay nomine 
emendto donatnm for six cattle of thren years, or for ten 
goats, or for tvtenty sheep, or for ten pigs of one year and 
upwards. 

The qui'-clfii/M of John Layr for land in LanrtUjn called 
liustathe Kcilding, arid that given by Ankfttin, son of Ro- 
bertj sou of Ankcti]i. 

The quU-diijm oj' W alter de Geyale^/or Ike land of Garlhi^i^ 
Bracauhirst^ aud Cnraeverwau in Cumquenccatch. 

Tht qull-clam of fFalfer de Sanser for Half a canicate in 
Jlayfm w'Uh a rent of%<l. 

Tht charter of Lord Thos. de Mulloji and Matilda Ais wife 
for the land of Waii-kcoltaan, which icaa hettl bjt WiUium 
Ihii chaplaint descDndendo per Vet^rcm Rf urura versus occi- 
deutejD usque in PoltrossEj, et sic per Poltrosse itsceudendo 
versus atjuilocieni usque ad sepem erectaui a parte aquilo- 
nari dt: WartlicDluiau usque in Poltrosi'e, et descendcodo 
per sepera versus orientera usque ad terram Prions. 

The charier of oUigaiion of Eiido de SkyrtBffk for half a mark 
of ailvtr, annual rent- for land in Ulvesi^ to the fabric of 
Lmiercost Church. 

7'he sentence of the Judges (the Stib-prior of Carlisle acting for 
the Bishop of Carlisle) ai/aittui Wm. de Ken&y and hlx men 
who would aoi lltks ihelr s/teares at the Grange dmirs, en- 
focciug the custom under pain ol excommunication. 1267. 
(Sne xiv. 14.) 

Stipulae, probably wooden fences (comp. x. 1). The word is 
"not in Ducange, who, howerer, g'ivea " slipulura," KoXofiij ; in liii. 8, 

Btipulse appears to mean stubble. 



t 



10. 



11. 



VOL. viir. 




:i K 



4 



462 



CARTULARY OF THE PBlOttT CHURCH 




12. Jm agteoment nmde inpre^ence of Lord M, fie Bacow, Justice 
of tie Lmd King, and hUfellowa (tocia*) between the PtIvf 
and Convent of Lane-rcosi and Lord Tfios* de MuUon ami 
Matilda his teifg, coucerning divers differences and (he per- 
ambulation made fiy twelve iatcfid m<mj 1255, four of them 
being Lord Wtn. de Vans, Roger cie Lcvititon, EiiJo ilc 
Skerewithj mu\ Adam deThirlewall^ who chose eiglit olLcr^. 
Tile confirmation is in c. 4 above. The Prior is allowed 
hngns de quibus tulerit assiaas itovEe disaeissinie relevare< 
The agreement is to be euroUtd in the Kiug^a Court. 

13* 7%e ckarlf)- of JF, Grlndegretk de Dumfres, with the as^nt 
of Alice his wife, /or ons stone of icax yearly or four stone 
of salt from his houses in Dumfres, betweeo the housra «f 
Joliri Grindegret, his brother^ and Michael Gearguii* 

14, [12.72.] The grant of Layslnifh^ Church, on the resignation 
of Hugh de Moteton, sometime Gustos, to the Priot't use 
(ii, 16) qnbd Prior etConventiis manifestepremuntur onere 
paupertatia ac alias per concursura diversorum hospitum 
quorum admigsioni resistere non Taleant .... redditusque 
eorum fere tcnues et exiles ac Prioratum in tali loco esse 
situm ubi concursiis traupeuntium est communis, ac ipos 
etiam in receptaiido et hoapitando potentea proceres et 
magnates et aUos minitnos et etiam mediocres ad ipsos in 
hujuamodi transitu declinaiites gravibus Bumpdbua mDllti- 
tien? aggravutos .... attendentes laudabile testimonium 
quod de eis a viris fide dignis eomununiter perhibettar . , . ^ 
deciaiam garbanim parochie de Laysingby recipient ia 
campis inlegralitcr nomiue personatnsj, de quibu? Ecclesiie 
vicario ij eakeppaa fanupe avenffl ad festuin S. Audree Ap. 
solvent annuatim; et toftum et croftum iij acrsrum ternc 
que Thomas King tenuit libera ab omni decimatione ia 
qaibus edificare potuerint, et decimas c&m colleclie fueriiit 
reponere aicut decct. Ticariua habeat domos et aream que 
consueveruut esse rectoris Ecclesiie, terram totam, lotnm 
pratum, tenentes ecclesice, et eorum redditiis que rectore* 
habere solebant, libera nb oranidecimaet pensioue, et ppn- 
sionea cum pascuis et pasturis, decimas moleadinorQui et 




OJ ST, MARY MAGDALKNE, LANBaCOST. 483 



pararuiu, oltara|,^ium cum oiniiibusoblationibus mortn&rits 
obviiitionibusj deciiuas garbiirum, bladi cresceutis, iu oKis 
lini it canabi abicunque crescat in parochia, ct ouinimodis 
miiitis tieciiaia preterquam de orto Prioris et Conventiis. 
Sjiidalia, archidJacaiiulia, ac ulin otiera uriliiiaria persol- 
vat, H; ecclesiffl proat decet ydonee deserviat, lumiuaria 
subntiistret;, et in ea hospitnlitatem teneat prout 3li.t in- 
gnien poTcionis ; vestimeiit^ ctiam et alia ortiameiita Ec- 
clesiaBusiincat ; et aicoopertumcancelU immineat illod co-» 
opeiiS; et ai contigerit ipsum oancelleim ditui in (oto vel 
in palfe casu aliquo Prior et Coaveutus *ancellum in opere 
lapida et grosso meremio sma propriis samptibua reficicnt, 
ac etiai relevabunt. Et sicontingat sepc dictam ceclesiatn 
iibfis ti<|aibn9 indigerc (escepto MissnJi cujus exhibitio ad 
paroclttiios spectat) vet aliqaaonera extraordiuaria casaali- 
ter immncrc, seti aliquem partem pasture in parochia, de 
novo ipdigi ad culturauij Prior et Conventus pro uiedietate 
et Yicirius pro alia medietate^, Hbros necesisarioarcpuraburtt, 
de extaordiiiariis omnibus pro medietate f^iniiliter rtspon- 
dcbunt Dat. ap. Koaam. 
15. [1273.] TAe ckarhr of Jofaif son of John de Dsnton,fQr 
cQiftmonpasiure in Den/on, and Ibree men to attend tbe 
cattle inlhe Priory of Holrae, between Poliedieh and Polter- 
nan, in tempore estivo, ubique extra scpes et alias claus- 
tnras, e^tatim post amocionem blfidoruoi et fee nor ura" infra 
scpes, etextra usque ad aliani inbladiationera. Si niJicn^ 
averia capentur super semina hyenwilia etdampnum t'i.ennt 
illud per lisum bonorum et legalium liominiim cii^ndentj, 
61 dampiUjD non feccviiit recapienlur in pasturani puam 
sine damfto. H bis cattle slraj into tbe holm before tbe 
feast of Al Sainta, capiantw et infra predictum holmuta 
impasteutm, etanteqnaiu dLlibereoiurdettir pro quibusiibet 
iv equis s.tqimbus, j deiiiirius, pro qnibusUbet viii bobus 
vel vaccis leu sMis junioribus averiis ejusdpm generis, j 
den.; prow porcis, j den.; pro xuv bidentibus, j d. j si 
sutem argBQtum non habcatur promptuni, quantum dcbent 
solvi detur infficiens vadium serrienti illud duplipiter Talena 

2 K 2 




I 



I 



OF ST. MAKV MAGDALENE, LANEKCOST. 485 

a^iuat Hubert BusselJ, liiuibaiid of Gjliana^ his sister, mid 
all others. 

» 

TENTH PAftT. 

1. The e^rter of Ranulph de Faux for common paalure of ten 
she-goats and other cattle iu Tretiernnxv, except in his park 
of Wattlrai;d and Towodemyre when euclosed et aLipulis 
domiuioruin. 

3- TAiS charier of Lord Wm. de Kirkcton, lord of Q\XTaiex\.,foT a 
rent of VlfL from land in Tulkaii Town, which Matilda, 
daughter of Alan de Talfcipm, held* 

3. 'Me cAai\er of Waller Niger, for tUhe of com and sheaves m 

Fueiwode, to he paid LO lunger in tke lields, but at the 
Grangefloor. 1273. 

4. Tl:e charkr of Walt^, Bishop of CarlUle, for a ^earl^ pett- 

Kion of five marks out (f Denton Church to the Priories of 
Lan^nost atid Wcderhall. 

5. The cherier of Matilda de MuUon confrming i/te land of 

Warti^lman. (See is. 9.) 

B, The chailpr of Lord Thomas de Mttttotif lord of Qillealnnd, 
for lhe\and of P restorer, in Irilinigtou pariah. (See xv. 6.) 

7, The charUr of Matilda de FatiXy in her mdimhoodjfor Iheiaiid 
<f Preiser, incipiendo ad aquam de Ueder, ubi Siketta que 
voeaturffV'arynoksiliE cadit in Ueder, et sic per predictam 
Sikettaqet certam divisam iater PresLovL-r et Kirkecamboc 
u,^que il aliam sjkettam que vocatur Clanbek, et sic de- 
sceudeatt per Claiibek u&quc in iiquam de Ciunbuc, et sic 
descend^do per Camboc usque ad Sikettam per quam 
deacenditaqua de novo fossato usque in Cumboc, et sie 
ascendeoff pef illam sikettam usque ad novum fossatum, 
et sic pcrllud fo^saCDm usque ad caput oceidentale illius 
fossati, efib ilhi dicti fossati capite liuealiter es trausverso 
Ui^que odiumum guper Heder, qui die quo sajsiiia facta, 
fuit dictiaCanoiiicis vocabitur Frerebuske-^, et a dicto dumo 
■ Hcdcr usque ad locum uhi predicta sjkctta de 



1 



cJ 



I.e. Fratrum buecxim. 



486 



CAHTLLARY OF THR PRIORY CHURCH 




Wraynok cadit in ITeder. She also confirms the Intid whici] 
Reyiiiger Grenc lielJ between Uuinquarth lull and (l)eeiid] 
(exitum) de AVftltoii towards Cambock moor; sod ll 
latter and Camboc water, which Richard Claudus held. 
The canons might make any n,pprujaiueiita' witluii lli*ir 
buundsj and eDcloautcs sine sattorio vel aliquo alioimpnli- 
mento fcrarum : they might hunt within their bounds et si 
canes Bui ad aliquaiu feram infra divisas currere dimissi ^j 
divi$&9 transierint, et super feram extra divisas vet one fttA ^H 
captl fueriiit infra baromam meam dc Gilluijland, fcra re- ^ 
mancjit nnhi et hercdibus ineis et cnues Caiiouicis rd turnm 
hominibus quieti deliberentur. 
8. A compostlion and ordinance of Lord Jlohert^ HtsAopi^Car- 
liile, for (he mcarage &/ TrtAinjton Ckurch^ 1275. The 
Vicar is to have tithes of all sheaves a de3Ceii>?u aqosnio- 
lendiai de Erthington in Erthin usqne ad raoIcndinoBS; et 
sic aaceudcndo per ductum aquEC molendiui usc^ue ad Ker- 
baiic, et sic per sumcaitatem de Kerbank versus aquiloMm 
usque ad Curnrech, et per occidentalem eostcrnm de Cnn- 
rech, et per pnlos ibtdemi Gxos QSqiie ad suinmitaleffl de 
Banks inter Curarech ct iDuniin antiquum, et sic perJlara 
sammitatem usque nd Murucn, et sic per eundem Votam 
versiiB occidentem usque ad dirisam que est inter Efthing- 
ton ct BlateruG, et sic a Murtim per divisfitu illam reruns 
aiistnira, usque ad divisam que eat inter Erfbinigton ct 
Neuby, et sic per lUam divisam usque ad aquam de ErtLin, 
et sic asceudeodo per aquam de Irthin usque ad deaeusum 
atjum predict! molendiiii in Erthin, et qu&d cursus aqw de 
Irthin pro certa divisa babeatur de cet<iro inter panxbia.^ 
. de Erthington et Brampton, ubi major para ejnsdem aqnte 
currit. llic canons, as Hectors (tiomine personatui) to 
have all the other tithes of sheavea in Irthington parish 
outside these bounds, except those gmivti in William dc 
Neub/a garden, and those of others wkich, fall to the 



I 



' ? Appriiyanaenla, another form of opprovsLmeniH, improveiiieDti 
rather than "fruits of the earth." 

- Robert de Chant;cy. Bwhop. rifj8~79. 





OF ST. Mary magda:*ene, lanehcost. 




Titmr, who is to {my uaam eskeppam el dim. aveti« farine 
jearlj to the canoua, 
T/ie rharUr of Lord Jfalfer,^ Bishop tfCarrute,for tJke inMi- 
inficm of Wm, de Afeleburn into I'rtMngfoti vicarage, vice 
Robert ; the Vicar to receive all the small tithes of com 
belonging; to Qltnrage; titlie of Laj and mill in the parish, 
und of corn in the town, paving to the canons yearly iy 
eskeppsts farine et ij eskqipia brasii. [1325.] 

10. The charter of MaiMa df Mutton for Ue grani of land be- 

yond Knover an, which washcldb^ Rogerde Mora ah aqua de 
Cimveton a.'icendendo per sepem oneiitnlem tcrrffi ad priraum 
angulum illius sepis, et ab ilto angulo versus aquilotsem, 
lincaliter ex transverso more pci palos in mora fixoa usque 
ad sepem predicte terre es altera parte illios Diore> ct sic per 
scpera illam descend endo usque in sikam que nominatur 
Depsyfce que est inter terram prcdictam et terram de 
Wrangham, et sic dcscendendo per fUara sikam usque in 
aquam deCambock, et nc descentlendo per aqnam de Cam- 
bock usque ad locum ubi aqua de Cnaveron deaceudit in 
Caiabock, et sic ascendendo per aquam de Cnavereu usque * 
ad sepem prenominatam, 

11. [1276.] The ekarkr of Mat'dda de MuUon for common pas- 

ture in Brnmjjfon arid BiieiHy, which Robert, son of 
Hubert de Vnux, gave to the canons to make tithe barns, 
Robert de Vallibus then holding the landa of Buethby. 

12. T^e charter <f Lord Thomas, son of Thomas, de Mutton, of 

Gillesland, /or ihs land of IlnnficoiDe (Harepcbonch), mth 
cofnmoa pasture per suas divisas que modo vocalur a pa- 
tr[oti3 Mflnkharechonch, of the gift of Ada Engayne and 
Hugo de Moroville. (See li. llj 12.) 

13. The charier (0' Lord Thomas d^ Mutton for the tsnd ofMunk* 

hareiiowi I gaiin// the Sd, (paid out of Neutegcld to] qf/^e 
Lord King. The place is called Little Hariscohul, Haris- 
chonghj and narischoul. 
H. l%e charter of J'jhi, son of John J)inUm,f>)r hark of oaks tn 

' Viilfoi (le Malclerk, BUhop, 122S-46. 



1 




488 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIOEY CHUECH 



15. The qiiii-cfaim of Thcfftinia We fr^ and Margaret t her ti*Uf\ 
daughters of Lucia Werri,yar the land of Clovesgill in Far-j 
lam. {xiii, £1.) 

1(1. [1^7it.] Tfic quif'Clalin qfa charffT ^ten. bj Nxcliolas, scrn 
of Jobii Werri. The former grantees reuouiice » suit ftliich 
Ibcy had iustitoted against the Convent before the Jaslices 
in North utnberland, Westminsler, Bnd York, for tlie re- 
cover}* of the tharJer, as unjust. 

17, [I27y.] TAe quii-clrtim of forly acrex of laud, OoreMgUl, 

cCahned agaiiiai IViUiam tie Mora sud Agnes Ins wife yvr ^ 
breve regis, before the justices itinerant, n'^ vii Edw. un- 
juatlj, the same at their deatU to devolve to the Pncry. 
(Seexii. 13,16, 17,) 

18. The charter of Matilda de Multon /or tilke of huy in NortA- 

•more. 1385, 
10. [12S7.] The charter of Gilbert de Grmesd<iic, citisien of 
C'arlislej_/^f>r \s, ^€wrl^ in CaHtile from land in Via Fran- 
corum and the houst formerly occupied by Williaia tiidj 
chaplfiin adjoining that of Michael de Haveriiigtoa. 




ELEVENTH PART. 

1. The charter of Lord GeaJfTe^ih Tylleolfor the remisaionefld., 

and mvUura of the land of Saxleb^, coufirmiiig the charter 
of Simon his grandfather. 

2. The ordinance and tasrai ion of Lord Ralph, Bishop of (^rl'^U^ 

for Walton FicarnffSf dated at Lynstock 3 Ka!. Dec. liS7, 
the vicar to have totum altarngiura cum totii terra ct edifi- 
ciia, et iv aolidos argetitij, paid at Easter (itk! Micbaeliiia*, 
or xii marcas in. pecunia numcrata loco taxatiunis compe- 
tentia parcionis cum edificiis et orto adjaft^nti ; the Convent 
to have the tithea of their two mills, and to provide for the 
service of Treverman chapel ; the vicar to find all oiiera or- 
dinaria et ornamcnta ecclesiie, aud to repair tLe cLuuct 
where the expenses will not exceed I2d. (See viii. It.) 

3. The confrmatioH of Prior Adam and the chapter of Carlide 

for the afaremid ordnian'ie and taxation of Lord Ralph, 
Bishop tif Carlhhj for fFitlinu Vkara^e^ 



or ST. MAHY MAGDALENE, LANERCOST. 

4. 7'h coUat'iGn. and confitmatioa of Lord lioiph, BUhop of Car- 

Ikleffor the appropriatiou af Churches. {Dated^ Lyiastockj 
14 Kal. Jan, 1287.) 

5. The conjirmaiiatt of the adove ly the chapi^t ofCarfkle. 

6. TJie charitT for a stone quarry, by Matilda de Multon, in 

Gillesland, but not in her park or among corn. Dated, 
Yrthin^ton, 1292, \% Kah Aug. 

7. The (fuil-claim of the land of Pevilfiavs by fiobert de i}fcjtaTv 

B3 lie could not pay so large a rent a& 16#. a year. Dated 
Lanercost, \i^i. [iii. 7; v. £6.) 

8. The ckarter of Malilda de VatixfoT tithe ofallii/tdt, to be 

accouuted for by bailiffs and provoats of her landa before 
auditors of accorapt. Dated, Bellura Salaciutn, in Fule- 
vode, lgS7. 
&. T/i0 charter of K. Edward, son. of IIeiiry,for a ^teajtuai^e m 
Gitlide, ffhen Sy lioiert le Whayte. 1304. Dated Stive- 
lyii, July 28. 
10* The charier tfRob. le Waytforthe saidland in Vico Ricardi 
lying between the landa of Will, le Taylleur and William 
8napp. XF. 9. 

TWELFTH PART. 

1. T7tQ cltarler of Lord /oAt de BuetRh^^ chtiplam, for certain 
land ill Carlide cUtf, in via piscatorinm, lying between Ri- 
chard de Thoresby's land and Adam Codel's leniire^ gtrtft 
by him io the house of La n&r cost to provide two tapers (tortos) 
at St. Marys attar at tbe elevation of Christ's body in the 
Lady mass, the canons to pay busegabell de bbero burgagio 
to the Crown. 

5. The charier of Lord Edward, Ei»g of England, for the grant 
of the right of patronage of MiUeford and Carlaton churches^ 
dated Carlisle, March 17, 1307, in cofisidemtion of com- 
bustionem doraorum et depredationem bonorurn ejnsdem 
Prioratus per Scoto$, et diutinnm moram quam jjuper foci- 
inus^ dum adversa corporis valetudiue detinebamur, and tbe 

^ On Sept. 11. 1280, the King with Q. Eleanor visited tnnerco&t 
for hunting in Inglewood (Chron. Laner, t06). On Sept, 29, 1306, 



4 



490 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIOftV CHURCH 



Priory being iu consequence (iii|mup(;ratus multipliciter et 

3. The cJiarler of Lord Antoiij/,^ BU/top of DnrAamj for fAe 

appropriatiofi of MtffoTii Charch, of wliicli Robert de Leys- 
choch is rector. It describes lamentaljilera stalumecclesise 
(le Lanercost per repentiui incendii vomginem jam cou- 
sumptie, ntcnon alia loca norinulla pcr'sa^vientem Seotorum 
incur^tim, clejiredatiotiea HUiujneras, et hostiks invasiones 
ecrunilem multipllcea in favillas et cinerea jam redacU. 
Dated MiJcibatn, Sept. 9, 1307. 

4. TIis charter /ifJuhu, Bishop of Ciirlhle,for the appropriaiio% 

qf Carliifon C/iurcA, of uliich Kobcrt dc London is rector. 
He saj'flj Vos in vinesi Domini per regiiliires observflntias 
Deu placabiks, liospitalitatcm lioiiorabilcm et idia multiplicia 
curitatiB opera novimus vigibiiciuF laborare . . . penf^antes 
oh cotidiaiium adveittum regalia excrcitns per vos ac fre- 
qqentem aUoruni siipervcniejitiutn concureum onerosttiu 
veatra lioppitalitas que ad premissa ininn? sufticit plas solito 
aggravatur, etc. Bated at Rosf, 13 Kal. Oct. 1308. 




he arrived with Q. Marg-aret at the Priory, and did not leave it till 
nearly Easier on Mnreli 1. 130? (IblJ. 205. 20G). In 1300, in June, 
he came with Hugo de Veer and stayed in the Priory on bio way to 
the si'pge of Carlaverock (ibid. 194). 

^ Dec. Patriarch of Jerusalenn, 

^ In 1996, in April, they "destroyed" Hexham, LancFcost, and 
Lamblei (Chroii. 174, ll>l). In 1311 Robert Bruce spent three 
davB in the Priory doing iufinitc harm (218). In 134G David Broce 
robbed the treasury uiid sacristy,, breaking the doors, and nearly 
committing- everything to ruin (346). Half a ccnturv later, the same 
raisfortune befell themonastery. Archbishop Bowet (Reg', p. i. 292) 
in an indul;jence writes, " Moimateriuin cum mnjoribus edificiit 
gravem ininatur niinum, eorumque edificia et possessiones, quibaa 
olim laudabiliter databaiitur, per crcbraa Scotonitn tiicursus, quibus 
resistcre sua con dubJuni facullaa minime suppelcbat dilapidantur, et 
per iDcendJa tousuaimanlur, ac eorura terra: eo pretextu prBesertim 
cum in dictorum Seotorum confinio sitEe conaistatit, jacent incultie ct 
eic eis erticiutilur nmtiles." Dated 1409. 



OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANERCOST. 



491 



5. The confrmatioii e/" Prior Robert^ and the chapter of Cartisk 

for the same. 5 Id. Nov. 1308. 

6, T^€ confirmation of Lord Eiheard, K, cf En{}land^ 9on of 3f- 

teard,f&r MiJ/md and Carlaion. churckex. T)atc(l West- 
minster, May 8, 13Q9. 
7- Quit-claim of Alexander, son of Roger, son of Baldwin, for 
land which Gilhifl, mn of Gamelin, held in Walton, terri- 
tmy. {See cli. 11.) 

8. Quit-claim of Beatrice, late mfe of Roger, son of Baldwin, 

for the third pari of the land of Roger, her late Aunhand, 
fur a large sum of money given to her and the con!irmntioD 
of the land of Cokkeschahje, 

9. Qui t-cf aim of Alexander f son of Roger, son u^ Baldwin, for 

ihe whole laud which he keld of the Prior and Co7tvejit of 
Laneroost within Gillesland. 

10. Q»ii-clmm ofTitomas, iO!% of Robert de Camboc^/or ilie land 

ichich Ale^ajvler, son. of Roger, son of Baldif^n, resit/ned 
to ihe Prior and Convent of Lanercost in Walloii territory. 

11. Quit-claim of Alexander, son of Roger^ son ot Baldwin, for 

seven acres ia If'alton territory inter Miiruin antiquara et 
vjam que extenilit de Walton veraas boscam de Walton et 
flquatn de Byna et divisam meain. 1272. 

12. C^ragrapk between the Prior ami Convent of Laaereoal and 

Walter de Griselye for Brakanh&rsfe, in Ciimqueiiecanj in 
exchange for aud Ile^ning in the territory of Cuim^tienecach, 
1250. Walter de Gresley to be empowered to enclose in 
his lifetime within his liolding of Garthys, with a hedge to 
prevent harm to the cattle of the convent, and to have rigiit 
of common ultra Creveran usque ad sicam que oritur subtua 
(ialnbery et descendit in Camboc, at a yearly rent for en- 
closure and pasturage of one pouud of curoinin to be paid, 
at Carlisle fair, and to give the &rtme privilege si terrain 
sLiam de Garthays alicui ad firniam dimiserit, qui capitale 
domicilium de se lenucrit; but after his death the hedge 
shall be removed ; and he will not move any lauit with re- 

' Robert Helperton. 



492 



CARTULARY OF THE PHIORY CHURCH 



apect to removing e&sart or hedge, or stagnum molendiiii 
in Cuinqueiibat firmatum a priucipio mundi usque ad prin- 
cipium Imjus conventioms. 
13. [1271.] QuU-claim of WiU. ds Mora and Afjncs hi* v^ife for 
the tkh'd part of Qainqud/Aill, or Quincliaclnll in Little 
Camboc, and land in ClovesgiU, in Farlaro, formerly be- 
longinis; to Nicholas^ son of John, vicar of BramploTi, to be 
held of the Coiiveiit at a yearly rent of 20«. piiyabic at 
Pentecost and Martinmas^ et iij carrata feui per annum de 
pratia de ClovegiUe, hoc vis modo^ qiiJjd quntido prata de 
Clovesgile fuerint fulcata fena fiicctita et suraptibus prcdic- 
torum W. et A. omniiio perfecta, et ad cariaudum prompla 
pred. W» et A. autequ^m dbquid do dicto feno carriavertnt 
pred. PrtorEm et Gonventuin Diumcotj qiii^d ipsi veuia.nt 
veI mittant ad dicta prata, et tunc de meliori feno eUgennt 
el capiant qiiantum dehiiic per iij vices super unmn plaua- 
tram ad trHctum viii bouui cariare volLeriut Vi4 j vice super 
iij plaiiBtm et ubi voluurint carriabunt, Jobn was Prior of 
Laiicrcost. If after her husbarid'^s death Agnes in anj way 
trespassed op the laud then the Prior and Convent might 
expel her and retain it in their own hnnds, or if in any way 
she alienated or farmed it, until ataenda lA-ere made and 
security given ; she might only cut in tlie woods to erect 
hedges or repair and make her building, (i. 17.) 

14i Q.KU-ctalm of Agnes Loueleit, widow,_/(7r a third pari of Quin- 
f/HutMk, on cousideMtioD of an annuity from the Couvcnl. 

15. [1320.] QifU-claim of Ranu(f di- Dakre, lord of Gilleshud, 
for H^iiijjtiafA^lt, in Little Cambok, which Adam Stacey 
- held. 

13. Qait-claim of Join Stacy of Quinqwaj^tJiiil. 

17. [13SI.] Quii-c/aim of John Stacy for chaflei% actiom, and 
demands for the land of QntTt/^waytAill, freeing the Con- 
vent from any acconnt for the loss of a charier in their 
custody, which wa& burned at Carlii^le with other matters 
of tiie Convent during wor-time* 

IS. T/ie f^htirfer of lio^er, ^oti of pQer,for drtegn acrti in Cam- 
qacncdtU to (Gilbert Faber ou his marriage with Matilda, 



OP ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANERCOST. 




Koger's daughter, viz, i toftum, i CToftum de j acra juxla 
domum meam, et ij acras juxta bosccnij et IJ acram super 
Middelflfit> et dim, ncram ^upef Milneflat^ et dim. acram 
super Bigridding, et j acram et dim. juxta viam, et j rodum 
snpef Hille, et dim. acram et j rodiim super Horreum. Gil- 
bert! versus raariaciiinj, ct viii acraa infra raeas divisasj at a 
rent to ilie Convent of 20//. at Easter nnd Micliaelmas. 

19. Qitk-ciam qfJulian/t, daughter of WilJiam, son of Iggerann, 

inie vfi/e of Bobert, boti of Gilbert fhbcr, of Garthes, in 
Cumqiienkat, for the third part of sixteen acres in Cum- 
^uenCiitht wliereof j acra jacet in Garthes apud Sumerkelde, 
et j acra iu Milneflaten parte aquilonari, et j acra in Lange- 
landcs versus domara Henrici de Mora^ et dim. acra in 
Middelflat, et dim. acra in Edollimsfede, et dim. ncra in 
Bigridding, et dim. Qcra in Bigridiiingholme, et dim. roda 
et qunrta pars j rodce in forinseca parte tofti quondam- Gil- 
berti. [C. 1263.] 

20, Qnii-dftim. of Matilda, dauffhter of Roger, snn of Poer,for 

twent^'iwo acres in Qarthea. 

il. [129^.] Quit-claim of Beairice, daughter of Roger Faher 
and Juliana de H^alioH,for CtitHquaiehat and Garthes. 

22.. [1252.] CompoaiiioH between the Canons of Lanereost and 

E^it^ldf son of Alan, and [gaiei^a, his mfeffor Tarcroxsoe 

for hounds belwcen Toreroasoc and Cumquenecal and the two 

Aakerton?. The Convent grants to Konald and Isabella 

medietatem de Lungesochsliale then enclosed. 

23. Quii-cUtira of Simon, son of Omi de Huhierkurst, for land a 
ilivi^a Prioris et Ctmventus orientali de Eustacereddiiig 
venus aquilonera linealiter nsqae in sepern inter pasturam 
et dictum terram, ct sic descendendo iiiter Ulatn sepem et 
terrani de Eustace ridding usque ad Wiltinebekkj et sic 
ascendendo usque ia divis^nm orientalein. 

2i. The charier of Robert, son ofRob.jan. de Lanerton, for land 
between the lands of the Convent and tliat of Symon de 
Hulverhyrstj called Yanaker, with common in the marsh be- 
yond Hyrthjnj Overieuges, Netherhingea, as the middle of 
the siketta on the west of the lane going down to the brook 



494 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIORY CHURCH 



Wjlkynbek, itt cxchantfe fur Carreielawd, vbick "Waller 

Testor once held, and adjoins Hyrthjng rivfif* 
25. [1293.] TAe cancfmon of f/m Prior and Convenf ^f Laner- 

cQst for having a cAutiiry in Laverion Manor to liobert> son 

of Bubert jun. dc Beaton^ vho n-ill give one pound of wax 

yearly, on tlie feast of the Assumption, to the Convent ; 

the latter to receive all oblatioiies, proventus, eL abrcntiones, 

made in the cba|)el. 
Si6. T^e confrmation of Robert, son of Buetfi,for Deafon church, 

wliich his father Buetlibarn gave to the Priory. 
27. Tfis renmicial'ton of liobcri, Jui'eiiia, fie Di'vtnn of the ailvotp- 

ton of BentoH CAurc/t, made viro venerabiJi A. Archid. 

Northumhriie. 
Zii. TAe charter of John de Beaton jutt, for CarruteUiKe, land in 

his father's lifBlime newly put icito cultivation, betwern 

exitum de Caruthlawc and Silveroerhyrst. 



TUIRTEHNTH PART. 

1. Quit-clam of Will. J son of 21. de Bcrhall, for Carrutelai 

(or Karnothelaw), given by his father. 
%, Charter (f Robert de Berrhall (or Berhalwe)^r CajT«^*'/<«p, 

3. Quit •claim of Jo ha f son af Jokti Shakdot (or Scaclot), of 

Karu till awe, /yr lIis land of Carritelatee, which his father 
John and bis mother Alexandra had given, 

4. Quit- claim of Alexandra, relict tf J. Skakchtyfor the land of 

Carrilduv?. 

5. Charter of Roh. de Vanx for GrenmrcU, in IfuJ/fon territory, 

which Eustace de Vaux had given. 

6. THtf charier of Eustace de Van-rfor Grenewell, unam carm- 

catam' terra; in temtorio de Cast el cay rock, scil. sexaginta 

' In the MS. Register of Wcddrall, fol, 198) in written* Mem. 
tjiTod una cEmcata terra* continet ^^. rv ncras, Sciendum est qu&d 
magnum fcedntn militis constat ex iiij hidis. ct j hiila ex iiij virgutis, 
¥t j virgata ex iiij feruddh, et j fevndella es x aeris terrw. Et scieu- 
dum eat quod quando dabitar ad 9cutn_:^'um pro mag-no fcedc* militare 
il •. tunc una virgnta hmce ij s. vi d., et dimidia virgala terrse xv d., 



OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANGRCOST. ^95 

quatuor ncraa terrsc (see ii. bj 11), which Lord Robettj, son 
of Hubert de Vaux, had given him for service. 

7. The ^harlct of Lord IFilliam dn Kirketon, and Christiana, hit 

wife, Jhr one pound of cumin and a pool on Gelt in Grene- 
weil. 

8. The eotijirmaiiott of Hob., son of Jlichartl, tie CaHclkuyt'ok ojt 

He ofeoJi'ment of Lord Robert, ha great- grandfather, in 
Catiieiayroe. (See iv. 14^) He allows the caUle of th& 
Convent to eat the stubble, stipulis, after the corn is re- 
moved on those lands before All Saints' day, (ind if thej stray 
within Thoriuaual or hia park Lhey are to be given back, 
and not impounded (imparcabuutiir). 
&. [1.277.] Cyroffi-aff between the prior and Vonvetit and Robert, 
sou of Ricliard, of' Cadelcayroc, on the numheriug of sheep 
at Newttead, in Caitlecayroc ietritor^, Ttie Prior and 
Convent appointed as their nuininees Lord Eichard de 
Baumiield and John de Swyneburn, and Itobert of Castle- 
cajroc named Robert de Warthewyk and Eohert de Tylleol, 
each party assenting to the election of the other. They 
decided that if Itohert of Castlerock in his conscience 
believed that the number of cattle exceeded that stipulated 
iu the four precedijig in&trucients, he might number them 
under the charge of their own shepherd once or twice a 
year either in their own p^ture or in n close to be made 
by him in that pasture. 
10, The inquisitimi and verdict on ike giving and receiving of tithe 
in fhe late of Qelt, Rollandus de Yallibus, miles, juratas 
dicit, "quod Canouici de Lanercoat pcrceperunt decimas 
omnigenfls de Valle de Gelt tempore Hob. de Vail, fratris 
Hui." Bequiaitus, "qualiter hoc scit," dicit, "quod fuit 
aetiescallus et ptincipalis forestarius dicti Boberti et vidit et 



et pro ferdtineUa vij d. ob.. ct pro j acra ob. Et tie clxx acrte terree 

faciunC j bidam faciunt j bidmn, et iv hidiie faciunt j niiignum fadum 
militgre, quod dabit «d Feleviijm Cs, M?in. e converso quod a, acriB 
terrs faciimt j feriidellaiD> et ir ferudellro faciurtt j virgatam &ive dim, 
canicatam, et sit iv vir^tie faciant j bidam eive ij caruc^tas, et iiij 
bidife viij carucatas, quod est feoducn inihtia. 



496 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIORY CHURCH 



interfuit ubi dicti OaQDnici dictas decimas p^rceperant, et 
ante tempus dicti Robert! fuerunt In possesaiane diciaroin 
deciiuaruiJi, et post usque Mag, Thomas "Werrj, quondam 
vicarius de Braraptotia, liabuit custodiao) domus de Laner- 
cost per Epi^opum Karleoli qui tuDC babuit custodiam 
GilkslandifE, et quamdiu dictus Mag. T. Iiabuit dicte 
domus custodjam dictna ducimos auctoriUte propfin percc- 
pit^ et postquam ibidem prior creatus erat eaa detinait 
usque ad morli^m suam, et autequiicn mortuus erat fuit 
ciiatus aucloritate Dom, Papffi literarum propter dictas 
decimas ad iustaiitiain dictorum Canonicorum." Reqtiisitua 
" Uuarvto tempore dicti Caiiouici fuerm^tin possepsioqc dic- 
tarum dccimarum?" dicit "Quod mullo tempore et multis 
auniSj quorum numerum nonrecoUt/' Rcquisitus "Quare 
perceperuut dicti Canonici dictas decimas?" dicit "Quod 
RobertiiSj, fiUiis Huberti de Vail., oTtines decimas de toto 
vasto suo de CiilleslaEid per cartam suiitn eis dedil, quam 
cartaui multacieas vidit et audivit." Hequisitus *' Utrwin 
Johannes modo vicarius de Brampton detinet dtetas deci- 
mas et poaaidet? " dicit quod "sic." Kequi.-itu8 "Quo 
jure?" dicit quod "Nescit nisi quod dictus Thomas quon- 
dam frater suus eaa percepit ut dictum est/' Nicoiaua 
Canonicus de Lfinercost juratu5 concordat cum Dom. Eol- 
kndo prejuiato in omitibua. EEirb frater dicle domus 
juratus dicit cjuod "Nihil acit nisi ex relatione aliorum;" 
scd dicit quod "vidit ij pullos in domo de Lanercost post- 
quam liabitum domus de Lanercost suscepit^ quos dicti 
Canonici refenint in "Valle de Gelt nomine deeimee," He- 
quisitus " Qualiter hoc sit P" dicit quod " unus ex dictia 
pullis vocabatur *Brun^ de GeltesJale,' et ideovocatus erat 
sic quia captus erat. ut omnea communiter dicebaut." Ri- 
cardus forestarius juratus, dicit quod "Tempore Huberti 
Waltc'ri tunc ArcKiepiscopi Cantuariensis quando idem 
Archiepiscopus habuit custodiam GillesIandisB fuit ipse 
I'orestariua i\i GiLk^laud^ et vidit Canonicos de Lanercost 

I It IB juet poBsible that there may be an allusion to Brun. men- 
lioned v. 25. Pdli are cohs. 




07 ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANERCOST. 

percipere omnigenostteciraas provenieutesex Valle de Gt-ll," 
111 aliis concordat cum Dom. Rollandoprejumta. Ricardus 
Cocua jurutus dicit qobd " Vidii dictoa Canoiiicos percipere 
omues decitnas de Voile de Gctt tempore Robcrti de Vail., 
qui fundavit dotnum de Lanercost, et tempore Eaniilphi, 
fratris dicti Eoberti, et tempore Eoberti, fratris Kollaridi 
prejarati;" et dicit quod "Tempore primi Roberti fdt 
garisfer' in coquina de Lanercostet postea princijjulis cocua 
et multocies ivit cum Cauonicis in Yalle de Gelt ad perci- 
pieiidurn dictaa dccimas." . Iti aliii concordat cum Dom. 
Rolhindo prejurato. Ilogeriiia de Harelo^e juratus con- 
cordat ciini Ricardo coco, et dicit quod " fuit tunc in domo 
de Lanercost scrvieus cletici Celierarii ejusdeui doraua niulto 
tempore et postea fuit curn quodam Canonico ejusdem 
domuSj Symone nomine de Werje." Omiims de Walton 
juratus coticocdat com Rogero prejurato de pereeptione 
dictaruin decimiiriim, et dicit quod "ij pullos de Valle de 
Gelt captos nomine decime doraavit/' Rogerus, filius 
Buldewin joratns concordat cum Dom. Rollando prejurato 
de pereeptione predictarum dccimarum et ''fuit cuatos lecti 
Kaiinlphi de Vail- in tempore Rob, de Vail, fratris dicti 
Kollandi, quaudo dictu? Rollandus fuit ejus ^enescallus^ 
vidit ij Canoiiicos dictas dccimas perciperej. sed non recolit 
c]uod dictu? Mag. Thumas fuit aiiquando citatum propter 
dictas decimas ad iustantiam dictorum Canonicorura." 

11. [12S5.] Charier for an annual rent of id. in Milnetun, given 
by Adam de Birkinside, husband of Johanna, from laiids 
wlnuh lie dev^ises to the Convent at their death. (P^t. ap, 
Birtinside.) 

13. Charfiif of E"f>erf; son of Afiam, of Nurthwod^ for land in 
Nnrlfiwodt lying between Artermawli and Ln.ngeliyll and 
Landirewineroo?e. 

