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Full text of "The Transallegheny historical magazine"

REYNOLDS historical: 

GENEALO-Y -C! LEICTION 



Gen 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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GENEALOGY 

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V.l 



Digitized by the Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



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■ , - The 
Historical MagaziJie= 

': Zhl. I 



Numbezs, Ocfoher, igoi; Januarv, April, and 
July, 1902. 



Publislied by /he Ttansallegheny H isle deal 
Sociefv, 



FR INTEL- 13/ 

THE ACME PUBLISHING CO>:PA-\V, 

MORGAVTOV.'X, W, VA. 



liable of Con ten Is. 



VOL. I. 

• '■ OCTOBER, igoi. ^ 

PACK 

Transalleghenj- Historical Society '^ 

Karly E'lucation in Western Virginia 12 

M\-Kox C. LorcH. 

Piont-er S<;ttlc;Tients on die Western Waters {'.'l 

Richard Ellsworth Fast. 

Is;iac Van Meter's Journal liti 

Hu Max'.vki.L. 

West Virginia a Ceiitnn,' -^c^ ^'^'' 

He :MAX\s-Ei.f.. 

}>lilorial Notes and Miscellanies llu' 

JANUARY, iga2. 

I->rl3- P/lncation in Western Viri^inia — Continuc'd Jl'.i 

MVROX C. Lo-JGH. 

Pioneer Settlements on the Western Waters — Conthme'l li>'> 

Richard Ei.uSv.'^rth P'as;'. 

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of t!ie Society 10:-, 

Ivlitorial Notes and ^liscellanies VM 

APRIL, 1902. 

The Educ-itii.>nal Needs of App-.ilachia 214 

Dr. W. J. Hoi.r..vNn. 

Members of the West Virginia Constituciotinl Coiivsiition, M~'l 224 

Retreat of General Robert S. Garnett 22.') 

Hu Maxwell. 

.'.ast Sunivor of the Battle of Point Pleasant 2:^1 

Hu Maxv.kll. 



An Old Eetter 2:;7 

Henrv Havmoxd. 

Pioneer Settlements on the Vv'estein Waters— Continiv.'d 2 'n 

^>lito^ial Notes and Miscellanies 'l-'A 

JULY, 1902. 

Pioneer Settlements on the V.'estcni V/aiers— Continued 2^51 

An Old Letter -279 

Hr.XRV Havmoxd. 

^\est Virginia's First Orchard 2>2 

C. K. Da VI:;. 

L Pioiieert in Mouongali. Cointv 2-4 

Fr-M\x\vKLL. 
l^'itorial Noies an:] Mis^ieilrtsrles -IV-:', 



TRANSALLEGHENY • 

HISTORICAL M/iGAZLNE 

Vol. I ,; OCTOBER, 1901 No. I 

THE TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

On September 30, 1889, about two years after the found- 
ing of the West Vir^'inia University, the "West Virginia 
Historical Society was organized at the seat of the Univer- 
sity ill Morgantown. The by-laws provided for the hold- 
ing of annual meetings both at Morgantown and at the 
place where the legislature hold its sessions. Fourteen 
annual meetings were held at !\rorgantown, the last one 
on June 11, 1&S4. The society included in its member- 
ship about one hundred and fifty persons, representing 
all sections of the State, and including the leading educa- 
tors, scholars, statesmen, and professional men of the 
time. The difficulty in reaching Morgantown in the days 
when the town was twenty miles from any railroad 
resulted in a small attendance of members at the annual 
meetings and in the final suspension of meetings in 1584. 
The energy of its last president, the Honorable Charles 
James Faulkner, Senior, held the society together during 
his lifetime. During the early years of its activity it 
collected some valuable papers and documents, some of 
which were pubhshed in 1871 under the title of "Proceed- 
ings of the West Virginkv Historical Society. Volume 
I., Part I." Several hundred copi'ai of Ibis volume were 



4 TKANSALLEGHE>;V HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

distributod among the members and sent to other histor- 
ical societies. The remainder of the papers collected 
remain unpublished in the custody of the University. 

The following call %vas issued for the 19th of .lune> 
1901, with the object of reorganizing the society: 

"Proposed reorganization of the 'West Virginia 
Historical Society' at the West Virginia University, under 
the name of the Transallegheny Historical Society, Wednes- 
day, June 19, 1901. 

r "A people who take no pride in the noble deeds of 
remote ancestors will never achieve anything worthy to 
be remembered with pride by remote descendants." — 
Macaulay. 

"A society called the 'West Virginia Historical 
Society' vcas . organized at the West Virginia Uni\ersit;y 
in Morgaatown on September 30, 1869. It held fourteen 
annual meetings at Morgantown, and a number of meet- 
ings at Wheeling, Grafton, and other points. The society 
included in its membership about one hundred and fifty 
persons, representing all sections of the State, among 
whom may be mentioued Hon. W.T. Willey, Hon. Chester 
D. Hubbard, Dr. Thomas H. Logan, Hon. Francis H. 
Pierpont, President W. K. Pendleton, Dr. E. A. Hildreth, 
Gen. D. H. Strother, Hon. Henry G. Davis, Gen. T. M. 
Harris, lion. W. H. Travers, Judge J. M. McWhorter, 
Charles Davies, Esq., and many others of note. During 
the early years of its activity the society collected some 
yaluable papers and documents some of which were pub- 
lished in 1871, under the title of 'Proceedings of the West 
Virginia Historical Society, Volume I, Part I.' A num- 
ber of addresses were made, papers read, manuscripts 
collected, and antiquities secured, which, so far as pre- 
served, are in the possession of a Curator appointed by 
the regents of the University. Owing to the difficulty of 
reaching Morgantown the society gradually declined by 
reason of non-attendance of members, and the last meet- 
ing was held in June, 1884. The last President waa Hon. 
Charles James Faulkner, Sr. In 1890 a new society was 
organized at Charleston, which took the name of the 



TRAXSALT.EGHEKY HISTORICAL, SOCIETY. 5 

'^Yest Virginia Historical and Antiquarian Society,' but 
it has not and never had any conuectiou with the society 
with a similar name at the University. 

"A vast amount of valuable literature could be scoured 
for the Library of the TVest Virginia University, if there 
was any sort of a series of publications in existence to 
exchange with other similar societies. 

"It is now proposed to reorganize the old 'West 
Virginia Historical Society' at the University, as an 
adjunct to University Extension, under the name of the 
Transallegheny Historical Society, and to extend the 
original scope of its activity to the whole region west of 
the Allegheuies, because the history of this region knows 
no state lines. 

"In Consideration of the Premises, Therefore, We 
the Undersigned, do hereby enter into these preliminary 
articles of agreement in order to reorganize the 'West 
Virginia Historical Society,' at the West Virginia Univer- 
sity, and as an adjunct to its work, under the name of the 
'Transallegheny Historical Society.' 

"I. A preliminary meeting shall be held at the West 
Virginia University on Wednesday, June 19th, 1901, at 2 
o'clock P. M., for the purpose of effecting a temporary 
reorganization, fixing the time for holding the regular 
meeting, and transactir.g any other business that may 
seem proper. 

"II. The ConstituUon and By-Laws of the 'West 
Virginia Historical Society,' as published in its 'Proceed- 
ings, Volume I, Part I,' pages 7-12, shall govern this 
organization, until altered by the Society, except to the 
extent that they are ch-.uged by these articles. 

"III. The activities of this Society shall be directed 
toward all those objects which come wifehin the scope of 
similar organizations, and especially toward all that per- 
tains to the history, bio^:raphy, genealogy, literature and 
antiquities of the transallegheny region. 

"IV. It shall be the aim of this Society to begin the 
publication as soon as possible, of a historical magazine, 
which shall be the otJ^.cial publication of the Society, and 
which shall be sent free to every member. 



6 TRANSALLEGHEIN^- HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

"V. The membership fee shall be two dollars, which 
shall cover dues for the first year, and thereafter the 
annual dues of each member shall be two dollars. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

This call was signed by the following persons: 

Hon. Charles James Faulkner, ex-United States Sena- 
tor, Martinsburg. 

Hon. Thomas C. Miller, State Superintendent of Free 
Schools, Charleston. 

Hon. S. B. Elkins, United States Senator, Ellrins. 

Col. Colin H. Livingstone, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Charles E. Jolliffe, Banker, Mannington. 

Mr. Charles E. Wells, Merchant, Glovers Gap. 

Hon. A. G. Dayton, M. C, Second District, Philippi. 

Hon. Henrj G. Davis, ex-United States Sena.tor, Elkins. 

Hon. T. J. Arnold, La-wyer, Beverly. 

Hon. A. L. Helmick, Merchant, Thomas. 

Mr. Eugene Summerville, Editor, Grafton. 

Mr. C. W. Maxwell, Lawyer, Eikiny. 

Mr. Hu Maxwell, Author and Publisher, Morgantown. 

Dr. P. B. P:eynold3, Professor of Philosophy, W. V. U., 
Morgantown. 

Prof. T. E. Hodges, Professor of Physics, W. V. U., 
Morgantown. 

Hon. James H, Stewart, Director of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Morgantown. 

Prof. B. H. Hite, Chemist of the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Morgantown. 

Prof. L. C. Daniels, Professor of European History, 
W. V. U., Morgantown. 

Dr. Hannah B. Clark, Professor of Sociology and Deau 
of Women, W. V. U., Morgantown. 

Prof. J. D. Thompson, Congressional Library, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Prof. S. B. Brown, Professor of Geology, W. V. U., 
Morgantown. » 
Mr. W. E. Glasscock, Clerk Circuit Court, Morgantown. 
Mr. J. C. Frazer, Lawyer, Morgantown. 
Mr. E. B. Stewart, Lav.-yer, Morgantown. 



TKAKSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 7 

Mr. R. E. L. Allen. Laivyer, Mol•/^anto^vIl. 

Mr. I. G. Lazzelle, La-vryer, i>torgantown. 

Mr. T. R. Dille, Lawyer, Morganlovrn. . . 

Mr. E. G. Donley, Lawyer, Morgantown. 

Mr. J. L. Hatfield, La^vyer, Morgantown. 

Mr. Van A. Barrickman, Lawyer, Morgantown. 

Mr. George C. Baker, Lawyer, Morgantown. 

Hon. E. M. Grant, Member House of Delegates, Mor- 
gantown. 

Mr. H. L. Swisuer, Aullior and Publisher, Morgantown. 

Mr. Frank Cox, Lawyer, Morgantown. 

Mr. C. A. Goodwin, Lawyer, Morgantown. 

Hon. Joseph Moreland, Lawyer, Morgantown. 

Mr. Justin M. Kunkle, Editor, Morgantown. 

Mr. J. E. Fleming, Journalist, ^lorgantown. 

Prof. W. H. Gallup, City Superintendent of Schools, 
Morgantown. 

Mr. David Chadwick, Merchant, Morgantown. 

Mr. C. B. Dille, Lawyer, Morgantown. 

Mr. William Moorhead, Merchant, Morgantown. 

Prof. C. H. Patterson, Professor of Elocution and 
Rhetoric, W. V. U., Morgantown. 

Rev. A. M. Buchanan, Pastor Presbyterian Church, 
Morgantown, 

Prof. "VVaitman Barbe, Professor in Department of Eng- 
lish, W. V. U., Morgantovn. 

L. S. Brock, M. D., Morgantown. 

Prof. F. L. Emory, Professor of Applied Mathematics, 
W. V, U., Morgantown. 

Prof. A. R. WhitehiU, Professor of Chemistry, W. V. U., 
Morgantown. 

Mr. Stuart H. Bowman, Publisher, Morgantown. 

Prof. T. C. Atkeson, Professor of Agriculture, W. V. U., 
Morgantown. 

Prof. John L. Johnston. Prof essor of Civil Engineering, 
W. V. U., Morgantown. 

Mr. L. L. Friend, Instructor in English, W. V. U., 
Morgan to v,n. 

Mr.* J. M. Gregg. Stenographer and Clerk, Morgantovrn. 



8 TRANSALLEGHEXY HISTORICAL MA.GAZINE. 

Prof. Russell L. Morris, Assistant iu Department of 
Civil Eugiueering, "W. V. U., Morgantov/-n. 

Hon. George C. Sturgiss, Lawyer, Morgantown. 

Prof. R. W. l^outhat, Professor of Latin, W. V. U., 
MorgantOTvn. 

Prof. W. P. Willey, Professor of Law, W. V. U.. Mor- 
gantown. 

Ju dge Okc}' Johnson, Dean of College of Law, "\V. V. U. , 
Morgantown. 

Prof. St. Geo. T. Brooke, Professor of Law, ^. V. U., 
Morgantown. 

Mr. D. M. Willis, Principal of Commercial School, W. 
V. U., Morgantown. 

Dr. I. C. White, Geologist, Morgantown. 

Mr. R. W. Dawson, Lawyer, Uniontown, Pa. 

Prof. Henry S. Green, Professor of Greek, W. V. U., 
Morgantown. 

Prof. A. D. Hopkins, Entomologist Agr. Exp. Station, 
W. V. U., Morgantown. 

Mr. W. H. Cooke, Retired Printer, Morgantown. 

Hon. John W. Mason, Judge Circuit Court, Fairmont. 

Prof. C. R. Jones, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, 
W. V. U., Morgantown. 

Prof. Richard E. Fast, Professor American History, W. 
V. U., Moi'gantown. 

Mr. M. L. Brown, Bank Clerk, Morgantown. 

Mr. John G. Samsell, Civil Engineer, Morgantown. 

Prof. Frank B. Trotter, M. E. Conference Seminary, 
Buckhannon. 

Prof. James S. Stewart, Professor of Mathematics, W. 
V. U., Morgantown. 

Prof. F. W. Truscott, Professor of Germanic Language, 
W. V. U., Morgantown. 

Hon. George C. Steele, Mayor, Morgantown. 

Prof. A. L. Wade, Educator, Morgantown. 

Miss Eliza J. Skinner, Librarian, W. V. U., Morgan- 
town. 

Mr. P. W. Cooper, Teacher, Glenville. 

Mr. I. B. Bush, Teacher, Concord Normal School. 
• Mr. Frank Stanton, Bookseller, Wheeling. 



TRANSALI.EGHEXY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 9 

Mr. T. M. Garvin, Lawyer, WheeJing. 

Mr. Boj-d Crumrine, Lawyer and Author, Washington, 
Pa. 

Mr. J. F. Ne]son, Journalist, Morgantown. 

Mr. Clarence Poe, Fellow in History, W. V. U., Morgan- 
town. 

Col. Alexander Campbell, Farmer, Bethany. 

Col. "vV. H. Nave, Farmer, Bethany. 

Mr. Myron C. Lough, Teacher in Fairm.ont Normal 
School. ■ ; • 

Hon. B. L. Butcher, Lawyer, Fairmont. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Following are the minutes of the meeting called for 
the organization of the society on June 19, 1901: 

"On "Wednesday, Juno 19tb, 1901, a preliminary meet- 
ing was held in the lecture room of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station of the "West Virginia University for 
the purpose of effecting a temporary reorganization of 
the '"West Virginia Historical Society' under the name of 
the 'Traneallegheny Historical Society.' 

"The meeting was called to order at 2 o'clock P. M., 
by Prof. R. E. Fast. The meeting then proceeded to 
elect a temporary president and secretary. R. E. Fast 
was elected President and Clarence Poe, Secretary. 

"The purpose of the meeting was explained by the 
President, who presented a plan of temporary organiza- 
tion. After reading of plan it was moved by Prof. Wait- 
man Barbe, that the plan be adopted as presented with 
the following amendment, — that there be one secretary 
instead of two as provided for in the plan. The plan as 
amended was adopted. 

PLAN OF TEMPORARY ORGANIZATION. 

"Resolved, I. That the organization of the Transal- 
legheny Historical Society to be elTected here today shall 
be temporary, and shall continue until the permanent 
organization is effected. 

"II. The regular meeting for permanent organiza- 
tion shall be hold at the West Virginia University in 
December, 1901. 



10 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

"III. The Constitution and Bj'-Laws of the old West 
Virginia Historical Society, so far as applicable, and so 
far as they are not changed by the terms of the call 
signed by the members of this society, or by action of this 
meeting, shall govern this society until altered by the 
society in regular meeting. 

"IV. The temporary officers of this society shall be 
as follows: — A president; a 1st vice-president; a 2nd vice- 
president; 3d vice-president; a treasurer; a curator, and 
a secretary. 

"V. An 'Executive Committee of five shall be 
appointed at this meeting, which shall be charged with 
the following duties in addition to those prescribed by the 
Constitution and By-Laws, namely: 

"(a) To take such measures as may seem to the 
Committee proper to increase the membership to the 
largest number possible between this and the date of the 
regular meeting. 

"(b) To make all necessary arrangements for the 
publication of an historical magazine, and to choose a 
board of editors to conduct the publication and to manage 
its affairs. 

"VI. A committee of five shall be appointed at this 
meeting to revise the Constitution and By-Laws and pre- 
sent a draft of such revision for adoption at the next 
regular meeting. 

"The following officers were elected: — President, 
Professor Richard Ellsworth Fast; 1st Vice-President, 
State Supt.. Thomas Condit Miller; 2nd Vice-President, 
Professor Frank B. Trotter; 3rd Vice-President, Mr. 
Frank Stanton; Treasurer, Mr. Hu Maxwell: Curator, 
Professor S. B. Brown; Secretary, Miss Lucy C. Daniels; 

"On motion ordered, that the President be one of the 
members of the Executive Committee with power to name 
the other members. 

"Ordered, that the regular meeting be held on some 
date between the 1st and 15th of December, 1901, to be 
determined by the President. 

"The President named the following Committee on 



TRANSALLEGHEXY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 11 

Kevit'ion of By-Laws: — Hon. Joseph Morelaud, Messrs. 
K. E. L. Allen, J. F. Nelson, Hu Maxwell, and Prof. A. 
D. Hopkins. On motion of Mr. Moreland the President 
vras added to the committee and m.ade chairman. 
"Adjourned until the regular meeting.'' 
At a subsequent date the President named the follow- 
ing Executive Committee: R. E. Fast, Hu Maxwell, 
Joseph I^Ioreland, James. IT. Stewart, Waitman Barbe. 



r;^ 



EARLY SDUCATIOTJ IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 

BV MyROX CiiRLKTON LOUGH. 

[Editor's Note.— This article was prepared by Mr. Lough as a 
thesis while a student In the West Virginia University. It will be 
found to contain much original matter, while the material which 
he uses at second hand has been caiefully selected and log-ically 
arranged. In his study of the development of education in the days 
of the early settlements in West Virginia, he points out that three 
general principles served as a foundation upon which the history of 
the whole social evolution of this cismontane region depends: 1. The 
ancestry, character, and condition of the people forming the com- 
munity; 2. The natural features of the country, the distribution of 
the population, and the communication with the outside world; 
3. The leaders in thought and action, whether original members of 
the community, or carriers of better things from without.] 

CHAPTER I. 

■ ' OUK NEIGHBORS. , , 

West Virginia is an e.'cceedingjy friendly State. She 
stretches forth her hands, (vulgarly called "handles") the 
one across the rr.gged Alleghenies to greet her friends in 
the Valley of Virginia, indeed the tips of her fingers reach 
a long way to\Yard the National Capital at Washington ; 
the other she raises aloft in hearty salute to her great 
sister States, Ohio and Pennsylvania : while to the south 
she extends to the hcad'A-aters of the Big Sandy River, 
skirting Dividing Ridge and the East River Mountains, 
and touches toes with tliTi- Blue Grass State on the south- 
west. 

With a range of neajly six degrees of longitude and 
about three and one-half, in latitude, (I came nearly saying 
"altitude") the "Little Mountain State, " as it is frequently 
miscalled, affords a wide field for the student of the great 
movements in population and civilization. Mr. Fiske 
says, "The westward movement of population in the 
United States has for the most part followed the parallels 
of latitude. Thus Virginians and North Carolinans, cross- 
ing the Alleghenies, settled Kentucky and Tennessee; 



EARL,Y EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 13 

thus people from New England filled up the central and 
northern parts of New York and passed on into Michigan 
and Wisconsin; thus Ohio, Indiana and Illinois received 
many settlers from New York and Pennsylvania. "* In cor- 
roboration of this general direct westward tendency in the 
settlement of our great country, it is interesting to note 
that the center of population of the United States did not 
vary more than one-fourth of a degree from the thirty- 
ninth parallel of latitude for the hundred years from 1790 
to 1890. Four times in that period the center of popula- 
tion was within the limits of what is now West Virginia, 
twice a little north of the thirty-ninth parallel and twice a 
little south of it; and a still more striking fact is that in 
1890 it came within at least five miles of the exact position 
with reference to the thirty-ninth, that it was in 1790. 

On general principles that solves the problem of our 
settlement and distribution of population. The whole of 
our State with the exception of the Northern Panhandle 
would have been settled by people from New Jersey, Del- 
aware, Maryland and Eastern Virginia, by far the greater 
number from the last named. But alas for general 
schemes when no allowance is made for particular and 
local influences ! West Virginia was not so peopled. 

The work I have in hand would be a much simpler 
and easier task if such had been the case; but as the bulk 
of our people did not follow the general plan outlined 
above, we shall undertake to show the reason why. And 
further on in the following pages an attempt will bo 
made to show why desirable people from other parts of 
the country did not settle among us in greater numbers. 

In covering these points the following drawbacks to 
settlements in Western Virginia will claim our attention: 

1. The Blue Ridge and the Allegheny Mountains. 



* Fiske: CivH Gov. of the U. S., p. 81. 



14 TI:ANvSALLEGHENY inSTORTCAL MAGAZINE. 

2. The Ordinance of 17S7, throwing open for set- 
tlement the Northwest Territory. 

3. The fact that western Virginia was within the 
bounds of a slave State. 

4 Inequitable distribution of ta.xes nnd discrimiua- 
tion in representation. 

' 5. The extreme measures of the Virginia Episcopacy. 
'' ■ 6. Land grants and ppeculators. 

7. Hostility of the Indians. 

These various * -drawbacks" will not be subjects of 
special treatment at any one place, but will be kept con- 
stantly in mind as we pi'oceed and be referred to inciden- 
tally as occasion may demand. 

Having made these few remarks about ourselves, we 
shall now go directlj' to cur neighbors. First we turn our 
attention to that famous old commonwealth — once our 
mother, now our sister, in the galaxy of States. 

VIRGINIA. 

It is indeed difficult to encompass all we desire to say con- 
cerning the "Old Dominion, ' in the few pages we have 
concluded to allot to this part of the work. 

The fact that our State, until a very few years ago, 
was a part of Virginia, that it still retains the family name, 
so to speak, and that in raany parts of our country today, 
people — especially in the West — call us "Virginians," 
prompts me to enter somewhat at length into some phases 
of Virginia history. 

"Virginia and New England were the original forces 
of American society, and shaped its development. This 
arose from natural canses. Both races were vigorous off- 
shoots of the same English stock, arrived first in point of 
time, and impressed their characteristics on the younger 
Eocieties spx-inging up around them. Each was dominant 
in its section. New England controlled all the North from 



EAKLY EDUCATION IX WESTERN VIRGINIA. 15 

the Atlantic to the Lakes, and Virginia the South to the 
Mississippi."" The characters of the colonists in these 
two sections are about as diCerent as one could possibly 
imagine, although they jvrere "vigorous offshoots of the 
same English stock." The New Englauder was a Puritan, 
a dissenter, a Calvanist, a descendent of the race of Iron- 
sides who overthrew an English king; while, on the other 
hand, the Virginian was ?. Cavalier, a Royalist, a defender 
of the king, and a lover of the Church of England. The 
whole trend of affairs in the two sections was at great 
variance; and these marked differences made possible such 
a distinctive sectional demarkation as Mason and Dixon's 
line. The commercial interests of the two parts of the 
country v^ere very different; the forms of local govern- 
ment developed on almost entirely different plans; the 
school and educational sentiment differed not only in 
degree but actually in kind. And so, by comparison, Vir- 
ginia, the leader of the South, is before us. Let us trace 
some of her movements along educational lines. 

Virginia's first attcm pt in an educational way was the 
^ establishment of a college for the education of the Indians, 
at Henrico, in 1619. 

Two years later an eSort was made to found a school 
for the preparation of students for Henrico College. But a 
terrible Indian massacre the year following cooled down 
the educational ardor in behalf of the red man of the forest 
and indeed threw a glooD. over all educational movements 
in that region. 

In fact these were dark days for the settlers in the 
Virginia wilderness. We all know the pathetic story of 
the Jamestown colony The people were unaccustomed 
to work and knew nothing of ''roughing it." Many of 
them were simply adventurers seeking treasures supposed 



Cooke: Virginia, Introduction. 



16 TRANSALT.EGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

to bo easily found along the mountain streams. It took 
many severe lessons to humble their proud spirits and 
teach them what it meant to lay the foundation of a e;i'eat 
commonwealth. Not entirely disheartened by the failure 
of Henrico College, another general movement was made 
in 1660. The Colonial Assembly passed an act for the 
establishment of a colleere, but thirty-three years elapsed 
before this hope vras realized. The effort at Henrico was 
made at the instance of .James I; the movement in 1660 
began among the people themselves and subscriptions 
both large and suiall were t^ken. Some wealthy planters 
became interested in the movement and subscribed twenty- 
five hundred pounds to the enterprise. Not satisfied to 
start from small beginnings as Harvard had done in 1637, 
an appeal was made to the joint sovereigns of England, 
William and Mary. Cooperation was secured. Money 
was given and a charter promised. But royal aid proved 
to be detrimental to the welfare of the school. Thecommon 
people lost interest in it; it became a school for the educa- 
tion of the episcopal ministry and the children of the 
wealthier classes. Rev. Jarnes Blair was the agent sent to^ 
the king to intercede in behalf o' the college. "When 
Seymour, the attorney-gciieral, was presented w ith the 
royal order for the charter, he refused. The horn e country 
was involved in a war with Franco; and Virginia and the 
barbarians could wait for their college. Mr. Blair urged, 
by way of manly appeal, that, as 'Virginians had souls to 
be saved as well as their English countrymen,' the institu- 
tion was needed to prepare the young men for the ministry. 
'Souls !' cried Seymour, 'damn your souls ! make to- 
bacco ! •'• However, the charter was granted and the 
college of William and Mary came into existence in 1693. 
Abundant means were provided, and soon "William and 



Boone: Ed. in U. S., p. 34. 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 17 

Mary" was a rich iustitutiou, vrhile Harvard, though more 
than fifty years old, was'm poverty. For a time the col- 
lege prospered, but the State of Virginia took profane 
Seymour's advice and "made tobacco." The education of 
the masses of t^he people was very much neglected. It 
seems almost unbelievable and yei it is true that Virginia 
made no movement toward public education that counted 
for anything for more than two hundred years after many 
New (England towns had "divers free schools for the 
maintenance whereof every inhabitant bound some house 
or land for a yearly allowance forever." * 

I think a great deal of the New England educational 
impetus arose from the fact that "of the first six hundred 
who landed in Massachusetts, one in thirty, it is '^aid, was 
a graduate of the English Cambridge. ' Just think of it ! 
How many communities in our country today can count so 
large a percentage of college bred people ? It is not to 
be "wondered at that New England led off in the matter of 
popular education. 

I do not mean to say that the Virginians opposed 
schools. In fact many of the foremost people were en- 
thusiastic supporters of education, but their attention and 
means were given to private schools, Academies and Col- 
leges, in the ranks of the "poor whites" were found the 
deplorable conditions of ignorance and lack of culture. 
The white people of Virginia were made up of two classes 
far removed from each other by birth and training, viz; 
the rich, aristocratic planters and slave owners on the 
one hand, and the poor, down-trodden "white slaves" on 
the other. There was do strong, hardy, vigorous middle 
class upon which a system of public education depends. 
1 speak now of eastern Virginia especially, iacluding 
Tidewater and Midland Virginia. West of the Alleghenies 

* Boone: Education in the United States, p. 8. 



18 TEANSALLEGUENY illSTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

this energetic middle class was the dominant political and 
educational element, as vrill be shown later; they had very 
little in common with either the aristocracy or the indigent 
•white people of the tide"water country. They had a dif- 
ferent ancestry, held very different ideas and bought their 
salt at a (liferent raarlcet. These various points will be 
treated more particularly later. 

I desire to say in this connection, that had that great 
and good man, "the noblest Democrat of them all, "Thomas 
Jefferson, succeeded in carrying into effect his plans for 
public education, the educational record of Virginia would 
shine with a radiant glow today . He began the fight when a 
roember of the General Assembly in 1779. He outlined a 
general plan, followed, it is strange to say, almost exactly 
by the State of West Virginia more than eighty years 
afterward when she became a State, while Old Virginia 
still held aloof from the general s^'stem. True, she had 
made it possible by an Act of 18-lG, for separate counties 
by two-thirds vote to establish district public schools, but 
no State action was taken. Mr. Jefferson's bill of 1779 
was not even considered by the General Assembly, but he 
was not the sort of man to be discouraged. He kept on 
until in 1796 the provisions for elementary schools was 
passed as at first proposed. "A fatal proviso, however, 
was added to the act" that the court of each county, at 
which a majority of the active magistrates shall be present, 
shall first determine the year in which the first election of 
aldermen shall be made, and until they do so determine no 
such election shall be made." * Concerning the failure of 
his law Mr. Jefferson said: '-The justices, being generally 
of the more wealthy class, were unwilling to incur the 
burden, so that it was not suffered to commence in a 
single county." * 



* Morgan and Corii: History of Education in W. Va., p. 7, 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 19 

After twenty- three jears more of waiting, Mr. Jeffer- 
son, in 1S19, 0!2ly seven years before his death, saw the 
head of his scheme, the Universit3^ of Virginia, established 
at Charlottsville in Mr., Jefferson's home county and not 
far from Monticello. The University did not go into 
operation uutil 1825, one year before Mr. Jefferson's 
death. Think of the loag years of waiting by the earnest 
champion of the commcn people; from 1779 to 182.5, 46 
years. Aud even then he grieved because his great 
scheme of education had failed. Alas for the poor when 
the unfeeling "upper classes" are able to dominate over 
them and keep them from knowing of better things ! 

In tho latter half of the eighteenth century a great 
many church schools and both private and public 
academies were established. One of the latter, Randolph 
Academy, was in the region west of the Alleghenies. It 
was located at Clarksbu.rg in 1787. Schools of this class 
became quite numerous. In 1840, one university, seven 
colleges, three theologrical schools and 382 academies 
with a total enrollment, of 12,180 students, were reported. 
Along with these statisitics came the interesting statement 
that "the country west -ol the mountains, toward the Ohio, 
is rough and wild — sometimes but not generally fertile." * 
Yet in twenty-three years from that date that rough and 
wild country, with its 3^00,000 free people, became a State, 
rallied around the flag of the Union and sent thousands of 
brave boys to help save the Republic. 

There was another educational movement in Virginia 
that must not be passed unnoticed, the creation of what 
wa^ known as the "Literai-y Fund, "in 1810. Our present 
"Irreducible School Fund," accumulates in almost exactly 
the same manner as was the plan for the old "Literary 
Fund." But what appears in the light of subsequent 



*Howe: History of Virginia, p. 4i 



20 TRANS ALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE- 

history to have been a serious mistake was made by the 
Assembly the next year after the provisions for the accum- 
ulation of the fund, namely, the revenues of the fund 
were to be used for no other purpose than for the educa- 
tion of the poor. Thus the "Literary Fund" became an 
"indigent fund" for the education of pauper children. 
So what seemed a well meaning movement resulted in 
making class distinction more odious and in widening the 
already awful breach between the rich and the poor. 
No doubt this fund did a great deal of good, but many 
poor people who disdained to be called "paupers" lost the 
benefit of it on that account. 

Tidewater Virginia was very selfish on the matter of 
political representation. Mr. Hov.-e, in his history of 
Virginia, calls attention to the fact that up to 1845, "Hon. 
Andrew Moore, of Rockbridge County, vras the only Vir- 
ginian ever chosen a member of the United States 
Senate, west of the Blue Kidge."' It will be remembered 
that "west of the Blue Kidge" lies the famous Valley of 
Virginia. The Blue Ridge at that time marked the divi- 
sion between the Eastern and Western districts of Vir- 
ginia. The Eastern district comprised 67 counties and 
had a population of 369,393 whites, 42,294 free colored 
and 395,250 slaves; while the Western district had 56 
counties and a population of 371,570 whites, 7,543 free 
colored and 53,737 slaves. Although outnumbered in 
white inhabitants the Eastern district could not be "out- 
voted" and so she held the reins of power. If the rich 
and famous Valley of Virginia, with only one moun- 
tain between it and the East, could have but one U. S, 
Senator in 56 years from the adoption of the constitution, 
pray how much did that "rough and wild country" beyond 
the whole Appalachian range of four mountains lack of 
getting Senatorial representation ! 



EARLY education; IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 21 

One more thought and we will turn our attention to 
another of our neighbors. Mention has just been made of 
the lack of mutual interest beweeu Eastern Virginia and 
the land west of the Alleghenies. Let us notice for a 
moment what these "Indian fighters'' were doing in the 
Valley of the Ohio. They felt Virginia's lack of interest 
in their welfare and they set about to found a new State. 
No fewer than eight plans were projected from 177- to 
1789. Of the eight plans proposed, all but one took in 
some portion of what is now \Yest Virginia. Mr. F. J. 
Turner, in the American Historical Review, Vol. 1., gives 
a map outlining each State projected. They are as fol- 
lows: Vandalia, following the main boundaries of "West 
Virginia as they are today, exclusive of the counties East 
of the Alleghenies. "Westsylvania included the same ter- 
ritory embraced by Vandalia but extending into Pennsyl- 
vania northeast of Pittsburg. Paine's Plan left out both 
Panhandles but took in about one-half of Kentucky. 
Washington County, Va.j (petition of 1784) barely touched 
West Virginia; however Washington County, Va., (peti- 
tion of 1785) included a little more of it. The Ordinance 
of 1784, included a little of the Southwest as did also 
Transylvania. Franklin was the only one of the eight 
that did not touch West Virginia. The outcome of these 
efforts was the organization of Kentucky in 1792. This 
settles the question for awhile, but the Civil War gave the 
opportunity, many years longed for, and West Virginia 
became a State, June 20, 1863. 

MARYLAND. • 

Turning now to Maryland we find another interesting 
neighbor. Mr. William Hand Browne says: "It must be 
confessed that, compared with the other colonies, the his- 
tory of Maryland, seems rather tame and uneventful. 
Small boundary disputes, occasional depredations of 



22 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Indians, a sputter of rebellion now and then, little squab- 
bles in the Assembly, — these arc the only events that 
break the peaceful monotony of the records. But this 
very tameness is an evidence of the modest prosperity of 
the Province, vrhich grew steadily, if not rapidly, and 
attracted men of all nations as well as all creeds."* The 
last sentence is very significant. As early as 1659-60, the 
Assembly made provisions for the admission of forei^^ners 
to naturalization, placing them on the same footing as 
the English. Many Dutch, Swedes, Germans, French- 
men and others took advantage of this liberal provision. 
Thus Maryland, hke New York and other central States, 
was very different in many points from either Puritan 
New England or aristocratic Virginia. There was no 
real aristocracy in Maryland. There were in later years 
many thousands of slaves, but great plantations were 
comparatively few. The most of the farms were small 
and a poor man had a chance to commence with small 
beginnings and gradually rise in wealth and influence. This 
was a much more wholesome state of affairs than in Vir- 
ginia. The indented servant on becoming free was given 
two suits of clothes, a g'an, tools, and a hog or two. Then 
by the conditions of the plantation he might claim a farm 
of fifty acres and set out to become a prosperous and 
respected man. This cut down the "poor white trash" 
element, that forlorn, helpless and abandoned class of the 
early days of Virginia. In general, the settlers were 
"thrifty and industrious, held their land in fee simple, 
and up to the commoawsalth period there was prosperity 
and content." f 

We commonly think of early Maryland as a Catholic 
community, but it was not wholly so. Lord Baltimore, 

*Browne, Maryland, p. 113. 

t Thwaites, The Colonies, p, 83. 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 23 

the Propretor of the Colony, was a Catholic and he 
founded Maryland as a home for his oppressed Catholic 
brethren. But many of his colonists were Protestants. 
The greatest religious tolerance was shown, especially in 
the early days. By 16-iS, the Protestants were in the 
majority and we are sorry to say, they did not show the 
Christian spirit in so marked a degree as had Lord Balti- 
more and his Catholic- adherents. Religious toleration, 
security from the ravages of the Indians, mild climate, 
good soil, excellent portage, very little class distinction 
and great political influence for the individual in local 
affairs, — these were some of the things that made Mary- 
land have a steady growth. Her population being of a 
heterogeneous character, her institutions were not uni- 
form. The schoolmaster was abroad in the land and 
something was done towc^rd founding higher institutions. 
The Battle Creek school wa« founded prior to 1734, Wash-_ 
ington University in 1782, and Frederick College in 1796. 
"We are especially interested in Maryland and her people 
because many of our early settlers came over her great 
road leading across the Alleghenies. In his "Westv/ard 
Movement," Mr. Justius "Winsor gives a map of 1799, 
which shows a road leading across the mountain from 
Maryland towns to Morgantown, on the Monon^ahela, 
thence to Brownsville, Pennsylania, and on to Wheeling 
CD the Ohio River. "We shall have more to say of these 
roads later. We are interested in Maryland for another 
reason: Although she hes south of the famous Mason 
and Dixon line, and like our own State, was marked on the 
maps as slave holding territory, nevertheless, when the 
great crisis of 1661 came, she clasped hands with us in 
holding aloft the Stars aad Stripes and in proudly wav- 
ing it, although we were not far from the Confederate 

*Thwaites: The Colonies, p. 83. 



24 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Capital. Much of -western Maryland is literally in very 
close touch ■with many of our Northern and Eastern Coun- 
ties. In fact we have a lawsuit still pending as to the 
location of our boundary lines, but there is very little per- 
sonal feeling over the matter at present. We cannot blame 
Maryland for wanting some of our South Branch citizens, 
for they are among our very best. They will get a more 
extended notice when \ve come to the early settlements on 
our own side of the AUeghenies, 

We close our observations on Maryland with a 
somewhat amusing quotation from a book by one George 
Alsop, entitled, "Character of the Province of Maryland.'" 
The book was dedicated to Lord Baltimore and seems to 
have been intended as an adverdsement setting forth the 
superfine qualities of the country in the hope of drawing 
immigrants. Its style is one not mot vrith every day. In 
his opening paragraplri the author says: "I think there is 
not any place under the Heavenly altitude, or that has 
footing room upon the circular globe of this world, that 
can parallel this fartile and pleasant piece of ground in its 
multiplicity, or rather, Nature's extravagancy of super- 
abounding plenty So that those parts of 

the creation that have borne the Bell away(for many ages) 
for a vegetable plenteousness, must now in silence strike 
and vayle all, and whisi^er softly iji the audital parts of 
Maryland, that none but she in this dirells singular." * 

George thinks the -'Catholick" and Protestants loved 
each other very dearly. He says, "Here the Roman 
Catholick and the Protestant Episcopal concur in an 
unanimous parallel of friendship and inseparable love in - 
tayled into one another.'' * He says there are no prisons 
and few offenders. "All villainous outrages that are 
committed in other States are not so much as known here: 



* Quoted by Cooke: Maryland, pp. 169-170. 



EARLY EDUCATION- IN WSSTERX VIRGINIA. So 

a man may walk in the open -woods as secure from being 
openly dissected as in bis own house or dwelling. So 
hateful is a robber, that if once imagned to be so, he's kept 
at a distance and shunned as the Postilential noysom- 
ness. "* 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

In studying Pennsylvania as a neighbor and noting 
her influence upon our State and institutions, we shall 
confine ourselves, for the most part, to the southwestern 
part of the State. This will include the basin of the 
Youghiogheuy and the Monongabf^la Rivers. That this 
country is very closely related in many ways to the 
northern part of "West Virginia is well known to everyone 
at all familiar with the history of the Monongahela Val- 
ley. This close relationship and identity of interest is 
brought out by Dr. Joseph Doddridge in his famous 
"Notes."* He says, "In the section of the country where 
my father lived there was for many years after the set- 
tlement of the country, 'neither law nor gospel.' Our 
want of legal government was owing to the uncertainty 
whether we belonged to Virginia or Pennsylvania. The 
line which at present divides the t^vo States was not run 
until some time after the conclusion of the Revolutionary 
War. Thus it happened that during a long period of time 
we knew nothing of courts, lawyers, magistrates, sheriffs 
or constables. Every one was therefore at liberty 'to do 
whatsoever was right in hi s own eyes. ' ',t This uncertainty 
as to which State this section belonged, had other import- 
ant bearings which we will notice a little later. 

There are two points of special interest in connection 
with the early settlements of Southwestern Pennsylvania. 
Indeed so important are these two movements that I think 

* Quoted by Cooke: ^^laryiandT 169-170. 

t Doddridge. "Notes" in Kercheval, p. 248. 



26 TRAXSALi.EGHF.XY HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

they may be justly styled the first and the second migrations. 
The lirst migration and foi-ming of settlements in con- 
siderable numbers began about 1765-6. The first of these 
settlements vras in what is now Payette County, Penn- 
sylvania. The settlers in the m.ain came from Maryland 
and the northern part of the Valley of Virginia. We know 
something of these people from our study of Maryland; 
we will study the people of the Valley more closely in a 
future chapter. In a few years some came from the 
southern part of Pennsylvania, next to the Maryland 
boundary. The people from these various communities 
sought Southwestern Pennsylvania for several reasons. 
Game was plentiful, the land was fresh and abundant and 
could be had for "the taking up," and in short the people 
were becoming interested in the great westward move- 
ment destined to reach such gigantic proportions in a few 
years. "But," some one may say, "why did the people 
from the Valley of Virginia turn to the northwest instead 
of going directly west, striking the Monongahela and 
Ohio Valleys further south?" This may be answered in 
one word: Eoads. The more we study the beginnings of 
settlements, the more we see the important part played 
by the means of travel and communication. In this con- 
nection I desire to quote a paragraph that to me was very 
interesting: 

"An erroneous impression obtains among many at 
the present day, that the Indians, in traversing the inter- 
minable forests which once covered our towns and fields, 
roamed at random, like a modern afternoon hunter, by no 
fixed paths, or that he was guided, in his long journeys, 
solely by the sun, moon and stars, or by the courses of 
streams and mountains. And true it is that these un- 
tutored sons of the woods were considerable astronomers 
and geographers, and relied much upon these unerring 
guide-marks of nature. Even in the most starless night 
they could determine their course by feeling the bark of 



EARLY EDUCATION IX WESTERN VIRGINIA. 2< 

the oak trees, which is always smoothest on the south side 
and roughest on the north. But still they had their trails 
or paths, as distinctly marked as are our county and State 
roads, and often better located. The white traders adopted. 
Ihem, and often stole their names, to he in turn surrendered 
to the leader of some Anglo-Saxon army, and finally 
ohliterated by some costly highway of travel and com- 
merce. Hundreds travel along, or plough across them, 
unconscious that they are in the footsteps of the red men, 
as tlie}^ were wont to hasten, in tingle file, to the lick, 
after the deer and buffalo, or to the wigwams of their 
enemy, in quest of scalps." * 

How true a description of the route by which these 
early settlers reached the land beyond the mountains. At 
first an Indian path known as Nemacolin's trail, it became 
Braddock's Road so famed in history, and later formed 
' the line for the great National Pike over which tliousands 
of emigrants wended their way toward_,the vast region 
known as the West. 

In 1780, about fifteen years after the first important 
establishment of eettlements, a law was passed which 
worked a great transformation in Southwestern Pennsyl- 
vania. It was an act pro\ iding for the gradual abolition 
of slavery. Many of the settlers from Virginia and 
Maryland had brought their slaves with them to their 
new home. This region was supposd, by these settlers to 
belong to Virginia, but in 1780 they began to realize that 
their slaves were doomed if Pennsylvania was to be their 
borne. What was to be done? A great breaking up began 
and many settlers loaded their boats for^thenew and attrac- 
tive lands of Kentucky. When it became known that the 
settlements were being broken up and the lands and 
improvements being sold at very low priceSj eager buyers 
came across the mountains from Eastern Pennsylvania. 

* Veech: The Monongahela of Old. p. 24. 



28 TKANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE, 

This great influx we have styled tbe Second Migration. 
Eastern Pennsylvania contained a heterogeneous poiDula- 
tion composed of English, Quakers, French, Dutch, Swedes, 
Finns, Welsh and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians. Hence 
the Southwestern region soon became filled with hardy 
pioneers of various nationalities. Our State, especially 
the northera part, became heir to a large current of popu- 
lation from this region. 

When we know these people, we hardly need to look 
for their records in regard to schools and other public 
enterprises. The character of the institutions of a com- 
munity always tallies very faithfully with the character 
of the people making up the community. Mr. Veech, 
from whom we quoted above, gives a reference to the old 
schools of the Monongahela that reminds one so much of 
our own schools a few decades ago, that I feel justified in 
incorporatiag it. After speaking of the mouldering down 
and disappearance of the old country churches, he says: 

"And then, the old country schools, with their punch- 
eon floors and benches, and long grease-paper-glazed 
windows, and 'out'-paddle3, and ferrules, and beech lods, 
and pedagogue dominies— where are they? All gone. 
Hallowed be their memory! They were pletifully scat- 
tered among our searly settlements. There is scarcely a 
neighborhood in the cismontane part of the country, 
where some survivor of the second generation cannot 
point you to the spot wlv^re his young ideas were taught 
to shoot and he to play. And if in those days the stream 
of knowledge was not so much diffused as now, yet per- 
haps the current was deeper, and its fertilizing influences 
more durable. Be it our aim still more to expand it and 
to deepen and purify it." * 

So much for our neighborly relations with our great 
and good friend, Pennsylvania. Up to this point we have 



* Veech, Monongahela of Old, p. 104. 



■ EARLY EDUCATIO^' IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 1:9 

been dealing with States that have sent many persons to 
our country to found homes in our midst, we "vrill now 
turn our attention to our neighbors that, in one way or 
another, have taken people from us, or kept them from 
settling among us. 

OHIO. 

"We commonly think of the illustrious Philadelphia 
Convention's having accomplished but one thing, namely, 
the drafting of the Constitution of the United States. 
However, that same Convcutiou drafted and put into 
operation another instrument second in importance only 
to the Constitution itself, the Ordinance of 17S7, providing 
for the organization and control of the Northwest Terri- 
tory. Few of us even now fully realize the momentous 
influence of that great document. Up to the time of its 
adoption, the Ohio River had been the limit of the great 
westward movement. 

The settlements in Southwestern Pennsylvania we 
have ah-eady noted, the flourishing communities being 
built up in Western Virginia at this time will claim our 
attention later, but, comparatively speaking, very few 
homeseekerji had crossed the Ohio prior to the close of 
the Rovolution. 

Let us now note some of the provisions of the Ordi- 
nance, which have had so much to do with the develop- 
ment of this vast region. In the light of subseqent history, 
I think may be placed first, the provision placed last in 
the Ordinance itself, the proJiibition of slavery. Another 
provision very dear to the hearts of the people was that 
enabling the erection of States within the territory to be 
admitted into the union "on equal footing with the origi- 
nal States in all respects whatever. " "Another measure, 
which added incalculably to this influence, was the law 
by which the public lands were sold in small tracts and at 



30 transalleghemy historical magazine. 

low prices by the government directly; free from the 
exactions of speculators, who might have engrossed all 
for their own profit." * One more and we leave the 
general provisions. "We quote from Article third: "Relig- 
ion, morality and knowledge, being necessary to the good 
government and happiness of mankind, schools and the 
means of education shall forever be encouraged. The 
utmost good faith shall always be observed toward the 
Indians; and their lands and property shall never be 
taken from them without their consent." 

In these provisions is seen a chance for a new life to 
many people of the old States. Add to these considera- 
tions, the fresh and fertile lands, the clear and sparkling 
waters, the delightful climate and the broad rolling plains 
and it is no wonder everybody wanted to "go west and 
grow up with the country." 

One of the most powerful agencies in the immediate 
settlement of the country just across the Ohio, was the 
Ohio Company of Boston. The leaders in the formation 
of the company were Rufus Putnam and Benjamin Tup- 
per. The company was organized in 1786, and had a rep- 
resentative before the Congress in 1767. One million and 
half acres of land were bought at a cost of one million 
dollars. Immediate possession was given to the company. 
Then came the great 1es.t of the enterprise. A pamphlet 
written in praise of the country was sent everywhere. 
Farms were offered at a few shillings per acre with free 
transportation for emigrants. Here we find use for our 
old Nemacolin trail again. However, instead of going to 
Pittsburg, many of the emigrants drove their wagons and 
stock to Wheeling and there embarked for the lovrer 
Ohio country. 

"Emigration to the West now became the rage of the 

^KingTohio, p. 6. 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 61 

time. Every small farmer whose barren acres were cov- 
ered with mortgages, whoso debts pressed heavily upon 
him, or whose rovino^ spirits gave him no peace, was eager 
to sell his homestead for what it would bring, save what 
he could from the general wreck, aud began life anew on 
the banks of the Musking^um or the Ohio. And so many 
did so that at the return of every spring hundreds of boats 
went down the Ohio heavy with cattle aud household 
goods. One observer at Fort Pitt wrote home that 
between the first of MarcL aud the middle of April, 1787, 
he saw fifty flat-boats set off for the settlements. Another 
at Fort Finney saw thirty-four boats pass in thirty-nine 
days. The adjutant at Fort Harmar had taken pains to 
count the boats tbat floated by the garrison from October, 
17S6 to May, 1767, aud declared they numbered one hun- 
dred and seventy-seven, and carried upward of twenty- 
seven hundred souls. Another safe authority estimated 
that no less than ten thousand emigrants went by Marietta 
in 1788."* 

And so the story goes, the small stream of population 
at first winding peacefully .^ud slowly around the northern 
boundary and across our northern panhandle, at last 
became a torrent and swept on and on leaving us in the 
eddy of backed v.-ater at the foot of the Alleghenies. 

The country west of the Ohio drew pretty heavily 
from our scanty population because many of them were 
becoming discouraged and disheartened at the attitude of 
Eastern Virginia toward the settler west of the mountains. 
Annoyed and harassed beyond measure by the Indians, 
imposed upon by land speculators and tax collectors, mis- 
erably neglected from an educational standpoint and with 
scarcely any hope of ever gaining Statehood, what won- 
der that many of our people, standing on the mountain 
tops looked with longing- eyes across the Ohio into the 
broad plains controlled directly by Uncle Sam and amply 



* MacMaster: History of the people of the U. S., p. 415. 



82 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

pruvidecl for in the very points for which they vrere con- 
tendinf^. Many names prominent in education, politics 
and business now found on the rolls of "Western States 
were first recorded in the birth books of the region in 
whic'i we now live. Seemingly with no supply of our 
own, we have sent hundreds of our fair young braves to 
mingle their fortunes with those of the growing West, 
while in the early years so few came from abroad to in- 
spire us with noble thoughts and give us a longing for 
bettor things. ^ . . 

KENTUCKY. 

Lieaviug Ohio, we now turn to the last of our neigh- 
bors, Kentucky. In point of time, the settlement of Ken- 
tucky takes precedence to that of Ohio; but we have fol- 
lowed the geogrophy of the country rather than the 
chronology of the development. For that reason we 
went from Pennsylvania to Ohio. 

In connection with the settlement of Southwestern 
Pennsylvania, mention was made of the movement begun 
in 1780, by which Kentucky gained many good settlers 
who had originally come from the Valley of Virginia. 
The Ohio River became the great carrier for emigrants 
from the Upper Potomac and Middle State region. Prior 
to 1787, the eyes of hunters, homeseekers, planters and 
speculators were turned toward the land south of the 
Ohio. Besides the inrut-h of settlers by way of the Ohio, 
emigi-ants found their ws.y into Kentucky by two other 
routes, namely the old "Wilderness Trail leading from 
Richmond through the Cumberland Gap to Lexington, 
and the Kanawha Valley from "Winchester and Staunton 
across the mountains to embarking points on the Great 
Kanawha River and th^mce to Louisville. Thus after 
years of separation friends and relatives who once lived 
on the lower Shenandoah and the Upper Potomac, met 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 33 

ou the southern banks of the Lower Ohio to be^iu life 
anew. 

Kentucky early got the reputation of being a "good 
poor man's country" and thousands came from various 
parts of the counti\y. By 17S5, the population was esti- 
mated at from twenty to thirty thousand and the annual 
increase was from five to ten thousand. Hovrever, many 
of the settlers were restless and pushed farther un into 
the southern and western wilderness, Daniel Boone's des- 
cendants and many of their neighbors being scattered 
throughout the West fi-om Kentucky to the Pacific. 
Kentucky settlements differed in some points from 
settlements in \Ye3tern Virginia, but yet they w^ire 
very similar to ours in many essential features. The 
Virginia aristocracy or landed gentry gained firmer foot- 
ing in the Kentucky region that it ever did in our country. 
But a strong middle class, the life-giving power and 
perpetual preservers of our free institutions, played an 
Important part in shaping the destiny of Kentucky and 
finally secured the severance of statehood connection 
with Virginia. This element was of the same stock as our 
stirring leaders of ante-bellum days who preached fealty 
to the Union from every hilltop and in every valley. And 
be it said to the honor of Kentucky that although far 
south of Mason and DLson's line and a holder of slaves, 
she never surrendered her allegiance to the Union but 
stood firm and true, as did Maryland and West Virginia. 

Another interesting thing showing the identity of in- 
terests .between West Virginia, Southwestern Pennsylvania 
and Kentucky, is that they all had the same market, the 
towns on the old Braddock road in Maryland . Daniel Boone 
and his sons had a large trade along the Ohio, and their 
goods v.'ere secured from Hagerstown and AVilliamsport, 
Maryland. 



34 TRA.XSALLEGHEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Mucli has been T^ritten concerning the Kentucky 
pioneers and much more could be said of them; but with a 
few words concerning their early schools we will close this 
part of our work. The reader no doubt rememb?r3 the 
quotation from ^Mr. Veech about the old schools of Penn 
sj'lvania. I now quote from Mr. Uoosevelt in regard to 
those hallowed institutions in Kentucky. These seeui to 
be the strongest ties in which our kinship with these 
States appears. After describing tlie frontier population 
Mr. RooseyeU eays: 

"Rough log schools were epringing up everywhere 
beside the rough log meeting-hou?G, the same building 
often serving for both, purposes. The school teacher 
might be a young surveyor out of work for the moment, a 
New Englander fresh from some academy in the Norfheast, 
an Irishman with a smattering of learning, or perhaps an 
English immigrant of the upper clas.a, unfit for and broken 
down by the work of a new country. The boys and girls 
were taught together, and at recess played together — tag, 

pawn?, and various kissing games In most 

of the schools the teaching was necessarily of the simplest, 
for the only books might be a Testament, a primer, a si^ell- 
ing book, and a small arithmetic." * 

With this we close our special observations concern- 
ing our neighbors. If we understand thoroughly the people 
in the States about us and have the geography of our own 
State well in Land, a more appreciative study of our 
struggles, failures and successes must necessarily follow; 
and if, with map in hand, we trace the rugged paths, by 
which our grandfathers reached the homes we now enjoy, 
wo must have a deeper interest in their early lives and 
institutions. 



* Eoosevell: The Winning of the West, Vol. ITT., p. 19. 






CHAPTER II. 

Special history is the most difficult kind of history to 
write. Out of hundreds of pages of general history must 
bo selected such facts as bear upon the particular thing 
that one is attempting to bring out. To determine just 
v.hat is important arid svhat is irrelevant is a very delicate 
and difficult task. If I make serious blunders in this 
respect, it must be attributed to defective judgment rather 
fLan to purpose or intent. 

lu grouping our Panhandles and the Kanawha Valley 
in one chapter, I was influenced mainly by the somewhat 
remarkable fact that, when by the Act of the Virginia 
Lt'gislaTure of 18i6, provision was made for the adoption 
of free schools by counties, Jefferson, Ohio and Kanawha 
at once took action and before the end of 1847, had adopted 
free schools. The Act of 1846 required a petition of 
one-third of the qualified voters of a county and the endorse- 
ment of two-thirds of thejegal voters of the same, before 
a system of free schools could be established. However, 
a special act was passed by the same Legislature of 1846, 
allowing the question to be voted upon in sixteen counties, 
without circulating a petition. Of these sixteen counties, 
three belonged totho part of the Western Virginia of which 
vre ai-e now writing, namely, Brooke, Jefferson and Kana- 
\vh;i. Ohio secured her petition, voted upon the question 
ard adopted the system in 1S47. While Brooke fell short a 
few votes of the necessary two-thirds, and consequently, 
did not secure free schools, it is interesting to note that a 
worthy effort was made and also that she belongs to one of 
our Panhandles. Only two ether counties in Wess Virginia 



36 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

adopted free schools prior to 1860, namely, Marshall and 
Mason, the former in the northern Panhandle and the 
latter in the Kanawha Valley. Thus it seems clear that 
the Panhandles and the Kanawha Valley were our foremost 
localities in the adoption of free schools. 

Perhaps another thought would not be out of place 
here. There were many other localities in West Virginia 
longing for free public education both in 1846 and years 
before that time, but Eastern Virginia cared more for the 
rich and iufluential than, she did for the poor. A quotation 
from Morgan and Cork's History'- of Education in West 
Virginia, concercing the Acts of 1846, gives a true state- 
ment of the case. ' 'The passage of these Acts, important as 
they were, was only a partial victory for the friends of the 
public schools. Before a single public school could be estab- 
lished in any county, either under the general act for the 
establishment of a district school system, or any one of 
the special acts, it mus': be adopted by two-thirds of the 
legal voters of that county. In the contest before the 
people for adoption, however, the enemies'of free schools 
possessed a decided advantage in the unusual require- 
ments of two-thix'ds of all the legal voters and in the large 
property qualifications required by the Constitution to 
exercise the right of suffrage, which prevented the poor 
man from taking a pan in voting for the adoption of a fi'ee 
school system."* 

Now leaving the g ,neral, let us turn to local move- 
ments. First, we take up 

THE EASTERN PANHANDLE. - . • ■ 

We are not special' y interested in who first set foot 
upon the soil in the coo^jnunity, for he doubtless left very 
little of permanent value to future generations; we are, 



* Morgan and Corl:: History of Education in W. Va., 
pp. 9-10. 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. ot 

however, interested in the settlements that more than a 
century and a half ago laid the foundations of the present 
culture and refinement in this region. 

Berkeley and Jefferson counties lie in the famous Val- 
ley of the Shenandoah. The territory included in these 
counties when first set apart from Frederick County, in 
1772, was called Berkeley, in honor of Governor Berkeley, 
of Virginia. Jeffersoa County was formed in 1771, and 
named in honor of Thomas Jefferson. Dr. J. P. Hale, 
president of the West Virginia Historical and Antiquar- 
ian Society, in an address before the society in 1899, 
brings out the contrast, on the subject of free schools, 
between the men for Tvhom these counties were named — 
Governor Berkeley arid Thomas Jefferson— the former 
"thanked God that there were no free schools nor print- 
ing presses in his colony, and hoi:>ed there would not be 
for a hundred years to come;" the latter "was chiefly 
instrumental in establishing free schools in Virginia, 
(Jefferson County beins: the first to adopt them)." * 

While Jefferson and Berkeley counties did not diff'er 
on the question of schools as much as did the men in 
honor of whom they were named, nevertheless, they were 
unlike in many things. Although lying side by side their 
populations were made up, in the main, of entirely diff'er- 
ent stock. Jefferson was settled principally by "old Vir- 
ginia families from the eastern part of the State; and the 
inhabitants still retain that high, chivalrous spirit, and 
generous hospitality, for which that race was remarkable 

* It has commoQiy been stated that Berkeley County 
was named for Governor Berkeley, but it is now known 
that such is not the case. It was named in honor of 
Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, who was Gov- 
ernor a century after tbe administration of the Governor 
Berkeley who thanked God that there were no schools. 



38 TRANS ALLEGHENY UISTOEICAL MAGAZINE, 

iu the palmy days of their prosperity."* While on the 
other hand, Berkeley was settled for the most part by 
Scotch-Irish Presbyterians and Germans who had reached 
this country fi'om Pennsjlvauia. It is remarkable how 
few people, comparatively speaking, from eastern Vir- 
ginia settled the counties west of Jefferson. More will 
be said of this as we proceed, f 

A comparison of statistics from the census of 1S40, 
brings out some interesting things in this connection. 
Jefferson County at that time had a population of 14,032 
of which 4,157 were slaves. She had in her schools of all 
kinds 737 pupils. Berkeley had a population of 10,972, 
only 1,919 slaves, with 727 pupils in her schools. While we 
are in "statistics" a few more of the same date may not be 
out of place. It will be noticed that while Jefferson had a 
somewhat larger population than Berkeley, she had more 
than twice as many slaves, but only ten more pupils in 
school. Let us look at Morgan; whole population, 4,253, 
slaves, 134, pupils in school, 347. With not one-third as 
many people as JeffersoE, she had nearly one half as 
many pupils in school, while Jefferson had thirty-one times 
as many slaves. An inverse proportion forces itself upon 
us here: the more slaves a county has according to popu- 
lation, the fewer pupils she counts in her schools. Take 
Hampshire County: whole population, 12,295, slaves, 
1,403, scholars 577. With the same thought before us, 
let us for a moment cross the mountains. Take Brooke 
County, (at that time also including Hancock): population, 
7,948; slaves, 91; scholars, 746. Having about one half 
as many people as Jeffex'ton, she had nine more pui3ils in 
school while Jefi'erson had forty-six times as many slaves. 

* Quoted by Howe: Virginia, p. 334. 
f Kerchival mentions a colony of Baptists from. 
New Jersey consisting of fourteen or fifteen families that 
settled in Berkeley about 1742 or 1743. 



EARLV EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIKGINIA. 39 

One more compai'ison and we will leave the census reports 
for the present. While ticenty-jive counties were reported 
having a larger population than Ohio County, but three 
had more pupils in the schools than were found on her 
records. Here are the figures for the three counties com- 
pared with those of Ohio: Fauquier: pop. 21,897, pupils, 
1,-521; Henrico: pop. 33,076, pupils, 1,862; Loudoun: 
pop. 20,431, pap'ds, 1,274; Ohio: pop. 13,357, pupils, 
1,089. 

When it is remembered that the three banner coun- 
ties of Eastern Virginia are here given, while twenty-two 
remain with a greater population than Ohio and fewer in 
school, I think I cannot be accused of unfair dealing in 
making these comparisons. 

To return to the Eastern Panhandle. I do not deem 
it necessary to enter upon a description of the Pennsyl- 
vania element of the population that played so important 
a i^art in the development of the Valley of Virginia. A 
great deal has been written concerning their earlj' settle- 
ments and their later difficulty with Lord Fairfax, concern- 
ing the deeds for their land. Perhaps the most interest- 
ing thing to us in this connection is the fact that these 
legal difficulties cau=ed many of these people to seek homes 
outside of the domain of Lord l*'airfax, some going to 
southwestern Pennsylvania, of whom mention was made 
in the former chapter, and many croFseJ the Allegehnies, 
who will claim our attention later. 

The settlement in the Valley . grew and extended 
Itself in two directions. Many settlers pushed their way 
up the Shenandoah and iinally, scattering somewhat on 
coming in contact with another well-established commu- 
nity, found their way into various localities west and 
?=outhwest. In the other direction they followed the 
Potomac toward its source. The South Branch of the 



40 TRANSALLEGEEXY HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

Potomac became a noted country. Many people came to 
it from the eastern and the northern States. In tracing 
the history of many of tbe prominent families as ^iven in 
the History of Hampshire County, by Maxwell and 
Swisher, I Hiid such noises as the following: Daniel 
Arnold. — Ancestors came from Germany about one hun- 
dred and fifty years ago. The Blue Family. — The Blue 
Family were among the earliest settlers in Hampshire 
County, if not the very earliest. There were three brothers, 
John, Uriah and Michael, the two latter making their 
homes near ShepherdstOR-n, while John settled about five 
miles north of Romney, and was the founder of the Blue 
family in Hampshire County. They came from New Jer- 
sey to Virginia early in the seventeenth century. They 
came to New Jersey from Holland. The Cooper Family. — 
Two brothers came from Germany. One settled near 
Frederick City, Maryland; the other near Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania. The Maryland Cooper came to Hampshire. 
David Gibson, Scotch-Irish descent. — Lived several years 
near Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Tiie Harper Family. — 
The founder of the Harper family v,'as Goodlow Harper, a 
native of England. He first settled near Philadelphia. 
David Warner Swisher, Swiss-German descent. — Four 
brothers came from Switzerland. One settled near Win- 
chester, two others went northward into Pennsylvania, 
and their descendants afterward migrated into what are 
now the counties of Marion, Monongalia and Harrison. 
The White Family, Scotcli and English origin. — Robert 
White married in Delaware, resided for a while near York, 
Pennsylvania, and later came to the Valley of the Shenan- 
doah. And so the history of the South Branch runs. 
These people brought with them their ideas of schoolo and 
education. There was no system of schools; there could 
be none. The people in this region were not law-makers. 



EARLY EDUCATION- IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 41 

Thoy obeyed the laws whose makers seemed very little 
concerned in the people's welfare. But although they 
could have no system of public education, they had schools. 
Situated in an old field in an out-of-the-way place, perhaps, 
laugh f by unlearned and old-fashioned masters, poorly 
supported and often neglected, these dear old schools 
were the colleges in which were educated many of the 
noble and brainy men who took leading parts in adding to 
the sum total of the highest and best civilization of which 
the world has record. The description of these old schools, 
their actual workings and the portrayal of the old school- 
master who taught in tbem will be given in another 
chapter, from the pens of the "old boys" who learned to 
make "pot hooks" and "cypher" in the "good old days." 
The Eastern Panhandle had a few academies in which 
the wealthier people educated their children. The old 
Charlestown Academy was established in 1795. It was 
one of the famous Old Virginia academies and it wielded 
a good influence in its community. After serving as a 
public institution for many years, it passed into the hands 
of a corporation and became a private school. It con- 
tinued in operation as a private academy until some time 
within the past five years. An energetic public school 
t-eacher succeeded in convincing the community that the 
free schools were worthy of general and enthusiatic sup- 
port and the patrons of the academy abandoned their 
private institution and sent their children to the public 
school. In many parts of Jefi'erson and Berkeley, family 
tutors and private institutions have held back the public 
schools from achieving the largest measures or success. 
The attachment of the people to schools under their own 
direction and the disfavor into which the "pauper schools"' 
hud fallen, retarded the public school movement for many 
years, if indeed prejudice does not exist to this day against 



42 TRANSaLLLGHENY historical MAGAZI^E. 

fi-ee schools, oj^en alike to rich and poor. The city of 
Martinsburg had, until quite recently, some seven, or 
perhaps nine private schools, but one by one they succumb 
and join in the great popular schools "of the people," 
"for the people," and supported "by the people." 

Shepherdstown has been an educational center for a 
long time. The Shepherd College Normal School received 
its name from an institution founded by Mr. Rezin Davis 
Shepherd. This school was in operation about three- 
quarters of a century ago. Martinsburg Academy was 
founded in 1822. It i« »o longer in operation. The Win- 
chester Academy and the school at Staunton were pat- 
ronized by many people from our State, a good many going 
from west of the Allegheaies. One of the oldest and most 
renowned schools on the early soil of "West Virginia was 
Romney Academy, founded about the beginning of the 
present century. From its halls went forth some of the 
teachers who became the disseminators of learning in the 
famous South Branch country — whose people might ap- 
propriately be called the Phoenicians of the Alleghenies, 
the carriers of liberty, equality and education. 

There were other schools of importance in Hampshire 
founded about the middle of the century, such as Koraney 
Classical Institute, Potomac Seminary and Springfield 
Academy, but it is not our purpose to come this side of the 
"forties" except in a general way. With these few lines 
concerning land toward the rising sun, we turn to 

THE NORTKERN PANHANDLE. 

The whole of the Northern Panhandle, together with 
the territory now included in Wetzel, Tyler and a part of 
Pleasants, formerly belonged to Ohio County. It -was 
formed in 1776, from the district of West Augusta and 
remained inlact until 1707; Brooke County, then including 
Hancock also, was formed. Tyler became a county in 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 43 

lSi4, while Marshall continued to be a part of Ohio until 
1835. At a later date Wetzel was formed from Tyler. 

The permanent settlement of this region "vras some 
forty years later than the occupation of the Eastern Pan- 
handle. Mention vras made in connection with the history 
of southwestern Pennsylvania that in 1765-G settlers 
U-gan to co.ne over the old Braddock road and locate in 
Fayette County. About five years from-that time, in 1770, 
Joseph Tomlinson, from near Fort Cumberland, pushed 
beyond the Fayette settlement and visited the flats of 
Grave Greets; in what is now Marshall County. Being 
d(/l!ghted with the country, he decided to make it his 
home. However, after building a cabin, he returned to 
liis old home and on acc:)unt of fear of an Indian outbreak 
did not move his family for some three years. Accord- 
ing to De Hass "about the same time that Mr. Tomlinson 
lirst visited Grave Creek, came Ebeuezer Zane to Wheel- 
ing. Soon after, he was followed by Ms brothers, Andrew 
and Jonathan, with several others, from the South 
lii-anch of the Potomac." 

The following note will aid somewhat in ehowing the 
slock and original home of some of the South Branch 
people: "These gentlemen (the Zaues) were descendants 
of a Mr. Zane who accompanied William Penn to his 
province of Pennsylvania, and from whom one of the 
principal streets in Philadelphiia derived its name. 
Their father was possessed of a bold and daring spirit of 
adventure, which was displayed on many occasions, in 
the earlier part of his life. Having rendered himself 
obnoxious to the Society cf Friends (of which he was a 
member) by marrying without the pale of that society, he 
moved to Virginia ar.d settled on the South Branch where 
the town of Moorefieid has since been erected," Withers' 
Chrojiieles of Border WarA^re, edited by Thwaites, p. 124. 



44 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAI. MAGAZINE, 

In 1772, came Bouiiett, "Wetzel, Messer, Silas Zane 
and many other hardy pioneers from the same region; men 
whose means and influence contributed greatly towards 
breaking the power of the savage and subduing the 
coui^iry to the wants of civilized life. 

The emigrants crossed from Redstone by way of Cat- 
fish (Washington) and Scotch Ridge to the head of Little 
Wheeling Valley, thence down over the same path, after- 
wards taken by the National road. When within a few hun- 
dred yards of the fork of Wheeling, an incident occurred, 
trivival in its character, but important in its results. 
Wetzel was riding in advance of his company, when sud- 
denly the girth of his saddle broke, and he was compelled 
to get off to repair it. Meantime Silas Zane passed on, and 
soon came to the forks, and greatly admiring the locality, 
commenced "tomahawking" his "right." The laud thus 
secured, (one thousand acres) is now one of the most val- 
uable and highly imprv.ved farms in Western Virginia. 
At this point the comp-jny separated, Wetzel, Bonnettand 
others, going up Big Wheeling. Other emigrants soon 
followed, and the fine lands along Wheeling, Buffalo and 
Shore Creeks, were not long unclaimed by actual set- 
tlers."* 

The early settlements in the country above Wheeling 
are interesting and iiaportant. Mr. Howe in his his- 
tory of Virginia in svoaking of Brooke County, says: 
"Most of the early settlers were from New England." 
This introduces a culture element that had much to do 
with all this region in both the earlier and the later stages 
of development. We fiud many illustrious names among 
the primitive settlers iu Brooke. Captain Oliver Brown 
from Lexington, Massxhuetts; Captain Samuel Brady 



* De Hass: History tv Indian Wars of West Virginia, 
pp. 81-82. 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 45 

from Shipponsburg, Pennsylvania; Dr. Joseph and Philip 
Doddridge, from Bedford County, Pennsylvania; Col. 
Richard Brown from Maryland, Dr. Alexander Campbell 
from Ireland, though living awhile in Washington County, 
Pennsylvania; Patrick Gasa, from Pennsylvania, and 
many others took active parts in directing the fortunes of 
this favored land. 

The Northern Panhandle had a superiority in the 
three points named in the introduction, from which we 
study the development in a country, over any other region 
in the State. Her people were of the best type of the 
noble Anglo-Saxon blood, her stretches of beautiful and 
productive lands could not be surpassed, and her means 
of communication were excellent for those primitive 
times, while in leaders in thought and inspirers in action 
she ranks among the foremost in the country. Dr. Jos- 
e])h Doddridge, whose name is mentioned among the notable 
men in the above list, has preserved invaluable informa- 
tion concerning this country,its people, their manners and 
customs. He mentioned the establishment, in 1792, of an 
academy at Canonsburg, in Washington County, Penn- 
sylvania, which afterward was incorporated under the 
name of Jefferson College. "Next to. this, Washington 
College, situated in the county town of the county of that 
name, has been the means of diffusing much of the light 
of science through the western country." These schools 
were lat^r joined under the name the college now bears, 
Washington and Jefferson. Mr. Doddridge himself, how- 
evei-, was educated in Maryland. In connection with his 
father he says that although he never had been in school 
more ihan six weeks, he nevertheless was a good penman 
and a good arithmetician. His penmanship was of great 
service to him in writing letters, bonds, deeds, etc., for 
his neighbors. 



46 TRANSALT.EGHEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The people of this section bought their salt, iron, and 
other indispensable articles from eastern markets. Bal- 
timore was the first i^lace of exchange. Then later Fred- 
erick, Hagerstown, Oldtown and Cumberland each in turn 
vrere the trading places. This Hue of traffic shows at 
once the intimate connection between Maryland and 
northern Virginia, and the settlements on the Ohio. Ou 
the influence of commf^rcial intercourse in the develop- 
ment of a community, Mr. Doddridge says: 

"The early introduction of commerce was among the 
first means of changing in some degree, the existing 
aspect of the population of the country, and giving a nev.- 
current to public feeling and individual pursuit. The 
huntsman and warrior, when he had exchanged his 
hunter's dress for that of the civilized man, soon lost 
sight of his former occupation, and assumed a new char- 
acter and a new line of life. Had not commerce furnished 
the means of changing the dresses of our people and tho 
furniture of their houses — had the hunting shirt, mocca- 
sin, and leggins, continued to be the dress of our men — 
had the three legged stool, the noggin, the trencher and 
the wooden bowl, continued to be the furniture of our 
houses, — our progress towards science and civilization 
would have been much sloTver. " * 

I have quoted at such length because it emphasizes 
so strongly one of the p.* inciplcs upon which our super- 
structure rests in developing the subject now in hand. 

The Northern Panhandle from an early pei-iod had an 
excellent euviroment. Pennsylvania adopied the free 
school system, under State control, in 1834, and Ohio took 
similar action in 1837. From those dates and long before 
our northern comities were between two States possessed 
with strong educational sentiments. As we are a part of 
all with which we come in contact, the influence of Ohi<^ 



Doddri(]<;o: '-Xotes," p. 250. 



EARLY i^DUCATlON IN WESTERN VIKGINIA. 47 

and Pennsjlvania had much to do in inspiriug nobler 
effort among our citizens near them. 

The northern counties seemed to excel the country 
south of "Wheeling in general education and advancement. 
The schools in Marshall were very primitive in their 
methods. The letter from Mr. T. B. McFarland 
gives a vivid portra^'alof the early schools in this vicinity. 
His letter is exceediugly interesting and brings out many 
valuable points. He says, "There were no free schools 
in this county until we got the new State of West Vir- 
ginia. For quite a while we had to import our teachers 
from Ohio aud Pennsylvania, but that is done away with, 
we don't have to go from home, to get teachers, we have 
them here and good ones atthat. " "' He also mentions 
the difilculty one teacher had in trying to introduce the 
study of geography, because the patrons objected to the 
theory that the earth is round. He mentions two Irish 
tenchers, and that brings up the interesting fact, unknown 
to me until recently, that Irish teachers have been quite 
numerous in our State. It is said that just after the Revo- 
lutionary War, from 1781 to 1783, while peace negtiations 
were pending, a great many Irish soldiers deserted the 
English army aud crossed the Alleghenies for safe hid- 
ing. Quite a number of these, having at least the rudi- 
ments of learning, became teachers m various localities, f 

We turned aside after calling attention to some of the 
strong points in favor of the healthy growth and perma- 
nent settlem.ent of the northern counties to note the intlu- 
ence of some of her noble leaders. Let us revert to the 

*See Chapter IV. Letter of T. B. McFarland. 
t Prof. Thos. C. ililler first gave me this information 
and I found several of the letters received make mention 
of the Irish pedagogues, some of whom were ver^- well 
educated. 



48 TRA>;SALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

natural features of this region. The Northern Panhandle 
has but little outlying and waste territory. The counties 
are all small and yet in a fevr yeare after their settlement 
the population numbered into the thousands. The towns 
grew pretty rapidly and with their growth, the educa- 
tional sentiment became quite strong. All these things 
had their bearing upon the early development of the 
counties of the north. Comparieons are said to be odious 
and yet after all, the whole of success or failure is rela- 
tive and can be measured only by reference to a common 
standard. In order to show the effects of the superior 
advantages of our four email counties under consideration, 
let us look at some figures. The combined area of Han- 
cock, Brooke, Ohio and Marshall-is only 5-10 square miles. 
There are fifteen counties in West Virginia at the present 
time, each of which has a greater number of square miles 
than all four of these taken together, while Randolph, 
the largest county in the State, has exactly twice as many, 
1,080. Kanawha County, in 1800, comprised the present 
county of Kanawha, all of Mason, all of Cabell, parts of 
Nicholas, Logan, Fayette, Braxton, Gilmer, Boone, Jack- 
son and Koane, aggregating in all not less than 5,400 
square miles, while her population at that time numbered 
but 3,239. * 

When we consider that the settlement of Kanawha 
bears the date of 1774, while Ohio and Brooke (then con 
stituting the Northern Panhandle) stand at 1770 and 1772 
respectively, and that in the same year Kanawha's popu 
lation consisted of the number given above, while the lat 
ter counties had 9,446 souls, the contrast is indeed remark 

* Cabell, Mason and others have been further divided 
until now the following whoie counties are from the 
original Kanawha territory, also: Lincoln, Wayne, Clay 
and Putman. 



