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TRANSACTIONB 

■WTSCONSm 

STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

WITH TBI UFOBT Of TBS 

STATE HOBTIOULTUBAL 800ISTY. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS OF 1862 & 1867. 



voL.vn. i8di-a-s-4-e^7-8. 



PREPABED BY J. W. HOYT, SECBETABT. 



■ADISON, WIS.I 

Atwoon k nraun, rats nacimt, iodual ofrok. 

iSflS. 



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PREFACE. 



After a lapse of eight ye^rs, inoluding ibe whole period of 
the Iftle war, the Wiscoosin State Agricultaral Society^ is at 
length enabled, by means of Legislative pronBioD, to present 
to the public another Tolume of its Transactions — a Tolame, 
which, happily, is also the be^ning of a series of publica- 
tions hereafter to appear annually. If it be found to contain 
a lees variety of original matter than some previous volumes, 
it is because we have had no altemativG but to make it Just 
what it is — a series, mainly, of official reports. 

Nevertheless, these reports — completing, as they do, the So- 
ciety's record from'the date of the last publication in 1860, to 
the end of 1868, together with several valuable addresses, and 
ihe proceedings of the State Horticultural Society, which also 
contain matter of practical importance — constitute, in theaggre 
gate, a volume that doubtless will be welcome wherever re- 
ceived, and not less because of the information it contuns than 
for the reason that it bridges over a long period, during which 
it has been impractioable to issue any volume whatever. 
' The condensed reports of the Secretary, as State Commis- 
sioner, on the London International Exhibition of 1862, and 
the Paris Universal Expoution of 1867 are embraced in the 



ogk 



4 STATE AGBICUI/rmiAL SOCIETY, 

belief that the important character of the industrial enterprises 
of which they make record renders their inclueion especially 
appropriate. 

So far as it relates to the literary character of those portions 
original with the Secretary — which necessarily constitute a 
lai^e proportion of the entire volume — and to the typographi- 
cal correctness of all portions, he hopes it will be borne in 
mind by the reader, that nearly every page was prepared from 
brief notes just in advance of the compositors, while the work 
was in {U'eas, and in the midst of other pressing duties ; so 
that, for the most part, it was impossible for him either to re- 
viae his manuscript, or to give to the proof of any portion of 
tke volume tJiat careful attention it ought to have received. 
J. W. HOYT. 

State Agbwui/tural Booms, Jan., 1869. 



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CONTENTS. 



I -CONSTrrtJTlON 0FTBB800IBTT 10-U 

II —LEGAL ENACTMENTS BEAKIFG OS THE ISDC8TRY OF 

THE STATE. IS-lfl 

ni.— LIST OF LIFE UKMBERS OF THE SOCIETY 15-S 

IT.— GENERAL REPORT, COVERING THE WHOLE PERIOD 

SINCE I8B0 a*-M 

Lkck of full &nd nlikbia Sutiatiea S« 

Agricnltara M 

Less Prajadlce Against ScleDoe 80 

Wheat 8S 

The PaUto M 

Sorghom Cultare SB 

Hop Culture 81 

Agricultural Implemaati 8S 

Domestie AniDuli / 40 

Horticulture 4B 

Mining 16-48 

Lumbering 49 

UaDufactnrei. BO-ST 



Trftde of Milw>ulce«. 6» 

Organized Agencies 04-79 

lodiutHal Societiea and Anoctations U 

State AgeDcie« 69 

Edacational AgeneieB ']% 

v.— TRANSACTIONS FOR 1 Bfll 81-89 

Offlcereof the Society 88 

Annual Beport , )8 

EiecutlTB Meetings SO-«a 

Annaal Meeting loi 1861 M 

^TI.— ABSTRACT OF RETURNS OF 00. AG. 800IBTIES FOR 1861: M-«S 

VIL— TEANSAOnONS POa 18«S 97-107 

Ofieeraof the Boeletj gs 

Annaal Report , ..., 98 

Agricultnral OondltioD and Progrwa S9 

Indwtrial EdDOkltoB 101 

Agrioalteral Soflietiei 101 

The World'* lodmtrial liUUUon 104 

EzeaatiTe Meeting. 108-109 

Annul If eetln^fbr 1S6> tlO-lU 

5 



j.A'OO'^IC 



8 STATE AGICULTUEAL SOCIRTY. 

Tin.— ABSTBAOT OF RETDSNS OF 00. AQ. BOOIETIES FOB ISea. . 112 

1X.-GLIIIF8E3 OF WESfBRN EDBOPK US-144 

Liverpool to London HI 

Off for the Continent 114 

Paris to GenevK, tI*. tifODB \nf 

AcroM the AlpB tu Har^gnj , n't 

Martignj to VilleneuTe IM 

VilleneuTe to Baale, vU LauMDDe 121 

Baate to F™ntfo^t^)n-tho-ll»in 188 

Frankfort to Cologne IM 

Cologne to BniMell ItS 

Brnwela to London 1J7 

Hatten In and abont London. 1B7 

The Social Botence CongreBt Igj 

Great Trial of Pteam Plows 180 

Farms oF the Late Prince Albert 181 

Fourth of Julj Celebration in the CrjBlal Palace 133 

London to Oxford, Birmingham and Han cheater IS3 

Hanchesier to KewciM]e-on-Tyne, rla. Sheffield and Leeds.. IBS 

Nevcutle toEdlubarg ISO 

Edinburg to Glae!-oir b; the Tro«4«bl 188 

Olafgov to Belfast HI 

Belfaat toDuilin 141 

Dublin to Cork 14j 

X.— INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1888 148-148 

Connection of this Conn tr J with the EihiUtion 148 

The Enhibition Boildlng 161 

The Opening of the Bxbibltlon 158 

A First General Surrej IBS 

Uoited Kingdom of Qreat Britain and her OoJonial Foases- 

Bions 1C8 

Other CouDtriea 161 

ClasjiGcation ISS 

Oeopral Description of^the Eihibitiotf WJ 

Conetitution of Juries 118 

Rules Gorerning the actloa of Jurors 174 

The high ohuracter of the Juries 17B 

The Freeentstion of Awards IIS 

Awirds to the different Coantries 180 

Table of Uedals awarded Igj 

American Exhibits to which Prises were aw&rded 1B4 

CoDoluding Remarks, 187 

XI.— TRANSACTIONS FOR 18S8 lSB-193 

OiGcersof the Boo let j ^ 180 

Annual Report 181 

EiecutiTB HeeUngs 19S-IH 

Annual Ueetiog ^r IBtB '.... IBS 

ML— ABSTRACT OF RKTDRNS OF COTTNTT AOBICOLTDRAL SO- 
CIETIES FOR ISflS IVg 

Xnl.—TBAKS ACTIONS FOB 1804 197-828 

Officers of the Societj 198 

Annual Report 1V8 

SiecutiTC Ueetlngi 903^08 

EihibitioD of 1BS4 S04-3tS 

Opecing Address b^ CoL B. B Hinkler, President. . . . SMt 
Annual Address bj H<in. Joseph A. Wright of Indisna. SOS 

Election of Officers for ISSE 818 

Award of FremiuDu 814 

Bxeoutlve Heatings after die Fair. isg 

Anniul Meeting for IBM. .. , 818 



ccizoJ.A'OD^Ic 



OONTENT& 7 

HV.— ABSTRACT OF RETURNS OP COCSTT AQBICULTIJEAL 

SOCIETIES FOE )B64 ii« 

XV — XBANSA0TI0N8 FOR IMS 827 Ut 

OlBcen of tba Soclet; ' %U 

Annakl Report SSe 

KisoatlTB Ueetingi !8S 1» 

Eleotioii orofflcenfor IBeS 3U 

Aniiuitl Heetingfur ISSS SS6 

KxliibitiOD of ISflS SSI Ml 

Op«Dlag Addr«uby Hod. DaTid Willivnt, Frei 140 

Aonaal Addreis by Oen. W. T. Sli«nnui %t% 

Ei-Oov<rnoT Randall' J Speech MS 

Senator Doolittle'B Speech %H 

Seoator Howe and Oorercor Leirli 344 

Premiumi AwKrued S48 

XTI— ABSTRACT OF RETURNS OF CO. AQ. SOCIETIES FOR 18M 3H 

XVII— TRANSACTIONS FOR 1686 US >70 

Offlceri of the Societ; iefl 

Aanual Report SSI 

EiecutLve Meetings 811 M4 

Electiou of Officers for 1867 278 

Aanaal Ueetiag 275 

EihibitiOD of 1866 v 276 SM 

FremiiuDB Anarded 37B 

XVllI— ABSTRACT OF BBTDRNS OF CO. AQ. SOCIETIES FOB IBtO MB 

XIX.~TRaNS&CTIONS FOR 1B6T U7, 801 

Officer* of the Society SSS 

AadiuiI Report 299 

BiecutiTe Meetings. 402i 807 

Election of OfScers for 1868 107 

Annual aeeliog 806, SO? 

Exhibition of 1867 S09, 8B1 

Addr«Hb7 P' A. Ohadboaroe, Praat. CalTenlt; SIl 

Prvminai awarded 814 

XI.— ABSTRACT OF RETURNa OF COUNTY AGRIOTLTURAL 80- 

0IETIB3 for 1867 t8S 

XXI.— OBirUABT NbTICES 888, 8» 

JosiahF Willard, b; Dr. J. H. Warren 888 

Edmund F. Mable, b.T S. H. Harritigton 886 

XXU.— THROUGH COHTINENTAI. EUROPE-Beltiga skstohr ontUna 
of trareli in France, Baden, Wurtemburg, BsTsria, Switiertaod, 
Italy, Austria, Saionj and other Slates of Northern German, 
Frue^a, Denmark, Sweden, Norwaf, Finland, Prussia, Poland, 
Holland and Belgium 887, 863 

XXm.— RBPOBT OS THE FABIS USIVERSAL EXPOSITION OF 

1867 8SS-416 

Hamea of Wliconsin Commiseioners 854 

Organ-zation of the CoiuiniMlon 807 

Labora of the Oommiision in oolieoting artidei for the Ex- 

poaitioo ..SB7-861 

Artlclea ihipped and parties bj whom oontributed 861 

The Exposition at Date of Opening 864 

General arrangement of Grunpa of StbibiU 867 

Deaoriptioo ol tba Palace 86B-871 

Arrival of National Contribatloni 871 



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8 STATE AQBIODLDBAL SOClBTr. 

XXm.— ^POkT o> Pabib TJnvsBeu. BxrosiriOH— (MntimHrf). 

aenliig of tbe EipoBilion 3TS 
eEipoaLtianitBeir ST4 

The National Reprauntation t16 

The Ten Groups and ttieir BubdiTJaion* 8Tg 

Multitude of ths Exhibits t19 

Hoticea of some of the mora impoTtant Dep>r(ai«Dta of Id- 

diirtrj S78-Sa8 

Tbe EitractiTe iLduatrisa SIB 

Mining 879 

Hetallurg7, (macufactura of iron and steel,).. SSO 

The Coal Hiaeiand Foreataof the World 888 

Agriculture 8gfi 

Prnduotioa of Oolton 885 

Sbeep-Huabandrj 38S 

Woot-prodoct of tbe World SSe 

Silk Culture 888 

Product of the World 887 

Culture in California. 887 

The 8agar-Beet and Beet-Sugar IBS 

Pragreea of tbe Chemical Arts 888 

Dr, Bmnetti'a method of Preserring Animal Bodies SSO 

Progress of Ucrbaoical Arts, 

Hem's method of applying Uotlte Pawen 3S3 

Uunitlons of War 8M 

Machine TooU SVB 

Mannfacturea S96 

The Department of Social Sclenoe 386 

Its General Otjeots. SSS 

American Schoolhouse and Western Fanner's Home| . . 891 

Qr«ndFete of th a Distribution of Priiea 398 

Address of Minister Rouhsr to the Emperor 400 

Bepljof the Emperor 402 

DeliTery of Prizes b; the Emperor 403 

The Awards, generally 404 

Awards to American CommiSHionen aod Bihibitors 409 

To products of Wiscanain (see Nos. 86, 199, 200, SOI, 

alM.Tallman & Collins) 408, 409, 411 

The Amerioan Department at^r the Awards 471 

Bsatona for small nambar of awarda to Wiaconsin 411 

rinal disposition of Wisconsin products 41S 

Arrival Borne and Distribution ol Wisconsin Oontributiona. 413 
Preaeutation of Sample-boies of Grain, contributed bj Hil- 
waakee Chamber of Uommorce to Paris Chamber of 

Uommerce 410 

Benponse of Paris Chamber 414 

Financial statement of the CocninlBsloii 414 

finggestlODl for the Future 414 

Concluding Words 418 

XXIV,— TRASaACTIONS FOR 188E 411-903 

Officers of the Societj 418 

Annual Report 419 

Biecutire Meetings. 423-437 

Bleotlon of Offlcees for 1869 4£8 

Exhibition of 1 B68 4S8- 

Opening Address by Acting President, B. R. HInkley 470 

Address by A, Willard, H A., of New York, " The Dairy, 

its Products, Methodi and Profits." 480 

Address by Hon. E. B. Ward ol Detroit, "The Fanner and 

theManufactorer." 403 

Annual Addresses by Eon. timothy 0. Howe, and Gen. 

Geo. B. Bmith. 47S 



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OONTBNTS. 

XIT.— TuKSAcnoKS for 1BS8— («antiiMMi£) 

PremiDiiia Awarded 481 

BxeeutiTe Heetmg «Aer tbe Fiir 4»T 

Annual Meeting of Booietj 491-498 

XXV.— WISCONSIN WOOft flROWBES' A8S00IATI0K 501-BOS 

XZTL— BEPORT OF THB WISCONSIN STATE HORTICULTDRAL 

SOCIETY FOR THE TEARS 1864-!M(~7-8. 608-B8B 

Biitorio Acooant SOS 

Anmial Meeting, I8SS 511 

Annaal Meeting, IBflT SIS 

Annual Meeting, ISBS SSI 

Reports of Special Committeea S<9 

EnarB : „ .6S1-S87 

Protection of Oreharde—bj A. 0. Tattle ESI 

Grape Onllnre— bj Oeo. B. Ectlogg sei 

Eitract* from Correspondence BSS-BT9 

TheCaltoreof Small FniltB S«B 

Fruits, ta., in Trempealeau Ooontj 671 

Fniita in Richland Ouantj BIS 

Fruits Id Fierce Count; B78 

Fruits in Waiishara Coant; ST4 

Fraltain Sheboygan Ooantj STft 

Frul tB in MlnneBota S7T 

FmitsiDNortbarn loira STB 

Local Horticultural Societies E80-fi8S 

Madieon Hortlaaltnral Soelet; S80 

German.. do do 681 

JaoeBville do do 681 

Qrsiit Count;. ..do do S88 

Kenoiba do do 688 

Othkosh do do 086 

Appendix 687-698 

OoDBtitution and Bf-Lawa of the Wiwonsin State Hor- 

tioultural Soeietv 6ST 

Laws relating to tbe PiantiDg and FreseTration of Fralt 
and Forest Trees 689 



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CONSTirUTION OF THE, SOCIETY, 

AS ADOPTED IN 1883. 



ThU Societj ebtll b« kuown u the "WiKODgia Stftte Agrlcaltunl S<t- 
eietj." ItB D^'ect shiU b« to promote the advaDoemeat of Agriculture, Hor- 
Uoulture, uid the Uecbkolotl tnd HooMbolU Arts. 



Th« Sooletr Bball conaiit of life members, who ehtM pa^, on lubicriblDg, 
IweDtr dollars, aud of honorftrr and oorreeponding membera, who aball be 
elected bj a lote of two-thirds of th« membem ur the Eiecutire Board, 
at any regular meeting. The preeidenta of CoitntT Agricultural Bodetiea 
•hall be memben a offiait, entitled to tbe Mine pririlegeB as life members, 
and together ihall be Known as the General Committee of the BocietT. 

ABTIOLE 111. 



Tbe Offloere of the Societj shill consist of a President, one Vice Freddent 
for each CoDgresslonal district oF tbe State, a tjecratarj, ■ Treasurer, and 
sefen additional members, who pbsil hold their resuecttre affioes for the term 
of one jesr from the first daj of Janoarj next succeeding tbe date of tbsir 
election, and until their successors sball bare been elected, and al] of whom, 
together with the ei-Fresident latest in office, shall constitute the Eteeatire 
Board. 

ARTICLE IT. 



The Freeidents and Vice Fresidenla shall perform such duties aa are oom- 
mon to such ofBoeri in like associations, and as may bo required bj the 
KieoutiTe Board 

The Seoretsry shall Icevp the minatea of all meetings, and have Immediate 
oharge of the books, papers, library, and collections, and other property of 
the BoelBtf. He shall also attend to lu oorrespondenoe, and prepare and 
auperintend the pnbliaation of the annual report of the Society, required bj 
law. 

The Treasurer shall keep tbe funds of the Society and diabarse th« aaaie 
on (ha order of the President, or a Viae President, coontersigned by the 
Seoretary, and aball make a report of all receipts and ezpeoditures at the 
ncnlar meeting □( the Society in KovemLer. 

Tbe Bxecutive Board shall hare power to make iuitable by-laws to govern 
the mUou of the aeveni membera thereof. Tbey bhall have general abug« 

10 



l;A'Ol>'^IC 



CONSTITUTION Oi' THE SOCIETY. 11 

«f all the propert; uid iotereBta of the Bociet;, ttid miike aach irraoga- 
meota for the holding and maaagemeDt of genarkl ind ipeoial exhibition* 
u the weirare ef the Societf and the inMreats of inde«tr; shAll seem to 

The Qeotral Committee aball be charged with the intereiita of the Society 
ia the raTsral coaDtiea where thej reapectivelj reude, and conatitute a 
medloDi of commnDicatAon between the Exacntire Board and the pablio at 



The Annual l(««ting of the Soeiet;, for the traoeaaUon of senenl bnal- 
Dett, Bhali be held Id Ita rooma in Uidicon. on the first WedDaada? of 
December, at three o'clock P. U., in each j'ear, and ten daya no'ice thereof 
ahall be given by the Secretarj in one or moie papers printed In the cltr of 
HadiaoD. 

The Elect'on of Offlceta of tha Society ahall be held each year during and 
M the General Eihibilion, and the exact time and place of election shall be 
notified bj the Secretnr; in the ofBcial tilt of premiuma and in all the geoerftl 
programniea of the Eihlbltioa. 

Special meetinga of the Society may be called by order of the Eiecutlre 
Board, on giving twenty daya' notice in at least three newgpapera of gener^ 
clroelation in the State, of the time, place, and object of aaid meetinga. 

At any and nil meetings of the Society, ten members shall constitQt« • 
quorun for the tranuelion of bnaineaa, though a lesa nuabsr may a^joiirn 
from time to time. 

AKTICLB VI. < 



This Conetitutton may be amended by a rote of two-thirds of the members 
Attending any Annnal Meeting; all amendments having been first submitted 
Id writing at the previons Annaal Meeting, recorded in the miDntea of At 
proceedings, and read by the Secretary in the next succeeding Meeting for 
the BlecUon of Offlcere. 



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LAWS OF WISCONSIlsr. 



CHAPTER 114— Q. L., 1860. 

AK ACT to raoranglzs ind enluve ths onlTaniltT it WlBConatn. and to Kntborizs fha 
coontf of Dane to ia*rK bondfl in ild thereof^ 

[Act diipoglDg or NttlDiul Land Gnnt for a colleEe of A^cnltnrs and tbe Hechanio 
7K( peopU of Ou ttatt of Wucnnnn, ripraatled in Senate and Auemily, do 



;i at foUm 



StoTiDN 1. The otject of the univenity of Wisconsin iball be to provide 
the tneacB of acquiring a Ihorougli knowledge of ifae rarious branobea of 
learning roDuected witli the Bcieati&c, industrial and profesgioual parsniti; 
and to ibii> ead, it shall cousiit of the foJlawlng colleget, to-wJt: JsL The 
college of arte. Sd. The college of leltert, Sd. Sucb profeasiotial and 
other colleges as from time to time may be added thereto or connected 

SiCTioN 2. The college of nrta shall embrace conreeaof instructioo la the 
matlematiciLl, phjsical and natural sciences, with their applications to the 
Industrial arts, such ss agriculture, meclmnics and engineering, mining tnd 
metallurgy, manufactures, architecture and commerce, lu such brancbee ia- 
eluded in tbe collegi of letters, na shall tie necessar; to a ^troper fitness of 
the pupils in the scientific and practical courses for their cho'-en pursuits, 
•ttd in military tactics i and as soon as the income of tbe unirersitj will al- 
low, in sucb order as the wants of the public shall seem to require, tbe said 
courses in th» sciences and their application to the practical art;, shall be 
expaiided into distinct colleges of the unlrersiCj, each wiib its own facalt/ 
and appropriate title. 

SiDTiON 8. The college of letters shall be co-eilstant with the college of 
arts, and shall embrace a libeiai course of iastrnction ia language, literature 
and philosophy, together with such courses or parts of tourses In tbe college 
of arts as the authoritiei of the university shall prescribe. 

Sectiom 4. Tbe university in all its departments and colleges, shall be 
open alike to male and female students ; and all able-bodied male students 
of the university, in whatever college, shall receive instruction and diseipline 
in military tactics, the requisite arms for which shall be tbraished by the 

BiOTiON e. The government of tbe university shall vest in a board of re- 
gents, to eonsist of fifteen members, to be appointed by the governor, tiro 
from each coogreasiotial district in tbe state, and three fiom the state at 
large. At the first appointment, which shall be within aiitj days after the 
passage of tbtt aat, five shall be commissioned for one year, five for two 
years, and five for three yean. Thereafter the full term of office shall be 
three years from the first Monday in Febmary, in the year In which they 
were appointed, onlesi sooner removed by the governor. 

StOTieic S. The said board of regents shall aaoceed to tbe cnstody of the 
hooka, record?, buildings and all other property of the university ; and the 
present board of regents shall be dissolved immediately upon the organiia- 
tlon of the board herein provided lor: j>roeUsd^ (hat all contracts legal!; 
made, and at that time binding upon the board thus dissolved, shall be m- 
iQioed and discharged by their si 

12 



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LAWS OF WISCONSIN. 18 

SicnoH T. The regents lad tbcir BnccesBon in office shnll constitute a 
body corporate, with the rxDiB md itjle of "the regents of the uniTereitj 
of Wlaconaln," with the rights, sa such, of lulng a,iid being sued, of con- 
tracting and boiiig contracted with, ot miking lad u^ing s common seal, 
and altering the same at pleasure. T be; shall have power, and it shall he 
their dulj, to enact Iswb for the gorernment of the university, in all its 
branches; to elect a president of (he univereitj, and the requisite number 
of professori, instructors, officers and employees, and to Sx their salaries, 
also the lerni of olBce of each, and to detGrmine the moral and educational 
qDalificationa of applicants Tor admission to (he varlaiis courses of instruc- 
Mon: provided, that no instruction, either sectarian in religinn, or partiua 
In politics, shall ever be allowed in any department of the uuiTersity, and no 
seotanan or partisan test shall ever lie allowed or eiercised in the ftppoiut- 
uent of regents, or in the election of professore, teachers or other officers 
of the university, or in the admission of students tbeielo, or for any pur- 
pose wbaterer. 

. Sbctioh 8. For the time being, an admission fee and rates of tuition, 
such aathfl board of regents deem expedient, may be required of each pupil, 
etcept as hereinafter provided; and as Boonas the income of the unireraity 
will permit, sdmission and tuition shall be free to all residenrsof the State ; 
and it shall be the duty of the regents, according to popuiatioa, to fio appor- 
tion the representatHin of student', that all portions of the .State shall ei^jo; 
equal priTileges therein. 

SlcTioN 9. One suitably qnaliSed pupil from each assembly district, lo ba 
nominated bythe representative of such district in the legislature of the 
State, who, other things being equal shall prefer an orphan of a soldier who 
bas died in defense of his country, shall be at once and always entitled to 
free tuition in all the colleges of the university. 

Section 10. The-president of the university shall be president of Che sev- 
eral faculties, and the executive head of the Institution, in all its departments. 
At such, he shall have authority, subject to the board of regents, to give 
general direction to the pracllcsi affairs and scientific investigations of the 
several colleges, a .d In the recess of the board of regents, to remove any em- 
ploree or sabordlnato officer, nnt n member of the faculty, and (□ RUfjply for 
the time any vacancies thus created ; and so long as the interests of the insti- 
tntion require it, he sball be charged with tlie duties of one of the profes- 
eOTihijis. The seoreiary of stale shall be secretary of the hoard of regents, 
and shall perform such duties as they sliall impose. The state treasurer shall 
be the treasurer of the board of regents, and perform all the duties of such 
office. 

SiCTioH 11. The immediate government of the several culleges shall be 
entrusted to their respective faculties ; but the regents shall have the power 
to regataCe the courses of instruction, and prescribe the author'tiee to be 
nsedln Che several courses, and hIjo to confer such degrees and arant such 
diplomas as are nsoal in universities, or as they shall deem appropriate. 

SlcnoH 12. At the close of each fiscal year the regents, through their 
president, shall make u report in detail to the governor, exhibiting the pre 
gress, condition and wantsof each of the colleges embraced In the unirersity, 
(he course of study In each, the number of professors and students, the 
amount of receipts and disbursementri, together with the nature, costs and 
n'solts of all important investigatlonssnd experiments, and huch other in- 
formacion as they may deem important; one copy of which B.'.all be trans- 
inlttad, free, by the secretary of slate lo all colleges endowed under the pro- 
visions of the oongresslonal act of July 2d, 18S1, hereinbefore [hereinafler] 
referred lo, and also one copy to the secretary of the interior, as provided la 

SionoH IS. For the endowmODt and simport of the nniversity, there are 
hweby appropriated : in Tbelnoome of^the nntverait; ftind. id. The in- 
come of a fliud to be derived Ihiin tbe sates of two bnadred and forty tban- 
Mnd kerea of land granted by Congress to th« Ptate of Wiscot^rin, by *lrCne 
ofanaet approred July M, 18«3, entitled "an act donating land lo the 
wveral BUtas Mid Tvrrftories which may provide collegea for tbe benefit of 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



14 STATE AGBIOULTOKAl SOOIETT. 

■igriciittare and mechtDic arts," oblob f^nd ib^ be designated m tha agri- 
oulturat college faad. 8d. All etioh bOutribuUone to the eudowmaDt fund, m 
ma7 be derived from public or private bouctj. Tbe entire inGome or all uii 
fundi Bbdl be placed at the digpoeai of the board of regenta, for the eitpport 
of the aforesaidculleges of arts, of letters, and of such colleEee a ihaii be 
Mtablished in the UDlversit;, a« provided in section two of tbls act : protiibd, 
that all meai'S derivable from other public or from private bounty, etaall ba 
eictusivelj dovoted to the specific objec^ for vhicb the; shall have been de- 
Bigned bf the granton. 

Si^TXDf 14. Ueatingi of tbi boivi mij be aalled in auch maaner ks the 
regents shall determine, a m^ority of whom shall constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of business, but a iesj number may adjourn from lime to time. 
No member of the board sbsll receive compensation for bis service as each 
member, bat each member shsll be entitled to reimbursement, on the audit 
of the board, for his traveling and other necessary eipnnsea while employed 
on the b'isine::B of the board. 

SccTioH IS. Tbe flnt meeting of the regents, the appointment of irhich 
is herein provided for, shall be held in tlic uuiversity edifice, on the Jut 
Wednesday of June, 1866, at which time tbe regents when so convened, 
shallelect one of their number president of the Ixiard. Tbe time for the 
annual election of president of tbe board of regents, as also the regular 
annual meeting, and sucb other meetings as may be required, shall be deter- 
terminrd in the by Ian of the board. Immediately upon the organisation 
of the board, it abill be tbeir dnty to make arrangements for aecuring, with- 
out eipense to tbe state, or to tbe funde of the univeraity, suitable lands, in 
tbe immediate vicinity of the university, not leas than two hundred acres, 
including the university grounda, for an experimental farm, and ae early as 
possible thereafter, to make auch improvements tbereon as will render ft 
available for eiperimental and instructional purposes, in connection with 
the agricultural course in the college of arts. 

Sectiod is. To enable the board of regents to purchase lands in tbe vi- 
cinity of the university for an eiperimentai farm, aud to improve tbe same, 
the board of auperrisors of Dane county are hereby authorized aud empow- 
ered to issue tbe bonds of s.iid county, bearing interest at the rate of seven 
per cent, per annum, interest payable aunually, for the amount of forty 
tbousand dollars, such bonds to be payable on or before the firat day of ilan- 
uarj, A. D. IBfld, at such place as may be determined by said board of super- 
visors. Tbe bonds so issued shall be delivered to tbe board of regents of 
the university, who shsU faithfully apply tbe same, or the proceeds thereof, 
together with all contributions made for this specific purpose, to the pur- 
obase and improvement of the lands far such experimental farm. But if the 
said county of Dana, by its proger ofQuers, shall not make provision for the 
issue and delivery of said bonds as aforesaid, within thirty days after the 
passage of this act, and if in such case the citizens of said county shall fail 
within thirty dava after the expiration of the said first mentioned period of 
thirty days, to fiirnlab guarantees Batiafactory to the secretary of state, that 
the said amount of forty thousand itollars ahall be placed at the diapocal of 
the regents of the university at the first meeting of the boaid, then this act 
shall be null and void. 

Skction 17. So much and such parts of chapter twenty-one of tbe revised 
statutes, and of any and alt acts, u oontravene the provisions of this act, 
are hereby repealed. 

SicnoN IS. This act shall take effect and be in foroe from and after its 
passage 

Approved April IS, IBS6. 

[Section 4, as amended by Legislature of IBBT.] 
SiCTioN 1. Beetion four of chapter one hundred and fourteen of the gene- 
ral taws of the year IBSfi, entitled " an act to reorganiie and enlarge the 
University of Wisconsin, and to antboriie the couDty of Dane to issue bond* 
in aid thereof," is hereby amended, m as to read as follows: "fiectioD 4. 
Tbe Univereitj shall be open to female as well as male ftadenl«, under such 



j.A'OO'^lc 



LAWS OF WISCONSIN. 



racaiTfl Inatractloi; 



OHAPTEB IJl— Q. L. IMS. 

iX A(7r te looTtdsbiF the •*!« of the Asricoltnnl College bndi. 

7%iptafU of A* Mai' of Tn*RMwin, npn-ntad in Smata and Afnntlg, do maU 

Bbotiob 1. It ii herebj mide the dutj of the aommiMtonera of lohool ftnd 
Diii«eraitj Itndi, to tinmedi*t«lr offbr for wle ftt pnbilo luction, all luidi 
known mt mirlcaltDnl college Ikuds; uld sale to be goTerned b; tbe Itwa 
DOW in forco BOveming the nle of sahool and nnlTertltj lands, id 
far as th« same ihall be applicsble to and not Ineooiistent with the prorit- 
tona of this act. 

BmnoN 1. The minimum price at which said lands ahsU be oSbrad for 
iaie, ehalt be one dollar and twentj-Bve cents per acre, and at least one- 
fourth of the purchase mone; shall be paid at the time of parchase ; and the 
oommiMioDera may, in their discretion, reqaire a greater portion or the whole ■ 
of thp parchase money to be paid at the time of purohaw. A credit of ten 
jean shall be fti^Bo <"> the nnpaid patahase mono;, with Interest at the rate 
of seTen per cent, per annnm, which interest sb^l be payable at the same 
time that the interest on school Isods is now reqqired to be paid; and all 
laws now in force irnposing penaltieH for non-payment of principal or inter- 
est, and providing for the forleitare and sale of school lands, are hereby ex- 
tended and made applicable to said agricnltaral college laods. 

SicmoH 3. Tbe moneys received on account of the aales of saoh landa 
iball be known u Che tKrlculcural college fund, and shall be Inveeted by (he 
oommissioners of school and no irertity lands in slooks of the state or of the 
nnlted Btalea 

Bmitiom 4. All laws for tbe protection of school lands are hereby eiteodad 
and made applicable to the protection of said agricultural college lands. 
SioTioH a. This act shaQ take effect and be In force front and after its 



je and pablioi 
Approved April 12, 1888. 



OHAFTER S3-0. L. 18ST. 

a tana of year*, a osrtala sum of UKmay to Uh 
SDCtaortse tM levy o(s tax thersftir. 

31W pfpU of Hit Mold of IFisimuiR, rtprmeiOKt us AimK and Ammity, A> 



Uotlht, 



&BCTIOH 1. There shall be levied and collected for the year IgST, and 
annually thereafter for the next ten years, a state tai of seven tbensaiid 
three hundred and three dollars and se*ency-sU cents, and the amount m 
levied and collected is hereby appropriated to the oniveraity fund income, 
to be used as a part thereof. 

Sicrnoi S. The secretary of state slull apportion said tax annually 
among the several counties of this state, as other state taxes are apportioned 
by law, and the same shall be levied, collected and paid Into the tressnry in 
the same manner as other state taies. 

Sionoii I. Ttds act shall take effect and he In force from and after Its 
pawage. 

Approved April fl, 1807. 



16 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

JOINT BESOLUTION. 

AMiEning Booidb In the Otpltol to the WiKontf n Bt«te Agrienltaral Sodety. 

Sfolwtdbjillie A—tmhly, t/u Smatt erniatrrviff, That the roanui on the north 
iide of the west wing or the Capitol, to wit: the roooiHjuBt made vacant b; 
the remoial of the Attorney Qaneral i.Tid the Supenn ten dent of Publie la- 
■tnictiDD, be prepared by the Superintendeat of Publio Property, for the use 
«f the WiBconsin State AgricuUaral Society, and that the said Society be and 
hereb; is allowed the aae of the aame until otherwise ordered by the Legie- 

Pasaed Jan. SS, 1SS6.— ..iManWy Joanwd, ISSS, f>p. 87, 98. 



CHAPTEB H-Q.L., IBSe. 
Alt ACT tn provide Au' (he piln^gand pnbllcatlan of Uic 



SiOTioic 1. The itate priuter ii hureby directed to print on good book 
. paper, fold. Btitch and bind in mualin covers, unirorm in style with the iait 
TolniDe published, three thousand copies of the seventh volume of " tnna- 
•ctioni of the Wlsconiin state agricultural society," embracing the years 
1841, 1803, ISeS, 1804, I8e5, 18SS, 1867: provided, the uumber of pdsted 
pages of said volume ah^l not exceed 6ve hundred ; and to deliver the same, 
when oompleie, to the euperintendent of public property, to be by bimdis- 
tributed as rollowB, (d-wU: Six hundred copies for the use of the lecisUtnra, 
ifty copies for the state library, fifty oopiea for the state historical sooiety, 
flfty copies to the Wisconuo agricultural nnd me chauioal association, looated 
at La Cro::«e. fifty copies to the state horticultural society, twenty-five oapies 
to each county a^loultnral society in active opersttoi : pnmiid, thai oaoh 
of said industrial societies and associAtions shall furnish to the secretary of 
tha Wlseonain state agrionltnml soeiety an abstract of the [its] proeeadings 
fi)r publication in said Toluma ; and all remaining oopies t« 'be said atsM 
■grionltural society. 

SscTioH 2. The state printer Is further directed, when the report ol the 
■tate horticultural society, to be included in the volume of " transactions " 
aforesaid, shsU be In press, to print, fold, stitch and cover with suitable 
paper, one thoulaad sitra copies of the same for the use of *aid society. 

SconoH 8. fiereaftsr, ar until the lefrislature sball olherwise order, the 
trsnsactioDB of the Wisconsin state agricwtarai society, including the raport 
of the state horticultural society, together with abstracts of the report! of 
all the other industrial associations of tbe state, so far as the same may b« 
fiunisbed. and such other material as ia contemplated in section six of chap- 
ter sighty of the revised statutes, shall be annually printed, publshed and 
distributed in like manner and number as proTldsd in sections one sod vn 
of this act, on the order of the governor. 

SioTiOH i. This aot shall take effect and be in force from and aftar ita 
paauge. 

Approved Karoh 4, 1888. 



^d by Google 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



.„.. 


■niDIHCE. 


«^ 


«.„» 




Hadiaon. 


Brown,Ja«. J.... 


¥ldiMIl. 


Allen, H.M, 


EvanflTllte. 


Bemis,Fped 




Atvood, DkTid 


Hftrtison. 


B»llej, M. T 


Hadlaon. 


Atwood, Wm. F... 








Ajer», J. W 


Kenoeha. 


Bralej, A. B 




Allen, J&c. W. 




BriERB,F 


Hadlaon. 




DelBTsn. 




Hadiaon. 


Atigel, R.R 


JaneaTille. 


Brown, B. T 


Fitehbarg. 












Cottage GroTE. 


Bliai, 0. H 


Door Creek. 


Ad4ii.a,Ja» 


JanesTilJe. 


Bowman, J. H. . . . 










Hadiaon. 






Bruce, A. T 


H^liHOD. 


Babbitt. Clinton... 


Bcloit. 




DanTille. 




Waukcahk. 




Windaor. 


Bement, K 


Oregon. 




Ktchbnrg, 


Benedict, J.D 








Benediet, 8. 


Hitdtaon. 








Bloomfleta. 






•Billings. B. 11 . . . 


Highland. 








Bnn Prairie. 


B»Hk, BeoJ 




Carrer.P. i 




Bri»rd, W. A 


Hadlaon. 


C*M, J.I 


Racine. 




Crots Plaina. 


Chandler, J. 


HadiaoD. 


BojOB, A. A 


Vienna. 


Chase, Enoch 


Hilwankee. 


Bojd, R.B 




CumminRB, Wm. . . 
Cha«a,ff. 


Fitchbnre. 


Bnllard, Ju 


BTBnivilie. 




Babbitt, D. H 


JaneaTille. 


Onrtiw, Sejmour.. 


Pltchburg. 


Barrows, E 8 


JaneaTille. 


Capron, Qeo 




BarlasaDaTid 


Emenlil Qrove. 




Whitewater. 


Ball, Stephen 


Racine. 


Cochrane, John... 


Waupau. 
Brookaid. 


Bnmp, N. F 




Cogawall, A. W... 


Bailej, A. P 




•Coit, D. B. 


Madlion. 


Bemia,JaTT!» 


Janeaville. 


Colby, Chaa 


JaneaTille. 


B«oon,J,P 


Weatport. 




Stonghton. 


Baniei, Oflo 


JansBTille. 


Craig, A. J 


Palmyra. 


Barlaae, Andrew... 


Bmetftld Orove, 




Center. 


BurgeM,J. M. 




Croaa, J. B 


Hilwankee. 


Boatwick, Pef,».. 




Child. Jno 




BatBB, A. 




01ark,C.H 


Whitewater. 


Boatviek, J. H... 


Janeirillo. 


•Campbell, 0. H. 


Hadison. 


Boitviok, R. H. . . 




Carpenter, J. H.. 


UaditDO. 








BUUDg8,EarI 


lUdlwn. 


1 C*rter, Qray. .... 


Janearille. 


2 Ac. T 


bAlfa 




(17) 



jj.Coogk' 



LIFE MEMBEBS. 



..„ 




„.. 


»„.«<^ 


CBwr.Wm 




Elliott, E 




CroHltt.B. V 




Eaton,J. 


Lodl. 


Crawford, E.B.... 


Hadiaon. 


Edgerlon.E. W.- 




CroBbT.J. B 


JanesTille. 


Ellmore, A. E.... 


Mukwanago. 


CaMi.> C 






Hadleon. 


KockjBtmn. 


Ellsworth, 




Onwford, J. a... 








CwUr.A. It 




Eno^Elih^ 


Waokeeha. 


Cnlter.OilebK... 


Sboplere. 


Eohlin, J.C 


JaDGBTllle. 


OI>rk,Uwi«. 


Beiolt. 


Elderkln, Ed 


Elkhoro. 


Cornell, Ju 


Beloit. 


ElUworth, W. J.. 


HadiBOQ. 


CUldKD, B 


L*nc«iter. 


Edmunds, T.W... 




Csrpeuter, S. D. .. 








CUrk, Skteriee. . . . 


Horlcon. 


Fairbaoks, E 




Ohurob, Wm. W . . 


Hadiaon. 


Farwell, I.. J 


Madison. 




Hadiaoa. 






CbipiDtn. A 


Sub Prairie. 


Field, Martin..... 


MukwDcago. 


ColtOD, J.B 




Fenn, 0. W 


GoniweU, H. H.... 


Verona. 


Femlv, Jno 


I« R ranee. 


CramtOD, N. B 


Terona. 


Fincb, Lorln 


ChapmsD, G. B..... 


LelccBier. 


KBeld.L. 








Fowie, J»oob 


Bradford. 


•D.ggett,8.B 


Hilwankee. 


Pifleld, E. 




Darwin, A. 6 








Davidson, Adam.., 




Furlong, Tboa. T. . 












DaTi«,N.P 


PierceTilte. 


Fisher, B. W 












DBTii,0. U 


Hilwaukee. 


Fuller, H.E 


Uadison. 


DMn,K.W 


Had! SOD. 


Fisher, Elijah 


Newark. 


D«an, B. B 


HadiBon. 


Foots, E. A 


FootTille. 


DeUplaine, 0. P. . . 
De WolAB 


Midison. 


Fitch, W. F 


UadiioD. 


Hadiaon. 


Puller, F. D..,.-.. 






Lmeaater. 


Frank, A.S 




Dodge, J. E 




Folds, Geo. H 


Madison. 


Dwi^John 


Hllwaukee. 


Foi, W.B 


FitchbarR. 


DoMman,T. C 




Foote. Sidnsj.... 


Madison. 


Dounaan, J.B 

Dow.O.P 


Hitwaakee. 


French, Jonrtban. 


HadiaoD. 


Fllmyr.. 


Filch, D 


Mkdison. 


Dunoing, Abol 


HftdiaoD. 


Firmin, F. H 




Darkee, Chu 








Drakelj, Pan'l 


HadiBon. 


Gilbert, Thomas. . . 






Eeooaba. 
Portage City. 
Food Su Uo. 


GillBtt,E.E 

Goodrich, 6 




DoDD, And 




Dnirj,E.W 


Grant, Albert 




Darting, K. A 


Fond da Lac. 


Grant, S. B 


Hliwaukea. 


D*taoeU.J.B 


Lodi. 


Gurnee, J. D 


Madison. 


DtJitue, w'*i!!!: 


JanoBtHle. 


OuerDBoj, OrriB... 










Dann, Obed 


JaaeiTille. 


Gmraa, S, W 




Deiter.W.W 


JaneiTille. 


Grobb, W. S 


Madison. 


DIlOD, J. P. 




GibbB.Obae. E.... 


JaneeTllle. 


D«tU,W 


Center. 


Graham, Alei 




Dann, .Wm 








D«n,Johi8 






Oambria." 




Hadiwn. 


Goodrich, Bit.... 


Hilton. 


Daggett, M.L 


MadtBOQ. 


Gates, D. W. C... 


Madison. 











j.A'OO'^lc 



LIFE MEMBBBS. 



WIMU. 


»™.c. 


BIKW. 


WHuiRroi. 




Vaditon. 


J«Hee, M. P 


MadiBon. 








MadiMD. 






JankB, B.K 




Goodenow, H. D. .. 




Jonea, Jobn S.... 




OerDDQ, Geo 


UadisoD. 










i:ellog)t,L.P 


MadtK>n. 


Halght, J.lf 


Vndisoii. 




Hilwaakee. 


BkdcImU, A. H.... 


Hanchettvllle. 


Koj«,KW 


HadiaoD. 


•H«nft.rd, A. Q.... 


WaDkeaba. 


Kaapp.J. G 


MaditoD. 


Barringtoo, N. M.. 


DelaraB, 


Kiie«Und, Moaea. . 


Hilwaukae. 




Madlaon. 


Knigbt.B 


Ban Prairie. 


•Hfcrrey.L. P 


Sbopiere. 




Janeitilte. 


HuaDj^ 8.D 


Hadiaon. 


Kimball, John .... 


JacearUle. 




Verona. 








UilTraakea. 


EiDgBle;, S. P. . . . 


fcK* 


Hibbird, W. B . . . . 




Klaer, Wm. C 


HilLP. B 


Hilwaakee. 


Elanbsr, Saml. . . , 


Madlaon. 


Hill, J.P. W 


Windaor. 






Hinklej, B. B 


Summit. 


Lamb, F. J 


MadlMn. 


Holt, DiTid 


HadlGOo. 


Lipbam, I. A 




HoltoD, Edwird.... 


Uilwaakee. 


Urkin, 0. H. ...-. 




Hoptin«, B. F 


MadiBon. 


Larkin, Daniel.... 


MUwaukee. 


HopkiM, J. C 


Uadiaon. 


Lawton, J. G 


Green Bay. 










Hoyt, J. W 


Uadiion. 


Lockwood, Jno... 




Haghes, Wlieldon.. 


JaucBville. 


Ludlngton, H 


Milwaukee. 


•Hunt, J. W 


Hadi8on. 


Lynde, W. P 


Hilwaakee. 


Hurlbut, E 






JaneaTlile. 


Hntson, Sol 


Janesville, 


Ludlow, A 


Monroe. 


Hsrrii, Ju 


JaDOBviUe. 


Lloyd, Uwia 


Cambria. 


Hodge, Robt 


JaneaTiUa. 


Lynch, T.M 


JaMBTlIle. 




Lawrence, W. A.. 


JanesriUe. 


HoiSe.Wm 


Janeeville. 


Little, Thoa H. . . 


JaneBiine. 


Hiner.W.H 


Fond dn Lac. 


Lewis, Herbert A. 


Madiwo. 


Hammond, E. S. . . . 


Fond da Lac 


Leilcli, W. T 


VadiaOD. 


Bogan, Gilbert 

HJI, Auguatna 




Lelteh, W, T-, 3r. . 


Madiion. 


JanesTlllo. 


Leaiie, Jno 


Madieon. 


Hiir, James H 


Madieon. 


Lyman, L. H. ... 


MadiaoD. 


Eotliiter, R. V . . . . 


Janesvitle 


Lewis, Jno.L.... 


HadiMD. 


Hodwn, C. W 


Janeiville. 






HarTev, J.W 


Madison. 


Laikia,B.F 


Madlun. 




HarBhall. 






Hopkins JamM.... 


Hadiaon. 


Muin,L L 


ntchbnrg. 












UadiMn. 


McDonald, A.... 


Alloa. 




UadiBon. 


Maoj, J. B 


Fond da Lm. 


H.wei.J. P 


Madison. 




Hadiaon. 






Martin, O.L 




Ingham, A (1 


HadiwD. 


Martin, AC. ... 


Ashtoa. 








Praaoott. 


Jonmn, B. H. . . . 




Hllla, Simeon.... 


Maditon. 


JobnaoD, J. 


Lejdaa. 


MUtlmore, Ira.... 


Janearllle. 


Janeaa, Paul 




Mitchell, Alex... 


Milwaukee. 


Jenkin«,J. 




McBride,Alet... 


Madiion. 


JacUnan, Hinm . . 


JaoMTtlle. 


UoCutj, F. D... 


Fond da Lac 


JobDiOll, 11. B.... 


JanetTiUe. 


Mllwaokee. 


Jacob., H.0 




Mor»o,8aio1 


MUwankee. 


Jerdee, L.P 


HadiMD. 


KcPhenon, J. P. 


BpriDgdale. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



LIFE UEMBEBS. 



w^Mse. 


«B.«C. 


MAMU. 


«sn..-«. 


McGregor, Al». . . . 


Nepukin. 


Pr»tl,E.E 




Ulster., ED 


Jefferson. 


Perry, B. F. 


Hadieon. 


Klaer, Cyrni 




Palmer, J. T 




•K.bie, E. F 


Del»vin. 


Park, W.J 


MadiMD. 


HoieUr, 0. r. 


JmnesTllle. 












Madieon. 




Bowndkle. 


Reed, Herbert..., 


MadiaoD. 


IfMon, Geo. A 


Madlion. 


Reynold^Tho*.... 


Madieon. 


Mmrtin,8.W 


UtdlMD. 


ReMgue, i.e.... 


Janesville. 


HcCullough, A.Dd... 
X«rtiQ, Koth-I 




Richards, Richard. 




Monroe. 


Richardson, D 


IJiddleton. 


HcCDDtieir, T. J. . . . 




Ricbirdeon, Jaa... 


Madison. 


MoCoro)ick,J. Q... 


M«diwn. 


Robbine. J. T 


Madison. 


¥e»r.,Wm.A 


H>dl«)n. 


Boddi», T. R 


MitwHDkee. 


lIerrm,A]r 


HsdtHtn. 


Boe.J.P 


Franklin. 


Hftin, Alex. 11 




Rogers, C.H 


Milwaukee. 


HcDongtll, G.W... 


HadiioD. 


Bogere, J. 8 


Burlington. 


Ifoilev, A. R 








HcKenn»,D.»id... 


UadiioD. 


Rowley, N.O 


Verona, 


Hordeo, Ed 


MtdlKQ. 


Ruble, Simon. ... 


Beloit. 


Kurrt7,Geci 


Rtdne. 


RiKles,J. D 


MadiBon. 






Richmond, Amsi'h 


Whitewater. 


Meadh«in. J. F .... 


W»a»BtoM. 


Bowe, Richard W . 


Madieon. 




Gold Spring. 


Bogera, AriBon.... 


Janeeville. 


Nicholf, L.T 




Rftjmood, a. 0. . 




Norton, J. B 


Mftdiion. 


Riier, J. 








RichardsoD, R. J.. 


jBDesTille. 


Newton, Epbr«im.. 


Oregon. 










Bice, E. H 


Whitewater. 


OlneT.O-W 


Mftdison. 


Reiford, J. D 


Janeerille. 




UiullaoD. 


Reynolds, Jno.... 


Kenosha. 






Reardon, Cbae 


Janesrille. 




Uilwaukee. 


Biebiam, C. R.... 


Madison. 


P»lmer, H. L 






Madieon. 


Peffor, G.P 


Pewankee. 


Boderman, Jno. . . . 




Pincknej, 8 


Fond du Uc. 


Beynoldi, M 


Madison. 






Eawaon, C. A.... 


Madison. 


Porter, Wro. F. . . . 


H>dl»on. 


Roia, Jus. 




Porter, Win.H.... 


HadiBon. 


Robbins, J 


Vienna. 


Power.D. G 


Htdlion. 


Bodge re, Lawrence 


Weelport. 










Pr«Bident St Peter's 
TbI. Fkrat'sCIub 


Springfleld. 


Sage, E C 


New LieboD. 

Milwaukee. 










Plumb, J. C 


Milton. 


Seville. J.8 


Merrimae. 


Pajne, Wm 


JtneByillB. 


Sheperd, C 


Milwaukee. 


Pember, R. T 


Juesrille. 


Shipman, S. v.... 


Madison. 


Periine, L. W,... 




Sinclair, Jeff 




Palmer, 0. H 


Oregon. 




Middleton. 


P»Mon^P.B 


H*diWD. 


Smith, Geo, B.... 


Madison. 


Parmel;, Irt, 


Center. 


Balliaburg. R. W. . 




PerklDS, P. V. 


Burlington, 


Smith, J. B 




Pond, B.m'lA..... 


AlbMJ. 


Bpaulding, Wm... 


Janesville. 


Pwk, JohnW 




Sheldon, D.G.... 


Madison. 


P.riter,0, e 


Beloit. 


Spaulding, Job, . . . 
Stitson, Eli 


JanesYiUB. 


P«Uen, L. F. 










Stewart, G. H, ... 


Bearer Dun. 


r.iDe,G«. 


MadiBon. 


Stewart, C.K 





j.A'OO'^lc 



LIFE MEMBEBS. 



,.„. 


^«<^ 


XAim. 


BBonnct. 


Sherman Geo 


La Prairie. 


Otter, Jaa 


Oregon. 


SherminAmaiUh.. 


La Prairie. 






SbBrniKDAdelmaT.. 


La Prairie. 




LodL 


Squire, Thoi. B. . . , 


Waterloo. 


VanSljke.N. B.. 


Hadteon. 




Honroe. 


Vil.B,L.B 


Hadiion. 




BiirnetL 








Burke. 


VanNottrand, A. H 


HadieoD. 


Smith, 8. W 


JsnesTille. 


Van Etta, Jacob.. 


HadiaoD. 


Skioner, E. W 


HadiEOD. 


Vila»,Wni.F 


HadiaoD. 


Spencer, B.0 




VUa8,L. M 


HadisoD. 


Ulddleton. 


VUll, Andnn..., 


MadiMQ. 


Blocum,Q. A 


Janeavlile. 






Smith, H. L 


Janesrille. 


Webstar, HartiD.. 


Foi Uke. 


Smith, H. G 




•Weed, Ohai 


Hadiion. 


Skelley, Chu. 




Wert, 8. 


Hllwankee. 














Whittleaej, T. T. . 
Wilcoi,0. F 




8nen,H 


Hadiaon. 


JaoeaTiUe. 


Slo*ii,I.O 


JanesTille. 


•WiUard, J.F.... 




Smith, J. HorriB... 


JaneiTlIle. 


Williams, D 


BprlDgfleld. 


Sheldon, B.L 


Uadiwn. 


wmiaiM,C.H.... 




St John, J. ff 


JanawUle. 


Willlania,G. M... 




Smith, S.B. 


Vernon. 


WUMama, Daniel.. 


UadiBon. 


Stadcm&n, Jno 






HllwaDkee. 


Stone, 


Beta it. 


Woloott, E. B.... 


Milwaokee. 


Stowe, Lafatette. . . 


Snn Prairie. 


Warren, J. H 


Albaoj. 


SooUan, Frank 


Hadiaon. 


Williuns. a. 0. . . . 


JanasTllte. 


SteTBUB, J. T 


Kadiaon. 


ffileon, Zehina... 


Palmjra. 


SteeoBknd, H 


MadlMO. 






Skinner, 0«o. J.... 


HadisoD. 


Whfslock, w. a.. 


Janeavllle. 


Sheldon, A. H 


HadlioD. 


Webb, Jaa. A 




Sharp, J. W 


Cottage Grove. 




Janesville. 


Storm, Wm 


UadlBon. 


Wright, J. fl 

Wllfiam»,0. L.... 


Emerald GfOTe. 


SMpman, A. 


Bud Prairie. 


Hadieon. 


Sanderaon, R B... 




Wright, Joaiah T. . 




Sutherland, C 


Syene, 


Wright, N. A 


Prairie da Chten 


Smith, Adtun 




Wylie, G«o. W. . . . 


Elkhorn. 


Swain, Wm. W.... 


Verona. 


Worthlngton, D. . . 


Hadlton. 


















Tenoey, H. A 


Nadieon. 


Wright, D.H 


Hadiaon. 


Thoma*,K. J 

Todd,/. 


Fond do Lac 


Worthlngton, B.1L 


Uadisoa. 


JanetTiUa. 


Wootton, Bob't... 






HilwaDhee. 
Honiidrllle. 


Werner, Jno 

Welch. W 




Townley, Joo 


Hadiaon. 


Tajlor, Ek. 




WllUama, J. F. . . . 


Hadiaon. 








HadUon. 


Treat, R.B 


JanesTille. 


Wheeler, W. A.... 


Hadiaon. 


Twining, ILS 


Hagnolla. 


:iS.r*i:::: 


BlkEarth. 


Tterney, K 




Weatport. 
Ht, Horeb. 




Fitchbnrg. 


Wright, Geo 




MadiiOQ. 




Veron*. 




HadiMD. 


Williani«,5.B.... 


Hadieon. 


To^ewon, Law. . . . 


HadUon. 


Wheelwright, J.. 


HIddleton. 


TerwUllgar, Jaa.... 


Syene. 








HadiMQ. 


ToongJ.B. 




•Dew wed. 









.uA.ooglc 



D„ii„.db, Google 



TRAiNSACTIOlSrS. 



GENERAL REPORT. 



To JJis SkceUenct/, Lucius Faibchild, 

Oovemor of Qie iSate of Wisconsin: 
Sir:— 

In complying with the ptovieions of section 6 of chapter 60, 
of the Revised Statutes, and of chapter 74 of the General 
Iaws of 1868, it has seemed proper to precede the detail of 
the transactions of tiie State Agricultural Society, for the ser- 
eral years respectively since the date of our last published re- 
port, with a brief general survey of the whole period em- 
braced. 

The year 1880, of which Volume VI was a comprehensive re- 
port, was a golden year in the history of our oommouwealth. 
By a steady influx of population from the Eastern and Mid- 
dle States, and from the best portions of the Old World, Wis- 
eonsia had risen, as if by magic, ihun the sparaely inhabited 
territory of twelve years before, to the dignity of a great and 
prosperous State, with more than three-quarters of a million 
soula, and eight representatives and senators in the common Na- 
tional Council Her broad expanse of beautiful and fertile 
lands, though even then but partially and poorly coltivated, 
were yet able to challenge the older of the States to a compar- 
ison of the aggregate production of staple crops ; the wheat 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



24 STATE AGRICtTLTUEAL SOCIETT. 

yield of that year beiag over twenty-aeyen millions of bustiels 
— the largest amount that, up to that time, had ever been pro- 
duced by aay one State. Her pastures gave food to innumer- 
able Socks and herds of superior blood. Her hundreds of 
young orchards and vineyards had begun to rejoice in crops of 
luscious fruit Her forests of timber resounded on every side 
■with the stroke of the woodman's axe and the shouts of num- 
berless teamsters. Her mines of lead had already yielded up 
rich treasures to delving thousands of her hardy yeomen, and 
her scarcely leas rich mines of zinc, and iron, and copper, had 
attracted the attention of enterprising capitalists in varions 
portions of the country. Numerous factories had found their 
places on her exhaustless water-powers. Her noble rivers 
and lakes, whose waters so lately had never been disturbed by 
other craft than the lone canoe of the savage, now teemed with 
the feflt-increasing commerce of & marvellous new empire — 
the Empire of the North-West Bailroads, with bands of 
iron, unitiDg her northern with her southern and her eastern with 
her western limits, already bound her territory compactly into 
one. Flourishing cities, towns and villages were found on her 
many harbors, along her water-courses and on a thousand crests 
of her undulating openings and prairies. The school-house, that 
Eymb(^ of American civilization and sign of our future glory 
as a nation, opened wide its friendly doors in every neighbor- 
hood. Colleges for the higher education welcomed hnndreds of 
her aspiring youth to the treasuries of Literature, Science and 
the Art& Charitable and reformatory institutions worthy of 
the older States fitly crowned the summit of many a noble 
eminence and reflected the approving smile of God upon the 
practical benevolence of her people ; while thousands of church- 
spires silenUy pointed the citizen and stranger alike to the 
Great Source of this wondrous prosperity. 

More marvellous changes were never wrought upon so broad 
an area in so short a time. 

We have said the year 1860 was a golden year in our histo- 
ry. So, also, was it the crowning and closing year of its first 
period ; for, with 1881, dawned a new era. The dark wing of 



GENERAL REPORT. 26 

Civil War, which fsr many years had fltfiilly glanced in the sun- 
shine of the nation's hope, now rested upon the country like 
Egyptian midnight Suddenly, from her dreain of peace and 
undisturbed happiness, and her Tision of unexampled glory, 
the Guardian of our Liberties awoke to find her strongholds 
stoutly besieged and the Great Republic throttled by legions 
of implacable foe& 

Then was witnessed that sublimest spectacle hitherto known 
among the nations — of a people by myriads, at the simple call 
of their chieftain, leaving the peaceful and remunerative fields 
of industry and going forth as with one arm and one will to 
battle for the integrity of their country and the vindication of 
principle ; while at home, with re-enforced zeal, the women and 
children, led by such patriots as could not, or were not neede<l 
to, wieH the weapons of war, carried forward the arts of peace 
with undiminished results ; not only feeding and clothing them- 
selves and the two millions of our warriors, but even sending 
bread and the products of their mechanical skill to the needy 
populations of foreign lands 1 

Nor is this the sum of the nation's industrial achievements 
during this eventful period. Institutions of learning for the 
benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts, and liberally en- 
dowed by the National Government, have been established in 
many of the States. Cities have multiplied their public insti- 
tutions and private abodes. Yillagee, by thousands, have 
sprung up like an efflorescence upon the broad expanse of 
our prairies, and carried the clamor of the mechanic arts into 
the heart of primeval forests. The iron horse has made his 
path upon the plains of the far West, and even now snufis the 
cool air of the Rocky mountains on his way to the Pacific 
coast. The lightnings, first subjected by our Franklin and 
Morse, have been taught the courtesies of international inter- 
course. Even new States, with territory vaster than many of 
the most potent kingdoms of the Old World, have been added 
to the galaxy of the Union, And, better than all, now that the 
smoke of battle has cleared away, and the call of the bugle and 
the roar of artillery have given place to the ever- welcome music 



26 STATE AGRIOUI/niRAL SOCIETY. 

of the &rm, the forge and the fectory, harmonioasly blended 
vith the glad voices of the millions of a chastened bat gratefal 
and happy people, the mwe than million of men who, sud- 
denly returned from the fury and carnage of ■war, it was feai-ed 
might too easily become demoralizers of society, and even dis- 
turbers of the peace, have thus qoiekly been absorbed in the 
whole population without other apparent iof&uence than a 
quickening of its energies, the strengthening of its patrioUsm, 
and the increase of activity in every good work. 

It is needless to claim that in all these triampfas of peace 
and moral power, as well as in those of war, Wisconsin has 
proudly shared. No soldiers ever fought more heroicaUy oa 
the field of blood, or returned more quietly and gladly to their 
former useful pursuits. No men of work ever strove more 
nobly or successfully in the fields of industry than hers. 

In endeavoring to determine just what progress has been 
made by our State in the different branches of industry during 
the period under review, or indeed, during any period, the 
public economist is greatly embarrassed by the 

LACK OF FULL AKB RELIABLE STAnSTICS. 

On this head, the impoi-tance of which can hardly be over- 
estimated, we may be pardoned for speaking earnestly and 
pointedly. 

As a State, what have we really accomplished 7 What 
are we doing that might with greater economy be omit- 
ted 7 And what are we failing to do that most of all needs to 
be done? These, certMnly, are important questions — ques- 
tions that every State should be able to answer without hesi- 
tation and without guessing ; especially every new State, since 
it is questions of this kind that are constantly being asked by 
prospective emigrants at the East and in the Old World, and 
since, moreover, the material of wbicb the future State is to 
be moulded is then plastic to the touch of her sbatesmen. 

Figures, are usually considered dry reading ; but to one seek- 
ing information concerning a new country where he thinks of 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



GENERAL BEPORT. 27 

makiDg a home for liimaelf and his posterity, there is nothing 
so intensely interesting and satiB&ctoiy as reliable 8tatifltic& 

If a iarmer, or if proposing to become sacb, he earnestly 
inqnirea for the area of timbered, arable and cultivated lands ; 
the kinds of crops grown ; the number of acres already in 
pasture and meadow ; the number of acres in wheat, rye, com, 
barley, oats, potatoes, flax, &c; the average jrield per acre of 
each of these products, their quality and recognized value in 
the available markets, with the cost of their production and 
transhipment ; the amount of live stock of the various classes, 
and the breeds best adapted ; the quantity of bee^ pork, mut- 
ton and wool produced, with the amount of each exported and 
the average price and proEts realized. 

If a mechanic, what so important as a full and complete 
knowledge of the number, character and capacity of the man- 
ufitctories and workshops of the country where he would try 
his fortunes ; the accessibility, quality and cost of the materials 
to be used ; the price of labor ; the demand for such articles 
as he is best qualified to manufacture and their average value 
in the markets V 

If a miner, tradesman, mere capitalist, or professional man 
of any dass, what so valuable as correct information concern- 
ing all these matters enumerated and a thousand othen of the 
same sort ? Every man who has ever transferred his business 
interests from one section to another has then realized its value 
in bis own case, and every one in any way connected with a 
pubhc office to which such enquiries are likely to be directed 
must have had its importance deeply impressed upon his mind. 
Being often iu receipt of letters from intelligent gentlemen in 
other states and in European countries, abounding in questions 
like those above enumerated, we are constantly tried and mor- 
tified because of our utter inabili^ to make satisfactory an- 
swer. 

But not alone with a view to immigration is an annual sta- 
tiatioal exhibit of onr indnstrial condition and progress neces- 
sary. We need to know for ourselves what we are doing — 
else how shall we be able to correct the errors of which we 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



28 STATE AGBICULTURAi SOCIETY. 

may be guilty as a ])eople aud State ? True, if any partacalar 
brancli of business be overdone, that fact will appear ia course 
of time, either by the depreciation in the value of its products, 
or, ■what, as in the case of deterioration of soil, ia often much 
more serious, by a manifest depreciation in power and capacity 
of the agencies necessary to their production. But would it 
not be vastly better to provide ourselves with the means of ac- 
curate information at once? Besides, it is quite as important 
to know in what particulars we are not doing enough as in 
what we are doing too much ; and it is this class of errors — 
errors of omission — that can only come to oor knowledge 
through the medium of statistical reports. We may^rwew that 
we are going wild on hops, but if we have no statistics as to 
the number of acres actually planted in excess of last year, the 
prospective amount required to supply the markets from the 
time the present planting will be ready for the harvest until 
we shall have reaped the profits, together with the circum- 
stances that are likely to govern the markets in the future, we 
shall act without intelligence and very possibly against our own 
interests. "We may guess that we are raising great quantities 
of wheat, very few cattle and very little wool, but bo long as 
there is nothing definite and positive, we incline to slur over 
these great practical faults and slide along as we have been 
wont Figures, on the contrary, have point and will prick us 
to a realization of our blunders as nothing else can. 

What would be thought of a merchant who should attempt 
to do a wholesale business in all the departments of trade with- 
out keeping accounts of any sort? That he was either a 
madman or a fool, and that veiy soon his neighbors would 
have a practical illustration of the best method of doing a 
smashing commercial business. 

But is not the State of Wisconsin doing very much thesame 
thing. Agriculture, mining, manufactures, commerce — all these 
important branches of industry are being carried on without 
any definite knowledge on the part of the State as to how ^ 
much ia being accomplished by any one of them. We are pro- 
ducing much, carrying much, and importing much ; but hmo 



n:,,v.i;A'Ot>'^lc 



GENERAL REPOET. 29 

much? Is tbe baknce aa largely in our &vor as it ought to 
be, or might be ? And if not, just where is the fault, and what 
is the remedy ? We have an active and enterprising people, 
and know that everybody is hard at work ; but whether to the 
best end and with the most advantageous results — of this we 
know nothing. 

The returns that oome to the Secretary of State once in ten 
years are oftener than otherwise pernicious delusions, and a 
large number of the counties make no report at all. This con- 
dition of tilings should uot longer be suffered to continue; If 
the present general system is to be perpetuated, the statute, 
should at once be so amended as better to meet tbe necessities 
of the State. 

It is questionable, however, whether really satisfactory re- 
sults can be attained without the agency of a well organized 
Burean of Statistics, such as several of our sister States, in- 
clnding Missouri, and, even Minnesota and others west of us, 
were long since wise epough to establish, and through the 
practical workings of which they have already derived very 
marked benefits. Such a Bureau or Commission would not 
only regularly gather information covering the whole field of 
industry, but likewise enlighten the State on a thousand ques- 
tions of the utmost social concern, in regard to which we are 
now so totally and shamefully in the dark. 

In most of tbe European states, agencies of this sort have 
come to be a stem social, as well as material, necessity, and 
are fostered with as much solicitude as any department of the 
government With us it is a question of establishing such an 
agency eventually, as a means of helping the State imperfectly 
to remedy the evils consequent on gross ignorance, or of doing 
it now, and thus rendering an avoidance of them easy, and as- 
suring the greater prosperity of the commonwealth. 

As Mansfield has well said, " Social Science of necessity es- 
tends its enquiries to the physical laws of man as a social being ; 
to the resources of the country in which he lives; to the 
growth of society; to its labor and production; to its com- 
merce, manufactures and arts ; to its property and wealth ; to 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



80 STATE AGBICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cnme, poverty and mortality ; to education and religion ; and 
in fine, to all those fiicts of condition -which may increaae or 
diminish the strength, growth, or happiness of a people." 

But it is thia Social Science — highest and noblest of all the 
sciences — of which Statistics are the foundation and corner 
stone. Need anrtbing further be urged in demonstration of 
their importance to every civilized State ? 

We respectfully and moet earnestly ask that this whole sub- 
ject may receive from the Legislature of Wisconsin that early 
and careful consideration to which it is so manifestly entitled. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Daring the war, when husbandry was necessarily somewbat 
retarded by the withdrawal of so lai^ a proportion of the 
working force, it is not surprising that many who had formed, 
or were forming, habits of more thorough and systematioman- 
agement should have relaxed their efforts in that direction and 
made immediate advantage the chief object of their labors ; 
nor that, under this plan of operations, broader areas were de- 
voted to the best paying crops than could be cultivated in the 
most approved manner. Nor is it strange, though none the 
less reprehensible on that account, that even during the years 
since the close of the war, under the stimulation of high prices, 
wheat, the great staple crop of Wisconsin, haa, over and over 
again, been inflicted upon lands long since impoverished by 
the unchanging, land-akinning practices of former years. It is 
nevertheless a just ground of encouragement that, on the 
whole, there has been a steady progress in the direction of 
systematic farming. 

LESS PBSJUDICE AGAINST SCIENCK 

Our &rmers have been steadily learning that Science — that 
great bugbear of earlier times — is simply oiganized hnowledgej 
and, therefore, in no possible sense justly obnoxious to the con- 
tempt ot prejadices of him whose saccees in his business must, 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



GENERAL REPORT. SI 

of necessitj, be proportioned, other things being equal, to the 
amount of real agricaltural science he may be able to master. 
And accordingly, it is more common — though, aa yet, by no 
ineang universal — to find on their tables, and in their usually 
scanty libraries, some one or more of the many excellent agri- 
cultural journals and a more or less liberal supply of the hun- 
dreds of valuable, practical books that now treat on almost 
every branch of husbandry. In proportion as this foolish 
prejudice against all knowledge that has once found ita way 
between the lida of a book, or into the columns of an agricul- 
tural journal, dies away, our farmers will become more success- 
ful fta individuals and resoected as a class. 



The time has l^een when no Wisconsin farmer thought of 
draining his land, either by open or under drains, unless they 
were marsh or damaged by permanent ponds of stagnant wat- 
er. Now there are many who not only drwn lands of this class 
but SQch as hitherto have borne orchards of fruit or been cul- 
tivated for years as being dry enough for all practical pur- 
poses. They do not in all cases fully understand the phOoso- 
phy of drainage as applied to lands not over-burdened with 
water, but they have learned by observation or experience that 
itpayfia many cases where formerly deemed useless, and they 
require no further argument 

When they come more fully to understand that it not only 
removes stagnant water from the surface and surplus water 
from under the surface, but that it likewise warms the subsoil ; 
equalizes the temperature of the soil throughout the season of 
growth, which is also by these means prolonged ; deepens the 
soil ; supplies a greater amount of mineral food to the crops 
by the oxidation of valuable substances otherwise incapable of 
assimilation j carries down soluble substances to the roots of 
plants — thus increasing the efficacy of manures; brings up 
&om the depths below moisture and with it soluble food which 
else could not rise suffioienUy near the surface — thus at once 
opeDing new store-houses of food and preventing the disaa- 



j.A'OD^Ic 



32 STATE AGRICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

trooB effects of drouth, starvation, rust and rot ; diminisbes the 
liability to heaving and winter- killing ; and that thus in all 
these and other ways it tends to improve botii the quantJtj and 
quality of crops ; — then drainage will be more common, and, in 
the case of particular locations, soils and crops, so far as means 
and circumstances shall warrant, become the general rule. 

BOTATION AND PEBTILIZATION. 

It is also a ground of congratulation that the farmers of 
Wisconsin are be^uning to realize the importance of studying 
more carefully the adaptation of grain crops to particular soils 
and Conditions; to appreciate the deteriorating effects of some 
crops and the ameliorating influence of others ; and to under- 
stand that, inasmuch as the plant feeds lai^y on elements 
contained in the soil, it cannot flourish either if these elements, 
or any one of them, be not found in the soil where planted, or, 
if, being present, they are not in an available form — in short, 
that rotation of crops and proper manuring of lands are based 
on science and common sense, and are, therefore, not to be dig- 
regarded. 

The old rule of wheat, wheat, wheat, is giving way to a 
more rational practice. Clover, that invaluable ameliorator of 
soils, so seldom seen as late as 1860, now rejoices the hearts of 
thousands of weary, half exhausted fields with the promise of 
abetter day; and the disposition to cultivate a variety of crops 
has been growing stronger with advancing years. 

Fewer of the old barns lie inaccessable and useless in the 
steaming, stenchy craters of surrounding manure heaps ; and 
a less number of those newly built are found standing on the 
brow of a hill or on the brink of some stream, with a view to 
an easy riddance of such " miserable offal" as, somehow, will 
accumulate in and about every stable and cow -yard I 

Burning straw-stacks, kindled for a like reason, or for the 
sake of a cheap pyrotechnic display, are less frequently seen 
scattering the precious food of succeeding crops to the four 
winds of heaven. 

Some very radical &rmers, after keeping ob much stock as 

r, ,v.l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



GENERAL REPORT. 83 

their fturms would warrant, witb an expresa view to an increas- 
ed amoaat of manare, and taking great pains to convert all 
unfed atraw and other material, into fertilizers, have gone so 
far as to work up great quantities of muck in stall, yard and 
pinery, and still not content, have dug into neighboring marl- 
beds, and SB a delicacy for certain favorite crops, even ordered 
bone-dnet and plaster from other states I It is proper to state, 
however, that the number of such is not sufficiently large, as 
y^t, to be an occasion of well-founded anxiety on the part of 
the great body of our more staid and conservative &rmer& 



During all the past years since 1860, has scarcely lost prestige 
with our farmers ; who, because of the scarcity of labor essen- 
tial to the cultivation of all hoed crops, the increase of me- 
chanical facilities for harvesting, and a steady increase in price, 
have even cultivated it with more than former zeal and eneigy. 

The greatest crops of the period were raised in 1861 and 
1863 ; in whiehyears, respectively, the yield is believed to have 
been as high as twenty to twenty-five million, and twenty- 
five to thirty million bushels. 

In 1864 to 1866, inclusive, the chinch bug {Micropua feu- 
copterus, of Say,) committed such ravages as gready to 
diminish, and in some cases almost entirely destroy, the crop. 
All attempted remedies, except the \'ei7 manifest but rather 
slow and laborious one of stamping them under foot, or beating 
them to death with billets of wood — -both of which were nearly 
as destructive k^ the wheat as to the bug — failed ; bo that an 
utter abandonment of the cultivation of this crop for a time 
seemed inevitable. But, happily, the intensely cold winters 
that succeeded, or some other natural cause or causes, so crip- 
pled the energies of the enemy that from that time forward his 
attacks were leas and less serious, until the farmer again held 
■ undisputed possession of the field. 

In 1863, just before harvest, the wheat aphis {Aphis aventx, 
of Fab.) also made its appearance, and occasioned much alarm, 
though it did not prove so destructive as was feared. 
S Ao. Trans. 



j.^Coo^^lc 



84 STATE AGMCULTURAL SOCIETY. 

As to varietiea, the Canada Club, which for some years pretty 
much occupied the ground, has, in part, given place to others. 

So long as present high prices ($1.75 to $2,00, and over, per 
bnehel) continue, there is certainly profit in the business for 
such as understand'and regard the conditions of its succeasfiil 
production, end less prospect than ever of getting the great 
mate of our farmers out of the old beateo track. 

Of the other cereal crops nothing special need be said, as 
their cultivation has been in no very remarkable manner dis- 
turbed, and they each relatively hold their accustomed pkcea 
in the agriculture of the State. 

THE POTATO 

Has not been so fortunate. For, although it has pretty well 
, escaped the rot, early in the summer of 1866 (and perhaps 
during the year previous, in some sections), there appeared 
great numbers of the Dorypliora dicemlineala, now familiarly 
known as the " potato-bug," and commenced so vigorous a de- 
struction of the vines as to occasion serious alarm. This in- 
sect is familiarly known to our people as of a dark-brown, when 
young, but handsomely striped with yellowish -white when full 
grown, and as preying upon the leaves of the potato with so 
much vigor as, in a few days, if mimoleated, to leave the crop 
above ground a shrivelled, blackened remnant of half con- 
sumed stalks, Of course the young and tender tuber, though 
untouched by tlie insect, is about as effectually disposed of as if 
literally eaten upL 

The belief is prevalent that this insect first' appeared in the 
far West, and steadily makes its way eastward. As yet no 
easily applied remedy has been discovered — nothing better 
than to go though the field once or twice a day and pick them 
off; a task which, though tedious, is not difGcult, as being a 
half inch in length, they are easily seen, and no leas easily cap- _ 
tared, owing to their sluggish habit and but imperfect use of 
their wings. How long they will continue their destructive at- 
tacks upon successive crops, no one assumes to predict 



j.,Co(>t^lc 



GBKEBAL EEPOBT. 86 

flOHOBOH CtlLTUKR, 

Which commenced in WisconsiD, as sn experiment, in the 
year 1867, f^v rapidly in favor for a time and became so gen- 
eral during the period of the wal* and the two years succeeding 
as even to awaken in the minds of the more sanguine the be- 
lief that it was to become an important staple cropi Accord- 
ing to the very incomplete returns made to the Secretary of 
Btate for the yttars 1860, 1865 and 1866, respectively, the acre- 
age and product were us follows : 

IS60. 1MB. 1S6S. 

Acres planted 314 1 ,730 Z,46t 

Gallons of Bv-rup 61,085 188,007 4n3,fl6S 

VaJue of pniduvt $i\ ,000 |l5i ,343 |S31 ,SS4 

It is safe to assume that in 1866 ^e value of the product 
considerably exceeded half a million of dollora It was in 
this year that the sorghum fever reached its higbt At that 
time hundreds of fields in every section of the State greeted 
the eye of the traveler with the plea^ng spectacle of this lux- 
uriant crop, lilting its millions of plume-like panicles rejoioing- 
ly in the autumn sun. On every hand groaned and creaked 
the crowded mill, and upward curled the cloud of vapor and 
smoke as incense to Ceres for thie, her latest and mostwonder- 
!ul gift. Scores of inventors spent sleepless nights and se- 
cluded days in contriving "excelsior" and "climax " machin- 
ery. Foundries and factories roared and thundered in their 
efforts to supply the growing demand. Proprietors and agents 
clamored at all the State and County Fairs with proof undeni- 
able of the superiority of their respective patents, until " Camp 
Sorghum " became a very bedlam, and awudiug oommitteea 
were pressed to the verge of insanity. 

Thus the stir and strife continued, so long as Southern and 
ibrfflgn sugars stood at 26 to 86 oents per pound, and syrups 
at $1.00 to $1.60 per gallon — so long as there was a firm belief 
in the adaptation of both Sorghum aad Imphee to oar climate 
— ^while there was a prospect of the immediate establishment 
of refineries for improving the flavor of the molasses — so long 
as annoally new and surpri^gly cheap prooesses for the mui- 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



86 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETV. 

u&ctare of uDiuistakable w^ar were heralded abroad and dem- 
onstrated before wondering conventiona But the war ended, 
and with it the hope of making sorghum always sueceaafully 
compete with the sugar-cane of the South. Slowly the cou- 
Tiction crept over the State, oa crop after crop of seed foiled to 
ripen, that the real habitat of the plant waa in lower latitudes ; 
the promised refineries never came to the relief of the disap- 
pointed palates of fastidious consumers ; and the " ten pounds " 
of nice, diy, genuine sorghum sugar, for which this Society, 
through so many years, persistently offered a handsome pre- 
mium, never gladdened our eyes. 

Still, Soi^hum has by no means been a muliicaulis inovation. 
It came, as it were, providentially, just before all saccharine sup- 
plies from the south were cut off by the rebellion,and during that 
protracted struggle famished our people with a very &ir sub- 
stitute. Its cultivation involved nomaterial outlay on the part 
of the fanner, except such as purchased machinery and appa- 
ratus for its manufacture ; and probably most of these, like the 
manufacturera of the mills, have been several times over re- 
imbursed from net profits on the business. Its importation 
into this country will ever be an occasion of congnitultktion 
Id Ohio, Indiana, IlUnois, Missouri and portions of several 
other states in that range, when its properties and better meth- 
ods of managing its juice come to be understood, it will con- 
tinue a boon to the farming population. Nor will its culture 
be altogether abandoned in this State. Hundreds of formers, 
who have acquired a fondness for its peculiar flavor, and who 
have the means of manufocture already, will deem it economy 
to raise a sufficiency for themselves and acHne of their neigh- 
bors, notwithstanding the reduced prices of imported syrups 
ftnd sug&ia ; and when the means of impovuig its quality are 
discovered the nombec of such may be still greater than 
now. 

HOP CDLTUaE, 

Id the extent to which it is now being carried, is another 
iaovatioii upon the old routine of Wisoonsin forming that dates 



GENERAL REPORT. 87 

back bat a few years and is of sncb importance as to require 
notice in ihis general' review. 

Its introduction and extraordinary run in this State are 
znainly due to three circumatances — the iailare of the crop, or 
rather repeated and utter failures of it, owing to ravages of its 
insect foes, in New York and other pcHrtions of the East, 
whence Western supplies even had been largely drawn ; to the 
fiict that some of the largest establishoients in the oountrj — 
and a good many of them — were located in our own metropoli- 
tan city ; and to the further reason that the climate and soils 
of Wisconsin were found to be admirably adapted to its 
healthy growth. 

The crop in 1860 was so tri6iog as ecaroely to deserve men- 
tion. But in the year 1864 it amounted to 885,6S8 pounds, 
OS shown by the incomplete returns to the Secretary of State, 
with a value of $135,127 ; and in 1865 to 829.877 pounds, 
with a total value of $347,587. But even this was only the be- 
ginning. In 1866 the business of planUng and poling bf^;an in 
earnest, and before the season was over the fever raged like 
an epidemic. Crathering renewed force with eveiy new acre 
[Wanted in the county of Sauk, where it may be said to have 
originated, and where the crop of 1865 was over half a million 
of pounds, it spread from neighborhood to neighborhood, and 
from county to county, until by 1867 it had hopped the whole 
State over ; so completely revolutionizing the agriculture of 
some flections that one in passing through them found some 
difficulty in convincing himself that he was not really in old 
Kent, of England. Even many of our old-fasliioned wheat 
farmers caught the infection, and for once have disturbed the 
routine of their operations. In 1867 the crop in Sauk county 
alone, which still has the honor of being foremost among the 
forty or more counties that have enthuaiastically followed, is 
believed to have been over four million of pounds, with a cash 
■ valuation of but little if anything short of $2,500,000 1 Cases 
are numerous in which the first crop has paid for the land and 
all the improvements ; leaving subsequent crops a clear profit, 
minus the coet of cultivation and harvesting. The crop of the 



n:,,v.i;A'Ot>'^lc 



tS STATE AGBICULTURAL SOCIETy. 

jwesent jwr, throughout the State, will be so great ibmt me 
dare not veature an estiinate. 

The yield in vorioas parts of the State often equals one ton 
to the acre, and the Wisoonan hop oommanda the highest 
price in the Eastern markets. 

It is hardly the business of a review to r.Dticipate the fu- 
ture ; but we cannot forbear a few words of warning to the 
&miiDg public, whoae permanent intereste are endangered by 
the strong hold this mania has taken upon them. They who 
were quick to diaoover the deficiency of the supply, and 
prompt to atA, have undoubtedly reaped rich harvests of profit, 
and will still continue for a time to make it a paying business. 
But it is certainly questionable whether it be policy at this late 
day to make a beginning. There will probably be no imme- 
diate end to ^e drinking of beer and the consequent demand 
for hops in large and perhaps increaaing qaantitiee, but there 
is certainly a limU to the demand ; and it is equally certain 
that Wisconsin ia not the only portion of the country in which 
hops can or will be grown. Already the hop-louse, that great 
enemy of the plant; has discovered our magnificent crop of the 
present year, and sent out his skirmishers to prepare the way, 
doubtless, for a general attack. Moreover the price seems 
sure to decline before any newly plauted yard or field can 
possibly yield ita first marketable crop. Fifty-five centfi, the 
price of last year's crop, paid magnificently; but twenty-five 
would hardly warrant the sacrifice of every other interest to go 
into this particular business. 

AOBICOIvnjRAL IHPLBlfENTS. 

As to the mechanical branch of agriculture, we may safely 
assert that it has made more prepress during the years em- 
braced in this Beport than ever before within the same length 
of time. The number of original inventions may not have 
been greater, bat under the stimulus of necessity during the 
war, very great improvements have been made in nearly every 
class of machines and implements, until now there seems but 



GBINERAL BHPOfiT. 69 

httle more wftoting to give the fanner compMnttive inde^teiMU 
eooe of the slow manual labor on which bnt one or two decades 
aince he waa compelled to rely altogether. For the incalcu- 
lable service thej have rendered during onr national struggle, 
and for the yet greater service they will render in the futare 
by means of still further improvement and indefinite multipli- 
cation, the American inventor, manufacturer, and we may 
even add vendor of agricultural implements and machines, are 
entitled to rich material reward and the gratitude of the nation 
and the world. 

No matter how great the industry and patriotism of the peo- 
ple, it is universally conceded that the success of our Govern- 
ment in bringing ^e late war to a favorable issue in so short 
a time and without serious financial distress or disturbance of 
social order, is very largely due to the oumberleES labor-saving 
iuventiooe with which American industiy bos been so pre-emi- 
nently blessed. 

Our farmers are, nevertheless, all the more iu need of warn- 
ing, lest the ease with which crops may be grown and harv- 
ested should tempt them to cover even larger areas than here- 
tofore, without the possibility of proper manuring, and tfien 
aggravate and perpetuate that old mania for large present 
profits, though at the cost of ruin to their lands, which thus 
far has been the characteristic curse of our agriculture in the 
Western States. 

The number of reapers and mowers annually sold in Wis- 
consin, during the period under review, is really marrelloiM ; 
compelling the conviction that at present there must be ftry 
few farmers unsupplied. One single firm in the ci^ of Madi- 
son is this year selling no less than six thousand machines of 
a partioolar patent And judging &om the equal activi^ and 
large income returns, of other agents, not only at this <Hi£ 
point, but in various por^ons of the State, this number will be 
many ^mes multiplied. 

The number of &nnei8 in the State is no criterion, however, 
by which to judge of the number of implements or machines 
of a given class that may be sold. For many of our fitrmns 



40 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ue nisiDg eaeb. large cereal crope as to be ibroed, from mo' 
tives of eooDomj, to throw aside their old implements the mo' 
meat aD anmistakably improved one comes to th^r knowl- 
edge. 

Orain drills, "salkj" cultivators, rerolring steel-toothed 
rakes, horse hay-forks, and □umerous other inveatiooa of great 
value are also being sold in moat incredible mimbers ; thus for- 
mer demonstrating the enterpriseof our farming population, as 
well as the innilculable benefits conferred upon agriculture by 
the mechanic arts. 

DOMESTIC AKIIULS, 

Thorough-bred animals of every class ar^ becoming much 
more common than they were five yeara ago, and their in- 
fluence upon the native or common stock ia already very ob- 
servable. In view of the marked adaptability of oar State to 
their production, this advance in the right direction is an es- 
pecial ground for hearty congratulation. There is no suffi- 
cient reason why, ultimately, we should not vie 'with, or even 
excel, Vermont and Michigan in the breeding of fine horses and 
sheep. And if we do not soon overtake Kentucky in the 
breeding of cattle, and New York in the dairy business, the 
failure should not be chargeable to our lack of enterprise and 
intelligence. 

Qf^iheSbrae, we are able already to boast many of the finest 
specimens known in the west ; and the number of snch ia rapidly 
increasiDg by the constant production and importation of su- 
perior tboroaghbreds. From two or three systematic breeders 
of such stock in the whole state, in 1860, they have now be- 
oome so numerous as to exceed the limits of our space for their 



The very decided opinion and persistent prejudice of some 
of the slower and over-cautious of our farmers to the contrary 
notwithstanding, it is only by a liberal infusion of pure blood 
that we shall be able to raise the standard of superiority and 
Ining this noble animal to its highest capabilities. It is with 



GENERAL BEPORT. 41 

tliis view that the State Agrioaltural Society baa, for Bome 
years, enconniged thorough-breeding by the offer of extra pre- 
miums and the privilege of a fair test of nerve and power of 
endurance on tiie occasion of oar Annual Exhibitions. 

At the present rate of progress, ten years will suffice to 
make the value of the horses of Wisconsin, number for num- 
ber, fifty to one hundred per cent greater than it is to-day. 

ChUU Breeding does not yet receive its proportionate share 
of attention. Returns even sbow a diminution in numbers from 
1860 to 1866 in the proportion of 654,908 to 41S,4o&. This 
Billing off, if it has really occurred, is probably owing to the 
extra attention concentrated upon wool-growing and other 
branches of fanning dunng that period. 

The Durhams and Devona still are, as tbey must continue to 
be, — until some entirely new breed is developed, — the favorite 
breed ; the former having no rival for beef, and the latter none 
for work:. There are also a few small herds of Alderaeya and 
Ayreahires, but, as yet, their influence is hardly perceptible 

Dairies for the manufacture of butter and cheese ore doubt- 
less fewer, relative]y,than in 1860 ; first, for die reason already 
assigned for the &Iling off in cattle, and secondly, because of 
the late establishment, in various sections of the State, of 
cheese factories managed by private firms, joint stock compa- 
nies, and mutual benefit associations. 

That this system of throwing the milkings of a neighbor- 
hood together and carrying on the manufacture under one gen- 
eral management would naturally result in a more uniform 
product of better average quality to begin with, and a much 
greater probability of improvement, by means of a more care- 
ful and intelligent study of the scientific principles involved, 
is at once apparent ; and the wonder is that the fertile Yankee 
mind did not get a conception of its value long before. 

The scheme originated in New York, the great Dairy State of 
the Unicn, only a few years since ; and though at first received 
with much scepticism, afWr two or three successful trials, it 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



42 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

has grown so wonderfully in &vor aa to have given origin to 
large numbers of cheese manufacturers' associations and cheese 
foctorieii in nearly all the New England, Middle and Western 
&tate9,and done much to iucreose the exports of American dieese 
from 6,500,000 pounds in 1867 to 100,000,000 in 1867 1 Not 
only 30, the system has resulted in the mannJaoture of cheese 
^ to be exported ; which certainly could not be allied of the - 
four or five millions of pounds of miserable stuff we were 
wont to send abroad in former timea When battei--making 
comes to have part in the plan of these associated dairies, as it 
ought to have, ils average quality will be, in like manner, im- 
proved, 

American dairies should eventually be able to compete, as 
to quality, with the world-noted English dairies in their own 
markets ; and the prospect now is that very soon they will 

In the furthei'ance of this important enterprise assouiations 
of intelligent, interested parties— especially the New York 
State Cheese Manufacturers' and the American Dairymen's 
Associations — have rendered very important service. That no 
facta essentiid to success might be overlooked and no means of 
information disr^arded, in 1866 the American Association even 
sent out a Commissioner or Del^ate (X A. Willahd, Esq., 
of New York,) to the Old World with the view of adding as 
much as possible to the common stock of American knowledge 
on this subject 

The dairy business, as practiced on the &rm, is an exceed- 
ingly laborious and trying one upon the female portion of the 
household ; and on this account, also, the farmers of the 
West and of the whole country are to be congratulated on the 
highly satisfactory manner in which, as individuals, it is pos- 
sible for them to escape from its further prosecution. In this 
state, so far as we are informed, Walworth and Fond du Lac 
counties ar6 in the lead, with others following hard afler them. 

The value of Wisconsin dairy products in 1860 was $1,811,- 
043 ; in 1865, (several counties foiling to report,) |2,483, 081— 
an increase of nearly 100 per cent, notwithstanding the re- 
turned decrease in the total number of neat cattla 



■j.A'OO'^lc 



GENEEAL KEPOBT. 48 

Shtqt HuAartdry is admirably suited to Wisoonain ; its un- 
dulating, and in some countaea hilly, surfacse and pure dry at- 
moapUere going far to insure to the animal a sound constitu- 
tion and comparative freedom from various diseases, which se- 
riously militate ^lainat its success in localities characterized by 
the opposite conditions — fatMs which the following figiireashow 
are banning to be appreciated by our &nnera. 

la 1860 the total number of sheep and lambs, on tmnd at 
date of census and slaughtered during the year was 487,371, 
with an estimated valuation of $708,607. In 1865 the number 
reported was 1,078,366, with a valuation of $2,680,267. The 
amount of wool produced in 1860 was 915,073 pounds, valu- 
ed at $331,147. Amount in 1865, 2,584,019 ; value, $1,916,- 
248. This remarkable increase in number and value—and 
the real increase has been still greater than appears by the re- 
turns ; the agricultural statistics being much more thoroughly 
collected in 1860 than in 1865 — is partly attributable to the 
conditions peculiar to the times. But, independent of this, 
much progress would have been mode as a result of the con- 
Tiction ^ at wool-growing, if judiciously followed, in connec- 
tion with other braDobes of husbandry, will yield larger aver- 
age profits, one year with another, than the exclusive wheat- 
culture so persistently practiced by many. In l'i64, farmers 
who had been shrewd enough to discern the signs of the times 
reaped golden harvests ; receiving in many cases over one dol- 
lar per pound for large clips. 

Since the close of the war, owing to some diminution of the' 
demand and an unjust discrimination by the government 
against home producers in favor of foreign wotds, prices have 
ruled lower; filling in 1865 to 48a57 cts., then dropping to 
40a50, then to 35a46, and this year to SOaSo. 

The intelligent farmers of Wisconsin will not be disbeartai- 
ed, however. Wiser counsels will prevail in Congress one of 
these days. Wool must always be a staple crop, and sooner 
or later the bulk of its production will &1I to those portions 
of the oountry best endowed by nature for this purpose. 

The Legislature can do much to protect this great interest 
by the enactment of wise and liberal laws. 

r..^ ,v.l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



44 STATE AGRICnLTUBAL SOCIETY. 

The Gaahmere Ooat, first introduced in the tJnitecl States by 
Dr. Jas. B. Davis, of South Carolina, in 1849, though long re- 
garded fis a beautiful but expensive novelty, and hence en- 
couraged exclusively by here and there a wealthy amateur or 
"fancy" fiirmer, has nevertheless steadily held his way, as with 
an evident intent to make hia permanent abode among ua 

Originally but nine in number — two males and seven fe- 
males — they have multiplied until now their progeny are 
found in nearly every state, Wisconsin included. 

The great value of the fieece, — ^which, though much lighter 
in weight, is many times more valuable in the world's markets 
than the finest wool — added to the striking beauty of the animal 
when in full flowing dress of white, wavy, silk-like fleece, 
makes the Cashmeres a very desirable acquisition. The only 
question is one of adaptability to this colder climate than 
that of their native country. On this point there is not, as 
yet, complete knowledge, derived from varied and repeated 
experiment ; on which account due caution is recorameiided. 
Still with good care, they have passed satisfactorily through 
several seasons in this and other almost equally cold States. 

A cross with the common goat, which is found to be com- 
patible with the production of a mixed fleece of about half the 
value of the pure blood, will ensure increased hardiness and 
at the same time a great reduction in the first cost of a flock, 
however; and so the posibility becomes even a probability 
that they will be gradually acclimated even in Wisconsin. 

. Of the other classes of domestic animals, there is nothing of 
special interest to be reported. Swine appear to be slowly con- 
quering the prejudices of our farmers, especially since the in- 
troduction of the Suffolk and Chester White ; but it seems 
likely to be a good while yet before the hog will be very popu- 
lar in this pre-eminently wheat-growing State, 

Thus, in the whole department of stock-breeding, there is 
progresa Farmera are being aroused to a sense of its necessity 
as a branch of our agriculture, and not only providing them- 
selves, as already stated, with animals of the best breed and 



GENERAL BEPORT. 45 

blood, but -they are even, in some cases, carefully studying 
those phyBiologioal principles of breeding, without a knowl- 
edge of which the highest degree of success is found to be im- 



HORTICULTURK 

In the department of fruitgrowing there has been mucb, 
during the past eight years, both to encourage and to dis- 
courage. 

The ineffectual effcHis of thousands of farmers to establish 
orcharda abounding in &vontes too tender for our climate, 
seconded by that most determined and proroking insect 
enemy, the bark-louse, had brought repeated discomfeiture 
And yet, rallying from the shock of the terrible winter of '56i 
with a most commendable pluck and perseyeraoce, they 
planted again, and during the decade ending with 1867, made 
such marvellous progress as to fix again in their minds the de- 
lusive hope that, at last, the most suitable varieties, soils, ex- 
posures and methods of cultivation hod been determined. 
Orchards multiplied on every band, and at all our State and 
County Exhibitions the tables devoted to fruit presented as 
inviting specimens as ever delighted the eye or palate of the 
most fastidious amateur iu any of the old and best-reputed 
fruit-growing States. 

But the last autunln, winter or spring, or all three combined, 
have sadly disturbed the faith and patience of &rmer, gardener 
and narseyman, by the fearful distniction that has come upon 
great quantities of the more delicate and even some of the 
"hardy" varieties of fruit-trees, vines and ornamental plants 
and shrubs. Still our leading calturists are full of courage, 
and will doubUees " rally once again " with the aame com- 
mendable, indomitable spirit so ofl«n shown in former years. 

It is uselesB to attempt to conceal the faat that the climatic 
and other conditions of Wiacousin are leas favorable to general 
fruit-growing than those of sinae other States. But after all, 
with paWTKance, acf^oired knowledge and unflaf^g ef&rt, 



j.A'OO'^lc 



46 STATE AGEIOULTITRAL SOCIETY. 

we mny in the future really accomplish more in tbis direction 
than will bo accompliabed in most of the more iavored lo- 
calities. 

One thing seems certain, viz., that our still long lists of va- 
rieties must be heroically cut down. And it is probably no 
less certain thiit thorough drainage, high planting (on high lo- 
cations), mulching, low Iraining, and protection by means of 
belts of timber, have not hitherto more than half done their 
duty. 

But a discussion of these important subjects in this connec- 
tion is made unoecessary by the publication in this volume of 
the proceedings of the State Horticultural Society., to which 
you nre respectfully referred. 

The unabated interest in Horticulture is further demonstrated 
by the number of local societies lately organized in various 
portions of the State, as well as by the more frequent occur- 
rence of those horticultural embellishmenta of city and coun- 
try homes, which betoken a growing appreciation of the beauti- 
ful in Nature and in Art Oi^anizations of this sort may be 
of incalculable value in any community, and, so far as practi- 
cable, should be aided and encouraged by the State and mu- 
nicipal governments. 

MINING. 

Since 1860, when the quantity of Lead raised was reported 
as being 22,000,000 pounds and the product of iron (in p^a) 
between five and six millions, we have no reliable data for a 
comparison of the production of our mine^. 

The returns made to the Secretary of State, in 1866, show 
a remarkable decrease. How much this apparent fallii^ off 
may be real and how much dependent on the assessors not re- 
caving their blanks until many of them bad well nigh finish- 
ed their work, we are unable to eBtimat& It is nevertheless 
true tiiat in one important respect there has beeti mnoh real 
progress in our mining operataons mnce 1860. 

Ever since lead-mining oommeooed in Wi«conain, it hn 



■j.A'OO'^lc 



QEKEEAL REPORT. 47 

been conducted, until veiy recently, by icdividunlfl, and in the 
moat irregular, bap-hazard, and wasteful manner — very mnch 
like our farming. The proprietor of lands having found what 
seemed to be a rich deposit, rallied a small force of practical 
miners, sunk a shaft a few feet to the first rich vein, worked 
away until he had realized five, ton or twenty thousand dol- 
lars from his mine, and then abandoned it for other richer de- 
posits. Thorough, systematic, exhaustive mining has been 
utterly unknown. 

Within a very short time, however, several strong compa- 
nies, backed by Eastern capital and directed by science, com- 
bined with practical skill, have purchased territory and be^un 
operations in a manner that augurs welt, not only for tbeir par- 
ticular saccess, but for the future of mining in Wisconsin. 

Instead of mere vertical shafts, through which alone access 
was had to the mines, and up which all the mineral and sur- 
plus water had to be raised by hand or horse-power, these 
companies, by tunnelling into the deposits upon which the 
shaft descends, are enabled through the adit thus made, not 
only to effect complete and economical drainage and ventila- 
tion of their mines, but likewise to draw off the mineral on 
on tram-ways, at a vastly greater advantage than was possible 
under the old method of hoisting. Not only so, these compa- 
nies are making clean work as they go ; taking out not am- 
ply the richly paying lead ore, to the total neglect of every- 
thing else, as was formerly the practice, but also carefully sav- 
ing all the zinc ores, which, in the form of the carbonate (" dry 
bone") and sulphuret ("black jack"), are not unfreqnently 
found in larger quantities than the lead, and which, since the 
establishment of zinc furnaces and zinc-white manu&ctories, 
at Mineral Point and La Salle, have a value of one-fourth to 
one-half that of the le»d ores, so long the exclusive object of 
the miner's search. 

One of these companies — the Mineral Point Mining Ca, 
chartered in 1865 — reported a handsome per cent, on its entire 
capital stock the second year after its organization, and has 
sioca been making a steady and highly profitable develoftment 



48 STATE AGEIOULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of its mines. Toucbiog the production of zinc ores, the Sec- 
retary in bis report of Marcb 80th, 1866, saya : 

" It is safe to estimate the actual value of these ores at $80 
per ton, for rendering into spelter by our company (that of 
Lead being $76.") 

The amount produced of the zinc and lead ores, respect- 
ively, was in the proportion of about eight of the former to 
two of the latter. 

Still further, on this point — reference being made especially 
to the carbonate, which is the most abundant of the zinc ores 
about Mineral Point, and, happily, the most valuable— the Su- 
perintendent of this company, in a descriptive list of speci- 
mens sent to the Paris Universal Exposition of 1867, remarks 
as follows : 

"Dry Bone of the Miners, from the Glass Rock opening, al- 
ways containing some Galena. It ia the meet abundant of the 
zinc ores in this vicinity, and furnishes the principal supply 
for the Spelter works at Mineral Point and La Salle, 111., as 
well as for the zinc white manufactured at Mineral Point, and 
contains 60 to 70 per cent of oxide of zinc It is found in 
the horrizontal openings, in sheet form of indefinite width. 
Thousands of tons were formerly taken ont by the minera in 
their search for lead ores, and thrown away as worthless. It 
now sells readily at ftom ten to fifteen dollars per ton of 2,000 
ponnda. It is raised by the miner usually at an expense, in- 
cluding his labor, of about six dollars per ton. The lead ore 
is easily separated from it by pick-axes, wasting and jigging. 
The product of the mines of this ore in the vicinity of Mineral 
Point is estimated at one hundred and fifty thousand dollars 
per annum." 

Notwithstanding the Iai;ge amounts of mineral that have 
been already taken from the lead re^^on of oar State, Wiflooa- 
sin still stands foremost among the States for its lead deposits, 
and only second for its mines of zina Capital and skilled 
labor are alone reciuired to make that vast area embraced be- 
tween the Mississippi, Wisconsin and Bock rivers and the 

r, ,v.l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



GENERAL REPORT. . 49 

noithem boundaiy of Uliiiois the theater of mote successful 
mining operal^ons than have yet been witnessed. 

Oqf iron mining, long in abejasce for want of capital, has 
likewise just now received an impetus from the establishment, 
at Milwaukee, of a large fonndry and rolling mill at a cost of 
half a millioa of dollars, with the view of bringing into use 
larger amounts, than have been heretofore possible, of the val- 
nable iron deposits of Dodge county and other localities in our 
State. 

Wisconsin is only second among the States in the extent of 
her iron ores — which, in respect to quality, are equal to the 
best in the world — and the time cannot be, or at least ought 
not to be, far distant when this very important element of 
wealth and power will receive the attention it so richly merits. 



LUMBERINa 

This important interest still holds its relative rank among 
the leadiDg industries of the State, if; indeed, it baa not out- 
stripped some of the others. 

Eight years ago, the vast quantities of logs annually taken 
flxim the several lumbering districts were painfully suggestive 
of the time when " kzhausted" would have to be written 
across the entire chart of all our great forests. But year after 
year, with relentless and ever-increasing energy, the thousands 
of onr lumbermen have goneforward with their ceaseless work, 
until within that short period scarcely less than five thousand 
millions feet more of lumber have been cut, manufactured and 
distributed over the countiy. And there, in primeval grandeur 
and solemn m^esty, stand those same forests still, keeping 
sacred their interior mysteries, silently recording this present 
with the long centuries of their migh^ past, and serenely de- 
fying the gathering hosts of invaders, which, as yet, only 
thunder at the outer gates of their unexplored solitudes I 

In 1860 the amount of lumber manu&ctured in Wisconsin 
■was about 400,000,000 of feet The present annual product 
4 Ag. TitANa 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



60 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

J3 calculated to be about 800,000,000 feet, estimated by the 
Milwaukee Board of Trade, as follows : 

areenBtjand West Shora of Lake Hicbigin 816,000,000 

Wolf River Pioeries JOO.OOO ,00<> 

UiulHippi uid TribDUriet ft!S,000,000 

Voat as tbia amount really is, it seems more tban probable 
tbat tbe next few yeara will sbow a still more rapid develop- 
ment of tbis branch of industry. The increasing tide of im- 
migration and an unprecedented growth of population in all 
the Western States and Territories, several of which are but 
partially supplied with timber by nature, cannot fail to create 
a growing demand for lumber at yet higher prices, and thus 
still further stimulate enterprise in this direction. Constantly, 
new companies are forming in each of tlie lumbering districts ; 
and along all the streams new mills of greater capacity than 
tbe old ones are rising by scores, under the stimulus and hope 
of yet greater gains than have been bitberto realized. 

The opening of new outlets for manufactured lumber, by 
the constructioD of projected railways, will still further stimu- 
late enterprise ; and tbe reflecting mind is overburdened by 
even a partial conception of what the next tea yeara may re- 
alize to the great lumbering interestn of WisconaiD. Whether 
the State cannot adopt measures for such protection of young 
timber of natural growth and the artificial planting of fcowt 
trees as will perpetuate a good supply in the fatiire, and at tbe 
same time ensure a continuation of the beneficial inflaence of 
forests upon our climate, is a question that may well engage 
the earnest attention of our political economists. 

MANUFACTUREa 

If Ood bad designed Wisconsin to be chiefly a manufactu- 
ring State, instead of agricultural which she claims to be and 
is, it is difficult to see more than one particalar in which He 
could have endowed her more richly for tbat puipose. 

For what^ above all, are essential to a mano^toring coan- 
try? 



^d by Google 



GENERAL REPORT. 61 

First, the material requisite to the construction of homes and 
the manufacture of the bulk of articlea of use and luxury ■ 
secondly, the means of a motive power ; thirdly, natural chan- 
nels for economical moving of the materials to the place of 
manufacture ; fourthly, open avenues to the great markets of 
the world. 

Material she has in great abundance nnd variety, including 
four of the most useful metallic ores known in the arts — iron, 
lead, zinc and copper ; building stone, brick and potter's clay ; 
timber in great variety, both hard and soft ; and the number- 
less products of agriculture, such as cereal grains for all man- 
ner of foods, flax and wool for the more useful textile &brics, 
and the several races of domestic animals, each portion of 
which is BO wonderfully prolific, in these days of scientific dis- 
covery, of articles in every day use. 

As to natural motive powers, no state in the United States 
or any single country in the known world, can boaat of such 
as are more extensive or more available. Of coal alone, that 
great steam-maker of the present day, are we denied. And 
even this deficiency ia not so serious a one as we are some- 
times apt to think. For, with our modern improvements, in 
all iRctories where wood is worked exclusively, the sawdust 
and other waste should be nearly, if not quite, adequate to the 
generation of sufficient power for their use ; and, if not ade- 
quate, in many portions of our State, wood is so abundant as 
to make fuel quite as cheap as coal would be, even if found' 
within our limits ; while those portions which are neither sup- 
plied with wood nor water-power fortunately lie so near the 
coal fields of upper Illinois as, with proper railroad fecilities, — 
which are coming apace, — to be quite as well situated in that 
respect as the more remote portions of Illinois herself More- 
over these same sections abound in rich deposits of peat, which 
is destined at a very early day to be utilized for most, if not 
all, those purposes to which wood and coal are at present ap- 
plied. 

Of the third and fourth requisites, ia it not enough to say 
that no equal area of the world, embraced under one govem- 



■j.A'OO'^lc 



62 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ment, is so wonderfully furnished with transfluent and Bur- 
roundiog navigable waters, directly coramnnieating with all 
those states and rations to which we could reasonably look for 
purchafiera of our manufactures ? 

For some years — during the newness of the country — these 
surprising conditions of a successful and immense manufactur- 
ing bnsiness, except in the department of lumber, did not ar- 
rest the attention and compel the investment of capital Grad- 
ually, however, different branches of manuTacture received ae- ■ 
cessions of force, so that in 1860, the census rather surprised 
Tis with the amount that was actually being done in this de- 
partment ; showing as it did a product, including the construc- 
tion of houses, of over $20,000,000 — two-fifths as large a sum as 
was that year realized from our agriculture. 

The list of our manufacturing establishments then included, 
among others, 

871 flouring mills, making 2,250,954 barrels of flour and 
yielding an income of $11,073,586 ; 

Tanneries yielding a revenue of $498,268 ; 

186 distilleries and breweries, producing 4,000,000 gallons 
beer and 58,100 gallons whiskey, valued at $804,158 ; 

Eurnaces turning out pigs and castings valued at $377,301 ; 

Lumber establishments, yielding $4,836,159 ; 

16 woolen factories, with a product of $167,600 ; 

Establishments for the manufacture of agricultural imple- 
ments and machinery, yieldmg $590,269 ; 

Boots and shoe shops and &ctories, producing $902,000 ; 

Cabinet shops, having a total income of $402,326 ; 

Wood and willow factories, producing $329,755 : 

Paper mills making $148,568 worth of paper ; 

Wagon shops producing $449,410 ; and 

A moltitude of other kinds of establishments yielding les- ■ 
ser amounts 

But since 1860, in many important branches, more progress 
has been made than in all the previous years of our history ; 
while several in which we are destined to do a leading business, 
but which had not been introduced before, hare been recently 



■j.A'OO'^lc 



GENERAL REPORT. 68 

established — ^tbe rolling mill, at Milwaukee, and the zinc 
works at Mineral Point, both already meDtioned, and establish- 
jnenta for the manufacture of paper machinery and of steel 
hammers, at Beloit, belonging to this class. These establish- 
ments will doubtless lead to the inauguration of like enter- 
prises in still other departments of mauufacture, and by the 
impetus thus given, contribute not a little to the general pro- 
gress of this great interest 

In several branches of manufacture not so recent in their 
introduction in "Wisconsin, development of in<Uvidual enter- 
prise has been so remarkable as to warrant some special allu- 
sion to them in this Report, even at the risk of being thought 
to have made invidious distinctiona Reference is more par- 
ticularly made to wagon-making and the manufacture of ag- 
ricultural implements and machinery, sash, doors and blinds, 
leather, and boots and shoes. . 

Wagon-making may be said to have its headquarters at Ke- 
nosha and Racine ; the /actory of Messrs. Fish Brothers, at 
the latter place, being only second in magnitude and working 
capacity to Schuttler's immense establishment in Chicago, which 
is probably the lai^st in the world. The average number of 
wagons made by them per annum, is three thousand with a 
cash valuation of some $300,000. 

There are other large establishments at both places above 
named, the aggregate of whose manufacture is probably much 
greater stilL 

One of the largest threshing machine manufactories in this 
country (J. L Case & Oa's) is located at Racina Besides one 
thousand very superior threshers, which find ready market in 
all partfi of the' United States, this immense establishment also 
tarns out a great amount of other work, including horse-pow- 
ers, truck wagons, straw-stackers, horse-powers and equalizers ; 
the annual proceeds of its business being $1,000,000. 

Reapers and mowers are very extensively manufactured at 
several places in the State, though more largely at Beloit, 
Janraville, Madison and Whitewater; at which places the ag-' 



r..^ ,v:i;A'Ot"l'^lc 



64 STATE AGKICUITUBAL SOCIETY. 

gregate of but four establiahiueDts are, at pr^ent, nineteen hun- 
dred machinea, with a total valuation of nearly $400,000. 

At the last named place there ia also a great business done 
in the manufacture of various agricultural implements — as 
plows, by the Whitewater Plow Factory, and Esterly'e Seeder 
and Cnltivator, by Geoi^e Esterly, who is this present year 
manufacturing no less than five thousand, valued at $400,000. 

Seeders are also extensively manufactured at Beaver Dam 
and Horicon ; Messrs. Eowell & Co., of the first named place, 
turning out three thousand the present year, with a total value 
of at least $210,000 ; and Messrs. Van Brant & Ca, of Hori- 
con, three thousand two hundred, valued at $225,000. 

The manufacture of sash, doors and blinds properly belongs 
in the great lumber State of Wisconsin ; but, in view of the 
youth of the State, and the general deficiency on that account 
of capita) for extensive operations, it certainly is a ground of 
just pride that, thus early in her history, she may boast of 
having the most extensive and the most productive factory of 
that kind, not merely in the West, but in the whole world, 
We refer, of course, to the establishment of Chas. J. L. Meyer, 
of Fond du Lac, whose histoiy we may be allowed to remark, 
in passing, like the personal histories of so many of our lead- 
ing manufacturers, affords a most interesting and instructive 
example of what unaided enterprise may accomplish in a few 
years in this Western country. 

This monster &ctoiy, which in a certain sense may be said 
to have had its origin in a small shop built in the year 1861, 
measures 245 feet in length by 100 feet in width, is three 
stories high — afibrding room for 100 pieces of machinery and 
400 workmen — and consumed in its construction 650,000 feet 
of lumber and 400,000 brick. As carried on by Mr. Meyer, 
the annual product of the establishment is about two and a 
half million lights of window sash, eighty thousand doors, 
sixty-two thousand pairs of blinds, and some $75,000 worth of 
mouldings and other insular work; the total value being 
scarcely less than a million of dollars. His market em- 
braces all the Western and many of the Southern States, ex- 



d.,CAX>^[c 



GENERAL EEPOKT. 55 

teudiDg as far as Ohio on the east, the Mississippi States on the 
south, and Nebraska and Decotah on the west 

Nor are we permitted to atop even here in onr brief enumer- 
ation of Wisconsin mamifaotories of great magnitude. For at 
Two Rivers are immense tanneries, owned and managed by 
Oea Pfister, of Milwaukee, and the Wisconsin Leather Com- 
pany, whose annual production of leather at those places and 
at Milwaukee is, at least, $1,000,000 worth ; while the great 
boot and shoe factory of Messra. Bradley & Metcal^ at Mil- 
waukee, annually turns out the best of work in its line to the 
value of over $1,000,000, being one of the largest estab- 
lishments of its kind in the United States. 

Enterprise like that of these and other manu&cturers whom 
we might name is no less an honor to the State that is the field 
of its activities than to those persons themselves, under whose 
wise and skilfull direction it has accomplished such surprising 
results. 

In view of the new interest in this great department of our 
American industiy, it is again to be regretted Uiatwe are with- 
out more reliable statis^cal information as to what is really 
being accomplished by it in every branch. In its absence, 
taidng the returns to the Secretary of Slate for 1865 as a basb, 
and supplementing it by more recent information gained 
through private sources, we may venture the following esti- 
mates of the annual product of a few of the leading branches, 
as being very certainly within, and yet a tolerably clear ap- 
proximation to, the real figures : 

ArSdM MoHufacbtni in ISSS. Vdm. 

Lanber uid ShlcgloB, $10,000,000 

Agricultural Implementa and ll&chlD«rr, 4,000,000 

WigoDi uii Oarriasee and wagon work, 2,000,000 

Wood and Willow Ware 1 , BOO, 000 

Cabinet Ware,. ...■•■ ■ 760,000 

Saah, Door* and BJinds, 1,SOO,000 

Pig Iron andCaatings, 1,000,000 

Pie Lead, 800 .000 

Bric\ S00,000 

Leather 1,400,000 

Boots and ShoM, 1 ,700,000 

P»per, 900,000 

Linieed Oil SBO,000 

Whiakey 1,000,000 

Halt Liquors. 1, BOO, 000 

Woolen Fabrics, 1,000,000 

Readj-made CiotbiDg, 1 ,800,000 



ccizoJ.A'OD^Ic 



66 STATE AGRIOULTUKAL SOCrETT. 

Thus it appears tbat the foregoing seventeen classee of our 
maaufacturea are alone capable, at this early period in the de- 
velopment of tlia State, of yielding an annual product of some 
thirty-one millions of dollats. If to this sum were added 
the actual revenue derived from all those numerous branches 
of manoiacturing industry, which, though individually less 
productive than those enumerated, still, in the aggregate, yield 
a veiy large income to the people of this State, it is highly 
probable that the total product would rise to but little less 
than forty millions of doUan. 

It is undoubtedly true that in manu&ctories Wisconsin has 
made more actual progress since 1860 than in any other one of 
the several departments of industry we have had under con- 
sideration ; and equally true that, in view of the extraOTdinary 
natural facilities she possesses for a successful prosecution of 
very many important branches of the manufacturing business, 
she has, as yet, relatively done but little. 

As was shown in our last report, and as every one familiar 
with our resources must know, we have unsurpat^sed stores of 
at least three of the most important metallic ores. 

We have iron enough for our use through all time to come: 
But how many smelting furnaces have we, working up these 
ores and converting them into iron for our railways, machine 
shops, implement factories, and other establishments consum- 
ing this metal? Aye, and where are the rolling mills, 
foundries, machine shops and factories themseves? The 
former may be numbered on the fingers of one hand ; and the 
foundries and factories, though more numerous than that, are 
vastly less in number than the wants of the State demand ; 
and even such as we have, are, of course, importing ninety- 
nine bundreths of all the iron they consume. 

We have lead enough to supply the whole country for 
many generations. But how many furnaces, shot-towers, lead- 
pipe and litharge iactories greet the eye of the traveler as he 
passes through the great lead region of the State? 

Zinc enough we have, also, to supply at least the great West 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



GENERAL REPORT. 67 

with mnc manu&ctures for an indefinite period. Yet only one 
establishmeDt, and that owned and managed exclusively by 
Eastern eapitaliats, has yet found a place in the whole mineral 
i-egioa 

We have almost exhaustless sappliea of timber of nearly 
every variety essential to the wooden manufactures commonly 
used in this country, much of it located on, or within easy and 
economical shipping distance from, the very best water-powers 
on the globe. But as yet, a few cabinet shops, here and there, 
of moderate capacity all combined, a number of shingle, sash, 
door and blind factories, with as many more engaged in the 
manufectoiy of wooden buckets, tubs, kitts, wagon work, 
barrel staves, &&, are doing all that is done to utilize that 
power and to help make Wisconsin what she ought to be and 
is surely destined to become, the great workshop of the West 

Oar Agriculture is already producing large qnantities of 
wool and flax for textile &brics, hides, tallow, &&, and with 
a good home demand, would produce still lai^r supplies of 
these and other products ; bat, as yet, only a small proportion 
of these raw materials are worked up at homa The great 
bulk go to the Eastern States, where they are manufactured, 
aud then returned and sold to us at a price covering cost of 
Jaw material, profits of buyers, transportation East, profits on 
the maQufactore, transportation back again, and the farther 
profits of the one, two, or three merchants through whose 
hands they finally reach the consumer. 

Surely this is a miserable policy, as compared with the more 
rational one of building up manufacturing centers on our own 
soil ; which, while furnishing work to tens of thousands of 
mechanics and ordinary laborers, with good pay and still large 
profits to the manufacturer, woaM at the same time furnish 
our farmers with a home market for every product of agricul- 
ture at better rates, and, in turn, supply them with manufactur- 
ed articles, of almost every sort, at prices much reduced — a 
policy which would bring additional prosperity and happiness 



l;A'Ol>'^IC 



68 STATE AGEICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to our people and ensure to the state a more rapid growth in 
wealth and power. 

Capital and skilled labor alone are wanted to bring about bo 
desirable a result, and these may be secured at an early day 
by the adoption of a liberal policy on the part of the State. 



COMMERCE. 

With such a developmeat of our productive iudastriea as 
the State of Wiaconsin has made during the past few years, 
the inference is necessary that there has also been a rapid 
growth of our Commerce. 

An examination of facts shows that this inference is even 
more than sustained ; for, owing to the fortunate geographical 
position of Wisconsin and her commercial metropolis, this 
great interest reaches far beyond the limits of our State into 
that vast growing empu'e of the still further Northwest It 
■will also be remembered that the naturally tributary relation 
of those immense areas has been still further strengthened 
and confirmed within a very short period by. the completion 
and subordination to Wisconsin interests (which in this r^ard 
are identical with the interests of those States through which 
they pass) of lines of railway extending into other States. 

Touching the completion of one of these — lowaand Minne- 
sota Division of the Milwaukee and St Paul Railway — Alex- 
ander Mitchell, Esq., President of the Company, in a circular 
addressed to the directors and stockholders in 1867, makes the 
following interesting statement of facts : 

" The public bava noir k connected lioe of rkllw>7 from the cit; of New 
Tork, via Milwaukee and Bt. P»q1 R«il»aj, Co MIane■poli^ St. Paul and St 
Cloud, a diitauce of more tbau 1500 mllel, about ono-third of which is orer 
the Milwaukee and St. Paul Kailway. 

"The Winona and St. Peter, the' St Paul and P&ciGc, the Minnesota Val- 
ley, the MinuGBOta Southern, the La Croase, Trempealeau and Presoott aod 
the Tomah and Lake Superior Railroadi, which are tributary or connecting 
tDKit with yoort, are all being constructed with more or lesi diipatoh. They 
now, in the aggregate, amount to about S6fl miles in actual operation. 

" Oar new line of road opens to aa and to the markets of the world »n em- 
pire hitherto bot little known to the railroader commercial world. I( paasee 
through the most fertile and denael; populated counties of Northern Iowa 
knd Minnesota ; it has nndiiputed'posiesiion of the trade of an immense re- 
gion of couDtr;, unsurpaBsed for the ricbneu of its Boil and the industry and 



i;A'Otl<^IC 



GBNEBAL EEPOBT. 69 

eatcrpriie of it* people, from whoae Immenw grutaries *ill be ssnt forth 
over roar railway ■ golden atream of wheat anil other grtJa repreaeDttog the 
weftlth of that richest of all agricDltural distrlcli iu thlaoonatr;." 

By a consolidation of all tlie "Wisconsin railways reaching 
westward and northwestward under the management of a strong 
company, whose interests are one with those of oar own com- 
mercial metropolis and of the whole State, a point has been 
gained which wise and efficient direction can hardly fail to 
make effectiTe in promoting the still more rapid growth of 
OUT adfanctng Commerce. 

Bevelopment has been further facilitated by the completion 
of several connecting links and branches of railway within 
the limits of this State, and measures have likewise been 
adopted, though, as yet, only partially carried into effect, for 
the improvement of some of our harbors and navigable streams. 
This lost is a duty of the General Glovemment, which cannot 
be too strongly urged upon Congress. 

In the absence of statistics exhibiting the commerce of the 
entire State, we must content ourselves with showing the gross 
earnings of railroads, those great channels of our commerce 
through the State, and the business done by our commercial 
metropolis — which it may be assumed is a fair indicator of our 
progress in this department — the annual statements of whose 
Chamber of Commerce afford reliable data. 

The gross receipts of our several railways in Wisconsin for 
the years 1861, 1865 and 1866, respectively, were as follows : 

Receipts in I8B1 t4,00l,SS8 

SaceiptiinlBBS 1,lSS,<eO 

Eeceipt»inlS88 12,(10,877 

Due allowance being mode for the fact that the great cereal 

crops of 1860 and 1861, together with the transportation of 

troops and munitions of war must have carried the receipts for 

1861 considerably above the average for that period, these 

figures indicate a very rapid increase in the business of the 

State from year to year. 

TRADE OF MILWAUKEE. 

Seconded by anything like a feir amount of enterprise on 
the part of \et merchants and biisiness men, Milwaukee mus t 



60 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of ueceaaitj, have a rapid growtJi in oonunercial importance. 
Her position on the map of tbe Northwest, the excellence of 
her harbor, and many other nataral causes, conspire to pro- 
duce this result Already she has attained the proud dis- 
tinction of being the greatest primary wheat market in the 
world, — a distinction which the superior quality of the wheat 
produced by all that vast section of the Northwest naturally 
tributary to her will make it easy for her to maintain, — and the 
rapid development of our agricultural, mining and manufactur- 
ing resources, warrant the belief that in other branches of com- 
merce she will, also, soon come to hold an enviable rank among 
the metropolitan cities of the Great West 

Of course the movement of flour and grain must depend 
upon the crops of the year reported and of the year previous ; 
so that figures of this kind do not fairly indicate tbe growth of 
our commerce, inasmuch as the aggr^atea of our grain crops 
in 1860, '61, '62 and '68 were greater than they have been 
since. Nevertheless, they help to give an idea of the magni- 
tude of the ordinary commercial transactions of this State. 







ottTnad of Ormn Crept of Itat uvm ytort, 










TIAB. 


WBE*T. 


.,„. 


tit>KII. 


DIKLET. 


.^ 




16,980,708 


191,846 


114,981 


66,991 


73,448 


18SS 


I9,68",e»0 


232,796 


BBS, 994 




164,476 


less 


1S,48S,4ie 


948,429 


808,490 


199,469 








t,GS5,B44 


460,076 


\<ii,1t'16 


68,641 


1805 


12,01S,fl6U 


667.48* 


270,704 


149,443 


134,860 


isea 


IB,777,ISB7 


l,Bl7,!Sn 


7811,080 


152,698 




1867 


12,028,464 


1, 139,319 


698,684 


192.007 


237,202 



Although the question of price does not strictly come with- 
in the plan of this Report, we nevertheless deem it a matter of 
anfficient interest to make the following record of the average 
prices paid for wheat, at Milwaukee, during the several years 
of the period under review : 

ATerwe price in 1861 .' V> 79J 

...do.. ..do 1862 85i 

...do.... do 186B I HI 

...do....do 1884 1 67i 

...do... .do 186B 1 8H 

...do.... do 1866 1 72i 

...do.... do 1B61 , S 18i 



GENERAL REPORT. 61 

TABU! jAwinj EiporU of Flow mi OndH/nm JlUiKmlM Aiet 1880. 







WHEAT. 


OATS. 


CORB 


BAM-IT. 


RTt 


'"* 


Bkrt«l«. 


Bu<ib«!«. 


BughclB. 


Buthtle. 


Biuhels. 


Biubeli. 


iRRn 


451-, 243 


7,668,608 


M,ess 


87,304 


38,065 


9,788 


1S(I1 


674,474 


18,300,496 








29,810 




71I,40D 


14,916,880 


7»,0B4 


0,489 


44,8110 


136,801 


lUfl! 


fl03,BSS 


12,837,820 


811,600 


88,983 


183,448 


84,047 


IHtf 


414,833 


8'seZ,4T» 


811,684 


146,786 


28,479 


18,210 


1NHI 


M7,578 


10,478,777 


818,473 


71,203 


£»,G97 


ei,4ia 


IKAI 


7811,365 


11,684,749 


l,686,8«« 


480,408 


18,888 


265,829 


ur 


931, ees 


9,[>eS,46S 


832,409 


388,313 


80,822 


106,796 



The diminution in the quantity of ^beat exported in 1867, 
'was partly owing to the laige amoaat manufactured into £our 
by the Milwaukee mills. The amount actually received at 
Milwaukee in 1867, which, with 1866, 1865 and 1864, was a 
" short crop year," — owing to un&vorableness of seoBon and 
ravages of chinch bug, — it will be observed, was 12,874,859 
bushels ; 2,730,000 bushels of whicb was ground by the City 
mills, and 646,407 bushels left in store at the end of the year. 

The narrow limits of our space will, of course, not admit of 
even a synoptical exhibit of the varied and extensive trade of 
even this one city of Milwaukee; and accordingly we conclude 
with a few tabular statements, showing the receipts and ship- 
ments of some of the great number of products, other than 
cereal crops, in which she enjoys so lai^ge a trade. 



BTATEMEST cf Ot Rtctiptt cxf W}menti af 


Pvid Crvpi, ofAn- iKan ctrtal. 


CltUF^ 


1881. 
Bash'i 


1861. 
Biuh'i 


1868. 
Bufh'i 


1864. 
Bosb'B 


1888. 
Bush's 


1888. 
Bush'i 


1887. 
Bnsb'a 






9,303 


11,818 

11,800 


18,891 
11,818 


9,690 


10.918 
10,700 


8,948 
6,900 




















8,448 
9,988 


10,903 

6,248 
8,146 


6,818 
9,993 

4,iEe 


12,461 

10,088 

6,000 


Seeds receWed, ('nmothj 
Clorer. Flai, io 


7,784 
6,828 


18,800 
18,881 


7,466 
17,466 





The little difference between the receipts and shipments in 
some cases, as shown in the above statement, is accounted for 



j.A'OO'^lc 



62 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOdETY. 

by considerable amounts having been brouglit in by teams, of 
wWch no record was kept 

The total number of beef cattle received by railroad, at 

Milwaukee, during the several years since 1860, have been as 

follows : 

!fumber Head of Ckttte raceiTed in iSfll 4,811 

do do ISBS 8,8S5 

do do ISM M,fl69 

do do 18M 1 18, W5 

do do IBSB ..i.... 11,280 

do do I86S 1!,»66 

do do 1867 19,527 



The number of head of hogs received for the several sea- 
sons embraced within the same period — a seaaon commencing 
Oct 1, and ending March 15th — bna been as follows : 



^, 


NO. Hooa. 


IT. miasT 


rOTlLWnSBT. 




S9,4fll 

182,490 
141,081 

J07,a3» 

02,857 
114, 2» 
184,16S 


200 IbB. 
219 " 
202 " 
IBfl " 
SS2 " 
218 " 
180 " 


19,892,200 






28,000.883 






21,B39,SBS 
!9,S4I,S85 
>l,02fl,8U7 


....do....l8M-«7 





The following table shows the number of hides received at 
Milwaukee and shipped during the past eight years, as report- 
ed to the Chamber of Commerce : 



»1B. 


UOBIFtB. 




^ 


MOXIPW. 


„™^ 


I8«0.. 
1861.. 
1808. . 
IBS!.. 


86,409 
ei),74I 
128,168 
110,849 


31,941 
17,991 
82,042 
21.807 


18S4.. 
IBM.. 
IBM.. 
IBST.. 


144, m 
1M,019 
176,217 
184,124 


44,981 
81,449 
47,07* 
89,141 



The laige difference between receipts and shipments indicate 
how extensively the manufecture of leather, already referred 
to, is carried on in that city. 



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GENERAL REPORT. 68 

Tbe Bliipments of Wool from Milwaukee, since 1860, hare 
been as follows : 

etS.STG Iba.{| Id 1864 I,e93,S1< Iba. 

,... 1,000, aas " '■ isas s.sit.sbo " 

,... l,SU,Slft " " IMfl I,0ii7,4ST '■ 

,...1,568,879 " |i "18(7 2,086,00« " 

The provision business of Milwaukee is illustrated by the 
following table showing the 



In isao.. 

" IBSl.. 

" i8«a.. 
" isu.. 



TOTA 


£<9>nMra>lin& 


iBTtU of Sxjxyrtt of Pork (Old Stef frmi 




■no. 


BBLS. 0» P0«. 


BBLf. or BRf , 


™. 


BBLB. OF FOSE. 


.„..„». 


1880.. 
18«1.. 
1862.. 
1S6S.. 


28,019 
♦7,B88 
<l»,0S9 
iaS,009 


31,890 
18, «M 
87,998 

Ba,ws 


1864. . 

isee.. 

1866. 
1861.. 


100,963 
48,70V 
88,178 

117,686 


44, 6W 
18,719 
18,114 
19,191 



Of the trade of Milwaukee in manufactured products, the 
total of which is not yet very laige, we have no space in this 
Report to make an exhibit ; nor, indeed, of her receipts and 
shipments of general eastern and foreign merchandise — ex- 
cept that they ordinarily include, for the moat part, coffee, su- 
gar, molasses, tea, salt, oil, fish, apples, coal, iron, nails, stoves, 
and hardware, and that they amount, exclusive of coarse 
freight, to nearly 100,000 tons per annum. 

The Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce reports the to- 
tal number of arrivals of steamers, propellora and sailing ves- 
sels entered at the Milwaukee Custom House, during the year 
1867, as being 4,386, with an aggregate tonnage of 1,713,043 
tons. Number of departures 4,343, with a tonnage of 1,699,- 
825. 

The trade with Western and Peninsular Michigan, has been 
materially augmented by the late establishment of a daily line 
of steamers between Milwaukee and Manistee, and an increase 
of iadlities for commercial intercourse with points on Lake 
Sopericv. 



^d by Google 



64 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

If to the foregoing figures, which only very partially repre- 
Bent our leading commercial city, we were able to add such 
06 would likewise convey some idea of the business done by 
Sacine, Kenosha, Port Washington, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, 
Two Rivers and Green Bay, aa well as of the lai^e amount of 
transactions of the many flourishing towns which line the Mis- 
sissippi river, all the way from the rich and productive Valley 
of St Croix on the north to Lunleith on the south, we are con- 
fident that the grand aggregate would be one of which the 
youthful state of Wisconsin, only now in her twentieth year, 
would have just reason to be proud. 