13. Charter of Walter de WifndeAore for fwo acres in Farlum, in 
his domain of Severig, between the Jand formerly held by 
Robert, clerk, and the rivulet flowing into Claalietj and 
between a hedge on the wegt TUuning down to that brook, 

' Possibly another form qf gareifer (Chron. Lanere. 106) a garcio. 
VOL. VIII. 2 L 



I 




498 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIORV CHURCH 




and along the rivulet on the east to the land given to the 
Convent by hie father (iv, 12). 

14. Charter of Ciiristiana, daagliter of Adam, son of Hermerus, 

for Jive acres in Farlam^ ivliich Walter de Wjndefiore gave 
her fatter and are called Bi^gartli. 

15. The charter of WaUer di W^mhtore for AU vhoh domain in 

Fartats, given at the iustanee of John, prieat, Vicar of 
Brampton. (See ii. 20.) 

16. Quii'Claim of Adam de Farlat/t, son nfVv&UeTi/or Ctove»gill, in 

Greut Farlaxn, for two meiauages, thirtj acres of land, and 
thirty acres of meadow, ^ven by Walter, hia grandfather. 

17. Another guit-clam of Adam de FaHam for all lamls held in 

Great Fariam, [1298.] 

18. QuU-clnim t^ Robert, sob of Walter, de Chhi^oi? for land tq 

ClovesgiU, which Nicolas, sod of John, Vicar of Brampton, 
held, the Convent granting him lands in Little Wftlton for 
his lifetime ; if the Convent lost the land in ClovesgiU per 
placitum, he would atiU pay for Walton the annual fee 
(tiimam) of 124. silver and Gd, 

19. Quit-claim ^Alicia, the nlicl of Rob.de C<tifibok,for €2oC€t- 

pile, which John the Provost held at King-bridge, and she 
holds for her life; she promises never to demand corrodj 
or livery, corredium vd liberation cm. [a.i>. 1289,] 

20. Quit-claim of Theffania, daughter of Vicia WerT^,foT Clow9' 

ffih. 
11, Quit-ciaim of Mftrgarel, daughter of Avicia Werry, for 
Clonex^ile. [x. 15. a.p. 1278,] 

22, Composition hetween iJte Prior and Convent of JTerham and 

the Prior and Cvnvciif of Lanercosi for taking tithe of 
Grenseites, the former to paj half a. mark of silver finnuallj 
for sis years and thenceforward the full tithe for Gren- 
settcs. 

23. Quii-daim of Blcua, aomeUme wife of Walter Saloage,f<fr 

the third pari of a half carucate <^ Neicbigpng (see \\. 20), 
quam petii de iis i-er literas Dom. Regis nomine dolis, pro 
quadam sutnmn pecunte quam mihi pne rannibus dederuut. 
(See vi. 20.) 




OF aT. MAaV MAGDALENE, LANEKCUST. 

24. Quii-ciuim of Mariota, lal^wit'c of John, de StaJfoW^ toHching 

her thwr^ (dokj in CrvgcUn, noiniiu; tertie partis mee vel 
immine garda in eight acres given to the Convent by Wil- 
liatD de Ctogelin. 

25. Quit-claim of O., Abbot of Kelckou^ for Ifeyshff&y Church, 

on. condition of a payment of two bezants a year at Rokis- 
borrad^ Fair on St. James's Dnj by the Convent of Laner- 
ctist in accordance with the awanl of the cuminissioncrs by 
papal niandate of Innocent IIT,, viz, William, the Abbot 
of Newminster and the prior of Tinetnath and S. prior of 
the lalc of Lindisfnrne. 
2fl> CliarUr fQf pnymsnt of ivoo hezanU of gold for Lt^nngh^ 
Church to fke Abbot and Convent of Kclchoa*. Tlie Pope 
Innocent IIL'a charter, dated Aug. 16, ]202, states quod 
Canonici de Lancrco^t ct (juidem alii Carleol. diocc^eos 
propriia vobis noroinibuB desjgnandi, inonachis de Kclchou 
su|}er cccleaiani ipsorum dc Leysingby injuHosi sunt pluri- 
mum et molesti^ 

FOURTEENTH PAKT. 

1. Another charter iowking the same Matter by G,, Abbot of 

Kelchon. 

2. Charter of Tlioittas, son of TJtomaa, son of Reyriburg,/or hii 

land m Leyshujb^t gnuitirig it io ^Vlice, daughter of Tho- 
moa de SuveneSj and at ber decease to Mariotn, and Marga- 
ret, daughters of Odardus de Sevenes, on paying yearly 
12:/. of silver to Lanercost Priory. 

3. Anot&er cAarier of the same Thomux, quit-claim for bis larid 

in Leysingby to Lancreost Priory. 

' StaffielJ or StaffolJ belonged to this family xu Kirltoswald: it 
became eitinct lemp, lien. V, (Lysons, 128.) - Kelso. 

^ Rothburv. called, Mr. Gibaoo says, Itouchbere in the reign of 
Edward I. 

■* William, the Cistercmo Abbtil of Newminsler. and two PrEemon- 
slratensian Abbots, Nicholas of Egglistun and Walter of Preslon or 
Shappe, sign as witne^i?^, but, a» in the case of several priors Rtid 
iirchdeacons of CarUsle and priors of Lanercost, are not mentioned m 
the MonaallcQii. 

2 L 2 




500 



CAHTUI-AKY OF THE FRIORV CHURr.'H 




4, Charier of Lord Roheri de Brus, lord of Aimandale, ValHs 
Anandiiej/o;' patlnfe on the nioaiitains of fJmtmUhy and 
Glasannfjif, bj tbe Convent and their incn in Ilasschach, 
beyond the lucrnble lauds ateordiiig to the charter of Lord 
"Will. Ireby, father of Christiana, wife of the said Robert.' 

[laia.] 

f). Charter of LtmlJohn de Seion^ for the same paaiure, [1273.] 

6. Charter of Lord Enalace de Balliol^ for the same pasture. 

[12730 

7. Charier of Lord Will, de Yreby^ son of Lard H'alter, lord of 

Camhtif, for the pasture in the domain ill exchange for a 
wood inter Regil et Gleiitrcat versus meridiem usque ad 
caput de Gletitrest. 

8. Charter of W. de Yteh^for Walterf son ofSymoa of G/tnelshy, 

and his honseholfi (sequela') coiicessisse t-otuoi jus et damnum 

quod aliqLando habui vel habere potui in Waltero fil. Sy- 

inonis, quafG volo quod dicti Cationici liabennt ]p$um cum 

tota sequek sua, et cutn omnibus catalUs etii^ tnnquam 

libcrum ct ^olutum de roe et omnibus beredibus meia in 

peppetuum. [The elate is fixed to 1268, as "W. de Pacre 

signs 03 Vice-Coinea Cumberlandiffi.] 

&. Q'lii-cfaim of Ilcfena, lafs icife of Adam de Crahehen, fttr 

lands in Ihih-eshi/, m considerntioii of a stum of money. 

10. Qaii-claim of Odoka de LUrcsl^fur ten acres hi Uivesliy cum 

Rcalinga de Berchams, which Bicbard Ulvesby gave to La- 

nercosl, and the Convent lease to (ido for 20//. a year; He 

also grants f]uit. claim for twenty-five acres given as a mar- 

^ Camelsby and Glass^onby are townships in Addingham parish 

(Lysons, 4). Roljcrt de Brus, " mast devoted to God and church* 

men/' died May 12. 1295 (ChroTi. Lanerc. 159). Tlie lordship of 

GatneUby and Gla'^sonby pnsseU ihrougb the heirciis of Odard to 

Wiltjnm de Ireby, from whom it passed to Laficelle? and Seton 

(Lvsuna, 4)- 

^ John Seton was put to death for hi^h treason in 1 306 ; he was 
cousin of Cbe hualinnd of Robert de Bnis' sister (204). 

^ Eustace de Daliol, son of the Eustace killed at the battle of 
£veBhain. 136^ (76). 

* Sequela includes both family and cbaltele. 



Ol^ ST. MIRY MAGPALBNE* LANSKCOST 




riage fee by Richard de Ulveaby with liis daughter Y^aiida 
to the said Odo. 

11. Ac£ before Peter de Insula,' Archdeacon of Carlisle, for half 

a mark puffahle htf W. Jt SklrswUk and hh hchsjvr (he 
land of {Jlrtshi/. 4 Id. Martii^ liJO^i, \\\ hospitio iiosiro 
apud Salk^dj, Henry being; proctor for the Coavcut and 
"Wra. de Sherewjth appearing as the other party; on Ilia 
confession he was condemned to pay IOj. for arrears of 
three payments not inadej with n penalty of 20*,, half a 
inark to the fabric of Lauercost, and half a mark tu Iho 
Archdeacon pro eletnosiiia sua. The proctor having pro- 
duced the obligation of Eudo, father of the defendant, 
granting Lhtsc fines in case of non-pflyment, [The mark 
was at this time, therefore, equul to lO-j,] 

12. Act in Carlisle Cathedral, 126-1, ioucking pajmenl if half a 

mark iy Eudo de Sl'^rewUh for Irmd in Uiie^b^, coram 
nobis Mag. N. de Hamsted, Arcliidiacono Karl^ coniparuit 
Eudo Skyrwit ad instouciam Prioris. et Coiivcntus do 
Lanerco?t evocalus super crimineperjurii, quod coram nobia 
ipsum incurrisse per modum dcnuiiciatonis instanter iissere- 
bant, quod per exhibitionem cujusdam obligationis sigillo 
Eudonia sigtiatse, cui cs nunc ad majorem fidem faciendam 
utraquE parte procurante sigillum nostrum duxinms appo- 
iieDdum^ parati fuemnt in forma juris probarcconsefjuentiam. 
Dicti Prior et Coaventus nobia hutniliter supplicantes 
postulabant ut eomm indempnitati ac quieti necnon saluti 
prefati Eudo, ne juramcnti sui rcHgionem violare presiimat, 
ealubriter prosjnccre curar«[uu9, habendo reapectum ad 
labores et dampna quos scteims occasione dicte obligatiouia 
non observate suatiuueiuut. Meinorutus si quidein liludo 
puum vis valens diffiteri delictura noatre juridictioni m 
9uppo3uit consencien?, iti^tantfrque Togaus quud si ad ter- 
minura in obligatione inserium, vel infra octavas ejusdem 
eisdcm religiosisdedioi. marcecotnpeteater non Siit[sfaceretj 
estuac excommunication is majoris aenteutie esset ligatus et 
dim. marce pauperibus erogaudumi nobis citra cxcommuni- 

* LL.D.; he was alao Archdeacon of Coventn-i he died 1311, 



I 




502 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIORY CHURCH 




caiionia relaxacioueci persoh'ercL, salva etiam et nobis pre- 
fatis Priori et Conventui exactioues dim. marce nomuie 
pent- ill obligatione aepe dicta conteiite, nobisque prose- 
queudi perjurium si contingat ab ipso committi^ qaod absit, 
potestaLe. Nos igitur ut utriqne parti quies ct salus paretnr 
et litigancli materia amputatcir predictum E. cxtunc in 
scriptLs pcriculo excommuiucAtioma majoris iiinDdaoius, si 
plutitis obligatione prcilictn couteiitia pnrerc et aatisfacere 
ut premissuLn est rioii caraverit, quam facieiiiius Beo aiictore 
firiniter obsorvari et in ptrsoim ipstus per totam jurisdjc- 
tioiiem iiostraiQ usque ad satis factiouem utriusque prescnp- 
te pene et pcijurii emendationem, acccQsis caudelis^ pnlsatjs 
canipanis, soleinpiiitcr deimiiciari ct pablicari. Et quia 
rualiciosis pocius eat obviaiidum quam indulgent unij biiic 
ad teatiQcuadum premissa euiidem £. cum sigillo nostro 
sigillum suura preseutsbus feciinu3 apjiendere. 
13* Confirmation bj Eobert and Ada de Vaux for a tithe of 
Qffke^ Miil. (See i. 6.) 

14. Sentence bj N.', Arelideacon of Carlisle, and R.^ Sub-prior 

of St. Marj'^B, Carlisle, CoitimisKirics of tbe Bishop of Car- 
lisle, 1267^ an W. de Netobiffor titJrfi of garhs to le made 
at the grange door of Neuby and not in the fields, to the 
injury of the Convent, wbo claim the right as patrons of 
Irtliington Ciiurch. (See ix. 11.) 

15. [1269.] Sentence ofThoma^ Official of Carlisle, sitting judi- 

cialiter, non ex dclegattunc ApostoUca, on W. de Ltmerwlate 
toHchiag garbs us aboce, 
Dictus W, narratione et petitionc Prioria et Conventus in jure 
projwaitisi liteque ad easdcm legitime propositis liteque sd eosdcni 
legititne contcstata, licct-que Dom, Simo, Canonicus de Lanercost, 
procurator Prioris et Conventaa, prout ex virtute sui procuratorii 
potutt in eadem CflUSfi, jurnme^itum de calunipjiia prestitisfct, 
mouituscompetcntur juramentum liujusmodj prcslarecontuaiaciler 
recusavit, unde ego T. predictus decemens eundem W. ad pre- 
staiidum hujusmodi juramentum speciiditer et peremtorie fore 
vocathdutn quod coniperet coram Id. Sept. in Karl. Eccl. Catii. 
eundem W. prcdictis die ct loco nulUtenua cPinpetcnlcm ad con- 

' Nicholas de Ham^led £nol iu Hrowne WiIUs'h Lial). 



OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANBKCOST, 




viticendam ipsius maliciam feci iterato per^mptorie evocari quod 
coraperet corom rae xv KaU Oct, loco predicto in predicts causa, 
facturuin quad justtcia suaderct ; quibus die et loco idem W. per- 
sotuditcr compnrens, ot per me T, ^epiu^ moiiitua et humiliCcr 
rc(]ui9itus ut predictum jusjurandum prestare deberet conturaftcias 
contuinaeiis camulaada prestare jaramcntuin hujusmodi non 
cnravitj propter quod ego Th. in predieta cauea tuli defitiitam 
aeotentiam ia huuc mudum. In nomine Palris, etEUii, et Spiritus 
Sancti, Amen. Quia W. de Leveradale in causa que vertitur 
super niodo decimaudi garbaa iuter Priorem et Conventum de 
LanercDst ex una parte et ipsum W. ei altera, lite legitime 
contestata prestitoque juramento calumpniiB a procurutore dieto- 
torum Prioris et Ckiiiventua, idem juraaicotuui prestare contu- 
macitcf invenio recusare eundem W., de juris peritotiim consitio 
mihi assidentium, quoad petita habemus pro convicto, ipsum uC 
in liostio orrei dcciuiet substantialiter coudempno, et ut moduui 
hujusmodi servet in posterum decimandi. lu cujus rei testimo- 
nium sigillum ofBciaiitatis Knrlcoli presentibus est ap^ensum. 
Dal, apud Karl, nvi'* Kal. Oct., a.d, mcclxix^ 

18. Tkt cJtarler a/TAomas, son of WUL, fo-r payment ofS^. ster- 
liugyor laud in Grenesdaie toirm at Easter and Martiuuiag, 
7 Id. Apr., 1309. 

17. Charter of Thomai^ mn of Matilda de Grenesdaie, fm- Vld. 

of silver ia GrenrndaU, to be paid talf-jcarlj' for toft and 
croft, which he held of Pavja and Helewiaa, daughters of 
Adam, sou of Alan, son of Ouinus, Id Grenesdaie. 

18. Charter of Rofjer, (ton (f Gzpellanm, for \%(i, in Grmeedals 

towHf a quit-claim for Ibis aum winch Pavia aud Helewisa 
used to receive of Thomas, son of Mtitilda. 

19. Charter for \'2,d. i» Grenesdaie given b^ Pavia and HclewiBa. 

20. Charier of William^ son of William Sur^for laitdm Haveri^t 

in Grenesdaie territory. (See v. 12.) 

21. CunfrmalioH of Odardug, son of Adam, for had in Uisehn, 

viz. rit'CS, vvbicli Henry, sou of William, gave tfi Lanercoatj 
S2. Charter of William le faile (iv, \^)for land in Cattelcairoc, 
toft and croft, which Orm held, containing two acres less 
one rood^ iiiid two acres less ouc rood in Norlauds, and half 
an acre ad Suiniicbrokdl. 



504 



CABTULARY OF THK FBtORY CHl'RCH 



FIFTEENTH PAftT, 

1. CfttirUr of Walter de Pickering for a rent of \%d. in Carlisitt 

jiext Ihe dilch of Carlisle Castle. 

2, Charter ofTftomas Brnne, Burgess of Newcastlp, /or confirm- 

ing his tf^taoientary bequest uf his house Haregariu*, iu 
Newcastle^ near Robert del Swyue's house^ nnd a reut of 4<. 
tjuem habui juxta Bctlesiam S. Aiidree in vico extendenle 
a dicta Ecclrsia versus Fratrca Miuores,^ to the Caiions, 
coram Dom. Thom, de Karl."-' majore ville Novi Ci^tri et 
aliis viris GJe dignia ejusdem vilie pur ballivos ejusdem in 
sejsiua predictorura doinus et redditus in ligea potestAtc mca 
posui, et poiii per ballivos antedictos feci. 

3, Charter fur a tfeart^ retd of U, iA Newcastie by Gilbert late 
frervieris Oilb^rti Je Galewitli, pro terra quam de Con- 
ventu teneo in villa Novi Castri per MargurL'tam, iixorem 
uicam, ad fojdi firmam, quam quidera tetram Tbomas Brun 
■ dimiait ad fccdi lirrnam quondam Eogero dt Denton, cum 
edificiis ct pertinent ii$j in vico qui vocatur Brttlicrchere. 

4- G»^rataiiou of Lord ^iwardH., K. of England, for thi gifU 
of Rob. ik I'aax, our founder. (Sec i. 3. Dated West- 
minster, July 12, A" E' ix. 1317.) 

5. Charter nf Lord Edn'ard, K. of England, for a messuage 

whu'h fTni. Marmchal and Matilda his wife i/ave to fht 
church of Lasiercoai in Carlisle citif after the Statute of 
Mortmain. Dated Clarendon, Murch 20, 12S2. 

6. Confirmation of Edward^ K, of Rnffland,for the land caii^d 

Presfown, which Thomas de Multan held in Erthyugton. 
Dated York, Aug. :20, 1336. (See x. 6.) 

7. CyrografffoT Ihe houH Ilareagarina in NeacaUle^ hetween the 

Prior and Convent of Lanercotl and Uui/o de Hi^chcm, 
burgess q/' lYeiccaatle, and Win., sou of Itub. de Mareschal, 

1 Poaaibly that colled Bretheschere (qh. 3) ; its site is not Icaown 
under thia name, but possibly ia the same as High Friars' Closer 
vicy& qui ctucit &J Fratres Miuores. 

2 Thomas de Karleiol was mayor in 1264 and 1276, as Mr. 
Sydney Gibson^ F.S.A , informs me. The family gave name to one 
of the Towers of the town waU, 



OF ST. MARY MAGDALKNB, LANERCOST. 




uf Pjlgrum Street, March 14, i336. The house stood iti 
the lane called Djngcliere, between the lands of Robert 
Cocua and Will, de Cougale. Etec indentura testatur quod 
cum placitum motuin fuit inter predictum Priorem quc- 
reriteni per quncidam assi:>am nuve disi^iisiiie de qaodam 
teuemento dicti Prions et predictoset W. defeiideiitea, tan- 
dem inter partes predictas in hunc Diodum conquievit, viz. 
quod com quidem Golfridus Pajitotfjii teniiit teneniejitum 
predictum sibi et heredibus suis in perpetutim de cnpitalibus 
domiDis fotdi illius, reddendo predietis Priori et Convcntui 
et eorum succeasoribug in perpctuum xl deiiurios argeoti 
ad ij annf termiiioSj at de jure antiquo^ viz. ad Festa Pascbe 
et S, Mich. Archangeli per equales portiaues; et quod 
Rogerua, fiiius ct hasrca predicSi Galfridi, post mortem pre- 
dicti Galfridi fcoffavit predictum Hugoncm de predicto 
tenemento sibi et heredibus ania in perpctuum, reddendo 
predietis Priori et Coiivoiitui predictos xl denarios aunuatim 
lit ptedictnri est. Qui quidem Hugo de eodem teaeraetito 
feoffavit predictum Will., fil. Rob. Mareshall, nunc teuen- 
tem ejusdcm tcncmenti sibi etheredibussuia, reddendo prc- 
dicto Hugoui et heredibus suis in perpetuum vj solidos ct viij 
denarios et pfedictoa xl denarioa predietis Priori et Conventui 
et eorum successoribns in perpetuura anuuatinij in forma 
predicta, pr^dicti vero Hugo ct VVitL coucedunt et quivis 
eoram eoncedit pro se et heredibus suia in perpetuum, quod 
si predictus redditus xl denariorum de oodeni tenemento 
capiendorum aunuatim in forma predicta capituU sui appo- 
saerunt» 

8. Charley of John, son ofllitgo ile Ti/bai/, of Girlhle, confrmiitff 
io Rolert, son of Thotrtiis tie T^ba^^ of Carlisle, a //eari^ 
i'eniqf2&». Sil., which Ihe Prior and Convent granted to 
John de Leveradale and Cecilia his viifs frotn tenements 
in vico Ricardi, between those of Will, le Tnilbour and 
Walajs, and giving Robert tlie right of di?trai!it in case of 
arreBrg. Carlisle, Jan. 8^ 1340. John de Tvbaj waa the 
heir of the said Cecilia. 

fl. C//ar/er of Rotert (k Tj/ljay, of Cnilitk, quiLckim of antf 



I 




50G 



CAHTULARV OF THE PRtOftY CUURCEI 



riffkis In the tf!ttenu7tU in Vico Rtcanli,^ given them 
llobert le Wa^-t (see xi. 0, 10), or io a yearly rent in tchkk 
thctj vaere bound to John de LomsdaU and &u wife Cediaa^^ 



and John de Tybni/, her nearest Aeir, left to the aaiJ RoberL 
Carlisle, Feb. 15, i343> John was Prior of Lanerccjat. 
10. Ckarter o/Roi^erde f!^'^oderin^(oti for an annual rental 13», W. 
from Woodhi^ies, in Denton, which they bod held from 
time immeinoriiU until unjustly disaeissiued by Gerurd de 
Wodcriikgtoti, Inte occupant. Inspectis et scrutatb mm 
mentis et evidentiis tain ex parte Prioris et Conventu* 
quam ex parte dicti Ilogeri, diclus Itogerus invenit quod 



de^i 

tu«^n 



predictns Prior et Conventus ad predictum annuum rcddi^^H 
turn de predictis terris et teuemetitis cum pertincntiis in^^ 
Wotlusfcld annuntini exeunte habent cloruin jus, et a lem- 
poTe quo non ext&t memoria habuemnt, et inde, in forma 
prescripta, seisiti extiteruot^ et yiterius seipsum Bogerum, 
itmredes et assigiiatas suos, in presiiiicia Job. de la Mote, 
Hie, de VauB, Job. de Thirlwall, Joh. de Hardegil, Tho, 
Blunt, et aliorum rrniUonira, predictis Priori et Convcntui 
do predicto annuo redclituattoriiavilpeTcipieiidis et levandis 
de predictis terris el teucmentis cuio pertirentiis in 
Wodusfeld, ad festa S. Martini in hyeme et Pent., per 
equities porcioues. Ita quod si predictus annnus redditas 
postaliquem terminum predictam a retro esse contigerit, in 
parte vei iii toto, quod bene liceat ex tunc dictis Priori et 
Conventui et eomm sucoeasoribus in predictis n retro fuent, 
in parte vcl in toto, ad tertninoii predictos, quod tuiic lictsl 
predicto Priori et successoribiis auis in perpetnum in dicto 
teuenaento distriiigere, et districlionem retinere quousquc 



de predicto redditu una cum arreragiie ejusdem plenaric fuerit 
satisfactum. Et predictus Hugo concedit pro se et heraj 
dibus suis quod si predictns (knuuus redditus xl detiarioruni 
ad terniiuos prcdictoa, in parte vel in toto, a retro fuerit, et 
competeiis dietriclio ia tenemento jiredict-o iAvenih non 
]}ossit, quod bene liceat predictis Priori et Conventui 

^ Now Ric-kergale, leading \q Edenbridge, Gate te the Danish 
gala, a street. 



ient.^1 
era^H 



OP ST. MARY MA<:iDALENE, LANERCOST 




eorum fiucccssorihus in pcrpctuo in quodam alio teiicmenito 
predict! Ilugonis in preiiicta villa Novi Castri, in Vico 
Peregrinarum, jacente intec teDementuin isafaells Dajrvill 
es parte una, et teneraentuin quondam Thome ^oite^s ex. 
IMitte altera, distringere et diatrifitioiies reti(;ere in forma 
predicts, ita quod habcaiit euudem aanuum redditiim de 
eodem teuemeiito predicti liugonia loco altcriua tcnemEnti, 
si iisdom Priori ct Conveiitua et eorum auccesEoribus placu- 
eritj in perpetuum ; et predicti Prior et Conventus couce- 
dnnt jjro se et eoram succcssoribtis quod predicti H. ct W. 
habeant et tencant predictum tenementum jaccntem in 
veuclLo quod vocatur Dyjigchere, pro dicto anouo rcdditu 
xl denariarum, in forma predicts, sibi et keredibiis suis, in 
perpetiium. Et predictua Prior remittit oiDciia arreragia 
predicti annui rcdditus predictis H. et W. usque diem con- 
fectionia presentium. In cujus rei testimoDimn parti liujus 
indenture penes predictor lim Prioris et Couventcis rcsidenti 
]ircdicli H. et W. sigiLla sua apposuerunt. Alteri vera 
purti penes predictoa H. et W. remauenti predicti Prior et 
CoHventug sigillum terris et teneiuentis cum pertineiitiis 
diatringere et districtiuiies itidt; captas fugnrc et reliocre 
qnoasque eisdem Priori et Couvcntui et eorum successoribus 
de predicto ammo redditn et de arreragiis plenarie ftierit 
satiafactum. Over Denton, March, 13C3. 

11. Charter of Lord Jiuimlpk de JJacre, lord of Gillesland,foT 

reMtmion ofpuiura b^ hitfvrcikn. 28 July, ISG-l, apud 
Castrura de Naward. 

12. OrdinatiaK of William,^ Lord Archbishop of York, for the 

v'ffarmje of Mlfford Churchy ht tfi$ vacancy of the See. 
Quod portio vicarie coiisistat in xxv raarcis aureia bonaruiu 
legalium et ugualiutn sCerlin^oram^ to be paid half-yearly 
by Lilt! Convent; in case of iiQii-paymcnt omries fructus, 
reddituB^ et proventu? ad prudiotam eccle&iam quomodo 
libet pcrtiueutes ipso tiacto manere volumus et decernimua 
seque9trnto3 et ex. eis per Episcopura Dunelmie, qui pro 
tempore (uerit, ipsiusque officiales et ministroa totam pecu- 



WilUam de Grenefield, Archbiahop 1305-1315. 




508 



CARTULARY OF THE PRiORY CHURCH 



Eiam, in cujiis solucione ccssatura fuerit una cum cJampniS' 
ct intcrc'sse et expcusia tedigs, et nbsque cujiislibet more 
dispendio levari ac vicario supradicto prout fuerit subtract^ 
persolvi. Et njliilo minus in Priorem, Celerariiim, et iSa- 
crisEam luoimsterii Je Lnnercost si in predictarum solucione 
defecerint, canoiiica monitione premt^sa Id hiis scn'ptfs 
mEijoris excommunicationig senteutiotn promufgainus. The 
Vicar is to iiiliabit mansum illud in villa tie Mitford pro pre- 
diclaecclesiaiii fiolo ejusdcm ex parte orieiitali conatitutum 
cum sii acris arabilis in campis de Aldeworth, et tofco prslo 
in cainpo tie llarestaue infra parochiam ecclesia: . . . Dicti 
Prior et Conveiitus c^ncellum ecclesiffi, quoties opns fticnt 
reficere, nc etiiim si neceasitas fuerit imuiineits, de novo 
CQnstriierej libros quoque et ornfimcHta ecclesiastica, c)ua- 
teuus dti coDSuetiidine patriiE ad rectorea vicinarum ecclesi- 
arum pertinet, invenire suissumptibusotcspensisac solitam 
prc&laliocieni Arcliidiacuuu loci debitam annia singulis 
BoEvere teiieatitur^fltia vero oiiera oriiiiiaria Vicarius suppor- 
ta>bitj et extraordinaria vero quncidocuuque et quotie^uoque 
emerserint inter prefa,tos rcligiasos et Vicarium pro niU 
porcionis cujuslibct diuiidiantur. Apud DeriingtoDj S Id* 
Maii, 1311. 

13, C^rograph (covenant) betwaen the Abh^y of Nciominifer an 
Mld^forth Church fur payment vj Hikes from ihe Gruage of 
Kejhwe in that fiamk,xh.^ niouka topAvyearlj* two marks 
of silver in lien of tithes on all tliey bold in Midfofd siae 
otliua adjcrtiuiiis aurodaineiito. 

14-, QiHjhjHii/im of the above 6y Nicholas,' Bishop of Durha 
ratifying the coniirtuntion of Bishop Hugo. 

16. Vonfrtfialion iy iJie Chapter of JJurhum, ineutiotiing tha 
similar compoi<itions bad been made with tbe Cliurchea o 
Morpadj OlventoD, and Ehiiid.^ 

16. [1370.] Conftnmtio/i of l/is Chapter for Midfoni parijiA. 
Gregorius,' Episcopus servua servorum, magistro et I'ratribus 

' Nichalas de Farobani, Bishop ri40-9. 

' Morpeth, ntid Alwinton, nnd Pontelaiidj Northutnberlaad. 

' Gregory XI., 1'.i|k: 1370-?. 



'M 







OF ST. MAKY MAGDALENE, LANEBC08T, 

Domus Lapsorum' de Mydfortl sal. et apost. benedict. VestriB 
jiisti* poatulationibus grato concnrrentes asscnsu personos Testrns 
locum in quo diviiio estis obaequio mancipati cam omnibus 
bonis que in preseneiarufn rationabiliter possidetis ant in futurum 
justis modis, pra?tautc Domino, pot.erit[s adipiscij snb B, Petri et 
nostra protectione suscipimuSj s^pecialiter auleta redditus, poases- 
siooes, et nlia bona vestra, sicut ea omnia Juste et pacifice possidetL^ 
vobis et domui vcstre antoritalc aposlolica conGrmamus et pre- 
senti scripto comunimiis, antoritate presendum districtias inhi- 
benteF, ne quia a vobis dc opibus virorum ant animalium incre- 
meutis decimal exigere vel extorquere presumat. Laterani viij 
KsL DeCj Pont, nostri n" j". 

xvii*. Verdict of the ancienk touching Trevermane ChapeL (See 
vi. 6.) 

Gilraore, filias Gilandi, qui erat dominHs de Treverman et de 
Torcrospoc, fecit primuin unara capEllam de virgis^ apud Trever- 
man, ot procuravit divina in ea ccltibrari (Dom. Edclwano Episcopo 
concedente). Enoc tunc persona de Walton pro quadam parte terre 
que nunc vocfltur Kirkelandj utide sacerdog et clericus suns jMsaent 
suatentarij ad ministrandum et servEendum in predicta capella. 
Et Gillcmor, douiiaus de Treverman, ftdmisit ad illam capellam 
serriendum Gilletnor, capellanuin consanguineum sntimj qui 
priraum hospitabatur in terra predicta et ipsnm berbergare^ fecit 
muUo tempore ante adventum HuhertidcVallibua in Cuinberbind. 
Et Daniel, saccrdos successor GiilemaPj ministravit dicte eapeUe, 

' ? Lepers. A house for poor people only is ra,entioned Jn the 
MonaBtieons but in a note to Xewminster (v. .'ip]) there is a natice 
of a hospital and chapel of St. Leonard, Mitford. 

^ Thefc is another instance of a wickerworJt church at Glastonbury. 
Pnulinum ELSserit pntrum truditio ecclesiffi contentuni dndum virges 
lignea tabulatu induisse et plumlio a aumnio usque deor^um cuoperu- 
isEe (W. Malm, de Ant. Glaaton. p. 300). There was another atuci 
building at Tykford (Monast. v. 206). See also my 'Church and 
Convent. ArrRng^ement,' p, 57. 

^ Herbergure, to li\*e off, to be accamniodated or harboured on 
(cornp. Chron. Abend, ii. 62). Ducange merely gives lo eat herbs, 
browse. , 



I 



I 





510 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIORY CEIUaCH 



the , 




et liabuit dictam caiiellam cum omni pastura Je Trevcrman adhac 
tempore Euoc persoiie. Post Daniel fuit Kstiiius sacerdos el 
roinistravit ibi tcEDporc Tbome [wrsone tie Waltou post funcJacio- 
nem (k Lnnercoat. In diebua vero illorum omiies homines de 
TrevErmam ibi habuemiit plenarie divina scrvicia sua preter bap^^J 
tismunn ctsqiiilturam usqtis dictus Thomas reddidit s^. ^t pow|^^ 
qn&m dictus Tbonins reddidit se caiionicis lapud Lanercosl dooi., 
Robi de Vallibus coutulit ccclesiam illam de Walton cum capellfi 
de Trfcverman domui de Lancrcost quam fuiidavit. Prior ct Con-^i 
ventus feoerunt servire illnni caj^ellam quandotjue per CaTionio(l^^| 
SU08 et f|uaDdof{ue {ter seciilarea, et omiacs homines de Treviermau^^ 
perceptTunt omnia sacranienta sna ecclesiastica npud Lanerco^t, 
ofalationeB ct decimas omniraodos ibi reddcutcs, et omnia alia 
facientes que contjrjgunt parochianis facoce ecclesie aue matrici. ^H 

XBtii*. Charter for the divisiou bciareeu ihe pariah of Cavi&nk cjur^^ 
Lanercott, by the Rector of Skelton, otficiul gf D., the 
Biehop of Carlisle, cum mota easet coiitrovcrsia super At. 
mis de Tulwode coram Frceentore Karlioli et afficiali 
venerabilia mug, W, vVrchidiaconi Karl,, et aliis subdelegalis 
discreti viri Cancellani Cantebrig., Elycjis, dioc.^ Judicia a 
sede Apostolica delcgati, inter Mag. Riidulphum de TvUevillj 
rectorem ecclesie dt: Cainbok, ex una parte, et Priorem ct 
Conveatiini de LaJiercost ci altera^ plucait partibus quod 
lis predictu nutoritatc diocesana terminardur cuoiqi 
partes prcfate ordinatioui ven. ]>atris R.,^ Dei gratia K&i 
Episcopi in toto se submississcot, idem Episcopus in cras- 
tino S. Triiiitatis a.d. 1£59 in priuratu Karl, existens pre- 
dicto rcctore de Kambock pro se personaliter comparente, 
prefatis vcro Priore et ConvcntudeLaiiercost per Ilugoncm 
subpriorcm, et ^Vill, sacrist^iHj et S^monem cellcrariutn, 
CaiiQuicoa de Laiiercost comparcnlibu^, super decimis de 
Fulwode ordiuavit iu buiic modutn, viz. quod preter terr as , 
de Lauerckajthirt que de novo ad culturacu sunt redacte, ^^M 
duas para utracjuc in sua asserebot esse [rarochia, residt^^^ 

' W. de Ludhnra was Chancellor 1259 Cl (MS. Harl. 70^7, fi 
' Robert de Chau&e or Chftuacy, Bisbop 1258-80. 



tod 




OF 3X NARY MAODALBNB, LAN£RC0ST. 




jru?' 



decime de Palwode inter partes equaliter dimidiarentur. 
Nobis ad predictam divisionem faciendum vices suas com- 
mittendo;. Nob vero partibus preiiorainatis diem in crasti- 
num prefiximus ud ecclcsiam de Kambok, quibus ibidem 
compftrentibus inter ipaositaamicabiHterconvenit quod pre- 
dicte terre de Lanerekaythin (see 1. 6), tjue tunc culte fuerant 
ct que in posterum fwI cuUuram redigi potetant, eccleai^ de 
Kambok loco unius eskcppe fariiie remuneant, ileincle au- 
toritate iiobisi super hoc concesaa prenomimitas decimas de 
T'ulwode inter partes in hmic modum diraidiavimus ac etiam 
per usum legaliain virorum juratorum sentent] alitor dimi- 
diattius^ presentibus Dotn. Eogcro^ Decano Karliolensi et 
Vicario de Esseby, Mag. Had, Le^at., John de Brivetor, et 
Joh. Armstranf;, clericia, Galfrido de TylHolI, Rob. de T»l- 
Holl> et multia aliis, acil. quod moleudiiium de Fulwode 
totaliter reroancat eodesiai dc Kauibok;, ct quod decitnaa 
terrarura tarn prt-diales quam personales ac jura alia parochie 
versus occidtititem ad ecclcsiam de Kambok, jure parochiaU 
pettiueant indpiendo ad Magimm Laureka^tiidii, ita quocl 
toium remaneat occleais dc Kambok, et sic aBcendeodo 
usque ad Winterscales^ ita quod id Winterscalea remaneat 
ecclesise de Kambok, et fjc usque Alarkebckklieved ita 
quod remaneat ecclesire de Xambok, et aic usque ad Laver- 
kerwode ita quod remaneat eccSesia: de Kamboc,et sic descen- 
dendo usque in Gaitemosse, et sic per medium Gaytemosse 
per uoara sikcttara usque in Levenj et inter terrora Nich. 
fil, Bridiu, et terram N. del Dervent, ita quod omneg inha- 
bitantes iufn* dictas divisas versus occidentem remaneant 
eccIcsiEe de Kambok, ct oinnes inhabitanteg extra divisas 
predictas versus orirntem remaneant ecelcsice de Lanercost. 
In cnjus rci testimonium sigilJumi nostrum una cum aigillo 
Decani Karlioli ct alioruni fide digiiorum que predictc divi- 
sioni iiiterfueratit appossumua. Dat. ap. Kambok, die 
Martii prox. post Fcstum S. Trin., a^ racclix. 
Charter of John, Friar of Lunersofit, toSimon,gon of Robert 
de Benton, for IluUirliirst to be lield at a yearly rent of 
\ZiI. in lieu of acn'icc. [See iii. H.) 




51:^ 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIORY CHURCH 



INDEX TO CARTULARY. 



NfttucA nithoul any mm^k «rc those ol ths granlKt or thoie wlio confino < 
* t>iBiiote« K ^ritncjia to a charter, f Donoteft Uut the perton is named in.' 
eharien. 




•A-, ibbol of Hpitn Cottram, yiii, 7. 
*AcliaifliiB, Bichtu'd, eon of, Ti. 10. 
•Apton, Slcplien dc^ Bailifl' of CnpHslr, 

(1340) XT. 8. 
*A^m, Adam, eon of, vL 11 ; ii. 13, 12. 
*Adiim, l>oin., De>iui orCarlisle, [c. 1£20) 

liii. & ; Tiii. 10, 8. 
*Adam, EdnrdiLei, sod of, rii, 10. 
•Adara^ son of Edardus, ftun of Adiun, 

TJi. 10. 
•AdBui, Huglif bOii of, brother of Ri- 
chArd, WH of, r, 21. 
Adam, OdnrduB, sod of, xir. 21. 
*Afiaui, ParsoTi of Stapleton, and Bi- 
chirA Ilia brother, ir. 25. 
Adam, Prior of GarlJBle, si. 3, 
•Adam, RiL>}iard, son of, v. 21 ; ii. 13. 
Adfim, Riilii^H, son of, vi. 23 ; ii. 10; 

Si'Qcsolinl, fii 1 i i. 7, fi. 
Adam, Wilt ion of, ii. 17. 
•Aieiifl, Honry, t, £3. 
•Aiintupcll, WttltiT, Vicar of, ir. 10, 9. 
•AlsPtmi, de Slophcn, Bailiff of Cariialo, 

(1362) XT. 9. 
•Alati, Walter SOU of, U. 6. 
•Alh«B, John, IT. 6i ii. 21. 
tAlbui, Eobppt, ill. 20, 4. 
Alejftad^r, Pope, III., Tiii. 23, 18. 
•Allnrdali-, Walter, liii. 21. 
•Allcrton, RcBineild de, iii. 9- 
•AlvcrtuM, Robi-ft df^.SftieBchal of Gil- 
IpflnTiil, iii. 11, 
Am^rif;, Arehd. of CurliAle, tfii. £. 
AnketUl, Robert boh of, iii. 16, 13, 10, 

fli i.4. 
AiiltrliJil, son of Robert, boh of An- 
ketili, T. 23. (Apuflft his piBt^r, 
itid.,) lir, 22 ; v, 2(3 ; ir. 21 ; iji. 
1G 
•Anlteltn, TCiido, son of. W, 2, 1. 
AnketiD, Jolm, eon of Robert, sou of, 
f, 26. fAfjTies hia aisler, ihid. 
•ATilsftin. .tohn, son of. rii. 23 ; (1£73> 
1. 3; [12V3) ii. 15. 
Ajilfetiii, Kobcrl, »n of, father of John 
And Ankt'tin, tii. 19. 
•Anketin, Roger, wmof, xiv. 21. 
Anki'tin, wn of Itob«n, «on ol AnW 



trn and brother of iTohn, iii- 19. 
Wltntan, T. 2G, 1 ) it. 24, £3, 
III* m4fiitLOD9 hiB brotbent John 
Denton and Robert, iii. IS. 