A 

EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 49 

able — Kanawha with only one-third the population 3-et 
ten times the number of square miles in territory, 
making the ratio in population to that of territory in the 
two sections about thirty to one. That came so near being 
the famous "sixteen to one" that in order to show that the 
ratio is not "fixed" we give a few more figures from later 
census reports. While Kanawha County yet has 9S0 
square miles, with a population, in 1890, of 42,756 and the 
aggregate population of the Panhandle counties was 
75,3oG, nevertheless, the increase shown in the Kanawha 
Valley from 1860 to 1S90, is decidedly in advance of the 
increase for the same period in the northern counties. 
The subjoined comparative table will bring this out in a 
clear light. 

Population. 



County. 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 


Brooke, 


6,013 


6,660 


7,219 


Hancock, 


4,882 


6,414 


6,693 


Ohio, 


37,457 


46,557 


48,024 


Marshall, 


18,840 


20,735 


26,444 


Kanawha, 


32,466 


42,756 


54,696 


CabeU, 


13,744 


23,598 


29,252 


Fayette, 


11,5C0 


20,735 


31,937 



;i> These figures afi"ord a wide field for thought and com- 
ment, but all I shall say is that many of the advan- 
tages once enjoyed by the northern and the eastern coun- 
ties are now open alike to many other parts of the State 
and that ere long we will have no "backwoods" in West 
Virginia. 

Now a few words concerning the effort at higher edu- 
cation in the northern counties and we shall turn our at- 
tention to another section of the country. 

The men who fii-st came to Brooke County, as men- 
tioned before, were broad-minded and strong. Very soon 
after their settlement they began to provide for education. 



50 TRANS ALLEGHENY" HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Conceruing their first school, we find the following inter- 
esting item: "The origin of Brooke Academy dates as 
far back as April 2i, 1778, when the deed for the ground 
upon which the building was located, was made. When 
the academy was incorporated in 1799, the board of trus- 
tees was formed of the following gentlemen: Charles 
Wells, Moses Chapline, Thomas Thompson, J. Doddridge, 
Basil Wells, John Counell, James Marshall, Philip Dod- 
dridge and William McKennon. The school continued, 
with varied success, till 1846, when the old building was 
torn down and a new one was erected." In 1852, the prop- 
erty passed into possession of the "Meade Collegiate 
Institute." The institute failed, however, and in 1562, 
the property reverted to the trustees of Brooke Academy, 
and in 1865 they sold the same to a gentleman who con- 
verted the school building into a dwelling house. 

Another educational niovement of interest in this com- 
munity was the opening of a school for both sexes in 1818, 
by Dr. Alexander Campbell. This was called Buffalo 
Academy and was the forerunner of Bethany College- 
founded by Dr. Campbell in 1341. The history of Bethany 
College is to be found in many books in connection with 
its great founder. 

The village of West Liberty has been an educational 
center for many years. West Liberty Academy was in- 
corporated in 1837, and it became a good school for that 
early period. Being in operation more than thirty years 
prior to the establishment; of the State Normal School 
there, it gained such a hold upon the people that almost 
every one in the town to this day speaks of the "Academy" 
when referring to the Normal School. This calls up the 
remark of an acting President of the State University 
only a few years ago to the oiiect that many people thought 
o£ the University as a local institution and often spoke of 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 51 

it and wrote concerning it as the "Morgantown Acadefii}'. 
It is hard to give up the old names around vrhich cling so 
many various memories, even when the sphere of the old 
school is widened and more dignity attached in higher 
soua^'^ing appellations. 

While the city of Wheeling has never taken high rank 
as an educational center, it has done a good deal in the 
way of general education for the masses. Among the 
early schools, the Lancastrian Academy is deserving of 
mention. It was founded in 1814, and is still in operation, 
now under the name of Linsley Institute. The founder of 
this school, Koah Linsley, was a New Englander. He was 
born in Connecticut in 177!:. He graduated from Yale in 
1795, then studied law and after completing his law studies 
at the Litchfield Law School, came to Morgantown in 
1797 or S, where he stayed two years, when he went to 
Wheeling. Here again we see the influence of New 
England upon the development of culture in the early days 
of Western Virginia. 

THE VALLEY OF THE GREAT KANAWHA. 

The Northern Panhandle is a very interesting region 
from many points of view, but we leave it now and con- 
sider the early conditions in the Valley of the Great Ka- 
nawha. Going back to the Valley of Virginia as a start- 
ing point, let us examine the character of the people com- 
posing the early settlem^jnt tov^'ard the head-waters of the 
Shenandoah and across the divide to the source of the 
James River, which breaks through the Blue Ridge at the 
southwest corner of Rockbridge County. Of the German 
and Scotch-Irish settlers from Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania, who filled up the Valley of the Shenandoah, men- 
tion has been made. We now wish to notice another move- 
ment of vast importance. The story of Benjamin Burden 
his present of a buffalo calf to Governor Gooch, of Vir- 



52 TRANSALLEGHEXY HISTORICAL, MAGAZn-.E. 

ginia, the Governor's grant to him of 500,000 acres of land 
on the waters of the Shenandoah and James Kivers, on 
condition that within ten years -Burden should settle at 
least one hundred families thereon, is too familiar to be 
recoLinted at length here. But the account of the settle- 
ment has been so admirably described by President RuiT- 
ner, of Washington College, that I incorporate several 
facts from him: 

"Burden returned forthwith to England for emigrants 
and the next year, 1737, brought over upwards of one 
hundred families to settle upon the granted lands. At 
this time the spirit of immigration was particularly rife 
among the Presbyterians in the northern parts of Ireland, 
in Scotland, and in the adjacent parts of England. Most 
of Burden's colonists were Irish Pros'oyteriaus, who, being 
of Scottish extraction, were often called Scotch-Irish. A 
few of the pure Scotch and northern English were mixed 
with the early settlers, but all, or nearly all, of the same 
Presbyterian stamp. Among the primitive immigrants 
to Burden's grant we meet with the names of some who 
have left a numerous posterity, now dispersed far and 
wide from the Blue Kidge to the Mississippi — such as 
Ephrim M'Dowell, Archibald Alexander, JohnPattou, An- 
drew Moore, Hugh Telford, John Matthews, etc. 

"The first party were soon joined by others, mostly of 
their connections and acquaintances in the mother country. 
These again drew others after them; and they all increased 
and multiplied, until ere the first generation had passed 
away, the land was filled with them. They began to send 
forth colonies to new lands, southward and westward, 
until now (about 1S40) there is scarce a county in the great 
valley of the Mississippi where some of the descendants 
may not be found. 

"Although some lands on the upper branches of the 
Shenandoah were not included in Burden's grant, yet from 
the German settlements upwards to the vale of the James 
River, the population was generally Presbyterian; so that 
the whole mass, for GO miles or more along the valley, was 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 53 

scarcely less homogeneotis and peculiar than the mass of 
Germans below them. Few of the old colonists of Vir- 
ginia migrated to thes« parts of the valley. They lived 
by the cultivation of tobacco; tobacco was the sole staple 
of their trade; tobacco was their money. An arcadian 
life among green pastures and herds of cattle had no 
charms for them; tobacco was associated with all their 
ideas of pleasure and of profit. But how was a hogshead 
of tobacco to be rolled to market through the rugged 
defiles of the Blue Ridge? Not until roads and naviga- 
tion offered new facilities for trade, and the Indian weed 
itself lost some of its importance, did the valley cease to 
repel settlers from the lowlands of Vrginia." 

I have quoted at corsiderable length from President 
Ruffner's report because of the tremendous influence of 
these people upon tlie cevelopmout of the southwestern 
part of our State. Burden's emigrants went south and 
west, we are told. We can understand very readily how 
they could go south or southwest from the James River in 
Rockbridge and Bottotourt counties to Roanoke, Montgom- 
ery and Pulaski; but how could the AUeghenies be crossed 
by a westward movement? AYe have said a good deal 
about the break in the mountains where the North Branch 
of the Potomac courses its way through near Cumberland, 
Maryland, as its waters roll on toward the Chesapeake 
Bay and ultimately into the Atlantic Ocean. But the 
Potomac is a favored river to have the AUeghenies swing 
wide their portals and lel it go through, and. near it have 
a uational pike and a great trunk line railroad. When 
this great gate is closed no other river dares venture 
among the mountain fastnesses of this great chain to the 
southwest for full two hundred miles, and then the ven- 
turesome and picturesque New River taking its rise in 
North Carolina going by a north and west direction, breaks 
through awful gorges b'Vtween towpring cliUs to join vrith 
the Greenbrier and Uauley, all under a new name, the 



54 TRANSALLEGHEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZlNiJ. 

Kanawha, pouring? into the Ohio and finally through the 
Mississippi, reaching the Gulf of Mexico. Where the 
New River found its way — or shall we say made it? 
homeseekers trudged forward, hoping to find the western 
land ol promise. The old Ingles Ferry, so frequently 
mentioned by Dr. Hale in his Trans-Allegheny Pioneers, 
was on this river in Pulaski County, two miles from Dub- 
lin, a town on the Norfolk and Western railroad. How- 
ever, there is another gap, about fifty miles to the north- 
east of where the New River goes through the mountains, 
nearly on a line between Covington in Allegheny 
County and Lewisburg in Greenbrier, and through this 
pass perhaps the greater number of the first permanent 
settlers found their way to the Kanawha Valley. The 
Chesapeake and Ohio railroad now speeds the iron horse 
near this old route. 

The first stop across this mountain was made in 
Greenbrier County. Mr. Howe says of this settlement: 
"In March, 1769, Col. John Stuart, Robert McClenachen, 
Thomas Renick, and William Hamilton settled here 
(Frankfort). They as well as all those that immediately 
followed, were from Augusta County.'' * 

Without discussing further the primitive settlements 
on the Greenbrier, we come up to September 11, 1774. 
On that day a brave, heroic body of men, eleven hundred 
strong, were assembled at Camp Union, now Lewisburg, 
Greenbrier County, ready to set out on a journey toward 
the west. Who were they, where were they going and 
for what purpose ? They were the members of that noble 
army of Gen. Andrew Lewis on their way to meet the 
Red Men who had killed so many of their relatives and 



*Howe: History of Virginia, p. 284. 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 55 

neighbors. * Captain Matthew Arbuckle waa the army 
guide. Oa September 30, nineteen days after starting, 
the Ohio River, one hundred and sixty miles distant, was 
reached. The main points of interest in this movement for 
our p-esent study are, first, that a large percentage of 
Gen. Lewis' army was composed of his fellow countrymen 
of the Valley of Virginia, and second that they Jnade a 
nxid into the Kanawha Valley. The next year after the 
famous battle at Point Pleasant, 1775, "Rev. Joseph xVlder- 
son cut out the first waggon road across the mountains as 
fa? west as the Greenbrier. " t From this time on, the 
valley began to fill up more rapidly. Settlers came not 
only by the two routes mentioned through the mountains 
from the west, but some came down the Ohio and up the 
Kanawha from the settlements further north. 

At this point I introduce some interesting data made 
up from some sixty biographical sketches in Mr. Atkin- 
son's History of Kanawha County. This book was pub- 
lished in 1876, and these sketches are of the representative 
people of the county. I have gone over them all carefully 
for the purpose of finding from what parts of the country 
these people or their ancestry came. Below I give the 
result of my investigator! on this point. 

* "John Lewis, the father of Gen. Andrew Lewis, was 
probably of Welsh descc^nt, and born in 1678, in County 
Donegal, Ireland. About 1716, he married Margaret Lynn, 
of the famous Loch Lyun, Scotland. In dispute over his 
tenancy, 1729— he killed a man of his station, some say, 
his Catholic landlord— -.ad fled to Portugal, whence in 
1731, after strange adventures, he emigrated to America, 
and was joined there by his family. Fearing to live near a 
seaport, he established himself on the frontier, in the Val- 
ley of Virginia, two miles east of the present site of Staun- 
ton." Thwaites in his reprint of Withers' Border War- 
fare. 

t Hale: Trans- Allegheny Pioneers, p. 267. 



m 



56 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

From and throug'h >Jew York: Isaac Noyes, James 
Madison Laidley, Alexander T. Laidley (Thomas Laidley 
came from Scotland to New York, thence to Philadelphia 
■where he resided awhile, going from there to the Monon- 
gahela Valley through the influence of Albert Gallatin) 
Luke Wilcax, Edmund Saunders, Franklin Xoyes, Brad- 
ford Noyes, Sr. — 7. 

From Pennsylvania: Alexander Washington Quar- 
rier, Levi "Welch, John Welch, Mrs. R E. Tompkins, 
Major John M. Doddridge, George Gosborm, Israel Rue, 

From Massachusetts: Aaron Whittaker, James Mc- 
Farland, William Whittaker, Norris Stanley Whittaker— i. 

Vermont; Ezra Walker. 

Kentucky: Captain Suelling C. Farley. 

From the Valley of Virginia: Hon. Benjamin H 
Smith, James Nevins, James A. Lewis, Judge Matthew 
Dunbar, Hon. John D. Lewis, Andrew H. Beach, Gen. 
Lewis Ruffner, Col. Chas. Ruffner, James Ruffuer, John 
Warth, Col. Joel Ruffner— iT. ^ 

From the counties at the foot of Blue Ridge on the 
east: Abia Rcece, William R. Cox, Blackwell Chilton, 
William D. Shrewsbury, Col. William Dickenson, Joel 
Shrewsbury — 6. 

From Eastern Virginia — Tidewater region: Judge 
Lewis Summers, Judge George W. Summers, Thomas C. 
Watkins, Col. Levi J. Woodyard, Adam Aultz, Sutton 
Matthews, Guy P. Matthews, Mrs. S. K. Hansford, James 
Truslow, James H. Fry, Randall Miller— 11. 

Unclassified, from lack of data — 12. 

While it would be unwise to base too much upon the 
analysis of the early population of the county from this 
list, nevert?ieless, it briugfi out the miscellaneous character 
of the original inhabitants of Kanawha; and emphasizes 



EARLY EDUCATION IM WESTERN VIRGINIA. 57 

the fact that even the southern part of Western Virginia 
was not dominated by settlers from the plantations of 
the tidewater country. 

The natural features of the Kanawha Valley and its 
rea^o.euess from the markets were strong points against 
its progress for many years. The people who had come 
into the valley were scattered over a wide stretch of 
country. The towns grew very slowly and outside com- 
munication was extremely poor. Take Charleston as 
an example. "In 1769, when Kanawha County was formed, 
there were but seven houses. In 1796 these had increased 
to twelve, and 1603 to 1610, to about twenty. Up to as late 
as 1510, and probably later there was only a fortnightly mail 
here, brought from Lewisburg on horseback.''* While 
there were but twenty houses in Charleston in ISIO, Wheel- 
ing reported a population of 914. 

Another drawbar k to Charleston was that much of 
the land thereabout was held by non-residents, and set- 
tlers could not "take up" lands, but had to buy them. 
Reflection over the various hindrances to the growth and 
development of settlements in this region will make clear 
the fact that educational intere.sts were in a sorry plight. 
In weaker hands thc'y might have fared much worse, 
however, for despite tl;e many disadvantages there were 
some schools. Huppert P. Gaine^ is said to have been 
the first school teacher in Charleston, while Levi Welch, 
Jacob Rand, Jas. A. Lewis, Lewis Ruilner and Ezra 
Walker were all "of an early day. " Mercer Academy was 
built in 1818. But there was very little attempt at educa- 
tion in many parts of the Valley. What with fighting the 
Indians, "driving the wolf from the door" and struggling 
unaided by those who could have helped, but who on the 
other hand oppressed them, these pioneers could not do 



Hale : Pioneers, p p. 268 and 309. 



58 TRANSALLEGHENir HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

much toward creating' and supplying the higher wants of 
their boys and girls. 

Although a little later in development than some other 
places in this region, a community in Cabell County is 
deserving of particular attention from an educational 
point of view. A writer in 1845 says: "Guyandotte lies 
on the Ohio, at the mouth of the Guyandotte Eiver. It is 
much the most important point of steamboat embarkation, 
as well as debarkation, iri Western Virginia with the ex 
ception of Wheeling."* Back in the "thirties," under 
the patronage of Mr. John Laidley, one Isaac N. Peck, "a 
teacher of more than ordinary scholarship," was "keep- 
ing school" in an old log house near Mr. Laidley's home. 
As usually happens when an extraordinary teacher comes 
into a neighborhood, the community became aroused and 
enthusiastic for better school facilities. Private sub- 
scriptions were made and sumcieut money raised for the 
erection of a four-roomed brick building. In 1838 the 
bchool was incorporated and named "Marshall Academy," 
in honor of the famous Chief Justice, John Marshall. In 
a short time the school had an attendance of more than a 
hundred students — a remarkable number for those days. 

The school continued with varying fortunes until the 
Civil War came on. The name had been changed to 
"Marshall College" in ] 538, and that much of the old 
institution survived in tLe new school established in 1667, 
under the title ol "Marshall College Normal School," at 
present a vigorous and growing institution. 

In this community, as in so many others, we see the 
fruits of the seed sown by a few able, earnest, and devoted 
leaders. These worthy and never-to-be-forgotten men 
did the "best they could" and no doubt "builded better 
than they knew." 

* Howe: History of Virginia, p. 209. 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 59 

Mr. Atkinson, in his history of Kanawha County, 
pives a chapter on "Professional Men" and it reflects the 
conditions of the times very faithfully He says: 

"Professional men are rarely found amono: the set- 
tlers. Once in a while the circuit rider would preach to 
the people, who gathered in, many of them from a dis- 
tance, to attend divine service. A circuit embraced two 
or three of the primitive counties, which would now be 
equal to fully one-half of the State; and although the cir- 
cuit rider preached a sermon every day and every night, 
it took him from six to eight weeks to "make the rounds." 

Doctors were even scarcer than preachers. 

A professional physician, was almost as useless as the 
fifth wheel to a wagon, for two reasons: first, the people 
were rarely afflicted wish diseases of any kind; and sec- 
oad, the old women were always ready to treat, with 
herbs and teas, any kind of sickness that came around, 
and nearly always effected cures 

"Lawyers were almost entirely unknown to the first 
settlers. It was a rare thing for disputes between them 
to be taken into court, hence as a rule lawyers were 
unnecessary. School teachers were almost as scarce as 
lawyers or doctors, yet once in a great while a profes- 
sional pedagogue would come along, who was always 
<;'ngaged to "teach the young idea how to shoot." School 
would open shortly after daylight and continue until sun- 
down, giving in the meantime, a recess of one hour for 
dinner. Dilworth's and V.'ebster's spelling books were, 
as a rule the only text-boo>s used, though once in a while 
a student could be found far enough advanced to take up 
Pike's Arithmetic, Dwight's Geography, and the New 
Testament as a reader. Schools never continued longer 
than two months durins: a year; and quite often an entire 
year would pass without a school having been taught in 
any of the neighborhoods. The older people knew but 
little themselves, and seemod to feel but slight concern in 
the education of their children. Then, as now (1876), the 
great weakness of the citizen?) of this valley was a lack of 
interest in the cause of general education among all 



60 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZI.^'E. 

cla.sses. It is, however, proper and just to add that the 
people are now awakening to a sense of duty in this 
regard; and it is hoped that they will not weary in well 
doins:, and will continue to push forward the car of edu- 
cation, until every citizen shall be blessed at least with a 
knowledge of the common English branches." * 

And so ran the history of the valley of Kanawha dur- 
ing the declining years of the eighteenth century and 
well into the youthful period of the nineteenth; indeed 
young manhood was passed and middle age reached 
before conditions were very much improved. True, as 
elsewhere stated, Kanawha and Mason secured the nec- 
essary votes and adopted the free school system but their 
real difficulties began when the attempt was made to 
establish and support schools. Large landowners refused 
to pay the school taxes and suits had to be brought by 
the sheriifB in order to make collections. Thu-5 the matter 
dragged along until the Civil War came on and it may be 
said with truth that the Kanawha Valley was in a 
wretched condition from an educational point of view 
until by the fortunes of war the opportunity came to 
legalize the separation that Nature had made vrhen tbe 
Allegheny mountains vrere formed between Eastern and 
Western Virginia. But the Alleghenies were not the only, 
if indeed the greatest cause of estrangement, except in so 
far as they contributed to keeping Western Virginia from 
being peopled from the lowlands of the Old Dominion. 
As soon as the State of West Virginia was organized, 
provision was made for the adoption of a free school sys- 
tem essentially the same as that over which the great 
Thomas Jefferson had s-peut many a sleepless night for 
the advancement of education among the masses in his 
day. How thankful we of this generation should be that 



* Atkinson: History' of Kanawha County, pp. 104-J06. 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 61 

It -was made possible for us to have a State that vre can 
call our own. Who knows what our condition today- 
would be did all our laws emanate from Richmond and 
were we compelled to look beyond the Alleghenies for all 
our rules of action? 

[To b*?. continued.] 



^2 



PIONEER SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 

BY RICHARD ELLSWORTH FAST. 

In May, 1779, the general assembly of Virginia 
passed an act entitled, "An act for adjusting and settling 
the titles of claimers to unpatented lands under the pres- 
ent and former government, previous to the establish- 
ment of the Commonwealth's land office," the preamble 
of which in part runs as follows: ' 

"I. Whereas the various and vague claims to unpat- 
ented lands under the former and present government. 
previous to the establishment of the Commonwealth's 
land office, may produce tedious and infinite litigation and 
disputes, and in the meantime purchasers would be dis- 
couraged from taking up lands upon the terms lately pre- 
scribed by law * * ; and it is just and necessary. 
as well for the peace of individuals as for the public 
weal, that some certain rules should be established for 
settling and determining the rights to such lands, and 
fixing the principles upon which legal and just claimers 
shall be entitled to sue out grams, to the end that subse 
quent purchasers and adventurers may be enabled to pro- 
ceed with greater certainty and safety: Be it enacted by 
the General Assembly, That all surveys of waste and 
unappropriated lands made upon any of the western 
waters before the first day of January, in the year 1778." 
(in accordance with the provisions of the act) * * 

"shall be, and are hereby declared good and - valid 
* » » 

"IV. And wherea55 great numbers of people have 
settled in the country upon the western waters, upon 
■waste and unappropriated lands, from which they have 
been hitherto prevented from suing out patents or obtain- 
ing legal titles by the king of Great Britain's- proclama- 
tion or instructions to his governors, * or by the late 
change of governmieat, and the present war having 
delayed until now the opening of a land office, and the 

1 Hi-Eing's Stanit<ft, at Large. Vol. X, pp. 3o-Go. 

21b. Vol. vir, p.e+a 



SETILEMEXTS ON TJE WESTERN WATERS. 03 

establishment of any certain terms for granting lands, 
aud it is just that those settling under such circumstances 
should have some reasonable allowance for the charge and 
risk they haveincuri*ed, aud that the property so acquired 
should be secured to them: Be it therefore enacted, That 
all persons who, at any time before the first day of Jan- 
uary, in the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy 
eight, have really and bona fide settled themselves or their 
families, or at his, her, or their charge, have settled others 
upon any waste or unappropriated lands on said western 
waters, to which no other person hath any legal right or 
claim, shall be allowed for every family so settled, four 
hundred acres of land, or &uch smaller quantity as the 
party chooses, to include such settlement." 

* * "And if any such settlers shall desire to take up 
a greater quantity of land than is hereby allowed them, 
they shall on payment to the treasurer of the considera- 
tion money required from other purchasers, be entitled to 
the preemption of any greater quantity of land adjoining 
to that allowed them in consideration of settlement, not 
exceeding one thousand acres, and to which no other per- 
son hath any legal right or claim." 

The act defines settlement and preemption rights, 
specifies the manner in Vv-blch grants may be obtained, 
what locations are entitled to preference, how warrants 
are issued, and composition money paid. ' 

In order to determine conflicting claims the counties 
on the western waters wore allotted into districts, for 
each of which a tribunal of commissioners was appointed. 
The districts were as follows: 

First, Monongalia, Yohogania, and Ohio; 

Second, Augusta, Botetourt, and Greenbrier; 

Third, Washington and Montgomery; and ,, . , r\ 

Fourth, Kentucky. 

For each of the districts the governor appointed four 
commissioners, any three of whom might act. They had 

1 Tliiflsiieant tho "State price," vviiioh wa>> ten shillings for every hoadred 



64 TRANSALLEGHE^-Y HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

power to hear and determine all titles claimed in consider- 
ation of settlement to land, to which there was no adverse 
legal claim, and the right of all persons claiming 
preemption to lands within their respective districts, 
and also the rights of all persons claiming any 
unpatented lands surveyed by order of council for sundry- 
companies, by having settled thereon under the faith of 
the terms of sale publicly offered by such companies or 
their agents. The commissioners were clothed with the 
usual powers of courts, but their proceedings were sum- 
mary. The act provides that in the conduct of the trial, 
in all matters of evidence relative thereto, and in giving 
judgment, they shall "govern themselves by such rules 
and princioles of law or equity, as are applicable to the 
case, or would be the rule of evidence or dicision, were 
the same before the ordinary courts of law or equity, "' 
except as otherwise provided by the act. They were 
directed to hold their meetings at the "forts, churches, 
meetinghouses, and other publick places in their districts,"' 
notice of time and place being given. The certificate of 
the commissioners entitled the holder or his assignee to 
"an entry and survey, or a warrant for the said lands, in 
such way, and on such term^, " as were prescribed in the 
act. They were required to transmit a list of the certifi- 
cates granted by them to the register of the land office, 
and a duplicate list to the county survcj'or, or to the clerk 
of the general court in some cases. 

There is preserved among the records in the court 
house of Monongalia County a "Certificate Book,'* con- 
taining 442 pages of records of the certificates granted by 
the commissioners for the first district relating to lands 
granted in Monongalia County. But it will b« borne in 
mind that Monongalia County at this time included prac- 
tically the northern half of West Virginia lying west of 



SETTLEMENTS OX THP: WESTERN WATERS. 65 

the meridian of the head fountain of the Potomac, and 
east of the watershed between the Ohio and the Monon- 
gahela, and a large section of Pennsylvania as far north 
as Washington. These certificates show the time and 
place of settlement of the person to whom they are 
granted, or settlement by his assignor. They are there- 
fore of the greatest importance to the local historian in 
fixing time and place of settlements. It appears from the 
record that the commissioners held meetings at Redstone 
Old Fort, near Brownsville, at Colonel John Evans's 
House, near Morgantown, at Cox's Fort, ' at Clarksburg, 
at the House of Samuel Lewellin, at the House of John 
Pairpoint, ' at the House of Thomas Evans, and at Ohio 
Courthouse. It may be presumed that a similar record 
was made and tiled in each county named in the four dis- 
tricts, as well as in the office of the register of the land 
office at Richmond. Is it not time that TTefet Virginia 
should appoint a commicsion to collect the evidence and 
records relating to the pioneer history of the State, and 
publish the same at the expense of the State in & series 
of archives? Similar records of interest to the transal- 
legheny country should bo found in Ohio County, Green- 
brier, Montgomery, and Yohogania, if the records of the 
latter are still in existence. ' 

It is proposed to publish in this magazine, from time 
to time, extracts from these certificates of settlement and 
preemption. They fix tLe dates and places of the earliest 
Bettlements in the territory included in the counties of 

1 Cox's (or Coxe's) Fort (or Station) was located in what is now Union Town- 
sblp, Washlnpt/in County, Pennsylvania. See Ci'umrine's History of Wa.shing- 
ton County, Siil ; Judge Veech's Centenary Memorial, 335; and Frontier Forts of 
Pennsylvania 11, 433. 

2 John Palrpolnfs (Pierpont* house was located near Eastoi aixjut four 
miles east of Mor;,'antown, where G-Jvernor F.H. Pierpont was rwrn. 

3 The Carnegie Institute at Pittsburg has possession of some of tlie old 
court reconls of Yoijo;_'ai!ia County ani.i the lariae are DOwbr;ing prep^ired for 
pubUcation by the Institute nnde.- the supcrTislon of Pirector W.J. liolland. 



66 TRANSALLEGSENY HSTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Monongalia, Yobogania, and Ohio. The certificates are 
all substantially in the same form, and therefore the 
extracts will omit the formal parts, and will show merelj' 
the names of the parties, the number of acres, the loca- 
tion, on what account granted, and the date of settlement 
when given. A few certificated have been copied in full 
together with the signatures and memoranda attached, in 
order to preserve the form of the certificates, and the 
names of the comraissioners and clerks. Two sets of com- 
missioners were appointed. The first set were Francis 
Peyton, Philip Pendleton, Joseph Holmes, and George 
Merriweather; but the name of the latter does not appear 
on any of the certificates, and it is understood that he 
never attended any of the meetings. These commission- 
ers served during 1779-17S0. James Chew was clerk, and 
during a portion of the time the name of Samuel Irwin 
appears as clerk pro tern. These commissioners sat at 
Redstone Old Fort and at Cox's Port. " 

CERTIFICATP:3 GRANTED IN 1779 AT REDSTONE OLD FORT.* 

TVe the Commissioners appointed for adjusting the 
Claims to unpatented lands in the Counties of Mononga- 
lia Yobogania and Ohio do hereby certify-' that Andrew 
Gewgill is entitled to four Hundred Acres of Land in the 
County of Monongalia on the Waters of Dunlap Cre.ik,to 
include his settlement made in the year of our Lord one 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy two. 

Given under our hands at Redstone old fort this 
Sixteenth day of December 1779 in the fourth year of the 
Commonwealth 

Francis Pay ton 
Test. Phil Pendk ton 

James Chew Clk Corns. Joseph Holmes 

Mem. 



2 See CruUirlnu'.-j HUtory of v,';i.sijii;jitoa County; CertltiCiite Btx).{, one of 
tte records at Monoo.Taiia Co-anty. 

3Sec Frontier Fotloof Pennsylvaoia, II, 3.SJ. 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 6^ 

This certificate cannot be entered with the Surveyor 
after the twenty sixth day of June one Thousand Seven 
Hundred and Eighty. James Chew Clk Corns. 

Entered 13th April 1781. 

* * "William Houghland is entitled to four 
Hundred Acres of land in the County of Monongalia on 
the waters of Deckers Creek to include his settlement made 
lu the year * * (1775). 

* * Edward Dorsey assignee of David Rogers 
is entitled to four Ilundred Acres of land in the County of 
Monongalia on the west side of the Ixlonongalia River to 
include his settlement mine in * * (1774) to be 
bounded by the lines of Joseph Brenton also a right in 
Preemption to one Thousand Acres ajoining thereto. , 

* Edward Dorsey is entitled to four Hundred 
Acres of land in the County of Monongalia in the west 
Bide of the River MoDOugalia to include his settlement 
made in * * (1770) also on3 Thousand Acres of 
Land in Right of Preemption adjoining thereto. 

* * Richard Jackson is eiititled to four hundred 
acres of Land in the Cocuty of Monongalia situate and 
lying on the South fork of Ten Mile Creek to include his 
settlement made in the year * * (1775) also' a 
right in preemption to one thousand acres adjoining 
thereto. 

* * Thomas Bishop is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in the County of Monongalia on Crawfords 
Run to include his settlsoient made in the year * * 
(1774). 

^ * George BGatty is eutitlod to four Hundred 
Acres of land in the county of Monongalia on the waters 



68 TKANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of Yohogania to include his settlement made in the year 

* * (1"'5). ^ 

* * Michael Cox is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in the County of Monongalia on the vraters 
of Dunlaps Creek to include his set'^Jement made in the 
year * * (1*72) also a right in preemption to 
one thousand acres adjoining thereto. 

* * Kobert Beatty assignee of John Waggoner 
is entitled to four Hundred acres of land in the County of 
Monongalia on BufCaloe Run a Branch of Cheat River to 
include his settlement made in the year * * (1774). 

* * Levi Beatty is entitled to four Hundred 
Acres of land in the County of Monongalia on the waters 
of Yohogania to include his settlement made in the year 

(1774). 

* * Joseph Crabit is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in the County of Monongalia on the waters 
of Dunlaps Creek to include his settlement made in the 
year * * (1772). 

* * William Hill is entitled to four Hundred 
Acres of land in the Count}^ of Monongalia on the waters 
of Indian Creek to include his settlement made in the 
year * * (1774). 

* * Joseph Crabit is entitled to four Hundred 
Acres of land in the County of Monongalia on the waters 
of Dunlaps Creek to include his settlement made in the 
year * * (1772). .v . 

* * Jacob Coleman is entitled to four Hundred 
acres of land in the County of Monongalia on the waters 
of Dunlap Creek to include his settlement made in the 



SETTLEMENTS ON" THE WESTERN WATERS. 69 

year "-^ * (1~~0-} also a right of preemption to 
one thousand acres adjoining thereto. 

* * Henry Kawk is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in the Couinty of Monougalia on the waters 
of Yohogania to include- his settlement made in the year 

* * (1774). 

* * John eatlj is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in the CouEty of Monougalia on the waters 
of Muddy Creek to incltjde his settlement made in the 
year * * (1774iu 

* * Samuel Bridgewater is entitled to four 
Hundred acres of land in the Couniy of Monongalia on the 
East fork of the river Mongalia to include his settlement 
made in the year =■= ^- (1776). 

* * James Walker is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in the County of Monongalia on the Monon- 
galia Eiver to include his. ^settlement made in the year * 

* (1775). 

CERTIFICATES GRANTED IN 1750 AT COX'S FORT. 

* * David Owens is entitled to four Hundred 
Acres of Land in ironongalia County lying on the south 
fork of ten Mile Gre^k to include his actual settlement 
made in * *■ (1771). : ;:■:; ,-v 

* * Ellis Beac (?) is Entitled to four Hundred 
Acres of Land in the County of Monougalia on the waters 
of ten mile creek to include his settlement made in the 
year 1772. 

* * Thomas Rlshop is Entitled to four hund- 
red Acres of land in the County of Monongalia at the Mouth 



70 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of Crawiords Kun to include his actual settlement made 
in * * (1773). 

* * Jacob Whosong Jun'r. is entitled to two 
Hundred and fifty Acres of Land in the County of Mon- 
ongaiid on the waters of ten Mile Creek to include his 
eettlement made in the year 1772. 

, * * Robert McClclen is entitled to four Hund- 
red Acres of land in the County of Monongalia on the south 
fork of Ten 'Mile to include his Settlement made in the 
year 1774. 

* * Thomas .John (?) ass'ee. of Thomas 
Hughes is entitled to two hundred and fifty acres of land 
in Monongalia County on Ten Mile Creek to include his 
settlement made in the year * * (1772). 

* ^' James Tucker ass'ee. of George Gregg is 
entitled to four hundred acres of Land in Mononga County 
in the V/est fork of ten Mile Creek to include his Sectlo- 
ment in the year 1773. 

* * Jacob "Whosing is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in the county of Monongalia On the Waters 
of ten Mile to include his Settlement made in the year 1772. 

* * Thomas Slater is entitled to four Hundred 
Acres of land in Monongalia County on ten Mile Creek to 
include his actual eettlement made in the year '-^ * 

(1771). - ;■• .; ■ ,,. , ^^ .., ^ ^ 

* * John Thrusher ass'ee of David Kodgers 
is entitled'to four Hundred Acres of Land in Right of 
Preemption in Mononga County lying on the South fork 
of ten Mile Creek to include his cabbin and other improve- 
ments made in the year ''^ ■■'• (1773). 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 71 

=f= . * James Hook is eutitled to three hundred 
acres of land in Mononsraiia Couut}^ lying on the south 
fork of ten Mile to include his actual settlement made in 

tlio voar * * (1770). , * - 

• ' '- ■■ ■*'' 

* ^:- David Ou-eas is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in the County of Monongalia on the south 
side of ten Mile Creeli to include his actual settlement 
made in the year * -^ (1771). 

* ^- James Hook ass. of Abner Pipes is enti- 
tled to four Hundred Acres of land in Mononga County on 
ten mile Creek to include his settlement made in the 
year * * (1770). 

* '-'^ John Ankram is entitled to four Hundred 
Acres of land in Monongalia County on the south fork of 
ten Mile Creek to include his settlement made in the year 

* * (1773). 

* * John S^van is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in the County of Monongalia on the waters 
of ten Mile Creek to include hif. settlement made in the 
year -'^ * (17'?0) a right in preemption to one 
thousand acres adjoining thereto. . ■ , 

' CERTIFICAIES GRANTED IN 1781 AT THE HOUSE OF 
COL. JOHN EVANS. 

The following are among the certificates granted in 
1781 in the month of March, the fifth year of the Common- 
wealth, by JohnP.Duvall, JamesNeal, William Haymond, 
atid Charles Martin, commissioners, aUested by "William 
M'CIeary, Clerk. William M'Cleary was succeeded as 
clerk by Col. John Evans. 

We the Commissioners for r.djusticg claims to Unpat- 



72 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ented lands in the Counties of Monougalin, Yohogania, and 
Ohio do hereby Certify that John Evans assee of Daniel 
Veatch is entitled to four hundred acres of land in Mon • 
ongalia County on the Monongalia River on the "West side 
said River to include his settlement made in 1770. Given 
under. our hands at Col. John F.vans this 7th day of March 
in the fifth year of the Commonwealth. (17S1.) 

John p. Duvall 
. James Neal 

TViLL Haymond 

This Certificate cannot be entered with the Surveyor 

after the f:6th of October 1781. 

Entd. 9th April 1781. 

Wm. M'Cleary Clk Com. 

* * Stephen Hardin is Intitled to four hund- 
red acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters of 
Indian Creek adjoining the lands of Michael Teabolt de- 
ceased in right of residence to includ3 his improvement 
made thereon in the year 1775. 

Jesse Bayles is entitled to -100 acres of land in Mon- 
ongalia County on a branch of Tyger Valley river lying 
below Glady Creek near to land known by the name of 
the levels to Include his settlement made thereon iu the 
year 1772. 

* * Thomas Clare ass'ee of Jacob White is 
entitled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia 
County on the Laurel Run to include his settlement made 
in the year 1773. 

* * Thomas Clare ass'ee. of Jacob "White is 
entitled to one thousand acres of land in ^lorsougalia Coun- 
ty in the right of preemption adj(jiain£>; bis settjeruent 
made on Laurel Run in the year 1773 



SETTLEMENTS ON THK WESTERN WATERS. 73 

* * George Gellespie is entitled to four hund- 
red acres of land in MonoDj^alia County adjoining lands 
claimed by Ir.aac Camp on the waters of Scott's Run in 
the right of preemption to include his improvement made 
ia the year 1773. 

^ * Caleb Hale is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the East side of 
Cheat River joining land claimed by Hitrry Richards. 

* * Thomas Russell is entitled to four hund- 
red acres of land ia Monongalia County on Robinsons run 
to include his settlement made in the year 1774. 

* * Nathan Low is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters of 
Sandy Creek in right of residence to include his improve- 
ment made in the year 1776. 

=^'- * Baltosharzer Dragro is entitled to four • 
hundred acres of land in :>Ionougalia County on the waters 
of Cheat Riyer adjoining the land of James Connor to in- 
clude bis settlement made thereon in the year 1777. 

* "^ John Conner is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Big Sandy Creek 
including the big Sandy lick to include his settlement 
made thereon in the year 1775 with a preemption of one 
Thousand acres adjoining thereto. ^ 

* * Joseph ]Srartia is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County adjoining lands claim- 
ed by Jeremiah Downing to include his settlement made 
in the year 1776. 

* * Joseph ?vlartiu is entitled to three hund- 
red acres of land in Moncu_^alia County in the right of 



71 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

preemption adjoining to his settlement made in the year. 
1776. ihc) IV, v! .''■••■.■ * ■ ■ 

* * James Conner is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters of Cheat 
River adjoining the land of Robert Connor to include his 
settlement made thereon in the year 1776 with a Preemp- 
tion of Four Hundred adjoining threon. 

* * William Hambleton is Intitled to four 
hundred acres of land in Monongalia County on the Laurel 
Run in the Right of preemption to include his Settlement 
made in the year 1780. 

* * William Hambleton is intitled to two 
hundred acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters 
of Laurel Run in the Right of Preemption adjoining lands 
claimed by one Marshall to include his Improvement made 
thereon in the year 1776. 

* * John Lafevors (? blotted) is entitled to 
four hundred acres of land in Monongalia County on the 
waters of Sandy Creek Glades adjoining lands of Samuel 
Rebonit (? indistinct) in the right of residence to include 
his improvement made in the year 1771. 

* * Robert Conner is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in ^Monongalia County on Cheat River ad- 
jofniug the lands of James Connor in the right of residence 
to Include his Settlement made thereon in the year 1776, 
with one thousand acres of land in preempllon adjoining 
thereto. ■"'■ ■ ■ • 

* ^ Joseph Downing is entitled to four hund- 
red acres of land in Monongalia County on the waterd of 
Hazel Run on a Branch Cald Grave Yard Branch adjoin- 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN "WATERS. (5 

ing the lands claimed by Charles Donalsou in the right of 
la'sidence to include his improvement Made thereon in 
the Year 1772. 

* * Jeremiah Tannihill is intitled to four 
hundred acres of land in Monongalia County on a Kun Call'd 
Laurell Run adjoining lands claimed by Nathan Low in 
the right of residence to Include his improvement made 
in the year 1772. 

=;= * Michael Kern ass'ee of Josiah Veach is 
intiiled to two hundred and fifteen acres of land in Mon- 
ongalia County at the mouth of Deckers Creek on the 
Monouga. River to include his settlement made thereon 
in the year 1774 with a preemption of one thousand acres 
adjoinicg thereto. 

* * Henery Crull ass"ee of George Parker is 
intitled to two hundred acres of land in Monongalia Coun- 
ty on both sides of Cheat River adjoining lands claimed by 
Lewis Rogers to include his settlement made in the year 
1772. 

'■^ * Josiah Wilson is Intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters of 
Booths Creek to include his settlement made thereon in 
the year 1776. 

* * William Watkins is entitled to four hund- 
red acres of laud in Monongalia County on the waters of 
Scotts Mill Run adjoining lands Claimed by Phillip Shive- 
ly to include his settlement made in the year 1776 with a 
Preemption of One Thousand Acres adjoining thereto. 

* * David Watkins \6 Intitled to four Hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Scotts Mill Run 



76 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

adjoining: lands claimed by John Harding to include bis 
settlement made in the year 1775. 

* * Jacob Cazad ass'ee to Moses Templin is 
intitled to a preemption of one thousand acres of land in 
Monongalia County adjoining Lis settlement on Cheat 
River made in the year 1770. 

* * James Wilson is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County to include his settle- 
ment made in the year 1776 adjoining the waters of Booths 
Creek with a preemption of one thousand acres adjoining 
thereto. 

* * David Moore is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the heAd of hazie 
Run adjoining the lands of Martin Judy to include his 
settlement made in the year (1775). 

* *■ Thomas Moore is entitled to Four Hund- 
red acres of land in Monongalia County adjoining Prov- 
ence Line to include His Settlement made in the year 1774. 

* * James Clark is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Sand}" Creek ad- 
joining the land of James McCollom to include his settle- 
ment made thereon in the year 1770. 

* * Heirs at law of John Judy is entitled to 
four hundred acres of land in Monongalia County adjoin- 
ing the lands of James McCollum to include bis settlement 
made in the year 1772. 

* * Jacob Judy Heir at Law of John Judy 
ass'ee to Josiah TTinslow is Intitled to four hundred acres 
of land in Monongalia County on the waters of Sandy 
Creek adjoining the lauds of Charles Donaldson to include 
his settlement made in the year 1709. 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 77 

* * William Ciark is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monon.£:aIia County on Maracals Run ad- 
joining the land claimed by Jacob Farmar (? uncertain) in 
the right of residence to include his Improvement made 
thereon in the year 1777. 

* * Philip Allia (? uncertain) is intitled to four 
hundred acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters 
of Bull Creek to include his settlement made in the year 
1777. 

* * Philip Alfiii (? uncertain) is intitled to one 
thousand acres of land in Monongalia County in the right 
cf preemption adjoining his settlement on the waters of 
Bull Creek. . 

* * Henry Snider is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the -vraters of west 
branch of Monongalia River adjoining lands claimed by 
Enoch James to include bis settlement made in the year 
1773. 

* * James Current ass'ee to John Anderson is 
intitled to four hundred acres of land in 2vIonongalia County 
on Booths Breek to include his settlement made thereon 
in the year 1776. 

* * James Current is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalic'^ County on Wickwire Creek to 
include his settlement mads thereon in the year 1774. 

* * Philip Shively is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Scotts Mill Run 
adjoining David Watkias to include his settlement made 
thereon in the year 1774. 

* * Christopher Garlow is intitled to four 



78 TRANSALLEGHKNY. HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

hundred acres of land in Monongalia County on Crooked 
Run adjoining lands of Thomas Ru3sell and Richard 
Hamssen (or Hampton) to include his settlement made in 
the year 1772. 

^ * Francis Warman is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Cheate River ad- 
joining lands Claimed by John Ramsey to include his set- 
tlement made in the year 1770. . . . • 

^■^ * Francis Warman ass'ee to Thomas Evans 
is intitled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia 
County on Cheat River adjoining lands claimed by Bar- 
tholonievr Jenkins to include his settlement made thereon 
in the year 1772. 

* * "William Xorris is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Cheat River ad- 
joining lands claimed by Francis Warman to include his 
settlement made in the year 1772. .. 

* * James More ass'ee to Robert Ervin is en- 
titled to four hundred acres of land inMonongali?- County 
on the waters of Cheat River adjoining the lands of John 
Gray to include his settlement of the said Ervin made in 
the year 1775. .. ' -. 

* * Bartholomew Zondcn (the letter z is uncert- 
ain) ass'ee to Richard liCeter is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters of Crab 
Tree Creek io include his settlement made therton in the 
year 1776. 

* * Bartholomew Jenkins ass'ee to Thomas 
Craft is intitled to four hundred acres of land in Monon- 
galia County on the wa',ers of Cheate River adjoining 



SETTLEMENTS OX THE V.'ESTERN WATERS. . 79 

lands claimed by Frauds VVarman to include his settle- 
ment made in the year 1770. 

* * John Ramsey Sen. r ass.ee to Robert Cham- 
bers is intitled to four hundred acres of land in Mononga- 
lia County on Cheate River on the Place there was former- 
ly Known by the name of Ice Place to include his settle- 
ment made thereon iu the year 1770. 

* * Philiman Askins is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Ice's Run adjoining 
lands claimed by John Gray to include his settlement 
made in the j'ear 1770. 

* * Jacob Youngman is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Deckers Creek to 
include his settlenient ma^ie thereon in the year 1774. 

* * Jacob YcuKgman ass.ce to Thomas Harbert 
is intitled to three hundred and fifty acres of land in Mon- 
ongalia County on Deckers Creek to include his settlement 
made thereon in the year 1774. 

* * John Ramsey the lesser is intitled to four 
hundred acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters 
of Scotts Mill Rtju adjoir Ining lands claimed by James 
Sterling to include his settlement made thereon in the 
year 1775 with a p-reempfeion of one thousand acres adjoin- 
ing thereto. ■. r, , 

"^ * John Scott Sen.r is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County situated in the Neck 
of Cheat River joining lands claimed by Wm. Xorris to 
include his settlement made thereon in the year 1770. 

* * Richard IMorris is intitled to four hundred 
Jicrcs of land in :^Ionon,eaiia County on the warers of Sandy 



80 « TRAN'SAI.LEGIIENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Creek to include his settlement made thereon in the year 
1770 with a preemption of one thousand acres adjoining 
thereto. 

* * Simon Troy ass'ee to Job Simms is intitled 
to four hundred acres of land m Monong.a County in the 
Forks of Cheat and Monong.a Rivers to include his settle- 
ment made thereon in the year 1772, 

* * Samuel Lewellin ass.ee to John Collins is 
Entitled to three hundred across of land in Monongalia 
County on Cheat River adjoining the lands of Bartholo- 
mew Jenkins including his settlement made thereon in 
the year 1769. 

* * Samuel Lewellin ass.ee to John M'Donald 
is intitled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia 
County on the waters of Indian Creek adjoining lands of 
Benjamin Wilson to include his settlement made in the 
year 1775. 

* * Samuel Lewellen is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County in the Forks of Papa 
Creek in the right of residence to include his improvement 
made in the year 1773. ' 

* * Stephen Morgan is Intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on little pappa Creek 
including the land ou both sides of the Creek about the 
mouth of the Ministers run in the right of residence to 
Include his Improvement made thereon in the year 1773, 

* * John Stewart is Intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in T^fonongalia County in the Right of Res- 
idence to Include his Settlement adjoining lands claimed 



1 Query: Wherp dla S.-inuel L,<;we!iin reside when the commli'iicners net 
Rt his house In 17S1 ': 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. SI 

tv Wra. Stewart. ^ * (Note. — This certificate is 
fttvio:ned to Y.'m. Stewart father of John Stevi'art.) 

=:-- - William Stewarii is Intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters of Cheat 
Kiver adjoining lands claimed by Thomas Evans to include 
his settlement "rande thereon in the year ITTi!. 

<= '■•' William S':>ewart is Intitl.^d to four hundred 
acres of land in Monougat-ia County on ths Waters of the 
Mono::iga]ia River adjoir^^ng lands claimed by Thomas 
Mills to include his settlement made ibereon in the year 
1770. 

* * David CruTii is Intiilcd to four hundred 
acres of laad in Monongal'ia County on Aarons Crook join- 
i.ig lands claimed by John Burk to iiicluJs his settlement. 
made thereon in the year 1770. 

* * Thomas Jo'-in is Intitled to four hundred 
acres of Land in3IonongaIiii County oa the waters of Cheat 
Hiver adjoining lands claimed by William .John to include 
his settlement made thereon in the year 1773. 

"^^ * James Stafford ass.ee to Robert Curry is 
Intitled to four hundretl acres oi land in Monongalia 
County in the Forks of Cheat and Monongalia River to 
include his Settlement made thereon in the year 1774. 

* * James Coburn is Intitled to four hundred 
'icres of Land in Monongalia County on the waters of 
Booths Creek adjoining the Land of John C4ixl'ord to in- 
clude his settlement made in the year 1773. 

^ * James Coburu Heir at Law of Jonathan 
Coburn is Intitled to four hundred acres of Land in Mon- 



82 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ongalia County oa the Waters of Deckers Creek to Include 
his Settlement made thereon in the year 1770. 

* * -Moses Trader is Intitled to four hundred 
acres of land In Monongalia County on the Waters of Toms 
and Joes Run to include his improvement made for him 
by Philip Doddridge in the right of residence. 

* * Peter McCune is Intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County at the mouth of Root- 
ing Creek in the right of residence having made a crop of 
corn in this county before the year 1778 to include his 
improvement made on said land in the year 1778. 

* * Hezekiali Davisson is entitled to four hund- 
red acres of land in Monongalia County in the Right of 
Residence to Include his Im provement made in the year 
1773. 

* * Hezekiab Davisson is entitled to One 
thousand acres of Land in Monongalia County adjoining 
his Improvement made in the yt-ar 1773. 

* * Hczekiah Davisson ass.ee to Jonathan Lam- 
bert is Intitled to four hundred acres of land in Mononga- 
lia County on Lamberts Run adjoining the Lands of Josh- 
ua Allen to include his settlement made in the year 1774. 

* * Hezekiah Davisson ass.ee to Jonathan 
Lambert is entitled to One Thousand Acres of Land in 
Monor.galia County in :he right of Preemption on Lam- 
berts Run adjoining the lands of Joshua Allen. 

* '^ Joniah Diivissou is intitled to four hundred 
acres of Land in Mooongalia County on Pleasant Creek to 
include his settlement made in the year 1775. 

'^ "-'' Josiah D: v'lsson is intitled to One Thousand 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN .WATERS. 83 

Acres of Land in Monongalia County in the Right of Pre- 
emption adjoining his settlement on Pleasant Creek. 

* * Andrew Davisson Jun.r is Entitled to four 
hundred acres of land in Monongalia County in the right 
of residence on a branch of Simpsons Crick called Thom- 
sons run Including his Improvement made thereon in the 
year 1774. 

* * Andrew Davisson Jun.r is entitled to One 
Thousand Acres of Land in Monongalia County in the 
right of Preemption adjoiaing to his right of residence by 
an improvement made in the year 1774. 

* * Jeremiah Clark is Intitled to four Hundred 
Acres of land in Monongalia County on Slacks Run to 
include his settlement made thereon in the year 1774. 

* * William Haymond is Intitled to four hund- 
red acres of land in Monongalia County on Deckers Creek 
to include his settlement made thereon in the year 1774. 

* * Andrew D£%'isson .Jun.r ass.ee to Wm. Boon 
is Intitled to four Hundred Acres of Land in Monongalia 
County on the Waters of Simsoas Creek adjoiniug the 
lands claimed by James A nderson Including his settlement 
made thereon in the year 1773. ,. 

* * Thomas M'Can is entitled to Three Hund- 
red Acres of Land in the County of Monongalii on Davis- 
sons Run adjoining the L*nds of Thomas Berkley to in- 
clude his settlement made in the year 1775. 

* * Thomas M'Cau is entitled to OneTbcus-iad 
Acres of Land iu Monon:jali:i County aJjoining his settle- 
ment made in the year 1775. 



81 TRANSALLEGIIENY HISIORICAL MAGAZINE. 

* * Archibald Hopkins ass.ee to Andrev7 Dav- 
isson Jun.r is Intitled to four huDdrtd acres of land in 
Monongalia County on a run of the waters of Sim sons 
Creek Known by the Name of Jerrys Run to include his 
settlement made in the year 1773. 

* * Daniel Davissoa is entitled lo One Thous- 
and Acres of Land in Monongalia County in right of 
Preemption adjoining his settlement made in the year 1773. 

* * Nicholas Carpenter as5.ee to Job u Simson 
is Intitlcd to four hundred acres of Land in Monjngalia 
County on the West fork opposite to the mouth of Elk to 
include his settle-nent ma.de in the ycar^l772. 

* -^ Nicholas Ciiipenter is entitled to four hund- 
red acres of land in the County of -Monongalia on ten Mile 
Creek at the mouth of Carter's Eun at the right of resi- 
dence to include his Improvemenfmade in the year 1772. 

"^ '-^ Edward Ijaymond is intitled to four hund- 
red acx'es of Land in I\Ionongalia C-^unty in the right of 
Residence on the dividing Ridge between the two papaya 
about three miles from the bigg springs to include the 
Improve cnent made in the year 177G. 

* * Hezekiah.Davisson ass.ee to V/iliam Rua- 
nion 13 latitled to One thousand acresof Land in Monon- 
galia County the right oi Preemption adjoining to his 
settlement made in the year 1773. 

* -^ Geo. Baxter is entitled to ^^f our hundred 
acres of Land in Monongalia County on Barrets Run ad- 
joining the lands of Wm Lowther including his settlement 
made thereon in the year 1772. 



■if ■ 







!"f>i.li'nL-e of Colonel Evans, where the land commissioners met, one mile I'roii 
I -.suiiown. From a drawing by Miss Addie Ireland in 19i)0. General Washing 
'•^ »l''iu .1 ni„'iit in this lK>use m 17^. 



SETILEMENTS OX TEE WESTERN WATERS. 35 

* • * Geo. Baxter is Intitlecl to One Thousand 
aci-es of land in Monon^itlia County in the right of Pre- 
euiption adjoininsr larid^of William Lowther Including his 
Settlement made thereon iu the year 177i?. 

* * Thomas Mills is eutilled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County adjoininglandsclaiin'd 
hy William Stu&rt to iuGtude his Settlement made in the 
year 1772. 

■f * John M'farlen is entitled to one hundred 
acres of land in the right of residence on the waters of 
Cbeat River adjoining the lands of Richard Hair in the 
County of ^Monongalia to include his Improvement made 
1776. 

* * Thomas Evans ass.ee to Robert Galloway 
is iotitled to four hundred acres ot land in Monongalia 
County on the waters of Cheat River adjoining lands 
claim'd by William Stuart to include his settlement made 
in the year 1773. 

* * Andrew Kilpatrick ass.ee to Dan"l Kidd is 
lutitled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia 
County on Wolf Glades and on both sides of M'Cullochs 
Road to include his Improvement made thereon in the 
year 1776. - - ■ . 

* =i' William John ass.ee to Conrad Richards is 
Intitled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia Coun 
ty on Carters run to Include his Scltlemeut made thereon 
in the year 1770. 

* * William John ass.e to John Burris is Inti- 
tled to four hundred acres of land in County of [Mononga- 
lia on a Drain of the Mo?aong.a River to include his sectie- 
ment made thereon \n the vear 1770. 



86 TRANSALLEGHEI^Y HISTORICAL MAGAZI^'E. 

* * Thomas Chips ass.e to John Allenton is 
Intitled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia 
County on Crab tree Creek adjoining the lands of Ezekiel 
Jones to include his settlement made in the year 1776. 

* * Ezekiel Jones ass.eo to James Hall is en- 
titled to four hundred acres of laud in Monongalia County 
on Crabb tree Creek adjoining the lands of Thos. Chips to 
include his settlement made thereon in the year 1775. 

* * Ezekiel Jones is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County in the right of resi- 
dence on the waters of Crabb tree Crerk to include his 
improvement made thereon in the year 1775. 

* * Amos Roberts is Intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on a branch of Muddy 
Creek adjoining lands claimed by Joseph Butler to Include 
his settlement made in the year 1776. 

* * William Roberts is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on roling Creek ajoing 
the lands of Joseph Butler in the right of residence to 
Include his improvement made in the year 1766. 

* * Joseph Butler is intitled to Four hundred 
Acres of Land in Monongalia County adjoining the Bunk- 
er Bottom on Cheat River to include his settlement made 
in the year 1773. 

* * Joseph Butler is entitled to One Thousand 
Acres of Land in Mononealia County adjoining his settle- 
ment adjoining the Dunkard Bottom on Cheat River made 
in the year 1773. 

* * Joseph Butler is entitled to four hundred 
acres of Land in Monongalia County ou Crab Tree Creek 
adjoining the lands of Amos Roberts to include his settle- 
ment made in the vear 1775. 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 87 

* * Calder Haymond ass.ee to Thomas Philips 
i.s entitled to four hundred acres of laud in Monongalia 
County adjoining the Monongalia River and the lands of 
Jacob Prichard to include his settlement made in the 
year 1773. 

* =^ Calder Hajmond is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Salt Lick Creek a 
branch of the Little Cunnaway in the right of residence 
and raising corn before the year 1778 Including his Im- 
provement made thereon in the year 1773. 

* * Thomas Raymond is entitled to four hund- 
red acres of land in Monongalia County in the right of 
residence and raising corn before the year 1778 on Salt 
Creek a branch of the Little Canaway including his im- 
provment made thereon in the year 1773. 

* * Zebland Hoge is Intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters of Sandy 
Creek adjoining lands claimed by Kich.d Morris to include 
his settlement made thereon in the year 1777. 

* * John Mahon is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monong-alia County on Buffalo Creek ad- 
joining the lauds of John Gi'ay to include his settlement 
made in the year 177-1. 

* * John Gray ass.ee to Thomas Evans is in- 
titled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia County 
on Buffalo Creek adjoining the lands of John Mahon to 
include his settlement made in the year 1775. 

* * Thomas Read is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the "West fork 
joining lands claimed by John Davisson to include his 
settlement made in the year 1775. 



88 TRANSALLEGHL■.^'Y HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

* * Thomas Batton Juu.r is Iiititled to four 
hundred acres of laud in Monocgalia County at the forks 
of Booths Creek adjoinino- lauds of John Thomas Includ- 
ing his Settlement made thereoQ in the year 1776. 

* * James Anderson Sen.r is entitled to four 
hundred acres of land in Monongalia County on Simpsons 
Creek adjoining the lands of Andrew Davisson to include 
his settlement made iu the jear 1771. 

* * James Anderson Sen.r is Intitled to one 
thousand acres of land in Monongalia County on Simpsons 
Creek adjoining lands of Andrew Davisson in the right of 
Preemption adjoining his settlement made in the year 1771. 

* * James Anderson Juu.r is entitled to four 
hundred acres of land in Monongalia County on Simpsons 
Creek adjoining the lands of John Powers to include his 
settlement made in the year 1775. 

* * James Anderson Jun.r is entitled to one 
thousand acres of land in Monongalia County on Simpsons 
Creek adjoining the lands of John Powers adjoining his 
settlement made in the year 1771. 

* * Thomas Batton Jun.r ass.ee to Thomas 
Batton Sen.r is entitled to four hundred acres of land iu 
Monongalia County on a Drean of the Ohio River about 
two miles above the mouth of the Little Kanhawa and 
about one mile from the Indian Old Feild in the right of 
residence to include his impi-ovement jiade in the year 1772. 

* * Josejjh Davisson is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Davissons Kun at 
the fork in the Right of Residence to Include his Improve- 
ment made thereon in the year 1773. 



set-TLE.n'lEXTs ox the westrrn avatf:rs. 89 

* * , Obadiah Davisson is Entitled to four bund- 
red acres, o! land in !^Iouongalia Cotsnty on Davissons Run 
M tho Big Lick in the right of residence to Include his 
].:}{>LOVGmont aiade thereon in the year 1773. 

■■■-■ * Abrabcam Low is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on a run that Empties 
into the Mononc;alia River next above Indian Creek ad- 
joiuiuj; Lands Claimed by Cbas. :^rartin in the right of 
residence to Include his Improvement made th^-reon in 
the year 1773. 

' * - William Stewart ass.ee to William lee is 
Intitled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia County 
on Cheat River adjoining land's claimed by Thos. Mills to 
in'-'Iude his Sotihment made in the year 1770. 

* * William Stewart ass. oe to Isaac Lemasters 
Sen.r is entitled to four hundred acres of land in Monon- 
gaha County on the waters of Indian Creek Including his 
settlement made thereon in the year 1773. 

* * Wiiliam Stewart ass.ee to William Ice is 
I'.ititled to one thousand acres of land in the right of Pre- 
erapiion in Monongalia County adjoining his settlement 
on Ciieat River. 

* * William Stewart ass.ee to Jonathan Recks 
(uncertain) is Intitled to four hundred acrt-s of land in 
Monongalia County on the Monongalia River in the Forks 
of Cheat to include his settlement made in the year 1772. 

* * WiUiam Robe Sen.r is entitled to four 
hundred acres of land in Monongalia Coun^•y onthe waters 
of Deckers Creek adjoining the lands of Charles Bennett 
Including his Settlement made thereon in the year 1773. y 

""•= , * William Robe Sen.r is entitled to one 



90 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

thousand acres of land in Monongalia County in the right 
of Preemption aljoining his settlement made in the year 
1773. 

* * Le-vns Rodgers ass.ee to Heneer (?) Davis 
for four hundred acres of land in Monongalia County on 
Cheat River adjoiruDg the lands of John Parpoint to in- 
clude his settlement made thereon in the year 1772. 

* * Lewis Rodgers is entitled to one thousand 
acres of land in Monongalia Country inright of preemption 
adjoining to John Pairpoints Land. 

* * Lewis Rcdgers asdignee to Jacob Rodgers 
is lutitled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia 
County on both sides of Cheat River adjoining lands 
claimed by Henry Crull to include his settlement made in 
the year 1774. 

* * Lewis Rodgers is Intitled to One Thousand 
Acres of Land in Monongalia County in the right of pre- 
emption ad j lining his settlement made on Cheat River lu 
the year 1774. 

* * William Robe is Intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Laurel Run a 
Branch of Booths Creek to include his settlement made 
thereon in the year 1775. 

* * William Robe is Intitled to One Thousand 
Acres of Land in Monongalia County in the right of pre- 
emption adjoining his settlement made on Laurel Run a 
Branch of Booths Creek in the year 1775. 

* * Jonas Webb is lutitled to four hundred 
acres of laud in Monongalia Countv on Simsoas Creek 



SETTLEMENTS OX THE WESTERN WATERS. 91 

sijjoining lands claimed by the heirs of Geo. Wilson in 
'.he Pedlars right to include his settlement made thereon 
In the year 1773 with a preemption of one thousand acres' 
adjoining thereto. ■ * 

* * Benjamin Webb is Intitled to four hundred 
ftores of land in the County of Monongalia on the waters of 
Simsons Creek adjoining lands claimed by Samuel Bear- 
den in the right of residence with a preemption of one 
thousand acres of land adjoining thereunto. 

* * Alexander Wilson ass.ee to Valentine 
Cooper is intitled to four hundred acres of land in Monon- 
galia County on Dunkars Creek adjoining lands claimed 
by John Cooper to include his settlement made in the 
year 1775. 

* * Alexander Wilson is intitled to One Thous- 
and Acres of Land in Monongalia County in the right of 
Preemption adjoining to his settlement on Dunkers Creek 
made in the year 1775. 

* * Jacob Counts is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters of 
Muddy Creek and Kitts Creek to include his settlement 
made in the year 1776. 

* * Peter Dyer is intitled to one thousand acres 
of land iu Monongalia County in the right of Preemption 
upon the waters of hazel run and Big Sandy Creek adjoin- 
ing the lands of Charles Donaldson to Include his Im- 
provement made thereon in the year 1776. 



* * Michael Frank is entitled to one thousand 
acres of land in Monougalia County in right of Preemption 
on a branch of the West fork of the Monongalia Kiver 



92 tra^salleghuny historical magazine. 

betweoQ hellius run and BnSaloe Creek to include his Itu- 
proveraeut aia<.ie tlioreoa ia iho year 1773. 

"!= * Hezekiah Davisson is entitled to four hund- 
red in the County of ilonoagalia ou the West fork adioin- 
iDo- the land-i of Thos. Barkley to iacludo his settleoient 
made in the year 1773. 

' " * =^ Hezekiah Davissou is intitled to four hund- 
red acres of land iu Monongaiia County on the waters of 
the West fork adjoining- Lauds of Thos. Barkley in the 
right of residence to iuclade his Improvement made in the 
year 1775. 

CERTIFICATES GKAXTED IN 1781 AT CLARKSBURG. 

The folloTviiig ar-e among the Certificates granted in 
1781, the fifth year of the Commonvreallh, at Clarksburg; 
by commissioners John P. Duvall, James Neal, William 
Haymond, and Charles Martin. William M'Cleary, Cierk. 

* * Benjamin Ratliff ass.ee to Elijah Runner is 
Intitled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia 
County on M'Kennys Run adjoining Lii-nds Claimel by 
Jno. M'Kenney iu righi of haveiug settled a Tenant oa 
said land in ihe year 1773 to include his settlement thereon 
with a preemption of One Thounaud Acres adjoining 
thereto 

* * BenjamLQ Ratliff is Intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on Hackers Creek 
adjoining lands claimed by William Ratlift" to Include his 
Settlenaent made tliereon in the year 1774 with a preemp- 
tion of One Thousand Acres adjoining thereto. 

t- :^- Thomas Webb is Intitled to fjur hundi'ed 
acres of labd in ^lonongalia County on the Waters of the 



9^.0- 




A MAP '/— ' '\ J "Sli." ; i, ^^""-^ti.,^ ^ .' 

SH0*vfNGAFFROM^!,■;^L BOUNOAf;)£S ] ,/-N„i ^ :'* ^ y '\ « t L i^-iri) 

M0NOiNGAI_IA,YOHOGA,\IA -•<, OHIOJ^^*;. -' -•'7 /" ^ /«-'I« " 

SCALE £:?t._/r %--^ — ^<t*.Ji ^^^^ -/^ / L 







SETTl.EME.NTS OK THE WESTEKN WATERS. 93 

West branch uf Monangalia River adjoiaing Lands Ciaitned 
by Charles \V''ashburn in the right of resideuce to Include 
his Improvement made in the year 1773. 

* * Benjamia Coplin is lutitled to four hundred 
acres of laud in the County of Mocongalir., on the Brushy 
fork of Elk Creek adjoiniDg to lauds claimed by Levy 
Douglas to include his settlement made thereon in the 
year 1773 with a preemption of 1000 adjoining thereto. 

* * Joseph Davisson as-j'ee to Benja. Coplan is 
Intitled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia 
County on Simsons Creek adjoining lands claimed by 
James Anderson v;ith a preemption of one thousand acres 
of land adjoining thereto. 

■i= * Daniel Davisson ass. eo to George Shin (is) 
intitled to four hundred acres of land in Monongalia 
County on Limestone Creek in the right of residence to 
include his improvement made thereon adjoining laods of 
Amoriah Davisson in the year 1771. 

* * Thomas Cunningham is intitled to four 
hundred acres of land in MonongaliaX'ounty on the right 
hand fork of ten !Mile Creek at Jones Improvement in the 
right of residence to include his improvement made thereon 
in the year 1772. 

* * Joseph Lowther Heir at Law to Robert 
Lowther is entitled to four hundred acres of land in Mon- 
ongalia County a'iljoining lands claimed by Charles "Wash- 
burn on "Washburn Run- to include his settlement made 
thereon in the year 1775. 

* * Archibald M'Kenny i^^entitled to four nun- 
dred acres of land in Monongalia County on the vraters of 
Outers Creek and Earcley Run adjoining lands claimed bv 



94 TRANS ALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Gelbert Huston to include his improvement made thereon 
in the year 1776. * * 

* * Bonam Stought is entitled to four hundrt-d 
acres of land iu Monongalia County on the waters of Simp- 
sons Creek adjoining lands claimcdlSy Jonathan Stought 
in the right of residence to include his improvement made 
thereon. * * 

* * Heir at Law to John Thomas (is entitled to) 
four hundred acres of land in Monongalia County on 
Thomas run a drain of Booths Creek adjoining lands 
claimed by Ezekiel Thomas to include his settlement made 
thereon in the year 1771. * * 

* * William Taylor is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the north side of 
Davissons Run from TVashburas Camp upwards in the 
right of residence to include his improvement made there- 
on in the year 1776. -^ * 

' * * Thomas Stought is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land iu Monongalia County on the main forks of 
Elk Creek adjoining lands claimed by John Ratliff in ri^ht, 
of residence to include his improvement made thereon in 
the year 1775, with a preemption of two hundred acres 
adjoining thereto. ^ * 

* * John Goodwin Sen. r is entitled to four huu- 
dred acres of land in Monongalia County on lost Run ad- 
joining lands claimed by John Wickwire to include his 
settlement made thereon in the year 1775, with a preemp- 
tion of one thousand, acres adjoining thereunto. -^ * 

* * Benjp.min Shin is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in I«Ionougaiia County oa Simpso'is Creek 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 95 

adjoining lands Claimed by George Stewart to include his 
settlement thereon in the year 1772. * * 

* * Hezelriah Stout is intitled fto four hundred 
acres of land in Moaongalia County at the mouth of In- 
dian Creek in the right of residence to include his im- 
provement made thereon in the year 1773. * * 

* * Robert Hughstead is entitled to one thous- 
and acres of land in ^louongalia County in the right of 
Preemption on Aughters Creek and Barclays Run adjoin- 
ing lands claimed by John Wickwire to include his im- 
provement made thereon in the year 177:!. * * 

* * Samuel Shin is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County in the right of resi- 
dence to include his improvement made on Levy Shins 
Run below the Buffaloe lick in the year 1771. * * 

* * Samuel Harbard is entitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Mononsralia County on the West fork of 
the Monongalia River in the right of residence adjoining 
lauds claimed by Levy Shin to include his improvement 
made thereon in the year 1775. * * 

* * John Stackhouse is intitled to four hundred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the Head Waters 
of Booths Creek adjoining lands claimed by the Heirs of 
David Edwards to include his settlement made thereon in 
the year 1775 with a Preemption four hundred acres adj- 
oining thereanto. •' * 

* * Evan Thomas is entitled to four hnadred 
acres of land in Monongalia County on the waters of 
Booths Creek adjoining Thos. Battens land in the Right 
of Residence to include bis improvement made thereon in 
the year 1774. * * 

.J^, V,-.. M.-; , (To be continued.) , ,^ ;,, ,,;,,.: 



96 TKAI-vSALLKGflEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZIJSE. ■ 

ISAAC VAN JETER'S JOURNAL. 

[Note. — Isaac Van Meter, of Ilampshire County, Virgiuia, uow 
Hardy Couaty, West Viririniu, wasone of the lead iug- men of wes- 
tern Virgicia durin;^ and after the Eevolutiouary War. He was u 
member of the Virtjinia Cuuventiuri v,hii-h ratided the United 
States constitution. In ISOl he made a tour t1irou§U the western 
country. ITe kept a record of that journey in the diary that fol- 
lows, which was discovered and copied in 1S97 by Hu Maxwell whiie 
collecting material for a history of Hampshire Cuunty.] 

Thursday, April 16, ISOl: Started from home ia CDi'i- 
pariy with Geovgn Harness, L. Branson and John Mill^::'. 
Lodged at Mr. Harvey's. 

Friday, April 17: — Fed iit Wm. Ashby's and passed 
through a very h;'.nd5i>ine and well timbered tract of high- 
land to Snowy Creek where is a very fine grazing tract, 
improved. Lodged at the Dunkard Bottom. 

Saturday, April 18:— Crossed Che^t river which is 
about the size of the South Branch, or perhaps larger; hills 
remarktibly high on both sides. Passed through the best 
body of timber and upland I ever sa-.v for about two miles. 
The face of Ihecouutry from that to the Monongahela river 
(which appears to have r.bcutas much water in it as Cheat, 
but DOt quite so vv'ide) has generally a good appearance 
for wheat and lies v.'ell for cultivation, but not rich and 
well timbered. From there to Clarksburg the land is 
more fertile and inclinable to grass. Lodged at Joseph 
Davison's six miles this side Ciarksbui-g. 

Sunday, April 19: — Breakfasted at Daniel Davison's in 
Clarksburg and waited until after dinner. Clarksburg 
has a tolerable appearance on Main street, with an acad- 
emy on an elevated piece of ground near the town. We 
were informed that nearly fifty children are generally 
taught there. The court house is on one side of the street 
i^nd the jail on the other-, near the center. Left Clarks- 
burg and lay at Mr, Clayton's fifteen miles distant. The 



VAN meter's journal. '* ' 97 

face of the country is very rough, but some small strips 
uf bottom well adopted for meadow. 

Monday, April 20:— Down Middle Island creek four- 
teen miles in which distance we crossed it seventeen times. 
A rough hilly country and poor. I was informed on the 
cieek there is a bend seven miles around, and comes 
within thirty yards of itstlf. A ditch is cut through and 
a mill erected with only a seven feet fall in that distance. 
In digging the race which I am informed is twenty-five 
feet deep, the earth was so had that it was a custom to 
give visitors a pint of liquor to dig up aa much dirt. The 
undertaker after being at a very great expense had 
tiiought of giving out on account the expense of digging, 
when a person who understood blowing rocks proposed to 
try it, and completed it at a small expense compared with 
what its digging would have cost. It was solid clay, and 
no appearance of rock. Lod,:^ed at Mr. Bonnell's on 
Hughes river. Country still very hilly. Scattering new 
settlements and a tolerable appearance of range, which 
has not been the case heretofore. The buckeye leaves 
nearly half grown, and vegetation much more forward 
than with us. Severe hurricane and powerful rain just 
after we got up. 

Tuesday, April 2 i:—Y\'e passed through a very rough, 
billy country; following ;x tiividiog ridge ten miles until 
we came withai twelve miles of the mjuthof the Musk- 
ingum. Turned to ttie ri-ht and fell on tbe Ohio (which 
I had for many years wished to see)^at tbe mouth of Bull 
run. Above the mouta is a hne bottom belonging to 
Crcsap's heirs. Back uf the tractj i.-: 'an extraordinary 
body of rich upland for t.vu miles, 'and completely tim- 
bered. \Ye went down the Ohlo;j-to ^Isaac Villers', oppo- 
site the mount of the Muskingum. The latter part of the 
day it rained for ten or nfteL^n|miles. We got wet and 
cold. 



98 TRAxNSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Wednesday April 22: — We went down the Ohio twelve 
miles to the mouth of the Little Kanawha. Below Williams' 
improvement lies a very handsome bottom, and for eight 
miles small improvments going on. Then came to a very 
well improved body of land laid oif br Dr. Spencer into 
fifty acre lots and a small town called Vienna. Below 
this we came into a capital tract of land belonging to Mr. 
Season, containing fourteen hundred acres, superior to 
any tract I have seen, and timbered with some of the 
largest walnuts, an abundance of black locust and some 
honey locust. Crossed the Ohio for the first time at the 
mouth of the Kanawha. Marietta lies at the mouth of the 
Muskingum and has a most handsome appearance. A 
number of large and elegant houses at the mouth of 
the Muskingum and some distance oil the upper side are 
■well painted. From a desire of being at the election at 
the Kanawha, we could not take time to cross the Ohio at 
the mouth. The settlement opposite the mouth of the 
Kanawha is called Belfre, and is well cultivated by New 
Englanders on small tracts well laid off. There are some 
good buildings here. The clover lots made a most hand- 
some appearance, rank and high enough to hide a rabbit. 
We continued down the river eight miles to the mouth of 
Little Hocking, leaving the Ohio about six miles to the 
Big Hocking which is about forty -five yards wide and very 
high. We had to ferry. Here is pine tit for building 
which has hardly been seen since we left the Alleghany. 
On both sides of the Ohio and throughout the country is 
an abundance of free stone excellent for buildiog. We rode 
five miles in the night to Mr. Cooley's. 

■ Thursday, April 23: — After traveling about eight 
miles we came into the best tract of high land I have yet 
seen. It is covered with the richest growth of timber 
consisting of the largest black walnut, very large hickory. 



VAN METER'S JOURNAL. 99 

several kinds of poplar six feet through, hackberry and 
every other growth that denotes a rich and fertile soil. 
We came to a creek called Beaver. I rode it — very deep. 
The rest drove their horses through, and crossed on a log. 
"We lodged at Rockcamp, in the woods. 

Friday, April 2i: — From Rockcamp we passed through 
the poorest land I have seen in this country for about six 
miles; then came to a country much like our glades. It 
appeared frosty, but lies much better and is of a better 
quality. For three or four miles is the best piece of range 
I have seen; then about six miles to the salt works. We 
were informed that the different furnaces make three hun- 
dred barrels per week. The land is generally thin except 
some capital meadow land which will be a very great 
advantage some day to supply the works with hay. The 
range is now excellent about the works, and their oxen, 
with which they haul their wood, look excellent well. The 
face of the country from the Ohio to this place is gener- 
ally uneven, and in same places are high and steep hills, 
particularly near the water courses, and it is more level 
near the dividing ridges. I have no doubt it will some 
day be a most fertile]and valuable wheat country. We went 
from the salt works sixteen miles to Salt Lick creek 
within one mile af the Scioto, through wet, deep, miry 
roads, with the highest steep hill in sight that I ever saw, 
with a number of hanging rocks. We lodged with Mr. 
Cox. 