ORGANIZED AGENCIE& 

The present age, so full of practical teachings of great use to 
mankind, has taught no lesson more thoroughly tlian the value 
of organization as a primary condition of success in every great 
enterprise, whether material, social, or political It is equally 
true that, in learning this lesson and turning it to practical ac- 
count, the American people have shown themselves to be 
more apt scholars than any other people on the globe. It is 
natural tliat they should be, for a cardinal principal in the 
policy of a democratic government is to interfere os little as 
possible with the personal freedom and individual activities of 
the people — to guide and encourage always, but to direct and 
govern only where there is a manifest need of suehaid on their 
part; in which respect it differs most essentially from a des- 
potic government like those of France and Russia, where all 
measures of public interest not only origioate with the Impe- 
perial head, but are organized under his immediate direction 
and carried into practical operation by officers of his appoint- 
ment 

It is needless to say that the histoiy of the past hundred 
years fully vindicates the wisdom of the American policy, and 
that the truest and best minds in every enlightened country 
are certainly and inevitably coming, one by one, to a recog- 
nition of its superiority. 



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G£NEKAL BEPORT. . 66 

Organization is not only a source of Btrength ; it is also a 
a source of light Its tendency ia to bring into the fullest plaj 
every power of the individual, and stimulate it to the utmost 
extentof its capabilites; its final cause, to combine the indi- 
vidual agencies thus developed and concentrate them upon a 
definite object of common interest to all Liberalizing in its 
inSuence upon the mind, by reason of the generous sentiment 
in which it has origin, it secures, at the same time, a larger 
advantage to the individual than could come of a more narrow 
and selfish policy. 

So soon as a class of men devoted to the same pursnit in 
life are brought to the point of preferring the permanent ad- 
vancement of their profession to their own temporary advant- 
age merely, that moment the common cause b^ns to make 
rapid progress, bringing with it incidentally, but no less cer- 
tainly, the higher good of each individual contributor to the 
general result 

Among the learned professions, so-called, this principle has 
long been recognized Its fruit is that higher intelligence and 
esprit du corps which have made them a power among men in 
all civilized lands. 

There must also be among the followers of the industrial 
pursuits a like higher intelligence and a like e^rit du corps. 

For the attainment of this end three classes of agencies wiU 
prove especially potent — associations and societies of practical 
men for the promotion of mutual advantage and the public 
good, boards and commisraons established and sustained by 
the government, and educational agencies established and sup- 
ported by the government and people conjointly. 

INDUSTBIAL SOOTETIES AND AaBOCIATIONS 

Already exist in this State to a consideTable extent, in view of 
its recent organization, but the numbercould be increased with 
great advanti^ and such as exist could be made more 



Before the war, there were, besides the State Agricnltorsl 
6 Aa TRAHa 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



66 STATE AGRICULTtmAl SOCIETY. 

Society, the Wiaconsin Agricultural Afaocmtion, located at 
Hilwaokec, and the Fruit-growers' Association of WisconaiD, 
some thirty-seven county agricultural societies, three or four 
union societies, emhracing two or more towns, each, as the 
field of their operations, and a number of town clubs. 

The State Agricultural Society had been oi^nized ten years ; 
during which;time it had held ten general exhibitions, distributed 
promtums to the amount of about $20,000, together with a 
large amount of new varieties of seeds, plants, cuttings, Ac, is- 
•sued six volumes of much value to the industry of the State, 
and established relations of correspondence and exchange of 
publications with all the leading organizations of like general 
• charact«r and aims in this country and in Europe. 

The thirty-seven county societies, organized at different 
periods, had been actively engaged in the good work of ad- 
vancing the industrial interests of their respective counties, 
and at the expiration of that first period were able to point 
with pride to the many fruits of their labors in the form of 
improved stock, implements and crops, and a better appreci- 
ation on the part of the fanning community of the importance 
of system and thorough culture. 

The town clubs were organized with the view of contribut- 
ing to these important general results by the discussion of 
practical and scieatific questions pertaining to agriculture, and 
by the founding of libraries of useful books looking to the same 
end. Some of them had frequent regular meetings, and pub- 
lished reports of their discussions and conclusions in their local 
newspapers for the benefit of the wider communities of county 
and State. 

During the war, many societies of these several classes dis- 
continued their annual exhibitions, and a few of them in the 
newer counties have not rcsumedactive operatioua since. The 
number of county societies reporting to the Secretary of State 
and to this office in 1867, and receiving the annual appropri- 
ation of $100 provided for by law, was 28 ; showing a differ- 
ence of nine societies not yet sufloiently revived to resume 



GENERAL REPORT. 67 

tbeir r^alar dutiea On the other hand, we hear of the or- 
ganization, during the present year, of some new aocieties in 
the counties far north, and confidently anticipate that the 
returns for 1868 will show a larger number earnestly at 
work than have ever hitherto reported. The law, as it now 
stands, requires the reports of county societies to be made be- 
fore February 1st in each year, as a condition of their receiv- 
ing the $100 appropriated by the State. We are unable to 
discover any reason why these reports could not just as con- 
veniently be made at as early a date aa December ; thus en- 
abling this Society to embody the abstracts of the reports 
contemplated by law in the volume of that year for which 
they were mad& And we, therefore, respectfully recom- 
mend such an amendment of the law in this particular as will 
secure the end proposed. Should the constitution of any so- 
ciety provide for the closing up of its fiscal accounts too late 
to render a report aa early as the 10th of December impracti- 
cable, such constitution can easily be amended in that respect 
The State Agricultural Society continued such general la- 
bors as could be performed by the Secretary until 1864, when 
it resumed the holding of r^ular annual exhibitions, with even 
more than former zeal and success, as will appear by a refer- 
ence to the proceedings of the Society and the reports herewith 
presented of its exhibitions for the several years since that date. 

Formerly — up to 1882 — ^the Society received an appropria- 
tion &om the State of three thousand dollars annually, to be 
awarded in premiums and for the purchase of seeds to be 
gratuitously distributed That it made good and faithful 
uae of this money, no one will question who is familiar 
with its history. But when it became apparent that the annu- 
al exhibitions would have to be discontinued for a time, owing 
to the disturbed condition of the oonntry, this appropriation 
was withdrawn, with the concurrence of the Society, though 
Vith the uuderstandii^ and expectation that it would be rein- 
stated at the close of the war, or so soon thereafter as it would 
be possible for the State to renew it 



r, ,v.i;A'Ot>'^lc 



68 STATE AGBICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

It ia tbe opinion of the officers and members of the Society 
that s sufficient amotint of regular assistance to gire greater 
eecurity against disaster incident to the somewhat fortnitoos 
circumstances of season and weather, and at the same time en- 
able it to extend the sphere of its labors into the field of 
scientific and practical inveBtigation, would be judiciously 
expended. Sut having already received generous encoarage- 
ment to the extent of ample and elegant apartments in the 
State Capitol, and having found it possible, by dint of great 
exertion, under favorable circumstances, to keep up thdr gea- 
eral work and at the same Ume hold successfol exhibitions, with 
a small annual balance in the treasury, they have not hitherto 
felt disposed to ask anything at all from the general fund of the 
State. 

It is believed that the aid hitherto extended to the local ag- 
ricultural oi^nizations of the State has resulted in great good 
to the cause of industry ; and so far from discontinuing the 
annual appropriations to county societies, as has been occaaioD- 
ally suggested in the Legislature, we are fully convinced 
that encouragement might, with great propriety and advantage, 
be extended still farther, so as to include all industrial associ- 
ations, horticultural and mechanical as well as agricultural, 
whoee labors entitle them to help, or which give promise of 
real usefulness in promoting the substantial interests of the 
State. To the newer societies in particular, even the small 
amount of $100 is a great hedp, and in many cases, doubtless 
results inap earlier oiganization of societies than would other* 
wise occur. 

The Wisconsin State Wool-growers', Bee-keepers' and Sor- 
ghum associations have each fulfilled a good office, and are en- 
titled to the gratitude of the people and state. 

We have as yet no association of either the miosis or maa- 
tdactareia. Both of theie olaases have genenl intereata that 
would be promoted by oiganized efibrl^ and this mentioa ot 
the &ct is made in the hope t^t it maypoasiUy lead to BtOT6' 
ments in that directiw. 



I v'^'Otl'^lc 



GENERAL EEPORT. 69 

The su^estion ia also made as to whether the commercial 
and general prosperity of the State would not be further pro- 
moted hy the orgauiMtioQ, in all oar large cities, of boards of 
trade, with a view to the promotioD of just and equitable prin- 
ciples in txsde, and to oodcmI; of aotaon in the sopport of such 
regulations and measures as would be calculated to advance 
the wel£ue of their respective oonununities. Such organiza- 
tions are cf^ble of being raade importftat centres of power 
aitd lailaence for &e public good, independent of mere ques- 
tions of tmde, which, of themselves, aSbrd suMcient reason 
fer their establishment. 

SIATS AQENCIES. 

As already suggested, there are certain Mnds of work re- 
quired to be done by the State itself directly, as being so gen- 
eral in their results as not to furnish a sufficient stimulus to 
individuals or societies to perform them, or requiring such 
powers and resources as neither individuals nor societies 



Of this nature are boards of agriculture, bureaus of statistics, 
bureaus of immigration and special commissions. 

So long as individual citizens, from motives of professional 
and state pride, are induced to sacrifice time, strength and 
money to the industrial welfere of the whole State, and even to 
risk their reputation on fortuitous circumstances, and are made 
the depoutories of sufficient power to do all that the public 
interests demand, a state agricultural society composed of 
such individuals will serve an excellent purposa But after 
all, the general duties performed by such a society more strictly 
belong to the State government; and in every State there ia 
likely to come a time — in several of the States it has siready 
come — when the public interests will requre that it should as- 
sume and perform them. 

The importance of a Statistical Bureau, or Commission, has 
been already suggested, and it, or its equivalent, strongly 
urged in tbeintroductory portion of this B«port; the difficulties 



j.A'OO'^lc 



70 STATE AGRICULTtraAL SOCIETY. 

eDconntered in the preparatJon of the statistical portions of 
which have only IntensiBed the opinion therein expressed. 

A Board of Immigration — thanks to yoar Excellency's 
timely recommendation, and ite adoption by the Legislature — 
has at last been established. It is safe to say that the poet- 
ponement of such action for so long a time has resulted in a 
virtual loss to this Stale of thousands of hardy, industrious 
immigrants who might have been induced to settle upon our 
lands instead of passing over them into other States, whose 
earlier enterprise in this direction had been -the immediate oc- 
casion of their coming to this country. And even now that 
such & board has been created, as representing very numerous 
classes of our citizens deeply interested in the results of its 
labors, we may be pardoned for strongly expressing the opin- 
ion that a much more liberal appropriation than the three 
thousand dollars per annum granted by the Legislature, might, 
with great advantage, have been placed at its command. 

The question of labor is one of vast importance to the entire 
people of this country, but especially to the people of the 
"West, where the demand is so rapidly growing and ever im- 
perative. To-day, every productive interest of this State is 
suffering serious loss for the want of a better supply ; and the 
Le^slature should deem it the best possible economy to pro- 
vide the Board of Immigration, if continued at all, with suffi- 
cient means to enable it to do its work in the most prompt, 
thorough and eflFectual manner. Since the close of the war, 
and the re-establishment of the Union of States upon a more 
enduring basis, increased confidence in the stability of our 
government has brought to our shores a better class of immi- 
grants than formerly, and the number of such may be very 
greatly increased by a use of the requisite means. Every cent 
judiciously expended in this interest is like bread cast upon 
the waters, sure to return with laige increase after a few or 
many daja 

Special Commissions, growing, as they do, out of special exi- 
gencies, find simple mention in this discussion. They may 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



GENERAL REPORT. 71 

often fulfill very importaot offices in the practical working oat 
of the general policy of the State, and by every wifle govern- 
ment will be planned and executed on a scale oommenaanite 
with the importance of attainable resulta Three Special Com- 
missions, in the interest of industry, have been created by the 
State since the date of tiie Society's last general Report, of which 
it IS proper to make brief record in this place. 

The first was a Commission to represent Wisconsin at the Exhi- 
bition of the Industry of All Nations, bald at London, England, 
in the year 1832 ; the undersigned being the Governor's ap- 
pointee. Although no provision was made for the expenses 
of this CommissioQ, which were accordiugly met by the Com- 
missioner himself out of his own private funds, it is believed 
that the duties were faithfully performed, and that the State 
has since derived no little advantage from the effiiirts thee put 
forth in her interest A brief report upon that great Exhibi- 
tion will be found in that part of this volume embraced under 
the head of " Transactions for 1862." 

The second was a Commission, composed of several citizens 
of the State, to the Paris Universal Exposition of 1867, of which 
the nnderaigned had the honor of being a member and the 
President In aid of this Commission, but at too late a 
day to make thpir labors as effective as they might otherwise 
have been, the sum of two thousand dollars was appropriated 
by the Le^Iature, with the proviso that no portion of 
said amount should be used to defray the expenses of any 
Commissioner. The somewhat arduous duties of this Commis- 
sion have likewise been performed in as thorough a manner as 
the circumstances rendered possible; and while the awards 
made to this State and to the citizens thereof^ as well as 
to the State Agricultural Society, for exhibitions of some of 
the representative products of Wisconsin, are an occasion of 
gratification on the part of all who are actively interested in 
the public welfare and honor, it is hardly a question whether 
the State would not have done itsdf much more credit and se- 
cured a much larger advantage from the rare opportunities of 



j.,Coot^[c 



72 STATE AGEIOtJLTURAL SOCIETY. 

the great Exposition of 1867 — ^the grandest and most complete 
of the whole seriea — by more timely and more liberal action. 

Further reference to the occasion and labors of this Com- 
misBion, in this place, is made unnecessary by a full report 
thereof soon to be made. 

Mention of these Commissions in this Beport is made not 
more because they are a part of the history of Wisconsin 
• industrial enterprise for the period embraced, nor because they 
form a part of a general system of organized agencies by means 
of which every State should seek to advance its material, so- 
cial and political interests, than for the sake of ui^ng the im- 
portance of raore prompt, liberal and thorough action on the 
part of the State, when like opportunities offer themselves in 
the f\iture. 

The third was a Commission, consisting, by appointment of 
the Qovernor and of the State Agricultural and State Horti- 
cultural Societies, of L A Lapham, J. G. Knapp and H. 
Crocker, chained with the duty of enquiring into the disas- 
trous effects of the destnictioa of forest trees, now going on so 
rapidly in Wisconsin, and of reporting to the Legislature such 
fikcts and recommendations in relation thereto as, to them' 
should seem proper. 

The interesting and valuable Beport of this Commission was 
made to the last Legislature, and is now in the hands of the 
people. The subject is one of great importance, and it is be- 
lieved that the interests of the State would be promoted by 
the publication, in whole or in part, of another and lai^er edi- 
tion for general distribution, as well as by the early adoption 
<X measures for meeting the necessities set forth by the Com- 



BDDCATIONAL AGENCIES 

Have been referred to as a third class of oiganizations es- 
sential to the progress of our industry, and as being justly 
chargeable for their origination and support to the State and 
people conjointly ; to the Stat* because, representing the po- 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



GBNEfiAL BEPOBT. 78 

Meal wisdom and practical statesmenship of tbe commoD- 
wealtli, and being the constituted guardian of its public in- 
tereflts, it ebould be expected to lead in tbe iuauguratioB of all 
great measures for tbe promotion of the common good — to the 
people as individuals, because tbe advantages thus offered bj 
the State are -wholly available by each for bis own particular 
advancement and that of tbe whole class to which be belongs- 

This is certainly a correct statement of the general principle ; 
and yet it requires some modification in its application to the 
industrial classes, as boing less qualified, at present, to appreci- 
ate the value of linowledge pertidning to their pursuits, and as 
requiring, therefore, more aid and encouragement from the 
State — whose progress so essentially depends upt-n their intel- 
ligence and material success — to induce them to qualify them- 
selves more thoroughly for their work. 

Id democratic America, there must be, not only sUch equal- 
ity of natural rights as tbe constitution already guarantees to 
the people, but also equality among the occupations and pro- 
fessions ; else the seed of caste, so carefully planted in all mon- 
archical countries, and which seems to have been self-sown 
even in American soil, will take deeper root than now, and 
bring forth its baneful fruit of adventitious aristocracy, like 
that which so aadly curses them. 

In America, a man must be esteemed, not in proportion to 
the iancied rank of tbe profession to which he belongs but in 
proportion to what he intrinsically is and the use he makes of 
bis powers, or our boasted democracy is a miserable delusion. 
But this principle of judgment is no less applicable to pursuits 
01 professions tbanto the individual And here lies the diffi- 
culty of all those who demand that a higher estimate than at 
present shall be put upon the so-called industrial pursuits. In- 
tainsically, they are eminently useful and noble. Theoretical- 
ly and prospectively their rank is as bigb as tbe highest, de- 
manding as they do, in order to tbeir most successful practice 
and enjoyment^ the widest range of knowledge and the pro- 
fonndest culture. But owing to the very partial appreciation 
— we might say, very exceptional rec(^ition — of these de- 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



74 STATE AGBICULTURAIi SOCIETY. 

mauds on the part of the masses who assume to practice them, 
and their excedingly amall measure of either knowledge or 
culture, the present real rank of these pursuits is, of necessity, 
low. 

How then is this necessary equality of the professions to be 
brought about? By a liberal diffusion of knowledge among 
the industrial classes. This will elevate and enoble both them 
and thoir puisuits, and nothing else can. 

No matter whether the masses, who mainly constitute these 
daases ask for it or remonstrate against it, the pursuits, as such, 
require it, and the material prosperity and social and political 
wel&re of the State imperatively demand it 

It may be assumed that it was considerations such as these 
that disposed the Congress of the United States to enact the 
law of July 2d, 1862, which so liberally provides an endow- 
ment for "at least one college in each state, where the leading 
object shall be, without excluding otherscientific and classical 
studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches 
of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, 
in such manner as the legislatures of the states may respective- 
ly prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical edu- 
cation of, the industrial classes in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions in life." And it must have been considerations of this 
sort that induced a number of the individual states, which were 
the grateful recipients of this nation^ benefaction, to make 
large appropriations of money for canying this wise and noble 
purpose of the general government into effect Had they done 
less, they would have been recreant to the trust reposed in them 
and false to their own real interests. Had they done yet more, 
the importance, nay, necessity of the enterprise, would have 
warranted them in so doing ; and the truest and wisest men of 
all lands would have applauded their liberality. 

But the work of building up agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, until they shall have attained positions of rank and honor 
corresponding to their relative necessities, is a labor of immense 
magnitude, and opportunities fcff doing better justice to them- 
selves and the great interests for which tbey have been so fer 



GENERAL REPOET. 76 

prompted to act, are jet open to them, as wtU as to saoli states 
as hare so unwisely and faitlilessly allowed years to pass with- 
OQt doing anything in fulflUment of their pledges. 

It is an occasion for congratulation, that, with us, after a 
somewhat protracted struggle, the important questions neces- 
sarily preliminary to the actual establishment of such an insti- 
tution have been finally and wisely settled by its incorporation 
with the State ITniTersity. The cause of industrial educatioD 
doubtless enjoys the sympathy of many citizens of our State, 
who are still of the opinion that an entirely separate and dis- 
tinct agricultural school would have been better than anything 
likely to be realized under the present arrangement It ia 
hoped, however, that all such are sufiieiently strong and 
genuine in the interest manifested in times past, to ensure at 
least a patient waiting for results and an impartial judgment 
after a fair trial has been made, and that many will even easi- 
ly forget their orifpnal preferences in the earnestness of their 
purpose and efforts to make the Agricultural College of Wis- 
consin a complete success. 

To have established a strictly professional school of agri- 
culture, or even of agriculture and the mechanic arts, would 
have been a palpable violation of the provisions of the con- 
gressional act, had it been desirable in itself; while to have 
attempted the establishment of a new and separate institution 
including all the required departments of instruction upon so 
slender a foundation as the proceeds of snch sales of the col- 
lege lands as were likely to be effected within a few years, or 
even as the cash proceeds of the whole amount of lands, would 
have been absurd, because utterly impracticable. And inas- 
much as the State did not feel financially competent to add to 
the congressional endowment such sums of money as would be 
an adequate foundation, necessity combined with policy in de- 
manding the consolidation of the proposed college of agricul- 
ture and the mechanic arts with some existing non-denomina- 
tional institution, of which class the State University was the 
only representative within our teiTitorial limits. 



j.,Coot^[c 



76 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETy. 

Are any friends of the cause still dissatisfied with ihe l^s- 
lative decision, the incontrovertible argument of necessitT 
should reconcile them to it 

But there were other and higher considerations than UnB 
that should have bronght that decision — and which did chiefly 
determine it in the minds of some — even though the question 
of funds had, in no form, been before them. The idea of a 
mexe agricultural school, distinct and isolated, was a too nar- 
row one, bom of pKijudice — one, therefore, that needed to be 
rooted out of the mind of every American citizen, and, if pos- 
sible, ispi out of the mind of every &rmer'a and mechanic's 
son in the land The industrial classes are too much cramp- 
ed, fettered and blinded already by nanow and foolish notions 
of an essential antagonism between the different classes of so- 
ciety, and between the different departments in the world of 
letters, science and the arts. They have not yet stood up- , 
on a plane of intelligence high enough to see that the real in- 
terests of any class are so wisely and beautifully inwoven with 
the interests of every other that, practically, the good of one is 
the good of all They have not yet learned that great, yet 
simple, lesson, the essential harmony and unity of all truths, so 
that it is philosophically and absolutely impossible for any 
man to know the whole of any one thing nulil he has gained 
the mastery of all things. 

To eradicate all these false notions and prejudices, they 
need to be educated, not narrowly in an agricultural school, 
whose halls are strangers to every other teaching but such as 
is supposed to have immediate and almost exclusive applica- 
tion to this pursuit, but in a broad and noble university, where 
the love of all knowledge, and of knowledge as knowledge, 
without regard to the dollars and cents that can be got out of 
it to-day, is fostered — ^where all departments of learning are 
equally honored — where the relations of each to every other 
are understood and taught — where the students and teachers 
devoted to each and all branches of learning, whether science, 
langof^ie, literature, or philosophy, or any combinations of 



GENERAL REPORT. 77 

these constituting the professional coorses of instructioD sliall 
daily intermingle and enjoy friendly intercourse as peers of the 
same realm. 

The liberalizing, refining and ennobliitg influence of saoh 
an association of all the departments of learning and of hun- 
dreds, perhaps thousands, of students and professors devoted 
to them, under the guidance, inspiration and harmonizing 
power of one common head, can hardly be over-estimated. 

The University of "Wisconsin, as re-created by the act of 
1866, had its origin in thoughts and desires such aa these. 
tTniversality, equality and fraternity were the central ideas — 
the soul of it — around which should be gathered the elements 
of visible form and substance as fast as the means afforded by 
the General Government, the State and the people would allow ; 
adding college to college, as our national flag has added star 
after star, until, at length, completing the whole circle of hu- 
man knowledge, the noble cluster of schools thus formed 
should constitnte one entire constellation, shedding its brilliant 
and beneficent light all over our land, and challenging the ad- 
miration of the world. 

That a College of Agricoltore and the Mechanic Arts, as a 
component part of such a University, would accomplish more 
for the advancement of the industrial classes than could be ac- 
complished by a separate, isolated school of even the beat 
quality, it seems to us no unprejudiced, intelligent mind can 
seriously question for a moment 

We may grant that m(»e difGcnlties, of necessity, He in the 
way of the organization and Bucoeaaful management of so broad- 
based and oomjaehensive an institation aa the one outiined 
above ; but the difficulties are not insuperable, and the great 
end to be gained will be full compensation &r any requisite 
amount of pains-taking and labor. 

To such aa entertain like opinions and sentiments, it will be 
gratifying, and to all it will be advantageous, to know that the 
ablest educators and statesmen of Europe, even, are beginning 
to &vor the policy of uniting the agricultural schools with ex- 
isting universitieB, altiiough, as yet, the argument they urge is 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



78 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ohiefiy the oae o£ ecoaomy. During the year 1867, it was oar 
privil^e to supplement and complete a tour of observation and 
inspection, begun in 1862, of all the leading industrial, poly- 
technic and professional schools and universities of the Old 
World, and to compare views with many of the leading minds 
in all the countries of Europe ; and we speat, therefore, from 
peiBonal knowledge. Excepting the Royal College of Agri- 
cnlture and Forestry of Wurtemburg, located at Hohenheim, 
and the oldest agricultural school in the world, the most prom- 
ising agricultural schools in Europe are connected, by relations 
more or less intimate, with ancient univeruties ; and there is 
manifestly a strong and growing tendency in that directioa 

If we fell in Wisconsin, within reasonable time, to demon- 
strate die wisdom of concentration and consolidation in the 
case of OUT own University, it will not be the feult of the gen- 
eral system. 

But we must not and shall not feil. The people will gradu- 
ally come to a better appreciation of the time and means ne- 
cessary to the building up of such an institution as is proposed ; 
and while they will hold the administrators of the law upon 
which it rests more and more strictly to account ibr faithful 
development and thorough management, they will, themselves, 
cease all unreasonable caipings and complaints, and, by a gen- 
uine sympathy and hearty co-operation, strive, with a noble 
unanimitf, to make it what it ought to be at no vety distant 
day, the pride and gloiy of the commonwealth. Nor will the 
State feil of its duty, whidi is to lead and encourage the peo- 
ple by such oonsiatent dealing with the institution, and such 
liberal bene&ctions, from time to time, as shall be found needful 
for the accomplishment of this great work. 

It is, also, in our power to do much, in the way of diffusing 
a knowledge of the sciences and their practical application to 
agriculture and the mechanic arts, thus contributing to the ad- 
vancement of our industry and the elevation of the working 
classes, by means of incidental instruction given in the public 
schoola 

r, ,v.l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



GENERAL REPORT. 79 

At present, a majority of the teachers are bat poorly quali- 
fied for this special work, because the fountain of such knowl- 
edge as is requisite to qualify them has, as yet, scarcely been 
opened in our State. But, with the proper development of the 
Agricultural Department of the UniYeraity, an increasing 
amount of scientific instruction in the several colleges, acade- 
mies, aud high schools, and above all, in the State Normal 
Schools, together with such an awakening and stimulation of 
teachers and people in this behalf as may be accomplished 
through the agency of the Teachers' Institutes, now quite reg- 
ularly held in nearly all portiona of the State, there should be 
a steady progress in this direction. 

In concluding our Report, we cannot forbear to urge, with 
great earnestness, the importance of this whole subject of ed- 
ucational agencies. For, if it be true that the perpetuity of 
our democratic institutions and the material prosperity of the 
commonwealth are alike dependent on the lifting up of the 
industrial pursuits to a plane of equality with the more hon- 
ored professions, and also true that this can only be secured by 
such a diffusion of scientific knowledge among the working 
classes of the people as shall make them equal masters of the 
facts and principles that underlie success in those pursuits, then 
does it logically follow that the State and every intelligent 
citizen, of whatever profession, are bound by the highest con- 
siderations of both interest and duty to do everything in their 
power, whether by means of the organized agencies herein 
considered, or by any other, to insure its early accomplish- 
ment 

With a most favorable geographical position, with resources 
at onoe vast and varied, and with a growing population of un- 
tiring enterprise and unconquerable energy, what but a lack of 
true wisdom and statesmanship, on the part of those to whom 
has been given the shaping of her general policy and the 
moulding of hex now plastic institutions, shall hinder Wiscon- 
ain fix>m the attainment^ even in this generation, of an unsur- 
paased prosperity and glory ? 

J. W. HOYT, Sucretary. 



idbyGoOgIc 



TRAJSrS ACTIONS 
WISCONSIN STATE AGEICULTUBll SOCIETY 

FOB 1861. 



D„ii„.db,Go(5glc 



idbyGoOgIc 



TRvysrS ACTIONS 
WISCONSH STATE AGRICTIITURAI SOCIETY 

FOE 1861. 
6 Aa. TranSl 



D„ii„.db,Go(5glc 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 
1 8 e 1. 



B. R HINKLEY, Summit. 



First District, — E. B. WOLCOTT, Milwadkbe; 
Second District,— HELSON DEWEY, Lancasteb ; 
Third District,— BERTiJSE PINCKNEY, Roskkdalk. 

J. W. HOYT, Madison. 



DAVID ATWOOD, Madison. 

iDDtnoiiiL mums or txtatmvt couanu ■. 
H. M BILLINGS, Highland; 
H. P. HALL, Bukke; 
0. LOFTUS MARTIN, Janesville ; 
BENJ. FERGUSON, Foi Lake; 
DAVID WILLIAMS, Spbinqfield; 
S. a DAGGETT, Milwaokek. 



n-FRIfOllERTB, K 

K W. EDQEKTON, SnimiTi 
HABTEY DURKEE, KKNOSHij 
J. F. WrLLAUD, Janesville. 



lib, Google 



AJSTNTTAL REPORT 

FOB THE YEAB 18S2. 



His JSeceSency, Edwakd Salomon, 

Governor of the ISaie of Wisconsin : 

Sir : — The Executive Committee of the Wisconsin State 
Agricultural Society, in submitting the Twelfth Annual State- 
ment of its fiscal afiaiis, would respectfully further report : 

That the past year has been even more trying to the industry 
of the State, and upon all associations and institutiona organ- 
ized for its advancement, than the year preceding. 

AQRICULTTJBAL CONDITION AND PROQBKSS. 

The wheat crop, which is, unhappily, almost the entire re- 
liance of a large proportion of our formers, in some parts of the 
State has been a serious foilure, owing to the combined causes 
of bad management, unfavorablenees of weather at the most 
important period of the season, and a partial deficiency of 
working force by reason of the large number of formers who 
have enlisted in the ranks of war. Moreover, the price of 
grain actually produced has scarcely been equal to a compen- 
sating rate for the most productive yield j while everything the 
former has been obliged to bay has cost him nearly twice as 
much as in former years. 

Two feasible remedies against a successive recurrence of like 
embarrassments surest themselves, to wit : Increased focdli- 
ties for getting the products of our agriculture to Eastern mar- 
kets, and certain material modifications of the present agricul- 
tural practice. 

The first of these remedies is the more palpable, and has al- 



;Vioo^lc 



100 STATE AGRIOULTUBAL SOCIETY. 

ready awakened so deep and active an interest in all parts of 
the West that it is highly probable that the plans for enlarg- 
ing the Erie canal, and for otherwise facilitating commercial 
relations between the eastern and western portions of the 
country will be carried into execution at an early day ; to 
which end it is earnestly hoped that the Legislature of this 
State will omit no action that may properly be taken to insure 
their success. If, in addition to the execution of these plans, 
some just regulation could be devised and enforced, by which 
our own railroads could not lawfully charge so large and un- 
limited a proportion of the market price of grain for carrying 
it from the interior of the State to the lake shore, such meas- 
ure would also materially conduce to the prosperity of the ag- 
riculture of the State, and have the cordial approbation of the 
great body of the people. 

The second remedy relates to a change in our system of 
&nning, and is therefore within the control of the fiirmers 
themselves. 

It is an established principle of agricultural science that no 
soil, however rich naturally, can produce a full crop of any 
kind, without either rotation or manure, for an indefinite suc- 
cession of years. And it is, in part, because of a practical dis- 
r^ard of this fundamental principle, that our agriculture, 
though its aggregate results are often large, is nevertbdess so 
much less productive than it should be. 

Since the early settlement of Wisconsin, wheat has been 
cultivated to the exclusion of much else that might have been 
more profitably produced, and to the serious n^lect of stock- 
growing, so essential tj the continued fertility of the soil. 
The great crop of 1860, which should have been attributed to 
unusual favorableneas of season and to the protracted droath 
of the year previous, has had the efifect to encourage a continu- 
ation of this fallacious practice, and it would seem necessaj-y 
that ftilure should succeed failure in order to an efficient cor- 
rection of the error. 

The cultivation of sorghum, which had been to some 
eiztent introduced before the commencement of the war, has 



ANNUAL REPORT— 1862. 101 

much increased ander the stiiDulation of the high prices of 
foreign-prodaced sugar and molasses, so that there is reason to 
hope that, as a State, we may ultimately produce enough of 
these articles for home consumption. As yet, however, we 
lack the means of manu&cturing refined sugar and syrup, 
tiiough it is hoped that ere long this deaideratom will be sup- 
plied by the establishment of one or more refineries within the 
boundaries of this State. 

The culture of fiax, as a means of supplying a substitute for 
cotton, is justly attracting much attention in many parts of the 
country. The State of New York has placed some |3,000 in the 
control of the State Agricultural Society to be used in securing 
a tliorough course of experimentation with a view to so " cot- 
tonizing" fiaz as that it may be manufactured by means of cot- 
ton machinery. It is not the wish of this Society that any 
appropriation be made by this Stale for a like purpose, but if 
any measure could be adopted by the Legislature to encourage 
the establishment of mills and factories for the manufacture of 
oil and the the dressing of fiax fibre, there is little doubt that 
such means would result to the advantage of the . productive 
industry of the State. 

Sheep husbandry has already felt the stimulus of the in- 
creased demand for wool, and hundreds of our farmers who 
have hitherto given little or no attention to this branch of ag- 
riculture, are now engaging in it with great zeal. The dry 
and healthful climate, and well-watered surface of WiscouMn, 
admirably adapt it to the rearing of sheep and the production 
of good wool ; while our distance from the great markets and 
the high tariff for transportation thereto, furnish another im- 
portant incentive to the production of whatever will economi- 
cally yield the largest money returns in proportion to weight 
Wool-growing should be ranked among our most important 
agricultural interests, and, as such, is eminently entitled to 
k^islatiTe protection. 

IMDUSTHLiL BDCOATION. 

Sftch succeeding year adds to our conviction tiiat one of the 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



102 STATE AGRIOULTUBAL SOCIETY. 

primary wants of the agriculture of this country is adequate 
means for the education of farmera' sons aod others in the best 
known practice, and in the ecientific principles involved 
therein. 

With a view to supply this deficiency, the intelligent agri- 
culturists of this State, together with their representatives in 
Senate and Assembly, have in years past repeatedly urged 
upon Congress the propriety of donating lands sufficient in 
quantity for the endowment of at least one institution in each 
State, where the object shall be to teach such branches of learn- 
ing as are directly related to agriculture and the mechanic arts. 
Those petitions have at last been answered, and Wisconsin 
now has it within her power to secure 240,000 acres of land 
for the endowment of such an institution. The conditions to 
he complied with to secure the grant are just and reasonable, 
and as the more immediate representatives of the industrial in- 
terests of the State, we would respectfully uige the importance 
of prompt action in acceptance of the grant, in the location of 
the lands now being rapidly taken up by individuals under 
the homestead act, and the provision of means for ensuring a 
;^I1 and satisfkctory compliance, in all respects, with the con- 
ditions of the grant We also beg to surest, that in devising 
a plan for the oi^nization of the institution, great care should 
be taken to devolve the important truat of guardianship upon 
those most directly and deeply interested in the objects con- 
templated, and that it should be protected as far as possible 
against the baleful influence of political partizanship. 

AOBICUI^TURAL SOCIETIES. 

.' Owing to the distractions of war and the enlistment of large 
numbers of those who have always been active in agricultural 
enterprises of a public character, but few county feirs have 
been held during the past year. Some of these were quite 
successful ; others have been partial fiiilurea The organiza- 
tions have generally been kept up, however, and there is a 
commendable determination on the part of nearly all to con- 
tinue thNT efforts with unfiagging zeal for the promotion of 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



ANNUAL REPORT— 1861. 108 

the important objects for wfuoh they were established. So- 
cieties of tliis class are the means of great good, and it is hoped 
that nothing will be done bj the Legislature to curtail their 
usefulneaa 

The State AgP-'^T^^*'"^ Society still Buffers embarrassment 
from the distracted condition of the country ; on account of 
which condition and of entire exclusion from its exhibition 
gronnds, (now Camp Randall), we were again compelled to 
postpone the holding of the accustomed Annual Fair ; and the 
Society is thus, for the second year, deprived of this source of 
income. Moreover, the State has now entirely withdrawn ihe 
tud it has heretofore rendered to the agricultural inteieate 
through this medium ; so that the Society is now either com> 
pelled to close its doors and cease its kbors, or to maintain its 
existence at the expense of individual officers, whose long de- 
votaon to, and appreciation of its objects makes them unwilling 
that it should become extinci ] 

The Society should, at some time, realize something from 
the sale of its fiiir ground improvements to the General Gov- 
ernment, but no portion of the amount due has yet been paid, 
nor are we eQcoun^;ed by our agent at Washington to confi- 
dently hope that it will b& Should this claim be cancelled by 
the Government, the Society would be enabled at once to set- 
tle its outatandmg obligations and leave the Treasury unem- 
barrassed by debt ; but on the other hand, should this claim 
not be paid at once, the burden of sustaining the Society must 
fall heavily upon the few who have its interests in official 

From the report of the Treasurer, herewith submitted, it will 
appear that the small fraction of what should have been the 
appropriatioD to the Society for the year 1862, has been, in 
part, expended in oanying on the office business of the society ; 
a use, which though not originally comtemplated by the law, 
has, nevertheleBB, to the Society appeared warrantable, under 
the circumstances, and will no doubt be sanctioned by the 
State. 
In every one of the now loyal States of the Union thca« ex* 



liA'Oti'^lc 



104 STATE AGEIOULTURAL SOCIETY, 

ists either a board of agricultare or a. state agricaltaral so- 
ciety, Bustained, in part, by appropriations from the public 
treasury ; and in no one of them, except Wisconsin, has it 
been deemed the dictate of wisdom, in these timea when noth- 
ing appears more likely to insure the success of the national 
cause than the superior resources of the Northern States, to 
curtail the usefulness of its chief agricultural organization by 
an entire withdrawal of the aid it has been customary to afford 
in times when the efforts of that organization were less impera- 
tively demanded than now. 

It is not the intention of the Executive Committee to claim 
that the State Agricultural Society is the only agency by 
which this State may efficiently supervise its industrial re- 
sources, but they do respectfully urge that no state govern- 
ment may wisely omit, by means of some central and compe- 
tent agency, directly and tinintemiptedly to exercise such su- 
pervision. 

THE WOBLD'3 INDOSTEIAL EXHIBITION. 



During the spring and snmmer months, it was the privilege 
of tbe undersigned, in the two-fold capacity of Delegate from 
the State Agricultural Society and State Commissioner, to at- 
tend the third of what bids fair to be a continued series of in- 
ternational exhibitions of industry and art — tbe first having 
been held at London in 1851, the second at Paris in 1865, the 
third, and last, also at London. What the county exhibition 
is to the county, and our anaual exhibitions are to the State, 
that same are these national exhibitions to all the world — with 
tbia advantage in their favor, namely, that, owing to the remote- 
ness of tbe the nations from each other and the differences of 
language, customs and laws, the nations have less facility ibr 
learning from each other, except through extraordinary means, 
such as these grand industrial reunions, than hare the individ- 
uals which compose a county, or the counties which constitute 
astata 

The Exhibition of 1862 has proven an unparalleled success, 
hairing brou^t together a greaUy increased number of nations, 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



ANNUAL REPORT— 1862. 105 

people and products, or^ ikoSe of 1851 and 1856, each oS 
which — the first one in particular — was deemed, and was, a 
most marrellous saccess in its time. Nearly erery Jdngdom, 
principality and power was represented by its prodncty, as well 
as people, and the opportunity for stadying the condition and 
progress of the oatioos of the world was therefore complete. 

To new countries, naturally well endowed, and desirous of 
increased population, the Exhibition afforded a rare opportu- 
nity for bringing their advantages permanently and effectually 
before the world ; on which account, as well as for many other 
reasons, it is to be profoundly regretted that America was not 
more worthily represented. The United States, notwithstand- 
ing the war, was able to show, and should have shown, capaci- 
ties and powers each as are not dreamed of in the Old World, 
and which would hare gone very far towards compelling a too 
reluctant respect, and securing at least that nnqoalified and 
absolute neutrality and non-intervention, if nothing more, of 
which we DOW seem likely to feil 

The belief is prevalent throughout Europe, especially in 
England, that a thorough, practical and permanent suppression 
of the rebellion of the Southern States is altogether improba- 
ble, if not indeed impossible ; and inasiQach as these European 
nations ^ncy themselves selfishly more interested in the cotton 
than in the manufacturing States, and are, moreover, much 
more strongly in sympathy with the aristocratic sentiment 
which prevails throughout the former than with the democratic 
ideas which prevail in the North, it is hardly surprising tiiat 
they should easily credit the reports of our enemies touching 
the inability of the government to overpower them and re- 
establish the union of all the States. If, therefore, instead of 
the 153 exhibits made by this country, of the 25,000 made 
by all, we had made a demonstration proportionate to our real 
ability — which was much less impaired by the war than for- 
eign nations supposed — the felse notions entertained by them 
of our straitened and crippled condition would have been 
measQiably corrected. 

Ab it was, enough was done by the few exhibiton of 



j.A'OO'^lc 



106 STATE AGEICULTITRAI SOCIETY 

macbiaeiy and implemeiits from the United States to re-affim 
and pretty well establish our supremaoj io this mosb import- 
ant of all the departments of national induBtrj. To have 
given to the world the combined reaper and mower, the cot- 
ton-gin and the sewing machine, and to hare made good oar 
title to these by such improvements from year to year as 
maiotaia their unqaestioaed saptuiority over all imitations of 
tiiem by foreign inventors, of itself secares to America a most 
enviable position among the progres^ve nations of the world, 
and, daring the 0reat Exhibition, enabled the American 
visitor to bold np his head, notwithstanding the meagreness of 
oar general display. 

The resalt of a oriUcal examination, by competent judges 
and hy the international juries, has shown that American pre- 
eminence is not confined to superiority in the these utilitarian 
inventions, however, but that even in the quality of our pianos 
and of some of our works of art our chiim to superiority is 
equally good. 

All in all, it is well that something was done to give the 
United States a footing in this great indoatrial exhibition, and 
too much praise can hardly be bestowed upon the few enter- 
prising gentlemen who, in delault of a national demonstration, 
so bravely took upon themselves the responsibility and labor 
of making at least a very partial representation of American 
industry. 

J. W. HOYT, 
Seeretary Wiseontin i^te ArieuUural SodOy. 



^d by Google 



ANNUAL REPORT— 1862. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



To t/ie SxtaOke CimrnUa of Oe Wilanum Stale Apvuiliiiral Sodt^ : 

I hare the honor to report the tranaactloos of the treaaary of tbe Wiacon- 
sia State Agrienltanl Society, for the fiackl jeai ending De^eniber 10, IBS9, 

BEC£IFTS. 

Dec. 11, ISai, To amouDt of baUnce ae per tut report,.. . fl 09 

Feb. 7, I8S2, amount of State bond, 90B 00 

Varchl, 18S2, amount recetred on State appropriatJon, 713 SO 

ti,<iB se 

DISBUBSKMENTa 

ToW. A. HajcB, astaiaoFair Gronnde (£7 IS 

To B. R. Hmktej, for eipeasei t» member of Eieentive 

Committee and bills paid, 12S 2S 

To Benj. Fergaion, for eipensea Incurred aa member of 

Eiecntive (Jommittee !□ ISSl, sa 80 

To W. F. Porter, on rent of Agricultural Booms for 1B61, . lEO 00 

To J. W. Hojt, DDMlaryduein ifel, 700 00 

To J. W. Hoft, on salary due in ISflS, B80 00 

For InddenUale, 4 79 

$1,688 oa 

Balance in treasar; December 10, 1868 $80 8* ' 

DAVID ATWOOD, 
- Tnatitra- StaU Agriaillural SatiHf. 



NOTICE TO THE pObLIC. 

StATB Aaucin.Tn&ii. Books, 

April eth, ises. 

In the exercise of the privilege granted me by tbe EzecutiTe Committee, 
I have accepted the appointment tendered by Hia EicelleDcy, AJex. W. Ban- 
dkll, QoTsmor, u Commiaiioner for WlBConsin (o the Exhibition of the In- 
dustry of all Nations, to be held at London, England, from Hay lit to Oct. 
1st, and, this morning, leare for Stw York, m rrafa for London. Until mj 
letarn, the office of tbe State A^DoItaral Society will be dowd. 

J. W. HOTT, Btatlanr. 



Cgui^db.QoOgic 



STATE AGEIOXJLTUItAL SOdETY. 



EXEOTTTIVE MEETING-. 



SPECIAL SESSION. 

SSATI AoUOULTintlL BOOMB. 

ILu>iB(», Jul; It, 1BS2. 

Punnuit to ■ can of (he PreBldent for a Bpectal Ueetiog of the Eiecutirc 
Oonunittse, the foUovIng members were present : 
B. B. Hinkle;, DsTid WiUisme, I)*Tid ACwood, 8. S. Daggett, and Beuj. 

B. K. HioUe;, Pretident, in the chair. 

The Preaident ^tsted the ot^ect ol the meeting to be to determine wheth- 
er the SocIet7 ahonld, this jear, hold a Fair. Ha also gave an aocouit of the 
fcctlon of himgelf aod the TreasuTer, in ttie diepoaai of the Fair Qroundg at 
XadlaoD, to the State QoTerDment for militarj purpoBea. 

After a free dlscos^on of the propiiet; of boldiog an eihibltlon, in which 
the present eondttton of the coantrf, growing oat of the war, was comment- 
On motion of Hr. Williams, It was DnaDlmooal; 

Snolnd, 1. That tfae Eiecatire Committee of the State Agricoltaral So- 
•let; deem it Inexpedient to attempt the holding an eihibitioa dnring the 
fcetent ;ear. 

StiiAed, 1. That the doings of the President and Treamrer, !□ disposing 
•f the interest of the Bociet; in the Ftdr QroQnda,at Madisoo, to the State, 
are hereb; approred. 

On motion of Itr, Daggett, it waa 

Smolvtd, That, in view of the present condition of the flnanoes of the 8o- 
ciet;, and the ancertaint; when it will be possible to resume the holding of 
Its accustomed eibibitiona, and in contideratioD of the Secretary's expres- 
sed preference that his salsr; be either reduced for the present or entirel; 
disoontlnued, the said salar; Is hereb; fixed at (1000 per aanom fhtm aodu- 
ler the first da; of Januar;, ISSi. • 

The President laid twfore the committee a proposition n«m Qeo. R. Cbft- 
tonden, Eaq., prapodng to donate a Wheeler & Wilson's Sewiag Kachine for 
tba beat specimen of work, done npon that kind of a naohine, ihowti at the 
■exi Nr. 



I v'^'Otl'^IC 



EXECUTIVE MEETINGS. 109 

Voted, That the thkuhs of the Sooietj be teodsied to Mr. Olutteiid«ii, 
whoie geoerotiB otTer iniiBt be declined on acconnt of the resolution for a 
poitponement of tLe aihibition jiut idoptsd. 

On mation of Ht. WillUuuB, the oonunitte adjourned mw die. 

B. K. HINKLET, Fntidml. 

E. B. Qnim, SeeretarypnUm. 



MEMORANBUM. 

Btati AsRiciFLTDmu. Boons. 
If ADiBOH, Sept. eth, is«a. 
After an abienoe of jost five monthg, dnring which time J hare okrefhUf 
studied the great exhibition at London — the grandest g^tbering hitherto 
witneesed of the products and people of ail laoda — and made a some«h*t 
extended tonr of obsemtloD, industrial and edncational in ita character, 
through France, Switzerland, Germanj, Frueaia, Belgium, England, Scot- 
land and Ireland, I haia this da^ retnnied to find tb« dark doad of war sttU 
reeting upon mj native luid, and that the holding of an industrial ei- 
bibitioD in Wisconsin, this jear, has been voted impraatioable hj the Eiec- 
utive Committee of the State Agricultural Sodetj. 

J, W. HOYT, I 



StATI AOBICDLtCBAL ROOKS, 

Dec. 10, isea. 
Committee met as required bj the Bj-Laws. 

Present— He ears. Hinklej, Atwood, D. Williams, Hall, Ferguson and Hoyt, 

President Hlnklej in the cbur. 

Oa cult, the Seeretarv gave a brief aecoont of what he had sought to ac- 
complisb in Europe, and consented to comply with the Committee's requMt 
for tbe preparation of a more detailed account of the International Sihibl- 
(ioa and of his trHTcle in the 7th Volume of Transactions. 

The Treasarer made his Beport for thp flscal year ending with thil date, 
[see page 107] ; 

Which, after a careful examination b; the committee was nnanimooslr ap- 

In response to Inqniries concerning the disporition of tbe Fair Orounda, 
the Preddent made tbe following statement of facte: 

"It baring become apparent that the war mnet be one of some years' con- 
tinuaooe, so that it would be out of the question to hold annual exhibitions 
on the Society's gnniiids until alter the return of peace \ and it being hlgfalj 
ImportaDt, moreoTCr, that tbe treasury of the Society be replenished fi«m 
eotoe source, it seemed to me best that an eflbrt be made to luduce the gen- 
eral goTCmment to pnrcbase the Improrementa belonging to the Society, tmt 
really occupied by the United States. 



j.A'OD^Ic 



STATE AaBICnLT0BAL SOOIETT. 



ieir of lijiag this matter berore thsm uid determining ap- 
oa wbat courM to pursue. 

"The n amber of Dieinbera ih attendaaca was not large, but the decUIon wu 
unaDimoQi that the improve me uta ihontd be sold, aod the President and 
Treasurer were appointed a committee to toake dispositian of tbem Co the 
beet adTantoge of tbe Bocletj. 

"In the perfonnance of this duty the committee iraited upon Che Q. U. 
Geaeral of the State and endeavored to Becurea utiafactor; eettlement vith 
him. He fell unwilling, however, to acknowledge the whole amount of the 
SiMilet7'i claim, andaocordingljit wai agreed that the amonot to be audited 
■hoald be determined b; arbitration, and A. A. UcDonnel and H. A. Tenney 
were chosen as the parties who, togetherwith a third to be selected b; them, 
ehonld e»mine the Society's books and property and settle the amount that 
oaght to be pud b; the governmeDt. These gentlemen selected Simeon 
UIU as the third member of the board of appraisement, and after a 
careful investigation, agreed that the value of the Society's Fair Qrounds 
inpravements was tl,96S 2S ; which sum the^ recommended ba allowed b; 
the ftnthoricies of the United States. 

" The Q. H. General approved of this decisioQ knd put the claim for that 
account in the wa; of collection. Up to this date, however, nothing has beeu 
received by tlie Treaaarer, and we are unable to determine the cause of the 
delay. The balance sheet of the Treasurer reveals the necessity that exists 
for its payment, and I recommend that tbe Secretary ap4re no pains to se- 
cure a settlement at the earliest da^ praotlcable." 

The Secretary stated that he had already sought, by enquiry at the ofBce of 
the Q. H. fleneral, and by correspondence with the War and Treasury De- 
partments, to learn the cause of non-payment, bot as yet, with no satisfacto- 
ry results. 

After the settlement of sundry claims against the Society, by secnring 
postponment of demand, on motion. 

The Oomnittee a^jotmed mm dit, 

3. W. HOTT, Siertiarf. 



ANNTTAL MEETING OF SOCIETY. 



Fnrtnant to the reqnirenenta.of the Oonst^Itution, the Wisoonsin State 
Agricultural Society met in their rooms this day at 8 o'olook P. H. 

President B. R. Hinklej in the chair. 

Hie attendance waslarger than at any previous meeting since the modifl- 
eatlon of the constitution requiring the election to be held at and dnriog the 
Annual Fair. 

The President made a general statement of the transactions of the officers 
ef the Society, daring the year, inclading the sale of the improvements 
•n the Fair Oronnds to the general government for the amount of t4,eS6 98. 

The Treasurer reported the total receipt* for the year as being |l,4tB M ; 
(be expendltnree tl,BSB OS. 

[See ■talement reported to the QoTernor, on page lOT.] 



j.,Coot^[c 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. Ill 

The B«erat«r7 retd the ootice, filed ud publiahed b; hln, one jeu «go, of 
ftu Intent to offfer an amendment, et tbJi meeting to article V. of the Oonitl- 
tatlon. 

[See minutes of Annul Heettng of 18St, on page 98.] 

Hen. Simeon XiUe mored to strike ont of the propoead amendment the 
vorda "shall be notified bftbe Seoretarj in the pobllo newapapers of the 
State, at least twentjdajs before snoh election, "and tabstltnte in lien there- 
of the following, to wit : " shall be diBtiaotlr notified bj the Eieoative Com- 
«lttee, In all the published programmes of the Annual Fair." 

Which was adopted. i 

When, on motion, the amendment as amended was ananimousl; adiqited. 

On motion of S. D. Hastings, the Society a<yonrned *uw /u. 

J. W. HOIT, Smnlarg. 



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STATE ASEICnLTUBAL SOCIETY. 



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GLIMPSES OF WESTERN EUROPE. 



To Om SxKtt&m CemruOu of At Wueontm Stale Jjp^iealtufl Soeitlg : 

Oxnixual: — Ficdlng it'coiiTenient, while in Europe, u jDurdeleg&te and 
&B Sute ConuniBaioner to tlie London Intemationkl Exhibition of 1B6S, to 
spend a little time in miking ttneeessioii of rapid toara tbrongh portions of 
Weitera Europe, I huve the honor m f>r to comply with jonr reqaeat for a 
report of obserrationB made u to eobmlt, from my notea of tr&Tsl uid ei> 
perieaoes at London, Buch portioaa aa are likely to Interest yon becauH of 
thiiir bearing apoo industrial, educational and social queetioni in which I 
know we feel a commoa Intereet: 

UVBBPOOL TO LONDON. 

Ami as, lees. 

At last, I stand, once more, on Itrra ,^rma— the five days of fbriuns Btorm 
and the no lees relentless demon of sea-sirkness behind me. This, then, is 
the Old World, whence my aneeetora went out more than two hundred years 
ago, little dreaming that they were the destined foandera of an empire wliich, 
before the year of oar Lord 1900, would be mightier than any the world had 
hitherto seen. And this is Liverpool, famous for its oommeroe with all Ibe 
countries oo ttte globe. OCT, in the morning, for London. 

Homing's here. The railway depot and train are the only essentially for- 
eign objects yet aeen. Each coach isdirided into three apartments. In each 
apartment there are two aeats fadng each other like the front and backseats 
of a Bta^e coach, and long enough to accommodate four persons each. There 
are no nioTeable windows except in the doors on eitber side, in which there 
is a pane of glass, let ap or down by a strap, stage-coach fashion. Of course 
Tsntilation is more difflculC and the getting np and moving about to rest one's 
aeif,- or to look up a friend on the train is out of the question. Id some of 
the coaches — perhaps in all — the luiddle apartment is Died for baggage ; in 
which particular the arrangement is quite convenient, as one's luggage can 
be more easily looked after. Trne to the Eaglish idea of caste, the coaches 
arelabelled "First Olass, " "BecondClaas,"aiid "Third Glass." First class 
coaches are comfortabij ccsbloDed, secood class coaches favored witb a kind 
of half cu^ioD of leather, citendiDg about half the width of the seat from 
the front, with leatber at the back, and third class ooaohes are furnished with 
bare beaches. The fare in the first class is one third to one -half higher than 
the regular fare in the United States, in the sccoDd class about equal to regu- 
lar U. S. fare, in the third class about one third less. The engines are plun, 
bungling looking things, in strong contrast with the fine locomotives of 
America. But when I oome to speak of the road Itself, I have none but 
words of commendation. BubAantial in coostructlon, and eicellen^in all 
its appointments. ' 

The route to LondoD presents a succession of chaming pictures -even ail 
the more plaasing and grateful because of the snow asd ice but so recently 

8 Ao. TsANa 



l;A'Ol>'^IC 



114 STATE AGKICULTURAl SOCIETY, 

1«n Id Americs. Out of mid-irinter, u bf a aiagls step, into tbe montb of 
Juns. Bekiitifal, rerd&Dt metdoirB and putaree, " ipotCed with fire kod gold 
In the tint of flowers ; " sleek, fat Durham ottie, and Leicester sheep lyiog 
on the banks of beautiful streams and on the Telret kuolis, or wading iti the 
tsll grass ; gardeners cnltiTatlng their cabbsEes, beets, onions and beani ; 
farmers hoeliie their wheat and piloting their later spring crops ; with coi; 
cottages, handsomer gentlemen's residences and lordif castles, and new and 
thriviDg, or gloom; old cities and Tiilages— tfaelr moss-grown walls and tuT' 
rets carrjlng one back a thousand jean— all along the way, make tbe jour- 
ney of Sl>R miles seem at once but a league and tbe stretch of a continent. 
The five bonra and fort; minutes occupied in making the run are soon passed, 
and, ere aware of it, I am in London, tbe great metropolis of tbe world. 

ExHisiTTon PiLACJ, Maj 1. 

Here at tait, in this rast temple dedicated to the indtistriai progress of the 
the world. Crossing H;de Park, I could bardlj beiiere that its loft;, far- 
distant, crystal domes were parts of one and the same b-^iildiog. Present 
myself at tbe office of tbe Rojal Comnjigion, where I am cordiall; received and 
tendered such facllitiss as are requisite to a pleasant and profitable attend- 
ance upon the Exhibition. 

The interior of the palace is at once grand and heautiftal ; tbe lofty naTe 
and transepts not only affording opportunities for the most Impressive displays 
of representivo products, but likewise those far-reaching viataawbich a build- 
ing of this eonatraction alone could give. And then tbe arrangement la 
caTculated to heighten tbe effect and fill the mind of the t>eholder with wonder 
and awe, as presenting, not simply a rDiititude of the most attractive pro- 
ducts of all lands, but the great wonderful world itself, in microcosm. 

Tbe long waited for hour of opening was ushered in with a pomp and mag- 
nificence well suited to tbe occasion, and now, with its glitter and glory of 
state pageant, its devout pra;er to tbe Giver of All Good, its soblime music 
by an orchestra of two thousand four hundred singers and instrumental per- 
formers, and its tbauder of cannon, is numbered with tbe great events of 

America is here only Beml-oCBciail; and occupying one-tenth of tbe spaca 
she ought to have filled. Hr, Holmes, the C. B. Agent, has labored lealoudy 
and miide tbe most of tbe material at command. Uany of oar exhibitors 
have been greatly behind in getting their valuable contributions here and 
will probably lose the opportuniy of baring tbeui examined by tbe juries. 
Why 1* it that our thorough -going, wide-awake Yankees are everlastingly be- 
hind time on all anch occBsiona T Probably not a few only commenced bu'id- 
Ing tbeir woo der- working maobines after they ought really to faave beelt 

e anted In the palace. Tbe trouble is; Jonathan of necessity keeps so man; 
ons in the Gre that sotoe of them are very apt to bum. He has too much 
to do ; while Joba ha« too mo^ to do ; that's tbe dlBbrence. 

OFF FOB THE CONTINENT. 

After some two weeks, spent chiefly In the Exhibition, witb occasional ex- 
oorslona into London, which, in itself, is a world condensed, during which 
time there have been such constant accesaions to tbe Exhibition, in the form 
of new arrivali of goads ttom every part of the world, that il seemed better 
to defer the work of tboroUEh Inspection and comparison for a time, I deter- 
Otined to take a look at uie world on the other aide of the channel, re- 
turning vbeo tbe Exhibition la fwrlv ready aad the weather better eatab- 
llahed. 

Hat IB.— Offaceording to programme, bound for Paris, via Southampton, 
Havre and Rouen. * * Eoutbero counties of England neither so hand- 
tome nor Bo well cultivated as the western. LMnd quite wet from recent raina. 
Crops looking badly. Bouthampton an uninteresWng town Have taken a 
little steamer, (built after an ^ericas model), and am skimming over the 
water of (he bay deligbtfuUy; pasung fortifications, tbe fine Netley Nary 



I v'^'Otl'^IC 



GLIMPSES OF WESTBEN EUBOPB. 115 

HoBpltel, lordly m&naloDB tod distant Ti)l>ge>, on n; wky to thtt baantitiil 
IbIg of Wight, on whoie aooannt I cHue thi» route. Vojags of twantj-tiro 
miles ended before noon, mod we lead at West Cowes, leavloK Bjde and tb* 
channel fleet, at Spltbew), to the left 

First of all, I must visit the Osborne Htate of tbe Qoeen and paj mj re- 
spects to Her Hqjestj. And ss tbe weather is perfect and mj mood a little 
dreamy, will start Dp tbe hill on foot. * * Osborne i» indeed a loTely 
•pot. The estate embraces about S,000 acres, enclosed with a paling of 
boards, opright and lapped, w> as to shot ont all hope of obtnitiTe peeplnfs- 
in. Entrance labstaDtial and tanteful. Palace, bniltot ahandBome free-atone, 
in plnio but elegant English style. Bituatad on an eminence, its two square 
towers are TielblF from a long digtance ; rumishlng, substantial, nnostenta- 
tfous; grounds, tastefully laid oat, with beantlful gravel walk* and oarriaga 
ways winding through Tslvet lawns and shady groves. Tbe Queen being ab- 
sent In ScotUnd, loses tbe honor of a call from one of her warmest admirers. 

From Osborne, through fragrant groves to Whlppingham Chapel, (Prince 
Albert's favorite,) tbence to Newport and Carrisbroolt G»stle, (famona for 
haviog been the place where CharleB tbe First was im prisoned), and tbence, 
by a most delightful route on the west «de of the river, past Honej-Hil), 
Ournaid aod other little villages, to Gurnard Bay, and so along tbe beach to 
the harbor of Cowee, arriving in time for the evening boat to Soutbampton. 
It would hardly be possibla to OToitd more quiet, sweet enjoyment of nature, 
art and rural life Into one day. 

Agriculturally considered, the Isle of Wight presents but little that la 
wortby of notice. The soil is variable— In some parts of the Island a deep 
hard clay, in others a calcareous and flinty gravel. The crops are evidently 
not very large, Ibough the cultivation is good. A number of tile factories 
supply good tile for thorough drainage. Of all public improvements, the 
roads appeared most remarkable. They are mostly narrow, but the smooth- 
est and handsomest I ever Mw. Enclosed with beautiful green bedges all 
the way, substantially macadamised, with a surrace as smooth as any sanded 
garden walk, and, furthermore, without any of those miserable ditches which 
mi^e mast roads in Amerioa bo nnpleasant and nnsafe, they afforded constant 
pleasure, and made my afternoon pedestrianation of 14 miles seem bnt a 
ungle hour's promenado in some delightful park. 

A pleasant passage across tbe cbaooel—a thing never heard of before — to 
Havre, in whose active commercisl streets I 6r8t touch tbe soil of tbe Conti- 
nent, and find my quick questions as promptly answered iu a foreign tongue. 
Host rub up my Preoch a little, or I shall be taken for an Englishman. 

Up tbe Yillev of tbe Seine by rail, through the garden-like fields and or- 
chards of old Itarmandy. Once an independent power, giving kings to Eng- 
land, and thus putting her stomp upon the compotite race whence ve Ameri- 
cans have sprung— fouQ ding Quebeu, and planting her colonies not only on 
the St. Lawrence, but also in South America, and on many islands of tbe 
sea — famous in story wherever and so long as the history of the Romans and 
the Northmen, and tbe names of William tbe Conqueror, of Charlotte Corday 
and Joan of Arc ore known — now a quiet, loyal portion of tbe French Em- 
pire. Kouen I) announced. I stop for the night. A fine old city, pretty 
well shut in by distant bills; interesting for Its old Gothic churches 
of nearly a thousand years, and for many historic events. 

And now for the Queen City of the world. A glarlaus Sunday morning. 
Shall attend divine service iu tbs grand old Kotre Same * * Beautiful 
fields, gardens andgroveB— more frequent and more elegant honses — princely 
manrions— a thousand church spires, and tbe glitter of a vast and brilliant 
city— Paris I 

Out of the rain and fog, snd smoke, aod everlasting jam, in the narrow, 
cruwded streets of overgrown, hard-working London, into tbe clear sunshine 
of Paris, with Its broad avsnnes, beautiful gardens, charming fountains, deep 
shady woods, magnificent public works, monuments and statues, all mads 
more brilliant and enchanting by the gay and bappy mood of the pleasure- 
taking and pleasure- making population, what a change 1 I con hardly realise 



j.A'OO'^lc 



116 STATE AGRIOULTITRAL SOdETT 

It, and fiad iDTMlf ukf ng, " Ii not this, kfler kit, > fairy dream, wUcb wilt 
leare me, at the iraklag, itill io the midet of gloomy London, elbowing my 
way to the Hreat Eihibition 1" 

i)nrlng my stay of a week, I have witaened do calliaiitD of man with bit 
fellow, heard no bard words, and not once been aaked for kIdii. Alwaya 
<^srfu1, affable, approachable and polite, tbey seem to require nothing bot 
* little more solidity and a profounder religioue Bcnliment to make them the 
most agreeable people to live among in the world. 

Hapoleon nnderatands them well, and admirably adapts his ad mini at ration 
to their peculiar traits of charaoCer — Bcbieviog gtory for the Empire by bis 
feata of arms, adding, by means of the most prodigal expenditures, to the 
transcendant beauty and attractiveaesa ol the capital, snd at the same 
time holding them to their places by tbe no yielding reins of a strong goT- 
emment. If he oan financier his treasury into a more sound and happy 
oondition, I see' no reason why be may not encceed in establisbiog quite a 
permanent Napoleonio dynasty. 

But I hare not forgotten, io the midst of all tbs daxzliug splendor of the 
eonrt and city, that the chief object of my visit to France was ratbdr to get 
some idea of the industry of the country. 

Thus far Ibe agriculture has been a surprise— better than expected. Kore 
beautiful Gelds of wheat, rve. oats, sanfoin, IccGrne and potatoes I have nev- 
er seen. There are beautilnt bedgea along the railway and around the dwel- 
lings, but otherwise no enclosureg for miles. 

fntrreatiug cicuraiouB to VersaillCB, St. Cloud, St. Denia, and professional 
Tigita to the Agricultural School at Orignon, the Veterinary School at Al- 
fort. the Boyal Polytechnic and other inatitutiona— of which I may aometime 
publish an aocount — and good bje to the great capital. 

PARIS TO GENEVA, VIA LYONS. 

FoDtidnebleau, where tbe kings and emperors of France, tSnee the dnysof 
Louis VIL, bare delighted tbemselTei with- the beautiful scenery of the 
place, the splendid works of art, and the exciting sports of, tbe wood, is a 
peep at paradise. No wonder I lingered by its beautiful lakes and streams, 
and wandered by moonliglit in itsmajeatic, glorious wood until the mute 
■tat ues and half- hashed birds were my only companion a and the iron gates 
were closed I The gardens and fountains, too, are lovely — partly a la Ver- 
aaillea, partly unique. 

The Palace occupies ten or twelve acres of ground, and though not so 
grand in Its external as tbe Louvre and tbe Tulileriee is oeverthelesa mag- 
nificent and gorgeously decorated within; a favorite with Napoleon the 
Great aod Josephine. 

• • • Down the beautiful Saone, (pronounced Sone,) stopping at DTjon 
and Chalons-BUr-Baono. Crops of grain and grass looking well, though the cul- 
tivation is hardly as good as In Northwestern France. Tlie vine ahowa itaelf 
on the way, clothing many fields and all the Tavcrable hill aides. It is look- 
ing splendidly and gives good promiee of a great crop. The grass crop is 
about half cut, and the wheat ie perceptibly beginning to change its shade of 
deep green to a brighter hoe. Scenery oo tbe Saone, much of it, very beauti- 
ful ; rivalling, it ia aaid, that on the Rhine, which 1 have yet to aee. 

Lyons! the great silk city of Europe; numbering some 700 targe eatab- 
llahments where it is manufactured. It waa theae manufactorlea that brooeht 
me all these 819 miles from Paris, and I feel well repaid for the journey. The 
city itself is well worth a visit, bein^ one of the bandaomeat, as well as one 
of tbe most popaloua in France. It is located at the junction of tbe Saone 
with the Bbone, lying between and on both aides of these charming rivers. 
Tbe Rhone is crossed by elgbt fine stone and auspenaion bridges, the Saone 
by nine. Population, including the auburba, about 2T&,D00. On tbe north 
^de, lies a mountain, from the top of which, in a clear day, the summit of 
Hont Blanc, though distant an hundred miles, iasaid to bedlMioctlj visible. 
The process of silk manufacture la most interesting. Bilka of every pattern 



liA'Oti'^lc 



GLIMPSES OK WESTERN EUROPE. 117 

and color In the thaasanda of loomi — til worked by buid and foot. Vltit ths 
TetortnaiT School. Spend tba Sondaf. Qnuid mEIitary reriew. • • « 

A delightful ride sloag tbe banks of tbe vild blae Khone bag brougbt me 
veil nigh to Qenera, gem of thu HonnCain Repablio. 

Well, m; tonr tbrongh France baa been eiceedingl j aatiBfactorj — has firea 
me enlarged Tievs of her resourcel and progreu, and probablj' a JuBter idea 
of both people and goTemment. The empire ia alire and r«K)la(e. A. nalioD 
irith a Napoleon at tbe head, Infnsiag and diffuuag bis oirn aubitioo and 
fierj energj everfwhere, could not long be a dozine nation if it would. 

The aspect of the conntrj is remarkably dlverained ; the aections through 
which Sow her fonr great riTere, (the Seine, tbe Loire, the Oarrone, and the 
Rhone), preeeiitiug some of the finest ecanery in the world — )iroad cultivat 
ed fields, with here and there grovea and hearj bodies of timber, beantlful 
sloping rineyarda, and grand old monntaina, crowned with evergreen foreatii 
or never-melting snows. Her climate, too, ie unsurpassed,— oool in the north, 
adapted to the growth of the cereals; mild and equable in the centi^l 
portions, where tbe viuefiourisbes best; dry and hot in tbe olive regions or tbe 
south. Her industry bears evidence of progress in every department. Agri- 
culture here, as everywhere, is behind, ^et advancing. Yankee implements 
and a little Ysnicee ffumplion are needed. Btill, a country that produces an 
annual crop of £86,000,000 bushels of wheat, 65,000, 000 of rye, fiO,000,OI}0 
of barleir, 14,000,000 of oats, anO.OOO.OOO bushels of potatoes, 900,000,000 
gallons of Wine, 800,000,000 lbs. of beet sugar, |£0,000,000 worth of utk 
and honey, together with mueb else, and that numbers S,000,000 horses, 12,- 
000,000 cattle, 3l>,000,000 sheep, 1,000,000 muleB, 5,000.000 swineaud 1,000,- 
000 goats may justly olaim pretty respectable rAok among the prodaeing king- 
doms of the world. 

But the whistle of the locomotive and the shout of " Geneva I" from the 
train attendants, put an abrupt termination to my calculations and rBveiiee. 
* ■ " Dp with the rising sun, I sally forth to see whether I am to be dit- 
appointed. * ' Na With LakeLeman (GeoeTa)on tbe north, themonn- 
tiins of Eavoy (late a part of Sardinia) and tbe picturesquB valley of the 
Rhone on the south, the Jnra mountaine on tbe west, and the majestic Alps, 
crowned by Uont Blanc, on the esst, there is probably no city in Europe of 
superior natural interest and attractiveness. After a stay of two days, 
climbing the Jura, riding on the lake, watcbing tbe dashing heaveo-blue waters 
of the river which divide the city and furai^ power for its mills and mann- 
fnctoricB, and last of all looking into tbe mysteries of watch-making, I am 
every hour more loth to leave. Dut Uont Blauo is beyond, standing m^estio 
behind the veil of clouds which unhappily obscure his face, and provokes me 
to the task of climbing tbe mountains which lie between. 

A0B0S3 THB ALPS TO UAETIONT. 

■ * * * Day-dawn fonnd me just enteringthe beautiful valley 
of Cluies — oue of the luost charming little gnrden vales I ever saw. Rich 
crops of wheat, barley and grass were bending under the weight of fruit and 
dew, the morning birds were carolling their sweet songs, the matin bell of tbe 
village church, by a mysterious echo chimed its anthem as it were ttom the 
clouds, and the finger of Aurora was upon tbe tops of the mountains. Oh, it 
wan a morning to be remembered forever I 

Arrived at Closes— a very little town of perhaps BO houses, immediately at 
the entrance of a narrow defile, which separates two converging ranges 
of ihe Alps — I halted, bathed, slept ; breakfasted and dined together, and at 
noon resumed my jonmey. The day was one of God's best — the way ae en- 
chanting as imagination oonld picture— smooth ss a fioor, shaded by trees on 
either side, winding along the banks of the milky Arve, and overhung by 
rocky ribs of the mountain, more than two thousand feet aivove. Near the 
little village of Uaglan was passed the eataraot of Arpenai, which leaps fVom 
a projecting rock BOO feet hlsh, touching but once lu ita way and, then 
oqI; to fill tlie air with its Jeweled, snowjr spraj and set a rainbow of (^ory on 
lis front. 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



118 STATE AQBIOCITUKAL SOCIETY. 

Just at eye. whlla yet the Ban w*i liDgtnDg upon the mountain's icj p«afc, 
mud gilding the river and vallej with a soft and mellaw light, I eanie aaddea- 
Ij in riew of Ballanuhe, its charmiiig clnater of white houBea resting ao aweet- 
\j in the far-teaching ahadow of th« maantaiD abore. Another tarn in the 
*>;, and there was liont Blanu I clothed iu his jeweled robee of everloetlsg 
■cow and crowned with ice that ahaJl be hia coronet while time endures. Ana 
there he stands before me now, as it were the throne of Heaven's H^jeetj, 
tbe " Great White Throne" of hii final Judgment i Serene and awful, let 
me be illeat in thv presence, OUoantain of the Almighty 1 *' * * 

Uj last Jottings left mo still at Saint Martin's, on the open porch of mj 
franco-English host, looking out wonderinglj and with swimminc eye upon 
the msjeatic King of the Alpa. The very top of the monntain. which, late in 
the afternoon, had glittered with a pure and perfect whiteneas, toward evOD' 
Ing assumed a golden tint, the glory of which wu indescribable. Bat sud- 
denly the sun went down quite behind the grand old mountain, over ivhose 
ahoulder he bad been looking and glowing all the late afternoon hours, and 
it was nlgbt. For a wliile, the mountains were dimly seen and distant ; bat 
gTaduslly the clear white light of the stars iliumined their loow-montled 
■ammitB, and they stood near again, with a new and overawing grandear. 

When I awoke it was 4 o'clock, and the highest peak of Mont Blano was 
roaeate with the light of the morning. It aeemed but a two'boare' walk to 
hia base, and I flattered myself that directly after breakfast I should begin 
the long-anticipated climbing of hie aaowy slopes. What, then, was my con- 
sternation, when mine host assured me that it was not a foot less than 18 
long miles, yet, to Cbamouni, wlirre the climbing was fairly to eoimaeDCe T 
At this rate, It would be af^er dinner, instead of afler breakf^ when I 
might begin the aeoeot ; and so I resolved to start at once, taking breakfast 

Six miles further np the valley, winding my way around the leeeer monn- 
tains which lay between, refreshed rather than wearied by the walk through 
waving Gelds of grain and sweet-smelling clover, fresh with dew, and I came 
to the little village of Ohede. Hitherto the road over which I bad traveled 
had been a veritable highway, such as any State of the good old Union at 
home might covet- But it was a highway no longer, and if J hitd come thus 
far In "ailigence" or carriage, it could have gone do farther with safety to 
Itself or humanity to the horses or mules. I was glad, therefore, to be a-foot 
and independeat'. At the end of eight miles, the little village of Servot, 
near whloh I breakfasted royally on bread and mitli, la a neat little oottago 
by the way. 

Next to the mountains themselves, the ot^ectn of moat cnrioos interest 
were the human habitations— oft times so high above my own dizsy bight, and 
so utterly inaccessible, that a balloon was soggasted as the only posdble means 
of communicatlan on the part of tbe hamble dwellers there with ihe other 
scattering inhabitants of the mountains. There they were, tucked sway, a 
half mile above tbe wild gorge below, with ice above and snow on either side, 
Tet surrounded by little verdant fields and orchard trees in blossom, and ani. 
mated by groups of merry children and the tinkliug bells of clambering 
goats. 

ecstscy and a' 
tain. 

The valley itself is more than three thoussnd feet above tbe level of the 
sea, and yrt so rich in tbe verdure of the fields, so perfect and profuse the 
flowers which usually grow in warmer altitudes, that one finds it not difflt^t 
to &ncy himself in the very bosom of sannient France. 

It waa well I bad breakfasted heartily at Bervoz, for the enthusiasm that 
■eiied me at tbe thooght of actually etandiog npon that very Her de Glaoe 
(sea of ice), in the midst of those icy peaks, the sight of which I had all my 
Ufe coTOted more than the eeeing of any other natural object in the world, 
would not for a moment entertain the sordid quostion of provender. 
" Would I not dine f" Iio,l»mitd moi, until my feet had first touched the 
.everlasting ice of Ut. Blanc I Hy eieellent host of the Hotel de Sau«snr« 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



GUMPSSS OF WESTERN EUBOPB. 119 

flaw I vts In ewnest, ftnd so placing before me a Sask of w<ne propoMd to 
find me a gnide and male^. " I want neicber a fiaide, nor ;et mu^e, air; I'm 
obliged to jOD." This he would not beliere, but before (he moles were at 
the door or alptn-Btocka were forced upon me, I had mjpeir found the up- 
ward windln); path and wu climbing the rock; ribs of tbe mountain, empt; 
handed, oa foot, lud alone. Up, op I went as !t had been on eagle's *ings ; 
now following the narrow, iton; patb, now dashing across the angles mada 
bj the zigiBg oonrse of the beaten wa;, and several times star tl leg returning 
trains of traTelen on Blow-footed mules, with as manj guides. 

At last, Hontaniert and Che wonderful Her de Qlace, with its fearful jawo- 
ing chasms and huge masses of rock and ice. The Her de Olace so often men- 
tioned, is, as the name indicates, a literal sea of ice, appearing upon theanr- 
face as though it had been recentlj froien while lashed into furybjaslomi. 
It is one-foarth to a ball mile in breadth and some miles in length, sloping 
eraduall; toward the plain, nntil it reaches HontaoTert, where it drops off 
like Niagara &nd becomes a frozen cataraet, known as Qlacier des Bois. It 
was formerly supposed to be stationary forever, but inveatlgatioDs have shown 
that tbe particles of ice have a slow imperceptible motion among themselTee, 
BO that tbe whole bodj of the sea, as if semi-fluid, is gradnaliy raoriag to- 
ward tbe vallej. Altogether It presents one of the mostinleresiing phenom- 
ena in the natnral world, and, white the Alps endure, will be an object for 
tbe wonder and stud; of man. •••••#•• 

It was m; desire to spend the night at Le JanSit, a mile or more above 
Hoatanveri, on the Her de Glace, where dwells a family in cozy icy quarters, 
ftom year to year, but my self-prescKbed limit of Ume would not allow, and 
ia about five o'clock I shook hands with my guides aud made a rapid descent 
to Chamouni, for I was to sleep at Argentieers, yet six miles further up the 
Arve. Only foor miles hod been made, however, when night found me on 
tbe side of a mountain, steep, and dark with cedar, pine and larch, and ap- 
on the brink of tbe Arve, whose foam-white waters dashed with loud roar over 
« cataract far below. On the other side tbe mountains were black with ever- 
greens and perpendicular for more than a thousand feet, thue deepening the 
grandeur of Che scene and slmust compelling me to stop and meditate upon 
tbe almigbtineas of the God of the mountains. Fatigue lent another induce- 
ment and I did pause for almost an hour, resting upon the generous face of a 
great Sat rock, with the soft side of a boalder for my pillow, and gaiing, 
possibly for the last time, upon the star-illumined face of Stout Blauc At 
first, tbe soft, Seecy clouds, like etberial draper;, enveloped his shoulders 
only, bis jeweled coronet of centuries unnumbered glittering as with the radi- 
ance of heaven. But soon this draper; of cloitd was drawn as a curtain l>e- 
fore tbe face of his majesty, and he graciously bade the world and me "good- 

Another mile bronght me to thia bumble dwelling, where I find a oorditl 
welcoDM from a hospitable Switier, his wife and some fifteen children, plenty 
of good bread and milk and a clean, comfortable bed. 

At the village of Argentieres, which lies at the head of the lovely vale of 
Chamouni, and bravely confronts a grand old glacier, Urge enough to wasb it 
from its place and submerge the entire valley, should it sad d en ly become 
liquid, tbe way I had designed to take leads me upward toward the snow- 
nuntled peak of L'AigouilleC, on whose top rest portentous e.ouds of the 
morning. Already a sprinkle of rain begins to fall, and I must avail m;aelf, 
for the Bret time since leaving Versailles, of my umbrella, which has so faith- 
fally served me as ■ staff- But a clever goatherd tells me it is not to be a 
rain; da;, and so, at this sublime elevation, I nu; halt a moment and look 
backward. Farewell, fairy vale 1 Farewell, milky Arve, along whose wild 
and beautlfnt banks I have these three days wandered in dream; ectasyl 
Farewell, 0, king of the Alps, whose presence still sublimely aver«liadowB me, 
and whose m^estic form of all the works of Ood shall ever stand fast and 
. first in the soul of memory! 

The rain haa stopped; the clouds break and the genial face of the sun looks 
kindly over tbe tops of the mountains. The rongh and winding path descendi 
again, and m; feet now walk upon the brink of a little stream, source of tba 



I v'^'OO'^lc 



120 STATE AGRICULTUBAL SOOnmr. 

river E&n Noini, wbtoh, though parallel in itt coaree, flows in a direetion Sl- 
lectly opposite to that of the ArTe, and emptieB into the Rhone on the fur- 
ther side of the monntaing, wboM anows aod ice supply them both. * «- » 
At one o'clock, lee-weaiy and liungrj, I entered the bot and duity atreeta 
of Uarlignv, bathed, dined, and, throngh the beantifnll; shaded aTenoe 
vhicb connects the old and the oe* towo, made mr waj to the B. R. depot, 
reaching it Just in time to get mf ticket and talce tbe train. 

MABTI6NT TO TILLBNEnTi:. 

A sharp shrill scream of the locomotiTe and ve are out of sight of Mat- 
tigny, and the long tnin, like a girift tery lerpent, is winding its way 
through the narrow and beautiful valis; of tbe upper Rlione — oow to cloae to 
the moaDt&io, on the side where I sit, that nothing is Tiiible but bia roclcj 
ribs — now farther awaj, so that I may glance npward to bis towering peaki, 
and at the same moment enjoy the charming landscape and beautinil rlTer. 

Another scream of tb« whistle — another village in eight — 'liaTilteneTivet 
Bixty miles in so abort a time 1 Verily tbese Swiat eogines are not bo alow, 
after all. I had thought to atop at Houtreui, a league further on, but tbe 
sight of this pleasant nttle village and of beautiful lAke Leman (Oeneva) bo 
charms me (hat I eanoot go on. Am out of the car ia a jif^, make for th« 
gate, and show m; ticket. " FuCrs AUM c'til a iifrntreux, litrntuwl" I know 
my ticket ia to Montreui, hut I stop here. I deliver it up, enquire for the 
Hotel de Byron, and slowly wend my way thither. It Is quite a little walk to 
(be foot of the mouatain, where it lies nestled amid sbrubbsry and flowers, 
and I may sit down on this bridge and view the scenery, which for grandeur 
and beauty combined excels anything I have yet seen in Europe. 

t enter the charming and arnple grounds which surround tbe Bote! de 
Byron. It is a beautiful freestone mansion, with iron verandas, all covered 
over with climbing roses — tbe most delightful and inviting iravelsr's rest m; 
weary feet have ever entered. I secure a handsome room, fronting the lake, 
e^joy a nice cold bath, and lie down to rest. 

The call to supper startles me from sleep, and tbe gathering shadows of 
evening tell me bow near I came to losing the glory of a sunset such as it 
may never bo my good fortune to witness again. * • I am seated by 
the window) through which trailing vines and fragrant roses peep into my 
chamber; tl^e air hag been cooled and puriBed by the gentle shower of rain 
just fallen, and with head reclining against the casement, I look out with » 
delicious dreaminess upon the unrivalled scene. 

At my left, in the beautiful valley through wbicb flows the heaven-blue 
Rhooe, lies the little town of Tilleueuve, on the right, the Tillages of Hon- 
treoi, Vevay and Korges, backed by far-reaching, terraced rineyards, on 
the slopes of the moaniBina. Before me Is bine and placid Lake Leman, its 
deep waters girt in by the snow-clad Alps on the left, and m^ji'Slic Jura on 
tbe right, as a crystal mirror is bordered round with massive frame of hronxe, 
nay, of gold, for the sun, just going down behind the Jura pours a flood <rf' 
light all over tbe scene, crimsoning the water and covering the mountains 
wTib a golden blase. Upon the bosom of tbe lake a fleet of 

" White soils go skimming down," 

each making its roal the Isle de Byron, which seems to float therein as an 
emerald might Boat in molton silver; and then, almost at my feet — its 
ancient walla, still, as o( old, by Leman's waters blue — the old Prison of 
Obillon, so famed In the early times of Switzerland, and evermore immortal- 
iaed by that touching poem of tbe gifted lord Bp«n. 

The imagination conld hardly conceive of a picture more grand and beau- 
tiful, or fraught with deeper biefrie interest. Oh, if I could only put it 
upon canvass, asOod iaoow engraving it forme on the tablet of memorv ! 

When I awoke ag^n at 9 o'clock, tbe scene was changed, but none the less 
interesting. The moon had risen in her glory, shedding a mild and mellow radi- 



l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



GLIMPSES OF WBSTESN EUKOPE 121 

knee upon town and CMtle pdton, sheening the ]>ke wtth sINer and orawn- 
log the tops of the mountains with a pare and holj lisht All nature waa 
hushed and itill, save the rippltng of water on the peppT; shore and the mn- 
slc of mnffled oars laiilj piled b; lovera on the lake. * * * It is now 
half ptaC Mreo in the momiDE. and after * rivt to the eaetle and a row 
around it on the lake, I am waiting for the train to Laosanoe. It comea. 

TILLENEUTE TO BASLE, VIA LAUSAKNK 

I waive an adieu to VilleneuTe, daih past the chateau of Ohillon, 
and am wiodinx m; awift waj around the shore of the lake. Oo mj 
right is the continuous slope of the mountidns, olothed almost to the summit 
with terraced rinejarda, beantifull; green, and still fresh with the dew of the 
momiiig. On mj left, between railway and lake, a sacceuion of channiog 
little cottages, trellised with vines, and each entered through an arched 
gateway covered with rosea. Nothing could be more refreahiog and bean- 
tit^l. Honlreux, Clarens and Vevay are passed, and! am so soon In view of 
Onoby and Lausanne, lake port and capital of the Canton of Taad. Here I 
Bhall spend a few hours and then turn mj face northward for Baale, where I 
am to have my first view of the Ebine. 

An interesting old town, this Lausanne. Very old. The great cath«- 
dral waa conKcrated by Pope Gregory A. J>. 1000, and how much further 
back the city eboutd date Its origin ao one knows. Located on three com- 
manding hilEs, from which the view of the aurronading mountains, their 
slopes covered wtth vineyards, of the rich valleys that Ue between, and of 
Lake Lenan, is eitremelj fine. • * • 

In more recent history. Lausanne is noted for having be en. the residence of 
Gibbon, while he wrote his famous history of Che decline of the BomauE m- 

The railroad leads me throngh the beautlfol plain which spreads out be- 
tween Basle and Lausanne, and affords once more a glimpse of broad Selds, 
bearing rich crops of grain, of grass and roots. On my left are the grand 
old Jura Mountains, slmtting out from my view the fields of sunny France. 
Every few moments tfae whistle calls us to a halt at some station, old or new — 
for be it known vill^es are some times barn of railroads in the old world as 
well as in the now, but the must of them present nothing worthy of note. 

Another scream of the locomotive, and tbu station guards shout in at the 
windows, -'Neuchatel! Kencbatell" But what of It? Nothing, only that 
this is the place famous in all the worid for the iDanufact,ure of clocks and 
watches. It is a dingy looking old Swiss town, lying rather low, and pre- 
senting no particular attraction to the eye of the stranger. The Bwlsa 
have not learned to apply machinery to the mannfacture of watches, and 
have no need, therefore, for large eitabliahments. On the contrary, of the 
thousands of Ntuchaideri who devote their Uvea to this business, each one 
giving himself exclusively to a cert^n branch of the manufactaro takes the 
material to bis own home and there does the work assigned him. When a 
qaantitj of that particular article Is completed, he takes them to the work- 
man who next has need of them ; he to another, and so on, until, at last, the 
several parte have foundtheirway into the hands of the man or men whose busi- 
ness it is to put them together ; when the clocks or watches thns finished are 
turned over to the capitalist who Ihmished the material and by whose 
order the work was executed by all. 

OCT again. Goodbye, ya watchmakers! • • • » • 

Basle id in view. Hardly ininnii either, fur It Is ntEbt, and but little is 
visible save the thousands of lights which, glaring and glimmering high and 
low, prove to my curious eyes that this city, also, ie built on hilly ground. 

I have risen withthe morning tight, and am standing on the hanks of the 
glorious old Khine '■ The sun ponra a flood of golden tight across the flowing 
stream and gilds the old city intti a richness not Its own. But my thoughts 
dwell most on the river. Who can think of It without the association of 
strange scenes in the far feudal put— of poetic legends and more recent yet 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



182 STATE AQBIOULTTJBAL SOCIBTY 

quaint *ni dellghtfn] Tintnge scenes in tha fu-bmad Tmejardg that (br DtkDj 
oeDturiea hsTe clothed its aunnj banks T 

The BL[no divides the city, and kltfaongh there are bridges of stone, the 
light and gailj-painted ferrj boats, witb striped sunins screeni, are pljing 
' back and forth for the accommodation of the people, who seem to bo Ioto 
the old river u to prefer (he ferry, at two aous, to the bridges at nothing, 

A gjmnuinm with twelve profesaore, a pol}'technic hcbool, uaiversitj 
with twentv-four professors, the agricultural school, and the Eraemas Col- 
liege show that, not alona commerce and manaficturicg arts flourish here, 
but education. Tbe caniEdnl was built in IDOO, and will probablj last 
another decade of centaries without becoming dilapidated. Tbe botanical 
garden aSbrds 'many attratlons. The library conneoted with It is said to be 
tbe rlohest of its kind in tbe world. 

AgricullDrall7 considered, the canton of Basle is one of the finest of 
Switaeriand ; while as a manufacturing and commercial cit* , Bssle (which 
Is the capital of the canton) is the first town in Bwitzerland. Its chief man- 
fkctares are paper, silk, gloves, leather, printed cottons, bOMOry and jeweir; ; 
In the interest of which there are several large establishment!. 

BASLE TO FKANSTOaT-OS-THE-MAIS. 

* * * Strasbourg I On French soil again T Ool; for one day. 
A fine old citj, well worth the time. Formertj subject to the German empe- 
rors ; ceded to Louis XIV In IBBl ; now one of the best fortified towns in 
Europe. HaDUfsotures woolen and cotton goods, clocks and watches, Jewel- 
ry, hardware &c. Some large dje-works, sugar refineries iind bieweries. 
Famous cathedral, founded A. D. hM; rebuilt A. D, 1007-1439; moat re- 
markable tower in the world ; being 46S feet high, and surfaced all over with 
most elaborate carvings and added decorations— IB feet higher than Bt. Pe- 
ter's at Rome, and 10 feet higher tban the great pjrsmid. • • • 

In Qermacf again. Grand Duchj of Baden. Course of the railway still 
down the vallej of the Rhine. Carlsruhe, theCapiul! Visit to the Poly- 
tecbnic Bchool— one of the best in Europe, well equipped and well managed. 
• • • For Baden-Baden neit-noted for its hot sprlnga. fireat 
watering place. 

Oo the western side, along the Bhine, there is a strip of very fertile land, 
where are growing fine crops of wheat, barley, Indian corn, beans, potatoes, 
Sax, hemp and tobacco. East of this strip, the ooantry rises until it bo- 
comes mountainous, some of the highest peaks being as high as 4,SS0 feet. 
It is here that lies the famous Black Forest 

Fruits and wines of eicellent quiilily are produced in All the more favor- 
able portions of Baden ; even on the mountains quite respectable crops of 
rye and oats. Agriculture ia without system, however, the stock being of in- 
ferior quality, and the farming implements more than fifty years behind the 
times. Flows with wooden mold-boards ; the clumsiest harrows tlie world 
ever saw, with wooden pina for teeth ; wagons such as any very awkord Yan- 
kee farmer could get up for himself, and drawn by cobi ImAtd to (Asm bg Uu 
hgrral Uanufacturing ia tlkcwise behind the age. Iron, hardware, cotton 
jam, cloth and salt are its chief products. 

The village of Baden-Baden is daligbtfuily situated io the vallej of the 
Oos. To my eye one of the most charmiug little towns on the continent. 
Hany of the dwellings and public hougea are surrounded with shrubbery and 
flowers, even to the summit of the hilla on either side, and the streets are 
remarkably oest aad clean. Population about 6,000. 

Some of the springs are made all tbe more attractive to visitors by fine 
public buildings, embracing spacious halls for dancing, beautiful saloons for 
all kinds of gaming, restaursncs, reading rooms and handaome porticoes for 
promenading. • • # 

Another hour and I am In Heidelberg, and have already caught a view of 
tbe old Unirersity. It consists of a series of plain structures, quite nn- 
impoaing, and requiring positive history to oonvlnce one tbat here have 
(•sght and been taught some of the most distinguished lite ratours, divines and 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



GLIMPSES or WBSTBBN EUBOPE. 123 

■cieDistt of modern or medlevkl timet. The iDatltntioa wu foanded oTei 
500 foara ago by Elector Rupert I. Its llbrorj nnmbers nearly a quarter of 
a million of books and S,000 vaiuable USS. The Univeraiij embracee not 
onlj tbeological, medical and law departments, but likewiu Inaludea aBohooI 
of Agrioalture and Forestry — in which, howerer, the iattructinn U rather be- 
biod the times. 

The toirn Ittelf ii barely irorth looking at ; at leatt, Ite two or three prin- 
cipal atreett, lined with old, dingy, and rather elipebod atorea, workahopsand 
Bsloona, donotiOimpreamneaBloawskenmuchentljusiaMn. To-da;, that which 
intercal* me most is the query as to how the people aubeiKt. Literally speak- 
ing, the question ia easily enough settled, for at any hour of the day, and at 
almost any hour ot the night, not less than about one half of the entire pop- 
ulation may be seen in the numeroua restaurants, demonstrating their re s- 
pectire capacities tor berr t But, unlike the Yankee, who slides into the 
whiskey shop, awallowa hiH poison, and then either goea out to his business ot 
staggers into the gatter, the Germane alt orer their beer far hours at a time, 
jabbering, playing at games of chance, and amoking their monstrous pipes. 
The qnesiion of how thej secure the means to lire ia, therefore, still in doubt, 
being bat partially aoired by the diacorery Chat they live much more limplj 
and ineipensiTely than do the people of America. One moderate roll of 
hard-baked bread and a few qoarte of beer is ample satisfaction for a foU 
toeal here, while the Yankee must have three kinds of meat, other thinga in 

froportion, and five coursoi of pastry and knick-kiiacka to finish off with, 
he true mode of iiciug lice between these two extremes. If people will 
drink beer, and may be allowed to congratulate themseliej on a superior 
quality of that article, iheo blessed are thepc Germans, for no better beer 
ever flowed lota the bottomless pit of the moet lucky Teutonio stomach than 
is perpetually foaming in the great liberal muga of this beer-making and 
beei^drinking city. •••«•■»• 

At length we approach Fraokfort. The city of all others in Germany re- 
markable for its hiaCoric associations. It was here where, for many yearii, 
the Emperors of Germany were crowned— where the greatest of German 
poets, Goethe, was born — where the immortal Luther, the world'e greatest 
reformer, lived and wrote — and it la here where that peculiar enterprise, so 
etiaraeteristic of the American people, has made Its way more effectually 
tbati in any part of the conlinent'l have yet saen. The streets, the archi- 
tecture of the more recent buildings, the sale-shope and public houses constset- 
1} suggest, to the American traireler, New York and other cities of the United 
Sute. Itiaa free town, with 70,000 inhabitants, and the seat of the German 
Diet. The evening shadee close around me, and yet 1 have visited none of the 
distiDgnisbed public buildiugs, none of the fine promenades ao characteriatie 
of Frankfort, none of theaeveral private residences remarkable for their se- 
■ociBtion with some of the greatest men of the dead past; I have thoa far 
eadeavored simply to gain a geoersi idea of the city ae a whole. But'the 
streets are bright with the light of burning gas, and I must improve the 
hoars between this and midnight, for in the eariy morning I turn my face 
westward. •»•••• 

Hare seen the BomlnreAs, where the Emperors of aiislent Germany were 
crowned (a fine old cathedral, the last remaining specimen of the ancient 
German style of architecture) ; have walked round and round the monuments 
of Ooethe and Oattenberg in the Hop Market ; have stood before the modest 
old two-story mansion in the Hirsohgraben, where Goethe was born, and 
thought of the wondernit away of Poetry over the huioan mind in all geuera- 
tione; have sought out the quaiut old house of Luther, with its three storiea 
and high steep roof, each story so prqjeoting over the narrow street that one 
CO old almoet shake ban da with hia thinl -story neighbor on the opposice side ; 
paused at the dwelling in the Judenatrasse where Bothschild and his children 
were bom, and at the present counting house of Rothschild, ruler of all the 
money kings aud dictator to the thrones of Europe ; have lunched and slept, 
and am now on mj way down the piolDresque valley of the Main and through 
the famous vineyards of Hooheim, souroe of the popular Hook wiaes, to 
Mayenoe, on the lUUne. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



STATE AGRICDLTUEAL SOCIETT. 



FRAKEFOST TO COLOGNE. 

V^jtnce hu t popalKtion of ne«r 40.000, and U the moil important 
fortrewof the Qerman Confederation. The garrigon, balf AuKrisD and hnlf 
PrDBsian, nnmbere 10,000 mgn. The first thing irhich strikes me is the 
magnificent riew here poeaible of the Khine, the Taunm moDntaios, the 
Tlnejards of Hocheim, and the Talley of the Hun ; one of the rare pictnres 
which can never be eOhcecI from the memory. Vj second thought is of the 
peculiar stjle of its architectore. Most of the public pnildinge are of red 
Madttone and eome of them have stood nearly a tbODsaud yeara. 

Hany objecte challeoge the traveller's attention ; but the idobC interesting 
of them are the relics of Roman power which carry one bach through the long 
Icterral of seTenEeen hundred and ninety-Sve yean-, when the legions of 
Titos, after tbe'conqueatof Jeraaalem, came to this place and established a 
ganHson which was to impose upoo the Germans tho government and iostltu- 
tlong of the Great Empire. It was from the very Wiesbaden I see in the dis- 
tance, that, in times a little latter, the hordes of native warriors poured 
pown upon the Roman Eagles and drore them beyond this province of the 
Rhine, and thus began the war which, after many alternate defeats and vie 
tories, resulted, at last, in giving these rich valleys of the Rhine and its 
tHbutaiiee to the Germans, for an undisputed inheritance. Thus waneth the 
power and the glory of one empire, that another, better fitted to fnlBII the de- 
signs of Proridence, may be built up on its rains. 

Who has not longed for a midsummer voy see on this glorioDS river? Who 
that has read the pastoral poetry and the rich legendary literature of classic 
Oermany, has not often dreamed of its full-Sowing tide, meandering its way 
through castle- crovned hills and vine-clad slopes to the Netherlands and 
thence to the sea? — of the warring strifes of feudal times? — of the flonil 
and autumnal festivities of later days f I have, and here is the realization 1 
Kot the feudal strifes, nor yet the autumnal festive scenes ; the one are long 
past; the other are only DOW io preparation. But here ig the Rhine I — the 
same that vexed the Roman generals many long centuries ago, and has since 
been the witness of some of the greatest ^vents of history. Bom of Alpine 
■nowB, but hence flowing throngh gardens, and vineyards, and Elysian Qelds. 
I have embarked, and am comfortably seated on the covered deck of the lit- 
tle steamer that Is to bear me to Cologne. Mayenco and Casel recede, and 
countless villages approach and are passed in succession. The river is broad 
fh>m here to Bingen— in many places S.OOO feet wide—and Its course tsewift. 
Beautiful little islands are eprinhled alonjr, like tiny emeralds in a necklace 
of pearls ; some of them set off with handsome chateaux, and others rocky 
and but little changed from nature. Bold bludh, rising, now and then, into 
the dignity of mountains whose lofty summits seem ambitious of a place ia 
the clouds, shut in the swelling stream. Old castles in ruins, from the high- 
est points on those hlghts took down from the dark past of ten centuries ago. 
Here and there a cleft in the interrupted range allows the favor of a glimpse 
of what lies beyond and within. Terraced vineyards, such as, for steepness, 
dlfflonltT of making and the quality of the product, are fonnd nowhere else 
in the world, astonish and delight all the voyagers. And the villages, litila 
and large, are dotted in upon the slopes, at the months of smaller tributary 
streams and along the narrow beach, as though all Germany had made its 
abode on the borders of the favorite river. 

Thirty-six miles since we embarked at Uayence, and it isjust a little past 
noon — almost 13 miles an hour, including numberiess stops. Pretty well. 

Am well pleased with my dashing; visit to the cityof Oobleuz.— most pjeaa- 
ed with that to the cloud-capt citaioel, the checkered history of which is Rill 
of romantio interest. The fortifications there are armed with 400 cannon 
and oost over ((,000,000. But the view from the summit, that was glorious. 
The several chains of mountains— the valley of the Rhine, and the Rhine 
itself, with its islands— the navigable Uoselle, with its charming scener.v — the 
city wlthlu the angle formed by their confiuence— the Oharcrense on the 



..i.A'Oti<^lc 



GLDlPSiS OF WESTERN EDROPK 126 

Tlne-clad belgbts bejond, and tbt> more tban thirty Ioitdb tod villages in the 
plaiD below 1 Few plaoei iQ tbe world afford such a view, • • • 

Boon ! — another large town of Roman origin — fiuDOua for many remtrkible 
eviiiita; famous also for ita great UuiTenity, and as being tbe birth place of 
the lininartsl Beethoven, one of the vorld'i greatest masical maitera. Here 
likewsse 1 stop for an baur; viewing tbe ancient wonders, tbe Doivenity, 
the Agricultural School, the spleo did gardens, and talciog my bread and beer 
in the JHuingtuM, jurt opposite tbe house where BeethoTenwas born — a plain 
tHO-Etory dweliing, with stucco Eoiih outside, not laokiug a bit as thougb it 
had givon so great a genius to tbe world. But, cben, is ihis Dot the history 
of nearly all the remarkable men who have ever lived 1 Genias is ottenest 
born in obscurity. It is thus that nature renews her intellectual forces. 

At last, my feet tread tbe streets of Cologne. And here I may look back- 
ward, for I hare already seen tbe best portion of tbii, the king of West 
European rivers. Taking its source in tbe grand old A ipa— strengthened In 
its progress by tbe gathered waters of SHltierland—embracing tbe icy Sow 
from 870 glaciers snd 300 smaller rivers— now flowing slowly aiid wide 
through the broad valley of the upper Blacli Forest and encircling its tbou- 
unds of little iilands, now again narrowed down to a deep and strong cur- 
rent, dashing its way throughitha rock; ramparts of Bingen and Anderaach 
and bearing its ni«jeatic course tb rough dark deSIei In the bistorlc mountains 
of Rb^nisb Prussia— and hence more qcietly, as if with assured greatneu, 
through tbe rich garden lands of Holland to the Nortbern Sea — it is truly a 

tlorioiia river, even to a native American, born in the valley of the Ohio and 
nally settled on tbe banks of the great Father of Waters. No wonder every 
Qerman heart is proud of the Rhine. Tbe Yankee must make a tbousand 
years more of historjf before bis noble Hudson will antrival it- 
Cologne is a town of 100,000 inhabitants and has greatly interested me by 
its Roman aatiqnities, its numerous old churches, its grand cathedral, and 
much else. Founded more than fifteen hundred years ago, what wonderful 
changes have occurred In its history. First an imrenched Koman camp, tben 
the abode uf tbe ancient Ubians, it afterwards witnessed tbe coronation of 
tbe Emperor Titelius, and tben of Clovis, King of the Frank', was united by 
Otho the Great to Germany in the lOth century, exerted a poweriul influence 
in, and was the chief support of, the famous Hanseatic League, in tbe 11th 
century, was conquered by the French in 1791, by the Russians In 1814, and 
Gnally fell into the hands oi Prussia, by wbom it is still held. 

The people show their origin bja peculiar physiognomy, different from that 
of Qermans of pure blood, but are industrious and prosperous 

The cathedral iamoet worthy of notice. Ii was begun in 1S4S, slowly pro- 
greased for two or three hundred years, remaining in ttaiu gtio for about three 
hundred more, and is now again going (brnard. Iti foundation is in the form 
of a crOBS, and when completed it will be one of the grandest temples in the 
whole world— length BOO feet, width 230, two towers, each 600 feet high, the 
arches supported by a quadruple row of columns siity-foor in number. Ita 
architecture Is pure Gothic and it is designed to follow, iu every particular, 
the ancient German model. Though, as yet, but littlo more than tbe cboir, 
with surrounding chapels, and one tower of the height of 160 feet, are finish' 
ed, I have thus far seen no work of man on the continent which has so 
stirred witbin ms emotions of ihe sublime. 'Twsa at twilight I first aaw it, 
and the vision is still before me — tbe great temple standing In solemn mtj- 
esty ; the old, by its moss-covered walls appealing to the dead Past, tbe new, 
by it! lately chisseled columns, its scaffolding and mighty construction eu' 
gioes, looking bravely forward to the 500 yenrs benee, when It may have been 
Snisbed, and— in a new spirit, postibljby another race of people— finally con- 
secnited to the worship of the true God. I, also, did myself tbe pleasure of 

Eaying a moonlight visit to the house where my favorite artist, Peter Paul 
ubens. was] born, and where the unfortunate Uarle de Uedecis, Queen of 
Benry IV of France, ended bar eventful life. A plain, two-story and a half 
dwelling, with a beautiful head and bust of the great artist, carved iu wood, 
in tbe transem over the door. 
Hotwithstauding Us sitty cologne factories, the city of Cologne Is, by no 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



STATE AQRICtTLTURAL SOCIETY. 



COLOGNE TO BRUSSELS. 

Between Cologne ind All U Ohkpelle, the conotrj !i qnlte Sat ind culti- 
vated In good OermaD Btjie. Wheat, rje, eati, barler, hemp and the Bogar 
beet are looking well. 

The engine wblatlet, and the agenU annoaace " Aacben 1 " from which I 
know that we approach the old imperial cit; of Aix la Gbapelle, oa the fron- 
tier between RfaeolBh PruBsia and Belgium, and aboot 40 miles from Cologne. 
A handsome, well built cilj, with at leut one broad, beautiAil itreet, 
through vhicb, as I look upward towards the summit of the slope on whicb the 
town la built, the e;e is charmed by the mognificeDce and beaut; of city and 
suburbs. A stirring place too, with modem improvements and a manifest 
dispodtion to get back as mach as possible of the proaperitj and importance 
it once enjoyed. But it's of no nee, O, ye Ghapetlers ; it was Charlemagne 
who made your hill-girdled city once so famoas, and Charlemagne bss 
been dead a thousand and Torty-nine years 1 7ou may vigorously carry on 
your numerous factories for tbe making of needles, of kerseymere, of files, 
and of copper and brass wires, aod so make your goodly city a greater blees- 
ing to tbe province than before, but the great emperors will no more come 
to you for coronation and burial. 

The warm sulphur springs of Aii la Chapelle are noted, and large numbers 
of foreigners annually come here far their health. 

— So much of Prussia and the other German States. -Famous for Its litera- 
ture, its science and its admirable systems of education, Germany is neTCr- 
theless, behind in the arts, and especially in the mechanics ot sgricultura and 
tbe breeding of cattle and horses. What the Qermao States lack it unity. 
That secured, with their eiteneivo mineral resources, theii quarter of a mil. 
lion square miles of productive lands, their facilities for manufacturing and 
commerce, what may not their forty-four millions of intelligent, induetrioiu 
and liberty-loving people accomplish within the next centary I * * » 
And now 1 tonch the soil of Little Belgium— the gsiilen of Europe. 
Famous for the fertility of its soil and the perfection of its system of 
agriculture; for tbe extent and great value of its mines of coat, Iron, 
lead, lino and manganese; fur the magnificence of its forests of timber; 
for Its teeming fictories, whence are obtained the beat linens, laces, 
cloths, carpets, porcelains, cutlerlj and flre-arnia known to the commerce of 
the world ; for tbe extent of its internal improvements; for its fine old cltiea 
noted for the magniBcence of their buildings, the prodaciions oftbeirindoatrj, 
and tbe number of their Institutions of learning and public libraries, for tbe 
denseness of Its thriving, bappj population, and for Us heroic history. 

From Ail la Cbapeiie to Liege the country is mountainous— the people 
largely devoted to mining and mannftctures. Vervlers, on the way, ia ■, 
stirring town, noted for its cloth factories; and Liege, at tbe confluence of 
the Neuse and the Ourthe, both navigable rivers, snd at the point of inter- 
section of several of the most important railroads of ths kingdom, is koown 
the world over for its superior fire-arms and cutlery — as the ^Uce where the 
Belgian rifles are made. Located in the very heart of the mining section of 
the country, where iron and coal are both Inexhaustible, of superior qaality 
and easily obtained, it is natural that it should be the great Birmingham of 
this kingdom. 

Pas^ng through Liege to the wesward, the railway rises by one of the 
ateep«Bt grades Edowd in the worid— so steep that the trains are obliged to 
be drawn up the iDcline by a stationary engine at the summit ; from which 
point the view of the valley and of the great smoking, thundering city ig 
truly magnificent. 

Thence to Bruasels, the brilliant capital of tbe kingdom, and distant about 
seventy miles, tbe surface of the country slopes ocean-ward, and is diatin- 
guitbed alike for its mines and its agriculture. The farms are not onlj ear- 
den patches in aiie, but gardensio reality. Crops grown, as in France, trTth- 
ont fences between. All the cereal grains, meaaows, and various root crops. 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



GLIMPSES OF WBSTEBN EHEOPK 12T 

tnoludliig the lunr beet, oconpf Bvarr foot of uvble land, while the vinea 
tre Been upon all Che giian; slopes of the hilEs, where nothing else could be 
grown. 

Brussels is one of the most beautiful aod lutereBting cities od tbe eoDtl' 
ueiit. Foundiid in Tth csntur;, and succeisiTel; controlled by the earlj 
Fruiklah, the Spanish, Che Aaitrian, tbe frenoh and the Hoilaudish djoaa- 
ties, and, at lasC— since 1830— tbe capital of (he new-born, independent 
kingdom of Belgium, it has had a chschered hiatory, and to-daj showa inter- 
esting marks of tbe larious nationalitiee under wbiob It hMfloarished during 
the past thousand veers. 

For beaut}' of plaa, eleganoe of buildings, boulevarde, and profusion of 
statuarj, fountains, gardens and ebaded promenades, it is strikinglj like 
Paris. But it is not onlj beaatiful, It is one of the great oentrea of indue. 
try; especiaiij celebrated for its manufactures of fine lace, ita linens, dam- 
udu, carpets, ribbons, jewelrj, mathematical and mugicftl Instroments, 
coaches, chemicals, soaps and glass. 

Brnsseis is also celebrated for the great battles wbich have been fought in 
its vicinitT. One of them, io 181B, decided tbe fate of European empires. 
What names in modern histor; eo ramiliar, or so famoaa, as Napoleon, Wel^ 
lingtoD, Waterloo ! 

BRDBSELS TO LOSDOS. 

After ft pleasant evening's walk to Waterioo {dietant only la miles) along 
the smooth and denselT shaded hlgbwa;, which skirte the great forest of 
Sofgnes, and a night, passed on the battle field, I am again borne westward 
on mj waj to Ostend ; passing through tbe fine old manufacturiag town of 
Ghent, which lies in tbe midst of tbe low, rich lands of northern Belgium. 
* * * Ostend I Afortifled town of some commeroial imports nee, 
coutkinUng Dover on the other side of tbe Channel. • • • • 

Momlns; haa come. Hy feet have left the continent. Tacked away In a 
mean little steamer (they have none other on (he British Channel), after five 
hours of horrible eea-sickness, I stand on the "sea-girt isle," beneath tbe 
towering chalk ciiffg of Dover, » • • • • 

— It isnine o'clock in the avening of the monthof June ; tbe tr^n slowly 
enters a vast weltering city, whoie million lights seem to welcome me home 
again to this, the present great center of the world. The solid rock of Lon- 
don bridge is pressed by my weary feet ooce more, and the sublime dome of 
Bt. Paul's guides ma on my way to tbe hosplts,ble mansion of the upright 
Judge, whose guest I am glad, again, to become. 

It seems a life time since I waa here before. And what wonder f Have 
I not made the tour of Western Europe. Up the Beine, down the Saone, up 
the Bhoue, across tbe Alps on foot, and down the Rhine [ A grand circuit of 
some two tbonsand miles, stopping at every place of either natural or his- 
toric interest on the way t 

MATTERS IN AND ABOUT LONDON. 

* * * The Exhibition has grown during my sbaeoce on the continent, 
and is now In perfect order— more magnificent than eyer. The throng of 
viwtors Increases dally. OonatnnC arrivals of distingn'sbed personages from 
other countries. As predicted, some of our slow Americso eibibitora were 
BO behind time that tbeir articles will not be seen by the juries. Indeed, 
some machines cannot be admitted to tbe palace. All in all, the American 
court Is macb more respectable than It seemed possible at flnt to make it ; 
Mme few articles and machines attracting great attention. 

THE SOCIAL SCIENCE CONOBE88. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



128 STATE A&BIOtrLTUEAL SOCIETT. 

Caldinf dtilr k( theseHlona. HiTing thebanorofmemberBliip, md being 
plf iatercBted Id tbe obfeots of tbe Awooiation, I hkitenea on nj' tour 
more than lotheririae would, in order to ba preaent &t thia meeting, which 
will contiaue some ten dajg. The Oongrew la dlrided Into 8«Teral aections 
—as (he Beotion of Education , the Bocial Econom? Seection, etc.— the meet- 
inga of which are held aimultamtoualf in different apartments of Qnlld 
HiUl. Thoug!) at7led "British," this noble aasociation is intematioDal in 
man; of its tdma, and is, (his jear, attended by large nambera of 
the friends of Social Science from ever; part of the world. In the 
(wo Eectiona sbore aamed, aa welt as in the Sanitary Section, I bare 
felt a prafoand Interest. Ani much pleased with the liberality of Lord 
Brougham and other prominent English gentlemen on the all-important ques- 
tions of education and social economy. They not only feel, hut frankly ac- 
knowledge, tbe backwardnesa of the British nation in reipectofthem, and man- 
ifest a genuine and most earnest desire for tbe light, come from what quarter it 
may. • • * Addressed the Educational Section, yesterd^ morning, on 
the subject of induetriol education in Europe and America; taking tbe broad 
ground, that the only sure way of making a nation permanently prosperous 
and happy. Is to educate, as thoroughly and practically as poaaible. the 
laboring classes of the people. *••••* This morning, in the 
Social Economy' Section, a moat interesting and spirited diseassion 
followed the reading, by the distinguished Hiss Frances Power Gobbe, of 
on able essay on the Employments of Women ; Lord Brougham in. the chair. 
The majority of the members ware emphatically on the liberal tide — bo much 
so that, in such remarks as 1 ventured to make upon the question, I couldn't 
but compliment the noble spirit which prompted the tamest deprecation, 
by almost every speaker of that absurd and aelfish eicluBivenesa of spirit, 
by which, for so man; ages, the women of all countries have been proc- 
tlcelly narriiwed down to the fewest possible number of pursuits, with 
unreasonable and inadequate compensation for their labors. There ia a 
great work to be done in this particular field of Social Eoonomy, end it is a 
moat gratifying to And the stateameu of conaerTatire old England already 
olive to its importance. 

During these sessiong of tbe British Social Science Congress, (here has also 
been a meeting at Burlington House of a kindred continental organization — 
Le Soeiett da SieHfai»ai>ei4—ot which the great French orator, H. Berrjer, la 
President ; and this evening, the two organisstions, having conipletcd their 
labors, held s joint session, at which eloquent apeeches were made by tbe two 

Eresidenta and others. Lord Brougham, now nearly 90, showed the flre of 
is palmier days; talking with great earnestness and power, and with a ts- 
hemence of manner mas( surprising for one of his years, • • • 

This evening was algnaliied by a grand Soriee at Westminister Palace — 
by which Is meant tbe Houses of Parliament, with «U ths Halls and appart- 
ments therein contained. These, for (be Srst time in history, and as a special 
complement to England's ablest statesman, were tendered to Lord Broug- 
ham, for the purpose of a reception, to be given by him to the members of 
tbe congress, Oommissioners to the Eihibition, and otlier distinguished 
personages now in London. 

The palace was magniScently illaminated in every part, and was thronged 
by what Is believed by those who ought to know, tbe most brilliant multi- 
tude of aavana, statesmen, poets, military beroea, nobles, princea and other 
persons o< rank, tbe world ever saw together. The whole number woa ecarce- 
ly short of five thousand persona, who in their brilliant and jewelled cos- 
tumes, made a most daziling spectacle for the eyes of a plain repablican citi- 
lea of America. Refresbmenta in the ancient hall ; mnstc prepared for the 
occBiuonby (he best artists in the world, and perTomied by the most noted 
English, French and German bands. His Lordship stood for more than two 
hours to receive bis many happy guests and then pleasantly mingled with tbe 
multitude. The most magnificent affair of tbe kind I shall ever see, I pre- 



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GLIMPSES OF WESTEEN EUEOPR 129 

ROTAL AOBICDLTCKAL EXHIBITION. 

ThU year the Exhibitloa of th« Kojkl Agrlcaltural Society hai al90 parta- 
ken of tbe internatioDal charactec; Ibe ditferent ctaasea being "open totbs 
world." The eiblbitian is beiuj bold in a portioa of Batterwa Park, wblcb 
lie« on tba south aide of the Thames, three or four milea above Loudon 
Bridge. Grouuda fitted up with temporarj Btroctares, couelgting of aimple 
aheda for atock, wide enough for two tiers ot animkla, head to head, covered 
with canvaa, and ttrranged in atraight linea aorou the entire grounds, with 
avenues betweeo. Animals, bo claaeiGed that all of one genua, race, and 
breed are foanii together. Implements, maibines and products of the earth 
alto under almilar sheds. 

Several features of these exhibitions are worthj of note, as dilTeiiog from 
oura. Firet, the entries are all required to be made long enough before the 
exhibition to allow of the preparation and printing of a full catalogue of ao- 
Imale sad articles to be exhibited; the llre-stocli catalogue being distinct 
fioD) that embracing machinery, implements and manufactured articles. Sec- 
ondly, t)ie»e catalogue! are ioid to such as want them. The sales of cata- 
logues of this eibibitiou hnvo amounted to ts,2fi0 and would htvg reached a 
higher earn had the edition not been eihausted. Price, SS cts. Third, ani- 
mata are bet er clasaified than we usually find them in America— not aloce, 
•II animals of a breed being together, but also all of a breed whoiie age istbe 
eame, so that each committee as well as the publio can more easily compare 
thera. Fourth, the judges have the erst day entirely to themselves; the 
public not being admitted uotil after the awards have been made and the 

firize badges put on. Under this arrangement the eibibitlon Is much more 
natructive end the judges do their work better than under any other. Fifth, 
the rates of admission differ for diflerent days— a very important thing here 
in London, where the crowd ia usually ao immense that the aristocracy 
wonid rather pay ten prices and have the grounds a little more to thetoaelves. 
This year the Society have varied this rule of excluding the publio on the 
judges' day, by admitting all who chose to pay %i each for admission. Num- 
ber of visitors over 1100. Lowest price od regular days, 25 cts. Sixth, all 
persons entering ihe grounds pass through a revolving gate, which passes bat 
one person at a time and register* him as he goea No swindling collusions 
be'ween ticket sellers and gate keepers. Seventh, the pruduoerK and manu- 
facturers here turn out with the evident intention on the part of each that 
his department and class shall rank No. l~and this, although the premiums 
are not proportionally ao much larger than with us at home. 

The Exhibition is really magnificent — the finest, it is mid, ever held in 
England, or in any other part of the world. In [be department of horses, 
the breeds styled " Agricultural "—including SufTulkg, Clydesdales and mis- 
cellaneous breeds — are most numerous and interesting. One of the > lydes- 
dale stallions, " Champion," aged six years, weighs twenty-five hundred and 
seventy-six ponnds, ond looks as though he might draw aft all London, if 
fairly bitched to it. The cnrriage horse here is generally a cross of the Thar- 
eugti-bred with the Cleveland Bay. Roadsters not numerous, and not su- 
perior. Thorough- b reds few in number, but very fine. The cattle make a 
great show; there being, of British breeds, !B0 short-horns, 12S Hereforda, 
eeDevons, 89 BnsaexBs, BO Jerse-s, 16 long-homs, 20 Norfolk and Suffolk 
Polled cattle, 11 QDernMyi, 17 Polled Aberdeens and Anguses, 20 Gallo- 
ways, il Highlands, ea AyrEhires, tl Welch cattle, and a few Eerries from 
Ireland; of foreign breeds, 48 French represenlativea, 60 Dutch, Flemish 
and Swiss. The sheep department includes nearly all the breeds of Great 
Brltlan and the Continent ; the South-Downs, Shropshires, Cotswolda, 
Leicei-ters, Oxfordshire Downs, Hampshire Downs aniL black-faced sheep, 
ranging about in the order named, and being the most prominent. Whole 
Dumber of entries, 7SS ; of which 202 were Downs. Uerinoes not ia favor 
here. In the swine department, the general classiGcatlon la by size aod 
color. Smaller white breeds seem to have rather the preference. Number 
of entries, 19S; many of them pens of three or more. Amount of priie* 
awarded In Live Stock Departiaeiit of Exhibition, 130,000. Fair show of 
leeda and other aKriealtural prodnota by the fflghlaud Agricoltaral Society 
9 Ae. TBANa 



j.A'OO'^IC 



STATE AaEICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 



tihlbltor bu implemeata here worth SSB,000. English implementi t.i 
«r»llf characterized b; too great weight and clumBiaeu. Some Amencaa 
hoes and forke, remarkable bj coDtraat for baaduome shape, Ughtnesa and 
finiah, attract nach atteoUoD. The exhibitor — a prognsasive and ahrewd 
English dealer— imports them becaoae, aa he saji, the Soglish loannfiicturera 
seem to be Incapable of acquiring the Yankee knack of making them. These 
fyw Imported implements are good agrieultaral misitionBriei. 

GBJSAT TBIAL OF BTSkU FLOWS. 

For want of mitable land near the Exhibition Qroands, the Bofal Societ; 
made arrangements for a trial of ateam plows at Farningham, some St miles 
out of London, in the count; of Kent. In makine the excursion I wufartn- 
nale iu having the company ofrnj excellent fHe;ias Hon. 0. L. Flint, of Hu- 
■acbueetts, and Hon. Frederick Smythe, of New Hampsbire. After a rapid 
whirl through the far-reaching suburbs of Loudon, and a dash into the oonn' 
tr;, passing numerons highl; cultivated fields of wheat, barlej and bops, the 
scene of action wse soon reached, and the motlej crowd of carious visitors, 
reprcBenting nearl; ever; nation, piled out and hurried np the road to tha 
field where the trial was alreadj in progress. 

Just before reaching the spot, a gliurt turn In tlie road brought us Budden- 
Ij before an iron monster, with beart of flra and breath of steam, snorting 
and dashing up tbe hill, like a ver; devil of tbe olden time 1 TUs singular 
looking creature proved to be Aveling's Agricultural Locomotive Engine. It 
had been sent a mile distsnt for wood and water, and when Its wild scream 
first startled us, had in trein*Beveral tons of these eaaentials, though moving 
up the eteep grade with all the majeslto esse of an elepbaut drawing a light 
barODcbe. We afterwards ssw it climbing steep hills in a stubble field, with 
its attending car full of curloas spectators. A single enslneer directed Its 
movements with perfect facility, causing it to make graceful curves or short 
turns, as occsbIoc required or ptaasurc dictated. 

This engine has an improved patent extra large bailer, fitted with Vl 
2} inch tubes, external plates oF tbe best Bntterlej iron, fire box and tube 
plates of Bowling Iron, with extra staje for high pressure. The fire grate 
measures SI inches by 84, and is suitable for wood or coal foel. The cylinder, 
ten inches \a diameter, is surrounded by ^ jacket snd placed on tbe forward 
part of tbe boiler; by which arrangement priming in ascending steep inclines 
IS prevented. The crank shaft is ofcomnioa iron. The engine Is fitted with 
improved governor, reveraiug lick motion, patent tender and water tank, 
under foot-plate, driving chain and gear, steam pressure gauge, extra lock-np 
safety-valve, steam jet blower, firing tool) and wrenches, driving wheels S ft. 
S int^es in diameter, 12 inches wide, patent steerage and screw brake for 
descending inclines. It is remarkable for simplicity and power — being cftpm- 
ble of drawing ten tons up an incline of one foot in six, and is easily managed 
bv any ordinary engine driver. The two prominent plows in England Kr« 
those of Fowler, of Comhill, the original inventor of the steam plow, and of 
the Hetsrs. J. &F. Howard, of Bedford. Bothof these, together with others, 
eneaged in this trial. • • • » • 

Bat the great qnestii , ._ 

To this we are bound to reply, No, i 

ever beard of either plow doing was ten acres in ten hours ; and this is rt 
inarkable success. Biz to eight acres is probably the average. And wh*a 
we consider the cost of tha apparatus— tl COO to tSOOO, though the engine 
may be uiied for other purposes — tbe wear snd tear of ropes and machlnerj, 
the coniumption of /uel, tbe number of men employed and the liabllltj to de- 
lays by breakage and other derangements, it looks to us like small reanlts for 
the Investment. 

Such work as we saw could have been done equally well by four men with 
etch an ordinary Yankee plow and one span of horses, at an expense of, say, 
$10; while here were employed an eipenslTe engine— ooetlng mora than 
eight hones, and of muoh less generel use mi the tMm— • botas and out to 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



GLIMPSES OP WESTERN E0EOPE. 131 

nppl7 tael and water, tnd elgbt men. Bat it ti fnrthenoore ftir to infer 
that on * trial, sach aa this waa, mora and i>ett«r work would be done than 
would be practicable as the average ; ao tbat it la probably mare nearl; cor- 
rect to offdet three men with plows againat the ateam apparatna, instead of 
foor. Such being our premiMl, we cannot get the conaent of oer judgment 
to endorM the eteam plowing of England «• economical, nnlesa it be on Tery 
large estates and onder peculiar olrcDmBtancea. I itlok to the idts, howerer, 
and shall oontinne to hope for its full realiiation, at aome dav, oo oiir great 
Weateni pruriea. 

FABHS OF THK LATE PBINnE ALBERT. 

• • • But I mnat not lingBr at the mat Palace. Famous in hiitorj as 
linked with the prKgreas of the empire during a period of some eight hnn- 
dred jeani, it stitl stands, solemn and gTBUd, upon Windsor's commanding 
hill, appealing to the nation's reverence for Iba lieroic Fast, and rout^ dep- 
recating the sure and stead; progress of the mightier Present, The Windsor 
royal estate embraces about 14,000 aerea, includ!pg40 miles of roadway, and 
la one of the most beautiful \a England. In the midst of it, there are three 
royal farms, all of which were maoaged bj Prince Albert, and a dairy estab- 
lishment notable for the nneiampled perfection of its appointments. The 
Prince was distiagalsbed for his sneceasfDl breedina of all clasaea of stock, 
as well as for skill in general farm management, and [ hare pleasure in thli 
opportunity of seeing the Tarious farms of which he had control, so soon af- 
ter bis death. The Shaw Farm embraces SCO acres; of which, howerer, less 
than 200 are under the plow, the rest being In meadow and pasture. The 
farm establishments, including dwelling, barus, cattle-sheds, wagoo-sheds, en- 
gine-house, tool-house, piggeries and aTiar;, though not eitensively gotten 
np, are constructed afier an excellent design, upon a square plot of ground, 
and altogether present a rery pleasing appenrance. The Prince was ever 
on the alert for new IraprOTements, as may be seen by the methods he ad- 
opted fbr cultivating and harvesting his crops and taking care of his stock. 
A steam engine thresbea the grain, and elevates it to the graaerteE, cuts the 
straw, roots and other feed, cooks the potatoes, and in many other ways 
makes itself useful. Orain-driils, improved horse-hoes and cultivators, and 
Wood's Reaper and Hower are in proper place and in good order ; six pairs 
of splendid Clydesdale hones, for farm work, are being harnessed for the af- 
ternoon task; and a herd of the finest bred Durham cattle are doing their 
best to convert the provender into the beat of rneat and milk. 

The Ftemiah Farm consists of 400 acres, half of which Is under plow at 
present. Establishment good. Herd, Herefords, and one of the parest and 
beat in the kingdom. Number of all ages, about 100. 

The Forfolk Farm embraces 100 acres, SOD being arable. Noted for its su- 
perior herds of Devoi cattls and Berkshire swine. On these several farms, 
the average yield of wheat has bean for several years past, about 4S bnsfaels; 
of oats, B6 ; of beans, BS ; of Swedes, 14 tons; of Xangels 40 to SO tons per 

But Frogmore Dairy la even more interesting than the &rms. It was built 
under the eipress direction of the Prince, and fitly represents the poetic 
phase of this always intaralting branch of huabandry. The dairy herd con- 
sists of some 200 bead of Darhams, Durnam grades and Jersey's, The cow- 
house, tike the most nf those on the best farms on the continent, is constrnoted 
with double rows of stalls, with broad feed-ways between ; the cowi when 
stalled, standing in ions rows, face to face, and secured by a chain with a 
ring that slides up and down the stanchions. The water is conveyed throngli 
pipes to troughs always within reach, and kept clean by frequent change and 
occasional scrubbing; ample provision is made for droning ail liquid man- 
nras to one general manure boate, from which it may l>e pumped either upon 
the covered heape of stall manure, or into manure carta for the direct appll- 
eaHOD to the lands of garden and farm. Littering of the stalls is properlj 
attended to and cnrrjing Is not neglected. Economical provlrion is also 
made for converting the ndlk slops and other waste products of the ttrm in- 
to numbers of btaDti&l (if ■ hog naj ever be laid to ba heantiftal) White 



I v'^'Otl'^lc 



182 STATE AOBIOni/rUBAL SOOIETT. 

WiadMr ewlne, the total tmnaid T»lne of which Is aflen betireen three and 
four thousand doUan. The dair;-hoaae itaelf " caps the dlmai." Princely 
indeed. Eiceedinal; beantilul and attractive on the exterior, it is anrpaiE- 
iag\j BO inaide. Length of millc room, 86 feet; width, 24 feet; height 
32 feet i the roof gnpporled bj handiome pillar*. Ceiling double, with or- 
namental opening for better rentilation. WalU double. Entire Interior 
iurface— wall), floor and ceiling — of porcelain; that of the walla being pure 
white, of the cornice and ornamental portioDi of the celling eniboe»ed and 
colored, of the floor in form of tilea in beautlfal colored patterne. Bread 
pnre white marble table running lecgthwlse through the center, with a ahal- 
low marble conduit of aame width beneath, aiwajs full of clear, cold rnnitlDg 
water. Also a broad white marble shelf of the height oE the table running 
entirely around the room. Pane and diehee, all of white porcetun or glass. 
Bat all of these most elegant fittings and furnishings did not satlgfy the oul' 
tiTated taste and affectionate heart of the noble Prince. I7p>.ii the walla, in 
handsome porcelain psnnels, are moat eiquieite representationa, in bauo n- 
Ii«n>, of poetic rural ecenes IlluatratiTe of the four eeasons, — auch as plowing 
and sowing the eeed, reaping the grain at harvest, the gathering of autum- 
nal frnila and so on,— white above, at suitable intcmla of space , are beauti- 
ful porcelain medallion likeneescs, in relief, of his numerous children. All In 
all, this riijal dairy house is a perfect work of art ; nor is evidence wanting 
that iho whole establishment is uniformly managed with that excellent thritt 
and economy for which the great and good Albert was so eminently diatln- 
gaished. ••••«••• • 

FOURTH OF JDLT CELEBRATION IS THE CRYSTAL PALACE. 

Of the numbera of Americans In London, some two hundred of us con- 
cluded to celebrate the day of onr National lodepcndence — not really for 
the sake of "bearding the Lion in his den," and yet not without gome re- 
gard to the very sinister dealings of the English government towards our 
own in tbia time of its peril. And so the great Banquet Hall in the Hryatal 
Palace, at Sydenham, was engaged, the Stars and Stripes vera proudly an- 
furled, and all trne Americana and msny English and olhtr foreign frienda of 
America invited to come ondcr Its folda. Hon. Freeman Horse, American 
Consul at London, presided at the dinner, and the hours from o'clock until 
10 o'clock of one of the most glorious days ever vouchsafed for 'hia alwaya 
favored occaGlon were patriotic ally spent In aump(uou!l; dining together and 
making a free declaration of principles. Many of the apeechea were pnb- 
liahed in the London papera, and ihjre ia reason to presume that aorae light 
on our National affairs was thus shed upon the now strangely beclouded En- 
gl iah mind. • 

LONDON TO OXFORD, BIRMINGBAM AND MANCHESTER. 