'Aniolmus, vi. 1 ; iiL 3 ; U, IS ; i. 
DanifcT, 7. 

•Argun, Boidinna cle, iL 10, 

■Arirtotk', Robert, i. 14. 

•Armfltrong, Adam, Tii. 20. 

tArmstroniB, John, (1259) xt, 18. 

•AruDdaii Edmuud, Eiirlof, (133S) 
4. 

'Aakptill, or Aslelrn, Roltprt, ton of, 
siii. 5. xif. 2G; rii. IG, S; n. 23, 
4 ; T. 24, 1 ; IF. 24, had two WI1^ 
Bo&t.'rt And John, 23, 21; iLi. S, £, 
1; ii. 12, 9, Si i, 20, 10. 18, 17, 13, 
8, fi. 1- 

"Afikitill, Vi. 10; Antrtin, iii. 19. 

tABkeiill, Rob*fl, *on of, viii. 17. 

•A*ketill, or Anketin, Robert, boti of 
Robert, son of, tliv. 22 ^ i-ia. Ifi; x, 
26: i«. 24. 23; be ineotioM hi* 
brothers Jobn de Debton utid Aii- 
ketin, lit, 19, 18. 

*A«]>fltnc, Adam d#, Dmd of AHerda^ 
Tiii. 4, 3, 
A^tin, Will, ion af, of Astttiebi. ir. 
W%i*e»», ir. 23. 

•Asliuebi, Hugh de, ir. 23. 

•Aufrac, iii. 3. 

Aviger, Robert, Bon of, Tii. 3 : Witnett, 

ir. IS; IT. Ifi. 14, 11 ; iij, 19. 18, 

14, 12; ii. 4, a, a, 1; i. 22, 21 

•Augerus xir. 13 t xiti^ 5 ; de Bni' 
ton, Tii. 8, 2; Ti. 4; T, 2G j vi. 
21,20; iii. 6, 3; ii. 12; t 19, 
17,10.13.8,7,6,5. 

•Aula do. H-uger, sir. 10. 

•Aula, Thomfta de, dc Lcysiagbf , vur. S. 

•Annger, Jocelyn, i. 1. ~ 

•Avent'l. Gervasfl, (12112) vt, IB. 

■Ayllurs, Robert, lif. 2 ; xLa. 24. 

•E. Prior of CnrliDlt-, Tiii. 7. 
*K»pcnurlhe, i 11, ]0, 
tBfWion, l>om Hearj dp, Jiutioeof the 
King. (125&)!x.l2. WHnen,n. ' 



of 1 



OF ST. MARY MAGDAJ^FNE, LANEUC06T. 513 H 


Baoim, Albiandvp, ^^jieacUiil of U-iUtJf- 


*BU?iin.% d« Iti, Will., xiu. 14; ix. 6; ^| 


— taiid, iv. 16, 14, 


iv. 7, 6; iii. 20; ii. 7. ^M 


•Bac"'". Wiiltcrj i. &. 


•Dlatpnitio, Jordnu de, iv, 16, ^H 


Eatdnin, JJexand^r, son of Hogcr, son 


*Blatcrii, 'Elloa. de, siii. 21, 20 ; X. 16. ^1 


of, lii. T, 0, flO, (127a) 11. K'it- 


•Bfiitome, Will, iic, Ju- lU. ^| 


neir,iiv. lb; lii. 23, lJ)j C127S} x. 


*BUt:[ieQE«,jDhnde,ir. 17j "Blatem*," ^1 


3; ii, 20. (1273) 15, 


^M 


Snldwin, Biiatrtvo, wife of Roger, xii, S. 


tllliiiit. Thoniu, xt. 10. ^H 


EnklwjTij AleKuuclfr, sou uf Rugee, 


Bxji-liurdehv, W^iii. dc, vii. It. ^^M 


sun of, FJ, 24. 


"B^i-land, OaWrt df, i. 2. iVilTUtt, 17. ^M 


+BBynyn, RogLT, ion off ^iLL 10. 


'BoeiU, Rob., son of, i. 22. ^M 


•BuiUii)], Eiijit'lmc de, ii. 6. 


*B<.>l)un. Uuinpltnj' de, (1336) Eiiri of H 


Bqliiol, EiisUiue df, siv. fi (1273), 


Utrt'lopd B.nd Esiux, it. 4. ^H 


♦Biilun Jc. Will., i. & ; sir, 13. 


Bolttbj, NichoLia de, i. 12. ^1 


•Bftrapton. Wall, de, (12&3) liii. 16, 17. 


"'Botluru, de, Jolin, iv. 1. ^^M 


Bomij, VVaJber, yii. 1 ; vi. 28. Sec 


tBoaco, kk-Iiard dc, vi. S. ^^^^H 


Bi'nn. 


*Bair(^, de. Will, sjt. 2, ^^^^^| 


tBarncrili, Wm. do, ui. 19. 


•Bojvillc, Will, de, Knt., x. 7. ^^^H 


•Uaro, Odardue, vi^ 11, 


•Bojrille, Wjdo dt', ii. 1. ^^^^^B 


Hartliolomew, Prior of Cartis]^, viiL B, 


"BniLViitli^ajte, Ric^Iuu-i de, tv. 10, 9. ^H 


•llatiinj AdiiTn, siii, 1-4, 


*Bruir|>toii, Aii^criiK dj>, it. 19. ^H 


Biiiu]i?y, Wm. de, it, 7. 


■Brnnipton. Jolin, Vicar of, vi, 22. -^1 


tBriumlicId, Hkb. de, kili. 9. 


^Bndiii, KicDlna, eon of^ (12&9) xt. ^H 


•Baiiii, Walter, sui- 5, 


^M 


■Baufi, Will., liii. 6. 


*Driiic», Hen. do, xtiL Sfl. ^^M 


"BnTun, Waller, lir. 23. 


•BriUn, .lulin do, (1335) xv. *j Enrl ^H 


"BoauolTanip, Roger de, t, 27 t ii, 13, 


of Kiclimond. ^H 


12, 6. 


tBrivoton, John df, (1259) xf. 18, ^1 


•Btirtiii, Wftlter, iW. 21. 


Jf'itnejiS:, ih. ^^H 


•Bclft, Mifhael, viu. 1. 


•Eriw<?r, W^ill.. riii, 1. ^H 


Belle Carnpo, do, Jolm, iii. 13. 


^Brouii, Will., (Id'lO) xf. S. ^H 


*Brllo Oniinpo (Bi*au<?hain[]), Tliomno 


"Btiju, Honry, jt, 3, ^H 


d<.<, xiv. 3, 2 ; Sen^Klml of Qillesland, 


tlinm, Ki;;liiard, t. 2S. ^H 


xh. 24; I. 13; Ti. 1 3 iv. lOj St; ii. 


BrunD, Tlioa,, Burgeaa of Newi'BsIlv, ^^| 


22. 


^H 


•Bern. Robert, ir. 24. 


''Brunla, BhruIuIi, iii. 17, 19. ^H 
BruEi, Kobert de, xir. 4 (1273). Wi(- ^1 


Bonn, Walter, ir. 20, -^19. TTiVimm, 


Ti. a i V. 2li, 23 1 iii. 18, 8 -, ii. U, 8, 


HeTf, ii. G. ^H 


6, ■*, a ; i. ly J "de BmiD," r, 18 ; 


tBrus. Chriatiaiifi, wife of Robert de, ^H 


iii, G ; i. 17. 7, 6 ; '• Benny," iii. 1 ; 


daiightfi* of Wm. Irebj, xir. 4, ^H 


"Benin." it. 11 ; i. iO, l&i Bou- 


*BucU0, Alan, xIt. 7. ^^| 


iitnK, iii, 19. 


Buetbj, John de, iii. 1. ^^| 


BerlioLI, Robert de. xiii. 2. 


tBueth, Oillc, son of, riii. 17. ^H 


BptUidl, Will, boii uf B, de, siii. 1. 


*Baeth. Hultred, son pf, r, 22. ^H 


•Bom, Rob- de, i. 22. 


Buetli, KobiTt. son of, xil. 2G- v. 22. ^1 


fBemnrd, Bp. of Carlisle, viii. 4, 3. 


21 1 iii. 10, G, 3, 4, 3, 2 ; " Buetb- H 


irj/»*M, lir. 21. 


barn," 1. iri/jiej«, xir. 22 ; vii. 16, ^| 


Uertmrd, Dmu <of ri»e§lij-)^ tii. 23, 


8,2; ti. 23, Hi T. 2hK 1 i ii. 12, i^ ; ^1 


+Bcmurd, Bob, »on of, i, 19, Wttruat, 


^H 


Fi. 23, 9; iv. 19 I ii, 12; i. 20, I'J; 


*BiieChb;, dc, Bennerufl^ xiii. 13^ it. ^^| 


of Levenvdnlo, 18, G, 2. 


^^^H 


Birkenfiide, Adam, and Joljiona his 


"Buotli (■;)»( re, Hugh dc^ iii. 7. ^^^^H 


wiff. (1285) siii. 11. Ailaiii de, mil- 


•Burg, Ales., i. 17. ^^^^B 


nfsi, (1331) xji. 17 ; viii. 16. 


"Burton, .Tobn d?, cLerk, iv. 3. ^^H 


*Bii'k<?nsidie', NiuliolAi de, iii. 16. 


•B^Fkitmde, Robert de, (1340) xt. 8. ^H 


•Birkimide. Thw. de, (1289) xiii- 19, 


*Bfailoj, Alex,, brother of Wftlter, lif. ^^| 


(12»3) 17, m, 3, 4) xu. 2S, 2ii 


H 


tl2&4) ii. 7, (12BZ) 6, 1. 


•B^seley, Walter de, xJv. 10. ^H 


VOL. VIII. 


M fl 



14 



CARTULARY OF THE PRIORY CHURCH 



■Culdbekj A., de, riii. S > Vii» Com, 

CunibETl., {c.1215) v^^. 17. 
Cnmboc!, Alidfi, wife of Roborti »iu. 

19 (12891. 
Cambiw, Robert, eon of \Va]ler de, 

liii- 18. 
•Cambco, Dora, Robert de, jut. 19, 18, 

14, B, 2: liii. S], 20 (nH5). 11. 8 ; 

lii. 23 ; xi. 1 ; x- J5 (1278). 14, 18 

(127fl), 11, 7 (1273;, 3, 2, 1 i ix. 

20, 18, 17. IG (127at, 13, IS; vi, 26. 
Ciiraboc, Tliumaij, boo of Robert de, 

(13^3) III. 10. 
•CiTiiboli, WiiHw de. xiii. 15 ; ii. 20 ; 

WuJtpr, vi, 19. 
•Camera, Gilbert da, i. IS, 17. 
•Cumeini Je JoKl*n,iii. 13; ii.ll; i.9. 
*CaniDmriua, Adam, i. 11, 10, 
•CBrnemriuo Eennerus, iv. 6; ii. 1 ; i. 

22. 
•CVmi'i^riuB, John, i. 13, 
•CmiuTnriiiJj, JorJau, i. 1. 
*C»mpiinf Rnl^jh dt', ii. 6, 
•C^pelln, JohTi dcp xij. 1. 
•CapoUaniiB, Roger sort of, IIT. 19. 
"CBtwllamiH, Ralpli, and liia brother 

Jot«f|ph de Ad(^ r. 0. 
•CnpplliintiB, Rogpr, Art'bdeapon, viii, S. 
•Caprum, Wil!., xv. 1 ; Vi. 14, 
•GBrson, David <le, siv. 20. 
•Cftrliiton, Alfred de, iv, 19, 
•Carlatan, Bobart de, is. 16, IL 

CftrlisliJ, Jobn, Bp. of, lii. 4 (1308). 
^Onrljale, Adam, sgti of Uobt^rl de, iv. 

S4. 
•fCarlLale, Adam, aoo of Dom, Hcury 

du, XT. 3, 2. 
•Cnrlisli*, Atnisijus de, v. 21. 
•Curlisle, Eudo de. iv. 6. 
•Carlisle, Jaki^liTi de, ir. 3, 
CarLisEp, Joni^ttc de ; Agiios, dAugbter 

of; WilliaiD, eon of, iT. S. 
*Carli»h", Jordan de. i, 1. 
tCarLivlc, Tboma£, Mayor of Newc^ttle, 

KF. 3, 2. 

•Oarlialfi, Walter de, vii, 5. 
•Cnrlisle, Will, de, i. 2. 
•Cfirturifl, Peter de, viii. 14, 
•Cftr^tideliiw, Ttobprt de, iv. 3. 
•CaaKfl, Tboirias, {1310) xr, 8. 
Ciutclcajrocik, Itobert, sou of Babert, 

iris. 
Caetlccavroe. Robert, ion of Hiiiliird, 

az77Wiii- 8. 
tCoatletayroc, Bubort do. Tii. 13. 

nitfifU. xil. 20, 21, 23; tit. S. 

SoncMclial of Qiltcelnnd, (1289) xiii. 

19, 20, 16, 13, 12 ; kii, 22 (1262); 



XI. 1 ; X. IB (13ft5) i ix, 12 ; riL SO, 
11, 7, 3; t\. 24, 22, SO, 18, 17, H 
15, 9, S, 7, 6, 3 ; *. 19. 17. 16. 12; 
iv. 7,6j iii. Hi ii. 21, 20, 19.7,3. 

i- 22. 
CiMlln-fLyrock, Rob<!rt, ton of Adam 

de, iv. 16, _ 

CastJeoayrock, ir. 14. 
'^CoatlekaiTok, Dom. Jolin, xiii. IS. 
'CostWcarrok, Rich., £011 of Sir Rot 

liii. 12, 8 r i\. ». 
tCL'llar, Hpnrr. is, 19. 
•Clinr1re«. Robert de, EnL. ii. IS. 
('brii^tuui. Up. of Wliidjeme. viii. 

WitneM, ii, 15 ; 1. 1 <llS4-89). 
tCliirord, Robert de, vji, JB. 
•niflurd, Hugh d(?, it. 8, 
•Cljbcdun. Tfto- de, i. 3- 
•foiMm, Alan de, Clerk, (1303) lir.: 
tCocus, Rieliard, xiii. 10. 
iCouuH, Rubt-rt, IT. 7. 
tCrtU'l, Adam, lii. 1. 
"Ctildiugliatri, Mag. Rich, de, fiiL IflL^ 
•Coltime, Alan dii. xiii. 2fi. 
•Colvitio, Atifim de, iii. 10, C, 5, 

[iiifr, ii. 12, 
•Coi/illp, Thomas de, (1202) it. 18. 
"fointow, Rob. i\e, ii. 2. 
Cougkilton, Robert, fion ofW*llef dr, 

Tii. 18, 
*Coqiiua, Richard, lii. 3. 
•Coraldua, Oeotfl-ey. ii. 8. 
•Corkpbv, Will, de, T. Ifi, 
"Cossebj, Wni. dl^ Clerk, (18871 x. 
tConpili!, Will, dP', XT. 7. 
Crjikebowe, Adam de, vii. 21, 
Crakeliowe, Iro do, ™. 24, 23. 

rtTM, siv, 10, 

Ci-nkehou, Hploni.irifo of Adam,xiT.9. 

^CreBsenea^ Wm. de, ii. IS; Creaoe' 

niTF«, 5. 
Oteaai, Alexander de, ii. 13, 
"Crotlon, de, Adam, sr. 9 (13421, 6 

(1340). 
Croftop, Jo>m ot Ti. IS, WitmeMa, xii . 

IS ; IT. 1 1 ri. 14. 
CrOgelin, Wm., son of Elias, ri- 21- 1 
tCrogeljn, Oftyt^ey de, it- 9. 
•Crogcljn, Robert, dr, lir. 3, 2 ; (129St 

xiii. 17 i XLi. 26 ; Senouhol of OiUoi- 

land. (1293) x. 13. 
•CroglyTi, WiU. do, ir. 10, 9. 
•Croswhi, Will, fil. Tffiph. d*,, xii. 19." 
•CrumbweU. Jobn do, (1336) tr. 4. 

8tinrKM]oft)ieIIaii»ehold(SencM!hiJ- 

biaHoBpitii Jtejsii), 
*Cuiniqii«OHcath, Darid de, xii. 23^ Ui 

vi. 26. 



DF ST. MAUY MAGDALEiVF, LANEHCOST. 515 ^t 


•CJuuiren, AdBTn de, tj. 6 •, ir. 17, 15, 6, 


GdlMldiid, 9, 8 i vi. 7, 6 ; T. 25 : iu. ^| 


•Ciinireii di? Ainu, iit. 7 ; iv, 11. 


H 


•Cuudttt. Hen. de, it. 12. 


Denton, John, son of John de. (1278) ^H 


•Cwpfwen, Dum. Gilbert dc, Tioo-Com. 


I. 14; iii. 9 (1273) : ix. 15. JTH. ■ 


CiHnb,, (1278)1 1. 14. 


Hf.>j, C12£)3) xiii. 17; xii. 21, 23 i ^H 


•Curtmelena, Will, de, vii. M. 


ii-20,7; vii- 24; jr. S ; iii. 15; iL ^M 




£2; i. 12, ^M 


•Dacrp, AleiQnrlar «lf% viii. 4. 


*Dfii|()n, John da, v. 17. 6, 2 ; ii. 10, ^H 


Udierp. Eiiiiidph df, (1320) xii. 16. 


15.12,11,6; iii. £0,I£^; brotherof ^H 


Wi7wM» Knt, I. 7. 


AiiVetin, anil RoWrt, sU'D of Jl^licrt, ^^| 


Dai-ro, HaJjhh cics (1364) ¥T. 11. 


Bon of Aiiketm. iji. 19. 13, 17, 15, ^H 


•Daffe, Will. dt>, A'iec-C'oni . Ctimb., 


14 ; ii. 21, 20, ly, 7, 4. », S. ^H 


liv. a ; liii. 15 i "n- 1 !«■■ 12&0t ; 


•Denton, John, »on of Kobcrt, iii. 10. ^H 


TiL 7; fi. 2^ ii. 20. 


'DonCon, John, 6on of iRoberl, son of ^| 


Dale, le. MiiihiM;!, E1i;t]& daugtibor of, 


Atikctyn, iij. 6, 4. ^^| 


&iirt BisWr of Edn, iv. 10. 


'Demon, John, hrotbi!]' of B^bcrt. »>. ^| 


DoJi^, ip, Uich&4>l. Eda daughter of, mid 


7; rii. 4j iii. 12; ii. 1 ; i. 22, 21. ^| 


sifter of Elenn, ir, 9. 


*Den(i>n, John, foa of Will.. V. 2o ; iii. ^H 


•Duk^oclot, WultiiT dp, T. 23, 


15, of Uppt.'rDenl:ou9; ii. S2 ; i. 12. ^H 


•DBiiiei. It. 6. 


*DfliiJon, Rich. de,. v, 4. I^'i/wmi, xiii. ^^| 


Dawn brothern, ii. 13. 


li Rut, xii. 17 (1331). ^1 


Darkl, SulDmon aoti of^ nnd Clnriituiua, 


DfUtun, KohL'rt, aon of AnVetj^n, iii. ^^M 


T. 18. 17. 


^M 


tDnyid, Solomon aon of, iv. 11. 


Dfrntiiu, Robt. du, XI. 7;. *. 24 ; iii. ^H 


tDnyrill, I^hclla, yi. IfJ. 


11. R'itaegt, 117.7; xiii- 13; rii. ^^| 


•DecaniWj Wm., li. 20; siiL 15. 


G, 4; Ti. 2at IF, 1&, 14. 7; ill; ^H 


•DcephBJn de ppter, jt. Id, 


V. 2&, 6 1 ir. 12. Ncpht^H' v( John, ^H 


•Pctna. Ralph dc, vii. 26, SB. 


iv. 6j)i. 21. Brother of JoLin, ilL ^M 


•Dunton, A- de, ii. 6. 


2; ii. 3; [. 2^.21. ^M 


Denton, Atikeiiu de^v. 2.5. Agnes his 


Denton, Robert, son of John, it. 2. ^H 


du lighter; 


Denlon, liobert, iion of Robert jiin. ^^| 


•Denton do Asltctin.iT. 18i i?. 15,14; 


dc. {12!>3) xii. 25. ^1 


iij. 11, 11; ii. 18. 


Dciiton, jun., Kobert de, xti. 27, 2H ^^M 


•Denror, Aaketin, brother of Robert, 


It'iifKti, iii. 11; *iT. 3i broilur ^^M 


«ii. 4; ii. ». 


of John, iii. 17, ^^M 


Denton, John, brother of Robert, jnn,, 


Pnitori. Rohori, son of Robert, aon of ^H 


IT. 5. 


Ankelin de, iii. 11. ^H 


D(;iit>^TL, John, aon of Eiutacc de, iii. 


tDcntoj], Ro^r dp, IV. 3. ^^M 


IS. WiUt**. i. 12. 


tDonloti, Simon, aon of Rob«rt, it. 19. ^^^^H 


T)(!iil«n de, AJice, daughter of Rob. 


^^^^^^1 


Albua, iii. 20. 


'Denton, WillJFUD, V. 23. ^^^^H 


Denton, At»kut\n, aon of RobCTl,, iii. 


•Dcnulc, Rob., ii. 17 j " Darvnlo," 13. ^^^B 


10, 7 ; Hoii of J-iilm, ii. H. 


*DerGinnnnne, ii. 11. ^^H 


Ucnlou, Ankctyll, aaa of Eo^b^rt, flon 


*Deriin, M'ill, son of. Ii. 6. ^^^H 


of AiiketjII, iii. B, 4. 


tDIckebur}:, Thoii. ^a, v'i. 20, ^^^^H 


Dffnlon.do, EudoHon of Angkt.>tin, if.4. 


'Dij'ptiniariuH, Rub,, i. 19. ^^^^^H 


•Denton, Eiida^ son of Joliii, liT. 18 ^ 


*Diep>fineiitor,G«oOV«y,brotfafrofJohii. ^^M 


3ii. 23, 19 (1373), 3, 2 ; u. 20, Id 


^M 


(1273K 15. 7, 6 ; Ti. ae s iii. 20, IB, 


■Dift)>ensator. John, (12S7) i. 10. ^M 


£} ; ii. 22. 


*DarMt^l^, IVulLer de. iii. 16. ^^H 


DcTiton, lllilstaeedf, iii. 19, IS, 


•Dorveot, j^. dil, xv. 18. ^^^H 


•D(?ntoM. Iio de, i. 12. 


'DothethDce, Robert ik, V. 10, ^^^^H 


*Danlon, John, iCt. 18; IIT. 8j xiii. 


DmcD, Dtid Agnes hia wife, t. 1. ^^^^^H 


21, 1>*. 15, 13, la (1285J. 11, 7,3,4 


*Drnro, !t. 8 ; ii. 12 ; i. S. ^^^^M 


(1293); iii. 2&, l&Knt., Ij li. 10 ^ 


•Dmlip, i. 17. ^^^H 


», IB, 10 (1276), 11, 7 a273), 3, 2, 


• Driiflfld, Maft, Rob, d*. liii. 15 : ii. 30. ^H 


1 ; ix. 19, 18, 17. 18, 10, 9, 6 . 


OjBcial of Northumberland, i, 12. ^H 


Tii. C i vi. 26, 16. 16 ; 9«nceebal of 


*Duuhrediin, Rob. dc. ii. IB, 14, 12. ^H 


^ 


2 H 2 ^^B 



516 



CAHTULARY OK THE PRIOilY CHURCH 



tDundm, vii, 20, 
tDunotialJiiB, vii. 14, 
CarhaTT, Antony, Bp. of. xii. 3. 

•Hdplwany^, Bbhop, it. 17. 
TSdw. I., (13&t) li. 9. 
•Eglistun, Kobfirt do, liii. 26. 
•E[., dftiu of Curliale, Tiii- 6. 
•KinginBtor, Hon., (1287) X. 19. 
•Enisam,GilborE. i- 1. 
•En^inin, 'Ralpli, i. 1. 
tEtig&jtie, Adft, dnughterof Wm. nod 

EuaUchivt irii). 17, IS. 
tEH|i0^>i«, A(Jb, dAtiijtiteir of Will., n. 

11; ^ii. 13} ii. 15, 11. 
■Erdineton, Win. (cJcrk) of, i. 13. 
tEManda, daughkr of RictiBrd do Ul- 

TPBby. Tii. 20. 
•EaUiu, Rich, del., 1. 17. 
tEumne, Oilo, bou oty tiL 20, liuaband 

of Essaudft, 
fEuatai.'ci, t. 2G, 23, husband of Agnes 

AnkcCin, TiieDtiopEHl iiL. 14. 
*EuBtace^ Jolm, £1,, ir. 2,1-, lii SO. 

Faber, Beatrice, dan. of Hogcr Fnb^r 

aud JuliaDn de Walton, (12^3) %ii. 

21. 
tFuWr, Oabert. jU. 18. tl9- 
*Fal)mn, pftnon of Aikcton, ?iii. 4. 
•Falconnriiia, GeofJViiv, ii. &. 
•FitMi, HeuTT dc, i. ll 
*Fiirla,iu, Adiuo fton of Ad*nt de, tlli, 

IS. 
Furlam, Adu-m Ae, (1293) liii. 17. 
WUwsf. lii. 24. 
"'Farlam, Salomon ile, H. 1. 
•Fnrlmid, Jolmde,xui- 1, 2, S. * tl^SI) ; 

xi]. 17. 
•Fcrribv, John de. Knt., x, 13. 
■rt?rit«tV, di\ Gilbert, liv. 21; Tiii. 4; 

11.11.9. KftlphMaoritalpli, (1218J 

Tii. 17, 13 ; T. 20. 
•Feritate, do, Kcbert, lir. 2 (1293) i 

liji, 17. 16, Knt., J!, 13 ; ix. 17, 16 

(•Fert*"], 9. 
•Feritftta, de. WiU, rii. 10. 
*Ferte, de- It, Odo, Tii. 13 ; ri. £1, 4. 
•FOTte, 'Raifh do In, vii 14, IS. tf'U 

nett, HT. 21, 13, 8. 7 j ii. I (c. 

1218J ! Tii. 17; T, 27, 20, 11 i ii. 

13; L 16,13,6,1. 
•Fetlienilaiihalt, Tlios. de, i. 12. 
fFlaiidrciwis, Rohcrl, ii. 10. 
FlntDaiig, Bomnrd, i.l5,l>i>Fkmnng L 
FlniiiB»l. WnHor dn, Tii. 1, Rnd BjwL- 

rillfl, \iit wifo. 



*FUcuing, WaltM', lii. 26 ; ir. 

•FlniiiBiie, j(i. 2 ; Flntnsnt, ii 12, 1 

i. 20, 19, 18. 16, 1 : FUndm, 

13. 
*FliUiuuc, John, ir. 9 (1342), 6. 
•Flrta. do Rich, ix. 16. 
•Folreren, Henry son of, ii. 1. 
•FolviUc, Ealpb, ii. 17. 16. 
*FoTeii, de Thoi., xiii. S. 
f Fureebkriua, Ricarduii, xiii. 10. 
"Ftbucus, fialph, it. 8. 
•Frasden, Bpraard de, i. 3, 
•Frwinceys, k Qpoirrej, xir. 8. 
*Froimeeya, le Msg. John, xii. 

(1262). 

O., Abbot of KdL'liou,* iiT. 1. 
•G., Arthd. of CHriiftle, tL 12 j It. 
14; ui. 11. 

0-, Prior of Ciirli«lrf Tiii. S. 

G., Prior of WederhttI, riii. 7. 
•Oalnetb, AUti de, il. 6. 
tGolwith, Qilburi tic, and Slurgnret hit 

Htifp, XV. 8. 
tOa-Dieliii, de Walton, it. 17. 
tQaineUbj, Wnlter ton of Symon 

XIT. 8. 

tOcareun), Michael, of DiimfriM, ii, 
Oijoffrcy, Archbp. of York, tili. 15. 
•OpotlVey, Arohd. of CltTpUnd, tiiL 
•Geoffrey, PrinM, ion of King Hpnfj, 

vii. 26. 
•Oerurd, GeoflW^ *0T) 0^ 'T. 19 ; friL 2. 

Gillwrt, Bp. of Cnrlisle, Tiii. 17. 
■Giljbert, Gilbert boh of, liT. 7j xii. I; 

ii. 13. 
•Gilbort, Prior of Cwliiile. iii. IS. 
•Gilbert, Ciinun of Curlidr, iii. 10. 
+OilcliriBt, Rjph. boh of, ti. 6. 
tGdcliriit, *on of Ricli. BrUn. t. 25, 
fOiiclipist, William boh of, tiusbatld 

Aenca, daughter of Anlieliii di* 

Denlon, t, 25, 
•G-JU. mag. offip. of Nortbdiu'bprli 

riii. 1, 
■Giliemor, lord of TreTerman, xt. 1' 
'QilmoK, Son of Gthitidiis, it, 17. 
"Godrik, Jolua, it. S. 
•Qodsavel, Roil. tv. 2. 
•GoEiuB, Wni. son of, i. 22. 
•Qoflcclin, Hen., iit. 21. 
•Oospfttric, Thoa. son ot ii IT, IS, 1£, 

11. 
•GoM^lin, Ric. flJ.,xir. 20 ; t, 13. 12. 10. 
*Gr«ystoTi, do, dom. Hca., CWnon ot 

Cnrlisle, iit, 24. 
Gregory, Pope, xt. 1G, 



• Bprtl •■ Orikou," Bl, Andreir-t dioMH (P«[*l Buili, Add, MS. 15,373, RJ. «*). 



or ST. MARV WAQDALENE, L\NERCOST. 



517 



tGrene, Kenig«^, i. 7, 
•Qmn^dnn, ^Epli dp, i. 12, 
Orencfldttlu, GilbprC de, (1287) x. 19, 
citjeen of CarlisJe, 
•Oreneadale, de Michiw^l, xit. 20. 
Grt'neaiJalp, Tliomai, son at Matilda 
dc, liT. 17. tl8, 
•Groin.-«dale, de Will., boh of Motilda, 
xir, 18. ly. 
Grcsley (^^^eJM:lTc), Wnltefdi?, «i. 25. 
Wii'iLpgr, xiu. 12 ; ii, 7 J ?i. 26 ; iit. 
20; ii. 22:; i. 12. 
•Gre3*mnerfi, Will, de !», i. 15. 
•Gwy, RLuhard de, (1335) iv. 4. 
+UrLndegrPtli, John, brotlipr of W,, it. 
13, burgL-sB i^f DutnTriKH, 
Orindegreth, W., of DumfrieB, it, 13. 
Gmt'lejc, Waller de^ rii, lU. 
•Gjrlet., John, it. 1*. 

H.. Bp. of Oarliftle, rm. 10, 7, 6. 

HftldeJiereUlt Rk'hard de, and Hftrua 
his wife, ti. 15. 

*HdlfknV AIbd, i. Z2. 
HQjjielby, ilermenis de, vi. B- WH- 
neM, f. 2S i iv. 19 ; " Hiinni," v. 22, 
11; iy. i;»i i. 19, 18. 

•H*iH»am, Wi.ll. dis >. S7. 

tltnmstctC NictioUs <1p, Archd. of Car- 
lisle, (12tti)iiY. 12, n. 

•Itomlosi, Boljert, {r. 12nl)) Tii. 7. 

•Ilardvre*, Kieli.dt-, tiii. 13j Senepchal 
of Gilleslaiid, jv, 12. 

tHaLrdigel, JL>hii ds, it. 10. 

+ Hareeuj'e, Kogerdf, liii. 10. 
' •llnrcachon, de Tlio., Bl. Kog., liii, 8*, 

•Hastenap-dpne, El^as de, i. IC, 10. 

•Hmti^g^ Philip de, 11. 17, 6 1 i. 22, 19, 
18, 

•Hilton, Robert, ii. 2. 

tHauLo, Nict. dp (12^6), Just. Itin. ix. 

I*, 
•Ubwis., Wm,. son of, buTigCBe of Dum- 
friea, ii. 13. 
tIlBi'<:rineloii, Michael de, {I2S7) a. 
19. iViintfw, BAililT of Gillt^liiDd, 
siii. 3, 4 i xii. 1 (1287) i K. 19. 
Mlnvrcltofi, John, ix. 2. 
•Have, delii, Bk'li. St. 2. 
tHu^ton, Irtiurfiico, ii- 5. 
tllajtoii, Peter d^, (127fi) i. 11, 2; ^i. 

■ tHecliani, Hugli de, Bufgcsa of New- 
H ciutltf, IV. 7, 

H Henrr ■CBpcllnnm, AMce, dooghter of, 

■ vii/e. 7. 
Henry II., K., Tii. 2G. 25. 
lleriugton, Ralph de, (1287) x. 19. 



I 




•Henncirus, Augt-r, liv, 22 ; y. 1. 
■flermprus, iii. 8, 3 ; i. 6. 
HoMnonis, Adam, boh of, Tii. 11 ; r> 

SO. Witiutt, xiii. li ; T. so i iii. e ; 

1. IS. 
•Germerus, John, lii, 21, 20 3 x. Ifl, 

10. 
•lIpTuiorus, Hobert, ion of Adr»ni, xiJi, 

14. 
Ilunnerus, ChnttionB, dat;. of Adaui, 

son of, xiii. 11, 
*ITernieruB, WilK, nan of Cliriitian, dfttu 

of Adnm, liii. 14. 
•Hervicus, Ret^inald, Bon of, iii. 3. 
tHodiirdiia, Will, son of, vilt. 17. 
•HodB, Hugo de^ (120:2) iv. IH. 
tnoJme.Coltiram, Abbot of, ii, 3 (1259}; 

vii. 15. 
•Holmo 9. Luureticii, Henry d«, Cbap- 

lain, ir. 23, 
HonoriuB \l\.. Pope, viLi. 21, 20. 
•Hospitttli, DrotlieT Alfred de, vii, 1, 
•Houghton, John de, ti. H, 12, 
•Hov.-dpn. Will, de, viii. 16, 
"HiidHrdiis DrcnnuB, i. 1. 
•IluiLirdiiB, Will,^ wan of, liy. 13. 
Hiij-h, Bj>, ofUurhcmif Tiii. 16. 
t Huntington, Peter do, vi. 12. 
•Hjrfliington, Win., parson^ tI. 21. 
•Hjrtington, Julin dp, i\y. 7. 

T^genin, JulinniL, cinu. of Win. Bon ofj 
wife of Robert, sito of Oifaert Faber, 
of aftrthea, iii. 19, 
TriTioaeDt, Pope, viii. 24, 22, 
flnauk, Petw de, Archd. of Oarliilp, 

xif. 11. fTr^MfN', ix. 2. 
•I, Bp. of Wliilherne, tlii. I5. 
•■Ire-hj', Adam du, U, 17, 12. 
•frefay, TT108, di?, viii. i ; Dean of Cor- 

lislf, T. 8, 7, e. 
•Ircby, John do. iT, 10,9.3. 
Irebf, Will., lon of WiJUt de, xir. 7, 

8. 
TreSy, William, yii. 9. 
■rrlliinBtDii, Will., Pnrson o^ vi. +, 
VicfirSj iv. &! ii. 9. 
tarael^ iv. 22, 'dL Wifneji, Canicni^ 
riiis, xiii. 6, & , iii, 1^1 ii. IS, S ; i. 
a. 6, 3, 1. 
•Iflrttcl, Robert R1-, siii. 26; Chajjkin, 
iv. 23j iii. 5, 4,3. 

fJeflerlon, Gilbert, ■on of, riii. 17. 
'^Jocelyn the Clinplaiti; Midhael, ion 
of, T. 14. 
J. Prior of lanorcost, ii. 2. 
•Joliiij Arcbd. of Nottjngbam, viii, H 



H 518 CARTI'LAIIY OK THE ?11I0UY CHUHCU ^^^H 


^H *Jotiii, CKiti.srarlu9, i. 3, 1. 


*ljpgat, Mug, Fetor, xiii. 15; ri. 4^^| 


^H 'Jolin, Fuwii of ArtiLK-th, v. 21- 


^^H 


^H 'Jciliii, Panon ai LL>tiiigloii, iv. 2o. 


^LegAt, Holpli, cWk, (12&9) ». 1S.^H 


■^ *Julm, Prior of C»riifle, fiU. 4, a, S ; 


•Leai-ntnJ^ tluurdn*, son of, i, IJ, 10. 4 


■ V. 4 t ii. 12. 


■Li'TFresdalo, Uorniird dc, i. iJ, 14t tu', J 


^V *Ji>llii, daui. 3enc3cliai of QiUeelKud, t. 


2; iii. i:t ; iu la JIH 


H 


tL^vcrvi^nlo, jojlin tind Cecilia de^ '^^^^l 


^L +jr[>lii)^ Abbi>t nf IMerbarougli, ix. 4 


'Leviuniilalc^ RubtTl tie, siv. S2, 7 ; ^^^H 


^H Joliii, 2nd Prior gf Lanerooit (13^tb 


1, 4 , ill, 6 ; li, 17. 5. 1, 3, 1 : i^^| 


22 ; SciieH'linl of Gilliwlnud, *J-|^^H 


^H t.'enUtrT}, ix, 4, 


S: r. ^, 1», 18, &: ir. £4. 11 ; ^H 


^H f J«hii,Pnorori,aunrc<Jsl, ii. IG. Jt^ti- 


19, IS, 14, 12, S, 7. ^H 


^m nfit, XV. 10 i T. 20, S3 ; iii. 9- 


•Levt-mdiilr, TJios, fil. Will, do. li». IS^l 


^M 'JoliTi, TboB. san of, Viffc-CoM. Ciimb., 


•Liiversdnle,de,V\ !iJl.,iii.2l, IS 11285). 


^1 Til. Hi ti. lU, 


11; ii. 25, 


^H *JoIin, Rrgiufild, fton of, Ji. 11. 


•Lpverlon, Peter de, i. 1, 


^^B t JdEihi, V- oT Bivm^itoD, xiij. 10, WH' 


•Levcrtau, fiich. dp, i». 6 ; derE, ii. IS, 


^M <iPM, (l^ild) xii. 25. 


17,1. 


^m 'JotinsbL, M'Ol. do. m- H. 


'Leverton, Rob. de, xiii, 3, 4; xii. W 


^H 'JoF^gW^ Hutnxt de, BurgeM of Dnm- 


(1294) s li. 7. 


^H frL'B, ii. 13. 


•Levertor, do. Rub., iJcrkj *iii. 5, 




LLTL^rtOB, Kubc-rt, un of Robert, jiom^h 


^1 Kn, Odo, of UlvcMry, siv. 10. 


^^H 


^1 +£srclicrui, Odurd do, t. 20. 


*I<cv«rtoii, Jolin do, clerk, i. 1. ^^H 


^1 *KuKOii, Dnrid []<>, t. 13, 10. 


Lsriuetonj Roger, »ou of Bogrr, ^^^| 


^H KarlatoD.Bobertde, Ti.2S, U,e. tt'it^ 


s». ^H 


^B MMff, ii. 1 ; i. 22. 