Saturday, April £5: — Seven miles to Joseph Harness's, 
on the High Bank prairie, through a small quaker settle- 
ment. They appear more fond of wheat land than of the 
bottoms. Perhaps health is their object. About eleven 
o'clock we set out to the bottom which appears likely to 
contain between 2000 and 3000 acres v^ith back lands lying 
level and well for cultivation. The timber on the upland is 



100 TRANSALLiEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

chiefly hickory and some black oak. I think it is a thirsty 
land, but it produces kindly at this time. There is capital 
timber two or three miles off. The bottom is timbered 
with all the growth that rich land produces, particularly 
burr oak of the largest size, and what is called blue oak 
which is taid to be excellent timber, and white elm of a 
high size. 

Sunday, April 26;— We went to Chilicolhe through a 
hilly way to shun the river, which was very high, until 
we came to a large bottom opposite the town. In this bot- 
tom is Mr. Zane's section. We ferried over to town which 
has a few good houses, but thinly built yet, for half a 
mile on the river. About the center of town tho river 
bears hard against the bank. We were informed that the 
last freshet took thirty feet and is likely to injure the 
town. After dinner we pursued our intended route up tha 
river, viewing the best bodies of bottom, and lodged at 
Mr. Pepper's. 

Monday, April 27: — We viewed several good bottoms 
but badly timbered. The prairies are generally dry and 
covered with grass We crossed the river at a small 
town called Westface and went t-o itr. Reaneck"s 
on Darby creek, chiefly through prairies. 

Tuesday, April 28: — We struck a north east course and 
crossed tho Scioto at Rankinson's and viewed a very 
handsome Vottom called Raukinson, supposed one hun- 
dred and fifty acres, and then some very rich upland of a 
considerable quantity, but scarce of timber. Then we 
viewed several other tract up to the mouth of Big Belly 
creek. A section and fraction on each side of the creek 
are the best tract I have seen, exceps the High Bank;but 
timber is scarce. This day we x)assed an Indian camp 
where I was introduced to John VanMet.er,who r^as taken 
prisoner when a child and is so accustomed to tho Indian 



VAN METER'S JOURNAL. 101 

habits that his friends cannot prevail ou him to leave 
them. He shook haods with me; called me "Captain" 
and appeared to take more notice of me than of my com- 
panions. I bought a set of beaver stones of him for aunt 
Rebekah. His wife was handsomely built, but rather old 
for him. She would j?ot speak Eno:hsh. I asked him in 
her hearing bow ma^y children they had. He told me 
none. I told im he koked able to get children, which 
caused her to smile modestly; but she attended to her 
B^in dressing. We returned and lodged at Rankinson's. 
Wednesday, April 29:— "We viewed a tract on Walnut 
creek, seven miles below Big Belly creek, and twenty-six 
miles above town. There is a very handsome piece of 
meadow land on the creek, but the bottoms on the river 
are much overflown. We viewed Kryder bottom, seven 
miles above torvn, and lodged at Key's in town. 

Thursda}, April SO:— We went down the river to Mr. 
McNiell'sland which feas a fine appearance, and Copeland's 
adjoining; had not time to examine it closely, but it has a 
fine appearance, thea on to Miller's bottom which I like 
better than any I have seen, except the High Bank. From 
examination and information, there must be 1500 acres of 
bottom, and well backed with timber, and a good rise to 
build on. Here I will make my stand if I am not opposed 
by some of our p^rtj. We lodged at Colonel Guthirie's. 
Friday May 1: — We went down to Ley ton's bottom 
and viewed several tnicts; found timber more plenty with 
some small springs. On our way back to town we passed 
through the Peepee tottom, on the military side, the long- 
est bottom I have yet seen. Clear prairie is said to contain 
900 acres. This bottom has the greateet resemblance to 
our Old Fields of anything I have yet seen. There arc 
thickets cf plum and other shrubs, twined with grapevines, 
and here and there overtowered by a large elm or cherry 



102 TRANSALL.EGHENY HSTORICAL. MAGAZINE. 

tree; and shadowing burr oaks separate opea gladly spots. 
Thus the large prairie is surrounded, which is gaaerally 
dry, and has a very great abundance of strawberries now 
ia full bloom. We lodged at Mr, Peter's. 

Saturday, May 2: — We continued up the river to 
Thomas Foster's, and viewed Mr. Carrington's tract. 
There must be nearly three hundred acres almost destroy- 
ed by the overflowing of the water, and the bank wearing 
in two places. The upper one threatens an entirethorough- 
fare. From information from Mr. Foster there must, 
nevertheless, be about four hundred acres of good bottom 
land with a tolerable rise to build on, and a v/eak spring. 
We continued through high water and rain to Joseph Har- 
ness' where we had appointed our general rendezvous, 
compttre notes and fix our general plan so as not to oppose 
others at the sale. - - • 

Sunday, May 3: — Rested. 

Monday, May 4: — We went to the sale. Finding the 
sale to begin on the northeast, and expecting there was 
good land further down the river that we had not time to 
view before the sale, on Tuesday, May 5, we started 
down in compauy with Thoscas Kerrick and lodged at 
Leyton's. Ic rained all day, and we had to swim the creek. 
It rained all night. 

Wednesday, May 6: — We were entirely waterbound 
until afternoon, and then went with difficulty to Mr. 
Rodger's. 

Thursday May 7; — We viewed the bottom w hich is line, 
and a large portion clear of water, and a fine rise to build 
on; but not one drop of standing water, except ponds, 
■which are said to be obnoxious in the latter end ot summer. 
We hired Rodgers to pilot, us to the mouth of the river. 
The bottom is almost level with the water. The point 
above the mouth of the Scioto is a bandsoLie situation, 
backed for two or three miles with excellent timber. On 



VAK METEU'S JOURNAL. 103 

the Ohio,oae and a half miles above the Scioto is the rich 
est bottom I have peea on the Ohio. It is supposed to 
contaia one hundred acres clear of water, and we were 
informed there was another on the Scioto about the same 
size; bat it was too much overflowed to view it. We re- 
turned to Rodger's and lodged. 

Frida7 May 8: — On our way up the river we viewed 
Murphy's bottom which is handsome and clear of water, 
but the river presses hard against the bank about five 
hunderd yards and is moving it very fast. The bottom 
above was almost covered with water until we came to 
Miller's bottom. We lodged at Colonel Gutherie's. 

Saturday May 9: — We viewed a section below Miller's 
and adjoining, including Beaver creek. I gave young 
Gutherie six shillings to run two lines to satisfy myself 
of the situation of the washed land at the mouth of Beaver. 
In crossing a log I fell in, up tomy middle. We breakfasted 
at Gutherie's and pursued our route up the river, through 
the woods in many places to shun the overflowed bottoms, 
and I swam our horses by a canoe at Mr. McNeill's, and 
was water bound at John Pancake's the runs being through 
the bottom in many places too deep to ride. 

Sunday May 10: — We came to Chilicothe. 

Monday May 11: — ^We attended the sale. 

Tuesday May 12:— I bought Miller bottom, for $2.50, 
iQ company with Mr. Branson. 

Wednesday May 13: — I bought the section and frac- 
tion aijoining Miller's at two dollars, which was my 
favorite spot, I also bought Rodger's bottom in company 
with Messrs Renuick and Harness. 

Thursday May 14: — I wrote home by Mr. Ilarness, 
and started down the river to regulate our tracts. I found 
the water still high and the weather wet. 

Friday May 15: — I viewed Layton's 'oottom and lb 



104 TRA^-SALLEG^E^Y HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

section below, and concluded to purchase it in company 
with Harness, Rennick and Branson. 

Saturday May 16: — I got back to town and settled our 
busines3. 

Sunday May 17: — I started for Deer creek on our way 
home, and lodged at Garrett Davis'. We could not ^^et 
over the creek and had to travel though the woods. 

Monday May 18:— We crossed Deer creek on apiece 
of bark turned up before and behind like a flat bottomed 
boat, and got safely over, though I little expected it on 
first view of our bark. I stripped and was ready for swim- 
ming. We steered north east through the woods to Mr. 
Petty's on Darby, and crossed Darby in a canoe. We 
lodged at Mr. Rennick's. 

Tuesday May 19:— We crossed the Scioto at the Moath 
of Darby and viewed the most prairie I have yet seen, 
chiefly covered with speargrass halfleg high. "We struck 
a south east course above the PicKaway plains and fell 
into Zane's trace through rich high lands and well tim- 
bered. We dined and fed at Daniel Van Meter's at Muddy 
prairie, and lodged at Jacob Van Meter's about four miles 
east of Hocking where a town is laid off called West L'in- 
caster. A vast number of houses are under way, chiefly 
of hewn logs. The most of the settlers are Dutch. 

Wednesday May 20:— We passed through some very 
fine wheat country, well timbered and watered, with some 
capital meadow land on Rush and Jonathan creeks; the 
blackest soil I ever saw, and very swampy. We crossed 
the Muskingum and lodged at Mr. Mclntire's. 

Thursday, May 21:— Still traveling through a fine 
wheat country, but very uneven, and lodged at Will's creek 
at Mr. Beaver's. 

Friday May 22:— The land appears rather poorer than 
heretofore. Lodged at Mr. Morrison's. 



VAN METER*S JOURNAL. 105 

Saturday May 23: — Traveled through high, rough 
country, but all suitable for small grain and very well 
timbered; als:» through what is called the Rich Land which 
is rightly named bat lies very high and steep, with a fine 
spring in the head of every hollow. We fell on Indian 
Wheeling creek about four miles from the Ohio, which we 
crossed at Zane's Island, amd rested. 

Sunday May 2-1: — After dinner Mrs. Zane accompanied 
us to John McCu31och's on Shortneck. The hills are as 
rich as any high land I ever saw; but remarkably high, 
and timbered with black walnut, sugar and scattering 
large oaks. 

Monday, May 25: — After traveling a fe-v miles we 
come to oak lands altogether; not rich, but kindly for 
small grain. We cro?sed several sr^a all creeks with mills 
on them, and through the town of W^ashiugton, a hand- 
some and well situated towa, not quite so large as Win- 
chester. We lodged at Mr. Workman's. 

Tuesday, May 26: — Fed at Carmichael's Town on 
Muddy creek and viewed a mill on Whitely creek where 
the race has been blown through solid rock underground 
nine poles, and opens three poles above the pierhead. The 
dam which is about eight feet high and eighty or one 
hundred long, butts against the hill within twelve feet of 
the head of the race. The creek runs one and a half miles 
around and curves within '"orty yards of the mill; forty 
feet fall may be had, bat they make use of only thirty one 
feet. The owner informed me it took 250 pounds of pow- 
der to blow the race. The land from here to the Mon- 
ongahela at Greenburg is fertile. \Ve crossed to Geneva 
near the glass works and lodged at Mr. Crawford's. 

Wednesday, >[iy 27: — We crossed Laurel hill, and at 
the fooj of this side took a right hand road and struck for 
the Crab Orchard, and iod?:ed at Mr. Child's. 

Thursday, M'iy 28: — Arrived home abou'. dark. 



1P6 TRANS ALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

: it WEST VIRGINIA A CENTURY AGO. 

BY H.U MAXWELL. 

In 1797 The American Gazetteer was published in Boston 
by Jedidiah Morse. It was a volume of about 900 pages 
with several maps, and dealt with the geography of 
"North America and the West Indies." A number of 
places within the present limits of West Virginia are de- 
scribed. Occasionally these descriptions are fairly accur- 
ate, and sometimes they are not. The greatest error is 
found in the accounts of rivers. The chief interest of the 
book lies in the fact that it shows what was known, and 
what was generally supposed, concerning the frontiers of 
Virginia 104 years ago. The quotations which follow are 
from Mr. Morse's book. 

"Clarksburg, the chief town of Harrison County, Vir- 
ginia. It contains about 40 houses, a court house and jail. 
It stands on east side cf Monongahela river, 40 miles 
S. W. of Morgan town. 

"Frankfort, thecapitalof Pendleton County, Virginia, 
is situated on the west side of the South Branch of the 
Potowmack river. It contains a court house, jail and about 
30 houses; 160 miles X. W. of Richmond." 

"Frankfort, a thriving village in Hampshire 
County, Virginia, on a creek which empties into the Po- 
towmack river. It is 13 miles N. W. of Romney, 4 miles 
south of the Potowmack s.ad 10 miles S. S. E. of fort Cum- 
berland. 

"Hampshire, a county in Virginia, about 60 miles long 
and 50 broad, and contains 734G inhabitants including 454 
slaves. It is well watered bj; the Potwomack and its south 
branch. Iron ore and coclIs have been discovered on the 
banks of this river." 

"Big Sandy River, or Totteroy, ha>^ its source near 
the Cumberland river, and separating Virginia from Ken- 
tucky, empties into the Ohio opposite the French Purchase 
of Galipolis. Vancouver's and Harmar's forts stand on 
this river." 



WEST VIRGINIA A CENT OR Y AGO. 107 

It would be difficult to crowd more error iato the same 
uumber of lines. There were many maps in existence at 
that time which would have shown where the "French 
Purchase" and Harmar's fort were. 

"Monongahela river, a branch of the Ohio, is 400 
yards wide at itsjunction with the Alleghany at Pittsburg. 
It is deep, gentle and navigable with batteaux and barges 
beyond Red Stone Creek, and still further with lighter 
craft. It rises at the foot of Laurel Mountain, in Virginia. 
At the mouth of Cheat it is 300 yards, and the navigation 
good for boats. Thence the width is about 200 yards to 
the western fork, 50 miles higher, and the navigation fre- 
quently interrupted by rapids; which, however, with a 
ewell of 2 or 3 feet, become very passable for boats. It' 
then admits light boats, except in dry seasons, 65 miles 
further, to the head of Tygart's Valley, presentinsr only 
some small rapids and falls of one or two feet perpendic- 
ular, and lessening in its width to 20 yards. The western 
fork is navigable in winter towards the northern branch 
of the Little Kanhaway, and will admit a good wagon road 
to it. From the navigable waters of the south eastern- 
most branch of the Mloaongahela, there is a portage of 10 
miles to the South Branch of the Potowmac river." 

The river froji the mouth of the West Fork to the 
bead of Tygart's Valley must have been little known, or 
it would not have been classed as navigable at any season 
for any boats. For the greater part of its course it is 
filled with rapids and cataracts, aggregating a fall of 1200 
feet between Fairmont and Elkins which is at the lower 
end of Tygart's Valley. The fall in the river between 
Elkins and the head of the valley is not much short of 
another lOOO feet. 

"Cheat river rises in Randolph County, Virginia, and 
after pursuing X. N. W. course, joius the Monongahela 
3 or 4 miles within the Pennsylvania line. It is 200 yards 
wide at its mouth, and 100 yards at the Dunkard's Settle- 
ment 50 miles higher, and is navigable for boats, except 



108 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

in dry seasons. There is a portage of 37 miles from this 
river to the Potowmack at the mouth of Savage river." 

Cheat River was never navigable for boats at any 
season of the year, over any considerable part of its course. 

"Great Kanhaway, a river of Vir^jinia of considerable 
note for the fertility of its lands, and still more as leading 
towards the headwaters of the James river. But it is 
doubtful whether its great and numerous rapids will admit 
a navigation, but at au expense to which it will require 
ages to render its inhabitants equal. The great obstacles 
begin at what are called the Great Falls, 90 miles above 
its mouth, below which are only 5 or 6 rapids, and this 
passable with some difficulty, even at low water. From 
the falls to the mouth of Green Briar is 100 miles. It is 
280 yards wide at it-5 mouth. The headwaters of this 
river are in the western part of North Carolina. * * 
* * About 60 miles from Little river it receives 
Green Briar river from the east, which is the only consid- 
erable tributary stream in all that distance. About 40 
miles below the mourh of Green Briar river, in the 
Kanhaway, is a remarkable cataract. A large rock, a 
little elevated in the middle, crosses the bed of the river, 
over which the water shoots, and falls about 50 feet per- 
pendicularly, except at one side where the decent is more 
gradu-il. The Great Kanhaway is 19G miles below Pittsburg, 
and is navigable most of the year; and a wagon road may 
be made through the mountain, which occasions the falls, 
and by a portage of a few miles only, a communication 
may be had between the waters of the Great Kanhaway 
and Ohio, and then of James river, io Virginia. Down 
this river great quantities of goods are conveyed up the 
Kentucky river, others on horseback or in wagons to the 
settled part, and sold on au average at 100 per cent ad- 
vance." 

"Martiosburg, a post town of Virginia and capital of 
Berkeley county, situated about 8 miles south of the 
Potowmac, in the midst of a fertile and well cultivated 
country, and 25 miles from the Mineral Springs at Bath. 
In contains upwards of 70 houses, a court house, jail, 



WEST VIRGINIA A CENTURY AGO. 109 

l^piscopal church, and contiguous to the town is one for 
Presbyterians." 

"Little Kanhaway, a small navigable river of Vir- 
ginia, which is 150 yards Tvide at its mouth, and is nav- 
igable ten miles only. Perhaps its northerly branch, 
called Junius Creek, which interlocks with the western 
waters of the ^Monongahela, may one day admit a shorter 
passage from the latter into the Ohio."' 

"Green Briar river tubs a S. W. course and falls into 
the eastern side of the Great Kanhaway at the place where 
that river breaks through the Laurel Ridge, and opposite 
to the mouth of New river in N. latitude 38." 

It is difficult to tell just what river the geographer is 
trying to describe. If he wrote his description from a 
map he evidently had his eye on the Gauley river instead 
of the Greenbrier. In another place he says the Green- 
brier is the only north easterly tributary of the Kanawha. 
The error of 150 miles in having the Great Kanawha break 
through the Laurel Ridge can be accounted for in no way 
that I know of. 

"Moorfields, a post town and the capital of Hardy 
County, Virginia, situated on the east side of the South 
Branch of the Potowmac river. It contains a court house 
and jail, and between GO and 70 houses. It is ISO miles 
from Richmond." 

"Morgantown, a post town of Virginia, and shire-town 
of Monongalia County, is pleasantly situated on the east 
side of MoQongahela river about 7 miles S. by W. of the 
mouth of Cheat river, and contains a court house, a ston-^ 
jail and about 40 houses." 

"Romney, the chief tov/n of Hampshire County, Vir- 
ginia, coueains about 70 dwelling houses, a brick court 
house and a stone jail. It is situated on the western bank 
of the S. W. branch of th-i Potowmac river, 50 miles west 
by north of Wiachestsr, 25 northeast by north of Mojr- 
fields, anl 13 S. W. of Old Town, io Alleghany County, 
Pennsylvania. " 

The "Old Town" referred to was in Allegany County, 



110 TKANSALLEGHEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Maryland, not in Peansylvania, and stood, and still stand?, 
about fifteen miles east of Cumberland. 

"Green Briar, a large and fertile county of Virginia, 
surrounded by Bath. Randolph, Harrison, Kanhaway, 
Botetourt and Montgomery counties. It is about 100 miles 
lon^' and 45 broad; and together with Kanhaway county, 
which was formerly a part of it, contains 6015 inhabitants, 
including 319 slaves. There is a large cave on Rich Creek 
in this county, the earth at the bottom of which is strongh- 
impregnated with sulphur. Many such are to be found 
on Green Briar river. The chief town is Lewisburg. At 
Green Briar courfe house is a post office, 30 miles W. by S. 
of Sweet Springs, and 103 west of Staunton." 

"Shepherdstown or Shepherdsburg, a post town of 
Virginia, situated in Berkeley County, on south side of 
Potowmack river. Its situation is healthful and agreable, 
and the neighboring country is fertile and well cultivated. 
It contains about 2000 inhabitants, mostly of German ex- 
traction." 

"Tygarfs Valley, in Pennsylvania, lies on Mononga- 
hela river." 

The above would indicate that the geographer did not 
consult maps with due care and diligence, as he places 
Tygart's Valley a hundred miles too far north and in the 
■wrong State. 

"Dunkard's Bottom, a tract of fine land on the east 
side of Cheat river, in Virginia, 22 miles from its mouth 
and 47 miles \T. S. W. from Fort Cumberland. " 

"Wheeling, or Wh'?elin, a post town of Virginia, sit- 
uated at the mouth of a creek on the east bank of Ohio 
river, 18 miles south west of West Liberty, and 61 south- 
west of Pittsburg. Xot far from this place a wall has 
been discovered some feet under the earth very regularly 
built, apparantly the work of art." 

"West Liberty, a post town of Virginia, and the cap- 
ital of Ohio county, is situated at the head of Short creek, 
6 miles from the Otiio. It contains about 120 houses, a 
Presbyterian church, a court house and jail." 



WEST VIRGINIA A CENTURY AGO. Ill 

"The passage of the Potowmack through the Blue 
Ridge is perhaps one of tbe most stupendous scenes in 
nature. The mountains of the Blue Ridge, and of these, 
the Peaks of the Otter, are thought lo be of a greater 
height, measured from their base, than any others in Vir- 
ginia, and perhaps in North America. -^ ^ ^ 'Jf 
The ridge of mountains next beyond the Blue Ridge, 
called the North Mountain, is of the greatest extent, for 
which reason they are named by tbe Indians the Endless 
Mountains." 

The geographer in his description of the passage of 
the Potomac through the Blue Ridge was no doubt fresh 
from the reading of Jefferson's Notes on Virginia. The 
scene is grand, and the grandest tha* Jefferson ever saw; 
but so far from being one of the most stupendous scenes 
in nature, it is surpassed by ten thousand others in the 
United States. The passage of the North Fork through 
New Creek Mountain at Hopewell, in Grant County, sur- 
passes Harper's Ferry in sublimity. The intimation that 
the Blue Ridge had greater height, measured from the 
base, than any other mountains of North America throws 
light on the state of geopraphical knowledge at that time. 
The North Mountain is confused with the Allegheny. 
That mistake ought not to have been made at that time. 
The writer says that the Indian name for Will's Creek, 
where Cumberland, Maryland stands, was Caicuctuck. 

In 1797 there were 510 post offices in the United 
States, and of these there were eight within the present 
territory of "West Virginia, as follow : Greenbrier Court 
House, Martinsburg, Moorefield, Romney, Shepherdstown, 
Wheeling, West Liberty and Morgantowu. Four were 
east and four west of the Alleghenies. 



•It. I 



^//i- 

>- 



Editorial Notes and Miscellanies. 



Board OF Editohs: Subscription: 

He Maxwell, Two Dollars a Year. 

EiCHAKD Ellsworth Fast, Free to Mkmbeks of thk 

Boyd Crumeine. Tbansalleqheny Histor- 

ical, Society. 



An important element of illustrative material is found 
in the campaign songs 'd:nd ballads. During the campaign 
of Henry A. Wise for Governor of Virginia, in 1855, a bit 
of political doggerel, referring to eome measure that Wise 
had advocated, was sung to the tune of Yankee Doodle. 
One stanza ran as folio vrs: 

"Old Grannj- Wise was at its birth. 
She took it up and dressed it; 

And like a mother would her child 
Upon her bosom pressed it." 
Can any one supply the missing stanzas, or give in- 
formation as to the specilic act of Wise that is referred to 
in the doggerel ? 

It was nearly two centuries after the founding of 
Harvard College before the study of history had any 
standing in th'i courres of study offered. It was upwards 
of a quarter of a century after the founding of the West 
Virginia University before a department of history was 
established. No coiirse was taught thac would now be 
recognized as entitling; the student to credit, toward a 
degree. 

In 1836 the American Historical Society was organ- 
ized in Washington with John Quincy Adams as Presi- 
dent. It held some meetings in tha ball of the House of 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND MISCELLANIES. 113 

Representatives. It was lai-orelv- a local society composed 
chiefly of residents of VTashington with a few politicians 
thrown in here and there. Its work was limited to a few 
annual addresses by distin^fuished statesmen and to the 
collection and publication of archives. As a resnlt of its 
organization we have the Peter Force Archives, a mo&t 
valuable collection; but Peter J^orce left collected and 
ready for publication many manuscripts and documents 
which Congress has never yet caused to be printed. This 
Society after a time ceased to meet and ceased to exist, 
and the American Historical Association, its successor, 
was not organized until 1SS4. 

A "West Virginia Historical Society was founded at 
the West Virginia University in 1869. It was composed 
of representative and able men from all parts of the 
State. It did some good work. It published one volume 
of papers. But from 1S82, when President William L. 
"Wilson severed his connection with the University to take 
a seat in Congress, the University went into a rapid 
decline, and with it the historical society. The society 
did not bold a meeting after 1884. This society has now 
been reorganized under the name of the Transallegheny 
Historical Society. Its work will not be limited to state 
lines. But our friends in "Western Pensylvania need have 
no fear that the Virginians will attempt to extend their 
former political dominion over the territory once claimed 
by Virginia. "We shall be satisfied and honored with their 
assistance in the effort to preserve the history of the 
time. 

The last ten years, both in Europe and America, has 
witesscd a most extraordinary development in the study 
of history in the colleges and universities, which has 
amounted to a veritable revolution. Historical socie- 



Hi TRANSALLEGHENT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE, 

ties have multiplied in number, and all have increased in 
efSciency. The subjects of local history are receiving 
great attention; for it is in local history that the true life 
of a people is reflected. 

Some millions of people have not established them- 
selves on the western slopes of the Alleghenies and in 
the Ohio Valley without making some history. 

There is room for a historical Eocicty in the Ohio val- 
ley that is not limited by state lines, one that is imbued 
with the catholic spirit of history. 

Membership in the Transallegheny Historical Society 
is nOb limited. Any one who feels an interest, in the work 
of the society may become a member. The membership 
fee is two dollars a year, which includes the subscription 
to the quarterly. 

This society is recognized as an adjunct to the 
Library and Museum of the University. All books, 
papers, documents, and relics, donated or loaned to the 
society will be registered with a number indicating name 
of person making the donation or loan. Any article loaned 
may be recalled at any time. The society will preserve 
all donations and loans in the new fire-proof Library when 
ready for occupation. 

If you have an old tile or number of any newspaper 
publi.shed in the State or of interest to the State, won't 
you be kind enough to donate it to the Society? If you 
have any old files of letters, or a single letter; or any 
diary of events; or any journal or minutes of any 
society, rlub, or meeting; or any manuscript of any kind, 
we should like to know the fact. The proper place for all 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND MISCELLANIES. 115 

such material is among the archives of the Society. If 
you are unwilling to m&ke either a loan or a donation, let 
us know what you have. Perhaps you would allow us to 
cojiy some portions in order that the public may have the 
benefit of the information. , • . , ■ ■■ 

Every person who knows a fact of any importance to 
the history of the State, either general or purely local, is 
most cordially invited to commit his knowledge to paper 
and send the manuscript to us. The columns of this 
magazine are wide open for any writer young or old on 
any subject relating to the occupation of the State bj' its 
inhabitants from the day that the first pioneer crossed 
the mountains to the present. We are not making a 
specialty of old Indian history. We want the history of 
the growth of the State. You can do it. Never mind 
the spelling and the grammar. Just write down what 
you know in your own way. Lindley Murray died many 
years ago. We have more interest just now in facts than 
in grammar and orthography. 

All copies of document, journals, and dairicK should 
be made by one who will reproduce tbem with literal 
exactness. Every paper submitted should contain exact 
references to the place where the original may be found, 
with volume, page, etc. 

William T. Price, of Pocahontas County, W^est Vir- 
ginia, has done a service to the cause of history by pub- 
lishing a history of his county. It is from the press of 
Price Brothers, Mariinton, W. Va., and the author states 
that the book was compiled, written and publi.-rhed in the 
county, and printed on paper made from wood grown in 
the county. The work contains 026 pages and is bound in 
handsome silk cloth. It is largely biographical, but the 



116 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

local history of the several communities is interwoven with 
the sketches. The author was intimately acquainted with 
the people of his county before he undertook to write their 
history, and every sketch gives evidence of care, patience 
and painstaking. The region is rich in material for his- 
tory. AVithin Pocahontas County was the first white 
man's cabin west of the Alieghenies in West Virginia. • 
The subsequent settlers were of solid and substantial 
Scotch, Irish and English stock with a small percentage 
of Germans. They led the van of civilization across the 
mountains, and they defended its outposts with a courage 
and heroism that was sure to be successful at last. The 
man who writes local history in West Virginia must 
usually be content u'ith gratitude for pay. It is to be 
hoped that Mr. Price will be more fortunate, but at any 
event the people of Pocahontas County will be unappre- 
ciative if they do not hold Mr. Price in grateful remem- 
brance for the good work which he has done for them and 
their county. 

There are historical places and objects within the 
region covered by this magazine, the pictures of which 
ought to be preserved in photographs or drawings. The 
invitation is extended to aU Y<'ho have such pictures, or 
who can malce them, either by camera or pencil, to send 
them 'to this society, and they will bo preserved. En- 
gravings will be made from time to time of such as are 
most appropriate, and they will be used in this magazine. 
Among objects worthy of pictures may be enumerated: 
Historical churches, houses, mills, bridges, trees, hille, 
rocks, mountains, landscapes, towL's, courthouses, fords, 
ferries, roads, schoolhouses, and anythicg of a similar 
kind. Almo.-it every locality has some object of interest. 
It need not date back to colonial days in order to possess 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND MISCELLANIES. 117 

an historical value. In sending pictures, accompany them 
with a written sketch, giving the history of the object or 
place. 

In the article in this magazine, '-Pioneer Settlements 
on Western Waters," reference is made to creeks and 
localities all over northern West Virginia and many in, 
Pdunsylvania. It would be desirable to know where all of 
those places were and by what names they are now known. 
Such a list would form a valuable collection of early 
geograi)hical uame8 in this part of the country. It would 
be highly appreciated if the recders of this magazine 
would examine the article carefully and note down the 
present names of such localities as they can recognize, 
and also state just where the settlements referred to were 
made, if known. Send the information to this magazine. 
Let every one who can give any information on this sub- 
ject do so. It would hel:) to fix the location of many early 
settlements and settlers. 

A meeting for the permanent organization of the 
Transallegheay Historical Society will be held in Mor- 
gan town, W. Va., December 5, 1901. It is hoped that all 
present members will attend ; and that they will procure 
as many new members as possible. In order to do the 
best work in the best way the society should have one 
thousand members. 

The following persons have "Decome members of the 
Transallegheny Historical Society since the. meeting in 
June: 

Mr. W. P.Hubbard, Wheeling, W. Va.; Miss Anna 
Buckbee, California, Pa. ; Mr. John T. Harris, Parkers- 
burg, W. Va.; Mr. F. S. Landstreet, Xevv York City; Mr. 



118 



TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



A.J.Wilkinson, Grafton, W Va.; Prof. Josiah Kelly, 
Montgomery, "W. Va. ; Prof. S. E. Swartz, Clarksburg, 
W. Va.; Prof. W. L. McCowan, "West Liberty, W. Va.; 
Prof. E. A. Goodwin, Shepherdstown, W. Va. ; Prof. L. J. 
Corbley, Huntington, W. Va.; Prof. J. N. Deahl, Mor- 
gautown, "W. Va. 



t^ 'I. 



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TRANSALLEGHENY 



HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Uol I. Januaty, 1 902. No. 2. 



^ EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 

By Myron Carei.ton Lough. ■ , .• ' '-, 
"'""'' CHAPTER III. ■ ; "■ ' 

TUL VALI.EYS OF THE MONONGABELA AND THE LiTTLE 
KANAWHA. , , . , ■. . ., 

[Continaed from the October Number.] • ' ' '^ 

In 1779, the boandary question between Penusj'ivania.: 
and Virginia was settled. Before that time, from its for- - 
mation in 1776, Monongalia County embraced, in addition - 
to Its Western Virginia territory, nearly all ot Greene and 
Fayette, and about one-third of Washington County, '• 
Pennsylvania. The extending of Mason and Dixon's line' 
thus took away from Monor.galia much valuable and de- 
sirable land area. However, that same year and the year- 
following some additions were made from Augusta County, . 
so that in 1780, Monongalia embraced something like 5,250' 
equare miles, takiag in wholly or in part the present coun- ^ 
ties of Monongalia, Marion, Taylor, Preston, Barbour/ 
Tucker, Randolph, Upshcr,' Webster, Braxton, Lewis," 
Harrison, Doddridge, Gilmer, Calhoun, Koane, Ritchie, 
Wirt, Pleasants, Yv'ood an/l Jackson. In 1784, Monongalia 



120 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

was divided, the soutliera and southwestern portions, 
from a line through Marion County, beifig organized under 
the name of Harrison County. Hence the country from 
the Pennsylvania line in the southwesterly direction to 
the Ohio River has a somewhat similar history and for this 
reason I have chosen to unite them in our present study. 

The settlements along: the Mouongahela were among 
the very earliest west of the Alleghenies. It was for the 
purpose of taking possession of this region that the Ohio 
Land Company of 1749 was formed. 

This company was chartered by George II.; its mem- 
bers were Thomas Lee, Mr. Hanbury, of London, two 
brothers of George Washington, Lawrence and John A., 
and ten others of Virginia and Maryland. The grant con- 
sisted of five hundred thousand acres to be taken up on the 
Ohio between the MoBongahela and Kanawha Rivers. 

In this connection comes an interesting item. The 
company was negotiating with a colony of about two hun- 
dred German families to come from Eastern Pennsjlvanis 
to settle in this region; but on learning of the excessive 
church ratio imposed upon dissenters by the Virginia 
Episcopacy, the Germans refused to come. 

It was not until about 1770, that people began to come 
in considerable numbers to the Monongahela valley in Wes- 
tern Virginia. About that time and for several years 
homeseekers came over two general routes into this coun- 
try, namely, f)-om Pennsylvania, following the river, and 
from the Valley of Virginia, the South Branch of the 
Potomac and Maryland. To one who has not made a 
special study of the question it is simply astonishing to 
find how many people have reached Northern West Vir- 
ginia from Pennsylvania. At a very early period there 
was a road leading from Brownsville and Uniontown to 
Morgantown. On the other haad, as early as 1776, there 



EARLY EDUCATIO.V IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 121 

was a road from Morgantown up Decker's Creek which 
"ran by the site of Kiugwood (Preston County), crossed 
Cheat River at Dunkard Bottom, and ran to the site of 
Westernport (Md.), and then to Winchester. Over this 
road the early settlers of the county brought all their salt 
and iron from Winchesier.'* * Prom this eastern country 
came a greas many people. Leaving the National Pike at 
Cumberland, they wended their way past Oakland and 
Cranberry Summit (Terra Alta) to Kingwood. A few 
miles from Kingwood the old road forked, one branch 
leading to Morgantown, the other to the vicinity of Clarks- 
burg; while farther east, at Oakland, a branch led off 
through Aurora (formerly called German Settlement) to 
the homes of the pioneers on Cheat River at St. George in 
Tucker County. ^Ye will go into the details of these and 
other settlements in this region in another place. 

So many things of interest crowd upon us here that it 
is diflicult to sift the material and give what seems essen- 
tial in tracing the development of the various localities. 
In Mr. S. T. Wiley's History of Monongalia County is a 
biographical sketch of Senator Waitman T. Wiley, by his 
son in-law, Hon. J. Marshall Hagans. In speaking of the 
settlers who came to Northwestern Virginia, he says: 
"The emigration came from New Jersey in colonies and 
families. A few New England people in search of a softer 
climate found their way to its hospitable borders. The 
Eastern Pennsylvauian in search of thrift looked with 
admiration on future comforts. Many also came from 
Maryland and contributed their share to the labor of found- 
ing in toil the abodes of peace and happiness. From the 
eastern portion of Virginia there came a large number 
who settled in the valleys where contentment and ease 
promised to spring from the effort3 of labor. Others came 

* 'WUsy: History of Moaongp.lia Cyanty, p. 5JC. 



122 TRANSALLEGHENY HTSTORTCAL MAGAZINE. 

from the shores of the gallant little colony which had 
borne on her bosom so much of the struggle in the revolu- 
tionary conflict, a.nd where the Brandywine had been red- 
dened with the blood of relatives and neighbors. Among 
thelater was the father of the subject of this sketch, 
William Willey, who was born in Sussex County. D-laware, 
1767."* This is a very comprehensive summing up ot 
our elements of population. However, one or two addi. 
tions might be made; or perhaps they need be called 
explanations only. The people of the Valle}" of Virginia 
aie counted with Eastern Virginians and no mention is 
made of the immense numbers who have come from Soutn- 
western Pennsylvania — Eastern Pennsylvania alone being 
mentioned. 

Mr. Wiley's history is a very interesting and valuable 
book. It has a great number of biographical sketches in 
it, and at first I thought oi. classifying the people therein 
sketched much in the same way I had worked up the list 
from Mr. Atkinson's history of Knnawha, but there being 
so many and a large part of them concerning whose ances- 
tr}'- nothing was given, I have concluded to give the 
twenty-eight representative men whom he has honored with 
full page engravings. Of this list the classification is as 
follows; 

From Delaware — 
* Waitman T. Willey, Shelby P. Barker, 2. 

New England — J. Marshall Hagans. 

Maryland— Augustu? Haymond,'Wra. M. "'A'atson, 2 

New Jersey — Waifemc.n W. Houston, John H. Eowlby, 
George Washington Mc^'icker, 3. 

Pennsylvania — William Price, Kev. Peter T. Eaishley 
(in Virginia a short time;, Kev. G. F. C. Conn, Geo. W. 
John, Dr. A. M. Jarrett. John A. Dille, Alpha Ralph- 

• Wiley: SlononeaJia, ;>. ;ii4. 



EARI.Y EDUCATION IN \\'ESTEKN VIRGINIA. 123 

fcnider, Andrew Browne. Samuel Calym Stewart, Capt. 
Aipheus Garrison, 10. 

Eastern "Virginia— Marmaduke Dent, Col. John 
Evans, 2. 

"Western Virginia — A. L. "Wade, John J. Brown, Mat- 
thew Gay, Thos. P. Reay, Ji.s. V. Boughner, 5. 

Unclassified from lack of information, 3. 

In this connection it is interesting to note that Zack- 
well Morgan (from whom. Morgantown -was named) was of 
"Welsh descent, came from Berkeley County, Va., (now "W. 
Va.), settled for a time on George's Creek in Pennsylvania 
and then came to this site of Morgautown. 

A classification of all the countries in this ■whole sec- 
tion would reveal the same miscellaneous make-up in 
population. In letters received from theolde&t inhabitants 
in various places the same story is repeated. "He first 
settled in Maryland, later came to Western Pennsylvania 
over the old Braddock road, and finally made his home in 
the Northwestern Virgmia"' — this is a sentence which 
could be used in connection with hundreds of the Monon- 
gahela Valleys pioneers. 

The settlements in the valley of the Little Kanawha 
began a little latter and grew more slowly than those in 
the Monongahela country. Two principal reasons may^ 
be given for these statements. The Kanawha Valley's 
being farther west accounts in some measure for the late- 
ness of settlement, and the fact that its date of settlement 
was not so early, brougM this country^ into competition 
with the widely-famed regions to the south and west, Ken- 
tucky and Ohio, both of which were advertised in the most 
glowing terms 

The settlers who did reach the Little Kanawha came, 
as was the case so often in the early settlements, by two 
principal routes, namely, from southwestern Pennsylvania 



124 TRANSALLEGUENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

by boat down the Ohio, and from the East through the 
country from and by way of the settlements about Clarks- 
burg' in Harrison County. In "Western Pennsylvania 
lived Robert Thornton, who, in 1773, "tomahawked" a 
"right" to four hundred acres in the region in which the 
city of Parkersburg is situated. In this same country 
lived Alexander Parker, assignee of Robert Thornton, for 
whom the city of Parkersburg was named. Down the 
Monongahela and the Ohio, in 1785 went Cape. James 
Neal, of Neal's Station fame, at which place he built a 
blockhouse. From Beesontown, now Uniontown, in 1799, 
went Jonas and Jacob Beeson to their farms, in the vicinity 
of Parkersburg, given by their father, Jacob Beeson, St., 
who was a native of Berkeley County in the Valley of Yir- 
ginia. By the overland route from the West Fork of the 
Monongahela went the Jacksons, the descendants of John 
Jackson, who came from England to America and settled 
in Calvert County, Maryland, about 1748. From this 
same vicinity went the Petty brothers and John Wilson. 
By way of the West Fork settlements homeseekers from 
the South Branch of the Potomac wended their way to the 
"far west" of their day. 

So here in the valley of the Little Kanawha, after 
many ramifications and bitter experiences, the children of 
the old-time neighbors of the Potomac and the Delaware 
met to establish homes for themselves and became friends 
and associates as their parents had been. These brave 
and hardy pioneers who did the sentinel and picket duty 
for coming generations aud made possible the later de- 
velopments of civilization, deserve a warm place in the 
affections of all who cherish life and liberty. Rough, 
uncouth and unlearned, they may have been, but blood of 
a more superior sort never flowed through the veins of 
any people. -rti-j i',.- i-.^>-. .. ..--.,. 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 125 

As mentioned in fiuother place, Northwestern Vir- 
gins lost pretty heavily by the settlement of Kentucky 
and Ohio; nevertheless, it gained in population pretty 
rapidly, especially as compared -with the Great Kanawha 
Valley. Mail routs wore established and roads were made 
in many parts of the country. A mail route was estab- 
lished in Monongalia County as early £s 1794, and she had 
a newspaper, the Monongalia Gazette, in 1804. The 
Monongahela Navigation Company was incorporated in 
1817, and in April, 1826, the first steamboat came to 
Morgan town. 

Even in their later developments the various centers 
in this Monongalia-Harrison region of old have kept pace 
with each other. The main line of the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad, leaving the old National Pike at Cumber- 
land, takes a southwesterly crossing Cheat River, and 
striking the Tygart's Valley at Grafton; the main line 
then turns to the northwest, reaching Wheeling, while 
the Parkersburg branch passes through the Little Kana- 
wha country by way of Clarksburg. 

Mr, Wiley calls attention to the interesting fact that 
but for the action of the people in the counties of south- 
western Pennsylvania, the Baltimore and Ohio road might 
not have crossed the mountains into western Virginia on 
its way to the West. This is worthy of close and careful 
consideration. The B. & O. Railroad, as its name 8cg- 
gests, was making its way toward the Ohio River and on 
to the West. Wheeling was the objective point on the 
Ohio. Would it not have been the logical route to follow 
the course of the National Pike from Cumberland through 
those fine counties in southwestern Pennsylvania? The 
grade would have been favorable and the route direct. In 
view of the calamitous effects on our State had this great 
highway of commerce and travel passed around us 



li?6 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

instead of through our mountains, I give an example of 
how the Penusylvanians viewed this matter as quoted by 
Wiley from the reminiscences of a Kev. Mr. Hanna, pub- 
lished in the Waynesburg Independent: "The Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad had been completed to Cumberland, 
Md., and her representatives came knocking at the door 
of the Pennsylvania Legislature asking the right of way 
through this immediate neighborhood. But oh I the wis- 
dom of the citizens of Fayette and Greene counties, 
through which the road was expected to pass. Instead of 
hailing the proposition with delighr, and receiving the 
representatives with open arms, they rise up in fierce 
opposition. R. T. Galloway, of Uniontown, and Dr. J. C 
Cummings, of Connellsville, were the representatives of 
Fayette County in the State Legislature at the time. 
These men were possessed of sufficient intelligence to 
know that the railroad could not be permanently halted 
at Cumberland. Not so the people. I listened to the 
sophistical arguments of some of the demagogues of that 
day, in which they asserted that the iron horse could not 
eat oats or corn. 'Let us just compel them to stop at 
Cumberland, and then all the goods will be wagoned 
through our country, all the hogs will be fed with our 
corn and the horses with our oats. Go away with your 
railroad! We don't want our wives and children fright- 
ened to death by the screaming of the locomotive. We 
don't want our hogs and cows run over and killed by the 
cars of a soulless corporation.' Meetings were held and 
instructions formulated and forwarded to the representa- 
tives in the Legislature, warning them of the fearful 
precipice on which they were standing, and notified them 
of the all-important fact lh<it the people had a heavy rod 
in soak for them, if they dared to violate the will of their 
constituents. These uieu did in part violate the instruc- 



f 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 127 

lions and reaped the bitter consequences. But how were 
the applicants treated? They received a negative answer. 
The Baltimore and Ohio Company built their road over 
the almost impassable mountains of Virginia, almost 
touching Pennsylvania at the southwest corner of Greene 
County, leaving the region that said 'no' to reap the con- 
sequences of their folly, while that proud, imperious 
company 'sits and laughs at their calamity.' " * 

We, in West Virginia, ought to be glad in our hearts, 
for our own sake, that Peaasylvania had demagogues and 
shortsighted people who drove the great B. & O. trunk 
line through our State and thus put ns in easy reach of 
both the East and the West at that important period in 
industrial and commfjrcial development. 

Now going back to earlier times, let us study this 
region somewhat more directly from an intellectual and 
educational point of view. In order to bring out the con- 
ditions in their truest and clearest light it seems best to 
trace them with reference to the principal centers o^ 
culture. 

This district of Northwestern Virginia has played a 
most important part in shaping and moulding the affairs 
of the whole of our State. In it lived acknowledged lead- 
ers in almost every walk of life. Within comparatively 
easy reach of the East, the North and the West, it drew 
much from their people and institutions and imbibed 
many ideas of the rights and the duties of free and equal 
citizenship. Of the live men, out of the delegation of 
forty-six from Weitern Virginia, who were the recognized 
leaders against the Ordinance of Secession in the Vir- 
ginia I^egislature, three belonged to the Monongahela- 
Little Kanawha country, namely, Waitman T. Willey, of 
Monongalia County, John J. Jackson, of Wood, and J. C. 

• Wilsy: HUtory of Monongalia County, p. 108. , ,, ,r, .-.-. •:.,,.. 



'm^^. 



12S TRANS ALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

McGrew, of Prestou. Here lived Arthur I. Boreman, 
"West Virginia's first Governor, Francis H. Pierpont, 
Governor of "Restored Virginia" and one of West Vir- 
ginia's most earnest supporters. This region was the 
home of the Jackson family than which a more noted and 
stronger has never lived in the State. Here vrere found 
the Haymonds, the Harrisons, the Jacksons, the Browns, 
and many others. It was the home of Governors, Sena- 
tors, Judgee, Generals and others of the highest and 
most exalted stations in public life as well as of strong 
and noble men in the various callings of private enter- 
prise. 

The three leading centers from which emenatedmaoy 
of the most uplifting influences, were Clarksburg, Mor- 
gantown and Parkersburg. The Clarksburg community 
has been long an important one. Situated in a fertile and 
well watere:! country and peopled by a most excellent 
class of pioneers, at a very early period it took high rank 
as an educational center. In 1787, Randolph Academy 
was established at Clarksburg. Although it did not meet 
■with large success, yet its influence was strongly felt and 
can never be obliterated. Prof. John G. Gittings in his 
letter found in Chapter IV, says: "The Northwestern 
Academy took the place of the Randolph Academy which 
latter bad been the school of the town and this section of 
country for about fifty years previous." So out of the old 
Randolph Academy grew the Northvvestern Academy, 
quite a famous school for many years after its establish- 
ment in 1843. To this school went many men from Harri- 
son, Lewis and the surrounding counties, who have been 
prominent in many walks of life. The influence of such 
schools and of such communities does not submit itself to 
measurement by human instrumentalities; 'tis God alone 
who gathers together thf net results of the noble influen- 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 129 

ces and the lofty inspirations set adrift by high-minded 
and pure-souled men and women. 

Following Clarksburg in point of time, but perhaps 
ahead of it in point of -well-grounded educational senti- 
ment, cooies Morgantown — "the Athens of West Vir- 
ginia." As W8 are discussing conditions rather than 
describing institutions, we will not attempt to give the 
history of the Morgantown. schools. The details of their 
history are already in print; their influences has greater 
interest for our present purpose. 

As in most other communities, the first schools were 
the outgrowth of individuii and private enterprise. The 
schoolmaster was in this vicinity by 1780, and perhaps 
before. The community grow in numbers and in import- 
ance and early in the new- century a longing for better 
educational advantages projected the founding of an 
academy. In 1814 definite action was taken and Monon- 
galia Academy was incorporated. This v/as the begin- 
ning of greater things. As boys only were allowed to 
attend the academy, an effort was made to establish a 
school in Mo^ganto^vn for tlae education of girls. In 1831, 
the Virginia Legislature passed an Act giving authority 
to tlio trustees of Monongalia Academy to establish a 
school for females. In a year or two classes were organ- 
ized and the teaching of girls began. In 1839, the school 
was incorporated under the name of the Morgantown 
Female Seminary. These two schools moved along with 
varying fortunes until in 1852, Rev. J. R. Moore was 
invited to take charge of the academy. The school now 
took on new life and soon won the reputation of being 
/'</ie lest Academy in the ireit." In the same year the 
seminary received help in the way of building and equip- 
ment. Six years later another girls' school, Woodburn 
Female Seminar v, was established in Morgantown. This 



130 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAT. MAGAZINE. 

was in 185S, four years before the Land Grant Act of 
1862, was passed by the United States Congress allotting 
to the several States 30,000 acres of public land for each 
Senator and Representative in Congress for the purpose 
of establishing "Colleges for the benefit of Agriculture 
and the Mechanic Arts." In 1861, this Act was extended 
to West Virginia and our apportionment was 150,000 
acres which was sold for $90,000. When the money came 
into the possession of the State, then came the question 
as to the location of the institution A great many people 
of the present day often ask why our State University is 
located so far north, within only a few miles of the Penn- 
sylvania boundary line. The answer to the question lies 
in the success of the school, in Morgantowa, just men- 
tioned. "For whosoever hath, to him shall be given." 
Morgantown had schools, school buildings and equip- 
ment, and educational sentiment in a marked degree. The 
buildings, grounds and appurtenances, of both the Monon- 
galia Academy and the Woodburn Seminary were offered 
as a gift to the State on condition that the State institu- 
tion be located at Morgantown. This seemed a very 
generoui offer and was reported on favorably by the 
Legislature. So in a measure by common consent, it ma3- 
be said, Morgantown succeeded in getting the Agricul- 
tural College, in 1867. The name was|chang8d in 1868, to 
the West Virginia University, which today stands at tlie 
head of the public school system of the State. 

From the establish nient of the academy in 1814, to 
the present day, waves of wholesome iulluence have been 
going out from Morgantown over an ever increasing area. 
Every student who gets the right kind of help and in- 
spiration becomes biiEself a carrier and disseminator of 
knowledge and virtue, and thus gives the old world a lift 
toward broader culture, and higher living ... 



EARLY EDUCATION IN \VESTEK.^ VIK(^.IN]A. 131 

As we cannot, stop to discuss many questions of in- 
terest conceroing these old towns and institutions with- 
out going beyond the limits of our present plan, we pass 
now to Parkersburg, some sixty years ago said to be "the 
most flourishing viDage in the State, south of Wheeling,"' 
Parkersburg has no universit}-, academy, seminary, 
normal school, or any other high grade literary institu- 
tion. It may seem strange to some why it has been chosen 
as one of the three leading centers of culture in this sec- 
tion ;but when we consider the number of broad and liberal 
minded men who have lived in the vicinity of Parkers- 
burg and who have moulded and fashioned her histoiy, 
we at once m.ust say these are the inhabitants of no mean 
city. Parkersburg has been the home of three of West 
Virginia's Governors and three United States Senators; 
it is the home of Judge John Jay Jackson, of the United 
States District Court: Congressmen, Supreme and Circuit 
Court Judges, State Officials, and hosts of men prominent 
in various callings and professions have been and are re- 
sidents of this thriving city. It is perhaps difiicult to un- 
derstand why Parkersburg has never had a permanent 
high grade institution of learning. We can usually find 
out the reason why a thing has happened, but it is quite 
another task sometimes to ascertain why something did 
not take place. Such is the case with the nonestablish- 
ment of some great school at Parkersburg. But the city 
had one "good" school and indeed in some respects it took 
the rank of a "great" school for its day. This was the 
"Parkersburg Institute," established in 1839. It was un- 
der the directioa of Rev. Festus Hanks, a Presbyteriaa 
minister. He was a graduate of Princeton College. Mr. 
Jos. B. Neal gives a good description of this school in his 
letter found in Chapter IV. In proof of the high rank of 
the school, Mr. Xeal Bnys that several of the boys went to 



132 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZiNE. 

college from the "Institute" and that "they entered the 
junior class, half advanced.'' 

Mr. Neal gives a valuable account of the schools for 
several years. His letter is exceedingly interesting and 
instructive. It gives additional weight to Parkersburg's 
right to a place of honorable mention as an early culture 
center 

Parkersburg had the advantage of proximity to the 
schools of Ohio. Many took advantage of the Ohio in- 
stitutions and thus secured a broad and liberal training 
that added much to the uplifting of the whole State. One 
of our former Judges of the State Supreme Court, although 
at the time a resident of Western Virginia, attended the 
public schools at Marietta, Ohio, and graduated from the 
high school. Marietta College has had many West Vir- 
ginia boys Sii students. Indeed, the institutions in various 
part ; of Ohio for many years have had on their rolls many 
students from West Virginia. And this gives occasion to 
note that the young people of our State have spent thous- 
ands of dollars in attending schools in other States. Penn- 
sylvania institutions drew pretty heavily from the north- 
western part of the State; Madison College (now Allegheny 
College) at Meaeville, being in special favor with the 
young men in the days of our grandfathers. Senator 
Waitman T. Willey when a young man walked from his 
father's home near the present town of Mannington to 
Allegheny College to enter as a student. Ee graduated 
with high honors from the institution, which some years 
ago conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws. 

Gov. Francis H. Pierpont, at the age of twenty-two, en- 
tered Allegheny College and graduated in 1840, being one 
of the best representatives ever sent out from the school. 
The late Judge Samuel V. Woods, of the State Supreme 



KARLY EDUCATION IX WSSTERN VIRGINIA. 133 

Court, graduated from this school also, at twenty years 
of ago; and iu 1S8S, his alma inciter^ recognizing his 
scholarly attainments, again showed its appreciation of 
merit by conferring upon Mr. Woods the degree of LL. D. 
The laAe Hon. B. P. Martin, of Grafton, graduated 
from Allegheny in 1854. taking first honors of his class. 
Many others could be named but we cannot attempt to 
bring into this paper the school history of a very large 
number of our great leaders. The eastern colleges have 
had many representatives from our State. Shall "we say 
we are glad that our young men have gone in other 
States? Most certainly. Yet it would have been better 
could hosts of others, who could not go out of the State, 
have had advantages of first class schools at home. But as 
our grandfathers had not the opportunity for college 
training at home, it has been a great blessing to our State 
that so many sought the schools in other parts of the 
country. 

Now let us come back to our Monongahela-Kanawha 
region. In addition to the three centers just referred to, 
may be mentioned .several other communities with very 
good educational sentiment and advantages, considering 
the odds against them. The organization, in 1838, of the 
"Western Virginia Educational Association, at Prunty- 
town, in Taylor County, was a most commendable enter- 
prise. The Association changed its name, in 1839, found- 
ing Rector College in that year. According to the census 
of 18-10, Rector College had 110 pupils. 

Kingwood, in Preston County, iu the early days gave 
considerable attention to education. Preston Academy 
was incorporated Jan. 2, 1841. A year or two later, Brand- 
onville Academy, iu the same county, was organized. Of 
Course these schools were local in their influence and 



134 TRANS.VLLEGHERY HISTORICAT. MAGAZINE. 

would ha.ve no place under our present system as institu- 
tions apart from our public free schools. 

The northeru and eastern boundaries of Preston 
County form a right angle, cornering with the States of 
Pennsylvania and Maryland. As noted elsewhere, Penn- 
sylvania had a free school system as earl}^ as 1834, while 
in Maryland free schools were under State control as 
early as 1825. Ti-uo the svstem was abolished in Mary- 
land in 1837, and was not revived a,2:ain until l!^4, never- 
theless, there was a great deal of school sentiment in the 
State and she had many good schools, especially in the 
towns and cities. Preston's proximity to these States was 
of considerable advantage to her. Teachers came from 
them to instruct the boys and girls, and the people along 
the border, by coming in contact with other school advo- 
cates, were encouraged to make stronger etYorts for better 
schools at home. 

"German Settlement," now called Aurora, had two 
terms of school a year, sometimes, one in summer and one 
in winter, as is brought out in the letter of Mr. J. S. Shaf- 
fer. Some of the teachers in this community were from 
Maryland. 

"Mealey's Settlement," now Harrisville, in Ritchie 
County, has been above the average in school advantages. 
Gen. Thos. M. Harris says the first school was taught 
about the year 1818. The schools were intermittent from 
that time for some five years, but after 1823, the town had 
a "three months winter term every year." 

Fairmont has been a town of liberal culture from its 
establishment in 1820. However, it is not one of the "old" 
towns of the State and. did net come into prominence un- 
til after the building of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad 
whose main trunk line passes through it. Fairmont had 
fair schools in the "forties," but it was not until the com- 



EAKT.Y EDUCATION IN "VVi^STERN VIRGINIA. 185 

jQg into her midsiof that uoble and high minded man who 
Diay justly be called the Father of the West Virginia 
State Normal Schools, William R. V/hito, and who in 1664 
became the first State Superintendent of Free Schools of 
West Virginia, that the community became thoroughly 
aroused concerning education. It is probably to him and 
his work and influence, more than to any other one man, 
that Fairmont secured what is now her greatest and best 
institution — the Fairmont State Normal school. 

There are perhaps a few other commuities that ought 
to be mentioned here, but their schools were more of 
an intermittent character, eometime.? good, sometimes 
indifferent and sometimes suspended etitirely, go I feel 
that from the best information that is at my command, the 
centers above described were the most important from an 
educational standpoint in the primitive days of this sec- 
tion of the State. 

So far, the educational history in the region we ar/; 
now studying has been of a superior order as compared 
with many other regions in our State, and, perhaps, we 
may say that some of the older States were not ahead of 
some parts of this northwestern country. But the com- 
munities mentioned above fall far short of including all 
the people in the two valleys under consideration. To 
say nothing of the conditions in the outlying districts, 
many of the boys and girls all around these various 
"centers" were deprived of their beneficent influence, 
except in an indirect manner. "Schooling" was consid- 
ered a luxury by a great many parents, and as they 
themselves had gotten along pretty well and made money 
while clearing out the farm and bringing up their children, 
it was thought the boys and girls could get along without 
much learning. In looking back to those former days we 
are apt, perhaps, to give too much credit for an anxious 



136 TKANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

desire on the part of the parents, to have their children 
educated. We often hear it said, and such sentiment 
pervades this paper to a considerable extent, that the 
reason the children were not educated in the days of our 
forefathers was that there were few schools, few good 
teachers and the people in sreneral were very poor. In 
all of this there is much truth, but in that day as in this, 
there were many children who ought to have been in 
school, and who could have beet), had the parents real- 
ized the need of having them educated, Then, as now, 
many an enterprise was crushed because of ignorance, 
shortsightedness, greediness, and lack of appreciation of 
the higher and better things. A somewhat remarkable 
and unreasonable, but nevertheless true story, comes to 
mind in this connection. One of the oldest, most popular 
and thoroughly reliable institute instructors told it to the 
writer and vouches for its truthfulness. A teachers' 
institute was in session in one of the foremost educational 
centers in the Sta.te. An old man, of considerable means, 
living within a few miles of town, came in while the 
institute was in session. He inquired what was "going 
on up at the College" and was told by some one standing 
near. He asked vrho was running it and how much it was 
costing. On being told that the instructor received 
twenty -five dollars for one week's work, he was simply 
astounded. "Twenty -five dollars'." he said, and then 
after a moment's refleciion, added, "I suppose I pay at 
least fifteen dollars of that twenty-five!" Poor old man. 
He thought he was greatly imposed upon, and indeed he 
would have been, had his words been true. However, at 
the tinae this incident occurred, but fifteen hundred dol- 
lars were being expended on teachers' institutes, of which 
the State paid but five hundred, the remaining one thou- 
sand dollars being furnished by trustees of the Peabody 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 137 

fund for the advancement of education in the South. It 
is probable our old friend thought the institute vras sup- 
ported by local taxation and as he paid more than half 
the taxes of his neighborhood, he paid more than half of 
the money to pay the institute instructor. Divide five 
hundred by the total value of taxable property in West 
Virginia at that time (less than ten years ago), and the 
rate paid by the people of the State for the support of 
institutes can be ascertained. It would no doubt make 
the old man die much happier if he knew by this rate 
the actual amount he had to pay for the support of the 
teachers' institute in this county. 

' ^* • ■' '•-' . "-■■• : - ^ <ix.. ■ ■■ :' 

>' ;■.:■. ^;i..: Conclusion. - _ , J 

We have now, in a meaner and imperfect manner, it 
must be admitted, covered the whole territory embraced 
in the State of West Virginia. That our work at beet is 
only suggestive and far from being exhaustive, is evident 
to no one more than to the writer. Ours is the first work 
of the kind in the Stat«, and hence the way was not 
marked out and the material was unselected. If effort in 
this interesting field is in any way stimulated and this 
work may be of any help tc some one more capable of car- 
rying forward investigatica along this line, I shall feel 
amply repaid for the time ?^nd care spent in its prepara- 
tion. :•' ' ' - 
r ./,„. ,■ ^.,:„. . ,:■ 



/3S 



CHAPTER IV 

How OUR Grandfathers WENT TO School. A Sympo- 
sium BY THE Old Boys. 

Letter from Col. Luther Eaymond. 

Clarksburg, W. Va. 
Dear Sir: 

In your letter of the 10th instant you request me to 
famish you with some account of mj family, school 
teachers and recollections of my school boy days; and in 
attemptino^ to answer yoijr letter I shall claim the immu- 
nity that should be accorded to old age from harsh criti- 
cism, for the mauy errors of diction and other imperfec- 
tions I have no doubt it will coutuin. I now at this date 
only lack three days of being ninety-one years old. 

My great-grandfather, John Haymond, came from 
England to Maryland, and finally lived about a mile from 
what is cow Montgomery Courthouse. He died in 1750. 
My grandfather, ^Yi]liaal Haymond, was born in 1740 
and came to Northwestern Virginia in 1773. I think it 
probable that he, as'well as other pioneers, came out on a 
military road, as he had been in General Forbes' army in 
an expedition from the east to Pittsburg against the 
French and Indians, which occurred I think about 1758. 
He commanded a company of militia in Monongalia 
County in 1777, during the Revolution and Indian wars. 
Upon the formation of Harrison County in 1764, he was 
appointed its Couucy Surveyor, and then moved from 
Morgantown to Clarksburg on two horses, making two or 
three trips, as one of my uncles informed me. He con- 



/3S0L 




LrTHF.K HASM^Nl 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 139 

tinued County Surveyor until "hls'death, which occurred 
in 1821. He was succeeded in the office by my father, 
Thomas Haymond, until his death, which occurred in 
1853. 

I think most of the earliest emi^^rants came out on 
Braddock road. Those coming 20 or 30 years later came 
on pack horses and in wagons on a Virginia road cut out 
from east of the mountains to the Ohio River near the 
mouth of Bull Creek above Marietta, Ohio. 

The first teacher to whom I first went to school was 
Eli Bond who came from Pennsylvania. The others 
were Jonathan Alexander Blair and "William Bell, all of 
whom were native to the neighborhood, or had been 
brought there when quite young. They were all young 
men and unmarried, and I think their education consisted 
of reading, writing and a part of arithmetic. As to 
grammar, I never heard of any euch thing, and if I had, 
I suppose I would h&ve considered it a useless piece of 
nonsense. Eli Bond was, I believe, the best scholar of 
those named, as I learned in later years that he under- 
stood surveying, but I believe that he never practiced it, 
and became a farmer. We did not call them teachers, we 
called them masters. 

The houses used for schoolhouses were old aban- 
doned log cabins with clapboard roof, held in place by 
weight poles; no nails were used. The spaces between 
the logs were chinked with pieces of timber suited to the 
size of the crack, and daubed with clay mortar. A large 
space was cut out in one end of the cabin, and a crib of 
split timber built, mostly on the outside, about five feet 
high, then jambs and back wall were built of rough 
stones laid in clay mortar, inside of thic crib, and on the 
top of this was constructed a "cat and clay" flue to the 
top or a little above the top of the cabia. This flue was 



140 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

built of split lath and clay mortar. It is astonishing how 
long they would last. Why they were called "cat and 
clay" chimneys I never knew. The furniture consisted 
of slabs, holes bored in each end and pins driven iu 
them for legs. For those learning to write, a space 
was hewed out about six inches wide between two logs, 
and sticks were set up perpendicularly in this epace, and 
on them was pasted paper, mostly foolscap that had been 
used as copy books. This paper being greased afforded 
enough of light for the boys and girls of that primitive 
age. Holes were bored in the logs and pieces driven in 
them and a board a little sloping laid on them. This con- 
stituted the writing desk. 

At that period we of course used the goose quill. The 
master made and mended our pens. He wrote a line at the 
head of the page in his best style, and we ruled the page 
with a piece of lead and copied his sample the best we 
could.' I remember one copy, as we called it, which was 
"Six times six is thirty-six." 

The text books were Primers, Webster's Spelling 
Book and the Testament, and probably some other book, 
as I recollect an older brother at one school used as a 
reading book, Gulliver's Travels. The teachers visited 
the citizens of their neighborhood and procured subscrip- 
tions for as many scholars as the head of the family could 
furnish and pay for, the price for each scholar was I 
think, about §2 or $2.50 and sometimes paid in trade, such 
as lindsey, linen, or grain of some kind. 

The first school I attended was taught by Eli Bond. 
I think I was about five years old, and all the evidence I 
have of the progress I made at that school is my vivid 
recollection of spelling the word categorical. The first 
syllable seems to have attracted my juvenile attention 
and when I came to this word in my spelling lesson 1 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 141 

spelled it glibly, and the master said "well done, Major." 
At this same school I was sitting on a bench by a much 
older scholar than myself and he in whispers asked me to 
say "big black bug's blood," and I suppose my awkward 
attempt to do so caused him to langh out aloud; the mas- 
ter at once inquired into the matter and was told by the 
scholar that I tickled him, and 1 was called up to atone for 
so grave an offense, and the master " shifted me about ia 
his front as if to get me ia a good position to apply the 
rod which he held in his hand, but tinally ordered me to 
my seat without any further punishment. If I had ex- 
plained the occurrence, I suppose the other fellow would 
have been called up. 

Most of the early settlers of this country I believe 
came from Marylaod, New Jersey, Eastern Virginia and 
Pennsylvania, and I estimate that 70 or 80 percent, of the 
heads of families could read and write. In the neighbor- 
hood about 6 miles southeast of Clarksburg, where I 
attended the log cabin school, a high per cent., say 90, 
attended the schools by the boys and girls. 

I remember at one school taught by William Bell, 
that a middle aged woman with four or live of her child- 
ren, some neax'ly or quite grown, attended and formed a 
class, and read in the Testament verse about. The old 
lady wanted to be able 'o read the Bible. This tras 
the principal object of her schooling, and it was said by 
some of the boys that she learned faster than her 
children. 

I believe I have attempted to auswer most of your 

inquiries, and hope you will be able to read my unsteady 

handwriting. , 

Respectfully, 

Luther Haymond. , . 



142 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Letter From Gen. Thomas M. Harris. : 

Harkisville, W. Va. 
Dear Sir: 

Replying to your letter of the 16 inst,, I will say that 
I was born in the then County of Wood, State of Virginia, 
on the 17 of June, 1813, and witiin 600 yards of where I 
now write. I write by a ruler to keep me in line and do 
not see a word that I write, but with the eye of mj' mind. 
My grandfather, Lawrence Mealey, was from Ireland and 
moved from Rockbridge Co., Va., to this place with his 
wife and eight children in 180D. They came on horses 
and on foot bringing with them their cattle, sheep, &c., 
and settled within a mile of the present site of Harris - 
ville, his nearest neighbor being at the present site of 
Pennsboro, 8 miles distant. As other settlers came on it 
took the name of Mealey's Settlement. This settlement 
in 1823, from which my recollection is very distinct, occu- 
pied an area of about 9 square miles and contained about 
20 families. Most of tbesa were from the County of Har- 
rison, Va., 4 or 5 families were fi'om Western Pennsylvania, 
3 or 4 from Eastern Virginia, and 2 from England. This 
was the first settlement made in the bounds of the present 
County of Ritchie, and the first school was taught by- 
Thomas Mealey about the year 1818, George H. Rogers 
taught the next term of three months that was taught a 
year or two later. I was too small to attend either of 
these schools. In 1823, John Ayers taught a summer 
term of three months and this was the first school that I 
attended. Ayers taught another term of three months on 
the following summer. After these we had 3 months 
winter term every year. The school was taught in a 
hewn log house about 18x20 feet, that had been built and 
was'used for a church, and was lighted in the usual style of 
the schoolhouses of that day by pasting oiled paper over 



EARLY EDUCATION JiN WESYEKN VIItlGNIA. 143 

a large crack between the logs that had been cut out for 
that purpose. The seats were benches made of slabs by 
boring holes and driving into them legs. These were so 
high from the floor that the feet of the smaller children 
could not reach it. "Webster's spelling book was the only 
book that was used for several of the first terms that were 
taught. After that the English reader was introduced, 
and then the English Reader and Pike's Arithmetic. 
This was succeeded by Walsh's Arithmetic. The 
teachers were scarcoly competent to teach these 
elementary branches, and I was 18 years old before 
I knew a competent instructor. This was a Scotch- 
mrin by the name of Thos. Gumming. I only eujoyed 
the advantage of his instruction for 3 months. I com- 
menced to teach myself \^hen 18 years old and very 
poorly qualified. It was not until about 1825 that schools 
began to be opened in other neighborhoods of the now 
territory of Ritchie County' and all under the same disad- 
vantageous circumstances that I have described. I am, 
r... . - . -; .. Very respectfully yours, ' , 

>, :,.,' .;;,:■ T. M. Harris. ■■ ^ -. 

Letter From Mr. Joseph B. Neal. 

Parkersburg, W. Va. 
Dear Sir: 

I can say a few things uot of great value, in reply to 
your inquiries. 

My father was James H. Neal who was clerk of the 
Circuit Court here for upx^-ards of forty years until his 
death in the year 1850. My grandfather, Capt. James 
Neal, a Revolutionary soldier, was the original settler of 
this part of Virginia. He landed here In 1785. They 
came in a flatboat down the Monongahela and Ohio 
Rivers, aud built a blockhoaso on lower side of the Little 



144 THAN S ALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Kanawha River, called Neal's Station. He removed from 
Greene County, Pennsylvania, then a part of Virginia. 

My mother's maiden name was Anna L. Beard, a 
native of Loudoun County, Virginia. She came here in 
an early day. I have heard her say she came over the 
mountains on horseback. My mother was a well edu- 
cated woman of that day, of much more than ordinary 
strength of character. She died in the prime of life. I 
was not quite fourteen years old at that time. A stronger 
tie than was usual between mother and son exist- 
ed between us. All that I have accomplished in life has 
been largely from her influence over me. 

I know very little of schools in this county in my 
father's young days. I have he'ird him mention a Mr. 
Towers, w^ho taught at thaE time. I would think from 
what he said, he was better fitted to teach than persons 
usually were m that day. 

My earliest recollections go back to a school taught 
by two sisters, Sibyl and Mary Oilman. The school was 
for girls but some boys attended. The schoolhouse was 
a small frame on Market Street, now the center of the 
business of the town. I afterwards attended a school in the 
country, my father living out of town for a short time. 

I there went to a lady named Eliza Pratt: she lived 
with a Mr. Enoch Rector, a Baptist preacher, and at first 
taught in his family. She taught in a little log cabin sur- 
rounded by thick woods. I walked between two and three 
miles to school, carried my diuaer in a little tin bucket. 
These days made a lasting impression upon me and have 
never been forgotten. Mr. Rector whom I have men- 
tioned, lived till a few years ago, dying in his ninety-sixth 
year. He buried and married more people than any one 
else; he led a varied and active life in this community, 
and was a good and useful man in his day and generation. 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 145 

The first school of any note in the town of Parkers- 
barg, was founded about the year 1839, (it was called "the 
Parkersburor Institute") by Rev. Festus Hanks, a Presby- 
terian preacher. There -was one male assistant and two 
female teacliers. As I before said, this was the first and 
I believe the best of the schools ever taught in this town. 
It certainly was if you judge by the success in after life 
of many of the pupils who attended it. I will mention the 
names of some of them: a few are still living, oh! how few! 
First, the three elder sons of General Jackson, Judge J. 
J. Jackson, now Judge of the Criminal Court of this 
County: and Gov. Jacob B. Jackson, atone time Govern- 
or of this State, not living; Col. Ben Wilson, of Clarks- 
burg, still prominent in public affairs: Mr. Lloyd ifoore, 
of Clarksburg, not living; Mr. John Martin, of Doddridge 
County, probably not living, Goo. "W. Lewis, a lawyer 
removed to Missouri, long since dead; Kenner B. Steph- 
enson, elder brother of Mrs. Okey Johnson, noted for his 
kindness of heart and generous disposition; Rathbone 
VanWinkle, died young, of great literary promise; Jas. J. 
Neal, long clerk of this County; Henry Sullivan (if living, 
in the State of Massachusetts): Mrs. Sullivan, his mother, 
taught the first music class ever in Parkersburg and 
owned the first piano — she was a sister of Gen. John A. 
Dix, of New York. I will add two more of Mr. Hank's 
scholars: Mr. Thos. G. Smith and Mr. James N. Murdock, 
both still living, successful business men and men of 
forceful character. This is enough to show you the char- 
acter of the school and the thorough teaching. Gen. 
Thomas M. Harris, of Ritchie County, still living, was at 
one time an assistant of Mr. Hanks, and his wife, then 
Miss Hall, taught the female department. 

Quite a number of other schools have been taught 
here. One was under the auspice? of the Methodist Epis- 



146 TRANSALLEHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

copal Church. The principal was Rev. Chas. Baldwin. 
It was short lived, as Mr. Baldwin soon after died. 

A school for girls was taught here about 1845, by Rev. 
Thomas Smith, an Episcopal clergyman. He emigrated 
to Parkersburg, from Smithfield, Virginia: came here as 
missionary, there being no church here at that time, of 
this kind. The teachers were Miss Hill and Miss Pool, 
both from New England. Miss Hill was a very superior 
teacher, afterwards taught in Lafayette County, Missouri. 

In the year 1846. Mr. John H. Bocock, a Presbyterian 
preacher, began a school here. He was one of three or 
four brothers, all of them strong men. The eldest you 
may remember, Thomas Bocock, Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, at Washington. 

Mr. John C. Nash was a teacher here for many years 
until after the war. A great many persons here were in- 
debted to him for a education; and while his teaching was 
not equal to that of Mr. Hanks and Mr. Bocock, it was of 
great and lasting benefit to the community. 

The establishment of free schools superseded almosc 
entirely private ones, Mr, Nash's being the last private 
school of any conseciuecce. 

You ask about school books and qualifications of 
teachers. The books I think were fairly good. 

Those in Mr. Hanks" school as I remember them, 
were Kirkham's Grtmmer, Adams' Aiithmetic, (Colburn's 
first lesson Mental Arithmetic,) Comstocks' Philosophy, 
the Rhetorical Reader, Abercrombie's Intellectual Philo- 
sophy. As an evidence of Mr. Hanks' thorough teaching, 
several boys afterward graduated at college; they were 
able to begin in the Junior class, half advanced. I will not 
mention any more .school books, aa those mentioned will 
give you an idea of their character. 

Now as to the education of the teachers. Mr. Hanks 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTJiRN VIKGIXIA. 147 

was a graduate of Princetoa, aud at one time was tutor in 
that college. Mr. Bocock was a fine classical scholar, and 
a graduate of the University of Virginia. Mr. Nash was 
not a college bred man, but a fairly ,s:ood scholar and well 
read in g'^ueral literature. 

The school houses here in Parkersburg were comfort- 
able, good buildings, aud the furniture very good; the 
teachers were pretty well paid. The fees were so much a 
session of five months, and prices according to the grade 
of the pupil, 

I have no means of knowing the amount of illiteracy 
of that day. I cannot say much of the schools through 
the country, they were very inferior. A great change for 
the better has tasen place in the country districts since 
the instiiiUtion of free schools. 

Now in conclusion about my own life. Some years ago 
I read a book v.-ritten by Daan Howells, called "A Boy's 
Town," which v/as an account of his life as a boy, here in 
the Ohio Valley some fifty or sixty years ago. 

I was struck when I read it how much of my own life 
was described in it. If you have ever read it, you will find 
a good deal of my own life, much better than I can write. 

What I have written, you will see is in a disjointed 
and irregular way; if it will aid you in 3'our proposed 
work, I will be amply repaid for what I have written. 

Yours very truly, 

Jos. B. Neal. 