It TS the ISth of July. 1 bnve finished my inepection of the Gihibltion, 
distributed my reports to the representatives of all nations, collected some 
two thousand samples ot their industry, packed my Iugi;age, said good-bye 
to Iriends, and Lave actually a'arted home t 

That I might be aa little eucumbered as poseible, I ordered my trunk nnd 
boxes of specimens, books, &o., to be forwarded direct to Dublin, and hava 
with me bat a little bag aa large as a lady's reticale, and my faithful umbrella. 
Thus equipped I am ready (or my homeward tour, via Birmingham, MancbM- 
ler, Leeds, Ne wcaa tie -upon -Tyne, Edinburgh, the north of Scotland, &nd the 
chief cities of Ireland, 

The day in beautiful and not too warm for comfort. The London )U)d 
Northwestern Railway seems to appreciate my desire to get on in my jonmej 
and carries me at the rate of fifty miles an hour, London recede* ; broad 
cultivated field! of balf-harvested grass and grain flit by on either aide 
with the swiftness of the wind, and ere I had thought of it' the white towsra 
ef WindsorCastle are in sight. Blough is announced, and the passengers for 
Windsor tumble out. 

Twenty or more TiHiires hare been passed, and I stand under the ahadow 
of tha ancient walla of Oxford, proud seat of tha renowned Uuivenity. 



j.A'OO'^IC 



GLIMPSES OF WESTERN EUEOPB. 



" Ts frattsS planaclM. re bus! intillme, 

"- ---T«™ ijiit VBU the moaiT v.- - " 

dilve pll» oC old maulflcen 



Te towan uiit wear the moair vMt at Urns, 



_. thfl prtda of leAroiiiff and dafeuce, 

• Ye eloliton p*le, tbit, lengmetiltig to Uie al^l ; 

To contamplatlDD, lUp ij itep, IqtIU ; 

Htu. Oibrd. bau 1" 

Horethfto eight hundred }«ari ago thia grekt nnlTenltT wa< founded— m> 
loDg ago that hiBtorv in DDceTtain as to the precise date. How baa it growa 
since that small beginning I and That mulCitndeB of the learoed men of Eng- 
land BDd of the world have goo* forth from ita halls to enlighten and elerate 
or to mislead mankind I 

The popular idea of Oiford la that of ooe grand college, whereas it re&IIy 
oonsiata of nineteeu colleges, ench wtlh its Imposing arraj of facultv and 
students, ;et ail nnder one ceotral government. These colleges have been 
foQLded at different periods, within the past sere ral centuriea, by weatthj 
men, aided bj rojal mnnificeace, and for more than three hundred years hare 
been a power In the English nation — not intellectaallj alone, bat politicallj 
also. In the great revolution which resulted in the overthrow of Charles I, 
U est>onsed the cause of that unfortunate king, who made the univeraitjr hia 
headquarters, and it haa ainoe taken an active part in manj of the struggles 
that have uplifted and eveutnaltj advanced the English nation; though as a 
rule. I am sorry to say, it has oftener than otherwise been on the wrong side. 
We Americane who open our ejes with astonishment when it Is proposed 
to endow some ouUege witli a fund that sball yield an annual income of twen- 
ty thousand dollars, may be expected to open them wider when we are told, 
on good authority, that the total revenue of Oiford nniverslty ia no less than 
one million, eight hundred and forty thousand dollars per annum 1 

The buildings of the University are, many of tbem, very fine, and their 
nnmerons turrets, douiea, aad spires of stone give to the eity of Oiford a 
magoiflcent appearance, especially as seen from any of the hills which, like 
an amphitheatre, gird it round on every aide. • * • • 

Otr again by the railway, and thia time by a slower train, that I ma^ aee 
more of the glortoas sOBnery through whioh I am to pass. X half dozen 
towne of general interest, and then Warwick 1 This place bss long bean fa- 
mons in English history, and is still attractive by the flue old castle on the 
banks of the Avon, occupied successively by some of the most dlstinguiahed 
nobility of Sugtaod. Warwiokshire is considered one of the richest, best 
cDltiva'ted and most picturesquely beautiful counties of England. Here the 
long-bom cattle flosrislL Agriculture progressive. • • ■ 

By a branch of tiie railway, I am enabled to switch off and make a short 
Ti^t to that Mecca of ibe literary world, the birth place of Shakspeare. — 
Btratford-upon-Avan Is a quiet old municipal borough ar.d market town, about 
96 miles northwest of London, and with a popiHation of three or four thous- 
and. It was a plact. of some consequence at least a thoutand years ago, and 
hut for William Shakspeare would have been scarcely more important now. 

The train stops, aad by the winding way I turn my steps into Henley 
street, where standa ibe humble, time-worn cottage in wboee low and narrow 
chamber the immortal bard firat saw the light. A wooden frame Qiled Is 
with brick, the oatstda timbers alt exposed to the weather. The tooth of 
time has gnawed upon them some, but now they are kept varnished, and may 
thoa be preserved for centuries. The cottage Is two stories high, the lower 
eight and the upper seven ftet between the joints. The roof is steep, and 
over the doors and windows are'hoods made of boards, supported by simple 
brackets. The windows are very small, and of diamond-shaped panes about 
as lai^e as my band set In leaden saah. 

The ceiling is written ail over with names in pencil, and the windowa alsa 
bear the autographs of diamond-fingered vlsitora. Among the latter I trace 
the Dames of Walter Scott and Lord Byron. By the window I ut ulent, and 
MSect upon the the anriralled sway of the Monarch of the Kind whose ohlld- 
Ish feet from thia then obscure place went fbrth to plant them on the throne 
of nniveraal empire. How rare it is that a true gennliis Is born Into the arma 
of tojaltj. Qenina ia tiw great leveUr of bIim, tb* oontouaer of those 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



184 STATE AOBIOULTDEAL SOCIETY 

DilMrtble auumptiona whoH onlj iboiidatiga li BdTeDtUion* and cban^ng 

circnmaUnce. ShalcBpeKre wu the bod of a common glorer, aod to the day 
of bia death wor« no title, Inherited or eonferred. But what earl, or dake, 
or king woald not give tbe empire ot Ibe world, were it hia to give, coatd he 
but go down tbe agea with the aimple name and imperlahable glory of Wil- 
Uun Shakspeare 1 • • • *r • 

From the claaficGeldeof Btratford-npon-Avonandof Sbotterj to theamokft 
and roar of great Birmingham, how marked tbe contraati The wa; hitber 
baa been through magnificent scenery, the approach heralded bj tbe gleam- 
ing fires of furnaces, the thickening emoka of moniter foundries, rolling 
millt and manufactories, and by the bewildering diBBonances of clank and 
ehamp and bias and ringing crash,'wbich here, aa nowhere elae io all the 
world, surprise and stun the ear. It ia m if Pluto and Vulcan had joined 
hands to batter down and re-forge the world, and thiaBirmineham were their 
grand, central workabop. Leadiog city of England in the working of metala ; 
tUBO famous for iCa maoufkcture of iadia rubber fabrioa, papier maehe, 
mother of pearl, tortoiee-tbell and iiory goods, and glasa ware. Stands ap- 
on a number of Bandstooe bills, well built ; populatioQ, a quarter of a million. 
It owes its gr^atoesa to the rich mines of iron aod coat la tbe loldaC of which 
it la located, and to the genius of the Immortal Watt, which gare the world 
that wonder-worker, tba steam engine, for many ceotarieB it was * town 
of no apecjal importance, though so favorably located. But immediately af- 
ter the application of ateam as a motive power, and the construction of a 
railroad to London— completed in 1888— it became thecentre of an immense 
traffic and has aiuce rapidly advanced In wealth and population. • • • 

Lancaahire. Who does not know that that means cotton t Yes, there is 
at least one place where Cotton is King- Lancashire Is bis empire ; Man- 
chester tbe seat of governmenC. Juat now when the cotton interest is defy- 
ing every other in my native land, and fiercely attempting to eatabliflb Its 
supremacy there and everywhere, Uancbeeter is a place of peculiar interest. 
A large and handsome city, built cbleGy upon bigb ground, undulating, and 
upon both sides of the rirer Irwell ; tbe east and west side connected bj 
eight bridges, both divisions meandered by numerous railroads and canals ; 
population about half a million. Thirteen hundred years ago it was tm ini- 

8 ortant station of the Dmidii, whoao altar they called Heyne. To-day 
. ia one of the finest and wealthiest cities of Europe ; distinguished alike 
for its aplendid edifices, for the number and quality of its public institutions, 
religious, educational, industrial and charitable, for tbe activity and enter- 
prise ol its people, and espeoi&Uy aa being tbe greatest cotton man ofkcturing 
city in theworid. 

One hundred yeara ago tbe amount of raw cotton imported into Manches- 
ter was a little over two mitiion pounds ; in 1800 it was Sfty-ui millions, and 
in 1856 one thousand and two oty-one millions. Value of the exports of 
cotton manufacture* In ISeO, about two hundred and fifty millions of dollars. 
Bnt the amount manufactured is not the only tUng ofinterest. The won- 
derful improvements in the quality is also worthy of note. At flnt, indeed 
but a few years since, tba apinning was not only slowly but roughly done ; 
the finest threads being comparatively ooarM and knotty. Now processea 
are Id use by which ao almost iuvisibla thread f s made nearly as smooth and 
uniform as tbe most infinitesimal gold wire. Think of IS, COO spindles run- 
ning in one factory, each making 5,00(i revolutions in a minute, and winding 
up a threiil so fine that it requires S,50U hanks or skeins, of SIO yards each, 
to make one pound/ or. In other words, so fine that SO pounds of it tied end 
to end would reach aronnd tbe world I Think of a fabric so gossamer-IIhe 
that a lady could put adresapatlem Into one side of berporbmomuiU and hard- 
ly know it was tbere 1 Such are tbe achisTeaeuta of this wonderful age. 
One of tbe moat luteresting of all tbe procesaes we examined was the means 
used for spiuning these fine threads When spun aa fine as possible, theyacv 
each paated through a flame of burning gas, and then through holes in a braaa 
plate, made by machinery, just the alze of tba intended thread. The flama 
dnges oflT all superfluons fibres, and the Infinitesimal perforation in the mat- 
al (crapes olT all knots and rsduoea it to a uniform alaa. Tbe tinmiag ia a 
bb^tIm to every new spectatori tot tbe thread diotm ao BwifUy that It 



GLIMPSES OF WESTERN EUROPE. 186 

Mems to Bland «till in the Suae, and the wonder is wh; it doesn't burn off. 

In the world there are now forty million! of cotton epindles whirring; and 
twenty-one millioni of these are in Great Britain. America ranksueit, oper- 
ating ill millions of ipindlei ; France five aad a half milliODB. 

MAHCHESTER TO NKWCA8TLB-0N-TYKB, vii SHEFFIELD AND LEEDS. 

I hare left Uaticheater, ticketed for Sheffield. The Swift-moflng train is 
already leaving the spirea and curling bdi ok e of the great cotton city behind. 
Many Btops, but io brief that mj patience is not even tried, muck less ei- 
haugted, m a thousand times it has been on our American railways. Time is 
precitms here, and every man connected with the road and train appears to 
bet part of them, and to moTe with the despatch and regularity of machinery. 
A village is In sight, and thoagh some miles ahead, our mile-in-a-mniuts 
speed Boon annihilates the interrening space. The locomotive whistles its 
salute (with a voice more shrill than those of our Yankee engines) and in a 
moment more, the vigomnsly applied breaks bring ub to a sbort halt . Some 
passengers tumble out, others immediately take their places, and ere we 
have time to to look at our watch, the station bell rings, and away we go, 
like tbe wind. There's some pleasure in lucb railway travelling. 

In advance of us there seems to be a range of hils. Already the train en- 
ters a deepening aU. Darkness, gas light, and csvsmous ihunderl We 
are dashing through a tunnel. Light dawns I but we bave been a 
long time under ground , About Sre minutes. We have passed the famooe 
Woodhead Tunnel, at the summit of the Uauchester, Sheffield and Lincoln- 
shire railway, three miles and sixty feet in length I Tunnels are very niun* 
eronsin England, constituting about one-hundred and thirtieth of the aggre- 
gate length of all the railways, or some sevnty miles altogether. Engliahen- 
gineers prefer tunneling the rock to making a cut deeper than siity feet. 
When the rock is not perfectly solid, the roof is arched with several succes- 
sive arcs of brick, the upper arch some times extending on either side into 
a netbcr arch beneath the railway ; thus forming a complete circle of briok 
masonry. 

Tbe scenery ^ong the way is beautiful ; the undulating sarface marked by 
msjesticgroves, meadows, and rich pastures, with grazing herds, and now 
and then 4 Sne old residence, gray with the lapse of centuries, bnt angges- 
tive cf all comfort and independent livine. Derbyahire is more bitly than 
many of the counties of England through which I have heretofore passed, bat 
is nevertheless a-good agricultural district. 

Sheffield I City long famous for its superior cutlery, and still chief seat of 
tbe English manufacture of cast, shear an d blister steel of all sorts, steel 
wire, cutlery and Cools of every description, railway cii'riage springs, ka ; and 
also noted for its silver, silver-plated, German silver, brittaonia and other 
white metal wares. It wasformerlyanoldmanorof the Earlsof Shrewsbury, 
who had a castle in the town, and a Gue manor bouse near by, in one or the 
other of which was passed tbe greater period of the captivity of Uary, Queen 
ofScots. Tbecityhasa population of nearly 1 00, OOU, and teams with the 
wonderful activity of its multitude of workshops. • • • • 

And now for Leeds, the second noted manufacturing town in the West 
Biding of Torksbire. A Short run, and soon over. Rather an irregalarly 
bnilt city, of some 191,000 inhabitants, on both sides of the navigable river 
Aire. It communicatee with the Qerman Ocean through the Aire, and with 
St. Qeoi^'s Channel by means of a canal, and is also the centre of an im. 
portent network of railways ; thus giving it great importance Id a commereial 
pointof of view. Itwasonce a Roman station, and successively passed on- 
cer tbe control of the Northmen, the Saxons, and the Normans. Now dli- 
tiDguisbed as being the seat of the largest number of woolen factories oon* 
centrated at any plaee in the world. 

The route hence is almost due north, and leads from Yorkshire through the 
connty of Durham, and into Northomberland. Here is where originated the 
abort-horn breed of cattle. The pastures are rich, and the flacks and herds 
along the WSJ are worthy of the country. The fields are well ooltivated, and 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



186 STATE AGMOULTUEAL SOCIETY. . 

the beet dnined lectiona ire clothed with excelleut cTOp*. « • * 

The twOlght aomes, sod I h&ve not ;eC rsached the end of mj daj'i jonr- 
B«7. But atlut we know bj the distant glimmer, of k thouund lights thtt 
we »re near to tt. Newcutle lies on Ibe left bank of the river Tjdb, and 
about eight miles from the Genoan Ooean, while on the right bank igtbe 
dingy old mKoufacturing town of G ite ahead ; the two connected by the 
flunouB " high leTel bridge. " Gateibead it annoanced 1 And now we are 
crotwing the bridge. It lookt to be far down to the water (and it la some ItS 
f«*tj, Kod leems Terj long as the itont locomoti>e draws the beavj train 
over it. What if the bridge she aid give way under its mighty load I George 
Stephenson, chief of the world 'i engineers, made it; there U no dknger. 
From the mignircenl Gentrml Bsitway Station I make my way to a hotel, 
and wait for the morning light. The coiJ mines, an hundred exIeDsive 
fMtories, the old Castle, famoua in history, and many other thlnra of great 
ioterest await me^ Prof. UcChesney, of Chicago, le Amerioan codbuI bere, and, 
I truBt, will be my eiploring companion. • • • • # » 

In compunj with the genial Frofenof, have mads the rounds, Tisiting the 
fiiotoriee, one of the deepsBt and moBt Interesting miaes, and spent a part 
of the eveniitg at the fine old castle of Lord KaTensworth. 

NEWCASTLE TO EDINBDROH. 

Good bTB, old HewcBBtle ! t wonld tury longer, but mj eyet longfbr the 
fajlls and heather of clsssii: old Sootlaad. I am to go by the way of B&wiok, 
Melrose, Abbottifocd to Edinbnrg ; thence through the Highlands and back 
•ia Glasgow. 

The train mores off in Its majesty, and Kewcaetle recedes. Splendid cul' 
tivated fields — sbowing that the farmersof Northumberland hoow what they 
•re about — and beaatifnl scenery flit piut in pleasing panorama. Th« agrl- 
cnltursl portlODi of thla norlhemmoBt county of England seem to equal any- 
thing that T have yst Been in Europe. Towns nnimportint. 

Now we approach the CheTiot Hills. At the U. S. Fair at Richmond, Ta.. 
In 1BS8, Lonl Napier, then British Uinieter, (and at home President of an 
AsBociitioii for the ImproTement of Cheviot Bheep) gave me an interesting 
ftcconat of this moanlainous district. The hills, with their dark and rugged 
•ides are still here, and the sheep are here with their tinkling bells, grazing 
inqniot comfort, but the noble Lord, whose effortshsTe so much contributed to 
the improvement of the one and the other, has himself been ESthered into the 
fold of the Great Shepherd. At leogth, with the glory of the setting sua 
gilding the tops of lbs eastern Gummits, the train passing through deeply 
■haded defiles, we cross the intangible line which separates the once rival 
but DOW reconciled parts of the realm. It !s better that they are one, and so 
may they erer remain. God so willed it. feace to the ashes of their res- 
pective heroes 

A rash of thonghts strangely blended, as the mind retnrna In retnwpect to 
the small bat grand and heroic kingdom left behind. By what mighty strag- 
gles has it fought and worked its way through many long centuriel to this 
glorious present, wherein It ranks first in the perfeellon of its sgricul- 
tnre, first in manufactures, first in commerce, first in wealth, first in pow- 
er! Hove on, noble realm, giving the laws, literature, science, and 
dlristianity of an advancing civilization to the great needy world I The 
thunder of thy workshops shsll ever be welcome music; thy beaatifnl ver- 
dant fields and thy magnificent fleets of shuttle shipp, weaving the commerce 
of the world on all the seas, shall be a welcome sight to all peoples. As 
Ood's sun of light and fire never leaves all parts of thine empire in night, so 
may the sun of thy prosperity never go down, leaving thee in the darknes 
of departed greatness and glory I 

The whistle of the locomotive startles me, stops my musings, and notifies 
ne that we are entering the old town of Hawick. A place of some 7,000 in- 
habitaots, near the confiuence of the rivers Tevlot and Sletterich, and chiefly 
•Dgtged in the woolen, lambswool and cotton hose manfaeture and trade. 

Time will not permit me to tarry, and jet this train will conveyme to Jed- 
bnrg, qalte out of my intended line of travel. No tr^n more direct until 



..i.A'Oti<^lc 



GLIMPSES OF WESTERN EUBOPE. 187 

to-mom>«. Distance to ICaItoh, IB miles. Would mj p&tieiiM iinfi^r more 
bj the delKj, or mr leg* from the joumej oQ footf Fatlence li of more 
value, iDdBoIrtgli thelegf. "The way to Uelrose, if jdu pleaae eirf" 
"ThatUit, sir; smooth and not difBculc." ''Thuik you." The nlfiliC ii 

IileaaaoE, the time aufflcient, and I Bhall not baateam; iteps. * * Faaoy 
eada me to wander fl-om the waj and climbing joadsr mountain wait for the 
TiaiDgauo. Ha; be it will reveal to ntjgaze a good part of all BcotlaudI 

At length the topf of the eastern bllli 
and a toft and radiant light ateala ove 
tban Tonted m^eat}' and glory, the Bun, thua fitly heralded, appears. Verily 
my dream was not a vain one ; for does not " the glory of the whole earth" 
lie before me f Hountaina and valiajs, rivera, verdant fields and barren 
moora, a score of villages, and in the Tar diatance the longed-for Edinburgii, 
city of centarieil I stand open the £il don Bills. Helroae.withitsfar-faiaea 
old Abbey, built by David I. almost a thousand years ago, lies at my very 
feet, and Abbotaford, borne of the immortal fioott, near by, on the rolling 
Tweed. Cfaanning visits to the Abbey and to Abbotaford. and then off for 
Bdinburgh ■ 

The aptendid fertile farms of Eaat Lothian, with their fine old bsbstantial 
dwellings, barns and other buildings, flit by like leaves on the wind; the lo- 
oonujtivs whistles its bold, cheery aalule ; the grey old spires and castle tur- 
rets return a gnm and stately wclcume, and we are at last in the very ^e- 
cincta of Edinburgh, ancient netropoiis of heroic old Scotia t The 
railway enters the city through the valley onoe known as North Lf^ch, 
but now redeemed from the straggling waters of the Firth of Forth and made 
beautiful as Fontainebleau by Uie substitution thtrefor of blooming gar- 
dens and gparkliog fountaina. 

First of all we pass Holyrood Palace, and the remsineof adllapidated Ab- 
bey built in the old limes of TOO years ago— a famous spot in the hiitory of 
Scotland. The Abbey, founded in 1I2B, included with it a circuit of some five 
miles, which entire area was (and we are told still remains) a sanctuary for 
debtors, within which no bailiff, with hisposMinnulaluj, dare snter. What a 
heaven for shiltleu fellows, poor unfortn nates aud nnscruptiloDB acalawagal 
Tbe wonder is that a circuit of only five miles should uot be uu comfortably 
Either the dwellers in the " UndO'Oakee'' 
r the officers of the law are unmercifully Bwift. 
The Abbey has gone to ruins but the Palace is (till kept in good repair. 

On the right as we pass to the station, is seen Gaton Hill, S44 feet above 
the level of the sea, and crowned with Lord Nelson's tall and oircalar tower, ' 
with the half completed Partheoonic National monument to the memory of 
keroic Scotchmen who fell in the Napoleonic wars, with monuments to Play- 
fair, Dugoll Stewart, a Corinthian temple, with a statue of Robert Burns, and 
the Bigb School, the Observatory and Oaol. The Umt tntmbU of this 
array of public and artistic works ii thoroughly suggestive of Athenian and 
Roman scenes, and produces a pleasing effect upon the mind of the beholder. 
The tntiu stops. I ascend a staircase, pass through tbe great waiting room 
and stand upon High Bridge. Immediately before me, in the beautiful vatlej 
of the Loi^h, ara railway tracks, winding &ke serpents through grassy lawns 
■nd charming gardens; and further on, standing grim and grey upon the 
the very brow of a bold projecting clilT, three hundred feet above the valley, 
!• tbe veritable old castle of which we have »U read and dreamed, glowering 
down upon the city, old and new, with glimpies of a magnificent undscape 
vet beyond. On the high hillside are college bnildings, the Bank of Scot- 
faod and quaint old blocks of merchant shops and dwellings, some of thsni 
eleven stories high I While to the right, parallel with the valley and lined 
vriih stately buildings, and especially marked by the towering Gothic monn- 
it to Bir Walter Bootl, lies Princess' street, one of the most charming 



promenades of Europe. The effect is beyond description, surpassing any- 

tblng that I have hitherto eiperienced In my European travels. • > * 

Here I End a friend of Wisoon^n acquaintance, Mr. J. P. Faulkner, barrts- 

dter 



n acquaintance, . , — _ 

ter, by whom I am cordially received and entertained! In tbe evening, after 
ft ^7 charmingly spent In vlullng the city aud and Its nrronndiugs, we lap 



188 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

together ftt the fine old reBidence of Mr. Ore}', ooe of the most aneoettAil of 
the many superior farmrrB of the LothiBiiB. 

A.t fint it eeemed Incredible that anj one ihonld be able to pa; a rent of 

9S0 per acre for land and yet haadsomely enpport a large and eipeuiiTe 
flUDilj and still hare a considerable surplus for bank deposits. But, on 
leamlDg Hr. O.'s method of sgrioultare — hi* thorough manuring of his soil 
and crops, the fine system of rotation, bj which he always keeps tho soil ie 
heart, and bis superior management of stock, making the most economical 
use of roots, potatoes, cabbage and of mach that is usuallr thrown sway — 
when I learned in short that nothing was lost and STerjth^ng was skillfully 
turned to the best possible account and put into market at tbe best possible 
time, it became esiy to figure up the profits even in spite of such r«ntK 
This was a farm especially adapted to grain and root crops, not so profitable 
as some of the meadow farms which receive a rental of £S0 (tSSO) and yet 
by means of four and fire magniScent crops of gross, made possible by drain- 
age with sewerage water, pay elilt larger returns to the lessee. * • • 

After tea, a stroll in the frait and flun'er garden — just enough to satisfy me 
that the ftrmers of Lothian knovhoiv to provide themselves with tbe luiuriee 
as well as tbe necessaries of liTe — and then a return on foot past Balitbur]' 
Craigs and Arthnrs's seat— craggy elevations of mach local interest — to the 
city, delighted and Instraeted by our rambles. 

Under the further guidance of my eicellent friend, I have seen theohjectB 
of chii'f interest in Edinburgh — the Interior of tbe Castle — the ancient 
houses of Parliament, now occupied as coart rooms— the world-rsmed Uni- 
Territy — the Industrial Huseam, where may be seen all the varietiei of stone, 
wood, agricultural implement! and igrioultural products of Scotland — the 
great agricultural wirehonse of Messrs. Lawson, tbe most distinguished 
■eedsmeo of the United Kingdoni — tbe magnificent monument to Scott, sa 
eiquisitely wrought Qothic Tabernacle of stone ISO feet high, with a fine 
Statue of Sir Wcdler In the sitting postare within— the beautiful streets, pub- 
lic squares and historie statues of the new city — and last of all glimpses of 
Leith, the port on the Firth beyood. 

There are 70 printing estabtiahmente here, taming out 20 periodicnle and 
revlewB, some of them, as the Edlnbnrgb Jiaiwv and ^odciotHTt MagaauM, 
noted tbe word over for their ability, S6 daily and weekly newspapers ; while 
in book-making Edinburgh surpasses every other city of Its size in tbe world. 

To-morro* I sball leave for tbe Highlands, tarrying for a while amid the 
■eenery made elasuo by Bcotte' incomparable Lady of tbe Lake. 

EDINBUIteH TO OLABGOW BT THE TROSACHS. 

J am ticketed for Callender na Sterling, and already the grey old city of 
centuriee is behind me. We wind through the beautiful narrow valleys and 
pierce the opposing hills. Tunnels common. John Bull ien't to be baffled. 

Sterling 1 with its ess tie -crowned hill, winding streets ind ancient shops 
and dwellings. The orisinal was Btrjveling, euggeeted by the fact that here, 
in the fierce feudel times Bqpt strove with Pict, clan with clan, and 
Scotch with English, until the spot was henceforth fsmoua as a battle ground. 

I stand upon its battlements. What a magnificent prospect! Nothing 
oonld BurpaBS it. To the northward and westward are the Orampion moan- 
t^ns, the noble peaks of Benlomond, Benledi and Benvoirlich rising mEU^"* 
tic above the rest ; Qartmore House and the house of Cardlross, the scene of 
the old legend of Sir James the Rose; and the Tillages of CraiBforth, Meik- 
lewood and Blair Drummond. A right-aboot-liwe brings under the eye s pic- 
ture lesB grand but none the lesa iDepiring and beautiful. The Forth with 
its silver stresm, threads tbe fertile valley; there are the villages of KinituiB 
and the Sterling bridgee : about ns lie the Oowlan Hills. * * 

• • • • • •• The cars a«ain. Th« 

nilway lies In the valley of tbe Forth and the journey 1b made aeiightfolly 
ezcitinK by ecenei of historic and legendry interest. At Gailandor we leave 
the railway and take onr place— thoie of us who propoBa a tonr in the Tro- 
■achB — In an old faBhioned stage coach. I want to see everything by tba 
vay and bo take k seat on (op. Callander Ib Boon leh behind and dot by a 



GLIMPSES OF ■WHSTBEN EUEOPE. 139 

rnatio bridge we croas the oluatc Teith. The narrow fertile valley, the 
tUIu and aottagea by the way, and the grim old mauiitaiiis above and beyoDd. 

Already we toach and wind onr waj' along the ba«e of the nableat of them 
all. More than a tbouMiid jean ago, a Gaelie legend aaya, an angel ot&n 
appeared to tba people on the top of it ; dnce which time It hai beeo known 
M Senltdi, the Hill of God. And there la the narrow, illver; Loch-Acbray t 

The quick-roll lag wbeela have borne ot many miles on the enchanting way. 

"There," laya the driver, "ia Lanrio Head I" Where T "Just there, slop- 
ing to the Loch." In a trice J have left the coach, leaped the fence and am 
gathering butter-capa from the midst of the me&d. 



ahonts a fellow traveler; and with singular aptnep, too, for it U likely t( 
quire the legs and wind of a Bull-Run soldier to overtake the coach. * 

Snddenlj we oome upon the neat and Babitaotial Troaachs He 
and while my fellows go in to drink their ale, I walk on, gathering memenl 

* * * . A flash as of bamished sliver in the sun t Is is possible F Bave 
I walked eo far that I have really stumbled upon the lake in adrance of all 
my companions ? Aye, Locb-Katrine, in all the glory of nooa-tide ! 



"With promoaalorj, creek ind liav, 
And lalanda (hat, amporpled bridit. 
Float amid the siorlona U^t, 



talna, tbat Ilka glints sti 
I cnckanUd lBn3. 

Ell reined side* si 

WbUfl an Uie north, inroogn miaaie air, 

BeDHin heaves high bis rorehead bare t'' 

No idctare of the Old World, or New, has lo eechanted me with the wild- 
uesa of il8 beauty and the romanoe of its story. 

* • • The driver's piping horn ! The crack of his whip, and the rum- 
bling of wbeele t Kj companions alight, amazed to find how they have been 
outstripped hv me, and all enthusiaatio at thought of a voyage upon the Loch. 
We go aboard; tbe bell rings out its warning, and the shore is left behind. 
Katrine was formerly the uvarite resort of .robbers of whom Kob Roy wae 
chief. Eilan Varnocb, the famoas " Ellen's Isle " of " Tbe Lady of the Lake," 
just before us, is tbe very spot where the freebooters divided their plunder. 

Husio 1 The favorite mosio of SootUnd—tbe bagpipe, I mean. An old 
Highlander, whose head is white with the frosts of no less than seventy 
winters, seems bound to perfect the illusion of our senses and to convince ui 
that we are really in the midst of times five bendred years a-agone. 

The water of L-och Katrine is cold and pure. Tbe city of Glasgow, Slmilel 
distant, if supplied with 60,000,000 gallons daily. This immense volume of 
water is carried through great Iron pipes and through seventy tunnels, with 
an aggregate length of thirteen miles, and across deep valleys, which last are 
either spanned by aqueduct bridges consisting of iron troaehs supported by 
rubble stone, or meandered by syphon pipes four feet in diameter. It was 
oertunly an hercalisn work to span such valleys and pierce such mountains, 
and coDid not have cost less than seven, ]>erhapB ten, millions of dollars. 

We touch the western shore a^er a most charming voyage of nearly tea 
miles, and again take the stage. A rough, plctoresqne country. Loch Lo- 
mond 1 largest of the Bcotish lakes. A beaatifnl sheet of water. 

The ahrlll whistle of the steamer bnrries us down the cliff to the shore, and 
in a few moments we are fairly under way. Loch Lomond is some twenty- 
four miles in length, from north to south, ili to eight miles In width at the 
southern eitremity, narrowing down to one mile at the north, and has an 
ftverage depth rangins from sTity to four hundred feet ; the greater depth 
being at the north end. where it Is narrowest. It Is sbut In by high moon- 
tains on the north, an<l throaghout its whole extent la dotted with islands. 

As we proceed southward tlia scenery gradu^y changes. The islands in- 
crease in number, tho moantains diminish lo sititode, and the beaoh widsns- 



140 STATE AGMOULTtTRAL SOCIETY 

At leoEtb the open conntrr between the l*ke and Olugow Uei spread ont In 
all iti breadth and beauty before Di, and in the dlitaace the frith of the 
Oljde, ioto which, throagh the rirer Leven, the anrplui iriterg of Lomond 
are poured. Ben Lomond aod other \otly peaks in all their BolemD grandeur 
at the Dorth, and the wide ipread Tallaj and plains dotted with Tillaa on the 
■OQth — this is oar laat picture of this moat beautiful of Lacha. 

A. railwa; train awalta ua at tbe bead of the Leven, aad !□ lees than thirty 
minntei— distdnce only twenty mllea — our eyei shall reat on the aplres and 
towers of great Olugow, third elty of the Britieb realm, 

Glasgow is really a great anJ flourishing city. But tbeo ie It not old 
enough to be aom^Ching of a town ■ Founded, traditioo uys, in BSD. Whether 
this be true or not, we know tbat It was already a place of some importance 
M long ago aa 1300, when the immortal Wallace met and defeated the 
English Percy here in High Straet. But that is nothing; Glasgow Is emi- 
nently a cSt.v of to-day — full of actlre life and energy — building ships for 
many countries — forging flre-slxths of all thr malleable iron produced by 
Scotland— manufacturing lome of tbe best marine engines In tbe world, 
together with immenle quantities of chemicala, glass, pottery warea, cotton, 
woolen and silk fabrice, stiawla, carpetgand numberless fancy articles — noted 
also, for lie eitenslie commerce, and scarcely less for Its literary and aclen- 
tific Ina^tutiona. Population nearly half a million. 

The commercial Importance of Olaagow Ib rery remarkihla in riew of tba 
fact, that naturally the rlrer Olyde, on which it stands, many miles from thtt 
sea, was a shallow, swift and aand-bedded stream, utterly Incapable of nnrl- 

Rtlon by any sort of boat and with little proapoct of Us erer becoming so. 
it what are natural obstacles la the way of the ocnaentrated energies of a 
vlgoron* and reeolate people J The sturdy Scotchmen of the rich, beantifol 
and renowned Talley of the Clyde were not to be batSed. IfOod bad not 
given them a great naTigable river, with capacity for the mighty ahips of tbB 
)9th, or any century, then tbey would make one for tbemselTes. They bava 
made It, and to-day, here are great ships, In the very heart of tbe dty, bear- 
ing the Hags of every civilized nation and unloading their rich cargoes from 
even South America and various far oET semi -barbarous countries of the East. 
Among her educational institutions, tbe one which (not excepting the 
Royal University, which is a noble institution and of great renown) has in- 
terested me most Is the Andersonlan University, established, within recent 
date, for the instruction of the working classes in tbe physical and natural 
sciences and In literature and the arts. Tbis Institution, has also, at pres- 
ent, a medical department, and is givinE Instruction of the utmost practical 
value, to ITIX) students. One aach cojfege In each large city of tbe realm 
would do more for the pro|treM of liberal ideas and overturning of an al- 
ready tottering aristocracy than all the purely political machinery that can 
be brought to bear ; for its teodenc; is to demonstnite the truth 



Educate the working classes, or at flr«t only ■ few of the most gifted amoDg 
them, and the progress of democratic ideaa is asiiired. 

The old Univeraily, founded over 400 years ago, Is atili flourishing ; at- 
tatided by about 1000 students; library of 60,OOU volumes; museum valued 
at nearly thrfle-quarters of a million dollars; handsome botanical garden of 
40 acres. The city abounds in fine public buildinga, and some of the band- 
■omest streets and squares are made jet more attractive by statuea in bronxe 
and marble by modern masters. 

Atrip Into the country— up the valley of the Clyde— satisfies one that 
sericulture ie no less Bourisbing here than oommerce and mannfacturas. 
£ny of the farms are modela of neatness and thorough cidtDre. Jt Is here, 
where tbat famous breed of horses, the Ciydeadale, originated, and where it 
■till holds pre-eminence. Horses weighing SOOO pounds and over are com- 
mon In all parts of this valley. 



^d by Google 



GLIMPSES OV WESTERN EUROPE.. 

GLASGOW TO BELFAST. 

— . - - lid (tood-by« 
of Aj-r. < 

the highest of the moantiins rising to 20O0 feet sbove the leTel of the eea. 
Hinee nf iron, lend >nd sntimnn; ; quarries of Mire ballding gtone ; villeys 
beautifullj cnllivaied— th« Hch psBturee tnlnisied by eucb Ayrshire cattle u 
would awskeu thoughts of profitable dsryin^ in the mind of any Wisconsin 
farmer; inCereetiog relics of Druidica! and Roman life ; medniTol atructarei 
in decay ; the monomente of coveaanC martyrs, and thrirliig factories where 
are made qnantities of Bae itnen, woolen and cotton goods, and the world- 
iiuned Paiwlj ahawls ; Tumberry Castte (ancestral home of the lamlly of 
Brace); 

" — Allowaj'* antd baoBtad kirk, 
Wbeis gliaiBla and honlaU nlgliUr ciy," 

aD<] where Tarn O'Shanterhad his midnight vision ; aye, and Ayr,— 

"AildArr, wham ne'er a town ■nrpaiun 
For honeit men and bonn j lasaei, — 

btrth place of Robert Bams ;— all these, as a mc'dley to the ear, come troop- 
ing Co the sight of him who passes through this eitreme BouChwestern corner 
of glorious old Scotland. •••••• 

From An'irosan by steamer across the Irish sea to Belfast. Oh, these 
channel!! t A vova|;e across them doesn't last long, but, ocherwiM it'amoreto 
be dresdeH than the ocean, with Its grand moutitain swells. 

Thd old demon of sea sickness, from whose grip h it se erne, I am never to 
escape, has again seized me, and reawakened iceiprcssihle desirea to aboliah 
the whole digestive appnratug. 

it dawn, Belfast I I walk the plank and my feet, for the first time, tonob 
the Emerald Isle I — land of rich resources made rruitless bj Interaal dissen- 
tions, intestinal warp, and vain struggles with oppressire foreign powers for 
at least two thousand five hundred years ; land whose history is emblazoned 
all over with the names of brilliant scholars, artists, poets, staCesmen and 
warriors, and yet whose condition has been for all these dark centuries that 
of poor Ireland, demanding the stmpathy and commiseration of all generooB 
people throughout the worM t If my obserTatlong should betray unusual in- 
terest, wliat wonderf I4 not every true American heart in perpetual bonda 
of Bcmpnthy with every otiier that beats for liberty and independence F Aod, 
besides, are not the people who inhabit this island the fathers aud mothers, 
brettiren and sisters of some milMnns of oar own countrymen, out of whose 
stnew and muscle have come much of the material wealth and power that 
noware the wonder of the world t . • • . • 

And this is Belfast, seat of linen manufacture. Strongly in contrast with 
the cities through which I hsTe jnst been passing on the other side, and yet, 
after all, a very pleasant lookinti town of ll)ii,000 inhabitant?, with many floe 
buildings and qnite a considerable number of factories, foundries, vitriol 
works, disiillerieB, flouring mills, rope and ship yards, etc. Built on the 
Lagan, an unimportant stream, except that its mouth makes a harbor, and 
was in fact the origin of Belfast, which else had probably never been. 

BELFAST TO DUBUN. 

The way to Drogbeda Ilea, at first, through a low and, Just now, rather wet 
country, with a dark, rich, mucky soil, capable of producing large crops of 
I^BSs, and, where properly drained, of potatoes and almost any of the crops 
grown In this latitnde. Cnlilvalion really quite good. The cattle— of which 
there are not a few by the way — are In good condition, and i 00k as if des- 
tined for an EDgllsh market ; mostly of English breeds, with a sprinkling, 
now and then, of the singular-looking black Eerries. The farmers in this 
coMntv (Down) are said to make a very good qaality of butter and cheese and 
• great deal of it. Swine also abound. • » * 

Now we strike 1 to the bills — some of thetn pretty high, too. Cattle and 
Aeep— Sonthdowna, Leicestere, and what, atadlstMtee, appearto beLfnoolna 



i.A'OD^k' 



142 STATE AGBIOTILTTJRAL SOCIETY. 

ud CheTtotB. HillB, Indeed t HonntiJDS now—tlie VonTDe, highest, I beliere. 
In Ireland. * * Connt^of Lonth. OradaKlly the monntBini diinin- 
lah la size — hilU — nndnlationB — and, finally, a great lerel eoantiy again. 
Drogbeda is aunoanced I Hot a vei? enphoneom cama, sarelj, but a p)>m of 
some hiatoricnote, as being (he point, where, In ths llthoanCurv, tbe£nglid) 
troops were generally concentrated upon the IninrgeDta of Leineter andUI- 
ater, aa baring been stormed aod Mrried with grett aUagbter by OromweO, 
in 1649, and aa being the place where the great Qencan General, Schonborg, 
leader of the troopa of Elog William III of England, fell. 

The Drogbeda of to-daj la a floarishing town of nome 17,000 iababltanta, 
with quite eitcnlUe cottoa and linen factoriea, tanneriea, eto., and conaid- 
erable commerce with Liverpool and otbetpointBon the Eagliab and Iriih 
coaetB. • • • • • • 

Dublin I chief city of IrelaQd, and once its proud oipital, where eat the 
Irish parliament and made laws for a free people ; now, fourth city of the 
Britlah realm. Population about 800,000. Built on both aides of the Liffey, 
and on a level plain, at flrat it remiiidg me of Chicago, albeit a lecond look 
to the weetword, finde t, range of nigDiflceDt hills for • baoligroaiid— an im- 

fortant feature, la which the Chicago landscape is paiafully deficient. Here 
mQafipead three or four daya, visiting the muieums, literary, acienttfio and 
indaatrial institutions, and eapeciallT the noted sgiicoitaral school at Glai- 
nerln, near by. • • • • . • 

The new portiou of the city — that which lies on the north side— ii really 
very bandsamc for the most past; iacloding several beautifoi streets and 
elegant buildings. The Custom Houae and the Foet-Office are especially flae. 
The view along the quay, and of the business portlona of the city geaeraily, 
aa seen from tbe magaifleenC bridge that spans the Lifley, on Backbutt 
street, la very fine. Looking eaatward you have tbe Custom Honas, the 
whole range of ahipplng along tbe river and la the month of the harbor. On 
tbe north is sn interesting view of the Poat-OCBce and the hundreds of ele- 
gant shops that line the avenoe, with the pleasing suburbs beyond,^ On the 
south are also Que ahopa, relieved by the old Houses of Farliam'eat and 
Triaity College. While to the westward, beyond all tbe shipping and ware- 
houses, factories and depot, the great park, with the fine Wellington obeliak 
crowning its commanAag eammit. Another iotereating and peculiar feature 
of Dublin is a circular avenue of some nine miles circuit, extending around 
the outskirts of the city, passing the Botanical Gardens and many beautiful 
suburban mansions. A charming drive on a pleasant aummer'a evening. 
<t » » «»• • * * 

The Agricultural School at Olaanevln has Interested me much ; being both 
better and not so good as I had been led to anticipate. Inatruetion fair and 
practical ; farm pretty well managed. ••••••• 

Trinity College, thongh formerly religiously eiclnsive, has, of late become 
more liberal, admitting a few Catholics. Edifice Corinthian in its architec- 
ture aod rather imposing. Library targe and valuable. Number of students, 
some SOOO. There are numerous other colleges here, both Protestant and 
Gatholio. Of tbe extraordinary array of iDduslriiiJ, scientlSto aud literary 
Mcietiea which, with Its colleges, make Dublin one of the first great learned 
Mntres of the world, none have Interested me more than tbe Koyal Dob- 
lio Society ; which, besides having extensive museams of agrloalture and of 
natural history, a Iratanical garden, a library of over 80,000 volumes, a galle- 
ry and school of art, frequented by some BOOO atndents, had, also, couraea of 
free lectareB on iolenoe, art, tDdostry, etc., attended by twenty to thirty 
thonsalid persons, annually. 

A Museum of Irish Industry has been recently formed, with a government 
■chool of ecleace applied to mining and the other practtoal arta. It provides 
alio a course of lectures which have been attended by five to ten (hoasaDd 
persons In one year. 

To the American Consul, wht<M acqnaintance I had pr«vloosly made at 
London, T am Indebted for many conrteilei, which It will be pleasant long 
to remember, *»»»•••••* 



lib, Google 



. GLIMPSES OF WESTERN EUEOPE. 14S 

DUBLIN TO OOBE. 

The var tbroQgb the eonatj of Eildir« ii over a coDntrj, now fiat 
Kid bi^gj, now undulating ud a little bill;. Soil abounding In da; and 
eridentlj fertile. Here and th«re a flonriag mill, woolen or cotton faetai7 
In the principal towua br the waj. With two raUroad* and canab, Eildare 
Is pretty well pTOrided lot Id a commercial way. Hare we haTe the Carragh 
of Eildare — a broad open plain of lonn e,000 aorea, with one of the bsat 
race conraea in the kii^om. » « » Queen's county. 

At first, more nndolaliog. Blieve Bloom mountains viable at the northweit. 
Mines of Iron and copper and anthracite coal. # * * « 

Ab, here are the regular bogs of Irish peat— broad in extent, with qoantltles 
of the fuel ilacked up to dry, and bnndreds of bauds cutting and throwing 
itontof iCadeepbeds. • " * , * * * 

EilkenneT count;. Lerel, in the main, with bills now and then, upon some 
of which ore relica of the Pagan era, [n the form of piles of stone, crom- 
lechs and cairnes. Some mluee of anthracite coal and occaaioaatlj quarrioa 
of a handsome black marble. #•••»» 

Tipperar; count;. Undulating, with rich, fertile soil, producing excellent 
crops of cereilB and grass. Great numbera of cattle. B; the wa;, a fellow 
trareler tells me the &rmere of this eection Inoiuding, also, portions of Cork 
count;, make and export large quantities of excellent batter. ETidencee of 
mines of copper, lead and coal, and quarries of ilate, which seem to be ptet- 
t; extensirei; worked. **»••» 

At last, "Cork 1" is the cr;, and I burr; ont to get a riew of this somewhat 
noted town, and the lut of an; magnitude that rshalllwhold, for thia time, 
at least, on the Old World side of the great deep. 

The original name — the Irish — of Cork was Oarcagh, the eigniflcatlon of 
which is swamp. CIt;, low and flat, standing upon an island, though backed 
b; hilla. Wall, now pretty well demboliehed; built b; the Danes in tbe Sth oeu- 
torr. Some portions of the citj look rer; well, but the greater part li old 
and weather-worn, without much iu tbe wa; of public buildings to relieve 
the eye. Population, about 80,000, large nambers of whom buTO the appear- 
ance of needing to emigrate to America at tbe earliest da; practicable. Old 
Uarket— where old ololhes, boots and shoes, articles of honsehold use, half 
spoiled proTisJoos, and fifty thousand indescribable and unoamable old traps, 
in every stage of dilapidation, are pat npon sale to the poor, ragged half- 
■tarved wretches who stand abont, bj tbe scores and }handreds, hig^ng for a 
trade, looking, first at tbeir few greasy coppers, and then wlstfolly at the 
coveted treasares on sale — presents one ofthemostheart-dckeningspectaolea 
I have witnesaed in Europe. 

Among thepabllobuilingaarefOQr monasteries, and two nunneries, abonss 
of correction, a temale peneteutiary. Queen's College, the Cork Library, He- 
ottanlcB Institute, and the Koyal Cork Institute, established in 1807, in the In- 
terest of agriculture. There are also several schools of an inferior grade, 
and a n.mber of hortlanltura! and agricultural societies. Considerable com- 
merce ; imports, chiefly timber ; exports, uricultural. It so happens that 
just at this date there is a count; agricultural exhibition in blast, Co which I 
am cordially invited • • • a considerable affaJr, comparing favorably 
with our own count; fklis. Some fine stock and creditable exhibitions of flela 
and garden products. Premiums laner than are usually paid st our fairs. 

From the beights of Queenstown, 'look out upon the grand old Atlantto. 
Tbe horrors of the former voyage are all forgotten in the growing desire to 
atrike hands with fiieude from whom I seem to havat>oeu separated for yean, 
and now I even loog Co commit myself to the billows. This, the lower har- 
bor, is a maRuiflcent one — three miles long and about two miles wide, and so 
completely snut Inby land that shipping la entirely secure. Entrance chan- 
nel two miles long and one mile wide, guarded by two forta that effectaally 
control it. 

The war in America appears to have no eSkot to retard the exodus of tbe poor 
people of Ireland. Every week hundreds go oat In quest of better fortonea, 
willing to hazard even tbe perils of war, or anything elae, than longer endure 
the wretchedness \htA comes of a poverty and a tyranny bom which there 

r, ,v.i;A'Ot"l'^lc 



144 STATE AGEICULTUBAl SOOIETT. 

Is bnt the f^lnteit hope of e«cap«. The wont of !t is, tbe Tet7 porert; 
ther would escape renders emigration impoulble. nnder these cir- 
CQinstftnces, it is gntifjing to find thst thej have leoraed the valae of >■- 
Hwiatlon, b; meaoBof whioh, rrom time to time, one knd anotber of their 
nnmber is enabled to tnklie hii waj to the l&nd of promlee. The pUn ia ihie ; 
A large namber of the poor people aaiione to go to America form ■ clnb, 
with tbe agreement that at certain interrals, eaoh will pa; into the comtlion 
treaiary so manj pence; and when the total of the contributions amounts to 
a Buffloient sum to pa; the passagn of one person, all the members cast lots to 
determine whose the precious boon shall bs. In thig waj, hundreds of the 
industrious yeomanrj of America have reached her shores. 

Hultitndes of persons, old men and women, joung men and maidens, are 
■een gathering in from everj quarter of aantbern Ireland in the hope of flnd- 
Ingroom in the steerage of the ship whose coming I also, await. Probably 
more than batf of them will hive to wait for another chance. Some of them 
are fine specimen) of the Celtic man, and all are buOTant with hope. Thank 
God for a tpot of earth somewhere ander tbe all-embracing heaTens, whote 
priceless boon of the priTilege to be all one's powers will enable him to be- 
eome is Freuiy offered to the poor and oppressed of every land. Under 
wise and equal laws, framed and administered In the spirit of a genuine 
christian philanthropj, the Emerald Isle could soon be madu to blossom as tbe 
rose. Is it not a most melancholy fact, that the reason it does not is Isrge- 
ly found in the iqjustice of a nation which claims to be at once tbe moat 
powerfol and the most christian on earth t • • • • 

Ship ahoy I A nobte ship steams up in view. Qaeenstown iaall alive. 
Hundreds of ea(;ar eves are strained to see if it conies to bear the forms of 
loved ones to the far-off land. Hine also are strained. "City of Baltimore I " 
"City of Baltimore 1 " is the cry, and the bostle increases. Friends about to 
Im separated stand nearer to each other, ftrasp hands and loob more deeply 
and aniiously Into the swimming eye. Will the soul of which these are the 
windows be ever true, though the ocean roll between and lonf[ years, aye a 
life-time, pase withoat a reunion 1 Will the eun oi proaperity shine ever up- 
on the departing ones f and how will It fare with the poverty stricken and 
sorrowing parents, brothers, sisters, and lovers left behind f • * • 
But time and tide wait not for adieos The tug is at ihe wharf. The bag- 
gage ol all is aboard. The embraces have ended, and the sun of hope, re- 
Tired and re-<ssured. has dried up the fountain of tears- Tbe steadied 
voices of two hundred emigrants call oat the last good bye with ringioR 
cheery note, while oamany hats and handkerchiefs, half sadly and half gladly, 
wave their adiens to the loved ones on shore. 

Good bve, say I, also. Good bye to Erin, land of crushed hearta and hopes. 
Hay the Ood of mercy and of justice bless thee with the early recovery and 
wisest use of thy long-lost liberty and independanee 1 • * • • 

It Is perhaps useless to say, that in these fragmentary notes, I have only pre. 
sented a sketchy outline of thejSt/d of my observBtloosj It being my purpose 
whenever the State shall have resumed the publication of the Society'sTrsosao- 
tions, to embody all important facts and oonclnsions In such practical papers 
therefor as shall be deemed of interest to the Industrial public of this conn- 
try. As I shall probably report at aome length on the Great Eibibidon, al 
Commissioner, I shall be eicused for the brevity of the allusions to it In tha 
foregoing memoranda. While my obsevatlons in other lands have bad tha 
eHfeot to conflnn original convictions of the superiority of our own civil in- 
Btltations, they have no less thoroughly satisfied me of the fact that, in molt 
branches of industry and in many departmentsof national admnistration and 
•oolid life, we have yet very muob to learn from the Old World. 

J. W. HOIT. 

SuTB AductFLTUBU Books, Deo., isei. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



REPORT 
INTERIATIOML EXHIBITION OF 1862. 

COMMISSIONER FOR WISCONSIN. 



D„ii„.db, Google 



State Agricdltural Rooms, 

Madison, Dec SO, 1862. 
Eia Excellency, Edward Salomoit, 

GWsTTKW of the State of Wiaconsin : 

Sib : — Having been commissioned by your predecessor, Hon. 
Alex W. Randall, late Governor of Wisconsin, to represent 
this State at the London International Exhibition of 1862, and 
having discharged the duties of the appointment, I have the 
honor to submit the Report herewith transmitted. 
Respectfully, jour obedient servant, 

J. W. HOYT, Oommissiowr. 



^d by Google 



INTERMTIOML EXHIBITION OF 1862. 



REPORT. 



Eu Excdlency, Edwabd Salohon, 

Qovernor of the Stale of WiscoTmn : 

Sm : — The grand conceptioD of a gathering of the represen- 
tative products and people of all lands under one roof had its 
origin in the noble mind of His Eoyal Highness, the late, la- 
mented Prince Albert, who thus, by his unselfish reaching 
forward for the best good, not of his own countiy alone, but of 
the race, has marked the beginning of a new era in the history 
of civilization. 

The Exhibition of 1851, with its wonderful Crystal Palace, 
so vast and so magnificent that even to him who has gazed up- 
on it, and traversed its great usles and lofty galleries, it per- 
sists in seeming like a creation of the fancy, impossibly real — 
its wilderness of no leas marvellous objects, brought to- 
gether from every clime — its multitudes of wondering peo- 
ple of all kindreds and tongues, — all these have swept past 
us like a great panorama to be dreamily remembOTed. But the 
results of that Exhibition are substantial and permanently 
beneficent Not by court representatives, with diplomatic 
phrase and sinister intent, but of and for (hanselvea the nations 
there met and in native truth and sincerity saluted each other 
as brothers and joined hands for the progress of the world. 

It was hardly possible that such an exhibition as that should 
be without successors. Rivalry is often a good seconder of 

(131) 



148 LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

philanthropy and easily turned to good account Two at- 
tempts had already been mad&— the first at New York, in 
1858, and the second at Paris, in 1855 — neither of which ap- 
proached their great prototype in any respect Then, after a 
lapse of eleven years, during which great progress had been 
made in science and the arts, it was resolved by the same noble 
Prince that there should be another Universal Exhibition on 
the very spot where the first experiment was so eminently sac- 
cessful ; and which, by comparison therewith, should help the 
world to know what progress it is really making. 

The Exhibition of 1862 is, then, a sort of second milg-stone, 
set up by the nations on the great highway of human progress. 
In it all thoughtful individuals and civilized nations have 
found direct interest To the laborer H has brought rest and 
added powers — to the philosopher, a rich store ot material for 
study— to the philanthropist, comforting assurances of the 
final escape of even the masses from enslavement to the pri- 
mary necessities of man — to the nations, the brighter hope of 
universal peace and brotherhood. 

In reporting upon this Exhibition, I shall observe die natu- 
ral order of considering, first, the connection of our own coun- 
try with it, secondly, the general character of the Exhibition 
as a whole, thirdly, the part taken in it by the various countries 
respectively, fourthly, the conclusions deducible as to the rela- 
tive progress of the nations represented. 

CONNECTION OF THIS COUNTRY WITH THE EXHIBITION. 

The isolated geographical position of the United States, as 
one of the great powers, affords at once a reason why we 
should not, and yet should, take prominent part in all really 
international industrial exhibitions. We may excuse our- 
selves, in some measure, from making a thorough representa- 
tiou of our resources and industry across the water, because of 
our immense distance from the present great centres of civili- 
zation, where the exhibitions, in order to be international, must 
of necessity, be held But, after all, this reason is rather spe- 



EXHIBITION OP 1862. 149 

clous than real — one that might apply about as well to Aus- 
tria, Rassia and Sweedeu as to us, of whose goods there re- 
quires to be quite as much handling as of ours. But if it 
were true that it requires more effort on our part to lay down 
our minerals, agricultural products, machinery and manufac- 
tures at London or Paris than is required of those other coun- 
tries, have we not a triple inducement — the desire to learn 
what we can of the older nations — the desire to teach them 
some things which, by reason of our isolation and the vaatneas 
of opportunities in this new world, we have been stimulated to 
invent or discover in advance of the rest of the world — and 
lost, but by no means least, the desire to acquaint the over- 
grown populations of the Old World with the immensity of 
our resources, the native magnificence of oar countiy and the 
glory of our free institutions, and thus induce an influx of im- 
migration and capital to our shores ? 

To all who were familiar with the facta, it was apparent 
that even the very partial exhibition of American industry of 
1851, conferred a great advantage on our manufecturing in- 
dustry ; and, accordingly, when it became public throi^h the 
timely announcement of the Royal Commission, that Great 
Britain proposed holding a still more and complete and uni- 
versal exhibition than the first, the purpose was at once fixed 
in the minds of the active and progressive men of this country 
to make the International Exhibition of 1862 an occasion for 
each a demonstration of the resources of our country and the 
genius and energy of our people as would fairly represent ua 
before the enlightened nations of the world. 

But, unhapily, just when the moment tor action had come, 
the thunder-bolt of war fell upon the country with a sudden- 
ness and a violence that, for a time, irreaiatably turned the 
thoughts of both people and government quite away from the 
arts of a peaceful industry and forced them into the unwonted 
channels of a destructive energy. The consequence was, that, 
Dotwithstanding the preliminary steps already t^en early in 
1861, by the appointment of a home commission to make ar- 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



150 LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

rangemeBts for a suitable representation of the products of the 
United States, ere the summer had passed, the Government, 
plunged deeper every month into new trials from which the 
way out seemed more difficult and uncertain, dispaired of suc- 
cess in a double test of its resources and powers, and therefore 
formally withdrew from the proposed competition at London. 

This withdrawal, of the national government was, of course, 
a volnntary relinquishment of the space applied for and duly 
assigned by the Boyal Commission. So that individual states 
which might have wished to be represented on their own ac- 
count were virtually cut off from so doing. But it so hap- 
pened that New York and some of the other states, alive to 
their industrial interests and to the honor of our common 
country, had already shipped many articles of importance and 
value, and were generally under such headway that this unex- 
pected act of the State Department, at Washington could not 
immediately stop theuL And accordingly the Executive com- 
mittee of the Board of Home Commiaaioners authonzed their 
veteran chairman, Hon. B. P. Johnson, of New York, to act 
as Commissioner, with J. K Holmes, Esq., of Ohio, who had 
thus {blt acted as the U. S. Agent at New York, as Assistant 
Commissioner, and finally succeeded, through the cordial aid 
of Minister Adams, at London, in recovering authority from 
the Boyal Commission to occupy so much of the space origin- 
ally assigned to the United States, as had not been, since its 
relinquishment, assigned to other countries. 

As soon as possible, Asustant Commissioner Holmes, who 
had been constituted the agent of many of the exhibitors, 
went [forward to London, and, by grace of the British Com- 
missioners, who were exceedingly kind and obliging, engaged 
in the laborious undertaking of installing the American De- 
partment of the Great Inhibition, without a dollar from the 
Government^ or other help than such as was generously ten- 
dered by a few patriotic citizens of the United States, tempo- 
rarily residing in London, reinforced, after the formal opening, 
by a less number of Commissioners who had been sent out ia 
a like beggarly nuumer, by several of the individual statea 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1862. 161 

This is the explanation of how this first great power came 
to be represented at all at that great gathering of the nations. 

The circumstancea of our condition at home served as an ex- 
cuse vith the rest of the world, but not eo with ourselves. 
Had the Government been wise enough to have early placed a 
moderate sum of money in the hands of a small commission 
of competent men, folly alive to the importance of the enter- 
prise, and lefl them to carry it forward, an exhibitjon might 
have been made, which, by its extent, value and completeness, 
would at once have attracted attention and commanded the 
admiration of the whole world. 

But the result has shown that even with the broken and 
shattered fragment of an exhibition almost organized, that 
would have brought great honor and lasting advantage to our 
country, the few laborious, self-sacrificing men who served hep 
cause so &ithrully against all odds have again brought off 
from a sharply contested field fresh leaves for her laurel 
wreath. 

THE EXHIBITION BUILDIKQ. 

The world-famed Crystal Palace of '61, having been remov- 
ed to Sydenham, it became necessary to erect a new building 
for 1862. And inasmuch as the first great exhibition had 
awakened a universal interest among all nations, it was safe to 
presume that the second would be yet greater and require a 
palace of still vaster proportions. 

Under the inspiration of Hia Royal Highness Prince Albert 
and the efficient agency of the Society of Arts, of which he 
was the recognized head, the requisite subscription of some 
$2,000,000 was raised, the location made on Cromwell, Prince 
Albert and Exhibition roads, immediately south of Kensing- 
ton Gardens, and the'designing of the palace and the superin- 
tendence of its construcUon entrusted, not to Sir Joseph Pax- 
ton, the architect of the Crystal Palace, as the world had a 
right to expect, but to Capt Fowke, of the Royal Engineers. 
As a r^ult, the 'plan was inferior, as to external appearance, 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



152 LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

yet really better adapted to the parpose for which it was in- 
tended, in the end giving very general satis&ction. 

The building of 1851 covered 19 acres ; this of 1862, a lit- 
tle lesa than 26. The flooring space afforded by the former 
was 989,784 square feet ; in the latter, some 450,000 more. 
The main portion of the palace of 1862, or that finished in 
uniform style, and supplied with galleries, is rectangalar in 
form, measuring 1200 by 700 feet, with a tower at each of the 
four corners and at the center of the south side, and with two 
immense domes — one at the canter of the east, and the other 
at the center of the west end of the palac& The walls on the 
east, west and south are of brick ; the north side, fronting the 
Horticultural Gardens of the Royal Society, is of glass. The 
domes, 180 feet in diameter and over 200 feet high, are also of 
glass ; the roof self-supporting, and mostly of gkss, letting in 
a flood of light, sufficient for a close inspection of the minut- 
est articles. 
Interiorly, this main building is divided longitudinally on a 
I right line connecting the two domes by a grand nave, 85 feet 
wide and 100 feet high, over-arched by a roof supported by 
deep girders of wood, on the iroDts of which, in bright bold 
letters, are the names of the countries whose exhibition courts 
lie on either side. At each end, crossing this nave at rigbt 
angles, and with one of the grand domes over its center, there 
is a transept, of equal width and' height, and constructed in 
like manner. While directly across the center of the palace, 
fhjm the central tower and entrance on Cromwell road to the 
main entrance in the Royal Society's Gardens, there is another 
broad avenue. If, now, it be borne in mind that parallel to 
the three outer walls of brick, and extending their whole 
lengtb, some 60 feej from them, there is a brick wall from 
ground to roof, opening into the exhibition courts by great 
arched door-ways below and glass windows above — thus afford- 
ing separate space on the ground floor for wagooa, fire engines, 
masses of mineral and other heavy articles, and offices, but 
more particularly forming a grand gallery, with abundant wall 
room, and more than half a mile in length, for works of art — 



EXHIBITION OF 1862. 158 

and then noted ttiat along the whole coarse of this inner wall, 
as well as on both aides of the nave, transepts, central ave- 
nue and yet other avenues, which divide the whole palace into 
vast open courts, there are lofty and spacious galleries, for the 
display of the lighter materials on exhibition, while along the 
garden side there are suits of handsome refreshment rooms, 
you will have as good a conception of the main body of the 
Exhibition Palace of 1862 as I can briefly give in words. 

The style of the interior architecture is light and graceful — 
the galleries being of iron and supported by handsome bronzed 
pillars — and the permanent decorations exceedingly tasteful and 
pleasing. In addition to this main portion, which is so well 
arranged and durably constructed that it may be allowed to 
remain for a subsequent exhibition, there were two immense 
temporary extensions called " annexes, " each 200 feet in width 
and 976 and 800 feet in length respectivly ; the larger one of 
vhich is devoted exelusivly to operative machinery, and 
the other to agricultural and mining implements and products. 
These "annexes " were continuous in a northward direction, 
of the two transepts, and their extremities were connect- 
ed by curved facades with the magnificent crystal conservatory 
of the Royal Society, whose beautiful gardens, made attractive 
by inimitable lawns, parterres, flowing streams, cascades, foun- 
tains and statues, were thus completely enclosed. 

THB OFENTNQ OF THE EXHIBITION. 

I was fortunate enoogh, despite the opposing elements, to 
arrive in London on the day before the opening, which took 
place according to the programme, and most fortunately too, 
on the first day of May. For the first time within the mem- 
ory of man, London fog was under bonds, and though it rained 
a trifle in the morning, in good time the sky cleared up and 
vouchsafed one of the balmiest and most golden May 
days the world ever saw — a day that must ever be bright in 
the memory of the thronging multitudes who were a part of 
the great occamon. 
' The long months of patient, skilfull labor on the part of 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



154 LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

comminuoDers, architects, contractors and laborers had been 
completed ; the widely distant crystal domes of the mighty 
palace stood perfected in their unequalled magnificence ; the 
deep mines of the earth, nomberleas mountain gorges and 
gulches and the diamond-yielding aanda of many a river had 
been explored and searched with a more than wonted care ; 
tbe forests bad relinquished their tallest and stateliest timber ; 
the fields of a thousand husbandmen in remote and diverse 
lands had been tilled with unusual labor and skill that they 
might produce a better quality of fiber grain and fruit ; lesser 
and greater workshops had hummed and roared and thundered 
for the ooDStruction of unheard-of implements and machinery ; 
while in the more quiet factory, private abode and retired 
study, ten thousand bands directed by an inspiration they had 
never known before, noiselessly wrought the countless articles 
of use and luxury which so wonderfully characterize this 
most wonderful age; and now, at last, proud ships, freighted 
with cargoes diverse and marvellous, from every land on all 
tbe continents and from strange and distant isles, had come 
over the aeaa, and the products of the genius and labor of all 
peoples, from the frozen North to the sunny Sontb, and from 
the old aud worn-out East to the uew and mighty West, lay side 
by side, each challenging the world's admiration and demand- 
ing impartial comparison with every other I What wonder that 
the representatives of all nations and kindreds were gathered 
to witness the grand spectacle, while the whole world waited 
for the appointed hour, that they might, in full accord, I'ejoice 
together over these new (numphs of the Industry of Man 1 

The procession, which comprised a great number of high 
dignitaries — princes, dukes, nobles, archbishops, ministers of 
state, lord, mayors, foreign ministers, ambassadors and com- 
missioners, with many noble and royal ladies in gay and jewel- 
led attire, as, with a flourish of trumpets, it entered the Palace 
and with measured tread moved along tbe crimson-carpeted 
aisles of the grand avenue and nare, made a splendid and most 
imposing pageant 

Tbe Queen being anxious to mark her interest ia an under- 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1862. 155 

taking, in promoting which the Prince Conaort had taken so 
active a part, in view of the impossibility of herself officiating 
in the opening ceremony, as in 1851, had been pleased to ap- 
point His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, His Grace 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord High Chancellor, the 
Earl of Derby, the Lord Chamberlain, Viscount Palmertson 
and the Speaker of the House of Commons to conduct it in 
her name. 

The place appointed for the opening ceremonial was at the 
extreoaity of the nave, directly nnder the western dome, where, 
underneath a magnificent canopy, stood the throne and choir 
of state, with marble busts of the Queen and Prince Consort on 
either sida Here, therefore, when the procession had halted, 
the Duke of Cambridge took his position in the center of the 
dais, with the Crown Prince of Prussia on his right, Prince 
Oscar of Sweeden on his left, and the other chief dignitaries 
according to rank. The orchestra, composed of two thousand 
seiected singers and four hundred instrumentalists, whose posi- 
tion was a qoarterof a mile distant, beneath the eastern dome, 
pealed forth 

" Qod save our glorious Queen, 
Long liio our ooble Qaeeo. 
God Mve the Q nee a I 
Send her victorious, 
Happj and giorioos, 
• Long to reign over us, 

Ood Bare the Queen I" 

and there was quiet The Earl Granville, Chairman of Her 
Majesty's Commissioners for the Exhibition, then presented hia 
address to the Queen's representatives, and after a response by 
the Duke of Cambridge, the procession moved down the grand 
nave to the platform in front of the orchestra. Then a grand 
overture by Meyerbeer, and a chorale by Dr. Sterndale Ben- 
nett to the following words by the Poet Laureate : 

Uplift a thonumd voices flill and sweet, 

Id tMs wide hall with earth's inTentloa stond, 
And praise th' invisible, universal Lord, 

Who lets once more In peace tlie nations meeL 



Where Belence, Art and Labor have on^ni 
Tbeir mfriad horns of plenty at «nr feel 



^dbvCoO^^k' 



LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

Oh, BiUnt father of our Rings to be, 

Mourn'd in tliia golden hour of jubilee, 

For this, for &II, we weep our tfaankB to thee [ 

For the world -compelling plan was tliine. 
And, lol the lonr, labonous mi>«a 
Of palace 1 lot the giant ualee, 
Kich in model and design. 
Harrest-tool and husbandrj. 
Loom aad wheel and engin'rj. 
Secrets of the sullen mine, 
Steel, and gold, and com, and wine. 
Fabric rough, or fairy fine, 
Sunnj tokens of the Line, 
Polar marvels, and a feast 
Of wonder, out of the West and East, 
Aod shapes and hues of Art divine 1 
All of beautj, all of uae, 
That one fair plannet can produce. 
Brought from under every star, 

And milt, as life 



Let us have our dream to-day. 

Oye, the wiae who think, the wiae whoreicn. 
From growing commerce loose her latest chun. 
And let the fair white-winged peacemaker fly 
To happy havena under all the ekj, 
And mil the seasons and the golden hours, 
Till each man find his own in all men's good. 
And all men work in noble brotherhood, 
Breakiog their mailed fleets and armed towers. 
And ruling by obeying Nature's powers, 
And gathering all the fruits of peace and crown'd with 
all her flowers. 

This was followed bj a grand march by Auber, a prayer bj 
the Bishop of Londou, the Hallelujah Chorus and the National 
Anthem, joined in moat heartily by the eighty thousand joy- 
ous people present, with the waving of bats, handkerchiefs 
and the banners of all nations; when the procession returned 
to the throne, from which, in the name of the Queen, the 
Duke of Cambridge declared theQreat Exhibiton open. Then 
the canon pealed their hoarse thunders to the world, and the 
work of inspection b^n. 

A FIBST QENEBAL SUBTEV. 

Before undertaking a critical examination of the myriads of 
olijects presented and a philosophiosi comparison of the most 



l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1862. 157 

importaDt of ihera — which I saw must require many weeks 
of severe labor-— I determined first, to indulge in a rapid gen- 
eral survey — a coup d'(^il — of the Exhibition as a whole, that 
I might better know where to begio its study and bow much 
time to give to each couDtry &ud class. And so with a plan of 
the building in hand, I first took a position directly under 
the eastern dome, looking down the grand nave toward the 
western. 

Language is powerless to describe the luognificent spectacle. 
A perfect wilderness of objects of every conceivable kind ! 
Flashing jewels, brilliantly dyed fabrics of every possible 
color and pattern; clouds of delicate lawns and almost in- 
visible laces; furniture and upholsteries for the palaces of 
kings; glittering implements of steel, and batteries of deep- 
mouthed, solemn cannon ; precious wares of glass and porce- 
lain and silver and gold ; hollow ware, hardware and wooden 
ware for every known use; trophies of iron and steel and 
polished brass from a thousand foundries and work-shops; 
towering monuments of massive mineral from the bowels of 
the earth, and roof-touching trophies of timber from the far-off 
forests of the New World or distant isles of tropical seas ; all 
instruments of masic, from the silver-throated flute to the 
majestic organ, standing stately and grand iti this new, vast 
temple dedicated to the Progress of Man ; while, high over 
head, upon the arched and self-supporting girders of nave and 
transepts, the ecnblazoned names of all nations, colonies and 
principalities under heaven, made yet more effective by the 
gaily-fiaunted banners which decorated the galleries on every 
side, gave assurance that here the people of every zone and 
clime had brought the products of their industry and genius 
and spread them before the world, each for the inspection of 
all. Add to this the hum and rattle and roar of remote 
machinery, tho ringing of bells, the pealing of grand organs, 
the trampling of myriads of restless feet, and the music of 
eighty thousand human voices in all the babbling tongues of 
earth, and you have a faint conception of a tout etisemhle at 
once bewildering, grand and glorious I 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



158 LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

There, in the southeaat comer tower, was America, with her 
little collection of staple products and curioua inventions ; her 
few musical inatramenta and worka of art intruding upon the 
extreme southern end of the eastern transept But all else 
occupying that vast' area of more than 18,000 square rods 
which laj on the east side of the transverse central avenue, to- 
gether with the galleries above it and a large proportion of the 
eastern and more than half of the western " annexe " were the 
products of the 

UNITED EIKODOU OF OBEAT BRITAIN AND HEB COLONIAL POS- 



Immediately on my left, beneath the dome, was Victo- 
ria's trophy — a gilded pyramid six feet by six at the base and 
forty feet high, representing the bulk of solid gold derived 
from that far-off colony since the Exhibition of 1851. Before 
me, along the centre of the nave and in the courts prominent- 
ly fronting thereon, were statues in marble and bronze, obelisks, 
light-houses, collections of beautifol porcelain, trophies of 
guns, leather, woolen fabricn and foods ; together with magnifi- 
cent cases of gold and silver plate and precious stones. On 
my left, along the transept, were metallic screens of sur 
passing beauty, splendid displays of London and mediteval 
hardware, chimes of steel bella filling the great palace with 
their stirring calls to worldly activity or religious duty as the 
ear of the listener might interpret, with Gothic brass-work, 
gas-fittings, church lamps, grates of superior style, terra-cotta 
work, enamelled slates and marble mantels and other objects ex 
hibited for architectural beauty at the side ; while high over all, 
and at the very extremity, next the American court, stood the 
great cathedral organ, whose solemn notes pealed out in sub- 
lime music through all the grand aisles of the temple. 

On the right, stretching away to the other extremity of this 
same transept, aind under the gallery next the eastern wall of 
the palace, there were, first, another great organ, then the fine 
timber trophies of Van Dieman's Land, New Brunswick and 
Canada, 90 feet high ; a shafl of coal from Nova Scotia, 80 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1862. 169 

• 
feet in higbt ; s trophy of natural objects from Vancoaver'fl 
Island ; minerals, agricultural products, and simple maniiiko< 
turea from Prince Edward's Island ; agricultural and horticul- 
tural implements, cereal grains, skins and minerals &om Oana- 
da; seeds, spices, silver filigree work and beautiful laces from 
Malta; wools, spices, fibres and their rude manufactures fivm 
Ceylon's distant isle ; and tropical fruits, mm and other spirits 
from Jamaica, Barbadoes and Bermuda. 

The eastern annexe, which, it will be borne in mind, was 
continuous of this transept, likewise belonged to the Britisli 
department and was filled to overfiowing with products of 
British mines and quarries and with innumerable articles man- 
o&ctured therefrom — chemicals including a marvellous coUeo- 
tton of new dyes and pigments ; animal and v^etable sub- 
stances and their manu&ctares, including gutta-percha and In- 
dia rubber goods; wax, tallow, soaps, candles and perfimmy; 
agricultural and horticultural implements of every sort ; and 
a vast number of other machines, such as fire-engines, fiouring 
and other mills, bread-making machinery and quartz crusheia 

On the west side of the nave, (looking westward) and be- 
tween it and the outer wall on Cromwell road, as far aa to the 
central avenue, there were : first, on the outer side, a magnifi- 
cent display of carriages of every style and description in the 
United Kingdom ; then metallic manufactures of every sort, 
including stoves and cooking ranges, bedsteads of iron and 
brass, chandeliers in ormolu, steel fenders, fire grates, carriage 
and railway springs, leathers of every sort, fars and furrier'd 
goods, machine processes, such as ohromo- lithography, copper- 
plate printing, bristle and cork cutting, paper collar making, 
medal striking, medal and chain making, silk velvet weaviog, 
envelope folding and mechanical type-setting ; then a fine ex- 
hibition illustrative of civil engineering, including models of 
bridges, docks, railways and viaducts ; most interesting models 
in military eogineering and in naval architecture, to-wit : for- 
tifications, barracks, field and floating bridges, equippage, 
tents, ambulances, hospitals, cannon and small arms, shot and 
shell, life-boats, merchant Mhips and iron plated ships of war ,- 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



160 LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

then a very^arge and fine display of manufacturea of glass, 
porcelaiD, earthen, terra-cotta and wedgewood -warea, Itoth 
modern aad antique, and, last of all, the most brilliant array 
of gold and silver plate and precious metals and jewels the 
world ever saw. 

On the opposite side of the nave, were found pianos and oth- 
er mnsical instruments ; furniture of every description, modern, 
mediaeval and antique ; and, finally, another most interesting 
and picturesque group of Britbh Colonies, to-wit : The Baha- 
mas, with seeds, woods, fibres, cotton, sponges and shells ; the 
Ionian islands, with their fine collection of natural products 
and manufactured articles; Trinidad, with its aspbaltum, lig- 
nite, coal, minerals, native woods, skiof, fibres, oils aud chemi- 
cal products; New Zealand, with mineral ores, gold, sulphur, 
coal, woods, seeds, cereals, wool, coffee, textile fabrics, rude 
domestic implements and yet ruder weapons of war; Natal, 
with a due collection of food substances, skins, horns, fibres, 
wool, woods, minerals and other specimens of natural history, 
and Kafir matiufaotures ; Oape of Good Hope, made doubly 
hopeful by thus bringing out into the lightof civilization an in- 
teresting collection of her remarkable fibres and other vegetable 
productions; Queensland and New South Wales with their 
fine display of wools, woods, cereals, gums, spices, oils, gold 
copper and other ores, clays, pottery and surgical instruments ; 
the AustraHas, (East and West) showing the finest wheat, wool, 
and gold, with copper ores, preserved fruits and various manu- 
fectures ; and Victoria with the products of her manufacturing 
industry, and her splendid trophies of wool and of gold, 

la the British galleries, immediately above the colonial 
courts just described, was India, (inclading Bengal, Oude, the 
Punjab, Burmah, the Straits settlements and the northwestern 
provinces,) presenting hep wonderful array of ivory, teas, oils, 
gams, resins, medicinal substances, clay, figures, straw mann- 
fitctures, cotton, wool, hemp, silk, and brilliant manufac- 
tures of these, in the form of carpets, shawls, embroideries, vel- 
vets, and, last, but not least, her paintings and her gods ! The 
other open galleries in the British department were occupied 



EXmBITION OP 1862. 161 

by displays of paper, printiDg, book-bindiog, fabrics of wool, 
cotton, hemp, flnx and silk, and by lace, hosiery, thread, car- 
pets, clothing, dressing-cases, philosophical and surgical instra- 
ments, &c; while the closed galleries, next the outer walls, oa 
Cromwell and Exhibition roads, were devoted to what is said 
to have been the finest ezhibition of works of art ever made 
by British artists. 

In the central avenue, to which I have already several times 
referred, as being at the same time the dividing line be- 
tween Great Britain and her colonies and the rest of the ezhibi- 
tioil, and between the east and west halves of the palace proper, 
there were still other objects of British origin and of notable 
character— Durham's statue of the Queen, Jones' Greek tem- 
ple, with Qibson's tinted statue of Yenus, Benson's immense 
and wonderful clock, a statue of Sbakspeare and an extensive 
case with a complete colleoiion of samples of Liverpool im- 
ports being the most important 

Beyond the central avenue, I encountered the courts of 

OTHEE COUNTBlEa 

First, upon the left of the nave, Italy, with a beautiful display 
of the products of her mines and her agricnlture, carved woods, 
decoraUve furniture, saddlery, cases of furs, velvets, silks, straw 
manufactures, flowers, Florentine mosaics, bronzes, statuettes ; 
Borne, with her splendid collection of statues, and paint- 
ings, inlaid and other mosaics, cameos and bronzes, together 
with a variety of textile fabrics and porcelain manuiactarec^ 
Portugal, with her show of vegetable productions, wines and 
oils, shawls, silk and cotton fabrics, straw manufactures, corks 
and cork manufactures ; and Spain, displaying xases of figs, 
olives, raisins, wines and oils, together with namerous products 
of her quarries and mines. 

Then came the empire of brilliant, glory-loving France; 
occupying one grand open court more than ten times as large 
08 these, and the most tastefully arranged and magnificent 
one in the whole palace, and presenting to the admiring 
gaze of the multitudes who thronged ' about her 
11 Ae. Ttass. 



162 LONDON INTEENATIONAL 

handreds of BpleDdid glass cases of beautiful and cost- 
ly goods, not alone a vast collection of all those numberless 
articles of taste and iancy in wbicb tbe world has long recog- 
nized her as superior, but likewise an equally fine display of 
the more substantial manufactures and by far the largest and 
finest collection of agricultural products (of France proper and 
the French Colonies) of any country making exhibition. 

Next in order, and next in rank also, were grouped the 
" States of the ZoUverein," (including Prussia, Saxony, Baden, 
Bavaria, Brunswick, Hanover, Hesse, Nassau, Oldenbargj 
"Wurtemburg, Mecklenberg, Schwerin and Frankfort, frith 
some other small duchies and towns,) occupying many lesser 
courts and the south end of the western transept, and making 
a fine show of a great number of the substantial products of 
their nomerous and various quarries and mines, as well as of 
their ^ricultural products, ti^ether with woolen, worsted, cot- 
ton and silk fabrics, fire-arms, cutlery, clocks, musical instru- 
ments, leather, earthenwares, jewelry, meerschaums and am- 
ber manu&ctures, printing, books and charts, and, in the tran- 
sept, to the right of the throne, magnificent royal trophies, by 
the King of Prussia, of porcelain, of Bobemian glass, of fire 
arms, and of silver plate, with a noble display of paintings 
and other works of art of the ZoUverein States in the " for- 
eign " art gallery contiguous ; and, finally, " The Hanover 
Towns," (Bremen, Hamburg and Lubeck,) showing basket 
work, carved work in wood, decorative furniture curiously 
made of harts' horns, friction balances and some other articles. 

Passing thus to the place of the throne, and thence down 
the nave towards the starting point, noting the numerous fine 
statues, monuments, trophies and cases of precious stones by 
the way, until the central avenue was reached, on making a 
" right-about face," there, directly in front and to the right of 
the nave, were the several courts of the remaining countries 
represented, to-wit : 

Costa Rica, Uruguay, Peru and Venezuela, with small col- 
lections of their native minerals, vegetable productions, skins, 
dried fish and wool ; Brazil, making a handsome dilplay of 

r, ,v.l;A'Ol><^IC 



EXHIBITION OP 1862. 163 

miDeials, gold, diamonda and other precious stooes, with field 
and garden seeds, nuts and manufactured articles ; classic 
Greece, with her olives, figa, ntiains, cereals and manufactures ; 
old Bgypt with her brilliant and grotesque exhibition of em- 
broidered garments, richly mounted saddlery and antiquated 
anuB ; the Ottoman Empire, showing cereals and other agricul- 
tural products, leather and leathern manufaotures, carpets, em- 
broideries and filigree work ; SuBsia, making a noble exhibi- 
tion of minerals — including magnificent malachite, gold and 
silver ores, and precious stones from the Ural mountains — cer- 
eals, seeds, fiax, hemp, cotton, ralk and wool, and their manu- 
fectures, skins and fiirs, leathers and leathern manufactures, 
gold and silver plate ; Sweden and Norway, displaying Bessa- 
mer steel, iron, copper and other metals, philosophical instru- 
ments, silver ware, silks, national costumes, figures and por- 
traits ; Denmark, with earthenware, porcelain manufactures, 
iuroiture, work in silver and gold, and musical instruments ; 
glorious, free Switzerland, making a beautiful show of watches 
and watch-making machinery, musical instruments, cutleiy, 
optical and philosophical instruments, silk and velvet goods 
and engravings ; Holland, with her agricultural products, linen 
and woolen &bric3, hardware, furniture, silver ware, fine dia- 
monds, and beautiful works of art, in the gallery; Belgium, 
presenting minerals and agricultural products, hardware and 
fire-arms, textile fabrics, silks and velvets, cotton, linen and 
mixed goods, and in the galleries such a show of laces 
as she alone could offer ; and last of all, in the transept, the 
Austrian empire, with her long oppressed dependency, the 
kingdom of Hungary, together showing, on the lower floor, a 
fine collection of cereal grains, wools, vegetable fibres, wines, 
wax, soaps, mineral products, including coal, sulphur and rock 
salt, Bohemian glass, meerschaum pipes, maps, charts, books, 
musical instruments, photographs, &&, and, in the galleries 
above, woolen, cotton and silk and linen &bric8, shawls and a 
great variety of articles of use and luxury. 

From this point, a single step led into the great western an 
nex^ where had been reserved the grandest spectacle of all 



j.A'OO'^lc 



164 LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

mighty engines for land and sea, that gire to man an irresistible 
power ; countless mills for grinding and prising and cruBhing ; 
wonderful looms and spinning jennies, each doing the work of 
hundreds of human hands ; machines, too, for making evety 
article of manubctnre known to the commerce of the world ; 
tremendous hydraulic machinery, pouring over and oyer again, 
into vast reservoirs, floods of water, with a, roar that suggested 
the thunders of Niagara, ^all mingling their ceaseleas hum and 
whirr, and champ, and rattle and roar with ten thousand hu- 
man voices in one grand symphony, telling, as a sore prophecy, 
of the good time coming, when the whole human race shall 
have been lifted up and measurably redeemed from the drndg- 
eiy of toil ! 

The natioDS represented here were few in number : — ^Eng- 
land, occupying more than half the space ; France, with a fine 
display ; Belgium, next in rank ; Prussia nest; then Austria, 
Sweden, Denmark, Italy, Switzerland, and finally, the most 
inconspicuous, but not the least important of all, America. 

A majority of the works of art, as I have already said, had 
place in the great Art Gallery, which occupied the space be- 
tween the two brick walls of the three exposed sides of the 
palace ; the aggregate length being a trifie leas than half a 
mile. The main entrance was at the central tower on Cromwell 
road ; the British artists occupying all that portion to the right, 
and the other countries, more particularly, France, Italy, Aus- 
■tria, the German States and Belgium, filling that on the left of 
the tower. When it is remembered that the exhibition in this 
department was not confined to the works of living artists, but 
included many of the £nest works by the old masters, it will 
at once appear how rich and magnificent an entertainment this 
department afforded to snch as had the requisite time and cul- 
ture for its study and enjoyment 

Having completed the proposed general survey of the Exhi- 
bition, as a whole, I commenced a systematic study of it by 
classes, comparing country with country, in each department; 
to which labor I gave two fiiU months, going usually at six or 
seven o'clock in the morning and reti];ing when the palace was 
closed for the night 



EXHIBITION OF X862. 165 

CLASSIFICATION. 

The entire collectioD constitating tbe Ezhibitioii may be 
embraced under five general divisions : 

DinsiOM I. lUw HateriiJi. 

n. Machines, Implementii, InstramentB xai Apparatus. 

Df. Textile, Felted ud Laid UanafactnrsB. 

IV. Ketalllc, Vitreons and Ceramic Manufacturei. 

V. Workl of Art 

Objects exhibited in the Industrial Departments — with which 
I have chiefly to deal — were divided into thirty-eix head 
classes, some of which, for convenience of juries,' were sub-di- 
vided into sections ; so that the total number of clashes and 
aec^ons was sixty-five, to wit : 

OuBB I. Hiniag, Quarrjing, Uetallurgf and Uineral ProdnctB. 

IL OheniMl Babstaaces and Prodncts and Pharmaceutical 
Proeeuea 
Sec&M a. Chemical Products. 

i, Hedical and FhariDaaeaCioaJ ProducU and 
Frocosaes. 
m. SubitanceB ueed for Food. 

SeeUon a. Agricultural Prodaoe. 

b. Drf Salter;, Orocery and Preparations Of 

Foi>d sold for cODSumption. 

c. Wines, Spirits, Beer and other drinks and 

Tobacco. 
IT. Animal and Teaetable Sabstaaces used in IlBDObctures. 
Saiicm a. Oils, Fata, Wax and other Prodocta.* 

b. Other Animal Bubatances oaed in aaDoiac- 

0. Vegetable sabstances nmd in Hanufaotarei. 
4. Perfumerj. 
T. Bailwaj Plant, including Loeomotire Engines and Oar- 
ri^geii. 

TL Carriages not connected with Eail or Transportation Boadi. 
TIL Uanafactoriea, HachineB and Tools. 

Uec^on *. Hachinerj employed in Spinning and WeftT- 
inc. 
b. llBcbines and Tools employed in tbe Hana- 
^^ faotare of Wood, Hetal, kc. 

Tin. Hacbinery in general. 
IX. Agrioaltural and Bortioultural Hachines and Implements. 
Z. Oiril Engineering, Architectural and Building Contri- 

Stctioit a. Civil Engineering andBnildiueOuntriTances. 
b. Banitarj Improrements and Constructions. 
c Objects shown for Architectural Beauty. .' 

51. Hilitary Engineering, Armour and Accoutrements, Ord- 
nance and smaJl arms. 
StetUm a. Clothing and Accoutrements. 

b. Tenta, Gamp Eqnipages and Uilitary Bngin- 

«. AniiE and Ordnance. 



ci 1,0.1 =,CoOglc 



16 LONDON nJTBKNATIONAL 

OulBS XII. Vzvtl ArohiUcture, Sbipa' Tackle. 

Bmtioti a. Ships for purpoMS of War uid Oommeroe. 
b. Boats, Barges aud Teraela Ibr amuaenenl. 
e. Bhipa Tackla and Rigging. 
XnL Fhiloaopbical loBtrnments «ad pracesseH dependiegon tbeir 

ZIT. Photographic Apparatus and Photograpb;. 
XT. EoroIOKltnl lustraments. 
XTL Huiical InKmincDtB. 
XTI[. Surgical InttrumenM and AppKanoM. 
XVni. Ootton. 
XIX. Flax and Hemp. 

XK. Silk aiiiJ VaWet. 
XXI. Woolen and Worsted, inolndlng Kiied Fabriot ganerkU}'. 
XXn. Carpet 1. 
XXIII. Woven, Bpun, Felted, and L^d Fabrici, sbown aa qwd- 

mena of printing and dyeing. 
XXIT. Tapealrj, Lace and Embroider;. 
XXT. Skins. Furs, Feathers aud Hur. 
Seetum a Skins and Fnrg. 

b. Leather and raaDnfactuTei from Hair. 
XXTL Leather, iaolading Saddler; and Hameas. 

Sectitm a. Leather, and manufkctareB aeTerally mftde of 
leather. 
b. Baddlerj, Hameat. 
XXTIL Articles of Clothiufc- 

Secban a. Hatt and Caps. 

b. Bonnetf and geDtral Villi nerj. 

0. Hoslerj, Qioves, and Clothing Id general. 

d. Boots and Shoes. 

SXTIIL Paper, Stationary, Printing and Book-bindiag. 
Section a. Paper, Card and Hill Board. 
b. Btatlocery. 

e, Plate, Letter press and other modes of Prin t' 

ing. 
d. Bootbindin;;. 
XXIX. EdocatloDal Works and Apptiancea. 
SeeSon a. Books and Uapa. 

b. School Fittinge, Farnitore and Apparatus. 

c. Appliances tor Physical Training, including 

Toys and Games. 

d. Specimens and Illustrations of Natural His- 

tory and Pysical Bclence. 
XXX. Fnmlture and Upholstery, inoludicg Paper Hangings and 
Papier Uache. 

SteHim a. Furniture and Upholstery. 

ft. Paper Hangings and General DecoratiouB. 
XXXI. Iron and General Hardware. 

iStefian a. Iron Han ufaotnres. 

ft. Uannfactares in Brass and Copper. 
c. HanuFactnres in Ha, Lead, Ziuo, Pewter and 
General Brasiery. 
XXXII. Steel, Cutlery and Edge Tools. 

StcHon a. Steel li an afac tares. 

ft. Ontlery and Edge Tools. 
XXXnL Works inPrecious Uetals and thair Imitations, and Jewelrf. 
XXXIV. Glass. 

Stctiott a. Stained Glass and Glass used In Buildings and 
Decorations. 
ft. Olaas for Household use and Fancy Purposes. 
XIXT. Pottery, 
XXXTI. Draseiug Cases, Despatch Boies and Traveling Cases. 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1862. 167 

The Fine Art DepartmeDt embraced the following classes : 

Clam XJLX.V11. Architectare. 

SteSim a. Dtaigna. 
___ i. HodetB. 

XXXVIIL PaiDting. 

StctUn a. Oil P>:ntiDgi. 

b. Water Color PalotiDgB and Dnwingt. 
XXXIX. Sculpture, Die-Sinking and IntagUoa. 
Xlh EagnTing aad ECabiog. 

The arraDgement of articles in the building was not ao bjb- 

tematio as to make it entirely convenient examining them 

under the classifications, thongh as much so, perhaps, as the 

coDstraction of the building would allow. 

QBNERAL DISOCSSIOK OF THE EXHIBITION. 

To make a critical discussion of these several forty classes 
is rendered impossible by the proper limits of this report ; and, 
accordingly, I content myself with such remarics upon the five 
general divisions of the Exhibition as have practical bearing 
Qpon the interests of this country, or as may serve to present, 
in a clear and concise manner, the salient characters of the ex- 
hibitions of other leading nationa 

In Division I, which includes the first four classes above 
esumerated, the exhibition, though less attractive to the pub- 
lic generally, was extensive and exceedingly fine — certainly 
the greatest collection of the products of the quarries, mines 
and fomaces, forests and farms of the world ever gathered into 
one place. This was a most interesting circumstance, being, 
as it was, in harmony with the fact, thus made more palpable, 
of the wonderful activity in the exploration, discovery and 
utilization of the hidden materials deigned for man's use, by 
which all civilized nations have been remarkably characterized 
during the past few yeara 

Experience, not content with the results of the past, has 
called in the aid of science ; which being thus encouraged and 
taxed to its utmost, has itself made a wonderful development 
under this new stimulation. New material has been discover- 
ed, and the old has been put to new uses. Eveiy day new 
and remarkable discoveries are being made, and man is tiius 



■j.A'OO'^lc 



168 LONDON INTERNATtONAL 

just b€^Diiiiig to appreciate his almost total ignonuace of 
the real resources of tliis wonderful world, in which, for bo 
many generations, he has groped his way into the twilight of 
a morning which this active nineteenth century promises to 
make radiant and golden ere its close. 

As might have been expected from the known variety and 
extent of her resources, coupled with the feet of the Exhi- 
bitioQ being on her own ground, Oreat Britain led the world 
in the display of building stones, metallic ores, and minerals 
generally. This remark also applies equally to metallargic 
processes and the extent to which they are practically carried on. 
Free-stones, granites, marbles, and other first-class building 
materials, which abound in many parts of the United King- 
dom, were there in long array ; so, also, coals from her ap- 
parently inexhaustible mines; and the metallic ores and metals 
proper — iron ores, pigs, castings and wrought iron, from 
every portion of the kingdom, and ores of lead, zinc, nickle, tin 
and silver — a splendid collection. Some of the exhibitions 
were beautifully and systematically arranged, so as to illus- 
trate the various stages through which the ores are carried, in 
reducing them to a condition for use — the ore first, tben the 
' crude metal from the smelting furnace, then the refined metal, 
and, finally, the various implements and articles of hardware, 
for the manufacture of which the metal Irom that particular 
ore was found to be beet adapted; these various manuiac- 
tared articles being also arranged so as to illustrate the succes- 
mve steps necessary in the process of mannfacture 

Mining, as an art, has made great progress during the past 
few years — greater than during all the ages before — through 
the applications of geology, chemistry and the physical 
sciences. The questions of mode of occurrence, sbalting, ven- 
tilation, drainage, and others, must long be the subjects of 
laborious study and patient experiment 

In the department of manufactured iron, many remarkable 
specimens were shown ; a " double-throw" crank-shaft of 1,S50 
horse power, intended for Her Majesty's steam ram Northum- 
berland, being a wonderful product of the forge. Its weight, 



j.A'OO'^lc 



EXHIBITION OF 1862. 169 

as it came from the hammer, was 24 tons, 10 cvt, 3 qra and 
19 lbs. — the largest double-crank shaft ever made. Next to 
this the most DOtable thing to the way of hammered iron, and 
as showing the progress made in the working of metals, was a 
plate of iron 6 1-2 inches thick, 6 feet wide and 80 feet long. 

France, Belgium, some of the German States, Sweden and 
Russia likewise made very fine exhibits of minerals, metallic 
ores and metals ; those from Buwia b^ng peculiarly interest- 
ing, because of variety, beauty, and tjie remote and diverse 
quarters from which t^ey came. From America, there was a 
remarkably fine group of the silver ores and cinnabar of Ne- 
vada ; also a fine display, in small spacimens, of gold from the 
Wasboe mines, and a handsome cabinet of silver and 0(^per 
ores from Lake Superior. 

In the department of timber, the Colonial Fosseesions of 
Great Britain excelled all other exhibitors; showing a vast 
□umber of varieties from every quarter of the habitable globe. 

In the department of chemical sabstaoces and products, it 
is, perhaps, di^cult to say which is, to-day, doing the moat, 
England or Franca The finest exhibition, however was Eng- 
lish, and a moguificent one it was, particularly in the way of 
dye-Btufis and pigments, of which the exhibition exceeded any 
heretofore mada Many of them are of very recent origin ; as, 
for example, the derivatives fhim coaL The world has beeu 
familiar with stone coal for many generations, and thinking 
men have marvelled at the inexhaustible stores of it in those 
parts of the earth where it seema to be most needed for the 
production of heat and the generation of steam; but who 
could have dreamed, twenty years ago, that o\it of that black, 
shapeless mass, which men quarry from the depths of the 
earth and sell for a few shillings a ton, should come, obedient to 
the magic wand of scienc;^, all manner of snow-white oils, a 
host of substances that, as yet, defy all rules of classification, 
and, stranger than all, a multitude of such delicate, bril- 
liant and altogether incomparable colors as the mauve and 
magenta of to-day ? 

Food snbstances were shown in by far the largest quanti^ 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



170 LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

and in mnob tbe most attractive form bj France. Next, by 
Austria, aod next by Rnasia. Nearly every country from tbe 
islands of tbe Soutbern ocean to the Artie sea, broagbt wbeat 
— Australia tbe beat, (69 lbs. per basbel). Prassia sbowed tbe 
beat barley, (69 lbs.) ; Austria and Prassia the best rye : Tas- 
mania the beat oats, (61 lbs. 10 oz.) ; America tbe best Indian 
Corn. 

In the way of prepared food, Austria faniished tbe best 
floor, England tbe best cheese, Italy tbe bent preparations of 
vrheat floar, sacb as vermicelli, &&, the United States the beat 
com flour ("Maizeni"). 

Of fibres there were fine collections from nearly nil ooun- 
tries ; some of the British colonies, showing several quite new 
varieties that promise to be useful. Hussian hemp, Saxoo 
wool, American cotton and French silk were entitled to rank 
first among the namerous exhibitions of textile flbrea 

Division II, inclading Machinery and all else from class 6 to 
17 inclusive, was the most magnificeut of all, especially to the 
American, because it is therein that we promise to outstrip tbe 
world. 

Here, also, all in all, England, at present, ranks foremost, 
though compelled to acknowledge that in some of tbe most 
useful inventioDB of the age, she is herself borrower. Her 
claim to superiority in class 8 is alone sure of being allow- 
ed. For in classes 6, 6, 7, 9, 14 and 16, America is unques- 
tionably superior in ability, though not in the extent of her 
aooomplishment ; and in some of the remaining classes of tbe 
division, France is at least a rival contestant, if not an ac- 
knowledged superior. 

Particularization is, of course, out of the question. Neverthe- 
less, I cannot omit mention of the feet, that one of tbe most, if 
not the most, valuable inventions brought to tbe notice of the 
world was a loom, shown by the inventor, Mr. A- Smith, of 
West Fanna, New Yort It is intended for weaving the Ax- 
minster carpets or any other tufted or pile fabric which requires 
catting and is produced froma pattern. Unlike the Jacquard, 



tmOK OF 1862. 171 

or tbe old drav loom, the pattern designed ia formed by the 
arrangement of spools, whicli are suspended over the machine, 
to the Domber of 270. These produce a pattern the vholo 
-width of the material and one and a half yards long ; and at 
every throw of the shuttle, a piece of mechanism rises np, 
like 80 many fingers, catches hold of the threads and weaves 
them Id. A knife then passes swiftly over it and cuts off the 
tufts to any length required. Any design can be woven on it 
in parts, which, when united, will have the appearance of being 
■woven in one piece. This loom received great attention from 
scientific men and practical mannfecturers and was probably 
the most remarkable new machine on exhibition. The London 
Mechanics' Magazine spoke of it as destined to achieve great re- 
salts, and Earl Granville, Chairman of the Boyal Commis«on, 
who is well acquainted with weaving operations, said it was 
" perhaps the most useful invention produced within the past 
several years — itself an honor to America if she had sent 
nothing else to the Exhibition." 

American reapers, cork-cutters, rope-makets, sewing, wash- " 
ing, milking and bootmaking machines, likewise attracted 
great attention, as well as many other curious and valuable in- 
ventions, afler the foreign public had recovered Irom the 
first feeling of disappointment and contempt for us, because of 
tbe meagreness of our display; so that, after a while, the London 
2%mes was gracious enough to speak'of them even in terms of 
enthusiasm, saying, among other things, that " after the mod- 
els and gigantic engines in the western annexe, the very inge- 
nious, small, hand labor-saving machines in the American 
court, which approach the inspirations of genius, in the simple 
means by which tiieir great results are effected, are moat looked 
afler, and are worthy of a more extended notice than they 
have yet received from the mass of visitors." 

A model life-boat by Dr. I Schott, and a rotary harrow by 
Orman Coe, both of Port Washington, "Wisconsin, were worthy 
of attention, and especially deserving of mention in this rq>ort, 
as being the only exhibits from Wisconsin. 

As to musical instruments, it is an occasion for congratula- 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



172 LONDON INTEBNATIONAL 

tion ih&t Messrs. SteiQwaj & Sons have beaten the world, 
after a protracted and Btubbom contest 

In Diyifiion III, inclading all textile, felted and laid maon- 
iactores, there was perhaps a more equal divisioa of honois 
among the leading European nationa than in any other one of 
the five; England ranking first in cotton fabrics, France in 
silks and fine woolen and worsted goods, England, Anstna, 
Prussia, Belgium and Saxonj in the coarser woolens and 
other &bric8, and Ireland and Belgium in linens ; while, in the 
way of fine felts, the most delicate tissues, laces, embroidenes^ 
laid mann&ctures and a thousand articles of luxury, France is 
still incomparabla 

Improvement in no branch of the arts has been more marked, 
during the past ten years, than in dyeing,'and the presumption 
is, that ten years more will show wonderful progress in the 
Qianufaoture of all sorts of dyed and printed iabrics. In this 
division, America, though far behind, as yet, is nevertheless 
making rapid pr<^ress. Already her cottons appear at home 
in the midst of England's best The only exhibition of printed 
ikbrics, however, was by the Manchester Print Works, to 
whose enterprising proprietors was awarded a medal 

In Division lY, (metallic, vitreous and ceramic manufactores,) 
the display was no less magnlSceut England had pre-em- 
inence, of conrde, in the whole branch of metallic manufactures, 
her exhibition of manu&ctares of iron, steel, brass and general 
hardware being beyond all competition. She abo held high 
T^nk in the quality of her work in the precious metals, as did, 
also, Prussia, Denmark and Bussia. But for beauty of design 
artistic execution, and telling effect, as well as in the quali^ 
of the material used in the manufacture office jeweliy, France 
WDfl no less peerlesa Her exhibition of cheap imitations of 
jewelry and precious stones was very extraordinary, almost 
marking an era in the production of cheap and beautiful oms 
ments for the million. 

The paloi for superiority in the line of vitreoos and ceramic 



A-oo^^lc 



EXHIBITION OF 1862. 178 

manuEtLctures may be said to hare been handsomely contested 
by England and France ; Bohemia comiDg ia, of coarse, for 
honors in her pecniiar branch of glass mannfactures. In the 
heavier and more substantial class of wareB, England undoubt- 
edly had precedence ; while, in the class of delicate and exquis- 
itely beautiful wares, remarkable no less for design than for 
execution, her rival across the channel held pre-eminence. 

Division V affords a vast field for comment, bnt must be 
content with a mere passing -notice, in view of the extent to 
which this report has already been carried. 

With the rank that diflerent nations hold in the department 
of Fine Arts the world is already familiar. It is needful, 
therefore, in this place, merely to mark sach notable instances 
of prepress on the part of a nation or nations as especially 
characterize this period. 

There is a natural order in the development of a nation of 
which no degree of intellectuality of its people can give it inde- 
pendence. This law of progress is such that Art, which is a 
product of the highest culture — a kindof blossoming,a8 of a cen- 
tuiy plant, after long years of preparatory life — develops late, 
if not latest In this view, it is remarkable that America, latest 
bom of all the nationalities, and up to this time so thoroughly 
occupied with the rougher work of clearing up a new conti- 
nent, should have been able, thus early, to challenge the oldest 
to a trial of skill in the fields of artistic genius. 

It is nevertheless true, and waa so admitted by tboosands of 
the best judges of many of the nationalities, that some of the 
finest works in this department were from American hands — 
and this, although her more widely distingnished artists were 
not represented. Cropsey's "Autumn on the Hudson" and 
Storey's beautiful marble statue of Cleopatra would have 
been an honor to any nation in any age ; and, had prizes been 
awarded in this department at all, golden honors would, beyond 
a doubt, have fallen upon these magnificent works. 

CONSTITDTIOS OF JUBIES. 

The juries consisted of the nominees of the foreign com- 



174 LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

misBioners, with the addition of a certain namber of Britiali 
and colonial jurors ; the whole Dumber of juriea corresponding 
to the number of the industrial claaaea aud Bections, in which 
alone awards were to be made ; and the namber of members 
ranging from 6 to 18, according to the importance, difficulty 
or complexity of the class. Each class jury had its chair- 
man, (appointed by the Boyal CommissioD,) and these chair- 
meo together, constituted a Council with aapervisory control. 
Assistants and experts could be called to the aid of any jury 
when needed. 

THE RULES QOVEHSISQ THE ACTION OF JCBOBS 

were just and reasonable; evincing an honorable purpose on 
the part of both Royal Commission and Council to ensure 
impartial and ccrrect awards. The following is the substance 
or some of the more important : 

Hedals to be airirded without refereooe to DfttioDtlitj. 
All medala of ooe kind, irithout grsditionB and to be awarded far merit, 
without an; diaiinoiiDu of degree and without reference to compatitioa b«- 
tween proaucert. " 

MedaU In tbe divldon of Raw Haterlali to be awarded for noreity to the 
made of obtaining, applying and adapting raw materials and produce; for 
ekill and excellence io known methods of obtaining, applying or adapting 
them; for excellence in the qualities abtuned, combined with ntilitj; tot 
the value of the laitruolioiu of anj Beriee exhibited 

Hachlnerj to be rewarded on the baaia of fitneaa for the otyect Bought to 
be obtained, et'Oooni; In fir«t coit, dnrabilitj, economj in maUitenance, and 
aioellence of workmanship. 

Carriages for transport and for the public service to be nwarded on the 
bads of lightness, with sufficient solidity tor safety, durability, and cheap* 
nesa ; those of luxury, to be oonsidereil witb reference to thu succesaful ap- 
plication of any new material, with elagaoce of design and excellence of 
worlEmanship. strength, lightneM and reasonable cheapness. 

Agricultural and Horticultural Implements to be rewarded on tbe condi- 
tions comuiooly adopted by the leading agricultural societies in making their 

Civil Engineering, Architectural and Building Contrivances to be oonud- 
ered with reference to science and skill, with eccDomy ; fitneaa in the appli- 
cation of maCeriale ; mcceia in the work in which the drawing t model is ex- 
ecuted, perfectloD of workmanship in the model and drawing eihibiCed. 

Uilltary Engineering, Ac, and Naval Architecture to be rewarded on ac- 
count of meritorious combinatioa in the models or drawings; advantages ob> 
tidued by experiments in carrying out the means proposed; actual improve- 
menti in design, marked by fitaeea, elBciency and ecouomy of production- 
Philosophical laatrumenlB, for novelty of invention, ingenuity of canatne- 
tlon ; new applicatiaa of old principles; application of new principles i in- 
provementa in beauty of form ; increased durability; extended applioaliooa; 
eioellence and precieioa in workmanship, and economy of production. 

Photography to be rewarded on tbe same conditions as attached to philo- 
sophical apparatus. Photographie impresuons, for Doveltiea in the mode of 



j.A'OO'^lc 



• EXHIBITION OF 1862. 176 

prodactioD, duiabllitj, eicellence Id the reanltl obtiined, &nd irtiBtic merit. 
FbotagTftphic msteri^s. for ao*eltj or Dew appliotioni, iacMiued WDBltlre- 
nen, or powf ra of retsDtion, uid fMiliti«B of operating. 

Jur; on Horolo^ical InstnunentB to take into Bcconnt accnrno^ and cor- 
taintf, BtabllitT, Btrength, durability, aimplicitj, ecoDOm; and goodocBe of 
«iecution ; Snisb to be aabordlnate. 

Jar; ou Hnsical InBtnimeDtB to coDbider noveItT of inventioii, dotoI appli- 
cation of old inventione, improTement of mecbanloal ution, tune, perfection 
of workmanitiip, beaut7 of design coQibined with geoeni excellsnM, In- 
oreased faoillty of action, cbeapneBi combined with durabllitj. 

Surgical InBtrumentB to be conaidered with regard to DOrettf of > naelUI 
character, Ingenuity in tbe application, extension or modilloation of priaci- 
plcB already koowo, or for new combinations, mechaalcal slcill, iocluding 
cheapncBB and flniBh. 

Juries on Textile Fabrics and CIsbbcb XYIII to XXX, ineloaiTe, to maka 
their awards on tbe b«sie of inoreised usefulness, auch aa permanency of 
dyes, improTed forma and arraagementa, auperlor quality or akill in work- 
manship, new use of known materials, use of new materialB, r.ew combioa- 
tione of materials, beauty of desiga in form or color, or both, with refarence 
to utility, cbeapneM, relating to excellence of production. 

Uetallic, Vitrcons and Ceramic Hsnufaoluree to be rewarded on tbe 
ground of inTentions or dlscoreries as to eoonomr, increase or perfeotion of 
prodactioD, regularity of manufactures, combined with eicellence of desiga, 
noTOl application of known discoTeries, increased utility, combined with 
nOTelty and beauty, eicellence of workmanship and quality. 

THE HI6H CEARACrrEB OF THE JURIEe 

has been an occasion of universal remark. The principle of 
Belection, on the nomination by exhibitors, was calculated to 
secure the most compet«at men preaent from the different 
countries in the first place, and the freedom with which juries 
were allowed to call in the aid of experts, tc^ther with the 
length of time granted them for their examinations and the 
preparation of their reports, fiirnished a further guaranty of 
correctness in the final awards, in which, I believe, the acqui- 
escence of exhibitors and public was very general and cordial. 

THE PRESENTATION OF AWARDS, 

which took place on the 12th day of July,' was made the oc- 
casion for another splendid state ceremonial. The juries had 
labored with faithfulness and unflagging zeal for two and a 
half months, and had reported their decisions to the Boyal 
Commission; hundreds of thousands of people, including 
great numbers of the most intelligent representatives of all 
lands, had also made their examinations and pronounced their 
unofBcial verdict ; the twenty-five thousand exhibitors, some 
of whom had spent years of thought and labor in making 



.,z.d.,CAX>^[c 



176 LONDON INTERNATIONAL' 

preparation for this teat of their powers, and had come fix)m 
both hemispherea to submit the products of their industry 
and genius to the inapection of the world, and all of whom were 
there at sacrifice of time and means and at risk of reputation, 
were waiting with intense anxiety for the hour that should re- 
veal their success or defeat 

The great day at last came. Nothing had been spared by 
the executive to make the arrangements perfect Indeed, two 
schemes or programmes had been prepared — one for fair 
■weather and the other for wet — so that there could be no sur- 
prise from the elements I Once again, however, Providence 
favored London with sunny skies and a balmy atmosphere. 
The weather was perfect, and the ceremonial could be held in 
the beautiful gardens of the Royal Society ; where, at an 
«arly hour, the throne was placed, surrounded by an immense 
platform for the Royal Coomiission, the council, the juries, 
the court representatives of foreign countries and the large 
number of distinguished guests, and where, long before ten 
o'clock, tens of thousands of eager spectators had gathered — 
thousands along the avenues of approach, thousands about the 
throne, and multitudes composing gay and fantastic groups 
about the reservoirs and fountains. And yet countless thou- 
sands still poured into the palace from every avenue and en- 
trance, until it seemed that aU London and the rest of the 
world were coming. Bands of music in eveiy quarter — in the 
palace everywhere, in the music bouses, in the terraces, and 
on the lawns— each playing its own airs for the enjoyment of 
its own group or admirers, and yet sufficiently remote from 
every other to interfere with none. Cheers went up on the 
arrival of each of the royal guests at the entrance to the con- 
servatoiy, where already the groups of nobles, dukes and 
princes was lai^ and brilliant ; until finally the procession of 
nearly 700 jurors and councillors, some in academic and 
some in court costume, radiant with gold lace and bullion, and 
a few in the plain, simple dress of the American citizen, 
beaded by the band of the Royal Engineers, passed fivm the 
palace into the gardens, and by a graceful sweep made its way 



EXHIBITION OF 1862. 177 

to the front of the throne ; npon which, in due time, appeared 
His Bojal HighnesB the Duke of Cambridge, attended by 
their royal highnesseB, the Fasha of Egypt, Prince Carignan 
cf Italy, Prince Hermann of Saze-Weimer Eisenach, and a 
great namber of court persouagea of high rank and reputation, 
includiog members of the British Houses of Parliament, and 
the minist^? fix)m all foreign countries at the court of St 
James. 

After the cheering of the brilliant cortege had died away, 
Lord Granville, accompanied by his brother commissioners, 
advanced in front of the throne and addressed the iDtemational 
guests as follows : 

"I bars ths ploMare of waloomin^, on the p>rt of Hsr U^eatj'i OoDimtB- 
doDsra for tbe tDternktional Ezhlbttioo, th« dUtlngnlihed represeDUtlrgB of 
foraign nMioDt, who bonor ni bj Mking part in tbe proceeding* of this da;. 
The roadlaee* wjtb wlilob the goTemnieiite of foreign coaDtrles bare ro- 
■ponded to tbe ioTltation of the Engliab goTennnsat ii highly appreciated by 
the people of thU countrj. I hare now to reqaett that tbe ipecial repreien- 
tatlrei will receive tbe report of the Ooaacil of Chainnen of Jnriei. Tbe 
awu^ will then be dellTered to Eer U^esty'e OommiuioDerB. We wiih the 
awiatanoe of the spectal repreBentatlTsi to make knoim the airardB Ib the 
bollding, u it will be agreeable to the eihibilors from the aevaral oonatriaB 
to learn from a diBtiDgaisbed repKBeiitiitlieaf their own nation the appreoia- 
tion b; the jaries of tbeirsucceBaful labors. In paBilng throagh thebaildlDv 
tbe apBciat reprBBeatatives will not fall to obsene that the IndoBtrjrof all nSt 
tioDB hiM ahown a remarkable development Bince the laat International ex- 
bibitloB — a development which, Jastlfjing the anticipation of an iUnBtrion* 
Prince, now, alas I oo more, owes much to tbe facility given b; sach exhibi- 
tions for comparing the state of indostry in each coantry, sad affbrda a start. 
big point fbr ftirtber progren." 

Lord Taunton, as President of the Council of Juries, then 
read the following highly interesting report: 

" The work of the several juries bavlog been brongbt to a termination, it 
becomes (be duty of the oouncil of ohalrmau to explain tbe manner in whleh 
thaJnrieB were ooDBtitoted, and the result of tbeir labours. 

Tbe Juries consisted of English aod Foreign members in Tarytngpropw- 
tionH. Tbe English Jurors were In the fltst place nonica'ed by exhlbitori, 
and these nominations having been carefblly conddered. Her Uqesty's Oom< 
mlsalouet* lovuiably appointed such persons as appeared to be named by tbe 
general sutMment of a trade or district. In cases wbere tbg nominations 
were not made on a oonunon understanding, the Boyal Commisdonera wer* 
guided in tbeir eboioe by the Dnmber of votes given to particolar indlvldo- 
sls^ and, in son* Instances, by the dedre exprosaed by exhibitors that the 
eoaunieeiousH should themselve seleot pereons possening the neoesssry qnal- 
IfloatioDS. 

The British Colonies were repreiented by Jorors KOODunended by the mv- 
eral colonial oommlsrioners. 

Foreign nations taking part In the KihibltloD had a right to nomlnats one 
Juror for every clanln wbloh they were represented by SO exhlUtot*^ andfoi 
•Ter7 saotion of a class in wUch they had IS exhibitors. As an altMiiativo, 
12 AO. TaA2T& 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



178 LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

each DBlIon tiftd & certain aamber of jurori allotted to It, in proportloii to 
the BpHce which it occupied io the building, i,ni severtl couotries accepted 
this alternatlTe. Her llijratj'l GommiBdonerB, without filing anj arbitrsTT 
proportion between Foreign and Eaeliah jurort, appointed m manv of the 
Utter to the jur; rb the eiperleuce of past Eihibitione showed to be oecet' 
UTT for ita efficienc;. 

The juries were flB in number, grouped «o M to form SB clanee or head ja- 
rlea, correepoiiding to the 8S induatri&l classea aoder which the objecti are 
arranged in tbe Eihibition. Each of these head jariee, when subdivided In- 
to eectioni, acted at a united bodr for the confirmation of awarde. Before, 
however, these awards were conudered final, the; were brought before and 
recelied the sanction of a. council, consisting of the chainnen of the Sfl bead 
jurieB. The chairmen, forming the council which regulated the alTainof th« 
furies, were nominated b7 Her U^estj'n Commissioners from the jarori of 
different nations, a number beins allotted to each country Telativel; to tb« 
SMce assigned to it in tbe buiTding. The council was presided over by a 
chairman appointed by Her U^esty'e Commisiionera. 

Her U^estj's Commiswoners decided that only one deecrlptiou of medal 
should be awarded by the juries. This decision considerably facilitated their 
labours, as il became neccBsiry only to reward excellence whereTer it waa 
found, without reference to competition between eibibitors. As the work 
of the juries advanced, it was ascertained that many articles possessed excel- 
lence of akind which deserved a special mention, without, howttver, entitliag 
them to a medal ; and althoueh it invoWed some departure from the principle 
that had been originally laid down, yet the council of chairmen seceded to 
the wish of the juries, and permitted such cases to be classed and pabliahed 
nndsr the title of " Hononrable Mentions." 

The jurors and their associates engaged in eiaminlng the objects of Che 
Exhibition amounted to S12 persons, of whom 887 were foreigner!, and 9M 
English. They are men of high aocial, scientific, and indnsirial position, 
drawn from nearly every civilized country in the world. Their labonra have 
occupied two months, and have been of the most ardnous deecription, as 
they had to eiamine the objects displayed by at least SR.OOO eihibitort. It 
can scarcely be expected that none of the articles exhibited have escaped 
their attention. In a few instances the delay of arrival or of arrangement 
has rendered it impossible for the juries to examine every article now withia 
the building; while, in other cases, errors in classification have rendered it 
doubtful to which of the juries the dnty of examining some particular ol^ect 
should fall. Every eff'ort, however, has been made to couquer these obsta- 
clea, and tbe omissions. If any, must be very few In number, and are not 
owing to the want of attention of the juriee or of the offlcem engaged in h- 
Oilitating their work. 

The nnmber of medals voted by the jaries amount to neariy 7,000, and tbe 
honourable mentions to about S,300. The propvrtion of awaMs to exhibitors 
is greater than in the Internatianal Eihibitlon of 1B3I, but leae than la 
that of ISsa. 

Notwithstanding tbe varied nationalities represented in the Juries, it Is 
gratifying to record that tbe utmost harmony has prevailed daring the whole 
time that the jurors have been associated in their labours. The mntnal de- 
pendence and intimate alliance between the industries of the world have 
been illustrated hy the zealous and impartial efforts of the jnroia of diS^reat 
natloni to recognise and reward the merit diaplayed in the exhibitions of 
their Industrial competitors. 

We are glad to observe that the state of Industry, as .shown in the Inter- 
national Exhibition, gives evidence of a singularly active and healthy pro- 
greii throaghont tbe clvtUied world ; for while we find every nstion sssreb- 
uig for new raw materials or utilizing products hitherto considered as watte, 
we are ■truck espeelally with the vast improTament in the machinery em- 
ployed to adapt them to Industrial purposes, aa well as with the ap^c«ttona 
of adenoe, and with the great and sncceaaful attention which is now given to 
sU the art* neoesMry to gratify our taste and sense of heuty. 
We cannot oondude tUs report without eipressing our obUgntioni to Pr. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



BXHTRITIOy OJ 1862. 179 

L70B Plt^ihir, the ipecltl commlHioneT for Juries, fbr tha consttnt knd inUI- 
ligent nseiBCance •rhich he hM rendered to lu throogbout oar Ikbonn, m well 



o the deputj comniiBsionen uid secretarj, who bftve acted under his d. 
rection, sad haVe afforded efficient aid to tbe UTCn! juries during their in- 
quiries." 

Daring this part of the ceremonial, thouBands of persons in- 
terested in tbe awards to the aeveral nations, had stationed 
themselves aa near as possible to the beautiiu!ly decorated na- 
tional trophies which had been erected along the nave, in front 
of the exhibition courts of their respective countries, in order 
to witness tbe delivery of the awards ; and at tbe conclusion of 
Lord Taunton's report tbe procession re-formed, with tbe Duke 
of Cambridge and the foreign ministers or other special repre- 
sentatives who were to deliver the awards to the presidents of 
tbe various national commissions, at its bead, and entered the 
building at the northern annexe ; passing, after the delivery of 
tbe awards on food substances, agricultural implements, min- 
erals, &c., there exhibted, to tbe dais beneath tbe eastern dome, 
where were assembled, in a most interesting group, the many 
representatives of England's far off colonies. 

Here there was, of necessity, a protracted halt, but one 
which tbe entire vast multitude, who thronged the transept, 
fiEur-reacbing nave, and lot^ lines of galleries, very greatly 
enjoyed. It was a beautiful and noble spectacle that held 
tbem one moment enchained, and then drew forth most glad 
and vociferous cheers. It was Victoria, Queen of the litUe 
sea-girt isle, calling about her the proud representatives of 
more than a score of Bourishing colonies, to reward them as 
her children for their fidelity to her interests, for their contri- 
butions to tbe progress and glory of her empire, and, more 
than all, for helping to plant tbe standard of civilization and 
of civil and religious liberty in every quarter of the globe 1 
One by one, those colonies had been begun by here a handfal 
and there a handful of resolute, ambitious, brave and heroic 
pioneers, and tbe work of otganization and development push- 
ed forward until some of them bad grown to be strong and 
vigorous nations ; and now, all tc^ether, from the bleak At- 
lantic coast of the North American continent — from tbe valley 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



180 LONDON INTEBNATIONAL 

of the St Lawrence and the basin of the great lakes — from the 
more northern, yet more aimny climes on the Pacific coast — 
from the txopic isles of the Caribbean Sea and the late savage 
islands of the Padfic, Indian and Soathem oceans — irom the 
extreme limit of the Afiican continent, and irom Old Asia, 
ciadle of the hnman race, — ^&om eveiy continent and evety sea 
they were oome, bearing with them the trophies of their labor 
and laying them all at her feet, meet tribute to her and to him 
with whom originated these peacefol i^theringe of the nations, 
fit offering apon the altar of a common glorious empire I 

The delivery to the ooloniea completed, the procession mored 
down the stepe iVom the dais into the middle of the grand nave ,* 
the Duke Cambridge, through the ministers of the various 
countries at the British court, deliveringto the president of the 
commission of each country the awards to which they were re- 
spectively entitled. The scene all the way down was a magnifi- 
cent one, and truly international ; the representative citizens of 
difierent countries seeming to vie with each other in the enthusi- 
asm of their cheers, as one representative afWr another,received 
the awards to which his countrymen were entitled. Many ex- 
ceedingly interesling incidents occurred at the various courts, 
but the limits and objects of this report will not permit their 
reoitaL 

The awards to American exhibitors were delivered by Min- 
ister Adams and received by OoL B. P, Johnson, U. & Com- 



From the nave the procession moved down the western tran- 
sept, Uiroagh the machinery annexe, where other awards were 
delivered, and thence into the garden, and back again to the 
throne, where the programme of this, the second paud/ete, waa 
concluded- by an exceedingly fine and spirited performance 
by all the bands, of " 6od save the Queen I " 

'AWABDS TO THE DIF?KBBKT COUHTBJBB. 

The eutire list of awards, as published by the Boyal Com- 
missionerB, makes an imperial octavo volume of 460 pagea 
By a comparison of the published list of entries #ith this vol- 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1862. 181 

ame of awards, I have been enabled to make the folloving 
ByDopsis of the Dumber of entries made and the proportion of 
medals won hj some of the leading aattons represented : 

Or«at BritaiD mftds 6,9SS ealriei, and won 1,640 nedtUs, or one for evtrj 
4.84antrieB. 

Tbe Briti^ oolonta* mkde >,S4S entriw, and won 199 medals, or one for 
cvary 4.2i entries. ' 

France mada 8,1186 antrlas, and won 1,8B1 medab, or one for OTerf 2. 68 

ZollTcreiD States made 3,876 entries, and won 70S medals, or one for OTer; 
4.07 antriai. 

Ital; made S,070 entries, and won 8S7 medala, or one for every 6.S)I 
entries. , 

initiia mada 1,410 entries, and won 490 medals, or one for eT«C7 8.84 

Spain made 1,188 entries, and won 120 medals, or one for eTotj 9.44 

Belgium made SOS entries, and won S39 medals, «r od« for everj >.6 

Torkay made 7S7 entries, and won 176 medals, or one for everj 8. 87 

Ros^B made 729 entries, and won 1B2 medals, or one for eTerj 4.48 
entries > 
United States made US entries, and won B7 medala, or one for STor; 1 .98 



The total of awards to the American department including 
"honorable mentions," was eighty-seven — a mnch larger pro- 
portion than was received by any other nation. 

Bat mere awards, whether of medals and honorable men- 
tions, or of medals alone — which is the better test — do not 
decide the real merit of the exhibition or any part of it ; we 
mnst also know npon what dasaeB of articles those honors 
were conferred. To meet, to some extent, this demand, the 
following tabulated synopsis is presented : 



^d by Google 



LONDON KTEHNATIONAL 



TABLE ikoiang tJu number of MedaU auardad, m tiu tveral Indiatriai Clatut, 
to tome of lAt Leadmg GcnmiTii* nprtitiued at Oie Inlematioiuil SxAi6i6ini of 
1SS3. 



^d by Google 



EXHIBITION OF 1862. 183 

g Om mmAar of Medalt axarthd, ite.— continued. 



1 

■s 

2 




i i 
I 1 
i » 

0.. 
8.. 

5., 

1 A 

B 7 
«... 
7... 
2... 

2 1 
4... 
8... 

S B 
4 S 

9 2 
2 e 

B 6 

... 
2 

... 
2 

a 

... 
1 

"i 


4. 

U 

1 . 
6. 

251 

83 

S42 
20 
281 
102 
801 

74 S 
B 

871- 

40 6 

2 2 

e 2 
ism 

2 ] 

B 2 
10 2 

MIO 
12 6 

lots 

1118 


SI 
XII 

xm 

XIV 


UtUtsTT Engiiie«rtng, Armor, &c., 

Ordouce >uid Small Arma ; 

8»a. D&A. Clothing udAc- 

CDDtrements. Tents, 

4c., and Uilitu; 

Boglnooring 

e. Arms and Ordnance 

Naval Archifre, Ships, Tackle.ic: 

Sec. a. ShlpBforWirorCom- 

b&e. LifeBoat^ 'i^!i 

Ship's Tackle .... 

Philogophieal In.lrumenta k Pro- 

ceaHB dspending on tbeir use . . > 
Photograpb; and Photographic Ap- 


XV 
























XXI 


Woolen and Worsted, including 
Hiied Fabrics generallj 1 


XXIII 


Woven, Spun, Foiled & Laid Fab- 
rics, ahowQ as Speoimena of D;e- 


SXIV 
XXV 

TXVI 


TapcBtrTiILace aod Manufacturef 3 
FnTs,Feathen and Hair: 

Bee. a. Skins and Fur* 

b. Feathers and Mann. 
faclures from Hair 
Leather, Saddlery and Harneu : 


XXVII 


Articles of Clothing: 

Sec. a. Hate »nd Capn 

b. Bonnets & Uiiliner; 

c. ffosierj, Qloves sod 


xxnu 


d. Boots and Shoes ! 

Paper. Printing and Bookbindini : 
Sec. a. Paper, Cards k Uiil- 








c. Plate, Letter Press 
and other modes ofl 




J. Bookbinling |l 



X -4 



j.A'OO'^lc 



LONDON INTEBNATIONAL 

JbM« thMomg At nu mbtr of MtdaU awatiii, <£«.— oondnded. 



Here we* have the data for a mo3t interesting study of the 
nations, industrially considered. 

The following is a complete list, by classification, of 
AHEBICAN KXHIBITS TO WHICH FRIZES WEBE AWARDED : 



TbonuM HeadB, Laka Soperior, oftbinet copper aod Mtbi ore.... Hon. K«n. 
Kew Jersey Zinc Oompftny, Spiegrl iron produced from Fraali- 

li cite Hon. Men. 

J. Horaheimer, CommiHioner from Nevada Tertitorj, sIItbt uid 

gold ore«, Jcc, from tbe celebrated Wuboe mines Hon. Hen' 



F. S. PeaM, Buffalo, K. T., refined petroleam and lubricatiae oiti, 

&c Medal. 

Olen Core Starch Co , New fork, aamplea jUrch, Ac Medal. 

Elonrord, OsveKp, K. T., alWer itarch Medal. 

H. S. Hotchklw, LfODS, K. T., wlntergreen oiL MedaJ. 



CcizoJ.A'OD^Ic 



EXHmmOlf OF 1882. 186 

A]&«d Hall, Lyoni, N. T., oil pepMrmint Eon, Hen. 

Seotion B, Philadelphia College of FbArmac;, A(n«ric«u regetabls 

drugs, &a Kcdal. 

cuss UL snBSf.uioia mmt ta nop, m. 

Baoksr Bros , N. T., lupsrlor wheaten fiour Ued^l. 

StebbinsAOo., Rocheiter, N. T., battel lupeiior flour Hon. Man. 

Glen Core SUrob Co., N.Y., samples corn flour callsd "HaliBDa" Hsdal. 
J. Waddell, Bpriugfleld, Ohio Bon. Heo. 

a^M IT. AXIKAL UTD riDITABU IDBSTUfCKS HSU) DT lUinTrAOTIJBaf. 

F. S. Pesse, Bollslo, N. T., collsotion of oils, chieflj animal HedaL 

Sieliim A. — R. A. Tilghman, Philadelphia, fattj aoida from aqneoni 

ssponifiMtloD IttdsL 

CLASB r. ailU04I> pioat, m. 
No Zzhlbitors. 

Giss n. ciASUOn sot coniracm with kail&oad oi ibak MtM. 

Brawater AC'>,,Ne«York, phnton Kedal. 

Blaaobard h firovn, Bpriagfl«td, Oblo, woodea wheel, Spokes ma- 

diiue-msde HedaL 

OLiSB m. nutxaittTumao luOHurss lao foOLS. 

Wheeler A Wilson, Keir York, sewing machioei Hedal. 

A. Howe, New Tork, sewing machines Hedal. 

L H. Singer, New York, sewing machines Hon. Hen. 

Vilcoi A Oibbs, New York, sewing machines Hon. Xen. 

O. B. Goodwin, by Bigelow, Boston, sewing mschinea Hon. Hen. 

Alexander Smith, West Farms, S. Y., power loom for wearing 

tnfled fabrics Hedal. 

Sanford A Halloij, y. Y., flsi and flber dressing machine Hon.Hen. 

0. H. Sanborn, cord and rope making machiner; Hon. Hen. 

W. D. Richards, improrcd boot and shoe maohlnerr Hsd^ 

P. H. Wemple, Albany, S. Y., machine for boring slats, blinds, 

Ac Hon. Hen. 

Blake A Bros., New EarSD, Conn., stone. breaking machine HedaL 

Fred. Otto Degner, New York, printing press Hon. Hen. 

Edward Oonroj, Boston, oork-onttlng machine HedaL 



F. E. Stokles, New York, steam steering apparatns Medsl. 

John H. Allen, New York, horiiontal iron condensing engine. . . . HedaL 

W. D. Andrews, centrifbgal pmnp and engines HedaL 

Capt. John Sri esson. New York, caloric hot-air engine HedaL 

A. G. Gibson, improTed carriage oonpling HedaL 

JohnO. Gore, Jamaica Plains, Hass., belt shifter HedaL 

0. L. Qoddatd, New York, mestiio barring picker Vedy. 

T. Haasbrow, Oallfomia, pnmps HedaL 

Kershaw A ColTin, Philadelphia, cow milker Hedal. 

Lse ALamed, New York, steam Are engine Hedal. 