■LevmglOn, Adam, "brother of Robrrt 1 


^1 KelcUou, 0.1 Ablioi af, xtii. 2&, £(?. 


and Aditoi. ii% 24. J 


^1 'Kell&ti, HurIi df^ i. 12. 


*LeTiilgC{))], Ralph do, ri. 2. ^^J 


H 'ICent. Will, dp, i. 11. ID. 


*Lering:tDii, Rich, do, xti. B (c ISlftJ^H 


^H +K^n-bi, Thus, de, vi. 20. 


Til, 17, Dom. 12, 10, S ; t. SO.S^H 


^M *Korsi]iicrcs dt? la Wilt,, iv. 22^ SI : 


21, 19, 6. ^H 


^H Keriuitcra. i. 13. 


*Li.^tniinFoii, Jolin dt^, Deitu of QiUi^^H 


^H "Kersiini?, Will, de lek, L 1. 


bnd, Tiii. 4, S; iv. 13. ^^H 


■ -t^ing, Tlios.,tx. 13. 


'Leviiiton, Adnni, »on of Atlam di^|^^^| 


■ •Kirkandres du G'dbvTt, w. (1342). 


^^M 


^M "KirkaiKlrpes, Kalp^, Clinidaiii of, r, IS, 


'LcFinloii, Adam de^ iii. S, 10 (l£d4^^l 


^V 14 } Roger, bia »an, v, 15, 


xiii- 17, 16. ^^^ 


H < *Kirkbi, Mag. J. iCc, OtHciiiluf C'iirli»li% 


'Lcrititou, Rob., slerk, par»on of SLi-ii- J 


^ T. H, 7, G. 


Ion, liL 36 ; iii. la, 2 ; Ji, 12 -, i. U^J 


■ •Kirkbi, A- rie, OiBdul of Carlisle, viii. 


^H 


■ 10.8,7; X. 15^278), 14, 110 (1276), 


*LeTiiiCoii, Roger, (12S6) ix. 12; ^^^| 


■ H, 7 ; ii. 16 (1273), 15. 6; ir. 16, 


^^1 


^H 14; Kirbj-lhore, Tti. 23. 


Levrelus, Jolin, siii.l4,lS; iv.8,4i^^^H 


^M •Kirkliy, di> llub., liv. 14. 


^^1 


^H Kirkctoii, Wm. de, Lord of CuniKu, x. 


*Lewt-liii, Nieh., Arcliil. of Oarliale, X>^^^| 


^M 2; Kut. s. 7; ix. 16. 


Lpvgdioch, Rob, d«, Ri::4:Lor ofMitfai^^H 


^H Kirkctcm, Will. &ad Chrutiano, xiii. 7. 


^H 




^LimlscVi Wm. do, ii. 10. ^^H 


^H •Liicflcs, Pom, TJiofl. de, liL 2S. 


"Littleburi, Martin dc. (12S5) lx. I^,^^| 


^H *Liiitfviiiii, Wm, dp, ii. 15, 


'Li>|:clm)ubu,n, ^Vill, d<\ UAilxll* of Q^^H 


H *L>iki?r, Win. do, U. 11. 


loiLitid, (laail xLi, Itl. ^^H 


^H * Luiscellas, Duncnii dc, ii. 5, 4, 3, 2, 


tLoiidon, B.. de. Rector of CiHato^^H 


^P *LRnrccn>8sunL'ni, Will, dv, i, 3, 


^^M 


H I«7r, Jolin, ix. G. WUnett, liii. 12. 


*Lotbi>r, Mw. Q, dc", viii. 10. ^^^| 
*Loiitb, Q. do (Mug.), xii. 1& ^H 


^H LajP, Juhn, aon nf WilJ., It. 4, Wih 


^H HF«, xii. 19 ; ir. 2, 


LoTcleo, Ajfuni, xii. 14. ^^^| 


^^ lA-<bii{)r, Heiir.v, »oii of. vi. 13. 


I^ur-iiit LII., Pojw, viig. 19^. ^^^^^H 



OF ST. MAilY MAGDALENF, LANERCOST. 



519 



I 



I 



I 
I 



*LuilhHto, Wm. CbiuiG. of Cunbridg« 

UllJT., SF, 18, 

•Liiggespick, Rob., Burge&SDf Dumlrefl, 

It- 13. 
•Liililiaig, Robert de,pBr«oUof Croglfiit 

vi, 21. 
*Ltillm^tnii^de, Rob., pHfAon of Crogliu^ 

5-ii. ^3, 
'Liiteles, John, xili. 14,12; iv. 8, 4; 

iii. 20. 

'Ma^riits, HenricuB) xiii, 6, G ; ii, 3 ; ■- 

13, 7, a. 

*MaLtt ToFTf^ Kioh. de, tni. 6; iii- 1; 
ii. IS; I I. 

Miiln-jike, Alun, ii. 7. 
•Malulet, WIU., ii. 13. 
•Jlallon. Hwi. de, jiii. 3, *; xi. 10, 
"Marcecalluft, Ricibarcl, iv^ 6. 

M»rf»(--)ui), Wm. ftJiJ MaiiliU, sv. 5. 
"MarwCO, Rich, ill!, OlTtcial of CBrl!i>Lc, 

Tiii. i, 3. 
tMpli'biiru, Win. de, V, of Irthin^n, 

aa7i>> I. !>. 

•Merc&tor, Wjdo, vi. 10. 

•Mupcator, Shvplielii vi, 10. 

•Mero, Robert, tI. 10. 

tMtit' WefteoaKL^r, son of, t. 25. 

•Milkaiilliorp, UeoilVcj-, Sen>esc']ial of 

Giik-sluinil, (lava) I. 10. 

•M ilnt-biirn, \VnlTor de, Dean of Wcat- 

inanlnndf viii, 4, 3, 
■Molccastrc, l>om. M'ill., Vico-Com. 

Ksrl., xii. 1 j. si- 10, 
tMolcndinairiiis, Elstariui, t\. 10, 
''MQU'ndiniirLiiB, Uuil. ill.. Will. Xif . 10, 
tMoLendiu^rina, TUob-, ^i. 6- 
tklolmer, Hugo, noK of, ri. 25 i SOU of 

MoU'Hclinorius, Ififitftit, iv. 8. 
•MoHtiliiie, de. Will., (1303) xiii, 17, 

16 iiayaj ; ii_ 6 {i2yi), 7 ; ii. 20. 

•Mom, d^t John, sv, 1 i ij. 2j DoiJi,ri. 

14, 1 j Si^neflchcil of tiiJlcsLitid, ir. 

17, 15. 
•Mora, Hob. dek, (1280) liii-lOilUSSJ, 

11, 3, l. 1, 2 J (laai) si. 7, 6. 
tllo™, Roger de, s- 10, 
Mora, de, W'm. ^nd Ag:T]eB liia wife, 

(1271) w. 13 (1271*) i I. 17- 
•Mon». Will. d«, xiii. 21, 7; xii. 23; 

1. 10^ 7 (1273}, a ; is. in.is, i7. i6 

(1273) i ti. 1&, 10, 7i vi. 26. 
•Mapo, dc, Jubn, aun of Robert, siii. 

S. 
+More, de bt, John, iv. III. ffT/nfflr*, 

(1331) lii. 17. 
*SItirt«b¥. do, nuyh,Vioe-Com, Cumh., 

(iai2) XT. 9. 



fMorcscJioU, Rob.iof Pilgrim St., Sew 

c&stte, XV. 7 ; WilliAiiL bia wn, i'&. 
Mopville, Hugh do, ii. 17. 16, 14, 13, 

12; fx. 12^ tDnafAdaEugHyne, Li. 

11. 
tMorTiUi9, Byraoo di?, ii. 11. 
*Mubrayi Roger de, ii. 10, 
•MulnL-B!tre, Horn. Rub., ix, 0. 
•MuJton, de, Dom. Ahm, (1232) xit 

23; ix. 1. 
•Multon, de, Hiibept, {12H3) xiii. 17, 

Knt. I^; broib^r of Sir llugb, lii- 

24, (12»2} xi. 6. 
•JtultOB,, do, Dojii. Hugh, xiT. 3. 2; 

brotbiir of Tbos., xiii. 18, (1203) 

17, Knt. 16 ; xii- 24 ; <12tl2) lord 

oPHoire, li. Gi X. 13, 1 -, ii. 20. 18, 

17,9. 
Million, Mjitildn do, X. 10, (1276) II, 

5 ; is. 16, 17, 0, +13 ! {1292) xi. fi ; 

(I28&],x. 18 [shedJiidMBj' 19,1204 

(Cliron. 150).] 
•MudlOn, Doni. Rich, de, iX. 16. 
Jliilfon, Tbofl. MTi ofThon., x. 12. 
Mullou, TJiiw. di-, X, G, 9 J t«- 12, 4, 

1. Wilnjrtr, ti 2. 
•Mnlton, do, I'hoittm, Ent.,. xir. 3 ; 

xiii. 18, 7 1 xii, 22 (1252) ■, lord d( 

Gfllcaliiiid, I. 1 ; ii. 20, 1&, 9. 2. 
•Muahyi), WdL vL 19; "MwsaLiik," ii, 

10. 
*Mn3ulij*ci, John, V. 23. 
Mui^ey, W^iU,, V. 2. 

*N?ahain, Rnnulph de, i. 10, 11. 

Nunliy, Anaelni de, v'v, 13, 
"Ncuby.de, Rifliiir.l,sv.l8; it. 11; ili, 

ly,18,l4,13,«,7i u.5,4,3} 1.23, 

SI. 
tNt^ubv, Wm. de, (1267) ix. 11. 
•Sfwbj, AuBclni, i. 18, 

Ni3wbj', AuusfJl de, ii. 9. 
•Ncvfby, Tlioa. xiii. 1, 2. 
•No«bi-, Will., siii. 21. 20, (1293) 17, 

8i lii. aS: (tSiW) xi. 0,1; i. 15, 

10, (127C) U. 7i ix, 19, 18. 
f-NLiwull, Niulioliiaj ix. 19, 
^Newton, de, A., xit. 20; Dom. Adum, 

r. 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, H. 
•S'twttm, Rich, 111 A,, xiT.20 j Adiimi, 

T, 15, 13, 12, 10. 
•Newton, Kicliftrd di-, ii, 12. 
*7fii!holaa, Mag., Relator of Cftldeb^k, 

nil. 16. 
•Nicliohisn, Abbot of EKli^tun, xiii. 2<t 

NiHioUa, Bp. of Hurhuin, xv. 14, 
•Nirboliii, Archd. of CarUslo, xiiL Bj 

CanaQ, iii. 10. 



^M 52U CARTULARY OP THE PRIOAY CHURCH ^^^^| 


^B tNiclio]Aa,son of John, ricsroi' IJramp- 


Poer, Rogor, eon of, xii, 18, t»» f^- J 


^H tun, sii. 13. 


net*, ir. 2S. ^^ 


^H "Niger, Ai,V4.ui. Ti. 13- 


'Poh'Br, Auger, xiii. 6. ^^H 


■ *Ki^'er, Hulpi-rt, t. IK, 17. 


"'Folcetimon, Riilpb d#, Chaplftin 4^^| 


^1 Nig^r, WiilUT, (,127a) X. 3. Witnevt, 


On-nesitale, xiv. 1!^, Id. ^H 


■ 


•Prt'^jiton, Rob. do. xiii. 26. __^^| 


^B *Niger. Wnhcr, boh of Wiilter, \. 10. 


■Prid(?nBti(), OalKTt dc^ Til. Ifi. IPB^^f 


^H *Ki);er, Will., aim of Ui?Drj, ii. IS. 


nfst. It. li>; iii. 16^ ti. S; t. 8^^| 


^M *Kuiuili, Aduu], fionoT, ii. 13. 


xiii. 6 : i. Ifi. 18. 1 


H t^oivi, Tho^., XT. 10. 


P^konng. WuIUt de, ir. 14 ; n. 14. J 


^m ^yopfolk, John tie, i. 1!'^ IH. 


^^^1 


^H '^ormsninlla, de, Tlios., ci. 10- 


■Qmohoff, AdsTTKle. 11. 15<IS79]. ^H 


^H KiOlTdDHia, Wm., vi. IIJ. 


^^H 


^H •JStirtJiwoJe, John d^, liii. 31,20; i. 


'R,, Parson of Denton, ir. &, 4. ^^H 


H 15 ; ix. 20. 


•R., Dvaii arCurlialr, XlV. 14. ^^H 


^m Nwthwqde, £«b«rt, »pn ot AtUni, yiii. 


tl!., Syb-Prior of Carlinl^, ijt- 14. ^^M 


H 


*R., Dmh of QiUeAland, tiii. B. ^^| 


^H *Niilbi, Amaurua do, i. 11, 10. 


*Hmlu1pKi, Alex.lih, xii. 18. ^^H 




-flUgnrth, Nicholfts de, ti. 15. ^^H 


^H *0|]ari3iJ9, Wm., f-oii of, r. 3. ifitiww', 


•HagbilLtl, WalkT d<\ [12U2> 1*. IS. ^H 


^H ii. 18, 11, {> [Odiirdiis is dt^scribed 


'ItjightoudoJobn, i,134:d) XT.lf^ It»8^^| 


^M ae B elfrk, i, ^3 | ; i. :^U. 14. 


U>n, Builtirof Cnriish', 8 11340). ^^V 


■ 'Oateu, Knlph ^tu-. 11. 16, 14, 11. 


•Ralph. Prior of CarliaiB, rii. IS ; r. £ ; 1 


^H fOliper, Laurpiice, Viaar of Waltou, 


ii. 21. J 


■ (V15i) Tiii. la. 


■Ralph, Bp. of Corlule, (1287) xi. ^H 


^H Omi du HulvcrUirst, Simon^ son of, 


^^1 


■ xu. ^3. 


"Ralph Pcllipj) rills, \n. IB. ^^^| 


^^1 ^Oiiiuus^ Alan, son of, v. 9. 


'Rolpli, ItL-clar of DurlUcaslrc, Hi. 1^^^| 


^M iOna, siv. 22; iv, 11^, 


"Halph, VV3II., M)ii of. vij. 26. ^^1 


^H *0mic9by. I{4i,l|]lii do, it. 10, 0. 


TliicmiT, Doniard, toil of, T. 1S> ^^^| 


^H *OiTctcui, AluR Av, Knt., i, 7. 


'H&uii, Thos., Roa of, ii. 6. ^^H 


^M tOrLnn, Will, th, tl. 3. 


'Rarewj'k, Adanj, ion of Will, de, iii, 1 


^M "Oiftimn, JyliH, aon of, ir, 4% JTfVnwT, 


10 1 ii. 13. J 


■ 


*RnrL'ivv1i, Will, dc^ iic. lO. ^^M 


^1 •Odlwrl, Pflfson oT Dnimplxiii, i, 1, 


*Ridcli'll, Jehu dc, xiii. S6. ^^H 


^ft *Ottfh>j;, Kubert df, ix. 16. 


•R.-.i^H-lli i\l' Will., si. 10. ^H 




"itcTc-cil, RoUiitk- df. xii. 22 (1S5S). ^^M 


^H tPiirlalTyn, OeoflVej', and Roger lua 


RfVTibiirg, TlioH.^ son of "^I'boa., xi^^^| 


^H act), SF. 


^H 


^B *Pa{H'ailIf, Simon de, riii. 1. 


*Ribi>ton, Rob. dc, \. 11, 10. ^^M 


^H *PaTcl, Keginrild de, ^-ii. 26. 


Richanl I, K-, Tiii, 1. ^^H 


^H Farifk and Jlalfn-isc, duii^htar^ of 
^^^^^ Adam, eon uf AUu, son of Odlbu^i, 


Ricliiird, Krw uf Michael:, tU. 19. ^^H 


•Riclifird, Rj^torofa iDoivtjof Aikton^^l 


^^H xiT. 17, lli, 1^. 


is. Ifi. 1 


^ 'PeiierLtli dc R , viii. 5. 


'Ripliurd, Hnnt-cdiia, son of, i. 11, llX^^J 


H *Pi'uniiigtoD, AlAti de, M^jor of Cav- 


*Kieliani, Yicar of Irthiuj^toii, (1£31^^| 


■ li«lL., (1287) X, 19. 


^^M 


■ "Pfiinlh tl^ Peter, (1387] j. 1*3. 


•Richard, Rob., aou of, tii. 10. 1 


^1 fPtrn-Y, Putfr di.-, Juathoar/, ii. 5 


*Ri<jliQrd, Stepli., aou of, xiii. 5 ; ir. IS; J 


^g (L^os), 4. (i2f>i;). 


^H 


^1 *Picoiii, TliD». de Leyungbj, xiv. 3. 


*RioliDiuaid, de, WiU,, xiw. 22 } iii ll^^| 


^M *Piu{^H>rna, Roll,, 1. 15, 1. 


Robert, Kp, of Cftriijlp, 1. 6 (IS£7T^^ 


■ *PLiic, linlph dc, vli. 2'J, 25. 


il2Gi) Li. 5. 


^E *PcickL4irilon. Ralph, Vi«;-Coiij.CiLmb., 


•Robert, Prior of Cnr[i?ile. X- 7 ; ill. U- 


H 


*Robi?rt, Arclidiiwon, iii. 5 ; v. 5, S. 


^B *Podeu d0 Hobvrt, i, IS. 


•Robert, ViceCome* KarJryli, xii. 18: 


^V Ptwr, MntiUlii, iIhii. of Rogcf, x)i. 


JU 


^ ao. 


"Robert, 4rchdk>a<Jon of Of lul«, xiL S^^^| 







OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, LANERCOST. 



V. 3[ iii. 13,2,13 u- 18, 15^ i. 14, 

y, I ! fc'ii ^■ 
Robert, Prior of Carlisle, (1308) im. B. 

WitHeM, MT. 19, It 
'Robert, ArgHttn, wn oS, ii. 16, 14. 
•Il[obwt de CluuHey], Bp. of CuriisK 

*▼. 18. 
tRobert, BOti of AnkLiHIl, viii. 16 (tf. 

•HobuH, PofBrtn of DohtOl], vil. 18. 

SobcrL Flnmireii-MBp Tii, 18. 
'Robert, Will, son of, 9«iiM<chj^ of 

l[T[ll>o»liinri, vi. 5. 
•RodM, Wilt, tie, iv.ll : iii. 19, IS, [4, 

IS; ii. 5, 4, a. 2, J ; L 22. 21, 
Bodis, \Vm. do, (lillS) Tii. 17, -I, 
*Rf>ger, Denn of CBili^lf, It. of Eaa^bj, 

(125!») I*. IH. 
Ko^er, AT^clibp. of TorV, viii, l-i- 
■Ktiger, Aninm, sou of, vi. 12 ^ v. 15. 
•Roger. TliDs,, son of, i. IS, 
*Rog:pr, Wtlliniiii, son of ir. Oj iii. 8-, 

ii. 21, 19,7. 
*Ro« de JCver, rii. 26. 
•Rouehetyve, Ilpginald de, ii. 12. 
•Bouthbur^v. Will, de, Aivlul. of Car- 

lisk', riii. ]ti. 
•Routlici;lt?p, de, Robert, liv. 80. 
•Rufua, Godfrey, rii, 8, Senwcliul of 

Gille«liind. 
RiinL-ii!i, IferWrt, vi. 25^. 
tRua&cll, RoWrt, ix. 20. 
*Ruso«-]i, iite|ili., of Loc^bmubnn, is, 13, 

•S. Alhano, de. Robert, iv. U. 
•3. Mnria l£c^.'i,. Will. r\e, viii. 1, 
•9., Prior of WwldarliaJl, viii. 6. 
*Sndeiliiig£t)ine5, Hugh do, SenoBchol, 

i. 12. 
"Sok-ok. WiJI,, YicB-Com. Cumb., xu. 

22 (12&2). 
SeJfwriLa, Adam, vl 1 j v. 27. ITK- 

•ww«, ii. 5 ; Alice hie -wife, ti. 2. 
•SttUnriuif Hugh, vi, 27- 
•SfJa^riiiB, Nicliulu^, ri. 27. 
•SalsariuB, Kichtinl, v. 27. 
•SaUariiiB, Willitim, v. 27. 
Salvrigtf, EJi'im, wife of Wulter, liii. 

SaTiucr, It!, WnKcT, sou of, Will,, ti. 26. 
•SBnteinnreift, Robert, sr. 3, 2, 
•iSBnua, Kit'h^rd, (11102) iv, 18. 

SiiTB^r, le, ^^tJtf.T, ^i. 20. 
*tJBUvBgc, Riclmnl ond Wnltcr, iona of 
Walter and ElltTi Salragiua, xii. 23. 
tScale^ Anlcfrin dc. ri. ly, 
•gallon, Clem efit de,Seiirtcli. of Gilles- 
Iftod, (133J) lu. 17- 



*dcizy.'nr[U]i, Eudo dd, liv. 9, 2. 
•SriHBor, Wm,, (1287) s, ]0, 

Seiiser, Li;, Walter, ix. 8, 
•aenaaTBTi Gilbert, i. 1. 
•sJerlo. Gillct, son of, i. 3. 

Setoii, Jolili dc, sir. 5 (1273). 
tSerenei, AUm, dnu, ofTlioH.. xiy. 3. 
tHerenie^ Mnriottik and MfLPgoi^, 

dAUgliLi^rB of OdiLrdua dc, xiv. ^. 
tSeTeiieei, Tlios. de, vi. 27- 
Slialiclot, Alciftudm, wjfp of Joha, 

liii. 4. 
Sliiik<-lut, John, BOH of John uid A In - 
umlni, xiii. 3. 
+Shi?rcw_yth, Will, de, iiT. ll. 
•Sid mirth, Alii; df, iii. 9. 
*Simi)n, I'rior of Lnneruost, viil. 9] r, 

2 k 
•Simplcj, RBlph, xi7. 22 1 iii. 6, 5, +.3, 
■Sii*r do Rnnulpll, {12'93> xiii. 27. 
•Siip]t<in, Thos- <le, iii, IB. 
Skirt; tv ill I, Eudo de, ix. 10, (Skjrnit) 
tl3. 
•Sloj'gb, vnil. xiv. 2. 
tSiMifip, Wni , si. 10. 
Sor, Le, Robert, t, 5. 
(Sor, Le, VViU.t T. IB, 14, 13^ 12, ll. 10, 

9, a, 7, 0. 
Sor, Lq, Wia.,ioii of Will., t, IB, 
•Sowerby, de, Adam, xii. Ij xi. 10. 
•f-piringer, Ricliurd, t. 14- 
tStutiy, Adam, xii. 15. WUmxi, (1373) 
1-3; ix, 20, 17. 
Stacy, John (1331), xii. 17, IG. " 
Stntlblo, Mariotn, wife of John de, liJi. 
S4. 
'StalTolA, jrohn,ion of John de, if. 10, f), 
•Stflffl.ole de, John, xiv- 2; Stafhfoll, 

ri. 1. 
•Stana de la Rich., i- S- 
•SUoeta de Will,, XT. L 
'Stcphni, Itiiotor of Cul lecojrook, 

(1293} lili. 2^, 
'Stephen, Adnm, ion of, xii. 16. 
•Sunoll, Thdfl. son of, ii. 10. 
•Sutliajrer. Hob. do. Clerk, (1303) xtT. 

11. 
"Sffvtibnm. de, Doin. John, sir- ly ; 

tut,, sii. 21 ; s. 15. 
■f Swjno, Kogi'r del, of NfwcRstlc, sr. 2. 
Sjlvfflter, Up. of Carlij^le, (12fi2) Tiii. 

n, 11 (12&1). 

SytDonj Prior of Lanen»et^ (llSl) 
viii, 19- 
•Bymon. Dcau orCariialo, xii. IB. 
•BjTetiimi, Ridt- de, (12BB) ii. 12. 

tTftiliioiir, le, Williura^ iv. 8. 



522 



CAHTLLARY t»F THIi PRIORY CHURCH 



Tulkftii, AJam dc, t. 17; Ui. 18. 
Tklkao, Aku dei, ri. IS ; Aoti of Gilbert, 

17, 16. 3 ; V- 16. 
Talkftn, GilWrt de, ?. 17. M'itafiJt, 

a. &, 2. 
*TftIUftti, Hugh de. xk. S; liii, 21, 

tl23;j> 10, 20, (129a) IG, 17, (12«5> 

11, 8, 3, 1 ; lii. £8, (12a3) 26, 24 i 

(iieys) ji. e, (lyM) 7; i. i5, la, 

Ci27eJj 11 ; ii. liO, Ifl. 
'tTolkHii., Hiiglt uaii Adam, brotlierft of 

AUn di\ ri. IS. 
+TiilliaTi, Hugo, bpother of Aiiitiii aiid 

AlBn. ^j- IS. 
fTalkan, MntJlJtk, dauglili?t> of Alan die, 

X o 

•TalkiHi, Robert de, xiii. 3. 
tTavlk'ur, ]e. Will., li. 10, 
*Tenip»tfl, RoKcr, i, 6. 
•I't'inttmr, le, RLcli., xr, 2. 
•Tenetli, Auuck, clerk, xii. £6. 
Tffri, Dnvtili eitn of, iii. 13; i. 4. 
tTarrini*, Duvid, son of, viii. 17. 
ffcrrtlt, Diivvd, »uii of, ii. 3. 
tlVxtor, Waller, rii. 2+. 
•TliBlamo, du% OiLbt'rt, i. 8. 
triiirlwiill, Adam do^ ix. 12. WitnMa, 

I 12. 
•TlurfwuU, Bj-iina de, ii. 2, 
+*i'hirlwall, do, John, it. 10. 
+TI>o&., OUicinl of CarJisie. siy. 16. 
"tTKomas, Tinir of Bi-iimploii, Tiii. 10, 
•TliomnPi 0!(li-'wl of Curli»-k', t. -I-. 
•Thoi»!d, Ha-lpll, IV, 3, (Tiiomiio) 2, 
•Tlioraud, TligniM, sv- 3^ 2. 
tTljopL-Rby, Eitili. dn, liii. 1. 
•Thorpflby, Will., t'orson of, liv. 21, 
•Thuni(;t«n, A. dn, ii. 6. 
Tliorlhunild, Doui. Uavid de, Xnt., is, 

13. 
+Thurkelbv, Roger c\o, (ISpli) !V, •]., 

•TIiwiiL'tT, Roger, (1273) i. 3. 
Ttndafe, Adam de. i. 12, 11, 10. 
•Toplileif, "Will., (1340) IV. 8. 
•Tornld, OeoU'rvj, xiii. 6 f ^torlariua) . 
•Torflid, John, brothet-uf t>L't>Ii'roy, liij. 

8, 
Toreroa^oc, ALan, son of Ronald, and 

hii wif.- Inabpiia, 0252) xii. 22. 
•Toresbi. Adiun de, ii. 12, 
•TomgrsftoTi, Will, de, u 11, 10, 
•Tortholaid, di^ David, Knt, (1378) s. 

U. 
•Tri, dp. lien,, xiii. 6. 
"Troucli. Will,, (laoa) iv, 18. 
•tVout, Bicli., ffon of, ii. 19. 
•rftiinbold, 3iL la. 



Trute, Riclnkn), soa of, of Bi 

Ti. 10. 
Truto, Rieh.,«oti ofBiobard, ti. 11.1 

•Tuch, Hi'QTT, son of, fi. ST- 
•Tiirbur, l<^. Hen., lii. 1 ; a.j. 10. 
tTiirgil, Eog(T, BOB of, vi- 26- 
T^biiv, Hu^b de, of Carlisle, Jolm lus 

wiH, x», 8, 9, 
Tyhaj, Robert, aan of TtiooiAa, of Ci 
'Uah, IV. 8, 9. 
•TjbiiT, dc Tlios., rii. 1 i xi. 10. 
•Tvll^l. de, Jolm, liii. 17. a^sai 1$. 
tTJIliol, OtolTrej de. (1251>) xt. 18. 
'lyUlHil, GeolTiMj- dc, li. 1 ; grant 
■>f Simon. 
*TT,llol.d<^. Geolli¥v,iiT-14,j Kat, 
'21, 20, »i I. 15» {1278J Ik, 7; 

ly. 

•Tjllol, dc, Peter, xir- 8 j Dom. rii. : 

iv. 6; 11- 21 ; i 1. 
•TyUoolj Halpb de, E^ctor of Catnboli, 

(1269) TV. 18. 
•Tjliol, Robert, <1259) xr. 18, U: 

(1285) liii. n. 7 i lii. 23 ; li, I, 

X. 15 (1278^ U, 7. Scurarlul of 

GiUc-almid, (1271 1 ] ; il. Mt, 18. IG; 

fxiii, 9, 
tTjUool, Simon di;, gcatidlnllirr 

GwllV^y, si, I. 
TvllutI, Siiiian de, ii. 29. 4. ir*/i»m, 

ri. Hi ii. 13,12. 

*Tyrel, do Kii^h., liii, 16; xi. 1 ; x. U 

•Fdardufl, Will., son of, i. 20. 
"UlT^flb^, Adam, [12'J3, £>fln«*chal of 

GilleslamlJ iIt. y. 
Uhi-Ebj, Odo dc, rii. 24, t23 ; Jnluuu 

hia dauglitiir, 31. 
•Uktsbv, Tatrick, Knt. lir. 2, 9 ; 

3. 
Ukcsby, Riehanl, rii, 2S; txir. lOJ 

hill (iDugbler VsandA, Hi. 
•tflfwby, Richard de, RecUir of, 

16. 
•tFIiresby. Walter dp, OffiMal of Carlifle. ' 

Ti. 15 t ii. 21. 
• UlvL^sbv, Walter, Areli. of Carligle, •Htj. 

16; yii. 20[ ri. 23j ii. 20. 
•Flveabi, Waller, Pareoii of, ri. 27, 
•UlTwhy, Will., xiT. 10. 
rUfBbj, Will., son of Will.. Tii. 

gTDDdsoTi of Richard, 20, Wh 

liv. 9, 
DlveloTi, Heorr dr. son of Wm. 

WTgycton, Tii. 10. 
tUmfnii, John, son of, ir. gl- 

•VuCttriUB, Mttg.,riii. I*. 



OF ST. MAHY MAUDAtKNEt LANERCOST. 



523 



•Vakneim Adanue de (1317), Ewrl of 

IViiibpotL'. 
fVallitiUM, Uobtsrt, ton of Hubert de, 

VIM. 17, 6. 
*Vaia, de Vallibu*, AloxADder, ix. 18, 
19, ii. 22. Ii'*(»ip«i xiii. 18; xii, 
26. ly; is. 10, B, 7^6; ri. 27, 24; 
iii. 2. 
•Vbui, KTenird, ii. 17, 
Vain, EuatMX'flt?, xiiu G; ii. 19; i. 7. 
WV/MM,ir. 13; iL 11; i.lB,9, 1. 
+Vqiis, Oiliiutaj abkT uf RaDiiljtli tic, 

und wilV (]f £ob. KiwkII, ix, 20. 
*V*iiiix, Hubert, Hon of Ja1in, iji, 5, i, 
♦Viun, Hiil«rt, mu of Hobert, lir, 7 ; 

vii. y. 
•Faus, Hubert, IT. 17; ii. 21. 
Vmtt, liiibt^rt, nepliun' of Kulniirl, Jv, 

6. 
Vans, Jobn tie, ii^ 10. 
Vs\i\, Ralpb, i. £0, 19, 18. minetr, 

ii. 10. 
Tuux, Mstildm de, xi. B ; x. 7. 
+Tiim, a. dp, viii. 16, [c. 1153-94] Ifi, 
9,1; TJi, 17. 
Vaux, SLsnirilpb, S. 1. Wiinetr, X. 7, 
3; ij. Hi, (127^} 15 . ¥i, 28 ; ii, la. 
9 ; i. 6. 
Vmis, Bnnulpli, eon yf Alcsnrtlcr nf 
TrBfcrniftii, is. 20, 19 i gmtidBOQ of 
Roland de, 18. 
tVnils, Kiiiiuliib, brother of Rabertllie 

foii9i(fcr, itii. 10. 
^■VimX, dc, Ittcliui^, XT. 10. 
Yam, Robt'rt, -bgh of Knlpb^ ii. 4, 3, 

Z. 1 ; i. 22, 2. 
Vikux, Kabart utid Ada, kiv. 13. 
Vttui. Bobert, ii. Cj i. 21, 17, 16. 15. 
1-t, 13, 0, 8, 7. 6, 5, -1, 3. 2, 1. jr.?- 
BW, IV. 17 ; xii. 26 ; U27Ci) i. 11. 
2; ?ii. !l, 6; ri. 20; v. ly; if 23, 

'2\. Dnilber ofHubi't'tabil uepJicw 

of Rolund, iii. 13^ 2, 1 ; ii. 18, 13 ; 
_i. 19, 18,8. 
A'rtiit, Roberti ion of Atexander, iv. 

13. 
Vnutillobertittonof Hubert, txiLi. 10, 

5; X, 11 ; i. 17. 
Vans, RulK-lrt, ham., niv. 7; dc Tra- 

v-nnmi. (1^93) xiti, 17, 16; xii. 35 

24; (1291) £1.7; is. 9. 
+Vaui dL', Roborl, brother pf Rqluiid, 

xiii. 10. 
Vdui, ftofaert. jun., xiii. 6. 5; iv. 21 ; 

iii. 13; ii. 18, 8; i. 7, 2, 1. 
Vqui, fiogrr, i. S, 2, 1. 
Vbui, }ColiLtiid,ii.21. Witnfis, j\y. Sj 

Duin. xiii. 15,13, Ii 11331) tii.lT; 



vii. 20, 12, (12r,0) 7; ri. 20, 1&, 17, 
IB, K, 7; tiv. 5, H. 
tVaux, Holland de, ix. 19, father of 

AlciBnilpr. 

fVniiK, Uuland, brother of Roliert dc, 

xiii. 10. 

Vnui, Baljuid, H 3 ; *. S5» 20, 17. 14, 

8,7.6,2; iv. 19^ 11, 15. 12, 7, B, 

4; iii. 20, 17, 15,11; ii.20, 1D,7, 1. 

Tiim, RuLlAiid, {Stniackftl) P., xt. 18 ; 

iii, ir, 
Vhiii, Rollaiid, loo of lialpb,.!!!. 5, 4. 
Yaux, TboDiM, ii. 1). 
Vaiix, WalC4>r, Bvnc^iibaL of GilI>i)aUiiid, 
Ti, 17. 
tVaus,Win. de, ix. 1,2. WitneityXVA. 
5, Uoni.; (1252) xii, 22 J (12B5) is. 
12,2? ii. IS; i. 19. 
Vnux, William, Som^scbal of Gilliin»- 
land, vi. 2; Di>iii. v. 16 j iT. 22, 
(1202} 19. 10, g ; ui. IE, 3 j ii. 14 : 
i. 18; sonof Robert, 17, ft. 7,6, 2,1. 
•Vuux, Willinm (uli^rk), ii. 10. 
tVaiiS, \Vm,, BDii of Jobn de, vU, 18, 
•Veer, Uiigh de (1S35). 
V^ilo, la, Wm., liv. 22 1 tiv. IG, 14. 
•Yfiiatop, atejilii'ti, liii, 3; ii. S[ +U- G> 
•Venl'.Iiicli.de.ii. 2, 
•Yerbunc, Hugo de, i. 1, 
'Vernon, Wni. dc, juu., vii. 26, 
"Y^tei-i FoHtei tk*, iviebtila*, {. IS. 
*Vtl», Uoin. Rich, h', liji. 22 {l:i52). 

"W., Atrchd. of Koltiiif»linTn, viii. 15. 
+W., de LeTerBdnle, (1209) liy. 15. 
•W., Dt'ftti of Carlisle, rii. IS. 12; xi. 

2'2 ; William, v. 4; iv. 16 j mem- 

lioucd witli y, Doun, 14, fi. 
•Wfltliif de CfHubop, xiii. 15, 
•Wjiilii, MoIj.. son of, xii, 24, 10 ; ii, 22. 
fWnLiys, ST. 8, 
WiiK'i^ r. 1, 

Wrdi'ifl, Agn4:a. dniiglitcr of, ri. 8, 
•Widliiifrford, Nkhoiiut dc, iT.6; it. 19, 
♦Walkclm, aicliard, Ii! , xv. I ; vL 14, 

12. 
"WaKtr, Bjj. of Carlisle, x, 9, 4; *ii. 21. 
fWftlier, Prior of LnitcaDwt, yii- 21. 
•WoituT, Abbot of Piwton, xiii. 26. 
•WftlltT, PtkT, SenwImJ of Kel«o, xiii. 

2G. 
■Walter, Itoh, xiii. 2G. 
•Waller, Ari'bd. of CuHisIe, Tii. 21, 18 j 

vi. 21, V, 2; iv. 1&- 
•Wnlter, Eaiiuli^li, son of, rii. 2S, 25. 
•WnlU'r, Kob,, son of, ix, fi, 
tWalton, Oinitms dc, xiii. 10. 
•Wiillofi, Rid|il], CliJiitlaiii ofj, sii. ID. 



524 



CARTULARY OF ST. MARYS, LANERC08T. 



*Wiin8, EueLao0j ii. 15. 

tWnrcolem, Peter d4\ ix, 19. 
War:!, Willmrn, *oq of Riebard rie 
DL-ntoi), IT. 1. 

•Wiiriti, WsKer, fll., iv. 3. 

•Wnrthvfjk, Bob., sit. 1 1 ; im.21, 11, 
(J2«fii8, 7; sii- 24, 23; SBiiLanliul 
of Gilleslanri, (12G3) lii- 13; (121*2) 

li. fl, 1; I- 15. |i27a) li, xa, 10, 

(1276) 11, 7; Ti. 17, 8 . T, 16; Hm.tt, 
Warthwic, Wrti., bou of EJwird de, 

Tii. 5. 
■Wii.riK\ryk, Will, th, fii. 12. 
•\Vartliwvk,Will-.siJ!,I£; (1S52)1>(hii. 

lii. 22; (12S5) 11.12, vti. 20 , it. 

17,15. 
iWnjl, le, Rubfrt.. XT. 9. 
*\V|_Riter jtevnold], Archbifihopof Cdn- 

terbiirj, (1317) it. 1. 
•W[«lter do Stapledon], BUliop of 

ExcC&r, (1317) XT. I. 
•Wiilais, iff. 8, 
•Widkelj-n, Mag., v. 4. 
•WBller, lliiberl, Arclibp. of Coaler- 

buiy, CustQB of GLIlpplanc], liii. 10. 
•Walter, friar of Carlisle, f. 3 j ii. IS ; 

i. 1*. 0, 1 . 
•Wiilton, TboTTiae cie^ (CU-A) I 1. 
tWcdenhall, Abbot of, (12B9) ix. 3. 
+\Tericn», llie Priest, iii. 16. 
•Wrrri, Mng. T., lii. 18. 
Worn', NichuLas, bod oT John, (1279) 

X. IS, 
WiTTT, ThoiTanifv and MurgiirGt, 

duuglitera of Lu(?ia, liii. 31, 20 ; z. 

IB. 
fWerry, Thos., V. of Brampton, xiii. 10. 
■"WpstmDrelftnd, Rob. de, of LniiBivostj 

ii. 13. 
"Wu'lcneChwaTt, Rioh. de, Vih 14, 
Whayt, Kab.'le. (UOl) li. «, 10. 
Will. tPni Prior'ft nephew, t. 24 j tui. 

S. n^'f^iH'M, iii. a. 3. 
•Wydia; Wm. do. (1331> lii. 17. 
•WillBlmi, John fil, xii. 23. 
•Wm4>lmi, Hob. fil,. xit. 7; rii. 4; 

iv. 11. 

•WitldiDi. John fil., ii. 10; ri. 26; 

(1202) iv. la. 
•Willium, FrwentoroEyorlt, riii, 14. 
•Wiiliani, Arciid. of CditiBle. lli^li 

CtiBmb prill ill, riii. 16. 
'William, Oiibort, son of. li. 10. 
•Williaai, Keftorof KirkoRwald, i. 13. 
Willi.ain, son of tho ArclibLBliop, viii. 

I a 



William, Roger »n oF. ri, 20 ; ▼. W. 