Letter Prom Mr. T. B. McFarland. 
CaPTINA, IfAKSHAI.L CoUNTY, W. Va. - 

Dear-Sir: — 

Your letter of the Gth is at hand. I do not know whether 
I can tell you anything that would be of value to you 
or not; but will do the beit I can. My father and mother 



148 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAOAZINE. 

were natives of Ireland; came to America in 1812. They 
sailed for New York, bat being chased by a British man- 
of war, landed in Bath, State of Maine; took a coasting 
packet and came to Providence, Rhode Island, May 9, 
1817; moved by wagon and canal to Pittsburgh, Pa., 
thence to Pindiy tovmship, "Washington County, Penn- 
sylvania; lived there until 1834, then by wagons came to 
this farm on which I now live. At that time I was 4 years 
old. The firot school house I remember seeing, was built 
of round logs. It had been an old dwelling but not fit to 
live in any longer. The teacher was a youcg man by the 
name of Moore; he was fresh from Ireland: and by the 
way a full cousin of mine. The first schoolhouse built in 
this neighborhood was of hewed logs with 3 windows. 
The Beats or benches were made of split logs, with pins in 
each, end for legs; the writing desks were broad boards 
pinned to the wall slanting about 45 degrees. Just imagine 
yourself sitting on a bench like the above all day, and 
your feet not on the floor. The first teacher that taught 
there was an Irishman, too, Joseph iMcCrane. He came 
to Mr. Moore's (my cousin) and asked for work; he would 
be called a tramp now. This was in 1833 or 9. He got 
work husking corn. Mr. Moore soon found that he was a 
man of education; a Greek and Latin scholar; but he never 
introduced anything in Ms school above reading, writing 
and arithmetic or ''ciphering" as they called it then. 
This man said he was eiucated in Ireland for a Catholic 
priest. He married here: taught school in Morristown for 
some time after, then he became dissipated and had to 
quit. His father-in-law gave him 100 acres of land in the 
■woods. He moved on it, cleared it out and. then died. His 
family grew up as ignorant as the Hottentots of Good 
Hope. In the winter of 1846, there was a young man, a 
Mr. Tuttle, from the Western Reserve Ohio, taught our 



EARI-Y EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 149 

school. He tried to introduce a uew system of teachins; 
he tried to get a class in geography, and he soou had the 
trustees and patrons on his back. He undertook to tell 
them that the earth turns round once every 24 hours; one 
of the trustees wanted to know what would keep the peo- 
ple from falling off when the earth was turning over. He 
tried a class in grammar, but it was no go. It was the 
custom at that time to have the ''Master" treat the 
scholars to apples and cider on the last day of school. 
Mr. Tuttle said he would not do it; so one day at noon he 
happened to go out and the big boys, young men, piled 
the benches to the door and would not let him in until he 
signed a paper to treat them. The books that were used, 
while Mr. McCrane was teaching and others, were miscel- 
laneous; just such books as the spelling-book were used; and 
used the New Testment. I remember one family of about 10 
that used McCauloy on Baptism. The Western Calculator 
was the arithmetic used. There were no blackboards 
used. A scholar would take his slate and book, balance 
himself on those split poles, work out one example, and 
if he could get the answer he would rub it out and try 
another; if he could not succeed in getting the answer, he 
would take it to the "Master" and say, "Here is one I 
can't get;" the teacher would work it out, hand the slate 
back without a word of explanation. A Mr. Morgan 
taught, I think it was in '42. He had us to work out every 
example on the slate, and then transfer the whole work 
on paper in copy books kept for the purpose. I have the 
whole of the Western Calculator from Addition to Finis. 
There were many more in that day who pretended to teach 
school who did not know anything about geography, 
grammar or fractions. The schools were gotten up at that 
time, and indeed up till '60, by subscriptions. The teacher 
would go round and get the parents to subscribe as many 



150 Tkansai.legkkny historical, magazine. 

childi-en as they had or thought they could pay for. Some 
would subscribe say 3 scholars and perhaps send 6 and 
when their time was up T70uld stop coming. There were 
not any steel pen points in those aays. The children who 
wished to write, found their own goose quills aud the 
teacher made the pens and set the copies. I see by some 
of my father's old papers that he was appointed School 
Commissioner in '48 and held the office 22 years. His 
duty was to look after the indigent children, those whose 
parents could not pay for them. He would subscribe and 
the teacher would get his paj' from him. I cannot say 
what per cent, could not read or go to school, but I do re- 
member the time when you could gel but very few if 
any of the young men or ladies to read in public. There 
were no free schools in this country until we got the new 
State of West Virginia. For quite a while we had to im- 
port our teachers from Ohio and Pennsylvania, but that 
is done away with; we don't have to go away from home 
to get teachers, we have them here and good ones at that. 
Let me say here that in my "school boy days" we had no 
lady teachers, and when I grew up and came home from 
the war, I went over to Ohio aud took an Ohio teacher 
for a wife. We have good school houses all over the 
county, 19 of them in this district — Franklin, and we have 
from 6 to 9 months school every year and sometimes a 
term in the summer. I iorgot to say in its right place that 
the teacher under the old dispensation had to board round 
among the pupils, and the first one to school in the morn- 
ing put on the fire. I might add many other things, but 
perhaps have said enough, such as it is. Excuse all mis- 
takes. 

Yours very truly, 

T. B. McFarlani). 



EARLY P:DCCATI0N IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 151 

Letter from Mr. J. S. Shafier. ' " 

Aurora, W. Va. 
Dear Sir: — ■ • ■- 

Replying to your request of the 5th inst., I do not 
know that I can give you a very interesting detail of my 
boyhood days at school, but will give some facts as I re- 
count them. My grandfather, Adam Shaffer, came from 
Germany, and at first resided near Hagerstown, Md., with 
other families accompanying him, for a time, and then 
located in Preston County, Virginia, now West Virginia. 
My father was born in Proston County. My mother be- 
fore marriage resided in Cumberland, Md. In my early boy- 
hood days the counti-y here was sparsely settled and to get 
a sufficient number of scholars to employ a teacher, many of 
the patrons of the school, lived four and five miles distant 
from the school. Consequently, they would send their 
elder children to school in winter, and send the small 
children that could not attend winter school, in summer, 
and generally kept the larger boys at home in summer 
working on the farm; but I think there was a universal 
disposition among the early settlers or at that day, to 
send their children to school. Many of the children had 
been taught in German but to very limited extent, suppose 
by their parents at home, and with very few e xceptions. 
the early settlers, of the people in my boyhood days, at 
least, could read and write in German. They named the 
settlement, German Settlement, and our Post Office was 
known by that name until 1S75, when it was changed to 
Aurora. There was a town laid out one-half mile from the 
present town of Aurora, called Mt. Carmel, and here they 
built a log church about 22 x 36 ft., H stories high, but 
the upper part was never finished. The church was Luth- 
eran in denomination, but free for ail orthodox societies. 
The furniture of the church' consisted of one large tin 



152 TRANSALI.EGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

plate stove, to burn wood three feet or aiore iu length; 
and benches made from split timbers and slabs with holes 
bored in them and legs put in, for seats; and a pulpit to 
correspond. This church was also the schoolhouse, and 
the only addition in the furniture line was a writing desk 
about twelve feet long with a fiat spac^ on top to lay your 
books, inkstand, &c. Later when the school becam-i 
larger there were holes bored in the logs of the wall of 
the building with a suitable slant and pins driven in, a 
broad board fastened on for a desk at the windows. Here 
it was I first went to school in 1333, being six years of 
age. My first teacher was Robert Venable. I do not know 
where he came from, but one thing I do remember the 
scholar had to keep his eye on his book, whether he was 
studying his lesson or notj he had to go through the motion 
at least. And sitting on those benches from eight or nine 
o'clock A. M., I can never forget, 

My second teacher was Arnold Bonnifield, from Ran- 
dolph County, Virginia, now West Virginia. The scholars 
thought much more of him than of my first teacher and 
he taught a good school. The patrons wanted him to 
teach the next winter but his father moved west and he 
accompanied him. The only incident I remember the 
scholars penned him out of the schoolhouse Xmas morn- 
ing to compel him to give us a holiday, when we all had a 
good time. 

My third teacher was Jacob Kalor, who taught two 
terms of winter school, and Miss Dorothy Thayer, of A1- 
legeny County, Md., taught a summer Echool interven- 
ing. Mr. Kalor taught successful schools. His first term 
he refused to give us a Loliday or to treat and we as usual 
penned him out, and also the following winter when he 
taught his second term. At this time the teacher wa,s 
boarding at my father's, and he told my father confident- 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. ' 153 

jally that he was going to surprise his school Xmas morn- 
ing, and an uncle of mina living with my fathor over- 
heard him, and as he refused to give us a holiday or to 
treat, we were suspicious of him and placed a watch near 
the school house, and as I before stated the upper part of 
the church was never finished. The flue was only built 
about five feet above the upper floor and the smoke es- 
caped through the cracks or openings of the windows 
that had been roughly nailed up. Late at night when the 
teacher thought no one would see him, he went to the 
church or scboolhouse and by means of a ladder from the 
outside (as there was no opening from the inside) ascend- 
ed to an upper window, pried off a board that would ad- 
mit him to enter and placed a broad board with a little 
mortar he had prepared over the flue. His acknowledged 
intention was to get to the school first (and as the scholars 
in coming to school in the morning before school hours 
would play ball and other games until the teacher would 
call "Books," then all break for the schoolroom) and as 
the weather was not very cold he would not have a fire 
made until he called school, when he would order fire 
made and he standing near the door, when the fire was 
far enough advanced to saoke well, would go out and 
lock the door, and compel the school to agree for him to 
teach, or in other words we would relinquish our demand 
for a holiday to get out of the smoky schoolroom. The 
teacher was very early in getting to the schoolhouse, bat 
two girls (sisters), Misses Mahala and Marcilla Mason, 
daughters of Joshua Mason, and now the wives of Mr. 
Adam and George W. White, residing in Tucker and Pres- 
tion Counties, respectively, arrived at the schoolhouse a 
few minutes ahead of the teacher, and when he arrived 
he found the house garrisoced and the two girls holding 
the fort. He demsvuded ad.;rattance; they presented the 



154 TRANS ALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Article, he refused to si^n the day before, for his signa- 
ture; he refused to sign it, and went and cut several long 
switches and came back and demanded admittance or he 
would give them a complete whipping. But the girls 
were good soldiers and stood tirm. The teacher succeeded 
in raising one of the windows sufficiently high enough to 
admit of his entrance, but every time he would catch the 
window sill on the iaside the girls would rap him across 
his fingers with a switch or rule, and compel him to fall 
back. In the meantime some of the larger boys had ar- 
rived on the ground and offered the girls reinforcements 
if they would let them inside, but the plucky girls took 
the honor to themselves and won the victory. This was 
the last time we penned the teacher out, and always had a 
holiday Xmas or a treat from the teacher and a spelling 
match in the afternoon. 

As I stated, Miss Dorothy Thayer taught a summer 
school in the interval of Mr. Kalor's terms, and some of 
the larger scholars would get the small one, in his alpha- 
bet, when he would go to say his lesson, to call his letters 
in German and when the teacher would undertake to chas- 
tise him for it, he would skip off on those benches that 
were stored at one end of the church, ready to replace 
them when Sunday services or any chhrch services were 
to be held, and the little fellow would keep out of the way 
of the schoolmam. "When she would join in the laugh and 
merriment of the school at the cunning little chub and by 
coaxing he would repeat his lesson until he chose to give 
the school another entertainment. Following Mr. Kalor. 
Mrs. Stephen Blue taught a summer school; she came 
from Taylor County. Then Joshua Bond, a resident here. 
A little brother of mine was a pupil of the school his first 
term and apparently he was always full of mischief and 
neglecting his book and the teacher undertook to correct 



EARLY EDUCATION IX WESTERN VIKGINIA. 155 

him and c^ave him several whippings in one day, but have 
his fun (as he thought) he would. The teacher thought he 
would try other means, as he did not wish to puaish the 
lad severely; so the next time the teacher had occasion to 
correct bim he made him stand by the side of the stove 
with his toss to a certain crack or mark in the floor, tak- 
ing a large wooden poker used to stir the fire, laying 
that across the stove. William, my brother, vras ordered 
to stand there taking the burned end of the porker in his 
mouth. By throwing his head up a little he brought his 
mouth on level with the stove; he never hesitated, but when 
requested, obeyed, and with the black end of the porker 
in his mouth and the eyes of the whole school on him, 
more or less, he held the poker with his teeth and smacked 
his lips imitating smoking a cigar, changing his position 
as much as he could to see as many of the tcholars as he 
could to make them laugh, and he caught the teacher's 
eye and puffed his cigar, and the teacher had to hide his 
face from him and laugh too. 

The next teacher was Rev. Daniel Fleilig, a Luth- 
eran minister, employed as pastor of the congregation, 
residing here for three years or more. He was a good 
scholar but rather peculiar in some ways. He taught for 
three or four years. The last term he taught he had 
several of the little boys who were not playing ball at 
noon one day, shovel the snow from bis residence to the 
spring. The pastor's fire shovel was brought into re- 
quisition and the handle w.is was broken off. The pastor 
told m}^ brother William, as ho went home, to take the 
shovel and leave it with the blacksmith and tell him to 
mend it and charge it to his father and to bring it with 
him next morning. William told the teacher that he 
did not break it and he woull not take it to the 
blacksmith and have i« charged to his father; but the 



156 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

teacher repeated his orders, and as William passed where 
the pastor had placed it for him to get, the pastor called 
to him, but William walked ahead. Next morning 
when school opened the teacher ordered William to come 
to him and William walked up to him asking if he did 
not tell him thus and so last evening. Williacn replied "Yes 
sir, but I told jou I would not do it and have it charged 
to my father for I did not break it." The teacher gave 
him a vvhippiog. Wtien he stopped applying his switch 
William shrugged and twisted his shoulders, saying, "Lay 
on, Mr. Fleilig, it feels good." The teacher became very 
angry and turning around facing William, ho whippsd 
him unmercifully, raising himself on tip toe and bringing 
his switch flown with all the force he could command. I 
believe I was crying in sympathy for ray brother, but 
when the teacher appeared about exhausted and lefe up, 
William shrugged and twisted his shoulders again, re- 
peating, "Liy on, Pieiiig, it feels good." The teacher 
saying, "Confoar.d the boy," took his seat. My brother 
was then 8 years of age. 

My next teacher was William Ferguson, from Barb- 
our County. He was a good scholar and taught the best 
school I ever attended. Many younj? men from a distance 
came to his school, boarding at private houses, but with 
all his good qualifications for a teacher, he was most cruel 
and high tempered, whe-: he would see a scholar not com- 
plying with his rules, or learn of any misconduct outside 
during Bchool or from school to his home. If a large 
scholar, he would walk up before him sitting on his bench 
and grab bim by the back of the neck, pull his head for- 
ward and at the same time throw his leg across his neck, 
holding him tirnily under his knee, and in that position 
whip him unmercifully, laying the hide open in some cases, 
1 saw, tv?o inches in Icn.'th. This was the last school I 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTEKN VIRGINIA. 157 

went to in Preston County. My father moved from here 
ia 1847, a short time before Mr. Ferguson's school was out 
and I went to school two winter terms after leaving here, 
and returned here in 1849, where I have since remained. 
In my early boyhood days our school books were Comley's 
and United States Spelling Books and the Testament; and 
later Klrkham's English Grammar and Pike's Arithmetic, 
and such other books as the patrons or scholars chose. 
Those of us who lived near the schoolhouse and had the 
advantage of both winter and summer schools had the 
spelling book or a great part of it committed to memory, 
so that when we were spelling in the class, at noon or 
evening, many of us would spell the word before the 
teacher had time to give it out after the preceding word 
was spelled. Those in the Testament class in their lessons 
would read verse about, the teacher joining with them. 
In fact my history for a short time was a newspaper, the 
Pittsburg Chi-islian Advocate. I do not know how the 
teacher got his pay when I first attended school, but later 
there was a school fund appropriated by the State of 
Virginia to pay for the poor or indigent children, with a 
School Commissioner in each district aud generally where 
a parent would sign three scholars and Commissioner 
would pay for one and where persons were poor, perhaps 
pay for two out of three. The teachers, prior to the Luth- 
eran minister and ^Ir. Ferguson after him, boarded around 
among the scholars, with each patron according to the 
number of scholars subscribed. Daring the time my his- 
tory was anewpaper, a gentleman and friend of my father 
residing in Cumberland, Md., and whom I was named 
after, sent me a History of Rome, a very interesting book, 
and this was my school book for several terms until the 
b"'ok was lost. The tea.cber and some of the pupils would 
b>rrow it, and finally it was not returned, very much to my 



158 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL. MAGAZINE. 

regret. One thing that retarded the Bcholars in my early 
school days was the different pronunciations of the teachers; 
for example, one teacher would pronounce the last letter in 
the alphabet Zee, the nest one Zed and, perhaps the next 
one Izard, and in the same line all through their pronuncia- 
tion, so that what one teacher taught you it took some time 
for the next teacher to gel in line with his teaching. 

Very respectfully, 
■■ :• ;■ ■ ^ ... .— V J. S. Shaffer. 

' . ■ . Letter from Prof. Jolin G. Gittings. 

Cl.ARKSBURG, W. Va. 

De»r Sir:— 

I note from your circular, in regard to "Early Educa- 
tion in Western Virginia," that you call for such facts only 
as may be personally known to the writer. This will limit 
my remarks to the town of Clarksburg, of which I am a 
native, and to the schools about the year 1846, as then I 
first started to school, and removed the following year to 
Ohio. 

I first attended a private school, in the second story of 
a frame house, still standing on Mechanic street, south of the 
Traders' Hotel. This school was taught by Mits Margaret 
Steen, the aunt of Hon. John J. Davis, of this town, who 
was also a pupil. 

Miss Margaret was an accomplished scholar, an ex- 
cellent teacher. There were perhaps, about thirty pupils, 
big and little, and very urtequ*! iu their attainments; some 
advanced scholars, other primary, and to the latter class I 
belonged. 

The furniture was crude, consisting for the most part 
of wooden benches without backs, and simply a wide 
eloping board, fastened to the wall for a writing desk. 

The teacher sat in a split-bottom chair and had no 



EAKLY EDUCATION IX WESTERN VIRGINIA. 159 

desk. A portion of her time waa taken up in mending and 
making quill pens, which were the only kind used. The 
teacher waa absolute in authority and the school was or- 
derly and well taught. 

The text books were: Webster's Spelling book, Pikes 
arithmetic, Kirkham's grammar, I believe, and McGuSey's 
readers, which readers perhaps, were better than those 
used today, at least for scholars above primary grades: as 
many of the gems of English literature are not now con- 
tained in the revised readers. 

The most defective book used was Pike's arithmetic 
and that objectionable because of the calculations made ac- 
cording to the English system, in pounds, shilUngs, and 
pence; however, this was supplemented by the use of Col- 
burn's Meatal Arithmetic, the latter more thoroughly 
taught than ia now customary. 

I next attended school, for a quarter or two, at the 
North Western Virginia Academy which had been opened 
in this town, Oct. 1, 1S43. The North W^estern Academy 
took the place of the Randolph Academy which latter had 
been the school of the town and this section of the country 
for about fifty years previous, and was an olTshoot of 
William and Mary's College, Williamsburg, Va. 

The Rev. Gordon Battelle, a man of ability and learn- 
ing, was the principal of the Northwestern Academy, and 
so continued for about twelve years. His assistants were 
a Mr. Calhoun, a graduate of Washington College, Pa. 
and a Mr. Howell, perhaps a, graduate of the same college. 
The latter two were my teachers; they were classical 
scholars and very exacting in their discipline. They 
would hear a class in Greek or Latin, from the higher 
grades, in the interim of their primary recitations. 

The rooms in this building were fine for that day — 
and were used up to late ye;\,r:?, bv the public schools, 



160 TRANS ALLEGHENY HISTOUICAL MAGAZINE. 

the desks of wood rather clumBy, but comfortable an 
serviceable. 

The studies for the lower grades were such as I have 
named, supplemented by Algebras, and the Classics, 
Caeear, Virgil, Xenophon, &c , for the advanced grades. 
Scholars attended this school from counties along the 
Ohio and the Kanawha. 

I am happy tD testify that my early teachers were 
scholars, and well qualified for their work. 

In looking back to the schools of that time, I can re- 
call some things that were different from the things seen 
now. The teachers sat on a platform with a railing, upon 
which, I remember, one or two teachers would place their 
feet, higher than their heads, and "chaw" tobacco, and 
spit all over the floor! This we thought wae their privi- 
lege, and none dared object. 

While perhaps, the instructions of the lower, primary 
scholars was not as carefully conducted as now, yet it 
was an immense advantage to these scholars that they 
could hear the recitations of more advanced clashes: and 
it was a dull scholar that did not learn a little from each 
class that recited. 

At the time of which I write, it was a two days' jour- 
ney, by stage coach, from Clarkburg to St Mary's on the 
Ohio River. 

Very truly, 

ir^iiiyi . ■ I'^i v^i^Vm^i .■• la;-:. John G. Gittings. 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 161 

Letter from Mrs. Darid "W. Swisher. 
One of the "Old Girls." 
South Branch, Hampshire Co., W. Va. 
Dear Sir: — 

Yours of the 15 inst, is at hand and I take this as the 
earliest opportunity to try and grant youi request as far 
a= I can, though I am not sure I can give you an interest- 
ing article from which you may cull for your paper. 

My first school days I commenced in the eummer of 
1831. when I was only a little over five years old. 01 course 
I know buj, little about a.ny other schools at that time and 
perhaps the best I can do is to write of the ones I went to. 
But before describing any I will grant your first request. 
My father was born in West Virginia, in Randolph County, 
(now Tucker) in 1799, and though he never had a home in 
any other place, he traveled a good deal over the differ- 
ent States. Both my parents lived into their 88th year. 
They both lived, died and were buried within five miles of 
their birth place, the "Horse-shoe"' and "St. George." 
Hu Maxwell's History of Tucker County gives an account 
of that County in his day especially; but my school days 
were before this time. 

So I go back to that first school. It was where St. 
George is now; on the porch of the old "Stone House' 
where my grandmother lived, screened fi-om the sun by 
"blanket curtains." The teacher was Miss Sarah Mc- 
Laughlin. Do not know where she came from, nor how 
much she knew; only remember I stayed only & little over 
three waeks— home«iick perhaps— and got as far as 
"Baker" in the old American Spelling Book, by Noah 
"Webster, afterward author of the Elementary Spelling 
Book. I remember distinctly some of the pupils near my 
age, Charles See, now Presbyterian preacher; Ira Hart, 
now of Clarksburg, if living, (think he is dead); "^'est 



162 TKANSALI.KGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Bonnifield, of Ottumwa, Iowa. Schools were few and far 
between. Did not get to another school till I was nine 
years old. I then went to my uncle, R. Bonnitield, six 
miles from home. He hired a teacher to teach in his 
house two months and the same the next winter. I do 
not know what wages he gave. His name was Samuel 
Bowman and he obligated to teach only Spelling, Read- 
ing and Arithmetic as far the "Single Rule" in Pike's old 
Arithmetic. I remember there were two beds in the 
schoolroom, a log building, three large rooms below but 
none above; and there was a family of ten or twelve child- 
ren. Think at that time there was uo schoolhouse within 
ten miles in any direction. Old, unoccupied bouses or 
cabins and the houses in which people lived were all. I 
a,m not sure it was that way all over the county, it was 
large— Tucker and Barbour have been taken frcm it. 

I soon learned to read, learned that at hooae after 
those "three weeks." We hai only spelling books, in- 
troductions to the English Reader and sometimes Testa- 
ments. The majority by far bad only spelling books. 
Our writing "tablets" were a kind of quite coarse unruled 
paper which we ruled ourselves, using a thin straight 
piece of wood and a boatea piece of lead for a pencil. Our 
pens were made by the teacher or the pupils from goose 
quills. The copies were written by the "Master" or 
"Mistress." After these first schools, I went to a lady 
teacher about ten miles from home, near the mouth of 
Licking Creek. There I went to school in a schoolhouse, 
— I will try to describe it, as it '^as the first one I had 
ever seen. I think it was about 14 by 16 feet with a nine 
light window 8 by 10 inch glass, on one side, and a row 
of about eight panes of glass on the other side. Ttie floor 
was made of puncheons, split out of logs; and overhead 
were puncheons and on them a coat of mortar to keep out 



/62du 



I r 
i ft 






MRS DV\U>\\ -\VMH K s /-/ ; / 




EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 163 

the cold. The roof was clapboards held down by weight 
jx)les, supported by wooden knees. The cbimuey to the 
height of about six or seven feet was a pen of rather 
small logs built up inside with mortar and rocks— un- 
dressed — for a fire-place. Above the tire-place the chim- 
ney was finished -with split sticks about an inch thick, 
coated inside with a thick coat of mortar. I forget how 
the seats were made but remember there were enough of 
them to fill the room when needed, as it was a preaching 
place, and a quarterly-meeting was held in it while I was 
there. I know the seats had no backs and think they were 
puncheons dressed down a little. I went to that school 
only a few weeks— walked two miles to get to it. The 
teacher was Miss Susan Pierce and taught only Spelling 
Reading, Writing, and the very first rules of Arithmetic. 

After this a Mr. John !>Iiles taught a subscription 
school in my father's house, a summer term of three 
months, in an upper room, and three months iu the win- 
ter in a lower room, at §.1.50 per scholar per term. I 
think he had about twenty scholars, they were called then. 
He was a bachelor, do not know where he came from, nor 
w^here he went. Sometimes he was quite cross, which we 
could not understand till one day we found an empty 
flask in the dust under the corncrib. He could not take 
a pupil through the Arithmetic. We had some more 
pretty much the same kind. Most ol them did the best 
they could and some of these same pupils in after years 
got to better schools and nsade their mark in life. The 
last one I will spaak of is William Ferguson. He had a 
reputation in his day and- locality for a good scholar. I 
do not know how much he knew, I only know he taught 
Arithmetic, Geography and Engliah Grammar, in addition 
to the other elementary branches, yes and Surveying, too. 
Probably he understood other branches and could have 



164 TKi-NSALLEOHSNY HISTORICAL, MAOAZINB. 

taught them had any oue been in school to b« 
taught. He had the reputation of being severe but I 
never saw him whip a pupil in the live months that I went 
to him, though once I eaw him take two boys by the 
hair and bump their heads together till one of the girls 
said she '"could hear his brains rattle." There was no 
whispering done in his school. M.r father hirtd Mr. Fer- 
guson for $10.00 per month and board. He built a school 
house for him to teach in, something in the order of the 
of the one I have described. I remember the seats in that 
were Bplit logs about seven or eight inches broad with 
pegs to stand on. Of course they were about stationary. 
His price per scholar was $2.00 when he taught a sub- 
scription school. Other teachers did not think it worth 
while to ask that iiuch. I think the teachers generally 
got money for teaching. When Mr. Ferguson taught for 
us, a number of young men and women came to him. Sev- 
eral boarded with us at one dollar per week. I remember 
one young man worked six weeks after the school closed 
to pay three months' board. 

I do not know where Mr. Ferguson was born nor 
when he died He lived on Brushy Fork, a stream in 
Randolph — now Barbour County, when he taught for us. 
He was rather heavy set, had bright black eyes and a 
pleasant face, but he was sober turned. I do not remem- 
ber having ever seen him laugh. I remember hearing 
him say once that his wife's people called him lazy and to 
show them he was, he went out and cut some poles and 
brought them in and put the ends in the fire-place to burn, 
when he expected some of them to come to his house. I 
was at his house once when he had just moved into it. It 
was a new log house of good size. I do not know why he 
moved in when it was in such condition nor how long he 
left it so, but there was no floor in it; overhead about half 



EARLY EDUCATION IN WESTERN VIRGINIA. 165 

way it was covered wUh loose planks. la one end were 
two beds, in the other the fire built on the ground, the 
smoke going up inside as there was no fire-place. Near 
by the house he owned a little mill and carding machine. 
Suppose there was a reason for his moving in such a house. 
He had a wife and two daughters. I do not know bis wife's 
name but from what I remember hearing her neighbors 
say, "Xanthippa" would have suited. I know you will 
think this writing a backwoods sketch and so it is. Hope 
you can gather a few items of interest from it. 

Yours truly, 
M. K. Swisher. 

It is said a woman always adds a "post-script," so 
here is mine. Aft«r I had closed my "sketch" I remem- 
bered I had not mentioned the percentage. I cannot tell 
definitely what percentage could read and write. Think 
nearly all the heads of families could, except some very 
poor people. The scarcity of schools was not because the 
people did not want them, bat because they were so thinly 
settled they could not make ap a subBcription school. The 
percentage of attendance was small, none got to go to 
school more than three months at a time, and perhaps not 
that, often'er than once in two or three years; yet most of 
the children learned to read much better than would be 
supposed. The long nights vrould be utilized in study of 
what they could find to study. Sometimes one of a family 
would go from home several miles to a school, and when 
that one came back would teach the other members what 
he or she had learned. 

Newspapers were as scarce as books. My father took 
the ""Winchester Virginian;" besides that I do not remem- 
ber seeing any other paper till I was twelve years old. 
Father nearly always read aloud, and we all had to listen, 
at least be still. I remember hearing him read Jackson's 



166 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

farewell address, delivered at the expiration of his second 
presidential term. I heard him read it a number of times 
to his neighbors, as they would come in. 

It is about fifty-nine years now since Mr. Ferguson 
taught for us. Quite a change has taken place since that 
among the mountains of West Virginia. 

Hope my tardiness in writing may not inconvenience 
you. 

M. K. S 



ilcl 



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bAKBOlR .OU.NT'i' COIKT Hul SE. 



iun<^ ^ 



■,...,•:. BIBLIOGRAPHY. : 

Atkinson, G. W. • ' 

History of Kanawha County, W. Va., 1876. 

Prominent Men of ^Yest Virginia, 1890. A. F. Gib- 
bens, joint author. 
Boone, Richard G. 

History of J'ciucation in the United States, 1886. 
Browne, "William Haude. 

Maryland, A History of the Palatinate, 1884.' 
Cooke, John Esten. 

Virginia, A History of the People, 1885. 
DeHass, AVills. 

History and Indian Wars in Western Virginia, 1851. 
Doddridge, Joseph. 

Notes on the Settlements in Western Virginia, etc., 
from 1763 to 1783. 
Fiske, John. - ■ , 

Civil Government in the United States. 
Gibbens, A. F. 

Formation of Wood Couuty, 1899. 

See Atkinson, G. W. . " . •', 

Hagans, James Marshall. , 

Formation of West Virginia, 1891. 
Hale, J. P. 

Trans-Allegheny Pioneers, 1886. 

Scraps of History, etc., on the Lower Shenandoah 
Valley, 1899. 
Howe, Henry. • . ' 

Virginia, Its History and Antiquities, 181.1, 
Kercheval, Samuel. ' - 

History of the Valley of Virginia, 1S50, . ' 



168 TRANSALLEGHERY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE, 

King, Kufus. 

Ohio (American Commonwealth Series), 1896. 
Lang, Theodore F. 

Loyal West Virginia from 1861 to 1S65. 
Lewis, Virgil A. 

History of West Virginia, 1889. 
Maxwell, Hu. ' • ■ 

History of Tucker County, 1884. 

History of Hampshire County, W. Va., 1897. H. L. 
Swisher, joint author. 

History of Randolph County, W, Va., 1898. 

History of Barbour County, W, Va., 1899, 
McMast«r, John Bach. 

A History of the People of the United States, 1897. 
Morgan, B S. 

History of Education in West Virginia, 1893, J. F, 
Cork, joint author. 
Roosevelt. Theodore. . 

The Winning of the West, 1896. - . 

Shaw, S. C. 

Historic Sketche?, Jacob Beeson and Others, 1861, 
Swisher, H, L. 

History of Hampshire County. See Maxwell, Hu. 
Thwaites, Reuben Gold: 

The Colonies, 1492 to 1750. 
Veech, James. -'j^-r'f:' ' ■..-• 

The Monongahela of Old. , "r^ . . 

Winsor, Justin. •',>;.■ ■ 

The Westward Movement, 1897. 
Wiley, ST. ^ ' " ' ; „ , 

History of Monongalia County, W. Va., 1883. 
Withers, Alexander Scott. 

Chronicles of Boi-der Warfare. 

Reprint by Reuben Gold Thwaites. 



i 



m 



PIONEER SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 

[Coatinued.] 
Richard Eh3worth Fast. 

(Extracts from the certificates granted by the Commissioners for 
Adjusting the Claims to Unpatented Lands on the Western Waters for 
the Connty of Monongalia. The Commissioners sat at the house of Col. John 
Evans in February, ^larch and April '"in the fifih year of the Common- 
wealth." They sat for a fen- days at Clarksburg in the early part of 
April. The spelling and the use of capital letters have been obser\-ed and 
reproduced as near as practicable. — R. E. F. ) 

Certificates Granted at Col. John Evans' House (1781). 

James Barker is intitled to 400 acres on the waters of Indian Creek 
adjoining lands claimed by John M' Daniel in the right of residence to 
include his improvement made there-on in the year 1777. 

John Barker, 400 acres on waters of Scott-s Meadow Run adjoining 
Joseph Barkers land to include his settlement.^ made thereon in the year 
177n. 

Richard Fields, ass'e to Thomas Fields, -lOU acres on water of Three 
Fork, a branch of Monongalia River to include his settlement made 
thereon in the year 1774. 

Benjamin Brain, heir at Law of James Brain, deceased, 400 acres ou 
three Fork Creek a branch of Mononfralia River to include his settlement 
made thereon in 1771. 

Benjamin Fields, 400 acres on waters of three Fork Creek a branch 
of the Monongalia River to iuclude his settlement made thereon in 1774. 

Joseph Boultinghouse ass.ee to David Guilkey, 400 acres on a branch 
that empties into big Pappaw in tlie forks thereof about one mile and a 
half above little pappaw including his settlement made there<:)n in \■~l?^. 

Morgan Morgan, ass.ee to Zachariah Morgan, jun.r, 400 acres on 
Salt Lick Creek a drain of the Little Kenh.uvay to include his settle- 
ment made thereon in the year 177.">. 

John Button, ass.ee to Thomaf Kclles. 4I"h> acres 011 Simpsons Creek 
adjoining lands of Samuel Bcardin to include his .settlement made in 1776. 

Richard Cain, as.s.ee to Joseph Bennett, 4''K1 acres on the waters of 



170 TRANSALLEGHBNY HISTORICAL MAGAZINK. 

Cheat River adjoining the lands of Thomas Mills, to include his settle- 
made in 1771. 

Richard Cain, ass.ee to Samuel Luallen, -lO) acres of land, on Cheat 
River, adoining lands clainie<J by John M'Farland to include his settle- 
ment made in 1771. 

Henr\- Smith, ass.ee to Samuel Burke, 400 acres on Deckers Creek 
to include his settlement made in 1770, with a preemption of 1000 acres 
adjoining 

John Ferry, 400 acres on the west side of the ^Monongalia River ad- 
joining lands of Henrj- Stephens to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Ferry, 1000 acres, in the right of preemption adjoining actual 
settlement \\hich adjoins the laud of Henrv^ Stephens on the west side of 
Monongalia River made in 1773. 

Aaron Henry, ass.e to Dennis Xe%-ill, 400 acres, on Scotts Run adjoin- 
ing the land of Joseph Barker including his settlement made thereon in 
1773. 

Francis Burril, ass.e to Henry Haines. .iiS acres, on Coburns Creek to 
include his settlement made in 177o. 

John Burk, 357 acres, ■Monongalia County, waters of Deckers Creek 
to include his settlement made in 1770. 



Lawrence Hoult, here at Law to Jilatthew Hoult, 400 acres on the 
Monongalia River, adjoining 'the land of Kenry Eatton including his 
settlement made in 1776. 

George Weaver, 400 acres, on the waters of Scotts Run adjoining 
lands claimed by the Heirs of James Scott to include his settlement 
made thereon in 1775. Ahso 1000 acres adjoining in right of preemption. 

John Cockran, 400 acres, on Scotts Run adjoining Jacob Scott 
Meadow place including his settlement made thereon in 1773. 

Simon Cockran, 400 acres, on Lamberts Run adjoining Hezekiah 
Davisson including his settlement made thereon in 1773. 

LeN-y Wells, 4(X» acres, on the West fork of iMonongalia River adjoin- 
ing to land claimed by Thomas Reed in the right of having a tenant 
thereon in 1770. .llso 1000 acres in right of Preemption on the West fork 
of Monongalia River adjoining land claimed, by Thomas Reed in right of 
ha\-irig settled a tenant thertcin in 1"7<\ 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 171 

Jeremiah Gray, ass.e to Joseph Borsett, 400 acres, on a Nob called 
Buffalo Nob adjoiiiini^- lands claimed by James Morgan to include his 
settlement made thereon in 1774. -Aiso 1000 acres, in right of preemption. 

Ovveu Davis, 400 acres, Monongalia County, on Carters Run to in- 
clude his settlement luade thereon in the year 1770. Also 1000 acres ad- 
joining in Tight of preemption. , 



Thomas Davis ass.e to Owen E)avis, 40i) acres, IMonongalia County, on 
the west fork of Monongalia Riveir .to include his settlement made there- 
on in the j-ear 1774. .^so to same., 1000 acres adjoining in right of pre- 
emption. 



Philip Lewis, ass.e to John Hairdin, 400 acres, on waters of Scotts 
Mill Run adjoining Doll Sniders to include his settlement made in 1774. 

John Evans, ass.e to SamudI Owens, 400 acres, on the waters of 
Monongalia River to include the actual settlement made by the said 
Samuel Owens in month of .\pril amd May, 1769, with a preemption of 
10<X) acres adjoining. 



Joseph Jenkings, ass.e to Lfcwi>i. Rogers, 400 acres, ou the head waters 
of Wests Run adjoining lands clainaed by John Pairpoiut to include his 
setcJement made in 1774, with a preicmption of lOiiO acres adjoining. 



Thomas Pindle, 40<) acres, in riight of residence to include his im- 
provement made (ou) the Flaggy 3Ieadow Run adjoining the land of 
Philip Pindle made in 1773. 



Jacob Cazed, ass.e to Samuel Sirtton, on Morgans Run a branch of 
Cheat River to include his settlememt made thereon in 1770. 

Thomas Craft, ass.e to Hartnes.^.-, 400 acres in the Glades of Sand}- 
Creek adjoining the lanil of John Cr/llins to include his settlement made 
in 177:5. 

Samuel World, sen. r, 400 acres on the waters of Sandy Creek adjoin- 
ing Richard Morris lanil to include tis settlement made thereon in 1770. 

Samuel World, jun.r. 400 acres, d'Jn the water.s of Sandy Creek adjoin- 
ing lands claimed by Sam'l Wcrrel f:n the right of residence (date not 
given ) . 



Alexander Branon. A'M acres, in right of preemption on the v>aters of 
Sandy Creek including his settlememt made thereon in 1777. 

Hcnrv Tucker, :{00 acres, on the waters of ?.o<^ths Creek adioininy 



Ir2 TKANSALLEGHEXV HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

lands clanueil by Thomas Miller in the right of residence (date not 
given). 

Thomas Miller. Heir at Law to Jacob Miller deceased, 400 acres in 
the Right of Preemption adjoining on the Monongalia River and Booths 
Creek to include his improvement made tliereon in 1774. 

Thomas Miller, Heir at Law of Jacob Miller, 400 acres on the waters 
of Cobums Creek to include his settlement made thereon in 1772. 

Andrew Lee.ass.e to Jaco"S Clark, 4(h.) acres on Cheat River adjoining 
lands claimed by John Ramsey to include his settlement made thereon 
in 177-2. 

John Finch, 4W acre.-;, on \\'hites Run adjoining lands claimed bv 
Philimon Askins to include bis settlement made thereon in 1772. 

John Evans, jun.r, ass..e to Shively, 400 acres, on Goose Creek a 
branch of Hughes River about six miles from the mouth of the said Creek 
to include his settlement begun in 1773. v\ith a preemption of 1000 acres 
adjoining. 

William Morgan, 4tK) acres, on the west side of Cheat River opposite 
the Dunkers Bottom to incltide his settlement made thereon in 17f)0. 

William Morgan, ass.e ta James Morgan, 400 acres, on the west side 
of Cheat River opposite the Dunkers Bottom to include the settlen.enr. of 
the said James Morgan ma(Te thereon in 17t;9, with a preemption of 10(H) 
acres adjoining. 

William Morgan, 400 acres, in right of preemption on Lick Run 
about three miles from the m.nith thereof to include his improvement 
made thereon in 1776. 

Hugh Morgan, 40O acrts, on Cheat River adjoining the lands of 
V.'illiam Morgan, to include his settlement made thereon in 1777, with a 
preemption of 10*^10 acres adjoining. 

James Morgan, ass.e to John Morgan. 400 acres on waters of Cheat 
River adjoining the lands of Jeremiah Gray to include his settlement 
made thereon in 177o. with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Evan Morgan in the right of his wife, IGO acres, on the waters of 
Cobums Creek and the Laurel Run adjoining lan'is claimed by Thomas 
Miller to include his settlement made by John WoodSn therecti in 1772. 



Francis Reed, ass.e to Joseph Gregor\-, 400 acres, on the west fork at 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 173 

the nioutb of Crocked Run to include his settlement made in 1776, -vv-ith 
a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Green, 400 acres on the waters of Cheat River on a run called 
Buffaloe Run adjoining lands claimed by James Morgan to include his 
seUlemer.t : ,ide in 1774. 

David Frazee, ass.e to John Cuppey, 400 acres on the waters of Sandy 
Creek adjoining the lands of Thomas Cooshman to include his settlement 
made in 1769. 

Major Powers. 400 acres, on botli sides of Glady Creek adjoining the 
lands of William Pettyjohn Jun.r to include his settlement made in 1776, 
\\-ith a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Wm. Peteyjohn Sen.r, 400 acres, on theTyger Valley River on the 
ea.st side about one and one half Mile from the junction of that and 
the Monongalia River to include his settlement made in 1775, ^vith a pre- 
emption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

William Petyjohn Sen.r, 1000 acres in the right of preemption ad- 
joining his Settlement made in 1770. 

John Petejohn (a), 400 acres, on the head waters of the Yohogania 
River in glades adjoining the Marjdand line in the right of residence to 
include his improvement made thereon in 177t>, with a preemption of 
1000 acres adjoining. 

Thomas Wade, 400 acres, on the waters of Bunkers Creek adjoining 
the lands of Will.m Robeson including his settlement made thereon in 



James Ross, assignee to Richard Fields, 400 acres, on the waters of 
Cobums Creek to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Charles Donalbon, ass.e to Alexander Brannon, 400 acres' on the waters 
of Sandy Creek adjoining lands claimed by James Spurgeon to include 
his settlement made in 1776, with a preemption of 10^)0 acres adjoining. 

Charles Donalson, ass.e to James Robcnett, 4(MJ acres, on Sandy 
Creek waters adjoining the lands claimed by the Heirs of John Judy to 
include his settleinent made in 1776, with a preemption of 1000 acres ad- 
joining. 

Charles Donalson, 400 acres, on the waters ot Cheat River to include 
his settlement made in 1776, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 



(a) Note the four differetit wsjs uf spolilns the same surname. 



174 TRA:,S ALLEGHENY HISIORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Levy Lynn, ass.e to Jeremiah Beck, 400 acres, on a run called by the 
name of big Leaver dam adjoining the lands of Daniel Se%-ern to include 
his settlement made in 177o. 

Absolom Severns, 400 acres, on the waters of Sandy Creek adjoininji 
the lands of James Parker in the right of residence to include his im- 
provement made in 1775. 

James Parker, 400 acres, on the waters of Sandy Creek adjoining 
Absolom Severns in the right of preemption to include his settlement 
made in 1779. 

2^cariali Piles, heir at Law to James Piles deceased, 400 acres, on 

Run a branch of Dunkers at a place called the Pedlers Camp in the right 
of residence (no date). 

James Piles, 200 acres, on Dunkers Creek to include his settlement 
made in 1770. 

Zacariah Piles, 400 acres, on Pappa Creek above the big Elk Lick in 
the right of residence (no date). 

John Ray, ass. e to William John, 400 acres, on the west branch of the 
Monongalia River to include his settlement made in 1775, with a pre- 
emption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

James Coburn,ass.e to Jonathan Coburn, 400 acres, onCoburns Creek 
adjoining land claimed by the heir of John Stephenson to include his 
settlement made in 1770. 

James Coburn, ass.e to Rob Henderson, 400 acres, in right of the sai<l 
Robert Henderson having resided and raising Corn in the year 1778 to 
include his settlement situate on Cobums Creek adjoining the lands of 
the said James assignee of Jonathan Coburns, deed, made in 1770. 



Daniel Davisson, 400 acres, on Elk adjoining lands claimed by 
Thomas Nutter to include his settlement made in the year 1773. 

Heir at Law of Nathaniel Davisson deceased, 400 acres, on Davissons 
Rim adjoining lands claimed by Obadiah Davisson to include his settle- 
ment made in 1773. 

Thomas Butler assignee to James Butler, 400 acres, on Cheat River 
adjoining lands claimed by Heni-j- Richards to include his settlement 
made in 1774. 

Thomas Bvitler, 400 acres, on Cheat River at the Cole Lick Bottom 
adjoining lands claimed by William Roberts to include his settlement 



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GEXERAL W. W. AVEREIJ/S C-AVAIKV UN THE SALEM FvAIT). DKC. I«ii3. 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 175 

made in the year 1775, with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining his set- 
tlement and lands claimed by Henrv- Richards. 

Thomas Butler, 400 acres, on Cheat River at the Cole Lick Bottom 
adjoining lands claimed by William Roberts to include his settlement 
made in 1775, with a preemption right to 1000 acres adjoining. 



John Doerty, 400 acres, on Cheat River joining Lands claimed by 
William Biggs as a Right of Residence to include his improvement ma(!e 
in 1776. 



John Dougherty. 1(J0(J acres. By Right of Preemption adjoining his 
Improvement on Cheat River joining lands claimed by Willia-m Biggs 
made in 1776. 



John Dent ass.e to Arthur Trader Jun.r. 400 acres, in Right of Resi- 
dence, on the head waters of Mud Lick Run a branch of the Monongalia 
River to include his Improvement naade thereon in 1774. 



John Dent a^s.e to Samuel O^burn, 4(.X'J acres, about a mile from 
Cheat River on a branch of said river between the Ridge that Divides the 
Waters of Cheat and Monongalia River and the Laurel Hill in the said 
Ozburns Right of residence. 

John Gifford, 40U acres on Booths Creek adjoining lands of William 
Robey Jun.r to include his settlement made thereon in 177.". 



Da\nd Bowen heir at Law to S.-irauel Bowen, 100() acres on Bingamon 
on the waters of the right hand fork in right of preemption to include his 
settlement made thereon in 1773. 



Enoch James, 400 acres, on the west fork of Monongalia River to in- 
clude his Settlement made thereon in 1775, with a preemption right to 
1000 acres adjoining. 



Augustus Belle, assignee to John M'farland, 4i,)0 acres, on Pappa 
Creek to include his settlement made thereon in 1776. 

Richard Findley, 400 acres, on the waters of Pappaw iu the right of 
residence to include his improvement made thereon in 177;-!. 

John M'Farland assignee to Alexander Smith, 400 acres, on Indian 
Creek to include his settlement made thereon in 1770. 



Samuel Rubels assignee to John. Collins. 400 acres, on the waters of 
three fork Creek in the right of residence to include his improvement 
made in 1775. 

Samuel Pvubels, 400 acres, on the v.aters of Rubels Mill Run a branch 
of Cheat on the South side of Mason and Dixons Line adjoining the same 



17G TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and the land of Arthur Trayder to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Siinmel Rubels ass.e to Robert I.owthor, 400 acres, on Rubels ]Mill 
Run a branch of Cheat River, to include his actual settlement made in 
1770. 

W'lliam Haymoud, 1000 acres, in right of Preemption adjoiuing his 
settlement made in 1774. 

James Chew assignee to Josiah Hawkins, 1000 acres, in right of the 
said Josiah Hawkins adjoiningr the actual settlement made by the said 
Josiah on the waters of Scotts Run adjoining the lands of Isaac Vaucamp 
in the year 1775. 

James Chew, assignee to John Miller, 1000 acres, in right of Preemp- 
tion adjoining the said John Jlillers actual settlement on the west side of 
the ^lonongalia River adjoinitsg the land of David Morgan the settlement 
made in 1772, 

Elias Peirce, 40<j acres, joining lands claimed by (worn out) 

Walker on the Drains of Monongalia to include his settlement made in 
1778. 

Amey Trader and Hannali Trader ttersof Tagal Trader, 200 acres, 

on the east side of the Monongalia River adjoining the lands of Andrew 

Da (u or v) {indistinct^ and Arthur Trader to include their actual 

settlement made in 1773. (1) 

acres of land in right of residence to include 

his improvement made on the Salt Lick Creek a branch of the Kannaway 
in the year 177 — . 

Jacob Springer, 40<? acres, in the right of residence to include bis im- 
provement made on the Salt Lick Creek a branch of the Little Kanna- 
way in 1773, also a right of preemption to 1000 acres adjoining- 
John Springer, 1000 acres, in right of preemption adjoining his im- 
provement obtained in right of residence made in 1773, on Salt Lick 
Creek a branch of the Little Kannaway. 

Isaac Prichard, 4CM3 acres, in right of residence to include his improve- 
ment made on the Salt Lick Creek a branch of the Little Kannaway in 
1773, with a right of preemption of 400 acres adjoining. 

Jesse Pigman, 400 acres, in right of residence and raising corn before 
tlie year 1776, situate on theS<3lt Lick Creek at the forks of the same 



(1) There ifl eridenlly ,ome pjirt of t;ii.=5 rncord muisinf, althoach tbo pagv.s 
are numbered coD.sorntively— » ]ni.^e and rcutillt'Hd Ifof filling rho place at pasfps 
Its Bud 111— because the {r8;:ni?nt fjf the cci-titicate naxt givPTifce^lriK at th« Sop 
of paje llfc) 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 177 

about four miles below the Salt I^ick to include bis settlement made in 
1773, also a rij^ht of preeiription to 10(h) acres adjoininj^. x 

Dennis Springer, 4W acres, in right of residence and raising corn, 
situate on the west side of the Little Kaunaw ay about two miles below 
the mouth of Salt Lick Creek to include his imprcenient made in 1773, 
also a ri,<ht in preemption to 1000 aces adjoining. 



James Cleeland assignee to EpHraim Richardson, 400 acres, on Cheat 
River to include the actual settlement made bv Richardson in the vear 
1769. 



James Cleeland, 400 acres, in right of residence and raising com to 
include his improvement made in 177:^. 



Jacob Hall, 400 acres, on the east side of Monongalia River nearly 
opposite the falls of the River to include his actual settlement made in 
1775. • 



James Chew ass. e to Jacob Hall, 1000 acres in right of preemption 
adjoining the settlement made by the said Jacob Hall on the east side of 
the Monongalia River nearly opposite the falls bf the same made in 1775. 

John Logan, 4iX) acres, in right of residence hiiving raisetl corn be- 
fore 1778 on Hughe's River about four miles above the forks of the same 
on the south side thereof made in 1777, also a right in preemption to 
1000 acres adjoining. 



James Chew ass.e to John Miller Jun.r, 400 acres, in right of the said 
John Miller Jun.r having resided and Raising Corn before the \-ear 1778, 
and proving that he the said John IMiiler Jun.r never having taken up for 
himself nor sold anj' land in the said County nor on any of the Western 
Waters, to include the improvement made on Sundry- Holly Trees by the 
said Jame^ Chew on the Head of ihe right hand fork of the Salt Lick 
Creek and the Drains of Klk River in the year 1773, also a right in pre- 
emption to inno acres adjoining. 

Henry Barns, 4(X) acres, alx>ut two miles and a half above the forks 
of Hughes River on the north side cf the south fork of the said River in 
right of having resirled and raising a Crop of Corn before the year 1778, 
also a right in preiiuption to KViO acres adjoining. 

Thomas Parkison, KWJ acres in right of preemption to include his 
improvement situate on the ea-St fork of the Monongalia River and at 
the falls of the same known by the name of the Tygcr Valley fal?s to in- 
clude tliesanie made in 1773. 



178 TRAI^SALLEGHEN'Y HISiORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Elizabeth Crouse Heires at Law of Conrod Crouse. 400 acres, on 
Aarons Creek a branch of Deckers Creek to include the settlement made 
by the said Conrod in 1770. 

James Chew, ass.e to Elizabeth Crouse Heires at Law of Conrod 
Crouse, 1000 acres, in right of preemption on Aarons Creek and adjoin- 
ing the settlement made by the said Conrod Crouse in 1770. 

John Jolifie, son of Hannah, 400 acres, on a branch of the Monongalia 
River to include his settlement in the year 1774, and adjoining the land 
of Da\nd Morgan, also a right in preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

James Russell, ass.e to Alexander Parker, 360 acres, to include his 
settlement made in 1770 adjoining lands of Michael Kerns and James 
Coburn. 

James Chew, ass.e to James Russell, is entitled to lOoO acres in the 
right of preemption adjoining the actual settlement of the said James 
Russell as ass.e to Alexander Parker adjoining the lands of Michael 
Cams and James Coburn on tlie waters of Deckers Creek and the waters 
of the Monongalia River the settlement made in 1770. 

John Pairpoint, ass.e to Samuel MereGeld, 400 acres, at the mouth of 
the Tyger Valley River in the forks of the said river to include his settle- 
ment made in the year 1775. 

John Hardin, son of Martin, 400 acres, on the Dividing Ridge be- 
tween Raccoon Creek and Sandy Creek on both sides of the road that 
Iveads to Tyger Valley River, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

William Robinson, assignee to John Smith. 4')U acres, for the said 
John Smitlis right of residence and raising com, to include his settlement 
made on the Salt Lick Creek in 177:5. 

George Wilson, a,ssignee to Nehemiah Harris, 400 acres, on waters of 
Cobums Creek adjoining lands claimed by Michael Kerns to include his 
settlement made in 1775, also lOOO acres in right of preemption adjoining. 

George Wilson ass.e to Thos. Cunningham, 400 acres, to include his 
setteleraent made in 177") on tht- waters of Scotts Run adjoining lands 
claimed by Benjamin Wilson, wth a preemption of l(K>0 acres adjoining. 

Benjamin Wil.son, 4IK1 acres, to include his settlement made in 1775, 
' lying on the waters of Scotts Run adjoining lands claimed by George 
Wilson with a preemption of 1000 acre.s adjoining. 

David Gilky, ass.e to David Rankin, 400 acres, on waters of Scotts 
Mill Run adjoining lands c: William Robi.son to include his settlement 
made in 1775. 



)^' 



KTTLEMENTS OX THE WESTii.RN WATf:RS. 179 

William Robinson, ass.e to John Murphy, 40<3 acres, on waters of 
Scotts Mill Run adjoining to Peter Peperores (name uncertain possibly 
letro's ) lauds to include his settlement made thereon in 177:5. 

William Robinson, ass.e to John Murphy, 1000 acres, right in pre- 
emption adjoining his settlement: made on Scotts Run in 1773. 

Charles M'Intire. ass.e to CItarles Burkham who was assigee of Rob- 
Murphy, 400 acres, on the west fork of Monongalia River below the 
mouth of Simsons Crkk, incli'.diiiig his settlement made in 177?., with a 
preemption of lOttO acres adjoining. 

Charles ^M'Intire, a.^s.e to JoSan Tucker, 400 acres, on the west fork 
adjoining the land of Samuel Menefield to include his settlement made 
in 1773. 

Joseph Coon, ass.e to Mich 'I Oxx, 400 acres, on the waters of west 
fork adjoining, the land of John Tucker to include his settlement made 
in 1772. 

Philip Coon, 400 acres, at tint stone coal lick adjoining lands of 
Joseph Coon to include his settleinent made in 1776. 

^ Anthony Coon, 40O acres, on ithe Cole Lick Run adjoining the lands 
of Conrod Coon to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Coonrod Coon, 4CiO acres, on: the Stone Cole Lick Run adjoining the 
lands of Philip Coon to include hns settlement made in 1776. 

George Cockran, 400 acres, about two miles from the head of the 
right hand fork of the Salt Lick Creek to include his improvement made 
in 1773. 



Charles Martin, ass.e to John Downs", 400 acres, in the right of resi- 
dence on the head of the left hand fork of Hellins Run and the head 
waters of Tevtrback Rnn to include his improvement made in 1769, with 
a preemption of 1000 acres adjoiaing. 

Charles Martin, ass.e to Thomas Kelly, 400 acres, on the head waters 
of Hellains Run in the right of sairl Kellys Re.sidence to include his im- 
provement made in the year 177-'). 

Charles Martin, assigne to Benjamin Goodson Sen.r, 400 acres, to 
include his settlement made in 1776 and lying on Buffalo Creek. 

Charles Martin, assigne to Benjamin Goodin Jun.r, 400 acres, to in- 
clade his settlement lying en Buffalo Creek. 



180 TKANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Charles Martin, assigne to James Goodin, 400 acres, lying on Buffalo 
Creek to include his settlement made in 177L\ 

Henry Robeson, ass.e to John Kinkade, 327 acres, on Wests Run 
agreeable to a former survey made by John Trimble in behalf of John 
Carter to include his settlement made in 1770. 

Henry Robeson, assignee to John Kinkade, 273 acres, on the waters 
of Wests Run to include his settlement made in 177-'). 

George Orson, ass.e to Caleb Carter, 400 acres joining land this 
day ( ) to Robert Hill to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Robert Hill, ass.e to Aaron Mercer, 400 acres, on a Drain of Monon- 
galia River, and in the forks of that and Cheat Ri%-er to include his 
settlement made in 1770. 

John Burris, 400 acres, on a Drain of Monongalia River to include 
his settlement where he now lives made in 177(5. 

•'We the Commissioners * * * do hereby certify that John 
Hardin Jun.r assignee of Benjamin Rodgers Having made it appear tliat 
a Certain John M'lanackhan Having Laid or Located on Oificers Warrant 
on his actual settlement in the County of Monongalia Known by the 
name of Hardins Cove on the waters of tyger Valley fork of the Monon- 
galia River and the act of General asserabh* Having Directed such Loca- 
tions to be Removed we do hereby Certify that the said John Hardin Jun.r 
ass.e of Benjamin Rodgers is Intitled to Four Hundred Acres of land to 
Include his Actual Settlement made in the year A. D. 1771 on the afore- 
said described place." 

John Hardin Jun.r ass.e of John Anderson, Ha\-ing made it appear 
that a certain John M'lanackhan, ^c, (recitals as in last foregoing certif- 
icate) 400 acres to include his actual settlement made in 1771. 

John Hardin Jun.r ass.e of William Hardin i, recitals as in last certi- 
ficate but one) 400 acres of land to include his actual settlement made in 
1771 on the aforesaid described place. * 

Daniel Saversons ( ? ) 400 acres, on the waters of Sandy Creek in the 
forks of that anrl Cheat River to include his settlement made thereon in 
1774, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Dougherty, ass.e to John Copman, 400 acres, on Cheat Ri\er in 
Dunker Bottom settlement joining lands claimed by Hugh Morgan to 
include his settlement made in 1774. 



H»me of the ofHonr Is here siipV.t.-d M'Clanachaii. 



SETTLEMENTS OS THE V/ESTEKN WATERS. 181 

Jno. Dougherty, ass.e to John Copman, 1000 acres, in right of pre- 
emption adjoining his settlement made on the Dunker Bottom in 1774. 

William Hall, 4(H) acres, on Beaver Creek adjoining lands claimed 
by Thomas Craft to include his settlement made in 1772, w-ith a preemp- 
tion of 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Morris, Jun.r, 4O0 acres, in the forks of Cheat River and Sand^- 
Creek to include his settlement made in the year 1775. 

Martin Judy, Jr., 400 acres, on v.-atersof Sandy Creek adjoining lands to 
James ]M'Collmr. to include his settlement made tliereon in 1776. 

Joshua Worley, 4iXt acres, on little Sandy Creek adjoining lands 
claimed by Anthony Worley to include his settlement made in 1770, v.ith 
a preemption of 100<1 acres adjoining. 

Anthony Worley, 400 acres, on Sandy Creek to include his settlement 
made in 1770, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Upenhizer, "iiX* acres, waters of Cheat River adjoining the 
lands claimed by Hanoacher in right of preemjjtion to include his im- 
provement made thereon in 177.J. 

William Hanshaw, ass.e tp David M'Xeal, 100 acres, on Cheat River 
at place known by the name of Rose's Hill to include his settlement 
made thereon in 17tiS, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining thereto. 

John Whitlatch, 4<X1 acres, on little Sandy Creek adjoining lands 
granted to Anthony Worley, in a right of having a residence on the Wes- 
tern Waturs by making a Crop of Cora before 177S, with a preemption to 
1000 acres adjoining. 

Anthony Carol, 400 acres, near Cheat River adjoining the Dunker 
Bottom, to include his settlement made in 1774. 



Da\-id Porter, 40U acres, on the waters of Sandy Creek in the forks 
of that and Cheat River in the right of having a residence in this County 
by making a Crop of Com before 177S. 

William Morgan, ass.s Jame.i> Morgan, 4')0 acres, on the waters of 
Cheat River, opposite to the Danker Bottonj, to include his settlement 
thereon made in 17tty, with a preemprion of 1000 acres adjoining. 

William Jlorgau, 40<) acres, on Chest River nearly opposite to the 
Dunker Eortora to include his settlement m.ade therein 1769. 



lf:<2 TRANSAI.LEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Joseph Severn, -100 acres, on Saudy Creek Glades in the forks of said 
Creek and Cheat River, adjoining lands claimed by Daniel Severn to in- 
cl-iide his settlement in 1770, -with a preemption of 300 acres adjoining. 

John Judy, 400 acres, on the waters of Sandy Creek, to include his 
settlement made in 1775, with a preemption of 400 acres adjoining. 

William Morgan, 400 acres, on the lick run a Drain of Cheat Rivtr 
about three Miles from the mouth in right of preemption to include his 
settlement made in 177f>. 

James Dunwoody, 400 acres, waters of Sand}- Creek on tlie west side 
of M'Cullocks Road to include his set'.lement made thereon in 1770 ad- 
joining lands claimed by John Lafavour, -.Wth a preemption of 1000 acres 
adjoining. 

Henry Richards, ass.e of John Morgan, 400 acres. Cheat River at a 
place called the Dunker Bottom, adjoining land claimed by Tho's Butler 
to inclu<le his settlement made th.ereon in 177*'i, with, a preemption of lOCO 
acres adjoining. 

Bartholomew I.anden, 400 acres, between Roaring Creek and Draper 
Run about two miles from Cheat Ri\-er, to induile his settlement made 
thereon in 177S. 

Thomas Chip, ass.e of John Allington, 400 acres, at the Big Crab 
Orchards on the waters of Sandy Creek, to include his settlement made 
in 1771. 

Amos Roberts, 400 acres, on a Drr.ught that Eniptys into R.oaring 
Creek a Dreen of Cheat River in R-'gai of having residence by making a 
Crop of Corn on the Western Waters before the year 177S. 

Nathaniel Kidd, 400 acres, in the Dunker Bottom settlement, at a 
run called the Lick Run to include his settlement made thereon in 177b. 

George Gillespie, 400 acres, on the west side of Cheat River adjoin- 
ing lands claimed by John Waggoner in the right of residing and having 
a Crop of Corn in said county lx;fore 1778. 

Jno. Williams, ass.e to Isaac Batton, 400 acn s, on the water? of Laurel 
and Hazel Run Drains of Sandy Creek in the right of residing one v.bol e 
year on the waters before the first Jannary 1778. 

Jeremiah Gray, 400 acre.s, on ".iie east side c: Cheat River oppc-.^te 
and above the Holly Bottom, to in-:Iude his settlement made thereon in 
1775, with a preemption of 10i>i) acres adjoining thereto. 



•5- n^ 



Q ■ 



'■■ -\ r 



/ 



K. 



X 



^i if, 

~2 i . * 



Vi 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. ISo 

Tbouias China iiss.e to Morris Morris, 4("«) acres, in the right of resi- 
lience to incUide his improvement adjoinin.rj land of Richard Morris 1774, 
witli a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining:. ■' ^- -> 

" .- . ■■•"afr ■.-. . 

Da\.-id Davis, 400 acres, ass.e of- Samuel W'orl, on the waters of Saiidy 
Creek, adjoining the land of Thomas Hartness to include his settlement 
made in 177-3. 

John Scott, a<s e of Samuel World, 400 acre^, on the waters of Cheat 
River adjoining lands claimed by Lewis Criss to include his improve- 
ment made thereon in the yr. the sd. Saml. World right of residing and 
raising corn in said bounty before 1778. 

John Gra}-, 400 acre.s, Salt Lick. Creek a brunch of little Kanhaway 
River to include his improvement made thereon in 1773 in the right of 
residing in and making a Crop of Corn in the year 1778, with a preemp- 
tion of 1000 acres adjoining thereto. 

Nathan Thomas, as.^.e to Thomas Tobin, 4.00 acres, on Indian Creek, 
at Slab Camp in the ric^lit of ha\-ing a residence to ir.clude settlement 
made thereon in 1774, with a preemption of 400 acres adjoining. 

W'illiam Smith. 400 acres, on Lost Creek at the Kings luck to include 
his impro\x-ment ni.idc thereon in 177l>, in the said Smiths right of rais- 
ing Corn in said County before 1778, with a preemption of 10<>0 acres 
adjoining thereto. 

James Ferv].', 400 acres, waters of Jlonongalia River, adjoining lands 
granted to Hugh Ferry to include his settlement made in 1773, with a 
preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

James Gray, 4i)0 acres, on the South side of Salt Lick Creek to include 
his improvement made thereon in 1773, in the right of residing and rais- 
ing com in said County before 1773, with a preemption of 1000 acres ad- 
joining thereto. 

Hugh Ferry, 400 acres, on waters of Monongalia River adjoining 
lands claimed by John Hamilton to include his settlement made thereon 
in 1773, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Joseph Scott, Heir at Law, to Joseph Scott, 4'X1 acres, on G 

(uncertain) Creek adjoining lanes granted to John Evans Jun.r to in- 
clude his improvement made thereon in 177o, in the said Joseph Scott 
right residing one whole year in iaid county before 1778, with a preemp- 
tion, of 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Madison, ass.e of Nicholas Decker, 400 acres, on Monongalia 
River to include his settlement made thereon in the rear 1706, and Prior 



184 TRANSALLEGIIENY HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

to any settlement n)ade near the same, with u preemption of IWM) acres 
adjoining thereto. 

Elijah Burris, 4'JO acres, on a Drain of the Monongalia River, ad- 
joining lands claimed by John Kvaiis, according to lines Proved between 
the said Evans and the said Burris. to include his settlement made 
thereon in 1774, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining thereto. 

Thomas Clear, ass.e to Johii Sulier (or Sislier ? ), 200 acres on Cheat 
River adjoining tlie lick run to include his settlement made in 177:>, with 
a preemption of KkX) acres adjoining. 

Xehemiah Harptr. 4*^*0 acres, adjoining land claimed by Jacob Hall 
to include his settlement made thereon in 177'), with a preemption of 
1000 acres adjoining. 

James Johnson, ass.e of Rralolph lleor ( ? ), 400 acres, on the east 
side of the west fork nearly oppo.site to the mouth of Ringermans Creek 
adjoining claimed by Henry Sniiider to include his settlement made in 
1772, with a preemption of KKW acres adjoining. 

Adonijah Little. V^O acres,, on Monongalia River adjoining above 
Henry Battons lands on Papa Creek, to include his settlement begun 
thereon in 1778, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining thereto. 

Isaac Williams, I'W acres, o-ii the Ohio Ri\er opposite the mouth of 
the Muskingum Rivtr. to iuclotfle his settlement made thereon in 177o. 
with a preemption of 10<Mi acres iidjoining. 

David Scott, ass.ee of Jonathan Newland, 4U0 acres, on Wests Run ad- 
joining lands claitue;! by Wm. Joseph to include his settlement made in 
1770. 

Rawley Evans. .T.-.<.i.e of (^i*orge Veager, lUO acres, on the head of 
Gra5s Run a branch oc Cheat River to include his improvement made in 
171o, in the saiii Yeagars right of residence in and making a Crop of Corn 
in s.d County before 177S, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

James Johnson, as^.e to Rawley Martin who was ass.ee to Daniel 
Harris, 4(X"t acres, on the waters of the Monongalia River to include his 
settlement made thereon by the said Harris in the Month of April or May 
17G9, wnth a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

William Smith, 4i.»0 acres, on Robisons Run adjoining Agustus Smith 
to include his settlement made in 1771. with a preemption of 10*30 acres 
adjoining. 

Aracs Smith, a.ss.ee to ISIosesHill, 400 acres, on Robisont Run adjoin- 
ing lands claimed by Agustus Smith to include his settlement made in 
1771, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS, 185 

Robert Thornton, 400 acres, on the north side of the little Kanah- 
away River to include his settletnent made thereon in 1773, with a pre- 
emption of 1000 acres. 

Alexander Wade, -HMJ acres, in the rit^ht liand fork of Wickwire 
Creek to include his settlement made in 177-i, with a preemption of 100 
acres. 

Jacob Pindle, ass.ee to David Burchill, 400 acres, on the west side of 
Monongalia River below the mouth of Indian Creek to include his settle- 
ment made in 177-"i, with a preeinption of 101)0 acres adjoininjj. 

Thomas Harrison, (Harris ? ) 400 acres, in the upper Gladey Creek a 
!/ranch of Sugar Creek adjoining lands claimed by a certain Le\\-is to in- 
clude his settlement made in 177-5, with a preemption of 1000 acres ad- 
joining. ; - - v 

Casper Everly, 400 acres, on the ^ilonongalia River adjoining lands 
claimed by Richard Harrison with a preemption of 1000 acres. 

John Evanns, 400 acres, on papa Creek adjoining a place call.d the 
I'.i^g leavel or the White oak leavel to include his settlement made 
■■A 177.J, with a preemption of 10<JO acres adjoining. 

John Evans Jun.r, ass.e, to Philip Shively, 400 acres on Grass Creek .n. 
Dranch of Hughes River to include his settlement made thereon about 
»i>: miles above the mouth of Grass Creek in 177M with a Preemption of 
l'«X) acres adjoining. 

sitnon Cochran, 40() acres, on Lamberts Run adjoining lands claimed 
'•y Hezekiah Dax-i.-^on to include his settlement made in 177:!, with a 
vrecniption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Willson and ^lartin Shobe a-ss.ee, to James Knots, asTeiunus in 
"'r.imon, 400 acres, on the Dry Fork of Cheat Ri\er to include a settte- 
'^tnt at the Horse Camp in the year_177r., with a preemption of Iihmj 
''■^vs adjoining. 



Levi Wells, ass.e to Jepith Tobin, 400 acres, on Glady Run a brancli 
■^ the Brushy fork of Elk Creek to include his .-.ettlement nmde in 1772. 



Thomas Chinneth Jun.r, 4<J<} acre.-, on the waters of Scotts Mill Rl 
'Joining lands claimed by John Rani-cy to inrhidc his scitlciiieTit jjuk 
= 1"4. with a preemption of l'»00 acres. 



S<;ltihiti GolT, i'lu acres, on Cheat River adjoining the lands of Dan- 
^Cameron to include the actual settlement of the i^aid G<A'i made in 
"' with a preemption of lOOD aCTes. 



186 TKANSAl.LEGHEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. " 

Jacob Joues, 200 acres, on ^lorgans Run adjoining lauds of Richard 
falls to include his settlement made in 1773, with a preemption of 1(XJ'>. 

Jeremiah Archer, -100 acres, on Big Sandy Creek on both sides of the 
Tigar Valley road ncare to lands claimed by Charles Chenj- to include 
his settlement made in 1774, with a Preemption of 1000 acres. 

Samuel Hyde, 400 acres, on the waters of tlie west Fork in the riglu 
of having a residence on the Western Waters by making a Crop of Corn 
before 177S to include an improvement made adjoining lands Granted to 
John P. Duvall at the isKJifta iioiiiAe in 1773. 

John John, 400 acres, on Camp run adjoining lands claimed Ly'^'iTI- 
iam John to include his settlement begun in the year 1773, with a pre- 
emption of 1000 acres. 

David Scott, ass.e to Andrew Zeni, 400 acres, on Pappa Creek below 
the first big run empting in to the said creek on theborth side next below 
the upper fork to include his settlement made in 1770. 

Richard Ashcraft, ass.e to Abrsham Carter, 400 acres, at the Monong.a 
Glades adjoining the lands of Richard Powel to include his settlement 
made by the said Powel thereon in 1775, with a Preemption of 1000 acres. 

Thomas Clear, ass.e to James Allison, 400 acres, on the »dividing 
ridging Between Booths Creek &. Cobunis Creek to include his settlement 
made in 1774, with a Preemption of 1000 acres. 

John Evans, ass.e to Samuel Owens, 400 acres, ou the waters of the 
Monongalia River to include his settlement made in the month of April 
or May, 1769, with a Preemption of 1000 acres. 

David Scott, ass.e to Francis Bussel ( ? ) Jun.r, 400 acres, on the 
Monongahela River adjoining lands claimed Jacob Scott to Include his 
settlement made in 1779. 

William Thompson, 400 acres, on Foxy Grape Creek a Drain of the 
Tyger Valley, adjoining lands claimed by William M'Cleers- to include 
his settlement made in 177'>, with a preemption of 1000 acres. 

Mark Hardin, 400 acres, on a Crick that euipties into the little 
Kanahaway on the East side about a mile from the mouth -of the said 
rivei adjoining lands Claimed by Robert Thornton to include his settle- 
ment made in 1772, with a Preemption of 1WX>. 

Eenjamin Arclicr, a.-s.te to James Cumberford, 400 acres, on Mill 
Creek about four mile.s from Ibe Ohio River to include hir. --cttlfinent 
m?de in 1770, with a Preemption of 10*Xt acrts. . 



SETT1.EMEMS ON THE WESTi^RN WATERS. IS" 

Echvard Johnson, 400 acres, on Morgans Run adjoining lands claimed 
by Richard Falls to include 'lis settlement made in 177--'"., with a Preen:p- 
tion of lOiX) acres. 

' Jonathan Bozarth. 40* • acres, in the ri.ulit of ha\ing rcsiiled and rais- 
ing a C'-'^p of Corn before ITTS. situate on the West Fork about ont mile 
above the mouth of BulTalo Crock to inclwle his settlcii'.ent made in 1774, 
with a Preemption of 4(X) acres^ 

William Burmingham, 4(Xf acres, to inclade his improvement made 
on Deckers Creek adjoining tli^ land claimed by Jacob Jacobs in 1774, in 
the right of residing and raisiEg corn, etc. 

Josep Lemaster, 4i>iJ acresv on on the waters of Pappa Creek to iii- 
clude his settlement made thesieoa in 177">. 

Martin Zem and Andrew Zern & Su.sanah Decker as Tennant in Com- 
ruin (notJointTeunantsl agreeable to a Deedof Gift from Catherin Decker 
rclique of Graut i ? ) Dicker, decease 1, 400 acres, on Decker Creek ad- 
joining lands claimed by Henry Smith to include his settlement made in 
1770. (1) ' ' ■ ' 

John Willson, Theophilus Phillips S: William M'Cleery, Executors 
of George Willson, 400 acres, on White day Creek known by the Name 
of White Day Place to include his settlement made thereon in 1773. 

John Mahan, ass.ee to Charles M'Intire, 400 acres, on the woolf Pen 
ridge to the said M'lntires rigst of residing and raising corn, etc., with a 
preemption of lOU acres. 

Richard Hani.son, 400 acr.es, on Waters of Crookc.l Run adjoining 
lands claimed by Charles Martin to include his settlement made thereon 
in 17t")9, with a Preemption of 10«X) acres adjoining. 

Tiiomas Tanuihill (this name is uncertain"!, 400 acres, on the west 
side of the mouth of Sandy Creek a branch of Cheat River to include his 
settlement made in 1770. 

James Templin. 400 acrerf. on waters of Booths Creek adjoining lanils 
claimed by Thomas Clear to r.nclude his settlement made thereon in 1776. 

George Wade, Sen.r, 40Ct acres, Bulstone Run a Dndn of Dunkcr 
Creek to include his settlement made in 177->. 

fl) Ihiscertiticatt' is TKori-lfrJ, bnt basaaumberof lines rtraT.-n acrosH it as 
if the reoorc! was erroiit-ou.sl> m^ide. Bar no reason appears for the marks. Tho 
certificate se-^nis rejniUir on its t-.ce, and a noii; ht the foot inalcates thi» pftvuitiir. 
of fet-s for recor.lin.j. It is corKtu liei-t as tlui.win:^ some li,;ht on the hi-vto.-y of 
the Del:U^■:• t.unily. Wer«3 tbo3-»r>-opIe related to Thi/inas Dcoktr, who, AV't^prs 
sars, settie.l cn rvck«i''s Creek iu KiS? 



188 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Bruce Worlej-, 400 acres, on l>oth sides of Dunker Creek to include 
his settlement made thereon in 177:i. 

Daniel Mcfarland ass.ee to Hezekiah Hardesley, 400 acres, on Tiger 
Valley Run adjoinnig lands granted to the s.d Mcfarland on the Mud 
Lick Run in the said Hardesley right of residing on the ^Veste^n Waters 
a whole year before the first of Janaary 1778. 

Heirs of Alexa,nder Miller, ass.ee of James Piles, 400 acres, on the 
forks of Scotts Meadows Run to include his settlement made thereon 
above Jacksons cabbin in 1773. 

Henry Barnes, 400 acres, about two miles and a half mile from forks of 
Huges River on the North side of the South Fork in the right of ha\-ing 
a Residence on the Western Waters by Making a Crop of Com before 
1778. 

Ezekiel York, a.ss.ee to Jeremiah York, 400 acres, on both sides of 
the little Sai:dy Creek, adjoining lands Claimed by Charles Cheney to 
include his settlement begun in 1775. 

Charles Fallingnash, 400 acres, on the head of Stony Run adjoining 
lands Claimed by Edward Tanner to include his settlement begun there- 
on in 1775. 

William Lowther, Heir at Law of Robert Lo\\-ther, 400 acres, on both 
sides of West Fork at the mouth of Hackers Creek adjoining lands of the 
said William Lowther to include his settlement made thereon in 1775. 

John Dent, ass.ee to Elias Bumingham, 400 acres, on a Drain of Buf- 
falo Creek at the mouth of the Buffalo Lick Run, to include the lands 
on both sides said creek to inch-.de his settlement made in 1770. 

John Willson, William McCleery & Theophilus Phillips acting E.x- 
ecutors to George Willson, 400 acres, on a drain of ^lonongalia River ad- 
joining lands claimed by Richard Hr.rrison to include his settlement 
made tliereon in 1770. 

Daniel Mcfarland, ass.ee to Abraham Evans, 400 acres, on Goose 
Creek a branch of Hughes River adjoining lands Granted to said. Mcfar- 
land on said creek to include bis settienient begun there in 1775. 

Ignatius Butler, 400 acres, on tlie svaters of Cheat River near tlie 
month of Sand}' Creek in the right of residence to inclnde his injprove- 
nient made thereon in 1777. 

Simon Hendrick, 200 acres, on the waters of Booths Creek in llie 
right of preemption adjoining ]an<l^ claimed by H.^nry Tucker to include 
' his settlement thereon in 1775. 



