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CransactConci 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



Biblical Archeology, 



9. CONDUIT STREET, W, 



VOL. V. 




LONDON: 

LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER, 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 



( : 



1877. 



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BABAUOM AMD SOMt. 
fftlfi'mf IM OEDIMAmT TO BKB MAJUTT. 
•T. MAATDl'f UlNS. 



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CONTENTS OF VOL. V. 



The Fight between Bel and the Dragon, and the Flaming 
Sword which turned every way. By H. P. Talbot, 

F.K.S I- 2 \ 

On the Hamathite Inscriptions. By Rev. A. H. Satck, 

M.A. PlaU 22- 32 

On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. By Rby. 

William HoroirroN, M.A., P.L.S. 11 Plates. Part I 33- 64 

Part II 319-383 

Key to the Gtenealogical Table of the First Patriarchs of 

Genesis, and the Chronology of the Septuagint. By 

VicTOK Rtpbero. From L. L. 11. Combertigiie's 

French MS. A Translation of the original Swedish 

Brochure and Notes. By S. M. Drach, F.R.A.S 65- 87 

Notes on Cypriote Pal«ography. By D. Pieribks. 3 

PlaUs 88- 96 

Ishtar and Izdubar: being the Sixth Tablet of the Izdubar 
Series. Translated from the Cuneiform. By II. P. 

Talbot, F.R.S 97-121 

On a Mummy opened at Stafford House on the 15th July, 

1875. By S. Birch, LL.D 122-126 

On the Name of an Egyptian Dog. By Prof. G. Maspero 127-128 
The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel, also the Book 
of Jonah, dated a.d. 916 (now at St. Petersburg), 
compared with the received Massoretic Texts. By the 
Rev. Christian D. Ginrburg, LL.D. Plate (fac'simile) 129-176 

and 475-549 
A Sketch of Sabeean Grammar, with Examples of Transla- 
tion, By Captain W. F. Prideaux, F.R.G.S., Fellow 

of the University of Bombay. Plate 177-224 

and 384-425 
Chronological Remarks on the History of Esther and 
Ahasoems, or 'Atossa and Tanu-Axares. By J, W 
B08ANQUBT, F.R.A.S. 2 Plates 225-292 



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IV CONTENTS. 

PAOB 

The Inscription of Darius at the Temple of El-Khargeh. 

By S. BiBOH, LL.D. 2 PlaUs 293—302 

Legend of the Tower of Babel. By W. St. Chad 

B08OAWEN 303—3 ' 2 

Why is Forty -thi«e a Basal Biblical Number? By S. M. 

Draoh 3 '3-3 '7 

The Chaldean Account of the Creation. Translated by 

H. P. Talbot, P.R.S 426-440 

The Babylonian Cylinders found by General di Cesnola in 

the Treasury of the Temple at Kurium. By Rev. 

A. H. Sayok, M.A 441-444 

On a Himyaritic Seal found in the Hauran. By Isaac H. 

Hall, LL.B., Ph.D 445-446 

On the Cypriote Inscriptions. By H. F. Talbot, P.R.S. .. 447-455 
On an Aramefean Seal. By Lieut.-Col. W. F. Prideaux, 

F.R.6.S., Fellow of the University of Bombay. Cuts 456-458 
Notice sur une Stele egyptienne du Musee de Turin. 

Par Francois Chabas 459-474 

The Tenno - Sama, or Mikoshi ; Ark - Shrines of Japan. 

By William Simpson. Plate 55^-554 

On the Stele C 14 in the Museum of the Louvre. By 

Professor G. Maspero 555-562 

Society of Biblical Archaeology. Condensed Report of 

the Proceedings during the Fifth Session, November. 

1875, to July, 1876 563-580 

Index to Vol. V 581-596 

Errata : 597 

List of Members i-xv 

List of additional Books presented xvi-xxiv 

Catalogue of the Library 

Society of Biblical Archaeology, Rules of 



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TRANSACTIONS 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 



Voi^ Y. JUNE, 1876. Part 1. 

THE FIGHT BETWEEN BEL AND THE DRAGON, 

THE FLAMING SWORD WHICH TURNED 
EVERY WAY. (Gen. iii, 24.) 

Translated from a Chaldean Tablet 
By tt F. Talbot, F.R.S. 

Head 1th March, 1876. 

This is one of the most striking narratives of the Chaldean 
mythology. It is found on a tablet lithographed in plates 44 
and 45 of Delitzsch's work Assyrische Lesestucke. Plate 44 
describes Bel arming himself for the battle : the Dragon is 
merely mentioned on this plate, but does not appear upon the 
scene. 

Plate 45 describes the battle, with much animation. The 
weapons which Bel wielded were numerous and formidable, but 
by fer the most curious was the Flaming Sword which turned 
every ^way, " to the South, to the North, to the East, and to 
the West, so that none could escape from it," which resembles 
so strongly the Sword of the Cherubim in Genesis which 
** turned every way, to keep the way of the Tree of Life," 
that the same celestial weapon must surely be intended. It 

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2 The Fight between Bel and the Dragon, 

is here supposed to be in the hands of Bel, the beneficent 
deity who, according to plate 42, had created Mankind. 

Several lines at the beginning and end of each face of the 
tablet are broken ofl^ which causes some obscurity. 

Front of the Tablet : Plate 44. 

1. [broken.] 

2 and with it his right hand he armed. 

3. His flaming sword he raised in his hand. 

4. He brandished his lightnings before him. 

5. A curved scimitar he canied on his body. 

6. And he made a sword to destroy the dragon, 

7. which turned four ways ; so that none could avoid its 

rapid blows. 

8. It turned to the South, to the North, to the East, and to 

the West. 

9. Near to his sabre he placed the Bow of his father Anu. 

10. He made a whirling thunderbolt, and a bolt with double 

flames,^ impossible to extinguish : 

11. And a quadruple bolt, and a septuple bolt, and a 

bolt, and a bolt of crooked fire. 

12. He took the thunderbolts which he had made, and there 

were seven of them 

13. to be shot at the dragon, and he put them into his quiver 

behind him. 

14. Then the lord of the storm raised his great sword ; 

15. He mounted his Chariot, whose name was *' Destroyer of 

the Impious " : 
IG. he took his place, and lifted the four reins* in his hand. 

[The rest of this portion of the inscription is broken off.] 

Reverse of the Tablet : Plate 45. 

Bel now offers to the Dragon to decide their quarrel by 
single combat, which the Dragon accepts. This agrees with 
the representations of the combat on Babylonian cylinders in 
Mr. Smith's Chaldean Genesis, page 62, &c. 

> Forked lightning. ^ Their war-chariot? had two horaee. 

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The Fight between Bel and the Dragon. 3 

II5I 

1. [Why^ seehest thou thus] to irritate me with blas- 

phemies? 

2. Let thy army withdraw : let thy chiefs stand aside : 

3. Then I and Thon (alone) we will do battle. 
4 When the Dragon heard this, 

5. Stand back I she said, and repeated her command. 

6. Then the tempter rose watchfdlly on high. 

7. Turning and twisting, she shifted her standing point, 

8. She watched his lightnings : she provideH for retreat. 

9. The warrior angels sheathed their swords. 

10. Then the Dragon attacked the just prince of the gods. 

11. Strongly they joined in the trial of battle, 

12. The King drew his sword, and dealt rapid blows, 

13. Then he took his whirling thunderbolt, and looked well 

behind and before him : 

14. And when the Dragon opened her mouth to swallow 

him, 

15. He flung the bolt into her, before she could shut her lips. 

16. The blazing lightning poured into her inside. 

17. He pulled out her heart ; her mouth he rent open ; 

18. He drew his falchion^ and cut open her belly. 

19. he cut into her inside and extracted her heart, 

20. he took vengeance on her, and destroyed her life. 

21. When he knew she was dead he boasted over her. 

22. After that the Dragon their Leader was slain 

23. her troops took to flight: her army was scattered abroad, 

24. and the angels her allies, who had come to help her, 

25. retreated, grew quiet, and went away. 

26. They fled from thence, fearing for their own lives, 

27. and saved themselves, flying to places beyond pursuit. 

28. He followed them, their weapons he broke up. 

29. Broken they lay, and in great heaps they were captured. 

30. A crowd of followers full of astonishment 

31. Its remains* lifted up, and on their shoulders hoisted. 

32. And the eleven tribes, pouring in after the battle 

33. in great multitudes, coming to see, 

' Sererml lines appear to be broken offi including the first part of line 1, which 
I h»Te restored from conjecture. 
' Vi*., those of the dragon. 

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4 The Fight between Bel and the Dragon. 

UNB 

34. gazed at the monstrous serpent 

35. and 

36. And the god Bel 

(The rest of the tablet is lost.) 

The 32nd Ime is very obscure. The word 'eleven' is 
written in words at length, and very distinctly, iatin isrit 
(one and ten) which is the Hebrew term for * eleven ' viz. 
TTWy *»nti^y, so that there can be no doubt about the word. 
But twelve is usually the sacred number, and therefore the 
thought suggests itself that in this Legend something had 
happened to one of the twelve nabnitij or created races, and 
reduced their number to eleven. Perhaps the story i*an that 
the angels were at first divided into twelve tribes or races, 
and that one of these joined the Dragon in the rebellion, so 
that " after the battle " (if that is the phrase employed by 
the scribe) only eleven were to be found in heaven. This 
certainly does not accord with the statement in plate 43, but 
this is a different tablet, and the scribe may have followed a 
different tradition, for these minor points vary much in 
mythology. 

I will now give the cimeiform text, but I must premise 
that the text given by Smith in vol. 4, plate 6 of our Trans- 
actions varies notably in some places from that given by 
Delitzsch, apparently owing to the addition of a small new 
fragment to the tablet. I have endeavoiured in each case to 
select what seemed the better of the two readings. 



Cuneiform Text of the Front of the Tablet : Plate 44. 

LINB 

1. [Broken.] 

imna-su usakhiz 

fa weapon] to hie right hand he gave 

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'Fhe Fight between Bel and the Dragon. 



LDTS 



kakku(?) izpatu idus-su ilul. 

a sword flaming in his hand he raised up. 

iskun mini ina pani-Bu 

he brandished lightnings before him. 

gizzir takhmithu zumnr-su 

a scimitar curved {on) his body 

Timtalli 
he bore 

ebus-ma sapara snlmu 

and he made a sword to slay 

pishpish tisallat 

the scaly dragon 

irbitti sari ustizbita 

the four cardinal points it turned to 

ana 14 tsi ragmi-sa 

in order that none (might) avoid its hlmi?s 

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6 The Fight between Bel and the Dragon, 



LIHB 



«• A^ -^U m A^ "^TT <T* A^ V B:Tr 

im im sidi im 

the South point, Hie North point, the East point, 

im martu 

the West point 

9. ^s:<y^ 4?i!^B:TT ^s^ c^ -M --^T 

idu^B sapara ustakriba 

by the side of the sword he placed closelt/ 

kisti abi su Anu 

the bote of his father Ann 

ibni im bulla, im sina 

he made a whirling thunderbolt, a bolt of double 

mikba ai ukaptu 

flames never to be extinguislied 

im arba, im sibitti, im .... 

a bolt quadruple, a boU septuple, a bolt (. . . .), 

A^ •^<T*n 

im mi dia 
a bolt crooked^ 

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The Fight between Bel and the Dragon. 7 

LDTE 

nseza-mma sari aha ibnu 

he brought out the bolts which he had made 

•^TT «=TTTT -<T< I «=m 

sibitti 8un 

seven of them. 



pishpish 
{for) the scaly 



tisallat 
dragon 



Butlukhu 
he placed them in 



tibu arka su 

his quiver behind him 



'*• ^ <V ^T 



1881- ma 
lifted 



billu 
the lord 



abuba 
of the storm 



kakka-8u raba 
his sword great 

IS. tf a <T- <" -t] ^n -TM «=rT^ <:= ^m 

rakub sinat la makhri galatta 

Aw chariot *^ Destroyer of tlie Impious" so called 

irkab 
he mounted 



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8 The Fight between Bel and the Di*affon, 



LINE 



16. try ^ -yiv B] :w t:^ ^] ^i tj <]^ 

izbat nam -ma irbit uazmadi 

he took his place, and the four reins 

idns - sa ilnl 

in his hand he lifted. 

Notes and Observations. 

3. Izpatu, t^yy Sifi t^]^' This epithet of the sword ot 
Bel appeared to me of uncertain meaning at the time 
when I transmitted this paper to the Society. But 
afterwards I foimd that I had ah'eady ascertained it 
to mean "flaming" in a former paper entitled *a 
Prayer and a Vision ' (Transactions, vol. 1, p. 347)- 
It is there related that Ishtar of Arbela appeared to a 
certain Seer in a vision of the night '* begu't right and 
left with flames " vnnu u sumilu tullata IZPATI. The 
word is written ^]] jlfi Jy *^^ ^^ *'^® original text 
(Annals of Assurbanipal, p. 124). 

The fortunate discovery of this passage in Assurbanipal 
completes the resemblance with the Cherubim's sword 
of the book of Genesis iii, 24. 

But this passage which 1 have quoted does not of itself 
prove the meaning of t-?paft to he flames. Turn there- 
fore to another account in p. 278 of the same Annals, 
where Ishtar of Arbela appears isati latbusat that is 
* clothed with flames ' ^J^ ^^ >f- ^J: -^i- \\ 

The word izpati varies to sapati ^fT St YJ >^T< in 
another account of the same campaign in 3 R 38, 50 
where we read '* Ishtar of Arbela tillata sapati,^' which 
is plainly the same phrase as the former one tillata 
izpati. This form sapati leads to a probable etymology 
of the word, which may be derived from a Hebi'ew 

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The Fight between Bel and the Dragon. ^ 

USE 

and Arabic root Iti^ *to bum* whence the Hebrew 
bQ*att^ 'flames,' found in Daniel iii, 22, '*the flame 
of the furnace slew those men." 

4. Iskun. This verb is frequently used of the god >->|[- ^4]^ 

brandishing his lightnings. To this god the king 
often compares himself^ when destroying his enemies 
in battle. 

5. Guzivy a Sword, literally Cutter, from Heb. "^tH gizir^ to 

cut asunder. 
Takhmithu, * curved,' feminine participle from lODH 

incurvare. 
UmtaUi *he carried,' for untall% from 7tD3 gestavit 

portavit. 

6. SidmUj to slay (?) Heb. D7tt^ to make an end of: to finish, 

or consume. -Er. gr. Isaiah xxxviii, 12 " from day to 
night wilt Thou make an end of me." ^Xl^vQfD 
pishpish is a doubtftd word. It may mean * scaly.' Heb. 
"Crptt^p squamee. (1) Scales of a fish. (2) Scaly 
armour or breastplate. The change of P for Q would 
be like /core, Ka}9 for ttotc, tto? in the Ionic dialect. 

7. Irbitti * four.' pSp^ ^TTTT '^^' '^^^ ^^®* ®^S^ *^^ P^^"* 

of the second are broken off", but there can be no 
doubt of the reading, for irbitti shari occurs frequently, 
and always means the four cardinal points, north, 
south, east and west ; and * the four winds ' which is 
only another name for the same thing. 
ShaH Y ]] i-yy<y *the Winds.' Heb. nVD. The four 
cardinal points are generally called the four -^^f > 

as for example -^4f ^TT KT^?^ *^ **^^ ^^ North 
(the others are named in L 8). The Hebrew "^D is 
rendered in the Lexicons by tempestas, turbo, ventus 
turbinis (whirlwind). But the Latin turbo includes 
'lightning' (turbo igneus). See Virgil Mu. vi, 592. 

At pater omnipotens densa inter nnbila telum 

Contorsit 

praecipitemque iminani turbine adegit. 

.^Jl is an Accadian word, which corresponds to 
nharti or ^0 ^ these various meanings. One of the 

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10 'I he Fight hetiveen Bel and the Dragon. 

LINE 

chief Assyrian deities was >->f- -^HFI" ^^^ S^^ ^^ ^^^ 
wind, or of the storm, or of the K^tning. He is also 
called Ramanu the Thunderer (Heb. Ojn tonuit), and 
he corresponds to the Latin Jupiter Tonans. 

Uatizhita ^ it was turned or directed/ ' Istaphel conjuga- 
tion of rE!0 posuit, disposuit) ordinavit. 

7«t, to avoid nimbly (or escape). Heb. n^S ivit de loco 
ad locum, abiit, discurrit. 

Ragmi, Heb. 03*1 to strike rapid blows. 
9. Idu, Heb. T *the side/ 

Ustakriba 'he placed closely.' Istaphel conjugation of 
Heb. STlp appropinquavit, propfe accessit. 

IRsU, Chald. ntt^p 'a bow.' 

10. Im hulla * a whirling thimderbolt,' from hulla * a whirl- 

wind' Arab. TIMH vertit, convertit, contorsit, tur- 
bavit. M /in ventus, omnia turbans et subvertens 
(Schindler). 
Ai Uhaptu * which never can be extinguished ' — from the 
verb AaiaA PDD 'extinctus fiiit ignis (Schindler). In 
this verb the letter ^ is rendered by kab because 
both of them mean * the hand ' (Heb. M manus). At 
other times we find ^ rendered by qat, which also 
means * the hand.' 

11. 'jV-^ written twice (one over the other), was the name 

ai a weapon peculiar to Bel. It is mentioned in 2 R 
43, 26 and in five following lines. 
Nu dia, crooked or zigzag, an epithet of lightning. It is 
explained in 2 R 17, 43 by fa isluiruy not straight. 

13. Sutlukhu seems to be the T conjugation of rV70 immisit, 

he put them into (his quiver). 
Ttbu, quiver or case, is the Glial, rnin area, cista (chest 
or case) Gr. Olfirj. 

14. Issiy from Nffi3 to lift. 

Abuba, * storm' is a very frequent word. Arab, mn 
habuby wind (blowing furiously). See Catafego's diet. 

15. His war-chariot was named Stnat la tnakhrij 'Destroyer 

of the Impious.' So Sennacherib named his chariot 
Sapinat zairi 'Sweeper away of my enemies' IR 41, 

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The Fight I^etween Bel and the Dragon. 11 

U3rE 

57. Observe that in both instances the chariot bore a 
feminine name. 
La malhriy non-worshippers : impious people : elsewhere 
called la magari. The word takes various forms; 
migir * worshipper ' — makhar or magar * worship.' See 
several examples of the change in 4 R in the plate 
which is a calendar of the additional month of Elul. 
Galatta is a feminine participle agreeing with the femi- 
nine word 'Chariot.* It means vocata^ from Syriac 
M7p vocavit; from y)p *vox.' 
16. Nazmadu from TDS jugum: means Frena jugalia ? 



Reverse op the Tablet : Plate 45. 



1. 



i^^m. -m<} -MA j^TTT <Ig[ IV <!< !^ 

limutta-ki tnkt-inni 

[wherefore] with thy blasphemies dost tliou irritate me f 



lishdat ummat-ki, lu-siddurus-sun 

let go back thy people^ let stand aside 

tuknlti-ki 
thy armed servants {or Chiefs) 

3- -II <T*^4f ^ ]}-^]m < -^IdT]f<K«=E 

indimma anaku u kasi 

Alone I and thou 

nibus sazma 

we will do battle 

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12 The Fight between Bel and the Dragon. 

LIKB 

tisallat annita ina semi-Ba 

the dragon this in hearing it [i.e., on hearing this] 

makkliur itimi usaimi 

{go) bach! she commanded^ {and) repeated 

J^^T -II V 

diii-sa 
her command 



« 



^\< tV < 



6. ty -pyr ^y 

gissi-ma tisallat 

sprung {then) the dragon 

elita 
on high 



eursish malmalish 



sitmurish 
watchfully 



itrura 
she shifted 



isda-sha 
her standing 'point 

8. tE « :?^ VA 5^m ^! ^m -M^ <T!^ 

imanni mikhita ittanamdi 

she observed the fire^bolts, site watclied for 



tairat (?) 
a retreat {^) 



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Tlie FiglU between Bel and the Dragon. 13 

Lors 



vm 


-+ ->f 


V 


--Si 


u 


m 


sba 


takhazi 


and 


the gods 


of 


battle 



UBhailn-sun kakki-sun 

sheathed (?) their swords. 

innindu-ma tieallat rubu mi ili 

Attacked tlien tlie dragon the jtist prince of the gods 

sazanish iddibbu kitrubu 

fiercely they joined the struggle 

takhazi 
0/ battle 

12. ^ 5^ -TH Sw BT -< t^ ^ 5^ &n I 

usparir-ma billu sapara-su 

drew his sword (?) the king^ {and) his sabre 

uragmi 
dealt rapid blows 

im hullu zabit arkati 

His whirling thunderbolt he took^ behind him 

pannB-su umdashir 

and before him he looked 

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14 The Fight bettveen Bel afid the Dragon. 

LIKB 

ipti-ma pi-sha tisallat; ana 

opened lier month Hie dragon to 

-ET ^-Hf- -^!< I 

labati-8u 
swallow him 

im bulla ustiriba ana 

the whirling bolt he sent into Iter so that 



la katam sipti-sba 

not she could shut her lips 



16. tz] --ifcyy ^]< 

izzuti 
the fiery 



^4f !^ 

sbari 
lightnings 



^TT? *m ^TT 

karsba-sha 
her belly 



izanu-ma 
poured into 



17. ^:w :?f: <r 

insallat 
he pulled out 



libba-sa-ma 
A^r A^ar^ and 



5^ T? "in 

pa-sba 
her mouth 



usbulki 
he rent open 



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The Fight between Bel and the Dragon. 15 

1151 

issuk muhnulla ikbtipi 

he drew his falchion (and) cut open 

karas-sa 
her belly 

kirbi sa ubattiqa usallat libba 

her inside he cut into (and) extracted Iter heart 

20. .y<y^<^:: <y^ ^y ::::][ y j^T ^W -^^ -mA 

ikmi-si-ma napehata's ubulli 

he took vengeance on her {and) her life he destroyed 

salam sba idda eli-sba izaza 

(vhen) her death lie knew^ over her he boasted. 

tiltu tisallat alik pani inaru 

After that the dragon their Leader had been slain 

kieri-sha uptarrira bukbar-eba 

her troops took to flight her army 

isippikha 
was scattered abroad 

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16 The Fight between Bel and the Draff on* 



LINE 



24. <MgD[ -Hh^Hh -M^^V Vi-^V) 

u ili ritzu-sha aliku 

and the angeh her allies w1u> had come 

idi-sha 
to help her 

ittarru ibsukhu usikkhiru 

retreated grew quiet- {and) turned away 

<T-TT<T ^m --TT 

arkat-zu 
backwards 

usitzu-ma napshaWs ediru 

they fled thence^ for their own lives fearing 

ustalamu naparsu ana la 

tliey saved themselves (and) were scattered to [^places'] not 

lihu 
pursued. 

28. ^y< ^- I 15^ ^y< ^y «=! M T^ I 7^ 

tibu (?) s\inuti-ma kakki-sun 

he folhioed iherOy and tlieir weapons 

^W ^IdJ A^ 

usabbir 
he broke 

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The Fight between Bel and tlie Di^agon. 17 



LdB 



sapcirish nadu-ma kamarish 

in a broken state they lay in heaps j in multitudes (?) 

^^ 

usbu 
they were captured (?) 

gadu (?) dubqati malu 

a crowd of followers fuU of 

dumami 
astonishment 

sirit-zu nasu ukatibu 

its remains they lifted up {and) on their shoulders [hoisted'] 

u istdn isrit nabniti Bupar 

and the eleven tribes after 

bulkhati izann 

the battle (?) pouring in (?) 

33. <k:;:^:^^ ^-^<!MPf ll-^<TIg[ie 

milla galli aliku .... 

a crowd (?) great coming [to see ?) 

ittadi teir rieti 

gazed upon the serpent monstrous 

j by (Google 



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18 The Fight bettoeen Bel and the Dragon. 

LINB 

gadu duk mati sun 



3«. <ym Hh III ^^Mmm 

u ilu makh 

and the god Bel{?) 



Notes and Observations on the Reverse. 

LINE 

1. Tukt'inni, thou dost irritate (or prick) me, from Heb. •pi 

to prick. Used in Arabic for the sting ot a serpent 
(Gesenius) : also, to goad. 

2. Lishdat, *let them go back': probably from XQ1Q)if a 

reduplicate form of Ch. Syr. K^tt^ recessit. 

Ummat * people,' Heb. l^y populus. 

Lu-siddurussun *let them stand aaide,' Ch. Syr. ■^^'C^ or 
■^WD *the Side.' We also find ^ViOZ used for * back- 
wards.' 

3. Sazma probably means * battle.' In the annals of Assur- 

banipal p. 124 Ishtar gives her Bow to the king, and 
says " Go to the battle " 1 tanadala ana epis sazmi (I 
read ^ ^ y»-) "and wherever thy camp is placed, 
I will follow" tibaku anaku, which is a permansive 
present from the Arabic JDH ' to follow.' And com- 
pare the adverb eazmish * fiercely ' or * with battle ' iu 
col. ii, line 2 of the present inscription. 
5. Makkhur, retr6. This word occurs frequently. Compare 
nilND i tergo (Buxt.) Emu makkhur, they turned 
back, 3 R, 15, 21. 

ftim% she commanded : from DWD a command. 

Usanniy from H^tt^ iterare. 

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The Fight between Bel and the Dragon. 19 

Lzn 

6. ffwn, 'she darted or sprung/ seems to be from X\X 

transiit celeriter (Soliindler). 
SUmuri$h ' watchfully ' : from *yo)if custodire, observare. 
This adverb occurs in other passages. 

7. Sursiah seems to mean ' iu a rolling manner/ or ' twisting 

herself': from Sl\i^ sei-psit, movit se. MalmalUh hss 

probably a nearly similar meaning. We have 71Q 

declinavit^ convertit. 
/tnjra 'she twisted.* ■^Tf torsit. Gesenius renders it 

drehen, 
Isda. Heb. ID** fundamentum. 

8. Imarmi she observed (?) n3Q to observe. 

lUananuU is probably for ittanandiy (M for N) which 
would be a variant conjugation for Utadi, a frequent 
verb, meaning ' he or she watched or gazed upon.* 

10. Inmnduj attacked (?) literally 'joined * {ue. battle). 

11. Kitrubu may be the peril or trial (of battle), Arab. I'VI 

periculum fecit, tentavit (Schindler). 

12. Uragmi Heb. Q^l to strike rapid blows. 

13. Im huUti, see note to col. i line 10. I think im hullu 

zabit is only a quick pronunciation of im hulla uzabiL 
Umdashir for undashir, M for N, as often happens. This 
is the T or D conjugation of "^23 observare, custodire 
protegere. 

14. Lahatiy TXn^ maxilla, gena : ' the jaws.* 

15. Uethriba^ Istaphel or ST conjugation of the Assyrian verb 

ereb 'to enter.' The S conjugation is useriba ' I caused 
to enter.' 
Kataroy Arab. I^TO *to shut.* The same phrase occurs 
on the Deluge Tablet p. 554 katma eapta-sun^ they shut 
their lips (remained silent). 

16. Ka^^eha. Chald. tt^lS, the belly. 

17. Insallat ' he pulled out,' may be Niphal of Sallat^ which 

verbis found in 1. 19 with the same meaning. Derived 
from the subst. rhlHf spolium, prseda. 
Uebulku S conjugation of 370 or n^ to rend or spUt. 

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20 The Fight between Bel and the Dragon. 

LDTB 

18. hsuk ' he drew out.' Heb. HD3. 

Ikhtipi. Ch. Syr. D^n diripuit, abripuit, &c. Heb. atflH 
" to cut out," is nearly the same. Compare also 3Z0p 
of similar meaning. 

20. Ikmi eij *He took vengeance on her.' Heb. Op3, vin- 

dictam sumpsit. 

21. Salam-sha^ her end, or her death. 

Idda^ * he knew of.' Heb. yv * to kuQW.' 
Izaza. One copy reads, ^^ ][| ][][, the other ^^ ^ffV }}> 
iziza (Smith). Heb. T)t, * to boast or triumph.' 
Buxtorf says superbivit : superbfe vel arroganter egit. 

23. Uptarrira. T conjugation of Arab. yM^ fugit : evasit 
in beUo, 
hippikJi 'was scattered, or put to flight.' Heb. llDtt^ 
fddit (put to flight), Gesen. p. 967. We have also 
"TD\i^ fudit. I have pointed out in my Glossary 
No' 326 that the verbs uparrir and usippikh generally 
are found together. For example, Bukhar-aun usappikfi, 
uparrir kharranat-zun, *I put to flight their army, I 
destroyed their hostile invasion.' Bavian 1. 39, and the 
same in the Taylor cylinder 4, 42, but interchanging 
the substantives kharran and bukhar, 

25. Ibsukhu *they were calmed.' Chald. pDD cessavit, 
quievit. But here Smith differa from Delitzsch, and 
reads iblakht^ * they feared.' 
Usikkhiru * they turned back ' Chald. "^nO reversus est : 
conversus est. 

27. Ustalamu *they saved themselves.' T conjugation of 

lAhu * to follow,' Rabb. TTO to follow. 

28. 7?6u* he followed.' Arab, jrnn to follow. 

29. Saparishj * in a broken state.' Heb. "Gtl^, * to break.' 
Usbu. Heb. rQtt), to capture (doubtful word). 
Nadu * they lay in heaps.' Heb. 13 acervus. 
Kamarieh adverb froni, "^DH cumulus : acervus, ex. gr. it 

is used for 'heaps of slain lying on the ground.' 
Schindler, p. 603. 

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The Fight between Bel and the Dragon. 21 

Lon 

30. Graduy Heb. 13 a crowd : Lat. tarma. 

Dubqati adherents or followers piT to adhere or be 

joined to (Burt.). 
Dumami, astonishment. Heb. nDH obstupuit. 

31. Siri^' the remains' {ue. of the dragon). Heb. Jl*ntW 

Reliquiae. 
Ukaiibu * they raised on their shoulders,' from Heb. DHD, 
the shoulder. 

32. Bulihati means * division ' or * war ' : it is used in both 

senses. Perhaps supar bulkhati means * after the war.' 
It may be the Syriac word MmH^D pulkhuta^ war. 
34. Ittadi * gazed upon.' This verb occurs in several places. 

Rieti 'conspicuous': * wonderful': from HM"! *to see.' 

So OavfjLo, a wonder = Sea^ia^ a Sight. 



Line 14 of col. I should perhaps be translated 
He lifted hie great sword called ^^Lord of the Storm J* 
So that both the Chariot and the Sword had names, which 
are mentioned in two consecutive lines. 




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22 



THE HAMATHITE INSCRIPTIONS. 

By Rev. A. H. Satce, M.A. 

Read 2nd May, 1876. 

Thb following paper will be one rather of conjectures 
than of facts; but where fitcts are not attainable, even 
conjectures have their use. So long as we have no clue to 
the interpretation of the inscriptions known as Hamathite, 
every suggestion which has any probability in it is worthy 
of consideration. 

The Hamathite inscriptions are written in hieroglyphics ; 
but the hieroglyphics are, in most cases, so far removed from 
their original form as to be quite unintelligible. Most of the 
inscriptions have been found at Hamah, the ancient Hamath ; 
one, however, (a copy of which I have not been able to 
see,) has been discovered at Aleppo, the Helbon of ancient 
history, while another accompanies the bas-relief found by 
Mr. Davies at Ibreez in Lycaonia, which has been figured in 
the Transactions of this Society (vol. iv, part 2, pp. 336-346). 
Inscriptions in the same character also occur on five seals 
brought by Mr. Layard from the record-chamber of Sennache- 
rib's palace, (where they had probably been deposited after 
Sargon's conquest of Hamath,) and are now in the British 
Museum. The stones foimd at Hamath (Hamah) are four in 
nimiber, and the inscriptions upon them are all in raised 
characters. Burkhardt was the first to notice them, and 
imperfect copies of them have been given by the English 
Palestine Exploration Fund, and in Burton and Drake's 
" Unexplored Syria." We owe our only accurate copies to 
Dr. Hayes Ward, who published them in the Second State- 
ment of the American Palestine Exploration Society, from 

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i 



17. 



18. 



19. 



V 



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The Hamathite Inscriptione. 23 

squeezes and casts tak^i in Beirut by Lieut. Steeves and 
Prof. Paine. Dr. Ward has, further, drawn up a list of the 
duuBcten met with in the inscriptions. 

The fo\ir stones from Hamath are now in the Imperial 
Museum at Constantinople. The first contains three lines of 
writing, all broken off at the ends, together with a fourth 
line, which has not been inscribed. The second contains 
two complete lines of writing, and a third uninscribed line. 
The third inscription is, again, complete, consisting of two 
long lines of writing and a shorter third line. The fourth 
stone is a large one, and is inscribed on one side and at one 
end. The larger face has five lines of writing, and the 
smaller face four lines, below which is an additional line not 
engraved. It is remarkable that the inscription on the 
larger face is identical with the inscriptions on the three 
other stones, with the exception of variant portions which 
occur towards the end of each of the first three inscriptions, 
as well as of a variant portion at the end of numbers 1 and 2, 
which is not found in Nos. 2 and 4. Number 4, however, 
contains a large amoimt of additional matter. It is curious 
that a portion of the inscription which answers to the second 
line of Nos. 2 and 3 has been purposely erased in No. 4. 
Dr. Ward has shown that the inscriptions read from the direc- 
tion towards which the chai*acters look, the first line reading 
from right to left, and the remaining lines in boustrophedon 
Cushion. The inscription on the smaller face of No. 4, 
however, begins from left to right, while the fourth line of 
the inscription on the larger face of the same stone runs 
from right to left, breaking the boustrophedon order, and 
suggesting the commencement of a fresh inscription. The 
similarity of the inscriptions on the four stones may imply 
tliat they are votive tablets to some deity, in which the 
formula remains the same, while the proper names change. 

Each of the inscriptions commences with the representa- 
tion of a himian head and arm pointing to the face *Jl| 
This must signify either the first personal pronoim " I," or 
else denote the act of speaking or of worshipping, or else 
finally be the determinative of an individual. The last 
supposition is excluded by the fact that the character does not 

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24 The HamatMte Inscriptions. 

precede the variant portions of the inscriptions, while in the 

shorter inscription of No. 4 it precedes two characters ^^ 

•I- 
which occur so frequently in the legends as to be probably 
some common grammatical termination. Nor is it likely 
that the act of speaking would have been expressed by so 
elaborate a sign instead of the more convenient hieroglyphic 
of '* mouth," and we therefore have to decide between the 
meanings of " I " or ** dedicated." The analogy of other 
Semitic inscriptions makes me prefer to regard the character 
as expressive of the first personal pronoun ; in which case, 
as the first personal pronoun in Northern Syria would have 
been ana or ant, we should have to attach the value of na or 
ni, (or a or i,) to another character, un or nil , which 
accompanies the hieroglyphic just discussed. At the end of 
the shorter inscription of No. 4, the hieroglyphic which I 
have thus supposed to mean "I," is followed by two 
characters, ^^ •!• which, from their frequency and position, 
I fancy must denote the plural. This would be in as Hamath, 
but conjoined with the ideograph of the first personal 
pronoun they would have to signify " we " or "us."' 

The same two characters, which we will term the mark 
of the plural, occur in the shorter legend of No. 4, at the end 
of a group of hieroglyphics which elsewhere appears alone. 

This group is W §^ lu one place instead of ^^ we 

find V Now the first character of this group (SB) or 

' On second thoughts, howerer, it seems to me very possible that the two 
characters in question may stand for sar^ ** king.'* The first may represent a 
row of teeth, that is shen or «A«, («a,) and the second the two eyes and nose for 
resh, (ra,) *' the head." They generally occur before the name of a State, and 
once in the composition of a proper name. Perhaps the same word is represented 



on two of the seals where we find ^Ljp and ^^^ the latter character being 

identical with that numbered 23 in the list. In the larger inscription of No. 4 
we find these two characters twice replaced hy ^i |^ and preceded by the 
two characters numbered 10 and 61. 

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The Hamathite Inscriptions, 25 

iB foimd several times in places where towns seem 
to be signified, and I believe that it is used as the deter- 
minative of cities or countries. We may compare the 
^gyP*^^"^ ^B ^^^ * similar signification. I have a sus- 
picion, though based on no definite reason, that the name 
either of Hamath or of the Hittites is denoted by this 

determinative when followed by the two characters ^ "f^* 

The other group of characters may represent the name of 
a Syrian people, especially when followed by the "plural 
sign." 

We occasionally meet with the hieroglyphic of a hand 

holding a sceptre, ^mm * This may denote "action" in 
general, but I think it is more probably the determinative of 
" king." A not unfrequent affix is (f^\^ , which I have some- 
times thought might be the determinative of deity, but more 
probably it represents some grammatical suffix. We ought 
to find the name of the god Rimmon in these inscriptions. 
We know from the Old Testament that Rimmon was wor- 
shippecl at Damascus ; the Assyrian monuments also speak of 
a Car-Rimmon or " Fort of Rimmon " fits a Hittite town, and 
Shalmaneser refers to " the god Rimmon of Khalman " or 
Aleppo The deity represented in the Ibreez sculptures with 
a stalk of com in one hand and bunches of grapes in the 
other may be the same god. Hadad (not Hadar) was another 
divinity of Syria, as Macrobius bears witness. 

Dr. Ward's list of Hamathite characters which is appended 
to this paper consists of 56 different characters. The original 
form and meaning of some of these is still clear, though the 
greater part have lost all trace of likeness to the objects 
which they previously represented. No. 1 seems to represent 
the hand ; 8 is a knife ; 10, a hatchet or sceptre ; 16, possibly 
the eyes; 17, a hook; 26, perhaps the mouth with the 
nostrils above it ; 27, some kind of quadruped ; 31, the 
human foot; 32, 33, 47 and 49, the hand holding certain 
objects; 34, a beetle; 36, water flowing from a vase; 37, 
probably a bee ; 38 and 39, species of snakes ; 41 and 42, a 

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26 The HamaihiU Inscriptions. 

plant or tree ; 42 and 43, species of vegetables ; and 53, 
perhaps a boat. If only we knew the language spoken by 
the inventors of this curious writing we might obtain a clue 
to the phonetic powers of some of HhB diaracters. 

The large number of these shows that the writing is not 
alphabetical. On the other hand they are too few to serve 
for a complete system of hieroglyphics, and this, coupled 
with the fact that the separate words (as determined by a 
comparison of passages) consist of several characters, proves 
clearly that we have to deal with a syllabary. Some of the 
hieroglyphics, however, were evidently used as determina- 
tives as well as representatives of mere phonetic sounds, 
while others might probably be employed as ideographs. We 
doubtless have to deal with a mixed system of writing like 
that which meets us in the inscriptions of Egypt or Assyria. 

The writing, however, has nothing to do with that of 
Assyria, and could not therefore have been bon-owed from 
thence. Nor, again, does it seem to have any connexion 
with the hieroglyphical system of Egypt ; at all events the 
characters are generally unlike those found on the Egyptian 
monuments, and Mr. Dunbar Heath's attempt to provide 
them with Egyptian values has been a signal failure. So 
far as our present materials allow us to infer, the Hamathite 
hieroglyphics appear to have been an invention of an early 
population of Northern Syria. Their occurrence in Lycaonia 
is probably due to Syrian conquest. The seals found by 
Mr. Layard show that the writing continued in use down to 
the time of Sargon and Sennetcherib, and the inscriptions 
from Hamah are probably not much earlier in date. 

Now, it is difficult to understand a hieroglyphic system of 
writing being invented by a people who spoke an inflexional 
language. The first requisite of such a system is that the 
same sound should represent diScrent parts of speech, the 
pronunciation remaining the same, whether the word be 
used as a substantive, an adjective, a verb or an adverb. 
Another requisite is that the gi*ammatical terminations 
should be easily separable from the roots or stems to which 
they are attached. These two requisites are foimd in China, 
in Turanian Chaldea, in Egypt, and in Central America ; in 

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The Hamathite Inscriptions. 27 

fact wherever hieroglyphic writing has been invented. I^ 
therefore, the Hamathite hieroglyphics were the invention of 
a Semitic people, they would be a singular exception to the 
general mle, and their origin would be all the harder to 
explain from the fact that Semitic flexion depends so much 
upon internal vowel-change. The probability, then, is that 
the North Syrian inventors of these Hamathite characters 
did not speak a Semitic or inflectional tongue. 

Who the inventors were it is of course impossible to 
determine with certainty, but it is extremely likely that they 
belonged to the great Hittite race It is true that M. de 
Roug^ and others have tried to explain the Hittite proper 
names found on the Egyptian monuments as Semitic ; but 
the attempt seems to me unsuccessful, and the Hittite names 
that occur in the Assyrian inscriptions, which, as being 
themselves in a Semitic language, would represent foreign 
Semitic words in a recognisably Semitic form, have nothing 
Semitic about them. To take only one instance, the Hebrew 
form of the Hittite city Carchemish gives some colouring to 
the view that the name denotes *' the fortress of Chemosh," 
though Chemosh was a Moabite and not a Hittite god ; but 
the etymology becomes impossible when we find the word 
always written Gargamis in Assyrian. We have but to 
compare the proper names of Hittite princes and countries 
given in the Assyrian inscriptions with those belonging to 
Hamath and Damascus, to be convinced of the non-Semitic 
character of the former. My own belief is that the Hittites, 
or at all events the main part of them, spoke dialects that 
were not inflectional. 

The Hittites, called Kheta in Egyptian, and Khatti in 
Assyrian, first appear on the monuments of Thothmes IH. 
Naharaim or Mesopotamia (the Assyrian Nahri) holds the 
chief place in Western Asia in the time of Thothmes I ; the 
Rotennu or Syrians make their appearance in the reign of 
Thothmes II, and finally in the reign of Thothmes III, when 
Babylon, Assur, and Nineveh, aa it would seem, pay tribute 
to Egypt, the Hittites come upon the scene. But it is not 
till the wars of Seti I^ and Rameses II, in the XlXth Dynasty, 

> Can this Seti be the " king Shet " of the PhoBnician pottery fouQcl at the 
bMe of the Temple of Solomon ? Digi^i^ed by GoOglc 



28 The Hamathite Insanptions. 

that we find the empu*e of Naharaim has been replaced by 
that of the Hittites. The latter a^e now the enzerains of the 
various tribes of Naharaim, whom M. Fr. Lenormant holds 
to be Ugro-Altaic, but who more probably belonged to the 
Alarodian stock. When we come to the era of the Assyrian 
Tiglath-Pileser I, B.C. 1130, the Hittites are still paramount 
from the Euphrates to Lebanon. Their dress resembles that 
of the Assyrians in the robe that descends to the ankles, the 
long beard and curled hair, and leads to the inference that 
the bas-reliefs of Ibreez, which agree in these respects with 
the Egyptian representations, are the records of a Hittite 
conquest. Among the principal Hittite towns may be named 
Carchemish and Helbon or Aleppo, though the latter seems to 
have been acquired by conquest from the Semites. At any 
rate this would appear to have been the case with Kadesh, 
the "holy" city of the Phoenician goddess Ken or Kesh, the 
consort of Resheph (the sun-god). We find a tribe of 
Hittites as far to the south-west as Hebron in Gen. xxiii. 
The cradle of the nation, however, was the tract of country 
between the Euphrates and the Orontes, and it was over this 
that the kings mentioned in 1 Kings, x, 29, and 2 Kings, vii, 6, 
bore sway. We possess a copy of a treaty of peace made 
between Rameses II and the prince of the Hittites, the 
original of which was inscribed upon a plate of silver in the 
language and writing, Dr. Birch thinks, of that people.* The 
prince in question was Khetansar or Khetansira, the brother 
and successor of Mautenaur, and the son of Maur-sar or 
Maranaara, '* the great chief of the Kheta," the son of Sapalel 
or Sapalala. The latter name recalls that of the Hittite 
prince Sapalulme, king of the tribe of the Patinai, on the 
Orontes, mentioned by Shalmaneser on the Kurkh Monolith. 
The names Kheta-sar and Maur-sar must be compared with 
those of Kirep-sar and Kaui-sar, two Hittites referred to in 
the monuments of Rameses II ; and since Kheta and Khirbu 
are the Egyptian forms of Hittite and Helbon, while Kaui 
clearly represents the Kahuians or Kuans of the Assyrian 
inscriptions, it is plain that sar must signify " prince," and 

' See the tranalation bj Mr. Qtjodwin in Records of the Past^ iv, pp. 25-82. 

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The Hamathite Inscriptions. 29 

perhaps have been borrowed from the Assyrian 6arru>, 
**king," which is itself an Accadian loan-word.* Now, the 
order in which the words stand in these compound names, 
Ae genitive preceding the governing word, is a decisive 
I^oof that the language in wliich such compounds were 
usual did not belong to the Semitic family of speech. The 
Egyptian monuments also make mention of a certain 
Kirab-sar, " writer of the books of the miserable (chief) of 
the Hittites," and the determinative shows that the books 
were either of papyrus or parchment. M. de Roug6* 
reminds us that Hebron, the Hittite town of Palestine, once 
bore the name of Kirjath-Sepher, or " city of books," a fact 
which seems to imply that the Semites of the West associated 
Kterature and the Hittite race together. If the Hittites 
were non-Semitic, and the inventors of the Hamathite 
hieroglyphics, we should find another parallel in the history 
of these hieroglyphics to the borrowing of the Avriting of 
Turanian Accad on the paii; of the Assyriiins, and of that of 
Egypt on the part of the Phoenicians. The small number of 
characters used in the Hamathite inscriptions shows that the 
Semites of Hamath and Northern Syria (Kke the Semites of 
Phoenicia) must have made a selection from the whole body 
of hieroglyphics employed by the inventors. They were, 
doubtless, helped in this by the number of Semitic words 
and ideas which contact had introduced into the dialects of 
the Hittites, whom we find worshipping the deity Ken or 
Eesh in the sacred town of Kadesh, as well as a goddess 
Aditaroth (unless, with M. de Rougd, we are to read Antarata). 
The origin of the names assigned to the letters of the 
Phoenician alphabet is enveloped in obscurity. We now 
know that these letters were derived from the hieratic forms 
of certain hieroglyphics used by the Egyptians with alpha- 
betic values; but the names given to the letters by the 
Phoenicians naturally do not correspond with those given to 



' In Accadian, ia meant "judge," " to judge," ia-ra^ "judge," or ** monarch." 
From this the Semites seem to have got their ■^•^\l^i which appears in Assyrian 
as iarru (also 9arr%), " king." 

' MSlange* d^Arch4ologie EgypUenne et Astyrtennef ii, 8 (1876). 



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30 The Hamaihite Inscriptions* 

them by the Egyptians. The character which denotes a, for 
instance, represented an eagle in Egyptian, which was called 
Ahom in that language ; no Semitic word, however, with 
such a signification began with the sound of A, and the 
Semites accordingly called the letter aleph, since in Semitic 
aleph, " an ox," began with the sound in question. But we 
may ask why w€is the word aleph chosen as the name of the 
first letter of the alphabet out of the many possible words 
beginning with a which might have been selected? I would 
suggest that the Semitic people who first adapted the simple 
and convenient Egyptian alphabet to their own use had 
already been accustomed to a mode of writing in which the 
representation of an ox (or of some part of an ox) stood for 
the sound of A. If the first Semitic employers of the so- 
called Phoenician alphabet were already acquainted with the 
Hittite or Hamathite hieroglyphics, we can well understand 
their applying to the letters of the new alphabet the nameB 
of the objects represented by the characters they had 
hitherto employed. In this case the names given to the 
letters of the Phoenician alphabet would have been derived 
from the Hamathite hieroglyphics. Now it is a curious fact 
that the names of the letters of the Greek alphabet all end 
in a, showing that it must have been brought to Greece not 
by the Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon, but by the Aramsdans 
of the Gulf of Antioch, since the emphatic aleph is a charac- 
teristic of Aramaic, not of Phoenician. Even the names of 
the letters in the Hebrew alphabet disclose their Aramaic 
origin, Jl'^a, tt^'^.. Dp, &c., being perfectly Aramaic, and we 
may therefore conclude that the alphabet was introduced 
rather by Aramaeans than by Phoenicians, and that it was the 
Aramaeans rather than the Phoenicians who first traded to 
Greece and elsewhere. If the Aramaeans had already known 
of another system of writing it is easy to understand the 
welcome they gave to the simpler alphabet from Egypt. 

If my reasoning has any truth in it, we may possibly assign 
as syllabic values to those Hamathite hieroglyphics whose 
primitive forms can be recognised the names of the letters of 
the Phoenician alphabet expressive of the objects intended to 
be represented. Thus No. 1 would be tfod (yad) or i (ya) ; 

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The Hamathite Inscriptions. 31 

No. 17, waw ; No. 27, perhaps gimel (gt) ; No. 36, mem or me ; 

No. 39, dhadh or dhe. If ^^ denotes *' Hittite," (Khath) it 

woTild exactly answer in form to the meaning of k/iethy the 
name of the 8th letter of the Phoenician alphabet, since 
Beth is literally " a fenced place." In this case we might go 
on to conjecture that the character which follows represents 

tin or tim. ^ being simply ti or to, (like taw, *' a cross,** the 
name of the l^t letter of the Phoenician alphabet,) and 
two horizontal strokes being added at its foot t to denote 
the plmtil.* 

I now pass on to the last conjecture I have to make. It 
will be noticed that the character just referred to, \ , has 

tiie same form e^ a character which represents ti in the 
Cypriote syllabary. Now the origin of this syllabary is a 
question of great difficulty. The theory of Brandis, that it 
was derived from the cuneiform characters of Babylonia, can- 
not be maintained, for a moment, and it is equally impossible 
to connect it with the hieroglyphics of Egypt. But the 
forms of the charactei'S, as well as the syllabic values they 
bear, show that it is a late and corrupt form of some earlier 
system of writing. Some time ago I expressed the opinion 
in the Academi/ that this earlier system of writing was none 
other than the hieroglyphics of Hamath. The number of 
characters in both is about the same, and Cyprus, where 
the syllabary maintained itself long after it had disappeared 
elsewhere, lies just in the way of trade from the Orontes. 
Its antiquity must be considerable, since Mr. Smith discovered 
a terra cotta cone with Cypriote characters upon it in the 
palace of Assurbanipal, and three or four of the terra cotta 
disks found by Dr. Schliemann in the lower stratum of 
remains at Hissarlik also bear inscriptioiis in the same 
character. Since nothing of the kind has yet been met 
with in continental Greece, we may perhaps infer that the 

* The name of Hamath, howerer, may yery probably be intended by this 
combination of characters, since j'^H ^igi^^fios " arx/* 

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32 The Hamathite Inscriptions, 

first system of writing known there was the Phoenician 
alphabet, introduced about the 9th century B.C., as it would 
seem, from a comparison of the forms of the letters on the 
Moabite Stone with those of the earliest Greek inscriptions. 
In the islands and on the shores of Asia Minor, however, the 
old syllabary was used until superseded by the more con- 
venient Phoenician alphabet, conservative Cyprus alone 
retaining it down to a late date. Local alphabets, like the 
Lycian, preserved some of its characters to represent sounds 
which were wanting in the Phoenician alphabet. A com- 
parison of the forms of the characters in the Cypriote 
syllabary with those of the Hamathite inscriptions seems to 
me to render it highly probable that both have the same 
soinrce. Of course it does not follow that the values attached 
to the characters agreed in the two cases ; still we may 
expect that it would be so in some instances, and it is possible 
that one of these is the instance mentioned above. In 
reproducing Dr. Ward's list of Hamathite characters I have 
added those of the Cypriote syllabary, with which they may 
be compared. I need hardly say that some of the comparisons 
are very doubtftd; others of them, however, seem to me 
sufficiently exact. 




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ON THE MAMMALU OF THE ASSYRIAN 
SCULPTURES. 

Br Rev. William Houghton, M.A., F.L^. 
Bead 1th March, 1876. 



Part I. — ^Domestio Mammalu. 

The subject whicli I have undertaken to treat of is one 
of considerable interest, though by no means devoid of 
difficulties in that part of it which relates to the wild 
nninuJs, for names of animals do not always give us a clear 
intimation as to the animals themselves. There are three 
ways in which animals may be represented : 1st, by pictorial 
or sculptural representation ; 2nd, by description ; and 3rd, by 
picture and description combined^ In the first case, the pictorial 
or sculptural representation may be either (1) so true to 
nature as to point out at once the animal intended, though 
the picture alone would tell us nothing as to the name by 
which such and such an animal was known to the engraver 
or painter ; or (2) the figure may be so badly executed, 
either firom want of skill in the sculptor, or fi-om the fact 
that he was drawing firom indistinct recollection of some 
animal he had seen, or from a description given to him by 
some other person, as to leave considerable doubt what 
creature is intended, unless the animal is represented with 
some very striking peculiarity which we know it to possess. 

i. Passing fi'om representation by figures of the animals 
titimselvei^ we come to that afforded by description^ and here 
again the description may be so graphic as to point out at 
cmce the animal, or it may be so meagre as to throw little 
light on the matter, or the mere name alone may exist and 
we may be completely in the dark. 

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34 On tlie Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

3. In the third inBtance, that, namely, of pictmnal repre^ 
sentation and descnption comUnedy we have the undoubted clue 
both as to the animal and its name. An animal may be 
described by many words, and in cases of nearly allied 
species where resemblances are close, minute description is 
generally necessary for the purpose of identification, or by 
few words, or, sometimes, even by one^ when the name 
expresses some peculiar habit or character of the animal. 
How, for instance, could the Bttle active animal of our woods 
and plantations, that springs from tree to tree, be better 
described than by its Greek name a-Kiovpof " shadow-tail " ? 
or what more descriptive name than " flitter mouse " could 
be found for one of the commonest species of om- British 
bats? Similarly rhinoceros and porcupine tell their own 
story.. Let me now apply these remarks to the animals of 
the Assyrian moniunents. There are munerous instances of 
representation by figures on marble slabs, terra cotta tablets, 
bronze dishes, &c. : sheep, goats, wild-goats, ibexes, oxen, 
both domesticated and wild; camels, both the one-humped 
Arabian and the double-humped Bactrian species ; stags, both 
the Platycerine and non-Platycerine type, gazelles, hares, 
dogs, Uons, horses, and wild asses, mohkeys, &c. In nearly 
all these instances the pictorial representations are so gobd — 
nay, in several, so artistic — as to speak for themselves, and 
declare what they ate; at the same time occasionally we 
meet with btidly executed forms of animal life, bearing no 
general resemblance to any known animal, such, for instance, 
kn the bull-like beast of the Black Obelisk, which, however, 
by the occuitence of the characteristic horn, though placed 
fer too high tip on the head, can proclaim itself to be no 
other animal than the one-homed riiinoceros. 

Of representation of animals by description — if by that 
term we mean anything pretending to stand on a zoological 
basis— ^ the monuments, so far as I believe is known at 
preselit, afford us no instance. There may have been 
Asi^rtiaA Aristotles who wrote on natural history subjects. 
May ftiture excavations lead to the discovery of such 
interesting relics! It is true there are bilingual tablets 
oontaining the names of animals, trees, atones, &c., but tiie 



On fh€ Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 35 

scribe who execruted them had no other purpose in mind 
than to represent the Assyrian names side by side with their 
Accadian equivalents. The zoological, botanical, and 
mineralogical tablets were merely part and parcel of Assur- 
banipal's grand idea, that is, the publication of a complete 
comparative dictionary and grammar of the Assyrian and 
Accadian languages ; a certain order more or less con-espond- 
ing to a natural order was for convenience sake obsei-ved. 
But, as I said just now, a single well-chosen name may itself 
famish a clue to, or at once declare the animal intended. 
Names given to animals from the sounds they utter, are 
often certain indications of ilie animals for which they stand, 
" a moo," " a me-ou," a " bow-wow," " cuckoo," all speak for 
themselves ; but sudi a mode of naming animals by onoma- 
topoeia would often prove fallacious; for instance, the 
peculiar sound which the stag gives forth at a certain 
period of the year soimds more like the voice of some fierce 
carnivore than a deer. 

Names given to animals from the countries from which 

they came often indicate the animal, and give us, moreover, 

interesting information. Now this method of naming 

animals prevailed much amongst the Accadian inhabitants 

of the Babylonian plains ; the " horse," for instance, was 

£:JT^ V" &yy 'ifniru kur-ra, i^.j "the animal from the 

east," Armenia and Media ; the '* wolf " was ^^] ^Y 

num-ma^ i.«., (the animal from) " the high-knds," i.e.^ Elam ; 

the camel was t^f^ ^jf t-t^ ^^ Hmini a^b-ba, Le., " the 

animal from the sea." At first sight, perhaps, this description 

may appear erroneous, camels being creatures of the plains 

and deserts rather than of the sea. Nevertheless the name 

is perfectly correct, for the sea is the Persian GuL^ across 

idiich the Accadian inhabitants of the Mesopotamian Valley 

first brought the camel from his original home in Arabia. Or 

a luime may be given to some animal from some characteristic 

habit, and the identification thereby rendered probable ; thus 

one oi the Assyrian names for *' a wolf" was y][ {1^ ^^ 

a-n-/«r, i*e,y '*tbe eater"; similar is the meaning of the 

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36 On the Maminalia of the Assyiian Sculptures. 

Accadian word J]y[ ^ ^-jVy /t^{^'}*w, *Hhe eating 
beast," a term proverbially characteristic of the greedy, 
devouring, " ravening wolf."^ 

Passing now to the third division, the method of repre- 
senting animals by combination of figure and description — 
the most certain of all methods — we find no instance of it 
amongst the Assyrian records. The ancient Egyptians 
frequently made use of this excellent method in their hiero- 
glyphic system. What, for instance, can be more clear 
than the following combinations. ^ ^^ ba, '* a ram " ; 
Efl^& widf»«, **a cat"; ^^ seih, a bird's nest"? 
each word being followed by its determinative affix, that 
affix being a correct representation of the animal whose 
name, phonetically spelt, precedes it. 

I have already said that the animals sculptured or other- 
wise figured on the Assyrian monimients for the most part 
speak for themselves, at least up to a certain point — ^a ** goat *' 
is "a goat" generically considered ; but if we wish to be more 
accurate, and to become acquainted with the particular kinds 
or species of goals known to the Assyrians and the Accadians, 
we must ascertain, if poKsible, what species of the family 
CaprefP are now known, or likely to be found, or to have 
once existed in Assyi-ia and the bordering countries ; what 
is the geographical range of the various species ; and how 
far do they in nature resemble the figures on the monuments. 
Questions such as these must be asked in all cases. But we 
have not only to identify the various species figured, we have 
also to determine the naines by which they were called. 
What aids, then, can we call in to assist us in our attempts 
to identify the names of the animals ? 

If the word be an Assyrian one, we may expect to find 
a similar word in Hebrew or Arabic, or some other cognate 
Semitic language; if we find that the unknown Assyrian 
name corresponds with the known name in one of the sister 

* Y]M[ ^ "like a lion" or "dog" is translated by the Ass. miilchari* 
*'ferociomly," "yehemcntly " (?) ; "he that deTOurs like a lion.*'— [A.H.S.] 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 37 

* 
languages, there is generally fair reason, amounting in some 
cases to absolute certainty, for inferring that identity of word 
implies identity of signification. Two or three instances \vill 
be sufficient to demonstrate my meaning; such names as 
these are of frequent occmrence on the inscriptions, dabu, 
calbuy ganmialu^ alpu, ts6ni (collectively), zSbu ; now all these 
correq)ond with the well-ascertained Hebrew names, dob, 
cdeb, gdmdLf eleph, tson, z4ib, being the names of ** a bear/' 
'* a dog," '* a camel," ** an ox," ** sheep,'' " a woltV respec- 
tively. In these cases, even if other evidence were absent 
(irtiich is not the case), there is sufficient proof to estabUsh, 
beyond a shadow of doubt, the identity of the Assyrian and 
the Hebrew animal-names. A clue to identification is 
occasionally afforded us in the context, by some expression or 
simile, as in the following passage (W.A.I. L pi. xxxix, 
line 77) :— 

cima ar-me a- na suk- ti sa- qu - te 

Uke arme upon tlie high cliffs^ 

^n ^jn :fl<T I «=m «=Tf-^HT 

tsi - ru - UB -su- un e - li 
over them / ascended. 

Clearly here some gi'cgarious wild sheep or goat, or caprine 
antelope (chamois), is intended by the word arme, a word 
which, in the absence of other evidence, might perhaps 
have remained entirely unknown. What more definite 
animal is intended may be considered when we come to treat 
of the wild animals known to the Assyrians. 

Sometimes the juxta-position of the name of some un- 
known animal with ascertained names of animals found in 
similar places may serve to put us on the right track. Again, 
the derivation of the Assjiian word — though this point really 
refers itself to the corresponding word in the Hebrew or 
other cognate tongue — is always a matter for consideration. 
Next to the establishment of the meaning of an Assyrian 
animal-name with a Hebrew or other Semitic animal-name, 

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38 On ike Mammalia of the Assyrian Scttlptures. 

comes in importance the Accadian equivalent of the Aflsyrian 
word in the bilingual list. When Assurbanipars scribe oame 
to the zoological portion of his great dictionary, following 
his plan he gave in parallel columns the names of various 
animals. On the right hand of the tablet is the Assyrian 
name : directly facing that name on the left hand is the 
corresponding Accadian word; thus, opposite the Assyrian 
name ztbti there stands to the left the Accadian word num'tnaf 
the first being the Semitic-Assyrian, the second the Turanian- 
Accadian name of the '* wolf." Now the Accadian word 
often gives a clue where the Assyrian fails, for that language 
is very ftill and precise in its compound words ; the whole 
idea embodied in the word is absolutely seen to exist in it ; 
there are no indications of what philologists happily express 
by "phonetic decay." To give two or three illustrations, 
the sign ^Ifyf (^) means "a house," and ^^ (gal) is 
*' great " : the compound t^^] ^^ i^g^l) is " great house " 
or " palace " ; >->-y {an), amongst other kindred meanings 
denotes "the heaven," and ^f:^ (mi) "black"; the com- 
pound word >->-y ^^^ (aw-mt) stands for "an ecUpse" (lit. 
"black heaven"); j^fy (iu) = "increase"; >*tjvj (/feu) = 
"eating," the compound word denoting "famine"; but to 
come more immediately to words bearing directly on the 
subject of my paper, J]y[ (Uk or lig) means "a dog," and 
>-^JJ (makh) is " great," hence jJ^^J >^JJ, Uh-fnakli stands 
for one of the strongest and fiercest of wnd animals, " the 
Uon " ; the dog is Jj^ ]^ (lik'cu\ Utemlly the " serving " or 
domestic beast from cu ** to sei've." * 

Now, if in the bilingual animal-lists we could always get 
such definite help as in these instances just given, difSculties 
of identification would be considerably reduced, and in many 
cases absolutely removed. But, unfortunately, the tablets 
are often much broken; the Accadian equivalent of the 
Assyrian animal-name is often altogether lost, and on the 
other hand, sometimes, the Accadian is preserved to us, 
whilst the Assyrian equivalent has been obUterated. 

* I am not sure whether liccu was not the full word, contracted into Kc.— 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian SculptiAres, 39 

Before I pveoeed to the consideration of the variouB 
fiwunmftlB mentioned or figured on the monuments, I should 
deeire to make a few remarks on the bilingual list oi 
animals printed in Rawlinson's ** Inscriptions " (vol. ii, pi. vi), 
beoaoBe by a carefiil examination of that list I think we 
flludl be able to discover to some extent the order which the 
writer of the tablet had in view, and thus, by looking at the 
names of the animals as far as possible from his standpoint, 
we shall be able to secure son^e little though not Invaluable 
help towards the determination of these animals. 

In columns A and B we find to the right the Assyrian 
word g||< -jni ^'^^ (Heb. ^3) '^a sheep" or •♦lamb," 
opposite which is the ordinary Accadian word for sheep > 
feT]f '«*; thien follows in the Assyrian column the sign VI 
meaning ** ditto/' opposite which, in the Accadian column, 
is the sign XIT gar, " food" ; hence I conclude that ♦' sheep as 
food," alias '* mutton," is intended ; in the third line we have 
yy "ditto," and the syllable ^^| nwm, "high-land," pro- 
bably "mountain sheep" being intended. The fourth and 
fifth lines by the sign yj, meaning "ditto," also refer to 
sheep, in the Assyrian column, but I do not see what are the 
meanings of the Accadian equivalents of ^|][^^4^ T^ 
(guk'kiiy and £(^« (pk). In the first five hues the 
scribe gives various Accadian words, all referring to the 
Assyrian Mr-ru, " sheep." The sixth and seventh lines by 
the two thick lines which enclose them appear to contain 
words which refer to the same animal; in the sixth line 
there is the word {^ ^^1^ V" (^^^'^Ai-wt*); in the seventh, 
Ei^ Ey ''^ diMna-nui, both pobably denoting some stealthy 
prowling beast of prey, as a leopard or a lynx ;, the Accadian 
equivalent opposite tUa'dhi^nu is guk^kil^'^ same word as in the 
fourth line; the Accadian equivalent to durma-ma I can 
make nothing of. In th^ eighth line the Assyrian word 
>- ^y Ji^y -^JJJ na-rodhrru occurs ; the corresponding Accadian 
column is somewhat broken, but the word ^ ^yyy^ i^e-ga) 

» I fancy « a ** sUeep-walk," or else '* a flock of walkers."— [A.H.S.] 
* " The sheep-walk " prowler, perliaps. 

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40 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

**good," plainly appears. Now all the remaining lines on 
columns A and B contain words which evidently refer to 
" dogs " ; and there can be no doubt that the Assyrian word 
na^ha-ru in the eighth line means the " protecting '* or 
'* defending" dog, which in the Accadian column is called 
" good," or " useful." Let us cast back. Beginning with 
" sheep," we see after a few lines, which also refer to 
** sheep," that the scribe's mind reverts to some stealthy beast 
of prey in the word nisdhinu (Heb. lioto, " to lie in wait ") ; 
immediately afterwards he thinks of the protecting dog, 
and here is a natural sequence of ideas : the sheep suggesta 
the sheep's enemy, some prowling species of Felidse, and 
this, again, suggests the shepherd's friend, the sheep's 
protector, the dog. And now; the scribe keeps to this 
latter animal and enumerates various kinds of dogs : water 
dogs, greyhounds, hounds that hunt in packs, old and 
decrepit dogs, savage dogs, dogs of different colours, bitches 
with whelps, &c. 

A similar order may be seen in columns C and D ; here in 
the top line to the right the scribe starts with the Assyrian 
word zi'bu (y^]")^ ^ V'^) " wol^" opposite which is the 
Accadian synonym ^ ^^111 Ef (nurum'ma)^ the animal from 
the " high-lands." Next in the Assyrian column is the sign 
yy "ditto," "wolf" again; opposite to this is the Accadian 
][]y ^ »-^Jy7 lik-bi-^u "the devouring beast." In the 
third line we have |J ^]^ t^ {a-ci-luv) as the Assyrian, 
and lik'bi-cu again as the corresponding Accadian word, both 
meaning "the devourer." In the fourth line occurs the 
Assyrian birib-bu (^ J>-Ty V^) ^^^ *^® Accadian /w-fta^ 
(I^H ^^)» which, I think, probably means "a sheep." 
Next in the fifth line comes a-turdu^ " he-goat " ; then follows 
names of the goat, sheep (ram)^ deer in a general sense, 
perhaps fallow deer, red deer, antelope, gazelle. A kind of 
zoological method may certainly be seen here, for all the 
animals from the fourth Hne to the seventeenth are ruminants, 
but in the eighteenth line the " hare " is mentioned in the 
Assyrian column by tlie word >->-y >^^ *^^ {aurua-bu), in 

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On Hie Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 41 

the Accadian by the expression >-C;]y ^^'^J *^y 
{corzin-na)^ which means ** face of the desert." The zoo- 
logical order from ruminants to tht^ rodents has certainly 
been broken ; but the transition from the light swift little 
antelope of the desert (gazelle) to the swift " hare " was 
quite natural, and no doubt the scribe's mind thus reverted 
to the latter animal ; this supposition has especial force if we 
consider that the species of hare intended is the Lepus 
Sinaiticus, an animal of the plains and deserts rather than the 
woodlands. After the hare come, in line nineteen, bears, 
and then follow other beasts of prey, indicated by the sign 
*-^^y^J JJy (sak/i) the D.P. of some carnivorous animal in the 
Accadian column. I cannot at all agree with Dr. F. Delitzsch 
tiiat the khussu russu of the thirty-first and thirty-second 
lines (Assyrian column) have anything whatever to do with 
gazelles either young or old, as he conjectures, especially 
as the Accadian D.P. >-^*^][^||][][ (sakh) occurs opposite tlie 
Assyrian words, and, indeed, is seen continuously up to the 
forty-first line, where the tablet is broken. 

Thus what happened in columns A and B has been 
repeated, though in inverse order, in columns C and D ; in 
A and B the scribe began with " sheep," and then went on 
to the dog, the sheep's protector ; in colmnns C and B he 
began with *' the wolf," the sheep's enemy, and then went 
on to give the names of sheep, goats, gazelles, and such 
like ruminants. Then, after starting with the "bear," he 
continues to speak of carnivorous animals, though it is 
extremely difficult, if not impossible, to determine what 
particular animals are denoted by several of the names that 
follow. 

From the above considerations we can see that the 
scribe observed, in the arrangement of his subject, some 
degree of zoological order, a fact which we should do well to 
bear in mind. 

In treating of this first part of my subject, the Mammalia 
of the Assyrian Monuments, it will be convenient to divide it 
into two sections, viz., (1st) the domestic, (2nd) the wild 
ammais. 

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42 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 

I. — The Domestic Mammals. 

Those known to or employed by the Assyrians were 
oxen, sheep, goats, camels (two species), asses, horses, mules, 
and dogs. 

Cattle, — The cattle represented in the bas-relief on the 
monuments, or otherwise depicted, show a fine strong breed, 
generally of one type ; they have a hump more or less 
developed on the shoulder, calling to mind to some 
extent the biunped Zebu {Bos Indicus) of India. There 
appear to have been both a long-horned and a short-homed 
variety, the former being that generally represented; the 
horns of the former are round and thick at the base, cm-ving 
forwards, and the whole animal reminds one forcibly of the 
Avild bull or wild ox of Western Asia, not imfrequently repre- 
sented in himtingsceneson slabs of the timeof Assur-natsir-pal. 
This wild species, the Assyrian rhnu^ is identical with the r<?m of 
the Hebrew Bible, mistranslated '* unicorn " by the translators 
of the authorised version, and '* buffalo," by most of oin: 
modern Assyrian scholai-s. It is an undoubted bos and no 
buffalo; but this question must be fully considered when I 
come to treat of the wild animals. The horns of the short- 
homed breed are somewhat similar in fonn to those of the 
long-homed breed, but much shorter. Both breeds are, 
doubtless, varieties of the common ox {Bos Taurus), the 
parent of the numerous races of cattle, whether of home or 
foreign produce. Cattle formed one of the principal animal- 
spoils captm-ed by the Assyrians in their wars with other 
nations, and, judging from the enormous quantities taken, 
beef must have entered into the Assyrian lists of diet more 
frequently than is usual in Eastern nations, though perhaps 
the soldiers after successful campaigns would genemlly be 
the class of pei*sons who consumed most of the captured 
food. Representations of killing oxen and sheep, and of the 
various joints, such as the leg, the loin, and the shoulder, 
similar to those of modern England, occur on the monuments. 
Cattle were employed as beasts of di-aught. Captive women 
in a cart drawn by oxen is a subject not unfrequently 
depicted on the moniunents. The Hebrews used their cattle 

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Ou the MamriuUia of Hie Assyrian Sculptures. 43 

for ploughing and threshing; so did the old Egyptians. 
Were they ever so employed by the Assyrians? The 
Assyrian word for an ox is cd-pu (t]<^ V^)> generally 
represented ideographically by the sign t^i^ ; the Acoadian 
equivalents are gut and khar, which Mr. Sayce thinks must be 
connected with Guti or Gutium (the country between the 
EnjArates and Syria), and Akharu, '* the West "—the Semitic 
name of Phoenicia. Considering the custom amongst the 
Accadians of naming animals from the countries from which 
they were received, this suggestion seems to be highly 
probable. 

The sheep of the monuments have long curved horns with 
a fat tail, often turned up at the tip. The domestic varieties 
of Ovis arks (Lin.) are very numerous ; they differ in general 
form, in the nmnber of their horns, in texture of wool, and 
even in their habits, for the sheep of Tartary are said to eat 
bones like a dog. The variety generally figured on the 
monuments is the same which is found in Palestine and the 
plains of Belkah; it is the Ovis aries appendimlata^ with white 
body, head and neck black or dark brown, wool thick ; tail 
of moderate length, " with a thin excrescence at the end like 
a pig's tail," about an inch in length. It is a variety of the 
broad-tailed sheep {Ovis laticavdatus), the fat tail of which 
amongst the ancient Hebrews was part " of the sacrifice of 
the peace-offering made by fire unto Jehovah " ; " the fat 
thereof and the whole fat tail (n^Sw), it shall be taken off 
hard by the back bone " (Lev. iii, 9). Other varieties pro- 
bably were known to the Assyrians, as the one just mentioned, 
the Persian sheep and the Bucharian sheep of the Caucasus 
and Persia. The Assyrian name of sheep is ^ff ^fj EffI 
(tseni), used collectively, being the equivalent of the Hebrew 
]b^2 ; the Accadian name is j^JJ lu, though J^TJ ^y>- lurlim 

appears also to designate "a sheep," whence the Assyrians 
borrowed the word lurli-mu; this expressing a sheep inrfivM/ie- 
ally, whereas la and tshii stand usually for sheep in a 
collective sense. The ram in Assyrian is |J ||[ J^^ (airh^)^ 
answering to the Hebrew /?N, which has wilii much reason 

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44 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

been referred to the root 7^M " to twist," in relation to its 
twisted horns; in Accadian the ram is expressed by 
JgQf i-^l Iw-nit, i.e^ "sheep" + "male"; in the list of 
animals already mentioned, ^JJ ^t][>->-y H-muly ue., "horn" 
-f "star," which I take to be the zodiacal Aries^ stands as 
the equivalent of the Assyrian ai-luv. As amongst the 
Hebrews '* rams' skins dyed red " (see Exod. xxv, 5) were 
in high estimation, so with the Assyrians, whether they 
prepared them or not. Amongst the spoil which Tiglath- 
Pileser II received from Zabibie, queen of Arabia, we read of 
(W.A.I. III, 9, 56) :— 

tseni zicari (aili) pal - cu - ti supati - su- mi 

Rams' skins their tcool 

<Kn<y ^w « -^ 

ar - ga -man- nu. 
of purple. 

The Accadian T^JJ >-< lu-bat^ which in the list of animals is 
the equivalent of the Assyrian ^ J^JJ '^>- (bi-dMu), I 
think must denote "a sheep"; though Mr. Sayce and 
M. Lenormant consider that ** the lynx " is intended. The 
bt-ib-bu of the Assyrian column certainly looks as if it should 
be referred to the Hebrew MH or rOl, " the pupil of the 
eye"; and in the Astronomical Tablets the planets were 
called by the Accadians the seven Inbat^ while Jupiter is 
especially called lubat and bibbu (see Sayce, Astron. and 
Astrol., Bib. Arch. Trans. Ill, 167). The syllable lu m the 
Accadian name must be taken into account, aud as Dr. F. 
DeUtzsch has remarked, points rather to ** a sheep.'' Again, 
the expression " star of the flocks," 

ttv-\ a/ m AVi ^m -n^ -y -^t 

mul D.P. lu zun sib zi an - na 

shepherd of the heavenly Jiock 

seems to fevour this interpretation. The expression " stars 
like sheep" also occurs in the Creation Tablets. The eye 

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On the Mamnudia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 45 

of the sheep, like the eye of most animals in health, is bright, 
though perhaps this animal would hardly be especially 
marked out as possessing great brilliancy in this respect ; 
and we still have to explain the Accadian second syllable 
bat. I may mention that lubat in the bilingual list is 
id^tified with lulim% and that word with 6ar " king," or 
** leader," from the idea of the ram or he-goat taking the 
lead of the flock. So amongst the Hebrews. (Cf. Jer. v, 8, 
Zech. X, 3, Isa. xiv, 9.) 

Goats. — The domesticated goat of the monuments haa 
high horns curving backwards, or nearly erect ; in the former 
they divaricate, in the latter they are nearly parallel. Of the 
goat there are perhaps as many varieties as the sheep. All 
the numerous varieties of the domestic goat are probably 
descended from the paseng, or Capra cegagrus^ a species 
common all through Asia Minor, Persia, extending even 
irto Scinde, and must have been well known to the 
Assyrians. The ordinary Assyrian word for a goat was, 
mitil lately, supposed to be ^-t^j^ ^^TT V" ca-ra-^u 
(g^erally represented by the ideogram Jl^j[<^, i*e., *'a 
homed animal," of which gis-din was supposed to be the 
Accadian equivalent ; but on this point Mr. Sayce writes to 
me, "I have been convinced that this must be given up, and 
caranu and carunnn regarded only as 'vine' and 'wine.'" 
A tablet has been found giving a list of carani ; they are 
called ^y y^** ges-mes^ "trees" and the "wine of Helbon* 
figures among them. Delitzsch points out that the Accadian 
oe^^nss *' tree of life," i.e., " vine." For the wine of Helbon 
see Ezek. xxvii, 18. This idea of caranu being "a vine" or 
••wine" suit« the epigraph accompanying the bas-relief 
representing Assurbanipal pouring a Ubation over some dead 
Kons he had killed in the chase " an offering over them I 
presented" : 

carana ak - ka e - li su- un 
ufine I offered over them; 

the very thing the king is represented doing. The he-goat 
vas called YX ^BB) K^T a-turduy which answers ^o tbp 

*' ^^' * Digitized by COOgle 



46 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

Hebrew *l^]iy. In the bilingual list of animals (Accadian 
column) we find a certain expression J "^ ]^ JJI which, it 
is explained, is to be pronounced >^ ^^\ mu-^a. In 
another place (W.A.I. II, 4, 662) a-tu-du is explained in 
Accadian by the word ^^^ ^^T^T^ "^T' ii-di^kaj which means 
** hoiTi raising," and well expresses the high-homed animal 
represented on the monuments. I think there is little doubt 
also that the Assyrian word ^J^JJ ^ ^TT sap-pa-nt^ 
which answers to the Hebrew or Chaldean TDS tsdpSr, **a 
he-goat" (see Daniel viii, 58), is another name for this 
animal, not only because it agi^ees with the Chaldee, but also 
because it occurs just under the atudu — the scribe still keep- 
ing to words denoting sheep and goats — and because it is 
explained by the same Accadian word which was used for 
atudu, with the addition merely of the syllable J^ bar^ which 
perhaps here denotes " strength " ;^ the sapparu may thus 
denote either a large and strong specimen of the domestic 
he-goat, or the male Paseng or wild Capra cegagrus, which 
perhaps mixed and crossed at times with the domedtic 
variety. 

The flesh of the goat, especially of young animals, 
was no doubt eaten, and ita milk used as food. Goat 
skins were employed for various purposes ; after removing 
the head and legs, the skin was prepared — perhaps 
steeped in tannin — and filled with air. It served cts a 
swimming buoy or bladder ; or a number together would 
serve to float rafts, &c. On the monuments may be seen 
representations of Assyrian fishermen sitting in the water 
cross-legged, each on one of these inflated ^ins, with 
fishing line and baited hook, and fish around them ; on the 
bafihreliefe representing the campaigns of Assur-natsir-pal 
(circ. B.C. 884), figures of fugitives swimming to a fortress are 
seen, each one using an inflated goat-skin as a buoy. 

Camels. — Both the Arabian and two-humped Bactrian 
camels are represented on the monuments. The former 
species (Camelus Arabicus) is fairly enough depicted. It was 

> CiHi it be " white " ?— [A.H.S.] 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 47 

need chiefly by the Arabians, though other nations employed 
it. Frequent mention of camels as part of spoil occurs in 
the Assyrian records. In AssnrbaniparB expedition against 
Vaiteh king of the Aribi (Arabia), an immense nnmber of 
camels with other spoil was captured. 

alpi tseni imiri D.P. gam- mali 

Oxen^ sheep, asses, camels, 

a- me- lu - tu is - lu - In -u- ni ina la me-ni 
meiu they had taken as spoil tcithoiU number. 

Again, '•' camels like sheep I distributed and caused to over- 
flow to the men of Assyria." Some idea of the great 
numbers captured in this Arabian war may be formed from 
the fact that after the war camels were sold in Nineveh for 
kalf a shekel of silver a head (see Smith's Assurbanipal, 
p. 274). 

The Bactrian camel is also fairly enough represented, 
though it occurs only on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II 
(circ. B.C. 850). The whole inscription on this monument, 
now in the British Museum, has recently been translated by 
Mr. Sayce. It is a valuable addition to the many aheady 
valuable translations contained in that excellent publication, 
Records of the Past (vol. v, p. 61). Accompanying the 
sculptnres are epigraphs recording the nature of the articles 
received by the Assyiian monarch as tribute from conquered 
nations. Bactrian camels were part of the tribute of " Su'a, 
of the country of the Guzanians." The presence of more 
than one hump on a camel no doubt excited the curiosity of 
the Assyrians, and the scribe generally takes care to record 
the fact of the animal possessing two humps ; thus of the 
tribute of Su'a we read, '* camels, of which two are their 
backs, I received." The same animals also formed part of 
the tribute of the Eastern Muzri in Armenia. Shalmaneser 
received, with other things, as the tribute of A'su king of 
an, *^two camels which have two humps," amj from 

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48 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

A6ahu king of Gilzan or Guzau, seven double-humped 
camels. In these two places, instead of the ordinary word 
for camel, C^f^ ]} ^^1 •"^l orab-ba in Accadian, or 
g^y?^ 1^ J&y gamrmal in Assyrian, we have the word 
var-ra-tu or par-rd~tu, thus : — 

j^ ^r ^n ^r v n t-^ ^Wi i-^ ^p ^t- 

7 par- ra - te sa 2 gu - un - gu - K - pi 
Seven beasts mth their two humps 

si - na am - khar 
/ received. 

The female camel, when distinguished from the male, was 
called anakdtu (|| *^^ iX-J |J >-^£y), as in the following 
passage : — 

D.P. a- ab - ba - ti (D.P. of female) a- na - ka- a- te 
Camels camels 

T? <i^ c^y^ -^r -B -!^H -n<y <t_- -^t 

a- di D.P. ba - ac ca - ri si - na 

together urith their young ones. 

There can be no doubt that this Assyrian word, Uke the 
ordinary one for camel (gam-ma-lu) is, with the one-humped 
animal itself of Arabian origin, ndkat being the modem 
Arabic name of the female. A similar word, Hnka (Mp2M) 
occurs in the Talmud. 

The Ass. — The domestic ass, though frequently mentioned 
in the Assyrian records, is nowhere represented on the montt- 
ments^ which fact is a matter of regret to the zoologist who 
would desire to see what kind of an animal the domestic a^s 
was in its own native land in the time, say of Assiu^-natsir-pal. 
more than 2,500 years ago. ThiR iisefiil animal must have 
been known to the Assyrians from tlie earliest times ; and no 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 49 

doubt in the genial warmth of its native land the Assyrian 
ass must have been a far superior animal to those we are in 
the habit of seeing in this country. Indeed, we know that in 
our day the ass in many parts of the East w, as a matter 
of fact, a far superior animal. Of the white ass of Baghdad, 
Mr. Layard — a name never to be mentioned without feelings 
of pride and gratitude by every student of Assyrian history 
— Museo Britannico teste I — of this white ass of Baghdad 
Mr. Layard thus writes : — " The white ass of Baghdad is 
much esteemed in the East. Some are of considerable 
size, and when fancifully dyed with henna, their tails and 
ears bright red, and their bodies sp3tted, like an hemldic 
talbot, with the same colour, they bear the chief priests 
and the men of the law, as they appear to have done 
from the earUest times" (Judg. v, 10).^ The domestic ass 
of Assyria is probably descended from the wild ass of 
the Mesopotamian plains, the parent of the various races 
wheresoever found. The wild ass of the monuments — of 
which I hope to speak more fiilly when I treat, on another 
occasion, of the wild animals generally — ^more closely re- 
sembles the horse type than the domestic animal of modem 
days, or the wild ass of Western Asia, of Syria, or Africa. 
The absence of any figure of the domestic ass on the monu- 
ments prevents us from ascertaining how far this equine 
appearance is due to fact or to want of skill in the sculptor. 
The ass was known to and used as a beast of burden by the 
ancient inhabitants of Mesopotamia, doubtless before the 
horse ; for the usual determinative prefix to denote a beast 
of burden such as the horse, mule, camel, is itself, without 
any adjunct, the representative of the ass, thus we have 
«een that the camel, for instance, is thus represented — 

^^ T? t^Cf ""«^y, and the horse £:<y^ V' tt\] 
D.P^ a^ ab ' ba D.P., kur - ra 

the first character informs us that some " beast of burden " is 
before us. In the first instance, it is the animal from " the 
•ea," t.^^ as we have seen, *' the camel " ; in the latter it is 

> NiD. and Bab., 472. 
Vol. T. ^ , 

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50 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 

the animal from " the east," namely, " the horse " ; but the 
same sign or determinative prefix, itself^ without any 
explanation^ is the word for ** ass," which, in the Assyrian 
word, would be read 'imirUy the equivalent of the Hebrew^ 
■Yion {chamor). I now proceed to say a few words on 

The Horse, — These animals are represented more fre- 
quently than any other on the Assyrian monuments ; they 
are depicted with much spirit and truth to nature. As the 
Assyrian monarchs were frequently at war with other 
nations, or, when not engaged in war, were amusing them- 
selves with field sports, such as Uon-hunting, the chase of 
the wild bull, wild ass, and other animals, the horse was an 
animal consttintly in request, while the frequency of the horse 
on the monuments, and the care bestowed on its appearance, 
as manifested by the mane, t6iil, and other decorations, show 
what a pride and interest they took in their horses. The 
figures on the moniunents present us with an animal of noble 
form ; the head is small, so are the ears, the eye often fiery 
— so far as can be expressed in cold marble — and fall of Kfe ; 
forehand good, as would be expected in entire animals; 
muscles largely developed, pasterns of moderate length. 
The whole animal was more fitted for war-pui-poses than for 
those requiring speed ; in the chase of the wild ass — one of 
the swiftest quadrupeds in existence — the Assyrian horse 
must, one would suppose, have been left far behind. Horses 
were used in war as chariot-horses, either yoked four abreast 
or two, or as cavalry, which must have been a powerfal and 
effective branch of the Assyrian army in countries tolerably 
free from hills and woods. Horses are not represented 
drawing carts or carrying baggage of any kind, and it may, 
I think, be affirmed that they were not used for these 
purposes, for which mules and asses were employed. The 
horses of the Assyrian army were a terror to the Jews. 
Nahum has in a few words graphically described the timiult 
of an Assyrian battle-field. " The noise of a whip and the 
noise of the rattling of the wheels, and of the prancing 
horses and of the jumping chariots. The horseman lifteth 
up both the bright sword and the glittering spear, and there 
is a multitude of slain and a great number of carcases ; and 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 51 

there is no end of their corpses ; upon their corpses they 
stumble " (iii, 2-3). 

Horses trained to the yoke t^Yfc V" ^fT \^^ (^ 
iuH niri, are often expressly mentioned. There is a peculiar 
word in the inscription of Esarhaddon (W.A.I. I, pi. 46, 
line 53, col. iv) which seems to stand for some kind of horse, 

pa - ka - di D.P. mur - ni - iz - ci 

cltarge of war-horses 

D,P. pare. 

and mutes. 

See also line 26, same column, and col. vi, 46. Mr. Norris reads 
the word hhamizki. The reading above is that of Mr. Sayce, 
who does not know to what the word is to be traced. 

We have already seen that the Accadian name of the 
horse, ^imiru kur-ra^ "animal from the east," gives us the 
interesting information that these ancient inhabitants of the 
Mesopotamian plains obtained their horses from some country 
or countries eastward to them. Armenia and Media appear 
to be the original home of the horse, so far as we are able to 
trace back its history. The Jewish prophet Ezeldel, who 
wrote of events which happened in his own time, mentions 
the importation of horses from Armenia to Tyre : — *' They of 
the house of Togarmah traded in thy fairs with horses and 
horsemen and mules " (Ezek. xxvii, 14). Classical writers 
bear similar testimony to the excellent qualities as well as 
to the great numbers of the horses of Armenia and Media. 
At this day the pastiu'es on the plains and mountains in 
Armenia sustain fine breeds of horses. 

The Assyrian name of the horse was 6u-Siiy the Hebrew 
WD («u«), a name which, by some writers, has been referred 
to Susa, the Persian capital ; similarly the Hebrew pdrdsh is 
thought to be connected with ttHD, or Pars, the ancient 
iiame of Persia. Egypt was celebrated for its horses ; the 

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52 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian SctUptures. 

Hebrews in the time of Solomon and of the Jewish kings 
imported horses from Egypt into their land; but the horse 
was not known to the Egyptians in the earliest times ; to 
them, as to the Accadians, most probably it was an animal 
from the east, Armenia and Media furnishing the supply. 
The modeim horse of the Euphrates Valley is a finely bred 
Arab.^ 

Tlie Mule. — Of this — in many countries very useful 
animal — I need say but little. The mule of the Assyrian 
monuments represents an animal of excellent breed, and far 
superior to the animals we see in this country. This was to 
be expected, because not only was the climate more con- 
genial to one of its parents, the ass, but because mules were 
in more request, and more attention would be paid to their 
breeding. This animal was used for riding, drawing carts, 
carrying nets on its back for deer hunting, &c.; and no 
doubt for the conveyance of baggage in war. They are 
often mentioned amongst the spoil of conquered nations, and 
must have been bred in large numbers. The mule ia 
represented in the inscriptions by the Accadian expression — 

^r^ I ^^} -r- 

Dogs, — We have next to consider the dogs as known to, 
or used by, the ancient Assyrians. Though the monument* 
do not introduce us to more than two varieties of the dog, 
(1), the large and powerful mastiff-like animal used in the 
chase of the lion, wild bull, wild ass, &c., and (2), the 
greyhound, used in combing the hare, other breeds were 
doubtless known to the inhabitants of Assyria. In the 
bilingual list to which I have so often referred, the word 
>"-^y C^y ^TT na-adh-ruy "the protecting" dog, occurs inmie- 
diately after nisdhinu and dumamu. These two latter names I 

* " The fiwt boraes and chariots are represented at Eileithjias, of the time of 
Ames or Amosis, about 1600 B.C. Horses are, therefore, supposed not to hare 
been known in Egypt before the XVIIIth Djnastj (see Dr. Pickering's * Baces of 
Man/ p. 373) ; unless, indeed, the Shepherd Kings introduced them. Thej 
doubtless came from Asia into Egjpt, and though the Egyptians called a horse 
Hthor (Htar), they used for the mare the Semitic name *^ and eren nuim 
(with the female sign *t* for mares), the same as the plural of the Hebrew wowl 
p^p «a#." (Sir O.Wilkinson, in Rawlinson's " Herodotus," voL ii, p. 152, note). 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 58 

take to mean some stealthy beast of prey, and an enemy to 
the flocks. In the Accadian column we have as the equiva- 
lents of the Assyrian nddhru the words V ^]T\^ (««-^a) 
**good," and JJ^f -^tJ 5rV^ Tf (^**-*a-??i-«)/ which pro- 
bably means "the mouth-openmg dog"; then follows the 
Assyrian J^HJ ^ f^^ (cab-bi-luv), from 753 "to tie" or 
"chain up," represented by the same Accadian Uk-ha'-gab^. 
I think that nddhru and caMi-luv both stand for some strong 
dog which was used both as a " watch-dog " to guard the 
house, and as a shepherd's dog to guard the flocks. The 
idea embodied in the Assyrian and Accadian words cab-bi-luv 
and Uh-iongalMiy " the chained-up mouth-opening dog," 
answers well to a house-dog ; similarly the notion conveyed 
by the Assyrian and Accadian words nddhru and se-ga^ " the 
good protecting dog," is quite descriptive of the same kind 
of dog when used as a sheep-dog. The ordinary Assyrian 
word for " a dog " is ^yy| "^^ (cal-bu^ Hebrew 373 ; then 
in the list follow the words ^^J: ^H ^ (mt-ra-«M), ^^ 
tur Accad,, "a young male dog"; ^t]^ ^]]] f^]} ^(r11 ^]< 
ea-lab e-lamrti, « dog of Elam " ; fj ^ B^jy ^f'- ^ ca-lab 
porra-st, ** the swift dog," or " greyhound," from tthS), " to 
spread out the feet " ; JJ y»- {rj J calab mS^ " water-dog " ; 
yy Jjy C^^yy ^^^* ur-tsij " of the earth," perhaps some small 
burrow-entering dog ; yy ^ >^ calab samas, " dog of the 
sun," in Accadian mu^/tA-an-tirf (see W,A.I. II, 49, 63a), " dog- 
star " ; then in lines 22 to 24 in the Accadian column dogs 
of diflferent colours are mentioned, as ^yyyi dt7% "grey,'' 
["^TA] V" ^"^ "^^'" ^L ^^ *' yellow," for which no 
AsByrian equivalents occur in the list ;^ then follows ^y >^ 
fu-mii, represented by >-< bat in the Accadian column; 
after this we have ^yy| '^>- ^ ^^^ ^ caU>u se-gu, which 

* The fith Tolame of B«cordt of the Past, p. 169, contains a translation of 
a terra cotta tablet in the Brit. Mus., ^j Mr. Sajce, of a table of omens famished 
bj dogs ae beliered in bj the Babylonians. Dogs of various colours are there 
i, m blue, yellow, black, white and spotted dogs. 

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54 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

M. Lenormant translates " decrepit " (►-< bat in the Accadian), 
and Dr. Delitszch "mad" ("toller hund"); perhaps an 
ownerless dog, or " one wandering about without a master " 
(from nJtt), "to stray," "to err," "wander"), as Delitzsch 
also conjectures, is intended. In the 27th line we read 
^»- ^ lim-nu in the Assyrian, and ^y»][J>^y kliul in the 
Accadian column, each denoting a " bad " or " savage " dog. 
Hunting dogs, or dogs that hunt in packs, follow next. 
}] ^^ t^y tsa-i-du (Heb. ^ "prey taken in hunting"), 
represented by the Accadian TJHf Sfi L^Cj ^i*wt-^'n, " the 
dog that hunts in a pack"; next follows ^JltJ ^TT? 
^^^yy >-^y >-<y< ca-lab U'la-ti, "dog of power," ^ from 
hhi} - 'yiM and n^M "to be thick," "strong," or "powerful," 

perhaps the large kind of mastiff used in lion-hunting, &c. 
The Accadian column is here broken. The scribe now 
in direct order gives the names of ^yy| •^^y C^]^ cat-ba- 
tuvy the feminine of calhu^ denoting any female dog; 
Sffl <« S:^]^ ne-es-tuv "the wife-dog" (n»2 = nttJ2M), 
y J <^ ^W^ a4idr-tuv " the bringing-forth dog " (T^) ; 
>^ ^"^y n ^I^ mvrnorsik-tuvy the female dog " kissing " 
or licking (its yoimg ones) (pttJi) ; ^^\ '^ITTI ^]^ ^*^" 
dhir-tnvy the dog " protecting " its young ones ; na-dhir-tuv is 
the fem. part, from ^"-'"y y^ '^JTT na-dha-ru (*^^5) " ^^ P^^ 
tect." It will be seen that the scribe has here kept to a 
natural and regular order, beginning with the ordinary name 
of the female ; he represents her as being in a situation to 
become a mother, then as a mother, as a mother licking or 
fondling her puppies, and finally as guarding or protecting 
them. This being the case, I am incUned to think that all 
the words in colmnns A and B from the 8th line to the end 
denote dogs proper^ and not other dog-like animals ; thus the 
ca-lab mee means " a water-dog " (canis aquaticus) and not 
" a seal " or " a beaver." By the calab Samas " sun-dog," 

> Cf. Syll. Aflsyr. aram. No. 200; "road/' or ** expedition " + " taking" - 
"hunting."— [A.H.S.] 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 55 

if any real dog be intended, I think a dog fond of " sun- 
ning " itself is meant, a hnbit common to most dogs, which 
are fond of basldng for a time in the hottest sun, and not 
the jackal {cams aureus) ; but perhaps the expression is only 
astro-mythological, as Mr. Sayce reminds me. The dog was 
used by the Assyrians as a house-dog, as a protector of the 
flocks against wild beasts, and in the chase ; but it is rather 
in this latter capacity that we have dii*ect evidence of its 
employment, being thus represented in bas-relief on the 
monuments, and mentioned in the historical records. 

In the writings of those classical authors of ancient 
Greece and Rome who have treated of dogs and field sports, 
the canes venatici were divided into three divisions : — 1. The 
puffnaces or belUcosi^ *' pugnacious dogs of war"; 2. The 
nare sagaceSy ** keen-nosed scent-dogs " ; and 3. The pedibus 
celeres, or " swift-footed dogs " that ran on sight of the game. 
This triple division is alluded to by Qratius in verse : — 

"Canum qtiibus audacia prsdcepa, 
Venandique aagax virtus^ viresque sequendi^ — 

(Halieut. 98.) 

and by Seneca in sober prose : " In cane sagacitas prima est 
si investigare debet feras; cursus si consequi, audacia si 
mordere et invadere." (Ep. Ixxvi.) 

** In the dog sagadti/ is the most imporant quality if it has 
to pursue, boldness if it is required to bite and attack." 

Whether the Assyrians ever employed large savage dogs 
in war, as some other ancient nations used to do, I am imable 
to say. "The people of Colophon and Castabala," says Pliny, 
** kept troops of dogs for war purposes, and these used to 
fight in the front rank and never retreat ; they were the most 
fpithful auxiliaries, and yet demanded no payment." (Nat. 
^list. viii, 61.) The horsemen of Magnesia in the Ephesian 
war were accompanied to the battle-field each with a war- 
bound, the dogs in a body attacking the enemy, being backed 
now by the foot soldiers, now by the cavalry, and thus 
rendering great assistance. ^Elian, who tells us of these 
Magnetian war-hoimds, also tells us a story of a certain dog 
{aviTTparuSynv Kvva) who rendered so great assistance to his 

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56 On llie Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

master at the battle of Marathon as to be honoured with an 
effigy on the same tablet with his lord. (De Nat. An., vii, 38.) 
The powerful dogs of the Assyrians were certainly capable 
of being used as war-dogs, but as to any such actual 
employment, the Assyrian records hitherto, I believe, aro 
silent. The dog figured in bas-relief on the sculptures was 
chiefly used in the chase of the wild bull (»-yy<y ^B "^ 
ri-^nuy ideographically J^^)? the lion, wild ass, perhaps the 
wild boar, if this animal was hunted by the Assyians, the 
bear, and other savage carnivores, whose capture required 
strength and courage. It was evidently a mastiflF. The 
figures, as a rule, are admirably depicted on the monumenta 
with considerable skill and artistic power. The Assyrian 
mastiff was probably a breed allied to the Indian dog known 
to Alexander, mentioned by Herodotus, Aristotle^ Xenophon, 
Strabo, and other Greek writers, by Pliny and Solinus 
amongst the Latins, According to Aristotle (Hist. Anim. 
viii, 27 and 8) the beUef prevalent in his time as to the 
Indian dog was that it was the produce of a female dog and 
a male tiger 1 -^lian (Nat. An., viii, 1) repeats the story. If 
there is any truth in the story -^lian tells of the Indian dog 
that seized a lion in the presence of Alexander, and suffered 
first his tail to be cut off, then the four legs, one after the 
other, then the head (which still retained hold of the lion !), 
these dogs must have had the pertinacity of the British 
buU-dog. It is this Indian dog which is connected with the 
story Ctesias, Pollux, Strabo, and others tell us of the race 
of the Cynamolgi, a barbarous tribe in the south of Ethiopia, 
who reared these great powerful dogs, which they used in 
the destruction of herd3 of wild cattle. From the simimer 
to mid-winter these people are said to have fed themselves 
and their huge dogs on this wild beef; but the rest of the 
year they Uved on dog milk — hence their name — which they 
collected in a pail, jand which they drink, adds ^Elian, " as 
we the milk of sheep and goats." There is a figure in terra 
cotta of a large mastiff in the British Museum, which 
resembles the dogs of Assurbanipal's hunt, whose models 
in clay I will speak of by and by. This slab was founds 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 57 

I believe, at Nimroud, and is labelled the Thibetan dog. It is 
this breed, of which, doubtless, there were several varieties, 
which Oppian seems to refer to in the following words : — 
** But others are impetuous, possessed with staunch courage, 
such as will attack noble wild bulls, and will rush upon and 
destroy savage wild boars, such as fear not strong (well-fed) 
lions, their kings ; they are of a large size like lofty hills, 
somewhat tnmcated in the muzzle, and the space between 
the eyebrows shakes with loose skin beneath ; their fiery 
eyes shine with bright-eyed vision, the skin is hairy, body 
strong, back broad ; they are not swift, but have immense 
courage, marvellous strength, pluck and spirit undaunted." 
(Cyneget I, 413-23.) The general description suits the 
Thibetan mastiff tolerably well, while the mention of the 
folding skin of the eyebrow is quite chai'acteristic. ^ The 
high moimtain herd of Asia is said to be black, or very dark, 
partially tanned about the face and legs, but there appears 
to have been a race of dogs allied to this mastiff-breed, which 
was fawn or ochre coloured, with a dark muzzle like the 
ordinary British mastiff of the present day. Such, perhaps, 
was the dog of the Assyrian moniunents. It is the same 
or a closely allied breed as the Indian, Albanian, Iberian, 
and Hyrcanian dog of classical authors, for it is difficult to 
trace any real difference between them. All these countries 

> The mastifir of Thibet must be placed in the general diyision with the doga 
of India and ancient ABsjria, though the pure breed could not hare been used 
bj the Asfljrians. Of the modem gigantic mastiff of Thibet we have the 
following account : — *' Tliese noble animaLs are the watch-dogs of the table-land 
of the Himalaya mountains about Thibet. Their masters, the Bhoteas, to whom 
they are most strongly attached, are a singular race, of a ruddy copper colour, 
indicating the bracing air which they breathe ; rather short, but of an excellrnt 
disposition. Their clothing is adapted to the cold climate they inhabit, and 
consists of fur and wooUen cloth. The men till the ground and keep sheep, and 
at certain seasons come down to trade, bringing borax, tincal and musk for sale. 
They sometimes penetrate as far as Calcutta. On these occasions the women 
remain at home with the dogs, and the encampment is watched by the latter, 
which hare an almost irreconcileable arersion to Europeans, and in general fly 
ferociously at a white face. A warmer climate relaxes aU their energies, and 
they dwindle eren in the valley of Nepal." (English Encycl. Nat. Hist, i, p. 750.) 
Specimens were placed in the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, by Dr. WalUch, 
lome years a^o, but they soon died. Assyria, therefore, would doubtless hare 
besn too relaxing for the pure breed. 



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58 On the Mammalia of tlie Assyrian SctUptures. 

are near the Caspian sea. According to Pliny (Nat. Hist. 
viii, 40) Alexander received as a present from the king of 
Albania a dog, "inusitatas magnitudinis," of unnsual size, 
though the Roman historian does not tell us where the dog 
came from ; most probably it would be from Albania, whose 
dogs were celebrated. Strabo, speaking of the excellent 
qualities of the Albanian dogs, calls Alexander's dog an 
Indian one, perhaps India being the country from which this 
powerful race of mastiff originally came. It was this breed 
of dog which Marco Polo noticed and described as nearly 
the size of asses. In his time (13th century A.D.) they 
were used in captiu-e of certain wild cattle. The Assyrian 
sculptures represent this powerful mastiff^ either as a lime- 
hound, led with a cord round the neck by an attendant, or as 
hunting in a pack. On one of the marble slabs in the British 
Museum there is a representation of a number of these dogs 
pulling down a wild ass. Unless the wild ass had been 
previously wounded these dogs could seldom have been able 
to catch one of the swiftest of quadrupeds, the wild ass. 
These dogs would run chiefly by sight, not possessing a very 
acute sense of smell, though, doubtless, they used their 
noses in tracking out wounded game in the forests. From 
an inscription on one of the five clay models of dogs 
belonging to Assurbanipars hunting kennel, found at 
Koyunjik, and now in the British Museum, there is reason 
to conclude that the pack did not always run mute. The 
inscription runs thus : — 

e -par tal - lie e - bu- us napakha 
dust of {his) going^ making a noise 

(1133 to bark), or, as we should say in modem sporting 
phrase, " giving tongue." The first part of the inscription 
gives us quite a picture of one of these large muscular 
mastiffs, scattering the sand and dust in his impetuous 
course. 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 59 

The inscriptions on the other four dogs are as follows : — 

(2.) ^ iiis t^^ < <^i]yf }^ vy 

mu - se - tsu - u linnute 

causing to come forth evil 

da - an ri - its - su 

judge of his running, 

(Wl), or the syllable ^y its, in the second word may be read 
gisy and the whple word be referred to the Hebrew word 
ttJrj « to rage tumultnonsly," " to be wrathfiil " ; the 
inscription would then mean "judge of his wrath," but 
the other reading seems preferable, the idea implied being 
perhaps that of a cunning runner, as we say in the coursing 
field, ^^ running sly" 

(4.) -^ ^]<{-m ^w -n<T I 

mu - na - si - cu ga - ri su 

biting his enemies. 

ca - sid ai - bi 

capturing enemies. 

These names doubtless were intended to express the 
character of the dogs rather than their actual names, for 
though casid-^dbi would give a good ringing sound in the 
hunting-field, and would probably be recognised by the dog 
who owned such a name, epar-tallic^buus napakha would 
have been both imintelligible to the dog and too much of a 
mouthfiil for the huntsman. This custom of naming dogs, 
whether by way of describing their qualities or by actually 
conferring the names, was practised amongst the Egyptians 
also, and I need only refer to a very interesting paper on the 
dogs figured on the tablet of Antefaa II, read before this 
Society by our excellent and learned President, Dr. Birch, 
and printed in Part I of the 4th Vol. of the Transactions. 

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60 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

The third dog marked C on that tablet is certainly a mastiff, 
and bears a strong resemblance to the dogs of the Assyrian 
sculptures, which probably came originally from India, as has 
been said. The colour of the Egyptian dog was, Dr. Birch 
tells us, probably " black," as indicated by the word ^^kamu,^ 
The colours of ancient dogs, as of modem ones, were various, 
and doubtless so were the tastes of the different sportsmen. 
Oppian expressly condemns black dogs and white ones: 

')(poicn S' apyevvai re /caxal fiaXoy /cvdveal Te — 

(Cyneg. I, 426.) 

as being " altogether bad," because they cannot well bear 
the heat of the sun nor the severity of a snowy winter. He 
thinks those colours of the dogs to be best which most 
closely resemble the wild beasts they chase, as the tawny 
wolf, the tiger, the fox and the swift pard, the prevailing 
colour of which is buff or tawny. That this was Oppian's 
favourite colour is clear from the following lines : — 

^ oiroaoi, Si]fArjTpi iraveUeXov ltSo9 Ijf0i;<rt 
(TiToyfiooc fiaXa yap re Bool Kparcpol re irikovrat. 

" Such as bear a strong resemblance to com, of the colour of 
ripe wheat," a coloiu* that suits modem English mastiffs. 

Of the nare sagacesy the dogs that run only by scent^ the 
Assyrian monuments hitherto furnish us with no direct 
instances, though such dogs were probably known to the 
people. The calab elamtt, dog of Elam, is (as we have seen) 
mentioned in a bilingual list, but I have not been able to make 
out this dog. Pollux (Onomasticon, v. 37) mentions Elyms^an 
dogs amongst yewaioi Kvves^ and says they were used by a 
nation situated between Bactria and Hyrcania, but tells us 
nothing more. If, however, what he tells us about Elymeean 
hares, which he calls fioaxiah is correct, that they leave a 
most strong scent in their track, so as almost to madden the 
dogs, it is not improbable that the Elymsean dog ran by scent 
rather than by sight. 

I pass on, therefore, to the pedibus celeres, those dogs of 
the chase who run only on sight of their game, such as grey- 
hoimds. That coursing or hunting hares with greyhounds 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 61 

was practised by the Assj^rians, is shown by a representation 
on a bronze dish found at Nimroud, now in the British 
Moseam. The greyhounds of antiquity could scarcely have 
been so purely bred as those which in this country run for 
the Waterloo Cup, especially in districts much overgrown 
with woods, where pure bred dogs— running only by sight — 
could not keep the game in view. Hence the writers on 
cynegetics amongst the Greeks and Romans recommend 
crossing with other breeds. Nevertheless, the greyhounds 
figured on the rim of the bronze dish in the British Museum 
mdicate a good breed. A hilly countrj'^ is also unfavourable 
to coursing, where the greyhound would often lose sight of 
the hare. Its general structure, the comparative absence of 
the sense of smell, the large prominent eyes, all show the 
greyhound was intended for swift running on the open 
plains, and there, doubtless, it was used by the Assyrians 
of the Mesopotamian district. Indeed, some naturalists have 
derived the greyhound from an Asiatic home, ** somewhere 
to the westward of the great Asiatic mountain chains, where 
the easternmost Bactrian and Persian plains commence, and 
where the steppes of the Scythic nations spread towards the 
north." " When* we look to the present proofe of this con- 
clusion " — I am quoting the late Lieut.-Col. Hamilton Smith, 
a very good authority both on dogs and horses — '* and 
MBume that where the largest and most energetic breeds of 
the race exist, there may we look for their original habita- 
tion, we then find, to the east of the Indus, the very large 
greyhounds of the Deccan, to the west of it the powerftd 
Persian breed ; and to the north of the Caspian the great 
rough greyhoimd of Tartaiy and Russia ; and thence we 
may infer that they were carried by the migrating colonies 
westward across the Hellespont, and by earlier Celtic and 
later Teutonic tribes along the levels of Northern Germany, 
as far as Britain. The primaeval movement of the first in- 
habitants of the Lower Nile may be conjectured similarly to 
have brought this race along with them ; and all may have 
done so when it was already in part domesticated." (Nat. 
Libr., vol. x ; Dogs, p. 163). 

It would appear that the Assyrian monarchs occasionally 

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62 On the Mammalia of tlie Assyrian Sculptures. 

kept chained up in confinement some of their most inveterate 
enemies together with dogs and other carnivorous animals. 
Vaiteh king of Arabia was served in this way by Assur- 
banipal. " To satisfy the law of Assiu* and the great gods 
my lords, a heavy judgment took him, and in chains I placed 
him, and with a-H (y][ ^If) ^^^ ^^^^ (Ifcl I^) ^ bound 
him, and caused him to be kept in the great gate in the 
midst of Nineveh." (Smithes Assurbanipal, p. 261.) 
Similarly Esarhaddon treated some of his prisoners whom 
he had brought to Nineveh. **In front of the great 
entrance gate of Nineveh (W.A.I. I, pi. xlv, col. 2, lines 
4 and 5, and Records of the Past, vol. iii, p. 113) : — 

it - ti a - 6i calbi dabi 

together vnth a-U dogs and bears 

[/ left them to stay for ever.'] 

What animals these a-6i denote I do not know, but I do not 
think the word can be identical with the Accadian am-H 
(="ox 4- homed"), as conjectured by Dr. DeUtzsch, the 
undoubted representative of the Assyrian rtmw, because 
these same a-Si are mentioned together with am-Si (**wild 
bulls ^*) on the broken obelisk as creatures killed in a hunting 
expedition. Now, were these animals with which persons 
were chained living creatiu'es or only stone images or repre- 
sentations? for in the campaigns of Assiu*banipal we read, 
" the rest of the people alive among the stone lions and bulls 
which Sennacherib had thrown (>— >->-^ ^^J^^"^ >-».Y ^Yyj 
sedi alapi) again I in that pit those men in the midst threw.** 
(p. 166.) 

Cats. — I do not find any evidence to lead us to believe 
that the domestic cat was known to the Assyrians ; there is, 
indeed, no a priori reason against the supposition that the 
cat was domesticated by the ancient inhabitants of Meso- 
potamia ; on the contrary, at first sight, the reasons would 
rather seem to be in favour of the idea. The cat was in 
early times domesticated by the Egyptians, and when we 
consider how, at difierent times, intercourse existed between 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 63 

the Assyrians and Egyptians, and how the former people 
took pleasure in introducing into their own capitals animals 
from other countries, the introduction of the domestic cat 
would seem to be quite probable. Dr. F. DeUtzsch, without 
hesitation^ concludes that the domestic cat was known to the 
ABsyrians. and that the names of nistinu and dumamu^ which 
I take to be some wild feline, represent the tame animal. 
"To the names of cats," he writes, "follow immediately 
Hiose of dogs ; dog and cat, holding a sort of war-footing 
in our household hfe, occupy the same position to each 
other on the monuments of the Assyrian king Assurbanipal 
(A^yrische Studien, Thiemamen, p. 33). There is no 
representation of the cat on the sculptures, neither is there 
any allusion to it in the Records, but we must not lay too 
much stress on negative evidence. That the Assyrians 
occasionally received animals from Egypt we have direct 
evidence in the inscription on the broken obelisk of Sardana- 
paluB now in the Britidi Museum, " a great crocodile scaled 
[homed] beast of the river, animals of the great sea, the 
king of Egypt caused to be brought." On what groundp, 
then, it may be asked, do I think that the domestic cat was 
unknown to the Assyrians? If we regard the domestic 
animal of ancient Egypt to be the origin of the animal now 
universally domesticated, we find that its introduction into 
some other coimtries did not take place in early times. To 
the ancient Greeks and Romans, for instance, the domesti- 
cated cat was altogether imknown as an animal kept by 
them. It is a soothing reflection that the bmin-workers of 
classical antiquity, as they sat up late, burning midnight oil, 
were never distm'bed by the hideous caterwaulings of the 
domestic cat. No noisy tabbies uttered their piercing 
shrieks on the tiles of the house-tops when Virgil and 
Horace composed, or when Demosthenes and Cicero got up 
their cases for the pubKc assembly or the Forum. 

Dr. RoUeston, who a few years ago wrote a very full and 

interesting paper on the fells domesticus, says : — *' I see no 

reason for supposing that the domestic cat was kept as a 

tame animal in any other coimtry than Egypt before the 

CbriBtian era.'' The felis and aCkoipo^ of classical authors 

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64 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

was the white-breasted marten (Mustela foina), which the 
ancients used as their mouse-killer as we the domestic cat. 
At what time the cat was introduced into Europe from 
Egypt it would not be an easy matter to determine with any 
degree of certainty. Professor Rolleston has shown that 
the domestic cat was in use in Constantinople about the 
middle of the foiulh century. On referring to Ducange, 
S. V. catta^ I find a certain writer of the Life of Gregory 
of Nazianzen (circ. A.D. 360), saying: — *' Nihil in mundo 
possidebat, praeter imam cattam, quam blandiens crebo, quasi 
cohabitatricem in suis gremiis refovebat." " He had nothing 
in the world but one cat, which he used to caress and nurse 
in his lap as a fellow inhabitant of the house." The domestic 
cat was known in Italy about the same timG, for Palladius 
recommends both catos and mustelas mansuetas (ferrets) as 
useful animals against moles. I believe that cats of modem 
days will not touch a mole. When we consider, then, the 
late introduction of the domestic cat from Egypt into Europe, 
one is led to conjecture that the ancient Egyptians, who 
paid so much attention to these animals, and whose religious 
scruples were veiy strong, were averse to the exportation of 
one of their most favourite animals on these grounds. They 
cherished the cat alive ; they buried and embalmed it at 
Bupastis and other places when dead. I think it, therefore, 
improbable that the domestic cat was ever employed by 
the ancient inhabitants of Assyria. 

NoTK. — I mtut not conclude this paper without acknowledging mj obligationf 
indirectly to Dr. Delitzsch for the useful work he has published on the Assyrian 
animals of the monuments. Of course his book has been constantly before me, 
and I hare found it very useful, though I do not always agree with his conclu- 
sions. To my friend Mr. Sayoe I am directly indebted ; not only has he been 
most kind and prompt in answering questions, but he has also read orer the 
whole of my MS. and inserted pencil notes and suggestions when required. 
Mr. Sayoe's readiness to assist students of Assyrian is well known to most here ; 
that readiness is surpassed by nothing except it be by his accurate and extra- 
ordinary knowledge and ability. 



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65 



KEY TO THE GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE FIRST 
PATRIARCHS IN GENESIS, 

And the Chronology of the Septuagint. 

By Victor Rtdberg. 

From L. L, H, Comhertigue's French MS. Translation of the original 
Swedish Brochure and Notes. By S. M. Drach. 

Bead Ut February, 1876. 

Abstract. — Introduction. 

The epocli of king Solomon commences regular regal 
annals of the Hebrews ; before which, unsatisfactory round 
numbers obtain, as this people were between the two great 
ttnpires of Egypt and Assyria. Berosus says Babylon had 
regal annals 1,000 years before Solomon [1]. Inspired by 
David's victories and his son's splendour, the Jews desired 
a genealogical tree [2], wherein they interwove the legends 
of their Babylonian-Shemite kindred races [3], [4], [5], 
Jewish monotheism induced the inquiry of the origin of 
various races and tongues, and would have led to the height of 
Greek civilization were it not for wars. The daily increasing 
valuable relic of the national table in Gen. x [6], showed there 
wag a wish to ascend to the cradle of mcmkind, and their 
first appearance on earth. In Egypt, the Sothiac cycles [7] 
fiiBt presented celestial dynasties (up to Menes) ; in Babylon 
there were astronomically regal annals before the Deluge : 
to which latter the Jews easily linked themselves, connecting 
primitive Eden [8] with Ararat. Were not the town-building 
Kainan, the man of God Enoch, the warrior Lamech, siu*- 
vivors of the first pre-historic age, specimens of human 
genius ? and the stars still revolving over our heads formed 
the epochal pegs (Jalons) to measure intervals. Judicial 
Vol, V. Digitized by GboOglc 



66 Key to the Genealogie^tl Table of the First Patriarchs* 

astrology was originally the regularity in the heavens 
applied to a divine regularity of recurring principal events 
in human general history, the details of individual casualties 
being obliterated. Such, as is revealed by the Book of 
Daniel [9], was the influence of the Memphis School for con- 
necting terrene history with star-cycles; and as the sages 
did not note a chance-medley set of numbers [10], there was 
possibly an astronomical reason (Philo and Josephus's riddles 
are needless) [11], for those we find in Gen. v, etc. [12]. 
The Seventy must [13] have known these numbers were 
much posterior to the lives of Patriarchs recorded; and 
their alteration thereof proves they had better intelligence, 
and must therefore have had some key to this table. This 
valuable clue was attempted by Bunsen in his " Complete 
Bible Work and Egypt's Place in Universal History," but 
who rejected the simple at-hand one. We keep to the 
Hebrew text as the original. 

II.— The Old Patriarchs' Numbers of Gen. v. [14, 15]. 



Antedilavian 


HDBKW TSZTfl. 


SAMAftlTAW. 


Sbttoaohit. 


Patriarcha. 


Age at 

firstborn 

birth. 


Best 

of 

Life. 


Total 
Life. 


Age at 

flntbom 

birth. 


Best 

of 

Life. 


Total 
Life. 


Age at 

flrstbora 

birth. 


Best 

of 

Life. 


Total 
Life. 


Adam 

Seth.. 

Eno8 

Cainan 

Mahalaleel . . 

Jared 

Enoch 

Methoselah. . 

Lamech 

Noah 

To Deluge .. 


130 
105 
90 
70 
65 
162 
65 

187 

182 
600 
100 


800 
807 
815 
840 
830 
800 
300 

782 

596 
450 


930 
912 
905 
910 
895 
962 
365 

969 

777 
950 


130 
105 
90 
70 
65 
62 
65 

67 

63 
600 


800 
807 
815 
840. 
830 
785 
300 

653 

600 
450 


930 
912 
905 
910 
895 
847 
365 

720 

653 
950 


230 
206 
190 
170 
165 
162 
165 
a67a 
1187 
188 
600 


730 

707 

715 

740 

730 

800 

200 

802a 

782 

565 

450 


980 
912 
905 
910 
896 
962 
365 

I 969 

753 
950 


Adfttn to "1 
Deluge J 


1666 


•• 


1307 


•• 


•• 


(2242a 
12262 


}~ 


codex. 



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Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs. 67 

ni.— BuNSEifs Attempts at Est of these Numbers. 

Bunsen's Vollstand. Bibel., v, 311, and Egyptens Stelle 
in Weltgesch., v, 276-282 ; cf. iv, 310 seq. (This is English 
edition, iv, pp. 398-401.— S. M. D.), says from N. Fr^ret [18], 
that the Hebrew text was the oldest, as shown by Babylonian 
and Chinese legends. Dividing the list into {a.) Reign of 
Seth (ancient Semitic god) [19], 912 years = divine category; 
(6.) Adam, 930, and Enosh, 905, together 1835 years. 

The second epoch, Kainan to Lamech, 910 + . . 777 =: 
4878, era of Delnge, Noah 8Bt. 600 [20]. Fr^ret found 60 
solar years «= 742 months = 60 x 12 + 22 intercalary 
months [16]. In lunar years, 600 x f^g = 618^ = a third of 
1855 [17]. 

In 4878 we have 7 complete world-years + 550, or 8 
world-years — 50 [21, 22, 23]. This 50 is contained in the 
350 post-diluvian yeai*s of Noah, whence 4928. Methusaleh's 
death, 969, is Deluge-date, possibly a wilftd change. Sama- 
ritan, 720, gives 299 or 300 years [24] ; also suppose 
1019 = 969 + 50, six ante-Noah eras, begin with Cainan, 
the first emigrant town-builder [25, 26, 27]. Omit Seth, 
meaning the first idea of man resting in God [28], we find 
1835 for the other two, only 20 less than 1855, thrice 618^ [32]. 
Perhaps Enos was 925 : change denary digit, results not quite 
reliable [29J. So fitr Bunsen. 

IV.— Conditions of Problem before us. 

We do not agree with Bunsen's methods, dislocating Seth 
and altering other members. The present Hebrew text was 
known to E2a'a and Nehemiah. The conditions we lay down 
are — 

1. Use tables without change or exception, else arbitrary 
results [30, 31]. 

2. The two numbers since intercalated must be rejected 
from the calculation. 

3. Age column at son's bii-th is primitive text-measure of 
pre-historic time firom Creation to Deluge, and must be taken 
in the sense of the text ; unit of time fixed for that age of 
the world. (Here Bunsen and others have been arbitrary.) 

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68 Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs. 

4. Group the numbers in the order of the names; not dis- 
locate Seth, as Bunsen did, to form a combined world-year. 

5. Last and not least, the solver is only in the right path when 
he does not float between approximations of tabular numbers 
and astronomical cycles or chronological facts. No defect or 
excess allowed. Better this stringent condition for security. 

v.— PiuMrnvE Form of Old Patriarch Table. 

A detailed Elohistio and Jehovistio Essay out of place ; 
vide author's Jehovistic development, etc., in his '* Jehovah- 
worship amongst Hebrews in ante-Babylon Captivity period.*' 
Also Dr. Bergstedfs in Litteratur Tidskriften " olika soelt . . .** 
(Different ways of reading the Bible). Doubtless these 
retouchings harmonized with the prophetic doctrines, trying 
to obliterate polytheism and idolatry : eo*. gr. Seth : The 
Patriarchs' tents had idols [33 to 38] : Israel in the desert, 
Gideon, David's house : the descendants of Moses oflSciated 
at an altar to Jehovah, imaged as a bull {taurus). Solomon, 
and most of his Judah-king successors, were idolaters. Seth 
is one of tlie first names in divine history (Babylon, Palestine, 
Egypt, brother of Osiris), first god of life, afterwards of 
death ; name-father to Sethos, founder XlXth Dynasty. At 
Jewish Exodus his worship was at its highest splendour. (Cf. 
Amos V, 26 and Acts vii, 43) [39, 40]. Probably they adored 
it as a star ; carried this into the desert (Remphan, Paipdv)^ 
perhaps Saturn, or Typhon. (See Plutarch de Iside, cap. 
xlix, 62, derived from Manetho.) When hostile to Egypt, 
Seth became Typhon ; when firiendly, restored to heavenly 
rights. (PI. de Iside, 31). Seth, says the myth, leaves Egypt 
on a grey donkey with Egypt's foes, rests every seventh day, 
afterwards begetting his two sons Palestinus and Judeus. 
Note when the ancient book of Job describes God's power 
in creation, he adduces the crocodile and river-horse, animals 
consecrated by Egyptians to Seth. (PI. ch. 50.) [41]. As with 
all dethroned deities, they do not suddenly disappear, but 
fade as past human heroes. The Greek Euhemeus reduced 
all the gods to this pristine state. Odin and Frey descend 
from governing Walhalla to that of Upland. Seth was foimd 
by one Hebrew inquirer as father of Enosh when he created 

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Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs. 69 



the first man, and also in a neighbouring genealogy to which 
he did not pertain, so that this introduction raised the seven 
antediluvian members to nine. Enos (Aram.) or Ish (Heb.) 
ifl the common word for man, Enos occupying in one 
genealogy the same place as Adam [42]. This double fiUa- 
tion in ch. iv and v is here given. 



Ch. rv.— Jehovistic Teadition. 


Ch. v.— Elohistic Tradition. 


Adam 


Inid 


Adam 


Jered 


Seth-Abel 


Methuael 


Seth 


Enoch 


Enos 


Methusheel 


Enos 


Methusaleh 


Cam 


Lemech 


Kenan 


Lamech 


Enoch 




Mahaleel 





A glance at these two lists shows they were originally 
identical [43]. Bunsen and others think these lists begin 
with different divine names, and of the first man, but after- 
wards they coincide. 

Sbth. = GOD = Elohim. 

Oreatftret. 





1 Enos 








1 Adam 




2 Cain 






2 Cainan 


3 Enoch 






3 Mahalaleel 


4 Trad 






4 Jarad 


6 Mehujael 






5 Enoch 


6 Methusael 






6 Methuselah 


7 Lamech 






7 Lamech 


Of these two lists the Elohistic 


J one only has a chronology ; 


we abide by that in this primitive 


table of the Old Patriarchs. 




AnftcdiluTiaii Patriarchs. 


Age at next 
Hember*t birth. 


Beet of Life. 


Total Life. 






Adam 


130 


800 


930 






Cainan 




70 


840 


910 






Mahaleel ... 


.... 


65 


830 


805 






Jared 


..•• 


162 


800 


962 






Enoch 


.... 


65 


300 


365 






Methusaleh ... 


.... 


187 


782 


969 








.... 


182 


595 


777 








861 


4947 


5808 






Noah to Deluge.... 


600 




600 










1461 


4947 


6408 





The key of the enigma depends on the solution of these 
three totals. 

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70 Key to the Genealogical Tables of the First Patriarchs. 

VI.— Number 1461 of Sothiac Cycle. 

This number, in the first column of last table, coincides 
with the Egyptian number of years of the Sothiac cycle ; 
their priests had remarked that this brilliant star (or Sinus) 
returned almost every year [44], combating the early dawn 
thousands of years ago as it does now about the summer 
solstice, and coincident with the rise of the beneficent Nile 
inundation [45], When the roaring waters descended the 
cataracts [46], the husbandmen forsook their drowned fields 
for the elevated temple sites and the religious fetes. 
Naturally this star-messenger was consecrated to Isis. The 
priests observed in reference to their vague year of 365 days 
(which succeeded the primitive one of 360 days, without inter- 
calary months or days), and was introduced circa 3300 B.G. 
[47 and 48], a year in vigour even under the Ptolemies. But 
the priests observing the yearly retardation by a quarter of 
a day of the summer solstice, or one day in four years, or 
365 days in 1460 years, proposed the Sothiac cycle of 1461 
vague years, equal to 1460 Sothaic (modem Julian years). 
This discovery of the tropical solar year of 365^ days was 
doubtless posterior to the vague one of 365 days [49]. Instead 
of a quadrennial intercalation, the priests (detesting changes 
not urgently wanted) kept to the old vague year, a« it was 
enough to know the length of the tropical year, and adjust 
the religion, astronomy, chronology, and meteorology to it. 
The sepulchral pyramid-inscriptions of the earliest dynasties 
evidence the knowledge of the tropical year and its hiero- 
glyphic sign [50]. The new tropical year had a special fete 
(v. Velleius Valens, Porphyry, Scholiast on Aratus), when 
Sothis, " queen of the new year," appeared at dawn, and the 
Nile rose. Tropic and civil years were used simultaneously. 
Every Pharaoh at his accession had to swear solemnly to the 
priests that he would keep back intercalations, and stick to 
the 365-day year of his ancestors. Hence after every Sothiac 
period two new-year days coincided. Lepsius showed the 
advantage of this system (Zeitsch. f. iEgypt. Spr. u. Alter. 
1869, p. 78). Egypt's vague year was superior to the Greek 
and other nations' concordances, simple proportion indicating 

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Key io the Genealogical Table of the First Batriarclis. 71 

tiie rektive positions in the two years ; referred to Sothis, it 
80 certified the base of astronomical computations, that the 
greatest Greek writers used this vague year when especially 
exact. The intercalary days were introduced only under 
Euergetes I. in the civil year, now revealed by the Decree of 
Canopus, viz., *'for the purpose that the seasons might 
perform their duties in the actual arrangement of the uni- 
verse : that the advance of Sothis should not make winter 
fetes to be celebrated in summer [51], and summer fetes in 
winter, as did formerly happen in the 360-day year, increased 
by those (epagomenous 5) which custom had added." As 
regards the mystical value of this Sothiac period. Porphyry 
cites the tradition of the Creation beginning with it. Many 
annals and dynasties began with it. Pre-historic ones, with 
ruling gods and demigods over fortunate generations now 
in oblivion. Even after Menes' authentic reign, this 1461 
cycle was used ; recalling the original idea of a divine rule 
in history when received at a distance. As each individual 
had a natal star, whose position indicated, if it did not 
control, his fate, so did Sothis, presiding at the birth of the 
world, foretell by its cycle the epochs of great events in 
national life, for blessing or curse, making the Egyptians fear 
its advent [52 and 53]. Year 1322 B.C. (Amenophis or 
Memphres being king) ended this cycle. We think with 
Lieblein, that the mental anxiety and epidemics in Egypt 
(v. Manetho) had decided for the Hebrew Exodus. Lepsius, 
Bunsen, and Lieblein agree the Exodus was " in the year of 
God," or close to it. Year 1461 was thus called, as formed 
of the i-day excesses. As the star-rising indicated the 
inundation, it led to the idea that in case of merited pimish- 
ment Sothis in his last year would bring an overflow causing 
curses and death, instead of prosperity to a chosen people. 
Thus the abo^e Patriai'chal Chronology measures the interv^^al 
between Creation and the great Deluge-record, preserved 
by Hebrew and Babylonian legends [54]. 

Vn. — Number 4947 of Great Lunar Cycle. 

As to this second Patriarchal total, Bimsen says that Fr^ret 
in his Dissertation on Chinese Chronology showed tlie most 

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72 Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs. 

ancient known formula of the Tnranian nations, employed 
by them to explain the different measures of solar and lunar 
revolutions, was " 600 tropical years equal 618 lunar years 
and 4 months (synodical), or 7420 synodical months" [55, 56]. 
Babylon therefore introduced this cycle, called NER; but 
even this was not near enough for the more accurate C!hal- 
dean observers; true value is nearer 618-,fij, or 7421 synodic 
months ; correct said formula from 4 months and 7420, to 4 J 
months and 7420^ as a cycle. Now a cycle is to transfer a 
certain number of imits to another exact nmnber of units 
of another kind, therefore they took as many ners as 
Patriarchs, say eight, and foimd 8 x 7420^ = 51),364 months 
= 12 X (4947 lunar years) [57]. Hence this 4947 is the 
great lunar cycle in civil life, perhaps originating the Hebrew 
Jubilee [58]. Add to each fiftieth lunar year one day inter- 
calary, the error is hardly a day in 600 years. 

Vn.— Number 6408, or Age of the World. 