•William, Btt. of EIv.Cha&MlliJr, " 
•Willmm. Henry non of, ti, 13, 
•William, Prior-" of W<.-d.>rliiilL ii. 21.] 
■Willinni, Far^oD of lrtliirigt<irit i*-l 

i. IH, 13, 
WiUiom [dc Orcneffeld], Archbishop 

of York. IT. 12. 
fWillinm, Weary son of, \iv. 21. 
■William, Robert, fton of, Sffneftrhal,'_ 

22, 21 1 +vii. 8. Witium. BiJ. 3 ; tL 

28, SI, 9, V. 19, IB; ir. 16; iiL 

19, Senewhal. iii 18, 12, 8, 7 ; 

6, B, 4, 3, 2. 1. 
Williauij Thomas, s&d of, xiv. IS. 
WilJism, William son of. iir. 20. 
•Wodebum, ITcn. de, iW. 10. 
Woderington, Ocmrd de, (1363) tr. 

10, 
M'oderiiigton, de, Roger ^ xr. 10, 
• VVvdiTie, HalcUn tie, i. 11, 10. 
•WviTPlti'i. Adam du, riii. 4 ; (IJ 

Tii. 17. 
tWj-geton. Wm, tie, viL 10. 
Wjicliard, Sycherich, -wife of Robert, 

iv. 2, 
tWjTiU, John de, {1256) Jnat, It 

ix. 4, 
•Wrsmgliaraj E^nry do, sit. IS. 
•Wyrideaor, (spdt also •Wiistjlesorr, 

Wjfodeaoiyafc, Windleeliora, "Wj 

deaorfff"] Adam, xii, 28, 
•WjTidMWf AU^sftjidrr de, it. IS-, Li 

t'lii. 18, 17' Wilnetit, tVi. S ; t, 3 ; 

IT, 32, 21 ; iii. 13 i i. 15, 1 4, fl, S, 2. L 
WnidwKjr, CliriBtiniia de, {1202) 

18. 
•WyndesOl'i Jolinj liii. 15 j brotliOT i 

WnKer, tli. 11 ; it. 15, 7, 5, 4-, iii. 

18: ii. 20, 19, 7. 
•WyndewjT. RoIktI (1202). ir. 18. 
•Wytidiwof, Wallt'r dt-. liii. 13 ; 

13, 12, 11.8; iii- 20; ii. U ; fiin. 

14. Witne^t, XV \Hi xir. 13; xiti, 

18. 14, 12, &; Tii. U; Ti, tl4. 7, 

T.14. 2; IT, 22, 21.17. 1&, 15,14,6. 
r..4; iii. 17,14,13, 11.8.7; ii.Sl, 

18, 7, 3, 2, 1; i. 10.15, 13,7,2.1. 
WTndwcir, Wiillcr de. Ilia wifc Mjibfj^ 

IT. 7 
WyndesoT, Walter flou of W»ltrr, 

19. Wifwi't, ii. 19. 
•Wyndewr, Wra. de, i. 20. Witwn, 

Ti, 28 ; T. 18 ; IT. 11 ; iii, 12. 7. 



tYnggcib, Tlu* son o^ ir. 9. 



lOp 

n 

I 
I 

Iti^^ 
wrr, 

r ^^^ 

iii. 




525 



ON A GREEK INSCRtPTlON FROM SALONIKI 
[THESSALONICA]. 



BY W. 9. W, TAUI, M.A., HON. SEC. R.H.L. 

(Read July 41b, 1366.) 

I HAVE much pleasure in laying before the Society 
this evening a detailetl account of a Greek inscription 
still at Salonild (the ancient Thessalotiica], — a photo- 
graph of which has been obtained by the Rev. David 
Morton, of Harleston Rectory, Northamptonshire, 
through the courtesy of our consul at that place, 
Richard Wilkinson, Esq. A woodcut from this photo- 
graph I now exhibit, together with a drawing of the 
monunient on which the engraved inscription still 
exiBts, given in M, Cousindry*s work, 'Voyage dans 
la Macedoine.' Mr. Morton was, at the same time, so 
kind as to brinj^ me several notes relative to it, to- 
gether with a comparison between the inscription, as 
it appears from the photograph and tliat pubhslied by 
Boeckh in his 'Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum.* 

At first, I only thought of laying this matter before 
the Society as I received it from Mr. Morton ; on, 
however, making subsequent researches, I found so 
many curious variations in the inscription, as it has 
been published by different persons, since it was tirst 
made known in Europe by Muratori, that I have 
deemed it worih while to lay before the Society the 



526 ON A GHERK INSCRIPTION FROM TH ESSA LONICA. 

detailed account each writer ha& given of it, partly 
with a view of showing how far superior the sun- 
picture of the photograph is to the best copy of even 
the most practised human eyes, and what an invalu- 
able aid this comparatively new process afFonis to us 
in the correct representation of almost all lapidary' 
inscriptions. I propose, therefore, this evenins; to lay 
before the Society an account of this inscription from 
all the sources I have been able to ascertain, and to 
arrange the statements, as far as possible, chronologi- 
cally. In this way each person will he able to see for 
himself the curious modifications of it made known 
by different travellers, or by others who have paid at- 
tention to it, previtpusly to our obtaining from Mr, 
Wilkinson, as 1 have mentioned above, the photograph 
copy, on which alone we can absolutely rely. 

Before, howei'er, I come to the inscription itself, I 
ouglit to remark that the main Interest about it is I 
that it records the existence of officere peculiar tn the 
Tliessalonians, viz. the Politarchs, which is specially 
mentioned in St. Luke's narrative. Acts xvii, 6, pni 
TOur 7ro\iTap)(as, and ActS Xvil. 8, Koi rov» iroKiTtipr^as^' 
the name of whom, however, ■iroX*Tup;tar, occurs no- 
where else in any classical writers^ though the com* 
pound is one perfectly regular and natural in Greek.- 

Now, apart from the notice in the Acts of the 
Apostles quoted above, we have two instances only ol 
the mention of this officer. First, In the Hist, de I'Acad. 



' I say " slrnoBt all," for it does not aniwer for Cuneiform quite 
so well as might liave been expected. 

- I sThouId however state that the form •no>.ta(t)(ov occurs in Piudm 
Nem. Tii. 125, «^ (iiv i;a\la(ixni' tvoivvfitf warp^, and in Buripidet, 

IvheS. V. 381, fTKVfJiiitJv t&peilrat Tra\iitpjfr}fi UtiP, 




ON A GREJ 



5bTptiun from tre'^'alonica. . 527 



des Inscriptions, torn, xxxviii. p. 125 (a.d. 1770-2), in 
an article by M. I'Abbd Belley, entilled, 'Observa- 
tions sur I'histoire et sur les Monuinens de la ville 
de Thessalonique/ in which he says, — " On trouve 
encore le nam de Politarche suv les niarbrea de cette 
ville : on lit sur un fragment le nora d'un Marcus,- — 
nOAITAPXOT MAPKOT, Cette inscription et plu- 
sieurs autres out ete envoyees de Thessalonique en 
1746, par M. Germain, Consul de France," to which 
Boeckh, vol. ii. p. 42, adds the following note, " Ceteras 
quatuor desidero; neque ese Parisiis reperiri potuenint, 
etsi non defuit amicorum cura intentissinia." And, 
secondly, in this present inscription, in which the 
ma|;islrates' names and titks appear under the form 
nOAEITAPKOTNTIlN. 

From these two inscriptions, bdonging as they both 
do evidently to Thessalonica, and the second, in fact, 
being still in situ, vie gain a remarkable proof of the 
minute accuracy of St. Luke in his narrative of the 
events that took place at Thessalonica, showing clearly, 
that if he was not himself present during the period 
he describes, he must have derived his account from 
persons well acquainted with Thessalonica, and the 
nature of the government prevailing there at the time 
of St. Paul's visit. 

The inscription, according to the photograph, is as 
follows ; and a very slight inspection of it will show 
that the letters on it are still singularly clear, distinct, 
and legible, so much so, that it is not easy at first sight 
to comprehend the numerous errors into which the 
earlier copyists of it have fallen, some of which, too, 
have been perpetuated in very recent commentaries 
which have been written upon it : — 



528 ON" A GRREK INSCRIPTION FRUM TH ESSALONtCA. 

_ kEITAPXOYNTnN inZinATPOY TOY K/.. 

lATPAZ KAI AOYKIOY PONTIOY 2EKOYNAO' 
YIOY AVAOY AOYIOY ZABEINOY AHMHTPIOY TOY. 
♦AYLTOY AHMHTPIOY TOY NEIKOHOAEOZ ZO. AOY 
TOY HAPMENinNOZ TOY KAI MENIZKOY TAIOY APIAAt 
nOTElTOY TAMIOY THX HOAEOI TAYPOY TOY AMMlJ 
TOY KAI PHTAOY FYMNAZIAPXOYNTOZ TAYPOY TOY TAl 

TOY KAI PHfAOY. 



I shouM add that in this inscription there is no letter! 
about which tliere can be a reasonable doubt, at the 
same lime that there are some pecnliarities which have^ 
led to errors id other copies, 

Thus, at the end of line 1 , it is no longer possible ta| 
see more than the K, and a faint stroke inclmetl toj 
the left ; the context, however, leaves no doubt that 
we are justified in inserting EO, and so in completing 
the name KAEOHATPAS. Aijaiu, the last letter T of 
XEKOTNAOT is no longer to be seen. Moreover, it' 
would appear from the photograph that the stone 
orjgiyally employed for tlie inscription was not quite, 
long enough, or rather that the engraver did not sipace^ 
out his work accurately before he began to cut it, th< 
consequence of which iias been, that in the third line,] 
the TOT at the end is cut in half by the line of the 
stone, this line passing throngh the O, and T being cut 
upon the next or outside sEone. In the same way, in 
the next or fourth line, Z/2 only is visible on the stone; 
but AOT, the termination of the name has been cut in 
smaller characters on the next stone, while the J isj 
lost altotjether in the junction of the two stones, ini 
fact, may perhaps have never been cut. Yet that tin*] 
letter forms an integral part of the name need not be' 
doubted; indeed, it has been generally inserted, as will 



ON A OHEEK INSCRIPTION FROM THESSALONICA. 529 



I 



be seen hereafter by some who have since published the 
inscription but who certainly had Qot themselves seen it. 

In the same way, and for the same reason, the T is 
lost at the end of tlie word AFIAAHIO in the fifth line, 
and the OT in TATPOT at tlie end of the seventh. 
Faint traces of the O may perhaps be detected, hence 
some copyists have inserted what looks like the latest 
form of the Greek. 

The actual size of the inscription I have been able 
to obtain from a rubbing of the inscription wiiich was 
sent to the Museum in 1862 by the Rev. C- G. Cur- 
tis. From this, and Mr, Wilkinson's statement to Mr. 
Morton, it appears that the stone on which it is cut 
is about 6 ft. 9 inches lung, by '2 ft. 8 inches broad, 
and that the letters are generiijly about *^^ inches long. 
Some instances occur in which a smaller type of letter 
has been used, as in the case of the name SEKOTNAO, 
probably to enable tlie engraver to get his letters into 
one line. This rubbing, I may add, confirms the 
photograph in every particular, — at the same time, 
without the photograph, it could not satisfactorily 
have been read ; the person who executed it having 
evidently been not well practised in his art, and having 
used paper of too coarse a description. 

Beneath the inscription the photograph exhibits two 
or three Greek letters and some ornamental tracings. 
These have nothing to do with the inscription, and 
may be only modern scratches, As nothing follows 
these names upon the stone, we may suppose that 
they were inscribed on the slab to record the erection 
of the arch itself during their Politarchate. No one 
has stated exactly whereabouts on the arch the in- 
scription is placed. By comparing the notice in Cou- 

vol,. VIII, 2 w 



530 ON A QHKEK INSCKIFIION FHOM THASSALOMECA. 

slnery {mfra, pp. 13, 14), however, with the arrant,, 
tnent of the stones of which the arch is huill, as seen' 
in the photograph, it may be inferred that it is on the 
right-haad side of the roadway, and not, as might 
have been expected, over the centre of the arch, 
infer further, from the notice given by Beaujoui 
{infra, p. 9), which I shall presently quote in extertso,^ 
that at present it is almost level with the eye, th( 
earth in the roadway having been raised several feel 
in the lapse of centuries. 

I will now proceed to mention, as nearly as I can, in., 
chronological order, the different publications in whici 
I have been able to find a notice of the inscription. 
And, 1 take first that of Muratori, Nov. Thesaur. Vel 
Inecrip. vol. ii. p. dxcv. (Milan, foh 1740), the earliest 
I have met with. It is as follows, and is there stated., 
to have been sent by Biniardus to Muratori : — 

" ThcssalonictE misit Bimardus 

F.cl 

nOAElTAPXONTnN XniinATPOY 
TOY KAEOHATPAZ KAl AOYKIOY 
nONTlOY XEKONAOY TOY tAA 
OYiOY XABEINOY AHMHTPIOY TOY 
♦AYZTOY AHMHTPIOY TOY 
NIKOnOAEIlZ ZniAOY TOY HAPME 
NIONOX TOY KAl MENIIKOY TAIOY 
Ar(AAHIOY nOTEITOY TAMIOY 
THZ nOAEHI TAYPOY TOY AMMIAZ 
TOY KA» PHfAOY rYMNAIIAPXOYN 
TOI TAYPOY TOY KAl PHfAOY 



Muratori has added a translation in Latin, ''ex ver? 
sione Biniardi," which it is not necessary to give hen 



ON A GREEK INSCHIPTION FKOM TriESSALONlCA. 53 



This version lias much interest, in that it shows 
clearly enou§;h that the copy is on the whole a faithful 
one, though either the copyist or the transcriber has 
omitted to give the lines as they really exist on the 
monument, and so has made eleven out of eight. It 
is at least satisfactory to know that the inscription has 
not been injured during the last 1:^0 years. 

The only variations between it and the photograph 
would seem to be the followin<^:— the T is omitted in 
nOAEITAPXONTnN and SEKOTNJOr, TOT 4>AA- 
OriOr is substituted for TIOT ATAOT AOTIOT -, 

I the first E is omitted, and 12 is placed for the third O 
in NEIKOnOAEO^ ; the name ZniAOT is written 
completely, though both from the photoj;raph and the 
rubbing it is clear that the J cannot be detected ; 
As; nOAEnS appears for UOAEOS ; and after the 
second TATPOT, TOT TA POO is omitted. In other 
, respects, the inscription coincides exactly with that 
shown by the photograph. 

The next notice I find of this inscription is in the 
* Inacriptiones Autiqua; Grscse et Roaianie' (Lond. 
fol. 1752, p. 48), published by Dr. Richard Pococke 
as an appendix to his ' Description of the East, and 
^ of some other Countries,' vol. ii. part ii. (Lond. fol. 
1745.) In this latter work, the author describes very 
briefly some of the more important remains of anti- 

(quity he observed at Saloniki, includiug a triumphal 
arch of much beauty, and a colonnade of five Corin- 
thian arches in cipolUnOy of both of which he gives 
drawings. He adds, *' Within the south gate of the 
city there is an ancient gateway or triumphal arch 
remaining of hewn stone ; on each side, to the south, 
there is a relief about three feet long and two and a 

2n 2 




532 ON A GKEEK IN&CEtlFTlON FROM TBESSALONJCi 



half wide/' Curiously eiiougli, however, he doe; 
allude to the inscription he published in his suhsequenl 
vohime, though it ii3 clear, from later descriptions, tbat^ 
he must have seen it, if at all, on this structure. 
The inscription, as he gives it, is as lollows; — 

nOAHTAPXOVNTOYI SOXIHATPOY TOY KaD^ 
RATPAZ KAI AOYKIOY HONTIOY XEKOYNAOCvi 
YIOY AYAOY AOYIOY XABEINOY AHMHTPIOY T. . 
PAY2TOY AHMHTPIOY TOY NEKOHOAEOZ O.. 
TOY nAIIlOI AI TOYI MENllKOY TAIOY AHAAHIOY 
nOTEITOY TAMIOY THZ n'OAEOZ TAYPOY TOY AMI 
nOY KAI BH80Y FYMNAZIAPXOYNTOZ TAYPOY TOY i 
I TOY KATllrAOY. 

The numerous blunders in this transcript reflect 
little credit on Un Pococke as a copier ol inscriptions, 
and are indeed such as can hardly be acconnled for 
by the supposition that some or many of the letters 
had been clogj^ed up by the dirt of ages. Though we 
do not know exactly when he made his copy of it, we 
do know that the volume in which these inscriptioDS 
were published was printed in 1752, and that his 
travels made their appearance in 1 745. Hence, there 
was probably an interval of not nioru than (ifteen or 
twenty years between the time when Bimardus made 
the fairly accurate copy he sent to Muratori and the 
time when Pococke was at Saloniki^ 

On the other hand, it is most important to note 
that he gives almost correctly the commencement of the 
third line, having merely written AOTtOT for AOTIOT, 
which Boeckh asserts " ferri non potest." One or two 
WDiils, as zniAOT, Pococke does not appear to have 
Been at all. 

^ These letters in eraall capitals are so printed in the ori^ci 





ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION FROM THES3AL0NIC.li. 



The next traveller who has noticed this monument 
is M. Felix Beaujour, formerly French consul in 
Greece, who, in a work published by him umler the 
title 'Tableau du Commerce de la Grcce' (Paris, an 
viii, (1800) at p, 3'1), gives the following description : 
— "La porte qu'on norame du Verdar, parce qu'elle 
conduit k ce fleuve, est a Touest. sur I'emplacement 
qu'occupait la porte de Ronae sous lea Empereura. 
£lle est formee par un arc de triomphe du meilleur 
gout. Cet arc fut elevd k Octave et a Marc-Antoine 
par les habitants de Thessalonique, empresses d'honorer 
les maitres du monde aprfes la Bataille de Philippes. 
Les proportions du monument sont exactes, et les or- 
nemens simples. Sa hauteur n*est plus que de dix- 
huit pieds -, mais il parait qu'il est enterre d'un tiers, 
et qu'il en avail au moins vingt-sept. 

" L'ouverture de Tare est de douze pieds. Sa voiite 
est eculptee, lentyblement est orn^ de guirlandes, et 
sur la facade exte'rieure sont, de chaque c6td, deux bas- 
reliefs de in^me grandeur, qui represenlent les deux 
triomphateurs debout, devant un cbeval conduit par un 
enfant. Tous les accessoires, qui sont entre les cor- 
uiches, caract^risent ce que nous appelons le petit 
triomphe ou {'ovation. L'arceau, (jui est encore bien 
conserve, est fait avec de belles pierres canoes de 
marbre ; il a six pieds d'epaisseur. Sur une de ces 
faces, on lit une inscription dt'signant lous lea magis- 
trats qui, iora de I'erection de Pare, e'taient k la tete de 
radministration publique, et parmi lesquels on dis- 
tingue un Politarche, magislrat dont la dignity repon- 
dait a celle de preteur." More than this, we could 
not perhaps expect from Beaujour, the object of whose 
work was commerce ralhcr than antiquities. 



534 UN A GREEK INSCRll'TION FF^OM TH&SSA LONICA.J 



Tlie next notice we obtain of this inscriptian is If 
the travels of Dr. Edward Daniel Clarke (* Travels in 
Europe, Asia, and Africa,' pari ii. sect. iii. p. 359, 
4to, Lond. 181G), who visited tSaloniki in December* 
1801, and gives a succiact account of the principal 
monuments he saw there. Owing, however, to the 
prevalence of the plugue, it would seem that he was 
not able to make many independent researches, and 
for the notice of the dimensions of the structure on 
which this inscription is preserved, and which he calU 
the "^ Triumphal Arch of Augustus,'' he states that he 
is indebted to M. Beaujour, whose memoir we have 
quoted above. He merely adds, "that upon one side 
there is an inscription containing the names nf all the 
magistrates then in office," and that " this arch is on 
the western side of the town. It originally terminated 
a street that ran through the whole of the ancient city 
from east to west.'^ 

Shortly after Dr. Clarke, Colonel Leake visited 
loniki, on November, 1806, An intervfil, however, 
nearly thirty years elapsed before the publication 
his researches there and elsewhere, in his well-knoi 
work, the * Travels in Northern Greece' (Lond. 8vo^ 
1835). During this period, as we shall see presently, 
more than one scholar had described and copied this 
inscription, and published the result of their inquiries, 
so that we are not able now to state how far tlie ver- 
sion Leake has printed is derived from his own inde- 
pendent examination, or modified from the reports of 
others. I propose, therefore, to diler Colonel Leake'l 
version and remarks till 1 have laid before the Society" 
the notices of Mr. Swan and of M. Cousinc'rv. which 
were published some years before Colonel Leake'5 



ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION FROM THESSALOXtCA. 535 



I 



I 



'Travels' rncidentally, 1 may remark here that the 
present Sir Henry Holland, Bart,, M,D., etc. etc., 
notices in his * Travels in Greece,* etc., in 1812-13, 
vol. ii. p. 50 (London, 8vo. 1819). "that, at Thessa- 
lonica, a triumphal gate erected after the battle of 
Philippi, in honour of Augustus, has lost its former 
spieudour by being made part of the modern walls of 
the city.'* Tins arch is no doubt the same as that on 
which the inscription we are considering is placed. 

The Rev. Charles Swan, the well-known translator 
of the "Gesta Romanorum/' visited Saloniki, being at 
that time chaplain of II. M.S. Cambrian, in company, 
as it would seem, with the chief officer of his ship, 
Captain Hamilton, and Captain Sotheby, on the 23th 
of February, \S'25. liis account is as follows ; — 

" At the northern quarter of the town is the gate of 
the Vardar, which Dr. Clarke supposes a triumphal 
arch of Augustus ; a work far superior, he says, id 
point of taste to the other. How this may be 1 know 
not ; the vault within and without is overlaid with 
plaster by the Turks, in two or three places it has 
given way ; and, passing the first archway of the 
vault, on the obverse side, a section of a horse and 
man may be discovered : under this arch I copied the 
following inscription, which the younger M. Charnaud 
believes cannot have been uncovered many years, yet 



Dr. Clarke speaks of it cursorily as "containing the 

He gives 



■ names of all the magistrates then in office." 
' the inscription thus, — 

OAEITAPXOYNTnN . mrinATPOY . TOY K- 
ATPAZ ■ KAI . AOYKIOY , HONTIOY . ZEKOYNAOY 
lOY . AYAOYAO - YIOY . lABEINOY . AHMHTPJOY. T 
AYZTOY . AHMHTPIOY . TOY . NEIKOnOAEOZ . ZO 




TOY.riAPMENIONOZ.TOY.KAIMENlXKOY.rAIOY.AriAA 
nOTEITOY .TAMIOY . THI . HOAEOS . TAYPOY . TOY . AMM 
TOY.KAIPHrAOY.rYMNASIAPXOYNTOZ.TAYPOY TOY TA 

TOY KAI PHPAOY. 

The dots iaserted are as Ihey appear in Mr. Swan's 
copy. 

It win be at once perceived that this is id many 
ways the hest copy we have as yet met with; but evelfcj 
here are errors which it seems that the photoa7"apb} 
can alone set finally at rest. Thus, he gives th< 
TIOT ATAOT AOTIOT correctly, so far as the indivi- 
dual letters are concerned : but by inserting the dots, 
as follows, TIOT .ATAOT AO.TlOT, he makes the sens 
unintelligible. Again, it will be reiunrked that he has 
not detected the second and third syllables of Z/2X/10T; 

M. Cousin^ry, to vvh»m we shall refer next, fol 
many years the French consul at Saloniki, published a1 
Paris, in 1831, an account of his travels and researchei 
in Greece, under the title of ' Voyage dans la Mace^ 
doine,' etc. etc, (4to. Paris, 1831). As a long resideol 
in Saloniki, and as a man, in other ways, of mark, 
especially on all subjects relating to antiquities or coins^ 
M, Cousin^ry may be considered as better entitled 
than any one else to give an opinion with reference to 
ancient remains existing in that town, while we should 
reasonably expect that a copy of a Greek inscription 
made by his hands would be as faithful as possible ; 
and such is indeed the case. No copy we possess, 
except that by the photographic art, is as accurate 
M. Cousin^ry's. 

The following is his account of the Roman arc! 
on which, as we have stated, this inscription still re- 
mains, At p. 25 he says:— "Si Ton arrive dans U 



ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION FHOM THES9AL0N1CA. 537 



ville tlu c6ld de I'ltalie, on passe par une espi^ce de 
bastion, cr^nel^ et fernK', qui conduit ii la porte prin- 
cipa.Ie. En face de cette double eiitiee se presente 
une troisi^rue porte, qui se joint par les deux cot^s 
aux maisons laturales. 

*'Le voyageur, (|ui n'a d'abord aper^u dans ce 
monument qu'une porte g^nee par des b4tisse8 
^trangeres, recouniiit bient6t avec €tonnenient qu'il 
86 trouve devant un arc de triompbe antique de la plus 
grande beaul^. La face qui se decouvre ]a premi&re 
est la plus interessante, et, en ni^me temps, Ja plus 
propre ^ faire reconnattre Tepoque h laquelle cet Edi- 
fice appartient. Contte la facade sont eleves de petits 
treteaux qui servent pour la station des gardes de la 
vilJe et des preposds de la douane. Ccs agents 
adossent h ce mur antique les coussius sur lesquels jls 
fi'appuient. Plus curieux de la blancheur de la chaux 
que de la beaute de I'art, chaque fois que leura es- 
couadesse renouvellent, ilsfont passer un blanchiment 
sur le marbre ; de sorte que, par un effet de la succes- 
sion des couches, it faut aujourd'bui s'approcher de 
tr^8-pr^s pour ju^er du mdnte des sculptures. 

'* Elles sont toutes histonques : le meme sujet est 
repete a la gauche de la (a^ade, tel qu'il est a la droite. 
C'est de cbaque c6te un consul Komain^ v6tu de la toge. 
Les teles out ete totalement d^gradees par des coups 
qu'on leur a port^ avec I'intention de les ddtruire> 
Cesdeux figures, de la hauteur dun pied, sont debout, 
chacune devant un cheval sculpte avec beaucoup dart ; 
deux enfans tiennent la bride des deux chevaux. 

" Cet arc de triomphe n'a qu'une seule arche ; les 
proportions en sont graudes et nobles j une comiche 
terraine les deux pilastres a la naissance du gi'and arc. 



53S ON A ORGER INSCRIPTrON FROM THESSALOMCA. 



Dans Tentablement eup^rieur, la frise est ornee des' 
guirlandes. I>e spectateur apprecie difficilenient la 
majesle et Teldgatice de cet ^ditice, a. cause des vieilles 
maisong qui y sont adoss^es et de I'elevation du terrain.^ 
qui en cache presqiie uu tiers. 

" Une inscription tres-bieii conservee est plac^e sous] 
la voute h. la droite et dans la direction de la sculpture:! 
on la lit avec facilite, ^ cause de I'encombremenl qui la 
rapproclie de roeil. La voici iidelement copjee : 

nOAEITAPXOYNTnN . XnXmATPOY . TOYKA- 
nATPAE KAI AOYKIOY . nONTlOY lEKOYNAO — 
YIOY AYAOY AOYIOY XABEINOY AHMHTPOY T- 
♦AYLTOY . AHMHTPIOY . TOY NEIKOHOAEOX ZO- 
TOY HAPMENIONOX TOY KAJ MENIXKOY TAIOY AFIAAHIO 
nOTITOY TAMIQY THX HOAEOZ TAYPOY TOY AMMIAI 
TOY KAI PHrAOYrYMNAllAPXOYNTOSTAYPOYTOYTAYPj 

TOY KAI PHTAOY. 

M. Cousinery adds, after some further remarks, that 
it is evident that thi& inscription belongs to the early 
period of the Roman empire, and most probably refers 
to the triumph of Octavius and Antony after the battle 
of Philippic and he attempts to confirm this view b] 
reference to various Graeco-imperial coins of Thes- 
salonica. bearing the portrait of Octavia, the wife oi 
Antony and sister of Octavius, and bearing as their 
legends either GESSAAONIKEflN EAETQEPIAX oi 
ArONOSESlA. He remarks that Dionysius of Ilali- 
carnassus states that Octavius and Antony came to 
Thessalonica after the victory at Philippi, and he 
thinks that these coins tend to show that EAET- 
0EPIA was granted to that city by them during this 
visit, and, probably, that public games were then ceJe- 
lirated in their honour. 




ON A GRERK INSCRIPTION FROM TIIESSaLONICA. 539 



Some slight errors may be observed even in Cou- 
Bintry's rendering of the inscription: thus, in the third 
hne, he reads JHMHTPOT for JHMHTPIOT, omits 
the E in nOTEITOT, writes HAPMENIONOS instead 
of UAFMENinNOS, and leaves out the lAOT in 
ZniAOT. 

The first part of the great collection of ancient Greek 
inscriptions by the illustrious Boeckh was published, as 
is well known, in 1826. The second part, however, in 
which he gives his version of this inscription did not 
appear till 1833»before which time the tolerablyaccurate 
copies of Swan and Cousinery had been made public. 
It does not, however, appear that he was cognizant 
of them, though, as we shall see hereafter, in his 
" Addenda et Corrigenda," he avails himself of Mr. 
Swan's copy, and alludes to Colonel Leake. The 
consequence i.s, that Doeckh's first copy is hy no 
means a perfect one, and that even the later one in 
his " Addenda " contains grave errors. Out of re- 
spect to him, however, I have thought it right to give 
all that he has stated on the subject, including both 
the first copy and his subsequent notes in the " Ad- 
denda et CoiTigenda." 

'J'he fir*t copy of inscription is as follows [Corp. 
GrTEc. Inscrip. ii. p. 33, No. Ii9ti7] ; — 

EITARXOYNTHN msmATPOY TOY KAEO 
PAZ KAI AOYKIOY flONTlOY XEKOYNAOY 

AYAOY -fAAOYlOY ZABEINOY AHMHTPIOY TOY 
kYXTOY AHMHTPIOY TOY NEIKOROAEXIS 211 
'TOY RAPMENIONOS TOYKAl MENIXKOY TAIOY AHAAHIO^ 
EITOY TAMIOY THZ HOAEHZ TAYPOYTOY AMMJAS 

KAI PHPAOY rYMNAZIAPXOYNTOZ TAYPOY TOY AY 
TOY KAI PHfAOY 





540 ON A GREKK INSCRIPTION FS.OM TH ESSALONJCA, 

and the following are his remarks upon it: — " For- 
mam tiiuli dedi ex Poc, qui in hac re satis fidus esse 
solet, sed lectiones ex Biaiardo, ubi contrarium nou 
noto. Vs. i. Poc. nOAHTAPXON, etc. SnSI, etc. 
et, in tine, KAI (pro KAEO); vs. 2. Bim. SEKON- 
AOr, Poc SEKOTNAOT; vs. 3- Bim. omittit ATAOT, 
quod addidi ex Poc, i|ui habet TJOT ATAOTAOTIOT, 
etc., et, in fine, omittit O , vs. 4. Poc. PATSTOT et 
NEKOUOAEOZO ■ vs. 5 init. Poc. TOT UAlU 
OXASTOTIMENIS, etc. et in fine, AUAAHIOT; vs. 6. 
Poc. FAMlOr THS ROA, etc, et, in fine, AMIHt \ 
vs. 7, Poc. nOTKAlBHBOT, in 6ne, Poc. TOTAT 
habet, quse in Bim. omissa addidi. Vs. 8, ex Poc, 
dedi primum /, omissum i Bimardo. Ibid., Poc, 
TOTKATlirAOT, eo loco ubi apud nos, quod correxi 
ex Bimardo; &ed Bimardus post 'yu^i'affwip;^;oiJi^oy nihil 
hahet nisi TATPOT TOT KAI PUTAOT sine lacuna.' 

He then gives the following transcript of the iu- 
scription in small characters, and adds the subjoined 
notes : — 

IIoXftTap^owTfiiv S^fTltraTpov tov Kket^ruTpas, xal 
AovKtov JJovTiov X^KovvZov, 

A^fiTiTpiov TOV ^avtnov, 
A7}firp-piov TOV NtJVOTToX-e&jy 

ZiaiXov TOV Tlapim'i\Ki\vQ^ , TOV KCU hf^ltJKOU 

Talov AyiWtjfiov UoTtnov^ 

Tafitov nys TroKetas Tavpov tov 'Afifiiat, tov lau 'PifyXow, 

TvfAv<wiapj((iVvTos Tavpov tov A\_^fi,fi\uis tov koi 'P-^yXov, 



" Deest res ipsa illis magistratihus acta, UoXiTitpxai 



ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION FROM THESSALONICA. 541 



ThessalonicsB novimus ex alia mscriptione (vide Lemma) 
et ex Acl. Apost. xvii, 6» 8. Manifesto fuerunt sep- 
tem, ex qulbus hoc loco princeps quasi separatim scrip- 
tus est, sex cn^teris deinde particula xsc annexis Mire 
vero bis jEgyptiorum et Lyciorum more matris nomen 
addilutn est Kx^oiraTpa^, 'AtifiUi t bis etiara diveisa 
eiusdein viri nomina proposita sunt, Zoili, qui et Me- 
niscus, Tauri^ qui et Regulus. 

'* Vs. 3, vloii ap. Poc. ferri non potest ; itaque TOT ex 
Bim. retinui. Sed Bim. L. Pontium et Secundum 
Flavii Sabini f, noininatos ceiiset, turbata iioiiiinum 
lloraaQorum ratiorae, Romano more si qui prdeno- 
mine, nomine, cognomine vocanlur, non solet patris 
nomen addi, ut vs. 5, 0, Fuiou ^AytWrftov TIotUtw : bine 
patet Aovxiou Uovrwv X^tavvZov nomen esse integrum : 
eodenique modo ex corrupto Pocockii exempio Flavii 
Sabini nomen integravi. Titulus non antiquior Ves- 
pasiano videtur, ex cuius familja denominatus Plavius 
Sabinus." 

Such was the form and description of this inscrip- 
tion as originally given by Boeckh, on which I must 
remark, (I) that in his copy, Uteris majusculis, he has 
inserted a T before ^ATXTOT, for which there ia no 
authority from the pliotogniph, and which cannot make 
sense ; (2) that he has placed the second and third syl- 
lables of ZUlAOT at the commencement of the fifth 
line instead of at the end of the fourth ; (3) that he 
has adopted TOT AT at the end of the seventh hne 
intead of TOT TATPOC ; (4) that he has assumed, 
though, as it would seem, conjecturally, or with some 
iiesitation, in his transcript Uteris minusculis, the 
words TIOT ATAOT AOTIOT, or, as he reads them, 
TOT ATAOT 4>AA0TI0T, ought to be rendered by 



542 ON A GREEK INSCRIPXrON FROM TH FS9AL0NICA. 



[n]ov[^]ou ^x^avUv; and, lastly* that TATPOT TOT 
AT TOT KAI PUrAOT (as he reads the coiicIudiDe; 
portion of the inscription) differs materially from his 
transcn|>t in small letters, Tov A[fifji]icLs roO «m 'P^\ov. 
Assuredly, in his study of this iosciiption, Boeckh has 
not shown his usual acuteuess.' 

In or about 1835» or» at least not earlier than that 
date. Boeckh published his "Addenda et Corrigenda," 
to which I have already alluded. In these he speaks 
as follows :— Vol. ii. p. 990, ti. 1967. p. 53. "Sex 
pohtarchas statuit Tafelius Tbessalonic, p. xxx. et 
]>. 103. l-*gil tViXXn AovKtov UovTiQV X^Kovvhov Tov ^Xavtov 
Xa^iivw. Sed Tie alia argumenta afferara* nou credi- 
bile mihi Flavii Sabini filium esse L. Ponlium Secun- 
dum nominatum. Titulum denuo ex lapide ediderunt 
Carolus Swan, 'Journal of a Voyage up the Mediter- 
ranean' (Lond. 18"^6f vol, i. p. 185), et minusculie 
Leakius, Itin. Gr. septentr. t. iit. p. 236* St'anius, 
vs. 3 iuit., habet TIQT . ATAOTAO . TIOT . fer^ ut Po- 
cockius ; et Leakius quoque diserte : viov,''AvXov'Aautov 
Sa^eivov, Quie cum ita siut, video jam et ipse esse tan- 
tum sex politarchas, nee prirno reliquos ut putabam 
particulaxai interposita, addilos esse, sed primi nomen 
esse hoc : XaanraTpou tov KX^o^jiaTpay Koi AotfKtov tlovriov 
ScKovvBov Sa^etvov. Vs. 7, extr. legit Swan TATPO- 
TOTTATC, et vs. 8 omittit I singnlare. Vs, 8 in lextu 
ininusculis repetito signa : 'A[fLfi]i[as]. Vs. 4, fortaase 
NtKOTToXtfps (Leake, NiKowoXeos) non femininura est, sed 
masculiiiura ; vide ad n. 1994 d. in his Addendis.*' 

It will be observed, in conclusion, that Boeckh, 

* It Qhoald be added, that though his firal copy iu correct in the 
number of line*, his transcript. Uteria mtnuscuiu, gives nine instead] 
of cig-ht lincB, 



ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION FROM THESSALUNlCA. 543 



admitting the corrections of Swan and LeaUe, still 
adheres to his conjecture of Puhliua Flavins, and to 
the rov jl[ft^]iar rav, etc. 

I will now give Colonel Leake's account of this 
interesting^ monument} as published in his 'Travels in 
Northern Greece' (Lond. 8vo, 1M35, voL lii. p. 236). 
It is to the foUowiug effect : — " Just within the gate," 
Bays he, *' the street is crossed by an ancient arch 
about 14 feet wide, supported by pilasters, which are 
buried apparently to half their original height. Below 
the capital of each pilaster, on the western side, a 
Roman togatus is represented iu reliefj standing before 
a horse. The frieze above the arch is decorated with 
the caput bovi^ united by festoons. The whule con- 
struction consiota of large masses of stonCi but the 
monument could never have been very magniHcent, 
and appears hardly worthy of the time of Antony and 
Octavius, to which it is attributed by Beaujour, who 
supposed it to have been a triumphal memorial of 
the victory of Philippi. Nor does an inscription be- 
low the arch, which contains the names of the eight 
arcbons in whose magistracy the monument was 
erected, seem to favour his opinion, as the names are 
chiefly Roman, which they would hardly have been at 
so early a period," 

Colonel Leake then gives the inscription in a note, 
Uteris winusculis, as follows : — 

IIoKdTap^ovirrQUf SuKmraTpav rov Kfuo-rraTpaS ifai Aovkiou 

Floirrtau XcKouv^ov vtoO '^AvXou ^Aovtou Xa^eivov^ Arf^tjTpwv 

Tov ^avarov, AjjfLrfTpiov rau NeiKOTrokeos, Zca{iKov) tou 

Ilap^evKotfos TQv K<u MevtaKov, Taiou AyiXX'rjiov FIoT^tTov, 

■ TOfitou Tijy TTifXfifoy Tavpov tou 'Afi./j,ias tov koi 'Pij-yXou, 

I yvfivainap^QuvTos Taupov rot Tavpov tou tcai 'PijyKov. 



544 ON A GREttK INSCRIPTION FROM THESSALONICA. 



and remarks that " two of these magistrates were the" 
gymnasiarch and the lamias ; " at the same time add- 
ing, that "the name of Cleopatra, the mother 
Sosipatrus, may perhaps have preceded that of hisl 
Roman father, because she was a descendant of the 
royal family of Macedonia, and Nicopolis and Ammii 
may for the same reason have been named instead 
the fathers of Demetrius and Taurus- Taurus the 
son of Aramia, and Taurus the son of Taurus, ha< 
probably been adopted hy Regulus, and Zoilus hy^ 
Meniscus " He further points out that " they (the 
magistrates) are styled Folltarchae, as when St. Paul 
visited Thessalonica ninety-three years after the battlel 
of Phiiippi." 