■ ■ SETTLEMENTS OX THE WESTERN WATERS. 189 

Jeremiah Meek, 400 acres, both sides of Joes Run vihere the road 
crosses said run in the right of residing and making a Crop of Corn, etc. 

Charles WliilecliiT, 1<X) acres, on the h'ttle Kanhaway River adjoin- 
ing lands Granted to the said Whitecliff at said place in the right of resid- 
ing and making a Crop of Com, etc. 

Jesse ?>aiis, 400 acres, on a ft-Tanch of the Tiger Valley River below 
Glady Creek, and near to laud kiaown by tlie name of the Levells to in- 
chide his settlement made thereci3i in 1772. 

John Madison, ass.ee to James Ross, who was ass.ee to Robert Kerr. 
AW acres in Ohio County (1) oa ;a branch of Middle Island Creek that 
runs through John Caldwells Ponnt Pleasant Land to include his im- 
provement made thereon in 1773. 

William Robison, ass.ee to Jolat! Evans, Hai acres, on Salt Lick Creek, 
to include his settlement in 177."], rn the said Evans right of residing and 
raising com, etc. 

Edward Jackson & John Eink„ as Tennants in Common, ass.ee to 
George Par-sons, 400 acres, iti the Fa.'-sons right of rei-iding and raising a 
crop of corn., to include an improvsement made by the said Parsons on 
the head of little Elk adjoining lands claimed by Timothy Dorman in 
the year 177-5. 



George Jackson, 400 acres, on the second big Run adjoining lands 
claimed bv Rigar to include his settiement made in 1773. 



Guva (or Gewa, or something else) IJenningham, 4<X) acres, on 
waters of Scotts Ruri adjoining land.- claimed by Daniel Ferry to include 
his settlement made in 1773. 

John Swaringeu, Sen.r, 400 acres, on Ten INIiles Creek a branch of 
the West P'ork at Nicholas Carpenters Camp in the right of residing & 
making corn before 177J?. 

Ames Huff, ass.ee to William Robins, 400 acres on Buffalo Creek ad- 
joining lands claimed by the said Hu/i at the forks of said Creek to in- 
clude his settlement made in 1776. 



Henry Smith, 4<X) acres, on the waters of Dunker Creek, adjoining 
lands claimed by Richard Tennant to include h^'s settlement made there- 
on in 1775. 



(1) This certifii-ate should have beeia rccordeil In O/iio County instead of 
MononjTBlia. , . - 



190 TliA>SALLEGriK^:Y HiSTOKICAT. MAGAZINE. 

James Scott, a.-s.ec to Willin:;! Robins, 400 i'cres, on the west side of 
Monongalia Hivcr, adjcininij lamls claimed I'.y I^iviil Scott, Scii.r, to in- 
clude his settlement made thereon in 1770. 

Stephen Ratliff. as.-:.ee to John Rice, 400 acres, on a fork of Davfssons 
Run adjoining lands of Amassa Davis.son to include bis settlement in 
1773. ^ y. 

Phillip Pinikll, ass.ee to Nathan lUitler, 100 acres, on a drain of 
Buffalo Creek that empties into said creek below the mouth of the Dunker 
Mill Run to include his settlwrient made thereon in 177o. 

David Scott, ass.ee to John Criss, 40<) acres, on the South Side of 

Pappa Creek nearly opposite to lands Granted to the said — on the 

north side to incl^ide liis settlement made thereon in 177n. 

David Scott, ass.ee to Thomas Bcrmiiigham, 4<>0 acres, on Monon- 
fialia River, adjoininjf lands grranted to John Evans, ass.ee of Daniel 
\'each to include his settlement made thereon in 177">. 

Robert Parks, ass.ee to John Stackhonse, 40O acres, on the head 
ivaters of Booths Creek,. to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Zarah Asbuni, 4un acre.-^, on the head, vv a'ers of Yohogania Rixer, 
above lands claimed hy John PettigTew, Jun.r, in the right of residing 
one whole year on the Western ^V'aters before 1778. 

William Robison, ass.ee to John Hartlesley. 400 acres, on Salt Lick 
Creek to include his .settlement begun thereon in 177:5. 

Daniel Mcfarlan<l, ass.ee to William Oakman, 400 acres, on Goose 
Creek a liranch of th.e Hu.;bc:s River adjoining lands granted to the said 
Mcfarland. on said creek to include his settlement begun thereon in 177-'i. 

William Tucker, 4i.>J acrc;>, on Booths Creek adjoining lands cl:>imed 
by the Heirs of James Booth, to include his settlement made in 177:;. 

Richard RatlifT, :300 acres, on the waters of Tiger Valley Ri-. jr on 
the west side thereof, adjoining lands claimed by John Reg.ar, to include 
his settlement Uiade in 1771. 

Thomas Griggs, 400 rxres, on the di\-lding ridge between the waters 
of Joes Run and the White day Creek o!i tlic left hand side of the road 
that leads to Petijobns l-'ord on the Tiger Valley FJver, to inclu^'e his 
.settletnent made in 177-'>. 

John RatlifF, 400 acres, on Elk Creek ddjoi:;ing lands claiiUed by 
Jonatlian Stout in the right of having settled a Tenant ti-.e-eou tc inclndc 
his settlcm>:nt thereon in 177:'.. ,,»; .. 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 191 

Certificates Granted at Clarksburg (April, 1781.) 

Ezekiel Tlionias, 400 acres, on the waters of Booths Creek adjoining 
lands claimed fonner4y by John Thomas, deceased, to include his settle- 
ment made thereon in 1773, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Isaac Richards, -100 acres, on fhe v/aters of Elk Creek adjoining lands 
claimed by Charles Harrison in the right of residence to include his im- 
provement made thereon (no date). 

Isaac Shinn, 400 acres, on Simpsons Creek in the right of residence 
to include his improvement made adjoining lands claimed by Andrew 
Da\asson in 1775. 



Joseph Shreeve, 400 acres, on lost Creek on the left hand fork in 
right of residence to include his improvement made thereon in 1773. 



John Hughstead, 400 acres, on the waters of Barclays Run near to 
the widow Juggins land in the right of residence to include his improve- 
ment made thereon in 1772. 



John Wilkinson, 400 acres, ov. Simpsons Creek adjoining lands 
claimed by Andrew Da\-is3on to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Good\\-in, Juu.r, 400 acres, on the v.-aters of Booths Creek (1) 
adjoining lands claimed by John \^"!ckwire in the right of residence to 
include his improvement made therscn in 1775. 



Fredeiick Cooper, 400 acres, on Cheat River opposite the mouth of 
Bulls Run to include his settlement made thereon in 1770. 

David !slinear, 200 acres, Cl^y Lick Run a branch of Cheat River in 
right of Residence to include his improvement made thereon in 1776. 

John Minear, 400 acres, on the Monongalia River at the mouth of 
Pleasant Creek to include hLs settlement made thereon in 1775. 

Silathiel Gauff, ass.e to William Wilson, 400 acres on Cheat R.iver 
opposite to lands claimed by Thomas Parsons to include his settlement 
made thereon in the year 1776. 

Jonathan Minear, 200 acres, on Che.it River belov.- the mouth of 
Clover Run, to include bis settlement made thereon in 1776. 

John Minear, 400 acres, on Cheat River opposite the niouth of Clover 
Run to include his settlement made thereon in 1776. 



(1) There are two Booths Creeks: One empties Lito the ilonoagahela four 
inilss ahOTO 'Morganton a: the other etnpties into thf- VTest Fot'k- Ulverat Mcnon- 
gah. 



192 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Salathiel GaufF, ass.e to Thomas Peirce, 200 acres, on Cheat River 
nearly opposite the Horse Shoe Bottom to inchide his settlement made 
thereon in 1776. 

William Lowther, ass.e to George Grundy, 400 acres, on Simpsons 
Creek adjoining lands claimed by William Robeson to include his settle- 
ment made thereon in 1770, with a Preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

William Lowther, 4'.Xi acres, on Hackers Creek adjoining lands 
claimed by Jesse Hughes to include his settlement made thereon in 1772, 
with a preemption of 100<.1 acres adjoining. 

William. Lowther, assignee, to William Stewaj-t(?), 400 acres, on 
the east side of the west branch of Monongalia River adjoining his settle- 
ment as assignee of Charles Washburn to include his settlement made 
thereon in 1775, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

William Lowther, assignee, to Robert P;'.rk, 400 acres, adjoining his 
settlement as assignee to Charles Washburn to include his settlement 
made thereon in the year 1776, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

William Lowther, assignee, to Charles Washburn, 400 acres, on the 
waters of the west branch of the Monongalia River adjoining to Jacob 
Richards lan<l to include his settlement made in 1771. 

Joseph Hall, 400 acres, on the east side of the west branch of the 
Monongalia River in the right of residence to include his improvement 
made thereon in 1771, with a preemption right of 1000 acres adjoining. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY. 
December 5, 1901. 

The annual meeting of the Society was held in room 10, Martin 
Hall, at the West Virginia University on December 5, 1901. 

The meeting was called t<6 order by the President, and the 
minutes as printed in the Magazine lor October, If^Jl, were approved. 

The President made an inf'Ormal verbal report stating that the 
chief object of interest since the last meeting was the beginning of 
the publication of the Transallegheny Historical JNIagazine, which 
was commenced with the Octob»er number, 1901, and had met with 
a kindly reception. 

The Treasurer, Mr. Ma.xwelii, presented the following report, 
which was ordered to be entered upon the minutes. 

The Treasurer's Report. 

This Sociely has 101 members, whose annual dues of two dol- 
lars each will amount to *202. The B'lard of Regents of the West 
Virginia University appropriated i'M, which brings this year's total 
available resources up to 8-J52. At the present time the amounts 
actually paid into the treasurer's hands aggregate $82, which sum 
has been deposited to the vSociety's credit at the P'arniers and Mer- 
chants Bank. 

The expenses of the Society to the present time have been $10."!, 
all of it incurred in printing the October number of the Trans- 
allegheny Historical Magazine, for stationery, announcements, en- 
graving and postage. There has been no expense for anything else. 
There is enough stationery on hand to last a year, and no further 
expenditure for that purpose will be necessary. 

The cost of printing the muj^azine, of the size and style of the 
October number, will be about *'-to or 5^100 each issue, or approx- 
imately S400 per year. There is about *2oO in sight for the first 
year. That will pay the cost of the October and .January numbers 
and part of the March number. 

This brings us to a considenition of future plans. It is taken 
for granted that the Society ynd the .Magazine must go ahead, 
there must be no hesitating on that point, for the beginning promises 
too much. The Society might, perhaps, continue to hold meetings, 
appoint committees, and tile papers, without any magazine, and 
could do so at very little expense; bat it would be too much like 
faith without works— <lead The duty of the Society, as 1 under- 
stand it, is only half done when it has collected data and facts of 
history. The other half of the duty consists in publishing what it 
collects. Indeed, of the two this latter seems the much more ini- 
purlant piirt. It has been written that men do not light a candle 



194 TRANSALLEGHEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

aud put it under a bushel; none the less should an historical society 
fail to publish the results of its labors. , 

In order to carry on this work there should be at least one hun- 
dred additional members, and there ougUt to be several hundred 
more. Their annual dues would supply funds for publications, in 
addition to the magazine; but the magazine should be the chief con- 
-siderat: in and the one of greatest importance. Our first number 
does not suffer in comparsion with similar publications by other 
historical societies in other states, either in quantity and quality of 
material, or in general appearance. About IrO copies were sent to 
as many historical societies with the request that they exchange 
their publications for ours. These exchanges are now coming in, 
and will be deposited in, and as a part of, the library of the Vv est 
Virginia University. 

There is no lack of material for some years to come: for the 
region which we claim as our field is exceptionally rich in historical 
matter. One subject alone may be cited: that of Prof. Fast's arti- 
cle begun in the October number, "Pioneer Settlements on Western 
Waters." Those who have never attempted to trace the early his- 
tory of the settlements west of the Alleghenies, can not appreciate 
what such articles are worth. They take the place of tradition, 
and give us truth where before we were compelled to be content 
with every class of uncertainty and error. Floods of light are 
poured in where there was scarcely a gleam before. It was well 
known that such a record was once made— that is, the minute book 
kept by the land commissioners in this region about the close of the 
Revolution, but it had been generally supposed that the book was 
burned with the Monongalia Courthouse in 1796, and that fragment- 
ary copies at Richmond were ail that could now be found regarding 
the actual men and tlieir settlements west of the Alleghenies a cen- 
tury and a quarter ago. Prof. Fast was so fortunate as to discover 
and bring to light the old recrd which by some means escaped the 
fire, and from its pages he compiled his article for the first 
number of the magazine. The names ot the early pioneers aud the 
dates of their settlements are given for almost every valley, river, 
creek, or locality in the northeastern one-third of West Virginia 
and in a portion of .Southwestern Pennsylvania. There is enough 
in the book to furnish an article for each issue of the magazine fur 
two years. It is new material. It is a field unknown and untouched 
by local historians before. 

When this record for Monongalia Cuunty, as it was of old, shall 
have been utilized, there are believed to be twoothersimilarrecords 
to be found, one for Ohio Couuty as it existed in ITSl, and the otlier 
for Greenbrier County at the same time. These would cover nearly 
the whole of West Virginia we^t of the Alleghenies, and will form 
practically a complete list of names of all the pioneers who claimed 
land west of the Alleghenies in this State, and asmaiipartof Penn- 
sylvania by right of settlement prior to 1781. 



PROCEKDINGS uF ANNUAL MEETING 195 

That is only one line along which investigatiuns may be carried 
fur years to come. Among others may be mentioned the lecoids of 
tarly marriage licenses; lists of old wills; scraps of Indian history 
which escaped Withers, Doddridge and Dellass; our part in the 
War of 1S12; incidents of the Civil War; industrial developments; 
and many others of similar or dilierent kind, not to mention the 
opportunity in the line of biography. Frequently a single individual 
(fo: example, some one of the settlers who is given but a few lines 
in Prof Fast's article) cuuld be made the subject of many interest, 
ing pages by some line who happens to know his history. By this 
method tliat which seems in one place to be only an item without 
details, may become life and spirit of fascinating history. 

These suggestions need not be pursued further to show what 
possibilities lie in the future for this society. While the worK may 
not, in all cases, be light, yet the reward is sure. But of all things, 
the one essential is, that v.e look upon the work as something prac- 
tical to be done, and not as a theoretical condition to be^discussed 
and considered. We should aim at results, and should reach them 
by the shortest ruad that is possible for us. 

Hu Maxwell, 

Treasurer. 

The Committee on Constitution and By-Laws appointed at the 
last meeting presented a rep<jrt through Dr. A. D. Hopkins as 
follows: 

The undersigned Committee on Revision of the Constitution 
and By-Laws submitted the foUov.ing report: 



CONSTITUTION. 
I. 

The name of this Society shall be tlie T ransalkghemj Hist/jrioal 
Society. 

II. 

The object shall be the promotion of historical studies relating 
to the transallegheny region in West Virginia, Western Pennsyl- 
vania, Xortheasturn Kentucky, and theOhio Valley, by discovering, 
procuring, and preserving vvhatever relates to the history of the 
region in its fullest and broadest sense. 
III. 

Any person approved by the Executive Council may become a 
member by paying two dollars; and after the first year may continue 
a member by paving an :innual fee of two dollars. On payment of 
twenty-tive dollars any person may become a life member exempt 
from fees. 

IV. 

The officers shall be a President, two Vice-Presidents, a Secre- 



196 TRANSALLEGHEY HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

tiiry, a Treasurer, a Curator, and an Executive Council consisting of 
the foregoing otlicers and three other members elected by ballot by 
the Society at the regular annual meeting. 
V. 
The Executive Council shall have charge of the general inter- 
ests of the Society, including the election of members, the calling 
of meetings, and the determination of the kind and character of 
the publications to be issued by the Society. 

VI. 

This Constitution may be amended at any annual meeting, 
notice of such amendment having been given at tlie previous annual 
meeting, or the proposed amendment having received the approval 
of Executive Council. 

BY-LAWS. 

I. The annual meeting of the Society shall be held at the 
West Virginia University on the first Thursday in iJecember. 

II. Nine members shall constitute a quorum. 

III. The duties of all officers not specified in the Constitution 
or By-Laws, shall be such as are customarily performed by such 
officers in similar societies under the rules and practice of general 
parliamentary lavr. The Executive Council may define such duties 
in accordance with this by-law. 

IV. The Executive Council shall incur no indebtedness beyond 
the amount of the dues and fees of the Society for the current year. 

V. The following order of busines-s shall govern all meetings 
unless altered by the Executive Council: 

1. Reading of minutes of the last meeting. 

2. Reports and communications from officers of the Society. 

3. Reports of the Executive Committee. 

4. Reports of special committees. 

5. Unfinished business. -. ' ■ . ■ 
fi. iS'ew business. ■ ' ■ , 

7. Reading and discussion of papers. 

VI. These by-laws may be amended at any annual meeting by 
a majority of the members present. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. E. L. Allex, 
, . _ R. E. Fast, 

■ • " . A. D. noPKi>;s, 

HU MAXW'JiJ.L. 

Professor Henry S. Green presented the following resf>lution, 
which was adopted: 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this Society that there should 



PROCEEDINGS OF ANNUAL MEETING. 197 

be an archaeological section for the studj- of the archaeology of this 
region, and for the collection and preservation of archaeological 
materials— written, monuineatal, and traditional: and 

That t(j this end there shall be a Cuiiiniittee on Archaeology 
coDsisting of five members appointed by the Executive Council, 
who shall have full power to formulate and carry into elTect such 
plans as may be approved by the Executive Council for the promo- 
tion of the study of the archrieology of the transallegheny region. 

The discussion on this resolution raised the question of the 
work to be accomplished by the Society, and Ex-State Superinten- 
dent of Free Schools, Virgil A. Lewis, Miss Anna Euckbee of the 
Pennsylvania State Normal School at California, and Mr. Myron C. 
Lough of the State ^'urmal School at Fairmont, made some inter- 
esting remarks. Professor Green read a letter received from Dr. 
"\\'alter Hough of the Susithsonian Institution suggesting an out- 
line for the proposed work in archaeology. 

The election of officers was declared next in order. The new 
constitution having provided for two vice-presidents instead of 
three, as in the temporary organization. 

On motion of Profess^-r Grt-en, it was ordered that the Secretary 
cast the ballot for all the officers of the temporary organization, ex- 
cept the third vice-president. 

The Secretary then proceeded to the election of the three mem.- 
bers, in addition to the ofEcers, necessary to constitute the Execu- 
tive Council, which resulted as follows: Mr. Frank Stanton of 
Wheelini,', Dr. I. C. White, Morgantown, and Mr. Myron C. Lough, 
Fairmont. 

The Society then adjoarned. 

A meeting of the members of the Executive Council present was 
held immediately after adjourn m.ent of the Society. 

The applications of the Fairmont Normal School and of Hon. 
Virgil A. Lewis for membership in the Society were favorably 
acted upon. 

A number of nominations for membership were acted upon. 



/qg 



Editorial Notes and Miscellanies. 



BoAijD OF EDiTOlis: Subscription: 

Eu Maxwell, Two Dollars a Year. 

Richard Ellsworth Fast, Free to Members of the 

Boyd Crckrise. Tkansallegheny Histor- 

TCAL Society. 



Each annual voluiue of ttifs Mag-azine will contain a supplement 
with a complete table of contents and an index. Save your 
magazines, have them bound, and place tiiem in your library. 

Ex-State Superintendent of Free Schools, Virgil A. Lewis, was 
in the city and attended the annual meeting. Mr. Lewis is well 
known as an historian to the people of the State. He is always an 
interesting speaker on subjects connected with the work the Society 
has in hand. 

Mr. K. G. Thwaites, Secretary of The State Historical Society 
of Wisconsin, is kind enough to say in a perj^onal letter to one of 
the editors of this magazine: "You have certainly made a good 
start. Your title-pdge is neat: the selection of a good readable type 
has been wise. The editing aid the general effect are pleasing. I 
wish you great success in your worthy venture." 

; The Society is to be congratulated on having secured the con- 
sent of Boyd Crumrine, Esq.. of Washington, Pa., to act as one of 
the board of editors. Mr. Crumrine is a busy lawyer, being con- 
nected with two otlices, one in Washington and the other in Pitts- 
burg. But he has found time to publish a voluminous Iliftoiy of 
■ Washington Countij, and now has on press a Bistwj of the Courts of 
Justice, Bench and Bar of Washington County. We may expect some 
contributions from his pen in the future. 

Miss Anna Buckbee, teacher of History in the State formal 
School at California, Pa , came up to attend the annual meeting of 
the Society. ^liss Buckbee .stated that most historical societies 
were contented with the accumulation of historical material; but 
the thing that attracted her to the Transallogheny Historical So- 
• ciety was its proposal to publish its collections so that some use can 
be made of the material collected. Miss Buckbee is a real live 
teacher; she does not hesitat'.i to seize upon an important episode of 



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EDITORIAL NOTES AND MISCELLANIES. 199 

local history and dramatize it and have her pupils give it as a phu'. 
•Siieli teai'hing as this tcaehes. 

From one of the Surveyors'' Records in Monongalia County it 
appears that one Philip Dcddrfdfre received from the Commissioners 
f'lr adjusting,'- the claims to unpatented lands a certificate dated 
January 2o, ITSU, for kX) acres otf land on the head of Duukard Creek 
t<) include his settlement made in 1771. Tli*^ Doddridge family, as 
well as Senator "Willev, who wn^le the Sketch of the Life of Philip 
Doddridge (1772-18;!2), seem to be in doubt as to the name of the 
grandfather of our Phiiip. Th<»,y seem to liave no knowledge of 
another Philip Doddridg-e. On page 82 of the last number of this 
magazine another mention is naade of him as having made a settle- 
ment for Moses Trader on Toms Pain and .Jfies Run. "Who was this 
pioneer Philip Doddridge y He made a settlement on Dunkard 
in 1772. .John Doddridge the father of our Philip, came to Wash- 
ington County, Pa., the follovsing year. "Were Philip and John 
brothers? [See Mr. Willey's Sketch, page ^i. 

Tlie West Virginia Geologieidl Survey ha.': issued Bulletin No. 1. 
It is a bibliography of works upxon the geology and natural resources 
of West Virginia, from 1764 to IWJl, and also a cartography of West 
Virginia, from 1737 to 1601. It was compiled by Samuel B. Brown, 
Professor of Geology in the West Virginia University. He is also 
connected with the state geological survey. This work of eighty- 
seven pages brings together (for the tirst time) works that relate to 
West Virginia, treating in any way of its geology, mineralogy, 
botany, or its natural resource.s.. The field in whicli Prof. Brown 
has done his work was a newone. No similar compilation had been 
made before. This made his task the lufire difficult: but he has 
doni-' it well, and has bniught toirether a ma.^s of authorities which 
will surprise those who had taken it for granted that little literature 
of that nature existed concernitii; West Virginia. Those who wish 
to pursue investigations aiong lines connected with our natural re- 
sources will find the gronnd so well mapjied and measured by 
Prof. Brown that work will be c mparativtly easy. 

Tlie' lx)ok is being distributed under directions of the State 
Geologist, Dr. I. C. White, Mon^antown. W. Va. 

The Li5iie Tree. v -. . . i- ;-':• ■' 

On the summit ot" Rich Mountain, five milts west ot Beverly, in 
Randolph County, stiinds "The LoEe Tree," visible for miles from al- 
most any direction. The ground aT>out the tree w;is formerly cleared, 
but it has now been nearly tiiken possession of Ijv a second growth of 
scrubby brush. The historical inteirest in the tree is due to tlie fact that 
under its br.inchcs. on July 11, 1S*>5, General Ro<;ecrans halted and held 



200 TUANSALLEGIIEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

a short consultation with his officers just before advancing to begin the 
battle at Rich :Mc.unt;iin. The tree stands one tnile from the battlefield, 
and 570 fef>t al.ove. A forest then separated it from the Confederate 
position. The Union force, which was the attackinj,' party, numbered 
1917 men, and the Confederates numbered about 300. 



The Last Battle of the Revolution. 
The attack by the British and Indians on Fort Henry, at Wheeling, 
in September, 17S2, is entitled to the credit of being the last battle of the 
Revolution. The British flag, which was carried on that occasion was 
the last that was seen in battle in the United States during the War for 
Independence. Captain Bradt, an Englishman, led the force against 
Fort Henry. It consisted uf forty irregular soldiers and two hundred 
and thirty-eight Indians. ■ More than twenty attempts were made to 
batter down the gates of the fort or to set the structure on fire. The as- 
saults were all repelled, and the enemy finally retreated. The picture of 
the fort and its assailant^ in this issue is from a painting by Mr. Joseph 
A. Fans, of Wheeling. The painting was exhibited at the Fort Henry 
Centennial at Wheeling in 18S2. It is probabh as nearly accurate in its 
details as is pensile for a picture to be made, so long after those who wit- 
nessed the scene are dead and gone. Mr. Paris made a careful study of 
the locality, and took advantage of all reliable data bearing on the sub- 
ject, and his picture is of permanent historical value. 

■' : ■" The Last Buffalo and Elk. 

The mass of mountains, with almost impenetrable forests, which lie 
about the sources of Cheat River and the eastern branch of the ^lonon- 
gahela, has been, since the first exploration, and still is, a splendid hunt- 
ing ground. This region was the home of both the buffalo and elk long 
after they had ceased to e:-nst anywhere else east of the Ohio, within the 
Appalachian country. In lS2o— at least as late as that — a buffalo cow and 
her calf were killed at Valley Head, near the source of Tygart's River. 
The exact year is not certain, but old settlers agree that it was no earlier 
than IS'2'). That was five years after the last buffalo was killed en the 
Kanawha, according to John P. Hale. The same authority states that 
the last elk on the Kanawha was killed in 1S15. There were elk in 
Randolph County and the present territory of Tucker, years after that. 
About l'^:^>0 the wife of Thomas B. Sumir.erfield shot an elk at a lick near 
the head of Gandy Creek, a branch of Dry Fork of Cheat River. Five 
years later Abraham Mullenix killed another elk at the same place. In 
1840 another was killed on Red Creek, in Tucker County. In 184;>, three 
hunters from Dn.' ForK, Joab Carr, and two men named Flannagan, 
killed three elk on Black Fork of Cheat River, near where the present 
'town of Davis stands. So far as known, these were the last elk killed 
on the soil of West Virginia, but the animal was not ertinct for f fteen or 
twenty years Liter. Hunters were not able to bring any in, but they 



EDITORIAL, NOTES AND MISCELLANIES. 201 

knew their haunts and spent considerable time chasing them almost as 
late as the beginning of the Ci%-il War. The animal's last range was in 
the Canaan Valley, in Tucker County, and one of the last^hunters who 
pursued them was William Ix)sh, of Tucker. 

A Modera Benjamite. 

From about 1S30 to 1S40 there lived in Randolph County, now 
Tucker County, a slave who was so remarkable that he deserves a place 
in history. He was known as the "Black Benjamite," an allusion to the 
Benjamites of the Bible who could throw a stone a "hair's breadth and 
not miss." They were left handed, and so was he, although he was 
ambidextrous. 

About 1S30 he and another slave were bought near Richmond by Dr. 
Arnold Bonnifield, and were brought to Randolph County. Ike was the 
name of the stone thrower. Old people who remember him tell of his 
remarkable feats. With either hand he could hurl a stone (I have been 
told) about one thousand feet. At any rate, the distance of a certain 
tree — standing until recently —was six hundred feet from a point where 
he stood. He threw stones clear over the top of it, and it was a hun.ired 
feet high. From this fact, the entire random]of the projectile could not 
have been much short of one thousand feet. 

The accuracy of his throw was more remarkable than its distance. 
He was fond of hunting, but a poor shot. Sometimes when he had tried 
in vain to kill a squirrel with his rifle, he wouid'Skilljit with a rock. But 
his skill was not always turned to harmless pursuits. He was of a savage 
disposition, and when provoked, he threw stones at cattle, horses, or 
other live stock, and often with serious consequences. Dr. Bonnifield's 
herds were hornle.ss long before the dehorning of cattle became fashion- 
able. This dangerous and destructive ^disposition at least cause>l his 
undoing. His master determined to sell hini. He sold hi'm to John 
Graham who took him to Missouri, and establis'ned him on a fa.rm where 
there were no stones to throw. He threw his pocket knife whenever he 
had one, but, of course, he never kept one long. His occupation was 
gone, and all that was left for him was to end his days on a plantation, 
without hope of further distinction. 

Two ladian Forts. 
When the Dunmore war opened in 1774, the people of Tygart's Val- 
ley, then in Augusta County, but now in Ratidolph, built two forts as 
security against Indians. One at Beverly was called Westfall's, and an- 
other ten miles south, near the present village;.): Huttonsville.was known 
as the Currence Fort. Racb was named from the man on whose land it 
was built. Both were rather small 'og houses. The Currence fort wa.s 
evidently the same as "Ca^iir.o's" mentioned in Withers' Border Warfare 
The name "Casino" was no doubt the result of badly written copy and 
poorly read proof when the Border Warfare v,a? first printed. It should 



202 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZ.XE. 

have been Currence. Many years after the last Indian had paid a hastile 
\Tsit to West Virginia, the Currence fort was torn down and the logs were 
nsed in building a residence for a Tygart's Valley farmer. This house, 
in itt turn, was torn dov'.Ti in 1S73, and the logs were built into an abut- 
ment to prevent tlie river from Tsvai^hing the bank. Here they saw service 
nearly a score of ye.irs before a Sood carried them away, and put an end 
to their usefulness after more than a century of duty. 

The Westfall Fort was also torn down and re-built as a dwelling. It 
was evidently re-constmcteJ in S3ia same form and size as the original, 
and the same matcriai -was u.se'.L The rebuilding was done about one 
hundred years ago, ani the site ^.elected was on a bluff just south of 
Beverl)-. A fanuly named Stalmaker lived manj' years in the fort after 
it was moved, and pro?>ably b'vesi in it before it was moved. It has been 
asserted that the family originally came frotn Holland, and brought with 
them the famih" coat of arms. Something of the sort was engraved on 
the mantel, above the hearth. Generations afterwards the carving was 
sawed out and carried away by some persons, supposed to have been a 
descendant of the original family possessing the coat of arms. But 
nothing definite and triistwortliy concerning the coat of arms could be 
ascertained in ISOS, when an navestigation was made. A block had 
been sawed from the mantel, but by whom or for what purpose is not 
definitely know n. The Stalnakers were among the earliest settlers in 
Tygart's Valley, and il they hafl a coat of arms it is not improbable that 
they carved it on the mantel. 

The Westfall Fort stood as a landmark at Beverlj- until I'.'ix), when 
it was torn dow n b}- Daniel R. Eaker because it obstructed the view from 
his new residence. It had been used as a lumber room for many years. 
Early in the present century it was weather-boarded, but much of the 
boarding was torn off later, shocking the logs of the original building. 
The logs were not much decayed, although they stood tlie weather for a 
century and a quarter. The iraiUIing might have stood many years longtr. 
and if the sentimental is worth anything in history, the building was 
worth preserving. It was the oMest building in \\'e=t Virginia, west of 
the Alleghenies. The picture ic this issue is from a photograph made 
by John J. Ferguson. The buihiling was exactly of the same size as the 
Washington House, vt»T Morgantown. a picture of which was printed in 
the October number of the Trarc-ialleglitny Historical Magazine. 



Three Courthouses. 

In this number will b«^ found the pictures of three historic court- 
houses: the first one Ijuilt in Harrison County, the first built in Barbour 
County, and the second built in Randolph Count}-, two of them vet 
standing, while th-jt in Harrison County disappearetl more than a cen- 
tury ago. The last named was a ven.- small alTair and stood on pillars, 
nine feet high. When '.he jiK^ge and jury and a few law-}-ers were in it, 
there was little nxini i-jr spectators. Tlie accoiiipanving picture v.as 



':■ '''i.-^ i!.DITOraAL NOTES AND MISCELLANIES. 203 

drawn by Mr. Bruce Hayniond from the original plans and specifications 
on file at Clarksburg. 

The second courthouse, which Randolph County^built, is still stand- 
ing. It was completed in ISOS, is of brick, and was used as a court- 
house ninety years. 

The courthouse in Barbour County, while not so old as the others, has 
more of historical interest associated with it. It was commenced in 1843 
and completed in 1S46, and was modeled after the courthouse in Hamp- 
^-hi^e County, which was built about ten years before that time. The 
Barbour courthouse will soon be torn down to make room for a modern 
structure more in keepin;^ v.-ith the county's recent development. The 
old courthouse may be regarded as the ven,- storm center of the seces- 
sion movement west of the mountains in Vir^nia in ISGO and ISGl. The 
sentiment in favor of secession was verj- strong in Barbour; at least, an 
unusually large percentage of the leading men of that county favored 
secession. They held their meetings in the courthouse, and sent forth 
their circulars and resolutions. The first Confederate flag raised on the. 
present soil of West Virginia, floated from the dome of the courthouse. 
At a secession meeting held there, when not a voice had been raised for 
the Union, Spencer Dayton (father of the present Congressman from 
the Second West Virginia District) attempted to speak in behalf of the 
government. A musket was immediately leveled at him, and he escaped by 
jumping tlirough the window. When the first Confeilerate army formetl 
west of the mountains, under Colonel Porterfleld, the courthouse was 
used as an arsenal for storing the few and almost worthless military stores 
which the Confederate authorities furnished. On June 3, 1861, the town 
fell into the hands of Union troops under General Kelley, and was not 
again occupied by Confederates, except for a few hours in 1803 by the 
raiders under Generals Jones and Imbwlen. On that occasion Spencer 
Dayton carried the court records on horses into the hills and saved them 
from probable destruction. The old courthouse cost about f>,(MX>. The 
new one which will take its place will cost C>ii,CMX). 



PHILIP rODDRIDGE. (i) 

Philip Dotldridge, who was elected a member of the 21st Congress from 
what was then called the "Wheeling district" of Virginia, was bom 
ia Bedford County, Pennsylvania, May 17th, 1772. His father, John 
Doddridge, migrated from Marv^Iand to Beilford County. In 1773 the 
family removed to what is now W.ishin^ton County, Pennsylvania, then 
supposed to be within the jurisdiction of Vir-^inia. When the western 
line of Pennsylvaina was ran tlie Dodilridge residence was found to be a 

(1) Tlie Editors a<.-kno« ie<1i<« tlit?:r u.dl-^>tl."<lnf•.■^^; to the courtesy of Mr. Worner 
StutVr, Supcrii!t«ii<leat of fireet-' of the D:stTi('t c" Columbia. »nd to Col. Colin 
H. l-lviuf;stoii, for the photugraph of tin.' turtrait snri ilie copy of '.he resilu- 
tionareijrotliiCPd in thi.-i nur::b.-r. -1 S\:-:, /, of :!.e Lif^ ■■/ /'/,//.-/ DjJlrlJ;^, I.7 
Wnltmiin T. Wi;i':-7, Svo, fl .pp.. \vas publisht^d ut Morgarito-.v-Q., lS7j, by ord(,T of 
the Weat Virginia Histories' iociety. Copic-* aru rare. 



204 TRANSALLEGHENY^KISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

short distance within Penusj-lvanin. Philip studied law and established 
himself in practice at V.'ellsburg. Three times he opposed Joseph John- 
son, of Harrison County, for Conpiess in this district, and was at last 
successful in defeating him in 1829. As a member of the Committee on 
the District of Columbia he took a leading part in preparing a code of 
laws for the District. He died in Washington November 19, 1832. The 
following resolutions are a testimony of the appreciation in which his 
services in behalf of the District were held by the organs of local goveru- 
ment and by the inhabitants of the District. A portrait of Mr. Doddridge 
now hangs among an honored few in the office of the Commissioners of 
the District of Columbia. It has recently been re-touched. The frontis- 
piece to this number of the magazine is from a photograph of this 
painting. 

Resolutions testifying the respect of the board of aldermen and 
board of common council of the city of Washington, for the memory of 
the late Philip Doddridge. 

Wfureas, By a communication from the Mayor, information 
hp.th been received of the death of the honorable Philip Doddridge, 
late a representative in Congress from the state of Virginia, and Chair- 
man of the Committee of the District of Columbia, whose eminent ser\-ices 
in his public capacity, in originating and promoting measures of signal 
utility to this District, have merited'the grateful acknowledgments of our 
citizens; therefore. 

Be it Rcfolved unanimously by the board of aldermen and board of 
common council of the city of Washington, That in testimony of the 
-high sense entertained by this Corporation, of the deceased, as a bene- 
factor of the District of Columbia, the corporate authorities of the city of 
Washington will, in a body, attcn'l his funeral, from his late lodgings at 
Jesse Brown's at ten o'clock this morning; and that they will wear a 
badge of mourning ou the left arm, for the space of thirty days. 

And be it further Resolved. That the Mayor be requested to procure 
a portrait of the said Philip Doddridge, to be suspended in the hall of 
the common council. 

Approved, November 21st, lb32. 

Official copy furnished Warner Stutler, Esq. 

William Tindall, Secretary. 
• ,-, '. Botrd of Commissioners of the District of Colimibia. 



EDITORIAL >:OTES AND MISCELLANIES. 205 

THE PIONEERS : WHENCE CAME THEY ? 

[A most interentinf nud instructive sxudy on this topic coald be made in eTcry 
county, town, and city In tin State. Here is a frnitfnl theme for ambitious 
■writers. We invite contrlbntions based on original investigations and supported 
by facte.— The EniTons.} 

About four years ago a young student in history from a Southern 
State, who has achieved some prominence in his profession, said to tlie 
writer : 

"To v.hat extent did the white freedmen of Virginia, or their de- 
scendants, find their way into what is now \Ve?t Virginia?" 

An impression seems to prevail in the Nortli, Northwest, and the 
West, that the "poor mountain whites" of West Virginia are descended 
from the "indentured white servants" of tidewater Virginia, who, in the 
great exodus of that c]a.ss, found their way into the country watered by 
the Kanawha, the Monongahela, and the Oiiio. 

The writer received a letter a few weeks since from a gentleman con- 
nected with an educational institution of some prominence in the State 
of Indiana, from whicli the excerpt following is taken: 

"I have heard many interesting things about "The Mountain Whites.' 
I hoj»e nest summer to make a vacation trip into the region occupied by 
these people. * * * What location would it be best to visit ?" 

Mr. Reuben Gold Thwaites, Secretarj- of the Stale Historical Society 
of Wisconsin, a gentleman of wide information in western history, known 
to some of us as the edilor of the last edition of Withers' Border War- 
fare, is the author of the following significant paragraph in a recent 
book: (1) 

"Forepaugh's circus was in town (Parkersburg) and crowds of rustics 
were coming in by wagon road, railway trains, and steamers and ferries 
on both rivers. The streets of the quaint, dingy southern town were 
teeming with humanity, mainly negroes and poor whites. Among the 
latter, flat pallid faces, either flabby or too lean, were under the swarms 
of blue, white and yellow sunbonnets — sad faces, with lack-luster eyes, 
coarse hair of undecided hue, and coarser speech. These Audreys (2) 
of Dixie-land are the product of centuries of ill-treatment on our soil; in- 
dented white servants of tlie early coast colonists were in the main their 
ancestors ; with slave competition, the white laborer in the South lost 
caste until even the negro despiso' him ; and ill-nurture has done the 
rest." 

In regard to the displacement and dispersal of the poor whites, Mr. 
John Fiske, the eminent historian, seems to have thought that a consid- 
erable proportion of them found their way over the AUeghenies. "Some 
of these freedmen," he teJls ns, "went northward into Pennsylvania, (3) 



<;) Afoat on the Ohio ■ A* H,^l,ri<,U Pilgriw.agt cf a Thcvsand MiUs in a Skiff 
from RtdUon.- to Cairo, p. 99. 

G) A type of th»< she-guwky. 

(3) f'iske, Old Virginia 03J //,-r ,V^ii,Al,orx, ii, 317 ; and \ViUi<iM a,, J .Vary Co!- 
Irge Quarterly, ii, 14(i. 



206 TRANS ALLiEGHESY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

but most of them sought the western and southern frontiers, and at firbt 
the southern frontier was a far niore eligible retreat than the western. 
Of this outward raovenient of white freednien the governor of Virginia 
wrote in 1717 : 'The Inhabitants of our frontiers are composed generally 
of such as have been transported hither as Servants, and being out of 
their time, * * * settled thenislves where Land is to be taken up 
* * * (1) In this description we nisy recognize some features of 
frontier life in recent times." 

The historian seems to overlook the fact that tlie frontier referred to 
by Spotswood is quite a different line from the frontier of 1770, when 
the wave of migration began to break over the Alleghenies and floo.1 the 
valleys of the Ohio and its eastern tributaries. "In the time of Sj:>otswood 
(1717) the very outposts of English civilization had not crept inland be- 
yond tidewater. \ strip of forest fifty miles or more in breadth still 
intervened between the Virginia frontier and those blue peaks visible 
against the western sky." (2) It is perhaps safe to say that no consid- 
erable element of ihe white freedmen or their descendants ever crossed 
to the westward of the F.l te Ridge and fewer still found their way beyond 
the Alleghenie^. Isolated instances no doubt exist ; but if the de- 
scendants of the poor whites form an essential base of the poor while 
population of West Virginia today, the fact has never been established 
by satisfactory proof. Circumstances of remote time have misled some 
writers into announcing conclusions a priori. The poor whites were 
displaced and were ilistributed elsewhere. Where did they go if not 
into the mountains of West Virginia.' Therefore the poor whites went 
into the mountains of West Virginia. Such is their logic. But let us 
follow Mr. Fiske in a few more sentences, for he is a philosopher, and 
in the end usually maneuvers himself out of a false position. -'This stream 
that had started from Old \'irsjiuia flowed for a while southwestward into 
the South Carolina back-couutry. But the southern movement was 
gradually turned more and more to the westward. Always clinging to 
the half-sa^■age frontier, lhe.se poor white peo])le made their way from 
North Carolina westward through Tennessee, and their descendants may 
still be found her.' and there in Arkansas, southern Missouri, and in what 
is sometimes known as tlie K^pytian extremity of Illinois. From the 
South Carolina back-cor.ntry they were scattered here and there 
among the states on the Gulf of Mexico." Hence we have the "sand- 
hillers" of South Carolina and Georgia; the "clay-eaters," "conches," 
"crackers," and "corn-crackers ' of various Southern states; and the 
"haweaters" and "mountaineers" of other com.niunities 

But Mr. Fiske administers a word of caution to his readers. "It is 
not to te supptised that the aucestors of all persons designated as 
"crackers" uere once white freedmen in Virginia an^l Llaryland; - * * 
N'or are we l-ound to supj^K>se that every community of ignorant, serai- 
civili/.ed v»hite j^eople in the Southern states is descended from those 



(I> SpOtSWOfXl, Off,,-.;/ L.ttrr'i 

(•J) Flsk.,', il). il, ^t. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND MISCET^LAMES. 207 

white freedmeu. Prolonged isolation from the current of thought and 
feeling that sway the great world will account for almost any extent of 
ignorance and backwardness: and tliere are few geographical situations 
east of the Mississippi River more conducive to isolation than the south- 
western portion of the great Appalachian highlands. All these circum- 
stances should be borne in mind in dealing with what, from whate%"er 
point of vitw, is one of the interesting problems of American history. (1) 

Whence tlien came the piontsers of the transallegheny region ? Dur- 
ing the half century immediately preceding the American Revolution a 
gre.it migration from f Airope inta- the colonies took place. It has been 
said that in- 1730 "the Scotch-Iri&lh began to pour into tlie Shenandoali 
Valley." The Germans were not far behind. Mr. Fiske says, "In the 
two years 1773 and 1774 more than 30,000 came. In 1770 one- third of 
the population of PenJisylvania -wras Scotch-Irish. Altogether, between 
17o0 and 1770, I think it probable that at least half a million souls were 
transferred from Ulster to the .^nierican colonies, making not less than 
one-sixth part at the time of the Revolution. Of these very few came to 
New Kngland ; * * ^ Once p-ianted in the Allegheny region, they 
spread rapidlj- * - At a later time they formed almost the entire 
population of West \'irginia." (2/ Here we have it at last. 

Sixty biographical sketches of representative families in Kanawha 
County (3) furnish some suggestions of interest. The ancestors of these 
sixty families came into the Great Kanawha Valley from the following 
sources : 

From New York, 7; from Pennsyhania, 7; from New England, o; 
from Kentucky, 1; from the \'alIeyof Virginia, 11; from Piedmont, Vir- 
ginia, 6; from Tidewate. Virginia;. 11; unclassified from want of informa- 
tion, 12. Total 1 10. 

An examination of the Monor.gahela Valley furnishes a similar re- 
sult. One hundred biographical sketches of familie-s in Monongalia 
County (4) gi\e the fr.Howing resirdts: 

From Virginia (chiefly from the Shenandoah Valley), 2G; from 
Maryland, II; from Pennsylvania.,, 34; from Europe, 6; from New Jer- 
sey, 8; from Delaware, 7; from New England, 1; from Ohio. 4; 
unclassified for want of informati'."ir., 4. Total, 100, 

What were the elements coniTrosing these 100 families!" German, 23; 
English, 18; Scotch-Irish. 21; V-.'elsh, 7; Huguenot, ^■, unknown, 28. 
Total, 100. 

Pennsylvania furnishes more than one-third of the whole, and almost 
as many as \'irgiiiia and MaryhvEd combine'i. The Germans and the 
Scotch-Irish make up nearly half. In this one hundred sketches two 



a) Fiske, id, ii. :t»-32:J. 
(2/ tlbke, il., ii. S-TS-XH. 
m G. W Atkinson, J/i.-iory <■/' A 
JCdiimtinit ill H\stern ^'^>..^i'«i■(;,T^ans. His, M& 
(1) B!>^r,iphu,il aiiJ !',>,lrait CvcU. 



<• Cou 


;(.'>',pa.*sir 




M. 


C. 


Lousb, 


, Eu^ly 


;&;,',, I. 


, 5.;. 












/„ of 


Mow.u^r^i 


ia. 


.1/, 




n:, aitd 


T.iylor 



208 TRAMSALLEGHENY HISIORICAL MAGAZINE. 

young men from Scotland, ancestors of families still living in the 
county, are reconletl as "haviug sold their time for seven years" to pay 
their passage across the Atlantic. 

The effect of the law of primogeniture which prevailed in the Amer- 
ican colonies was to leave the younger sons landless. Chancellor Kent (1 ) 
says, "the abundance of uncultivated land in the market" produced a 
"conbU.--it stream of migration from the Atlantic to the interior states." 
Were the descendants of the "indentured white slaves" caught 
in this wave of migration and carried westward? If so, what rea- 
son exists for saying that this element accounts for the poor whites in 
West Virginia that does not hold good to account for the poor whites in 
Ohio, Indiana, and all the west? Do the remote descendants of the 
white slaves account for the poor whites in Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska? 
Poor whites there are in abundance in West Virginia; but their presence 
is to be accounted for by causes other than their descent from the white 
slaves. They probably exist in the mountain counties in no greater ratio 
than in the fertile valley of the Ohio; and they seem to exist in as great 
numbers on the northern and western bank of the Ohio from Pittsburg 
to Cairo as on the eastern bank. The worthless, ignorant, shiftless, and 
sometimes criminal, element of our population, reglardless of state lines, is 
a sort of human parasite. He thrives best v,here population is densest 
and the accumulation of wealth the greatest. He is a twin-brother of 
the tramp; only the tramp has more energy. Pioneers are not made of 
this kind of stuff. This element never colonized any country except 
when transported by the strong arm of government. They come after 
colonization. They come as a parasite. And there is a wide differentia- 
tion between this parasite and the poor white, who has been belated in 
the march of civilization by reason of situation, physical environment, 
and untoward circumstances. 

■ ". R. E. Fast. 



(t) ComiKfiiti^rins, Iv, 385 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND MISCELLANIES. 209 

MONONGALIA COUNTY EECORDS PRIOR TO 1796 
A Bibliography. 

In 1796 the courthouse of Monongalia County was destroyed by fire 
and with it the records of the county except those in the office of the 
County Sur\-eyor, and a few deeds that were on record in the District 
Court. We give a list of such records as are now in existence that 
escaped the fire. But some of them are suffering badly by the ravages 
of time, and need to be transcrib«i in new books before it is too late. 
These records are too valuable for the local history they contain, if for 
no other purpose, to permit them to crumble away. 

Certificate Book — This volume co!itains the records of those certificates 
that were granted for Monongalii County by the Commissioners 
appointed for adjusting the claims to unpatented lands in the Counties 
of Monongalia, Ohio, and YohogaJiia, which were filed with the Sur- 
veyor of Monongalia County (Transal. Hist. Mag. i, t'O; Hen, Stat, x, 
3o-G5; ib. \-ii, 633). The bound vo!ume contains -Wi pages; but recently 
we have found in the clerk's o.^ce two fragments, one of which bears a 
memorandum, "Omitted from bound volume" (pp. 443-475), and another 
pp. 4S1-502), leaving a gap of si.x pages from 475 to 4S1. In addition to 
this there is a fragn'.ent of a mixed record containing some certificates 
and records of entries and filings of certificates, made by the County 
Sur\eyor. Some parts of this fragment are evidently missing, although 
it is not paged so that one can tell how much is gone. It is worn and eaten 
by mice so that some parts are missing. The original record appears to 
have been written on one or two quires of paper at a time sewed together 
aud these put together into book^^ and bound. In binding some parts 
were no doubt overlooked and were consequently left out. It will be 
understood that in pioneer times blank books were not so easily obtained 
as at present. 

• Entry Book No. i (pp. 3'J7j — Contiiins a record of the claims and 
entries made to land, filed in the ofSce of the County Surveyor, based on 
certificates granted by the Comnii?.r.ioners for adjusting claims to unpat- 
ented lands, upon preemption warr^^nts, and upon Land Office Treasury 
Warrants. The certificate or warrant was the authority upon which the 
Sur\e\or made the survey of the lard claimed. This record is valuable 
as giving the name of the party cla:iL\ing the land, as well as the names 
of all assignors, if held by assigntr j-.it, the date of the certificate, the 
number of the warrant, quantity of land claimed, and its location. The 
book is much worn and miitilaterl. and the edges of the leaves are 
crumbling. Some parts have already disappeard. 

Entry Book No. 2 (pp. 577)— This volume it in a gcund state of preser- 
vation. 

Entry Book No. 3 (pp. 269 three appendices on quires of paper sewed 
together, net paged). — The app-endices are lying loc«e inside of the 
bound volume, but the whole is in a good state of preservation. If the 
book were rebound, sls it should be, the loose parts could be included. 



210 TRAXSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Entry Books Xos. I, 2, and 3 contain the entries of claims filed 
between 1779 and 181)2. This method of entering land and taking out a 
patent ceased in West Virginia mth the formation of the State. 

Surveyor's Record No. r .'pp. 5-475). — When the County Sun-eyor 
made a sur\-ey upon any certificate, warrar^t, etc., he made a report 
which was entered in the Surxeyor's Record. A copy was given to the 
claimant by whom it was forwarded to the Land Office at Richmond, and, 
if all requirements were complied with, a patent (state deed) was issued. 
These records arc of great value in tracing land titles as well as for mat- 
ters of local history. They usually give minute details with respect to 
name of party for whom tlie survey was made, the names of assignors, 
if any, the date of the certificate or the number of the warrant, the 
quantity of land sur%eyed with a description by metes and bounds, with 
references to natural objects and adjacent lauds for purposes of identifi- 
cation. The first five Paiges are missing altogether and parts are badly 
worn and in places illegible. \"olume No. 1 ha3 recently been trans- 
scribed in a new book by means of a record writing machine, and the 
maps have been neatly redrav.Ti. The wisdom of this work can not be 
too highly commtnded. It is understcKxl to be the purpose of the 
County Court to have all these old records copietl into new books, and it 
is hoped the work will be pushed to a speedy completion. 

Surveyor's Record No. 2 (pp. 395). — Binding badly broken and book 
is falling apart; the leaves are loose ajid some are badly frayed and 
mutilated; but the record is stiU legible. The plats in this volume have 
been transcribed in a new book, but the body of the record has not 
been transcribed. There is gre.it danger 'of loss of some of the loose 
sheets. 

Surveyor's Record No. 3 (pp. 660). — The original is badly worn and 
the edges of some parts have crumbled away. A new book has been 
purchased into which to transcribe this record, but the work has not yet 
been done. In the meantime these volumes are subjected to daily use by 
the abstractors of land titles. 

Surveyor's Record No. 4 (pp. 5-512).— The firstfive pages are missing. 
The binding is broken atid the hook is falling apart. No progress ha.s 
been made toward transcnbir.g :uis volume iiico a new book. 

Surveyor's Record No. 5 'pp. 274). — Well preserved except the index. 
which is torn and mutilated. 

Surveyor's Record No. 6 'pp. 314). — i-A-ery other page is numbered 
up to 117, and from thence on e'.ery page i.< numbered; hence there are 
in fact 430 pages in this voiunie. It is well preserv-ed excejit the index, 
which is nmch worn. 

- Surveyor's Record No. 7 znd 3 ''No. 7 pp. 151; No. 8 pp. 140). — Both 
books are bound in on^ voIuuvj. The record is well preser\ed except 
that the binding is broken. 

Book A. of the District Court.— Contains ''.vorls recorded in the Dis- 
trict Court from 1730 to 17'.»l. 



EDITORIAL Nc.TES AXD MiSC ^LLANIES. 211 



ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

The Editors have promise of articles on the following subjects at 
some time \nthin the next year. They hope to have one or more of 
them for the April numl)er of the ^lagazine: 

Some Native Birds of West Virginia. Illustrated from original draw- 
ings and pholographs. By a gentleman well up in local ornithology'. 

A collection of jmiicial autographs reproiluced in fac simile, with 
sketches of the judges. 

A speech delivered by the Hon. George W. Summers of Kanawha 
liefore the Old Dominion Society in Xew York, in ISo'i, on the subject of 
slavery. Summers was in principle a gradual emancipationist. He was 
a member of the Peace Conference at Washington, and of the Vir- 
ginia Convention that passed the Ordinance of Secession. He led the 
opposition to the Ordinance. 

The journal of a Presbyterian minister, who traveled on horse back 
at an early date from western Pennsylvania through \\estern X'irginiaby 
way of Wheeling to the Little Kanawha River, and thence up the river 
to Cairo, making two trips. The journal is rich in personal remini- 
scence and gossip concerning the people en route, their mode of living, 
habits, manners, aud customs. 

The journal of Conrad Weiser, now out of print and very rare. 

A photograph for an engraving of the historic Cresap house on the 
Ohio. 

Au article on the Cheat River iron furnaces, illustrated from photo- 
graphs and drawings, and maps giving location of furnaces, offices, shops, 
roads, old charcoal beds, excavations, etc., etc. It is believed the earliest 
iron furnaces west of the mountains were on Cheat River. 

A diary of a gentleman from about ISIO to 1^41, in one of the large 
counties of the State, whose reminiscences embody the history of the 
material development and improvement of his county during these years. 

A bibliography of West Virginia State Publications analyzed and 
annotated. 

A tabulated list of marriages in Monongalia County from IT'.n; to 
lS-12, when the last count}- — Marion— -was taken off of Monongalia's ter- 
ritory. This list will give the names of officiating clergymen. It is a 
record invaluable to the genealogist. 

An old map of the whole upper MonongaheU \'alley, to be repro- 
duced for this Magazine. A great curiosity never publisheif. 



212 1 KAN S ALLEGHENY' HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

SOME SUGGESTIONS. 

The Editor are busy men. They have been furnishing quite a good 
deal of the material for the Magazine, more than they de»ire to furnish. 
Why should not every nienil>^r furnish souie item for publication at least 
once a year. Every community has some objects or subjects of historic 
interest worth -writing the facts about. Dou"t trj- to embellish. Just give 
the plain straight-forsvard facts. The following subjects may suggest 
some topic to some one who can write and who will write. 

The political changes that have takea place in any one of the old 
counties, for instance, Jefferson or Monongalia; Preston or Kanawha; 
Marion or Barbour. Before the Ci\-il War Monongalia gave large Demo- 
cratic majorities, and Jefferson was strongly Whig. Suppose one take 
the county records of elections and compile tables showing the votes by 
parties, with other facts and details to illustrate the politial change in 
the county. 

The land grant claimed by the Indiana Company in West Virginia. 
A History of the Virginia system of courts. 

Biographical Sketches of men and women who have been leaders in 
their community. 

The location and history connected with some fort, illustrated with a 
drawing if possible showing size, character of structure, etc. For instance 
who in Monongalia County can give the exact location of Martin's, 
Statler's, R.oger's, or Kern's forts; who in Marion can accurately locate, 
and describe Prickett's fort, or any other fort in the county; who in 
Preston can do the same for the important station known as Morris"s 
fort located somewhere in the Sandy Creek Glades? 

The history of a courthouse of any county, especially if photographs 
or drawings of successive structures can be obtained, is important. One 
of our objects is to illustrate the progressive development of the State; 
and this progress is reflected no where better than in the public building. 
The history of any land title based upon a certificate of settlement 
from the first step taken until the patent v.-as received. 

The history of a land title based upon a Land Office Treasury War- 
rant from the first step taken until the patent was received. 

A list of County Sur\e3ers in each of the original counties of ISIon- 
ongalia, Ohio, Greenbrier, and Mongomery,. with biographhical sketches 
of each. 

• A bibliography of the county records existing in any coujity before 
the year 1800. 

The name of John Madison appears as Surveyor of Monongalia 
County at a very early date. Who can give any authentic and satisfac- 
tory- account of him? 



Z13 



# 



TRANSALLEGKENY 

HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Vol.1. APRIL. 1902, No. 3 



THE EDUCATIONAL ITEEDS OF APPALACEIA. 

AN ADDRESS P«IJVE»ED BY DE. W. J HOLLAND, OF PITTSBITIG, 
• , WKST VIRGINIA ITfrVEXSITY JUNE 20, 1901. 



Mr. President, gentlemen of the Facultr, Fellow Students, I^adies 
and Gentlemen: This i.s the third or fourth occasion that I have had the 
pleasure of visiting MorgantowTi, and I can assure you that with each 
succeedii-^ visit I am increasingly charmed with the beauty of this fair 
region and impresseil by the exceedingly gracious hospitalities which I 
have always received at your hands. 

It was to me a pleasure ye.sterday afternoon to leave behind nie the 
clouds of smoke which hang like a pall over the country to the north, 
and as the train glided over the divide of the hills, to come in sight of 
the beautiful river, no longer lashed and churned by the wheels of pass- 
ing craft, but lying a beautiful mirror under the shadow of the mountains 
reflecting their wooded slopts frora its bosoLn. Last night it was a joy 
to look up and to see the skies "ill palpitating with stars," to see the 
Milky Way, and all those fatniliar constellations which I have not clearly 
seen for months. Surely bright skies and fair woodland scenery are in 
themselves a po-ssession in which the people of this region ought to find 
pleasure. It Ls not a small matter to live in a country possessing the 
"dower of beauty." 

In the year IHO*), on April tlie 10, O. S., James I issued a charter 
under which F.ngland's first colony was established. I do not read that 
there were any "antis" to oppose hi.-i policy. This charter defines the 
limits of Virginia, iieclari:)^' it to extend from the 34th to the -l^ith par- 



214 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

allel of north latitude and from the seashore one hundred miles inland. 
In 1609 a second charter was gr-inted, extending the limits of Virginia 
between the same parallels from sea to sea. The significance of this act 
was not understood. The width of the continent was at that time sup- 
posed to be not more than two or three hundred miles. It was believed 
that the lands which were granted under this charter constituted a por- 
tion of a northward prolongation of the narrow Central American region 
by traversing which it v:as already well known to be easy to pass from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific. Where the great valley of the 
Missi.ssippi is now known to exist the old geographers place what they 
styled the Sea of Verrazano, an eastward extension of the Pacific Ocean. 
It is not my purpose to wearj' you with detailing the history of the suc- 
cessive grants of charters subsequently made, but in 1682, on the 4th day 
of March, Charles II granted a charter to William Penn and his heirs, 
conveying to them, roughly speaking, the lands extending westward 
from the Delaware between the 41st and 43rd parallels of latitude for a 
distance of five degrees of longitude. You will see that these two grants, 
,the one to Virginia and the otter to Pennsylvania, overlapped. Virginia 
laid claim to lands lying to the north of what was subsequently known as 
Mason and Dixon's Line, and regarded herself as entitled to hold much 
of what is now western Pennsylvania and all of Ohio and other Western 
territory. The terms made by these old charters proved at one time a 
fruitful source of controversy between the colonies of Virginia and 
Pennsylvania. I have quite recently been permitted toezamine the records 
of the District of West Augusta, a came which was applied to the greater 
part of what is now known as West Virginia, including southwestern 
Pennyslvania as far north as the Kiskiminetas. Virginian courts were 
established within this region, which was subsequently divided into three 
coanties known respectively as Ohio, Moaongalia, and Yohogania The 
records of Ohio County are still in part preserved at Weilsburg, The 
records of Monongalia County, which were at one time deposited in 
Morgantown, were destroyed when your court house was burned in the 
year 1796. The records of Yohogania County, covering the region in 
which Pittsburg is situated, will shortly be published in the Annals of 
the Carnegie Museum. One of the first acts of the court was to provide 
a. ducking stool to be located at Pittsburg. There must have been 
termagent women in the region at that time. There are none hott, 
ladies. The study of the history of this region has deeply impressed up- 
on my mind the truth, that while according to the figment^of the hivr 



EDUCATIONAL, NEEDS OF APPALACHIA. 215 

"the ting can do no wrong," these sovereigns were acting blindly and 
without knowledge of existing conditions. The Appalachian mountain 
region, drained by the upper waters of the Ohio, is a region as distinct 
geographically and from the standpoint of its population as Scotland is 
distinct from England. IL«; mountain valleys became the home of the 
ScJtch and of the Scotch-Irish, whose immigration, owing to persecu- 
tions in Ulster, set in in 1719, and continued without abatement until the 
year 1782. Were I an American czar, and had I the power to revise the 
work done by James I and Charles II and the various Congresses of the 
United States, I would throw down the political lines drawn by them 
almost at haphazard, and, recognizing the wisdom of those old Virginians 
who established the Ohio Company, I would create a new State, calling 
it Appalachia, or Allegheny, and I would put into it all of West Vir- 
ginia contiguous to Pennsylvania and by river way and railroad center- 
ing in Pittsburg, its metropolis, and all of western Pennsylvania west 
of the central mountain ridges, together \^'ith the eastern counties of 
Ohio, the cities and towns of which are today practically suburbs of the 
Birmingham of America, and, (I have been told you will mob me if I 
say it, but please bear with me,) to old Virginia I would restore the 
southern counties of your State, which are by history, tradition, and local 
sympathies more closely related to the Virginia from which they were 
sundered as the result of the events of war than they are to the northern 
half of your Commonwealth. I know that to propose such a scheme as 
this is idle and chimerical, and yet such an arrangement would be, in the 
light of what we know to have been the course of events under existing 
conditions, highly natural. This Aj-palachian highland region, drained 
by the Allegheny, the Monongahela, and their tributaries, extending 
westward for several hundred miles along the banks of the Ohio, has had 
by the force of events a history peculiarly its own, and an industrial 
development more and more tending to weld these communities existing 
under separate political relationships into a compact whole. The greater 
portion of West Virginia and Western Pennsylvania are alike in their 
population, their industries, and their interests. They are in certain re- 
spects vridely separated from the people of the seaboard region and from 
the people of the f.at lands lying west. 

This Appalachian region, the home of the Scotch immigrant, hJis 
had a mighty influence upon the development of the national life. Let 
me commend to you, in this connection, the attentive perusal of the last 
chanter of Fiske's "Old Vireinia and her Neighbors. " No man can 



216 TRAKSALLK4_.HENY HISTOKICAL, MAGAZINE. 

read the stirring words which he utters without feeling v,ithin hini5e!f a 
kindling glow of pride, and no man can thoughtfully study existing co:i- 
ditions without, I think, sometimes wishing that things were to-<lay as I 
have said that I, if Czat, would make them to be. 

It is of one aspect, hoviever, of the life of this region that I wish 
particular!}- to speak. What I have to say to-day relates not to the his- 
tory, the commerce, or the manufactures of tlie upper Ohio valley, but 
to the work of education. 

The men who came into the upper valley of the Ohio, pressing 
across the mountain defiles and taking jvossession of the land, were 
* Scotchmen, or Scotcknien r-ho h:\d been temporarily domiciled in the 
Borth of Ireland, in whom, under press of persecution, the Scotch love 
of liberty had b«eii intensiGed, and who were if possible more Scotch 
than the ^k:otc^. Miugliug with them was a stream of German descent 
— descendent# of men who likewise had fouud escape from persecution in 
the colon}- of Penn. These first settlers brought with them devotion to 
church and to sch»ol, and among their ver}- earliest acts was the establish- 
ment of academics for the instruction of youth. The first institution of 
learning chartered by law in this broad domain was the institution of 
which for many years I had the honor to be the Chancellor, which iu 
Februan.-, 17ST, came into being. No man can study the provisions of 
that old charter and the supplements and amendments thereto without 
realizing that whatever may have been subsequent performance, the men 
who called the institution into being had broad and liberal ideas as to 
human culture. At a tin^e whan religious controversy and denomina- 
tional acerbities prevailed they provided that no test of a religious char- 
acter should be imposed either upon teacher of taught. In the broadest 
and grandest sense they create '. an institution which was intended to be 
of and for the people. In subsequent years denominational jealousies 
and rivalries, striking through the community, made men antagonistic 
to an institution which stood as this one »t.oo<l, and as many others — in- 
cluding your own institutioji Jhere — stood, for large freedom. For- 
tunately the day of bitterness ha.'; in a measure passed, and as we look 
back now we can see that those who laid th<- fcmdations for educational 
effort in this region builded better than they knew when they laid the 
corner-stone of education.-d eiTort. 

\\'hile the first settlers, the founders of the institutional life of the 
region, propose 1 broad plan?, the educational historian records with 
sorrow the fact that those who canie after them showed little of the zeal 



EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF APPALACHIA. ' 217 

and enthusiasm for the cause of culture whicli they displayed. It wa* 
soon discovered that these highlands were rich in buried treasure of fuel. 
Mining and manufacturing began; industrial pursuits became dominant 
in thought; the race for wealth accelerated, an(i in the rush of affairs 
educational interests were neglected. I cannot wholly account for the 
strange apathy and indifference to matters touching the higher life of 
these communities which prevailed from 1S20 to 1870, a period of fifty 
years, and which has even continued to the present day with greater or 
less extent, except by the assumption that men were so taken up with 
material interests that they seemed to themselves to have no time to 
think of the higher interests of the community. Of course there were 
here and there notable exceptions, and here and there men arose who 
gave their best thought and effort to the great work of education, and 
here and there one was found who from his wealth was ready to consa- 
crate a portion to the advancement of culture. 

Statistics are sometimes said to be dry, but statistics sometimes 
teach us useful lessons. In the upper valley of the Ohio as I have de- 
fined it, covering western 'Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and the ten 
eastern counties of the State of Ohio, the census taken last year shows 
that there were at that time .3,93.?, OCHJ inhabitants. Of these, 2,450,000 
reaide in the western half of the State of Pennsylvania, 900,000 reside in 
West \'irginia, and something over half a million reside in the ten border 
counties of Ohio, within a hundred miles of the metropolis of the 
region. In this territory thereare located two universities — the Western 
University of Pennsjlvania and the University of West Virginia. There 
»re in attendance upon these two institutions about eighteen hundred 
students, nearly equally divided between them, and there are eight or 
nine small colleges in which tbeve are enrolled about twenty-five hun- 
dred students, including those er.rolled in the preparatory departments 
of these institutions. Were the latter to be excluded, as ought to be 
done, the number of students pur.^uing higher courses of study would be 
reduced to about eighteen hundred. The student population of the re- 
gion engaged in the pursuit of liberal or professional studies docs not at 
the present time exceed 3,600, if the enrollment of the sons of the wealthy 
in attendance upon distant institutions be not taken into account. If the 
Utter — these sons of rich men, who "go east" in order to return to us 
mighty connoisseur in football, which they do not play, but upon which 
they bet, and in cigarettes — be added, the total enrollment would be 
brought back to a figure showing that thereare in the neighborhood of 



218 



TRANSAI.LEGHENY HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 



five thousand young persons who are engaged at the present time in the 
effort to secure an education higher than that which is furnished by the 
secondary schools. Translating these figures into another form it ap- 
pears tb.-.t in. Appalachia about one person in seven hundred and fifty is 
at the present day engaged in study leading either to the practice of one 
or the other of the professions, or to a broad, liberal culture. In the in- 
stitution over which I have until lately presided, not more ^than one out 
of ten of the students is engaged in pursuing what are, strictly speaking, 
liberal studies. All of the rest of the entire University population, 
amounting to nearlj- a thousand students, are engaged in studying law 
medicine, pharmacy, dental surgery, or engineering — "bread and butter 
pursuits, " as they have been called. The same remark holds good o^ 
your institution here. I do not believe that there is another community 
of equal extent and resources in the United States in which so little at 
tention is being paid to pursuits which are purely scholarly and in which 
such a large mass of men appear to faintly appreciate the positive ad- 
vantages to the community of an uplift in the direction of intellectual 
culture. It is marvelous and anomalous. 

But reverting again to statistical detail.=, we may show by the con- 
sideration of the present condition of the institutions of higher learning 
■within the region how small has been tlie practical interest shown in 
education. The following table, based upon the latest returns that are 
accessible to me, is instructive. 



£(-,0 






Western TTnlveralty of Pennsylvanis, j ^?r 



"West Vlrjflnia University 

A Heghpnv College 

Grove City College 

Geneva College 

Thtel College 

'Wo<wt«;r University 

Vrashicgton-Jfefferson CoUego 

Wfsirnlnster 

Pennsylvania College for Women, Pltisb'gh 



4,600 
8.000 
21.500 
16.00i-1 
5,500 
3,0CC 



4362 114,000 



450.000 40 000 
114.2A) 

200.0001 17,000 
I 6,i00 

114.000) 

B2.6O0I 

36(KC00\ 20,000 
2«3CW! 

96,000j 

I 

,679,260! l>-3,&00 



From this it will be seen that the total value of all the institution* 
of learning located within this region, including buildings, land, endow- 
ment and equipment, consisting of apparatus and b^-oks, ainonnta io 



" EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF APPALACHIA 2l9 

about three million six hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars. With 
a population of three million nine hundred and thirty-eight thousand 
and more, as given by the last census in the region, it is shown that the 
average amount per inhabitant invested, as the result of a hundred years 
effort on behalf of higher education in these institutions, is less than one 
dollar per inhabitants. A study of the educational and populational 
statistics of eastern Pennsylvania shows that in the eastern half of that 
Commonwealth there is an aggregate investment in the interests of high- 
er education of nearly fifty -five millions of dollars, making an average 
per inhabitant of over eighteen dollars per capita. And what is true of 
the eastern half of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is matched by 
■what is generally true of the New England States. The average amount 
invested per capita m so recently settled a community as Illinois is vastly 
larger than the amoimt invested in Appalachia. WTiat Appalachia has 
set apart for higher education in her borders is vastly less than the 
amount invested in any European country the statistics of which are ac- 
cessible to me. I am prepared to say, without fear of having the state- 
ment successfully challenged, t^.at there is no other community of equal 
population and equal resources in the world in which so little propor- 
tion ately has been done to advance the cause of higher learning as 
represented in the activities of the college and the university. Great and 
noble gifts have been made to the cause of physical suffering in this re- 
gion. Probably there is no oiher community in which more has be«n 
done for hospitals and in whicJi more is being contemplated in this 
direction. There is no danger that the suffering bodies of men will fail 
to be cared for. Hospitals are constantly being multiplied; hospitals of 
every kind, of every class, for all manner of diseases and complaints to 
which human flesh is heir are being provided. Every village and ham- 
let is being supplied -with a hospital, and every physician who has had a 
misunderstanding with the staff of a hospital is calling for another, — 
and an appropriation from the Legislature to maintain it. But the reg- 
nant mind has been in all these years more or less forgotten and neg- 
lected. Yet wealth amassed by men who have controlled the rescources 
of this region has been consecrated to the promotion of intellectual cul- 
ture in other communities. Chicago to-day boasts one of the largest and 
most thoroughly equipped and amply endowed Universities in the world, 
the bulk of the mosey represented in which superb endowment was 
taken from under the hills of Western Pennsylvania and of West Vir- 
ginia. Western Pennsylvania oil built the University of Chicago, biult 



220 TKANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, has covered Florida ^vith palati<il hotels 
and aided scores of institutions in other states, while the colleges founded 
in our midst have been left to struggle along, environed by difficulties 
*nd hardships which have made those who vere concerned in the ad- 
ministration of tlieir afiairs orar and over again sick alike in head and 
m heart. Other communities tave profited, while we who live upon 
these western hills aie left an fmheritance of empty holes in the ground. 
I suppose that those who have amassed huge fortunes through the min- 
eral rescources of this region Euive abstractly the right to bestow their 
wealth where it seems best to them to give it, but surely it would be a 
graceful thing for some of tbose who have reaped large harvests of 
wealth from the region to do saaiething for the promotion of the intel- 
lectual and thus of the social pnosperity of the countrj-. 

Here, tlieti, is the plain tmith, stripped of all sentimental disguises. 
In a region containing a popuLation greater than that of ten* States and 
territories that might be nan^ed, populated by men and women who 
racially belong to the very finest stock, capable of doing the very best 
that man can do, we have a smaller amount set apart for the promotion 
of those interests which are represented by the college and the Univer- 
sity than has been set apart in any other community with which com- 
parison may be fitly made. TlSse crying necessity of the day and the 
hour is the awakening of the atii^ention and the interest of those who can 
help in this good work to our piressing necessities. We are not ungrate- 
ful for what has been done in Ihe past, but when every week records 
munificent gifts bestowed upon the cause of higher education in other 
portions of the land it does appear as if the time had come for us to lift 
np our voices and tell to the woirld the story of our pressing educational 
necessities. If noboby else wiE- speak I have resolvetl to-day that I will 
doit. 

Is the neglect of the higher institutions of learning in this broad 
region to which I have called jour attention to beset down to the un- 
worthiness of the efforts of those who have been concerned in doing 
educational work in the instituti/ons which arc represented here? Surely 
I think not. The test of the worth of effort is in its results. The test 
which the great Teacher of mes applied to the tree may be applied to 
human institutions— "By their fruits shall ye know them." Thus tested 
the small, struggling, scantily endowed colleges and universities of Ap- 
palachia can give an account of themselves of which they need not be 
ashamed. The late James G. Blaine, an aluumus of one of those poor, 



EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF APPALACHIA. 221 

struggling colleges, once said that he met more men eminent in public 
lite who were the graduates of that institution than of any other. Among 
the alumni of these proverty-stricken, poorly endowed institutions of 
learning T ^nd to-day scores and hundreds of men eminent on the bench, 
at the bar, in the ranks of the various professions. The chief executive 
of the United States to-day, William McKinley, received his eJucation at 
one of the small colleges of Appalachia. And tlie work done for the ad- 
vancetnent of science and human knowledge among the people by the 
men who have been connected with the teaching force of thes institu- 
tions, or who h»ve been raised up from among the body of their alumni, 
is work which my well challenge admiration in view of the paucity of 
the resources at their command. The institution of which I lately was 
the head has been declared by an eminent man of science recently de- 
deased, to have been "the cradle of the modern astronomy." The 
achievemenfe of a Langley and of a Keeler are not to be spoken of light- 
ly. Surely institutions which have done and are doing so umch ma not 
be passed by with indifference on the ground that they have proved them- 
selves barren figtrees and have yielded nothing but leaves. Gathering 
into their class-rooms the descendents of the sturdy Scotch and Scotch- - 
Irish pioneers, they have made men of them of whom the nation has 
heard, and of whom the nation is justly proud. 

But what shall we do? Standing here to-day like John the Baptist, 
feeling that I am but a voice crying aloud in the v.-ilderness of educational 
need and educational neglect, appealed to for advice by those who, like 
myself, have for years struggled to awaken some responsive interest on 
the part of those who have it in their power to aid these good causes, I 
counsel courage and perseverance in well doing. Neither you nor I, my 
friends, are rich, nor have we the power to provide what wealth alone 
can minister to the necessities of these deserving institutions. But we 
can continue, as we have been doing, to give ourselves to this good work. 
And after all, is not this the best gift that a man can make — the gift of 
his learning, his talent, his power, his heart, his selP Some day the 
men of wealth of Appalachia will perhaps awaken to the splendor of their 
opportunity, and those who have* achieved wealth will see to it that the 
educational institutions of the reg::ti no longer are compelled tostrug. 
gle as they have for a century to keep lighted the lamp of knowledge 
»nd to hand down the treasures of human experience to the generations 
that come after them. What shall we do? Be instant in season and out 
of season. Work on in hope. 



, ^. 



222 TRA:NS ALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

And there is reason to be filled with hope. I believe that a better 
day is not far distant, so far as our colleges and universities are concerned. 
Yesterday I came up from Pittsburg as far as Uniontown with my honored 
friend, Mr. J. V. Thompson, whom many of you know. Day before 
yesterdav he gave to Washington and Jefferson College one hundred 
thousand dollars. As I met him I congratulated him from the bottom of 
my heart upon having had the power, the good heart, and the courage 
to do the splendid thing which he the day before had done. He admitted 
to me that it required some courage to make the gift which he had 
made. "But," I said to him, "what you did yesterday will make your 
name forever to be remembered." I could not help noting, as he stepped 
off into the throng which crowded the platfoi-m, how deferential and 
respectful was the bearing of all about him, and I heard the words 
whispered through the crowd, "There goes a man who yesterday gave a 
htmdred thousand dollars to endow a college." Enjo>-ing, as he all hi.«; 
lifetime has enjoyed, tlie sincere respect and admiration of his fellow- 
citizens, that respect and admiration has been heightened, deepened, in 
tensifiedf by the noble act of self-renunciation which he has performed. 
All honor to the few in .\ppalacbia who have the heart and courage to do 
such things! All honor to J. V. Thompson! All honor to Felix R. 
Brunot! All honor to William Thaw! All honor to Andrew Carnegie! 
Though we have lived through nearly a century of intellectual night in 
Appalachia, there have been some stars of the first magnitude in the 
galaxy of her philanthropic sons, who have not forgotten the people 
from whom they sprang, who have not failed according to the measure 
of their ability "to do good a::d to communicate." Of such men Ap- 
palachia may well be proud. They are the brightest jewels in the diadem 
of her greatness, and they will he remembered forever. 