This thii'd number is the sum of 1461 (Sothiac)+4947 
(limar cycle), though it may have a special reason. The 
archaic legends of the four ages of the world forming 
together the Platonic year [59, 60, 61], or great world-year, 
wherein the Sun passes, owing to precession, through the 
entire Zodiac. As Niebuhr thought to find this world-year 
in the historical cycles of Babylon, it may be used here. 
Even present astronomy must be struck that 6408x4 = 
25,632 years, gives 50" annual precession [62]. Hence we 
know why 1461, 4947, 6408 are preserved in the Patriarchal 
table. Sufficient for general use. 1460-1 reminded one of 
365-day years, when equinoxes and solstices fell on fete days 
dependent thereon, and hence position of year in Sothiac 
cycle [63]. The 4800-4947 facilitated new-moon calculations, 
and per Sothiac cycle, the same in the vague year. When 
observation gave a departure point to the world-year, it 
gave the exact position of the Sun in the Zodiac for past and 
futm-e time. 

The Sothiac genealogical colimm is really the only valu- 
able Hebrew one ; the other two may be a play of numbers, 
Oriental fashion, as their offspring the Cabala, which sup- 



Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs. 73 

poses secrets in the numerical values of the letters of the 
Patriarchs' names [64]. 

IX. — The Number of Henoch (*Enooh), 365. 

Is there a special reason for 65 + 300 ? As his name is 
the ** consecrated one," it may allude to the introducer of a 
Dew astronomical period. It led the scribes (Babylon Capti- 
vity — Birth of Christ) to an astronomical origin thereof. The 
countless Enoch legends produced, 150 B.C., the apocalyptic 
Book of Enoch, which makes him an angel-taught astronomer, 
knowing all about celestial mechanics. Biinsen's idea (Bibel- 
werk, V, 308) is a personified astronomy, and the ratios of 
solar to lunar years were attributed to him. This we can 
confirm by an old Egyptian chronological problem, coincident 
with the Patriarch table. But first we must fix the date of 
Enoch's existence. Since the introduction of Seth and Enos 
m the table, which probably occurred about King Josiah's 
time, the primitive table may be considered highly archaic, 
when the real date of the Hebrew Exodus [65] was still re- 
membered, coinciding with and not-easily-forgotten Sothiac 
period. The great change in the Hebrew chronology, temp. 
Solomon, in the text and the LXX, arose from wishing the 
Hebrews to participate in the Hyksos' (Shepherd-kings of 
Palestine) rule over Egypt, placing the servitude and Exodus 
of the one with the expulsion of the other. With 1322 B.O. 
to start with, we get this chronology to time of Enoch. 
Premising that the importance of numbers here is not 
historical, but in the deduced idea what was the^i considered 
of this linkage. 

Mosaic Exodoa to Jacob's Entry in 

Egypt 
To Abraham's entry to Canaan 

PatriarcliB to Shem 

Shorn, 100, Noah, 600 

Lamech 182, Methuselah 187, Enoch 65 

French MS. makes 2144, but this 

Shem had originally 100 or 102 in Hebrew, Babylonian, 
Egyptian registers, else only 2 years are excluded ; but 100, 

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430 


years 


Drach 430 


21 


»> 


(sic) 215 


86 


M 


(sic) 865 


700 


)) 


700 


434 


>» 


434 


162L 


if 


true 2144 



74 Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patiiarche, 

eke Noah was thought too old at 600 to procreate, when 
others were fathers from set. 52 to 65 [67]. 

21444-1322 = 3466 (3465 Jdian) B.C. [66] Enoch lived 
B.O. 3465 to B.C. 3100, mean B.C. 3282-3. Bunsen t^lls iis oJ 
this date's importance in Egyptian chronology (Egypt's 
Place, iv, p. 412, ex German, Cotterel.) in these words: — 
" The learned generally believed [now certain from Decree 
of Canopus] that before Augustus (really Euergetes I) Egyp- 
tian calendars had no intercalary year or months ; their vague 
year gradually penetrated deeper into tropic year. Eratos- 
thenes [68], 200 years before Augustus, saying fete of Isis 
occurred to him in the autumn equinox, more anciently at 
vernal equinox — are explicable by the ^-day tropical excess. 
But as the 12 months of the 365-days year were attached to 
definite seasons, we can infer the exact epoch of solar year 
each month should indicate. Egyptians had 3 seasons of 4 
months of 30 days, Tetramenios ; at end of 12th month the 
5 supplementary days. These, commencing with month 
Thot, are called seasons of sprouting, of hai-vest, of waters. 
(Hieroglyph [69]. M. Brugsch has contested this ; but even 
with De Roug^ against fJhampolUon, the question is not yet 
settled.) Rise of Nile has always begun at Syene at summer 
solstice. Herodotus, to present time, shows it is highest 100 
days after, say 21-22 June, or somewhat before October 1 ; 
after some time keeping up its level it decreases. Beginning of 
October in Upper Egypt, and middle of October in the Delta, 
grain is sown, and 120 to 125 days after inundation grain 
sprouts — end of October. Hence sprouting season, November 
to February; harvest, March to June; waters, July to 
October. Table of seasons, Totb, Toby, Pachon. As Ist Thot 
fell on 25th October when first named, astronomers (Biot 
and ClhampoUion) found when it happened in this manner : — 
' Anciently 1505 solar years equalled 1506 of 365 days. Co- 
incidence at 275 B.C., 1780 B.O., 3285 B.C. Monmnents prove it 
anterior to Ptolemies, uninterrupted to early dynasties before 
1780 B.C. i.e., mathematically 3285 B.O.' " So far Bunsen. 

Hence civil and natural calendar coincided only once, 
3285-82 B.C., when Sothis's heliacal rising occurred in sxunmer 
solstice (1 Pachon). Lepsius prefers 3282 [70], an epoch for 

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Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs. 75 

1 Pachon of Sothis. Hence from this date 365-(lay8 year wag 
introduced for civil use. Compare Enoch's 3282-3 above, 
and his 365 years, showing many common points between 
Hebrews and Egyptians. 

X. — Coincidence of Hebrew and Egyptian Starhnq- 
poiNTS OP Chronology. 

Syncellus-Manetho has in a (lost) history [71], whereof we 
Iiave only the royal lists and some extracts, valued at 3555 
years (3553 Julian) the duration of this empire from Menes 
to end of XXXth Dynasty, the basis of Lepsius and Lie- 
blein's chronology. Dynasty XXX ended 340 B.C., making 
Menes* reign begin 3892-3 B.O.; beyond this is mythology, 
reign of heroes and gods. With 1322 B.C., we found 
Enoch's era begins 3466 B.C. ; add other genealogy to Adam 
inclusive (162 + 65 + 70 + 1 30 = 427) we get 3892-3 B.C. (3891 
Julian), where Patriarch table opens history of mankind; 
another proof of the table. Author seriously looked at 
duration of Egypt's rule ; of a people calling itself the most 
ancient in the world. 

XI. — Some other Particulars op the Table. 

Sothiac 1461 = 600 + 861. 600 = Babylonian Ner ; 861 = 
4x215, which as 2x215=430 (Egyptian Captivity) often 
occurs. Every 861st year first day of lunar year retards by 
a full month of 30 days in civil calendar. Even now diffeiing 
below 63i minutes! L4u> = Noah 600+ Adam 130. Between 
Enoch and Noah are 369 years, so divided that Methuselah 
(187) -h Enoch (65) = 252 = Lamech (182) + (70) Canaan, 
evidencing another secret idea of tracing-line to origin of 
our species ; but we expect more from this key of antique 
chronology, as witness of Faith in Directive Wisdom of the 
world. Hence the Patriarch table is a worthy pendant to 
Genesis table of nations. 

Xn.— The Septuagint and Egyptun Chronology. 

Alexander's sword brought to Egypt Greek kings, 
Greek civilization, affluence of Jews ; who rivalled the Greeks 

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76 Key to tlie Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs. 

in Buccessftd commerce, became adepts in Greek litera- 
ture, and would have rivalled the most illustrious Greek 
literati had not other causes prevented it. The Je^^s found 
in the Egyptian monuments and records only their own 
defeats and himiiliations ; but no trace of their success, no 
elevation of Joseph, acts of Moses, Hebrew Exodus and its 
miracles. Egyptian folk-books spoke of these Jews as a 
leprous horde, conducted by a renegade priest, and supported 
by Palestinic strangers, expelled from Egypt under Amenophis, 
explaining Jewish repugnance to these annals. But these 
annals spoke with less hatred of the Hebrews ; related Semitic 
hordes whose Hyksos chiefs had anciently invaded and sub- 
dued Egypt for many centuries [72, 73]. Like the Jacobite 
son of Heber, as witness Hebron, in Palestine, built by them 
when sending their avantgarde to Egypt; and [74] Avails, the 
great citadel they founded or repaired after invading the 
Delta^ and their last Egyptian stronghold. As Egypt lore 
made the Jews either the disdained lepers, or of the honoured 
Hyksos tribe, they chose the latter. Vide Josephus against 
Apion ; also the alliance in the second century B.O. ; supposed 
soiu'ce whence Egyptian history was first investigated by an 
Alexandrian Jew. Therefore the LXX attached their own 
[75] old Hebrew history to the Hyksos period, which alone 
explains their variant numbers. Manetho lived in the time of 
the LXX. He wrote a Greek history of Egypt, supposed by 
royal order (Ptolemy Philadelphus, temp. LXX). We know no 
more of this connection. Did the LXX see Manetho's finished 
work ? Probably not, as they are silent on the 3555 years' 
duration of the kingdom. At this time foreigners could 
acquire Egyptian Hterature; but as their king-lists were 
controverted amongst themselves, made one most probable 
which was at the disposal of the LXX, and their chrono- 
logical results coincided independently with Manetho's list, 
as preserved by JuKus Afiicanus. 

^.—Archaic History of Pharaoh's Kingdom. 

Of Manetho's five books the first extends fi-om Menes to 
end of Xlth Dynasty. Before the human Menes, gods ruled 
the country. The LXX, penetrated with the idea of Egypt's 

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Key to the Genealogical Table of tlie First Patriarchs. 77 



unaltered chronology, valued Creation to Deluge in accord- 
ance with this archaic portion [76, 77], as Egypt was part 
of Eden, and the Nile was the Gihon [78]. The antediluvian 
mai of renown, the tyrants who built the Pyramids, were as 
detested by the Egyptian mind, from the ftdness of extortion, 
to heap these mountains of worked stones on their ashes [79] 
(Gen. vi, 4). The LXX therefore made this verse, yuydvre^; 
oi av €U&vo9 at aZpovoi, o\ ovofJbaaroi,. 

The close connection of BabylcMi's traditional deluge and 
final period of Egypt's first ages proves that the beginning 
of mediaBval Egypt (Manetho, book ii) finds the Pharaohs, 
instmcted by an awful experience, not desirable to be re- 
newed [80], to begin the astounding regulation of their river 
Nile, whose sources were supposed to be the " fountains of 
the abyss " which opened at the great deluge. This archaic 
history had no relations with other peoples ; the same for 
mediaeval history. The Mediterranean nations, and Asiatic 
ones to the Indus, excepting Babylon and Assyria, had no 
regnal annals. But the exploration lands seem to have been 
disclosed to Egypt in XVIlIth Dynasty through Toutmosis's 
vjdour, and the LXX could not have sought comparative 
chronology above this era. Since the Egyptians were not 
nnanimous about their dynasties being contemporaneous, the 
LXX naturally adopted for the regnal duration of these 
periods the idea (re-asserted by M. Mariette) that the 
dynasties were uninterrupted and non-contemporaneous. 
Comparative list : — 



EOTPTIAK NUMBBRS. 


Septuaoiht. 




laaty I. 


263 years 


Adam 


230 


II. 


302 „ 


Seth 


205 


in. 


214 „ 


Enos 


190 


IV. 


284 „ 


Kanan 


170 


V. 


218 „ 


Mahaleel 


165 


VI. 


198 „ 


Jared 


162 


VIJ. 


70 days 


Enoch 


165 


vni. 


146 years 


Methuselah 


187 


IX. 


409 „ 


Lamech 


188 


X 


186 „ 


Noah to Deluge .... 


600 


XI. 


43 „ 







2262 years. 



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78 Key to the Geneahgical Table of the First Patriarchs, 

Produced by adding 100 years each, Adam to Enoch inclu- 
sive, and 6 to Lamech ; thus it was not a haphazard calcu- 
lation, but a planned concordance for each individual 
Patriarch. Hence the LXX's antiquity of world before 
Deluge corresponded to the accredited regal list of Egypt 
for the archaic part of Egypt's history. 



A— Egypt's MedlbvaIx History : Deluge to Hebrew 

Exodus. 

A period of great upsetting. Begins splendidly, except 
fall of Xllth Dynasty. Then the Semites conquer, till Amosis 
(founder XVIIIth Dynasty) and his successors expelled them, 
and raised Egypt to great power. Supposing Shem inserted 
(100 or 102 years), with age attributed to next member, we 
obtain : — 



Egyptian Numbbrs. 


Sbptuaoint. 




nasty XII. 160 years 


Shem 


.... 102 


„ XIII. 463 „ 


Arphaxad 


... 135 


„ XIV. 184 „ 


Kanan 


.... 130 


XV. 284 „ 


Selah 


... 130 


„ XVI. 611 „ 


Heber 


... lU 


„ XVII. 151 ,, 


Peleg 


... 130 


„ XVTII unto 




Reu 


... 132 


Toutmosis Ame- 
nophis 13, Ela- 


34 „ 


Serug 
Nahor 


... 130 
... 179 


bres 13. 




Terah 


70 




Departure of Abrah 


^j 75 




from Haran 




Jacob enters Egypt 


215 






Mosaic Exodus 


215 



1777 



1777 



The LXX place Hebrew Exodus at beginning of Tout- 
mosis. Cf. Manetho on Shepherd-kings (Josephus), apparently 
mostly true [81] : last battle of these kings and evacuation of 
Egypt imder common reign of Toutmosis and his Queen 
(Avaris conquered by Amosis) ; hence LXX*s Exodus 
occurred with fall of Hyksos. Interval from Deluge to 
Abraham's Call is 465 years (Heb.), 1347 (LXX). Arphaxad 

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Key to the Genealogical Table oj the First Patriarchs. 79 

to Serug are increased at 100 years ; a second Kenan, 
miknown to Hebrew, introduced 130 years; Naclior^s age 
increased 150 years. Abraham's Call to Exodus (Hebrew, 
215 + 430 = 645 ; LXX, 215 f 215 = 430 years). This was 
done that all the glories of the Hebrews (Joseph's lise, &c.) 
should occur whilst their kindred, Hyksos, governed Egypt, 
to render these more plausible. By this "cooking" (Fr. 
scinder) the Bible was made more concordant [82] ; few gene- 
rations were bom in Egypt ; and Joseph's death was placed 
(v.Lieblein, XVIIth Dynasty) [83] a little before the Hyksos 
were restricted to the Delta, when the indigenous stronger 
hostile XVinth Dynasty came to power. The vocation of 
the Uberator Moses occurred when XVIIIth Dynasty was at 
its summit — exact agreement. As Manetho's limiting king 
Amenenemes is a sole dynasty, we have excluded him from 
this calculation. 

C— Interval to Fall of Egyptian Independence. 

Toutmosis began to reign (Lieblein, Monumts.) 1456 B.C. 
Exclude XXHnd and XXVth Dynasties, and keep to Mane- 
tho's numbers ; these two dynasties are daily proved to be 
contemporaneous with others. Surprising agi*eement of 
Egy|jt from Menes, and LXX fi-om Adam, valid to the end — 
great proof of Lieblein's chronology to beginning of XVIIIth 
Dynasty. During this epoch the LXX had contempora- 
neous history. Egypt's annals did not forget the Pharaoh's 
name who sacked Jerusalem under Rehoboam or Necho's 
expedition. 

This period is better fixed, the LXX could be well aware, if 
Dynasties XXII and XXV were to be discarded. 

LXX Numbers. 

Exodus to Solomon's l^Q 
Temple j 

Solomon 36 

Behoboam 17 

Abijah 3 

Carried forward — rs^496 , 

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Egyptian Numbers. | 


Toutmosis 


70 


Amenophis 


31 


Horus 


37 


Acheres 


32 


Bathes 


6 


Carried forward 


176 



80 Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs. 



EOTFTIAK Nl]lfBEB& 

Brought forward 1 76 
Chebrea 12 

Acheres 12 

Amesses 6 

Barneses 1 

Amenophis 19 
Dynasty XVIII~226 

XIX 209 
XX 136 

XXI 114 

XXIII 89 

XXIV 6 
XXVI 151 

XXVII 124 

xxvin 6 

XXIX 20 
XXX 38 



1117 years. 



LXX Numbers. 


Brought forward 
Asa 


.... 496 
.... 41 


Jfthosaphat .... 
Joram 


.... 25 

.... 8 


Ahaziah 


.... 1 


Athaliah 


.... 6 


Joash 


.... 40 




... 29 




... 62 




... 16 


Ahaz 


.... 16 


Hezekiah 


... 29 


Manasseh 


... 65 


Amon 


... 2 


Josiah 


... 31 


Jehoahaz 


... i 


Jehoakim 


... 11 


Jehoachin 


... i 


Zedekiah 


... 11 


869 
Ruin of Jerusalem tol^^Q 


Fall of Egypt 


tSTTSJ 



1117 years. 



Here LXX's only deviation is first number, 440 for 480 
(Heb.), for concordance ; placed in troublous Hebrew times 
of legends ; no chronological linkage when Judges ruled 
Hebrew people. 



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Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Pairiareht. 81 



French Translator's Notes as Numbered in Text. 

[ 1]. Biography of Berosus, ex Lubker's Real, Lexikn., fl., 
Ptol. n. 

[ 2]. Exod. xiii, 14. 

[ 3]. Gen. xi, 2. 

[ 4]. Gen. xi, 31. TSn written Caran in French. 

r 5]. Gen. xii, 10. 

[ 6]. People Table is Gen. x, and ch. v is Old Patriarch Table. 

[ 7]. Etym. Sothiac Cycle, Diet. Littr^. 

[ 8]. Gen. ii, 8. 

[ 9]. Dan i, 17 ; not 7, French. 

[10]. Liibker, Biog. Philo. 

[11]. Liibker on Joeephus. 

[12]. Liibker, PtoL Philad. 

[13]. Imperious necessity for LXX, as Hellenising Jews for- 
got Hebrew. 

[U]. Table, Osterwald's Bible, 1866; of Patriarchs, Heb.; 
LXX and Vulgate, and Ostei-wald ; but '* Noe " makes 
S. M. D. think this is a French list. 

[15]. Var. in Greek Cod. Division A in fevour of 2262. 

[16]. Solar year explained elementarily (Littr^, Diet.). 

[17]. Synodic ditto. 

[18]. Nicolas Fr^ret, Wiegand's Convers. Lexik. 

[19], Semitic (Littr^, Diet.). 

[20]. Bunsen obscure. Samaritan makes death-year of La- 
mech = year of Deluge ; LXX, obit 35 years before. 
Prefer Zunz's Masoretic Bible. Hebrew, Samaritan, 
and Zunz agree Methuselah dies in Deluge-year. 

[21]. World-year of 600 years (Littr^, Diet.). 

[22] Lunar year (ditto). 

[23]. "Seven days of Creation,*' a style of expression. Better 
drop auxiliary phrases if leading to false ideas. 

[24]. 299, Bunsen. 4328 + 550, printer's or author's error. 
Re-place (Methusela) Hebrew 969 by Samaritan 720, 
therefore 4878 - (969 - 720 = 249) = 4629. 4629 - 
4328 = 301, not 299. 

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82 Key to the Genealogical Table of the First FMnarehs. 

[25]. Another error, 4878 = 7 epochs; really 7^ to 8, not 
six, vide 24. 

[26]. Gen. iv, 17. 

[27]. Gen. iv, 16. 

[28]. ^ Type of man reposing in God," not exact translation 
of German. 

[29]. Bunsen's complete result stated, '* Man's type etemaUy 
reposing in God." — Not in Heb. text. — S. M. D. 

[30]. Ezra, A.M. 3530 « B.O. 458 (3988 c.^.— S. M. D.). 

[31]. Nehemiah, 8564 A.M. + 424 B.C. =» 3988.— S. M. D. 

[32]. Buns. VoUst. Bibel. v. 3d. Ausfiih. p. 308-9, as in di. v 
of this Mem. 

[33] Ref. Gen. xxxi, 19, Teraphim ; Laban, brother of Isaac 
(qy. Rebecca !— S. M. D.) 

[34]. Exod. xxxii, 3, 4, 5 ; Zimz's translation. 

[35]. Judges viii, 24, 27 ; not 29, French. 

[36]. 1 Sam. xix, 13, 14. Teraphim were domestic divinities 
of the Hebrews. 

[37]. Rydberg, Swedish, " Jehovah Worship by the Hebrews 
before Babylonian Captivity," says "Jeroboam at 
beginning of reign erected two calf-temples; had 
this been a novelty there would have been a conserva- 
tive opposition ; thus we understand why the reforming 
prophets of Judah declaimed against it." 

[381. 1 Kings xi, 5, 6, 7. 

[39]. Amos V, 26. 

[40]. Acts vii, 43. 

[41]. Euhemeros (Liibker, Real Lexik.) Biography. 

[42]. Bunsen (Voll. Bibel w., v. 306), stiiking analogy of Enosh 
and Adam ; Enosh ancient form of Isch tt^M (con- 
tracted singular), .plural D*^3t4> conunon for man, as 
Adam. Adam originally from the brown colour of 
primitive man, red earth (D'TM rTOTN) : Enosh, from 
force =as (Egypt) = is (Greek) = vis (Latin) = vir, 
* man,' Apef Greek. 

[43]. Jehovistic list for clearness : Seth is added to ch. iv 
Gen., perhaps posteriorly. 

[44]. Explains heliacal rising. 

[45]. Syene, cataracts or rapids, stream contracted to 30 

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Kejf to the Genealogical Table of the First Pairiarclia. 83 

mitres. Last of the four rapids (El Eebir) by isles 
Philo^, Begh^. 

[46]. Biot's recherches sur Tann^e vague des Egypt, p. 57 ; 
quoted by Bunsen in ^Egyptens Stelle, p. 50. Astro- 
nomical proof of 3285 B.o. ; but French puts this date 
in red ink. 

[48]. Etymology of Epagomenai. 

[49]. Tropical year 365^ ; vague 365 days. 

[50]. Bunsen as author, quoted, iE^ypt, pp. 59, Valery, Por- 
phyry, Aratus sch. 

[51]. Liibker B Ptolemy Euergetes I. 

[52]. Bunsen (^Egypt. Stelle) on true name of Menophtah 
Liebl. Egypty Chron, Christiania, 1873, p. 136. 

[53]. Manetho (Liibker). 

[54]. Author's aim is 1461, not the individual ages. 

[55]. Turanian (Littr^, Diet. Touranien, Nord altaique). 

[56]. Chaldean 60 soss, 600 ner; 3600 sar (Ideler p. 78; 
Buns. VoU. Bibel. v. 320). 

[57]. French improves reasoning. 618|- years = 600 years, 
hence 8 is factor. 618f x 8 = 4947. 

[58]. Explains Jubilee, h2\^ not h^^^ (Littr^, Diet.). 

[59]. Golden age, &c. 

[60]. Platonic age, 25, 600 (Littr^, Diet.). 

[61]. Equinox, &c., explained (Littr6, Diet.). - 

[62]. Important note of M. Boitard on precession's eflFect in 
25,868 years on Paris. Now 48** 26' let., in 6467 years 
37' 13' N., in 12,934 years 25^ 46' N., then go northward ; 

3 diagrams, small, ^^Z^J^ (f ?f) cdfe 
— Nutation used for precession. — S. M. D. Geological 
results of polar ice, in blue and red fi-inges, like solar 
corona. Three large diagrams. Regularity of geolo- 
gical deposits ; 12 catastrophes. 

[63]. Explains Neomenia. 

[64]. Cabala, '^np. — Europe, hands dovm ; Orient, receives.-- 
S. M. D. 

[65]. Exodus explained : only immigration for «nigration. 

[6q. Littr^'s Julian Calendar. 

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84 Key to the Genealogical Tahh of the First Patriarchs, 

[67j. Discussion on Shem's age, 187 (not 152, author). — 
Jewish Tradition, Gen. vii, 7 : Why did Noah's wife 
enter ark after her sons? Proof that sexes were 
separated, human and brute, to avoid increase of the 
crew and diminution of provisions during Deluge ; 
for that reason Shem's wife probably did not conceive 
Arphaxad till after they were settled on post-diluvian 
earth.— S. M. D. 

[68]. Eratosthenes, Biogr. Did he not measure geodeticaUy 
the earth ? 

[69]. Bunsen's Hieroglyph Season Signs, frontispiece copied. 

[70]. Cf. 47 ; Lepsius, 3282 B.O. 

[71]. Syncellus, Biogr. Wiegand Con v. Lex., Greek quot. 
and translation, p. 98 ; Lieblein, p. 3 ; 3535 years. 

[72]. Gen. x, 21, 24.— Why WM Da and not "hm?- 
S.M.D. 

[73]. Numb, xiii, 23. 

[74]. Discussion on Hebron of Palestine. Hieroglyphs of 
Han(b)ar, Lieb. p. 98. — Cf. Boston, England and U.S.A. 
S. M. D. 

[75]. Apion (Lubke). 

[76]. Gen. ii, 13 ; Bunsen, v. 46, says it was Araaes. to13 
kos, not ttJ^ ktish, 

[77]. Gen. vi, 4. Greek and Hebrew, with translation. 

[78]. Gen. vi, 13. 

[79]. Gen. v, 15. 

[80]. Gen. viii, 2. 

[81]. Josephus ; Manetho ; (Bunsen, iEgypt. iv, 13). 

[82]. Exod. vi, 16. Levi 3, Generat. Kehath, Amram, Moses. 

[83]. Liebl. Chron. List of Dynasties reproduced. Li full 
5332 years. Contemp. IX, X, XI, XIH, XVI, XXII, 
XXV Amenenmes, 1777 = 5332 — 3555, Syncellus. 

[84]. 2 Kings xiv, 25, 26. 

[85]. 2 Kings xxiii, 29-33. 

[86]. 1 Kings vi, 1. 



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Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs. 85 



Additional Notes by S. M. Draoh to Mr. Rydberg's 

Paper. 

I refer the reader to Mr. Proctor's (F.R.A.S.) book on 
Saturn, at the beginning of which work are some simple 
geometric diagrams, proving that from the observed number 
of days between oppositions, retrogradations, &c., of planet, 
the arcliaic ancients could have derived the Copemican 
revolution-periods thereof 

As a pendant to Mr. Rydberg's paper, I computed from 
Herschel (1835) and Maedler's (1841) Astronomy, the number 
of planetary synodic periods in a SoTHls-period of 1460 
Julian years, and a NER-period of 600 JuUan years, giving 
these interesting results : — 



1 

Ant. 


Plaoet. 


SYNODIC PERIOD. 
1 year ia 366 days. 


80THIS PEBIOD. 
633,266 days. 


NEB or 
219,160 days. 


H. 
H. 
K. 


Mercury x 5 

Venus 

Mars 


year. days. boon. 
1 214 9i 

1 218 22^ 

2 50 


4602 less 1 day 
91di exact 
683} plus 5 days 


189Hplus4days 
875i less 141 dys 
281 less 80 days 


K. 


{ 3 Asteroids. . 
jwith Vesto.. 


1 103 20 
1 112 16 


lld7i less 33 days 
1116i plus 30 days 


467i less 29i days 
458i plus 21 days 


K. 


Jupiter 
Saturn 


1 83 22 
1 13 2 


13361 less 7 days 
1410i less 21i days 


650f less 4 days 
579} less 12 days 



Here the mean of 5-Mercury and Venus is 216f days 
beyond the year (215 Hebrew base number). The tropical 
year retards (at 11 minutes 13 seconds per annum) 11 days 
8 hours 56 minutes in a Sothis and 4 days 16 hours 10 
minutes in a Ner period. Venus (Ishtar) has Seth's number 
913; three asteroids is ^^. The Bunsen-Rydberg 550 is 
in Jupiter-NER. On applying to the Egyptian 25 x |fj- 
month 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 16*2 seconds, the secular 
acceleration of 11'' (Laplace) and 5^'' (Prof. Adams), I found 
this lunation occurred 1000 B.C. (L.), or 2200 B.C. (A.), or 28 

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86 Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Pdtriarche. 

and 40 centuries before 180() C.^. If this difference (13^") be 
applied to Rydberg's 389 B.C. (57 centuries before the 
present), the difference rises to (fj)* x 13^, or 56* (L.) and 
(fjy*xl3i or 27^5, to be added to the present 29 days 
12 hours 44 minutes 2*7 second, or an error between jj^ 
and ^T^n- Six times the great inequality of Jupiter- 
Saturn of 930 years (5580), brings 3892 B.O., to 1688 C.^. 
and 3780 B.O. to 1800 CM. 

Note that 3892 exceeds the Rabbinical 3761 A.M. by 
131 (Adam's number). Submultiples of 215 are ^ = 129; 
T^= 64i; 1= 161|; f = 184f ; 930 = 186 x 5; 910=182 + 5; 
365 + 600 ; all Patriarchal numbers. 

The average of our limar year (354 days 8 hours 48 
minutes 32 seconds) and tropic year (365 days 5 hours 48 
minutes 47 seconds) being 359 days 19 hours 18 minutes 
40 seconds, is very close to 360 days, the original archaic 
year. That Enoch means consecration (human) is proved by 
this word '^SH being used by the present Jews when 
entering a new or renovated house or synagogue. Kadsh 
(MTlp) being reserved for things offered to God, except in 
the marriage formula hallowing the bride (U^TpO) to her 
bridegroom. 

For the meaning of Adam, Ludolf 's Ethiop. Grammar, 
thinks it is the Ethiopic Adama (grace, beauty) ; curiously 
similar to the Greek Cosmosj and Latin Mundus. Count de 
Gebelin's Monde Primitif makes Adam the husband-man of 
the cultivated earth, reproducing its vegetation thereby ; and 
coupling Ish and Isha (perhaps Enosh and Enosha ITWiM ?)• 

larchi and Aben Ezra suppose that the giants, Ifphilin 
(auffallend) " giants," struck ordinary men by their stature ; 
and that the sons of Elohim were really the sons of the 
Judges ; an old edition of the Appius-Virginia case. 

From the Deluge to the death of Jacob are 599 years ; 
Terah's extra 40 years (70 less 30) brings Abraham's birth 
to 292 years, or ^ of 365 after the Deluge. 

The superpointed eleven letters, Deut. xxix, 29, are 
numerically 2310 (1451 B.O. I) and those of Gen. xxxiii. 4, 
•^nptt^ 427 (Egyptian captivity). Is Rempham, Acts vii, 43, 
Ra-mpha r^niD-yi ? 

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Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs. 87 

Six hundred tropical years, if equal to 7420 months, gives 
lunation 29 days 12 hours 49 minutes 33 seconds, only pos- 
sible if antediluvian earth rotated faster on her axis ; with 
our 44 minutes 3 seconds there remain 28 days 8 hours 
9 minutes. 

Why did the Bible-texters not give the important totals ? 
and vrere the primitive afber-h'fe ages, already increased by 
an even number of centuries, to obtain the 4947 ? 

Rev. Mr. Garbett (Phil. Soc. Glasgow, 1873, On "Metral 
Reform ") observed that 60 is by far the best factor for 
reducing of denominations.^ 

> Biot's, 1506 » 7 X 5 X 48. 




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88 



NOTES ON CYPRIOTE PALAEOGRAPHY. 

By D. P1BRIDE8 (Lamaca, Cyprus). 

Read ^h January y and 4Ah JuUf, 1876. 



L 

The Cypriote Inscription on the Gold Arbo^ets found at 

KURION. 

Tms inscription is engraved inside the rim of the armlets ; 
and, Kke, all the Cypriote inscriptions from Paphos hitherto 
published,* it is read from left to right. It consists of thirteen 
letters divided by a point into two groups, of which the 
first is the name of a king of Paphos, who seemingly offered 
the armlets to a shrine, designation imknown, in Kurion. 
The writing to some extent resembles that of the Paphos 
inscriptions above alluded to ; but the final s (P), which 
should look to the left whenever the writing reads from left 
to right, is turned to the right on one of the two armlets ; 
and it appears, moreover, that on the very same piece the 
engraver made some mistake in two other characters close to 
the end ; but these he afterwards corrected. 

We now proceed to decipher our short text, premising 
with the observation that the only part of it which presented 
some difficulty was the first group. 

Plate C— 1. 

e-te-va-do-ro | to-pa-po-ba- si - le- vo- s. 

^EredpSpov tov nd<f>ov Baa-tXicat. 

Eteandri, Regis Paplii. 

De VogU^, Melanges d' Arob^l, Oriental©, pi. iii, 2 ; pi. iv, 6,6,7. 

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*t » m 



I 






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2 




"/,, 



t'lf 



^/?// 

m 



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I 

m 



' . mm 



"-^ '==■ J) Vl jj •'-'/^ ^ 



r- *9^ 



m 




Y 




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^\ 



w 



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I 





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i... 



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Notes on Cypriote Palceography. 89 

The omission of the i/, and the genitive in <», are pecu- 
liarities of the Cypriote dialect which have already been 
pointed out by German and other philologists. Prof. Moriz 
Schmidt of Jena, in his learned treatise on the Cypriote 
Inscriptions,^ p^ge 60, gives the word ndffxo, from previous 
texts, exactly as we see it on the armlets. 

I have not been able to find the name ^EriavSpof in any 
of my books of reference, and I cannot say whether it is 
given in Pape's Dictionary of Greek Proper Names, for no 
one here has a copy of it : other names of which cVco? is the 
first component part are not wanting ; for we have Etearch, 
Eteocles, Eteonicus, &c. 

In the actual stage of Cyprian palaeography, it would be 
hazardous to fix a date to the inscription from the form of 
the letters, &c., but there is reason to believe that the texts 
which read from left to right are among the earliest ; from 
this, and the character of some pf the objects found along 
with the armlets, I am inclined to think that our inscription 
belongs to the 5th century before the Christian era. 



P.S. — Jan.y 1876. In sending me the proof of the fore- 
going short article for correction, the President of the 
Society of Biblical Archaeology writes : — 

**You should bear in mind that there was a king of 
Cyprus in the days of Assurbanipal, B.C. 620, who bore the 
name of Ituander or Ithyandros ; and that he was king of 
Pappu or Paphos. Might he be the monarch whose bracelets 
have been found? He is mentioned by Mr. Smith in his 
article in the North British Magazine, 1870, page 329, as 
one of the kings of Cyprus who rendered homage to Assur- 
banipal during the march upon Egypt." 

I record, with thanks, the suggestion of my esteemed 
correspondent ; and I think there can be no question as to 
its aptness and validity : the identity is complete. — D. P. 

* Die InAchrift tod Idalion, und das Kyprische Syllabar. Jena, 1874. 



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90 Notes an Cypriote PaUMography. 

U. 

Few and short are the new inscriptions which follow; 
but as the subject continues to attract attention, I may be 
excused for oflFering another meagre instalment. 

For the facility of reference, I shall follow a progressive 
number, taking into account the two inscriptions which 
formed the matter of my previous notices. 

No. 3. 

From Paphos: a slab, breadth, 11^ inches; height, 7| 
inches ; thickness, 2 inches ; surface much worn. This and 
the other inscriptions contained in the present paper read 
from right to left, including the impression of the seal. The 
originals of Nos. 3 to 5 ai*e in my possession. 

Platb A— 1. 

mi- e -se-ra-pa-ku-si-na-o 
^OrcunKVTTpa^ rffiL 

The second line is illegible ; only one character can be 
identified, that under the fourth (firom the right) of tihe first 
line— it ]& d^ pa. 

No. 4. 

From Poli-tis-Chrysochou (ancient Arsinoe, according to 
Engel and others). Stela of the common C€dcareous stone 
of the island: breadth, 8| inches; thickness, 6 inches; 
actual measiurement from top to bottom, 9 inches, has been 
sawed for easier r^noval, and only the inscribed part brought 
to Lamaca. 

Plats 0—2. 

CDI?CDTXI"Q + X + V 

mo-ro-mo-ti - a -se-ra-pa-ku-lo-pi 
tCKoKVirpa9 a TtfjLOpcl>fA(o. 

mi- e -na-ku 
yvvd fifu. 

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Notes on Cypriote Palceography. 91 

Philokypros and Onasikyprps both occur in the Bronze 
Tablet of IdaUon; in the above inscriptions we see their 
feminine forms; but the question arises whether we have 
before us the genitive ^OvaatKinrpw;, ^iXo/cinrpafy or the 
nominative ^Ovaa-iKinrpa^, ^iKoKtmpds. I think that ^iXo 
(^Ov€un)Kinrpa, is more in conformity with the rules for the 
formation of the gender than ^CKo(^Ovaat)icvTrpd<;\ but then 
if my reading of inscription No. 4 be correct, the name and 
the position of the woman therein mentioned are in two 
different cases, still, as inscriptions are not always free from 
eirors, I should be inclined to pass over this syntactical diffi- 
culty, and to consider the names as being in the genitive, 
eq)ecially as another similar inscription (No. 6) has the man's 
name in the same case ; and in ftirther support of this opinion, 
I might add the remark, that the nominative preceded or 
followed by elpX is sometimes used in connection with a 
tiaiue^ whilst these stones are evidently sepulchral ; but I 
prefer leaving the question open for final settlement by 
more competent authority, or by the discovery of other 
inscriptions. 

Ti/[Mpa»/to9. The last character of the first line is almost 
entirely erased ; but after a very carefiil examination of the 
stroke that is left, I have come to the conclusion that the 
syllabic sign to which the said stroke belonged could not 
have been any other than © mo. P£fio9 was the name of a 
Lycianhero,* and we have Siromos,king of Salamis (Cypri).* 



No. 5. 

From the same place as the last : shapeless fragment of 
loose sandstone, breadth, 13 inches; height, 7^ inches — 
sunken border at the top ; three sides nearly perfect^ but the 
left broken ; letters large but ill-formed. 

The pitiful condition of this fragment will not allow of 
my doing much beyond registering its existence, and sending 



^ Pspe-Benseler, W5rt. der Griech. Eigexmamen, p. 1320. 
< Bngel ; Kjproa I, p. 266. 



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Notes on Cypriote Palwography. 



a paper cast ; the reading appears to be from right to left, 
and here is an imperfect denotation of the characters : — 

5th. ti. 

6th. unknown. 



1st. ti or Aa, but more likely ti. 
2nd. mo 



_ _ I somewhat doubtfiil. 

ord. ne J 

4th. a 

No. 6. 



7th. upsilon. 



From a paper cast in my portfolio. I have no recollection 
of the stone, and ignore what has become of it. Judging 
from the construction of the '* titulus," I would say that it 
came from the western part of the island. The thirteen 
characters occupy a line of 10^ inches. 

T >K «5» CD T 5^ il^ F . ♦!» I? F 5^ ^ 

mi- e -ne-mo-ti -o-te-to | ne-ro-do-o-te 
0€oSwpai>v t£ OeoTl/nav ^fii, 

" I mark the grave of Theodores son of Theotimos." 

The above names and that on the following seal appear 
for the first time in Cypriote texts, if I am not mistaken. 

No. 7. 

Gold seal: the stone bound in the same metal, and 
turning on pivots ; representation : a mare suckling her 
foal, and over this the legend : — 

Plate C— 4. 

o - ra- ko - ra-pa - ku 
Kwrpa/yopao. 

Found, I believe, in the environs of Golgos, about three 
years ago, and sold to M. H. Hoffinann, of Paris. 



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Notes on Cypriote Palaeography. 93 

III. 

Soon after the departure of the fortnightly mail which 
carried my last paper, General di Cesnola had the kindness 
to place in my hands several small fragments of stone, and 
two of pottery, inscribed with Cypriote characters, and 
lately discovered by his workmen near Kythrea, one of the 
most important villages in the island. 

One inscription, composed of three pieces, neatly ce- 
mented together by the General, is complete : it consists of 
38 characters, in three lines ; while the other fiugments have 
from 2 to 20. They all read from right to left, and in general 
they do not appear to belong to many diflFerent periods : on 
some the action of fire is visible ; and from their tenor we 
infer that a temple, dedicated to the Paphian Aphrodite, must 
have stood on the place where they were found. A Greek 
inscription, in elegant letters of the Macedonian era, was also 
disinterred from the same ruins. 

Some modem writers on Cyprus think that Kythrea 
occupies the site, or nearly so, of the ancient town Xvrpot ; 
others that of KvBijfrn or KuBipeia, mentioned by the Scho- 
liast of Hesiod, by Constant. Porphyr., &c. — but the existence 
of tins KvOr^pfi or KvOepeia is not generally admitted ; and 
the Cythera of Virgil and of Val. Flaccus is supposed to 
mean the island of Cythera (Cerigo). Regarding these 
controversies I must refer the inquirer to EngeP and to 
Sakellarios;* adding, however, that the inscriptions which 
follow may assist in bringing these points to a decision. It 
18 true that no place is spoken of in our texts, but their 
evident connection with a temple, and the closer similarity 
of the modem name, to Cythera, than to Chytri, ought to 
have their due weight in the discussion ; besides, it seems 
strange that Virgil should in the same verse speak of three 
celebrated shrines of Venus in Cyprus, and intend the fourth 
for that in the island near Cape Malea. 

" Est Amathus, et celsa mihi Paphus, atque Cythera, 
Idaliaeque domus." — .^Inid. 

1 Kyproi, Tol. i, 147, 164. 

' T^ KviryMoicd^ toI. i, 191, Athexu, 1855. 

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94 Notes on Cypriote Palceography. 

No. 8. 
Stone tablet, six and a half inches by three inches in 
front; originally held by, or attached to, a statue; even at 
the top, and projecting inward at the bottom ; recedes to the 
left at an angle slightly obtuse. Some of the other fragments 
of stone appear to have been p€ui» of similar tablets. 

Plate A— 2. 
e - i -to-se- a -pi-pa- se-ta-mi- e -mo- ti-to-ro-po 

i -ta-ke-te-te -ka-mi-se-ka-se- vo-re 

XhT«5^XXXev + 

i - ta-ti -ro-po- a - i - a - ...-pi-pa 

IIpa>TOTifi€o fifil Ta<i IIa<f>ia9 t£ le- 
piFos Kas III, KaTi0f)K€ Tat 
ncuf>lat ^AtppoSlrat. 

The sixth character (from the right) in the second line 
I take to be mt, of a form slightly different fix)m those we 
know ; and fit seemingly stands for the enclictic fie : com- 
pare the Sigean inscription — koI fi iiro ifjaev Ala<o7ro9 icdX 
iSeXfpoi; and that of Nicocreon — araaav S' ^Apyetoifie: also 
the second line of the following inscription, No. 9. 

In the third line (of No. 8), between the second and third 
letters, there is a damaged space, where probably a wrong 
character had been engraved, and afterwards erased. . 

KariOrjicei this word occurs in the inscription on Mr. 
Lang's Simpulum (Br. Museum). Dr. M. Schmidt read it 
KaTcdei ; Deecke-Siegismund, and Ahrens, KaTedrj ; but on a 
copy of Deecke and Siegismund's Treatise on the Cypriote 
Inscriptions, the valued gift of the lamented Siegismund, I 
find the due correction in his own hand ; and the Kythrea 
Inscriptions, be it noted, were brought to light nearly two 
months after his untimely fate. 

The name IIpmTOTifjios appears now for the first time in 
Cypriote; nor is it to be found in Pape-Benseler. 

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Noie» cm Cypriote PaUsography. 95 

No. 9. 
Three inches by two indies. 

Plate A — 3. 

+ P I- eiP I- 

pa-8e-(ta- o-te) - se -ta 

F CD T Q h T X 

te-ka-mi-ra-ta-u - a 

I" T il^'S T J? 

se-mi-te- si-na-o 

Ta^ 0€& Ta? na{<f>ia9 ^fii). 
ainapfjn, KaT4(0i]K€). 

''OyaaiBefii^ (6 ). 

*Opa(ri0€fU9 : the name is new. 

No. 10. 

Three and a half inches by two and a half inches ; broken 
diagonally. 

Plats A — 4. 

1. se-ta-o - te -se-ta 

Q-\XX 

2. ra-ta- i - a 

3. mi - te 

4. o- 

Ta9 0€& Ta9 ; the rest is unintelligible. But this fragment 
serves to determine the word dcciS, which is obliterated in 
No. 9. A cnrious feature is the [-y turned to the left. 

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96 Notes an Cypriote Pakeography. 

No. 11. 

Under this number are arranged the remaining (and 
shorter) iragments of inscriptions on stone. 

Plate A— 5. 

^ |u V + X >" 

a. ta - se -pa-pi - a - se 
Tm na<l>la9. 

b. ? pa-pi-a-se, i7a^^9. 

c. pa-o- (the second character probably by mistake for 

"pi") a-se, ditto. 

d. se-pa-pi-a-se-e-mi (very faint, especially the two last 

characters), Ta9 na<^la^ rjiiL 

e. Part of pa-pi-a, IIaif>la{sf). 
/. a-pi- (of no consequence). 

Most of these six fragments were originally of one line. 

No. 12. 
Two fragments of pottery: letters engraved. 

a. se-pa-pi-a, (Ta)^ na4>(a{s). 

b. ta-se-pa-pi, Ta9 na<f>i{a<i). 

Both originally of one line; on 12 J there is a space of 
three inches before the first character, from which it appecirs 
that the vessels were only inscribed with the two words 
Ta<; na(f>ia^f simply showing that they belonged to the 
temple. 

Labnaca, Cyprus, 

leth May, 1876. 



NoTB. — Plate B ib the facsimile of the Digraphio Inscription publiBhed in 
the Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archieologj, Vol. IV, p. 43. The 
Cypriote type has been added. There being no time for rerision at Cyprus by 
M. Pierides ; he is not responsible for any error that may haye been made. — S. B. 




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97 



ISHTAR AND IZDUBAR. 

BBD^a 

THE SIXTH TABLET OF THE IZDUBAR SERIES. 
Tramlated from the Ctmeiform 

By H. p. Talbot, P.R.S. 
Mead Uh ApHl, 1876. 

The original text of this remarkable tablet is lithographed 
in plate 48 of Vol. IV of Inscriptions of Western Asia, pub- 
lished by the British Museum. 

The fifth Izdubar tablet appears to be mostly lost, but 
the end of its story occupies the first few lines of the sixth 
tablet, and therefore it is necessary briefly to advert to it. 

One of the adventures of Odysseus related by Homer is 
his return to Ithaca disguised as a beggar. Izdubar, whose 
wanderings recall those of Odysseus, may have adopted 
some similar disguise, which he here throws off and resumes 
his royal rank. I have translated the first five lines according 
to their apparent meaning, but there is too little of the stoiy 
left, to form any opinion what it was. The rest of the 
tablet is entirely disconnected from it. The words printed 
in italics are restorations, where the original text is effisLced. 

Column I. 

1 he had thrown off his tattered garments : 

2. His pack of goods he had laid down from his back : 

3. \he had flung off] his rags of poverty: and clothed him- 

self in a dress of honour : 

4. [with a royal ro6«] he covered himself: 

5. sad be bound a diadem on his brow. 

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98 hhtar and Izdubar, 

6. Then Isbtar the queen lifted up her eyes to the throne 

of Izdubar : 

7. Kiss me, Izdubar ! she said : for I will marry thee ! 

8. Let us live together, I and Thou, in one place 

9. thou shalt be my husband, and I will be thy wife. 

10. Thou shalt ride in a Chariot of lapis lazuli and gold 

11. whose wheels are golden and its pole resplendent. 

12. Shining bracelets thou shalt wear every day. 

13. By our house the Cedar trees in green vigour shall grow: 

14. and when thou shalt enter it 

15. [suppliant] crowds shall loss thy feet! 

16. Kings, lords, and princes shall bow down before thee! 

17. The tribute of hills and plains they shall bring to thee 

as offerings : 

18. Thy flocks and thy herds shall all bear twins : 

19. Thy race of mules shall be magnificent: 

20. Thy [triumphs] in the chariot race shall be proclaimed 

without ceasing, 

21. and among the chiefs thou shalt never have an equal ! 



22. [Then Izdubar] opened his mouth and spoke, 

23. [and said] to Ishtar the Queen 

24. [Lady I full well] I know thee by experience I 

25. Sad and funereal [is thy dwelling place :] 

26. Sickness and Famine [surround thy path :] 

27. [False and] treacherous is thy crown of divinity ! 

28. [Poor and worthless] is thy crown of royalty ! 
29 poison : 

30 [many things] I will omit, 

31. [many deeds of cruelty] and slaughter: 

32. [ Yes ! I have said it] I know thee by experience I 

And so on, through twelve more lines, which are greatly 
broken, to the end of Column I. I have restored in italics 
some of the fractured parts, but of coitfse I cannot guarantee 
that it is done correctly. 

The meaning of all this, (as appears quite plainly from the 
Second Column) is that Ishtar was, like Hecate in the Greek 
mythology, the queen of witchcrat the cruel, the mercilese. 

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hhtar and Izdubar. 99 

In Column 11 Izdubar goes on with his reproaches. "All 
that ever you have loved, you have next hated and destroyed : 
poisoned and bewitched I And were I to marry you, you 
would treat me just as you have treated them I '' 

Column n. 

1. Wailings thou didst make 

2. for Tarzi thy husband 

3. (and yet) year after year with thy cups thou didst poison 

him! 

4. Thou hadst a favourite and beautiful Eagle 

5. thou didst strike him (with thy wand), and didst break 

his wings: 

6. Then he stood fast in the forest, [onlyj fluttering his 

wings. 

7. Thou hadst a favourite Lion, full of vigour : 

8. thou didst pull out his teeth, seven at a time ! 

9. Thou hadst a favourite Horse, renowned in war : 

10. He drank a draught, and with fever thou didst poison himr 

11. Twice seven hours without ceasing 

12. with burning fever and thirst thou didst poison him 1 

13. His mother the goddess Silili with thy cups thou didst 

poison. 

14. Thou didst love the King of the Land 

15. whom continually thou didst render ill with thy drugs 

16. though every day he offered libations and sacrifices. 

17. Thou didst strike him (with thy wand), and didst change 

him into a Leopard ! 

18. The people of his own City drove him out from it, 

19. and his own dogs bit him to pieces I 

20. Thou didst love a workman' — a rude man of no in- 

struction, 

21. who constantly received his daily wages from thee 

22. and every day made bright thy vessels. 

23. In thy pot a savoury mess thou didst boil for him 

* ^Diif incident is evidentlj introdaced, in contrast with the last one, the 
Toyal lorer, with the meaning that, " Thy loye has been &tal to all alike : whether 
high or bw : rich or poor." 

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100 hhtar and Izdubar. 

24. (saying) "Come, my servant, and eat with us on the 

Feast-Day 

25. and give thy judgment on the goodness of our pot- 

herbs 'M 

26. The workman replied to thee 

27. Why dost thou desire to destroy me ? 

28. Mother! thou art not cooking! — I will not eat ! 

29. For, I should eat food bad and accursed 

30. and the thousand unclean things thou hast poisoned it 

with! 

31. Thou didst hear that answer [and wert enraged] 

32. Thou didst strike him (with thy wand), and didst change 

him into a pillar ; 

33. and didst place him in the midst of the desert ! 

34. I have not yet said a crowd of things, many more I 

have not added ! 

35. Lady! thou wouldst love ME — as thou hast done the 

others ! 

36. Ishtar this [speech listened to] 

37. and Ishtar was enraged and [flew up] to Heaven 

38. Ishtar came into the presence of Anu [her father] 

39. and into the presence of Annatu her mother she came. 

40. my Father, Izdubar has cast [insults upon me] — 
Here ends Colimm II, and Column III being almost 

entirely destroyed, and Column IV nearly so, this part of the 
story of Ishtar remains isolated from the rest. Column V, 
which is well presei-ved, had therefore better be treated at 
another time, and as an independent subject. 



There is a part of this curious tablet which deserves 
particular attention, I mean the lines 14 to 19 of Column II 
which relate the sad fate of a King whom Ishtar changed 
into a Leopard, ** and his own dogs bit him to pieces. ^^ 

We see here beyond a doubt the ancient original of the 
Greek fable of Actaeon and his dogs. That hero had offended 
Diana, who revenged herself by changing him into a stag 
when his dogs, no longer knowing their master, fell upon 
him and tore him to pieces. The great celebrity of this fable 

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hhtar and Izdubar. 101 

may be judged of from the circumstance that Ovid in hie 
Metamorphoses (III, 206) has preserved the names individually 
of aU the dogs, though there were no fewer than thirty^five 
of them. 

The classical authors of Greece and Rome attribute the 
fate of the king to the vengeance of Diana, but our tablet 
ascribes it to the cruelty of Ishtar. This leads to the 
inquiry whether Ishtar was the Eastern name of Diana? or 
had similar attributes ? 

Now, the character of Ishtar was very multiform. She 
was Venus, the goddess of love. She closely resembles 
Diana of the Ephesians, the Aprefii^ iroXv/iaaTo^ who 
typified Universal Nature, and was the great and universal 
mother. 

But on the other hand, Ishtar was the goddess of war, 
Ekiw of the Greeks, Bellona * of the Latins, for Assurbanipal 
addresses her in his prayer for succour : ** goddess of war I 
lady of battles ! '' * and when Esarhaddon was attacked by 
his enemies at a critical moment of his life, when his suc- 
cession to the crown of his father was in danger, he says : 
*' Ishtar, queen of war and battle stood by my side. She 
broke their bows. Their line of battle in her rage she 
destroyed."^ 

But in the tablet which we are now considering, Ishtar 
appears in a totally different character, as the Hecate of the 
Greeks, the queen of witchcraft — resembling Hecate in her 
funereal abode*, and in the potency of her magic drugs, 
equal to those of Circe and Medea.* Indeed there is the 

> At first sight this sceuis alien from the attributes of Yenus, but the Q-reeks 
of Cjihen worshipped an " armed Venus/' (see Fausanias iii, 23). From this 
island she took her name of Cytherea. 

' Transactions of this Society, toI. i, p. 347. 

' Becords of the Past, vol. iii, p. 104. 

* T^ xOoviq. ff 'Eiearg rav km (TKvkaKts rpofitovTi 
'Epxofuvav v€KV(ov ava r rjpia Koi fAtXav aifia, 

• Heap 'Exara ba<nr\rjTij km €S riKoi ap,fuv oiradci 
<f>apftaKa rav^ iphoura )^fp€iova firyre ri KipKrjt 

Theocritus, Idyll. 2. 

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102 lahtar and Izdubar. 

strongeBt resemblance between the Ishtar of this tablet, and 
those most renowned enchantresses. The kettle, or canl- 
tlron, or pot, filled with magic herbs reminds us of Medea, 
who on one occasion spent no less than nine days and nights 
in collecting herbs for her cauldron, visiting many lands for 
that purpose in her car drawn by dragons (see Ovid's 
Metamorphoses vii, 234). And Circe, in Homer, loves 
Ulysses (as here Ishtar does Izdubar), yet nevertheless trans- 
forms all his companions into swine as soon as they have 
tasted of her noxious viands.* Moreover Ishtar was the 
Full Moon, for which reason she was called the goddess 
Fifteen >->|- ^^, because the month consisting of thirty 
days the full moon was of course on the fifteenth day. 

These different accoimts of the goddess Ishtar seem 
perplexing in their diversity : but the theory is maintained 
by many scholars that all the great goddesses of antiquity 
were originally one, viewed in various lights. Their attri- 
butes when examined are found in reality to melt into each 
other. But the poets took care to keep them distinct, and 
to provide them with separate adventures, and the priests of 
various cities had likewise a great interest in individualising 
their own deities. Thus Ishtar of Arbela was by no means 
the same divinity as Ishtar of Nineveh. 

Hecate was fabled to be the daughter of Asteria, which 
is merely a Greek form of the name of Ishtar, and varies at 
other times to Astaroth, Astarte, Astrateia, and Asterodia. 
Pausanius (iii, 25) mentions an ApT€fii<; Aa-Tparet^a, whose 
worship was brought to Greece fi-om the East. 

But to return to the story of Actaeon which we thus find 
unexpectedly among the legends of the East. 

The persistence of popular fables is a cuiious subject of 
contemplation. The Arabian Nights' Entei'tainments contain 
stories identical with some in Homer's Odyssey, and even in 
early semi-fabulous Greek history. In Egypt has been 
found a story — that of the ** doomed Prince " — identical with 
one long known in Europe. In fact there was much greater 

See OdjBfley, book x. 

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Ishter and Tzdvbar. 103 

literary int^r-commimication between distant nations in very- 
ancient times than is commonlj supposed. 

In Ovid's Metamorphoses are several stories derived 
apparently from the Assyrian literature besides that of 
Pj^amus and Thisbe, which he expressly states to be a tale 
of Babylon. 



Column I. 

ubbilu bilinsu 

he had thrown off his toomrout garments 

(subul) kimmat-zu elu 

his burden of goods he had lifted off 

J^!T -TT<T Jr 

tsiri-su 
his back 

(iddu) rusuti-su ittalbisha 

he had cast away his poverty, he had clothed himself 

}} m :-!< M 

zakuti-su 
{in) his dress of honour. 

*■ (e:^ -^T<) ^T ^^^ -t^Vf "-T J=^ eT 

(sarti) ittakhliba-mma 

{with a royal robe) he covered himself 

rakish agu ikhri 
splendidly his diadem he 

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104 Jshtar and Izduhar. 

Izdubar agu-su itibra-mma 

Izdubar his diadem bound round his brows 

ana diinki sha Izdubar 

to the couch of Izdubar 

^ ^] aT,;£nT <T- tm ^ ^! -^ <w 

ina ittasi rubut Ishtar 

her eyes lifted the queen Ishtar • 

7. ^y II t^ ^f — + «=! miT + 

nasikk-anma Izdubar 

Kiss me ! Izdubar I 

lu-khahir atta, 

/ will marry thee 

8. js? c: -j:Id ^tVi \\ <T- iX-T Vi JT <III m^ ^ 

sabika yaasi kasu ki uma 

grant that I (and) thou dwell in same place 

». ^ET^m M«=m«= -^^tett m m^w 

atta lu muti-ma anaku lu 

thou shalt be my husband and I udll be 

ashat-ka 
thy wife 

tipsa as eli rukubi abni zamat 

thou shall ride upon a chariot of stone lazuli 

u khurassi 



and gold 



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Ixhtar and Izdvhar. 



105 



sha magami-sha khurassi-ma ilmisn 

which its wheels are golden {and) is splendid 

gama-sha 
its pole 



lu-zamdat 
Uiou shah clasp 

rabi 

gi^eat 



tarnish kudanu 

daily golden bracelets (?) 



''• T? ^T ^m ^ «=a -^T ^ t^ ET ^V 



ana 



bit-ni 
our house 



ina 
in 



sammati 
green vigour 



erini irba 

the cedar trees shall grow 

bit-ni ina eribi-ka 

by our house at thy entrance {of it) 

''- ^ -n- -^ e=m^ -^i^T ^ <F ^^ 

.... (ham)aratt\i linaseiqu 

.... crowds sJudl kiss 



sepi-ka 
thy feet. 



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106 hktar and Izdvbar. 

as sipli-ka sarri 

\Bhail bow down] beneath thee kings 

^^ < HfflfT^ 

bill u rubi 

lords and princes 

mandata eadi u mati 

the offerings of mountain and plain 

lu-nasuni-kka biltu 

iliey s/iall bring to thee as tribute 

ka 

thy herds (and) Jbeks of sheep thine 

tuhami lilida 

twins shall bring forth 

19. Qziz}) ::^^] ^I< i<]B I tt} -Hh -tB 

(nab) niti pari (?) ka 

the race of thy mules 

libahu 
shall be magnificent 

.... ka in rukubi lu-sarukh 

thy (triumphs) in the chariot shall be proclaimed 

la samu 
without ceasing. 

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Tahtar and Izdubar. 107 

"• IIP- ^ t^'-TT<T V :?? -^r n Tf Sw <T- 

as iiiri Banina ai irsi 

among the Chiefs an equal never shall liave 

pa-8u ibu8-ma igabbi 

{then Izdubar] his mouth opened^ and spoke 

ana rubuti Ishtar 

[and said] to the queen Ishtar 

ana kdsi akkhaz-ki 

• thee I know thee by experience 

"• mmmm-^<^ -rn <hm t^^ -^r h[< 

pagri u gubati 

corpses and bodies 

kmrummati u bubuti 

leprosy and famine 

akla simat Uuti 

crown of divinity 

simat sarruti 

crotcn of royalty 

rihil 

poison 

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108 hhtar and Izdvbar. 

lu-nsbuk 

[manf/ things (?)] / ictZi omit 

nakkhaltu 

slaughter : 

akkhaz-ki 

/ know tliee by experi^tce 



Column II« 

Sabudimma 

wailing (?) 

ana Tarzi khamiri-ki 

for Tarzi thy hwband 

satta aua satti kasta-kka 

year after year with thy cups 

-rT<T -<!< h- I 

taltimissu 
tliou didst poison him 

allala eru-ma tarami-ma 

a noble Eagle also iJiou didst love 

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Ishtar and hduhar. 106 

takhatei-su-ma kappa -su taltibbir 

thou didst strike kim {and) his wings thou didst break 

izzaz aa kisati isissi 

he stood fast in the forest (and) fluttered 

kappi 
his unngs. 

•>• iBm BiTT <^t t] itj ~n «=m* <k: ^ 

tarami-ma unnakh gamir 

thou didst love also a lion full 

emnki 

of strength 

«. ^r 4-Hfff -- -n<T J=^TT I ¥ < f 

tukhtarris^-su sibkti u eibitti 

tkou didst pM Old by seven at a time 

Buttati 
his teeth 

tarami-ma kurra nahit 

thiQu didst love a horse glorious 

gabli 
in war 

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110 hhtar and Tzdvbar. 

10. j=(yt 6^^ m KB ^i< < ^m Bin s^nt 

istakkha zikti u dirrata 

he drank a potion and with fever (J) 

taltimissu 
thjon didst poison hinu 

11. 9 #^ ^- -^y im t] -TT<y ^T< H J! 

Sibitti kasbu la sama taltimissu 

Seven douhle-lwurs loithout ceasing tliou didst poison hm 

dalakhu u shatd taltimissu 

KTt^A fever and thirst thou didst poison him 

13. yif^y ^smi -+ "sryy -EEy<y -^m 

ana ummi-su ilat Silili 

his mother the goddess Silili 

:=: ::82^ ^H yf -yy<y';<y<H 

kasta-kka taltimis 

with thy cups thou didst poison her 

14. t^yyy E::yy <r:: ^y e^ss^m j^yyy^-^y 

tarami-ma sab tabula 

thou didst love the king of the land 

1*. ^yy h:h y^ y? -y<y^ ^y -^^y t^yyy -yy<y j^n 

sha kainam-ma tutarish 

whom continually thou didst make ill 

^ -^ m 

semukki 
with thy drugs 

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Jshtar and Izdabar. Ill 

16. tTir^ «=nr^ ^T «=nT'- go -^r ??< -Bm 

samsamma (?) u (za) bakha akki 

every day he aacrificed libations 

u nikitd 

and victims 

takhat«i-8U-ma ana iirbari'a 

thou didst strike hirn^ and into a Leopard 

tuttarri-su 
thou didst change him 

"• m^ ^r <T-n<r b:tt ^ jt H:id ^t ^jn 

udarradu-8u kaparru 

fAq^ drot?« him out the people of his 

sha ramni-su 

own city^ 

»»• < nd HI I-- jr «=TTT«= -^r ^ V igf 

u urku-su unassaku 

otui Aw own dogs bit him 

s^IdJ-IHJT 

dpri-su 
to pieces^ 

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112 



Tshtar and Tzdubar. 



tarami-ma isuUanu 

thou didst love aho a workman 

amilu nu issarat ki 

a man without education, of thine 



fiha kainamma 

who constantly 



8Ugur& 
Aw wages 



nasa-kki 
took from thee 



tami samina 

and day et^ery 



unammani 
he made bright 



pas8ur-ki 
thy dishes 

28. ^^\ s^yyy c^y jtyyy <y^ te^ t\ 

ina tatta ilpita tak-ma 

in (thy) pot a thousand morsels 



t^m -TH <3i jr 

tarikis-8U 
thou didst boil for him. 



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hhtar and Izdubar, 113 

isullani-ya kissuta 

my servant ! (on the) feast-day 

<M ^ -<* 

ki-ni kul 

toith U8 eat ! 

u sukalisb kara-mma tibbut 

and tcith intelligence speak out the goodness 

khardat-ni 
of our pot-herbs ! 

isullanu igabbi-ki 

the toorkman said to thee 

'-'■ ^n n <T- <-^ ;^T TIf ^?H} -n<T <T- «=^Sw ^f^ 

yasi mina tarrisinni 

me why wouldst thou destroy (?) 

28. ^:yyy <::^ .^y ^y ^ ]} ]] ^y ^ ^t] ]} -<^ 

Ummi la tipd anaku la akul 

my motlier! not thou cookest, I not tvill eat 

29. V -B-^Um VAT? ^T-VTHT< 

pisati 
bad 



sha 


akkahi akali 


for I 


should eat food 


< Hff 


-TT<T ^1} -<V 


u 


irriti 


and 


accursed 


Vol. T. 





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by (Google 



114 hhtar and Tzdubar. 

sakutzi ilpitu 

(and) the unclean tJdngs thousand 

tustmnmu- [ma] 
th'yu hast poisoned it unth. 

atti tasmi-ma ann& 

^Aow heardest this 

32- ^T ?K ^yy JT Tif -^T -n<T -^y ^m 

takhatei-su ana tallali 

thou didst strike him (and) into a pillar (or heap) 

^^^y (^^m ^yy<y m) 

tu (tarri-su) 
(thou didst change him) 

.33. -^^T^<v:^ jy - ^]^] ^y(^-^y-iy<T) 

tu8e8ibi-8u in kabal ma(dabari) 

thou didst place him in the midst (of the desert) 

3M^y^ «=y]f lai «=yyy«= <j::: A-Hfyy h< <«=y^ 

val elu mikkha val 

not I have added a crowd (of tilings) not 

y? <=in s^yy immmm^ 

aridda . 

/ have added 

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Ishiar and Izdubar. 115 

^^ < m] Vi <v ^m «=<mT « ^ ^T 

u ydsi taramm-annima 

flfk/ myself thou wouldst love me 

ki-sha sunuta 

Uke unto them. 

Ishtar annd 

hhtar tins [lieard] 

37. .>f ;=cyy ^ jrB tv^ >f ^r T? -^T 

iBhtar iguktun-ma ana 

Ishtar was very wroth, and unto 

Bamami ..•....•. 
Heaven [ascended] 

illik-ma Ishtar ana pan 

{and) sh^ came Ishtar be/ore the face 

Anu [abi-sha] 

of AnUy {Iter father"] 

ana pan Anatu lunma sha illik 

before the face of Anat her mother she came 

abi Izdubar itta(di) 

my father I Izdubar has flung \insults against me] 

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116 Tshtar and Izduhar, 

Notes and Observations. 
Col. I. 



LINE 



LX«A I 

1. UbUlu, * he had thrown oflF,' Heb. h^r;n to let faU, Hiphil 

of 'roa, to fall 
Bili, Heb. *»7l old clothes, Josh, ix, 4. And in Jeremiah 
xxxviii, 11, '^71 worn out clothes : old rags. 

2. Kimmat'zu ' his goods ' occurs several times in the Tiglaih 

inscription, e.r. gr,y col. v, 24, sallut-zu u kamut-zu^ *hi8 
spoil and his goods ' (to my city Assur I carried home). 

Elu^ was removed : lifted off from — Heb. ThVT^^ extraxit, 
abduxit, subduxit (Buxt.) Hiphil of Pfvy- 

Tdr^ the back : ex. gr., * he fell to the ground from the 
Itack of his horse,' nltu tsir kurriy 3 R 4, 49. And on 
the black obelisk ' dromedaries with double backs,' sha 
sunaya tsiri-sun. 

3. Rttsutf poverty, from OH pauper 

Tttalbis, T conjugation of tt>27, to clothe. Zakut, a 
fine or handsome dress, see the Transactions of this 
Society, vol. iii, p. 527, where it is explained Ixtbxis 
' dress,' and employed for the dress of a god, of a 
king, &c. 

4. Ittakhliba, *he covered': root D7n : compare khalUipti 

* coverings ' or ' dress,' and the adj. takhlupti * covering ' 
in Birs. Nimr. col. ii, 3. 

liitkish, splendidly : from X^ ' splendid ' : used of dress 
in Syriac, see Castell, p. 847. 

5. Itibra. This verb seems related to the Heb. "^Dti fascia 

frontem tegens, and "^sy a splendid head-dress or 
cidaris. Or else, to "^t^D oniavit decoravit. Ezekiel 
uses "^t^D for a tiara. 

6. Dunki^ couch : seat of repose : for dumki from 'TOl 

cubavit, jncuit. 
Ittasi^ T conjugation of k^U^i to lift. 

7. Nasik, * kiss.' Heb. pti^3 osculari. Khalnr^ * to marry.' 

Hence ^^ ^^ •"TT^T khairi ' husbands,' and khiraf 

* wives.' 

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Ishtar and hduhar. 117 

LDTI 

10. Tipsa ' thou shalt ride, or go,' from J^D incessit. Com- 

pare the annals of Assurbanipal, page 123, tapsit mus 

* in the course of the night.' 

11. Magarru^ from ^ -^JJJ garru the wheel of a chariot, 

see the Taylor cylinder, col. v, 83. Ilmi-su perhaps 
from Arab. 5^7 splenduit. 

12. Zamdat. TQ2 conjugavit, copulavit: whence TQ2 armilla, 

a golden bracelet. 
Ktidanuy perhaps derived from oro * gold.' 

13. Sammati^ from sami * green,' or from nD2 to grow and 

flourish, properly said of trees and herbs. 
15. HatnamWi^ probably * crowds' from UGH acervus : turba. 

But the word is broken and therefore doubtftil. 
19. Libahu, Probably from Arab.| tiPD species, honos, gloria 

(SchifidUr), 

21. Trsiy compare ttH** possedit. 

22. Pa is not simply 'the mouth,' but means *the open 

mouth ' : hence pd ibus • open mouth he made ' means 

* he spoke.' 

24. Akkhaz. This word is broken here, but restored from 

line 32 where it is perfect. Akkhaz-kiy ' I know thee 
by experience,' from the verb U^TO experimento 
didicit : expertus est, &c., &c., (Biwtorf). This verb 
occurs in Genesis xxx, 27, where the authorised version 
has ' I have learned by experience ' — 

25. Gubati. rn3 corpus : perhaps pronounced guva. 

26. Kurummat^ 'leprosy,' is a word well known from the 

deluge tablet.— ^wiiit ' famine,' from 111 vacuus. 

29. Rihily 73n * poison.' A cup of 7jn, causing trembling 

and death, is mentioned more than once in the Hebrew 
scriptures. 

30. Uibuky I will omit (?) Chald. pltt^ dimittere, relinquere. 






31. Nakkhaltu, slaughter (?) from hhtl to slay, 



Col. II. 

2. Khamir and Khair both mean ' husband.' 

3. Kasiay ' cup ' : same as Kas 03 calix : poculum> 

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118 Tshtar and Izdvbar. 

TaltwnsBti. This word occurs so frequently that its true 
explanation afifbrds the key to the meaning of the 
Legend. Taltimis-su is a verb in the 2nd person 
singular, and stands for tastimu-au^ according to the 
well-known Assyrian habit of exchanging S for L, 
of which, by the way, another example occurs in 
line 5, viz., ialtibhir * thou didst break,' for tastibbir^ the 
T conjugation of the verb nyOf to break. Again, 
y-444 is not here the plural sign, but the syllable AlU 
as happens in many other words, ex. gr. the adverbs 
'jV \^ salmis * perfectly ' : >-S^m[ \<^ kamis * for 
ever ' : g ^VTT \^^ azmis * nobly ' : see my glossary 
Nos. 349. 350, 351. The verb sim signifies • to poison' : 
Arab, sammam *to poison,' sam * poison': mustm 
* poisonous.* In the Michaux inscription R 70 simma 
la azza is * poison that cannot be cured.' Hence tastim 
*thou didst poison': tastimrsu (or lastimi-ssu) *thou 
didst poison himJ The encKtic pronoun su throws 
back the accent, as usual, which has the effect of 
doubling the consonant S. Of this there are innu- 
merable instances in the inscriptions, such as Uir-ussu 
instead of tsir-su (upon him). 

4. Allala may be the Heb. 7 /H bright, famous, glorious. 
J?ru, an Eagle: written ^^W "^TT* I gave the word 

eruy some years ago, in my glossary No. 19. It is found 
in a list of birds 2 R 37, 9 written ^]] -^ ^TlT^ 
and equated to ^^\ ^ ^JTT nasru an eagle, Heb. 
"^tt)3 aquila. Eru is the Chald. ly gryphus: avis 
rapax: Schindler p. 1379, 
Taramij Heb. om dilexit. 

5. Takliatsi from Heb. SPID percussit. 

Taltibbir. The last syllable bir is broken off, but is 
fortunately preserved on a small fragment found in the 
Musexmi of a duplicate copy. 

6. Izzaz *he stood fast.' Root Ziz *to stand firm or fest,' 

apparently the Heb. tty. This word is a great 
favourite with the Assyrian . writers. Tazziz * thou 

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Jshtar and Jzdubar, 119 

un 

didst stand,' in the annals of Aesurbanipal p. 124, 

written j^yyy ^^T^ >-yy-^ ^y. 

Ktsati * forest * : same as Kisti. 

Tsissi *he fluttered/ Heb. 2J22 to flutter the wings: 

related to rtfi to fly. 
Kappi * wings/ Syr. MM gapa * a wing/ 
8. Tukhtarru, for tuklitallisj R for L. Root STPf extraxit, 
in the T conjugation. 
SuJtiatij * the teeth,' Heb. 7\i^ a tooth, whence the plural 
suttati comes regularly, in the same way that mtta * a 
dream ' comes from n3tt^ or Jli© * sleep ' quasi suntUy 
and libitfi ' bricks ' from p7 quasi lUnnti, Also satta 
'a year' quasi santa^ from TOtt^ or r\SOf 'annus/ 
10. htakJchUf * he drank ' : root Hptt^ to drink. 

Zikti draught, potion : root ppt fadit. 
12. Dalakhu. Heb. HpTH ardens febris. Deuter. xxviii, 22. 

Shat(i, thirst? Heb. TiTW* 
15. Tutaris, for ttUarisu. Root y^ nocere : to make ill : or, 
to do harm, from JT) mains. 
Semu-khi^ * with thy semUy or drugs.' See line 3 where I 
have treated of the word sem * poison/ 

18. Vdarradu *they drove out.' Chald. and Syr. I'^tO to 

drive out or expel. 
Kapar, a town or city. Heb. "^M pagus : vicus. 

19. Nassakj to bite. Heb. Tti>3 momordit. 

S^rij 'morsels/ Heb. liy\if *to break,' and subst. 'a 
broken portion/ 

20. IsuUanu is probably derived from isu ' a helper,' Heb. 

JTttT adjuvit, auxilio fuit: and uUanu foremost, or 
taking precedence. 
h'u marat ' without instruction.' This phrase occurs in 
the legend of the infancy of Sargina the first: see 
this Society's Transactions, vol. i, p. 278, where it is 

said " He dwelt with ^^m ^ ^T E^ tl "^T^ ^*** 
nu Usarti ' a rude tribe of men.' I have there derived 
nu isaarti, *\mtaught: rude: uncivilized' from the 
Heb. "^D** erudivit, castigavit, disciplinam adhibuit 
(Schiudler p. 775). 

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120 Tahtar and Izdubar. 

LINE 

21. Sugurd * wages.' Heb. IDtt^ prromium pro labore. 

Nasa-kldy tulit a te (mercedem tulit), from tit2^3 tnlit. 

22. PassuTj * a dish ' ex. gr, in 4 R * eat precious food out of a 

golden passur, and drink precious liquor out of a 
golden goblet.' 

23. Tatta * a pot.' Heb. Tn oUa. This word occurs on the 

Deluge Tablet VI, 23, written ^]] ]} ^]] dado. 

*'^Dada hi aptu^* (now I will open the pot). This 

second example affords a useful confirmation of the 

first. 
llpita^ Heb. D7M mille. 
Tak^ a morsel, Heb. *T1 and verb M3T * to break small' 

The phrase ^|*- JlS^ appears to mean 'thousand 

bits ' I.e., an ' omnium gatherum.' 
Tarikis 'thou boilest.' Heb. tZ^m *to boil,' whence 

ntt^rnO ahenum, a cauldron, in Leviticus ii, 7 (see 

Gesenius). 

24. Kissuta 'the feast day.'' Heb. MD3 feast: solemnity 

feast day. 
Ki ni ' with us.' 
Kuly eat ! imperative of 7Dk4 * to eat.' 

25. Sukalis, adv. Root h^Uf ' to act with intelligence.' 
Kara! speak outl declare! Heb. i^'p to speak or 

proclaim. 
Tihbuty goodness : from 1110 bonus. 
Khardat^ ' pot herbs.' Arab. Khadrat ' a green pot herb.' 

plur. Khadrawaty (Catafago), 

27. Tarris, * thou dost destroy,' from Heb. D^Tl destruxit. 

28. Tipa 2nd person singular from the Heb. HDM, to cook. 

29. Pisati ' bad.' Chald. tir»n, mains. 
Irriti 'accursed,' from I'^t^ maledixit. 

30. Sakutziy Chald. ZHpti^ 'res abominanda.' It especially 

denotes unclean nauseous food, or that oflfered to idols 
{Furat). 
Ilpitih Heb. D7M a thousand, see line 23, 



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Tshtar and Izdvbar. 121 

Tiutummu ' thou hast poisoned/ may be the T conjuga- 
tion of sammam ' to poison.' But this is not certain. 
It may be a tense of the verb STM * to hide,' Heb. 
anO occlusit: *the undean things which thou hast 
hidden in the pot.' 
34. MikkAoy a crowd. Heb. TDpO a crowd : caterva (Gesen.) 
from root mp congregare. 
Aridda ' I have added.' This verb occurs very frequently. 




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122 



ON A MUMMY OPENED AT STAFFORD HOUSE, 
On the 15th July, 1875. 

By S. Birch, LL.D. 

Sead 2md November, 1876. 

A Mummy presented by General Stanton, British Consul- 
Greneral in EgjpU to his Grace the Duke of Sutherland, was 
unrolled by me on the 15th July, at StafiFord House, in the 
presence of the Duke of Sutherland, Lord Dufferin, Sii* H. 
Cole, and a select party assembled for the purpose. The 
mummy was enveloped in a cartonage or linen covering, 
covered with stucco, and laced up like stays behind. The 
original cord had been replaced by modem string, but it was 
otherwise intact, and did not appear to have been previously 
opened. The period of the mummy was apparently about the 
XXVIIIth Dynasty, if not even later, as the paintings were far 
inferior to those of an earlier date, and the hieroglyphs con- 
fused and illegible, the mummy by no means belonging to a 
time when the process of embalming was in great perfection. 
The body was with some difficulty extracted from the 
cartonage, and foimd to be swathed in bandages of rather a 
dark colour, and by no means so full and nmnerous as is 
usual in the later class of mummies, although packed with 
some care. No inscription occurred on them, nor was any 
amulet or other object found to give a clue to the embalmed 
person, the only object discovered being some white leather 
placed about the back of the head, either a hypocephalus or 
else a scull cap, namms^ but it was too far gone to determine 
its character and use. The body was very thin, the skin 
excessively brittle, the hands crossed over the pubes, giving 
the usual arrangement of a female also ; a later examination 

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On a Mummy Opened at Stafford House. 123 

of the skeleton has led to the conclusion that it was the 
mummy of an old man. It had not been prepared by the 
bitominieal process, but resembled the later class of mummieB, 
such as were made as late as the Roman Empire. It did not, 
however, exhibit any given Egyptian characteristics, and was 
evidently an Egyptian, although not of high rank or wealth, 
as evinced by the absence of amulets and other paraphernalia 
of the upper classes. It was said to have come &om Thebes, 
probably from some of the recently discovered tombs in that 
locality. 

The cartx>nage represented the deceased in the form of a 
mummy. It was composed as usual of several layers of 
linen, glued or cemented together with gum, and covered 
with a layer of fine stucco, on which the diflTerent scenes 
were painted. The face was red, the colour of a man, and 
it had the usual head dress, nammsy coloured blue and yellow 
at the ends, as if representing a kind of cap rather than the 
actual hair. Under this was a diapered or chequered collar 
«»X of five rows, almost always seen on mummies ; other 
rows of the collar represented white dentals on a green 
ground, or yellow and green dentals. Here it must be ob- 
served that the painting is probably intended for one of 
these collars made of porcelain beads, numerous specimens 
of which abound in Egyptian collections. Underneath the 
collar was a scarabsBus, x®P®^> flyiug with extended vnngs, his 
head touching the sun's disk. Between the hind legs of this 
scarabaeus was the signet or round cartouche emblem of the 
solar circle or course enclosing the disk of the sun. This is 
called " the Hut the lord of Heaven," the usual appellation 
of the winged disk so often seen in the cornices of temples, 
tablets, and other places. Beneath this was a picture repre- 
senting the vignette of the 125th chapter of the Book of 
the Dead or Ritual. In the centre was seated the hawk-headed 
type of the god Socharia, wearing on his head a solar disk 
and urseus, seated on a throne placed on a pedestal, bevilled 
in shape of the cubit of truth, a form of pedestal usually 
Assigned to the god Ptah. Socharis is mummied, and holds 
like Osiris the crook and whip. On the later monuments, 
*nd in this scene, after the XXth Dynasty, Socharis often 

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124 On a Mummy Opened at Staffoi'd Home, 

replaces Osiris, and was doubtless considered to be a type of 
the same deity. Before Socharis was the panther skin on a 
pole, also an emblem of Osiris, and a form of the hieroglyph 
nem^ "again," or "renew," probably referring to the 
metempsychosis or "second life." An altar with a water- 
jug, papyrus flower, and two other plants were in front of 
Socharis-Osiris. 

The inscriptions on this cartonage were badly written and 
confused, exhibiting throughout traces of ignorance, care- 
lessness, and a complete decline of art. Thus, behind the 
head of Socharis was nidely scrawled, " Osiris the revealer of 
good.*' Socharis was supported behind by the goddess Ma or 
Truth, her flesh yellow, wearing the ostrich feather and 
holding a double bandage ; and it was in the Hall of the Tw(» 
Truths that the great judgment took place. She is appro- 
priately here. Before her, instead of her name and titles, is 
inscribed, ** Osiris the lord of ti*uth living." She is followed 
by Amset, the first genius or daimon of the Amenti, mummied 
human-headed, holding a feather and doubled bandage. In 
these scenes Osiris is often accompanied by all four of these 
genii and his son Anubis, besides Isis and Nephthys ; but the 
substitution of Ra-Socharis for Osiris may have inaugurated 
a new departure from the religious dogma of Osiris. The 
hieroglyphs scrawled over the head of Amset read, instead 
of the usual titles of Amset, " Osiris his lord, dwelling m 
the west, lord of Abydos, he gives supplies of food," hotep. 
This of course has nothing to do with Amset, the scribe 
having thrice repeated in this section the name and titles of 
Osiris. Amset presided over the south, and the sepulchral 
vase made in his shape held the separately embalmed 
stomach of the dead. Before Socharis-Osiris stands Thoth, 
the scribe of the Hall of Judgment. He raises one hand, 
addi-essing Socharis ; in the other he holds' a symbol of life. 
His function in the hall was to record the judgment and to 
announce the condemnation or acquittal of the deceased. 
The deceased was supposed to be here but not depicted, and 
the inscription above Thoth does not give the usual declara- 
tion, but only states, says Tahuti, the very great, the lord of 
Sesen, "or Hermopolis the scribe of Truth of the gods 

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On a Mummy Opened at Stafford House. 125 

supplies food." The flesh of Thoth is coloured blue. Behind 
Thoth was a mummied snake-headed deity, wearing on the 
head two feathers, and holding two swords in hand. 
This is either one of the forty-two demons of the hall, who 
each pimish a pai-ticular sin, and here placed to indicate the 
presence of these demons, or else the god of the seventh 
gate of Aahlu or Egyptian Elysium. His name the text of 
the 144th chapter of the Ritual states to be Mates^aen^ or the 
" one who pierces them." Aah ;^ru is, however, said to be the 
name of the person who commands in it. Over his head was 
inscribed, " Osiris Nebset, devoted to Osiris,*' apparently the 
name of the deceased, or if not, the titles of Osiris. Beneath 
this compartment was another, having in the middle Osiris Tat 
or Osiris considered as the Established, or Emblem of StabiUty 
of all things, wearing at the top of the emblem a sun's disk, 
having at each side an ostrich feather, allusion to his character 
as lord of Truth. The four horizontal bars of the emblem 
represented the four foundations or establishments of all 
things. At the right side was seated a hawk-headed mummied 
deity holding two swords, evidently a type of Horus, but 
also occurring as that of the guardian of the 14th gate of the 
Aahlu. Above this representation was the unusual repetition 
of the titles of Osiris, as Osiris lord of the Aion or age, king 
of the gods, the revealer of good, who gives supplies of 
food to the Osiris Nebset (^^ r**m)* On the other side, 
seated facing, is the mummied jackal-headed god Anefu 
or Hapi, also holding two swords, with the titles again of 
Osiris, " Osiris the lord of the Aion, eternal ruler, who gives 
suppUes to the Osirian Nebefeet," or " Merefset." 

The lower part of the cai-tonage had a third scene, a box, 
in which was the barge of the god Sekar on its stand, the prow 
terminating in the head of an oryx, the body of the chest 
surmounted by a hawk, behind a flabellum. In the 1st 
chapter of the Ritual this barge or box, called the hannu^ is 
described, and Thoth says, " I am the chief workman who 
made the ark of Socharis on its shores," this mystical 
object beijig supposed to be produced by Thoth. On the 
right side of the ark is the second genius of the dead Hapi, 
cynocephalus-headed, standing mummied, holding a doubled 

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126 On a Mammy Opened at Stafford House. 

bandage. This, supposing the other figures represented 
Amset, Tuautmutf, and Kabhsenu^ would complete the 
four genii of the Amenti. On the other side was the standard 
of the lotus, two plumes, collar and signet emblem of the 
god Nefer-Tum, son of Ptah and Bast, often found on coffinB, 
but for reasons unknown. 




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127 



ON THE NAME OF AN EGYPTIAN DOG. 



Oke of the dogs on the Tablet of Antew-Aa II bore 
the name of f U ^^<^^=>'^JJ^, which Dr, Birch explains 
somewhat doubtfiilly "pied" or "spotted Sphinx."' The 
word has a foreign look, and recalls immediately to the mind 
the Berberian name of the greyhound, O •! ilD abaikotir^* 
with this diflference, however, that O •! ilD abatkour is com- 
monly used for the whole species, while T jl t^<=>''5{J^ 
abakrou is the peculiar name of only one individual dog. 
To be called T J^fe^^^^^^^S^ abakrou, a dog needed not 
really to be of Libyan breed : king Antew-Aa, or his master 
of the hounds, took a fancy for the strange-sounding name, 
and applied it without much troubling themselves for its 
true meaning. Thus, in France, where some people are fond 
of giving their dogs foreign names, without any reference 
either to breed or colom*, I have known a setter called 
familiarly Pug^ and several white curs who enjoyed inno- 
cently the title of Black 

Many of the tribes that inhabit the wilderness to the 
west of Egypt, speak even now dialects akin to those of 
the Touaregs and the Kabyles.' If the identification between 



' See Tnmt. Soc. Bib. Arch., toI. W, part 1, page 181. 
^ Hantteau, Ssioi de grammaire Tamachek, pp. 17, 21. 
' See the Tocabulaiy of the Siouah dialect in Cailliaud, Voyag§ d Mhro^n 
tome i, 409, 292, and Hantt^an, Ettai de Orammaire Kabifle. 



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128 On the Name of an Egyptian Dog. 

T J ^^*^*^^^'^?5^ abakrou and O'itQ] abaikour is allowed 
to be right, it becomes necessary to admit that some at 
least of the Tamahou and Robou tribes spoke a Berber 
tongue, and were of Berber origin. 

G. Maspero. 




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FAC- i 



18'/ 



I 



rm 




Ytfi^ 



vam»t 



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I 



129 



BABYLONIAN CODEX OF HOSEA AND JOEL. 
Doled 916 a.d. {now <U St P€tenhurg\ 
[OOMPARBD WITH THE RECEITBD MASSOBETIC TEXTS. 
Br THE Rev. Chbibtian D. Oiksburg, LL.D. 

Read Zi^ May, l%7^. 

DME of my audience will, I have no doubt, be glad to be 
aed of the history of this remarkable Codex before 
ring upon a comparison of the text and the Massorah as 
pbited in this MS. with the received text and Massorah 
printed in the authoritative editions. In 1839 Abraham 
tovitsh, the celebrated Karaite Chacham, discovered a 
aber of MSS. in the synagogues of Tzufutkalle, Karas- 
Rbazar and Feodosia. Among these was a small foUo con- 
taining the Later Prophets, which, together with other manu- 
scripts, he presented to the Historical and Antiquarian Society 
at Odessa. Hence this MS. is sometimes called the OdcBsa 
Codex. As this aged savant restlessly continued his search 
after MSS. during many years and in different countries he 
Bucceeded in accumulating a large number of both Biblical 
and other documents, which he offered to the Imperial 
Library at St. Petersburg. On the 17tli October, 1862, the 
supreme command was issued to purchase the collection 
^h the condition that the Odessa MSS. were to be handed 
over to the Imperial Public Library of St. Petersburg, and 
this condition was fulfilled in 1863. 

Students of Biblical criticism and literature must feel 
thankful that this Codex has at last been deposited at St. 
Petersburg. The princely liberality with which the Russian 

Vol. V. Digitized % Google 



130 The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

Government published the magnificent facsimile of the 
Sinaitic Codex is now being extended to the Babylonian 
MS^ and we are promised that a photo-lithographic fac- 
simile of the entire Codex will appear this year, at the 
expense of the Imperial Russian Government, edited by 
Dr. Strack, a most able Biblical scholar. As an earnest of this 
promise, Dr. Strack has published separately the prophets 
Hosea and Joel. We are thus enabled not only to see the 
superb mcmner in which the MS. will appear, but to form an 
approximate idea of its immense value to the criticism of the 
Biblical text and the History of bibUcal literature. The 
subscription states that the MS. was finished in the year 1228 
of the era of contracts, that is 916-17 a.d.^ Hence, with the 
exception of two Codices, viz., the Ben Asher Codex, which 
has recently been discovered at Aleppo, and the MS. which 
the Karaite commimity at Cairo possess, it is the oldest dated 
portion of the Old Testament yet discovered. It contains 
the Later Prophets, viz., Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the 
Minor Prophets, and consists of 225 leaves ; each page has 
two columns, and every column as a nile has twenty-one 
lines. The margin between the two columns and the outer 
margin, or the margin at the edge, gives the Massorah Parva, 
whilst the lower margin gives the Massorah Magna. The 
difiference between the two Massorahs is that the Massorah 
Parva simply remarks — The expression in question is written 
plene or defective, that it occurs once, twice, three, six, 
twenty or so many times, without giving the passages, 
whilst the Massorah Magna rubricates all tliese instances, 
and enumerates them either alphabetically or according to 
the order of the BibUcal books. 

The extreme importance of this MS. does not simply 
consist in its great age, but in the fact that it exhibits 
textual phenomena which, up to the time of its discovery, 
have been unknown to Biblical students and Hebrew philo- 
logists. These phenomena may be divided into three 
classes. 

enra nnDin nt d^d* 

n3wr> onj^i D^n«o 

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The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel 131 

I. The dispoeitiou and readings of the text and the 
Maasoretic glosses. 

II. The vowel-points, which are not only different in 
fonn, bat, unlike those of the received text, are placed above 
the letters ; and 

ni. The form and disposition of the tonal accents, which 
are likewise entirely different fi*om those commonly adopted 
both by Jews and Christians in the printed editions of 
the HelMrew Scriptures. 

The wide range of subjects involved in these phenomena, 
and the limited time allotted to me, preclude the possibility 
of discussing all the three classes. I shall therefore confine 
myself in the present treatise to the first class, leaving the 
other two classes for separate essays. 



L— The Disposition and Readings op the Text and 

THE MaSSORETIG GlOSSES. 

Though it is greatly to be regretted that we have not as 
yet the photo-lithographic fieMximile of the whole Codex, yet 
the published part which contains Hosea and Joel will ap- 
proximately show what results we may expect firom a careful 
investigation and collation of the entire reproduction. As 
fiir as the formation of the lettera is concerned, the part at 
hand yields sufficient material for definite conclusions. 

(I). The Letters. — The following letters are different in 
fomi from those in the ordinary MSS. {see Plate). 

n. The left shaft of the He (n), like that of the Cheth 
(n), is not open at the top, and the only difference between 
the two letters is that in the case of the He the left shaft 
begins a Uttle inside the horizontal or head line, whilst in 
the Cheth the horizontal line is within the two shafts, as will 
be seen in the words, PPptlT, Hezekiah (Hos. i, 1), 1 IDI Pmi 
(Hos. i, 7), norn (Hos. i, 8), &c., which contain both letters. 

t« Is shorter than the one generally known ; it does not 
reach the bottom line, and, indeed, is not much longer than 
Yod, as may be seen in U^T(Si (Hos. i, 2), pP313t (Hos. ii, 4), 
StSnP (Hon, i, 4), nrOt (Hos. ii, 7), Ipjm (Joel i, 14). 

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132 Tlie Babylonian Codex of Hoaea and Joel. 

^, The shaft of the Yod is longer than that of the 
ordinary Yodj and is, in fact, ahnost as long as in Zainy as 
may be seen in pPty (Hos. i, 1). 

|, The final Nyn is not as long as the one generally 
found in MSS., and is most frequently simply the length of 
the medial letters. It has more the appearance of our Zain ; 
comp. p (Hos, i, 1), ]D (Hos.ii, 5), and of Vau^ comp. TOtVn p 
(Hos. i, 3, 4). 

If the last word does not quite come up to the end of 
the line so as to be even with the edge of the coliman, a thick 
dot, or even two dots, fill up the space. Sometimes, however, 
the dots are put between the two last words, which give it 
the appearance of marking an omission (compare line 3 from 
the top on p. 180 a, line seven fi*om the bottom on the same 
page, and line six from the top on p. 181 a). Sometimes, 
however, the broken or the entire initial letters of the word 
beginning the following line are used to fill "up the b'ne. 
This is the ordinary way in which the scribes made even 
lines, and is also to be found in the early printed books. 

The accents Mercha and Soph-pasuk are not unfi*equeutly 
put in the letter, so that the 1 appears like ri see M*p 
(Hos. i, 6, 9), D^ttn (Hos. xiii, 10). 

The words are not always distinctly separated, which 
sometimes gives the appearance of a various reading. Thus, 
for instance, "^pf 7M "^Sl, the sons of the living God (Hos.ii, 1), 
would cei-tainly be read ^TV7i^ "^33, tlie sons of my Godj had 
not the vowel points decided the reading. 

Vei'sicular and Sectional Divisions. — Every verse is marked 
oflf by two dots, which come down to about the middle of 
the letter, and the new verse follows immediately without 
any interval. As to the larger divisions, the text exhibits 
three kinds. We have in the first place what is called in 
Massoretic language, a break in the middle of the verse 
(plDD ^2D«n pOD). 

This break is in the middle of verse 2, chap. i. It is a 
new division, and is not to be foimd either in the printed 
Massoi-ah or in those MSS. which I have collated. Though 
the Massorah nowhere gives a special list of the breaks in 
the middle of veraes, yet both ihe printed text and the MSS. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ITie Babylonian Codea: of Ho ea and Joel. 133 

mark them. Hitiierto thirty-one such breaks have been 
known,* but this one is not included in them. As the 
Maseorites designed to indicate by these breaks that some- 
thing is omitted in the text, we have here an omission 
according to these authorities. 

The two other divisions consist of open and closed 
sections. Hosea is divided into 18 sections, 4 open and 14 
closed, whilst Joel has 1 open and 4 closed sections. 

OPEN SECTIONS. CLOSED SECTIONS. 

Hosea ii, 2 (1) 

16 (2) 

18 (3) 

26 (4) 

„ iii, 1 (6) 

» iv, 1 (6) 

V, 1 (7) 



Hosea v, 9. 



ix, 1 

., 10. 



vii, 1 (8) 
„ 13 (9) 



Joel ii, 1. 



X, 1 (10) 

» xi, 7 (11) 

„ xii, 1 (12) 

„ xiii, 12 (13) 

„ xiv, 2 (14) 

Joel ii, 15 (15) 

„ 23 (16) 

„ iii, 1 (17) 

iv, 18 (18) 

The open sections are marked by the space of an entire line 
being left vacant, whilst the closed sections are indicated in 
four different ways, as follows. 

* The thirty-one instances are as follows : — Gen. xxxy, 22 ; Numb. xxt. 19 ; 
Dcut ii, 8 ; Josh, iv, 1 ; viu, 24 ; Judg. ii, 1 ; 1 Sam. x, 22 ; xiv, 19, 86 ; xvi, 2, 
U; irii, 87; xxi, 10; xxu, 2, 11 ; 2 Sam. v, 2, 19; vi, 20; vu, 4; xii, 13; 
in, 13 ; xrii, 14 ; xviii, 2 ; xxi, 1, 6 ; xxiv, 10, 11, 23 ; 1 Kings, xiii, 20 ; 
Jerem. xxviii, 18 ; Ezek. iii, 16. In some of the M SS. this hiatus is called 
KD3^, and the Massorah Parva against the passages in question remarks 
WriD TO = 28 9uch hreaJ(8, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



134 The Babylonian Codest of Ho$ea and Joel. 

I. By a vacant space iu the middle of the line, as is the 
case in sections 2 (Hos. ii, 16), 5 (iii, 1), 7 (v, 1), 8 (vii, 1) ; 
17 (Joel iii, 1), 18 (iv, 18). 

II. By an unfinished line, followed by an indentation in 
the next line, as in sections 1 (Hos. ii, 1), 3 (ii, 18), 4 (ii, 23), 
6 (iv, 1), 9 (vii, 13), 10 (x, 1), 13 (xiii, 12). 

m. By an indentation without the previous line bein^ 
unfinished, as in sections 11 (Hos. xi, 7), 12 (xii, 1), 15 
(Joel ii, 15), 16 (ii, 23) ; and 

IV. By a full Une preceded by an unfinished one, as in 
section 14 (Hos. xiv, 2). 

In almost exactly the same way are the open and closed 
sections marked in the Yemen Codex of the Pentateuch now 
in the Cambridge University Library, Add. 1174, where, how- 
ever, three Pea (the initials for nTDriD) are put in the vacant 
line, one on each side and one in the middle, if it happens 
to be the first or last in a column, to indicate that nothing 
is wanting. 

Having thus given the palseographical features of the 
MS., we shall now proceed to the readings of the text. And 
here I must remark that I have collated it with the editio 
pinnceps of Jacob b. Chajim's Rabbinic Bible (Venice 1525-26), 
which alone is the authoritative Massoretic edition of the 
Hebrew Scriptures, as no reliance is to be placed on the 
successive reprints. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. ' 



135 



VARIOUS READINGS. 
)W)n HosBA ii, 4— xi, 7, 



PEUimi> TsxT. 


auxunnur Coon. 








BlBTLOMXAM CODIZ. 




n^fyi v9 


0) n^» Va 


CH. T. 

viiL7 


«\n 


wn 


OB. T. 

U. 4 


=i^» 


3W?^ 


,. 12 




"91? 


0) mj^i^ 


., « 


m 


'3:! 


i» »» 




nwi 


OW) 


»l »l 


njn; 


njm 


„ 18 


Dflh 


DpTK 


n 


DJriktDn 


D^KQD 


i» »t 


''9'3? 


(1) npfji 


M 21 


1 n^niOTK 


.n'jjijpiK 


1 
„ 14 


njnr-n^jsiinn 


W ^9,,Ji«n.l 


M 22 


1 


D|t?rp? 


ix. 2 1 




(1) njn; 
1 




B'lD^ 


BiDj? 


» 6 


i?i?T!f?^;rn9 


^^nrn^-ni< 


lii. 1 


nrr 


or?' 


It >i 




1^1 


(1) ni^ 


., 5 


netx 


n^'x 


.. 8 






(I) n*V7 


iv. 1 
.1 2 


Tipe? 


•nperi 


» 9 




3«rt' 


a^ 


M 8 


mjn 


(1) niprji 


H 10 














» 11 
» 13 








u e 

M 15 


letK 


(0 eiWK 


„ IC 




aijiK 


RJjk 


.. 19 


DnTID 


DTTb 


tf tf 




DJjn5W 


D^^^nw 


n tf 


pfeK'^3 


1*^73 






MJ9! t6 


(1) 4:jpi."» «^^ 


V. 4 


t. 16 




■ 


' 












kV« 


«^^1 


t, 14 


WW 


(") Utp'O 


X. 1 




nj^ Tl^ 


my^t^ n^^ftt 


„ 16 


i?ta.n 


«?3.r! 


.. 6 




«?D? 


^;!n.* 


vl. 2 


DtiJij 


D^^ 


., 10 




1KVD 


.... 
(2) wvp 


u 8 


"71 


(») nyi?i 
"71 


„ 12 






en-!?©?? 


It ft 
vil.5 


'JIT'? 




.. 18 
xi. 2 








.. 6 

ft 7 


D^njWEIBt^ 


Dq'qVsl^ 


u 6 




ni^ 


o??V3 


tf 14 


1 


DtJ^i] 


., 7 




D^ 


Do;t? 


vULe 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



13(> 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and JoeL 
HosEA xii, 1 — Joel iv, 20. 



1 

PURTBO TBT. 


BlBTLOaUH CODCX. 






PmniTBD Tbct. 


Babtloioaii Codbl 

i 


nbiN^n 


ni3<{!?n 


CH. ▼. 

xiil.5 


*^?;? 


1 ca,Y. 1 


rWi 


11^1 


., 14 




D^^p 


(U DV^i? " " ' 


^Tpiit 


(I) 1-ipNI 


xiv. 3 




^?-;i 


(I) !?D^»l . 5 


«^9 


p W '?199 


n 6 




ni; 


(0 nw 


„ 10 


VJJIpJI' 


VJ?i?3* 


u 7 




1?w 


(1) ^?^^ 


" " 


nvTi) 


D'pnvi 


., 10 




DjnJn^ 


D}J)in5 xiii 2 ! 



VARIOUS READINGS. 
'?MT« Joel. 



Pbintid Text. 



Babtlomiam Oooex. 



(0 Ji3^^?; ^p 
(1) ^K'y 







Pjuvtsd Tkt. 


BlBTLOMUH COOCX. 




ii. U 


^^^^^5 


^^•pn? 


CH. T. 

i 5 


» 16 ' ^J^fe' 


'OTC- 


»» »l 


.. 20 ; nit^M 


n-ijjr 


„ u 


n 22 




^xr^? 


.''xr^rvrV?^ 


„ 12 


M 23 






jiD b»Da 




iit 1 




nb^-1 


(1) nfe^ 


„ 15 


M 3 




i6q 


Ni^q 


„ 16 


iv. 1 




nn^b 


nrfijoo 


. 17 


„ 5 




K?^?n 


oj t!"5in 


•1 n 


M 8 




iTlgn 


(1) 3TB5 


..80 


„ 10 




^^nni 


(1) «;nn 


a 1 


„ 11 




^ 


W' 


»» •» 


» 12 




fen? 


0) DT? 


M 2 


u 14 




l«n; 


pxnj 


„ 7 


.. 5 




PD3J? t6l 


now* t6 


„ ,. 1 


.. 20 




D^irnh 


D^iir^ 


tl w 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The BabyUmian Codex of Hoeea and Joel. 137 

From this table of various readings, it will be seen that 
there are no less than 95 in Hosea and Joel, 64 in the former 
and 31 in the latter, and that 27 of them (viz., 1 9 in Hosea and 
8 in Joel) are marked with the figure 1. This plan we have 
adopted to indicate that the reading in question is according 
to the first or original scribe, and that in the second recension 
the primary reading is made conformable to the received 
text. 67, however, are left untouched, 44 in Hosea, and 23 
in Joel. 

A careful examination of these readings will show that 
more than half of them refer to the plene or defective way 
of spelling which the Massorah calls "^Dm MtD, and might 
therefore be considered trite. But even these have a cali- 
graphical interest, and are of importance in determining the 
time when the Massoretic rules for writing certain words in 
a particular manner were regarded as binding by the scribes. 
In many of the readings before us we already see the 
struggle between the different modes of writing which ob- 
tained in various schools and model Codices, and which some 
revisers of the text attempted to substitute for the original 
spelling. Thus it not unfrequently happens that a word is 
plene in the text, and the Massoretic gloss in the margin 
states that it should be defective, and vice versdy or that the 
textual writing is according to a well-known model Codex, or 
that it should be so.^ 

Some of the readings, however, are of more than cali- 
giaphicfiJ importance. They give to the passage a different 
shade of meaning. Thus, for instance, Hos. ii, 22 in the 
Hebrew, and ii, 20 in the EngUsh, is, '* and thou shaU know tliat 
I am the Lord^ instead o^ " and thou shalt know the Lord." 
It is interesting to find that the Vulgate must have had the 
same text, since it gives the same rendering. Again, Hos. iii, 1 
in this MS., reads, " according to the love of the Lord toward 
the house of Israel," and not " according to the love of the 
Lord towards the children of Israel," as it is in the received 
text 



' OompMW Hoa. ii, 5, 21; ri, 8; is, 16; x, 12; xii, 1 (twice), 6, 10; 
Jo«li,12; ii,l. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



138 The Babylonian Codex of Hoeea and Joel. 

The third instance is in Hos. ix, 2. The words, as we now 
have them in authorised editions of the Hebrew text, mean : 
The floor and the winepress shall not nourish them, 
And the new wine shall deceive or fail in her. 

The expression nS in her, at the end of the second clause, 
is most awkward, and is taken either to refer to the city or 
metropolis, or to the feminine iTT}^ congregation^ which though 
not to be found in the passage is supposed to be implied. 
Apart from the unnaturalness of this explanation, this ren- 
dering is against the parallelism, as may be seen even in the 
EngUsh version. Our Codex, however, reads D3l in them, 
third person plural masculine, that is, the new wine shall deceive 
or fail them. This reading is to be found in a number of 
other MSS., and is supported by the Septuagint, Chaldee, 
Syriac, and Vulgate. 

Besides improving the sense of the passage, this reading 
explains the import of an expression which frequently occurs 
in the margin of Old Testament MSS. and in the printed 
Massorah. Against this very passage, MSS. 5711 and 9399 
in the Massorah Parva, and^MS. 5711 in the Massorah Magna, 
as well as in the printed Massorah, both Parva and Magna, it 
is remarked tDl p'^^QD h TT2, «.«., the expression PO, IN HER, 
is supposed to be in two instances Dl. IN THEM, third person 
plural masculine, viz., 2 Kings iii, 24 ; Hos. ix, 2. Following 
the opinion of Levita,* modem BibUcal critics have taken 
p'^'^D to mean imaginary readings^ conjectural and fanciful 
emendations. The fact, however, that Dl is here, and in other 
MSS., the textual reading, and that even those scribes who, 
following other model Codices, did not adopt it in the text, 
were nevertheless constrained to remark upon it in the 
margin, shows that pl^D does not mean conjectural or 
fanciftil emendations, but denotes that according to certain 
schools and model Codices it should be or it is so and so, and 
that it designates another reading. 

The fourth instance to which I must call attention in the 
list of variations, is the use of the personal pronoun third 

' Compare Massoreth Ha-MaMoreth, with an Englifh translalion and 
critical notes, by Christian D. Ginsburg, p. 225-227i Longmans, 1867. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The Bdbylomcm Codex of Hoeea and JoeL 139 

person. In two passages^ yiz^ Hob. xi, 4, and Joel iv, 1, the 
MS. has Min for the feminine, whilst the printed text, fol- 
lowing the Palestinian recension, has MTFt At first sight 
this difference might seem insignificant. Bnt a little con- 
dderation will show that it is one of the few surviving 
witnesses which testify to the fact that the Hebrew text, 
owing to lingnistical and other reasons, was periodically 
subject to changes. 

In the Pentateuch I4in, without and with the prefixes He 

(Mnnrr), and Vau (Mim), occurs 656 times, viz., MIH 355 times, 

Mftnn 62 times, and Mim 11 times, and is used both for the 

masculine and feminine. Whilst with Fod, with and without 

the prefix, it only occurs 11 times altogether.* This striking 

iBLct proves beyond doubt that when the Hebrew was a living 

language the form Min was epicene, and that it was only at 

a later period, when the language was not so well understood, 

that the scribes, for the sake of perspicuity, began to separate 

the forms, using i^Tl with Vau for the masculine, and adopted 

H^ with Yod for the feminine gender. In the Pentateuch, 

which was regarded as peculiarly sacred, the scribes did not 

venture to change the Vau into a Yod. Still, to indicate 

khe feminine they put a Chirek under the He. Hence the 

apparent anomaly of VC\T^. But in spite of the great care 

with which the Pentateuch was guarded, the new form MTTf 

with Yod crept into 11 passages through carelessness. 

The case, however, was different with the Prophets and 
Hagiographa. Here no such scruples existed, and the reform 
was carried through systematically by the Palestinians, so 
that in process of time the old form J4in was entirely 
eliminated, and the new form K71 was adopted whenever 
tiie feminine is spoken of. The Babylonian scribes, however, 
did not strictly abide by this rule. Hence the numerous 
instances in which the old form HIH for the feminine makes 
its appearance in the MSS. of these schools. It is, therefore, 
incorrect to say that V(\X^y as epicene, was a peculiar idiom of 

' Xfaa eleren instanoes are as follows : — Q^n. xir, 2 ; xxi, 5 ; xxzyiii, 25 ; 
Lerit. xi, 89; xiii, 10, 21 ; xtI, 81 ; xx, 17 ; xxi, 9 ; Numb, t, 18, U. They 
an ennmerated in the printed Maseorah on Gen. xxxriii, 25 ; Lerit. xiii, 21 ; 
and in almost all of the MSS. with the Massorah. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



140 The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

the Pentateuch. It was originally used for both genders 
through the whole Hebrew Scriptures, and was ultimately 
retained in the Pentateuch for pecuhar reasons.* 

The Massorah. — ^As has already been remarked, this MS. 
contains both the Massorah Parva and Magna. Now, in 
most of the notices which have appeared of this Codex, it is 
asserted that the Massorah is ahnost as peculiar as are the 
vowel-points and accents, and that it entii'ely diflfei-s from the 
Massoretic corpus compiled and edited for the first time by 
Jacob b. Chajim Ibn Adoniah in the Rabbinic Bible published 
by Bomberg, in four volumes folio, Venice, 1525-26. But 
this says too much, and means nothing. If by it is mecmt 
that it contains Massoretic lists not to be found in the 
printed Massorah, it is nothing peculiar, since this is the 
case with all the Bible MSS. which have the Massorah. 
And if by it is meant that the headings of the Rubrics are 
now and then somewhat different from those in the printed 
Massorah, and that the Massorah Parva sometimes contains an 
important remark not to be found in the compilation of Jacob 
b. Chajim, this, too, is nothing peculiar. Of all the MSS. 
which I have collated for the last twenty years for a new 
edition of the Massorah, and a correct Massoretic text of the 
Hebrew Bible, I have not found two alike, containing exactly 
the same Massorah. No two MSS. have the same number of 
lists, have always the same headings for the same Rubrics, the 
same selections, the same disposition of the materials, or 
even the same terminology, or the same Massorah Parva. 

My experience has shown me that each scribe has 
selected a larger or smaller quantity of Massoretic materials 
for the MS. he annotated, corresponding to the sum which he 
got for doing the work ; and that the Massorites were not 
bound by any fixed terminology even when describing the same 
phenomenon. Every school used its own signs, and every 
head of a guild invented his phraseology, which his disciples 
more or less adopted. Hence, to say that a particular MS. 
of the Hebrew Bible contains a Massorah different from the 



* Gomporc Goiger, Ursehrift und Uthersettungen der JBibel, p. 255. Bresliiii, 
1S57. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoeea and Joel. 141 

printed, or even nnlike any other MS., is saying nothing by 
way of distinction, since in this respect it simply possesses 
the features of all other MSS. It also follows, that to edit 
the Massorah and to compile a glossary of its technicalities, 
it is abeolutely necessary to collate all the accessible Biblical 
MSS. 

The correctness of these remarks may be tested by the 
appended Massorah of Hosea and Joel. I have here arranged 
in nine parallel columns the Massorah of eight different MSS., 
sideby side, with the printed Massorah, and against the Hebrew 
text in BO far as it is Massoretically annotated. In this way 
the student will be able to see at once how often these MSS. 
and the printed Massorah agree in noting the same phe- 
nomenon, and how frequently only one, two, or three remark 
upon the peculiarity, whilst the others pass it over in silence. 
As the design of this treatise is to point out the importance 
of the Babylonian Codex to Biblical criticism and literature, I 
cannot now dwell upon the materials contained in the other 
MSS. in the parallel columns, but must confine myself to our 
Codex. 

The Massoixih Magna. — It will be more convenient to 

describe the Massorah Magna first. This, as has already 

been remarked, occupies the lower margin of each page, and 

in Hosea and Joel contains thirty-one Rubrics, which are 

arranged alphabetically, or according to the order of the books 

in the Hebrew Scriptures. The peculiarities of the Rubrics 

as contained in this MS. will be pointed out hereafter. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



142 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 

HosEA imnrr i, i— ii, 7. 



B.M. Add. l&2ftl. . B.M. Aad. 16260. 



'. w. 



B.M. aap. tats. 



BJf. 



.571L 



CB. T. 
i. 1 



II 


" 


" 


" 


II 


II 



2 jpnio^DiiDDhii 



.. ' ^=v 



6 

I 

7 



IDT yenn^ 



pmD^Di n 









nbb IDT nh 






I 



lin^D^Di i 



b^Dii 
D^DI to 






[ \ 

pn^b^inDDan 

{ 

pn3D^i a 






(D^DnKD n3 ; 






ton renn^ 



nn ha nn 
nan hn ^aaa 



}... 



}.. . 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



pn^DDwnpn'r 



The BabyUmian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



143 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 

HosBA jnmn i, i— ii 7, 



IA99.466. B.M. Hjibl. 1&28. 



Babtlohiah Oodbz. Pehitbd Mamobab. 






oenn* 



tvoroi fam h I 



^^30'01 K* 



pTUD^OI n 



pn3D*D1 ^ 



pn^D^i k^ 






D^iKnpaD-i3 
b^iKnpabit 



iinpiKnn^riB'na 
5)3 npi 



CH. 
i 



b^i \^'n!>'i i 









Digitized by VjOOQIC 



144 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 

IIosEA ytinn ii, 8— iii, 4. 



OH. V. 

ii. 8 



9 
10 



14 



„ 15 

» 17 

.. 18 

M 21 

., 22 

., 23 

M 24 

M 25 



iii. 1 



.. 3 

4 



B.1L Add. 1&261. BM. Add. 16250. 



pn^D^i 6di i 



Abukdbl Obuvt. 16. 



pn^D^i i 



pn^D^Di yoa t 



pn^D^Di n 



pnjD^Di tiin 



b^Dii 



b^Di b 

b^Dih 
b^i^i 

(b^Di) 3 

b^DU 

b^Di h 
b^i bni n 

] 



B.M. Add. 9399. 



»t)13 



fiJI. HaUi. 67U. 



pn3»^DrDDnb 

pnjD^Di 
pn^D^i n 






nn- •pn^D^Di h 



hh bionp^- -^ 



Digitized by 






Google 



The liahylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel, 

MASSORAH MAGNA. 
IIosEA jrt&irr H» 8— iii, 4. 



145 



ian»asA»D. 469. 



B.M. Habl. 152a 



pnao^i 3 



proowh 



Bastlonuk Codbz. 



PftUITID MaMOBAB 






«3 pnnrn 



... I 



b^Di kT>a n 



* n 



^Dih 



j^ni^pnn'!!^;^ 


en. V. 
U. 8 


b>Di lOD pnpi j^ 




j^ni^: 


tt t« 


^^ 


.. 9 


WJ ^i^ 


» 10 


kHi^h^ 


11 »i 


"i?V!ni 


» „ 


1D&^ 


., 18 


hi 


u 14 


nn nn p n^oB^K 


f» M 


D^^?^H 


»l >» 


?»5:^oi 


M 1£ 


aWl 


n 17 


api?»3 nipi^i? 


»» <i 


^ 


» 18 


^wn^iti 


„ 21 


Dprn?^ 


■t «t 


^:i 


.. 22 


DrtDS 1 Dt»a n;ni 


„ 23 


D^D3 




n«oi 


» 24 


nvpn 


M 25 


^^«1W^ 


II ♦! 


^a^Vji 


Ui. 1 


r^m\^ 


II »• 


\ho V p^n 


I* fi 


mno 


«• n 


?r»j;) 


M 3 



^^r 



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Vol V. 



UI^ITI^ed by 



146 



The Bahylonian Codex of Ho^ea and Joel, 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
HosEA VWn iii, 4— V, 2. 



B.H. Add. 152dl. 



B.M. Add. 15250* 



Abumdel OmuwT. 16. 



B.M. Add. 9399. 



B.IC Habl. 57 



OH. Y. 

iii. 4 
.. 6 

iv. 1 

♦ I ♦! 

M a 

M 3 

M 4 

» 7 
„ 8 

„ 10 

♦» If 
„ 14 

, 16 

„ 16 

•f ff 
M 17 

V. 1 



D^i top bpT a 

VtDpt31-|D>DV 
(b^DD hD ODD 



... ( 



bw ^1 3 



b^i ^ h^ 



pwo^Di i 






pn^o^Di bp 3 



-pn^o^Dibpn 

IDT IDD 



I pn^D^Di "jj 



pn^D^Di b 



} o^Di a{ 



(b^Di) 
bi h 



{ 

hiDn pIDB 

b^Di h 



Ki pc^ riD « h 
b^Di lOD ha 



> pn^D^Di bp 3 

^K^aaa bn \ 

^ainaai 

pn^tD^Di 



jinjo^i a 



^'h aa a 
jin^D^i 



B^^:>a bn 3 
pn^o^i 

«i -imiD^Di i 



•••pn^tD^Dibph I) 
5)01 njDK t>ai I > 



} 



^ai • • pruDi 



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Rosea ytZ^n v, 3— vii, 1. 



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B.M. Ado. 15250. Amndkl Okisnt 16. 



B.M. Add. 9899. 



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149 



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II08EA JWin v^ 8— vii, 1. 



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MASSORAH MAGNA. 
II08EA jrC^n vii, 8— ix, 2. 



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151 



MASSORAU MAGNA. 
Hosea ytt^lH vii, 8— ix, 2. 



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MASSORAH MAGNA. 



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MASSORAH MAUNA, 

H08EA jrttrjrr x, 6— xi, s. 



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MASSORAH MAGNA. 
HosEA ifHym X, 6— xi, 8. 



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The Uabylonian Codex of Hosea Mid Joel. 



MASSORAU MAGNA. 

IlosKA JWirr xi, 9— xiii, 9. 



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157 



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HosEA jnznrr xi, 9—xiii, 9. 



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The Babylordon Codej' of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Hosea JWIH xiii, 10— xiv, 10. 



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The Babylonian Codex of Rosea and Joel. 



159 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 

HosBA jnihrr xUi, lo— xiv, lo. 



tAao. 465. B.H. Haki.. 1528. 



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MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Joel 7fcy)'^ i, 1 — ii, 5. 



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MASSOBAH MAGNA. 
Joel 7MV i, 1— ii, 5. 



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MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Joel *?MT^ ii, 5— iii, 2. 



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MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Joel ^i^^ ii, 5— iii, 2. 



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MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Joel 'jmII iii, 2— iv, 20. 



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B.M. Add. 9399. 



»Dia 



^^^3 bn V 



... { 



Dion rfe 

I 



jinxr^ba or 
pn*30^i nr 



}■- 



pn^D^Di 1 



... { 



pn3D^iiDDin3 



u^C Qode 



B.M.] 



.53 






The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel 





MASSORAH 
Joel '^MII iii. 


MAGNA. 
2— iv, 20. 






"^^^^tmJkJ^m, 465.1 B.M. Hau. IfiSS. 


BaBTUMOAII CODIK. 


PUMTSO MaMOIAB. 






"• 








* 2^ 


nijinn 


CH. 

iit 


"^ 


' .: ; 




* ^i^ 


K13 




-- 


... 







0^? 


.. 


'*> 


... 




... 


Dnv^54 


- 


"^ 


... 


pn^D^DiDpnn 


* h 


nijrjri D^ipj3 


iv. 


*^ 


' pn^tD^i 3 





ITIKVD^Dn 


n! 


" 


i ^ 


... 


(b*Di) 




pp nni nn p 3K 


- 


\: - 


... 


{ 


^'^^a 1 on n 
'0) ^np^ 


1 D^5bn D^:jb 


«» 


- 


... 




* i 






^ «. 


... 





t)1^Dt 


D^-Tiain 


i» 


- 


•• . 







^N3J 


.. : 


- 


... 







nn^n 


♦f 




... 






M[0^, 


M ] 











^^ny 


., 




... 




•CI 3 


hi^ 


„ ] 


-. 






•::• 1 


u^:^b\ 


„ ] 


5-cir^3'cno 


... 




r> b 


n^qp 


„ 1 




- 






nyijrt 


tt 


__ «- 


... 




... 


L5v6^njn^.^58^? 


M ] 





... 


... 


... 


nij^ni 


M 1 


„ 


... 






Dn>*P 


» ] 


- — 


... -. 




.... ... 1 


hDT 3^ |D nn N^pj 

i? «^1 3^n C)1D3 « 


»r 


I - 







♦ 




»» 


- 









^'p; 


t» 


>>' 


: 






T. '"'T^'J 


,. s 



166 



Th$ Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea J^Urirt i, 1—8. 





B.M. Add. 15251. 


B JL Add. 16260. 


A«na»H. OmnHT. 16. 


B.M. Add. 0889. 


B.M.Ham.671 


CH. ▼. 
i. 1 


^nnna 


... 


»n^nn 2 


... 





M M 


... 


2 


., 


2 




H .. 




... 


1 


2 


... 


M 2 


1DB «T a 


n^i 


1DDK-ia 


B-ia 


tDD K1 


„ .. 







a 


3 


..«. 


.. 3 






h 


2 




.. 4 


1DDK-I1 


•pihi 




3^ 




.. M 


n 


n 


m B^n^ ^31 1 




lanpcnn^^D 


M 6 






... 




... 


'. ." 






Dnn 


DD3 2^, Dm 1 


on 


» .. 




} 






... 


M 7 







^ 






'• 






2 


n 


... 


>. .. 




: 


} 


a 




., 8 


Dnn 






DD3 3;.Dnp 


on 


1 


... 




^.,iivoHh„C^OOCTl( 

















The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



Wi 









MASSORAH 


PARVA. 








HosBA jrcnn 


i, 1-8. 




LwMimaAi>i>.<66.f 


BJIC Habi« 1S28. 










P »n3 iol 


1 
... 1 

1 


... 


t^n 


OB. V. 

L 1 


■- " 


3 


a 


a 


n»3 


t» i» 


^^r^'fojl 


... 


: 


... 




II 11 


^ - 


^DB fin: 


on i 


Di: 


n^rup 


.. 2 


\^ - 


j 


3 


^n? 


«f n 






1 ... 
.*. h 

••* 1 ba n HDT pn 


n *n3i ^ 


nil 


II i» 
II It 


h 







^ 


°:^?? 


„ 3 


"^ 




— 








?3 iH^Bl -injDi 


II II 


... 1 


1DDK11 





nil 


^^^njnjijK^l 


11 4 




} 


1 






t» n 


'«.-. .« 






3* 


VI^^PII^ 


It «l 


li 




T n 


n 


n«!?pp 


't l» 




... 




nirinni 


1. e 


•^ no n^ X 


1 




ns 


„ ., 


; 


orn pn i''*?! 


Dnn 


noijn 


II II 


* 


1 


r^rn 1* 


h\S^, n'3 




■ — — 


... ! h 




D'JwrV^i 


11 7 


1 — — 1 


... 





n 


"?5? 


»i II 


\: : i 


3 


... 


3 




ti ti 


- 


iiD D^n 


... 


D'WIDI 


II n 


om-i 

1 





1 


B^D3i Dni n 

Digitized 


r^ T 


II 8 

II ♦' 






^TljOu^k 





168 



The BahyUmian Codex of Hotea and Joel 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
H08EA jyttMrt i, 9— ii, 6. 





B.M. Add. 15251. 


B.H. Add. 15250. 


AanaSB, OBmiT, IS. 


B.M. Add. 9390. 


BJLHiii.87fl 


CH. ▼. 

L 9 








K^aiDIDDTDJ 




ii. 1 











... 


' It ti 
i» II 


b 


y 


kS K^ IDB T» 


} 


... 


M 2 






n 




... 


II »i 
II 11 


1DB Kn ^31 \0 

on 


1 { 


DB KT hy\ \Q 


) { 


DD jn bi i 


II 11 
II 8 






h 


loni ^ 




II II 


... 


n 




... 


Dm 


.1 4 

M 6 

»l M 









■hi na 


Dm 

Bit 


„ M 


Dm h 


1 


1 




Dm 


»» II 

.1 6 






n 




.. 


,, „ 






..u.^^A i^.CZrsrMiic 


... - 















The Babylonian Codex of Rosea and JoeL 



m 



MASSORAH PARVA. 



B Jff. Hau. 1628. 



(I nW nDT ]DD T^ 



V3 J; 



)JD3 



on ^3 



oni 1 



Dm 



Babtloiiiaii Codex. 



} 



... I 



te^ 



on h 



«^ 



Pbimtbd MAf sokah. 



D^3 pn3D 2 



^h 1DB r: 






h 






^1D1^ 



1 

n 



pnne k^ 



t6 

or? 

} o-fra? 
- joogle 



oa. V. 
i. 9 

U. 1 



.. 4 



,. 6 



170 



77t« Babyloman Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



MASSORAII PARVA. 
UosEA y/^Qjrm i>i 6— ii, 13. 





B.M. km, 16251. 


B.M. ASD. 16260. 


Amumm. Ouxht. 16. 


BJL Add. 93W. 


BJC Habi. »71J 


OB. T. 
U. 6 













.. 7 


h 


... 


S 


h 




t* M 


... 


... 


... 





... 


»» t» 




... 


1 




... 


** M 


... 


... 


1 


... 


^. 


U %t 







a 


h 




.. 8 






^ 


h 




•» II 


:> 




^ 


h 




M »• 




... ... 


^ 


h 




»» »» 


... 


... 


^ 


Vdt^^ 


.,. 


M 


V 







'? 


... 


•• " 






^ 


^ 


... 


„ „ 






n 


n 




„ .. 






3D 


3D 




„ 10 


bra 




: 


d 




»» »« 






: 


* 




„ 11 

l» »» 






3 




on 


»1 It 




... 


3 




... 


»t »» 


... 


a 


... 


... 


— 


.. 12 


rD3 y* 




3 

:» 


3 


cm 


.1 13 




y 




r> i 111 --Or^ry 












Digitized by-VJ<JV.>>e4 





The Babyloman Codex of Hoeea cmd JoeL 















MASSORAH 


PARVA. 










HosEA y/imn ii, 6— ii, 13. 






%.Ajio. 4M./ B.JL Hamm^ 1628. 


Babtloiuaii Goon. 










T3 ^ / • • 


... 


... 


■■. 


OW 


CH. ^ 

ii. 




- / •- 


... 


h 


h 


097'? 


If 




n 


... 


... 


- 





'30^ 


" 


-^^ 


«. 


... 




... 


a 


T9V 


»i 


^- 


... 


... 


... 





... 


'WW 


»i 


I 


^ 


... 


... 


h 


MpB'^i ini h 


V^Pn 


ti 








h 


1D3 m h[ 


Kin) jv na h 


Ii? 






^-. 


... 




pK' }^pn -p 


» 1 












TDD ^^ 








i» 


... 


.... 







DTPS 


•t 




N. 


-. 


... 


... 


... 


i^II 


» 






h 


... 


... 


h 


h 


rj»13i3»pji 


»» 




h 


... 


... 


H 


h 


f^m. 


» t 


- 


... 


... 


... 







^\ 


»t 


- 


- 


... 


h 


h 


h 


i-^e^] 


»» 


~ 


- 




DCI^'WI 


f» 


Wiixv 


\yn n 


} •■• 


... 








,, 


■ m fitn DO 1 








» 




[ 


— 


... 


... 




b 


Ky?pt6\ 


rt 


1 


^ 


... 


... 


... 


... 


"vha 


It 


I 


... 


1 '" 


... 


... 


^D 


jurtnq 


" 


Z 


- 1 ■ 




i 




'fiOJ.tji^ 


1, 1 


_ 


... 






BTii^ni 


II 




... 




... 




■«7??':'i 


.. 


. 


-■ - 




te 




♦cTi'i:\i 


11 1 


- 


■" 








n««f)3 


»» 


^ "** 


" 


... 


... 




TtpV 


II 




- 


... 







wi» 


II 




n 


3 


... 


p:rai 2 


»J!l^rpv 


t) 


— 


^ — 


... 


... 


riDam 


nfipi 


» 1 




... 








h 


"^»? 


It 




Dm h 




h 


\ 






l> 

1. 1. 




^ 






























VJVJU^IL 





172 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and JoeL 



MASSORAH PARVA. 

H08EA. 3;xinn ii, 13— u, 21. 





B.M. Add. 15251. 


B.M. Ad». 15260. 


ABUMDUOftUMT. 16. 


B.M. Add. 03«9. 


B.1L HiBfc. S7U. 


OH. T. 














iLid 


... 







jnDT D& a j 






♦« « 




h 




... 







•f »» 
II If 
It II 
n 14 

• I 11 




h 
^ 
h 
h 





h 


• 


\ 
^ 


II 1' 
II II 

11 16 
„ 16 




h 
h 
h 


h 


2 


♦nne ^w!? a 


1 

s 


♦1 II 








Dni h 


oni ^ 


H 


.1 17 

♦I II 








n 




. 


»1 n 


*?DnmDmn3 


bn «i bn i 


^D 3 3 


: :: 


1 


M 18 


... 






h 


n 




11 19 













• 


II II 
,. 20 














M It 
•1 It 




<?D^ 


^D.i 


*:>n^Di 


i^ 


^ 


11 II 

„ 21 








3 


... 




., II 







5 


i 


^ 1 r\i'\rs\ 

















The Babylonian Code.v of Rosea and Joel. 



BIASSORAH PARVA 
HoBEA jrC^n », 18— ii, 21. 



B Jf. Hael. 1028. 



Babtlomian Codbz. 



PrnmiD Mabkaah. 



[>BQ iDD nnf) 



S^Qii 



on kci Vo b i 



hoi 



\ht 









n bni ^ 



bmbn 



famm^nna 



i 






lOOgle ' 



OH. 

it: 



» : 



174 



TJte Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Jod. 



MASaORAH PABVA. 

HoBBA j^tinn a, 21— Hi, 4. 





B.M. Add. 10251. 


B.M. Add. 10SM. 


AmoMMB. Obibit. 16. 


B.M. Add. 9809. 




OH. ▼. 

ii.21 


... .*. 


... 


... 


... 


... •». 


H »» 


... 


.« 


h 


a 


... 


,. 22 


... 


... 


i 




i 


I* M 


... 


\ 


\ 


T 


... 


., 28 


yosi 


... 




DDnVoni 


— 


H »> 











{ 


X^T\ ID D& 3 


.. 24 


iDDinh 


ijVn 


bDl«-in 


bnn 


bD in r 


„ 26 










\ 


t» »» 


... 


bm^ 


bmh 


boabih 


Dni*i 


»> ti 


... 




h* 


bnn 


ir 


.. .. 









^^p^ Von t* 


nDon^ 


M .. 











... 


... 


»» »» 








3 




iii. 1 








^ 


\ 


.. .> 




^ 




^ 


t. 


»• n 











{ 


n&iu] 


.. ., 










^ 


* 


n M 

It N 


h 




h 


h 


■ 


M »> 


... 


... 


S 


1^ 


... .... 


., 2 


... 




s 


h>^ 


4 


»» w 


... 


S 


s 


"^ 


... 