I need only remark that Colonel l.eake's transcripl 
of the inscription is accurate, though I regret that hi 
has not kept the lines as they are on the monument; 
Moreover, I am not sure that had he published at thej 
time the copy he probably made in ]80G^ his copy' 
would have been superior to those of Swan, etc. In 
the twenty-nine years that elapsed before his ' Travels' 
were published^ he had time to work out the inscrip- 
tion, and to insert letters he may not himself have 
discerned on the spot, aided, as we know he must have, 
been, by the copies of Swan and Cousiudry* 

Messrs. Conybeareand Howson, in their joint work, 
' The Life and Epistles of St. Paul ' (Lond, 4to, 1852, 
p, 358 et seqJ), go into the whole fjuestion of the 
government of dependencies under the early Roman 
Empire, and naturally point out the existence at Thes- 
salonica. of the official title " Politarch," as used by St, 
Luke, and con6rmed by the inscription we are now 
considering. They also give the following lines as a 



ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION FROM THESSALONICA. 545 



copy of the inscription, professedly from BoeckliT n. 
I9()7j but incorrectly, in so far that they have inserted 
in the text, nOTBAIQT 0AAOTIOT, which Boeckh, 
as we liave noticed ante^ p. 17, has placed Uteris yntnus- 
culis^ evidently with some doubt, for TOT ATAOT 
^AAOTIOT, though even this we now know to be an 
erroneous reading:^ 

nOAErTAPXOYNXnN ZOIinATPOY TO^ KAEO 
HATPAZ KAI AOYKIOY HONTIOY ZEKOYNAOY 
nOYBAlOY <t>AAOYIOY tABElNOY AHMHTPrOY 
TOY "fAYZTOY AHMHTPlOY TOY NIKOnOAEllS 
ZniAOY TOY nAPMENinNOZ TOY KAI MENIZKOY 
TAIOY ArrAAHlOY HOTEITOV 

It would seem, furtlier, that they were not aware of 
the corrections and nioditications which Boeckh sub- 
sequently inserted in his "Addenda et Coriigenda," 
vol. ii. p. 990, though they must have had before them 
tiie worUs of Cousinery and Leake: for some reason, 
too, they have made the inscription end with the name 
nOTEITOT. They addj ^' These words, engraven on 
the marble arch, inform us that the magistrates of 
Thessalonica were called Politarchs, and that they 
were seven in number ; and it is perhaps worth ob- 
serving (though it is only a curious coincidence) that 
three of the names are identical with those of St. 
Paul's friends in this region,^ — Sopater of BercEa, Gaius 
the Macedonian, and Secundus of Thessalonica."* 



I 



I 



^ It is perhaps worth 'while to note that BDme of the nsmea occur- 
ring in tliis inscriptiDn are found in other ins{:r)ptions from Mace- 
donia and itB neighbourhood publJehed by Boeckb Iq his great work. 
Thus we find,^ — 

Cleopatha. — In inscriptiona from Thessalonica. fioeckh^ no. 
1994 d; from Philippolis, no. 205 ; from Ileraclea. no. 2038; 
■ from Kozan, no. 1955. [&h- 

I VOL. VHI. 12 O 

mk— 



546 ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION FROM TflESSALONlCA, 

Tliey further rt-mark "that it is at least worth ourwhih 
to notice, as a mere matter ol Christian evidence, how 
accurately St. Luke writes concerning ihe political cha- 
racteristics of the cities and provinces which he nieD« 
tions. He takes notice, iti the most artless and inci* 
dental maauer, of minute detailH, which a TrauduleQl 
composer would judiciously avoid, and which in !h< 
mythical result of ineie oral tradition would eurely be 
loose and inexact. CyjHus is a *' proconsular" province; 
Philippi is a*'culony;" the magistrates of Thessalonica 
have an unusual title, unmtntioned in ancient litera- 
ture; but it appears from a monument of a different 
kind that the title is perfectly correct, and the whole 
aspect of what happened at Tliessalonica, as compared 
with the events at Pliilippi, is in perfect harmony with 
the ascertained ditTerence in tise political condition of 
the two places. . . . Those magistrates by whom the 
question at issue is ultimately decided are not Roman. 
PnttorSj hut Cireek Poltlarchs." 

Lastly, I may remark that Dr. Alford, the Deiin 
of Canterbury, in his ' Greek Testament,' 4lU ed; 
(Lond. 8vo. 1861, p. 188), haa adopted from Boeckh 



Sacupmtta.— From Pydna, do. 1957; from Tliessaloiiicn, hm. 
1969 and 1988. 

DEMii;Ttiit]fi, — Nn. 1958. 

NicoPOLifi.— No. 19^7 ff aud 19II4 d. 

Zottva. — From Vama, oo. 'J05G. 

PaR»enion. — FromTheasRlonica, DO. 1975 ; from PJeria, no. iSSl^ 

Tauhus {the father of Asclepiades). — From Ptrrinthas, no. 2036. 

Tli<? occurrence nf thet*e names may not, indeed, be con«ideri?d o/ 
much importance, but is so far icileresting as showing the exii^teiice 
in Macedonia and Thracia, of fumLlieB of the same name with those 
mentioned in the Acts and ari the iDscription vte are now 
lidering'. 




ON A GRREK INSCItlPTION FROM THESSALONICA. 547 



and Messrs. Conybeare and Howson the reading of 
nOTBAIOT ^AAOTtOT, thus showing: how long an 
error, — in this case, it is true, not of" vital coiisequence, 
• — may be preserved, when writers have not access to 
copies as certainty accurate as those made by photo- 
I raphy. 

Jt will not, of course, be supposed tiiHt iti making 
this remark I have any ioCention of casting btanie ou 
the accuracy or scholarship of the learned Dean. No 
one has time or opportunity to search out every point 
in an inquiry anew for himself; some things must be 
accepted from authors who are known to have mnde 
them their special study; and the Dean of Canterbury 
was, therefore* fully justified in assuming that the text 
of Boeckh was unimpeachable. 

I think 1 have now completed what 1 proposed to 
do; and, again, I wish to express my best thanks to 
Mr. Morton. Had be not placed in my hands, with 
the view that it should be published in the Transac- 
tions of the Royal Society of Literature, ihe photo- 
graph which was executed puiposely for him at Salo- 
niki, together wilh many remarks he had prepared on 
the published copies of this inscription, this paper 
would not have been written. I am also desirous of 
staling that Mr. Moitou bus since added to his kind- 
ness in this respect^ in that he has taken the trouble 
to read over these pages as they passed through the 
pressj making at the &ame time many useful altera- 
tions and giving to me many valuable suggestionSj of 
which 1 have had great pleasure in availing myself. 
There are other points in connection with it which I 
will not enter upon, as, for instance, the question which 
has been discussed by Boeckh, Leake, and others, as 

2o-2 



M8 ON A Ga££K INSCRIPTION FROM THESSALOKICA. 

to the actual number of Politarchs existing in Thessa-.j 
lonica as shown by the inscription. For these, and 
other questions of the kind, 1 refer those who are 
interested in this matter to an excellent resume of all 
that is known about Thessalonica — a monograph by 
T. L. F. Tafel, Professor of Antiquities in the Univer- 
sity of Tubingen, entitled 'De Thessalonica ejusque 
agro, dissertatio geographica' (Berlin, 8vo, 1839). 1 
must add, however, that like all the scholars to whom 
1 have had to refer during the preceding paper, Tafel 
does not seem to have been aware of the *' Addenda €t 
Corrigenda," thouj^h these were published by Boeckh 
at least four years before his own work issued from 
the press. 

For the same reason I will not occupy the time of 
the Society with a discusi^ion as to the architectural 
character of the structure on which this inscription \s 
preserved* or as to the probability or not of its having 
been erected in commemoration of the battle of Philippi. 
These and other similar points, can hardly be set at 
rest, except by a visit to the locality itself, and perhaps 
not even then. 

W. S. W. Vaux. 



% 



549 



ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION AT MYTILENE, RELATING 

TO THE COINAGE OF THAT CITY AND OF 

PHOCjEA, 

(lUad Novemlier SI, 1866.) 



7ro\£7 . a^oi , 

. . ■ ^ * •ypo^jtoi i <r TtfffTa 

.... Tioict Kv[p^tov eenca' [rhfi fttv KQ-^av- 

TB to] •^(pvtriov VTToBiKov e[fifievat afit^o- 

Tip]aicn rai<i iroXUo'a'i, &iK[tifrrat^ Be S 

efi]/j,evai TO} fikv ifj. MuTiXfym [vTroh{fr- 

qt] raU dp-)(al'i Traicraif ral? c/i M[vrcX- 

»j]va 7rA.€af tmv alftiafrnv, e/i 4»<u/en ^[e t- 

aiv ap^fflK traiaai'i rait ifL fl'm/ca 7r\[e'- 

a; TCtii/ atyi.£ircQ>[i''>] rav &€ Sixav €fifi.<V&t 10 

ffc at Se K€ «aTa[je^t(?]3 to -^vtrlov K^p- 

vav \shapk<rT€[p\o\y'\ ^eKtov, Oavdr^ja ^apbi- 

aitrffai- at Se k€ d7r[i/]<jb[ai']j7 /i[^] j^cXmf a,^^p[o- 

auT[o]v Tra^^c fr) icaTB<i\ji\fvaif a he iraXi^ avaC* 

TW7 Kol a^a.fi.io<i [Io-Jtoj' e^aiJ^o*- MuTtXTj- 

mof TTpoo-^E «oin-nji' ' a/>^e( Tr/joravi? o 

TTfifia KoXjOD'OI', £[/t 4']aiJC^ 5e o TreSa 'ApiV[T- 

0^0 r. BO 

On a fragment of grey marble, rather nnore than 
1 foot 7^ inches each way, built into the wall of a 
house belonging to one Demetrios Kara Panagiotes, 



550 ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION AT MYTILEKH. 



in a street near to the Castle, Mytilene. Engraved, 
Conze^ Reise auf der Insel Lesbos, 1865^ taf. vi. (See 
ibid. p. 12) A few letters are wanring In Conze's 
transcript, which I have supplied from an impression- 
in paper talien by me in 1852. 

This inscription seems to be the latter part of al 
treaty between the Mytilenteans and the Pbocaeans, to 
leiJjulate the standard of a gold coinage common to 
both states. The dialect is yEolic. The letters are 
written crTOi;^ijBoV, and the date of the inscription ia 
probably not later than Olymp, 96. 

1. 7. rats afy^ais •Trata'ais for Tar dpj^as Trdtras, (S( 
Ahrens, De Dialect. Mol ^ 10. 4.) "_ 

1, 8. irKfaa for irXfis, aifitcrctau for j^fnaetuv. (See Ah- 
rens, ^ 15. 3.) ^uiKa for ^toxaia. The genitive ^toKila? 
occurs in Sappho, Fragm. 14. (See Ahrens, ^ 16. 1.) 

1. 11. ^jJiTefft for pLTjol. The form fir\veci with a 
single V occurs in two passages in Herodotus, iv^. 43] 
and viii. 51, (see Baehr's note on the latter passage, 
and Jacobs ad iElian. Nat. An. ix. 4.) For the redu-| 
plication of the v compare /*tji'i'oV (Bockh, C. 1. 216G, 
and Ahrens, ^ 8.) 

I. 14. amlyy^lav]^^ for airo^v^. The top of the 
still remains. af£^pori]V tor dftaprelv. 
I. 16. TraOtfv for iraSnlp, 

1. 18. KOTTTTJV for tCOTTTtlV ; fTpOTavtS fof TTpUTaWJ J cf. 

Bockh. C. I. 2166, 1. 31, and 22656, for other in- 
stances. The derivation of TrpCrapts from irpo is thus 
confirmed. 

We may suppose that the upper part of the inscrip-1 
tion. now broken away, contained the terms on which 
the two cities agreed to have a curreney in common, 
for it is clear from what follows thai both states had 



ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION AT MYTILENE. 551 



I 



a common interest in preventing any deterioration of 
the standard. 

I shall now give an abstract of the text, reservins; 
for after discussion the consideration of certain diffi- 
culties in its interpretation. 

I. 4. sq. [It is ordained] that (the officer who has 
struck) the gold should be subject to trial, uvo^tteo^^ 
bolh in Mytikne and in Phocaea, and that the jurors, 
BiKiurTai, for this trial, in both these cities, shall be a 
majority of the magistrates, apxat. The trial is to take 
place within six months after the year comes to an 
end. If the person under trial shall be convicted ot 
having wilfully adulterated the gold ? KaTa[Kpiff]i} 6e\tov 
TO yjpvfflov Kepvav vSa^tPTe[p]o|^r, he is tO be punlshcd 
with death ; hut if he shall he judged to have erred but 
not wilfully, let the court decide what he ought to suf- 
fer, or to pay as a fine, but let the city be free from the 
charge and from all liability. The Mytilenreans ob- 
tained by lot the priority in the right of coining, Tbe 
chief masristrates are the Prvtanis who comes after 
Kolonos in Mytilene, and the Prytanis who conies after 
Aristarchos in Phoccea. 

There can hardly be a doubt that the ypvaiov to 
which the inscription refers is the well-kntiwn cur- 
rency struck by the Greek cities on the western coast 
of Asia, in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., and of 
which Cyzicus and Phoc*a were the principal mints. 
Much of this money was paid into the Athenian trea- 
sury, as tribute from the allied states, as is shown by 
the mention of Phocsean staters and keHce in incriptions 
containing lists of (inafhemata in the Parthenon. 

In the majority of extant specimens of this coinage 
more or less of silver is mixed with the gold. Hence 



552 ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION' AT M¥TtLENE. 

it has been generally assumed by numismatists that 
the metal used in this currency was the electrum ot 
the ancients. 

It has, liowever, been objected that whenever the 
money of Pbocrea and Cyzicus is mentioned in ancient 
authors or inscriptions it is calkd, as in the inscrip- 
tion before us, ^vatov, not ^Xe/crpov ; nor does it appear 
that money of electrum is directly mentioned anywhere! 
in Greek or Roman Uterature, except in a passage of 
Lampridius relating to certain pieces, probably medal- 
lions, struck by the Emperor Sevcrus Alexander.' 
Further, the analysis of several so-called electrum 
coins by the Due de Luynes showed that the propor- 
tion of gold to silver in them was not adjusted by any 
fixed rules, and that, in one instance, the silver was to 
the gold as three to two ; whereas, according to Pliny, 
N. H. xxxiii. 23, electrum was a compound containing 
four parts of gold to one of silver.'' On the othei 
handj it mig]it be said that, though these proportions' 
may represent the standard of electrum established 
in Pliny's time, it does not follow from his statement 
that this standard has always prevailedj or that the' 
earlier Greek writers invariably used the word ^Xeicrf 
in the restricted sense of Pliny's definition.' 



' LampridiuSt vie. Alexand. Severi, c 95. 

* Lenormant, ' Revue Numismatique,' N. S., i. p. 88-98, See ali 
RoBftig-nol, ' Lea Metaux duDs TAntiquil^,' Paris, 1803, pp. 334-37^ 
on the electrum genernlly. 

^ Strabo speaks of electrum as the compouod obtained by tbe firs 
mehillurgicBl proceaa employed on native goM : m Si toC ;^pwro5 
tif/ofitvoi} KO.I. KauAtp<i^tvov fjTvimjfutaSfi Ttvl y^ tA KoBapfia i^\<Krpov 
«tvat' TToAi-v ffli Tavrnvt KaSvpofxevov fiZyfia «j(WTos apyvpoit Kixi ypwroSm 
Toc /JLtV apyvpOV awoKaUfrOat, toV S( )(pviTOV viTOp-ivuv {\\\. p. 1-16). 

we auppoBe that by the propels here described a compatind coul 



Of* A CSKEK INSCRIPTION AT MYTILENE, 



553 



I 



In a well-known passage in the * Antigone ' of So- 
phocles (1. 1038), the poet places in apposition to irpos 

SapB^<air TjXiKTpop . . . KOI TOif 'IvBiKOV ■j(pvsov. By the 

electrum from Sardis, Sophocles no doubt meant the 
native ore from the Pactolus, which, like that from Spain, 
Trans3^'lvaiiia, and other auriferous regions, probably 
contained more of less of sliver. Most of the gold used 
in the tninls of Phocaea and other neighhourmg Greek 
cities on the same coast was probaSjIy obtained from the 
washings of the Pactolus in a mixed state. The gold of 
Cyzicus was probably derived partly from this source, 
but still more frona the Crimea. The art of refining 
gold must have been known in Asia from a very early 
period, for we find Croesus offering at Delphi plinths 
of refined gold, XP^'^^^^ a^rr^^Bo?, and of pale or mixed 
gold, XeuKor -xpvfTo^* and the darics subsequently struck 
by Darius were of the finest standard.^ 

The Greek states of western Asia Minor, probably 
from expediency rather than from want of metallurgi- 
cal skill, used in their coinages the mixed metal, which^ 
perhaps, may be more accurately designated pale gold 
than electrum, though the latter term has so generally 
prevailed among numismatists that it could not be 
changed without some inconvenience. 

be produced in which the quantities of gold to silver were always 
maintBined in the stime proportion, viz. 4 Co 1, it becomea a curioua 
subject for inquiry how, with the imperfect chemical knowledge of 
the ancients, &o nice a result could be obtained. 

Servius ad Jilneid. viii. 402, and leidoru^, Origin, xvi. 24, state 
that the proportion of gold to silver in electrum was 3 to 4, not 
4 to 5 as PHny asserts. 

* Herod, i. 5U. Straho usee -^vaiav Xcvkov* iii. 220, as synony- 
tDOUS with upyopopiycf. 

' Herod, iv. 1 66. 



554 



ON A GaECK INSCaiPTlQM AT MYTILENS. 



The so-called electium coinage of the western cda 
of Asia Minor probably comraeiiced as early as the 
time of CrcEsus, and lasted till the time of Alexander 
the Great, but the majority of extant specinieos seem 
to have been struck between b.c. 460 and b.c. 360. 
The coins which we possess, exclusively of the larger 
pieces of Cyzicus, are chiefly hektee, some of which 
clearly belong to Phocaea, whilst others, from the evi- 
dence of their types, may be attributed with more 
of less probability to Smyrna, Pergamus, Erylhrap, 
and other cities of j-Eolis and Ionia. One of these 
keHiP, having on the obverse a hehiieted head ofj 
Athene, and on the reverse AE, two calves face to face»j 
is rightly attributed by Btirgon to Lesbos» and in that 
island specimens of tiie so-CiiUed electrum coinage are 
often to be purcliased. It may be observfd that, 
though the extant Ae//i» exhibit such a diversity o 
type as to justify us in attributing them to various in- 
dependent cities on the western coast, they present at 
the same time sucli a general uniformity in fabric, 
weight, and standard as to suggest the notion that they 
were struck according to some common system of 
mintage^such as would result from a commercial league. 
Whatever may have been the number of cities thus 
associated, it may be inferred from the prominent 
mention of Cyzicene and Phociean money in ancient 
writers and inscriptions, that these two were the 
dominant mints on the western coast, and were pro- 
bably establisheJ at an earUer period than the rest. 

If the gold money of Cyzicus and Phocaea bad a 
wide-spread commercial reputation, it would obviously 
have been to the advantage of neighbouring cities to 
assimilate their coinage as far as pos&ihle to that of 



ON A GHEEK INSCRIPTION AT MYTILENK. 555 



I 



one of these two mints, so that it might pass current 
at the same rate. 

In the case of Mytilene, we nmy infer from the 
general tenor of the treaty now under consideration 
that the currency was regulated by a mutual guarantee, 
so that the Mytilensean moneyer was liable to be tried 
by a jury of Plioca?an magistrates, and vice rersd, the 
Phoc^ean moneyer by a jury of Mytilen^an magistrates, 
the object of such an arrangement being, of course, to 
secure the inquiry from all undue local influence. 
This reciprocal arrangement is certainly not distinctly 
stated in the text, but it seems to be implied in the 

words hiK{a<irTaiy t* ^it\fi&»at too ^^v Ifi MvriXrfS't^ [vttoS/k^] 
efi ^otKO. fi[e TJatr apyaii -rrata-aif toIt €fi ^tcKa wXea^ rasv 

ot/iWmv; especially, when we take these words in con- 
nection with the fact that these cities were to strike 
money alternately — eXa^ov MurtXT/vaoi -rfpo&Oi «a-7m7»^,and 
with the clause, d Se Tro\ts avanms xal a^iifnos' etrrw. Fot 
if, by fixing the blame on the moneyer, the city was re- 
leased from all liability, it follows that such liability 
was otherwise contracted by the city in respect to the 
other party or parties to the treaty. 

This convention between Phocsea and Mytilene 
throws light on a curinus anecdote from the Apo- 
phthegms of Kallisthenes, which has been preserved 
by Julius Pollux, in his Onomnsticon, ix. 93. Kal- 
listhenes states that the poet Persinos, having been 
neglected by KubuloSj the tyrant of Alarneus^ left hiro. 
and went to Mytilene. When Eubulos expressed sur- 
prise at this, Persinos wrote to tell him that he had 
found it more agreeable to change the Fhociean money 
{^xatBtrt), which he had brought with hiui, in Mytilene 



56G ON A GREEK INSCRiPTION AT MYTILENE^ 

than in Atarneiis. The commentators on this pa 
suppose that Persinos found Mylilene a pleasanter 
place of residence than Atarneus, because he had there 
greater freedom of action, and could spend his money 
as he liked. But may it not rather refer to the differ- 
ence of the rate of exchange between Alarneus and 
Mytilene? In the Levant, at the present day, the^ 
profit on the exchange of gold varies considerably ii 
different parts of Turkey. Such was probably tlie 
case m antiquity^ and it may have been the object 
of Eubulos to depreciate unduly the value of the Pho-. 
Clean staler, and to exact an unjust exchange; when 
it would be a natural consequence of the convention 
between Mytilene and Phociea, recorded in this in^ 
scriprion, that there should be complete reciprocity 
in the rate of exchange in both cities. As Eubulos. 
must have been a contemporary of Mausolus," the conJ 
vention would then have been in force for some years 
at Mytilene, if the inscription is of the period to which 
1 have assigned it. 

Having thus endeavoured to explain the general 
meaning nnd object of this inscription, I have to 
notice certain lacunes and difficulties in the text, the 
restoration and interpretation of which may admit ofj 
doubt. 

1 have assumed that the Wo^ikov {1. 4) refers to the 
person who (1. 13, 14) is liable to capital or other 
punishment, and that this person can be no other 
than the moneyer. This, I think, may be fairly in- 
ferred from the context, and it is satisfactory to find 



• Pollax, ed, Dindorf. v. p. 1112. 

^ See at) inecrlptinD, Bockh, C. I. Mo. 2534. 

* ArtBtot. PolU. ii. 4. nd. Gottlinpr. See MA, p, 325. 



ON A GREEK INSCRIPTION AT .MYTILENE. 557 



that the restoration (to^ fikv Ko^avra to) contains the 
exact number of letters required to fill the lacune at 
the end of I. 3 and beginning of 1.. 4, 

This restorsition admitted, no word seems so appro- 
priate at the end of I 6 as {mohtKtp. 

1. 1^2, 13^ a(. fie K€ «aTa[/epi^Jp to -j^ofrlov K^pvav v&a- 
pe(rT€[p]o[tf] 0€Ku)v, " if he shnll be convicted of having 
wilfully adulterated the gold." The interpretation here 
conjecturally proposed is not satisfactory, but, taken in 
connection with the context, these words can hardly 
contain any other meaning. 

In KOTalxpiff]!} the traces of the KPI are doubtfuh 
The 9 which follows is rather more distinct. The 
letters KEPNAN are indisputable. The letters 
YiiAPEZTE are equally clear. Of the P which follows 
there are only doubtful traces. T have supposed 
Kepvav to be an jEoHc form of Ktpvav, to mix. The 
literal translation would thus be — " if he shall be 
convicted of having mixed the gold too watery, ?'. e. 
of having too much diluted the gold." The coa- 
strnction KaTaKptOjj Kepvav may be compared with Kora- 
ypta<iB^is irp^fjdiw (Hei'od. vi. ^). It may, however, be 
objected that we find in Alcaeus mpvais, not Kspvats. 

In reference to the words to yjixmtov Kepvav uJa- 
pecrrepou it may be observed that gold ore in antiquity, 
as now, was washed in the first instance in water, and 
sifted through a sieve to get rid of the earth with 
which it is found intermixed. Hence the gold-works 
in Spain were called ■^^pvcoTrXuam, *'goldi washings." 
The word vtapia-r^pov seems, at first sight, to refer 
to this process^ but I am unable, on this supposition, 
to extract any satisfactory meaning out of the passage. 
The context seems clearly to sliow that vZap^fXT^pGv^ 




558 ON A GKKEK INSCRIPTION AT MTTILENE, 

must be here construed '* tnixed too weak,'' '*^ too muci 
diluted with alloy." This may have been the techoia 
word to express adii Iteration. Hence ltd coiubinatioci 
liere with Kepmv- 

The tpilhet uSaprfs is cotnmonly used in Greek in' 
speaking ol" wine, as Ihe antithesis to oKparos, ** un- 
mixed or pure wine" Hence, by an easy metaphor, 
it might be applied to gold, or anytliing else su&cep- 
tible of dilution. Thus we find v8af»}s ^(Xo'-njs (.^sch. 
Again. 798) ; Chap^^ t/jAm (Ari&tot. Pol, 2. 4, 7). The 
phrase OLfftijpesf xepd-a-aaa^ " mixing a bath lo an agree- 
able teniperriture/' Od. x. 3fi2, may be compared with.] 
Kepvav vBape<rT€potK^ 

It is not surprising that the penalty here enacted' 
for adtilteratijig the currency should he so severe, 
when we consider the facility tor such malpracticea] 
which the use of a mixed metal in the mint wouli 
offer. As much of the tribute of the Asiatic depen- 
dencies wds paid into the AtliLnian treasury in Pho^ 
ctean gold, it was probably current at Athens in tin 
time of Pericles ; but there is reason to believe thai 
it was not in good repute there, and Hesychius calls 
it TO KiLKiaTifv -xpvaiov, referring probably to the laterg 
coioHge.^" 

The gold seems purest in the earliest specimens. 

C. T. Newton. 



■ Compare ^'Mponpov Kepiu^f. II. ix, 203. Ste also Ephipp. in 
Meinfke, Fragni. Com. Gr. tii. p, 329, 3. AtiEfjih. ibid, ii:. p. 77. 2. 
" See my ' History of Discoveries ut Budrum. eic./ ii. part 2t 

pp, ens 6. 



559 



ON RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE SCULPTURES AND 
A-NTIQUITIES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

(Read JaoMTj g4th, 1868) 



It is now some years since I had the pleasure of laying 
before tbe Royal Society of Literature an account of 
the excavations made by tny friend and colleague, Mr. 
Newton, — tbe present Keeper of the Greek and Roman 
Antiquities in the Briti&h Museum,— ^on tlie site of 
tbe Mausoleum at Halicarna&sus, at Branchidse and at 
Cnidus ; together with a notice of the researches 
undertaken by Captains Porcher and Smith, among 
the ruins at Cyrene, 

The monuments acquired by these geiitleraen are 
now in the British Museum, thoufjli, 1 regret to say, 
still invisible to the public, under the temporary glass 
sheds beneath the portico, which they have long oc- 
cupied, and, as far as I can see, are hkely to occupy 
for yet many years, 

I have, therefore, thought it might not be wholly 
uninteresting to the Society, if I were, on this occa- 
sion, to give its members a brief account of the prin- 
cipal additions which have been made during recent 
yeurs, to the sculptures and other antiquities of the 
British Museum ; the more so, that I am not aware 
Jhat any detailed notice of them has been anywhere 
given, or is likely to be published in any other chan- 



560 



OPJ RKCKNT ADDITIONS TO THE 



nel. In doing this, 1 may state, generally, that the 
objects I am about to describe are, with few excep- 
tions, so arranged as to be readily seen by the public ; 
so that, should my description tail to be intelligible, 
any one really interested in such matters can go an 
look tor himself. 

I propose to arrange what I have to &ay under the 
following principal beads : — 

1. Sculptures, recently acquired, in continuation o: 
the great collection procured by Mr. Newton from 
Halicarnn&sus. 

2. Antiquities of various classes, from recent exca 
vations by Messrs. Biliotti and Salzmann, at Camirus 
in the Island of Rhodes. 

3. Sculptures, etc., from the collection of the late 
Count de Pouiialt^s-Gorgier. 

4. Sculptures, etc., from the Faniese Palace at Rome. 

5. Various collectionsj procured either by purchase 
or gift, from Mr. Dennis, the late Viscount Strangford, 
Mr. Newton, and SiL^nor Castellani. 

6. A series of nu&ct;||aneous objects of special inter- 
est or value. 

To take— 

1. Fragments of the Mausoleum. 

The Museum has recently acquired from the Mar- 
chese Serra a very valuable slab, the existence of which 
at the Villa di Negri, Genoa, has been long known. 
It represents, first, an Amazon vanquiished by a war- 
rior, kneeling and stretching out her hands for niercy, 
the warrior having hold of" her by her bair ^ and, 2dly, 
a warrior defending himself, on his knees, from the 
attack of an Amazon. This slab is, unquestionably, a 
portion of the frieze of the order, and was in the pos 




SCULPTURES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 



561 



session of the Serra and Bajano families for more than 
a century. Its state of preservation is remarliable : 
better, indeed, in some respects, than th-it of any of 
the slabs procured either in 1847, or, subsequently, 
during Mr. Newton's more extended researches. 

There Is much room lor curious speculation as to 
how this solitary piece of the Mausoleum-frieze found 
its way to a villa at Genoa. The probability is that 
some Genoese visited (he port of HaHcarnassus before 
what the knijjhts of Rhodes spared of the Mausoleum 
was completely silted over^ and, remarking the beauty 
of the workmanship on this fn;gment, brought it away 
for the adornment of his own home. 

That there were men of some taste among those 
who committed such irreparable havoc on one of the 
" Seven Wonders of the \\ orld " is clear from the (act 
that portions of one or more of the original friezes, 
representing AmazonomachiEe, together with heads of 
colossal lions, were noticed by Choiseul-Goulfier and 
other travellers who have visited Budrum, as still at- 
tached to the waUs of the castle built by the Knights 
at that place. Part of these were removed and brought 
to England during the first expedition inaugurated by 
Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, the remainder, since that 
period, by Mr. Newton himself. We cannot there- 
fore doubt that these fragments were preserved from 
utter ruin by some of tlie Knights of Rhodes, at the 
time they pulled down the Mausoleum to construct 
their caslle with its materials. It h not unlikely, that 
the slab taken to Genoa may have been put aside for 
a similar use, but, for some reason or other, was not 
worked up, as so many other pieces of sculpture had 



been. 



VOL. vui. 




2 p 



562 



ON RRCENT ARDITIMNS TO TtlE 



In coniiecllon also \\\x\\ the Mausoleum, I may 5t»tl 
thfit, tjuite ncently, Mi\ Newton has been able t^ 
obtain from Constanliuople the cast of another slat 
whkh he had noticed as early as 1852 in the Imperial 
Museum at the Seraglio. This fragment, representics 
an Amazon rushing forward with uplifted battle-axe, 
belongs to the same frieze, and is setilplured In the 
same maj;terly manner as the rest. Hesides the slahs 
from the Villa di Ne^ri, and the cast from the Turkisl 
Museum, many more fragments have been receivi 
from Budrum during the lust year, the result for 1 1 
most part of excavations made by Messrs. Biliotti an* 
Salzmann under the sites of two Turkish houses, wfaif 
Mr. Newton h;id (idled in persuadinji the owners to mak< 
over to him at the period of ins own researches. 

As, however, tlteir value consists chieHy in the po« 
sibility of completing from them some of the siiuttcre* 
slabs already t rouglit to England in previous years,- 
a work requiring much time and earnest study — I neet 
not, on the present occasion, occupy the attention of 
the Society with what must, from the nature of the 
case, be but an imperfect account of them. 

1 shall, therefore* at once proceed to [2) the re-^ 
searches of Messrs. liiliutti and Salzmamrj at Camirus» 
in the island of Rhodes, as, by their zeal and exertions^ 
the nation has been foitunate in the acquisition of a 
very ren^arkable assemblage of ivorks of art, in many 
styles and differing materials, — each specinteu. too, 
exhibiting its own characteristic excellence in the 
happy treatment of the material on which the artist 
has chanced to work. 

I should state in Um'me-, that Camirus was situated' 
on the northern shore of Rhodes, and was one o( the, 




SCUMTURBS IN THE DiaTIStI MUSEUM. 



5G3 



three principal cities of thnt island, before tbe founding 
of the cily of Rhodes, Camirus, Lindus, and Jalysus 
were traditionaUy named from, and founded by, the 
three grnndsons of Ochimus ; and these towns, in 
alliance and conjunction with Cos, Cnidus, and Ilali- 
cainassns, formed what was called the Dorian llexa- 
polis, with a common sanctuary on the Triopiau head- 
land on the coast of Caria, Apollo was the tutelary 
deity of this confederation. (Herod, i, 1440 ' 

The town of Rhodes itself was huilt at the north- 
eastern extremity of tlie isliind, by the miion of Lin- 
dus, Jalysus, and Caniirug, about d.c. 408, and thus 
became the capital of the island. 

After the establishment of the new capital, the earlier 
towns seem to have gradually decayed. We should, 
therefore, naturally expect that monuments disinterred 
on the site of Camirus — should this site be well deter- 
mined— would he of very remote antiquity, and such 
is, to a f^reat extent, the case. 

The first origin of the discovery of antiquities at 
Camirus is curious. The site was covered with a pine 
forest, on clearing which and cultivating the soil, the 
peasants discovered the Necropolis by the accident of 
a bullock stumbling into a tomb while dragging the 
111 I8.'j3, Mr. Newton visited the site, and 
obtained thence many terra-cotta vases of a very ar- 
chaic character ; these he states (' Travels and Disco- 
veries in the Levant,' vol. i. p. 235) were found near 
the modern villap;eof Kalavarda. lie says (under date 
of Aug. 5, 18.^3), " In this village I was much inter- 
ested by finding a number of Greek fictile vases in the 
peasants' houses. These vases are of various styles. 
Amon^^ them are several platters, piTuikes, of a very 

2 p y 



5fi4 



ON RECKNT ADDITIONS TO TM K 



early perfoH, with s:eGmetrical patterns painted in lirown 
on a pule ground. 

"This kind of ware has been found in the tombs 
Athens, Melos, and of other paria of Greece, and 



thoui;! 



be of 



thi 



very remote antM|Ui 
as the sites of Mycena? and Tirvns are strewn with it. 
I also found at Kalavat'da, several jugs, amphora and^i 
oinocfioee^ on which were painted either black figure^H 
on a red ground, or red figures on a black ground. 
None of these designs were remarkable for beauty of 
drawini^ or excellence of fabric, but mostly s^peciniens 
of the later period of the art. The clay seemed rather 
thick and heavy. The peasants also showed me some 
small terracotta (inures. On inquiry I was told that 
all these objects wtre found in tombs near the vil 
lage." 

Such was the first notice of the discovery of ancient 
relics in this part of Rhodes : need we add that it w 
(jnite sufficient to stimulate to further excavations 
ilence it was, that representations haviug been mac 
in tlie righi tjuarter, a AVmrm was procured from Con- 
stantinople, and MM. Biliotti and Salzinana, who ha 
followed closely on Mr, Newton's footsleps, were era- 
powered to undertake a systematic examination 
Kalavarda and of its neighbourhood. The result 
that the Acropohs of Camirus has been discovert 
and thoroughly exploredj nut less thnn 275 toral 
havinfj; been opened during the winter and spring 
lSfi3-4, From these tombs, combined wirh the re- 
searches of previous years, a vast number of snial 
precious monuments, consisting of ornaments in gol 
glass, and bronze, figure? in terra-cotta and calcareous 
stone, vases, and alabaster jars, have been procured. 



SCULPTUKES IN THK BRITISH MU8EUM. 



565 



• 



Most ol' these objects range in date between B.C. 6G0 
(or possibly still earlier) and n.c. 2UU ; the more arehaic 
specimens beiiis; certainly anterior to the Persian War, 
L e. to Bu. 480. 1 may add that, on the site of the 
Acropolis, various loundatioDS of walls were laid bare, 
and, under these foundations, a curious set of galleries, 
with shafts at intervals, has been traced out ; and that 
a great variety of early antiquilits, in porcelain, bronze, 
ivory, gold, potteiy, and different minerals, has beea 
found in these shafts and galleries. The whole of the 
collection from Camirus may be convenitenlly grouped 
under certain main headings, sudi as the following! — 

J. Asiatico-Phcenician or Archaic Greek, 

2. Greek of the best and later periods. 

3. Egyptian or iuiitatiouiii uf Egyptian. 

The first class is by far the most important, in that 
it comprehends most of the gold and silver ornaments, 
together with a few terra-coltas, aud aftords a most 
curious subject for inquiry, as to the source from 
which it has been derived. It has been generally sup- 
posed that thesse and similar works are due to artists 
whose homes were the chief cities of Piioenicia, — Tyre 
and Sidou, — a view supported by the fact that very 
similar terra-cotta figures have been procured, in re- 
cent years, from tombs at Sidon. 

1 rt isli, however, in accepting for them the generic 
name ot Phoenician, to guard myself against admitting 
the idea that they are wholly prodncC& of the inventive 
art of the inhabitants of Pbcenicia ; since I cannot but 
think that not a lew specimens betray a marked Assy- 
rian itifluencej and would seem to be copies, at second 
or third hand, of monuments orif^iually Assyrian. I 
imagiue that the gjueral character of Assyrian art 




56(\ 



0^f S.KCENT ADDITIONS TO THE 



must have been well knowu in Western Asia, both 
before and subsequentiv lo the tinal overthrow of Ni- 
neveh, about B.C. (i20 ; and most persons will, I be- 
lieve, recognize, even at first sight, a manifest connec- 
tion between many of the objects of this Class and the 
products of the well-known and well-defined art of 
Assyria ; such as may be seen on the earliest sculp- 
tures Mr. Layard disinterred at Psimrud, and on the 
beautiful specimens of sculpture procured by Mr. Lot- 
tus from the most recent palaces al Koyuujik. 

In tbe present state of our knowledge^ it seems to 
be wUer to term them Asiatic than PhoBnician, — the 
more so that such a title precludes our limiting their 
production to any one particular province or district. 

At tbe same time I do not underrate the recorded in- 
fluence of the PbtEuicians upon Greece and its islands : 
it is quite possihle* nay, very probable, that to them we 
owe the introduction of the formative arts into Greece, 
as Greece herself unquestionably owes to them the cha- 
racters of her alphabetic writing. It is well known, 
that in very remote ages, Asiatic colonies, cliiefly from 
Tyre, spread all along the shores of the Mediterranean, 
abundant traces being still found of tbeir coloniz- 
ing energy^ at Cartilage, in Sicily, Sardinia, Majorca, 
and at Tartessus, Gades, and other places in Spain. 
We have, also, the important traditions that Cadmus 
— himself, as his name implies, an Oriental, and pro- 
bably a Phoenician— came to Rhodes and left there 
some Pbojnician settlers (Diod. Sic. v. 58); and that 
Minos — himself probably a Phoenician — founded an 
empire in Crete: while the Odyssey especially notices 
the Phoenicians as pav<nKXiJToi avBpes (Odyas. xv. 415), 
that is, men illustrious lor their naval skilk 




SCULPTURES IN TIIK EKITIBH MUSEUM. 



567 



IVe are also informed tliat, in remote tinieSj the 
Phtrnicians were famous as nietal-workers,- — tlie story 
of the building o( Solomon's temple by the aid of 
Hiram's workmen tending to confirm this stntement ; 
while we have the direct testimony of Iloraer that the 
cuirass ot Agamemnon was made either at Sidon or 
in Cyprus. Lastly, we find notices uf a certain tribe 
or set of men, called the Telchines, who were noted 
as workers of metal in the island of Rhodes, — there 
being httle douLt that these Telchines, as the first 
syllable of their name naturally suggests, were them- 
fielves of Asiatic origin ; — together with the legend 
that Danaus himself built the temple of Athene at 
Linrlus. 

All I wish to urge is, that the evidence of the 
purely Phoenician origin of these and similar works 
is not, to my mind, satisfactory; though I am ready to 
admit the One^ntal descent of these uictallic ornaments, 
and to accept the general starements in ancient au- 
thors, noticed above, as expressing their belief that 
the Phoenicians were a race who had cultivated in a 
remarkable degree a certain style of art^ and this, too, 
at a period when they had few, if any, rivals. 