But, as my mind comes back again to the thought of these weak, 
straggling institutions, called upon to do a Herculean task without 
adequate resources, as I think of underpaid professors and instructors 
engaged in teaching the sons and daughters of the region, as I think of 
their scanty equipment, the agony of economy in which those who have 
charge of their affairs forever dwell, I again ask the question, what 
shall we do? We have appealed again and again for help, but save for 
an answer here and there we have appealed in vain. Are tliere no prac- 
tical steps which may be taken to meet the necessities of the case? At 
the train brought me down through the great coal fields the thought Tras 
impressed upon my mind — as it has frequently been before — that the 



EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF APPAI.ACHIA. 223 

mineral resources of this region are a diminishing quantity. It took the 
sun, laboring together with the earth, a million of years to provide the 
wells of oil and the beds of coal which man is today depleting. Every- 
where as I came up tlirough the country lying to the north I heard the 
snort of steam and piston strokes. Everywhere with the mightiest en- 
ginery which human skill can bring to the performance of the task the 
bowels of the solid earth are being rent and torn by the surgery of com- 
merce and of manufactures. In comparatively a few years the arterial 
supplies of oil will run dry and the beds of coal will be exhausted. What 
then? We shall still have upon the surface of the soil a vast population 
of men and women. As my imagination carried me for\vard into the 
years, I said to myself, shall all this wealth which the ages have labored 
to create for the good of man be by man quickly dissipated and forever 
lost? Cannot some way be found to preserve at least a portion of this 
wealth in the form of institutions which shall continue to bless and to 
enlighten mankiild? Have the people no power under their laws to ex- 
act tribute in the years of plenty to provide against the years of want 
whioh will surely, though slowly, come? I have a suggestion to make. 
I am speaking in the presence of some of the ablest legal minds in this 
Commonwealth. I understand that your Legisiature at its last session 
appointed a Commission to take up the whole question of taxation and 
to devise methods by which an adequate revenue for the creation and 
maintenance of the needed institutional life of the State maybe provided. 
Through you to that Commission I suggest the levying of a small 
tax upon every barrel of oil and upon every ton of coal exported into dis- 
tant parts the amount of this tax to be applied to the creation and main- 
tenance of e'iucational institutions within your Commonwealth. If we 
light with material light the homes of the nation, and of distant nations, 
if we kindle a ruddy glow of flame upon the hearths of distant Common- 
wealths, should they deem it a hardship to help us to some small extent 
to keep alight the lamp of knowledge in our midsL' I admit there may 
be constitutional difHculties in framing such a law as I suggest, but there 
are legal minds of great acumen and ingenuity in this Commonwealth, 
and they may be relied upon to provide a constitutional method by which 
such a tax might be levied. One great corporation in Appalachia is 
ever yday mining thirty-three acres of coal seven feet thick, and carrying 
it away. One hundred and thirty-seven millions of tons of coal were 
mined in .\ppalachia last year. A small tax — so small that it would not 
be felt by those who are the consumers of this our wealth — would yield a 



224 TRA.nSAI.LEGHENV HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

return sufBciently large to greatly aid in creating and maintaining those 
institutions of which we stand so sorely in need, for the privilege and 
opportunities of which our sons and daughters are crj'ing out. But and 
if the thought cannot be executed, what shall we do? Labor on, my 
friends, believing in the sovereign goodness of the cause for which you 
stand — the cause of truth, enlightenment, culture. If men heed not, there 
is One that docs, surely heed. The cup of refreshment which you — I 
speak to my brethren of the teaching profession — press to the thirsty 
lips of him who longs for knowledge shall not be forgotten. Nor shall 
you fail in due time to receive your reward. Do not be discouraged. 
I^abor on in hope and in faith and in love. In my life as a teacher, 
covering now more than a quarter of a century, I have tested the ever- 
lasting truth of the promise, that unto him who gives it shall be given 
again. And though not in material good comes reward, it comes in the 
gracious tliankfulness of men and women who have been helped to be 
more manly and better than they would have been had it not been for 
the ministries of the teacher. To have a boy whom you helped to bear 
the burdens of youth and to make a man of himself, come back again 
after the lapse of years and thank you for what you did for him, is better 
than to have laid up treasures of silver and gold. ^ .;., 



MEMBERS OF THE W. VA.. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION. 

I Samuel Price, 2 Wm. K. Pendleton. 3 James S. 
Wheat, 4 Charles J. Faulkner, 5 Samuel Woods, 6 
Nicholas P^itzhugh, 7 James M. Jackson, 8 Williaui 
H. Travers, 9 A. F. Haymond, 10 Benjamin \\'il?on, 
II James D. Armstrong, 12 A. J. Pownell, 13 J. M. 
Byrnside, 14 D. D. Johnson, 15 \V. T. W'illev, 16 
Lo^an Osborn, 17 Alexander Campbell, iS \\\ W. 
Miller, 19 C. \\'. Feri^^son. 20 K. B. Knight, 21 B. 
F. Martin, 22 Okey Johnson, 23 C. B. W'aggorer, 
24 Evermont Ward. 25 H. M. Dickenson. 26 H. M. 
Mathews, 27 James W. Pipes, 28 Thomas Maslir, 
29 John Blair Hoge, 30 John Bassel, 31 Thomas 
Thornburg, 32 Williajn Haynes, 33 Isaiah Bee. 34 
Lewis Allen, ^35 John A. Warth, 36 G. H. Mcffett, 37 
U.N. Arnett, :;S Septimus flail, 31) Wm. Price. 40 H. 
A. Holt. 41 D.^D. T.Farnsworth. 42 J. F. Harding, 43 
A. H. Thayer. 44 J. J. Thompson, 45 B. W. Byrne. 46 
D. A. Roberts, 47 P^ountain Smith. 48 Chas. D. Boggs, 
49 D. H. Leonard, 50. (jeorge O. Davenport, 5 [ 
William G. Brown, ^2, John H. Atkinson, ^; Wm. 
D. Pate, 54 Biackwell Jackson. 55 A. W. MVcieary. 
56 Wm. A. Morgan, 57 Charles Kantner, 58 John 
T. Pearce, 59 Joseph Snyder. 60 Hanson Criswell, 
61 J. P. Strickler, 62, J. M. Hagans 63 Alonzo 
Gushing, 64 James Calfee, 65 M. A. Staton. 6('^ 
Thomas F^. Park. 67 Alexander Monroe. 68 Lemuel 
Stump, 69 J. A. Robinson. 70 Thomas Ferrell. 71 
J. N. B. Grim, 72 David A. Pugh, 7 ^^ J. V. Randolph, 
74 J. W. Gallaher. 75 W. G.'H. Gore. 76 William 
McCreery, 77 B. H. Lurty, 7S A. J. Cunningham, 
Sergeant-at-Arms. 7g B. H. Butcher. Clerk, 80 
Barney Galligan. Assistant Clerk, 8r D. J. Wetzel, 
Door-keeper. 



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MKMLHRS OF VHK WEST VIRGINIA CONSTITVTH iXAI. COXVl.MIoX 



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RETREAT OF GENERAL ROBERT S. GARNETT.* 
By Hr SIaxweli.. 

The most important military movement west of the Alleghenies in 
West Virginia during the Civil War was the effort made by the Confed- 
erate Government in ISCl to hold the northwestern part of the State, and 
the counter movement by the Federal forces to prevent it. The com- 
manding general of the Confetlerates wa* Robert S. Gamett, and 
the Union army opposing vras led by General George B. McClellan. In 
this article it is not the purpoic to enter into details of the movemcatj of 
the armies prior to July 12, the date on which tfce Confederate* rctrefited 
from Laurel Hill. But fuller mention will bt circn to tht incidtnts of 
the retreat, and in doing this the chief reliance for data is not npon the 
official records, but upon the personal exi>eriencef and obserrationi of 
those who took part in or witnessed the retreat. That i.^, I have ea- 
deavored to collect facts and incidents that are not found in the records. 
Many of the.se are tri\-ial, but they concern an important event in the 
history of the State and are worth prescr\-ing. They show how the 
citizens who had never before seen war, acted when they suddenly found 
themselves in the midst of its realities. The principal concluson is that 
alarm and consternation quickly gave way to the impulse to turn the 
misfortunes of the defeated army into profit for themselves. 

It is proper, however, to allude briefly to the events preceding 
July 12, which explain why the Confederates found it necessary to leave 
northwestern Virginia by mountain paths and narrow roads. When the 
war began the authorities at Richmond saw the need of defending the 
northwestern part of the State from invasion which was expected from 
Ohio and Pennsylvania. It was hoped, perhaps believed, that the in- 
habitants of the Northwest would organize and repel tlie invasion; 
but they did not do so. They could not have done so. 



* Those who may wish to consult the official records and document of 
the retreat, and of the events leading to it will find the subject fully covered in 
Vol. II, .Series 1, Ofiici.-il Records of the I'nion and Cor.fedcrate .Armies, as publi.sheil 
by the I'. S. War Department, pages IKJ to^fi. The best account.s of the retreat, from 
the Federal side, are the reports of General .Morris to McClellan, July H. includinj; 
Captain U. W. Benham's report of July 1:5 On tlie Confederate side the best report ix 
that of Colonel \V. 1(. Taliif. rri. datc<l Mon'.erey A>i}nist 10. and addrr^sed to General 
H. R. Jackson. 



226 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORIC :lL, MAGAZINE. 

had they tried, and they did not try. The majority of them 
had no sympathy with the secession movement of the East and 
South. A Confederate officer, a veteran of the Mexican War, Colonel 
George A. Porterfield, was sent to Grafton in ilay to collect and organize 
forces and take charge of the defense of that part of the State. He was 
ordered to advance to Wheeling, but he proceeded no farther than Graf- 
ton. He was not fumiihed with guns, ammumtion, provisions or men. 
His whole force, mostly collected in the counties west of the Alleghenies, 
did not exceed one thousand men, and these were almost without arms. 
A successful defense was impossible, and he fell back to Philippi when 
General ilcClellan crossed the Ohio. On June 3 he was attacked at 
Philippi, and fell back to Huttonsville, forty miles farther south. There 
he was superseded by General Gamett, who early in July had accumulated 
ample stores and had six thousand soldiers. 

The Union forces had been slow to follow their success, and had not 
advanced far south from Philippi. General G-irnett fortified a camp on 
Laurel Hill, between Beverly and Philippi, and another camp on Rich 
Mountain, between Beverly and Buckhannon. If the Federals should 
advance south they would be stopped by these defenses; for the only two 
practicable roads were thus closed. General Garnett's first thought was 
to check any further movement south by the Federals. But he hoped to 
do more than that. He had designs on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
and formed his plans for its capture and defense. He spoke of moving 
north to Evansville in Preston County, there forming a camp and base of 
supplies within five miles of the railroad at Independence. From there 
he could strike both east and west. He thought of building a military 
road up Cheat River from Rowlesburg to St. George to facilitate his 
movements, particularly to provide a line of retreat in case he should be 
defeated and find the communication cut off with Beverly and the south, 
through Barbour County. These were plans which he never had an op- 
portunity to execute. General McClellan was already mo\-ing against his 
camps on Laurel Hill and Rich Mountain. 

Colonel John Pegram commanded the thirteen hundred Confederates 
at Rich Mountain; General Garnett had personal command of 4,58-5 at 
Laurel Hill, twelve miles distant. Against Rich Mountain, General 
McClellan led, or had in reserve, sixteen thousand men; General Morris 
led three thousand against Laurel Hill. This latter movement was only 
a feint. No general attack was to be made on Laurel Hill, but the posi- 
tion was to be threatened for the purpose of holding General Garnett there, 



RETREAT OF GENERAL GAKNETT. 227 

while McClellan attacked Rich Moantain. That plan was successfully 
oxrried out. 

Military critics have found fault with McClellan 's tactics. It was 
currently reported and generally believed in his camp that General 
Gamett had ten thousand men at Laurel Hill, yet McClellan sent three 
thousand against him, while himself marched by way of Buckhannon to 
»ttack Rich Mountain. Had Gamett been as strong as reported, he could 
have oveqiowered the forces sent against Laurel Hill and could then have 
marched toward Clarksburg, fallen in the rear of McClellan's force, and 
the chance for the Union army's escape would have been poor. But 
Garnett had four thousand instead of ten thousand, and could not 
take advantage of his adversay's blunder — which, in fact, he never dis- 
covered. 

While General Morris held the attention of the Confederates at 
I/fturel Hill by throwing an occasional shell, McClellan approached the 
other camp at Rich Mountain, and sent General Rosecraus with about 
two thousand men to make an attack on the flank and rear. The Con- 
federates were defeated, and fled with the loss of all their supplies. 
Their forces were scattered over the mountains, and more than half were 
captured within the next day or two. About forty made their escape into 
Pendleton County over what is known as the Seneca trail, an old path 
made by the Indians, and used many years afterwards by white people. 
Others made their way to Huttons\'ille, where they reached the pike 
leading to Staunton. Colonel Scott with about six hundred men was 
near Beverly when the battle occurred. He retreated toward Staunton. 
This left the road open for McClellan's troops to enter Beverly, and thus 
fall in the rear of Garnett at Laurel Hill. But McClellan was very slow 
to take that advantage. He waited until there was ample time for Gar- 
nett to pasR through Beverly and eacape — of course his delay was not 
for the purpose of permitting the Confederates to escape, but they could 
have done it. Why they did not will presently be seen. 

Wteu General Gamett learned that the position at Rich Mouniain 
had been lost, he sent a message to Colonel Scott to hold the Federals 
in check a few hours, if possible, on the road between Rich Mountain and 
Beverly. This would give him time to pass Beverly on his retreat toward 
Staunton. The messenger overtook Colonel Scott seven miles south of 
Beverly. He was already retreating, and could not and did not attempt to 
hold the Federals in check. Meantime General Gameit was retreating, 
and was trying to reach Beverly and pass that point before the arrival of 



228 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the victorious troops of the enemy, coming in from Rich Mountain. He 
could have done so, had he not been deceived by his own scouts, who 
approached ^-ithin a mile of Beverly, and seeing soldiers in the town, 
galloped beck and rejwrted that the Union army had already arrived at 
the designated point The men they saw, however, were only Confed- 
erate stragglers who had not yet left Beverly. 

General Garnctt supposed, upon that erroneous information, that 
his retreat by way of the Staunton pike was cut off, and he turned back, 
and endeavc-ed to escape by following county roads through Tucker 
and Preston counties, into Hardy County (now Grant). In the mean- 
time McClellan's forces followed the retreating Confederates who had 
gone south from Beverly, but di^d not overtake them. Their only success 
was the capture of Colonel Melvin Currence, who had collected militia 
about Huttonsville, under orders from General Gamett, and was engaged 
in guarding obscure roads crossing Rich Mountain south of the battle- 
field. Learning that the Confederate army had been defeated, Colonel 
Cvurence retired to the valley near Huttonsville with his militia where he 
took a stand. -\s the Union forces began to draw near, his men toot to 
their heels, and in a short time the Colonel was absolutely alone. He 
stood his ground and the Federals took him prisoner. 

In the meantime General Gamett, with 4,585 men, wa-s trying to make 
his escape through Tucker couniy, hard pressed by General Morris who 
followed him from Laurel Hill with three thousand men. On the night 
of July 12 the Confederates camped on Phea,sant Run, a branch of Cheat 
River, just in the edge of Randolph County. It was a rainy night. They 
had blockaded the road behind them by felling trees across it. 
At o o'clock on the morning of July 13 the army under General Morris 
passed the site of the present city of Elkins. It was all forest and farm- 
land then. The Federals had followed in such haste from their camp at 
Belington, Barbour County, when they discovered that the Confederates 
•were retreating, that they carried with them very little rations. The 
soldiers were soon very hungrv-; and, as the retreating Confederate* 
swept the country clear of prov{';ions along the line of march, there was 
little left on which the pursuing Union troops could subsist. They were 
soon so nearly famished that tht-r killed cattlt- and ate the unsalted and 
uncooked meat. The pursuit was vigorous. The blockades were cue out 
of the road, and at eight o'clock on the morning of July V'> the advance 
guard overtook and fired upon the rtai of the Confederates as they were 
leaving tbeir camp on Pheasant Run. Tht fire was returned, bnt(".ener;d 



RETREAT OF GENERAL GARNETT. 229 

Garnett made no stand at that place. At the Kalor ford, on Shaver's 
Fork of Cheat River, some of the Confederate wagons were stalled. 
While trying to extricate them, the Federals again came up and opened fire. 
It became a running fight for the next four miles. The Confederates set 
ambuscades and held Xl:e pursuers in check, at different points, thus giv- 
ing the wagons and baggage time to get ahead. About two hundred 
Georgia troops who had been placed in concealment behind a fence for 
tlie purpose of firing upon the pursuers when they came up, failed, for 
some reason, to fire, and permitted the Federal army to pass. The Con- 
federates in ambuscade were thus cut off from the main army; but their 
presence was not discovered by the Union troops, else they would have 
been captured. They fled into the woods, where they soon encountered 
a citizen (James Parsons) who volunteered to pilot them across the 
A lleghenies to Pendleton County. The distance was about forty miles, 
an untrodden v.ildemess, much of it of tangled laurel and pine forest. 
They traveled by compass, and ultimatelj' reached the Confederate lines 
in Highland County, Virginia. Thej' nearly died of hunger. Twenty 
years afterwards the writer of this was able to trace their line of retreat 
through the wilderness on the tributaries of Otter Fork of Cheat River, 
by the birch trees from which the bark had been peeled for food by the 
soldiers. It may be remarked that one of the n:en who made this diffi- 
cult retreat had been shot entirely through the head with a musket ball. 
The bullet had missed the brain, passing back of the face. He was alive 
a-.id able to travel when Ihey reached Pendleton County. I do not know 
what became of him. 

After the skirmish at Kalor's Ford, the Confederates moved on three 
miles to another ford where they made a stand. Here occurre<l the battle 
of Corrick's Ford, about two o'clock. It was onlj- a brisk skirmish, not 
more than twenty being killed, all but two of them being Confederates. 
WTien the fight began, the citizens fled to the woods. Some of them saw 
the whole affair from a neighboring hill. They reported that the Confed- 
erate fire swept the Union trfjops down by hundreds, and that they saw them 
fall. You can hear this report even to this day in that neighborhood, 
and it is believed. Those who reported it were honest, but were mistaken. 
It was an excusable mistake, however, easilj- explained. WTien the 
Federal officer discovered the batteries in front of him about to fire, he 
ordered, "Flat to the ground." His men obeyed, and the discharge went 
over them. This was what the cilL^eas saw. 



260 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAX MAGAZINE. 

The b-itt!e of Corrick's I'ord was not fought at Corrick's Ford, but 
at a ford half a mile above. General Garnett was killed at Corrick's Ford, 
on the ground no%y occupied by the pulp mill, in the town of Parsons. 
After bis anny had retreated, he remained with the rear. At Corrick's 
Ford he ordered about a dozen sharpshooters to post themselves behind 
a pile of driftwood to check the pursuers. As he sat on his hor.se direct- 
ing them where to go, he was shot from the other side of he river. 
His body was sent to Rowlesbiirg m care of Whitelaw Reid, who was 
then a newspaper correspondent with the Federal army. From Rowles- 
biirg the corpse was sent to Grafton and thence by express to Richmond. 

The Federals made no pursuit beyond Corrick's Ford, except that 
the cavalry follov.'ed some fifteen miles to pick up plunder and prisoners. 
Two miles below Corrick's Ford the Confederates made another stand in 
expectation of attack. This was at Job's Ford. There was no pursuit, 
and they moved on. The condition of the soldiers had become deplora- 
ble. They had plenty of rations, but no time to cook anything. The 
incessant rains had made the road next to impassable. They had no 
ambulances. The wounded and sick rode in the wagons, or were left 
behind. A young boy, with a foot shot off, rode on a cannon. The sick 
and exhausted fell by the wayside. That, however, is a common feature 
of all retreats. When the army reached Horseshoe Run, a false report 
came that the pursuers were only two miles back. There was a halt for 
battle at Low Gap, which commanded the road for two miles. While 
preparing to make a stand there, report of a more serious nature v.-as 
brought by Ezekiel Harper, a citizen who had been doing some volunteer 
scouting up the Horseshoe Run road. He said that the Federals were 
concentrating at the Red House, eighteen miles east, at the intersection 
of the Horseshoe Rim road and the Northwestern Pike. This would cut 
off the retreat of the Confederates, if true. It was partly true, as was 
subsequently learned. The Federals were there, but not in sufficient 
strength to stop the retreat. The report caused no small consternation 
among the Confederates. Instead of making a stand at Low Gap, the 
artillery and cavalrj- were sent to the front. In passing the infantry and 
wagons, the cavalry left the road and crossed fields. The deep path 
made by horses on that cccassion remained visible on the sodded ground 
for more than twenty-five years. Panic seized the army. Wagons wers 
unloaded, supplies were thrown away, and the retreat became a route. 
Had the pursuit beea vigorous few could have escaped. But the^ pur- 
suers were in little less sorry plight than the pursued. 



RETREAT OF GENERAL GARNETT. 231 

Darkness set iu before the head of Horseshoe Run v.-as reached. The 
cavalry picked up a citi^ten (Samuel Porter) who declared that there was 
only one possible way of escape, and he knew that way. The Federals, 
he said, were at the Red House, But he knew a path across the 
Alleghenies to Stony River, and would guide them. His offer was 
accepted, and the cavalry left the road to follow a mountain path. (Perhaps 
all the cavalry did not leave the road). They had not gone far when they 
were accosted by a mosvtaineer who took them for Union troops and 
volunteered information that lie could collect one hundred men and 
"bushwhack rebels to beat the nation." His chagrin could not be con- 
cealed when they informed him thai he was in the hands of the rebels 
and might consider himself a prisoner. The cavalry emerged from the 
wilderness and reached the Northwestern Pike near Mount Storm, July 14. 

The main army continued its retreat and at four o'clock on the morn- 
ing of July 14 reached the Red House. The F'ederal picket, which had 
been stationed there, retreated at the approach of the artny. It may be 
stated that during all that night and the afternoon of the day before, the 
Federals had been hurr%-ing troops to the Red House to intercept the 
retreating Confederates. The railroad had been unloading them at Oak- 
land and elsewhere, an*? they were marching across the country to that 
point, but they came too late. The Confedrates were not again molested. 
They retreated through Hardy (now Grant) and Pendleton counties, and 
thus made their escape. Some of them marched from Pheasant Run to 
Petersburg in Grant County, with nothing to eat. 

The sudden appearance of an army in the sequestered nooks of West 
Virginia created much excitement at £rst among the people, who never 
had seen war in any fora:!. The news that the army was throwing away 
its store of clothing, food and military supplies spread rapidly, and the 
citizens came flocking ficm all sides to share in the spoils. The army's 
supply of blankets seems to have been nearly all homemade, furnished, 
perhaps, by private families in the South who contributed of their means 
to equip the troops sent So the field. The blankets were woolen, white 
and of a superior quality. They were thrown a^ray by hundreds, and 
the people gathered them eagerly. The larger portion of them were 
taken by the pursuing Federals, yet enough remained, which had been 
successfully concealed, to provide warm beds in many a mountain house- 
bold for years to come. As might be expected, some diseases prevalent 
iu that army (and nearly ail armies) were communicated by the blankets, 
and other clothing, especially the malady known in the doctors' books as- 



232 TRANSALLEGHENY EISTOKICAL MAGAZINE, 

sarcoptci scabci; but tie average zi^-re did not think it a bad bargain 
to scratch seven jears for the sake of getting a supply of blankets that 
would last the remainder of his natirral life. It is probable that some of 
those blankets are stiU in use in Tucker Co-Jntj-. 

When the Federal cavalry car:e up, everything that had belonged 
to the Confederates, that could be fo-and and identified, was taken. They 
swept the country-, not only along the main roads, but they follo'R-e<l 
paths, and traversed the forests and fields, searching in every nook and 
comer for hidden articles. It is surprising that anything escaped. Yet, 
in one instance, a wagon that had been hidden was not found. The peo- 
ple had not anticipated a search so thorough. They supposed that 
things hidden in the woods would not be found. A fine violin was 
picked up by a young lady. She wrapped it carefully in a shawl, took 
it to the woods back of the house, and laid it in the forks of a bush. 
The first Yankee who came found it and she saw him pass 
the house with it, shawl and all. The young lady's brother appropri- 
ated a valuable trvrnk, filled with fine clothing He carried all into the 
house, hoping to hide them. He was thoughtful enough to deposit in his 
pocket forty dollars in gold which he found in the trunk. He saved that, 
but the mud on the trunk betrayed it, and it went. A mountaineer 
(Stephen Lipscomb) carried a barrel of flour on his shoulder three miles, 
»nd succeeded in keeping it. One would conclude that he earned it, as 
it weighed two hundred p'^unds. Two other men dragged a five hun. 
dred pound box of guns half a mile through the woods. They had just 
reached a deep pool of water in which they intended to sink it when the 
Federals overtook them and relieved them of their burden. Enough shoe* 
to supply a considerable part o^ a regiment were picked up by a citizen 
(Andrew B. Parsons) and were concealed under the floor of his house. 
The keen eyed soldiers soon ^'ound them. Another citizen (William 
Losh) who considered his opportunities and did not want anybody to be 
amazed at his moderation, hitched up his cart to haul loot home by cart- 
loads. Unfortunately, while making his way home with the first load, 
pursuers came upon the scene. He tried to get away, but a wheel came 
off, and he abandoned the cart and its contents, and he never saw them 
again. 

While Mr. Losh was looking after things of practical use, bis two 
sons were engaged in the philanthropic work of picking up sick and dis- 
abled Confederates who had fallen by the wayside. Such of these as 
could not walk they carried on their backs to a vacant cabin half mile 



RETREAT OF GENERAL GARNETT. 233 

from the road, in a deep ravine. They filled the cabin with unfortunates 
of all kinds,'sick, wounded and starving. By some freak or chance, beyond 
explaiuation the Union soldiers failed to discover what was in the cabin. 
They found everything else in the vicinity, even down to a knife buried in 
the ground. Some of the people in the neighborhood attributed the escape 
to a special interposition of Providence in favor of the poor rebels. Be that 
as it may, the old cabin was converted into a hospital on a small scale, and 
its wants were supplied by the Losh boys to the best of their ability. In 
course of time they piloted their convalescents through the woods, 
across the AlleghenJes, and saw them safe within the Confederate -lines. 
The character of the articles thrown away by Garnett's army showed 
that many of the soldiers came from wealthy families. The clothing in 
many of the trunks was of the best. In addition to that, there was much 
brica-a-brac which a soldier in active duty has no use for. These things 
had been brought from home (some of the soldiers so explained) under 
the belief that the campaign would be only a summer outing and that 
there would be no real war. The week from July 11 to 18, 1861, dispelled 
that delusion. 



THE LAST SURVIVOR OF THE BATTLE OF POINT 
PLEASANT. * 

BY HIT MAXWELL. " ' ' . ~ • 

The assertion has been macfe. and I have never heard it disputed, that 
the last survivor of the battle c* Point Pleasant veas Ellis Hughes who 
died in 1840 atUtica, Ohio. This is clearly a mistake. There was certainly 
a soldier in that battle who sirrvived Ellis Hughes several years, and 
■who died in February, 1848, in that portion of Ranuolph County which 
became Tucker County in 1S56'.. 

Samuel Bonnifield was bora April 11, 1752 where Washington City 
now stands. He was a son of Gregory Bonnifield, who was a son of 
Luke Bonnifield, all of them b-om in America. They were Maryland 
tobacco growers, and marketed! their tobacco at a wharf on the Potomac 
at or near the site of Washin;.:5ton. Further than that there is little 
information concering the famij!y, except that they were supposed to be 
Scotch, with a French name. (Bouniphant was said to be the name in 
France). 

In the Slimmer of 1774 Sarnmel Bonnifield went on a visit to Fau- 
quier County, Virginia. At tha.t time Governor Dunmore was prepariug 
for a campaign agaisist the Indians in Ohio, and Bonnifield joined the 
army, although he was not s citizen of Virginia. When the march 
began for the west, he fount?, himself under General Lewis. Thej 
marched to Lewisbarg in Greenbrier County. Here Bonnifield first met 
Isaac Shelby, with \5-hom he formed an intimate acquaintance, and of 
whom he afterwar<Js frequentiy spoke. The army proceeded to the 
mouth of the Gauley, and froK'i that point a portion made canoes and 
went by water to the Ohio. Ajaiong these was Bonnifield. His remi- 
nisences of the battle of October 10, contain a few minor details which I 
have never seen published. He relates that he and Isaac Shelby were 

« My sources of inforiDatiou for this article are various, but chief among them 
are the family recortls s:ill in pos*e.ssion of Samuel BonniCeld's decfndants; the 
public records of Randolph Courty, West Virginia; and a manuscript of about 200 
page^ written some fifty years ago bv Enoch Sclby, a school teacher of wef^tern Vir- 
ginia. Mr. Selby died a'.x>ut ten yeiirs ago in Wirt County, West Virginia. I had 
that manuscript before me when I wrote my history of Tucker County in 1**4, and I 
made free use of it. I do not know wiiers it is now. 



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• :-^^ THE LAST SURVIVOR. 235 

behind the same log, aud had, for some time,been trying to discover the 
spot from which occasional bullets had been coming which apparently 
bad been fired at them whenever they showed themselves. Finally 
Bonnifield made the discovery; but at that moment his gun was empty, 
and he therefore pointed out the head and face of _ an Indian some fifty 
yards distant, protruding from behind a log. Shelby took careful aim, 
fired, and when the Indians yielded groimd shortly after, they found the 
«-arrior l\-ing behind the log, shot through the head. 

Kone of the published accounts of the battle which I have seen 
mention the fact that the retreating Indians were observed while in the 
act of crossing the Ohio. Bonnifield speaks particularly of seeing them 
crossing in large numbers. To him the sight seems to have furnished 
amusement; for he related with much merriment how a dozen or more 
Indians would set out from shore on a single log, how the log would roll 
and careen despite their eflorts to steady it; how one by one they would 
fall off, and strike out swimming for the Ohio shore, while the log per- 
haps would float away without a passenger. 

After the battle, the army crossed the Ohio and pursued the Indians 
until an armistice was arranged. Bonnifield was detailed to remain at 
Point Pleasant to nurse the wounded. He was there all winter. In the 
e-irly spring of 1775 he was discharged; and with a single companion he 
set out for home. They passed up the Kanawha river, depending on 
killing game to supply their food. They failed to do this, and were 
.'dniost famished when they reached the settlement on Greenbrier River. 
The first house they came to wa.^ occupied by a man named McClung. 
He set before them an abundance, but when he saw their inapp easable 
appetite he repeatedly warned then not to kill themselves. 

Bonnifield had scarcely arrived east of the Blue Ridge when the 
Revolution began, and he at once join<^d the patriot army. I am unable 
to say, because I have never tried to ascertain, what regiment he 
belonged to. I suppose it was a Virginia, regiment; but it may have 
been of Maryland, as that was his native state. There is no doubt that 
he was in nearly the whole war; The records of Randolph County speak 
of him as receiving a pension on account of his services in the Revolu- 
tion. He was at Brandywine and saw Lafayette wounded. He was at 
Yorktown and saw General O'Hara surrender the sword of Cornwallis. 
Mr. BonnifieM always maintained that Lord Comwallis surrendered his 
own sword, but, of cour.-,e, that was -i mistake. Ke must have been very 
near during the ceremony for lie d-tailed the conversation which he 



236 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTOxilCAL MAGAZINE. 

heard between Washington and "Cornwallis" while the sword was pass- 
ing through the formality of being surrendered and given back. 

After the Revolution Bonnifield, who had in the meantime 
married Dorcas James, crossed the Alleghenies and settled on Cheat 
River, two miles from St. George, in the present county of Tucker, then 
in Monongalia County. In 1796 he was a justice of the peace of Ran- 
dolph County, and held the ofSce continuously for more than fifty 
years, except during four terms of sheriff of the county, which he held. 
He was eighty-five years old when he became sheriff the last time. He 
died in his ninety-sixth year, on Horseshoe Run, four miles east of St. 
George, in February 1848, and was buried on his own farm. The house 
in which he spent his last years yet stands and is used as a stable by his 
grandson, A. H. Bonnifield, late sheriff of Tucker County. The house 
was built about 1823. 

I believe that all the Eonni field's of West Virginia (at least all 
that I know of) are decendants of Samuel Bonnifield, or of his brothers 
who crossed the AOoghenies •with him. There are different spellings of 
the name; but the correct spelling is as given in this article; or it wa.«; 
the correct spelling one hundred and five years ago, for I have Samu3l 
Bonnifield's autograph written that year. It has been engraved in fac- 
simile and may be seen on page 221 of my history of Randolph County. 



^37 



AN OtB LETTER 

[The following is an extract from a fetter dated Palatine Hill. Va., April 10, l&i2, 
writteu by William Haymccd to his nepli-ew, I,uther Ilayraotid. of Clarksburg. The 
writer of the letter settled in IT'^l on 137 acres of land where Palatine, W. Va., now is. 
He was the father of Thoiiiis S. Haymond, the Cougrrssman, and grandfather of 
judge Alpheus Haymond, of Fairmont, and Creed Haymond, of California. This 
extract was furnished this magazine by Colonel Henry H.iymond, of Clarksburg.] 

In the year 1791, tbe Indians killed James or John Mclntire and 
wife, a niile or two above the momth of Bingaiiton Creek. Five or six 
of us when we heard the news, started (from Clarksburg) and went to 
Benjamin Robinson's. 

Robinson had appointed, before we got there, to meet some men on 
Bingamon or Buffalo Creeks. We started, eleven o'f us in all, went up 
Ten Mile Creek to the mouth of Jones' Run, and in going up said run, 
we found the Indians' trail; but as Robinson had promised to meet those 
men, we went on to Buffalo Creek, but found no person. 

We took up Buffalo to the bead of Fishing Creek, went down a 
considerable distance, took up a right hand branch on which we camped. 
The next morning we crossed over the dividing ridge, and fell on to the 
waters of ^liddle Island, went down the same to the creek, about a mile 
below the Threa Forks. The Indians had just come down the creek. 
Here was a fresh trail. George Jackson proposed that six men should 
be chosen, who should strip as li^ht as they could, and go ahead of the 
horses, he also asked the privilege of choosing them and going ahead, 
which was granted. I then thought, chosen or not, I should be one of 
them. George Jackson, Benjamin Robinson, Christopher Carpenter, 
John Haymond, John Harbert and myself , the sixth, were tlie number 
selected. 

We stripped ourselves as light as we could, tied handkerchiefs around 
our heads, and proceeded as fast as we could. The Indians appeared to 
travel very carelessly, broke bushes, &c. It was in May, the weeds were 
young and tender and we couM follow a man very easy. We went about 
seven or eight miles, passed where the Indians had stopped to eat, arriv- 
ing on a high bank, Jackson turned around and said, "Where do you 
think they have gone?" and with, that, he jumped down the bank, and 
we proceeded down on tbe beach a short distance, when one of the 



233 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Indians fired. We were on the beach, they were on the hank, on the same 
side of the creek. We started in a nin and had run ten or fifteen yards 
when the other three fired. 

At the first gun, Jackson wheeled around and said, "where did that 
gun come irom?" John Harbert and brother John discovered them firstrun- 
ning up the hill, they fired, Benjamin Robinson and myself ran and 
jumjjed on the bank, where they had left their knapsacks. I fired the 
third shot. The Indians were fifty yards ofr. They had run up a very 
tteep hill. Robinson shot at the same Indian that I did. I heard him, 
or one of them, talk after I shot. Jackson and Carpenter shot last. We 
then ran a little to toe right of where the Indians had went up the hill. I 
was the first on top, with the company I was with, (The other men had 
joined us, and two or three went around the hill in another place), we 
then turned down to where the Indians had got on top of the hill, there 
tve found a blanket, b^lt, scabbard, knife and blood. The Indian had 
bled considerably, he went about a quarter of a mile, and cut a stick, 
which we supposed was to stop the blood. We followed him about a 
mile, the men then thought it dangerous to follow, thinking he had his 
gun with him, and would hide and kill one of us. To my mortification 
we returned, we could have trailevi him anywhere. 

On our return, we found his shot pouch. Had we found it at first, we 
would have overtaken him, I^ think. About ten j-ears afterwards his giui 
was found. 

After we fired, I wanted to run down the creek, as I could see that a 
run came in just below, but the rest would not. If we had, I have no 
doubt but we would have met them again, as the wounded Indian crossed 
the point, and the run not very far from its mouth. The other Indians 
we did not follow, bnt I think they crossed below where the wounded 
one did. 

We rettirned to the Indians' place of attack, where we found all of 
their knapsacks, one «hotpouch, (ha\-ing previously found one), four 
hatchets and all their plunder, including the v.-oman's scalp. Here on 
examination, we found that brother John bad been shot through the 
handkerchief just above his ear, and Jackson through the shirt sleeve, 
near the wrist. Had we looked, we would have found the Indian's gun, 
we ought to have exported that be would throw away his gun before hid 
shotpouch. I have since heard that one of the Cunninghams who was 
a prisoner with the Indians at that time, on his retu-m, said that an Indian 
came home and reporte<i that he had been with three ethers on Muddy 



AN OLD LETTER. 239 

River (West Fork), killed a man and woman, and that they were fol- 
lowed, and they fired on the white men and killed two, and that the 
white men fired on them and wounded three, one of whom died after 
crossing the second ridge at a run (We were on the second ridge and 
near the second run), the two died between that and the Ohio river. 

If this account is true, and the Indians we followed were the same, 
wc must have shot well, we thought at the time we had wounded two. 

We sold our Indian plunder for about twenty dollars, among which 
were some curious things. * 



See an account of this affair in the Border Warfare, page 2S4. 



"io 



PIONEER SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 

[Continued.] 

(Extracts from the certificates granted by the Commissioners for 
Adjusting the Claims to Unpatented Lands on the Western Waters for 
the County of Monongalia. The: Commissioners sat at the house of Col. 
John Evans in February, Marci and April "m the tifth year of the Com- 
monwealth." They sat for a few days at Clarksburg in the early part of 
April. The spelling and the use of capital letters have been obser\-edand 
reproduced as near as practicable. — R. E. F.) 

Jesse Edwards, heir at law of David Edwards, 400 acres on Eooth 
Creek adjoining lands claimed by John Owens to include his settlement 
made in 1772. 

Peter Smalwood Roby, assignee to John Creig, 400 acres on the 
■waters of Lost Creek, adjoining lands claimed by Ratliff (?) to in- 
clude his settlement mac^e in 1773. 

Hezekiah Wade, 400 acres on the head of Crooked Run adjoining 
lands claimed by John Pollock to include his settlement made in 1770. 

James Camberford, ass' nee of Benjamin Archer, 400 on Robinson's 
Run, a branch of the IMonongalia River to include his settlement in 
1774 adjoining Joseph Xeals land. 

Aaron Jenkins, ass'nee of Alexander Clegg, who married to Marg arrt 
who is heir at law to Jacob Forman, who was ass'nee of John Merrical, 
400 acres on Dunkards Creek to include the settlement made in 1773 by 
Thomas Merrical. 

Daniel McF'arland, ass'ee to James Milligan, 400 acres on Goose 
Creek, a branch of Hughes River, adjoining lands granted to the said 
McFarland at the Plum Orchani including his settlement begun in 1775. 

Daniel McFarland, assignee of Zebland Cooper, 400 acres on Goose 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

William Davisson, as.«ignee of Evans Watkins, 400 acres on the head 
of Scott's Mill Run to induce his settlement made in 1774. 

Philip Pierce, 400 acres on little Pappa Creek, on the Limestone 
lick, to include his settleme3.t snade in 1775. 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 241 

Hanna Scott, legatee to James Scott, 400 acres on a drain of Pappa 
Creek, between Robinson's run and the Main Fork, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1776. 

Charles Stewart, 400 acres on that branch of West Fork called Buffalo 
about three miles from Richard's Fort, to include his settlement mode 
in 1771. 



John Reiger, 400 acres on each side of Euckhannon river near hj 
joining lands claimed by Timmotby Dorman to include his settlement 
mode in 1773. 



William Dannaway, 400 acres i^'-n the waters of Fish Creek, about five 
miles from the dividing ridge, on 5joth sides of the Warrior Path, in the 
right of raising a crop of com on t£ie western waters prior to 1778. 



Peter Parker 200 acres on Co'Dum's creek, adjoining the Heirs of 
Grant Decker, to include his settlement made in 1774. 



John Cookman, 400 acres on Scotts Run adjoining lauds claimed by 
Jacob Scott to include his settlemect made in 1773. 



George Robins, 400 acres on Icdian Creek, at a place called the Mill 
Seat, to include his settlement made in 1772. 



Jesse Parker, 400 acres on Joes Run in the right of raising a crop of 
com on the western waters prior to 1778, to include his improvement 
made in 1774. 



Amniiis (?) Huff, ass'nee to Richard Robins, 400 acres on the West 
Fork above and adjoining lands claimed by Thomas Helton, to include 
his settlement made in 1776. 



Daniel McFarlin, ass'ee of Francis GriflSn, 400 acres on Mud l?ick 
run, a branch of the Tigar Valley river, to include the land on both sides 
of the run toBufHow lick, by com light prior to 1778. 



Wenman (?) Wade iOO, acres, on right hand fork of Duncard creek, 
to extend below the lime camp to iiaclude his settlement made in 1774. 

David Frazer, ass'ee to Jacob VanCamp, 400 acres on the dividing 
ridge of Scotts' run and the Monongalia river, on both sides of the road 
leading from Kerns I^Iill to Pickets Fort, to include his settlement in 1774. 

George Cochran, 40*') acres, about two miles from the head of Salt 
Lick creek, to include his settlement in 1775. 



242 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL. MAGAZINE. 

Van Swearengen, son of John, 400 acres on Ratcliff Camp run. a 
■^rain of Ten Mile creek, to include his settlement in 1774. 

David Evans, 400 acres on the West Fork of Booth creek to include 
his settlement made in 1775. 

William Robinson, assignee of James Pettel, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
creek to include his settlement in 1773. 

J.acob Scott, 400 acres on Scotts run adjoining land claimed by David 
Scott to include his settlement made in 1771. 

Aron Jenkins, ass'ee to Alexander Cleg who married Margaret who 
is Heires at law to Jacob Forman, deceased, 400 acres on Dunkar creek 
to include the settlement made by the said Forman in 1770. 

Thomas Wade, 400 acres on left hand fork of Duncar creek about 
half a mile above the three forks to include his settlement made in 1775. 

John Willson, 400 acres on both sides of West Fork of Monongalia 
adjoining the lands of Joshua Allin to include his settlement made in 
1775. 

Joshua Yock, Junior, 400 acres on the waters of Monongalia river, 
adjoining to Ilardins Cove to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Amos Huff, ass'gnee to Joseph Batton, 400 acres on the L^per Fork 
of the right hand Fork of BulTalo creek to include his settlement in 1770. 

Jacob Scott, ass'nee to George Martin, 400 acres on Cheat river, 
adjoining lands claimed by Le^vis Rogers to include his settlement made 
in the year 17S1. 

'John Rannolds, 400 acres on Bozarth Run, adjoining the lands of 
John Eozarth on the west side of the Monongalia to include his settle- 
ment made in the year 177-5. 

Danel McFarland, assingee, to Wm. ^McFarland, 400 acres on the 
dividin.g ridge between Deckers creek and Aarons creek about three 
miles above David Crulls to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Joshua Allen, ''>50 acres on West Fork of Monongalia river adjoining 
lands claimed by John Simpson to include his settlement made in 1775, 
and a preemption right to luOO acres adjoining. 

James Cochran, 400 acres on Salt Lick, a branch of the Little Kan- 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 243 

ha.vay, to include his settlement in 1773, and 1000 acres adjoining, by 
preemption. 

Zachariah White, ass'gnee to Ja-nies Wells, 400 acres on the head of 
Scotts Run adjoining John Cochr ms land to include his settlement made 
in 1775, with a preemption right to 1000 acres adjoining. 



Abraham Hendricks, 400 acres on Robinson's Run adjoining lands 
claimed by Augustus Smith, to include his settlement made in 1775. 



John Miller, Sr., ass'nee to Casper Bonner, who was assignee to Tho. 
Dov^'thet, 400 acres on the west side of the Monongalia adjoining the 
lands of David ilorgan to include his settlement made in 1772. 

John Wade, Junior, 400 acres on the West Fork at the Mouth of 
Booth Creek to include his improvement made in 1773 . 

William Robinson, assignee to Philip Showilej- (?) 400 acres on 
north side of Tigar Valley adjoining or near a place called Forsheys 
Level opposite the mouth of List ( Lick ? ) run to include his settlement 
in 1775. 



Aaron Henry, assignee to Dennis Xevil, 400 acres on Scotts run 
adjoining the land of Joseph Barker to include his settlement made in 
1773; and preemption right to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Valentine Kennet, 400 acres on a drain of Dunkard Creek adjoining 
lands claimed by Bean Worley, to include his settlement in 1771. 

Mich?.el Whitelock, 400 acres on ^lud Lick to include his settlement 
made in 1774. 

George Wade, Junior., 400 acres on the waters of Duncar Creek, 
adjoining lands of Joseph Wades heirs, com right prior to 1778. 

Amos Huff, assignee to George Robison, 400 acres on Indian Creek, 
at a place called the Mill Seat to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Charles Martin, assignee to Jehu Murphy, 400 acres on the south 
side of Hughes River about six miles from its mouth to include his 
settlement begun in 1775; with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Clune and William John, tenants in common, 400 acres on 
Hezekiali Davissons run, a branch of Ten Mile adjoining land claimed 
by the said Davidson, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Jacob Beeson, 1000 acres, preemption, on North Fork of Hughes 



244 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

river, about ten miles from its henJ, inthe right of George Green, to 
include Green's settlement made in 1773. 

James Cochran, 40<) acres en Salt Lick Creek in the right of raising a 
crop of corn prior to 177S. 

John Dulling GofT, 1000 acres, by right of preemption. The locality 
is not given. A second preemption of 1000 acres -was granted him on the 
waters of the Yohogania to include his settlement made in 1775. 

John Ratlifl, 400 acres ou Tigar Valley Fork at Pringles Ford to 
include his settlement made in 1773. 

Joseph Barker, Senr., 40<} acres on Scotts Meadow nm to include his 
settlement made in 1773. 

John Ratliff, assignee to Henarj- Smith, 400 acres on Natta Creek, a 

branch of Elk Creek, adjoining land of Peter McQ to include his 

settlement made in 1773. 

James Stafford, assignee to John Henderson, 2(J0 acres on the waters 
of Buflalow Creek adjoining lands of John Scott, in a com right prior to 
177vS, with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Mahan, ass'ee to John Mclntire, 400 acres on Wests mn 
adjoining land claimed by Joseph Jenkins, in said Mclntires right of 
residence and raising a crop of corn in Monongalia county prior to 1778, 
with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Ratliff, assignee of Martin Queen, 400 acres on the Main fork 
of Elk Creek adjoining lands claimed by Thomas Stout to include his 
settlement made in 1773. 

Willi.i.m Robison, assignee to Edw Harison ( ? ) 400 acres on Salt 
Lick Creek to include his settlen:ent made iu 1773. 

James Morgan, assignee to Moses Templin who was assignee to 
William Anderson, 400 acres on the Monongalia river adjoining lands of 
John Bonner, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

William Stewart, 400 acres on Indian Creek to include his settlement 
made in 1773. 

William Robinson, assignee of Thomas Plardin, 400 acres on Salt 
Lick Creek, to include his settlement begun in 1773. 

Philip Doldridge, assignee to Joseph Barker, 400 acres on the head 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 245 

of Monongalia glades, known as Barker's cabbin, to include his improve- 
ment begnn in 1771. 

Charles Martin, assignee to Daniel Stephens, 400 acres on Mndlick, 
adjoining lands of Benjamin Shinn, to include his settlement made in 
1774. 

John Ice, 400 acres on Buffalo Creek about three miles from its 
mouth to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Charles Martin, ass'ee to William Martin, 400 acres at the mouth of 
Indian Creek to include his settlement made in 1770. 

Richard P'alls, assignee to William Hark, 400 acres on Hackers 
Creek adjoining lands claimed by John Hacker to include his settlement 
made in 1773. 

Elias Laton, assignee to Thomas Henton, 400 acres on Hazel Rim, a 
drain of Sandy Creek adjoining lands of Joseph Demming, to include 
his settlement made in 1772. 

John Jackson, Junr., 400 acres on Turkey run, a branch of Buck 
Hannan Fork of Monongalia river, adjoining lands of John Jackson, to 
include his settlement made in 1775. 

William Robinson, assignee to Jesse Booth, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Robert Campbell, "200 acres on Buflalo Creek, two miles below the 
fork, adjoining lands of John Scott, to include his settlement made in 
1775. 

John Cox, 400 acres, on the Lliddle branch of Three Fork Creek, to 
include his settlement made in 1775; with a preemption to 1000 acres 
adjoining. 

William Kobison, assignee to James Howard, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1775. 



Daniel Burchel, ass'nee to Robert Morris, 400 acres on a branch of 
Hellain's Run emptying therein below the three forks, to include his 
settlement made in 1772. 

William Leather, ass'nee to Isaac Rennian, 400 acres on the west 
side of the West Foikata place called Hickory Flats, to include his 
settlement made in 1775. 



246 TRAXSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Levi Douglas, 4<X) acres on the Brushy Fork of Elk Creek adjoining 
lands claimed by Benjamin Coplin, to include his settlement made in 
1775. 

Thomas Clear, assignee to John Kerby, 400 acres on the fork of 
Pringles run and drain of Cheat river, opposite to William Morgan's 
land, to include his settlement thereon. 

Thomas Clear, ass'nee to Zadock Springer, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
Creek, a branch of the Little Kanawhaway, in the right of having raised 
a crop of com prior to 1778. 

Joseph Barker, Jr., 400 acres on the right hand fork of Indian Creek 
adjoining lands claimed by James Barker to include his settlement made 
in 1775. 

J Bidle, assignee to William Willian'.s, 400 acres on the right 

hand fork of Biugauion, in the said Williams right of raising a crop of 
com prior to 177S. 

Stephen Ratlift, 400 acres on Lost Creek adjoining lands claimed by 
Henry Runion to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John RatlifF, assignee to Charles Parsons, 400 acres on Elk Creek 
adjoining lands claimed by Joseph Heasting to include his settlement 
made in 1773. 

William Wattson, 400 acres on Deckers Creek adjoining lands 
claimed by James Cobnm, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

P Smallwood Roby, assignee to John Gray (?), 1000 acres on 

Lost creek, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Johnson, assignee to Benjamin Rogers, 400 acres on West Run 
to include his settlement made in 1771. 

Samuel Harbert, heir to Thomas Harbert, deceased, 400 acres on the 
West Fork, adjoining lands of Levy Shinn to include his settlement made 
in the year 1775. 

John Schoolcraft, 4(K"' acres on Stone Coal run, a branch of West 
Fork, adjoining lands claimed by Kenry Flesher, to include his settle- 
ment made in the year 1775. 

Michael Cbrisrp (Cresip?). deceased, is entitled to 400 acres of land 
in Monongalia County on the Ohio river, above znn adjoining the mouth 
of Bull Creek, in the right of ha\-ing settled a Tennant ou said land, to 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 247 

include his settlement made in the year 1775, with a preemption to 1(X)0 
acres adjoining. 

Thomas Clear, assignee to Joseph Yeager, 400 acres on east side of 
Hughes river opposite the lands of Humphrey Bell, including his im- 
provement made in 177-5, vnth a pnsemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Dent, assignee to Francis Burns, 400 acres on Middle Fork of 
Ten Mile creek, at Glade Bottom, in the right of said Burns raising a crop 
of com prior to 1778. 



John Burk, 400 acres on Three Fork Creek, opposite the mouth of 
Raccoon Creek, to include bis settlement made in 1774. 



The heir at law to Michael Cresap, deceased, is entitled to 400 acres 
in Monongalia county on the Ohio xiver at the mouth of French creek, in 
the right of having settled a tenant in the said land in 1775. 

The heirs of Michael Cresap, deceased, assignee to James Templin, 
400 acres on the waters of Deckers creek adjoining the lands of ^William 
Robe to include his settlement made in 177'2. 



The heirs of 3Iichael Cresap, 40<r> acres on the Ohio river above the 
mouth of Bull creek to include his settlement by a tenant in 1773. (The 
figures are blurred. It may be 1775). 



William Hajiuond, assignee to James Moore, 400 acres on Meatts 
run, adjoining lands of Samuel C. Morals heirs, to iticlude a settlement 
made by said Moore in 1771. 

William Ha>-mond, assignee to Daniel Veach, 400 acres on Heckers 
creek adjoining the lands of Benjasnin Radcliff, to include his settle- 
ment in 1771. 

William Hayniond, assignee to Francis Tibbs, 400 acres on Rooting 
creek at the mouth of Miller run, to include his settlement made in 1771. 



James Stafford, assignee to Jam-es Mahon, 400 acres on Buffalo creek, 
adjoining the lands of Charles MartiTi, to include his settlement made in 
1774. 



William Stewart, a.ssignee to Jonathan Rees, 1000 acres, by preemp- 
tion, in the forks of Cheat, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Jacob Youngman, as.signee to Thomas Arber, 1000 acres, preemption, 
adjoining his settlement maile in 1774 (no locality is given). 

Francis Wannan, 1000 acres by preemption on Buffalo cr-eek, to in- 
clude his settlement made in 1775. 



248 TRANSALLKGHENY HISTOKICAI. xMAGAZINE. 

Levy Wells, 10C<0 acers by preemption to include his settlement on 
the West Fork adjoining lands of Thomas Reed (no date of settlement 
is given). 

Jari.'S Walker, assignee to William Salsberry, 1000 acres, by preemp- 
tion, on the right hand fork of Pappa, known by the name of Stone Lick 
to include his settlement made in 1773. 

James Walker, assignee to James Dale, 400 acres on a branch of 
Prickett's creek, to include his settlement made in 1777, and a preemp- 
tion to 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Alban, 400 acres on tbe head of Pedlar's run, a branch of Simp- 
son's creek, to include his settLement made in 1776, -w-itha preemption to 
1000 acres adjoining. 

Frederick Ice, 400 acres on; Indian creek, adjoining lands of Richird 
Harrison, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Joseph Cox, 400 acres on ^-aters of Deckers creek to include his 
settlement (no date). 

John McClelland, 400 acre.s on a branch of Deckers creek, adjoining- 
lands of Richard .Vshcraft, to kiclude his settlement made in 177G, with 
a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

William Lenham, 400 acres on the waters of Bufialow creek, at the 
Buffalow lick, adjoining lands -of Anthony !^Iahon, to include his settle- 
ment made in 177"_', with a preiitnption right to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Joel Reed, 400 acres on the south side of Little Kanhaway, to include 
his improvement made about one mile from the mouth of the Little 
Kanawhay [no date'given]. 

Andrew Ice, 40O acres on White Day creek adjoining lands of Robert- 
son Le-s\is, to include his improvement made in 1773. 



Jonathan Baj'er, 400 acres on Tygars Valley river at a place called 
Forsheys level, including his improvement made in 1774. 

Jonathan Bayer, 1000 acres by preemption, adjoining his settleruent 
at Forshers leavel in 1774. [ Ivote the difference in spelling "Forsher" 
and "level" in the last two paragraphs.] 

Edward Jackson, 400 acre* on Finks run, adjoining lands of John 
Fink, to include hLs settlement made in 1774, with a preemption to 100<} 
acres adjoining. 



■;;. SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 249 

George Jackson, assignee to George Parsons, 1000 acres by preemp- 
tion that adjoins his settlement tliat adjoins lands claimed by Benjamin 
Cutright made in the year 1776. 

George Peck, assignee to Edward Tannor, 400 acres on the Buck- 
hannon, adjoining lands of George Jackson, to include his settlement 
made in 1774. 

Jacob Reager, 400 acres on Second Big Run, to include his settlement 
made in 1776. 

William Robinson, 400 acres on the West Fork adjoining lands of 
the widow Brown, to include his his settlement made in 1773, with a pre- 
emption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Fink, assignee to Benjamin Cuthwrite; 400 acres on Stony run, 
a branch of the Buckhannon river, adjoining lands claimed by George 
Jackson, to include [leaf torn.] 

John Wolf, 200 acres on Elk adjoining the lands or Daniel Stout to 
include his settlement made in 1776. 

Alexander West, 400 acres on the head of BrowTis creek, adjoining 
land claimed by Charles Wolf, to include his settlement made in 1772, 
■«vnth a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Richard Jackson, assignee to John Morris, Junr., 1000 acres by pre- 
emption, adjoining a settlement in the Forks of Cheat and Sandy Creek 
in 1775. 

Richard Jackson, assignee to Richard Morris, 600 acres by preemp- 
tion, to include his settlement on Sandy creek in 1770. 

Richard Jackson, assignee to Samuel World, Sr., 1000 acres by pre- 
emption adjoining a settlement made by the said World on the waters of 
Sandy Creek in 1770. 

David Davidson, 1000 acres on little Sandy creek adjoining his settle- 
ment made in 1776. 

David Moore, 1000 acres by preemption, adjoining his settlement 
on the head of Ilazle run in 1775. 



Charles Campbell, a.ssignee to Ebenezer White, 400 acres on Bufialow 
creek, adjoining lands claimed by Charles Martin, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1775. 

Phineas Killiu, asb'uee to Godferry Fetters, iOO acres on the middle 



250 ■, TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

fork of the three forks of Dunkar creek to include his improvement made 
in 1776. 

Phineas Killins, ass'nee of Christian Caufman, 400 acres on Merrecais 
mu, at a lick opposite the said Killins lands to include his settlement 
made in 1776. 

John Wilson, William McCleery, and Theophalus Philips, acting as 
executors of George, William and Alexander Kern, as tenants in common, 
400 acres on a branch of Simpsons creek called the Peddlers run, adjoin- 
ing lands formerly claimed by Benjamin Copland, to include their settle- 
ment made in 177C. 

John Tucker, ass'nee to James Tucker, 400 acres on the West Fork 
adjoining lands of Thomas Hollan to include his settlement made in 1775. 

George Runner, assignee to Elijah Runner, 400 acres on Hackers 
creek on the right of preemption, adjoining lands claimed by Brown, by 
the name of Black Oak Flat, to include his improvement made in 1774. 

Timothy Dorman, 400 acres on a branch of Euckhannon river near 
the land of Jacob Regar in the right of preemption to include his im- 
provement made in 177o. 

Christopher Strader, 400 acres on Buck Hannon Fork, in the right of 
raising a crop of corn before 177S. 

Martin Judy, 400 acres adjoining the lands of James McColom to in- 
clude his settlement made in 177o; with a preemption to 1000 acre? ad- 
joining. 

Martin Judy, Senr., assignee to Pointing Charllon (?), 400 acres on 
Sandy creek at the Wilson Glades to include his settlement made in 1773; 
with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

David Gilky, assignee to Da\-id Rankin, 1000, acre preemption, on 
Scotts run, to inculde his settlement in 17T-J. ^ 

Evans Morgan, in the right of his wife, 1000 acres by preemption, 
adjoining his settlement made in 1772 and adjoining Thomas Millers 
land. 

John Snider, 1000 acres by preemption on Crookel run, adjoining 
his settlement made in 1770. 

John Dent, assignee to Arthur Trader, jr., 10t» acres h>y prtemplion. 
No location was given. 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 251 

John Pairpoint, 1000 acres adjoiniug his settlement on Cheat and 
Monongalia rivers. * 

Robert Ferell, assignee to James Denuy, 400 acres on Indian creek 
to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Ephram Ash craft, assignee to William Powell, 100 acres on Deckers 
creek to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Nancy Washburn, heir of Isaac Washburn, 400 acres on the West 
Fork to include his settlement made in 1771. 

Gabriel Greathouse, heir of Daniel Greathouse, deceased, 400 acres 
on the waters of Sandy Creek adjoining land of Richard Morris to in- 
clude his settlement made iu 1770. 

Jeremiah Clark, 1000 acres on preempLion right on Slacks run ad- 
joining to his settlement in 1774. 

William Parsons, preemption to 1000 acres on Che?t river, opposite 
to tlie mouth of Lick creek, to include his improvement made in 1775. 

Thomas Barnes, assignee to John Evans, 400 acres on Buffaloo creek 
adjoining lands of Jonathan Eowcber to include his settletnent maile in 
1772. 

Thomas Barnes, assignee to Xehemiah Harper, 200 acres on EufFalco 
creek adjoining lands of Alexander Lake, to include his settlement made 
in 1770. 

lid ward Freeman, assignee to James Mahon, 400 acres on a branch 
of Deckers creek, adjoining lands of Jacob Jacobs, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1775, with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Booth, heir of James Bc^th, 400 acres on Booth creek, in the 
forks of Monongalia River, to inciude his settlement made in 1771. 

Uz Barnes, 400 acres on Buffalt>3 creek, at Plum Orchard, to include 
his itnprovement made m 1772. 

David Scott, and the heirs of Tames Scott, ass'nee to Lenj- (? ) Carter, 
400 acres on Indian creek at the mouth of S»;nators run to include his 
improvein<?tit made in 1775. 



* This laud was as-ii'4i!.:.l on the s.iiii-e iiu<e of the record book to James Fr;nc;i 
The signaturt a:i it is aitciiL'.! is "John P,-=irpoiut.' which slio-.vs one way of '^p<:'.Ung 
the name nt that time,. 



■ • - i ■. 
. ' '' " %: : '■ 

252 TRAXSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



David Scott, assignee to Edmond West, 400 acres adjoining lands of 
John Burns to include his settlement made in 1770. 

David Scott, 40O acres on Scotts run to include his settlement made 
in 1772. 

John Scott, Senr., 400 acres on the waters of BufTaloo creek adjoining 
lands of John Mahon to include his settlement made in 1770. 

Henry Martin, assignee to Charles Martin, 400 acres on Scotts Mill 
Run to include his settlement made in 1771. 

William Joseph, 400 acres on Wests run to include his settlement 
made in the year 1770. 

James Sterling, 400 acres on Scotts mn to include his improvement 
made in 1775. 

James Stafford, assignee to Robert Cnrry, 1000 acres in the forks of 
Cheat river to include his settlement made in 1774. 

William McCleery, assignee of Basil Morris, 1000 acres preemption 
right on the waters of Ten Mile at a place called Kellys Lick to include 
his settlement made in 1771. 

William McCleery, assignee to Joseph Caldwell, 1000 acres at the 
mouth of Indian Camp run, a branch of Ten Mile, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1771. 

William JtlcClecry, assignee to James Gray, 1000 acres on the Middle 
Fork of Ten Mile, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

William McCleery, assignee to Samuel, McCoy, 1000 acres on Ten 
Mile at the mouth of Grass Run and New Creek, to include his settlement 
made in 1771. 

William McCleer>-, assignee to Robert Hunter, 1000 acres at the 
mouth of the ^Middle Fork of Ten Mile to include his settlement made 
in 1772. 

William McCleery, assignee to Paul Morris, 1000 acres ou Spring 
Creek to include his settlement made in 1774. 

« Stephen Ratliff, assignee to John Piice, 1000 acres on a fork of Davis- 
son's run, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Ratliff, ICKX) acres ou Elk Creek to include his settlement made 
in 1773. 



Z^';i<OL 









(~:;^-s.jyy,i"?'.l._ m i^ 







tM' 















*Hf^:''*'--^rwsi^<r^^:s^^ 









mi 



uMMM, 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 253 

John Ratlifi, assignee to Charles Parsons, 1000 acres on Elk Creek, 
to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John RatlifT, assignee to Martin Kem, 1000 acres on the Main fork of 
Elk Creek, to include his settlement made in 1773. 



John RatlifT, assignee to Henry Smith, 1000 acres on Natta Creek, to 
include his settlement made in 1773. 



James Neal, assignee to John Hardon, Senr., 400 acres on Big Elk 
creek, about two miles above the Hollow Sycamore, including an Indian 
Fort, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

James Neal, assignee to John Morgan, 400 acres on Natta creek, a 
branch of Elk creek, at the mouth of Rackoon creek, to include his 
settlement made in 1771. 

James Neall, assignee to Elias Beggle, 400 acres on the Monongalia 
river, adjoining lands of Adam O'brian and the heirs of Isaac Washburn, 
to include his settlement made in 1771. 

James Neall, assignee to John Thomas, 400 acres on the left hand 
fork of Ten Mile creek, at the mouth of Turkey run, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1771. 

James Neal, assignee to Wm. Fargisou, 400 acres on the left hand 
fork of Freemans creek on a small run emptying into the south side, to 
include his settlement made in 1773. 

James Neal, ass'nee' to George Richards, 400 acres on the head of 
Limestone creek adjoining lands of Caloo lick, claimed by Nicholas 
Carpenter, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Philip Pindle, ass'nee to Daniel Brushficld, 400 acres, on the Monon- 
galia river adjoining lands of Robert Ferral, to include his settkment 
made in 1775. 

Charles Falinash, assignee to Alexander Heath [orSleath], 400 acres 
on the Euckhannon, adjoining John Jackson's land, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1772. 



Editorial Notes and Miscellanies. 



Board of Editors: Subscription: 

Hd Maxwell., Two Dollars a Yeab. 

Richard Ellsworth Fast, Free to Members of tub 

Boyd Cbcmrise. " , ^ Traxsalleguent Eistou- 

ical societv. 



Prof. R. E. Fast has been unable to contribute anything to the pages 
of this number of the magazine on account of prolonged sickness. He is 
now so far recovered that the public may expect the July number to con- 
tain one or m.ore articles from his pen. J 

Randolph County has let the Contract for building a court house at a 
cost of *110,000. This w-ill be the fourth court house Randolph County 
has built in one hundred and four years. The first, second and third 
were built at Beverly in the years, respectively, 1793, ISlo and lSi>4. 
Besides these, court has been held in ten ditTerent buildings. 

Some systematic effort should be made to determine the location of 
the eaiiy Indian forts and blockhouses in West Virginia, and to make a 
chart of the early trails. Other states have done this, and West Virginia 
owes this much to the memor\- of her pioneers. Xearly all of tliose 
early strongholds were only private houses, and no public records of 
them e.xist. They can now be located only with difiaculty, and many of 
them no doubt ha%-e passed from the memorj- of the li%-ing. Still, the 
effort should be made to preser\-e the names of such as are yet remem- 
bered. They were the centers about which the infant colonies clustered, 
and to which tlie people fled for safety when dangers threatened. 

The Archaeological department of the Transallegheny Historical 
Society has a new field in which to operate. The region between the 
Alleghenies and the Ohio river may not possess relics of such magnitude 
as some other regions, but there is uo scarcity of remains of a former 
people. Our mounds, for the most part, are small, but they have never 
been examined, except in a haphazard v.ay. The probability that this 
region was the cradle of the Siouv nation ou^'ht to stimulate investigators 
to look closely at all that remains from former and prehistoric people 



NOTES AND MISCELLANIES. 2oD 

among our hills and valleys. Discoveries of great value are not beyond 
the range of probability. 

A letter has been goicg the rounds of the newspapers purporting to 
have been written by Wasaiugon and lately di.scovered "in a junkshop." 
In it Washington is made to criticise the military methods of General 
Braddock, at that time on his march to the west, and in it he also fore- 
tells the development of the mineral resources of the region westward from 
the Alleghenies, and also to. intimate that railroads and locomotives would 
some time carry the wealth to market. It is possible that Washington 
wrote the letter, but the probabilities are so overwhelminglj- against the 
claim, that it is reasonably iafe to set the production down as a lame and 
crude forgery. Washington had very clear foresight, but he was no 
prophet. If he had glimpfies of the future, and could see the locomotive 
climbing the mountains asd traversing the valleys, he would not have 
spent so much time and energy in planning costly canals to connect tide 
water Virginia v\-ith the Oliio Valley. * 



On February 22 the n-iw court house for Cabell County was dedicated 
at Huntingtou. It is the third court house built for the countj'. The 
first was completed in 1S09; the second in 1S12, and the third in VMl. 
The chief address at the dedication was delivered by Hon. E. S. Doolittle, 
of the Eighth Judicial circuit. He gave a condensed history of the 
county from its earlie(;t settlement till the present. The first movement 
looking to tlie colonizing of territory now embraced in Cabell County 
was in the inter\-al bettveen the close of the French and Indian war and 
the beginning of the Revolution, when sixty-two soldiers of the former 
wjr were granted lands \iKth;a the territory-, in consideration of their 
ser\-iceo. 

Ihe Town of Weston. 

In December, 1845, a school boy at Weston, in Lewis County, 
amused himself by making a plat of the town and compiling a list of 
its inhabitants. The papers were laid away, and after half a century thej- 
came to light. The plat is reproduced in this issue of the Transallegheny 
Historical Magazine, together with the list of names. It is believed that 
not one of those mentioned by name fifty-six years ago is now living, 
although some who were simply listed as "children" may be living yet. 
It would be interesting to know how uiar.y of the houses shown on the 
plat are yet standing. 



256 



TRANSALLEGHSNY HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE, 



Census of Weston, December 4, 1845. 



Johu Talbott, 

P. Talbott, 

S. A. Talbott, 

S. M. Talbott, 

C. M. Talbott, 

J. Roby, 

N. C. Arthur, 

J. A. Smith, -wife and 

3 children, 

B. Pri chard, wife and 

4 children, 
A. Keys, 

J. Morrow, wife and 3 

children, 
J. Minter and wife, 
J. Monej-penny, 

C. Keyter, wife and 5 
children, 

M. Wilson, 
S. M. Wilson, 
Mary Ann Wilson, 
J. Beall, wife and 2 

children, 
H. Beall, 

D. Bear, ^nfe and two 
children, 

A. TiIcLanghlin, wife 
and 5 children, 

E. McLaughlin, 

D. and E. S. Harley, 
J. Baile>, wife and 3 

children, 

E. Fisher, wife and 2 
children, 

C. Fisher, 

D. Fisher, 

W. Hoffman and tliree 

children, 
J. E. Chriss, 
T. Smith, wife and 6 

children, 
R. Smith. 



M. Bailey, wife and 4 
children, 

L. Bastable, 

D. Lockhart, 

W.E. and G.J. Arnold, 

W. D. Williams, 

N. B.. Barnes, 

J. M. Ferguson, 

C. Flesher, 

R. B.. Upton, 
j R.P_ Camden, (absent) 
j J. ML Bennett, 

Warden. 

G. A- Jackson, 

W. SlcKinley, Tiife 
j and 2 children, 

E. V. McKinley, 
1 C. McKihley, 
j A. Simpson, wife and 
1 2 children' 
j C. Tsivener, wife and 
i 3 children, 
j M. J. D. Withers, 

J. M. Camp, 

E. Camp, 
i F. Camp, 
' M. Moirphy, 

C. Post, 
' T. Bland, wife and 4 
I children (absent ), 
' W. J. Lland, 
i T. Wc^d, 
j J. Darlinton, 

G. I. Butcher, 
I A. Bank head, 
I Williams, wife and 3 
children, 
J. Carter, 
P. Dawson, wife tnd 

2 children, 
L. Butcher, 



C. Z. Lowther, 
Somebody else, 
G. Oliver, 
Irishman, wife and 6 

children, 
J. Holt, wife and two 

children. 
G. W. Jackson, wife 

and 2 children, 
M. E. Jackson, 
J. Jackson, 
H. Jackson, 
Lazelle, 
M. Lazelle, 
M. L. LazeUe, 
J. Woofter, 
W. Sleeth, wife and 2 

children, 
J. McWTiorter, 
L. Maxv.ell, 
J. McGee, wife and 

one child, 
J. McGee, 
J. Bonnett, wife and 

4 children, 
W. Smith, wife and 2 

children, 
T. Smith, 
M. Edmiston, wife and 

2 children, 
J. Lorentz, wife and 9 

children, 
E. Norman, 
H. H. Withers, y.ife 

and 1 child. 
A. Filxnore, 
T. Morris, wife and 3 

children, 
Williams, wife and .5 

children, 
W. W. Warder. 



Total white population — 230. 






/. brr,ttfl 10 Pear 

5 C^ _, It. tie^Mief/; 






J'7 Jare-ic 




TOWN t)F \V 



NOTES AND MISCELLANIES. ' ' 257 



J. Talbott has 3. 

J. Morrow has 1. 

J. Bailey ha.« 2. 

A. McLaughlin has 3. | T. Bland has 3. 

\V. Hoffman has i. I G. W. Jackson has 1. 



COLORKD POrLXATION. 

M. Bailey has S. 
J. M. Bennett has 1. 
C. Tavener has 2. 



Lewis Maxwell has t. 
J. McGee has 1. 
M. Edmiston has 2. 
J. Lorentz has 2. 
H. n. Withers has 2. 



Total— 34. 



The Rending of Virginia. 



Granville D. Hall, of Glencoe, 111., has published a history of the 
dividing of Virginia and the forming of West Virginia. The work has 
been done remarkably well, and the cause of history has been well 
served. Mr. Hall had many a/lvantages which others who have 
written on that subject did not possess. He had a personal experience, 
which made him acquainted with nearly all the actors in the remarkable 
proceeding which severed a state and set up a new commonwealth. He 
was engaged in newspaper work before, during and after the Civil War, 
and his book contains evidence that he had this history in view from the 
first. He collected data from all quarters, from newspapers, from cam- 
paign documents and circulars, from speeches, from records, public and 
private, and he had at his disposal not only what others had who went 
before, but much which they did not have. His book of 621 pages covers 
the ground so thoroughly that there can not be much left for those who 
may follow. 

He begins his history at the proper period — nearly a century before 
the Civil War — for it was then that the question of dividing Virginia 
began to be discussed. The agitation was at times quieted temporarily, 
but the causes of dissatisfaction were not removed. Virginia never tried 
to still the discontent of her western people. They had just cause for 
complaint. When they asked for bread, she gave them a stone. They 
sought relief in two constitutional conventions, but what they received 
fell so far short of their demands that they nursed their resentment and 
bided their time. They paid more than their just share of taxes, and 
received less than their share of benefits. They were made poor, and 
were disfranchised because of their proverty. They were systemtically 
imposed upon by the wealthy eastern part of the state. Not onl)^ was 
there a want of sympathy between the sections, but the feeling of antip- 
athy amounted to little less than hatred. That being the case, all that 
the western part of Virginia wanted was the opportunity to cut the 
galling bonds which had been so long borne with impatience. The Civil 



258 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

War brought the opportunity. It was not so much the question of 
slavery that alienated the western Virginians from their brethren of the 
East, as a personal quarrel of long standing. 

Mr. Hall gives ample space to the history of the secession convention 
at Richmond. He does not bring forward as much new material in that 
as in some other parts cf his work; but he introduces one feature of 
special value That is the paper ^^Titten by Hon. James C. McGrew, of 
King%vood, W. Va., for the work. Mr. McGrew was a member of the 
convenlion from Preston County, and his reminiscences are entertaining 
and valuable. His paper fills twenty -six closely printed pages. 

Nearly half the book is taken up with accounts of the various meet- 
ings and conventions in what is now West Virginia from January, 1S61, 
to June, 1863, all having in hand the work of cutting Virginia in t^vain 
and setting in order the new state. Because of the multitude of details, 
that part of the book will proliably seem tedious to the reader who dees 
not care to enter minutely into all the minor matters that came up for 
discussion. Still it is of value because it preserves so much that ought 
to be known. Mr. Hall consulted papers and documevits that have never 
been published, and have seldom been read since they were filed away 
amid the exciting times of the Civil War. 

There is no tone of compromi.se or forgiveness in the book. The 
author shows no disposition to shake hands across the bloody chasm, to 
bury the past, and to call it settled. The questions that were prominent 
when the war came, are brought forward again and are re-stated and 
again discussed in the same spirit as of old. Of late years there has been 
a commendable disposition to let by-gones be by-gones, in regard to the 
unpleasantness of 18f>l-5; but in "The Rending of Virginia" that disposi- 
tion is not apparent. Some of the men who were actors in that drama 
come in for censure, andsomeof these are men who are generally regarded 
as very staunch friends of West Virginia in its struggle for separate 
existence. Among them mention may be made of Waitman T. Wiley, 
George W. Summers and John S. Carlile. The author's reasoning is that 
Mr. V/illey had political ambitions and his slowness in espousing the 
cau&e of the new state movement was due to his wish to first see whether 
it was likely to succeed. Mr. Summers is censured muck-more severely, 
and is accused of being unquestionably in sympathy with the Confederate 
cav:se. Mr. Carlile is praised and his cause commended, until his final 
betrayal of West Virginia. He tlien comes in for his share of censure. 



•::;■ ■ NOTES a:>d misceli>aN.es. 259 

As for thobe West Virginians who took sides with the eastern part of 
Virginia, they are given no mercy. 

There may be pointed out a few errors, as to fact, but they are trivial, 
and do not detract from the general excellence of the book. Exception 
might be taken to his apolog)- for Carlile's betrayal of West Virginia. 
The author thinks the West Virginia senator's friendship for Waldo P. 
Johnson, of Missouri, was the secret of his change of fronton the question 
of admitting West Virginia as a state. There are others who are of the 
opinion that Carlile's friendship for Virginia's bondholders had more 
to do with it than his friendship for the Missouri senator. 

The account of the death of John N. Hughes is not exactly coiTect. 
Hughes was a delegate from Randolph County to the Richmond conven- 
tion, and had been elected under the general belief that he would vote 
against the Ordinance of Secession. But he voted for it, and when he 
returned to Beverly he boasted that he had signed a second declaration 
of independence. At the battle of Rich Mountain he volunteered to 
carry a message to the Confederate officer, and while a.scending the 
mountain from the direction of Beverly, he was killed by the Confederates 
who did not know who he was. They were expecting an attack by the 
Federals from that direction. The Confederate officer near Beverly who 
permitLed Hughes to go upon the perilous mission, was blamed by the 
public for sending an intoxicatefl man upon such an errand. This officer 
published a denial that Hughes was under the infiueuce of liquor at the 
time. But citizens who saw him going up the mountain, and who are 
still li^'ing, say that he was very clearly in an intoxicated condition. 