,. 8 


.« 











... 


ft %* 














... 


«* M 








s 





^ 


„ „ 


... 


... 




^ 


*S y^r\\ nm' 


n n 











t 


1C 


M n 


... 


... 


... 


IDDPVOh 


... „. 


t» »* 




... 


^ 


... 


••. ... 


n 4 








3 




r^lr/" 












0' 



The Babyloman Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



175 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea J^tt^n i«, 21— iii, 4. 



tnuMiBAM>.466. 


BJCHikmx^ 152a 


BabTLOMUR CODBl. 


Pboitid Mamokah. 






«. 


... 


«. 


ilD B^Dll S 


... 


D'pm?' noij3i 


ce. ▼. 
11.21 


.„ 


... 


... 





2 


O^pTO^ 


tl T» 


- 


... 


... 


... 


i 


i"?i?n»i 


.. 22 


^ 


... 


... 


... 


t 


pnn 


»i »» 


-. 


... 


... 





b^oninani 


Di'3 n;pr> 


n 28 


-. 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Q-ll 


tf tl 


' - 


... 


... 








nsf? 


11 >t 


iDfi biti n 


vx 


bnnh 


b'-i n 


bin 


n$^\ 


M 24 


- 


... 


... 


... 


S 


ijvfyii 


M 25 


fanih 


... 


h 


... 


bnih 




It tl 


^ 


... 








i^pnjy 


tl t» 


— .„ 


... 


... 


... 


... 


n^tt 


It t* 


3 




... 


3 




'iJ^TW^' 


t» tt 


.« 


... 




h 


"? 


3lIJ? 


HI. 1 


^ 




^ 


*. 


b 


"3??«? 


It It 


.™ 


... 


... 








np^jpi 


It It 


_, 


... 


... 


^ 


... 


n33«t? 


tl tt 


f — 


... 




habn^w 


.. 


D»)b 


ti tt 


»ai-mhi*) 


... 




... 


h 


'3ql«> 


tl tt 


- 


... 


... 


... 


^ 


1^^ 


tt tt 


*> 




^ 

^ 




*) 
*) 

S 




It 2 

tt tt 
tt 8 


*> 


... 


... 


... 


... 


'«J3 


It tt 


^ — 


... 


... 


... 


... 


''•70 ''h 


It tt 


- ^ 


... 


... 


*) 


... 


' '^^P 


It It 


-. 


... 


... 







} =>« 


tt tt 




I 


... 


: : 


... 




It »t 
It tt 


i 


1 • 


... 


:i 





«??. 


t. 4 










Digitize 


dbyV^OOyiL 





176 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoaea and Joel. 



[The remainder of this Article, together with additional 
notes, will be given in Vol, V, Part 2.] 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



fo^^m. 



PuomiciAV 
(Old Hebrew) 



3. 



4. 



6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



S 
•1 
A 



MODBBN 

Hbbebw. 



n 
•» 

T 

n 
to 

■],3 

Q, Q 
1'3 



SiULAAM. 

n. n 
1 

H 
V 

ID 
f 
6 
1 

h 



Power 

in 
English. 

:, el' 
f 

I. 9 
k, c 

r 
t 

J/t 
kh 



JJoo^ 



177 



A SKETCH OF SABiEAN GRAMMAR; 

WITH 

EXAMPLES OF TRANSLATION. 

Br Captain W. F. Prideacjx, F.R.O.S., Fellow of 
the University of Bombay, 

Read Uh Jcmwiry^ 1876. 



INTRODUCTION, 

Although the British Miifletim possesses the largest 
cofleetion of Sabaean inscriptions extant in any European 
comitry, no systematic attempt has been made by any 
English scholar to elucidate the grammatical principles of the 
language in which the epigraphs are composed. The labours 
of Osiander, Ewald, Levy, Gildemeister, and other Continental 
writers, have done much to smooth the path of Sabeean study; 
and later students, such as Lenormant, Praetorius, Hal^vy, 
and D. H. Miiller, have formulated with exactitude some of 
the more important canons of the grammar. M. Hal^vy's 
latest work, JEtudes Sabiennes^ which first appeared in the 
Journal Asiatique for May- June, October, 1873, and December, 
1874, and which has subsequently been republished in a 
separate volume, has formed the basis of the following sketch ; 
and although I differ fi'om him in one or two particulars, I 
cannot help acknowledging the industry and skill by which 
he has shown that he is not less distinguished in the field of 
philological research than in that of original discovery. But 
*h«re is still much room for further investigation ; and I have 
some hope that the publication of the following imperfect 

^01- V. Digitized by^OOgle 



178 ^1 Sketch of Sahcean Grammar. 

Bkefcch may stimulate sotne of our English Orientalists to 
pursue further a study which not only Ues invitingly open to 
them, but which, as near akin to the language of inspiration, 
possesses an extrinsic value of the highest kind. 

There can be no doubt that the Sabsean is an independent 
branch of the great Semitic family. To which of its con- 
geners it is most nearly related it is difficult to say. Its 
antiquity is shown in its display of forms sometimes shared 
in common with other languages, and sometimes peculiar to 
itself. As instances of the former kind, it is sufficient to 
adduce the following characteristics of the language. It 
agrees with the Hebrew and differs from the Arabic and 
iEthiopic in possessing a Hiphil conjugation; it agrees with 
the Assyrian and differs from the Arabic and iEthiopic in 
refrising a prosthetic Alif in the X. conjugation ; it agrees with 
the Assyrian and Arabic and differs from the Hebrew' and 
iEthiopic in possessing declinable triptote noims ; it agrees 
with the Hebrew and differs from the Arabic and iEthiopic in 
forming a pluralis sanus in D ; and it agrees with the Arabic 
and ^thiopic and differs fr*om the Hebrew and Assyrian in 
having plurales fracti. Perhaps the most distinctive pecu- 
liarity of the language is the redupUcation of the | in the 
plural of the subjimctive imperfect tense. 

In its alphabet, the Sabsean resembles the ^thiopic, and 
there can be little doubt that for a considerable period there 
was only one language on either side of the Red Sea. As 
Sabsean inscriptions have been found in Abyssinia, it is 
probable that Sabsean is earUer than the Geez. In both the 
Sabsean and the modern Amharic we find an admixture of 
words which are inexplicable by the aid of the other Semitic 
tongues, and which are probably attributable to an earKer 
Cushite stock. The relics of this primal race, which is typified 
as the serpent Am, are probably still lingering in the Agan 
and Bilen districts. 

The Sabaean vocabulary has a great affinity to the 
iEthiopic and Arabic. It is, however, dangerous to infer that 
every word we meet with can be satisfactorily explained from 

> There if, howeyeri good reason to beliere that the eariiaet form of the 
Hebrew noun was both declinable, and mimated. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



icith Ejcamples of Tranalation. 179 

the cognate languages, even when there is an apparent 
id^tity with some well-known root. It is notorious that 
the Arab lexicologists are determined to find an Arabic etymon 
for every word which occurs in a native author ; and it is far 
more likely that such words as*lf^or*l(D^ (plur. 1 ^ f*|) 
a ddef^ and X ^ ^> ^ ^/^> ^^® independent vocables than that 
they have any connection with the roots JU and cl^. ^ 

The point on which I differ chiefly from the Continental 
writers is with regard to the regular plural of nouns, which I 
believe is formed in D and not in t. This opinion is based 
not only on a carefiil examination of the texts, but on 

the a priori groimd that as is in Arabic the dynamical 

development of _, and ^-. of — > so in Sabaean ^ (um or 
tm) would be the analogous form produced from the mimation. 
In Hebrew the mimation is found in the adverbs D30M 

T I T 

(acc. of l^) truly, 031 (ace. of ]n) gratis, etc. ; and although 
a mimative nominative is not foimd, it appears in thd con- 
struct state in such words as nTt^VIO and 7M13S. From 
the status constructus of the singular, therefore, the regular 
plural in D is developed, and the Sabaean ^ |^ S /"!> ^^^ 
instance, is the etymological equivalent of the Hebrew D^ttJ3H. 
The final ^ is, I believe, in every case either the enclitic 
demonstrative, which often has merely the force of a definite 
article, or an adjectival ending, corresponding to the Arabic 
1_. I may also add that my views differ from those of 
M. Hal6vy in regard to the employment of the conjimction 
^. I do not think this is ever used to give a precative sense 
to the verb except when it governs the subjunctive mood of 
the imperfect tense, and that it is never thus employed with 
the perfect tense. I should perhaps add a word upon the 
term "Sabaean," which I have adopted in preference to 
*' Himyaritic." The latter term was borrowed from the 
Arabe, who were only acquainted with the Kingdom of the 
D ^ ? 11 V' ^^ Himyarites. But it is evident from the texts 

' ZcU» u Mud by the Arab lexicons to mean a wffe, because she foUotot^ or 
eonforms with the wishes of her husband, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



180 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar, 

that this kingdom rose upon the ruins of the ancient dynasty 

of which the chiefs bore the title of SHT^H^J^IfhllAI AIBi 
King of Saba and Dh(i-Raid&n. Saba was a district of which 
fl ? f D (^^^<^f>) "^as the capital, and Raid&n or Dhu-Raidftn 
was, as I have shown in a former paper,^ the name of the palace 
of the kings near Zhafir. The language employed in the 
inscriptions was that of the people of Saba, as the frequent 
references to the kings testify, and it is therefore only proper 
to call the language after them, instead of after the inhabitants 
of a petty provincial kingdom. 

An older dialect is perhaps that of the flS O J], or people 
of the kingdom of Ma*n, of whom so many inscriptions have 
been brought to hght bv M. Halivy. This is very similar to 
the language of the B A II ^ B V' ^^ people of Hadhramaut. 
The principal characteristics are the frequent employment 
of a paragogic l|* in nouns, when in the construct state, or 
employed with the enclitic ^ ; the use of a Saphel instead 
of a Hiphil conjugation; and the possessive suffixes ("i, 
(D I'll and <d]]|'|9 instead of the more ordinary forms (D^ 
and o]J y. In these two latter particulars it resembles the 
Assyrian. 

In conclusion, I may state that I have selected the 
inscriptions in the British Museum for translation, because 
doubtful passages can be so easily verified either by an 
inspection of the monuments themselves or of Mr. Netherclifb's 
excellent facsimiles. There is therefore no room for variorum 
readings. I have added a translation of an inscription, which 
is now in the British Museum, but which at the time M. Hal^vy 
copied it as No. 686 of his Recueil, was in my house at Ad«a. 
The true reading of the text, which was to a certain extent 
incorrectly transcribed by M. Hal^vy, will be apparent from 
my translation, and will I trust lead to a peaceful settlement 
of a dispute, which was for some time carried on between 
MM. Halivy and Praetorius, on the subject of this very 
stone.* 

» On iome Becent Discoveries in South- Western Arabia, Trans. Soc. Bibl. 
Arch., Vol. II, p. 1. 

« Hal^Tj, mmdes Sabienmes, Paria, 1875, p. 30; Praetorhis, SeUra^e tmr 
Mrkl&rung der Simjarischen Jnschriften, Drittes Heft, Halle, 1874, p. ir. 

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with Examples of Translation^. 181 



GRAMMATICAL SKETCH. 



L— ORTHOGRAPHY. 

There are twenty-nine letters in the Sabeean alphabet, all 
of which are consonants, although two at letist of them are 
also used as vowels. The accompanying table exhibits the 
letters, and their equivalents in the cognate Semitic languages. 
As all our knowledge of Sabsean is solely derived from the 
inscriptions discovered in El-Yemen and in Abyssinia, it is 
impossible to lay down precise rules with regard to the exact 
phonetic value of the letters, and, indeed, it is only within 
the last year or two, that the power of some of them has been 
determined. They may, as in other languages, be divided 
into the classes of (a) Gutturals, (b) Dentals, (c) Labials, 
{d) Sibilants, (e) Palatals, and (/) Liquids. 

(a) The Gutturals, ^, V, V* <>, 1, H, ^. 

Of these ^ represents the spiritus lenis of the Greeks, 
and the Alif Hamza ( i) of the Arabs. Possessing, 
as it does, the powers of a semi-consonant and semi- 
vowel, it can never be elided, nor can words in 
which it occurs be written defectively. O, as in 
Hebrew, must have been pronounced as a very 
strong guttiiral, as many words are spelt with 

it which in Arabic have c, as || ^ O ^ c-^/U* 
^ represents the ordinary c of the Arabs, but is 
occasionally in Sabeean confounded with *], from 
which it is evidently derived. 

(6) The Denials, g, H> B» ?• 

These were probably pronoimced in the same manner 
as their representatives in Arabic. 

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182 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar^ 

(c) The Labials, W, 0> ^> 

Are also represented in all the other Semitic languages. 

{d) The SOnhnts, g, ^, ^; ^, X- 

Of these, J appears to have an intermediate soimd 
between 3 ^^^ X** 

(e) The Palatals, H, X> ED- 

(/) The Liquids, % h, ). 

In addition to the above, there are the two faucial letters, 
fl, and the explosive {; and the two weak letters, <D, and ^, 
which have the double consonantal and vowel powers. The 
latter is, however, veiy rare, except at the end of words, and 
it is even doubtful whether it ever occurs medially excepting 
the name of the Semitic lunar-god Sin. Both CD and f 
have diphthongal powers, and words thus spelt may be 
written defectively, e.g. : — 

^ f for ^(t>^, a day ; 

1^ for 1f ^, a chief; 

^V^h for <S>^^^}\, his brothers; BJiA 

The orthographic signs used in Arabic, such as the Jaznw, 
Tashdid, and Haniza, are not represented in Sabsean, althou^ 
the words are of course influenced by the principles which 
govern those signs. For instance, Alif is invariably 
Hamzatum, and we know that many syllables must neces- 
sarily be Jazmatum, from analogy. Mushaddad consonants 
are generally, if not always, written in full in the case of 
liquids, and are contracted in the case of gutturals. The 
Wasloy and prosthetic Alif are not foimd in Sabaean. 



Of. Dr. D. H. Miiller's yaluable remarks on the pronuDcUtion of this 

luxralent of the Arab 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



letter, which in Sabft seems to hare been the equxralent of the Arabic J 
(ZeiUckrift d. D. M. G. XXIX, p. 688). 



unih Examples of Translation. 



183 



IL-ETTMOLOGY. 



1. The Verb. 



The verb in Sabeaan is with very rare exceptioDB triliteral, 
and from the first, or ground-form, are derived six other 
forme, whidi, to use Dr. Wright's words, " express various 
modifications of the idea expressed by the first." 

The following table shows the original and derived forms, 
80 fiir as they are at present known, the numbering being 
reckoned on the basis of the Arabic. 



No. 


Arabic 


Sftboan. 


Hebrew. 


Force. 


I. 




\^\ 


'^^'5 


Simple 


11. 




IfSiS 


^^, 


r Intensive 
\ Cauaative 


IV 






S?7 


Cauaative 


V. 




hnsx 


^xp 


f Reflexive 
1 Effective 


VIL 




AOVSV 


^}. 


C Reflexive 
( Effective 


VIIL 




IfhXiS 


.. .. 


r Reflexive 
t Reciprocal 


X. 




M^XA 


.. .. 


f Reflexive 
\ negative 



It will be seen from the above that the second form is 
produced by doubling the second radical of the first or simple 
form ; the fourth by prefixing the letter V> or in the Mineean 
and Hadhramaut dialects, the letter |*|, to the simple form ; 
the fifth by prefixing the letter X to ^^ second form ; the 

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184 



A Sketch of Sahcean Grammcn^ 



seventh by prefixing the syllable h V to the simple fonn; 
the eighth by inserting the letter X between the first aud 
second radicals of the simple form ; and the tenth by pre- 
fixing the syllable XlS ^ ^® simple form. 

There are two tenses to the verb in Sabsean, the Perfect 
and the Imperfect; and four moods, the Indicative, Sub- 
junctive or Conditional, Precative, and Imperative. 

Owing to the nature of the inscriptions, on which all our 
information with respect to Sabaean grammar is based, it is 
impossible to state with certainty the suffixes of the first and 
second persons of the Perfect Tense, or the affixes of the first 
and second persons of the Imperfect. We know, either fi*om 
the inscriptions or by analogy, that the following are the 
forms of the third persons of these Tenses in the singular, 
dual, and plural numbers : — 



PERFECT TENSE. 





MARCULINE. 


FEMININE. 


Srd pers. Sing, 


XO^ 


XXO^ 


M n 


?sn 


XTsn 


w 1> 


^)W 


xh^n 


» >» 


Sa>« 


XS** 


»» >? 


^n 


X^^ 


^rd pers. Dual 


?xo^ 


?xxo^ 


n ?» 


??sn 


?x?hn 


» » 


?^?^ 


?x^^ 


Srd pers. Plnr, 


oXO^ 




« ?> 


«>?hn 




i» »* 


<^h)W 





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mth Examples of Translation. 



185 



When one verb in the perfect tense is the consecutive of 
another in the same tense, the letter ^ is added to it if in 
the singular, and is substituted for the letter X ^ in the 
feminine singular, and for the letters ^ and CD if in the 
dual or plural, e.g. : — 

lOX^<I>moV, he aided and preserved. 
SrH*lX^IX?VfhX>«*^ glorified and solemnly vowed. 
*lJ^^V^I®h)n» ^ constructed and completed. 

This paragogic ^ is probably a sign of energy, and may be a 
relic of the old Hebrew form, as in p'?^. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 



HABCULINB. 



FEUININK. 



^rd pers. Sing. 

„ Dtial 

Plur. 



Not found. 



o^OX 



The Subjunctive mood is formed from the Imperfect tense 
by adding an energetic ^ to the thii-d person singular, 
which is doubled in the plural : — 



SIHPLB FORM. 



HIPHIL FORM. 



9rd pers. Sing. 
Plur. 









The Precative mood is foimed by prefixing the preposition 

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186 



A Sketch of SabtBon GratMinar, 



•^, with or without the pronouns ^ and XH> ^ ^^ ^^^ 
junctive : — 



SIMPLE FORM. 



8ATAPHSL FORM. 



Sra pers. Sing. 
Plur. 






S?0oXA?1 
Sh?0<i>XA?1 



It would appear that in verbs of the formation ^'^y, the 
medial 1 is preserved in conjugating, as in X h ® 6 > whereas 
in verbs (rf the formation ^^'^J^, the *^ is elided, as X^^) 
from ^f ^« In verbs V'D, the 1 falls in the imperfect 
tense, as ^ ^ f from V ^ ®' ^'^' ^^^ ^^^ *^ ^^^ *^ ^^*^ 
always maintained in verbs *^"7 and M'^, as in (D ? h [I' 

Owing to the want of vocalization, it is diflScult to 
ascertain the pai*ticipial foims. The participle of the I. 
conjugation is probably foxmd in the divine epithets ^ O 3 ? 
or O 3 ? and O ^ (li, and in such words as ^ ^ S ^ ' ^^ 
of the II. conjugation in ^ H H ^ ^ ' ^^' ^^^ ionm 
h?[EhnX^ and [fln^nX^ are apparently derived 
from the V. conjugation. 

The impersonal verb ^ O ^ {Arabic ^ ) is always 
written in the feminine gender, as in the common phrase, 
S^^SX^IX^^SIXHI' because there lias been favour 
(in times past), and may there be favour (in times to come). 

The following are the personal suffixes of the verb, so for 
as they are known : — 





MASCULINE. 


3rcf ptrs. Sing, 


©V— = -^^f'' * 


„ Dval 


?^V— = Arab.\^ 


„ Plar. 


^ V — ^Old Arab. J^ 



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fcith Examples of Translation* 187 

Mjxmas Dialect. 



Srd per$. Sing. 
Plur. 



MA8CULIKB. 






The same forms serve, when appended to the noun, 
to indicate the possessive, as — 

^ V H n^> Aw servant; 
(D ^ V J ^ 4* rt » ^^'* freedom males. 



2. The Noun. 



The Nonn is divided into two classes, triptotes and diptotes. 
Tiiptotes are known by the termination ^, usually called the 
iTitnation in Sabsean, which answers to the Tanwin in Arabic. 
Owing to the consonantal character of the language, we are 
tmable to indicate the vowels which respectively denote the 
nominative, genitive, and accusative oases, but they were 
probably the same as in Arabic, e.g. : — 

^^^hh (15' ^-1) = ^uiW i^'*^"- AnmAr"". 

^ ^ ^ h fh (15, /. 6-7) = \jj^\, pron. Anmftr^. 

^>^hM (15» ^-11-12) = }^\ pron. Anmki^. 

A noun is diptote when it does not possess the mimation, as 
\^^y Arab. ^, Shammaru, 



The following nouns are diptote : — 
1. Proper names which resemble the 11. conjugation of the 
verb, as ^ ^ ^. 

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188 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar^ 

2. Proper names which resemble any of the persons of the 

imperfect, as — 

3. Proper names which end in X> whether masculine or 

feminine, as — 

xniA. x^sfv, x>^^ 

4. Compoimd proper names, as — 

5. Proper names ending in \ the Arabic \^ 

S)to, S^^oO. SV1o.' 

6. Proper names ending in Hamza, as — 

or consisting of more than three letters, 

This rule is not, however, constant. 

The genitive case follows the rule in jEthiopic, and is 
formed either by the governing word being in the 9taJtuM 
constructus^ or by the addition of the preposition |^ to the 
second word. The latter form might perhaps be more 
accurately termed the possessive case. 

The mimation in triptote nouns is lost in the status coit- 
structtASy as — 

^ A1^> a king, 
Ml AIA1^> hingofSabd; 

^x?n> « *^^^' 

^o8?IX?n>^ Aon^e or UmpU of Ydtlif^. 
In the regular plural, the status constructus is marked by 
a 7> ^^ — 

hO^I?XV1?l®ltV1r*l> ^ 5^^ «"^ goddesses ofMa'n; 
MlAltAI^' the Ungs of Sabd. 

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with Examples of Trqmlation. 189 

The mimation also falls naturally before the personal 
suffixes, as — 

^ ^ fl O9 a servant or worshipper^ 

^ V H n ^» At9 servant. 

There are three numbers to the noun in Sabeean; the 
singalar, dual, and plural. 

The duaP is formed by suffixing f *j' *^ ^® singular, 



?SH04'^> t^o forts; 
but in the construct state the ^ is generally dropped, as — 
^iflAltfi'l^' two kings of Saba; 
^X^y|?X1^^> ^^^ mistresses of the cottage; 

whilst the f disappears when the detei'minative S V ^ ^^" 
ployed, as — 

liyij^Jl^m^PJ, between the two seasons ; 

I ■ I I ■ 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 w o n f **^ ^^^ houses of Hirrdn 
*1^0h<Pm>VISVSX?n4 andNdmdn; 

I the two repositories of 
the offeHnga of 'Athtor 
and Shams^^. 

The plural is divided into the pluralis sanus^ and the 
plwraUs fraetus. 

The pluralis sanus^ of masculine nouns is formed by adding 
^ to the status constructus singular, as— 

W] A S h> ^ human being, 
^ A h f^> Awi/iaw beings ; 

^ ^ O fl , beasts of burden. 

* In the ezsmplet giren bj M. Hal^ry from his own inscriptionB at page 
tt of i$«ie« SaMeunet, I am of opinion that the L| is the demonBtratire enclitic, 
and not a part of the dual. 

' This if probably a contraction <>^ | ^ q > two. 

• The prommciation of the regular plural wae probably 4ma in the nomi- 
natire, and iwta in tlie objectire casei . 

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190 A Sketch of Saboean Grammar^ 

The plw*ali$ sanus of feminine nouns is formed by adding 
X to the singular. 

The following are the more common forms of pluralii 
fractus : — 

1. The Arabic JUjU ^ — 

^^^8, fruit; ^^^g?l, fruits; 

^S8®» an idol; ^hS^^, idols.' 

2. The Aiabic J3^ ^ as — 

^ ^ H ?l» ^ A^<^^or!/;, ^ X^ <I> H ?1» feudatoriiB? 

3. The Arabic jj^, as — 

^ H ^1 ^ > a cAt/ii ; ^ H ^1 ^ > children. 

4. The Arabic 3ju > o-s — 

^O^, a plain; ^X^^> plains. 

5. The Arabic JUi» «^ — 

X ? y ® > lowland ; fH ? i? ^ ' lowlands. 

6. The Arabic JUi, as — 

(D 8 ^ , a habitation ; 0%^y habitations 
= Arab. ^ *^ , p/wra/ ^l*^ . 

7. The form ,0^, as— 

^^^^, the statio of a deity ; ^X^?^^> stationes. 

8. The form iUiU as— 

^0^),a priest; ^ X ® ^ ^ fh ' P^«^- 
* This poftettef also a feminine form, as ¥ S S Ul , ^ fre9'hom wmam ; 

VlMraiy^^^\^^^ free-horn women s X ? h ^> ''^^^'''^ X?S^ f*!' 

poeaeeeione. 

^ This word appean to correepond moat doiely with the Latin eowtee. 

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with Examples of Translation. 191 

It may be observed, that verbals are sometimes masculine 
in Sabedan, feminine is Arabic, as — 

^ 1 h A ^ « />ray«r, aul«. 

The adjective, in Sabaean, is often formed from the 
substantive by the addition of a ^, as — 

^ ^ J ^> </itf east^ h ^ ^ ^» eastern; 

^)0^, the west, (l^^^' western; 

^A1^, akinff, hA1^» royal. 

Gentile adjectives are, in the sing^ar, often formed by the 
addition of f , as— 

40^, Ma^in, ? h © ^> ^ Minasan ; 

hflA. Saba, thnA. « SabiBan; 
but this is elided in the plural, as — 
^ h ® ^» 1/incparw ; 
^ X ^ J B V* people of Hadhramaut. 

There is no article in Sabeean. The final ^ of the 
miniation has no doubt the force of an indefinite article; 
and the demonstrative enclitic \ serves as a sign of deter- 
mination. But article, pur et simple, there is none ; and the 
theory of M. Hal^vy, that (D V is used as a definite article, 
cannot be upheld. The paragogio V ^ common in the 
Hadhramaut and Minsdan dialects, in the case of words in 
the construct state, as — 

«|l^|l|, a name; V^^^> astatic; 

but this is not an article.* As for the compoimd names, 
V^^OI^t, n> A V^A. a study of Sab«an nomen- 

The MMMt ooirefponding fonn would be the final M o' ^* A»in»an 

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192 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar, 

clature woiUd have convinced M. HaUvy that in royal 
appellations, it was usual to employ an epithet of the 
deity as ' the second division of the word, governing 
a verb in the first; and that in the above names, the 
word is composed of the epithet of the divinity V ^ A > 
i.€.y the participle of the verb ^ ^ (l| =s the Hebrew 
root no^, altus fuitj and the Arab, y^^ (U-:), and the 
verb o ^ f = Heb. 5^^ cognovit ; whereas in the second 
word, the epithet is from f] J A > *'^*> ^® participle of 
PJ ^ , the verb, whence is derived the Hebrew 1^, 
cheruhy and signifying to be mighty^ powerful ; and the verb 
y ^ |l|. Similarly, f ^O ^ ^ jli, in which the latter con- 
stituent was probably originally y ^ O = Heb. root TOV^ 
elatus est, and Arab. ^ (te). It is an interesting feature 
in the Sabeean language that (especially in proper names) 
we so often see the original form in ^ in verbs of which 
in Arabic the third radical is j and ^J^ and in Aramaean M 
or (in intransitive verbs) ^. 

The syllable O V> which M. Hal^vy takes to be the 
forma plena of ^, and which he assimilates to the third 
personal pronoun if\Tl and to the Hebrew article Tl, is more 
probably the suffix of the third possessive pronoun, as in— 

^^^m<">VnV> Ms cUy of NaslJ^, 
nH^I®V^^4'> ^^ sanctuary of Madhab. 
In the Hadhramaut dialect we accordingly find |l| in lieu 
of (D V, as — 

^1Mi'l^J4'^> Aw (^(inctmry of Alam, 
^h^^lAn®^* Aw tribe of the Minceans. 



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with Examples of Thmslation. 
III. — The Pronoun. 



193 



The following table exhibits the forms of the demonstra- 
tive pronouns in Sabaaan : — 

1. The near Demonstrative (THIS). 





SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


Ifasc. 
Fern, 


• • 


H 
XH 


1^1 


2. 


The distant Demonstrai 


ive (that). 




SINGULAR, 


PLURAL. 


Mase, 
Fem. 




X<»»V 
XfV 


X^V 



The connexion of the distant demonstrative with the 
pronominal system of the other Semitic languages, is not 
readily apparent to the student; and great credit is due to 
M. Halivy for the acumen he has displayed in establishing 
the radical identity of this part of speech with the forms 
under which it is preserved in ^thiopic.^ 

The plural of the near demonstrative receives the 
paragogic ^ in the Mineean dialect, as 1 V ?!> ^^^ * ^'^^^'^^ 
X1 V ?l ^® ^^^ found, but it is uncertain whether this is a 
dialectic or a regular form. 

Closely allied to the demonstrative are the monosyllables 
1^ and XH> "wWctj though signs of the genitive case, have 
invariably a possessive signification like the Arabic ^ j and 
«^j The form f V is also found with identical force, as 

S>VH = S>V?V- 



Vol, V. 



HaI6v7, Eind€9 Sab^tmes, Pans, 1876, pp. 68, 237. 



13 



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194 A Sketch of SalxBon Grammar, 

The conjunctive relative pronouns are: — 

H> XH» «'*<'. that >= Axah. ^i\\, Ji\ 
Hlhr* XHISn> ^ ^^*^» *^ *^*^» whoever = Arab. ^ 
|:j is used adjectively like the Arab. i^jiU and agrees 
-with its substantive in gender, number, and case; «^^ 

® V — H = Arab. 2r ^^jJl 

O V X ^ H» ^**^A ^ ^ offered. 

When used substantively, it is equivalent to H I h !!> ^^®" 

^VSjn8?H> whosoever may break it ... . 

The texts do not supply with examples of the neuter 
conjunctive pronoun, nor of the interrogative pronouns. Ab 
they are invariably written in the third person, we have no 
opportunity of knowing the form of the first and second 
persons, but the third is probably in the singular ^ y and 
in the plural ^ V. M. Hal^vy's remarks on this subject may 
be studied with interest.* 



IV. — The Demonstrative ENCLmc. 

In some of M. Halivy's inscriptions, an early form of the 
demonstrative is found as ^ ^ . This is probably identical 
with the Aram. Mil, <Aw, and thence lo ! the Heb. b^H, fo.'» 
and the Arab. \^, in y^ (^3^). '^^^ h V ^ Sabaeanis 
however generally foimd combined with an enchtic ^f ^ 4 V» 
corresponding to the Heb. jH, and the Arab. \ lo! 
The demonstrative force of this letter is well displayed in 
the Arab. \^ and the Heb. Hin. In S^eean the eaclitic 

1 Hain't Etude9 SabSemnes, Pins, 1875, p. 68. 

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with ExamplM of Translation. 196 

is invariably added to the maeculine singular demonstratiye 
H> ^ hH' ^^^ frequently to the plural ^^, as S^ h* 
It is not used with the feminine demonstrative, and in 
the distant forms the final X ^ equally an enclitic, and 
is of equal power. But it must be added to every noun 
which is preceded by a pronoun; as — 

SXSHVIXfV 
h^ihMX^V 

It is obvious that when the noun is thus made determinate, 
it loses the indefinite mimation. 

The enclitic is also occasionally added to a preposition, 
when it occurs before a determinate noun, as — 

hX8t»4»IX?VISn> in that cahndty. 

This must not be confounded with the other preposition 
hn» /ran?. 

A word is occasionally emphasized by the addition of the 
syllable \}^ to the ordinary enclitic \. The etymology of 
this particle has been explained above. It gives the 
signification of this iUelf the very^ ^ S V h ^ ^ ^ I S R* *^ 
the shrine itself in the very shrine. Hal^vy is mistaken in 
thinking that \ is merely a contraction of \ y, or that the 
latter can be employed by itself. On the contrary, ^i V is 
invariably found in conjunction with \. The two examples 

S V n V H ^^^ h V M V ^ British Museum Inscription 
No. 29 are in the Hadhramaut dialect, and the normal 

ionnAoi VnVH ^<^ VnV u" Sabsean are flVH 

and nV> consequently h V 11 V H = S Fl V H and 

svnv = hnv. 

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196 



A Sketch of Sab€t(m Grammar^ 



v.— The Numerals. 

The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 follow the analogy of 
the Hebrew and Arabic languages (in opposition to the 
^thiopic) in placing the feminine form in X before masculine 
nouns, and the normal form before feminine nouns. They are 
as follows, an asterisk being placed after such as do not 
actually occur in the inscriptions : — 





MABCUUNK. 


FSMININK. 


1. 


lIH»F?i 


flXV^ 


2. 


?S8 


?X»i8 


3. 


0818 


DX818 


4, 


Don>S 


flXoR^h 


5. 


U^'i 


DXAB'if* 


6. 


IISHih 


]IX8Hih 


7. 


DoRA 


BXonA* 


8. 


DHD8 


I1XSII8* 


9. 


floAX 


BXoAX* 


10. 


mo 


BX^^o 



Some dialectic forms are found in the inscriptions, such 
as the substitution of y lor 4* ^^^ X f ^' ®^^ ^^ 8 ^^^ X 
in the same word; the elision of the h hi f XH 8 ^^^ ^^ 
the ^ in 8 H A > ^^^ *^® substitution of ^, J, or (as in 
Aramaic) X ^^^ 8 ^^ 8^8* ^^ ^^^ Mineean dialect the 
letter ^ is inserted between the first and second radicals of 

SII8 

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with Examples of Translation. 



197 



It will be observed that the cardinal numbers, with the 
exception of the dual 2, are triptote, although the mimation 
is lost in composition, and the demonstrative enclitic, both in 
its simple and its intensified form may be affixed to them, as 

The cardinal numbers from 11 to 19 are formed by the 
addition of^^O or](^^0,as the case may be, as : — 



11. 
14. 
17. 



MASCUUNB. 



»^oixon»h 

J^olXoRA 



FEMININE. 



XBolXV^, 

x>^o|on>h 

XJ^oloRA 



The cardinal numbers from 20 to 90 are formed by the 
addition of f to the original masculine form : — 



20. 
30. 
40. 
50. 



?818 
?on>?i 



60. 
70. 
80. 
90. 



?8Hih 
foHA 
?SD8 
foWX* 



The phonetic variations noted above of course take place 
in these words; and in the Minaean dialect the paragogic 
V is inserted before the final f , as f V <> 11 J fS ^^r 

The numerals 100 and 1000 are represented by ]] X h ^ 
and H ^ ^ jh > fti^d the intervening numbers are formed 
regularly, as in the other Semitic languages, as — 

BXMIIlhDy. 500; 

1IXM1I8A. 600. 



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1»8 



A SkHeh of SabiBon Orammarj 



So £ur a« we are able to judge, the ordinal numbers are 
£3rmed similarly to the cardinals. There was doubtless a 
change of vocalization, but the force of this cannot be pre- 
dicated with certainty in a purely consonantal language. 
The formation of the fractions is not yet accurately determined 
for want of texts. 

The system of notation employed by the Sabaeans was 
exceedingly simple. The figures are always placed between 
two ladders, thus b | g which at once distinguishes theuL 
Up-and-down strokes are used to denote 1 to 4 ; 5 is IfJ, 
the initial of jli ]] *i^ ; 10 is O, the initial of J ^ O ; 
60 is \ or half of ^, the initial of ]|XhII> 100; and 
1000 is h, the initial of 1 h* 

The ne€u*est approach to such a system is the Roman. 



1 


i 1 i 


20 


1 oo 1 


2 


i II i 


30 


1 ooo 1 


3 


1 III i 


40 


1 oooo 1 


4 


i nil i 


50 


i 1 i 


5 


§ 'i i 


60 


i 01 i 


6 


i IV i 


70 


i "ol i 


7 


i ll-^ i 


80 


1 cool 1 


8 


illl'^i 


90 


looooll 


9 


illliyi 


100 


i I i 


10 


§ o 1 


1000 


i h i 



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mA Examplea of Translation. 199 

The imits are often joined together, a8f| = ||, |J1=|||» 
etc. Examples : — 

i WHO I 17: 

|n*liOOOo|, 47; 

I ooolD I' 180. 

The figures O O are sometimes connected together, thus 
Si but being placed within the ladders, it is impossible to 
miBtake them for letters. 



VI. — The Particles. 

A. — TTie Prepositions. 

The inseparable prepositions consist of one consonant, 
the vocalization of which is uncertain. They are : — 

(a) f|, in (of time or place); Jy, through (of agency 
or instrument) ; according to (Heb. Aram. 21, ^th. 
n : Arab, m)- 

{b) ^ to; for (to indicate motive); on ac^oount of in 
consideration o/(Heb. Aram. Y> -^th. l\ • Arab. J). 

The enclitic \ may be added to either of these preposi- 
tions, and they may be used adverbially in the sense of when. 
The ^ is also the sign of the precative mood, when pre- 
ceding the imperfect subjimctive. An attentive consideration 
of the texts has convinced me that it never has a precative 
fiarce when joined to the perfect tense. 

(c) ^ 09, Uke as; and with the adverbial sense of when 
(Heb. Aram. 3). But this is not really a preposi- 
tion, but a formally \mdeveloped no\m {cf Wright's 
Arabic Grammar^ edit, ii, p. 312).' In the Minsean 
dialect, it appears to have the force of ^. 

' For a more lengthened inquirj into the power of thii partiole, lee Ual^rj, 
Mtmim SM^nnts, pp. 91-94. 



UoxMno 



'•) Digitized by Google 



200 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar^ 

*' The separable prepositions are of two sorts. Those of 
** the first class, which are all biliteral or triliteral, have 
'* different terminations ; those of the second class are 
" simply nomis of different forms in the accusative singular, 
** determined by the following genitive" (Wright, p. 313). 
They are consequently without the mimation. 

The separable prepositions of the fii'st class are : — 

(a) f "I© over, upon, to (Heb. "hv,, "hv ; Ai-am. ^'^ \ 
Arab. j2}' 

(b) ^^f from (Heb. Aram, p; Arab. ; JEih. 
?\^i :). But in Sabeean this particle usually 
appears as 1^ f|. 

(c) t\0, till, up to (Heb. "TJ^; Arab. -^; iEth.^^^Ti:) 
The poetical form f ^ O* B,eh. '^^^^ is also found; 
and the HacfAramaut dialect gives the form t\ j>|. 

The separable prepositions of the second class are : — 

(a) l^ f P ; betweeuy among (Heb. pS, Arab. ^JV 

(b) ^Ofl; «/<^ (Heb. ny?, Arab. ^)- 

(c) Ol*ii; behindy after; different from Arab. v_o\>^ ' 

(d) ^P^; before, of time (Heb. 75J?, Arab. jjV 

W B H ^; before, of place (Heb. O^, Arab. Jjj)- 

(fj W)?\l in exchange foi\ in consideration of (Halivy). 

There are also a few compound prepositions, as JJon* 
composed of P and ]] O (Heb. D^, Arab. ^, with, near, 
by) and equivalent in meaning to the Latin apud; ^'I'i^ fl' 
behind, in the neighbourhood of; XI'XIl' *'^- Fl *^^^ XVX* 
Heb. i^in, Arab, c^..^^, below ; ^ f P p =r Arab. '\y 
without; and f^OP, composed of l|P and f^^O (Heb. 7]^, 
Arab. Jx ^j.<). Cf. ZeitechHft d. D. M. G., vol. xxix, 
pp. 606-608. 

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with Examples of Tratislatioii. 201 

B. — The Adverbs. 

Very little is known about the adverbs in Sabaean, but it 
seems pretty clear that, as in Arabic, the accusative case of 
a noun is often used adverbially y as h X II ® h» favourably. 
The adverb of negation is perhaps ]] ^ (Arab, j \ but 
this only occurs, in one inscription. The inseparable adverb 
^ (Arab, 'j), verily j tndyy is found occasionally. 

C. — The Conjunctions. 

The following are the inseparable conjunctions : — 

(a) 0\ which is usually employed for connecting 
words and sentences (Heb. Aram. *), Arab. :, 
^th. © :) but is also used as a disjunctive particle, 
like the Arab. L^\, 

(J) ^; this sometimes connects single words, as 
^ T I A h h > ^^^* ^* °^ore usually introduces the 
consequence resulting from an antecedent cause 
(Arab. Jj> Heb. ^y). When it follows 0) in the 
disjimctive sense of the latter, it introduces the 
apodosis of a sentence. 

(c) ^; thatj in order thatj which is identical with the 
preposition, and is prefixed to the subjunctive and 
precative moods of the imperfect; and to the 
perfect in the sense of because. 

The following are the separable conjunctions : — 

(a) oh; or (Heb. -^M, Arab. ^O- 
(6) <D j>| ^ ; as well as. 

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A Sketch of Sahcean Grammar^ 

(c) I x 5 became^ in that This conjunction appears to 
be derived fi-om a root similar to the Arab. " 1> or 
jzr^ adapUd^ fity suitable. Its original meaning is 
therefore conformably to, in accordance trith. In the 
sense of becauae, it is commonly used with the 
enclitic t, or with the demonstrative pronoun 
XH;a8 SIV* XHITV- it is also occasionally 
followed by the pi'eposition fi or preceded by 

(d)Hn> XHn. H1. XH1; formed by prefiing 
the prepositions W and ^ to the demonstrative 
pronoim, have the signiScation of because^ in that 
X H ^ occasionally rules the precative, instead of 
the simple ^. XHII ^^^^^ ^^ subjmictiye is 
in order that. 

(e) Hfh; when (Av ah. Jl. c/. Heb, t^)- 

(?) II ^ ?' H ?5 originally a day, but generally uflod 

conjunctively as when. 

^» 
(A) ^ m 1; o/W ^t, when = Arab. U!' 



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wiih Examples of Translation. 203 



EXAMPLES OF TRANSLATION. 



In order to economize space, I do not insert the inscrip- 
tions in fiill. They may be found in the British Museum 
Collection, 1H63 ; in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenland 
GeselUchaft xix (Os.) ; and in the Journal Asiatique for 
October, 1873, and December, 1874 {Hal). I have followed 
the order employed by M. Hal^vy, both for purposes of 
comparison, and because that order groups the inscriptions 
of a similar character, and leads on from the easier to the 
more difficult texts. 

L 
(B.M.23; Os. 19.) 

1. ^ n V ^ n. pr. nom. = Arab. cl^Uj > ^ 9^^^^ The Aa, 

although mushaddad in Arabic, is not so in Sabsdan, 
being a guttural. In post-Islamitic times, the designa- 
tion Al-WaAAAb is only applied to Allah. 

2. O V ^ h O, the word h{ h, brother^ is written defectively 

tor ^^^f n. subst. gen. = Arab. -l\ > as the governed 

verb is in the plural, and not the dual, as would have 
been the case if the votaries had been merely WaAMb" 
and his brother. <D y^ possessive suffix, Arab. g. 

^•2- X m A I ^ h n 5 ^ h n> ^^ s^^st. plur. gen. = Arab. 
^ . Hal^vy remarks that the form ^ h fl ^^ usually 
employed with reference to a tribe, and ^ S fl "^ten 
the natural deso^it is implied : hence X fl ^ 6 ^ould 
here be the eponymus of the votaries* tribe, and not 
their father. As it ends in ](, it is a diptote noun, and 
does not take the mimation. 

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204 A Sketch of Sabwan Grammary 

2. f l^ ^ y, perf. 3rd pers. inasc. plur. IV. of f ^^, 
to be in possession = Arab, ^i5i hence, IV. signifies to 
place in possession of, or, of votive objects, to endow, 

3* V ^ ^ 1 fh' n. pr. a lunar god of the Sabajans, wor- 
shipped especially at Hirr&n, Na'man, and AwSm, towns 
of Al-Yemen. The noun being compound, is diptote. 

h J V H » H> ®' possessive adjective, which frequently, 
but not invariably, ha* the sense of the Arabic .j, 
possessory owner. Here it has the force of the ^Ethiopic 
genitive particle ^. ^ J V> * town of Al-Yeman, 
sacred to the cultus of Il-Makah. 

3-4. hH^^H> ^*^» *^^ ^^® demonstrative enclitic \, 

4. h H H 5 ^ » ^* subs. The exact derivation of this word 
is unknown, but as it is only employed upon the 
bronze tablets, and never on any stone memorial, it 
is commonly taken to indicate the offering itself^ C^, 
the tablet. The final \ is the demonstrative enclitic, 
thisy which takes the place of the mimation. 

4. I^ "] I*' ^^m- derived from a root=:-4ra6. ^ or jr 

adaptedy Jity suitable^ proper. Its primary meaning seems 
to be in conformity loith, and with the demonstrative 
enclitic ^^ according to this^ for this reason, i.e., because. 

5. O^ V V ^^» P^^* ^^^ pers. m€U3C. sing. I.= Arab. AiJ 

he obeyed. In Sabeean, with P, it signifies to hear a 
prayer favourably, i.e., to grant it. 

5-6. ©VlhA^ri' ri' P^^P- <^cording to. 1 ^ A ^, a 
triptote noun, derived from ^ h A — ^rab. JL' ** 
asked, and equivalent to a3L*^> « ^^^ asked, a petition, 
a prayer. V, the possessive suflix = (the prayer) 
addressed to the god, lit, his prayer. I cannot see on 

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with Examples of Translation, 205 

what grounds Hal^vy translated ^ j>| A ^ * '* gr&ce." 
There is no difficulty in the phrase, if we look on the 
prayer addressed to a god as, thereby, coming into 
the god's possession. 

6. (D^Vy^0^: ^is here a conjunction, signifying, 

because thaty in that, f ^' P^^^* ^^^ P^^^* masc. sing. 

Hr. of y ^ 0) = Arab. Jj> integer fuit : therefore III. 

signifies, to restore to healthy to keep whoUy to keep safely. 
Hal^vy thinks that ^ here indicates the precative, but 
the precative is not a mood of the perfect tense ; nor 
is his difficulty about f ^ © very clear. 

7. O ^ |l| ^ O |l|, perf. 3rd pers. masc. sing. III. of ^| O |l| 

= Arab. m. j^L», to assist or help; to prosper. 
^X^^h> adv. = Arab. \-,|jO> ^^^^ of the triptote 
noun ^gj^ » favourably y or voith favour. 

Translation. 

WaAMb^™ and his brothers, the Benft Kalbat, have 
endowed Il-Makah of Hirr&n with this tablet, because he 
has granted the prayer addressed to him, in that he has 
restored them to health and has assisted them favourably. 



n. 

(B.M. 21 ; Os. 21.) 

This inscription, with the exception of the proper namep, 
is almost word for word identical with the preceding one. 
The pronoun h H ^® omitted before h H h S ^ ' ^^* ^^^ 
demonstrative enclitic is a sufficient determinative. The 
verb O^Vf^^^ is also wanting, apparently through 
an error of the artist. 

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206 A Sketch of SabcBan Grammar^ 

1. ^ V ^ O, n. prop., probably derived fipom a root = 

Heb. rny, Arab. ^, signifying '^hfiy^ or ^' superbui."* 
As it ends in ^^ it is diptote. 

^ H 8 J ^> a well-known triptote Sabaean name, here 

in the genitive = Arab. jj-«. It is said by the Arab 

lexicographers to mean " a generous man," or **a UonT 
In Sabsean, the epanymus of the great tribe which held 
the coimtry about 'Amr&n. 

2. f H ^ V> P®^"^' 3rd pers. raasc. sing. IV, f ^ ^. 

Translation, 

'Alhftn son of Marthad*" has endowed D-Makah of Hirrin 
with this tablet, because H-Makah has granted the pray^ 
addi'essed to him [in that he has restored him to health] and 
in that Il-Makah has assisted him favourably. 



III. 
(B.M. 36; Os.34.) 

1. ^VUhX^h' ^* P^^P* ^^^' peculiarly formed from 
the two words X^h' sister, and ]]^, mother, with 
the possessive suflix O V ; comp. the Hebrew AluJ>. 

2- D J h ^> ^' P^*- ^^^' ^^ uncertain etymology. 
2-3. fXl^ri' ^* s^bs^' f®™' <i^al of ^Of]; «« owfier, lord. 

3- hXH^itf^ ^- s^bst. fern. = Arab. I^, lit. a house 

constructed of branches of trees^ but here meaning a 
roughly made house or cottage; with the enclitic 
demonstrative ^ to di'aw attention to it. 

1 ^itf n> P^^P* compounded of W and ^ ^ *i^, = Arab. 
^4 r^ , behind, over against^ hard by. 

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with Esample$ of Tramlation^ 207 

34. *| M V> ^" subflt. masc. = Mih. UlC : « eity^ with tho 
demonstrative enclitic \* 

4. n ? ^ ^ > n. pr. of a large city, the capital of the kingdom 
of Saba, the Roman Margahoy and modem Mdrib. 

?X^ ^> pert 3rd per8. fem. dual I of ^ f ^ or ^ ^ 
= Heb. D'^tp postdt. 

4-5. *| h 8 ^> n. subst. = Arab. J' an idol, with the 
demonstrative enclitic ^« 

^ D^JS 1 h n» "• P^' epithet of Il-Makah: Awftn is 
apparently a town of Al-Yemen, dedicated to the 
cultus of that god. 

6-7. — f 1II,II|I^<D — ?I1V?0<^1; these verbs have 
the feminine dual pronominal suflBx f J] V* 

Translation. 

Ukhtmnhu and Shafanram, the two owners of the 
cottage, which is hard by this city of Maryab^ have offered 
this idol to Il-Makah, the lord of Aw&m, because he has 
granted the prayer addressed to him, in that he has kept 
both in safety. 



IV. 

(B.M. 34; 08.33.) 

!• H O I*! ji|» n. pr. masc., from the root ^ O |l|, to prosper. 
As it resembles the 1st person of the imperfect, it is 
diptote. 

mi |l| y ^, n. pr, surname of As'ad ; probably the 3rd 
person sing. perf. IV. of S ]| A = Arab. ^^. It 
would, therefore, be equivalent to "Le Gros" or 
*^The Fat." 

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208 A Sketch of Sabasan Grammar^ 

4 O V f , n. pr. formed from the 3rd pers. sing. perfclV. 
of 4 O as Arab. \^\ > he helped or aeeisted. 

2. ? ^ H A H> n. pr. of a god of the Sabaeans, from a word 
equivalent to the Arab, fl^^^ the heavens. 

h 1 8 ^> n. subst. = ^ttto, an ifnage, with the demonfltra- 
tive enclitic ^. 

2-3. ^ X 8 ^> n. pr. a well-known god of the Saba&ans. 

3- A n ^ V » li- pr- ^^^ o{ a Sabeaan god. 

3-4. H ? H 4' I X H' n. pr. a name or epithet of a Sabaean 
goddess, the " lady of the temenos " = \^ , a pro- 
hibited epace^ of pa8tm*e or of water. 

4. jm >| O n I X H' n. pr. also of a goddess. Hal^vy 
identifies S H O f| with the Vodona of Ptolemy. If 
this is the case, I should be inclined to translate the t«rm 
as ** the lady of the VodonitsB," as S H ^ ll' ending 
in l^, is a diptote noun, and Hh ^ ^ PI would be the 

plural of h?hHon» ^^ hSHofl' ^ inhabitant 
of Vodona, In the plural of gentile nouns, the final 
l^ f or 1^ of the sing, is always dropped. 

Translation. 

As'ad Yahasman son of Taha'an has endowed JDhH- 
Sam&wi with this image, because he has kept him safely 
in the name of 'Athtar and Haubas, and in the name of 
Il-Makah and DhiiUEimA^ and Z>Mt-Ba'danim and DhA- 
Sam&wi. 



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with Examples of Translation. 20^ 

V. 
{BM. 17; Os. 15.) 

^- 6 1 • n h > °- Pr- fern, restored by Hal^vy as fl ^1 ]] fl JS > 

which, although always masculine in the Bible, he 
compares with the names Abigail and Abishag, which 
were feminine. The word <D ^| f| appears to be omitted 
before HHSMI- 

S o 

^' X S n ~ Arab, c::^ » a daughter, here in the construct 
state. 

T T T O, n. pr. maec. of doubtful etymology. Ending 
in l|, it is'diptote. 

X? S ^ V» Perf- 3rd pers. sing. fem. IV. of f l^ ^. 

^•^VXXO^H' ^^^ substantival relative is here 
expressed by the form O V "" n = Arab, i^.j^jjl. 

X0^> perf. 3rd pers. sing fem. I. of XO^' = H®'^- 
f?®, to placey to givey and in Sabsean, to place before 
a god, i.e., to offer. 

4. <I>DV?0^1» *^® suffix here refers to the whole 

tribe of which the votary was a representative. 

5. XH 11. co^j-. a foUer form of \ comp. 1 V, XH 11 V^ 

because o/, in that, 

X H O ^ , perf. 3rd pers. fem. sing, of the impersonal 

verb ]] O ^ =s Arab. ^ , to be well with a person. 

In Sabasan it appears to be always used impersonally 
in the feminine gender. 

5>-fe. 1 1 S ]] ^ h X » ™perf. precative, 3rd pers. fem. sing. 
of H O S, governed by X H I 1- 
Vol. V. H f 

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210 A Sketch of S(tha'an (irammar^ 

Trati station, 

Abimelek, a lady of the Benu Marthad*"*, the daughter of 
'Anan&n, has endowed D-Makah of Hirr&n with this tablet, 
which she has ofiered to him because he has kept them safely, 
and because it has been well in times past^ and may it be well 
171 times to come with the Benfi Marthad^"'. 



VI. 

(B.M. 24; Os. 22.) 

1. ]| f\ *! I*' "• P''- ^^^* = ? Arab. (^^^3^, blackness, Lg., 

Nigra, or Nera. 

lINno|?hn» n. pr. of a tribe= jIc ^', fSO 

for <D ^ f|, as the word is governed by )( Jj. 

2. ^X^^H' ^^' P^'> pvobably a town or district of 

Al-Yemen, the abode of the Benfl-'Abd. 

h ? h H I h n» u. pr. of uncertain etymology. 

Translation, 

Halak«», a lady of the Beni 'Abd*", daughter of Bin 
Dayftn, has endowed Il-Makah of Hirrftn with a tablet 
because 



VII. 
(B.M. 28; Os. 24.) 

1. ]] Y 4 V, n. pr. masc. = prob. the Arab. ^^jU, fl 9^''' 

2. m V A* "• Pi'- "^^^^- = A^'^^- jI-»' '''''^^^* *^^ ^^""^ 

of disposition,, 

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mth Examples of Translation. 211 

^- XHfl' c^^J- formed of the prep, fl and the fern. rel. 
pron. X H = X H 11 V oi X H I1> because, in that. 

Translation. 

Hadi»», sou of %Mf^ has endowed D-Makah of Hirrau 
with this tablet because he has granted the prayer addressed 
to him, in that [he has restored him to health]. 



vm 

(B.M. 9; Os. 11.) 

1. H^O 3> n. pr. masc. = Arab. "^, a bull. 

II H ? A h» ^'W' ^^^' ^™- of U H A fh "^ ILi' « ^*o». 

2. f U V I, n , written defectively for ? H V ? S Fl- 

2-3. [2 ^ ^ fi| I (D^ifl* n. pr. of a tribe inhabitmg Al- Yemen. 
Ql ^ ^ h ^ diptote, because it resembles the 1st pers. 
sing, of the imperfect. 

3. ]|^ J4' ^' s^l>st. Hal^vy thinks that this word is 

connected with the Arabic ^j^j he associated him with 
his family, and translates it " subject." I am inclined 
to ascribe it to the same root, without giving it 
exactly the same meaning. There is no idea of 
inferiority in j\; on the contrary, the subst. ^j^ 
signifies a pattern or example, and is used some- 
times in the sense of chief (r. Lane's Lqxicon, sub 
voce). I would therefore translate H H h as the 
clan of a great (1 ^ ^ ^^* ti-ibe, such as the Benu 
Marthad*™. 

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212 A Sketch of Sabcean Crrammar, 

6. ]] ^ ]] g h, D. subst. plur. frac. of ]| ^ ]| g, fruit « Arab. 

A^ here m the ace. case, \\j^y 

7. Y H ^> prep. = Heb. *Ty, <o, amongst, in. 
J Pi , n. subst. = Arab, i \ > eartJi^ land. 

"^"^^ XII?^]]' ^' subst. plur. fract. of ]|^I1, a receptacle, 
storehouse^ barn. 

10. <D Q J, perf. 3rd pers. plur. I. of ^ fl J ~ Arab, ^j^ 
he was pleased^ contented, satisfied. 

10-11. h ^ H ^y !!• subst. phir. frac. of f^ J ]|, a man; here 
applied to the chiefs of the great [\0^ of the 
Beni Marthad^ in the Chaldee sense of M^. 

Transl^xtion. 

Tham"°» and Usaid"° and the brothers and sons of both, 
the Benu Arfat, a clan of Bin Alarthad^"* have endowed 
Il-Makah of HirrAn with this tablet, in that D-Makah has 
kept them whole and has prospered them in giving the fruits 
in their land and theii* storehouses; and their chiefs, the 
Benu Marthad^™ are pleased with this ; and because he has 
kept them whole. 



IX. 
(B.M. 7; Os. 9.) 

1. X H h ? V» ^^ P^' ^f uncertain etymology. As it ends 
in Xf i* is diptote. 

6- II h h V* ^- a<*J- agreeing with B ^ I] 8 h > cognate 
to Arab. ^, and Heb. HhUn (Hal^vy). It may be 
translated ** abundant." 

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wUJi Examples of Translation. 213 

Ihinslation. 

Hainamat, and bis brothers, and tbeir sons, the Benii 
Aifat, have endowed H-Makah of Hirr&n with this tablet, 
because he has granted the prayer addressed to him, in that 
he has kept them whole, and lias prospered them in giving 
abundance of fruits in their land and their storehouses ; and 
because it has been well in times past^ and may it be well in 
tirnes to come with the Benu Arfat; and because he has 
asBigted them, their chiefe the Beni Marthad^ are pleased. 



X. 

(B.M. 20; Os. 16.) 

1. ^^f, n. pr. masc. perhaps 3rd pers. sing, imperf. 
of ^ <D ^, to overlook. 

2-^n8Al^hn» n. pr. of a tribe. 

5. l| O ^ Y fl ; fl, a conjunction, that ; S O ^ ^, imperf. 
3rd person, sing. masc. in the subjunctive mood, from 
O0?> '^ ^^^ Wf ^^ elevate. 
A h fS' ^' snbst. in stat. constnictus with O H V X ? Fl 

S O 

in line 6, consequently without mimation = Arab, t^] 
primarily a chosen or particular friend^ or intirnate ; here 
meaning the people of the house, the inmates. 

5-6. J"|^; ^ = Arab. ^, and, also. J"|, also in the 
construct state = Arab. "\^ > a neighbour, but here 

rathej* a relation or kinsman residing in the neigh- 
bourhood, and under the protection of the house. 
Halivy has well pointed out the similarity of these 
expressions with the Hebrew H'^^l "^ttJaWI and D^Sl ^•^, 
which signify the indoor and outdoor dependants of 
the house. 

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214 -1 Sketch of Sabaan Grammar, 

6. O H ]] 4' ' P®^' ^^^ pers. plur. from = j^^^^ » to praise. 

6. ]|^y|j n. subst. loci from =s Ai-ab. Aj^ a statiotu or 

seat of a divinity ; probably the place where the 8tat4ie 
was erected in the temple, 

7. O ]| V Y ^ O V, perf. 3rd pers. sing. IV. of ^^O, ^vith 

the signification of III. 

7"8- 1 A n » n» PJ*6P- *'w» %» acconliny to. 1fl = Arab. J^. 
M H h> ^' s^bst. plur. fract. of ^i 1 ]|, a fuljibnent 
Heb. m'to. 

8. O h ^1 ]] X 1*1) perf- 3rd pens. plur. X. of f^ ^ J, /o 

demafid fulfilment, 

ShhlUXA?' inaperf. 3rd pei-s. plur. conjunctive 
mood, X. of f^ *! H . In this and the preceding word 
the relative W is imderstood. 

8-9. O y ]] O fl > prep, compounded of f| and H O , in hv^ 

presence^ before him, 

9-10. ]] Y ^ > ^* subst. B ? ^ <!>> used in the accusative 
with an adverbial signification. 

Transkition, 

Yeshuf and his brothers, and their sons, the Ben{i Kathab'", 
a clan of Bin Marthad^, have endowed U-Makah of Hirrin 
with this tablet, because Il-Makah has granted the prayer 
addi-essed to him that he would raise up the inmates and 
kinsmen of their house, and they have praised the seat of 
H-Makah because he has kept them whole in the ftilfilment 
of everything which they demanded, and which they may 
demand before him ; and in that he has prospered them with 
favour and with health ; and then- lords, the Beni Marthad*" 
are pleased. 



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with EjcampUs of Tramlatiom 215 

XI. 
(B.M. 18 ; Os. 17.) 
1. SD^O^, n. pr. siimame of 'As'ad. 

fe|f|0, n. Bubst. in stat. construct. = Arab. x>^^ « 
servant. 

3 ifimil|l = simply mi|l. 

5. <l>]] y ^ ^ (D, perf. 3rd pei-s. sing. masc. = Chald. f]X)t 
to lend (Halevy). In Sabaean, the meaning is to give 
or bestow. The plui'al suffix relates to the whole tribe 
of Marthad^. 

II H 1 ^ fh^ ^' subst., ace. case, plur. fract. of ]] H ^1 ^' 
a son = Arab. [^^ , plur. "jj^] . 

^' II ^ J ft H h' ^' *^^J*> ^^^* ^^^^» P^^^' fr^ct. of H ^ ft H' 
male = Arab. Cj. The <D appears to be inserted 
through an en*or of the artist. 

^* I1 1 ^ h' ^- subst., ace. case., plur. fract. of fl 1 ^ ^> 
a fruit-bearing plant. 

M. (D ]| 'l' fl ? T» P^rf" ^^^ ]feTH. sing. masc. Halivy 
supposes this word to be equivalent to O H V fl ? Tl» 
in No. 11, line 10, and to be connected with the 
Arab. ^__a ? he concealed, thence, in an extended 
meanings to protect fwn harm. This is probably 
correct. 

1». ^ fl , prep. = Arab. ^ , from. 

f J ip , n. subst. cognate, either with the Aiabic \^ ^ 

he became in a defective or bad condition, or i^, he 
becaine confounded, or erred. Probably the former. 

^Il'l'l, n. subst. The Arab. ^^IJ, means a tongue. 
thence evil-speaking. 

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216 -4 Sketch of Sabcean Grammar, 

9-10. oQo]], n. subst. Compare the Arab. 4^, he 
uttered calumny and falsehood, or \^^ , he enchanted. 

10. II J V, perf. 3rd pere. sing. masc. = Arab. *, he 
made weak, to enfeeble, 

c/bt?^ ; in Sabsean it seems to mean generally to scatter, 

10-11. H A h rS1 1 6> = ^'^^' U**^^ ^ ' heing in the ao 
cusative case, and having the generic meaning of 
man, mankind, 

11. h?A^?' iniperf. 3rd pers. sing. masc. conjunctive 

so - ^ s« 

mood from Yft^« Compare Arab. y^L'* i'q»i i*C» 
Iiardship, distress, adversity. In Sabsdan the verb 
governs with []. 

c o - 

12. H^H Al^?nn=^^^- J^^^^?*^' wiAoutrighUoui- 
ness or justice, unjustly. 

Translation. 

As'ad Faukamdn, servant of Bin Maiihad^, has endowed 
U-Makah of Hirrdn with this tablet because he has granted 
the prayer addressed to him, in that he has kept them whole 
and has bestowed male children in abundance, and in that he 
has bestowed the fruits [of the tree] and the fruits [of the 
earth], and in that he has kept whole the lords of their 
house, and in that he has protected them from loss and evil- 
speaking and calumny (or enchantment) ; and has enfeebled 
and scattered eveiy man who may have distressed them 
unjustly. 



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witk Ejcamples of Translalioti. 217 

xn. 

(B.M. 19; Ob. 18.) 

^* Xo^lT l» ^- prop- masc. of uncertain etymology. 
The termination X 8 ®> wi such words as this, is 
here generally undei-stood to be an abbreviation of 
>X8o and f 41-1 may = Arab. ^,/ac«,am. 

I h n ^ 8> »• pr« Bubst. s= Arab. <l^ij» and iZ, the 
shortened form of Il-Makah, iq. the reward (or recom- 
pense) of n. 

*• S ^ V ^ I ^ h n » n. pr. of a tribe spnmg from the 
BenA Marthad*°». 

^- ? 1 n ^ 1» ^^^i* = simply % or more intensively, 
X H 1 1 n ^ 1» if^<^^fn^h OS. 

^ A h> n. subst. plur. fract. of ^ ^ = Arab. ^\^y a 
ram (or other animal) bearing much wool, plur. ^^ \ 
Here it means wool-bearing animals collectively, a 
flock. In this passage, SHI?— Till ^1> which 
is of some diflSculty, I shall adopt, as far as possible, 
Hal^vy's interpretation. 

5-6. S ^ n ^ ?' imperf. 3rd pers. sing, masc, subjunctive 
mood = Heb. and Chald. '^3^; to conceive, to he great 
with young. The relative H i® understood. 

6. 0^$> n. subst. = Arab. ^ •, seed or progeny. 

Bnn> ^- adj. « Arab, J^b> in a good state or 
condition, but used perhaps here adverbially U-j-b 
joyfully, happily. 

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*21H A Sketch of Saboian Grammar^ 

hH1?5 inaperf. 3rd pers. sing, raasc, subjunctive 
mood = Arab, jj , to bring forth, 

7. X ^ V 1 » f^^ ^''"' / ^^^^ word X ^ V ^^ *^^* masculine 

demonstrative pronoun (see Chapter on Pronouns), 
means /or, in consideration of, 

8. nZ^> P^^^* ^^^ pers. sing, masc, signifies to continue 

to do anything, always with another verb. 

0. O H V X n M» ^' subst. = Ai-ab. iU^i a place, of 
need, produce; a tract of land for, planting, cultivahU 
land ; the plur. is [] J "| = <-jy»" . 

10. ollVn?!!* «^^ No. XI, lines 8-9. 

Ofl^i, n. subst. Comp. Arab. ^ ^ . to hnmilUiU, 
?A^« see No. XI, line 11. 

H h h ^ ' n. subst. plur. = Arab. ^\j^ , a hater^ ait 
enemy. 

Translation, 

Lahi'atht and his son, Thawwab-il and his brothers, and 
their sons, the Benu WahiAn, a clan of the Beni Marthad" 
have endowed Il-Makah of Hin^an with this tablet^' because he 
has heard the prayer addi'essed to him that the flock which 
was gi'eat with young might joyfully bruig forth oflfepring 
{or might bring forth a healthy offspring) ; and Il-Makabhas 
favourably heard liim in consideration of this tablet; and 
because Il-Makah has continued to prosper them [t« givinq] 
abundance of males and because he has kept their cultivable 
land in good condition, and because he has protected them 
from humiliation and the adversity of enemies, and because 
it has been well in times past, and may it be well in times to 
come with Bin Wahr&n. 

^ In the tablet these words are misplaced by a fiiult of tlie artist 

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vnth Examples of Tianslation. 211^ 

xm. 

(B.M. 15; 08. 17.) 

1. I|^X^> n. pr. masc. prob. = Arab. ^- one, only 
wiu/ue ; or Heb. ^H^, excellentia ; Chald. ^^iT*^, per- 
magnus^ eximuu, 

3. ^iflhX' P^^' ^^^ P^^^' ^mg. masc. V. of ^ fl S' 

prob. = Arab. ^J '^ proclaim ; but in Sabsean it 
appears to have a future force, to augur, to promise. 

•^- D ^ V ^ H' ^' ^4J- = Arab, "^^a^, conspicuout*, eminent, 
public ; here probably used adverbially. 

4. IjYI], prep. Arab. .^ betwivt, amongst; of time, 

during. 

St 

^y^l^JH}, n. subst. = Arab, l-bj^, <«?t<?<m;/, thence, 
a year. ^ the demonstrative enclitic, intensified by ^| V- 

•*• n J ft V II A' ^* P**'» ^ compound diptote nomi, com- 
posed of y ]| |l| = Heb. rrot^, Arab. L^, to be e.valted ; 
and n J A' the powerful, an epithet of the deity. Here 
the name of an eponymus, probably a king. 

^' n ^ ft ® n X» '^' P^*' ^ compound diptote noun ; com- 
posed of OflX^ ^ v^vh of whicli the meaning is not 
very clear ; and [1 J (^ , vide supra. 

♦>-7. XIIHI'' "• P**' (^'onip. Arab. ,^ j^ > tf woinan who is 
short in stature. In this place, I am inclined to think 
it is a Avonuurs name, as the Sabaeans often traced 
back to their maternal ancestors in their genealogies. 

«>. n ^ ^ » ^- subst. = Arab. ^J^oi^ , a great tribe, such as is 
divided into sub-tribes, like the Benft Marthad^*". See 
Lane's Lexicon, Book I, part IV, p. 155(>, for the more 
modem sub-divisions of the tribe. 

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220 A Sketcli of Sahijetm Grammar, 

TroMihtion. 

Watr^, Bin Marthad*", has endowed Il-Makah of Hirran 
\vith this tablet, which he promised publicly during this very 
year, in the year of Samaha-Karib, son of Toba'a-Karib, son 
of Hn</Aaniat, because it has been well in times past, and may 
it be well in times to come with the Beni Marthad*™ and their 
tribe. 



XIV. 

(B.M. 4 ; Os. 1.) 



1. yi n ? J J n. pr. masc. of imcertain etymology. Perhaps 

akin to Arab. ^__,\, . that which cast doubt^ or terror^ into 

others; but more probably v-^U? pai-t. of (_^U? ^ 
rectify. 

2. S^H^' ^- P^'» ^ town to the north-west of San'4, 

where these inscriptions were found. Probably the 
head-quarters of the Beni-Marthad^. 

a. ]| ? ^ , n. subst. = ^th. AU^^, propositus. In Sabsean, 
a patron^ or tutelary god. 

5- II1Min'=Arab. jllw. 

7. fl ^ ^ ; M. Hal6vy ingeniously connects this with the 
Arab. ^^, e.vchange (although it is doubtful whether 
^^ has this meaning but it may signify value; of. 
Lane's Lexicon, sidt voce)^ and translates ** in considera- 
tion of." L^normant translates oUVX^^Ifl^^' 
" la collection de leur offrande," taking fl ^ A ^* 
cognate with the Arabic <.^^, but this is very 

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tcith Examples of TranslatioTu 221 

doubtM. It may be remarked, however, that IV. 
t-^U means he gave^ which may originally have 
come from another root. In a confessedly difficult 
passage, I adopt Hal^vy's suggestion, which suits 
the context both here and in the only other place 
where the words occur (XXXII, 9). 

(D ]) V X ^ J n. subst., an oj^ering, cf. V, 3-4. 

^ y P If a Arab. 40 j^jj^ , in the which. 

8. S ^ ^ » per£ 3rd pers. sing. maac. = Arab. X , 
iEth. ^^ : 

S ^ ? ^ > n. subst., a doubtful word, but identified by 
Halivy with the Heb. ^^, permiUationf and here with 
the sense of value. The final ^i is the demonstrative 
encUtic. 

S II 8' numeral adj., feminine, as H J fl ^ ^^ that 
gender, eight. 

UJf], n. subst. fern. plur. = Arab, j., sing. plur. 
J, a ring or bracelet^ used as a measure of value, 
cf. Heb. Diia. 



S n V H H> ^- s^^t- ^it- genitive particle \\ = Arab. 
^^2^j. The final ^i is the demonstrative encUtic. 

]|XQ]*inn> °* subst. HaWvy compares with the 
Arab. 1,^ , stones^ especially fag-stones for paving, used 
as a term for iceights, like the Heb. jTTS ^5?^ 
(Lev. xix, 36). 

11 ? B ^' ^' ^4)*> aggreeing with above ; appi^oved. 

10. P ^ ^ ]) O, n. pr. composed of U O = Arab. ^., he 

gave universally to all, and f) r m' ^^ epithet of the 
deity. 

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222 A Sketch of Sab(Pan Grammar^ 

11. B J ^ X V* J^« pr. fern, of uncertain etymology. 

]] ^ O 8 X H ' ^'^^ lady of Thaur*'". Thaur is a village 
near San'S, in the Wftdy Tham\ 

7Va7ifilation, 

Rd-ib**"* and his brothers, Benil-Marthad*™, and their 
tribe of ^\mrdn, has endowed their patron god, Il-Makah of 
Hirr^ with this tablet, because he has granted the prayer 
addressed to him, in that Il-Makah has kept them whole in . 
consideration of their ofibring, in the which was this value, 
eight rings of very gold, of approved weight, in the year of 
'Am-Karib, son of Samaha^Karib, son of Ha^rfar^, the lady of 
Thaur»«. 



XV. 

(B.M. 14; Os. 7.) 

1- II m h h> ^* P^- = Arab. j{^) plur. of ^, a leopard 

X ^ H ^' n. pr. diptote as it ends in X- Cognate with 
Arab. II. of ^j^ , he strove lahoriomly, 

3 XHnnn=XHn4'.ft^--^ 

4. O V ^ B ip n > ^* snbst. = Arab. ^^^ a region or di^rict 
of towns and cultivated land. 

h A *1 ® II H' n. pr. of a district. I cannot accept 
Hal^vy's suggestion that the word means a famm 
from jjJx' 

♦5. 4oV> P^^**' 3^^ P^^' ^^^S' ni««<-*- !!• of ^O 
(see IV. 1). 



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irtVA Examples of Translation. 223 

S^XHj P^^' 3rd pers. sing. masc. = ypt^, perfect 
to enlarge^ thence to deliver. ThiH being the second 
of two verbs in apposition has the energetic or 
paragogic L. 

^- S''^XIXh*>fX » eomp. Arab. II. ^^( , in its Kuranic 
sense of to make much slaughter. ^ is, as is verj' 
common, understood before the verb ^ 'if X• 
H.S^]^1I> n. subst. = Arab, "l' with the demon- 
strat^e enclitic. 

7-S. 'f A ^n> ^- 8^l>st. = Arab, ^^y, hardness; Heb. nfljj?, 
durus, here violence, 

I H A h » ^- 8^t>6t., properly meaning lion^ must in the 
inscription, I think, signify the well-known tribe of 
Asad. The dem. encUtic draws attention to the tribe. 

8. 0^^> ^0 overlook (seeX, 1). This sentence S^X^""! 
is in the precative mood. 

y. ]| X ih Jh n> "* ^^^^' = Arab. LjU , distress, affliction. 

^10. I|?^ha)|]|X?6h' "• subst., both derived from 
the same root = Heb. n33, to strike, to beat ; thence 
a hlofv, calamifVy wound. 



Translation. 

Anm4r°°*, son of Shammarat, has endowed Il-Makah of 
Hirr&n with this tablet, because he has granted the prayer 
addressed to him, inasmuch as he has left him safe in his 
district of Ma'lzan, and because Il-Makah of Hirrftn has 
prospered him in his cattle, and because Il-Makah has aided 
and delivered his servant Anmfir*" from the slaughter which 
befel in this country from the violence of the tribe of Asad ; 
and may Il-Makah continue to overlook and deliver his 



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224 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar^ etc, 

servant Anmftr*" from affliction and distress and danger; 
and in that he has prospered him, their lords, the Beni 
Marthad^"* are pleased ; and because it has been well (in 
times past), and that it may be well (iq times to come) with 
Anmfir*"* 



XVI. 
(B.M. Os. 23.) 

1. Y^- for ?^<D. 

]| b| O 1^ ^, n. pr. verbal from b| O |^. 

5-6- B h n B I ? S n ' n. pr. of a tribe, of uncertain 
derivation. 

Tramlation. 

[In that he has kept] his servant Musa'd*"* whole in 
the fulfilment [of that] which he demanded before him in 
Ma'lsfin, and may Il-Makah continue to ^eep his 8er>^ant 
Musa'd*" whole in the fuliilment of everything which he 
may demand before him ; and because it has been well (in 
times past) and that it may be well (in times to come) to 
the Beni Dhaba*°* through Il-Makah of Hirrfin. 



[Additional Examples of Translations will be gioen in 
the next Part] 



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\r^^h 



'^MAllAZ - FEUi 



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225 



CHRONOLOGICAL REMARKS 

OK 

THE HISTORY OP ESTHER AND AHASUERUS, 

OB 

•ATOSSA AND TANU-AXARES. 
By J. W. BosANQUET, P.R.A.S. 

Mead, &th June, 1876. 

Part 1. 

No portion of eacred history has been more roughly- 
handled by historians and commentators than the Book of 
Esther. This book still wanders up and down the borders of 
legend and history, seekiag entrance within the pale of sacred 
Scripture, and has as yet found no sure resting place within 
the sacred canon. Though greatly prized by the Jews as 
authentic history, it only takes its rank in the Hebrew Bible 
amongst the books called Ehetubim, or Hagiographa ; and 
rightly so, for there is one remarkable fact connected with it, 
viz., that while it professes to contain the record of one of 
tiie most signal deliverances of the " holy people" by Jehovah, 
the name Jehovah is carefully suppressed throughout the 
book, which seems at first sight sufficient to exclude it from 
the category of sacred writings. 

But if, as I am satisfied, it is a true and genuine piece of 
sacred history, why does the chronological position of the 
history still remain so imfixed and uncertain in the scale of 
time ? Not on account of any obscurity or ambiguity in the 
narrative itself, which is remarkably plain and intelligible, 
but simply owing to the assumed necessity of fitting the 
events within a framework of conventional dates, put 
together some three centuries ago by the most learned men 
of their day, according to the best materials then within 

^<>^-V- Digitized by @OOgle 



226 Book of Esther. 

their reach, but whose outline of reckonhig as applied to the 
Bible, since the discoveries of Layard, Rawlinson, Botta, 
Loftus, and Smith, is found to be untenable, owing to incor- 
rectness and insufficiency of historical data. Before then we 
attempt to fix the true position of the book of Esther in 
sacred history, it is necessary first that the outline of the 
chronology of sacred history should be clearly ascertained. 
The common Bible chronology which still lingers on in 
schools and colleges, is based upon the manifest untruths— 
tliat Cyrus, the founder of the Persian empire, and father of 
Cambyses king of Persia and Babylon, in conjunction with 
** Darius, son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who was 
made king over the realm of the Chaldeans " (Dan. ix, 1), 
took the thi'one of Babylon after a long siege in the year 
B.C. 538 ; that " Darius the Mede," so called by Daniel (v. 36), 
then reigned at Babylon for two years, organising the affairs 
of that kingdom, and dividing his great empire into 120 
provinces, with Daniel as his chief minister ; and that he was 
succeeded by Cyrus, who reigned over Babylon for seven 
years, from B.O. 536 to 530. Such is the foundation of BiUe 
chronology as laid down by such men as Scaliger, Petavius, 
Ussher, Des Vignoles, Clinton, Ideler, and other eminent 
chronologists to the present day. Mr. George Smith closes 
the list of those who accept this untenable mode of reckoning 
in his valuable work entitled " The Assyrian Eponym Canon.'' 
p. 157. " Our best authority, the Canon of Ptolemy," he says, 
'* places the first year of Cyrus in B.O. 538, which would 
indicate the previous year, B.O. 539, as the date of the capture 
of Babylon and the fall of the Babylonian monarchy." I 
have no hesitation in saying that this chronological arrange- 
ment is purely fictitious. There was no such Median king 
as Darius reigning at Babylon in B.C. 538. And the authority 
of the Canon of Ptolemy compiled two centuries after Christ, 
is not equal to the authority of Xenophon and Ctesias writing 
in the fourth century before Christ, who are opposed to it. 

The fact, now come to light, that Cyrus king of Babylon, 
that is to say he who repaired the temples of Bitsaggath and 
Bitzida at Babylon, was '*«on of Cambyses" (Trans, vol. ii» 
p. 148), coupled with the clear statement of Ctesias from the 

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Book of Esther, 227 

royal records, that the founder of the Persian empire was 
CjTUB^ father of Cambyses^ of whom no exploits against Babylon 
are recorded by that historian,* goes far to sefaside the idea of 
Herodotus, that Cyrus, who conquered the Modes and founded 
the Persian empii'e, was the same Persian king as he who first 
reigned over the Chaldeans. For unless it can be shown that 
both the father of Cambyses and the son of Cambyses reigned 
at Babylon, which no one yet has attempted to prove, the 
evidence of the brick at Senkereh, showing that it was the 
son who reigned, is directly opposed to this commonly 
accepted notion. Again, it cannot be true that the great 
king Darius, who ruled over 120 provinces, and who, as 
inheritor of the dominions of **Ahasuerus, of the seed of 
the Modes," is properly called, according to eastern custom, 
his '*son" (Daniel ix, 1), was reigning at Babylon as early 
as B.C. 538, seeing that the only known king in history living 
about that time and bearing that title was the well-known 
Persian king Darius, son of Hystaspes, whose years are fixed 
by eclipses recorded in Ptolemy's Almagest as beginning in 
B.C. 521. That two such mighty kings bearing the same 
title, bom of different races, one a Mode, the other a Persian, 
should both have reigned at Babylon, one precisely at the 
termination of seventy years counted from " the desolation 
of Jerusalem," and the other at the close of seventy years 
of indignation against Jerusalem (Zech. i, 7, 12), yet reigning 
eighteen years apart, is also inconceivable and absurd. If 
snch were the fact, how is it that the name of the fii'st of 
tiiese kings does not appear either in the list of kings in the 
Babylonian Canon, or in the list of Median kings named by 
Herodotus, Xenophon, or Ctesias ? Dr. Pusey does indeed 
surmise that the Darius of Daniel may possibly be identified 
^th some yet undiscovered king of Media ; but to assume 
such an identification as a fact, and to found a system of 
chronology upon it, is merely fabricating history to support a 
purpose. Canon Rawlinson, a high authority on Median and 
Persian history, writes, *' It must be acknowledged that there 
18 scarcely sufficient ground for .determining whether the 
Darius Medus of Daniel is identical with any monarch known 



1 CtosiflB Fragmenta, Dind. (p. 47). 



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228 Book of Est/ier. 

to us in profane history, or a personage of whose existence 
there remains no other record.'** Id the face then of this 
uncertainty, it cannot be reasonable to make the reign of this 
king a fundamental datum in sacred histoiy. Truly, Dariufl 
Medus, as distinguished from the son of Hystaapes, is an 
imaginary king; and, to borrow an expression which has 
I think been wrongly applied to Deioces king of Media, this 
unknown king " must be relegated to the historical limbo, 
in which repose so many shades of mighty names." * I have 
begun at once by calling in question the existence of this 
supposed Median king, because it must ever be in vain to at- 
tempt to reconcile Assyrian discoveries with Sacred Scripture 
while such a system of authoritative teaching prevails. It 
is obvious, as I have said, that such teaching is purely 
arbitrary and fictitious, and ought to be discontinued. It 
has brought sacred history into contempt, and has even led 
to disbelief in the authenticity of the Book of Daniel. 

As regards the date B.O. 538, attached to the reign of the 
first Cyrus (Kai-Khosru), as marking his accession to the 
throne of Media, it stands upon a difierent footing. No one 
need dispute the idea entertained by the earliest authorities, 
that Cyrus, father of Cambyses, may have come to the throne 
of Media and Persia in B.O. 538. But this is not the same 
idea as that which makes him king of Babylon at that date. 
This latter idea is as untrue as the assertion that Darius and 
Cyrus were associated at that time as kings at Babylon, and 
that the first year of Cyms was B.C. 536, marking the year 
when his decree went forth to build the temple of Jerusalem. 

I have already shown (vol. i, pp. 201, 202) that Cyrus the 
Persian, of the race of AchaBmenes, the founder of the empire, 
died in battle with the Scythians in B.C. 536, when Darius son 
of Hystaspes was barely twenty years of age (Herod, i, 209), 
The decree for the rebuilding of the temple of Jerusalem, 
issued ** in the first year of Cyrus '* (Ezra i, 1), from which the 
dates in our Bibles are reckoned, could not, therefore, have 
been issued in that year, or by that king, whose tliird year is 
mentioned by Daniel. There is, however, sufficient evidence 

> Essay IIT, p. 418, Median Chronology of Herodotut. 
^ Ancient Monarchies, rol. iii, p. 174. 

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Booh of Esther. 229 

to show that this same Gyrus, that is to say, Kai-Khosru of 
the Persian historians, who according to Ctesias was not 
related by blood to Astyages, conquered the Medes in the 
55th Olympiad (B.C. 560), and came into undisputed posses- 
sion of the throne of Media in B.C. 538. 

The reckoning of the reigns of the kings of Media of 
the dynasty of Deioces downwards is very simple and veiy 
exact, if not arbitrarily disarranged with a view to modem 
interpretation. But before we proceed to fix the dates of 
the Median kings of this dynasty, let u« go back for a moment 
to the rise of the dynasty of Arbaces the Mede after the fall of 
the first Sardanapalus, as truly I think related by Ctesias, and 
then come down to the reign of Deioces. Syncellus, following 
Ctesias, has preserved the date of the overthrow of Assyria 
hj Belesys (or Belochus) and Arbaces in the year B.O. 825, 
with exactness. He places the fir^t year of Belus the 
Assyrian in his own Anno Mundi 3216 = B.C. 2286-7, making 
reference no doubt to the first year of the Cycle of Belus 
= B.a 2287 (Syn. Dind. vol. i, p. 181; Trans. Bib. Arch., 
Yol. iii, p. 16). 

From thence he counts 1460 years in round numbers, 
(p. '312), say 1461, to the overthrow of Sardanapalus by 
Arbaces, that is in A.M. 4676 = B.C. 825 ; and in confirmation 
of the exactness of this date, Megasthenes counts upwards 
from the first year of Darius son of Hystaspes (B.C. 521),* to 
Belochus and Arbaces 304 years, which begin, therefore, in 
the year B.C. 825 (Trans. Bib. Arch., vol. i, p. 262). 

This Belochus, or Phul-Belochus of Megasthenes, contem- 
porary with Arbaces, is no doubt the same king as Samsi-Vul 
or Shamas-Phul of the Assyrian Canon, king of Assyria, who 
began to reign at Nineveh about the year B.C. 825 (Smith's 
Eponym Canon, p. 60). The establishment of this date 
and synchronism is of much importance to ancient history, 
and should be borne in mind as fixed throughout these 
observations. 

We now come down to the dynasty of Deioces, the 
reckoning of the reigns between whom and Arbaces varies 
according to the theory of the different writers. I am in- 
clined, however, to think with Mr. Clinton that Diodonis 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



230 Book of Esther. 

may have preserved a true date, when he places the first 
exercise of influence over the Median tribes by Deioces, 
while but a young man, not yet on the throne, in the second 
year of the 17th Olympiad = B.C. 711, twenty-three years 
before his accession. 

Those writers are not justified who expunge the name of 
Deioces, the first king of the second dynasty, fi-om the list of 
Median kings.* For in the seventh year of the annals of 
Sargon king of Assyria (b.C. 715), ^y<y ]}]} ^SMT IeJ 
Da-ya-uk-ku, or Deioces,* is named as having been banished 
to Hamath, together with his distinguished family. He was 
then no doubt merely a youth, for his predecessor on the 
throne, Carducas, was still one amongst the twenty-four chiefs 
of the Median tribes who paid tribute to Sargon in B.C. 713.* 
And agaiQ ia B.c. 703, Sennacherib received " tribute from 
the distant Medes,'' and conquered Aspabara another of the 
twenty-four chiefs, so that Deioces had not yet become king 
of Media in B.O. 703/ Herodotus states that 

Deioces reigned 63 years. 

Phraortes „ 22 „ 

Cyaxares „ 40 „ 

Astyages „ 35 „ 

Together 150 years. 

Now, the question is, in what years did these kings begin 
to reign ? The testimony of Josephus — who, nevertheless, has 
done much to obscure sacred chronology — is invaluable as to 
the precise time of the reigns of these kings. After relating 
the wonderful event which happened at Jerusalem in the 
reign of Hezekiah, of the return of the shadow of the sun ten 
steps "on the steps of Ahaz," which it had gone down, which 
event we know from a living witness took place about the 
time when Sennacherib's army of 185,000 men was destroyed 
by pestilence on its retmn from Egypt, inflicting a blow on 
the power of Assyiia not soon to be recovered, he adds, *' It 

* Ano. Monarchies, toI. iii, p. 174. 

* Fastes de Sargon, line 49. Zeitschrift far Agypt. Sprache, July, 1869, p. 99. 
The Armenian historian Moses Chorenensis gives the succession of Median longs, 
and names Oardiceas, or Carduoas. Dr. Haigh was the first to point out the 
Talae of the reoord of Ctetias as a kej to the Assyrian Oanon. 

* Smith's Assyrian DiscoTeries, p. 2S9, Chardukka. 

* Records of the Past, toI. i, p. 28. 

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Book of Esther. 231 

was at this tun© that the dominion of the ABsyrianB was over- 
thrown by the Medes " ('JEi/ roifry t^ XP^^V cwifiri ttjv tcSj/ 
AaavpUav apj(7jv uiro MrjSa^v KaToKvOfjvai), Ant. x, ii, !• 
The phenomenon of the movement of the shadow on the 
steps I have already shown (Trans. Bib. Arch., vol. iii, pp. 
3240, and in "Messiah the Prince," 2nd edit., pp. 176, 193) 
was occasioued by the solar eclipse of the 11th January, B.C. 
689, and could have been occasioned by the sun in no other way 
than by a partial solar eclipse, towards noonday, about the 
ticfte of the winter solstice. It was then in the following 
year, b.c. 688, that Deioces, shaking off the feeble Assyrian 
yoke, was placed on the throne of Media; and if so 
Mediim chronology stands thus astronomically fixed : — 

Deioces reigns 53 years, from ao. 688^ 

Phraortes „ 22 „ „ 636 

Cyaxares „ 40 „ „ 613 

Astyages „ 35 „ „ 573 to 539 

So that Astyages died in the year B.C. 539, and Cyrus received 
his kingdom in B.C. 538. The year B.C. 538 attached to the 
first year of Cyrus (that is Kai-Khosru) father of Cambyses, 
thus rests upon no uncertain authority. 

Herodotus incidentally seems to confirm the correctness 
of this computation in a passage which has given rise to no 
little discussion (i, 130). After describing how Harpagus, 
the general of Astyages, deserted and joined with Cyrus in 
the overthrow of the army of Astyages, he fixes the time of 
the overthrow in these words: — "Thus after a reign of thirty- 
five years (^' erea irivTc koI rptijKovTa), Astyages lost 
his crown, and the Medes, in consequence of his cruelty, were 
brought under the yoke of the Persians. Their empire over 
the part« of Asia beyond the Halys had lasted 128 years, 
excepting the time when the Scythians had the dominion." 
{ap^avref rrj^ apa> *'A\vo9 iroTa/xov Aalrj*; iir* Irea rptijKOVTa 
/cai €KaTov SviSv SiovTo, irdpe^ ^ oaov ol SfcvOat ^pxov*) 
But these 128 years, which are, 1 think, correct, can never be 
reconciled with the 150 years counted from Deioces to the end 

* Canon Bawlinson expunges Deioces from tbe list of kings. F. Lenormant 
makes the jear B.o. 688 the hist jear of Deioces. Lettres Assjriologiques, torn i, 
p. 6L F^nee Clinton and Jackson hare both perceived that B.o. 688 must have 
bees the Brst year of his reign. Fast. Hell., toI. ii, p. 260 ; Jackson's Ant. rol.i, 
P.S84. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



232 Book of Esther. 

of the reign of Astyages.* The text must either be rejected, 
or amended. I would suggest, as possible, that wivre ical is a 
late interpolation, and should be removed, and that rpicKalBeiea 
should be substituted for rpuj/covra. There would then be 
no difficulty in counting the 128 years fix)m the year B.o. 688, 
for we should thus arrive at the year B.C. 560, or the first 
year of the 55th Olympiad, for the overthrow of Astyages by 
Cyrus, which is an undisputed date in history, and testified 
to by Diodorus, Thallus, Castor, Polybius, and Phlegon,* 
Herodotus is evidently incorrect when he calls thip the 
thirty-fifth or last year of Astyages, for in this he contradicts 
himself, and is also contradicted by Ctesias. He admits that 
Astyages lived after his defeat, and was treated by Cyrus with 
kindness till his death. But Ctesias tells us that he was not 
only well treated, but continued to reign over the Barcanians, 
or Hyrcanians, and was looked upon by Cyrus as a father, 
and buried with kingly honours. 

Again, the book of Judith, which certainly contains records 
of true history, and parts of which are evidently transcribed 
fi-om some Assyrian tablet which contained the history of 
Nabopalassar, which may some day be recovered (comp€ire 
chap, i and chap, ii with the history of the campaigns of Assur- 
banipai), affords valuable and exact testimony to the same 
reckoning of Median chronology. We are all aware that the 
years of the reign of Nabopalassar, father of Nebuchadnezzar, 
are fixed by a lunar eclipse in his fifth year, B.C. 621; and 
if the fifth year of his reign was 621, the twelfth year 
would of course be B.O. 614. Now, the Book of Judith 
relates that ** Nabuchodonosor who reigned at Nineveh," 
who could only have been the same as Nabopalassar, in his 
twelfth year slew Arphaxad, Phraortes, or Frawartish, as 
the name is written in the Assyrian inscriptions, in the plain 
on the borders of Ragau, or Rhages, not far distant firom 

» Mr. Clinton rightly places the first year of Deioces aa king in B.C. 687-8. 
Fast. Hell., rol. i, p. 260. But he suggests that twenty-two superfluous years 
aboTe B,c. 688, though forming part of the 53 years of Deioces, should be reckoned 
as years preceding his actual reign of only 31 years. But if so placed, the last 
year of Phraortes would not coincide with the 12th of Nabopalassar, who slew 
him in B.C. 614. 

- Africani Chronicon. Bouth, vol. ii, p. 271. 

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Book of Esther. 233 

Teheran, the preBent capital of the Shah of Persia. So that 
Cjraxares, his son and successor, came to the throne of Media 
in B,c. 613, the same year which we have arrived at by counts 
ing with the aid of Josephus from the eclipse of B.O. 689. 
Astyages, the son of Cyaxares, would therefore have come to 
the throne in B.C. 573, and have died in his thirty-fifth year in 
B.C. 539, being followed by Cyrus in B.C. 538. These combined 
testimonies afford sufficient evidence of the historical accuracy 
of the reckoning which places Cyrus, the founder of the 
Persian empire, on the throne of Media in B.O. 538. But there 
IB not the slightest ground, thus far, for connecting the year 
B.C. 539 with the capture of Babylon. 

The writer of the apocryphal additions to the book of Daniel 
seems to come somewhat near to this idea, where we read, 
** And king Astyages was gathered to his fathers, and Cyrus 
of Persia received his kingdom/' and then goes on to relate 
the story of Bel-Dagon, or Bel and the Dragon at Babylon. 
But there is no ground whatever for believing that the king- 
dom of Astyages ever included Babylon, On the contrary, 
Herodotus says, that when the Medes under Cyaxares, father 
of Astyages (say in 583), took Nineveh, " they conquered all 
Assyria except the district of Babylonia" (Herod. I, 106). 
And he mentions no expedition against Babylon in the reign 
<rf Astyages. Eight years later, that is in B.C. 530, Cyrus the 
grandson of Astyages no doubt conquered that city, which 
is sufficient to satisfy the words of the apocryphal writer. 

Asiatic chronology, as understood by the Greeks in the 
fourth century B.C., closes with the testimony of Xenophon, 
the most graceful, truthful, and matter-of-fact of historians, 
whose researches concerning the education of Cyrus, and his 
war with the confederate princes of Lydia, Egypt, and Baby- 
lonia previous to his conquest of Babylon are of inestimable 
value, as throwing light on sacred history. Xenophon, in 
agreement with Herodotus, tells us that it was Cyrus the 
grandson of Astyages who then conquered Babylon. But in 
opposition to Herodotus, he goes on to say that he lived in 
harmony with his grandfather, and that the fall of that great 
city took place before Cyrus had come to the Persian throne, 
and when his father Cambyses, son of Cyrus and Mandane, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



234 Book of Estlier. 

wa,8 reigning in Persia ; and that acting as general of the 
forces of the king of Media and the king of Persia, the empire 
being still divided into two kingdoms, Cyrus, yet a young man 
of about five and twenty years of age, obt€uned possession 
of Babylon on behalf of his father, Cambyses, who we know 
first began to reign over Babylon in B.C. 529. Cyrus himself, 
he adds, did not become entitled either to the throne of 
Persia or of Babylon till after his father's death (B.O. 518),* 
that is, not till after the thrones of Persia and Babylon and 
Egypt had been usurped by his kinsman Darius^ son of Hystaspee 
(see Trans., vol. ii, pp. 243, 244). 

Now this last inevitable inference, that Cyrus, son of 
Cambyses king of Babylon, and Darius son of Hystaspes, 
were contemporary kings, is an historical truth of deq> 
significance, though startling at first sight as greatly at 
variance with the long-accepted interpretation of flerodotnfl. 
Nevertheless, it will be found to rest upon unquestionable 
authority. It is a truth essential to the scheme of reckoning 
herein maintained, which identifies Darius son of Hystaspee 
with " Darius the Mede " of Daniel. And, with regard to 
the main subject in hand, the position of the Book of Esther 
in history, it leads to the interesting identification of Esther, 
or Ishtar, with the well-known queen Hadassah or 'Atossa, 
daughter of Cyrus,^ wife of Darius, and mother of Xerxes, 
through whom Darius inherited the dominions of Ahasuenw, 
or Tanu-Axares son of Cyinis. He who would deny these 
inferences must first set aside: — 

1. The direct evidence of Xenophon, that Cyrus (Koresh), 

son of Cambyses king of Babylon, and of Mandane 
daughter of Astyages, reigned at Babylon after his 
father's death, and therefore in the reign of Darius. 
(Trans., vol. i, p. 244.) 

2. Of Herodotus, that Astyages his grandfather married in 

the year of the echpse in B.O. 585, and that the 
Cyrus who conquered him in B.C. 560 was not 
therefore Cyrus son of Mandane. 

1 Cambyses, according to Ctesias, reigned eighteen years, that is fiom B.C. 585 
to 518. 

» That is, danghtcr-in.law. Herod. HI, 183. 

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Book of Esther. 235 

3. Of Ctesias, that it was the father of Cambyses king of 

Babylon (Kai-Khosru), who conquered Astyages, 
before Cambyses reigned, and therefore not the son 
of Cambyses king of Babylon. 

4. Of the inscription on the brick from Senkereh, that 

" Cyras son of Cambyses," repaired the temples at 
Babylon, and was therefore the Cyrus who reigned 
at Babylon. 

5. Of Herodotus, that the body of Cyrus father of Cambyses 

was left unburied on the field of battle, when fighting 
with the Scythians, when Darius was about twenty 
years' old.^ 

6. Of Arrian, that the tomb of Cyras at Pasargadee con- 

tained the body of *' Cyrus son of Cambyses," 

7. Of Megasthenes, that when Cyrus (son of Cambyses) had 

appointed Nabonadius, the last king of Babylon, as 
ruler over the province of Carmania, Darius drove him 
thence (vol. i, p. 189) ; and again, that when the last of 
the kings of the Medes (called by him Aspanda, per- 
haps Isfendiar) died, ** Cyrus and Darius ruled over the 
Persian empire for thirty-six years " (vol. i, p. 262). 

8. Of Ludan, that Cyrus survived his son, the king 

Cambyses, and died, as he supposed, at the age of 
one hundred years (Trans, vol. i, p. 207). 

9. Of Clement of Alexandria (Trans, vol. i, p. 250), that 

Babylon was overthrown in B.C. 510, that is in the 
reign of Darius : and of Orosius, that about the time 
when consuls began to rule instead of kings at Rome' 
(b.c. 510), Cyrus conquered Babylon a second time, 
that is in the reign of Darius. 

10. Of Joannes Malalas, who records that Cyras perished 

in a naval war between the Persians and Samians, 
not earlier therefore than the time of Darius, whom 
he calls son of Cyrus.* 

11. Of Josephus, copying from Berosus or Megasthenes, that 

Cyrus and Darius came together against Naboandelus, 
or Nabonadius, the last king of Babylon, and over- 

' Herod., L. I., 209-214. « Fasti Consulares, Euseb. Auch., p. 190. 

' Joannes Malalas, Dind., p. 158. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



236 Book of Esther. 

threw him (Ant. x, xi, 2) ; and how from the captivity 
of the ten tribes (that is in B.C. 696) to the first year 
of Cyrus, there were counted 182^ years (that is 
696-183 = B.a 513). 

12. Of the Book of Daniel, that " Daniel prospered in the 

reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus " (vi, 28) ; 
and again, that " in the third year of Cyrus" (B.C. 511), 
"the prince of the kingdom of Persia' withstood 
him (Daniel) one-and-twenty days," or years, that 
is till B.C. 491; also that he "remained there with 
the kings of Persia," that is with Cyrus and Darius, 
then at Babylon, in B.C. 511 (x, 13). 

13. Of the contemporary sacred historian Ezra, who relates 

that about the time of Zerubbabel (B.C. 511), or third 
year of Cyrus (Koresh), when Daniel's release from 
Babylon was opposed by ** the prince of the kingdom 
of Persia," the building of the temple of Jerusalem 
was also stopped, and the decree of Cyrus set at 
nought "all the days of Cyrus, even until the (second 
year of) the reign of Darius," that is till Darius at 
about sixty-three years old, in B.C. 591, took the 
kingdom, or empire, just twenty-one years after the 
contest had arisen between these kings as stated 
by Daniel (Ezra iv, 5, 24). 

14. The evidence of the Babylonian contract tablets, or 

tribute tablets of the reigns of Cyrus and Darius, is 
not yet sufficiently complete to place these conclu- 
sions beyond the reach of controversy. We have, 
however, in the British Museuija a series of six 
tablets among others, reaching to the seventh year 
of the reign of Cyrus, B.C. 507, that is, of course, of 
Cyrus son of Cambyses, who repaired the temples of 

* There is an inacription at Persepolis, copied by Niebuhr, in whicb Dariui 
speaks of himself at one time merelj as haring become king of the " province of 
Persia." (Jotimal R. A. Soc, Vol. x, Part iii, pp. 274-6). It was probablj also 
during these twenty -one years that Darius sought to weaken the power of Babjlon 
by direrting the trade of the East and of the Persian Gtdf through the Isthmus 
of Suez by the canal which he then finished. This policy was afterwards reversed, 
aiid part of the canal destroyed. See Oppert*s M^moire sur les Bapporta de 
I'Egypte et de TAssyric, p. 125. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Book of Esther. 237 

Babylon, from which it appears that he was first 
styled *'king of Babylon" on the 28th day of the 
month Adar, B.C. 511. We have also tablets of the 
twelfth and thirteenth years of Darius, that is in 
B.C, 510 and 509, on the first of which he is styled 
"king of Babylon," on the second merely "king 
of the countries," which seems to confirm the state- 
ment of Daniel and Megasthenes that both these 
kings were acting together at Babylon about the 
first of these years, B.C. 510. 
I take this opportunity of drawing the attention of collec- 
tors to the extreme importance of obtaining a complete series 
ol thirty-six tablets, which no doubt are in existence in the 
mounds of Babylonia, or elsewhere, relating to the thirty-six 
years' reign of Darius son of Hystaspes, whereby to ascertain 
whether or not Darius was styled " king of Babylon " during 
the several years after B.C. 510, in which Cyrus is so desig- 
nated, and even down to 505, during which six years I assume 
that the two kings were acting in opposition, and in a state 
of rivalry. Meanwhile the evidence above is sufiicient to 
Aow that Cyrus king of Babylon and Darius Medus were not 
reigning together in Babylon in B.C. 538, and that such an 
Msnmption as a foundation upon which to erect a scheme of 
sacred chronology can only lead to extreme error and confusion. 
Little light is thrown upon the chronology of the reign 
of Darius by the inscription at Behistim, in which the court 
historiographer carefully avoids to mark events by regnal 
years. One leading fact, however, is derived from the inscrip- 
tion, viz., that the 36 years of Darius, which we know began 
in B.c. 521, and ended in B.C. 486, when Xerxes came to the 
throne, were divided into two parts, in these words : — 
** This is what I did before I became king." 
" This is what I did after I became king." 
And by interpreting these words in connection with the 
histories of Herodotus and Ctesias we learn that Cyrus I, 
having died in battle when Darius was twenty years old, in 
B.C. 536, Cambyses his son began to reign in B.C. 535. Ctesias 
then tells us that Cambyses reigned eighteen years, till 
B.C. 518, and that Darius reigned thirty-one years, after the 
AUof the Magian, fill 486. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



238 



Book of Esther. 



513 
512 



511 
510 
509 
508 
507 



TABLETS 

Selected from several in the British Museum, 

dated in the reign of Cjrus. 



Cybfs 
King of Babylon. 



Warka, month Elul. 

Warka, 
Warka, 



month Adar, 
month Adar, 



Warka, 
Warka, 
Warka, 
Warka, 
Warka, month Ab. 



month Adar, 
month Siyan, 
month Kisilu, 



24th day, 2nd year 

27th day, 2nd year 

28th day, 2nd year 
28th day, 3rd year 
18th day, 4th year 

7th day, 5th year 
6th year 

9th day, 7th year 



King of Babylon 
Ejng of Babylon 
King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 



PSBfllA AID 

Mboll 



i<iM" 



[Kingof tlietwo 
[ Coun^iei 
[King of the tvo 
I Countriei 



B.O. 



TABLETS 
dated in the reign of Darius. 



Dabixts 
King of Babylon. 



THl TWO 

Coinnsiii or 

PIB8U 

Ain) VLxBU. 



521 


1 


520 


2 


519 


3 


518 


4 


517 


5 


516 


6 


515 


7 


514 


8 


513 


9 


512 


10 


511 


11 


510 


12 


509 


13 


508 


14 


507 


15 


506 


16 


505 


17 


504 


18 


503 


19 


502 


20 


501 


21 


500 


22 


499 


23 


498 


24 


497 


25 


496 


26 


495 


27 


494 


28 


493 


29 


492 


30 


491 


31 


490 


32 


489 


83 


488 


34 


487 


35 


486 


36 



Warka, month Elul, 5th day, 2nd year 
Babbat, month Elul, 11th day, 3rd year 
Warka, month Adar, 4th year 

6th year 

Bitpata, month Nisan, Ist day, 7th year 

EUanamitu, month Elul, 17th day, 10th yr. 

Babylon 9th day, 11th year! 

„ month Sebat . . . . j 

Karrinabu, month Siyan j Ist day, 13th yr. 

Diblat, month Kisilu, 7th day, 14th year 



Month Tammuz, 10th day, 18th year 
Warka, month Siyan, 24th day, 20th year 

month Kisilu, 7th day, 25th year 

Warka, month Tisri, 10th day, 26th year 
1. BeUhaxtarl 
2. 
8. 

Darius, 30th year") 
month Adar, 4th day, J 

Babylon, month Tammuz, 14t^ day, 35th yr. 



King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 



King of Babylon 



KinfforOoaBtria 
Kingof OovffiM 
Kinf of Ooofiria 

Kingof OoanBiM 
f King of tbe two 
\ Cooatxte 

f King of tltf tVD 
t CoimtfiM 



fKlDgofthetw 

i CotmkiM 
CKing of the tw) 
t Cotrntiiei 



King of Babylon 

King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 

King of Babylon 

King of Babylon 



((King of the tw 
I Countriw?) 
(King of the two 
I Couotncfl 



("King of the t»» 
t Countriei 
/King of the t»a 
\ CoQDtnes 



/King of the l«l 



* Maty mat, the two countries, that is of Media and Persiaj 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Book of Esther. 239 

So that Ctesias begins the second period spoken of in 
the Behistun inscription in the 6th year of Darius, B.C. 516, 
when Darius was certainly paramount in Egypt. There are 
tablets in existence which show also that Darius was 
recognized as paramount at Babylon from B,C. 520 to 516; 
and these five years were no doubt years of usurpation. 
Nabonidochus the viceroy then threw off the yoke in 515, 
and Babylon w£W recovered by Cyrus and Darius in B.C. 510. 
After which it is assumed that Cynis reigned at Babylon 
till B.C. 505. 

Thus far it will be observed that the chronological 
qnestion in the sccde for decision, tm*ns upon the reception, 
or otherwise, of the scholastic fiction, which places a great 
Median king on the throne of Babylon in the year B.C. 538 ; 
or, on the other hand, upon the realization of the scene in the 
dial chamber of king Ahaz, when, as described by Isaiah, 
the pious Hezekiah, " sick unto death,*' and confined to his 
couch, amidst the scientific apparatus of his immediate pre- 
decessor, beheld the retrograde motion of the sun's " shadow 
on tie steps," marking a date entirely at variance with such 
teaching. In support of the reality of the dial scene, upon 
which, perhaps, alrefiwiy sufficient may have been said, I would 
draw attention to an almost exact repetition of this scene, in 
the palace of HiUakd, the khan of the Moghuls, at Mar&ghah 
m Aderbijan, in the days when the empire of the Arabian 
Cahphs was overthrown, in A.D. 1258. This scientific 
monarch, it appears had, like Ahaz, gathered round him from 
every part of his dominions, philosophers and astronomers, 
who laboured in works of science under the direction of the 
&mous Nasser-u-deen, by whom as we are told a room in 
the observatory had been constructed with a dome, and that 
** through a perforation in the dome the rays of the sun were 
admitted so as to strike upon certain lines on the pavement 
in a way to indicate in degrees and minutes the altitude and 
declination of that luminary during every season, and 
marking the time and hour of the day throughout the year." 
By means of this apparatus, "an error of surprising 
magnitude, and to the great confusion of chronology, was 
detected in the mode formerly observed for adjusting the 

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240 Book of Estlier. 

commencement of the new year."* Such was the nature of 
the chamber m which Hezekiah lay stretched upon his couch, 
shaded from the noon-day sun, yet watching from within the 
lise and fall of the meridian shadow on " the steps of Ahaz." 

I propose, therefore, in place of the erroneous date 
(b.C. 538) to substitute the year. B.C. 690-689, which embraces 
the invasion of Sennacherib during 690, and the illness of 
Hezekiah in the beginning of 689, as the essential key-date 
of sacred chronology. I look upon the latter part of the 
14th year of the reign of Hezekiah as securely fixed by 
the eclipse on the 11th January in that year: and with 
reverence I submit, as a just inference from the precision 
and value of the results, that this sign in the heavens 
manifested in the chamber of the sick king at Jerusalem, 
was not 80 manifested merely for the confirmation of the 
wavering faith of the desponding king, but also, by divine 
prescience, for the guidance and instruction of future and 
far distant generations. 

With this master key in hand, the gift of the Almighty 
Architect Himself^ a child may venture to explore the sacred 
edifice of Scripture history, and trace, without error or con- 
fusion, the dates of the successive stages of the history of 
God's "holy people." Alas that the holy people should 
themselves ignore the chief foundation '* stone" on which the 
sacred edifice is raised. Come then, and as it were in vision, 
let us take an artless child as guide — for of such is the 
kingdom of heaven. — Let us go up to the mountain of the 
house of Jehovah, and bearing in hand the sacred key, let 
us seek the entrance of that lofty chamber where lie hid 
the everlasting title deeds of the Holy Land : for on those 
deeds is indelibly inscribed the date of their delivery in Ur 
of the Chaldees*: and from thence there are but two steps 
upward to the date of man's creation. 

It has already been shown (Trans, of Soc. Bibl. Arch., vol. I, 
p. 93) that the date of Christ's nativity was in the autunm of 
the year B.C. 3, at the beginning of the sabbatical year B,C. 3-2, 
being just 490 years after the first year of " Darius king of 

» Malcolm's HU tory of Persia, Vol. I, p. 224. 
' Acts fii, 2. 

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Book of Esther. 241 

Babylon," when "about three score and two years old" 
(Dan. V, 31) ; that is to say, in the 63rd year of his age, and 
the 30th year of his reign over the Persians, B.C. 492, in 
agreement with the prophetic words of Daniel, "seventy 
weeks" (that is 70 sabbatical weeks of years, or 490 years) 
"are determined on Thy people, and Thy holy city, to finish 

the transgression and to anoint the Holy of Holies " 

Pan.ix,24). 

I. Now, starting from this fixed and certain date of the 
Nativity, we rise by four successive stages, with extreme 
exactness, up to the time of the laying of the foundation 
stone of Solomon's temple in the year B.C. 990. An intelli- 
gent child would first inquire, was there in secular history 
a king called " Darius king of Babylon" living 490 years 
before the autumn of B.C. 3? All history attests that 
Darius son of Hystaspes was sovereign of the whole eastern 
world in B.C. 493. 

It is an interesting fact bearing on this result that within 
a few weeks previous to the writing of these words, a tablet 
from Babylonia has reached the British Museum, bearing the 
legend** 30th year of Darius, king of Babylon^ king of the 
countries," that is to say, dated in the year B.C. 492, and 
Babylon is thus set forth in that year as the capital of the 
two confederate kingdoms of the Medes and Persians.* The 
empire at this time we also know embraced the provinces 
of the kingdom of Assyria, seeing that Ezra, at the 
dedication of the temple (B.C. 485), styles Darius "king of 
Assyria" (vi, 22). 

But it may be asked, how can it be ascertained that 
Darius was about ** three score and two years old " in B.C. 492, 
that is to say, in the 63rd year of his age ? We turn to the 
historian Ctesias, the most trustworthy writer concerning this 
period of Persian history, and he states the fact ; for we read 
— "Japeld9 hi iiraveKOoDV els Ilepaa^^ koi Ovaa^y koX ^fiipa^ 
¥oai]aa9 X rekevra, ^rjaa^ fikv hrj o)8," having lived seventy- 
two years. Now, if Darius completed his 72nd year say in 

^ Daniel t, 28, " Thy kingdom is divided and given to th« Mtdes and Peraiani." 
" And Darius the Median received the kingdom." 

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242 Book oj Esttier. 

B.C. 484, and died, he would have been still about 72, if he 
had lived to the year B.C. 483, and therefore was " about 62 *' 
in the year B.C. 493, when he "took the kingdom" from 
Belshazzar. How very far astray from the truth are those 
who search for Darius Medus in the year B.C. 538, nearly half 
a century earlier than this obvious date.^ 

Before we proceed further, it will not be out of place, 
but adding weight to the argument, to say a few words con- 
cerning a very remarkable change of policy in the government 
of the kingdom of Persia about the year B,0. 492-90, which 
affords another strong mark of identity between Darius the 
Mede and Darius son of Hystaspes. It is referred to briefly 
by Daniel in those words, " It pleased Darius to set over the 
kingdom (that is Darius the Mede, when about 63 years old), 
120 princes, which should be over the whole kingdom ; and 
over them three presidents (Sarkin, l^pHD)) of whom Daniel 
was the first." (Dan. vi, 1, 2.) Now we know that during the 
greater part of the reign of Darius son of Hystaspes, the 
prominent feature of the government of Persia was its 
division into some twenty, or twenty-three, powerful and 
despotic satrapies. These twenty or twenty-three divisionB 
are fully described by Herodotus, and are also engraved in 
cuneiform character on three different Persian monuments 
set up in his reign. The sudden division of each of these 
satrapies, on an average, into five or six parts, immediately 
after Darius took possession of Babylon, is so bold and 
striking a feature of state policy, that it cannot in reason 
be supposed to apply to two different kings bearing the same 
title, yet issuing their decrees at an interval of 46 years apart. 
This change of government was certainly carried into execu- 
tion by Darius the Mede, and with equal certainty also by 
Darius son of Hystaspes. The two kings thus spoken of were. 



* Since the above was in tjpo the sixth Tolame of the Speaker's CommenUiy 
has appeared, in which I regret to see that the same date B.C. 638 is retained for 
the unknown Darius, and the two questions are grarely discussed, whether Darius 
Medus maj not hare been the same king as Astyages, and the Belshazzar of 
Daniel, who reigned at the close of seventy years after the "dcsolatioiiB of 
Jerusalem," may not bo identified with the Evil-merodach of Jeremiah, who 
reigned twenty-six years after the destruction of Jerusalem. 



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Book of Esther. 243 

therefore, one and the same. Herodotus refers to the event 
only so far as it aflFected the satrapy of Ionia. The battle 
of Marathon we know was fonght in the year B.C. 490 : and 
not long before the time when Mardonius was sent by 
Darius on the expedition to Marathon he was directed to 
proceed to Ionia. And, now, says Herodotus, " a marvellous 
event occurred (jieyi&Tov ffSfia) which would scarcely be 
beUeved by those Greeks who do not allow that Otanes had 
advised the seven conspirators (at the time of the accession 
of Darius) to make Persia a democracy ; for Mardonius put 
down all the despotic governors throughout Ionia, and 
established democracies in their place^^ (Herod, vi, 43). The 
Babylonian satrapy no doubt was then also subjected to the 
same division, consideriDg the series of revolts of pretenders, 
claiming to be sons of Nabonadius, the late powerful satrap 
of that kingdom, even down to the final revolt of his son 
BekhaKzar. After the death of Cyrus II son of Cambyses, 
say in B.O. 505, Darius in virtue of the rights of queen 'Atossa, 
daughter-in-law of C3rrus I, and widow of Tanu-Axares, 
immediately laid claim to the provinces of Persia, " on this 
ride the river" (Ezra iv, 11, 16), in addition to the 127 pro- 
vinces of Media, on the other side the river, already belonging 
to his queen, and his seat of government may have been 
probably a few yeare later removed from Susa to Persepolis. 
His claim to the empire, however, was disputed by Atrines 
and Martins at Susa, Phraortes and Sitratachmes in Media, 
Phraates in Margiana,* and Aristagoras in Ionia. These 
powerful satraps had greatly weakened the empire by their 
revolts, and the form of government by satraps had proved 
itself quite unmanageable. The marvellous change of policy 
spoken of by Herodotus, by which this system of govern- 
ment was suddenly set aside, seems to be confirmed by the 
wording of the inscriptions of Darius at Persepolis, 
especially of that on the tomb of Darius at Nakhsh-i-Rustam, 
inscribed, as Sir Henry Rawlinson considers, after the 
year B.C. 492 (Journ. R.A.&., Vol. X, part III, p. 289). 
For in addition to the ordinary titles, "great king," "king 
of kings," we there read the several new and unusual titles, 
1 Behitttm InioriptioD. 

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244 Book of Eather 

*' Darius king of the countries of the people" (p. 279), 
**king of the people," "lawgiver of the people," that is, 
king and lawgiver of the democracies (pp. 286, 291). It was 
then Darius son of Hystaspes, beyond question, who was 
pleased to set over the kingdom 120 princes or lieutenants 
which should be over the whole kingdom, in the days of 
Daniel, B.O. 492, and not some imknown king supposed to 
have been reigning in Babylon in B.c. 538. 

But it has been said, that Darius on his tomb describes him- 
self as a *' Persian, son of a Persian." How then could Daniel, 
who knew him face to face, properly speak of him as " Darius 
the Median " ? In reply, it may be said he could do no other- 
wise in the year B.C, 492 ; for, as a Persian prince of a junior 
branch from Acheemenes, Darius had no legitimate claim to 
the empire. He had no greater, but less claim to the empire of 
Assyria and Babylon than his father Hystaspes, or Gushtasp, 
still living about the year B.C. 492.^ He had, however, a 
legitimate claim to the throne of the Modes, as in possession 
of the provinces attached to the throne of Susa, through 
queen *Atossa, or Hadassah, which were then actually under 
his sceptre, together with the kingdom of Egypt. Again, 
his claim to the imperial throne could only be through 
*Atossa, after the death of Hystaspes: the empire, therefore, 
did not come into his possession till the fall of Babylon in 
B.O. 493. Daniel accordingly rightly sets forth his title as 
"son of, or successor of, Ahasuerus of the seed of the 
Modes," or Darius the Mede, in B.O. 493, who then "received 
the kingdom," or empire of Persia thus late in his reign. 

Some indications of turbulence, it may be infeiTed, had 
occurred in Phoenicia before this time to have given colour 
to the report spread by Aristagoras, that it was the intention 
of Darius to transport the Phoenicians ijuto Ionia and to 
replace them by transporting lonians into Phoenicia. (Herod, 
vi, 3). For the 70 years' depression of Tyre were now at an 
end, and the joyous city was once more singing as a harlot. 

^ Hystaspes was still liring when Darius had completed the inscriptions on 
his tomb at Bakhsh-i-Bustam (Ctesie Fragmenta, p. 4Q), He is also spoken of 
in the Behistun inscription, column iii, late in the histoi7 of Darius. The 
native Persian historians speak of Gushtasp where Herodotus speaks of Dsrioa. 

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Book of Esther. 245 

Again, we know with certainty from the book of Ezra that the 
power of the rulers in Palestine, who had, in opposition to 
the king's command, obstructed the fulfilment of the decree 
of Cyrus for the rebuilding of the temple, was partly taken 
away in the year B.C. 491 by Darius, by the commission then 
granted to the Jews under Zerubbabel and Jeshua to build 
the temple and to govern themselves according to their own 
laws, free fix)m tax or interference from Samaria (Ezra iv, 5). 

Thus, on the final subjugation of Babylon in B.C. 493, 
when Belshazzar was slain, and the walls of that city broken 
down, and "all" the gates carried away (Herod, iii, 159), 
Darius, having put down the last enemy of his supremacy, 
became, as we have said, sovereign of the whole eastern 
world, the ruler of the most extensive empire which had yet 
existed on the earth. It must be understood, therefore, 
that when Daniel, Ezra, Haggai, and Zechariah speak of the 
"first," "second," "fourth," and "sixth" years of his reign, 
they count in imperial years from B.C. 493, not from B.C. 521, 
or 538. 

This was indeed a marked epoch in the history of the 
heathen world, as also great in the annals of "the holy 
people " : the commencement of the Persian empire proper, 
spoken of by Daniel as coming up " Ijist," and out-topping 
the kingdom of the Medes.* Accordingly, Josephus, follow- 
ing the first book of Esdras, tells us that in the first year 
of Darius he made a great feast, no doubt at Shushan, at 
which were assembled the 127 *^ rulers of the Medes and 
princes of the Persians^^^ comprehending the whole of his late 
dominions derived from Ahasuerus (1 Esdras iii, 1, 2) ; and 
that during the days of that banquet it was so contrived, 
either by the king himself, or by his three princely body 
guards, all of the Hebrew race, that it should be publicly 
proclaimed from " the royal seat of judgment," to all the 
princes of the empire of ^^ Persia and Media'* (v. 9), that it 
was now his royal will and pleasure to restore the captive 
Jews, still retained at Babylon* notwithstanding the decree 

' Dan. Tiii, 3. - Jos. Ant. xi, iii, 2. 

» "DeliTer thjself, O Zion, that dwellest with the daughter of Babylon." 
(Ze^. ii, 7) . Written in the 2nd year of Darius as emperor of Perwa^ 

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246 Book of Esther. 

of Cyni8, and that the far-famed temple of Jehovah should 
be rebuilt. Such was the princely feeling of favour and 
affection of Darius towards the late exiled race. And how, it 
will be asked, could such a change^ of feeling have grown np 
in the heart of the heathen king. The tale has long ago been 
written, as far as regards the Jewish record of the history, and 
only by much secular learning has it become obscured and laid 
aside. On the secular side, however, of the history, we are told 
that Oarabyses had been compelled to obtain the sanction of 
the '' royal judges of Persia " (Herod, iii, 31) to his marriage 
with his sister-in-law, Hadassah, called his sister by HerodotuB, 
and thereby added Media to his Persian dominions. At his 
death in B.C. 518, Darius married this princess, and fixed his 
throne at Shushan, but did not yet put forth his title to the 
empire, which fell, of course, to Cyrus. The whole atmosphere 
of the Median court at Shushan now became impregnated with 
Jewish feelings and ideas. Esther and Mordecai, of course, 
were always about the person of Darius, the one as queen, 
the other probably as one of the three trusted body-guards. 
Again, Josephus tells us that friendship had long existed 
between Zerubbabel, " the prince of Judah," and the expec- 
tant future sovereign of the Persian empire. So much so 
that Darius had made a vow that whenever he came to the 
throne of the empire, he would permit the return of the 
Jewish captives to Jerusalem.^ Zerubbabel had, he says, 
been one of the king's three body guards. ** Nehemiah the 
Tirshatha," or cupbearer to Xerxes, who now took the title 
Artaxerxes (Ezra vi, 14), was also in attendance in the palace 
of the king, being a descendant firora the house of David 
(ix Tov airipixaro^ JafiiB).^ David' and Saul, we know, 
were related by the marriage of David with the daughter 
of Saul, and the descendants on both sides were, therefore, 
of course more or less distant cousins. Through queen 
Esther, descended fi-om Kish, they stood in the same re- 
lationship to the king ; so that we may readily comprehend 
how Darius, in consideration of their princely birth and con- 
nection with *Atossa, should have pledged his word to either 
of the thi-ee, that he who should prove himself the wisest 

» Ezra vi, 22. 2 1 Badras ir, 43. « Johan : Kalalfle, p. 160. 

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Book of Either. 247 

in diBcourse should be clothed m purple, and sit next to the 
king, and be addressed as " cousin of Darius " (1 Eedras iii, 7). 
In addition to the daily influence of Esther, and Mordecai, 
and Zerubbabel, and Nehemiah, at the Median court, there 
was also that of the holy sage, the aged Daniel, the grandest of 
all the characters of sacred Scripture.^ The whole policy of the 
empire seems to have been set in motion by the divine spirit 
of this extraordinary man. In the year B.C. 492, being on 
the extreme verge of his existence, he held a mighty influence 
over the mind of Darius, so that he was preferred before all 
the presidents and princes of the empire, "and the king 
sought to set him over the whole realm *' (Dan. vi, 3). He 
aimed not to be clothed in purple, or in scarlet, the abhorred 
colour of Babylon and idolatry, but he sought and obtained 
his heart's desire from the devoted king — the restoration of 
the temple of Jehovah, and the decree that in every dominion 
of ihe kingdom of Darius men should worship the God 
whom he adored (Dan. vi, 26). 

Herodotus has, no doubt, truly recorded how the fiery and 
ambitious 'Atossa, probably not long after the death of Cyrus, 
in B.G. 505, had urged Darius, before his expedition against 
the Scythians, to invade the Grecian states, and how she 
wisely counselled him that by occupying his indolent nobles 
hi foreign wars, the satraps might be restrained from breaking 
into sedition and revolt. There was not improbably a party 
also in the state, who promoted the views of the enterprising, 
restless queen, known, perhaps, as ** Hadassites," or DIplJl, 
" Hadasedm." For in the book of Zechaiiah (i, 8), dated in 
** the second year of Darius,'' in the month Sebat, or February, 
B.o. 490, under the veil of a vision of a horseman clothed in 
red amongst "the myrtle trees (Ha-Hadassim)," with other 
two horsemen, white and speckled, and four " carpentere," or 
workers in timber, perhaps builders of ships, great preparations 
are described as being made for war. The prophet Haggaialso, 
in the second year of Darius (Haggai ii, 20), refers to the same 
impending warlike movements, not as commonly assumed in 
B.C. 520, but twenty-nine years later, in B.C. 491. The allusion 

^ A building shown at the ruins of Susa is said to be the tomb of the 
prophet Daniel. 

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248 Book of Esther. 

is unquestionably to the ten years' operations against Greece, 
beginning at Marathon, and ending with Salamis and Plataea. 
And while the prophet communes in vision with the angel 
concerning these foreboding warlike preparations, the question 
is asked — a question which might be asked with equal devo- 
tion and earnestness in these most ominous days — " 0, Lord 
of Hosts, how long wilt Thou not have mercy on Jerusalem 
and the cities of Judah, against which Thou hast had indig- 
nation these three score and ten years " ? The answer is, " I 
am returned to Jerusalem with mercies, My house shall be 
built in it, saith the Lord of Hosts, and a line shall be 
stretched forth on Jerusalem*' (Zech. i, 16). **And Darins 
sent with them a thousand horsemen, till they had brought 
them back to Jerusalem safely " (1 Esdras v, 2). Yet, "not 
by might, nor by power, but by My Spirit, saith Jehovah of 
hosts. Who art thou, great mountain ? before Zerubbabel 
thou shalt become a plain" (Zech. iii, 6, 7). '* And the 
elders of the Jews builded, and they prospered through the 
prophecying of Haggai the prophet, and Zechariah the son 
of Iddo. And they builded and finished it, according to the 
commandment of the God of Israel, and according to the 
conmijuidment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes (that is 
Xerxes, now just placed on the throne with Darius). And 
this house was finished on the 3rd day of the month Adar, in 
the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king," that is in 
March, B.C. 485. 

It was at this time, therefore, according to Jewish tradition, 
that " the men of the great synagogue " were assembled to 
perform the work of reconstruction in B.C. 491, not separately 
and at different times, but together in a body, at Jerusalem, 
viz., ** Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah, 
Mordecai, Bilshan, £zra, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mizpar, Rehmn, 
Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi";^ the birth of Mordecai, say 
B.O. 580, and the death of Nehemiah, say in 431, marking the 
extreme limits within which these contemporaries Uved. 

II. And now again the thoughtful child — our guide— 
at once perceives that in this ** first year of Darius son of" (or 

> Chronologia Sacra-Frofana, B. Dayid Ganz, p. 56. 

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Book of Esther. 249 

heir to the 127 provinces of) " Ahasuerus of the seed of 
the Medes " (Dan. ix, 2), Darius had come to the throne 
of Babylon after the completion of ** seventy years in the 
desolations of Jerusalem," that is to say, 70 years after 
the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, in the 
19th year of his reign (Jerem. lii, 12). So that Jerusalem 
must have been destroyed in the year B.C. 563, just seventy 
years before the year B.C. 493. Nebuchadnezzar must also 
have begun his reign in Babylon eighteen years before 
that date, that is in B.C. 581, which again is a very important 
date to fix in Babylonian history, being twenty-three years 
lower than the date in Ptolemy's canon, yet rightly fixed as 
following soon after the solar eclipse of B.C. 585, and over- 
throw of Nineveh in B.C. 483. 

Again, it will be asked — where is the record to prove that 
the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar was the year B.C. 563 ? The 
answer is, that Demetrius, writing about 222 years before 
Christ, when Assyrian and Babylonian tablets might be 
referred to in every royal library in Asia, and counting 
the years of Nebuchadnezzar from B.C. 582, that is from the 
£bJ1 of Nineveh, one year earlier than Jeremiah, states that 
**the last carrying away of captives from Jerusalem by 
Nebuchadnezzar*' (alluding no doubt to the last chapter 
of Jeremiah, v. 30), that is in his 23rd year, was 338 
years and 3 months before the reign of the 4th Ptolemy, 
who began to reign in November, B.C. 222, that is 221 years 
2 months -f 338 years 3 months = B.C. 559 years 5 months ; 
80 that according to this reckoning the 23rd of Nebuchad- 
nezzar began in Nisan B.C. 560, and ended in Adar 559. 
But if any part of the year B.C. 559 was commensurate with 
the 23rd year, B.C. 563 would have been commensurate 
with the 19th of Nebuchadnezzar. The testimony of 
Demetrius, therefore, varies twenty-three years from that of 
the Canon of Ptolemy, and confirms our reckoning. 

The testimony of Demetrius concerning this date, as opposed 
to that of Ptolemy, is now placed beyond dispute by a recent 
discovery. Ptolemy the astronomer knew of no eclipse 
whereby to fix the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. But we learn 
irom the Book of Ezekiel that the 27tb year of Nebuchadnezzar 

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250 Book of E8thei\ 

was marked by the decisive mark of a total solar eclipse at 
Tahpanhes or Daphnae : and this 27th year, according to 
Demetrius, was the year B.C. 556, in which year I shall now 
phow that a total solar eclipse was visible at Daphnae. 