O. Near, H. Y., self-reglsterini; dynsmonieter HedaL 

D. Parker, Gaaterbnrj, New fiampahire, washing machine HedaL 

Brothen Peasant, Ericsson's ho(.alr ei^ne HedaL 

0. T. Porter, Anbnn, N. Y., InTeotlon of goremors Hedal. 

BIcksrds, Hartford, Oonn., exhibited by 0. T. Porter, Indicator 

for engines, ce KedaL 

J. BosL Bochesier, N. Y., conical bnrratone miUs HsdaL 

Benry Steal, Jersey City, stesm pump HedaL 



vCaio^^Ic 



186 LONDON INTERNATIONAL 

a Wileoi, Jr., Bhode IbIbik), hot-kir engioe Eon. Hen. 

John DioksnMn. dlunond mlll-dreeser Hon. Kea. 

J. J. Eckel, S. T., combinatioQ preas and corn prcuer For cotton, 

hay, &c Hon.lfen. 

A. H. Foote, NewTork, a look umbrella stand Hod. Hon. 

H. B. Purlter, ratchet driU Hon. Men. 

Walcott, button-hole ontter Hon. lien. 

Walker & Effenatein, portable minenl and aoda water ipparatua. Hon. lien. 
Weutworth & Jairii, rindmil], water elerator uid regalating 

power Hon. Hen. 



Cjms H. MoCormick, Cbicigo, III., reaper and ht; raker Medftl. 

Walter A. Wood, HooBick Falls, N. Y., reaper and mowing ma- 

chfne and gran mower HedaK 

BnMell A Trem^o, FajetteTllle, H. T., reaper and mowing ma- 
chine Hon. Ken. 

Eirb; & Oaborn, Auburn, N. Y., Eirbj'a combined reaper and 

mower, and mower. .1 Hon. Hen. 

Douglau Aie Co., Haas., axes and wood-workjng tools HedkL 

Wentwortb & Jarvii, Burlington, Iowa, aatomaton farm g«te and 

windwiU, (OD wlodmlll) Hon. Hen. 

Left A. Bearduey, South EdmestoD, V. Y., haj and earth eloTa- 

tor Hon.Hsn. 

Robert Price, Albany, N. Y., churo and 'nop, (on mop) Hon. Hun. 

Batcheller & Son, band tools Hedal. 

Blanohard & Brown, cotton plinter Uedal. 

J. F. h W. Dane, Ohio, ateel plows HedaL 



No eihibitoT. 

CLISS XL lOLITlBT EMaiSEUIKO, tC. 

Colt'* Patent 7ire-«rm Hanafitctaring Co., Hartford, Codd., gnni 

and pistols HsdaL 

CLiaS XIL 1U.TAL JBOHtTtCrUU AMD SHIF3, TACELI, *C. 

H. H. Ward, Auburn, K. T., and night signal telegraph Hedal. 



Darling k Swarti, Bangor, Haine, steel mlee, measoree, ko Hedal, 

OIJH XIT. 

Bnsteof Oaremorsof the several State*, U. S. Hon. Hen. 

No exhibitor. 

CUM xTi. iniBiC4L iRstBintum. 

Stelnway ft Sons, Kew York, pianos Hedal. 

Q. H. Holskamp, New York, pianos Hedal. 

G. H. HoUkamp, New York, viollas HedaL 

CLASS XTO. snaaicui imnniEHTS. 

Dr. Bobert Baten, Penn., mechaDical appllanoss for cnring stun- 

mering Hedftl. 



n^^ivJ.A'OO'^lc 



EXHIBITION OS 1862. 187 

oussn XV m, xix, xx. 
No exhibitor. 

CLlga XIL WOOLIN AND WORBTID OOODS. 

Huicbeeter Print Worki, New Uunpahire, d«Uioeg MedftL 

So flihiUtor. 

CLASS Xlin. WOTXK AXD BPCTH rABUOS, *0. 

HincliMter Print Works, Neir H&mpabJre, printed Tabrics HedaL 

Ko eiliibitor. 

OLlSa ZXT. BIOnOK B. TKXTBSBB AKD SUB. 

Wilkina & Co.,Nev Fork, oarled hair and briades Hon-Heo. 

CLASS ZXVL 

Ho fliMbttor. 

CLASS XXTIL ASTICLIB Or CLOTHIHa. 

StcSoH fX—Hsnebester Print Worke, woolen hosierj Hod. Men. 



S. Sweet, New Tork, proceaa producing blocks for printing Hedal. 

C. H, Stiton, New Tork, process eealing officlkl documenta Hadal. 

American Bank Note Co., Kew York, Tarietj and exoellence of 

biU Kedal. 

CIUBBU ZZIZ, ITT, IIZI. 

So exhibitor. 



W. BUokwall, London, AineriG4a tailors' wheftrs Xedk). 

Donglwa AzeCo,, edge tools, (see Glass JX) Iledal. 



CONCLUDING RtWASES. 

I muHt now conclude this report It baa already extended 
quite l}e;ond the limits anticipated when it was commeDced ; 
and yet I hardly know how I could have said less and done 
the great occasion any sort of justice. By the &ithfal distri- 
bution, among foreign commissioners and intelligent citizens, 
representing the various nations, of the two thousand copies of 
my report of 1860, on the Besouroea, Condition and Progress of 
Wisconsin, which were forwarded to me, at London, by your 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



188 mTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OP 1862. 

predecessor, I trust that Bomethiiig lias been done to turn 
the Ezhibitioa to oai practical advantage, aa a State ; and 
now, if this report should have the effect to awaken an increas- 
ed interest in the subject of international exhibitions, bo that, 
in the event of another, wo may be ready to do our fall share 
in properly representing the reaourcea and wonderfol pro- 
gress in industry of our common country, I shall feel that my 
labors have not been in rain. 

It is seldom that the lessons taught by great events are care- 
i\illy studied and faithfully applied, by either nations or indi- 
viduals; yet it is hardly conceivable thata vast exhibition, like 
tlie one just closed, gathering together the thinkers and work- 
ers of all landB, and establishing between them relations of 
friendship and cordial sympathy, should fail of the most prof- 
itable results to the industry of all ; nor ihat, by thus dif- 
fiifflng the blessings of civilization, and uniting all peoples and 
nations more firmly in the bonds of mutual interest and friend- 
ly association, these great world's gatherings must tend to the 
earlier realization of a universal peace among men. 

J. W. HOYT, 
(hmmmoMrfw TTuoormn. 



^d by Google 



TEAKSAOTIONS 
WISCONSIN STATE AGRICUITtKAl SOCIETT 

FOB 1868. 



D„ii„.db, Google 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 
1 ses. 



B. B. HINKLET, Summit. 



Mrsl IHstrict, — E. B. WOLCOTT, Milwaukeb ; 
Second Dialnct,— KELSON DEWEY, Lancaster ; 
Third District,— BERTmE PINCKNEY, Kosbudalr 



SXCRKTAKt: 

J. W. HOYT, Madison. 



DATm ATWOOD, Madison. 



H. M. BIUJNGS, Highland; 
a P. HALL, Burkb; 
0. LOPTUS MARTIN, Janestillk; 
BENJ. FEB&USON, Foi Lake ; 
DAVID WILLIAMS, Spbingfield; 
S. S. DAGGETT, Milwaukee 



ix-pMnimm, ■z-orncio mnafta ; 
E. W. EDGERTON, Spmiot; 
HARVEY DURKEE, Kenosha; 
J. F. WILLARL, Janesville. 



^d by Google 



AHNTTAX, REPORT 

FOB THE TEAE 18M. 



His ExceUency, Jahes T. Lewis, 

OovemoT of the State of Wisconsin : 

SlE : In compliance with the law, I have the honor herewith 
to transmit the Fiscal Report of the WiBconsin State Agrioul- 
tnral Society for the year ending Dec, 14tb, 1864. 

After the lapse of three years, during which there waa held 
no general exhibition of the industry of the State, early iu the 
spring of 1864, the Society again rallied its forces and renewed 
this portion of its regular work. The sequel has shown that 
the public were prepAred for this action on the part of the So- 
ciety ; for notwithstanding the still unsettled condition of the 
country and the unfavorablenesa of the season, agriculturally 
considered, the Exhibition, as such, was creditable to theenter- 
prise^f oar people, the attendance numerous, and the cash re- 
ceipts larger than at any previous one since the organization 
of the Stata 

The Fair afforded a most satisfactory demonstration of the 
wonderful energy and growing zeal with which the industrial 
classes have poshed forward in their own legitimate work, prac- 
tically unheeding the tumult of war, only just beyond the bor- 
deiB of their State. There were the inventors of implements 
and machinery with the products of their genius in the form 
of numberless improvements — there the producers of grain 
and breeders of stock, with indubitable proofs of successful 
effort for the attainment of results that must give to them- 
selves larger profits and to the nation greater assurance of in- 
creased means for the early extinguishment of its immense 

(199) 



■j.A'OO'^lc 



200 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

burden of debt — there the fruit-growers, with surprising evi- 
dence of what resolution and pereeverence may accomplish even 
against the odds of an adverse, if not perverse, climate and 
the voice of almost universal complaint coming up to them 
from every quarter of the State — there an army of resolute 
mechanics and raanufactarers, offering to the over-tasked hua- 
bandman the means of multiplying his productive energies. 

The State of Wisconsin has reason to be proud of her pop- 
ulation. No more industrious, enterprising, determined and 
heroic people live in the world. 

We cannot conclude this brief Report without again asking 
your attention to the importance of prompt action in the mat- 
ter of the proposed College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, 
provided for in the Congressional act of 1862. Lands have 
been located, the net proceeds of which, if judiciously manag- 
ed, should, at least, equal the sum of $300,000. This, with 
such aid as the State ought to be willing to give, will constitute 
a foundation for the beginning of an educational work, in the 
interest of the industrial arts, which must ultimately result in 
great good to both people and State. 

If it were possible, on a fair basis, to connect the pro- 
posed College with the State University, that would undoubt- 
edly be the most economical and beat disposition to make 
of the question ; but as this is believed to be impracticable, 
the incorporation of a separate i nstitution seems to be the only 
alternative. 

The bill for the incorporation of the "State Agricultural 
College of Wisconsin," which passed the Senate by so large a 
majority, last year, appeared to us to meet the conditions of 
the Congressional Act and to provide for the educational wants 
of the industrial classes in a very satisfactory manner, and it is 
hoped that a similar measure may receive the approval of both 
branches of the present legislature. 

The period allotted to the State for full compliance with the 
act donating the lands is passing, and we are unable to see 
any substantial reason why provision should not be made at 
once for an advantageous disposition of the lands and the early 



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AOTTOAL REPOBT— 186a 201 

establislimetit of the "Wisconsin College of Agriculture and the 
Mechanic Arta 
On behalf the Executive Committee, 

J. W. HOYT, Seerelmy. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



To Om ExaiM&ii» ComndOc* of tkt Wueotum Sbrtg Agric^Jtimil Soeidy : 

I have tbe honor herewith to Babmit mj Mnaal report of the finulDial Inu- 
aetioDB of tbe WlMonsio Stkte Agricnlturkl Sociat; for the jev ISM; 

RECEIFTB CUBING THE TEAB. 

To «Mh on hftod, w per lut report tS,7S8 91 

Tocuhfor.lifemembenhlp* 140 00 

To CMh for enti? feesat itite fair 888 50 

To cuh from rents of grouada 869 5(1 

To cash from Bsls of tlckeM at fair 4,10S >S 

Total 11,759 19 

EZPEND1TURI8. 

Dec. 14, Bj order* paid, and thiB day returned aod 

caDoelled t6,«7 «6 

Dec. 14. B7 caBhiD tha tTeaBorrto balance 3,l71 84 

t7,7a» i» 

All of which it reaMotfnllj Bnbmittad, 

DAVID ATWOOD, 



Trtaiurtr HU Slate Ag, Boett^. 



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PROCEEDINGS. 



EXECUTIVE MEETINGS. 

8t«T( AaUCULTDRAL BoOMB, 

Februirj S, 1804. 
The EiecatiTs Committee met at 3 o'clock P. If, of tbU da;. 
Freiecil— Measn. Hinkle;, S. S. Diggatt, D. Williuna, Atwood and Bojt. 
President HlDklc; Id the chair. 
On motion it wu unaDlmonil; 

JtnolttJ, Thai tbia iociet; will thia ;ear attempt the holding of a general 
exhibition. 

Moved bj Hr. Williame, and carried, that the date of the Fair be, aafor 
■oine ;eara paat, the last week of September. 

Voted that the committee do now proceed to prepare rales and regulationa 
vithalist of premiumi for the fair of 1B64. 

The workof roTiaion occupied the committee until A o'clock, when the; 
adjourned to meet again at 'li thia eTening. 



Febraarj !, IJ P. M. 

Committee met pursuant to adjournment. 

Present — Same members as before. 

The work of preparing rulee and list of premium* was reaamed and con- 
tinned DDtil ID o'clock. 

Hr. J. 0. Plamb, BecretArf Wisconsin Emit Orowen' Aasooiation, preoent- 
ed a memorial &om that locietj asking that certain modifications be made in 
the premium list in the fruit and flower departments, and submitting ooH' 
ditiona on which the officers thereof would be glad to make their own pro- 
posed eihtbitioD a part of the eihibliion of the State Agricultiirml Society. 

Which memorial was accepted, considered and approTod as the basis of 
action in m^lng prOTi^on for the HorticnJtaraldepirtment of the State Fair, 
The preparation of the prite list harlog been concladed and the judges ap- 
pointed. It was 

Voted, that Ool. Wu. R. Tajlor act as chief Harahal for the fair, and tbat 
the aoperintendent of depaitmenti be as follows: 



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PROCEEDINGS. 

Stq)iriiHtndBU of Catea-Dftrid WilUuna, SprtngSeld. 
" ito^foTMi— B. Finckner, RoMDdale. 

CiKff«— B. FergoBOD, Foi L&ke. 

Sherp—3. E. Dodge, LinoMter. 

Swmt-U. P. Hftll, Burke. 

AgrUi^tart—GBO. 0. Pratt, Vknkesha. 

/ViiU-J. 0. Plumb, Haditon. 

Maehintry—C W. Olnsj, Ukdison. 



Toted, that the premlom list be poblished in the IPbeontln ^rmtr, and 
that SOOO copiea of the same be printed in pamphlet form, for disldbndoa 
tojadgea, officers of count; aocietiee and eifaibitora at former (airs. 

On motion it was 

StttAiti, That the presidentandeecretarjrare herebj aathorized to cauTaM 
the BOTeral eligible places in the state and make the moat desirable location 
of the fair possible. 

Adjourned >in< rfu. 

J. W. HOTT, Stenlmy. 



BT1.T1 Hocn, J^MCfrviLU, Sept. SB, ISM, 
7i o'clook P. H. 
Eieoutive Committee met pursnant to call of the president, and after 
agreelDg upon the selection of rarioasemploreesand the per diem to bopaid 
to officers &nd emplojees of everr grade, and attending to Tarions items of 
busineu, not essential to be recorded, adjourned to meet the neat erening 
at the same place, and nlghtlj thereafter, at H o'clock, during the veak. 
J. W. HOTT, BterMarfi. 



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EXHIBITION OF 1864. 

[From the Becretarj'E Record.] 



The Eihibtiou of IBM is at length amaog the things thmt vere. It was 
gotteu up •rich greftt effort on the part of the officers of the Sooielj, *nd in 
spite of difficulttei, which, in the estimation of rer; maDj^ of its friends, 
promised nothing bnt defeat and rain. The sequel bu shown that the Com- 
mittee were right in going ahead; for, ftltboogh the results were not equal 
to those of other and mora farorable rears, they were more satiifactorj than 
anjbodj had dared to hope ; the more interesting, and, just now, important 
departments, to wit, the fruit, the sheep, and the machinerj and implement 
departments, being ver; handsome] j lepresented, and tlie receipts being 
BofBcient to paf atl the eipenses'and all preialains, with a surplns of nearl; a 
thousand dollars. 

Had the weather been farorahle, the receipts would have been full seTen 
thonsand dollars— larger b; one thonsand dollars than erer before. Next 
;ear we tope the akies will be more propitioDS. 

BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF THE DEPARTMENTS. 

At the right of the gate of entrance, and extending along the enclosure 
for some distance, were 

The Bbeep pens, fliled with as fine specimens of the oTine race as erer 
graced even an international eihibition. The Spanish Heiinoes were in 
greatest force ; the long wool and middle wool sheep next. Wool growing 
is, at present, and will be, for some time to come, the most profitable branch 
of husbandry in Wisconsin, and we are glad to see the uvidences that this is 
becoming the uonviction of our farmers. Tbe list of premiums awarded 
will show who are foremost in this bnsinees. 

Heit, In order of place, came 

Tbe Swine, occopyiog sereral pens. Hr. Ruble was king in thia depart- 
nent, showing one Torbahire boar for which he had been offered $800 ; 
weight, 1,300 ponnda. 

The Foultrj Pens were likewise pretty much monopolized byUr. Rnble. 
Tliis branch of bosbandry does not receive the attention it deserTes, and we 
are g'ad of the interest awakened by Hr. R'sflne display. 

The Horse Department was worthily represented as to quality, though the 
nnmber of animals on eibibttion was not large. The Thoronirbbreda. the 

(204) 



j.A'OO'^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1864 205 

SokdatonKnd the TroUer»«specUlIj ittraoted th« atMntioa of tiu tara, and b; 
theipfice displftjeof blood and speed added muobto the intereat of tbe Ei- 
bibltioa. The ChoroughbredB ebown by Hr. Simoo Ruble alone were rained 
at acarcet; less tboD ten or twelve thonuad dollars. 

Tbe Cattle DepartmeDt waa meagrel; repreeented. Bnl for Richard Biolt 
ante, of Bscine, Olintoo Babbit, of Belolt, and A. 0. Darwin, of HadisoD, 
tbe Short Horng would haTs been nowhera ; and the tame maf be said fbr L 
8. NewtoD, of HiddletoD, and George Baker, of HaBtiiford, witb refereDce 
to the Devona. Cattle-breeding Ib not, at present, so profitable a boiluea 
in this State as tbe nusing of abeep and hor«ei, tmd it woald hardly hare 
been reasonable to hare eipscted a very Urge show iu this department. 
The time is coming, however, when (be cftttle-breeders will have compensa- 
tion for their enterprise. 

' Machinery and implements were there in largo number and Tarietj. 
Sorghum mills and apparatus in operation. Reapers and mowers, seed drills 
and cnltivatorB, plows, harrows, rollers and bog-eattera,psteDt gates, hay 
gatherers, hay pitchers, washing machines, clothes wringers, and a moltittide 
of other machinery too numeroue to mention, were strewn about the Opera- 
tive Machinery Halt, to tlio great comfort of those who were am ions that 
this most fascinating department shoald rank So. 1. 

MftDU&cti'rcra' Hall was respectably filled, though not so well as former- 
Ij. 

Fruits, Oraias and Vegetables were crowded into one targe tent ; the Frait 
and Flower Department oocupying itfie half. The fruit crop has been two- 
thirds a failure this year, and on this account we did not expect mnch of a 
show. The show was fine as to variety and quality, and respectable as to 
qnantity. 

Fine Arts Hall was handsomely decorated with paintings, photograpba, 
embroideries and other works of art 



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STATE AaEICDlTUEAL SOCIETY 



OPENING ADDRESS. 



St B. B. HIKKLET, PBEODnTT. 



GmiStmen of lit State Agrictdtural Soeielg and PeBou Oiiiteiu : 

It is the prerog&tiTC of the Socletf I tUs d»j hBre the hooor to represent 
to impose such duties upon Its offiaem u ma; be necossarj to the entire 
accompli shmeut of the imporlsnt ol^jects for the promoUon of nhich it »■■ 
oii^nallj established. And inumach as I bold it to be the dut; of everf 
member thereof to yield the most implicit obedieoce to all its requiremeots, 
there aeemg to be no honorable altematiTe for me but to formallj open this 
State Ethibitioa with an addreia. I shall endeavor to oompiy with this 
demand upon m; efforts m far as to make a few remarks appropriate to the 
occasion, and not heing prepared to make a formal address in the popular 
•enae, will content mjself with a brief reriew of the oircumstances and 
motives which have-Utherlo determined the polio; of the present board of 
officer*. 

It i« now three jeats since we were gathered together for the purpose of 
making an eibibition of the products of oar lodnstr;, as a state, and of Inter- 
ehanging tIbwb as to the best means of odTatioIng the material and social 
interests of the commonwealth. The last exhibition was the most complete 
and sucoesafnl of any that had ever been hell in Wisconrin ; and the Society, 
atimnlated bj the resultsof that and previons efforts, was largely eocoaraged, 
BO that it planned an eihibitlon for IStl on a still more liberal and mag- 
niflcent scale. But great political events, such as few if an; anticipated, 
soon transpired. The whole nation was plunged into a fearful civil war; 
the grounds and improvements we had intended for the eibibition of 1S61 
ware tnmed over to the Oovemment for a mllitar; encampment; the Legis' 
latore, in its vei7 questionable wisdom, repealed the law bj virtue of which 
the Society had received from year to year an appropriation of tS,OOCI from 
the moneys of the State ; the means of the Society, to the amount of some 
tS,0OO, remained onavallable in a recognised but unaudited account agdnst 
tte United States; the public mind was distracted and absorbed by the 
deplorable condition of the country, and postponement after postponement 
of our annual fairs followed as a natural, if not a necessary, eonseqaence. 

But we have not forgotten that industry Is the only basis of the matei4al 
prosperity of, State and Nation, nor that the Bnal triumphant issue of the 
Oovernment of our choice from the deep troubles by which It has been well 



..i.A'Oti<^lc 



EXHIBITION OF 1864. 207 

nigh overnhelmed is to be aecnrad scarcBl; less through the beraio efforts of 
peraistent labor than through victories woo by our arms; aod, accordingly, , 
tmatlag la induBtrial eihibitiont as an important means of stimulation and 
iufonnatioD, in Februarj last tbe resolution wis formed, b; the officers of 
the State i^icnltural Society, to again attempt a State Fair. The Premiam 
TA$i was issued in Hay, aod measnreB were immediately taken to insure a 
success. Since then, howcTCr, new difficulties hate arisen. A drouth of 
great severity and long pcotrMtioo, together with nnbttard-of ravages of 
insect foes, have reduced our crops to less than a third of what the average 
crops should have been, and, &DHliy, a new draft for half a million more men 
foi the army has again filled the pnblio mind with thoughts of war, to the 
eielosion of almost everything else. 

Tinder all these circumstances, the Executive Committee have not felt 
warranted in making preparatious such at were made in ISSO, and such as 
would have been grateful to their pride. Tbe Ihiit of their zealous, if not 
entirely successful efforts is before you. 

Upon the Judges, whom we have selected with great care, and upon the 
■nperintendents of tbe various departments, very much yet depends. We 
trust they will use their best endeavors to meet the demands of the occadon, 
and that complete success will be the result of our united labors. 

It DOW only remains to me to delare the Exhibition open, to iirgei,npon all 
tbe best use of the opportunity it affurds, and to exprexs the hope that, when, 
in 1SA5, we again nnite in an annual festival, the victorious armies of the 
Bepnblio will have so tborouglily done their woi^ that henceforth, for many 
generations— yea, for aB twi» to eom«— the Arts of Peace may have uninter- 
rnpted progress. 



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STATE AOMODLTUBAI, SOCIETY. 



ANNirAL ADDRESS. 



Bt Sz-Oot. JOSKFH a. WBIUHT, 0» Ihduiu. 



The AQunal AddreBS, b; Qov. .Wright, on (be " Belitions of Labor to Gor- 
ernment," wu one of the ttbleat and most effectiTe ever daUrered before the 
Society. For an hour end a half be held the Teat audience that crowded 
about the speaker'^ itand iiterall; enchaiaed b; the logio, pathos, and per- 
aaaBive eloquence of his masterly otatioQ. nnbnppil; It was entirely ex- 
temporaneous, and before it became conveaieDt for the author to propaie 
notes of it for publication, be receiTed an appointment fVom President Lincoln 
as minister to th« FrDsuan QoTernment and departed forh[e sugslon witlioat 
baring fonrarded the manuscript. In the montb of June ISST, while yet at 
his post, and in the prime of a noble and useful life, he vaa called by death 
from bis labors to his reward. 

Fnder^ these circumstances ire are grateful to the editora of tbeJaneBTiUe 
GaietU for ■ copy of their paper of Oct. S, IBM, from which is copied the 
following very fair synopsis of the Address : 

" The speaker commenced bf contrasting (be Ttctories of war with the tri- 
omphe of peace. To-day we have met to celebrate the aonqnests of peaoefnl 
industry. Olorioug, indeed, is the sight before us of these noble prodact* of 
agriculture and the mechanic aets— the result of intelligent Industry. Our 
fields serTe ua, bnt we must render fierfice in return. In the oontemplation 
ofthe wise cultlyator of the soil, rapid progress is not the only objecl We 
have no right to barter our fields for present proQt— (he soil is (he gift of the 
-^^'ghty, and the worst of all robberies is that perpetrated upon mother 
earth, when we take much fmm her bosom and give nothiog back, The Ikrm- 
er sbonld take advantage of everything to preserve this gifl and keep It gOod 
for himself and his posterity. Not to make improvements is a crime, while 
it is a duty to keep unimpaired that which we have raceivedfrom the Creator. 

"What is the great oiigect of aasemblages of this kindt I( i8(o edao*(e 
tbe public mind, and especially the rising generation. All the ins(i(n(lons 
of this country are educating the people — the management of tbli fair will 
educate— railroads, courts and banks are educators in order and system. In 
tbe B(a(e of Indiana there is a railroad which is a model of regularity, so 
much so that an old gentleman of the speaker's acquaintance, through whose 
farm the road passes, relies upon its trains to givs blm tbe hour of (he day. 
The trains were always on time, and it thereby taught punctuality to its em- 



l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1864. 209 

plojeca, as well as the people on its whole route. Gotoacitj where aateam- 
bott is adTertised to depart at a certain hour, and conatantl)' faiU to fuJfiU 
ita piamiBei, and the people will follow, in a neasuie, its bad eiample. So of 
ever; enterprise and inatitulion in the land — thcj all edncftte the people. 

" Vfe have some tbings to learn Iiam the old world, and when we can obtain 
leaaons which will improve, thejahonldbe applied and practiced. The speak- 
er had seen npon the pnbHc roads in Gorman^', miles of fralt trees, entirely 
nnprotected eTCn by fenres, owned b; hundreds of different persona, and fet 
none were taken except bj the owners. In Berlin the parks are adorned with 
flowers and rare plAnts— the; are traversed everrwhere with the ntmoBt free- 
dom by the people, their children wandering about at will, but all remaina 
untouched, not a blossom Is plncked. We have much to learn in this respeet 
of reverence to government and its laws. Something is wrong in our eda»- 
tlon, when we find ancti few enamples here. Obedience to law should be 
taught. There is no freedom without law. This must be effected b; family 
gavernmeDt here where we have no despotism to enforce obedience. 

"Education promotes loyaJtr. Whore the people are intelligent they are 
patriotic. Juat in proportion as the blessings of asound education are spread 
in a community, you will Gud loyalty and hatred of treason. I am not an ad- 
vocate of college and boarding school edacation, but am in favor of free 
schools, where all the knowledge that the people ehall need ma; be obtained. 
The influence of home should coostsntly surround our children. Thespeaker 
de^red to see liis children aorround his table three times a dft; that be might 
watch over them and protest their morals. It it at the fireside where moral- 
alit; and justice, or.ler and obedience, are successfully taught. Nothing can 
take its pUce. Ko other institution can do the work ot family government. 

" What Is the object of ;our fairs f It Is not so much the premium award- 
ed which gratifies the recipient as the laudable pride that is excited. It is 
thia that incites to further progress tovards excellence. 

" While iu Europe, I visited the Government model farm near Paris, where 
one yoang man is received yearl; from each of the seventy-two districta of 
the empire, and a practical agricuitaral education is given them. The; learn 
by practice to do everything upon the farm. Agricultural chemistry ia taught. 
I saw a dead horse there which ihu Professor informed me was worth five dol- 
lars for manure. Here it would be considered valueless — a nuisance. We 
overlook these things — we consider them of no use, which is a great mistake. 
At this school they have ascertained, by twenty-five ;ears experiments, that 
the Swiss cow is superior to all others for milk and butter. There is an es- 
tablishment near Paris where night manure is manufactnred into a powder. 
It is estimated that l^rm products are increased b; this establishment snffl> 
cient in amount to feed 300,000 people. Wo should in this coontr; practice 
upon tbese hints and save ever; species of manure which will increase pro- 
duction. 

" Another institution, thirty miles from London, was devoted to questions 
relating to manures, and their effect upon different oropt. An acre of land 

14 Aq. Tbans. 



j.A'OD^Ic 



210 STATE AGEIOULTUEAl SOCIETY 

wu used for nch eiptriment, and tbe raaalCa for one, twa and three j'ears 
np to tweDtj-three, were obtained. Tbe plot irbieb had no manare yielded 
14^ bosbets of wheat to the acre, and that whioh had the beet manore gave 
60 bnsheU, 

"To Bhoir the effect of peraererlng In a proper ■7>tem of mannring land, 
the speaker said that a large tract in Prussia, which a century ago was a (and 
bank, des^tnte of erer; gpecieBof plaut, had been rendered neb and fertile. 
To impart tcitnre to tbe soil to get a grass plot, brash was first baoled and 
stock into tbe ground, thus proTenting the sand froni drifting ; then pine 
trees were pisnted, and by growing these and manarlDg tbe land for eighty 
years, grass was at last grown. After this there was no difficulty, for grauig 
the first object, and when obtained every desirable fertility of soil may he 
luid. The lipeaker declared that manure was ncTer lost by leaching on sandy 
and gravelly land, A foot and a half of soil wa« all he wanted on a gravel 
bank. Uanures, never go down, but apward. If this were not the case, what 
would beoome of the wells and springs in a city F A conCigiioua manure pile 
was never known to injure a spring or the sholloirest well. Do not, therefore, 
be afraid to plough in manure upon gravetty and sandy land. There It noth- 
ing lost that goes down into the soil 

" There is great deficiency of statiatical informatioa in this country. No 
people on earth are more imposed upon than oura by this neglect. It is 
known in Berlin to-day, what number of buebels of wheat ,have been raised 
in that country this year. Bat have we any snch knowledge even for a single 
county ? He had known wheat to vary In price in tbe Chicago market, in 
one month from %IM to BO cents. The correction of this evil is in yonr own 
power. Ton ought to be able to know all about tbe production of yonr sta 
pie cropseach year, and one of the important objects of these fairs is to col- 
lect and aystcmiie inrormaUon on sll «abjecls coauecled with agriculture. 

"Governor Wright strongly recommended the cultivation of fruits aod 
flowers. Tbe best speech he bad ever made in Indiana wae by the roadude 
to a friend of bis who wta toiling in a cornfield, and by the side of whose 
house stood a single spple tree, growing with little labor to its owner, tbe 
fruit upon which was worth more Chui all his com. The governor's eloquence 
indaced the man to plant an orchard, and remit somewhat the labor bestowed 
upon raiung grain. The Governor was equally emphatic in bis testimony In 
favor of beautifying oor borne* with flowers. He produced a sensation among 
the ladies by declaring that were he In seatcb of a wife he would not select 
one from ahome unadorned by Sowers and choice plants. 

"The speaker said that notwithstanding tbe regular rontineof business and 
plessure everywhere prevailed, altboogh the people gathered at fairs and in 
the marts of commerce, the thought of every one was upon tbe condition of 
the country. Tbe speaker then proceeded at considerable length to discuss the 
qoestlon of State rights. He condemned those who advocated 'a peace on 
the basis of the federal Union ol the Btates' — was in favor of a national 
Union, in which the Stales shonld have no more rigbte than countries and In- 



j.A'OO'^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1864 211 

vidual familiea. He declared Ihat tbe conatitutioa made a national and not 
a federat Union, and be m atronglj objected to tbe term tbat lie did not lilie 
to hear oar arm; odiadlbe "federal arm^." Ee desired thU to be considered 
abroad aa one countr;, haTing one flag, which should protect erer; man, ia 
all part) of the globe, who has the proud title of "American cltizea." De- 
gtro7 tbe power of tbe nation, and oar state and count; stocke, and township 
scrip would be iTorthless. Brer; political hi esslDg depends apon this grand 
foundation of our ajBtem— unity and nationallt;; and let no portion go olT 
without the eonsent of the whole. 

"We are one people, although gathered from erer; part of Europe for the 
eqjojmeat of the hlessings of libert;. If there la anything in the way of lib- 
erty it ehoutd get out of tbe way. Our gorernment was formed for the pro- 
tection of man and not of capital at tbe eipeoM of the rights of man. The 
wealth of «. country Is in its labor ; Tolnntary labor is tbe most eSTeetiTC, as 
an intelligent and thinking beitig is able to accomplish more than a machine. 

"There is a silent conTiciion gainiog ground everywhere that our Bag 
should float only over free men. It ia for the interest of all that every spe- 
cies of labor shoald be TolanCary, because it is the most efficient, It is for the 
interest of laborers that every laborer should be free, that every man should 
have a borne. If yon deny a home to a man you destroy the family institn- 
tioD which is the faundatioo of all governments. Tbe home mast be protect- 
ed from outrage, from aU ownership of its members by others. Whenever 
labor is Dot voluntary, and the family is not protected, that nation will die. 

" The speaker alluded in eloquent terms to the labor and devotion of the 
women of this country during the rebelliou. He exhorted them to go on In 
the good work iu which they bad been engaged; to keep np their ud go. 
cietles ; to labor diligently as tbey bad done for the sick, tbe woonded and 
for those iu piisan. The reward would come ; the country would be saved 
from the assaults of traiton, and when peace crowns our hills and plains, it 
would be acknowledged that without tbe unwearied toil, the constancy and 
heroic fkith of woman in our cause, it could scarcely have been saved. 

"Qov, Wright pronounced the fair creditable to the State, considering 
that Wisconsin had sent SO,0OO of her sons to the Arid to defend the govern- 
ment. The exhibition was noteworthy for Its fine show of fruit, machinery 
and sheep, especially the latter, which whs very creditable. He said we had 
« good sheep eonntry, and urged his hearers to excel In tbat department, 
bearing in mind the three great ohjeots in sheep braeding, which be declared 
to be qnantity of wool, Bneness and weight of carcass. 

"In order to aocompllsh this he exhorted oar farmers to abandon, to a 
large extent the cultivation of wheat, and tom their attention to raiung 
grass. Gross, he declared, was the fonndation of alt successful agrlcnllure. 
It was true, as bad been said, ' no grass, no stock — no stock, no mannre — no 

" In concluuon the speaker mode several practical inggestions : 
lit. Keep out of debt. 



j.,Coot^[c 



212 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCmTT. 

ad. Bell wbateTer yon luTe when it U ready far matket. 

Id. Attend »11 the iadnstrial meetingB and fain, with ;oar wife and your 
ofaUdren. 

4th. Take the agricaltural papers of the State. 

6th. Be loyal to your goverament 

"Upon the iMt topic the governor epoke with a fervid eloqnence, rarely 
eqnalled in its power and effect. The noble sentimentB ottered fooad a ready 
appreoiation jn the patriotic a«Bemb1age before him, who responded in eatbu- 
^aetic and repeated obeers." 



^d by Google 



EIiECTION OF OFFIOEKS 



HyITT HodSl Pl£LOB, 

JiwSTuxi, Sapt. 29, ISM. 

Societf met punuant to pubUahed notica, at the Hjitt Hoom, at 7J o'clock 
F. K. ; some acTenty Life Membera being preseaL 

Frendent B. B. Hinkley in the chair. 

On motion, it was 

Rfeleed, That we do now proceed to an election of officers of thia Society 
for the year ISBB. 

Secretary called the roll of Life Members. 

Oa motion of Andrew Proudflt, a oommittee of fire waa appoioted to nom- 
inkte officera for the ensuing year. 

Sud committee, after a brief conference, reported through Hr. Proudfit, 
Cfaairman, the following nimea : 

For FTmdmt.—Tia.-7\A Williama, of Walworth Co. 

VK»-FTetidenti.—3. I. Case, of Bacine; L. B. Vilaa, of Dane; and Eeyet 
"S. Darling, of Fond du Lac. 

aacnlary.—i. W. Hojt, of Dane. 

TVaontm'. — Simeon ^illa, of Dane. 

AddUiORol Uanhirrt of SxeealiiK Commifks.— Obas. B. Williama, of Bank ; 
0. L. Kartin, of Rock ; J. H. Warren, of Oreen ; J. 0. Eaton, of Oolambla ; 
Kli StilBoa, of Winnebago ; 0. E. Stewart, of Dodge ; and K. D. HottoD, of 
Mllwaokee. 

On motion, the name of David Atwood, present Treasurer, was substituted 
for tbat of Simeon Hills ; and tbe report as thna Amended waa adopted and 
the persona therein named elected to the Tarious offices for which tbey were 
preaented. 

It is proper to otate that Col. Hinkley, who had so long and ably served 
the Society aa President, would hare been Dnaaimonaly re-elected, bad he 
not peremptorily declined tbe nomiDBtion. 

On the aBnonacement of the result of the ballot, on moUon, the folloniDg 
resolution waa unanimously adopted: 

Jtmivtd, That [he thanks of tbia Society are due to Col, B. R. Hinkley, 
the retiring Preiident, for the ability, zeal and fidelity with which, for many 
years, and eapecially during the term of his presideDoy, he has labored to 
promote tbe interests of the Society and of the whole State. 

To which the Ooloael respooded, setliog forth the reasons tbat bad deter- 
mined him to decline a re-electioQ, and ansouociog his purpose to continue 
through life to labor for the adTanoeiaent of the induatry of WiaaoDsln. 

The Society then adjourned *m St, and proceeded to attend the meetinga 
of the Wool-Qrowera tod Froit -6 rowers' Associations, !□ season at tbe 
Court Rooms. J. W. HOTT, BtenUtry. 

(218) 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



AWARD OF PEEMJUMS 

AT THE FAIR OF ISM. 



HOHSES, JACKS AND MULES. 

OLASe l.-TaOROUGS BBED HORSES. 
John Batie, T»fton, sUllioD, "Princeton," 4 7n, lat premium t30 00 

SIdiou Enble, Beloit, gUllioD, "Bucluhot," 4jra, 2d prem 20 00 

0. LofiuB Uartia, JaneaTille, aUllioa, " Young Fciaceton," onder S 

jtR, 1st prem 8 00 

Simon Ruble, Beloit, itallion colt, " Young ICedoc," Backing colt, laC 

premium 8 00 

E. MilJen, Jaaeaville, snclcing ci>lt, "Young Princeton," Sd prem- 
ium 9 00 

If. W. Elking, Beloit, snckiTig mare colt, lat premium S 00 

H. W. Elkina, Beloit, brood mare, "Puss Ferris," 4 jni, lat premium 20 00 
S. Ruble, Beloit, Brood nur e, " Uaria Hamilton," 4 jears, 2d prem- 
ium 12 00 

JnooK — Andrew Prondflt, Madison; 0. P. Robinson, JaneaTille ; John 
Forbea, Fort Atkhuon. 

GLASS S.-ROADSTERS. 

Geo. W. Bbnchard, Lake tfilla, st&llion " Hambleloaian, " 4 jrs and 

OTer, lat premium 25 00 

A. McConnel, Oconomowoo, atallion, " Abe Lincoln," 4 jrs and over 

adpreminiD 10 00 

Emery Colbj, Freeport, Ills., atalllon, 3 ;ra and over, lat premium 10 00 

A. J. Warner, Shopiere, stallion, 8 jra and OTsr, 2d pramium 1 00 

0. W. Thustan, Waukesba, brood mare, 4 jrra and over, 1st premiom IB 00 
JoDOBs— Andrew Froadfit, Uadiaon ; Dr. Robinson, JaneaTllie ; J. P. lUz, 
Cedar Creek. 

CLASS 3.— HOR3E3 FOR GESERAL PURPOSES. 

D. UerHll, Beloit, stallion, 4 yis and over, 1st premium 20 CO 

N. Potter, Eau Cleire, atallioa, 4 jrs and over, Sd premium IB 00 

H. Smith. Shopiere, stallion, S jra, Ist premium 10 00 

H. P. Fatea, JanesTiIle, stallion, "Young Battler," 2d premium T 00 

J. H. Young, Elkhorn, stallion, 2 jn, lat premium 6 00 

v. E. Farosworth, Whitewater, stallion, " Duroo," 2 yia, 2d premlom 4 00 

A. T. Watson, Footville, stallion colt, (yearling,) 1st premium S 00 

P. SchmlCi, H«rmoD7, st^lion colt, (yearling,) 2d premium S 00 

J. P. Dickaon, JanesTiile, brood mare, 4 yrs ind over, lat premiimi. . . IS 00 
L. H.Bond, Lima Centre, Black Bawk brood mare, " Belle of Wiaooa- 

aln," 4 yrs, 2d premium S 00 

J. P. Dickson, Janeaeille, brood mare, 3 yr«, lat premium 1 00 

Thos. Barlass, Emerald Orore, brood mare, 2d premium 00 

J. G. Potter, Beloit, mare, 2 years, 1st premium S 00 

(214) 



j.A'OO'^lc 



tmON OF 1864 216 

J. 0. Van Gelder, JaneiTille, fill;, tnt premium (6 00 

P. B. Tiemey, Wefltport, filly, 2d promium S 00 

Chai. Hmrard, Bmeriild Orove, socking mare oolt, 1» premiam 8 00 

Jddqks— J. H. WmrrsD, Albauj ; Wm. Barrooglu, Jancsville i W. A. John. 

CLASS 4— DRAFT H0B8£3. 

HorgBD WeBCDtt, Barton, Btollion, " Toung GifTord Horgui," lat pre- 
mium 1 00 

John Liscumb, JaneaTiile, sackiog atoltioi: colt, lit premium 8 00 

Jaa. Bullard, EransTille, Hacking aUlIion colt Sd premium 3 00 

JuQOM — Same aa /or claaa 8. 

CLASS S— JACKS AND MnLES. 

J. S. Owena, EvaDBTJlle, jack, imported, IK premium SB 00 

M. 0. Cook, Hilwaakee, jack, Sd premium 10 00 

Simon Ruble, Beloit, pair work mules, lat premium 10 00 

J. W. Smith, Whitevater, ainf^le mule, let premiaiQ S 00 

JuDQia — Same aa for olaaa 8. 

CLA83 6-lfATCHED HOBBEB AND HARES. 

B. T. Pember, JaneBTiUe, pair matched geldings, 4 years old and orei 

let premium 20 00 

E, S. SbeldcD, Honroe, pair matched draft horas)', 4 years old aud 

ore r, lat premium SO 00 

Gilijert Adama, Racine, pair roadittera, Sand Syearaoid, lat premium 20 00 
Jddoi»— Emery Thayer, EaaC Troy; Wm. Hollinsbead, Elkbom; F. E. 

Diekey. 

CLASS 7— QELDINQ3 OR HARES FOBJ SINOLE HARNESS, SAD- 
DLE, ko. 

A. Q. DarirlD, ICadlaon, single horse, brown, 4 years old and over, Ist 

premium tlO 00 

J. H. Waterman, Hilton, single horae, dapple grey, gelding, 4 years 

old andorcr, Id premium B 00 

B. F. Pendleton, Janesrllle, saddle horse, brown gelding, let premium 10 00 
L. Hoses, JaneaTille, saddle horse, bay gelding, Sd premium fi 00 

Jddois— Same as for class S. 

CLASS 8— TROTTERa 

B. F. Anuis, Lake Hills, trotting stallloa' time S.DS, tst premium (30 00 

B. T. Turner, Grand Rapida, Uich , trotting stallioo, time 2.1)4, 8d 

premium SO 00 

J. Bullene, Jr. Beloit, trotting stallloa, time 8.00, Kd premium IS 00 

8. Hutmn, JaneaTille, trotting mare, time 1.4ti, let premium SO 00 

Nelson GatliiF, Racine, trotting mare, time S.OB, Sd premium 20 00 

Jerome Gates, Delaran, trotting geldiag, time 3.431, 1st premium. . . . SS 00 
Gilbert Adame, Racine, trotting gelding, time B.48f. 3d premium. ... IB 00 
A.E. Ingalls, Racine, trottlngmatched geldings, time 8. BS, Istpremlum 3G M 
JuDon— N. U. Harrington, DelaTan; N. Fatter, Eau Claire; E.Thayer, 
East Troy; Blmoa Ruble, Beloit. 

CLASS g— WALKERS. 

Dr. Wm. Home, Janesrille, walking geM log, 1st premium 10 00 

JitDoxs— Same as for class 8. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



STATE AGRICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 



CATTLE. 

CLASS lO-SEOKT H0SN3. 

Richard Richard!, Racine, bull "Napoleoa," S jears old uid over, lit 

promiura f25 00 

J». Htddin, JohnHtOHD, Durh&m bull, 6 ve&n old, 2d premlilll] ID 00 

Clmton Babbitt, BeloU, red Duroftm coir, l»c pcemium 20 00 

Clinton Babbitt, Beloit, roan Durham cow, Sd premium. IE 00 

Richard Richards, Racine, heifer calf, "Arabelli," lat premium 7 00 

A, O. Daririn, Madison, red heifer, " Wingr^ Belle," 2 years, 1st pre- 
mium 16 00 

JcDGis.— E. U. Danforth, Summit; CbM. E. WiUiame, Baraboo; Samuel 
Pratt, Waukesha; John XunBon. 

CLASS 11.— DEVOHS. 

Geo. Bakor, Hiistiaford, Devon bull, 2 jeara, 2d premium $10 00 

J. K. EirDball, Eenoaha, Devon coir, H j'eara, lat premium 20 OO 

I. S. NeTton, Middleton, Devon cov, S years, 2d prsmium Ifi 00 

Geo. Baker, Huxtiafard, belfer, 2 jeara, 1st premium 10 00 

I. 3. Newton, Uiddleton, Devon heifer 1 jear, lat premiom T 00 

Geo. Baker, Huatiaford, Devon calf, S moniiui, lat premium 1 00 

L S. NewtOD, Uiddleton, Devon calf, S mouths, 2d premium S 00 

JnDois.— Same as for Class 10. 

CLASS 13.— ALDEHNBTS. 

Ben Reed, Uadisoo, Aldemej bull, S jeare, lat premiam 25 00 

Jddqes.— Same aaforClaes 10. 

CLASS ia.-GRADE CATTLE AND WORKING OXEN. 

Bldtard Ricbards, Radoe, grade oov, " Harla," S jears and over, Ist 

premium flO 00 

C. Loftas Hartin, Janesville, grade cow, 8 years and over, 2d premium 7 00 

I, B. Newton, Middleton, I pair S year old steera, lat premium. 7 00 

JuDQis. — FUq; U. Perkins, Burliugton ; H. H. Sterling. 



SHEEP. 



CLASS 18.— SPANISH MERINOES. 

0. M. & H. B. Clark, Whitewater, Spaniah buck, 2 veara, lat premium.flO 00 

Horace Williams, Wbitetvater, Spanish buck, 2 jeara, 2d premium. ... i 00 

0. U. &H. B. Clark, Whitewater, Spaaiah buck, 1 year, Ist premiam. 7 00 

Ricbard lUrhards, Racine, Bpanlab buck, 1 jear, 2d premium E 00 

0, M. A H. B. Clark, Whitewater, pen of Spanish buck lambs, lat pre- 
mium ••••..... S 00 

R. Richards, Racine, pen of 8 buck lambs, 2d premium 3 00 

R. Richards, Racine, pen of S ewes, 2 years, 1st premium 10 00 

C. M. k H. B. Clark, Whitewater, pen S ewea, 2 yeara, 2d premium. . . 7 00 

C. H. ft H. B. Clark, Whitewater, pen of 3 ewes, I year, lat premihm 7 00 

Richard Richarda, Racine, pen of t ewea, 1 year, 24 premium 6 00 

O. M. k H. B. Clark, Witewater, pen of 3 ewe lamba, lat premium... G 00 

B. Uebards, Racine, pen of 3 ewe tamha, ad. premium S 00 

JanatB—S. L. Sheldon, Hadisoti; David Smith, Harmony ; Isaac Clark, 
Oalesrille. 



..i.A'Oi><^lc 



. EXHIBITION OF 18S4. 217 

0LAB8 ia.-^aElfCH UEB1H0E8. 
Wm. L. D. Onndall, llilton, 1 French back, S jetrs, lit preminm,. . .tlO 00 

JDIX3E3 — Bame u for Class 18. 

CLASS aa.— LONG WOOL, MIDDLE WOOL, LEIOSISTER. 

John BsUe, Tsfton, South Down buek, t jesrs, Itt premtum $10 00 

M. Towers, Omro, South Down buck, 8 years Sd premium 1 00 

Bimou Ruble, Belo[t, South Dovn buck, 1 jasr, Ist premium 'f 00 

H. Towers, Oiuro, Sooth Dawn buck, I ;ear, 2d premium S 00 

Blmoo Ruble, Beloit, pan of S South Down buck lambs, Ist preminin. . 6 00 

X. Towem, Omro, pen of S Sooth Down buck lambs, 2d preminm 8 00 

S. D. Butts, West Hilton, pen of 3 Leicester lambB. (no competitioD,) 

1st premium 00 

Simon Euble, Beloit, S Soutb Down ewes, U years and orer, let pre- 
minm 10 00 

tfatthsw Towers, Omro, 3 Sooth Down ewes, S yeitrs «nd orer Sd pre- 
mium 4 00 

Hattbew Towers, Omro, 3 South Down ewes, 1 year and under 2 years, 

1st premium 7 00 

Simon Ruble, Beloit, 3 South Down ewes, 1 year and under S years, Sd 

premium 8 00 

Ha tthew Towers, Omro, 8 South Down ewe lambs, Ist premium B 00 

JcnciB.— Same u for Glass IB. 



SWINE AND POULTRY. 
CLASS a4.-SWINE. 
Simon Bable, Beloit, Yorkshire boar, "Dan Pedro," 2 years and over, 

weight, UOOIbs., 1st premium (10 00 

Eimon Ruble, Suffolk boar, 2 years and OTer, Ist premium 10 00 

H. P. Fales, Janeaville, boar, " Chester White, 18 months, 1st pre- 
mium 1 00 

Simon Buble, Beloit, SnOblk bow, a years and over, Ist premium 10 00 

BImon Bnble, Beloit, Yorkshire sow, 6 months old, let premium 6 00 

Simon Ruble, Beloit, Yorkshire boar, nnder I year old, Ist premium. . 6 00 
Jddoxs.— D. W. Kaion, Baionrille ; I. L. Bii, Cedar Creek ; Jas Catton. 
CLASS as.— PODLTEY. 
Simon Bable, Beloit, best and greatest T&riety of poultry, lit pre- 
mium ■■■■ tfl 00 

H. F. False, JaoesTille, white China fowls, 1st preminm a 00 

Simon Ruble, Beioit, 1 cock and 2 baas. Bantams, rery fine, no oompe- 

titioD S 00 

Simon Bobie, Beloit, 1 pair pea fowls, good, no competition 2 00 

Simon Buble, Beloit, 1 pair A&lcan geese, very fine, uo competition. . 2 00 
Simon Euble, Beloit, 1 pair Musootj ducks, very fine, no competition. S 00 

Simon Euble, Beloit, 1 cook and 2 bens, black Jara. 3 00 

JnnoB.— W. S. Chase, JaoesTille; A. W. Case, Racine; Wm. W. Lester, 
Janesville. 



AGRICULTITRAL DEPARTMENT. 

CLASS 28.— FIELD PRODUCTS. 
K. L. Ladd, Uillard, 1 bushel pearl wheat, spring, 1 
A. A. Bojce, Lodi, I bushel "■ " 



.218 STATE AGaiOULTTJBAL SOCIETY. 

H. L. Lkdd, Iflllard, 1 bashsl Foliad OAti, Itt premiDin tS 00 

A. A. Boyce, Lodi, 1 buahel Poland oats, Sd premiam Tram 

A. A. BoTce, Lodi, 1 bushel bar]ef, no competitioa S 00 

IT. Macomber, Emerald QroTe, 1 bDBbel Sai leed, uo competitiau. ... S 00 

Vtm. Bpaulding, Janearille, 1 bnah«l Timothj seed, do competition. . . B 00 

Wm. Holllnsbead, Elkhom, sampla of olover seed, no competition S 00 

H. L. Ladd, Millard, 1 bushel niv; beans, 1st premium 2 00 

Wm. Spaulding, Janesville, 1 bushel beans, Sd premiuia Traaa 

A. A. Boyce, Lodi, 1 biishel corn, 1st premium 8 00 

H, L. Ladd, yillard, 1 buabel Cent corn, Sd premium TraoB 

A A. Bojce, Lodi, wmple peach blow potatoes, 1st premium 2 00 

Wm, Hollinsbead, Elkliorn, sample peaoh blow potatoes, Sd premium Trans 

Wd3. Spaulding, Jauesiille, sample pink-eje polatoea, Ist premium.. S 00 

Wm. Hollinehead, Elkhom, sample piak-eje potatoes, 2d premium. . . Traaa 

Geo. J. Kellogg, Jauearille, variety of early potatoes 8 00 

Wm. BpsuldJDg, Janasrilte, 18 varieties potatoes, let premium S 00 

Wm. Hulliceliead, Elkbom, show of excellent potatoes, Sd premium. . 8 00 

S. Hacomber, Emerald Qrave, sample of carrots, Sst premium 2 00 

M. L. Ladd, Millard, sample of carrots, Sd premium Trana. 

Jcixsu— Z. P. Burdick, Janesville ; Albert Bemle, C. 0. FIshet. 

CLASS ST— GARDEN VEGETABLES. 

0. G. Oriffltb, Janesville, twelve beets, let premium Trans, 

S. Hacomber, Emerald Grove, IS best carrots, 1st premium 2 00 

gimoD Ruble, Beloit, sample of onions, 1st premium ... 8 00 

N. Hacomber, Emerald Grove, sample of onions, Sd premium. ...... Trans. 

N. Macomber, Emerald Orore, balf puck )lf Lima beans, Ist premi- 
um TrsDl. 

Wm. Hoilinsbead, Blkborn, sample of sweet potatoes, 2d prem Trans. 

JuDOtH— Geo. P. Peffer, Fevaakee ; Geo. Lawrence, Waukesha ; James B. 
Gonn. Hudson. 

CLASS SS-PRODUGTS OF THE DAIRY AND HOUSEHOLD. 

CO. Fish, Centre, I jar of butter, SE ponnds, let premium 1 00 

A. A Eeltb, Johnstown, IJarof butter, Sd premium 00 

N. Hacomber, Emerald Grove, 1 jar of butler, Sd premium 8 00 

U. 3. Twining, Brodhead, 3 cheeses, lal premium 7 00 

F. H. Cobum, Whitewater, S cheecses, 2d premium 00 

G. W. Cobuni, Whitewater, S cheeses, Sd premium 3 00 

0, W. Coburo, Whitewater, sinrls cheese, Ist premium 2 00 

F. H. Coburn, Whitewater, single cheese, Sd premium Trans. 

J. J. Ctark, Janesville, I barrel of winter wheat flour, let premium.. G 00 
Allen k Jackman, Jaoosville, spring wheat flour, let premium 00 

B. S. Hoiie, Cooksville, best honey, Ut premium B 00 

Geo. J. Eellogg, Janesville, 10 pounds of honey, 2d premium 3 00 

Oeo. J. Eellogg, Janeaville, S ponnds of honey, fine sample. No premi- 
um offered Trans. 

Jnrau— Eli Stilson, Oshkosh ; Q. G. Qillett, Janesville ; Z. Spaulding, 
Harmocy. 



FRtnTS AND FLOWERS. 

CLASS 29-FRIIITB GROWN BT NON-PROFESSIONAL CULTIVATORS. 

Geo. P. Peffer, Fewaukee, best and greatest variety of Appls, Diploma 

■Dd 7 00 

B. B. Oldi, Clinton, variety of apples, Sd premium 6 00 

0. F. Ucbards, Hns^sford, variety of apiMH, 3d premium 8 00 



..i.A'Oi><^lc 



EXHIBrnON OP 1864 219 

Jofan WeitlsT, OlIotoD, 10 Tuieties of apples, lit premiam t^ 00 

B. B. 01d», Clinton, 10 Tarieties of tpples, 2d premium 3 00 

Fniices Westlej, Clinton, 10 Tuietiea of apples, Sd premium Traa*. 

B- B. Otdi, Clinton, ahow of ontumn apples, let premium. Diploma and fl 00 

¥. 0. Gnrtisa, Kocky Bbd, show of antnmn applet, Sd premium S 00 

Thus. Howltind, Keaosha,abo»of winterapplea,]it prem.,DiplomaaDd B 00 

B. B. Old^ Clinton, show of winter applet, Sd premium S 00 

F. G. CurtUa, Kookj Bud, aboir of winter iippIeB, Sd premium a 00 

Qeo. P. Peffer, Pevankee, show of pears, 1st premium, . .Diploma and G 0(' 

Geo. P. Peffer, Pewwikee, ibow tf Krapea, 1st premiam S 00 

J. H. Eimbali, EeQoaha, ahow of foreign grapei, Dlplomaand Trans. 

Geo. P. PeSbr, Fewankee, best variety of fruit; Diploma and 10 00 

Jimois— L. P. Chandler, Madison; J. W. BUt, Ftotrer; Jai. L. Tubbs, 
Blkhom. 

CLASS 80— FBinTS BT PBOFBSSIONAL CULTIVATORS. 

P. B. Spaulding, Belolt, rarietj of applea, let premium and diploma 

and 17 00 

Geo. J. Kellogg, Janeaville, bast and greateit rarietj of ftpplea, Sd 

premium 00 

P. B. Spaulding, Beloit, beat SO rarieties of apples adapted lo the 

Northwest, let premium B 00 

P. B. Spaulding, Beloit, ghow of autumn apples, Isc premium 5 00 

Tattle, Clark & Sod, Baraboo, show of winter apples, 1st premium, di- 
ploma and B 00 

F. W. LoadoD, Janesville, show of winter apples, Sd premium S 00 

F. W. Loudon, JaaesTiUe, bast and greatest tarlet; of pears, 1 premi- 
am, Diploma and 6 00 

J. S. Sticlcnej, WauwautOBo, two varieties of pears, let premium 00 

P. B. Spoulditig, Beloit, two rarietles of pears, Id premium S 00 

F. W. Loudon, janesrille, greatest vsrietj of gra^ee, 1st premium... . S 00 
Isaac Atwood, Lake Hilla, display in variety ofgrapea, Sp premium... i 00 
[The ten vftrleties exhibited by Vr. Atwood are the most [lopulai 
for the Northwest, moit magnificently grown, and of superior ex- 
cellence,] 
L. P. Chandler, Uadison, display of variety of grapes, Sd premium. . Trans. 
F. W. Loudon, Janesville, fruits of all kinds, b; one exhibitor, 1st 

premium, diploma and 10 00 

J. 0. Plumb, Madison, collection of sealed fraite, let premiam 6 00 

J. G. Plomb, Uadison, collection of ten varieties of spple trees adapted 

to this climate, 1st premium, Diploma and. B 00 

Jddmei— F. C. Curtis, Bocky Bait -, E. Wilcox, Trempealeau ; J. R. Sheai- 
mau, Bockford, III 

CLASS 81— WISCONSIN WINBg. 

C. Eanford, Emerald Grove, aasorlment of winee, lat premium, di- 

Elomaand $5 00 
erman. La Prairie, one bottle of white curmot wine, 1st premium S 00 

Geo. P. Peffer, Pswaukee, sample of gr>pe wine, let premium G 00 

0. Banford, Emontid Grove, sample of grftge wine, Sd premipra 8 00 

Geo. P. Peffer, Pewaukee, simple rhubarb wine, 1 at premium 8 00 

v. L. Ladd, Uillsrd)samp1e of rhubarb wine, '(two bottles), Sd premium 3 00 
0- Kanfbrd, Emerald Grove, three bottles of strawberry wine, 

best Traof. 



Schroeder, BloomingtOD, Itl.. sii bottles of saperior grape 

.Diplon 
Th. 



jDDon— F. C. Curtis, Bocky Bod ; J. S. Sbearman, Boeklbrd, HI.; Tbos. 
D. Plumb, UadisoD. 



220 STATE AGBICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

GLASS S2— FLOWXBS BY NON-PKOFBSSlOlfAL OULTTTATOBS. 

Jouphine FeSer, Pewtnkee, dlipUj of quiJity and varietj of nuned 

flowera, lat pT»mlnm 1 00 

Misa H. L. Plumb, U&diion, displaj of Wild flowers — odIj apecimen 

presented — veiy good, 3 00 

JoMpbiue FefTer, Pewinkeo, displiy of dkhliai, IfC premiain S 00 

Josephine Poffer, Pevmukse, display of verbensa, ,1st premiBm % 00 

Joeephine Peffer, Pevankee, display of atten, I preninm. 3 DO 

JoMphine Peffer, Pe«ankee, dieplaj of phloies—best specimen* of 

pbloiea — vet j good display, 2 00 

Joaephine Peffer, Fevanlcee, display of petumaa, lit premiam S 00 

ioiei^ine Poffer, Peirankee, display of paaeiea, lat premiam S 00 

JoDeu-O.W. Hatleton, Portage City; Itrs. O. W. Haxleton ; U re. O. W. 
Ounpbell. 

CLASS 8S— FLOWEHS BT PROFESSIOlfAL OULITTATOBS. 

Q. J. EellOK, JuesTille, beat show of small ere^reens, 1st premiam, (G 00 
F. W. Loadon, JaneeTllle, best and greateat variety of grsen-houae 

piantB, tat premiam S 00 

T.W. Loudon, Jaaesrille, twelve Tarietiea of geraDiumi, iBt premium, 2 00 
J. S. Shearman, Rockford, III., greatest number of dabliaa, 1st premium, S 00 
J. S. Shearman, Rocfcford, III., ttrelve named dahlias, lat premium . ■ ■ ■ S 00 

7. B. Sbeamian, Bookford, 111., seedling dabliaa, let premium 8 00 

F. W. Loudon, Janesvitle, six facheiaa, let premium Trans. 

J. B. Shearmaa, Bockford, III., diaplay of quality aad variety of roses, 

lat premiam B 00 

Jddoeb— S. Q. Benediot, Sadison; Urt. B. Baddeo, £lb>; Un. Tappan, 
HadisoD ; Urs. Fosa, Janeaville ; S. W. HamngtOD, Delavao. 



MACHINERY. 

CLA88 SB-MACHINEET, MANDPAOTtJKES AND WORKS OF ABT. 

0. E. Stellar, HcOregor, Iowa, bog cutter, iBt premium Dipl'a. 

John Webaler, Nortb Prairie, bog cutter, 2d premium Trana. 

Bbep L. Shelden, Uadison, Ohio grain drill, let premium Uedal. 

B. W. Skinner, lladiioD, two home power, lat premium IKpl'a. 

B. & W. BurnhaiD, Battle Ureek, Hichlgan, one 4 horse sweep 

_power. Dipl'a. 

E. W. Skinner, Madiaon, farm roller Dip. or 16 00 

J. B. Daiia, Waahiniiloo, Iowa, washing machine Dipl'a. 

Jbb. Adams, JaDesviUe, waahing machine Cert Ei. 

Bock Biver Iron Works, Janeaville, threshing machine, power 

iacluded, lit premium Dipl'k. 

W. W. BuraoQ, Bockford, Ilia., grain binder, 1st premium Dipl'a. 

J. D. Locke, JaneBville, grain binder attached to reaper Oert- Ei. 

J. Bebet, Rockford, Ilia., rotary grain binder attached to J. H. 

MaDoey'e combined reaper and mower Cert. Ex. 

F. F. Blood, Janesvitle, farm gate, lat premium. Dipl'a. 

A. Blood, Janeaville, garden gate, Ist premiam Dipl'a. 

Wm. ■. Jones, EoricoD, D. W. Hall ti Co. 'a broadcast Seeder 

and cultivator, combined, 1st preminm Dipl't. 

John Doat, Kelthsburg, Bla,, com planter, lat premium Dipl'k. 

B. F. Fieida, Sheboygan Falla, cnltivatar, lat premiam 8 00 

B. Hitchcock Janeaville, two horse wheel enltivator, Sd premium. S 00 

H. Hitohell & Co., Bacine, lomber wagon, lat premiom Dipl'a. 



..i.A'Oi><^lc 



EXHIBrnON OF 1864. 221 

J, S. OvenB, ETaoirille, improved two bone wt^on — praminm 

for the Improvement — let premium Cart. £i, 

J, 0. Tnoer, TUton, iteel croMing plow, 1st premium Cert. Ex. 

N. H. Pierce, Waupnn, sabaoil actsctiment, (vorth?) Cert. Ei. 

CfaiB. Foster, Kockford, inllij plow for geDcral uM Oert.Ez. 

Lepper & Vorse, Food duLac, center draft plow Oert Ex. 

G. FOBter, Bockfoid, IIIa., aalkf plow Oert.£i. 

Ju. TomliiiBon, Bacine, doable stabble plow Cert. Ex. 

8. L. Sheldon & Bru., Uftdlson, combined aelf-raklsg rasper 

and mower Dipl'ft. 

Andrew ProudSt, Madison, Wood's lelf-raliins reaper Dipl'a. 

Andrew Frondfit, Madison, Wood'a two wheel mower Dlpt'a. 

L. J. Buab, Milwaukee, Etrbj's hand raJiiiig reaper, lat premi- 
um Dipl'a. 

S. H. HoDsberger, Ottawa, Ilia, self raking reaper and mower Oert. Ex. 

S. Stillman, Cblctigo, Hatlorj k 8BDford"B flax and hemp ma- 
chine Dipl'k. 

Chaa. Foiter, Freeport, Ills., oider mill, lat premlam -. Dipl'a. 

L. E. Porter, Lake Mills, apple stirrer Dipl'a. 

W. Fuldlng AGd., Chicago, spring tooth nke, let preialuni 8 W 

8. E. Ament, Oswego, Ilia , handled horae haj rake, id premium. .... S 00 

C. F. Dicker, Bacine, fanning miUa, {A. F. Leflin's patent,) tat 

premiom Dipl'a. 

J. Nash, Janesville, fanning mills, 2d premium S 00 

T. O. AH. W. Palmer, Chicago, faa; atacker, 1st premiam Dipl'a. 

E. 8. Barrows, Jknesville, Cammiog's patent cutting box, horae power, 

£d premium 8 00 

H. 0. Davii, Madison, straw cutter, hand power Dipl'a. 

F.Q.&M.W. Palmer, Chicago, com atalk and straw cutter, Sd premium S 00 

ADdrewProudfit,Mad[son,Westcott'sc!iurn and butter worker Dipl'a. 

H. Thompson, Palmyra, chum power, (oo power) Cert. Ex. 

J. P. Oorbine, Whitney's Point, Noopareil butter worker. Dipl'a. 

L. A. Hulse, Geneva, III*., horse and band champion corn shelter, Dipl'a. 

L.J. Bush, Milwaukee, corn sheiler, (Burnell's patent,) Sdpremium ... Trans. 
L. J. Bosh, Milwaukee, feed oottersfor horse powers, 1st premium... Dipl'a. 

F. G. ft M. W. Palmer, Chicago, horae haj pitchfork Dipl'a. 

Calkins A Wing, Herton, horse haj fork, 2d premium Trans. 

Fowler, Wood 1 Berry, Upper Sanduskj, Ohio, corn huaker, Cert. Ex. 

Fowler, Wood ft Berry, Upper Sandnaky, Ohio, ha; gatherer, Cert. Ex. 

O. Williams, Beloit, ciothea wringer Dipl'a. 

J. De L-ong, Madison, clothes wringer, "New World," 2d premium,. Trans. 
8. H.Oilmore, Janesville, rock drilling machine Dipl'a. 

JCDGU — H. P. Hill, Madison ; Bichard Bioharda, Bacine ; other names 
not reported. 

CLASS 86— MACHIKBEY FOE MANUFACTUBINQ PURPOSES. 

H. H. Wright, Janeavills, Ororer ft Baker's sewing mschtoe Medal 

JuDOB— A. B. Qoodriob ; W. Lester, JanegrlUe ; A. W, Case, Bacine . 

CLASS 8'r— MACHINEBT FOB THE HANUFACTtJBE OF SOEQHUH. 

E. W. Skinner ft Co., Madison, sugar mill and spparatns, com- 
plete Silver Medal 

E. W. Skinner ft Co., HadisoD, sweep sugar mill, patent al^nit- 

able, tst premium Dipl'a. 

W. 8. Folliosbee, Janesville, ten gallons ,btack AiHcan impbee STrap, 

Ist premium (g 00 

E.Wiloox, Trempealaa, sample Imphee sjmp, (not entered) Hon. men. 

Jvnon— J.^O. Baton, Lodl ; A. Q. Tnttle, Bamboo ; E. Wlloox, Trempelao. 



n^^iv.i.A'OO'^lc 



222 STATE AGKICUITURAL SOCIETY. 

CLASa BS-0ABRIAQB3. BT0VE9, HARNESSES, &c. 

P. L. Smith, Janesville, riding buggj, lat premiuni, diploma or t5 00 

Boben Bodge, Janeiville, opeo baeg;, Sd preminm 8 00 

L. F. Estbawaj, JanesTille, one ligat single shifling top boggj, lat 



li. F. Hatbawav, JaneBville, one top buggy, 2il premium « 4 00 

P. L. Smitb, Janearille, brette carriage, iet premium, diploma or 10 00 

P. L. Smitb, JaneBTille, family carriage, 2d prumium. 6 00 

P. L. Smitb, JanesTiIle, one trotting wagoa, 1st premium, diploma or B 00 

P. L, Smith, Janesriile, one pleasure wagon, Ist premiam f 00 

P. L. Smitb, JanesTille, dieplaj carriages, 1st premium Uedal. 

E. S. Barrowg, JanesTille, four Stewart's cooking stoTea, let premium, 

diploma and 8 00 

S. &. Barrows, Janesrille, Gre parlor coal Etove, 1st premium Dip. 

E. S. Barrows, JaaesTille, tbreo parlor wood stoves, Ist premium.... Dip. 

J. B. Hj'zer, JancsTille, one heat radiator Trans. 

Daniel Daggett^ Hiiwaukee, two rolls of wire screening Dip. 

A. P. Qrover, Eureka, oi:e graio cradle, lit premium Dip. 

Simon Guthrie, Waokau, grain cradle, 2d premium Trans. 

JcDosa— Geo. Lawrence, Waukesha; John UcOulloch, Janesrille ; R. B. 
Hammond, Waukesha. 



W. 0. Ritchie A Co., Beloit, display of willow irare, let premium, di- 
ploma and tfi OO 

Rupee & Oroneman, Bockford, III., epring-bed bottom Dip. 

Jdoobb — Orrin Quetnse;, Janesrille; P. Scbmiti. 

CUSS 4J-MUSICAL 1S3TEUMENT3. 

J. L. Darling, JanesTiKe, square piano, let premiom, diploma and. .. . (3 00 

D. D. Wilson, Janesrille, parlor piano, diploma and -' S 00 

D. D, Wilson, JaneflTille, American organ Dip. 

J. L. Darling, Jaaesvillc, cabinet parlor organ Dip. 

J. L. Darling, JanesTille, melodeon, (Prioeo & Oo'b{ Dip. 

J. R. Eldridge, JanesTilie, malodeona, diploma and s 00 

JonOES— A. 0. Darls, Uadison ; Mrs. E A. Tappan, IfadiBan ; L. C. Este e 

CLASS 44-TEXTILB FABBICS, CLOTHtSO, Ac. 
in. Cotton, BuriiagtOD, white flannel, home manufactory, 1 premium. $5 00 
Jddsib— Orrlu Querusey, Janasville, P. Schmiti; .Hare Spears, Black 
Earth. 

CLASS tB-DOUESTIO UANDFACTURES. 

Jf re. D. BarlasB, Emerald Qrove, one wrought counterpane |i 00 

llrB. P. Kewbern, Johnstown Centre, knit counterpane S DO 

Utb. D. U. Lay, Kook Prairie, knit counterpane % 00 

Ura. A. E. Pannlee, Centre, patch qnilt S 00 

HrB. Chauncey Boas, Beloit, patch quilt Traos. 

Rosanna Qilmore, JanesTille, double carpet coverlet, lat premium. ... 8 00 

Mrs. Wm. Spanlding, JanesTille, rag carpet S 00 

D. L. Bopion, Tifiany, wool carpet 4 00 

1. Cbild, Lima Centre, one dozen towels, 1st premium. .. 2 00 

J. Ohilds. Lima Centre, * linen table spreads i 00 

J. CUlds, Lima Centre, one poundofUnen thread 00 



Ct-,zo..i.A'Otl<^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1864 228 

A. J. W&rner, Shopiere, irool tnltteog, let premium tl 00 

HiBBEmelitie Childs, Liin& Centre, one pair of mUteiiB 1 00 

Geo. J. Kellogg, Janesville, thrpe pairs of children's cotton etockingB, 

1 at premium 1 00 

Hiss Aug net » Robinson, Limn Center, one p&lr of socks, (juTcnile 

clue), let premium 2 00 

Mrs. H. U.Flkit, Beloit, m&cbiue-kDitbolser; 6 00 

Ura. I. S ffcwtou, U iddleton, one p&lr wool stockings, Ist premium. . 1 00 

Hrs. L. H. Cliild, Lima Centre, irool bl&nket S 00 

Urs. I S. Newton. Middle ton, gent's shirts S 00 

Urs. Smith, Betoit. rag hearth rugs 1 00 

James Cattoo, Burlington, tea jkrds of woolen cloth 8 00 

Juaais—'Wia, A. Lawrence, Janeaville; Hrs. Orrin Guernsej, JaneavUle ; 
Hra. B. H. Powers, Hartford ; ICrs. L. H. Htauaond. 

CL&sa le— UILLIN£RT. 

Hrs. J. R. BealB, Jane svi lie, silk bonnet, Diploma (3 00 

Mrs. J. R. Beals, Janeaville, bonnet flowers, 1st premium 3 00 

Urt. J. R. Beala, JanesTiile, case of milliner; goods, DipIoffiA and. ... B 00 
Jvnaca. — Mrs. E. W. Sbinner, Hadisoa; Urs. I. Uiltimore, JanesTiUe; 
Hrs. Qoodspsed, JanesvlUe. 

CLABS 4T-0RKAHENTAL NEEDLE WOB£. 

Hrs. 0. H. Clark, Milwaukee, best ottoman cover, plain S 00 

Mro. O. D. Bruce, Janeaville, second beet ottoman cover, pUin 1 00 

Anna U. Allen, Janeaville, best cover rdsed 2 00 

Mrs C. B. Olark, Milwaukee, seeond beat ottoman coter, rused 8 00 

Mre. U. L. Goodrich, Milwaukee, best crotchet tidj i 00 

Mrs. L S. Newton, Middleton, best kint tid; Z 00 

Urs, Uarr A. E. Campbell, Janesriile, second best knit tidy 1 00 

Urs. C. H. Clark, Milwaukee, best^cUair cover 3 00 

Mrs. C. H. Clark, Milwaukee, beet worsted embroder; S 00 

Hr?. 0. D. Brace. Janeaville, best wrought slippers 2 00 

Mrs. H. A. Ooodrich, Milwaukee, second beat wrougbt slippers 1 00 

Urs &. Sutherland, Jnnesville, best fancy hair woik, (hair wreath,). . . 2 00 

Ura U. A. Biichelder, Fond du Lac, beat embioidered ecarf. S 00 

Ura. M. A. Goodrich, Milwaukee, best embroidered shawl S 00 

Mrs. L. Ptiilo, Juneau, best exhibition of wax fruit GOO 

Hies Minnie Sweet, Uilton, best eibibition of wax flowers 8 00 

Anna W. Allen, Janeaville, seconed best eibibition of wax flowers. . . 3 00 

Ura. I. S. Newton, Uiddletoa, second best hem. stitched handkerchief. 1 00 

Urs. H. A. Goodrich. Miiwaukee, second best netted tidy S 00 

Nra. M. E. Stuart, Janeaville, two cases of sea weed and shells, from 

the Faclfio coast Dtp. 

Jonais.— Mrs. 0. 8. Willaj, U»dison ; Mrs. Chose, JanssviUe ; Mrs. 0. W. 
Olney, Madison, 

CLASS 48— WORKS OP ART. 

Urs. H. P. Pales, Janeaville, oil paintings, "Figures" Dip. 

Uies Emily C. Quiner, Uadison, oil painting, "Figures" 2d premi- 

Urs. E. J. Ooodspeed, Janeiviile, landscape punting Dip. 

Mrs H. P. Falea, LaPrairie, landscape oil p^Dtlng, 3d premium Ttsns. 

C. L. Martin, Janesiilte, collection of oil paintings by old molten, 

lat premium B 00 

Miss Bmdy C. Quiner, Madison, oil painting (portrait,) Dip, 

Urs. E. P Pales, Janeaville, oil painting, (portrait,) 3d preimum. . Trana. 

UiasE. C. Qniner, Madieon, fruit painting Dip. 

Miss E. 0. Quiner, Madison, flower painting Dip. 



ccizoJ.A'OD^Ic 



224 STATE AGRICTJLTUBAL SOGIETY. 

Ifra. E. J. Qoodspeed, JaaeBvlUe, collectioa of original oil paiattngf, 

Diplomft Bud |B 00 

Tbompson & QUsA, JaueBville', tmbrot^pes Dip. 

J. R. Porter, JinesTille, pItuD photographs Dip. 

J.A.Tice, Janeaville, colored potographs Dip. 

Him Grace H. Stone, Sb^on, crayon a rawinge Dip. 

S D. Clark, WhlteiTater,spGciiueDofplninuidDmamentalpeiunen- 

ahip Dip. 

tin. Treat, JanesTille, drawing in India inlf Dip. 

H.RullBOn, Janesiille, epedmen of pen drairing Dip. 

8. W. Martin, Madison, specimen of pen drawing, &o Dip. 

M. W. Wileoi. Adrian, Mich., Bpeoimon of pen lettering, (advertlae- 

menl,) Dip. 

JnoaKB.— Mr. Spenoor, Miliraukee ; J. M. May, JaneBTilte ; Jobn B. iloa- 

nell. 

CLASS i9-JiI8CELLANEODa AETICLE8, 

Mrs. A. G. Clapp, Ripon, improved dresa model Dip. 

E. B. Godfrey, Oehkosh, gray-yard fence Dip. 

E. B. (Jodfrey, door-yard fence Dip. 

BootbiGriiBtb, JaneHTillB, Hubbard's Patent ttove-pipe damper, , Dip. 

Wm. Booth, JanSBiille, Bjatt'e patent knife and scisaora shar- 
pener ■ ■ !*''?■ 

Taylor, Frceport, Ills., Wm. Hulls patent copper acroU light- 
ning rod D'P- 

L. P. Cornell, BelVidere, Ilia., Sagara patent wagon brake Dip. 

8. N. Taylor, Horicon, one tbreahing maoUnd, ooupUng or kuaokle Dip. 

Mrs. R. B. Adama, Elba, agricaltnralaeed wreath Dip. 

Jonas Trumble, JanesTillo, patent shoe-bench, Dip. 

H. L. Webb, Hukwonago, model sheep rack Dip. 

Bobert Bodge, Sanesviile, patent ailes and evener. Dip. 

A.Brown, Ripon, R obinaon' a patent latcb and catch Dip. 

B. Brodie, JancaTiUe, water proof patent leather polish C't Ex. 

J W Smith, JanesTille, combined foot-etore and lantern, let premi- 
um I>ip. 

B B. Hoile, CookYille, Kidder's Oompoond fflve .-■ Dip. 

Mrs. M. M. Flint, Beloit. knitting macbine Dip. 

B.Tripp Chicago, Ilia., AtwatePs Cattle Pump Dip. 

Fairbanks, Greenleaf & Co., Chicago IIIb., display of BcalCB Dip. 

J B Wail WaitsTille, Wrigbt's patent pendulum spiunlDg wheel Dip. 

J. B. Wait, WaitBville, clock reels C't.Bx. 

G B. CurilB, Janeiville, eaae of toilet goods Dip. 

C H. Clarke, Milwaukee, case of steel letter-cutting, and die -aink. 

ing... Wp. 

C. H. Olarbe, Milwaukee, embosaing seal presa Dip. 

0. H. Clarke, Milwaukee, two frames of fsncy stencils Dip. 

0. H. Clarke, Milwaukee, seventeen stencil engraTiogs Dip, 

C. H. Clarke, Milwaukee, gilded weather ram Dip. 

J. H. Kimball, Kenosha, wringer mop, let premtum Dip. 

B.H. Palmer, Bockford, Ilia., Pn ion pnmp Dip, 

W. H. Greenman, Whitewater, one caae of denUatry Dip. 

George Craven, Beloit, case of stuffed birds Dip. 

Ohaa. Frank, JanesTille, French sheep, fancy C't. Ex. 

E, B. Doty, Janesville, door and door bell G't.Ei. 

J. G. QarriBon, Salem, Iowa, hand loom Dip. 

A. Tan Fatten, Fond du Lao, Shepherd's patent ImproTed blind 

hinge C't-Ex. 

L.H. CulTer, JanesTille, samples tobacco Dip. 

Miss Chaunoy RoBB, Beloit, specimen of " cons work " Dip. 

rfau. Bollard, BvanaviHe, Kidder's bee hive Dip. 

F. F. Blood, JanesTille, shell pyramid Dip. 

JniKia— U. H. Powers, Daitford, Oho ; other ounes not reported. 



ccizoJ.A'OD^Ic 



PROCEEDINGS. 225 

GLASS SI.— LADIES' EQCESTBUKSHIP. 
Urs. 0h»nncB7 BteTont, Janeirilla, l&diei' eqaaatrianBhlp, Iitpreminm BO 00 

KisaU. H. Tafc, Bradhead, Udies' equeKritnshlp, £d premioin IB 00 

Mlsi Lsara Furlong, JuisBville, ladiei' eqaeatrStoBhip, 8d pramium. . . 10 00 
JiTDoiit. — His Eicelleccr, the EtoTsmor ; John B. BeiDett, JaneBvilla ; W. 
A. JobDSOD, JuiesTiUa ; J. H. WuT«n, AlbsDf. 



EXBOUTIVE MEETINGS APTER THE FAIR 

Htitt HoDSf, Janibtiu.1, Sept. SO, ISM. 

Tb« Ex. Oommlttee met to ladil lacoanU, p&y bilU and premiums, tud 
Xenerallj, lo o)om np (he baiinesi of the Fair. 

On motioD it was 

JiMc&o/, Tb»t the Anditing Committee and the Secretary are hereb; in- 
Btrncted to meet at this place ania oa tbe 6tb prox. to pay aueb remaining 
bills and premiums as may be duo to the citizens oC Janesville and Ticinitf, 
and that notice of said meeting be published in the Qaattt. 

Toted that Dr. Hartin be reqnesttd to propeiiy pack aud store the tents 
of the society, and that the Secretar; be instr acted tobftve the same suffi- 
ciently iniured againat less bj fire. 

Adjourned rim (Sft J. W. HOTT, Sacniary. 

StiTK AoBicoLTirsu. Books, Dec. IS, 1SS4. 

EieontlTe Committee met puranant to reqairementa of By-Laws. 

Present — Messrs. Hinklej, Eaton, D. Williams, Atwood, Warren and Hoyt. 

President Hlnkley, in the chair. 

On call, the Tressorer presented hii statement of tbe flnauoial transacClona 
of the Society for the year ending with this date, ahowing receipts to the 
mmount of t7,7B9.I9, expenditures to the amount of tS,587.3S, and |2,171.81 
in the Tieasnry. [See page 201-1 

After the auditing and payment of sundry bills of members for eipenset In 
attending upon this meeting, adjourned m<(&; 

J. W. HOTT, Smntarg. 

ANNU.AL MEETINQ OP SOCIETY. 

Stiii AanidTLTDftAL Boom, Dec. 14, 1888. 

The Socletj met in accordance with the coustitnUonal proTisfoa at three 
o'clock p. m., of this day. 

President Hlnkley in tbe ebair. 

TheprincipaibuaineBswsstoreceiTe the report of the Treasufor, [Beep.S01J 
wbich showed the gratifying fact that the reoeipte bad been tT,7GS.19, and 
the dUbunementi |B,S8T.SS, learlng a balance of |S,1T1.81 la the Treasury. 

Seoretary also read the atatement of tbe Chairman of tbe Auditing Com- 
mittee Ib«t said report of the Treasurer hftving been compared with the Sec- 
letftry's acoonnts ftnd with the TOUohera on file, was found to be In all re- 
■pecti correct. J. W. HOTT, SterHmj. 

15 Ao. Teans. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



226 STATE AGKIODITUEAL SOCIETY. 

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TKAJSrSACTIOKS 

or IHI 

WISCOSSffl STATE AGEICTlTtRAl SOCIETY 



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OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 
1 see. 



DAVID WILIAM3, Walworth Oountt. 

j\Va( _J. I. CASE, Eacinb. 
Seamd^L. B. VILAS, Dane. 
j'Atfd — KETES A. DARLING, FoND du LAa 



J. W. HOYT, Dane. 



DAVID ATWOOD, Dane. 

CHAa H. WILLIAMS, Sauk. 
0. L. MARTIN, Root 
J. H. WARREN, GsEKK. 
J. 0. EATON, Columbia. 
ELI STILSON, Winnebago. 
G. H. STEWART, Dodgk. 
E. D. HOLTON, Milwaukee. 



HARVEY DURKEE, Kenosha. 
J. F. WILLARD, Janestille. 
B. R HINKLEY, Sumnr. 



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AJSTNTTAX, REPORT 

FOR THE TEAR Hit. 



His MxxxUeTM/, Lucius Faibchiij), 

Governor of the Slaie of Wisconsin : 

Sir : In conformity with the provisions of Chapter 80 of the 
Bevised States, I submit herewith, the Treasurer's Annual 
Statement of the Fiscal Transactions of the Wisconsin State 
Agricultural Society for the year ending Dec 12th, 1865. 

It is a source of grati£cation to the officers of the Society, 
as well as to all friends of industrial improvement, that the 
fiiBt general Exhibition held by the Society since the close of 
so protracted a war, should have been the most successful, ia 
every respect, ever held in the State ; for it demonstratea two 
important &cts — first, that, so far ftom having been in any 
sense exhaosted by a four years drafl upon our industrial re- 
sources and energies, there has been a steady advancement of 
the State in every department of productive indiistiy ; and, 
secondly, that the people are more than ever alive to the im- 
portance of fostering and encouraging every agency whose end 
is the material and social welfare of the State. 

It will appear by the Fiscal Report that the finances of the 
Society are in a healthy condition. It is the desire of the Soci- 
ety not only to increase the encouragement it offers in certain 
important departments of industiy, but also to imdertake, at 
the earliest day practicable, a series of scientific investigations, 
which, taken together, shall oonstitate an agricnltural survey of 
the State ; and the Society is therefore confident that at an 
early day it will be well for the State to restore the airoropria- 



280 STATE AGKICULTTJRAL SOCIETY. 

tion temporarily withdiawa by the Legislature of 1861. Still, 
in view of other demands tliat must be made upbn the present 
L^ialature in the interest of Agriculture and the Mechanic 
Arts, the Executive Committee do not feel warranted ia asking 
for such reinstatement of the former appropriation, at present 
The need the Society has for more secure and commodious 
rooms for its office than those now occupied, or which it is pos- 
sible for it to procure, together with the fact that the new Cap- 
itol is not wholly occupied by the departments, has given rise 
to the suggestion that rooms therein might be assigned for its 
use, without detriment to the State and with great advantage 
to the Sotaety. 

It is also highly important that provision be made without 
flirther delay for the regular publication of the Society's Trans- 
actions. No institution or organization can continue to Sonr- 
iflh or make itself largely useful to the State without some 
proper medium of communication with the public ; and but for 
the war just closed — which, however, does not furnish a suffi- 
cient reason — it would be difficult to explain the ground on 
which the L^slature of this great and growing commonwealth 
should have neglected, for several successive years, to make 
provision for the annual publication of the reports of the only 
institution within its limits devoted exclusively to the import- 
ant work of advancing the Stat« in materia! wealth and power. 
If examples be demanded they are not only presented by all 
the more enterprising States on every hand, but even by the 
former more wise and liberal practice of our own State; 

The six volumes already issued by this Society compare fa- 
vorably with the best of those annually sent out by the other 
State Societies of the country ; and besides doing much good 
at home, they have added to the credit of both State and So- 
ciety abroad, and secured exchanges with many of the most 
noted and use^jl industrial and scientific organizations in both 
the new and the old world. 

It is confidently believed that the Legislature of Wisconsin, 
when fully aware of the many reasons which support these 
views of the Society, will inaugurate a more liberal policy in 



ANNUAL REPORT— 1866. 281 

respect of the matters herein presented. Believing the im- 
portance of the subject a safficient warrant for so doing, the 
Society would tigain ni^ upon the attention of the Ezecative 
and of the Ijegislature the necessity for immediate action in 
regard to the establishment of the proposed College of Agri- 
culture and the Mechanic Arts. The terms of the grant are 
such that this College must be in actual operation on the 2d 
day of July, 1867, else the State will have forfeited its daim ' 
to the lauds donated by Congress. These lauds are worth not 
less than $300,000, and, if properly managed, may be made to 
yield even a larger sum. Is it possible that the State of Wis- 
consin, endowed with such resources, peopled by nearly a mil 
lion of enterprising industrious citizens, and needing such an 
institution as Congress has wisely and beneficently provided 
for no less than the several states which have already estab 
lished them without Congressional aid, will voluntarily sacri- 
fice what has been -expended iu the selection of those lands, 
and, more than all, sacrifice her credit and the best interests of 
the great body of her people, by a forfeiture of so valuable a 
bequest? 

Twice, in succession, the Senate has passed bills for the in- 
corporation of an institution under tb<: general provisions of 
the Congressional act, but each has iu turn been defeated by 
small majorities, in the Assembly — and, we regret to say, by 
the rq)re3entative8 of that very class of the people, for whose 
special benefit the donation was made. 

If it be considered finally settled that the industrial classes 
will not authorize sufficient appiopriatjons from the general 
fund of the State for the proper founding of a broad and lib- 
eral institution devoted exclusively to their own interests, then 
it will be well to devise and adopt such plan of consolidation 
with an existing institution as will insure to thfi State the great 
benefits derivable from the national benefaction. 

I have the honor to be, on behalf of the Executive Com- 
mittee, Respectfully yours, 

J. W. HOTT, Sscrrfory. 

STA.TS AOAICDLTnaAL BoOKS, 

Madison, Jaa, 1866. 



STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



3b Af &a<mSM (hmmUbe of iht Wiicotmn 3lat* AgriailtHtal SoeUfy ; 

The TrftOMCtlons of the Trsuurer of the Bocietj for tbe lut year liava 
b««D u foUowB : 

RECEIPTS. 

BaUnee OD b»Dd, as per last report of D«c. 9, laS4 ... |a,111 M 

BcMired for Life HembertUpa S40 00 

Meotryfeea 707 00 

for rent of grODndi *. 1,013 SO 

for Bale of grain IS 16 

for sale of ticket! at Fair 7,1S7 SO 

ToUl receipts 111,404 90 

EXFENQITDBES. 

Total •moaDt paid on orders from Ko. 82 to SBO, both 
incInalTe, this da; retamed aod cancelled, being 
payment of premiuns and general expenses |S,ES0 SS 

Balance In treaaur; S , 074 88 

Total tll,«0» BO 

All of wbioL is respectfuIJj anbmitted, 

DAVID ATWOOD, 
UtDJBOJi, Dec. IS, 1S6S. 



I hereby certify, that having eiamlnsd tbe foregoing Beport of tbe Tre.^- 
urer, with the accompanying rouchera, and compared the same with the B«c- 
retarj's acconnts, we find tbe aame in all respects just and tmc, and that 
bills and vouchers for the Beveral items are on file, ^nd open to Ingpectiou in 
the office of the Bociety. 

B. B. HINELET, 
Ohaimum of 0«m, o/ HxammalioiL, 
Bt^ti AoucuLTiriUL Boohs, Dec. IS, IBBS. 



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PROCEEDINGS. 



EXECUTIYE MEETINGS. 

Stiti AaBiovLTUBU Boohs, 

Febnisrj 7, IBBS. 

The Eieontlre Committee met pareannt to requirement of Bj-LavB. 

ProMnt— D. WiUiuns, Freiident, J. I. Cmb, 0. H. Williums, E. D. Holton, 
J. 0. Bnton, Eli Stilaon, 0. H. BtewaR, B. R. Hinkle;, J. H. W&rreD, and 
J. W. Hojt. 

Frcrident Williftoia in tlie chsir. 

Vr. Holton moved i>iat the whole subject of the Premiam List be referred 
to & oommittes coiiaiKing of Ueeers. WilliKme, Hinckte; and Oue. 

OlyectioD being made, the motloa vu withdrawn. 

Vr. HinkleymoTed that tha rnlei, regulations and list of preailumB, for 
the next exhibition, be now takea up and considered b; tbe Eieontira Com- 
mittee. Carried. 

The work of a revialonof the littof preminmi, &c., of laat jear, waatheu 
taken up and proceeded with until 10 o'elook. 

On motion of Ur. Eintdey, it waa 

a hereb; in- 
n iron) toe in attj or januarj lasi. 

On motion, a^joiimed. 

FebruarjS, 8 o'clock A, H 

Committee met purauant to adjournment. 

Pi«>eDt— Hessro. Darid Williama, President, Hinklej, Holton, Darling, 
Eaton, C. H. WilliomB, Stewart, StiUon aod Hojt. 

Preaident In the cliair. 

The Secretar; aoDoancad that the Hon. Jackson Hadle.T, of Kllwaukee, 
deilred to make appKoation for the temporary uh of the Society's caQvas 
tents for the Ladlea' Wisconsin Soldiers' Home, and moTed that he be inTit- 
ed to pretent bSe application at that time. Carried. 

Ur. Hadlej was then introduced to the committee by Hr. Holton, and af- 
ter stating that the Ladies desired the tents for their nse in holding the con- 
templsted Soldiers' Home Fair, supported his application In their behalf with 
ft few pertinent and eloquent remarks ; at the conclusion of which. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



2S4 STATE AGEIOULTUEAl SOCIETY. 

On motion, it wis nntiiimoud; 

JZoD^wJ, 1. That the resolutloD of the Societj, prohibiting the lou of 
ItB tents for an; purpose whatejer, be and the Mme la hereb; amended, bj 

adding the words: "eioept in aid of beneTotent or patriotic pnrpoBes." 

Siwoliitd, a. That the request of the Ladies' Soldiera' Home Associttloo U 
hereb)' granted, and that the Secretarjlsautboriud to furnish the President 
of said Home with an orderfor the immediate deiiTerj of the tents and to 
request the Mil. & P. dn 0. B. K. Co. to give them free transportation to and 
Irom Hilwaukee. 

Committee then resumed the reviilon of the List of Preminois, and con- 
tinned in tald voric unlil 13 o'clock ■. 
On motion, Bi)jDarned to S o'clock. 



2 O CLOCK, p. H. 

{'onuoittee met pursuant to a4joarnmcnt, and proceeded to the appoint- 
ment of Judges and Superintendents of Departments; wUoh, having been 
disposed of, it wu 

Baolteil, That the President and Sccretarj are hereb; authorized to make 
auob arrangements for the location of the Fair as shall seem to them expe- 
dient. 

On motion, kdjouracd n>u Si. 

3. W. HOTT, StertUay. 



MEMORANDUM. 

Eiecutire sessions were held erer; eT«aing dnring the Fair; but, ■■ the 
business related eiclusiTel; to the uuugement of the Exhibition, it was not 
deemed important to make a record of the proceedings thereat for pobllca, 
tion in the Transactions. 

State AoRicuLTnBAL Boom, 

Haaisoh, Deo. 13, 1685. 

The BieontiTe Committee met pursuant to requirement of Bf-Lairs. 

Present— Uessrs. David Williams, President, B. R. Hiakle;, L. B. Yilu, 
J. 0. Eaton, David Atwood and J. W. Hoyt. 

President Williams In the chair. 

The principal bndness of the meeting being to settle with the Treaaarer. 

On motion, the Fiscal Beport was called np and compared with tbe ao- 
oompanjing bills and Touchers. 

[Tor Beport see page, SSS.] 

Which Beport, being found correct, was unanimonalj approved and ordered 
to be placed on file. 

The Seeretarj then offered the following resolutions, which ware cordiallj 
approved and nnanlmonsl; adopted: 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



PBOOBEDINGS. 285 

n«nt soldier, the aterline patriot, ■ndthelatelllgeot and appreciative friend 
of American Indastt;, who, b/ his attendanca npon our late Eihibition and 
hia pert[nent and eloquent apeecbei on that occasion, contributed so targel; 
to Ita unprecedented snccees. 

Saolvad, Tbat the cordial Ibanka of the Society are also hereb; tendared 
to Hon, Alex. W. Randall, Poatinafiter Qeneral, to Hon. Timotbj Howe and 
James R. Doolittle, United States Senaton from thia Sute, and to Hia Ei- 
cellenc? James T. Lewis, Goreraor of Wisconsic, for tbeir attendance upon 
said Eihibition and their excellent addreaaea. 

BMohed, That the thanks of the Societj are likewiie due and are henbf 
tendered to Geo, L. Dunlap, Esq., Gen. Superintendent, Col, Jas. H. Hove, 
Attorney, and other officers of the Chicago and Northweslern Railway Oom- 
plDj, for the marked favor of special trains and other like facilities ao gen- 
erouslj placed at the command of the Eieenti* e Committee, In furtherance 
of their desirea and parposes, to convenience and honor their dlatiDgnished 
gnest, M^j. Gen. Sherman. 

The bills of members of tho Committee for expenses incurred in attending 
this meeting having been audited and paid. 
On motion, Oommittee a((joumed tuu JU. 

J. W. HOYT, Sienlary. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS FOR 1866. 

"" HtKW Hoon, JlMBSVIlLI, 

Sept. 28, 1666— 7^ o'cloek. 

Pursuant to pnbliihed notice, as required by the Oonstitution, the lAfo 
Hemhen met Iq the Beeeptlon Boom of the Uyers House, this evenlDg, at H 
o'clock, for the election of officers of the Society, for the year ISSt. 

President Williams in the chair. 

On call, the Secretary read the list of Life V^mbers ; and 

On motion of Dr. C, L. Martin, a committee of five members, eicladve of 
.the mover, to be appointed by the Fretident, was authoriied to make nom- 
inations for the several const itntional offlces of the Society. 

The chair appointed Anson Rogen, W. B. Taylor, A. ProudBt, J. H. War- 
ren, and BimeoD UiUa as said committee. 

After a brief consaltatlon the comnuttee reported the following DomiDa- 

Frmi^ 

Itt Vut PitMmi.~-0. 1^. I 

2d Viet iVeiitfent— B. R. Hinkley, Sammlt. 

Sd Vie* PmidtnL—U B. Vilas, Madison, 

Seatlary.—J. W. Hoyt, Uadison. 

TVaiuurir. — D. Atwoad, Uadison. 

AdStional Metnhtn of ExtetUwi OonmuOta.—^. D, Holton, If ilwankee ; W. 
B. Taylor, Cottage Grove ; O. H. Williams, Baraboo ; 3. H, Warren, Albany ; 
B. Stilson, Oshkosh ; J. 0. Eaton, Lodi ; G, K. Stewart, Beaver Dam. 

On motion, S. 0. Benedict was directed to cast tbe names reported, as 
the ballot of all the members present ; which, having been done, the above 
named gentlemen were declared, by the Fresideat, to have been duly and 
uDanlmoasly elected the ofBcers of tbe Society for (he ensuing year. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



286 STATE AGBICULTUBAL SOOIBTT 

On Eootion of tbe &«oretarr. It wu 

Stiolvid, Th*t vben this meeting Bh>ll adjoani, the Society wilt proceed, !q 
a body, to tbe depot, ta receive Hof. Qbd. W. T. Sbermsn, who comea ai tbe 
gneit of the Society, and li expected to anive at JaneBrills by a special 
train »( 8 o'clock. 

Whetenpon, on motloD, tbe Boelety a^onnied litu <Bi. 

3. W. HOYT, Sterttiay. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

BtAtt AaBICfTLTITBAL RoOMB, 

HiDisoH, Dec. IS, 1S45. 

Tbe Society met at 8 o'clock of thlEi day in tbeea rooniB. 

Qnomin present. 

Tice-PreeidcDt Rlnkley In the chair, the President having been detained 
at home by lllnen. 

On call, the Secretary proceeded to read the report of the fiscal affiun of 
the Society for the year Just oloeed, from which it appeared that the re- 
ceipts into tbe treasury for the year IBflE had been (11,404 90, and the total 
dlebnrsementa tB,S80 AS ; learing a balance in the treaaary, at this date, of 
tt.OH 88. [See Tresaurer'a Report, page SSS.] 

After oongntaiatione by membera of tbe Society on the highly tkmr- 
Able condition of its finances, in view of all the diffloiilties under whieb its 
officers had labored during the pest eeteral years, together with some in- 
formal plans for the fntnre, 

Od motion, the Society adjcorued nrw dk 

3. W. HOIT, SKTriury. 



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EXHTBITION OF 1865. 

[From the Secrettrj'B Becord.] 



After moDtba of l&boHons prepirftCioD the Twelflb AnDiial ExhibitioD of 
the WiscoDBin StUe AgriouUnrml Societ; bM come, and b«ea numbered 
ftmoDg tbe eveoU of the psst. 

The Grounds eeenito b&ie gWeo uuireml Mlisfaotion. The firat effect of 
the eihibition proper would hare been more impressire had the bnildiuge, 
teuta, and other atrnctures been diapUjed within the trtcV or od the oppo- 
dte aide of it, for, then, the'wliole of tbeu would have met the eye of the 
Tiaitor npon big first entrance within the enctoeure. But the track haTing 
been ftlreadj ettabliBbed on the further side of the available grounda, it was 
impracticable to arrange the exhibition buildings beyond it, while the plac- 
ing them within the tracli would have «o obstructed the Yiew of the trials of 
apeed ai to have rendered this ver; Intercating branch of the Exhibition 
macfa less aalisfactor;. Tbe track itself was beautiful, and gave universal 
Batlafaction. 

The entries were twice as nnmerons as last year, and In some departments 
more nnmerous than at an; previous eihibition in this State. Number in 
■'Dlviiion A," Domestic Animals, SIS; la "Division B," Products of the 
Eattb, SS6; in "Sivieton 0," Machinery, Manufactures and Tforks of Art, 
6IS4; Id "Dividon D," Farm Work and Equestrianghip, 18; total, 1,508. 

Tbe show In tbe Department uf Horses was odI; Just fair, in those of 
awtne and cattle rather slim, but in all other departments excellent, and 
in some of them aaperb. 

The Wool Growera were there in Aill force, according to promise, tn fact 
the show in this department was never equalled in Wisconsin. 

In the Foultr? Department, tbe fleld was prett; much left to that EIng of 
atock aihibitora in Wisconsin, Simon Bubie, of Beloit, whose display of 
chickens of the moat approved breeds, pea fowls, rare geeae, ducks, &e., was 
very fine and attractive. Ifr. Buble also had the credit of saving the awine 
department from being nowhere. His Yorkshires and SuOblks are fine ani- 
mals, worthy tbe attention of all farmers swinishly inclined . 

Field Products turned out as though a little afraid they night not be quite 
op to the mark. The oommlttee of Judges report that the eamplea were 
generally good, mao7 of them excellent. Trempealeso County got in late — 

(237) 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



238 STATE ASBICDLTDEAL SOCIETT. 

freight deUjed on the HioslBaippi — bat wu let !a, knd made k good ihoir of 
aprlng vheat, taralpB, seed com, peu, beaos, Ac, &c., and, lo th« surpriM 
of th« Committee, two samplee of cottoo, growDinTrempektean.wellmfttared. 

Gkrden Vegetables vera ia the same Ofttegor;. ^Trempealeau OouDtj'adiR- 
plij is bighlj commended bj the committes . 

Batter, Oiieese, Flour, Haaef, Ac., were not present in great qaantitiea 
but M to qualit; veil eottaiaed tbe reputation of our WIbcodbId prodacen. 
The lists of awards will show irho were the successful competitors. 

The Bbow of Fruits was splendid— decidedlj the best, if we are correctly 
informed, that bu this jear been made in an; of tbe Western States. The 
Chicago TVUwu says of it: "Floral Hall presenta a beaDtifnl picture, filled, 
asitls, with choice fruit and floweni. I haie not eeen a show to compare 
with this one, except the exbibtion of the Ollnois State Horticultural Socie- 
ty, held at Rockford two jears ago. Indeed, the noted ' fruit region ' of 
EgTpt DeTer presented a finer ihow of Apples and grapes. Thej are large, 
fair, high colored and of excellent qaatitj." The Don-profeaeianal oultWa- 
tors did finelf, man; of them showing 40, BO, and 60 varieties and that of 
the very best quality. 

Trempealeau County was also handsomely reprESented in this department, 
showing beautiful apples, pears, grapes and plums. 

Under the management of Ur. J. 0. Plumb and wife, the exhibition in 
Floral Tent was laelefully arranged and admirably filled, reflecting much 
oredlt not only upon themjeWes as Superintendents for the Society, but also 
on the State Horticultural Society, tbereiu and by them repreeented. 

The Bee Eeepere irere loudly and stoutly represented by Messrs. R. 0. Otis, 
General Agent for Langatrotb's hives, W. F. Flanders, Patentee and vender 
of the Flanders hive, and James Bntlard, Agent for the Kidder hive. 

The Uannfacturera' Tent was crowded as never before. Sewing machines, 
looms, epinning wheels, knitting macbiuvB, washing machines, &c., occupied 
the center, and carriages, scales, stoves, willow ware, cases of hats and cape, 
clothing, cloths, yarns, threads, leather, harneaaes, saddles, and a thonsand 
and one other things were stowed away on the tables and around the outer < 
portloDS of the gieat tent. Altogether it constituted one of the most inter- 
esting departments of tbe Eihibitloo and was constantly crowded with de- 
lighted visitors. 

The sewing machines exhibited were Wheeler & Wilson's, Wilcox & Gibbs, 
and Orovei & Baker's. Tbe machines were all managed admirably and ^ded 
very moeh to the interest in this department. 

The show of Uachineiy and Implemente occupied several acres of ground 
and was decidedly the most imposing display of tbe kind ever made in this 
State. Beapers and mowers, threshing machines, windmills, pomps, grain 
drills, culdvatorsand plows, patent gates, harrows and bog euttets, rollers, 
hay-loaders, horse-rakes, steam engines, kn., covered the ground, and last, 
but by no means least, there were tbe sorghum mills and great sorgbam ts- 
tablishmentt, all, or nearly all in fall blast, craabing the cane and manofWo- 



I v'^'Otl'^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1865. 239 

turingtbe ijrnp b7 tbe barrel. Wft regret tieeadinglj tbkt the burden of 
official duties retted so beavilj npoo oar Bbooldara during the entire Fair, 
that ITS were ntterlj unable to giTS ten minateB to thia tnil j magaificent ex- 
hlbitloD. 

The Sotghom men, eapeciallf, are worth; of all praise, for th«j contribu- 
ted immensel.r to tbe lacceM and epirit of the Fair. Without stint at to 
meauB and eltbrt tbejputup large baildinga, with furnaces, flaee and all else 
necenarj, and actual]; conrerted tbe eaatern portion of the Fair Orounda 
into a itirring aianafftctiiriDg citj. The eitabilihnents of the Northwestern 
Sorgo Gompan;, Hcaani. Fowera & SteTeni, and of the Boole JUtof Iron 
Works, JanesTille, Ju. Barrls £ Co., were particular); deserring of atten- 
tion. The; ware reall; nest and show; structures, and itanding, as the; did, 
in the foreground of the manufacturing and meabantcal department, wltb 
their wbitened walls and loft; fronts emblaianed with "Oamp Sorgbom," 
and "Free Show,'^ in bold black letters, constituted a spirited feature of tbe 
eihibition in that quarter. The exiubltore of Sorghum Hills, apparatus and 
powers were as follows, named in the order of their record en the CUm 
Boole: S. W. Skinner & Oo., Uadlaon; Woodbur; & Holcomb, Hadison; 
Noitbwestoro Sorghum Hachiac Co., Hadison ; J. B. Norton t Oo., Hadison ; 
Jamrs Harrla k Co., JaneiviUu ; J. I. Case & Oo., Baolne. We ars gratefnl 
to them all for their magnificent dUpla;, probably the beat ever made in the 
world— and einuerel; with tbe; could all have taken preninmo. 

The department of Fine Arts was iiterall; packed and crammed with 
■usical Inattuments, silTer ware, paintings, drawings, ann pictures, em- 
broideries, fine needle work, carvings on'wood and other materials, rich 
p^Mr hangings, tapestr;, and hundreds of other things rare and beautiful, 
and crowded oonetantl; wi th spectators, moreoTer. Our artists fdrl; out-did 
tliemselres. 

The leading eTenEs of the fair ware exactl; as preposad In tbe Society's 
ndTertlsemenls. Eren the weather stood b; oar prophec; like a sterling 
friend, and ateadil; refused an; interference with the programme. 

On Wednesday, at 9i o'clock x. h., the Opening Address wm deliTCrad 
from the Judges' Stand b; the President. 



idb,Googk' 



STATE AQRIOULTTTRAIi SOdETY. 



OPENING ADDRESS. 



B* Ho», DAVID WILLIAMS, Pbuidih 



OtnlUmmoftht BWt AgnaJiitral Boofty and Fdiou (Mxm»: 

We ought to be grateful to th« G-iver of all good that wa tn pennitted, 
nndar sacb farorabl* circomeUnoe*, to UBemble in peaee at this the annnil 
retnm of the f&rmert' festival. I congratnlate yon also on the coodition of 
the weather, Alt the elemeotB Mem to combine to make It pleaaaot. Wblle 
Id former yeara we hara been somewhat nnfortuDate, we are highl; favored 
now. The earth, too, has been bountifhl in yielding eTerj prodnct of the 
■oil, and, in addition, we enjoj, to-day, health, peace and prosperity, for all 
of which let us be derootly thankful to the Qiverof all good. Let na also 
bear in mind to whom we are indebted, nnder Qod, for the peace wfaleh we 
e^Joy, and let all hearts be filled with gratitode to the hrara boya In bine. 
To those who hare faltea in defense^of our right», let there be a monumect in 
every loyal heart. I welcome you to the opportunity here offered to atndj 
all manner of af^coltnral problems. Do not neglect it, for there is mnch 
food for thought and study in the field opened to na. While Bona object to 
■ part of our programme, let me remind Ihem that there is not a more beaatl- 
ful sight in all nature than a horse put upon his metal Why not try his 
speed or endurance ? You try a machine. Ton must test a horse to know 
bis powers. Ton try a draft horse, a roadster ; *by not try a thorough-bred f 
His motion is quicker, bis style Is different. We propose to test his speed. 

Gentlemen, I ask of you that, during the progress of the VaXl. you guard 
every deportment ae well as your own private pockets; for, unfortunately, 
we have a thieving gentry among us. Avoid a swell-mob or any unnecessary 
crowd. Gentlemen, with these remarks, I welcome jrou to all we have to 
oflbr as an exhibition, and I now proclaim the Twelfth Annual Fair of the 
Wisconsin Agricultural Society open. 

The Secretary then called the names of the gentlemen constituting the 
Awarding Commit tees, and the working machinery of the Fair waaat last 
under full headway. 

The Trials of Bpeed by trotting, pacing and running horses were spirited 
and gave great satisfaction to the tens of thousands who witnessed them; 
and, so far as we have been able to learn, nothing occured to mar the perfect 
good order which everywore prevailed. 

The Ladies' Equestrianism was more than usually spirited, there being ten 
competitors, all of tbem superior riders. 

those two features of our State Exhibitions, though objectionable in the 
minds ot tome good fdenda of the Society, seem, under all the eircomstanceu 



l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1865. 241 

to b« ewentikl to Monring a Urge ftttenduice acd making tivi Fair a anc- 

Id tbe eTsaing, at 7^ o'clook P. H. of Thursdaj, vas held the Election of 
ODcenoftheBoeietjfor tbe jear ISSfl. [See Faga SSG.J 

ABRIVAL or QEKERAL SHERMAN. 

Ai S o'clock, meetinge of tbe Wool Orowen* AMOcIatioii and of (he State 
Horticultural Society wore held in the Court aud Jury rooou, and a 9 o'clock 
the offlcen of the SoeistT, a oounDittee of oitiaeos and an immense crowed 
of people went to the depot to meet Gen. Sherman who, with Golouel 
Bawyer, of big itaflT, arriTod at the appointed time, in chaise of Messn. 
E . D. Holton and K. A. Darling, ofBeore of (he Society tent out aa a com- 
mittee to meet him, and waa eacorled to the Hjera Houae, where proriiion 
had been made for hie cntertainmeoC. In a few momenta tbe gtreete about 
the hotel were deoeely crowded with people aniions aod clamoTOus to see the 
diftinguished hero, and so, at laat, he aCcpped out upon the balcony, and, har- 
iog been introduced by the Preddent of the Society, apoke ai follows: 

" Fcuow CiTiMNa — I appear before jou to-night, not that I hare anything 
(0 tell yon, but aimply to grati^ the cariosity you feel in seeing me. That 
enriouty la eioited chiefly by the fact that many of your eons have served 
with me during thia war. Fellow cititens, I am proud to meat you, and e«n 
anly My that I shall meet you to-morrow at the Fair Grounds, and that I will 
(hen talk to you more fully about what I mean. All I bare to aay ia, that, in 
may future war we may bare, I want you to send me boys as brare u thoae 
you sent to me in Tenueuee . " 

This coming of the great General waa a fit winding up of the day, aud that 
night not less than thirty thonaand people went to sleep feeling that it had 
been the lichest feetiie day ever known Id the Badger Slate. 

Dnring the night, the aeTeral traius of curs brought multitudes of people 
that no man could uumber, and the thought of the morrow brought (o all such 
•a s(oodia dread of great Jama a moat uncomfortable aenao of half aiiffocatlon. 
With the momini; came a Eprinkle of rain— juat enough to lay the duat 
— and fleecy clouds, prophetic of a glorious day. JBarlier than usual (he mul- 
titudes awarmed toward the Fair Grounds, ao that thouaanda were there by 
8 o'clock. But when, at 9 o'clock, the oarriagea containing Qen. Sbemian, 
and OdI. Sawyer, Governor Lewia, Ei-Gov. Randall, Benatora Hows and Doo- 
little, and the Preaident of the Society, preceded by the Band, moved up 
Hilwaukee atreet, it aeemed aa if not only the whole city but ai least 20,000 
outsidcra had been wailing for (he signal. Cnsar In none of bis triumphal 
entries into the Eternal City ever drew after him a more multitudinous host 
of admirer*. It seemed aa though myriads of men, women and children, 
wagons of every poasible description, horses and mules came up out of the 
very ground. 

At a little after 10 o'clock tbe General and the other apeakera appeared 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



STATE AGKIOULTUEAL SOCIETY. 



ANNUAL ADDRESSES 



Bt Uai. Obi. W. T. SHEKBUS, j 



Geii»»] ShermaD wu fint prefented b; the Preddent uid apoke Terj nmr- 
I7 u foUowH-. 

I b*Te come to WiscoDUD, not for the purpose of making a ipeech, or to 
addresg the geDtlemeo who could teach b« all abont agrieultnre, for I do Dot 
profeM to know anything at aii aboat it It would seem to me preposterous, 
for a plain, simple, straight forward soldier, to speak to jon at all, in the 
presence of sooh men as Oot. Kaodall and Senator Doolittle, wboM fame has 
extended orer the whole woild, and I do not want that anything I ma; aaj 
■honld be oonstrued into a speech, or as an eridence of tny feelings and m; 
IcTe for the people of Wisconaia. I could not say anything that would b« 
an adequate expreBaion of the feelings I bare for you, and that woaid G1I7 
represent the gratitude I feel toward job for jour acta of deTotioB to the 
good of this country. I feel deeply your derotlon to oar cause, and I am 
thankful for the espressioDS of good feeling which yon have alwaja glren to 
me, espeeialJy at this present time. I therefore wish that you will accept my 
apology for not making anything tike an address which would beeilcolated to 
impart information or give Instiuctlon to you, the cititena of Wtecondn — 
men who are able and qualified to teach me on all those sabjects that cob- 
eem agriculture. [Cheers.] I assare you that it gives me pleasure to meet 
you here; it is more pleasant to see you with yout bonnets than with your 
bayonetsi but in reflecting upon the past I know that the men who now snr. 
round me are they who ^ded me In the ordeal through whieb I and they hare 
passed, I know that the old aoldien who have marched with me through the 
South will turn their labor, which antil now has been a labor of destruction, 
into a labor to bmld np and make Wisconsin what she is doomed and destined 
to be, a land Doted not only for big and bra*e man, but for all those graces 
of life which are included in education, reflnemenl, and luiory, and for er- 
erything which makes life desirable. To the old soldiers I need say nothing. 
I hare had the assnranoe of your Governor that you have come back from the 
war pare and untainted by the vices which afflict humanity, and that the 
men of Wisconsin have resumed their labor on the plough and in the work- 
shop as in the days gone by. The old despotisms of Europe will look upon 
Uiat simple fact as a greatsr honor to yon, and reflecting more credit upon 



l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1865. 24S 

onrcoMitrj th«n til tbe hcla, and all the Tiotoriei of ■war. [Ohear*] Wli- 
ooiiaiB hM uood nobly in thl« wm ; she hu done her flill dutj ; ifae hu top- 
pUednotonljmeQMdmonejbut iaCellect and thonght. Miuoie ud booe 
are notbiag j there mogt be the Intellectual activity to direot them. Hnsole 
is an element in power, but iotelleot is power ilaelf. 

I In giving credit to yonr State for what ehe hu done, it U 'only fair to t*j, 
right from the beginning of this war the Second Wiwonein lUgiment has 
served with m«, and braver, nobler, better, more intelligent men I hare not 
found. At Bult Eun they stood flrmly by me, and I appeal to all the soldiers 
here, and ask if I did not always, whether in proeperlty or defeat, give a 
hearty welcome to a Wisconsin regiment T [Cheers.] I don't want to be 
underttood ae detracting from the credit due to any other State-I eimplj 
deaire to do justice to jou. To u may be assured that you will Snd good men 
everywhere, but eome men are more accustomed to order and diciplioe ibna 
others, and pre-eminent among such are the men from this SUte. And lo 
Wisconsin, rich in her children, rich in the fertility of her soil, rich in all 
that makes a Btale great and powerful, is a representative of that strength 
which makes np the sum of the American Onion. [Loud Cheera!] The war 
war has dosed-we feel now assured of a peace which ehaU be as lasting in 
its qeality as it is long in duration ; when every man can ait down under the 
shadow of hifl own vine and fig tree, and " be not afraid," without the fear 
of any draft officer coming to take his cherished son away. [Cheera.] 

May such peace be ours forever, and may we take advantage of it to de- 
velope this as well as other States. May yon do this, and so far succeed in 
it thatWiBCOnsin shall rear her head as the proudest of all oar prond States. 
[Cheers.] 

SX-GOVERS'OS fiANDALL'S SPEBCa. 

Ki-Gov. Randall eipressad bis pleasure in seeing so largo a orowd present 
to welcome the foremost General of the age ; the general who fights with his 
pen aa well as with hie eword. [Cheers.] 

He was not an sgrlculturist, and could not speak as a man having au- 
thority upon such subjects, but ho could talk about what he had seen, and 
recogniied the value of the productions of the fanners of the West, espeoi- ■ 
ally of Wisconsin. The wealth of the Union came from the soil— to that 
alone conld its origin be traced, from that alone did it spring, and among all 
of those States, great among the greatest was Wisconsin. There eoold be 
QO end to her greatness so long as her people did all they couJd to develop 
her resources. Prosperity was a natural and iuevitable result, and should 
not be received with any astonishment. Four years ago, ar a little more 
than that, we were plunged into a great rebellion, from which we have elimi- 
nated victory. To-day we are at peace, and I desire that we shall make that 
peace not only glorious to onr country but to each State and to each Indi- 
vidual. In that case, there will be no fear for the future of this great na- 
tion. We have grown more rapidly as a country than the cooDtrles of tb» 



j,X>OOg[Q 



244 STATE AGMCULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

old TOrld. Sevent; ;«an may be coniidered the period of oar growth, 
vliile thein ma; be called HTsn hundred. Wh; ie thie F It ia because the 
old DfttiOBi grew out of barbariun, while our uation has grown out of their 
oiTiliution. [Applauae.] Ws l»d their ciTilisation aa the baaia of tna 
growth. They had barbariem as a point from which to start, aod we a high 
state of civilization, and if we remain true to the fundamental principles of 
our social and political beini;, induBtrious, peraeTering and just to all others, *s 
well aa oarselves, the glor; we bare alreadj earned ii but a pronsie of what 
OQr country shall jet be, and our growth in the future, blessed bj liberty 
and peace, will be more rapid and prosperous than in the past, [Cboerg,] 

BENATOR DOOLITTLE'S SPEECH. 

Foar years ago he had met them at the same place. It waa in September, 
IBei, aud he had theo told them the great issues that were before the coun- 
tr7, and which the logic of events bad fully and completely justified. At 
that time our armies had been driven back, and seemed to be on the point of 
being overwlielmed with disaster. He then read a long quotation from said 
■peech, which was a deauociation of the South for its (reason, an aclcDOwl- 
edgment of the bravery and virtue of our soldiers, a reflection upon the In- 
oompeteoce of our State authorities, and a cli^m on behalf of the Southern 
States to be taken by the hand of love, fellowship and fraternity, and asked 
to dwell with us again. 

Slavery bad been the caii*e of the rebellion, and slavery had now beea 
ornshed, and the avenging minister who struck at the vitals of slavery and 
rebellion at the same time— Ood bless him for it — was now here. [Amens-j 
While he was an avenginj; minister be was also ao angel ol mercy. [Cheers.] 

Faying further compliments to the diatinguiehed guest, and to the ait and 
science of agriculture, the honorable gentleman reaumed Itia seat. 

SENATOB HOWE AHD GOVERNOK LEWI3. 

Senator Howe followed In a few most happy remarks, and the proceedings 
were closed by a neat and appropriate address from £i-Gov. Lewis. 

Three cheers being called for for Gen. Slierman, thej were given with 
hearty good will, after which the people dispersed and the ordinary Fair 
programme was resumed. 



The great feature of the afternoon was the race of thorough-bred horses, 
for the Society's premiums of 1200; mile heals, best three in five. 

General Sherman returned to the grounds aboot half after one o'clock P. 
H., in order to witness this race. There were on the stand at the same time 
with the General, Gov. Bandali, Gov. Lewis, Senator Howe, CoL Sawyer, 
Oena. Fairchild and Hobart, and a Dumber of other distinguished gentlemen, 
all apparently very touch Interested and delighted with the sport. There 
were alx horses entered. Five came to time. 



l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1865. 245 

APPEiLL ON BEHALF OF THE ORPHANS' HOME. 

Afur a beautiful race that seemed to ba eqjoyed b; eTorjbodf on tk* 
grounds, [for remit, sea Liat of Awards]. 

0«n , Bhennaa was again introdu<-ed and made the following brief bat eIo> 
quent appeal on behalf of ths aajlum abont to be established at the Capitol, 
for the Orphans of patriot aoldiera : 

LaoBS AHD OtJiTLiHra:— I have been requested by the offlcera of your 
Agricultural Societj' to present to yoarearoiBt couaideration the cause of 
the Boldieis' orphauB, the erection of an asylum, and the purchase of such 
grounds as ahall support jour soldiers' orphans — jo'or orphans. Thef are 
7oura as much aa thejare the children of the father that begot tbem. Tbey 
died for their country and bequeathed to us their children. Let us be sure 
that the; are taken care of. The QoTemmenl will take care of some, jonr 
State will take care of some, and younetvea moat take oare of the others. 
I am sure that it needs no loud call from me, or that I should speak of the 
orgenc; of the case. I need simply to mention it. There is no man here 
who wtll den; his ejmpathles to the child of the soldier, the brare, the man- 
Ij soldier who died for his country. 

Hra. Harvey has a tent on the grounds, where sobseription will be re- 
eelTCd. I hope you will respond. 

OoT. Lewis then announced that subsoriptionB would be receired then and 
there, and the Secretary made further appeals tu the public in support of the 
claim presented. Ah a result of the movement some fSOO was raised on the 
spot ; which, added to sums receired by Mrs. Harvey, at her tent, on the 
groonds, gave an aggregate of about (1,000. 

nie day was now so far advanced and so many exhibitors bad been obliged 
to remove their stock, that the cavalcade of premium animals on the Track waa 
omitted, and general orders taring bei^n issued for the removal of aaimala 
and articles the Qreat Fair was at an end, 

BTATE BANQUET TO QEN. SHERMAN. 
In the evening at the Hyatt House, and gotten np bv prominent citizens 
of Janesvllle, there was given a Btate Bauqnet to General Sherman 
Governor Lewis presiding and making the speech of welcome. Touts were 
responded to In lengthy and able speeches by Senators Howe and Doolittle, 
Hat. H. Carpenter, Gov. Randall, Col. Howe, Gens L, Pairohild, Hobact and 
Atwood. The response of Gea. Shermun to Gov. Lewis and the toast to 
" onr distingaisbed guest, " was in about the following words : 

GEN. SHERUAN'S BFEEOH. 
GiHTLBMU : I can hardly express how sensible I am of the kindness man- 
ifested by your Governor snd by yourselves, unce I have reached your town 
of Janesville, or to a flank movement catching me here. Tou are always 
weloome to catch me at a supper party by a flank, or any other movement. 



■j.A'OO'^lc 



246 STATE AGEIOTOTUSAl SOCIETY. 

[ApplanM.] Were U not for tha fact that, tbongfa ■ loldier, I tua Bometimts 
expected to apeak, I would not be unwilling to be outflanked in this citj 6t 
any time. Tbere ia one reason whj I object to it, and that ift, our wordi, 
uttered for the purposes of couTivlalitr, are publiehed to the world. These 
worda are sometime B toKnred to mean «b»t was ncTer intended, and, bjomis- 
stons noted and commliaiona exa^erated, tire randered very different from 
wfaat we would wUh. I hope jou will eicuae me, allhough jon could not be 
drawn into a dlBcuagioa of anj subject in which I hiTe anj inflBeoce now, 
for I look apon m; task In life u done. I do not expect a war to ariw in 
which I can take a part; and as to politics, on which we all talk so maahuid 
know so little [laughter], I would cfaeerfull? leave them to meo suoh as now 
^t in my presence. It would be as much out of place for me to discuss poli- 
tioi in their presence la it would be to speak of religion in the presence of* 
Its priests. But there is one subject on which I will speak a few words to 
this bodj, and that is oar past history. Home could not point to sack a his- 
tory. Greece could not boast of 11, nor could IlaW, nor erea England. Tbe 
beginning of our historj was poetic, and as we look back upon such names 
as Lasalle and Henoepin, we cannot but recognize the fact. Bo you 
may trace the history of our country from its discovery until the time tbst 
our forefathers formed the noTernmnnt, with all of which you are more fa- 
miliar than I am ; but I simply point to its beautiful workings. Tbey formed 
■ UnlcD of Slates, each supposed to be a State within the Union, compact 
and strongly bound together with booda ofloTe — lilken bonds. But this war 
bas come and taught ua these bonds were not strong enough, and we have 
forged tbem of steel, and now we hare the Union again which our Fathers 
gave ua, in letter, spirit, and purpose, save that the bonds formerly uniting 
na hsTG been strengthened, not by a new compact, but new sanctions. Oar 
new Union ia the same to-day aa that of 'Bl, ita new sanctions properly ac- 
quired, snd its character tbe aame; and wben Congress giTes additional saoe- 
tions, I would fight for Ihem just as strongly as I do for the present. [Ap- 
plause.] Never should a aoldier. Or a man who claims to be one, aet up bis 
opinion in the face of the constituted authorities. I refer to the past history 
of tbe predecessor of Oen. Grant sod myself to show we loved peace, hat we 
enforced it by law, and all we have asked or ever will ask is, tell ua what is 
the law— what is the Constitution— and we will obe; it or die. [Applause.] 
That is politics enough for me and it is all I ever want to learn, and if poli- 
tics lead me far from that, I will go to some other country, for I look on this 
as tbcBepublic of law, and we should reverence and bow down before its 
majesty as the citizene of other lands do to their sovereign. There is no merit, 
however, in obeying the law we love, but there is in obeying that we do not 
love. I obey with the same respect the law I do not love and claim themore 
respect for it [Applause.] I beg theee gentlemen to remember that when 
the laws of Congress are declared thus and bo, I will enforce tbem by my own 
phyacal strength and that of every arm the government places subject to mj 
command. A^aln thanking you for your kind welcome, I hope many a time 
to bo ootflanked by yon in any of your towns in Wisconsin. [Applause.] 



j.A'OD^Ic 



BXHIBrnON OF 1866, 247 

Altogether the banquet wu ft Ter; pleuant tJbii, aad ■ fitting jtnoti to 
the Twelfth Amiiikl EihibUioo, 
In coDolading thia harried uid rerj bnperfect accoiuit we ihenld not omit 

THE GEATBPUL A0KN0W1ED0BMBNT3 OF THB SOCIETT. 

1. To the Oirer of all good for the highly farorablo olrcmnatanceB, a foil 
week of ths most delightful weather Incladed, under whi«h the EiMbUton 

S. To the great leal and enterprise with wbiob farmerg, frait-growera, 
■nechaaios, artluoi, •rtieta, bouMwiTee, «nd the whole people reapooded to 
the call of the Boclety. 

S. To tbe press of the State, tbroagh whose generoui and cordial oo- 
«peritioD thftt call was so oniTersailr brought to tbeir □□ties and nude 
eftctivB. 

4. To the great General — foremost of bis time and of ell times — who, bj 
hieoonUng, so splendidl; completed tbe programme of great atttractions, 
added tbonsandi ta the moltitade of those wbo would not otherwise btiTe 
tHmed ont to tbe Fair, and gare to the whole oooasion an telai that shall make 
it a marked and shining er* in the historj of one Stale Sxhibilions. 

(. To oar other dlstingalsbed speakers, ex-QoTemor Bandall, tbe able 
■od everTwhere popular AsaleC«ntPo8tmMter-aeiiera] of the United States; 
ow two strong and able United States Senators, Uootittle and Howe ; 
and, flnallj onrpresent tried, faitbfal and popalar Chief Eiecndre of tbe 
State, alwajB read; with voice and official aid to contribute to tbe growth 
and indnstrial progress of the oom men wealth. 

5. To tbe Ballroad, Steamboat, Express and Telegraph Companies of Wis- 
eonsin and the neighboring States, wbosB faitbful observance of liberal eon- 
tracts for tbe transportation of psrsans and properl; to and from the Eihi- 
bitloD, and the free transmission of message*, contributed so much to render 
it emlnentlj snccessfiil. 

7. To the lesdlng citizens, oSlclal and priTale, of the oitj of Janesrille, 
wbo, by tbeir friendlj co-operation with the Soeietj, did what thej eoold for 
tbe comfort and pleasure of tbe thonsands who, throngbont the entire week, 
crowded their cit; to it* ntmoat capaidt;. 

8. And lastl;, to the great public In attendance for the all-wbonndlng 
grace and good nature which ohkracteriied tbeir compliance with the rules 
•ad wUbei of the Society. Cur nwn duties, as an offloer of tbe Soi^etj, 
made It oecessarj that we should be nearlj everywhere present on the 
Grannds, thus affording ns the best possible opportunity for observing the 
temper and conduct of the people; and yet in no case, either during the 
races or at any other time during the Fair, did we hear a word of profane or 
otbertongb language, or an offer to bet on the raoes, or see an iotoucated 
■nan. Everybody seemed to enter into tbe true spirit of the oooasioD and to 
feel aiudons to make it, as it really was, » triamphaiit snocess. 



j.A'OO'^lc 



STATE AaRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PREMIUMS AWARDED 

AT THE FAIK OF ISSB. 



HORSES, JACKS AND MULES. 

0LA3S 1— THOBO06H-BRED BOSSES. 

SimoD Rnble, Betoit, sUllion "Harry Hitler," 4 f«>r< old and ov«r, Ut 

premiam (80 DO 

Q*o. Buble, Ait>ert L«e, HiUD., iUllion, "Siroo," 4 jea^ old and np- 

wards, id premium SO 00 

0. LottuB Hariin, JaDcgmUle, sMllion, " Touog FrioceUiD," S years 

and utidsr 4, Ut premium IS 00 

E. Bnbcack, Christiaaa, stallloD, "TooDg PrincetOD," 8 yeftrc old and 

under 4, id premiam IS 00 

CLA.8S S— ROADSTERS. 

S. F. Hsbie, DelcTan, stallion, 4 years old and over, lat pritmimn %iS 00 

Tbomas Bowles, Janeaville, stallion, 4 years and over, 8nd premium . . 16 00 
J. H. Cbamberlsin, BeloiC, stallion, S years and under 4, 1st premium 10 00 
J>. B. Boirtand, Genesee, etallioa, 8 years and under 4, Sod premium. T 00 
£zra Fellers, Bradford, brood mare 4 years and oTsr, in and Snd 

premiums. SO 00 

CLASS 8-H0E8B8 FOB GENERAL PUBPOSEa. 