An error as to facts of history is to be found in the author's statement 
concerning the first efforts of the Confederates to establish a c&mp at 
Grafton. On pages 224 and 225 of his book ilr. Hall says: 

"Mr. Pierpont in a speech from the McClure House balcony, in 
Wheeling, May 11, related some incidents which had come under his 
observation as illustrating the temper of the Union men in his neighbor- 
hooil. An officer had come to Grafton to make a rendezvous there for 
Lett. her's troops, 'if it was not offensive to the people,' as he told the 
landlord of the hotel. 'But,' said Pierpont, 'the b'hoys live at Grafton — 
one hundred of them as good and true as ever trod the soil. They went 
to this officer and said to him: 'Now, my friend, we are a hospitable 
pi^ople out here and will be generous with you. We will give you until 
the next train starts to leave, but, as sure as there is a God in heaven, if 
you come back this way you will not get through.' He left by the first 



260 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

train." ***** "The officer referred to by Pierpont as having 
going to Grafton to establish a Letcher vendezvous was Colonel George 
A. Porterfield." 

The official reports and correspondence, both Confederate and 
Federal, as published by the United States War Department, contain 
nothing to show, or indicate, that Colonel Porterfield was unsuccessf nl in 
his first effort to establish a camp at Grafton. Actuated by a desire to 
set fortli the true state of the case, as well as to obtain all the details 
possible concerning that important epoch in West Virginia's historj', the 
editor of this magazine addressed a letter to Colonel Porterfield, calling 
his attention to the extract as above quoted. His reply was as follows: 

"Ch.'lrles Town, W. Va., April 26, 1902. 
"Dear Sir:— Every y.ord of the foregoing, as far as it applies to 
me, is entirely false. Whether or not it applies to my predecessor at 
Grafton, Major P'rancis M. Eoykin, I do not know. Major Boykin had 
left Grafton before my arrival there. I respectfully refer you to General 
Lee's correspondence with Major Boykin, in the second volume of the 
'Official Records of the War," especially to his letter of May 11, 1861, on 
"page 830. Not an offensive word was said to me by any citizen or 
resident of Grafton whilst I was there in ISOl. 
"Very respectfully, 

"Gkorge A. Porterfield." 



TRANSALLEGHENY ^ 

HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Vol. I. , JULY, 1902, No, 4. 



PIONEER SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 

[Continued.] 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Janies Wade, 400 acres on. Rock Camp, 
a branch of Ten Mile, at Hezekian Dav-isson's and Carpenter's Camp, to 
include his settlement made in 1772. ' 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Rudolph Balenger, 400 acres in the forks 
of the West Fork, a corn right prior to 1775. 

Coleman Brown's heirs, 400 acres to include his settlement on the 
"S^'est Fork, made in 1774, adjoining lands of Samuel Merrifield. 

John Shirley, assignee to Jacob Shirley, 400 acres on the right-hand 
fork of Pringle's Run, a branch of Cheat river. (No date of settlement.) 

Tbotnas Hindal and John P. Duvall, tenants in common, 400 acres 
on GoobC creek, a branch of Hughes river adjoining lands of Christian 
Coffman, on Hindal's corn right, prior to 1778. 

John P. Duvall, assignee of John Bartley, Junior, 400 acres on Los: 
Run, known as the Cattael (?) swi.mp, to include his settlement made in 
1771. 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Philip Boman, 400 acres on Limestone 
creek, including limestone lick, a^ 'joining lands of Thomas Bartley, to 
include his settlement in 177.j. 



John P. Duvall, assignee to Basil Bowers, 400 acres on the run 
above Pringles Ford on the west s'de about a mile from the river, to in- 
clude his settlement in 1775. 

John P. Duvall, assignee to W^.-'-am Wade, 400 acres on Caty's Lick 
nm, including the lick, to include Lvs settlement made in ]77o. 



262 TRANSALLEGHEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Hartley Duvall, 400 acres on Tigor Valley river at the mouth of the 
run above Priugle's Ford, in right of residence. (No date.) 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Jonathan Rees, 400 acres on the main 
fork of Elk, adjoining the lantls of Thomas Stout, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1773. 

John Price Duvall, assignee to George V.'illiams, Jr., 400 acres on the 
right-hand fork of the main fork of Freenians creek to include his settle- 
ment begun in 1772. 

?iamuel Duvall, 400 acres on Goose creek, two miles above the 
Plumb orchard, corn right, prior to 1778. 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Robert Birkett, 4»)0 acres on the first 
bottom of Sandy fork, a branch of the West Fork, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1770. 

John Price Duvall, assignee to Elijha Williams, 400 acres on Free- 
mans creek, to include his settlement in 1775. 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Samuel Mclntire, 400 acres at the Indian 
House, on the waters of tlie West Fork, to include his settlement made 
in 1776. 

Lewis Duvall, 400 acres on Freemans creek to include his settlement 
in 1775. 

Christian Cofman and John P. Duvall, tenants in common, 400 acres 
on Goose ceek, to include Cof man's settlement prior to 1778. 

Andrew Davisson, Senior, 400 acres on Elk creek, adjoining lands of 
Daniel Davisson to include his settlement made in lllS. 

Daniel Davisson and Hezekiah Davisson, assignees to Peter Hap- 
field, 400 acres on Ten Slile at tbe mouth of Gregory run, to include his 
settlement made in 1770. 

Hezekiah Davisson, assignee to John Williams, -iOO acres on Elk Run 
lick, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Basil Williams, 4o0 acres :u the Forks of Ten ^Nlile, adjoining land.^ 
of Daniel Da\-isson, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Hezekiah Davisson, assignee to George Williams, Senior, 400 acres 
on Ten Mile, where Nathaniel Dav'isson was killed, a com right prior to 
1778. 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 263 

Jeremiah Simpson, 4uO acres on Cheat river and a run called Buf- 
falow run, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

James Neal, assignee to William Kennijon, 400 acres on Ten Mile, to 
include his settlement made in 1773. 

Mark Cunningham, 400 acres on West Run, adjoining lands of the 
heirs of James Scott, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Mark Cunningham, "200 acres on the head of Maple run near the 
Lavircl Hill, to include his settlement made in 177(j. 

Arthur Trader, assignee to Robert Lowther, 400 acres on Robert's 
Mill run, adjoining lands of Samuel Ruble, to include his settlement 
made in 1770. 

William McCleerj-, assignee of David Kvans, 400 acres, on Spring 
creek, including his settlement made in 1774. 

William McCleery, as.^ignee to Charles Hickm.m, 400 acres on Spring 
creek, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

William McCleery, assignee to Jacob Morris, 400 acres on Spring 
creek to include his settlement made in 1774. 

William McCleery, assignee to James Hughes, 400 acres on Spring 
creek to include his settlement made in 1774. Additional settlements 
were made on Spring creek in 1774 by William Cowvines, James Seaton, 
Euos Thomas, Abraham Hickman, Jonathan Hickman, Harvey Thomas, 
John Knotts, Francis Seaton and Joseph Howard. They all assigned 
their claims to William iMcCleeiT. 



William ^McCleery, assignee to Christopher Leak, 400 acres on Fox 
Grape creek, a branch of Tigor Valley river, at a place called Clover 
Flat, adjoining lands of William Thompson, to include his settlemeiit 
made in the year 1769. 

William McCleery, assignee to A.-ihael Martin, 400 acres on tl:e 
waters of Fox Grapo creek at Clover Flat, in said Martin's right of 
re.iiding and raising a crop of com on the western vraters before January 
1, 1778, he having proven that he'hath not taken up, sold or settled any 
land on the western waters. 

William ilcCleery, assignee to John Martin, 4i)0 acre-5 on Fox Grape 
creek, a l.ranch of Tigor Valley river, to include his .settlement begun 
thereon in the year 1770. 



264 TRANS ALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

William McCleery, assignee to Joseph Caldwell, 400 acres at the 
mouth of Indian Cainp run, a drain of the Middle Fork of Ten Mile, 
that beiiig a branch of the West Fork, to include his settlement made in 
1771. 

William JlcCIeery, assignee to James Gray, 400 acres on the middle 
fork of Ten >Iile, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

William McClcery, assignee to Robert Hunter, Junior, 400|^acres'on 
the middle fork of Ten Mile, about a mile from the mouth of said Middle 
Fork, to include his settlement made in 1772, 

William McCleery, 40*3 acres on the West Fork, opposite the lands 
of Francis Reed, above the mouth of Fall run, to include his settlement 
made in 1771. 

William McCleery, assignee to Samuel McCray, 400 acres on Ten 
Mile, at the ninuth of Grass Run and New Creek, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1771. 

William McCleerj-, assignee to Basil Morris, 400 acres on Ten Mile 
at a place called Shatteys Lick, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

William McCleery, assignee to Moses Cooper, 400 acres at the forks 
of Hughes and the Little Keuh:iway rivers, adjoining lands claimed by 
Henry Enochs to include his settlement made in 1773. 

William McCleery, assignee to Garret Clawsou, 400 acres on Sandy 
fork of the Little Kanway river; a corn right, prior to 177S. 

Williain McCleen.-, assignee to Patrick Beatty, 40<) acres on the 
Little Kanhaway river, about or.e and a half miles below the mouth of 
Hughes river, to include his seiiienient made in 177.3. 

William McCleery-, assignee to William Hunter, 400 acres at the 
mouth of Stewart's creek, a branch of the main left-band fork of the 
Little Kanhaway, to include hi.s settlement made in 1773. 

William McCleery, assignee to Owen Thomas, 400 acres on the south 
side of the right-hand main fork of Hughes river, about two and a half 
miles above the forks, to inclii'le his improvement made in 1773. , 

Isaac Christian, assignee to Samuel Frazer, 400 in the forks of Cheat 
river and Sandy creek, to include his settleinent in 1774. 



Silathiel Gauff, assignee to William Wilson, 400 acres on Cheat 



SETTLEMENTS OX THE WESTERN WATERS. 265 

river, opposite lands clanned by Thotnis Parsons, to include his settle- 
mert made in 177(3. 

(leorge Stuart, 400 acres on Simpsons creek below the bloct house, 
to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Jesse Bailes, 400 acres on a branch of Tigor Valley river, lying below 
Glady creek, and near land known as Levels, to include his settlement 
made in 1772. 

John Hays, 400 acres on Sandy creek, to include his settlement made 
in 177.5. 

James Tibhs, 400 acres on Rooting creek, adjoining lands of James 
Arnold, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

Jacob Bush, 400 acres on the West Fork, about two miles below the 
main fork of said river, to include his improvement made in 1777. 

John Bush, 200 acres on Buckhanon, adjoining lands of John Hacker, 
to include his improvement in 1773. 

John Jackson, 1,000 acres by preemption adjoining his settlement 
[near the Buckhaunon] in 1772. 

Henry Flesher, 400 acres at the mouth of Stone Coal creek to in- 
clude his settlement made in 1770. 

* John Jackson, 400 acres on Buckhannon river, adjoining lands of 
George Jackson, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

John Swearingen, Senior, 400 acres on Washburns run, a drain of 
Ten Mile, adjoining lands of William Taylor, to include his preemption 
made in 1772. 

Jacob Israel, assignee to William Minor, 4rX> acres in the main forks 
of Hughes river, to include his settlement made in 177i!. 



Jacob Israel, assignee to David Evans, 40O on Sand Fork of Little 
Kanhaway to include his improvement made in 1775. 

Jacob Israel, assignee to John Ilolton, 400 acres on the east side of 
Hughes river about si>: miles from its mouth to include his improvement 
made in 177-5. 

Jacob Israel, as,s;gaee to Elias Gerrard, ¥)0 acres on a branch of the 



26G TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Little Kanhnway river called Stewarts creek, to include Gerrard's settle- 
ment prior to 177S. 

William Robinson, 400 acres at the month of Three Forks creek, and 
adjoining a run called Berkeley's Run, to include his improvement made 
in 1773. 

Jacob Israel, assignee to Paiul Laish, 400 acres on Spring creek to in- 
clude his settlement made in 1774. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of S'lamuel Swingler, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
creek to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of Stephen Minor, 400 acres on Ten Mile 
creek to include his settlement sriade in 1773. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of AJ.iner Mundle, 400 on Spring creek, includ- 
ing his settlement begun in 177 i. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of Ja^in Minor, 400 acres on Spring creek, in- 
cluding his settlement made in- 1774. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of William Garrard, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of Jofcn Evans, 400 acres on Spring Creek, to 
include his settlement made in. 1774. 

Thomas Berry, 4()0 acres oe Sandy Creek, adjoining lands of Augustus 
McClelland, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Thomas Berry, Jr., 400 acres on Simpson's Creek (no date.) 

Terah Osborne, 400 acres on the headwaters of Yohogania River, 
adjoining lan<''s of John Pettyjf^hn. 

John ^Miller, Sr., assignee to Robert Williams, 2<X> acres "on the 
waters of the Monongalia Rives:, on Cheat River." opposite lands claimed 
by Frederick Cooper, to include his settlement made in l"7t}. 

Daniel Cameron, assig:nee of Frederick Beebles, 150 acres on Cheat 
River at the mouth of Bulls Rue, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Daniel Cameron, 400 acres on Cheat River, one mile below the mouth 
of Licking Creek, in right of residence. 

William Pettyjohn, Jr., heir of Amos Pettyjohn, 400 acres on Pricket 



SETTLEMENTS OX THE WESTERN WATERS. 267 

Creek, two miles abo^e Prickets Fort, including his settlement made in 
1773, -with a preemption ofil.O<X» acres adjoining. 

Wiiliam Pettyjohn, Jr., -t'lO acres on both sides of Glady Creek, 
about one and a half miles from the Slonongalia River, to include his 
settlement made in 1776. 

John Petr>-john, Jr., 4CH1 acres? on the Tiger Valley waters, adjoining 
William Pettyjohn's land, to incfade his settlement made in 1774. 



Absalsom Little, 400 acres on both sides of Gladys Creek, adjoining 
and above Major Powers land, to include his settlement made 1776. 

Salathiel Goff, 400 acres on Cheat River, adjoining the lands of 
Daniel Cameron, to include the actual settlement of Salathiel Goft in the 
year 1774, with a preemption to 1,C(J0 acres adjoining. 

John Conner, Jun., 400 acres on the fork of Sandy to include his 
settlement in 1776. 

Thomas James Goff, SOO acrts in the right of preemption, on the 
waters of Yohogania River, to include his improvement made in 1775. 



Thomas James Goff, assignee of John Symes, 400 acres on Cheat 
River, near the forks thereof, opposite Crouches improvement, to include 
his settlement made in 1774. 

Benjamin Shinn, 400 acres on Jones Run, to include his settlement 
made in 1771. 

John Davis?ou, 209 acres on ihe West Fork, adjoining Thomas 
Reads land, to include his settlement made in the year 1775. 

Henry Runyon, assignee of William Richards, 400 acres on Lost ■■ — 
Creek, to incluile his settlement made in 1775. 

Henry Runj'on, 400 acres on West Fork, adjoining lands of Isaacs 
W'ushburn, to include his settlement made in 177o. 



Henry Runyon, assignee to William Richards, 400 acres on I,o_st 
creek, to include his settlement made in 1775. "x 

David Edwards, 400 acres on the waters of Elk Creek, to include his 
settienient made in 1777. 



v'^.amuel Cottrall's heirs, assignee to Charles Griggoleey, 400 acres on 
Rooting Creek, to include his seti!en:cnt made in 1775. 



268 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

John Wood, 400 acres on east side of the west branch of Monongalia 
River, adjoining Levy Shinn's land, to incUide his settlement made in 
1775. 

Josiah Davidson, 400 acres on Monongalia River, adjoining lands of 
Hezekiah Lavisson, to include his improveuieut made in 1773. 

William Robinson, assignee to Charles Eeckam, 400 acres on Simp- 
son Creek, adjoining lands of John Powers, to include his settlement 
made in 1775. 

Thomas Hughes, 400 acres on the West Fork, adjoining lands of 
Elias Hughes, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Elias Pointer, 400 acres on Buckhannon River, adjoining Edward 
Tanners lands, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Edward Ratliff, 400 acres on the left band fork of Freeman's Creek 
called Gee Lick Run, adjoining lands of Gee Bush, to include his 
improvement made in 1772. 

John Whendy, 400 acres at the mouth of Whendj's Run, a drain of 
Heckers Creek, to include his improvement in 1771. 

William Ratliff, 400 acres on Hackers Creek, adjoining lands claimed 
by John WTiend)-, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

Samuel Beard, 400 acres on Simpsons Creek, adjoining the lands of 
Benjman Web, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

William Merphey, 400 acres on the waters of Simpsons Creek, about 
a mile above the lands claimed by John Bradley, to include his improve- 
ment made in 1775. 

Daniel Phink, 400 acres at th-; Mud Lick on French Creek, a drain 
of the Buckanon River, to include his improvement made in 1772. 

Charles Washburn, 400 acres on the West Branch of the rtlonongalia 
River, adjoining lands of Adam O'Brien, to include his settlement made 
in 177.3. 

Obediah Davisson, 400 acres on Davissons Run, adjoining lands of 
Nicholas Carpenter, to include his settlement made in 1777. 

Obediah Davisson, preeraptian to 1,000 acres, adjoining his settle- 
ment made 177o. 



SETTLEMENTS OX THE WESTERN WATERS. 269 

David yieath, 200 acres on the waters of Hackers Creek, adjoining 
lands claimetl by Samuel Bonnet, to include his settlement made in 1770. 

Edward Tanner, SCO acres on Buchanon River on the Bottom called 
Granney Bottom, to include his improvement made in 1773. 



John McCalley, 400 acres, adjoining lands of Thomas McCalley, to 
include his improvement made in 1775. 

Heirs of Andrew CottrelL deceased, 400 acres on Moore's Run, ad- 
joining lands of Amaziah Davisson, to include his settlement made in 
1772. 

Heirs of Andrew Cotrall, 4(X> acres on the waters of Elk, adjoining 
lands of Joseph Hastings, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Joseph Hastings, 400 acres on Elk. adjoining John Ratliff's land, to 
include his settlement made in 177'), with a preemption to 1,000 acres 
adjoining. 

Joseph Hastings, assignee to Charles Gregoly, AOO acres on the waters 
of Elk, adjoining lands of Thomas Hastings, to include his settlement 
made in 1775, with a preemption to l.OJO acres rdjoining. 

Mathew ^'utter, oCm) acres on East side of Elk Creek, adjoining lands 
claimed by Amariah Davison, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Christopher Nutter, 300 acres on Suds run, a drain of Elk, adjoining 
the lands of the heirs of Andrew Cotteral, to include his improvement 
made in 1772. 

James Tanner, 400 acres on the west branch of the Monongalia River, 
adjoining lands of Elias Hughes, to include his improvement made in 
1772, with a preemption to 1,<^X) acres adjoining. 



Edward Tanner, 4()0 acres on Buchanou river adjoining lands of 
Elias Panter, to include his improvement made in 177l!. 

William Hacker, Senr., 4''^) acres on the west fork adjoining lands of 
George Bush, to include his settlement made in 1779. 



John Cuthwright, Senr., AfY) acres at the mouth of Cuthwrights run, 
to include his settlement made in 1770, with a preemption to l.OiJO acres 
adjoining. 

John Hacker, Kiu acres on Hackers Creek, adjoining lands of John 
Sleath, Senr., to include his settlement made in 1773. 



270 TKANSALLEGKEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

John Hacker, 400 acres on Euckhaniion, adjoining lands of George 
Jackson, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

John Sleath, Senr., 4l^) acres on Hackers Creek, adjoining lands of 
John Hacker, to include his settlement made in 1777. 

William ^loore, 400 acres to include his improvement made in 177i) 
(no place given.) 

Edward Cunninghame, 400 acres on the left fork of Bingamon creek, 
to include his settlement made in 1773, with a preemption to 1,000 acres 
adjoining. 

John Powers, 400 acres on Simpsons Creek, adjoining lands of James 
Anderson, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Edmund West, assignee to Thomas Hughes, Senr., 400 acres on 
Sicamore Lick run, a branch of the West Fork, opposite Thomas 
Heughs, Junr.s" land, to include his settlement made in 1773, with a pre- 
emption to l.OnO acres adjoining. 

James Washburn, 4<>0 acres on West Fork, adjoining lands of Charles 
Washburn, to include his settlement made in 1775, with a preemption to 
1,000 acres adjoining. 

* 

Isaack Davissou, 400 acres on West Fork, adjoining lands of John 
JlcColly, to include his improvement made in 1775. 

Christopher Baker, 400 acres on Murphy run, adjoining lands of 
Andrew Davisson, Senr.. to include his settlement made in 177G. 

Sanmel Harbert, heir of Thomas Harbert, deceased, assignee of John 
Jones, 400 acres on Jones run, adjoining lands claimed by Wm. Rober- 
son, to include his settlement tnade iu 1770. 

James Smith, 400 acres on a drain of Simpsons creek, adjoining lands 
of John Xuter, to include his settlement made in 177"2. 

William Runyon, 4'X) acres on Sychamore creek, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1773. 

Amariah Davison, 400 acres on the water, of Elk Creek, adjoining 
lands of Mathew Nutter, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Amariah Davison, l.'iOO acres, by preemption, on Limestone creek, 
to include his improvement made in 1773. . . ,, .... , 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 271 

Thomas Nutter, 40(1 acres on Elk, adjoining land claimed by Botha 
Hickman, to include his settlement made in 177-5. 

William Roberson, assignee to Benjamin Shinn, 400 acres on Ten 
Mile, adjoining lands of Benjamin Roberson, including his settlement 
made in 1774 

Henry Phink, assignee to Henry Rule, 490 acres on Buchannon 
River, adjoining lands of David Wilson, to include his settlement made 
in 1770. 

Lev}- Shin, 4<Xi on West Fork, adjoining lands of John Wood to in- 
clude his settlement Tr.a(1e in 177:-;, with a preemption to 1<I<)0 acres ad- 
joining. 

John Simson, Junior. 400 acres on the waters of Sud run, 
adjoining lands of John Good, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Jonathan Coburn, '.)')0 acres on the west fork of the ^lonongalia 
river, in the bent of the river, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

James Arnold, 4(.'0 acres on Rooting creek, at the Old Field lick, to 
include his improvement made in 1771, \\-ith a preemption to 1000 acres 
adjoining. 

Benjamin Robinson, assignee to Jacob Reece, 400 acres on Ten 
Mile, adjoining lands of Wm. Robinson, to include^his settlement made 
in 1775. 

Edmund West. 400 acres on Hackers creek, adjoining lands of 
William Ratclifl, including his settlement made in 177.3. 

Adam O'Brien,' assignee to John Richards, 400 acres on Lost creek, 
adjoining lands of John Cain, including his settlement made in 1781. 

John Schoolcraft, heir of Anstead Schoolcraft, 400 acres on the main 
fork of Fink's run, adjoining lands claimed by Henry Phink, to include 
his settlement made in 1774. 

Joseph Neal. 4i)0 acres on Robesons run adjoining lands of Thomas 
Da}-, including his settlement made in 1 773. 

.\rnolil Richards, 300 acres or. the West Fork, adjoining lands of 
William Lowther, to include his settlemc-nt ma<ie in 1773. 



Jacob Break, assignee to Samuel Pringle, 400 acres on Euckanon, 



272 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

adjoining lauds of Peter Pufengloiy, to ir.clude his settlement made in 
1776. 

John Jackson, assignee of Samuel Seduskus (?) 3(X) acres on the 
waters of Buckhannon. adjoininj? lands of George Jackson, to include his 
settlement made in 1776. 

John Bush, 1000 acres on Deckers creek to include his settlement 
made in 1770; a preemptioa right. 

Paul Richards, Af^J acres on the West Fork adjoining lands of 
Arnold Richards, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Isaac Runyon, assignee of George Claypool, 400 acres in "the bent oj 
the River creek," to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Elias Hughes, 400 acres on West Fork adjoining lands of James 
Tanner to include his improvement made in 1770. 

John Hain, '2'M acres on the West Fork adjoining lauds of Jacob 
Richards, to include his improvement made in 177"2. 

Jacob Richards, 400 acres on Sychamore creek to include his settle- 
ment made in 1771. 

Jesse Hughes, 400 acres on Hackers creek, adjoining lands of 
Ednnind West, to include his settlement made in 1770. 

Isaac Richards, 400 acres on the west side of Elk creek adjoining 
lands of Charles Harrison, in right of residence. (Xo date is gi\en.) 

Conrad Richards, 4i") acres at the mouth of Lost creek to include 
his settlement made in 177.3, with a preemption to 10<X) acres adjoining. 

Daniel Hain, 40<) acres on Lost creek, adjoining lands of Conrad 
Richards, to include his settlement made in 177;>. 



Adam O'Brien, 4<X» acres en the \\'est Fork to include his settlement 
made in 177o, adjoining lands of Charles Washburn. 

Mathew Schoolcraft, heir of Mathias Schoolcraft, 4tX) acres on Slab 
Camp Bottom, on that brsTJch of the Monongalia river called Sand fork 
[or Land fork — the letters sptll the latter word, but there is probably an 
error] to include his settlement made in 1774. 

James Schoolcraft, 4''tO acres on the main fork of Fink run adjoining 
ands of John Schoolcraft, to include his settlement made in 1774, 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 273 

Isaac Edwards, assignee to John ^lurpby, 400 acres on Andrew 
Davisons nin, to include liis improvement made in ITTo. 

Benjamin Wilson and Jacob Conrad, tenants in common, assignee to 
John Davis, 400 acres at Bull Towti on the Little Kanhaway river, to in- ^ 
elude his set- ement made in 1775. 

Benjamin Wilson, 400 acres on Leading creek, a branch of Tygor 
Valley river, adjoining lands of Thomas Skidmore, to include his im- 
provement made in 1773, with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Thomas Phillips, preemption to SOO acres to include his improve- 
ment made in 1777. 



Walter Everet, 4(Xi acres on the head of Smith's run adjoining land 
of Aaron Smith to include his improvement made in 1 77-"). 



Sotha Hukmard, 1000 acres ou r Ik creek, by right of preemption, 
adjoining lands of Mathew Nutter, to include his settlement made in 
1773. 

Henry CruU, 4CK) acres on the waters of Three Fork creek, adjoining 
land?, of James Brain, including his improvement made in 177d, with a 
preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Simpson, assignee to Charles Bennett, 400 acres on Deckers 
creek and the waters of Tlifee Fork creek, including his settlement made 
in 1775. 

Thomas Evans-, 400 acres on Buffalo creek, adjoining lands of John 
Grav, to include his settlement made in the vear 1773. 



Anthony Mahan, 400 acres on Buflow creek, adjoining lands claimed 
by Rutherford, to include his settlement in 1773. 

Jacob Hoover, 400 acres on Dunkers creek, adjoining lands of Nico- 
lass Shinn, to include his settlement made in 1770. 

George Shinn, 4<» acres on Dunkers creek, to include his settlement 
made in 1772. 

John Web, 400 acres on the drains of Pappa and Buffaloo creeks, to 
include his improvement made in 1773. 

George Hiley, 400 acres on Dunkers creek, adjoining lands of 
Thomas Day, to include his settlement made in 1770. 

John Stradler, assignee to David McMahon, 400 acres on Dunkers 



274 TRAN'SALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

creek, adjoiniug lands claitned uy John Cooper to include his improve- 
ment made in 1770. 

John Tucker, Senior, ^iX* acres on the West Fork on the Stone Cole 
Lick, to include his improvement made in 177-i. 

John Tucker, Senior, assignee to Samuel Merrefield, -lOD acres on 
West Fork adjoining Coons creek, to include his settlement made iu 
1771. 

George Tucker, 4iW acres on the waters of Booths creek, adjoiiiintj 
the drains of the Tigor Valley river, to include his improvement made in 
1775. 

Samuel IVIerrifield, 4'"n> acres on the West Fork to include his settle- 
ment made in 1773. 

Samuel Merrifield, heir of Samuel Merrifield, 4(M) acres on Booths 
creek, adjoining lands of William Tucker, to include his settlement 
made iii 177.'.. 

Philip Shuttleworth, 1000 acres at the mouth of Toms Run, to in- 
clude his settlement made in 1777. 

Samuel Bowing, 4W acres on the Monongalia river below the mouth 
of Buffalo creek adjoiniug lands of Daviil Cade [this name is badly 
written. It may be Caeto] to include his improvement made in 177:1. 

Joseph Davis, assignee to Frederick Ice, 400 acres on Tyger Valley 
Fork of the Monongalia to include his settlement made in 1770. 

Joseph Ice, assignee of Frederick Ice, 4<;»') acres on Buffalo, adjoining 
lands of James Stafford, to include his settlement made in 177-5. 

Richard Falls, assignee to William Anderson, 400 acres on Cheat 
River adjoining John Scotts lands, to include his settlement made in 
1772. 

Ezekiel York, 400 acres • on the waters of Tigor Valley, at a place 
called Hardins Cove, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Jesse York, 400 acres in Plardins Cove, adjoining lands of Ezekiel 
York, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

John Tucker, Junior, 4<» acres on Booths creek, at the big Lick, to 
include his improvement made in 1771. 

William Owen, 400 acres o'.i the waters of Poppaw creek including 
his improvement made in 1775, with a preemption to I'X) acres adjoining. 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 275 

John Jackson, 400 acres in Tigor Valley Fork, adjoining the lands of 
Jonathan Byard, to include his settlement made in 177'). 

Peter Drago, 400 acres on the waters of Buffalo creek to include his 
settlement made in 1770. 

Thomas Lewellcn, 400 acres on Morgans Run, to include his settle- 
ment made in 177t3, adjoining lands of Jacob Jones. 

John Johnston, 1000 acres by preemption on the waters of Tygors 
Valley Fork, adjoining lands of Graham Byard, to include his settlement 
made in 177o. 

James Hall, assignee to Hugh Hereuton, 1000 acres by preemption, 
on Salt creek, including the long lick, to include his improvement made 
in 1777. 

John Casy, 40<) acres on Tygor Valley River, adjoining Forshers 
Leavels, to include hi.-, settlement made in 177G. 

William Daugherty, 400 acres on Cheat River, adjoining lands of 
Thomas Butler, to include his settlement made in 1770. 

William Briggs, 400 acres on Cheat river adjoining lands claimed by- 
William Daugherty, to include his improvement made in 1773. 

Jeremiah Prather, assignee of John Davis, who was assignee to Dan- 
iel Hazel, 200 acres in Tyger Valley, on the west side of the river, ad- 
joining lands of Peter Cas.sity and Benjamin Jones, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1771. 

John Tucker, the third, 4^"> acres on Booth creek, to include his 
settlement made in 177t>. 

William Tucker, Junior, 4'Xi acres on the dividing ridge between 
Tyger Valley river and Booths creek, to include his settlement made in 
1775, adjoining lands of the heirs of James Booth. 

Thomas Merifield, 400 acres, on the waters of Booth creek, on Hor- 
ners run, to include his improvement made in 17GG. 

Thomas Merifield, -500 acres by preemption, adjoining his improve- 
ment made in 177G. (The locality is not given. ) 

Richard Merrefield, assignee to Moses Templin, 4i)0 acres on Lo^t 
Run to include his settlement made in 17ijt). 

Richard ;MerifieId, 100 acres on the waters of the Three Fork creek 
and Wickwires creek, adjoining lan^ls of James Current, to include his 
improvement made in 177i). 



276 TRANS ALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Richard Merefield, 1,(X>0 acres by preemption adjoining his irr4»rove- 
ment made in 17G6, on Lost run. 

Jeremiah Brookes, "20(> acres on the waters of Rackoou creek, to 
include his improvement made in 1773. 

William Brooks, 75 acres on the waters of Sandy Creek adjoining 
lands of James Harison, to include his residence made in 1773. 

Josiah Brookes, 300 acres on the waters of Sandy Creek, near to a 
Bufialoo lick, to include his improvement made in 1773. 

James Pollock, 40(1 acres on the waters of Dunker Creek, adjoining 
lands of John Pollock and the Province Line, including his settlement 
made in 1773. 

John Pollock, 400 acres on the head of Robinson's run, adjoining 
lands of James Starling, to include his improvement made in 1770, with 
a preemption to 1,000 acres adjoinining. 

Richard Falls, 400 acres on Buffaloo creek, at a place known as 
Mehons Camp. (No date is given.) 

Robert Williams, 4*?>0 on Little Sandy creek, to include his improve- 
ment made in 1770. 

Frederick Hust, 200 acres on Dunkers Creek, adjoining lands of 
Michal Cores, including his improvement made in 1770. 

James Henneson, 40ft acres on Sandy creek, adjoining the lanas of 
William Brooks, including his settlement made in 177t). 

Nathan Law [or Low], 400 acres at the mouth of Birchfield run, 
including his improvement made in 1773. 

Simon Troy, 400 acres on Dunkers creek, including his settlement 
made in 1770. 

Thomas Hellin, 400 acres on the West Fork, opposite the mouth of 
Coon Creek, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Amos Roberts, assignee of .\lIenton, 1,000 acres by preemption on a 
branch of Muddy creek, adjoining his settlement made in 1776, adjoining 
lands of Joseph Butter. 

Jaseph Tomlinson, Junr., fiW acres on the Ohio River, adjoining his 
settlement made in 1773, op>posite Latartes Falls; a preemptio.-i. 

Nathaniel Cochran, 1,000 acres by preen-.ption, adjoining his settle- 
ment made in 177t">, on the West Fork, at the mouth of Tevehocks run. 



SETTLEMENTS ON THE WESTERN WATERS. 277 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Martin Worthiiigton, 400 acres on Polk 
creek, heginning at the road that conies to the creek from the G.'(?) 
lick, to include his settlement begun in 1772. 

John P. Duvall, assignee of Hugh Evans, 400 acres at the mouth of 
the left-hand fork of Shinn Run, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Robert Harding, 400 acres on Goase creek by right of residence. 
(No date of settlement. ) 

Robert Conner, 400 acres on Cheat River, adjoining the land of James 
Conner, to include his improvement made in 1776. 

John Tucker, assignee of Samuel Merrifield, SOO acres by preemption 
on the West Fork, adjoining Coons creek. 

Aaron Jenkins, assignee of Alexander Clegg, 1,000 acres, by pre- 
emption, on Williams Fork of Dunkers Creek, inclnding his settlement 
made in 1773, adjoining lands of Philip Doddridge. 

Simon Troy, 1,000 acres by preemption on the waters of Wests nm, 
adjoining his settlement made in 177:2. 

Abraham Hardin, 400 acers on Scott's Mill run, including his settle- 
ment made in 177o. 

Ephraim I'razer, 400 acres in the Glades of Sandy Creek, adjoining 
Thomas Cushman's land including his settlement made in 1775. 

Thomas Cushman,400 acres m the Glades of Sandy Creek, to include 
his settlement made in 1770. 

William Stewart, assignee of James Workman, 400 acres "on the 
Little Kanhawa}-, on the west side of said Kanhaway, in right of said 
Workman's residence to include an improvement made in the year 1766, 
with a preemption to 1,0()0 acres adjoining thereto." 

Charles Ramsey, ;]00 acres adjoining lands of Richard Harrison and 
Jasper Everly, to include his settlement made in 1774. (No locality given. ) 

Hugh Marshall, ],0u0 acres, by preemption, on Sandy Creek waters 
Known by the name of Forshe3^s Level, to include his settlement made 
in 1776. 

Henry Batent, 400 acres at the mouth of Pappaw, adjoining lands of 
W'illiau! Sno'lgraHs, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Thomas Day, assignee of Alexander Earrons, 400 acres on Deckers 
creek, to include his settlen:ent in 1770. 



278 TKANSALLEGHEXY HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

Thoraa-i Day, iOQ acres on Crafts run, to iticlude bis settlement made 
in 1769, adjoining lands of Richard Harrison. 

Thomas Day, assignee of Rudolph Heily, 400 acres on the waters of 
Deckers Creek, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Thomas Day, assignee of Alexander Barrons, 400 acres on Deckers. 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1770. 

William, John and Lewis Rogers, tenants in common, 400 acres on 
ilill Creek, at forks of said creek obove the falls, to include their improve" 
ment made in 176S. 

John Deut, assignee of Elias Bumager, 1,000 acres at the mouth of 
Buffalo lick run, a branch of Buffalo, to include his settlement (no date.) 

Robert Cunningham, 400 acres on Cheat River, adjoining lands of 
James Parsons on the one side and Salathiel Goff on other, to include 
his settlement made in 1774. 

Jacob Jacobs, 200 acres on the waters of Deckers creek, to include his 
settlem.ent made in 1776. 

James Dun, 400 acres to include his improvement made in 177-3 (no 
ocality given.) 

John Plummer, 400 acres on Tj-gar Valley Fork, about two miles 
from Pettyjohns fording, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

David John, assignee of William John, adjoining lands of Thomas 
John, to include his settlement made in 177.J. 

Jeremiah Tannehill, preemption to 1,000 acres on Laurel Run, to 
include his improvement made in 1772. 

Samuel Megenley, 400 acres on the Little Kanhaway, adjoining 
Alexander Hendersons lowest land entry, to include his improvement 
made in 1776. 

Da\-id CroU, a->signeeof Lewds Rogers, preemption to 1,000 acres on 
Aarons creek, adjoining lands of John Burk. 

William Westfall, 400 acres on a creek called Teters creek, to include 
his settlement made in 1772, 

[To be Continued. 1 



R7y 



AN OLD LETTER. 



[A copj- of the following interesting letter was furnished this maga- 
zine by Col. Henry Haymond, of Clarksburg.] 

Palatini Hill, Va., Feb'y IS, 1842. 
Mr. Luther Havmoxd. 
,, ,j. Clarksburg, Va. 

•i Dear Sir : Your letter %vas duly received some time past, asking 
in relation to the education, residence, trade, &;c., of my father. It is 
but little that I can say in relation to his life, nothing scarcely of any 
consequence, some few anecdotes, &c. It is likely, I think, that he was 
raised on the Eastern Shore of IMarj-land, but I do not know, let that be 
as it may, he lived before mov-ing to this country, near Montgomerj' 
Court House, within three miles of Rockville. He, I suppose, was edu- 
cated some place there. He was one of the best arithmeticians, and 
understood surveying. I believe he had learned the trade of wagon- 
making, however, he could make almost anything out of wood or iron. 

I have understooud that fce commanded a company at the taking of 
Fort Duquesne, now Pittsburg-.. 

I was born near the said Court House in the year 1771. 

In the year 1773 my father moved to this country-, ic is strongly im- 
pressed on my mind, that we stopped in the forks of Cheat River, at or 
near Roger's Fort. 'We may have stayed there a year or two. 

The next I recollect is, tlxat our family were living in the Z^Ionon- 
gahela Glades near Decker's Creek. It seems verv' strange that any 
person should have settled there at that date, when the whole country 
was almost vacant. 

I have no recollection ho' v long we lived there, but I presume not 
long. As soon as war broke out we had to leave the place, and the 
whole family went to Kerns Fort opposite where INIorgantown now 
stands. My father then had e:ght negroes, we planted and tended corn 
on the ground where Morgantovm now stands, this was a stockaded Fort. 
At one time I think there was a company of soldiers stationed there. 
Cobum's Fort about' two miles this side of Kerns' Fort, was burnt by 
the Indians. I was at it when on fire. How it happened that I was suf- 
fered to go I cannot tell. 

Woodfin and Miller were killed on Miller's place, three miles from 
Kern's Fort, while we were there. They were brought in to the Fort 
on poles, having their feet anrl hands tied and the pole run between 
thera, I remember this perfectly. 

When we left the Glades, we had two horses. Slider and Prince, the 
former a brown, the latter a black horse. They often ran away and 
went to the Glades, brother John and myself would go after them. 
These two horses I may hereafter mention. 

While living in Kern's Fort, we had the smallpox in the natural 



2S0 TRAXSALLEGHENf HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

way, — all except niy father, who haii had it. Two children, I think, 
were all that died then of 'that di>ea;:.e,— however, niy father lost either 
six or seven of his negroes there, it was said they were poisoned. 

While living in said Fort, we boys would go out on what was called 
the Hog-back, near the Fort to hunt ramps. We used the bow and 
airo%v and were very good at shooting them. Once while all in tlie 
yard, one shot up an arro\\- straight, it fell, and struck through the 
wrist of either Col. John Evans, or one of the Wilsous, it was hard to 
draw out. This w?.s all the accident I recollect happening while we 
livc<l in the Fort. 

We movail from the Fort, what time I cannot say, went about two 
or three miles below to^Ti, on the land of John Johnson, and some time 
on tlie land of William Joseph. While living out on these farms we 
were often called up in the night and moved off a mile or two, to some 
house for safety. Once I recollect some person came riding by as fast as 
he could, and said he saw an Indian just back. The men ran out with 
their guns, but no Indian. On examining, it was found that he had 
seen a dogwood, which some person had cut, and a red substance had 
oozed out of it. We often had such alarms, and often the Indians killed 
or took prisoners in three or four miles of us. 

During what was called the hard winter, the snow was verj' deep, we 
lived in a large old house on Johnson's farm, it had two doors. I re- 
member we would draw large logs in the house, with Prince and roll 
them back on the fire. My father would go on to ^^'ickwire's Creek, 
alx)ut sixteen miles miles from this place and himt in the fall. This hard 
■winter he had a number of deer skins hung around the house to keep 
the wind off. 

In those days we wore short breeches and leggings, what else I do 
not recollect, how we lived I do not remember. 

Once brother John and myself \-\-ith Slider and Prince went to P.ub- 
le's Mills in Pennsylvania, eleven miles, stayed all night and next morn- 
ing, when on our horses to start home, Ruble or some other person 
brought each of us a piece of light bread spread with butter, this I 
thought such a great feast that I have it in my mind to this day. 

While we were living on, I think, Joseph's land, the Indians, I pre- 
sume, killed Madison, the Survej-or of all this country. Hanaway was 
appointed. I have understood, or heard at the time, that my father 
might have gotten the appointment, but I suppose he thought that 
Hanaway wanted it, and he would not interfere. 

While living here Al'Dert Gallatin and Savorv- were at my 

father's to see something about land. 

The surveyor's oSice was kept at Mr. Peirpoint's, about two miles 
from where we lived. I was once there with my father. Several gentle- 
men were there from Philadelphia, getting or locating land, as my father 
had been in the country above this place, they applied to him to locate 
for them, how much I cannot say, m;-' father directed how the entries 
should Ik- made. • '- . , ..v.,,. ,,,,-,.,._,.; 



AN OLD LETTER. 281 

The\- wished to pay, but he would have nothing, he or they said 
they might give me something, finally they gave me a dollar. I remem- 
ber I tliink, of hearing my father say, he expected they would give 
eight or ten dollars. 

The next day \ve started for home on Slider and Prince," with the 
dollar in my pocket, if I had a pocket, but before we got home my 
father borrowed the dollar, and .sent me to Kern's INIill to buy corn with 
it. I believe I got a bushel and a half. 

I have often thought of this circumstance. He here had an oppor- 
tunity to get a considerable sum, if he had made a charge, and although 
his family were perhaps on the brink of suffering, he preferred leaving 
it to their honor, rather than charge them. It seems that no situation of 
circumstances would change his course. 

While living here on Joseph's or Johnson's land, the last negro, a 
man, died. 

While we were living on Joseph's land David Morgan killed the two 
Indians. They sent my father a piece of tanned Indian skin for a strop. 

I went occasionally to school, I suppose a year or two. Two boys 
and myself were once in the woods near Owen Davis's orchard, they 
concluded to go and get some apples, and I staid back. On their return, 
I helped eat them. This comes the nearest to stealing I have any recol- 
lection of in my life — partaking of a part. How I happened to remem- 
ber it so loT.g, I cannot say. In those days I used the bow and arrow, 
killed squirrels in the cornfield and birds. 

I was with my father at the Rope Works, making cords to make a 
hoppose, he was preparing to go in the Revolutionary army and had got 
ready, when news came that peace was made. They had a great rejoic- 
ing meeting on the occasion at Jtlorgantown. The Indians were less 
troublesome then than thej- had been, people began to stir about. 

Harrison County was formed out of Monongalia in 17S4. ^My father 
was appointed Surveyor, v.-e v.ere still living on Joseph's farm. Thomas 
Laidley had brought a store to ^lorgantown. My father bought a beat- 
skin coat, as he had to go to Williamsburg to be examined. The morn- 
ing before he started Laidley and Menes his storekeeper came to our house, 
with I believe twenty half Joes, in all two hundred dollars in gold to 
send to Richmond to buy land warrants. I remember hearing my father 
say he was ashamed to wear said coat, for fear people would think he 
was proud. 

Whether my father was in the Revolutionary war, or not, I do not 
remember. If he was, it was while we lived in the Fort. How it hap- 
pened that he v>-as called Major, I cannot say. He I suppose was in the 
army when Daniel Morgan was a waggoner there, of which I suppose 
you have heard. It has always been my impression that he was in the 
Revolutionary array. 

How it happened that he got the appointment of Surveyor in Harri- 
son County, I cannot tell, but I think he did not electioneer for it. I 
have omitted to say, that sometime:; before tliis lie was appointed one of 



282 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the commissiouers to settle the claims to unpatented lands in this coun- 
try. During this time, he obtained a certificate for his land in the 
Glades, he also got two other certificates for land in Harrison County. 

In the Spring of 1784, brother John ■i\-ith others, started from the 
mouth of Decker's Creek, in canoes, do^-n the river to the mouth of the 
KanawliE! to s-Lir\-ey for Vandereen. 

On tJie return of my father from Richmond, he went to Clarksburg 
on his duty of office. In October follo^-ing, brother John and myself, 
with those two celebrated horses Slider and Prince took two loads of 
plunder. I was then thirteen years old. Brother John went up to 
Jonathan, and got two or three horses more to help move. I knew no 
one in Clarksburg and was quite lost. 

There, I met Da\-id Pnmty, and went back of that hill with him to 
hunt chestnuts. Clarksburg was built by two rows of cabins extending 
from near where the Court House now is, to Jackson's house on the east 
side of Elk Creek. It had been built to ansvrer for a Fort. The next 
day we started for home, on which day the Indians attacked Mr. West 
where Weston now stands. When we arrived home we got a Mr. 
Tibbs to help us with a horse. We started, and on the first day we 
lodged on Toms Run, two miles below Smithtown. The next day got to 
Pricketfs settlement. The third day to the Valley River. The fourth 
day, just above where the William Martin brick house now stands, and 
the fifth day we arrived in Clarksburg, in the afternoon, having been five 
days on the road nearly. 

WTien I think of those times, above mentioned, it seems strange to 
me how the people survived— many times without anj-thing to eat, and 
little to wear. 

When we were on Joseph's farm my father gave |1000for a bushel of 
salt. He had considerable Continental money. It is likely he sold his 
possessions in Maryland and took Continental money for the same. 

Yours &c. 
-:■. ; ■ ■ . William H-wmond. 



V7EST VIRGINIA'S FIRST ORCHARD. -. 

By :-:. C. Da\is. 

It is surprising to find many of our present day institutions dating 
back to Washington's time. I would not have thought that our first 
president was the father of the "home orchard'' in West Virginia, had 
not my attention' been called, by ^Ir. Hunter, of Martinsburg, to an old 
lease. 

On page 1 of deed book No. 3, in the court house of Berkeley County, 
is recorded a lease made by George Washington, of Mt, Vernon, Fair- 
fax County, Virginia, to Wm. Bar:!ett, farmer. The lease covered 12-5 
acres of land, a part of a tract of 7H0 acres in Berkeley County, ''in the 
Barens of Bulskin," The area is ir. the southeastern part of the present 



WEST VIKGINIA''S FIRST ORCHARD. 283 

county of Jerterson. on wiiat is called Bull Skin ran, probablj- not far 
from Kabletowni postofBce, 

The lease records a number of interesting points, but to rue the most 
interesting is the fact that it is the earliest known record of an apple or 
peach orchard •w-ithin the present limits of the state of West Virginia. I 
give the principal features of the "demise," "grant" or lease. 

Bartlett was "to have and to hold tlie area from March 12, 1774, "for 
atid during the lives of the said Wm. Bartlett, !Mary his \vife and 
Frederick their son and the life of the longest liver of them." The con- 
sideration was to be an annual rertt in Virginia currency to be paid to 
George Washington at his dwelling house in Fairfax county, on Christ- 
mas day each year, beginning aKd due Dec. 'Jo, 1775. A number of 
other considerations are in the lease which show that Washington was 
looking out for the continual improvement of his estates even more care- 
fully, perhaps, than our modem real estate developers. 

a. There was to remain untoiiched on the place a certain area of 
wood land to be left at the expiration of the period. 

6. The renter was to construe:! a dwelling house at least sixteen 
feet square of framing lumber or hevvTi logs; to construct a bam at least 
forty feet long and twenty feet wide of same kind of material; to con- 
struct other buildings and a welL 

c. "And also that within seven years an orchard of one hundred 
winter apple trees at forty feet distance every way from each other, and 
one hundred peach trees shall he planted on some convenient part of 
said demised land and the same to be kept always during the continuance 
of the said term well pruned, fenced in and secured from horses, cattle 
and other creatures that may hurt them, and if any of the said trees shall 
die, decay or be destroyed that others of the same kind shall be planted 
in their place, and the tntire numbei- thereof kept up during the said 
term." 

d. On the place two tracts of meadow to be planted in "English 
grass" and the same were to he maintained in good condition. 

The lease was signed by both parties in the presence of five witnesses 
acting as a county court for Berkeley county, March 16. 1774. 

It is interesting to note that Washington recognized the proper dis- 
ance to plant apple trees as forty feet apart. Doubtless the trees were 
grafted and budded, as those methods of propagation were in vogue 
among the colonists, but nothing is said about that matter. 



284 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL. MAGAZINE. 

PIONEERS IN MONONGALIA COUNTY. 

'y . 1, By Hu Maxwell. ; 

In what I may say in the the present article I shall consider Monon- 
galia county as it was before it was subdivided to from other counties — the 
territory embraced in the original- county. That area has been divided 
and again di\-ided until now it forms twenty-nve counties or parts of 
counties, three in Pennsylvania and twenty-two in West Virginia. The 
Pennsylvania counties taken from territorj- once partly in Monongalia are 
Green, Washington and Fayette. The West Virginia counties taken 
wholly or in part from Monongalia are Preston, Tucker, Randolph. Poca- 
hontas, Harrison, Marion, Taylor. Barbour, V/ebster, Braxton, Calhoun, 
Roane, Jackson, Wood, Ritchie, Wirt, Gilmer, I,e-4%-is, Upshur, DcAdridge, 
Pleasants and the present county of Monongalia. It is thus seen that 
when the county was formed it covered a considerable part of the present 
State of West Virginia, as well as a small portion of Pennsylvania. I 
have estimated the county's area at S,4S5 square miles. It is the purpose 
of this article to speak concerning the pioneers who planted permanent 
settlements here, and, so far as possible, it is the purpose to be guidetl by 
records. That is, it must appear that the settler had a permanent inter- 
est in the country-, and showed his interest by making a home, before he 
can be classed as one of the pioneers. Of that class of persons who came 
and went, as wanderers or adventurers, we know so little that we shall 
not attempt to assign them a place in the redeeming of the region from 
the wilderness. They had a part to perform, and in many ways their 
•work was of high value, but the scope of this article includes only those 
who took up land, and made homesteads, and were finally given title to 
the homesteads by the State of Virginia. 

The Revolution was drawing to a close before Virginia appointed 
commissioners to hear evidence concerning settlements in Monongalia 
county and to grant certificates to those who were entitled to homesteads. 
Those coumiissioners held meeting at different places within the county 
in 1779, 1780, 1781 and 1782. Men who had made improvements and 
who wanted to claim homesteads (which gave 400 acres for a vcr\- small 
fee) went before the commissioners and proved their claims. They were 
given certificates setting forth the facts, and directing the survey of 
their claims. The earliest sett'ernents within the area afterwards included 
in Monongalia county, on which homestead rights were based, were 
made in 17t3G. There were settlers within the region before that time, 
but they never Sled claims for lands. 

There was a settlement by two familes, Files and T3-gart, in the 
present coimty of Rtmdolph in 17.5;>, but the Indians (in a time of peace) 
broke up the settlement. The Kckarly brothers built a cabin on Cheat 
River, in Preston county, a few years later, but Indians killed two of 
the brothers. It is usually stated in histories that Thomas Decker 
planted a colony on the site of Morgantowu in I7o>^, and that the settle- 
ment was destroyed the ne.-ct spring by Indians. This is probably a 



PIONEERS IX MONONGALIA COUNTY. 285 

myth, pure and simple, but if such a settlement was made.' it was not 
permane!it, and no claim for a homestead was ever based on it, so it need 
not be taken account of in this article. Thus it is seen that the perma- 
nent settlement of the territory afterwards embraced in Monongalia 
county began in ITOO. 

THE FIRST SEVEN. 

At the beginning of the year 1766 the whole region west of the 
Alleghenies, north of the Greenbrier River and south of the mouth of the 
Youghiogheny, and eastward of the Ohio, was an imbroken and an unin- 
habited wilderness, so far as we know. If there was so much as an 
Indian within the region, his camp was only a temporary one. Great 
Britain had forbidden the settlement of the country by her subjects, and 
Pennsylvania and Virginia (then loyal pro\-inces ) had enacted laws to deter 
such settlers as should be disposed to cross the mountains. These laws were 
yet in force in 1766. It was a forbidden country. The Pontiac war was 
over, and there was peace; but yet no permission had been given by Vir- 
ginia to anybody to make homes west of the mountains. This should be 
borne in mind, because those who settled in 1766 outlawed themselves by 
so doing. They defied the proclamation which forbade such settlements. 
No doubt the}- hoped to escap/e discoverj-, and thought to remain until 
the laws, which they were violating, should be repealed. They were not 
disappointed, if such were their plans. When the time came, they were 
awarded homesteads where they settled in 1 76t>. 

Seven men made settlements in 1766 in the region under considera- 
tion. The homestead law called any kind of habitation, if it was meant 
to be permanent, '"a settlement. " To locate at a certain place was to 
"make a settlement." The seven men who made settlements in 1766 did 
not all locate together. Three were within a few miles of one another. 
Thomas Merrifield located on Homer's Run, a branch of Booth Creek, in 
the present county of Marion. Richard Merrifield and Moses Templin 
located "on Lost Run, near Simpson's Creek." I have not been able to 
determine just where that was, but it was near the boundary between the 
present counties of Harrison and Clarion. It is probable that all three 
men settled in the present limits ci Marion county. I presume the exact 
places could be determined by tracing land titles in that vicinity back to 
. the first homesteads, bat I have not tried to do it. Moses Templin sold 
his claim to Richard Merrifield, to whom the homestead certificate was 
issued. I have never found further trace of Templin. 

In the same year James Workman penetrated to the region now 
forming Gilmer county and built bis cabin and became a settler. His 
cabin stood on the west bank of the Little Kanawha. He sold his 
claim to William Stev/art. 

The fifth of the first seven settlers established htmself at the con- 
fluence of Black Fork and Shaver's Fork of Cheat River, where the 
county seat of Tucker county now -tands. He was a Welshman, John 
Crouch, who came to Anserlca with two brothers in 17.y). He lived on 



266 TRANSALT.EGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Cheat River nut mere than five yesrs, probably not so long, and sold hi>; 
claim to Adam Hyder, who was a very early settler in that \-icinity, bnt 
not so early as ITtiti. John Crouch removed to Tygart Valley and located 
at the mouth of Shaver's Run. below the village of Huttonsville. Here 
his son John was born, the first white child bom in the present territory- 
of Randolph county. Crouch died before the Declaration of Independ- 
ence and his property, under the English law, went to his eldest son. 
That is said to be the only instance in the upper Monongahela Valley of 
property descending by law of primogeniture. The sou who thus 
inherited the property was subsequently killed by the bite of a rattle- 
snake. 

In the same year, also, William Roberts took up his home at Dunk- 
ard Bottom, on Cheat River, in what is now Preston county. He settled 
near the spot \\here the unfortunate Eckarlys met their fate several years 
before. He held his ground, and fifteen years afterwards received his 
reward by being granted a homestead covering part of the Dunkard 
Bottom. 

Nicholas Decker located land and made his home on the Monon- 
gahela, near the mouth of Decker's Creek, in 1766. This was, as I believe, 
the first white man's abode at or near the site of Morgantown. I sup- 
pose that the creek was named for him, although I have no positive 
evidence of it. I have little faith in the story of Thomas Decker's settle- 
ment in 1758 and its destruction in 175?^. So far as I know it depends for 
its autliority upon W'ither's Border Warfare, and while it is not to the 
purpose to enter into a discussion of all the pros and cons here, it is suf- 
ficient to cast doubt upon the whole story to know that some of the details 
given by Withers could not possibly have been true, and the others 
were verj- improbable. To this is added the positive statement, entered 
of record fifty-five years before Withers' book was published, that 
Nicholas Decker's settlement in 176G was "prior to any settlement made 
near the same." That statement is found in the entr>- of Nicholas 
Decker's claim. Its presence suggests that the commissioners discussed 
that very question while they considered his claim. That was only four- 
teen years after his settlement was made, and there were men present 
from all the settlements. They were there as witnesses for themselves 
or for others. They were well posted on the settlements of the neighbor- 
hood, and if there had been an earlier one than Nicholas Decker's, and 
almost on the same ground, some one would have known of it, and the 
commissioners would not have v ritten the statement that his was "prior 
to any settlement made near the same." Nicholas Decker sold his claim 
to John Madison, who w?s Monongalia's first county sur\-eyor, and who 
was subsetjuently murdered by Indians. 

THK TIDE EBBED AND FLOWED. 

It n:ignt be suppose-', that immigration into the upper IMonongahel^ 
Valley and the adjacent region was steady, after it had once commenced. 
But such was no', tlie CAie. The table whicli follov.s will show this. 



PIONEERS IN MONONGALIA CODNTY. 287 

The number of settlers who took np homesteads, year by year, may be 
seen at a glance. 

YEAR. 

176*3 7 

17G7 2 

176S 4 

1769 22 

1770 91 

1771 66 

1772. 143 

1773 247 

1774 168 

1775 227 

1776 139 

1777 „ : 22 

i 1778 7 

' 1779 5 

1780 „ 2 

1781 3 

1782 : 1 

Year of settlement uncertain 59 

Total 1,215 

Not until 1769 do we obser\e anything like a general movement of 
homeseekers toward the transallegheny region of northern West Virginia, 
and only twenty-two came that year. This number was increased four- 
fold the next year; and, for some cause unknown, it fell to only sixty-six 
in 1771. The next year the number rose to one hundred and forty-three, 
and for the year foUovnng it rose still higher — the highest of all the years 
of homesteading in Monongalia county. That was a prosj^>erous and 
auspicious time (1773). It was a time of speculation and adventure in 
western lands. .\ strong colony located '^h at year on Salt Creek, in the 
present county of Braxton, and otliers pushed further down the Little 
Kanawha to its mouth, and the homesteader's cabin began to be found 
in the intermediate country, particularly on Hughes River and ita tribu- 
taries. The bank of the Ohio was occupied at different places from 
Jackson county northward. Surveyors were everywhere at work. It 
was a movement to take possession of the country. It had become gen- 
erally known by that tinie that the West \'irginia lands did not belong 
to the Indians, and there was, apparently, little fear of an uprising of 
the savages beyond the Ohio. 

The next year, 1774, the Dunmore war came, and it3 result was to 
check immigration into country beyond the Alleghenies, in West \'ir- 
ginia. Only one hundred and si:vt\--eight homesteads were commenced 
that year, not as many by seventy-nine as were begun the 3'ear before. 
Peace was resiored in the fjll, snd the next spring the immigrants 
arrived again in larger number;. The to;alfor 1775, which was a year of 



«: 

288 TRANSALLEGHEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

peace, was two hundred and twenty -seven. In ITTiJ the Revolution was 
under full headway, and trouble began ae^aiu \\ ith Indians on the western 
frontier. The number of homesteaders fell olT again, the total reachini^ 
one hundred and thirty-nine. The jear 1777 was a terrible one on the 
border. War with the Indians was at its height. It was the "blooily 
year" in the annals of the border. Few persons wo-old care to leave 
secure homes in the East and take up dangerous abodes on the western 
frontiers. Accordingly, it is seen that only twenty-two homesteaders 
located that year in Monongalia counts-. For several years after that the 
savage war continued %\-ith unabated fury, and immigration into ^lonon- 
galia county practically ceased, if the homestead claims may be taken as 
a criterion on which to base a conclusion. 

SETTLERS OTHER THAN HOMESTEADERS. 

All persons who came into the county to make a home did not take 
up homesteads; and there was a not inconsiderable number of persons 
who became permanent residents who were not landholders at all. It 
■was easy to become a squatter on public land, or on private land, ami 
many chose that method rather than take the trouble of acquiring real 
estate of their own. For this reason, a list of homesteaders for any year, 
or series of years, would not be a complete list of the people wlio entered 
the country and became residents during that period. .A.fter the year 
1779 it was easier and cheaper to buy public land than to acquire it t)y 
the homestead process, and I think this accounts for the practical disap- 
pearance of the homesteader after that time. .\ man could buy for a few 
dollars the right to locate a large acreage of public land wherever he 
might find it in Virginia. He could choose part of it in one place and 
part elsewhere. He could live on it if he liked, or he could sell it or let 
it lie vacant. It became so easy to own land by that method that the 
homestead passed out of us.;. 

The homestead process served as a guide to the historian who should 
undertake, in after years, to trace the settlement of the country. The 
man who took up a homestead left a record of his name, the date of his 
settlement, the place he settled, and often left a record of who his neigh- 
bors were. Data of that kind render it possible to compile lists of 
settlers from year to year; and from such lists it is possible to u:ake 
fairly accurate estimates of the population of any given region for any 
year or number of years. When the homestead system was superseded 
by the method of buying the land, such data was no longer within 
reach. A speculator frequently bought twenty thousand acres, and soM 
in small tracts to others. Some settled upon their tracts, others did 
r.ot. There is uo sure way of determining now who bought the land 
for homes, or who for speculation only. Consequently, when we under- 
take to compile lists, from the records of settlers, of those who located at 
certain places and at certain times, we are brought Lo a standstill at 
reaching the peri<xl when the taking up of land by the homestes-d nietho-l 
passed out of use. 



PIONEERS IN MONONGALIA COUNTY. 2S9 

There is room for error iu makiiig up lists of settlers from home, 
steads. A man mijiht make an improvement himself, or a tenant might 
make it for him. The law made no distinction. The certificate of home- 
stead seldom stated whether the claimant lived on the land himself, or 
^\ hether he \vas represented by some other person. There is no way to 
determine this matter now, unless (in rare cases) information outside of 
the records is to be had. 

t:STI-M.\TP:D KARI.Y POPl-T,.A.TIOX. 

The earliest census of ^Monongalia, tJiat may be regarded as official, 
was taken in 1790. The county had been reduced by subdivision to form 
other counties until it was, at that time, not more than one-fourth of its 
original size. Its population was 47(3S, as shown bv the Federal census. 
Harrison and Randolph counties had been taken away at that time, and 
all north of the Pennsylvania line was gone. It would be interesting to 
know the population of Monongalia for the earlier years of its existence, 
and for the region (later covered by the original county) for the years 
before the county was formed. The settlement of the region had been in 
progress ten years before the Act of the Virginia Assembly was passed 
creating Monongalia County. It is possible to arrive at a fair approxi- 
mate of the population for any of these years. It is done by taking the 
number of homesteads and estimating the probable number of people 
represented by each homestead. As alreadj- remarked, all the people 
did not live on homesteads, nor had ever\- homesteailer a family. But it 
is assumed, for the sake of the estimate, that the number of persons who 
did not live on homesteads would make up for the absence of families on 
som« of the homesteads. Taking this view of the matter, let the follow- 
ing represent the population of the region covered by the original Monon- 
galia County for the \-ears named: 

I-:STIMATF.D 
YKAR. . POPUI^ATION. 

1700 35 

1767 45 

176S 65 

1700 175 

1770 030 

1771 960 

1772 _. 1675 

1773 2910 

1774 3750 

1775 4SS5 

177t) 5580 

1777 5090 

1778 5725 

1779 5750 

17S0 5765 



290 TRANSAI.LEGHENY HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

From 1776 to 17S0 the table shows the population almost at a stan<i- 
stiil. The whole frontier was drenched in blood during those years, ati'l 
the war for independence was raging in the east, south and north, and 
few recruits could come to the border. Consequently, the frontier 
county of Monongalia did well to hold its own. If the table contains 
error in either direction it probably consists in gi'ving too large, rather 
than too small, increase in population for those years. 

WHENCE CAME THE PIONEERS? 

There were 1215 homesteads in Monongalia County. Occasionally 
one man would have two homesteads, the law apparently allowing him 
that privilege, the condition being that he should make a separate and 
distinct settlement for each homestead. I have gone over the entire list 
several times, checking the names in an endeavor to determine how many 
persons there were. The result has not been entirely satisfactory- to my- 
self, because I could not always decide whether a particular name found 
twice was that of one person, or whether there were two persons of the 
same name. After all my checking off and elimination I had a list of 
1117 names which I believed represented that many persons. Yet my 
list may still contain duplicates. I then set for myself the task of ascer- 
taining, with as much accuracy as possible, the nationality of each name 
on the list. I approached the work u-ith a full appreciation of the fact 
that nothing better than a portion of the tmth could be e.tpected. I 
had to rely more upon the origin of the name than upon anv knowledge 
I had of the history of the indi^•idual. But I took advantage of all in- 
formation of the latter kind within my reach. In my work in the field 
of county histories I have written brief biographies of several thousand 
persons whose ancestors lived in the original Monongalia County, and 
this store of information regarding families frequently assisted me in 
determining whether a name was English, Scotch, Irish or German. I 
at least had at hand what the living representatives of the old families 
think of the matter. Often, however, they know very little about the 
nationality of their ancestors. :My conclusions are as follows: 

N.\TIONAIJTV OF 1117 PERSONS WHO TOOK UP HOMESTEADS IN 
MONONGALIA COUNTY FROM 17t3tj TO 1782, BOTH INCLUSIVE. 

Scotch-Irish or Scotch 887 

English 2(M 

German 97 

Irish 44 

Unclassified g.j 

Total 1117 

Percentage of Scotch-Irish or Scotch 61 

Percentage of English IS 

German y 

Irish 4 

Unclassified 7 



PIONEERS IN MONONGALIA COUNTV. 291 

The "unclassified" were those concerning whom I was uncertain. 
They might, with little room for error, be distributed, pro rata, amon^ 
the four nationalities named, except that a few of the names are strongly- 
suggestive of Spanish or Portuguese origin, and a considerable number 
are Welsh. 

I put no name do^vn as Scotch or Scotch-Irish which did not stand 
the test of being found in gootl standing in Mr. Charles A. Hanna's new 
and most excellent work, Tlie Scotdi-Irish. The name Harding I re- 
jected as of Scotch origin because it was not found in his books, although 
I had alwa3-s considered it a Scotch name. The mere fact that a name is 
of Scotch origin is not proof po.sitive that the bearer of the name was 
Scotch, because people of different nationality might have the same 
name. A man in Monongalia County with the name Smith might be 
Scotch, or Irish, or English, or German, or French, or any one of several 
other nationalities. But, usually, the name is a fairly good indication of 
the man's nationality. 

I endeavored to identify the Germans by the aid of Mr. Herrmann 
Schuricht's bc'oks, The German Ekmtid in Virginia; but I soon found 
that the author's zeal outran his judgment, and that he claims entirely 
too much. The Germans were numerous, but he makes them too numer- 
ous; they did much to develop the region, but he gives them more credit 
than the facts justify. He classes- as German some names which \\ere 
English and Scotch. If a name can be translated into the German, 
it is enough to warrant him in calling it German. He considers 
as German persons with the name Carpenter, because that name 
in German is Zimmennan, am'l he concludes that some native 
of the Fatherland came to America ^^■ith the name Zimm.erman, 
and subsequently translated it into English and called himself Car- 
penter. The name Bowman he classes as German because the name 
Bauman is foimd in that langiiage. Vet, the name Bowman is so old 
in the British Isles that some antiquarians trace it clear beyond the Eng- 
lish language, back to the Latin word bos (ox). The name would thus 
mean "cattle-keeper," or, if expressed in the vernacular of our western 
plains, "cowboy." The name might have an equivalent in nearly any 
language, if such is its origin. It would, however, be more reasonable 
to suppose that the name is derived from another occupation — bow man, 
a soldier who, in early times, was expert with the bow. Be it as it may, 
the men of that name who first pushed into West Virginia were not Ger- 
man, or English, or Scotch, but came from Holland. So, in this instance, 
it is found unsafe to determine a man's nationality solely upon the sound 
or meaning of his name. There is nothing else quite so good as a fact in 
an investigation of any kind. 

It was a matter of surprise to me to find that the method of investi- 
gation which I followed showed so small pe^centag^ of Germans among 
the original homesteaders of Monongalia County. I had supjjosed that 
nearly one-third of them were Germans; but I based that supposition upon 
no careful analysis — simply took the word of others for it. But when I 



292 TRANSALLEGHKXV IIISTORICAT. MAGAZINE. 

took up name after name froai the list of the actual homesteaders, aiul 
traced each name as far as possible to determine \vhere it came from, it 
was seen that the supyKssed Gefmiaii turned out to be something else in 
the majority of cases. All that came from Pennsylvania across our 
northern border in the earh" years were not Germans, although some 
persons have, apparently, taken it for granted that they were. I suppose 
that the strongest German element in early times, in the present territory 
of West Virginia, was in Pendleton, Grant and Hardy counties. A con- 
siderable number of those Germans crossed the Alleghenies to the upper 
tributaries of the ]\Ionongahela. But they lacked nmch of being the 
predominating class west of the mountains. 

Lest these conclusions may be misunderstood, let it be stated again 
that I am dealing only -nith the settlers in Monongalia County who took 
up and perfected titles to homesteads — not with those who bought land, 
or who never owned land, or who came into the country after the year 
1782. At the most, I have considered only a portion of the early settlers. 
How many came prior to 17S2 and did not take up homesteads, I have no 
means of knowing. How many came subseqaent to that year, I know 
cnlj^ in a general way, and have no details. The homesteader made a 
record of his coming, and left dates and details, and we can deal with 
him; but the other came unannounced, and went as he liked, and left so 
little of his history among the records that we can take little account of 
him. 

By far the most valuable record concerning the early settlers and 
settlements in northwestern West Virginia is I'he Border Warfare, by 
Withers. An examination shows that a majority of the men mentioned 
in that book, if residents of the original Monongalia County, were home- 
steaders. He was frequently wrong in dates, sometimes in error as to 
locality, but he was remarkably accurate as to names. He depended too 
. much on the memory of the living, and made too little use of the records 
which he might have esaciined. For that reason his book is frequently 
defective. For example, the lists he gave of the settlers on the upoer 
tributaries of the Monongahela in 17G9 and 1770, and which he says were 
all the settlements made in those years, really left two-thirds of them uu- 
mentiontd. 

There are old records and documents in existence which, if properly 
abstracted and published, would throw light on the early history of our 
whole state. But the examination of them, and the sorting oat of the 
important from the unimportant, is a task from which the private indi- 
%-idual shrinks, because it is a great labor, involves considerable expense, 
and there is no prospect of jjocuniarj- reward. He who does it, must be 
content to labor for the good of his country-, without even the pay that 
the soldier receives who fighrs for it. Few persons feel able to do this 
duty. The state of West Virginia ought to do it. The expense, from the 
standpoint of a public work, would be very small. Much of it could be 
accomplished by one industrions worker in one year; but not all. 



Editorial Notes and Miseelianies. 



Board or Eoitous: Sctbscription: 

He Maxi^xell, Two Dollars a Vkar. 

Richard Ellswortu Fa5t, ■ " Free to ilEvuERS of the 

Boyd Cp.umkine. Trassallegheny Histor- 

ical Society. 



This issue of the Trausallegheny Historical ^Magazine completes the 
first year. A full index to tlie four numbers of the first volume will be 
found in this number. There is also a title 'page, for the use of those 
who wish to have the volume bound. 

The Government printing office at^\Vashington has recently published 
a History of Education in West Virginia, by Prof. A. R. Whitehill, of 
the West Virginia University. It forms one of the series of Contributions 
to American Educational History which the Government has undertaken 
to publish. The principal portion of this -work was ^vritte^ by Prof. 
Whitehill tivelve years ago. The manuscript was filed away in Washing- 
ton and was not printed till the present year. It was consulted, how- 
ever, and portions of it w-ere used by persons who have prepared works 
on education in West Virginia. When the Government was ready to 
publish the work, Prof. Whitehill prepared an appendix which contains 
an outline of the progress of educational w-ork in West Virginia from 
1S90 until the present time. After the long delay, the publication of the 
work was made possible through the efforts of Dr. Purinton, President of 
the University, aud Hon. Thomas C. Miller, State Superintendent of 
Schools. From both a literary and historical point of \-iew the book is 
good. It is illustrated with pictures of the best school buildings in the 
state in ISvW. Since that time other buildings have been erected that 
would have made a still better showing had their pictures been inserted. 
But this was not done. The book is valuable to all who are interested in 
educational work in West Virginia. 

History and Geography. 
The creeks, watercourses and localities enumerated in the list which 
follows all had names, and were all mentioned, in the records of Monon- 
galia before the close of the Revolution. In a few instances the names 
have changed, but generally they are the same as at firat. The precise 
localities of a few of them are uncertain. During the Revolution, Monon- 
galia County was much larger than at present, as maj- be seen from the 
fact that all of the streams mentioned flowed, for part cf theircourses at 
least, through Monongalia's territory. 

Ar;drew Davisson's Run, branch of Simpson's Creek, Harrison County. 
Aaron's Creek, branch of Decker's Creek, Monongalia Coutity. 



294 TKANSALLEGHENY mSTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Barclay's Run, branch of Tygait's Valley River, Taylor County. 

Barker's Creek, branch of Tygart's Valley River, Barboi-.r County. 

Big Sandy Creek, branch of Tygart's Valley River, Barbour, Taylor and 
Preston counties. 

Briscoe Run, branch of Ohio River, Wood County. j^ 

Full Creek, branch of Ohio River, Wood County. _. - 

Buffalo Run, branch of Cheat River, Preston County. 

Beaver Creek, branch of Sandy Creek. Preston County. 

Biuganion Creek, branch of West Fork, Harrison County. 

Brushy Fork, branch of Elk Creek, Harrison and Barbour Counties. 

Bennett's Run, branch of West Fork, Harrison County. 

Brown's Creek, flows into the West Fork, Harrison County. 

Buffalo Creek, flows into the ^ilonongahela River, Marion and Monon- 
galia Counties. 

Bull Run, branch of Cheat River, Tucker County. 

Black Fork, branch of Cheat River, Tucker County. 

Big Crab Orchard Creek, tributary of Sandy Creek, Preston County. 

Big Beaver Dam Run, branch of Sandy Creek, Preston County. 

Crooked Run, tributary of West Fork, Harrison County. 

Crooked Run, tributary of Monongahela River, Monongalia County. . 

Coon's Run, flows into West Fork, Harrison County. 

Cutright's Run, flows into Buckhannon River, Upshur County. 

Cutright's Run, flows into Elk Creek, Harrison Countj'. 

Clover Run, branch of Cheat River, Tucker County. 

Carter's Run, branch of Ten Mile Creek, Flarrison County. 

Cobum's Creek, branch of Monongahela River, Monongalia County. 

Cobun's Run, branch of Cheat River, Tucker County. 

Cold Lick Bottom Creek, branch of Cheat River, Preston County. 

Clay Lick Run, flows into Cheat River, Tucker County. 

Da\nsson's Run, flows into V.'est F'ork from west side, Harrison County. 

Daugherty's Run, tributary of Cheat River, Preston County. 

Dnnkard Creek, flows into the Monongahela River, Monongalia County, 

and in Pennsylvania. 
Dry F'ork, branch of Cheat River, Tucker and Randolph counties. 
Dunlap Creek, flows into the Monongahela River, Pennsylvania. 
Duck Creek, tributary of West Fork, Harrison County. 
Decker's Creek, tributary of the Monongahela River, Monongalia 

County. 

Elk Creek, flows into the West Fork, Harrison and Barbour Counties. 
Fall Run, in Harrison County. 

Fall Run, tributarv- of Tygarfs Valley River, Barbour County. 
Freeman's Creek, trihutar>- of West Fork, Lewis County. 
Fink's Run, flows into the Bi;ckhaunon River, Upshur County. 
Fox Grape Creek, 1)ranch of Hacker's Run, Barbour County. 
French Creek, branch of Biickhanuon River, Upshur County. 
Frencli Cree'^, branch of Ohio P^iver, Pleasants County. 



HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 295 

Flag Run, flews into Cheat River, Preston County. 

Goose Creek, tributary of Hughes River, Ritchie County. 

Grass Run, tributary of Hughes River, Ritchie County. 

Gnatty Creek, branch of Elk Creek, Barbour County. 

Oee Lick Run, branch of l-reeman's Creek, Lewis County. 

Gregory Creek, tributary of the ilonoagahela River, in Pennsylvania. 

Gregory's Run, branch of Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 

Glady Creek, tributary of Tygart's Valley River, Barbour County. ^^^,li7i 

Glady Creek, tributary of Brushy Fork of Elk Creek, Barbour County. '' 

Grass Run, tributary of Cheat River, Preston County. 

Grass Run, tributary of Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 

Hellen's Run, flows into the West Fork, Marion County. 
Hacker's Creek, tributary of the West Fork, Harrison and Lewis coun- 
ties. 
Hacker's Run, tributarj- of Tygart's Valley River, Barbour County. 
Horseshoe Run, flows into Cheat River, Tucker County. 
HczekialiDavisson's Run, tributary of Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 
Hazel Run, tributary of Sandy Creek, Preston County. 
Horse Camp Run, branch of Dry Fork of Cheat River, P.andolph County. 