Here I regret to find that the proposed dates come into 
collision with those of the learned writer in the Speakers 
Commentary on the book of Ezekiel concerning Apriesor 
Hophra, king of Egypt. For it is clear that if the 23rd year 
of Nebuchadnezzar ended in B.o. 559, the death of Pharaoh 
Hophra, as stated by Josephus, must have followed about two 
or three years later. For Josephus writes — " In the fifth year 
after the destruction of Jerusalem, which was the 23rd year of 
the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, he made an expedition against 
Coelesyria ; and when he had possessed himself of it he made 
war against the Ammonites and Moabites ; and when he had 
brought all those nations under subjection, he fell upon 
Egypt in order to overthrow it : and he slew the king that then 
reigned^ and set up another,"^ that is, he slew Apries or 
Hophra, who had been conquered, though not slain, by 
Amasis some years before, according to Herodotus (ii, 169), 
and confirmed the position of Amasis as tributary king, say 
in B.C. 556, that is in the 26th year of his own reign counted 
irom after the death of his father, or the 27th year from the 
date of the battle of Carchemish, B.C. 482, which year is aUo 
counted as the first year of Nebuchadnezzar.* 

The "Downfall of Pharaoh Hophra, and the Ruin of 
Egypt," forms an impoi-tant epoch in the reckoning of the 
Speaker's Commentary. The learned writer's date for the 
fall of Hophra, is the common yet untenable date B.C. 570. 
The date for which I firmly contend is B.O. 556, fall thirteen 
years later. This later date is unquestionably to be preferred 
to the earlier for many reasons. In the first place, because 
the *' forty years' " degradation of Egypt,* which began in Ae 
27th year of Nebuchadnezzar, and which cannot be accounted 
for in tlie common reckoning^ is exactly fulfilled between the 
years B.C. 556 and 517, in which latter year, on the death of 
the tyrant Cambyses, Darius began to reign in Egypt, 

* Josephus, Ant. x, ix, 7. ' Jercm. xxy, 1, xlri, 2. 

* Ezek. xxix, 11. 

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Book of Esther. 251 

and was greatly hononred by the Egyptians as the restorer 
of their prosperity. (Trans, vol. i, p. 234.) 

Again, the evidence of the Apip raonuments, published 
by Monsr. Mariette in his " S^rap^nm de Memphis," is in- 
valuable as regards the reigns of Ouaphres, or Hophra, and 
Amasis.^ For it is clear from the following copies of the 
two last Apis epitaphs of the XXVIth Dynasty, that the 
fifth year of Amasis, which no one will deny began on the 
12th January, B.O. 566, followed immediately after the twelfth 
year of HopHra, so that this twelfth year of Hophra must 
have begun on the 12th January, B.0. 567, and his first regnal 
year must have been counted from 578, though already 
seated on the throne in B.C. 579. 

XXVI ** Dynastie — cinq Apis. 
Apis rV — nd Tan, 16, le 7 de Paophi, de Nechao : 

intronise Tan 1, le 9 d'Epiphi, de Psammdtichus II : 

mort Tan 12, le 12 de Pharmouthi, 

d'Ouaphres : 

enseveli Tan 12, le 21 Payni: 

&g& de 17 ans, 6 mois et 5 jours. 

Apis V — nd I'an 5, le 7 de Thoth, d* Amasis : 
intronisd Tan 5, le 18 Payni : 
mort Tan 23, le 6 de Phamenoth : 
enseveli Tan 23, le 15 de Pachons : 
agd de 18 ans, 6 mois. 

These epitaphs show that the Apis which died in the 12th 
of Hophra, in the month Pharmouthi, the eighth month, was 
succeeded by an Apis born in the following year on the 7th 
of Thoth, the first month, in the 5th year of Amasis, that is 
on the 18th January, B.o. 566. The Apis his predecessor 
must have died, therefore, on the 24th August, in the 12th 
year of Hophra, B.C. 567. 

How then can it be contended that Hophra, who certainly 
reigned not lees than 19 years, could have died so early as 
the year B.C. 570? Those who maintain this opinion must 
necessarily create an intermediate Apis between the IVth and 
Vth, which does not appear to have existed. 

* " Le Berap^um de Memphis/' p. 28. 

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252 Book of Either. 

But the upholders of this opinion are nnder a still greater 
and insurmountable difficulty. For it is clear from the booka 
of Jeremiah and Ezekiel, that the death of Hophra was 
signalized by the occurrence of a "total eclipse of the sun at 
Daphnee, or Tahpanhes, in latitude 31°, somewhere near the 
time of his death, which probably took place after Nebuchad- 
nezzar had pitched his royal tent at the entrance of that city 
to besiege it. For Jeremiah writes (xliii, 8, 9), " Then came 
the word of Jehovah unto Jeremiah in Tahpanhes, saying, 
Take gi-eat stones in thy hand, and hide them in the day 
time, in the brick-kiln which is at the entry of Pharaoh's 
house in Tahpanhes I will send and take Nebuchad- 
nezzar king of Babylon, my servant, and will set his throne 

upon these stones and he shall spread his royal 

pavilion over them." The words of Ezekiel concerning 
Hophra are, " The sword of the king of Babylon shall come 

upon thee " "I will also water with thy blood the 

land " " When I shall put thee out, I will cover the 

heaven, and make the stars thereof dark : I will cover the 
sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her Ught. All 
the bright lights of heaven will I make dark over thee, and 

set darkness upon the land" (xxxii, 6-11) ^At 

Teliaphnehes aho the day shall be darkened " (xxx, 18). 

There can be little doubt that these words have reference 
to a total eclipse of the sun at Daphnse, south of Pelusium ; 
and I am informed by Mr. Hind that there was a solar eclipse, 
by computation just short of totality^ on the 1st November, 
B.C. 556, the central path of which is laid down as passing 
somewhat below latitude 29°, which no doubt was that which 
darkened the day at Daphnse or Tahpanhes. No such eclipse 
can be found in any year near to B.C. 570. Those therefore 
who place the death of Hophra in 670, are under the necemty 
aho of inventing a total solar eclipse at the mouth of the Nik 
in tliat year^ which they will find difficult in conformity with 
any recent lunar tables. 

Now it is probable that Amasis, hearing of the approach 
of Nebuchadnezzar towards Egypt, in his 23rd year, B.C. 559, 

> "Small corrections quite compatible with calculations of other edipees 
might make the eclipee total at this point." — J. R. H. 

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Book of Estlier. 253 

seized the reins of government and of the army, setting aside 
Hophra, now merely nominal king, and prepared himself for 
resistance to the invasion ; so that the 35th year of Amasis, 
counted from this 20th of Hophra, was B.C. 526. This result 
agrees well with the evidence of two Egyptian inscriptions, 
one at Florence, the other at Ley den. The Florence inscrip- 
tion records the death of one Psammetichus, on the 6th day 
of Paopi, the second month, in the 35th year of Amasis, that 
is, on the 6th Februaiy, B.C. 526 (for the 1st of Thoth was on 
the Ist January in that year), and this Psammetichus had 
lived 71 years, 4 months and 6 days, from the 3rd year of 
Necho, whicli 3rd of Necho was therefore commensurate with 
the year B.C. 597, as it should be. 

The Leyden inscription records the death of one who 
died on the 6th August, B.C. 533, in the 27th year of Amasis, 
having lived 65 years, 10 months and 2 days, from the 1st 
year of Necho, month Epiphi, that is, from October, 599. 
In this month* therefore, Necho was already seated on the 
throne, though his 1st regnal year was dated from Thoth, 598. 
This inscription, therefore, agrees also with the proposed 
reckoning. 

The reckoning of this period of chronology is very simple 
and complete, when arranged in conformity with four well 
ascertained total solar eclipses which form the framework for 
the dates, and the result is to show that King Psammetichus I 
must have died in B.C. 599, and that he put an end to the 
dodecarchy and began to reign in B.C. 653 or 654, as stated 
by Manetho. 

B.C. 

610, 30th Sept. Total solar eclipse in Armenia. Invasion of Asia by the 
Scythians, who crossed the Caucasus, and fought a battle 
near Arma\'ir, or Erivan, during the darkness of an 
eclipse. (Herodotus, and Firdousi.) 

585, 28th May Total solar eclipse in Asia Minor during a battle between 
Cyaxares and Alyattes, when Astyages married the 
grandmother of Cyrus II. (Herodotus.) 

583 Nineveh taken by Cyaxares and Nebuchadnezzar, during 

the reign of his mother queen Nitocris; and the 
Scythians now expelled from Asia at the end of 
twenty-eight years of occupation. (Herodotus.) 

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254 Book of Esther. 

B.C. 

582 Battle of Carchemish. — Death of Necho.— Psammuthifl 

begins to reign in the 4th Jehoiakim. (Jerem. ixr, 

l,xlvi,2.) 

581 1st year of Nebuchadnezzar, after the death of his father. 

563 Destruction of Jerusalem, in the 19th year of Nebudiad- 

nezzar = 11th Zedekiah. 
557, 19th May. Total solar eclipse at Larissa, or Ninirtid, about the tirae 

of the conquest of the Medes by the Persians, in B.a 560. 

(Xenophon.) 
556, 1st Nov. Total solar eclipse at Tahpanhes, or Daphnse, near Piela- 

sium, lat, 30"" W, in the 26th year of Nebuchadnezzar. 
555 Sgypt given over into the hands of Nebuchadnezsar, 

in the 27th year of his reign. (Ezekiel xxix, 17.) 

This eclipae near the mouths of the Nile, at Tahpanhes, is 
of extreme value towards the settling of Egyptian chronology. 
For thus we find that Psammetiehtis began to reign in B.C. 
653, and that Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, who did not reign 
more than twenty-eight years, according to the follo>ving 
epitaph, must have died only a year or two before that date. 

XXVP Dynastie. 

Apis I — n6 Tan 26 de Tahraka : 

intronisi le 9 de Pharmotithi : 

mort Tan 20, le 20 de M^sori, de Psamm^tichus 1 : 

enseveli Tan 21, le 23 de Paophi. 

ELEMENTS OF THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF rc. 556, 
OCT. 31— NOV. 1. 

Greenwich Mean Time of Cokjunctiok in Biqht Ascbnbiox, 
ac. 566, Oct. 3l8t, at 20>» 66» 16*. 



Right Asceusion 210 


63 6 


Moon's hourly motion in R.A 


37 26 


Sun's „ „ 


2 27 


Moon's Declination 12 


8 42S 


Sun's „ 12 


44 31 S 


Moon's hourly motion in Declination 


9 39S 


Sun's „ „ „ 


63S 


Moon's Horizontal Parallax 


60 27 


Sun's „ „ 


9 


Moon's Semi-diameter 


16 28 


Sun's „ 


16 16 


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Book of Esther. 255 

The following are points upon the centre line :— 

Longitude 26 57 E. Latitude 28 27 N. 

„ 36 8E. „ 27 25 N. 

„ 42 46 E. „ 23 54N. 

Assuming for Pelusium, Long. 2^ 12» 40« E., Lat. 31° 15' N., a 
direct calculation gives — 

d. h. m. 

Beginning, Oct. 31 21 35) 

Ending, Nov. 1 6 1 ^^<^ ^^^^"^°^^^^ ^^^ '^^^• 
Greatest phase about 22^* 51™ (Nov. \^ 10^ 51» a.m.) magnitude 0'96. 

in. The next stage upwards in the ascent of the edifice of 
sacred history needs no question, even from a child, who takes 
liis Bible in hand, and placing the 11th year of Zedekiah, 
when Jerusalem was taken, in B.C. 563, counts upwards to the 
close of the 14tli year of Hezekiah in Adar, B.C. 689. Now 
Jehovah had said unto the king, through Isaiah, "I will 
add unto thy days fifteen years " (Isaiah xxxviii, 5) : and 
80 Hezekiah reigned in all twenty-nine years. 

The 1 5th yeat of the reign of Hezekiah 
55 years' reign of .... Manasseh 
2 „ „ .... Amon 

32 „ „ .... Josiah 

(including 3 months of Jehoahaz). 
11 years* reign of .... Jehoiakim 
1 „ ,, .... Jechoniah 

10 4m. „ .... Zedekiah 







B.C. 


egai 


1 in Nisan 


689 


» 


» 


674 


)> 


» 


619 


>» 


»> 


617 


» 


» 


585 


» 


» 


574 


>i 


» 


573 
to 



126 4m. 
•f 562 5m. Jerusalem taken, Temple burnt Aug. 563 



B.C. 688 9m. =» Nisan 689. 

that is to say 126 years 6 months + B.O. 562 years 5 months 
= Jan., 689, the date of Hezekiah's recovery from sickness, 
being the primaiy date of this arrangement, in which the 
Uth of Hezekiah begins in Nisan, B.C. 690, and ends in 
Nisan, 689. 

IV. From Nisan, B.C. 690, we next count just three hundred 
years to the laying of the foundation of Solomon's tempi©, in 
the fourth year of his reign, B.C. 990, thus: — 

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X 



25(> Book of Esther. 

B.C. 

If Solomon reigned 40 years, beginning in B.a 993, the 

37 last years of the reign of Solomon began in Nisan 990 

17 years' reign of .... Rehoboam „ „ 953 

2 „ „ ... Abijah „ „ 936 

41 „ „ .... Asa „ „ 934 

25 „ „ .... Jehosophat „ „ 803 

6 „ „ .... Jehoram „ „ 868 

1 „ „ .... Ahaziah „ „ 862 

6 „ „ .... Athaliah „ „ 861 

40 „ „ .... Jehoash „ „ 855 

29 „ „ .... Amaadah „ „ 815 

52 „ „ .... Uzziah „ „ 786 

15 „ „ .... Jotham „ „ 734 

16 „ „ .... Ahaz „ „ 719 
13 „ „ .... Hezekiah „ „ 703 

300 years to 14th of .... Hezekiah Nisan 690 

This computation is very simple and very exact. 

Some slight research is now required to prove that the 
historical date of the foundation of Solomon's temple was 
originally fixed in the year B.C. 990, imtil displaced by later 
theories. 

First. The annals of Tyi-e exactly confirm this reckoning. 
For Josephus, in his controversy with Apion, refers to the 
annals of Tyre, which, as copied by Menander, appear to have 
been preserved with extreme exactness, and in the same form 
as those of the kings of Judsea, that is giving the age at the 
time of death of each king, and the number of the years 
of reign ; and he sums up his observations thus : — ** So the 
whole time fi'om the reign of Hirom till the building of 
Carthage (that is to say, till the time when a colony of 
Phoenicians was led by the sister of Pygmalion to Afiica) 
amoimts to the sum of 155 years and 8 months. Since 
then the temple was built at Jerusalem in the 12th year 
of the reign of Hirom, there were fi'om the building of 
the temple to the building of Carthage, 143 years, and 
8 months" (Josephus cont Apion I, 18). Now Carthage 
was destroyed by Scipio Africanus in the year B.C. 146, just 
700 years after the foundation of the colony by Pygmahon's 
sister, that is in the year B.C. 846,* and if we add to this 

> According to Polybius, the epitomiser of Liry, Saidaa, Sohnus, and Oroeins. 
See " Meesiah the Prince," 2nd edit., p. 394. 



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Book of Esther. 257 

date 143 years, 8 months, we arrive at the date B.C. 989 years, 
8 months, or B.C. 990 for the building of Solomon's temple. 

Secondly, This was the date of the building expressed in 
very early records preserved in Armenia, as appears from the 
writings of the Arabian historian Abulpharagius, in the thir- 
teenth century A.D., who examined certain Syriac, Saracenic 
and Persian records then in existence in the city of Margan,in 
the province of Azerbijan, on the south of the Caucasus. This 
historian, speaking of Herod the Great, writes : — ** Tempore 
hnjus Herodis natus est Redemptor noster, finitaeque sunt 
hebdomades septem una cum hebdomadibus 62 Danielis, 
quae conficiunt annos 483, consolidandos ab anno sexto Darii 

flystaspis '* (vol. i, p. 46) *' anno ejus (Darii filii Hys- 

taspis) sexto perfectum est templum, in mense Tjar (Adar?), 
altum sexaginta cubitorum, latum viginti. CoUigimtur anni 
acondito templo primo Solomonis usque adhunc annum, quo 
structura altera finita est, 508" (vol. i, p. 31), making 
together, B.C. 4 + 482 + 508 = B.C. 994. Abulpharagius 
thus apparently computes four years in excess. This dis- 
crepancy is partly explained in his own words, thus: — 
"Annum nativitatis Domini nostri, quem nos in annum 
Gnecorum 309 (= B.C. 4), die secundo hebdomadis cadere 
invenimus, alii scriptores in ahum transferunt." If, then, we 
place the Nativity in B.C. 2. 3°, and the finishing of the second 
temple in March, B.C. 485, this latter date will fall in the 506th 
year after the laying of the foundation of the first temple in 
May, B.C. 990. The difference therefore is two years. 

Thirdly, and lastly, it was foretold by the prophet Amos 
that the death of Jeroboam II, king of Samaria, should be 
preceded by tremblings of the earth, or earthquakes, and by 
the awful sign of the going down of the sun at noon^ and the 
darkening of the earth in the clear day (Amos vii, 11, 
viii, 8, 9), that is to say by the total darkness of a total solar 
eclipse in the kingdom of Samaria at mid-day.^ Now 

^ Tbe eclipee, according to the words of Amos, would probably bare passed 
orer Dao, to which place the people of Samaria went up to worship the golden 
caif (1 Kings xii, 29, 30). For Amos seems to make special reference to the 
destruction of the idol at Dan (riii, 14). The shadow of totaUty, therefore, 
might be placed one degree higher than I have before assumed (Trans., vol. ii, 
P- 152), that is to say, as corering Dan, in the north of Samaria. 

Vol. V. XZ . 

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258 Book of Esther. 

Jeroboam died in the 55th year after the acceetton of 
Amaziah (2 Kings xiv, 23), and Amaziah we have already 
Been came to the throne in B.a 815. So that the death of 
Jeroboam fell in the year B.C. 762-1. 

One of the most valuable discoveries made by Sk H. 
Rawlinson from the records of Nineveh is, that a notaWe 
eclipse of the sun in the month Sivan (June) was registered 
in the Assyrian annals in the year when Bursagale (Oppert), 
or Edsusarabe (Smith), was archon eponymous at Nineveh, 
that is, as all are agreed in the year B.C. 763; while Sir 
George Airy and Mr. Hind agree, that on the 15th Jime, 
B<0. 763, a total solar eclipse took place at Nineveh some- 
where about midday, the path of which must have pasaeil 
fiear to or over Dan, that is over the northern extremity of 
Samaria (Trans, vol. ii, p. 152). 

This last proof is decisive of the question of the actual 
date of the foundation of the temple by Solomon in B.C. 990. 
For Amos prophesied ** two years before the earthquake in the 
days of Uzziah " (Amos i, 1)* Jeroboam II was alive when 
Amos wrote, and his death was to be marked by the signs of 
earthquakes and darkness. Till recent days no one could have 
shown that such rare phenomena had actually occurred about 
the time of his death in B.C. 762-1. But now, in these latter 
days of wavering faith, witnesses from the mounds of Nineveh 
spring up to prove that about a year before his death total 
darkness from an ecUpse, about noon, fell upon Samaria, and 
that a series of earthquakes were recorded at Nineveh in 
the years B.C. 763, 762, 761, 760, and 759, that is to say in a 
country bordering upon Samaria, in the midst of which por- 
tentous signs Jeroboam died, and the kingdom of Israel for 
a time ceased to exist. Nothing can ever set aside the force 
of this remarkable proof.^ The death of Jeroboam II cannot 
henceforth be placed earlier than B.C. 763. 

It is satisfactory to observe that, as far as regards the 

1 Dr. "Puaey, alUr searcbing in T&in for a yisible eoUpae, pronouncee that "no 
eclipse of the sun, in which the sun might seem to be shrouded in darkneM it 
mid-day, has been calculated which should hare suggested thia image to tbt 
prophet's mind/' and that it *' is more likely that the words are an image of a 
sudden reverse " (** Amos/' pp. 216, 21 7). The Speaker's Commentarj takes the 
same yiew. The reckoning of both must therefore be incorrect. 

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Book of Either. 259 

date of the building of Solomon's temple^ the oonclusion here 
arrived at closely coincides with the reckoning of Dr. Lepsius, 
the greatest Egyptian chronologist in Europe, who places 
the date of the foundation of Solomon's temple in B.O. 989.^ 

It also coincides with the aera of the captivity of the ten 
tribes, in the reign of Hoshea (^'ItTOTP^ B.O. 696, preserved 
by Demetrius, and inscribed on certain well-known Jewish 
gravenstones found in the Crimea, and now at St. Peters- 
burgh (Trans, vol. iii, p. 28). 

And again, it agrees with the reckoning of Ezekiel, who 
computes an interval of 190 years between the apostasy of 
the ten tribes in B.C. 955, and the destruction of Jerusalem 
in B.c. 563.* 

But by far the most interesting test and proof of the 
correctness of this modification of the sacred calendar, from 
the time of Solomon to the birth of Christ, is the exactness 
and simplicity with which the continuous series of sabbaths 
and jubilees fixed in the calendar falls in with the actual 
history of the holy people : a result which many learned men 
have attempted in vain to produce in connection with the 
common reckoning. The sabbatical and jubilaic cycles set 
down for observance in the Levitical law, formed of coin-se a 
perfect firamework within which the events of sacred history 
actually came to pass. These cyclical periods were inter- 
woven with the chief institutions and festivals of the holy 
people. They were also largely used in prophetic utterances 
from time to time concerning past or future events. Dr. Kalish 
writes : — *' The great chain, from the seventh day to the end 
of the seven times seven years " — he might have added also, 
to the end of the seventy times seven years — " encompassed 
in its widening circles the sanctification of the individual 
Hebrew and of the Hebrew nation, the protection of every 
citizen and the commonwealth, the relation of God to the 
holy land and holy people. It is the most perfect system of 

* SjnopUsche Tafeln der Aegjptifchen Dynastioen, p. 7. Dr. Lepsius, 
bpirtrer, and Kiebuhr, propose to cut out twenty years from the reign of 
Mtnaseoh, to meet the erroneous reckoning of Herodotus, who misidentifies 
Ksbonidus with Kebuohadnezxar son of Nitocris. 

' Ixekiel iy, 4. 

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260 Book of Esther. 

theocracy which has ever been devised. If we could prove 
that it was originated in all its parts by one mind, or at one 
epoch, it would be without parallel or analogy in all history 
as a work of largely conceived legislation." (Comment on 
Leviticus xxv, 1, Part II, p. 534.) 

Dr. Kalish, however, denies that any proof to this effect 
can be produced in ancient days. In modem days indeed 
we know that the sabbatic chain lies broken and neglected 
beneath the feet both of Islam and of Christendom. The one 
keeps holy the sixth, the other the first day of the week. And 
yet the Decalogue sufficiently attests that the seventh wm 
the day to be observed in unbroken series by the holy peopk 
from the beginning. "The seventh day is the Sabbath of 
the Lord thy God." It is hard also to deny, in the face of 
Gen. xxix, 27, the antiquity of the practice of counting by 
weeks of years.^ And there can be no question concerning 
the command to keep the Jubilee (Levit. xxv, 8). Now when 
the records of the events of sacred history are strictly a^ 
ranged in conformity with the internal framework of scripture 
dates, the wondrous proof of unity of design becomes com- 
plete. The one mind which more than three thousand years 
ago laid down this wide scheme of legislation, marked by 
times and festivals, thenceforth to be evolved as the peculiar 
history of the select and holy race, and brought the same to 
pass within the exact bounds prescribed, is thereby manifested 
to be no other mind than that of the Great Creator Himself 

As regai'ds sacred chronology, what I wish to express is 
this, that the Bible contains within itself its own distinct and 
perfect system of chronology, fixed as it were in tables of celes- 
tial time, that is to say, marked by successive eclipses of sun 
and moon, which are recorded in its own pages in connexion 
with some of the leading events of which it speaks. Pro- 
vided that a sufficient number of these combinations of time 
and event can be recovered, it is clear that such a method 
of reconstructing sacred history must be perfect and exact 

^ " Et facti sunt omnee dies yitce Sar®, centum et Tiginti et septem, id est 
Jubelsei duo, et septiman» quatuor, et unns annus." — Book of the JubUeety 
p. 25, DiUmann. " Until 177 dajs are completed (bj the moon) : aooordiog 
to the mode of oompatation by weeks, twenty-fire weeks and two dsjs." 
Lamrtnc^t Book qf Enoch, p. 101. 

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Book of Esther, 261 

The five following instances of well-established eclipses 
are, I submit, suiBcient for the present to verify the truth of 
the outline of chronology herein proposed. 



HISTORICAL ECLIPSES ILLDSTRATIVE OF 
SACRED SCRIPTURE. 

I. 

Total solar eclipse of 15th June, B.C. 763.^ 

Marking the death of Jeroboam II. 

The shadow of totality passing over Dan and NirarAd. 

By means of this eclipse we learn that : — 
The deatii of Jeroboam II was somewhere about the year ac. 762, or 763 

"Hie death of Joash 802 

The death of Jehoahaz 817 

The death of Jehu 833 

The aDointing of Jehu and Hazael 861 

The death of Ahab 874 

II. 

Partial ecUpse of the sun at Jerusalem, 

11th January, B.C. 689. 

WTien the shadow of the sun went back ten steps on the 

steps of Ahaz, 

Marking the 14th year of Hezekiah, and the 
Sabbatical year 689-8. 

From this eclipse we also infer that Sennacherib had 
threatened to destroy Jerusalem in B.C. 690, and lost his 
whole army by pestilence in that year, and also, through 
Josephus, that Deioces began to reign in Media in 688, 
in the same year that Babylon revolted from Assyria. 

m. 

ECLIPSE OF THALES, 
28th May, B.C. 585. 
Marking the day and year of the battle in Asia Minor between 
Cyazares king of Media, and Alyattes king of Lydia, 
and the marriage of Astyages son of Cyaxares, and 

' Amos Tiii, 8, 9. 

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262 Book of Esther. 

grandfather of Cyrua, while Aetyages wa« yet between 
30 and 40 years of age ; being the 29th year of Cyaxeres, 
and two yearB before the fall of Nineveh, and of ike 
expulsion of the Scythians from Asia in B.C. 583, 

From this eclipse we infer with certainty that tiie first 
year of Nebuchadnezzar, placed in command of the army of 
his father Nabopalassar when yet alive, and counted from the 
fall of Nineveh, fell in the year B.O. 582, and that Cynis 
grandson of Astyages did not conquer his grandfather in 
B.O. 560, twenty-five years after his grandfiither's marriage. 

IV. 

Total solar eclipse at Daphnes, 
Ist November, B.o. 556. 

"And it came to pass in the twenty-serenth year (that is, in tlie a7Ui 
year of Nebuchadnezzar, B.o. 666) the word of the Lord came im(e 

me Behold, I will gire the land of Egypt to N^baehadnaizur.* 

(Ezek. xxii, 17, 18.) 

Concerning Pharaoh Hophra, or Apries, Ezekiel writes:— 

" The sword of the Idng of Babylon shall come upon thee When I put 

thee out I will corer the sun with a cloud and set darkness 

upon thy land." (Ezek. xxxii, 7, 8.) 

" At Tehaphnehes also (or Tahpanhes, that is Daphne) the day shall be 
daricened." (Ezek. zxx, 18.) 

From this eclipse we learn that : — 

Hophra, or Apries, reigned 25* years from 555 to 579 b.c. 

Psammuthis „ 5 „ 580 to 584 

Necho „ 16 „ 584 to 599 

Paaiuinetichas I „ 64^ „ 600 to 653 

Dodecarchy in Egypt „ 15 „ 653 to 668 

Beign of Assurbanipal B.C. 668 

V. 

Total limar eclipse, 

10th January, B.O. 1. 

Marking the year of the death of Herod, and the 

Birth of Christ in Autumn, B.O. 3, 

in the Sabbatical year 3-2, about one year and four or 

five months before Herod's death. 

See Josephufl Ant. xvii, vi, 4. Trans, vol. i, p. 93. 

» Herod, ii, 161. • Afrioanus, Routh, roL ii, j). 260. 

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Book of Esther. 263 

The eclipse of B.C. 556 at Daj^nae, markiDg the time of 
the fiJl of Pharaoh Hophra, and the subjiigation of Egypt by 
Nebuchadnezzar in the twenty-seventh year of his reign,^ 
is very valuable to chronology, as already observed, as 
leading to the establishment of the precise date of the 
accession of Psammetichus in the year B.O. 653. And it 
has elsewhere been pointed out how this date, 653, agrees to a 
angle year with the testimony of Manetho, as copied by 
Africanus, concerning the beginning of Psammetichus's reign. 
And again, we observe how the same date is confirmed by 
the history of Assurbanipal king of Assyria, who either 
in B.a 668 or 667, just fifteen years before the year 
BX. 653, divided the government of Egypt between 
twenty petty rulers, of whom twdive were Egyptians 
(caUed by Herodotus the dodecarchy) and eight Assyrians.' 
And lastly, how Diodorus* has, in two places, recorded 
that this period of dodecarchy, which immediately preceded 
the reign of Psammetichus, had lasted exactly fifteen years 
{viVT€KalZ€Ka hrf), when he set aside the other eleven kings. 

Now from whence did Diodorus derive this precise figure 
of " fifteen years " ? Assyrian tablets, such as we now put 
together in fragments, were no doubt complete and common 
m all the libraries of the Greeks in Asia and Egypt in the 
days of Diodorus, giving this exact reckoning of years ; for 
we know that cuneiform writing continued to be used and 
understood as late as the reigns of Seleucus Philopater 
(b.c. 187) and Antiochus (b.o. 164), whose names are found 
written in these characters.* It can hardly be doubted, 
therefore, that the *' fifteen years ** of Diodorus ,are derived 
fr(Hn some Assyrian tablet in which the same number of 
years are mentioned; as for instance, in the following 
passage in the history of Assurbanipal,* where the king, 
some time after the death of Teumman king of Elam, in 

^ Maspero denieB the folfllnient of 'EzeldeYs prediction, and thinks that 
Ktbttchadneoar was repulsed. HLstoire Anoienne, p. 504. 

> Smith'e fiistoij of Assurbanipal. Qhxonolog^cal Bemarlts bj J. W. 3. 
pp. S42, 843. 

* Diodorus, "Rliodom, pp. 69, 60. 

* Lenonnant*^ Lettres As^riologiques, tom.'i, -p. 322. 

* Smith's Ass«rban^, p. 261. 

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264 Book of Esther. 

B.C. 661, demanded of Umman-aldas hie successor the return of 
the statue of the goddess Nana which had been carried off 
to Elam by Kudumanhundi, the Elamite, 

2 Ners = 1,200 years. 

7 Sosses = 420 „ 
15 Years 15 „ 



1,635 years 

before the date of her return. But if these are the same 
fifteen years as the years of dodecarchy spoken of by Diodorus, 
then are we enabled, through the histoiy of Assurbanipal, 
coupled with the date of the eclipse at the death of Hophra, 
to count up with accuracy even to the date of the Deluge 
in the time of Xisuthrus. 

Psammetichus B.C. 653 
Dodecarchy „ 15 

7 Sosses, 2 Ners „ 1,620 



„ 2,288-2,287, 
and from thence to the time of the 

Deluge, 33,480 suns, or days = 92 years. 

B.C. 2,379 
Now B.C. 2,379 is also the date of the flood in the 
time of Noah, as related by Moses. (Trans, vol. iii, p. 19.) 

And now let us pause a moment to consider how far 
we have advanced in the reconstruction of the calendar 
of sacred history, and how far it is true, as I have said, 
that the history so reconstructed falls in with the con- 
tinuous series of Sabbatic and jubilaic cycles, "Darius 
the Mede," the earthly master of Daniel, was, as we have 
seen, the same as he who niled in Persia in the days of 
Zerubbabel, Haggai, Zechaiiah, and Ezra, and who could 
be no other than the son of Hystaspes ; and all therefore 
which is written in the books of Daniel, Haggai, and 
Zechariah in connection with Darius ha^ properly become 
incorporated with the history of that Persian king whu 
married *Atossa, daughter, or rather daughter-in-law, of 
Cyrus. A mighty stumbling block being thus removed fix)m 

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Book of Esther. 265 

the path of sacred history, we have been enabled to ascend 
by easy yet unerring steps, supported by records from 
time to time of celestial phenomena, till we have reached 
the days of Solomon ; and stand as it were in vision with 
that king upon " the Mountain of Jehovah's House " ; that 
mountain of which we read, that " It shall come to pass 
m the last days that the Mountain of the Lord's House 
shall be established on the top of the moimtains, and all 
nations shall flow unto it " (Isa. ii, 2) ; that house concern- 
ing which it is more than once proclaimed, ** Mine house 
shall be called a house of prayer for all nations''; and 
thus, from the time of laying the first stone of the building, 
if the principle of reckoning here adopted is correct, the 
history of this central house of prayer to be prepared for 
all the nations of the earth, should, we might expect, be found 
laid down in measured periods of septennial cycle. 

Now if there is anything clearly fixed and certain in the 
Hebrew Calendar, it is that the first stone of this first 
house of prayer was laid, as we are told, "in the 480th 
year after the Children of Israel were come out of the 
land of Egypt, and in the fourth year of Solomon's reign 
(I Kings, vi, 1), that is to say. 

In the second month (May), B.O. 990, 
and the consecration of this temple took place, we reckon, 
in the twelfth year of Solomon (1 Kings, vi, 38; viii, 2), 

In the seventh month (September or October), B.C. 482. 

So that the consecration of the temple, and the first 
establishment of the city of Jerusalem as ** the Holy City *' 
— '*the city of the Great King " — fell in the 488th year after 
the coming out of Egypt, or, say, in the 490th year after the 
call of Moses by Jehovah on Mount Horeb. 

And thus it appears that from the call of Moses to 
the consecration of the Holy City, was a period of 
Seventy weeks of years, or 490 years. 

And that from the year of the consecration of the 
Holy City, in the days of Solomon, to the reconstruction 
of "the Holy City" in the second year of the reign of 
Darius, B.C. 492-1, was also a period of 

Seventy weeks of years, or 490 years. 

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266 Book of Esther. 

And, as already seen, that from the laying of the founda- 
tion stone of the second temple, in December, blc. 492, 
(Haggai ii, 18), to the Birth of CSirist in Autumn, B.a 8, was 
a period of 

Seventy weeks of years, or 490 years, 
being three successive periods of ten jubilees of 49 years 
each, equal to 1,470 years, during which a ccsitiQuans com- 
putation — I will not say observance — of the Sabbatical 
years had been kept up. 

Again, we read that the seventy last years of the secocbd 
period of 490 years were years of rest or SabbcUh to Ae land, 
to be fulfilled during the seventy years' desolations of 
Jerusalem (2 Chron^ xxxvi, 20, 21) — ** until the laaid had 
enjoyed her Sabbaths ; for as long as she lay desolate ehe 
kept Sabbath to ftilfil three score and ten years." And thus 
we gain a clue to the actual years of ^' Sabbatha of the lancL** 

And once more we read that in the last of these years, 
that is in the Sabbatical year B.C. 493-2, which was in the 
first year of Darius, son, or representative, of AhsuBuerua, 
" Seventy Weeks are determined (that is are com- 
pleted) upon Thy people, and Thy holy city^ to make an 
end of sins,'* &c. (Dan. ix, 24). So that the year B.C. 492-1 
which followed the 490th year of the septennial cycle, ought 
to be found to represent a year of jubilee. Now it is to be 
remariced, that such is the record of a Jewish wiiter, mndk 
esteemed, of the first century AJ)., living about the time of 
St. John, Rabbi Eliezer, in Pirke, c. 38, who aflSrms tiiat the 
restoration of the temple was formerly impeded by the 
Samaritans, ^ usque ad annum Jubiteum," in the days of 
Zerubbabel. 

Thus by fixing tte date of one single yeaar of jubilee, 
in B.O. 492-1, we are enabled to compute tiae whole series 
of Sabbatical years and jubilees both upwards to Solomon, 
and downwards firom that date to the birth of Christ, as they 
were commanded to have been observed. 

The historical result is marvellous. Becorded eclipses, 
buried monuments, clay tablets fi-om Assyria and Babylon, 
records of faithful historians hitherto laid aside as misuader- 
stood, seem all to rise together to confirm one wad the same 

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Book of EBiher. 267 

harmonioiis record of past events, foretold indeed by holy- 
prophets, and all combine to form the fundamental Calendar 
of Sacred Time. While flowing naturally from that Calendar 
we seem to be enabled to imfold the meaning of the myste- 
rious Covenant which regulates the tenure of the Holy Land 
as connected with the Sabbaths of tfie land, and Jubilaic Cycle ;^ 
the infraction of which covenant was to be, and has been 
twice punished by expulsion of the owners from the land ; 
and by the observance of which the repossessiou may be 
daimed as "an everlasting promise" by the sons of Abraham. 
No other system of Scripture reckoning comprehends 
throughout the Jubilaic Cycle of forty-nine years. Its 
recovery, I maintain, marks this Calendar ^vith the stamp of 
tmth. And as regards the matter now immediately in hand, 
we may look upon the following dates, on which so much 
depends in reconciling Assyrian discoveries with sacred 
Scripture, as finally determined by its reckoning. 

Beohadad <^ DamaBciis was made prisoner by Ahab in ac. €77 

Ahab was slain at Ramoth Gilead in 874 

Benhadad died in ».. 862 

Jehu and Hazael were anointed kings in 861 

And now for a moment let us follow the footsteps of our 
youthftil guide. Behold, as it were in vision, he communes 

with the guardians of the holy mount " The watchmen 

set upon the walls of Jerusalem, who never hold their 

peace, day nor night," but cry "Ye that make mention 

of Jehovah, keep not silence, and give Him no rest till He 
establish, and till He make Jerusalem a praise in the earth 
(Isaiah Ixii, 6). He seems^ with reverence, to say. Sirs, I seek 
to view the title deed which gives possession of this most . 
holy land. Though but a child, I can perceive that it is 
trodden down and polluted more than all other places on 
the earth : how then shall I understand that it shall become 
a praise? To whom in these troublous days shall it belong? 
Shall they who now occupy the places of the Sanctuary, 
destined to become the "house of prayer for all people," 
continue in possession, heedless of the approach of the set 
term of alienation of this peculiar land — the year of Jubilee 

> See Bwald's Antiquities of Ismel, Eng. Trans. 1876, p. 381. 

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268 Book of Esther. 

of Jubilees, when the trumpet of the Jubilee shall sound on the 
10th of the 7th month, the Day of Reconciliation, or Atone- 
ment ? (Levit. XXV, 9.) Or shall the wide-spread influence of 
Christendom embrace this land, and swallow up the felse 
religions which now pervade the Etist? "How long shall 
the Sanctuary and the host be trodden imder foot?"* My 
son, is the reply, thy thoughts are deep, and in the path of 
truth ; 1>ut thou hast much to learn, and cannot bear it dow. 
First make thyself certain of the past. Be sure that hitherto 
all has happened in order, as designed, and then shalt thou be 
prepared to read that which is written and which concerns the 
future. But, be assured of this — ** The Sanctuary shall be 
cleansed." * There is but one people on the earth who can 
claim of right possession of this land. However devout and 
holy, however widenspread the influence, however acceptable 
the great and pious work which it has performed, the claims 
of Christendom are no stronger than those of Brahminism to 
inheritance in this land.* They who would possess it must 
keep the covenants written in the deed — the covenant made 
with Abraham, representing purity of thought, and heart, 
and body* — the covenant of the Sabbath of the seventh day, 
and the covenant of the Sabbaths of the land ; except in per- 
formance to the letter of these covenants it cannot be retained. 
But, see my son, you carry in your hand the key by which 
you may unlock some of the hidden mysteries of bye-gone 
time. Have you examined well the legends graven on that 
master key? See, here on one side it is written : — 

Given in the 14th year of Hezekiah as a sign, when 
the shadow of the sun returned ten steps on the 
steps of Ahaz. 
And on the other side is written as a sign : — 

" Ye shall eat this year such as groweth of itself: and 
the second year that which springeth of the 

» Dan. Tiii, 18. * Dan. Tiii, 14. 

' Pope PiuB IX, addressing Christendom in 1875, erroneonslj assumed to 
offer to the world " those benefits which amongst the Jewish people were 
promised by the Law, on the return of every fiftieth $ear": counting bis Jubilee 
from 1825, on the principle of two jubilees to a oentuiy. Encyclical letter, 
published in " The Times," 8th Jan., 1875. 

* Gen. xTu, 10, 18 ; Romans iii, 29-81. 

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Book of Esther. 269 

same; and in the third year sow ye and reap, 
and plant vineyards, and eat the fruit thereof." 
(Isaiah xxxvi, 30 ; compare Levit. xxv, 4, 5). 

This is the long-lost key by which to set the series of the 
Sabbaths and the Jubilees. Three periods of seventy weeks 
of years, or 490 years each, have already thus been traced fi-om 
the birth of Christ to the appearance of Jehovah in Mount 
Horeb : and again, another period of seventy weeks may be 
counted from the giving of the law on Sinai to the appearance 
of Jehovah in Ur of the Chaldees,* when the land was granted 
to Abraham " as a possession, and to his seed." And now, 
behold, the holy child, oppressed with thought, sinks do^Ti 
in sleep, and as in dream the watchers pass away, touching 
their harps they seem to sing — " The Redeemer shall come 
to Zion, and to them that turn from transgression in Jacob" 
—This is my covenant with them, saith Jehovah." While 
other voices, clear and sweet, proceeding from the opposite 
mount take up the strain, and sing — " His feet shall stand 
upon the Mount of Olives" — "And Jehovah my Elohim shall 
come, and all the just ones with Thee " (Zech. xiv, 4, 5). 
"Every eye shall see Him, and they which pierced Him." 
"They shall mourn for Him, as one mourneth for his only 
son." 

Having thus laid down the outline of sacred chronology 
on principles which do not admit of alteration, either 
upwards or downwards, of a single year, and having thereby 
shown from the records of Scripture the exact period of time 
within which Shalmanezer II, king of Assyria, Benhadad 
and Hazael kings of Damascus, and Ahab and Jehu, kings 
of Samaria, must have lived and reigned, it now remains 
for me to show how Sir Henry Rawlinson's Assyrian Canon, 
or continuous list of annual eponymous archons, or prefects, 
at Nineveh, in connection with whose years of office the 
history of Assyria is related, when set according to ifjg own 
internal marks of arrangement, coincides with the record of 
Scripture to a single year as regards the history of these 
several kings. 

* Acts rii, S. 

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270 Book of Esther. 

I have frequently stated that the alteration of the dates 
reqidred throughout the Hebrew monarchy ia to the extent 
exactly of twenty-five years downwards.^ And I may now 
briefly state that the cause of the anachronism which at 
present elevates the reigns to that extent, and which has so 
long passed current, originates in an imfortimate and lunda* 
mental error of Herodotus, who has mistaken Labynetus II, 
the son of the great queen Nitocris, in whose reign Nineveh 
w€ts destroyed and the Scythians expelled, for Nabonidus, or 
Nabonadius, the last king of Babylon, who we know was 
merely a Babylonian noble with no claim whatever to the 
throne by royal descent ; and who was overthrown by Cyrus 
son of Cambyses just twenty-Jive years after the death of the 
son of Nitocris (B.C. 538). The last words of the dying 
prince foretold the coming of " a Persian mule " who should 
destroy the Babylonian empire; and Xenophon has truly 
related that Cyrus "the mule," some nine years later, entered 
Babylon through the bed of the Euphrates. But Cambyses, 
he tells us, took the benefits of this conquest (in B.c. 529); 
and Cyrus his son did not become entitled to the empire 
till sixteen years afterwards, in B.C. 513, when he conquered 
Nabonidus. 

I will now refer the reader to Mr. G. Smith's valuable 
work entitled *'The Assyrian Eponym Canon," p. 189, a 
work with which every one who wishes to enter into these 
questions should be provided. Referring first to Ahab of 
Zirhala, called "Ahab the Israelite" by Dr. Oppert, but which 
should be more properly read Ahab of Jezreel, who together 
with Benhadad was conquered by Shalmanezer during the 
year of office of Dayan-assur, he observes, that '* it would be 
possible that this was not the Ahab of Scripture "; because, 
" it does not seem likely that the Biblical Ahab, who was the 
foe of the King of Damascus, sent troops to his aid " (p. 190). 
The simple reply to this is, that Ahab had three years before 
his death made prisoner of Benhadad, and peace was made 
between them, on condition that Ahab should " make streets 
in Damascus," as the father of Benhadad had " made in 
Samaria " (1 Kings, xx, 34). The meaning of which passage is, 

* Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., toI. iii, p. 1. 

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Book of Esther. til 

tiiftt Abab should have a garrison m Damascus in recognition 
of his suzerainty over that kingdom, as Benbadad's father had 
gatrrisoned Samaria. So that in fact the conquest of these 
two foes in confederacy in B.C. 875, so fer from being adverse to 
the idea that Ahab of Jezreel, conquered by Shalmanezer, 
was identical with the Ahab of Scripture who was slain at 
Ramoth-Gilead, is a direct proof that Dayan-assur, tlie Tartan 
of Shalmanezer, defeated that same Ahab at Ramoth-Gilead 
in the yew B.C. 874, who, in that year, died at that dty. Again, 
with regard to Jehu, who is styled in the Assyrian inscriptions 
" Jehu son of Omri," Mr. Smith observes, ** I would in-ge 
that liie identity of the Jehu of the Bible with the Jehu of 
the inscriptions is not proved, and that these notices are not 
enough to force us to alter all our Bible dates." On the 
cth^ hand I would observe that, if the year of office of 
Dajan-assur is correctly placed in the year B.C. 874,^ then 
mast the payment of tribute by Jehu to Shalmanezer be 
placed in the year b.C. 861, about which time, according to 
tile fixed dates of Scripture, Jehu and Hazael were anointed 
kings of Samaria and Damascus by order of Elisha the 
Prophet. Few, I think, will be inclined to fall into Mr. Smith's 
riew of a duplicate Ahab, a duplicate Jehu, and probably a 
dupKcate Benhadad, and a duplicate Hazael (p. 192). 

Let us now proceed to adjust the dates of the Sacred 
Calendar with the dates of the Assyrian (yanon, arranging the 
Canon according to its own internal division into Cycles, or 
Bosses, of sixty years, the periods of which are fixed by eclipses 
of the sun, recorded in connection with certain eponymous 
archons. Here Dr. Haigh has the honour of leading the way. 
There is not a question, in my own mind, that Dr. Haigh is 
correct, when he places the first year of Assumazirpal, the 
fetiier of Shalmanezer II of the Black Obelisk, in the year 
B.C. 903, in the year of the solar eclipse seen in Armenia on 
the 3rd July, during hiB first campaign. For in this king's 
annals* we read, " In the beginning of my reign, during my 
fest campaign, when the Sim-God, ruler of the heavenly 

' 8m Um foUowiDg chronological table. 

* See Beoordfl of the Fast, toI. iii, p. 48. Dr. Oppert, BcTue Aroh^logique, 
KoT., 1868, p. 314. 

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272 Book of Esther. 

regions, cast his propitious shadow upon me, and in power 
(or glory) I seated myself on the throne. A sceptre, the dread 
of man, I took in my hands." ....** At that time an image 
of my person I made ; a history of my supremacy upon it I 

wrote ; in the year of my taking the office of Limu, in 

the month Ab (July), on the 24th day." That is to say, 
Assurnazirpal set up his bas-relief as quickly as possible after 
the occurrence of the solar eclipse of 3rd July, B.C. 903, to 
which he points on the accompanying representation of the 
monument in the British Museum. But if Di-. Haigh is 
correct in placing the accession of Assurnazirpal in B.O. 903, 
he must also be right in placing the accession of his son 
Shalmanezer in B.C. 878. 

It is true that there was also a solar eclipse partially 
visible at Nineveh on the 13th July, B.C. 885, when, as Mr. 
Hind calculates, 0'83 parts of the sun's disk were eclipsed, 
just one Saros of 18 years and 10 days later than the eclipse 
of the 3rd July, 903. And this eclipse nearly agrees with 
the dates of Mr. Smith's continuous and unbroken series of 
eponymous archons, as falling only two yeai-s before 
Assurnazirpal took that office according to his system. Bat 
I think we cannot refuse to fall in with the suggestion of 
Dr. Haigh and Dr. Oppert, that an interval, during which no 
archons or govemoj*s were appointed^ following immediately 
after the 35th year of Shalmanezer, that is, in B.C. 843, must 
have occrured between that year and the accession of 
Shamas-Phul ; so raising the dates of the reigns of Assur- 
nazirpal and his son Shalmanezer to the extent of the 
interval within which Assurdannipal, or Sardanapalus, 
usuj-ped the throne of his father in rebellion. This interval 
of usurpation, as generally agreed, lasted for 20 years. 

The record of this revolt is given in the annals of Shamas- 
Phul, who put down the rebellion in the year B.C. 825, and 
after a siege of Nineveh for two more years began his reign, in 
B.C. 823, as no doubt correctly laid down by Mr. Smith. The 
following translation of the annals of Sliamas-Phul, or Samsi- 
Vul, by Mr. Boscawen, of the British Museum, will, I think, 
sufficiently confirm the suggestion. The result of this 
arrangement of the Assyrian Canon, is — 

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Book of Esther. 273 

I. That Shalmanezer, in the year B.O. 875, defeated Ahab, 
in confederacy with Benhadad. 

II. That Ahab was defeated and slain by Benhadad in 
B.C. 874. 

III. That Jehn paid tribute, and Hazael was defeated, in 
B.C. 861. 



EXTHACT FROM AN INSCRIPTION OP SHAMAS-PHUL.» 

Who conquered SardanapaUu in B.C. 826, and reigned in B.C. 828. 

Column I. 

(Commencemeni of Hittorical Portion.) 

26. D.P. Sam - si - yoI sar dan - na sar kis - sat 

Sanmwl powerful king king of a multitude 

27. la - mah -ri ri-h-u as-ra-a-ti na-tis-pa 
w4 iurpassed sk^kerd of holy places 

28. 68 - ri - ti mur - ti - du - u ka- lis ma - ta - ti mu - ma - h - ir 
of skrinei the driver of all lands the sender forth 

29. gim -ri ru-u sa ul-tu ul-la-a. 

(f <dl who from old time. 

30. Ili ib - bu mat su - um -ii-t-u za- nin 

The gods by name the restorer builder 

31. Bit - e - sen la mas - ku - kit mu - kil - tu Bit - kiir. 

of Bit Eser of the House of the Lord. 

31 8a aoa sib - ri Bit Kar - sak Kurra Bit - Sadi 

W^ for the beautifying of Bit Karsak Kurra the Temple 

mat - su 
of the mountains of his land 

33. [n] - kin lib - ba - su va ba • sa - a us - na - a - su 

fixed his heart and set his ears (mind) 

^. ablu Sbal - man - eser sar kip - rat arba - ti 
son of iShalmaneser king of the four races 

3^> aa - kali mal - ki sa sa - la - te da - is matati 

of all kings the spoiler trampler of all lands 

* Tnmbted by Mr. Botonren, who re«dB Sanui-Va], where Sir Henry Bawlinson rtadi 

^^^ ^' Digitized b?G00gle 



274 




Booh qf Esther. 




36. abla - abli 


sa 


D.P. 


Assur - nftTJr - pal 




grandson 


of 




Assumcidrpal 




37. ma-hir 


bi-lat 








receiver 


oftrihuti 


J 






3a VA i - gi • 


si- i 


sa 


ka - lis kip - ra - a • 


■tl 


and riches 


of 


all races. 





HISTOEY OF THE KEVOLT OF ASSUR-DANNI-PAL, OB 
SAEDANAPALUS, 

In B.C. 843, sixty-sewn years before the first Olympiad. 

39. E-nu-va D.P. Aflsur-dan-ni-pal ina-tar-zi D.P. Shal-man-eser 

When A3»urdann^>al rebellion (in the time qf) Shalmaneser 

40. abu - su e - pu - sa lim - ni - e - ti is - khnp a - mat 
his father he made wickedly he werikrew counsd 

]im - nu - ti 
evil 



41. u- sap -lis- va 
he raised up 



matu us - pal -kit-va ik-ia-ra 

and the land he caused to revolt and prepared 



42. ta - ba - zu. nisi mat Assori elis va spalis itti - so* 

battle. The men of Assyria upper and lower iffitkhim, 

43. u-sift-kin va u-dan-ni ta-sib-tu alu-ni n-flam ...... ▼* 

Be gathered cmd he forti/ied the abodes (houses) of the cities he 

44. ana - epis gablu va ta-)ia-zi is-kn-na pa-ni-sn. 

to make battle and fighting he set his face, 

45. Alu Ni-sur-a D.P. A-di-a D.P. Si-ba-ni-ba D.P. ImgorBel 
The cities Nisura Adia JSibaniba Imgur Bd 

D.P. Is - sap - ri. 
Issapri, 

46. D.P. Bit Im-dira D.P. Si-mu D.P. Si-ib-hi-nis D.P. P^-nu-sor 

(The cities) Imdira Simu Sibhinis Prinusur 

D.P. Kip - su - na 
Kipsuna 

47. D.P. Kur-ba-an D.P. Si-du D.P. Na-pu-lu D.P. Ka-pa D.P. Assur 

Kurban Sidu Napula Kapa Amr 

D.P. U - ra - ka 
Uraha 



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Book of Esther. 275 

48. D.P. Bak-kor D.P. Hu-a-ri-na D.P. Dur-balat D.P, Da-ri-ga D.P. Zaab 
Rakkur Huzirina Dubalat Dariga Zah 

48. D.P. Lfi-ub-du D.P. Arpa-ha D.P. Arba-U adi D.P. A-mi-di 
IMdu Arpaha Arhda a» far as Atnidia 

D.P. Tel - abni 
(and) Tdabni 

fiO. D.P. Hi-ni-da-nukalaXXVU ma-^-ri adi hal-za-ni-su-na 
Hindanu inaU 27 toipns mth their imvers 

sa istn 

«**e* from 

61. Shal-man-eser sar kip-rat arba-ti abu - ya ik - ki - ru - ni 

SkakMomer kinff of the four rac$8 my father had separated themselves 

51 istn Assur-dan-ni-pal is-sak-nn-ni ina ki-bit 

(awrf) for Assurdannipal had placed themselves h/ command 

ill ra - ba - ti bel ni - ya 

^ the great gods my lords 

53. ana aepi - ya u - sak - nis. Ina - gar - ri - ya mah - ri - e 
at my feet I made them boic. In my first expedition 

Ba ana mat Na - h - ri, &c., &c. 

(w) tBhieh to the land of Nahri, 



It is quite clear from the above extract that there was a 
period, between the reigns of Shalmanezer II and Shamas- 
Pbnl, during which the Assyrian empire was in a state of 
revolution, and during which Assurdannipal, or Sardanapalus, 
headed the revolt. And it is also clear that the name of this 
iiHurper, though found in the annals, and the names of any 
prefects which he may have appointed, are absent from the 
list of prefects in the Assyrian Canon during the period of 
revolution. Now, if the first year of Assumazirpal is placed, 
in accordance with the eclipse which occurred, and to which 
he points on his monument, on the 3rd July, 903, as 
heginning in that year, then will the first year of his son, 
the king of the Black Obelisk, Shalmanezer II, have fallen in 
the year B.C. 878, and his last year, when unseated by Assur- 
dannipal, have fallen in the year B.C. 843, or sixty-seven years 
hefore the first Olympiad, It is not possible that the eclipse of 
the 13th July, B.C. 885, as some suppose, should have marked 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



j:^. 



276 



Book of Estlier. 



the first campaign of Assiimazirpal, if any interval of revo- 
lution had occurred, even to the extent of a single year. 

Abydenus had before him the work of Berosus, giving 
history from the time of the creation, that is from Aloms to 
the time of Alexander, preserved, we may assume, on baked 
tiles (" coctilibus laterculis "), as spoken of by Pliny* : and we 
cannot doubt that copies of the very tablet now under con- 
sideration were also before him, when he wrote thus : — 

Extract from the Armenian Copt op Eusebius, 
AUCHER, p. 37. 

** Abydenus concerning the kingdom of the Assyrians. 

** The Chaldeans reckon in this manner the kings of their 
country, from Alonis down to Alexander : Concerning Ninns 
and Semiramis they relate nothing worth notice. Having 
made this observation he (Abydenus) deduces the beginning 
of history from thence. Ninus, he says, was (the son) of 
Arbelus, who was the son of Chaalus, who was the son of 
Arbelus, who was the son of Anebus, who was the son of 
Babius, who was the son of Belus king of the Assyrians." 

" Then he recounts one by one the kings from Ninus and 
Semiramis down to Sardanapalus, who was the laat of all; 
from whom to the first Olympiad sixty-seven years were compkud^ 
that is to say, were counted from the year B.C. 843. 

Eusebius goes on to say — "Abydenus thus, with 
much particularity, writes concerning the kingdom of the 
Assyiians. Castor also, in the first book of his Summary of 
Chronicles, relates the same things plainly, even to the letter, 
concerning the kingdom of the Assyrians." And Mr. Clinton, 
who refers to this passage of Abydenus, remarks (voL i, 
p. 265), "the list of Assyrian kings in the Excerpta Chrono- 
logica, apud Seal. Euseb., p. 74, also reckons, with Castor, 
Ninus II as the last king, and places the termination sixty- 
seven years before Olymp. 1." 

The figm*e 67 seems thus to be well attested,* and we 
may infer with safety that Sardanapalus began his usurpation 

> Hist. Nat. Tii, 57. 

^ I hare to withdraw a suggestion fonnerlj made that 67 should be read 167} 
and also to abandon the idea that Arbaces conquered Ninereh in B.O. 583, in the 
time of Saracus, as suggested by Niebuhr. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Book of Esther. 277 

in the year B.C'. 843. It is generally stated also that he 
reigned nineteen or twenty years, which thus leads to the 
year B.C. 823, as the year when he burnt himself in his palace, 
two years after his defeat by Belesys and Arbaces, as related 
by Ctesias (see p. 229). 

Again, we have the testimony of Megasthenes, no doubt 
taken from the same tablets, that Belochus and Arbaces 
divided the kingdom of Sardanapalus between them 304 years 
before the time when Darius and Cyrus, having reunited the 
empire, held it between them, that is on the death, or rather, 
madness, of Cambyses in B.C. 521. (Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., 
ToL i, p. 262.) 

In conclusion. — The object of this first portion of the 
treatise has been limited, as regards Assyrian chronology, 
to the clearing away of one chief difficulty in the way of 
reconciling Assyrian and Hebrew records, that is by fixing 
the true position of the reign of Shalmanezer II, which 
necessarily falls between the years B.C. 878 and 843. This 
resnlt is deduced from two solar eclipses — the first on 
3rd July, 903 = 1st year of Assumazirpal, the second on 
15th June, 763, when Esdusarabe was archon, both which 
fiJl in with the testimony of Abydenus of his overthrow in 
B.C. 843, sixtynseven years before the Ist Olympiad. 

Thus fiar all is clear and in harmony between the Assyrian 
and Hebrew annals, extinguishing the first difficulty. 

If so, however, a second difficulty will be immediately 
raised in objection : Who, then, was Yahuhazi king of Judah, 
who, according to the annals of Tiglathpileser, paid tribute 
to that king in the year B.C. 731, and who is identified by 
Schrader, and Rawlinson, and Smith, with Jehoahaz, or 
Ahaz, to the great confusion of this portion of the history ? 
It has already been shown (p. 256) that Jotham, not Ahaz, 
was in this year king of Judah, and how is Jotham to be 
identified with Yahuhazi ? This question, which involves a 
difficulty, which is now of long standing, must of coiu'se be 
discussed more fully hereafter. Meanwhile, the solution I 
would suggest seems reasonable and simple, that the two 
names are not intended to be identical, but that the one is a 
translation of the other, from Hebrew into Assyrian. 

Jotham, or 'ItodOafJky we know signifies Jehovah is ^^A*r or t 



278 Book of Eether. 

Tarn. Compare davfich a wonder, $vfi6^j spirit; and the 
signification of Tarn (Dr\) is that which is perfect, or entire 
in itself; or taken absohitely, it may signify self-existent, or 
spirit. On the other hand, Zi in Assyrian signifies spirit 
For instance, there is a Zi of the earth, a Zi of the hea;vens, 
a Zi of the sun, a Zi of the air.^ So that it would appear 
that the Hebrew name Jotham, = Jehovah is Tarn, is not 
improperly represented by Yahuharzi =s Jehovah is Zi 

There is a third difficulty raised by Professor Schrader and 
Mr. Smith, which also creates much confusion, and whidi 
will have to be discussed again hereafter. A mutilated 
passage in the annals of Tiglathpileser has been so 
reconstructed by Prof. Schrader (Die Eeilinschriften, &c^ 
pp. 145, 299} as to make it appear that Tiglathpileser had 
placed Hosea on the throne of Samcuria in the room of 
Pekah, who is also represented to have been slain by Hosea, 
as early as B.O. 730 ; and thus the capture of Samaria and 
the fall of Hosea are represented as occurring nine years 
later, that is in B.O. 721, the conunon date, instead of in the 
year B.O. 696, in which I believe that Demetrius has fixed 
the true time. The solution of this difficidty, again, is 
simple ; for the time spoken of in the Assyrian inscription 
is well defined as the time when Tiglathpileser took 
Abel-beth-maaohah and Gilead, which again is defined in 
2 Kings XV, 29, as the time when Pekah first came to the throne^ 
in the 52nd year of Uzziah, having slain his predecessor 
Pekahiah in B.0. 735. So that the king now reigning in Judah 
was Uzziah, or Au-si-ah (f ^ fjf ^flf^ . ^]] , •^•'*"D' 
as written in the inscription ; not Hosea (5??^^), as 
interpreted by Prof. Schrader. Again, in verse 25 we read 
that it was Pekah, not Hosea, who in B.G. 735 slew the 
king of Samaria, and then reigned twenty years, ending in 
B.O. 716. It seems necessary to mention these points by 
anticipation, in order to show that there is no real difficulty 
arising out of them as regards our reckoning. In tiie mean- 
while we must hope for the discovery of fi'esh documents 
to set these questions entirely at rest. 

^ F. Lenonnant*s fetudea Aocadiexmetj torn, i, part 1, p. 215. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



^ jLUy B.e\ 903 
Total. 
as se^ in Armrima d-u: s-at ci tiu^ camraiv^n 




ASSUKll^ZIRPAL. 



Digitized by VjOO^^ IC 



iii Ttif- «>^v":Liij,:r.;.' -M' mv rev-^n m r^ivi mt .•a-rr.r /--ic^ti rl-,!- -^nr* r'hf" i^nl*. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Book of Esther. 279 



ASTRONOMICAL CALENDAR OP SACRED HISTORY 

arraDged in confonuity with Eclipses and Sabbatical years, 

from B.C. 997 to 818. 

Compared with 

RAWLINSON'S ASSYRIAN CANON 

during the same period, reckoned in Sosses, or Cycles of 60 years, 

in the ^ra of Belue, B.a 2287. 

Computed upwards from the 1st year of Assurbanipal, 
B.O. 668, at the close of a period of seven Cycles— 

B.C. 668 

„ 728 

.... „ 788 

.... „ 848 

„ 908 

.... „ 968 

„ 1028 

Counted from the beginning of the First in „ 1087 

With the view of showing that the Annals of Shal- 
manezer U, recorded on the Black Obelisk in the British 
Museum, which speak of Benhadad, Ahab, Hazael and Jehu, 
coincide with the history of these kings contained in the 
Hebrew Scriptures. 

iERA OF BELUS. 

70V a Ko&fiov 'fjv Sto^ 7<rW» 
A.M. 3216 = B.O. 2287-^.— 

Synoellus, vol. i, p. 181. 

Durat ibi (apud Babylonem) Jovis BeU templum. 
Inventor hie ftiit sideralis scientieB. — Plin. Nat. Hist, vi, 36. 



Close of 


a Seventh 


Cycle in 


» » 


Sixth 


» 


n 9f 


Fifth 


» 


» » 


Fourth 


„ 


» » 


Third 


i» 


yj tf 


Second 


„ ... 


if ft 


Firet 


„ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



280 



Book of Eat/ier. 



ASTRONOMICAL OALENDAB OF SACRED HISTORY ABRANaKD IN COX- 
FORMITY WITH ECLIPSES AND SABBATICAL YEARS. 



B.O. 


EOLIPtU AND 

Sabbatical Tm. 


JUDAB. 




Ti»«. 


BUABU. 


997 


• • • • 


David .. 








6 Hirom 




996 


. • 


i» • • 








6 „ 




995 


. . 


" 








7 .. 




994 


. . 


If 








8 „ 




993 


• • 


1 Solomon 








9 „ 




992 


. . 


2 „ .. 








10 „ 




991 


• • •• 


8 „ .. 








11 „ 




990 


Sabbatioalyr. 


4 „ .. 








12 „ 


f FonnlktiaQ of Om teafk tM 
I tbel2tbreuof HiioB. 


989 


.. 


6 „ .. 








18 „ 




988 


• • 


6 „ .. 








14 „ 




987 


.. 


7 .. .. 








16 „ 


• 


986 


• • • • 


8 „ .. 








16 „ 




985 


• • 


9 .. .. 








17 „ 




984 


.. 


10 „ ... 








18 „ 




988 


Sabbatical yr. 


11 .. .. 








19 „ 


r Banding of Solomon^s tem^ ca^ 
I pletedinthelltkyeiTSthMi 


982 


Jubilee year 


12 „ .. 








20 „ 


rCons€cration of Solocnan'i teov 
I 12th year Ttbnoodi. 


981 


.. 


13 „ .. 








21 „ 




980 


• • • • 


U „ .. 








22 „ 




979 


.. 


16 „ .. 








23 „ 




978 
977 
976 


Sabbatical yr. 


16 „ .. 

17 ., .. 

18 „ .. 








24 „ 

25 „ 

26 „ 


r" Solomon bad at sea b nvr 
Tharshish with ttie BSTT of mr 

\ .....brtogin* gold,md^ 
Ivory, apea, and pcacocki 

L (I Kings, X. 22.) 


975 


.. 


19 „ .. 








27 .. 




974 


• • 


20 „ .. 








28 „ 




973 


.. 


21 „ .. 








29 „ 




972 


• • • • 


22 „ .. 








80 „ 




971 


.. 


23 „ .. 








31 „ 




970 


• • 


24 „ .. 








82 „ 




969 


Sabbatical yr. 


25 „ .. 








83 „ 




968 


.. 


26 „ .. 




• 




34 „ 








■ Brought 


firom 


the Em 


t,up 


the Eaphntw, to 


TlpaaEp.p.QJp 



Book of Esther. 



281 



BAWLINSON'S ASSYRIAN CANON RECKONED IN SOSSES OR CYCLES 

OF SIXTY YEARS. 



2w> 






31 
32 

33 
34 
35 
36 
87 
88 



%fi8 
«7 
S66 



< M ; 45 



|«1 

isso 

1 099 



47 
48 
4d 
50 
51 
52 
51 
•74! &4 



I 



65 
66 
57 
58 
59 



Bbxabu. 



EXTBACT PEOM JOSEFHUS OOKTBA 
Apiok I, 18. 

" Meuander wrote the acts that were done 
by the Qreeka and barbarians under 
eyery one of the Tynan kings, and had 
taken much pains to learn the history out 
of their own records. Now when he was 
writing about these kings that had reigned 
at Tyre, he came to Hm>m, and says thus 
— Ujpon the death of Abibalus, his son 
Hirom took the kingdom. 

" Hirom lived 53 years, and reigned 84 
Under this long there was a 
younger son of Abdemon, who 
mastered the problems which, 
Solomon, king of Jerusalem, 
reconmiended to be solved. 

"Now from this king to the 
building of Carthage is thus 
calculated : — 

" Baleazarus lived 43 years 



Abdastartus 

Astartus 

Astarimua 

Phelles 

Ithobalus 

Baalzarus 

Matgenus 

Pygmalion 



29 
64 
64 
50 
68 
46 
82 
56 



reigned 17* 
9 

» 12 
9 



8ra. 



6 
9 
27 « 



" So that the whole time from the 
reign of Hirom to the building 
of Carthage is 155 Sm. 

" Since then the temple was built at Jerusa 
lem in the 12th year of the reign of 
Hirom, there were from the building of 
the temple to the building of Carthage 
143 years and 8 months." 

Carthage was destroyed by Scipio^ 

In B.a 146 MPPian.^I'jyy., Snidas, So- 
t Imus and Orosius. 
700 After the foundation. 

B.C. 846 FoHndation of Carthaee. 
143 8m. * 

B.c."9^ 8 /Foundation of Solomon^ 
\ Temple. 



» Our copl« of JoMphos re«d 7, but TheophUos and Syncellus read Itj 
• Oor copl«i of JoMphns read 47, clearly an error for 27. 



bogle 



283 Book of Esther. 

ASTBOKOMIOAL OALBKDAB OF SACBBD BISTOBY^conimued. 



B.C. 


Eoursxs AW> 
Sabbatical Tm. 


JODAI. 


IlBAXL. 


TiBI. 


B»¥«»»t. 


967 


.. 


27 Solomon 








IBaalzarus 




966 


• • • • 


28 „ 








2 




966 


• • 


29 „ 








8 „ 




964 


* • * • 


SO „ 








4 „ 




968 


.. 


81 „ 








6 „ 




962 


Sabbatical yr. 


82 „ 








6 „ 




961 


• • 


88 „ 








7 ,. 




960 


• • • • 


84 „ 








8 ., 




959 


• • «• 


85 „ 








9 „ 




958 


t • t • 


86 „ 








10 „ 




957 


• • at 


87 „ 








11 „ 




956 


t • 1 1 


88 „ 






* 


12 „ 




955 
954 


Sabbatical yr. 
• • • • 


89 „ 

40 „ 






• 


18 .. 
14 „ 


fithobal. iather of Jcnbet, bom. 
I (J<aephtu coo. Apioa I, 1&) 


958 


• « • • 


IBehoboam 


1 Jeroboam 


15 


SeceMbu of tbe Ten THIMK4 


952 


• • • • 


2 „ 


2 .. 


16 „ 




951 
950 


• t • • 


8 „ 
4 ., 


3 „ 

4 „ 


17 „ 
riAbdastar- 

X tUB 




949 


• • • • 


6 „ 


6 „ 


2 » 




948 


SabbatioalTT. 


8 „ 


6 „ 


3 ., 




947 


.. 


7 ., 


1 „ 


4 „ 




946 


• • •• 


8 „ 


8 „ 


6 „ 




945 


• • «« 


9 „ 


9 » 


6 „ 




944 


• • •• 


10 „ 


10 „ 


7 ., 




943 


• • 


11 „ 


11 ,. 


8 „ 




942 


t* • • 


12 „ 


12 „ 


9 




941 


Sabbatical jr. 


18 „ 


13 „ 


I Aatartiu 




940 




14 „ 


14 „ 


2 




939 


• • ■ • 


15 ,. 


15 „ 


3 „ 




938 




16 „ 


16 „ 


4 „ 





> The date of Jeroboam's iqpostacy, b 
which was 14 generattoDB, of 40 jtut eadi 



,0. 963, is immoTcable ; 890 years before tbe fan of •lerasaioin » c 5.e 
- 660 bctoro the birth of Christ (Matt. 1, 17), ending ia b.c. », * 



Book of Esther. 283 

BAWLDTBON^S ASSTBIAN OXSOV^conHnued. 



1 

1^. 


SOM. 


■OTPT. 




967 


1 






966 


2 






96 


3 






964 


4 






963 


5 






963 


6 


IShethonkl 


OrShiahik. 


961 


7 


2 .. 




960 


8 


8 „ 




959 


9 


4 „ 




956 


10 


6 ,. 




957 


U 


6 „ 




966{ 12 


7 „ 


Jeiolx)m fled to Sliitlia....**imtilUie death of Solonu^ (1 King9 xi, 40.) 


m 


IS 


8 „ 




^ 


U 


S » 




9S) 


15 


10 „ 




»2 16 j 


U n 




961 


17 


U „ 




960 

1 


18 


18 » 




1 

9m 


19 


14 „ 


I £g7pt came ap •gainst Jenualem." (2 Chroo. zii, 2.) 


M 


20 


16 „ 




\H7 


21 


16 „ 




%4$ 

946 


22 
2S 


17 „ 

18 „ 




944 


24 


19 ,. 




M 


26 


20 ., 




942 


26 


u » 




941 


27 


lOMFohonl 


Or Zerah, kingof Ithiopla. 


MO 


28 


2 .. 




W 


29 


8 „ 




9W 


20 


4 „ 


, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



284 Book of Esther. 

ASTRONOMICAL CALENDAR OP SACRKD HISTORY— coji^iiMwrf. 



B.C. 


ECUMBS AMD 
SABBATIOAI.TB0. 


JODAB. 


ISUSL. 


Tim. 


Bwilgt 


987 


• « • • 


1 Abijah .. 


17 Jeroboam 


5 Astartos 




986 


.. 


2 ,. .. 


18 „ 


6 „ 




986 




8 „ .. 


19 „ 


7 „ 




934 
988 


Sabbatical yr. 
Jubflee year 


1 Asa .. 

2 .. .. 


20 „ 
ZlKadab .. 


8 „ 

9 „ 


I Ma-in-lawof IthotaL 


982 


• • • • 


8 „ .. 


22 „ .. 


10 „ 




981 


. • . . 


4 ,. .. 


13aaaha.. 


11 ,. 




980 


• • 


6 „ .. 


2 „ ,. 


12 „ 




929 


.. 


6 „ .. 


8 „ .. 


1 Astarimo 


e 


928 


• • • • 


7 .. .. 


4 „ .. 


2 „ 




927 


Sabbatical yr. 


8 „ .. 


6 „ .. 


8 „ 




926 
926 


t • • • 
• • • • 


9 .. .. 
10 „ .. 


6 „ .. 

7 .. .. 


4 „ 
6 „ 


(-Protablc Uith of JckM, tafkia 
X oflthoUl, wbenlMwutlTtMl 
(. old. 


924 


• • • • 


11 „ .. 


8 „ .. 


6 „ 


928 


.. 


12 „ .. 


9 „ .. 


7 ., 




922 


.. 


13 „ .. 


10 .. .. 


8 „ 




921 


• • • • 


14 „ .. 


11 » .. 


9 „ 




920 


Sabbatical yr. 


16 „ .. 


12 „ .. 


FbeUes .. 




919 


•• 


16 „ .. 


13 „ .. 


llthobal.. 


F«lher of Jezebd now S7 yvmoM. 


918 


• • • • 


17 „ .. 


14 „ .. 


2 „ .. 




917 


.. 


18 „ 


16 „ .. 


8 „ .. 




916 


«. •• 


19 „ .. 


16 „ .. 


4 „ .. 




916 


.. 


20 „ .. 


17 „ .. 


6 „ .. 




914 


.. 


21 „ .. 


18 „ .. 


6 „ .. 




913 


Sabbatical yr. 


22 „ .. 


19 „ .. 


7 .. .. 




912 


.. 


28 „ .. 


20 „ .. 


8 „ .. 




911 


.. 


24 ., .. 


21 „ .. 


9 „ .. 




910 


.. 


26 „ .. 


22 „ .. 


10 „ .. 




909 


.. 


26 „ .. 


23 „ .. 


u ., .. 




908 


.. 27 „ .. 


1 Elah .. 


12 „ .. 


t Jcxebcl. ««y at 17, 










Digit 


zed by Google 



Book of Esther, 



285 



BAWLINSON'S ASSYRIAN CJlSO^ continued. 



1 

i 


Soaa. 


ErOXTMOCI AXCBOKS. 


Annu 


• 


EoTH. 




[937 


31 


• • • • 








SOsOTclionI 




936 


32 


>. 








6 „ 




935 


33 


.. 








7 ., 




934 


34 


.. 








8 „ 




9S3 


35 


. . • • 








9 ., 




932 


36 


• t • • 








10 „ 




931 


87 


• • 








11 „ 




930 

|9S9 


38 
39 


• •••p* 








12 ,. 
IS „ 


rZerah, the Ethioplin, oune with an 

army agaiiut Aa. king of Jodah. 

•■ (2 Chron. xlr, 9.) 


928 


40 


«... mur 








14 » 




927 


41 


.... mu .... 








16 „ 




1528 


4aS 


.... iden .... 








/ 1 Sbcshonk 
1 11 




9S5 

1 


43 


• -git 








2 » 




1 


44 


Muha .... ma 








3 „ 




J9S3 


45 


Awur-dain .. 








4 „ 




J922 


46 


Aasnrdiiii • • .. 








6 „ 




\^ 


47 


Ma. 








6 „ 




W 


48 


Abn-ay» .. 








7 „ 




919 


49 


Awnr-taggil . . 








8 „ 




'918 


50 


Aatat 








9 „ 




.«7 


51 


.. 








10 „ 




|fl6 


52 


• • •• 








u .. 




915 


53 


.. 








12 „ 




"914 
913 
912 


51 
55 
56 


.... tar ... . 
Ninip-zir-ipus 








13 „ 

14 .. 

15 „ 


< BenhBdad king of Syria. (1 Kings 
I XT, 18.) 


911 


57 


Dabokar . . . . ja 








16 „ 


> 


910 
9ij9 


58 
59 


AMiir-lakin-ili 








17 „ 

18 „ 




TagaUi-niiiip 


1 Tugiilli- 
Diuip 


908 


60 


T*ggil.«na-beU/a . . 


2 „ 


19 „ 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 



286 Book of Esther. 

ASTBONOmOAIi OALEKDAB OF SACBED HISTOBY— «0fii»iiKe(2. 



B.C. 


ECUPRS AND 

Sabbatical TBt. 


Jtmta. 


Iff (t»T- 


Tin. 




007 


Sabbatical yr. 


28ABa .. 


BElab .. 


ISIthobal.. 




906 


.. 


29 „ .. 


IZimri .. 


14 „ .. 




905 


.• 


80 „ 


8 „ .. 


16 „ .. 




90i 


• • • • 


81 „ .. 


8 „ .. 


16 „ .. 




903i 


Eolipseofsun) 
3rd July J 


82 „ 


lOmri .. 


17 ,. .. 




902 


.. 


88 „ 


8 „ .. 


18 „ .. 




901 


«. 


84 „ .. 


8 „ .. 


19 .. .. 




900 


.. 


85 „ .. 


4 .. .. 


80 „ .. 




899 


Sabbatical yr. 


86 „ .. 


6 „ .. 


81 „ .. 




898 


.. 


87 „ .. 


6 „ .. 


82 „ .. 




897 


.. •• 


88 „ .. 


7 „ .. 


88 „ .. 




896 
895 
894 


.. 


89 „ .. 

40 „ .. 

41 „ .. 


lAhab .. 

8 „ 

8 „ .. 


24 „ .. 
86 „ .. 

86 „ .. 


/Then vu bmine In thelairftowiril 


898 
892 
891 


t • •• 

Sabbatical yr. 


IJehosapIutt 

8 » 
8 ,. 


4 „ .. 
6 „ .. 
6 „ .. 


87 „ .. 

88 „ .. 
29 „ .. 


r]f«iunder records a drought In tH 

\ reign of Ithol»aL 

C (Jooeph. Ant Tin, 11,11 


980 


.. 


4 „ 


7 „ .. 


80 „ .. 




889 


• • • • 


6 „ 


8 „ .. 


81 „ .. 




888 
887 


.. 


6 „ 

7 „ 


9 „ .. 
10 „ .. 


82 „ .. 
1 BaaUanu 


athobal, kinjf of Tyre, fctbff j 
i (Jooephoa coo. ApioB 1, 11) 


886 


.. 


8 „ 


11 „ .. 


2 „ 




885 


Sabbatical yr. 


9 » 


12 „ .. 


8 „ 




884 


Jubilee year 


10 „ 


13 „ .. 


4 .. 




888 




u .. 


14 „ .. 


6 „ 




882 




12 „ 


16 „ .. 


6 „ 




881 




IS „ 


16 „ .. 


1 Mytgenu 


» 


880 




14 „ 


17 „ .. 


8 „ 




879 




16 „ 


18 „ .. 


8 „ 




878 


Sabbatical yr. 


16 „ 


19 „ .. 


4 „ 





Note.— It may be obserred that the total solmr edipse of b.o. 885 occurred in year of oOke of ^ 

uzar,»The ■an-enpporte-the lord, or king. It was partial at Ninereb, and of the aanw chaiactcr aa tliatof ••«> * 
pronounced to be projHtiouM to the king. 



Book of EHher. 



287 



BAWLINSON'S ASSYBIAN 0ANON-H?oii<iiiii#rf, 



%x. 


4t« 

SOM. 


Ef<»TMOITl AjtcHora. 


AemiA. 


EOTPT. 




907 


1 


Aba-iH-ja • • . . 


(STugultiO 
( niniD 


20Sheshonkn 




M 


2 


Hu-milki 


4 


» • • 


21 „ 




M 


3 


Yari 


5 


» • • 


22 „ 




9M 

903 

! KB 


4 
5 
6 


Aisitr-Mzib-aai 


6 

1 
2 


» • • 


23 „ 

24 „ 

25 „ 


r Total solar edipeo third Jul j, 
1 pirtiall J Yiflible in Armen ia, 
1 in the first year of Assnr- 
L nazirpal. 


Aasor-iiAzir-pal . . 
AMor-idin . . . . 


901 


7 


Simntti-aka . . 


3 


» •• 


1 Osorohonll 




*» 


8 


.... anma-domga . . 


4 


» • • 


2 „ 


II 


!w» 


9 


Pagan-bel-nazir 


5 


>» • • 


8 „ 


§1 


Iw 


10 


Kinippija-usar 


6 


» • • 


4 „ 


"s 1 

8 * 


< 1 


11 


Kinip-bel-ozor 


7 


i> • • 


6 „ 


If 


F 


12 
13 


Sangu-aMur-lilbur .. 
Samas-abla .. .. 


8 
9 


>» • • 


6 „ 

7 „ 


Is 


»4 


14 


Nibat-bel-kamoa . . 


10 


>» • • 


8 „ 


J 2 


1 SM 


15 


Qurdi-aMiir . . 


11 


ft •• 


9 „ 


3 '^ 

if 


M 


16 


A«Mir-UhA •• 


12 


» • • 


10 „ 


»1 


17 


AMiUMiatgil.. 


13 


» • • 


11 „ 




890 
189 


18 

19 


Bel-smn-damig 
Dajan-ninip. . 


14 
15 




12 ,. 
18 „ 


m 


20 


Istar-iddan .« 


16 


i» • • 


14 „ 




m 


21 


Samaft-nori •• .. 


17 


» • • 


16 „ 




IK 
IRS 

IM 


22 
23 
24 


Mannn-daan-aiia-ili. . 
Sama0-bel-azur 
Kinip-ilai . . 


18 
19 
20 


it •• 

»» • • 


16 ,. 

17 „ 
ITakeUoUib 


/'Total ecUpee thirteenth Julj, noon, 
3 magnitude 0*83, North, 19 years 
1 11 days before the ecUpse ol 
C B.C. 867, » Tisible at Nineyeh. 


m 25 


liinip-odiuvaimi 


21 


it •• 


2 „ 




te 26 


AtBor-ilai . • 


22 


t* • • 


3 „ 




►li rj 


Nibat-iika-dain 


23 


»i • • 


4 „ 




Koi 2S 


Dabu-bel . • 


2i 


» •• 


6 „ 




17V 29 


Sar-malier^niBi 


25 

1 


a • • 
tt • • 


6 „ 

7 „ 




I7H 


30 


Saliman-uxur II 



r ( lUa total crlipae of the 13th JoIt, b.c. 8S5, oocorred 18 years and 1 1 days before the total eclipse of b.o. 867 on 
mttttk ht3j. AAd tb« edtpae of 867 Is again connected with the total eclipse of B.C. 16th August 810, in the tini* 
# SlBilMiiti ■, ^ another cyde of 6,890 mean lunations, or 667 years 22 days. All these eclipses thasjreU defined 
» ' • » txsnng ia c»rrection of the lunar theory. ^ 



288 Book of Esther, 

ASTEONOMICAL CALENDA^l OF SACRED HISTORY- «m«ii«erf. 



B.C. 


Eoupsn AicD 
Sabbatical Yb0. 


Jl'DAB. 


IsBAEL. 


Ttu. 




877 
876 


.. 


l7Jeho8aphat 
18 „ 


20Ah8b .. 
21 „ .. 


5 Mytgenus 

6 „ 


1 mea makes s tnttr wttk Ui 
( (1 Kings, IX, »4.) 
(Three ;eu* of peue. ^ 
I xiU,l.) 


876 
874 


.. 


19 ,, 

20 „ 


22 „ .. 
lAbaziah 


7 „ 
8 


\ »tUie»ge,i»y,of M,iiiic8Jl 


873 


• • • • 


21 ,. 


1 Jonim . . 


9 „ 




872 


.. 


22 „ 


2 „ .. 


IFygmalioo 


I UogofHoab. (21ilg>iil,<l. 


871 


Sabbatical jr. 


23 „ 


3 „ .. 


2 „ 




870 


.. 


24 „ 


4 „ .. 


8 „ 




869 


.. 


25 „ 


6 „ .. 


4 .. 




868 


.. 


1 Jehoram 


6 „ .. 


5 




867 


.. 


2 „ 


1 „ .. 


6 „ 




866 


. . 


3 „ 


8 „ .. 


7 ., 




865 


.. 


4 „ 


9 „ .. 


8 „ 




864 


Sabbatical jr. 


6 „ 


10 „ .. 


9 ., 




863 
862 
861 
860 


1 Annular ) 
\ Eclipse ) 


6 „ .. 

1 Ahaziah. . 

1 Athaliah 

2 „ 


11 » .. 

12 „ .. 

1 Jehu . . 

2 „ .. 


10 

11 » 

12 „ 

13 „ 


f Death of Jeacbel »t the age of 62 
I Hazael anointed king of Syria. 

CJebu anointed king cf I»< 
1 (2 Kings, Ix. 6.) 


859 


. . ■ 1 


3 „ 


8 „ .. 


14 „ 




858 


.. 


4 „ 


4 „ .. 


15 „ 




857 


Sabbatical yr. 


5 „ 


5 „ .. 


16 „ 




856 


«. 


6 ,, 


6 „ .. 


17 „ 




855 


. . 


1 Jehoaah. . 


7 „ .. 


18 „ 




854 


. . 


2 „ .. 


8 „ .. 


19 „ 




853 


. . 


3 „ .. 


9 ., .. 


20 „ 




852 


. . 


4 „ .. 


10 „ .. 


21 




851 


.. 


5 „ .. 


u „ .. 


22 „ 




850 


Sabbatical yr. 


6 „ .. 


12 „ .. 


23 „ 




849 


. . 


7 „ .. 


13 „ .. 


24 „ 




848 




8 „ .. 


14 „ .. 


23 





» After the year b.c. 874, nothing more is said concerning Ahab in the Assyrian recorda. This "^J 
been the year of his death, because Haxael and Jehu are mentioned in those records thirtecfi years after, w^ 
in B.C. mi. 



Book of Esther. 



289 



RAWLINSOITS ASSYRIAN CANON— ccm<»ii««i. 



I-C. 


4tH 
SOM. 


EroKTMOus Abcbom. 


Amtria. 


EOTFT. 




877 


81 


AMur-bel-kani 


( 2ShalmanO 
( ezer I 


STakellothis 




S76 


32 


AflBur-bani'Uiur' . . 


8 




9 






875 


33 


Aba'iua-ekal-lilbiir . 


4 


n 


10 


II 


3 confederacy with Ahab, who rar- 
1 nlBhed 10,000 men towardft the 


874 


SI 


Dayan-aasor. . 


5 


n 


11 


i» 


I, army, in b.o. 876. 


873 


85 


Sunaa-abua .. 


6 


a 


12 


II 




672 


36 


SamaB-bel-uzor 


7 


*i 


13 


1) 




871 


37 


Bel-banai .. 


8 


t* 


14 


II 


r Edipse of the moon on 24th Mesori, 
in 16th year of TakeUothis « 
^ 17th March, B.C. 870. 


870 


38 


Hade-Ubuflu . . 


9 


it 


15 


II 


m 


8d 




10 


>» 


16 


II 


i DamascoB, and twelve kings of the 


^ 


40 


Eida-nunan.. 


11 




17 












*' 




** 


w 


fl 


Ninip-mukin-nifli • . 


12 


II 


18 


II 


r EcUpse of son, InTifiible at Nineveh, 
i 667 years before the edipee of 
C Agathodes, B.C. 310. 


(«6 


42 


yJT^ip.TimiliTi-yiin • • 


13 


w 


f 1 Sheflhonk 

I ni 


^ 


43 


Anur-baiiai . . 


14 


II 


2 


II 




^ 


44 


Dabu-xiinip .. 


16 


II 


8 


II 




9S3 


45 


Taggil-ana-sari 


16 


11 


4 


II 


Death of Benhadad. 


862 


46 




17 




6 


















/"»In my 18th year (b.c. 861X for 


«1 


47 Tl*1.«KnA 


18 




Q 




) the sixth time, the Enphrates I 


1 "" —«*»•« • • • • 




11 




II 


) crossed. Hazael of Damascns to 


880 


46 SalubeMamor 


19 


II 


7 


II 


(^ battle came." Jehu paye tribute. 


«9 


40 Kinip-kipsi-uzur 


20 


II 


8 


II 


r"In my twen^-flrst campaign, to 
the dties of Hasad of Damascas 


8M ' '- ■ — - - - 










5W 


du 


^imp-ilai . . 


21 


II 


9 


II 


-{ 1 went; tribute of the TyriauB, 


K7 














51 


Qordi-asflur . . 


22 


II 


10 


II 


(^ received." 


S56 


52 Niri-Bar .. 


23 


II 


11 


II 


il 


8m 


53 Kibat-saixi-dAmiq 


24 


I* 


12 


II 


^ 


54 Yahalu 


25 


1* 


13 


•1 


of one £ 
Total Edj 
.0. 867. 


»3 55 


lUalai 


26 


II 


14 


II 


%t 


66 


Sarpati-bel .. 


27 


II 


15 


II 


P 


%\ 


57 


Nargal-ilai . . 


28 


II 


16 


II 


H 


«0 S8 


Habtt 


29 


II 


17 


II 




**^|W Inukin-uiur.. 


30 


II 


18 


II 


r Total edipee, fifth AuguBt, morning, 


m 


60 ; Sitiman-unir II • . 

1 


31 


II 


19 


II 


f ♦* In my thlrty-flrstyear, the second 
\ time the Cydical Feast*** 



u •I'TZT"***^* ^•^ ^ **»« pal»c«(?), say at the age of 26, in the year b.c 876. Reappointed in the year 
ju^Jhy ftamae-Phul, say at the age of 84, shortly before his death, on the restoration of the monarchy. 
T^^aMtrlain of the palace, there is nothing Improbable in this. 

»«: iIJ??^*"*"»P»~r • * ^ 



-~- -— . M. Mus passage is atrur, from 1T3, 
* ■^'*^« Aayrka Orammar, p. 21. 



< to more in a dide.** RawUnaon, Athenssum, Jept. 7th, 



19 



2^ Book of EsiJier. 

ASTRONOMICAL CALENDAR OF SACRED HISTOBY— coji<tMMi. 



B.C. 


EcUPSn AHD 

Sabbatical Ybs. 


JODAH. 


TlBillTii 


TllB. 


Bwiiw» 


847 


.. 


SJehoosh.. 


16 Jehu .. 


SeP^gmtUoD 




846 


.. 


10 „ .. 


16 „ .. 


27 „ 


(Cuthig* oalooind by the ri«ieTof 
I rygmaliOB.' 


846 


.. 


11 ,, ■• 


17 „ .. 


28 „ 




844 


.. 


18 „ .• 


18 „ .. 


29 „ 




848 


SAl)balM»l7r. 


18 H .. 


19 „ .. 


80 „ 




842 


t • • • 


14 „ .. 


20 „ .. 


81 „ 




841 


t • • • 


16 „ .. 


21 „ .. 


32 , 




840 


.. .. 


16 „ .. 


28 „ .. 


88 « 




889 


*• • • 


17 „ .. 


28 „ .. 


84 „ 




888 


■ 


IS u .. 


24 „ .. 


86 ,. 




887 


• t t • 


19 „ .. 


26 „ .. 






836 


Sabbakioalyr. 


20 „ .. 


26 „ 






835 


Jubilee year 


21 „ .. 


27 „ .. 






834 


.. 


22 „ .. 


28 „ 






883 


.• 


88 „ .. 


1 Jehoahas 






832 


.. 


24 „ .. 


2 „ 






831 


.. 


25 „ .. 


8 „ 






880 


.• 


86 „ .. 


4 „ 






829 


Sabbatical yr. 


27 „ .. 


6 „ 






828 


.. 


28 „ .. 


6 „ 






827 


.. 


29 „ .. 


7 „ 






826 


• • • • 


80 „ .. 


8 „ 






826 


.. 


81 „ .. 


9 „ 






824 


• • *. 


88 „ .. 


10 „ 






823 


.. 


88 „ .. 


11 » 






822 


SabbatiealjT. 


84 „ .. 


18 „ 






821 


.. 


86 „ .. 


18 „ 






820 


.. 


86 „ .. 


14 ., 






819 


• • •• 


87 .. .. 


16 „' 






818 


.. 


88 „ .. 


16 „ 







» The colony of Carthage was founded by the slater of Pygmalion in the tweoty-aerenth rtmr of Kia n^ 

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Book of Esther. 291 

BAWLDTSOirS ASSYMAN QA3S^O^^-conHm^ud, 



Bx. 1 ^^ Srovntouf Asohoks. 

1 


AstntA. 


Eotrr. 


BBKABltS. 


847 1 1 1 Baysn-ttseitf.. 


gSShalman- 
ezer 


80 Sheahonk 
III 




816 2 ABsor-baiii-acar 


38 „ 


21 » 




846 3 T»hfda 


34 „ 


22 „ 




844 


4 


Belbanai .. 


36 „ 


23 „ 




84S 


5 


>| ( 




84S 


6 




■s 




841 


7 




1 




8«> 
839 


9 
9 




Berolt of Afiar-dAnni-pAl, or SardAupalnt 
(" A qno oiqiM ftd prlmom OlTmpiadem eflduntar aani 67."~ 
Abydenus, Ann. EuMb. Anch., p. 89.) 


838 


10 




- B,o. 848. 


837 


11 




1 ^ 




838 


13 




9 ^ 
fl o 

' It ' 
11 

II 

1 ^ 

\ 

liainBs-Fhiil' 




83S 
834 
833 

833 
8S1 


13 
14 
15 
16 
17 










830 


18 




Ffanl and Arhaoes, or Belochos and Arbaces conspire 


8S3 
828 
»7 
826 


19 
20 
21 

2S 




against, and conquer Sardanapalns. The Medes then 
reigned 804 years, till the time of Darins b.o. 621 

-B.0. 825 


823 
. 824 
, 833 


23 
24 
26 


8 


Annular eel 
whenShax 

r 1 Bhamas- 
\ Phul 


ipse, 6th Oetol 
DSB-Pbtd defeat 

44 Sheshonk 

ni 


>er, B.0. 826, partially yiable, 
ted Sardanapaloi at Kinereh. 


V823 


26 


Yahalu 


2 „ 


46 „ 




821 


27 


Bel-daan 


3 „ 


46 „ 




820 


28 


Nmip-nhUi .. 


4 H 


47 ,. 




819 


29 


Shamfts-ilAi • « • < 


6 ., 


48 „ 




818 


80 Kibst-ilai •. 

1 


6 „ 


40 „ 





te?5i 



I The orijcfnal name of Shamas-Phol, maj have befln Bel-uzar, that ia B«Im7S, or Belochtis. After repeated 
X fete ttftfederata Arbacee deaired to make peace. Beleeye then ooosolted the etan, and being favoored pro> 
^ a amiS^ae ecUpee of t&f ran, in October b.c. 826, took the title Shamaa-Phnl when he came to the throne. 



292 



Book of Esther. 



Judging from the very frequent use of the word Shamas 
(Sun-God) in the compound names of pubUc oflScere during 
the period we have been examining^ it may be inferred that 
the worship of the sun was peculiarly prevalent at this 
period of the Assyrian empire. Assumazirpal points to the 
"Sun-God" as casting his propitious shadow upon him, 
Shalmanezer II styles himself " Sim-God" (Records of the 
Past, voL iii, p. 83), and his son Shamas-Phul styles himself 
ruler of the "Southern Sun," whose seat is at Calah (vol. i, 
p. 12). It will also be observed that, according to the 
foregoing arrangement of dates, after insertion of the years 
of revolt under Sardanapalus, kings take their thrones, and 
eponymous prefects take their titles in years of total or 
annidar eclipse of the sun, thus : — 



Total solar eclipse 3rd July, 903, 
partially visible at Nineveh. 

Small solar eclipse 4th July, 895. 

Total solar eclipse 9th Feb., 887. 

Total solar eclipse 13th July, 885, 
partially visible at Nineveh. 

Total solar eclipse Ist March, 878, 
large at Nineveh (7). 

Annular eclipse 22nd April, 872. 

Total solar eclipse 4th August, 849. 

Annular eclipse 26th Sept., 843. 
AnnnUr eclipse 6th Oct, 825. 

Total solar eclipse 8tb Jan., 819. 



Assumazirpal takes the throne. 

Shamas-ubla prefect. 
Shamas-nuri „ 

Shamas-bel-uzur „ 

Shalmanezer takes the throne/ 

Shamas-bel-uzur prefect 

Shalmanezer on the throne, inaugu- 
rates a Second Cycle, 848. 

Sardanapalus revolts. 

Shamas-Phul consults the starsy and 
restores the monarchy. 

Shamas-ilai prefect 




-Z 



All these eclipses apparently should be found by com- 
putation to have been visible at Nineveh. Astronomers, 
perhaps, may think them worthy of their consideration in 
the reconstruction of the lunar theory. 



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''-^SjMO^OBp f 




I 



k 



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^ 



I 






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293 



INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS AT THE TEMPLE 
OF EL-KHARGEH. 

By S. Birch, LL.D. 

Read 4th January, 1876. 

Amongst the valuable collection of drawings, notes, 
memoranda, and copies of inscriptions made by the late Mr. 
Robert Hay, of Linplum, during his journey and stay in 
Egypt about the years 1828-1832, are some copies that he 
made of the inscriptions at the temple of Ammon at 
El-Khargeh, the ancient oasis of Ammon, lying to the west of 
Egypt, in the Libyan desert, in the 26^ N. Lat. This site 
had been repeatedly visited by travellers in the present 
century, amongst them M. Cailliaud,^ who published an 
account of his journey and some of the cartouches or royal 
names found on the walls ; subsequently by Minutoli,* both 
of which travellers gave some of the principal representa- 
tions and some details of the sculptures on the walls. The 
journey of Sir Archibald Edmonston to the oasis, published 
at the same time as Cailliaud's,* gave only plans, views, and 
a map of the site and principal temples of the locality. 
Lately a scientific expedition by M.M. Rohlfs and Remel^ has 
penetrated again to the oasis, and brought back valuable 
copies of inscriptions on that site, amongst others of some 
proving the existence of the names of two monarchs of the 
Persian dynasty called Darius.* 

As the present inscription has no prenomen of Darius, 
but the name only, it is not possible to determine to which 
of the Persian dynasties it is to be referred, but possibly to 
the elder Darius or Hystaspes, who treated the Egyptian 

* Voyage k ToasU de Thebes. Paris, 1822. 

' Beise fum Temple d. Jupiter Ammon in der libyschon Wiiste. Berlin, 1834. 
' A Journey to two of the Oases. London, 1822. 

* Prof. Lepsius, Zeitachrift far. ftgypt. Spr., 1874, s. 78. 

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294 Inscription of Variua at the Temple of ElrKhargeh. 

deities with honour, and endeavoured to attach the Egyptians 
to hifi sway by the reverence he showed for the principal 
deities of the Pantheon. That the Persians did not altogether 
abhor the Egyptian religion, may be instanced by their 
removal of statues to Persepolis and elsewhere, and the deri- 
vative introduction of Egyptian deities and other emblems 
into their art. Nor was the Egyptian religion altogether 
dissimilar, for it exhibited as the Persian the antagonistic 
powers of nature, the solar light contending with the shades 
of darkness, and the contest of good and evil. Egyptian 
mythology, too, had become more eclectic, or less reticent of 
its esoterism, and the present hymn, one of the most remark- 
able yet found, addressed to the god at Thebes, the deity of 
the oasis, identifies Amen with nature itself and all the 
principal gods of the Egyptian Pantheon. It is the most 
pantheistic of those yet found, and the nearest approach to 
the idea of the monotheism of one deity manifested by 
different types in the chief cities of Egypt, the ultimate or 
leading first manifestations being that of the god Amen. It 
is therefore no wonder that the Persians accepted his worship 
and honoured his fane, the more so as the attempt to reaoh 
the oasis by their armies had signally failed tmder Cambyses, 
After Alexander the Great had subdued the East, the East 
conquered him ; and fascinated with the splendour of Persian 
courts and Egyptian myths, he visited the Oasis, and adopted 
the title of the son of Amen, that used by the ancient 
Pharaohs to indicate their direct descent from the god of 
Thebes, subsequently converted into the mystic narrative of 
the serpent and Olympias, and the magical legend of the 
descent of the heroic monarch from Neotanebo* It is 
probable that an allusion to the foimtain occurs in this in- 
sc>ription in line 6, where "the young ^af^" or celestial waters, 
and *' the old mau" or liquid element, are mentioned, as they 
are again at line 30. It will be remembered that Khnum, or 
Chnumis, was the deity of the water, the ram-beaded and 
demiurgic type of Amen, and as such president over the 
element of water, represented in the lists of the four elements 
by Han or Nut, for some recent discoveries identify the two 
words as the same in the name of the god ot the celestial 

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Inscription of Darius at the TenipU of EUKhargeh. 295 

water or ether. The old and young waters may consequently 
refer to the different temperatures of the celebrated fountain, 
alluding to the mineral waters discovered on the spot. The 
oracle at the spot was said to hare been often consulted, but 
finally lost its reputation subsequent to Alexander the Great, 
although it must have flourished at the time of Darius, who 
invokes the protection of the god against his enemies. The 
oracular powers of Amen Ra occasionally are mentioned, and 
the inscriptions testify to his according power, victory, 
dominion, long life, and other advantages to his votaries and 
the monarchs who consulted him. 

The inscription, which is inedited, was copied from the 
south-western wall of the second chamber of the temple. 
The representations which occur after the firs£ line are those 
of the four elements divided into the male and female 
principle, and described by M. Lepsius in a paper written by 
him for the Berlin Academy.* They are represented snake- 
headed and frog-headed, holding their hands up in adoration. 
They are as follows :— 

Lines 2 — 4 

Nu . • water, male. 

Nu t . . water, female. 

Eehu . • fire, male, 

Hehu t . . fire, female. 

Kakiu . . earth, male. 

Kakiu t . . earth, female. 

Earh • » air, male. 

Karh t • . air, female. 

In this series they follow the accustomed order, and 
have their usual names, the only exception being that 
of instead of the word "^^^'\ ^ nau^ for * air,' the inscription 
of El-Khargeh gives <S^ \ -^-i karh. This word has no philo- 
logical analogy with any of the Egyptian expressive of air. 
It has been supposed to mean ' care ' ;^ the word nearest to 

' Feber die Gutter d. Tier Elementen, in the Abhaodlungen. d. K. Akad. d. 
WiiMnch. BerHn. 4to, 1856. 

' Plejto, Btadet Egjpti^nnes, p. 118. 

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296 InBcription of Dariits at the Temple of ElrKfiargek 

it in sound is karh, * the night.' The inscription consists of 
forty-six lines, and contains the address of the Elements to 
the god Amen Ra. It has been numbered in the copy 
invei-sely, the 46th being the first line. It is of the nature of 
some of the hymns already published and relating to that 
god. It is as follows : — 

1. Said by the adorers in praying to their father Amen 
Ra, lord of Hab,^ great god, powerful with the scimetar, 

5. in his type of Ra* to self-produced,' his 

bones of silver, his skin of gold, his head of real lapis, 
his joints of turquoise, a perfect god, making his body, 
giving birth to 

6. it. He has not come out of a womb, he has come out 

of cycles ; he has given light to the world [and] the 
circle of the gods is adoring before him; they pro- 
claim him to the height of heaven, [they] adore the one 
giving birth to his birth. He has passed 

7. the secret places, they rejoice at him under their divine 

types, they are carefiil to make their adorations to 
the bull. We pmy to him in [our abodes], we worship 
his words in their [places]. We adore him 

8. in the foi-m of hands. They acknowledge his majesty as 

their lord, for the gi-eatness of his type is the greatest 
of all of them. He has had a title of ... . [heaven] 
earth and waters Amen the firm in all things, that 
noble 

9. god, the earth came fi'om his devices, regulating each for 

the gods, old age and youth, procession, age, mystical 

were the causes,* acute the extended his 

favours, his limbs in the air of heaven upon his youthfbl 
head, the water under his 
10. head, a child the water imder his feet,* the plumes of 
a hawk on his head, he confines the winds under ihe 
boat of Manu* when he goes to the unknown region of 
the morning. The apes of Thoth' adore, saying oh 



» The Oasis. » The Sun. 

* Grebaut, Hynme k Ammon, p. liii, " self-transformed.'' 

* Heads. * Uncertain phrase. * Ocean. ' Sesenu. 



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Inscription of Darius at the Temple of El-Khargeh. 297 

11. the god Id the dkk concealing himself in his body, 

the soul gleaming from his two symboKc mortal eyes, 
the type of types, the honoured, not falling to his 
enemies, giving light to his transformation, he supports 
them by the light of his two mystical eyes, unknown is 

12. his Hail to thee in the bosom of the heaven, 

ordering thy divine births, the god Truth is united to 
thy mystical throne. Honoured has been thy image by 
thy lovers, thou hast shone, distributing the light 

13. in the morning, thou hast circled the two lands in thy 

gleaming. Thou hast touched at the hill of the land of 
Akar,^ the types in it adore, the light of the body 
producing thy beams, has been illumined* the bosom of 
the jackals hauling thy boat in the hidden gap 

14. of the land of Sesen,' and the Spirits of the West, adoring 

thee, they tremble at thee at the light of thy disk. 
The spirits of the land of Pu* salute thee at the 
appearance of thy light. Thou shinest in their faces, 
thou traversest 

15. thy two heavens ; annihilated are thy opponents. They 

open the house of thy majesty ; tame are the crocodiles, 
quiet are the herons in waters the of thy boat ; thou 

hast the fish. Horus has pierced Set, his 

arrow is in hinu He has conquered heaven and earth 

16. in his destruction, and his pursuit. Prevailing by over- 

throwing his opponent, he a sword 

Akar saves him, he makes his companion 

hidden he him ; his eye 

17. gives them light from him, it feeds off flame of fire. 

Thou hast passed the turns of the river, thou navigatest 

with a fair wind the city of Mer at rest 

the which 

18. they . . . [lacuna] . . . the . . . [lacuna] . . .* those never 

at rest and incorruptible constellations, thou perara- 
bulatest the earth justified. Thou joinest to a new 
skin, thy mother has been embraced 

' A region of Hades. ' Or reoeired. ' Hormopolifl. 

* Baio or the North. 

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298 Inscription of Darius at the IhnpU of ElrKhargeh. 

19. thy reception adored by all beings. Thou art at rest in 

the abode Tuant* during the hours of daitness, thou 
awakest Osiris by thy beams, thou shii^est over the 
heads of those who are in their cells, thou hast 
traversed 

20. their hidden buildings on purpose. Thou hast been 

typified by thought, thou hast made to be illumined 

thy own disk, thou hast set up the in 

their places. Thou hast gone against the chambers 

21. in the darkness, thy left eye is in the disk at night, thou 

shinest in the morning out of the east of the heaven, thoo 
hast been woven in thy disk in Ansatp.' Thy right eye 
is in the essence, thou hast made the passage, thy secret 

22. is the depths of thy secret waters and imknown. Thou 

hast come on the road, thou hast given light in the 
path, thou hast prevailed over difficulties like the 
mysterious forms, thy type than eveiy god 

23. exalted and magnified by the divine circles. Each god 

has assumed thy skin, without shape is their type com- 
pared to thy form. Thou art the majesty 

which is, thou hast ruled, lord; heaven and earth, 
under thy plumes, the gods 

24. under thy hands, men under thy legs ; where is a god 

like thee. Thou art the Sim over the gods, crowned 

sweet and delightful, oh soul strong in by 

terrors 

25. of the disk, thy ura&i are tall, thy horns are pointed, 

twisted are the horns, lamps are the light of the two 
symbolic eyes, gold and crystal are the decorations, 
turquoise the face, 

26. gilded are the limbs. Thou hast placed thy throne 

wherever thou delightest to multiply thy name, places 
and districts carrying thy beauty. Com has never 
failed to be tall imder thy form. Thy place is arranged, 
in the time of a division 

27. of an hour thou traversest the earth from the Manu.' 

Thou risest from the waters as the hidden egg, the 

' Morning. ' Or Anep, Mendee. • Ocean. 

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Inscription of Darius at the Temple of El-Khargeh. 299 

female Amen is in thy company. Thou hast rested in 

the cow, thou seizest the horns, thou hast been im- 
merged in 

28. the cow Mehur. No germ grows, rising from its en- 

tirety to earth from the ether, sound in the roots. 
Thou perambulatest the earth to the district of 
Sutenkhen.* Thou hast gone there to its confines* 

29. Thy Hkeness is there as the one of terrible face. Thy 

great soul is in the nome of Lycopolis at rest among 
the ten thousands and thousands of gods which come 
out of it. Thy fluid is Su,« thy drop is Tefhut.» Thou 
hast made to grow 

30. the nine gods at the first of typification. Thou art the 

lion of the double lions, thou hast tied the bellies of 
the circle of the gods, thou hast extended the earth 
under their power. They make festivals to thee in 
their temples. Thy soul* is in 

31. Tattu* altogether, the four gods in Ansatp engendering, 

lord of the gods, bull of his mother, rejoicing in the 
cow, her husband, engendering with his beautiful gene- 
ration. Thou passest to the place thou choosest to 
thy 

32. hall of the Saite nome. Thy form is at rest in the temple 

of Lower Egypt, in the nest of the lord* of Sais. 
Thy mother Neith has been pleased by her son ten- 
derly beloved, binding him all the limbs in the region 
of the South and North, thy 

33 on the arms of the crocodiles. Thou 

hast opened the nest, thou restest on the lower country. 
Thy heart rests in the roads of Hai,' making Buto 
to rejoice in a moment, and Mehenu' 

34. to follow thee. Thou hast come in the heart of 
Nausaas. Thy soul is at rest in Hetep.* Thou art 

^ Henkleopolis. 

' SoIbt deil^, one of the eonitellationfl, Gemini. 

' Solar deitj, siaier of Su, and ihe other person of the constellation Gemini. 

* Or Bull. » Bosiris or Ahusir. « Or Lady " Neith." 
' Or the papyrus, tiie Lower Country. 

* Hie ur«us on the diadem of the Sun. * Place of pools in Elysium. 



; '''*'Vv Digitized by VjOOQIC 



300 Inscription of Darius at the Temple of El-Kliargeh 

the youthftd water and the old water hidden amongst 
those of the temple in the great house of An.^ Thou 
goest in [peace] 

35. the ur®us on thy head ; in a moment thou hast united the 

two countries under the sides of thy throne. Thou 
art the place of Sebennytus, thy place is pure in the 
town of the abode of the Sycamore.* Thy abode is in 
Khent-ta-net, thy dominions in Memphis, gods and 
goddesses 

36. above in the rays of An^ to spie thy form in Menkat* 

Thou hast presented the peace of the hidden placed 
Thy births have gone round the gods who are 
demiurges 

37. the cycle of them thou hawk of the nome of HeKo- 

polis, thy temple sacred is in the city of Kar/ thy first 
birth is established in the face of the darkness. 

38. Thy second birth thou hast appointed there after thee 

to overthrow thy enemies at their rising. Thou hast 
gone opposite to the court-yard to the South, a 
demiurge to elevate the youthftd waters* 

39. in his bed. Thou hast made the two countries in the 

town of the White Wall® as Ptah, chief essence to ... . 
Thou hast placed thy throne in the life of the two 
countiies as Amen Ra. Thy soul is the ark and four 
pillars of the two heavens. 

40. Thy form emanated at first while thou shinest as Amen 

Ra and Ptah. Thy heart is at rest in thy city of Uaa.' 
Thy two ur®i, thy eyes, thy sceptre, thy whip open the 
doors of the heaven in 

41 . Thebes, Shu, Tefiiu, Mut and Khons are thy form dwelling 

in thy shrine under the types of the god Khem, raising 
his tall plumes, king of the gods, lifting the hand, lord 
of the crown, 

42. powerful by it, all fear enianates from the fear of him the 

Kamutf who resides in his fields, homed in all his 
beauty, engendering the depths. Black and crystal 



Heliopolis. ' Aninoe. ' Unknown site. ^ Babjlo 

* hanier. • Memphis. ' Thebet.- 



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Inscription of Darius at the Temple of ElrKhargeh. 301 

the faces of those attached to him, the two mystical 
eyes, the decorations of 

43. flor-ti* dwelling in the nome Pe* over his strong house. 

Turn the great lord of created beings He is the 
hawk* created at firet, Mentu Ra in Uas.* The 
powerful bull, he is the arm striking 

44. the cowards of Nahi, Ptah in Uas,* the luminous body 

ever golden for an age and ever. Thou art Sekar, thy 
transformations are in to the Nile, the person greater 
than the other gods. Thou art youthful water and old 
water.* 

45. They repose in the merits of thee. Thou givest life to 

the earth by thy stream. Thou art heaven, thou art 
earth, thou art fire, thou art water, thou art air in the 
midst of them. Thou hast hailed at things to be done of 
him who is indefatigable, the orderer of the visible and 
invisible.* 

46. Thou givest life to them as thou increasest them, thy 

soul prepares them under thy type of Amen Ra, 
lord of all existences, thy heart is strong, thy body 
makes festive, thou increasest thy son who is on thy 
throne, thou makest young his limbs up- 

47. on earth. Thou honourest him, thou crownest him 

with thy title, thy gracious form thou makest to shine 
as the Sun, thy son, the beautiful face^ doing all thy 
wish, thou findest for him victory to his hands, the 
king of the Upper and Lower Country, the Son of the 
Sun. 

48. Ntariush® the ever living, bom of the Sun, the support of 

those who are in Uas,* the Son of the Sun Ntaruish® the 
assistant, his attached fourfold of Amen Ra, lord of the 
thrones of the world, resident in Thebes, powerful 
with the scimetar 

49. Son of the Sun Ntariush,® Horns, son of Isis, son of Osiris, 

beloved of Amen, save thou the Son of the Sun Ntariush® 



^ The Coptites nome. ' Bnto. * X^P^* "^°^® ^ ^® *' icarabfeiu." 

* Thebftid. * Or the Hannu or Ether. 

* Existent and non-existent. ' Title also of Ptah. ' Darius. 



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302 Inscription of Davits at the Temple of ElrKliargeh. 

the ever living, from every sword, every arrow ; may 
the terror of him, the fear of him, the victorious power 
of him, be in the hearts of all men and every land, like 
thy victory thy fears and thy terrors in the hearts of 
gods and men. 

[The notes and commentary on this text will appear in 
the next part«] 




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303 



THE LEGEND OF THE TOWER OF BABEL. 

By W. St. Chad Boscawek. 

Bead ^h Jamuaty, 1876. 

Tms tablet, of which I now give a translation, was first 
discovered by Mr. George Smith, and was translated by him 
in his work, " Chaldean Account of Genesis," pages 160-163. 

It appears to relate to the bnilding of one of those great 
temple-towers or "^^ra<t," which formed the principal 
feature of most of the cities and palaces in Western Asia. 
The Accadians or early Babylonians were a people of moun- 
tain origin, coming down firom the Em'dean ranges to dwell 
in the plains of Babylonia. They brought with them the 
tradition that the gods only visited the high places of the 
earth, and so when they built their cities in Babylonia they 
always raised the temple-towers high above the plain as 
places to be visited by the gods. Such was the great tower 
at Boredppa, the temples at Erech, Ur, and Cutha. 

In this paper I have attempted no compaiison with ,the 
BibUcal legend of Babel, as the tablet is in so imperfect 
a condition that it would not be of use to build any theory 
on it. 

The legend appears to record the building of one of the 
great towers by order of the king, and the work appears to 
have offended the gods, who first demonstrated their anger 
by throwing down " in the night aU that was built in the 
day.** The builders appear to have continued their work in 
spite of these interruptions, and at last they were punished 
by being scattered abroad and their speech confounded. The 
tower itself appears to have been destroyed by a storm. 

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304 Tlie Legend of the Tower of Babel. 

K, 3657. 
Column 1. 

8U - nu abu 

Mem the father 

[a -mat-] ti -su lib -ba -su il -te - im - na 
Aw thoughts of his heart were evU 

a - bi ka - la ili 

the father of all the gods 



i - 21 - ru 
he turned from 



4. [f? ^] ^]< I ^nr-'^T I ^»:^TT^!^>-n-n[ 

[a -mat-] ti -su lib - ba -su il - te - im - na 
his thoughts of his heart were evil 

Babilu ha - mi - it 

Babylon corruptly 

a- na il - ki - im 

to sin went and 

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The Legend of the Totver of BciheL 305 

[za - ha - ni - u] va ra - bu - u - 

9mall and great 

n - ba - al - lu tul - la 

he mingled (on) the mound 

'- ^Mi^ Hs:yT <m }H <:::: ^T y? ^] 

balilu ha - me - it a - na 

Babylon corruptly to sin 

il - ki - im 
went and 

[za - ha - ru - u] va ra - bu - u 

Small and great 

«=m«= --^T «=i<j M <m-t] 

n - ba - al - lu tul - la 

he mingled on the mound. 



Column II. 

sar - till - eli 
The king of the noble mound 

Ina ma- ah - ri is - su A - uuv 

In front did lift tip Aim 

Vol. V. ^ Digitized ba^OOgle 



3()() The Legmd of the Toxcer of Babel. 

ft - na El - khi a- bi - su 

To the good Lord hid fattier 

ki - i lab - bu - us Bu-va 

The^i his heart aho 

Ba ua - a - si de - q -ma 

which carried a command 

6. ^^ )-ry ^y y- i ^y ?^^fegfe^iM$^^^ 

I - na yu -mi su-va 

At that time also 

it - tu - vl - su 

he lifted it up 

«• H tv^T <I^ -^! 

Dav - ki - na 
Davkina 

si - na ka - la yumi 

their all day 



^t JT :«<! 



1 - su - us 

he founded (or rai.^ed up) 



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The legend of the Toicer oj IhheL 307 

'«• m ^T ^m ^s -v,-^ A-W -T< <T- ^} 

[a]- na ta az zi - im - ti si r na 

to their strong hold 

i - na ma- ai - li 
in the night 

u - ul u - sn - ta 

entirely an end 

si - it r ta 
he made. 

I - na ug - ga - ti su-va ni -mi- ga - av 
In his anger also the secret counsel 

s^ 4ff ^ AHTT 

i - sa -pa - ah 
he poured out 

'^ mmM -^1 mm ^r hf- -^tt «=!? 

8U ba - al - lu ta - mas - li - o 

his to scatter 

pa - ni - fill is - ku - un 

hi A face he ft el 

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308 The Legend of the Tower of Bahel. 

dan - ni de - ma ut - tak - ki - ra 

he gave a command lie made strange 

me - lik su - un 
their speech 

ra a-lak- ta ip-qut-ea 

the progress he impeded 

zab- ta pa- ra - ak 

make an altar 



Column III. 
[All upper portion lost.] 

»• HT ^n<T It It sriTT immi^mmM^ 

ma - ri -a a- ta 

my son thou {art) 






mi - m - su 
fte number 



11. j=yyyj= <ty^ s^Tn^^^^ie 

u - ul - n 

entirely/ 

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The Legend of the Tower of Babel. 309 

u - da - ab 

he makes good 

13. y^ ^] 

a - na 
to 

Column IV. 

I-na 

In 

2. idi iii^- -Ti ^y 

ip - pu - nh va 
lie blew 



ana za-a - 


ti 


Ba - da 


- zi 




/br /tia«r« 


^m« 








. ..y 1^ 


-Mv 


-m 


^^TT 


-^!TIH 


D.P. Nu- 


nam • 


' nir 


a - 


li - ik 


iVtt-nam-«wV* 




went 



ig - bi kima same va irzituv 

He spate like heaven and earth 

' The god of lawlessness, or no gorernment. 

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310 The Legend of the Tower of Babel. 

lik ki -8u a - li - ku - u 

his ways they went 

T. -0 5^ ^ -TI ^W ^ AH Ir'lV^ 13^ 

ag -gis id-hu- u ma- h - ri -bu 

violently they fronted against him 

i - mur - su- ti - va qaq- qa - ru 

he saw them (to) the earth 

»• ^ I "5^1! -W tr:]] -ET [s=T? ^- ^.] 

as -BU si - ig - ra la - [e - pu - u] 

when a stop he did not make. 



JU. Y >->-| p^ >^>^| <->:;?->:;^^-5;<^.;;^t:^;^?^'5^ 

sa ^ ili ab 

Of tlie gods k . . . . 

ili ip - pal . . . • * 

against the gods they revolted 



12. tiTTt m t^^ 



u - ra - ?u 

violence 



yj:^>l^>. 



khu- um -mu i -bak-ku u ana Ba - bi . 
violently they wept for Babylon 

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The Legend of the Tower of Babel. 311 

ta - ma- ah ib - ku - u 

^ery much they grieved 

lib - us - su - iiu - va 

in their midst also 



NOTES. 
Column I, 

5. hamit may be compared with Heb. rTOH, join together 

and rendered as " in consort," or perhaps with rTOJl 
poison ; hence corruptly. 
il kimj went, compare Heb. 

6. uballuy mingled. Heb. hhx confound, mix. This is the 

verb used in Genesis xi, 7 for the confusion of speech. 
TuUa^ mound. Heb. ht\ a hill, root *? vfl. 

Column II. 

2. iseu. Compare Heb. HfiW- 

5. nariy carried, a word of very frequent occurrence. Com- 
pare Heb. N\tr3. 
DemOj a decree. Compare Chald. DJ^, Ezra vi, 14. 

7. itttd-8u^ *'he Ufted up." Compare Heb. hhr\ and 7^3, a 

word cognate with tulla, of line 6, coL I. 
10. tazzimtiy stronghold. Compare Heb. roots DSM> DSVi 

and also Heb. HTOSV bulwarks. 
12. isapah^ he poured forth. Compare Heb. HSD. 
14. uttak-ki-ra^ he made strange, an iphtael form of nacini, 

to be strange. 
Melikj speech, counsel. Compare Cliald. nDTO " counsel," 

and also proper name, Milcah. 

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312 The Legend of the Totcer of Babel. 

Column IV. 

2. ip piJij he blew. Compare Heb. nD3, to blow. 

4. NvHnam-^ir. This god is the god of lawlessness, the 
name being composed of the negative NU, the particle 
NAM, which forms abstracts, and NIR, which is explained 
by earuy a king, the whole being no cross-ruling or 
mis-rule. 

6. illiky likkiy illiku, may all be compared with Heb. y^H. 

7. idhuy they fronted or arrayed. Heb. niTT. 




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313 



WHY IS FORTY-THREE A BASAL BIBLICAL 
NUMBER? 

Br S. M. DRAcn. 
Sead lit February y 1876. 

I BEG to remark that we find 430 years (Ex. xii, 40, 
Gen. xi, 17) ; 65, or f of 43 (Gen. v, 15, 21) ; also 215 is 5 
times 43; 129 is thrice 43; 7 x 43 is 301 {tohvrbohu, Qqu. i,2, 
is 430). The number 427 is y of 299 very nearly. 

Now 43 times 365* 5** 49°^ 12« gives 15,705* Kfi' 15™ 36«, 
and 532 times 29* 12»» 44°> 2«-88 gives 15,710* 6«^ 33°^ 32», 
exceeding by 4* 20** 17™ 56«, whilst one-sixth of a month is 
4* 22>» 7» 20>. Now 532 is 19 times 28, still nsed to har- 
monise the epacts and dominical letter in solar years. 
Perhaps this will lead to the astronomical reason for choosing 
43 solar years or 44J- lunar ones. This number of days is 
nearly that of tt to the diameter 5000. 

The period 427 is still closer, solar 155958 13 8J 
5281i lunations. , . . 155958 10 8^ 

3 

which 180 minutes gives 2-^ seconds per lunation to aug- 
ment the period (Laplace's secular equation 11''; or Adam's 
5f )• W^ *^^ ^®® ^^ ^^'^^ years equal 62 J lunar; or 
1708 = 21125 months, i.e., 3416 solar years = 10 x 65 x 65 
months to a day. Clinton's " Fasti Hellen," p. 304, makes : — 



235 lunat. 
19 sol.yrs. 



d h m 8 

29 12 44 2-88 
365 5 48 57-00 



d h m 8 

6939 16 31 17 
6939 14 30 3 



Loss 121 14 



But even -with 15» added for solar year, it brings the lunar 

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314 Whi/ is Fortt/'three a Basal Biblical Number ? 



excess to 116" 29*; and an excess is irreconcilable with the 
lunar theory. Perhaps the Hebrew-patriarchal contem- 
poreanities of this taole may be useful. 





At Age. 


After 
Deluge. 


After 
Life, 


Total 
Life. 


Died 

after 

Deluge. 


Cot€mporary Age. 


A Son born to 


Abra- 
bam. 

58 


Isaac 


Jacob 


Noah 


600 





350 


950 


350 


.. 


.. 


Shem 


100 


2 


500 


600 


502 


.. 


110 


50 


Arpbaxad . . 


35 


87 


408 


488 


440 


148 


4S 


•• 


Salach . . 


30 


67 


403 


433 


470 


•• 


78 


18 


Heber 


34 


101 


430 


464 


531 


.. 


139 


79 


Peleg 


30 


131 


209 


236 


^ 


48 


•. 




Beu 


32 


163 


207 


239 


370 


78 


.. 




S'rug 


80 


198 


200 


830 


393 


101 


1 




Naohor I 


29 


222 


219 


248 


441 


149 


49 




Terach 


70 


292 


135 


205 

• 


427 


135 


35 




Abram'icaU 


75 


(367) 


.. 


• • 




• * 


•• 




Abrnn (Ismael) .. 


86 


(378) 


k * 


•• 


* • 


.. 


.. 




Abraham (Isaac).. 


100 


392 


78 


175 


467 


• . 


75 


IS 


Isaac (Jacob) 


60 


452 


120 


180 


572 


t • 


• • 


120 


Jacob (Joseph)?.. 


90 


642 


57 


147 


599 


Josep 


hwas 


67 


Joseph, Vizier .. 


(30) 


572 


80 


110 


652 






•• 


Jacob, Egypt 


130 


582 


17 


147 


599 






•• 



Remark Isaac's dying in Joseph's vizier-year; Jacobus 
death at end of a 600 year. (Queiy : Was Terach'e father- 
less age increased by 40 years for this ?) That Shem died 
40 years before Joseph's birth. The prevalence of the unit 
8 in the last columns. As Noah took his sons into tha ark 
before his wife and daughters-in-law, the Rabbis state this 
indicates the separation of the sexes (human and brute) in 
the ark, so that no increase was to be apprehended; and 
hence Arphaxad was only bom after his parents were 

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Why is Forty-three a Basal Biblical Number. 315 

comfortably settled in their post-dilttvian tents. I think that 
the tipsy Noah stumbled into the harem, n^HM, not J^^Ot^ 
for ^^nb^t (the Masoretic violent change of affix) which 
would explain the impropriety. 

I beg to suggest a possible priestly idea in those archaic 
languages which, like the Hebrew Scriptures, offered no 
connection between the letters of one word, or separative 
marks between adjoining words (except the five final forms) ♦, 
namely: Did the priesthood publicly read their sacred books 
as emanating from false gods, yet Secretly to the initiated, 
by another combination of the syllables^ proclaimed the 
Monotheism they themselves had arrived at? It being 
the glorious mission and inspiration of Moses, that he made 
the initiated or Monotheistic reading the popular one as 
the only true exponent of the sacred writings. What I 
mean is this : the first verse of Genesis may be dissected 
thus philologically— 



PM 



the Earth 



Earth 



Earth 
(nmner) 



r and ) 
J (acca-C 
} saUye f 
C the) ) 



and 
thou 
art 



there 
eame 



theheayens 



the hearena 



hearens 



f accu-) 
{ satlve J- 
I the J 



thou 
art 



there 
came 



the Sea, 
the Yoom 



V« 



(God) 



Creator 
created 



Sethor 
(God) 



M-^a 



Creator 



It ifl known that Brahma's creative word is Oum — 
thence the fire-water (D*^"tt^M). I therefore ask if in 
Egyptology such priest-popular polytheistic reading occurred 
whilst the true Monotheistic one, which all now are faithful 

to, is that Y^wn HMi D^ttrn JIM uxh^ vnti nnr^M'tt; 

why.ifl then fl required if HM precedes it ? 

The ** without form and void," as before remarked, 
numerically equals 430 ; and Elohim to 86, or twice 43. 

Further, if God called the night-time Lail, why is the 
Yonm (day) made up of 1^^ (the evening) and "^jPl (the 

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816 Why is Forty^Hiree a Basal BibUcal Number ? 

morning?) I think this really means the dark chaotic mixture 
previous to the existence of light, and the search-time which 
was luminous. It is curious that whilst D'> a sea, and DT^ a 
day, are distinct, as also the dual D?0'^^ two days, that we 
have D*^*^ to express many seas and many days, and not 
D^i*^ used for the latter. I make these remarks not in any 
spirit of scepticism, but knowing the great similarity between 
the Pharaonic and Mosaic liturgies externally^ it occurred to 
me whether this was not one of the refined modes of blinding 
the common people to their true spiritual dependence on One 
God ? The super-pointed liiptlJ^I (Gen xxxiii, 4) equals 427. 
The eleven (Deut. xxix 29), to (2)310, the death-year of Moses 
CRabb). The division of earth temp. Peleg might simply 
mean an earthquake. Chap, xi says mankind foimd a cleft 
or defile in the land of Shinyr; and does not the (verba 
singula) of the first verse point to a monosyllabic primitive 
language, rendered imintelligible by the introduction of 
affixes, particles, etc., at the Confusion. 

Though Drs. Jost and Zunz were brought up in the great 
modem Jewish Grammar School of Seesen, the predecessor 
of their tutor Ehrenberg so inoculated these youths with the 
mystic notion that thousands of angels, good and bad, 
floating about, caught up any sound emitted in their pray ers, 
that it made Jost extremely sensitive, and afraid (even in 
his old age) of being alone in the dark. Was this a Rabbinical 
heritage of Assyrian Demonology? Ehrentheil's biography 
(Pesth, 1867), and Zunz's of Ehrenberg, are extremely 
interesting; both German 8vo. vols, are in the Britidi 
Museum Collection. 

P.S. — I found since that thrice 43 + 427 or 556 years are 
203074^ 1%^ 55« 12», and 6876| lunat. 203074^ 11»» 27» 5», 
a solar excess of 8™ 28* in 573^ lunar years. Hek Bey 
Egypt. Chr. xxxiii) found that 4004 x 365 less 7 x 70 days), 
or 1460970 days, are 4000 times 365^ b^ 49« 12«. M. Eydberg's 
deduction of 195-6 solar or 201 to 202 limar years (2424 
months) acts as 300 years on his 8 patriarchs + 24. His 
6408 is 8 X 9 X 89: his 4800: 4947 is 1600; 1649, or 408q. 
f 7sq. The Hebrew after-lives to Lamech, 6569 (or ^ of 

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Why is Forty-three a Basal Biblical Number 1 317 

4927), and Noah, 7019 (V> of 4913) ; total lives to Lamecli 
7625 (61 times 125, or 5 cubed) and Noah 8575 (25 times 343, 
or 7 cubed), may likewise furnish deductions. The Samaritan 
makes Lamech's birth (654) bisect the deluge year (1307) 
wherein he and Methuselah expire ; Cainan's birth-year (325) 
again nearly bisects 653. The patristic 105, 90, 70, 63, 53 
yearn are nearly in a harmonic ratio of 1, f , |, f , f • 




■Aiuwir AX9 aom, rvonoM w oiDDtAmT to bks iuujmtt, rr. MjjiTiM't lami. 

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SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL AKCH^OLOGY. 



Additional Members to Ath July^ 1876. 



Austin, Misq Qtotbude, The Warren, Wotton-under-Edge. 
Bevan, "William, 12, Bolton Qardeus, South Kensington, W, 
Brsios, Samttex A., 6, Duke Street, Adelphi, W.C. 
Bute, The Mabquis op, K.G., Eccleston Square, S.W. 