Wm. J Powers, Black Earth, etalllon, 4 years old and orer, let premi- 
um. »ao 00 

A. Qregory, BIkhom, stallion, 4 years old and orer, 2d premium IB 00 

R. Famswarth, Wbitewater, stallioD, 8 years old and nnder 4, 1st 

premium 10 00 

Qeo. F. Ellie, Dajton, atallion, S years old aod under 4, Sd premium. . 9 00 
J. Spalding, Harmony, stallion, 3 years old and under 8, Ut premiam 7 00 
0. ll Martin, JaneiTille, stallion, 2 yean old and under 3, Sd premium 5 00 
Win. Q. Esaterley, LsFrairie, stallion, 1 year old and under 8, lat 

premiam 8 00 

8. H. BfTta; Harmony, sUtlion, 1 year old and under S, Sd premium 8 00 
Jno. H. Fellers, Bnidford, brood mare, i years old and over, let 

premium Vt 00 

Snmner Parker, JanesTille, brood mare, 4 years old and over, Kd 

premium 8 00 

Daiid HcLay, Emerald Qrove, brood mare, 8 years old and under 4, 

let premium 1 00 

J. Foirle, Bradford, brood mare, 8 years old and ander 4, id preminm 00 
A. 0. Potter, Beloit, mare. S years old and nnder 8, let premium. ... S 00 
Andrew Bariass, Eoierald Orore, mare, i years old and nnder S, id 

premium 4 00 



j.A'OO'^lc 



tmON OF 1865. 249 

G«o. QleuoD, Limft, Blly, one year old and naderS, lit preminra tE .00 

Cbu. Htnford, Em«n]d OroTS, fill;, one j«±r old ud nndar, Bd 

prenilnm 3 00 

John N. FellBrs, Bradford, suekin; mare colt. lat premium S 00 

Thomaa Kidd, Judah, lacking mare colt, 2d premium 3 00 

6eo. Oleuon, Lima, sucking atallion colt, lat premium 8 00 

Somuer Farksr, JkOMTille, Booking atalllon colt, Sd premlnm % 00 

GLASS 4— DRAJT HORSES. 

Wm. Clai^, JaneBiille, stallion, lat premium |lfi 00 

Wm. J. PonerB, Black Eartb, atallion, Sd premium 10 00 

Geo. Oleaion, Lima, Btalliou colt, 1st premium S 00 

Qeo. OleaBOD, Lima, brood mare, i jears and over, Ut premlom 10 00 

Simon Ruble, Reloit, brood pure, 4 yeare old uid OTer, Sd premium. . 1 00 
Geo. GleAGOD, Lima, fillj, lat premium S 00 

CLAB3 S-JACKS AND HULSfi. 

R. F. Habie, Delavan, Jack, (Bpanish), iBt premium {25 00 

J. 8. Owen, ETaDETiIle, Jack, (S pan ieb), 2 premium 10 00 

Z. Wilson, Palmyra, Jeonj, let preminto 10 00 

E. Rankin, Ft. Atkinson, Sd premium 5 00 

• J. G. Oarr, Hilton, working mulei, let premium, 10 00 

Giles Bort, JaaeaTille, working mulas, 2d premium 5 00 

CLASS S-HATOHED HORSES AND HARES. 

Peter Reaee, Somers, c«rrlage horses, premium fSS 00 

J. K. Pumpellf, Fond du Lac, roadsteri, premiuca 2S 00 

Wm. Herrett, Janearille, farm or drftft boraea, premium W 00 

CLASS f-GELDINQB AND HARES FOR SINGLE HARNESS OR SADDLE. 

J. L Case, Racine, saddle hor«e, i jears old and over, Ist premium. .(10 00 

E. W. Blisb, Brodhead, saddle boiae, * jeara old and orer 3d premium 00 

Oay Carter, Janasrille, gelding or mare, single barnesa, premium 10 00 

J. T. Hiddeu, Lodi, geldiog or mare, single bacneas, premium B 00 

OLA33 8— TROTTERS AND PACKRS. 

B. P Dicker. Racine, trotting stallioa "Black Douglass," trotting 1 

mile heat, time 2.87, 1st premium ISO 00 

B- F. Annia, Lake Hille, atallioD " Black Prinoe," time 3.4B, 3d premi- 
um 80 00 

L. F. Patrlsk, Cbloago, trot^ng mare, over 6 jeara, time 3-tO, lat 

premium 80 00 

Geo. W. Thustao, Waukeaha, trotting mare, over H ;eara old, time 

8.C3, 3d premium 20 00 

Wm. Stewart, Cbicago, trotting gelding, over B >eara, time 3.18, let 

premiom 3t 00 

T. B. Faitout, BeloU, trotting gelding, over G jears, time 149, Sd 

premium IS 00 

F, D. HoOart*, Fond dn Lao, trotting matahed span, over 6 jeara old, 

tine 8^10, 1st preniam SS 00 

B. P. Dickej, Baelns, pacing mare, time S.01, Itt premium' SB 00 

CLASS 9— RUNNING HORSEa 



GoataT Pfell,* Hi I waukee, stallion "Riga," 1st premium 100 00 

■ Tie award lo Hr FfSll was made under llie protest of competitors on the gronnd 
of ace, and llnallr, br him, regoeated to be paid to Isaiah lamphors, of Columbia 
coDBtr. neit entitled. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



260 STATE AGRICULTUBAL SOCIETT. 

STAUJOm iJOS IllUf, WU BIAT8, 8 IH B. 

QuatftT Pfeil, of Hilir&ukee, stallion " OriohtoD," lit premium 100 OO 

T. O. BmUb, of Columbas, BtftUlon "Leg&I Tender, "8d premium 60 00 

Simon Ruble, ofBeloit, stallion "Harrj Hiller," 8d premitun 40 00 

(ttisUTPfeil,Milirsukee, special premium for Smile diBb 60 00 



OLABS 10— SHORT llORNa. 

' Bull, 8 yean old and o*er, 1st premium not avardsd, no animal worlhf 

B. B. Hazard, Hil ton, bull, 8 fears old and over, 3d premium tlB 00 

Jobn Ferul; , Adams, bull, i jears old and under 8 1st prominm IS 00 

Bull, S jeara old and under S, do premium awarded. 

John F. Roe, Durham Hill, bull, 1 jear and under 3, 1st and Sd premi- 

QtDl 7 00 and 8 00 - 

Jobn F. Roe, Durham Hill, coir, S jears old and orsr, l«t premium ... SO 00 

Richard Sicbard, Racine, cow, 3 jears aod over, Sd premium 16 00 

Richard Richard*, Bacine, heifer, a jears and under 8, 1st premium. , . IS 00 
John P. Roe, Durham Hill, heifer, S years and under 8, Sd premium.. 9 00 
John F. Roe, Durham Hill, heifer calf, 1st and 2d preioiunu, T 00 and 6 00 

Kchird Rlcbard, Bacine, bull calf, let premium 00 

nio >d premium awarded.) 

John P. Roe, Durham Hill, heifer, 1 jenr old vid aoder S, lit premium 10 00 

Uchard Richards, Racine, heifer, 1 year old and ander 3. id premium 8 00 

0LAS8 U-DGTONB. 

Luther Rawson, Oak Greek, best bull, S jeate and over, lat premium. $26 00 

Darid Richardson, Terons, boll, 3 jears and oTer Sd premium 16 00 

Luther Rawsou, Oak Creek, bull, 1 jear old aod under S, let preminm 9 00 
A. Richmond, Whitewater, bull, I jear old and under S, Sd premium. B 00 

i. Bichmond, Whitewater, uow, ■ jeara and over, let preminm SO 00 

Lncher Rawson, Oak Creek, cow, 8 jea™ and orer 2d preminm. ...... IB 00 

Isaac 9. Newton, HIddleton, heifer, 2 jeara and nnder 8, lat premium. 16 00 
laaac S. Newton, HidJIeton, beifer, S jears and under 8, Sd premium. 7 00 

Luther Rawson, Oak Creak, heifer cair, 1»( premium 7 00 

IsnacS. Newton, Hiddleton, heifer calf, Sd premium 6 00 

Isaac S. Newton, Hiddieton, buU calf, lit premium 1 OO 

Lnthet Bawson, Oak Creek, beifer 1 jear old and ander S, Ist premium 10 00 

CLASS IS— ALDERNET8. 

Bull, S jean and o*«r, no eDtrr. 

JaB. HcCbnd, Lodi, bull, S jeam and under I, [onlj one entrj,] IM 

premium :...»Hi 00 

J. W. HarTej, Hadison, boll, 1 j^ and under a, l*t preminm 7 00 

Jaa. HoCloud. LodI , bull, 1 year and nnder a, Sd premium 6 00 

Jaa. McOlond, Lodi, cow, 8 jeare and orer, [only eutrj] lat premium. £0 00 

GLASS IS-ATRBHIRES. 
No entries. 

CLASS 11— QEBKFORDS. 



^dbvCoO^^k' 



EXHIBITION OF 1865. 251 

CLASS ie-OBU>E CATTLE ASD WOBSINO OXEN. 

J. S. Haaion, Lima, bMt cow, S jeara old bdiI otsf, Ist premtnin. ...|10 DO 

Lather lUwMn, Oak Creek, beat joke vocklDg oieo, let premium IS DO 

Tho«. Roonej, Harmortj, beat Toke working oien, 3d jremlnm 10 00 

Lather Rawaon, O&k Creek, yokit S j«u old steer*, lat pTemlnm 7 00 

Thos. WoUiicrait, JaneiTille, jokft B jear old Mean, Sd premium,.., S 00 

John He Dry, Johnstown, steer, 1 yetr old, Itt premium 3 00 

Luther RawBOD, Oak Creek, iteer, 1 year old, id premium S 00 

Luther Bawsou, Oak Creek, grade heifer, 1 yrar old, (not on premium 

lUt). lat premium 8 00 

Geo. J. Kellogg, heifer, 3 years old and uuder 8, Sd premium 8 00 

0LA88 16— HILCH COWS. 
J. Fowle, Bradford, miloh cow, (oolj eotry, lat premiam Ill 00 

CLASS 11— VAT CATTLE. 
So entries. 



CLASS 18-SPANISH HEBIN03. 

D. 0. Brooki, Fond da Lac, buck, 2 yeara old and orer, lat premium. .|10 00 

Harvln Pratt, Lima, buck, i yeara old and over, Sd premium f 00 

H. Hemenway, Whitewater, buck, 1 yaar« old and under latpremlnm. 1 00 
Knox k Smith, Whitewater, bucka, 1 year old aud uadar 3, 2d premi- 
um 5 DO 

Bichard Bicharda, Baoine, 8 buck lamba, lat premium 6 00 

B. U. Rice, Whitewater, 8 bock Iambs, Ed premiam 8 00 

D. 0. Brooke, I'oad da Lao, s' ewea, S yean and orer, lat premium ... 10 00 

Kchard Bichards, Baclne, S ewea, S yeare and over, !d premium. ... T 00 

Kiohkid Bicbarda, Baclne, 8 ewea, 1 year and under 2, lit premium. . 7 00 

D. 0. Brooks, Fond da Lao, 8 ewea, 1 year aud under 2, Sd premium. . B 00 

Bichard Bicharda, Bacine, 8 ewe lamba, let premiam S 00 

B. B. A C M. Clark, Whitewater, S ewe lambs, Sd premiam 8 00 

CLASS IB— FEENCH KEBIN03. 

L. Landou, Waupun, back, S yean and oTer 1st premium |10 00 

W. L. V. Orandidl, Hilton, buck, 3 yean and over, Sd premium 1 00 

L. Landon, Waupun, back, 1 year and onder S, lat premiam i 00 

C. B. Yincenl, Hilton, buck, 1 year and under 3, Sd premium B 00 

L. Landon, Waupnn, 8 back lamba, 1st premium B 00 

8 buck lambs, uo 3d premiam awarded. * 

L. Landon, Wanpun, 8 ewes, 3 years and orer, lat premium 10 00 

8 ewes, % yean and over, no 2d premium awarded. 
W. L. v. Crandall, Hilton, 8 ewea, 1 year and under 9, (no lat premi- 
um awardod), Sd premium S 00 

> ewe lambs, no competition, not worthy preminm. 

CLASS SO-SILESIAK 8HKEF. 
No entries. 



c,ai,z.db,Co(>t^[c 



252 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETT 

0LA83 ai— LONG WOOL. 

In S. Huettine, BlchteDd CeDtre, buck, % jetn and orer, \at premi- 

nm tlOOO 

Jqo. Aleiinder, HiltoD, buck, i jskts Kod over, ltd premium 7 00 

In S. Bamltine, Bichland Center, back, 1 year old, lit pr«m)am T 00 

Jdo. Alexander, HiUua, 8 bock lambs, l«t premlam 5 00 

In 6. Haseltlne, Richland Center, 8 ewea, 3 yean old and orer, let 

premium 10 00 

Bpunhelm Haseltlne, Richland Center, 8 ewee, S jeare old and orer, 

Mpreroium 1 00 

In B. HaeclUoe, Ricblaud Center, 8 ewes^ 1 jeai old and under 3, Ist 

premium 7 00 

B. HueltiBe, Bicbland Center. S ewes, 1 jttt old and onder 3, 8d 

premium 6 00 

Jno. Alexander, Hlltan, 3 ewe lamba, let pramtnm C 00 

S. Baseltine, Biehland Center, S ewe Umbs, id prvminm 8 00 

OLABd SS— VIDDLE WOOL. 

Matthew Towera, Omro, buck, 3 jeare and over, let premium flO 00 

In S. Heseltioe, RlobUnd Ceoter, buck, 3 jean and over, 3d pre- 
mium 1 00 

Daniel UcOuire, Omro, buck, 1 year and under 3, 1st premium f 00 

Jobn F. Roe, Durham Hill, buck, 1 year and under 3, 3d premium. ... B 00 

John P. Roe, Durham Hill, S buck lambs, 1st premium S 00 

Luther Rawaou, Oak Creek, 8 buck limbe, 3d premium S OO 

E. D. Oheeebro, Li Pnirie, S owes, 3 jean and orer, lit premlnm. ... 10 00 

John P. Roe, Durham Hill, S ewee, 3 jeara and OTer, 3d premium 1 00 

E. D. Cheesbro, La Prairie, 8 ewes, 1 jcar and under 3, Ist premium. ^ 00 

John P. Roe, Durham Hill, 8 ewee, 1 year and under 3, 3d premium . . H 00 

E. J>. Cheeebro, La Prairie, 3 ewe Iambs, 1st premium B 00 

John P. Roe, Durham Hill, 8 ewe lamba, 3d premium 8 00 

CLASS 28— FAT SHEEP. 
No entri*!. 

Joseph (loDid, of Stonghton, entered In olasa 31 a back and ewe which the 
Committee ny an Ter; fine and Tat. Tbej beliere that if these sheep bad 
been entered in the clats of Fat Sheep tne; would hare taken tbe flrit pre- 
mliun, and tbej recommend that a disoretionarj premium be awarded bim. 



CUSS 34— SHALL BREEDS. 



^d by Google 



EXHIBITION OF 1865. 



CLASS 88— POULTRY. 



Carlton B. Otse, JkomyUU, thanghal fowls, Ist pramiam (3 00 

Simon Bable, Betolt, tarke;«, premium 3 00 

W. U. Ulller, J>nea*nie, Cochin China, premi am 3 00 

A. Chapia, JanesTille, BpiiD|];I«d Hamburg, premium 3 00 

Alfred Dewe;, Janesville, black Spanish, premiam 8 00 

Simon Ruble, Beloit, greatest variet; poultry, owned hy exhibitor, 

premium 5 00 

Simon Ruble, Beloit, white fwan, diicretioDary. 

A. Chipin, JaneSTille, Polands, premium i 00 

Carlton B. Cage, JioeBTlDe. Bautama, premium 8 00 

SimoD Ruble, Belolt, ducks, pair, premium 3 00 

Simon Ruble, Beloit, Pea fowls, premium 3 OO 

Simon Snble, Beloit, gime fowls, premium 3 00 

Simon Ruble, Beloit, geese, premiam 2 00 



PRODUCTS OF THE SOIL. 



CLASS 26-FreLD PRODUCTS. 

J.J. Denett, Hilton, winter wheat, 1st premium (8 00 

David Walsh, Hilton, winter wheat, 2<1 premiam 3 00 

Wm. Holliushead, Elkharn, winter wheat committee recommead 



B. Wilcoi, Trempeleau, Oatu, Ist premium.. ■ 3 00 

David Walsh, Hilton, 2d premium Transactions. 

George J . Kellogg, JaneBTlUe, buokwKeat, Ist premium a 00 

J. A. Hendrick, La Prairie, buckwheat, 3d premium.. ..Transactions. 

K. Hacomber, Emerald Grove, flax eenil, Ut premiam g 00 

David Walsh, Harmon;, flax seed, Sd premium 3 00 

Wm. Hollinshead, Elkhorn, closer seed, 1st premium B 00 

Mrs. S. Coville, West Milton, hops, Ist premium (00 

N. Macomber, Emerald Grove, timothy seed, Ist premium 8 00 

J, Waterman, Milton, timothy seed, 2d premiam 2 00 

J. 0. French, Galesville, peas. Ist premium S 00 

£ . Howell, Jauesville, peas, 2d premium TransactionB. 

J. 0. French, Galesville, Ist premium 3 00 

George J. Kellogg, Janesville, bean^i, 3d premium TraDUctions. 

Z. F. Bnrdick, Janesville, seed corn, lat premium g 00 

J. 8. Oleland, seed corn, Sd premiam Transactions. 

£. Wilcoi, Trempeleau, seed corn, committee recommend Transac- 

E. Howell, Janesville, Mercer potatoes, (only entry) Ist premium 3 00 

George J . Kellogg, Janesville, pinkeye potatoes, Ist premium S 00 

E . Howell, Janesville, pinkeye potatoes, 3d premium. . . .Transactloos. 



j.A'OO'^lc 



STATE AGBICnLTUEAL SOOIETT. 



P. SchmUz, H*nnony, new ftcd excellent Tarietlei, lat premium 5 OO 

George 3. Eellogg, Janearille, nen and eicellent Tarieties, £d prem. . 8 00 

N. Utcomber, Emerald Orore, orrots, I«t premium 2 00 

Qeorge J. Kellogg, JaneBville, id premiom TranMCtiooB. 

CLAS3 S7.— OARD£K VEGETABLES. 

A. W. HaiOD, Dtrien, IS beets, let premium Trane. 

Z. Wilson, Palmjn, lUaweet poUtoee, Ut premium 2 DO 

J. H. Smith, JaneaTille, stmple of onions, let premium 2 00 

Dsvid Walsh, Harmon;, sample of onioos, 3d premium Trans. 

G. H. WiUiston, JanesTilIe, S heads cabbage, premiam Trans. 

R. 11. Wheeter, Janesville, IS tomatoes, premium Tranft. 

G. W. Leek, Harmonj, pumpkins, [not on premium list.] proml- 

um. Trans. 

U. 3. Plumb, UadisoD, variet; garden prodacts, 1st premium S 00 

Z. Schn ell, Janesville, lariet; of gardeo products, Sd premium S 00 

J. Heacoi, Baraboo, eqauhes, [not on premium list,] premi- 
um Traoa. 

CLASS 28,— PB0DCCT3 OF THE DAIKT AND HOUSEHOLD. 

C. C. Fisher, Center, June made butter, 1st premium 1 00 

A. A. Eeltb, Bohnatovn, batter made at anj time, premiam S 00 

Z. Wilson, Palmyra, bests cheese, IsC premiam 7 00 

N. Recbtmeyer, Bristol, 8 cheese, Sd premiam S 00 

F. H. Ooburn, Whitewater, S cheese, 8d premiam 8 00 

If. 8. Twining, Magnolia, bast single cheese, 1st premium S 00 

Cbauncej Boss, Beloil, Sd best single cheese, 2d premium Trans. 

J. 0. Birge, Whitewatpr, bbl winter wheat flour, 1st premium E 00 

Jacob A. Brooks, Beloit, bhl spring wheat flour, 1st premium D 00 

J. 0. Blrge, Whitewater, bbl spring wheat flour, Sd premium 8 00 

B. S.Hoiie, CooksTille, hone;, 1st premium G 00 

D. StruDk, Janesville, bone;, Sd premiam B OO 



FEUITS AND FL0WEB3. 



CLASS SB.— FKUIT8 BY NON-PBOFKSSIONAL CULTIVATORS. 



Wm. Butler, Oakfleld, TarlGiies of apples, not less than S specimens 

10 rarieties, Isl premiam Diploma and 1 00 

0. U. Fowler, Paris, Tarieties of apples, not less than S specimeue, 48 

rarieties, Sd premium B 00 

Geo. Sherman, La Prairie, varieties of apples, not less than 3 speci- 
mens, 83 Tarieties, Sd premium. SOD 

B. B. Olds, Clinton, 10 Tarieties apples adapted to north-west, 1st pre- 
mium 8 00 

Geo. Sherman, La Prairie, 10 Tsiieties apples adapted to north-west, 

9d premium 9 00 

Francis Westby, Clinton, 10 Tarieties apples adapted to Dortfawest, Sd 
premium Trans. 

Fiauola Westbj, Cllatoa, B Tarieties of apples adapted to north-west. 



EXHIBITION OF 1866. 266 

B. B. Olds, OIlntOQ, E Tsrieties applBi adapted to iMrth-««it, Sd pre- 
mium TraoB. 

Ohu. M. Plumb, Lake Kllta, antumn apple*, lat premlam. Diploma and f! OO 

B. Floyd, Berlin, automn apples, Sd pramium S 00 

Fraocia Weatbj, Ollntoii. antumn apples, 8d premium S 00 

H.Floyd, Berlin, winter applet, ) it premium, Diploma and T 00 

F. 0. Curtis, Bocky Ron, winter apples, Sd premlam 6 00 

Chas. H. Plnicb, Lake Hi Hi, winter apples, Sd premium S 00 

Thomas Howland, KeQosha, pears best and largest, variety not leu than 

S speaimons, 1st premlam, Diploma and B 00 

L. Woodwartli, Bristol, peare, beat and largest, variety not less than 

S apeoimens, Sd premium 8 00 

6eo. P. PeBer, Fewaokee, pears, best and largest variety not less than 

S specimens, 8d premiuin Trans. 

E. Wilcoi, Trempealeau, plums, greatest variety not less Ihaii S speoi- 

mens, Itt premium, Diploma and S 00 

Ohas. Hanford, Emerald Arove, grapes, variety uot less than S clusters 

each, 1st premium, Diploma and 6 00 

I. 0. Sloan, Jauesviile, grapes, variety not teat than S clusters each, Sd 

premium t 00 

Thomas Eowlrod, Cenosha, 1 varieties grapes, adapted to geaeral cul- 
ture, ist premium 8 00 

E. Floyd, Berlin, 8 varieties grapes adapted to general culture, 1st pre- 
mium S 00 

Ohaa. Bauford, Emerald Orove, grapes grown under glass, Ist premi- 
um Diploma. 

E. Elllcott, Lone Bock, water melons, best and largest collection, Ist 

premium S 00 

Z. Wilson, Palmyra, water melons, best and largest collection, 8d pre- 



CLASS BO-FRDITS BT FR0FE89I0HAL CULTIVATORS. 

Tnttle, Clark & Sin, Baraboo, greatest variety apples, not less than 

three specimens, 1st premium Diploma and 17 00 

James L. Tubbs, Elkhorn, greatest variety apples, not less than three 

specimens, Sd premiuni S 00 

F. W. London, Janesvi.le, greatest vaijety apples, not less tban three 

specimeni, 8d premium S 00 

Geo. J. Kellogg, Janesvllle, best ten varieties apples adapted to north- 
vest, lat premium 8 00 

¥. W. Loudon, Janesvllle, best ten verities apples adapted to north- 
west, Sd premium 2 00 

Tattle, Clark k Son, Baraboo, best five varieties apples adapted to 

northwest, lit premium S 00 

Geo. J. Kellogg, Janesville, best varieties apples adapted to north- 
west, !d premium Transactions. 

Tattle, Clark A Son, Baraboo, autumn apples, 1st premium,. .Dip. and T 00 

Cbaa. Hanford, Emerald Orove, autnmu apples, 3d premium, D 00 

Oeo. J. Kellogg, Janesville, autamn apple^ 8d premium S 00 

Tattle, Clark « Son, Baraboo, winter apples, Ist premium. . -Dip. and 1 00 

Oeo. J. Kellogg, Janesville, winter apples, Sd premium S 00 

F. W. Loudon, Janesville, winter apples, Sd premium 8 00 

F. W. Loudon, Janesville, pares, best and largest variety not less than 

three specimens eacli, lat premium... Diploma and E 00 

James L. Tubbs, Elkhorn, pears, best and lagest variety not less than 

three specimens each, Sd premium S 00 

6eo. J. Kellogg, Janesrille, pears, best and largest variety not less 

than three speoimeDs each, Sd premium Transactions. 

F. W. Loadon, JanasviUr, best show quinces, 1st premium 8 00 

F. W. Loudon, Janesville, two or more v^e^ea qalneet, 1st preml- 
UB Transactions. 



j.^Coo^^lc 



26« STATE AGRICULTUEAL SOCIBTT. 

F. W. Iiondon, Jtnenltle, peaohes, beat «ho«, Ist premlnm MM 

F, W. LoudoD, JuieBTille, grapes, greatest rariet;, I at premi- 

nm Diploma and 6 00 

Iiaac AtwODd, Laka Hills, grapes, gceatrlt Tariet?, 2d premiam S 00 

F. W. LaudoD, JansBTllle, grapea, best three *arlecies adapted to gen- 
eral callure, lat premium g 00 

F. W. LoudoQ, JADesriUs, peaches, sinftle varietj, premlam 9 00 

J. 0. Plamb, kadisDn, eibibitlon of apple trees adapted to oorthweet, 

premiaiD Diploma. 

F. W. London, Janesville, beat and greatest varietj fralt of all kinds , 

raised bj exhibitor, premium Diploma and 10 00 

Qeo. J. £'llogg, JaaesTilie, water melons, best and largest collootioa, 

1 Bt premium b 00 

J. C. Piumb. Hadieon, water melons, best and largest colleotion, 2d 

premiam S 00 

CL&B3 SI— WISCONSIN WIKES. 

Chas. Hanrord, Emerald Grove, best assortment, preminm.. .Diploma. 

Ohas. Hanford. Kmerald OroTs, grape wine, 1st preminm 6 00 

B. B. Olds, Clinton, grape wine, Sd premium 8 00 

B. B. Olds, Clinton, currant wiue, let premium S 00 

Mrs. TboB. Barlasa, Kmerald Qrove, onrrant wIqs, Sd premium. a OO 

B. B. Olds, Cliuton, rhubarb wine, lit premium g 00 

B. H. Wbeeler, JaneaTille, rhubarb wine, Sd premium. 8 00 

Chaa. Hanford, Emeral Orore, strawberry wine, premium S 00 

CLASS S2— FLOWERS BT NONrROFES SIGNAL CULTIVATOBS. 

HrB. F. S. Lawrence, JanesTille, floral design, natural flowers, premi- 
um Diploma and 8 00 

Hrs. F S. Lawrence,JanesTille,quatitT and Tarietj cut flowers, premium 2 00 
Fhileua UcEitlepe, JohnstowD, house plants, premium, (diBcreliouary.) 
Carrie Plumb, Uadison, basket of flowers most tastefully arranged, 1st 

premium 2 00 

Josephlna Peffer, Pewaukee, basket of flowers most tastifullj arranged, 

2d premium- Transactions. 

Mw. F. S. Lawrence, JanesTille, quality and Tarlety verbenns, let 

premium S 00 

Josephina PeBier, Pewaukee, quality and Tsriety Terbenas, 2d premi- 
um. Transactions. 

Josephina Peffer, Pewaukee, display dahlias, premium a 00 

Hrs. Blchard Williams, Palmyra, petunias, ist premium 3 00 

JosephiaaPetfer, Pewaukee, petunias, Sd premiuu Transactiona. 

Hartha Smith, Emerald Grore, variety wild flowers, premium 2 00 

Josephlna Peffer, Pewaukee, variety astera, premium 2 00 

H. L. Plumb, Kudison, variety pan si en, 1st premium 2 00 

Josephina Peffer, Pewaukee, variety pansiei, Sd premium, Trans. 

Martha Smith, EmeraM Grove, flat bouquet, premium a 00 

Josephina Peffer, Pewaukee, variety phloies, Ist premium a 00 

HarthaSmitb, Emerald Grove, most taBtefullj arranged bouquet, prem. a 00 
H. L. Plumb, Uadison, pyramid bouquet, premium 8 00 

CU-BS !B.— FLOWERS BT PROFESSIONAL 0ULTIVA0T8. 

J. C. Plumb, Uadison, best ornamental design, premiun s 00 

J. S. Shearman, Rockford, III., greatest varietv dafaliaa, premium, ... 8 00 

J. S. Shearman, Bockford, 1)1., 12 named dahlias, premium 2 00 ' 

O. W. Twiss, Rockford, III., greatest variety verbenas, premium S 00 

F. W. Loudon, .laneaville, 12 named verbenas, premium 8 00 

J. S. Shearman, Rockford, III., display roses, premium S 00 

F. W. Loudon, Janearille, 12 named roses, premiam a 00 



j.A'OO'^IC 



EXmBITIOfr OF 1866. 267 

t. W. London, JftOMrille, rarietj gr«en honfe plaots, premiom 9t 00 

V. W. London, Jkneirille, 30 Tarietiei green hoDM plants in bloom, 

premiom 8 00 

F. W. Loudon, JanMrllle, KaraniiimB, prgminin 8 00 

F. W, London, Janeifllle, faBcbias, premium TraDB. 

O. W. Twin, Rookford, IlL, collection cot floven, pramium 8 00 

6. W. Twin, Eockford, 111, round boaqiMt, pramlnm Trani. 

G. W. Twiis. Rockford, III, varietj pbloiea, premimn Tntna. 

O. W. Twiu, Rockford, III., Tarietj altera, premina -• Trana. 

F. V. London, Jnnesvillo, best 6 astera, premiom Trant. 

O. W. Twlas, Rookford, HI., Tariety petuniai, preminm Tram. 

fi. W. Twlsr, Bockford, 111., varietj pioBies, premium Trans. 

F. W. Loudon, Janeivill^, carnations, premiom Tnuia. 

Hra. J. 0. Plnmb, HadUon, rariet; all aorta of flowery premlnm, Dip- 
loma aod 6 00 

0Li.B8 S4— DBLI0AGIE8. 

EttberOheeabro, Emerald OroTe, beat and graateitTartetiegJeUiMQOt 

leu than S, premium g OB 

■artbaSinlth, Bmerald QrOTo, Applejellj, pi«mlam 1 00 

■n. J. C. Plnmb, HadlBoo, pickles, bast andgreateil Tariety, iMre- 

miam S 00 

R. U. Vbeeler, jar picklaa, premiuia 1 00 

Hra. J. 0. Floiab, Hadiaon, apple pickles, prealiim 1 00 

Mrs. J. G. Flomb, Hadiaon, colteetion sealed trvli, preuiuK S 00 

Hra. J. 0. Plumb, Hadiaon, apple butter, premium 1 00 

Hra. J. 0. FJanb, black carrent jam, premium 1 00 



IMPLEMENTS AND MACHINERY. 

CL18S 85.— HjkCHIKXBT AND IHFLGUEHTB FOR IGRICOLTCRII. 
FCRFOSKS. 

A.. 3. Luckcf, BradfonI, oom and cane harreater, " Hasdoa, " pre- 
mium Dip. 

Fowler fc Weeks, Upper Sandnakr.bar-atacklQgmscbiiM, bayeatherer, 

Diploma (o each. 

Andrew Proadflt, Hadiaon, aelf-rakinj reaper " Wood's, " Dip. 

A, J. Lnckj, Bardford,, haFreiter, "Xarab " IHp, 

Glow & Qnlld, Janeatllle, reaper, " Olow'e " 1st. Dip. 

Tboa. FalTey, Racine, reaper and mower, Dip. 

Thoa. FalTey, Bacloe, mowers, lit preminm Dip. 

F. H. Hannr, Bockford, mowera, 2d premiom Trana. 

Gbaa. Beiton, Janearille, gsnz plows, piemiam Dtp, 

Barber ft Hawlej, Deoatnr, Ilu., gang and aubsoil, pieminm, Dip. 

Barr ft Goi, Beloit, common plows premiom Dip. 

J. 0. Trainer* Co.,Tftfton, crossing plow, prflmiom Dip. 

Wm. B. Tunng ft Co., Chicago, 111., S plows, best steel atandard and 
best collection, premium Dip. 

Fuiat ft Bradley, Chicago, 111., sod plow, stiff soil, premium Di[k 

1. L Case Jk Go., Bacine, threibing niacliinet, cllmai power, 1st pre- 
mium, diplomasnd M OO 

T. 0. Welch, Ohlcago, HI., tbresbing machine, 6 bone Hasailon, Id 

premlnm 10 00 

17 AO. tRAHB. 



■j,\.00^\q 



268 STATE AGRICUIiTURAL SOCIETY. 

8. S. Taylor, Horioon, (hreBhioiciiikchlDe knuckle, preminni Dip. 

J. Nub, JanetTille, finniDg millH, premium Dip. 

j, H. Hay, JaacBvlIle, wind millg, Igt premium, Diplomft audtlfi 00 

Hills Bcoa., Chicago, wind mill, Sd premium 10 OO 

Sherman & Broughtoa, Uilvaukee, farm and carden gat«, [autODiatioJ 

premium Dip. 

SrattOD & Alvortb, Winnebago, 111., seeder and cultivator aliach- 

ment, premium Dip. 

A. B. Wllliime, Hadiaon, grain screen, premium Dip. 

A. J. Blood, JaneiTille, farm and garden Mtea, Sd premium Traoa. 

Chas. B. Dreaslin, Chicago, 111., grain fork, premium Dip, 

Henry Basael, Beloit, farm gale, Sd premium Trana. 

M. L. Lovia, Iowa Uitj, uy loader, wagon brake, abeep-abearing 

atool Diploma to each. 

ITelaon Bacon, DeacsTllle, corn planter, "Ohio, " premium Dip. 

J. H. Hay, JineBTille, farm gate, lat premium Dip. 

S. L. Sbeldon & Bro., Uadiaon.Rraln drill, " Bnckaye, " lat premlimi, Dip. 

Ouy Garter, JancaTille, grain drill, id premium Trans. 

J. C. TraiD«i-t Co., TalVon, CulCiTalora, lat premium 8 00 

Tnrat & Bradley, Chicago, cultivator, Sd premium 2 00 

B. H. Butey, Bacine, borM rake, let premnm Dip - 

Oalt, Trsoj k Co., Sterling, 111,, horae rake Sd premium i 00 

North Star washing machine Co., Horicon, washer and wringer combiD- 

ed, lat premium Dip. 

J. Large, Oakfield, washer ftod wringer combined, 2d premium, Trana. 

Joaeph Adima, Janeaville, waabing machine, let premium ..Dip. 

Doty Bros., JanesviUe, waabing macbine, 3d premium Trana. 

J. H. Cook, Tiffin, Ohio, ohurn*, lat premium Dip. 

B. A. Davis, Janeaville, corn pUnt«r, premium Dip. 

Thoa. Crane, Yt. Atkinson, stump macbine Dip. 

T. Q. A H. W. FalDiEr, Cbicago, bone pitob fork Dip. 

F. G. Welch, Chicago, moat numeroua cDllectiou of agrieoltaral imple- 

menta Dip. 

CLASS Sa— UACHINEBT FOR HANUFACTUBINO FOBP08ES. 

L. Cornell, & Co., Chicago, family sewing machine, "Wtlcoi ft Olbbe," 

lat premium, Dlplomaand tS 00 

Graver k Baker sowing machine Co., flmiil; nwing magbioe, " Qrover 

& Baker," 2d premium S 00 

Mrs. S. H. Ooe & Co., Jaoeiville, family aewlng machine, "Wheeler & 

Wilson," diacreCioaarj premium. 
Orover A Baker sewing machine Co., Uilwaakee, mannfaoturingaewing 

maobine, "Grover A Baker," 1st premiam, diploma and li 00 

S. Branson, Chicago, knittios machine, lat premium, diploma and... B 00 

Hri. H. L Banaom, Janasville, knitting mactiiae, Sd premium B 00 

J. B. Wait & Co., Watertown, band loom, premium Dip. 

J. B. Wait A Co., Watertown, spinning wheel, premium Dip, 

CLASS tT-HACHINEBT FOB THE HANDFACTUBB OF BORQH0M 
BTRUP AND SUGAR 

E. W. Bkinner & Co., Hadiioa, apparatus complete, ]« premiam, 

Silver medal and fSO 00 

James Harris k Co., Janesville, apparatua complete, recommended for 
a Sd premiam 

B. W. Skinner ft Co., Hadiaon, geared sugar mill, latpremiom Dip. 

E. W. Skinner ft Co., Hadison, aweep augar mill, latpremiom Dip. 

Northwestern aorgho machine Co,, Uadison, sweep sugar mill, Sd premi- 
um B 00 

E. W. Skinner ft Co., Hadiion, "Plantation" mill, 1st premium Dip. 

JktnrB Barria ft Co., Janeiville, engar evaporator, lat premium... Trans. 



..i.A'Oti<^lc 



EimBmON OF 1866. 269 

E. W. Skiimer t Oo., H&disoD. gagir eviporator, 2d premiom Dip. 

B- Ii- Briar, Binboo, umpl« of augar, Ist premium ■ |I0 00 

Jmmet Barrii k Co., Janeiiille, eampla syrups, lat prflminm. 6 00 

E. W. Bkinner & Co., HkdisOQ, sample ayrupa, Sd premiom. 4 00 

J. L Cue k Co., RaciDe, power, lit preminm Dip. 

Hortbweatem Soi^ho 0, Hadieon, power, id premium Trana. 

Northweatora Sorgho Co., Hadiaon, aacohirometer, lat prBmtom Dip. 



MANUFACTtTREa 

GLASS as— 0ARRIA6ES, STOBES AND HABN8SS. 

Smith A Nichols, JaneBville, doable carriage, lit premium, dip. or. .|10 00 
Smitli & Nichols, Janesvllle, ain^le top buggy, 'lat premlDm,Dlp]omB or 1 00 

Hodge k Buckholi, JaaeaTille, amgle top bugg;, 3d premium ,. 4 00 

Smith k Nichols, Janeaville, sinele riding buggy, let premium, Dip. or 5 00 

Hodge k Buckbob, JanesTlUe, single riding buggy, ii premium g 00 

Smith k Nichola, JanesTitle, display of camagea, lat premium Dip. 

J. H. Bicker, JaneiTille, carriage ham eas, lat premium 5 00 

Kothmau k Wlockler, Janesvllle, carriage harueaa, Sd premium g 00 

Kothman t Winakler, Janeavillc, single haruesa, only eutrj. premium. 6 00 
W. J. Doolittte, JaneBTille, cooking stove for wood, lat premium, 

diploma and g 00 

E. S. BarrowB, JaneaTille, cooking atove for wood, ad premium, Trans. ' 

E. S. Batrows, JaaeaTille, cooking store fbr coal, 1st premium, Diploma 

andf 8 00 

W. S. Doolittle, JancBTille, cooking atore for coal, Sd premium Traoa. 

W. J. Doolittle, JaneBTills, omamental parlor atoTe, lat premium. . . .Dip. 

E. 8. BarrovB, Janeavilie, ornamental parlor atore, 2d premium Trans. 

W. J. Doolittle, JaaeaTille, hollow ware, premium Dip. 

E. Mapel, BipOQ, brooms, lat premiom Dip. 

0. W, Kellogg, Bipon, brooms. Sd premium Tnuii. 

W. 1. Doolittle, JaneaTille, 12 milk pans, premiom Dip. 

CLASS g9.— BEE HITES AND BEE HANAGEVBNT. 

For management of Bees, kc,. Committee recommended that the premium 
be diTided eqaally between W . A . Flaaders, of Shelby, Ohio, James Bnilard 
of ETensTille, BodB. 0. Otis, of EeaDaha. 

B. 0. Otis, Eetiosba, best bee blve for praoUoal bee oultare, "Langs- 
troth'stuTe," Dip. 

CLASS 40.-CABINET WABE, C00PBB4GVWILL0W WABE, LEATH- 
EB, BOOTS AND SHOES. INDIA BUBBER SOODS, bo. 

A. J. Barbridge, llilwaukee, cabinet ware, wbat-not and plgtnra tnai«, 

premium Tnns. 

W. H. Sherman, Ulwaukee, caired ruatic A«mea, Trani. 

Qoodwin k Carpenter, Belolt, willow baaketa, premium 8 00 

QoodwlD k Carpenter, Beloit, diaplay of willow ware nude in SUte, 

premium Dip. and S OQ 

W. A. Beyuolda, JanesTille, ladies' winter boots, lat premiom S 00 

0. Miner, JuesTille, ladies' fancy shoes, lat preniitnn s 00 



j.A'OO'^lc 



STATE AGRIOULTUBAL SOCIETY. 

putDUn & Hnribnt, Berlin, i^ta winter boots, Ist premium |S 00 

Futnun A Horlbat, Berlin, genti fancy booti, let premium 8 00 

Fataun k Horlbat, Berlin, gents gaitere, in premium S 00 

•"'■■" ■'1, Udi 



Pntnun k Hnrlbnt, Berlin, Udies eTerTda7gi.itera, 1st premium B 00 

0. H. PerWuB, Wyoming, NairTork, c«lf ikina "■ 

0. H. Fsrkins, W7omi^g, New York, S robes, calf, coon, and c 



_...Dip. 

. FerUiia, Wjoming, New York, S sheep skins Dip. 

. FerUni, Wyoming, New York, Terry's tan uiag process Dip. 

CLASS 41.— LIGBTnia AFPAR&TU3. 



CLABS 43.— MUSICAL IHSTRTTHEIfTS. 

Beed's Temple of Husic, Chicago, grand piano, "CMckering**," 1st 

premiuin Dip. and 6 00 

Seed's Templa of Hnslo, Chicago, boadoir piano, " CblckeriDg's," Ist 

premium Sip. and 8 00 

D. D. WilMn, JanesTille, square plaoo, " Enabe's," Ist p[«- 

minm Dip. and 8 GO 

Beed'i Temple of Music, Chicago, parlor piano, "Emerson's," 

Istpreaiom Dip. and 8 00 

D. D. Witson, Janesville, parlor organ, "Hason Ji Ham- 

lia'a,"preinium Dip. and 8 00 

J. B. Eldredge & Co., JanetTille, melodeon, "EiDeardA 

Drehen's," Cleveland, Ohio, premium Dip. and 8 00 

D. |D. Wilson, JanasTille, amHll musical inst rumen ta, 1st premium Dip. 

J. B. Eldredge A: Co., JanesTtlle, church organ, "Jewitt &0ood- 

nuu's," Cleveland, Obio, iBt premium Dip. 

CLABS 48.— 8ILVEB WABB, CCTLBBY, BRITTAHNIA WARE. 

A. P. Barroe^ JaneeviUe, dentists materials Dip. 

No competition in other article' of this class. Gommittee favorably mea- 
Uon each display . Tbe beautiful silver tea net, table spoons, and card case, 
purohased by the Society of Jas. A, Webb, of Janesville, for uie as prizes 
eu '-Equestrtanlsni," were not entered for competition, but received high 
commendation . 

CLASS 44.— PAFEB, FEINnNG, BOOK-BIKDING 

W. J. Fark&Oo., HodtMa, library binding, 1st premium Dip. 

W. J. FarkACo., Hadiaon, book work, (all In all,) Ist premium Dip. 

W. 3. Park & Co., Madison, fancy binding, Isl premium Dip. 

W. J. Fuk & Co., Madison, blank bookbinding, premium Dip. 

GLASS 40.- TEnUE FABRICS, OLOTHINO AC. 

6. H. Stewart, Beaver Dun, doeskin doA, 1st premium S 00 

O. H. Stewart, Beaver dam, keriimere, 1st premium s OO 

F. A. WbeelerABons, JanesviUfl, kerelmere, id premium 8 00 

Q. H. Stewart, Beaver Dam, flannel, 1st premium s 00 

F. A. Wheeler & Sons, Janeavllle, flannel, £d premium 8 00 

ffildebrand k Co , JanesvIUe, hats uid caps, Ist premium diploma or, S 00 

Bohlin AFoote, JanesviUe, men's clothing, 1st premium diploma or.. 8 00 

■ohlin A Foote, JanesviUe, boys olothing. Ist premiam. . . .Diploma or S 00 
0. H. Perkins, Wyoming, New York, gents gloves, (fur,) premium Dip- 

hMoaor t 00 



l;A'Ol><^IC 



EXHIBITION OP iSm. 361 

CLASB 4fl.— SOHESTia KAITUPAOTUBBS. 

Xn. S. J. Uonroe, Falton, Woolen bluikeU, premiam S 00 

IIh. Ben Chue, JeiTeraon, linen thread, premltun S 00 

Hn. Siunael Gftrr, Dekore, wool j>rQ, premiam. 1 00 

Ura. Samuel Cur, Dekora, tov tinsn thr«ad premiam Trans. 

UImL. E. Monroe, FultOD, balmoral sklrti, tat preraimn Traoa. 

Mn. David HcCaltoch, balmiral skirts, Sd premlaDi 1 00 

Hra. Samoet Oarr, Dekora, wool raittnaa, premium 100 

Hn. H.J. QraveB, JaneBTille, IS jards rag carpet premiim 8 00 

HaUDaliD. Sbaler, Futtoii, wool stookinga, Ist premlnm 1 00 

A. BendersoD, Beloit, «oo1 stookiogB, premium I 00 

Via. B. J. Uonroe, Fulton, liaen stockinRs, preniinm 1 00 

Mrs. Klii«Newell,JBni-ETille, cotton Btaclings, premium 1 00 

Qeo^e J. Eellogg, Janesville, carpet coyerlert, (double,) premium.. B 00 

U. L. Burnt, JaaesriUe, ringle coTsrlet, premium 1 00 

Hrs. Ben Cbase, JeffersoD, 111., linen towelling, tTsr; nice,) pre- 
mium Diploma and 3 00 

IraPamel;, Cent«r, patch qnilti, premium S 00 

Hrs. J. H. Barret, TrempeJean pa'ch qailta, premium 

Ura. J. O. Jenkins, JaueBrille, knit counterpaoe, premium S 00 

Uis. H. Knoff. JanesTilie, crochet oDnnterpane,Dis. premium, ...7. -Trans. 

Hrs. David UcCulloch, Dekora, gents drawers, premium Trans. 

Ura. 1. 8. Newton, Hiddletou, gents' shirts, premium S 00 

Hrs. H. S, Hurrln, Hilwaukee, embroidered handkerchief case Dipl'a. 

Hrs. B J. Honroe, Fulton, linen sheeti, premium Trans. 

Hn. J. H. Bumpbr-f, Albion, Unen pillow slips Trans. 

His. B.J. Uonroe, Falton, table linen, premium -i 00 

Xrs. Bamael Carr, Dekora, tow linen, premium S OO 

CLASS 47— HILUNEBT. 

Hrs. Beale, JsnasiUIe, bonnet flowers, 1st premium $S 00 

Hrs. £, Oanforth, Janesrille, bonnet flowers, Sd premlma 9 00 

Hra. Beale, case of millinery, 1st premium Olpl'a. 

So priies awarded to other artides. 

CLASS 4&-0RIIAHEHTAL HEEDL2 WOBE. , 

Julia Newell, JanesTflle, silk embroidery, let premium ^ '^ 

Julia Newell, JaneBTille, linen and cotton embroidery, 1st premium. . 3 00 

DaTid Bmlth, Lima, embroidery, premium ■ 8 00 

Emma Brace, Falton, wrought slippers, premium S 00 

Allee J. Bnme, JanpsrlUe, crocket tidj, 2d premium 1 00 

Mrs. E. H. Conch, Janesville, knit tldj, Ist premium 2 00 

Hrs. E. J. Tre&t, JanegTllle, embaoidejed bandkerchier, let premium. . S 00 
Julia Newell, Janesrille, bem-stitched handkercliief, let premium.... 3 00 
Hrs. J. Qoodrich, Janesville, hrm-stitched bandkerchief 2d premium., 1 00 

Xrs. A. HcOonnell, Oconomowoc, ottoman coTers, Sd premium 1 00 

Hra E. A. D&rliug, Fond dn Lac, fanoy basket work, Ist premium S 00 

Hra. J. H. Barrett, Trempealeau, fancy basket work, ad premium. , . , I 00 
Hsry Oarwtn, TartlcTille, skill and taste in lamp mats, (crochet), 

premiam 1 00 

Hra. J. H. Barrett, Trempealeau, skill and taste in lamp mats, (tutted) 

premium 1 00 

Um H. C. Brooks, Beloit, fancy hair work, Sd premium I 00 

Hrs. E. 0. Eyte, FootTille, ipecimen crocliet work Dipl'a. 

Hrs J. H. Barrett, Trempealeau, netted tidy Dipl'a. 



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STATE AGRICULTURAIj SOOIBTT. 



PRODUCTS OF FINE ARTS. 

GLASS 4S.— WORKS OF ART. 

J. A. Ties, JanMTlUe, pbotognptiB, water color, premium. . . DIplonu. 

J. A, IHce, Juiearille, phQtoKrapbs, (oil) premium Diploma. 

Urt. £. K. Bakrr, JaaeiTilTs, oil pklntiog, (Undscape) 1» 

premium Diploma. 

Hn. Q. A. Slocum, Janeirille, oil painting, (landscape) l«t 

premium Tranaaotiona. 

Hra. E K. Baker, JanesTille, oil painting, (flowers) lat premiam Diploma. 

J. A. Tice, Janesiille, ambrotjpa, lat premium Diploma. 

W. B. ShermaD, Milwaukee, pbotograpbs, premium Diploma. 

J. A. Ties, JaneaTille, 1)eat callection of aan pictures of all 

kinds, premium. Diploma and S 00 

H. Tonng, Trempeleao, water colored p^ntings of KDimala, 

let premtom Diploma. 

Hn. B. S. Baker, JaneiTille, water oolor puntings of flowers, 

premiam Diploma. 

Xrs. B. J. Treat, Jaoeavilfe, water color paintingi, (oolleotiou) 

premium Diploma and S 00 

Miss Emilj Quloer, lladisan, oil paiotinga, (portrait) 1st 

premium Diplqjna. 

Hiss EmiljQainer, Hadiaon, oil patntioga, (fruit) lat premium Diploma. 
Hies Emil; Quiner, Hadlaon, oil p^otlDgs, (flower) 2d premium TnuiBaotiotls 
Krs. E. W, Child, Janesville, best collectiou oil p^ntinga, 

premium Diploma and B 00 

J. B. Porter, JanesTille, ambrotjpes, Sd premium Trana^ottoDS. 

D. T. Ames, Sjrracnse, N. T., ornamental penmanship, premi- 
um Diploma. 

F. R. k L. P. Spencer, Hllwankee, pen drawing, premiuin.. Diploma. 

B. N. WortblDRton, Hadison, buuneaa writing, premium Diploma. 

Mrs. E. K Baker, Janesville, crayon portrait, premium Diploma. 

Hre. 0. A. Slocum, Janesirille, paatel drawing, premium Diploma. 

Mrs. O. L. Edoi, Jineafllle, pencil drawing, premium Diploma. 

Eaitman Bueiness National College, Chicago, Ul , and Poogb- 

keepeie, N. T., flourish penmanship, premium Diploma. 

* GLASS SO— MISCELLANEOCB ARTICLES. 

Merrlam & Gashing, Waterloo, working model of Herriam L 

Oushlne's patent numerical reciprocating rotary engine Commendat'n 

L S. Haaeitine, Blebland Center, 1 pair ouhmere goats, Commendat'n 

Wm. H. Doty, JaneiTille, tree trinuner and fruit gatherer, Commendat'n 

Wm. E. Bub], Mil waokee, corset skirt supporter Commendat'a 

J. B. Damen, Chillicothe, 111., grain register, special commend- 

tioD Diploma. 

G. O. Campbell, Janesville, car ooupler, special commenda- 

tion Diploma 

Agent Sheet Metal Screw Co., Sew Toil, salf-sealing ^it jars Commendat'n 
Flower k Weeks, Upper Baudusky, Oblo,eJe rating horse power, Commandat'n 

W. A. Ingalla, Chicago, III , piano stools Commendat'n 

0. C. Rogers, Fecatonioa, HI., pomp Commendat'o 

Wm. Wright, JanesTille, cider and wine press. Commendat'a 

tAwtoa Bros., Raoiae, improved animal trap,'special commen- 
dation Diploma. 

A- T. Stewart, Waapun, portable buggy top, special commen- 
dation Diploma. 

L. Cornell A Co. , Obi<»go, III., specimen machine braiding, 

hemner, feller and braider Com'udatlon- 



l;A'Ot>'^lc 



EXHIBITION OF 1865. 263 

6. W. Hamk, Chicago, DL, btbj eh&rmer and carriage, ipecial 

oommsodation Diploma. 

■re. 1. H. White, Belolt, book of sea plants, apeaiai oommen- 

datlon Diploma. 

Wood & Foitar, Lake HiUi, horse oollar block, rawhide collar, 

■pecial coonmendatton , Diploma. 

a. H. Hovard, Belolt, improred tug buckle, gpeeiul commeoda- 

tioD ' Diploma. 

S. Waggoner, Uonroe, machine for BhaTing hoops Com'ndation. 

Jno. Bnssell, Beloit, uunpla graining, giga Com'ndation. 

J. C, Crandall, Chicago, 111,, marble polisher Com'ndation, 

Agent Wfandotte Rolling Hill, WjandolCe, Hich., "Beua- 

mer " iroa, special commeiidation Diploma. 

BUtabetb Lvnch, Janearille, agricoltiiral wreath, special com- 
mendation Diploma. 

Beadj Booflng Co., 78 Haideu Lane, New Tork, specimen 

roofing materlaL Com'ndation. 

£1 D. Barnard, Porter, Hale's patent sheep rack Oom'ndation. 

0. 8. Martin, Hitoaakee, 4-horse rubberspriog wagon, S-horse 

rnbber spring wagon Com'ndation. 

John Hudeoa, Kadlson, bag holder Com'ndatioD- 

Wrighl & Hunt, JanesTille, patent eipaasion boring bitt, spe- 
cial oommendatioo Diploma. 

£dwin AllsQ, Kockford, 111., patent borse eboe Commendat'a 

Booth 4 Co , JaneaTllle, patent store damper, special com- 
mendation Diploma. 

O. A. Lewis, Sua Prairie, rotar; clothes frames, special ccm- 

mendation. Diploma. 

J. Nichols, Trempeoleam, 3 cases stuffed birds, epeoial com* 

meadatioQ Diploma. 

E. G. Chase, Berlio, spring bed Commendat'n 

Fairbanks, Oreenleafft Co., Chicago, hopperacales, warehouse 

■calea, 1100 lbs scales with wheels, 000 lbs scales with wheels Diploma. 

8. P. Coi, JaDCSTllle, clothes reel Commeodat'n 

W. W. BobinsoD, Blpon, corn planter special commendali on. . Diploma. 

Hoah Datton, JanesTlUe, jeast cakes Commendat'n 

J. Wagner, Waukeshs, eicelraor vegetable cntter, Bobertson 

patent Commendat'a 

J. L. Wells, & Co., Amea, N. T., horse ha; fork Commendat'n 

Charlie Srkton, Hadisoo, Model of State Capitol, special com. 

mendatioD Dlptema.- 



equesteianism: 



CLAS3 S2— LADIES' BIDIHO. 



IHsB Lottie Tabor, Eacina, 1st premium Silver tea tett. 

MissEnma A. Case, Beloit, 2d premium SettsIlTer table spoons. 

Miss L. ParloDg, JanesTille. 3d premiam, Sett silver lea spoons. 

■Us Lonlw Campbell, ETanrritle, 4th premium Silver card ease. 



^dbvGoo^^lc 



264 STATE AQKIOULTUBAL SOCIETY. 



lib, Google 



TRANSACTIONS 

or TBI 

WISCONSK STATE AGRICUITURAI SOCIETY 
FOB isee. 



D„ii„.db, Google 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 
1 s e e. 



DAYm Wn.T.TAHS, Spmnofkld. 



Firtt —0. L MAETIN, jAirKsyiLLB. 
Second— B. R HINKLEY, Summit. 
Third — L. B. THAS, Madisok. 



J. W. HOYT, Madisok. 



DAVID ATWOOD, Madison. 

ASDmORAL VBMBIIS Or luccnTi coiuiinii : 

K D. HOLTON, Milwaukee. 
W. R TAYXOR, Cottage Ghotk. 
C. H. WILLIAMS, Bakaboo. 
J. H. WAREBN, Albahy. 

E. STILSOlf, OSHKOBH. 

J. O. EATON, LODL 

a H. STEWART, Bkavbe Dam. 



HARVEY DURKEE, Kekosha 
J. F. WILLARD, JAM1ISVIII.E. 
B. R HINKLEY, Summit. 



lib, Google 



AJSnsrUAL EEPORT 

FOB THE TEAR ISes. 



His Exxeliency, Lccixis Faikchild, 

Governor of ihe iStale of Wiaccmsin : 

Sm : I have the honor, herewith, to submit the Treasurer's 
Annual Statement of the financial transactioDS of the Wiscon- 
sin State Agricultural Society, for the year ending Dec. 12, 
1866. 

Although not remarkable for a bouutiful yield of the vari- 
ous agricultural crops produced, the year just closed has, nev- 
ertheless, been characterized by a very general prosperity in 
all departments of industry. 

While the agriculture of the State is making a steady pro- 
gress, as a whole, the manifestly growing disposition of our 
fknnerB to adopt a more diversified system than heretofore, is 
especially worthy of notice. The agriculture of no country 
can coDtinue to flourish for any considerable number of years, 
in which the prevailing practice of raising grain for exporta- 
tion, is indulged in to the great neglect of stock-raising. This 
is so palpable as not to require comment, and yet the fermers 
of Wisconsin have long been practically regardless of the nat- 
ural laws on which this theory is based — cultivating wheat to 
the exclusion, comparatively speaking, of everything else, 
and thus robbing soils of their fertility, which, under a judi- 
cious system, might be rather increased than diminished in 
produotivenesa Our State is well adapted to every branch of 
stock-raising, and, for the more profitable branches, is inferior 
to no State in the Union. Wool-growing has made great pro- 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



268 STATE AGEICUI/TUBAL SOCIETY. 

giesB tinder tte strong stlmalas of high prices; so that the 
product has probably doubled within the past few jeara. It is 
hardly probable that the present high prices will long contin- 
ue, but so long aa the demand in the United States is many 
million pounds greater than the supply, it is clear that, with 
proper custom regulations, the prices must continue to be 
highly remunerativa But the present demand is by no means 
a criterion of what the demand for wool will be in the early 
Aitare, if measures are taken by the National and State gov- 
ernments to encourage the development of our manafacturing 
industry. 

Although the whole territory of Great Britain is but little 
larger than that of some of our great western States, her 
annual wool clip is nearly 800,000,000 pounds. And why so 
much larger — nearly double — the clip of this entire vast 
conntry ? Because the EngliHb government long ago adopted 
the policy, and for some centuries kept it up, of fostering 
manoiaotures as a leading branch of the national industry. 
The value of her woolen manufactures is now scarcely less 
than $200,000,000 per annum. This fact tells the story of her 
greater production. 

We, too, must foster mannfactures — not only aa a country, 
bat aa individual States. I know of do portion of the wcrld 
whose natural facilities for carrying on many branches of man- 
u&cturiDg ioduatry are better than ours ; and if Wisconsin 
should not, within the next quarter of a centuary, stand 
among the very foremoat of the great manufacturing States, 
it will not be because she ia wanting in all the natural 
advantages. 

In looking over the financial report of this Society you will 
find reason for congratulating the officers and all friends of 
industrial progress on the prosperity which now marks its 
general condition. That it should be instrumental in accom- 
plishing so much good in the State aa is already traceable to 
its influence, and yet be independent of all aid by State ap- 
propriations, is a just ground for pride and satisfaction on the 
part of both Society and State ; especially since therein the 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



ANNUAL EEPOBT— 1862. 269 

Society is believed to be singular among all like societies in 
the United States. 

But, notwithstanding the healthy condition of the Society's 
finances, it cannot venture to undertake the publication of its 
Transactions, without hazarding iis succens in the whole field 
of practical operations. Nor, on the other hand, can it ac- 
complish more than a part of the good work it has undertaken 
without the advantage of a regular pablication of its Transao- 
ions. For these reason the ofBcers of the Society fbel it their 
duty to the interests they have in trust to reiterate their oft- 
repeated petition that the State will re-establish its former ex- 
cellent rule of creditably printing and publishing the said 
Transactions from year to year, 

Eespectfully submitted, 

J. W. HOTT, Secretary. 
State Aqb'l Boohs, Jan., 1864 



c,ai,z.db,Co(>t^[c 



STATE AGBIODITUBAL SOOIBTT. 



tbIeasurer's report. 



Ta At &tevtm CommilU of At Windmill SlaU Jgriaillunil Soeiily : 

The DDderxigned, Treuarerof the WlBconnin SUite Agricultur&I Bocietj, 
reipectfullj reports the financi&l traaisotioiia of the Booletj for the put 
yeir, tBfollowi: 

aECEIPTS. 

Balince on faftnd la par lut report, Dec 18, 1S6D 18,074 S8 

Januarj. Received for two life members, E. Knight 

and W. 0, llien... «0 00 

Harcta. For life memberahip, O. E. Slaughter 10 00 

Of AtTood ARublee, for safe I IE 00 

Bept. 18. For rent on Fair Grounds, per Hojt, Bee. . , iP7 00 

For rent on Fair Ground b, per D. WLliiami, Prea 1,438 00 

Bept.se. For 210 life memberabipB during tbe Fair.. 8,100 00 

For entHea during the Fair eSS 00 

Sept. SG to 29. For ticketa of admiaeion to Fair S,9Be 71 

ToWreceipiB »U,»71 09 



EXFENDITUKES. 

Dec. 18. Bj order* paid for eipenaea, preinlnniB and 
Bilarlea, aa per Touchers tbis daj returned 
and cancelled, from Sob. SSI to 709, both 
incluiiTe, diabursed aa foUowt, to-wlt: 

Premiums tS,84> 00 

• Baperinteudeots, clerks, police &e 1,9CB 70 

Labor U6 as 

Printing and adTCrtiaiae ; 74S 18 

Incidental eipensea of F»ir 669 78 

Forage for Fair 87fi 00 

Bock Count; Societ7 800 00 

Damage to stook 40 00 

SaUr7 of Becretar? 1,60000 

Incidental expenses of offloe 868 9B 

t9,68e 78 

Balauoe in Treasurr, Dec IS, 1866 S,884 SS 

♦14,971 09 

All of vhioh ii respectfiJlj submitted, 

DAVID ATWOOD, Titaturtr. 
Hunov, Dec. 13, 1SB6. 



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PROCEEDINGS 



EXECUTIVE MEETINGS. 

Stati AsBictTLTmiL Boom, 
rebrMi? B, ISeo — 1 o'clock P. IL 
Biecutire Oonunittee mat poraaant to TeqnlreiiieDt of By-Law*. 
Pr«MDt— Uewra. DttTtd Wltliwna, Prerident, B. B. Hlnklej, L. B. TIIm, 
T. B. Tajlor, B. D. Boltoq, 0. H. WllUanu, J. H. WarND, Eli StUwa, J. 0. 
Baton, Q. H. Bteirart, DkTid Atvood and J. W. Hojt. 
President WiUiams in (be oh^r. 
On motion of llr. ffinklej, it wai nnanimoDilj 

Stvihtd, .Tluit tbe President and Secretar; are herebj appointed a Cbm- 
mittM to make arrangemeatB for the location of the Eihibitioa for 1S9A, and 
to MttlB the same to the beat advantage of the Boaletj. 

On motion, Oommittec, at a whole, proceeded to reviee the rules and liat 
of preminmi of ISflB, for use the current year. 
Premlnm* increased in the Eoim, Sheep and Fniit departmenta. 
MoTed ttnd carried that the prenlnmi on froila, flowers, wines and dell- 
eaeiea Ije paid,in aiWer plate of best qaalitf. 

■oTed by Mr. Stewart, (hat tbe premium* on " Sunning Hoisea" be 
stricken out. Los(. 
Tlie following snperintendenti of departments were nnanimonsly cliosen : 
(Mt/ManhalS. H. Warren. 
Bt^mntaidtnt ofOaiu—l. 0. Eston. 
Dtparbtima of ffonat-F. D. HqCarty. 
OatlU~0. H. Williama. 
Sutp—Sii BtilsoD. 
atrial and Ftmliry-^. L. Martin. 
Affrlaitlwal—VI. B. Taylor. 
Jmi/— J. C. Plumb. 
JfoeAwwry-E. A.. Oariing. 
F^Arl^~B. D. Holton. 
nrm Wort-L. B. Yilaa. 
Zoifin' BUhg—Vr. S. B. WolcotL 
On motion, adjovmed to li o'clock P. M. 



Committee met paranant to aijjonnunent. 
Preaent, same meml>ers m in the afternoon. 
President Williams in (be ob^r. 



Febmwy i, 7| P. U. 

(271) 



272 STATE AQEICULTUEAL SOClBTy. 

On motion, the appointmeat of judges for the HTeraJcluKB in tbePremlom 
Lilt wu made the order of tbe ereniog ; ia which labor the Committee eon- 
tinaed nntil 10 o'clock. 

Od motion of E. D. Holton, the Secretary wu initracted to drair ao order 
for |SB aod forward the ume to the HiMei Mar; aod Margaret Daris, of Ease 
county, niinols, in addition to the premium awarded them in the SqoeBtrian 
Depaitment of the State Fair of ISeti, at a teBtimonial, irom the EieoutiTe 
Committee, of oar appreoiatioa of the admirable horssmanehipmantfeitedbT 
them on that ocoadon. Tbe Secretary wu also inBtmcted, on motion of Hr. 
Bolton, to daw an order, in hiB own faTor, for |10, already presented by bim 
to the fatber of the laid Hiaeee DaviB on same acconot. 

On motion a^joo^"^^ *<> i"^*' '■^ " o'clock A. M. (o-moiTOw. 

J. Tf. HOTT, Aenbiry. 

Fn. eth, 9 o'clock A. H. 

Committee met pnnuant to adjoummeDt, and resumed the work of eeleet- 
iug Judges i continuing therein until the ume was concluded. 

On motion of the Becretary, It wu ananlmouelj 

Simclmd, That the object! sought to be accomplished by the Agrlcnlturftl 
Oolloge ConTCDtioD, called for thiB afternoon, and to meet in the Capitol, 
hare tbe hearty aympatbiea of this Committee, and that, after adjournment 
we will attend the ume until iu businesa shall hare been concluded. 

A^oumed lifu cfi*. 

J. W. HOTT, iStewtofy . 

MEMORAI^DUM. 

Several meeting! of the Eiecutlve Committee were held daring the week 
of tbe Fair and after its clow, for the settlement of claims against the Soei' 
•ty, but the narrow Unit« of thta Tolnme preclude their publlcatEoo. 
J. W. HOTT, i 



Stak AoucnLtDau Sooiu, Uioaaii, Dec. 11, 1S66. 
^ o'clock F. H. 
BxecutWe Committee met pnnuant to requirement of By-Law*. 
Vice President Einkley in the Chair. 
Adjourned to meet at 10 o'clock A. H. of Deo. ISth. 

Deo. 19, 10 o'clock A. M. 

EiecatlTe Committee met pursuant to adioununent. 

ProBent— McBsrs. Hinkley, YlUi, Taylor, Baton, Atwoodand Hoyb 

Vice Preddent Hinkley In tbe Chair ; Freiident WilllamB being detidDed 
by illneM. 

On motion, the Comndttee proceeded to an examination of the acoounii 
of tbe Secretary and Treunrer ; which were fbnnd correct and dnly approved. 

Tbe following Is tbe Ireasuter's Beport [See page UP.] 

On motion, adjourned to meet at 1} P. H. 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



PROCEEDINGS. 278 

I>eo. IS, 1i o'doek P. Tt. 

ComndttM met pBrsntnt to kdjoornmeDt. 

PrewDt — Mme membere u before. 

The SecreUr; preKDted en •ppUe*tion from John F. Boe, for duatgei 
dooe to ft Tftluable sheep t-t the FMrof ISM; which, on motion, wuiefened 
to the Seei«tM7 for inTeetigation. 

Hoied and cKrrled, th»t the following diHretlenarj premlimii be awwded 
uid paid : ' 

To the Haditon Horlicnltaral Societj, for fti bandnme dlnlaf of &uit, 
flowers, &«., at the late Stats Fair, MO. 

To G. W. TwIbb, of Rockford, Illlnoie, fhr bli attrtotiTS ethtbitiim of 
flowers at lame Fair, the Diploma efthe Booietjr and twQ Silrer Oobleta. 

To. J. H. Shearman, of Bookford, lllinola, for a like eihibition, Diploma 
and SllTer Qoblet. 

HoTed and carried, that the Secretary be authoriied to expend |200 In 
the purchase of certain standard works for the Library. 

On motion of Ur. Stilson, 

RtKirtd. That the Secretary la hereby aathoriied to purchase a new litho- 
graph Diploma for the Society's nse. 

On motion of Hr. Taylor, It was 

Eaoitiad, That Secretary Hoyt is hereby granted leave of absence to repre- 
oant the 6ta e and this Society at the Paris DaiTersal Eiposltion, to b« 
opened on the first day of April next. 

On motion of Ur. Vilas, 

Sttoiind, That the President, Secretary and Treasnrer are herebr ao- 
poioted a comaitlee to memorUlite the next Legislatur 
regnlar aonual printing and publication of the Soolqty's " 

Ob moUoD, the Committee adjourned «im Jm. 

J. W. BOTT, B»ent»]/. 



ELECTION OF OFFICEES. 

GoDBT KooKf, JunsTiLLi, Bopt. ST, IBM. 

Furtnaot to the canitltntional proTision and a pnblished notice, the Life 
Hembera of the Wiscoaeiu State Agricultural Society met, this eTeoing, at 
the room of the Rock County Court for the eleotlon of ofBcers for the ensQ' 
Ing year. 

Fresldent Darid Williams in (he ohair. 

MoTfld by L. B. Vilas, that a committee of five memben be appointed to 
nominate oBeen of the Society for the year LSAT. 

Carried. 

The President appointed Messrs. L. B. Vilas, A. Bogeia, E. D. Holten and 
said Qommlttee. 

While the committee on nominations were prepariug their report, ao ani> 
mated disoossion arose concerning the pnblioatlon of the Bociety's traosao* 
tions ; Mr. J. M. Burgess and others complaining that the officers of the So- 
ciety bad been derelict is this matter. 
18 A.Q. TKANa 



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274 STATE AaWCnLTDBAL SOCIETT. 

Hr. Bnrgeu offered the following reMtntion : 

Bttolvid, That a commStt«e, roDnsting of one person fh>m eftiA Gougru- 
■looal district of the State, be appointed bjtbe Cbair to investinte the 
financial affairs of the Bociet?, and report the reealUi throagh the iSMt 
Journal a,l their earliest oc" '"''""— 



Tbe Preaidantand Mr. HinUejeiplained thatthe adoption of this resolotion 
irould invaWe a good deal of expense to the Society, Mid be of no practical 
Talne, sinoe the financial transaction! of the Societj had been anLualJy re- • 
ported to the Qorernor and pnblished in the journals of the Benate and As- 
siembly; and that, at erery aonual meeting. It was cugtomarj to sabnit th« 
■ocooDts of the SeoretaTj and Treasnrar to the inspection of members of the 
Booietyuot Included among the officers, so that, practically, all that was 
Bought to be accompllBbed bj the resolaUoD had been already accomplished. 
Vr. Hinkley further stated, that for seTertl years the officers had labored 
to proenre the passage of a bill throngh the Legislature providing for th« 
Tegular annaal pablieation of the Boclety'i Transactions in book foroi, for 
distribntion to all the members of Che Society and to those societies and 
perBOQB interested in the progress of industry, bnt that, owing to the oppo- 
sition made by tbe IcgtBlatiTe represantatlTes of the mover of this resolottoa, 
and the oppodtion of other representativeB equally nnappreciatiTe and iU 
liberal, those bills had failed in the popular branch of the Legislature. 

On taking the vote, the resolution was lost by a large niijoritj against it 

A.% this stage of the prooeedings, the committee on oominatlaus returned 
and through their chairman reported the following as the list of officers for 
the year ISST: 

For PraidnU—K. A. Darling, Fond da Lao. 

Viet-SrMidtiia—B. R. Hinkle;, Snmmlt ; 0. H. Wllllanu, Baraboo ; J. L 
Case, Kacine. 

StertUaj—J. W. Hoyt, Madison. 
Trtatunr—K. J. Richardson. 

Act£lionaI JftmWi of tilt Sxaealkt OotmnUtf—J. B. Donsman, miwankee ; 
W. B. Taylor, Cottage Grove ; A Lodlow, Monroe ; Ell Stilson, Oshkosfa ; 
J. 0. Eaton, LodI ; S. F. Habte, DbIitbd. 

After much dlBcnsaioQ as to Che method in which the ballot should be taken 
ballots were finally oast for each officer separaCelj ; which resulted in the, 
election of all the gentlemen whose names were reported b; the comDiittee, 
except B. J. Bichardsoii, nominee for Treasarer, for whose name that of Da- 
vid Atwood, present incnmbent, was sobstitated by a m^ority of the electors. 

Subsequent to the election, the following resolutions were adopted: 

Offered by Sat. Clark: 

Jbnbsit, That the Fre^dent and Secretary of this Society are hereby di- 
rected to memorialiie the Leuslatnre, at the next session, for an appropri* 
ation Bofflcicnt to publish the Transactions of tbe Society. 

By Mr. N. B. Van Slyke: 

Jfisnhsrf. Tbat at each Annaal Meeting for the election of officers, and 
prerioas te such election, the Executive Committee are required to make a 
statement of the financial condition of the Societj. 

By Jas. Boss : 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



PSOOEBDINGS. 276 

itB ■KhirB, and for the aniform conrtoaj and attention with whieh titej hava 
diicliei^d Cbelr difflcalt datiet. 

On motion, tbs Societ; than attjonrnad tuu dit. 

J. W. HOTT, , 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

Btm AaBiciii.TD>iL Boohi, 

HuisoH, Dec. IS, IBSS. 
The Society met in their Rooms, parsnant to the congtitational provision 
and the published aoUoe, at 8 o'clock P. H. of thia da;. 

Tice-Frealdeot B. R. HinU«rin the ch^r, Fresident Williams being de- 
tained at home by sickness in his family. 

The cblef objt'at of the meeting being to receiTe and examine the Treas- 
nrer's Report for Cbe fiscal ;«ar of 1860, the Becretary preseuted the same 
and read it in the hearing of the members present- 
On motion, a committee, oonsliting of B. R. Hinkley, L. B. Vilas, J. 0. 
Baton and W. R. Taylor, was appointed to eiamlne the records and papers 
of tbe Secretary and Treasurer, and to report thereon, at this meeting. 

The following is the report of the committee : 
3b th> WUcontin Stala jigrieuUvrai SoeUty : 

The committee charged with the duty of eiamlniog Into the financial 
transactions of tbe Society for the year Iges, baring perfbrmed the duty 
assigned tham to tbe best of their ability, ask leave to report, that they 
have carefully examioed the financial statement of the Treaaorer, with the 
accompsDjing Touchers, that tbey find the same, In all respeotsjust and true, 
and that (he bills and other Tonohera for the items therein named, are on filft 
and open to sxamiuatlon in the office of the Society. 

B. R. BINELBT, 
Tiee-President and Oh'o Com. of XnTestlgation. . 

The Treasurer's Report showed receipts amounting to 914,911 OB, dia- 
bnrsementB amounting to |e,S2S TS, and a balance in the Treavnry of 
t6,844 S8. Bee page 270. 

J. O. Eaton gave notice of an intention to offer, at tbenext AnnoalHeet- 
ing, an amendment to Article in, of the OouBtilntlon, so that when amended 
it shall read as follows: 

" The officers of this Society shall consist of a President, two Yioe-Pred- 
deots, a Secretary, a Treasurer, an EiecntlTe Oommlttee — to coorist of the 
abore mentioned'and sOTeii additional members, together with tbe three 
Presidents whose terms of office last oipirtNl — and of a Qeneral Oommittee, 
to consist of the Presidents of the serend County Agricultural Societies or- 
ganized punaant to the taws thereof All members of the Executive Oom- 
mlttee shall become Lifo Members, scoording to tbe prOTisions ol Article 11, 
and any ten of the nembers. Including the President or a Tice-President, 
■hall constitute a quorum for the transaction of bnnness." 

On motion, the Society a4jo<i'ned tin* £*. 



■i,.\,00<i^iZ 



EXHIBITION OF 1866. 

[From the SeereMrj's Beoord.] 



Id Tiew of tbe long protncted nini of tbia moat rem«rk«bl« ftntvmn, th« 
cODHqnetit d»m&ge to the gnia crop* of the coonti;, ud tbe aacertiinty 
that itill attached to tbe weather up to tbe rorj date of opening, there »aa 
bat little warrant for eipsoting either a flue ahow of animals and products, 
or a large attendance of tbe people. Bat, after all, tbe result far eieeeded 
the eipectatloni of oren the moat ungolne. 

Tbe attendance of people waa entlrelj nnprecedented. On Tburaday, tb« 
S7tb, there were preient, aa abown bj the receipts, over twenty tbonaand 
peraona on the gronnda at one time, and tbe spectacle was trnlj magnificent. 
Tbe gronudt, embracing some TO aorea, with tbe eioeplion of a portion of 
the space witbin the track— and tbia was Ailed with Tehicles of erery de- 
scription — wta literally swanning wttb people ; all of whom aeemed remarkv 
bly well pleased with themaelTea and tbe rest of mankind. Boms were dis- 
^ipointed, DO donbt, by tbe noD-appearance of the distinguished gneste 
(General Logan and otbets) wboae namee had been annoanced as constitn^ng 
a part of tbe attractions of the day, but the time was so well occupied witb 
TarioDi entertainments, including ladies' eqnestriauism, and trista of trot- 
ting and runnirg horses, that Iheir dissppciotmeDt was soon fil^otten. 

The EihlbltlDn Itself, though in some departments quite crediuble, wu, 
oeTertheiese, as a whole, rery much less than it ought to have been, even In 
those best represented ; wbile In some It was a poiitiTe reproach to onr 
people. 

Instead of 1491 entrief In the several departments, there should bare been 
at least twice that nnmber; and there might hare been, with but little 
eSbrt on the part of the farmera, mechanics, macufactarers, artists and others 
of the State. Multitadea of fanners from Bock and the other counties were 
Ibera to see, bnt how snutU was the nnmber of Ihoae who manifested enter- 
prise enoDgb to bring anything with tbem. 

The plain truth is, Agrietiltaral Ball was a poaitire disgrace to tbe famen 
ofWlsoondn; and bad it been in onr power to do so, we wonid hara 
"ainrited away " the tent Itself, and thna abollsbed tbe department entirely. 
Tbe preminma were not lu^e ; bat in riew of tbe little expense and trouble 
jnvriTed In getting out aamples of agricn]tnr«l prodnots, the premlnms on 
these were relatlTely aa large at In any of the Stock department*. 
(276) 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1866. 277 

The show of frnita uid flowen wu highl; cr«dit&b1e, u t, whole, and would 
hare done booor to anj 8t»to in the UDlon. Apple*, in great Taiietj and of 
tumrpaaMd quality, pears alao, and grapea of rare beaatf and Bzoellenee, 
and all other truite that belong to this lattitnds were there to cbailenge the 
admiration of the mnltUnde who thronged Floral Tent dliring the three dafs 
of the Bihibition. 

The ahow made b; the Xadiaon Eortieultaral Sooietj, embraotug fraiti of 
vrtrj kind, flowers, wines and dellcaolea, wu, of Itaelf, really splendid, and 
recelTed the highest eommendatlon of the public, as well as a handaoniB dli- 
cretionarr award from the State Agrianltursl Soeletr- This Soelet? has done 
a noble work in Hadlaoo In the wa; of beaatif^ng the eit; and oultiratlng 
a taste fur bortienltntal improvement among its citiianB, and its example is 
•mlnentlj worth; of Imitation b; all the Tillages and cities of the State. 

Who belieres, after wltnearing our magniflosntdlaplaTBlnsDacesBlTejeara, 
that Wieconsin maf not jet oome to take acknowledged rank among the 
frnit.growlug States t 

Of the Department of field, Qardan and Didr; Prodaots, we have alreadj 
spoken, l^ra was nothing of IL The reproach rests ahiefl^apon the fsrm- 
enof Rock, but there is no single count; in the State that ooold not and 
sboold not have saved this important department from absolnte disgrace. 

Horses, Jacks and Hnles were not as nomeroos as In ISSO, bat made a 
creditable diepla;. IndlTidoal animals of soperior blood and repntation were 
there, and attracted mncb attention. The award of prUes fbUowing this 
sketch will show the namei and perfomances of sni^ ss won the most favor. 

The trials of spaed in thesevaral classes of Facing, Trotting and Banning 
Horses were, nevertbelesa, qntte sattafactory to the pnblic at large, thongh 
not entirelj so to the offlcers of the Bodetj. If immoral practices are Inevi- 
table Gomsomitaiits of matched trialiof speed of hones, then onr voice shall 
be emphaticallj and forever against snob trials at oar Industrial eihlbitiona 
and everTwhere else. 

The show of OatUe was not so large and varied as it ought to have been ; 
but thanks to the fine herds of John P. Boe, of Darham Hill ; Bichard Bioh- 
acds,Baeine; A. Bichmond, Whitewater; Luther Baw son, Oak Creek; Kmon 
Bnble, Beloit, and others, who likewise oontributed valnable animals in the 
dlflbrent classes, the eihibition in this department was made respaotable. 

The Sheep Department would have been an honor to an; State In the 
Union. It embraced over 100 pens of aa fine sheep aa can be found in tha 
world, and woald have been worth, to some of onr old fog; farmen who 
Bovar attend tiin and never make an; progress In farming, a joume; of BOO 

The Swine and Fonltr; of the State were better repreientad than nsnaL 
There were 88 pens of the former — Including some very superior animal»— 
and 23 ooopB of romarkabl; &ne fawls of varions species and breeds. 

All the departments In Divldon 0— llaohiuer;, Hannfactores and Works 
of Art— were respeotabl; filled ; the department of heav; machlner;. In- 



i;A'Oi>^lc 



278 STATE ACUUODLTUEAL SOCIETT 

clodiog rttam enginea, Beptnton, horw-how, Ac, better thttn ftt uif 
previona hte exhibition. There wu ilao t, fine exMbldon of Implementi 

The Xannractnren' Tent wu well flUed with ftrticlee properly aboini then 
•nd wu made addttiiinallj lirelj bj the click of numerous sewing machinri 
■nd the clank and rattle of band-looma and spinning jenoiee. 

Fine Arta Hall, haTiog been naterialJj relieved front the preifsure which 
characterized it last year by the erection of a separate building for murieal 
instnmenta, gaTe more Mtiafaotion than last year. Edodaome embroideries, 
platings, lithographs, photographs, speoiniGDi of penmanship, Ac., &a., 
■ibonnded on every hand, though, with a little crowding, a still larger dis- 
play might have been made. 

Hnsic Hall was haudsomelj filled with some of tho very finest instrumeata 
ever put on ethibttion. 

The election of ofScera took place, according to annouDcement, in the 
Oonrt Boom on the OTening of the STth, and was the most spirited afiUr of 
the kind of which we have had pervooal knowledge since our connection 
with the Society. [See report under head of Proceedings, j 

The meetings of the State Horticnltural Society and the Wisconrin Wool 
Growers' Association, held on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday even lags 
of Tail week, were well attended and highly interesting and profitable to all 
who parti dpated. 



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EXHiBi.TJ.ON OF 1866 



PREMIUMS AWARDED 

AT THE FAIB OF 1893 



HORSES, JACKS AND MULEa 

CLASS 1— THOROUQH BBED. 

Best'StsIUon, 4 jean old &Dd orer, H. W. If eCsSbrtj, Oolumbu tSO 00 

Second beat Sullion, 4 jeira old and over, Simon Ruble, Beloit...... SO 00 

Best 8t All [on, 3 jeare otd and orer, H. Vl. IfcOaffbrl;, Colambua.... IB 00 

Beat BQcking BtaUion Oolt, H. Drake, Beloit Fannsre' Rec. A Acct Book. 

Bert Brood Uare, 4 years old and over, H. Drake, Beloit SO 00 

Second tieat Brood Hare, 4 jears old and over, Simon Ruble, Beloit. . . 19 00 
BestFIll;, Sjeanandorer, H. Drake, Beloit 8 00 

CLASS a.-R0ADSTER8. 

■, E.F. KabEe, Delaran SB 00 

, . nd0Ter,.0. G. Thomson, Baloit IB 00 

Beat Stallion, S jeara old and noder 4, John N. Fellers, Bradford 10 00 

Second best Btallion, S jean old and over, J. C. Owen, FooteTlUe. . , . 7 00 

Best Brood Hare, 4 years and OTcr, A. B. Douglass, Janesrille IB 00 

Second beat Brood Hare, 4 years and over, H. B. Gibson, Hockwonago 10 00 

Best Brood Hare, 8 years and uader, David Smith, Harmony IS 00 

CLASS 8— HORSEB FOR GGtfEBAL FUBFOSES. 



md Tinder 4, H. Campbell, Center 1 00 

Beat Stallion, S and nn^er B years, Jsa. Cnmmines, Allen's Qrore TOO 

Second best Stallion, S and under B years, B. wJUiams, Whitewater. 5 00 

Best Stallion, 1 year and onderS, B. J. Williams, Whitewater 5 00 

Second best Stallion, 1 and under S yearb, Fred Fellows, Centre S 00 

Best Sacking Slallloo colt, John Fellers, Bradford, Farm Becord & Account 
Book, (S). 

Best Brood Hare, 4 years and OTsr, E. Wilcox, Janesrille IS 00 

Seeond bast Brood Hare, 4 yean and over, Peter ParkinMn, Fayette. 8 00 

Beat nily, 2 years and under 8, 0. J. Bimmons, Vonroe A 00 

Second best Filly, S years and under 8, A. Thorbarn, Center 4 00 

Best Filly 1 year and under S, Peter Parkinson. Fayette fi 00 

Second best Fitly, 1 year and under S, James Little, Janeaville 8 00 

Best BuckluK Hare Colt, James Little, JaneaTille, Farm Beo. A Acct Book (8). 
SeooDd best Sucking Haro Colt, Q. Nub, JanesTUle S OO 

CLASS 4-DBAFT HORSES. 



j.A'OO'^lc 



280 STATE AGRIOULTUBAL SOCIETY 

B«at Stallion, Synold, R. Wilwn, Dekon $10 00 

Bert St&IIion, a fn old, David HcClBy, Emerald Orove T 00 

Sd beat Stallion, S jra old, E. F. Rernolda, Johngtown 6 00 

Beit auckitig Bullion Golt, E. Burett, Jftneafille, Fannar'i Bee. Ic Aect 
Book (3) 

Ben Brood Hare, 4 jt« old, Edward Barrett, Janesnlle 10 00 

Sd beat Brood Hare, i jn old, B. F. Bejnoldt, Jobnatown 1 00 

Beit Brood Hare, S jn old, Andre* Barlasa, Emerald Orore S 00 

fid best Brood Hare, S jrt old, Andrew Barlasa, Emerald Orore 8 00 

Bertmi7, a;raoId, J. V. B agon in, Johngtowo i 00 

Sd best Fillj, £ jre old , Robe Wilson, Dekorra 4 00 

Beat aaokiog Oolt, E. F. Bsjoolda, Jobutlown, Farm Bee. k Aoo't Book (S) 

CLASS 5— JACK ASD HULEB. 

Best'Jack, B. F. Habie, Delavan tS9 00 

id beitJack, Wm. lollej, Darlington 10 00 

Beat Jenoey, Wm. Tollej, Darlinston 10 00 

Beat pair working Holea, Ohu. IT Killer, Elkhom 10 00 

Beat single Hnle, M. P. Jerdee, UadiHin S 00 

Id beat ainEle Mule, H.F.Jerdee, Hadiaon -8 00 

Beit Kola Oolt, H. B. Wild, Fort Atkioeon S DO 

BMt AuOolt, Wm. Tolls;, Darlington S 00 

CLASS S— HATCHED HORSES AKD MABES. 

Beat Carriage Horsea, Dr. S. S . Judd, Janearille $25 00 

Sd beat pair Carriage Honea, Allen Holmea, Johnatown Center IB 00 

Beat pair of Roadaten, E. F. Hable, DeUvan SB 00 

Sd beat pair Boadatera, F. D. HoOartj, Fond da Lac IS 00 

Beat pair Farm Horaea or Harei, A. A. Tanart, Delavan It 00 

2d beat pair Farm Hoiaes or Harea, L. L. netcher, Bradford IS 00 

CLASS ir— QELDINOS OS HARES FOR SINGLE HARNESS, SAD- 
DLE, Ac. 

Beat Qelding for Hameaa, i jn old or OTOr, 1. L. Ward, Oakland 10 03 

Sd bsBt Gelding for Hameaa,U Traoldor oTer, B. T. Fember, JaneaTllle t cfi 
Beat OeldlDg or Hare for Saddle, i jra old or oTsr, J. I. Caae, Baeln* 10 00 
Sd beat Qel^ng or Hare for Saddle, « jn old or orer, J. I. Oaae k Co., 

Bacine S 00 

CLASS 8-TBOTTBBS AND PACERB. 

Beat Trotting Stallion, oTor S yra, Wm. Quirej, BTanaTlUe tOO 00 

Sd beat Trotting Stallion, orera 5 ;ra, CHoOomber, Prairie da Chlen. 80 00 

Beit Trotting HafB, over S yra old, F. D. HoOartj Pond da Lac 80 00 

Sd Beat Trotting Hare, OTer B yri old, L. Dooglaaa, Jaaeaville SO 00 

Beat Trotting Oelding, oTor a rra, H. QUion, Hukwanago SS 00 

Sd beat Trotting Qelding, G. HoOomber, Pniiie dn Chlen 15 CO 

Beat Trotting Hatcbed Span over 5 jra, G. Hacomber, Prairie da 

Cfiien SB 00 

Sd beat Trotting Hatched Span, F. D. HoCartj, Fond du Lao 16 00 

Beat Pacing BorM or Hare, J. L. Ward, Oakland SS 00 

Sd beat Faoing Hor«e or Hare, Franc ia Gaoo, Janexv ilia 14 00 

GLASS 9— BUmtlNG HORSES. 

Beat a In g, Hanlej Drake, Belolt, flOO 00 

Sd beats in 8, A. 0. Darwlo, Hadiaon, 100 00 

SaOioni and Mara, MUt StaU, Bat S m S. 

Beat 8 in fi, A.B. Donglaaa, JaneavIIIe, $100 00 

adtwat, H. W. HcOaArtj, Oolumboa, 16 00 



ccizoJ.A'OD^Ic 



irnON OF 18U6. 281 

H. W. McCftlRrty, Odnnboi, $30 00 

Sdbest, Williun James, JtnWTille, 40 00 



OLABS 10-SHOBT HOBNS. 

Best Boll Bjrears old and OTer, Blchard Richards, Baoine, fSS 00 

Sd best Bull, S jean old or over, Jobn Fernlo^, LaQransn. If 00 

Beit Bull, Sjaanold and nnder 8, John F. Roe, Darhan HiU IB 00 

Sd belt Bull, 3 yean old aod under, Wm. L. Llojd, Emerald OroTe.. 10 00 
Sd belt Bull, 1 year old and nnder i, Walter Scott, Emeral QroTe. . . S 00 

Best Cow B jean old and over, John Fsralej, I>a Orange SO 00 

Sd belt Cow S jeara old and over, Blohaid Kchards, Bactne IS 00 

Beet Heifer 'i jeani and under 8, Richard Richards, Bacine IS 00 

id beet Heifer 2 jeare and uoder S, John F. Roe, Durham Bill 10 00 

BtfBt Heifer, 1 jear old and under t, John P. Boe, Durham Hill, Farm Rao- 
end Ace Book. (B) 

Beet Beifer Oalf, Jobn F. Boe, Durham Hill, 1 00 

3d bett Hoifer Oalf, Richard Blchardi, Raeine, Farm Bee. and Aoe. Book (6) 

Beet Ball Calf, John P. Boa, Durham Hill 1 00 

Sd b«it Bull Calf, John F. Rue, Dnrbam Hill, Farm Reo. k Ao. Book (S) 

CLASS U— DBTOKB. 

Bast Bull S jean old and over, L. Baweoii, Oak Creek. |SS 00 

ad belt Bull S jeare old and over, Jacob Fowle, Bradford, IS 00 

Beat Bull, 2 jean and under 8, L. Baveon, Oak Greek. IS 00 

Sd belt Bull S jeara old and under 8, A. Richmond, Whitewater 10 00 

Beet Bull Ijearold and under 2 jeire, L. Rawion, Oak Greek 1 00 

Beit Cow 8 jeara and over, L. Bawion, Oak Greek SO 00 

Sd beet Cow 8 jean and over, David Smith, Hormonj IS 00 

Beat Heifer t yeore and under 8, L. Rawion, Oak Creek, TOO 

2d best Heifer 2 jeare old and under 8, L. Bawson, Oak Greek, Farm Reo. & 

Ace. Book. (S) 

Beet BnU Oair, L. RawsoB, Oftk Creek 7 00 

CLASS 19— ALDIBNBTS. 

Best BoU S reare and over, Simon Ruble, Beloit 9SG 00 

BestOow S jean and over, Simon Ruble, Beloit SO 00 

Best Heifer Calf, Simon Ruble, Beloit, TOO 

CLASS IS— ATBSHTBSa 
Kane exhibited. 

CLASS 14— BEREFOKDS. 
Hooe exhibited. 

CLASS IS— QRADE OATTLB BSD WORKING OXEN. 

Beat Qrade Cow, 8 jeon and over, E. Howell, JaneevIIle $10 00 

Second best Grade Cow, S jean and over, Jobo Femlej, La OraD(e> > . 1 00 

Beit Heifer, S jeoraand under 8, Sumner Forker, Janeeville T 00 

Seoond beet Heifer, a jeare and under 3, A. Bichmond, Whitewater. . 6 00 
Beit Heifer,! jear and anderS,D. Smith, Harmon j. Farm Beooi^ and Ac- 
count Book (S). 
BeeoDd best Heifer, 1 year and nnder 2, E. Howell, Janeerille, Farm Beoord 



Seoond beet joke Working Oxen, U Bawson, Oak Creek 10 00 



282 STATE AGEIOULTUEAL SOOIETT. 

OLA88 Ift— MLCH COWS. 

B«Bt HUcb Oow, John P. Roe, Dnrbtm Hill IB 00 

Second best Mlloh Oow, Rtchvd BiohwdB, Rtoioa 10 00 

Third best UUolk Oow, A. Dewej, JuiMTille, Fwm Beeord *nd Accoaat Book 

(8)- 

OLASS IT— FAT CATTLE. 
Boit lU Oow, Jolm P. Roe, DailiunHiU 9s 00 



OLASS ]g— AHEBIOAN HERINOES. 

BMtBack, STCkreandoTOr, S. D. Smith, Whttew&ter tlB 00 

Second beat Bnck, 2 rears ftnd oTer, R. T. Gravea, Otunbria 10 OO 

BteCBiick, 1 je&r uid UDder S, R. T. Qrarei, Cunbrin 10 OO 

SecDcd best Back, 1 ;e&r ftcd nndec i, N. P. Nwh, Oak Grove 1 00 

Best 8 Ewes, 2 jeai^snd OTer, Richard Richards, Bncine 16 00 

Second best 8 Enti, i rears and over, E. S. Hammond, Food da Lao. . 10 00 

Beet 8 Evee, 1 jear and nnder S, E. S. Hammood, Fond da Lac 10 00 

Second best S Ewei, 1 ;ear and under 3, B. lUchards, Racine 1 00 

Beet Back Iambs, U chard Richards, Racine 1 00 

Second best Buck LaiQb«, E. H. Rice, Whitewater 5 00 

Best 8 Ewe Lambs, Kchard Richards, Baci as T 00 

Second best S Ewe Lambs, Horris Pratt, Lima Oentre, Farm Beeord and Ac- 
ooont Book (6). 

CLASS le-SILESIAN KERDTOES. 
Knne eitdbited. 

CLiSS flO— LONG WOOL. 

Best Buck 3 jr» old and over, Jolm Unoro. Fox Lake tlS 00 

3d beat Back a vrs old and orer, I. S. Hazletine, Bichland Center .... 10 00 

Best pen 8 Bucii Lambs, L B. Hazietine, Richland Center T 00 

Sd best pen 8 Bnok Lambs, I, 8. Hailetine, Richland Center B 00 

Best pen 8 Ewes, S jn old and OTsr, I. S. HsEletine, Richland Center IB 00 
8d beat pea 8 Ewsa, 2 jn old and;oTer. I. S. Hailetine, Richland Center 10 00 
Best 8 Ewes, 1 yr old and under a, I. S. Hailetine, Bichland Center . . 10 00 

ad best 8 Ewes, I 7r old and under 8, Wm. Newett, Janesrille 7 00 

Best pen S Ewe Lambs, T. B. Hailetlne, Richland Center T 00 

2d best pen 8 Ewe Lambs, I. S. Hailetine, Richland Center, Farm Bee. and 
Acot. Book (S) 

OLASS 31— HIBDLS WOOL. 

Best Back S yr* old and over, E. D. Oheseebra, La Prairie |1B 00 

Sd best Back 3 jn old and over, L S. Hailetine, Richland Center ... 10 00 

Best Buck 1 vr old and under 9, E. D. Cbeesebro, Ls Prairie 10 00 

Beat pen 8 Bnck Lambs, B. D. Oheesebro, La Prsirle T 00 

Beat pen S Ewe^ S 7rs and OTsr, E. D. Cheesebn), La Prairie IB 00 

Best pen 8 Swea, 1 fr old and under S, E. 0. Cheesebro, La Prairie. . 10 00 
Best pen K Ewe Lamba. E.D. Oheesebra, La Prairie 7 00 

OLASS 3a-FAT SEESP. 
None ubiUted. 



^dbvCoO^^k' 



EXHIBITION OF 1866. 288 
SWINE AND POULTRY. 
CLASS 28— BWnfE. 

Beat Boar, smtU breed, S jeus Mid orer, Qeorge J. Kellogg, JaoeH- 

Tille $10 00 

BMt BreediDg Sow, udrU breed, areirs and over, David Smith Hir- 

man; 10 00 

2d best BreediDK Sow, enuJI breed, 3 jra old and over. Wis. Ho^. for 

Idwds, HadiflOD t 00 

Best Boar Pig, smaU breed, over S months old, HildMth ft Fahner, B»- 

ioit BOO 

Sd beat Boar, la.ge breed, 1 year old and oudcr i, Hildreth & Palmer, Betoit, 

Farm Bee. & Aoct. Book, (B) 

Best Sow Pig over 3 mos. old, wnal] breed, Peter Sobmitz, Harmonj.. B 00 

Sd best Sow Pig, oTer e mo& old, Hildreth & Palmer, Beloit 8 00 

Sd belt Sow Fig over S mos. old. Urge breed, R. Rioharda, Raoine. ... S 00 
Best Bow Pig otgi S mos. old, large breed, Hildretb & Pabner, Beloit 6 00 

Sdprem. toll. UcFinaegaD, Beloit 8 00 

Two dow Pigs, over fl mos. old, Wis. Bosp. for Idsaiie, Committee reoom' 

mended Pre mi am. 

Beat Boar, i jrs old and orer, large breed, Simoa Ruble, BeloK 10 OO 

Sd Beit Boar, 2 ;rs old atid over, large breed, D. Smith, Harmon;. ... 7 00 

Best Boar 1 jr old and under S, Jacob Fowle, Bradford 1 00 

Best Breeding Sow, over 2 jre old, Bimon Ruble, Beloit 10 00 

Beat Breeding Sow aSd Pigs, Simon Ruble 10 00 

2d Beet Breeding Sow and Pigs, Thos. Roonej, .lauesvitle S 00 

Best Boar Pigs over Smos. old, Joha Jeffers, Darien B 00 

Best Boat Pigs 5 mos. old, John Jeffers, Darien, Farm Rea. and A.ot. Book (8) 

CLASS 24— POULTET. 

Best and greatest varietj Fowls, J. B. Pember, Johnstown S 00 

Beat Sbanghai, J. B. Pember, Johnetowa i 00 

Best Cochin Ghioas, Geo. 8. Tambling, Jr., Beloit 2 00 

Best Spangled Hambnrg Fowls, A. Dewej, Janesville 2 00 

BestBiaclcSpaDiafa Fowls, A. De we;, Janesville 2 00 

Best Bantams, John B. Pember^, Johnstown a 00 

Beat Fame Fowls, Chas. H. Dearborn, Janesville S 00 



PRODUCTS OF THE SOIL AND THE DAIRY. 

CLASS 2S— FIELD PRODUCTS. 

Best Winter Wheat, D. H. Aspinwall, Farmlngton, Farm Bee. &Aao.Boolc(8) 

2d best Winter Wheat, P err j Bostwi ok, Betoft, |2 00 

Best Spring Wheat, F. Weirhurse, Oshkosb, Farm Re e. AAot. Book (8) 

2d best Spring Wheat. U. LLadd, HUlard 2 00 

Beat B;e,Perr7BoBtwiek, Beloit, Farm Rec &Act. Book, (S) 

3d beat Rye, M. L. Ladd, Hillard 2 00 

Best Oats, H. L. Ladd, Uiltard 1 00 

2d best Oats, B. Howell, Janesville 1 00 

Best Buekwheat, E. Howell, Janesville, 2 00 

2d best Buckwheat, D. H ,Aspinwatl, Farmlngton 1 00 

BeatFlai Seed, Darld Welch, Harmony, Farm Reo. AAet Book, (SI 

Best Hope, E. J. Carpenter, Beloit Farm Bee. AAot. Book, '°' 

Ben Peas, Bnmiier Paiker, Janeirille, " 



k,(B) 

'J 



284 STATE AGEICULTTTRAl SOCIETY. 

ad best Peu, E. Howell, J*ne«TlIle, tl 00 

Beit BeaoB, B. Howell, JnaeBville, 3 00 

Sdbest BeanB, Sumner Fmrker, JaaMTtUe, 1 00 

Beit Seed Corn, JameB ClelUad, Cantre, Fkrin B«a. JtAct. Book, (G) 

2d best Seed Corn, H. E. WilliKiiis, 1 00 

Best Carter PoUtoei, Peter Sohmidt, Htrmonj S CO 

Beit Here er Potttoes, U. L. Ladd, Millard, % 00 

Best Pinkeye Potatoes, Q. J. Eellon, JaneHrille, 2 00 

ad best Pinkeje Potatoes, P. Bchmldl, Hamionj I 00 

Beit Early Potatoes, Peter Bcbmlte, Harmonf a 00 

Sd best Eart7 Potatoes, 0. Cook, Janeivllle, 1 00 

Earlj Potatoes, Darid UcNeal, Btcmghton, beantirnl show of Ooodri<A Earl; 

Potatoes, Committee reoommanded farmer* to give triaL 

Best ibow eitra rarletips, J. B. Stewart, Bearer Dam, S 00 

Sd best show eitra varieties, Peter Sohniidt, Harmon;, Farm Beo. & Aoo< 

Book (3) 

Beet PeachblowB, Tt. Beck, JanesTiUe, latPremiain, 3 00 

ad beet Peaohblows, W. L Cohoe, Beloit, Sd Premlam 1 00 

Best Nojes Potatoes, W. L. Oohoe, from eeedling, good ehow. 

Beit Turnips, Sumner Parker, JanesTille, SOO 

CLASS as— QASDEtT TEQBTABLBR 

Beit Beets, WisooauD Hospital for Insuie, 1 00 

BeatOnioni, Thoi. Howland, Eenoslia, S 0} 

Best Cabban, Peter Scbmiti, Hanaoor, * . . . 1 00 

Best Sweet Fotatoee, Thos. Howland, Eenosba, S 00 

CLASS ST— PRODUCTS OP THE DAIST AND HOHSEHOLD. 

Beitail lbs June made Butter, Urs. J. H. GhlM. FnltOD 1 00 

Second belt SG lbs June made Batter, Un. Lyman Deartiora, Janesrille, Farm- 
era Rec A Acct Book (B) 
Third beet 2S lbs, Jane made Batter, Wm. Newett, JaaeiriUe, Farm Bee. & 
Acct Book (g). 

Beit S5 lbs Batter, made at any time, Ur*. William Paul, Hilton 00 

Seooud belt as Ibe Batter, made at an; time, Hra. Lym^n Dearborn, 

JaneSTille Faroi Rec & Aect Book 

Thirdbest as lbs Butter, made at any time, O.C. Fiiber, Center S 00 

Best SOheesei, Z WLUoo, Palmyra 1 00 

Second best S Cbeeies, Wm. Hilli, Whitewater 5 00 

Third best S Cheese i, W. H. Parker, Harshall S 00 

Best single Cheese, Z. Wilson, Palmyra S 00 

Seoood beat stogie Cheese, D. Q. Bldredge, Aflon 1 00 



Beit aample Maple Sugar, J. Aapiawall Farm Rec. & Acct Book (E). 



FRUITS, FLOWEKS AND DEUOAOIES. 

CLASS 28.— FECIT BT HOK.PBOFESSIONAL ODLTITATOES. 

Best Tariety of Apples, Qeo. P. Peffbr, Fewauhee, Dip. and Silver Breakfait 

Second beat variety of Apples, B. F. Baokmaoter, Fayette, Silver Card Be- 

nitd beat variety of Apples, EUStilflOD, OAkosh Set Silver Spoons 



j.A'OO'^IC 



EXHIBmON OF 1866. 285 

Beat 10 Tarieties of Applet, mdapttd to nortbweat, £U Stileon, Oibkoih, Dip. 

mod Silver Ooblet. 

Second best 10 vtirlatieB, H. L. HiiUrd Set SllTfrTea Bpoona 

Beit B Tarleties of Apples, idapted to Nortb-West, Eli Stilwn, Oehkoeb, Solid 

Silver >'aptiD Ring. 
Second beets rtrietie*, A. B. Smith, Le PralHe... .Solid Silver FmitEaife. 

Beet ehowof A utumo Apples, Ellftileon, OshkoBb BiWer Spoon Bolder. 

Second be»t ihov Autumn Apples, Thos. Howlind, Eenosba, Silver Pie Knife. 

Tbir'J bcMBhow Autumn Apples, M. L. Ledd, Ulllard Silver Tea Belt 

Beat ihow Winter Applee, JhoB. Hoirlaod, £enoBho, Set Silver Table Spoon*. 
Second best show Winter Apples, G. W. Bemla, Bock, Gold Lined Sliver 

Ooblet. 

Third belt show Winter Applei, EliiStileoo, 0»hkOib Silver Tea Bell 

fioBt variety of Pears, Geo P. PefTer, Pewaukee Sllvor Fie Ehlf« 

Seuond best variety of Feara, Thomaa Honrland, Kenocba, Set Silver Taft 

Spoona. 

Third best variet; of Feara, I. C. Sloan, Janeavilie Silver Butter Enlfe. 

Beet varlei; Flams, Geo. F. PelTsr, Fewaukee Silver Tea BelL 

Beet show of Feachev, Geo. F. Feifer, Pevaokee Set Si Ivor Tea Spoons. 

Best variety of Grapes, Dr. Joarph Bobbins, Hadlson, Dip. and Silver Fndt 

. Dldb. 

Second beet variety Grapes, I. 0. Sloan, Janesville Set Silver Forks. 

Third best variety of Qrapes, Ira Eezerton, Oshkosh Silver Tea BelL 

Besi. S varieties adapted so general culture, I. 0. Sloan, JanesTille, Bet Silver 

Tes Spoons. 
Second best ii varieties, Thos. Bowland, Kenosha,.. .Fuller's Grape Cnlturlst 
Beat variety o( fruit of all kinds, Geo. F. PefTer, Fewaukee, Dip. and elegant 

Silver Fruit Dish. 
Best Siberian Crabs, Geo. P. Peffer, Pewankee, Farm Rec. andAcct. Book (8). 
Beat cranberries, Geo. P, FelTer, Fewaukee Grape Gultuilst. 

CLASS ag-FRClT BT PROFESSIONAL CD LTIOATOBR 

Beat variety of Apples, Tuttle, Son & GIftrk, Baraboo, Dip, and aliver Break- 
fast Castor 

Sdbeat doF. W. Loudon, Janesville Silver Card receiver 

Bd best do Oeo. J Kellogg, Janesville "et t^ilrer Tea Spoons 

Best 10 varieties of Apples, adapted to Northwest, Tuttle, Son & Clark 

Baraboo, Dip. * Sliver Ooblet 
Sd best variety of Apples, George F. Kellogg, Jftneevllle, Set Silver Tea 

Spoons. 
Beat S varietiea of Apples, adapted to north-west, Geo. F. Kellogg, Soild Sli- 
ver Napkin Ring. 
2d best variety of Apples, adopted to norCh-weat, Tntile, San k Clark, Ban 
boo, solid Silver Fruit Knife. 

Best show Auiumn Apples, Tuttle, Son & Clark, Silver Spoon Bolder 

ad best A.uCunin Apples, ¥. W. London, Janeatille Silver Pie Knife 

Sd best Aurumn Apples, Geo. J. Eellogg, Janesville Silver Tea BeU 

Best Show Wiuter Apples, Tuttle, Son k Clark, Baraboo, Set dilver Table 

Spoons. 
Sd best show Winter Apples, Geo. J. Kellogg, Jsneaville. Gold Lined Silver 

Goblet. 
Beat variety of Fears, S. V. London, JaneaviUe, SllverPie Knife. 

id best variety of Fears, Geo. T. EelloiK Bet Silver Tea Spoons 

Sd beat variety of Pears, Tattle, Son& Clark Silver Butter Knife 

Best variety of Plums, Tuttle, Son ft Olark, Baraboo Silver Tea Bell 

Sd best variety of Plume, Oeo. J. Eetlogg, Janesville Silver Fruit Knife 

Best show Grapes, F W. Londnn, Janoavllle Dip. and Silver Fruit Dish 

Sd best show Grapes, Isaac Atwood, Lake Ullla Set silverForka 

Bd beat show of Grapes, J. T. Blepheni, Madison Ten Bell 

Best Qrapes, 8 varieiies, C. H. Greenmsn, Hilton Silver Tea Bpoons 

Best Orapej, 9 varieties, Geo. T. Kellogg, JanoSTtlle, Fuller's Qrape Col- 
(nrist 



■j.A'OO'^lc 



286 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

BMt Show of Grspet grown onder gtaM, J. B, Sbflarmin, Rockford, HI, DIi* 

Beit show of Gi«p«« erown aoder dun in IWiMonsio, Obarles Huiford, 

Emsrald Grova, Dip. ud Silrer Tea BeU. 
Be«t TuieCj of Fraitaof Ul kiodi, F. W. London, JknssriUe, Dip. mi Silver 



Frolt Dieb. 
Beit abow of Watermelona, E. BUiot, Lone Book 8«t Silver Tea Foili 

0LAB8 80-BEEDUNG FBUIT8. 

Nooe exhibited. 

CLASS Bl-FLOWBES BT N0N-FB0FEB8rONAL OULTIVATORfl. 

Best displftT in qu&Iit? and rarietr of Oat Flowen, Hra. 6. Baus, KadiaoD, 

Breok'e Book of Floweie. 
Second bestdiaplaTinquditjuidfarietfof Oat Flowen, JoMpbloe L. Peffer, 

Pewaukee, Silver Batter Knife, 
Beat vftrletT of Wild Flowers, Addie L. Howell, JanesTille, Silver Bonqaet 

Holder. 
Seoond be«t variety of Wild Flowert, Oord* Wbeeler, Ia Prairie, Bredc'a 

Book of Flowers. 

Beitdieplayof Dablias, Jo»pbtne L. Peffisr, Pewaakee Silver Onp. 

Second beat diaplaj of Dahlias, 0. Boadler, Uadison Silver Butter Enile. 

Beet diaplsj in qualit; and varietj of Terbeoar, JoMpfaine L. Peffer, Pewao- 

kee, Breck's Book of Flowera 

Beit T«riet7 and qualitj of Aeters, Hra. R. Willism& Palmyra Silver Cup. 

Seoond beat variety and quality of Asters, Josephine L. Peffer, Pewankee, 

Silver Tea Bell. 
Beat variety aad quality of Pbloiea, Josepbtne L. Peffer, Pewaukee, Breck's 

Book of Flowers 
Secood beat variety of Pbloies, Uartba A. Smith, Emerald Grove, The Garden. 

Best variety of Petunias, Mrs. &. Williams, Palmyra Silver Cup. 

Second beat variety of Fetunlaa, Uartba A. Smith, Emerald Grove, Silver 

Bntter Enlfe. 

Beet variety of Pansies, JosepblDe L. Peffer, Pewaukee S.IverCup. 

Host taatefally arranged Bouquet, Uartba A. Smith, Emerald Grove, Silver 

Cap. 
Best show of Evergreens, nursery grown, in boiei or tub', M. J. Plumb, Kad- 

ieon, Silver Froit Dish. 

Second beat show of Evergreens, P. Gafan, Janesviile Silver Tea Forks. 

Best floraldesignof Katural Flowers, CbarIeiErkton,HadiBon, Silver Goblet 

CLASS 8B— FLOWERS BT PROFESSIONAL CULTIVATORS. 

Beat Ornamental Design, J. T. Stevens, Uadiaon, Silver GobleL 

Best varietyGreen House Plants, F. W. London, Janeaville, . .Set Silver Tea 

Spoons. 
Beat SO varieties in bloom, J. W. Loodon, Janesville. .Set Silver Tea Spoons 

Best 12 Geraniums, F. W. Loudon, Janesvllle Set Silver Spoons 

Best and greatest variety of Dahlias Hiss. H. J. Plumb, Madison, Silver Tea 

BeU. 
ad best greatest variety of Dahlias, Q. W. Twias, Rookfotd, 111, Com. reo. pre- 

Best 12 named sorts of Dahlias, Mrs. J. C. Plumb, Uadison,.. Breck'a book of 

Best variety Terbenaa, F. W. London, Janesville Silver Tea BelL 

Sdbest variety Verbenas, G. O. Twias, Rookfocd, 111 DiBcretioary. 

Best IS named sorts of Verbenas, F. W. Loudon, Janesville.. Sliver Tea BelL 

Bestaeedling Verbenas, F, W. Loudon, Janesville, Silver Napkin Ring; 

Best S Fachias, F. W. Loudon, Janesville Silver Tea BeU. 

Best 4 Asters in Pots, F W. London, Janesville "The Garden." 

Best i named Oamationa, F. W. London, Juesvilla BUver Napkin Ring. 



j.A'OO'^lc 



EXHIBITION OF 1866. 287 

BaitdiBpU; in qiulitT uidTwietT of Bohi, T. W. Load«ii, JtiieBTllle,..Teft 

BeU. 

DisplnjofBora«,J. S. Sbaumu, Bockford, Ull Dli. 

Beit 18 Limed sorts of Bosea, F. VT, Loudon, Jauasvill*, Braok'a Book of 

Flowers. 
Host tutef nllj irnnged ud UigMt diqilaj of Out Flowers, Hlsalf. L. Flnmb, 

HulUoo Set Bilvet Tea SpooDB. 

Id best do G. W. Twiss, Bookford, nUnois, aommlttee reooininended pietnl- 

Best pur romid boqueta, J. T. SteveoLHadieon SIlTerTeaBell 

Best pdir flbt Boqaets, j. T. Stevens, Hodlson "The Qardeo." 

Best aug grekteat var. Phloies, Q. W. Twlss, Rackford, Dl., Com. recotn- 



Best aud greatest larfet? of Astors, F. V. Londoa, JaneiviUe, "The Qar- 

den.^' 
Beit aud greatest variet; of Fansiea, Hlsa IC. L. Plumb, Kadison, " The Oar- 
Beat ,nd greateat var. Oladlolos, Hiss H. L. Plumb, Hadlsou, Bilvec Bnttter 

Enlfe. 
Beat and greateat variety ofall sorts of Flowers, F.W. LoodoD, Janearille, 

Dip. t Set of BUvet Spoons. 

CLASS 88— WISCONSIN WINES. 

Beat assortmeDt of Wlnet, Ohas. Hanford, Emerald Qrove, Dip. A Qold-Uued 

Sliver Goblet. 
Beat sample of Grape Wine, Chas. Hanford, Emerald Grove, Oold-Uaed Silver 

Goblet. 
Best sample Oarrant WIna, Hra. A. Barlau, Emerald Grove, . . .Silver Goblet 

Sd beat ssmpla Currant Wine, Wm. Newett, Janesviile, Silver Cup 

Best sample Str&wberrj Wine, Hrs. U. L. Ladd, KiUard, Brack's Book of 

Fluwers. 
Best sample Baspberr; Wine, Urs. H. L. Lidd, Hillard, Dis. 

CLASS 84— DELICACIES. 

Best Apple Preserve!, Hiss U. L. Plumb, VadEson, Solid Silver Mustard Spoon 
Beat varietv of Delloaciea, not less than 10, Hiss Plumb, Hadlion, Set Silver 

Tea Spoona 
Best Cherry Preaervea, Etta Chesebro, La Prairie, Solid Silver XuaUrd Spoon 

Beit Peach Preaerves, J. 0. Plumb, Madison, Solid Silver Batter Kuife 

Beat Plum Preserves, Etta Chesebro, La Prairie, "The Garden" 

Best Blackberry Preaervea, Caroline Olark, Beloit, Premium 

Best Grape Preserves, Etta Obesebro, La Prairie, Solid Silver Mustard Spoon 
Beat Tomato Preaervea, Hartba A. Smith, Emerald Orove,. ..Silver Tea BeU 

Best Pear Preaervea, Miss H. L. Plumb, HadisoD, Silver Tea Bell 

Best collection Sealed Fruits, Hra. J. C. Plumb, Madison, Gold Lined Silver 

Qoblet. 

Best CatSDp Preserves, HartbaA. Smith, Emerald Grove "The Garden" 

Best specimen Sealed Fruit, Justin* L. PefTer, Pewaukee, Silver Butter Eniib 

Beat Apple Pickles, Mrs. J. 0. PInmb, Madison Silver Butter Ejiife 

Beat Pear Piokle, Mrs. J. C. Plumb, Madison, Silver Pickle Fork 

Beat Plum Pickle, Mrs. J. 0. Plumb, Hadiaon Silver Fickle Fork 

Beat Artichoke Pickle, Martha A. Smith, Emerald Orove, Silver Butter Knife 

Beat Cucumber Pickles, Juatiaa L. Puffier, Pewaukee, Silver Pickle Fork 

Best vailet; of Pickles, not Irse than 8, Mra. J. 0. Plumb, Madison, Bet Silver 

Tea Forks. 
Best variety Jellies, not lesa than 8, Martha Smith, Emerald Grove, Bet Silver 

Tea Spoons. 

Beat Apple Jelly, Mrs. J. 0. Plumb, Hadtson, Silver Tea BeU 

BestPlum JeUy, Hn. J. C. Plumb, Madison, Silver Napkin Bing 

Best Currant Jelly, Mrs P. H. Perkins, Burliogton, Silver Tea BeS 

Best Grape JeUj, Mrs. 3. 0. Plomb, Madison, Slver MnaUrd Spoon 



I v'^'Otl'^lc 



288 STATE AGMOULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Beit Onb Apple Jellj, Ura. J. 0. Plumb, Htdtioo, Silver NkpUo Bing 

Be*t Rupberr; Jun, EiUk Cbeaebro, LnPnlrie Silver Tea Bell 

Best Cherrj Jell;, Uartha A. Smith, Emerald GroTe,.... Silver Batter Knife 
Beit BIkck Onrraat Jam, lire. J. C. Plumb, UftdiMU,. . . .Silver Batter Knife 



IMPLEMENTS AND MACHINBEY. 

0LAS3 SB-HACHINERT AND IHPEHBNTS fOR AflBICVLTUBAL 
FUia>0;$ES. 

Beit Threihing Hacbine with power, J. I. Cue & Oo , RariDs, 1st premium. 
Diploma aod »SS 00 

Sd best ThrcBhiiiR Machine, J a«. Harris & Co.. Janeiville IS 00 

Beit Reaper, Self Raker, Andrew Proudfit, Uadiioa Diploma. 

BeUKeaper, Hand Raker, Packer & Stone, Beioit Diploma. 

Beat Hewer, Andrew Proudfit, Hadiaon Diploma. 

Beit Reaper and Uower, Hand Raker, F. H. HaDDj, Bockford, III. Diploma. 

Best Reaper and Uower Self Raker, B. L. Sheldon, HadiiOQ Diploma. 

Best Sub- Soil Plow, C. U. Patteraon, Watartowo, Diploma. 

Beit Cauldron and Steamer, N. Alien, Kookford, lU Diploma. 

Beit Cider Hill, a. L. Sheldon ABro., Hadiwn Diploma. 

Beet Fanning Kill, C. K. Ebli, Green Biub Diploma. 

Best Windmill, M iiU A Broi., Chicago, Iiii Diploma and 115 00 

3d beat Windmill, D. Strnnk, JaneBvilla 10 00 

Beatnang Flow, J. D. Walker, Racine Diploma. 

Beet Flow, Light Soil, Badger State Agricultural Works, Janeivllle Diploma. 
Bert Steel Crossing Plow, Richards A Vandei|!refl, Princeton, 111. Diploma. 

Best Harrow, L, H. Hacnsrd, Wauwatoia Diploma. 

Best Bog Gutter, J. Webiter, North Prairie. Diploma. 

Beet Qrain Drill, Lafayette Stowe, Uadiion Diploma. 

Best Broadcast t'ower, Whiting, Wright & Itanifleld, Ripen Diploma. 

Best Com Cnltivator, E. Starr, Rorai Oak, Michigan Diploma. 

Best Farm WafoD, t^eaton A Whlffln, JaDe^Tilie Diploma. 

Best Sulk; Com Cultivstor, Hoiher A Preston, Honroe Dippma. 

Best Hone Rake, L. P. Jerdee, Madison Diploma. 

Best Churn, 9 If. rarman, Blnghamton, N. 7. Diploma. 

Best Farm Boiler, Ed. B. Valentine, Milwaukee Diploma. 

Best and moat numerous collection of Agricultural Implements, Ed. 

H. Valentine, Hilwankee Diploma. 

BestClDtbee Washer, Dot;, Bros. A Richardson, Janeivllle Diploma. 

Beat combined Rubber and Preiser Washing Machine, Jo. Adams, 

JaDCSTlile : Diploma. 

Best combined Washing Machine, Adams & Dearborn, Janeaville. . Diploma. 
Best Glotbca Wringer, Dot;, Bros, jt Richardson, Janesvilte Diploma. 

CLASS BB-HAOHINEET FOR MANUFACTDRINQ PORPOSES. 

Best Hand-Loom in operation, J. B. Wait, WaitviUe Diploma. 

Beat Spinning Jeno;, L. J. Bns>>, Milwaukee Diploma. 

Best Portable >te«m Engine, Wm. Smyden, Riohmond, Ind (Su 00 

SdbeHdo., Sing, Davis & Co., Centreville, Ind.,.,. SO 00 

CLASS 31— HACBINERT' FOR THE HAKCFAOTURB OF SOROHUH 
BYBDP AND 8D04B. 

Beat nmpls Sjmp, W. S. FoUenibee, Jaussrille ti 00 



EXHIBrnON OF 1866. 



MAKUFACTUBEBS, 

CLASB 88 OARBUOES, STOVES, HABNES8, ko. 

Best Double Oftrrikge, Hodge & Backfaoti, JaneavilU tlO 00 

Best Si ngla-Top Buggy, Hodge b Backholz, JanesTille 7 00 

Best Ckrri^e H&rnteB, C. Hunmer, Hadiaon S 00 

9d best C>iTi>ga Haroees, Aug. Kothmao, JaueavillA S DO 

Best Wagan HarceaB, O. Hammer, Uadiiwn S 00 

BeBt Singls HarneiB, 0. Hunmer, Madison 6 00 ' 

2d beat Single HameBS, Wm. Hinkley, JaueaTllle S 00 

Beat dOEsn Brooms, H. DeWolf, Dalatan Diploma. 

GLASS S»— BEE HirE3 AND BEE UAKAOEHENT. 

Beet Hire adapted to practical Bee calCure, J. BnlUrd, EvansTllle. .DlploBft. 
Best demonstration of handling and maoagemeat of Bees, J. Ballard, 

EranBTille..... Diploma and (6 00 

CLASS 4(V-CABINET WABE, COOPERAGE, WILLOW WARE, 
LEATHER, BOUTS AND SHOES, INDIA EtJBBEB GOODS, &o. 

Best Flour Barrels, W. Horrow, JanesTille tS 00 

M best Ftonr Barrels, L. S. Hoyt, JanesT>lIe I 00 

Best Window Sash, James Ore; k Oo., Beloit Diploma. 

Best Gent's Fane; Boots, C. Hiner, JaoesTille 8 00 

2d beet Oent 'a Outers, 0. UlDer, Janesville 8 OO 

Best Ladies' Winter Boots, W. A. Eeynolds, JanesTille S 00 

id best do., C. Miner, JaaesTille 1 00 

CLASS 41— LIQHTIKQ APPARATUS. 

Fine dispIftT, awards not made for want of a cotnmittee. 

Best FoTtalile Gas Works, 0. P. Libbj, Hilvaokee Diploma. 

CLASS 12— HDBIO AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

CLASS 48-8ILVER WARE, CUTLERY AND BRITTANIA WARE. 

Best Silver Ware display, James A. Webb, JanesTille. . . .Diploma and fB 00 
Best specimen Eleotro-Plated Ware, Jsmes A. Webb, Janesville.... 

Diploma and 6 00 

CLASS M— PAPER, PBINTINQ AND BOOE-BINDINO. 

Best Pamphlet Printing, Thompson & Boberta, Janesville Diploma. 

Beat Handbill Printing, Thompson St Roberta, Jan envi tie Diploma. 

Best Circnlars and Bilt-Heads, Thompson A Roberts, Janesville. . . .Diploma. 

Best Blank Book-Binding, W. J. Park & Co., Hadison Diploma. 

BeatLkw BookBiodioK^W. J Park & Co., UudiaoD Diploma. 

Best Library Binding, W. J. Park &0o., Hadison Diploma. 

Best FsDoy Binding, W.J. Park iOo, Hadiaon Diploma. 

GLASS-TEXTILE FABRICS, OLOTHINO, jto. 

Best Doeskin, Blake &0o., Eaeine fS 00 

Best Eersimere, F. A. Wbeelerft Sod, Janesville S OO 

id best Eersimere, Blake A Co., Rauine 8 00 

Best Blanketing, Blake k Co., Raoine S 00 

Sd best Blanketing, Hrs.W. Fole?, DarliogtOD ' 8 00 

19 Ag. TRAWa 



ccizoJ.A'OD^Ic 



290 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Best Fl«noeli, Blake & Oo„ Biclne tS CO 

SdbeBlFluiDe]*, F. A. Wheeler ft Bon, J»neanUe S 00 

Best Men's Clothing, M. Harah, JanesTille Diplomi or 2 00 

Beet S Ibi Stooliing Tara, Mrs. Wm. Folay, Darlinnon 6 00 

Best Hen's Hats und Caps, Clunptoo & Hildebrand, JuiesTille 

Diploms or 8 00 

Best CbtldreD's Hmts tmd Caps, Orkmpton k Hildebtand, JsnesTills. . . S 00 

Best Hat Cue, Cramptou & Hlldebruid, Janesrilte 2 00 

Best Ladies' Far Qlovea, Crampton & Hildebrand, JaiiPBT[Ue U 00 

Best Furs, GramptoQ & Hildebraiid, Janeaville 2 00 

' Best Gent's FarOloTes, Crampton i. Hildebrand, JaneEviUe a 00 

CLASS 46— DOMESTIC MANUFACTUEE8. 

Beat 12 BkeioB Sewing Bilk, Martha A. Smith, Emerald GroTe, tS 00 

Beat Woolen Mittens, Mrs. 8. Parker, Janeaville, , 1 00 

Beet Hearth Rug, Mr, H. Baker, Stoughton, 1 00 

Beat in yards Kas Carpet, Mrs. E. H. Blish, Janeariile 3 00 

Best Wool Stockloga, Mrs. R. H , Kimball, Johnatown, 1 00 

ad beet Wool Stockings, Mrs, W. Bemia, Book 1 00 

Beat Carpet Coverlel, Mrs. G. Kellogg, Janeavitle 1 00 

Beat Knit Counterpano, Mrs. Sarah Nye, Beloit, 8 00 

ad best Knit Counterpane, Mrs. J. 0. Jenkina, JaneaTille, 1 00 

Beat Crotobel Shawl, Mra. E. W . Skinner, Madison 2 00 

Best Wove Couoterpane, Mrs. Wm. Foley, Darlington, 2 00 

Best white Quill, Mrs. G. P. ReeMs, Janeaville, 2 00 

Best Flannel Blankets, Mra. E. S. Monroe, Fulton, 2 00 

2d beat Flannel BlanketB, Mra. S. J. Monroe, Fulton 1 00 

Beat lb . Linen Sewing Thread, Mra. Win, Foilej, Darlington, 2 00 

Best Linen Hose, Mrs. D. E. Stout, JaneKTille, i 00 

Beat Patchwork Quilt, Mias E. M. Howe, Hadison, ailk and Telvet quilt 2 00 

Best Patchwork Quiit, Mra J. R. Stewart, Brodhead B 00 

Beat Patchwork QuiU, iavenile 8 jesre old. Miss Flora B. Wetmorc, 

Bradford, 8 t» 

CLASS B1— I1ILLINES7. 

Beat Mom Plnah Hat, Misaea Thornton and Reynolda, JanesTtUe 8 OO 

Beat Lavender Velvet Bonnet, Mrs. A L. Blake, Janeeville, 3 00 

Beat Black Telret Catsiiai Hat. Mra. Thornton, JaDssriUe S 00 

Beat Bonnet Flowera, Mrs. A. L. Blake, Jan eavi He, 00 

B>Bt show of MilHner; Goods, Mrs. A. L. Blake, JaneiTille, B 00 



ORNAMENTAL WORK AND WORKS OF ART. 



GLASS 48— OBKAMENTAL NEEDLE WORE. 

Beat enibroiderod Shawl, Mrs. J. E. Bennett Janesville fS 00 

2d beat Muslin Embroidery, Miaa H. Bnckinghara JanesviUe 2 00 

Best Plain Keedlo work, Mias E. Norton, Janeavllle 2 00 

Beat worsted Embroidery, Mattie Graves, do 2 00 

Beat Crotchet Lamp Mats, Mra. E. W. Skinner Hadisou 1 00 

Best Fancy Work Basket, Mattie Qravoa, JanesviHe S OO 

Beat Embroidered Skirt, Mrs. S. W. Skinner Hadison 8 OO 

Beat Knit Tidy, Mra. F. A. Smith, Jaoeaville i 00 



L oo*^ Ic 



EXHIBITION OF 186a . 291 

2dbest doHra. 0. N. Bliah, JaneiTlll« 1 00 

Beat Crotcbet Tid;, Ure. Slocam, JaneBrille S 00 

Id beet do iln. Wia. Hudion, JmeiTille I 00 

Best doljnTenile, 11 Tre)F]ark Smitb, JBoeBrille 2 DO 

Beat Wax Flower*, llln A. Sikon, Bearer Dam 8 00 

SdBeat do Bettie Wingate, Bl&ck Eartb 2 gO 

Beat Ottoman CoTer, L. Dearborn, JaueBTille 3 00 

Id best do H. Burman, Edgerton 1 00 

Best Hair Ottomao Cover, H. Baker, Stonghton 9 00 

Beat Seed Wreath, Hn. Dr. Hove, StoOEhtoD, premium 9 00 

Be^t Crotcbet Bpread, Ura. Wm. Paul, Hilton, preminin 9 00 

Best Wai Basket, Um. Hoflbrd, Hilwaakee, premiam S 00 

Best Knit Shavl, Hrii. L. Fideld, Jane bti lie, preminm 2 OO 

Best Orotcbet Flowers, HiasH. Fifield, premiam 2 00 

Best Embroidery, Kiss Buckinshaui, premiam 8 00 

Beat Tucked Skirt, Hrs. G. F. IteeTes, preminm 8 00 

Best Ladiea' Underdo (beg, Urs. E. W. Skinner, Hadiaon 3 00 

Best embroidered Cloak, Mrs. E. W. Bkinner, Madison, premiam 9 00 

Be!t crotchet Argbso, Urs, E. W. Skinner, Hadlsoa, premiam 2 00 

Beat Needle Work, Urs. Q. R. Curtis, Uadlson Silver Pie Knife 

Best FancT Hmf Work, A. Bignej, Janeaville 1 00 

Best Hair Flowers, N. Piilev, Cold Spring 2 00 

id beat case Hair Flow erB, It. HcCstI, Honroe 1 00 

Best Specimen Embroider;, Hies J. R. Bennett, Janeiville S 00 

ad best embroidered Cushion, Uattie Grares, Janesritle 1 00 

Best Specimen Eoibroiderj, Urs. £. C. Vedder, Janesville 2 00 

Best Embroidered Skirt, Xn>. D. Halstead, Beioit 9 00 

Best Embroidered Collars, Urs. D. Hilstead, Beioit 2 00 

Beet case Silk Umbrolder;, Urs. Tajlor 2 00 

Beat Afghan do Mrs. G. A. Slocnm, Janesrille 2 OO- 

Best Toilet CusfalTin, Mrs. E. T. Furlonf;, do 9 00 

Best Rug, Urs. Biiah, JaneaTille 2 00 

9d beat do Mrs. It. Dearborn, do 1 00 

Best Beed, Wreath, D. T. Carver, Monroe 1 00 

Best Bback cap, Hra. Wm. Pol ley, Darlington I 00 

Best Ch^rSeat, Urs. Bowerroaa, Bdgenon 1 00' 

Best SofaPillow, Flora A. Smith, Janeaviile 1 00- 

OLA^S 4S— WORKS OF ART. 