Admitting, then, as a general principle, that Phoe- 
nician navigators and settlers did, in al! probability, 
convey these arts to the shores of Greece, I am in- 
chned to think that, on the whole, the works tbeni- 
selveg represent very truly a tiaditionul style, accepted 
generally throughout Western Asia, and ultimately, 
with some modifications, in Greece itself, — a style of 
which Nineveh was probably the original fountain- 
head, — though, possibly, the name of that famous city, 
and of the wonderful works eni^hrintd in itt^ ruins, was 



5U8 



ON KECENT AUDITIONS TO THE 



as unknown to tlie makers of these monmiients as i 
was alike to classical and modern times till, scarcely 
twenty years since, the buried city was restored to the 
gaze of man. 

I shall now proceed to describe, individually, a few 
of the more remarkable of these metallic ornameutai, 
drawings of some of which I have had made, to serv 
as typical specimens. 

1 may premise lliat almost all the gold and silvei 
ornaments (among which the gold largely predoml 
nate in number) have evidently been used either (I 
as necklaces or {'2) for attachment lo diStTent parts 
of a dress, consisting, for the most part, of thin pieces 
or plaques of metal, averaging from one to two and a 
hall inches in length, with subjects on them, worked 
lip, as a rulcj from behind, after the fashion called i 
modern times rcpoussae work. 

The leading varieties are as follows :-— 

1. A female tignre, standing in front, draped to the 
feet, and the feet themselves almost hidden, as on the 
earliest sculptures from Braiichida;, with long hair 
elaborately dressed falling on the shoulders, and naked 
breasts ; the arms raised in a stirt formal manner, and 
the hands partially closed ; the whole in an oblong 
fiame surroumled by dots, with two or more holes for 
attachment. (Fig. L) 

2. A similar Hffure, but somewhat larger, with large 
wings of peculiar shape, reseniblinn- a nimbus, the 
hands crossed in front and the elbows square, and 
rosette on each side of the legs : the arms support 
small animal— perhaps a cow or bull — which rests 
against the figure. (Fig. 2.) 

3. A similar figure, with long curling hair and nak 



1 



^Jl 



'i /I I 



■7N| 



m 



) '.J ) 



;if=^-;r>-' 



I 






A 







SCULPTURES IN TUB BKITISH MUSEUM. 



5f>9 



I 



breasts, and wings on each side, very formally treated : 
the bands are stretched out, on either side, straight 
from the elbow, and a rose, in relief, is on the aide of 
each leg. Tiie tnp of this plaque is turned round, to 
allow of a chain to pass throuj^^h it for suspension or 
attachment. (Fig. 3.) 

4. A similar figure, somewhat larger, hands stretched 
out and holding in each a small lion by the tail ; on 
each side of feet, a rose iticuse ; at the bottom, three or 
four ball* or pomegranates, and, at the top* a projec- 
ting piece of metal for attachment. The manner in 
which the lions are held out, and the general character 
of the subject, recall the sculptures from Khorsabad. 
See Bolla. (Fig. 4.) 

5. A similar ii^ure, but holding a ram in each hand 
by the neck. This specimen is much less ornate than 
the preceding or the following, wnd is in silver. 

6. A similar figure, but, on each side, a lion springing 
up, resting its forepawa against the figure and turning 
its head back. The body of the figure is clothed in 
drapery, richly ornamented with wavy lines, etc. At 
the bottom are four pomegranates, and at the top 
three wide rings for suspension or attachment. There 
are several slight modifications of this type, and, at the 
top of some of them, is a flat disk or rosette of twelve 
petals. (Fig. 7.) 

7. A similar figure, with the subject treated much as 
on the previous one, with this distinction, however, 
that the lions on the right and left of the figure stand 
out all but detached from the rest of the metal, while 
to the back of the plaque two hawks or eagles are 
represented, clinging by their talons. Above^ in the 
centre, is a star of ten points. The lions and the 




570 



ON RECKNT ADDITIONS TO THK 



hawks are treated in a rich but conventional manned 
The character of the lions on thi& ohject are very! 
similar to those on the fibula fruni Cervetri, whicli be- 
louged to the late Mr. Blayds, and is now in the AIu-; 
seuin [infra, p. 38). (Fig. 9.) 

8. A type resembling in many ways the Nar-singh^ or 
man-lion, of the later sculptures ivoin Koyunjik. ItJ 
represents a compound figure, consistiny; ol the bead, 
hody, and legs of a man, t>ul attached to the hodyj apd^ 
as it were, growing out of it, the hody of an anirnali 
with hoots. In the left hand is a deer, above, a rosette 
of twelve petuU, and below, tour pomegranates. 
This peculiar cunibication is found on a well-known 
vase, found at Athens (see First Vase Room, case fl 
no. 5). It luay also be seen on another vase, possibly of 
I>ure Etruscan work (see First Vnse Room, case 14, m 
44'2). Some similar compound figures are also found,^ 
though rarely, on the engraved cylinders from Assyria. 
(Fig. 8.) 

9* A winged man-headed lion walking to the left, ex* 
hibiting hair very much curled; below, standing out* 
from the nietal^ three heads, each with long and curl-, 
ing bair: above and around the lion are one ring an< 
four JoopSj apparently intended to receive enamel, 
below are four pomegranates, Some eight or ten 
specimens of this type exist. In this case, and in 
others which may be considered modifications of it^ 
the wings are thrown back over the whole figure, pi 
cisely as on the Assyrian sculptures. (Fig. ti.) 

10. Two human heads, healing much resemblance' 
to those on ihc last type, but set by themselves in 
frames. The lower part of this plaque is adorned with 
circles, and with three rings at lop and three or foui^ 
jfoniegranates below . 



VH&a IS THE BRITIJ 



fsEUM. 



571 



II. A winged nian-headed lion, walking to lefU face 
turned towards :?pectatur, wings thrown back. (Fig. 5.) 

Besides these are also some beautiful specimens of 
arndets in silver and bronze, tyrniinatinii; iu gold lions' 
heads ; several pieces of gold variously bent for the 
i'asttuing up of dresses; two of them made of bronze 
plated with gold, (he j>redous metal having been forced 
asunder by the rust and consequent expansion of the 
bronze: and a broad thin plate of gold, covered with 
patterns of circles and wavy Jine^, and evidently in- 
tended for attachment to a girdle. 

The above is a very brief notice of the most re- 
markable of the objects iti precious metals ; there are 
also many other works in metal of much interest and 
value, but to these 1 can do no more than allude, 
within the limits prescribed to me this evening* I 
may, however, mtntion among the bronzes, a bearded 
man on a camel, the camel exhibiting great skill in the 
moulding of animal forms ; a lion reposing on a skin ?, 
with his forelegs stretched out and his head resting on 
Ids right paw, and, probably, like many similar objects 
from Nineveh, intended for a weight. 

To the first class also (though to a somewhat later 
period of it) belong some very beautiful little bottles 
and jugs of variegated glass, called (nnphoriski and cono- 
choft^ generally of a rich deep blue or purple, with 
yellow bauds ; many of these are in the highest state 
of preservation, and have much interest from the 
place of their discovery,— the island of Rhodes, — 
affording, as this fact does, a manifest link between 
Etruria and Fhtenicia, to which last country it has 
been usual lo attribute the sinular specimens found 
abundantly at Ciere and at uther of the oldest cities 




i7-2 



ON KECENT ADOITIONS TO THE 



ot Italy. 1 ouf^ht to add, as nearly connected with 
the oldest period^ that there U a miscellaneous col- 
lection of objects in porcelain, from the saiue shafts 
and galleries under the Acropolis,— comprising sta- 
tuettes of Egyptian divinities, vases in the shape of 
lions, sphinxes, and other animaU ; other vases wi 
friezes in very low rehtf ; and scarabrei, one of which 
is inscribed with the niune of Thothnies III., — a clear 
I>roof of the high antiquity of some ot these renuiins. 

It is impossible now to say wliy it is such miscella- 
neous objects are found together, but it is not unlikely 
that many of them were dedicated, within the precincts 
of the Acropolis, by different strangers wlra visited it i 
remote times. 

To the same archaic period as the gold objects, an 
possibly to a still more ancient time, belong a series 
monunients in inro-cofta and stone, mostly tiat pieces 
with the different parts of the hunuin body, as, lor in- 
stunce, the female breasts, rather indicated than actual! 
modelled. These were found, likewise, in the ^lleries 
and shafts under the Acrojtrjlia, and may be considered 
to be either purely Phanician, or the rude work of the, 
earliest inhabilants of the island. Some of them a 
parently show a blending of the so-catled I'hceniciau 
and archaic fjreek styles; others, what I believe to 
chiiracteristic of Asiatic derived art. 

Of the more important works in terracotta, the most 
curious is a coffin, 6 ft. 4 in long, and '2. ft. I in. wide, 
unquestionably rme of the mtjst ancient relics that hfii 
been discovered. This coffin is painted on its rim (and 
ori;;inally, as is most likely, on the inside and outsid 
also), in brown and crimson on a pcile ground. At on 
end of the rim are lions in red with floral urnamems ; atl 



SCLILPTUKES IN THE BItlTISH MUSEUM. 



573 



I 

I 



the other end, a bull standing between two bons of n dark 
brown colour. Along the edi;e ot tbe riru nre guilloche 
patterns in dark brown, and two heads beluietad, in 
the same colour. By the side of the coffin, is a series 
of ptnakes or platen in the same material, containing 
lor subjects, — tbe combat of Hector and Menelaos over 
the body of Eupburhtis, — a specimen uf much interest, 
inasmuch as the names of the combatants are inscribed 
over them in very archaic characters ; — a gorgon's head, 
— sirens and other aniniaU. — a wolf, — a spliiux, — 
a sheept — a ram, — a wild boar, — and a bull — with 
his tw^o horns drawn in pers|)ective, so as to look 
like OLie,^ — a mode cif representation common on the 
Assyrian bas-reliefs, which led some persons of a too 
fervid imagination, on tlie first arrivid of these mo- 
immeuts in Ei^gland, to assert that we bad at last 
before us a genuine representation of the unicorn of 
Holy Scripture. The plates, tike the coffin, are of 
retnote antitjuity, and were found at different times 
and in different places dnrinj^ the excavations at Ca- 
mirus. From certain peculiarities in their style, it is 
not improbable that they are the produce of a local 
manuractnre. Generally, it will be remarked that the 
ornamentation of the coffin reseiubles strongly that of 
the most ancient vases from Caiiiirus, and has mani- 
festly a near connection with the art of Assyria. This 
coffin is believed, as a specimen, to be unique. 

Another terra-cotta of much interest, but somewhat 
less archaic, is a very ancient figure, probably reprC' 
senting Aphro<lite, and remarkable for tbe freshness 
of the colours still visible upon it. There are also 
some curious neurospasta^ one peculiar in having been 
made to work in a socket, several masks, models of 



ON REPENT AnnrXJONS TO THE 



lions, pigs, and other animals, a monkey riding 
boar, ami othei* curious and unusual devices; some 
these were doubtless toys for children ; others may 
have heen dedicated to Chose gods whose usual em- 
blems are found represented. 

Among the small ivory objects which were found n 
the same shatts and galleries under the Acropolis are 
many, the character of which [like that of some of 
the terra-cottaa) is so ill defined that it is almost im* 
possible to say whether they ought to be classed with 
the Asiatic or \vtlii the archaic Greek monuments. 
Thus one specimen, representins; two figures hack to^ 
back, and many small carved heads are almost identic 
cal with those discovered by Mr. Loftus, at Koyunjik. 
Others, like a strange representation of a hippopota- 
mus?, — a hoise galloping to the right, with a bii 
pecking its hinder quarters ami a palm branch und< 
its fore legs, — together with a large number of small 
square and hollow pieces covered with patterns of 
circles and gQilloches, are prohablytobe placed anion^ 
tlie archaic Greek. 

Of the Second class^ comprising works in the best 
Greek style, we have many splendid examples from] 
the excavations at Camirus, both in metal-work am 
in vases. 

Of these, a very beautiful specimen is a small gold 
py.m, about an inch in diameter, on one end of wind 
Eros is represented feeling the point of his arrow," 
and, on the other, Thetis is seated on a dolphin and is 
bringing to Achilles the arrows Vulcan hud forged for^ 
him. This exquisitely-worked gold vessel was fount 
within an alabaster box in the same tomb with a va«e 
I am abf^ut to describe. 



SCULPTURKa IN TI3B DRITISEI MUSSUM, 



n7i 



This Pplendid vi^se, known by the name of the 
Peleus and Thetis vase, is an amphora, wiih figures 
paiiiteil in red and opaque-white on a black ground, 
and traces of gilding on the wings of Eros, the cap of 
Peleus, and the diadems ol some of the other figures. 
The subject— "the surprise ol Thetis hy Peleus" — 
is the more interesting Ihat it is, in fact, the same scene 
which is represented on one side of the Porthind Vase : 
thus strikingly confirming the received interpretation 
of that I'aitious glass vessel, which was first proposed 
by the late Mr. Millingen, The legend wjvs, thai 
Peleus surprised the sea-nympli Thetis, while disport- 
ing herself on the sea-shore. Thus, on the vase I am 
describing, Thelis is represented as just about to put on 
a blue garment, Peleus presses forward and attempts 
to seize her by ihc mm, a sea-monster bites his leg, 
and Eros, or Love^ places a wreath upon the head of 
Peleus as the conrjutror in the lovecunflict ; around 
are Nereids, perhaps to indicate the shallow water of the 
bay near to which the principal scene is taking place. 

The style of this vase is ihat introduced about the 
time of Alexander the Great, when opaque colours 
and gilding were employed in combination with the 
earlier mouochrome tigures. Examples in this style 
are not unknown^ but no specimen has as yet been 
discovered exhibiting such free and masterly di-awing 
as this one from Camirus. I may add that up to the 
time of its discovery, though vases of the class popu- 
larly called Etruscan have been found abundantly 
throughout the Greek Arciiipelago, no individual spe- 
cimen of fictile art has ever before been met with in 
that region at all comparable with the finest specimens 
from Vulci or southern Italy. 




57fi 



ON RECENT ATDITIONS TO THE 



It ia probable that tliis vase is of Rhodian fabric, 
and that it was executed about the time of the fa- 
mous artist Protogeiies; the marked excellence, there 
lore^ in its drawing and tomposilioti, may reasonabt 
be held to reflect the influence of that renowned artist. 

Another work of great heauty i* a drinking cup, o 
the inside of wiiich is a figure of Aphrodite, borne' 
through the air on a swan. Her name is inscribed 
above her. The design is drawn in brown on a white 
ground ; the drapery of Aphrodite is coloured red 
This f^roup is exquisilely cottiposed, and drawn with a 
mastery which shows ihat the vase belongs to the 
finest period of Greek art, probably to that of Phidia 
himself. Whether this cup be of Rhodian fabric oi 
imported cannot be ascertained, but anyhow, hke the 
Peleus and Tlictis vase, it will challenge comparisoa 
with the best examples of ceraniography from Vulci 
Nola, or Alliens. Other fine specimens of the sam 
class are a cup of the kind called laniharm^ repre 
senting, on tJie obverse, a combat between Theseus an 
Andromache, and, on the reverse, a similar combat be 
tween Paris and Phorbas,all these names being inscrib 
upon it. The drawing of this vase is remarkably good 
and the form of rare occurrence. There is also a drink- 
ing cup, on the inside of which is represented Ihe rape 
of Thetis bv Peleus, with the names of Thetis and 
her companjons inscribed over them, and on the ou 
Bide the combats, respectively, of j'Kneas and Diomed 
and of Heracles, Cycnus, and Arfs. 

Of ibe Third or last class— Egyptian or imitated 
Egyptian— no very large number of specimens Iihv 
been found. 1 may, however, call attention to a gol 
ring inscribed uitli syndiols imitated from Egyptian 



SCULPTURES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



577 



hieroglyphics, and to a scarabieus bearing a cartouche, 
believed to be that of Psammetichus L or Apiies. 
There is also a silver bowl, much shattered, but ex- 
hibiting on its inner surfaces several cnrtouches, to- 
gether with a few other scarabasi and minor objects. 
It 15 probable that nearly all these are imitations^ per- 
haps executed by native artists working under Egyp- 
tian influence, like many of the ivories from Nimrutl ; 
the hiei'o^lypiiics on all of them are ill-deHned, and 
generally doubtful in meaning. There are also some 
specimens in dark-blue porcelain and two or three 
Arybiilli. These are probably genuine Egyptian work, 
and may have been imported from the early Greek set- 
tlement at Naucratis. 

In bringing to u conclusion this notice of the objects 
from Camirus, I have much pleasure in adding^ here, 
Mr Newton's opinion of the earlier portions of this 
collection, which he saw at Rhodes on his way home 
from the East. In a letter (dated Malta, June 18, 
1859) he states that he went to Rhodes "to examine 
a number of curious antitjuities recently discovered by 
Messrs. Biliutti and Saknnanu, in a necropolis near 
Kalavarda (see ante, T. p. 236). In Ihe course of the 
last three months, those two gentlemen have succeeded 
in the discovery of a most interesting series of tombsj 
which evidently belong to a very early period of Greek 
■ civilization in Rhodes. They have found quantities of 
painted fictile vases with birds and grotesque animals 
and flowers, on a drab ground, small fignres and va-^es 
of porcelain, some of which are inscribed with hiero- 

Iglyphics resembling those found in Egypt, small 
bottles of variegated glass, and earrings and other 
jewels of gold and electrum, ornamented with figures 
VOL. VIIT. 2 Q 



578 



ON RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE 



and flowers, eml^ossed and in filagree. Some of 
objects may be ol true Egyptian fabric, but the greater 
part are probably iinitaiions, the hieroglyphics being 
evidently copied by persons ignorant of their true 
meaning, just as Chinese characters are copied oa 
porcelain of European fabric. 

" Among the gold ornaments are a pair of earrinE 
having as pendants winged bulls, resembling tljose 
found by Mr. Layard in Assyria. It is probable thi 
many of these antiquities were imported into Rhodt 
by the Phoenicians, who, according to Hellenic tra- 
dition, had alre;idy fielllements in Rhodes when the 
Greeks first established themselves thei"e, and who, 
trading in objects of Egyptian fabric, probably ii 
creased their profit by manufacturing imitations of 
these articles. The necropolis from which these in- 
teresting remains have been obtained is of great ex-^ 
tent, and in its neighbourhood we must look for tl 
site of Kamiros, one of the three ancient cities i 
Rhodes which Homer mentions, and of which thi 
political extinction was brought alioul by the founds 
ing of the metropolis in b.c. 408." — (Discoveries 
the Levant, vol. ii. p. 206.) 

Many of the most remarkable objects, as theTheti? 
and IMeua vase, were found since Mr. Newton exa- 
mined at Rhodes the first results of the discoveries 
of Messrs. Biliotti and Salzmann. 

The Ftirnese Collection, fiom which the statues 
shall have next to describe are taken, is one of tl 
oldest and best known in Continental Europe. 

Collected from time to time since the Revival of 
Learning in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, these 
monuments became heir-looms in the Farnese 




SCULPTURES IN THE URITJSH MUSEUM. 



579 



I 



at RomC) till, after the peace of AJK-la-Chapelle, in 
1748, Elizabeth, the wife of Philip V., conveyed the 
Roman part of the property of her family to the Spa- 
nish, branch of the House of Bourbon, in the person 
of Phihpof Anjou, whom alie had married in a.d, 1714. 

Don Carlos, subsequently King of the Two Sicilies, 
one uf her sons, received, as his share of her inheri- 
tance, the Roman palaces of the descendants of Pietro 
Liuigl, the reputed son of Pope Puu] 111 , wherein were 
then ktpt the Faniese Hercules and Bull, now removed 
to ?saples, and the specimens 1 am about to nutice. 

These, so far as I can ascertain, form the pick of the 
Farnese sculptures now left in Rome, and till recently 
the property of the king of Naples,— nothing of any 
real importance to the Museum hitving been omitted, as 
was stated in some of the Daily Pa])ers when this coU 
lection arrived in England. For their acquisition the 
country is indebted to Messrs. Story and Xewton, by 
whose exertions and skill they were procured and con- 
veyed in safety to the British Museum. The sum 
paid for the whole colJeclion, inclusive of all incidental 
expenses, was £4000. 1 will take tirst — 

The so-called Diadumenus, the niost curious certainly, 
and probably the most valuable of these sculptures. 

The statue of the Diadumenus is in Pentelic or Greek 
marble, and represents a youth about life-size, en- 
tirely naked and adjusting a fillet round his head, 
whence its title of Diadumenus, The figuie rests 
chiefly on the right leg, the left being slij^htly advanced 
and bent at the knee. It is supported on the right 
side by the trunk of a palm-tree. 
K The main interest of this statue depends on whe- 
I ther it be or be not an ancient Greek copv of a 
1 2 Q -J ' 



I 
I 



580 



ON RECENT AUDITIONS TO THE 



well-Unowii work by the famous sculptor Polyckhus. 
?sow, for the fact tliat I'olycl^itu^ did make such a 
statue, we hiive the direct testimony of f'liny am 
Lucian (Plin. xxxiv. 8, Lucian in Fhilops. c. 18); tuoi 
over, its material, Pentehc not Carrara marble, go! 
far to support tlie belief that it is really Greek work. 

The character of the art of this statue has been mU 
nutely investigateiJ by Mr. Westniacolt, Professor 
Sculpture to the Royal Acatlemy, wlio has come 
the conclusion that it belongs to the later part of ih 
fifth century ^.c, "when sculpture was throwing oi 
the remaining stiffness of what has been called th< 
later archaic school.*' He considers, further, that il 
many points of its style it may be well compared with 
the casts in the Hellenic Uooni of the marbles frotu 
the temple of Zeus Panliellenius, the originals of Mhich 
are now at Munich, 

1 confess, however, that 1 cannot agree witli tin 
Professor's opinion that we have before us an origins 
work of Polycleitus. though it is probnbly of Greel 
workmanship, and a copy of Polycleitus's well-knowi 
statue, the period when it was executed being nol 
undeterminable. Further than tiiis, though a copy, q 
is, obviously, the work of an artist accustomed to tl 
handling of his material. I fail, however, to disceri 
those marks of archaism that have impressed them- 
selves so strongly on the mind of Mr. Westmacott, 
and should rather im^agine from some of its forms Ihiit 
the original was in bronze. I am further disposed to 
believe, unless evidence can be adduced in favour at, 
his view of a much more cogerjt character, that thi 
presumed copy itself is not of an antiquity so remote 
as the time of Polycleitus, its hard outlines and genera 




arULFTURES IN THE BKITlSU MUSEUM. 



581 



I 

I 



stiffness being rather a reflection of a brooze proto- 
type than genuine archaism. Thus numismatists are 
well aware that, in some instanceSj as in the case of 
the Tetradrachms of Athens, an archaic character was 
preserved even to very late times. 

With regard to Polycleitas, who is generally admitted 
to have been the first to represent this peculiar type, 
and whose work, under the name of the Diadumenos, 
is mentioned, as I have slated, by more than one an- 
cient author, we know at least this much, that he car- 
ried the toreutic art to perfection in his statue of the 
Argive Juno ; and thai, in his hand, the prevailing 
art of modelling bronze statues of Athletes, was raised 
to the most perfect representation of beautiful gym- 
nastic figures, in which, while the peculiarities of indi- 
vidual character were not neglected, the main object 
was the representation of the purest forms and of the 
most just proportions of the youthful body. From 
this peculiar skill it happened, that one of the statues 
of Polycleitiis— the Doryphorus — became, in after days, 
the canon of the proportions of the human figure, 
which, previously to his time, were generally shorter 
and stouter. He is also stated by Pliny to have esta- 
blished the principle that the weight of the body should 
be chiefly laid on one foot (as is the case wilh the 
statue we are considering) from which we obtain the 
contrast, at once so signiticant and so attractive, of the 
bearing and more contracted with the borne and more 
developed side of the human body. 

Now, there can be no doubt that the pose of this 
statue bears out the description of Polycleitus's canon ; 
though how far it gives us an idea of what Polych-itus 
really achieved may well be questioned. 




582 



ON RECENT ADDITIONS TO TU« 



The bead is remarkable for its pensivi 



The next most miportant statue is a Merciiry,- 
om the wliole one of the most perfect statues which 
have come down to our times, the only restorations 
being the right foot and parts of the right hand, 
leg, and foot, together with the drapery under the left 
arm. This Mcrcnry is one of three similar copies 
made in the best Roman times, and it is the best of 
the three. The other two are, respectively, that iBiJ 
the collection of the Marquess of Lansdowne, which is 
nearly if not quite equal to our statue, and that in the 
Belvedere at the Vatican. The Farnese one, alone, 
has the special attributes of Mercury, while that in 
the Belvedere was supposed for a long time to be an 
Antinous, It was first recognized by Visconli 
a Mercury, 
expression. 

The third figure is that of a horseman, which hi 
been restored, in modern times, as the Emperor Cali- 
gula, though what remains of the antique work on it 
is, in all probability, not earlier than the times of the 
Antonines. The chief interest of it is, that only five 
other antique equestrian groups, as far as it is knowi 
are extant, three being those of the two Balhi at Nf 
pies, and the Persian figure found with the remains oi 
the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus ; and the fourth, an 
equestrian figure of Constantine at the entrance to the 
Vatican, As a work of art the Farnese group is very iii'^ 
ferior to the bronze statue of M. Aurelius in the Capitol.' 
The hand is a cinquecento restoration ; the fore legs, 
the hoofs of the hind ones, the right hand, the drapery 
and legs of the Emperor are probably restorations of 
an even later period. The horse bears considerable 
resemblance to the type of that animal unfortunately 




SCULPTURES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



583 



I 



I 



I 



adopted by RafFaelle and other painters of his day ; 
and can hardly be considered equal, as a horse, even 
to those of Marochetti in his Richard Coeur de Lion, 
and Charles Albert, or of Wyatt in his statue of the 
Duke of Wellington. 

The other sculptures from the Farnese Palace are, 
a group of a Faun playing with a young Bacchus ; 
aa heroic figure of fine proportions ; an Apollo, the 
only antique portion of which is a part of the torso 
and some of the drapery to its left • a poor and badly 
preserved group, called Hermes and llerse, two male 
torsoes, one of Eros or perhaps Ganymede ; and a 
bust of M, Aurelius Commodus. On these, I need 
not dwell at length, as they are not of sufficient im- 
portance to require a special description, though 
they have their value in a repository of the styles of 
all ages and of artists, such as the sculpture gallerie 
of the British Museum. 

The next great collection of valuable monuments 
which has been acquired quite recently for the Na- 
tional Collection^ is that which once adorned the pri- 
vate gallery of the Count de Pourtales-Gort^ier, at 
Paris, which has been recently tlispersed on the death 
of its proprietor. This collection consists of some 
remarkably fine bronzes, of some very fine vases and 
terra-cottas, and of a few busts, — one of these last 
being justly considered by the best judges one of the 
most beautiful busts in the British Museum. 

Among the bronzes, is a small statuelte, of the best 
Roman period, of a seated Jupiter, — said to have been 
found in Hungary, ^and, formerly one of the gems of 
the collection of Baron Denon, It represents the god 
seated, half draped, on his throne, holding in his right 




584 



ON RECFNT ADDITIONS TO THE 



hand the kasta pum, and in his left a thunderbolt. 
It is in the excellent preservation, and has ouly 
been restored in the right foot, which h slightly ad- 
vanced before the other. As a work of art it may 
take rank with the finest of the broQzes bequeathed t( 
the nation by R. P, Knight, Esq. 

There is also a very curious object in the form of a 
skeleton, without arms or legs, which were, however.^ 
in all probability, orig:inally moveable or fastened on 
by pips- It is about an inch and a half long, and the 
whole subject suggests the idea of a Neurospasion simi- 
lar to those that abound in terra-cotta. It is probable 
that this strange and unwonted object was either 
votive offering or a toy for children. 

Besidi's tltese, there is an interesting bust, in bronze, 
of a child, the treatment of the hair of which is ve 
peculiar. The sockets of the eyes are hollow, showing 
that the eyes themselves have been once represented 
by gems or some other material tlian bronze. In the 
same material, are two reinarkably handsome vases : 
one with a silver fillet running round the rim ani 
handles, which terminate in swans' heads ; the other, 
in shape more elegant, with handles formed of two 
naked male figures bending backwards, and resting 
their feet, respectively, on two sphinxes. These vases 
were found, respectively, at Locri in Southern Italy, 
and at Vulci. 

Among the vases and terracottas, the most inter- 
esting, is a vase, on one side of which is represented 
the initiation of Herakles and the Dioscuri into the 
lesser mysteries at Agra } on the other, Dionysos and 
Ariadne are reclining. On the reverse are Dionysos, 
Plutos, and other figures. Two other very fine " 



a 



4 



SCULPTURES IN THE BRITISH MUSHUM. 



585 



I 



represent, respectively, Orestes before the Areiopagus, 
and the chase of the wild boar af Calydon. The latter, 
however, is chiefly remarkable for the curious and 
different colours which the artist has adopted in his 
delineation of the boar. The subject is one of the 
most rare on painted vases- The men who are en- 
gaged in the chase probably represent Castor and Pol- 
lux. Another one is also peculiar for its shape as 
well as for its subjects. On one side of this vase, 
which is represented under the shape of a duels, reclines 
a naked figure of Aphrodite or Helen, holding in one 
hand the lekythus, or vessel for unguents, and, on the 
other side, an androgynous nude figure. Both figures 
wear sandals, and the whole workmanship denotts a 
late period of the ceramic art. One more curious 
monuoient remains, remarkable chiefly for its mate- 
rialj amber,^ — a substance always of great rarity, and, 
hitherto, only represented in Ihe National Collection 
by some small pieces which belonged originally to the 
late Sir William Temple. A few other specimens, re- 
gembling them, and found, like them^ at Ruvo, are 
now in the itmseura of the Principe San Giorgio, at 
Naples. 

The subject of this curious monument has been 
considered by M, de Clarac as Auge and Heracles; 
but, as suggested by Panofka, it more probably records 
some scene from the lives of Jupiter and Artemis Dis- 
pcena^anti is, thereby, closely connected with the Eleu- 
sinian mysteries ■ ov^ perhaps* it may be Nessus car- 
rying off the wife of HeraVles. The figures and their 
action recull tliose on the coins of Lele in Thrace. 

Among the busts, unquestionably the moat remark- 
able is the Apollo, formerly in the Giustiniani collection. 




586 



ON RECKNT AOPIT1UN3 TQ THE 



II 18 not known where it was found, or whence 
obtained. This bust is supposed by Panotlia, from the 
inclination of the head and neck^ to have belonjred 
originally to a seated figure, the general character 
the workmanship, as he imaj^ines, uniting the severity 
of the ^ginetan school with the fuihiess and freedom 
of Phidias. I confess 1 cannot go the length of the 
learned German professor ; or accept his judgment of 
its Btyie as in any eense accurate. I see no proof 
whatever of archaic work or treatment, and beautiful 
as it undoubtedly is, it lacks the repose and force of 
the sculpture of the age of Phidias. On the other 
hand, thtre is ground for supposing, from the peculiar 
hardness and stiffness of the cutting of some part 
the hair, especially at the top of the head, that it 
really a copy from a bronxe original. It appears fur- 
ther, that, at some time or other, the bust has be 
covered with paint, evident traces of red being visible 
here and there in the roots of the hair. It was origi- 
nally held to he a representation of a Muse, hut the 
comparison of many heads of the feminine type of 
Apollo, preserved in the different museums of Europe, 
leaves no doubt that the attribution to Apollo is cor- 
rect. 

Besides this beautiful head, several other works of 
minor importance were procured from the same sale: 
as, for instance, a head of a female Deity from th 
Greek Archipelago ; together with busts of Julia 
Mamaea, Crispina^ Lucius Verus, and a supposed Do- 
mitia. There are also two curious tessellated pave- 
ments, the one representing a landscape, on which are 
rocks covered with trees, and a cavern out of which 
lion is seen issuing. In fiont of him is a runnin 



be I 

M 




SCULPTURES IN THE BRITISH MUSKUM. 



587 



Btreatrij and^ on the bank, a sta^ galloping off. Behind. 
at some distance, is a caslle, and, in the extreme dis- 
tance, blue mountains : opposite the lion, on the other 
bank of the river, is a rock covered with trees, in front 
of which is an aloe. The shadow of the stag is well 
indicated. The whole scene is enclo.sed in a frame or- 
namented with deiitelles in black. The other mosaic 
represents a horse with a red bridle, kneeling on a 
platform raised on wheels. Beside the horse Is an 
Amazon (?) dressed in a green cloak, reclining against 
the horse, and patting his neck with her right hand. 
Above, is a cable moulding. The whole has probably 
been a part of & much larger subject. 

The next collection to which I shall call attention 
is one made during the years 1862-3, at the cost 
of Her Majesty's Government, in different places of 
Sicily, and more especially from Greek tombs at Cen- 
turipEe, (iela, and Agrigentum, by Mr. George Dennis, 
the well-known historian of Grreco-ltalian tombs in 
Italy. 

I am ^lad to be able to add that Government has 
recognized the value of his services as an archaeo- 
logist, and has sent him as consul to Ben-Ghazi, the 
ancient Berenice, a position in which he may emulate 
the success of Captains Poreher und Smith at Cyrene, 
and where, at all events, there is reasonable ground for 
supposing that relics of considerable value may yet be 
found. Certain it is, that the northern coast of Africa 
abounds in ancient sites, many of them the seats of 
colonies originally of great importance In this dis- 
trict, should Mr. Dennis fail in obtaining the rich 
B store of Antiquities he has met with in Sicily, he may 
■ derive consolation from the fact that the neighbour^ 



I 

I 
I 



588 



ON RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE 



lioiid of Berenice is no longer virgin soil, bi 
been explored a^'ain and again by a number of Euro- 
pean antiquaries from the times of Admirals Beecltey 
and W, H. Smyth to those of Captains Porcher and 
Smith. ^ 

The collection itself consists, chiefly, of tt'rracoffn^^^ 
and vases. Of these, the latter are remarkable alike 
for their size and their preservation ; they belong, 
chiefly, to the class called Ukytki, and vary from 14 
to 19 inches in height. 

The following are worthy of more especial notice: — 
I. A lekt/thos, 18 inches high, with a group 
two female figures in several colours on a white ground^ 
a compositiun remarkable for the severe &im[)licity 
of the drawing and colouring, and for the force and 
distinctness o(" the outlines. Q. A lekytkox^ 14 inches 
bight with a seated female figure painted in various 
colours on a white ground. In this drawing the sami 
pure antl severe style may be recognized as on tlie one 
described above : and, in the head-dress, type of fea- 
tures^ and general slyle of drawing, these figures much 
resemble the heads on the early tetradrachnia from 
Syracuse. 3. A hij/thot', 15 inches high, with ligur 
in red on a black ground, the subject, a warrior re 
ceiving a hliation from a female fi;j:ure, perhaps on h 
departure to battle; on the shield is a satyr dancin 
and from it hangs the larseion, or fringo. 4. A krater, 
17 inches high, with red figures on a black ground. 
On the obverse^ (our figures, probably representing 
the return of a victorious warrior. The drawing of this 
vase is later and rather careless. Besides these are 
some twenty lehjtku with red figures on a blac 
ground. All tluse exJubil the severe drawing of Ih 



im 

i 




SCLLPTtKES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



589 



vases with polychrame figures on a while ground, and 
are, probably, of the same epoch. The subjects are 
generally sinji:le figures or groups of tvso. Detneter 
and Triptotemos, ApoUo and Artemis, Victory, Eros, 
and satyrs are among the subjects thus represented. 
In the same collection will be foumJ a small but in- 
structive series of the earlier va-^es, with black figures 
on a red or on a \vhite ground. There are also a few 
specimens of the archaic period: in the&e, animals and 
flowers are painted in brown and crimson on a cream- 
coloured ground. 

Among the terra-cottas is a small collection of ar- 
chaic figures found in tombs at Gela. Of these, the 
most remarkable are, — a figure of Hermes Kriophoros, 
— 7^ inches high, probably copied from an archaic 
statue by Calamis, which we find represented on a 
bronze coin of Tanagra, and of which a repetition in 
marble is preserved at Wiltoa House: the head and 
bust from a figure of a seated goddess of archaic type, 
crowned with a rtwdius, and haviug, on her bosom, 
fliree rows of pendent ornaments, with a kind of epau- 
lette or a large clasp attached to the front of each 
shoulder ; this figure probably represents a Phcenician 
type, and resembles some of the small figures found 
at Dali (Idalium). in Cyprus. 

There is also a curious assortment of terra-cottets 
from Centuripas, consisting of a number of figures, 
groups, and heads, spirited in dt-^sign but carelessly 
modelled, and evidently executed in the decline of 
Greek art. Aphrodite, Eros, and Victory arc among 
the types that most frequently recur in these terra- 
cottas. In some cases the naked portion of the figure 
is covered with a vitreous glaze, the remainder being 




590 



ON lifiCENT ADDITIONS TO THE 



unglazL'd. This application of vitreous glaze to Greet 
terra-cotia figures is most rtire, and was probably ioli 
duced Ht a very late period uf Greek art. 

I must aUo notice here a bequest frotn the la( 
Viscount Strangford of three curious small niarbl 
figures, varying tVom 9 inches to 19 inches high, {jro* 
cured niauy years since by him in Greece. Th^se 
figures, probably, belong to the very earlies-t period of 
Greek sculpture. Two of them represent a naked 
female figure, perhaps Ihat of Aphrodite. Ross, who 
has jjubhshed an account of several such figures from 
the islands oi" the Greek Archipelago (see 'Archiiolo- 
gische Anssatze,' i. p. 52), considers such and siniilar 
figures to be the work of the Carians or of some othi 
Prse-Hellenic race. 

To Mr. Newton's researches we are also indebtf 
for some very curious leaden tablets found during h 
excavations at Cnidus, rolled up and broken near 
bases of statues, in the iewertos of Denieter. They' 
are fourt' en in number. These tablets have been re- 
cently unrolled, and have been found to be covered 
with inscriptions, which have since been deciphered 
and engraved hi facsimile. The subjects of all of them 
are Dine, or dedications to the infernal gods of ceriaiu 
offeiidini; persons, on whose head punishment ie in-, 
voked. The inscriptions themselves have much ii 
terest, not only as specimens of cursive palfcographyJ 
hut also for the light they throw on some of thesuper-^ 
stitioEis of the ancient world. Such tablets are of ex- 
treme rarity* 

Lastly, in dealing with Collections I must not omit 
to notice the splendid collection quite recently pun 
chased of Signor Castellani, which is peculiarly rich' 



SCULTTUREa IN THE BRITISH MUSEQM. 



591 



I 



I 



in bronzes and engraved stones, a large portion of 
which beloiijj;e'l to the late Marchese St. Anselo, to- 
gether with many choice ancient and medieval nngs, 
and some interesting archaic terra-cottas^ vases, and 
sarcophagi. 

Amon^ them I will particularise the following: — 
in bronze, (I) a seated figure, probably that o| a phi" 
losopher, recently found in dredging the harbour of 
Briiidisi, the aurient Bruudu&iuin, This bronze is 
worthy oC study for the broad and effective treatment 
of the subject ; the drapery is skilfully composed, and 
the conception of the figure easy and natural. (2) A 
group of Heracles overcoming the horses ol Diomedes, 
which has formed the epitliema or ornament to the top 
of a cista., of which only fragments remain, Tbia 
group is an excellent specimen of Etruscan art ; the 
horses are carefully modelled, though in a style retain- 
ing many traces of archaic stiffness. It was found at 
Palestrina (Privneste). (3) Demeter seated in a rustic 
car, a very curious specimen of Etruscan art, in the 
tinest condition. It was found at Amelia, in Etruria. 
(4} A lamp in tbe form of head of a greyhound, hold- 
ing in his mouth the head of a hare. This object is 
beautifully modelled and belongs to the finest period of 
Greek art. It was found at Nocera (Nuceria Alfa- 
terna). (5) An oblong minor set in an ornamented 
frame, round which are flowers and Cupids, and below a 
group representing a male and female figure. This 
mirror, which was found at Locri, in Southern Italy, is 
remarkable for its size and richness of decoration* 
(6) A mirror, on which is represented Helen after the 
taking of Troy seeking refuge from the pursuit of 
Menelaus at the altar of Athens ; the composition 




692 



ON RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE 



includes Aphrodite and several otlier figures wiiosc 
Etruscan names are inscribed over them. The sub- 
ject is here treated iu an unustml manner, and this 
tiiitror 18 further remarliable for the masterly drawing 
of the figures ; it may be considered as the tinest spe- 
cimen of its class in the National Collection. 