CARBrTHBBs, Eev. Chbistophee, 4, Spencer Villas, Southfields, 

Wandsworth, S.W. 
CoLLiKs, Rev. Cakok, M.A., Lowick, Northamptonshire. 
Cbanaqe, Db. J. E., Old Hall School, Wellington, Salop. 
Eddie, William H., Barton-on-Humber. 
Pisheb, E. Tbott, 30, Eaton Place, S.W. 
FoBLOKO, Mbs. Mika, 2, Kensington Gardens Square, W. 
Fbeemak, Hubebt a., A.B.I.B.A., F.S.A., 6, Queen Anne's 

Gate, S.W. 
Fbeemak, Miss CoNSTAifTiA, 27, Millbank Street, S.W. 
Gbant, Bbowk, Eev. G., 83, Clarendon Eoad, Notting Hill, W. 
Gbeooby, His Excellency Sib William, C.B., G.C.S.I., 

Queen's House, Colombo. 
Hamiltok, Abchibald, South Barrow, Bromley, Kent. 
Heake, William, M.E.C.S., Cinderford, Gloucester. 
Hyde Clabke, Db., 32, St. George's Square, S.W. 
Ibtiko, T. G., C.E., 77, Great Tower Street, E.C. 
Joseph, Hymen A., X6, Queen's Square, Bloomsbury, W.C. 
James, Eev. Hei(bebt, Livermere, Bury St. Edmunds. 
Jones, Eev. Wh^liam Mead, 15, Mill Yard, Goodman's Fields, E. 
Kmowles, Eev. John, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A., Tunbridge Wells. 
Lawsok, Eev. Edwabd, M.A., Longhirst Hall, Bothal, 

Morpeth. 
Lindsay, Hon. Colin, 15, Collingham Eoad, S.W. 
LovELL, Eev. G. P., M.A., Vice-Principal St. Edmond's Hall, 

Oxford. 
Ltall, CnABLis James, Under Secretary to H. M. Govcrntr.ent, 

Calcutta. 

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Macdokald, W. G., Grammar School, Enfield. 

Mabtixeau, Prof. Eussell, M.A., British Museum, W.C. 

MiLLiNOEN, Eev. a., M.A., Constantinople. 

MocATTA, P. D., 9, Connaught Place, W. 

Moss, Eey. E. J., M.A., East Ljdford Hall, Somerton. 

Palbt, Eev. Thomas, B.D., TJfford Eectorj, Stamford. 

PufOHES, Theophilus, 62, Newman Street, W. 

BiDGSWAT, Eey. Canok, M.A., 21, Beaumont Street, Oxford. 

EoBEBTS, Bet. J. A. J., M.A., Bothal, Morpeth. 

EoHABT, M. L'Abbe C, Grande Sfiminaire, S. Sulpice, Paris. 

Bust, Eey. J. Cypbian, M.A. Soham, Cambridgeshire. 

Etlaitds, W. Habby, Highfields, Thelwall, Cheshire. 

ScABTH, Eey. Pbebendaby H. M., M.A., P.S.A., Wrington, 

Somerset. 
Sheppabd, S. Gubkey, 3, Oxford Square, W. 
SiDEBOTHAH, JosEPH, P.E.A.S., Bowdeu, Cheshire. 
Somebyille, Eey. James, M.A., B.D., Broughty Ferry, Dundee. 
Stbeane, Eey. A. W., Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 
Tttckeb, Miss Maby, The Bury, Pavenham, Bedford. 
"Waldegbayb, Hok. H. Noel, 60, Milton Crescent, S.W. 
White, Eey. Edwabd, Brathey House, Tufhell Park, N. 
WiLLSON, Eey. E. N., 62, Asylum Eoad, S.E. 
"Wbightson, Eey. G. W., B.A., Maison Iturbide, St Jean de 

Luz, Basses Pyrenees. 



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SPECIMEN OF MUMMY CLOTH, 



Saturated with Spices and Bitumen, 



f 



yvLi 



ROM THE /VVUMMY OF 



CNebsetV 



rXBOLLSD AT 



STAFFORD HOUSE, 



iSth July, 1875. 




Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. V, Port 1, 187«. I 

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Fall 




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Assyrian Sheep. 








Hare (Kouyunjik). 



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TRANSACTIONS 



OV THI 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY- 

You V. JUNE, 1877. Part 2. 

ON THE MAMMALIA OF THE ASSYRIAN 
SCULPTURES. 

By Rev* William Houghton, M.A., F.L.S. 

Sead 2nd Jamtary, 1877. 



Part II.^Wild ANtMALS. 

Is treating of the wild animals of the Assyiian liionuiiiientd, 
whether represented in sculpture, or merely mentioned by- 
name, we find as a rule much more difficulty in determining 
the species than in the case of the domesticated animals. 
This arises partly from the fact that the sculptural repre- 
sentations of some of the wild animals are badly executed, 
but chiefly from the absence in the records of any clue 
to identification beyond that afforded by the name itself, 
I proceed, without further preface, to notice the various 
animals, whether figured on the sculptures or mentioned in 
the records. I will begin with the order 

Quadrumana. On the black obelisk of Shalmaneser three 
figures of monkeys occur, together with that of the Indian 
elephant. A man is leading a large kind of monkey ; another 

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320 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

man follows leading a similar species, while he has also a 
smaller monkey on his shoulders. One of the figures is 
represented without a tail, which has led Mr. Layard to 
beUeve that the ouran outan is intended. But none of 
the anthropoid mcmkeys, as the orangs, gorillas, chimpanzees, 
except the long-armed gibbons (ffylobates), occur in India, 
the country from which the monkeys on the obelisk no doubt 
came; the native habitat of the orang {Simia satyrus) is 
Borneo and Sumatra, while the other members of this section 
are confined to West Africa. The omission of the tail, 
therefore, must be regarded as accidental, or the tail supposed 
to be hidden from view by the animal's left leg. These 
monkeys, an epigraph informs us, were part of the tribute of 
Muzri of Armenia, a country which would be beyond the 
northern limit of any of the Quadrumana, whose geographical 
range begins as a rule about 23^ N. latitude. The people of 
Muzri,^ therefore, must have procured these monkeys from 
India, whence also they received the elephant. These figures 
are ridiculously human — ^the &ce is that of a man with a 
fiinge of whiskers around it — so are the feet and hands. On 
another monument, however, this same monkey is &r better 
drawn ; the sculptor has been so far successfril as to lead ub 
to the identification of this species of monkey, which is most 
probably the Presbyter entellus or Hoonuman of India, or at 
any rate one of its allied forms. The Hoonuman is a large 
monkey with a long tail; it is, and probably long has been 
held in religious veneration in India, becomes quite tame, 
frequenting the houses and shops of frniit-sellers, &c. The 
monkey sitting on the man's shoulders (black obelisk) I 
take to be merely a smaller individual of the same species. 
This will explain the placid and contented look of the monkey 
on the man's shoulders, which was evidently a domesticated 
individuaL Another species of monkey is figured on the 
obelisk from Nimriid. The head and shoulders are covered 
with long waving hair. 'It is probable that this species is the 
Wanderoo {Macacus silenus\ which is now pretty common in 
some parts of India, as in the Malabar provinces, but not in 

> It M pofiihla, as Gutfolmud suggeits, that there was anothar Muzri, 
besides the Armenian one, in Bactria. [A. H. 8.] 

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On tfie Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 321 

Ceylon, as is often asserted. What other species of the 

monkey tribe were known to the Assyrians must have been 

inhabitants of Nubia, Abyssinia, and Southern Arabia, such as 

the gelada {G, RuppelKi) of Abyssinia, a baboon with dense 

long hair covering the neck and shoulders, the dog-headed 

Cynocephalus hamadryas^ the only species of quadrumanous 

animal figured on the Egyptian monuments^ as sacred to 

Thoth, the lord of letters. This baboon is not now found in 

Egypt, but is a native of Arabia and Abyssinia. 1 have 

already referred to the ridiculously human-like character of 

the monkeys of the monuments ; this saine idea is embodied 

in the Assyrian word for a monkey vrdunrrm {t^^ J^ >^) ; 

for there can b^ no doubt that the word u-^urmi (^YTYp 

t^ ^pj: y»^^)> which occurs in tb^ plural number amongst 

the tribute which the people of th^ Armenmn Muzri brought 

to Shalmaneser, denotes '^apes" or "monkeys," The 

Assyricw word would then be r^ferr^d to the Hebrew qddni 

(D7«) "a man." Of th^ ord^r Ferce w^ will taio first the 

oat fanoily, 

Felidm. The speoiep which ftre known to occur in Assyria 
and Babylonia are the following : — The lion, leopard, 
cheetah, the chaus {Felis chaus^ Guldenst), the lynx {Lyncue 
pardinus), and the caracal ((7» melanQtis)^ or black-eared lynx. 
Th^ tiger, though probably an inhabitant of Assyria in 
ancient times, is no longer to be Qeen there.^ 

I do not think, however, that the tiger existed in any 
great numbers in Assyria wd the neighbouring lands. Had 
the Assyrian monarchs Assur-^iatsir^pal and Assurbanipal 
seen much of tiger hunting, we should have had most 

> ** Tb« oomnum iK^tion wi|^ ragftrd to thfi tiger in that it in atvopipal animiil 
wbich ^UTM 4 warm elimat^ to Uto in. The researohea of late explorers 
roreal a Tory different state of things. Beginning at lofty Ararat and the frosty 
Oaocaens on the west, and ending at the island of Saghalien on the east, its 
mges fltv^ttehes aorose the whob of Asia, with the exception of the high Thibetan 
land of Central Aiia, Mr. Blyth nientions ^hat a few are annually killed m 
Turkish Georgia. It is found in greater numbers in the Elbun Mountain^, south 
of the Caspian Bea (the ancient Hyroania). North of the Hindu Kosh, It occurs 
in Bdihara, and proTed troublesome to the Bussian Surveying Expedition on the 
skeree af the Aral in mid-winter.** (Murray's 0eograph., Distrib. BCammalia, 
V-960.) 

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322 On the Mammalia of the Aist/rian Sculptures. 

probably either some definite allosion to the royal animal in 
the historical and himting records, or its form represented in 
bas-reUef on the sculptures. Moreover, the presence of a 
considerable number of liana in Assyria, Babylonia, &a, in the 
time of the Assyrian kings just mentioned, is in itself evi- 
dence against the supposition that tigers were also numerous. 
According to the general law of nature, two large species of 
the same fiunily are seldom found to co-exist in the same 
are€u I think, therefore, that the tiger was only occasionally 
seen and killed in hunting expeditions. In the inscription of 
the broken obelisk of Tiglath-Pileser I, which mentions the 
different animals killed by the Assyrian king in the land of 
the Hittites and other places, certain wild cauTiivora 
are enumerated; these are nimri "leopards,** mirdirfii 
(^tj: ^5^ ^ ffn) «*tigei-s" (?) a-H (?) and two strong 
" bears.** There is no doubt that the first word nimri means 
"leopards" ; the following word midini occurring just after- 
wards would appear to denote some fierce carnivore of an 
allied species. In the Izdubar legends, Heabani declares that 
he will come to Erech, bringing a midannu with hiih in order 
to make trial of the strength of Izdubar, and to see if be 
could destroy it. 

1. " I will bring to the midst of Erech a tiger, 

2. And if he is able he will destroy it. 

8. In the desert it is begotten, it has great strength." 
(Chald. Ace. Gen., Smith, p. 205.) 

** The midannu,** says Mr. George Smith, " is mentioned 
in the Assyrian texts as a fierce carnivorous animal allied to 
the Uon and leopard; it is called, midannu, mindinu and 
mandinu** (p. 206). On the whole, therefore, it is quite 
probable that the tiger was known to, and occ€i6ionally 
mentioned by the ancient Assyrians imder one or other of 
the above names.^ 

The Lion. As regards this animal everything is perfectly 
clear. His form is drawn with great accuracy and spirit. 
Now he is represented as being on the point of springing at 

> Since the aboTe was written, Mr. Boeoawen tellg me that a figure of aoBM 
atrip^d feline occun on one of the Aflsyrian gems. 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 323 

a horseman ; now with spread out feet and exserted claws 
he holds in his mouth a portion of the body of a horse ; now 
he is shrinking cautiously out of a wooden box or cage in 
which he had been placed ; or he is in the agonies of death, 
pierced by many arrows, vomiting his life-blood, or vainly 
endeavouring to extract with his fore paws a shaft that has 
pierced his eye-ball ; now he appears erect on his hind legs, 
turning his body roimd, with out-spread paws and fierce 
aspect, as if indignantly remonstrating with king Assurbanipal, 
who has seized the royal beast by the tail ! 

Lions are still found in the Euphrates and Tigris valleys. 
Mr. Ainsworth, who accompanied Colonel Chesney in the 
Euphrates Expedition as surgeon and geologist, and who 
published his Researches in Assyria, Babylonia, and Chaldaea 
in 1838, speaks of the lion as being met with in the lower 
part of the Euphrates and Tigris. Footprints were observed 
at the Ehabour $ but the lion has been met with as far north as 
B&lis. A more recent traveller, Mr. Layard, says that lions 
are sometimes found near Ealah Sherghat, and frequently on 
the banks of the Tigris below Baghdad, rarely above. " On 
the Euphrates," he adds, *^ it has been seen, I believe, almost 
as high as Bir, where the st'Camers of the first Euphrates 
expedition, imder Colonel Chesney, were launched- In the 
Sinjar, and on the banks of the Khabour, they are frequently 
caught by the Arabs. They abound in Khuzistan, the ancient 
Susiana. I have frequently seen three or four together, and 
have hunted them with the chiefs of the tribes inhabiting 
that province." (Nineveh and its Remains, II, p. 48.) Lions 
abound m the jungles near the rivers in Babylonia. Mr. 
Layard frequently saiy traces of them while excavating at 
Niffer, The Maidan Arabs kill the lion in the following 
manner : — " A man having bopnd his right arm with strips 
of tamarisk, and holding in his hand a strong piece of the 
same wood about a foot or more in length, hardened in the 
fire and sharpened at both ends, will advance boldly into the 
animal's lair. When the lion springs upon him he forces 
the wood into the animal's extended jaws, which will then be 
lield open whilst he can despatch the astonished beast at his 
leisure with the pistol that he holds in his left hand." 
(Nineveh and Babylon, p. 567.) ^ , 

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334 On tkg Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

It was a common thing for the old AssTrian kings to 
attack a lion single-handed, cub may be seen on the monu- 
ments. Thus Assurbanipal says of himself^ *^ l^ Assorbanipal, 
king of multitudes, king of Assyria^ by my might, on my 
two feet, a fierce lion, which I seized behind by the ears, in 
the service of Assur and Istar goddess of war, by spears of 
my two hands I pierced his body.'* Another epigraph states 
that the same king seized a Uon '* by his tail ^ (ina tumbi 
*- •"f-^*"*"!!!)* ft^d threw ropes round him. Lions were 
hunted by the kings in chariots or mounted on horses ; they 
were shot with arrows or pierced with strong spears. At the 
end of the d^y's sport the king ordered his attendants to 
place the bodies of the lions killed in the chase side by side. 
A wooden altar was set up before them, and then the king 
poured out of a bowl a libation of wine on the &ces of the 
slain animals in honomr of Assur, Nergal, Jstar, or other deities^ 
by whose aid he had been suocessfuL If the Assyriati kings 
drew only the actual long bow, and not the metaphorical 
one^ the nimiberof iion9 slain by them must hare been enor- 
mous. *^ Under the auspices of my guardian deity Adalr^ 
two sosi of lions, i,<j*, 120 (j] ^] ^]^ ^^ ""^II f^)> 

I slew," says Tiglath-Kleier. In the same paragraph 

(W.A.I., Vol. I, pi. xiv, line 80) the king tells us that these 
130 lions were slain by him (and, I suppose, his attendants) 
on foot, and that 800 more fell to his weapons as he and his 
men rode in their chariots. Allowing for much exaggeration^ 
the numbers slain must have, no doubt, been great, and 
nndet the later Assyrian monarohs, in whom the love of the 
chase and bold adventure were equally strong, the introduc- 
tion of ttupped lions took place, and these animals were 
sought out in remote jungles, caught in snares of some kind, 
&nd conveyed near home in order to aflford sport to the " great 
king." The weapons employed in the capture of t^ lion 
Were a bow and arfowB, a strong straight swoi*d for hand 
encounter, daggers and spears. When the king hunted in 
his chariot he was attended by his charioteer^ equipped as 
for war, some horsemen, of course armed, and sometimes by 
a groom leading a spare horde. In the bas-relief representing 
Assurbanipal lion-hunting in hift chariot^-a photograph of 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 825 

which iies before me as I write — two quivers full of arrows, 
each with a amall hand a&e, are seen sui^ended transversely 
aoroas the right side of the chariot. A shield with very thick 
pointed teeth protected the hinder part of the chariot in case 
of an attack upon the chariot in the rear. The king is repre- 
sented in the act of drawing the bow to its fullest extent^ 
a sword in its sheath hangs from his left side, while a long 
and strong apear projects in an upward direction from the 
back. Sometimes the king, with a number of attendants 
would get into a ship, while beaters would start the game 
from the coverts on the oth^ side of the river. Should the 
lion take to the water and try to escape, he was attacked 
and destroyed; his fore and hind legs were corded together, 
and the beast was su€^nded from the hinder part of the 
boat. It is probable that the large mastiff of the Assyrian 
monuments was used in the chase of the lion^ but it is 
somewhat curious to note that no such actual engagement 
between dog and lion is found on the sculptures. 

The lion is generally represented on the monuments with 
great spirit and life-like truthfulness. The figmre of a lion in 
an attitude about to spring upon a horseman, who appears 
to be armed only with a whip, may even be compared with the 
best efforts of Landseer himselfl The same almost may be 
said of the lion represented as being turned out of his cage. 

Mr. Layard has drawn attention to the fact that the claw 
or spine-like body at the end of the lion's tail has not escaped 
tiie notice of the sculptor. It certainly is represented in a few 
instances, though the size of the daw is much exaggerated. 
Some of the ancient classical writers describe the lion as 
lashing himself with his tail when angiy, and it has been 
supposed that the claw at the end was the instrument which 
goaded him to rage i the classical writers, however, mention 
no such daw* Didymus Alexandrinus, a commentator on 
the Iliad, I believe, was the first to notice this little claw, 
and drew the conclusion that it was a stimulating organ. 
Bliimenbach corroborated the Homeric commentator's asser- 
turn as to the presence of the claw, but rejected at once his 
conclusion. At one of the meetings of the Zoological Sodety, 
hdd in 1832, a speoiman was exhibited of a daw obtoaned 

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326 On the Mammalia of the Asityrian Sculptures. 

from the tip of a young lion's tail from Barbary. It was 
noticed first by Mr. G. Bennett, and while handling the tail 
the claw came off. According to Mr. Woods, who gave 
much attention to the subject, the claw **wa8 formed of 
corneous matter like an ordinary nail," sharp at the point, 
flattened throughout its length, which did not amount to 
more than f of an inch. It appears that this claw is only 
occasionally present in individuals. The idea of its serving 
to lash the lion to fary is quite out of the question. As the 
occurrence is only exceptional, it cannot be supposed that 
the little claw in question has any ftinctional character. 
Still it is curious to find that the Assyrian sculptor took 
notice of the organ, and represented it on the monuments.^ 
The Assyrian name of the lion was neeUf but in the inscrip- 
tiou^ the Accadian name lik-makh (Jjy >"^][J)> "great 
l^ast or dog,'* is nearly always used. The lion is represented 
on the monuments as fighting with a wild bull. The lion of 
the sculptures is the Asiatic animal, which differs in no 
essential points from its African relative. Three varieties of 
the Asiatic lion are mentioned, the Bengal, the Persian or 
Arabian, and the maneless lion of Guzerat. The Persian or 
Arabian variety is generally distinguishable by the pale 
isabella colour of its fiir ; but Ainsworth tells us that a lion 
from the banks of the Tigris in the possession of Oolonel 
Taylor of Baghdad, was as brown as the Bombay lion. 

TTle Leopard. — This feline is mentioned in the inscriptions, 
but never represented in bas-relief on the monuments. A 
very badly executed figure of a leopard attacking the hind 
quarters of a wild bull, on a clay tablet, was found by Mr. 
Layard at Nimriid, and figured by him. The leopard was 
seen by Ainsworth near Mar'ash, and Colonel Chesney eniune- 
rates it as being found in the Amanus (Khamanu in Assyrian) 
and Taurus. It is called nimer by the inhabitants, and this 
IB its Assyrian name ni-im-ru (Jpp -^^f ^TT)» Heb. •^Q3, as 
occurring on the monuments. The leopard {Felie leopardus), 
has a wide geographical range, inhabiting Southern Asia, 
North, South, and West Africa. Tiglath-Pileser I especially 

^ This organ ii occaoioxuJl j found in otho? Felida, ts in tiie Leopard. 

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On the Mammalia of the Amyrian Sculptures. 327 

mentions rdmri as amongst the numerous animals killed or 
captured alive by him in a hunting expedition (W.A.I., I, 
p. 28). Leopards were brought, together with other animals, 
by another Assyrian king, and placed alive in the city of 
Calah (Layard's Insc. 44, 1. 19). The Felia ekaus is stated 
by Ainsworth to be the most common of the cat tribe in 
Assyria ; this species, which hfiis a very wide geographical 
range, occurs in many parts of Asia and Africa; it is a 
savage animal, and was probably known to the ancient 
Assyrians. The Felie pardirta^ Temm., the lynx of Turkey 
and Southern £uTope, inhabits Amanus and Taurus; the 
caracal (Felis caracal^ Schreb.), which occurs in South Asia 
and Africa, Persia, and Arabia, is said by Ainsworth to be an 
inhabitant of Taurus and Amanus, and tp have given a name 
to one of the villages in the latter named district. Some of 
the unknown names of animals which are found in the 
inscriptions very probably refer tp these wild felid», which 
were no doubt known to the anciefit inhabitants of the 
Assyriai^ lands. 

The cheetah hunting leopard (Felts jubata^ Schreb.) is 
found ill Africa and Asia, and doubtless was kno^yn to the 
Assyrians, for in Persia, Palestine, &c., it stijl occu^ : indeed 
Ainsworth tells us that a maneless variety of this leopard 
"is not uncommon in the lower districts of Tigris and 
Euphrates." Dr. Delitzsch {Thiemamen) conjectures that the 
star of Bi-a-zi (El^J»-»-y ^ y| "^yf V') of the Astronomical 
Tablets (W.A.I., II, 49, 45a) may possibly be the " star of the 
cheetah." Hp compares the Assyrian word with the Arabic 
(j^) f^^ ** ^ leopard." Of the family Viverridcey Ainsworth 
mentionj9 the genett (Genetta vulgaris) as having been met 
with in Taurus and other moimtain districts. Some species 
of ichneumon was also seen. The Asiatic ratel (Mellivora 
Indica)^ the sable {Maries zibellina\ the pine-marten (Mustela 
martesj Lin.), the polecat (M, putorius^ Lin.), the Samartian 
weasel {M. Sarmaiiea^ Pall.), of the family Mustelidw^ are 
enumerated amongst the wild animals of Mesopotamia, and 
were probably known tp the ancient inhabitants, though we 
may never be able to learn by what nat??es they wpre 

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S28 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sdulpturts. 

called. A species of otter {Lutra vuljfotis ?), was seen on the 
Euphrates, Tigris, Kanm» <&c» 

Canidce. The striped hyena (ff. itriaia) is very common, 
(a white variety having been observed by Ainsworth) ^' in all 
kinds of countries, sheltering itself behind a wall or a shrub/' 
The wolf is most frequent in Taurus. This is the common 
Canii lupus^ Lin^ the Uack variety of which was seen on the 
banks of the Sajur. The jackal ((7ant«aiir9u«,Lin») is frequent* 
According to Ainsworth, '4t appears to present some 
differences in Syria, in Euphrates, and in Persia, which have 
not yet been all determined." Foxes are common; near the 
Euphrates the species was always V%Jpes cor$ae, but in 
Taurus it was our common Vulpes vulgaris. 

The hyena is not represented on the sculptures, though 
it is mentioned in the records. In the Chaldean story of the 
deluge, Hea said to the warrior Elu (Bel), ^^ instead of thee 
making a deluge, may lions (Jt^ •^^II *^^*^) iiiorease, 
and men be reduced ; instead of thee making a deluge, md,y 
liff^ar-ra (JtJ Hf" ^TT^ increase and men be reduced/^ 
Mr. George Smith renders lig-bar^ra by *♦ leopards " ; but Mr. 
Sayce has pointed out that in the astrological tables lions 
ftnd Kg^ar-ri are again associated, and that this latter 
Accadian word, lig^ar^Oj is represented in the bilingual lists 
by the Assyrian word a-hhu (J J >^y<y)* Now we may, with 
the greatest probability, refer this Assyrian o-Mti to a similar 
word which occurs in the Hebrew Bible, in the plural number, 
viz., ohhim (Isaiah xiii, 21). These okhim are associated with 
jackals by the Hebrew prophet, and are represented as in- 
habiting desolate Babylon, The authorised version renders 
the word " doleful creatures." The Hebrew word is to be 
referred to a root meaning to *' howl " (H^ Hn^, « to cry 
out ah "), cmd nothing could answer better to the dismally 
howling hyena. The Accadian name lig-bar-^a may meaa 
** beast (dog) striped," i^ "the striped hyena." Thus we 
have an interesting instance of how the Assyrian, the Hebrew, 
and the Accadian words reciprocally throw light on each 
other. The wolf is called nygnma (^ ^^jy ^]), ue., " the 
animal from the high lands,'' i^ Elam, in Accadian, and 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 329 

('-ITV ^ V^) ^i-*« (Heb. aWt) or a^'-Zut;, ]} <I|y ^^ 
in Assjijan. I am not aware of the existence of any definite 
A^ByriAn word for " the fox " and ** the jackal." Probably 
the same word would expi^ess both these kindred animals, as 
amongst the Hebrews by the word (7;^^tt)) ihual; I hazard 
the suggestion that foxes and jackals are denoted by the 
Assyrian word (y| ^If) a-H. These orH are mentioned 
lunongst wild animals that the Assyrian kings hunted, and 
which they occasionally brought to Nineveh or Calah. WiUi 
dogs and oie it was a practice to chain up conquered ^lemies. 
Etymologically I would refer the word to the Hebrew dSaJi 
(HDNI), an unused root, meaning to "hurt," to "injiu-e" 
(cf. the noun \P^, "mischief" "injury"). The name 
** hurtful" or ** injurious animals," as applied to jackals and 
foxes — especially to the former — has reference to the damage 
these creatures cause to the vines. With this we may 
compare the similar idea expressed in the Bible, as in 
Canticles ii, 15, "Take for us the shudlim, the little ^Kudlim^ 
which spoil the vines.** The fondness of foxes and jackals 
for grapes is well knowu, and as they were doubtless common 
in Afisyria, they would often injure the vines, and thus merit 
the name of the injurious animals. 

Urddce, — The ordinary Assyrian bear is the Uraus Syriacu»^ 
the representative of the comroon brown bear of Europe 
{UrsuB arctos); but farther north, as in the highlands of 
Armenia, the Syrian variety would be replaced by the com- 
mon brown bear. According to Ainsworth bears are not 
uncommon in Taurus and in the Persian Apennines. There 
are many varieties of Ursus tirctas ; Nilsaon describes six as 
being found in Sweden, varying from black and red-brown to 
the albino or variegated bear. Several varieties were prob- 
ably known to the Assyrians ; beat's of diflferent colours are 
mentioned on the bilingual tablet, plate vi. Ko bear appears 
in bas-relief on the monuments, but a very correct delineation 
of this animal may be seen on a bronze dish from Nimriid^ 
now in the British Museum. The bear is standing erect, 
feeding on the fr*uit of some tree. It is frequently mentioned 
in the inscriptions, and was hunted by the Assyrian monerchs ; 

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330 (hi tlie Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 

it would be one of the most familiar of the wild animal 8 
known to the ancient inhabitants of Elam. The usual 
Accadian name for a bear is sakli^ represented by tiie 
character »-J^J^][y][][, with which the Assyrian dorbu 
(y^y '^•^ ^yyy^), Heb. S^r rfoJ, is compared in the bilingual 
tablets. The ideogram (>^^][^]fY{Y) sakh also stands as a 
determinative prefix for any fierce carnivorous animal, and 
probably in some of the instances which occur on Plate VI, of 
W.A.I. (vol. ii, col. c, rf, lines 25 to 40) the above character 
has that office. Some of them, however, are extremely diffi- 
cult to make out, and Dr. Delitzsch has not been, I think, 
altogether successful. The dam-^akJi ("jV^y >^^][^{Y]fY) 
and the gim-sakJi (^Vyj >^^]f J]f]f) of the Accadian column 
are both equated with the Assyrian da-6u (^] V'*^ ^yjl^), 
and denote **the female adult bear"; the Accadian tsi-^kh 
r^yy -^>->-yyy) ib the ordinary ideogram phonetically 
spelt, and this word the Assyrians borrowed under the form 
sa^khur^ (^ .-y<y ::yyy^), probaWy " the piaje bear." The 
character sakh (>-P*"][-Ht?)* ^ ^^ ^^» apparently begins to 
be used as a determinative prefix of some carnivorous or 
semi-carnivorous animal. Dr. F. Delitzsch identifies the 
Assyrian kur^ za-an-nu (V' ^]^ }} ^^^ ^) of the 23rd 

line with the Arabic karkaddan ^J^< or karkadan^ ue^ *' a 
rhinoceros." The Accadian colunm is here effaced, but the 
word iur (^^) "little," or ** young," appears. If this 
character were preceded by sakh^ then ^* a young bear *' 
would probably be intended. The sakh maganna (>-^][^]f|][]f 
^yyy ^^ ^^T) ^ ^^ Accadian column is correlated with 
the word ma-ah-ka-rnvru (^ t-Q •^^tl ^ ^TTT^) ^ ^^^ 
Assyrian. Dr. F. Delitzsch thinks that the magan or makan 
may refer to the coimtry so called, that is Egypt, and that 
the animal intended is the hippopotamus. Lenormant inter- 
prets- the word to mean " the bear of the peninsula of Sinai '^ 
(Magan). The determinative prefix of sakh would lead me 
to puppose that a bear or bear-like animal is denoted rather 
than the hippopotamus. The sakJi, maganna is followed in the 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 331 

Inlingual list by 'sakh maganna kuru (Accadian), for which the 
Assyrian colTinm has mar<ik'ka^tt^ damkuy ue.y the bear of 
"good omen" or "blessed" bear. This most likely refers 
not to any definite animal, but to the constellation or " star 
of the bear" (^t:J>-»-y >-^][J:][Jyy) cacabu dabi, which, ac- 
cording to its position in the heavens, or its position relative 
to other constellations, might have been regarded as an omen 
of good or of misfortrme. I can form no conjecture as to 
the definite meaning of the sakh khus^ (^<?^ YH, Accad. 
the khu-us^suHU (>-^<] Sflf^f ^f ^111^) *^^ ^^^ rur^is-su-u 
{^JH 5rf^ >^T ^yU^) ^^ ^^^ Assyrian columns, but agree 
with Lenormant that some bear-like animal is signified. 
The words khussu and russu may mean "beaten out" or 
" greyish-blue." With the latter signification some variety 
of the bear may be meant Dr. Delitzsch referring the 
names to the Arabic, supposes that a gazelle is the animal 
denoted ; but the determinative prefix of sakh is altogether 
opposed to such an interpretation. For the sakh Hk-a^ 
('^>f- yi) of the Accadian column, with which ba-nvru 
(»"^Y ^ ^yyy^) stands in the Assyrian, Lenormant, inter- 
preting the words to mean ** the builder " or " constructor," 
doubtfully suggests " the beaver." Delitzsch thinks an old 
or adult male gazelle is intended, fi-om banu " to beget." The 
mention of the beaver leads me to say a few words on the 
existence of that animal in Mesopotamia. "The order of 
Bodentia " writes Ainsworth (Assyria, p. 39), " presents us 
with the common beaver {Castor Fiber\ found by the expedi- 
tion (Colonel Chesney's) in Euphrates and Khabour." But of 
the Khabour beavers Mr. Layard thus speaks : — 

" The Jebours kiUed four beavers, and brought three of 
their young to us alive. They had been driven fi-om their 
holes by the swollen stream. Mohammed Emin eagerly 
accepted the musk bags, which are much valued as fnajouns 
by the Turks, and consequently fetch a large price in the 
towns. The Arabs eat the flesh, and it was cooked for us, 
but proved coarse and tough. The young we kept for 

1 LeDonnant hM giTen duba (J^^ ^^T ) instead of iik-a. 

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332 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

some days on milk, but they eventually died. Their cry 
resembled that of a new-bom infant. The Khabour beavers 
appeared to me to differ in several particulars from the 
American. The tail, instead of being large and broad, was 
short and pointed. They do not build huts, but burrow in 
the banks, taking care to make the entrance to their holes 
below the surface of the stream to avoid detection, and 
the chambers above out of reach of the ordinary floods* 
Beavers were formerly found in large numbers on the 
Khabour, but in conse(|ueiic^ of the value attached to the 
musk bag, they have been hunted almost to extermination 
by the Arabs. Mohammed Emin assured me that for several 
years not more than one or two had been seen. Sofuk, 
the great Shammar Sheikh, used to consider the musk bag 
of a beaver the most acceptable present he could send to 
a Turkish Pasha whose friendship he wished to secure/' 
(Nm. and Bab., 296-7.) 

The animals described by Mr. Layard appear to belong 
rather to the musk rat {Fiber zibethicus) than to the beaver 
{Castor)^ but so far as is generally known at present, there is 
only one species of musk rat (the Musquash or Ondatra)^ and 
that animal is confined to North America. There is no other 
allied genus known to inhabit Western Asia. It is a pity that 
Mr. Layard did not bring home some skins of his animals, 
which I suspect are new and imdescribed. The beaver, 
whether we regard the old-world species (Castor fiber) 
distinct or not from the American animal {Castor Canadensis)^ 
formerly was an inhabitant of the whole of Europe and 
Western Asia. It is said to be found in considerable numbers 
^* in the streams of the Ural motmtains and in those of the 
Caspian Sea, extending into Tartary '' (Murray's Geograph. 
Dist. Mam., p. 264), and very probably was known to the 
Assyrians and neighbouring people; though of course 
whether this animal is the (^A) banu of the bilingual tablet is 

extremely doubtful. The sakh-mas-luv (^X^X:}]}] >f" t^) 
Ac^ad., and the ajhfar-ruHu (p^ ^J ^TJ ^111^) of the 
Assyrian column, with which also the sakh H-khar^ra 
(^'::i}t}}}} '^yy -^^ Et^yy) ©f the Aocadian is identical, 

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On ike Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. «333 

are interpreted by Lenormant to denote the wild boar; 
ap-porru being supposed to be the same as the Arabic j^. 

Dr. DeKtzech refers the Assyrian word to the Hebrew 
opher 05^^), "a fawn" or ''gazelle." The objection to 
H. Lenormant*8 and Schrader's suggestion is that the Arabic 
word is not truly pure Arabic, but a loan or borrowed Latin 
word (**aper") in an Arabic dress, like the German eber. 
The presence of the same determinative prefix «a*A, precludes 
altogether the idea of a fawn or gazelle being intended. My 
own opinion is that these three words, apparru (Assyrian), 
sakhr4i-khar-Ta^ and sakh-mas-luv (Accadian), have reference 
not to a living animal, but to ,the constellation of the Great 
Bear. The scribe who wrote this bilingual tablet was not 
attempting any zoological system properly so called, he only 
cared for corresponding words or sentences in the Accadian 
and Assyrian languages. Now, one of the Accadian words, 
sakhrfnas-luv reminds one of the star Entenamasluv^ i.e,, the 
star of " the tip of the tail," and is explained by the Assyrian 
sir etsenrtsiri (J^:^^^^ >"f^^ t^^^^0» *'*^^*''^^^ caudce summofj 
**tip of the tail." (See Sayce's Astron. and AstroL, Bib. 
Arch. Trans., Vol. m, p. 170.) The other Accadian word, 
sakh-4ir'kharray means "bear," 4- "horn," 4-" heaven," clearly 
having reference to the constellation of the Great Bear, and 
not to any living bear-like animal. 




The satiirmas-lvio and the sakh-Si-khar-ra both denote the star 17 
in Ursa Major, the projecting tail being appropriately enough 
called ** horn of heaven," though I am unable to give any ex- 

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334 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

planation of the corresponding Assyrian word apparru} In the 
next column there follows in the Acca^an sakh-namren-na-iJHi 

('-^}t\}}\ -y<yv" -II '^^ -]& TD' ^^^ ^i"<* *••« 

Assyrian bit-ru^u or e-ruru is equated. The Accadian 
expression means " bear " + ** royal crownship " + " making' ; 
if the Assyrian word ^Vf^ ^T ^TTT^ ^ ^^^ e-ru^ it may 
denote "an eagle." 1 beheve the scribe's mind is still 
dwelling on the constellation Ursa Major^ and that the 
Accadian expression, " the bear making its crownship," has 
reference to the evolution of the Great Bear around the polar 




star. In the Assyrian word eru, or " eagle," the same idea 
of " crown-making " may be seen in the succession of the 
spiral curves with which eagles mount up to a great altitude 
in the air. M. Lenormant appears to think that a captive 
bear in chains is intended by the sakJi-nam-en^na'oka. Dr. 
F. Delitzsch supposes that the wild ass is the animal denoted, 
the Assyrian name being read t-rw-w, and referred to the 
Arabic ^, the Hebrew T5^, ** a wild ass's colt," a ** wild 
ass." But to this again, as it seems to me, the D.P. of the 
Accadian word is opposed. 

> Arabic Dictionaries give Jl:.^ as " hjatiA mas hinutua,'* and i^ 
aa " ttatio qusdam \vauo constana ex exiguif sideritiis/' or " tree ftoUiil* ia 
Lib^^'' but I do not know on what aathoritj. [A. H. 8.] 

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On Uie Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 335 

The word that occupies the next place is sakh'tathri-ri-ga 
(-^]f::f H]f fc ^y|<| ^||<| 5=yyf'^)' ^ ^® Accadian, and 
eu^zoroi (J^ ][| y][ IJ) in the Assyrian column. This by 
Dr. F. Delitzsch is conjectured to be the "inarten-gat "* 
(Marder), the Assyrian name being referred to a similar name 
in Syriac, which appears to denote a " small jumping animal," 
a« "a marten" or "ferret." Castell (Lex. Syriacum, Ed. 
Michaelis, p. 783) adds, " animal galliins infestum,*^ " lynx." 
M . Lenormant gives no translation. The Accadian expression, 
'which perhaps means "bear" -f- "the prey" -f- "seizing," 
appears to refer to the bear forcibly taking food.^ The scribe 
next mentions sakh-niga (>-^][t][][][]f ')^)y to which morrvru 
C^y "tin ^Tiy^) ^^^s^ers in the Assyrian column. I see no 
reckon against taking this as meaning *' a young male bear " 
in a literal sense. In the next line we have sakh-niga-kururga 
(-:rf::]ff{|V^<|«-^|^n|^) in the Accadian, and marii 
damrku (y| t*"^^ ^""^^) in the Assyrian column. The 
words mean " the young " or ** small bear of good omen,'* 
and I suspect are used in an astrological and astronomical 
sense. After this we come again to literal bears, as ** white," 
** black," "grey," and "reddish-brown." The tablet is then 
broken. 

Of the order Rodentia^ porcupines {Hystrix cristata)^ 
mole-rats {Spalax typhlus), abimdant in the plains of 
Kurdistan, are known to inhabit Assyria and the neighbouring 
land, and no doubt were known to the ancient inhabitants, 
though we are at present ignorant of the names by which 
they were called. Different species of gerboa are found in 
the plains, as the Dipus gerboa^ D. jaculus^ I), aagitta, 
D. pygmcBus^ and other imdetermined species. Spermophilus 
ciiUlus, S. marmottay the marmot, mice numerous and various; 
rats {Mu8 decumanus) ; squirrels — abundant in the woods — 
are enumerated by Ainsworth as occurring in Assyria. But 
at present we are ignorant of the Assyrian names of all 
these animals. The only rodent whose name is ascertained 

> See W.A.I., 11, 88, 11, where the Accadian D.P. tiia ri^-ga - Aefyrian 
Ukidh kurhamm - taking -(-tax - tax-gatherer. [A. H. S.] 

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336 On the Mammalia of tfie Assyrian Sculptures. 

is the hare, of which two species are known to occur in 
Assyrian lands, "the Turkoman hare," which haunts the 
plains, and the hare of the desert, this latter probably being 
the Lepus Sinaiticus, The Assyrian name of the hare is 
an-norbu (i-i-| >-^y -^>-) the amebeth (rQ3*)M) of the 
Hebrew Scriptures, the anieb (c-^j^) of the modem Arabs. 
Its Accadian name is expressive of its abode, ca-zin-na 
(>-E:y {rij^'^J ^^^])y «•«•» "foce of the desert." In the 
bilingual tablet the hare is mentioned after the gazelle, 
appropriately enough, as another swift animal of the desert. 
Other species of hare may probably occur in Assyria; 
the rabbits, which Ainsworth says are rare, must be a modem 
introduction, for the original home of these animals is Spain 
and the Balearic islands, and they were not known at all to 
the ancient Greeks as indigenous animals, nor to the Romans 
before the time of Varro, who brought specimens from Spain 
into Italy, where they were seen by Atheneus, A.D. 230, on 
his journey from Puteoli to Naples. The rabbit, therefore 
was not known to the ancient inhabitants of Assyria ; where 
it does now occiu* in Western Asia, it must have been imported. 
Of the order 

Ungulata. — Amongst the Bovidce or ox family we have the 
wild bull, figured on the monuments, and very frequently 
mentioned in the historical and hunting records. This 
animal was known to the Assyrians by the name of rimu 
(»-yy<| ^ ►^), and to the Accadians by that of am-H 
(^^^j^ "^ID' *'^'' ** the homed bull," in allusion to the size of 
the horns of the animal. The rimu is one of the most 
interesting of the creatures represented on the monuments, 
and it helps to establish, beyond a shadow of doubt, the 
opinion of those who maintain that the so-called ^' unicorn " 
of the Bible is a two-homed bovine animal of great size and 
ferocity. The Hebrew name of this wild bull, so unfortu- 
nately translated "unicorn" by the authorised version, is 
r&m (DM*^^), which is identical with the Assyrian rimu. The 
unicorn of our English Bible owes its origin to the Septuagint 
and Vulgate versions (/MovoKepo)^ and unicornis). In Deut. 
xxxiii, 17, which contains a portion of Joseph's blessing, it is 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 337 

said, " his horns are like the horns of a reem^'^ Our translators 
seeing the contradiction involved in the expression " horns 
of the umc&niy^ have rendered the Hebrew singular noun as 
if it were a pluraJ-form in the text, though they give the 
correct translation in the mjurgin. The two horns of the 
reem are the ten thousand of Ephraim and the thousands 
of Manasseh, and represent the two tribes which sprang 
from one (viz^ Joseph), just as two horns spring from 
one head. The r^ then, was two-homed; it is almost 
always mentioned with bovine animals; it is said to push 
with its horns. No wild ox at present exists in Palestine, 
but there is no reason why, in biblical times, some great wild 
species, perhaps alUed to the Urus which CeBsar saw in the 
Hercynian forest, should not have existed in Palestine. It is 
quite possible that fixture investigations in that country may 
result in the discovery of the remains of Bos primigenius. 
Bison priscusj or some other formidable wild ox. Words to 
this eflfect I wrote about fifteen years ago. Not long after 
this Dr. Tristram ^'isited Palestine and discovered in bone 
breccia of the Lebanon five teeth, four of which were de- 
clared by Boyd Dawkins to belong to Bos primigeniusy the 
other tooth probably to a Bison. 

The description of the imtameable rM in the Book of 
Job, " Will the rSm (unicorn) be willing to serve thee," &c:, 
should be compared with CsBsar's account of the fierce urus^ 
which I beUeve to be the very animal depicted on the sculp- 
tures, and which he saw in the Hercynian forest : " These uri 
are scarcely less than elephants in size, but in their nature, 
colour, and form, are bulls. Great is their strength and great 
their speed, nor do they spare man or beast when once they 
have caught sight of him. The himters are most careful to 
kill those which they take in pitfalls, while the young men 
exercise themselves by this sort of hunting, and grow 
hardened by the toil. Those of them who kill most receive 
great praise when they exhibit in pubUc the horns as trophies 
of their success. These tin, however, even when they are 
young, cannot be habituated to man and made tractable. 
The size and shape of their horns are very difierent from 
those of our own oxen." (Caesar, Bell. Gall, vi, 28.) 

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338 Oil the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 

The Assyrian rtmuy which is generally represented by the 
Accadian am-H (^^^ ^TT)' '^^ been variously rendered 
by Assyriologists as " elephant," " wild boar," ** buffalo," 
** rhinoceros *' ; the first is Dr. Hincks' translation, the second 
Dr. Oppert's, and the third, which, though not strictly 
correct, is a close approximation, is that of our own eminent 
Sir Henry Rawlinson. Mr. Norris also generally translates 
the word by " buffalo," though fi'om the expression, " homed 
bull," in one place, he doubtfully suggests " a rhinoceros." 
Other Cuneiform scholars, as Mr. Fox Talbot, Mr. G. Smith, 
uniformly render the word by a "buffalo." Mr. Sayce, 
correctly, **a wild bull," though in his translation of the 
inscription on the black obelisk, by an oversight, he renders 
" tusks " of wild bulls instead of ** horns." 

It is very interesting to find the Assyrian records 
confirming the accuracy of palseontologists. Four of the 
teeth found by Dr. Tristram in bone breccia of Lebanon 
were, as I have said, identified by Boyd Dawkins as belonging 
to some gigantic wild ox, most probably the Bos primigenius. 
Now of the king of the broken obelisk, it is expressly men- 
tioned that he hunted these rimi in the very district where 
their teeth have been found. 

*' Wild rimi which opposite the land of the Hittites, and 
at the foot of Lebanon he killed." 

In the time of Tiglath-Pileser I, who was probably 
king of the broken obelisk, these wild bulls must have been 
somewhat nimierous in certain districts ; for not only were 
they often slain in hunting expeditions, but their calves were 
captured alive and brought to the Royal abode at Calah or 
Nineveh, In the time of the later Assyrian monarchs these 
animals became scarce, for no representation of wild bull 
hunting occurs on the monuments of Assur-bani-pal. The 
king himted the wild bull in his chariot, attended by horse- 
men. Occasionally the woimded animal, with arrows fixed 
in the body, would make a rush at the chariot, when the 
monarch would seize him by the horn, and with a short, 
strong sword pierce the marrow of the cervical vertebrae, which 
would — as in modem Spanish bull fights — instantly bring 
him to the groimd. The wild bull would sometimes fight 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 339 

with the lion, as may be seen on a sculpture from NimrAd. 
The long, strong horns were valued; frequent mention is 
made of them in the records, as " horns without number I 
received." We learn from Csesar and Pliny that the large 
horns of the urus were anxiously sought after for making 
into cups to be used at splendid entertainments, or for 
ornaments, the tips being bound with silver. Some such use 
the Assyrians also no doubt made of them. Their skins also 
were much prized, frequent mention being made of them. 
Whether the large and powerful mastiff was used in wild 
bull hunting does not appear from the monuments, which 
give no representation of the use of dogs in this chase. 

The species of wild cattle hunted by the ancient Assyrian 
kings is one evidently closely allied to Bos primigeniusy the 
gigantic urus which the Roman armies saw when they pene- 
trated the forests of Belgiimi and Germany. The wild bull 
of the sculptures is not a bison but a 6o«, a genus differs 
from the genus bison in certain characters, especially in the 
form and size of the horns ; in the bosy the forehead, too, is 
flat, in the bison it is convex. The horns of the bison are short, 
those of the Assyrian bull are long and curved. Remains of 
the Bos primigenius have been foimd in the alluvial beds of 
rivers and the newer tertiary deposits of this country ; in 
marl-pits of Scotland, in which country Professor Owen 
thinks it maintained its ground longest. K the form and 
size of the horns of Bos primigenius in the British Museum be 
compared with the sculptured representations of those of the 
wild bull of the monmnents, this similarity will be apparent. 
The Assyrian wild rimu then is not a bisotiy neither is it a 
bu&lo. In this latter animal the forehead is even more 
convex than in the bisoti^ while the horns are very different ; 
so, whether we look at the long-horned (Maerocerus) variety 
of the wild buffalo (Ame)y or the curved-homed {Spirocerus) 
variety, in neither case does this animal resemble the bull of 
the monuments. Again, the rimu was hunted in forests and 
amongst the hills ; the wild buffalo is a swamp-loving animal,, 
and, like its domestic relation, loves to wallow in marshes, in 
which it sometimes lies buried up to the head. The original 
home of the Indian buffalo appears to have been India, in the 

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340 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 

Bwampy jungles of which country it found a congenial home. 
I do not think it occurred west of the Indus in the time of 
the Assyrians. According to Cuvier, the buflFalo, now so 
much used as a beast of burden in the East and West, was 
not introduced into Europe before the Middle Ages, though 
its introduction into Western Asia was probably anterior to 
that date. No buffalo was known to the ancient Greeks and 
Romans. The fiovfia\o9 or bubalis of classical authors is 
clearly some species of antelope, the Alcephalus buhaUs of 
modem zoologists. Considering the weight of evidence, 
whether pictorial, historical, palaeontological, or etymological, 
I think there is not the slightest doubt that the rimn 
(>-|y<| ^^ *^) of the Assyrian language, the amrii (t!^ ^IT) 
of the Aocadian, is the r^ (DMH) of the Hebrew Bible, and 
that the particular species of wild cattle indicated is the 
Bos primigenius of Boyanus and Cuvier. This animal is 
figured on the sculptures with much spirit ; the strong and 
thick, long curved horns are well drawn ; it is generally, if 
not always, represented with a hump on the back, reminding 
one in this respect of the Indian zebu, but there are no 
osteological differences between the zebu and the common 
Bos taurusy with its numerous varieties ; and even steps of 
transition, fi-om the complete absence of the shoulder hump 
to the well-developed himip in the Indian zebu may be seen 
in some other breeds, as, for instance, in the thickened 
shoulder of the Italian breed, which also, in point of colour^ 
somewhat resembles the zebu. I have already mentioned 
(in Part I, p. 42) that the long-homed variety of the domestic 
cattle of the Assyrians, both in possessing the hump more or 
less developed, and in the foi-m of their horas, resemble the 
wild ox or rimu. Was the Bos primigenius in any way the 
origin of the Assyrian domestic breed? I think it very 
probable. 

The gigantic living wild ox of the primitive forests of 
India, the Bos gaur, is a magnificent animal, worthy of being 
compared with the Bos primigenius, now extinct. I think it 
could hardly have been known to the Assyrians, as it probably 
did not occur west of the Indus. 

Passing from the Bovidce to the Capridce^ or goat family, 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, SH 

we know that the wild goat (Capra CBgagruSy Gm.) is common 
through Asia Minor and Persia, extending east^irard as far as 
Soinde. It must have been a very well known species, and 
frequently hunted by the Assyrian kings. I am not aware, 
however, of any representation of this wild goat on the 
monuments. The species occasionally figured is doubtless 
the Asiatic ibex, viz., the Capra Sinaiticay Ehrenb., which has 
a wide geographical range, being found in North Africa 
Arabia Petrsea, Palestine. Ainsworth mentions the steinbock 
(Copra ibexy Lin.) as occurring in the Taurus. But this 
species is not foimd out of Europe. The C. Caucasica^ or 
Bouquetin du Caucase^ Cuv., though perhaps for the most part 
confined to the Caucasus, was probably not unknown to the 
Assyrians. The species, however, best known would be 
the C. cegagrus and the C, Sinaitica. There are several 
Assyrian words which evidently denote goats or wild goats ; 
these are ^>- ^^TT^T T** arme, in the plural number, a-tvrduy 
tsap-ponruy and ya-^-li. As some of these words have been 
considered in the first part of my subject, I will merely refer 
back, and say that I think the arms refers to herds of the 
Capra aegagruSy that a-turdu I take to be the ordinary word 
for the domestic he-goat ; the tsap-panruy which in the 
Accadian is called " the strong horn-raiser," may be the wild 
he-goat, C. aegagrusy individually, and the ya-eli herds of the 
Western Asiatic Ibex, C. Sinaitica. It was Dr. Hincks who 
first suggested that arme meant ** wild goats," the Assyrian 
word being referred to the Syriac amo, ** Capra Rupicukiy^ 
*^ Hircus Sylvestrisy^ **a wild goat." The Assyrian ya-e-li 
(Sl^yi ^11 > ^^y y) clearly must be referred to the Hebrew 

yVl {ydit)y properly translated " wild goats " in our version. 
The Hebrew animal-name is from the root 75^, '* to ascend," 
i,e.y " the climbing animal." The Vulgate renders the Hebrew 
word by "ibexes," and probably this is the exact meaning of 
the word. Chamois are rock-climbers, and go in herds like 
the ibex. But though they are foimd in the Caucasus in 
very largo numbers, as a recent tmveller has told us, these 
caprine antelopes are not found elsewhere in Western Asia. 
Dr. F. Delitzsch doubtfully suggests '*the chamois" to be 

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342 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

denoted by the AsByrian di-tornu (^^ J^TT ^)» ^^ 
^^YT <Y>- ideographically in the Accadian column. He 
compares a somewhat sunilar Arabic word as the name of 
some kind of chamois. Perhaps the chamois was known to 
the ancient Assyrians, though it is not possible to say by 
what name. 

The best known wild sheep in Assyria is the Caprovis 
orientcUisj Armenian sheep. The true Ovis ammon (Lin.) of 
the Altai has its representative in the 0. Arkal of Blasius from 
the east of the Caspian; it is, however, a much smaller 
animal. The rass or roosh, Ovis poliij a gigantic species of 
wild sheep with enormous horns, circularly twisted, which 
inhabits the plains of Pamer^ east of Bokhara, 16,000 feet 
above the sea level, is called by Blythe the Ovis sculptorunij 
as though the 0. polii were a domesticated variety of 
0. aries. The rass, however, is a wild sheep; it is 
mentioned by Marco Polo. Recently another gigantic wild 
sheep, Thien Shan Ovisy has been obtained by Colonel 
Gordon's party, which may be distinct from 0. polii. J£ this 
species was ever known to the Accadians, one would expect 
a name describing its wonderful horns. 

We now leave the goats and sheep and come to the deer 
family, or Cervidce. Two species of deer are represented on 
the monuments : a spotted deer, apparently with horns more 
or less palmated, and a species which resembles the common 
stag of Europe ( Cervus elaphtis, Lin.). Ainsworth says that the 
fallow deer {Cervus dama) is common in some parts of Taurus, 
and states a report that the stag {C. elaphus) occurs in the 
same districts; he also says that the roe-buck {Cervus 
capreolus) is not uncommon. The spotted deer of the 
monuments is generally considered to be the fallow deer, 
which is known to occur in the south of Asia Minor, but it is 
a question whether the. spotted deer of the sculptures may 
not also include the Cervus Mesopotamicus recently described 
by Sir Victor Brooke. The figure of a spotted deer without 
horns amidst reeds appears to represent a yoimg individual, 
in which case it would be impossible to identify the species, 
because the young of all deer are spotted, with the exception 
of the typical Rusine deer, reindeer and elk. There is 

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On the Mammalia of the AseyHan Sculptures. 343 

another spotted adult deer, namely, the Cervus axisy with 
non-palmate hornu, but this species does not occur west of 
Hindostan^ and would not have been known to the Assyrians. 
The figures on the monuments are not drawn with sufficient 
accuracy for us to d'^termine the exact species of spotted 
deer. In Sir Victor Brooke's Cervtts Mesopotamicus the horns 
are palmated not far from the base; from the posterior 
comer of this palm "a strong cylindrical beam" rises, 
terminating in three well-developed tines. In Cervw dama, 
the fallow deer, the horns are at first {ue., near the bur) 
cylindrical, the upper portion being broadly flattened and 
palmated. This new deer described by Sir Victor Brooke is 
closely allied to the Cervtts dama^ but is clearly a distinct 
type. A figure of a spotted deer on a Babylonian cylinder, 
lowing horns palmated at the top, would seem to represent 
the fallow deer rather than the Cervus Mesopotamicus. Thei^e 
is also a bas-relief representing a deity holding a spotted 
deer in his hands. The horns in this case too are palmated 
at the top; but the large, oval, regularly arranged spots 
would rather suggest the Cervus Mesopotamicus. Probably 
both types or species were known to the Assyrians. The 
C* Mesopotamicus is found in Khuzistan and Luristan, 
countries at the north of the Persian gulf.* 

The other non-spotted deer of the monuments is no 
doubt a species closely allied to the Cervus elaphus of 
Europe, which is known to occur in Asia Minor. Generally 
speaking, the sculptures show animals with very large horns ; 
a stag on a terrorcotta fragment has the horns enormously 
developed. A stag, which may be a variety of the Cervus 

» " Thi« new species of deer/* Sir Victor Brooke remarks, " presents a type 
of horn which stands unique amongst existing CerffitUB." He adds — ** Notwith- 
standing the fact that the minor groups into which the existing Cervidm naturallj 
fijl, is in a certain measure indicated bj certain peculiarities in the external 
oonBguration of the horns of the yarious species, the strong resemblance between 
the skulls and -general appearance of the new species to common fallow deer, 
IsaTet no room for doubt as to their close affinity, whilst in the form of the horns 
they differ widely. If this riew be correct, it follows that, although of great 
general utility to the soologist, the external configuration of the horns aUms 
cannot be considered as a crucial test amongst the Cervida.** (Proceedings Zool. 
Soc for 1876, p. 266) 

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344 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

elaphttSj was seen by Lord Arthur Hay in the mountains of 
Assyria, the horns of which are described as being larger 
than those of the wapiti. Then, again, there is the Cermis 
Wallichii, Cuv., the mdral^ or Persian deer, an allied species, 
which has also very large horns. Of the Rnsine section the 
Cervus Caspicus (Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1874, p. 42), from 
Talisch, south-west of the Caspian, occurs, whose horns 
resemble those of Cervus axis. These may all have been 
known to the ancient inhabitants of Mesopotamia ; the deer 
figured on the monuments woidd probably be the Cervus 
elaphus (Vera), or the C. WaUichii, the general chfiuracters of 
which resemble the common stag of Eiurope. 

By what names were these two species of deer known to 
the Assyrians and Accadians? In the bilingual tablet 
we find in the Accadian column the sign dara (»-IIEII)» 
which in the Assyrian column is represented by turrorkhu 
(»-^^y ^TT **T^1)' ^ consider both these words to repre- 
sent " deer " in a general sense, perhaps even including 
antelopes. The Assyrian word Dr. F. Delitzsch refers to the 

Arabic Srdkhy -SA > or arkhotiy • .\ > which Frey tag gives 
Bos Masy jiEoencus^ antilope, the letter t in turakhu being the 
formative of the noun. Next follow dara-bar (^]]^Yl Hf") 
and at-Zu Q^ Yl ]^ff) in the respective columns. Now 
bar (>(-), amongst a number of meanings, has that of 
** striped," "spotted," or "mottled"; hence dara-bar in 
Accadian is literally translated "the spotted deer," and 
when we see how plainly the Assyrian sculptor represented 
the spots on the deer he figured, and how conspicuous these 
spots are on the animals themselves, whether the species be 
the fallow deer or Sir V. Brooke's new Mesopotamian species, 
we see how appropriate is the Accadian name. The Assyrian 
ailu is clearly the Hebrew ayydl ^^JM), a " stag," or " hart." 
The darorbar-hak (^^JIBH Hf" ^)* ^^ which the Assyrian 
norat'lu {*^] ]} y]f ]^T|)> another form of ailu^ is equated, 
is " the male spotted deer." Next in the tablet follows, in 
the Accadian place, dara-khaUhhaL-la (*^IJ^JI ►»- ►*- *"^T)' 

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On t/ie Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 345 

and yy, or ** ditto " (nat'Zu), in the Aasyrian. Now khal-khalrla 
denotes "impetuosity," "violence," " fdry-making." The 
name khaUkhal (>->- >^), in Assyrian gararu sa me, " violent 
rushing of waters/' is one of the names of the Tigris ; so 
here in dara^khaUkhalrla we have a large and dangerous deer, 
such as Cervus elaphus^ or the mdraly the males of which, 
especially at one period of the year, are often savage, and 
when wounded are formidable opponents. The idea embodied 
in the Accadian word has often been most admirably repre- 
sented by the late Sir E. Landseer in well-known pictures. 
The Assyrian monuments represent the capture of these large 
deer ; men surrounded portions of a forest with large and 
strong nets, into which the animals were driven, or they 
were shot with bow and arrow. The dog used in chasing 
the wild deer was the large mastiff used in himting the wild 
asses. In the chase of the daror-khalrkhalrloy whether of the 
large homed variety of the Cervus elaphus or the Persian 
Mdral stag, a powerftil dog was necessary, for a stag at bay 
is a formidable antagonist to any kind of dog. The habit of 
the stag's taking to water when hard pressed has been 
noticed by the Assyrian sculptor, and has been depicted on a 
slab from Koyunjik. The nets used in deer-hunting were of 
course of strong material, the meshes were large. A portion 
of forest was enclosed by a net, which was secured by 
poles and pegs, and men outside the net attended to any 
poles and pegs that might have been loosened by the rush of 
a terror-stiicken stag ; beaters inside, probably forming aline 
as in modem cover shooting, woiJd drive the animals into 
the nets, where they would be killed by arrows or spears. 

The AntelopecB or antelope-group is represented in Assyria 
and neighbouring lands by several species ; there is the white 
antelope (Ori/x leucoryx) of North Africa and Egypt, in the 
capture of which the ancient Egyptians used a particular 
breed of dog named mahut, which, with the determinative 
aflix of an antelope, means " dog of the white antelope." 
(Trans. Soc Bib. Arch., Vol. IV, p. 172.) The Akephalus 
bubalisj Addax nasomaculatus^ Saiga TartaricOj Gazella dorcaSy 
G. subgutturosa, G, muscatensis, Oryx beatrixy also occur in 
Western Asia. The only sculptural representation that we 

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346 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

find on the Assyrian monuments is the gazelle, whose lyrate 
horns proclaim the species, to be either Gazella doreas (Vera), 
or G. subgutturosa. The former species occur in the deserts 
north of the Persian Gulf; the G. subgtUturosa is foimd in 
the same localities, and is said to be commoner. The hunted 
gazelles of the sculptures, though drawn with a good deal of 
spirit, are too robust and goat-like, the horns are too massive 
and too long. The animals no doubt are intended for 
gazelles, though the goat-like form has misled some writers 
to regard them as ibexes. Although the gazelle is generally 
considered as an animal of the deserts, it will also frequent 
rocks. Tristram noticed gazelles on the rocks of Engedi 
amongst wild goats, and probably the Assyrians would also 
find the gazelle in similar situations. The favourite mode of 
hunting the gazelle in the East is by hawk and greyhound. 
Layard speaks of **the pursuit of the gazelle with the falcon 
and hound over the boundless plains of Assyria and 
Babylonia as one of the most eidiilarating and gracefol 
of sports, displaying equally the qualities of the horse, the 
dog, and the bird." (Nin. and Bab., p. 482.) Such a combined 
method was probably imknown to the ancient inhabitants, 
who very likely set huntsmen to wait in ambush, and others 
to drive them within shot. Perhaps also the greyhound 
was employed in the chase of the gazelle. The bilingual 
list furnishes us with the Accadian word, or rather 
ideogram, for a gazelle, which was >^ (bar). This character 
is known to possess several meanings, and I do not know 
what particular one we ought to attach to the gazelle, but 
the fiict that it is the representative of the Assyrian tsabi 
Ql ^), which is identical with the Hebrew tsebi (''??), 
seems to place beyond doubt that >^ {bar) is the Accadian for 
*• the gazelle." In the following column we have BAR^KAK 
(>f- Sfl), which we are told to read ( J^ ^111) ^^^ ^^-j 
"male"; it is represented in the Assyrian column by the 
word doros^su (y^| g^ >^T}> ^^^ which may be compared 
the Hebrew dishon (^ttJ^l), a species of bounding gazelle 
or other antelope. Another Accadian word for an antelope 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 347 

is ^^ J^ J^, QTnar (?) nita ; it is compared with the 
Assyrian urza-luv (t^\^ ][| t^^)' "^l^ch is identical with 

s ^^ 

the Arabic Jhc» gazdl^ our own English word "gazelle." 
Though perhaps some of the larger antelopes mentioned 
above were known to the Assyrians in their hunting ex- 
peditions, or seen by them in their war marches, the small 
gazelles alone seem to be mentioned in the bilingual list, and 
were perhaps the species most familiar to the people. The 
large antelope-like beast represented on the black obelisk in 
company with the one-homed rhinoceros, which it equals, or 
even surpasses, in height and strong build, resembles no 
existing antelope. Its decidedly lyrate horns remind one 
of the antelope {Procapra gutturosay Gray) of Thibet and 
Mongolia. Probably this animal, and the rhinoceros and 
the bull with crescent horns, were all drawn from memory. 

The Equidce or horse-family are represented on the 
sculptures by the wild asses alone. The zebras and the 
quagga are not met with out of the continent of Africa. 
Three species at least of wild ass have been described. The 
Equus (Asinus) Hemionus (the kiang, the wild ass of Thibet) 
is found in herds in the high table-lands of that country at 
an altitude of 15,000 feet or more above the sea level. The 
kiang now in the Regent's Park Zoological Gardens has been 
there since June, 1859, having been brought there by Major 
Hay (see Proc. Zoolog. Soc, 1859, p. 353). The kiang neighs 
like a horse. These asses "herd in droves, fly at a trot, 
stop, and look back " (H. Smith, Equidae, p. 286). Confining 
themselves to tlie high plateau of Thibet, these wild asses 
would not come within the cognizance of the Assyrian people. 
I pass then to the Equus (Asinus) hemippusy the wild ass of 
Assyria, which is perhaps not really specifically distinct from 
the Equus (Asinus) onager^ also an inhabitant of the Asiatic 
deserts. The wild ass of the sculptures has, as I have before 
observed, p. 49, a more horse-like appearance than the 
natural wild animal really possesses. The large mastiff was 
used in the chase of these animals, which were hunted by 
men on horseback armed with bows and arrows. Stratagem 
was no doubt employed, for neither the Assyrian horses nor 

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348 On tlie MammaUa of t/ie Aaayrian Sculptures. 

dogs would have much chance in the open plain of over- 
taking an animal so excessively swift. The sculptures 
represent young ass-foals together with their dams ; it is not 
improbable that they were hunted at this time for the sake 
of the flesh of the young animals, which the huntsman would 
find no difficulty in capturing, whilst parental fondnesB 
would render the poor mothers a comparatively easy prey. 
Mr. Layard (Nineveh and its Remains, I, p. 324, note) thus 
speaks of these wild asses : — 

"The reader will remember that Xenophon mentions 
these beautiful animals, which he must have seen during his 
mcu'ch in these very plains. He faithfully describes the 
country and the animals and birds which inhabit it, as they 
are to this day, except that the ostrich is not now to be 
found so far north. * The country,' says he, * was a plain 
throughout, as even as the sea, and full of wormwood ; if 
any other kinds of shrubs or trees grew there, they had all 
an aromatic smell, but no trees appeared. Of wild creatures, 
the most numerous were wild asses, and not a few ostriches 
besides bustards and roe-deer (gazelles), which our horsemen 
sometimes chased. The asses, when they were pursued, 
having gained ground of the horses, stood still (for they 
exceeded them much in speed), and when these came up 
with them, they did the same thing again, so that our 
horsemen could take them by no other means but by 
dividing themselves into relays, and succeeding one another 
in the chase. The flesh of those that were taken was like 
that of red deer, but more tender.' (Anab. i, c 5.) In fleet- 
ness they equal the gazelle, but to overtake them is a feat 
which only one or two of the most celebrated mares have 
been able to accomplish. The Arabs sometimes catch the 
foals during the spring and bring them up with milk in their 
teDts. I endeavoured in vain to obtain a pair. They are of 
rich fawn-colour, almost pink. The Arabs still eat their 
flesh." 

The ElephantiadoB. A figure of the Indian elephant 
(Elephas Indicus) (fairly enough executed, with the exception 
of the erect horse-Kke ears) is found on the black obelisk of 
Shalmaneser. The animal forms part of the tribute of the 

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On tJie Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 349 

country of the Armenian Muzri. The same epigraph mentions 
as the other tribute double-backed camels, an ox of the river 
'Saceya, horses, mules, and apes. 

The epigraph is as follows : — 

ma - da - tu sa mat Mu - uz - ri 

The tribute of Hie country of the Muzri, 

D.P. gamali sa su - na - ai 

camels of which double {are) 

!^^rT-IT<!<T-^I«=I<J-!:! T? 0^<Iiy«=II:^T? 

tsi - ri si - na al - ap D.P. nahr Sa - ci - e - ya 
their bads, an ox of the river ^Saceya, 

D.P. 6u6i pi - ra - ti ba - zi -a- ti 

horses, mules, elephants {and) 

u - du - mi am - khar 

apes . / received. 

The elephant does not now occur in Western Asia, though 
it may have been found there formerly, but as apes are 
mentioned together with elephants, there can be no doubt, I 
think, that the Armenian Muzri had themselves received both 
kinds of animals from India. 

The word in the Assyrian language, which occurs only 
in the epigraph of the black obelisk, and which is sup- 
posed to denote " elephants," is ba-zi-a-ti {*^i^] *"tT^ Tt ^^)* 
Mr. Norris writes, " the Heb. tl3 would indicate some pre- 
daceous animal, or this may be an animal living in muddy and 

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350 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

marshy places, from ^^3, possibly the hippopotamus." 
( Assyr. Diet, i, p 79.) I think there is much reason to believe 
that elephants are intended, for the animal itself is figurfnl on 
the monument, and so strange a creature would surely be 
mentioned by name. If "we refer the Assyrian word to the 
Hebrew tJS {bdzaz\ "to take as spoil," "to seize," the idea 
of " the seizing animal '* may well be applied to an elephant, 
with its prehensile trunk and its finger-like appendage, by 
means of which it can pick or take hold of the smallest 
substance. 

The Rhinoceros is most probably alluded to by the 
expression " ox of the river 'Saceya/' alap nahr 'Sa-^i-e-yoy 
(tzl<l tt^y ]} gf 4s <U tz]} -tyi). The figure of the 
one-homed animal, with its bull-like form, as depicted on the 
obelisk, and its one thick horn standing erect from its fore- 
head, can be intended for nothing else than a rhinoceros. 
Where the river 'Sacieya may be I know not. The geo- 
graphical range of existing Asiatic rhinoceroses corresponds 
nearly with that of the Indian elephant ; and the countiy 
from which the latter came would probably be that from 
which the rhinoceros came, viz., India. It was not an un- 
common thing for the ancients to call a large animal " an 
ox." When the Romans first saw the elephant in the army 
of Pyrrhus in Lucania, they gave it the name of Bos Luccy 
" the Lucanian ox," as Lucretius says : — 

" Inde boves Lucas turrito corpore tetros 
Anguimanos, belli docaenmt vulnera Poeni 
Sufferre, et magnas Marti turbare catervaa.'' — 

(De Her. Nat V. 1301). 

"Next the Poeni taught the horrible Lucanian oxen, with 
towered body and snake-like hand, to endure the wounds of 
war and to throw into confusion the mighty ranks of Mars.'' 
With the expression "snake-like hand** I will aak you to 
compare the idea implied in the Hebrew word tTS, "to 
seize," or " take hold of." 

Suidas. — Of this family the common wild boar {Sus scrofa) 
is the only known inhabitant of Assyrian lands, where it is 

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On the MammaKa of the Assyrian Sculptures. 351 

nnmerous. It is rarely represented on the sculptures, and 

nowhere as an animal of the chase. On a slab in the British 

Museum, which contains a deer and two hinds in a thicket, 

may also be seen, amongst similar tall reeds, a wild sow 

accompanied by eight or nine little ones, one of which is 

drawn in the act of sucking. All the figures are executed with 

spirit and truth. Whether the ancient Assyrian monarchs 

ever engaged in the exhilarating sport of pig-sticking, 

as practised in modem India, one cannot say, but no such 

reference or representation occurs on the monuments, so far 

as I beUeve is known at present. The boar of Asia Minor, 

of which there is a skull in the British Museum, and which 

Dr. Gray says is ** very distinct firom the skulls of the wild 

boars of Germany, is named by Gray, Sus Libycus (Proc. 

Zoolog. Soc, 1868, p. 31) ; he also thinks that the wild boar 

of Palestine maybe referred to this species. Perhaps they are 

both varieties of the common Sus scrofa^ which has a very 

wide geographical range. It is well known that the number 

of the vertebrsd in the hog is subject to variation ; similarly 

the form of the skull may vary in different individuals. 

The Hebrew name of the wild boar is ('^''JD) khaztr^ 
and Jkhanzir in Arabic. No Assyrian word, I believe, is 
known as yet ; one would expect such a word as kharzi-ru 

Of the order Cetey containing the whales and porpoises 
(the Balcsnidce Catodontidce and Delphinidcs), as known to 
the old Assyrians, there is very little to say. No figure 
of a cetaceous mammal occurs on the sculptures, but I 
think Mr. Fox Talbot is correct in rendering the Assyrian 
word >-^y -^ -^jn (norkhirru) by " dolphin." The late 
Mr. Norris conjecturally translates **a narwhal^* {Monodon 
monosceros)y an animal of the Polar Seas, which, though it has 
been rarely found as far south as the north of Scotland, would 
be quite out of its element in the Mediterranean Sea. 

The king of the broken obelisk is said to have sailed in 

ships of Arvad, and to have ** killed a nakhiru in the Great 

(or Mediterranean) Sea." The same king received, amongst 

other tribute fi-om the conquered lands of Tyre, Sidon, 

Vol. V. 23. , 

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352 On ths Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

Phoenioia, and Arvad, *' teeth of nakhiri, the produce of the 
sea/' (W.A.L, I, pL xxv, line 88.) 

Seni na - khi - ri bi - nu - nt tehamti 

Teeth of ncMUri the produce of the sea^ 

E! s^T ^m I -^ J=^ ^^ 

ma- da - ta -su-nu am - khar 

their tribute I received. 

Some marine creature which poBsessed teeth large enough 
to have been valued, either for the ivory or for ornaments, 
as necklaces, perhaps, is clearly denoted. M. Oppert thought 
that seal-skins are meant. Seals, though occurring in some 
parts of the Meditenranean and in the Caspian Seas, would 
hardly be found near the coast of Phoenicia. The Assyrian 
word is referred by Mr. Fox Talbot to a Syriac word for 
" a nostril," and as this organ, or the blow-hole of cetaceans 
occupies a prominent situation on the upper part of the 
head, the name would be appropriate enough; the nakhir 
tehamti means the '* nostril animal of the sea." The 
porpoises and the dolphins generally have small teeth, but 
in some species they are large enough to have been of value. 
In early times some species of sperm whale, as the Physetcr 
macrocephaluSf might have been found in the Mediterranean. 
The teeth of the Catodontidce are large and powerfti^ and of 
commercial value. These whales and the dolphins are 
closely allied, and I do not think that the Assyrian name 
can be better rendered than by " dolphin " or ** grampus," 
leaving the species, whether amongst the Delphinida or 
Catodofttidce undecided. 



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On the Mammalia of the' Assyrian Sculptures. 353 



Record op a Hunting Expedition op Tiglath-Pileser I. 
Cmo. B.O. 1120 to 1100. 

From a Broken Obelisk in the British Museum, 

(W.A.I. I, Plate 28.) 
ura 

1. -T t-^T Hf <T-ffi --T <T- ^) V m -^TT 

D.P. Nin- ip va D.P. Si -du sa idluta 
Ninip and Nergal^ who bravery 

1 - ra -mu bu - h - ir teeri 
love the beaste of the field 

2. tm«= V^^T-^lfif -^ JT t} >- «=T -^mh- V 

u -sa-at- H - mu • su - va ina D.P. elappi sa 
have entrusted to him^ and in ships of 

\^ <T-Ty<T ET s^T Tf :^T} 

D.P. 'Ar -va- da - a - ya 
Arvad 

ir - oab na -khi- ra ina tebamti rab- te 
he rode ; a dolphin in the great sea 

i - du - uc 
he slew. 

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354 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

limi abati su - tu - ru - te ina 

Wild bulls desU^uctive (and) fine in 

-j:TT Tf ^TT -rr^ mil 

D.P, A- ra - zi - ki 
the city af Arazild 

sa pa - an D.P. kha- at - te va ina nir 

which (is) opposite the land of the Hittites and at the foot of 

D.P, Lib -na-a-ni i- due 
Lebanon lie slew. 



mu - ri pal - dhn 


- te sa rimi 


The young alive 


of the wild bulU 


tyyyt }} ix] t^ t^yyy 




u -tsa- ab - bi - ta 




he took; 





7- >-^yy <t3[ -^y y} ^y jy -j^ -y<y^ c: 

6u - gul -]a-a-te-8U-nu ik - zur 

the property of them he collected; 

t^ -^yn >- ty <s\ JT 

rimi (am - 6i) ina D.P. mitpani su 
fA« Mu'H bulls with his bow 

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On the MammaUa of the Aetyrian Sculptures. 355 

Q - sam - kit rimi pal - dhu - te 

he tilled; the wild bulls {which) alive 

n -tea- ab - bi - ta 
he captwred 

*• Tf ^!-^TT Jf HTf >V <^ -^ TT JT<T- 

a - na ala sn A-sur ub - la sanie su - si 

to his city of Asur he brought ; two soss{ViO) 

nesi ina lib - bi su 

of lions with his heart 

ic - di ina ki - it - ru -ub mi- id - lu - ti 
strimg^ in the attack of his bravery ^ 

su ina ruqubi su pa - at - tu - te 
in his chariot open^ 

„. ^ ^1^ jy 1^ ty ^ - ^ fcE tfl^ 

• ina niri su ina D.P, pa-ruv-khi i -due 

on his feet, mth a club he slew: 

nesi 
lions 

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356 On tlie MammaUa of the Assyrian SctUptures. 

ina D.P. nir - h - am - te u - earn - kit 

trith a spear he killed. 

^^ V Tl V- WtX^ «=m«= -BET 

khar - sa - a - nu sa • qu - u - tu 
Forests thick 

13. ^ri ^T^ j=qfy -i<s^ ^H -TT<T iT ■t' 

e-pi-ifl bu-h-ri su-nu 

to make {hmit) their game 

-T<^ c: «=nT«= :^ Jf - ^TT^j:^! 

ic - bi - u - ni - 8U ina yumat 

had called him. On days 

H. Mi^!<T^n ^^h^]} JT-TT<r*V 

CTi - nte - tsi khal- pi - e su - ri - pi 

of storms varying (and) of heat ; 

ina yumat ni - pi - ikh 

in the days of the rising 

15. «:M 5?: "^TT <T* V <m BT ^^ 

cacabi kak^ 6i - di sa ci -ma era 

0/ the star Cacsidt which is Uke hrcnu 

i - ten - du ina D.P. E -be- ikh 
lie had hunted in the country of Ebikh 

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On the MammaUa of the Aeeyrian Scu^tteree. 857 

16. ^-^ «=m^ Birr ^ ^<" ti h t- -th ^<^ 

mat U - ra - ee mat A-za-mi- ri mat 
the country of Uraee^ Azandri 

.vy ^ ^y V ^T- ^iT^ ^y t^yyy 

An -kur- na mat Pi - zi - it - ta 
Ancuma Pizitta 

mat Pi iz mat Ca - si - ya - ri 

the country of Pi ,*. .iz, in the country of Cadyari 

matani sa mat Ahsut mat Kha- a - na 

provinces of Hie land of Assyria and Khana, 

»«• m<\^ ^<" mm h «=Tf <T-ffl x^HJfl^ 

aid - di mat La - lu - mi - e va matani 

the borders of Hie land of Lulumey and the provinces 

sa matati Na - i - ri 
of the lands of Nairi; 

19. <y^^yy<y y^ }<. >-^] ^y yj ^ y^ 

ar - me tu - ra - a - kbi 

vrild goats deer 

na - a - li 

spotted stags 

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358 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

ya - e - li ina 6a- di - ra -a- te 

ibexes in herds 

u - te - im -mi- ikh 
he took; 

6u - gul - la - a - te su - nur ik - zur 

the property of them he collected 

u - sa - lid mar - si - 6ii - nu 
he brought forth ; their young ones 

ci -ma mar - si - it D.P. t«i - e - ni 
like the young of sheep 

A^'^ <::!T-TT<TH 

im - mi nim - ri 
he counted; leopards 

mi-di- ni a- 6i sanie dabi 

tigers jackals two bears 

iz - zi 

strong 

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. On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 359 

MAL-zm - KHUI i - due imiri zin -na(t8eri) 

he sleWf vjUd asses 

«. <y^igi + :?: T^ IH 4- B:rT T^ 

va tsabi UGt - bar - Rl (akhi) 

and gazellesy hyenas 

fii - im - kur- ri 



u - sam - kit bur -khi- is par - ra - te 
he killed; antelopes mid cattle 

te -86 - ni D.P, dam - gari 

the huntsmen 

is -pur il - qu - u - ni par-ra -a- te 
(whom) he sent they had taken ; the wild cattle 

ik - zur u - sa - Ud 

he collected, lie brought together 

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860 On the Mammalia of Hie Assyrian Sculptum. 

»«. >3ryT <fi<:T -^ T? ^T JTV- mv- "-M<ll 

6u - gul - la -a-te su-nu nisi mati 8a 
the property of them ; the men of his cmadry 

^W ^ Hf -TT<T 

u -se - ib - ri 
he^ caused to feed; 

29. s^ i^ ^m ty ^yyy ^y<yv ^^yy f|< 

pa -khnm - ta rab - ta nam - 6u - kha 

a black great crocodile 

karau nahri u -ma- mi sa tihamti 

scaly (beast) of the river ; (and) animals of the sea 

8«. tV*t] « v^ *^ ^M-Ty<!«=T? tyyyj: vc:-s! 

rab-te fiarmat Mu- uz - ri - e u -se-bi-la 
greaty the king of Egypt caused to be brought; 

nisi mati su u - se - ib - ri 

the men of his country he caused to feed ; 

6i-te- it u -ma -a -me ma- h ^di 

(as to) the rest of the animals nu$nerouSj 

<T-& -V]h- --T«=n -MA «= -n<T V 

va itsturi same mut -tab- ri ^ 

and birds of the heaven winged whkh 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 861 

ina bm - h - ur tseri ip -se - it qa * ti su 
among the beasts of the field {were) the work of his hands^ 

suini 8u-nu it - ti u -ma- me 

tJieir names with tJie animals 

[matima-da] -a la sadh- m mi -nu su-nu 
of the country for multitude were not written ; their number 

atwT< K^ic-sfvl --TSfr^T 

it - ti mi -nu-te an - ni - te 

with those {former) numbers 

[laBadh]-ru e - zib matati ci - sit - ti 

were not written; he left the countries tlie acquisition 

qa - ti - 8U kharrani naciri 
of his hand; roads strange 

dhaba ina ruqubi su va mar-tsa 

the good {places) in Ids chariot and the difficult 

ina niri su 

on his feet 

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362 On the MammaKa of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

[at] tal - la - cu va tab- da - su- nu 
he had marched and their destruction 

is - cu- nu 
he had effected 

su an - na - a • te la sa - khi - ir 

these not penetrating 

matatu 
countries 

is - tu alu Duban sa 

from the city Duban of 

(Ac) ca - di - i 
Accad 

mat A- khar - ri 

country of the West {Palestine) 



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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 363 



Notes. 

un 

1. Sidu, Accadian, "he who marches in front" ; a name of 

Nergal associated with Ninip in hunting expeditions. 

t^-Jfi <<<yy {miS^u\ Accadian *' strength" + "to 
increase " » idluta^ " heroism," " bravery ": i-ro-mti, 
from Drn, "to love." 

BuJiur, cf. Heb. Tj;^, '* beasts." 

2. U'-schat-UF^nu^stAf 3rd plur. shaphel, from toZamu, to 

" entrust," " confer," with pronom. suffix ; elappi 
(Accad. tna-me«), "ships"; cf. Chald. MB^M, "a ship." 

3. ircab, 3rd sing, aorist kal from rcMiOrbuj "to ride"; cf. 

Heb. 3?1, to ride, 33^, and the Assyrian ruqubu^ "a 
chariot." 

Nakhiroj "a grampus," "a whale," or "dolphin," or other 
allied cetacean. Mr. Fox Talbot thus rightly, I think, 
translates the word, referring it to the Syriac Ir^iMJ, 
nakhira^ "a nostril," in reference to tiie animal's 
"blow-hole." 

A-^ib-ba^ Accad. = Assyrian tehamtUj "the sea "; cf. Heb. 

Rablii cf. Heb. 11 , great, large. 

Idiie^ " he slew," 3rd sing, aorist fr. dacu^ "to smite," " to 
kilL" Heb. ^T[ and rxy[. 
4. ^j^ f<^ ritni^ " wild bulls," plur. of t:;^ f in Accad. amy 
"a bull," often with the syll. H 'pyj, "a horn," in allu- 
sion to the great size and strength of the am'mal's horns. 
Cf. Heb. DM"^ rSem, and Dn rHm, from D^O, "tobe 
high." 

<^< y y^4i mon. = alxttUy "to destroy." See Sayce, Assy. 
Gram., No. 375. Cf. Heb. "TIW, "to destroy." 



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364 On the Mammalia of the Aseyrian Sculptures. 

Suturute, Compare Heb. *^nj, " to abound,*' " to be 

superior." 
6. MurTt = maru = ^^ " a son." PaMhuti, cf. Heb. tDTB, 

"to slip away," "to escape." Hence in war "one who 

has escaped a/tre." 
U-tsorob-bi'ta^ "he took," 3rd smg. pael from tM-borH 

(][f s-jtry ^^^I) "*^ ^^'^^t" "seize," with a, the 

augment of motion. 

7- >i^yy <^XT ^^T Tl V^T ^-g^l^-^-^ "property; 

"possessions"; cf. Heb. TT^y^ ($egtdlah)j from vX), 

" to acquire." 
Ik-zuTj **he collected," from ka-tsa-ru; cf. Heb- "tSg "to 

reap," **gather." 
8. U^am-ldt, " he caused to kill," 3rd sing, aorist shaphel 

fix)m marka-tu (^j ^j ^^^D» " ^ destroy." 

10. t\t: >^y ti6-&{, ** he brought," 3rd sing, aorist kal from 

yj •"it^y ]^ ababiy "to bring," with augment of motion. 

/o-dt, "strong," perhaps borrowed from Accadian. 

Cirit-^nib, from Krtft, " the inside," " middle " ; cf. Hdi 
1^?, and the verb >-t]tlI ^TT ^*" ca-^ta-^m, and 
y^9 "to approach" (an ithpeal derivative), "to be near." 

Mi-idrlvrtiy a form of idluiu, as in line 1, with m formative. 

Pdt-tu-te, "open"; cf. PinS, "to open." 

11. ^y jifl >- 4^ Pa^vykhi, or r:y V^ •- 4 

burt-U'khi, "a club"; cf.Heb. rrnj. 

12. Nir-h-amrtej perhaps aUied to the Heb. TXti^^ "a javeKn.* 
Kharsdnuy Heb. tlhh, "a forest." 

5a-gi2-^ Accadian eaku^ " high," " deep." 

13. Epis^ construct of e-pi-m " to make." 

Ikhbiritrni-BUy 3rd plur. from kabu, with conditional suffix id, 

14. Cu-utS'tsi gen. sing, of cu^te-tew (W V'*"y<T i^^)» 

"a storm," " thunder"; cf. Arab. ^I->.< > it(m«. 
jffAa/;>«, cf. Heb. ^^0 "to pass through," "to change." 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 365 

Suripi "heat,'' from ^ ^jy -^»- sorra-pu, "to bum." 
Heb. ^Ito; Mr. Sayce, however, connects this word 
with ttrpdtiy "rain," "mist" 

Nipikh n03, "to dawn," "torise," 

15. yt^][>->-y, Accadian mul =: Assyrian cacabu, Heb. 33'^3, 
"a star." 
Kah-Mxy i^^ "making prosperity"; see Sayce's Astron. 
and Astroi., Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. Ill, p. 170. 

^]^y ^y ctma, "like"= Heb. '^35. The copy reads 
J^y ^y cuHfna ; the expression " like bronze " appUed 
to hot weather answers to our " glaring day." This 
inclines me to translate suripi (above) by " heat." 

I'tsvrduy 3rd sing, aoi-ist kal from ^^yy ^ JJ^ tsidu^ " to 
hunt"; cf. Heb. T?, "game," from Ti2, "to take" or 
" capture game." 

17. MatanU plural of matu {madtu = madatu) "country"; 

borrowed from Accadian ma -^ d4i; cf. Aram- MHO, 
locus^ urbs, 

18. Sidrdiy "territories,'- "borders"; Heb. fTT^, "afield," 

" open country," from TTtD , " to spread out." 

20. Ina Sadirdtey "in herds"; Chald. "^1D, "to place in rows." 

Utemmikhy 3rd sing, pael from ta-^morkhuy "to take"; 
Heb. "nnW **to take hold of." 

21. Usalidy 3rd sing, shaphel from a-li-^u y| ►t- ^ < y i^ = 

t|?;, "to bring forth." 

24. Sffiy ^ij^ *"T^y T^**' bU-zir-khui. Some unknown 
animal, mentioned again in Layard's Inscriptions, 44, 
18, in company with " lions." Norris suggests some 
animal that cries out in the neighbourhood of houses. 
iy%, "a house," and rnS, "to cry out." Jackals (?), 
but the word may be Accadian. 

^Imiri zinna {tseri)^ " asses of the desert,'* ** wild asses." 

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366 On Hie Mammalia of the Assyrian SctUptures. 

cima sal imiri tseri 

like a she-^ue of the desert. 

25. *C:yy -^Jff V >-yy<y y^ Hrimrkur^. 

26. ^^ -^ ^TT f>^^^^ ** antelopes," from PH^, "to 

flee away/' in allusion to their swiftness. Compare 
the Arabic expression ibn barihin^ *^ son of swiftness,'' 
*' a gazelle.*' Some large and handsome antelope is 
probably intended, for the same king ordered stone 
figures of these burkliis to be made. See Broken 
Obelisk, W.A.I., H, 18, col. 2. 

t^ t^^ S^ or S^} t^^ *"^ tl ^' " * huntsman," 

D.P. dam -gar D.P. dam- ca -ru. 

The ideogram which represents this word is 
»-t:y^5ry» *^® outside character >-^][^, perhaps 
denotes " a mouth," " an enclosure," " field," &c. ; the 
inside sign ^][, ctp, a6, is obscure. The Accadian 
word is ^ ^ ^TT> *^"'^- The Assyrian damgar 
or damrcorTu is probably also of Accadian origin. 
(See W.A.L, II, 7, 34, 35, reverse col. CD.; r. Sayce's 
Assy. Gram., Syll. No. 50.) 

27. Is-pur^ "he sent," 3rd sing, aorist kal from ^ ^ ^JTY* 

sorporry^ " to send." 

llrqihnij "they had taken," 3rd plur. pluperfect from 
io-yti (ng^), "to take." 

28. Usibri, " caused to feed," 3rd sing, shaphel from ba-rrorhu^ 

-iry ^yy ^^^y jryyyjz, «to feed." Heb. rt% 

" to cut for food," " to eat." 

29. Porkhumrta, "black," Heb. DH^. 

Namrivrkha, " a crocodile " undoubtedly, as shown some 
years ago by Mr. Fox Talbot. Herodotus (ii, 69) tells 
us that the Egyptian name for crocodile was ;^a/ti^rtu. 
The Egyptian word msah or emsuhy "a crocodile," 
appears in the Assyrian nam-hirkhay and the Arabic 
temsah. 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 367 

Umamiy •* animals," ** creatures." Dr. Delitzsch suggests 
wMiv as the reading; cf. Heb. ITH. Lenormant 
refers to the Arabic umam% umam, subs, masc, "bSte 
sauvage, grand animal"; cf. Arab. Uj^^ which Freytag 
renders "reptile tertsb noxium, bestia." 

31. MuMatHri, ** winged." Cf. Heb. "IIM^ "a wing," from 
*13M, ** to mount upwards," " to soar." 

33. Sadhru^ "written," from sordhorruy "to write." Heb. 

"ItpttJ, 3rd plur. permansive kal. 

34. E-zib (^y][ -^), 3rd sing, aorist kal from e-zi-huy "to 

forsake." Heb. It^. 

Cirsit-ti^ " possession," " acquisition." Ca-sorduy " to 
obtain." Arab. jufi*^. 

Kharrani^ plur. from khar^dn or khar^OHnitj "a road," 
ideographic€illy written ^^ ; equated in the syllaba- 
ries with ur^khu^ ** path," da-ra-gu^ " a road," me-te-^u^ 
*'a passage." 

Na-ci-ri, "strange," "hostfle"; Heb. *n35, ** strange," 
"foreign." ^^] ^X^ ^JSL^ norca-ru, "to be 
strange"; Heb. *153, " to be strange." 

35. Dhaba (Accad. hhi^d), " good." Heb. 1^^, "to be good." 
ifor-^Mi, "difficult" Heb.YTO. 

36. [/^•]tei-ia-cu-va], "he had marched,** 3rd sing, ittaphal 

from halacu, " to go." 
Is-HSUrnUf " he had accomplished,'' 3rd sing, pluper. aorist 
from ^ •"^ tJ ^' Ba-^a-muy " to establish." 



Vol. V. 



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368 



On the Mammalia of the Attyrian Seulpturee. 



A LIST OF ASSYRIAN AND ACCADIA 
WITH THEIB SEMITIC EQCnVALElfl 



Tbansutbbatiov. 


HbBBBW OB OTHBB 

Sbmitio Equivalbnt 

WITH 

Tbakslitbbatiov. 


T&aksijtbbatioh. 

1 


da - as - 8U 


dishdn 


BAR KAK (ni - ta) 


bur - khi- is 


Mriakh 


.. 


u - du - mu 


T T 

ftdfim 


i 
1 


'imiru 


khamor 


.. 


'imiru tseri 


'ardd, pere 


• • • • • • 


da - bu - u 


ddb 


tsi - ikh, ea-khu- ^ 


al - ap 


eleph 


gut, kliar 


ri - i - mu 


re'em 


am, am - fi 


gam- ma - lu 


gam&l 


D.P. a- ab - bft 



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(hi the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

fAMES OF DOMESTIC AND WILD ANIMALS, 
EOGBAPHS, AND TRANSLITERATIONS. 



369 



ki 



Idioobaph. 


Anhux Dbh otbd. 


ZooLOOiCAL Spbohs, G^Birrtf, ob 
Family. 


Hf-:f= 


Antelope 


Some springing antelope 


• • • • 


Antelope 


Oryx leucoryx, or othei" large 
and swift species 


• • • « 

1 

1 


Ape 


Presbyter entellus and Macacus 
silenus 


s=^T^ 


Abb (domestic) 


Asinus vulgarii 


^B 


AflB(wild) 


A. hermppus 


-^}-m 


Bear 


Ursus Syriacus^ or camiTorous 
animal generally 


• • « « 


Bull or domestic 
cattle 


JBlos taurus 


2=^ 


Bull (wad) 


Bos primigenius 


• • • • 


Camel 


Camelus Arabicus and C. 
Hactrianus 

■ 



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On the Mammalia of the Atsyfian Sculpturei. 



A LIST OF ASSYRIAN AND AOOADIAN NAMES Ol 



Abstsiiv TSjja with 

TlUVBLIXlXATZOK. 



HbBBBW OB OTHBB 
SbMITIO EQiriYALBVT 



di - ta -nu 

-^r ^n -H 

ta - ra - khu 
na -khi- m 
cal - bu 
ba - tfii - a- id (pL) 

ai - lu 

na - ai - lu 
u -tea- luv 
tea- bi - i 
a - tu - du 



TlUVSLITBB^TIOir. 



arkhon, irakh 

Syr. Vh^mJ 
nakhira 

celeb 



No Semitie equiym- 
lent, but posfiblj 
it may be referred 
to n?) blbai, to 



T - 

ayyai 

s 

ayyftl 
'azal 
tsebi 
atad 



AooMsux TSua ■wm 

TBAH8£n3ni.TIOV. 



da - ra 



Uk - cu 



dara BAB 
dara BAB-KAK 



4-, »f SF 

BAR, BAR-KAK 



mu- na 



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On the Mammalia of the Aasyrian Sctdpturu. 



371 



DOMESTIC AND WILD ANIMALS, he— continued. 



1 Idbosbaph. 

1 


ASIMAL DbVOTBD. 


ZooLooiOAL SPBcns, asvus, OB 
Familt. 


1 


Chamois (?) 


RupUapra tragus 


<V^W<T^ 


-n^n 


Deer 


CervidcB^ the deer tribe 


1 • • • • 

1 


Dolphiii 


Difphinus or Catodan 


• • • • 


Dog 


Cams familiaris 


• • • • 


Elephant 


Elephca Indieua 


-n^n 


Fallow-deer 


Ceryui damOf ox C. Muopo- 
tamictu 


-n^n 


Fallow-deer (male) 


f • ft • • 


i 

1 • • • • 


Oazelle 


CrozeUa doreas 


• • • • 


Gazelle 


GazeUa ttibgutturoaa 


Ivfis?: 


Goat (he) 


Capra hireus (domestic) 



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372 



On the Mammalia of the Astt/rian Setdpturei. 



A UST OF ASSYRIAN AND ACCADUN NAMES (H 



AuTsiAV Kami with 
Tbanblitb&atiok. 



teap - pa - ru 
^a - a - li 

--T '^^ V- 

ai) - na • bu 

a - khu 

a - 6i 

ni 7 im - ru 

^ <« JT 

ne - es - su 
du -ma- mu 
pa - ri - e 



HbBRBW OS OTHBB 

Sbmitic Equivalbkt 

WITH 

Trakblitbhatioh. 



tsaphir 
yASl, yefilim 



amebheth 



DID 
sfis 

dach 

root rrDM(?) 






No Semitic eqiUTa- 
lent, but the 
meaning is cer- 
tain 

Arab. Juj 
dimmat 



Cf. M-JD 

pere, 

a wild ast 



ACCADIAH NUCB WITH 

Tbaxsuxeratiov. 



mu- na 



ca - zin - na 
D.P. kur- ra 
lik -bar- ra 



lik - makh 



:^B Ic^H 



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On the Jdammmlia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 



373 



DOMBSnC AND WILD ANIMALS, &o.— continued. 



IDBOGIUPH. 




ZOOLOOIGAL SFIOng, QwSTJt, OB 

Familt. 


1 l-tBi^ 


Goat (he) 


C. cegagrus (the paseng.) 


1 

• • • • 


Goat (Ibex) 


Ccfpra Sinaitica (Ehrenb.) 


• • • • 

1 


Hare 


Lepus Sinaiums, L. caspius, or 
other occurring speciea. 


• • • • 

1 


Horse 


Equus cahallus 


I 

1 .. 


Hyena 


Hycena striata 


.. 


Jackal, or Fox 


Canis aureus^ or VtUpes 


• • • • 


Leopard 


Leopardm varit^s 


• • • • 


Lion 


FeUslea 


• • • • 


Lynx, Ti^r, or 
other fehne car^ 
nivore 


FeKs horealis and F. caracal^ 
F.tigris 


( • . • • 


Mule 


» • » • • • 



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374 



On tlie Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 



A LIST OP ASSYRIAN AND ACCADIAN NAME C 



Abstbuk Namb with 

TnASSUTVRILTlQV, 



lu - li 



mu 



luv 



ai 



al - ap nahr 

Saceya 
tsi - e - ni 
ar - me 

na - ^ " ^^ 
di 



nu 



nu 



« <T* -^ 

man - di - nu 
zi - i - bu 

a - ci - luv 



HbBBEW OB OTHBB 

Sbhitio Bquiyalbbt 

wim 
Tbaitblitbbatiok. 



ayil 



tsdn 

Syr. )j?\ 

amp 

T - 

ayy&l 



AOOADIAV VJOfE 
TBJjrSLITBBAJnOlV, 



zeSb 

root *?3M 

&ca1, 
to devour 



lu - lim 



lu, lu -bat 



-n^n - -- -ET 

da^ - khal-khal - la 



gas 

nu- um -ma 
lik - bi- cu 



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On the Mammalia of tJie Assyrian Sculptures. 



375 



DMESnC AND WILD ANIMALS, ko.— continued. 



Idioobafh. 



wm ^^ 



Ak^val Dbnotbd. 



Bam 



Rhinoceros 



Sheep 



Sheep (wild), or 
wild Goats 

Stag 



Tiger 



Wolf 



JZOOLOGIOAL SpBOIBS, (^XNXTB, OB 

Fakilt. 



Ovis aries 



Bhinoceros unicornis 



Ovis aries, collectively a flock 
of sheep 

Caprovis Orientalisy or Capra 
osgagrus 

Cervtts elaphus, or kindred 
species 



Felis tigris, or other prowling 
feline anin^al 



Canis lupus 



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376 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

Since my paper on the Wild MammaKa of the Aflsyrian 
Monuments has been at press, the two handsome volumes <m 
** Eastern Persia " (with an introduction by Sir Frederick J. 
Goldsmid, C.B.: Macmillan and Co., 1876) have appeared. 
The second volume contains the zoology and geology of the 
country by Mr. W. T. Blanford, F.R.S. The fauna of Persia, 
bordering as that country does on Assyria and the great 
Euphrates Valley, may be expected more or less to resemble 
the fauna of these lands. I will, therefore, add a few 
remarks by way of supplement to my paper> selecting such 
points as appear to me to be of interest, as throwing light on 
the general subject. 

It appears that lions are still ''very numerous in the 
reedy swamps bordering the 'J'igiis and Euphrates " ; they 
are found also in the mountain^ of F&rs, which are clothed, 
from the altitude of 4,000 feet to 8,000 feet with considerable 
forests of a kind of oak {Quercus <egilopifolia) with very 
large acorns, which feed a number of wild pigs, whose 
presence tempts the lion into theeie oak-clad mountains. The 
mountebanks of Peraia, Major St. John tellQ us, are often 
accompanied by a captive lion, trained to eat a joint of 
mutton off the chest of a boy, who throws himself down on 
his back. " It is not a pleasant exhibition, the child being 
generally much alarmed. I once asked a Shir&z liiti which 
took the most threshing to l^m his part, the lion or the 
boy, but a grin was the only answer he vouchsafed*' 
(ii, p. 33). The ancient Egyptians trained the lion to 
capture prey in the cl^ase ; there is no record of a similar 
employment by the Assyrians, who, however, caught these 
animals alive and cag^d them ready for turning out to be 
hupted. 

The tiger is found abundantly in the Caspian provinces 
of Persia, and in the Caucasus as &t as the mouth of the 
Araxes. These provinces are covered with dense forests, 
and in them 'Hhe tdger ranges up to an elevation of at 



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Oh tht Mammalia of the Assyrian Sctdpturss. 377 

least 5,000 or 6,000 feet. To the westward it extends as 
far as the Caucasus and Mount Ararat, being found not 
ikr from Tiflis.** Leopards are common everywhere in the 
mountains of Persia, and the ounce {F. uncioy Shreb.) is said 
to occur; the wild cat of Europe {F, eatus) is believed by 
Major St. John to be found near Shir&z ; the chetah is cer- 
tainly found in Persia, but there are no particulars as to 
its distribution; it is said to inhabit the Caspian forests; 
it is not used for sporting purposes in Pema. The chaos 
is common, and is probably found throughout the country ; 
it is the same animal which is kQOwn to inhabit Mesopo- 
tamia ; thie caraccJ is found in Persia and Mesopotamia, the 
lynx in the Caucasus; jackals and wolves are common in 
parts of Persia. The wolf of Persia is of a large size, and 
perhaps is a variety of the Canis lupus. These animals 
are not common at low elevations, but abound in the 
highlands ; rightly, therefore, did the a^^cient inhabitants of 
Mesopotamia call the wolf by the Accadian name numma. 
*^the animal from the highlands." 

There seems to be some doubt as to the spepies of foxes 
(Vvlpes) occurring in Persia. The F. Persicus sp. nov. occurs 
near Shiriz, Isfahan, etc. Mr. Blanford isays, " we know very 
little of th(9 Persian foxes/' and he is not satisfied that the 
V. corsacj included in the list of Mesopotanaian species by 
Schmarda, really occurs there. The ichneumon of Persia is 
identical with the small animal of Mesopotamia {Herj^estes 
Persicus^ Gray) ; civets and genets perhaps inhabit the 
wooded hills of South- Western Persia. The otter {Lutra 
vulgaris) is found in Ghilan and Majandaran, also in a few 
rivers on the Persian plateau ; it is also found in Mesopotamia, 
according to Schmarda. The Persian name Saff-irab means 
*' water-dog " ; this reminds one of the calab mee of the 
Bilingual Tablet (see Part I, Domestic Mammalia, p. 54), 
which, however, I take to be a true dog or canis. Several of 
the mustelidcB are said to occur in the Caucasus, the 
M, sarmadca haying a wide range throughout Central Asia. 

A new species of badger (Meles canescens) is pretty 
common on the plateau, being generally " found in walled 
gardens, and has the reputation, as the Persian name 

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378 On the Mammalia of tlie Assyrian Sculptures. 

(Guivkan) denotes, of digging up and devouring corpsee." 
The Syrian bear is pretty common near Shir&z, and in the 
hills bordering on Mesopotcunia ; it is a great devastator 
of the vineyards, and will consume incredible quantities of 
unripe grapes. 

Seals — one species, which appears to be identical with 
the Phooa vitulina, L^ the common seal of Northern £urope 
— are found in large numbers throughout the Caspian ; they 
were probably known to the ancient Assyrians, but we are 
unable to say by what name. The word nakhir% " nostril 
animal,'* which I have identified with a ^' grampus ** or a 
*' dolphin," would certainly suit a seal, whose nostrils open 
wide for air as the animal emerges from the water, and shut 
closely again on its sinking ; but the evidence is decidedly- 
more in favour of some dolphin. M. Oppert, without hesi- 
tation, renders kai nakhiri by "peaux de veaux marins" 
(Annals of Sardanapalus, W.A.I. I, pL xxv) ; whilst in his 
*'Les Fastes de Sargon" (line 182), he renders ha am-4t 
by "pelles marinas," and zuamrH by " bdellium (ambre),"" 
though these words mean, beyond a doubt, " horns of wild 
bulls " and " hides of wild bulls," respectively. So also in 
his recent translation of the same Annals (Records of the 
Past, vii, p. 52), we have " bdellium " and " skins of sea- 
calves." If the Accadian >-^]^| ^\<h kai denote " skins " as 
well as ** horns and teeth," let us haye the authority for this 
meaning. Of the Cetacea, whales and porpoises abound on 
the Makran coast; porpoises are equally common in the 
Persian Gulf, but whales are much more rare. 

The beaver (Castor fiber ^ L.), according to Eichwald, is 
common in the Araxes ; it is included by Schmarda in his 
Mesopotamian list, but Mr. Blanford doubtfully inserts it in 
the Persian fiauna. The common porcupine (JBystrix cristata) 
is found throughout Persia, especially in the Caspian 
provinces. Schmarda does not include it amongst the 
Mesopotamian fauna^ but Dr. Heifer observed the hystrix at 
Bir, and says it is most common in shady rocky places, as at 
Seleucia Pieria (Chesne/s Expedit., vol. i, Appendix, p. 725). 
The porcupine, therefore, was probably known to the ancient 
inhaUtanta of the Mesopotamian lands. It would be curious 

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On tlie Mammalia of tJie Assyrian Sculptures. 379 

and interesting to ascertain the name by 'which so remarkable 
an animal was known to the Accadians and Assyrians. 

There is some uncertainty about the species of hares of 
Mesopotamia and Persia. Mr. Blanford figures and describes 
'what he considers a new species (Lepus craspedotis) found in 
Baluchistan ; it resembles L, Mediterraneus, but is less rufous, 
and has much larger ears ; it comes nearer to some specimens 
brought by Canon Tristram from Palestine, which were 
named by the late Dr. Gray, Eulagos Judece^ in which the ears 
are " precisely the same as in L. craspedotis'* The hare of 
the monuments has not large ears ; it is perhaps a variety 
of the common hare {L. timidus) of this country. Lepus 
Caspius (from the Caucasus), which in general character 
resembles Z. timidus^ has smaller ears and longer legs com- 
paratively : and this will quite suite the sculptured hare of 
the monuments. Mr. Blanford tells us that hares are 
generally diffused throughout Persia, but very irregularly. 
** The cultivated country about Tehran and Isfahan would 
swarm with them were they not kept down by coursing at 
all seasons." That hares abounded also in the time of the 
Assyrian monarchs, is evident from the fact that a district 
was sometimes called after them, thus there is "mat Amabu" 
or "Aranabanu," "the hare coimtry" (W.A.I., II, 65,24). 
Whatever may be the species, there is a difference apparently 
in their habits : there is the hare of the south, which seems 
to avoid cultivation, while that of the north has habits more 
like those of our own. Hares "are not rare in the hilly 
desert country to the north." The desert locality is dis- 
tinctly implied in the Accadian word corzin-^a^ " face of the 
desert." The Persian name {hhar-gush) of a hare signifies 
** ass's ears." 

The question as to the various species or varieties of wild 
ass is a difficult one. The wild animal of Mesopotamia is 
the E. hemippus^ that of northern Persia the E. onagei** " It is 
impossible to say, with any degree of certainty," writes Major 
St. John, "whether there are one or two wild asses in the 
Persian highlands ; or if there are two, whether they have 
distinct habits." All the specimens seen by Major St. John 
from Western Persia "were undoubtedly E. onager" The 

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380 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 

wild asses are so swift that, as the Persians say, **they 
cannot be caught by a single horseman when approached in 
the open; but if the sportsman can manage to conceal 
himself and his horse in the vicinity of a spring, and wait 
till the wild asses have quenched their thirst, they can 
readily be come up with when full of water, by a short spurt 
on a fast horse. At other times they are caught by relays 
of horsemen and greyhounds. The flesh is said in books on 
Persia to be prized abore all other venison, but Persians 
have told me that it should only be eaten under absolute 
necessity, being equally disagreeable to the conscience of a 
good Mussulman and to the palate of a gourmand" (p. 86). 
The inhabitants of Persia about 250 years ago were of 
another opinion, if we are to believe Olearius, who travelled 
in Persia in 1637, and who states that he saw no less than 
thirty-two wild asses killed in one day, by order of the Shah, 
for the use of the royal kitchens at Ispahan. The Romans, it 
is well known, held the flesh in estimation, especially that of 
the young foal. I have already alluded to the habit of 
stopping short and looking back, which traveDers have 
observed in the hunted wild ass. It is interesting to note 
that this has not escaped the attention of the Assyrian 
sculptor (see Plate I, Part I, p. 33). 

The wild hog of Persia and Mesopotamia appears to be 
the Sus scrofa of Europe. It aboimds in suitable localities 
throughout Persia ; '* in the oak forests of Firs and the reedy 
swamps of Khiizistan it furnishes food for the lion, and in 
the Caspian provinces for the tiger." The monuments depict 
a wild sow, with a litter of young pigs, in one of these reedy 
swamps. "Shooting pigs from horseback is a favoiurite 
diversion with Persians, and though the city people let the 
game lie where it falls, the Ilydts are by no means so par- 
ticular, and do not always permit the precepts of the Eor&n 
to prevent their indulgence in a rasher. Young pigs are 
often kept in the stables of great men, under the idea that 
their presence will divert glances of the evil eye " (pp. 86-87). 

The wild sheep of Persia belong to two species, the 
Ovis cycloceros, Button (0. vigneiy Blyth), which is found in 
the warm regions of the south, and the 0, Gmelini^ Blyth 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 381 

(O. orientaUsy Gmelin), the Armenian, sheep, or caprovisy 
which is found in Northern Persia. Both kinds, it is probable, 
were known to, and hunted by, the ancient Assyrians. 

The wild goat of Persia is the Capra oggagrus of Pallas, 
"the Pi-sang," or " rock-footed " ; it is called " an ibex" by 
Mr. Blanford and Major St. John. In my use of the term 
**ibex" I have restricted it to the steinbock of Egypt 
and Arabia, viz., the Capra Sinaitiea of Ehrenberg, the 
heden of the Arabs. This species is not included in the 
Persian fauna by Blanford, nor in the Mesopotamian list of 
Schmarda, but having a wide geographical range it probably 
does occur in these lands. The Capra Caucasicay Giild., of 
the Caucasus, and the chamois (Rupicapra tragus)^ abundant 
in the same locality, have not hitherto been noticed in the 
Persian mountains* 

The gazelle of the Persian highlands, found in almost all 
valleys and plains from about 3,000 to about 7,000 feet above 
the sea, is the Gazella suhguttvrosay Gtildenst. According to 
Blanford, this species is unknown in the plains of Mesopo- 
tamia, and in the lower ground along the Persian Gulf and 
the Arabian Sea. The species of gazelles come very close 
to each other. The (?. dorcas and G. suhgutturosa would 
probably be the species met with by the ancient Assyrians • 
in their hunting expeditions. The species actually figured 
on the monuments I should take to be the G. subgutturosay 
because the males are depicted with lyrate horns, and the 
females without any horns at all, which is true of this species ; 
the Assyrians would meet with it in Northern Persia and 
Armenia, &c. Of the Cervidce^ the mardl is the only true 
elaphine deer foamd in Persia. It is peculiar to the Persian 
provinces. The Cervus CaspitUy Brookes, an axine deer 
allied to the C. axis of India, is foimd near the Caspian, in 
the Talish moimtains. 

Of the range of the fallow deer (C. dama) in Persia there 
is not much ascertained. The species must have been 
known to the Assyrians, as the spotted deer of the monu- 
ments has palmate bonis. The roe {Caprceolus eaprcea^ Gray) 
is common in the Cauc€U9us, and occurs in Northern Persia 
generally; it is said to be found in Mesopotamia. '^The 

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382 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 

red deer (C elaphus) is said to be found in the Caucasian 
and Transcaucasian provinces, and the elk, Aeles machKs^ 
inhabits the forests of the Caucasus, but neither is known to 
exist in Persian territory.** The red deer, as I have stated 
before, is figured on the monuments ; but vre have no repre- 
sentation of the elk, whose broad massiVe horns would at 
once distinguish it. 

The Assyrians often collected the joung of wild animals 
in considerable numbers, brought them home and placed 
them in menageries; thus one king says, "Fifty young 
lions I brought into Calah and the palaces of my land, and in 
confined houses I placed them" (Layard's Inscriptions, 
xliv, 17). The young of Bos pnmiffenius were often thus 
brought together. Also some young of animals called 
Porgdrte (^ ^^^ V( ^T T"^) ^^^^ introduced by the 
same king into Calah, but what these pagate were I have not 
the faintest idea. The hides and horns of the wild cattle 
were much prized, and are very frequently mentioned ; the 
large horns of the Bos primigenius were often erected as 
ornaments aboVe the gates of the palaces ; figures of ante- 
lopes, wild sheep, &c., were carved out of stone and set up 
as ornaments about the palaces. 

The Hmhirri of the hunting record (mentioned above, 
p. 359) I can give no explanation of. Mr. Sayce compares 
the Aramean "npOD "very red"; the word is somewhere 
equated with ttiseni or teseniy which in the hunting record 
are mentioned as different animals, but I cannot find my 
reference. 

With the expression, "star of the tip of the bear's tail," 
may be compared the Arabic an/ al asad^ " nose of the lion," 
applied to two stars so called. 

In concluding this essay on the Mcummalia of the Assyrian 
Sculptures, I have again to thank Professor Sayce for 
valuable suggestions and help. To Dr. Sclater, the eminent 
Secretary of the Zoological Society, always ready to impart 
information and to answer questions, and to Sir Victor 
Brooke, Bart., I also desire thankfully to express my sincere 
obligations. The illustrations, which have been taken from 
photographs of the animals of the British Museum sculp- 

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On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 383 

tures, and which accompany my papers, are very faithful 
reproductions indeed, and I am grateful to Mr. Clark, 
the artist, for the care bestowed upon them. I also thank 
Mr. W. R. Cooper for the trouble he has taken, and the 
interest he has shown in my subject. 



Note. — " The hunting scenes from the palace of Ashur- 
bani-pal (Sardanapalus of the Greeks) are the most perfect 
specimens of Assyrian glyptic art. They are to be seen in 
the basement room devoted to Assyrian art in the British 
Museum. Sir E. Landseer was wont to admire the truth- 
fulness and spirit of these reUefs, more especially of one 
where hounds are pulUng down a wild ass. (Ancient Mon- 
archies, vol. i, p. 517.) Professor RoUeston has expressed to 
me his admiration of a wounded lioness in the same series, 
where the paralysis of the lower limbs, consequent upon an 
arrow piercing the spine, is finely rendered (ibid., p. 512)." 
(Early CiviUzation, vi, by the Rev. Canon Rawlinson. 
Leisure Hour, June, 1876.) 




Vol. V. ^o , 

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384 



A SKETCH OF S AEGEAN GRAMMAR: 

WITH 

EXAMPLES OP TRANSLATION. 

Bt LrauT.-CoL. W. P. Prideaux, P.R.G.S., Fellow of 
the University of Bombay. 



Mead Aih January^ 1876. 



[Continued from Page 224.] 

xvn. 

(B.M.16; 08.27.) 

^* II ^ ^ A* ^^ T?^' masc. = Arab. ^j^9 qvick^ speedy. 

h ? h ^ ^»' ^^^* ^^^' ^^^ h ^ ^> ^ country of South 
Arabia. (Tran8. Soc. Bib. Arch., VoL II, p. 8.) 

3. h ft n > conjunction, when. 

3-4- <» H "^ h V — H "^ h V ; Hal^^ likens this to the 
Hebrew idiom, HS'IM rQ'in, multipUcando multipUeabo; 

and takes h f h fl A' ®^^'' *^ ^ ^^® subject of the 
verb. Unless this view be taken, the passage becomes 
one of great difficulty. The first H ''^ h V therefore 
is the inf. of II. of H "i^ h = Arab. j^\ , to gain the 
mastery, to overcome^ perhaps here, simply to attack 
(see Lane, sub voce) ; <» H ^4 h V ^^ P®^^- 3rd pers. 
plur. masc. of the same verb. 

' The final \ in pjyO etc., is the demonstratiye enclitic, which antwen to the 
Greek 6 in 6 Miyacor, 6 lafiaios, etc. 

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A Sketch of SaJtcean Grarmnary Sfc. 385 

4- oVH^'ll, cf. Heb. tO|?7, Arab, tjj, legit, coUegit, 

referring especially to grain collected and stored in 
the house. The prep. ^ here signifies in the direction 
of, with a view to. 

5- h^® A i^-pr. of thefether of IIojn- 
^7. hJ^OlXoV^ri; Hal^vy takes X<»V^ ^^ 

plnr. of X <D V = Heb. rWil, rWl, H^T?, distress, mis^ 

fortune, f n^ ^^7 Perhaps = Arab, ^r- ^ time; or 
possibly the phrase may have reference to the 
protection or refuge afforded by the god = Arab, ^r • 
Perhaps X<^4'^ 11 ^^^^ X<^ V I S Fl'/^^ that.,. 

8. n 8 V> P^rf. 3rd pers. sing. IV. of fl <^ 8 == Arab. 

4_^U> to return^ e.g., to return from one state of mind 
to another. 

I f «i^, n. subst. = Heb. h^ll; Arab. J^ ; iEth. -^JZii : 
rt«, robur, potentia. 

II h II h X > ^' snbst., derived from m| ^ = Arab. 
^^\ » to feel confident or secure. 

S O 

9. ^ ^ ^ y n. subst. in stat. constr. = Ayab. j jup , truth, 

but in Sabflean with the Hebrew meaning of 
righteousness, justification. 

Translation. 

SarS**^ ihe Min»an has endowed Il-Makah of HirrSn 
with this tablet, which he offered him when the Sabaean and 
the tribe of Asad began to make an attack upon his property 
collected in the house of Bin Sau£ln, and he demanded from 
him the ftdfilment (of his wishes) in that time {or in the 
misfortune of the time) ; and he (i.e., the god) kept him safe 
according to the prayer addressed to him ; and he (t.^., 
the votary) returned to his confidence in the power of 

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386 A Sketch of Sabcsan Grammar, 

D-Makah ; and may D-Makah continue to justify his servant 
Sari'»°^ in the fulfilment [of that] which he may demand 
from him. 



so- 



XVIII. 
(B.M. 12 ; Os. 13.) 
1. > ^ ^ , n. pr. diptote (o. XV, 1.) 

^ S f > * ' n. pr. dim. of ^ S K = I,)' ^- 
Probably here the eponymus of a tribe. 

3. 1 h ih X ' P^^- ^^^ P®^®- ®^^S- niasc. V. of ^ h A • 

4- H ^ n > p^®p- = ^ ' ^fi^' 

XSHVIXSHV^^l^® first of these words is a noun 
subst. fem, « Arab. iJjW, a misfoHune, caUm^yi 
the second, perf. 3rd pers. sing. fem. I. of 8 H t ^ 
Arab. v*jj^>. , to happen^ com^ to pasaJ* 

6. sxsNvixtvisn; s n i« the prep, n witk 

the enclitic ^. XtV» ?^on. dem. fem. agreeing 

withSXSHV. , „ 

6-7. X ^^ ^1 V ^ m h ® = *^^ Arabic locution ^— U y 
and as for — he, 

f ^ ^ = Arab, ^c^ , <o protect, defend. 

8.<D^VX>>4'h<i>l<«>^V»4'h.^«^^*'^^^^ 

fem. pZur. /ra<?<. fi-om J J 4* ~ ^^^' f- » •^'^ •^'*^ 
6om; pi. j\js>^\* 

8 n?Hh^ n. subst., cf. iEth. f\srr^ I ^/^ 

touring tract of country^ thence, provinces^ dutnct^ 
In status constructus, before the prep, f t| O . 

^ On the grammatical formation of this and similar expreeaions, m0 V^l*^ 
J>er SUUus constructus im Himjarischsn (Zeitsohrift d. D. M. O., xxx, 190). 

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with Examples of Translation, 387 

9. <D ^ ^ H I h ^ ^ H > ^^ epithet of the place ]| <D ^ > 
which also occiu's in No. XXXII, 4. I oflfer no 
conjecture with respect to the meaning of the 
words, but it is odd that they should bear so close 
a resemblance to the Hebrew and Assyrian terms for 
dty. 

9- ^ r <l^ 8 > both here and in No. XIX, 2, has apparently 
the same meaning as the Heb. ITVlttJjp, oblatioy 
donum, 

9-10. ^ 1 A ^ , probably for ^ ^ fi (D ^ (see No. XIX, 6). 
But there is a principal idea of perfection in the 
word; cf. Heb. iplt ni73?p, aurum optimum, from 
rh^ and also hh^. 

10. S ft n ' ^^AJ-j b^^^ means as though. 

h 1 ^ ^ ? » imperf. subjunct. 3rd pers. sing, from 
I Y V > *•?• Ja>* ^^^ with the signification, to put 
foHh or produce green herbs, 

? ^ n J h » cardinal number, forty. 
II H ^ h > »• s^bst. plur. fract. of Jj ^ ^ ^ = Arab, 
jj, a measure, quantity, 

11. 1,1 i, [] = Arab. ^. 1 O 1 1 = Heb. n'^yO^, sur- 

sum ; amplius, 

12. ^ ^1 H H ^ > ^- P^* composed of ^ ^ <D, he loved ; €md 

13- ifl m V ^ ? > ^* P^* composed of V ^ f , imperf. of 
l|l ^ (D , and ft 1 ^ > an epithet of the deity. 

J n ft , noun adj. = Arab. ^^, great,^ 11 "i^ > noun 
adj. = Arab. Jj^' ^^*ue, sincere, Cf. Hal. 51, 19. 

' According to Ibn Eballikan, Dbd KibAr was one of tbe princes oi El- Yemen 
{Trad, de McOnckin de Slane, torn, ii, p. 4). On Dbii Kbalil, see MCOler, 
HimjarUche Insckriflen in Zeitscbrift d. D. M. G., xxi:c, 619. 

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388 A Sketch of Sabctan Grammar^ 

Translation. 

Shammar, Bin-Kurain*"*, has endowed Il-Makah of Hirrftn 
with this tablet, because Il-Makah lord of Aww&m heard 
him according to the prayer addressed to him when Shammar 
besought of him, after the misfortune which occurredjn the 
house of Bin Kurain*™ ; and because he delivered his servant 
Shammar in that misfortune ; and as to Il-Makah, Shammar 
has given, in accordance with his prayer for protection to 
their* free-born men, and wom-en, and the districts adjacent to 
Aww&n DhA 'Mn DhA Alft, an oflfering of the best kind, as 
though the green herbs were produced forty-fold, and etm 
over and above that; and this prayer and this protection 
happened in the year of Wadada-D son of Yekah-maKk, 
Kabir Khalil. 



XIX. 
(B.M. 13; Os. 10.) 

^- II ih ^ ^ H n ^ > ^- P^- == A^^- cr-^ *V^> servant of 
S/iams, a deity of the Sabseans. 
^ ^ ? V > n. pr. of uncertain derivation. 

2. ^ ^ <D > perf. 3rd pera. sing. masc. = Arab, t-iij* ^ 
establish^ and in the religious sense, to give or endow. 

3-4. fli (D O , n. subst., perhaps = Arab. ^^ ^ > dijficuUg^ 
distress, want ; but cf. Preetorius, Neue Beitrdge, 1873, 
p. 8-9 ; perhaps from root y,^^ dryness^ drought 

5. ^ V B ^ > n. pr. of uncertain derivation. 

5-6. O ^ "ij h V' P^rf- 3rd pers. plur. IV. The Arabic does 
not possess this verb in I. In Sabsean it appears to 
have an intransitive sense : to meet with delay. 

6. h ? ^ ® V > ^^ subst. from IV. of t ^ O , with the 

enclitic \ . 

' /.e., of the tribe of tlie votary. 

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with Eaamples of Translation. 889 

m fl <D ^ , n. adj., agreeing with the preceding 
word = Arab. J^j^ , pro^rous, fortunate. 

r ft h > P^rf^ 3rd pere. mase. sing. = Arab. Jj , to deny^ 
refuse, but here with the -Ethiopia sense of "X^h^Xi 2 
aUenari. 

6-7. 0^^^"\0W,^Aidh. ^^ ^^ (Miiller, ^fm/amcA^ 
Inschrifteny Zeitschrift d. D. M. G., xxix, p. 603.) 

7. S ^l* X ? H » ioaperf- subjunct. 3rd pers. sing. masc. 
= Arab. J^, to open^ liberate; here with the techni- 
cal signification of to judge (c£ iEth. ^^(\\:). 

7. O ^ V X ? n > *^^ noun here is probably in the plural 

S f f 

= Arab. cl:^.-j • 

m 1 H V ? > unp^rf. subjunct. 3rd pers. sing. masc. 
n. of ^ ^ H *^ Arab. JjT, to afflict with droughty or 
want of rain} 

8. <D ^ V f ^ ^ , n. subst. from the verb f S ^ , ^o possess ; 

meaning therefore possessions^ property. 

S ft 4* ^ ^ > n. subst. with encUtic ^ , formed by 
metathesis from the root ^ ^ 4I as Arab. ^_^.^*^ ^ 
abundant rain^ a heavy fall of rain. The verb \o(\ 
seems to be understood. 

S ^ h A > ^ subst. with enclitic 4 . This word must 
be referred to the root ^6.^ > narrovmess, straitnessj 
hardship, cognate with j/i . Or it is perhaps the 
name of a place, cf. Hal. 208, 2. 

* Comp. the Arabic expression ^\ ^:J, I^^ie, vol. i, p. 53. 

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390 A Sketch of Sabcean GramniaVy 

Translation. 

'Abd-Shams'" son of Hiyadh*" has endowed Il-Makah of 
Hirran with this tablet, which he offered him, and dedicated 
to him as a gift, when he preserved them (t.«., the tribe) 
from the drought which was in this land in the year of 
Samaha-karib son of Tobba'a Karib son of Fadhih*" : 

And they met with delay in obtaining prosperous health ; 
for he who might pass judgment upon them and afflict their 
possessions with scarcity of water was alienated from them ; 

And after that there was this heavy fall of rain in the midst 
o/this necessity : and 'AbdrShanuh returned to his confidence 
n Il-Makah. 

And also because he has prospered them in their fruits 
and in their male children ; and with the satisfiiction of 
their lords, the Beni Marthad*". 



XX. 

(B.M. 10; Os. 6.) 

1- ^ 1 if h » ^* *^J'» surname of Anm&r^, of uncertain 

meaning, but perhaps signifying dark in complexion = 

Heb. po'p^. 

1-2. X 8 ^ ^ ^ V ' »• Pr- composed of f ^ <D V and 
J X 8 ^ (Levy), 'A thtar has kept in safety ; as a com- 
poamd, it is diptote. 

2- S A 4* h H > ^- Pr- of a tribe of El-Yemen. 

^' TJV^njV> ^* subst., which previous commenta- 
tors have considered cognate to the Heb. J^H, to kill; 
but I agree with Miiller in referring the word to the 
-^th. ^y^Tl ; prcedam agere, bello capere. The re- 
dupUcated form gives the idea of number or 
quantity. 

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ivith Examples of Translation, 391 

6. ^ ^ H ^ 9 11. subst. = Arab, v j^ , used adjectively as 
attributing the sense of goodness to anything, see 
Lane, vol. iv, p. 1668, and Miiller, Z. d. M. G., 
xxix, 599. 

^" ^ ^ n h > ^* subst. plur. = Arab. /^Lj > « spoiler of 
the dead (Hal.). More probably a proper name. 

8. J p [| ; a favourable omen^ or sanction of the deity^ of. 
Arab, ^j ' Heb. H'^'ia, etc. 

8-9. ^^^^(DJ^^Hh^ ^^^ attributes or possessions of 
the god, are used for the god himself. ^ S H h > ^® 
the place in the temple from which the people were 
called to worship ; ^ ^ ^ ^ » the place where the 
image of the god was set up. X H ^ ^^^ X H ^ ^ * 

Translation, 

Anmfix**" Azhlam son of Hawaf- Atht, Dhfi-Nahsdn, has 
endowed Il-Ma^ah of Hirrfln with this tablet, because he 
assisted him in obtaining plentifiil and valuable booty from 
the tribe of Nabsh*" ; and in that Il-Makah has continued to 
prosper Anm&r*™ with the favourable sanction of the calling- 
place and station of Il^Mahah, and because there has been 
favour in times past, and may there be favour in times to 
come to the Beni Dhii-Nahsfiii. 



XXI. 

(B.M. 8 ; Os. 12.) 

1. n ifl ? > ^- P^*> fi^irname of Shammar, of uncertain 
derivation. 

^f\^0, n. pr. 

4-5. St^oVIShX?^ "np^rf- subjimct. 3rd pers. sing, 
masc. 

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392 ^1 Sketch of Sabwan Gi*ainiiiar^ 

5-6. h 1 h X ih ? > ™perf. Bubjunct. 3rd pers. sing. masc. 

10. ^ O 3 Y I n. pr. participle from a verb = Heb. 3^, to 
save (in Hiphi)). 

Translation, 

Shammar Yakub eon of Washk*" has endowed Il-Makah 
of Hirr&n with this tablet, because he has kept him safely- 
according to the prayer addressed to him, and in order that he 
may continue to keep him safely according to the prayer 
which he may hereafter make before him, and because he 
assisted him in obtaining valuable booty from the tribe of 
Nabsh**** ; and in that he has gifted him with the favourable 
sanction of the calling-^lace and of the station of IlrMahah ; 
and with the satisfaction of his chief Y&thi'^, Bin Marthad**". 



XXII. 
(B.M. 11 ; Or. 8.) 



1. D n n ^ > ^- p^- =* s-^j» ^ ^^^• 

H X Jh Y ' n. pr., surname of Rab&b"", of uncertain 
derivation. 

^ ) V Jh I S n > ^ tribal name. 

2.xHiinn.andHiinn=XHnandHn. 

3. 1 h 1*1 * P®^ 3rd pers. sing, of masc. II. of ^ ^ jlj , 

to answer. 