Baat oollectton Oil Paiotiaga, Ura. Jeonie Sherman, ITilwankee 

DIptotua and IB 00- 

Beat Oil Painting, Mrs. J. Sherman, Uilwankee Diploma. 

2d best do., Urs. 0. A. Blocam, Janesvtile 2 00> 

Bast Landscape Painting, 8. White, JaneaTille Diplomat 

Best Animal Fainting, M. Boweiman, Edgerton Diploma. 

Sd best do.. L. Wait, Edgerton 2 00- 

Beat Fmit Painting, Mrs. Jenny Sherman, Uilwankee Diploma. 

Beat Ambrotjpe, J. A. Tiee, JaneBTllle Diploma.. 

Best plain Photograph, J. F. Barks. Janesrille Diploma- 
Beat Photograph in Water colors, J. A. Tice, JaaeiTllIe Diploma. 

Best Photograph in oil, L. Wait, Jane aville Diploma. 

Best Photograph in India ink, J. B. Banks, Jan earille Diploma. 

Best collectien Bun Pictures, J. A.TIce, JanesTille S DO' 

Beat Pen Drawing, Edmnnd 0. Atkinion, JaneaTille Diploma.. 

Beat Colored Lithograph, Dot; Bros. & Rlobardaon, JaneaTille Diplonub 

Best nieci men EngravinB on Uetal, James A. Webb, Janesrille. ..Diploma. 

Beat Chrome P^ntings, Urs. Julia Ford, UUwaakee Diploma and S 00- 

Beat WriliDg Book bj pupil, Hlas Ella Baker, Sommit. . . .Diploma and 9 W 



^d by Google 



292 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
0LAS8 50.— mSCELLlVEOUS ABTICLES. 
[ArtlcleB not provided for in ttnj of the other clisset.] 

Z. S. Dot J, MidiRon, Compound Paint Oil Honorable meolioD. 

Peter Qliem, Janesville, Bab; Carriage Bonorable mention. 

H. L. Bubbell, Chicago, Pickeriog'a do ubie -acting, anCi-fretzing Force Pump, 

Honorable Uealion. 
Badger SlaLe AKricultural Worlis, JaDGBville, BagBolder and Truck, Diploma 

Worlhingtoa, Wiraer&Co., UadiBOu, BaBlnesB Penmanship Diploma. 

WorthiDglDD, Warner & Co., Hadioon, Flourishing Penmanship Uiplnina. 

Worthington, Warner & Co., Madison, Card Writing Honorable meiitioD 

J. G. Pulman,KeOBho, Stump Hschine Honorable mention. 

Dr. Struuk, JanesTille, Deep Well Force Pump Bonornble meiitiaa. 

ItotyBroa. i Richard bo n. Water Gale Honorable mention. 

TiCBo Agricultural Works, Tiffin, Ohio, Hill Trucks for Bags, Honorsble men- 

£. S. BurrowB, Janesiille, Hjzeris Patent Fnmace. . ..Honorable mention. 

E. S. Burrowe, Janesville, Assartment of Springs, Axles, Spokes, Felloea, 

Shafts and other materials for carriages and wagons Diploma. 

Fowler & Hicks, Upper Sanduskr, Hay Stacker and Pitcher, Bonorable men- 
tiob. 

Fowler Ji Dicks, Upper Sandusky, Hay Gatherer Honorable mention. 

W.J. DooIilCle, Janesville, Harpoon Horse Fork Honorable mention. 

0. W. Williams, Janesville, Patent Evener Honorable mention. 

, HIssS. D. Winterinete, Janesville, Cone Frame Honorable mention. 

T. A. Balch, Bingham, Badiator and Hot Sir Conductor .f Diptoma. 

A. W. Smith, Harmony, Patent Plow Wheels Honorable mention. 

8. D. Csrpenier, Uadison, Carriige Clip Honorable mention. 

Grover& Baker's Sewing Uachine Co., Milwaukee, Sample t'eniiig Hncbine 

Embroidery Diploma. 

T. H. Arnold, Troy, Fenn., Horsj Hay Fork Diploma. 

Fairbaiiks, Greenleaf & Co., Chicago, splendid aasorCiuent of their superior 

Scales Diploma. 

W. Jonc#, Berlin, Spring Bed Bottom Diploma. 

B. HoBkins, Janesville, Patent Wagon Jick Honorable mention. 

B. Hoekind. Janesville, Windlass and Water Drawer Diploma. 

B. Hosk ns, Janesville, Patent Spring for gupp.rting wagi'n tongue, Diploma. 
Jas. Hopkins, Uadison, Patent, Self- Adjusting Saih Supporterand Lock com- 
bined Diploma 

F. Kimball, Janesville, Farmers' Record and Acooant Book, Itonorable men. 

W. H. Smith, Sparta, Bsg Holder Diploma. 

T. DeCaoip, Dowsge, Hicb., SpringBed Bottom Honorable Mention. 

J. H. Hap, Janesville, Force Pump Honorable Heution. 

0. E. Seilon, Janesville, Pair Bob Sleds Honor ble Henlion. 

G. E. Se<tuD, Janesville. Fluw Holder Honorable Mention. 

Jas. Hajden, Eieter, Ration Feed Box for animals Diploma, 

Hllea JoluiBon, Bipon, Johnson's Double Acting Force Pumps Diploma. 

Hiles Johnson, improved Whifle-Tree Honorable ^lention. 

Mrs. F. L. Raynor, JaneKville, Euiltlng Machine Diploma. 

W. K- Wyckoff, Ripon, Naiad Waier-proof Diploma. 

H. C. Cook, Janesville, WnterElevator and Chain Famp. Honorable Mention. 

Deerfnrth £ Paine, Stump Machine Diploma. 

J. H. May, Janesville, Farm Gate, with attachment for opening and sbatting 

from carriage Honorable Mention. 

■ra. A, U. Carter, Johnstown, Picture Frame Bonorable Mention. 

Wm. Scnrlock, Carbondale, Ilia, Model Spoke Machine Diploma. 

Vm Snyder, Richmond, Ind , Circular Saw Diploma. 



j.A'OO'^lc 



EXHIBITION OP 1866. 298 

L. W. Ooe, Hllwinkea, Heat Ridiktor Honorable Heatiou. 

». W. Uartiii, Hadiaon, milLUrj Records, Ac Diploma. 

W. H. Bentell, Oconomovac, Eitensloo Ladder Diploma. 

Dr. Wm Horn, JaoeBTllle, Patent Qorae-tboe Honorable Heatlon. 

QordoD Jt Fieidstead, Waupun, imprOTed VaffonOoapling-Hoaorabie UantioD. 
J. B. Wahana, BenBen, Tt., Automatic Foldijw Qate. . . .Honorable Hentiou. 

Eenrv Vroom, JaneBviUe, pair Leather Horts Neti Honorable Hentiou. 

H. W. Psttlbnne, Hilwankse, doable. bearing Oarri^e Spring 

Honorable Uentloa. 
0. A. Blocam, JaneEville, cotlectlon hand-made Wortted BhawU. . .Diploma. 

A. T. Klten, JaneiTllle Honorable Uention. 

W. W. Deiter, JaDSBTilla, Patent Baker Honorable Mention. 

D. R. Stout, Janeiville, Flj Xet Diploma. 

F. Famham, Janeaville, Burglar's Alarm Seotioel Diploma. 

0. H. Holbrook, JaneBTille, OlotbeB Drjer Honorable Hention. 

Diion t King, Hunro«, Pirate Bee-Hire Honorable Hantion. 

0. D- Hadiioa, Rotarj Power Pump Diploma. 

S. W. Edson, (EdioD A Son] Fond da Lac, Scroll Sawing and turned Tork, . 

Diploma. 

. W. Jetliff, Uunroe, Haobiae for Doretaillng Diploma. 

J. W. Sherirood, Alban;, Portable Fence Honorable Mention. 

James Bowera, Lexington, lod., Animal Trapa,. Diploma 

S. Bnrpee, Beloit, Inralid Oh^dr .Honorable Heation. 

W. S SteieuB, Beloit, Spring Bed Bottom Honorable Uention, 

Hilford & Taylor, Eaat Randolph, Two Horse Corn Planter 

Hoporable Mention. 

E. D. Barnard, Porter, patent Sheep Rack Honorable Mention. 

B. B. Jones, Fond da Lac, Bloedell'a patent Fire Oooler Diploma. 

Beady Roofing Oo., New York, Roofing Material Diploma. 

W. H-Tallmao, Janeirllls, Glau Signs Honorable Mention. 

Allen Walkley & Co-, Beloit, BprlmrBedBottom Bontirable Mention. 

Beaton & Whiffln, Janesriile, Set Wheels for gearing. . .Honorable Uention. 

Mrs. S. H. Btish, Janesrille, Model Marble Monument Diploma. 

MisB Brown, Hadiaon, Case Card Writing Honorable Mention. 

0. M. HotTnrd, Uilwaukae, Agricultaral Wreatb, Diploma. 

JohnRuBicIl, Beloit, specimens of Qraining, Imitation of wood and marble. 

Diploma. 

B. V. Smith, JanetriUe, Oaae of Butterflies Honorable Mention. 

Emersbn ft Oo., Rookford, IlL, Dnoble Row Corn Planter, Honorable Mention. 
Bryant iSlratton, Milwaukee, beautiful epeoimen of Penmanship 

Honorable Mention. 
Frank R Elderken, Elkborn, (13 years old) fine specimen of Sugar Cane, 

grown bj himself Honorable Mention. 

8. G. Saunders, Rockford, HI., Force Pump Honorable Mention. 

L. J. Burt, Milwaukee, Safetj Ooapling for Threshing Macbiues, Diploma. 

Eggleston A Swain, Ripon, Broadoasl Bower and Cuitirator eombiued, 

Honorable Mention. 

D. D. Riley, Patch OroTe, Oora Planter, ....Diploma. 

E. G. Paokajd, Cambridge, Game Trap Honorable Mention. 

Kmbsl), Orinnell A Bliirngs, Madison, Corn Shelter, hand and hone power. 

Diploma. 
0. Crongh, OronghTllIe, model of Floating Dry Dock. , . Honorable Uention. 

0. Crougb, Seed Drill and Broadcast Sower Honorable Mention. 

0. Orongh, patent Horse Sboe Honorable Mention. 

G. G. Campbell, Jane sTille, Car Coupling Diploma. 

0. H. Tryron, Greenwood, IlL, Hay Stacker Diploma. 

S. S. BuBhnell, Horieon, Patent A^joitable Horse Shoe Sharpener, Honorable 

Mention. 

8. B. Stimson, GouTemeur, Self-«leaning Plow Coulter for stobble, Honora- 
ble Uention. 

Arery Brown, Ripon, Bnbber Wagcin Beat Spring Honorable Uention. 

Obw. Tbeisa, Madison, Ingenious Celestial Globe or Planetarium. . .Diploma. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



294 STATE AGBICULTUBAL SOCIETY 

W. H. Loomis, Fond dn Lac, Improved StoTt Pipe or Heftt Badi«tor, Honor- 
able Hention. 

J. 8. Aldeu, Janeiville, Bample Uarble Work Diplomt. 

SuDuel 0. Hall, Whitewatar, Haoblne for Cntting Bickle SectioD*. .Diploma. 

E. H. Jonea t Bro., Foud dn Lac, Model of Rupert's Re.j Freaa, Honortble 
UeDtlon. 

Ira B. Haieltine, Biohlaod Gentre, Caahmere Qa&ta and Kids Diploma. 

W. H. Allen, Portage, Lnpioved Self-acting Waste and Feed Gate, Bonotabla 
Mention. 

0. P. WilUrd, Fond du Lao, Sea Shell Work, and Mou Piotnrea, Eonoralila 
Hention. 

Barker t Lomai, La Porte, Ind., Combined Seed Sower and OaltiTitor, Di- 

W. Smith, Harden, lava, Combined Seeder, Cultirator and Boiler, Diploma. 

Q. A. Libbe;, Milwaukee, UnirerBal Ou Machine Diploma. 

J. J. Carr, Dekora, Patent Self-actioe Flood Oate Honorable Mention. 

M. S. Althouse, Waupun, patent Pump Ojlinder. Diploma. 

M. S.Barrett, Buroett, Blind OperH tor Diploma. 

E. £. Pntt, Madison, Wilcox & Gibbs' bemmeio, fellers, tucken, marken 

and corders Hooorable mention. 

Snowies & Chenej, JanesTllle, Bed Lounge Honorable mention. 

D. Allen, JaneSTilIe, hand Com Planter Diploma. 

J. A. Carpenter, Beloit, Portable Fence Honorable mentioa. 

0. D, Leet, SpringSeld, Model of Peat Mill Honorable mention. 

H, A. UHjiurd, Wauwautoaa Honorable mentioD. 

Lewis Eeough, Milwaukee, Fire Proof Safe, (cylindrical) Diploma. 

a. 0. Bond, UertoD, Fotatoe Slicer. Honorable mention. 

F. H Barwood, Milwaukee, ooiTarsat Parallel Motion Diploma. 

Craw, Hopkina Ji Co., Fort Atkinson, Clothes Frame Honorable mention. 

Grsw, Hopkins & Oo, Fort Atkinson, Model Stamp Fuller. Honorable meotion. 
Dr. 1. J. Brown, Madison, Thill AtUich moot Honorable mention. 

E. Johnson, Joliet, 111 , Eureka Sash Stop and Lock Diploma. 

Laxby k Mndd.St. Antbonj, Minnesota, Stamp Extractor, Honorable mention. 



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COUNTY SOCIETIES. 









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TIJA2STSACTIONS 

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WISCOlfSIN STATE AGKICUlTUKAl SOCaEII 

FOB 1867. 



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TRANSACTIONS 

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WISCONSIH STATE A&RICUITURAI SOCIETY 

FOB 1867. 



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OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 
1 8 e r. 



K A. DAELTNG, Fond du LAa 



First — B. R HINKLET, StnnnT. 
&amd—G. H. "WILLIAMS, Bababoo. 
Thirds. I CASE, Racine. 



J. W. HOYT, MABiaoN. 



DAVID ATWOOD, Madison. 



J. B. DOUSMAN, MiLWAUKEK 
"W. R TAYLOR, CoTTAaK Gbotbl 
A. LUDLOW, MONBOB. 
ELI STILSON, OsHKOSH. 
J. 0. EATON, LoDL 
E. P. MABIE, Delavan. 



J. P. WILLARD, Janbsville. 
B. R HINKLEY, Sdmmit. 
DAVID. WILLIAMS, Spbincifieux 



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A]SnsnjAL REPORT 

FOB THE TEAS 1S6T. 



Bis EaxxMmcy, Luciijs Fajbchild, 

Qovemor of the i^le of Wisconsin : 

Sir : In aocordance with the law, I have ihe honor, in be- 
half of the Executive Committee of the Wisconsin State Agri- 
cnltural Society, herewith to transmit the Treasurer's annual 
statement of the financial transactionB of said Society for the 
year ending December 11, 1867. 

What was said of the industrial progress of the State in our 
last Beport may be, with added reason, re-iterated in this- 
The crops were generally good, were well secured, and, with 
esception of the laige clips of wool, have found good demand, 
at vety remunerative prices. How fax Congress may relieve 
the wool-growing interest, without detriment to othera equally 
important, seems to he still a question with those upon whom 
devolves the duty of determining the industrial and financial 
policy of the country. Owing to the high prices realized in 
'64 and '65, it is very Hkely that farmers may be a little ex* 
travagant in their demands ; and yet nothing ia plainer than 
that they ought not to suffer fix>m such un&ir discriminations ia 
&vor of imported wools as must lead to discoaragemeat and the 
final abandonment of this very importantbranch of husbandry. 

Hop-growing stUl engages the attention of oar farmers' 
It is manifest, however, that the present high prices can- 
not long continue to be paid ; and in view of the large ex- 
pense that must be involved before the fiiat crop can be har- 
vested; in view, also, of the laige areas now being newly 
planted ; and in c<Hts)deration of the probability that the insect 
which preys upon the crop almost invariably after it has been 

(299) 

n, ,v.i;A'Ot"l'^lc 



800 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETr. 

grown for a few years in succession, and wbich is said to have 
appeared in some localities, reasonable cantion is strODgly 
recommended. 

Thia Society has been highly prospered during the year 
just closed ; its general exhibition of the industry of the State 
having been one of the largest and most satisfactory ever held, 
and its finances being in a sound and satisfactory condition. 
The Secretary spent some six months of the year in attendance 
upon the Universal SzpoeiUon at Paris, and in making prac- 
tical observations upon the industrial systems and educational 
institutions of the Old Worid, of which some account will be 
published in due course of tima He also brought with him, 
on hia return several hundred samples of the agricultural pro- 
duct of the various countries represented at the expoation ; 
which are to be made the nnctens of a State Cabinet of econ- 
omical products — a desideration long had in contemplation by 
the Secretary, but not realized for waut of the requisite time 
to make the collections. 

The Society is also taking measures to increase its Library 
by the annual purchase of valuable hooks relating to the va- 
rious branches of industry. Of works of this class, the re- 
ports of kindred societies, in this and in foreign countries, are 
among the most valuable. These can always be procured by 
exchange, and in most cases in no other way, as they are not 
published for sale; At present, however, the Society has noth- 
ing to give in return for such works, and, accordingly, a num- 
ber of the societies, whose publications were most prized, have 
discontinued their annual donations to our Library. In view 
of tbese fects, a bill has again been prepared, for the consider- 
ation of the Legislature, which, if passed will insure the iuture 
annual publication of the Society's Transactions, togetiier with 
abstracts of the reports of all other industrial associations of 
the State. Such provision ought to be made and I trust that 
the L^jslatnre now in session will so determine. 
I am sir, very respectfully, 

J. W. HOYT, 
Secretary Wis. Bale Ag. SociOy. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



AtOTUAL REPORT— 1867. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



To (JL) Ja«!urii» ConmnUtt of (A« mtamtm Slati JgriaJfurtd Soeuig .- 

The finmcUl traniMtions of the Wi»coDainStftte Agricultural Society, for 
ttie put jeu bare beea u follows ; 

SEOEIPTS. 

Deo. IS, 1BS6. BitBiice on hand m ppr report of the 

TrBMurer, ofDec. IS, 18fl« |S,8M 88 

Sept 1867. Cash from rent of refreshaieDt lota. . . , 8,268 7S 

Cash for life memberBhip 9S0 00 

Caah from entry fees 648 oo 

CaBh frvm Bale of tickets a,II4S 35 

C«Bh from sale of grain 81 10 

Cash from sale of tentto Col, Ag. Soo. IflO 00 

Cash from sale of lomber J20 00 

Tot*! 113, MS 6S 

DISBURSEHENTS. 
Dec. II, 1867. Bj cash paid on orders from No. 1 to No. 600, 
Inclusiae, tbiB daj retnraed and cancelled, cot- 
iDg the following items: 

PreniiumB $4,081 BO 

Balariea 1 , SflO 00 

Priming and Adrertieing 947 94 

Clerks, superintendents, Ac SSS 16 

Expeused of Ei. Com. meetings $06 46 

Berreetunenu forjudges, officers &c . . 317 00 

'orage 826 08 

Office eipenses. 19fl 41 

Diploma plate and diplomas. leo 00 

Huaic , IBO 00 



Lumber. . 



07G 18 
ESS 16 



LiTcrj.. 33 5Q 

veaera Smith i Welch defending suit 100 00 

Loss by counterfeit mone; 44 60 

IncidemalB. jjg og 

Loan to-Dane Co. StockiAg'l Aas'o a, 000 00 

„ . . ^ $13,061 B4 

Balance in treasurj Deo. 11, 1867. 8,480 S9 

tl6,S4a 68 
Also note of J. B. Dwlnnell for tent. DO 00 

Note of LodiAg Soe. for tent soo 00 

Secnrit; for thii loan of. 2,000 00 

8,2W0O ■ 

Bespectftill; sobmitted, 

DATID ATWOOD, 
Trtatvnr Wi*. BlattAg. Sac 



l;A'Ot>'^lc 



PROCEEDINGS. 



EXECurrvE meetings. 

BtaTI AORICULTCOAL BooMB, Feb. S, 18<f. 

a o'ci^cE p. v. 

Tbe ExeentlTC Committee met puranint to requirenient of By-hhwa. 

Pngent— K. A. D&rling, Prevdeiit ; B. R. Hiuklof, W. B. Tajlor, J. 0. 
Elton, C. E. St«irBrt, E. F. Uible tuid J. W. Hoyt. 

Fretident in the Chur. 

On motion of Ur. HioUej, It was 

Bnolved, Thit tke diit« of the Anna«l r«ir of IBST be, *a for the put set- 
eral f eire, the last week in September. 

Jfoved and carried, that the reTisioD of the Rule* and List of Freminmg 
for the next Fair be now taken up and oontinaed nntil tbe Bame shall hare 
tieen completed. 

Hoved, by the Treaearer, that paragraph let onder head of " awards 
of prizes" be ameoded by inMrtiog after tbe words "in the dty" the words 
until II o'clock. Carried. 

Hored, by Mr. Hiakley, to unend the Sd paragraph nnder same head, by 
striking oat " within six months after the award," and ioaerting " before the 
date of tbe AoDnil Heeting of the Society, on the second Wednesday of De- 
cember." Carried. 

After spendiDg a coneiderAble time in discussing rarloDs other rules, but 
without amending Ihem, the Committee adjaumed to T^ o'clock this evening. 

li o'clock F, M. 

Committee met pursuant to aijjonrnaient. 
Present— Bame members ai before. 
President in tbe cbair. 

A^onrned to attend the meeting of the Wool-Qrowers' AiaooUtinn Id tbe 
Assembly Hall, aod to meet agun at 9 A. H. to-morrow. 

February 6, 9 o'clock A. H. 
Committee met pursaant to aclJoanuDent. 

Present— Hesirs. Darling, Hlnkley, Darid WUItams, Uabie, Stilsoo, Eaton, 
Stewart, Taylor and Hoyt. 
Preaident Darling In tbe ohalr. 



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PROCEEDINGS. 803 

The- Secretary r«kd ft letter fivm Mr. 0. E. Winiami, Mtisfaetortly expUin- 
ing bia abaence from the meeting. 

The Secretarj preseated • commnniotion fVoin the members of the Bxeon- 
tlve Oommlltee or the State Horticultural Society, covering & proposition for 
• joint eiliibition with the St&te Agricultural Bocietj at the next St«t« Fair ; 
theaabitance of said proposition being aa foOovB, to wit: The Horticaltaral 
Societ; to aMaine the entire reeponsibility of the DepiTtmeot of fruits and 
Flowers, the Agricultural Society providing their members with admis^ou 
tickets fraa of charge, and guaranteeing to said Horticoltnral Society the sum 
of (1,000 as ft conaideration therefor; in failure of whUb proposition, the 
committee of the Horticnltaral Society were instructed to make immediate 
amngementa for holding a separate exhibition. 

On motion of Mr Eaton, the said proposition was respectfully declined ; 
the vote being unftnimous. 

Hr. Btitson moved to strike out all premlnmB heretofore offered on 
" Sileaian" sheep, and to offer in lien thereof the following extra premiums 
on American Herinos: 

Best pen of 10 ewes, S years old and over $l(i DO 

Sd best pen of 10 ewes, S yeara old and over 16 00 

Best pen of 10 ewes, 1 year old and over. SS 00 

Sd best pen of 10 ewea, 1 yeir old and over IB 00 

Best pen of 10 ewe Iambs 30 00 

Sdbest pen of 10 ewe lambs 10 00 

Carried. 

Kovcd by Mr. Williams to inorease the premiums on wheat to $6 ftnd (S 
for 1st and 2d qoallties, and to multiply the vftrietles of winter wheat and 
spring, so that the premiums sbftll Inolnde "red" and "whits," ftnd the 
letter, "Clab," "Fjfe," "BioGrande" and "OhinaTaa." 

Secretary moved to amend by making the premiums tID and (G instead of 
(e and 18. LoaL - 

Moved by the Secretary, that all prrminmB on important artiolei in the 
class of Field and Garden products be Increased in like proportion. Carried. 

Hovedby the Secretary, thatthe premiums on butter and oheete be Inoreai- 
«d 60 per cent, and that separate premionu be offered on fann^made and fac- 
torj-mftde cheese, respectively. Carried. 

Moved, by Mr. Wllliftnu, that the premiums on Fruits and Flowers be In- 
ereised, at the discretion of the Seoretary, by anamountaqnalin the average 
to 2fi per cent. Carried. 

Moved by Mr. Eaton, that the premiumson Sorghum Maohlnery, and Sew- 
ing machines be discontinned, bnt that & /rstezAtitfionof anoh articles be oor 
dUlly Invited. Carried. 

Mr. Wllliama moved to include Musioftl Instruments In this list offering a 
free exhibition without prendnns. Carried. 

On Hftlioii, adjonmed to S o'clock P. M. 



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504 STATE ^GRICULTTniAIi SOOEETT. 

i o'clock P. It 

Oominittee met pnnuaDt to utjoniniiieiit, 

PrMident io the Chair. 

Od motioD the eubject of appointment wu next taken up. JudgCM having 
been aeleoted, the following perBons were chosen as officer! for the f^r and 
Snpeiintendenta of I>epartmentB: 

Cnurol Suptrinlendant — The Fregident. 
OimlrolUr Offict of Snby—The Secretarj. 
Oenlrolliir of 'JhJal Office— The Trewurer. 
Chuf J/anrAfl/-Wm. &.. Taylor. 
Si^^triMmdtnt of Qata—S. 0. Eaton. 
D^arttnadof Horta—O . L. HarCia. 

CalUe ■ C. H. Williams. 

Shm -RW^XWsou. 

Bmm> and /Wfry-E. F. MaWc. 

Agrwuli^tral—C. K. Stewart. 

JPntil—J. C. Plumb. 

Matkitiay—l, J. Case. 

Mami/aeturen Hail—a. H. Stewart, 

fhitArtt Ball—B H. Worthlngton. 
■ -The Marshal. 



On motion, the Committee adjourned to 1-1 o'clock P. H. 

H o'oloot, p. H. 

Committee met pursuant to M^oumment. 

Fre^deut in the Chair. 

The SeorettfT preaeated an applicatiou t^om the widow of Col. O. F. Hast- 
ings, deceased, for »d appropriation in payment foi a certain gold medal 
placed OD eihlbiti on in the Agricultaral Rooms, in the ;ear 1861, b; s^d 
EastingB, and stolen therefrom in the year 1B6S. 

Moved and carried, that the Secretary be instructed to ascertain, if possi- 
ble, the cost value of said Hedal and report the lame at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

At this stage of proceedinga, the Committee were waited upon b; a oom- 
nlttee of citiiens of Hadison, wttb a proposition for the location of the next 
Annosl Fair at Madison. 

Judge li. B. VIIm, as Chairman of said committee, reported the aotion of 
• meeting of citizens, and eipreaged a desire foe further time to perfect • 
fonnal preposition ; after which the commiitee retired. 

Moved, by Mr. Taylir, that a sub-committee of five members, oonusting of 
the President, Secretary and Treasurer, and Messrs. Stilson and David Wil- 
liams, be appointed to locate the Fair of 1867, and make the neceisarj ar- 
rangements therefore. 

The Secretary asked to be excnsed on account of anticipated absence 
daring a part of the season in Earope ; whereupon Mr. Atwood nominated 
W. B. Taylor to act in his stead. Carried. 

Moved, by Ur. Hinklej, that the committee on location be authoriied to 
locate the Exhibition for one or two years, at their discretion. Carried. 
The Secretary reported on claim of John P. Boe filed at the last meeting. 



l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



PBOOEEDINGS. 805 

Hr. Hinkla; mored thit Hr. Koe be paid tlS u dun*gee for i^jar; doDa to 
Btook Kt Fur of ISttS, uid that the buds bo CoD^dered a flna] Mttlement of 
bia claia. CtTried. 

Becretar; preseiited an acconnC of tSS for BorrloeB of aa aouBtaat pie*ii)iu 
to the Fair. WMoh, on motion of Ur. Taylor, was allowed. 

Hr. WiJliami atated, that the latarj of the Secretarj was cntirelf inade- 
tjnftte compensation for the important and ftrdaoos duties performed bj him, 
and oloMd Mb remarks bjmoiing that the aalar; for the present jear be fixed 
at ta,ooo. 

Wbioh motion, afler further remark! byiaveral members of the Committee, 
was carried nnanlmoaal;. 

The billa of members of the (Tammittee, for eipensea in attending this 
meeting, baTing been andited and paid, 

On motion, the Committee a^jooraed tin* dU. 

J. W. HOYT, Bmretarj/. 



MEMORANDA. 

STi.Ti Aoucm-TiraaL Booub, 
March 18, 18«9. 
HaTing accepted a coumie^on from the Governor to repreeent this Btate 
tit the approaching Paris UnirerMl Eihiblon of 1BS7, to be opened on the 
1st daj. of April oeit, nndet leave of absence granted by the Eiecutive Com- 
mittee of the State Agrionltnral Society, on December 12, IBSS, I shall, this 
day, start for Barope, In the further discharge of my dnties as President of 
the Wisconsin OommitsioD to said Universal Exposition. Arrangements 
have been made for prompt attention to tbe correspondence of the Society 
daring my abseDce and for the early issoe of the List of Premiums for the 
next Btate Ethlbition, but otherwise the office will be closed until my 

J. W. HOTT, Stentary. 



Stati Aououltctkal Books, 

Angoit IS, 1867. 
After an absence of over Ave months, a portion of which was spent at the 
Paris Eipodlion, and the remainder in making an indnstrial and educational 
tonr through France, Wnrtemburg, Bavaria, Swltierland, Italy, Austria, 
Baxony, the Middle States of Oennany, Hanover, Prussia, Denmark, Horwaj, 
Sweden, Finland, Busala, Poland, Holland and Belgnm, I have this day !•• 
tiinied to WisDODsin, and resumed my labors on behalf of the Btate Agrieal< 
tural Bodety. 

J. W. HOYT, Btnt»y. 

20 Aq. Trans. 



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806 STATE AGRIODLTUBAIi SOCIETY 
BXEOUTJVE MEETING. 

Brin AoBicrLTDKAL Boow, Dee. 11, 18ST. 
BiecntlTe OoBunittM net ponnant to KqalrenwDt of Bj-Ltw«, «n tbia 
da; at T| o'cloek, P. H., Pretident D4riliiK In tfaa chair and adjooned to 9 
o'clock A. H., of WediiMday the llth Inat. 

Wedneada;, Dec U,1M1. 
a o'clock, A. IL 
Oonunlttee intt punoant to adjoDmment 

FreBont— Ueura. Darling, Hinkle;, Eaton, Tajlor, AtWDod tnd HoTt. 
Proiident Darling in the chair. 

Farsuant to requirement of Bf'Lawa, Che Conunittee entered upon an exam' 
{nation of the bookd, papen and Toachen of the Secretuy and TreaauTer, 
and continned therein until 1 o'clock P. K. 
Adjonroed to S o'oJoeb P. ■. 

S o'clock P. K. 
Committee met pnTsaaot to adjonmnient. 
Preaent — same membert aa before. 

After a careM examination and compariion of the Treunrer's atatetnent 
with the cecorda and papeia in the Secretarj'a offloe, aald atatement wae ap- 
proTGd and orders No. 1 to 000, both inclnaiTe, were cancelled and flled away. 
The fbllowiug is the Treaanren' Beport : [See page 801.] 
On motion, it waa 

Smdvid, That the Secretary ig hereby anthoriied to draw an order in !■■ 
Tor of the Treaenrer to the amount of (44.S0 to re-imbiiree htm tbr the 
■mount of counterfeit money receiTcd by him, aa controller of the ticket 
ofBce, dnring the paat ten yean, to Dec. 11, 1BS7, and this day retnmed and 
placed in the cfBce of the Society. 

Secretary presented a oommanlcatlon from P. B. Parsona, encloring an ap- 
plication from repreaentatireii of the Congregational Soci,ety of Hadison, 
aaUng re-tmboriement, to the amount of (IB.BO, amount paid by said Sotie- 
ty for water used daring the late State Fair ; which application, after some 
dlaeusiion, waa nnanimoualy rejected. 

The Beoretary reported, that ba-rtug become eatlifled by the affldarite of par- 
tiea exhibiting the Lamb Knitting Machine, that the award to the Bridgeport 
Knitting Machine Co. of a Diploma on machine* exhibited by their agent at 
tlie late Fair wai to awarded by the Judges witbont having made a proper 
«ikBiinaUon of tike Lamb machine and others on exhibition, he (the Secre- 
favy) hkd aaaumed the reaponaibiliiy, In behalf of the Execotive Committee, 
of auHiDing the laid award to the Bridgeport Oo. He had brought the mb- 
iMt before tlila meetiig, that the Committee might hare the opportunity «f 
■motioning or dii^iroTliig Ua aoUon. 

On noUan of GitL DaUey, Uie action of Uw Beoretaiy wae nnaaimoady 
l^roTed. 
31m Ooounittee tlm a<U<ni'i><d ffM dia 

J. W. HOTT, £ 



l-;A'Ot>'^IC 



PEOCEEDDfOa 



ELECTION OF OITIOEES. > 

S»n AeBunrLTOKiL Bmikb, Bep.. M, 18Bf, 

PnnDMit to tbe coDStiMtiooftl prOTlBiOQ, nad to m pabliihed notice, (he 
Ufa Heinben of the WiBconain State Agricnltural Socelt; met thla erening 
in tbeic Eooms Tor tbe election of olllcers for the euuing year. 

FietndeDt Darling in the Ohalr, 

Atteadance lar(,e. 

Oalling of roll of membeTs diipeiiMd wiiL 

ICt. WilliamB moved that a committa of seven be appointed bj the ohair 
to make noniinationB forofScen of the Boceitjfor the year IB6B. Oftnied. 

The President appoiatsd u such committee, Hesns. Darid WUUanu, 
J. 0. S«toa, F. D. If cCartj, A. ProndBt, W. B. Taylor, B. B. Hlnkley, and 
A. E. Elmore. 

Daring lbs absence of Committee, tbe Beoretary read flnanoltl reports for 
the years IBM, ISBt, and 1896, 4nd made Mrae remftrlu concerning the im- 
portance of an annnal publication of the Society's Tranaactiona, urging all 
Life Members of the Society to use their inflnenoe to that end. 

The committee en nominationa retamed and reported a* follows: 

.ftr PrttidaU—S. A. Darling, Fond dn Lac. 

Tiet-Pifidmlt—Tirat CoDgreseional District, B. B. Hinldey, Summit ; Sec- 
ond District, Vf. R. Taylor, Cottage Orove ; Third District, 0. H. WlUiams, 
Baraboo; Fourth District, Sal. (Jlarfc, HotiooD; Fifth Distriot, Bii Slikon, 
Oshkosh ; Biith District, C. C. Washburn, I>b Oroese. 

Seerttarj/—!. W. Hojt, Uadison. 

2V>an>F«r— David Aiwood, Hadiion. 

Ail£iional JftnAtri ofih* BaaUitt a>mniill«(— DtTtd Williams, Springfleld; 
.J. 0. Eaten, Lodi ; 0. L Martin, JsneiTille; J, H. Warren, Albany .H. B. 
(been, Xillord ; W. W. Field, Boscobel ; G. Tmeadale, Kenosha. 

Od motion the report of the committee was accepted. 

Movpd, by David Williams, that the report be adopted and that L. B. Tilsa 
be anthorised to cast the vote of the Society for the persons nominated ai the - 
offlcerH thereof for the ensuing year. Carried ananlmonaly. 

A<|joamed wu ifo. 

i. W. HOTT, Bmntaet. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF SOCIETY. 

Star AaBicTn.Ti;KiL Booio^ 
December 11, 1807. 
Purausnt to coostltnUonal reqniremeati, and toe published Dotloe,thr Bo-- 
det; met in these Boomi this day at I o'clock te dose np the flnanaisi •«- 
oonnta for tbe year, and attend to sueh other bnsiDeaB as might pioyulf 
oome before it. 
Qooram present. 
Pieddent Darling in the ehalr. 

On call, tbe Secretary read tlie ^tMirer't Matemsnt of tto IbaBofal 
truMHtiona for the year pari ; ihowing the receipts to have >••& (Ifl,- 



I v'^'Otl'^lc 



308 STATE AGRIOtJI/ruIUL SOCIETY. 

^S 08, ftnd Um dtebarwmentfl tlS.OBl S4. [B«e Report of Treuarei on 
page SOI.] 

Od motioD, the report vu Mcepted, and • cammitte, oontigtlog of B. B. 
Hinkle?, 8. O. Huilnga tmd W. B. Taylor ww appoioted to eiamine tbe ko- 
couQta of the Treuarer utd Secretaiy, mnd report thereon at thU meeting. 
The following li the report of aaid committee ; 

To tilt FiKonriti BMt AgnaiUmral Boadg: 

The OommitCee obkr^ed with tbe dat; of eiiimlniDg into tbe EQ&ncial 
trannctionB of tbe Sooiet; for the jear eodlog December 11, I86T, hiving 
performed tbe datj usigned tbem, uk leare to report that, having earefnll; 
oomptred the flaancial statement of the Treasurer with aci^om panning 
Touchers, tbej find the same correct, and that bilU and Touchere for the 
items therein named are on file and open to inepeotioo in tbe office of the . 

* '' [Signed.] ' B. H. HINKLEY. 

SAH. D. HASTINGS, 
W. E. TAYLOa. 
SUta Agr'l Boomo, D««. IS, 1U7. 

Which report, on motion of Hr. Eaton, was approved hj the ncanlmooi 
vote of the Bocletj. 

Tbe Becretar; called attention to tbe fact that at the last aoQual meeting,' 
Mr. Eaton gave notice of an intention to oBbr at this meeting an amendment 
to Article III of Constitution, b; virtue of which the nnmber of Vice Pren- 
dents of the Socletr, after the adoption of said amendment, wonld be two, 
Instead ot six, the number last elected. 

B; request of Ifr. Eaton, the Pretident declared eaid amendment before 
the Societf . 

Mr. Eaton advocated it on the gronndi of elTicienc? and economy and 
moved its adoption: which motion, after conriderable discuadon, in whioh 
Mesara. Tllas, Hinklej, Eaton, Haatlngs and Hojt took part, wag adopted by 
a two-Ihtrds vote. 

The Becretar; gave noMce, that in oon^deratloo of several defects in the 
Constitution not remedied b; the amendment just adopted, be bad been re- 
quested to make a carelHil revlalon of the same in ail its parte nd apresent the re- 
sult to this meeting, He then read the CoDStitlDn as it would stand when all 
the proposed amendment! were incorporated and placed a copy thereof on 
file with the view of brioglng it before the Society at the next Annual Meet- 
ing. 

On motion, the Bodety then ailjonmed itm die 

3. W. HOYT, Sceralary. 



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EXHTBinON OF 1867. 

[Ficm the SecraUry'H BeoonLJ 



The Biblbitlon of ISS^, jnat olowd, in the nuiia wu t great anecew. In the 
eeUmatioQ of muiy dinotereeted petMna, it «zoeeded mil preTiovs 
•ibibltloDs of the Society, Id the nnmbttr uid Tkrietj of the eihibltB u veil 
aa in the interest numlfeated by the attendance. Th« grounds — which, for 
Dfttnral beanty and admirable adaptirtioD, are DDni^n«wd by any that we hare 
ever seen in any part of tbe world— were comfortablj fitted np and satlifao- 
torily aooommodated tba sereral departments. Tbe B shaped mile traek for 
trialsof speed was la perfect condition and gars nnlrenal satisfaation . 

The Department of Field and Garden Prodvots, though not as meagre as 
last year, was muah inferior to what It ought to have bean— eapedally in 
Tlew of the very considerable increase of premiums. For once, ws wouldlike 
to see Agrioultural Hall well orowded with samples of the cereal crops, graas- 
ei and other prodacta of this sort, together with a creditable show of the 
products of the dairy, apiary and household ; thongh we begin to despair of 
a reallaation of auah hopes. Ifeit year, we must doable, or treble the prem- 
inmt In (hla whole department and see whether that will effect anything. 
Ute itinera of the conaty where the eibibitlon ia.l)eld ahoold feel themselTea 
diagraoed by their negleot of It. A few bags of grain, two or three samples 
of dOTSr and timothy, as many peaks of potatoes, a wheel'barrow load of car- 
rats, tumlpa, beets and oniona, and a half doaen crocks of butter and a shelf 
of cheeses — may be considered a pretty fair Hamming up of this department. 

The Hortioultaral Department was a beaatiflil and Terr extenslTe repre- 
■antaUoD of tbe orchards of the State. We doobt if a better exhibition of 
fndts plants *and flowers was ever made at anj state fair in the United States 
The latge hall, sapposed to afbrd ample room, ran OTer early on Thursday, 
and the Tacant placea in Agrioultural Hall, even to the extent of ooe entire 
balfof ita capacity, were made sttractlTe by a lupplemeotary display of as 
Ikandsome a collection of fruits aa erei delighted the aye of Pomona. The 
frnit growers of Wisconsin are eminently deserving of the tbaoks of ^ 
paople for the eiithuaiaam and perristeucy of effort with which]they have, from 
year to year, contended with the adTeraltiea of climate. 

The exhibition of horaea was a very valnable and attraotlve one, present- 
Dg for the Inflection of lovers of this noblest of the lower animala. many of 



l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



810 STATE AGRICUI/rtJIlAL SOCIETY. 

tbe nnmflroiu flue •pealmeu tbftt now belong In our State. The Bnooan|«- 
ment given by the Soclstj to thorough breeding ii bearing fruit alreadj, and 
cannot fkil to tell largely, In conne of time, npon the imprOTement of hor»M 
in thla State. 

Th« atall* Mt apart for cattle were all filled, many of them with Terj flna 
■paelmeDa of tbe sereral breedft. Vo premiums were offered on AlderneTB, 
AjenUrea and Hereford^, whieh, in onr opinion, was a mistake. Tbe two 
breeds tint named are ■pecially worthy of enconragement. 

The falling off in tbe price of wool having had tbe effect to ooolihe ardor 
of the sheepmen, the show In this department was Inferior to what it baa 
bean for two or three jeare past. Btill the exhibition was not a disaredlt to 
the State. 

Hacbinery abonoded, covering the slopes npon which It was displayed with 
a mnltitnde of fine reapers, mowers, seed-drills, plows, harrows, tbreshers, 
fanning mllli and a thoniand and one other articles of great intorest and 
Talne to tbe ftimer and the pnblio at large. 

HanuEieCnrers' Tent was also well crowded with domestic michiner; and 
tbe products of the mechanic arts ; and Floe Arts Hall, besides being pretty 
well packed with ariioles appropriate, was made still more interesting by the 
ceaseless hnm and whirr of some twenty to thirty sewing and knitting ma- 

The specification of articles ii made impossible by the number of snch U 
are eqaally deserrlng of mention, as well as by the narrow limits of our space 
In tbis volnme. 

The special dally programme was faithftdly carried throngh and gave TMy 
great satisfaction. 

Tbe equestrian display by some fbnrteen ladies, on Thursday, proved an at- 
tractive feature, as it always does. And the trials of speed by trotting, pa- 
cing and ronulog horses — still an experiment with tbe Society — appeared to 
bave at least tie temporary approval of tbe entire multitude of twenty to 
thirty thoneand people who witnessed them. It la hoped that these trials 
may be so managed as to promote the Interests of industry withoot detri- 
ment to the more important Interests of public morality. If they cannot, 
every true friend of the Society will vote for their utter abandonment. 

Falling to seoore speakers from abroad, two or three of whom had been 
partially engaged, and up to the last day were expected, the Society was fortu- 
nate In being able to impress into its service several gentlemen la sttend- 
aoee npon tbe Pair, whose brief, pertloent and excellent addresses were well 
received by tbe people. Of the remarks nade by Qov. Pairchild, Qen. 6eo. 
B. Smith and Hon. A. J. Craig, we have not been able to procure a eopy for 
pnbllcatloQ. Of a highly appropriate and valnable eitemporaueoss 
qteeob made by Dr. P. A. OhadbourDe, President of the State Cnlverdty, 
the iUIowlDg Is a pretty correct report ; 



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;ITI0N OF 18117. 



ANNirAL ADDRESS. 



BY PBBSIDENT P, A. CEADBOURNB 



Ha. PammuTT, Luim akd QunxiaEii: — The good people of ths StaU of 
WiieoDiiii have come op here to attend an Agricnltoral Fidr, but all of foa 
Tho have paa»ed through tbeie grooad* caa aee at a glaace that this is aoms- 
thlng more than a nere Agriooltaral Fair. It !■ an eihibltlon of the oWUiz- 
ation of Wiacongln ; for jav have [upon these grounds not onlj the imple- 
ments of the garden and field, bat jon have aIm here the products of the 
workahope and of the mannfactory. Tou have brought together the joint 
prodncti of the field and of the bralng of man. This is ae It shoold b«. A 
painter, when a^ed what he mingled vith his color* to pcodaee suoh beanti- 
fU effects, replied that be mixed tbem with brains ; and when any people ap- 
ply tiiis rale and mix their soil with brains, and guide the hand bj the mind, 
thejT) too wil] prodnoe beautifiil effects, and those who fail to do this, deter- 
iorate from ciTilization and go baok towards sarage life. 

Furtber, we see upon this gronnd the difference iMtween cWiliiatloQ and 
•avage life. Tbe saTageliTeBuponthatwbichBpringsBpoDtMieoasl;from the 
soil, witboot effbrt of hand or braia on hie part ; but the oiviliied man put* 
in the seed, and from year to year be prones and protects and cares for, antil 
at last the fruits and the flowers flourish npon the soil. 

And this grand eihtbUion etanda forth as aa emblem, aad as a sure sign of 
edncation aud of the great progress In man, of sU that distinguishes the civ- 
iltied man from man in the saTage state. And, go where yoa will, yon irili 
find that agrloultare Is based on oivilliation. It Islmpowible for man to 
progrei* at all in ciTlliaation nntil he mahea agricolture the great staple of 
his Dccnpation. WbcD ctvlliied men go to those portions of the earth where 
it is thought to beimposaible to produce artiules which flourish in tiieir native 
land, they carry with tbem all that tbej posdbly caa to remind them of the 
agricultural products (if tbe Isnd from which they haTo gone. It was once 
my good fortune, or bad fortnne, to find myaelf among the snows and icebergs 
of Greenland, at the honse of that learned man, Qdt. Bink. I saw where he 
bad elenned the snow and loe from a lltUe spot of grannd, a rod square for • 
gMen-honse, In which he had planted hia strawberries, aDdhlacarrant bushel, 
hla flowers and grapes. There was one apple tree three feat higlf, hating up- 
on it three apples, that were to him more ralnable than apples of gold. The 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



512 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOOIETT. 

;«ftt bsfore, thftt apple trae 'prodoced one mUtuj &ppl« ; and when it was 
ripe all the EuropeauB were called together, to the nainb«r of twen^, and 
that apple »ai dlTided into twent; equal parti, that each one night ea; that 
be hod eaten of an apple growa in Qi«enland. It was to them a iweet re- 
mlnderof tbeclTilizatioa of their own hooiei, which thef had teftfortha 
ateiile and ice-boand ooantty whioh they now inhabit. 

And ao, go wherever jou will, icienoe and agriculture go hand in band. W« 
•ee the young men of our state and of this conntry turning away from their 
farms to seek for what thef cooaider some other profeuon, more hoaorable. 
Now, it faae been repeated from year to year, at thete State Fairs, that agri- 
coltnre is th« nobleit employment of .man, yet we aee It abandoned by 
onr youths for other pursuits. Whyisthisf I oan tell yon why. It la b«' 
cause there has not been enough of study and thought mingled with the la- 
bor of the farm. It Is because the riohnesa and produQtlTeneu of our aoil 
bare been lessened and farming baa failed to be attractive, when profit is 
wanting, because it has demanded or called into action too littlo brain work. 
The draft upon oar soil has been too great, and It beoomes more and more 
unproductive from year to year. The brain of the agriculturalist should 
guide the band. It has Iraen rightly ^marked that there is no other employ- 
ment under Heaven, so well adapted for the development of the whole man, 
as the pursuit of agriculture when rightly pnrmed. 

Tbe farmer is called upon to tell the growth and structure of every plant, 
and tbe names and habits of every bird and animal from the largest to the 
Bmalleat ; and he is called upon to Investigate the structure of the soil, and 
tell Its capabilities and properties. And when our farmers are trained to 
know the condition of the soli, I challenge the world to show a plaoe where 
mentnl culture is capable of higher development than in tbe fields of the 
State of Wisconsin. And let me say it is impossible to go through with all 
this study and brain woric without filling the agricultural oommiuiity with In- 
telligent and enlightened men. The frnita and the flowers are an open booh 
before them. They should study what la adapted to the soil and bow to sup- 
ply the elements which are taken from ft. When thin is done — when the 
fields ate filled with fmlts, and blossoming with flowers, and all that is love- 
ly among men, we shall see at our Agricultural Fairs representatives of intel- 
Ugonce — men acquainted with science, and of tbe highest culture. It must 
Im so. Tbere Is no other ground upon whichjoar civlliiation can rest. Tbe 
Cbvemor, in his remarks, bas been land enough to allude to the agricultural 
Atnn ; and let me say to you that there la a vast amount of knowledge upon 
the suhject of agriculture in our community that is not made use of. It is 
written in our papers and in our books ; and I think the first great work of 
the agriculturist is to learn what bas been done, and examine and enqalre 
into all that is known upon tbe subject, and teaoh the people the resnlt of 
his investigations. He should study the improvements in agrienltnre and 
hortiooltare and see that they are practically applied. When he has dMia 
this he will be like the sailor upon the prow ot the ehip, watching to make 



i.A.ocigIc 



EXHIBITION OF 1867. 318 

Dev dlKOTeries. It it tU toOj for m«n to talk ibont mftkicig experim«Dta 
mi improTementi antil they hare Isamed what tb« world hH already done ; 
and theo the; may oommence their eiunlnatiom into new netbodi, and de- 
TBlop and improve their prooesMfl for the benefit of the State. And tbe 
gentleman who stands at the head of this brm jon will hold to a strict re- 
sponMbility forhiamanagemeat of it He will stand as a repreaentatlre of the 
knowledge of agriculture and bortkoltore In tbe State of WlsconBln. And 
let me tell jou, ladie« and gentlemen, that be cannot stand there without be- 
ing the ablest representative of scientific fanning In the State. And I ask 
yon who have farms and gardens, to contribute all yon can to the agrioultar- 
«1 departmiint of the State University of Wisconsin. 

One thing more, ladies and gentlemen, and I speak now especially to the 
gentlemen, I wish yon to onderatand that the people of the great west are 
making drafts npon tbe productiveness of tbulr soil, and making them to a 
fearftil extent. Long trains of cars are constantly going &om the West to 
the East, carrying wheat, and every car that is loaded with It bears pre- 
cions sabstances from your soil. If this is continued it will not make your 
soil better. I sa; every train of cars that thunders from tbe West to tbe 
Eaat carries from you a portion of your fiohes. Ton may some time be qolte 
glad to call them back, but they will not come baok. These rich lubttanoeB 
once taken away from your fields, cannot be recalled. The sea is whitened 
with the suls of Teasels oanying this riobness to the other world. What are 
;aa going to do r I will tell yon what yon most do if those trains of oin . 
oontlDQe to bear the products of yoarioil to the East. Tou must applyyont 
knowledge of agriculture, and do all jon oau to keep your soil good and to 
m^ntain its fertility. 

Andl say to jon, in closing, that it is one of mj proudest boasts that I was 
a fanner's boy ; and I cannot only hold the plow, but I can go into the shop 
and make a plow ; I have made many a one — working In the carpenter's shop 
in winter and in the field in summer. I declare to yon to-day there Is do 
employment under Heaven that Is more honorable than the farmer's and It 
•hould rankamong the skilled pursuits. It is the employment in wbioh varied 
knowledge and skill oau be applied to tbe greatest extent, and the only one 
to which the king can corns from his throne and feel that he is not oomlng 
down, bat that he la taking a high and bouorable place. Just so long as soil 
ts miied with br^ns, just so long will Agriculture oontinne to be the hlg^ 
and honorable pursuit it Is to-day. 



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STATE AaBIOUIOTIBAL SOOIETT. 



PREMIUMS AWARDED 

AT THB FAIB OF 1887. 



HORSES, JACKS, AND MULES. 

GLASS 1~TH0B0DQH BRED. 

Konmn Green, FaltDii, Stallion, 4 years and over, Hod Qregory %tO 00 

Win. H. Jamea, Belolt, Stallion, 3 years old, Canada, Ktrad by Leilog' 

ton, Ist praminm SOOO 

M. Drake, Beloit, Stallion colt, 1 year, sired by Ball, dam Kitty Miles, 

iBt premiam 6 00 

S. Q- Field, Beloit, Brood Hare, Pom Ferrii, l*t premium 80 00 

CLASS 2-ROADSTESS. 

E. 8. Hammond, Food dn Lac, StaUlon, Live Oak, over 4 years, lit 

premium SB 00 

A. Garton, Ithioa, Gray Btallion, over 4 years, 2d preainm 16 00 

John Jonei, Waterton, Btallion, 8 years old, Yonng Flying Olond, Jr., 

lit premium 10 OO 

A. 0. Darwin, Hadison, Brood Hare, Lady, IbC premium SOOO 

Oeo. A. Ha»oD, Hadlaoo, Brood Hare, Jeony, 2d premium..., 19 DO 

A. a. Darwin, Hadison, Fiilj, 8 years and under 4, Ist premium 10 00 

CLASS 8-EORBES FOB GENEBAL PURPOSES. 
A. G. Darwin, Hadison, StallloD, Andy Bart, 4 years and orer, Ist 

preminm SB 00 

Bliha Griffln, Badne, Stallion, Bellfoander, Hambletonian, Sd premium IB 00 

H. Draher, Oregon, Stallion, S years old, Ist preminm 10 00 

H. Ha^ea, Watertown, Stallion, 8 years old, Sd premium 7 00 

W.B. Warren, Hadison, Btallion, S years old, let premium 7 00 

A. O. Darwin, HadiMD, Btallion, S yean old, Olendy Burt, adptemiom B 00 

A. S. Bush, Bun Prairie, Btallion, 1 year old, 1st preminm B 00 

A. Waterman, Rutland, Stallion, 1 year old, Sd preminm 8 00 

A. G. Darwin, Hadison, SnoUnK Btallion Oolt, let premign B 00 

D. Fitch, Hadison, Sucking Stallion Colt, Sd premium S 00 

A. Q.Darwin, Hadison, Brood Hare, 4 years and over, 1st premium... 20 CO 

D. ntch, Hadison, Brood Hare, 4 years and o*er, 2d preminm 13 00 

A. 0. Darwin, Hadison, Filly, 8 years and nnder 4, lit premium 10 OO 

J. B. Heiatand, Hadison, Filly, » yean and under 4, Sd premium. .... 7 DO 

Biohard Ricbards, Bacine, Filly, 2 yean old. Lady Belle, 1st premiam A 00 

H. Anderson, Gross Plains, Filly, 2 years old, Id premiam 4 DO 

A.O. Darwin, Hadison, Sacking Hare Colt, 1st premium. 8 00 

JUDW Jack, Hadison, Bnckiog Hare Colt, Sd premium % 00 

CLASS 4— DBAET HOBSEB. 

AngoiliiB Btone, Omro, Staillioo, 4 year and oTer, 1st paemlnm tlB 00 

W.J. Powers, Black Eartb, Stallion, 4 yean and over, id preminm... 10 OO 
DavidHeOlay, Johustowo, Bullion, 8 yean old let premiam 10 00 



l;A'Otl<^fc 



;rnoN OF 1867. 81 n 



0LA8B >-JAOKS AND MITLSS. 

Adam Smith, Bork Oentre, Jtok, lit premtmn (SS 00 

B.F. H&bte, DelaraD, J&ck, JaplMr, Sd prtniiun IB 00 

AduD Smith, Barke Centre, dngle JeDiiT, Ist premlDm IS 00 

Wn. ToHt, Darlington, tingle Jennj, 9d promiam 10 00 

H. H. B«naoD, 7ort Atkinaan, pair working Hvlei, tut premium ID 00 

W. 0. WUliame, Lodi, pdr working Uulei, Sd premium 6 00 

James HcOloud, Lodi, Blngle Male, lit premium B 00 

Wm. Tolly, Darlington, Uuie Colt, lit preminm S 00 

A. Oobb, Son Prairie, Hule Oolu Hon. mention. 

CLASS «— UATOHED HORSES AND HAREB. 

K. E. Elzar, Prairie da Sao, pair carriage Harea, lit preminm 9H 00 

Jamea Hayden, Eitor, pair carriage Hnree«„ Sd premium IE 00 

Van Blyke and Hasoo, Uadlioii, pair Boadetera, lit premium SB 00 

A. G, Darwin, Hadfson, pair of farm Hares, lat preminm SB OO 

ThoB. Hajden, Madison, pair of dranHoTMi, Sd premium 15 00 

CLASS 7.— GXLDINQB OB MABXS JOB SINGLE HARNESS, BADDIB, 

ETC. 
S. B. Jenks, Uadison, Qeldiog forHameas, let promium $10 00, 

D. Gardner, Uilford, Qetding in haraeBi, Sd premium S 00 

R. B. Eell;, Beloit, Uare for saddle, 1st premium 10 00 

A. McDonald, AUoo, Gelding for saddle, 2d premium S 00 

CLASS S— TROTTEBS AND PACEIK. 

Geo. Fheipe, Fond da Lac, Stallion, B jeare old. North Hawk, lit pre- 
mlDm, time, t;4H SO 00 

Dr. QniTe}',ETansTi]!e, Stallion QreenUooDtainBo7,Sd pre., time, 3:4S SO 00 

Wm. Dono, Madison, Hare Gray Lltiie, 1st prem., time, 8:41 80 00 

G. W. Thuecan, Waukesha, Hare Lady Dabble, Sd prem., time, S;41. . . SB 00 

E. Thustan, Waukesha, Gelding Black Petrel, Ut prem., time, 2:641. • SB 00 
Geo. A. Uason, Uadlson, pair of matchedborees, let prem., time, S;16. SC 00 
L. DoDglas, JaDesTille, Pacing Gelding Black Shy, let preminm, time, 

3:47*. tt 00 

J. F. Hondle, ahilton, Paoing Hare, Sd preminm IS 00 

GLASS 9— SUNNING HOBBEB. 



A. H. Donglae, Brodhead, Stallion Bill FhinaeT, 1st premium, time, 

ftBO^and 8:B0 800 00 

Dulel Harrer, Monroe, Hare Prairie Lily, sd premiam 100 00 

Mm BUTH, Biai THBU 11 riTX. 

Wdl W. James, Beloit, Stallion Oaoada, 1st prem., time, 1:48 ; 1:47; 

S:00 100 00 

Daniel Harrer, Uooroe, Hare Prairie Lily, Sd premium 7A OD 

Wm. W. Jamea, Beloit, Btallion Canada, ls( preminm, time 1:B( SO 00 

Peter Parklnson./ayette, Gelding Captain Belcher, 8d preminm 40 00 



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STATE AGRIOULTtTRAIi SOCIETY. 



0LA.B8 10— SHOBT H0HH8. 

Biatutrd lUcharda, Raaine, Bull, Nkpokon, over S jeua old, lit premt- 

um tSS 00 

J. F. Boe, Darham Hill, Bull, 3 jekra old, ltd premium IS 00 

J. F. Boe, Durham Hill, Bull, 8 Teara old, l«tpi«miam IS 00 

8am. H. Teonef, Waokegha, Boll, 3 ;e*n old, Borftl Dake,Sd premium, 10 00 



J. F. Boe, Durham Hill, Bull, 8 Teara old, l«t pi«miam IS 00 

8am. H. Teunef, Waokegha, Boll, 3 ;e*n old, Bojftl Dake,Sd premium, 10 00 
Geo. Hurrtf, BkcIhb, BnU, one jear old, Duke of AdriL, lat prtmium, 7 00 
Klehard Ricbarda,, Kacine, Bull, 1 year old, Dake of Thorndala, ad 

premium B 00 

Blehard BIcfaards, Bsdne, Boll Galf, lit premium 7 00 

J. F. Boe, Durham HiU, Boll Galf, Quartermaster, ii {ffemium B 00 

Bichard Eiohardg, Baclne, Cow, S ;aan old and over, Bed Lady, lat 

pcemium SO 00 

J. P. Boe, Durham Hill, Oow, 8 year! old and over, Sd premiuni IS 00 

Bichard Bichards, Raciae, Heirec, 2 jears old aud over, lat premimo, IS 00 

Geo, Hurra)', Bacice, Heifer K years old, Uaiurka, id premium 10 00 

Qeo. Jlarra;, Bacine, Haifer, 1 jear old Haiarka, tst premium 1 00 

lUchAfd Bichards, Racine, Heifer, oue year old, Glenn of Oxford, Sd 

premium fl 00 

Riohard Bichards, Baoioo, Heifer Oatf, Lad; Majnard, 1st premium.. 7 00 
J. F. Boa, Darbam Hill, H«ifer C»lf, Roveua, id premium B 00 

CLiSa Il-DEVONS. 

L. B4WS0II, Oak Greek, Boll Frlace, 6 jearsold, 1st premium SB 00 

Jacob Fowle, Emerald Orove, Bull, S years old, Sd premium IS CO 

L. Bavsoa, Oak Creek, Ball Haloj, a fears old, 8d premium 16 00 

David Bichardaon, Hiddleton, bull i yean old, id premium 10 00 

Robert Newraau, Little Grant, Bull, 1 ;ear old, 1st premium 7 00 

Geo. W. Head, Ban Prwrie, BuU, 1 year old, id premium G 00 

L. Baweon, Oak Greek, i Bull Oalves, lit premium. 7 00 

ThoB. Reynolds, Madison, Bull Calf Tecumaeh, Sd premium S 00 

L . BawBon, Oak Creek, Ooir, 8 years old, Amber, 1st premium 80 00 

L. Rawson, Oak Creek, Coir, S years old, Corrione, id premium 15 00 

L. Rawson, Oak Greek, Heifer, i years old. Red Rose, id premium. ... 10 00 

L. R«irsoD, Oak Greek, Heifer, 1 year old. Cherry, Ist premium 7 00 

L. Rawson, Oak Greek, beifer, 1 year old, Peony, 2d premium 6 00 

Ii. Rawson, Oak Creek 2 Heifer Calves, lat and ad premlonu. 7&E 00 

0LA8B la— GRADE CATTLE AND WORKING OXEN. 

D. ntoh, Hadison, Gow, 8 years, 1st premium ID DO 

B, Qrover, Uadlson, Heifer, % years, 3d premium 7 OO 

A. G. Darwin, Uadiioo, Heifer, S yean, lat premium. 7 00 

David Richardson, Hiddleton, Heifer, 3 years, id premiam B 00 

G. Gilbert, Hadison; Yearling Heifer, 1st premiom. B 0(> 

Hoapital for loiane, Madison, Heifer, 1 year ad premium S 00 

Hospital for Insane, Hadison, Toke Oxen, 4 years, 1st pramlum IS 00 

0. H. Palmer, Oregon, Toke Working Oxen, ad premium. ID Oo 

A. B. Devoe, HcFarland, Toke Bteert, 1st premium 1 00 

G. H. elate, Madison, Toke Steers, S years, id premium fi 00 

Jonathan Larkin, Hadison, Bull Calf crrkde, not on list... Honorable mention 

Eomitai for Insane, Hadison, Heifer Oelf Honorable mention 

J. B. Ohrlsta, Vienna, Grade Bull, S yean. Honorabta mention 



..i.,L'Otl<^IC 



EXHIBrriON OF 1867. 817 

CLASS IS.— KILOH COWS. 

Ucbwd Biobtrds, Baolne, If llch Cow iMbelU, 1st pNminDi tlS 00 

CLASS I4-FAT OATTLB. 
J. P. Ba«, Dnthun HiU, 7tt Cow, let pramiiun 10 00 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 

CLASS IS-AHBRICAN MEKIKOS. 

0. Cook, Whitewater, Buck, aje&ra, Ist premium flB 00 

E. F. Johuaon, Lun&rtiae, Book, id premlnro 10 00 

0. Cook^Mt«»Bter, back, 1 js&r old, la premfiun 10 00 

0. Cook, Whitewater, a Buck Lunba, lat Praiiilum 1 00 

E. H. Sice. WbitewKter. Sbncklamba, id preioium 6 00 

K. H. Rice, Whitewater, i ewee, S jeara aod over, lat premiom IS 00 

O.Gooki Whitewater, Sewea, a yearaaed over, ad premium 10 00 

E. H. Rice, Whitewater, 8 Ewea, 1 jear, lat premium 11 00 

0. Cook, Whitewater, 3 Ewes, 1 year, Sd premiom T Oo 

0. Cook, Whitewater, pen 10 Ewe Lamba, let premium SO 00 

B. H. Kce, Whitewater, pan S Ewe Lams, lat premiam 1 DO 

A. Jones, Leeda Centre, pen 8 Ewe Lambs, Sd premium 00 

CLASS le.— LONG WOOL BBEEP. 

J. Gould Btooghtou, Bock, (Ootswold) S yta.Tt and oTer. lit preminia IS 00 
JobnOoodwin, WeatHiddletoc, Buck, (,Leiceaterj 2 years, 9d premloin 10 00 
Robert Henrj, HoFarland, Back, I year and under i, 1st premium. ... 10 00 

J. H. Oould, StouRhton, Buck, I year and under 2, id premium T 00 

John Goodwin, West Hiddleton, 8 Buck Lambs, Ut premium 7 00 

L B. Baieltine, Richland Centre, 3 Buck Lambs, £d premiom. ..... .. S OO 

L, E. BsEeltine, Ricbland Centre, S Ewfs, i years and OTer, 1st prem. IB 00 

1. 8. Haieltloe, Richland Centre, S Ewes, i years and aver, 2d prem. 10 00 

Robert Henry, McFsrlsnd, a Ewes, 1 year, Ist premium 10 00 

I. S. Hazeltine, Ricbiand Centre, 3 Ewe Lambs, IsC premium 7 00 

L.E. Baieltiae, Richland Centre, S Ewe Lambs, 3d premium 6 00 

CLASS IT— HIQDLE WOOL. 

3. F. Roe, Derham Ht II, Buck S years and over, let prem IS 00 

J. B. Stone, Oregon, Buck 8 years old and over, ad prem. 10 00 

J. B, Stone, Oregon, Buck I year, 1 it prem 10 00 

J, P. Roe, Durham Hill, Buck, 1 year, 2d prem 7 00 

J. P. Boe, Durbam Hill, S Buck Lambs, let prem g (jO 

J. P. Boe, Durham Bill, 8 Buck Lambs, ad prem BOO 

J. P. Roe, Durham Hill, sBwes, 2 years, let prem 10 00 

J. P. Roe, Durham Hill, 8 Ewes, 2 y^ara, 2d prem 10 00 

J. P. Roe, Durham HiU, SEwea, 1 year, lit prem.,; ..., 10 00 

J. P. Boe, Durham Hill, 8 Ewe Lambs, 1st prem 7 00 

J, P. Roe, Durham Hill, 8 Ewe Lambs, ad prem S 00 

Mua. 
IT. W. Otahmere Co., ofHadlson, diow of Cashmere OMts.... Dip and 10 00 



l;A'Ol>'^IC 



818 STATE AGBICtTLTURAL SOCIETY. 

SWINE AND POtlLTBT. 
CLASS i»-swmE. 

Wm. EImt, Huli son, Boar 1 year and under S, Sd pr«m 6 00 

A. Q. DaririD, Madison, Boar, Sjeara, lit prem 10 OO 

Eildcetb & Palmer, Beloit, Boar, 1 year aiid under 3, lat prem 7 00 

A. Q. Darwin, HadiMn, Boar, 1 yearuid nnder S, Sdprem B 00 

DaTid Richardton, Uiddleton, Boar, 1 jeac old Honorable Mention 

F. Brlgga, Uadirao, Breeding Sow, lat piem 18 00 

L. Rawaon, Oak Creak, SowandPiga, Cheater, Itt piem 10 OQ 

F. Brigge, Madiaon, Boar Pig, over t montba, lat prem S 00 

HoMiital for the Ins&ne, Hadieon, Chester white Boar Pig Eon. Man. 

Ii. BawaoD, Oak Creek, Sow Pig, 8 nonthB, let prem S 00 

Hild re tb & Palmer, Beloit, eibibition of BerkahiTe Swine SO 

CLASH SO— POULTRY. 

C. D. A F. Moore, MadiaoQ, varietj poultir, let prem S 00 

T. D. FInmb, jr., Madiaon, lot of Brahma fowl^ prem ! 00 

A. G. Darwin, Madiaon, lot Black SpanUh fowls, prem t 00 

David McNeftI, Stoughton, pair Black Sea Ducks, prem % 00 



AGEICULTUHAL. 

CLASS SI— FIELD PRODUOm 

■ta. Wm. A. Boyd, Osbkoah, Sample Spring Wtieat, Oiab, Ist pn- 

minm fS 00 

H. H. Cornweli, Verona, Sample Spring Wheat, Club, Sd premlmn B 00 

F. K. Martin, Rutland, Sample Spring Wheat, Bio Oraade, 1st pr«mi- 

nm 00 

E. aiingerland. Cottage QroTe, Sample Spring Wheat, lUo Onode, id 



premium 8 00 

Vm. A. Bojd, Oahkoah, Buahei SpriOR Wheat, Fife, lit premium. B 00 
H. A. Sawjer, Sparta, Sample Winter Wleat, Ohio Blue i 



J" 
a. Wn 



BOO 

W. McDowell, Monroe, Sample Oata, lat pieminm S 00 

M. L. Ladd, Millard, Sample Oata, Sd premium S 00 

Eibbie A Stewart, Wyocena, Sample Hops, lit premian 8 OO 

H. H. Potter, BkMboo, Sample Hope, Sd premiom S 00 

Jm. HoPfaereoD, Spring Dale, Sample Beans, White, lat premlmn % 00 

HosFatAlfoclDeaDe, Maditon, Sample Beans, Sd premJnm fl 00 

J. R. Heiatand, Hodiaon, Sample Demt Com, Itt pramlnm 8 00 

Jobn Freneb, MadieoD, Sample Dent Corn, Sapremlnm S 00 

N. W. Dean, Hadiaon, Sample Flint Oo», inpremlnm 8 00 

J. r. Oaimi, Uiddleton, Sample Flint Corn, Sd pramlnm % 00 



EXHIBITION OF 1867 



W. Whltn«j, HiddletoD, Sample Btrl; FoUtoea. Sd preminm 1 00 

HMpitel for iDBuie, Bhow of Known and Eicellaat vui«Ciei fi 00 

H. B. Hall ACo.,KadlKin, Sample CarroU, lit premium ... | 00 



AuahCi 
>, Km. 



EU StllaoD, O^kMh, Olorer Seed, lit premium S 00 

CLASS as.— OABDEN TEOETABLES. 

B. y. Broim, Fltchbarg, Sample Celerf, iBt preminm S 00 

Sun'l Manhalt, Hadison, Sample Celery, ad pretniam 1 CM) 

Jaoob Deogle, Hadlsoo, Sample Cauliflower, Igt premiom % 00 

W. Whitner, HadiaoD, Sample beeti, Ist premium 3 00 

B. A. Atwell, HadUoD, Sample Beets, Zd premium 1 00 

W. H. DnmoDt, Slougbtou, Sample ParsnipB, let premium S 00 

Geo. W. Btoner, Hadiean, Sample Parsnlpa, Sd premium 1 00 

W. il. Burnout, SCoughtoQ, Samplo Ouiaoa, 2d premium 1 00 

B. A. Atwell, Hadiaon, Sample OtiioDt, Ut premium SOO 

B. A. Atwell, Uadlson, Sample Cabbages, let premium 8 00 

Geo. W. Stoner, Hadieoo, Sample Tomatoei, lat premium 2 00 

I. K. DeForest, wiodsor, Sample Tomatoes, Id premium 1 00 

P. H. Spencer, Hadijoii, En FI»Dti,lat premium 1 00 

Z. Wilaon, Palmyra, Sweet Potatoes, Ut premium a 00 

P. H. Speneer, Uadison, Sweet Potatoes, Sd premium 1 00 

W. H. DninotH, Stonghton, Lima Beans, 1 at premium a 00 

J. P. HcPbenoD, Sprlagdale, Lima Beans, Honorable mention. 

Jno. Sacks, Hadlson, vaHety Garden Plants, lit premium 10 00 

L. A. Hartweli, fitcbburg, varfeCj Garden Plants, Sd premium 6 00 

B. Long, Hadiaon, Sample BntaBaga, flue aample Honorabla mendoa, 

E. LoDg, Hadison, Sample Hubbard Squasb, superior... Honorable mention. 

G. W. s B. Askew, Hadiion, Cantelope Melon Honorable laeation. 

Samuel Uarihall, Hadlson, Squash Honorable mention. 

CLASS S8— FB0DUCT3 OF THE DAIRT AND HODSEHOLD. 

J. B. Btone,'Oregon, SS lbs Jnne butter, 1st preminm. ij (to 

Wm. Hanwarren, Black Earth, Jar June butter, ad premium 6 qq 

John Porter, Haiomanle, jar JnQe butter, 3d premium g OO 

Mn. B. J. Atwood, ntchbui^, jar butter made at anj time, let premi* 

nm 7 00 

N. V. Dean, Hadlson, jar butter made at any time, id preminm. ... 00 

I. B. Stone, Oregon, jar batier made at any time, Gd preminm 8 00 

Z. Wllaon, Palmyra, three cheeses, 1st premium 10 00 

Wn. Hnnson, Salem, three cheeses, Sd premium 7 00 

II. S. Twining, Brodhead, three ohees, Sd premium. B 00 

1. H.lGase, Secretary Cold Spring Faotory, Whitewater, three oheesea 

faotorr make, 1st premium 10 gO 

Geo. D. Curtis, Rosendale, three cheeses, factory made, 8d premium. 1 00 

B. T, Jlower, Pacific, Sample Haoer, let preminm B 00 

0. B. Obipman, Leicester, Sample Bonej, 3d premium 8 00 

F. B- Hartin, Rutland, Borgbum, Sugar, 1st premium..., 10 00 

Eeniy Taylor, Xiddletou, Sorghum Syrup, Ist premium 100 



^d by Google 



STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS 



0LA8B 34-FEUIT BY NON-PEOFESSIOKAL OPLTITATOBa 

Jas. If- Olai^ Banboo, vtirietf of Applea, lit [irenuDm, Diploma and Bilrvr 
' Ice Pitcher. 

Thot. Howland Kenotha, variety of Apples, 2d premium Bilrer FnJt Dlsb 

Geo. P. Feffer, Pewaakee, vanetj ol Apples, 8d premtam, Set Silver Tea 

Ell Stllaon, Oahkoih, large collectioD, detailed b*' railroad until awards weT« 

made, recommend preDiiun. 
JaA. II. Clark, Baraboo, 10 rarietles ,of Applet, Irt premiom, Diploma and 

BilTer Tea Spoons. 
Geo. P. Peffer, Pevaukee, 10 Ttrleties of Apples, 8d premium. Silver Goblet. 
0. H. Plamb, Uilford, ID TSrieties of Apples, 3d premium. Fuller's Grape 
OnltnrisC 

Jaa. K. Clark, Bar^oo, 6 vaHetiea of Apples, 1st premium Sliver Goblet. 

Geo. P. Peffer, Pewaakee, S rarieties Apples, Sd premium. Silver Frqit 

Knife. 
L. Woodnorth, Eenosba, show of autumn Apples, let premium, Set Bilrer 

Bpoona. 
0. H. Plamb, UiiCord, show of antumn Apples, 3d premiom, Silver Pie Enir*. 

H. L. Ladd, Uilford, show of autuma Apples, gdprem... Silver Cup 

Thos. Howland, Kenosha, show of winter Apples, 1st premium,. . .Silver Card 

Booeiver. 
0. H. Plumb, Hilford, show of winter Apples, Sd premiam,..GoldLined Sil- 
ver Goblet. 
L. Woodwortb, Kanosba, ahowof winter Apples, Bd prem...DoirDlng'gFnii(a 

and Fruit Trees. 

Geo. P. Feffer, Pewankee, variety of Fears, 1st prem Silver Goblet 

Thos. Howland, Kenosha, varietj of Pears, 2d prem BilverOup 

B. 0. Gilbert, Kenosha, variety of pears, 3d prem Silver Butler Knife. 

Samuel Heppin, Breedsvilte, Micb., pesohes, boies sod baskets, without 

number, and SB cane choice peacbes, making a splendid show, Disore- 

tiouarj premium, iwo Qold-lined Ooblets 
G. P. Peffer, Pewaukce, show of Peaobei, 1st prem.... Set Silver Tea^ooDS. 
O. P. PelTer, Pewaukee, show of single variety of Peaches, let prem. . .Silver 

Fruit knife. 
B*mnel Harsball, Usdison, vaiietj of Grapes, Ist prem. .Diploma and Silver 

Oske Basket. 

G. V. Ott, Uadison, variety of Grapeg, ad premium sot Silver Forks. 

[The commiiie made close eiamiaatiaD before being able to decide on 
this and Ur. Uarshall.s colleclion.] 

Geo. P. Pefier, Fewaokee, variety of Grapes, Sd premium. .Sil*er Teaspoooa. 
Geo. P. Peffer, Pewaukee, 3 vaiietiei Grapes, lat premium, Silver Toa- 

■pOODS. 

Tboa. Bowtand, Kenosba, S varitea Grtpei, !d premium, Silver Kapkin 

_u King. 

Thoa. Howland, Kenosha, S varieties Orspea, 1st premium Silver Oup. 

Wm. Hnotao, Salem, 2 varieties Grapes, 2d premium Silver Fruit Knile. 

Geo. P. Peffer, Pewiukee, Fruit of all kiuds, lat premium, Diplomaaad el- 
egant Silver Ice Pitcher and Gold lined Goblet. 

B. Flower, Pacific, collection of mctona, 1st premium Sliver Tea Forki. 

Wm. H. Damoat, Stoughtoo, collection of Heions, 2d premium. Silver Tea 

Spoons. 
Q. B. Sharp, Door Preek, Specimen orcp apples, very fine epceimeni of on9 
of the best vaHetieafor K. W., Silver Cup. 



Cc,zoJ.,Co(>t^lc 



EXHIBITION OP 1867. 821 

CLASS ai-FRUTT BT PROFESSIONAL CDLTTVATORS. 

A. O. Tuttla, Bftriboo, T&rl«tl«Bof Apples, lit premium. .BilTsr Ice Pitcher. 
Geo. Kellogg, JkneB*ille, T&rietlei of Apples, Sd premlom.BilTer Fruit Dish 

J. L. lubbB, Elkhom, Tarietr of Apples, Sd premium fiilrer TeaepoODS. 

A. O. Tuttle, Bnraboo, 10 varletlea of Apples, Irt premlam, Diploma sod 

Mid Silver Tea Spoons. 
Qeo. J. K«lloKg, JanetTllle, 10 Tanetiea of Applei, 8d premf um, Silver Ooblet 
J. L. Tubbe, Elkboin, 10 Tarletieeof Apples, Sd preminm, Fuller'a Qnpe 

CnltnrUt. 
Geo. J. Kellogg, Janesville, E Tarieties of Apple, 1st premium, Bilrer Qoblet 
A. Q.Tuttle, Baraboo, B varieties of Apples, Sd preminm. Silver Fruit Knife. 
A. Q. Tuttle, Baraboo, aboir ftntamB Apples, lit premium. . . .Silver Spoons 
Qeo. J, KellofK, J^nesville, aboir antuniD Apples, 2d premium. Silver Fie 

Koife. 
A. Q. Tnttle, Baraboo, ahow winter Apples, lat premium, Silver Card Re- 

, 2d premium, Qold Lined 



J. T. Stevens, Uadiaon, v: 

' - " ■ ervU .... . 

fills, variety of Qrapea, Ist premium, Diploma and Sil- 



Oeo. J. Kellogg, JaQervlUe, varietr Pears, 3d premium, SitverButter Knife. 
jdrUkeM" ■ ■-" ■ — ■ ■ — 



T«r Oaite Basket 

0. H. Jif J. H. Greenmao, Hilton, variety ofOrapes, 3d premium. Bat Silver 
Forks. 

J. T. Stevens, Hadison, variety of Grapes, 3d premiom. .Silver Tea Spoon;. 

0. H. A J. U. Qreenmau, Hilton, 8 varieties of Grapes, 1st premium. Sil- 
ver Tea Spooiis. 

J. L. Tobbs, Elkhorn, 3 varieties of Grapes, Ist premium Silver Oap.. 



D. 8. Dunning, Jefferson 111., aboir Oberry Treea, Early Rlclimond, Bauor- 

able Hention. 
Isaac Atwood, Lake Mills, Orape Roots Honorable Ifeatiou. 

CLASS a7— FLOWERS BY HO N-PROFES SIGNAL CULTIYATOHa 

Robert E. Fastie, Floral design, Sd premium RaQd'aGardea Flowers 

Mrs. E. S. Carr, Madison, Floral deugn, Ist premium, Gold-lined Silver 

Goblet. 
Mrs. B. Bbdb, Madison, show Cut Floirers, Ist premiom, Silver Teaspoons-and 

Rand's Gurden Flowers. 
Charles Oeweeke, Uadison, selection Cut Floifsrs, 9d preniam, Rand's Oar- 
den Flowers. 
Miss Eate F. Peffer, Pewaukee, dispUj in qnalitj and variety Cat Flowers, 

id premium, Silver Goblet. 
Hra. H. U. Lewis, Hadison, arranged Basket Flowers, 1st premium. Silver 
Cnp. 

Hiss Kate F. Peffer, Pyramid Boqnet, Ist premium Silver Cnp 

Mrs. H. M. Lewis, Madison, arranged Boquet, premiom, Br«ek's Book of 
Flowers. 

Kiss Kate F. Peffer. Boquet BCemsl Flowers Silver Cap 

Mrs. 8. G. Benedict, Madison, display DahliaB,lBt premiom, set of Silver Tea- 
spoons and Brack's Book of Flowers. 
Mrs. B. G. Benedict, Madison, 10 named Dahtlaa, lat premiom, Silver Pie 

Knife. 
Mrs. S. G. Benedict, i named Dshlisi, 1st premioni, Breck's Book of Flowers 
Miss Kate F. Peffer, Pewaukee, display in quality of Boaea, 1st premiom Sil- 
ver Tea Bell 
V, A. Pfaff, Madison, show Verbenas, Ist premium, Brock's Book of Flowena 

21 Aa. TRANa 



S22 STATE AGRICULTtTBAL SOCrETT 

UlM K«te F. PelTer, Pewaukee, 10 named TeriwnM, 1st premiam, Breck's 
Book of Flower*. 

F. X. PfaS; MadiioQ, shoir AaterEi, lat preminni set Bilrer Bpoonl 

F A, Pfsff! show Piais, 1st premium Brock's Book of Flowers 

Mrs. B. H. Leirla, Uadison, show Pansier, 1st premium, Silrer Boqnet 

P A Pfsff, Midlson, show Petnolsa, lat premium. . . .solid Silver Fruit Enifa 

MiwKateF PefTer, Pewsokee, show DJauthss, ad premium The Oirden 

Hiss Kste F. Petfer, Frw«ukee, show Glsdiolus, id promium, silver Tes Bell 
0. S. Willey, Madison, show OrBenhouBe Planti, Ist premium, Downlng'a 

Lsndsc&pe QardenicK' 
Kra. Geo. F. Brown, Blooming Grove, varietj Seediing Terbenaa, Honorable 

Ueutiou- 
llrB.B.BauB, Kadiaon, displaj of Everlasting Flowers. ..Honorable Hentioa 
Charles Erkton, Madison, aesign representiDgthaFonrSeaanns, Silver Caator. 
Mr* Miller, Mszomanie, Flowers arranged as Boquet, aod Wreaths of Hair 

and Fiah Scales, Silver Fmil Knife. 
Ura. E S. Carr, Madiaon, coUeotion Koases, verj fine, aoUd Bilt^ Boquet 

Holder. 

CLASS S8-FL0WBEB BY PROFE8BI0KAL CULTIVATOBS. 

Miaa Cornelia Stevena, Madiaon, Floral Deaign, 1st premium, Gold-Lined 
SUver Goblet. , v , m 

MisB Cornelia Stevena, Madison, tastefully arranged basket Flower*, 1st pre- 
miom, Silver Cop. „ , „ 

Mtas Cornelia Stevens, Madison, Bound Boqoet, let premium Sliver Cnp, 

Miss Cornelia Stevens, Madison, Flat Boqueta, 1st premium Silvsr Oup. 

Uias Cornelia Stevens, Madison, Boquet Eternal Flowers, premium, BUvet 

J T SteveuB Madison, Display Dahlias, 1st premium Silver Tea-spoons. 

H. Q. Roberts, Janesville, Show of Dahlias, 2d premium, Breck's Book of 

J. T. Stevens, Madiaon, Dlaplay Verbenas, 1st premium, Breck's Book of 

J. T. Stevens, Madiaon, Diapla; Dianthas, lat premium, Breck's Book of 

dowora. . „., „ 

J T Stevens, Madiaon, Display Tuber Roses, 1st premiam SilverOup. 

j! T. Stevens, Madiaon, Qreonhonae Ftanta, 1st premium, Downing's Land- 

Boape Gardening. „ . . , . «., n 

J. T. fiteveus, Madison, Show Fucbiaa, 1st premium SUver Cup. 

CLASS 89— WISCONSIN WINES. 

F R. Daniels, Prairie du Cbiea, Assortment Wines, Diploma and Qold-Iinad 

II L.Ladd, Millard, saniple Grape Wine, lat pramlum, Gold-Uned Silver 

Mrs. SeTmoni Curtiaa, Fiti:hl>arg, Currant Wine, lat premiam, Gold-Itned 

Silver Goblet. 

y K Daniels, Prairie du Ohlen, id premium ^ Silver Cop. 

Hn. H 8. Vincent, Windsor, Qooaeber^ Wine, Mid Wine from other mate- 

rial^ lat premiam. Silver Pickle Fork. 

' CLA8B 80— DELICACIES. 

Mrs. J C Plumb, Milton, variety Delicaciea, set of, Silver Tea Foita 

Mrs. j' c' Plumb, Milton, Apple Preserves Silver Sugar Spoon 

Mra Kli Btilson, Oabkosh, Peach Preaervea Silver Butter SnltO 

Mi»!Wm A Boyd, Strawberry Preserve Silver Tea Ball 

Mrs. Wm A. Boyd Oshkosh, Currant Pceaerves Silver Butter Knife. 

Mra. Bli Btilaon, Oshkosh, Cherry Preserves Silver Salt Spoen. 

Mr*. BU fitilaon, Plom Prewrrea, The Garden. 



CfizoJ.A'OD'^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 18ti7. 325 

Hn. Wm. A. Bojd, Oshkosb, Tomato preMrreB SilTer Tea Bell 

Hra. Eli StilBon, OshkoBh, Orape PreBerres SiWer UuaUrd Spoon 

Mrs EEi Stilwio, Oshbash, Pear PresiirTeB, first premium. ...Silver Tea Bell 
■rs. J. C. Plumb, Hilton, coUection Sealed Fruits, fint premium, BiWer Tea- 

gpOOD«. 

Hrt. Gti StilsoD, Oshkoih, five Mits Sealed Ttuita, fint premium, Touman'B 

Hi -UM hold Soieacfl. 
Samuel Hoppia, BreedBvlJle, Michigan, coHeetton Canned Peaehea diploma. 
Mn. J. C. P^umb, Hlhon, varietf Jellies, firat premium. . . .Silver TeaspoouB. 
Hra. J. C. Plumb, Hilton, sample Apple Jellj, Srst premium, Silver Tea Bell. 

Un. J. J. Broirn, Hadlson, sample Cake, first premium Silver Cnp. 

Hrs. Eli Stilson, Oihkoih, Peacb Jellf, fint premium Silver Fickle Fork. 

Mrs. Wm. A.Boyd, Plum Jeltj, first premium Silvsr Hapkin Ring 

Hrs. Eli Stilson, Osbkoeb, Grape Jell;, first premium. .Silver Hnatard Snoou 
Mn. Eti Stilson, OahkoBli, Strawbeirj Jelly, fint premium, Sliver Butter 

Knife. 
Ura. J. L. Tubbs, Elkhoro, Gooseberrj Jell;, fint premium. Silver Salt 

Htb. Eli Stilson, Oehkoah, Pmne Freaervei Honorable Uaention. 

Hra. Eli Stilson, Oshkosh, Oranberr; Freeerves Honorable Hention. 

Mrs. Eli Stilson, Oshkosh, Cherr; Jell;, first Premium. .Silver Butter Enire. 

Hra. J. L. Tubbs, Glkhom, Currant Jell;, first premium Silver Tea Bell. 

Mrs. E. Stilson, Oshkosh, Cranberr; Jellj, 1st premium The Garden. 

UtB. J. L, TabbB,ElkhorD, Crab Apple Jeilf.lst premium, Silver Napkin Ring. 

H. DeWolf, Delavau, Jar Dried Fruit, Honorable Hention. 

H. DeWolf Delavac, Strawberries and Raspberries Honorable Hention. 

Hra. E. Stilson. Oshkosh, Peach aud Blackberry Pickles, Honorable Hentioli. 
Hrs. B. F. Browu, Fitabbarjt, Raspberr; Jam, 1st premium,. . .Silver Tea Bell 
Hra. J. G. Plumb, Hilton, Black Currant Jam, IsC premium, . .Silver Butter 
Knife. 

Hrt. Eli StilBOD, OshkoBb, Tomato Plcklea, Honorable Hention. 

Hra. Eli Stilson, Osbkosh, Cucumbei Pickles, 1st premium. Silver Pickle Fork. 
Hrs. Eli StilsOD, Oshkosh, Adple Pickles, 1st premium.. Silver Butter Knife. 

Hrs. Eli SUIson, Oshkosh, Plum Piakles, 1st premium Silver Fickle Fork. 

Hrs. Fli Stilson, Oshkoab, Cherr; Pickles, let premium Silver Tea Bell. 

Hn. Eli Stilson, Oshkosh, Fear Pickles, 1st premium Silver Pickle Fork. 

CLASS Bl-aOOIETT EXHIBmOX. 



, MACHINERY AND IMPLEKBNTS. 

0LAB3 «a— HAOHDTERY AND IMPLBHENTB FOR AORIOOLTDEAL 
PURPOSES. 

J. L Caaa&Co., Baelne, Threshing Hachin a, lat premium.. Diplom* and (BS 

Chas. F. Duvall, Hiliraukse, ThTeahing Haohine, Sd premlnn it 

Havbee ABoweta, Clinton, Farm and Oarriac* Gate Dlplama. 

J. 0. BIrdaall, South Bend, Ind., Clover Hadine. Diploma. 

B. P, Dicke;, Racine, Fanning Kill Diploma. 

A. P. Dicke;, Baalne, Fanning Hill Honorable HeoUon. 

B. E. HitU, Rockford, III., Empire Wind Hill Diploma. 

I.. B. Wheeler, Beloit, Wind Hill Honorable Heotlon . 

A. 0. Lewla, Daa Haines, Iowa, Str»w Cutter Honorable Hention. 

Om. Bevitt & John G. Ott, Hadlion, Corn Bhellsi Diploma. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



824 STATE AGRICULTUBAL SOCIETY 

A T Bites & Co., Obioigo, HI., Wood SmingMMhine Diploma. 

A t" Biles & Co., Chicago, III., Sulky Revolving Ealte Diplomt. 

a' T Ba'ea & Co., Chicago. 111., Eureka Cutting Box Diploma. 

J ' C Frazer, Tafton, Cast Steel Croaring Bw Diplom*. 

Firmin & BiUingj, Madison, Bteel Crossing Plow Honorable Hention. 

B Ohildren, Lancaster, Badger CuUivator Diploma. 

Henry Howe, OnBona, One Horse Cultirator Diplomft. 

i. B. Frazer, Talton, Hawkey* Sulkj- Cdtivator , .Diploma. 

C B Brigas. Chicago, Model of Patent Harrow Honorable Hen tioo . 

N W G^on, Waupun, Model ol Lamber Wagon Honorable Mention. 

DUidM. P. Jones, Union, Stamp Eitrau tor .Diploma. 

G B Gibson, Baraboo, Patent Feeder Diploma, 

D.' P. Leonard, Onion City, Mich., Hop Frame. .... Diploma. 

Howies 4 Preston, Orford.ille, Rock Co., Water Elevator Diploma. 

0. Ostrander, Lodt, BenmausesParm Gate «,'■*, ■• 

WilKin fcConverBB, Beloit, Force Pump Dip oma. 

Aaron Hujck, lima, SbebojianOounty, Chum .Diploma. 

Z.fl.Doty, Madison, Churn ;■•;■■; Honorable Mention. 

B Goldenberger, Madison, Cider Mill, Buckeye) Dip on... 

5otyBroa.,Janeaville, Washing Machine ... .Diploma. 

AC Stannard, Milton, Washing Machine Bonorab e Mention. 

DotvBros Janesville, Clothes Wringer Honcrsble Mention. 

John insh,' W £rtewac;r, Esterly's Bro\d Cast Seed Sower and Culti-^^^^^^^ 

Doty Bros^ jVnesv'iili', Wariier and Wringer combined Diploma. 

Jm^ e Hiii Madiaon, BirdsaH'a Clover Huller and Thresher Diploma. 

J Bero Elliott, Ind., PatantPortable Fence, Tilliiighaat Patent. . . .Diploma. 

Go.. B. Leonard, Madison, Great Western Corn Harvester Dip oma. 

L A. Lilcoln. cilumbus. fen Iky Plow Diploma. 

U R, Jones, Fairfield, Subsoil Lifter Attachment Diploma. 

m" a. Sawyer, Sparta, Little Giant Grain Screen lipoma. 

B.E.KBlligg, Rome, N,Y.,Stook Pump R'" "^• 

Abbott k Hall, Madiaon, Potato Digger. Dip oma. 

Rom i Coggswell, Detroit, Adjustable Hoes, do Vice Clamp. ^.P\<"^^ 

P^r Low%orry Valley, N. Y., Seeder, Cult v.tor and Rollet. . .Diploma. 
8. D C«n>eDW. i»'3'so°. A"t'>°J»"'' Oram Binder, speoial notice. See 



In reference t,C„penter'aAut^^^^^^^^^ 

IhteSn int«V "-^^-^^^ founded on a great number of 

r-la«t in various parts of the country, is destined to take its rank among 
he subalantial labor-saving machines so long looked for by the agriculturist. 
ThB machine la calculated to do all the work, from the onltmg of the gram to 
the bindine bv the aid of only a driver. So far as the binding ia concerned, 
the machine seems to work perfectly, binding the bundles neatly, and drop- 
ninir thera gracefully to the ground when bound. 

nfnot™n1y dispenses with five field hands, but by a " false bottom," will 
uve it is estimated, fVom five to ten bushels of shelled grain pPr day, which 
wnnl'd otherwise go to the gronnd as wasted. This feature aeams a decided 
d^Mdepatum and should recommend the Binder to general use, if for no oth- 
er reason The whole machinery seema simple, and not liable to get out of 
ranair The inventor has also a very simple pair of nippers, provided with * 
mrinff that out the wire and draw it instantly from the bundle, thus d* 
™nsing with whatever objection there may be to the wire being in the straw. 
Oq the whole yoor committee uke great pleasure in peoommending thli 

'''••""■"'?Cri""'"'""'"''"""^mAMIL™OBE, 
^'"" ^^ BCFDS CHENEY, 

H. Q. OOODNODGH, 



*"* ""8"'* J W. aOTT, Bee. State Agriottltnral Booietj. 



EXHIBITION OF 1867. 326 

B. D. Osrp«Titer MadigoD, FanDWigob Diploma 

B. W. BkiDiieriCo.,MadlRon,OornPloTr Dlplomd 

E. W, Skinner & Co., Hadiioii, Dr«g Saw HoDor*ble Hsntion. 

E. W. Skinaer &0o., UadiBon, S or 4 Horse Foirer Dlplonw 

B. L. Sheldon k Bro., Hadisoa, diaplaj Agricnltnral ImplemenU, lat premi- 

am Dlplons aad |2U 00 

G. W. Skinoer A Oo., Hadlsoo, dUplar of Agriculturftl Hacblner}', 2d premi- 
um 10 00 

CLASS 23— MAOHINEBY FOB MANUFAOTDRINQ PURPOSES. 

WKlte, Galiap &0a,, Watertoira, Hand Loom Diploma. 

E. W. Skinner k Co , Hndisoa. UneTea Surfacer Honorable Hem ion. 

S&muel Sheffier, Jolliet, III., BHok Uactiine, ChampionTof tbe West, Diploiua 
L P. & H. P. Jerdee, Hadiion, Uachinists Upright Drill, Honorable men- 
Dane Co. Peat Co., Madison, U ills' Patent Peat Ui 111 Diploma- 

Wllcoi & Gibbs Sewing Machine Co., Hemmer foreewiiigniaoh)neB.Diptoma. 
Wilcox & Gibba Sewing Haehioe Co., Feller forseving maohinei. . .Diploma. 

Wileoi i QibbB Sewing Machine Co , Cordcr Diploma. 

Wilcox &OibbB Sewing Uaohine Co., Tucker and Marker Diploma. 

Wilcox AGlbbs Sewing Maebine Co., Quiller Diploma. 

Wilcox k QibbB Sewing Machine Co., Dorice for Belting Needle Diploma. 

M. DenniBon, Spoke and Ai Handle Hschine Diploma. 

E. P. Allia&Go.. Milwaukee, AmericanTurbine Water Wbeel Diploma. 

J. F. Burwell, Leicester, 111., Newbank k Powell's ScBfToids Mplouia. 

Jobn Marsball, Fond du Lao, Brick UacliiDe, for concrete brick Diploma, 



Ver.T fine eibibltione were made in this departmoDt of 
Weed Uachines, bj Weed Sewine Maehioe, Milwaukee ; 
Horence Hachinei, b.v Wm. H. valentine. Milwaukee ; 
Wheeler k WJlion's Machiaas, Geo. B. Treat, Milwaukee ; 
Wilcox k Oibbs Macbinee, by L. Cornell ft Co., Chicago ; 
Oraver ABaker'a Hachinea, bj J. W. Truxel, Milwaukee, and 
' Howe'i Hacbinee, by F. D, Fuller. Madison ; bat as the Society had adopted 
the pollcj of offering no premiume on eewing maohiaes, of ooiuse, none were 



There were exhibitions of Enitctog Machines aa follows: 
House's patent, by Bridgeport Eaitting maebine C, Bridgeport, Codd. ; 
The Lamb Machine, by S. Btuuson, Chicago ; aud 
The Boberte Machine, by Oeo. B. Leonard, Madison. 



MANUFACTURES. 

CLASS 84— OAKRUQES, STOVES, HARNESS, ETC. 

Bird k Ledwitb, Madison, Double Carriage, 1st preminm Diploma or 910 00 

Bird k Ledwitb, Uadieun, Double Carriage, 2d prem 6 00 

Bird k Ledwitb, Madison, Single top Buggy, Ist prem. Diploma or. . . 7 00 

J. B. Wiser, Hadteon, Single top Buguy, 2d prem. Diploma or 4 00 

i. R Wiser, Hadlaon, Single Riding Buggy, let prem S 00 

J. B. Wiser, Madison, SliiKle Biding Buggy, Sd prem S 00 

J. B. Wiser, Madison, Trotting Wagon, 1st prem. Diploma or B 00 

J. B. Wiser, Madison, Double Bleigfa, Ist prem. Dip. or S 00 



326 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Bird k Ledwitli, Hadison, fine display CarriageB, all of tbelr owe manufac- 
ture SilTer Medal 

Wm. F. ThompaoD, HadieoD, Single HarnesB, let pram S 00 

0. Hammer, Madison, Single Eimeaa, 3d p&em 3 00 

0. Boebmer, Madison, Gents Saddle, prem S 00 

0. Baebmer, Madiwn, Ladies Saddle, prem t 00 

W. Ramee^ & Co., MadiBOD, Oooking StOTe for wood and ooal, iBt premiun, 

Diploma and S OO 

Lewie & AlleD, Hadigoo, Cook Store, 3d pram a 00 

W. Rameej £ Co., MadiaOD, Ornametital Parlor Btovea, wood aDdcoal,lat 

premium Dip. 

W. Bameer k Co., Madison, Omunental Farior Stoves, irood or coal, Sd 

premium % 00 

Barr & Coi, Beloit, show Bteel Hammers, 1st prem Dip. 

Clark Alvord, Westport, Dodge Co., Horse Collar IHp. 

CLASS gS-BEE HITES AN'D BEE HAKA.OEHBNT. 
J. BuUard, EvansTitle, Demonstration of Handling and Management of 

Bees Diploma and »6 00 

3. W. Sharp, Door Creek, Lao gstroth Hive Diploma. 

CLASS 39— CABINET WARE, COOPERAGE, WILLOW WARE, BOOTS 

AND SHOES, ETC. 
J. M. Hsight, Madison, assortment Cabinet Ware, 1st premium, Diploma 

and IS 00 

J. M. Haigbt, Hadiaon, Bureau, 1st premium S 00 

J. M. E&ight, Madison, Breakfast Table, 1st ptemiom 3 00 

J. M. Haighc, Madison, Eitenslon Table, 1st premium S 00 

Fred Wildbazen, Madison, Bookcase, lat premium 8 00 

3. U. Haight, Madisoo, W&shstaod, Srst premium 3 00 

D. 8. Redtield.Hidiaon, Display Wooden Ware, 1st pramiom.Dlplomaand 5 00 

Z. S. Dotf, Madison, Sash Door Hon. Mention. 

Z. S. Doty, Madison, pair Windows. Hod. Mention. 

F. D. Fuller, HadisoD, Gents' Winter Boots, let premium i 00 

Bond & Atkinson, Appletou, )3 Wood Bottom Chairs Di[4omB. 

F. D. Fuller, HadiBon, Gents' Fane; Boots, 1st premium 3 00 

F. D. Fuller, Gents' Gaiters, 1st premium S 00 

F. D. Fuller Madison. Lidies Winter Boots, 1st premium 3 00 

P. D. Fuller, Madison, Ladies' Ever^ Daj Gaiters, 1st premium S 00 

F. D. Fuller, Madison, Ladies' Fane r Shoes, Ist premium S 00 

£. B, Crawford, M&dison, Specimen Trunks 3 DO 

Spencer b Windoej, Ornamental Leather, preminm Diploma sod 3 00 

Spencer ± Windoes, Fond du Lac, Specimen Calf Skins. ..Diploma and 2 00 
Spencer C Wiodoes, Fond da Lac, show Leather Gloves, not on premium 

list, lat premium Diploma and 2 00 

CLASS 87— TiGHTIKQ APPARATUa 
No Bntrtes. 

CLASS 38— UnSIO, AND MUSICAL IK3TRUHENTS. 



CLASS 89-SILTER WARE, Etc. 
CLASS 40— PAPER, PRINTING, BOOEBIKDINO. 



..i.A'Oi><^lc 



EXHIBITION OF 1867. 827 

GLASS 41— TEXTILE FABRICS, OLOTETOO. 

9. Brtges JE t^o., UadlBon, aampte Doeikia, lat premiam tfi 00 

F. BriggB k Co., Hftdieon, Sample Kereejnieree, Itt premiam 5 00 

F. SttggttcOo., U&di BOH, Piece Blanketiog, lit premium S 00 

F. Briggs & Co., Uadisoa, Piece Flannel, lat premium B 00 

GeneTa HanufactariDg Co., Qenera, Piece FIsDoel, Sd premium 8 00 

E. B. Crawford, Madison, exhibition of Hen's Olothing, let premium, diplo- 
ma and 9S.00. 
Beo. B. UcGia, Hadiaoo, exhibition of Hen's Hats and Caps, 1st premium 

IZ.0O. 
Oeo. B. UcOie, HadlMD, eibibitioQ of Children's Hata and Caps, 1st pre- 
mium IS. DO. 

Oeo. B. HcQIe, Hadigon, exhibition of Fun, lat premium S 00 

Oeo. B. HcGie, Hadisoa, Cent's Fur Qloves, 1st premituD 2 00 

Goo. B. HcQie, Hadison, Ladiea' Fur Gloves, 1st premium S 00 

CLASS 42— DOMESTIC MANPFACTCEBS. 

Hrt. Harriet Rider, Barke, pair Woolen BUnkets, 1st premimn | 2 00 

Wm. Tollej, Darlinf^n, piir woolen Blankets Hon. Hentton 

ICra. Harriet Rider, Bnrke, piece Flannel, 1st premium 2 CO 

Cbristiana Hckenzle, Dekorra, piece of Flannel Hon. Hentioa. 

HrB. Harriet Rider, Burke, piece of Wool Cloth, Ist premium 3 00 

Mrs. Harriet Rider, Burke, Wool Carpet, Ist premiam 3 00 

Vn. B. J. Atiroed, Fitchbnrg, Rag Carpet, let premium 3 00 

Mrs. Q. Bunker. Hadleon, Rag Carpet Hon. Hention 

D.F. Balisbur;, Fitohburg, Woolen Stoeklnga, lit premium 1 00 

Mrs. S. Williamson, Woolen Stockings Hon. Mention. 

Mrs. Sophia Holbrook, Hadlsou, Silk Quilt Hon. Mention. 

Hiu Ada Toll ey, Darlington, Woolen Soaks Hon. Hention. - 

Chrlatlna McKensie, Dekarra, ponnd Woolen Tarn, 1st premium. ... 1 00 

Mrs. Bam 'I WillUmsoa, Madison, 10 knots Wool Tarn Hon. Hention. 

Hra. Harriet Rider, Burke, pieee diaper, let premium S 00 

Mm. F. Haqser, Madison, Cotton Stockings, l8t_prBmiiun 1 00 

Mrs. J. S. Hadieon, Silk Patch Quilt, latpremlom 2 00 

Frank Preaenler, Madison, Knit Counterpane 2 00 

J. W. Olajton, Milwaukee, Knit Counterpane Hon. Hention. 

Mrs. S. P. Vance, Sun Prairie, Stair Capet, let premium 2 00 

Mrs. H. 9. Vincent, Windeor, S Rag Uastrasses, Istpremlum 2 00 

ChriBtina UcEenste, Dekorra, Balmoral Skirt Hon. Mention. 

Mrs. Harriet Rider, Burke, Found Linen Thread, 1st preminm S 00 

Un. James Craft, Edgarton, Patch Quilt Hon. Hention. 

Mrs. F. Hauser, Hadieon, White Quilt Hon. Mention. 

Mrs-H. H. Dorn, Madison, Double Carpet. Core riet, 1st premium.... 3 00 

Wm. Tollej, D aril E«on, White WoTe Counterpane 2 00 

Mn. Kate Willis, Madihon, SbellQuili, 1st premium 2 00 

B. Branson, Cbicago, specimen Knitwork Hon. Mention. 

CLASS 48.— MILLINBRT. 

Lyon & Biiby, Madison, Gate MiUinerj, 1st premium. . . .Diploma and S 00 

Mn. D. A. Oakle;, Madison, Case Millinerr, 2d premiiun 3 00 

W. B. SnlliTan, Uadison, variety of Millinery Goods. . . .Honorable Mention. 

CLASS 44.— OBHAHEKTAL NSSDLE WOREL 

Mr& E. W. Sfclnner, Hadisoa, Embroidered Shawl, 1st premium 3 00 

Mrs. Jas. E. Burgess, Madison, Muslin Embnddery, let premium 2 00 

Miss Agnes Stevens, Madison, Muslin Embroidery, Sd premium 1 00 

Mlsi Agnes SteTenii, Madison, Lace Embroidery, lit premium 2 00 

Mrs. 6. V. Ott, Madison, Worsted Embroidery, let premium S 00 

Mrs. E. Grof er, Madison, Worsted Embroidery, 2d premium 1 00 



j.A'OO'^lc 



S28 STATE AGRlCULTmiAL SOCIETY. 

Mrs. E. Jones, Spring Grsen, Embroidered Skirt lat premium S 00 

Mrs. JimesE. Burgeae, Madison, Kni( Tid]', 1» premium 9 00 

Hre. WiBor, UidisDn, Knit Tid;, 2d premium ..: 1 00 

Hn. J. W. Kftnouse, Cottage Qrore, Crochet Tid^, l«t premiam a 00 

HiM AdaFetherick, Madison, Crochet Tid; Honorable Mantion 

Mrs. E. B. Cianford, Madiaoo, Crocbet Tid; Honorable Mention 

Mrs. M. U. Dorn, Madison, Crochet Tid; HonorabJe Mention 

Mrs. Vanson, MadtBon, Embroidered Slippeni, lit premium S SO 

Mrs. Jerome Ward, Ft. AtliinBon, Hair Wreath, lat premium 2 00 

Miu Kate Kaviinaugh, Fane; Hair Work, 2d premium 1 00 

Miss Moll V Baile;, Suit Prairie, Hair Wreatb, let preiainm i 00 

lira. S. Fiiley, Cold Spriag, Hair Flowers, lac prumium % 00 

Hn. E. Grovers, Madison. Hair Flowera, id premium 1 00 

Mrs. F Hanej, Black Earth, Wax Fruit, let premium G 00 

Mar; A. Richard't, Fox Lake, Wax Flowers, let premium S 00 

Mrs. Henr; Draper, Madison, Wai Flowers, 2d premium S 00 

Mrs. K. Filler, Cold Spring, Wax Fioners Honorable Mention. 

Mar; i. Richards, Fox Like, Wax Croas, 1st premium 2 00 

Mrs. E. Jones, Spring Qreen, Embi-oidered Xigbt Dress, Ist premium. 2 00 
Mrs. E, Jones, Spring Green, Embroidered Linen Apron, lit premium, i 00 

Mrs. Hale, Burke, Wax Fruit, 2d premium B 00 

Mrs. F. M. Dorn, Madison, Orochet Under Garment, let premium. . ^ . . S 00 

Mrs. F. H Dorn, Dadison, Babv Dress, let premium % 00 

Miss Lizzie Ward, Madison, Embroider; on Canvass, Breck's Book of Flonen. 

HissH. Mochlin, Ornamental Bead Work Silver Cap. 

Mrs. F. H. Durn, Hadison, Pin-coshion Honorable Kention. 

Hiss A. L. Gupcil, Hadison, Worsted Picture Second premium. 

Mrs.F. Kurz, Madison, Crochet Picture Frames, 2d premium 2 00 

Miss Uallie Baile;, Sun Prairie, Rustic Basket, Sd premium. 1 00 

E. E. Baile;, Madieon, Tatting Lace Collar, 1st premium 2 00 

. Mrs. P. L. Oannan, Madison, Worsted Embroider; Pictare, lat 

premium 2 00 

Mrs. Se;mour Curtiss, Fitchburg, Feather Flowere, 1st premium S 00 

Miss Cordelia Stevens. Madison, Crochet Wool Shawl, lit premiam. .. 2 00 
Hiss Agnesa Stevens, Madison, Croahet Inrant 9et, 1st premium, ... 2 00 
Mrs. J. W. Eanouse, Cottage GroTe, one Cake Tid; Tread, Honorable men- 
Mrs. H. D. Ooodenow, Madison, Embroidered Under Garments, lat 

premium S 00 

Mrs. J. B. Wiser, Madison, Chemise Toke and Sleeves, 1st premi um . . S 00 
Mrs. J. B. Wiser, Hadison, Worsted Daisies for bead, 1st premium. ... 3 00 

Hiss Anna Rob;, HadisoD, Infant's Afghan, 1st premium 100 

Hiss Anna Rob;, Madison, Needle Work Chair Cover, 1st Premium 3 00 

Miss Kate Kavanaeh, Madison, Painted Portfolio, let premium 2 00 

Mrs.HarvA. Staria, Cottage Grove, pair Bead Card Receivers, Ist 

premium I 00 

Mrs. Mar; A. Starks, Cottage Grove, Crochet Chemise loke, let 

premium 2 00 

Ellen J. Burwell, Cottage Grove, Tatting Tid;, 1st premium 100 

D. 0. Rockvell, Brooklfn, Rag Rug, liit premium 1 00 

Hiss Cornelia Stevens, Hadison, Embroidered Handkerchief, 1st 

premium 2 00 

Mrs. F. Hauser, Hadison, Hem-Stiched Handkerchief, 1st premium. ... 2 00 
Hiss A. F. Bridges, Belleville, Ottoman Cover on Uloth, Sd premium. . . 1 00 

Mrs. F. U. Dorn, Madison, Ottoman on Canvas, Ist premium 3 00 

Mrs. G. C. Johnson, Hadison, Tufted Lamp Hat 1st premium 1 00 

A. E. Brooks, Madison, Ornamental Card Basket, 1st premium 2 00 

Mrs. F. O'Brien, Madison, Ornamental Shell Work, Ist premium 3 00 

Lena Elauber, Madison, OmameDtal Shell Flowers, 2d preminm 1 00 

Yietoria Brown, Fitchburg, Worsted Picture Frame Juven- 
ile, Silver Napkin Ring. 



CfizoJ.A'OD'^IC 



EXHIBITION OP 1867 



GLASS 4S— W0KE8 OF ABT. 

L. J. Stempen, HadiBon, OBrvlDg in Stone, Ut premium. Diplonu and | ,S 00 

D. Horaan, UodiBon, Sutuarj in Plaster, 1st premium. , . .Diploma and 6 00 

J. C. Uariae, Uadieon, Figure in Oil, 1st premium Diploma and 10 00 

lire. Hearv Nicbolg, Balait, Figure in Oil, 2d premium 00 

E. J. Shaw, Uadison, Figure in Oil Honorable UentioD. 

George P. Hemhaid, Hadigan,LandiM!ape Painting (oil), 1st preminio, Diplonuk 

and 10 00 

Emilj 0. Qutner, Madison, LaodsoaM Fainting (oil), Sd premium,, . S 00 
Uie. Helen NiohoU, Beloit, Fruit Fating in oil, Ist premium. Diploma 

and 10 00 

Emit; G. Quiner, Uadison, Fruit Tiiinting in oil, 3d premium S 00 

N. P. Jones, Uadison, Eiliibition Sun Pictures, lat premium. . .Bilrer HedaL 

T. H. Whiting, Uadison, fiiMbitlon San Pictures, 2d premium S 00 

B. H. Worthington, Madison, Exhibition Penmanship and Fen Drawing, list 

premium Silver Medal 

National SpencenHU aad Brjaiit & Stration BuBioesB College, Uiltraukee, 

Penmanship aod Pen Drawing, Sd premium S 00 

Ebeneier PUckett, Vienna, Pen Drawing HoDorftble Ueotion. 

H.J. Baw, HadisoD, Pencil Drawing, 1st premium aud. Diploma. 

Ura. H. U. Lewis, Madison, Pencil Drawing DiplolU. 

H. B. Staines, Madison, Eitaibition Water Color Orawlugs, lit premiom. 

Diploma and S 00 

S. T. Shipmon, Uadison, jLrcbitectnral and Heraldic Drawings. Diploma. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

CLASS 4a--UISCELLANE0DS AETI0LE5. 

Mrs. J. P. Coltoo, Middleton, Agricultural Wreath Honorable Mention 

E. W. Skinner & Co., Uadison, Ornamental Oast Iron Sign, letters bronsed, 

Diploma. 

S. D. Carpenter, Madison, Bugg; Coupling Diploma 

N. Wif^tman, Black Earth, Tanning process with Leather, &c., to Illustrate, 

Diploma. 
Delamater t Tajrlor, Agents, Madison, Hall's Copper Screw Lightning Bod, 

Diploma. 

American Basket Co., New Britain, Conn,, Crates and Baskets Diploma 

Z. S. Dot]', Madison, Patent Faint Oil Diploma 

P. h. Vance, Sun Prairie, Agricultural Wreath Diploma 

H. Sn;der, Uadison, Model Broadcast Sower and Keller combined. . .Diploma 

Hetnaber k Shadaner, UadisoD, sample Tobacco Diploma 

If. S. Howard, Oottase Grove, Artificial Stone Diploma 

Fleischer k Soa, Madison, sample French and Bustlo Window Shades, Di- 

Flelsoher k Son, Madison, Weather Strip DIplon 

Mrs. Samuel Klau be r, Madison, Agricultural Wreath Diplon 

n._.,. T , ,..„... ■ Ticnltun"" ■' " '■-" 



Borah J. Livsej, Uadison, Agricultural Wreath Honorable Mention 

Dr. N. J. Moody, Uadison, Case Dentistry Diplom* 

Geo. M. BawTcr, JanesTilIe, Smith's patent Sheepskin, GalMio-faoea Hit- 



j.A'OO'^lc 



880 STATE AQHICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

W. K. JohQBOD, Bharon, pmtent Foot Aqkot DtplonM 

0. 11, Brooks, JmeaTille, BurgUr Altrm HoDorabU Uention 

A. T. BtMK k Co., Chicago, Firm and School Oompoiition B«Us. . . .Dii^onu. 

E. GriBwold, Chicago, Patent E^uaiEaing WhlffietraeB, or DonblBtrcea and 

Siogletraaa combined Diploma. 

J. U. Cane, ObiceRO, Saab Supporter and Lock Diploma. 

A. 3. Foster, Lake Uilla, Halleal>le Iron Hame Fastener Diploma. 

Avrrj Brown, Rlpon, Rubber Spriug Seat, F. IL 'Hubbard's patent. .Diptema. 

F. C. Proaser, Detroit, Concrete Brick Diploma. 

Bote ftOonawell, Detroit, 1 Tiee Clamp Hon. Uention. 

Tallman & OoUina, JaneBvilte, 9 cases Perfamerj Diploma. 

Wm. Kroyaer, Prairie dn Sac, Bear Skin Fura Diploma. 

E. B. Baker, UadiaoD, Traoe Buckle Diploma. 

Noab Dutton, Janeaville, Yeait Oakea, sample. Hon. Mention. 

NoahDutEon, Janesrille, Patent H ilk Weight Diploma. 

James Hopkins, Hadi»on, Sash fkstener Diploma. 

Fairbaaks, Oreeoleaf & Co., Obiosgo, No. 4 Dormant Warehouse Scale, 

Diploma. 

Oharlea Erkton, Hadieon, Ornamental Design Diploma. 

8. N. Thajer, Aurora, 111., Die Sinking and geoeral EasraTing Diploma. 

BarlMr k Co., sacoeitors to Greenleal and Co., Milwaukee, S oases Uatches, 

Diplonu. 

Hisi Meeker, Madiaon, Phantom Boquet Diploma. 

Ha7 VoKlniie, Dokora, Cone Picture Frame Hon. MentioD. 

ffindlejiOo., Milwaokee, eibibition Trusses, Club Feet Shoe* and Elastic 

Ooods Diploma. 

Wlsoonain Vamisb Co., Appleton, aample* Vamlab fto Diploma. 

Xawn i, MarstoD, Appleton, Bet Hobs for lomber wagon Diploma. 

Gerard Dane, Appleton, Spokea for Farm Wagon Diploma. 

L. Bood, Illjria, Ohio, Portable Force Pump :Dtploma. 

J. L. Talt, Whitewater, Barometer Diploma. 

WiUard Farobaa, JanesTille, Burglar Alarm, Little Sentinel, Hoaorable 

Mention. 

Wightman Brothers, Blach Sartb, Arotio Tanning Procean Diploma. 

Clara Hanej, Black Earth, Agricultural Wreatb Honorable Mention. - 

Badger Waahboard Co., Milwaukee, A instable Wagon Step Diploma. 

Obaa. Majer, OcoDomowoo Patent Bose Diploma. 

A. L. Hnrra;, Cblooso, Samples of Wool Honorable Mention. 

L.H. Wbeeler, Beloit, Gone Work Honorable Mention. 

W.T. Smith, JanesTllle, DaTidsoa'a Window Stopper and Lock..., Diploma. 

Hra. SamaelFull, Mnscodi, Mosaand Bird Collection Diploma. 

J. L. Tubbs, Elkhorn, Jar for Preserred Fn^t* Honorable Hentioa. 

L 0. Iverson, Madison, Bpeoimona Coloring Diploma. 

Mrs- F. Lenk, Sauk City, Agricultural Wreath Honorable HenClon. 

L. Comelt & Co., Chicago, Sample Maobine Btlching Diploma. 

Hiss Aldinge, Beloit, Agricultural Wreatb Honorable Ueotlon. 

L. Oornell k Co., Chicago, Specimen Sewing Hachtae Work, Honorable 

Mention. 

CLASS 4T— PLOWraO HATCH. 
No antriea. 



equestrianism: 

CLASS 48.— LADIES' EQUSSTBIANISM. 

MIm AnnaH. Oartlga, BockrBun, 1ft premium Silver Tea Set. 

HiH Kate A, True, Fitobburg, Sd premium. ...Set Table SpooDB, solid ^Wer 
MIm Bmma Waite, HadUou, U premimn Tea Spoons, solid silrer. 



imON OP 1867. 831 

HIm BeiBle Vowle, Emerald Qrove, 4tb premium Card Que, loUd itlrer. 

Tbe Jndgei " recommend th&t the number of premiums be increued to 
sereu, in Tie* of tbe nnmber (14) competing for tbe prizes, and also of the 
dif&calt^r of doing Juitice withoat It," and in aocordance wttb their recom- 
mendation, tbe EiecQtire Committee have made tbe following additional 

MIn Stella Cnrtia, Barke, 6tb preminm HllTarTaae for Ftowera. 

Kra. Bacbel Thomu, Hampden, 6tb premium Oet BilTcrForka, 

KiM Jsn* SaliEbuTj, Fitcbburg, Tth premium Hapkin Ring, lolid liWer. 



^dbvGoo^^lc 



882 ISATE AGMCUI/rnBAL SOCIETY. 



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DBliiodhC'.OOglc 



OBTTUAET NOTICES. 



JOSIAH F. WILLABD, 

Lite Uember ol the KietntlTe Commlcteo of the Soclely, 



PBBPABSD BY DB. J. H. WASKEN, Al.H ATry. 



Among the mtDj sealoua'aad enlightened frienda of agricaUnre Id tbe 
Sum of Wisoonain, none bare been more devoted and coDBtant than the dis- 
tingaisbed and lamented citiaea to whoee memory this brief and imperfect 
Qui ice is dedicated 

Hr. Willard waa bom in Vermont, in 180B. Hla parenta removed to the 
State of NewTorlc when he iras ten ;ear« old and settled in Uanroe oonnty, 
near Boubeater. In that vlciaitjhe grew to manhood, devoting hitnaelf 
chiefly, after Bixteeo ;earB of age, first to teaching and then to mercantile 
pnraDltB. In the autumn of 1641, aeversl jeara after hia marriage, be re- 
moved with bia famil; to Oberlin, Ohio, where, for five ;eara, be devoted bim- 
Mlf aaaiduouslj to stud;, witb the mnnl; purpose of aappljing as far ae possi- 
ble, tbe deficienciea of earlj education. Ill heiiltb obliged bim to relinqnish 
hia plan of completing hia college course after ha had entered the Junior year, 
aod he removed to WisconsiQ, where he lived fourteen jears, carrpng on a 
large farm near Janesville. besides holding several important civil offlcea at 
variooa times, and being prominentl; connected with the borticultnral and 
agricnltural iuterestB of tbe Btate. 

Hr. Willard came to Wisoondn in 184fl and located some two miles below 
Janearille, on the east aide of Rock River, where he purchased three hundred 
and fort; acres of wild land, upon which he made praotiaal demonstrattona of 
hiatheorieaof agriculture. As earl; as 1 850, though tbe couDtr; was ;et 
quite new, be snccaeded, b; unwearied and continued elFbrta, In organidng 
the Bock Goont; " Agrienltural Societj and Hechanir'alnatltute,"-— oi whioh 
be was elected President — and b; liberal oontributione of both time and 
tnoaay he aucceeded, be;Dad the expeotatioDS of its inoitsangulneftiendB,in 

(88S) 



I v'^'Otl'^IC 



884 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETT. 

pluilpK the »ooletj on a pennanent bauB. Before thia Societj in 1651, he — 
ta ite PremdeM— d«Ii»ered m ible iddreM, wbioh wia published in the roL 
nme of Ti^naaotloiu of the WIscoiimq Apicultur*! Sociatj for that jeir. 

His BooceBB «nd the ibiUty And ie»l be maniferted in the intoreste of agri- 
culture ■ooQ pointad him oat »a a fit pereoa to take ». prominent poaition iu 
the managemeot of the affkira of the State Agricultural Society, and in the 
year 18B7 he waa elected Ita Prarident, which pomUon he fiUed with much 
ore^t to himielf, and to the entire Batiafaotion of the Society and tba 
people of the 3ule. His efforts for the promotion of the welfare and uaaful- 
neM of the Society were moat earneat and dcTOted, and maat be over graU- 
fOlly Temembered by all true friends of agricalWre throughout the State. 

In laaV he changed hia residence to Bvanaton, Ulinole, on account of the 
anperior adTsnlagea it oftred for the education of hia children, and of ita 
ptolimity to Chicago, where he cootampUted entering into bosineas. " 1 
shall neTer live elaowhere," he said. Boon after locating there, " no place 
BTec suited me ao well as thia." 

In the autumn of 1886 he withdrew from the banking-house of Preston, 
Willard i Kean, (with which be had been for aereral years connected), Ua 
health, which bad always been delicate, no longer permitting Mm to engage 
in burineaa. But his luterast in the TiUage, and especially in the Mathodiat 
Church, waa more maniteat than before, now that he was released from ab- 
Borbing occupations of a personal character. 

From the date of his learing Wiaconsin, the relationa of tha writer with 
Mm nrer« naooasarily leas inUmate ; and bo la, therefore, gUd of an opportu- 
■itj to copy the reference to the laat daya of Mr. Willard from a pubUshed 
aoconnt giyen by his bereaTCd daughter. In speaking of hia laat, protracted 

illneas, ahe saja : , , , i. 

"Butfor one year he has been missed from his aeoostomad placo in tbe 
ehnroh and In the social meetings, which no one filled more regularly than he, 
whea it is pos^ble. For one jaar Ma feeble frama has endured untold pain, 
by obiU and fever, nlgbl-swaat, cough, and aU tbe dreadful sjmptmos of that 
moat terrible disaase, conaumptlon. It crept up slowly— allowing him • daily 
respite at the flrat- attacking him with great Tlolence in the early months of 
BQDuner, puraulng him when be left hia homa on the lake abore as tbe chilly 
winds of automo began to blow, and went to hia friends at the East in tbe 
old, familUf places, hoping mnob from change of air and ace n a— confining 
him constantly to his bed for four months— wasting him to a mere skalaton— 
and, flnallj, in untold suffering, wresting away hia last faint breath-tha earth- 
ly ride. Not so, stands tbe record, thank God 1 upon the heaTanly side. Al- 
moat from the flnt, he thought thia would be his last illGeas, and quietly, dil- 
igently, and wisely prooeodod to arrwige hia earthly aflTalrs. No item, how- 
BTsr mlnnto, seemed to escape him. Whatever was of the least Importance 
to his family ; whatever friendship, or acquaintance, oa any of bis relations 
iB life demanded or even suggested, ever so fainUy, was done by him. 

"He did not need newly to attune his mind to hannony with the wiU of 



..i.A'Ot><^lc 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 886 

Odd — no matter wheM It might le&d him— through what depths Boerer of 
pun and abnegation. But Id those monthi of mfferiDg he eujojsd a con- 
BcionBceu of the presence of his Bavlour ; oonsolationa from the Holjr Spirit ; 
rtewg of the glor; soon to be levealed, sncb as no pen maj describe, no 
gratitude of ooh may equal. 

" Much (hat he eald has been preserved, and dimly shadova the delightful 
Tisions by which his sick room was made sacred." 

The |death of Hr. Witlard occurred in the antnmn of the present jeu, 
(ISeT), and, thoogh for some time antialpated bj those who knew his condi- 
tion, nevertheless, to a large number of the multltode of hia personal friends 
in this State, came as a sudden shock. 

As a citlien and neighbor, Hr, Willard was a noble specimen of a Chris- 
tian geotlemao. He was honored for his unwavering adhesion to principle 
and dutj, aud for his seal and liberality in the promotion of all worthy objects 
while the graces of his peisoDsl character, and his amiable disposition won for 
him the lott of his fellow citizens. 

Sofllally at home, in. his " Forest Cottage," hie virtues and personal gifts 
shone with a beautiful and benign lustre. 

The social stteutious, it was his pleasure always to extend to those who 
visited him there were but the generous expressions of his chancteristic hos- 
pitality. Bis conversation was ever of an et»lted character, pure and en- 
rictied with useful and varied informa^n derived alike from books, from 
men, and from eiperience and observation, marked also by originality of 
thought, yet with an absenoe of self-sssertion or thoagbtlesa or unkind words 
that tmght inflict a wound. 

Though his career was characteriied by no remarkable achievement, hia 
life wss, nevertheless, remarkable for its porltyand forlts consecraUon to tbe 
best Interests of his family and of his fellow men. 



^d by Google 



STATE ASSIOnLTUEAL SOCIETY. 



BDMUOT) R MABIB, 

L> tB Xemtwr of the KxecnUre Cmninlttee of the Bocletf. 



PRBPABED BY N. H. HABBINaTON, DELATAK. 



' Mr. Edmnad Foster H»bi«, * Ltf« Ifember of this Sootety, died at his resl. 
dsDce in DeUvtn October 8Sth, ISSt, tged B7 jenr. Hr. Utbie bw so long 
held a proiti1n«Dt poiition u ui snterpriBing farmer to this State, that a brief 
notloe of hia life will be proper. 

He was born Id Fattereoo, Putoam Oauoty, yew ToA, and ctune to Wis- 
consin in the autamn of 1847. Here he become the proprietor of an eiten- 
^Te and valaable farm in one of the choicest locationi of a region celebrated 
for its nateral beaut; and fertility. 

He postesaed a natural aptitude for btulnesa, and enjoyed gif ing a person- 
al attention to the innnmenble details of the varied traoBactiauB in which 
ho was engaged. He was a practic^farmer, and did much for the introduc- 
tion of improred stock on his own farms and in the neighborhood in which he 
Uved. Wdt this department of agriculture he bad a special fondneen, and if 
he is a benefactor of his race, who caueee two bladss of grass to grow where 
one grew before, surely, none tbe lesa so is he who produces two paaods of 
flesh where hut one wai produced, or who gives nstbe blocd-horae in place of 

The uDamimoDS testimony of the commuDlty in wich Ur. Uabie lired li, 
that he was an boneat man. There was nothing unfair or mean in his deal- 
ings. He lelt a deep interest in the prosperity of tbe place In which be had 
made his home, and was ever ready to contribute of his means for the im- 
provement of tbe place, the good of society and all patriotic measures. Thus 
his prosperity was a common blessing. 

He was a man of sensitive spirit and tender heart, though his external man- 
ner was not as polished as that of many. 

From early youth, all through life, he had been the suhject of stroug 
reli^ons convictions, which, like bo many othere, he long resisted ; but in the 
latter part of his life he made a public profession of religion iu connection 
with the Congregational Church. A oalm trust in the Redeemer cbarscteilied 
his Ia« moments. 



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THROUGH CONTINENTAL EUROPE. 



Sb tht BzeaiSn OommUtu t>f Stt tPutmum .State Agrieullmrat ANifeqr .- 

0»Ti.mni : — HB*ing btea * Moond time fmrorAd by you with letve of ab- 
Mnae to repreunC Wieconaia Intereita in foreign luids, It Beenu proper thit 
I ihonlil >g>in faniiBh jon with, at leut, ft briaf oatline of the course of mj 
triTelB and some referenca to the object! toi which the; were aodert&keD. 

It will be remembered, perbiipe, th&t In IBSS, when I v imted the London 
IntemaUonal Eihibieion, bb the Dele^te of thii BocieCj and CommisBioner 
of the State, I devoted what time I could spare from mj duties to hurried in- 
doHtTlal and educational tours of observation in WeBteni Earope, of whi^ 
Mme account wbs given on m; return home. Yon are also tware that haTing; 
then formed the purpose atui early day to extend and complete the obserra- 
tioDS aod inveatigatioiiH then begun, I had fiied upon the present year u be- 
ing favorable to the eiecntlon of these plans, eoiaetintB in advanee of my 
oommMon from the Qovemor to represent this State at the then approaeb- 
lug Faris DntverBal Eipoaitiou of 1S6T, bo that it was with unaffected lelae- 
tanoe that I finally accepted that appointment and consented to beoome th* 
TMpouBlble head of the Wiseonein Gommissipn. 