Other mirrors there are on which occur respe 
lively, Menelaus, Ulysses, Clyttemnestra, and Pal 
medes ; Minerva, Heracles, Aphrodite, and Apollo 
these names being, in each case, written in Etrusc 
characters; together with many other excellent bronzes? 
to which time woi^ld not enable me lo do justice. Be- 
sides these there are some fine vases, especially a 
cup, with red figures on a black ground^ representing 
Dionysus with attendant Satyrs, a subject remarkable 
for the elaborate tinish of the drawing : together, 
with some curious term-cottas found at Locri, o 
having fur subject a Hermes Kriophoros and two fi 
male figures beside an altar, in front of which is 
cock stooping over a candelabrum, and four sarcol 
pkagi from Chiusi, cut in freestone, and covered with 
low- reliefs of banquets, hunting scenes, etc. These 
reliefs are well preserveil, and afford interesting spec: 
mens of Etruscan art. 

J think I hcive now laid before the Society some a 
count of the principal Collections which have been 
added to the Museum during the last few years, 
will, therefore, bring to a conclusion what I have" 
thought it right to read to you, with a brief notice of 
a few individual objects of importance which hav( 
been procured separately, and not as a part of any oi 
great Collection. Of these, I shall notice — 

(1.) A very fine painted vase, of the bfSt period, ii 





SCULPTURES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



593 



I 



the form of an Q&tragalvs or knuckle-bone. On it is 
represented a subject which is probably that of Pen- 
theus and the Bacchantes. This vase was given to 
the National Collection by the late Earl of Aberd[:en. 
It has been engraved ^ many years since, by Stackel- 
berg, in bis ' Graber der Ilellenen,' tab. xxiii. 

(2.) A gold tibula, more than 8 inches long, of un- 
usual size and beauty, formerly in the collection of 
Thomas Blayda, Esq. This fibula, whi';h was found 
at Csere (Cervctri), is a magnificent specimen of 
Etruscan metalhc workmanship. It is ornamented 
throughout its front by a double row of small lions, 
and the bead is decorated with a sphinx, the whole 
being embossed and corded with tilagree. It has been 
engraved in the * Monunieiiti luedili ' of Micali, tav. 
xxi. figs. 6, 7. I have already pointed out the re- 
markable resemblance between the small lions on this 
fibula and the lions on No. 7 of the gold ornaments 
from Camirus. 

(3.) A terra-cotta lamp, in the form of a galley, 
made of coarse red clay, and about 2 inches in 
length. This specimen was found at Pozzuoli^ and 
was originally in the Durand collection, wherein it is 
fully described under No. 1777. The form is curious, 
and the figures with which it is ornamented render 
it a very remarkable object. On the upper part or 
deck of the galley are represented, in relief, a group 
of Serapis and Isis, below which is one of the Dio- 
scuri, standing on a base inscribed with the word 
ETIIAOIA, in uncial characters. Below this again is 
a grotesque figure, supposed to be the potter Demiur- 
gus^ modelling a vase. On the bottom of the lamp is 
written, in uncial characters, AABE ME TON HAIO- 

■ VOL. VJII. 2 A 



I 
I 



594 



ON RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE 



CEPAIIIN. From the evidence of the Iwo subscri 
tions it is probable that this lamp was a votive offeriag} 
dedicated in a temple of Serapis, at Pozzuoli, after a 
successful voyage. 

(4.) A group in white marble, representing Europ 
crossing the sea on the bull, found at Gortyna, in 
Crete, and obtained for the British Museum through 
Mr. Consul Guarraciuo. Though obviously the work 
of an inferior Cretan artist^lhis group is an interesting 
acquisition from the fact of Its havini^ being found at 
Gortyna, the scene of the fabled landing of Europa, 
on the coins of which town I he same group may 
noticed, composed in a manner very similar. It h; 
been much injured, and the lower part of the tigure 
Europa appears to be a late restoration. It is iiO' 
possible to say to what epoch it ought to be assigned 
I suspect, however, that though Greek work, it be- 
longs to Roman times, perhaps to a period little pre- 
ceding the establishment of Christianity. 

(5.) A colossal marble torso, found at Ela;a, the 
port of Pergamus, and presented to the Museum by 
Captain Spratt, R.N, This torso exhibits part of i^ri 
naked niale figure, of wlituli only the trunk and part^^ 
of the right arm has been preserved. Thefiguie when 
perfect must have been about 12 feet high. From the 
action of the right arm, which is slightly advanced, it 
is probable that the right hand held a spear. The 
general character of its workmanship is bold and effec- 
tive, and it is, as a whole, an interesting specimen of 
colossal statuary. It seems likely that it was executed 
during; the Macedonian period by some sculptor of 
school of Pergamus. 

(6.) A bronze lamp with two spouts, said to 1 




SCVLPTUREa IN TBJK SRlTISH MUSEUM. 



595 



I 



been found at Paris, in an excavation under the ancient 
Koman Thermae, the site of which is now partially 
occupied by the Hotel de Cluny. The form of this 
lamp is similar to that of a smaller tamp found at 
Pompeii, ami engraved in the Jliis. Borbon. xi. tab. 
13. Two dolphins, united at their tails, adorn the 
upper part of the lamp ; at each side, projects a half 
lion, and, under each epout, is a satyric head in relief. 
The whole composition is conceived in a bold and 
original style. The details are elaborately wrought out, 
and the eyes inlaid in sJUer. 'J'he lamp is further 
remarkable for its great size, measuring, as it does, 
13j inches in length, and having been, originally, of 
the same height and breadth. It has been suspended 
by a chain attached to the taiU of ihe dolphins. 

(7.) A bronze female tigure, found in a railway ex- 
cavation near Naples. This figure, which is 2 feet in 
height, is a very iuterer^ting specimen of early Graeco- 
Italian or Etruscan art. It is draped to the feet. On 
the breast is engraved a floral pattern, and on the 
upper arm the fastening of the sleeves is indicated 
by the same process. The figure itself probably re- 
presents Aphrodite. This bronze is especially in- 
teresting; as an early and fine example of ancient 
casting. The forearms, which are advanced in front 
of the body, have been separately cast, and then sol- 
dered on. 

The (Sth) and last individual specimen to which I 
think it worth while on Ibis occasion to invite your 
attention is a remarkably beautiful ligure in bronze of 
a Venus stooping as if to adjust her sandal. It is in 
height about 21 in. The subject is one not uncom- 
mon, several copies of it both in bronze and marble 

2 &2 




fi9G 



SCULPTURES IN TQB BHITISU MUSEUM. 



1 



being extant, and. from their ngt unfrequent occur- 
rence, it is ceiiain tliat they must liave been all taken ' 
from some original which, in its day, doubtless de- J 
served a just reputation. This bronze is said to have 
been discovered at Patras (the ancient Palree). It is 
ol unusual size and in the tinest condition. The , 
countenance bag great beauty, and in the whole motion ; 
of tlie figure there is a wonderful grace, the surest 
proof tliat it belongs to the best period of Greek art. ^L 
With this specimen I close for the present the ca- ™ 
lalogue of additions to the National Collection, with 
the hope that I may at some future time resume the 
subject. 

W, S. W. Vaux. 




^tt^^UU^ 



Tiyr 



NOTE ON MR. STRUTT'S VASE. 



Bl' JWR. NEWTON. 



(Read November 21, 18G6.) 

A SMALL aryhalhs, with red figures on a black ground, 
obtained at Athens by the Honourable Mr. Strutt, and 
said to have been found in a tomb fit Tegea. 

The subject is very similar to that of an Athenian 
aryhtdios in the British Museum, which formed part 
of the collection of the late Mr. Samuel Rogers. In 
both Aphrodite is represented seated on a rock in the 
centre of the scene, with female attendants round her, 
and certain accessories. In the Rogers vase, the dra- 
matis persona in this scene have their names inscribed 
over them ; in Mr. Strutt's vase the names ^re want- 
ing, but the figures and general composition are suffi- 
ciently alike to enable us to identify most of the figures 
on the uninscribed vase by the aid of the inscribed 
composition. 

On the Rogers vase, Aphrodite, seated in the centre, 
turns round to Eros, who is sitting on her shoulder; 
on the right is Peitho, stooping over a kind of circular 
cage, which she is decking with branches of myrtle ; 
beyond her again, on the right, is a myrtle or fruit- 
tree, from which Eudaimonia has gathered a -fruit ; 
on the left of Aphrodite is a similar fruit-tree, and 



598 



NOTE ON MR. STKUTTS VASE. 



three female figures approaching with offeritigs of fruit 
au(i branches to Aphrodite, who are severally named 
Kleopatra, Eunomia, Paidia. 

Turning to Mr. Slrutt's vase before us, we have in 
the centre Aphrodite between two Erotes. who stand 
holdinj^ out branches of hiuret or myrtle towards her. 
Beyond tliese ti^ures^ on the right, is a female figure 
moving towards Aplirodite, and holding in her left 
tiand a cage similar to that on the Rogers vase. 
Aphrodite looks round towards this figure, which cor- 
responds by its place iu the composition and its asso- 
ciation with the ca^e with the Peitho of the Rogers 
vase. From the extreme left another female figure 
approaches, bringing a wreath or a necklace. This 
may be one of the group of three on the Rogers vase, 
Kunomia^ Paidia, or Kleopatra. M. de Witte, who 
has published the Rogers vase, In the * Monuments 
C^ramograpliiques,' iv. pi. 62, p. 191, points out that 
on another Atlienian vase (Stackelberg, Griiber d. Hel- 
lenen, taf. 30) Aphrodite is represented holding ou 
her lap a similar cage, into which Eros is entering. 
M, De Witte enters into an ingenious e^cplanation of 
the Rogers vase, which he thinks may represent, eu- 
phemistically, the death of the young. In support of 
this view he cites a third nrtfhnUos, also in the tSritish 
Museum, and engraved, iv. pi. 84 of his ' Monuments 
Ceramographiques/ On this latter vase is a figure in 
the centre uf the scene, resembling Aphrodite in motion, 
but inscribed Eudainionia. Behind her is Eros, and to 
the right and left of her are three female figures, seve- 
rally inscribed Hygieia,Pandaisia, and Kale. In the field 
are two myrtle-trees. This scene is also explained by 
M. De AVitte as an euphemistic expression of Death. 



NOTE ON MR. STRUTT'S VASE. 599 

These three aryballi are probably all of the same 
period. The drawing is very delicate, with a tendency 
to over-refinement and mannerism. Certain details, 
such as the wings of the £rotes, the beads of the neck- 
laces, and the fruits, have been raised and gilt. 

Mr. Strutt's vase is interesting, not only on account 
of its subject, but as a specimen of this particular kind 
of Fictile Art, — the first, as far as I know, that has 
been found in the Peloponnese. 

C. T, Newton. 




INDEX. 



Adulib, (wlebntfl<I iascription at, 65. 

.Sthiopifl, acctount of interior of^ in Plolcmy and MArinus of Tjre, SS. 

^lliiopians, acccpt'&tl accQuat q(, 97^ 33, 

Alford, Dr. (Dean of CBiiterbui7),ftcla[itB from Boei?kh mid Mt!4»n. CoDybe&r« 

unci DowaOD, tlie reading nOTBAIOT ♦AAOTIOT, 517. 
Ambor, remorkablo moiiument li>, from FaiirtKloH aale^ 536. 
AphrocliEc^, beHuCiftd brotue fig'ure of, found near Napln, &9fi. 
Apollo, buit of, Jonaeilj in tho G-iu»tiniuni CoU^irtion, »B&-5&6. 
A«iji, We«t(.-ni, more or lost of ailTsr mixed with the gold, ia the early ooi&Kga 

of, 651, 
■ ■ priDpijial mrJy tnmts nt Cjsicua and PLocwa, B51. 

AstftboroD, llie presout Atdara, Tahasze, or Bakr'tU'AfKftd—lht! Bkclc Rirev, 

Astapna, Lbe pre»ent BaMr-al-Atret or Abat — tho BJug Biver, IS. 
— , sometimea caUad tha Astasoba.^ 46. 



I 



BtsYUjyiiy religious roTolt in, notiiwd on Lord Aberdeen'^ bluok ■tono, 110. 

BiLlir-«I-Abiad the, hsji res^rvoirB in EctiLaCoriAl iakee, 73. 

BumaboA, Epietle q^ and Paator or Uemitu, hdd to be CauDaical till a.d. 364, 

222. 
Eoke^ I>r., expecrts to find n lource of the Nile 3.E. otlAkt TVjtuizB, SS. 
, with Mr Smpff, diatioTurB, ju 1S43, the wntenbed of the rirerB 

fion'~tP^ I'D AtlHintio [ii]«l ^Tndiiin Ocrana, n^spoctivclr, 60. 
" may claim, thwirflicnlly, or An papor^ to be the diicorerer of odc of 

the BOurce« of tba Nilii, Gi. 
■ , the general bflicr of, UiAt the hud WAten of tbo Mile flow from 



niautitaiii-rAngcB S. of e'lju&tor, G6. 

-^ the Srat to propose an iCxpeditLOa from the Eagt Cooat of Afric»,€6. 



liai the saliHi'DL'tioTi of knowing tluit port of hia thcoi^ has been 

cotnplclelj proied, (16. 

, correct, in 1848, in Jndgmtiul, tta to " the heiu) oF tho Wile," 7fi. 

BeltsBEna, & female deit^^ probably the G-uulish Minerva, 33S, 

Bello^el, M. Roger de, conBiJera f^niiliali laiiguage, ^iiernlly, > Cdtic dudecC, 

866. 



602 



INDEX. 



Biliotti and Salzmann, Messrs., of^tain minj noir fmginents firom ihesitooT 

the Mmmjlrun:), 562. 
,- I — obtain a large and mluable callDctJam of 

quities from Cmnima, lo Rhode*, S82. 
Blsrdfl. T., th« possessor af s rerv fine gold Sbiik, dow in Muaeum, 593. 
Eaeckb, M., publialutft the drcck Iri«c-iriptii>i) froni Thevslooica, irith both* 

«rrora, wliicli nro partly Amended in hu " i^dfluda et Oorrig^nda," 539- 

54S. 
Bruce, Datid, robi tha trcmury and sacn^tj of I.ftiierc(«t in *,d. 1346, 490, 

, Robert, phmder* LaiiierLiwt Priory, A.n. 1311. 4yO. 

Brus (BrHcc), Lord Robert de^ c-liartcr froin^ i.D. 127.1. p. &00. 
Biirtvn, Cuplflin, and Capttua iJpt^Le, reseu^hes b^ id IS&T-it, 63. 

CjHiFITBICIUS, genenUy culled Ciieiua in editiona orTaliiiriiis Maximus, 155. 

O&nunu, carious origin of ttie discoverita thiire, a<j3, 

■ ■ ' — ' ■ nod U^e atlncr towns fonncd iv^at waa called the DanaTi HeiuipoUi 

&fi3, 
, tint lens tbati £75 U>mb9 op«tivd at, dnHkig ^hit^ mml spring 

I8li3-*, 561- 
, moflt of tlie 



ant^^J 



ijoota (rom, ddt« ^'tw{<en u.c, €50 sud uc. 200, 565. ' 

, antiquities from, (JiTi*il>le inta tlin?e prnii^ipsL cb^MM, 565. 

■ , srchivii.' rcmfliiii from, betraj Assyrian influeiieo, uSS. 

. - -' ' '■, ajitiqiiitiH from, dewcriplion of plates of, 56B-5T1. 

, Tuiogited glui &om, aSbrd^ a tuik between PhvnJcift aad Etruri*, 

671. 

1 , rvnLEirkitlile cofllii in torra-eotta ffom, &72-a7a. 

, e.[jluadi(I anipliora ^ui, kndwii bh tlie Pcleiis &iid TlieUs r&Bp, 571 

Carliilu, Bishops of, Vtifioiis charWre grnEit(<d by, ■*73-475. 

Cutallani^ raluablo coUoction of mirrors ntid oth<.'r antiquitiea from, 591-592, 

C^ltid kagtuge, tlie two main dialects tniceablo in ihv Qaidisli iasuripliau*, 

361. 
ClifflroTiea, d(«cPTer^ of aculptured Uy» ftt, 1. 
- — .-^ aucii'nt liiflltn-j' of, 6-8. 

— — 1, position of dpiopibod by Oolunwl Miii*, 9-11. 

^ lion from, proposed to bii rertiovtsd to Atliens^ B. 

1 Bouglit fur hut hot faiiiid bj Gell. DodweL, ajid Jjcwk*. S. 

Ck-rgy, flho*Ti to h»n btwu luarrieeE ta a.d. 1271, froni tba cnrtularj of Laner- 

cont, 413. 
Cliiny, lI6tol de, bn>niie lamp avid to haTe faund under, 59-l-&!>A. 
Onidos, txfmunos of Ouiui^Ier at, ciinaua letulsn pjatd ifOin, procured bj 

Nttwton, fi90. 
Conybearo and Howsnii, M^sn., not ai»tu« of the 4ltorstioni in Boackli's ♦■ At 

detidA ot Corrit^enda," 515. 
■ , TioU', tTieaociiraoy of St, Luke in hit auooi; 

of Ui« cities nud proTiiicca Hii.^ mentions, 3-Ui. 
Oouaiji^T^. M,. pnbfishM iho Ureelt Iiiii?riplioH from Tbetaaloniea with mue 

care, 6i3S-53^8> 



INBEX. 



603 



Cpesj, EdiTBrrd, one of the di*carcrerB of the Kulptured lion at Chsronea, 2. 
, Botite i>r(jljiiblj bv, of CLiEeraacan lion In ' Literary Ernzptte ' of 



182 L, 11. 
CnxflUi ofTere, at Dolpbi, plinllu of re6ned gold, fiSS. 
CurLif, BcT. C Q., ptpa^aia to lti{> Uritiah ftfuueum a rubbulg frOM the Greek 

loachptioa ut TbesMlonicii, d2U. 

Sakibh inflikence, abovii in niunea about LnnerMut, 440. 
B'Aorillct, tlio S.ni, in modem timea, to suggvst Ih&t the White wna the tru* 
Wil*. 72. 

, atLss by, publiiibt-d a.d. 1749, 91-92. 



Dbtids, Etniuk by Dnriiia, of tlie finest Htandord gold, 553. 

Db Snrroo Bupposps Nile fo riBC in a great luta, 74- 

Diwkpn, Bnron von der, wiiti Dr. Kiraten, detenoin^ tll9 be>gbt of ^^iinu)^ 

jaro, 61. 
DennU, George, valuable collection of anticjuttiea procured hj, in Sicily, .587- 

590. 
Diodumcnoe, tbc moat raliinble of (he Famcwe aCultitiiivs, 579. 

, fcltttno oT, pefLpip* a t-opj of bron&e statue bj I'oljcl^itus, 580, 

, «tdtu« of, eiliibits oliaract^risticfl of the work of PoljclcLtiiB, 581. 



Diaii-niBi or Dayan-niai, in Assyrian, meant "jiidg^ of men/' 3U3. 
Dionysus, in Eastrni n1ytholo'git^» uiiitod witU the sim on one hand, ftad 
Otiim on tlie other, 2'J7. 

, Eo&tcnt notion of, that lie waa the creator of the worid, 297- 

— , nansc of, dilfi-renUy epelt in Homer and other writers^, £2y. 

, tli(i naijii? of, would »aijTid to a O'X'uJi^ or Ropian like *' llie god of 



Nyaa," 21)9. 

— ', fiiljlia of, l)iiit lie uonqiierpd India, 300. 

— , in Awiyriaii, probablv Jioynded liitia-nifi or Da//ort-«iJri, 303, 

T tnuiition of, llict ha lUuucniM] iJie fonu of a bull witb a liumui Giob, 



304. 

UmtDmond, V. A.., procures n caaI of the Ch^ronmn lion for Briliah Muhuid, 6. 

Purtkom, Bi»)]op of, rhjirTpr gnuitiKl by, 475. 

DQr-Sargiim, a city founded by Sargon, a few miictr from Kinerali., ZS0. 

ELiCTursi:, the proportion of^ld and ttilrtr Jn, not invariable, 55S. 

, probable nienning of, in SoplioclcF* * Antigoiii.%' 1. 1038. 555, 

, or iniicd niclal. probiility iisod by iVest<;ri; A*ia Miner from oj- 

pedioiicy rather than from want of Dietulliir^cal skill, 5Sa. 
, QQxn^ in, though of many and Tariou* stat^i, show a remarkable 

uniformity of fabrit!!, 554. 
^ , eoinuga of, t-ommifinecd ifith Cttnauft and hiated till Al«»ader tb« 

Ort^at, 554. 
, moatoftbift extant Bp«ciTn(>ns of coma in, atmek betireonB.c, 400 

and BX, 3fiO, 5&4. 
Ebea, the port of Pcrgomtis, cotouf^ tof«o froro, preseutad by Captain Spratt, 

B.N., S94. 



eai 



1NUKX. 



KBarliJiddoiDj inscription of, on Lord AbenWn'ii block clone, 116— 1S7. 
Europa on ibe Bull, miu-ble group ot. From G-urtjiw, 694. 

FaRNUS Sculpt uiteib, puTc-liiweil ffom lat« King of Ns^Im Tor £40Q>>, 579. 
FlncflUH And Julius Mutemud, rs|>MJLtJoaa by, Dotict-d \>j M&riuuB of Tjtp, I 

Gaixo-Roman iracnptioas in, iLe wordi "Deo," "Diiij" "gcnio," mre 

prellxi>d, 3&4. 
Gnul, iOTHc of thp trilwa of, QtMltielic in ori^iti, eume CviDric, 3fil. 
OauliaU insoriptioiw, iriiiBl of tlinee llie work of BamftniBed Gaiilft, 326. 

- ■ -| two of these in Grewk chanurt^rs, orm bilin^^uiil, 32fi. 

, UngiiiigLi of, not iiior* retfiit than Clnaak^I Lttdo, 827- 

, generally tuttier votiTe or di-dicBtorf, 328, 

- -- , lAii^uage of, OadJieiit rother tlian Cymric Celtic, 360. 

, bU fciind south of tlio Seiiio &nd Mnmc, SBS'. 

OaulA certainly dLrrived their nlpliabet from tlie Boiiiana, SSti. 

' , woreliifiped b oravd of ratuior divinities, not kuonn to Roituink, S-Sfi. 

Qtizotte, LiUirarj-, April, lS2i, dtmofntj of tiie Clueroneaji lion nottoed io Yrf 

Mr. Britton, 3. 
Gilleji, Pi«rre, tnuiHlated the whole oi Dionyaitis Bj-znntitiuB, except the eior- 

dmni, 22. 
Gold, tiic »rt of refiiiixig known in Asia from n Tcry ewlj pt-rioiT, 5li3. 
I , excUsiiigC of, rBri4>» coos-idcmbl^, ercn now, in different ports of T' 

566. 
GoriUoa^ wild men and women covered with hair, noticed in Ilaono'e ' 

phia/ 30. 

-, the akins of, Imng up bj H&imo in the eiictositn) of th« Tftiopla 

Cftrthiigc, 30. 
Guni«7, Uiideoti, |]«Bse»sor of a rer; rani copy of Ptoleiuj'e Geogrftphy 

Bonie, J.,D. U13, 7S. 



I 



HntCES, "Dr., diacoTcn an AiBypian mMBura of time^ 418. 

Qoffgi J't " On iou)^ old maps of AMoa, in urliich tlic ciintnl EquitorjaJ lokra 

aro likid down ncirly iu thdr tni9 poeitionB," 67-104. 
HorKDian, statite of, iti Fnmeie CoUcction, one uf only lire ftnttque equeBtri&D 

g;roupH, 5^2, 
Houuda kept hj tha Canoiu of Cnrlule in the middle of the tlurtaenth ooa 

IT^bErdoD, H., will and inf cntDiry 'Of the goodg oE^ aj). 151G, 168-174. 

IsnanTPTlova, Qaulish, extremeilj rare, 359. 

Jefpekiu, Jud^D, letter by, to J. Waleolt, Esfj., Ifl5-1G». 
tTupitor, &.oa brooze itatuette of, from tlie Fourtalei tale, 5S3. 



KiLATAHD*. modern Tillage of, the first sit(3 of llie Bhodiiui discovenes, 
Kauffinanii, GprJiard, (or Mercator,) fniuoiia atlas by, a.ij, 1623, SB-aO. 



INDEX. 



G05 



jiaurabi, iiiKriptioiiB of, written in rtoD-S^niiHc, probably AcoidiBa or 
Proto-CliftldEwm, Z34. 

-, one tHblot of, nrkten in tlie Bab^loniAn l&ngusgB, 234. 



£liiBuii, city of, iiiirij^i-d from hppesj buforo tebtlildiligr 381. 
ErapfT^ M.^ diecaTprs M. Eenin abcut L" S. lut, in 1E150, tuid beers oT a gstut 
bike, 60. 

Lasehcost, rriorj of, foundad by Kobert ds TBllibui, l.l>. 1116. 435. 

— — re£oi«e» npecUi privitegcB from Pope AlexiuideF III., 

4;iG. 



■, Tisited bj £d%fard Land Queen £l»iiior, Bept. 11, 1280, to hunt 

ill Ingliiwcod, 4fet9. 
-, Edward I. itftyi tbero from Sepi^mW, ISW, to Eiwter, 1307, 



483-190. 
, with Heilrnm and Luublei, much injured b; n Scotch nid, April, 



1296, 490. 
IrfnthcB. The Rev, S,, " On Hie mesniDg of Ihtf words in Genniv ilii. 10> * Uoeil 

Sltiloh coait,' " 114-154. 
fjclen^rs ' XfeiUieriLl Oeogrupby/ ciirioiu early mspt af Africa, puhliihed in^ 

83-88. 
liiEars, map by, ibfurior In manj wa])b to that b; Walker, 71. 
Lottnf f, I)r,, DewrHptiaii of femoits Oauiiah iDBcription found at Foictiers, &ES. 

MiCftf EESj mnp by, lesa arciinito than Llmt by Sl"!!!!?* 150 years enrlier, 72. 
MfldaklA,city of, identified by Sirll. Ka,wlilQ»Ori With thii^Biidiic-uorDicii]ornH,2&9. 
Madden, F. W., " Remarks en a fragnient of Yalenus Maximum in ihn publia 

libnn7 at Bern*," 155-lfi'l. 
Man-bull the, considered by Rvv. Q. Kawliticon an lemblum of Nin or HinoT, 

SOS. 
Maun, Mr., dbcorery and u«Mit of tha highmt of tlie Cameroon mountainj^ 

nemcd by him Mount Vietiinit, 3L. 
MiitnvL or Morari, aiiolber nitniEi for th^ Inkd Called Nyaaaa or ZHTubssit 71. 
Marinua of TyrL% lit Plulen)/, ^rea Faliuble DOtes of Eut ATiiead CooAt aa 

far OB ^nzibnr^ 53 itml S2. 
. , the first to it»a the lage of tlu raenliabtfi vrho went to 

Az-Bnia, &5. 
atat«i that the coiirw of the Kilo cau be traced from the 

lakiM to Merae, 57 

— titales that the ta^eft wheoco the KUe flowi nv a little 8, of 



tbe prpTnontorj of ithapta, &7. 
Marsb(« or laVes, the r-ii»tctici^ of, bet^f een B° aad 9" M. lat., prored by modem 

rs-Bcarrbes jireTloiift to ttpetc, 59. 
Uuesura, M., fra-rmeiits of BcuLpture procured by, at Memphte, 309. 
IcfauBoUmii, mnuy additional fraguiEirl* of, procured by Mours. BiliDtti and 

Salznaann, &62. 
Meuanr, JI., work bj. pntitled, 'Tnairiptiooa de Hammourabi, roi de Baby- 

loue,' 234. 




€06 



INDEX. 



Meimtbiu, iaUnd of. tlic limit of ttie To;agi;B n'^Trpd to in the ' Ptripliw,' E4w 

M'^rciir^, 5l4'til4 qF, on*! of tli>^ beti uf lUc Taraeao CutlertioD, 582. 

Metal, [lipcs of, idimIl' by tliv Afavrinns in the vi^lilli ii'viilur; B.C., AlA^ 

Mifiii, itiouutiLiii!! of, pWi'd hf Puilcmy S. iiri-4|iiiLlar, 57. 

McirtoD, Rttv. DiivLii, obtains fwua Slloniki (Tlietaaloiiii^M) a rctDArkkl^le Grade 

LueariptioD, 525. 
Mure, Colonic], tailed in 1941 to discoTor the ChrroQcon Uod, p. & 
Uylik^iie, inicnption from, pari of n- treat; between M;ti[eDcui» mnd the 

Plipowaiis, aSO, 
, inwrrijuiou froTii, rrgulutoa tllc standard of the gold ooinage commoa 

lo Mj-tilene ftod Flujuu-a, 550. 
, iuaCriiption frum. pt-fcrH lit iTia ourrano^ of tbe Grrclt citiea 

W. Cosrit of Asia Mitior in finh ami fuurtb t^ntiiriea B.c.t 351. 
, iuBcriplion frem, thowa that iho Mi tik-incau monejs could be tned 

by PZioi'Femi riiagistrutcs. und Wf^ r^f<J] 5&o, 
in><eri|>tiori from, throws light t>ii an ucctlottr presezred i& 

OnuuiMticcn of JiUitw PoiluK, i!X. If3, 555. 

I^AS&ltOXliS, atorj of lUe five i]i n*5rodutus, 41, 42, 

trash, Dr. W , " On Ibc Gaulish Inwripliuus," 320-3(^. 

Vlitivc tradition of >l1^ 6Ciur<!«fl ^iAy correct^ 7fi. 

2ief{r], Viilrt Uu, ociiipture fi'ein, ptirt of the frieu of tlie Mausoleum, SGQ, 

. itulijmre fronif in sonio reiiwctfl more jJi^rlix-t thau any qther 

sUb of tli<< MaintoU'iim, 561. 
— , sliili from, probably pre»en'ed bj aau a! the knights of 2{lio<}«0^ 

567- 
Nrra, <wlDbret<d expedition tent bj bioi to find tlit.' «ourco» of lbs Nile. ll^-SO. 
H«wton, C. T., notipe of Urefk "lion monuMttiilB," 11. 
■ ^, " On A Oivet m*cnplioii at Mj-Ulcne, riilating to the coirutge 

iif tlutt city and of Phoi-a-B," '>4y-558, 
— ■ ' ■, oblniuB L-asl of tba alub of the Mausoleum now in the 3«nglic 

at ConatantinopLc, 562. 

-, visits in 1853 tbi.' site of the Necropolis of Catuiriij, tLCor 



Nicholaun. Sir C, Burl:., oMnins in I8tii frout Mr. Massara, M-rers.! Ehigmenft 
of E^f pliuii BCiilpCui'L', 30S, 

■, " On Homo Funereal Uieroglyphic luscriptiona C>und 

at Mirmpliia," 308-32&, 
iSUe, earliest nolictig in ^Esehvliis, 35-3^^. 
— — , fouiituinB of, ftt^try in UerodoLuB and luter wrikra, 39, 40. 

' , report of, in Hurodotiis., 3a-42. 

, length of jouraey on, from Elephantine to Heroe, nccording to H« 

dolus, 40, 41. 
, ooupao of, peoaniued analogy between lit and Uint of tho I»lruB(aceoi 

to Qerodotiu), 42. 
•■^— , itory of iU Libyiui origiq eittant in ifrica till quite rewtiiL times, 4S, 
, said by Arialotle to Qow from the ailvur Moiuitain like the riTer Chr 

nielM, 43, 



INDEX. 



6or 



l4iU, ■> deacribud by KraloAtlieriea, 44, 45. 

— ibe KuakTo htlmidfirv of Sfrubo'a Afrirsi, 46. 

^, uitiiidu,ti'UiL9 off atsLed b^ Strubo ta ibe Jita 1-a the Bummer mina in ^thi^ 

opiti), 46, 47. 
"- > Dutiirf of llic uccDunt or, giTen b; PomponiTu Mela, 4i7. 
— , many d^LuiU of, fiimulitid by Pliiijr Iroiii llie eipuditioTi of Fetroniua, 

and from tliut wrnl hj i'tra, -i7-50, 
— , ^iicriu DimiQ of llm boain of, S, of Sjsik9, Ethiopia, according to 

Ptolamj, £6. 
— , wcatum brAatfh of, called the Nile hy Ptolemj, 5fi. 
SincT, tliG Auyriuu IIerauJ<^«, the tnditionAt founder af Niuattih, 274. 
NytMia, TiiiLivc; word Jbr a great aca or kite, 75. 
' IfyM, numeroi^e phuK» bearing this daiuo, 29U. 

, PATSUkHTd, tesoellut-orl, two ciinoiiB upeciiDieua from FoqHuI^b sole, &S6. 
FeiiptuB of tlie Erytbra'ari Si-a adda much to our kuowleilge of the coast of 

Afnca Cowards ZnriJlibar, 5^54. 
Fetroniuti'fl ezpe^Uiion ti^iiktt Peelc-is snd NapaU described bj Strabo, 46. 
FhocsEtL, gold coins of, probably current in Athens in the time of PtTii'Ie*, Sa8. 
fhtcuiciii, gt'nc-ml iuflurnccof, on 0^n<«c<e and the Giwk teknds, &(i<>-5&8, 
Piinj ttutea th»t Nrro'* offii'cp* broujjht back with them "formu JEtluopifej" 

1. e, ■ map of tlii< rouiilry, &0. 
■ giree a li»t of nairii-5 nnd pliu^et in U^per Ethiopia, mauj of nhlch can 

■Btlll b& idpntilied, 50, 51. 
Poeoel'-, R., 2>iibhahea the Grcfk inBcription Croin TheBialOuica, with many 

Euieitakies, S31-532. 
Folitarcb, titl&of inngiatmlcs of Thci^aloiuca, found onl; in St. Luke &nd on 

Greek iuscriptLona from Tbc^aalonica, 520. 

, first noticed hy M. ijehvy on a warble irom ThcsBaJoni(<B, 527. 

-, Jouud, secondly, on 4 Qreok iqnKTi.pl.ioa frgni ThcMalonicB, procured 

thenc-e by Rev. I), Mortun, &'27. 
Popes Alfiaiid^^r 111.^ Luoius IIL, Honorius ITI., Iimooent, etc., vliarterj 

gniutt-d by lo Laii«T0Oet, i75-47S. 
pouuoli, roiUBrkable terra-cotla lamp Trom, now in Miiaeum, b&3, 
PsiiTcmetidiiiB, loulnii wiltiny in tiiui! of, Ti.C. GGO, 37. 
Ptolomj, Htuluiucct by, fuUtire to Murimis of Tyrf, 55. 

ealla Hie Astapua of Emtofltliu'nPB the A&taaobar 56. 

Flolemy'a hinit of "lunar rtui^L'" not rocuDcileablc with modern facts, 76. 
Purser, \V,, oiii.! of the ditK-overars of the sculpture Lon at Chirrouea, 2. 
E^nuDUf «nd Thiibe, tale 9I, Babjioniiin or AMsyrinwi, 37y. 

JLzBXiyy, M., dificorerft Kilimanjaro, 3" S. lat, ui 1619, 60. 

Bhadjimiiiithu.», pcrhupa the Ru-utfi-Aiucnti, or " Sou of the Infernal Begioiu^" 

30&. 
Bbodea, city of, built about B.c. 408. 

Bt. U43Ttir YlvlXHt THluable irolk oa the ancieat gKtgnpbj of Afrio«s 3G. 




603 



INDEX. 



fianden, J^ one of the dueoTerer* oF tlie soulptur^ Utm nl OisroneSf S. 

BargmR, meauing of t!pi» name ueertaincd, 21ll. 

Bugon corutnxvt^ a HRp&rutu chupel at KhorsnbMl for each of hia deitie*. Hi 

. iiii4.Tiption at, Cirat publLab(!<l b^ Oppsrt in Exp^ ScienL p. 

111-116. 
Bebf, niedisprul, lut of, daEsificd lindnr Latin nata^, 174-203. 
Semirumu, day cylinder of, disL-otcriHl by Si-mitLchvnh, 370. 

, in cbaeicai hbCoTy tin? rcput*d fuunder of Babylon, 370. 

■ , aftor death changed into a dore^ and wor^liippcd in tbu Bast 

divine huiiotin, 370, 
ficTnirnmia and Ninus, grctit dirmitie& of th«i Kiifit«rn pantbron, 370, 
Scuex, J-, ivHTarkaHf map of Afrita Iry, |i. By. 
- — ^— , ill UiH " Mup of Afritta" reprraentaagrcat lake dmu-Ij in the pooitiB 

of tbc NtuiiUi, 6!I, 
-■ ■ , in Jiia '■ Alap of the World '" (lUcet •* bbe gK*t Uko " (Xj'aiifta) niora 

accuratelj iban in his mnp of Afrii-a, 70. 
Bcnnoohorib iti8<*rilx-8 on a stotiEi tablet the rktorJej he hod gninM, 384. 

— — -^^ ' recjnirea tributo from ttic Mt'thon*. 367. 

^ cnm|ilt^le9 tlit- building of RmoT<ih, SU7. 

■ ^^^^ collect* workmeu from Clialdawii Aram, Cilicia, ate, to rebi 

Niiievob, 397. 

u»ea baakett of tueila to (mttj tho otaj' for lbi> now biiilcUn^ 



NiLievfh, 308. 

— ■ puJU down the old palace at SfineTcb, -103. 

•■ pfL-imrva new springs to wati^r NiiieTeh, 401i. 

setj up tbv fl-ritteii rocorda of Lij tinitie^ atid 160 fatlioini of b«»- 



relief at Kiuitvch, 4<!I8. 

ppMervea IWL-iity fiLthoma of the old »?iklpl!t|r9, 40y, 

■ mnkea irrignliag caiinle for Che people of NioeTuti, 416, 

Siiitoli, diflerant spellings of this nnrd in Hebrew, 145. 

', diffeivtit views, of Lee, DarLdtoti, and Otisciitua, u to iu mennin^, t4 

, doubt whether a pereon or a place, ltd. 

BimoDidflfl, M., &I3. of ' O^fD^raphi Grsci Minorca,' pun:ha»d from, If 

11. 
• — , corpj-Birison of JUS. purcUiuied ^m, with a MS. in Palatine 

libmrj, Heidi-*! borg, 17* 

-, deUiilH of the M-jwirate tnu.'t« in his MS.j 17-32. 



Sidfti, the MS. foiuid by Tiachendorf at, proboM^ the lu(^t anciifnt Grtwk H^ 

On pncclitlic-iit, S16. 

, at least four different LuLnds diecorcrable in, 217. 

■ , t«n diffemit comcion sm-p\oy th* uncial character, in, 219. 

Slares, toil of, repreaent^ on one of Sciuiachi-rib's baB-rebtrf» iu British Ui 

Heum, 39S. 
Spelie and G-rant, Captaiins, ri^earcbea by, in L8&LI-S3, 62. 
- ■ ■■■ ' -. ■ .-, diflcoser ouo grtat allluent of the Kite txoaa tlw 

lake \yAn£a, 63. 
Spake, Captain, varialion* in Boino' of tho mapa by, 64. 



INDEX. 



GOO 



Tablet, grainmaticul, iti BiitisEi Mustutii, 105-111. 

of clay impresAod with b> dove, depositM Bt Kinerch, 389. 

TWel, T, I-. F-, Professor a.t Tiibingpn, tho twet qutUonty for tlie history of 

ancient Tli^ssalonica, 548. 
Tidbot, H. F.J V,r., "A tmnslntion of aoma Aaavrian iuBcriptions^" 105-137. 
■^ ■ ^-- '■ , " On a, battlo'Hcene, in the Britisb MuAOiun," 230-31. 

> "ijisyriMn tMiniiliitions," 230-295. 

, "Iiiaeription of Klinmmurabi," 231-S4I-. 

, " On D clay tablet in the BrItijEi MuBeum,'* 2U-2&