11 Vh* »• ^^^- V^^' of IIV* cognate with 
Arab. Jji^ > a vestment (Miiller). 

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witJi Examples of Tiunslation. 893 

? n ih h > n- Bubfit. plur. of t n ih > cognate with 
Heb. rnttJ. Arab. ^^^^> captivum fecit} 

'^' 8 J n h > ^- Bubst. plur. of 3 ^ n = ^^^^' <^ > « ;)&m. 
O (D ^ , n. adj. plur. of ^ O ^ = Arab. > ^. ,^ , » a fol- 
lower^ or partizan. 

7-8. O ^ ^ f , n. pr. of the chief of the Marthadite clan of 
Beni Akhraf, &om 0\ (^, to elevate. 

®* ^ J ^ > P®rf- 3rd pers. sing, masc, identical with 
ChaldsBan pns, redemity UberaviU 

S'lloniim^lim^Xn- im*X. namenverbu,, 
from B t| ^ , here employed in the Ai-abic sense of 
obviam venit, occyrrit aUcui, esp. hostili modo. On 
the construction, cf. Miiller, der status constructus im 
Himjarischeriy Z. d. M. G., xxx. 

9-10. h 11 r ^ » nomen gentile ; the Arahan^ probably the 
ArabanitoB of Ptolemy, as Hal^vy points out ; or, the 
Wesiemsy from the root [] ^ O = c-^, or I'l^J* 
peregrini. 

10. B X V h II » ^' eubst., apparently the name of a town ; 
comp. in. 3-4. Hal6vy identifies it with the present 
Hizmet Abu Thaur, a ruin in the Upper Jauf in 
El-Yemen, in which place he discovered an inscription 
(No. 596) with the words ]| X? h II I S H V ^^ ^^' 

Translation, 

Rabab"" Yazam, Bin Akhraf has endowed Il-Makah of 
Hirrftn with this tablet, because Il-Makah has answered the 
prayer addressed to him, and because he has kept him whole 
in his district of Ma'ls&n, and because Il-Makah has assisted 
him in obtaining valuable spoils, and vestments, and captives 
in all the plains of the followers of their chief, Yafra', Bin 

> Compare D^'^V ^9^, h^p/kl captive (Isaiah xlix, 24). 

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394 A Sketch of Sabwan Grammar^ 

Marthad*™, and because he delivered his sei-vaut Rab&b^ in 
the attack which was encountered from the 'Araban {or^ the 
strangers from the West) in the neighbourhood of Manhat**, 
and because he has prospered him ^vdth the satisfaction of 
his chief, Yafra'; and with the favourable sanction of the 
calling-place, and of the station of ll-Makah ; and becanse 
it has been favourable in times pasty and may it be fevour- 
able in times to come with the Beni Akhraf. 



XXIII. 
(B.M. 22; Os. 26.) 



!• Illh^h* n. pr. = Arab. ^^j\> the act of giving. 
This inscription is very fragmentary, the termination 
of several of the lines being lost. 

4. ^ fl H ^ > ^® ^^^^ word occurs in a broken line, it ifi 
difficult to judge of its meaning from the context I 
take it to be an adjective qualifying S ^ S $ ^} <^^ 
to mean valtuihU (cf. Arab. «j^). 

7, <D V J n ^ 1 imperf. subj. 3rd pers. sing. ma6c. = AraK 
r^\y VIII. of ^, to hold in estimation or respect; 
cf. also Heb.T5^n, Hiph. of "^^ to offer (a sacri- 
fice), to consecrate. 

9. 949^, perhaps infinitive from a verb = Arab. )eiy 
to hit on the head ; and hence hurt or injure. 

10. 1 h DQ n h' ^ P^* composed of [J] fl^, to see^ regard 
(Heb. 1053), and ^ {i| , the god U : Deus adspexit, 
curavit, 

^ ^ ^ ^ O 9 n. pr. composed of ^ O , to comprehend, 

or include^ the universe, and ^ ^ ^ , an epithet of the 
deity, the sayer or commander. 

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toitli Examples of Tranalation. 395 

Translation. 

1. Aw8«" 

2. eons of Kar 

3. have endowed JX^Makah 

4. with this valuable tablet 

5. H-Makah lord of Awwdm and 
H. his servant Aws°™ 

7. in that he has held him in estimation, and has praised 

8. the power and station of Il-Makah when 

9. he preserved him from injury in the year of 
10, Nabata-il son of *Amma-amir. 



XXIV. 
(B.M. 1; Os. 3.) 

This inscription is merely a fragment. 

1. . . . B I S H ^^y ^® restored S J B ' ^^^ perhaps 

= Arab, a^, Assynan Siparru^ Turan. zabur^ brass. 

2. O ^ V 1 ^ > ^' subst. = Arab. Jj , the Sabaean name 

for a chief. 

Translation. 



1. Il-Makah of Hirr&n this bronze 

2. and their chief and their tribe . 



XXV. 
(B.M. 3; Os. 5.) 
This inscription is also considerably mutilated. 

1. After ...|»|linHalivy supplies |l|fi,X?|1<D|©V1h • 

a good conjecture. 

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396 A Sketch of Sabcsan Grammar^ 

2. In this line he suggests fQ^O^ perhaps better oQ}d>. 

3 iy 11; M. Hal^vy proposes <d11VA1^ = 

Arab. 11. ^^^9 or Heb. Piel Y^JH, to deliver. 

^' 0KV?l?Sn» ^' Pr- of a tribe. O^OV? w 
formed Kke the 3rd pers. sing. maec. imperfect tense 

of IV. of O ^ ^ > to surpass or be eminent. 

Translation. 

Bent Yehafrd 'have endowed lUMakak of 

Hirrdn vnth this tablet because H-Makah has granted the 
prayer addressed to him. And may Il-Makah continue 
their justification (t.«., to justify them), and their safety, 
and the satisfaction of their lords, the Benu Marthad*", both 
because Il-Makah has delivered them^ and because there has 
been favour in times pastj and may there be favour in times 
to come to the Beni Yehafra'. 



XXVI. 

(B.M. 26; Os. 25.) 

This inscription is also mutilated, but the text can be 
restored without diflSculty. 

7. ? S ^ h » ^* s^l^st. plur. fi'act. of f l| ^ , a possession. 

8. S S ? S ^ ?> inip^rf- subjunctive 3rd pers. plur. masc 

of f S ^> to gainy or acquire. 

Translation. 
^AbdrShams*^ has endowed ll~Makah of Hirr&n xmik this 
tablet because he has granted the prayer of Abd'-Shaxtis/^ 
addressed to him ; and in that he has kept them safe, and has 
kept safe their possessions which they have acquired, and 
which they may acquire.* 



* That IB, may he keep safe ihoee which thej may acquire hereafter! 

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toith Examples of Translation, 897 



XXVIL 

(B.M. 27 ; Os. 18.) 

The inherent difficulties of this inscription are enhanced 
by the loss of the two or three lines at the beginning. 

1. ^0Ji|](|fm^; HIS1 appears here to have the 

me€uiing of when = l|^f]; ^O^X ^ P®^* ^^^ 
pers. sing. V. of ^ © fi| = Arab, to return. 

1-2. S O O ^ "1 , inf. = Arab. ^U^ Hie publication, diapei^ 
sum, and thence distribution (vide Lane's Lexicon, 
s, r.). 

2. O V X 8 ^ ^ > ^^^ inheritance. 

X n ^ ^ , n. pr. fem., an attentive person. 

^ fl , inf. = here Arab. ^[j\ , to give separately. 

enclitic ^ . 

^ Ifj ji| ^ = Arab. Jl^l , from ^] , anoiA^. 

Ji|Xo=^j^X^' ^^ continue^ by a phonetic degradation 
analogous to X 1 X ^^ 8 1 8 (Hal^vy). 

4. J ^ *ij ; cf. the Arab.^^U which is said to be a phrase 
common in El-Yemen, and to signify, he gave him the 
thing, or put him in possession of it. In this place, 
as Hal^vy points out, it stands for the more usual 
H O I*! , t(7 prosper or assist. In conjunction with 
f ^ © further on, it means to give healtfiy or safety. 

^ H H ^ ^ > n. pr.= Arab, jj^ belo/tied. 

n M » «• 8^b«*- p^"^- ^^ X n n (t^- ^n, »). 

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398 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar^ 

5- ?^ V> ^^ subst.rr Arab, i^, good for time, pmanal 
happiness. 

5. 8 ^ ^ h > ^' subst. plur. of 3 ^ ^ > <^^ ^^ or possessor, 

^- ^ S A n ' *^i^ word IS generally understood to signify 
the tribe of JJj , at the present day (in conjunction 
with th6 j^U) one of the largest in El-Yemen; 
cf. Miiller, himjarische Inschrifterij Z. d. M. 6^ xxii, 
p. 593. The Tribe of HAshid is named in Prid., iv, 
(Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol II, p. 26). 

S ® n J > participle fi-om O f] ^ = Arab. -j.> he re- 
mained, dwelt, or abode in a place. It is in the 
singular number agreeing with fl ^ ^ ' *^^ ^^ 
enclitic l| has the force of the Greek o. The 
expression is probably merely equivalent to |=|, as it 
is used frequently in Hal^vy's inscriptions. 

S ? J "^ » f<^>r S ? J *^ ? » iDip^^rf. precative, 3rd pers. 
sing. masc. of ^ J 'i^ , a word of which the obvious 
meaning is to protect or preserve. 

7-8.^4* JH, n. subst. = Heb. pHH, to he afar off, at a 
distance. 

8. n J ^ > ^' R^l^^*« = Heb. y^\^y to be near. 

9- n ? ^ M ? S n > ^- P^- *'f ^ sub-tribe of the Beni 
Marthad'™. 

Translation. 

Muwaddad^ of the Beni Ashyab has endowed lUMakah of 
Ilirrdn with this tablet because he has granted the pt*ayer addressed 
to him, in that he kept him safe when he returned to this city 
of 'Amr&n to distribute his inheritance of Kashbat Dhit- 
Marthad*™ and to give this property in separate portions to 
another; and because II-Makah of Hirr&n has continued 

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with Examples of Translation, 399 

to bestow upon his servant Muwaddad*" safety for his 
cultivable lands and personal happiness ; and the satisfaction 
of his heirs, the Beni Marthad^ and their tribe of Bakil, 
occupying 'Amr&n ; and may he protect his servant 
Muwaddad"" fix)m humihation and the adversity of enemies 
at a distance and near at hand ; and because there has been 
favour in times past, and may there be favour in times to come 
to his clan, the Beni Ashyab, in the station and power of 
Il-Makah of Hirrftn. 



XXVIII. 
(B.M. 29 ; Os. 30.) 

1- X80^V> n. pr. compounded of the verb V ^ Ijl = 
Arab. ^-, to defend from any one or thing; and 

^ n ^ ^' n. pr. =3 Arab, c-^j, to adhere to. 

TloV^Af n, pr. compounded of V ^ A = Heb. 
rad. n»^, Arab. \^, to be. lofty or exalted; and 
^^O, the high (Most High), an epithet of the deity. 

1 ^ 1 iS ^ > n. subst., a stone (cf. Lane's Lexicon, s. v. 
Ju» )• Freytag would appear to be right in saying 

the word is of the dialect of Himyar. It is probably 
a sacrificial stone or flat altar. 

1-2. H 1 ^ > ^- sufcst. plur. intern, of t^ '^ O = ^th. (D'A^Jf : 

2. ^ H ^ X > w^wi^n verbis from ^ ^ ^. Here the meaning 
would seem to be, to begin or commence a work. This 
and the preceding word ^ © f are in stat. constr. 

of V^> »• subst. in stat. construct, verbal from 
O f V, it flowed being spilt ; and therefore, probably, 
a receptacle for water, a tank or reservoir (Hal^vy), used 
for purposes of irrigation. 
Vol. V. .*^'^^\ Digitized by Gar©gle 




400 A Sketch of Sabasan Grammar^ 

S V S ^ J B > ^* subet. © J B , is probably identical 

with the Hebrew ^2t, opobahamumy and the Arab. 

^^ , a apeciea of tree which is common in El- Yemen 

(cf. Lane, Book I, part v, p. 1790). The termination 

S V S > ^ the intensified dual form. 

S X 1 n ^ > n. subst. Hal^vy is of opinion that 
X 1 n ^ is a term of agriculture in parallelism with 
O ^ B > ^^* ' think it more probable that whilst one 
O f V ^ was constructed for the special use of the 
O J B trees, of which the gum was used for incense, 

s- - 

the other was for the general use of the tribe, iL-J , 

s- - 

Amongst the ancient Arabs, the JELJ (tribe) was 
the first and principal sub-division of the ^_,^^^ , 
X? S ^ V> i^- subst. fem. from f l| ^ Vi H. of f S ^. 

2-3. J V ? H > J V ? wouW seem to be either an epithet of 
the god = Heb. "^^HfJ, lofty^ proud ; or the name of 
a place. One of the sub-divisions of the tribe 
T&fa'a es-Sufli of El-Yemen, which claims descent 
firom Himyar, is called Yehar at the present day. It 
numbers about 700 fighting men, and is settled some 
fifty or sixty miles from Yerim.* 
Note. — Dr. Praetorius has translated this inscription in 
the Z.d.M.G., xxvi, and at page I (Die Altaminschrift 
vom Abian) of his Neue Beitrdge, 1873, but it is im- 
possible to accept many of his conclusions* 

Translation. 

Ham'atht son of Wazhbftn, servant of Samaha^ali, has 
endowed 'Athtor with this votive stone, and all his children, 

> Report on the Tarioos Arab Tribes in the Neighbourhood of Aden 
(No. 01. of the Becords of the 6K>Termnent of India, Foreign Department), 
1872, pp. 25, 29. Tn Hal. 187, 6, and 188, 5, Yehar must be the name of a 
place where a temple and fortress existed. Cf. Hal. 577, 5. 

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with Example* of ThmshxHon. 401 

on the day of commencing the special irrigation-tank of the 
two balsam trees, and the tank of the tribe, as an endow- 
ment of Yehar (or, of the lofty one), in the name of 'Athtor 
and in the name of Il-Makah. 



XXIX. 
(B.M. 30; Os. 32.) 



This inscription ia fractured in such a way as to leave the 
beginnings and endings of the lines incomplete. 

S y 

1. H X X ^ > ^- PJ** ■= Arab, jj^ , Aram. MJ^}^, fortis. 

X 1 H ? X > n« pr- compounded perhaps from ^ f X» 
jj.» in£ n. of j«j, it increased; and X1h for 

V 1 h , a name of the deity: cf. X 1 h H <> iS t 
Hal. 577, 8. 

2. S ^ 8 ^ V 9 P®^ 3^^ P®^' P^^^' naasc. As this word 

has the paragogic l|, it cannot be the finst verb 
of a series. This would probably be O f ^ f| > ^^ 
bmlty on the fractured part of the stone. ^ 8 ^ V 
is II. of a verb probably identical in meaning with 
the Arab. J^, to make level, or equal, and refers to 
the operation of planing down the inequalities of the 
stones with which the building is constructed. Cf. 
Heb. "^^J, rectus fuit ; planus, cequus fuit ; and in 
fliph. rectum, planum fecit, complanavit. 

llJ^^V, perf. 3rd pers. plur. masc. with the 
paragogic ^ , 11. of a verb of which the meaning is 
imcertain, but which probably signifies to complete by 
painting the building red. Arab. ; s^ ^ rufus color, 
Chald. *1pD, rubro pinxit. M. Hal^vy points out the 
frequency of the expression S^^^IHoJi'i^^^mfl 

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402 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar^ 

in his inscriptions, the former of which words is 
referable to the Heb. tlJ*jW, radix, para inferior^ radix 
(montis), frmdm (maris), and probably means 
foundation; the phrase therefore signifying from the 
foundations to the finishing stroke. In the inscription of 
Axum, the ^Ethiopian king Tazena speaks of 
destroying the painted houses^ meaning probably the 
temples. 

• ' • • B ? > perhaps the commencement of the name 
of the house or temple. As the name of the king of 
Saba occurs in the next line, we should here supply 

3- 1 h n V ^ > n. pr. composed of fl V ^ > ^ 9^^^ 
Aramaic IIT., and ^ ^ . 

X V ? > surname of Wahaba-Tl. 

4. ... 3 ^ is evidently for O ^ § ^ , a SabsBan verb of 
which there seems no exact correspondent in the 
cognate languages. The noun ^ H 8 ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^7 
the lexicologist to mean a generous man, and it is 
applied as one of the many names of the lion ; but 
the verb, judging from the context in the places 
where it occurs, would seem to have the signification 
of placing under the protection of the gods (Hal^vy). 

Translation* 

1 their sons, 'Aziz"" and Zaid-ilat and Sa'd- 

ilatj have built 
2 and have rendered even and have completed 

their house of Yafadh. . .An the year of 

3 son of Wahaba-il Yekhaz, king of Saba, 

4. In the name of Dhat-Ba-' damm and in the name of 

their god, Dh&-Sam&wi, and they have placed it under 

protection, . . . 



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vnth Examples of Translation. 403 

XXX. 

(B.M. 37; Os. 36.) 
This inscription is also greatly mutilated* 

1- ^ ^ X ^ H > '^^ ®^^*- ^^- ^®^- ^l* prcBstanHa. The 
votary is evidently a person of the highest rank, and 
probably a relative of the king. 

*• ^^^hV1h> ^- subst., an epithet of the god DhA- 
Sam&wi, the god who rules over circumstances or events. 

3S^1 ; restore h^lA^- 

1 A^ X A » P^^f- 3rd pers. sing. masc. X. of •^ ^' © = 
iEth. ?k?rtHDtlA> confidentiam habere solitus est (Os.). 

4- 1h^V?> n. pr, composed of ^l|lf for V^Vfi 
imperf. of ^ ^^ , to protect ; and ^ ^ . 

8. X 1 n » ^* s^^t- = ^ > good fortuivcy prosperity; health. 
Here m 5<a<. coTw^riict. 

X O ^ f ^ 9 n. subst. fem., from a cognate of the 
Heb. Sn^, cognovit; H^O, cognitioj familiaritas. 

X O ^ f ^ probably signiBes the collection of people 
known or akin to one another, t,^., the family. 

Translation, 

1 Dhft-Watrim, the royal clan, 

2. has endowed Dhii Sam&wi, Uah-amrim, lord of 

3 with this votive stone which he has confided to 

him because of the safety 

^ In an insoriptioii in the possoMion of Lieut.-Col. S. B. Miles, Political 
Agent at Maakat, Dh^-Samiwt ia caUed ^ ^ ^ fl | '^ O f] » ^"^^ ofoaem. 

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404 A tSketch of Salxean Grammar^ 

4 Yeham-il Dhil-Watrim, and because of the 

safety 

5. and because of Vie safety of the lords of their house, 

and because of their prosperity 

6. and because Dhft-Sam&wi has given tliem children in 

abundance, and because .... 

7. he has kept them safe in the fulfilment of that which 

they demanded 

8 may he continue the prosperity {or health) 

of the family 1 



XXXI. 

(B.M. ; Oe. 81.) 
The first line of this inscription is lost, 

2. ^ ^ ^ 9 ^* subst. derived firom a verb cognate with the 
Chaldean Pa. Q^Q^, ministraviL In Sabssan, the 
word indicates one who serves the needs of his 
worshippers, therefore a patron or tutelary god (Hal.). 

^ S X > n- pr. of a goddess ; a diptote noun as being 
similar, and perhaps referable to, the 3rd pers. sing, 
fem. imperf. of ^ © 4 or ^ 1] , cognate with Heb. 
P)^, TV^\^ eminentia^ e^xcelsa. Comp. the eponymous 
^ l| , Arab. j_jj (Abyan Inscript. 5) and the sur- 
name ^ 1] f (Fresnel, xii, 1, etc.). 

• X 1 ® n > ^* subst. fem. of ^ O f] ; here in stat. constr. 

h ^ B n > n. pr. of a town or district in El- Yemen ; 
the residence of the GedramtcB of Pliny. 

hX O n J h > num. = Arab. t^J^y Heb. n^|")M, four. 



The i| is the demonstrative enclitic 



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tnth Examples of Tranilatiau. 405 

*l V l| ^ ^ O , num.» the dual form of ^ ^ ©,= Arab, 
^, Heb. ")toV> ^^' therefore SVS^^O for 
i|l,IS?>^0=Arab. ^j^, Heb. D^tpjr. 

3. S ^1 A hi n. subet. plur. fract. of ^^/^ = Heb. D^, 
itmulacrumy idolum. 

S V 1 A > n. pr. of a castle or palace in El-Yemen, 
which is, perhaps, the XCK€ov of Ptolemy. It is 
mentioned in the Geez inscriptions of Axum as a 
capital city of the Sabsdans. 

*• ^ S H h h * °* subst. plur. fract. of ^ H ^ (see XX, 
8-9). 

^ X ^ ? ^ ^ I ^- subst. plur. fract. of ^ ^ ^ (see XX, 
8-9). 

5. O B y perf. 3rd pers. sing. masc. As there is here 
a string of verbs in a sequence, the last one only 
takes the enclitic L . For the meaning, see XII, 10. 

J f] 3 , perf 3rd pers. sing. masc. from = Arab. ^, 
to restrcdny hinder; disappoint; destroy. 

0\^y perf. 3rd pers. sing. masc. from = Arab. , ..^ ^ 
Heb. yjD ^ to forbid^ to hinder. 

W^^i perf. 3rd pers. sing. masc. from = Ai-ab. ^\ , 
to retard^ make to retreat. 

p H , n. subst. from a verb cognate with Arab.^> to 
hamij injure^ hurt. 

Translation. 

has endowed his patron deity, Tanuf, 

the Lady of Ghadhrftn, with these twenty-four images, be- 
cause of their safety, and the safety of this house of Silhin, 
and of its lords, and of their king, and because he has pros- 
pered them with the favourable sanction of the calling-places 

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406 A Sketch of SaboBan Grammar^ 

and of the stations, and because he has humiliated and dis- 
appointed, and hindered and retarded their injurers and their 
enemies ; in the name of 'Athtor and Il-Makah, and in the 
name of their patron, Tanu^ the Lady of Ghadhran. 



XXXIL 
(B.M. 5; Os. 4.) 

1. V 1 H ® A > ^- P^* composed of H ^ A > prosperity^ 
and V ^ j^ } ^ deity. 

4. V ^ • 0> *^® particle ^ here has the meaning of the 
Arab. j_j > and between two verbs may be translated 
and 80y and therefore. 

5-6. >>AMXt1^l^tn- The sense of this 
passage has been misapprehended by previous com- 
mentators. It means ** in the oflfering (t.«., when 
they oflFered) the first-fruits (or, best produce) of 
their fields," X?10 is akin to Heb. M^S, TO, 
separavity distinait. }) ^^ ^ the plur. of J jli or 
^ ^ |l| = Arab. JL»^ the best or most fruitful part^ 
especially of a valley, tlie middles of meadows (see 
Lane's Lexicon, Book I, part iv, p. 1338). ^ f ^ > 
is nom. verb from ^ f ^ = Heb. D^to, ponere. 

6- H^V^hH: as ^V^h '^ formed like the 1st pers. 
sing, of the imperfect tense, it is according to rule a 
diptote noun, and must consequently here be in the 
plural. 

8. S • • A f 1 • Various attempts have been made to 
restore this word. Osiander suggested S ^ 1 A ? 1 J 
Praetorius S?>;^f 1 ; and Hal^vy S J tj ^f ^ . 

Judging from the facsimile, I should feel inclined to 
say M. Hal^vy was right. The word, whatever it 
is, must signify, to protect or guards 

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unih Examples of Translation. 407 

8-9. ^X^^> °* 8^t)8t. plur. = Arab. ^U, plur. iuJ^ 
^erro, plana^ campus. 

graminosuSy praium, 

©g^, n. subst. plur. = Arab. ^^> plur. jll^t 
dtoelling-placesy habitations. 

10. ^ ^ HI ^ ^ H • These words being repeated convey the 

idea of frequency. They appear to be cognate with 
the Heb. ^V^ (vide Gesen. Thesaurus^ p. 330), and 
probably refer to periodical oflFerings. Cf. Prid. X, 8 ; 

^o^-^nNHisss^isvnHfCi 

^ V [n H 

may he sacrifice a victim to the idol once a year 

^ ^ ^ ^ PI = Arab. uJjsTy throughout the year. 

*^0. This has been recognised by Praetorius and 
Halevy as the equivalent of the Arab. J, verily, 
truly. 

10-11. «>^^Xn?> imperf. 3rd pers. plur. masc. VIII. of 
^ 9 4^ c Arab. \^, to descend into a lower country. 

11. O V *] n , is scriptio defectiva for © V f l| f] , as in 

line 1. 

11-12. O l^ n H ? > in^perf. 3rd pers. plur. masc. = Arab, ^j, 
-^th. H^fh 5 Heb. nit, to sacrifice. 

12. ^ PI , is the prep. P| » with the intensified enclitic. 

^ ^ ^ , n. subst. from ^ f ^ , and therefore a place 
where offerings are deposited. The plur. X ^ ? ^ ^ 
has the more general meaning of a storehouse in 
Vm, 7-8/ and is formed like X^?^^ ^^m ^^^. 

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408 A Sketch of Sahcean Grammar^ 

The word may be translated temple for want of a 
better word. It is here in the dual form, as 'Athtor 
and Shams had each a special shrine. 

there shall not only be sacrifices to 'Athtor and 
Shams'", but also to Il-Makah, the god of Hirr&n. 

^l|inH = Arab. ^J. 

*l *l 'l X 1 » P^rf* 3rd pers. sing. masc. VIII. of l| l| "| 
= Arab. ^ > Heb. |32, texit, prote:nt. But the verb 
being the protasis of the following S V ^ ?> which is 
connected with it. by the ooiyunqtion oj^^, the 
correct reading is probably S S S X 1 ?• '^^ ^^^^ 
takes the prep. ^ after it, as the corresponding 
Hebrew verb takes 7M or 7^, and the Arab. ^^. 

14. X ^ V > ®®® section on Pronouns, p. 193. 
14-15. Ofiy, conj., and alsOy as well as, 

S V ^ ? H > iDip^rf. subj. 3rd pers. sing. masc. from 
V ^ © , ^ hear favourably. 

15. ^ ^ 'P ^ > n. subst, in stat. construct. = Arab. >*-^u* 

a sacred or forbidden place^ a sanctvary. 

16. X ^ ^ V > n. pr. of a place or district in El- Yemen 

devoted to the worship of Il-Makah. 

"I ip , prep, according to (see I. 4). 

^ J O , n. subst =s Arab. Ac > a sign. For an explana- 
tion of the grammatical phenomenon by which ^^O 
drops the mimation and © ^ f] » Arab. <U . . . i^ji\ 
see Miiller, Der status coftsiructus im Himjarischen. 

^ 1 O X » perf. 3rd pers. sing. masc. V. of ^ *1 O, to i« 
made to know^ or be instructed. 

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ufith Examples of Translation. 409 

17. fiff perf. 3rd pers. sing. = Arab. ^K> to see. See 

Miiller, Lc. 

18. S ^ O *] , n. pr. of a seat of the worship of Il-Makah. 

18-19. f^ftOI IV^^Ih^ '8 equivalent to the 

Arabic locutions j^^ . . . . U^ • • 

20. ^ ^ ^ PI > ^' ^^^^^' == Arab, j , > Heb. T^a, /tail. 
^ X ^ 1 ^ > n. subst., calamityy misfortune.^ 

Translation. 

Sa*d-il4h and his sons, Benft Marthad"", have endowed 
U-Makah of Hirr&n with this tablet, because D-Makah, lord of 
Aww^m Dh6-Ir&n Alft, has favourably heard the prayer 
addressed to him, and has consequently heard the Beni 
Marthad*" when they oflTered {lit. in the offering) the first- 
fruits of their fertile lands of Arhakim in the presence of 
H-Makah of Hirr&n, and D-Makah of Hirran has fevoiu'ably 
heard the prayer addressed to him that he would protect the 
plains and meadows and this tribe in their habitations, in 
consideration of the frequent gifts throughout the year ; and 
truly his (Sa'd-il&h's) sons will descend to Arhakim, and 
they will indeed sacrifice in the two shrines of 'Athtor and 
Shams^, and there shall be a sacrifice in HirrSa — both in order 
that UrMakah may afford protection to those fields of Bin 
Marthad^ as well as that he may favourably listen — and in 
the sanctuary of Il-Makah of Harwat, and therefore may he 
keep them in safety according to the sign in which Sa'd-il&h 
was instructed, the sign which he saw in the sanctuary of 
Il-Makah of Na'm&n ; and as for U-Makah of Hirrdn, he has 
protected those fertile lands of Arhakim from hail and from 
all misfortune (or, from cold and from all extreme heat). 



' If we adopt Otiander's reading DDK^* ^® yrotd mutt be referred to 
the Heb. ^p^ Arab. ^ > U > ^th. ^f\(Q \ giTuig the notion of extreme 
heat 

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410 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar^ 

XXXIII. 

(B.M. 33; Os. 35.) 

1. The commencement of the lines is lost, as well as the 
endings ; but in the first^ line, the restoration is not difficult 
(see Translation, p. 412). 

H H ? m • C£ Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. 11, p. 10. 

^ O ^ ^ , n. pr. the lofty or etninent A common name 
amongst the Somalis at the present day. 

f] y 4 ? > epithet of Fflji'"" ; perhaps from a verb 
cognate with the Arab. ^^^^ , to plunder. 



^)^^i perf. 3rd pers. dual, see XXVII, 4. 

S /"^ ^ S V > P®^* 3^^ ^erB. dual. The Arab, verb 
j^3 > means to lessen or diminish, and Halivy thinks 

reference is made to a reduction of taxation. I would 
prefer to look on the word as a verb in the 73^3rT 
voice, and to refer it to the root ^ ^ , which we find 
in the Heb. nSJ with the force of dijucandi (J^, 
jvdex\ and in the Arab. ^^ , decrevit. 

S J ^'^ h > P^®*- ^^^ P®^- ^^ — Arab, 't T to grant a 
delay. 

2. O^V^HO^'"* subst. plur. fract. of ^ H <> =" Arab. 
M jJ^> a virgin, young maiden. 

^S?^h®>nAh> n. pr. of a tribe or femily, 
apparently composed of ^ f| ^ ji|, plur. of ^ f| ^', M« 

great ; and S f ^ f>| > P'^^* ^^^ S ? ^ > ^ servant. Cf. 
Hal., 174,1; 624,1. 

1®^h> plur. of 1^, a cAt^/ (see XXIV, 2). 

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toith Examples of Translation. 411 

Ij ^ O <D I 4 n * • These two words are thought to 

sol 

refer to a tribe by Halivy. As j^' means a prince 
or noble^ the term may be a title of the heir apparent 
to the chiefdom, like the ^ L of the Muham- 
madans. 

3 SSin-- Hal^vysuppKesSSm^fll*, 

and this seems agreeable to the context. 

h nH ^ n = Arab. cAU, plur. tl^l» possessions. 

S n H 1 5 ^^' *^® Amh. A H fl : to be so/tj smooth, 
polished. 

S h n A h > ^^' Ajab. ^^ ' a captive or slave, esp^ 
cially appUed to toomen. 

*• SSTO^XA?!' imperf. prec. 3rd pers. plur. masc. 
X. of Y ^ <D > may they keep intact. 

S X ® > n. subst., cf. Amh. ©+< : to stop, obstruct. 

im*h>nAi<«>sn=iisf4h*>nAh. 

5. f J ^ 1 h > II* pr« of many of the Sabaean kings, com 

posed of ^ fi| , //, and V J ^ = -.^ > to reveal 

n I V ?> epithet of H-sharaha = Heb. aSTT, ceddit, 
delevit. 

1Xh?* °- Pr» <^- *^® ^**^- ^HA: vir fortis, 
strenuus. 

S ? n > * frequent surname of the Sabsean kings, 
from the root S fl = Arab. Cy to become manifest or 
apparent 

s ^ %» 

6. ^ ^ H /^ ^ 9 n. subst. = Arab. jIjua** a confirmation. 

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412 A Sketch of Sabtpan Grammar^ 

^ S ^ ^ V > n. subst. from ^ ^ V ' ^ grant. 
II X 1 V S > ^- subst s= Arab, j^^^, a gift. 

U S h n 1 H > ^ curious instance of a noun being 
formed from the PERFECT tense of a verb^ that which 
is restored^ the iEthiopic l-fJA* 

U^IDl'l' "• 8^l»t- = Arab. Jal, a line of tpritingy 
writing, 

II J Tl A > '^ Arab. -jL^» small. 



Translation. 

1. Il^haralia Yahdhah and his brother^ Ydzal Bayyduy kings 
of Saba an.l Dhft-RaidAn, sons of F&ri'*" Yanhab, king 
of SabM, have gTanted and decreed, and lastly have 
postponed and 

2 of tlieir young men and of their maidens, the 

Akbar-wa-akain"", the chiefs of this tribe of Bekil^ and 
the BinWa'l (heir apparent) of their tribe of Bekil*" 

3 the Akbar-wa-akain"" and their tribe of 

Bekil*" may acquire for their lords possessions and gentle 
female slaves 

4 as to their sons' sons and their daughters' 

daughtera, may the Benft Kabirakain*™ and their tribe 
keep intact this restriction 

5 their two lords, Ilnsharaha Yahdhab and his 

brother, Ya?al Bayyftn, kings of Saba and DhA-Raid&n, 
sons of F&ri'^ 

6 the restriction and the confirmation and the grant 

and the deed of restitution and every writing, great as 
well as small. 



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with Ewamphi of Translation. 413 

XXXIV. 

(B.M. 35; Ob. 87.) 

This inscription is in a very mutilated condition, but it is 
clearly in the Hadhramaut dialect. The name of the votary 
appears to be Nabata-il of Rakif and the offering is a piece 
of gold of four 



XXXV. 

(B.M. 31; Os. 28.) 

This inscription is in too fragmentary a condition to 
admit of translation. 



XXXVL 

(B.M. 6 ; Os. 29.) 
This inscription is in the dialect of Hadhramaut. 
1- J A H ^ H A > ^- Pr- composed of ^ ^ ^ , the just or 

s ^ 

righieouB one, Arab. ^j\^* an epithet of the deity; 

*^d J A H » 3rd pers. sing. perf. * Arab. Jj, to 
remember. 

S J n > epithet of Sftdik-dhakara, from = Arab. "^, 
with the adjectival ending Ij ,= {^ pioui, reverent 

S H h » another epithet, meaning the one who lietene, 

s % 

thenoe the obtdimi, sincere = Arab. ^ jl , 
f l| ^ , n. subst., propei*tyy or servant. 

Xl|>B'l'=Arab. ^^;^, Heb. Hllp-jSq. Ha- 
dhramaut, a province in the south of Arabia. 

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414 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar^ 

2. ? S ^ A > P^rf- 3rd pers. sing. masc. IV. (Saphel) of 

flf^ = fl,^l,iin Sabnean. 

S ? A > li- pr- of the god of the moon. (Z. d. D. M. G. 
xiz, p. 247 sqq.) 

^ ^ fS H ' Alam is the name of a place, one of the 
principal seats of the cultus of Sin. 

S V n V H > ^^^ ^^^^ n V H ^^ ^^^ ^^^ paragogic 
y peculiar to substantives in the Minaean and 
Hadhramaut dialects, when in the construct state. 

2-3. 8 ^ 1 4 U H> ^- subst. genitive case = iEth. (f^Jff^^ : 
weight, value. The words simply means " of weight or 
value'' \ ifi as Haldvy thinks, they signified " of which 
the weight," the phrase would be (SS^IHIIH* 
In the Hadhramaut dialect the final X of f em. nouns 
and 3rd pers. fem. perf. of verbs is often converted 
into %. 

3. ]1 ^ ^ Ijl , n. adj.= Arab. UlrC , here meaning different 

from, 

^VT^I^nVH^ ^- s^l>8*- *»^ adj. accus. The 
second word = iEth. +jBfh> red^ and refers apparently 
to an inferior kind of gold. 

%jS^^> perf. 3rd pers. sing. masc. passive voice. 
The exact sense of this verb is not deducible from 
the other Semitic languages; but from analogy it 
evidently signifies to offer^ dedicate. 3 is for X {vide 
eupray L 2). 

X ^ I X H J ^**« offering (see XIV. 7). 

4. O^fi = Heb. toS, like as. 

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with Examples of Translation. 415 

A V I ?l 8 A > perf. 3rd pers. sing. masc. The 
etymology of the word is not very clear, but from 
the context it is plainly identical with the Sabasan 

V V ^ ^ • The |l| at the end of this and the 
following word i= <D ^ . 

h B X > P®^* ^^^ pers. sing. masc. VIII. of fi| fl = 
Arab. ^^» se recepity confugit ad aliquem ; VII, se 
contulit ad aliquem. 

^ 1^ Pi = Arab. j\ > the ear ; here, the favourable 
protection. 

5* iSrifSl^XS^' ^* would appear from this that in 
the Sabsean mythology 'Athtor was regarded as the 
father of Sin. 

?XV1h>fem.of f V1h> f^om ^^^.adivinitif. 
Here in the plur. construct state. 

6- S V J T V > *^ word also has the Minsaan paragogic 
y in addition to the demonstrative enclitic. 

X <D fl ^> a town of Hadhramaut, known to the classic 
writers as Sabbatha or Sabota, and enumerated by Al- 
Hamd&ni in the Iklil fi-Ansab amongst the castles of 

the province under the name of j * (Z. d. D. M. G,, 
xix, p. 247 sqq.). 

hW\}S^\hh^\ — ^^^' ^^^j ^^**^ » referring to 
the soul or spiritual element and the mind or intellectual 
faculty. 

7. X V n ^ > ^ subst. fem. from a word cognate to iEth. 
fflrh S Arab. ^^^> the light of the morning j the daxon. 
But although this is the recognised interpretation 

1 feel some doubts regarding it. Cf. M\h. RTfh^ : 
tribtUe. 

ToL. V. 



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416 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar^ 

Am^AH; ni = Heb.aV. cor; >AH=Heb. 

•^St. memoria, 

7-8. It is difficult to say whether the " lux ocnlorum " and 
the " memoria cordis" refer to the persons mentioned 
at the end of the inscription, or whether these are 
simply the names of the engravers. The former is 
the accepted interpretation. 

yVanslation. 

S&dik-dhakara the pious, the obedient, the slave of the 
King of Hadhraraaut, Bin Il-Sharaha, has endowed Sin 
of Alam with an oflTering of gold diflFerent from the red 
gold; and has dedicated this offering to Sin, as be has 
gmnted the prayer addressed to him; and he has recom- 
mended to the favourable protection of Sin of Alam, and of 
'Athtor his father, and of the goddesses of his sanctuary of 
Alam, and of the gods and goddesses of this city of Shabwat, 
himself and his mind and his children and his possessions 
and the light (or, tribute) of his eyes and the memory of 
his heart, Marthad*** and AddAn** of Yen'am. 



XXXVII. 
(B.M. 38 ; Os. 35.) 

1 . I'l ^ S > n. subst. This word, which is cognate with 

the Heb. ttJM, bears the Talmudical meaning of a 
sepulchral monument in Sabssan. 

1-2. m ^ » ^* subst. = Heb. "^*?, sepulcrunu 

2. J A X S V > n. pr. of tmcertain derivation. 

3. O |l| f O , n. pr. Cf. Heb. Itoy, Esau, 

The end of this inscription, which was found at Warka, 
the Biblical Erek, is too mutilated to admit of translation. 

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with JEaamples of IVoMlaticn. 417 

xxxvm. 

(Hal^vj, No. 686.) 

TMs inscription was found at M&rib» and is now in the 
British Museum. 



l-SAVMIVn. n. Pr. SAVh is the Arabic 
,raoSv P^oiected against attack. 

2. 1X?' suniame of Rahfib'*". 

X S n h I ? H • I should have been inclined at first to 
think that f ^ was a dual form, but the verbs are in 
the plural : therefore f H ^^7 ^^^ ^^ ^ plural form 
^^ H • X S n h would then signify the place of their 
residence. 

® h J n ' P®rf' 3rd pers. plur. = Heb. k^*^, formavit. 

3. S>OV (XXIX, 2). 

S n ) V ^ > ^ Bubst. =i Arab. u^U^u« , ^ /t^ place 
or station of the Imam in a mosque; a paviKon^ or small 
place of worship. 



*• S n A ® A > n. pr. of a place in El-Yemen, now called 
ijii^* Kaukab&n, derived no doubt firom 333, 
radical signifying globum convolvity thence 33l3, 
meaning in all the Semitic Icmguages, a constellation. 

^ ^ ^ has here a more extended meaning than usual, 
and means the place, or seat, where Il-Makah was 
worshipped. 

5. <D t| 8 >, (XXIX, 4). O ^ V A ^ ^ (XXXI, 2). 

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418 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar ^ 

6. J rn X > P^^' ^^^ P®^®' ^*8C. sing. V. of J fl T ^ 
^th. Q'fl^: in. +Tn4: opus fedty operavit. This 
and the following word are engraved in smaller cha- 
racters, and may have heen added by the sculptor. 

n h H ® > * common proper name amongst the Sabaeans, 
meaning, not the' love of the father^ as Hal^vy trans- 
lates it, but ** OUJUS pater Wadd est,'' like the Hebrew 
SM-'^M, aMi\ The words nhH«>l>«>A, ^^ ^^^ 
sentation of Waddrdb^ are placed over the figure of 
a man preserved in the Museum of the Bombay 
Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Journal, 
No. VIII, October, 1844, p. 30). Wadd was pre- 
eminently the god of the tribe of Kalb, and was 
worshipped in Daimiabu-1-Jandal. The name is also 
found in the Arabic writers as a peraonal designation 
(Jbn Khaldun, apud Caussin de Percival, Essai, tom 1, 
p. 137). 

TVanslation. 

Bahal Ahsan and Rab&b"» Yatal of Abnat have con- 
structed and completed this sacred pavilion of Eaukab&n in 
the seat (or, place of worship) of Il-Makah, and have placed 
it under the protection of their benefactor (or, tutelary deity). 
Fecit Wadd-ab. 



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with Examples of Translation. 419 



NOTE ON THE FORMATION OF THE REGULAR 
PLURAL IN SAB^AN. 

In the grammatical sketch which preceded these trans- 
lationsy I expressed the opinion that the regular plural 
[pluralis sanus) of nouns in Sabaean ended in Q, and was 
probably vocalised aa dmu, or imu. As this opinion is 
opposed to the views of many who have made a study of 
the language, I think it right to offer a brief exposition of 
the grounds for my belief. 

Few things strike the student of Saboean more strongly 
than the close etymological agreement of the phenomenon 
of the mimation with the rules which govern the Arabic 
tanwin. Syntactically, there are variations, as Dr. Mliller 
has shown with reference to the dropping of the mimation 
of the noun when it is the antecedent of a relative sentence, 

and therefore, on the analogy of the Arabic ii^j the mima- 

tion should be retained.* But, as a general rule, it may be 
stated that the mimation follows the ianwin. It is always 
found in broken or internal plurals, such as D3*TMM» DTW^pDi 
DilD^'tt^, etc. ; and it is dropped when the noun is in the 
siatujs constructus. And yet etymologically an occasional 
deviation from this principle occurs, for which it is difficult 
to account. The presence of the phenomenon certainly 
cannot depend on local usage, as suggested by M. Halivy 
{Etudes Sabiennesy p. 55), for we often find a mimated and 
an unmimated form of the same word in inscriptions coming 
from the same place. It therefore seemed to me that if 
anomalous forms are found, such as DmO'lSTf, D3"OM, 
DD^'Dnf etc., they must be explained, not by the hypothesip 
that diptotes (or nouns declinable in two cases only) are 

' It ii dropped in Arabic when the mbject of the relative is indeterminate. 

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430 A Sketch of SabcBan GranMiOTj 

occasionally triptote in SabaBan, but by the fact, which I 
shall endeavom* to substantiate, that the apparently triptote 
form is really a note of the plural number. 

The key to the interpretation of the Sabaean inscriptions 
was aflForded by the words DI'WI *?! /D, which occur in the 
inscription of Hi§n Ghor&b. These Gesenius (who was as 
yet unconscious of the phenomenon of the mimation) trans- 
lated as rex Himjaritharum} This was natural enough, for 
the "^ being a footer lectionie^ might be written defectively, as 
in the Phoenician D31X (sing. ^TXi\ and occasionally in 
Hebrew, as in Gen. i, 21, 05**^. Thwe may be also noted 
the archaic plural in Dt» as in D^^ (shig. ^/p)» D|9 
(sing. p). But, beyond this, ^ is a diptote noun in 

Arabic, and good evidence is required to prove that it is a 
triptote noun in Sabaean, In the Arabic mythology ^imyar 
was the son of Saba, or, in other words, the clan of the 
Himyarites was an oflFshoot of the great tribe or people of 
the Sabadans, and while there are sufficient proofs to show 
that Saba was the name of a tract of coimlay and of its 
inhabitants from a very early date, there is not a single iota 
of evidence that there was ever an acre of ground called 
Himyar. The word is not found in the Bible, nor in S^-abo^ 
Ptolemy calls the district occupied by the Himyarites, not 
'Ofi/r^plof or any similar word, but 'OfL/gffur&v x^P^' ^^ other 
authorities, from the Periplos to the Greek inscription oi 
Axum, speak oi the BaaiXev9 'O^ptt&tf. The same may be 
said of the Sabaeans, who c^pear in the documents which I 
have cited as Safiainei or Safiitroif but from far more 
ancient writings we know ih$,i Saba (t^Q^) was a territorial 
name and was inhabited by one of the principal nations of 
Arabia. It would be beyond the scope of the present inquiry 
to enter into a discussion of the historical points involved 
in the question of Himyar and Sabii, but Mefly the caee may 
be stated thus. The original Joktanide possessors of El- 
Temen were the great tribe of Sab&, the Sebfiinot of Strabo, 
whose metropolis was M<ipid^aj and whose chief in the 

1 Thesaurus, p. 798. 

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with ExamplsB of Translatiaru 421 

inscriptions is called M2D ipO.* Between the time of 
Augustus and the date of the Periplus, one of the sub-tribes 
of the Sabaean stock, the Himyarites, rose to power under 
their chie^ Kariba-il, and probably extinguished the parent 
line. I believe that Kariba-il was a Himyarite, because in 
the passage where he is referred to in the Periplus, the 
Himyarites are evidently the ascendant tribe, and also be- 
cause in the inscriptions of Fresnel, Nos. XI and LIV, his 
fietther, Dhamar'ali, is not described as Malik Sahd^ but as 
Makrab Sabd^ an inferior title denoting a viceroy or deputy 
under the principal kings, and probably the rvpavvo^ of the 
Periplus. The oflBcial title of the kings of this line was 
T t^lli M!1D ^Tfly aiid the seat of their sovereignty was at 
the cJBistle of Raid&n at ZhafSr. In later times, this junior 
stock probably moved to the eastward, and the chief was 
known by the title of 01*^1 ipO- In the time of Mo- 
hammed, this ancient name was forgotten, and the whole of 
South Arabia was supposed to be Himyaritio. Theophanes 
of Byzantium informs us that in his time the term ^AfJMvirai. 
(t.tf., Yemenites) was synonymous with ' Ofir^plrai.* 

We have therefore every reason to believe, both on philo- 
logical and historical grounds, that the instinct of Gesenius 
rightly guided him, and that the expressions D'^'^DH ipO 
and DTDH JHM, should be translated, not as king of Himyar 
and land of Himyar^ but as king and land of the Himyarites. 
If this is correct, the final Q is not the mimation, but the 
sign of the plural. 

One of tiie best established rules of Arabic grammar is 
that nouns ending in u are diptote. Such a word is tne 
local name ^i;-«^i which in Sabeean is represented by p^C« 
As however the form D3J^ frequently occurs in the inscrip- 
tions, and as I did not think these variations attributable lo 
caprice, I endeavoured ly an analysis of the texts in which 
tiie words are found, to discover the reasons for them, but i 
am compelled to say without much success. The combiaa- 

^ I WM formerly of opinion that Zhailkr (Raid&n) was the seat of the earliest 
stock, bat I now see reason to believe that this view waa incorrect. See 
Sprenger, Die AlU Oeogrofhie Arabiens, pp. 72, sqq. 

' Eichhom, Monumenia AniiquUsima Mistaria Arabum, Qt>th», 1775, p. 66. 

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422 A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar^ 

tionfl pt2 •^Va, p» "^aVa, and p^O TrtO occur twenty-five 
times ^ in the inscriptions copied by M. Halivy at Meln and 
BeiAkish, which appears to be the site of the ancient bn*^ or 
YatJial; while the combinations D3JW ^7Q\ D35^ "^370 » 
and D33^ y\XO only occur ten times.* In one inscription. 
No. 242, the expression DiVDl X5312 "^PO* and this seems 
sufficient to prove that the words are not identical in mean- 
ing. As the inscriptions in which the former of the combi- 
nations occur were found both at Mein and Ber&kish in 
large numbers, while those containing the second combi- 
nation were nearly all found at Berftkish, I am disposed 
to think that the term p^O IfTQ expresses the territorial 
sovereignty of the king over the whole country, while that 
of D33^ *spD indicates his rule over the people of Me'in 
or the Minaeans, as distinct from the people of Tathal or 
Hadhramaut (see No. 193). In No. 188, 10 we have, for 
instance, TD'HI D33^ 73? all the Mtnceans and those of YatluiL 
The terms pt2 rhvhik and D33«D h'tmVm, gods of Me'in, 
gods of the MtnceanSj are used indiflTerently. When, however, 
there is a question of the tribe, the form 023X0 is used, 
as D33^ 1 M3D t^3» between the tribe of Sabd and the 
Minceans (Hal. 354, 2) ; D35^ v3 p, from all the Minceane 
(Hal. 385, 3) ; D33^ '^ITDM* ih€ possessions of the Minaane 
(Hal. 478, 18). The phrase pQ D^, people of Metn, is 
used twice (Hal. 237, 5 ; 238, 3), and both |yn D35W, 
pn^iDajrC^ an4 mSWDajrC^ (Hal. 199, ll; 585,21; 193,5) 
are met with. 

The same observations apply to such words as D3T3D 
and D3'OM> which are written in Arabic ^Jjju and ^^|. 
p3D rn and D313D M correspond with the respective 
terms pn rhvht^ and D33» H^M^M. 

We find that another rule of Arabic grammar, viz., that 
proper names formed by a combination of two words are 

1 Hal. 187,5; 191,1; 192,8,12; 196,10; 221,8; 228,1; 287,1; 242,8; 
248,18: 255,1; 257,1; 480,2; 461,1; 469,8; 462,1; 480,8; 486,10; 
604, 11 1 521, 2 ; 628, 2; 585, 20; 558, 2; 562, 2 ; 574, 2. 

3 Hal. 198,4; 199,10: 200,1; 449,8; 467,8; 479,2; 616,2; 620,4; 
527, 2 ; 534, 12. 

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vnth Examples of Translation. 423 

diptote, is also closely followed in Sabaoan, e.g. *hVT10Df 
ai33Dn> etc. But the two fonns ndStl (Arab. fjL)i9ya^) 
and DHDlSn occur. We find the former in the two 
passages nD""®! "^h^^ (Os. 29, 1 ; HaL 193, 1) where it clearly 
refers to the territory of Hadhramauts ; in Hal. 149, 5, we 
find, on the contrary, DTWlSTlt for the passage alludes to 
a war with the people of Hadf^ramaut. 

I have up to this point confined my remarks to the plural 
form observable in proper names which in their formation 
present a variation from the ordinary rules of Arabic gram- 
mar. To prove the general rule that the pluralis sanua of 
masculine diptote nouns ends in Q is a task of some diffi- 
culty, partly in consequence of the rarity of examples arising 
from the preponderance of broken or internal plurals, and 
partly because we cannot always from the context discrimi- 
nate between the Q of the mimation and the Q of the 
plural. I will ofier a few examples : — 

(Os. 31, 5) t IDHMittn lOiTtt Vs : in this phrase, the 
word M3tt^ is in the singular number, being qualified by 73 
{every injurer and enemy of them). 

(Os. 18, 10) y^p) pm*» DM2tt^ ^'Stt^ 1 3«3 p S here the 
word 18 in the plural, as the phrase mentions not a single 
foe, but two classes of enemies, those at a distance and those 
close at hand. 

(Os. 17, 10) r»Sttm DD3M Va S the word DD3M is here 
in the singular, oeing qualified by 73 and the following 
verb being in the singular of the subjunctive. 

(Prid. XVIH) jnyai DD3« ]MaDD : in this passage the 
word is probably in the plural, the English phrase " man and 
beast " or the German " mensch und vieh *' being foreign to 
the genius of the Semitic languages. 

The following passages afford clearer instances of the 
plural in n : — 

Dap D»m r»« pD]3D (Hal. 215, 3), i.e. half a cubit 
(in depth) and five kabs (in capacity). The two first words 
may be compared with the -^thiopic <^<+S 7\<^^l and 
the last word with the Hebrew and Talmudic Sp, 

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424 A Sketch of Saixjean Grcanmar, 

rfno) DDpa nnD-.'-^Vyn-.- «•?! (Hal. 192, 3, 4, 5) 

• • • • ^)X1 M3IQ niDTlD i.e. he built up^ the C0ndmte 

(Heb. rnVP) of the six tanks (Arab. f^\J\^ 9 Lane» 

Book T, p. 1655) and of the six towers (iEth. ^^diJf : plur. 
^<^<^'t' in the enclosure of the city. In this passage DDnS 

S P f 

cannot be an internal plural, like the Arabic ^ ^^. because, 
if it were, it would drop the mimation before the following 
words, "Cin bUia> in accordance with the rules of the 
Status Conshiicttis in Sabaaan.* Cf. Fresnel, LV, 3; LVl^ 4:— 

pmo ft hyi n-TOHBi 335^ 'ja. 

The last example which I shall now oflTer affords an even 
more convincing proof of the fact which I have endeavoured 
to substantiate : — 

p DTpei jntt^M (Hal. 87, 1), ie., the followers and 

officers of Bin . . • . , a passage which reminds us of the 

BibUcal :tfT\ J^ttT) nIpB (Ezekiel, xxiii, 23)- In 

this sentence there can be no doubt that the words DIpD 
and jntt^M are in the status constructus before p.* JDt^^l 
{plene, Djntt^M) is the plural of jn©, sectator (Os. 8, 7; Hal. 
20; 26; 33; 169, 1; 202, 3), and DTpD must therefore also 
be the plural of a word which I take to be TpD (iEth. <jj?: 
Heb. T^jpB), proefectasy prcepositus. As the mimation faJiu 
when a triptote noun is in the cooAtruct state, the presence 
of the final D in DTpD can only be accounted for hy the 
fact that it is not the sign of the mimation, but of the plural 
number. 

In conclusion I will merely add, that from the SabsDan 
possessing the mimation, it is even agreeaUe, on h priori 
grounds, that the plural would end in 6niu or some sudi 

> The word ^^t is cognate with the Heb. W^p, HTp, 77p, (».«., ^^ in Cnit- 
tenden's Inscr. of San' A, line 3), which primarilj signify to raiie, Wateroonrses 
in the East aare generaUj made bj heaping vp the earth on «ith«r Mde of 
the runnel through which the water passes. 

> Miiller, Zeitschrift d. J), M. G^seHsohaft, xxx, p. 122. 

' See, for examples of the phrases p *T!}y, etc., Dr. Mordtmann, swei 

himjarische Insckr^teUt Z. d. M. G-.. zzz, pp. HI, 82. 

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vnth ExampleM of Translation. 425 

form. It has been conjectured, from the few adverbial 
accusatives which are found scattered in Hebrew with a Q 
termination, that that language was originally mimated; 
and the analogy of the Arabic shows what is the true 
development of the ianwtn. I believe that in nearly, if not 
quite, all the passages in which a final ^ appears, and in 
which it has hitherto been taken to be a plural ending, it is 
simply the demonstrative enclitic, which, as a mark of energy, 
plays such an important part in Sabsaan grammar. 

W. F. PRIDEAUX. 
Bushire^ 12M January^ 1877. 




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426 



CHALDEAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION. 

TransloJted hy H. F. TALBOT, P.R.S. 
Bead Uk January, 1876. 

The cuneiform text of the Firet and Fifth Creation 
Tablets, which are the only ones as yet found in a tolerable 
state of preservation, has been published by Mr. G. Smith 
and also by Delitzsch in his Assyrische Leseattickey plates 40 and 
41. From these my translation has been made. 

The FmsT Tablet. 

1. When the upper region was not yet called Heaven, 

2. and the lower region was not yet called Earth, 

3. and the Abyss of Hades had not yet opened its arms, 

4. then the Chaos of waters gave birth to all of them 

5. and the waters were gathered into one place. 

6. No men yet dwelt together : no animals yet wandered 

about: 

7. None of the gods had yet been bom. 

8. Their names were not spoken : their attributes were not 

known : 

9. Then the eldest of the gods 

10. Lakhmu and Lakhamu were bom 

11. and grew up • • 

12. Assur and Kissur were bom next 

13. and lived through long periods. 

14. Anu 

[The rest of this tablet is lost.] 

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Chaldean Account of the Creation. 427 



The Fifth Tablet of the Creation Series. 

This fifth tablet is very important, because it affirms 
clearly in my opinion that the origin of the Sabbath was 
coeval with Creation. 

1. He constructed dwellings for the great gods. 

2. He fixed up constellations, whose figures were like 

animals. 
?f. He made the year. Into four quarters he divided it. 
1. Twelve months he established, with their constellations^ 

three by three. 

5. and for the days of the year he appointed festivals. 

6. He made dwellings for the Planets : for their rising and 

setting, 

7. And that nothing should go amiss, and that the course of 

none should be retarded, 

8. he placed with them the dwellings of Bel and Hea. 

9. He opened great gates, on every side : 

10. He made strong the portals, on the left hand and on the 

right. 

11. In the centre he placed Luminaries, 

12. The Moon he appointed to rule the night 

13. and to wander through the night, imtil the dawn of day. 

14. Every month without fail he made holy assembly-days. 

15. In the beginning of the month, at the rising of the night, 

16. it shot forth its horns to illuminate the heavens. 

17. On the seventh day he appointed a holy day, 

18. And to cease firom all business he commanded. 

19. Then arose the Sun in the horizon of heaven in [glory]. 

The last word is broken off^ and though there are seven 
more lines, they are so broken that I cannot give a translation 
of them with any confidence. 

It has been known for some time that the Babylonians 
observed the Sabl)ath with considerable strictness. On that 
day the king was not allowed to take a drive in his chariot ; 
various meats were forbidden to be eaten, and there were a 
number of other minute restrictions. See 4 R, plate 32. 



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428 Chaldean Account of the Creation. 

But it was not known that they believed the Sabbath to 
have been ordained at the Creation. I have found, however, 
since this translation of the fifth tablet was completed, that 
Mr. Sayce has recently published a similar opinion. See the 
Academy of November 27, 1875, p. 554. 

This account falls short of the majesty of the Hebrew 
Genesis, especially where the writer implies that the heavenly 
movements might possibly go wrong, and it was therefore 
necessary that the gods Bel and Hea should watch over them 
and guard against such a misfortune. 

I will now give the cuneiform text of the First Tablet : — 

LINE 

Enuma elish la nabCi samama 

When the region above was not called Heaven 

siplish in kitu Buma la siakri^t 

(and) below on Earth {by that) nanu was not spoken 

zuab- ma la patu zaru - sun 

and the Abyss had not opened its arms 

mummu tisallat muallidat 

the Chaos of Ocean was the mother 

<^-TT<TI«=yH 

gunn-sun 
of all of thetn 

mi - sun istinLih ikhiqu - ma 

their xoaters into one place were gathered 

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Chaldean Account of the Creation. 429 

gipai-a la kissura: zuza 

Men not yet dwelt together: animale 



la sehu 

fwt yet wandered about: 

7. «=T? 7^ t] -Hh >- -^r JT ^- ^m«= BI -^T ET 

enmna ill la subu manama 

when the gods not Itad risen none of them 

«• jT^i-BT &mm <T-^^r -bt mm 

8uma la sukkuru: simata la ( ) 

tJieir names not were named : their honours not {were knoum) 

ibbanu - ma ili ( ) 

(then) were bom the gods {eldest 1) 

Lakhmu Lakhamu uatabu 

Lakhmu {and) Lakhamu arose 

adi irbu 

and grew up 

Assur Kissur ibbanu 

Assur {and) Kissur were bom 

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430 C/uildean Account of the Creation. 

urriku tami buda 

they were prolonged to daye long 

Anu 

Anu 



Notes and Observations. 

The whole series of Creation tablets was called the 
Enuma elieh, from the two first words of the first tablet. So 
the Jews called the book of Genesis Beresiih^ from its two 
first words Be-resith, * in the beginning.' 

Line 3. Zarti, * its arms.' Heb. yxHi * the Arm.' The 
same image is found in the Hebrew scriptures : * shall he 
deliver his soul from the hand of Hades? (Sheol).' Ps. 
Ixxxix, 48. See a similar passage in Ps. xlix, 15. And Hosea 
xiii, 14, says : * I will ransom them from the hand of Hadea' 

The word zaru yflU is poetical. It is used in Deut. iv, 34, 
for the arm of the Almighty, * stretched out ' to deliver the 
Israelites. 

Line 4. Mummu, Chaos. Heb. nOinOj * timiult,' from 
root Din, perturbare. It was especially a Chaos of waters, 
a boundless Ocean. Nearly the same as Heb. tahum DIHA 

• the Ocean,' from same root Din> which the LXX always 
render A^va-ao^. Dinil is feminine in Genesis vii, 11, and 
zlix, 25 ; Ezekiel xxxi, 4. Gesenius renders it Oceanus. 

Its plural mnnn tahmut is the Assyrian iamti or tamuty 

• the Ocean,' a word of frequent occurrence. In our Transac- 
tions, vol. iii, p. 511, I have given the gloss Umwi . Mummu 

^TTT^ ^ ^W . ^ ^TT ^- This word Umun pan 
occurs in Job xxxi, 34, where it is feminine, and means 

• tumult : conftision,' from same root TV2n or Dill- 

Ttsallaty Ocean. H this word was pronounced TtthaUat 
(and there are instances, especially in the Behistun Inscription, 
of S used for TH), then we have here the &a\ard of the 
Chaldean author Berosus, who says, * There was a time in 



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Chaldean Account of the Creation. 431 

which there existed nothing but darkness and an Abyss of 
waters wherein dwelt all manner of monstrous animals. 
The being who ruled over them was a female named 
Omoroca, which in the Chaldean language is Thalattli: in 
Greek Thalassa the Sea.' See Smith's * Chaldecm Account of 
Genesis,' p. 41. 

MuaUidat^ feminine p€trticiple of the verb IT' * to bear 
children.' 

5. letinish, ^ into one place.' htin in Assyrian signifies 
* One.' Compare Genesis i, 9, * And God said, let the waters 
be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land 
appear: and it was so. And God called the dry land Earth, 
and the gathering together of the waters C€dled he Seas : 
and God saw that it was good.' 

Ikhiqu or Ihiqu^ from Heb. pn, an appointed boimd or limit, 
from verb ppTf statuit, terminavit. This word occurs in a 
most remarkable passage in the eighth chapter of Proverbs, 
where Eternal Wisdom is said to have been present, with God, 
at the Creation of the World ; which Calmet compares to the 
Eternal ^10709 of the 1st chapter of St. John's Gospel. The 
sacred writer of this chapter of Proverbs pictures to himself 
the time before anything was created, save Wisdom alone, 
and his words take a turn not unlike the Enuma elish of the 
Babylonians, ex. gr.^ * When as yet God had not made the 
Earth,' &c. Proverbs viii, 26. 

Three lines afterwards we read : ' When He gave to the sea 
his decree, that the waters should not pass His commandment.' 

Here the decree (pn) given to the Sea, not to pass over 
its appointed limits, is the same word as the Babylonian 
tablet employs in line 5, mi UtinUh ihtqu^ * the waters were 
gathered into one place.' 

Line 6. Gipara. Heb. "^aj* * a Man.' Syriac jroftra. Often 
put absolutely for *Man.' Jeremiah xvii, 7, "Blessed is the 
man (gibir) that trusteth in the Lord." Job. iv 17, "Shall 
man {gibir) be more pure than his maker ? " 

Job X, 5, " Are Thy years as the days of man (gibir) ? " 
These words are addressed to the Deity. 

* Pointed to m to read sf^f^ 
Vol. V. r^ ^ T 

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432 Chaldean Account of tlie Creation.' 

Kiesuru 'they were banded together; united ; or bound.' 
Heb. Itt^p to jom or bind together ; sometimes to unite in 
sympathy, as the hearts of David and Jonathan: to bind 
into a group, as the stars of the Pleiades. Job xxxviii^ 31, 
"Didst thou bind together the bands of the Pleiades? " So 
Gesenius renders the passage. Hence the union of the first 
men into societies would be properly expressed by the verb 
kissur. 

Zuza ^animals.- Heb. Ziz Pt, a living animal, especially 
a wild beast; from the root zuz Y1T to live and move, 
as in Ps. 1, 11, '' I know all the fowls of the mountains, and 
the wild beasts {ziz) of the fields are mine." And Ps. Ixxx, 13. 
" The boar out of the wood doth wa^te it, and the wild beast 
{ziz) of the fiel4 doth devour it." Sehu *they wandered 
about.' Heb, TXUTS and also nj^ * to wander * ; oberravit ; 
errayit. 

Lii^e 7. Siubu * they were risen.' Catafago, p. 143, has^a&oa 
to rise (as a stax) : sahdhj the dawn of day ; iubk, the dawn, 
aurora ; eabihat, the dawn. The stars were the original gods 
of the Babylonians, who to denote *a god ' figured a star. 

Line 8. Suma la si^kkuru, * their names were not spoken.- 
Appari^ntly the same as zakaru (speak or name), which occurs 
often. 

Line 10, Ustabu is I think a T conjugation of subu (se^ 
1. 7) and with the same meaning. 

Line 13. Urriku * were prolonged, oj: extended.' Com-: 
pare trtiu, Urikuy ruku; fi*on^ ptT) longi recessit, a word 
whiph occuir^ very frequently. 



The discovery of this tablet has greatly raised the repu- 
tation of the ancient author Damascius, for it is nqw seeq 
that his account of the Creation was derived from genuine 
Babylonian sources. He says (see Cory's Ancient Fragments, 
p. 318, compared with the original) : *' The Babylonians speak 
not of One origin of all things (ap;^ rwv oXcir), for they 
make two original beings, TavOe and Awa^^Vy making 
A7ra<rci>y the husband of Tavffe^ whom they call the Mother of 
the gods. Their only son (? eldest son) was M»v^i^. And 

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Chaldean Account of the Creation. 433 

another race (7€K€a) proceeded from them namely Aaxn «"^d 
Aayp^^ And again a third race proceeded from the same 
(parents) namely Kuraapri and Aaawpo^. These had three 
children Avo^^ IX\ii^9, and Ao^. And the son of Ao^ and 
jdavKfj was called jBi;\o^, who they say was the Demiurgus 
or £Etbricator of the world." 

This agrees very nearly with the Babylonian records. 
Tavde is Tamti the Sea (a very common word in the inscrip- 
tions), exchanging the cognate letters U or V for M. Aira^rmv 
is ^^y •"jt^iy Apzu or Apzo the Abyss (which word occurs 
continually). Mtovfii^ is Mummu ' Chaos * (see line 4 of our 
tablet). Aa^n and Aaxo^ are conjectured by Mr. Smith to 
be the Lakhmu and Lakhamu of the tablet. This is very 
likely, and is due to the carelessness of the copyists in 
writing A for A. 

Ao-awp agrees exactly with •->f- ^ the god Assur, the 
great god of the Assyrians, and Kuraapni >->f- ^J^ ^ 
is the same with the syllable ^]^ Ki prefixed, and therefore 
properly transliterated by Kissur. Avo^ is Anuy named in 
line 14. The rest of Damascius's names are broken off from 
the tablet, but Ao is the god usually transliterated as ffea. 
The sound of his name is doubtful ; it is possible that Ao 
may be the true sound. 

Most of this (regarding the testimony of Damascius) has 
already been pointed out by Mr. Smith, but I could not omit 
some mention of it here, as it is so closely connected with 
the interpretation of the tablet. 

The Fifth Tablet op the Creation Semes. 

LIFB. 

ubassim manzazi 

he constructed dwellings 

ili rabi 

[for] the gode grecA 

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434 Chaldean Account of the Creation. 

Kakkabi tamsil - su as timami 

Constellations^ their figures like animals 

nzziz 
he fijicd lip. 

uaddi muanna e]i 

A^ 7/iacfe ^ year, into 

<::£: *=y B:yy s^yyy «=Tyy^ t] ^^ ^yyy< 

mizrata mnazzir 

quarters he divided it 

4. <yy --If y^- ^t^^i-h- y m5^mr?-+ 

arkhi kakkabi ana 

twelve months, their constellations by threes 

nzziz 
he fixed up 

5. t^yy ^tt] *y <^ *iTT ^ -f -^T 

istn tami sha mnanna 

from the days of the year 

^-Hj^tttt ^m«= t^^ B:yy ^y< 

ustatil nsenrati 

he establislied festivals 

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Chaldean Accoimt of the Creation. 435 

nsarsid manzaz ili nibiri 

lie founded dtoelUnge (Jor) the divine planets 

T ^r^^ < J^^TT "J^TT I «=TH 

ana uddn n simntzu - sun 
for their rising and setting 

ana la epish anni, la egu 

That nothing should act wrong nor stop still 

ET ^] EI 

manama 
anything 

manzaz Bel u Hea ukin 

the dwelling of the god Bel and Hea . he placed 

B^} H[< I 

itti - 8U 
along with them 

ipti- ma babati rabati as tsili 

and he opened gates great on sides 

kilallan 
aU 

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436 



Chaldean Account of the Creation. 



10. <T^ «=yyy^ *jn ^T «=TTI :s: -^T JTT--^T 

sigaru nddannina sumila 

the portab he made strong on the left 

< ^fF^T 

n - imna 
and on the right 

in kabatti-sha-ma istakan 

in the centre of it aho he placed 

elati 
luminaries 

ilu Umi * netipa musa 

the divine Moon he placed on highj t^ night 

iqtipa 
to go round 

13. ttn«= J^^T <!* ::?^ ^ JT^SH^-'^ *^<T- 

naddi-su-mma sukkiir mosi 

and made it to wander through the night 



Tf-ry ^yt;<y ^y<:::: 

fima nddu tami 

until the rising of the day 



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Chaldean Account of the Cf^eation, 437 

arkhi sam la naparka 

Month every without fail 

as agio utsii* 

loith holy feetivaU he observed 

ina resh arkhi-ma napakhi 

in the beginning of the month at the rising 

lilati 
of the night 

garni nabata ana uddu 

iti home it shot foi*th to illuminate 

samami 
ihe heavens 

ina tami sibitti-kan aga ukin-ma 

on the seventh day^ a holy day he appointed 

ana battulu sutkhurati 

{and) to cease from all business 



uzzu 
/i€ commanded 



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438 Chaldean Account oj the Creation* 

utzur-ma Shems ina isid 

and he, made the Sun in the ... 

-Hf- ^} - «T- -TT<T) -5=H 

Shamie as arka 

of Heaven in its place 

Notes and Observations. 

. Line 2. Tamsilj figure or resemblance : firom 7t&0 to 
resemble. This word occurs frequently. 

Umami ' animals ' is a frequent word, but doubtful here. 
I think the last letter should be y»- or ^K^, and not ^»-. 

Uzziz *he fixed up.' Heb. Vt^ firmavit. 

Line 3. Mtzrata * quarters,' is a term frequently applied 
to the quarters of the human body. It is sometimes written 
mizriti. The etymology is uncertain. 

Line 5. Ustaiil ^he established.' An unc^ittin word, 
but compare edil 'I established' ; mudil ^establishes: or restorer/ 

Ussurati^ holy festivals held on certain days, Dr\33f dies 
ferialus : feria : coetus ferians. 

Line 6. JVtWri, the Planets. Moving stars, from lay to 
pass over ; whence nibirti, a crossing over. 

Line 7. Anni, faults, errors, wrong doings. I have 
treated of this word in my glossary No. 415 ; ex. gr. Anni 
ebueu, Hhe faults I have committed.' It is the Heb. injf 
peccatum, perversitas, actio prava. The verb epis or ^u$ 
usually governs anni, as here, * oiia la epis anni! 

Egt^ from T\Xt tardavit : to stop or retard. See Schindler, 
p. 1267. 

Line 9. Tsili * sides.' Heb. jnS latus. 

Eilallany from Heb. 73 omnis, is a word of fi^uent 
occurrence. 

Line 10. Sigaru ' gates.' Heb. "UD porta, dausnra. 

Line 11. Kabat, Cor. Etiam medium rei cujusuis. See 
my glossary No. 500 on the meanings of kabat. 

Elady luminaries. Heb. *?7n splenduit, luxit. 

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Chaldean Account of the Creation. 439 

Line 12. Urru is a frequent name for the Moon, as being 
the tutelary divinity of the city of Ur. 

Uatipa *he placed on high.' T conjugation of Heb. riDtD 
eminere, whence fit)© * high places.' 

Iqiipa is I believe the T conjugation of tp^ drcumivif, 
nearly the same as fp^ or fp to go round, or wander about. 
From root Pjp iqtipa is a regular T conjugation. This verb 
^^52 naqip * to wander ' is the root of naqbi * wanderings,' 
which occurs in the Deluge Tablet, viz., " Eleventh portion of 
the wanderinge of Izdubar." See Transactions, voL iv, p. 81. 

Line 13. Sukkur to wander about, or circulate. Heb. •^ITTD 
drcumivit. 

Line 14. Agie * festivals ' : plural of Aga y| ^yTJ-*' ^} 
which occurs in line 17. Heb. Sn festum. 

Utzur^ it assembled (?) probably from ^!33f to assemble 
the people on a feast day, congregavit (Gesenius). The 
meaning seems, * Every month without exception the Moon 
(that is, the New Moon) caused an assembly of the people ' ; 
for, on ihejiret day of the month (see line 15) she shows 
her horns in the evening twilight, and on the seventh day of 
the moon (see line 17) there is a holy festival. 

Line 15. Napakhiy * rising' or * coming forth.' CShald. 
pD3 to come forth. Often used with >->f- ^^ to express 
Sunrise. 

Line 16. Nabata 'shot forth ' or * poured forth.' Heb. JD3 
copiosi effudit. In 4 R 27, 22, the same verb nabat is used as 
it is here in connection with * horns ' : gamd-su kima sarur 
Samei ittananbithu. The last word is from nabUh^ another 
form of the verb nabat 

Uddu^ in the sense of Light, is frequent. 

Line 18. Ana batttUa *to cease.' Heb. htS2 cessavit. 
Buxtorf renders it *to intermit, cease, rest, be at leisure.' 
Sutkhurat. Heb. "inD commerce, buying and selling, 
marketing, or business. (See Buxtorf.) 

Uzzu 'he commanded.' Heb. rnS praacepit, jussit. 

Line 19. Arka^ probably Heb. ^V ordinavit, disposuit, 
struxit. 

It will be observed that in line 3 the year is said to 
be divided into four parts or seasons. This aerees with 

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440 Chaldean Account of the Creation. 

Mr. Q. Smith's statement in p. 405 of his * Assyrian Dis- 
coveries.' 

As the word employed in line 3 of coL II, ndsrata or 
mizriti * quarters,' is a remarkable one, I think it desirable to 
.confirm it with another example. In 4 R 9, mizriti \b 
employed to express the four quarters of the lunar month. For, 
in the time of the Assyrians, even as at the present day, the 
lunation was divided into four equal parts — new moon, first 
quarter, ftill moon, last quarter. 

In 4 R 9, 20 (which is an Ode to the Moon) the Moon is 
said to complete its horns {arbati mishritt) in four quarters. 
The line is as follows i — 

bum iqdu sha garni gabbaru 

the beacon fiery whoee hom$ increase 

arbati mizriti kuilulu 

(nnd in) four quarters are completed* 




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441 



THE BABYLONUN CYLINDERS 

Found by GsnSRAl di Cbsnola in the Treasury of the Temple 
at Kurium, 

By Rev. A, H. Satcb, MA. 

Mead Uh December^ 1876. 

One of the moBt intereBting and valuable discoveries ever 
made was that of the Temple-treasure of Kurium, in Cyprus, 
by General di Cesnola* It is the first time that such a 
collection of offerings has been found, and the vast number 
of precious objects it contains, mostly of gold, and many of 
them of exquisite workmanship, bear testimony to the wealth 
of the temple and the devotion of its frequenters. The 
objects dedicated to the deity are of various ages and styles 
of art ; some influenced by Egypt, some by Assyria, some by 
Phoenicia, and others again being of native Greek work. 
Among what may be called the Assyrian objects are several 
Babylonian cylinders, which seem to have been imported 
into Cyprus as oriental antiques^ and regarded by their 
owners as articles of value. Three of these Babylonian 
cylinders have cuneiform inscriptions, which General di 
Cesnola has had the kindness to allow me to copy. The 
copies will be found below ; my translations of them will be 
given in the present paper. 

The cylinder of most interest is one of haematite, and of 
no great size. A priest with the usual flounced dress is 
represented upon it as holding up his hands in adoration of a 
deified hero, behind whom stands Rimmon, the air-god, with 
the forked thunderbolt in one hand and the mace or scimetar 
in the other. Three symbolical animals, together with the 
son and groups of stars, are interspersed among the figures, 

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442 The Babylonian Cylinders found by General di Cesnola. 

and a kneeKng suppliant, the original possessor of the 
cylinder probably, is placed between the priest and the 
figure he is worshipping. The inscription on the seal is as 
follows :— 

1. Abil- D.P. Istar 
Abil'Ietar 

2. abil Du-ba-Hd 
eon of Ihirbalid 

3. abed D.P. Na-ra-am D.P. EN-zu 
the servant of the god Naram-Sin. 

Now Naram-Sin was a Babylonian monarch, the son and 
successor of Sargon of Agan^, who flourished before the 
sixteenth century B.O. A vase was discovered at Babylon 
by M. Fresnel, bearing the name of " Naram-Sin, king of the 
four races, conqueror of Apirak and Magan/' or the Peninsula 
of Sinai, which was afterwards unfortunately lost in the Tigris. 
In the legend on the cylinder, therefore, we have a proof of 
the apotheosis of the Babylonian kings. We know of 
another Chaldean king who was similarly deified. This 
was Amar-Agu, an early monarch of Ur and Nipur, whose 
inscriptions are found on bricks firom Mugheir (Ur) and 
Abu-Shahrein, and who is mentioned in a list of gods in 
W.A.I., in, 69, 77. As the determinative prefix of divim'ty 
is attached to the name of Amar-Agu in his own brick 
legends, it is clear that the deification had taken place in his 
life-time, and not after his death. This may also have been 
the case with Naram-Sin, and it is possible that the cylinder 
found by General di Cesnola may date firom his reign. It 
cannot be much later, as it is not likely that the cult of 
» Naram-Sin would have survived the fall of his dynasty in 
the reign of his successor, the queen Ellat-Gula. It may be 
noticed that whereas Amar-Agu belonged to Accadian tames, 
Naram-Sin and his subjects were Semites. 

The second cylinder firom Eurium, also of haematite, is 
much smaller than the other, and of inferior workmanship. 
Two figures are engraved upon it, one of them in a long 

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The Babylonian Cylinders f (mod by General di Cesnola. 443 



fringed robe, with a crooked staff in the hand. The inBcrip- 
tion is only two lines in length : — 

1. Eriv-Ba-gas 
Eriv'Bagae 




2. eriv D.P. Nm-UNU-GAL 
servant of Nergal. 

The legend is in Accadian, and the cylinder, therefore, must 
be considerably olde^ than that of Abil-Istar. If the Dnngi 
son of Jjig-Bagas, who is mentioned on a cylinder now in the 
British Museum, is the same as the Dungi son of Lig- • • • 
king of Dr, whp goes back to the earliest times of which we 
have monumental record, it is possible that we may find an 
approximate date for the Eurium cylinder. I know^ of no 
other instance in which the na^ie of the deity Bagas enters 
into th|e composition of a proper name, and w^ may perhaps 
assimie that where we have two names of which it forms part, 
one being the name of a monarch and the other of a private 
individual, there is a probability that the latter was modelled 
upon the former, Qnd so belongs to the same epoch.^ 

The third cylinder brought from Kurium is of very con- 
siderably later date than the other two. It is of rock crystal 
and of large size, and I believe cannot well be older than 
the eighth or seventh century B.O. Indeed, I am inclined to 
reduce its age still more considerably. The characters are 
not well formed, some of them being quite unrecognizable, 
and the scribe has made a curious mistake in the first line, 
from which it is evident that he was simply a copyist whose 
knowledge of the writing was very imperfect. The name 
of the moon-god. Sin, is expressed by hi^ Accadian title of 
JEnttrzu-na " lord of waxing," but the three Accadian words 
are written backwards, norziA-enu. The whole inscription is in 
Accadian, though the proper names are Semitic, and I think, 
therefore, that it belongs to the period when a taste arose for 
imitating the archaic, and the Assyrian and Babylonian scribes 
began to compose in Accadian, just as it is still sometimes 

' I may mention that the Aocadian Bagas is plainlj identical with the Cassite 
or KoBMean deitj Bugas. 

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444 The Babylonian Cylinders found by General di Ceenola. 

the fashion to write public or dedicatory inscriptions in Latin. 
In this case the cylinder could not be much earUer than the 
time of Esar-haddon. The same date is also indicated by 
the engraving which represents a priest, with two sphinxes 
above him, — clear evidences of Egyptian influence. The 
inscription, so far as I can make it out, runs thus: — 




1. D.P. na-zu-enu (?) khi 6a, tic 

The mo(m-god the good 

2. di-tar kur-kur 6i-di di-d an ci-4 

the judge of the worlds the fortune completer of Iieaven {and) earthy 

3. sem-ga nam-ti dimirriene-la 
the giver of the life of the gods to ; 

4. nin 6i-a te-im zu 
master who givest thy 

5. sak(?) U 8ak(?) ^un mu bat 
head(?) precious (?) head (?) prinee ofthedead(?) 

6. D.P. Tu-na-mi-is 

Tlinamis 

7. tur D.P. Pa-a-ri 

son qf Pdru 

8. nitakh mu ni-pam im (?) ne (?) 
the man who the year records 

The office of ** recorder of the year " explains why the 
moon-god was the patron deity of the original owner of the 
cylinder. 



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445 



ON A HIMYARITIC SEAL FOUND IN THE HAURAN. 

Bt Isaac H. Hall, LL.B., Ph.D. 
Read 6tk I^bruMy, 1877. 

In January, 1876, 1 obtained several gems that had been 
dug up in the Hauran, some distance south of Damascus, 
but the locality I cannot give precisely. Among them was 
a seal of fine agate, composed of dark and light alternating 
layers, inscribed with six intaglio Himyaritic characters. 
The shape of the stone may be described as that of a nearly 
perfect hemi-ellipsoid of revolution about the major axis, 
and having, accordingly, a flat elliptical face. A hole passes 
lengthwise through the stone, intended probably for a string 
or the pivots of a setting. The dimensions of the face (if 
important) are 2 centimetres in longest diameter, by 1*45 
centimetres in the shortest. The characters are 0*6 of a 
centimetre high, and run across the stone in two rows, three 
characters in a row, between parallel lines cut 
across the face, of the same depth as the 
characters. There are six of these parallel 
lines, two at each end of the face, and two 
between the two rows of characters. The 
edge is a little broken at one end, but not 
enough to damage the inscription. Further 
details of its appearance will appear fi-om the accompanying 
figure. The seal I have presented to the British Museiun, 
>vliere it now is. 

Like many coins and other seals, its legend is cut so as 
to read correctly on the stone ; the impression reverses both 
the reading and the characters. It appears to be a proper 
name, composed, like most Arabic names of the present day, 
of two distinct names, both of which are well known to the 

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446 On a Himyaritic Se<d found in the Hauinin. 

Arabio-speaking people of Syria at the present day. The 
transliteration into Arabic letters is i-J^ S^ ip^y neglect- 
ing vowels, Shkr Chrf). The first name is common in Arabic, 
both old and modem, and usually takes the YooaJization of 
the infinitive or verbal noun, and has the signification 
'^ thanks." Sometimes a (^ (jfe) is added, making its meaiing 
'* my thanks." We have both at this moment as names of 
students in our Syrian Protestant College. But a moro 
common name is formed by inserting an elif between the shin 
and the copA, thus, ^LJi (Shdkir)^ meaning " thankful "; and 
this is perfectly allowable in turning the Himyaritic into its 
Arabic equivalents, as the former commonly omits the eU/j 
frequently necessary in the latter. I therefore adopt this 
latter reading as the probably correct one. 

As to the second word, by itself it is a Himyaritic (not 
Arabic) word, meaning "jrear," which is here inappropriate. 
But by inserting a j (wato) between the re and the/?, which 
is quite allowable in the transliteration, it forms the name 
i^jj^ {Char{jtf\ an Arabic name of renown, being the name 
of a noted Arabic grammarian as well as of the Beni Charfl^ 
an Ar^b tribe. Its meaning as an Arabic word is ^^lamb." 
The whole name, then, woiild be uJj .^ S\i» (Shdkir Charuf)^ 
and, by the way, its transliteration, ** thankful lapab," would 
not be very strange as an English name. 

How this seal came tQ be in the Hauran I do not pretend 
to conjecture. If any are inclined so to do, it may help them 
to know that near it wa^ foimd a camelian seal in form of a 
scarabsBUs, with an intaglio human figure, which is most 
likely of Hamathite origin. 

Syrian Protestant College^ BeirOty Stfria^ 
-^(w. 15, 1876. 




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447 



ON THE CYPRIOTE INSCRIPTIONS. 
Bt H. F. Talbot, F.R.S. 

Mead 6tk Februofy, 1877. 

Great interest was excited a few years ago by the 
publication in the Transactions of this Society of papers by 
Mr. G. Smith and Dr. Birch relating what was then known 
about the Cypriote inscriptions, and evidently containing at 
least the commencement of a true interpretation of them. 
But I believe that few British scholars are as yet acquainted 
with the great discoveries which have been made by 
the German archseologists Moriz Schmidt, Deecke, and 
Siegismund, within the last two or three years. 

Thanks to their labours, we now possess a nearly com- 
plete Cypriote syllabary, correctly valued, which when 
applied to the best and most perfect inscriptions transforms 
them into very intelligible Greek, thus realising the pre- 
visions of Mr. G. Smith and Dr. Birch, and adding a very 
important and interesting chapter to the history of the Greek 
language. 

Of these authors Schmidt^ was first in the field, but 
Deecke and Siegismimd* followed later in the same year, 1874, 
Their labours had been quite independent, and appjtrently 
carried on unknown to each other, but when the essays were 
published they had the satisfaction to find an almost complete 
agreement in the results which they had obtained. This, as 



• Morn Schmidt, "Die Insorift Ton Idalion, und das Kyprisohe Syllabar.** 
Jena, 1874. This is a work of more than 100 pages in auto-Uthographj, an art 
of the greatest utility for learned works of this kind, in which the oorreotion of 
the press is so difficult and expensiTe, and moreoTer causes so much delay. 

* Die wichtigsten Kjprischen Insohriften, umschrieben und erlafitert toq 
Wilhelm Deecke und Justus Siegismund— in Curtius Studien, Leipzig, 1874. 

.* ' Digitized by VjOSSqIC 



448 On the Cypriote Inscmptiona. 

one of them justly observes, is of itself a strong argument 
for the truth of the conclusions.^ 

I first became acquainted with these new researches by 
reading a very useful little book ** sur le d^chiffrement dee 
inscriptions de Tile de 'Chypre," par L^on Rodet, Paris, 1876. 
This gives a clear and accurate account of the late discoveries, 
and includes a careful copy ' of the inscription of Dali or 
Idalium as rendered into Greek letters by Deecke and 
Siegismund. But Rodet gives no translation of this Greek, 
which is embarrassed by a multitude of Cypriote expressions. 
The general tenour or meaning of it is however not diflScult 
to follow, and I made a translation of it. At a later time 
when I had procured the German works themselves, I was 
gratified to find that my translation was very similar to 
that of the German scholars (see p. 240 of Deecke and 
Siegismund) with the exception of a few passages. 

Schmidt on his side transUterated the Cypriote original 
into Greek letters, in close accordance with Deecke and 
Siegismund, and his copious notes show a general agreement 
with their views throughout the inscription. In short, these 
translators are in very fair accord, and I shall follow them, 
except only in a few passages, in the annexed English 
version, which I believe represents pretty closely the sense 
of the original. 

The Bronze Tablet of Idauum. 

When the Medes and the Kitians* besieged the city of 
Idalium in the year when Philokupros son of Onasagoras 
was eponym (or chief moffistrate f) the king Stasikupros 
and the city of the Idalians commanded Onasilus son of 

' Darsus ergab rich dass wir im Weeentliohen tmabh&ngig ron einander gam 
ZQ denselben Resultaten gelangt waren — gewiss eine soblagende Bett&tigung fiir 
ibre Richtigkeit. 

' The author sajs: "Je donne ici la tmnsoriptioii de la plaque de Dali, 
d'apr^ la restitution de MM. Deecke et Siegismund, apr^ I'aroir oollationnfo 
sur les fao-simile du due de Lujnes et m'^tre aisur^ que la transcription sjUa- 
bique est faite areo une enti^re bonne foi.*' 

* Inhabitants of Kitium, a oitj not &r from Idalium. Compare the Chittim 
of Scripture. 

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On the Cypriote Inscriptions. 449 

Onaeikupros the physician and his brethi-en to heal the raen 
that were wounded in the battle, without receiving any fees. 
And at that time the King and the City made a covenant 
with Onasilus and his brethren, in lieu of all fees and 
rewards, to give them from the King's house and from the 
city {so many) talents of silver. Or else, instead of those 
talents of silver, the King and the City shall give to Onasilus 
and his brethren from the King's land, which is in the sacred 
inclosure (?) of Alphirita the piece of land in the valley which 
adjoins the field of Onkas and all the yoimg plantations 
which are upon it, to hold it and take all its produce as long 
as he lives, free from all taxes. And if anyone shall expel 
Onasilus, or his brethren, or the grandchildren of Onasikupros * 
from this land, then the person who so expels them shall pay 
to Onasilus and his brethren, or to their children, the money 
aforesaid, that is to say (so many) talents of silver. 



Part II. 

And moreover to Onasilus himself, apart from his other 
brethren, the King and the City have covenanted to give 
him in lieu of fees and rewards, silver amounting to (so much). 
Or else, the King and the City shall give to Onasilus in lieu 
of that money, from the king's land at Melania in the plain 
the piece of land which adjoins the field of Amenias together 
with all the young plantations which are upon it, which 
adjoins the street (?) of Drumion and the sacred enclosure of 
Athena, and the garden in the field of Simmis which Diithemis 
the Aramnian held formerly, which adjoins (the house of) 
Pasagoras son of Onasagoras and all the yoimg plantations 
which are upon it, to hold it, with all its produce, as long 
as he lives, free from taxes. And if anyone shall expel 
Onasilus or his children from this land, or from this garden, 
then he who expels him shall pay to Onasilus or his children 
the aforesaid sum of (so many) pieces c»f silver. And these 
declarations, mutually exchanged, the King and the City 
have deposited with the goddess Athena of Idalium with 

* He was father of Onasilut. 

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450 On the Cypinoie Inscriptions. 

oaths not to break these covenants as long as they live. 
Whoever shall break these covenants let him be held gnilty 
of impiety. These lands and these gardens the sons of 
Onasikupros and his descendants shall hold for ever, so long 
as any remain in the sacred service of Idalium. 



I will add a few remarks to this translation. It will be 
perceived that the King and the City make a double covenant, 
the first with Onasilus and his brethren, the second with 
Onasilus alone. In each case the minor stipulations (such as 
the option of paying either in money or in lands) were nearly 
the same, yet they had to be repeated in the same words. 
All this is expressed with so much precision as to lead to 
the belief that this agreement was drawn up by a lawyer. 

It is necessary however to remark that there is a great 
difference between Schmidt's translation of the first line and 
that given by Deecke and Siegismund. It appears to me 
that Schmidt is in the right, for the following reasons : — ^At 
the time when this bronze tablet was engraved, a war (jiaxo) 
was going on, and many persons were wounded. The 
Medes and Eitians were then besieging the City.^ Surgeons 
were of course greatly needed, and therefore ihe City made 
a contract with a confraternity of them. The words of the 
original are 'Ore rav tttoXlv HBdkicov Kareopicovv MaBoi tcai 
Kerui^, Here we have the well-known verb woXiopKcip " to 
besiege a city,** of which KaraTroXiopKeiv would be a stronger 
form, implying a formidable siege.* 

The Cypriotie phrase rav irjoTuv xareopKovp is equiva- 
lent to the Greek Karen-oXiopfcovv rav woXiv. But Deecke 
and Siegismund take opxo^ in the sense of 'an oath,* 
which gives no satisfactory meaning, for certainly the King 
and City of Idalium did not swear anything to the Medes 
and Eittians, nor receive any oath fi'om them. The bronze 

> Schmidt, p. 68, " Die Madoi (Meder, Perter) die Stadt belagerten." 
f Compare nokgfuiv * to make war/ but Kar<moX€fi€tv is ' to make war and 
conquer.* So in Latin bellaref and its stronger form dehtllar: 

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On the Cypriote Inscriptions, 451 

tablet relates to a purely domestic transaction, a contract 
between the City and certain citizens of Idalium. 

Each of the three writers I have quoted from, Schmidt, 
Deecke, and Rodet give the Greek text as it comes out when 
rendered into Cypriote syllables ; it is therefore unnecessary 
for me to do so. I think it will be more useful to give a 
copy of it when divested of some of its unusual forms, it will 
then be considerably more legible. The inscription with the 
Greek rendered somewhat more regular, but still semi- 
barbarous, is nearly as follows : — 

'Ore rav irroXvv HZak^tav tcareopKom/ Maioi xat Kerieif 
Of r<p ^CKoKVTTpov erei rov Oyaaayopov, PaaCK€V9 Xraananrpo^ 
Kai & irroKk^ HSa\i€i9 avcrfov OycurtXov rov OvaaitcvTrpov ray 
laTffpa tccu Tov^ te€urirfyrfT0V9 laaOai rov^ apOpfairov^ rov^ 6v 
ref fMLXt ^/cfiafip^evov^ avev fua-dtav. Kai irtf €<hpriTaaavTo 
fiaaiXev^ Kai a irroXi^ OyaaCK(p Kai roi^ Koa-typrjTOif aim ra>v 
fjuaOtay tccu avri ravfceptav Sowfoi e{ ry oiK<p rov fiaaiXeta^ 

Kai ef T<f TTToXei apyvpov (. ) Ta(\ayra)* H Buavotf) 

avTi rov apyvpov rcaySe rtov rcCKamtoy fiaaiXet^ xai a TrruXi? 
OvaaCKjtp fcai T0i9 tca<riyvr)roi9 <viro r<f y<f ref fiaaiXeeat T<f ev 
Tfp ipoivi Tf) AX(t>ipiaT(f Toy x^P^^ '^^^ ^ '^V ^^^^ '^^^ 
Xpiivofieyov OyKayro^ aXtfxo Kai ra repyyta ra errioirra iravra 
€)(eiy irap a>noK €(09 (?) 5? (?) aTeXrjv. Ei tte t*^ OvaaiXov tj 
T0V9 fca<rirfprfTov^ f) tov9 iraiSa^ rtay iraiSoDv rov Oyaai/anrpov 
*f Tjo X^P9 '''9^* *f^P*fi7> tScTra 6 e^opify ireurei OuaaiXtp 
Kai Toi^ KaairfyrfT0i9 tj T0i9 iraiai tov apyvpov rovSe, apyvpov 
( ) Ta(XavTa). 

11. Kai Oyaa-iX^ oup avev rtav Kaaiyvfjrtav rcov aXXmy 
e^pffraaayro fiaciXev^ xai a irroXi^ Bovyat cam ravKCpay rcay 

fAicOc^y apyvpov ( )• H SmKoiff fiaatXex;^ Kai a TrroXi^ 

OyaaiX^ am apyvpov TovSe atro rtf ya T<f fiaaiXeo)^ rf 
MaXavuf ra ireBitf roy ;^ei>pov roy ;^at;/i6K0K Afiffyia aX^ta 
Kcu ra repx^ia ra einovra irayra roy irorexofievoy irorroo 
po^to rtoy Apviuitov kcu irorrav lepeiav ra9 AOaya^ Kai roy 
KOTToy roy ev StfifJuSo^ apovpa rov Aiidefii9 6 Apa$uv€V9 ei^e 
aXXcTTTo, roy irorexofJ^evov iron TIaaayopay roy Ovaaayopov Kai 
ra repxvta ra einovra iravra, exeiv irayoi>yi(09 i(09 (?) (Jj (?) 
areXea eovra, Ei k€ ri9 OycunXov ff rov^ iraiBa9 rov^ OyaaiXou 

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452 On the Cypinote Inscriptions. 

ef ra ya raSe rj cf rqt KaTrtp rtpSe €^opi^ iSe 6 €^op^^ meurei 

OvcuriXip fj TOis ircuai rov apyvpov rovBe, apyvpov ( ) 

raXavTfov raSe ra eirea raBe eyaWaTucfjLeva fiaaiXev^ teat a 
wroki^ Karedvav ev rav diov rav AOavav rav irap^ HhoKiMV 
aw opKOi? firf \v<rai ra^ (f>pfira9 rcurS^ €0)9 (?) 5^(?) *Oiri Tt9 
K€ ra^ <f)pffTa9 raaSe Xvcp cwoaui •* yevoiro. Taaye ya^ 
raaSe Kai rov^ Kairovs toihtSc oi Oyaaitanrpov waiSe^ icai 
Toov 7ra^Q»v ol waiBe^ i^vai aiei ol ev ry ipwvi r<p HSaXiei 

COXTi. 



Notes on the PRECEDma Transliteration. 

Ev rqt erct rov ^iXoietrrrpov, in the year of Philokupros, 
that is, when he was chief magistrate, which office was 
probably changed annually, 

Philokupros. A king of this name is mentioned by 
Herodotus, book 5, ch. 113, as reigning in Cyprus. He was a 
friend of Solon. 

iKfiafifievov^^ a word of uncertain origin. 

E<f>prjTaaavro * they covenanted ' : from <f>pftTa 'a covenant 
or treaty,' which occurs in line 29. The usual Greek is 
pfjTpa. The celebrated and very ancient Elean inscription 
begins A Fparpa " this is the treaty, &C., Ac." 

TavKepwv. A Cypriote word otherwise unknown. 

£f rep otKtf) is a Cypriote solecism. It will be remembered 
doubtless that the people of Soli in Cyprus spoke Greek so 
badly as to give rise to the word * Solecism,' or * speech of 
Soli.' 

Slpiov * saleable.' Ilav o»vu>v ^ the whole saleable produce 
of the land.-* 

XpavofMcpoVj 'touching.' 

ilX^o), garden or vineyard. Hesychius, quoted by Deecke. 
has AXova' Kfiiroir Kinrpioi. 

Tepxy^ is explained by Hesychius ^wra vea (Deecke). 
I have rendered it * new plantations.' 

E^opify^ from e^opi^eiy * to expel ' : from opa^ terminus ; 
q.d. exterminare. 

neuret, ' he shall pay ' : from an old verb irevSew (Latiu 
pendere * to pay.*) Trei/Sci), fut. Tretao), like awevSw, aweiao} 

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On the Cypriote Inacinptions. 453 

TTo^j/i; (penalty or payment) is another derivative from the 
same root. 

A(0Kotr^ from a local verb Scoxeiv derived from eBoiuca. 

AWoTTo * formerly ' for aWoiroTe, but the word is very 
uncertain. 

The chief monument of the Cypriote language hitherto 
found is this bronze tablet of Dali or IdaJion. It is written 
on both sides, and contains not less than thirty-one long lines 
clearly and legibly wiitten. It was foimd in the ruins of the 
temple of Athena at Idalium, where it had been suspended 
as a record of the public Engagement or Covenant made 
between the government and the family of Onasilus. Of 
this tablet the Due de Luynes gave a correct fac-simile in 
his costly work Numismatique et inscriptions Cypriotes, 
Paris, 1852, fol. This was repubUshed by Professor Roth of 
Heidelburg in a very splendid work published at the Due de 
Luynes' expense, entitled 'die Proclamation des Amasis an 
die Cyprier bei der Besitznahme Cypems durch die Aegypter, 
Paris and Heidelburg, 1855, folio. Professor Roth erroneously 
supposed that the inscription of Dali was written in a lan- 
guage closely akin to the Hebrew, aud he therefore essayed 
to give to each Cypriote character its equivalent in the 
Hebrew alphabet. The quasi-Hebrew words or sentences 
thus obtained he aflSrmed to be a Proclamation issued by 
Amasis king of Egypt to the people of Cyprus. But all 
this was labour lost, since the inscription is really in the 
Greek language and the name of Amasis does not occur 
at all in it. 

The word BasileuSy which occurs many times, was 
supposed by Roth and the Due de Luynes to be Salamis : 
and the other letters were equally mistaken. This accoimt 
of the first attempt to interpret the tablet of Dali is chiefly 
taken from Schmidt's work, pp. 2-3. He then proceeds to 
relate the beginning and progress of a more successfiil 
solution, Lang, he says, was the first to discover the 
meaning of one or two words.^ Then G. Smith followed,* 

' Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archseology, toI. i, pp. 116-128. 
« Ibid., pp. 129-144. 



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454 Oti the Cypriote Inscription$. 

and explained that " the Cyprian Byetem consisted of a syUa- 
bary, each consonant having about three forms, the whole 
number of characters amounting to between fifty and sixty.'* 
Then Brandis in 1873^ made some further progress: for 
instance, he noticed that /cai is spelt Ka^ in the inscriptions, 
which we know firom Hesychius to have been a peculiarity 
of the Cypriote dialect. But the success of the later writers, 
Schmidt, Deecke, and Siegismund, far surpassed that of their 
predecessors. This was mainly owing to their careful study 
of the peculiarities of the inscription, which enabled them to 
find out that the Cypriote syllables (when not vowels) 
consist of a consonant /o//bu^«c2 by a vowel, such as na, ne^ ni^ 
noy nuy but never an^ en] tn, &c. To express an they write 
two signs, a ne^ no doubt omitting the final vowel in pronun- 
ciation.' Another great peculiarity of the Cypriote dialect 
was this: it always omitted the letter N before a dental 
S r or 0. Thus they said roSe for rovSe, an for an-i.' 
As this omission of the letter N was very frequent, it is 
evident that so long as it remained undiscovered the reading 
of the Greek text appeared much embarrassed and in many 
places hardly inteUigible. 

Before concluding this paper I will add one other specimen 
of the language. 

The bilingual inscription of Idalium (Phoenician and 
Cypriote) given by Rodet, pp. 12-19, as rendered by him into 
Greek letters offers an obsciirity. I think it should stand as 

follows: — BaaiKetai Mi\Kia0o>po9 Kerioop kcu HSaXioov 

{eirarfo)fji€pa)v ray ireiiirafiepiov vetararafy toy avBpiayra roySe 

tcarearaae 6 aifa^ o AfiSifiiXKov t^ AiroXXMyi r^ 

AfiutcX^, '^Milkiathon being king of the Kitians and 

Idalians on the last of the five intercalary days, the 

prince son of Abdimilik erected this statue to the 

Amycleean Apollo."* 



» Brandts, Vereuch xup Entiifferung der Kjprischen Schrift. 

* Deecke and SiegUmond, p. 220. 

* Ibid., p. 229. 

* See also Schmidt, p. 97, who baa not seen that the broken word .... /if m»v 
should be restored nrayofuvwv. I ilnd, however, that Deecke has preceded me 
in this restoration. 



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(hi the Cypriote Inscriptions. 455 

The last of the five intercalary days will be the last day 
of the year, or perhaps New Year's day, a proper season for 
honouring Apollo with a new statue. The word vewraraf 
(sc. ^fiepasi) more fully perhaps eirt vetoraraf ^fiepas, has 
been hitherto read veoarara^i which gives no satisfactory 
meaning. But Schmidt (p. 52) says that he possesses a 
squeeze of the original, which shows that the letter given as 
J^ or S is really J^ or 0. Making therefore this correction 
we obtain the word vetoTara^. 




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456 



ON AN ARAM.EAN SEAL. 

By Likut.-Col. W. F. Pridkaux, F.R.G.S., Fellow of 
the University of Bombay, 

Bead 6ih December, 1876. 



A SEAL engraved with ancient Phoenician characters has 
lately come into my possession, which from its intrinsic 
interest deserves, I think, notice in the Transactions of the 
Society. It is formed of very pale-blue 
chalcedony ; and is of a conoidal shape, 
1 inch in length, '65 inch in breadth at 
bottom, and *3 inch at top, and in depth 
•45 inch at bottom, and '3 at top. The 
face on which the legend is engraved is 
slightly convex. A hole has been bored 
through the upper part of the stone to 
admit of its being suspended from a string. 
I am ignorant of the exact locaUty in which 
the seal was found, but it was somewhere 
in Mesopotamia, and probably at Babylon. 
On one side of it is a four-winged monster 
of Babylonian type, apparently with the 
face of a man, and the body of a bull, 
rearing on its hind-legs. Its head is surmounted by an 
ibex-horn, in front of which is a crescent. Before the 
lower part of the body is the Egyptian symbol of life. The 
annexed woodcut gives a fair representation of the figure, 
which is unfortunately rather worn upon the stone. 

The inscription is surrounded by a border, and is con- 
tained in two lines which are divided in the manner 




mnay 



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On an Aramcean Seal. 457 

coDsidered by the Count de Vogii^ characteristic of Hebrew 
seals, although it is occasionally met with in others 
(Melanges d'Arch^ologie Orientale, pi. v, No. 11). The 
palaeography belongs to that time when the Phoenician, 
Aramsean, and Hebrew writing was identical, and from the 
general distinctive signs of high antiquity being foimd in 
the seal, namely, the undulated Uf, combined with the 
cruciform n> and the closed loops of the 3, ^, and ■^, its 
date cannot be assigned to a later period than the eighth 
century B.C. (De Vogli^, pp. 145, 146). The stone, indeed, 
appears to afford an indication of the original formation of 
the letter Hf, which in the earliest moniunents hitherto 
known appears as W, but in the seal as W. The n is also 
of the most archaic type. 

In Hebrew characters the legend reads as follows : 

''Belonging to Bkshth bath 'Abd-Yrkh." 

In Hebrew the word nCJjpa (from the Piel ttJjPS) signifies 
petitio. The name Jltt^pQ is not found elsewhere in Phoenician 
We know from the First Trilingual Inscription of Leptis tha 
the name rO"^! the last three letters of which were vocalized 
in the Hebrew HS'IJ as in nQjj?5» was transliterated in 
Greek and Latin as BYPYXG and BYRYCTH, but it would 
not be safe to assume that the same pronimciation prevailed 
in early days in Aram as was ciurent centuries afterwards 
among the Phoenician colonies in Africa. In the case before 
us, the Masoretic pointing of the Hebrew is probably a surer 
guide, and I think we may infer that the name was pro- 
nounced Bakkftshath. 

The name of Bakk&shath's father is fai- more interesting. 
Although the Moon was personified among the Chaldeans, 
as well as the Sabsecms of South Arabia, by the deity Sin, 
I believe I am right in stating that no indication has yet 
been discovered, from Semitic sources, that Lunus or the 
Moon-god, found a place in the theogony of the more 
westerly nations of Syria and Phoenicia. We have TTOttTDy 

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458 On an Aramcean Seal. 

in the inspriptions Athen. I and II, corresponding with the 
Greek 'HXioSdpof; but before the discovery of the present 
seal we had no name indicative of a votary of Lunus. 
ttnn33> corresponding with i/ov/iiji/to^, belongs to a different 
class of names, and is not significative of worship. It is 
therefore important to ascertain that the Phoenician word 
rxy^ does not merely mean the moon or limar month, 
but is also the designation of the personified Lunus, 
aa 1DK!0 ifl of the personified Sun.^ Whether the name 
has any relations with the Arabian patriarch Jerah 
(rnj) in Gen. x, 26, 1 will not venture to conjecture. 

The crescent engraved in front of the head of the homed 
figure on the side of the seal, has not improbably some con- 
nexion with the name of the owner^s father. 

I have called the seal " Aramsean," because the place of 
its discovery and the engraved figure on the side forbid the 
supposition that it could have belonged to a dweller in 
Phoenicia Proper ; but as regards the palaeography no 
difference, as I have said above, is discernible between this 
and the most ancient Phoenician intaglios. 

^ The following pasiagei of Scripture refer to the worship of the Moon under 
the appellation of ^ : — Deut. ir, 19 ; xrii^ 8 ; 2 Kingi xxiii, 6 ; Jer. Tiii« 2 ; 
Job xxxi, 26, 27. 




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Sti. 






ll^k 



K^^^k^^k il 111 o ' <==> -« 

6 \\^^ 



O I 



7 S^oLs^PliI^T' 



B n O T n ?l fl 



i 



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459 



NOTICE SUR UNE ST^LE fiGYPTIENNE DU MUSfiE 

DE TURIN. 

Par Framqois Chabas. 
Read Isi May, 1877. 

Apr&S les papyrus et les inscriptions monumentales, les 
stiles de bois, et siirtout celles de pierre, foumissent aux 
^gyptologues les sources les plus abondantes d'information. 
Elles sont fort heureusement parvenues jusqu'li nous en 
quantity k peu pr^ innombrable. II en existe des plus 
anciennes ^poques jusqu'aux temps romains ; et Ton pent 
y suivre le progrfes et le d^clin de Pipigraphie 6gyptienne. 

Ces monuments ne nous montrent souvent que des seines 
d^offrandes et de courtes priires ; d'autres nous donnent des 
details biographiques ou nous renseignent sur des faits 
historiques. Dans le plus grand nombre, on trouve des 
notions int^ressantes pour la mytbologie, la morale et les 
rites fon^raires. En un mot, on est bien fondi k affirmer que 
peu d'entre elles pourraient fitre considiries comme absolu- 
ment dinuies d'int^rfet. 

Des publications, ddjii assez nombreuses, ont fait connaitre 
plusieurs de ces moniunens, mais, parmi les plus importants, 
il en est qui n'ont point 6t^ encore traduits ; tel est en par- 
ticulier le cas de celui que M. de Roug^ a appel^ la reine des 
stiles^ et qui est dijk connu dans la science par des citations 
partielles qui ont pu en faire appr^cier la grande valeur. 

On trouve dans tons les Musics de I'Europe un assez 
grand nombre de stiles qui miriteraient aussi d'etre publiies 
le analysies avec soin. Je viens ici satisfaire k ce disidira- 
tum pour ce qui conceme une stile du Musie de Turin, sur 
laquelle mon attention a iti appelie par mes recherches sur 

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460 Notice mir une Stile ^ffr/ptienne du Musie de Turin. 

les doctrines religieuses et morales des anciens Egyptiens, 
dans le cours de mes Etudes pour Tinterpritation des 
Maximes du scribe Ani, que je public dans le journal 
* TEgyptologie.' 

La stMe dont il s'agit porte aujourd'hui le No. 19 
dans le Mus^e r6organis6. Pendant ma mission en Italic, 
en 1869, j'en ai fait une copie, que j'ai collationn^e, depuis 
lors avec une empreinte k la plombagine, prise k mon 
intention par mon savant confrere M. Fr. Rossi, attach^ 
au Mus^e Egyptien de Turin. Cest k Taide de ces 
^l^ments que j'ai dress^ la planche jointe au pr^ent 
m^moire. Mes confreres en 6gyptologie pourront Tutiliscr 
avec confiance. 

Le registre sup^rieur de la stile, que la planche ne figure 
pas, est, comme k Tordinaire, surmont^ d'un symbole d'^ternit^ 
et d*infinit6 : le disque du soleil superpose au vase et aux 
zigzags de I'eau, et flanqu^ des deux cutaSy ou yeux sym- 
boliques. 

Dans d'autres monuments du mSme genre on trouve, k la 
m^mc place, le disque ail^. Au-dessous est repr^nt^e la 
seine habituelle du culte des anc^tres. 

Le difunt assis, tenant im rouleau, insigne de sa dignite 
de scribe, re9oit Toflfrande entassie devant lui sur ime table, 
HU-dessous de laquelle sont ranges trois vases, qui sont 
cens&a renfermer les liquides de Foblation ; chaque objet est 

accompagni du signe T signifiant mille, ou beaucoup, et 
donnant k entendre que chaque objet itait offert par milliers. 
Entre le d^funt et la table, trois Ugnes verticales disent ce 
qui suit : — 

'^Royale offiunde pacifique k Ammon-Ra, seigneur des 
trones du monde ; bonheur, richesse, justification, k la per- 
Sonne de I'intendant du grenier public, controleur de la haute 
et de la basse figypte, B6ka, justifi^. Tout ce qui sort des 
autels d'Osiris dans toutes ses filtes, k I'intendant du grenier 
royal, Bika, justifie." 

Cette ligende nous donne le nom et les titres du d^ftmt, 
que la stile ne ripite nulle part ailleurs d'lme maniire plus 
complete. En voici Texpression hi&-oglyphique : 

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Notice 8ur une Stele igyptienne du Musee de Turin. 461 

i.nn!i ^ O i ^ ^^fet ^^^^^^ Q ^ S^ VIntendant du gre- 

flier publicy controleur de la haute et de la basse Egypte^ Bika^ 
justiJU, 

B^ka est un nom assez frequent but les monuments 
^gyptiens; il eignifie serviteur^ et correspond au s^mitique 
135^, abd ; ce nom ne nous donne aucune indication sur la 
date de la stMe, mais, k en juger par le style des hi^roglyphes, 
on est en droit de Tattribuer aux temps de la XIX"*® ou la 
XX"" dynastie. Le d^funt, qui (circonstance assez exception- 
nelle) ne nous donne ni le nom de sa mere ni celui de son 
pfere, devait appartenir k une famille d'origine modeste. Sa 
promotion k des postes importants, qui lui permettaient la 
fr^quentation de la personne royale, ^tait done due unique- 
ment k son m^rite. Chez les anciens Egyptiens la science et 
les services intelligents primaient les pretentions de caste 
avec plus d'avantage que chez beaucoup de peuples 
modemes, oil, malgr^ les tendances d^mocratiques de 
r^poque, il reste trop d'influence aux privil^gi63 de la 
naissance et de la richesse. 

L'inscription de B6ka nous donne pen de details bio- 
graphiques. Comme nous I'avons dit, il ne nomme ni son 
pire ni sa m^re ; mais il nous apprend que ses mantes lui 
avaient valu la faveur du roi des deux figyptes, et qn'il 
etait parvenu k ime haute situation. Partout il etait admis 
k frequenter et k approcher le souverain. Le roi I'avait fait 
neb-hat^ c*est-i-dire chef-d'office, ou quelque chose d'approch- 
ant. Malgri cette il^vation, et peut-Stre k raison de son 
origine obscure, B^ka affirme que, quoique grand, il a agi 
comme s'il eiit ^t^ petit. Ses fonctions d'intendant royal, 
charge des greniere publics, devaient comprendre les attri- 
butions du patriarche Joseph k la cour de Pharaon. B^ka 
conserva sa faveur jusqu'i sa mort dans un &ge avanc^. 
Les vertus dont le d^funt se fait gloire, aussi bien que 
les vices dont il pretend avoir exempt, ferment un abr^g^ 
des pr^ceptes principaux de la morale recommand^e par 
la doctrine egyptienne. On obtiendra un tableau complet 

^ Le d^terminatif N/\yi repr^sentant des grains entass^, est double. C'est 
une particularity des noms des ^tablissements publics ou rojaux. 

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462 Notice sur une Stile igyptienne du Mueie de Turin. 

de oes pr^ceptes par Finterpr^tation d^un nombre snffiBant 
d^inscriptions ftin^raires. Mais leur mise en ordre exigera 
Tin travail considerable, qui trouvera sa place dans la 
suite de nos Etudes sur les traits de morale des anciens 
figyptiens. 

Nous nous bomerons k envisager les points sp^ciaux au 
document dont nous aliens donner la traduction. 

Respect de la vSritS. — B6ka se vante d'avoir iH juste et 
vnd, sans malice ; de s'Stre complu k dire la virit^ ; d'avoir 
connu I'avantage qu'il y a de s'y conformer sur la terre, depuis 
la premiire action jusqu'au moment de la mort. Detail 
nouveau dans les textes de ce genre, il ajoute qu*au moment 
de subir le jugement et de r^pondre aux quarante-deux accu- 
sateurs du tribunal d'Osiris, il considire comme sa defense 
efficace la simple confession de la v^rit^ ; et, dans le pai-a^ 
grapbe suivant, il nous apprend que c'est effectivement par 
la viriti qu'il est sorti de cette ^preuve supreme. Dans sa 
vie de Sahouj c'est-ik-dire de transition entre la vie de ce monde 
et celle de THad^ k T^tat de momie, il s'est encore repos^ 
dans la v6rit6. 

A la fin de son pan^gyrique, B^ka revient encore siu* sa pre- 
tention d'avoir v^cu d'lme vie de v^riti jusqu'a une vieillesse 
v6n6rable. Une autre marque de I'importance attachie au 
respect de la v6rit^ se rencontre dans cette phrase im peu 
naive : J'ai dit ce que fai entendUf tel que cela rnavait iti dit. 
Les £gyptiens avaient fait ime bien juste appr^iation des 
inconv^nients de I'intemp^rance de langage. 

Justice. — La notion de la justice se confond avec celle de 
la v6rit6. B^ka se contente d'avancer qu'il a ^t^ juste et 
vrai, ce qui revient k dire viritablement juste. 

Seuls, les juges professionnels pouvaient avoir k insister 
davantage sur lem- impartiality, et c'est ce qu'ils ont fait 
dans quelques inscriptions fun^raires. 

Amour filial — Chez les Egyptiens cette vertu 6tait recom- 
mande^ de la mSme maniire que dans le D^ccdogue de Molse. 
C^taient les enfants pieux qui pouvaient compter sur une 
longue vie. L'amour filial et I'amour patemel ^taient puis- 
samment entretenus par le culte des ancStres, qui formait en 
quelque sorte une annexe inseparable des honneurs rendus 

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Notice 8ur une Stile igyptienne du MusSe de Turin. 463 

aux dieux. Chaque ann^e toute la famille, ascendants, des- 
cendantS; allies et domestiques, se r^unissait plusienrs fois 
autoiir de la tombe des membres d^funts, et renouvelait les 
priires et les oblations des fun^railles. L'inscription de B^ka, 
diff^rente en cela d'un grand nombre de textes fan^raires, ne 
mentionne pas raccomplissement des devoirs envers les 
m&nes, mais notre personnage ^voque nne image delicate : aa 
bontS itait dans le cceur de son pire et de sa mere, et son amour 
itait en eux. 11 rCavait jamais fauss^ ce sentiment envers eux 
depuis saplus tendre enfance. Aimer son pfere et sa mire, c'est 
ob^ir a nn besoin natnrel plutdt que pratiquer ime vertu, 
mais m^riter Tamonr d'un pire et d'lme mire, c'est prouver 
qu'on s'est acquitt^ convenablement de tons les devoirs de 
Tenfant pieux. 

Modestie^ humilitS. — ^Ces deux mots semblent faire disso- 
nance avec la teneur habituelle des pan^gyriques des morts. 
Les figyptiens se vantaient sans vergogne, et 6puisaient 
envers leurs difunts les formules de la plus hyperbolique 
louange. Cependant, si elles 6taient pen Tespect^es dans 
la pratique, la modestie et Thumilit^ n'en faisaient pas 
moins partie du faisceau des vertus recommand^es par la 
doctrine. 

En arrivant k THadis, B^ka aime k se donner k lui-mSme 
t^moignage qu'il n'a jamais cherch^ k se rendre maitre 
d'un plus petit que lui, et il nous affirme, dans un autre 
passage, qu'^tant grand, il a agi comme s'il eut it^ petit, 
et qu'il n'a point k se reprocher d'avoir ^vinc^ un plus 
m^ritant que lui. Les mSmes rigles de modestie se mani- 
festent dans plusieurs autres inscriptions, mais les formules 
de celle que nous Studious ont un style particulier qui les 
signale k I'attention. 

Bienfaisance, douceur. — Dans tons les monuments du genre 
de celui qui nous occupe, nous trouvons I'^nonciation de la 
bienfaisance et de I'humanit^. Les morts pritendent avoir ^t^ 
bons sur cette terre, et s'etre abstenus d'actes dommageables 
envers autrui. L'inscription de Bika ne fait pas exception 
k cette rigle ; seulement ce personnage ajoute \me nuance 
importante, k savoir qu'il ne s'est r^joui d'aucun acte 
d'iniquit^ et d'indignit^. 

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464 Notice 8ur une Stile igyptienne du Mueie de Turin. 

Vivant k la cour, au milieu des fetniiliers du Pharaon^ fl 
ne croit pas devoir faire la moindre allusion k ses rapports 
personnels en dehors de ce cercle, et il lui suffit de nous 
apprendre qu'il avait m6rit6 les fiiveurs du roi, I'affection de 
ses favoris, et n'avait k redouter aucun filcheux sentiment de 
la part des gens vivant dans la demeure rojale. Mais sa 
prudence et son amour de la concorde se r^vilent dans le 
soin qu'il avait eu de parler avec bienveillance et de ne pas 
preparer de querelles. 

Religion. — B6ka semble avoir eu une religion philoso- 
phique; de nos jours il aiurait pass^ en France pour Voltairien. 
Dans son inscription il ne fait appel k aucun souvenir 
myihologique. Seul entre tons les dieux de TEgypte, 
Ammon-Ra y est nomm6, mais simplement dans le voeu 
ftm^raire du premier registre, qui appelait n^cessiiirement 
aussi la mention des mets d*Osiris. Dans le corps du 
texte il est question des divins magistrats et des seigneurs 
^temels ^tabUs devant les dieux, mais cela se rapporte 
simplement au jugement des morts, et Ton n'aper9oit ici 
nulle mention de TOsiris infernal, ni d'Horus, ni d'Anubis, ni 
de Thoth, etc. 

On croirait avoir aflFaire k un d^iste inhum^ par une 
lamille qui a respect^ les opinions du d^funt, tout en satis- 
laisant aux exigences de la fSte des fun^railles. Cest du 
reste ce que laisse supposer la formule initiale^ qui attribue 
le rojal don d'ofirandes directement k B6ka lui-m^me sans 
intervention d'un dieu quelconque. Mais s'il faisait peu de 
cas du formulaire traditionnel et des rites sacerdotaux, B^ka 
avait si on Ten croit, une croyance pure et sage, dont toutes 
les %lises de nos jours pourraient accepter la formule simple : 
mettre dieu dans son cceur et bien connaitre lee volontde de dieu. 
II y avait en eflfet, cach^e derriire le voile d'une mythologie 
compliqu^e de mystires sans nombre, ime doctrine raison- 
nable, dont aucime autre doctrine, sauf le christianisme, n*a 
surpass^ I'^l^vation. 

B6ka termine par un voeu passablement ^picurien pour 
r^poque, et fort diff&rent de ceux que Ton est habitu^ k ren- 
contrer dems les textes de ce genre. H s'adresse k tons les 
vivants de son pays et leur souhaite de passer leur vie dans 

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Notice sur une Stile Sgyptienne du Mmie de Turin. 465 

la joie, jusqu'i ce qu'ils arrivent k la tombe, apris laquelle 
il leur souhaite de jouir, dans Tinfenium^ du droit d'entrer et 
de sortir librement. On salt que telle ^tait la beatitude 
principale de 1*61 u du ciel ^gjrptien ; elle comportait la 
faculty de se transporter dans tout Tunivers sous la forme 
qu'on youlait. Ce paradis est dans tons les cas bien 
sup^rieur k celui des houris de Mahomet. 

Nous donnons maintenant notre version de cette re- 
marquable inscription, et nous la ferons suivre, de quelques 
justifications pbilologiques. 



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466 Notice but une Stile igyptiemie du Afusie de Turin. 



Traduction. 

1. Rojal don d*offi*andes (a) k la personne de rintendant da 

grenier public, B^ka, justifi^. 
Ildit 
Moi, je fas juste et vrai, sans malice (6), ayant mis dien 

dans mon coeur (c), ayant ^t^ habile k discemer see 

volont^s (d). 

2. J'arrive k la cit^ de ceux qui sent dans Titemit^ («). 
J'ai fait le bien sur la terre (/) ; 

Je n'ai pas port6 de prejudice {g) ; 

Je n'ai pas ^t^ m^chant (A) ; 

Je n'ai point acclam^ aucim acte d'indignit^ et d'iniquiti. 

3. Je me suis complu k dire la v^rit^ ; 

J'ai connu I'a vantage qu'il y a de s'y conformer sur la 

terre depuis le premier acte jusqu' k la tombe (t). 
Ma defense efficace (j) est de la dire en ce jour oil 

4. j'arrive auprfes des divins juges, interprites habiles (i), 

r^v^lateurs des actions, castigateurs des pech^. 
Pure (I) est mon ame. 
Moi vivant, je n'ai pas eu de malice (m). 

5. H n'existe pas d'abus (n) de moi pas de p^ch^ de 

moi devant leur main. 
Je suis sorti de cette ^preuve* par la v^rit^ (o), et voili 

que je suis ici dans le lieu des v^n^rables {p). 
Apport des aliments de la v^rit6 {q) d I'intendant 

6. du grenier public, B^ka, justifi^. 

H dit : J'ai ^t6 le grand remplisseur du coeur du seigneur 
des deux regions, I'aim^ (r) du roi de la haute 
jfigypte, le favoris^ du roi de la basse ^figypte, k cause 
de mes m^rites excellents, qui out avanc^ mon poste. 

7. Grand ai-je ^t^ dans le lieu des millions de perfections 

vraies («). 
Que le roi prosp^r&t en avant ou en arri^re, j'approchais 
sa personne (f), marchant autour de lui en all^gresse 
pour adorer sa bont6 chaque 

* liittdrsleraent, de M, 

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Notice 8ur une Stile igyptie^ine du Mxish de Turin. 467 

8. jour, et rendre gloii*e au double aspic de son diademe eii 

tout temps. 
L'intendant du grenier public, B^ka. II dit : 
Je suis un mhou (un mort, une momie) qui s'est complu 

dans la v6rit4 conform^ment aux lois du tribunal de 

la double justice, par moi d^sir^es (m). 

9. J'arrive au Kher-neter (FHadis). 

H n'est pas d'humbles dont je me sois fait le maitre ; 

Je n'ai pas fait de mal aux hommes qui ont c^l6br^ leurs 

dieux (r). 
J'ai passe ma vie dans la vie de v^rit^ {x)^ jusqu'k ce que 

je fusse parvenu k Tage 
10. de v^niration, 6tant dans les faveure du roi, aim^ des 

grands de son entourage. 
La demeure royale, ceux qui y r^sidaient, il n'y avait nul 

mal centre moi dans leur coeur (y). Les honunes 
IL i venir, tant qu'ils seront, seront ravis de mon m^rite 

Eminent. 
Celui qui habite dans la demeure de Tefficacit^ salutaire 

(le palais du rot) avait fait de moi im maitre 

d'office (z). 
Ma sinc^riti et ma bont^ ^taient dans le coeur de mon 

pire et de ma mire ; mon affection ^tait en eux (aa). 

12. Jamais je ne I'ai viol^e dans ma maniire de faire envers 

eux depuis le commencement du temps de ma jeimesse. 
Grand, j'ai agi comme si j'eusse ^ti petit (cc). 

13. Ma bouche a parM pour dire choses vraies, ne pr^parant 

pas de querelles. 
J'ai dit ce que j'ai entendu tel que cela m'avait &t& dit. 
vous tons ! honmies qui existez, vous complaisant dans 

la v&it6 chaque jour dans Tlfigypte, 

14. vous que ne nourrit pas (encore) le dieu, seigneur 

d'Abydos, qui vit de la verity chaque jour, soyez 
heureux ! Passez votre vie dans les d^lices jusqu'i 
ce que vous abordiez au bon Occident.* Que votre 
flme jouisse du droit d'entrer et de sortir librement, 
comme les seigneurs 6ternels qui sent ^tablis devaiit 
les dieux. 

' La tombe du juste. 

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4GH Notice sur une Stile igyptienne du Musie de Turiiu 



Notes Philologiques. 



(a). Je traduifl mot-i-mot la fonnule lA g, royal don 
d^offrandesy k laquelle on k voulu, k tort, donner le 
sens de proscynhme. Le proscynfeme est un saint 
accompagn^ d'une inclination profonde. Le don 
d'oflBrandes tel qu'il est repr^senti des milliers de fois 
sur les monuments, ne coraportait aucune prostation 
de ce genre ; il consiste uniquement dans la presenta- 
tion d'objets divers, solides et liquides, et dans une 
priire tendant k ce que le defimt prenne part, daus 
Tautre monde aux tables d'Osiris, figur^es par celle de 
la c^r^monie. 
L'oblation jouait un grand role dans le culte des dieux 
et dans celui des manes. Pour le premier elle porte 
habituellement le nom de 1 A c=fi= a^wva | j | ^ et pour 

le second, celui de •" ¥ ^^ ^'^w^A ^^ • ^ ' . 

L'^pithfete de \ orthographe pleine ^ J^ , indique 
qu'il s'agit d'une c^r^monie telle que la pratiquaient 
les rois, que rempliysaient souvent de hautes fonctioiis 
sacerdotales. CTeKt une qualification dlionneur, qui 
pouvait etre retranchee sans nuire an sens de la 
fonnule. L'ordre des gi-oupes y est souvent inter- 
verti, comme, par exemple, dans 1 jC^Ac=d3=i 
mot-i-raot, royal Anubis gift-ofierings (for royal 
gift of offerings to Anubis). Des interversions de ce 
genre ne sont du reste pas rares dans les hiiro- 
glyphes. 

(i). i^^^j, |y>OT,* est un Equivalent de ^ flj*, 
XOO*ir, nmly malice^ perversity (voir Lepsius, Todt., 
ch. 125, lig. 36, et la variante du Papyrus Cadet). 
Dans notre monument les trois traits du pluriel ill, 

* Je represente lea mots ^gjptiens en lettree copies, et pour eriter tonte con- 
fusion les mots copies sont toujours not6 comme tels. 

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Notice sur une Stele 6gyptienne du Musie de Turin. 469 

8ont quelquefoifl remplaces par les trois grains ooo, et 
le /WNWN par la barre droite — ^. Ces variantes sont 
communes, 
(c). B^ka dit litt^ralement, ay ant mis Dieu dans son coeur. Ce 
changement de personne qui constituait ime il6gance 
dans le style ^gyptien, n'est p8is toujoiu^ sans incon- 
venient pour la clart^. Nous n'en tenons pas compte 
dans notre version. Le cas se reproduit assez fr6- 
quemment dans Tinscription. 

(J). dM est une abriviation de , [q1 ^^<2 <^ 

COJCA-Onr, mot qui signifie, expert^ expiriment^^ habile. 
Dans une pri^re k Thoth, dieu de I'intelligence, un 
scribe sollicite la faveur de devenir habile (cajCA.OT) 
dans tons ses travaux (Pap. Anastasi, v, p. 9, lig. 4). 
Au papyrus medical Ebers, p. 36, lig. 4, cttjcA.O'ff 
a le sens de reconnaissance, diagnostic. B^ka se vante 
d'avoir bien reconnu les volontfe de Dieu. ^S^ 
fi.eOT, litt^ralement, esprits, se r^fere k la pensee, k 
la volenti (voir ce qui j'ai dit de ce mot dans moii 
journal TEgyptologie, tome 1, p. 47). 

(e). ^'^w^A=^p8 o8 mot-a-mot, la ville de qui est dans les 

millions d'annees. 8^8 veut dire un million ; 
appliqu^ k la mesure du temps, il r^pond au latin 
scecula sceculorunu (Test ime expression designant uu 
temps trfcs-long, ind^fini, et le copte ojA. €rt€^, in 
seeculum^ se trouve en hi^roglyphes sous la fonne 
^^^i®i (^^Py^® Abbott, p. 6, lig. 7). 
Tm cit^ de r^ternit^ ^tait Thabitation des morts. Dans 
ime autre stfele de Turin on trouve Texpression ana- 
logue gS^^ -I ir^x^x ^^ /<>««^ de qui est dans 

Vetemiti. 