In Tiew of the daties thai BMumed, an earlier departure than would other- 
wise have been agreeable became neceaaary, and I accordlBgly sailed fVom 
New York on tlie tfltb of Harcb, in one of the uoHt fearfnl snow storms I 
ever euooantered. After thirteen days, the &lthful ship, TriUiani Peni,,. 
ufely landed ns in Che great harbor at Brest ; and thus after a lapse of five, 
years, I stood onoe more on the soil of Francs. 

My stay at the interesting old town of Brest was as Dirtonate as brief, for, 
by ■ happy fortuity, almost at the instant of landing, I tell into tbe handeof the 
polite and BooompliEhed Hayor, who took me in his oarriaga- and gave me a 
most Interesting survey of tbe upper and lower town, the prison for galley, 
slaves, the naval school, the harbor and the fortifications. 

The railway to Paris— distance 870 mileo — passing through the anoient 
province of Brittany, afforded me an opportunity to view this most onrioqa 
■nd lntei«sfing portion of the French Empire. Its origin, as an independent 
kingdom, dates back to the third Mntory, though the beavleat immigratioa 
«fBritoniaocnrredtwo«eDtaiieslatt«r, when thetranelaDt home was invaded. 
by the Anglo-BaioDS. It is a wild and rvugh eoanttj, with ragged bllb, 
22 AQ. TRAKB. f83T) 



l;A'Ol>'^IC 



388 STATE AaKICDlTtrRAL SOCIETY. 

orovned here utd there witii grim old cutles, noir diemtuitlecl, with d*ep, 
nuTOir Tilleji dotted with stiFriog Ti]l«ges aad oltiei, with eitenrire barren 
liesthj and immsnia fqreata of gnarled and perTerse-looking timher, — jnit 
such a couiitr; aa the rode, barbarian Briton might hare been eipeotsd la 
coTet and defend. And here, almost that In bj the sea, living tbsir own life 
and doTeloiring in their own waj, tliolr rude descendantB have fengbt and 
lived through all ^e put riiteen hundred ^eare. On the SOtb of Uarch, joat 
before dawn— ia time to catoh ft glimpM of the rirer Selnp, witb its 
ten thoniind glitlering iigbta on bridgea and qoaye, revealiDg, in dim outline, 
the miles of rtatelj palaoei that line that noble river on eithereide— I awok« 
in Parti. It was Snndaj morning, and the great Exposition was to open od 
Xonday. Juit In time, 

Of the Palaoe of Bxpoaltion, th« opening and the Eipoaltion itaelf, I aball 
m; bat little In this place, fts I am to make an offloial report thereon to tb« 
Oovemor — barelj this : ttiat the building wt4 admirably adapted to its um ; 
that tht formal opening, on tbo let of April, bj the Emperor and EmpreM, 
was wilhoat the anticipated pomp of state ceremonial, owing to the fact that 
exhibitors and commissionera were generall; tome weeks bebiud with tbeir 
work ; and that, finally, when complete, the Eipoution of 1867 far exceeded 
all Its predeceeaon In syBtamatio order of arrangement, in the nnmber of 
exhibits. In general brilliancy and magnificence, and in the almost univerfti 
attOBdance of the royal reproientatives of foreign powers. 

Having spent a full month in looking np, unpacking and arranging onr 
Wiioonnn products, in fttding the TT. B. Oommiasioner General to bring order 
out of chaos in the Amerioan Department, and in making visits to the lead- 
ing odacfttional institations of Paris and vicinity, I set out upon my long- 
contemplated tour of the Continent. 

As the season was unusually backward, it seemed better to travel in South- 
ern Europe first, and to leave the middle and northern countries to the aum- 
mer months. In pursuance of this plan, and with tbe view of economiiing 
travel and Ume as mooh aa possible, I first entered tbe Qrand Duchy of Baden 
—not, this time, for tbe purpose of inspecting its industry, among the most 
backward of the most backward German Staies, but rather, and almost solely, 
to vliit the noted polytechnle school at Garlsruhe, one of Che best in Europe. 

Tbence I made mv way Into tbe prosperous little Kingdom of Wurtam- 
ibutg, stopping flrst at Stuttgart, tbe capital, to examine tbe royal poly- 
tecbnio school and school of art and many other iDslitutione and objects of 
jDterest; then going by r^l toKlrcheim, in company with a Wisconsin friend 
reidding there ; theuoe on foot to Hobenhelm, the location of the flrst and 
also tbe most distinguished agricultural school in the world ;', thence b; 

Sti^e across tbe rich and beantifully undulating country to , In tho 

iTftiley of the Neckar, shut in by magnificent vine-clad and ctttie-crowned 
hlUs, to Tubingen, seat of the renowned IJniverrity of Wurtemburg (when 
I was^most^eordialiy received and kindly entertained by Dr. Sobaffle, th« 
■bla Jurist, professor and author) ; thence back ag^n by rul to PlooklDgen 
and from thence to Uhn, on the banks of tbe Danube. 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



THEOtTQH OONTEHKNTAL EUEOPE. 8S9 

Wnrtembar^, with its magnlSoeDt scenerj, Iti proepcroDH indtiitr]', its 
naiij excellent instiCDtiongof leunlng knd its neulj two millions of Intelli- 
gent ftnd IndoBtritiuB people, Interested me much ftnd woald hkve detained 
me longer h&d the eiteni of mjr pluis and mj limit of time permtttad. 

OroMiog tbe Danube, I entered Barsris ; stopping first at the ancient and 
once-renownd oitj DfAagiberg to visit Its indoatrial school, then made mj 
WBjto Konich, the capital; to which now diaUngniahed centre of srt, litera- 
(ore and science I was attracted chieflj bj the great aniTeraitj and tho 
pal^technic school, as well u hy the agrionltaral school of Weienttephui, 
near Preiaing, some twenty miles to the northward. Hare I spent nearly a 
week, and but for the DecsBotj to paeh oo, might bare been there still ; for, 
take [t all in all— its institations of Isarning, its vast royal library, its world- 
famed gallerioB of [dotares and BonlpCure, iti multitude of workahopo, and its 
□atural Borroundiogs — Munich Is so charming a plaoo that one needs some 
nnylelding aeoesaity to draw him from the midst of its enchantmenta Nor 
•re theie all -, the great men who dwell here have a mighty holding power 
upon one dcToted to a misaloa like mine. Baron Ltebig retides here, being 
a profeBSOT lo the nniTtraity, director of (he laboratory and the head of the 
academy of acienci's. This is alio the home of (be great Osrman master, 
bhulbacb, wboee fame as an artlBt la already world-wide, as well as of very 
many other mea equally dlitlnguished In the TarlouB departmrntg of tearoing 

Tbe agriculture of Bararla Is backward, remindiDg me of (hat of Baden, 
as shown by the crops, the rude Intplameuts In use, and the habits of the 
peasant popnIatioD. Cows are frequently seen doing the work of oxen and 
horses OD tbe road and iu the field, and in on* Instance I saw a stalwart man 
holding an antiqoated plow drawn by the joint elforta of a cow and a woman I 

Tbe religion of Bavaria is intensely CatboUo, though Protestants, and even 
Jaws, eqjoy some degree of toleration. In the market places, on tbe street 
comets, and even in the bar-rooms, one meats with e^es of Ohriit and (he 
Holy Tl^in and numbers of bended worshippers. 

Prom Munich I made a rapid dash westward and south-westward into 
Switzerland, crosatng (he Boden See, (Lake Oonstanoe) at Ltndau and di- 
recting my way (broogh the rlcb and blooming can(ons of Thargau and 
ZoHoti, to the beautiful eity of Zuricb. Having devoted two or three days 
to (he federal polytechnio school, tbe most maguiflcent and complete In Us 
sqnipments and appointments, material and educational, of any of the great 
Mhoois of this class in tbe world, and made the aoqnaintanoe of many of tho 
more (has thirty profeaeors, who are devoted to the progress of aclentiflo and 
technical edaoation, I went, by steamer down Lake Zuriah to Bappenweil ; 
(hence by rail np the valleys of the Linth and the upper Rhine to Ohar, In 
(be mtJst of the BheUan Alps, and thenoe on fbot and alone some ^0 miles 
acron the Alps by (he way of the Splngen Pass and tbe awAil Via Hala, to 
Ohiavenna, tn Italy. Tbe sconery along this way la (he most savagely grand 
and sublime (o be foond In the Alps, transoonding anjrthlDg of wfaleh I bad 



cc-,zo.j.A'00^[c 



840 STATE AGBICtTLTUBAL SOCIETY. 

coBoeiTed, •Ithoogh WMewh«t ftmlliir with Alpine iconeiy. AwfU BfgM, 
mora thm > tliousmd feet deep, with rouing torents thundering «nd fo»in- 
ioK otet their rooky beda, rook-ribbed momitftinB, spotted here «nd thero 
with Btonted evergreen*, »nd lifting their icy peaks above the clouds, the 
nwTOw ro«d winding now upward, then downwerd along the Tsry edge of 
jiwnlDg chiBiDB that ieemed botlomleB^-tbi■ will coBvej a faint fmpree. 
rion of whatit ia impowible for an j pen to deacrlbe. Juet before reaching the 
Torj oreat of the mountaioB, I wai orertaken by a heavy ,anow Btorm, whioh 
not onlj filled mj path, but bo blinded my eight that but for the cut wall of 
mo* and ico on one or the other side, by which my stepe were guided up 
the ligaag way, I ahould have been literaUy " snowed in, " uid forced to 
burrow out on the coming of the Alpine apring. At Ohiavenna I took the 
aUge for Colloo, frwm which point I sailed down the beautiful Lake Como to 
Como, and tbenoe, by tail, went to Milan, drawn thitber by its «iver»I la- 
itltutione of leamlnK, its art oolleotlona, and it« grent cathedraL A grand 
and beanUful city. 

From Milan 1 journeyed to P»Tia, on a visit to the anoient nniveraity, one 
of the best In Italy, lo Aleisaodria through the intervening Piedmonteia 
country, beaotlful with emiling fields of grasa, Indian com, wheat, rye, and 
mA flai, with bedding vinaj.rdg and orcbarda of mulberry, to Astl, capi- 
tal of the anoient republio, and flnaUy, to the beautiftil olty of Turin, late 
oapital of Italy »nd home of Victor Emanoel ; where soma days were very 
MtisfcctorUy spent in the old univcraity, the .cademy of sdenoas, the mil- 
iary academy and the veterinary sohooL 

My neit point was Genoa, that magnificent old city of palaces, more an- 
clentthaoBome,longthe«eatof one of the most opulent and powerful re- 
pnblies of the middle ap», birth place of the discoverer ol the new world, 
Ld etiU a ftouriebing town of over half a million inhabitant., and among t Je 
moat wealthy, proeperous and progressive of all the Italian cities. No «itj of 
Europe intereeted me more. It labuilt opon a eeriea of bilk eo very eteep 
that the narrow, winding streets, with their nnmberleee upeanddownacanbe 
only travereed on foot, and even thus only with a severe tost of the lege. 
Many of them are aetnal «ightt of atone steps. Hare and there one Bode a 
•craggy, tongh-looking little donkey, waiting at some door to be relieved of 
Ue tnonrtroufl burden of hard and gnarly wood, b« otherwise, eioept on the 
lavel street along the quay, or following the conrae of eome of the narrow 
ralleys, where strong-wheeled vehiolea may ba aeen, one meats with no 
meansoflocwnotionothetthansnoh as eonstilute hia own understanding. 

The day of my arrival wai spent in taking a general eurrey, walking the 
nmparta that surround the eity, especially on the aide of the tea, where 
they command a magnifloent view of the eity, the harbor and tha Mediter- 
nnean itself, and introducing myself at the nnlveralty. The second and 
tUrd were devoted to the university, with euch Intetoptions as plca»nUy 
Buneof a grand mnnniolpal reception given bythe oity to delegaUons from 
their ancient rival and enemy, the city of Venice. It so happened that the 

r, ,v.l;A'Ot>'^IC 



TtaOnOH OONTraSNTAL EUBOPa 841 

U. 8. Oonni] tben at 0*DOk *1m preaident of • Werteni «Ut« antTerdt]', 
WM > collage claannata of other jean and foand plaaanre in making mj rtaj 
at once happy and [woBUble. 

From Genoa, tj steamer, along the coast of the Hediterranean to Bpaiia, 
vbere I took rail for Pisa, — alio a raral repnbtlo daring the middle age*, now 
ehle&f intareiting for its magaifloent cathedral, freaooed b; Ulchasl Angelo 
and other great muters, for its leaning tower, which, as a cimpaaile, staoda 
Dear b; tbe Mthedral, and a« being the principal centre of artistic work in 
alabaster, — and thence ap the rich and beaatifiil valley of the Amo, clothed 
with Iniiiriant cropi of grass and gnun, ita fleldi dWIded by rows of fmit 
and timber trees connected by gracefnl festoons of the vine just in blossom, 
aod made yet more searibly foreign by occasional orchards of (he fig and by 
more distant olive groves on the slopes of the moantains, to peerless Florenoe, 
borne of the fine arts and present capital of tbe new kingdom of Italy. 
"And did you pass Bome t" yon natnrally ask. Yes. A short rids from 
Piaa would have brought me to the gates of tbe Eternal Oity; but my mis- 
sion was industrial and eduoatlcnal, not of pleasure, and there was nothing 
at Bome, in that line, to call me there. The Tiber, the antiquities of tbo jio 
longer Imperial dty, its glorloos works of art, its matchless St. Peter's, and 
the Pope, most wait until tbe next time. ' 

At Floreoee an American gentleman finds himself at onoe among flriend". 
Certainly this waa my eiperieaoe ; for here I was privileged to make tbe 
acquuDtance of half a score of AmericaD artists, some of tbem foremost in 
tbe world, including BIram Powers, Eart, Jackson and Hoade; gentlemen 
alao of high repot* io the dental and medical profestions; numerous Ameri- 
oan Iknilies sojourning there ; our disElngulsbed, able and popular minister 
st the Italian Court, Hon. Ceo. F. Mar«h; Proiewor aod B«nator Hattencoi, 
late Hlnister of Public Instruction for Italy, and one of Ui« most learned, 
able and liberal of Italian statesmeo (to whom I am greatly Indebted Dot 
ODly for mnoh valuable Information oonoertrlng the ednoatlonal movementa 
in Italy, and for valuable docnments, but likewise for many nnexpected per- 
sonal attentions); and last of all, but by do means least of all, to sae tha 
great Garibaldi, though on hie sick bed at Slgna, and to make the acqualDt- 
ance and enjoy the hospitality of his heroic son. General Uenotti OaribaldL 
The limits of this hurried ontllne of my tour will cot admit of more than a 
bare mention of the score of Incidents thst tended to make toy Sve days' stay 
at Florence as dpllghtflil to me as It was memorable, nor of my repeated 
ritits ta the great art galleries, and the studios of oar own distinguished 
eeolptors, my visita ti> the respective homes of Qallileo, Dante and Uichael 
Angelo, to Case Gaidi, where died the gifted Hr*. Browning, my early 
tBomlng pilgrimage to her grave asd that of oar own Theodore Parker, nor 
of tha memorable circnmatances attending my speoi^i vlidt to the neighboring 
(own of Sigua to look upon the fkce of tbe hero of Italian liberty, anliy and 
independence. 

Though bei political aSkirs are yet in a serions ferment, owing to the fact 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



842 STATE ACHUCULTITRAL SOCIETT. 

that tbe government hu stopped abort of the danwnda of tbe Bkdlcal party, 
and, indeed, of its own degire, the cue of luif is, neTertbelem, full of en- 
conrsgement to all who paCleoU; wtU for the comidete uoificatlon of tho 
ItaliftD States and their final subordinatioii to one gnoA liheral government. 
Henotci Oarabaldi said to me, in oonBdence, not long [n uiTaoee of tbe 
lacent outward demooitratlooa, " There can be bo permanent peace jet 
awhile. Borne ia the natural capital of Ital;. Florence wae onl; accepted 
aa tbe balf-waf-houae. Tictor Eoiannel feels this almoet aa atroDglj' m we 
do, and multitadea of tbe more iatelligent, tUuking people, though thej 
ma; eot ill hare the courage to Join ub, are deoidedl; of thia opinion." And 
be epoke trulT- Victor Emanuel had no idea of establtBhing the permanent 
throne of Italj short of the old imperial capital. Whether be haa tbe state- 
manihip to accompli^ thii reanlt without violence rem^na to be aeen. 
Though a brave and heroic soldier, he is regarded by his moat Intelligent 
subjects ai wanting in come of those high qualities eaaential to a great ruler. 
Bis tastes and incllnattons are for active miUtary service In lime of need, 
and for the sports of tbe Held and vood In time of peace, rather than for the 
sometimes more difficult worlc of diplomacy and that profound stud; of 
political pLilosepby so easeatial to the highest snocess of a aovreign situated 
aa he is. He is aaid b? those who know him most intimately at Florence, to 
be atrosgl; averse to tbe eiaotlog demands of royal life, and to be never eo 
happy as when in hunter's drees or other free and eaay garb, he forgets that 
he is King Tictor Emanuel and gives himself up to the rude and ^mple en- 
eqjoyments of the million. Not given to study when a vouth, he has hardly 
Improved in thai partioalar daring the years of his manhood, and still DU>r« 
on this account seehs to avoid occaeions that wonld test his iutelleotaal cul- 
ture and attainments. 

The man who ebonid have riaen to take tbe place of Oavour baa not yet 
appeared. Still there are many wise and noble men connected with the 
government, from whom tbe world may coofidenttj expect much. Senator 
Matteucei will not have to labor alone in the nobis enterprise of relhrmlng 
the educational aystem tn such manoer as to make it the safegnard and glory 
of the future empire. There are other clear and powerful miuds that also 
tppreciatM the importance of intelligence on tbe part of tbe whole people. 

Tbe common schools are to be multiplied in number and improved in char- 
acter. The scientlBo and teoboical schools arc to have a wider range. Tbe 
seventeen government nnivenittee— many of them infeiiorly equipped and 
poorly sustained — are to tie reduced to about aeven for tbe whole kingdom, 
their funds being consolidated and their faonltiea tifted. Should this waA 
go on, according to tbe plan projected, the time will soon no longer be when 
four-fiftbs of the whole people— a people who are natural lovers of learning, 
and from among whom hive sprung man]' of the finest scholars tbe world 
haa produced — will be found unable to read and write. 

Tbe industry of Italy, though In a backward condition, as compared witli 
that of some other oountries, owing to the ignorance of the masses and the 



I v'^'Otl'^IC 



THBOUOH OOHTKBiraAL EtTROPE. 848 

laD^dbtuTbed coodition i>f their polltloal aflkin, ii, neTerthelasB, more lA- 
TuiMd thfto I had soppowd. H«T mgricultare suffers ttom a Bsd deSoienej in 
tke machftDiaal dapartmant— the agricultur*! implemeota and machinery o{ 
ererf lott being Mill of the mast ea tiquaCed and imperfect kind— And a geo- 
eral not of that thrift and choroughQeaa which eheraeteriie the better edu- 
cated and better governed people of Switzerland, Nor^em Oennanj, Bel- 
^nm and eome other European Btates. And jet eome of (be moet beantiflillj 
enltirated flelda and tome of the Sneet oropa I aaw in Europe were fonnd in 
Piedmont, TuBcan; and Lombardj. 

IVou Florence mjcourae waa northward, Tie PlBti^a, oyer the Appenine 
BonnlalDH, bj one of the moat remarkable raitwaja tn Eorope, to each of the 
old ontTereitf cities of Ferrari, Bologna and Padaa, atopping in enocesaion 
ene daj or lo at each, and ao making toy waf through the iotereatiDg prov- 
inces of Tuscany and Venetia to Tenioe, that mott wonderM city of the 
middle agea — a city of palaces iiterallj built in the sea ; dnrlng the days of 
the repeblio one of the two great oommendai emporliuna of tlie world, and 
still holding rank among the leading maraUme eitiea of Sonthem Earope. 
My entrance ap the grand canal (the atreeta are canals, jdu know, and the 
oarriagea goadolasj, happening on the anniversary of a greet event in the 
hietory of Venice, was aa triomphal as was that of Victor EmanueL Flaga 
floated from every house-top, cornet bands without number discoursed jnbilaut 
Italian mosio, and the balcoales and palace windows, along my way to the 
plaee of Saint karli, were flUed with multitude! of feative people, who seemed 
doubly glad that I had selected eo golden an afternoon for my eotnoce. 

There wa» but little, comparatively, in either educational or Indnatrial m»t- 
tore to interest me in Venice, but the wondrous beaaty of the city, aa seen 
from the ialauds by which it is surrounded was enough. Its famous Oanal- 
aiio, and its one hundred and forty-six leaser canals, crossed by Its 
three hundred and uity bridges, the magnifioenc marbiu Bialto chief of 
them aU ; lU glorioas cathedral of Saint Mark ; its pala.:e of the Doge, with 
obeokered walla and a still more checkered history ; its many magniOceut 
cborches, decorated with the palntinga of Titian, Palma, Bellini, Salviati and 
Tintoretto, and the great works of Geneva; Its other numeroes and splendid 
public buildings, and its marble manrions for private abode; these, with 
numberless other remindere of the marvelloua hiatory of tlie once brilliant 
and powerfol Republic, ihuttitd by Its four thousand dark, ateel-piowed gon- 
dolas, give to Venice a faaclnating power from which it is hard for an enthu- 
siaat to break away. Whoee ia the fault if I lingered t 

From Venice to Trieste, by steamer, aeroaa the Adriatic, in oompaay with 
oBeers of Fnrragnt's fleet, three ahipe of which were lying in the harbor of 
that Austrian port A pleasant sight were these men-of-war, bearing the 
Stars and Stripes, in the far-off waters of the Adriatic aes. Trieste is the 
moat important seaport town of the Austrian empire, having conmierce with 
all nations. Under the neme of Te^este, it waa a eity two hundred yeara 
before the birth of Ohriat. The eld town was built upon the elopes of the 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



DM STATE ASKICDLTDBAL SOCIKTr 

hllli, with Bcitftdel on the Buiuiiit, th&t it might be more Akdl; defMid«d. 
TIdted tba Imperfkl niTkl *chool, the natoril hiitary colleetioni, the libnij, 
rich in Fetrarchlu) worki and original maniUKripta, the botuiical gnrdea, and 
the ill-fited Haiimiltian'B beaatifiil tIUb of Vira Hare, gtandiDg no the north 
■ide of the'harbor, on the rery water's edge, eome rii miles Horn the heart 
of the citj. 

FromTrleet, I went by the the magni Scent mountain railway, over the Gar- 
dine Alpa to Qrati, where are a fine old unverrit; and poljtechnle setaool, 
and thenoo to the grand and brilliant capita] of the Aoitrian Empire. For 
the beantj of Itt plan, the elegance of Eta private dwellings, merchant ahopa, 
pnblio balldlngf and royal palacea, the magnificence of its pnblio parka and 
gardens, the riohoeH of itt ooUeetiong In art and in natural history,' the nom- 
ber and importance of Iti initituUoni of learning, inelnding one of the miMt 
nomeronsly attended aniTerailles In Germany, an extenelve and excellent 
polytechnic school, an academy of engineers, the Tberesianer Academy (for 
tbe benefit of the Boni of the nobility), a concerTatory of maslc, a school fbr 
orientalists, an excellent Teterinary Bchool, and many others, and espeelallr 
for ita immenee hospitals, all open to the student of medicine and surgery ; 
for aU these, Vienna has no riral bnt Paris. It is needless to say that the 
■ereral days of my tojourn were delightflilly and profitably spent It waa 
there that for the first tima I met our diatingiuBhed countryman, John 
Lolhrop Ifatley, the world^admired historian, who was then oar repreienta' 
tiTS at the Auatrian Oonrt. The Emperor Joseph I did not see, for he waa 
then at Feath being crowned King of Hungary. 

If y next point was the grand old city of Prague, capital of Bohemia, some 
ISl miles northweet of Vienna. On the way, at one or two points, earth- 
works and hasty fortifications thrown np by the Auatrians to impede the tic- 
torious ann'.ei of King William in his determined march opon their capital, 
were pointed out bb Interesting reminders of the decisive war that raged In 
all that conntry bnt the season before. 

Fragae is surrounded by a wall (weWe miles In cironmferenoe and is orei^ 
looked by rocky steeps on every aide. Its nnirersltj, the oldest In Qet- 
many, having been founded more than 600 years, was among the meet niuner' 
ouely attended daring the middle ages ; tbe nontber of students being, at 
times, no l^ss than 80,000. 

Anstria has been one of the hanghtiest and most despotic of the five great 
powers and there is resson to believe thst the humiliation she has just reoeir- 
ed at the hands of Prania and Italy combined may do her good. Industry 
and education, already more advanced than I had supposed, hare both been 
qnickened and energized by the remaikable success of her victorious rival. 

Having lost the provinces of Xiombardy and Veuetia through her avarioe 
and despotism, and long been threatened with the loss of Hungary as well, 
she Is learning a iesson of moderation that may save to her a oontinned i^aca 
among the leading governments of Europe. 

The year IBST has been scarcely less eventAiI in the history of the empire 



I v'^'Otl'^IC 



THROUGH CONTINENTAL ETTROPE. 846 

thui the jetr 1866. Th&t wu Temarlctble for the dluaters and deatractlon 
it bninght 1 (hifl hut been signalized b? a new and more liberal polio; that 
nuj be justly oooiidered w the turning point in fair biator;. H&ving loog 
tried in vain the polioj of centraliiation with tbe determined purpose to fnie 
all tbe RereDleen crown landBinto one completeand perfect empire, tbe gOT- 
emment bu decided to try the polio; of aaaortment, and a divisiOD of the 
empire into two administration I and two parliaments — the Qermao and Slavie 
with the p&rKament at Vienna, and the Hungarian, (embracing Hangar;! 
TrhDB;lTania, Oroatla and Slavonia,) with the parliament located at Fetlb. 
The affairs of each diTtsion are to be managed b; tbe parliament ttod minis 
tr; fbr that di-rislon , while the aSUra ccmmon to all are to be ander a oen- 
tr«I miniftr;. Tbe first Qeman Austriftn pariiament was being conTened 
when I WM at Vienaa, with apromies of good results. The presidents of both 
honses have been for years prominent leaders of the [liberal part; and aro 
both resolntel; determined to establish reforms that shall insnre the harmon;, 
prosperlt; and fntnre glory of (he empire. Tbe opening address of tbe Pres- 
ident of the Lower Hooseg&Te aniaarnegt of better days and rekindled the 
fires of hope in many a Libera! bresjt. "The principles of equal rights for 
all Dationalitiea and all religious, as well as real coastitotional government 
most beeome aotnalities, and the oompromiKe with Hungary must be equit4- 
bly ouried ont in both portiona of the empire." 

On the sad of Ha;, the Emperor, direct fh>m bis oorouation as King at 
the capital of Hongary, at tbe opening of parliament, deotar«d it to be his 
nrgent ears that no p>>rtioQ of the empire should complain of being dispro- 
portionately taied, and entreated both bDDses to throw a reil of forgatftil- 
neis OTer the immediate past, which had inflicted deep wounds npon the em- 
pire, bat to la; to heart the important lessons it had left for tbem. Hope for 
AoatrlB yet, and, thank Qod I relief, at last, for long oppressed Hungar; t 

From Prague, past the famous field of Sadowa, into tlis wooderfol littl* 
Kingdom of Saxony— once the proadest of the Qerman powers, and still re- 
markable for (he productiveness of its varied industry, tbe number and high 
ebaraoter of its public and special schools, and its unsarpaised oolleotlon of 
master pieces in art. Dresden, to one wbo has been there, is synoDomons 
with indnstry, iDtelligence and art. Its {dctare gallerv and its vast coUeo- 
tioDS of precious minerals are sufficient, of themselves, to warrant a long 
Journey to visit tbfm. TlsKed (he polytechnlo and military academies, the 
college of surgery, attended divine services a( (he great Domkirehe, when 
the presence of the King and Queen and the wonderfU maslc by tbe orches- 
tra of fifty singers and instrumentalists were the principal attractions. Via^ 
ited the achod of foreetry atTbarandand (be noted mining schoolat Freiberg 
fa tbe midst of the silver mines of Saxony, some IG miles fVom Dresden, and 
then made m; way to Leipsio, seat of the book trade and oue of the most 
fhmons ancient uniToraltles. 

Thence to the old univernty town of Halls and the new and eicellent 
sgrionltural school of (he university near b;, under the directorAip of tbe 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



S4ft STATE) ABBIODLTUBAL SOdETT. 

able sod tocomplfalieil Dr. Enhn ; next soathirertwud Into S»ie-W«imu-, to 
the blrtfa pUca of Qoetbe, ScbiUer and Wemer, and to tbe gruid old uniTor- 
BU7 and the igrlcoltural school et Jeue ; thenoe through the beantifal eoaotij 
embraced within the duchleE of Saie'Gotfaa and BlsMiach and the electoral* 
of Hesse Gaegel to the oitf of Oaaael, and thenee northward to the ancient 
nnWenltj of OottlDgen and the agricoltoral achool of Weden, In the late 
kingdom of Hanover, ( jnst this seaaon absorbed into Prasaia.) Hj Tliita to 
the agrienltnral department of the nnlTersity of Halle and to this Wedeu 
agricnltnral lohool of the nnivenity of fiottingen were both made at the 
special reqoeat of Baron Lieb<g, on aeconnt of their having been planned 
onder hie direction, or at loait on the basis of his snggestions, and as being 
•apeoiall; worth; of mj attention. t 

The dtj of HauDTer, with its noted polytechnic ichool and manj indden- 
Ul attractions la; next In the path of m; intended travel, and thither I went, 
aceordlngi;, from Oottingen ; then to Magdebnii; ; from thence, across tho 
rather bairoD conntr; intervening, toFotadam, snnuner rosidenoe of the King 
of Pnuda, and flnall; \a the great center>of Qcnnan power and the literarj 
oentte of the world, the Prussian oapitaL 

It had been m; hope, at Berlin, to meet my old-time friend, Hx-Ooveraor 
Joseph A. Wright of Indiana, late United States Hlnister at tiie Pmaelan 
Ooart ; bnt Mdlj enongh that noble Mend of Amerloan Indnstrr and ednea- 
tion had JoBt died and been burled the week before. I had also thonght of 
saeitig Oount Bismarck, King William, aod the Impettal Alexander of Busria, 
all of whom were daily looked for from Paris. Bat the nnlverdty, with its 
diitingaished Banke, Ebreaberg, Hiohelet, Hoffbian, and some one hondred 
other famous professois, the nagnlflcent polytechnic school, the school of 
atchltootare, and a dosen or more technical schools, the artillery and engin- 
eer school, the veterinary school, and sundry normal aod other inititntas, the 
academies of design and of muaic, the great palace of the king, the depart- 
ments of state, aod the magnificent art galleries and mussams were there and 
gave me about the bnsiesC nine daja I ever spent in any European city. 

The Prassian people are nomlsUkabI; proud of their lest year's brilliant 
successes. It Is apparent in all they do and say that they are buoyant with 
hope and confident, at no distant day, of making rennited Oemaoy under 
Pmseia's direction the strongest power on the continent — a definitely possi" 
ble consommatloD, If thoir governmeat should be wise onongh to win the still 
outstanding states of Southern Qermany bj such concessions of political as well 
aa'commerical privileges and advantages as It really ought to make. A con- 
eolldation of the Qerman States, and their permanent unity are possible, on 
the basis of liberty and equality, bnt net otherwise. It Is still a question 
whether so great a boon to this noble, flvedom-loving people la to be reallied 
under the ad nioistration of King William, or whether they will have to 
wait a little longer. The final unity is sure to come, and a larger freedom 
of the whole Gennan people and a consequent progress of which they have 
as yet hardly dreamed will follow. All in all, their ^stemaof eduoation, 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



THEOUGH OONTINBNTAl lUBOPa 847 

•qwdkll; the PniN<BDuid the Baion, u well u tbelr higher {nitttiitloDa of 
le&TDing ire the best Id the irorld; And theie ooustitnte > ronndktioii on 
which her atateBDiD mkj Kcnrelj bnltd. 

Orlglii*]1j, It iru from Berlio that I hid rather thought to tam bsokmrd 
towkrd Fftria. Bnt when once to near to Iheir bordera, the *f dnctWe csIIb 
of the usaallj neglected ScandinaTian and other northero itates— of Hol' 
etein, of Denmark, Norway md fiwedeD, of Finland, Rosaia and Poland— 
vertt not to be reeiBted. Andso, regardlesa of tinperial programme!, I left the 
ProNian capital only the daj befora the certain arriral of the royal be ade 
of the two great eaatern powera, and made my way to Hambnrg, to Lubeck 
and Copenhagen ; spending parte of three days at the beautlAil Duiiah 
capital,— Iji the Unii-eraity, the Thorwaldsen HDMom, the Royal Palace, tht 
Bichange and the work shops, — and then pncbed on across the waters of the 
Baltic to Halmo and Lund, in Sweden ; atopping at the latter plaoe long 
enough to examine the dUTereDt departments of the ancient UniTersIty ; 
then northward, throngh a dreary and rsther barren looking country to 
Tongkoping ; thence to Falkoplng ; westward to Qottenbnrg on the Kategat, 
(where I found an AmerlcMiized Swede, running, what is probably the largeit 
existing eitablisbment fbr the fuming and shipping of wooden buildings to 
many parts of the Scandinavian world); thence across the Kategat and Skager 
Back to Ohrlstiinia, the handsome and prosperous capital of Norway, seat of 
the only Narwegian unirereity — a flouriahing institution with ;the usoal 
faculties and nearly a thousand itudentt. I greatly desired to travel bom 
here northward into the interior, bat my limit of time forbade, compelling a 
postponement of that interesting journey to eome other day. 

Hy eye now rested on Btockitolin, "Venice of the north," the location of 
the chief poly tecbuic, nautical and sgricaltural schools of Sweden, and upon 
Upsals, a little farther north, seat of the othec one of tbe two royal Bwediab 
nniverutiee, and home of the great Uonsns, once a profesMr there. A 
Norwegian railway and stage-coach, my own legs, and floally the Swedish rail- 
ways all proved good servants, and in due time my plane were realiied. 

I had come to what I had thought of as a bleak and uninviting oity ; and 
lo 1 the charms of Geneva, Qenoa and Venice combined were there to en- 
chain me 1 Like Venice, Stockholm in buiit upon islands, with so many lO' 
lets of the bay on every hand that it, too, seems to have risen out of the sea, 
though to a greater height, so that the rocky foundations on which the city 
restaare bold and coaspicaonfi. The palace of the king is an immense quad- 
rangular Btractnre, nearly as coDspienoai as tbe palace of the Doge would be 
on tbe high hiile of Genoa. Other migniScent public buildings are visible 
from every point, and the general effect is remarkably fine and pictnresque. 
The desire wa« there to spend the cool 1,1 ma; almott say col^ fbr I had con- 
stant need of my overcoat), and bracing summer; but the northeastward limit 
of my travels was yet more than five hundred miles farther on, and ere I had 
time to remonstrele with the fates, I found myself on board the elegant little 
steamer Aurs, gliding over the dark waters of the Baltio sea, and among Its 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



548 STATE AGSICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

eonnttesM IiUads, Boms smiling with Terdnre and iome tockj »nd ster- 
ile, on m; wsy to Finliad. The ireatbeT tu kbsolntely perfect— the Aj 
beftutifoUj cleftr and sunnj, tbe kir fresh and balmy u the spice; breeiei 
that " blow Boft o'er Oajlon'a iale" Ahnoat ore we wera out of sight of 
Sweden, amoet delicioas dreamioess, begotten of the etrangeiieae of my sor- 
Foundings, the happy combination of all the ciicametanceBcf tbe voyage, and 
(he imagined characteristics of the fiir-offlaiid toward which onr prow was set, 
stole over me and thus completed the enchantment Etod now the reoMm- 
braoce of that TOyage comes to me like the riiions and experiences of aome 
golden dream. 

. At Abo I spent some time in (he naval school and obeerratory, and 
made a trip into tbe eonntrj, to see how the Uddb work their farms. 
Hy second stopping was at Helslngfors, tbe capital — a beantiful city, on • 
beautiful harbor, with sabnrbB soggesuTe of PariB. Here there is also an 
observatory, and a flourishing nnirersity, with literary, identific, law, med- 
ical and theological departments, thirtj-Sve professors, a library of 100,000 
To1ameB,an excellent laboratory, fine colIeotlODsin natural hiatory,and nearly 
500 students. At Wiburg there is quite a flourishing town with ooauderable 
commerce, but not much else to intercBt tbe traTcller. A rough country is 
Finland, icterioriy ; stony, boggy, and of course barren. Bom e public im- 
provements making. There is already a railroad from Hel^ngfors northward 
Borne fifty miles. Tbe aeasoQ paet haa been so unproductive, in both l^olaod 
and the north of Sweden, that thonaands of tbe poor people, remote from the 
coast, are said to be living on bread made tram tbe bark of trees, wilb tba 
oertain prospect of atarvation unless relieved by foreign con tri bull one. 

Among my strange experiences in (hat far off country, washed by the Elal- 
tlc and Polar aeas, none other so impressed me as the absence of anything 
like what w a would call night. At He1ainj;fors, the sun set at 114 o'clock 
and rose again at a o'clock, with so strong a twilight between that the archi- 
tectural peculiarities of public buildings a mile distant were distinotly visi- 
ble, and 1 was enabled to write letters in my state-room during the whole in- 
terim wltboat (he least InconTenience. 

From Wiburg, a day's sail brought me to Oronstadt, maratime oat-poat 
of the great capital of the Busaian Empire, the grandest city in Europe, the 
glittering of whose golden spires and croBses gave notice of our approach ere 
we had come within fifteen miles of (he m^estic, palace-lined river that flows 
through its center. Spent nearly a week at St. Petersburg, rejoicing in its 
palaces, its gorgeous cathedrals, Ita public gardens, and the distant royal eeatb 
of Feterboff, Zarska, and Parloika, and in daily visits to the university, the 
school of mines, the polytechnic and military schools, and the great acade. 
inieB of science and art. 

At the date of my visit, our mtnlater. Gen. Oas^ua II. Otay, to whom I am 
indebted for many conrteriee, was felicitating himself on having Just oonsu- 
mated (he purchase of Busslao America, being firm in the belief that it 
wonld prove a valuable acquisition. The Otar also felicitates himself on 



l;A'Otl<^IC' 



THBOtJGH OONTffllNTAL BUKOPE. 848 

baring sold it, as he hu plani for cDlarging bii territory b; conqeeats in Ada 
aod can make a better age of 17,000,000 tban to keep it packed down in 
AmericaD ice ; and so the satisfaction ia matnal. 

The Buasiana are a robast and hard; psople, and under the rule of the 
great Alexander are hat building np t, power that eventually sball know no 
rival in Enrope. 

The varietf and Immengit; of their resources, distributed over an empire 
tbat is washed b; the Black Sea on the south and the Arctic on the north, 
by the Baltio on the west and the Northern Pacific on the eait; the native 
vigor, bravery and resolution of tbeir nearly one bandred million* of people, 
directed and controlled by a sovereign in whose veins courses the blood of 
Peter the Great; these circnmstancet, are of themselves, a prophecy of ftitnre 
greatnest. One important condition of saccesa and increased power Bnsgia 
lacks. Turkey holds the gateway by which alone bar ships can reach the 
tbe Mediterranean. Her I'laratime possibilities are very liulited, therefora. 
Tbe other great powers i^preciate this lii.iitation and strive to perpetnote it. 
Bat they contend with Fate and are sure to suffer defeat. The Oiar, like t 
Btatesman, ia willing that his empire should bide its tinie. But bis eye la 
immoTdbty fixed on that southern sea, and when he knows that the time ia 
come, be will move upon tbe iiupediments, whatever they may be, with 
Irretitible might. 

From St, Petersburg my course was southward, by agraud sweep across the 
Sparsely settled steppes of Western Bussia, into Poland ; thence to the tint' 
vendty of Eonigsberg, in the northeast comer or Prustia, on the Baltio ; 
then, with a rapid dash due westward, through the whole length of Prussia, 
via Berlin and Hanover, Into quainE, thrifty, anomalous old Holland, land 
rescued from the sea and everywhere diatlngnlshed for Its agricnltnral and 
mechanical industry, its commercial enterprise, its educational progresa, and 
tbe indomitable energy and heroism of its people. JViilJWIsnds indeed ; being 
lower than the eea, and its rich meadows, animated by graiing herds of fat 
Dutch cattle, often quite below the inosculating canals that constitute the 
arteries of trade. 

The wiiole kingdom of Holland Is so small and compact that but a few days 
are necessary to a complete circuit of ail its principal cities and towns. 
From Arnheim to Utrecbt, a moat charming nnivenrity town, its streets, ca- 
nals and suburban promenades besntlfully shaded ; to the &mous old com- 
mercial city of Amsterdam ; to the interesting town of Lejden, still distin- 
guished as the proudest seat of learning In the Netherlands; to Haarlem, 
growing up, by the grace of numberless wind mills, on what was but lately 
the bed of Lake Haariem ; to the capital city of Hague; to the stirring com- 
mercial Bottetdam ; tbencB, by steamer on the Rhine, and by sail, to Ant- 
werp, leading maritime city of Belgium, and once tbe commeroial centre of 
Bnrope, holding by means of the thousands of ships wUch then crowded its 
great harbor, relations with every civilized country on the globe ; thence 
ODoe more to Bmualls, for the Inspection of its nnmerons factories, its In- 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



860 STATE AflEIODXTUBAL SOCIETY 

dutrlil schooli and QaWenities ; ftud, Qoidlj, tjk TkleDcIeaDes and Amleo^ 
Ittck to Piris, the initial point of all mj journejinga. 

It ia needlera to Mf ttiat after so extended a tonr, embracing aJl the cood- 
triea of tlie Baropeau contineut, eioept little Porlagal and decrepit old 
Spain, covering obnrTitioaa upon their natural nisoarcea, and upon their 
indosuial, social, educational and religioDa life, with apeolal eiamiaatioDi of 
efer}' one of their most iiaportant BohooU and aalTerBities, the monthaof 
m; absence seemed like as manj years ; ao that I waa really eorpriied, on 
my return, to find the great Exposition, which I had been thinking of, dd- 
coDBciouely, as an erenc in the far past, atill in progress aud now only in the 
lenith of its glory. A grand tour. But if any one eavlee ne, let him re- 
msinber the fatigue, theelaeplen DlghtB,the severe tax of brainand muscle it 
con. Large and valuable stores of Information, mftoy new and interesting 
•tpcrienoes, and glorious pictures of scenery, people and things Ineflkceably 
dagnorreotyped upon the memory are mine, and I thank God for them ; but 
they were earned as but few would be wiUing to earn them. 

After spending nearly a month longer at the Eiposiliou, studying the uee- 
ful lesBODS U taught, making collections of such material tu the courtesy of 
foreign conmlsaioners enabled me to aecore, ftod making arrangements for 
the farther oare, packing and return of articlea sent out by Wisconsin, I 
bade adieu to the great Exposition, to Paris, and, at Havre, to the Old World, 
aud by the strong and excellent iron steamer " Cella," of the New York and 
London Line, returned to New York ; thence hastenlug back to my post of 
duty in Wisconsin. 

Very unexpectedly, my return waa anticipated by a oommiasion conferring 
the appointment ol Honorary Oommissioner for the United States to the 
Paris Exposition, with the request that I prepare a report to the Qovernmeot 
on Education in Europe and America ; the acceptance of which appointment 
with the hope of finding time to prepare auch report, together with the nar- 
row limits of this volnme and the amount of material that must have place, 
will accoont for the absence from this hurried outline of my travels of any 
attempt whatever to describe any of the educational systems or iustitutloos 
of the countries through which I passed. 

As in ISSS, so now in 1887, I have oome back to my native land proronndl j 
Impreiaed with the superiority of its natural advantages and of its political 
institutions, and yet more than ever conflnned In the opinion, that in much 
that pertains to the industrial arts, especially In the substantial character of 
their public improvements, as well as in their habits of business tborough- 
nesa and boneety, their laws regulating the education of their youth, aod in 
Tarions phases of their social life, the nations of the old world, present much 
that we may imitate with great present and future permanent advantage to 
our eonntry. 

If yon were to ask for a more definite statement of my ooaci nsloni con- 
cerning these sevecal peculiarities, I woidd say— 
The scrionlture of the most advanced European countries is snperior to 



l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



THEOTTGH CONTINENTAL EtTROPR 861 

oura; 1, ill the cue, Wtot ftnd eipeiiM with whicli the soil is prepued for 
the T&rioiu crops. Their implemealt of ttgricnltnie are, for the most p«rt, 
greatly inferior to aura; but theymabe up for this deflcieno; In the thoroagh- 
neea knd patienee sitb which the; use thetn ; while, iu the mitter of fertilii- 
lug their fieldF, there is no oompKriBoa to be nude. We are coltlTMlag 
rirgln boIIs. Thej are ftre tilliog lands that bare borne eropi for ceotnrlea. 
And jet their jielda are greater than oura — in the cue of lome cooDtriea, 
twice aa l«rg<*- "^^^ secret of which lies in the fact that, tbere scatcel; an;- 
thing is permitted to go to waste that would add to the product I Teness of the 
soil. The farmers coureri everj aTallable TCgetabls and animal sabBtance 
produced on the farm into manure ; and, not content with this, the oitlu 
are drained and scraped of their oflal to add to the supply, and ereo 
the country highways, as I bare repeatedly noticed in the best por- 
tions of England, France, Belgiom and Germany, are careMly gleaned 
of all casual droppings. 2. It is superior in the attention there ^ven to tba 
rotation of crops. A. farmer in the better portious of Qermany, Switzerland, 
Belgium, England, or gootlaod, who should be guilty of tho reckless, hap- 
hazard, no-system practiced bj ui, would be an anomalous character and 
summarily punished by — starration. S. It is pre-emiosntly superior in the at- 
tention given to forestry and the eitrsordioary pains taken to make the land- 
scape, and especlilly the highways, besutlfnl by the planting of useful and orna- 
mental trees. In Germany it is common to find fruit trees — the apple, the 
cherry and the pear— lining tbe public thoroughfares for miles; thna 
affording a pleasant shade by the way, and at the same time delioloos 
fruits for tbe enjoyment alike of tbs proprietor and the way-worn traveler. 
The time Is sure to come, it is eren now come, when the agriculturists of this 
conntry most give both thought and labor to the production of timber fo^ 
foel and mechanical uses, and for the improrement of climate and the pro. 
teotlon of fruit crops, as well as to the liberal planting of orchards ; and the 
•ooner they become ImpreBsed with this necesdty the better. In tbe tim- 
l>ered districts there must be • careful saving of a sufficient amount for the 
future, and )o the great prairie distriotsan early and judicious planting. Let 
as imitate Qermany in this important branch of husbandry. 4. European 
agriculturists have another advantage over American, in the prohibition 
of domestic animals from making free rangee of all public highways and such 
onltivaled fields as would otherwise be more or less exposed. On the conti- 
nent one may travel hundreds of miles without seeing a fence for protection 
against cattle. Innumerable farmB, with a variety of valuable crops, lie side 
by ride, as if ao many Individual beds In one lUimitahle garden ; all live 
stock being either housed, <•! grazed under the care of herdsmen and di^s. 
To my eye, the effect of suoh a landsiispe is inoompambly more pleasing, and 
it is certainly more economical management, where timber is scarce. 

The public improvements are built for security and permanency. This !■ 
not more remarkably illustrated bj the superiority of their publie building^ 
vhlcb— unlike our own state oapitol, whose musb^nd-mUk walls, thinly and 



l;A'OlT*^IC 



862 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

InMOurelf veneered, for the uke «f % better appeuance, are a reproach Ut 
the panimoaions " economj " of our public men — almost ioTariablj oom- 
mand the most durable uid moat mas^Te material, than by their bridge*, 
vagon-roade and railwaja Of coone, In a new oountry, where the roads re- 
■oire to be made and kept In repair by a few setClerH, it were nnreaaoDable 
to expect the lame eicelleoce aa la a densely populated eouatry. But 
scarcely anywhere, eTca la tbe oldeit and wealthiest portions of tliie ooan- 
try, do we find highways that compare with those of tbe old world, wbloh, 
baautifblly baih in the first place, with one, and orten two rows of shade trees 
on either aide, are ever arterwaids kept ^a smooth m a garden walk or 
palace floor. I have freqaeotly wallud orer them a diatsnoe 
of tea or flneeo miles of • anmmer cveDlDg with on t once 
tblnkiDg of fatigue. And as for the railways of Enrope, I never 
tbink of tbem but with eDtbrslasm. Solidly built, of the very best nui- 
terial, usually with a double traclc, alwaja in the best repair and carefully 
guarded and watched at all poiota, one ei^oys a sense of security In passing 
over them to which he is an utter atranger in thia country. During last win- 
ter, previous to my departure for Europe, I experienced one collinon of 
trains, two break-downs of engines and three runnings off the track, at great 
peril of life, and all simply in journeying from Usdlson to Jefferson City, Mo., 
and back, and from Uadlaon to New York city, on my way to Paris. Where- 
as, daring all my jonroeylngg of thousands of miles iu western Europe in 
18Sa, and during my still more extensive travels above reooanted, I never 
ODoe met with an accident or lost a moment of time because of any impar 
faction of railways, or railway carriages, or looomotives, or from anyfulare of 
trainatomake perfect coon ectioDS. And, as if to make the difference still more 
marked, on my return to New Tork, tbe very first train I went aboard ran off 
the track on the way to BuOalo and was the occarion of my being delayed 
over Sunday on my way borne to Wlsconrin. Our railroading in Araeriea b 
a disgrace to even a new country. 

In their social life most European people are also able to teach ns, first, t)ie 
lesson of general politeness in ordinsry and every kind of Interoourse, and 
secondly, the greater wisdom of simple living aud more frequent rcoreatioD 
and social intercourse. Ws are emphatically a nation of workers, and, 
practically, recreation baa no place in onr vocabulary, that we are 
serious losers, physiologically, intellectuslly and socially, by this system of 
never-ceasing toil, no one who refieots will dare qaeation. 

Ou tbe credit aide 1 ahall make no aooonut. For the presenf it is suiBcieat 
that we realiie our fanits and learn to correotthsm. When that Is done, we 
may Indulge in a few gratuitous lessons to onr neighbon of the Old Worid. 
BeapsctfuUy your obedient sarvaut, 

/. W. HOTT. 

Btati AaBicnmaL Boom, Dec, IBST. 



^d by Google 



REPORT 
UNIYERSAL EXPOSITION OF 1867. 

PRESnjBNT OF THE COMMISSION 

FOB WlSOOKSm. 



D',i„.db,Go(5glc 



WISCONSIN COMMISSION. 



DB. '. V. HOTT, FmKrom, HON. WX. FITT LimOBt 

OOL. KDWABO DANIXU, BKT. Tt. X. HABCO, 

HOH. W. fi. DOB, H. 8. XAOS. BSQ., 

BOS. B. F. BOPEINB, IL H. KoKKT, B84^ 

DB. X. B. wouxnr, dr. l. j. boss, 

HON. 0. O. SHOLES, BIOHABD HESO, BBQ^ 

HENBY BXBTHELST, E8^. BOH. SDWABD SOLOHOH, 

DAiniL NEWHAU, BBI^., SDWDI A. PHII.TJPS. BBH^ 

OOL. B. h. BUTTIUOK, BOH. JOSEPH FHILLIFB, 

HON. OICBBO C0H8T0CS. B. R. PBBB0N8, ESQ., 

t. H. DUBAHD, EB<1., W. H. BODWAT, BBft., 

BKHBBT DSSOL^ B84., H. 8. WBIL, BBQ^ 

QBOBQB KUTD, B8Q., BON. WX. E. XOUKQ. 
DB. I. A. LAFBAM, 



^d by Google 



UNITEESAL EXPOSITION OF 1867. 



REPOET. 



His Excellency, LucruB Faiechild, 

Governor of Wiacarum: 

Sir — To all Amerioana who feel a joBt pride in their conn- 
trj and nationality, it is an occasion of regret that in none of 
the great industrial movementB, which, during the past and 
the present decade, have aronsed the attention and commanded 
the ener^es of all the other enlightened, and of many semi- 
civilized, nations of the world, has the American Bepablio 
taken a part at all proportionate either to the vastness of its 
resources or the importance of the interests it has had at 
stake. 

In 1851, the idea of a anirersal exhibition was new, and 
London seemed &r away ; and so the goTcmment was but 
very partially represented. The Expoaition of 1856, at Paris, 
gave leas promise of attractiveness and success than its bril- 
liant predecessor, and on this account received &om both gov- 
ernment and people of this conntiy even less attention than 
the first; and tiie magnificent Exhibition of 1862, though 
projected under the most fevorable auspices and carried 
through with triumphant success, came in the midnight of our 
four years' 8truggl& But the tTnivereal Exposition of 1867 
fell upon more propitious times. The war had been brought 
to a successful issue ; oar natural resources had enjoyed a re- 
C8«) 



;,L.Ol)glc 



see PARTS UNIVEESAL 

markable development aince 1862 ; ooi manu&atnring indus- 
trj liftd m&de unprecedented atridea ; our finances were settling 
down upon a fixed and healthy basis ; the broad areas of the 
Southern States were open, for the first time in our histoiy, to 
the fl'ee labor and free institutions which had always made 
the Northern States so attractive to the overcrowded populations 
of the old world ; and from all parts of our great country there 
came a loud and urgent demand for an amount of labor and 
capital we could not of ourselves supply. 

And then there were other and higher reasons why America 
should have been prompt to place herself in the van of this 
grand industrial movement Its conception was eminently in 
harmony with the spirit of our republican instltutiona It 
was destined to liberalize the nations and mightily contribute 
to the democratization of all peoples throughout the world. 
Nor was it to be less potent as an agency for the diffusion of 
knowledge and the blessings of civilization in the dark places 
of the earth. 

The Emperor Napoleon in issued his decree as early as 
1864, in order that the remotest and the slowest nations might 
have ample time for preparation. The governments of many 
countries caught up the welcome edict and made prompt re- 
sponse by 1^^ enactments looking to a worthy national repre- 
sentation thereat Not so the United States. With a tardi- 
ness which is in danger of becoming characteristic, nothing of 
importance was done until 1866; and ere the government 
agency was actually in communication with all parts of the 
country by means of preliminary documents, the time had 
come when goods intended for the Expcaition should have 
been actually on their way to New York 

Action in the individual states was correspondingly tardy. 

To this general torpor Wisconsin was no honorable excep- 
tion. Agents in number sufficient to represent an empire 
were appointed by legislative enactment, duripg the winter of 
1866, but apparently without the remotest idea of anything 
more than a personal representation. At all events no provi- 
sion of any sort was made by the State, for an illustration at 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 8C7 

Paris of the natural resources aod iDdustrial and social pn^eaa 
of our State. Aa a conseqaence, the summer and antumn of 
866 , every moment of which should have been actively em- 
ployed by some competent and zealous agent ia the field, 
passed without anything being don& Late in November, 
at the request of the Board of Trade of Milwaukee, 
Your Excellency appointed several additional oommissiouers, — 
the undersigned being among the number, — and on the second 
of December, a meeting was held of such of the commissioners 
as could be called together, at Milvraultefi. At this meeting, 
Hon. C. 0. Slioles being in the chair, and Dr. A. M. Helmer 
acting aa Secretary, a permanent organization of the Wiscon- 
sin Commission was effected by the choice of the undersigned 
as President, with full authority and instructions : 



1. To take such steps and adopt such measures as to him 
should seem necessary to insure a representation of this State, 
by its products, at the Paris Exposition of 1867. 

2, To superintend the exhibition of such products at Paris, 
and be responsible for their final disposition. 

8. To make to the Slate such report as he should deem 
proper of his transactions in behalf of the Commission, and on 
the Exposition itself. 

Assured by the Commission of the hearty co-operatioo and 
support of all the members thereof, and encouraged by Your 
Excellency and the oflScial action of the Chamber of Commerce 
of Milwaukee, to believe that pecuniary means requisite to 
meet all legitimate expenses of the oontemplated exhibition 
would, in some manner, be furnished to the Commission, 
I accepted the appointment, with the responsibilities imposed, 
and immediately commenced my labors by addrea«ng the 
following printed appeal to prominent citizens, and by pro - 
oaring its publication in most of the leading papers of the 
State: 



^d by Google 



868 PARIS tJNIVEBSAL 

Omci or TBI WoooHBia Cokmihioii to thi FikXD Exrosmoa, 

ItiDMOH, December S, 186t. 
lb (A* AgA 0/ WaeoMim : 

Tbe Ore>C Exhibition of the InduBtry of all KttlODB,toba held «t Pkrii In tbe 
•jtti 1MT, ifl to be a compeCltiTe showing of tba resoarces, pragreu and pr«< 
aant indiutrial and looialcooditloii of all the Datloni of the eanb. Althoash 
this will be the fourth io the grand Mciel since the inaugoratloD of tBe 
■ebeme at London in I8B1, AmeHea baa yet to make her first oreditabls ap- 
pearance. Andjetoothiugta plainer that that, b; taking her legitimate 
place aa the peer of the itrongeat and moit eulighteaed nalioni of tbe world 
m tbcM great gatherings of tbe thinkers, workera and prodaots of all 
landi, she would not onlj more wortbilj do her part in the diffnaloii 
of the bleesin^i of elriliiatlon and the uniting all peoples mora flrmlr 
in the bonds ot mutual interest and friendly assocSatioa, but aUo derive a di- 
rect a>d incalculable »d»anl*ge to her future growth in wealth and power by 
the demonstration thus mad« before the world of the variety of her resources 
and the ,indDcenienU ehe ie able to offer the loduetrlons bot crampedand 
dissatisfied populations of the Oid Worid for settlement in the "Sen. 

But it is now patent eferywhere that America is a competitor for the 
honors to be conferred by the juriesof alloatloolat Paris next year. And 
though slow in movlog, and hardly Just to herself in herj>reliminar; arrange- 
ments and appropriations of money, now that she has entered tbe lists, and 
is certain either to be wowned with laurel or dismissed in disgnce, erery 
American oitiien should feel it his duty is eooh to do ererjthiog In his power 
to assure the glurj of tbe Qreat Eepublic. 

The GeneraJ GoTemment hu provided fr«e transportatJon for alt approved 
articles that may be sent, as well as for faiibful and valuable reports bv a Na. 
tional CommUsion composed of eminent practical and saieotlflo men, and 
has urgently asked each of the Butes Xt acqalt itself honorably. 

Throughout the East and all abont us in the West, state governments and 
people have for months been spiritedly at work, and are now very sure to do 
themselves cradit bythe varied and exteosive display they wiU make of the 
produclsof nature and of tbe industry and genius of their people 

What then of Wisconsin r As yet nothing. She has numarons commis- 
doners, with the privilege of representing the State at their owq expense ; 
but thus far she has made provision for showing little else 1 We hive in our 
barns, mills and warehouses, samples of wheat, corn, rye, barley, soi^hum, 
flax and flax seed, linseed oil, floor, cheese, maple sugar and syrups, tobacco, 
wool, 4c., equal to any ia the country. We have cider, wines, whiskavs, 
brandies and malt hquors of our own manufacture. In tbe di-partmcot of 
natural history we could make a fine show of building and ornamental stonea, 
bric'iand Are days and brick, lime, sand for glass, kaolin, peats, marls; of 
metallic ores, especially of lead, iron, copper and zinc ; of every valuable 
variety of timber growing In the temperate latitudes; of indigenons plants; 
and » most Interesting display of mounted specimens of game and fur-bearing 
qnadrupeds, with specimens of the fishes of our lakes and streama. 

In the way of machinery, manufacluros, 4o., we cannot expect to competa 
with the older and mora exclusively manufacturing Btatas. But we do 
possess the requisite material and the finest -water-powers in the world, and 
should spare no pains to prove oar natural advantages, and thus attract the 
capital, which is all that we lack to make us equal to Massachusetts or Con- 
necticut. Besides, we are able to-day to send to Paris superior threshing 
machines, reapers and mowers, sorghum mill*, rotary diggers, plows, harrows, 
OulUvators, bog-cutters, wrought iron, steel, line and copper, white lead and 
lino paint ; fanning mills, wa^lng-machlnas, wringers, wagons, hnbs, spokes 
•ndfalloas; furniture, buckets, bowls, barrels, •ploolng wheels, shoe-last*, 
boots and thoee, harness, leather ; doeskins and caasimeres, flannels, knit 
holsery, and a thousand other things too nnmaroiia to mention, bat all of 
th«m made In this Suta, and many of them indebted to the inventive Muitu 
of WiwoDsln men. '^ 

And then wa have many worthy examples of archltactnra. These oaimot 
txaant, botphotograpbic views of them oaOf and, by all m«aos, ihonldbe 



BXPOSmON OF 1867. 889 

■But. Oar harbon, •I«Tktoi«, mra-booMB, Booring and mw uIIIi, bnvarlat, 
t>Daeri«a, m&chine shops, nilroad depots, Buta tad other pnblte boUdlngi, 
oollega and public lohool edifices, fhrm-houaes, cHj homes — repraseotatloDi 
of all these ara eiBantial to a proper ondantandlag of oni indnstrial aad sO' 
eialprogrest, and, with detailed deicriptions of dimenaiont, siructare, Ac., 
zhonld haTe a plaee. 

The condition and prospects of onr people would be fbrthar fltlj repraiented 
hj catilogOM of alt pabllo libraries, ipeaimeDs of our lobool books, fttmltnra 
and apparatus ; b* copies of oar Btate reports, published histories, newtpa* 
pars, mipa, &o.; by some of our best works of art ; aod flDatlj by a Tolume of 
thorough itatietical Infbmiation on ever; point of pramiDent Interest con- 
nected with the past, present and futare of the Btate. 

8ucb ft showing as tbis — espedsilj of the leading and distingnishlDg pro- 
duets of our mines, Belds, foresta and manufactories — would at once reMut 
great honor upon our State, and b; means of the influi of capital and Immi- 
nation tbat unit retolt from it, proTe a great and luting material benelk 
To tiil would be a shame and reproach to our people. 

If bnt one earnest, infinenUal man in every neighborhood will determine 
tbat euch a representatiiion from tbis state ^all be mads, and will set him- 
self at work wlthoot a moment's delay, it can yet be done. 

By a recent decision of the Board of Oommiseioners for this State, condst- 
ti g of Col. E. Daniels, Hon. W. H. Doe, Hon. 0. 0. Bholes, Hon. B. F. Hi>p- 
kios. Surgeon General E. B. Wolcott, Henry Be rthelet, Esq., Daniel NewhaD, 
Ei>q., J. H. Durand, Esq., and J. W. Hoyt, it devolres uu the undersigned to 
virit as many locatllles as possible, with the view of arousing thepobllo to the 
urgent demandH of ibe enterprise they hare at so late an hour been placed in 
• poeitioo efBcientlj to repreeenL It is becaoeo omnipresence Is not possible 
to the Commission that this appeal is published. Bemember, whatoTer li 
done at all, must be done this month I 

Bend your articles, well paoked and oarefally marked, " For the Paris Xx- 
hlbitlon," to A. U. Helmer, Esq., Hilwankee, at which place they will be In- 

?ieeted by the Commission, and, if approved, forwardsd, all together, to New 
ork. If r^ected they will at once be carefully retnrned to the contributor. 
The railroad siid steamlioat tines of ^e Btate will carry everything, trans- 
portation free. The Amerioan and U. S. Eipres* companies also accord free 
transportation to articles of mode r<ite bulk. 

Gr^n*, grass ind'garden seeds, and other arlioles of tbat class, should be 
pat Dp in quantities ofone quart to one gallon each ; specimens of com in 
the ear, io iruijseB of a half doseo ears or more ; wheat, barley, oats, Ao., of 
remarkable growth, in bandies of an inch or two in diameter, boied ; samples 
of timber, either io cross sections of the trunk a foot in length or in longer 
sections ; boards or plank wrought on one side, to show the poMible Sulsh ; 
metal 11 a ores in as large and flue inasaes a* practicable; building stones in 
blocks sli Inches cubic. In all cases thr contributions should be aocompcDied 
by the name and residence of the contributor, cironmstances of occurrence, 
growth, or menu facto re, yield, amount of maoufacturs pet annum, Ac., Jco. 
Send in your contributions and let the.Wlsconsin Division of the American 
Department of the Great EzhlbitioQ he second to none other. 

J. W. HOYT. 
Prtridrnt WU. Soardof Oommimumm^ 

This first Step was immediately followed by tbe writing 
of bandreda of letters to prominent farmers, manafacturers and 
boainesB men in all portions of tbe State, and by persooal 
visits to must of tbe leading towns and cities of Wisconsin, 
from (Jreen Bay, on tbe north, to Mineral Point, in tbe south- 
west 

No diffioalty was experienced in awakening a deep iaterest ■ 



860 PAKIS UNIVEBSAL 

ia the movement, but the sliortiieaa of the time allowed for 
preparation stood serionslj in the v&j of suocess and could 
not be overcome. Hundreds of ingeoious mechanics, and 
many heavy manufaotarers, miners and others, who would 
have cheerfully placed their products and inventions at the 
disposal of the Gommiasion, were debarred from so doing by 
the impoBsibility of getting them ready before the first of Jan- 
uary, at which time it was imperative that every thing should 
be in New York. 

Still another oircumatance brought embarrassment: the 
limit of tjme for making application for space in the Palace of 
Exposition had been long since passed, and not a foot of space 
would now be granted by the Imperial Oommiasion. Fortu- 
nately, however, acting in the name of the State Agricultural 
Society, I had secured a liberal amount of room for such con- 
tributions as at least ought to be sent to Paria, and the 
G-overnment was kind enough to allow an assignment of this 
space to the State Commission, and thus that obstacle was re- 
moved. This application for space had been such as to induce 
the belief that there could be no possibility, within so short a 
time, of securing contributions enough to crowd it, and accord- 
ingly several articles of considerable bulk, such as plows, har- 
rows, grain aeedera, sorghum mills, shingle machines, wagons, 
iron safes, aaah and doors, and threshing machines were en- 
gaged of mnufacturers who could forward them on short notice 
and were anxions to do bo; but then, at the last moment 
ordera came from the United States Agent, at New York, to 
accept nothing of much bulk, as the American Department 
was likely to be overcrowded ; and thus many valuable con- 
tributions were reluctantly ruled out. 

Scarcely less trying than these was the fact that neither the 
Board of Trade nor yet the L^islature, upon which the duty 
properly devolved, had made any provision whatever for 
meeting the necessary expenses of handling, transportation, 
cartage, &o., to New York and thence to Paris, in case any of 
them — as many of them were likely to — should arrive at the 
seaboard too late for the government vessel assigned to that ' 

r, ,v.l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. S«l 

duty, or for the proper iDstallation of the articles at Paris, or 
their safe returo to Wisconsin; so that exhibitors were with- 
out security that their contributions woald ever find their way 
to the Exhibition, much leas that they would be attractively 
shown and safely returned. The alternative was thei-efore 
presented, either wholly to abandon the enterprise, or to be- 
come personally responsible for the articles committed to my 
care, trusting to the intelligence and justice of the Legislature 
to endorse my action by nmkiag early and adequate provision 
for carrying out the plans of the Commission. The enterprise 
had already gone too far to warrant its abandonment, and I 
accordingly accepted the latter alternative, assuming the 
responsibility and making the necessary advances from my 
own funds. 

Proceeding thus, with the generous co-operation of Comm is 
ffloner Joseph Phillipps and Henry Berthelet, who assisted as 
solicitors at Milwaukee,and of Dr. A. M. Helmer, who kindly 
acted as receiving and shipping agent, we succeeded at length 
in forwarding to New York for shipment to Paris, 36 cases 
of goods, numbered and invoiced as follows, to wit: 

ABTIOIiB BRirraD iXO rARTUS BT WHO> nORTSIBDTXD. 

Box No. 1 — Specimena of xIdc >nd lakd ores, contributed b; Uinertl Point 

HI D log CompBii;. 
JL. HaBsiTB Bpecimena or lead OM aud lead, from " tha Oalctaiid 

Uiiie," bj Hon. Jbb. H. EaroBBt, SbullBburg. 
8. — Iron ores, pig iron and iron caBtiogs, bj J. Smith, Eaq., IroD- 

toD, Sauk county, and Iron ore* from L«ke Superior. 
4. — Viiwank«e and Edgerton brick. 
0. — IiOD Orel, pig iron, cait iron and steel, by N. W. Iron Go.,¥*7- 

Tllle ; also, iron orei and steel mannfactured therefrom, 

from the Fenokee Iron Bknge, b; J. B. D. Ooggsirell «ad 

oChen, HilKaukee. 

g. Indian ourioticieB, bj Hon. Henry S. B«ird, Green Bty. 

T.—Fhotograpliic views of the State buildinga of WiBconrin, by 

the Qoranior. 
a. Several hidea of leather (apper and aolel, by Uesuu G. PfiEter 

k Oo., Milwaakee, and Mesira. J. J. Piirron & QieaUii, 



cbMed or Hr. Haider, Milvukee. 

IS, BanpleB of tlie Tsrioiw woods of WiBOoniin, need In the wta, 

aome by F. Brlek, Milwaakee, J. H. Hslght & Co., UM- 
■OD, Bod nnnMioiii ptrtiei Bt Food dn Lao, Oshkoih, Bbtb- 
boo and AppIetoD, aod otheia pnpBred by the OonmdHloii.. 

r, r,.i .A'l-H"l<^lc 



PAEIS TINIVEIISAL 



BnlnulBof WUcoQ^D, bj HcMra. 0. F.Wright &Dd 0. Sow^ 
of OshkoBh, and MeMn A. H. OudiMr, F. Ganthsr, 
aod Booth c Salimmn, of Mllwankea. 

14.— Oreesed blocka of the bnildiDg Hooe of Witconain, cootribntad 
bT Ueian. Andrew Proudfil atid W. T. Fiah, of HaiUaoa, 
and N. Merrill, ofHlIwaukee. 

IS. — ^amplea of Indian com, and prairie and " opening" aoUi, by 
Kli Slilson, Beq., O^koeh ; also specimena of broom oorn, 
iinti from the foreats of Wiaconain, and basket willo*, 
together with fleecea of wool, b; Bichard Bicharda, of Ba- 
cine, and , of Uilwaakse oountj. 

IB. — Mapi of WiaconiiD, purohaaed b; the Commlaalon; lithogruihia 
Tiewiof Hilwaaliee, b; Loale Lipnaii; photographic Tie we 
of JaneiTille, \>j J. Bark, artiat. 

17.— Thirty lamplea of tha cereal and oChar graini and aeeda grown 
'' In Wiaconiln, all in glaas aample-jara, parchaaed b; Oom- 
mlaaion. 

IS.— Thirt; samples of the cereal and other grains and ereit grown 
In Wlaoonain, ci> Id glaas lample caeee, purohaaed bj Coin- 
mi asion. 

19.— Sampleaof bdldlngatoneibjHon. HenrjCordier, State Priaou 



30.— Antler* of the elk, bj A. H. Gardner, Esq., Hilwankee 

31; — Kilwankee brick, contil bated by Geo Bnmham. 

ax.— Beport« of the Bute Departmenrs and of all ths Sute laatitn- 
tiona of Wiseoniln (neatlj bound}, contrlbatsd by the 
GoTBmor ; alao sets of the reports of the State BUtorioal 
and Slate Auricaltural Bocloties (handaomelj bound), con- 
tributed by Mid Bocietiea reipeotiTely 

It. — Dreiaed blocks of ballding atone from Fond dn Lac, together 
with a maagiTe specimen of " float copper," by E. A. Dar- 
ting, Fond du Lao. 

M.—Bape scHd and oil, from Fond du Lao; also hops, contributed 
br v. Blati, Hilwankee ; wild turkey (atnSed), by Dr. P. B. 
Hoy, Bacina; caae of prepared glae, by Christian WahL 
Hilwankee. 

3S.— BpecimeDS of lro:i ore, from Black Hirer Falla; kaolin, ttem 
Grand Bapida, by Dr. L A. Lapham ; a ease of ateel ham- 
mers, by UcBSrs. Barr ft Coi, manufacturers, Beloit, and a 
caae of improTed augur bits, by A. 0. Kassen, patentee, 
Milwaukee. 

3d.— Bunch of shingles (half thousand) from Food du Lac. 

31.— Cask of white winter wheat flour, by Hesan. Bertaeby L Sean, 
manufaetarera, Kllwaukee. 

3S.— Caak of spring wheat flour, by Hesara. Bertaeby k Keao, Mil- 



80. — Cask of spring wheat flour, by Fred. BertBohy, Ksq., Illlwankee. 

81. — HaasiTo specimen of native oopper of Vi isconain, oontribnted 
by Hon. Joseph Barria, Stoifgeon Bay. 

83, S8.— SIi boxes (of walnut, beautifully flnlsbad and gilt-let(ei«d, 
each containing a balf buahel of Krain) of oereal products 
— wheat, rye, oata, barley, and Indian oorn, by the Mil- 
wank ee Ohauber of Gommeroe. 

U. — Oask of lager beer ttoa Milwaukee. 

IS.— Caak of Isger beer from Milwaukee. 

it. — Large and elegant case of perfumery, by McMrt. Tallman k 
ColUns, nann&etuen, Janeirilla. 



^dbvGoo^^lc 



EXPOSITION OF 18«7. 368 

Touching the action of the L^slature in making suitable 
proviaion for the expenses of the exhibition from Wisconsin, I 
r^ret to say that ereu the moderate expectations of the Com- 
mission were disappointed. For, althoughan appropriation was 
Unallj mad^ it was so long delayed that, in order to keep faith 
with exhibitora for whose goods I had become responsible, I 
was obliged to leave for Paris without assurance that anything 
at all would be done by the State, and, when arrived, to man- 
age the installation of our exhibits at my own personal cost 

On the 20th of March, 1867, some days after my departure, 
the following provisions became a law, to wit: 

[Copy.] 

Section 1. For Che parpo<« of pKjiog sach oDiToidable ftod neceis&ry «x- 
peitM of the sihtbition of the prodncta of Wiiooutia tt the PbHs uiii>ere>I 
eipoaition, to be held thii present year, there i» berebj pUced at the diipo- 
eal of the goreraor, to be aMd at bii discretioD, the mm of tiro thousand 
doUan, or to much thereof as he maj deem neoeBsary, acid this amount of tiro 
(housaad dollare ii hereby appropriated from the general fuod of the state, 
out of any money belonging to said fund not othenriee appropriated : pro- 
Med, that no portion of the amount hereby appropriated shall be usi-d or ap- 
plied to pay the peraonal eipenies of or any salary to any coiom'ssioner to 
Mid eipoiitloD. 

Section 2. ThiB act shall <ake eCTect and be in force fiom and aftar lt« 



And, in ihe month of June, Your ExcelleDcy's communication 
dated April 12th, and covering a draft on Paris for 5,000 tranoa, 
was received. In view of these circumstances of delay on the 
part of the State, and of consequent doubt as to whether any 
aid might be expected therefrom at all, I have great pleasure 
in acknowledging the very cordial and generous manner id 
which the Commissioner General of the TTntted States, Hon. 
N. M. Beckwith, provided, at the expense of the national 
fund, much, in the way of both labor and material, that was 
justly chargeable to the State, and thus enabled me, at length, 
not only to make a creditable exhibit of Wisconsin produots, 
but even to leave in your bands a small balance of the appro- 
priation originally so small that otherwise the whole amount 
would have proved insufficient for the unavoidable expenaeB 
of the exhibition. 

The foregoing, somewhat lengthy record of the preliminary 
tnuisactions of the Commissioa is made in no spirit of oenso- 



j.A'OD^Ic 



864 PABIS tmiVERSAL 

riousness, bat rather with reluctaace, and &r more Id the hope 
that a full knowledge of the facts may have bociq influence in 
preventing like errore on the part of the State, in the future, 
than as an act of justice to the Commission, to which, under 
the circumstances, that higher degree of sueceas for which it 
labored was thus rendered impossible. 

TEE EZPOSITIOK — CONDITION AT DATE OF OPKNINa, 

Arriving at Paris on the 31st daj of March — the day pre- 
vion^ito the great day of inauguration — I proceeded at once to 
the scene of preparation on the Champ de Mara. 
. Was it an augury of the final end of war and the early com- 
ing of the reign of peace, this gathering of the products of the 
mdustrial arts, and this proposed intermingling of the repre- 
sentatives of all lands on the field of Mars ? and was it so de- 
signed by the imperial Napoleon? The hope of the philaa- 
thropiat should not be over sanguine. The first national indus- 
trial exhibition ever held in the world was held on this same 
field, dedicated to the God of War. It was in the year 1798. 
France had but just emerged fi^jmone of the bloodiest revolu- 
tions recorded in history. The enthusiastic people of the new 
Bepublic had seen the star of liberty descend and rest upon the 
brow of Napoleon, who was to lead them to adestioy theglory 
of which they had but dimly conceived. And so, to them, it 
seemed fitting that in the opening dawn of the national pros- 
perity, this field should be planted with flowers. But who 
does not know that after that, and very soon thereafter, all 
Europe resounded with the roar of ariilleiy, and was rocked 
by the heavy tread of millions of armed men — that Marengo, 
Austerlitz, Jena, Eylan, Wagram and Waterloo followed, like 
reverberations of one continuous roll of thunder, and that, 
since the " permanent peace " then established, nay, since the 
inauguration of the universal exhibitions of industry, the con- 
tinent has been revolutionized and re-mapped over and over 
again I 

Still, it is well that manldnd should cherish the hope of the 
better day to oome, " when the nations shall learn war no 

r, ,v.l;A'Otl<^IC 



EXPOSITION OF 181J7. 866 

more ;" and well knowing tihe benificent tendencies of national 
rivalry in promoting the arts of peace, we may safely accept 
even this simple ciicumatance as an omen for good. 

Only he who had seen the Champ de Mars when it was a 
wide, sandy waste on the outskirts of Paris, with (except on 
the side of L'Ecole Militaire) its surrounding of the habitations 
of the poor and of anoccnpied lands, could realize how vast the 
work that had been done within the past few months. The 
hundred-acre field had, indeed, vanished, and was nowhere to 
be found. Where for centuries the armies of France had been 
mustered, now rose in bewildering association, and in the midst 
of gardens of marvelous beauty and magnificence, countless 
palaces, villas, workshops, &rm establishments, school houses, 
churches, representative of every nation under heaven ; while, 
in the centre of all, stood the mighty Palace of Industry, cover- 
ing the products of the genius and skill of all the peoples on the 
globe. Mars had been expelled and Minerva reigned suprema 

Nor had the potent influence of the magician's wand been 
limited to the boundary of the Champ de Mars. The hovels 
of the poor, the score of stenchy soap ketones and those hid- 
eous blocks of bald, bleak and ugly stuccoed houses, which, 
altogether, once made this precinct as execrable aa Paris in the 
main is beautiful, had given place to numerous handsome shops, 
dwellings and cafes, and was now also Parisian. 

Some idea of the Exposition tiailding and its immediate sur- 
roundings may be gained from the accompanying illustration. 
Hundreds of hypercritical newspaper scribblers were prompt 
to pronounce the plan a pitiful failure, in advance oFexecution ; 
and these same were only more emphatic in the expression of 
that opinion after the building was once erected. Judging 
from a purely sesthetic stand-point, it certainly was obnoxioua 
to criticism. It possessed none of the magnificence of that 
architectural wonder of the world, the Crystal Palace of 1851, 
nor did it afford those &r-reaching aud grand vistas which 
must dwell forever in the memory of one who ever once stood 
in the grand nave of the palace of 1851, 1865 or of 1862. 
Bat then it was vastly better adapted to the end proposed 



..i.,L'Ol>i^lc 



866 PABIS UMVKUSAL 

then Mtber. For besides aQbrding every desirable facility 
for the exhibition of every class of objects, in which the Crys- 
tal Palace of 1861 was somewhat deficient, it admitted of the 
best coDceivble claasifioation of objects by groups and by 
couotri^, in which particular all previoos exhibitions had 
been exceedingly faulty. Indeed it so admirably fulfilled 
every condition required of it that it may well be oonaidared 
a model for all like buildiugs in the future. 

The form of the Palace was oval, like that of the ancient 
Coliseum, with an open garden in the centre. The longest 
diameter was S22 yards, the shortest 400. The length <^ the 
central gardt'n was 180, width 60 yards ; the great disparity 
haviog come of the desire to make the distance from all points 
OQ the circumference of this garden to opposite points on the 
circumference of the Palace exactly the same in all cases. 

la the palaces of 1861, 1866 and 1862, a portion of the arti- 
cles shown were in gaUeries proper, that is, on a second fioor, a 
circumstance which added very much to the inconvenience 
and &tigue of a general survey. But in the Palace of 1867, 
everything exhibited had a place on tlie ground 6oor, so that 
every court might bo traversed without changing the level so 
much as a single inch. In all former exhibition buildings, 
the exhibits were necessarily so distributed that the articles of 
any given class were sometimes half a mile apart, thus making 
a fair and satisfactory comparison difficult, if not impracticable ; 
while some of the countries, whose collections were large, were 
BO bounded by simple and direct dividing alleys as to make 
it impracticable for the miyority of the visitora to know when 
they had completed an examination of its products witbont a 
very careful study of the plan, with the diagram before them. 
In this Palace that embarrassment was entirely removed by 
the following arrangement, at once original and beaatiful : 

In the first place, every country making exhibition was re- 
quired to display its products in a right line between the cen- 
tre and circumference of the Palace, the breadth of the sector 
thus formed varying with the amonot of material to be shown 
by it ; so that if the virator should pass up and down this 

ri,, ,v.l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



EXPOSITION OP 1867. 867 

line of national display, from one extremity to the other, he 
would be enabled to examine everything withont inconven- 
ience or distraction. To render each passage easy, numerous 
alleys -were opened in right line from the central garden to the 
circumference. One of these avenues — the one leading from 
the grand port, at bridge Jena, the imperial entrance — was 65 
feet in width ; the United Kingdom of Oreat Britain lying to 
the light of it, and the vast area occupied by France oa the 
left. Its continuation on the other side ofthe palace in the direc- 
tion of L'Ecole Militaire, and also the two corresponding av- 
enuee, whose line of direction crossed the said imperial vesti- 
bule, were each 46 feet wide, and the remaining twelve alleys 
wem 16 fbet In some cssea the products of a single country 
were foand lying between two of these avennea, and filling 
the entire space between them. In others, two countries 
might be found lying side by side, and both included between 
them. While in the case of countries like France, whose pro- 
ducts occupied lai^e areas, they were traversed by several 
of these streets. 

But the careful student of the world's induBtries would also 
naturally desire to see all the products of a given kind from 
the various countries in the world placed in juxtaposition, that 
he might the more easily compare them. This desideratum 
was met by making a series of circular avenues parallel to the 
circumference of the Palace, and cntssing the transverse ave- 
nnea at right angles; the number corresponding to the 
number of general divisions in the classification of products. 
In this simple manner, a thorough and systematic study of the 
whole Exhibition was made not only possible, but moat inte- 
resting and agreeahla 

OKCTBRAIi ABEAHaSiaiNT OP OB0UF8 07 wtttthtt h 

The entire exhibition was divided into ten groapa, aa 
follows : 

I. Workf of mrt (nearest (be centre). 

n. Mttftriels uid their ttpplioatione In the Ilbenl trta. 

m. Fnniitiira mod other otijeeta need in dwalUnn. 

IT. Gsnnenti, tlHoealbrolothiag, mai other uuolei of wetrlng ftpparel. 



I v'^'Otl'^lc 



PABIS tTNIVEESAL 

Indiutry, foreMs, h}.) 

YL laHtrumeuU and procMsea need In i.ud uvuuuvu aiui. 
TIL Food, freih or prsMrred, in Tuious atageE of preparttioD. 
Tni. Animali and ipeoimcDa of agrlculCaral eaUbllabmsnU. 
IX. Live products and epecimena of borCicultural BetabllBlmiODts. 
X Otijecte exhibited liith a Epeoial view to the amBlloraticin of the 
morkl and phjaioal coodStion of the population. 

The first seven of these groupa were fully represeated in the 
Palace. Groups VIII and IX were slatJoned in the Park and 
on the island of Billancoiirt{six miles down the Seine) ; and the 
objectfl embraced in Group X were partly included in the 
Palace and partly in the Park. Starting from the centre, then, 
and proceeding outward, there was, first, an inneropen portico 6 
yards wide and 6 yards high; then a concentric enclosed court for 
the display of articles illustrative of the history of labor, 6 yards 
wideand9 l-Syardshigh; then an enclosed concentric,16J yards 
wide and 12} yards high, for works of art ; then a court open 
on the outer aide, 6} yards wide and 9 1-5 yards high for 
Group n ; then an avenue 5} yards wide ; next, an open 
court, 27 yards wide and 9 1-6 yards high for Group III ; then 
another avenue of the same width as the previous one ; then 
another open court, 27 yards in diameter, for Group IV j then 
another avenue ; then another court of like diameter (in some 
departments divided longitudinally by a wall) for Group V ; 
then a brick wall, with many openings and rising to the height 
of 27 yards ; next the grand nave, 38 yards across and 81 feet 
high, for Group VI ; then the great outer wall of the palace, 
with high arches opening into broad alcoves, occupied by 
Group VII ; then the great tier of restauranls, two stories high, 
and with crystal ironts ; and last of all, the grand covered 
promenade, more than a mile in length (roof supported by or- 
namental brackets, and floor of asphaltum), underneath which 
thousands of visitors were perpetually making the circuit of 
the Palace, while thoafiands more, at the little tables there set, 
quaffed their refreshing draughts of wat^, ale, or wine, while 
gazing in dreamy wonder on the marvelous creations in the pic- 
turesque gardens without 

The grand annular nave presented soma remarkable fba- 
tores, and is worthy of furthef description. One hundred and 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 869 

fourteen feet wide, more thau eighty feet higli, and nearly a 
mile in circumfereDce, it afforded opportunity for the grandest 
display of maaaive machintry ever witnessed by man. The 
walla were of biick and iron, the outer wall chiefly of the lat- 
ter material, much of the space being occupied by windows, 
and the structure depending largely for its strength upon 176 
equidistant pillars of iron, each 85 feet high and weigh- 
ing 24,000 pounds — the flags of all nations being displayed 
from their projecting tops. The over-arching roof was of 
wrought iron, skilfully framed, and covered with undulatiug 
plates of the same material In the centre of the nave, and 
running throughout its course, except at the intersection of the 
grand radiating avenues, was an iron platform, ten feet wide 
, and fourteen feet above the ground floor, with railing on either 
side, and surmounted at frequent intervals by the pavilions 
and trophies of the different nationSj designed as a grand 
promenade for such as wished to traverse the nave with the 
advantage of looking down upon its machineiy and the pro- 
cesses going on there, from above. 

The roof of the Palace within the nave, being mostly of glass, 
furnished an abundance of light in every part, which, indeed, 
in many of the courts had to be tempered by awnings of light 
muslin. The supports, independent of walls, were pillars of 
iron and of wood. 

The flooTB of the avenues and of many of the uncorpeted 
courts were of a hard and smoothly laid cement 

Thus much of what was visible A word now of the in- 
visible : 

The water was furnished from the Seine ; beii^ first rwaed 
by five powerful stationary engines and the engine of a French 
frigate to the heights of Trocadero, on the other side, where, at 
an elevation of 76 feet, waa prepared a reaervoir with an area 
of 89,000 square feet From this reservoir it was distributed 
through 13,000 yards of iron pipe to all places io the Park and 
Palace where required. OonnectionB were aJso made with the 
great water supplies of the city, so that in case of Sre, the 
amount should be nidimited. 
24 Aq. Tbanb. 

r, r,,.i v'^'Otl'^lc 



870 PARIS UNIVERSAL 

Gas for the Park and the exterior of the Palace (which being 
closed at 6 o'clock did not reqaire gas in the interior) was 
supplied from two huge gasometere, through 6,500 yards of iron 
pipe 19 inches in diameter, and 6,000 yards of smaller branch 
pipes, to the 600 lamp-post burners in the Park, the 800 
burners with glass globes suspended from the rim of the 
Palace awning, the 252 three-branched chandeliera that sup- 
plied the restaurants, and the multitude of burners for private 
use in the structures within the Park. 

Steam was furnished to the ponderous motors within the 
nave for driving the machinery there stationed, through un- 
seen pipes, by nine powerful generators stationed at regular 
intervals in the Park ; thus obviating the necessity for a spark 
of fire within the Palace. 

But the question of pure air for the hundreds of thousands 
of visitors who would throng the Palace was certainly not less 
important than a supply of water, gas and steam power. To 
make sure of this, the following extensive and very complete 
subterranean works were established, to wit: Undemeatb 
the 16 radial avenues and the 3 anaolar avenues there were 
made, by excavation, subterranean galleries ISJ feet deep 
and around the whole of the exterior of the Palace an annular 
Bubterranean gallery 33 feet wide and ISJ feet deep, divided 
by rows of pillars into three galleries, each about 9 feet 10 
inches wide, the outer one being completly separated from the 
other two by a wall. The two inner ones were cellars for the 
iise of the restaurants, the outer one alone being a part of the 
system of ventilation. This outer gallery comunicated with 
the external air by means of 16 ahafta, each 9 feet 10 inches 
in diameter, disposed symmetrically about the building and 
having their openings about 4 rods from the outer edge of the 
external annular promenada 

Id each radial subterranean gallery under the external 
waU of the building, was a jet or nozzle to be supplied with 
oompr^sed ur and havitiga fiat end, with sector-shaped 
openings symetrically aitanged around the center. These 16 
jflta were bo oonneoted as to form four 'gro'ups, each group 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 871 

oommanicating by pipes 1 fL to 2 ft. in diameter, with four air- 
compressing machines having a total power of 105 horses 
nomioal. The arraDgements being thus complete, eaoh 
nuohiae, at the will of the operator, could be made to aapplj 
to its group of jets airat apressure equal to 29}to 81^ iuches 
of wftter; which being direoted along the radial shafts and the 
annolar shafts communioating therewith and admitted throagh 
registers in the floors, would at the same time expel the 
vitiated air through yeutilators in the roof and draw after it, 
by induction, pure air from the outer world. The cost of 
ventilation by this means was calculated to be a little leas 
then two cents for every 853,165 cubic feet supplied. 

With the foregoing facts and figures before us, and the 
remembrance of the stormy character of the season, which 
Beriously retarded the work, we are able to get some fatut con- 
ception of the vast amount of labor and money required to 
transform the sandy waste of the Champ de Mars into the 
wonderful microcosm it became in so short a lime. 

THE ABBIVAL OF CONXBIBUTIONS. 

Napoleon and the Commission of his appointment had done 
tlieir work thoroughly and well. Not so the coutributing 
Dationa, The nothern countries — Bussiaand the Scandinavian 
States — were ready in good time and maguiflcently installed ere 
the end of March, but all the rest were sadly chaotic. 
Facilities never heard of before were furnished them. At 
London all goods had to be hauled on immense vans and 
other wagons from the various docks and railways. While 
liere, through the intervention of the circular railway that anr. 
loaDds Paris and commuuioates with all the radial roads and 
depots, goods consigned to the Exposition were not only 
biDoght to the very entrance to the Obamp de Mara, but, upoa 
tmoks laid all through the Park and around^ and even in, the 
vxbiUtioQ building, heavy maohines and massivfl oontiifaQ- 
tunu were discharged almost on the very spot where tbey were 
to remain. Nevertheleae, on the daj before the Opeaiog dtere 
vat a conftiBion with whieh the bistoriQ dietarbanoearouBd 



j.A'OO'^lc 



872 PARIS UNIVEBSAL 

the tower of Babel was not worth; to be compared. For tbst 
waa odIj a oonfnsion of tongues, while this was a coDfusion of 
everything else added to a confaaion of numberless tongaes 
the Babelites knew nothiog about FoDderoos machines, fresh 
from Cyclopean workshops had just arrived on the care and 
must have the power of a thousand men to move them. Loco- 
motives, dragging long lines of unloaded freight cars, sharply 
screamed their " get outcf my way." Hundreds of great wagcns, 
piled mountain high and skiliiilly engineered by shonting 
teamsters, crossed their track every moment and demanded, all 
at once, the attention of somebody and everybody for their 
relief. Long-armed, giant cranes creaked their alow musio in 
the ears of impatient workmen. Ten thousand hammers 
crashed and thundered in every quarter of the Park and grand 
nav& Huge piles of boxes in the interior were being pulled 
down and knocked open by thousands of exhibitors, agents and 
commissioners, for the treasures they contained ; while hurried 
carpenters, glaziers, painters, gilders and upholsterers by the 
thousand, each plied their handiwork in the thirty or more 
national courts of the Palace and on the annexes and pavil- 
ions without Marvelous chimes of bells were going into 
place, and roof-touching cathedral organs being attuned for the 
grand worship of the coming months. While countless num- 
bers of the men of every nation were running to and fro and, 
with anxious faces, asking loud questions that nobody could 
understand and nobody answer. 

As usual, (on such occasions, I mean, nowhere else,) Ameri- 
ca was even more backward than most of the other leading 
powers, and the half chaotic, half vacant court of the Qreat 
JElepublic presented the sorry spectacle of box-encumbered 
fioorE, empty counters and groups of long-faced Yankees, 
Tenting their disappointment and chagrin in imprecations, nunv 
emphatic tiian either elegant or deserved, upon the devoted 
head of ibe Commissiouer General, who, up to this time wu 
no more responable tot the shamefiil condition of the AnLori- 
can court than was the Bey of Tonia The causes of delay 
were not io be found at Paris, but at home. The National oad 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 87S 

State goTenmieDts and mdividaal ezbibitoiB were the respon- 
sible partiea. Scarcely anything, or anybody reported in tima 
The engine that was to operate our machinery in the nave was 
behind, and a French engine had to be contracted for. Car- 
loads, I may properly say ship-loads, of goods that should have 
been at Paris by the first of March did not arrive until the 
middle of April And not a few exhibitors who were per- 
sistent and unyielding in their demands for large amonnta of 
space, which was reserved for them accordingly, sent nothing 
at all 

THE OPEimTa OP THB BXBIBITION. 

All too soon, the first day of April had come, bat with it 
had come a degree of preparation that conld not have been an- 
ticipated twenty-four hoars befixre. Monsieur Alphand and 
his thousands of workmen had not labored in vain. Some- 
thing like order had come out of chaos ; and although it would 
require a fiill month more to put the Palace and Park in per- 
fect order, the condition was such aa to make it better to open the 
exhibition according to programme than to postpone it as some 
advised. The Emperor was ready, and the day to which the 
whole world had looked forward for three years had come. If 
the nations were not ready let the reproach be upon their own 
heads. During the day previous and the night that followed, 
there had been erected a royal entrance and a grand covering 
for the Imperial approach from the Bridge Jena to the Palace, 
by the erection of handsome bronzed posts, some seventy feet 
in height, with gilded points, and a broad rich vellum of green 
cloth sprinkled with the Napoleonic bees of gold. The posts 
were decorated at the summit with gay streamers, and beneath 
the vellum, (which had a breadth of about 60 feet and a hight 
of 40 feet,) with beautiful representations of the imperial 
standard. The inimitable crystal pavilion outside the Palace, 
as a resting place for the imperial &mily on occasion of their 
visits, had put on a superlative beauty and gayety, and the nu- 
merous trophies and pavilions in the nave and elsewhere with- 
in the Palace, had commanded the skill of the best masters for 



l;A'Ol>'^IC 



874 PARIS UHIVBBSAL 

their appropriate deooratioa The monuog btoaght the son.'^ 
ahuL«, soft air and fiieshnesB appropriate to the opening of tin 
apriug-tiiue — ^welcome auguries of the future of the Great Ex- 
hibition of the InduBtry of all NatioDB, this time to be iaaa- 
gurated simply by the visit of the Emperor and EmpresB, with 
the French Ministers of State and other dignitaries, amid the 
booming of cannon and the shouts of the hundred thousand 
or more people who cheered the royal cortege and Joined 
in the celebration of the great event 

There was less glitter and pomp than in 1862— the imperial 
party appearing in plain citizen's dress, and no set speeches be- 
ing made — but really more of a certain quiet dignity that did 
honor to the Arts of Peace, and, in view of all the circum- 
stances, eminently befitted the occasion. 

THE EXPOSITION ITBELF. 

By a regulation which seems to me to have been seriously 
faulty, the Juries were required to complete their work of in- 
spection by the 14th of Apiil, only two weeks after the date of 
formal Opening. Under any circumstances, so brief a time 
would be too limited for so extensive and difficult a work; 
and in the present case it was totally impracticable for them to 
conclude their work before the Ist of May. Even then many 
articles, detained on the way to Paris, or, for a time, after arri- 
val, lost in the mouutains of boxes that filled the annexes, or 
by mistake of the distributor, delivered at the wrong court, 
were either never seen by the Juriea at all, or if seen, not until 
after their decisions had been made and were irrecoverably in 
the hands of the Imperial Commission. Accordingly, pasnng 
over the month of continued confusion and severe labor that 
intervened between the opening and the Ist of May, when the 
work of preparation may be said to have been at last finished 
— a period which few who shared in its vexations will vol- 
untarily recall — I propose to enter at once upon the practical 
study and discaBsion of the Exposition, in such of its several 
departments as promise to be of most value to the industry of 
our own country. It is hardly necessary to premise by ealling 



■j.A'OO'^lc 



EXPoarnoN of i8<j7. 375 

Attention to the fact that within the compaaa of a few pi^es of 
a report, which, if full and complete upon all the classes, 
would necessarily fill a dozen volumes, I can only pre- 
sent a single sheaf or two, gleaned from the immense harvest 
there ripened for the nations, 

TH£ HATIONAL BKFRESBKTATION. 

Quite a correct idea may be formed of the representation of 
the several countries by reference to the ground plan of the 
Palace in another place, on which the space occupied by each 
is presented to the eye. But the ligures representing the area 
of each national department may still farther impress it upon 
the mind. It may be stated, therefore, with accuracy, naming 
the countries in the order of occurrence to one commencing with 
the French Empire and passing entirely around the Palace, 

that: 

•Bq.HstTw. 

rranee ooea^ed AI,314 

Bollwd, 1,8»7 

Btlginm, e,S8l 

PruHia, T,880 

Southern Oenn&aj, 1 ,B1S 

Aoetrii, 7,880 

Switm-lMid, 2,001 

.Bptia, 1,«M 

Ponnsml, ns 

OtBew, 718 

Denmuk, TSt 

SwedsQ ud Nomj, 1 ,BS8 

Eoltia, 8,858 

Italy, 8,M9 

Borne SS4 

Uoited Frineipklltlai, SKI 

TnrkBj, 1,*26 

BgTpt, <M 

ChlDk, Jftp»n ud ffiuD, IBS 

Perai*, 718 

Uotocco and Tanii 1 ,080 

tJoltedSUtM -i.W 

SoQth Amerio« Ecpnblloa,) _ ^ 1 808 

araat Britain and ColDttlei, 21,6B3 

TDtalaqiureinetrM,..', 140,184 

THB TBN GROUPS AND THEIR BCBDITiaiONS. 

Beference has been made already to the admirable method 
of claaeiBcation adopted by M. Le Play, head of the Imperial 



allonis 



n,v;.i.,L'Ol>'^lc 



876 PAEIS TJNIVEBSAL 

CommisBioD, hj which the whole Exhibition was embraced ia 
10 grand divisions designated as groapa These, in taro, were 
subdivided into classes more or less numerous according to 
tbe natural divisibility of each ; the whole number of classes 
being 96. Practicallj the classification was perfect, although, 
independent of its adaptation to^he Palace it would have been 
more philosophical, perhaps, to have oommenced with agricul- 
tural and borlicultnral eetablishments, and raw materials, and 
so advanced step by step to works of art, as group IX, con- 
cluding with M. Le Play's group X, as embracing whatever 
might be presented with a special view to the physical and 
moral improvement of society. Indeed, if one had commenoed 
his ezamina^on outside of the Palace, and proceeded inward, 
group by group, toward the centre, this more natural order 
would have been found to accord with the actual position of 
groups and articles exhibited. For the sake of eonvenience of 
reference, however, as well as for the purpose of conveying a 
proper idea of the comprehensiveness of the Exposition, it is 
better that my report should observe the method in actual 
use and that it should present the general scheme as a whole, 
which was as follows : 

Fint Qroiq).—Worki of Art. 

CuH l.—Pklntinga in oil. 

3. — Tarioua pkintiDga and design*. 
S.— SculptarsB Rnd eaBTxriaga on medals. 
4. — DeBJgniand models of architeotura. 
fi, — EagrnTingB and lithogrsphi. 

Sutuvt Onn^—jeattrial* tmd Anr Jpflieatioitt in Ma JUieral ArU. 
Olus 4. — Speclm«ni of printing and pnbtiablng. 

, 7 — Specimeat of itationery, bookbinding and of materials uHd Id 
painting and deglgoing. 
8. — Specimen* of design and plastic moulding applied in the ordiu- 



— ApptntDsand Inatraoientsof the medical art, 
12. — Inilramenta of precision and apparalusforinstraotloalnaidence. 
IS. — Geograph;, ooamography, apparatoa, u^aps, charts, Ac. 

SKrd ffrai^— .^NnaKure and oihir ObjteU tmdia DmIUngi. 

CuH 14. — Rich Aimiabinga of everj eoiC 
in.— Dpholst«rj and deooratlon work, 
le. — OrjMalg, richEltMwaie and gluing. 
IT. — Potoelain, all kinds of glazed earthenware and other potterlea. 

r, ,v.i;,tr.Ot"l'^lc 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 877 

OUM 18,— Oup«tB, fakoglBg*, and atbat fsniitnM tiamM. 
IB.— Fslated >Dd printed pspera. 
SO.— Catler; of ererj w>rt. 

SI.— Oold work, whether for religlooB Mrvlae or donwitio dm. 
S3.— Bronzeii, Ttrioua artistic cutiaga, uid worki in meCali genenll;. 
8>— Clocks and oloek work, and ohronameCen of sTerj kind. 
M.— Apparatus and methoda of warming and lighting. 
a^. — Perfume rr- 
ID.— Pane; articles, tojB, basket work, fco. 

FottA Ormtp—GtammU, T^mmm /or OaUikg and oAtr orAeUt of WtmiKg 



Qhtat S7. — Tam and ttamea of cotton. 

S8.— Tarn and tlMsea of tinen, hemp, he. 

SB, — Tarn and tiaanes of oombed wooL 

80. — Tarn and tlKiiea of carded wooL 

SI.— Silk and tinnos of ailk. 

82.— Shawls, of whftt«*er owterial. 

18.— Laces, embroideries, and trimming fi>retothlng,mili(arj olotUng, 

furnitare, carriuea, hatnen. &a- 
M.— Hosiery, linen, and other articles of clothing and penonal nw. 
8S. — Clothing for men, woman and children. 
SR — Jewelry and precious ornaments. 
81. — Portable armor, offkniiTe and dafen^Te. 
88. — Articles lor tnTeling and foreocampment 
86. — Tc7s and gewgaws. 

f^ grouf.—ProduetM, ielh tintugkt md ymmmfU, of Exirtiellm htimkrim. 



it. — Products of bunting and fiaberies, and collectlona of nfttnral 

4S. — Agricoltartl prodnctt (not nied for food) of eu; preMiratfon. 

44.— Chemical and pharmacentical products. 

45. — Specimens of the obemloal methods of bleaching and djelng, of 

stamping and tbtIoiu prepsratioos. 
40— Leather and skins. 

BvUh Oroi^—Itulnmml* ad Pratmm of Ooatmom Art*. 

Cuss 41. — Apparatus and methoda of mining and metallurgy. 
41. — Implements and procesees of rural and forest work. 
49. — Apparatus for hunting, flsbing, and for ooUeoting natatftl pro- 

60. — Haterials and methods of agiicnltnial works and alimentar; In- 

ei. — Chemical, pharmaeentle, and tanning apptuvtus. 

SS.— Ueter*, geDerators, mod meehaoioal apparatoa, e^oiallj adapted 

to the uses of the Eiblbitiou. 
BS. — Machliies aud meohanloal apparatns in genet*L 
B4.—lIachine tools. 

Bfi. — Apparatus and methods of sptnnii^, rope-makfug. 
BS. — Apparatus aod methods of weaving. 
B1. — Apparatus and methods of sewing and making ototbea. 
08. — Apparatus and metboda of making furniture and honaebold ob- 



BB — Appknttns and methods of paper-making, coloring and atamfdn g. 
Is and methods used In nrlons works (ea en 



— Machinery, 



.i=,Co(5glc 



878 FATtTR UNIVHBSAL 

Olam 68. — B^lwKj onglnM, ouv, ftsd vrnj lort of conatrni-tlon mod mkt*- 

riti for railwiTS. 
M. — Apparatus and mathods of teleg^^)h7. 
6Bi. — MaMrialB and UMlboda adapted to elvll aDglneering, publlo 

works snd arohltaetnra. 
06.— NaTi|;ation and salrage (Inclading models of ahips, docks, floats, 

■ab-niarine boata, dlTing-beUa, lifo boata, Ac.) 

S t nA ffrrap. — Fi?od, JrtA or frtKned, in variout ilagm o/praparOSoit. 

Class fl').— CBreali and otber tarinaceoos edibles, witb tbeir deriva^Tea. 
08. — Baking and pastr; oooking. 
09.— Fat alimentar? aubatances, milk, eggB. 

10. — Heat and fiah and their melhoda orpreparation and preservatioD. 
71.— Vegetables tod fruits, ftesh and cured. 

TS.— -Coudimenta and iweetaieats, sugars and speeim«ns of con- 
fectionery. 
78.~-Fennentcd drinks of everf dssoTiption. 

Slghlh Ormfp—IJMAi^iMUatd^tcbMKtcfAgriailturiaEdiMuhmttdt. 

Cuss 14. — SpeclmeDs of rnral work, and of agricaitural establishments, (in- 
cluding bewdes types of rural bnildiiige, and of agricultural 
manufactories, distilleries, sawu mills, reSneriep, breweries, 
I nurseries, &c., and (11 kinds of agricultural ma- 
lug in 
7S. — Oxen, buf&loei, camela, so. 
77. — Sheep aud goata. 
TS.— Bwine, rabbits, ha. 
78.— Poultry 

80. — Hunter's, wafch and, shepherd's doge. 
81 — UssfUl loHects, suob as beee, silk-worms, cochineal, hi. 
82.— Fiah, orastaoea, mollueca, and other useful aquatic animals 

Cuss BS — Hotbonses and tb«ir aeosssoriaa, and horticultural material. 
84. — Flowerb and ornameatal pi ante. 
85.— Kitchen and garden plants. 
66.— Fruit trees. Including species of plants sod specimens of orchards 

in all oonntrles. 
87. — Seeds and useful fruit planta. Species of plants and Bpeclmens 

of culture, indicating ths metliods of re-pfanting foreata in 

dIOIereDt counties. 
88.— Hothonse plants. Bpeoimena of oalture of Tarions countries, 

with tbe Tieir to ntilitj and omamenL 

SPmlh OToiip.~0ig4ctt oiOiM MA a iptciMl vune lo O* AmtHoratUm of Ai Mcr- 
aloKdfk^a Ooijuiot of At l\>fidaliou. 

Olih 80.— lUterials sad msthoda for teaobLuf children. 

Mb— iibrariea and materials for adocaliou of adalts and families, 

the workshop, the eommeroial and the corporation school. 
fll.— f amitnre, clothing and food, of all origins, distinguished for 

vaeful qnalitiss^ united with cheapness, 
n. — ^eolmena of popular ooBtames of different countries. 
SS.— Specimens of habltationa, characterised bj oheapness, uniting 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



EXPOSIUQN OE 1847. ^tft 

Cuas 94. — Prodnoti of all wrta mtde by muttr workmen, (prodnoti diitln- 
galati«d fer their own qiulitiai, novalty, perhetloB of the 
method of work, or bj th« oMfoJ InSnenoe tbi« kind of woiic. 
mtj eierciie od the monl uid phjeioel oondltion of the 
people.) 
96 — loHtrumcats mad methode of work pecalUr to muter workmen, 
Imenuel worke wbloh, tnn Tartoni causes, hare mo«t snoMai- 
fnllj Mritted the otmpeUtlon of mtchiiiea, to. &c) 

MULTITUDE OF THE EXHIBirSL 

Id 1798, when the first national iDdostrial exhibitioa of 
wbieh we have record, was held in the Champ de Mars, but 
one hundred and ten exhibitors raponded to the call of the- 
French government And even when, in 1861, Groat Britain 
cordially invited all the nations of the world to place theic 
prodacts in friendly competition in the Crystel Palace, bat 
18,947 entries were made. Five years later, the number at 
Paris was 28,954 In 1862, it rose to 28,668. A vast nQm> 
ber of exhibitors truly — all the greater, too, when it is remem- 
bered that; not unfreqaently one single exhibitor exhibits very 
many distinct artiolea. What then shall we say of the Expo- 
sition of 1867, at which the number of exhibitors was do less, 
than 60,226 — almost twice as large as the largest number ever 
represented before I 

In view of these fignree and of the great variety in the 
articles, ss shown by the preceding system of classification, the 
impracticability of considering them in general, much lesa 
in detail, within proper limits, must be at once apparent I 
shall make no apoI(^, therelore, for confining my report to 
such general illustrations of industrial and national progvest 
as were most forcibly presented by the Exposition. 

THE E3:tba.ctite inddstbies. 

Iq no departmeot of industry do we find more marked evi- 
dences of progress than in that which deals with nature at firat 
hand, with the view of deriving the utmost and most imntdr 
diate advantage from the cheap production of the raw matetiiai 
of the best quality. 

TTie An of Mining baa made yet further advances, not only 
through the more general application of geological Bcieww 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



tSO PARTS UKnrBBSAL 

bat also and pre-emineotly througli the appUcatioQ of recog> 
oized principles of phj^oal soience and by means of marked 
improremente in miDiDg-engineering. 

Discoveries of new depowts of the usefal and precious ores 
have been made in both the old and new world, and mines 
long worked have been rendered more valuable by improve- 
ments in the art of mining. Man is no longer, as formerly, 
limited to snperQcial operations, bat safely and with rich re- 
tnms, pierces the solid crust of the globe to great depths, 
boldly demanding the place and commanding the possession 
of her bidden treasures. Soaioely anything now baEflea him. 
Do immense strata of dinty rock lie between him and 
the sources of wealth and power, with tools yet harder, driven 
by powerful engines backed by his own irresistible will, he 
drives his way throngh them. Are deep and seemingly inex- 
hanatible supplies of water enooantered, he marshals his 
mighty engines in number and capacity sufilcient to conquer 
the floods. Is the coveted mineral at last found in the midst 
of Qozions gases that no human Inngs may inhale, he brings 
to bear his command of the material forces and at once sup- 
plies them with the pure atmosphere of heaven, so that the 
opened mine becomes the chosen habitation of thousands who 
work thenL And so, at last, by the aid of steam and en- 
gineering, he brings to the light of day vast stores of the best 
msterial gifts of Ood. 

In 1862, Sir William Armstrong calcalated that the mining 
of ooal could never be carried on at a depth exceeding four- 
flftba of a mile. But, with the ^ta of the last decade before 
faim, no man may safely calculate the limit, unless it be made 
oo-extensive with the limit of supply. Economy everywhere 
md in every way characterizes the works of the Creator, and no 
deposits of mineral desi^-ned for the use of man are beyond 
his reooh. 

Tn H^aSuTgy, the progress of the past five years has been 
still more remarkable. This is especially true in reference to 
the manufacture of stoeL By the old process of cementation 
much time was required and great expense involved. The 

r, ,v.l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 381 

product oonsequentlj bore a very high price and was limited 
to catlerj and a few other articles esseiitiall; requiring a bard- 
nesB, tenacity, or elaeticitj not possessed by iron. To increase 
the production and reduce the (XHt of so ralaable a form of iron, 
men of genius had long labored with but partial success np 
to a very late period ; so that quite recently even at Sheffield, 
which has long led all the cities of the world in the manu&o- 
ture of eteel, it sold at $250 to $500 per ton, according to 
quality. 

The puddling process at length came, and .was a great im- 
provement on that of cementatioD. But something better still 
was demanded ; and a little more than five years since Mr. 
Bessemer of England came to the rescue with the important 
process which bears his name, and by means of which steel ia 
now sold at a comparatively moderate price,in both Europe and 
America. The Bessemer process consists in oxidizing oat of 
the cast iron, from which the steel is manufactured, its excess 
of carbon by forcing through the molten mass currents of at- 
moBphirio air by means of a powerful bellows. The work is 
rapidly done and the excellent product was selling last year 
in Paris at $60 to $66 per ton, while the price of iron was 
only one third less. 

Bessemer eteel was first presented to an incredulous public 
at the International Exhibition of 1862. For a moment the 
world was satisfied. But one prominent difficulty yet stood in 
the way of cheap steel Its manufacture, even by the Besse- 
mer process, required a good quality of coaL The advance 
from charcoal to mineral coal was a great step. But the sup- 
ply of this was wearing away even in the coal-producing coun- 
tries, while in many non-producing localities it could only be 
had at high prices. The genius of another inventive English- 
men was therefore laid ander contribution, and thus at the next 
great exhibition, in 1867, a new and even greater wonder was 
produced. 

The Siemens Furnace, having been thoroaghly tested mean- 
time in several coontries, came to Paris to receive the " Grand 
Prize," and to be pronounced the most importmt metallnrgio 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



882 PAEIS UNIYEHSAL 

iDyentioD of the day. This fiimace embodies two distinct 
principles — the application of gaaeow ftiel and the " regenera- 
tion " of heat by meana of pilea of brick, alternately passed 
over by the waste gases and by the gases entering the furnace 
before combustion. By means of it not only is it poeaible to 
produce a better quality of steel and just the quality desired, and 
with less waste of iron, but also to use any sort of coal, and erni 
lignite and peat It has been wonderfully successful wherever 
introduced and must rapidly make its way into all countriea 

There were also at the Exhibition, shown by M. Berard and 
others, samples of steel made with the aid of the Siemens Fur- 
nace directly from pig iron. The process used by M. Berard 
is at once beautifully simple and effective. 

Apparently, we lack but one more step to insure the intro- 
duction of steel into much wider use, and its almost nniverwl 
Bubstitution for iron, to-wit, its direct manoikctare from iron ote, 
without the intermediate agency of blast furnaces or any other 
agency or process. This also is famished us. Even now, Mr. 
Siemens, availing himself of his fhmace, offers to the world a 
method by which, in his opinion, this great desideratum is to be 
attained. A model of the fiimace used by him in his experi- 
ments and a piece of steel manu&otared directly from the ore 
were on exhibition at Paris. 

Whether it has been ^ven to Mr. Siemens to take the 1^ 
grand step or not, there is now no doubt that it will soon*be 
taken. And when it comes, every depu-bnent of industry 
will realize its immense value, forthere will be scarcely any limit 
to the applications of steel Navigation, railways, engineering, 
agriculture, architecture in every branch, and the whole world 
of operative machinery will receive such an impetus as they 
liaye not had since the invention of the steam engine. Even 
now, there is but little doubt that railway companies, could 
ihey afford the immediate outlay, would gain lai^Iy by the 
Bubstitation of steeJ for iron rails as &8t as they require renew- 
al For, although the first oost would be considerably more, 
die steel rail would make a better road and last more than tea 
' times, (Ckneral Morin, of EVauoe, Btija twenty-four times) as 

r, ,v.l;A'Ot"l<^IC 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 888 

long. English and French railway companies are already lay- 
ing fiteel tracks, not only in the vicinity of great cities, where 
the wear is greater, but throughoat the whole length of «zten- 
sire lines. While the writer was abroad, the Paris, Lyons & 
Mediterranean Railroad Co., had already ordered 137,000 tenia 
of Bessemer steel rail for their road, and were vigorously at 
work putting them down the whole length of their line, over 
500 miles. 

The popular notion that the best of steel can only come from 
Swedish iron is believed not to be well founded. When they 
are better known, the magnetic ores of Wisconsin and Michi- 
gan will be recognized as scarcely less valuable for sacb uses. 

The manufacture of glass and pottery ware, terra cotta and 
brick has also derived great advantage fk)m nnmeroua appli- 
cations of the principles embodied in the Siemens tiimace, as 
the process may not only be carried on continuously, but with 
less consumption of fuel, and less expense generally, I found, 
at Vienna, a single brick manufacturer who was employing 
nineteen of these fbmaces and 4,600 men, with an annual 
product of 198,000,000 brick. 

ITie coal mines and forests of the world were well represented 
at the Exposition ,- massive specimens of coal, weighing seve- 
ral tons, nobly declaring the supremacy of America — not in 
the amount produced, for England leads the world in that, but 
in the extent of the supply — and suggesting to the reflecting 
mind greater economy than is now practiced in the us« of fuel 
of every kind. 

A short time since, Sir William Armstrong, as President of 
the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
raised the alarm on the coal question, declaring that at the 
present rate of production, with a reasonable increase, the 
ooal deposits of Cbeat Britain would be consumed within two 
hundred years. The thought of prospective exhaustion is olao 
being awakened in the minds of the statesmen of other coun- 
tries, and inventive genius has been of late turned in the di- 
rection of improved methods of oonsumption. At present, 
scarcely less than one-third of all the fod consumed, whether 



r, ,■.,.! v'^'Otl'^lc 



884 PARIS tTNITEBSAL 

wood or coal, is wasted — worse than w&sted, because the com- 
bostible material loat in the amoke of famaces, locomotire 
funnels, and the cbimneys of factories and dwelliDgs, besides 
being a waste, is a positive DaisaQC& 

The remedy should be two-fold — first, the construction of 
furnaces, flues, &a, on scientific principles ; and, secondly, the 
utilizaUoQ of combustible material now rejected. The first 
method has already been made available to a good degree by 
the economical furnaces above referred to. But furnaces such 
as the Siemens, Berard, and others, are comparatively few in 
number. Science must devise some sure and convenient way 
of saving on a grander scale by a proper construction of steam* 
engines, stationary, locomotive, and marine. The time should 
speedily come when the black cloud that follows the railway 
train, or mantles the coal-burning city like a pall, shall be seen 
no more. Already there are valuable improvements before 
tiie world, covering a part of this ground, but they are tardily 
adopted in our country on account of the abundance of fuel. 

The second method of economy, the utilization of refuse 
and now unused material, Is also attracting much attentiou. 
In Austria coal-dust is being used by being first convened 
into an agglojneration by moans of a cement consisting of 2^ 
parts of coal tar, one part of gluten and one half part of 
starch. About two per cent of this is mixed with the dust by 
the aid of machinery, and it is then thrown into a hopper and 
comes ont handsome bricks of some 10x5x6 inches in size. 
Samples of this coal are now on exhibition at Paris, and I 
have placed a specimen brick in the State Agricultural Booms. 
Machinery and furnaces are also in use in various countries 
for the consumption of peat aud lignite, instead of coal. 

The varied specimens of timber — some of them immense 
logs and huge blocks, brought from Canada and other more re- 
mote colonies of Great Britain, from many portions of France, 
Qermany, Scandiuavia and Busaia — nobly represented the for- 
ests of the world, and yet mutely appealed to the thoughtful 
economist for the inltiatioD of measures in all conutriee for 
their more sparing use uid timely reproduction. Forestry is 



ETPOSinON OF 1867. 886 

treated by many of the governmenta of Europe, eveu now, as 
both an art and science, and schools of forestry, well endowed 
and oMcered by men of ability and distinction, are found in 
all the leading, and erea ia many of the smaller countries and 
principalities of the cootineni. The time is coming, and now. 
is, when the attention of our state and national governments 
must be tamed to this important sabject 

Agricuiture. — Progress in this department of extractive in- 
dustry has been manifold and important The eoUon famine 
that prevailed during the Americnn war, gave rise to namerous 
experiments in various other parts of the world, especially in 
India, Egypt, Brazil, the Levant and the Antilles. 

Before the war, Europe derived 1,432 millions of pounds, or 
almost five-eighths of its entire supply, from the United Statea 
Now, much the larger proportion is derived from the other 
sources named. During the interval, India has increased her pro- 
duct from 180 millions pounds to 606 millions. Quite success- 
ful experiments have also been made in Algeria, Australia, 
Cochin China, Queensland, the West Indies, Peru aud even in 
Italy and Southern Prance. In none of these countries is the 
quality of cotton equal to the best American, and yet much of 
it will be employed in domestic manufactures and the best 
find it3 way into the great manufacturing countries in compe- 
tition with ours. 

Sheep-husbandry has also extended itself in a remarkable 
manner, and has been characterized by a generally im- 
proved quality of the fibre — the result of a better diffusion of 
a knowledge of the principles of breeding and the manage- 
ment of flocks. This is true as applied to the older and more 
advanced nations generally. But the most noticable feature 
of this subject is the extraordinary development of the busi- 
ness of producing wool in many far-off and semi-civilized por- 
tions of the world The growth of this branch of husbandry 
in Australia, South Africa, and in that vast regioa of country, 
constituting the valley of the La Plata and its tributaries, 
has been without parallel. In the first-named country it was 
26 Ao. TEANa 

r, ,v.i;A'Ot"l'^lc 



386 PABIS UNIVERSAL 

only at the beginning of this centary that the first flock of 
eight sheep wa? introdnced. Now they nnmber fifty millions. 
The climate has been particularly favorable ; the wool is fine, 
strong, dactile and of easy torsion, serving well and chiefly 
' for combing, as yoa will see by the samples I have placed on 
exhibition in the State Agricaltaral Booms. On the LaPl&ta, 
the development of sheep-hasbandry has been even more 
marked than in Australia. 

According to recent German estimates, the present annual 
prodnct in the wool-producing countries is as follows : 

Foundfl. FoBBda. 

Great Brilaio MO, 000, 000 

OeriDnn BUtei 300,000,000 

Earopea'D Rnaua 190,000,000 

Jiaace 1M,000,000 

Spain, Ital; ud Ponugid 119,000,000 

Total European product 887 ,000,000 

Auatralla, Boulh AMm and Bouth Amarloa Ifi7,000,000 

Northern Africa 49,000,000 

United States. SB, 000,000 

Britiah Amerloan ProTlDoea 13,000,000 

AdaUe coantriea 410 , 000, OOO 

Total in the en^re world 1.810,000.000 

The exhibitions of wool made by France, Prussia, Saxony, 
Austria and Australia were especially worthy of notice — the 
display made by Saxony, ibr completeness, uniformly fine 
qaality of samples, and the exceeding neatness with which 
tbey were put up for exhibition, surpassing all the other 
countries. 

Silk culture has suffered of late very seriously from certaiu 
diseases affecting the worm and destroying them by millions 
At present Japan ^peara to be the only country that has es- 
caped. Seed worms are ai-cordingly imported from there at 
bigh prices, into the silk-producing oouDtries of Europe. Ef- 
forts are also being made to procure valuable silkworms of 
other kinds that do not feed upon the mulberry — ^with what 
result remains to be seen. 

The value of raw silk annually produced by the diflereat 
couutries aud oontjnental dtviaons of the vorld is about as fid- 
lows: 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 887 

Ckinew Empire tai.SOO.OOO 

Ju»neiis EmpiK 11,000,000 

Inaift 84,000,000 

Penik. 8,000,000 

Uudof Ail&Uiaor S,»)0,000 

Byrii. 1 800,000 

TarkUUn (Id GhlDt) 400,000 

Tuikiitan (independeot, iaABlft) 400,000 

Coreui Archi peluo 100 ,000 

Tottl Talae of prodnct in Aaia — — tlte,100,000 

Pr»nce ta(,000,000 

Italy ■■" «B,«)0,000 

Tiirk«7 in Europe 7,000,000 

Spklo knd Portugal 8,100 ,000 

PoDtific»l !-tMee 1,800,000 

Greece, Ionian Islaadi 840,000 

Buin of the Danube, Austria, Bararla, Serrla, 
fiaDgar; 1,180,000 

Total Taloe of product In Europe t77,BS0,O0O 

Mediterranean coaat of Africa SOO, 000 

America 80,000 

Oceanica 130,000 



Total Talne of raw silk produced in the world til ». 420, OOP 

The favorable climatic eonditiona offered for the production 
of silk by maoj portions of this coantty warrant the belief 
'hat the day is not far distant when the culture of the silk- 
worm will constitute an important branch of AmericaD hus- 
bandry. Indeed, nearly all the experiments made in this 
country, especially in the Southern States, were entirely suc- 
cessful ; and but for the moras mvlticauUt mania, which, im- 
mediately upon the discovery of the adaptability of the busi- 
□esa to nearly every section of the United States, spread like 
an epidemic everywhere, and brought a fatal reaction, the pro- 
duction of silk would have been an established branch of our 
industry long since. 

Quite recently, much attention has been given to this mat- 
ter in California, whose warm and dry climate seems particu- 
larly adapted to the culture of the worm, and the production 
of a good quahty of aJlk. Already a considerable capital has 
been invested in the enterprise of planting the trees and erect- 
ing suitable establishments for working up the raw material 
Bat last year, certain parties at Santa Barbara, possessed of 
ten Uiotisand mulberry trees in a flourishing condition, pro- 
dnced three hundred thousand cocoons of excellent quality; 
while, at San JO0O, a latge factory provided with all lequiaite 



j.A'OD^k' 



888 PARIS UNITEESAI) 

machineiy, and designed to include forty looms, for the mana- 
&cture of taffetas of superior quality, was being erected. 

It seems to have been pretty well established that the buBi- 
ness of producing silk may be advantageously prosecuted 
■wherever the mulberry will flourish, and that the mulberry 
may be successfully cultivated wherever the grape succeeds ; 
but that stormy and moist climates are not favorable to the 
culture of the worm or the production of the best quality of 
silk. 

The silks on exhibition were such, in both quantity aud 
quality, as to raise no suspicion that anything was wrong in 
this important branch of husbandry, but the price of silks the 
world over tells the story in a way sure to be appreciated by 
all but the most wealthy consumers. 

The production of the sugar beet, and beet sugar mauufac- 
ture are acquiring such colossal proportions in Europe as to 
challenge the attention of the American agriculturist la 
France, Belgiam, Crermany and Austria, and also in portions 
of Bussia, this sugar is largely superseding all others. la the 
Zollverein States of Germany alone, there are nearly 500 great 
establishments for its manulactare, and the product is said to 
be but little short of 200,000,000 pounds per annum. 

The beet grown is the white Silesian variety. It is easily 
grown, and yields ten to fourteen tons to the acre. Growing 
best above latitude 45, in Europe, and being adapted to a light 
soil and dry atmosphere, I am inclined to think there are many 
portions of Wisconsin where it could be made an important 
crop. 

The beet keeps fresh for a considerable time without injury, 
and is susceptible of being cut into pieces — as is much 
done in Germany — dried, and, in this form, either stored 
for an indefinite period, or transported to any distance for 
manufacture. 

The illustraiions of different species and breeds of domestic 
animalB at the Exposition were exceedingly interesting. Foreign 
cattle were prohibited owing to the prevalence of certain oon- 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 389 

t^oos diseases which have proved so destnictire in portions 
of Europe during the past few years ; but horaea, sheep, goate, 
camels, swine, and other specif had place on the island of 
Billancourt, and together made an interesting exhibition. 
Several fine blooded horses from St Petersbui^, sent by the 
Emperor, and daring the Exhibition kept right royally in the 
Bussian quarter of the Park, attracted great attention and re- 
ceived appropriate awards. Several camels from Egypt added 
grotesqneness to the already singular looking QuaTtier 
dEgypU. 

Of the implements of agriculture — also chiefly shown on 
Billancourt — space would fail to make adequate notice. B nt few 
new ones were there, however, and none of those of striking im- 
portance. McCormick's Beaper and Wood's Mower sustained 
the American supremacy in their department, and each re- 
ceived a gold medal, while their worthy inventors were deco- 
rated by grace of His Majesty the Emperor, with the Gold 
Cross of the Legion of Honor. Oomstock's Rotary Spader 
was also there, and made two or three quite successful trials in 
the field, winning a Silver Medal. 

FB0GBES3 OF THE CHEUICAL ARTS. 

The Chemical Art seems to have been no leas active during 
the past than during the previous five years. To the great 
number of beautiful dyes derived from coal — mauve, magenta 
and others — that delighted the curious at the Exhibition of 1862, 
and added new value to so many beautiful tissues, there have 
been added others scarcely less wonderful and precious. Not 
only so, means have been invented for using some of them as 
pigments, as which they are said to be no less beautiful and 
unfading than as dyea 

Improved processes for the extraction of metals from their 
ores, as well as of a number of new and valuable sub- 
stances from petroleum and a multitude of salts, dyes and 
pigments from mineral and vegetable sources afford other 
equally remarkable illustrations of the truth of the general 
remark above mada 



cc.,zoj.,Co(>t^lc 



890 PABIS UNTVEESAL 

But the moat remarkable chemiaal diacoveiy of recent years 
is one that was made public in Paris during the progress of 
the Exposition of 1867, and for which the discoverer was 
awarded a grand gold medal by the International Jury. I re- 
fer to the process of Pro£ Dr. LouiaBrunetti, of the University 
of Padua, for the preservation of the form and appearance of 
animal bodies. Some such process has long been deemed a 
great desideratum of sui^gical science, and has long been labored 
for with unwearying patience by distinguished chemists in all 
countries. At first, the method of PmE Brunetti was kept a 
secret from all the world, except a commission composed of 
Baron Liebig, and Professors Tardieu and Milne Edwards, to 
whom the full details were communicated in the month of 
May. Havii^ been carefully tested and cordially approved 
by these distinguished savans, on the 22d of August, the dis- 
covery, with precise details of the process, was presented by Dr. 
Brunetti, in the amphitheatre of the Faculty, at Paris, before 
the International Medical Congress there convened, and con- 
sisting of over six hundred French and foreign physicians of 
eminence. Its importance was deemed so great, and the cor- 
dial and generous manner of its presentation to the world so 
marked and commendable, that its communication was received 
by the Congress with three cheera and other demonstrations 
of great enthusiasm. 

The process, though four-fold, consisting of washing, scour- 
ing, tanning and drying, is perfectly intelligible to any one 
having only a partial knowledge of chemical agents ; and since 
I have seen no notice of it in this country up to the date of 
this writing, I think proper to give it entire : 

The washing is effected by causing a current of water to 
pass through the blood vessels and excretory ducts, which ex- 
pels all the liquids — blood, lymph, etc., — and which, in tarn, 
is itself driven out by injecting alcohol. The scouring {degrais- 
rxge) is accomplished by replacing the alcohol with sulphuric 
ether, which enters and passes through the natural vessels and 
ducts, and by penetrating the tissues dissolves out all fatty 
matters This part of the operation requires several hours, 

r, ,v.l;A'Ol>'^IC 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 391 

dnriDgwbiob time the anatomical piece is preserved by being 
saturated with the ether until read; for the next step, which 
coQBiBts in driving out the ether bj injecting a concentrated so- 
lution of tannin in boiling water, having Brat expelled the 
ether bj an injection of distilled water. Sessication, the oulj 
remaining process, is ingeniously effected by placing the body 
or portion to be preserved in a vessel with a double bottom, 
the spaee between the two walls being 611ed with boiling water 
by means of a system of tubes with cocka. Finally, hot air, 
compressed to two atmospheres, and forced through a vessel con- 
taining chloride of lime, to deprive it of all moisture, is driven 
through all the vessels and excretory ducts, to the expulsion of 
whatever they contain, and the whole process is finished. 

The specimen of anatomy thus treated retains its original 
volume, with the normal relation of all its parts — the liquids 
alone not being present — and has, moreover, a lightness, flexi- 
bility and naturalness of appearance unapproached by any of 
the imitations that art has yet produced. Indeed, except that 
it has these qualities of natural softness and of more than 
natural lightness, it is pre:;isely as if it bad been suddenly 
congealed. 

The collection of Dr. Brunetti, comprised sixty distinct 
pieces, representing various portions of the human body, some 
normal and some pathological, and constituted not only one 
of the most interesting features of the Italian department, but 
one ot the most intensely interesting exhibits in the Palace of 
Exposition. 

PE0QBKS3 OF THB MECHANIC ARTEL* 

This title opens & boundless Qeld, and one of the very first 
importance, since every other department of industry looks 
to the mechanical inventor for the means of its own advance- 
meoL But for the steam-engine, the cotton^n, the spinning- 
jenny, the power-loom and the power-press, the most enlight- 
ened nations of the earth would have been still in the twilight 
of a semi-civilizatioQ. It is here that a single happy thought, 



•Thi term HMbuk Altai* ban sMd In iUmttlcMdM 



ncizoJ.A'OD^Ic 



892 PARIS UNIVERSAL 

taking the form of Bome simple oontrivaaoe, ia able to give 
birtli to new industries and revolationize society. 

The position and the ralue of this departmeDt were Stly 
illustrated in the Great Exposition. If one couH conceive of 
some Titanic power, placed underneath the central portion of 
the Palace, and capable of gradually lifting it until the whole 
grand collection in the several groups had assumed the form 
of a cone, he would then have a beautiful presentation to the 
eye of the relations of the several departments of industry to 
each other and to the progress of mankind. First Agriculture 
upon the plain and encompassing this mountain of glory, with 
its simple foodf, the primary necessities for the animal life of 
man, and the raw materials out of which his genius and 
growing intelligence were to form the countless articles of a 
higher and more refined existence ; then that grand circle of 
machinery, aa comprehensive in the scope of its uses as the 
material of the world and the needs of man ; and so upward 
to the apex, where Art sat enthroned among the glories of her 
genius. 