(/). Tai fait \ I litt^ralemeni, ckose bonne. U faut se 
gardei de traduire lieu bon. 

((J). *^^ ^ ^ 8 ^ (| ^ A-rt iJXn^ Ce mot signifie 

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470 Notice sur urn Stile igyptienne du Musie de, Turin. 

boigner^ ditremper^ dilayer. H ne n'est pas arriv^ de 
le renconter comme designation d*un acte reprehen- 
sible, mais les textes du meme genre que celui qne 
nous etudions ont habituellement ^;;5^^'^5t OJOT, 
mot dont la valeur est torty prijudice, dommage. 

{Ji). ^^ "^fe^tj OTIt, n'a pas d'anaolgue en Copte, et la 
definition exacte du vice ainsi nomme est assez 
difficile a determiner. Les textes nous apprennent 
seulement que ce vice ne doit pas se trouver sur la 
balance du jugement de I'homme meritant la justifi- 
cation. 

(/). L*expression Qi <z=>^-— -'•^^ litteralement, (feptn* 

Faction jxtsqtia la tonibe, est assez remarquable. "T^ 
nommer Factej raction de la main, et, par suite, Fexist" 
ence active ; il est pris dans notre texte pom* le 
premier acte, le commencement de la vie effective, 
k peu pres dans le meme acception que dans cette 
reserve meiancolique exprimee dans certaines lettres : 



n 



... '^•"''^*^^ nous ne 

111 I 111 J£^ I > 

connaissone pas notre acte de detncdny c'est-a-dire, ce que 
nous serons ou ce que nous ferons demain, 

(;). Le mot que je rends par defense, ^ y ^_ ^""^, 

est de fort rare occiurence ; c'est le troisifeme exemple 
que j'en rencontre. Au Papyrus Anastasi I on tiouve 
la phrase : tu es seul, car tes ^ ^— o n$ i 

restent derritre toi (p. 5, lig. 5). Icile ^vwv^ finafest 
remplacd par ^, ce qui ne me parait par constituer im 
mot different. Un passage mutiie du m^me docu- 
ment (p. 9, lig. 1) donne la mSme orthographe, 
mais la forme avec '^^'^w ge retrouve au discours 
d'Amenemha (Pap. Sallier II, p. 2, lig. 1), dans un 
passage oii le sens gardes, escorte, est admissible. 

(k). "S^j est xme abreviation de ^ ^^ S O'VXA., ap- 

preciei'y examiner, jiujer^ estimer, 11 rfj <rr>^^ CA.pOT 

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Notice «w \me Stile igyptieniie du Mudie de Turin. 471 

est une qualification concemant la science, la penetra- 
tion, que les textes donnent quelquefois i Thoth. 

(Z). ^'^^^ xerrr, mot que je traduis par j>wr, ne m'est 
pas connu par d'autres textes. Au Rituel on trouve 
/w^^/^^ '^ avcc Ic mSmc d6terminatif. Mais on trouve 
ailleurs z*"^ determine par le vase de la pm-ifi- 

cation. 

(m). Le texte joue ici sur les mots '^ 0*fflt, Hre^ eadater^ 

et sT '^^^ OTIt, malice^ mdchanceti. La version 
ne pent faire sentir cette alliteration. 

(n). I QA^ cpj6, est le meme mot qu'on trouve ailleurs 

sous la forme [I ^^ ^^"j ^P*^* ^ d^signe un 
vice, un abus, sur Texacte port^e duquel je ne 
suis pas renseigne. En m^decine, ce mot nomme un 
mal atteignant diff^rentes parties du corps. La pre- 
cision est ici difficile, mais le sens du texte se devine 
aisiment; B^ka veut dire que Vactioriy la niain des 
juges des morts n'aura pas k s'exercer sur des vices 
de cette nature a sa charge. Les determinatife de 
^ iTi "^ - sont erron^s; il faut admettre ici 
im lapsus du lapicide, k moins de supposer ime 
autre en*eur (^ >.. ) ^ qui nous forcerait k modifier 
notre version, et a lire : 11 n'existe pas d'abus de moi, 
pas de peches ; ma vertu est devant leur main. 

(o). Je retablis dans la lacune Thieroglyphe de la verity, 

(p). ^ ^^ V L ^-•J^^^**'> (Le premier signe est 
errone*, il faut y voir M^. Cette erreur du lapicide 
est evidente.) Ce groupe se dit de la mmtetS, de la 
veneration^ qui s'acquiert apris une longue vie de vertu 
et de piete. Aussi fait-il quelquefois opposition a 

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472 Notice sur ufie Stele igyplienne du Mtu^e de Turin. 

• fi enfanU et \i l^^\ ^ jeune, ^Mjb, 
se dit aussi de la tendresse, do ramour qu'il est 
louable d'avoir pour la divinity pour un pfere, une mere, 
les parents, les bienfaiteurs et les rois. Le lieu des 
v^^'obles^ c'est la demeure dee justes dans Tautre 
monde. 

(y). Cette demiire phrase est elliptique. Le pronom nu 
pent se rapporter qu* a la v^rit^. Les U T de la 

ooo 

verity sont les ol&andes faites pour les manes, 
(r). A^wvA est un faute ; il faut lire 



{s). c=L Mj ^ g I P oTo • Cette formule qui con- 

stituait une locution adverbiale est ici prise pour 
une indication de la r&idence royale, ce que nous 
appellerions la caur. Les Egyptiens se servaient pour 
designer le monarque d'un assez grand nombre d'ex- 
pressions, dont notre texte emploie quelques unes. 

(t). Le commencement de cette plirase offie des difficult^. 
Je I'ai traduite en r^tablissaut le signe d'Horus ^^, 
signifiant le roi, k la place de la chouette ^v qui 
ne donnerait aucun sens ; I'usure de la pierre pent du 
reste permettre le doute sur Tintention du lapicide. 

^ ^ puOTTy signifie croitre^ poussevy saccroitrey pros- 
pirer. Cest une expression caracterisant la vie 
heureuse, analogue a Fanglais to thrive. Au Rituel, on 

trouve la s^rie : -^^ itre^ exiater^ •¥• vivre^ et 

A^WW' i • > 

)f\ c±ta, prospirer, exprimant un triple mode d'exist- 
ence, souhaiti pour les d^funts. II est tout naturel 
que le dernier, la vie prosphrCy fit pr^fer^, lorsqu'il 
s'agissait de parler du Pharaon. La locution h Favanty 
a tarrHrey est im idiotisme ayant trait k la vie 
ext^rieure et k la vie dans le domicile ; cela signifie 
tout simplement: que le roi se viontrdt en public ou 
demenrdt dans son jxflaisy etc. 

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Notice SUV une Stile Sgyptienne du Muaie de Turin, 473 



^^^ doit Stre lu ^^^^^^^ ^ cgrt, et constituer une variante 
de AwvsA ^ J^ on ^^ J^ -ifcltX, J^ti, approcJiery 

sapprocher. Les awvva ^ ^p^ Jfi i ^ j^rtxcnr, ^taient 
ceux qui avaient le droit d'approcher le Pharaon. 



n). ^Z^ (1 s^MXT'^, Ktt^ralement, mon d^air, B^ka 
semble dire que loin de redouter le jugement supreme, 
il Ta souhaite f^^ nous donne le phonitique du 
nombre trois, cyojutx en Copte, qui a ite signal^ par 
M. de Rougfe dans le poeme de Pentaour. lei, ce 
phon^tique est pris comme verbe, signifiant desirer, 
d'apris la traduction qu'en a donn^e Mr. Goodwin 
dans rhistoire de Saneha. 

(r). Ce membre de phrase fait naitre quelques doutes. Le 
texte laisse bien distinguer le groupe — »*— ^ ^ 
qui ne me sugg^re aucun sens satisfaisant. Je soup- 
9onne encore une erreur du lapicide, et je traduis 

comme s'il y avait ^ ^ QQ ^ XAIX-X, Clever, cele- 
brer^ exalter, 

(^). Par caprice le scribe a ecrit ici S^ ^ -O-^ JULA-O-V, 
atr, souffle^ a la place de S^^ (j JUL^ , v^rttS. 

(y). Cette phrase est un curieux exemple d'inversion et 
d*ellipse. Ma traduction fera suffisamment com- 
prendre mon arrangement du texte ; il suffira de 
supplier les d^terminatifis de ^ ^ ^^ _V ^ vl ! • 

(z). "^^37 ^ ^ itHfi. KiJT. Le Papyrus Prisse rapproche 
ce titre de ^n:^ c=±i=3' II y a en effet certain rapport 
entre I'id^e maitre de Tceuvre^ chef dofice^ et mattre des 
choses. II y a la deux nuances de Tid^e maitre. 

Neb-kat dtait usiti comme nom de pei*8onne. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



474 Notice aur une St^te igyptienne du MusSe de Turin. 

{aa). Les derniers eignes de ce passage sont illisibles. Je ne 
distingue pas si le texte parle de rafifection du fils 
pour les parents, ou de celle des parents pour lem* fils. 

(66). pi X — H— est suivi de deux signes indistinets. Je ne 
connais de cette forme qu'un mot signifiant assoupUr^ 
courber. Beka dit pent etre qu'il n'a jamais fauasi^ 
forc4^ le sentiment de son aflfection pour ses parents. 
En fran9ais on dit, dans le mSme sens, faire erUorse (to 
q)rain). 

(cc). X "^^ (1 QQ souvent d6termin6 par le signe de la 

petitesse, signifie faiblesse^ injirmit^ (puiaement^ accable- 
menu (7 est un eflfet de la maladie et de la vieillesse, 
comme nous dirions Henfance sSnile. Beka assure que 
malgr6 la haute position qui lui donnait ime grande 
influence auprfes du roi, il n'a pas en quelque sorte 
anianti (disabled) im plus m^ritoire que lui-mSme. 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 



476 



THE BABYLONIAN CODEX OF HOSEA, JOEL, 
AND JONAH. 

Dated 916 a.d. (now at St, Petersburg)^ 

OOBfPARED WITH THE REGEIVED MASSORETIO TEXTS. 

Continued from pcige 176. 

By the Rev. Christian D. Ginsburg, LL.D. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



476 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea ytt^n uii 4 — ^iv, 6. 





B.M. Add. 15261. 


B.M. Add. 15260. 


AmUNDEL OUXRT. 16. 


B.M. Add. 9399. 


B.1C HaalSTU 


OH. T. 

iii. 4 




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Uigitized by V^OO^ 


I"- 



The Bahyloman Codex of Hotta and Joel. 



477 



MASSORAH PAKVA. 
HosEA y^inn ui| 4 — iv, 6. 



■(KIOOB Ax>D. 4M. 


B.H. Hau. 1528. 


BAMJVOnAM COMX, 


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478 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PAKVA. 
HosBA 5;^n i^» 7— iv, 16. 





BJf. Add. 15251. 


B.M. AOD. 1S2S0. 


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The Bahifhnian Codex of Hoaea and Joel. 



479 



MASSOKAH PARVA. 
HosEA ytt?^n ^'^1 7 — iv, 16. 



EBmi]>OBAiH>.46ft. 


B.M. Haul. 1528. 


BlBTLOMIAJf CODBC. 


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480 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosBA ^^^T\ iv, 16— V, 5. 





B.M. Ado. 15261. 


B.M. 


Abd. 15260. 




B.l(. Add. 9SM. 


BJCHttLill 


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iv.16 


... 













» 17 


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igitizedby VjUUV 


te ■ 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



481 



MASSOBAQ PAUTA. 
HosKA yttnn iv. 16— V, 6. 



mmiDOB AOD. 466. 


B.M. Habl. 1528. 


Babtlomiaji CkiDBX. 


PSOITID MAflfOKAB. 






... 






... 


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{▼.16 


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gitizedbvGoC ' 


.1 II 



482 



The ' Babylonian Co(le,r of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosBA ycnn V, 5 — V, 15. 



CH. V. 

V. 6 



M 6 

., 7 

.. 8 

M e 

» 10 



B.M. Ado. 15251. B.M. Add. 15250. Abckdbl OsiEirr. 16. 



» U 



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»» »♦ 
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14 



„ 16 



y> 



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B.M. Add. 9399. 



■i> 



bni^ 

BT 3 

'i>a b 'na hj 

tel3 



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D i y i i i zyU by 



Google 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



48a 



MASSORAH PARVA. 

H08BA jTttnrr v, 5— v, 15. 



I Add. 466. 






bn injo K h 



B.H. Hau. 1»28. 






^1 3 



bn «i ^D *« b 



Baitlomum Codbx. 






*«i*.{ 



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nj'Dj ?3i niBTi 
KD3 13T nirw 



ten 

tenn3 



B^h d!?3k« 



«1TI?8'J8 

O i yil i zb-U by VjOC- 



CB. T. 
V. 5 



484 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea J^ttnn '^i 15— vi, 7. 





B.M. Add. 15251. 


B.M. Add. 16250. 


ABUNDtLOUEMT. 16. 


B.K. Ain>.M99. 


BJL RitL r: 


CB. T. 

V. 16 














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igitioodb,CO(. 


tekr 



The Bmbykmian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



435 









MAS80RAH 


PABVA. 








HosBA 'SfiXfyn ▼» 15— vi, 7. 




AKBSiDa Ado. 465. 


BJL Hail. 1188. 


BAnz4>iaAii OoBB. 


















om. T. 


3 


... 


... 


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) 





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? 


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486 



The Babyloman Codex of Hoaea and Jod. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Ho9EA jnZnrr vi, 7— vii, 7. 





B.M. Add. 16251. 


BJf . Add. 15250. 


Aboiidk. Qbibmt. 16. 


B.M. Add. MM. 


B.lf.HAtt.J 


CH. ▼. 












vi, 7 


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The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
IIosEA jrtOin vi, 7— vii, 7. 



4«7 



KBmii>oB Add. 465, 



p ^n3 h^ 












B.M. Haml. lS2d. 



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3 



3 



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ni3^» 

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vt 7 
n 8 

n 9 



M 10 
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vii. 1 



■viins 



g i t i zod by 



GoQgk 



488 



The Babylonian Codex of Rosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosBA J^tt^in vii, 7 — vii, 15. 



B.M. Add. 16251. 



OH. T. 

▼iL 7 
.. 8 



«, 



H 10 



B.M. Add. 1S260. 



16. 



^1 



Dm 3 



» u 



M 12 



H »1 

13 



14 



bD3 1DB tn i 



„ 18 



"nh 






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b 



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siltDL 



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n 
b 



3 



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37 P 



fe^^ 






Th& Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



489 







MASSORAH 


PARVA. 








HosEA jTttnrr vii, 7— ▼«, 15. 




rBBi]>oaA]>D.465. 


B.M. Hab^ ites. 


BASYionAir Ooon. 


?varm Mamobar. 
















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... 


... 


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... 


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... 








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... 


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b 


3 


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3 





... 


... 


Bpn|?!t?^ 


f> •! 


... 


... 


... 


ten 


Dp139?^ 


II II 


mian^ hi h 





\r\MT\> m ^{ 


mwn» 


<Tjiiri» 


.. 1. 


... 








... 


*wj 


.. 15 


... 


... 


K 


gitizedbvGoO*?*! 


It II 



490 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA jrtl^n v"^ ^^ — viii, 10. 





B.M. Abd. 16^1. 


B.M. Ado. 1o200. 


ABUKDBLOftlSlfT. 16. 


B.M. Add. 9399. 


BJI-HablC 


oa. ▼. 
viL16 






n 


3 




„ 16 




p\b 


... 


... 




,, M 


? 


9 


oe^^ nn3i 5 


? 




viiLl 















„ „ 


bnb 




DHi 


*^3Dnli 


... 


.. 2 


h 




$ 


... 




M 8 


... 


... 


3 


5 




M 4 


... ... 


h 


h 


: ;! 




„ 5 


... 


... 


... 






M l» 






K^ 


K^ 


1 


„ „ 


... 


... 


$ 


^ 


... 


M 6 


Kin Kim 1DB 3 





l^DT 1DD h 




Kin wni r: 

1 


„ 7 





: : 


i 


: 




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bm^ 


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$ 


DHI^ 


... 


.. 9 


h^napn^onni 






1 


1 









b 
3 


*D-I1^ 


J 


„ 10 







$ 


^ ^. — C — ^'^fc /-^ r^ \~£- 


... 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel 



491 



MASSORAH PARVA. 

HosBA jrttnrr vii, is— vui, lo. 



Bmii>OB Add. 465. 


B.H. Habl. 1528. 


Babtloniam Codsx. 


PRIMTSD M4MOKAH. 
















CH. ▼. 


-- 


... 






^39T!! 


vii.15 


.. 


piV 


... 




*t6 


M 16 


bp3 





9 


9 


^y 


» ., 


.. 


... 


A 

^ 


iT*nwn^n3 3 


^T 


M «> 


.. 








^5rr^ 


Tilil 


31 ^333 bni 


!■ on D 










ID nm ^31 


b'D3 Dn 


DHD 


-ipy 


»» »» 


303 


I 














boi P t P 


IWJTf^: 


M 2 


... 






3 


n« 


.. 3 


... 








^^99 


M 4 


... 


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rr3 


} pK^ *n3 ^ 

h 

3 




.. 5 






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^ 




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n>:^y^ 


II II 


$ 




$ 


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3 


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... 


... 


1 


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... 


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n 




... 


3 


0'^^« 


M II 


— 


... 




? 


^^^! 


„ 10 








iigitlTodhyriOf 





492 



Th« Babylonian Codex of Hona and JoeL 



MASSORAH PARVA. 

H08EA yisy\n vHi, 10— he, 6. 





B.M. Add. 15261. 


B.M. Add. 16280. 


AsmiraL OiOMT. 16. 


B.K. Add. MM. 


BJC.BJM.W 


CB. T. 

TiillO 






h 


h 


- 


» 12 










^3 ten 




»» ft 
M 18 

♦» i» 
»» If 







b 




?•: 


ft ft 
., 14 


... 


$ 




^ 


... 


» n 


bhn 


... 


bnh 


Dm 


or 


ix. 1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


^ « 


»» »» 
If 11 


... 


i 


i 


... ... 




II If 


... 


... 


... 


... 


^ ^ 


If 2 


i 


i 


i 


a 




»f If 










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npaoa ^x 


If 8 

ff ff 
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... ••• 


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... 


... 


... 




... 


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If fi 


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»f If 
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... 




h 


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11 i» 


... 




... 




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11 6 

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h 


T 




ff 6 


... 


... 


... 


" ^ " T 


— 










D 


igitizeclbykjV_»VjglC 





The Babyhnian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



493 







MASSORAH PAKVA. 








HosEA jrann viu, lo— ix, 6. 




u]>os Add. Wt. 


B.M. Habl. 1S28. 


Babtlomxam Codiz. 


PBIMTKD IfAMOBAH. 








... 


... 


T 


'im 


CH. V. 

tULIO 


... 





1 


... 


tnp^ 




bbn5D 








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0*1? T^ 




3 te *ro n 


p:iraK 


^ 


tnw^ 


319?^J 


n IS 


... 


pun 





PUT 


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... 


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M 18 









... 


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. 


... 




Q 


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ton ho ^3 


... 


... 


... 


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. 


... 


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h 


rtV?'D 


M 14 


.. 







bnh 


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.. 




b 


... 


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ix. 1 


j 


3 


... 


j 


h 




.. 


... 


h 


h 


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.. 


... 


%s 


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: 


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M 8 


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... 


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. 8 


.. 


... 





... 


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.. 


... 


... 


... 


-WB^:;^ 


M n 


s 


... 




... 


^^3K^ KPP 


tt tt 


... 


... 


... 


t^K^iK^bili 


i6 


M 4 


... 


... 


b 


... 


t!! 1 nyi^^ 


>* 4. 


... •*• 


... 


... 


i. 




»» f» 


... 


... 


h 


... 


^Kpe! 


n M 


i. 




... 


... 


D^W^ DJjn^ 


M f» 


... 


... 


... 


... 


TJ?10 L)I7 


M 5 


h 


... 


... 


"> 


Dr^ 


M ., 


... 


h 





T 


nyipo 


II II 


h 


... 


h 


... 




,1 6 



494 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and JoeL 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea ytinn ix, 6— ix, 13. 





B.M. Add. 162&1. 


B.M. Add. 15250. 




B.M. Add. 9399. 


BJC. Uabl^ 


CH. T. 

ix. 6 


^ 


^ 


h 


Dni ^ 




„ 7 





ep3 


DDKna 


^3Dni 

3^ 


D^feoer 


.. M 


J 


h 






cr 


„ „ 


... 


... 


... 




^' 


M 8 









h 




»l »» 


... 






3 


... 


M 9 






... 


... 


... 


»» 11 


... 




hoh 


%"> 




M «t 


feV 




b^ 


teV 


^ 


»» »f 


... 




... 


e 


..M . 


M 10 


S 







... 




»» II 


3 





h p^BO kS h 






>l M 


bD3 te : 


i: 


bD3l^ : 


innate J 


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II II 





. 




^ 

^ 


nrj^-m 


M 11 





... 


... 


V 


b3)n: 


,1 12 




... 




V 


„ 


M If 


X^ *n3 3 






b 


rnr 


„ 13 








i* 


i' 


D3te: 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



495 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA jnyin «» 6 — ix, 18. 



rKtlHSBAoD.466. 


B.1I. Ha»l. 1528. 


Babtloniam Coosx. 


PBUrrSD MASiOKAH. 
















CH. V. 


. 


^ 


... 


Dm h 


lb 


ix. 6 


. 







: 


ntn 


n n 


. 


1DD K-i 3 




o^o 6)1 n 


itq 


M 7 


e^^iDHi 






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D^n 


f» l» 


.. 




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j 


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.. 




1 


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M „ 







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3 


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.. 


... 


... 


h 


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M 8 


.. 


... 


3 


2 


nj?**^ 


M M 


.. 




h 




rr!*){j n»33 


„ M 






... 


... 


^no?* ip'pytj 


., 


.. 


... 


$D 


bi. 


■nar. 


ft »f 


: : 


te^ 


Vd 


bV 




If ft 






... 


*> 


D'3J»3 


ff 10 


•»DD kVi h 


i 


nic2 n-iiD33 ^n 


P'BO 
«03 ^D 3 




ff ff 






... 




'"•tin 


f, ., 




b 


hmh 


h 
O 




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... 


... 




ff .. 






: 


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ff f, 




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h 


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„ 12. 




b 


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pj? «n3 ^ 




»i ft 
ft 13 


L'*^^a ^o ^ 


... 


4.. 


C»h2 Vd ' 


r- ""^^ 


„ „ 



Vol.. V. 



32 



488 



'like Babylonian Codex of Rosea and JoeL 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA J^ti^in vii, 7 — ^vii, 15. 



B.M. Add. 16251. 



B.M. Am. lUSO. 



16. 



B.M.A»l>.nM. 



BM.} 



.S7] 



OH. ▼. 

TiL 7 



10 



Dm 3 



u 



^ ! 



12 



13 



14 



bD3 IDfi Kl } 



15 



^!? 






i 
bnih 

&D313 
bD3 Dfi Kl J 

b 



b3^ 






n 
S 

bnib 
h 



Dm 



hob 



2 

a 
bD3 b-) : 

t3 



biD^ 

i 



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27 urn 



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Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Th& Sabtf Ionian Codex of Jffo$ea and Joel. 
MASSORAH PARTA. 

HosBA jnyirr vii, 7— vw, 15. 



489 



AMBmiDoa Add. 465. B.M. Habl. 1 



bm*) 






^ 
^ 



bn 



niMTV K1 ^ 



^D^ 



3 

iDfitn J 



Bismmuir Oomz. PsnmD IUmokab. 



Dm 5 



m»n» m 



H 



KiniHinviDBh 



bni 2 



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ten 
n^n n^ai nm ^ 



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gitized by 



VJP3 
n}V9 
■««^ 

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Goc ^^^ 



CB. T. 

▼li. 7 

n 8 



M 9 



10 



„ U 



n 12 



13 



n 14 



., 16 



490 



The Babylonian Codecs of Rosea and Joel 



MASSORAH PARVA. 

H08EA jrcnrr vii, 15— viii, 10. 



B.H. Ado. 15251. , B.M. Add. 1o200. 



CM. ▼. 

▼ii.16 
16 



viiLl 



M 2 

M 3 



Dno 



M 5 



Kin «ini iDfi 3 






„ 10 



9 



om^ 



ABUMDSLOftlSMT. 16. 



^DK^b ^"Tnai 5 



on: 
bD3h 






B.M. Aoo. 9380. 



3 






B.M. Hau. sni 






Kin Kim in 



Dni^ 
1 

^Dll^ 

3 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



The . Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel 



491 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea JTCnn vii, 16— viii, 10. 



kiCBBiDOB Add. 465. 


B.M. Habl. 1628. 


Babtloioaii Godsx. 


PUMTBD MASSOKAB. 








p'l^ 








CH. V. 

▼ii.15 
M 16 


bp3 




9 


9 


^ 


II n 




... 




TT^mxnrrraa 




▼iii.1 


^D3 


I bnc 


b^D3 on 


Dno 


-l^B? 


i» »» 






^D17 


7 


iwyil 


» 2 


... 






3 




M 3 

n 4 






nan wb'^s ^ 


PI 




i» »i 






^^ 






1, 6 


^ 






bm$ 




n 6 


^ 

^ 




^ 
^ 


h 




n n 
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., 7 


i 

^03 Kte nte 
on 


Dm^ 


... 
Dni^ 


3 




tt II 




... 


3 


1 
7 


«1« 


M n 


n 




... 


3 


D^^gs 


II II 


,.. 


... 




7 


^3^1! 


11 10 



492 



Th$ BabylonuM Codex of Soeea and JoeL 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA J^t&in vHi| 10— «, 6. 





B.M. Add. 15251. 


B.M. Add. 15250. 


AftUNDH. OBOWT. W. 


B.M. Add. MM. 


BJf.B.n.aU 


CH. Y. 

TiitlO 




... ... 


h 


*1 




»» »t 
It tt 
M 12 




9 

1*IV 




"^2 ho n 




II II 
,1 18 

}» II 







b 




p*: 


II II 
,. 14 


... 


*. 


... 


h 


... 


M .1 


bhT 


... 


bnh 


onn 


on 


ix. 1 


... 


... 


». 


... 


•«. «. 


II II 
II II 


... 


i 


i 


*» 




It II 
1, 2 

It II 


i 


i 


i 


Ddbnh 


npaoa ♦» 


II 8 

II II 
It II 


•*• ..• 







3 


•.• M> 


II II 
II 4 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


II II 








- 


" 







II »i 








... 


... 





... 


II II 

II n 








... 


• 


•— ... 


... 


»i II 

11 5 

II II 








... 


\ 


^ 


-. 


It II 
II 6 


n 


n 


h 


T 






















L 







The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



493 







MASSORAH J 


PAKVA. 








Hosea jrcnn viii, 10— ix, 6. 




pmii>osilx>D.465. 


B.M. Habl. 1&28. 


Babtlohxah Godxz. 


PlUtTSD MASfOEAB. 






.. 






1 


'hn\i 


CH. T. 

vULlO 


- 


... 


^ 


... 


D^J? 


>t »» 


Vo HAD 








nsmh 


0*1? l|^ 


»» »» 


?n ^ ^riD n 


panD« 


f^ 


nw$ 


31?9^ 


.t 12 


.. 


P^m 





p^31 


19^ 


M 1. 






h 


... 


'ac?" 


., 18 


.. 







„. 


'^5««V- 


»f >i 


... 








D 


D0t(tSI3 


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n TD3 te ^3 


... 




... 


W«« 


»» »t 


... 


... 


bo^h 


bnh 




., 14 







h 


... 


^ 1 Snfr 


ix. 1 


i 


i 


... 


i 


h 


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... 


... 


h 


h 


D»l?J5 


»» u 








^S 


- 


n^4 


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i 


... 





: 


eri! 


M S 


... 





I 




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?» I» 


3 





;; 


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n 8 














a?h 


f* t» 


... 


... 


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*. 


... 




... 


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M »l 


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... 


b 


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... 


h 


«•??; 


»» »» 


... 


... 


h 


... 




»» II 


h 





... 


... 


D^fijjV D^n^ 


»l It 


... 


... 


.« 


... 


Tl?tDDl»V 


M 6 


h 


... 




h 


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M M 





h 


... 


T 


nvipo 


II II 


h 


... 


h 


... 


OiaitioodbyC 


,1 e 



494 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea ytinn ix, 6— ix, 13. 





B.M. Add. 16251. 


B.M. Add. 15250. 


Aadkdel Orient. 16. 


B.M. Add. 9399. 


B.M. Hah-s: 


CH. V. 

ix. 6 


$ 


h 




DHI h 


... 


»» II 

,1 7 


... 


^3 


DfiKin 


b-ib 


D^Dfe DG IT 


II II 










'hi on a 




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3^ 




; : 


5 


h 




: 
n 


u: 


II It 

M 8 

II II 








... ^ 


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1, e 

»i II 


i^ 





boh 






M 10 


h 




... 


t3 


•^ 


II II 


3 


... 


n p'^t'o kH ^ 


'DT^ 




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bD3 ^D : 


te) 


bD3l^ I 




bD3$C 


II II 










S 


l-»t3nTr7 


II •! 


: ;: 


I I 




S 


— 


II II 













bnte3 


II II 

II 12 










h 
S 


... 


II i» 


inj'^nDa 







h 


brc^ 


„ 13 








$tD^ 


1^ T 


Da to 



Tlie Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



495 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea yOfVl «, 6— ix, 18. 



tBBi]>GB Add. 46A. 


B.M. Hael. 1528. 


B4BTL0K1AN COOSX. 


PmiMTKD MAStOEAH. 
















CH. ▼. 




^ 





Dm ^ 


rib 


ix. 6 






.„ 


: 


rjm 


„ M 


... 


1DD K1 3 


... 


^3^ t)-» 3 


«? 


» 7 


^^2 on a 


... 


... 


B^b on a 


D^n 


l> M 







2' 


3^ 


'JH.'. 


»» If 











} 


PIfJ? 


» M 








1 


1 


n?!! 


»» M 


... ... 


:: :: 


mh 


3 


enpj 


M 8 






2 


3 


n«?«WT? 


.. .. 




... 


h 


... 


^'ij^ n'33 


n >. 






... 




^ntF ipnjpfj 


M e 


... 


... 


$D 


Voi. 


■nap. 


»> n 


: : 


^h 


ho 


te^ 




H If 




... 


... 


*. 


D'9J»3 


,f 10 


*DD «Vi h 


i 


DntD3 mi333 M 


P»BO 
'D3 ^O J 




»f ff 








^ 
^ 




" M 




h 


^D1^ 


V 
O 




f, 11 

If fl 






... 


... 




fl ,. 






•? 


V 


ir-jTO? 


ff f> 




h 




I, 

f 


D'l!l'?3?^l 


„ 12- 




h 


h 


X^ ''TO V 




,f 13 


L'-^f^n ^D > 




J.. 


c«^a ^D ' 


^ -^A 


" " 



Vol. V. 



32 



496 



Tlie Babylonian Codta; of JJotea aiul Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 

HosBA jrcnrr ix, 13— x, 6. 





B.M. Add. 15251. 


B.M. Add. 15250. 


Abdhdsl Obixkt. 16. 


B.M.ADD.8S99. 


B Jl. Habl 57: 


CH. V. 

ix.ld 








h 


h 


pc: 


1» »» 
M 14 

„ 16 


t> 


h 


3 

i 


3 
*b3Dn3 




M 16 


... 


b «rn 3 a 


^D «i on a a 


on 3 a 




.t ., 


P^3 


... 


P^3 


^P^ 


-TV' 


»» »» 










n 

3 


... 


M 17 
z. 1 


*** **' 





3 


!?D3 


'tn\ 


M It 
»» l» 




h 


h 






M 2 


TODD 3 


... 


3 


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497 







MASSORAH PARVA. 








Hosea JTCnrr ix, 18— x, 6. 




M BBiDOi Add. 465. 


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498 



The. Babyhman Codex of Hotea and Joel. 







MASSORAH PARVA. 








HoflEA jrcrirr x, 6— x, 12. 








B.M. Add. 15251. 


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ABVi«DH.OmnoiT. 16. 


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The Babylonian Codex oj Hosea and JoeL 



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H08KA jrcnrr x, 6— x, 12. 






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500 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
H08BA jyttnn X, 12— xi, 8. 





B.H. Add, 16251. 


B.H. Add. 16260. 


Abundsl OinMT. 16. 


B.H. Add. 9399. 


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The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel, 



501 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosBA jnznn X, 12— xi, S. 



1 BKIIK3X Add. 460. 


B.H. Habl. 1628. 


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502 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea yonn xi, 8 — ^xi, 10. 



B.M. Add. 15261 



B.M. Add. 16250. 



ABUMDSLOmXSIfT. 16. 



B.M. Add. 9399. 



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The Babylonian -Codtx of Iloaea and Joel. 



503 



MASSORAH PARVA. 

HosBA. jninrt », s— xi, lo. 



c »miDOB Ado. 466. 


B.M. HiAL. 1528. 


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504 



The Babylonian Codex of^Ho^ea and Joel, 
MASSORAH PARVA. 

HosEA ycrin xi, ii— xu, 9. 



B.M. Add. 162fil. 



B.M. Add. 15250. Akundbl Obikmt. 16. B.M. Add. 9399. 



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The BabyUmian Codex of Hoaea and Joel. 



505 



MASSORAH PAKVA. 
HosEA y^irfn ^d, ii— iH, 9. 



KBiDo* Add. 46ft. 


B.M. Uabl. 1528. 


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506 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea jycnil xii, 9— xiii, 8. 



oa. T. 
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10 



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507 



MASSORAH PABVA. 
HosEA ytt^n xii, 9— xiii, 8. 



imiDOBAoD.465. 


B.M. Habi. 1&28. 


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The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hose A yunn xiii, 3— xiii, 12. 



B.M. Add. 15261. 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



AmuiiDSLOmiBirr. 16. 



B.M. Add. 9999. 



OH. V. 

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The Babylonian Codex of Hoeea and Joel, 



509 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA J^tZTin 3^ 8 — xiii, 12. 



rvBiDOBAoD.465. 


B.M. fiAKL. 1528. 


1 Babtloniam Gomez. 


Pmnm> Hamosaii. 




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.510 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoeea attd Joel. 



MAS90RAH PARVA. 
H08EA y)iy^ xiii, 12— xiv, 5. 





B.M. Add. 15251. B. 


M . Add. 16250. 


AsvhdslObisiit. 16. 


B JI. Add. 93M. 


B.M. H*«L 5- 


CH. V. 

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511 



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MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA J^tZyirr xiv, 6— 3UV, 10, 



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513 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA jycnn xiv, 6— xiv, 10. 



iBBiDOB Add. 46ft. 



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514 



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MASSORAH PARVA. 

JOBL hw^ h 1 — h 11' 





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MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel '^MTi i, 1— i, 11. 



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MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel SmV h 12— i, 20. 



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MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel •^MT* i, 12— i, 20. 



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Joel '^fc^v i, 20— ii, 6. 





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6i9 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel ^iUft i, 20— ii, 6. 



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MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel ^my "» 7 — ii, IS. 





B.M. Add. 16261. 


B.M. Add. 16260. 


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B.M. Add. 9399.' 


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The Babylonian Codex of Hosea a)id Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel '?M1"» ii, 14 — ii, 22. 





B.M. Add. 15251. 


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AxUNDBLOmiKKT. 16. 


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523 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel VmV u. 14— ii, 2S 



UIMBAOD.46&. 


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. 


... 


b 




Dnpp^ npK^ 


ti ti 


ibnb>^^3 


... 


... 




Vbp'j 


It 18 




h 




h 


lor^p 


It »t 


. 






^i 




.. 19 

It II 


1 «i te K a 


h 


'{ 


na^33B^^nn33 
Dnn&K^7 




tt ao 




bni 


:. ; 


on a 


lBb\ 


t» It 
II It 


h 


... 


... 


... 


W'^t? 


tt It 


. 


... 


-> 


... 


^?0\ 


II It 


^ 











WJDlf 


t» It 


K^ 








K^ 




M 21 

t» 11 

1. 22 


i 










nlrn»q3 


i» II 


.. 


... 


*p HK^ rnz^ 


... 


UiyiflzedbyLjOC ^ 


11 t* 



524 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel hi^y^ '^h 22— iii, 2. 



B.M. Add. 15251. 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



AftUNDELOmiBllT. 16. 



B.M. Add. 9399. 



OH. ▼. 

ii.22 



23 



24 



26 



26 



27 



m. :i 



on Ki ^D n 1 



p73T "TIB spin 



te* 



tel 



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n 



i 
i 



bnsDTn 
ten 



h 
h 



^or 



ni 



ten 

a 



>Dh 



Goot^k 



Digitized by 



The Babylonian Codex of Ho»ea and Joel. 



525 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel '^j^v ii, 22— iii, 2. 



bkidoxAdd.465. 


B.M. Hau. Ift28. 


Babtloniaii Codsx. 


PmuTTXD Mawoeah. 






h 

h 




h 


t 


t9» 


CH. ▼. 

ii.22 


d^B^^^^a 







1 




M 28 

II II 


... 


... 


... 


o>o)V noni a 


nwnjn 


.1 24 


... 




"to 





BTVJ!i 


1. II 






b 


J 




,1 26 

It II 
II It 


^0^ 


io^ 


b 


te' 


?ia«f\ 


II 26 

II II 







{ 




} 05.^5.?! 


II II 


... 


a 





B^a n 




II II 


n^3 te ^3 










D^" 


II 11 


... 








a 


njnj 'iKj. 


II 27 


... 




\o 


ten 

a 




II II 
iii. 1 


h 











1K3}\ 


II II 


"> 


^ 


Dm ^ 


liD^n» nni ^ 




II II 


h 




;: : 


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II II 
II 2 








D 


n 
a« 




II II 



526 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel 7^'' iii, 3 — ^iv, 4. 





B.M. Add. 16251. 


B.M. Add. 15260. 


AbuiidilObibiit.16. 


B.M. Add. MB9. 


BJLHulS 


CH. T. 

iiL 8 














... 


»» »» 







tel h 


^n^tea 


^ 


n 4 


... 


... 


2 


2 




»» »» 
»» n 

., 6 


a^ 


hoy 

^0 3^ 


h 

K3 


2 


... 


»» t» 
»i »> 


: ::: 




^ 


tel^ 


... 


iv. 1 


h 


... 


bin 


n 


tr 


»i It 
»» »» 


... 


... 




... 


^ 


»» n 


J)3»B« 


patw 


jja^jw 


pavK 


?:^ 


»» »» 


*. 





hb,h 


h 


... 


„ 8 


h 











»l n 


^ 


bD31 3 


} 


3 




»i »» 




... 


^ 


h 




» 4 






b2 bt in n 






M ft 


... 




h 





TT 


»l t» 


^?^i 







A 


bBtoptaiS 


»l »t 











,, C^ mr\n]{> 


« 















The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



527 



*£ASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel 'jNT* iii, 8— iv, 4. 



BmiDOBADD.465 


B.M. Habl. 1528. 


Babtlomun Codkk. 


PmiMTBO IfAatOBAB 















D«I7&1D 


OB. ▼. 

iii. 8 


.. 





... 


3 


Bi«)0'^ 


»» »» 


.. 


... 


\ 


... 


IP81 


» M 


.. 


h 


h 


tel^ 


lew. 


t, 4 




ter 




tea^ 


K13 


„ ,. 


y 




r 


a^ 


D^! 


.. 5 


,. 


... 


... 


K3 


D^T51 


„ M 


3 ^O B^^ fe 


... 




tel^ 




" '• 


... 


h 


D 


n 


nipfj^ D'OJS 


iv. 1 


... 






3^ 




" " 


panw 






|:)3nw 


31?^ 


» n 


^na B^^ b 


1 






D!Mg 


„ 2 


ibb 


r '" 


tel^ 




QWTini 


n »» 








:i 


'O^DJl 


It l> 








h 


'rrn<f\ 


H t« 






^ 






,. 8 


a 


bom n 


... 


3 


^"1! 


n t' 







... 


^ 


njW3 


»» n 


^ 




•TT^n hi h 


m^^n nni ^ 


Oil 


»» »» 

.. 4 


3 DnB^^ 


1. 






-^ 




) "* 






T\h^\ ^bl 


!! . 


... 





^ 




n?^? 


„ V 


# 




bS«p,^ 


fOPIPt^ 


'^ 


M M 









3 


Digitized by VjOP ??* 


„ „ 



Vol. V. 



84 



538 


The Babylonian 


Codsa of Rosea and JoeL 






MASSORAH PARVA. 






Joel ^t^n iv, 4— iv, 14. 






B.M. Add. 15251. 


B.M. AlkD. 15250. 


ABUVraLOBIBR. 16. 


BJCAB0.9aM. 


ULHmJ 


OH. ▼, 

iv. 4 







Dm 3 




rbl 


.. 6 


... 


... 


^ 


... 




It »» 

H l» 

t» tt 





B^^a bn h 


DH^ 


3 


B 


M 6 


* 










>l l» 


b 




"> 
h 




... 


n 7 












t» tt 


... 


Dm 3 


Dm 3 


'h2on\ 




n 8 


tii D^KSB'^ 


1 










D^K?^ 


h 


h 




„ 9 






... 


... 




t» n 








bt 

^ 




„ 10 

»» »» 
»» i» 
»» If 

II n 


h 
h 




h 

h 
h 


f 




,. u 







h 






II II 




« 


i 


i 




II II 





^ 


<f1»3 


^3 




1, 111 







i 


fe^T 


... 


n M 


*D-ia 


... 


>tni 


J 


\ 


II 18 


... 


... 


... 


... 




II ti 


bpa 


1 


9 


3 




II fi 


... 


... 


h 


h 




M 14 


tODSb 


... 


DfiniD 


... 


... 


II II 


— 


... 





1 rA/'~\/^l i^:: 


tx 















The Babylonian Codex of Hoaea and Joel. 



5S9 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel ^ty)«i iv, 4— iv, 14. 



ux>obAi>d.465. 


B.M. Habi. 1528. 


Babtloniaii Codbz. 


Pbmtbd Mamoeah. 








on 3 


MDi;! 


r^jrai DHi a 


B?^l 


CM. ▼. 

iv. 4 


h 


... 




h 


"lOTt« 


M 5 




B^^aonn 






Qi^eri 


»i II 


. — 


... 




: 


DJ3N3D 


It ti 








n"ia^ 


• w 


1. 6 




h 




^ 

h 


D»JJ»!3 

Dg'rnn 
D'3'yo 


,1 7 


B^3 Dm 






Dm 3 


B9^«?? 


11 M 


h 


h 


^ 


^ 


D'tj;0 


1, 8 


h 






... 


nxntni? 


,1 9 




^DT 




tet 


Dnraw 


ti If 


h 




^ 




'^if! iB'r. 


II II 


h 






h 


4nb 


1, 10 


h 






h 


Q^'W 


II 1, 






^b«o V3 11 on 






II II 




h 




h 


B'J'nr! 


,1 1. 


j'B' 'nai h 


h 




h 


4M31 


II II 






in hi ^ 


nnjq ini ^ 


nnjn 


1, » 

M 12 








»DT J 


i^.\ 


tt tf 


5 








^n^ 


H 13 




3 




9 


^P 


H II 


... 




h 




n-j J|K3 


1, .1 




} 




ip'B'ni nni ^ 


^P^n 


II II 


... 






P1DB3 3 


D^jbq 


„ 14 






tei^ 


^ 


D^jbq D^jbn 


II II 



530 



The Bahylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel ^N^i iv, 14— iv, 21. 



OH. Y. 

iT.14 
16 



»» If 
16 



n 17 



t, 18 



., 19 



.. 30 

M ai 



B.M. Add. 15251. 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



irwD 2 



iDBtnn 



Abundbl Ousmt. 16. B.M. Aim. 9399. 



3 



r|-i3 



33 



33 

^31 ^^3 *B"l n 

^Dl 13n HDHK 

hjDn3 

3 






h3T 3^ h Tn^ 

pK^13^nr|1D3K 



33 



TO1 



^:>3 ^B"i n 

3 



P^n3 3 
Dn3 



niryllrfifl hY, 



G^c>^k 



Tlie ^bylonian Codex of I/onea and Joel. 



631 



MASSORAH PAKVA. 
Joel ^t<v iv, 14— iv, 21. 



UI>OBAl>D.46ft. 


B.M. Hasl. 1628. 


Babtlokum Codbx. 


















OH. ▼. 


n 


... 


... 


... 


nxip 


iv.l4 


... 







1 


D'3?bi 


,. 16 


n 




on 







.. 16 


h 






'h2 ^Bl ID 


"909 


»» »» 




nwiB^3 




3 


tiyt}^ 


u »» 


h 




^o» b 




'»^ti»9» 


If tl 

„ 17 


?3 


I 

J 







Dyn^ 


II 11 




... 


nDDH 


... ... 




i> t> 


h 






^ 


4B9* 


.. 18 


h 








^i^^vhn 


M n 


h 


... 




^ 


K^ 


ji n 


^P^n^ ki 3 




3 


: 


^^\ 


t» tl 




IDBK-ia 


... 


... 


njnJ? n99^ 


,. 19 


p^nDT 


... 


m3K3 ^0 a{ 






II u 

M 20 
., 21 






hD bn 




Digitized by VjOO^I' 


II II 

> 



532 



The Babylonian Codex of JoncJu 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
JoKAH n2V h 1— i» 7. 



B.M. Add. 15251. 



C«. T. 

i. 1 



"IDB 'K"l ID 



*-6d y»3 K^ 



ytD3 1DB Kl 1 



ytD3 1 



on 1 



B.M. Add. 15260. 



5)^0 



nte 



K^ 



D")ytD3i 



ABcniDn.OBnMT. 16. 



n 



ytD3 1 



^b 



B.M . Add. 9aM. 



fi-ID 



n 

ytD3 BIT 



DtTf 



rba 



Pt3aOG« 



itOm^Ji-'^ 



DD3 T 

n 



DD3 bD^ D1 3^ 



Dfi K"iyt33 1 



^3 Dm 



VD3D6« 



OiQltiypfi hy 



^3Dn' 



Google 



«IT^ "are -"^ 



Th« BabifUmiaM Codea of JonaJi. 



£88 







MASSORAH 


PARVA. 








JoxAii nil*' i» 1 — ^i* 7. 






B&IIMIAOD.466. 


B.M. HAftL. 1628. 


Babtlonian CoDn. 








p ^riD ^D 


... 


... 


... 


n}V 


OB. T. 
t 1 




iDfitntD 


... 


^'^0 


wp 


.. a 







ho 


... 


n^n|n 


>» t> 




... 




T 


«Ti?* 


n i> 


e^an 


... 


9 


T 


rnp'rie 


M 3 


... 






n 


nin» »»W 


.» M 






.. :{ 


?p\ vrf?}^ K^ 


1 n« 






••ho> 


Do^oi bKprn^ 


• f M 






303 m 




n 




n 

T 






f> >l 




... 





yun yiD2 i 


njn') 


., 4 








h 


^\^'?\ 


M M 


^ 


^ 


h 


h 


njfn 


It II 


^ 






"? 


Ta?'ni> 


11 ., 






\\xr\ 


... 


«T!! 


,1 6 


^ 


H 


... 




D»ri^n 


,. II 






I^^on 


Dn^ 


>hv>i\ 


M 1, 


^ 








h 




f» fl 




h 


s 


h 


DTon 


II If 


n 




n 


n 


3TI?!1 


.1 6 


^ 




h 


^ 


«^1 






^DD BttT »D3 1 


... 


jnasDii 


»-«?t^M 


1, 7 


^ 








n^'esi 




ni^na 












^ 






h 


t?^? 




e^aoni 


DH^ 


won 


on^ 


'hm 




niVna 








"n^i 






j: "—^ \ , 


JigitizedbydOC 





534 



The Babylonian Codex of JonaJi. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Jonah T^'Tf' h 7— i, 14. 





B.M. Add. 16261. 


B.H. Ado. Ia260. 


AbunoelObibmt. 16. 


B.M. Add. 9399. 


BJC.HailKU 


CH. ▼. 

L 7 


... 




h 


h 


... 


M 8 


\0 




ItD 


ID 


r 




n 






n 










1 








3 










1 




1 


1 




M 10 






' 











i 


niK bi n 


1 


]■ 






3 JO 12 m 


r 


„ u 


ysi 3 




3 


Dni3 


... 




:: ■" 


^3n ^0 K^ 


DD3 i>0 a 


»bfeK* 


:: : 


M 12 






*3Kia 


... 


« 








^ 


1 


i. ''Thrr 








il. DPn" 








3 


3 


... 








^ 


h 


s 


„ 18 


... 


L 
/ 


h 


h 


s 




a 




DD3 ^D 3 


a 


«|T^ -uinD in:* 


M 14 


n riD a 


n riD i{ 


b63 n n3 1 
nB'p3 


} 'n »n3 1 
3 


nn3' 

T. 










Digitized by VjOO^ 


k 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



535 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Jonah ?^yfl i, 7— i, 14. 



CBmXD«BAOD.465. 


B.M. Habl. 1628. 




PuimD M4afOBAB. 




OH. ▼. 

i. 7 






... 


h 


njl^V 






n* 


n 


T»3 


.. 8 







^ 




^^fc^-ni? 




n 




... 


n 


^»1 






... 


b 


i ovi^» 


.. 9 


h 


3 





1 










... 


n«in« 


i> 




... 




ho 




<tn»»i 


M 10 


D mD E^ b 




... 




B'«??«n 




n^3 




... 


... 


n^hj 




... 






n 


ni"? ♦wk* 




... 


... 


on 


... 


iT?^ 




^V2^ "loni 3 


^333 te «^ 





11^63 n 
r:y3i 3 


} ^W 


„ u 






'^tD 


... 


DO^^S 


n 12 









3 


'j^Ki? 








na Drj 


3bl^ 

3 


Pi^l 




i» 




... 


... 


'H^? 




^ 


S 


... 


... 


^"M?n!i 


» 18 


: 


... 


a 


^ 


^^bit6i 




iVn 







^D1 


^^^n 








M3M 


«n 3^n3 1 


nj^ 


M 14 


i. 










nT3K3 

Digitized hv N^ 















m 



The Babylonian Codex of Joitali. 



MASSORAII PARVA. 
Jonah n3V i» 14 — i% D. 



B.H. Add. 15251. 



I CH. T. 

I i. 14 



15 



16 



ii. 1 



3 

4 



Dm h 



^y^D ytDD ^ 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



oip nr on h 



„ 9 



KDD n 



Dm 



^i6d^ 



... '^ 



AjtUNDBLOltlKMT. 16. 



«nD n 



^333 



f?D^j 



Dm^ 



a. p ^n3 a t ^p3 



no 
it bm Dm 7 



on 



B.M. Add. 9399. | B.M. Habx. STi 



Kn^: 



or'- 



^nn *^y 3 
bi VD3 te ^ 

3pn3 IDTinD 



on 



h^v^ yo3 ^ 

nmKvmn3 ; 

n^D i 

n j 

1*33310* \ 
ii. Dm 3 ji 

h 



n 
p *n3 ^ n*nn3 

3 



DTT- 



yc3^ 
Dom-rn: 

DD10T- 



1*333 ^tD 



*K3ni 



c^3Dr- 



T ?rrr: 
DBir: 



fer 



Guuyk 



Digitized byV^UUVlt 



The Babylonian Codes of Jonali. 



637 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Jonah TlTf^ '» 14 — "» 9- 





B.M. Hael. 1528. 


BABTbOMIAll CODKZ. 


PsumD Habiosah. 
















C«. V. 


... , 


K ^nD 3{ 


ii.K^p: iV3 


} K Tn^ 2 


xt; 


i 14 


... 





{ 


lev *3DT 


} T«3 


»» i» 


rron non nb 






... 




M 16 


vn:>nDn 


Dm h 




Dm b 


^BW9 


»» »» 


i«-)M 




^ 


^.. 


ito'n 


n 16 


^ 








• mn 


M „ 






... 


n 


♦P'l 


iL 1 


S 


h 


on 


Dm^ 


?HV 


» „ 








n 


D'p: n^ 


u n 


p *n3 nb 








nji» 


M 2 




n6tD^ 




'»^D »03 h 


n-ivP 


,. 3 


1 1DD trfin K n 

IDS ID 


Ki 1D& Mn K 1 

1DD1D 




\ Dmn 3 


'M'^JD! 


„ 4 






T 


T 


••CJI 


„ M 


"^mD^ 




omo^ 


Dnts 


'J33b\ 


n „ 






1 




[ 'Jsrwi 


M 6 


t|^DK 








tl'piN 


»» »» 


n 




Dn 




'?a3b> 


M e 


n 




n. 


T 


TKn"? 


»f M 


... 






^ 


Wi?^ 


» 7 


n 


P ^D !? 


nwi3 


p »n3 ^ 


'J'C'T? 


» M 


a 


... 





3 


fieyrtn? 


H 8 


Mm 




b. 


'333 ^D «' 

on 0'3in3 ?31 

303 


} K^?! 


.. n 


^ 




^ 


ni 


iti7pdhy\ tV M ■ 


» 9 



538 



The Babylonian Codex of Jottah. 



MASSORAH PAEVA. 
Jonah 7131"' "» 9 — ^iii, 10. 



1 


' B.M. Add. 16261. 


B.M. Add. 15260. 


AbcmdelObumt. 16. 


B.M. Add. 9399. 




CH. ▼. 

it 9 






3 


3 


• 


n 10 




h 


h 


^yteib 


— 


»» f» 


... ... 




rho D^n^Kn 3 


3 


^ 


., u 











1 


ID A? niiT iTTQ 


iiL 2 


IDDK-ltD 


ei"iO 


DDfentD 


... 

DltD 


DDinc 


«i »' 




< 




1 


u 


ti t« 






... ... 






., 3 




... 








t> 4 





tD 


tD 





r 






: : 


* 






M tt 


h 


... 




h 


L 


n 6 






nin^n 3 


3 




., 6 


tD 


tD 


tD 





b 


M 7 


n 




T 
b 


1 


2 


M 8 






^ 


^ 


k 


II II 


... 




^ 


^ 


m^ 


II II 


... 




1 


... 


« 


fl II 


... 


^Din 


n 


n 


D^r 


.1 9 




1 


131 nw^ tei 1 


I 


nc 


II II 
.. 10 









yj6n 


... 


•' " 






lniniti7PHhvCiOOQle 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



539 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Jonah njl'' "» 9 — iii. 10. 



BtfBKiDoc Add. 465. 


B.M. Habl. 1528. 


BABTLOiriAlt CODCX. 


PBOfTID MAflfOSAB. 






3 


... 


3 


3 


Kir*^?" 


OB. ▼. 

it 9 




^ 


... 


h 


"9^8 


., 10 


OK^B^^b 


... 


3 


3 


nov«^, 


t. .. 









■lOK^J ^^3 n 


} m^'i 


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... 




^ 


S 


KRl 


M n 


... 


IDDK-ID 




5)1 tD 


D^p 


iii. 2 


p *n3 ba 










-I'Vi? 


„ „ 


... 




... 


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XTi?' 


M ,. 


... 


... . 


KTpibTp-ins!? 


^ 




tl t» 


n 




... 





n)n; -1319 


M 8 


in k6 hatD 3 n 




Hy 






n 4 


... 


h 


... 


^ 




t, 6 


no3 *niD 


\ ^ 


Xi 


tD 


m'l 


H 6 




... 


T 


1 


P»I!1 


M 7 




... 


... 


... 


ijnr^«« 


M l» 


nao3 D11 h 


'tr\h 




^Dn^ 


W5pn 


., 8 








^D-lb 


^vr^'X 


M f» 








^DIT 


"i?tC? 


M „ 




^tr\n 




Dm n 


«r:i 


M M 








noi 


onji 


M 9 


h 


... 






i3Ki i6i 


»f »l 


... 




... 


b 


D'il^iJ KT!1 


H 10 


... 






1^33 n 




>» M 


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... ^. 


^i.izedbPeO^'JBO?!! 


,. » 



540 



The Babylonian Codea of Jonah. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Jonah n31^ Jii, 10 — iv, 7. 



OH. T. 

Ui.lO 
!▼. 1 



M 8 

II 4 

„ 6 

♦I i» 

ti 6 



B.M. kBO. 16251. 



nna i 



^Dr!5\ 



nJn.^D^nnonAn'; 



B.lf. Aiw. 1S8M. 



AmovDBLOftnwT. M. 



rwff^^ b6 h na 1 



3* 

1 



)iDP nip: *:d^ 
Kin 5ii->ni 

n 



B Jf . Aw. MM. 



BJf.HABLl 



KV 

p *n3 1 



{ 



n 

n 



Digitized by VjUUVJ ii^ 



fcrrnnfei"?:' 



*2J3pn: 



The Babylonian Codex of JonaJi. 



541 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Jonah rT3V >". 10 — iv, 7. 



kj[»«bAi».465. 


B.M. Habl. IKt. 


BABTLomAv Co»m. 


PftnTO MAatMuuL 






n 


... ... 




n 


np7 Kb\ 


OB. ▼. 

ili.10 




... 


^D 




n^n? 


!▼. 1 


. 




«V 


nnB«v 


io«*l 


n 2 


. 


n *n3 1 




n^nai 


nj^^ 


» „ 


: 








n\n:. nn^ 


»f i» 


vhn 








«fe 


<i » 


r 


... 




r 


^^91 


,. » 


: 







a 


^Wl^ 


» „ 


.. 




... 


piB'ann 


Wli? 


.» M 


1 








T 


ma 


1* It 


nao 


HB \ 






wrn\ pin 


»» t» 




... 


t: 


T3 


- ^^J^P 


M 3 


a 






3 


aQ^^^ 


n 4 




... 


... 


n 


1^ nin 


i» tt 


: 








"9? 


M 6 




... 




m^ 


V« 


»t »» 








n 




M 6 






... 


^333 n 


D^rt^^ njh^; 


t> >t 


fi^^an 








^^^^^? 


»l »f 




... 


h 


*? 


nj'i^ ^yp 


»l tl 


n 








l^iVi^n 


11 »» 


■\^? 




hti 


... 




M 7 


b 






D^n$»|t?n«i^ 


o^-i^T l^'l 


»» >l 


n% 




n 


n 


rt^p 


n M 









n-intD^ «i h 


Digitized by VjUi 


» ., 



542 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
JoKAH niiV iv» 6 — ^iv, 11. 





B.M. Add. 16251. 


B.M. Ado. 16250. 


AbumdblOkiknt. 16. 


B.M. Ain>. 9399. 


BJf.HAU.1 


CH. ▼. 

iv. e 


... 


... 


... 




«. 


» 7 


... 




on nm ho 2 3 


te 3 } w^ni 




» 8 









3 




»» It 


ho^h 


b 


tei^ 




to 


„ 9 




... 


PD 


03 


TOII 


»» »» 








a 


... 


» 10 


h 


h 


... 


... 


- 


M M 


... 


... 




... 




l» »1 


B^bn 


h 




^^3 Dn 1 P3«5^ 




»» »» 












r 


It tt 




K Dm 


K Dm 

Di( 


K Dm ni 
tized by Google 


ucr 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



543 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Jonah nj)^ iv, 6 — iv, 11. 



I Al>l>. 466. 



B.1L Habl. 1528. 



BABtXX>iaAM CM>K 



PmumD Mauokah. 



on K1 ^ a a 



*yaa 



tsr>b2 n 



zrh2 n 






I 



Dia jns'ni ^ 



Kom 



bofira^ 



bob 



on nni bo a a 

a 



boib 

h 

a 
a 



on' 



i;a«n 



p bai B«ba r 
131 p: 



K Dm 






*5^ 



Goc 



Vol. V. 



j i y i iuyu uy 



35 



544 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Jonah TXTf^ i> 2 — ^ii, 1. 



CH. T. 

i. 2 



B.M. Add. 15251. 



-103 IDT 



,. 4 

» e 

M 7 



M 8 

»f l» 

fl It 

M e 

12 

,. 13 

» 14 



pn^D^DI ItD 



pnatD^Di 3 



ii. 1 



B.M. Add. 16250. 



jr6tDytD3iK^ 



^K^3:3 ^K^tD K* 



AbuudslObukt. 16 



bDVDW n 

3oa IDT niK 
iD^Di nin^ >:bd 

wo 7D1- 

•••^Kpimi 

-DDD IDT 

tD^DI 1«D3 1 

D^DI n 



\ 
) 

DWDBni«DD1 

tD^DI ltd 



B^nnnDi 

n^tDT«Tn3K^D1 
KH HD IDT 



b^DIT 



B Jf . Add. mm. 



B^3 on 1 



pn^D^Di n 



iruD^wi 



^o^y\ 



X\nyo'w i 



...{ 



jbyGooQle 



BJLBi&d 



nrwr 
nvr 1 



prna 



prwDtnis 






prr» 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



545 



MASSOBAH MAGNA. 
Jonah n31^ i> 2 — ^ii, 1. 



uimsAdd.465. 


B.1L Hasl. 1628. 


Babtu»ma> Godkx. 


PmuiTBD Mawokah. 




CH. V. 

i. 2 


... 


... 


... 


* tj-ltD 


Dip 


... 




pn^D^Dinpnn 





nr?h5 


n »» 




... 


< 


toVD^DI 3tDa 
IDT Knp -WK^ 

mn* ODD 




n 8 

M »» 

.. 4 







itDwrifiDloin 


D^Di pnne n 


3"]i3?l 


» e 


. 












» 7 

It It 
It 8 


: : 


:: : 


:tD^D1 tD^ 


... 




11 It 


. 








tsvinttinKnti 




„ 

It It 
It It 
,1 12 


• 


pwtD^Di y 


»'Di i \o nn 


D»D1 Knp3 J 




t. 13 

It It 
,1 14 


- 











m 


II It 






1 


»3Dn won » 
KnpaTtw 


^3 


It It 


"... 










on?; nv>^ 


ii. 1 



546 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah, 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Jonah rTSV "» ^ — '^^t 2. 





OB. 


Y. 


it 


4 


" 


6 


»» 


" 


.. 


8 


t. 


9 


»i 


10 


»i 


n 


ill. 


2 


»» 


4 


»i 


tt 
6 


f» 


6 


t» 


7 


" 


" 


»» 


8 


tt 


tt 


" 


9 


" 


10 


tt 


tt 


!▼, 


2 


tt 


tt 


" 


•• 


" 


'• 


tt 


" 



B.M. Add. 16261. 



pn:tD*Di n 



B.M. Ado. 16260. AmunDBLOBmr. 16. 



pnaD^Di 



pn3D*D1 T 






tD^Di y 



tD^Djn 



B.M. Ad». tSM. 



•■■{ 



tD^DI Dfi in tD 


^ 


O^WtD 


pn:tD*Di ID 


tD^DI^ 





1ff*U\2 


priMD^i a 


O'DltD 


... 


tD^DII 


pn^o^Di 1 


tD^on 


pn:tDW 1 


tD^Di vtr\ n 





tD^ H' 


pnotyoi vriyo 



PiT»W *1 



Digitized by 



Googk 



-npatr 



^1K 



I" 



nnp: 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



547 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Jonah nji** ii, 4 — iv, 2. 



nwB Add. 466. 


B.M. Habl. 1623. 


BABTU>iriA]l CODBX. 


PxnmD MABfOKAH. 
















CH. Y. 


in^O^DI T 


pnao^Di n 


:D^m T \o in 





->W 


iL 4 


in^O'DI T 












„ e 






pn^tD^onitDin 


♦D1 ^-pa 1 




•» »» 

M 8 

,. 




... 


pn:tD*Diapnn 


... 




,. 10 

,. n 









♦D1 5)1 tD 


IMP 


lit 2 

.1 4 










* ^piDD ^ 




r* It 
»i If 




... ... 


... 


... 


UWl 


n 6 


in:D^Di ID 




... 


♦ tD 


13K1 


„ e 


... 


... 


|in:tD*Dn|Din 


* n 


Wl 


» 7 


... 










net!?? 


i« i> 
« 8 




... 


... 


* oni ren n 


«^,i 


»» ft 


... 


... 


nn Dmi Dm 


... 


DWl 


ff 




i 


DO^I DB \ JO 

113 nn;t5^ tei 


\ 




„ 10 

fl »l 




... 


... 


B^^a n a^ro i 


"?^ 


iv. 2 


... 





*• 


HK^ipa ntrpa 
b^Di 


} « 

Digitized by V_ 


tf ff 


1 1 







548 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonafi. 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Jonah ^XSV 'v> 4 — ^iv, 10. 





B.H. Add. 16251. 


B.M. Add. 16260. 


ABunDBLOunrr. 16. 


B Jf . Add. MM. 


BM.EiMx.r 


CH. Y. 












iv. 4 


|in:tD*Di 3 


... 


... 


... 


1p3 XC 


l» »» 














pr^ 


» e 























1 




♦ 1 M 







n3T nD3 131 




... 






' 


•••ninv:i« 


. 




M 7 


pn^D^Di n 




tD^Di n 


• 


•" 


»» »» 


on K1 ^tD a a 


1 

i 








... 


M 10 







D^DI « Dm 


{ 

pn^D^Di K Dm 


prnc^ 
















Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Tlie Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



549 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Jonah fiif)'' »▼» 4 — ^iv, 10. 



UDOSAOD.465. B.M. Habl. 1S28. 


BABTLOiriAlt CODBZ 








• ••• 




... ... 






30*00 


OB. T. 

It. 4 


. 


... 




wa 






>« It 
II tt 


. 




I 


D^oa pn3o 1 n 






,. e 

It tl 

,1 7 




}- ■• 


« 







PTP 


It tt 







' 


on Ki ^ a a 

^D1 


} 


l^yij 


II It 


D^mr^a: 





am 


-on pn:tD 1 






tl 10 

II It 
It tl 



[Additional Notes will be given in Vol. VI, Part 1.] 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 



550 



THE TENNO-SAMA, OR MIKOSHI; ARK-SHRINES 
OF JAPAN. 

Br William Simpson. 
Mead ea March, 1877. 

When in Japan in 1873, I chanced to become acquainted 
with the curious fact that in some of the religious ceremonies 
of the country a shrine is used, which is carried by means 
of staves on men's shoulders, in the same manner as the 
Ark of the Covenant is described to have been. As these 
shrines have many points of resemblance to the Ark of the 
Jewish Tabernacle, and as they do not seem to have been 
yet described, a short account of them may be of value to 
Biblical scholars. 

The name given to them is Tenno-Sama^ which may be 
translated ** Heaven's Lord"; they are also called Mtkoshi; 
mi, is " precious " or " honourable," koshi, is seat. 

In construction these shrines are miniatures of a Japanese 
temple ; there is a small square cella, with a large over- 
hanging roof; the cella has folding doors on each of its 
four sides; round the whole is a miniature wooden fence, 
through which there is a gate of approach to each door. 
Temples in Japan are all made of wood, and a particular 
kind of tree is sacred for this purpose, and I understood that 
this wood was also used for the construction of the Tenno- 
Samas. The temple of Solomon was built principally of 
wood and bronze, the early Greek buildings were also of 
the same materials, and this condition of architecture is 
still to be found in Japan to-day, and many of the temples 
are very beautiful specimens of work. Brass or bronze is 
largely used for binding the wood together, as well as for 
ornament. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



JPaj^ 3S0, 





Vn. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TennO'SamOy or Mikoshi ; Ark^Shrines of Japmu 551 

Some of these arks have small figures of a deity within 
them, and they no doubt belong to the Buddhist faith. The 
primitive religion of Japan is Shintoism, and its temples are 
marked by the absence of idolatrous images. Lately Bud- 
dhism has undergone something like dis-establishment, and 
Shintoism is now proclaimed as the only religion authorized 
by the State. There are three emblems which are common to 
a Shinto temple : these are a Mirror, a Sword, and a Jewel ; 
some accounts make it a Casket instead of the last-named 
article, but the Casket contains the Jewel; as the Mikado 
as Emperor is eaH>jfficio a god, the Tenno-Samas sacred to 
him contain these three symbols: they are the insignia of 
his rank; they are called Mitahara, Miy is rendered as 
" three," and takarcL^ as '* precious things." Satow's transla- 
tion is very slightly different ; he puts it, ^^Mit&^wra is com- 
pound of the honorific mt, corresponding in meaning to the 
Chinese gOy Uj a contraction of tac, an curchaic word for 
cloth. This is the derivation given in the Wakunkan." This 
word also means the Goheiy and the Gohei is also at times 
rendered the Jewel; but the Gohei is not a "Jewel" in our 
sense of the word ; it is a slender wand set up on end, to 
which is attached a piece of cut paper, which hangs down 
symmetrically on each side. This emblem is firequently the 
only object to be found in the sanctum of Japanese temples. 
This curious symbol of worship is said to represent cloth or 
clothes, and that hemp was one of the primitive offerings of 
an early age, and the paper now stands for the hemp. The 
Mirror, one of "Three Precious Things," is always round, 
and is, according to Japanese authorities, a symbol of the 
Bun. There is a legend that the first mirror was made by a 
mj'thic blacksmith, the counterpart of Vulcan no doubt, and 
iron fix)m the mines in Heaven was procured for the purpose. 
In addition to the mirror in the cella, there are twenty-four 
small round mirrors on the outside ; they are placed on the 
folding doors, three on each side, one above the other. 

The comer ridges of the roof are elongated, and turned 
into what might be termed the horns of the altar, from each 
is suspended a smcJl bell, as in Chinese bells on temples, 
there is a piece of thin flat wood suspended, which is moved 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



552 Tenno^Safna, or Mikoihi; Ark-Shrines of Japan. 

when the wind blows, oausing the clappers to strike, ihos 
producing an agreeable effect when Ihere is a number of 
them. On the upper side a small bird is perdied on eadbt ; 
these are not unlike doyes ; quails are &Tourite birds with 
tiie people of that country, uid it may be these birds wUdi 
are intended. Eaempfer describes these shrines as haTing 
^a gilt crane on the top," but those I have seen were sur- 
mounted by a cock. This is explained firom ^ifttoism being 
founded on sun-worship, and the cock is a worthy wor- 
shipper, being usually the first to announce the early dawn 
of morning. 

The outer gateways are a very important feature in all 
Japanese temples, both Buddhist and Shinto; they are 
erected on the approaches to temples as something honorific, 
at wealthy and well firequented shrines numbers of these 
peculiar gateways have been erected, it will be seen firom 
the drawing that they bear a strong fiunily likeness to the 
Fallows of the Chinese. They are called Tbrii, which is said 
to mean ^Bird Rest^" and that they were so called fi*ora a 
dove resting on the first (me which was constructed. Their 
original signification is difficult to arrive at, for they are no 
doubt very ancient, and many ideas are now connected with 
them, and their supposed power of conf^ring purification on 
those who pass through is too remarkaUe to be omitted ; on 
this account it is considered neoesscory to wash the hands 
%rith water before doing so. One of the brass ornaments, 
and which is repeated many times on this ark, is a circle, 
containing what might be described as tiiree notes of inter- 
rogation, or a trefoil of decorated Gothic. It is caUed mitz- 
tomoye^ or the three tomoyes; but what tamatfe means I have 
not yet been able to discover. It bears such a strong resem- 
blance to the Chinese Yin^Yanff^ that although the one is a 
dual symbol, and the other triple, I can hardly doubt but 
there must be some connection. 

It was not my good fortune to see any of the ceremonies 
with these arks, but I have seen a picture where one is 
carried on men's shoulders, and a surging crowd around, 
evidently pushing, while the shrine sways heavily to one side, 
and the crowd are throwing what seems to be pieces of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Termo-Sania^ or MHoshi; Ark-Shrines of Japan. 553 

paper in the aii*, baimerB are being carried, and nameroiis 
hands are holding up £euis, which are being waved towards 
the sacred object. 

There are seven of these shrines in the temple of 
Hachiman at Eamakura ; they are said by some to be State 
Norimans, but as these shrines are connected with the deified 
Mikado, they are most probably Tenno-Samaa, or Mikoahis, as 
well as Norimans. This is confirmed by a statement of 
Eaempfer's ; he says, " The MUcoshi themselves being eight." 
From this it is evident that a certain number, it may be eight 
as Kaempfer puts it, or seven as they are stated to be at the 
tepiple of Hachiman, are connected with the peculiar rites 
and ceremonies which belong to them. 

1 may also mention that I found a toy shop in Yokohama 
where small ones were sold as toys for children. I also 
found that small models could be got, and I brought home 
two of these. One, a very beautiful model, I got made at 
the request of the Rev. W. D. Parish, Rector of Selmeston, 
Suffolk, in whose possession it is; and the other is in the 
Museum of the Andersonian University, Glasgow. 

The many points of resemblance between these Tenno- 
Samas and the Ark of the Hebrew Temple are so evident 
that they require no insisting upon. I cannot pretend to 
explain how such resemblances have come into existence. 
The geographical space between Palestine and Japan adds 
much to the difficulties of the problem. The question of 
race is also another of the knotty considerations involved. 
I would suggest that the subject is worthy of fiirther con- 
sideration, and I would refer readers to Bellew's Journal of a 
Political Mission to Afghanistan iu 1857, p. 49, where he will 
find an account firom one of the Afghan Tawarichhsj or 
histories, which recounts how a tribe called Bani-Israel has 
an ark called the Tabutri-SakincL, made of Shamshad wood ; 
on it were figured all the prophets of God, and it was the 
oracle of the tribe. I would also refer to an article written 
by myself, descriptive of what I saw, and published in Good 
Words, in September, 1866, which describes some very curious 
ceremonies in the Himalayas, where an ark-like shrine was 
carried with staves on * men's shoulders, roimd which the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



554 Tenfto^Sama, or Mikoshi; Ark-Shrines of Japan* 

people danced with music, and to which offerings were 
made, and they called this shrine their Khuda or *'god.'* 
Afghanistan and the Himalayas are a long way from Japan, 
still these ceremonies will show that portable shrines or 
temples had a very extended acceptation in the ancient 
world, relics of which only exist now in out of the way 
quarters. 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 



555 



THE SI teLE C U OP THE LOUVRE. 
Bt 0. Maspero. 

Bead IH May, 1877. 

The stile C 14, published by Lepsius (Answahl, taf. ix), 
and Prisse d'Avennes (Monuments Egyptiens, pi. vii), has 
been often alluded to, but never translated. It was found 
in Abydos by Th^denat du Vent, sold to Cousiniry, and then 
to the Louvre. Champollion, struck by the conformity of 
dtyle which it oflfers to the stele 45 in Turin, ascribed it to the 
XXIst Dynasty, and tried to discover on it the names of king 
Smendes and king Psousennes (Lettres k M. le due de Blacas, 
deuxiime Lettre, pp. 114-118). De Roug^ thought "it might 
be considered on the whole as being one of the master-pieces 
of Egyptian sculpture*' (Catalogue des Monuments Egyp- 
tiens de la Salle du Rez-de-chauss^e, 1849, p. 47, and Rapport 
adresB^ k M. le Directeur-g^n^ral des Musses Nationaux, 
1851, p. 17), and his opinion was fully re-echoed by Orcurti. 
The fact is, the first draught of the hieroglyphics, which 
was done in red ink, and remains to this day visible, is 
exceedingly fine, but the carving, although veiy elaborate, 
is by no means excellent. 

C 14 was erected for a certain y a^^a IriHteth in the 

reign of Mentuhotep, Rorneb-kheru (Xlth Dynasty). Iritiseu 

and his wife x ^ ^ Hapu^ are figured twice on it. First, 

in the lower part, sitting together upon one seat, the lady 
with one arm lovingly put aroimd the neck of her lord, the 
man raising to his nose an alalxistron full of perfumed oil ^. 
Before them is a low table, piled with every description of 
victuals ; over them a legend — 

k ^^^ ^ X n ^ 1 " Funereal meal of bread and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



556 The SUle CUofthe Louvre. 

liquor, thousands of loaves, liquors, oxen, geese, all good 
and pure things, to the pious Iritisen ; his pious wife Tirho 
loves him, Hapu." In the middle register, they are represented 
standing. Iritisen holds in the left hand the long stick of 
elders and noblemen, in the right the "sx-* sceptre; both 
are making front to a procession of their own family. 

^ iS lf">i— "jH'^'J "His son, his eldest, 
who loves him, Usortesen*^ heads it; then follow — 

•^ I *^^\ r*"'"i ^v — .A— • /" 1 

^^^_ HIJ *^--^ p^, ^ ci 1 " ^^ ®^^' wholoves 

him, Mentuhotep/' and ^^ ^_ j||l '^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ I 
"his son, who loves him, Si'Mentu"*; immediately afler 

whom we find a lady ^^ ^ ^ Zl \i. ^^^ '''^''^ 

Jar ^— ^ ^ »t— .Hr^ A^/vo^ ^ 

(«ic for ^), **his daughter, who loves him, Qwn," and 
^^ [l dH n !k ^111^ I "her son, who loves her, Temneru* 
There is every reason to think that Si-Mentu had married 
his sister, and that Temnen was his as well as Qim's 
child. Usortesen is about to sacrifice a goose to his £sither, 
according to rite, and Mentuhotep be€u*8 an ox-thigh. 

The inscription begins with — 

T 3. ^ -> !^ J A ^ <=> M T" ^ j^*H=* 

7 ^ ^ r<=>1l!^P^ "The living Hor. who 
unites both lands, the lord of diadems, who unites both 
lands, king of Upper and Lower Egypt (son of Ra, Mentu- 
hotep), everliving ; — his true servant, who is in the inmost 
recess of his heart, and makes his pleasure all the day long, 
the devout unto the great god, Iritisen." 

The formula of proscynem contains some uncommon 
variations of the usual text. (Line 3 :) 1 ^ A f1 J) '^^^^^ n 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



c^ 



T/ie SUle C 14 of the Louvre. 557 

^I^'^'pBIm^ r '^^^ " Proscynem to Osiris 

lord of Mendes, Khent-Ament, lord of Abydos, in eJl his 
places, that he may give a funereal meal of bread and 
drink, thousands of loaves, liquors, oxen, geese, linen, 
clothes, aD good and pure things, loaves without number,* 
beer, spirits,* cakes of the lord of Abydos, white cream (?) of 
the sacred cow,* on which the Manes^ like to feed,* for the 
devout unto Osiris and Anubis, lord of the burying grounds, 

the chief of artists, the pR a ^ ^ Iritisen." 

The word | f!^ ^ derived from 3^ a, by addi- 

tion of the formative ^ 11, so that g ^ ^ is the man of d 

the man who etUs (lit,, scrapes) the hieroglyphics and 
engraves the scenes on the walls of tombs and temples. In 
one of the versions of Sineh's life (Inscriptions in the Hieratic 
and Demotic Characters, pi xxiii, Ostr. 5629, line 2), it is told 

that ^1 ;=; ^^ ? n ^ JJ^, " *^^ ^^^^ «^p*^^ 



8 n J i| for ^ju, 8 nj I " without wckoning." 

* Sanae doUbtfiil, probably from 1 1 ineaietcer^, f&rwre. 

* Tha oow haa a aun-diak, Q^ between the homa, in the original. 

* The aign bafoi^ the ^^v^ ia a Tariaat of 0, which ia found often in hiero- 

gljphical testa of the Xl-XIIIth Dynaatiea. It ia deriTed ficom the hieratic 
f onn of ^ 

«9fi» gA for 4- ^ by a miatake of the acribe in the transcription of 

the hieratic original. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



558 The SUU C 14 of the Loui>re. 

will carve in his tomb." IritiBen was more than ^ f! ^ • 
he drew or painted, Si as well as carved, 3 and gave 
himself in consequence the title of jft^'^'^ "scribe- 
carver," or more properly " draughtsman and sculptor." He 
was very proud of his skill, and not shy of praising himself. 

The last ten lines of the inscription are filled with an 
enumeration of his own virtues, and to this vanity we are 
indebted for the knowledge of what was required then from 
an Egyptian artist. 

'S:-4ii^JPJ^S=f>»Vk¥V 



> See <m the form, Le Page Benouf, Grammar, p. 24-27. 

* There k before ^i^ tlie sign which haebeen explained in note 4, p. 567. 

* Mistake of the scribe for ^ 

* Mistake ofthe scribe for h 41- ^ M "^^^ 

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The SUle C 14 0/ <A« Louvre. 559 

_^^ (Lmel3:) ^(| H^|lj^ Y ^ ^ 






Iritisen begins by telling ** that he knows the mystery of 
the divine word,*' and that " he is an artist skilled in his 
art." The three following verses are intended to support this 
general assertion of excellency. " I know," saith he, " what 
belongs to it, the sinking waters, the weighings done for the 
reckoning of accounts, how to produce the form of issuing 
forth and coming in, so that the member go to its place." 
Every word, when strictly analysed, seems to yield two 
different meanings. In a material sense, Iritisen is only 
thinking of his personal ability in drawing scenes of civil 
and domestic life, the rising and sinking of inundation such 
as is often represented on the walls of tombs, the weighing 
by scribes of tributes brought by townspeople or husband- 
men, the motion of a man through the various stages of 
walking, so that each individual member be not out of Hue, 
but sit well in its place. In a mystical sense, the whole is 
an allusion to various chapters in the Book of the Dead. 
Chapter ex, for instance, is a picture of the Egyptian 
Elysium, with its fields of wheat and barley, its canals and 
pools of firesh water filled by the celestial Nile. Chap- 
ter cxxv has a description of how they weigh the heart of 
man and reckon human deeds before the infernal jury. The 

"performing of rites which cause the dead to issue forth and 
come in, and make every member go to its place," is a sum- 
mtuy of more than twenty chapters (xxi-xxx, Ixiv-lxxvi, 

Vol.7. Digitized by GWOglC 



560 The Stile C U of the Louvre. 

cxvii-cxxvii, &c.), in which the Osiris is ordered to enter 
several places and to come out of them at his liking, and 
has the use of his members given back to him, so that every 
one of them be not taken away from him, but ** go to its 
place." 

" 1 know the walking of an image of man, the carriage 
of a woman, the two arms of Hor, the twelve circles (cerchi) 
of the blasphemers, the contemplating Ihe eye without a 
second which affiights the wicked, the poising of arm to 
bring the hippopotamus low, the going of the runner." If 
we take the material sense, this second verse is only the 
continuation and development of the last sentence in the 
first. Iritisen tries to particularise some of the shapes he 
was able to give his figures, the peculiar bearing of a stand- 
ing statue ci ^ ^li fl the carriage of a walking woman /ft 

Then, passing to divine subjects, he could make the two 
arms of Horus, paint the twelve circles of the Egyptian 
Hades, through which Ra has to sail during the night, from 

the moment he disappears into the Ro-Peqer ( 
or ^ lA^'S^r ^®®* ^^ Abydos, to the moment he arisea 
again in the east, represent the scenes of adoration to RS, in 
which the actors were spirits in human shapes, with heads of 
hawks or jackals, and cynocephali. The last two mentioned 
would refer to hunters pursuing the hippopotamus and to 
running men, or to Horus poising the javelin before killing 
the hippopotamus, and to Ra, ** the runner which no one is 
able to catch in the morning of his births." If we take the 
mystical sense, we must apply for interpretation to the ftme- 
real papyri which bear the title of " Book of knowing what 
there is in the Lower World," good specimens of which have 
been translated or published by Dr. Birch and M. Pierret 
Then the " walking of an image." the ** carriage of a woman," 
and the " two arms of Hor," would be the transcription in 
words of the picture which represents two human arms belong- 
ing to an invisible body, and holding various figures, the most 

conspicuous of which are a standing mummy o ^ o 11 
and a woman M The twelve hours of night, the adora- 

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The sale C 14 of the Louvre. 561 

tions of Ra by Osiris, would be alluded to in what follows. 
-A n x <=> would be referred to the Sun, as in the first 
interpretation. 

For the last verse, "I know the making of amulets 
[which enable] us to go without any fire giving its flame, 
and without our being washed away by water," we could 
suppose that Iritisen praises his skill in devising real amu- 
lets to preserve the living from real flames and water, or 
pretends to know the charms that save the dead from the 
flames and waters of the underworld. 

Both meanings being admissible, I think that both 
meanings must be admitted at once. I have often remarked 
that Egyptian writers delight in ambiguities of diction. 
They were fond of putting words that could be interpreted 
in two different ways or more, and took care that every 
sentence following these words might be construed with one 
of the meanings as well as the other one. Iritisen tells us 
at the beginning that he is initiated " to the mystery of the 
divine word," and that he is an aii;ist : the same words are 
used all through the inscriptions to express both facts. I 
have tried to transfer the double meaning of the original in 
our modern tongues, and to give a translation which may be 
interpreted both ways. 

** I know the mystery of the divine Word, the ordinances 
of the religious feasts, every rite of which they are 
fr'aught, I never strayed from them ; I, indeed, am an 
artist wise in his art, a man standing above [all men] 
by his learning. 

1. " I know what belongs to it, the sinking waters, the 
weighings done for the reckoning of accounts, how to 
produce the form of issuing forth and coming in, so 
that a member go to its place. 

2. " I know the walking of an image of man, the carriage 
of a woman, the two arms of Hor, the twelve circles 
of the blasphemers, the contemplating the eye with- 
out a second that affrights the wicked, the poising of 
arm to bring the hippopotamus low, the going of 
the runner. 

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562 The SUle C 14 of the Louvre. 

3. "I know the making of amulets, that we may go 
without any fire giving its flame, or without our being 
washed away by water I 

" Lo I there is no man excels by it but I alone and my 
eldest legitimate son: God has decreed him to be 
excellent in it ; and I have seen the perfections of his 
hands in his work of chief-artist in every kind of 
precious stones, from gold and silver even to ivory 
and ebony ! 

"Fimereal meal of bread and liquors! Thousands of 
wine, loaves, oxen, geese, linen, clothes, all good and 
pure things, to the devout Iritisen-the-wise, son of 
dame Ad.*' 




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563 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 



CONDENSED REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS DURING TflE 
FOURTH SESSION, Novbmbbb, 1876, to July, 1876. 

Tuuday, November 2, 1876. 
S. BiBOH, LL.D., President, in the Chjur. 

The following Candidates were nominated for election at the next meeting . — 
H. Sjer Cuming, F.R.G.S. ; H. B. Edwards ; W. Golenischeff (St. Peters- 
burgh) ; Rer. Isaac Hall (Beirut) ; ^. C. Hamilton (Tunbridse Wells) ; Rev. 
Prebendary Huxtable, M.A. ; Mrs. Lowe, Richmond Gardens, W. ; Rev. 
Edmund McClure ; Mrs. William Morris ; Geo. St. Clair, F.R.G.S. s Geo. Fydell 
Rowley (Brighton) ; Rer. W. Turner (Edinburgh); W. Woodman (Morpeth) ; 
Henry Wright (StaflTord House). 

The President next offered some introductory remarks. Dr. Birch said the 
Society now numbered 400 members, and that its success was due to the enersy 
of the Society and the part it played in public education, especially by its 
energy in an age of uniyersal education. He stated that great attention was 
paid to primary education, greater to secondary education, and some to what he 
would (»11 tertiaiT education, not only the diffusion of what was known, but 
researches into the unknown. The Society had assumed a high position, its 
Transactions being not only enriched by English but Foreign contributors. He 
spoke fdso of the good it had done by patronising the Records of the Past, and 
that it had fulfilled to a great degree a function only performed abroad by 
official assistance, the zeal of priyate individuals haying been seconded by the 
Professors, who had given gratuitous instruction to young persons desirous 
of leamine the Egyptian and Assyrian languages, while the general public had 
placed be^re them the Records of the Past, published under the auspices of the 
Society. In conclusion, he urged on the Society to increase its numbers, as 
it would then be able to publish a quarterly journal, and give the valuable papers 
contributed to its Transactions at an earlier period. 

The following papers were then read : — 

I. On the Egifptian Mummy in the Collection of Hie Grace the Duke of 
Sutherland. By S. Birch, LL.D., F.S.A. — Dr. Birch gave an account of the 
different processes of embalming, and the prevalent ornaments of coffins and 
cartonages or outer wraps of mummies, which appear to have come into use at a 
later period of the art, and to have superseded the more elaborate decorations of 
wooden coffins. The cartonage of the Duke of Sutherland's mummy and its 
decorations were treated mjthologically, and some explanation given of the short 
inscriptions which accompanied its representations. Some accoimt was idso 
given of the bandages of the mummy, which was referred to a late age, on 
account of the manner in which the paintings and inscriptions were executed, 
rendering it probable that the body was embalmed long after the XXth Dynasty. 
A tracing of the cartonage made bj Mr. Bonomi accompanied the paper and 
description. 

II. Some Osteologicai Notes on the same Mummy. By Professor Flower, 
F.R.S. — ^This paper was a detailed report b^ the eminent osteologist of the 
condition of the skeleton of the mummy described by Dr. Birch, from which it 
was shown to have been the skeleton of a man in advanced years, of short 

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564 Condensed Reports of tlie Proceedings. 

stature, ».«., 5 feet 4 inobes ; the left ulna had been firaotured near its lower end 
at some period long before death ; the bones of the trunk and legs showed traces 
of chronic rheumatic disease, the lumbar yertebrse being partly ankylosed ; what 
teeth remained were in good condition, and the shoulders were distinguished by 
that remarkable squareness of form, which was characteristic of the Egyptian 
racf. 

III. Observaiioru on the proportions of the above Skeleton, By Joseph 
Bonomi* — Mr. Bonomi made some obserrsytions on the remarkable characteristics 
of this Egyptian specimen ; amongst these is the measurement of the shoiilders, 
which he found to be one inch and three quarters wider than in any other 
skeleton of the same height in the collection of the College of Surgeons. 

rV. On tome Frofftnente of the Babylonian Account of the Creation, By 
Mr. Q«orge Smith. — Owing to the pressure of his many engagements prior to 
his departure for Mesopots^mia, the subject of this paper was yerbally delivered. 
The text of the tablets had been set up, with a short account of the same, and they 
will appear in the next part of the Transactions of the Society, YoL IV, Part 2. 



Tueedajf, December 7, 1875. 
S. BntCH, LL.D., F.S.A., President, in the Chair. 

The following candidates were nominated for election : — Ber. J. Edlin 
Carpenter ; Bey. G^rge Crewdson, Kendal ; Bey. Joseph Cockran, Tyldeeley ; 
Bey. J. E. Dayis, Malyem ; W. J. Haywood ; Mrs. Hussey, Hurst-green ; 
B. F. Hutchinson, M.D. ; H. C. Leyander, Uniyersity College, W.C. ; JoMph 
Smith J D. MarshaU ; J. N. Pownes Wise, M.D., Bengal ; E. B. Tylor, F.E.8. 

Mr. Bonomi exhibited a fine cluster of Dates from Egypt, and gaye some 
account of the Date Palm, Phcenix Dactylifera, and drew some sketches showing 
the method adopted by the fellaheen of climbing up and trimming the trees. 
Mr. Bonomfs remarks were further illustrated by a coloured drawing of the Palm 
in fruit, contributed by Professor Donaldson. 

The following papers were then read :— 

I. On some new Hamathite Inscriptions at Ibreez^ near Karamania. By 
Bey. J. E. Dayis, H.B.M. Consular Chaplain at Alexandria. — The inscriptions 
which formed the subject of this paper are caryed on the side of a rock by the 
shore of the river Ibreez, and they form part of two large bas-reliefo, in the 
style of Sassanian or Assyrian art. The subject of the first bas-relief is a royal 
male figure, yested in a fnnged and embroidered garment, and wearing a conical 
homed head-dress ; in his left hand he holds a taU mass of wheat, and his right 
rests on his hip, a large grape yine laden with clusters of fruit is twined around 
his body, and Uie stem of the plant appears to issue from the ground a little 
behind the right leg, which partly conceals it. The other bas-relief represenU a 
smaller and nearly similarly attired male figure, haying one arm and hand w^ 
raised in an attitude of praise or yeneration. The dress of both the figures is 
elaborately ornamented, and presents many peculiar details of ornamentation. 
The inscriptions which accompany these ancient sculptures are nearly illegible 
from the action of time and exposure to rain and damp. 

II. Notice of a very Ancient Cornet^ from a Chaldean Tablet, By H. Fox 
Talbot, F.B.S. — The learned Assyriolonst considered that the Comet, which 
formed the subject of his paper, appeared in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar I, about 
B.o. 1150 ; the following is a translation of the inscription which describes it : — 

" 1. The star is hairy ; its orb is like a shining light, 
2. and it has a tail receding from it like a creeping scorpion, 
8. a great star from the northern horizon 

4. unto the southern horizon, 

5. extends iU measure like a creeping (scorpion's taiL) 

6. This on the &ce of the tablet (was written) 

7. At the time when Nebuchadnezzar had marched into the land of Elam.'* 



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Condensed Report of the Proceedings, 565 

III. On Babylonian Augufy, by Fignret and Geometrical Signt. By Rer. A. 
H. Sayce, M.A. — Just as astroloffj implies a sdenoe of astronomj, so a system 
of au^urj based upon geometriau figures implies a science of geometry. In this 
paper texts were given, with transliterations and translations, of two cuneiform 
tablets, originally it would seem written in the Accadian language, which furnish 
the augural explanations of certain geometrical figures. One of these tablets has 
been published Inr M. Lenormant, Uie other and longer one was now given for 
the first time. The author of the paper referred to the similar pseudo-scienoe 
which still flourishes among the Chinese, and inferred tliat a superstition pre- 
Tailed among the Accadians like that called Jkng-thui by the Chinese, which 
assumes an inherent good or bad luck in a place or situation. He also suggested 
that the Greek belief in the macical properties of numbers and geometrical 
figures, found for instance in the fragments of Philolaus and among the Thera- 
peutfiD, went back to a Babylonian origin ; and determined for the first time the 
Assyrian ideographs for geometrical figure^ line, and arc. Some of the figures 
were probably deriyed from the measurement of the sky. It is probable that 
the "Babylonios numeros" of Horace referred to geometry as well as to 
arithmetic. At the end of the paper translations were given of the Accadian 
tables of square and cube roots from Senkereh, remarks made upon the sexa- 
gesimal system of the Chaldeans, and notice taken of Professor Cantor's discovery 
that the Assyrians had formulated TT = 8. 

lY. On the Aesyrian Belief in the Immortality of the Soul, at lUuetrated by 
the l%th Izdnbar Tablet. By William Boscawen. — In this paper the author gave 
translations of the twelfth fxdubar legend and other texts, showing the existence 
of the belief in the immortality of the soul amongst the Assyrians. The good 
haying their reward in the happy fleldt, the " place of the heroes," the " resting 
place of Ncrgal " (the war god), '* reclining on couches,'* " drinking pure liquors," 
and " feeding on rich foods." The warrior was there surrounded with all the spoil 
which he had gained in battle, and his captives were paraded before him. The 
wicked were consigned to the '* land of no return," the dwelling of Ninkigal, 
'* the house whose entrance has no exit," where " much dust is their food, their 
nourishment mud," where they " dwell in darkness." Mr. Boscawen compared 
these accounts with the Greek Elyeian fields, and with Aidee, and showed the 
Eastern influence in their conception. He also pointed out the curious parallel 
between the raising of the soul of Heahani, the seer of Itdubar^ and the raising 
of Samuel by the witch of Endor. In the appendix were given some hymns 
to Marduk the demi-urgue, and philogical notes. 

V. On the First Saltier Papyrus. By Prof E. S. Lushington, B.A.— This 
paper contained a careful examination of the text of the papyrus in question, 
and it will appear, together with exegetical notes, in the next number of the 
Transactions of the Society. 

VI. On Two Ancient Maps of the Holy Land. Bj S. M. Drach, M.A., 
F.B.A.S. — One of the maps is a black block print, with the names of the Jewish 
patriarchs, doctors of the law, prophets, Ac., arranged in an architectural plan 
around a supposed representation of Solomon's temple, apparently for a Mixrach 
or " East " Kiblah, as used in all Jewish houses.' The other is a far niore 
elaborate MS. in colours, with explanations in the square and Jarchi-script 
Hebrew, similar to many medieval maps, with large views of the principal 
towns, tombs of saints, doctors, kc., and bordered with Scripture phrases, pur- 
porting to have been drawn up by one Luria (query of the famous sixteenth 
century Cabalist family) after the earthquake at Sephat. Mr. Drach recognized 
this map as similar to that printed upon sundry canary-colored handkerchiefs 
bought by him two years ago at Berlin, which were probably prepared for the use 
of the Polish Jews. The authenticity of the sites on these maps is of course 
questionable ; but even the dome and spires' of the Christian Holy Sepulchre are 
prominently exhibited. The two maps were lent for exhibition by the Bev. 
Greville Chester, who purchased them at Tunis. 



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566 Condensed Report of the Proceedings. 

Tueida^t Jammaty 4, 1876. 

S. BiBCH, LL.D., F.S.A., Prendent, in the Chur. 

The following Candidates were nominated for eliection : — ^WiUiam Beran ; 
Archibald Hamilton, Sromley, Kent ; Her. W. Mead Jonee, Mill Yard ; Rer. 
Edward White. 

The Council and Officers of the Societj for the ensuing senon were dnlj 
elected. 

The Laws of the Society, as prepared and rerised for the fourth time bj the 
Committee of Laws, were presented, confirmed, and ordered to be issued. 

The Secretary read a report of the condition of the Society, showing an 
increase of eighty-three members during the past year. 

The President delivered a short anniyersary address, in the course of which 
he announced that the Ataman amd JEffyp^*^ ^^^!^!^ would be resumed, in 
~ ~ jof theSo * " 



February, at the Booms of uie Society, the Bey. A. H. Sayce taking the Assyrian 
class, and Mr. P. Le Page Benouf the Egyptian, while he would himself giye a 
series of analytical lectures on ** The Bitual of the Dead." Admission free by 
tickets, as before. 

A letter from Mr. Fox Talbot, giyinff an account of Prof. Delitssdi's 
Assyrische LesestfLcke, with a translation of the prefiuse to the same, was read 
by the President. 

I. On an Ancient Inscription discovered at Ephetus. By C. T. Kewtoo, 
C.B., D.C.L. — This inscription was found incised upon a curyed stone, which 
had apparently formed the base of one of the pillars of the most ancient Temple 
of Artemis at Ephesus. The characters belonged to an alphabet which is at 
present unknown, but which presented some resemblances to the Phoenician, and 
which was evidently one of tne many local alphabets of Asia Minor at the time 
of CroBSUS. 

II. On a New Cypriote Inscription. By D. Pierides. — This new text is a yeiy 
short one, consisting of thirteen letters. It is enffrayed on two golden armlets 
which were recently discovered at Eurion, and which, in the opinion of 
M. Pierides, date from the 5th century B.C. The following is a Latin translation 
of the inscription : ** Eteandri Begis PaphL" 

III. On the Creation Tablets and the First Institution of the Sabbath, By 
H. Fox Talbot, F.B.S. — This interesting paper was a translation with notes of 
two of the newly-discovered tablets which now go by the name of the Creation 
Tablets, and of which the text was presented to the Society by Mr. Oeo. Smith 
in November last, previously to his departure for Mesopotamia. Mr. Talbot's 
translation differs somewhat from that given by Mr. Smith in his Babylonian 
account of Genesis, and it is as follows : — 

Tablkt I. 

1. When the upper region was not yet called Heaven, 

2. and the lower region was not yet called Earth, 

3. and the Abyss of Hades had not yet opened its arms, 

4. then the chaos of waters gave birth to all of them. 

5. And the waters were gathered into one place. 

6. No men yet dwelt together, no animals yet wandered about, 

7. none of the gods had yet been born, 

8. their names were not spoken, their attributes were not known. 

9. Then the eldest of the gods, 
10. Lakhmu and Lakhamu, were bom. 



11. and grew up 

12. Assur and kissur were bom next, 
18. and lived through long periods. 
14. Anu 



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Condensed Repoi't of t/ie Proceedings, 567 

Tablbt V. 

1. He constructed dwellings for the great gods. 

2. He fixed up constellations, whose figures were like animals. 
8. He made the Year, into four quarters he divided it, 

4. twelve months he established, with their constellations three bj three. 

5. And for the dajs of the year he appointed festivals. 

6. He made dwellings for the planets, for their rising and setting ; 

7. And that nothing should go amiss, and that the course of none should 

be retarded, 

8. he placed with them the dwellings of Sel and Hea. 

9. He opened great sates on every side. 

10. He noade strong the portals on the left hand and on the right. 

11. In the centre he placed luminaries. 

12. The moon he appointed to rule the nisht, 

18. and to wander through the night imtilthe dawn of daj. 

14. Every month without fail he made holy cuMembly days. 

15. In the beginning of the month, at the rising of the night, 

16. it shot forth its horns to illuminate the heavens. 

17. On the seventh day he appointed a holy day, 

18. and to cease from aU busmess he commanded. 

19. Then arose the sun in the horizon of heaven in (glory). 

The translation was accompanied with notes, and it will appear together with a 
critical analysis of the text in due course in the Transactions of the Sodety. 

lY. On the Numbers qf the Jews in all Ages, By the Bev. Josiah Miller, 
M.A. — ^This paper traced the varying numbers of the Jews by the Hght of the 
ancient Bible testimony, as given in fragmentary statements and in censuses and 
enumerations of countries occupied in the time of Abraham, the soioum in 
Eflypt, the Exodus, the Kings, the Captivity and Betum, some statistical diffi- 
ciuties in the sacred narrative beine met in the course of the argument. Later 
statistical £BM!ts to the beginning of the Christian era were given from Josephus, 
Philo, Dion Cassius, Strabo, and the New Testament. For further particulars 
reference was made to Moses of Chorene ; the doubtful statements of Tacitus, 
Diodorus Sioulus, and Benjamin of Tudela were criticised, and use was made of 
Basna^, GKbbon, and other historians. Some peculiarities of Jewish statistics 
were given, with proofs from the modem authorities, and also tables from census 
returns, and inquiries when visiting the countries, showing the present numbers 
of the Jews in all places — ^with the total a little over seyen millions. In con- 
clusion reference was made to the present rapid increase of the Jews, and the 
difficulty of accounting for their fewness. 

V. On a Orammar qf the Himyaritic Language, By Capt. W. P. 
Prideaux, B.E. — This elaborate paper was practicdly a complete grammar of 
the Himvaritio language, which had been compiled by the learned author from 
the studies of MM. Osiander, Ewald, Levy, and Gildermeister, and which he 
had corrected and supplemented by his own researches into the various pub- 
lished and unpublished Sabean inscriptions, which amount to many hundreos in 
number. A full syllabaiy of the Himyaritic characters was given, together with 
an analysis and Translation of many new texts, which wiU appear in &e Transac- 
tions of the Society. 

YI. On the Chaldean Account of the Tower of Babel By W. St Chad 
BoBcawen. — In this paper the author gave a translation of the interesting frag- 
ment discovered by Mr. George Smith, and pointed out its importance as 
illustrating the Biblical legend. The most important portion of the inscription 
reads: — 

His heart was evil. 

The father of all the gods he turned from. 

His heart was evil. 

Babylon corruptly to sin went. 

Small and great he mingled on the mound. 

Babylon corrupUy to sin went. 



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568 Condensed Report of the Proceedings. 

Small and great he mineled on the mound. 

Their stronghold (tower) each day thej founded. 

Their stronghold in the night 

entirely he made an end. 

In his anger also a command, an oath he poored forth 

to scatter abroad he set his face. 

He gave a command : make thou stormy their council. 

The progress he impeded. 
The inscription then relates the oyerthrow of the tower by riolent winds, and 
the lamentations of the Babylonians. The paper was accompanied by the 
cuneiform text and philological notes on the inscriptions. 

VII. Remarkt upon a HierogUfphie Imeription ofDarimi at El-Kharp^k. By 
S. Birch, LL.D. — This inscription, consisting of forty-six lines of hieroglyphs, 
has been fbond amongst the papers of the late Mr. Hay, of Linp^um. It was 
eopied by him firom me south-west wall of the second chamber of the temi^e, 
and consists of the adoration of the male and female genii or personif cations of 
the four elements to the god Amen Ba, lord of Sah, on the Oasis of Ammon. 
The inscription chiefly turns on the various qualities, types, and charaoten of 
Amen Ra as the chief and principal god, there being, unfortunately, no partieu- 
lars giyen of historical importance, although the name of Darius, probably the 
first, is seyeral times mentioned. It is, howeyer, a great addition to the hymns 
of Amen already known. 

VIII. Note on the Obelisk at Xanihw. By S. Birch, LL.D.—Tfco paper on 
this subject referred to the Greek and Lycian inscription on the northern &oe of 
the obelitk, 4)ublished by the late Sir 0. Fellowes and Merits Schmidt. The 
northern face was considered to be justly placed last by Schmidt, as from the 
firagments discovered since that publication it is dear that the inscription really 

commenced with the southern face, which has €ibun[u prinqfk prinafigtm] 

Arppagohe tedeeme, " This tomb made son of Arpagus." The north side 

is consequently the end of that inscription, the first twen^ lines of it closing the 
Lycian portion, and states that the ' stele,' in I^cian, gtUda^ was * erected.' sUate^ 
by the son of Harpagus, who is styled, amongst his other titles, se-Farza : go- 
wede^ * and a Persian lord,' as well as Muirfehe : ame : te gowede, * governor of 
Mysia and lord.' The twelve hexameter lines of Gh«ek which follow are sup> 
posed to be an addition to the Lycian after its termination, and are twoia line 21 
to 82 inclusive. The new point of importance in the present paper it the 
discovery that the following thirty-four lines of Lycian are a paraphrase or 
translation of the twelve lines of Greek. This is proved from the following 
considerations : first, that these thirtv-four lines have been divided into twelve 
})ortions by a curved line, thus, ). Eleven of these divisions remain, and the last 
word of the Ljcian, ebemasa, of course, required no such 3, as it terminated the 
whole. The additional proof is found by comparing the Greek tenth line : ** He 
killed seven heavy-armed soldiers (5irXiraCt hoplitas) in a day." These have 
been restored as Arcadians by Boeckh and Schmidt. The Lycian lines 58-69 
end, toworet : opletez : sekatese : Arppago9 : ute : tapefkte^ where the word opleut 
is evidently the Lycian transcription of hopUiat. The whole is consequently a 
paraphrase, not a literal translation, nearly three b'nes of Lycian being required 
to explain one Greek, and the genius of the lan^age requiring the name of 
Harpagos, mentioned in line 26 of the Greek, to be inserted here ; if, indeed, the 
Greek does read Arkadae^ which does not scan, and although \he Greek is restored 

EHTAAE OnAITAZ KTEINEN EN HMEPAI APKAAAZ 

ANfAPAZl) ^h®^ iB not room enough for andrcu at the end. 



Tuesdag, Fehrmary 1, 1876. 
S. BiBGH, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The following Candidates were duly nominated for election in March: — 
Samuel A. Binion ; Bev. C. Camithers ; Miss Freeman ; Bussell Martineau, 
M.A. ; Hon. H. Noel "Waldegrave j Bev. G. W. Wriffhtson, M.A. 



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Condensed Report of the Proceedings, 569 

His Excellency Safrhet Pasha, of Constantinople, was elected an Honorary 
Member^f tbe Society. 

Signor Ruggero Bongbi presented to the Society, on the part of the Italian 
Q-ovemment, a number of stampings of Assyrian Inscriptions belonging to the 
reigns of Assur-nazir-pal and Sennacherib, from tablets in the Vatican and 
Roman Museums. 

The following papers were then read : — 

I. The Revolt in Heaven translated from a Cuneiform Tablet. By H. Fox 
Talbot, F.B.S. — This Taluable and singular mythulogicid text is one of those which 
has just been published by Prof. Delitzsch in his Lesestiicke, and it presents a 
remarkable analogy to the war of the Dragon described in the Book of ReTelations, 
and to certain passages in the Book of Job and the apocryphal work called the 
Book of Enocli. The learned author of the following translation accompanied his 
paper with a number of philological obserrations and an interlineation of the 
cuneiform text with appendices annexed. 

(The first four lines, and probably several more, are broken. They related, 
no doubt, that a Festival of Praise and Thanksgiving was being held in Haftr«B, 
when this rebellion took place). 

5. The Divine Being spoke three times the commencement of a Psalm. 

6. The god of holy songs, lord of religion and worship 

7. Seated a thousand singers and musicians : and established a choral band 

8. who to his hymn were to respond in multitudes 

9. With a loud cry of contempt they broke up his holy song 

10. Spoiling, confusing, confounding, his hymn of praise. 

II. The god of the bright crown resolved to frustrate the rebtllion 

12. sounded a trumpet blast which would wake the dead, 

13. which to those rebel angels prohibited return, 

14. He stopped their service, and sent them to the gods who were His enemies. 

15. In their room he created Mankind. 

16. The first who received life, dwelt along with him. 

17. May he give them strength, never to neglect his word, 

18. following the Serpent's voice, whom his hands had made. 

19. And may the god of divine speech expel ^m his five thousand that wicked 

Thousand 

20. who in the midst of his heavenly Song, had shouted evil blasphemies ! 

21. The god Ashur, who had seen the malice of those gods who deserted their 

allegiance 

22. to raise a rebellion, refused to go forth with them. 

The remainder of the tablet (9 or 10 lines more) is too much broken for translation. 

11. Key to the Oenealogic Table of the First Patriarchs in OenesiSf and the 
Chronoloffif of the Septuagint. By Victor Rydberg. From L. L. H, Combertigve*s 
French MS. Translation of the original Swedish Brochure and Notes. By S. M. 
Drach. — M. Rydberg believes in no reliable Hebrew chronology before King Solomon 
and post-regnal periods. For subsequent reasons he takes the Hebrew MS as 
the more primitive document : deems the Cainiteand Sethite genealogies identical, 
throws out Seth and Enos, thus making the antediluvian period 1461 years 
(Sothic) ; at the end of which the Nile-dwellers feared a national Divine retribution 
for good or bad through the height of the Nile-flood and intensity of epidemics, 
being taught that the course of Sirius in Egypt's vague year would indicate the 
interval. Thus the pyramids were built by giant extortionate Pharaohs, glorifying 
their own ashes and neglecting agriculture : the disastrous end of their Sothic 
period, rebuked their successors to directing the inundation by irrigating 
channels. Moses appeared also near the end of one of these Sothic periods, 
thereby predicting the compressed disasters (plagues). M. Rydberg tries to 
prove that the after life of these eight patriarchs equals 4927 lunar years, or 4800 
solar years (ratio of 618} to 600), known to Chaldeans and Turanians ; also 1461 
plus 4927, or 6408, is one fourth of Annus Magnus (precession at 60^^) He 
thus places the exile of Adam 8892 B.C., eiactly where Manetho places the fiibt 

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570 Condensed Report of the Proceelingi*, 

human Pharaoh Menes : shoii's that Enoch was the first practical astronomer. 
He then states the Alexandrian Jews riyalled the Checks in wealth, inflaencc, in 
thirst of knowledge ; the priests let them all (like Manetho) learn their hiero- 
fflyphic secrets ; that in order to keep up their paternal religion in their Hebrew- 
forgetting offspring, these Jews got the Sanhedrim deputation to translate the 
Bible in Q-reek. But that these LXX pious Rabbis, finding that the advent of 
Joseph to the Mosaic exodus was purposely absent from the Egyptian reoords ; 
and fearing the rile calumny of the Jews being an outcast race of lepers headed 
bj a rene^de priest, wilfully added 100 years to each patriarch's ufe ; making 
the adrent of Joseph and Jacob in the time of the native-refrpected Palestine 
Hycsos shepherd-kings of Heber's race, which dynasty was expelled a/V^r Joseph's 
death by a native patriot, who then condemned the Hycsos* Hebrew kindred to 
slavery's rigorous labours. Thus the Alexandrian Jew could point to the enrions 
Greeks their own glory of old on the Nile. M. Bydberg fixes Enoch's date about 
3400 B.C., and takes Bunsen's Egypt as his t«xt book ; there is a long extract 
from Biot. 

in. Why is Forty-three a Basal Biblical Number? By S. M. Brach, F.B.A.S. 
—The Biblical frequency of the number 43, and of its multiples (430, 215, 65, 301), 
also of 427, or y of 299, led me to compare these luni-solnr synodicals. Now 43 
times 3660 5»» 49« 12« are 15,705^ lO** 16» 36* ; and 531^ times 29^12* 44« 2-88, 
are 16,705<* 9** 4" 30», which solar excess of 4266 seconds is eight seconds per 
lunation. Also 427 years are 155,958^ 13^ 8» 24* ; and 5281i lunations 
165,958<» le^ 28« 40-, or a lunar excess of 3>» 20« 16« ; add thrice first to 
second, 129 + 427 or 656 years (-l^^) is 203,074<» 19*' 65« 12- ; 1595^ + 628Ii 
or 6876f lunations (673 ^ lunar years), 203,074* 19*' 42» 10«. Solar excess 
of 13» 02« is -^ seconds per lunation. Note 632 is 19 x 28 ; 6000 «r is 15,708 ; 
6281i is I of 66 square ; 673 is tenfold radius in degrees of circle. Hekekyan 
Bey (Eg. Chron. xxxiii) stated 4004 times 365 less 7 times 70 days, or 1,460,970, 
is 4000 years of 365<> 6*' 49» 12'. M. Eydberg's deduction of 195-6 years, or 
200 ^ to 202 f^ lunar years, is 2424 months, or acts as 300 years on the eight 
patriarchal 800 ^ears plus 24. Remark the super-pointed Deut xxix, 29, *' and 
the revealed thmg " is numerically (2) 310 or 1450 B.C., the Babbino- Usher 
death -date of Moses ; that tohu bohu (Gen. i, 2) is 411 plus 19, or 430 ; that 
Vayshohehu (Gen. xxxiii, 4), super-pointed is 427. M. Eydberg's 6406 is 
8 xl9 X 89 ; his 4800 : 4947 is 1600 : 1649 or is 40 square plus 7 square. Periiaps 
these numbers may unravel themselves to the experts of Archaic writings. 

The following gentlemen took part in the discussion which ensued: — Sir 
Henry Rawlinson, Dr. Birch, George Smith, Rev. Dr. Ride, J. Park Harrison, 
Richard Cull, Rev. J. M. Rodwell, S. M. Drach, Rev. T. M. Gorman. 



Tuesday, March 7, 1876. 
S. BrucH, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The following candidates were duly nominated for election in April : — Miss 
Gertrude Austin (Wotton-under-Edge) ; His Excellency Sir William Gregory, 
G.C.S.I., C.B. (Colombo); Rev. Herbert James; Rev. A. Y. Millingen 
(Constantinople) ; C. Rohart (Pari«) ; Sam. Ghimey Sheppard ; Rev. A. W. 
Streane, M.A. (Corp. Chris. CoU. Camb.) ; Rev. J. E Somerville, M.A., B.D. 
(Broughty Ferry) ; Rev. E. N. Willson. 

M. Edouard NaviUe of Geneva, and M. Paul Pierret, Conservateur Adjoint da 
Mus^e de Louvre, were elected Honorary Members of the Society. 

The Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg presented a complete set of the new 
series of its Transactions to the Library of the Society. 

The following papers were then read : — 

I. On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Monuments; (Part I). Domestic 
Mammals. "Bj Rev. William Houghton, M.A., F.L.S. — In this paper the author, 
after alluding to the interest of the subject, spoke also of its difficulty, for names 



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Condensed RepoH of the Proceedings. 571 

alone often failed to oonyej a definite meaning. Animals maj be represented in 
three ways : — 1. By piokorial or sculptural repi'esentatioii ; 2. By description ; 
3. By picture and description combined. 

Applying his remarks to the animals figured or mentioned on the Assyrian 
monuments, he stated that the pictorial or sculptural representations were so good 
as in most cases to speak for themselves. Of representations of animals and 
description founded on a zoological basis, the monuments aflbrd no instance. 
There may have been Assyrian Aristotles who wrote on natural history, but 
their works haTC not been preserred. The bilingual tablets containing the names 
of animals, trees, stones, &c., show a sort of natural order, which the scribe 
obserred for oonyenience sake ; but these tablets were only part and parcel of 
Assurbanipal*s grand idea of forming a complete comparative dictionary and 
grammar of the Assyrian and Accadian languages. Mr. Houghton referred to 
the prevalent custom amongst the Aocadians of naming animals from the 
countries from which they came ; thus the horse was the *' animal from the 
East " ; the wolf, " that from the highlands." The third method of repre- 
senting animals by sculpture and description combined — the most certain of all — 
though frequently to be seen in the hieroglyphic system of the ancient Egyptians, 
was not adopted by the Assyrians. 

In all attempts to disooyer the name of any particular animal, the Assyrian 
word must be compared with some similar wora in Hebrew or other cognate 
Semitic language, since an identity of word often implies identity of meaning. 
Sometimes again the context would afford a clue. In the bilingual lists the 
Accadian equivalent to the Assyrian name often threw much light ; but unfor- 
tunately these tablets were often broken. 

The domestic animals known to, or employed by, the Assyrians, were oxen, 
sheep, goats, camels (both the Arabian and Bactrian species), asses, horses, mules, 
and dogs ; on each of these subjects Mr. Houghton spoke at some length. Only 
two kinds of dog appear on the sculptures — the large mastiff used in the chase 
of the lion, wild bull (the rim of the Hebrew Bible, rimuin Assyrian), wild asses, 
&c., and the ereyhound. On the question as to the domestic cat being known or 
used by the Assyrians, Mr. Houghton, in his own mind, was satisfied a negative 
answer should be given. As there was an intercourse between the Assyrians and 
Egyptians, from early times, he admitted there was no d priori objection to the 
belief that the Egyptian cat, which he considered the origin of domestic cats 
wherever found, might have been introduced into Assyria, but Mr. Houghton 
thought it improbable that the cat was domesticated, seeing that in other countries 
it vras long before it was introduced. The Egyptians preferred to keep their cats 
to themselves, to nourish them when aliyo, and to embalm their sacred bodies at 
Bubastis or elsewhere when dead. '* The Wild Animals of the Assyrian Monu. 
ments *' will form the subject of another paper by the same gentleman. 

n. The Fight between Bel and the Dragon^ and the Flaming Sward which 
turned every way (Gen. iii, 24). Translated from a Chaldean tablet by H. Fox 
Talbot, F.R.S. — This is one of the most striking narratives of the Chaldean 
mytiiology. It is found on a Cuneiform tablet which is much broken, and of 
which the translation is as follows : — 

1. [broken.] 

2 and with it his right hand he armed. 

3. His flaming sword he raised in his hand. 

4. He brandisned his lightnings before him. 

5. A curved scymitar he carri«l on his body. 

6. And he made a sword to destroy the dragon, 

7. which turned four ways ; so that none could aroid its rapid blows. 

8. It turned to the South, to the Korth, to the East, and to the West. 

9. Near to his sabre he placed the Bow of his father Anu. 

10. He made a whirling thunderbolt, and a bolt with double flames, impossible 

to extinguish : 

11. And a quadruple bolt, and a septuple bolt, and a bolt, and a bolt 

of crooked fire. 



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572 Condensed Report of the Proceedings. 

12. He took the thunderbolts which he had made, and there were leren o£ 

them 

13. to be shot at the dragon, and he put thein into his quiver behind him. 

14. Then the lord of the storm raised his great sword ; 

15. He mounted his Chariot, whose name was " Destroyer of the Impious/* 

16. he took his place, and lifted the four reins in his hand. 

[The rest of this portion of the inscription is broken off.] 

Bel now offers to the Dragon to decide their quarrel bj single combat, which 
offer the Dragon accepts. 

1. \Why seekett thou thtui] to irritate me with blaaphemiee ? 

2. Let uiY army withdraw : let thy chiefs stand aside : 
8. Then I and thou (alone) we will finish this quarreL 
4. When the Dragon heard this, 

6. Stand back ! she said, and repeated her command. 

6. Then the tempter rose watchfully on high. 

7. Turning and twisting, she shifted her standing pointy 

8. She watched his lightnings : she provided for retreat. 

9. The warrior angels sheathed their swords. 

10. Then the Dragon attacked the just prince of the gods. 

11. Strondy she joined in^the trial of battle, 

12. The King drew his sword, and dealt rapid blows. 

13. Then he took his whirling thunderbolt, and looked well behind and before 

him : 

14. And when the Dragon opened her mouth to swallow him, 

15. He flung the bolt into her, before she could shut her lips. 

16. The blazing lightning burned up her inside. 

17. He pulled out her heart ; her mouth he rent open ; 

18. He drew Yi\» falchion, and cut open her belly. 

19. he cut into her chest and extracted her heart, 

20. he put an end to her, and destroyed her life. 

21. When he knew she was dead, he boasted over her. 

22. After that the Drairon their Leader was slain 

23. her troops took to lieht : her army was scattered abroad, 

24. and the angels her ames, who had come to help her, 

25. retreated, grew ouiet, and went away. 

26. They fled from thence, fearing for their own lives, 

27. and saved themselves, flying to places beyond pursuit. 

28. He followed them, their weapons he collected : 

29. They were gathered up like a harvest : in great heaps [they ^eere ttored.] 
80. A crowd of people full of astonishment 

31. its remains lifted up, and on their shoulders hoisted. 

82. And the eleven tribes, after the battle, 

83. in great multitudes, coming to see, 

34. ga^ at the monstrous serpent 

85 

86. And the god Bel 

(The rest of the Ublet is lost) 
The following eentlemen took part in the discussion which ensued : — Bev. 
Albt. Le^wy ; Prof Donaldson ; Kev. Dr. Ourrey ; Bov. W. Houghton ; and 
the President. 



Tiie$day,Jpra ^IdTS. 
8. BiBCH, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The following Candidates were duly nominated for election in May: — 
Dr. J. B. Cranage ; W. H. Bddie, J.P. ; Herbert Freeman, A.B.I.B jL, F.SjL ; 
A. Hymen Joseph ; Bev. Prebendanr Scarth, M.A., F.S.A. ; Bev. OanoD 
Bidgeway, M. A. ; Joseph Sidebotham, F.B.A.S., Bowdon ; Miss Tucker, Bedford. 



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Condensed Report of the Proceedtnys. 573 

The following papers wero then read : — 

I. Ishtar and Izdubar : being ike Sixth Tablet qf the Izdubar Series. Trans- 
lated by H. F. Talbot, F.B.S.— The fifth Izdubar tablet appears to be mostly 
lost, but the end of iu story occupies the first few lines of the sixth tablet, and 
therefore it is necessary briefly to adrert to it. 

One of the ad?entures of Odysseus related by Homer is his return to Ithaca 
disguised as a beggar. Izdubar, whose wanderings recall those of Odysseus, 
seems to haye adopted some similar disguise, which he now throws off and 
resumes his royal rank. 

1 he had thrown off his tattered garments : 

2. His pack of goods he had laid down from his back : 

8. [Ae hadflmng off"] his rags of poverty : and clothed himself in a dress of 
honour : 

4. [with a royal robe"] he covered himself: 

5. and he bound a diadem on his brow. 

6. Then Ishtar the queen lifted up her eyes to the throne of Izdubar : 

7. Kiss me, Izdubar ! she said : for I will marry thee ! 

8. Let us liye together, I and Thou, in one place : 

9. thou shalt be my husband, and I will be thy wife. 

10. Thou shalt ride in a Chariot of lapis lazuli and gold 

11. whose wheels are golden and its pole resplendent. 

12. Shining bracelets thou shalt wear every day. 

13. By our house the Cedar trees in green vigour shall grow : 

14. and when thou shalt enter it 

15. [twppUant'] crowds shall kiss thy feet ! 

16. Kings, lords, and princes shall bow down before thee ! 

17. The tribute of hills and plains thev shall bring to thee as offerings : 

18. Thy flocks and thy herds shall all bear twins : 

19. Thy race of mules shall be magnificent : 

20. Thy [triumphe] in the chariot race shall be proclaimed without ceasing, 

21. and among the chiefs thou shalt never have an equal ! 



22. [Then IxduharJ opened his mouth and spoke, 
28. [and said] to tshtar the Queen 
24. iLadjf I fvXl vM"] I know thee by experience ! 
26. Sad and funereal \is thy dwelling place :] 

26. Sickness and Famme {swrronnd thy path :] 

27. [False and] treacherous is thy crown of divinity ! 

28. [Poor and worthless] is thy crown of royalty I 

The meaning of all this, (as appears quite plainly firom the Second Column) 
is that Ishtar was, like Hecate in the Q-reek mythology, the queen of witchcraft, 
the cruel, the merciless. 

In Column II Izdubar goes on with his reproaches. '*A11 that ever you 
have loved, you have next Imted and destroyed : poisoned and bewitched ! And 
were I to marry you, you would treat me just as you have treated them ! *' 

1. Wailings thou didst make 

2. for Tarzi thy husband 

8. (and yet) year after year with thy cups tbou didst poison him ! 

4. Thou hadst a £ftvourite high-flying Eagle : 

5. thou didst strike him (with thy wand), and didst break his wings : 

6. Then he stood fast in the forest only fluttering his wings. 

7. Thou hadst a favourite Lion, full of vigour : 

8. thou didst pull out his teeth, seven at a time ! 

9. Thou hadst a favourite Horse, renowned in war : 

10. He drank a draught, and with fever thou didst poison him ! 

11. Twice seven hours without ceasing 

12. with burning fever and thirst thou didst poison him ! 

18. Hb mother the goddess Silili with thy cups thou didst poison. 
14. Thou didst love the King of the Land 



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574 Condensed Repoi^t of the Proceedings. 

15. whom coniinuallj thou didst render ill with thj drugs 

16. though OTory day he offered libations and saorifioes. 

17. Thou didst strUe him (with thj wand), and didst change him into 

Leopard! 

18. The people of his own City drove him out from it, 

19. and his own dogs tore him to pieces 

20. Thou didst loye a Workman — a rude man of no instruction, 

21. who constantly reoeiyed his daily wages from thee 

22. and every day made bright thy yessels. 

23. In thy pot a savoury mess thou didst boil for him 

24. (sayii^ " Come, my servant, and eat with us on the Feast-Day 

25. and give thy judgment on the goodness of our potherbs " ! 

26. The workman replied to thee 

27. Why dost thou oesire to destroy me P 

28. Mother ! thou art not cooking ! — I wiU not eat ! 

29. For, I should eat food bad and accursed 

80. and the thousand unclean things thou hast poisoned it with. 

81. Thou didst hear that answer [and wert enrttged^ 

82. Thou didst strike him (with thy wand), and didst change him into a pillar; 

83. and didst pUce him in the midst of the desert 1 

84. I have not yet said a crowd of things, many more I have not added ! 

85. Lady ! thou wouldst love KB — as thou hast done the others ! 

The following gentlemen took part in the discussion which ensued : — ^W. 
BoBcawen ; B. Cull ; Bev. Alb. Ldwy ; Prof. Donaldson ; Bev. J. M. Bodwell ; 
Bev. Basil H. Cooper ; Bev. T. M. Gorman ; John B. Howard ; Dr. Birch. 

II. On the TeHiary Race. By Bev. H. S. Warleigh, M.A.— This paper was 
controversial, and the following were the author's conclusions : — According to the 
Otologists, certain works of art are in existence, which prove that man must have 
been Uving as far back as the tertiary period of the earth's crust ; and Egyptologists 
affirm, that the advanced state of early civilization and art prove tiiat man was 
made more than 6000 years ago. On the other hand, some theologians say that 
man was not in existence tul the present era ; and that therefore mankind 
could not have produced these worki, nor could they be the subjects of this 
alle^ civilization. 

These works of art, however, do exist, and they were made during the 
tertiary period ; but other manufacturers, besides those of the human raee, may 
have produced them. 

The Bible mentions a race of intelligent and bodily erect beinn, as existing 
before the tertiary period, who were capable of making these wons of art, wd 
who were in circumstances which would call for their production. 

The historical fragments which speak of this race are Qen. vi, 4, and Num. 
xiii, 88. The passages which allude to it are Q-en. i, 28, iv, 14-25. 

Thus it is evident that a powerful race, not of human origin, existed in the 
time of Adam, that it was of immense antiquity, and that it was not extinct in 
the da^s of Moses. 

This race might be called Genus Tertiarium ; or it might receive its Biblical 
appellation, Ha Nephilim — ^The Nephilim. 

This race mav have lived in a highly dvilixed state in the valley of the Nile, 
and have left the stamp of their power there ; and some of them may have 
emigrated northward and built the giant cities of Bashan. Perhaps some parts 
of ancient mythology relate to them, and indeed the discovery of sodi a mot 
throws much light on many obscure subjects of study, and at any rate if proven 
on one point, support the harmony of Science and the Bible. 

The following sentlemen took part in the discussion which ensued :^Dr. 
Birch ; Bev. AJb. IJbmj ; Prof. Seager ; E. B. Tylor ; H. H. Howarth ; Rev. 
Jos. Miller; B. G. Jenkins; Mr. Boscawen; Bev. T. M. Gorman; E. B. 
Hodges ; Percy Beed; Bev. H. 8. Warleigh. 



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Condensed Report of the Proceedings. 575 

Tuesday, May 2, 1876. 

Sib Chablm Nicholsok, Bart., M.D., P.S.A., F.R.S.L., Vice-President, in 

the Chair. 

The following Candidates were nominated for election in June : — E.* Trott- 
Fisher ; T. G. Irvine, C.E. ; C. James Ljall, Assist. -Sec. H.M. GoTemment, 
Calcutta; F. B. Mocatta ; Theophilui Pinches j Eev, J. A. I. Eoberts, Bothalj 
Key. J. Cyprian Bust, Soham. 

The following papers were then read : — 

I. The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel^ now at St. Peterslmry^ date 
016 A.D., compared with the Matoretio text as now accentuated. By Rer. C. D. 
Ginsburg, LL.D. — ^Dr. Ginsburg shows that this MS. exhibits phenomena which 
have not been known to exist in MSS. of the Old Testament up to the disooTery 
of this codex. These consist (1) in the disposition and readings of the text and 
the Massorah ; (2) the vowel-points, which are not only different in form, but, 
unlike those of the ordinary M3S. and the received text, are placed above the 
letters ; and (3) the form and disposition of the tonal accents, which are likewise 
different from those commonly to be met with in the MSS., and adopted by 
Jews and Christians in the printed edition of the Hebrew Scriptures. Dr. 
Ginsburg confines himself in this paper to the phenomena comprised in the first 
class. He shows that the letters He, Zain, Tody and final Nun are here 
differently formed, that thick dots are used between the words and otherwise to 
fill out the line to its proper length, which gives the text the appearance of 
marking omissions, &c., oc. The sectional divisions of the text are different from 
those in the received text. Hosea is divided into 18 sections, 11 open and 7 
closed, whilst Joel is divided into 6 sections, 3 open and 2 closed. From the 
Table of Various Readings, Dr. Ginsburg shows that the MS. has 94 variations 
— 63 in Hosea and 31 in Joel, more than refer to the plene and defective mode 
of writing, and that 27 of these readings have been corrected by a second hand. 
Of the readings, the following are the most noticeable. Hosea ii, 22 in the 
Hebrew, ii, 20 in the English Bible is, ** and thou shalt know that I am the 
Lord,"' initead of " and thou slialt know the Lord.'' Hosea iii, 1, is, " according 
to the loTe of the Lord towards the house of Israel," and not " according to 
the love of the Lord towards the children of Israel," as in the received text. 
Hosea ix, 2, " and the new wine shall deceive them,* instead of " shall fail in 
her." Of linguistical interest is the fact that we have here in two passages the 
old form ^^^H ^^^^^ ^or the feminine (Hosea ii, 4 j Joel iv, 1), thus affording 
additional evidence that it was epicene originally, that it was used so throughout 
the whole Hebrew Scriptures, and that it was only gradually displaced from the 
prophets and Hagiographa by the later form, ^^n> ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ Pentateuch, 
which was regarded as peculiarly sacred. From the Massorah Parva, which is 

fiven between the two columns and the outer or edge margin of every page, we 
ave several readings not included in the printed Massorah. by the name of keri 
or kethio. Thus against the words, " and their staff ("^SpQ*)) declareth unto 
them *'• (Hosea iv, 12), the Massorah remarks read, "and from His 
voice ("^^^p^*)) declared He unto them." The Massorah on Hosea and Joel 
contains 31 rubrics ; but these contain nothing new ; all of them are contained 
in the printed Massorahs. 

The following gentlemen took part in the discussion which ensued : — Rev. 
Albt. Lawy, J. W. Bosanquet, R. T. Castlecleary, Rev. J. M. Rodwell, Sir Chas. 
Nicholson, J. G. Irvine, W. J. Cockbum Muir, Prof. Seager, and the author of 
the paper. 

Owing to the lateness of the hour, the following papers were then taken as 
read, and they will appear with illustrations in the July part of the Transactions 
of the Society. 

II. On the Interpretation of the Kamathile Inscriptions. By Rev. A. H. 
Sayce, M.A. — This paper consisted of a series of conjectural suggestions as to 
the origin and phonetic values of the Hamathite hiero^^lyphics found at Hamath 
and elsewhere. After giving an account of the inscriptions, the author endea- 

Vol. V. Digitized by G9(2)Ogle 



576 Cotidensed Report of the Proceedings. 

▼oured to identify some of the characters, more particularly one which seems to 
be a determinative prefix of countries and cities. He also attempted to refer the 
invention of the Hamathite writing to the Hittites, from whom it was borrowed 
by the neighbouring Semitic tribes ; the Hittites themselves, according to the 
testimony of their proper names as found on the Egyptian and Assyrian monu- 
ments, being a non-Semitic race. He further compared the characters of the 
Kypriote syllabary with the Hamathite hieroglyphics, and came to the concluaon 
that the former were derived from the ktter. A Ust of the Hamatiute 
hieroglyphics drawn up by Dr. Hayes Ward was appended to the paper and 
accompanied by the corresponding Kypriote characters. An attempt was also 
made to explain the names (cUeph, heth^ &c.) given to the letters of the Phoenician 
alphabet by the Semites after they had borrowed it from Egypt, by supposing 
them to have been abready &miliar with these names through the medium of the 
Hamathite hieroglyphics. It was shown that the Phcenician alphabet was 
really first used by the Arameeans, and the latter may be supposed to have 
adopted it in place of the more cumbrous Hamathite, just as the Greek 
inhabitants of the Archipelago adopted the simpler Phoanician alphabet in place 
of the Kypriote. 

lY. Some Observations on the name of an Egypiicm Dog. "By Prof. G. 
Maspero, Paris. — In this paper the learned Egyptologist identified one of the 
dogs mentioned in Dr. Birch's paper " On the tablet of Antefituk,*' with the 
Abakrou dog of the Berber races of Nubia. 



Tuesday, June 2, 1876. 

8. BiBCH, LL.D., F.S.A., President, in the Chair. 

The foUowing candidates were nominated for election by the CouncQ : — ^The 
Marquis of Bute, K.T., &c. ; Dr. Hyde Clarke, F.R.G.S. ; Mrs. Gordon Foilong; 
William Heane, F.R.C.S.E. (Cinderford) ; Rev. Dr. Knowles, M.A., F.S.A. 
(Tunbridge Wells) ; Hon. Cohn Lindsay ; Rev. G. F. Lovell, M. A. (Vice-Principal 
St. Edmund's Hall, Oxford) j Rev. J. J. Moss (Somerton). 

I. Chronological Remarks on the History of Esther and Ahasuents or Idiossa 
and Tanu-Axares. By J. W. Bosanquet, F.R.A.S., Treasurer. — It is assxmted 
that the chief object of this Society is to illustrate Biblical History by historical 
documents and monumental reconis. Mr. Bosanquet points out four great 
difficulties amongst many, which at present stand in the way of reconciling sacied 
history with the monuments : — 

1. Many discordant opinions hare been put forth concerning the date of the 

reign of Shalmanezer the Assyrian king, whose annals are inscribed on the 
Black Obelisk in the British Museum^ who fought with Ahab, Benhadad, 
and Hazael, and took tribute of Jehu, king of Israel, none of which fall in 
with any acknowledged svstem of Scripture chronology. 

2. There is a difference of opmion between high authorities concerning the date 

of the death of Apries, or Pharaoh Hophra, king of Egypt, who was put 
to death by Nebuchadnezzar at Tahpanhes, or Daphnse, about the time of a 
total eclipse of the sun at that spot, in the 27th year of the reign of 
Nebuchadnezzar. 
8. The years of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar are variously fixed by difierent 
authorities. The authority of the Canon of Ptolemy is usually followed. 
But Ptolemy had no astronomical data by which to fix this reign. 
4. It is found impossible to fix the time of the reign of Esther and Ahasueros — 
which is the main subject of Mr. Bosanquet's paper — ^within any degree of 
certainty within a period of 100 years. 
Mr. Bosanquet argues that the chief caus^ of all these difficulties, and the great 
stumbling block in the way of rightly understanding the history of the Old 
Testament, is the scholastic fiction of the reign of a king of Media styled Ihuius 
Medus, whose first year is placed in B.o. 538. He identifies Darius the Mede 



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Condensed Report of the Proceedings. 577 

with DarioB 0on of Hystaspes, who married *Atossa or Esther, daughter-in-law 
of Ojrus I, and thus brings down the date of the events in the reign of Darius 
the Mede from B.O. 638 to 493, a difference of nearly half a century. The 
result of this alteration of dates is that Biordecai, Esther, Daniel, Zerubbabel, 
Haggai, Zechariah, Ezra, Kehemiah the son of Hachaliah, were all living simul- 
taneously about the time of the dedication of the second temple of Jerusalem in 
B.O. 485, which agrees with Jewish tradition, when Darius and Artaxerxes (that 
is Darius and Xerxes, who had just been associated with his father on the throne) 
confirmed the decree of Cyrus son of Cambyses, issued in B.C. 613, that the 
temple should be built. (Ezra ri, 14.) It follows of necessity that Cyrus kins 
of Babylon must hare been the son, not the father, of Cambyses king ot 
Babylon, and that Cyrus II and Darius son of Hystaspes were contemporary. 
Mr. Bosanquet supports this position on the following evidence : — 

1. The direct evidence of Xenophon, that Cyrus (Eoresh), son of Cambyses 

king of Babylon and of Mandane daughter of Astyages, reigned at Babylon 
after his father's death, and therefore in the reign of Darius. (Trans., 
Vol. I, p. 244.) 

2. Of Herodotus, that Astyages his grandfather married in the year of the 

eclipse in b.o. 686, and that the Cyrus who conquered him in B.C. 660 was 
not therefore Cyrus son of Mandane. 
8. Of Ctesias, that it was the father of Cambyses king of Babylon (Eai-Ehosru) 
who conquered Astyages, before Cambyses reigned, and therefore not the 
son of Cambyses king of Babylon. 

4. Of the inscription on tiie brick from Senkereh, that " Cyrus son of Cam- 

byses *' repaired the temples at Babylon, and was therefore the Cyrus who 
reigned at Babylon. 

5. Of Herodotus, that the body of Cyrus father of Cambysee was left unburied 

on the field of battle, when fightmg with the Scythians. 

6. Of Arrian, that the tomb of Cyrus at PasargadflD contained the body of 

" CVrus son of Cambyses." 

7. Of Megasthenes, that when Cyrus (son of Cambyses) had appointed Nabona- 

dius, the last king of Babylon, as ruler over the prorince of Carmania, 
Darius drove him thence (Trans., Vol. I, p. 189) ; and again, that when the 
last of the kings of the Medes (called by nim Aspanda, perhaps Isfendiar) 
died, "Cyrus and Darius ruled over the Persian empire for thirty-six 
years." (Trans., Vol. I, p. 262J. 

8. C>f Ludan, that Cyrus survived his eon, the king Cambyses, and died, as he 

supposed, at the age of one hundred years. (Trans., Vol. I, p. 20T.) 
9 Of Clement of Alexandria (Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., toL I, p. 260), that 
Babylon was overthrown in B.C. 610, that is in the reign of Darius ; and of 
Orosius, that about the time when consuls began to rule instead of kings at 
Bome (b.o. 610), Cyrus conquered Babylon a second time, that is in the 
reign of Darius. 

10. Of Johannes Malalas, who records that Cyrus perished in a naval war 

between the Persians and Samians, not earlier therefore than the time of 
Darius, whom he calls son of Cyrus. 

11. Of Josephus, copying from Beroeus or Megasthenes, that Cyrus and Darius 

came together against Kaboandelus, or Nabonadius, the last kin^ of 
Babylon, and overthrew him (Ant., x, xi, 2) ; and how from the captivity 
of the ten tribes (that is in B.C. 696) to the first year of Cyrus, there were 
counted 182| years (that is 696 -183 » B.C. 613). 

12. Of the Book of Daniel, that " Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and 

in the reign of Cyrua" (vi, 28); and again, that "in the third year of 
Cyrus" (B.C. 611), "the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood him 
(Daniel) one-and-twenty days," or years, that is till B.C. 491 ; also that he 
" remained there with the kings of Persia," that is, with Cyrus and Darius, 
then at Babylon, in B.C. 611 (x, 13). 
18. Of the contemporary sacred historian Ezra, who relates that about the time 
of Zerubbabel (b.o. 611), or third year of Cyrus (Koresh), when DanieVs 
release from Babylon was opposed by the "prince of the kingdom of 
Persia," the building of the temple of Jerusalem was also stopped, and the 

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578 Condensed Report of the Proceedings. 

decree of Cyrus set at nought, *'all the days of Cyrus, eyen until the 
(second year of) the reign of Darius," that is, till Darius at ahout sixty- 
three years old, in B.C. 591, had taken the kingdom, or empire, just 
twenty-one years after the contest had arisen between these kings, as stated 
by Daniel (Ezra iv, 5, 24). 

14. The evidence of the Babylonian contract tablets, or tribute tablets of the 
reigns of Cyrus and Darius, is not yet sufficiently complete to place these 
conclusions beyond the reach of controversy We have, however, in the 
the British Museum a series of six tablets, among others, reaching to the 
seventh year of the reign of Cyrus, B.C. 507, that is, of course, of Cyrus 
son of Cambyses, who repaired the temples of Babylon, from which it 
appears that he was first styled " king of Babylon *' on the 28th day of the 
month Adar, B.C. 611. We have also tablets of the twelfth and thirteenth 
years of Darius, that is, in B.C. 510 and 509, on the first of which he is 
styled *' king of Babylon," on the second merely " king of the countriea,*' 
wnich seems to confirm the statement of Daniel and Megasthenes that both 
these kings were acting together at Babylon about the first of these years, 
B.C. 510. 

Mr. Bosanquet, having remoyed the fictitious king Darius Medus from 
sacred history, then takes the 14th year of Hezekiah, B.C. 689, as the key date of 
Scripture Chronology, as fixed by the solar eclipse near Jerusalem in that year, 
and shows how any child may then count without difficulty from the birth of 
Christ upwards to the fourth year of Solomon, B.C. 990, as the time when the 
foundation of the first temple was laid. He then examines the second difficulty, 
viz., that which relates to the date of the death of Pharaoh Hophra, in the 27th 
year of Nebuchadnezzar. Hophra's death is usually placed in the year B.C. 670, 
and there is no reason to doubt that that was the year in which he was first OTcr- 
thrown by Amasis, and confined to his own palace as prisoner. Nevertheless it is 
shown from Herodotus that he was not put to death at this time, and &om 
Kzckiel and Jeremiah it is shown that he was put to death at Tahpanhes or 
DaphnsB about the time of a total solar eclipse at that place (see Ezekicl 
XXX, 18, xxxii, 6-11) in the 27th year of Nebuchadnezzar. Now the only total 
solar eclipse between the year B.C. 580 and 553 which will meet the words of 
Ezekiel, by creating darkness at Tahpanhes, is that of the 1st November, B.C. 
666, which is the 27th year of Nebuchadnezzar counted from his defeat of 
Pharaoh Necho at Carchemish, in the year of the fall of Nineveh. This astrono- 
mical reckoning of the time of Hophra's death by means of the eclipse of 
November, B.C. 556, is in perfect harmony with the reckoning of the death of 
Jeroboam II, king of Israel, by means of the total solar eclipse of June, B.C. 
763, recorded by the prophet Amos, and also at Nineyeh. Egyptian chronologj 
now falls in exactly with Assyrian chronology as set forth in Smith's History of 
Assur-bani-pal, pp. 249, 254, as follows : — 

Pharaoh Hophra reigns 25 years from B.C. 555 to 579. 

Psammuthis „ (4i) 5 „ „ 579 to 583. 

Necho „ (15i) 16 „ „ 583 to 599. 

Psammetichus „ 54 „ „ 599 to 653. 

The Dodecarchy 15 „ „ 653 to 668. 

These 15 years of dodecarchy (or eikos-archy) of Diodorus Siculus, it is assumed 
are derived from the passage referred to in Assur-bani-pal, leading to the year of 
that king's accession in B.C. 668 at the close of a soss of 60 years. 

From thence are counted .... 7 sosses = 420 years, from 668 to 1087 
From thence are counted .... 2 ners = 1200 „ „ 1087 to 2287 
And from thence 33,480 suns, or days = 93 „ „ 2287 to 2379 
the year of the deluge, both according to Berosus and Moses. 

By this arrangement of Scriptural dates the reign of Esther and Ahasuenu 
falls naturally into the time of the Captivity at Babylon, and the death of 
Mordecai about the time of building of the second temple, where Josephus places 
it. Lastly, the reijni of Shalmanezer, the Black Obelisk king, is adjusted, as 
first pointed out by Dr. Haigh, by placing the revolt of Assurniav-pal or 



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Condensed Report of the Proceedings. 579 

Sardanapaliis 67 years before the First Olympiad, as recorded by Aby Jenus, that 
is, in B.C. 843, after which the appointment of annual archons ceased for 20 
years, till the restoration in B.C. 823 by Shamas-Phul. And thus the yecu-s of 
defeat of Ahab, Benhadad and Hazael, and the tribute paid to Shalmanezer, fail 
in exactly with the years so marked in Scripture History. 

This paper was illustrated by the exhibition of two large maps of Hebrew 
and Assyrian chronology, and photo-lithographs of the monoliths of Absut- 
nazirpal and Shamas-Phul. 



Tuesday, July 4, 1876. 
S. BmCH, LL.D., D.C.L., &c.. President, in the Chair. 

The following Candidates were nominated, and by special vote of Council 
duly elected Members of the Society : — Rev. Canon Collins, M.A. ; Eer. 
Edward Lawson, M.A. ; Rev. Thos. Paley, B.D. ; W. Harry Rylands. 

The following papers were then read : — 

I. NoteM on Cypriote Paleography. By D. Pierides (Lamaca). — ^This paper 
consisted of three communications to the President of the Society, describing nine 
different Cypriote inscriptions which had been discovered during the recent 
excavations of General di Cesnola. The inscriptions were chiefly of a votive 
character, and contained several proper names, together with a few variants of 
the Cypriote characters already kuown. One of the most curious objects described 
by M. Pierides was a small seal representing a stag or mare suckling her young 
one. In the field of the seal were a fow well-defined Cypriote letters, of which, 
together with those of the other eight texts, the author of the paper offered a 
transliteration and a translation. 

II. Notes on Assyrian Religion ani Mythology, By W. St. Chad Boscawen. 
— In this paper the author pointed out the dose parallel between the Jewish 
oode and the Assyrian as to the effect of prayer as an antidote to sin. Extracts 
were given from various Assyrian tablets relating to the treatment of penitents, 
and as to the times and places of prayer. Some of the most important portions 
were — As illustrative of St. Luke xii, 52, 53 : — 

(A.) — When a man with his god quarrels (lit. breaks away). 

When a man with his father quarrels. 

When a mother with her daughter quarrels. 

When a daughter with her mother quarrels. 

When a man with his betrothed quarreb. 

When a virgin with her betrothed quarrels. 

When a brother with his brother quarrels. 

When a friend with his friend "quarrels. 
The duty of prayer was fully set forth in the lines below, showing that 
" Watch and pray lest ye enter into temptation " was a rule with the pious wor- 
shipper of the great gods : — 

(B).— 1. Pray thou. Pray thou. 
2. Before the couch pray. 
8. Before the throne pray. 

4. Before the canopy pray. 

5. Before the nadin, the building of lofty head, pray. 

6. Before the rising of dawn pray ! 

7. Before the fire, pray ! 

8. Before the light of dawn, pray I 

10. By the tablets and Papyri, pray ! 

11. By the 

Beybbsb. 

(C). — 1. By the side of the river, pra^ ! 

2. By the side of a ship, or riding in a ship, or leaving the ship, pray ! 
8. At the rising of the sun, at the setting of the tun, pray ! 



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580 Condensed Report of the Froceedinge. 

4. To the GKxls of Heayen, at the altars on earth, pray ! 

5. On coming out of the citj, on entering the citr, pray ! 

6. On coming out of the great gate, on entering tne great gate, ^pnj ! 

7. On coming out of the house praj, on entering the house, praj ! 

8. In the place of judgment, praj ! 

9. In the temple, pray ! 
10. On the road, praj I 

The remainder of this curious liturgy is a species of litany to the yarious 
gods, and elements of Assyrian belief, to pardon the sinner. The last lines of this 
tablet are proyided with spaces in which to insert the name of the person using 
the senrice. The last line reads, " To remoye his sin let him say this." The 
paper was accompanied by an appendix, giying the cuneiform texts with 
philological and other notes. 

The following gentlemen took mrt in the discussion which ensued : — 
B. Cull, F.S.A.; £. E. Hodges; Key. Albert L5wy ; Bey. Jotiah Miller i 
Bey. William Denton; Prof. Seager ; Bey. J. M. Bodwell, M.A. ; and Dr. Birch, 
who, in answer to a question from Mr. Cull, described the method by which the 
Cypriote language was deciphered, and the teste by which the accuracy of the 
translations were ascertainea. 




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581 



INDEX TO VOL V. 



A. 

VAGI 

Abakron, "Spotted Sphinx'' (an Egyptian dog lo named), Berber 

(Abalkoor) greyhound 127 

'Abd-Shams, son of Hiyadbim's endowment, refreshed from drought, temp. 

Samaha-karib, son of Tobba'a Karib, eon of Fadhihim, feudal lords 

of the Beni Marthadim ^ 890-396 

Abil-Istar, son of Ilubalid, servant of god Naram-sin 442 

Abimelek, a lady of the Bend Marthadim, daughter of 'Anan&n, endows tablet 210 

Aocadians, named animals from their place of exportation 35 

Accadian names of Assyrian animals 367-383 

ActfiBon and his dogs, his prototype in Ishtar „ 100-102 

Adam, LudolTs Ethiopic etymology of the name as meaning " grace " .... 86 
„ Count de Qebelin's etymology of the name, Monde Primitif, " hus- 
bandman" 86 

„ and Enosh, Bunsen's etymology of 82 

Afghan's Tawarickh on Bani-Israel's ark of Tabut-i-Sakina of Shamshad 

wood 653 

Age of the world, 6408 years = Sothiac + lunar period 72 

Ahasuerus (Tanu-Axares) and Esther ('Atossa), chronology of. By J. W. 

Bosanquet 225-292 

Ainsworth (in Cbesney's expedition of 1838) describes a lion found at 

Khabour 823 

„ leopard found at Mar'ash 326 

Aleppo, a Hamathite inscription discovered at. By Rev. J. E. Davies .... 22 

„ a Hittite town 28 

'AlhAn ben Marthadim dedicated a tablet to Il-Makah 206 

Amar-Agu, Accadian king-god of Ur and Nipur 442 

Amenemes, Manetho's king, temp. Exodus 79 

Amenophis* year, 1322 B.C., ends a Sothiac cycle 71 

Amen Ra's generation from cycles, and not corporeal, he pervades heaven 

and earth and its creatures 296 

Animals (domestic) of Assyrian sculpture. By Rev. W. Houghton 38-64, 368-383 

„ (wild) of Assyrian sculpture 319-383 

Anmirum AhzUm, son of Hawaf, Atht, DhA Nahy&n, endowment, booty 

ftom the Nabshim .... 891 

„ ben Shammarat dedicates tablet for his safety in Ma'IzAo district, 

and for saving him from general massacre in the land by violent tribe 

ofAsad 224 

Antef-Aa II's dog " Spotted Sphinx," the Berber greyhound 127 

Ann and Annatu, the parents of Ishtar, who accuses Izdubar of insulting 

her 100 

Apis Tablets IV- V, from Mariette's Serapeum de Memphis 251 



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582 INDEX. 

Apries (Hophra), king of Egypt (according to Speaker's Commcntarv, 

Ezekiel) 2o0 

Arabic g^mmar, when allied to Sabsean .^ 423 

Aramaean Antiocb, the channel of the (Ireek a-ending letters .... .... 30 

„ seal. By Captain Prideaux. *65 x '45 x '3 inch. Bkshth- 

bath-'Abd-Yrkh (Moon, or Jerah) 456-458 

Arks, Japanese, carried by staves on men's shoulders like the Jewbh ark 650-552 

Arn, serpent, earliest Cushites, now the Agan and Bilen folk 178 

As'ad Faukam&n, servant of Bin Marthadim, dedicates tablet for male 

children, harvest, protection of feudal lords from loss, enchantment, 

and calumny, and scattering of their foes 216 

As'ad Yahasman ben Yaha'an endows Dhii-Samawt with image, *Athtar 

and Haubas, Il-Makah, Dhat-Himaim, Dhat Ba'danim 208 

Asahu, king of Guzan, tribute of seven bi-humped camels 48 

Asses, flesh of wild asses prized by the old Persians above venison 3M) 

Assur and Kissur, second-bom deities 4:28 

Assurbanipal's method of lion-killing 324 

Assurnazipal, fatlier of Shalmanezer II (Black Obelisk), solar Eclipse 903 b.c. 27- 16 
Assumatsirpal's obelisk, recounts the fauna killed in the Hittites' 

land in extenso 322, 358-367 

Assyrians acquainted with the monkey 821 

Assyrian mammalia as represented in sculpture. By Rev W. Houghton 

83-€4v 319-383 

„ monarchs kept menageries 382 

Astrology, judicial, originally connected starry movements with salient . 

political changes on earth 66 

Astronomical calendar of sacred history, 997-818 B.C 280-291 

Asu, king of Gozan's tribute to Shalmaneser, two double-humped camels 47 

*Atossa (Esther) and Tanu-Axares (Ahasuerus), chronology. By Mr. J. W. 

Bosanquet 225, 292 

Awsum, son of Kar, preserved, temp. Nabata-il, son of 'Amma-amir .... 395 
Azizum and Ziiid-ilat, and Sa'd-ilat of Yafadh, temp, son of Wahaba-il 

Yekhaz, king of Sabft, in name of Dhat Ba'damiu and DhA-SamawT 402 

B. 

Babel, Legend of Tower of. By William St. Chad Boscawen .... 303-312 

Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel, 916 A.D., Massorah, Table to. By 

Dr. Ginsburg 129-176, 475-549 

Babylonian Cylinders found at Eurium, Cyprus. By Rev. A. H. Sayce 441-444 
Babylon's regal annals 1000 years before Solomon, and astronomical before 

Delnge „.. 65 

Bahal Ahsan and Rababum Yatal of Abnat, endowed pavilion of Kaukaban 418 
Bakashath, daughter of Abd-Yrkh (servant of the Moon, or Jerah), a male 

moon-god «, 457 

Beavers found by Chesney's expedition 331 

Behistnn inscription quoted 237 

Beka, intendant of Egyptian public granaries, mortuary st^le of 461 

„ an Egyptian deist .... .... .•». .... .... .... .... 464 

Bel and the Dragon and Flaming Sword. IVanslated by H. Fox Talbot 1-21 

Bel and Hea appointed to direct the movements of the pUnets 427 

Bells in old Japanese temples struck by the wind 552 

Beluzar or Belesys or Belochus supposed original name of Shamas-Phul, 

B.C. 825 291 

Ben Asher and Cairo (Karaite) Codexes « 130 

Beni-Marthadim, great Sabsaa cUn .. 384-402 

Bciti- Marthadim tablets, dedications to U-Makali 203-224 



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INDEX. 583 

rAOB 

Beni-Yehafra* endowment 8U(> 

Biazi, star of, the cheetah (according to Delitzsch) may be 327 

Biot'Champollion, 1505 solar years equal 1506 vague years, coincide with 

8285 B.C., 1780 B.C., 275 B.o 71 

Biot-ChampoUion, 1505 is 5 x 7 x 43 87 

Birch, Dr., suggests Assurbanipars Itnander to be M. Pierides' Eteandros 

of Cyprus 89 

„ unrolls Stafford House Mummy, 15th July, 1875 .... 122-126 

„ the Darius inscription at El- Khargeh, by 293-3(>2 

Bitsaggathu and Bitzaida (Babylon temples) repaired by Cyrus 226 

Blanford, W. T., zoo-geology of Persia reviewed 376 

Boitard, M., explains precession cycle of 25,868 years, its effect on the city 

of Paris 83 

Boeanquet, J. W., chronologic remarks, Esther and Ahasuerus (*Atos8a and 

Tanu-Axares 225-292 

Boscawen, W. St. Chad, Legend of Tower of Babel 803-312 

„ „ „ translation of Annals of Shalmanezer .... 271-27 i 

Bow of god Ann, taken by Bel 2 

Brass or bronze for binding of wood in Japanese temples 550 

Breaks, 82 in Hebrew Scripture MS., registered 133 

Bunsen, Baron, works on Bible and Egypt quoted 76 



Cabala and Tradition : the Orient receives, Occident hands down S3 

Calculated Cycles wherein 43 enters as factor 313 

Camel, brought by sea across the Persian Qulf, termed the ex-sea animal 

by the Aceadians 36 

Canis, species of (hysna, etc.), in Assyria 328 

Canopus, decree of, on the introduction of inten-alary days 71 

Caprids, wild goats, common 341 

„ called arme, atudu, tsapparu, yaeli 341 

Caracal in Assyria 321 

Carchemisb, fortress of Chemish, a Moabite god 27 

„ a Hittite town 28 

Cardinal points, flaming sword turned to all 2 

Cervide, deer tribe 812 

„ called dara, or ai-lu 314 

Cesnola, Qeneral di, his Kurium-Cyprus Babylonian Cylinders (Sayce) 441-4 :4 
Cete, '* nakhiru te hamti," the nostril sea-animal, dolphin, or narwhal 351-3.' 2 

„ possibly a seal ^78 

Chabas, Francois, notice sur st^le Egyptienne du Muf^ de Turin 45r-t74 

Chaldean account of the Creation. By W. H. Fox Talbot .... 426-110 

ChampoUion explains regal names in the Abydos st^le 555 

Chariot of Bel, styled "Destroyer of the Impious*' 2 

Chaus in Assyria 821 

Cheetah in Assyria 321 

Child-like exploration of Sacred History recommended 240-2(>7 

Coincidence of Hebrew-Egyptian chronological era 3892 b.c 75 

Combertigue, French translator of Rydberg's Patriarch Table 65-8 1 

Creation, Chaldean account thereof. By W. H. Pox Talbot .... 426-4 10 

„ tradition of, begins the Sothiac period 71 

Cypriote inscriptions. By Mr. W. H. Fox Talbot 447-153 

„ palieography, notes on. By M. D. Pierides 88- J)6 

Cyrus the First (Kai-Khosru) reigned B.C. 538 228 

„ Cambyses and Darius son of Hystaspes were contemporaries (14 

proofs) 281-236 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



584 INDEX. 

Cyrof repairs Bitsaggaiha and Bitzida temple ^. 226 

„ selected tablets of, British Moseam (86) S38 

Cjthera, either Kythera of Cyprus, or Chytie, or Cerigo W 



Damasdus's veradty defended 4S2 

Darius, inscription at El-Khargeh. By Dr. Birch 2d3, 802 

Darius the Mede, an imaginary king 228 

Darius of Persia defeats the democratic conspiracy of Otanes .... .... 243 

Deioces, Phroortes, Cyaxares, Astyages, dynasty fixed 229-231 

Davies, Rev. J., discovers Hamathite inscriptions at Ibreez 22 

Dawkins, Boyd, identifies bison teeth in Lebanon 337-338 

Deer ; hounds used in capturing them, nets also 345 

Deities when displaced &de as human heroes ^. 68 

Delitzsch, AssyrUche LesestUcke, version of Bel and Dragon and Flaming 

Sword .„. 1 

Delitzsch says star of Biazi may be the cheetah 327 

Deluge, Egypt's forethought against its renewal in the Kile 

Valley _ 17 

Destroyer of the Impious, title of the chariot of Bel 2 

Dhu-Eibar, a prince of El- Yemen 387 

Dhu-Kholil, vide Muller „ 887 

Dhu-Watrim and Dhu-Samawi, Dah-amrim 403 

Didymus Aleiandrinus, the first who makes mention of lion's tail-daw .^ 326 

Dog, Egyptian, name of. By G. Maspero 127-128 

Drach, 8. M., explanatory note on Mikoshis of Japan .... .... .... 563 

Drach's chronogram of superpointed eleven letters. Dent, xxix, 29 as (2)310^ 

or 3761-1451 86 

^ were unpointed sacred phrases differently dissected for the popular 

polytheism and secret monotheism ? illustrated by Qen. i, 1 .... 315 

„ planetary revolutions in Sothiao and Ner periods 85 

„ his distinction of Enoch and Eadsh, " hallowing ** 86 

„ Why Is forty-three a basal Biblical number ? .„ 313-317, 550 

„ notes on M. Bydberg's paper 8&-87 

Dragon, fight between Bel and, and Flaming Sword. Translated by I(. Fox 

Talbot 1-21 

Dynasties of Egypt, hieroglyphic numbers of the LXX, 2262+1777 + 

1117, or 5156 years « 77-80 



Eclipte, solar, at Daphne near Pelusinm, 1st November, 556 B.O., possibly 

total, elements 252-254 

„ solar, table, 610 — 555, in chronology 268-254 

Ecliptic cycle of 6890 mean lunations; 657 years 22 days; dO-fold 

223 plus 200 (S.M.D.) 287 

Egyptian dog, its name. By G. Maspero 127-128 

„ Archaic history, the builders of pyramids, duration 2262 

years 77 

„ medisBval history. Deluge to Exodus, 1777 years 78 

„ decadence, history, 1117 years 79-80 

Ehrentheil's biography of Jost and Znni; boys were taught that evil 
angels catch erroneously pronounced Hebrew prayers in order to 
calumniate their utterers at God's throne ^. 316 



1 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 585 

Eleaa inscription, A (ffparpa 452 

Elements, the four, male and female forms, El-Khargeh (inscription of 

Darins) 296 

Elephant (Indian) on black obelisk of Shalmanezer 819-349 

„ „ called baziat) 849 

EUezer, Rabbi, says Samaritans impeded rebuilding of temple till Jnbilee 

year „ 266 

El-Khargeh, Darius' inscription there. By Dr. Birch 298-802 

„ Oasis (Caillaud, Edmonston, Remele, Rohlf) 293 

EUat-Qula, queen, succeeded Naram Sin 442 

Enoch (Henoch), his number 365, an " angel-taught astronomer " .... 78 

Eutenamasluv, the star " tip-tail," Great Bear asterism 833 

Enuma elish, name of creation tablets from first words (cf. Heb. Beresith) 438 

Eponymous Archons, list of, in tal>le, 929-818 B.C. 285-291 

Eriv-Bagas, servant of Nergal (2nd Kurium cylinder), older than 1600 B.C.) 443 

Em, " the crowning eagle," a polar asterism, Heb. Ayar 834 

Esther CAtossa) and Ahasuerus (Tano-Axares), Chronology of. By 

Mr. J. W. Boeanquet 225-292 

Eteandros, king of Paphos, on Kurium gold armlet (Etearch, Eteocles, 

Eteonicus, variants) .... .... .... .... .... .... 88 

Euergetes I (Ptolemy) introduces intercalary days into year 71 

Ezekiel (Speaker's Commentary) on Apries-Hophra, king of Egypt .... 260 
Ezra and Nehemiah, creation-epoch .... .... .... .... .... 82 

P. 

Fight between Bel and the Dragon, and the Flaming Sword. Translated 

by H. Fox Talbot 1-21 

Firkovitsch, his Karaite Hebrew MSS 129 

Forty-three, a basal Biblical number. By S. M. Drach 813 -317, 550 

Fox, may be the a-si 829 

Funeral Papyri on the lower world, translated by Dr. Birch and M. Pierret 560 



G. 

Garbett, E. L. (Phil. Soc. Glasgow, 1873), " Sixty " is best reduction- 
factor 87 

Genett in Mesopotamia 827 

Ginsburg, Dr., Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel, a.d. 916, with 

Massoretic comparisons 129-176, 475-549 

„ Massorah Tables of Hosea, Joel, and Jonah, printed M. Babylonian 
Codex, B.M. Hari. 1528, 5711, Cambridge Add. 465, B.M. Add. 

9399, 15250-15251, Arundel Orient. 16 "* 143-175, 476-549 

Gbhei, see Jewel. 

Gold armlets found at Kurion, Cyprus, 5th century B.c 88 

Goodwin, Mr. C. W., translates a Hittite-Egyptian treaty 28 

Greek letters end in a, brought from Aramiean Antioch, not from 

Phoenician Tyre 30 

Greek text of contract between king and city of Idalium^ Cyprus, of the 

one part and the medical faciUty on the other part 451 



H. 

Hadad (not Hadar), a Syrian deity (Macrobius) 25 

Hadimu ben Sahlinn, endows tablet 211 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



586 INDEX. 

Haigh, Dr., arrangPB sacred history in sosses of sixty years, beginning at 

903 B.C., solar eclipse, 3rd July - « 271 

„ first to recommend Ctesias as furnishing the key to the Assyrian 

Canon 2.-0 

Hainamat and male relatives of Benn Arfut, under Beni Marthadim, dedi- 
cated a tablet for good harvest .... .... .... .... .... 21S 

Halakum, lady of Beni 'Abdim, daughter of Bin Day4n, dedicated a tablet 210 
Hal^vy's '* Etudes Sab^nnes" (Journal Asiatique, for May- June, October, 

December, 1874) 177-3^4 

Hall, Dr. Isaac H., on an Himyariiic seal found in the Hauran .... 41 6 11 6 

Hamatbite characters are not alphabetical, but ideographic 26 

„ language not Semitic .... .... .... .... .... .... 27 

„ inscriptions (Buckhardt, Burton, Drake, Mr. Lavard, Dr. Hayes 

Ward) \ 22 

„ inscriptions at the Imperial Museum at Constantinople, ruad 

boustrophedon fashion .... .... .... .... .... 23 

„ fiily-six characters in syllabary.... .... .... .... .... 25 

Ham'atht, son of Wazhban, servant of Samaha'ali, endows 'Athtor, day of 

irrigating tank of two balsam trees, endowment of Yehar .... 4' 

Hapn, wife of Iritiseu, Abydos stMe 5S3 

Hauran, an Himyaritic seal found there (Dr. Hall) .... .... 446—1^16 

H6 (^^'1)* >•«•» "she," found in Scripture only eleven times versus Hu 656 

times .... 139 

Heath, Mr. Dunbar, failed to reconcile Hamathite and Egyptian writing .... 26 

Hebrew chronology, backward from Zedokiah to Solomon .... .... 255-256 

„ regal annals begin regularly with Solomon.... ... .... .... 65 

„ connection of primitive Eden with Ararat 65 

„ Semitic names of Assyrian animals.... .... .... .... 367-383 

Hebron, a Hittite town 28 

„ formerly called Kiijath Sepher .... .... .... .... .... 29 

Hecate, daughter of Asteria (Ishtar) 102 

Hempen cloth a primitive Japanese sacrifice .... .... .... .... 551 

Herodotus gives the Egyptian name of crocodile 367 

Hezekiah and degrees of the sun-dial of Ahaz, 11th Jan., b.c. 689 .230-231-239 
Hieroglypbics, their use requisite in inflexional languages.... .... .... 26 

Himalaya Ark ceremonies 553 

Himyaritic seal found in the Hauran (Dr. Hull), in British Museum 4 1 5 446 

Himyar as " country " not proved .... .... .... .... .... .... 420 

Hisn-Ghorab famishes key to inscription 420 

Hittites, costume detailed .... 28 

„ at Hebron 28 

„ royal dynasty 28 

„ in Egypt called Kheta. Khatti in Assyria, temp. Thothmes III 27 

„ replaces Nahaniim when Soti I was witii Haraeses II .... .... 27 

„ paramount in Syria, temp. Tiglath-Pil-.ser I i8 

Horses in Egypt first sculptured b.o. 1500 52 

Hosea and Joel, Babylonian codex, aj>. 916 (Dr. Ginsburg) Maasorah tables 

12^176,476-519 
Houghton, Rev. W., mammalia of Assyrian sculptures .... 33-64, 31&-383 

Hyksos ruling when Hebrews settled in Egypt ; cause of LXX^s variant 

numbers 73 



Ibreez inscriptions (Hamathite), by Rev. J. Davies 22 

Ichneumon in Mesopotamia 327 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 587 

PAOB 

Il-Makah of Hirran, a great Sabsean deity 205, 240, 884» 402 

Il-Sharaha Yahdbab, brother Yazal Bayyan, fil. Tanim Tanbab, rex Saba, 
Akbarwaakinna, tribe Bakilim, Bin Wal, Bena-Kabirakainin, 
permits purchase of female slaves .... .... .... .... .... 412 

Iritisen, sculptor and painter in Egypt 657-558 

„ his autographic accomplishments 559-562 

„ son of dame Ad .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 562 

„ his eldest legitimate son an artist and jeweller .... ... .... 562 

,, family funeral offerings, wife Hapu, sons Usortesen, Mentuhotep, 

Si-Mentu, daughter Qim, grandson Temnen .... .... .... 556 

,, lived in time of Mentuhotep .... .... .... .... .... 555 

Ishtar and Izdubar, 6th tablet. Translated by H. Fox Talbot .... 97-121 

I^ihtar's promised marriage, household gifts to Izdubar rejected by him .... 98 

„ deadly cruelty to her lovers and pet animals .... .... .... 99 

„ same as Diana of Ephesus, Bellona, Hekate, full moon, etc 101 

Itnander, temp. Assurbanipal, v. Eteaudros 89 

Izdubar and Ishtar, 6th tablet, transkted by W. H. Fo^ Talbot .... 97-121 

„ condemns Ishtar's conduct to her former husband and her animal 

pets ^ 99 

„ di8guise«1 as a beggar (cf. Homer's Odysseus) .... 97 



J. 

Japanese Ark -shrines 550 

Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar, Aug. 563 B.C. 255 

Jewel (in Japanese Shintobm), a wand with paper spread to represent cloth, 

is called Gohei 551 

Joel and Hosea, Babylonian Codex, 916 A.D. (Dr. Ginsbnrg), Massomh 

tables 129-176,475-549 

Jonah, Massorah tables and codex .^ 532-549 



Kadesh, holy city of Phoenician goddess Ken, or Kesh 28 

Karaite codices from Tzufutkalle, Karassubazar, and Feodosia 129 

Kaui-sar or Kirep-sar, Egyptian for Khetasar 28 

Kahoi or Kuan of Assyria 28 

Ken or Kesh, Phoenician consort of god Resheph, the Sun 28 

Key to Genesis Patriarch Table, and Septuagint chronology 65-84 

Kheta-sar (sura), brother and successor of Mautenaur 28 

„ son of Maur-sar (Mara-snra) 28 

„ son of Sapalel (Sapalala), Hittite king 28 

Khirbu is Egyptian for Helbon or Aleppo 28 

Kurium, Cyprus, on Babylonian cylinders found there (Cesnola-Sayce) 441-444 
Kypragorao, from seal at Qolgos 92 



L. 

Lahiatht and Sar Thawwabil, and male relatives of Benn Wahran (clan 

Beni-Marthadim) dedicate tablet for prosperity and male progeny 218 

l4Uchmn and Lakhamu, oldest deities .... 426 

Layard, his opinion of the genus of monkey on Black Obelisk of Shalmanezer 820 

„ found lions at Kahih Sherghal, Bir, and Niff'.r 823 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



588 INDEX. 

hsLyvrd, found beaven „.. ^ , .. ssi 

„ ditoovered Ave Hamatbite seals in Sennacherib's palace ..^ .^ 23 

„ on the white aas of Bagdad .... .... ,.„ .... ^, 4S 

Legend of Tower of Babd, translated by W. St Chad Boacawen 308-312 

Leopard in Assyria 821-322 

„ found by Ainsworth at Marash, in the Amanns and Taurus .^ 826 

Lepsius thinks Jewish exodus was 1322 B.C., Sothiac epoch 71 

Lig-bar-ra not leopards, but a-khu (Isaiah ziii, 21) okhim..» 828 

Lik-makh, the Aocadian name for lion .... 326 

Lions in Assyria „ 324 

„ libations to gods when successful in killing them .... „ 324 

„ 120 killed by TigUth-Paeeer „.. ._ 824 

„ the tail-claw sculptured 825 

„ described .... 826 

„ eat mutton off a boy's chest „„ 876 

„ not trained by Assyrians to the chase .... .... .... ..^ 876 

Lunar cycle, 4947 dozens of synodic months ■■ 4800 solar years 72 

Luynes, Duo de, his Numism. et Inscrip. Cypriote, 1852. Roth, German, 

Heidelbnrg, 1855, corrected by Mr. Talbot 453 



Macacns silenns (Wanderoo) on Nimmd obelisk 320 

Maidan Arabs, their method of lion-killing ^ 823 

Male fowl (gilt) surmounts the Mikoshi as sun-herald 652 

Mammalia of Assyrian Sculptures. By Rer. W. Houghton 88-64 ; 819-383 

Mardonius ordered to Ionia before expedition to Maratiion .» 243 

Maniette's S^p^um de Memphis, Apis tablets 251 

Maspero, Q., on name of Egyptian dog ^, 127-128 

„ on the Abydos stile in the Louvre, C 14 (Dr. Lepsius) 555-562 

Massorah Parva, Hosea 166-175 ; 476-573 

„ Joel • 514-531 

„ Jonah 532-543 

„ Magna, Hosea 143-159 

„ „ Joel 160-165 

„ Jonah 544-549 

Maur-sar (sira) father of Kheta-sar, and son of Sapalel, a Hittite king .... 28 
Mautenaar, son of Mau-sar, and brother and predecessor of Kbeta-sar, a 

Hittite dynasty „ 28 

Medes and Kitians besiege Idalium 498 

Menephtah, Bnnsen's explanation of period of 88 

Merefset or Nebefset, name of the Stafford House Mummy „, 125 

Mi-di-ni (tiger ?) killed in the Hittite country 322 

Mikosh, " precious," Japanese ark -shrines 550 

Miles, Lieut.-Col., calls Dhu-Samaiwi lord of oxen ^ .... 40S 

Mimmation found in Sabtean as in Assyrian 419 

Mirror (sacred) of Japan, circular, original from mines in Heaven by a 
mystic blacksmith (? meteorite) ; has 24 small ones attached to its 

doors ».. 551 

„ Sword, and Jewel, three emblems of a Shinto temple in Japan .... 551 

Mitakara, the three precious things, the Mikado's insignia 551 

Mitztomoye, three tomoyes, triple symbols in a drde, decorating Japanese 

ark 552 

Modem Cypriotists (Schmidt, Deake, Siegismund, Rodet, Lang, Geo. Smith, 

Brandis) „ 447-44« 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 589 

exom 

Monkeys on Black Obelisk of Sbalmanezer 819 

„ tribute of Muzi of Armenia 820 

„ probably the Presbyter Entcllus or Hoonuman .... 820 

„ Macacos silenns, or Wanderoo, on Nimrud obelisk 820 

Moon completes her horns in four quarters.... .... .... .... .... 440 

Mosaic ark, its Afghan, Himalayan, and Japanese analognes .... 550-664 

Mammy (Stafford House) opened 15th July, 1875, by Dr. Birch .... 122-126 

„ M f» vignette. Ritual, chap. 125, details of its funeral 

decorations 128 

„ „ „ specimen of cloth .... .... .... .... 818 

Musa'dam dedicates tabid; for Ma'lsan, invoking prosperity to Beni-Dbabaim 224 

Mustela genus in Mesopotamia 827 

„ foina (white-breasted marten) used as mouse-killer, like our 

domestic cat 64 

Muwaddadam of Beni-Ashyab endowment ia 'Amran to distribute to 

Kashbat Dhat-Marthadim 899 

Muzri of Armenia, its tribute of monkeys (Black Obelisk of Shalmanczer) 820 

„ Bactria (M. Gortechmid) 820 



N. 

Naharaim (Mesopotamia^-Kahri, Asssyria), head -town, temp. Thothmea I 27 

Naramsin, Babylon's king-god, son of Sargon of Agane, B.o. 1600 (Semite) 442 

Ne-su, the Assyrian name for lion 826 

Nimer, or ni-im-ru, the leopard 826 



0. 

Onasikypros, on a seal from Paphos 90-91 

Onasilus, head physician at Idaliom, Cyprus, contract with a freeholder, in 
lieu of fees for curing the wounded besieged. Part I, with the 

doctor's brethren ; Part IT, with him alone 449 

Onasithemis, first occurs, Cyprus 95 

Opobalsamum, the Hebrew Zari 400 

Oppert, M., translates annals of Sargon (Records of the Past, vol. vii) .... 878 

Otter (lutra vulgaris) seen in Mesopotamia 828 



P. 

Pachon, the Egyptian water season, July to October 74 

Patriarchal genealogy, Septuagint chronology, key to (Rydberg — Drach).... 65-87 

Phoenician alphabet introduced into Greece, 9th century B.o 82 

„ „ origin obscure, probably derived from Egypt' hiero- 
glyphics .... 29 

Phcenician alphabet, " a" is Ahom (Egyptian eagle), Semitic ox 80 

Pharaohs had to swear to keep to the ancestral vague year 70 

Philokypras, a stfele from Poli-tis-Chrysorhou (Arsinoe) 90-91 

Philokupros, son of Onasagoras, besieged in Idalium by Medes and Eitians 448 

Pierides, D., notes on Cypriote palseograpby 88-86 

Pigs, stabled, their presence averts the evil eye 880 

Porcupines (liystrix) abundant 885 

Postdiluvian patriarchal chronologic table (Drach) ^ 814 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



590 INDEX. 

Presbyter entellos, the Hindoo monkey, on Black Obelisk of Shalmanezer S20 

Prideaoz, Captain W. F., on an Aramaean seal •i56-4&8 

„ „ sketch of Sabssan grammar, with examples 

177-224^ 884-425 

Prior-Patriarch, table of the three texts compared 66 

Prototimos on stone tablet, first occurrence 94 

Psammetichns, Egyptian inscription of at Florence 253 

„ „ „ „ Leyden, temp. Amasis .... 253 

Pyramos and Thisbe, originally a Babylon love-tale. (Ovid) 103 

B. 

Bababura Yazam Bin Akhraf , endowment, protection in M'alsan, under chief 

Yafra', Bin-Marthadim, from 'Araban of the West S93 

Raibum and his brothers Bdnu-Marthadim (tribe of 'Amran), tablet and 
eight gold rings, anno 'Am-Karib ben Samaha-Earib ben Hatsfarim, 

lady of Thaurim 222 

Rameses II, his treaty with Hittite prince Eheta-sar (sira) „ 28 

Bawlinson's Assyrian Canon, 1087-668 B.C. 279 

Besheph, the Phcenician sun-god .... .... .... .... .... ^ 28 

Rhinoceros found in Assyi'ia, called " alap-nahr " in the 'Sacieya 350 

Bimmon, the air-god, on a cylinder found at Kurium .... .... .... 441 

Bimmon's fort, car Bimmon (Assyria) .... .... .... .... .... 25 

„ „ Shalmanezer's god Bimmon of Ehalman (Aleppo) 25 

Bossi, Fr., aids Chabas in procuring an impression of a st^le .... .^ 460 

Botennn (Syrians), temp. Thothmes II 27 

Boug^ calls the Turin st^le the Queen-st^le 45( 

Bydberg's, Victor, key to Patriarch Table, and LXX chronology, 

Combertigue (Drach) 65-81 

Bydbei'gf's rules for reconciling patriarchial life-ages 6« 

„ his fusion of the double genealogy 61^ 

his final 1461, 4947, 5408 years « 79 

„ states Jeroboam ordered the calf-worship 8:2 

8. 

Saba's capital Maryab, palace Budau, near Zhafar 180 

Sabsean alphabet has 29 letters, classified according to the emitting organs 181 

„ g^mmar 177-200 

„ examples of translation, 203-224 ; 384-425 

„ tongue, Semitic. Ethiopic, Geez, Ma'n 178-180 

Sabbath day, king of Babylon dared not drive out upon ; sundry meats 

forbidden on 427 

Sable, the, found in Mesopotamia 827 

Saceya river contains rhinoceros 350 

Sadik-dhakara, slave of king Hadhramaut, Bin 11-Shirahar, endows Sin 
of Alam in Shabwat city, recording Marthadim and Addanam of 

Yen'am 416 

Sadilah and Benu-Marthadim endowment, Il-Hakah, lord of Awwam 
Dhu-'Iran Alui; descent to Arhakim, is invoked to protect lands 

from hail and other evils 409 

Sakh, Accadian name of bear 330 

„ dam-sakh or gim-sakh, the she-bear 330 

„ mngan, is it bear or hippopotamus ? .... .... .... ... .... 330 

Sakh-mas-luv, or Shkh-si-khar-ra are Ursa Mi^or, " the horn of h(*aven " 833 

Samahakarib, sonof TobbaV Earib, sonof Fadhihim 390 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 591 

PAOB 

SammAn poison, holy incense of Exodus xzv (?) 118 

Sardanapalus, revolt of. Mr. Boscawen's translitendaon of cylinder of .... 274 
Sariom the Minsan's endowment of tahlefc to Il-Makah of Hirran rescaed 

from the tribe of Asad in house of Bin Sanfan 885 

Sayoe, Bev. A. H., on the Cesnola cuneiform cylinders found at Enrium, 

Cyprus 441-444 

„ Bey. A. H., Hamathite inscriptions 22-32 

Schliemann, Dr., finds at Hissarlik Cypriotio inscribed disks .... .... 81 

Senkereh, brick of, inscription of Cyrus 236 

Sennacherib's palace, Hamathite seals found by Mr. Layard 22 

Septuagint chronology, key to (Bydberg — Drach) 66-87 

„ alterations owing to Greek- Alexandrian enmity of Jews there, 

temp. Ptolemy Phikdelphus 76 

Seth myth, his sacred animals selected by Job 68 

Seven to eight Mikoshi in the temple of Hachiman at Kamakura 653 

Seventh day and new moon, both were strict holidays, ooSval with creation 427 
Shalmanezer's chronology; Mr. W. S. Boscawen's transliteration of the 

inscription of 271-274 

Shalmanezer, monkeys and elephant on his Black Obelisk 819 

Shammar Bin Kurain's endowment of tablet .... 888 

„ Yakub, son of Washkim, endowment, booty from Nabshim, under 

Yathium Bin-Marthadim ... 892 

Shamshad wood, material for an Afghan holy ark 653 

Shintoism, Japan's primitive iconoclastic religion 661 

Shkr Chrf, '* thankful lamb,'' Himyaritic seal found in Hauran 446 

Simpson, W., on Japanese ark -shrines (Tenno-Sama, Mikoshi), resembling 

Mosaic ark 650-654 

Sineh, his life referred to 667 

Smendes and Psousemes, kings on Abydos st^le 665 

Smith, Qeorge, found a Cypriote inscribed cone in Assurbanipal's palace .... 81 

Sohir eclipse of 819 B.c 292 

M „ 703 B.C., temp. Budsagale and Ednsarabe at Nineveh .... 268 

763, 689, 686. 86, 8 B.C 261-262 

Solomon's temple founded B.C. 990 266-267 

S<domon, king, Hebrew regal annals begin with his reign 65 

Sothiao cycles originally celestial 65 

„ „ introduced 8300 B.o 70 

Sothis, queen of the new year ; her f^te 70 

Stafford House, mummy opened there by Dr. Birch, 16th July, 1876 122-126 
Stanton, General, H.B.M. Consul-General, presento a mummy to Duke of 

Sutherland 122 

Stasikupros, king of Idalium, orders Onasilus son of Onaaikupros and 

brethren to heal the wounds without fees, paid by royal bounty .... 449 
Stdle Egyptienne du Mus^ de Turin. By FranQois Chabas .... 459-474 

Striped feline on Assyrian gem ^- 822 

SuidtB (pigs) found in Assyria 861 

SotherUnd, Duke of. invites party to unroll mummy given him by General 

Stanton on 16th July. 1875 122 

Sword, Flaming, which turned every way (Talbot) 1-21 

SylUbary, how to be used to find names of animals 89-40 

Syncellus counts 1460-1 years from Belus to Arbaces, Sardanapalus .... 229 
Syrian and Israelitisb chronology 267 



Talbot, H. F., Chaldean account of the Creation 426-440 

„ on Cypriote inscriptions 447-466 

^O^V. Digitized by QbOgle 



592 INDEX. 

Talbot, H. F., fight between Bel and the Dragon ; the Flaming Sword which 

turned every way .„. 1-21 

„ Ishtar and Izdubar, 6th tablet translated 97—111 

Tanu-Azares (Ahasueras) and 'Atossa (Esther), chronology. By Mr. J. W. 

Bosanquet 825-^9? 

Tannf, lady of Qhadhran, endows twenty-four images to sare Silhin .... 412 

Taylor, Colonel, of Baghdad, his brown lion S26 

Tazena, king of Ethiopia, destroys painted houses (Aximi) 408 

Tenno-Sama (** heavenly lord "), Japanese ark-shrine .... .... .... 550 

Teumman, king of Elam, demands of Umman-aldas the return of Nana statue 264 
Thamum and Usaidam and male relatives of Benu Ar&t, of the Bin 

Marthadim, endow tablet for good harvest .... .... .... .... 212 

Theodoros and Tlieotimos, stone in Cyprus .... .... .... .... 92 

Thothmes III, Babylon, Assur, and Nineveh tributary to Egypt .... .... 27 

Thunderbolts, quadruple and septuple, of Bel .... .... .... .... 2 

Tiger, probably in ancient Assyria (Blyth and Murray) .... ... 331-922 

Tiglath-Pileser I (B.C. 1130). Hittites paramoimt in Syxia 28 

Timoromos, on stdle from Poli-tis-Chrysochou (Arsino^) „ 90-91 

Toth, Egypt's sprouting season, November to February .... .... .... 74 

Toby, Egypt's harvest season, March to June .... .... .... ..« 74 

Torii, or bird rest, Shinto outer gateway (Chinese Fallows), from a dove 

resting on original ark .... .... .... .,., .... ..„ S52 

Toutmosis's valour disclosed the surrounding countries 77 

Tribes, eleven, gazed at dead dragon .... .... .... .... .... 3 

Tristram, Dr., finds fossil bison teeth in the Lebanon 837-338 

Tunamis, son of Paru, third Eurium (rock crystal) cylinder, temp. Baar- 

haddon .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 444 

Turin, M. Chabas sur une stdle 6gyptienne du Mus6e de 469-474 

U. 

U-du-mu, man-monkey, human-like portraits by Assyrians 821 

Ukhtumhu and Shafanram, cottagers, endow idol 207 

UngnlatsB, BovidaB, etc., in Assyria.... .... .... .... .... ... 337 

Ursidse (Bears) in Assyria .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 329 

Urns (Auerochs) horns in request at Rome and Nineveh 339 

V. 

Vague year of Egypt superior to other national cycles 70 

W. 

Wadada-n, son of Tekah-malik, Eabir Khalil ... 388 

Wahhabum and brothers, Benu Kalbat, dedicate a tablet 206 

Wanderoo monkey known to the Assyrians 320 

Watrum of Bin Marthadim dedicate tablet Samaha-Karib ben Toba'a-Karib 

ben Hudhamat 220 

Wolf (numma), the highland beast, a-ki-luv 85 

Wolf called " the eater " by the Accadians 36 

Woods used in Japanese and Afghan temples 660-664 

X. 

Xisuthrus' flood, B.C. 2879, same date as Moses' Noachic deluge 264 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 



INDEX, 593 



Y. 



Yeshnf and the male relatiyes of Benn Eathabim, of the tribe Bin Mar- 

thadin, dedicate tablet for II Makah's prospering them 214 

Tinyang, the Chinese dual symbol, compared with the Japanese triad .... 652 



Z. 

Ziggoratiy temple tower of Babel, overthrown in a night by the angry gods, 

who confounded the speech of the builders, and scattered them .... 803 
Zoological namee of Assyrian animals 867-383 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



594 



INDEX. 



LIST OF BIBLICAL TEXTS. 



Oenedi 


i. 


1-5 


»» 


i. 


9 


t» 


5. 


21 


» 


ii. 


8 


»t 


iT, 


1^17 


»> 


▼. 




»» 


▼. 


14-16 


» 


▼i. 


4-13 


f» 


▼ii. 


7 


»t 


Tiii. 


2 


»» 


ix. 


22 


>i 


X, 


6 


»> 


X, 


21 


» 


X, 


26 


*• 


xi. 


18 


»» 


xi. 


2-13 


M 


xii. 


10 


„ 


XIT, 


13 


»» 


xvii, 


10-13 


„ 


zziii, 


8 


«• 


zxiz. 


27 


$» 


zxxi, 


19 


.. xxxiii. 


4 


Exodns 


vi. 


16 


f» 


ziii. 


14 


n 


zzxii. 


8-5 


Levit. 


XXV, 


1-8 


f> 


XXY, 


4-5 


»» 


XXV, 


9 


Namb. 


xiii. 


23 


Deut. 


iv, 


34 


»» 


xxix, 


29 


>f 


xxix. 


29 


»» 


XXX, 


17 


Joshua 


ix. 


4 


Judgei 


V, 


10 


>• 


viii. 


24-27 


1 Sftm. 


xix. 


18-14 


IKingi vi. 


1 


i> 


vi. 


1-88 


M 


viii. 


2 


»» 


X, 


22 


»f 


X, 


29 


„ 


xi. 


6-7 


„ 


xi, 


40 


„ 


xii. 


29-80 


f> 


XV, 


18 



9kcm 






817 


1 Kings xviii, 


1 


431 


,» XX, 


84 


430 


„ xxii. 


1 


68 


2 Kings iii. 


24 


67-8 


*» iii. 


41 


65 


vii. 


6 


66-77 


ix. 


6 


77 


,» xiv. 


23 


82 


„ xiv. 


25-26 


77 


*. XV, 


29 


815 


.. xxiii, 


29-38 


66-66 


2 Chron. xii. 


2 


676 


** xiv. 


9 


468 


,» XV, 


10 


816 


Ezra iv. 


6 


65 


iv. 


6-W 


65 


,. vi. 


14 


77 


„ vi. 


22 


268 


xi. 


16 


28 


Job iv. 


17 


260 


» X, 


6 


68 


xi. 


28 


86 


„ xxxviii, 


81 


84 


Psalm xxiii« 


1 


65 


., Ixxx, 


13 


68 


Prov. viii. 


26 


260 


Cantic. il, 


15 


269 


Isaiab ii. 


2 


268 


„ xiii. 


21 


76 


xiv. 


9 


430 


„ xxxvii. 


80 


86 


.. xlix. 


24 


816 


.. IxU, 


6 


830 


Jerem. v. 


8 


116 


.. xvii, 


7 


49 


.. XXV, 


1 


68 


., xliii. 


8,9 


68 


„ xlvi. 


8 


84 


,. Iii. 


30 


265 


Ezekiel iv. 


4 


265 


,. xxiii. 


23 


280 


., xxvii, 


14 


28 


,» xxix. 


11 


68 


„ xxix. 


17-18 


283 


», XXX, 


18 


257 


„ xxxii. 


6,11 


288 


„ xxxii. 


7-8 



138 



.... 257 

84 

... 278 

83 

... 283 

.... 285 

.... 284 

.... 245 

... 236 

311-246 

241-246 

.... 243 

.... 431 

.... 431 

.... 337 

.... 432 

.... 432 

.... 431 

.... 329 

... 265 



.... 893-6 
.... 267 

45 
.... 431 
.... 250 
.... 252 
.... 260 
.... 249 
.... 269 
.... 424 

61 
.... 250 
.... 262 
262-262 
.... 262 
.... 262 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 



595 



LIST OF BIBLICAL TEXTQ—conHnued, 









rAOB 








PAOB 


Daniel 


h 


17 .... 


66 


Hagg. 


ii. 


18 .... 


.... 266 


r» 


V, 


28-81 .... 


.... 241 


ft 


ii. 


20 .... 


.... 247 


** 


▼. 


36 .... 


.... 22&-7 


Zachar. 


i. 


7 .... 


.... 227 


M 


vi. 


1-2 .... 


.... 242 


tt 


i» 


7.12 .... 


.... 227 


»> 


vi. 


8 .... 


.... 247 


t» 


i, 


8 .... 


.... 247 


»> 


▼i. 


28 .... 


.... 236 


,, 


i. 


16 .... 


.... 248 




viii, 


8 .... 


.... 245 


» 


ii. 


7 ... 


.... 245 


» 


viii. 


18 .... 


.... 268 


»» 


x» 


8 .... 


46 


y* 


Till, 


5-8 .... 


46 


» 


xiv. 


4^5 .... 


.... 269 


>f 


viu, 


14 ... 


.... 257 


Matt. 


i. 


17 .... 


.... 282 


*» 


«, 


1 .... 


.... 226-7 


John 


i. 


1 .... 


.... 481 


*» 


ix, 


2 .... 


.... 249 


Acte 


▼ii. 


2 .... 


.... 269 


» 


«. 


24 .... 


24-266 


»» 


vii. 


43 .... 


.... 68. 86 


i« 


x» 


18 .... 


.... 236 


Romans 


iii. 


20-81 .... 


.... 268 


Hosea 


var. 




181-176 


lEsdras 


Hi. 


1-2 .... 


.... 245 


»> 


ziii. 


7 ."" 


.... 327 


ft 


iii. 


7 .... 


.... 247 


Joel 


var. 


.... 


181-176 


f* 


iv. 


48 .... 


.... 246 


Amof 


i, 


1 .... 


.... 258 


»» 


V. 


2 .... 


.... 248 


»t 


V, 


26 .... 


68 


>♦ 


V, 


9 .... 


.... 245 


t* 


vii. 


11 .... 


.... 257 


Judith 




.... 


.... 282 


»* 


viii. 


8-9 .... 


.... 257 


Daniel, Apoc 


.... 


.... 288 


Nabum 


iii, 


2 .... 


51 


Enoch Bk., Apoc 


... 260 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



596 



INDEX. 



CLASSICAL AND MODERN (M) AUTHORITffiS. 









rAOB 




r*aa 


AbnlpbaragiuB, i, 31, 46 


(M) 


.... 257 


Josephus, Ant., xi, iii, 2 


_ 245 


Abydenus 




.... 276 


X, ix, 7 


.... 250 


Aratus (ScboUast) 




70 


„ „ xvii, vi, 4 


.... 262 


Arrian.... 




... 235 


„ con Apion i, 18 


.... 256, 


Cmar, Julias, Bell. Gall. 


,vi. 


28 337 




281-282, 290 


Castor 




.... 232 


Julius Africanus 


«..76, 232 


Clement (Alexandria) .... 




.... 235 


ii, 260 


.... 262 


Clinton, i, 260 (M) .... 




.... 232 


Lepsius, Zeitsch., '69, p. 78 (M) 70 


Ctesias 


229, 


232, 235 


Lieblein(M) 


.... 71, IB 


.. p.4d 




.... 244 


Littr^ Diet. (M) 


81 


Demetrius .... .... 




.... 249 


Livy 


.... 256 


Didjmns (Alexandria).... 




.... 326 


Lucian, 190 


.... 235 


Diodorus 


230, 


232, 263 


Lubker(M) 


81 


Engel, 1.265.147, 164 (M) 


.... 91, 93 


Lucretius (v. 1301) .... 


.... 350 


Eratosthenes 




74 


Malalas, 158, 160 .... 


235,246 


Eusebius. 190 




.... 235 


Manetho 


.... 78. 79 


87 




.... 276 


Megasthenes 


229, 235, 291 


Fr^ret (M) 




71 


Menander 


.... 281 


Gantz, 56 (M) 




.... 248 


Orosius (M) 


.... 266 


Gregory (Nazianzen) .... 




64 


Ovid, 141 


102.234 


Herodotus 




.... 74 


Pape, Diet. 1320 (M).... 


.... 89. 91 




i. 130 




.... 231 


Phlegon, ii, 271 


.... 282 




i, 106 .... 




... 233 


Pliny 


.... 232 




iii, 133 .... 




.... 234 


Plutarch, 49. 62, 31 .... 


68 




i, 209, 214 




.... 236 


Polybius 


232.256 




, Ti, 43 .... 




.... 243 


Porphyry 


70,71,93 




vi. 3 .... 




.... 244 


Sakellarios, i, 191 (M). .. 


93 




ii, 31 .... 




.... 246 


Solinus 


.... 256 




ii, 161 .... 




.... 262 


Suidas 


.... 266 




T, 113 




.... 452 


Syncellus 


....84. 281 


Hesi^ (Scholiast) .... 




93 


., i.l81 


.... 229 


Hesychius 




452, 454 


Thallas 


.... 232 


Josephus 




... 78 


Vellieus ValeLS 


.... 70 


Ant., X, ii, 1 




... 231 


Xenophon 


.... 233 


>» 


X, xi. 2 




... 235 







■AmauoM AMV toils, pBurrsBa » oBO»AmT vo an KAiatn, «. iiABfui's LAMr. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



597 



BRRATA. 

Page 818. — For Ftrtt Paragraph aubHitute — 

In addition to wj notes on M. Bydberg't Memoir, I find 
Ezekiel iy's 890 pluB 40 are 480; that 48 Biot't archaic year 
of 865 X ^181, \b 16,705* 10>» 17" 08-6« ; that 581 J Herodotian 
months of 866 x ^ is 15,705* 10»» 26« 14'6" ; and that our 
modem solar year is -i ^J^^^Ta days, or 14 x 27 { 1 - -Afc }• 

Page 814, Line 6. — Paroffraph after Table. — omit "As Noah, Ac., to post- 
diluvian tents.'* 

„ „ After " columns," add " is noteworthy." 

Page 815, Line 4— -4/^^ "impropriety," read "Moabite god Chemish dM 
is 866 in value. Does the peculiar poetic style indicate 
the words being acrostics in initials or finals? Thus 
Deut. xxxii, verse 24, 'WO, and verse 25, MDID MD; 
verse 88, P^nnK. Lam.i,l, jnnn^K; iii,27, 3»ote." 

Page 816, Line H.-^After "Ck)d?" omU " The super-pointed, Ac., to (Eabb)," 
evbetiiutet " Did Henoch's learning make his name the 
type of instruction, like * Mentor ' (Prov. xxii, 6) ? " 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



>»i^ 






Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 



LIST OF MEMBERS, January, 1877. 

Marked thus f are Members of the Council. 

A1K8WORTH, W. F., F.S.A., r.E.G.S., Eayenscourt Villa, Ham- 
mersmith, S.W. 

Alexander, Geo., 1, Ulster Terrace, Eegent'e Park, N.W. 

Allen, W. C, 72, Albion Boad, Stoke Newington, N. 

Allen, Edward, Alnwick. 

Amhurst, William A. Ttssen, F.S A., F.R.S.L., F.E.S., Ac.. 
DidiiDgton Park, Brandon, Norfolk. 
tANGirs, Ret. Jos., D.D., Regent's Park, N.W. 

Anderson, J. Corbet, Croydon, Surrey. 

Appleford, William, 8, Park Street, Victoria Park Road, N.E. 

Applbton, Rev. R., MA., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Arnold, Ret. Dr. Muehleisen, 27, Bristol Gardens, W. 

Attwood, Rev. Geo., Framlingham Rectory, Wickham Market. 
Babinqton, Ret. Churchill, D.D., F.R.S.L., Cockfield Rectory, 
Sudbury, Suffolk. 

Backhouse, James, York. 

Bagster, H. Theodore, 15, Paternoster Row, £.C. 

Baoster, Robt., 14, King's Road, Gray's Inn, W.C. 

Baker, William, B.A., 6, King's Bench Walk, Temple, E.C. 

Barclay, J. G., Knott's Green, Ley ton, Essex. 

Barker, Rev. P., M.A., 2, Duke Street, Adelphi, W.C. 

Barton, Col. N. D., 64, Regency Square, Brighton. 

Batterbbt, Rev. T. D. Harford, St. John's Parsonage, Keswick. 

Bbalb, D. Chauncet, 1, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

Beardsley, Amos, F.L.S., F.G.S., Bay Villa, Grange-over-Sands, 
Lancashire. 
fBEEOHEY, Rev. Canon St. Vincent, M.A., Hilgay Rectory, 
Downham, Norfolk. 

Bertin, Charles, 4, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, E.C. 

Bevan, William, 12, Bolton Gardens, South Kensington, W. 

Vol. V. n^^ \ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ii JAst of Members. 

BiKioK, Si^niEL A., 6, Duke Street, Adelpbi, W.C. 
tBiRCH, Sahuel, LL.D., 4fcc., Britiah Museum. "W.C. {Pre^dent), 

BiBDWOOD, Db., F.G.S., India Office, Whitehall, S.W. 

Black, Majob R. S., 54, Albion Boad, Stoke Newington, N. 

Blackett, Eev. W. E., M.A., 65, Bedford Street, LiTerpooL 

BoLDEH, Bev. C, Preeton Bissett Bectory, Buckingham. 

BoNGHi, SiQNOB B., Camera Dei Deputati, Bome. 
tBoNOMi, Joseph, Sir John Soane's Museum, W.C. 
tBosAKQUET, James W., F.B.A.S., M.B.A.S., Ac, 73, Lombard 
Street, E.C. {Treasurer.) 

BosAiTQUET, Samuel E., Dingeston Court, Monmouth. 

BoscAWEN, Eev. W. H., B.A., Marchweil, Wrexham. 
fBoscAWEK, William St. Chad, British Museum, Bloomsburj, 
W.C. 

BowDEN, Eev. Chables H., The Oratory, Brompton, S.W. 

BoYD, Eev. William, F.S.A., Scot., St. John's Manse, Forest 
Hill, S J). 

Bbamley-Moobe, Eev. W., M.A., 19, Woburn Square, W.C. 

Bbbwstsb, Eev. WALDEeBAVS, Middleton Bectory, Manchester. 

Bbock, Eev. Moubakt, M.A., 4, Gloucester Eow, Clifton. 

Bbown, J., F.E.A.S., Brantholme, Kendal, Westmoreland. 

Bbown, J. EoBBBTS, 84, Caversham Eoad, N. W. 

Bbown, Wm. Henbt, 35, Chariewood Street, S.W. 

BBOwy, E., Jun., F.S.A., Barton-on-Humber, Lincolnshire. 

Bbowk, Alfbbd Kbmp, Norwich. 

Browkek, Geo., F.C.S., Althorpe Eoad, Wandsworth Common, 

S.W. 
BuGBT, Wm., 8, Wilton Villas, Shepherd's Bush, W. 
Bullock, Eev. W. T., M.A., Kensington Palace, S.W. 
BuNSEK, Ebkest De, Abbey Lodge, Hanover Gate, N.W. 
BuBTON, Sib Williim W., 64, Chepstow Villas, Nutting Hill, W. 
BuBTOK, Eev. E. Clebkb, Taversham, Norwich. 
BuBTON, Thomas, M.D., Westport, co. Mayo. 
Bute, The Mabqiqs of, KG., K.T., 83, Eccleston Square^ S.W. 
Butt, E. M., 44, Eleanor Street, Campbell Eoad, Bow, E. 
BirxTOK, WiLMOT, F.E.A.S., 77, Chancery Lane, E.C. 
Camebok, Alexahi>bb Maoeekzie, Borneo. 
Camps, E., M.D., 

Campbell, Pbofessob John, M.A., Presbyterian College, Mon- 
treal, Canada. 

Capel, Veby Eev. Monsignob T. C, D.D., Kensington College, 
Cabb, Eev. Abthub, Wellington College, Wokingham. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



List of Members. iii 

CABPBirrEB, Rev. J. Edlik, 4, Oppidan Boad, Primrose HUl, N.W 

Carbuteebs, Eey. Chbistupheb, 4, Spencer Villas, Southfields, 

Wandsworth, S.W. 

tCATES, Abthitb, F.R.LB.A.,7,WhitehaUTard,S.W. {Secretary), 

Chalmebs, John, Castle Bank, Merchiston, Edinburgh 

Chappbll, William, F.S.A., Oatlands Park, Walton- on-Thames 

Chabtebis, Pbof. a. H., D.D., 1^ Salisbury Boad, Edinburgh. 

Ohevallieb, Edgecumbe, F.B.A.S., Knysna, Cape Colony. 

Chexkb, Bev. F. K., M.A., Balliol College, Oxford. 
tCHBisTT, Thos., Jun., 165, Fenchurch Street, B.C. 

Chbistt, Thos. Howabd, 64, Claverton Street, Grosyenor 
Boad, S.W. 

Clabk, John, 133, Upper Bennington Lane, S.E. 

Clabke, C. Habwood, B.A., F.S.A., Westfield, Bromley, Kent. 

Clabkb, Bev. Pbop. Thob., Kensington College, W. 

Coles, Bev. J. B., M.A., Woodham Walter, Maldon, Esser 

CoLES, Bev. V. S., M.A., Skepton Beaucbamp, Ilminster. 

Collins, James, F.B.P.S., Singapore. 

CoLLiKS, Bbv. CiNON, M.A., Lowick, Northamptonshire. 

CoMFABTH, J., Birmingham. 
tCooK, Bev. Fbanois C.,M.A., Canon of Exeter, Devon. (Fic«- 
PresidenU) 

Coopeb, Bev. Basil H., B.A., F.B.S.L., 68, Homcastle Terrace, 
FonthiU Boad, N. 
tCooPEB, W. B., F.B.A.S., M.B.A.S., 6, Bichmond Grove, Barns- 
bury, N. {Secretary,) 

CoBNTHWAiTE, Bev. Tullie, M.A., The Forest, Walthamstow, 

N.E. 

CossoK, M. Le Babok C. A. De, F.B.G.S., L'Hermitage, Am- 

boise, Indre et Loire, France. 
CouBTNET, Bight Bev. Bishop, D.D., Kingston, Jamaica. 
Cox, Davtd, 2, New Park Boad, Brixton, S. 
Cbanage, Db. J. E., Old Hall School, Wellington, Salop. 
Cbawjobd, Majob-Gekebal, United States America, care of 

B. P. Evans, 4, Trafalgar Square, W.C. 
Cbewdsok, Bev. Geo., St. George's Vicarage, Kendal. 
Cbothbbs, Capt. Wallace G., Chew-Magna, Somerset. 
Cull, Biohabd, F.S.A., 13, Tavistock Street, Bedford Square, 

W.C. 
CuMiNO, H. Steb, F.S.A., Scot., 68, Kennington Park Boad, S.E. 
tCuBBET, Bbv. Geoboe, D.D., Master's Lodge, Charterhouse, 

Aldersgate Street, E.C. (Vice-President) 
tCusT, EoBEBT, F.B.A.S.; 64, St. George's Square, S.W. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



iv Lut of Members. 

Dalb, Bey. Thomas Pelham, M.A., 6, Ladbroke Qardens, W. 
Dalb, Eev. Bbyait, M.A. Halifax. 

Dalton, Kbv. J. N., M.A., Marlborough House, St. Jameses, W. 
Dabbishibe, Eobt. D., B.A., F.E.S., F.S.A., Victoria Park, 

Manchester. 
David, Eev. Wm., M.A., Colleton Crescent, Exeter. 
Datis, Kev. E. J., Ash Villa, Link, Malvern. 
Day, St. John Vincent, C.E., F.R.C.S., S.E., Garscadden, 

Duntocher, N.B. 
Db La Rue, Wabben, F.E.S., D.C.L., F.E.A.S., 73 Portland 

Place, W. 
Delitzsch, Fbibdbioh, Ph.D., 54, NUrnberger Strasse, Leipzig. 
Denton, Eev. Wm., M.A., 22, Westbourne Square, W. 
DiSMOBB, J. L., Stewart House, Gravesend. 
Donaldson, Pbofessob T. L., K.L., Ph.D., &c., 21, Upper 

Bedford Place, W.C. 
Douglas, Eev. Db., Free Church College, Glasgow. 
Dbach, S. M., F.E. A.S., F.E.G.8., 23, Upper Barnsbury Street, N. 
Dbtden, James, 12, Princes Street, Cornbrook Park, Manchester. 
Dykes, Eev. J. Oswald, D.D., 74, Oakley Square, N.W. 
Eddie, William H., Barton-on-Humber. 
Edwabds, K. B., Burbage HalJ, Hinckley. 
Ely, Talfoubd, 10, Eldon Eoad, Hampstead, N.W. 
EspiN, Eev. Canon Thomas, B.D., Wallasey Eectory, Birkenhead. 
Evans, J. L., Parkdale House, Tyndal Park, Bristol. 
Evans, Stephen, Brvntirion, Upper Hornsey Lane, N. 

Falkeneb, Edwabd, K. D., Glan-y-mor, Laughame, Carmarthen- 
shire. 

Fabbell, Isaac, 8, Leinster Square, Bathmines, Dublin. 

Febgusson, James, D.C.L., F.E.S.A., F.E.I.B.A., 9, Langham 
Place, W. 

Fbbbey, Benjamin, F.S.A., F.E.I.B. A., 42, Inverness Terrace, 
Bayswater, W. 

FiDLEB, T. Claxton, 9, Victoria Chambers, Westminster, S.W. 

FiNLAYSON, Eev. John, M.A., 60, Lower Baggot Street, Dublin. 

FisHEB, E. Tbott, 30, Eaton Place, S.W. 

Fitzpatbick, Eev. N. E., B.A., 78, Hanley Eoad, Upper Hollo- 
way, N. 

Fletcheb, William Youngeb, British Museum, W.C. 

FoBB-ss, Alexander, M.A., 6, Mackie Place, Aberdeen, N.B. 

FoBSMAN, A. St. John, The Lodge, Culmore, Londonderry. 

FoBTNUM^ C. Dbuby, F.S.A., Stanmore Hill, Middlesex. 

Fowleb, Eev. J. F., M.A., F.S.A., Hatfield Hall, Durham. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



List of Members. v 

Pox, Chables, Trebah, Falmouth. 

Franks, Augustus W., M.A., F.8.A., F.K.S.L., British 

Museum, W.C. 
Feaser, a. L., War Office, S.W. 
Freeman, Hubert A., A.R.I.B.A., F.S.A., G, Queen Anne's 

Gate, S.W. ; 55, Sussex Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 
Freer, William Jesse, St on} gate, Leicester. 
Fbeshfeeli), Edwin, New Bank Buildings, E.G. 
Fbohlich, Prof. Robert, University, Buda-Pest. 
Fry, H. William, Walthamstow, Essex. 
Fry, Theodore, Brinkburn, Darlington. 
Fuller, Be v. J. M., M.A., Bexley, Kent. 

Garbett, E. L., 7, Mornington Road, N.W. 
Geden, Rev. Prof. John Durt, Didsbury College, near Man- 
chester. 
Geikie, Rev. Cunningham, D.D., F.R.G.S., 3, Rosedale Villi- 

West Dulwich, S.E. 
Geldart, Rev. G. C, M .A., Oakwood, Duppa's HilJ, Croydon, S.E. 
Gibb, Rev. John, M.A,, Presbyterian College, Queen*B Square. 

W.C. 
Gibbon, J. A., Crescent Lodge, Peckhara Rye, S.W. 
GiFFARD, Sir Hardinqe Stanley, Q.C., M.P., 12, Chester Place, 

Hyde Park Square, W. 
Gill, Thos. R., 39, Amersham Road, New Cross, S.E. 
tGiNSBURG, Rev. Christian D., LL.D., Binfield, Bracknell, Herts. 
tGLADSTONE, Right Hon. W. E., M.P., D.C.L., F.S.S., 43, Hurley 

Street, Cavendish Square, W. {Vice-President), Hawarden 

Castle, Flintshire. 
Gladstone, J. ITall, Ph.D., F.E.S., 17, Pembridge Square, W. 
Glasier, W. R. M., 41, Charing Cross, S.W. 
GoLDZiTRER, Jgnaz, Ph.D., 4, Tabak-gasse, Buda-Pest. 
GoLENiscHEFF, W., Quai Anglais 12, St. Petersbourg. 
Gorman, Rev. T. Murray, 13, Campden Grove, Kensington, W. 
GossE, Phillip H., F.R.S., V.P.S.S., Sandhurst, Torquay. 
Grant, Brown, Rev. G., 83, Clarendon Road, Notting Hill, W. 
Grant, Rkv. W., Toronto, Canada. 
tGRAVES, R. Edmond, British Museum, W.C. 
fGREGORY, His Excellency Sir William, C.B., G.C.S.L, 

Queen's House, Colombo. ( Vice President.) 
Greig, Robt. R., 5, Verulam Buildings, Gray's Inn, W.C. 
Greenwood, Prof. G., Principal, Owens College, Manchester. 
Griffith, D. Clewin, F.R.G.S., 117, Gower Street, W.C. 
Grove, George, Sydenham, S.E. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



vi List of Members, 

GuBNEi, J. H., Nortliaepps, Norwich. 
GuBNEY, John, Sprowston Hall, near Norwich. 
OiTEST, E., LL.D., Master, Cains and Gonville College, Cambridge. 
Haioh, Eev. D. H., M.A., Erdington, near Birmingham. 
Hjllb, C. G., 26, Austin Friars, E.C. 
Hall, IsiJic H., Syrian Protestant College, Beirut. 
Hamilton, Right Hon. Lord Claud, M.P., 9, Eaton Square, W. 
Hamilton, A. C, M.A., Oldenburg House, Tunbridge WellB. 
Hamilton, Archibald, South Barrow, Bromley, Kent. 
Harman, John, 73, Lombard Street, E.C. 
Harris, Theodore, Church Bank, Leighton Buzzard, 
f Harrison, Charles, 10, Lancaster Gate, W. 
Harrison, J. Park, M.A., Cintra Park Villa, Upper Norwood, 

S.E. 
Harrison, J. W., 45, St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 
fHARROWBT, Eight Hon. The Earl op, K.G., D.C.L., 89, Gros- 

yenor Square, S.W. {Vice-President.) 
Hartland, Ernest, The Oaklands, Cheltenham. 
Hartland, E. Sidney, 6, Rutland Street, Swansea. 
Harvey, Eight Eev. and Eight Hon. Lord Arthur, Bishop 

OP Bath and Wells, D.D., The Palace, Wells, Somerset. 
Harward, J., Winterfold, Kidderminster. 
Haywood, W. J^ 9, Foxberry Eoad, Brockley, S.E. 
Heane, William, F.R.C.S., Cinderford, Gloucester. 
Heath, Eev. Dunbar 1., F.RS.L., Esher, Surrey. 
Henderson, John, M.A., F.S.A., 8, Montague Street, SuBBell 

Square, W.C. 
Heywood, Samuel, M.A., 171, Stanhope Street, N.W. 
Hill, F. Mobley, 22, Eichmond Eoad, Bamsbury, N. 
Hitchcock, Hiram, Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.A. 
HoBSON, Abthub S., 3, Upper Heathfield Terrace, Tumham 

Green, W. 
Hodges, B. E., Ph.D., 56, Maitland Park Eoad, N.W. 
HoE, EoBEBT, Jun., 29, West 19th Street, New York, U^.A. 
Holmes, John E., HolmsviDe, Methley, Leeds. 
H5MMEL, Db., Leipsig. 
. HoBNiMANN, Fbedebick Geoboe, F.E.G.S., F.Z.8., F.L.S., 

F.S.A. (Scotland), M.E.S., etc., Surrey House, Forest Hill, S.E. 
Houghton, Eev. William, M.A., Preston Eectory, Wellington, 

Salop. 
HowABD, J. E., F.S.S., Ac, Lordship Lane, Tottenham, N. 
Howobth, Henry A., F.8.8., F.E.M.S., Derby House, Bccles, 

Manchester. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



List of Members. vii 

HuxTEB, Eet. Robt., M.A., F.G.S., 9, Mecklenburgh Street, W.C. 

Hutchinson, SuEaEON-MAJOB, Care of H. S. King and Co., 65, 
Comhill, E.C. 

HuxTABLE, Eev. Pbebenbaby, M.A., 6, Royal Terrace, Weston- 
super-Mare. 

HuYSHE, Wentworth, 6, Pelham Place, S.W. 

Hyde Clabke, De., 32, St. George's Square, S.W. 
Ibttoe, T. G., C.E., 77, Great Tower Street, B.C. 
James, Rev. Heebeet, Livermere, Bury St. Edmunds. 

Jenkins, B. G., 4, Buccleuch Road, West Dulwich, S.E. 

Jennee, Thomas, Clarendon House, Norwood Road, S.E. 

Jones, Rev. Alfeed, M.A., 60, Besborough Street, S.W. 

Jones, Winslow, F.R.G.S., Devon and Exeter Institution, 
Exeter, Devon. 

Jones, J. Wintee, F.S.A., British Museum, W.C. 

Jones, Rev. William Mead, 15, Mill Yard, (xoodman's Fields, E- 

Joseph, Hymen A., 16, Queen's Square, Bloomsbury, W.C. 
Keane, Maeous, M.R.I.A., Beech Park, Ennis, co. Clare, Ireland. 

Kessen, Rev. De., 51, Lansdowne Road, Clapham Road, S.W. 

KiEME, Rev. Pbof. Gustavus, St. John's Presbyterian Church, 
San Francisco. 

KiNGSBUEY, Rev. T. L., M.A., Easton-Royal Vicarage, Pewsey, 
Wilts. 

KiNODON, Rev. H. Tully, M.A., 71, Wells Street, W. 

KiEKPATEiCK, Rev. a. F., M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Knowles, Rev. John, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A., Tunbridge Wells. 

KbiNiNO, Hebe, Leipzig. 
Lacey, Chables J., 1, St. John's Villas, Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

Laino, Alexandee, F.S.A. Scot., Newburgh-on-Tay, N.B. 

Laino, Rev. De., Han well. 

Lambeet, Geoeoe, F.S.A., 10, Coventry Street, Haymarket, W. 

Lambeeoht, Rev. Pbof. Henei, College du Saint Esprit, 
LouTain. 

Lane, Rev. Canon, M.A., Wrotham, Kent. 

Lang, R. Hamilton, Imperial Ottoman Bank, Throgmorton 
Street, E.C. 

La Touche, Rev. P. Digoe, Painstown Rectory, Beauparc, Slane, 
Meath. 

Lauqhton, Alfeed, Constantinople. 

Laueence, F., Brook House, Clapham Common, S.K 

Lawson, Rev. Edwabd, M.A., Longhirst Hall, Bothal, 
Morpeth. 

Lea, John Walteb, B A., F.G.S., Care of J. S. Raven, 6, West- 
bourne Park, W. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



viii List of Members. 

Leather, S. Petty, Corporation Offices, Burnley. 

Lee, Bey. Chables, M.A., St. Leonard's, Bilstou, Staffordshire. 

Lee, Geo. H., Charity Commissioners, Whitehall, S.W. 

Lkitoh, J. MuiB, 22, Canonhury Place, N. 

Levakdeb, H. C, M.A., University College School, Gower Street, 

Lewis, Eey. Samuel S., M.A., Librarian, Corpus Christi College, 

Cambridge. 
Lewis, Pbop. T. Hayteb, F.R.I.B.A., 12, Kensington Ghirdens 

Square, W. 
LiEBLEiK, J., Christiania, Norway. 
Ligrtfoot, Eev. J. B., D.D., Canon of St. Paul's, Amen Court, 

B.C. 
Lindsay, Hon. Colin, 16, CoUingham Road, S.W. 
LoEWE, Eev. L., D.D., 1 and 2, Oscar Villas, Broadstairs., 
Long, Rev. Wm., Wrington, Somerset. 
LovELL, Rev. G. F., M.A., Vice-Principal St. Edmond*s Hall, 

Oxford. 
tLowY, Rev. A., 160, Portsdown Road, N.W. 
Lushington, E. L., LL.D., Park House, Maidstone. 
Lyall, Chables James, Under Secretary to H. M. Ooyemment, 

Calcutta. 
Lydall, John H., 65, Ladbroke Grove, W. 
Macdonald, W. G., Grammar School, Enfield. 

Maolagan, Rev. W. D., M.A., Rectory, S. Mary's, Newington, 

S.E. 
Maolaban, G. Mortlake Etoad, Kew, S.W. 
Macphail, Rev. J. R., The Manse, Elgin, N.B. 
Mahappey, Pbop. J. P., Trinity College, Dublin. 
Malan, Rev. S. C, M.A., F.R.A.S., Prebendary of Worcester, 

Broad Windsor, Dorset. 
Manoin, Rev. Edwabd N., M.A., Morpeth. 
Mabshall, Rev. J., M.A., Pyrtou Vicarage, Tetsworth, Oxon. 
Mabshall, D., 7, Rose Street, Newgate Street, B.C. 
Mabtineau, Pbop. Russell, M A., British Museum, W.C. 
Mayeb, Joseph, F.S.A., F.R.A.S., F.R.N.S.A., Pennant House, 

Bebington, Liverpool. 
McCaul, Rev. Db., Toronto, Canada. 
tM*CLUBE, Rev. E., M.A., G7, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. 
Melville, Rev. Andbew, 6, Eton Gardens, Glasgow. 
Mbbbill, Rev. Selah, Andover, Mass., U.S.A. 
Mebx, Adalbebt, D.D., Stuttgart. 
MiDDLETON, J. G., 27a, Fiusbury Square, E.C. 
MiLAND, John, Clairville, Lansdowne Road, Wimbledon, S.W. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



List of Members. ix 

MiLLiB, Eet. G., 10, Bessborough Gardens, S.W. 

MiLLEB, Eey. Josiah, M.A., 142, Brecknock Soad, N. 

MiLLiNGEN, Riv. A., M.A., care of Mr. Ward, Cong. Ch., 
Boston, Mass., U.S. A. 

Mills, Lltwelyn, 40, Lonsdale Square, N. 

Mills, R. M., 10, Alexander Eoad, Upper Holloway, N. 

Mitchell, H. S., 6, Great Prescott Street, E. 

Mitchell, Db. J. B., 14, Thistle Grove, S.W. 

MoAKSOM, Thos. John, All Saints Boys' School, Popjtr, E. 

Mocatta, David, F.S.A., 32, Prince's Gate, W. 

MocATTA, F. D., 9, Connaught Place, W. 

Monteith, Robert, Carstairs, Lanarkshire, N.B. 

MoBAir, Rev. F. J. Clay, Cambridge Park, Twickenham, S.W. 

MooBE, Septimus P., LL.B. B.Sc, 11, Carlton-road, Eilbum. 

MoBBis, W. H., Clifton House, Ealing Road, Brentford. 
tMoBBisoN, Walteb, 77, Cromwell Road, S.W. (Ficc- 
Pi^esident,) 

Moss, Rev. E. J., M.A., East Lydford Hall, Somerton. 

MoTT, A. J., Adsett Court, Westbury-on-Se?em. 

MuiB, J., LL.D., D.C.L., &c., 10, Merchiston Avenue, Edinburgh, 

MuiB, W. J. CoOKBUBK, Eiidou Lodge, Amershain Road. 
Putney, S.W. 

MuLLEB, Db. D. Heinbioh, University of Vienna. 

Mullings, R., Stratton, near Cirencester. 
Napier, Rev. Fbedk. P., B.A., College Villa, Queen's Road, 
Richmond, S.W. 

Napibb, James, F. S. A , Maryfield, Bothwell, N.B. 

Newmak, Rbv. Db. (Chaplain to the Senate), Washington, U.S.A. 
tNEWToy, Chables T., C.B., D.C.L., British Museum, W.C. 

( Vice-President.) 
fNicHOLSoK, Sib Chables, Babt., M.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.L., F.S.A ., 
F.E.S., F.G.S.,2G, Devonshire Place, Portland Place, W. (Fice- 
President,) 

Nicholson, William, A.S.A., Whitecroft, near Lydney, Glou- 
cestershire. 
fNoBMAN, J. Manship, M.A., Dencombe, near Handcross, Sussex. 

NoBTHOOTB, Rev. Canok J. Spenoeb, St. Mary's, Oscott, Bir- 
mingham. 
Ommannet, Admibal Ebasmus, C.B., F.R.S., 6, Talbot Square, W. 
Pahte, Rev. J. A., Beirut, Syria (care of J. Saunders, Lambs 
Conduit Street). 

Palet, Rev. Thomas, B.D., Ufford Rectory, Stamford. 

Palmeb, J. LiKTON, R.N., Lieut..Col., F.R.C.S.E., F.R.G.S., 
F.S.A., 24, Rock Park, Rock Ferry, Birkenhead. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



X I^Ut oj Members. 

Palmer, William, M.A., 22, Portman Street, W. 
fPAFWoBTH, Wtatt, F.KI.B.A., 83, Bloomsbury Street, W.C. 
Pease, H. P., J.P., Brinkburn, Darlingtoo. 
Peok^over, Alexander, F.B.G.S., F.L.S., Harecrofb House, 

Wisbeach. 
Peckotbr, JoiTATHAK, F.S.A., Wisbeftch. 
Perioal, Hekbt, 9, Nortb Crescent, Bedford Square, W.C. 
Perry, Ret. S. GT. F., Asbton House, near Preston. 
Phene, J. W., F.R.I.B.A., F.S.A., F.G.S., 6, Carlton Terrace, 

Oakley Street, S.W. 
Phillips, Ret. Or. E., M.A., Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 
Filter, Ret. Wm. Turnbfll, St. Clement's Vicarage, Leeds. 
PnroHES, Theophilus, 62, Newman Street, W. 
Pretorius, Dr. Franz, Lutzowufer 17, Berlin. 
Prothero, Ret. Canon, Little Cloisters, Westminster, S.W. 
PDRD05, C. D., M.B., 14, Wellington Place, Belfest. 
Ransom, Edwin, F.R,G.S., Kempstone, Bedford. 
Ranson, J. JosssLTN, Ncwtou Abbot, DeTon. 
Rassam, Hormuzd, F.R.G.S., NincTeb House, Spring Grore, 

Isleworth. 
tRAWLiNsoN, Ret. Canon George, M.A., D.C.L., Canterbury, 

Kent. ( Vice-President.) 
tRAWLiNsoN, Sir Henry C, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.S.A., F.RS., 

F.R.G.S., 21, Charles Street, Berkeley Sq., W. (Vice-Presidaa.) 
Ready, R. Cooper, British Museum, W.C. 
Reed, Percy, 10, Upper Homaey Rise, N. 
Rendell, Ret. Arthur M., Coston Rectory, Melton Mowbray 
tRENouF, P. Le Page, Council Office, Whitehall, S.W. 
RiDGEWAY, Ret. Canon, M.A., 21, Beaumont Street, Oxford. 
Roberts, Ret. J. A. J., M.A., Bothal, Morpeth. 
Robinson, Ret. Dr., F.R.S., The Obsenratory, Armagh, Ireland. 
Robinson, Ret. Dr. Stewart, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.A. 
RoBBiNB, Ret. Db. John, S. Fetor's Vicarage, Kensington Park 

Road, W. 
Rodwell, Ret. J. M., M.A., 28, Fellows Road, South Hamp- 

stead, N.W. 
RoHART, M. L'Abbe C, M.A., 9, Rue de Jerusalem, Arras, 

(Pas-de-Calais). 
Ross, Ret. Alex., M.A., St. Phillip's Vicarage, Stepney, N.E. 
Rothwell, The Marquis de, 118, Regent's Park Road, N.W. 
Rowley, G. Fydell, Chichester House, East Cliff, Brighton, 
Roy, Eugene Arm and, British Museum, W.C. 
Rot, Eugene Lancelot, 1, Lady Margaret Road, Kentish Town, 

N.W. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



List of Members, xi 

EuLE, Est. Db., 10, Alexander Terrace, Clyde Boad, Addiscombe, 

Croydon. 
EusT, Eev. J. Ctpeian, M.A. Sobam, Cambridgesbiro. 
Eylakds, W. Habby, Higbfields, Thelwall, Cbesbire. 
SATJin)BB8-EEEn, Bby. J., 61, East Front Street, Covington, 

Kentucky. 
tSAYCB, Eey. a. H., M.A., Queen's College, Oxford. (Foreign 

Secretary,) 
SoABTH, Eev. Pbebendaby H. M., M.A., F.S.A., Wrington, 

Somerset. 
Scott, Eev. Abohibald, D.D., 18, Eegent Terrace, Edinburgb. 
fSEAOEB, Pbof. Chables, M.A., 3, Girdler*8 Eoad, Brook Green, 

S.W. 
Seebohm, Frbdebic, Hitcbin. 

Sewell, Edwabd, B.A., The College, Ilkley, near Leeds. 
Seymoub, Hbnby Dakby, Athenaeura Club, S.W. 
Sharps, Eev. Johk, Gissing Eectory, Diss, Norfolk. 
Sheppard, S. Gubney, 3, Oxford Square, W. 
Sidebothah, Joseph, F.E.A.S., Bowden, Cheshire. 
SiLLEM, W., Pb. D., 85, Wandsbeeker Cbaus^, Hamburg, 

Germany. 
tSiMPSOK, William, F.E.G.S., 64, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. 

{Librarian,) 

Small, Eev. Geoboe, M.A., 71, Albert Eoad, Croydon, S.E. 
fSMiTH, Veby Eev. Dean E. Payite, D.D., Deanery, Canter- 
bury, Kent. ( Vice-President,) 

Smith, Eev. Pebcival, M.A., 58, Arundel Square, Bamsbury, N. 

Smith, Joseph, 8, Cambridge Terrace, Lupus Street, W. 

Sole, Eev. S., St. Mary's, Oscott, Birmingham. 

SoMEBViLLE, Eev. James, M.A., B.D., Brougbty Ferry, Dundee. 

St. Claib, Geo., F.G.S., 108, Wheeler's Eoad, Edgbaston, 
Birmingham. 

Stott, Eev. E. Nicholson, St. Jobn's, Poplar, E. 

Stbeamb, Eev. A. W., Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 
Talbot, W. Henby Fox, D.C.L., F.E.S., F.S.A., F.E.S.L., 
Lacock Abbey, Chippenham, Wilts. 
fTAYLOB, Eev. Alexavdeb, M.A., Chaplain, Gray's Inn, W.C. 

Taylob, Eev. Isaac, M.A., Eectory, Settrington, York. 

Thompson, A. Dyott, 12, Pembridge Square, Westbourne 
Grove, W. 

Thompsoit, Eev. Abcheb, M.A., Bryinpton, near Yeovil. 

Thompson, Silvanus P., B.A., F.E.A.S., University College, 
Bristol. 

Titcomb, Eev. Canon, M.A., Poyle Hill, Woking. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



xii List oj Members, 

Tompkins, Bet. Henry Geobgb, Park Lodge, Weston-super- 
Mare. 

ToMKiNS, Henet, 4, Lansdown Hoad, Clapham Eoad, S.E. 

TooKB, Eev. J. H., M.A., Monkton Farleigh, "Wilts. 

Tbemlett, J. D., M. A., West End Villas, Frome, Somerset. 

Thbvob, Eet. Qboege, 48, Queen's Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 

Tristeam, Eev. Canon, D.D., F.E.S., The College, Durham. 

Ttjenee, Eet. W., 17, Qayfield Street, Edinburgh. 

TwELLS, Phillip E., Enfield, Middlesex. 

Ttt/OB, E. Bubnett, F.E.S., Linden, Wellington, Somerset. 
Waldeobate, Hon. H. Noel, 50, Milton Crescent, S.W. 

Walkee, Eet. J., 67, St. George's Square, S.W. 

Wallis, Geoege, F.E.G.S., South Kensington Museum, S.W. 

Walter, James, 3, Allison Grove, Duiwich, S.E. 

Waed, Eev. Pebcival, M.A., 55, Onslow Square, W. 

Weeks, Caleb, Union Street, Torquay. 

Weie, Peof. D. H., University, Glasgow, N.B. 

Wells, Eev. John, M.A., 8, Lloyd Square, W.C. 

Whalley, Buxton, Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 

WuiTBBEAD, S. Chaeles, F.E.S.^F.E.A.S., Southill, Biggleswade, 

White, Eet. Edwabd, Brathey House, Tufnell Park, N. 

Williams, Eet. Watkin H., Boddelyddan, St. Asaph. 

WiLrtON, Majob C. W., E.E., F.E.G.S., Junior United Service 
Club, Ctiarles Street, S.W. 

WiLLSON, Eet. E. N., 62, Asylum Eoad, S.E. 

Winks, Eet. W. B., The Parade, Tredegarville, Cardiff. 

Wisstone, Benjamin, 53, Eussell Square, W.C. 
tWisE, T. W., M.D., F.R.C.P.E., Thornton, Beulah HUl, Nor- 
wood, S.E. 

Wise, James F. N., M.l)., I.N.F., Eostellan Castle, Ireland. 

Woodman, W., Stobhill, Morpeth. 

WoEDSWOETH, Eet. J., M .A., 1, Keble Terrace, Oxford. 

Weight, Peof. William, LL.D., St Andrews, Station Eoai', 
Cambridge. 

Weight, Henby, MA.., Stafford House, St. James's, W. 

Weight, Eet. William, B.A., Bible Society, Blackfriars. 

Weightson, Eet. G. W., B.A., Maison Iturbide, St. Jean de 
Luz, Basses Pyrenees. 

ZiMMBBMANN, Db. CaBL, Baslo. 

ZiMMEBMANN, Eet. Peof. G. A., Female Seminary, Buflalo, 
New York. 



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IJh of Members, xiii 



LADY MEMBERS. 

AirsTiK, MiBS Gertrude, The "Warren, Wotton-under-Edge. 
Bagster, Miss Eunice, Old "Windsor, Berks. 

Bassbtt, Miss Mary, Boverton House, Cowbridge, Glamorgan- 
shire. 

Bentikok,Mibs An5 CAVENDi8H,31,NorfolkStreet,ParkLane,W. 

Best, Miss E., Park House, Boxlej, Kent. 

EosANQUET, Mrs. J. W., Claysmore, Enfield, Middlesex. 

BoTCB, Mrs. Eenrt, 11, William Street, Lowndes Square, W. 

Erocklehurst, Miss, Bagstones, Macclesfield. 

BROODBy, Mrs. John, 6, Highbury Park North, N. 

Browk, Miss Emma, 8, Montpelier Crescent, Brighton. 

Burton, Lady, 54, Chepstow Villas, Notting Hill, W. 

Busk, Miss E. H., 11, Eegent's Park Terrace, N.W. 

Buxton, Miss E., Easueye, "Ware. 
Cable, Mrs. Edwin, Carrefour House, St. John's, Jersey. 

Cattley, Mrs., 34, Woburn Square, W.C. 

Clendintno, Miss, 20, Milton Street, Dorset Square, N.W. 

CoLYiN, Mrs. Margaret Home, Farquhar, Stow, N.B. 

Crosbie, Mrs., Ardfert Abbey, Ardfert, Ireland. 

CusT, Miss, 64, St. George's Square, S.W. 
De Bergub, Mrs., 17, Palace Gardens, Kensington, W. 

Douglas, Lady, Bnrsledon House, Dawlish, Devon. 
Edelmann, Mrs. A., 8, Montpelier Crescent, Brighton. 

Edwards, Miss Amelia B., The Larches, Westbury-on-Trym. 
FoRLONG, Mrs. Mina, 2, Polmarble Terrace, Edinburgh, N.B. 

Forster, Miss Saunders, care of Professor Donaldson, 21, Upper 
Bedford Place, W. 

Freeman, Miss, Leamington. 

Freeman, Miss Constantia, 27, Millbank Street, S.W. 

Fry, Miss P. A., The Tower, Cotham, New Eoad, Bristol. 
Gage, Hon. Mrs., Firle Place, near Lewes. 

Gawler, Mrs. Colonel, Tower of London, E.C. 

Gray, Mrs. Hamilton, 4, Manson Place, Queen's Gate, W. 
Harris, Miss Selima, Alexandria, Egypt. 

Harris, Miss Susannah, Norris's Hotel, Eussell Boad, W. 

Henderson, Miss, 20, Gloucester Crescent, Hyde Park,'W. 

Hollond, Mrs. Egbert, Cumberland Street, W. 

HuiSH, Mrs., Combe Wood, Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. 



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xiv Ijist of Members. 

HxrssET, Mrs. S. M., Edenboro, Tralee, Ireland. 

HirssBT, Mrs., Hurst Oreen, Etchingham, Sussex. 
Ifold, Miss Chahlotte, South Lodge, Campden Hill, W. 
Joirss, Mbs. Latikia, Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts. 
KiKLOOH, Mss^ Gilmerton, Drem, N.B. 
Lsinroz, Mks., Little Sutton, near Chiswick, 8.W. 
Mabtin, Miss I. M., The Camels, Wimbledon Pari^, 8.W. 

Maxwell, Mbs., Carriecban, Dumfries, N.B. 

MoBBBLST, Miss, 11, Elgin Crescent, Netting Hill, W. 

MoBBis, Mbs. William, Crofton Hoose, Fareham, Hants. 
PiOKOTXB, Miss, Wisbeach. 

Pilohib, Mbs. J. Dbkdt, 15, Tariton Street, Gk>rdon Square, W.C. 
Radlbt, Miss M., 6, Belmont Villas, Leicester. 

Baittabi), Mbs. R, 18, Hunter Street, Brunswick Square, W. 

BoGiBS, Miss, 7, Southampton-street, Fitzroy Square. 

Bicb, Mbs. S. O., Grore Hill, Bentham, Lancaster. 
SiAOBB, Mbs., Elm Tree House, near Potter's Bar. 

Siltestbb, Mbs., T\ie Grange, Tunbridge Wells. 
Tits, Ladt, 42, Lowndes Square, W. 

TuoKEB, Miss Mabt, The Bury, Parenham, Bedford. 
WoODBOOFE, Miss Sbuva M., Amberwood, Christchurch. 



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List of Members. 



XV 



HONORARY FOREIGN MEMBERS. 



Bbugsoh Bet, Heinbich 
Chabas, FBAN9oia . . 
De Bellefonds, Linant 
DoLLoroHB, Pbof. 
DuMiCHEN, Johannes 
Ebebs, Geobq 

ElSENLOHB, AUOITST . . 

Gannbau, C. Clebmont 
Goodwin, C. W. 
Hackbtt, Dr 

HOBBAOK, p. J. De . . 

Lauth, F. Joseph 
Lefi^bubb, M. B. 

LeNOBMANT, FBAN9OIS 

Lefsius, E. K. Geheimbath 
LONOPEBIEB, A. De . . 
Mabiette, Auguste . . 
Maspebo, G. 
m^nant, joaohim 
Naville, Edouabdb . . 
Oppebt, Jules 
PiEBBET, Paul 
Pbanget, Gibault De 
Pbideaux, Captain F. W. 
BOGEBS, E. T. 
Safvhet Pasha 
Saulct, Le Chev. F. De. 
sohbadbb, e. 
Vogue, Le Comte De 
Whitney, W. D. 
Wing, Tung 



Caipo. 

Chaloa-8ur-Sa6ne . 

Cairo. 

Munich. 

Strasburgb. 

Leipzig. 

Heidelberg. 

Paris. 

Shanghai. 

Boston, XJ.S.A. 

Paris. 

Munich. 

Paris. 

Paris. 

Berlin. 

Paris. 

Cairo. 

Paris 

Bouen. 

Geneva. 

Paris. 

Paris. 

Vosges. 

Busbire. 

Cairo. 

Constantinople. 

Paris. 

Berlin. 

Constantinople. 

Yale College, U.S.A. 

United States. 



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XVI 



CATALOGUE OF THE LIBRARY. 



Additional Books purchased or presented to the Society. 



AKERBLAD. D0501. 

Lettre sur une Inscription Phlnicienne trouvfe a 
Athenee. 4to. 1817. Rome. — PurchasedL 

ALPHARA.BIU8. 

Al-farab. des Arabischen Philosphen Leben und 
Schriften von Moritz Steinschneider. 

4to. 1869. St. Petersbourg. — VAcademie Imperiak. 

American Oriental Society. 
Proceedings, 1873-6. 

8vo. Boston. 1873-6. — The Council, 

Ancbssi (Victor). 

L'Egypte et Moise, premiere partie. 

8vo. \S75.— The Author. 

Anthropologia (Supplementary Volume). 

The London Anthropological Society, 

Anonymous. — See Thornton Hunt. 

Athanasi (Giovanni D*). 

A brief account of the Researches and Discoveries in 
Upper Egypt made under the direction of Henry Salt, 
Esq. 8vo. 1836. Lond.— PiircAowA 

Averanus (Nicolaus). 

De Mensibus ^Egyptiorum. 

4to. 1737. Florenoe.— Purchased. 

Beke (Dr.) 

Origines Biblica?. 8va 1834. — Purchased. 



Digitized by (Kd^gtC^ 



XVll 

DONOB. 

Bellefonds (Linant de). 

"M emoire but le Lac Moeris. 

4to. 1843. Alexandrie. — Purchased, 
Birch (Samuel, Dr.) 

Facsimiles of Two Papyri found in a Tomb at Thebes, 
and an account of their discovery by A. Henry Rhind. 

1863. Lond.— 5^. Bhcfu 

,. The Monumental History of Eygpt, Rede Lecture. 

12mo. 1875. Loud.— The Avthor. 

,, Rhampsinitus and the Game of Draughts. 

8vo. 1867. \jOTLd.—Purchmed. 

,. On the Cover of the Granite Sarcophagus of Rameses III. 

4to. 1876. Camb.— r^« Anthor, 

„ History of Egypt. The Committee of the S. P. C K. 

BocKH (August). 

Erklarung einer iEgyptischen Urkunde auf Papyrus. 

4to. 1821. BerWn.'-Pfirchased. 
BiyrTA.—See T. C. 

Bridges (G. W.) 

Selections from Photographs, taken around the shores 
of the Mediterranean. Fol. 1854. Lond. 

(Part 1 onlj.) 

Bruosch (Heinrich). 

Numerorum apud veteres -^gyptios Demoticorum 
Doctrina. 4to. 1849. Berlm. — Purchased. 

„ Die ^gyptischen Alterthiimer in Berlin. 

12mo. 1857. Berlin. — Purchased. 

Bruqsch (N.) 

Histoire d'Egypte, premiere partie. 

8vo. 1875. Leipzig. — Purchased. 

Bryant (Jacob). 

Observations upon the Plagues inflicted upon the 
Egyptians. 8vo. 1810. Lond. — Purchased. 

BUNSEN (C. C. J.) 

Egypt's Place in Universal History. Vol. v (contain- 
ing the Ritual of the Dead and Hieroglyphic Dic- 
tionary). 8vo. 1857. liond. — Dr. Birch. 
Vol. V. ^^^^T^ 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



XVlll 

Burton (James). 

Sale Catalogue of Egyptian Collection. Prices marked 
and MSS. notes, by Dr. Lee. of Hartwell. 

8vo. 1836. LontL— i\irdWui«/. 

Campbell (John). 

The Eastern Origin of the Celts. 

8vo. 1876. Uontrehl— The A utAor, 

Cavaniol (H. ) 

Les Monuments en Chaldee, en Assyrie et a Babylon. 

8vo. 1870. Purchased, 

Champollion (le Jeune). 

Catalogo de Papiri Vaticani e Reflessione Critiche. 

4to. 1825. Rome.- PurcJuwd. 

Christian Vernacular Education Society. 

Light for India. 1872-75. 8vo. Lond.— rA<; Counca, 

Chwolson (D.) 

Achtzehn hebraische Grabschriften aus der Krim. 

4to. 1865. St. Petersburg. — UAcaiUmie ImperiaU, 

Cooper (W. R.). 

An Ai-chaic Dictionary, Biographical, Historical, and 
Mythological, from the Egyptian, Assyrian, and 
Etrusran Monuments and Papyri. 

8vo. 1876. Low^,— The Author. 

Cory (Alexander Turner). 

The Hieroglyphics of Horapollo Nilous. 

l2mo. 1839. hon^.—PurehcusetL 

Cory (J. P.) 

Ancient Fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, 
Babylonian, Egjrptian, and other Authors. A new and 
enlarged edition. By E. Richmond Hodges, M.C.P. 

8vo. 1876. liond. The Editor. 

CoxE (W. H.). 

On the Cylinder of Ilgi, King of Chaldea. 

8vo. 1867. Lon(L'^Pvrcha.*ed. 



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XIX 

_ DONOB. 

Dakow (Dr.). 

Die Indische Mythologie. 

4to. 1821. Wiesbaden.— Purc^otfcc/. 

Delitzsch (Francis).— /Sc(? Fuerst, Julius. 

Dk Maillet et Le Masokiek. 

Description de TEgypte, coutenant plusieurs Remarques 
Curieuses sur la Geographie Ancienne et Moderae de 
ce Pais. 2 vols. 12mo. 1740. Alettaye.— PwrcAo^a/. 

De Padw. 

Philosophical Dissertations on the Egyptians and 
Chinese. Translated by Captain J. Thomson. 

2 vols, in one. 8vo. 1795. Lond. — Purchased. 

Edmonstone (Sir Archibald). 

A Journey to two of the Oases of Upper Egypt. 

Svo. 1822. Lond.— Purchased. 
Ennis (Jacob). 

The Discovery of the Force which in the beginning 
put all the Heavens and the Earth in motion. 

8vo. 1871. Cambridge, U.S.A.— r^d Author. 

„ The Four Great Eras in Modern Astronomy. 

8vo. 1872. Cambridge, U.S.A.^The Author. 

EuTDiG (Julius). 

Punische Steine. 

4to. 1871. St. Petersbourg. — L'AcadSmie Imperiale. 

Faurb (S.). 

Essai eur la Composition d'un Nouvel Alphabet. 

8vo. 183J. ?9i,n&.— Purchased. 
Fuerst (Julius). 

Jesurun, sive Prologomenon in Concordantias Veteris 
Testamenti. (Edit.) Francisco Delitzschio. 

8vo. 1838. GrimmsB. — Purchased. 

Gladstone (W. E., Right Hon.). 

Homeric Synchronisms. 12mo. 1876. Loud. — The Author. 

Gliddon (Gteorge R.). 

Otia ^gyptiaca. 8vo. 1849. Lond. — Purchased. 

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XX 

DOSOB. 

OryphCs. 

Mumi» Wratislavienses. 

16mo. 1662. Wratislaviae.— PurdlofedL 

GuTSCHMiD (Alfred von). 

Die Assyriologie In Dentschland. 

8vo. 1876. Leipzig.— PtfrcAoffvf. 

IIainakeb (H. a.). 

Sur une Inscription en Caracteres Pheniciens et Gre<», 
r^cemment d^amverte k Cyrene. 

4to. 1825. Leyden.— PurcAoMcf. 

HoDGKS (E. Richmond). 

Cory's Ancient Fragments. Edited by. 

1876.— rAe Editor, 

Hunt (Thornton). — (Anonymous). — See Nineveh, the Buried City. 

Inglebt (C. M.) 

On Some Traces of the Authorship of Works attributed 
to Shakespeare. 8vo. 1867. Lond.— PtircAaff*jrf. 

Instttutio GrsecsB Grammatices compendiaria in nsum Regi» 
Scholee Westmonasteriensis. 

16mo. 1741. Lond. — Purchased. 

Irbt (Charies L.) and Mangles (James). 

Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria, and the Holy 
Land. 12mo. 1845. Lond. — PurchoMtd. 

Journal of the Royal Ablatio Socibtt for January, 1876. 

Tht Society. 

L'Annuaibb db la Sooiete d*Ethnografhie. 

8vo. IS7 e.—The Sod^. 

Laughton (George, D.D.) 

The History of Ancient Egypt as extant in the Greek 
Historians, Poets, and others. 

8vo. 1774. Lond. — Purchased, 

Lavabatori (Madame). 

Sale Catalogue of Egyptian Collection, with MSB. 
Notes, by Dr. Lee, of Hartwell. 

8vo. 1833. Lond^PurcluMed. 



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XXI 

DONOR. 

Lknormant (P.) 

Les Principes de comparaisou de TAccadien et des 
Laiigues Touraaienn^8. 8vo. 1875. Paris. 

„ Etudes des SjUabaires Cuneiformes. 

Svo. IS77.— The Author. 
Mahafpy (J. P.). 

Old Greek Life (Macniillau's Science Primer). 

12mo. 1876. Lond.^Putvhasef^ 

Mangles (James). — See Irby (Charles Leonard). 

Maspero (G.) 

M^moire sm* Quelques Papyrus du Louvre. 

4to. 1875. F&riB.^ The Author, 

„ Histoire Ancienne des Peuples de TOrient. 

12mo. 1876. Paris.— T-^e Author. 
Mbkedith (Mrs. Charles). 

Notes and Sketches of New South Wales. 

12mo. 1846. Lond.— Pwrc^et/. 
Mills (Rev. John). 

Palestina. 8vo. 1858. Llanidloes. — Purchased. 

Naeman. 

Oder A\tea und Neues. 8vo. 1841. Basel. — Purchased. 

Napier (James). 

Manufacturing Arts in Ancient Times, with special 
reference to Bible History. 

8vo. 1874. Loud.^The Author. 

Neumann (C. F.). 

Translations frotn the Chinese and Armenian History 
of the Pirates. Catechism of the Shamans. Vahram's 
Chronicle of Cilicia. 8vo. 1831. Lond. — Purchased. 

Newton (C. T.). 

On an Inscription from Halicaruassus. 

8vo. 1867. Lond.'^Purchased. 

Nicholson (Sir Charles). 

On the Disk Worshippers of Memphis. 

8vo. 1867. Lond. — Purchased. 

Nineveh. 

The Buried City of the East, Nmeveh. By Thornton 
Hunt 8vo. 1852. hond.— Purchased. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



xxu 

DOVOB. 

Oppekt (Jules). 

Sumerien ou Accadien. 8vo. 1876. Paris. — The Author, 

P. (A. P. J. De V.) 

Nouvelles Recherches sur TOrigiue et la Destiuation 
des Pyramides d'Egypte. 8vo. 1812. Paris.— PtfrcAoseci 

Pick (A.). 

A Literal Translatiou from the Hebitjw of the twelve 
minor Prophets. 8vo. 1833. Lond. — S, M, Drach. 

Rauwolf (Leouhait). — See Ray (John). 

Ray (Rev. John). 

A Collection of Curious Travels and Voyages, con- 
taining Dr. Leonhart Rauwolf s Journey into the 
Eastern Countries, etc. 8vo. 1738. Lond. — Purchased. 

Reid (Andrew). 

An Abstract of Sir Isaac Newton's Chronology of 
Ancient Kingdoms. 8vo. 1782, Dublin. — S, M. Drack. 

Revue Historique. 

Premiere Anuee Tome II. 

1876. Paris.— P/Mewtcd by the Editor. 

Rosselli (Cosma). 

Thesauri Memoriae Artificiosse. 

4to. 1578. Fireuza. — Purchased. 

Saimt Cyb (Gouvion). 

Atlas des Memoires pour servir k Fflistoire Militaire 
sous le Directoire, le Consulat et TEmpire. 

FoL 1831. Paris. 

Sautt Madr (De Verniac). 

Voyage du Luxor en Egypte. 

8vo. 1835. Paris.— /\«rc*a«dl 

Salt (Henry). 

Essay on Dr. Young's and M. Champollion's Phonetic 
System of Hieroglyphics. 8vo. 1825. Lond. — Purchased. 

Salvolini (Francois). 

Analyse Grammaticale raisonn^ de differens textes 
anciens Egyptiens. 4to. 1836. Faiia.^Purchaetd. 



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XXIU 

DOXOR. 

Schmidt (F. Sam. de). 

Opuscula quibiis res AntiqucB, preecipue JSgyptiacae. 

12mo. 1765. C^lamhe,— Pur cha^^ed. 

Smith (George). 

Assyria (History of). The Committee ofnlhe S. P. C. K. 

Stbinsohneider (Moritz). — See Alpharabius. 

Sqtton (R.). 

Genealogical Chart, of Scripture History. 

Fol. n.d. Nottingham.— 5. M. Drach. 

Sylvester (A.). 

The Heir of the World ; or the Nations of Europe as 
descended from Abraham. 8vo. 1876. Lond. — The Author. 

Taylor (W. Cooke). 

The Pentateuch, illustrated from Eg> ptian Monuments. 

Purchased, 
T. C. 

M. Botta's Letters on the Discoveries at Nineveh. 
Translated from the French. 

Svo. 1850. Lond. — PurchoAed, 

The Christian Vernacular Education Society. 

" Light for India," quarterly journal of the Society, 
Sept. 80th, 1876. Presented by the Society. 

The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 

November, 1876. — The Geological Society, 

Thomson (Captain J.) — ^ee De Pauw. 

TiELE (Dr. C. P.) 

Geschiedenis van den Godsdienst. 

12mo. 1876. Amsterdam.— 7%« i4ii<Aor. 

TiscHENDORFF (Cons tan tine). 

Travels in the East by a Pilgrim. 

12mo. Ijond. 1851. — Purchased, 

Vaux (W. T. W.). 

History of Persia. The Committee of the S, P, C, K, 

ViGERius (Franciscus). 

De Prsecipuis Grsecte Dictionis Idiotismis. 

12mo. 1678. I^nd.— Pwrc^/iW. 



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XXIV 

Dovom. 

ViTTORB (II Cavaliere Testa, Prof.) 

L'lnscrizione de Mesa, Re di Moab. 

1875. Torino.— r^« Author, 

Vossius (Ger. Jo.). 

ElemeDta Rhetorica 12mo. 1724. Lond.-- Purchased. 

Walcot (Mackenzie E. C). 

Glossary of Words in the Cambrian Dialect. 

8vo. 1867. Lond.— Pttrc*a««i. 

„ The Mediaeval Registers of the Bishops of Chichester. 

8vo. 1867. Lond.— PwrcAfltf^rf. 

Wallis (John). 

Grammatica Linguae Anglicansd. 12mo. 1674. — Purchased. 

Walsh (John). 

Sketches of Hebrew and Egyptian Antiquity. 

8vo. 1793. DuhWn.—Purchasfd. 

Wilkinson (Sir J. Gardner). 

Materia Hieroglyphica. Parts 1 and 2. Corrected by 
the Author. Plates only, .4to. 1828. Cairo. — Purchased. 

WooDROOFFB (Charles). 

The Scarabeeus Sacer, or Sacred Beetle of the 
Egyptians. 4to. 1875. Winchester. — Miss Woo*lroofe. 

Wright (Rev. Buchan). 

The Royal Ring of an Ancient Pharaoh. 

12rao. 1876. Lond.— TT. It. Cooper. 

Yeates (Thomas). 

Remarks on the History of Ancient Egypt. 

8vo. 1835. honi.— Purchased. 

YoLTio (Thomas). 

An Account of some Recent Discoveries in Hiero- 
glyphical Literature. 8vo. 1823. — Purchased. 

ZlMMERMANN (Carl). 

Karten und Plane zur Topographie des Alten Jerusalem. 

Fol. 1876. BdJseh— The Author, 



■ABBItOK Ain> tOMt, miMTCBa IM OBDtNABT TO Km MAi»TT IT. lUmTlll't LANt. 

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SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 



ADDITIONAL MEMBEB8. 



Elected June bth^ 1877. 

Bbown, Alpbbd Kemp, Norwich. 

BiTETOK, Thomas, M.D., Westport, co. Mayo. 

Chaffixl, William, F.S.A. 

Hob, Eobebt, Juk., New York, U.S.A. 

Laiwg, Eev. Db. 

SiLLEM, Db. W., Hamburg. 

Elected July Brd, 1877. 

BuDQE, Ebitest a., 26, Argyle Street, King's Cross, W.C. 
Cbawlet, Thomas William, Eose Cottage, Ealing, S.W. 
Elliot, William Timbbell, M.N.S., 6, Verulam Buildings, 

Gray's Inn, W.C. 
HAin)s, Eev. Alfbed Watson, A.K.C, Wanstead, Essex. 
Henbiques, Alfbed Guthebez, 96, Gloucester Terrace, Hyde 

Park, W. 
King, Eev. Thomas, Littleton House, Malvern Link. 
Maccabtht, John, 43, Ampthill Square, N.W. 
Mabks, Eev. Pbofessob, University College, London. 
Fbioe, Fbedkbick Geobge Hilton, Temple Bar, E.C. 
Etlands, Thomas Glazebbook, r.L.S., F.E.A.S., F.G.S., Ac, 

Highfields, Thelwall, near Warrington. 
Smith, Eev. Joseph Bebnabd, B.A. Trin. Coll., Dub., Wellington 

College, Wokingham. 

Lady Members elected July 3rd, 1877. 

Rothschild, Baboness de, 148, PiccadiUy, S.W. 
Wabkbb, Mbs. Eobbbt Lee, Tiverton Court, Hereford. 

Waiting election at next Meeting. 

Hennedt, David, Whitehall, Bothwell, N.B. 

Joseph, D. Davis, Ty-draw, Pontypridd. 

Stiblino, C, 20, Upper Grosvenor Eoad, Tunbridge Wells. 



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SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL AKCH^OLOGY. 



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CATALOGUE 



OFTHK 



LIBRARY 



OF THE 



^0tietj 0f §iMicd "^xt^mb^. 



9, CONDUIT STREET, W. 



LONDON: 
HARBISON AND SONS, ST. MABTIN'S LANS, 

Iprintcn hi #rbmKr]{ to 9*^ ysjeftt- 

1876. 

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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PREFACE. 

In presenting this Catalogue of the Library of the Society 
of Biblical ArcheBology to the Members, the Secretary thinks 
it desirable to re-state in a few words the circumstances 
which gave rise to the Society of Biblical Archeeology, and 
the objects which it is formed to carry out. 

On the 18th November, 1870, Dr. Birch of the British 
Museum, Mr* Joseph Bonomi of the Soane Museum, and 
Mr. W. R. Cooper, invited a few gentlemen interested in the 
Antiquities and Philology of Egypt, Palestine, and Western 
Asia, to meet them at the private rooms of Mr. Bonomi, in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, to take into consideration the present 
state of Archaeological research, and, if it appeared desirable, 
to institute an Association for directing the course of fiiture 
investigations, and to preserve a record of materials already 
obtained, an Association whose special objects should be 
" To collect from the fast perishing monuments of the 
" Semitic and cognate races illustrations of their history and 
** peculiarities ; to investigate and systematize the Antiquities 
*' of the ancient €md mighty empires and primeval peoples 
" whose records are centered around the venerable pages of 
" the Bible. In other words, an Association to bring into 
** connexion the labours of individual scholars, and to utilize 
" the results of private enterprize and national munificence 
** — to accumulate data, and to preserve facts— to give a 
** voice to the past, a new life to the future, and assistance, 
" publicity, and permanence to the efforts of ^11 students in 
** Biblical Archaeology." 

IThe need of such a Society as it was then proposed to 
ixistitute was inferred from the £sicts that existing Societies 
were generally employed in the study of one special science, 

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IV Preface. 

or group of sciences, in which Biblical ArchsBology had only 
an interpolated position ; and, that Biblical researches had of 
late so far outgrown the limits of an occasional paper, or 
ordinary meeting, and had resolved themselves into so many 
distinct branches of detail, that the subject required to be 
treated as a whole. And while no rivalry with any other 
learned body was intended, yet, at the same time, as the 
Asiatic, Geographical, Literary, and Palestine Societies had 
cognate pursuits, it might be expected that they would 
fraternize and co-operate with the proposed Association. 

The issue of the Conference was, that a Public Meeting 
was convened at the Rooms of the Royal Society of Litera- 
ture, on the 9th of December ensuing, and at that Meeting 
Dr. Birch being in the chair, supported by Messrs. Boyle, 
Drach, Mills, Smith, and other gentlemen, the following 
Resolutions were proposed, and carried unanimously : — 

** I. That a Society be initiated, having for its objects 
** the investigation of the ArchsBology, Chronology, 
" Geography, and History, of Ancient and Modem 
" Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Palestine, and other Biblical 
" Lands, the promotion of the study of the Antiquities 
** of those countries, and the preservation of a con- 
** tinuous record of discoveries, now or hereafter to be 
** in progress. 

*• II. That the said Society shall be called The Societt 
" OP Biblical ARCHiEOLOGY. 

" ni. That the following gentlemen be requested to 
"form a Provisional Council, to prepare the Laws, 
**and generally to conduct the preliminary business 
** of the Society : — 

** W. P. AiNswoRTH, Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 

" S. Birch, LL.D., P.S.A. 

" W. R. A. BoTLB, Esq. 

** Joseph Bonomi, Esq., F.R.S.L. ^ 

" J. W. BosANQUBT, Esq., F,R.A.S., M.R.A.S. 

" Rev. Cakon Cook, M.A. 

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Preface. v 

** T. Christy, Jun., Esq. 

** B. Dbutsch, Esq., F.R.S.L. 

" S. M. Drach, Esq., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S. 

" S. Hetwood, Esq., M.A. ' 

" Rev. J. Qrigg Hewlett, D.D. 

" Rev. a. Mozley, M.A., F.R.S.L- 

" Rev. John Mills, F.R.G.S. 

" Rev. J. M. Rodwell, M.A. 

" Sir H. C. Rawunson, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

" Rev a, Small, M.A. 

" W. H. Fox Talbot, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

" W. R. Cooper, Secretory." 

The formation of a Library was then started by the 
presentation of several books by Mr. Bonomi, Dr. Birch, and 
the Secretary ; and on the 2nd April, 1872, the few remaining 
Members of the following four Societies were incorporated 
as Life Members of the Society of Biblical Archeeology, and 
chiefly by the exertions of the late Rev. John Mills and John 
Williams, their respective Libraries and effects were trans- 
ferred to the stud Society. 

Syro^Egyptian Society. 

Fonnded on Monday, 26th March, 1844, by Dr. Holt Yates, 
F. Arundale, Anto. Ameuney, S. Birch, Owen Jones, J. S. 
Buckingham, William Rothery, J. S. Scoles, and Dr. J. B. 
Thompson. The books derived from this Society are marked 
in the Catalogue S. E. S. 

The Chronological Institute. 

Fonnded at Midnight on the Winter Solstice, 22nd 
December, 1850, at Hartwell House, Buckingham, by Dr. Lee, 
Isaac Cullimore, Sir William Betham, W. H. Black. The 
books derived from this Society are marked C. 

The Anglo-Biblical Institute. 

Founded at Midnight, 26th April, 1852, at Hartwell 
House, by Dr. Lee, Dr. Joseph Tumbull, J B. TumbuU, and 
W. H. Black. The books derived from this Society are 
marked A. B. /. 

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vi Preface. 



The Palestine Archceological Association. 

Founded at 22, Hart Street, W.C., on 12th September, 
1853, by Dr. TumbuU, Dr. A. Benisch, W. F. Ainsworth, and 
W. H. Black. The books derived from this Society are 
marked P.A.A. 

On the death of Dr. Turnbull, on July 9, 1861, the 
remainder of his libraiy — he having given the bulk of it to 
form that of the Anglo-Biblical Institute — was purchased by 
the Members of the Institute, headed by a large subscription 
from Dr. Lee ; the books thus obtained are marked T. 

The remaining works in the Library have, mostly, been 
presented by the authors or publishers, noticeably, Messrs. 
Bagster and Sons, who, on the 3rd November, 1874, presented 
a selection of thirty volumes of valuable Biblical Works 
published by their firm. 

In the compilation of this Catalogue the Secretary has 
chiefly followed that of the Anglo-Biblical Institute, drawn 
up by the late W. H. Black, in 1859, and for the correction 
of the German titles he is indebted to the kindness of 
Mr. S. M. Drach, while in the revision of the entire work he 
has been considerably assisted by the Rev. J. M. Rodwell, 
Mr. Wyatt Papworth, and Mr. R. E. Graves. 

In conclusion, the Secretary begs to call the attention 
of the Members of the Society to the fact that, as no fund 
exists for the purchase of books, the increase and utility of 
the Library mainly depends upon their liberality, and that 
gentlemen possessing duplicate or unneeded copies of 
Works on Biblical Archaeology will confer a fiavour on 
their less fortimate C!olleagues by presenting such books 
to the Libmry of the Society. 



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Preface. vii 



RULES. 

Members desirous of borrowing works from the Libmry 
are requested to write to the Secretary, who will forward 
the book or books required by Rail, Parcels Delivery, or 
Post, at the expense of the borrower. 

Books cannot be borrowed for a longer period than two 
months at a time ; but, if when the two months have expired, 
the works borrowed have not been demanded by another 
Member of the Society, then the same may be re-borrowed 
for two months longer, but no more. 

Not more than two separate works or four volumes can 
be lent out at one time to the same borrower. 

Unbound works, pamphlets, and current serials cannot b