No portion of the Palace of Exposition so fascinated and 
held me aa this grand annular " nave." The " galleries," 
stored with beautiful instruments and utensils, delicate tissues, 
infinite in variety and pattern, and with the products of artistic 
genius, were attractive and wonderful But they were not, and 
could not, be so daguerreotyped upon the memory as that more 
marveIo\|s gallery of nearly a mile in circuit, within whose 
crystal walla and underneath whose vaulted roof were embraced 
ten thousands curious machines, each moving and fulfilling 
its olBce as if it were possessed of intelligence, here and there 
overshadowed by majestic engines of incredible proportions 
and more than Cyclopean power, and awed as it were into 
reverence and harmony of music by the grand anthems of 
heavenward-reaching cathedral oigans that united their sweet 
and solemn voices with the indiacribable hum and whirr atid 
rattle and roar of that moat remarkable demonstration of man's 
inventive genius the world ever saw. 

No ppcvionfl exhibition has so shown the wonderftU extent of 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



EXPOSmON OF 1867. 898 

the innoTation of the mechanic arts apon the domain of every 
other art The mechanical ioTentor seems to be argos-eyed. No 
field of eaterpiise, and do possibility of the physical forces en- 
tirely escapes him. If he does not succeed at once in all — and 
how, without omniscience, could he? — ^yet is he early on the 
way to success and never done trying until he attains it 

One of the most attractive features of Oroup Yl was the ex- 
ceedingly interesting demonstration of various processes of 
manu&cture by operators skilled in &e different branches of 
mechanical industry, using the most approved machineiy of 
which the directing nations had knowledga The making of 
booto by machinery, the mana&ctnre of felt and straw hats, 
laces, embroideries, artificial flowers, shell oombs, gilded but- 
tons, meerschaum pipes, carved ornaments in wood, engraving 
on wood, copper and steel, ihe makit^ and mounting of opera- 
glasses, the printing and binding of books, the dreBaiug of dia* 
monds, the weaving of ribbons, and a thousand other opera- 
tions were carried on under the eye of the throng of visitWB 
who crowded the grand nave irom morning till evening, nevw 
weary and ever intensely delighied with the wonderful precis- 
ion of machinery, and the only less murelous skill of the 
workmen. 

While the activity of the past five years has produced no new 
mechanical invention, the gift of which to the world is sure to 
produce a grand and universal influence upon industry, like 
that which has followed the few leading inventions of tlje part 
half century, still it has been exceedingly fruitful in the way 
of improving and perfecting such as were already in use, and 
perhaps, also, in leading the way to the use of new motive 
powers, such as compressed air, water under pressure, ammon- 
iacal gas and hot air, which may yet prove of incalculable valua 

In the way of new applications, and the extension of motive 
powers already in common use, a very remarkable invention 
was offered by Mr Hern, of Logelbach, by means of which he 
not only proposes to, but actually does communicate the force 
supplied by water-powers to considerable distances, with but 
little expense and with trifling loss of power. 



c,ai,z.db,Co(>t^[c 



SM PAEIS XraiVKBSAL 

It often liAppeDS that streama capable of sapplying an im- 
menee power, are so hemmed in by rocky shores as to afford 
little or QO looin for the plantiDg of mills and ftctories where 
it is neoeasary to put them, in order to make that power arail- 
abla So also, where the banks are low and the contigiioos ~ 
lands level and otherwise valuable they can not be occupied 
as mill or factory sites witboat great sacriBce. And, agaio, 
when neither of these diffionlties lies in the way, it may be 
impracticable to procure sites that will give proper security 
against destructive freshets. Mr. Hern proposes, therefore, 
first to make bis hvdraalio machine sure in the place where he 
wants it, and then to plant bis manufiioturiDg village where 
secarity, convenience of access, amplitude of area and cheap- 
ness of territory may direct his choiceL In a vilhtge of fac- 
tories now operated on the Rhine, through the intermediate 
agency of his invention, the motive power is transmitted to 
conaderable distances with a loss of less than 20 percent, and 
he feels oonBdcnt of his ability to operate foctories at a dis- 
tance from the source of power of over twelve miles I Appli- 
cations of the principles embodied in his invention have also 
been made at other places on the continent, and there seems 
to be a general belief that it will prove a certain success. 
As an American, I naturally thought of Niagara and of the 
mighty city and the thousands of thundering work shops tbat 
might be eventually built up in the vicinty of that gigantic 
water-power 1 

Mumtiona of War. — At no former exhibition has there been so 
extensive and attractive a display of engines for the distruc- 
tion of hostile armiei? and navies. Through all the wide range 
of weapons, from the unequalled Colt's revolver to the great 
Buasian cannon weighing 640,000 pounds, the warring nations 
were represented. It was the opinion, I believe of those com- 
petent to judge in such matters, that, in smciil arms and heavy 
ordnance, as well as in the construction of iron-clad ships of 
war, America ranks before all other nations ; while, in the 
mstterof light ordnance, the English Whitworth gnn is en- 
titled to the palm. 



EXPOSITION OP 1867. 896 

Machme A>o!t. — ^In this class Englaad and America still lead 
the world ; those by American iarentora, bo &r as represeated, 
being entitled to the highest raak^ It is only by the means of 
precieioQ made possible by the aid of such toola, that 
machinery itself 'as well as the countless producia of the 
machioic arts have attained to their present high degree of 
perfection. 

Oreat PtAUc Wbrki. — This is an age of gigantic nndertak- 
ings. Improvements are projected on a colossal scale and ez - 
ecuted with a corresponding energy and skill 

Several of the great works now in progress, or recently com- 
pleted, to wit: the Suez Canal, the Mt Cenis Tnnnel and 
Sailway, the Chicago Tunnel, and the Pacific Bailway, were 
illustrated by models and charts, with statistics and estimates. 
No needed improvement seems at this day beyond either the 
conception or the achievement of man. The bridging of 
mighty rivers, the sending of railway trains through or over 
vast mountain ranges, the opening of navigation between great 
seas separated by the rocky limbs or loins of continents, the 
supply of thirsty cities with pure water from remote distances 
and through vast subterranean and submarine channels, the 
supplying the body of the globe with electric nerves for inter- 
national comnfunication, and the improvisement of vast navies 
of iron ships with armaments such as Neptune and Vulcan 
never dreamed of in their day, are but as gymnastic sports for 
the mechanical athletes of our wonderfiil times. 

The application of steam, and the improved metalluigb 
processes, to which I have already referred, and which are 
eventually to make the steel of the future cheaper than the cast 
iron of to-day, lie back of all these vast achievements and in 
their further development are destined to render yet greater 
ones possible. 

Manufactures. — Here the field is too wide for even a glance 
in this report, at the numberless branches whose advancement 
would require notice. It may be remarked of manufactnns, 
generally, however, that, in nearly all classes, in which,^»in is aa 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



896 FARTS UIJIVEBSAL 

element of value, there has been almost uniTersal improrement 
Bince the exhibition of 1862. Through the influence of schools 
of design and the revival of art, that love of the beautiful 
which made the memoiy and the works of Greece and 
the homes ofmediEeTal art immortal, has had*a greater diffusion 
in both the old and new world ; so that traces of its jet partial 
influence are distinctly perceptible in very many of the col- 
lections of crystal, porcelain,gold and silver and pottery wares, 
tissues, prints, ornaments for personal and household use, f^- 
niture, utensils,and nearly all else to be seen at the Exposition. 
If all manufactures have not cheapened daring the period in 
qae8tion,it has not been the fault of either the scientist, the inven- 
tor or even the manufacturer. In the normal condition of so- 
ciety the necessary effect of the introduction of improved 
means of production is to both diminish the price and increase 
the demand. 

ISE DEPABTMBNT OF SOCIAL SCIBNCO. 

Had it been superior to ita predecessors in no other respect, 
the Exposition of 1867 has won for itself a shining place in his- 
tory, and for its far-seeing imperial projector immortal honors, 
by the incorporation, in the plan of its organization, of a separ- 
ate group (X), having for its direct object the encouragement 
of all agencies and instrumentalities specially designed, " for 
the amelioration of the moral and physical condition of the 
popnlation." 

It was not enough that the nations met to compare the fi-uits 
of their genius and labor, each learning from and teaching the 
others; it also needed to be put into their thoughts and into their 
hearts tnatthe great object ofthis gathering of the peoples and 
producis of all lands was the social advancement of the 
whole human race. This noble end was doubtless before the 
mind of the good and philanthropic Prince Albert, when he 
sent abroad the first invitation to the nations ; but it was left 
to the greatrulerof the French Empire to embody that idea in 
definite form, and to become, himself, the first competitor for 
tbB honors to be conferred upon those who should most wisely 



..i.A'Oti<^lc 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 397 

pkn and execute meaBoree for improTing the condition of the 
laboring classee of the people. 

Better and cheaper food, clothing and shelter, greater intelli- 
gence, higher virtue and nobleness of life — these are the pri- 
mary and essential needs of the laborer in all countries, and it 
was to help him somewhat in hi& struggle for these that Qroup 
X was instituted. 

The objects embraced were numerous, and attracted great 
attention. In classes 89 and 90 — thanks to the patriotism, en- 
terprise, and enei^ of prominent citizens of Ulinoia — of 
whom U. S. Commissioner James H. Bowen, of Chicago, was 
chief, America was very creditably represented; first, by a 
neat, well finished, and handsomely furnished village, or cross- 
roads school-house, sufficient in size to accommodate some 
thirty to forty pupils ; and, secondly, by a pleasant-appearing, 
■well constructed, and commodious " Western Fanners' Home." 
These buildings were framed in Chicago, shipped to Paris with 
everything, except plaster, requisite to completion, and set up 
in the Park, where they were visited and intelligently exam- 
ined by thousands and tens of thousands of the people of the 
Old World. Other nations were also represented in like man- 
ner ; so that without travel beyond the confines of the Expo- 
sition Park, the student of political economies and of social 
conditions would be able to make fair comparisons. 

In the general comfort and independence found among the 
people of the United States, without regard to class, we are 
able to teach the nations ; but in matters of education, not- 
withstanding our noted conceit on that point, we have very 
much more to learn than to teach. This is especially true in 
the great and important department of technical educaUon, 
embracing schools for instruction in the applications of science 
to the practical arts. This country is the most natural home 
of schools of that class, and yet in respect of them we are &r 
behind Prussia and all the German states, Switzerland, France, 
and even Austria ; in all of which countries they have ex- 
erted, and are exerting, a powerful influence for good. 
The social condition of the whole world has made more 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



898 FABIS 1JNIV£BSAL 

rapid improvemeDt within the present decade than in any en- 
tire centurj of time before. Ideas of equality, of oataral 
right* and of justice are far more prevaleot than at any other 
tim& 

Just ideas of the brotherhood that should be established 
among all peoples are now widely diffused and musteveatoally 
bear &uit. As a barbinf^er of the good time coming, the col- 
lection of the current coins of all countries displayed in the 
pavilion that appropriately stood in the centre of the Contral 
Garden embraced by the Palace of Exposition, as also, the 
International Congress of monies weights and measures, held 
at Paris during the period of the Exhibition, were highly sig- 
uiflcant facts. Not less so was the presence, in the Exposition, 
on terms of social and commercial equality, of the great na- 
tions of the East, which up to this time, since the beginning of 
history have stood aloof from the more progressive and chris- 
tian nations of the Occident Wars there may continue to 
be, while man is man, but when all people become neighbors, 
with daily interchange of prodncta, thoughts, sentimenb) and 
kindly courtesies, and with at last, a community of institutjons 
and of language, the world will certainly be much nearer the 
reign of Universal Peace 

TBE ORAND FETE OF THE DISTBIBnTION OF PBIZBS. 

If any who hoped to witness a more brilliant and imposing 
pageant at the opening of the Exposition on the 1st of Apiil, 
were a little disapointed, they were a thousand times compensat- 
ed by l he unprecedented pomp and magnificence of the Grand 
Fete of the Distribution of Recompenses on the 1st of July, 
whose place on one of the brightest pages of history was not 
better assured by the presence of a more brilliant throng of 
the royal representatives of the nations of the world than were 
ever asaembled under the same roof before, than by the occa- 
non of their coming and the extraordinary nature and circnm- 
Btances of of some of the hoDorg conferred. 

The place chosen for the fete was the grand cave of the 
Palaia de l' Indnatrief the main portion of which great edifice 



EXPOSITION OP 1867. 99 

permanentlj remains io the Champs Blysees, as a memorial of - 
the Uairersal Exhibition of 1855. This veritable as well aa 
nonainal Palace, dedicated to ladostry for all time to oome, 
has a capacity on the floor of the oave, when anincnmbred, 
Bufficieot to contain scarcely leas thau 160,000 pereonsi Bat 
on occasion of the fete of July the lon^tadinal centre was oo- 
CQpied by ten immense " trophies " of the products of indiutiy 
correBponding to the ten groops of the Exposition, and pre- 
senting chosen samples of the world's best in each, through all 
that Tsst range, from a block of coal or aD ear of com up to 
the noblest works of hnman genios. On either side, and en- 
compassing this long line of tropics, were broad, open, crimson- 
carpeted avenues, forming, by the junction of their extremities, 
one grand compressed ellipse, like the arena of the great Ooli- 
seum. From the outer edge of this circular avenue to the 
walls, except at one end that was occupied by the grand 
escalier of ingress and egress, were tiers of seats for the twenty- 
two thousand entitled guests. In the centre of the north side, 
upon an ezCenBive estrade or platform, and at a height sufficient 
for its occupants to command an uninterrupted view of the 
entire palace and its throng of spectators, was the throne, 
with ohaire of royal and imperial estate, for Napoleon and the 
Empress and the Sultan of Turkey, flanked by ranges of mag- 
nificent fauteuils for other royal guests of lesser rank— the 
whole surmounted by an alcove, baldequin and canopy, with 
the Im perlal crown and backed by the escocheon of His M^esty 
in crimson 'velvet and gold, forty feet high. Confronting the 
throne, on the opposite side of the arena, were sumptuous 
seatn reserved for members oi the different diplomatio corps, 
foreign members of the InteroatioDal Jury and Subscribers to 
the Exposition Fund. The decorations consisted of an in- 
credible profusion of flowers, distributed throughout the entire 
Palace, of municipal and otber banners, stationed where were 
tbe places of local and national delegations and oommissionerB, 
and of a pOTfeot forest of the gay-colored Saga of all nations, 
displayed from the pillars and pilasters on every side, and 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



400 PARIS UNINERSAL 

from the girders that supported the over-archiog roof of 
crystal. 

Sach, simply described, was the place destioed to become 
the scene of & royal pageant and ceremonial, whose brilliancy 
has hud no parallel in history. 

The day was beautiful, and the people, multitudes of whom 
thronged the great avenue to witness the comiog and going of 
the Emperor and bis royal guests, were equally in harmony with 
the occasion. At 2 o'clock, the tweuty-two thousand fortunate 
holders of tickets having long been in their places and looking 
with anxious expectancy for the moment of their cotning, the 
royal and imperial company, heralded by the thunder of can- 
nan, the clangor of bells, a flourish of trumpets, and the shouts 
of more than a hundred thousand voices, entered the vestibule 
of the Palace, where they were received by the Imperial Com- 
mioners, and in due time ushered into the midst of the grand 
arena, greeted by the spontaneous uprising of the vast throng 
within, and by universally enthusiastic shouts of "Yive I'Sim- 
pereur I" Their Imperial and Boyal Highnesses being seated be- 
neath the golden and crimson canopy, and the Inaugural Hymn 
of Peace — the words by Pacini, the music by the illustrious 
Eossini — having been performed by the grand orchestra of 1200 
musicians, Mr. fioaher, Minister of State and Acting Presi- 
dent of the Imperial Commission, delivered on its behalf the 
formal address to the Emperor, reviewing the labors of those 
who had been officially connected with the Exposition, and pre- 
senting in general terms the results of the examinations made 
by the International Juries, with a rapid survey of the advan- 
tages that must flow irom the Exposition, as a whole. 

The length of the address precludes its incorporation entire 
in this report, and I have accordingly limited my translation 
to the following instructive and highly interesting p 



ADDRESS OF MINISTSB ROUHSB TO THE EHPEBOB. 

• • • "Tha BDr&ceoconpl«d bjthe FdMe ftud the depaodeDMB 
In IBSS WW ST aorai ; in 18«a U Korea ; In 1867, it ia more th&t tU8 &oie«, 
of which the Pft[ace oovert more tban sa aoret. 

"theeihibiton,ofwhom the Domber wu S9,000 la 18EB, and 28,000 In 
18<a, have to-da; reached th« nnmbeT of 00,000. 



..i.A'Oti<^lc 



EXPOSITION OP 1897. • 401 

" Tbe waight of objeats eiUibited can not ba less th&o G(t,000 torn. The oom- 
nunicBlion established between tbe Palace aiid tbe continent have barely 
been able to pravide the means for canjing and delivering with care and 
neceuary despatch this eoormoni amount ol maCerUI, arrived for the most 
part during the laat dajs of the month of Uarcb. 

" Tbe motive power intsalled for putting in moAin the machinery repre- 
sents more than a tboasacd nominal horse power. The hydranlic service is 
esUblished upon the baeis of a distribution of water sufficient to meet abun- 
dantly the wants of a cicj of a hundred thoasand aonla 

" Notwithstanding tbe gigantic labors which such necessities have le- 
qaired, the worli was found rendy at the appointed time. Bui success, baa tt 
not crowned tbe enterprias f and those united efforts, hate Ib^y not meiited 
the two-fold and precious rewards that have been accorded them — the ap- 
probation of Your Uajestj, and the cord'al approval of public opimon. Judge- 
ment is to-day pronounced. The whole world hue been struck with the con- 
ception of the genera! plan and facilities it offers for comparison and study. 
Every one approves that law of unity which brings together, In the Champ 
de Hars, the works of art, of industry, of agriculture and horticulture, here- 
tofore presented in different places, but which here preaent in the same en- 
closure all the Qaiiifeatationa of human activity. • « • 

" Thanks ki an activity that has overcome all fatiguesand embarrassments, 
tbe decisions requir'dof the Jury by the 1st of July have all been rendered 
and the result can be proclaimed to-day before Tour M^jeety. 
"The Jury has awarded to exhibitors : 
M Grand Prizes, 
883 Gold Uedals, 
1,«6S Silver Medals, 
6,B6a Bronze Medals, 
6,801 Honorable Hections. 

"Notwithstanding the great number of recompenees, the Jury bu been 
compelled to limit its choice, and to Icitve without'mention, even, many inte- 
resting exhibitions, distinguished deserts, and industrial efforts worthy of the 
most serious encouragement. 

" The Jury of the New Order of Recompenses have performed their duty 
none tbe less worthily, complicated as that duty baa been, since it was not 
required of them to eiajiine Industrial prodacts, but to analyze and com- 
pare social facts. It has accorded twelve prises, twenty honorable mentions, 
and four citations 

" This solemnity finds its climax in certain higher recompenses stilL Tour' 
Hqjeity has deigned to confer on the most eminent competitors in this pa- 
cific contest, bisOrderlraperlal of the Legion of Honor. The Imperial Com- 
mission lay at the feet of Che Throne its most bumble thsniu for such evi- 
dences of an august sympathy. •»••••»» 
" Thos the Universal Exposition reveals new industrial results and inven- 
tions whicb, without it, would have remained impotent or unknown ; places 
before the world the law of the division of labor - " "* ' 



viduals; gives a shining consecration to those principles of 
■~''"n feariessly inaugurated in France by Your Mpuesty; mul- 
relations among the people and marbs fora date near at 
band the fruitful solution of the problem of the anifioatiou of weights and 

"The International Exposition prodaces fmits yet more Important; it dis- 
upatcs inveterate pr^udices, overturns long-established enmities and causes 
sentiments of reciprocal esteem to spring np Id their stead. The people, 
drawn hither by this extraordinary spectacle in this splendid capital, va^y 
seek the traces of past revolutions and find everywl.ere that grandeur and 
that protpenty which produce the seoarity of the present and just coDfldence In 
the future. Princes and sovereigns, attracted by a noble hospitality, come, 
one after another, to exchange in this temple of civillution their friendly 
words which open calm boriioui to all human activities and establiah the 
peace of the world. 

29 Aa. ToASB. 



I v'^'Otl'^lc 



403 PARIS UNTVEESAL 

"Id all thsM w«;3, Sire, the Unlrerut EipoaitloQ of 1807 will tOTa\ah a 
brillisnt page to the historj ot Yoar H^eslj'b reign and o( the grandear of 
the 19th century." 

After the reading gf this addreaa, the Emperor prononnced 
the following words: 

REPLY OF THE EHPEKOB. 

[Trtnelmion.] 

GuiTLKim : — After an interral of twelve yeart, I come again, for the mc- 
ond time, to dlBtribute the rewards to iucli aa are the mort diBtinguEshed in 
those labors vbtcb enrich the nations, embellish lile, and refine manners. 
The poets of antiquity celebrated with eclat the solemn games wherein the 
different coloDies of Greece came to coutend for the prizo of the conrae. 
What would they saj to-dsj, could they assist at these Olympian games of the 
entire world, where all peoples in a contest intellectaal, seem to dart forward 
at once in the career of iuBnite progress towards iia idesi, which they sp- 
proacb witboat ceasing, yet without the power ever to attaiu it f 

From bU places od the enrth, the representitiveaofsoience, of the arts and 
of industry hare joined in the coDtest; while peoples and Icings are come to 
lienor the efforts of labor, and by tbeir presence to crown them with an Idea 
of conciliation and peace. lu fact in these grand reunions, which may ap' 
pear to have nothing for their object but material iuterests, there is always a 
moral thought disengaged by the concourse of intelligent minds— (he thought 
of concord aod ol ciTilization. The aatioos, in coming together, learn to 
know and respect each other ; enmities are eitinguished, and truth is es- 
tablished more and more as the prosperity of each country contributes to the 
prosperity of all. 

"The Eiposition of IBS'! may be justly called tmhenal, because it reunitea 
all the riches of the globe; by tbe side of the latest ImproTemonts of modern 
art appear the products of the most remote ages, in a manner that repre- 
sents at once the gooius of all nations. It is unlTersal, becauee by the side 
of luinriee for the indlviduat, it is mainly occupied with what will meet the 
necessities of the greatest number. Never have the interests of the laboring 
classes awakened a more lively solicitude. Their moral and material needs, 
education, the necessaries of eisleoce at a fair price, combinations the most 
' fruitful of associations have been (he object of patient researches, and of 
serious study. Thus all improvemauts advance. If science, in subduing 
matter, enfranchises labor, the culture of the soul, in conquering vices, preju- 
dices, and vulgar paaiion, enfranchises humanity. 

"I^t us congratulate ourselves, gentlemen, on having received moat 
ol the sovereigns and princes of Europe and so many eager visitors. Let 
DB be proud that we have been able to show them France as she is, great, 
prosperous, and free. It is necessary to be wanting altogether in patriotic 
&ith not to see her greatness ; to close the eyes to all evidence, to deny her 
prosperity; to misunderstand her institutions, which sometimes tolerate even 
to the verge of licentiousness, not to see, here, liberty. 

"Foreign people have been able to appreciate this France, lately so dis- 
turbed and casting off ber inquietudes beyond her frontiers, to-day industri- 
ous and calm, ever fTuitful In generous ideas, devoting her Renins to marrels 
the most varied, and never permitting herself to be enervated by material en- 
joyments. 

"Attentive minds will readily discover that notwithstanding the derel- 
opment of wealth, notwithstanding the resistless advance towards well-being, 
the national heart la here alvrays ready to vibrate at the tonoh of whatever 
altbcl« boDor and conntry; but this noble susceptibility should not be a 
ground of anxiety for the repose of the world. 

" Let thoM who have dwelt among ns for a little tiiiie, bear to their bome» 
ajiut oidoion of vu country; lot tbem bapDMaad«d of Um HntlBMDta «f 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 408 

esteem kod of sympathy thkt we cherish for foreign n&tious, and our ainoere 
denre to live among them in peace. 

" I thanli the Imperial GommiBsian, the members of the Jury and of the 
different committ;eB for the iatelllgeat leal they hare diapiayed in the per- 
formance of tbeir duties. I thank them aUo In the jiame of the Prince Im- 
perial, whom I hare been happy to associate, Dotwlthgtanding hia youthful 
age, in this great enterprise, of which he will cberl»b the remembrance. 

"The Eipoaition of 1867 will marli, I hope, a new era of harmony and 

ErogresB, Aeaured th&t Providence will bless the efforts of all those who, 
ke DurselveB, desire the good, I believe in the definitive triumph of those 
grand principlee of morality and of justice, which, in satisfying all legitimate 
■apiratiocs, can alone oonsolidate ihrones, elevate the people and ennoble 
humanity." 

The address being coQoluded, M. Souber, Minister of State 
and Vice President of the Imperial OotntnissioD, proclaimed 
the names of the persoos, establishments and localities to 
whom had been decreed the recompensea of the " New Order" 
(of social harmony and the well-being of populations,) and af- 
terwards the names of persons who had obtained grand prizes 
in the groups of Fine Arts, of Agriculture and of " Industry." 
The nominees for rewards in the New Order, preceeded by 
their banner, then advanced to the place of the imperial es- 
trade, and ascending the steps to the front of the tbroae, re- 
ceived, in turn, as their names were again pronounced, their 
respective prizes from the hands of the Emperor ; Hie Majesty, 
however, receiving the prize designed for himself from the 
hand of the youthful Prince Imperial, nominal President of 
the Commission. 

Each of the groups of exhibitors, in order of nnmber, now left 
its place about its particular trophy in the centre of the arena, 
and, preceded by its banner, conducted by the President 
of its Jury, in like manner approached the throne, and having 
received the prizes delivered to each entitled member thereof, 
again defiled in procession to its former place of rendezvoiia 
When the distribution had concluded, the imperial cortege 
of illustrious personages, in a measured and stately manner, 
descended from the estrade of the throne, and in grand and 
solemn procession made the entire circuit of the annular av< 
eone between the trophies on the one hand yid the arcades 
occapied by the representatiTes of the different nations on the 
other, being received as they arrived at each national tribune 
by enthusiastic cheers and mnsic from the orchestra in the &- 



404 PARIS UNIVERSAL 

vorite ftir of that partieular country, and immediatelj there- 
after retired from the Palace, amid the clapping of bauds and 
huzzas of the entire throng of spectators of what waa doubt- 
less the grandest and moat imposing scene ever witnessed \>y 
man. 

THE AWARDS. 

Meution of the number of prizes of each kind awarded by 
the Juries is found in the extracts from the address of M. Rou- 
her reported above, by whieh it will appear that the total num- 
ber of grand prizes, of gold, sirer and bronze medals and 
honorable mentions was 16,766. But even this immense num- 
ber does not include all the recompenses, for in addition to and 
above all these, the Emperor graciously, on the nomination of 
his Ministers of State, of Agricalture &a, and of the House of 
the Emperor and of Fine Arts, decreed a very considerable 
number of appointments and promotions in the Legion of 
Honor, for distinguished contributions either to the progress 
of the arts or to the eminent successor the Exposition, to-wit : 
S French and 18 foreign appointments to the rank of " Grand 
Officer " of the Legion of Honor ; 6 French and 9 foreign to 
the rank of "Oomraander ; " 21 French and 42 foreign to the 
rank of " Officer ; " 69 French and 118 foreign appointments 
to the rank of "Chevalier." 

The names of all the exhibitors to whom were awarded 
prizes and mentions fill a large imperial octavo voluma Of 
American names alone the number is 296— aot large, certainly, 
in comparison either with the awards to many other nations or 
with possible results, had the government and people of the 
tTnited States been more prompt and spirited in their action, 
yet larger, in proportion to the number of exhibitors, than that 
of any other country, and larger, moreover, than can be con- 
veniently included here, without exceeding the limits I had 
prescribed for myself in this report Nevertheless, presuming 
that it may be «fi interesting to others as it is to mo, I rentnre 
to incorporate the official catalogue in fall 



^dbvCoo^^lc 



EXPOSITION OF 18«7. 



1 HcOiinnick, G. H., Cbiogo, 111, 9ee Hos. 11 tnd 18. 

3 Wocd, Walter A., Hoaslck Fills, S. Y. See Sot. 12 and %9. 
S Chickering k Son, New Tork. See No. 18. 

4 Howe, Eliaii, Jr., See No. 17. 



l^orptrtimt, tttatlitbnail; or toealititi, vAuA, by orgaTiixaiiont or ^xdal irutUu- 
SoM, hau dmdoptd harjTumg among eo-ofertUori, and vrodMced, in an erni«aU 
dtgrn, l/u maitrial, moral, and inUlUctual wiS bring of at laorltmtn. 

6 Chapin, William, Lawrence, Han.; grand pr1ze,a gold medal of tlie 

Talne of 1,000 francs, and e,000 francs in gold. 
t Agricultural Socletj of Yinetaad, New Jersey ; an Honorable Uention, 

unaccompanied bf a medal 



S Field, Cyrna W.; an Anglo-AmeHcaa Transatlantic Tolegnpb Oompan;; 

transatlantic cable, 
e Oniied StatesSanltarj ConimiMion; ambulances, maEeriala, instruments, 

&c., for tbe relief of the woonded, used in the late war. See, also, 

Hon. Uention. 

10 Bnghes, , New York ; printing telegraph. 

11 HcCormick, B., Chicaco, III.; reaping macbinee. To this grtutd 

prite, gained in tbe field trials of agricultaral macbinei, was added, 
b; the Emperor, the Cross of Cheralier of ttie Legion of Honor. 
Bee also Nos I and IS 



IS Wood, Walter A., Hoosick Falls, New Tork j mowing macbities. To 
this prize, gained In the Geld trials of ^ricultura! machinea, was 
added, b; the Emperor, tbe Cross of Ghetaller of the Legion of 
Honor. Bee Nos. 2 and SB. 



s Company, FroTidence, Khode Island ; tbe Cor- 

IS Fire.arm Manufacturing ladustrj of the Dnited States^ fire-arms. See, 

also, Noe-oe and 123. 
IS Grant Locomotire Works, Patterson, New Jenej; locomotive and 

tender. 
If Howe, Ellas, Jr., "promoter of the sewing machine." To this gold 

medal was added, bj the Emperor, tbe Gross of OheTalier of the 

Legion of Honor. Bee No. 4. 
18 HcCormick, 0. H., Chicago, Illinois; reaping and mowing machines. 

According to the rule of the Imperial Commission this medal is ab- 

aorbed in No. 11. See, also. No. 1. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



406 PAHB USTVEKSAl 

IS Ifejer, Victor, F&riBh of Concardik, LouiBiack; short Bt>ple cotton. 

SO Rodgers, C. B. St Co., Norirlch, Conoecticut; wood-working machini 

ai Sellers, William, & Co., PhUadslphik ; machiiie tools. 



S2 Steiawaj & Son, New Tork city; pi&Dog. 
" ~ r, L., Blackh&wk Point, Loiiislana ; s 
idge, WellB D., New Tork city ; cold 
!S Wflcli, P&trick, tieif York cit; ; tjpe-drewing machine. 



38 Tragcr, L., Blackh&wk Point, Loiiislana ; short stiple cotton. 

a WaTbridge, WellB D., New Tork city ; cold and siWer ores from Idaho. 



. SO Wlieeler k Wition, New York oit; ; Bewing and buttoa-hole m«cbine& 
SI White, S. S., Philadelphia; artifirial taetb and dentists' in Btrmnent* 

and furniture. 
28 Whitoej, J. P., Boston, Uaatachusetta; silTcr ores Trom Colorado. 
as Wood, Walter A., Hoosick Palls, New Tork ; reaping and niowiag nut- 
cbinsB. See, also, Nos. S and 12. 

50 Alabama, State of; short staple cotton. See Hod. Hentioii. 

51 American Button-hole Compan;, Pl^ladelphia ; sewing and batton-hole 

SZ Baker, W. & Co., Dorchester, UaBsachuECtts ; chocolates. 

B8 Barnes, Surgeon General J. K,, United States arnij, Waabioglon; sur- 
gical in at rum en ts, hospital apparatus, &c. 

84 Bement Jc Donghertj, Philadelphia ; machine tools. 

SG Beraner, Theodore, Philadelphia; co-operator— engineer of Hes'n. 
Sellers & Co. 

Sfl Bidwell, J. G , Pittsburg, PennsjlTBnia: Comstock's rotary spader. 

87 Bigetow, H., Boston, Hassscbosetts; copper and minerals from Lake 

SB Blake, William P., San Francisco, Califoraia ; California minerals. 

89 Bond, William & Son, Boston, HaesachuBetts; astronomical clock and 



chronograph. 
J, f. R., i 



k Shnrpe, Providence, Rhode Island ; screw cutting and 
mimne macnines. 

41 Burt, S. C., New York citj ; machine-sewed boots and shoes 

42 California, State of; cereals. 

43 Cape, Culver k Co., New Tork city; hams. 

44 Chapin Jl Wells, Chicago, Illinois; model of a swing bridge. 

40 Chicago Board of Public Works, Chicago, IllinoiB; design of the lake 

tunnel 
40 Clark Thread Companv, Newark, New Jersey ; cotton yaios. 
47 Collins k Co., New York city ; steel ploughs. 

45 Cool, Ferguson ftCo., Qlen's Falls, New York; barrel macbines. 

4S Colt's Patent fire-arms Uanufacturing Company, Hartford, Connecti- 

EO Crompton, Q., Worcester, HuiBachusettB ; loom for cloths. 
Bl CulbertBon, Blair k Co., Chicago, Illinois ; salted meats. 

52 Daboll, 0. L., New London, Connecticut ; fog-signal. 

DS D'Aligna, H. F. Q., co-operator in the organization of the United 
States section. 

54 Darling, Browne & Sbarpe, Bangor, Haine ; steel meaeurea. 
6fl Delpit, A., k Co., New Orleans, Louisiaaa ; snuff. 

56 Diion, J., k Co., Jersey City, New Jersey: plumbago crucibles. 

SI Dooglaa Axe Uanufacturlng Gompan], Boston, Hassachusetts ; edg« 

GB DnfBeld, Charles, Oblcago, Illinois; hams. 

59 Fairbanks, B. k T., & Co., St Johnsburv, Vermont : scales. See also 

No. 187. 

60 Florence Sewing Uachine Company, New Toik city ; sewing machines, 
ei Foumler, S., New Orleans, Louisiana ; electric clocks. 

55 Glen Cots Starch Van ufacturing Company, New York city ; "maiiena" 

and starch. 

53 Qotthiel, Edward, New Orleans, Louisiana ; co-operator, services ren- 

dered to Bgricnlture in Louiuana. 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



BXPOsrrioN of iser. 407 

(M Qr«eR, Ibukc, Philadelphia; Brick>niakiiis machine. See, alM, Mo. 183. 
OH QnnlSor, G. G., k Son, New York city; ftirs. 

65 Hall, J., & Sod, BobIod, MaiwacbiiBettB; bu^gj. 

07 Howe U&chine Compan;, tiew York city ; Bevinii; machioeB. 
VS Howe, Dr. S. G., BostoD, HsssaobueetlB ; vorlufor the blind. 

66 Illinoia Central ilsilraad Compao;, Chitago, lUinoiB ; agricultural pro- 

TO IlliaolB, State of; collectioD of minerala. 1 

71 Illinois, State of; farmer'shouae y See, also, No. US. 

79 UlinolB, State of; scbooi-houae. ) 

73 JackBOD, Dr., co-operator; dlecoTerj of cmecj. 

74 Lamb, J. W,, Rochester, Nev 7ork; knittiDg macbine. 
7E Lawrence, £.. LoaiaiaDa ; Bug^rs. 

To Uason k Hamlin, New Tork city ; cabinet orgaiia. 

77 Nevada, State of; titvet and copper ores. 

78 NewYorkUill',NewYork;mualina. 

79 Opper, Morris, New York ; loom for i^araet!!. 

aO Park Brothers & Co., Pittsburg, Penas^lTania ; cast steel and edge 

81 Partridge Fork Works. Leominster, Uassachusetts ; Bteet hay-forks, 

rakea, ko. See, also. No. 1B7. 
81 Pease, F. S., Buffalo, New York ; petroleum oils. See, also. Honorable 

Uebtions. 
S3 Perry, J. G., KiogBton, Rhode leland; mowing machine. Thi!> prize was 

gained in the field trials of agricaltural machines. See, aleo, No. 

lee. 



patent fire-ai 

86 Remington, E., and Son, Ilion, New York; are-arme. 
67 Eutherford, L. M., New Tork ciCj ; s-stronomicul photographs. 
S8 Kchultz & Walker, New York city; mineral water apparatoB. 
Sa Schuttlcr, Puter, Chicago. Illinois; waguu. 

DO Smith k Weaaon, ^pringSeld, Massachusetts; Gre-srma and cartridges. 
SI Spencer Repeating Rifle Company, Buston, Uasaacbiuetts ; Speucer 

92 Tan, J. B , Cheater, UaasachuBtrtts ; emery. 

93 Tieman, G., Pbilsdelphia ; surgical iDsCrunieiita. 

94 Tolles, R. F., CansstuCa, New York ; microscopes. 

95 Tucker, H., &Cd., New York city; iron ornamenCs, imitation of bronie. 

96 United Slates Government; specimens of frame houses for settlers. 

See, also, Nos. 10 and ISS. 

97 Wales, William, Fort Lee, New Jersey : optical inatrumenta. 

98 Wardwell, G. I., New York city ; stone-quarrying machine. 

99 Washington Hills, Boston, Hassachusetts ; woolen fabrics. See, also. 

Honorable Hentions. 

100 Webster Woolen Hills, Webster, Hassachuaetts ; woolen fabrics. 

101 Weed Sewing Uachioe Company, New York c:ty : aewing machines. 
lOa Whitney, B.U., Winchendon, Hassachusetta ; wood-working machines. 

105 Windsor Usnufactanng Company, Windsor, Vermont ; Ball's patent 

flre-arms 
104 Wood Brothers, New Tork city ; phaton. 
103 Yale &Winn Uanufactnring Company, She lb arne Falls, Haasachasetts ; 

Yale locks. 

106 Abbey, C, b Bons, Philadelphia , dentists' gold foil. 

107 American Lead Pencil Company, New York city; lead pencils. 
lOB Appleton, D., k Co., New York city; books. 

109 Babcock, J. ¥,, Boston, HasBachusetts ; toain oil. 

110 Baltimore and Cuba Smelting and U in ing Company, Baltimore, Hary- 

land; copper. 

111 Barlow, Hilton, Lexington, Kentucky ; planetarium- 



l;A'Ol>'^IC 



408 PAEIS tWIVERSAL 

113 Bartiun & Fanton Huin&ctariDg Oompanj, Danbniy, Coanecticvt ; 

sewing and button-hole uiachinei. 
lis Beer, Sigiamund, Nev Tork cit;; Btereoacopic TJewa. 

114 BelmoDtOilConpaDjr, Fbiisiielphia; oila- 

Ilt Brigham, E. D., treasurer Portage Lake Bmelting Works, Boaton, Vm- 

a«chiuetCs: Lake Superior copper. 
lie BrowD k Level, New York citjj dlBengaging tackle for boats. 

117 Carpenter, W. 8., New York citj; collection of com. 

118 Carrol), J. W., LjDcbburg, Virginia; amoking tobacco. 

lie Gumminga, W., & Son, Jeraey City, New Jeraej; model of a hOBpltal 

150 Daj, A. 6., Seymour, Connecticut ; indelible pencils and lead pencils 

in India-rubber cases. See, also, Honorable Uentiona. 

151 Deer« j[ Co, Hoiine, UliDoie: steel ploughs. 

ISS De^ener b Weiler, New York oitj- : prlntiii|[ preiaes. 

ISS Department of Agriculture, Washiiigtan ; collection of cereals. See, 

■leo,Noa. ISandSS. 
134 Diss Debar, J. H., commissioner of Weil Tlrginia, Parkersbnrg,'WeB( 

Virginia ; petroleum oils. 

125 Douglau Man (act u ring Uompany, New York city ; edge tools. 

126 Douglass, W. & B., Uiddletown, Connecticut: pumps. 

1ST Fairbanks, E. &T., &Co., Si. Johnsbury, Vermoot; railroad ncale. See, 

ISS Fairchild, L. W., New York city ; gold peng and cases. 

ISO Germunder, Qeorge, New York city ; atringed instruments. 

1H0 Goddard, 0. L., New York city; mestizo burring picker. 

131 Goodenonab Horseahoe Company, New York city; horseshoca. See, 

also, Honorable Heniion. 
ISa Ooodell, D. H., Antrim, New Hampshire ; apple parer. 

183 Gregg, Isaac, Philadelpbia; model of a brick machine. See, also. 

No, 64. 

184 Hadley Company, Hotyoke, Uaisachusetts ; sewing cotton. 
ISS Harris, D. L., Springfield, Uaasachnsetts ; engine lathe. 
ISS Baupt, Herman, Philadelphia; tonneUing machine. 

187 Herring, Farral i Sherman, New York city; fire and barglar proof 

safes. 
ISS Hoglin & GsfBin, Ohio ; tobacco -cut ting maehine. 
18B Rotcbkiss, H. G., Lyon, New York ; oils of peppermint, Ac. 

140 HoCchkiss, L. B., Phelps, New York ; oils of peppermiut, Jtc. 

141 Houghton, H. 0., & Co., Camhribge, Hassachusetts ; books. 

142 House, Henry A., New York city; co-operator, in the estkblishment of 

Wbeeler & Wilson. 

143 House, James A., New York city ; co-operator, estabtisbment of Whee- 

ler & Wilson. 

144 Howe, A. B., New York city ; sewing machines. 
148 Howe Scale CompanT, Brandoii, Vermont ; scales. 
14a Hudaon, B. D., New' York city ; artificial limba. 

147 Humphreys, J. 0., parish of Rapides, Louisiana ; short staple cotton- 

148 Illinois, State of; cereals and Sours. See Nob. TO, 71, 12. 

149 Jessup & Moore, Philadelphia; papers, 

IDO Jobnson A. J,, Hew York city ; Johnson's Family Atlas. 

IGl Johnson, B , Louisiana ; sugars. 

ISS Johnson & Land, Philadelphia; artificial teeth. 

153 Justice, P, S., Philadelphia; power hammer. 

154 Kansas, State of; collection of cereltle. 

155 Lilienthal, C. H. New York city; snuff and tobacco. 

156 Lilienthal, Ch,, Hew Orleaos, Louisiana; photographic riews. 
IBT Louisiana, Stale of; portable cottage. 

IDS Lyoo, J. B. & Co., Pittsburg, Pennsylrania; pressed glassware. 

ise Hen-iam. G, &. C, Springfield, Uusacbusetts ; Webster's Illostrated 

Dictionary. 
160 Hission Woolen Hills, San Francisco, Oallfornia ; woolen fabrioa, 
1«I Moody, 8, N,, New Orieana, Louisiana; shirts. 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 409 

165 Uorrts, TMkflr&Co, Philgdnipfaia | •rrin^ns macbine. 

163 Humford, Foster & Co., Detroit, HichigBD; boot-trees, 1ut8, Ac. 
104 Uurpbf's W. F., Boas, Fbilkdelphia ; blnnk books. 
1S5 Obio, Stats of; collsction of cereals. 

166 OlmsEetd, L. H , Stamford, Connecticut ; flection clutch pallej. See, 

also, Honorable Mentions. 

167 Partridge Fork Works, Leominater, UassaehuaeCtes ; agcicaltaral band 

tools. 8e«, also, Ko. 81 . 
IfiB FeDDSjlraDiB, State of; antbracite coal. 
16B Perry, J. Q., ElDgstOD, Rhode lalaod ; mowing maohine. iBea, also. 

No. 88. 
lliO Pickering & DaT is, New York citj, engine goTcmors. 
lit Pratt Awcntworth, Boston, HaMachusetts ; beatiog apparatus. 
ITS Randall, S. H., New Tork citj; mica, 
m Reidel, Q. A. Philadelphia; automatic boiler feeder. 
Its Richards, Richard, Racine, WUconsln ; wool. 
176 Roots, J. B., New York cilj ; steam engine. 

176 Boots, P. H. & F. U., ConncrsTille, Indiana; rotarjblower. 

177 Saohse, F., £ Song, Fhiiadelphia; ehirta. 

178 Barrazin,J. R., Orleans, Loniaiana ; tobacco. 

17V Schedler, Joseph, Hudson Cit;, NewJersej; terrestrial globes. 

180 Bchediber, Lonia, Kew York dtj ; brass instruments, 

181 Secome HaDafHcturing Compaoj, New York cit; ; ribbon hand stamps. 
lea Shaw, O.A.,Biddefard, Usine; knitting machine 

188 Shaw, Philander, Baston, HaSBBchnsetts ; bot-air engine. 
184 Slater, S., & Son, Webster, HaasscbBsetts ; cotton fabrics. 
ITE Bmitb, HcPberaon t Donald, New York dt;; ales and porter. 

186 Southern Oottou-gin Company, Bridgewater.Uasaachusetta; cottOD-gin. 

187 Squire, J. J., New London, Oonnecticui ; preserved fruits and veg- 

etables. 
ISS Stursberg, H., New Tork city; beaver olotbs. 

189 Sweet, J. E., Syracuse, New York ; composing machine. 
ISO Tambo'iry, A , Parish of St. blames, Lonisiaua, tobacco. 
191 Tiffany & Co-, New York city ; silverware. 

195 Townsend, W. H., New York city; oilcloths. 

lis nni«n Button-hole and Embroidery Company, Boston, Vastachusetts; 

buttoD-hole machine. 
IM Tan Densen, J. B., New Yoriccity ; model of the yacbtFleetwing. 

190 Warner, G. ^F., t Co., New Haven, Cooneclicnt; malleable iron 

castings. 

196 Watkins, C. E., San Francisco, California; photographs — landscapes. 

197 Wickereham Nail Company, Boston, Uasaachusetts ; oail-cattlng 

machine. 

198 Williams, T. C.,ftCo., Danville, Tlrglnia; chewing and imoking to- 

baccos. 

199 Wisconsin State AgricDltural Soricty ; Agricultural products. 

200 Wisconsin, State of ; collection of minerals. 

aoi Wisconsin, State of; collection of cereals and flours. 
202 Wright, R. &B. A., Philadelphia; perfumery. 



AnlericsQ Steam Oauge Gonpaiiy, Boston, Hassachiuetts; steam gaogea. 
American Wine Company, St. Louis, Missouri ; sparkling wines. 
Andrews, W. D., & Brother, New Tork city ; oscillating steao) engine. 
Avery D. D., Petite Anse, Lonielana ; rock salt. 
Bacon, S. T., Boston, Masaichusetls ; cracker company. 
Baker, G. R., St. Louis, Missouri ; dongh-kneiding machine. 
Bates R , Philadelphia ; instruments to cure stammering. 
Bell Factory, HuntsTllle, Alabama; cotton fabrics. 
BoenaTlstaTiDicnUnrol Society, San Francisco, California; sparldlng Bo- 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



410 PARIS UNIVEESAL 

Borden, G&il, New York eitj ; extract of beef. 

Bottler, CharleB, Giaoinaati, Ohio ; Bpsrbling Catawba wine. 

Broughton & Uoore, b'ew York cit; ; oilers, coaka, &o, 

BaurRGoiB, E., New Orleana, Louisiana; tobacoo. 

Br&ndon Kaolin and Paint Company, Braodon, Yermont; Bpecimeiuof palnta. 

Bray tt HajB, Boston, MagMcbmettB ; preserTed lobster. 

Brown, D. J., Koiburj, HasBacbuseits ; enameled leather. 

Cblpnao G. W. ft Co., Bostao, Hissachusetts ; carpet lining. 

Clark Steam and File Begulator Compatij, New York oitj; steam aod fira 

Oohn, U., New York oil; ; crinoline. 

CoizenB, F. B., New York citj ; cigars. 

Dart H. C. ft Co., Neir York city; rotar; steam engloe. 

Davidson G., Wasbingtan; eeitant 

Davidson, J., St. Barnard Parish, Louisiana; eagara 

Daj, A. 0., Scjmour, Gonoeclicut ; artificial India robber. See, also, No. ISO. 

Daltj, L, Patterson, New Jersey; designs foe improTementa in iron-clad 

vessels. 
Dwigbt, G., Jr., k Co., Springfield, Massac hnsetts; hygrodeik. 
Blsberg, Dr. Louis, New York city ; apecimeos of pMt fueL 
Empire Sewins Hschine Compauy, New York oUy ; sewinfl macbines. 
Fries, Aleiauder, Cincinnati, Ohio ; Savoring extracts. 
Glass, Peter Barton, WiloonBiii ; mosaic tables. 
Goodcnough Horseshoe Company, New York cit;; horse shoes. See, alto, 

No. 181. 
Gould, I. D., Boston, Uassachusetts ; mica. 
Herring, S. C, New York city ; BulUrd's bay tender. 
Hloks Engine Company, New York oit; ; steam engine. 
Hirscb, J., Chicago, Illinois; albumen, glyeeHne, So. 
HollidsT, T. ft C, New York olty ; aniline colors. 
Howard D. B., New York city; ambulance, ftc. 
Howell ft Brother, Fhiladelpbia ; wall papers. 
Iowa, State of; colleotioc of cereals. 
Jackson, J. H., New York city ; minerals and fossils. 
Kalderburg ft Son, New York city ; men rsobaam pipes. 
Eorn C, New York city; calf-skin leather. « 

Lalance ftGronjeau, New York city ; house furniBhing hardware. 
Linthicum, W. 0., New York city ; olotb clothing. 
Longwortb, Cincinnati, Ohio; sparkling wines. 
HcCormick, J. J., Herideti, Connecticut; skates. 

Harietta and Oale'^Fork Petroleum Company, Marietta, Obio; petroleum oil. 
MetropoIitsD Washing If achine Company, New York city ; clothes wringers. 
Metropolitan Washing Uachine Company, New York city ; washing machines. 
Minnesota, State of; collectiou of cereals. 
Hoehring, H Q., agent of the Tolcauic Oil Company of West Tirginia, FhiU- 

delpbia; volcanic lubricating oil. 
Montague ft Carlos, New Orleans, Louisiana ; black mosH for upholsterers. 

Morris, Tasker ft Co., Philadelphia ; pipe-cutting machine. 
New Haven Clock Company, New Htven, Conneoolcut ; olooka. 
Oknstead, L H., Stamford, Connecticut; machine tools. Bee, also, No. tSS. 
Oneida Community, Oneida, New York ; preserved fruits. 
Page, E. W., New York oity ; oars. 
Paul, J. F. ft Co., Boston ; specimens of wood. 

Pease, F. S., ButJUo, New York; pneumatic pamp. Bee, also, No. S9. 
Ferrot, T. Morris, Philadelphia ; medicine wagon. 
Pleasant Valley Wioe Company, Hommondsport, New York; wines and 

PartlandPackIng Company, Portlat]d,HaIne; preserTedlobeter and vegetables. 

Prentice, J., New York city; ole^r maahlDe. 

PurriDgton, G., Jt, New York city; carpet sweeper. 

Boblnson, J. A., New York city ; Ericsson bot-ur engine. 

Sabatler^G., Plaquemines partsb, Loolslana; sugars. 

B«lpho, W. ft Sod, New York oity ; artiflcial limba. 



j.,Co(>t^lc 



EXPOSITION OF 1887. 411 

Sheldon, JoHBph, Xew Hitbd, CaDDOcUcut ; water -preaaure regnlator. 

Smith, R. H., Baltimore, HarjUnd-, petroleum oili. 

Ste&m Siphon Company, New Tork oit; ; ateua dphon pomp. 

Stephenaon, J.. New York oitj j itreet railway carriage. 

Stockton, Samnel, Philadelphia ; artificial teeth. 

Tallman & Colling, JaDearille, Wisconaln; perfumery. 

Taylor, C. F., Neir York oitj ; therapeutic appaiatne. 

Tilden, Howard, Boston; sifter, tobacco cotter and egg-beater. 

Towngend firotber!, New York city ; preeerved fruita and oysteni. 

United Statea Sanitary CommiMion ; camp mateiiai. Sec, also, So, 9. 

Walcmeyer, Jacob, Baltimore, Maryland ; preserved fruits. 

Ward, J., £Co., New York city; clothsB wriagers. 

Ward, J., b Co., New York city ; waahing macbines. 

Washington Hills, Boston ; shawls. Bee, also, No. 99. 

Wellman, C, New York city; saddles. 

Werk, H., & Son, Cinoinaati, Ohio ; sparkling winea. 

Wharton. Joseph, Philadelphia; nickel, cob^t and line. 

Willard h Co , Kew York city ; photographic camera tube and leases. 

Willlamg, 0. C., New York city ; fruits preserved in syrup. 

Williams Silk Manufacturing Company, New York city; silk twist for lewlng 

machines. 
Wlnslow, J. B., New York city ; wood-mo aiding biacblne. 
Young, Isaac, commiseioner fot Eaneas, LeaTeoworth, Eansu ; specimenB of 

ZaUee, J C, St Louis, Uiasonri ; clothing. 

THE AHEBICAN DEPABTUBNT AFTER THK AWABD3. 

When the official list of awards was issued, immediately af- 
ter the 1st of July, there was a geoeral expression of Burprise, 
among the commissioners and people of other conntries, that 
the United Slates, whose exhibition made comparatively ao 
little display, had been awarded so large a proportion of im- 
portant prizes ; and from that time forward the grave looking, 
unpretentious American Department was enquiringly and re- 
spectfully visited by thousands, who, having at first passed it 
indifferently, were directed by the report of the International 
Jury to a relatively lai^ number of exceedingly useful and 
important inventions. 

WISCONSIN PHODUCxa 

The small number of awards to Wisconsin products may be 
easily accounted for by mere reference to the ^ts iooideDtally 
mentioned in the early pages of this report— the fact that, with 
all the effort made, but little, comparatively, was sent from 
Wisconsin, owing to the lateness of the day when active me&s- 
ores were taken, the fact that, in order to aeoore attention to 
our State at all, it became neoeseary to group together many 
small contributions and treat them as a State collection, tbos 



n,,vJ.A'Ol>^[c 



412 PARIS UNIVERSAL 

placing it oat of oar power to draw more than one prize on 
the whole, the fact that some of our most valiiable and at- 
tractive specinienH of tnineral products never reached Paris, or 
ooold not be found, and the fact that such contributions as did 
arrive reached there at so late a day that it was impossible to 
bring them to the notice of jurors until after they had conclu- 
ded their work and delivered their reports to the Imperial 
Oommmission. For the prizes and notices actually awarded 
us, we are indebted, first of course, to the excellent character 
of the products exhibited, but secondly and largely to the 
generous courtesy of the members of the International Jary, 
who, for the sake of doing our exhibits the justice the State 
itself had failed to do, kindly consented, in a few instances, to 
procure the amendment of their awards in our behalf. 
FINAL DISPOSITION OF WISCONSIN" PBODUCTS. 

The data fixed by imperial decree for the final close of th« 
Dzposition was Nov. 1st To remain until so late a day was 
neither in accordance with my own plans and expectations, 
nor, under the circumstances, was it practicable for me to do 
aa And, a,ccordingly, after devoting much additional time 
and labor to the study of the exposition by countries and groups 
as well as to the collection of samples of the products of for- 
eign lands, and arranging with American gentlemen intending 
to remain until the close of the Exposition, for the sale of cer- 
tain articles as per order of contributors, and for the packing 
of others, I returned to America, reaching Wisconsin in the 
month of August 

AKRIVAL HOME AND DISTRIBUTION OF ABTICLFS 8KKT TO 
PARIS. 
Late in the winter and during the spring and summer, and 
more recent months, the articles sent to Paris returned. As 
the government of the United States was in no way responsi- 
ble for the return of contributions, and as the Wisconsin Com- 
mission had originally became responsible, not only for their 
return to Wisconsin, but for their safe delivery, without charges, 
to their respective owners, I directed the parties to whom the 
oases were consigood at new York to ship all such articles as 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 418 

were in separate cases to their owners direct, and all other 
packages to me at Madison. 

Notwithstanding their long exposure at Paris and the rough 
handling to which all our goods were necessarily exposed, 
I am happy to state that they arrived safely and are believed to 
have all reached their final destinations in a condition satis&c- 
tory to contributors from whose hands they had been received 
in trust more than a year before. 

The articles sold at Paris' were casks of premium flour, con- 
tributed by the Messrs. Bertschey, of Milwaukee ; leather con- 
tributed by G. Pfister & Co., Milwaukee, and Messrs. J. J. 
Pierron & Co., of Beloit ; and the case of steel hammers con- 
tributed by Messrs. Barr & Cox, of Beloit. 

The six elegant gilt-lettered sample boxes for grain, filled 
with good specimens of Wisconsin wheat, rye, barley, oats and 
Indian corn, which were contributed by the Milwaukee Cham- 
ber of Commerce, with instructions for their presentation to 
the Chamber of Commerce, of Paris, at the close of the Exhi- 
bition, were so presented through the kind intervention of Mr, 
Jas. D. Butler, State Commissioner from Missouri, and also Hon- 
orary Member of the U. S. Commission, who remained in Paris. 

The following are copies of the communication to the Presi- 
dent of the Paris Chamber of Commerce, tendering the sample 
boxes referred to, and the reply on behalf of that body : 



(Copy.) 

P.1IUS, JsDuar; IS, I8S8. 
Mr. Hnmr DiriLLsss, Pra. ofCa Ohambtr of Cmantre* of Qa OUyofFarU; 

DeisBn'.— lam directed bj United States Oammiuiouer, J. W. HojC, 
who Is kl»o State CommiMlaner for WlBcongin, U. S. &., to the " Piria Eipo- 
sUion of 1867," (and who hu returned to America}, to pretent to jour 
honorable body for iooept»nc« eii csseB, or drawee of grain, eihibiled at 
tbs "FarlB nniTcrsalEipoBitioDof 1817;" and dooated bj the Board of 
Trade of Milwaukee, U. S. A. I take great pleotura in being the mediam fbr 
troniniiuion of this oSbring, and trust ita presence la your Chamber may 
proTe acceptable and InstructiTe to your membera. Tbej represeot one 
source of wealth in tbat great State, which only a few years ago was a wilder 
nis and home of the wild Indian; now its vast acres are oultivated and 
ylAld to the hoBbaodmaD large retnrae for hie industry. Please receive tho 
•■sorance of my lugh regard Tor your foBtitation and believe me. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

JAMES L. BUTLEB. 
Manbtr 0/ U. S. Oommiaicn and ComntUriomrfor Btati 
of IFuconfCn la Parit U. Sx. 18ST. 



l;A'Ol>'^IC 



PAEIS TJNIVEHSAL 



Chahbks or CoKHEBCi, FAxn, JKnuiry 27, ISSS. 
Hr. JahisL, Bctlib, CommiitioneT of </u Umled Btata far Uu State of Mvaovri : 
biK —Ton have kindly wlihod to present to ub, in the QAme of the Commia- 
■ionet representing the State of WiFoonaiD, six casee cootaioLug Bpecimena 
of grain, Bent bj that Siate to the Paris CnWerHal Eiposition 

We praj jou, sir, to be the bearer of our thanks to Mr. J. W. Hojt, »nd to 
pra; bim to tranamic to the Chamber of Commerce of Uilwaukee the eipies- 
sioD of onrliTel; gratitude. 

Be pleased to accept, sir, the assurance of our most distingoi shed regard. 
HEHRY DAVILLIER, 

Prmdmt of Uu Chambtr. 
A, Di ToHETM, Siertlars. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

The following account of the financial transactions of the 

Commission is submitted in the belief that the small amount 

received from the State has been managed with the utmost 

care and economy : 



March IB, 1887. Cash from the Oovemor J8O0 00 

Jane 29, lBe7. do (bj draft on Farie) 1,4S8 60 

Deo. SO, lees. do to balaoce acct... 142 8S 

Total receipts ♦1.780 »6 

For printing, advertising, postsge, stationer]' and cleri- 
cal service (ISO RH 

For articles purchased forEipDsition SI 25 

collecliDg and forwardiog contributions 440 86 

collection and installation of goods at Paris a4S 00 

oare of Wiaconsin goods aod ioterests during absence 
of President ofCommissIon and after bis return to 

Wisconsin 166 00 

final dispositioii of goodi at Paris, repacking and re- 

shlpplng goods 1S4 00 

transportation of goods to and from Paris 221 SS 

catalogues of foreign countries 87 00 

articles lost IS SO 

exchange and premium on gold 246 48 

Total disbursements ■|1,780 96 

8DGGE3TIONS FOR THE FDTITRE. 
Having thus, after the expiration of two years, fully com- 
pleted the work undertaken in behalf of the State, — first, in 
collecting and forwarding contributions to Paris ; secondly, in 
securing the best practicable presentation of them at the Expo- 
sition, thereby aidingin the national representation of the whole 
country, and at the same time calling attention to the resource 
of this State ; thirdly, in studying the Exposition in all its di- 
visions with reference to Wisconsin interests ; fourthly, in mafc- 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



EXPOSITION OF 1867. 415 

ing final disposition of "Wisconsin producta parsuant to engage- 
ments with contributors, and last of all, concisely presenting in 
the body of my report such information and suggestions as 
have appeared to be of most practical value, or as would serve 
to give some general idea of the great Exposition, its origin, 
prc^ess, utilities and glories, — I may be pardoned for assum* 
ing that the experience thus acquired should also be made 
practically valuable by a clear, unreserved statement of such 
errors as, having prevented the entire success of this enterprise, 
should be carefully avoided in the future. 

In the first place, then, as the General Government had al- 
ready been too alow in taking measures for a national represen- 
tation at Paris in response to the call of the Emperor of 
France, the State should have been all the more prompt in 
responding to the national call when it came. 

Secondly, such response should have been spirited, practical 
und thorough — not by the bare honorary appointment of a 
score of gentlemen, many of whom neither desired such ap- 
pointment nor had the remotest expectation of attending the 
Exposition, and none of whom, had they all so intended could 
have any recognition at Paris whatever, but rather by direct, 
business-like legislative provision for a full, ample and ex- 
haustive representation of the varied and superior products of 
our mines, quarries and forests, our agriculture and manufac- 
tories, and every other branch of our industry. Had such ac- 
tion been taken in the winter oi 1866 instead of waiting until 
within two weeks of the opening of the Exhibition, leaving 
to individual enterprise what only either could or ought to 
be done by the State, there might have been sent to Paris such 
a representation of our resources and industry as would have 
secured to Wisconsin most honorable and advantageous recog- 
nition from the entire civilized world. 

Thirdly, our State made a serious mistake in not providing 
its commissioners with some statistical document, setting forth 
in attractive form and especially in the concise and potent lan- 
guage of figures, the natural resources, industrial condition and 
social status of our State. A few thousand copies of such a 
pamphlet, printed in the English, French, German and Scaudi- 



416 UKIVERSAL EXPOSITION OF 1867. 

navian languages, by their judiciouB dUtribution among the 
representatives of various countries and the visitors there- 
from, would have met a want seriously felt by the Commission 
and proved of immense material advantage to the State. 

Fourthly, I must not be deterred by false delicacy from 
suggesting, that it ill comports with the honor and dignity of a 
great State to require of those whose zeal for the common 
good and common honor may lead them to sacrifices in its 
behalf, that not only time and service shall be freely given 
but that even expenditures of money necessary to a successful 
issue of their labors shall be a drain upon their own private 
resources. 

CONCLUSION. 

The foregoing prominent errors in the policy of the past 
have doubtless grown out of a lack of just appreciation of the 
importance of these vast iuteroatioual enterprises, which, while 
they incidentally involve marked advantage to individuals, 
localities, and communities, nevertheless were instituted and are 
carried forward with the noble purpose of establishing peace, 
harmony and friendly intercourse among all nations, as a means 
of advancing civilization everywhere, and so lifting up the 
whole human race. 

When the monarohs and despots of the old world have 
risen to the sublime height of recognizing the dignity of 
labor and the justclaims of the working classes of the peo- 
ple to the amelioration of their material and social condition, 
by education and the manifold applications of science ; when 
they lead, moreover, in the grand work of diffusing knowl- 
edge and liberal ideas and sentiments throughout the world 
and among all men, is it not time that the free, intelligent 
and liberty-loving rulers and people of republican America 
awake to a sense of the duty of joining heartily with them in 
this glorious march of mankind ? 

I am, Sir, very respectfully, 

Tour obedient servant, 

J. W. HOYT, 
/Vest Wisonsin Cbm. to Farts Mnywsitim, 



r, ,v.i;A'Ot"l'^lc 



TRANSACTIONS 
WISCONSIN STATE AGBICULTtRAl SOCIETT 

FOB 1868. 



idb,Googk' 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 
1 e e 8. 



K A. DARLING, Foiro DU Lac. 



a R HINKLEY, SnMlHT. 

W. R. TAYLOR, Cottage Grovb. 

0. a WILLIAMS, Baraboo. 

SATTERLEE CLARK, HOEICON. 

ELI STLCSON, Oshkobh. 

C. C WASHBURNE, La Cbossi. 



J. W. HOYT, MADiaoN. 



DAVID ATWOOD, Madboh. 



DAVID WILLIAMS, Spbibopield. 

0. L. MARTIN, jANlByiLLE. 

N. S. GREEN, MiLFOHD. 

J. O. EATON, LODL 

J. H. WAREBN, Albaity. 

W. W. FIELD, BoscOBKL. 

G. TBUBSDALE, Kekosha. 



■i-FsniMns, ■x4)rncio mniBfl ; 
B. R HINKLEY, Stokit. 
DAVID WILLIAMS, Spbingfibld. 



.ij,Co(5glc 



AJSnsrUAL REPOET 

FOR THE TEAR IBSS. 



Si3 ExceUmctfy Lucius Faibchild, 

Chvemor of the iStale of Wixxmmn : 

Sm : — The industry of Wisconsin, during the jear past, has 
m&de more than woated prepress in nearly every department 

Notwithstanding the increased attention given to atock- 
breeding, and the very remarkable growth of the hop business 
in many Bectione of the State, the area devoted to the staple 
cereal crops has also greatly increased. And although the 
season was in some respects especially uu&vorable, the yield 
has been ratber above than below the average of ordinary 
years. 

Corn, alone of the grain crops, appears to have suffered very 
materially from the dronth. 

The potatoe crop Buffered from two caoses — the potatoe 
bng, which proved a seriouB scourge in some localities, and 
the severe and protracted drouth of summer and early autumn. 
On the other hand, the aeaaoa has been marked by the intro- 
duction of new varieties of this indispensable esculent that 
promise to be of great valne. 

The grass crop also suffered from the drouth and was con- 
sequently lighter than the average. 

But, of all the crops grown, the hop has been the most un- 
fortunate. We gave the note of warning in our last report, 
in the hope that some farmers who were likely to engage in the 
business at too late a day to make it profitable, might be in- 
duced to torn their energies into some other channd, but we 

(419) 



420 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

were, oureelves, hardly prepared for so sudden and fatal a col- 
lapse as has already befiUlea this basineas in many portions of 
our State. As might have been anticipated, the suffering has 
been greatest in those districts where the enterprise had its ori- 
gin. In Sauk county the ruin effected by the hop-louse has been 
equal to, if not greater, than the notable prosperity by which 
it was preceded. For, whereas, previous to the hop mania the 
agriculture of that section was as prosperous aa in any part of 
the State, and the farmers were gradually acquiring an inde- ' 
pendence, and even wealth, now, by reason of the neglect of 
other branches of husbandry, and the investment of large 
amounts in new hop fields and curing establishments, very 
many have not only sunk their fabulous profits of the three 
or four years' previous business, but have even come out of the 
speculation very much worse off than when they engaged in 
it The price, too, as was predicted, has declined to less than 
half what it was in 1867, and that not only in the districts in- 
fected by the destructive insects referred to, where the crop 
was damaged, but throughout the entire country ; so that the 
great hop speculation may be supposed to have come to an end 
for the present 

The improvement in manufacturing industry is yearly 
more manifest Establishments for working up our metallic 
ores, factories for converting the timber of our forests into 
the numberless articles of farm and household use, woolen 
mills for working up our increasing amounts of wool, tan- 
neries for the manfactare of leather, and a multitude of other 
kindred eftablishmenbi are growing up on every hand, to the 
great encouragement of all citizens of Wisconsin who realize 
the importance of a diversified industry, wherever nature has 
indicated such a policy by supplying the requisite facilitiea 

Whether a judicious political economy would dictate the en- 
caragement of this important branch of industry by granting 
to capital to be invested therein a limited immunity from tax- 
ation, as has been, at times su^^^ted, or not, it is unquea- 
tionably competent for the State, and eminenUy its duty, to do 
everything in its power to further the intereatB, not only of 



D,ai,z.db,CAX>t^ic 



ANNUAL REPORT— 1868. 421 

thia, but of all otter branches of Wisconsin indnatry, by striv- 
ing to secure, at the earliest day practicable, sncli public internal 
improvements as will open up our resources to the world by 
an increase of means of the trant^portation of both raw and 
manufactured materiaL 

The State Agricultaral Society has enjoyed another year of 
prosperity, and has been enabled to adopt measures for increas. 
iog its usefulness by large additions to the prizes offered in some 
of the more important departments of industry, as well as by 
the publication of the 7th volume of Transactions, of which 
this report and the proceedings of this year are designed to 
constitute a part The Secretary has also carried into partial 
execution certain plans, long cherished, for creating, in the 
Agricultural Rooms, a cabinet of economical materials, both 
native and foreign, that shall illustrate the resources of our 
own State and their relations to those of other countries. 

The Exhibition of 1868 was one of the best hitherto held by 
the Society, and the attendance quite as large, although the 
reoeipte were considerably less, owing to circumstances inde- 
pendent of the Exhibition itself. Nevertheless, the finances 
are in a healthy condition, as will appear by the Treasurer's 
Report, herewith submitted, and the officers of the Society are 
more than ever hopeful of opening to it a new career of pros- 
perity more Batisfactory than that hitherto enjoyed- 
Respectfully, 

J. W. HOYT, Secretary. 
State Agricultural Rooms, Jan. 1, 186d. 

[For Treunrer's Seport aea lut page of Tanuctlona ft>r IBCB.] 



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PROOEEDHSTGS. 



EXECUTTVE MEETINGS. 

Stiti AaucuiTTRu, Rooiu, Febnuij 4, ISSS. 

Biecatire Oommlttee met, purau&at to reqnirenMDt of the bj-lawa, this 
erenlDg, &t 71 o'olook. 

Preient— Ti«e PreiideDti, B. R. Hinklej, Wm. B. Tijlor, C. H. VUUuoa 
ud 8>t. 0)»rk ; uid Hbmh. J. 0. Etton, J. H. Warren, W. W. Field, Sarid 
Atwood and J. W. Hojt. 

TIee Frerident Hinkle; In the chatr. 

Oo laodoa, adJeonied to B o'olook A. M., of Wedaeaday, tbe fith. 

9 o'clock, A. M., Feb. 5. 
Oommlttee met pannant to a^jonmment. Freteet — Same members a* be- 

Vice Preiideot Hlekley in the ohair. 

On motion, it waa 

Atobw^ That, In partnanoe of a long eatablithed osage, tbe Angaal Eihi- 
Ution for IMS shall oommenoe >ith Nondaf of tbe lait week in September, 
and oontlnue daring the week. 

On motion, Committee then took up the Premium List, Bagalations, etc., 
of ISS1, for reTiaion. During their l^iore, a committee of the Stats Forti- 
cnltnral Bocietj, oonsigling of Or. Joseph Bobbins, President, and ICeiaro. 
Willey and Lawrence, Secretaries, waited npoQ the Committee and ofTored a 
proposition for holding ajolnteihibltion with the State Agriealtnral Socie- 
ty, this year, as beretofore. 

On motion of Hr. Hoyt, the propoiition of tbe State Hoitiooltiiral Society 
wai receiTcd for consideration ; action thereon being postponed nntil after 
tbe decision of tbe Oommittce on tbe prelimiaary question of location. 

BeTiiioo of Fremiom List resumed and continued nntil IVi o'clock. 

A^ourned to meet at 3 o'clock. 



FiBBUUT 6— 

Oommittee met pnianant to adjoornment. 
PreMnt — Same members a* before. 
Vice Preaident Hinklaj In tbe ohalr. 
^422) 



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PBOOEBDINGS. 428 

SflcreUrj reftd oommaiiiMtlonB from Fretideot Duling and Vice Fretident 
f tilBon eipUlQing their abeence from tha meeting. 

B«TiBion of Premium List rcBamed. 

Mr. Me&obuB, of Beloit, iTsit«d upon the Oommittee, taking permission to 
exhibit » a»w proceu for the letining of Borgham sjrap and sugar, and, on 
motion, iras ioTited to proceed with his experiments in the presence of the 
Committee. 

At this stage of procee^ngs, a committee of the Dane County Btook and 
jlgrioultural ABSOCt&tio;i, oonsiitiag of Judge L. B. TUu, President, 0. 8. 
Wille?, E. B. Crawford and Sam. Klauber, Directors, waited upon the BoArd 
with a proposition ia relation to the laoation of the neit Slate fair. 

Voted that the said committee be tieard at oni;e. 

Whereupon, Judge Vilas proceeded to state that it was the wish of the said 
Assooiation that the Fair be located at Uadiaon for the i ears 1866 and ISAS, 
and (hat to this eud they were willing to make the reqaiced improrements 
within an; reasonable limit. 

On motion, the proportion tendered was reoeired and liud upon the tkble 
for aotion at a more convenient time. 

Bevision of Begulations and Premioni List resumed and oontinned nntil 
4 o'clock r. H. 

At S o'clock President Kejet A. Darling arrived and took the clu^r. 

At S o'clock Committee a^jonrned (o meet at 9 o'olookA. m. of theStfainst. 



Febrosry S, S o'clock, a. m. 

Oommtttee met pursuant to adjournment. 

Present, same members as before. 

President Darling in the chair. 

On motion of Hr. Field, voteJ, that the Annual Exhibition of this Bociet; 
for the ;ears 1B68 and 1 BBS, be and tbej are hereby located at Madison: 
proaidtd the Ouie Co., Stock and Agricultural Assooiation will comply with 
Boeb terms aj shall be approved b; this Board. 

Moved by Mr Field that the President and Secretary be Instrneted to pre- 
pare written conditions, compliance with which, on the part of the Dana 
Co., Stock and Agricultural Association shall seonre to Madison the location 
of the State Fair for the years 18SS and 1809. 

Ur. Eaton moved to amend by adding to said committee Messrs. Hinklej, 
Taylor and C. H, Williama, and that the committee thaa constituted be au- 
thorised and inatructed not only to prepare canditioos, as provided in the 
motion pending, but also to settle the whole question of location. Carried. 

The motion so amended was then carried unanimously. 

After some deliberation, the committee on location, preferring to snbmit 
the conditions agreed upon by them to the Board, while in season, for its 
approval or amendment, presented the said conditions embodied la the fol- 
lowing resolution, to wit: 



I v'^'OO'^lc 



STATE AOBIOnLTDllAL SOCIETY 



following conditio , 

1. The pavmeiit, within thirty daja from thi» date, Febnisr; flth, of the 
unoimt due from raid AsBociatlon to this Bociet;. 

3. The conetruction of > suitable building for the Agricultural Depart- 
meot, of dimensions not leas that SiiflO feet ; ■ building ffir the Departmeot 
ofHaaufai:tureB, not less Iban 40;iS0 feeti at least 60 additional box sulta 
ftod the required stalls and pens for cattle, aheep and Bwine ; a floor in the 
Hall of Fine Arts; wella in auCBEient number and in perfect working order. 

S. The proper seeding of the grounds to gratis. 

4. The making of Such additional improvements tig the Committee of this 
Society shall deem neceeury to the eucceufal holding of the said Eihibitloo, 
and the completion of such improvements to the satisfaction of said Com- 
mittee at least SO dsTS before the date of the opening of the Eihibitioo, and 
the deliver; of the grounds to said Oomtnittee ten days before said date of 
opening. 

5. The repaii: and complete improvement of the e>aid grounds to the 
entire eatisfjction of the Committee of this Society for the Kibibition of 
1BG9 and the copipletioD and deliver; thereof an the terms above recited. 

e. The free use of the Grand Stand, except during tlie trials of speed 
and the Eiqiiestriaa Displays of both exhibitions. 

T. A satisfactory guaranty that the hotels and boarding hoaxes of HadiBOD 
shall not charge more than their uouid rates. 

S, The limitation by a dty ordinance of hack and omnibus fares to S6 
cents for a single trip between the city and fair grounds, as also between the 
hotels and the railroad depot. 

9. The delivery to the Secretary of this Society, of the guarantees aboTO 
required within SO days from this date. 

Which resolution, on motion, wiu ananimoosly adopted. 

The Secretary presented oondiUoas on which, in hie judgment, the Society 
shoald receive the application of the State Horticultural Society for a joiat 



EibibltiOD in 1808 ; the B4id conditJoQa being la substance as follows ; 

The Btate Agricultural to dve to State Horticnltaral Society the arranging 
of the premium list in the Horticultural Department : provided that the IK- 
gregate of premiums in said department shall not be materialty less than in 
1SB7 ; also the appoiotment of a Superintendent and an ossist&nt, and the 
necessary Jurtges for said department, and to set apart for the said Horticul- 
tural premiums the sum of %fi(K), payable after the Fair, on the order of the 
officers of the Horticultural Society. Preparations for the exhibition in tba 
Horticultural Department, within reasonable limits, to be made by the Agri- 
caltural Society in like manner as heretofore, and the list of premiums in 
Horticultural Department to be published, bb heretofore, in the list of tbe 
Agricultural Society, of which it is an essential part. 

Oa motion, the said conditions were approved, and the Secretary wU 
instructed to present them In person to the State Horticultural Society, then 
in session in tbe Capitol. 

Id response to this proposition of the Executive Committee, the follwing 
communication was promptly received : 

Iie»ohtd, That tbe thanks of,thig Society be, and tbeyare hereby, tendered 
to the Executive Committee of the State Agricultural Society for the very 
cordial manner and liberal ipirit manifesteil by them in accepting our pro- 
position for a union of the two societies, for the fall Eihibitioo ; also, that 
the members of said Committee are hereby invited to'atteud our meeting and 
eiomine the fraits now on the table, for exhibition, at their pleasure. 



J.A'OO'^IC 



PROCEEDINGS. • 425 

TIm Becreter; otbred the folloviag reiolation : 

StfJvtd, by the Eiecuti»e Committee of the State AgricoUoral Soclet* of 
WiBoonBiJi, That the able and efficEeol manner In which the oommiisionerB 
appointed nnder " an act for the prei-ervalion of fruit trees," moels onrbeartj 
approval, and that, Id ouropiDioD, the same ..ught to be eitenaJTBlj citculat' 
ed and read bv our people, aa a work calculated to promote the proBperitT of 
thifl State. r r J 

Which was adopted. 

On motion the committee ac(jouniBd to meet at 2 o'clock, P. M. 



n -.. , 8 o'clock, P. M. 

lyommittee met puraaant to adjoummeat. 
Present — same members as before. 

Having made nomerous changes in the Regulationi and List of Prirei, and 
aalhorited the Secretary to perfect fje same at his diacretion, 
On motion, the subject of appoiutments was neit t«kea up. 
Voted that the Officers of the Eihibition be the same aj [□ 1867, to-wit: 

Oeiural Superinlendtnt—The President. 

OontrolUr O^et of ^'ttfry— The Secretary. 

ControOtT Ticktt q^c&~Jhe Treasarer. 

MariAal—W. K. Taylor. 

And that the Preaident and Secretary be authorized to appoint a Ticket 
Aoconntant. 

The followitig gentlemen were chosen to superintend the several Depart- 
meata of the Eihibition : 

I>ipinimmt of ffona—S. S. Green. 
datii-O. B. Williams. 
S/utpSti Stilson. 
Bairuand Fotdtry^Q, Truesdale. 
Agrieultural—W. W. Field. 
Mar^mry~RMfa» Cheney. 
MannfaHureri HaU—^ni. Clark. 
Fiiu AtU Baas. H. Warren. 
J^fuulrtanum— The Uarshal. 

Judges for the several classes were also appointed, after mnoh time in at- 
tempting to select persons believed to be both competent and willing to serve 
the Society Id such capacity. 

The Secretary urged the great imporlanoe to the Society of the annual 
publication of its TransactioDB, and read a copy of a bill prepared by htm with 
a view to secare tbatend, and which was about to be iatroduced in the Sen- 
ate. He believed that, althongh a similar bill had failed to pass the AB8emhly|at 
two previous sessions, it was only because the officers and friends of the So- 
ciety bad not more generally given the measnre their active support. 

On motion, it was nnanimously resolved that each member of the Board 
would take pains to urge npon their representatives, and upon the members 
of the legislature generally, the passage of the said bill now pending. 

On motion of the Secretary, it was unanimousty 

Jtaoltied, that the thanlcs of this Society are due, and are hereby tendered, 
to F. W. Woodward, Esq., of New Tork, pdbUsber of agrioultmij, hortleul- 



l;A'Ol>'^IC 



426 STATE AGBICULTDKAL SOOIETT. 

tnral and kindred works, for vftluftble donkllotia to the Sooletj's Llbrarr, 
incladlnK uveral works new edtion* of which hare joBt been iianed in a atjie 
eminentlj creditable Co bia enterprise u well as to his known lotereat >q um 
progress ofindaMrial literature. 

On motion, the Oommlttee ajjoamed *me £t. 

J. W. HOTT, i 



UiiTiiros or the ExHinrTE OaunrTTEt were held every erening daring Uie 
Fair, and a session was also held subseqDent to tbe Exhibition ; but dnee 
the basinesB transacted related azclusiTaly to matters of temporary intereat, 
sueh as nnmerooa details of the Eihibitioo, iuclading the reTisloD of the 
raports of awarding committees, etc., it is not deemed important to 
publish the proceedings thereof. 

For Frocbhiinos or Deciubes Hketino or EzicmiTi Cohwttee, see 
report immediately following the List of Preminms Awarded at the Eibibl- 
tlon of IMS. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS FOR 186». 

SXATK AmouLTOaaL Boom, October I, IHB. 

Pnrmant to oonstltutianal proTisions and pablished notioe, tbe Life Hen- 
bers of tbe Society met this eTcning at 7 o'clock, in the State AgrionltnraJ 
Rooms for the election of officers for tbe ensuing year. 

The meeting was called to order bj Acting President Hiokley. 

A large number of members were present. 

L. B. Tlias moved tbat the Sooiety do now procasd to the election of olBcers, 
and that a committee of fire be appointed to nominate tbe same. Carried 

The chair appointed Hessrs. L. B. Vilas, B. F. Perober, J. H. Hieks, A. 
A. Bennett, 0. H. Stewart. 

Tbe Secretary made a financial statement for the year 18ST, as per printed 
report in forthcoming volume of Transactions. 

He also called attention to the fact tbat tbe Tth volume of Transactions 
of the Society, for the publication of which by tbe State he bad so long labor- 
ed, was now pretty well throogh the press, and that, provision bsd gener- 
Onaly been made for tbe fnture regular pubHcation of a volume of the So- 
oLety's reports from year to year. He furthermore stated that he was now 
engaged in the work of forming a cabinet of economical materials, including 
metallio ores and their products, building materials, agricultural products, 
jnodels of implements, etc., etc., and tbat all friends of tbe Society were 
earnestly solicited to contribute thereto. 

A call was made for the reading of tbeOoDStitution to be submitted at the 
next Annnal Heating ; which was read by the Secretary. 

TIm oommittee on nominations returned, and niade the following repotl : 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



PROCEEDINGS. 427 

iVcnilmf— B. S. Hlnklay, Summit. 

FiM Pntidailt—Wm. R. TsjloF, OottagB Qtotb ; 0. H. WilliwBB, Bmboo ; 
Skt. Glirk, Horicon ; Eli Stilsoii, Oshkoih; 0. 0. WuhbnrD, L& Oroue ; Ba- 
toB Oheae;', Whitew&ter. 

8tcrttary—l. W. Hojt, Uadison. 

2VeittiiTtr—T)».vli Atwood, Uadiaon. 

AdiMonal JTamin-t-C. L. U&rtin, J&ueBrite ; K. B, Oreen, Xllbrd; J. 0. 
Eaton, Lodi ; J. H. Wftrren, Alb&nr ; W. W. Field, Boacobel ; J. L Cue, 
Euiiii« ; Neliou Dewe;, LftDoMMr. 

On motion, ■4Joiird*d tint St. 

J. W. aOTT, Btertlarf. 



For procesdinga of th« Arkuil Uumio of the Soeietj far ISBS, ■«« re- 
port thereof on th« pigea Immedlttel; following tbe list of Premioms Avud- 
ed >t the Exhibition of ISU. 



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EXHIBITION OF 1868. 

[From the Secretarj'i Record.] 



The Fifteenth AnaualEihibition of thaWigooDsio Bute AgrlcnItuNlSocietr 
was held at UadiiOD, commenoiDg Sept. SBth snd closing Oct. 3d. The 
grouDds were farniehed with better improTements than erer before ; some EO 
hox atalls, for horsCB, having been added, aad two oeat and BpacionB halls — 
one for the Agricultaral and the other for the Manufacturers' i>epaitment, 
aubatitated for the uDsatiafactorf canras tents go long need by the Societj. 
Uacbioery E»U was supplied with 100 feet of new line shafting, with a doiea 
SO inch pnlleja, and furnished with a lO-horse power engine for driving ma- 
obiDety. 

The Exhibition itself was ooe of the most sacceesfiil ever held bj 
the Booietj. The entries embraced fewer nniinportsnt articles than einul, 
and a proportionally larger cninber of aeperior animals In the dilDsrent de- 
partments, and of valuable implements aad machines. The list of premlama 
awarded will illustrate these facta better than they oan be estshllahed otb- 

The praaence of metallic orea and their prodacts — eapecislly of lead ores 
and lead ; iron orea with iron and steel ; zinc ores, with spelter and sine 
oiids — constituted a new and interesting feature, which we bare long been 
anxious to iotroduce. The ohjects of the Society extend to every branch of 
industry, miniog and mannfactDrea, no lew than agriculture, and we would 
be glad always to have every department represented at onr exhibitioua 

The samples of Bessemer steel in the form of a msssive iogot, and numer- 
ooB seotiouB of steel rail for railways, from the Milwaukee Iron Works and 
tVe Wyandotte Works at Detroit, shown by Hon. E. B. Ward, chief proprie- 
tor of both establishments, wer« extremely ioteresting, as affording evideneA 
. of our ability to manufacture the heat of ateel for these uses. The ores used 
are those of lake Superior and Dodge county mixed. 

The samples of sine oxide from the Bellvoe Zinc Works, located near 
Mineral Point on the Mineral Point Bailroad, were alio of excellent qnality, 
and beddes were Interesting and important as showing not what com be dona 
in that line in Wisconsin, for as mach can be done here as elsewhere, bnt 
rather [show log what is already being done to derelope the mini 
of the State. 
(428) 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 1868. 429 

The Hlner*! Point Hinlng Oompanj prepared for * ratgniflcent eihihition 
of the le&d uid zinc producM of tbeir mlaeB, together with s handgome suite 
of MmpleB shoving the aeTeral at&ges of the manufacturing proceiB, but the 
boxee in wbich the; were packed were uafortnnatelj oretloolied among the 
tnnltitode of packages at the depot, and did not reach the groanda in time 
for the eihibition. But Inaamnch aa the; were generonsl; designed b; tlie 
exbibllore for the Soc'ety's Cabinet, the? hare been awarded the Qrand SlWer 
Medal b; the Eiecutire Committee, and placed on exhibition in the Agrioul- 
ral Sooma. 

The attfodaDDe was verj large after Wednesday, which wairather dark and 
MiDr;tbe Dtunber present on Tbursda; beiog estimated at from SO.OOO to 
80,000 people. 

The special Dally programme proved highly satisfactory to the public. The 
addresses on Wadae«day and Thnrada; eTenlnga, in tbe Beoate Chamber-- 
the first by X. A. Wlllard, Esq., Agricnltaral Editor of the Utica Herald, on 
"The Dairy: its Products, Hethods and ProSta," and the second by Hod. B. 
B. Ward, of Detroit, oa "The Farmer and the Haua&ctnrer,"— were largely 
attended by the thinking, practical men of the State, and gave great eatls 
faction to the Society and to all who heard them. These addresses alone, if 
properly heeded by the people of Wisconsin would be worth vastly more 
than the cost of the whole Exhibition and of the volume of Traosactlona, 
in which they appear. 

On Friday, the " AoDnal Addresses " were deliverod on the groonde, from 
the judges' stand, by Bod. Timothy 0. Howe, U. S. Senator, and Oen. Ooo. 
B. Smith, of UadlsoD, both of whom In brief epeechea, eminently appropri- 
ate [as will appear bj reports of them pablished In thie volume,] delighted 
and instructed their mnltitode ol auditors. 

Tbe Election of Officers for ISflS passed off ver; pleasaotly, resulting JQ bat 
few changes in the Board. [See page 427.] 

All in all, the Exhibition was creditable to both Society and State, thongb 
we have bad occasion to note several partionlare in which the fair of 1809 
ongbt to iurpaas IL 



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STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



THE DAIRY : 

ITS PRODUCTS, METHODS AKD PROFITa 



Ad Addrcti DtUTcnd U Iha VXHinilii But* Fair, lUdUen, BcDMBber », ISM. 



BT X. A. VILLABD, M. A., OF NSV YORK. 



Mtmiert of At Wueoiuin State Ajricvtiural Setir^, LatBa md Otntte- 
nm ; — It is Terj gratifjiog for me to be prcseot at thU grt&t Exhibition of 
Western Indnitry and to biTe tbe opportnnitr of addreuiDg a Weatern audi- 

Your S«areC«t7, Dr. Hojt, irhen ioTlting mt to apeak on tbii occarion, 
made special reqaest fbr a prac^cal •ddrem npon tbe Diiar. 

A practical talk upon ^07 branch of agriculture hardly admits of way at- 
tempt at oratorical diaplaf. Oood taste wotdd Mem to dictate that qaeetions 
upon pnotical farming ahoald be tieated in a plain common eenae vaj. I 
do not wish to eonrej the imprssdOD that there U no poetry, no romanee, 
no beauty or pleaaore in farm life ; for I hold that quite t* mncb of all thU 
maj be foond in the farmer's calling as in other walks of life ; but when we 
coins down to business and money-making, I am told the people of tbe 
Northwest prefer to look at things from that stand point. 

I do not know wbat may be expected of me upon this occasion, bat I bare 
Msumed that earnest practical men are better latisfied witb that wblch is 
nseful and applicable to their buunesa, although stated in plain langnage, 
than with speculatiTo tbeoriee, elaborated into rounded periods and eloquent 
diction. 

If I have made a false assumption I cannot expect to hold yonr attention, 
tince I have counted entirely npon your interest in tbe queationa to be dis- 

There are large tracts of land in Wisconain adapted to the didry, and it ia 
B matter which concerns tbe prosperity of the State, whether this branch of 
farming promises to be remoneratiTe and endaring. Tbe true dairy lands of 
America are somewhat limited in extent, and it is believed by many that tbe 
time is rapidly approacliing, when the demand for dairy products will b« 
largely in excesa of production. Last year (lSfl7), though tbe make both In 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



EXHTBinOlT OF 18(i8. 481 

Borope ind Am«riCB wu the largest evei kDOirn, It wm not beyond a betlthj 

conBumpllTe demand, vhils the pradaot both of batter uid ebeese thU ^ear 

on aocouDt of the Bsrere drontb Id Great Britain, it is thought, irlUbemneh 
leis tban nhat U real); needed. 

The hlstorjof EiBtern fanning goea to ehow that no character of fartn land* 
bae Increased in Talne in the ratio of that in the dairy dietricta. I un not 
prepared to mj nbetber thia rule holda good at the Wert, bnt the time will 
come, I apprehend, when the dairy lands of WiBoonein — location and other 
thiDgi ttelng eqnal — will commandtbe mast money. 

In mt^lDg this comparison, farming landa, in the ordinary acceptation of 
the term, ar« meant. 

Lands coTered with bop plantations, with vineyards or orobards, or In the 
Ticinlty of cities, when market gardening is in snccesaful operation, owe 
mnch of their valne to tbeir i&iproTementS, and oannot, therefore, be counted 
In the ooQiparison. 

It is alleged that the trae graiing dairy laodj are more Talnible than 
grain landa, because : Ist. They are of more limited eitent. 3d. The 
grasses have fewer enemies to contend with, and give the most reliable 
results for any series of years. Sd. That dairy farms can be carried on at 
less expense; that they are constantly increasing in fertiDty; that the pro 
ducts of the dairy are earlier and more readily turned into cash ; that the 
prodnct of the farm is concentrated Into a small compass, and hence the cost 
of transportatioD Isreduced to the minimum; and, lasUy, that an increased 
and permanent foreign demand renders prices stable, so thai the dairy farmer 
can nearly always count upoo the income from his farm. 

The Herkimer County, H. Y., farmers claim that there has not been a fail- 
ure in the grass crop of the county for thirty years— that is, that during that 
time, there has been no necessity for taming off the herds for want of pas- 
turage, nor tbe impurtatiun of hay or fodder for tbeIr wintnr keep. 

For the last twenty yearal bare had persona] obserration of the cheese 
eropof the county, and in no year has it failed, though ofcourseaome sea- 
sons hare been marked as giving below the average jield, but none so 
markedly poor as to be called a failure. 

I have referred to the claim that the labor expense on a dairy farm is less 
tban that for grain. 1 have known of many instances when one man and 
one woman have done all the work on a farm carrying 80 cows, except the 
employment ol an additional hand for a couple of months in haying and bar- 

Themore asoal course among those who rent farms carrying from SO to to 
cows, is to hire a man for six or eight months, perhaps a girl for the same 
time In the house, if tbe wife is not strong, and cheese making is to be coq- 
dncted on the farm. I cannot say that this is always the best oonrie, or 
that more profits might not be secured by a indicions ontlaj of more manual 
labor. I only mention tbe fact to abow that an bnadred acres In pasture and 
flf^ aores In meadow are managed with less labor tban if tbe some were de 
Toted to other orops than grass. 



l;A'Ot>'^IC 



482 STATE AGRICULTURAL SOOIETT. 

The tvenge annual receipts on good dtlry fanoa at the Eaat, at preunt 
prices of dairy prodacta, am from twenty to tveDtj-Sve dollars per acre. 

Before proceeding to give in detail, some of tbe metboda found to be-eno- 
cesafnl in dairy practice, it ipay be well to review in brief the present con- 
dition ofthe cheese interest la thiB country and Europe. From tbe figures 
which I shall present, the fanners of Wisconsin will, I trnst, be able to see 
more clearly what indacementa are offered, in turning their attention to this 
branch of farming. 

It is only quite recently that tbe dairy has become an important branch of 
naUonal industr;. Dorlng the past eight yeare it has been rapidly spreading 
over new fields. It is engaging the attention of fanners in the Eastern, 
Western, North-western and Uiddle States, wherever lands ate adapted to 
grazing, and there arc springs and streams of living water. 

Tbe history of American dairying has never been written. Perhaps a 
glance at its rise and progress as a speciality, will not be out of place. 

Herkimer, New York, is the oldest dairy district in America. I knew the 
man in his old age who first began cheese dairying in Herkimer, He came 
into tbe country on foot from New England more than seventy years ago 
He was rich in health and strength. He had eight silver shillings in his 
pocket, an aie upon bia shoulder, and two stout arms to swing it. 

Nearly the whole country was then a denjc forest. Braat and his Mohawks 
had been gone several years, hut traces of their pillage and murders were 
fresh among the early settlers ia the valley and along the rirer. 

Tbe old Dutch heroine, Mrs. ghell was then living in the codntry. She was 
a noted character during the ReTolution. She ia represented as having been 
Tery comely, with a magnificent figure and proportion lilce that depicted in 
Oredan statues. She had soft brown eyes, and was withal as tender hearted 
as she wss courageous. Her husband being at the wari', she took her infant 
to the field, and helped her eldest eon, a lad, to hoe tbe com, wi th a mnsket 
strapped to her shoulders. 

The saTagea, in more than one encounter, had learned to fear and respect 
Krs. Shell Her aim was steady and her bullets death. 

When tbe Indians besieged her It^ house she fought dde by ude with her 
husband, all day and all night, battering the guna with an aie as they thrust 
them througb the logs, snii firing at the assailants, until help came from tbe 
Fort. The house stood on the great black slate bills, rising near the Hobawk, 
to the north, overlooking along line of charming sceaery. Beyond was a Tal- 
ley, and a still higher elevation. Here the sturdy young New Englander 
picked his land. His strong arms felled tbe timber over many acres. He 
built his log house and established his herd upon the soil. Then he took to 
wife a Cheshire girl, who made tbe first cheese dairy in the State. This 
man's name was Arnold. He accnmnlated laige wealth, was of the strictest 
integrity, and went to hia rest honored and respected. 

From such beginnings sprang the mighty gUnt, that is now stalking over 
tbe continent, dotting the land with countless herds. Perhaps tbe strengUi 
of tbli interest cut best be given in figures: 



l;A'Otl<^IC 



EXHIBITION OP 1868. 4SS 

AmericaD dftlrjing ttou reprewnts « ciplttl of mor« thko |W),000,000. 
Th« cbeeee prodnct lut year, (ISST,) sold for |SS,OO0,O0O, snd tbe bntUr. 
prodnot of New York alone, wai nearly 85,000,000 of ponnda, and the quan- 
iitj of oheese made T3,000,0i>0 of ponncU. The value of tbeao prodactv, 
at a very moderate eatlmate, waa tben G0,000,000 of dollars. 

The wheat crop of New Tork io 1801, «u S,000,000 of bughela; oats, 19- 
000,000; rye, S,00n,000; aod com, 17,000,000. Tbe product of New Tork 
dairies tberefore sold for more than tbe entire grain erop of the State. 

The wool clip of the Stale that year waH uot qnite 18,000,000 poanda, 
which at a dollar per poiuid would amonnt to do more than one-fourth that 
from the dairy. There has been a large Increase of dairy farming in New 
Tork since 1864. 

Looking carefully over the census, I fail to Snd any other agrleultnral In- 
terest in the state that can begin to meaaare arnw with the dairy, for if we 
add the lalue of pork made from whey, the calTes raised and tbe beef and . 
milk sold, we can bardJyget tbe annual prodnct from the dairy Iknns of New 
Tork below an hundred millions of dollara Am I wrong tben in supposing: 
the dairy farmers of New York to be the most powerful body of sgricultar- 
Itts, dcToled to a specially, in that State. 

It is remarkable bow rapidly this interest hsa been derelopod. In 1840, 
the value of the dairy prodacts of New Tork, butter cheese and milk, na. 
estimated by the U. S. censos at only 110,4^0,000, and iu all tbe State* at 
about 984,000,000. In ISfiO, the product of bntter in the United States and, 
Territories was 31S,84fi,800 pounds, and the cheese 100,036,8118 pounds. In 
1860 the bntter product had reached 409,081,873 pounds and the cbeeee lOS,-. 
008,9K7 pounds. Tbe value of their prodacts that year oould not have been., 
less than 300,000,000 of dollars. The total Industrial product arising from 
agriculture within the United States, in 1860, was estimated at about eighteen, 
hundred mlliiDns of dollars. 

Tbe products of tbe dairy, then, were one-ninth of the total agrieoltural 
products of the whole country. 

The cotton crop of )SB9 wis 4,8 BO, 000 bales, worth t>4S, 900,000— not vary 
mnoh more, it will be seen, than tbe value of the products from tbe dairy. 

It requires nearly all our agricultural labor in the Northern States to feed 
our mouths, in IBOO we exported only 8,000,000 bushels of corn out of 
nearly 800,000,000 bushels raised, and tbe same proportion of wheat and all 
our other agricultural products. We cultivate now about 31,000,000 acres of 
corn and 11,000,000 acres of wheat. 

The transport of wheat and eom from the Northwest to the sea-board, and 
the ^ight across the Atlantic, renders it difficult to compete with European 
grain-growers in their own markets. 

Hence turning the com iuto batter, cheese, beefaud bacon, or any system of 
agriculture by which you can condense a bulky product, and reduce freight, 
mnstbe advantageous to the Western farmer. But tbe great West, so rich 
In soil and in almost every ^rionltural product, is m yet unable t« rapplj 
itwlf with the products of the dairy. 

28 Aq. T&ANfi. 



izcdb.CoO^^lc 



4S4 STATE AGKICDLTTIRAL SOCmTT. 

If jon oan alford (o parohase chseia Team Sew ToA diirj fanni whloh 
■n eelllng from one baadred to tiro bundred doll«ra per acre, pajing forthe 
transport of the article West, it would Been at least that joa hare plenty of 
moncj, (wihoh of ooaru we arc (rilliag to take) tbongb, to tell the truth we 
think it rather eitraraf^t on foar part. 

From the best infonnatioa we ^■*a get, the cheese prodact of 1B67, from 
the whole dairj district of the TTnited States, ainonnted to S00,000,000 of 
ponndi. Nearl; half of (hit product waa made in the State of New Tori^ 

Between 1840 and 1850 American cheeae began to be shipped abroad, the 
first shlpmeDt barlcg been inaugurated by Herkimer county deilera. 

Id 181S-t0 the exports of American cheese to Qreat Britain, wer« a little 
over 15,000,000 of ponnds. Much of the cheese manufactured that jear was 
poor Id qaalit.v and British shippers claimed to have suatained hear; Iobms. 
There was a more moderaCe demand the following year, and prices fell off 
a penny a pound, rarying for fair to strictly prime from S cts. to SI per pomid. 

The exports of 1849-SO were 12,000,000, pounds and cont'uued to rary 
without important increase for several year«. 

In 1860 the exports had reached 3S,000,000 pounds, and were increased the 
following year to 40,000,000 pounds. About this time the associated dairy 
system began to attract attention, 5eTersI factories were in opera^on in 
Oneida County, N. 1., and were taming oat s superior article of cheese. 
The system had first been inaugurated br Jewe Williams, a farmer living 
■ear Borne, in thnt county, and was suggested from mere acoideotal circnm- 
•tances. lit. Williams was an experienced and skillful oheese-maher, and at 
a time when the bulk of American cheese was poor. Bis dairy, therefore, 
enjoyed a high reputation and was eagerly sought for by dealerr. to tlw 
spring of 18SI, one of his ions having married, entered upon fkrm'ng on his 
own account, end the father contracted the cheese made upon both farms at 
seven cents a pound, a figure considerably higher than was being offered for 
Other d&iries in tbat violaitj. When the contract was msde known to the 
son, beeipredsed great di'ubt as to whether lie should be able to manafiu}. 
tare the character of cheese that would be accepted under the contract. He 
bad never taken charge ol the manufacture of cheese while st bome, and 
never having given the subject tliat close attention which it necessarily r«- 
quired, bo felt that bis success iu coming up to the required standard would 
be a mere mstter of chance. His father, therefore, proposed coming duly 
apoD the farm and giving the cheese -making a portion of his inimediate 
snpervirion. But this would be very tuconvenient, and while devising meana 
to meet the diffloulties and secare the benefit of the contract, which wai 
more than ordinarily good, the idea was suggested tbat the son should de- 
liver the milk f^m his herd daily at the , father's milk house. From tbia 
'thought qirang tha idea of umitiag the milk from several dairies, and manu- 
aeturiug U at one place. Buitdings were erected and fitted up witti 
apparatuB, which, proving a success, tbns gave birth to the associated systeni 
of dairying, now widely extended throughout the Northern States. 

This eystem, during the last eight years, hat haen carried Into the New Sn- 



I v'^'Otl'^IC 



ESHIBrnON OF 1868. 435 

gland BtfttGB and Into tho Canadae. It ia largely adapted in Ohio, and has 
obtained a foothold in WiMoagin, IllinoiB, Iowa, Eauaaa and other atatea. 
It li kaown abroad as the " Amerioaa Bjatam of daitjiog," and Iti peouliari- 
tlcB are ao well adapted to the geniuB of oar people, ig to gUe It a distiao- 
ilve character of nationalltj. 

At the commeneemeDt of IB80, there were bat MTeDtecn fiKtoriea Id th« 
atate of New Tork. Tbey were increaeed dnriDg'tha next lii jeara to BOO, 
and it has been eBtimited that there are now about SOO in the state. In 
• WlflcoQUD there are leas than a doien factories, and the whole groM product 
of jour dairies, if in New York oitj at once, would scarcely supply the ship- 
pere with one week's shipment. 

Last year I, with many other New Tork dairymen, feared that the eheeae 
Interest was being oTerdoae, Prices were quite uo satisfactory. The coat 
of oowB ranged from |10 to |100. Labor was high and we had to pay for 
Wisconsin Sour from (IE to 117 per barrel. We had been accnatomed to m- 
ohange at onr doors 40 pounds of cheese for a barrel of yonr flour. 

The speculators made a hue and cry that the country was full of otaeese, 
that the whole Weat had suddenly sprung into the dairy bu^ness, and tbat 
yon were prepared to ship immense quantities to the seaboard, flooding all 
the markets of the world, and so our dairymen yielded to low prices, and 
England was in ecsiaoies. When the year's operaiiona were summed up, we 
foond there bad been no over production and instead of Western cheeie 
coming East, eonsi-'erabte quantities of New York cheese bad been shipped 
Weat 

We have giten the exports of cheeHe In 1861 at 40,000,000 pounds ; tn 
1803 the eiporta were, in round numbers, cheese 89,000,000 of ponnda, and 
butter ae,000,000 ; In ISflS, oheeie 11,000,000, and batter S 8, 000, 000 ; in 1864 
cheese 4S,000,000, and butter 14,000,000 ; in ie«a, cheese 49,000,000, snd 
butter aS,OQ0,O0O; la ISflA, cheese 46,000,000, and butter S, 000,000. For 
the past year, ISflT, the exports of cheese were about 6B,0O0,0O0 of pounds. 

EUaUBB FBODDOnOH ADD UronS TBOK BOLLUTV. 

According to tho estimate of the English shipper, Hr. Webb, the prodnct 
of cheese made in Qreat Britain the post year, 1887, hss been 179,00,000 of 
pounds, Ws hare no estimate of the quantity of cheese made in Holland. 

In IBea I wae in Europe, and obtained for the American Dairymen's Asao- 
eiation the quantity of Dutch cheese sent to Eugland that year ; it was 80,- 
000,000 of pounds. An approximate esdmate of the annual consumption of 
cheese in Qreat Britain may b« gathered fVom the following fignree: 

English home make 179,000,009 

Importfrom HoUand 80,000 000 

From the tJ. B S0,000,000 

Making tbe total English consumption •09,000,000 

of ponnu per year. 



STATE AGMCULTURAL SOCIETY 



1 hat« wid that fe«ra bad been entert&ined that we had reached the limit 
of over-prod acton. Time must, of course, decide this qnaition, bnt la tbe 
meanwhile a knowledge,of (be ordioarf aonsnmption of cheeM in tbeUDitad 
Statee and Great Britain, may be a belp on which to baie future operatione. 

Prom careful estimatee It appears that the conaamption of cbeeee in the 
United 8t«teB and Oanad^ ie annuall; about 160,000,000 of ponode. Thie 
makee 460,000,000 of ponnde, aa tbe coaenmption demand in Qreat Briton 
and America. 

Against this we have the product of cheeee made in Qreat 

Britain n»,000,000 

Product of tbe United Etites 200,000,000 

Product of Canada 15,000,000 

ToMl 894,000.000 

Quantitj lacking (o supply two nationa bejond the home make^ 75,000,000 
of ponnda. 

Hr. Webb iDforme as that France baa tieoome a competitor with England 
fiir Dutch cheeae, and that hereafter the imports into Orett Britain ttom this 
eonrce must decrease. On the other hand Sweden it entering the field aa a 
dair; district, and wilt compete hereafter with tbe United States in the Sng- 
lish markets. 

Alreadf the flwedea are turning tbeir attention to tbe factory ajBtem, and 
during the past eeasou occasional samples have out-sold, it is said, the finest 
grades of American in the English market. 

Some of tbe leading men at the South are propoeing to trj the dairy in 
rarioua locations. A cheese factory is already in operation in Eentnckj, 
Uiiieouri, North Caroliaa, Yirgloie and TenoeBsee ; batmauyqueetion whether 
tbe dairy can be succesi<riilly carried into warm climates. 

In regard to the quantity needed abroad, Hr. Downes, Secretary of the 
London Board of Trade, writea me in a recent letter, that Americaue ihonld 
bear in mind this fact— (he popalation of Orea( Britain doubles erery fortj 
years, and that tbe consumptive demand for cbeeee ts In proportion to the in- 
crease of population. On tbe assumption that Great Britain doubles her 
population in forty years, the ratio of ber Increased cheese consumption would 
be 10,000,000 of pounds annually. Then, if the United S(a(es dooblee ita 
population in twenty years, the ratio of increased coneumptlou would be 
8,000,000 of pounds per year, making 18,000,000 of pounds as the annnal In- 
crease of consumption for the two nations. 

It may well be doubted whether tbe production of cheeee will keep pace 
with this demand, since the Increased demand for and consumption of butter 
goes on in tbe same rapid proportion. I think it may be safely estimated, 
therefore, that this branch of farming promisee to be enduring and remnne- 
ntive, if tbe people continue (heir etTorts to Improve the quality of both 
butter and cheese. 



I v'^'Otl'^IC 



EXHIBITION OF 18«a 



There » Baotlicr qneatlou in regftrd to the products of the dtliy, upon 
which people genenU; hire rer; looae DotlonB. The coaunon ImpreB^oa 
ftmoog coniomera is, thst butter U more oatritiTe thia oheese^tbmt cheese 
is an article of mere lozur;, snd therefore oftDUOt he dused smong the 
economical articles of food. This is a great nistshe, which the Eoglish la- 
borer obliged to eoooomiie in his food, has long since disooTered. The Bog- 
liab laborer often lives mouths iritbont an; other animal food than cbeess. 
He will endure the most eihanstite labor on bread, cheese and els. 

Americans generally have varj little conception of ihe Test consamption 
of cbeesft la Oreat Britain bj »U classes, the rich as well «■ the poor. And 
this BSSDinptioo ts founded upon correct principles of health, nutrilion and 
economj. Recent writers affirm that nitrogenized foods are alone capable 
of conTersion into blood and of fonniDg organised tissues— thit, in fact, 
the; are the foods properl; so called. The non-nitrogen lie d foods, of which 
bntter or fat is one, are pronounced incapable of trans formation into blood, 
sod are, therefore, unfitted for forming original or living tissues. Thej are, 
nevertheless, essential to health, and Liebig asserts that tbeir function is 
to support the process of respiratioc, (b; yielding carbon and hydrogen, the 
oxygenation of which is attended with the deTclopment of heat), andsome of 
them, he states, conlribut«d to the formation of fat These non-nit rogenized 
foods he calls elements of respiration. They consist of fst, starch, gam, 
cane-sugar, grape-sugar, sugar of milk, pectins, bsssotiue, wine, beer, and 
spirits. Tbe nitrogeoiied foods, or plastie elements of natrition, are vege- 
table fibrin, albumen, eascin, animal fiesh and blood. It has been found bf 
experiment in animals, that gum, sogar, starch or batter, cannot alone pre- 
serve the health or life ot animals. Hagendle found that dogs fed eiclasiTe- 
ly on sugtr snd water died in ttom tMrty-one to thirty-four days, and umilar 
rseulls were obtdned with bntter and gnm. Tledemann and Gmelia have con 
firmed Hageodle's statement 

In the report of the Qelatlne Oommlsaion of the French Academy af Bcien- 
oeB, it is stated that a dog fed on f^nch butter only, continued to eat it 
irregularly sixty-eight days. He died sabsequently of inanition, though in a 
remarlisbte state of tmio^poiiii. During the whole experiment he exhaled a 
strong odor of butyric add, hii hsir felt greasy, and his skin felt aaotaaus snd 
was covered with a fatty layer. At the autopHy all tbe tissues and organs 
were found infiltrated with fat Tiie liver was In a sUte called in patho- 
logical anatomy, /aftji. By analysis, a very large qoantity of stearin (mar- 
garine) bat little or no oleln, wss found in ft. luto this o^an therefore 
there had been a kind of iaflltr^tioa of fat. NocnttrogenlMd foods sap 
port the process of respirstion by yielding oarbon, and in some cases 
hydrogen to be burnt in the longs, snd thereby to keep up the animal tem- 
perature. Tliis is ths reason why fatty foods are relished, and are even 
neceesoryin cold climates, and also why they are repulsive to persona lirlng 
in the torrid lone, when beat Is supplied to excess by climate. 



j.A'OD^Ic 



488 STATE AGRIOULTURAL SOCIETY. 

It irill be seen ther«fore thftt cueln (the leading conatitnant ia oheeu) 
i« the chief nitrogeuized constitaent in mUk. It It hlghl; natritions, uid it 
If from this sooroe that the derelopmenC of the tissaeB is eflfected in yonng 
uilmala which feed upon it "The joang&mmal," uTaLiebig/'reoeiTeiin the 
form of casein (which is diatingoiebed from flbrin and albomen b; its great 
•oiabUIt}', and by not coagulating when heated) the chief constituents of the 
mother's blood. To eonvert casein Into blood no foreign substance ia re- 
quired, and in the oonrerting of the mother's blood into casein, no elements 
of the conBticnents of the blood have been separated. When chemically 
eismiiied, casein is found to contain a much larger proportion of the earth of 
bones than blood, and that io a verf soluble form, capable of reaching ererj 
part of the body. 

Thne even in the earliest period of its life the deTclopment of the organs 
In which Tltalit; reside, is in the carnirorooB inimaU, dependent Dpon tha 
supply of a substance identified in organic composition with the chief con- 
stituentx of it; blood." 

Tbew factE hare been alluded to becaose there is a mieapprebension gea- 
erallj In the minds of people In regard to the nutritive properties of cheese. 
It Is considered to a great extent as a mere luiury, when the fjcts show that 
there is no article of food in common use that it 40 matritions. 

Professor Johason titatee that a pound of cheese ts more natritire than two 
poonds of beef, and as it contains no bones and scarcely any waste, and ia 
readllr substituted for meat, alwajs ready for the table, requiring no cook- 
iag, easily transported, and preserred for long periods, a luxury as well as a 
healthful and useful article of food, it deaerves to enter very largely into the 
coosumptiou of a people- 
When the Americans begin rightly to understand that a poond of fine 
cheese instead of being a mere luxury, is at the same time twice as nutritious 
us an equal weight of steak for which we at the East are pafiug from ISc to 
26c per pound, they will understand as the English do, that its use is eco- 
nomical, and demand the utmost production that the coautry can give. 



But snppose we have resolred to enter upon this branch of farmliig, will it 
be best to make It the lolc busioeis of the farm to the eicluuon of other 
branches? This question has been fully discussed and pretty elFeotuallj 
tested In practice, through the old dairy dietriots of New York. 

A. few years ago, the dtUr; meu of Herkimer iodsted that the dury alone 
was more remuneratiTe than other kinds of farming, and hence it was not 
worth while to doTote attention to other branches. The area of pastures and 
meadows was spread to their utmost Umit. They were plowed only when ne- 
oessity compelled, and then speedily returned to grass. Even the breeding 
and raising of stock were neglectsd, and the herds largely made up by im- 
porting cattle from non-dairying disirictl. So strongly did this single ape- 
ciallty system impress the mind, that butter manufacture was abandoned, so 



I v'^'OO'^lc 



BxmBmoN OF isea 4s> 

for M It oonld be, and «mj affi>Tt nuds to work np all the creun loto ths 
cheMa. The best mknufoatuMn la the ooantrj, the English ihlppart, mi 
the great um; of cheese dealeia, logisted that flna oheese demuided the 
Urgcat amoDtit of cream, and that the richer tiie milk the better the cheese, 
I was the first to aaiail this prlno)ple and ahow it to be faUaaioiu I showed 
trota actual experiment — from cbemioal aoaljsla— from the whey Tata of he* 
tories eoTered with cream almoat thick enough to bear a man, that Bne oheese 
did not depend altoge^er apon the amount of butter Id Its compoaltion. So 
prejudiced are people who hare been long engaged in a specJallj, and edu- 
cated up to a certaia ootioQ, that I doubt whetberthe dairymen of K«w ToA 
could have been induced to eutertain the icaat respect for such teaching, had 
not the said procesa tu cheese'making, wMoh I bad some jrears before intro- 
duced, proved oorreot and became generally adopted, sariBg to the country 
ndlJious of dollara. 

Periiape a word of explanation should be giren In regard to this so-called 
aoid pTOoeea. Up to 1864, the oheeae of America was maDufaeturtd by pro- 
eesses haring do fixed prinoiples. The thennomatar for testing the heat Id 
the Tarious manipulationawaa only In occastoDal use. The impression unt- 
Tsrsallj prevailed that the milk, the ourda, and the whey, during the ohola 
proceaa of manipulation and macnfaoturs, should be kept perfectly sweet. 
Any perceptible scldit; developed by acoldeot during the process was 
regarded by cheese makers as a calamity entailing iDssei. As a coDseqoence 
the great bulk of American cheese >raB soft, spongy, extremel; liable to get 
out of Bavor, quick of decay, and cf no character In the Engllsb market, ex- 
cept as poor, bad, and inditTerent. Imracuse losaes wore from time to time 
made by the dealers handling ii, and although some prime dairiea were made 
by those who bad had a life-loug eiperieace, the; were Dot able to explain 
the principles bj which their snocees was attained. I had been experiment- 
ing in milk, with a view of fixing upon some dififerent stand-point as a guide 
In cheese making. Instead of guessing at temp'iratare by introducing the 
band into the vat, the range of heat securing the best repulta was marked by 
the mercury. From this point the changes In the preoess became a study, 
and the bet soon made Itself apparent that cheese making was purely a 
chemical process ; that it was better to develop fiirther chemical change In 
the vata, while tbe curds could be under immediate ohserration and control, 
than to trust the necesaary changes and transformation, to be perfeoted after 
they were put to press, or carried to tb e oheese-room. I found that by the 
ose of acid (sharp sour whey) In the milk, or by allowing the curds and whey 
t« stand until acidity was developed to a eertain point, tke watery portions 
of tbe milk were more ea^y expelled, and the curds aasumed a more solid 
texture, while flavor, mellowneaa, and flaklness could be more easily secured. 

It took much writing and mueh talking to Introduce this system among. 
American cheese mauufacturera, and perhaps It never would have been intro- 
dnced, had not the cheese made by a few eiperimentoie, trying thia process, 
been sought after and commanded extraordinary pricee It was not until 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



440 STATE AQEIOTILTTIBAI, SOCTETT. 

tba faotorisH bsgan to nndentuid and practice thli principle, that American 
cbeeie took ctiaracter io tbe Raropeao markets ; and the wonderfbl develop- 
ment of the dalrj interest, htu been dne not wholly to tbe Aietorj ajatem, 
bat to tbe fine character of gooda vhlob tbey manafkctare. The BogUdt 
Cheddar proceu ii idmllar in principle. I ihall Mfer to it Turther on. 

Bnt to Tetarn to the questton. I think oar dait? farniera made a mlBtak« 
in their eicluaiTe devotioQ to oDe uagle branch, and that a mixed agricol- 
tore, miking the dair; the teadiog brancb, would have given better Teaelts. 
Tbe English durymen in the great dairy distrlda in the weit of Bngland de- 
TOte bat little land to meadows. They grow wheat, barley and other graina. 
They produce wool, mutton and beef. The herds in winter are fed apOQ 
chopped straw, with the addition of oil cake, braa and coaree grains. Large 
profits arc thae realized and the land kept in a high state of fertlUtj. 
Some of tbe Herkimer county fiirmers are beginning to adopt this syalem 
with guccesa. Onr eoil is tenacians and more difficult to be woAed than 
yonri but It jields large crops of wheat, barley, oati and com. Some cut; 
a fen acres of hops but this is not generally to be recommended, as hops ai« 
an uncertain crop, variable in price and rob tbe farmer of tbe maiiuret. 
Fruit colture when it can be euccessfulty oonduoted is better. One of mj 
neighbors in an a^oining town has B,000 pear trees Just coming into bearing 
and (he profits fromthia source must soon be large, as the fruit sella readily at 
from la to |B per barrel. 

To you, in Wisconsin, where grain oan be rused with more Ikctlity tbaa 
with us, the system of mlicd hnsbandry in cDnnection with the dairy, it 
would seem, must result in tbe most profit. Then if you abaifdon the use of 
the " scrub native cow," and adopt the English system of selecting animals 
that will readily fatten, and tarn tbem as they do into beef before they be- 
come old and worn out; your coarse graios, your bran and ship atuffb, it 
seetns to me, if fed up and converted into milk, beef and bacon, must bring 
more money than to ship them to eastern markets. 

BBMXDma STOCK rOR TKI DAUtT. 

A. great many writers urge npon dairymen the breeding of a race of cattle 
toi mUt ohm. Mr. Fish, of Herkimer, eiperimenled in that way. Helm- 
proved his herd so that it averaged a yield of between BDO and SOO pounds 
of cheese per cow, but tbe constitution of the animals became so Impaired 
and weakened, tbat it did not prove profitable. Oows that will yield 094 to 
AOO ponnds of cheese and then can be easily made ready for the batcher, are 
all that wa should ask. Hilch cows are liable to many accidents ; soma piova 
Inferior for the dairy, loss a portion of tbe adder, fail in milk ea^ly or nm 
farrow. Snch animals, If of s breed that will fatten readily, can be cheaply 
turned into beef, and if they have not proved proBtable for the dairy aM 
made to pay a profit for the sbamblea. 

INOLIBII OHIiai-XAKlffa. 

I went oat to Europe in ISSfi, for the American Dalrfmea's Association, 
eiamined (he different methods of ebeese^naklng in England. 



EXHIBrriON OF 186a 441 

EDBllab abtppen wen eoii«tu)tl7 bowtlng of the iDperiorltf of Bngllih 
oheese, and could not afftiri, the^ uid, to ptj for American tb« wme prioe. 

No praotiokl worlu on Boglkh obesM mtkiog oonld be had, and none bu 
been written that i« oonridered of an; tbIds )>j EnglUb dairjmen. It hu 
happened that the good writen an not chesBe makers, and tha oheeM 
makers are not good writers. Bewdes, the EngliBb dait7men are opposed to 
having all the secrets of tbis art printed. Bat again, there is not a oheete 
maker liviog that can explain oa paper all the masteries of ble art, nor ii 
there one that can alwajs handle 'milk so afl to arold dlfflcoltles and an 
ocaaiional Inferior product 

Tbe most celebrated chemists are nnable to explain carrectlf the nature of 
rennet, — the ooagnlating principle lued in cheese manufaetnre. The ebeeie 
maker must not therefore relv wholl; on a mere set of relet, ho most nnder- 
■tind principles. I found various processes in operation in the rarioua 
shires or counties. In all these, axaplmg tAi Ooiddxr proettt, I was greati; 
disappointed. The Obesblre, the Wiltshire, the Double and Single Qloster 
and other methods are defective and extremely laborloas. The implements 
are outlanditb, and belong to a past age of the world. The dair; people tn 
tbe different districts, are tenaoiona of their practice, and adhere to it with 
a dogged pertinacitj, notwithstanding the Cheddar durjmen, under their 
Improved system, are beating them in the markets &om lOs to SOs sterling 
the hundred weight Much of their cheese is manafaotured b; guesa, and 
varies in character acoording to the skill and experience of the dairjmaid. 
There is scarce]; a thing in an; of these processes (the Cheddar excepted) 
that would be of an; service to as, and if introduced here, would be a 
positive damage. American cheese is richer and better made, and Is 
acknowledged b; the best Jndgeii in Great Britidn to snrpase in ever; respect 
these styles as thej are oommool; made. Tbe Cheddar, however, is (a very 
high character of English cheese, and commands a very high price. Its good 
qnalities have not been overraled. Their best samples have rarelj been 
equalled and lUMriwTMSHfix^nuricaniiairia. The quantity made is com- 
paratively small. It takes its name from a small tillage at the foot of tho 
Hendip biUs in Somerset county. Its manufacture there having been OCM- 
menced more than a handred years ago. 

Various improvements have been made in tbe process, until It has been 
reduced to a system, which is at once simple and philosophioaL It may be 
sddtobe a chemical process, requiring skill and Judgment in the nian^e> 
ment of acids, until the cord has passed throngb its difbrent stages, and !■ 
ptoperl; developed for the press. Its leading principles are similar to those 
DOW practiced by our beat cheese makers, and It is due to them that Ameri- 
can cheese has been able to obtain such a Ann foothold in tbe English mar- 
ket The early eipuldon of the vhey in the English prooess, together with 
the exposure, of the card a longer time to the atmosphere, the preiuug^ 
grinding and sailings are doubtiess improvements apon our practice. I need 
not go into detail npon these points; they have been fully explained tn my re- 



l;A'Ot"l'^IC 



44i STATE AGEICULTUBAL SOOIETT. 

cant addT«N befoia the Auebioam DAraruK's Aasoounoit, bat I tMoAo to 
thjim hsN Ui»( proper crsdll msf be giTen to BngUah Daiiymen. I mutt saj 
thUklio, in their ftvor: notbiag while abnud strack me with more force, 
ind admlrktloD, th*o the perfect ueatneu ftcd olautlineai of the dair?. The 
milk rooma are located bejond the reach of bad odon likel; to tkiot the mtlk. 
Thef bare atooe floora, the jointa nieel? cemented together, lo that no slops 
or putrid matter can flod an eatraiioB. The floors, the ntensili and everj- 
thiog cODoeeted with the e«tabUphment are ae bright, elean and iveet as the 
table and crooker; of the most faatidiona. Uanj of the farmers will not 
allow the milkers to come into the milk room, bnt have conductors by which 
the milk is ooiiTejed to the tubs from the outside. 

It is this perfeat oleadiDess of the dalr; together with the favorable ooq- 
dltlon of the climate and amore uniform temperatore of curing rooms, that en- 
ables them to secure (bat mild pure SaTor, which is aharacteristio of some of 
the nice grades of chease. 

The best American cheese, has more butter in Its compodtion, and Is bet- 
ter manufactcred as a whole than the English. 

The great defect In much of our cbeeae isitsflaTor, We hare a hot bad 
olimate to contend wltb ; we are too careless in nilkiue and in handling the 
milk, when taints can be absorbed. We put the warm milk in cans conBning 
It with a close flttiog coTcr, and haul it a long diatance in a blaung son to 
the factory and it is often in a patnd condition before going to tbe Tats. 
What wonder, then, that much of onr cheese rich in butter and splendidly 
manlaotnred is out of flavar and vast snms in consequence are lost. 

Amerioau dairjman hare l>aen trjiog for years to discover wherein this de- 
feet of flavor can be remedied. A great deal of time has been spent in the 
investigation of the subject, and a great maiij theories suggested, but it haa 
all amoonted to nothing, from my observations liotfa, at home and abroad, 
I am convinced that first principles have been overioakeo ; that factories 
have been trying to make a finely flavored ohcese from imperfect milk, a con- 
dition which manufacturers never have been and never will be able to aooom- 
pliah. A. reformation must be bad in securing clean and psrfectlj pore milk 
tosether wfih better curing rooms ; and then under onr improved system, 
american cheese will stoad, where our nice grades already do, as the richest 
aad Quest that the world produces. 

I wentap to see llie Royal Dairy at Windaor, and if every dairyman tn 
Anerioa could go there, be wonld oome back with greatly Improved views in 
In r«gard to the importance of cleaalineH in dairy pracUce. 



The model ferm and dairy is but a short drive from the rojal palace, end Is 
exceedingly interesting to one who has a taste for farming. Tbe claster of 
fhrra buildings, including that for the steam engine, stand together and are 
brick. Tbe whole yard aa well as the alleys are paved with stone. Under 
one of the long sheds were arranged the various inaohines for preparing the 



..i.A'Ot"l<^IC 



TaYHlH l'l'imj OF 1868. • 4i8 

gtotmd for the crops, and in ftDOthet bnlWug th* uuohioei fbr harveBttag 
crop*. The stalli for horsA and c»ttl« ftre amnged qntte differentl; from 
oara in New Tork. The bnildiogs ue rather ihada than barna, beieg one 
■(ory and divided ioto compartmenta, each haTlng an opan areh-vaj leading 
Into an incloaure of Che jard. One or (wo horeta oecnpj eaoh conpartineDt, 
where thej bare liberCj to be either aeder corer or in the little diTialon of 
the Tard adjoining the stall or box, which ii fbnoed with Iron railings. The 
cattle Etalla are arranged in the BMoe wa;. Each stall hu feeding boies uid 
a l«ak of water In the same range, sod in front of which there is a broad 
alley on a IcTel with the feed box, where persons in charge can deliver the 
food, or pass down and see that all is right. Ever; part of the yards and 
buildings has stone pavements and,floors, with gatCers for condncting off the 
Ilinid manures, so that (here sbsll be no waste. Straw is nsed exclu^rely 
for bedding, or to be tramped up for manure. In one of the stalls were aome 
fine specimens of cattle from India. 



The dairy buildings stand apftrt, and are at some distance ttoa the fsrm 
bntldingt. The dairy house is a beautiful etructnrsof brick, with cupaloand 
pointed roof; its outward appearanoe having a pleasing effect. The interior, 
however, is beyond question all that is neat and tasteful In dairy decorations. 
The floor, the walks, and the ceiling are of biscuit tile, fashioned after the 
most grsceral designt. The pans (br holding the milk are of white porcelain, 
with a heary line of gilt around the edge. They are ellipticil in shape, with 
a nose or scallop at one end for emptying the milk. They stand upon broad, 
whito marble slabs highly polished. The windows are of stained glass, end 
oneaeh side of the room are fountains of china, arranged with nnlqoe flgnres 
and gncefid devioes. Tiny jets of water spin np f^om these and fall Into the 
china basins with a musical ripple. The ceiling has open spaces arranged to 
represent mosuc work, and there are three compartments between the cell' 
ing andthe roof so as to secure perfect ventilation. AM about the rides of 
the room are medsllion heads of the Hoyal &mllyeIegantlTpiataredin china, 
and (be whole reminds one of the charming descriptions of fdry life which 
he read in childhood. 



It was three o'clock and the milkers were bringing in Ae mlU^ wbloh la 
Btraioed in an adjoining room. It is then placed upon the marble slabs, and 
the oream is taken off when the milk has stood tweoty-fonr hours. la 
twelve hours after It is skimmed again. 

The cream is churned when forty-eight hoars old, the chnnilog being per- 
formed In an adjoining room. The ohum is of tin, barrel-shaped, and re- 
Tolvlng. It has compartments at each end for hot or bold water, so that the 
temperatare can be regulated without mingling water with the cream. The 



■j.A'OO'^lc 



441 , STATE AGRICULTtTEAL SOCIETT. 

butter li wuhsd in na orii tab, nopktaUd, uid Bfter b«ing iruhed U work«d 
upon two tbln woo den paddleg. 

Tbe creun uid milk for the lojal Ubiea sr« put Id hukU tin cane with 
coTon, uid th«M again an pUoed in a larger tin raceptacln with coT«r, 
when th«7 ate MOt awaf to the Polaoe, either to London or the Oaetle, M 
the caaa maj be, where the Qneen Is itajing. T^e batter and milk had a 
parit; and iweetneit of flavor that coold not be anrpaseed. 



In new eectlona where the dairy ia being eBtablishad, it is important to 
■tirt with correct principles.' The old dietricts have macb to unlearn, and 
onleas the; apeedilj change aome of their practices, thej will be outdone b; 
the new districts which are making greater exertions Tdt succesK. The old 
wooden pail as a milk pail ie a nuisance, and ita use entails thousands of 
dollar* loss to tbe dvry interest. I urged the use of tin pails for milking at 
onr Oonrention, more than three 7(>an ago, and loggeated how the; should 
be nude. Thej should have concare bottoms with no sharp corners where 
milk can lodge and be difficult to cleanse. Thej (bould have a narrow rim 
upon the top turning over so as to slip down nicel;, fitting Into a wooden 
pail, which should encase it for protection. Ever; factor; should urge upon 
its patrons, the aie of the tin d^r; pails. It Is just now be^nning to b« 
adopted in tbe old dietriota, and must come into general aae, becanae it is 
80 dlfflcnlt (o keep wooden paile dean, that even the moat soiupolouHl; neat 
often ful to do so. It is wonderful what a small quantit; of fermeuC, will 
taint a luge quantit; of milk. The accnmalation of old and decompoaed 
particles aboat (be sides and comen of a wooden pail, commuuica tea its 
poisoQ to (he good milk and sets it into a ferment, which the cheese maker 
is often onable to control. Punted palls are o^Jeotionable becaose the 
paint imparts its taint and poison to the cheese. 

I have alluded to desnlinesa in milking and about the dairy, aa so import- 
ant element In aecaring good flavor in cheese, and it cannot be urged too 
strongl; apoD joar attention. The feeding of swine at tactories, onless far 
removed from the bnildinga, eannot be recommended. Some of our new 
faetories in Oneida have entirel; banlahed them ttom the premises, and tbe 
wbe; is taken home b; patrons. I have seen some of theae factories,, «her« 
everything ia kept eweet and elean, both at tbe Actor; and among patrons, 
and the cheese made ia becoming noted for ita delleate flavor. Theae qaes- 
tlons are jnat beginning tabe nnderatood and appreciated b; dairymen, and 
joa will do well to profit b; that wbioh we ha*e been ao long in learning. 

hEOtm pmovnuNTB m fxmota mmjasot, M. 

In the atrangement and fltting op of botori