Ice Run, branch of Cheat River, Monongalia County. 
Indian Creek, tributary of Monongahela River, Monongalia County. 
Indian Camp Run, flows into Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 
Indian Fork, branch of Clover Run, Tucker County. 

Joe's Run, flows into the Monongahela River, Monongalia County. 
Jones' Rim, flov.s into the West Fork, Harrison and Lewis County. 
Jerrj-'s Run, flows into Simpson's Creek. 

Katy's Lick Run, tributan.- of Ten Mile Creek. Harrison County. 

Lick Run, flows into Monongahela River, Monongalia County. 

Limestone Creek, flows into West Fork, Harrison County. 

Lambert's Run, tributary of West Fork, Harrison County. 

Lee Run, tributary of the Ohio River, Wood County. 

Laurel Run, affluent of Saudv Creek, Preston County. 

Laurel Fork, (now called Shas-er's Fork), branch of Cheat River, Ran- 
dolph, Tucker and Pocahontas counties. 

Lost Creek, flows into West Fork, Harrison County. 

Leading Creek, tributary of Tygart's Valley River, Randolph County. 

Licking Creek, tributary of Cheat River, Tucker County. 

Little Sandy Creek, branch of Big Sandy Creek, Preston and Barbour 
counties. 

Little Pawpaw Creek, branch of Pawpaw Creek, Marion County. 

Lfcvi Shinn's Run, tributary of West Fork, Harrison County. 

Mury)hy's Run, branch of Elk Creek, Harrison County. 
]McKinney*s Run, afTiuent of Hacker's Creek, Lewis County. 
Mini.ster's Run, flov.s into Little Pawpaw Creek, Marion County. 



HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. v; 295 

Flag Run, flows into Cheat River, Preston County. . , , 

Goose Creek, tributary of Hughes River, Ritchie County. 

Grass Run, tributary of Hughes River, Ritchie County. 

Gnatty Creek, branch of Elk Creek, Barbour County. 

Gee Lick Run, branch of Freeman's Creek, Lewis County. 

Gregory C- .-ek, tributary of the ilonoagahela R.iver, in Pennsylvania. 

Gregory's Run, branch of Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 

Glady Creek, tributary of Tygarfs Valley River, Barbour County. ^^^,/( 

Glady Creek, tributary of Brushy Fork of B"lk Creek, Barbour County. ' 

Grass Run, tributiiry of Cheat River, Preston County. 

Grass Run, tributary' of Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 

Hellen's Run, flows into the West Fork, Marion County. 
Hacker's Creek, tributary of the West Fork, Harrison and Lewis coun- 
ties. 
Hacker's Run, tributani-of Tygart's Valley River, Barbour County. 
Horseshoe Run, flows into Cheat River, Tucker County. 
Hezekiali Davisson's Run, tributary of Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 
Hazel Run, tributary.- of Sandy Creek, Preston County. 
Horse Camp Run, branch of Dry Fork of Cheat River, Randolph County. 

Ice Run, branch of Cheat River, Monongalia County. 
Indian Creek, tributary of Monongahela River, Monongalia County. 
Indian Camp Run, flows into Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 
Indian Fork, branch of Clover Run, Tucker County. 

Joe's Run, flows into the Monongahela River, Monongalia County. 
Jones' Run, flows into the West Fork, Harrison and Lewis County. 
Jerr>''s Run, flows into Simpson's Creek. 

Katy's Lick Run, tributary of Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 

Lick Ru!i, flows into Monongahela River, Monongalia County. 

Limestone Creek, flows into West Fork, Harrison County. 

Lamljert's Run, tributary of West Fork, Harrison County. 

Lee Rim, tributary of the Ohio River, Wood County. 

Laurel Run, affluent of Sandy Creek, Preston County. 

Laurel Fork, (now called Shaver's Fork), branch of Cheat River, Ran- 
dolph, Tucker and Pocahontas counties. 

Lost Creek, flows into West Fork, Harrison County. 

Leading Creek, tributarj- of Tygart's Valley River, Randolph County. 

Licking Creek, tributarj- of Cheat River, Tucker County. 

Little Sandy Creek, branch of Big Sandy Creek, Preston and Barbour 
counties. 

Little Pawpaw Creek, branch of Pawpaw Creek, Marion County. 

Levi Shinn's Run, tributary of West Fork, Harrison County. 

IMurphy's Rim, bra:icu of Elk Creek, Harrison County. 
McKiiinty^ Run, affluent of Hacker's Creek, Lewis Cou!ity. 
Minister's Run, flows into Littit; Pawpaw Creek, Marion County. 



■■..■,■ ■.■'.■•«* 

296 TKANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

JiIcEllroy's Creek, tributarj- of Middle Islami Creek, Doddridge and 

T^der counties. 
Morgan's Run, flows into Cheat River, Preston County. 
Minear's Mill Run, flo^vs into Cheat River, Tucker County. 
Mill Creek, tributary of the Ohio River, Jackson County. 
Muddy Creek, flows into Cheat River, Preston County. 
Muddy Creek, tributary of the Monongahela, Pennsylvania. 
Miracle Run, flows into Dunkard's Creek, ^Monongalia County. 
Moore's Run, flows into Elk Creek. Harrison County. 
Mudlick Run, tributary of the West Fork, Harrison County. 
Mudlick Run, flows into French Creek, Upshur County. 

New Creek, branch of Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 

Otter Creek, tributary of Tygarfs Valley River, Taylor County. 
Owen's Fork, branch of Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 

Pigeon Creek, tributary to the Monongahela River, Pennyslvania. 

Pedlar's Run, brar.ch of Simpson's Creek, Taylor Count}-. 

Pedlar's Run, branch of Doll's Run, tributary of Dunkard's Creek, 

Monongalia County. 
Pringle's Run, tributary of Cheat River, Preston Count}^ 
Pawpaw Creek, flows into the Monongahela River, Marion County. 
Prickett's Creek, flows into the Monongahela River, Marion County. 
Poke Creek, tributarj- of West Fork, Lewis County. 
Pleasant Creek, flows into Tygart's Valley River, Taylor and Barbour 

Counties. 

Rooting Creek, tributary of Eilk Creek, Harrison County. 

Roaring Creek, flows into Cheat River, Preston County. 

Raccoon Creek, tributary of Three Forks Creek, Preston County. 

Raccoon Creek, branch of Elk Creek, Harrison CouTity. 

Raccoon Creek, branch of Teter Creek, Barbour County. 

Robinson's Run, tributary of tbe^Ionongahela River, Monongalia County. 

Robinson's Run, affluent of the West Fork, Harrison County. 

Ruble's Run, tributary of Cheat River, Monongalia County. 

Red Creek, flows into Dry Fork of Cheat River, Tucker and Randolph 

counties . 
Robert Lowther's ilill Run, tributary- of Cheat River, Monongalia County. 

Senator's Run, branch of Indian Creek, Monongalia County. 
Sycamore Creek, tributary of the \\'est Fork, Harrsion County. 
Stewart's Creek, branch of Little Kanawha River, Gilmer County. 

Sandy Creek, flows into Cheat River, Preston County 

Scott's Run, flows into Monongahela River, Monongalia County. 
Sud's Run, tributary of Elk Creek Harrison Couuty. 
Stewart's Run, branch of Elk Creek, Barbour County. 
Sandy Fork, flows into Little Kanawha, Braxton County. 
Sand Fork, tributary of West Fork, Lewis Cotmty. 
Stone Coal Creek, flows into West Fork, Lewis County. 



HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 297 

Sail I.ick Creek, brancli of Little Kanav.ha, Braxton County. 

Salt Creek, flows into Cheat River, Preston County. 

Stone Ijck Run, branch of Pawpaw Creek, IMarion County. 

Stony Run, branch of Buckhannon River, Upshur County. 

Sugar Creek, affluent of Tygart's Valley River, Barbour County. 

Simpson C -eek, flows into the West Fork, Harrison and Taylor County. 

Tom's Run, flows into Monougahela River, ^Monongalia County. 

Turkey Run, tributary of Buckhannon River, Upshur County. 

Turkey Run, branch of Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 

Turkey Run, branch of Booth's Creek, Marion County. 

Thomas Run, tributarj- of the Ohio River, in Tyler and Pleasants counties. 

Thomas Run, flows into Booth's Creek, Harrison County. 

Teverbaugh Run, flows into West Fork, Marion County. 

Teter Creek, branch of Tygart's Valley River, Barbour County. 

Ten :Mile Creek, flows into West Fork, Harrison County. 

Thompson's Run, branch of Simpson's Creek, Harrison County. 

Three Forks Creek, flows into T3-gart's Valley River, Taylor and Preston 

counties. 
Tygart's Valley River, main branch of the Monougahela River, rises in 

Pocahontas County and flows through Randolph, Barbour, Taylor 

and Marion counties. 

\\Tiitely's Creek, in Pennsylvania. 

Whendj-'s Run, branch of Hacker's Creek, Harrison County. 

White's Run, flows into Cheat River, ^Monongalia County. 

Wickwire Creek, branch of Tygart's Valley River, Taylor County. 

Worthington's Creek (sometimes written Washington's Creek in old 

records), flows into the Little Kanawha, Wood County. 
White Day Creek, flows into the IMonongahela River, Marion and 

Monongalia Counties. 
West's Run, tributary of West Fork, Harrison County. 
Washburn's Run, flows into Ten Mile Creek, Harrison County. 
W^illiam's Fork, tributary of Dunkard's Creek, Monongalia County. 



^33 



MEMBERS. 



The follov.ing is a list of members of the Transallegheny Historical 
Society : 

Hou. Henry G. Davis, Elkins, W. Va. 

Mr. Joseph Moreland, ilorgantown. 

Prof, A. L. Wade, 

Mr. R. E. L. Allen, 

Mr. John T. Harris, Parkersburg, \V. Va. ..; 

Hon. Thomas J. Arnold, Beverly, W. Va. 

Mr. C. AV. Maxwell, Elkins, \V. Va. , 

Prof. R. \V. Douthat, Morg.intown. 

Col. Colin ir. Li\nngtone, Washington, D. C. 

Hon. Thomas C. Miller, Fairmont, W. Va. 

'Mr. Boyd Crumrine, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Washington County Historical Society, Washington, Pa. 

Mr. William iloorhead, Morgantown. 

Hon. Charles J. Faulkner, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. J. F. Xelson, Morgantov.n. ■" 

Miss Anna Buckbee, California, Pa. 

Mr. C. E. Jolliffe, :\Iannin,gtcn, W. Va. 

Hon. A. G. Dayton, Philippt. W. Va. • 

Mr. Frank Stanton, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Hon. W. P. Hubbard, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Mr. W. H. Cook, Morgantoivn. — ■ - . ' 

Hon. B. L. Butcher, Fairmont, W. Va. 

Miss Eliza J. Skinner, Washington, D. C. 

Prof. Fred W. Truscott, Morgantown. 

Miss Lucy C. Daniels, Morgantown. 

Dr. S. L. Brock, Morgantown. ' . 

Mr. C. E. Wells, Glover's Gap, W. Va. '. - 

Mr. John G. Samsell. ilorgantown. - 

Hon. George C. Steele, 

Prof. Frank B. Trotter, Buckhannon, W. Va. 

Prof. C. R. Jones, Morgantown. 

Prof. A. R. Whitehill, " 

Prof. W. H. Gallup, " ' ' 

Hon. Ira Robinson, Grafton, W. Va. 

Mr. William P. Burke, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Mr. Van A. Barrickman, Morgantown. . - . 

Prof. Waitraan Barbe, " - 

Prof. Henry S. Green, " 

Prof, rklyrou C. Lough, Fairmont, W. Va. 

iliss Hannsh B. Clark, Zilorgautov. n. 

Mr. J. C. Frazr-r, 



MEMBERS. 299 

Gol. George A. Porterfield, Charlestown, W. Va. 

Col. Alexander Catupbell, Bethany, W. Va. • ._ ■>• 

Mr. L. B. Brown, Morgantown. ' ^/ 

Hon. J. X. Camden, Parkersburg, \V. Va. 

Mr. B. F. 3Ieighen, Moundsville, \V. \'a. j.; 

Prof. A. D. Hopkins, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. S. A. White, Whitcom. Wash. _ . 

Mr. H. L. Swisher, Morganto\\-n. 

Prof. Russell L. Morris, :Morgantown. 

Mr. P. J. Crogan, Kingwood, W. Va. 

Mr. Joseph J. Casey, New York. 

Hon. S. B. Elkins, Washington, D. C. 

Fairmont Normal School, Fairmont, W. Va. 

Prof. S. M. Hoff, Harri.sville, W. Va. 

Hon. G. W. Bennett, Weston, W. Va. 

Mr. C. D. Merrick, Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Hon. Henry Haymond, Clarksburg, W. Va. 

Hon. W. M. O. Dawson, Charleston, W. Va. 

Mr. J. \-. Blair, West Union, W. Va. 

Mr. William B. Biake, Ronceverte, W. Va. 

Hon. E. S. Doolittle, Huntington, W. Va. 

Mr. S. A. Duke, Drew, Arkansas. 

Mr. Hugh J. Bower, Fairmont, W. Va. 

Mr. L. J. Vy'llliaiiis, Lewisburg, W. Va. . • 

Hon. J. Hop Woods, Philippi, V\'. Va. 

Mr. M. H. Dent, Grafton, W. Va. 

Mr. F. T. Martin, Fairmont, Vi". Va. 

Mr. Bennett H. Young, Louisville, Ky. 

Mr. D. C. Hoffman, Morgantown. 

Mr. M. L. Brown, 

Mr. F. B. Lambert, Martha. W. Va. . : 

Hon. W. G. Wilson, Elkins. W. \a. 

Prof. W. E. Lowther, Ipoh, Perak, Maylasia. 

The St. Louis Xews Company, St. Louis, Mo. ... 

Hon. A. L. Helniick, Thomas. W. Va. 

Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Shepherdstown Normal School, Shepherdstown, W. Va. 

Hon. W. W. Brannon, Weston, W. Va. 

Mr. George Selby, Hannibal, Mo. 

Prof. W. P. Wille)-, Morgantown. 

Mr. Thomas Ray Dille, Morgantown. 

Mr. J. W. Vander\-ort, Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Mr. E. G. Smith. Clarksburg. W. Va. 

Hon. Andrew Edniiston, Weston, W. Va. 

Dr. P. B. Reynolds. Morgantown. 

Mr. W. M. Straus, Parkersbur-:. W. Va. 

Hon. Virgil A. Le^^is, Mason City, W. Va. -,' 



300 TRAXSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Mr. E. D. Talbott, Elkins, W. Va. 
Mr. J. \V. Warrington, Cincinnati, Ohio. ^: 

Prof. J. X. Deahl, Morgantown. ■ ._ 

Mr. T. M. Gar\in, Wheeling, W. Va. 
Prof. C. H. Patterson, MorgantoiiSTi. if 

Mr. A. J. Wilkinson, Grafton, W. Va. ' • -. 

Prof. James S. Stewart, MorgantowTi. _^ 

Mr. Plugene Snmraerville, Grafton, W. Va. 
Mr. Hu Maxwell, Morgantown. 
Prof. Thomas E. Hodges, Morgantown. 
Prof. James H. Stewart, " 

Prof. B. H. Kite, " . • 

Mr. W. E. Glasscock, " • . " 

Mr. E. B. Stewart, " ■-,:•. 

Mr. I. G. Lazzelle, " /■ ,-,..' ' 

Mr. H G. Donley, " , " " 

Mr. J. L. Platfield, " • *; r"^'' 

Mr. George C. Baker, " . .^ ■ 

Hon E. M. Grant, 

Mr. Frank Cox. " • . . . . 

Mr. C. A. Goodvv-in, " - 

Mr. Justin Kunkle, " " . 

Mr. J. E. Fleming, 
Mr. C. B. Dille, " 

Rev. A. M. Buchanan, " 

Hon. Stewart H. Bov.-man, " 

" Prof. T. O. Atkeson, " - :^ - 

Prof. L. L. Friend, " ' 

Mr. J. M. Gregg, 

Hon. George C. Sturgiss, " 

Judge Okey Johnson, " 

Prof. St. George T. Brooke, 
Prof. D. M. Willis, 
Dr. I. C. ^\-hite, 

Mr. R. W. Dawson, Uuiontown, Pa. 
Hon. John W. Mason, Fairmont, W. Va. 
Prof. R. E. Fast, Morgantown. ■' : . 

Mr. P. W. Cooper, Glen^ille, W. Va. - - 

Mr. Clarence Poe, Morgantown. • 

Col. W. H. Nave, Bethany, W. Va. 
- Mr. F. S Landstreet, New Vork. 
Prof. Josiah Kelly, Montgomery, W. Va. 
Prof. C. S. Swartz, Clarksburg, \\\ \'a. 
Prof. W. L. McCowan, West Liberty, W. Va. 
Prof. E. F. Goodwin, Shepher.istown. W. Va. 
Prof. L. J. Corbliv, Huntington, W. Va. 
Mr. C. E. Hickman, l-airmont, W. Va. • • 



MEMBERS V , 301 



Mr. W. H. Morgan, Morgantown. 

Prof. C. J. ^laxweU, Kaufman, Texas. 

Dr. C. H. Maxwell, Aurora, W. Va. 

Mr. John JicCulloch, Point Pleasant, W. Va. 

Mr. M. G. Sperr}-, Clarksburg. W. Va. 

Hon. John J. Davis, Clarksburg, W. Va. 

Mr. W. R. D. Dent. Grafton, \V. Va. 

Mr. Henr\- B. Davenport. Clay, W. Va. 

Mr. J. C. Bond, I'airmont, W. Va. 

Mr. E. G. Davisson, Weston, \V. Va. 

Hon. Alexander McVeigh Miller, .\lderson, W. Va. 



The follow-ing is a list of exchanges to which the magazine has been 
sent. Only a portion of them sent their publications in return. 

Washington State Historical Society, Tacoma, Washington. 

State Historical Society, Iowa City, Iowa. 

The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Dedham Historical Society, Dedham, Mass. 

Historical Societj' of Xewburgh Bay, Xewburgh, N. Y. 

Annals of Iowa, Historical Quarterly, Desmoines, Iowa. 

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. 

Vineland Historical Society-, Vineland, N. J. 

The Johnstown Historical Society, Johnstown, N. Y. 

Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. 

Society for the Historj- of the Germans in Maryland. Baltimore, Md. 

Historical Society of Southern California, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Society of California Pioneers, San Francisco, Cal. 

State Historical Society, Denver, Col. 

Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford, Conn. 

New Haven Colony Historical Society, New Haven, Conn. 

Historical Society of Delaware, Wilmington, Delaware. 

Public Librarj- and Historical Society, Macon, Georgia. 

Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, Georgia. 

Chicago Historical Society, Chicago. 

Indiana Historical Societ}', Indianapolis, Ind. 

Northern Indiana Historical Sociecy, South Bend, Ind. 

Maine Historical Society, Portland, Maine. 

Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore. Md. 

^Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston. 

New E'ngland Methodist Historical Society, Boston. 

Danvcrs Historical Society, Danvers, Mass. 

Rumford Hi.storical Societj-, North Woburn, ila,ss. 

Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minn. 

Watson Historical Societv, Ashlev, Mo. 



302 TRANS AT^LEC4HEXY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Historical Society (State Library), Helena, IMoutana. 

New Hampshire Historical S<.>cit_-ty, Concord, N. H. 

New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, N. J. . , 

Long Island Historical Society, Brooklyn. N. Y. 

Buffalo Historical Society, Buffalo, N. Y. 

New York Historical Societ}-, New York City. 

Oneida Historical Society. Utica, N. Y. 

Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, Cincinnati. 

Western Reser\-e Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Western University of Pennsylvania, Allegheny, Pa. 

Historical Society of Daupliii County, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

Newport Historical Society, Newport, Rhode Island. 

Rhode Island Historical Society, Providence, Rhode Island. 

Southern Historical Society, Richmond, Ya. 

West Yirginia Historical and Antiquarian Society, Charleston, W. Ya. 

Southern Historical Association, Washington, D. C. 

Vermont Historical Society, Montpelier, \'t. 

Quarterly Historical ^Magazine. Williamsburg, Ya. 

Alabama Historical Society, Tuscaloosa, .Ala. 

American Historical Association, Washington, D. C. 

California Historical Society, San Francisco. 

Louisiana Historical Society, New Orleans, La. 

Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, Lansing, Mich. 

Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, r»Io. 

City History Club, Berkeley Lyceum, New York City. 

North Carolina, Historical Society, Chapel Hill, N. Y. 

Parknan Club, Milwaukee, Wis. 

American Catholic Researches, Philadelphia. 

New York Public Library, New York City. 

The Jerseyman, Flemington, N. J. 

Augustana College, Rock Island, 111. 

The Old Northwest Geneulc>.;ical Society, Columbus, Ohio. 

Historical Society of ^lontgomery County, West Conshohocken, I'a. 

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Historie Och Antiqviteis Akademien, Stockholm, Sweden. 



DONATIONS AND EXCHANGES. 

Exchanges and douations have been received from persons and soci- 
eties, as shown in the list which follows: 

The Association of Graduates of the United States Military Academy, 
Bulletin No. 2, June, 1902. 

Augustana Library, Rock Island, Illinois. — An Old Indian Village, 
by John August Udden. 

The American Catholic Historical Researches, Philadelphia. — Vol. 
XIX, Nos. 1, 2, and :',, 1902. 

Billingslea, E. A. — Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of the Independ- 
ent Order of Odd Fellows of West Virginia, 1900. 

Chicago Historical Society — Report of Annual ^Meeting. Nov. 19, 1901. 

The Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg — Annual Report of the Director for 
the year ending March 31, 19(i2. Annals of the Carnegie Museum, Vol. 
I., No. 2, October, 1901. Diplodocus Marsh, Its OsteologA-, etc., by J. B. 
Hatcher. Annals of the Carnegie Museum, Vol. I., No 1, 1901. Prize 
Essay Contest, lliou. Annual Report of the Director for the year ending 
March 31, 1901. 

Deats, H. E., Flemington, N. J. — The Kingwood Records,- The 
Jerseyman, Vol. VII. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 ; Vol. VIII. No. 1. 

The Acadian Society, St. John, N. B. — Acadiensis, a quarterly 
devoted to the Maratime Interests of the Provinces of Canada, Vol. 2, 
Nos. I and 2. 

Dedham Historical Societj-, Dedham, Mass.— Dedham Historical 
Register, Vol. 12, No. 4. and Vol. 13, Nos. 1, 2 and 3. 

Thomas, M. Owens.— The Gulf States Historical Magazine, Vol. 
1, No. 1. 

Historical Society of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. — Historical 
Sketches, Vol. 1. 

Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio. — Annual Report for 
the year ending Dec. 2, 1902. 

Historical Society of Newburgh Bay and the Highlands, Newburgh, 
N. Y. — Old Town Burying Ground, Newburgh, N. Y. Inscriptions. His- 
torical Papers, No. VII. Historical Papers, No. VIII. 

Historical Society of Southern California, Los Angeles. Cal. — .\nnual 
Publication, Vol. 5. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.— The Pennsylvania 
Magazine of History and Biography Vol. 2-"), Nos. 99 and 100. and Vol. 
'2t), Nos. 101 and 102. 

Iowa State Hi-.torIcai Society, Iowa City. Iowa. — Tlie Iowa Historical 
Record, January, .\pril, July, October, llfOl, and January an^l July, li>02. 



■ , •-■■-•.. .^ 

304 TRANSALLEGHENY HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Iowa State Historical Department, Des Moines. — Annals of lovra. 
Vol. 5, Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6. 

Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka. — Kansas Historical Collec- 
tions, Vols. G, and 7. 

Mcr..downey, John C, Jr., New Martinsville, \V. Va.— History of 
Wetzel County, W. Va. 

Maxwell, C. W., Klkins, W. Va. — Confederate Documents and 
other papers. 

New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord. — Proceedings, Vol. 3, 
Part 2. 

Oneida Historical Society, at Utica, N. Y. — Charter, Constitution 
and By-Laws. 

The " Old Northwest " Geneological Quarterly, Columbus, Ohio. — 
Vol. V. No. 1, January, 1902, and Vol. V. No. 2, April, lfl(»2. 

The rresb\i:erian Historinal Society (Philadelphia). — Journal, Vol. 1 
Nos. 1. 2, 3 and 4. 

Par.sons, A. W'., Philadelphia. — Diarj- of Jacob Hiltzheimer, of Phil- 
adelphia, edited by Jacob Cox Parsons. 

Price, William T., Marlinton, W. Va.— History- of Pocahontas 
County, W. Va. 

Smyth, S. Gordon, West Conshohocken, Pa. — Neighborhood Tales. 
Scotch-Irish Pioneers of the Schuylkill Valley, Thomas Lieper. 

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, ^ladison. — Proceedings of the 
48th and 49th Annual Meetings. 

Society for the History of the Germans in Maryland, Baltimore.— 
History of the German Element in Virginia, by Herrmann Schuricht 
Vol. 1 and 2. 

Stockholm, Sweden, Historical Society. — Antiqvarish Tidskrift for 
Sverige, Vol. 13, Nos. 1, 2 and 3; Vol. 14, Nos. 1, 2 and 3; Vol. 15, Nos. 1 
and 2; Vol. 16, Nos.l, 2, Sand 4. Kongl. Vilterhets Historic Och Antiqvitets 
Akademiens, l.S9*i. 1000. Musee Des Antiquites Nationales de Stockholm. 

The Southern History Association, Washington, D. C. — Vol. VI, 
Nos. 1, 2 and 3, 1902. 

Texas State Historical Association, Austin. — Vol. V, No. 2, 1901; 
Vol. V, No. 4, 1902. 

Virginia State Historical Society, Richmond. — Report of the Sixth 
Annual Session for 1902. The Virginia ^lagazine of Histor>' and Bio- 
graph}'. Vol. 9, Nos. 1, 3 and 4. 

Vincland, N. J., Historical and Antiqiiariam Society — Annual Report 
for the year ending Oct. 10, 1899. Annual Report for the year ending 
Oct. 8, 1901. 

W. V. University. — The Educational Needs of Appalachia, By W. J. 
Holland, LL.D. 



DONATIONS AND EXCHANGES 305 

Women's Christian Temperance Union of West Virginia. — Lliniites 
of the Eighteenth Annual Convention, 1900. 

The Washington State Historical Society, Tacoma. — A Record of 
State History, Vol. I. No. 1, ISOo; Vol. I. Nos. 2, o and 4, I'AX); Vol. II. 
Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, 1901. 

West Virginia Historical and Antiquarian Society, Charleston.— The 
West Virginia Historical Magazine, Vol. II. Nos. 1, 2 and 3. 



Index. 



:reek, SI, ITS, 24: 



10(3, 298 



IS-J. 



Aaron's 

294.- 
Allen, R. E. I.., ' 
Allen, Joshua. S2, 
Allen, Lewis, 25. 
Alsop, George, 24 
Alderson, Joseph, 
Alfin, Peter, 77. 
Allenion, John, 8 
Allison, James, ISG. 
Alban, John, 248. 
Allegheny College, 218." 
Akkram, John, 71. 
Anderson, John, 78, ISO. 
Anderson, James, 8, 270. 
Anderson, Wm., 274. 
Andrew Da\-idson's run, 294. 
Appalachia, 213, 215, 219, 221 
Arnold, James, 271. 
Arnold, T. J., (!, 298. 
Arnold, W. E., 256. 
Arnold, Daniel, 40. 
Arnold, G. J., 25t;. 
Arbuckle, Mathew, -'35. 
Archer, Benjamin, 18(], 240. 
Archer, Jeremiah, 18i!. 
-Armstrong, J. D., 25. 
.\mett, U. X., 25. 
Arthur, N. C, 250. 
Askins, Philonion, 79. 
Ashby, Wm. 96. 
Ashcraft, Richard, 186, 248. 
Ashcraft, Ephraim, 251. 
.A^tkeson, T. C, 7, 300. 
Atkinson, G. \V., 55, lo7. 
Atkinson, John II. , 25. 
Aulti, Adam, 56. 
Aurora, town of, 134, 151. 
Averill, V\'. Vv., 174. 
.A-rers, John, 142. 



Barricknian, Van A., 7 298. 

Baker, Christopher, 270. 

Baker, George C, 7, .300. 

Barker, Joseph, 243,' 244, 246. 

Barker, James, 246. 

Barbe, Waitman, 7, 29S. 

Battle creek school, 23. 

Baxter, George, 84, So. 

Batton, Joseph, 242. 

Battou, Thomas, 88. 95. 

Batton, Henry, 170, 277. 

Batton, Isaac, 182. 

Barclay, Thomas, 83, 92, 261. 

Barclay's run, 93, 95, 19i 294. 

Barrett's run, 84. 
Baker, Daniel R., 202. 
Barker, S. B., 122. 

Barker, James, 169. 

Barker, John, 169. 

Barker, Joseph. 170. 

Baldwin, Rev. Charles, 146. 

Battelle, Gordon, 159. 

Barbour Countv Court House 16' 

203. 
Barnes, X. B., 256. 
Barnes, Henn.-, 177. 
Barnes, Thomas, 251. 
Barnes, Uz, 251. 
Bassel, John, 225. 
Bayer, Jonathan, 248. 
Bastable, L., 256. 
Bankhead, A., 256. 
Bailey, J., 256. 
Bailey, Minter, '256. 
KiUenger, Rudolph, 261. 
Bartley, John, 261. 
Barrens, .\lexander, 277, 278. 
Bartlett, William, 282. 
Barker's creek, 294. 
Beach, A. H.. 56. 



Benton, Joseph H., 67. 

Beatty, George, 67. 

Beatty, Robt., 6S. 

Beatty, Levi, 68. 

]^eatty, Patrick, :2t>4. 

Bear, Ellis, 6'^. 

Bear, D., 1.36. 

Bennett, Charles, 89. 

Beorden, Samuel, 91. 

Beeson, Jacob, ]i.'4, 243. 

Beeson, Jonas, 1'2-i. 

Bell, William, 139. 

Beard, Anna L., 144. 

Beard. Samuel, 26S. 

Beardin, Samuel, 169. 

Bennett's run, 294. 

Bennett, J. M., 2j6. 

Bennett, G. W., 299. 

Bennett, Josejih, 169. 

Bennett, Charles, 273. 

Beck, Jeremiah, 174. 

Bee, Isaiah, 225. 

Benham, H. W., 125. 

Belington, town of. 228. 

Bell, Humphrey, 247. 

Bell, Augustus, 175. 

Beggle, Elias, 25:;. i 

Beall, H., 256. 

Berry, Thomas, 266. 

Beebles, Frederick, 2t;6. 

Beckam, Charles, 268. 

Beaver creek, 294. 

Bishop, Thomas, 67, 69. 

Bi.i,' Beaver Dam Run, 294. 

Big Sandy creek. 73, 76, 79, S7, 

91, 294. 
Big Crab Orchard creek, 294. 
Big Lick, 89. 
Bingamon creek, 175, 184, 246, 27U, 

294. 
Birkett, Robert. 262. 
Birchfield run, 276. 
Blue, John, 40. 
Blue, Uriah, 40. 
Blue, William, 4U. 
Blue. Mrs. Stephen, 154. 
Biair, J. A., 1.3i'. 



Blair, J. V., 299. 

Black Benjamite, 201. 

Black Oak flat, 250. ' 

Bland, Thomas, 256. 

Black Fork of Cheat river, 285, 294. 

Blake, W. B., 299. 

Blaine, J. G., 220. 

Bowman. S. H., 7, 300. 

Bowman, Samuel, 162. 

Bowman, Philip, 261. 

Boyles, Jesse, 72, 189, 265. : i 

Boreman, Arthur I., 128. 

Boon, R. G., 167. 

Bond, Eli, 13li, 140. 

Bond, Joshua, 154. 

Eocock, J. H., 146. 

PK)nnifield, Arnold, 152, 201. 

Bonnifield, West, 162, 

Bonnifield, Sanmel, 234. 

Bonnifield, Gregory, 234. 

Bonnifield, Luke, 234. 

Bonnifield, A. H., 236. 

Boughner, J. V., 123. 

Boltiughouse, Joseph, 169. 

Booth's creek, 171, 186, ISS, 190, 

191, 243, 251, 274, 275, 294. 
Booth, Jesse, 245. 
Booth, John, 251. 
Booth, James, 251. 
Powen, David. 175. 
Bowen, Samuel, 175. 
PKjrsett, Joseph, 171. 
Bozarth run, 242. . ; . 

Eozarth, Elijah, 184. .. , ' . -v • 

Bozarth, John, 242. 
Boggs, C. D., 225. J 

Boon, Williain, S.3. • , ." 

Bonner, John, 244. 
Bowlby, J. II,, 122. 
Eowchtr, Jonathan, 251. 
Eonnett, J., 256. 

Powers, Basil, 2(;i. ._-,,... 

Bowing, Samuel, 274. 
F.ov.er, Hugh J., 299. 
Bond, J. C, 301. .■ 

Erown, Oliver, 44. 
Brown. -M. L., 8. 299. 



m 



Brown, W. G., 2-2-5. 

Brown, S. B., 6, VJO, 299. 

Brown, Richard, 45. 

Brown, Andrew, 123. 

Brown, J. J., 123. 

Brown, Coleman, 2t')l. 

Brown's creek, 249. 

Brooke, Dr. St. George, T., S, 300. 

Bmshy Fork of Klk, 93, 1G4, 24*3, 

294. 
BridgAvater, Samuel, GO. 
Braddock's Road, 123. 
Brain, Benjamin, 169. 
Brain, James, 169, 273. 
Brannon, Alexander, 171. 173. 
Brannon, W. \V., 299. 
Brandon\-ille Aca'icmy, 133. 
Bradt, Capt., 200. 
Brunot, F. R., 222. 
Brock, Dr. L. S., 7, 29S. 
Brushfield, Daniel, 2-53. 
Bradley, John, 2GS. 
Brake, Jacob, 271. 
Briggs, William, 27-5. 
Brooks, Josiah, 276. 
Brooks, Jeremiah, 276. 
Brooks, William, 276. 

Braxton, county settled, 2S7. 

Buckhannon river, 241, 24-), 2'i0, 
265, 268. 

Buchanan, Rev. A. M., 7, 300. 

Bush, I. B., 8. 

Bush, Jacob, 265. 

Bush, John, 265, 272. 

Bush, George, 269. 

Bush, Gee, 268. 

Butcher, B. L., 9, 298. 

Butcher, B. H., 225. 

Butcher, G. I., 256. 

Butcher. L., 256. 

Burris, John, S5. 

Butler, Nathan, 190. 

Butler, Joseph, S6. 

Butler, Thomas, 174, 175, 182, 275 

Butler, James, 174. 

Butler, Ignatius. ISS. 

Burk, John, SI, 170, 247. 



Burk, Sanmel, 170. 

Burke, William, P. 298. 

Buffalo run, 68. 

Buffalo creek, 87, 92. 138, 189, 212, 

244, 245, 247, 248, 252, 273, 275, 

276, 291. 
BuUskin run, 283. 
Bull creek, 77, 139, 246. 
Bull run, 266, 294. 
Bull town, 273. 
Buckbee, Miss Anna, 117, 197, 198, 

298. 
Button, John, 169. 
Burkham, Charles, 179. 
Burchill, David, 185. 
Burchill, Daniel, 245. 
Bunuingham, William, 187. 
Burmingham, Elias, 188. 
Burns, Francis, 247. 
Bumager, Elias, 278. 



Campbell, Col. Alexander, 9, 225, 

299. 
Campbell, Dr. Alexander, 45. 
Campbell, Robert, 245. 
Camp Union, 54, 
Camp, Isaac, 73. 
Camp, J. M., 256. 
Camp, F,., 256. 
Camp, F., 256. 
Cazad, Jacob, 76, 171. 
Carpenter, Nicholas, 84, 253. 
Carpenter, Chri.stopher, 138, 237. 
Carter, J., 256. 
Carter, .\brabam, 186. 
Carter's run, 85, 171, 294. 
Carter, John, 180. 
Carter, Caleb, 180. 
Carter, Levi, 251. 
Carmichael, 105. 
Cain, Richard, 168, 170. 
Cain, John, 271. 
Carroll, .\nthony, 151. 
Cameron, Daniel, 185. 
Carr, Joab, 200. 
Canaan Valley, 201. 



"Casino Fort," 201. 
Carnegie Museum, 214. 
Calft-e, James, 2"Jo. 
Cainberford, James, 240. 
Caldwell, Joseph, 2 '12. 
Cabell County Court House, : 

255. 
Camden, R. P., 256. 
Camden, J. X.. 29i\ 
Carlile, John S., 2-5^. 
Cade, David, 274. 
Casy, John, 275. 
Casey, Joseph J., 299. 
Cassity, Peter, 275. 
Chaplin, :Moses, 50. 
Chilton, Blackwell, 5t). 
Chew, James, 06, 176, 178. 
Chambers, Pvobert, 79. 
Chips, Thomas, 80, 182. 
Cheat river iron furnaces, 211. 
Cheat river, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 
SO, SI, 85, 90, 96, 107, 170, 
175, 185, 191, 200, 251, 203, 
274. 278, 2S6. 
Chilicothe, UX), 103. 
China, Thomas, 183. 

Chenoweth, Thomas, 185. 

Cheny, Charles, ISS. 

Chriswell, Hanson, 225. 

Chris, J. E., 256. 

Christian, Isaac, 2ii4. 

Clark, Mi.ss Hannah B., 6, 298. 

Clark, James, 76. 

Clark, William, 77. 

Clark, Jeremiah, 83, 251. 

Clark. Jacob, 172. 

Clarksburg, 90, 100, 282. 

Clear, Thomas, 72, 184, 180, 
247. 

Cleland, James, 177. 

Clay Lick run, 191, 294. 

Clover run, 191. 

Clover Flat, 2''.3, 294. 

Cleg^, Alexander, 240, 242, 271 

Clune, John, 243. 

Clawson, Garrett, 204. 

Clayp.:»ol, George, 272. 



Cooper, Closes, 264. 

Cooper, Frederick, 191, 264. 

Cooper, P. W., 8, oi^O. 

Cooper, Valentine, 91. 

Cooper, John, 91, 274. 
»52, Cooper, Zebland, 24i). 

Cook, \V. H., 8, 298. 

Cox, Joseph, 248. 

Cox's Fort, 6o. 

Cox, Frank, 7, 300. 

Cox, William R., 50. 

Cox, Michael, 68. 

Cox, John, 245. 

Connell, John, 50. 

Conner, John, 73. 

Conner, James, 74, 277. 

Conner, Robert. 74, 277. 

Collins, John, SO, 171, 175. 

Colbum, James, 81. 

Colburn, Jonathan, 81. 
79, Counts. Jacob, 91. 
172, Copeiand, Benjamin, 93, 246, 250. 
207, Cold Graveyard creek, 74. 

Coleman, Jacob, 08. 

Corbley, L. J., 118, 301, 

Conn, G. F. C, 122. 

Cobum"s Fort, 279. ' ~ • 

Coburn, Jonathan, 271. 

Coburn, James, 174, 178. 

Coburu's creek, 170, 162, 173, 186, 
241, 294. 

Cook. John Estin, 167. 

Cochran, Nathaniel, 276. 

Cochran, John, 170. 

Cochran, Simon, 170, 185. 

Cochran, George, 179, 241. 

Cochran, James, 242, 244. 
24G, Cold Lick Bottom, 174. 

Coon, Joseph, 179. 

Coon, Philip, 179. 

Coon, Anthony, 179. 

Coon's creek, 274, 276, 277, 294. 

Coopman, John, ISO, ISl, 241. 

Core, W. G. H.. 225. 

Corrick's ford, skirmish at, 229. 

Coffman, Christian, 250, 261, 202. 

Co\%-\ines, William, 203. 



Cotterill, Samuel, -Jt-T. 
Cotterill. Antiiew, id',). 
Cour.id, Jaco'j. 27;>. 
Crvimrine, Boyd, \i, 112, 19S, 

293, 29S. 
Crafi, Thomas, 7-, 17], 181. 
- Craft's run, 27.^. 
Crull, David, SI, 242, 27S. 
Crull, Henry. 273. 
Crabit, Joseph, tiS. 
Crawford's run, 70. 
Crooked nin, 173, 240, 294. 
Crouse, Elizabeth, 17S. 
Crouse, Conrad, 178. 
Criss, John, 190. 
Crim, J. N. E., 22-3. 
Cresap, Michael, 240, 247. 
Crabtree creek, 7S, 8i3. 
Crouch, James, 28-3. 
Crouch, John, 2St). 
Crogan, P. J., 299. 
Currj-, John. 81. 
Curry, Robert, 252. 
Cunciugham, Thomas, 9'o, 178. 
Cunningham, A. J., 22-3. 
Cunningham, Mark, 263. 
Cunningham, Edward, 270. 
Cunningham. Robert, 278. 
Cummings, J. C, 126. 
Cummings, Thomas, 143. 
Cuppy, John, 17:;. 
Cushman, Thoinns, 173, 277. 
Cumberford, James, 186. 
Current, James, 27-5. 
Currence Fort, 201. 
Currence, Melvin, 228. 
Cushing, .•\lonzo, 223. 
Cutright's mil, 267, 294. 
Cutright, Benjamin, 249. 
Cutright, John, 269. 



Davis=, town of. 2<"»n. 
Davis, Hon. PI. G., 4, 6, 298. 
Dav-is, Henry, 90. 
Davis, Garrett, 104. 



Davis, John J., 138, 301. 
Davis, Owens, 171, 2sl. 
Davis, Thomas, 171. 
i4, Davis. David, 183. 
Davis, Joseph, 274. 
Davis, John, 27,3. 
Davis, K. C, 283. 
Daj-ton, Spencer, 203. 
Dayton, Hon. A. G., 6, 298. 
Daniels, 3Iiss Lucy C, 6, 10, 1 
Dawson, Preston, 236. 
Dawson, R. W., 8, 300. 
Dawson, Hon. W. :M. O., 299. 
Dale, James, 248. 
Darlinton, Joseph, 236. 
Davenport, G. O., 225. 
Davenport, H. B., 301. 
Dannaway, \\'illiam, 241. 
Day, Thomas, 271, 273, 277, 2 
Daugberty's run, 294. 
Dangherty, William, 273. 
Daugherty, John, 173, 180, 181 
Davies, Charles, 4. 
Davissou's nm, 83, S8, 89, 94, 

208, 294. 
Da\-isson, John, 87, 267. 
Davisson, Joseph, 88, 93, 90. 
Davi.sson, Obadiah, 89, 174, 26 
Davisson, Hezekiah, 84, 92, 

185. 243, 201, 262, 268. 
Da\-isson, Daniel, S4, 93, 96, 

262. 
Davisson, Andrew, S3, 84, 88, 

270. 
Davisson, Amoriah, 93, 2i)9, 27 
Davis-son, Nathaniel, 174, 262. 
Da\-isson, Amassa, 190. 
Da\-isson, William, 240. 
Davisson, David, 249. 
Davisson, Josiah, 268. 
Davisson, Amaziah, 269. 
Davisson, Isaac, 270. 
Davis.son, E. G., :>)I. 
Decker's creek, ''.T, 7.3, 79. 33 

121, 170, 173, 1S7, 242, 246, 

273, 277, 278, 279, 282, 294. 
Decker, "Nicholas, 183, 286. 



1:0, 
174, 
262. 
0. 



Decker, Susannali, 1S7. 
Decker, Thomas, "256. 
Deahl, J. N.. IIS, 200. 
Dent, Marmaduke, 12". 
Dent, John, 17'>, ISS, -247, 2.}0. 
Dent, M. H., 209. 
Dent, \V. R. D., .SOI. 
DeHass, Wills, 1C.7. 
Denny. James, 2-">l. 
Dille, T. R., 7, 209. ._ 
Dille, C. B., 7, 300. ^ ^,,— - 
Dille, John A.. 122. -' j;_- 
Dickinson, William. o(5. ' 
Dickinson, W. H., 22>. 
Donley, E. G., 7, 200. 
Douthat, R. W., S, 29S. 
Douthat, Thomas, 243. 
Doddridge, Joseph, 2'), 4o, 50, 
Doddridge, Philip, 45, 50, S2, 

199, 203, 244, 277. 
Doddridge. J. M., 56, 
Downing, Jeremiah, 73. 
Downing, Joseph, 74. 
Donaldson; Charles, 75, 7C, 91. 
Douglass, Levi, 93, 246. 
Dorman, Timothy, 189, 241, 2-' 
Doolittle, E. S.,209. 
Drago, B., 73. 
Drago, Peter. 275. 
Dry Fork of Cheat river, 1S5, 

284. 
Duvall, John P., 02, 201, 202, ; 
Duvall, Hartley, 202. 
Duvall, Lewis, 202. 
Dunkard Bottom, SO, 90, 110, 

172, ISO, 181, 1S2, 280. 
Dunkard creek, 91, 243, 273, 

294. 
Dunlap creek, 68. 
Dunwoody, James, 1S2. 
Dunn, James, 278. 
Dunmore war, 287. 
Duck creek, 204. 
Duke. S. A., 200. 
Dyer, Peter, 91. 

E 
Early education in West Va., 



Edwards, Davi.l, 05, 240, 2f.7. 
Edwards, Jesse, 240. 
Edwards. Isaac, 273. 
Edinistou, INIathew, 250. 
Eduiiston, Andrew, 200. 
Education, 214. 
Elkins, S. B., (i, 200. 
Elk river, 177. 
Elk, last killed in Wtst Virg 

200. 
Elk creek, 84, 04. 174. 191, 

249, 252, 253, 202, 2(17, 200, 

294. 
Emory, F. L., 7. 
Emigration, 31. 
Enochs, Henry, 204. 
Ervin, Robert, 78. 
Evans, Col. John, 05, 71, 72, 

171, 172, 184, 185, 180, ISO, 

280. 
Evans, Thomas, 78, 81, S5, 87 

Evans, Rawley. 184. 
Evans, .\braham, 1S8. 
Evans, David, 242, 2''.3, 205. 
Evans, Hugh, 277. 
Everly. Cooper, 185, 277. 
Everett, Walter, 273. 



109. 

200, 



Fairmont State Norma 
Faulkner, Charles J., 3, 

298. 
Fast, Richard E., 8, 10, 

108, 197, 19S, 254, 293, 



school, 
4, 6, 



11, 62 
300. 



Farl 



vS. C. 



Paris, Joseph A., 2('/J. 
Falls, Richard, 186, 245, 
Fall run, 294. 
Farnsworth, D. D. T., 22 
Ferguson, J. M., 250. 
Ferguson, William, 150 

253. 
Ferguson, John J., 202, 
Ferguson, C. W., 225. 
Ferry, John, 170. 
Ferry, James, 183. 



Ferr}-, Hugh, 183. 
Ferry, Daniel, ISO. 
Ferrell, Thomas, '2'2'i. 
Ferrell, Robert, 2--.1. 
Ferennash, Charles, iJSo. 
Fisks, Jc>i-,, 167, 20t>. 
Fields, Richard, 109, 173, - , 
Fields, Benjamin, 169. 
Finch, John, 172. 
Findley, Richard, 175. 
Fink's run, 24S, 29-5.. 
Fink, John, 189, 24.3, 249. " 
Fink, Daniel, 2f>8. 
Fink, Henry, 271. 
Fitzhugh, Nicholas, 22-5. 
Fishing creek, 237, 241. 
Fisher, E., 2-3t). 
Fisher, C, 256. 
Fisher, D., 256. 
Fleming. J. E., 7, oW. 
Fleilig, Daniel, 155, 156. 
Flaggy Meadow run, 171. 
Elag run, 295. 
Flesher, Henry, 246, 265. 
Flesher, F., 356. 
Foreman, Jacob, 77, 242. 
Forbes, General, 138. 
Fox Grape creek, 186, 263, 295. 
Fort Henry, 200, 2(i6. 
Forshey's Level, 248, 275, 277. 
Frazer, Epharim, 277. 
Frazer, J. C, 6, 298. 
Frazer, Da\'id, 173, 241. 
Frazer, Samuel, 264. 
Franklin, province of, 21. 
Frederick college, 23. 
Fry, James H., 56. 
Frank, Michael, 91. 
Frankford, town of, 106). 
Freeman's creek, 262, 294. 
Freeman, Edward, 251. 
French creek, 268, 295. 
Friend, L. L., 30i). 



Gallup, W. H., 7, 298. 
Gar\-in, T. M., 9. 3!t0. 



Gass, Patrick, 45. 

Galletin, Albert, 280. 

Gaines, H. P., 57. 

Garlo%v, Christopher, 77. 

Garrison, Alpheus, 123. 

Gay, Mathew, 123. 

Galloway, R. T., 126. 

Gandy creek, 200. 

Gallaher, J. W., 225. 

Galligan, Barney, 225. 

Garnett's retreat, 225. 

Gewgill, Andrew, 66. 

German settlers, 120. 

German settlement, 121, 134, 151. 

George's creek, 123. 

Geneva college, 218. 

Gerrard, Elias, 265. 

Gerrard, William, 266. 

Gee Lick run, 268, 277, 295. 

Gibson, David, 40. 

Gillespie, George, 73, 182. 

Gifford, John, 81. 

Gittings, John G., 128, 158. 

Gilman, Marj-and Sibyl, 144. 

Gibbens, A. F., 167. 

Gilky, Da%-id, 169, 17S, 250. 

Glasscock, W. E., 6, 300. 

Glady creek, 72, 173, 185, 267, 295. 

Gladesof Sandy creek, 171, 182, 277. 

Glady run, 185. 

Gnattj- creek, 253, 295. 

Goshorn, George, 56. 

Goodwin, E. F., 301. 

Goodwin, John, 94. 

Goodwin, E. A., 118, .300. 

GcKxlin, Benjamin, 179. 

Goodin, James, 180. 

Goodin, John, 191. 

GocK^l, John, 271. 

Goff, Saiathiel, 185, 191, 192, 264, 

•267, 278. 
Goff, J. D., 245. 
GofT, Thomas J., 267. 
Goose creek, 240, 261, 262, 277, 295. 
Gray, James, 183, SyZ, 264. 
Gray, John, 78, 79, 87, 183, 273. 
Gray, Jerem.iah, 171, 172, 182. 



Graut, E. M., 7, SW. 

Gregg, J. M.. 7, mX 

Gregg, George, 70. 

Green, Henry S., S, l\n\ li>7, iiiS. 

Green, John, 173. 

Green, George, '2['). 

Grave creek, 43, 172, lS-5, LSS, liXi. 

Greenbrier river, lOS. 

Greenbrier county, 194. 

Gragory, Joseph, 1 72. 

Gregorj-'s run, '1C<2, 2;>.i. 

Gregory, Charles, "J'!'.). 

Graham, John, "201. 

Grundy, George, l',i2. 

Griggs, Thomas, !'.)'.». 

Grove City College. 21S. 

Grafton, 22t'). 

Griffin, Francis, 241. 

Grass run, 252, 2(>4, 2;t-">. 

Greathouse, Gabriel, 2-51. 

Greathouse, Daniel, 251. 

H 

Harris, T. M., 4, 134, 142, 145. 

Harris, J. T., 117. 

Harris, Nehemiah, 178. 

Harris, Daniel, 1S4. 

Harris, Thomas, 1S5. 

Harris, John T., 29S. 

Hatfield, J. L., 7. 

Hampton, Richard, 78. 

Hale, J. P., 37. 

Hale, Caleb, 73. 

Hamilton, William, 54, 74. ' 

Hatfield, J. L., 3(X>. 

Hawk, Henry, 69. 

Ha\-niond, Creed, 237. 

HajTBond, Alpheus, 237. 

Haymond, William, 71, 72, 83, 92, 

138, 17C, 237, 247, 2s2. 
Haymond, Edward, 84. 
Hayuiond, Calder, 87. 
Haymond, Thomas, 87, I'iiK 
Haymond, Augustus, 122 
Haymond, Luther. 138, 2;'.7, 279. 
Haymond, John. l:;s, 237, 2><2. 
Haymond, Bruce. 2i):!. 



Haj-moud, Henry, 237, 27y, 2'.V 
Haymonil, A. F., 225. 
Haymond, Thomas S., 237. 
Harding, Stephen, 72. 
Harding. John, 76. 
Harding, J. F., 225. 
Harbart. Samuel, 05, 24l), 270. 
Harl>arl, Thomas, 79, 2-W, 270. 
Harbart, John, 237, 2:>8. 
Hare, Richard, 85. 
Hall, Gran\ille D., 257. 
Hall. Septimus, 225. 
Hall, Joseph. 102. 
Hall, Jan;es, Sr., 275. 
Hall, Jacob, 177, 1^4. 
Hall, William, 18U. 
Hacker's run, 295. 
Hacker's creek, 92, 1<8, 192, 

250, 21)9, 270, 271. 295. 
Hacker, John, 245, 2t)5, 269. 2 
Hacker, William, 2oV. 
Harness, George, 96. 
Harness, Joseph 99. 
Harness, Thomas, l-^3. 
Harrison, Edward, 244. 
Harrison, James, 276. 
Harrison, Charles, -272. 
Harrison, Richard, 186, 248, 

278. 
Harrison county court house, 

202. 
Harrison county, 120, 281. 
Hagans, J. M., 121, 122, 167, 
Hanks, Festus, 131, 145, 146. 
Hawkins, Josiah. 17t). 
Harrisville, i:U. 
Hart, Ira, 161. 
Haine.s, Henrj-, 170. 
Hardin's cove, ISO, 242, 274. 
Hardin, John, 170, 178, ISO. 
Hardm, William, 180. 
Hardin, Mark, IStl. 
Hardin, Abraham, 277. 
Hardin, Thomas, 244. 
HavTies, William, 225. 
Harper, Nehemiab, l'>4, 251. 
Harper, E/.ekiel, 23'), 



245, 
70. 



Harper, Goodlow, 40. 
Hark, William, 24o. 
Hanshaw, William, ISl. 
Hardesley, Hezekiah, 18S. 
Hardesley, John, VM\ 
Hapfield, John P., -yyl. 
Hays, John, "Jiio. 
Hastings, Joseph, •24'\ "JGl', 
Hastings, Thomas, itiy. 
Hain, John, 272. 
Hazel run, 24\>, "Jvi'i. 
Hazel, Daniel, 27>. 
Hanna, Charles A., 2\n. 
Harding, Robert, "277. 
Helmick, Abraham L., ti, ". 
Heath, John, 69. 
Henderson, Robert. 174. 
Helien's run, 179, 24'), 29."). 
Hellen, Thomas, 27'). 
Hendricks, Simon, 188. 
Hendricks, Abraham, 243. 
Helton, Thomas, 241. 
Henry, Aaron, 24:!. 
Henderson, John, 244. 
Henderson, Alexander, 27s 
Henton, Thomas, 24-3. 
Herrington, Hugh, 280. 
Henneson, James, 27(5. 
Hezekiah Davisson's run, : 
Hildreth, E. A.. 4. 
Hite, B. K., (5, oUO. 
Hill, Wm., t'.8. 
Hill, Robert, ISO. 
Hill. Moses, 184. 
Hindell, John P., 2in. 
Hickman, Charles, 26.3. 
Hickman, .\braham, 2i''3. 
Hickman, Jonathan, 26:',. 
Hickman, Sotha, 271, 273. 
Hickman, C. B., 301. 
Hiley, George, 273. 
Hiley, Rudolph, 278. 
Hopkins, A. D., •<, 11, 190, 
Hopkins, ArchibaM, .s4. 
Hook, James, 71. 
Howe. Henry, 167 
Hoover, Jacob, 27.3. 



Hodge, Zebclaud, 87. 
Hoge, John Blair, 225. 
Holland, W. J.. 7o, 213. 
Holland, Thomas, 2',0. 
Howells, Dean, 147. 
Holt, Lawrence, 170. 
Holt, :Mathe\v, 170. 
Holt, H. A.., 22o. 

Holt, J., 2')6. ■ ;• 

Houston, W. W., 122. 
Holly Bcttom, 182. 
Horsecamp creek, I8.1, 295. 
Ilorse.shoe Bottom, 192. 
Horseshoe run, 230, 236., 295. 
Hohnes, Joseph, 661. 
Howard, James, 245. 
Howard, Joseph, 263. 
HoSman, W., 256. 
Hoffman, D. C, 299. 
HofE. S. M., 299. 
Houghland, William, 67. 
Hoi ton. John, 265. 
Hodges, T. E., :'.<)0. 
Homer's rim, 275, 2S5. 
Hubbard, Chester D., 4. 
Plubbard, W. P., 117, 298. 
Hughes river, 177, 188. 240, : 

264, 265, 287. 
Hughes, Thomas, 70, 268, 270. 
Hughes. Jesse, 192. 272. 
Hughes, Ellis, 234. 
Hughes, John N., 259. 
Hughes, James, 26.3. 
Hughes,' Elias, 268, 272. 
Husted, Gilbert, 94. 
Husted, Robert, 95. 
Husted, John, 191. 
HufI, Amos, 189,241,242. 
Huttonsville, 227. 
Hunter, Robert, 264. 
Hunter, William, 264. 
Hust, Frederick, 27t<, 
Hvde, Samuel, 186. 



Ice run, 2 
Tee Place, 



Ice, William, S'J. 

Ice, John, 24). 

Ice, Frederick, 248, 274. 

Ice, -Andrew, 24S. 

Ice, Joseph, 274. 

Imboden, General John, 2iio. 

Inglis Ferry, o4. 

Indian Camp run, 2')-l, 21'-"). 

Indian creek, 08, 72, >0, S'.t, 95, 169, 

24S, 251, 295. 
Indian old fields, S,S. 
Indian fork, 295. 
Ireland, r^Iiss Addie, 84. 
Israel, Jacob, 295. 



Jack.son, H., 25<;. 
Jackson, J , 25(5. 
Jackson, George .-\., 25ij. 
Jackson, Richanl, I'i7, 24:J. 
Jackson, John, 124, 245, 2(j 



Jackson. John J., 127, i:il, 145. 
Jackson, J. B., 145. 
Jacksoii, Edward, L-^9, 24S. 
Jackson, George, 1S9, 2P.7, 208,249, 

270. 
Jackson, James !M., 225. 
Jackson Dlackv. cil, 225. 
Jackson, H. R., 225. 
Jackson, M. E., 25('>. 
James, Enoch, 77, 175. 
Jamrs, Dorcas, 2:'6. 
Jarrett, A. M., 122. 
Jacobs, Jacob, 251, 278. 
Jefferson, Thomas, IS. 
Jenkins, Bartholoniw, 78. 
Jenkins, Joseph, 171, 244. 
Jenkins, Aaron, 240, 242, 277. 
Jerr)-'s run, 84, 295. 
Joe's run, 189, 241, 295. 
Job's ford. 209. 
Joseph, W'illiai!!, 252, 280. 
Jolliffe, C. E., 0. 
JoUifle, John, 178. : 

JoUilTe, C. E. 2'.'8. .^, , 



Jones' run, 207, 2()7, 270, 295. 

Jones' Improvement, 90. 

Jones, C. R., 8, 298. 

Jones, Flzekiel, 8(3. 

Jones, Jacob, 18H. 

Jones, General, 200. 

Jones, John, 270. 

Johnson, Judge Okay, S, 225, 000. 

Johnson, James, 184. 

Johnson, Edward, 187. 

Johnson, D. D., 225. 

Johnson, John, 246, 275, 280. 

John, Thomas, 70, 81. 

John, William, 85, 174, 186, 243, 

278. 
John, John, 186. 
John, David, 278. 
Judy, Martin, 76, ISl, 250. 
Judy, John, "(>, 173, 182. 
Judy, Jacob. Id. 



Kanawha river, 1(I8. 
Kalor's ford, skirmish at, 229. 
Kalor, Jacob, 152. 
Kantner, Charles, 225. 
Katy's Lick, 261, 295. 
Kem, Michael, 75, 178. 
Kern's mill, 241. ^y^] . 
Kem, George, 250. 
Kem, William, 250. 
Kern, Alexander, 250. 
Kem, ZMartin, 250. 
Kern's Fort, 27H. 
Kerrick, Thomas, 1(J2. 
Keely, Josiah, 118, 000. 
Kelly, Thomas, 169, 179. 
Kelley, Gen. B. F., 200. 
Kercheval, Samuel, 167. 
Kerr, Robert, 189. 
Kennell, Valentine, 240. 
Kerby, John, 24i't. 
Keys, A., 256. 
Keyster, A., 256. 
Kennison, William, 260. 
Kilpatrick, .\ndrew. 85. 
Kidd, Daniel, 85. 



Kidd, Nathaniel, 1S2. 
Kitt's creek, 91. 
KingwcKxi, 121, 12S. 
King, Rufus, IrtS. 
Kinkade, John, ISO. 
Killen, Phineas, 249, 
Knotts, John, 2t;3. 
Knotts, James. ISo. 
Knight, E. B., 22o. 
Kunkle, Justin M 



, 300. 



L 

Lazzelle, I. G., 7, 300. 
Lazzelle. M., 2-5t>. 
Lazzelle, ISI. L., 2oi). 
Lancesterian Academy, -51. 

Laidie}-, J. :m., .:r.. 

Laidley, A., 50. 
Laidley, Thomas, 281. 
Latarte's Falls, 27(3. 
Laurel run, 72, 74, 90, 278, 295. 
Laurel Hill, 175, 225, 263. 
Laurel Fork, 295. 
Lafever, John, 74, 1S2. 
Lambert, F. B., 299. 
Lambert, Jonathan, 82. 
Lambert's run, 82, 1.85, 295. 
Land.street, F. S., 117, 300. 
Laishley, Peter, 122. 
Landen, Bartholomt-w, 182. 
Lake, Alexander, 251. 
Laish, Paul, 2tit>. 
Law, Nathan, 73, 75, 276. 

Lewis, Andrew, 5-1. 

Lewis, John, 55, 56. 

Le^-is, G. W., 145. 

Lewis, Philip, 171. 

Ivewis, Virgil A., 197, 198, 299. 

Lewis, Robertson, 248. 

Lester, Richard, 75. 

Lewellen, Samuel, 80, 170. 

Lemasters, Isaac, 89. 

Lemasters, Joseph, 1S7. 

Lee, Andrew, 172. 

IjCe run, 295. 

I^nham, William, 24S. 

Leake, Christopher, 2'.;3. 



Levi Shinn's run, 205. 

Leading creek, 295. 

Li\-ingston, Colin H. C, G, 203, 29S. 

Literarj- fund, 19. 

Linsley, Noah, 51. 

Little Kanawha river, S7, SS, 98, 

109, 123, 124, 109, 176, 185, 1S6, 

189, 246, 248, 264, 277, 278, 287. 
Little Absolom, 267. 
Little Adonijah, 1S4. 
Limestone Lick, 261, 295. 
Licking creek, 2''"'', 295. 
Little Pawpaw creek, 295. 
Little Sandy creek, 295. 
Lick run, 295. 
Logan, Thomas H., 4. 
Logan, John, 177. 
Lough, Myron C. 9. 12, 119, 197, 

298. 
I^w, .Abraham, 89. 
Lone Tree, 198. « 

Lowther, William, 84, 18><, 192, 

245, 271. 
Lowther, Joseph. 93. 
Lowther, Robert, 93, 176, 188. 263. 
Lo\v-ther, C. Z., 256. 
Lo^\-tlier, \V. E., 299. 
Lost run, 261, 285. 
Lost creek, 1^3, 191, 240, 246, 267, 

271, 272, 295. 
Lorentz, J., 256. 
Losh, William, 201, 232. 
Lurty, E. H., 225. 
Lynn, Levi, 174. 

M. 

Maxwell, C. W., 6,298. 

Maxwell, Hu., 6, 10, 11, 96, 106, 

161, 168, 193, 195, 196, 198, 225, 

2-54, 284, 293, 300. 
Maxwell, Lems, 256. 
Maxwell, J. C, 301. 
Maxwell, C. H., 301. 
Maslin, Thomas, 225. 
Mathev,s, Sutton, 56. 
Mathews, Guy P., 56. 
Mathews, Menry M., 225. 



Maple run, •2'''<:j. 

Mason and Dixon's Line, Hi*, 211. 

Mason, J. W., S, :>00. 

Mason, Joshua, I-j:!. 

Martinsburg, 108. 

Martinsburg Academy, 42. 

Mahan, John, 87, 187, 244, 251. 

Mahan, James, 217, 2)0. 

Mahon, Anthonj-, 27:'.. 

Marshall, James, -JO. 

Marshall College, 58. 

Marshall, Hugh, 277. 

Martin, F. T., 2<,tD. 

Martin, Charles, 71, 89, '.•2, 179, 

180, 187, 243, 245, 247, 240. 252. 
Martin, Joseph, 7;i. 
Martin, E. F., 1:;:;, 225. 
Martin, John, 145, 2(j;>. 
Martin, George, 242. 
^Martin, William, 245. 
Martin, Henry, 252. 
^Martin, Ashael, 2t):i. 
Marietta, 98. 
Marietta College, l:'.2. 
Madison College, i;'>2. 
Madison, John, 189, 212. 
McWhorter, J. M., 4. 
McFarland, T. B., 47, 147. 
McFarland, James, 5G. 
McFarland. John, S5, 170, 175. 
McFarland, Daniel, 1S8, 190, 240, 

241, 242. 
McFarland, William, 242. 
McKinnon. William, 50. 
McDaniel, John, h>':\ 
McClenachen, Robert, 54. 
Mclntire, Charles, 179, 187. 
Mclntire, John, 237, 244. 
Mclntire, Samuel, 2f,2. 
McClelland, John, 24'>!. 
McClellan, Robert, 70. 
McClellan, Gen. G. B., 225. 
McCrane, Joseph, 14S. 
McCleery, William, 71, 92. 186. 187, 

250, 252, 263, 2r4. 
:McCeary, A W., 225. 
McCoUum, James, 76, 250. 



McDonald, John, SO. 
McCune, Peter, 82. 
McCreery, William, 225. 
McCann, Thomas, 8.">. 
McCulloch, John, 105, ;;01. 
McCollugh's Road, 85, 1S2. 
McKinney's Run, 92, 295. 
McKinney, John, 92'. 
McKinney, Archibald, 9.?. 
McCowan, W. L., 118, :)00. 
McVicker, G. W., 122. 
McGrew, J. C, 128. 
McLaaghlin, Sarah, 1(')1. 
INIcLaughlin, .\., 256. 
McISIaster, J. B., lO.S. 
Mcl.anachan, John. ISO. 
McXeal, David, 181. 
McKinley. J. W., 256. 
McKinley, E. V., 256. 
McKinley, Samuel, 278. 
McGee, J., 256. 
McCray, Samuel, 2(54. 
McCally, John, 169. 
McCally, Thomas, 169. 
McMahon, Daniel, 27;). 
McEUrijy's creek, 295. 
Mercer Academy, 57. 
Mercer, Aaron, ISO. 
Mealey. Thomas, 142. 
Mealey, Lawrence, 142. 
Meale'v Settlement, 142. 
Merrifield, Samuel, 178, 261, 274, 

Merrifield, Thomas,^ 275, 285. 

Merrifield, Richard* 275, 276, 285. 

Meighen, B. F.. 299. 

Iileck, Jererfliah, 189. 

Miller, Thomas C, ti, 10, 47, 298. 

Miller, Randall, ')6. 

Miller, John, 96, 176, 177, 24:!, 266. 

Miller, Thomas. 172, 250. 

Miller, Jacob, 172. 

Miller, .\lexander, 1S8. 

Miller, W. W., 225. 

Miller, .\lexander McVeigh, 301. 

IVIiller's run, 247. 

Miles, John, It;:). 

Mill creek, 186, 278, 295. 

Mills, Thomas, 170. 

Minister's run, SO, 295. 

Miracle nm, 77, 29o. 

Middle Island creek, 97, 1S9. 

Miracle, John,24n. 



:SIiracle, Thomas, 240. 

Miiieai's Mil! run, 'JO-i. 

ISIinear. David. ISl. 

^linear, Jolm, I'^l . 

Minear, Jonathan, ISl. 

Milli.t;an, James, 2in. 

:SIin.tr, J.. 2-V;. 

IMinor, Stephen, 260. 

Elinor John, •ititl. 

Moreland, Joseph, 7, 11, 298. 

iloorhead, William, 7, 20S. 

^Morris, John, 24'.'. 

Morris, William, 24."). 

Morris, Gen. T. A., 225, 22S. 

INIorris, Morris, ISo. 

Morris. Richard, 70, 171, 1S.5, 24 

Morris, Russell L.. .^, 2U'J. 

^lorris. Basil, 2-')2, 264. 

:Morris, Paul, 2-')2. 

Morris, T., 2.5(i. 

Morris, Jacob, 2tJi]. 

Moore, Andrew, 20. 

Moore. David, 76. 249. 

Moore, Thomas, 76 

Moore, James, 7.'^, 247, 

^Hoore. J. R., 120. 

]Moore, William, 270. 

Mocrefield, HH». 

Monongahela river, 67, 7o, S], { 

107, 170, 1S4. 
Slonongahela Navigation Cot 

pany, V2'>. 
Monongalia Gazette, 12-'>. 
Monongalia Academy, 129. 
Monongalia court house, 194. 
Jlonongalia county records, 2<I9. 
Jlorgautown, l;'9, 129, l.'>0. 
Morgantown Fem.ale Seminaiy, I: 
Moore's run, 269, 296. 
Morgan, Stephen, SO. 
Morgan, B. S., i6v. 
Morgan, ^lorcan, 169. 
Morgan, Zachariah, l';9. 
Morgan, James, 171, 172, 17;->, l^ 

1S2, 244. 
Morgan, William. 172, LSI. 
^Morgan, Hugh. 172. 
Morgan, John, 172, \S-2. 
Jlorgan, Evan, 172. 2.'iO. 
Morgan, David, 17*', 2'<]. 
Morgan, W. .A., 22."). 
Morsran, Daniel, 2S1. 
Morgan, W. H. ;;!»1. 
Morgan's run, l^^n, 1S7, 29-"). 
Monroe, .Alexander, 22-"). 
Morrall, S. C, 247. 
ilorrow, J., 2-"p''i. 
Mt. Carmel, l-'d. 
Mud.ly creek, 0". .-•'•, 91, 276. 



Muddy river, 2:>8. 
Murdock, N., 14"). 
Mud Lick run, 17."., 1S3, 241, 

26.'^, 296. 
Murphv, John, 179, 24.3, 27:^. 
Murph'v, iL, 2.-^6. 
Murphy, William, 26>!. 
Murphy's run, 270, 29."). 
Mullennax, .\braham, 200. 
Mundle, Abner, 266. 

N 

Nave, W. IL, 9, 300. 
Nash, John C. 146. 
Xelson, J. F., 9, 11, 29.-^. 
Nevins, James, •")6. 
Xeal's Station, 144. 
Neal, James, 72, 124, 14o, 2.53, 
Neal, Joseph B., 131, 143. 
Neal, James H., 143, 
Neal, James J., 14-5. 
Neal. Joseph, 240, '261. 
Neville, Dennis, 170 
Newlaiids, Jonathan. 184. 
New creek. •2t"4, 296. 
Noyes. Franklin, o6. 
Noyes, Bradford, 56. 
Norman. F,., 256. 
Norris, A\'illia:n, 7S. 
Northwe.-tern Academv, 159. 
Nutter, Thomas, 174, '271. 
Nutter, :Mathe\v, 2<HI, 270, 27r 
Nutter, Christopher, 269. 
Nutter, John, 27(). 



190. 



296. 



Oakman, Wiliiani 
O'Brien, .\dam, 2.' 
Ohio Company, 3("i 
Oliver, George, 2." 
Old Field Lick. 27 
Ordinance of 17S7 
Orson, George, ]8i 
Osbom, Terah, 2^'l 
Osborn, Logan. 22 
Otter creek, 93., 95 
Otter Fork, 229. 
Owen's Fork, 29' i. 
Owen, William, 274. 
Owens, John. 24ii. 
Owen. Samuel, 171. ISt'i. 
Owens. David. Go, 71. 
Ox, Michael, 179. 



Patterson, C. H. 

'•Paiiie's PL'in." 



Painter, Elias. -ii'.O. 

Pawpaw creek, '^", f^l, 174. 17", 

ISti, I'M). -.Mn, •_MS,-J74, I'lHi. 
Pancake, John, lo:.;. 
Parker, Alexiinder, 124, 17S. 
Parker, James, 174. 
Parker, Peter, 241, 
Parker, Jesse, 241. 
Parkison, Thomas, 177. 
Parsons, town of. 2:10. 
Parsons, George, ISO, 249. 
Parsons, Thomas, 191, 2ij"i. 
Parsons, James, 229, 27.-w 
Parsons, Andrev.- P.., 2:V2. 
Parsons, Charles, 24<1, 2-')3. 
Parsons, William, 2ol. 
Pate. \V. 1)., 22-'). 
Parks, Robert, 190, 192. 
Park, Thomas R., 225. 
Peck, Isaac X., oS. 
i^eck, George, 249. 
Peyton, Frances, tv.i. 
Pendleton, Philip, t>t). 
Pendleton, \V. K., 4, 22o. 
Pettijohn William, 17:'.. 2f.t;. 2t57. 
Pettiiohn. John, 17o, 190, 2i;i), 2r.7. 
Pettijohn. Amos, 2i>"i. 
Pennsylvania College tor Women, 

21S.' 
Pearce, John T., 225. 
Pettel, James, 242. 
Pedlar's run, 24^, 250, 29ii. 
Peters, Godfr}-, 249. 
Philips, Thomas, S7, 27:5. 
Philips, Theophilus, 187, ISS, 250. 
Philippi, skirmish at, 22'). 
Pheasant run, 22S. 
PierjK.nt, F. H.. 4, 12S, 1_:32, 259. 
Pierpont, John, tV), 90, liS, 251. 
i'lpes, Abner, 71. 
Pierce, Philip. 240. 
Pierce, Thomas, 192. 
Pierce, Susan, 103. 
Pierce, Elias, 176. 
Pindall, Thomas, 171. 
Pin.Iall. Philip, 171, 190. 
Piles, James, 174 188. 
Piles. Zachariah,_174. 
Pigman, Jes^e, 17!). 
Pioneers, 205. 
Ple.-isant creek, 82, 29<!. 
Plum Orchard, 24(i, 2-'l. 
Plamtner, John, 27>. 
Poe, Clarence, '.r. 
Powers, John, :-^>!, 29:^,270. 
Powers, Major, i7;i. 2ii7 
Pocahonias Counlv. History of, 

115. 
Porter, Davidi. 1^'.. 



Porter, Snmi-.el 2:>1. 

Porterfield, Col. George A.. 2i» 

22o. 2i'>ti, 2'.i9. 
Powell, Richard, ISO. 
Powell, A. J., 2-: 5. 
Powell. William, 251. 
Post, C, 25i;. 
Pollock, Jobn,_24n, 276. 
Poke creek, 27., 296. 
Prichard, F.., 25(;. 
Prichard, Jacob, S7. 
Prichard, Isaac. 176. 
Price, William T., 115. 
Price, William, 122, 225. 
Price, Samuel. 225. 
Price John, 2"i2. 
Pricketfs creek. 24S. 296. 
Pricketfs Fort, 26,. 
Prinsile's run, 261, 296. 
Pringle's ford. 261. 262. 
Pinngle, Samuel. 271. 
Prather, Jeremiah. 275. 
Ihrmty. David, 2^2. 
Puffeiiglory. Peter, 272. 
Pugh, David A., 225. 



Ouarier. A W., ".0. 
Queen. Martin, 244. 



R 



Randolph .\cademy, 128. 
Randolph countv court house. 1^ 

2->4. 
Randolph. J. F., 225. 
Rand, Jacob. 57. 
Ramsey, John, 7'.>, 172. 
Ranisev, Charles, 277. 
Ray, John. 174. 
Raccoon creek, 17S, 27t», 206. 
Rankin, David, 178, 250. 
Ralphsnider. .\lpha, 122. 
Ratliff camp run, 242. 
Ratlift, William, 92, 190, 271. 
Ratliff. John, 94, 190, 244, 246, 2 

Ratliff, Stephen. 24f). 252. 
Ratliti, nenj.iniin, 92. 247. 
Reav, Thoniiis P.. 12:5. 
P.eck. Jonathan, ^9. 
Rector, College, l:;:>. 
Rector, Enoch, 144. 
Reese, Abia. '<■'. 
Reese, Jonatlian, 247, "iti2. 
Reese, Jacob. 271. 
};eed. Francis, 264. 
Reed. Joel, 248. 



Reei.i, Thonr.is, 170._-:4S, 2t)7. 
Reniiick, Thomas. 54. 
Reynold.s, P. B., 0, 'I'M. 
Reynolds, John, 242. 
Reger, John, I'.tO, 241. 
Reger, Jacob, 24'J. 
Reid. Whitelaw, 2".0. 
Red house. 2oO. 
Red creek, 2'.»t;. 
Richard's Fort, 241. 
Richards, Conra'l, .'^•'), 272. 
Richards, Henrv, 174, 1"^2. 
Richards, \Villiam, 174, 2o7. 
Richards, Isaac, 101. 
Richards, George, 2'i3. 
Richards, John, 271. 
Richards, Arnold, 271, 2.2. 
Richards, Jacob, 2,2. 
Richardson, Ephraini, 17.. 
Rich Mountain, I'J'.K 22t). 
Romney, lU'.". 
Romney Classical inr^tituie, 
Roger's fort, 270. 
Rogers, David, *)7, 70. 
Rogers, Lewis, '.">, 171, 242, 
Rogers, Jacob, Ot.i. 
Rogers, Benjamin, 24i). 
Ropeworks, 2S0. 
Roose%-elt, Theodore, !'>'>. 
Roberts, William, S'J, 28t>. 
Roberts, Amos, 8t>, 182. 
R.oberts, D. A., 225. 
Robert Lowther's mill run. 



240, 241, 242, 



Robinson's rui 

271, 276, 200. 
Robinson, William, 17:5. 1-8, I.V.), 
lOO, 242, 24:;, 244, 245, 240. 200, 
270, 271. 
Robinson, Kenr>-, ISO. 
Robinson, J. A., 225. 
Robinson, Benjamin, 2^7, 2:i.>, 2«1. 
Robinson, Ira, 2'.'8. 
Ross, James, 17.>, 189. 
Rose Hill, 181. 
Rosecrans, General, 100, 22* . 
Roaring creek, 182. 200. 
Robe, VVilliam, Ot\ 247. 
Roby, William. 175. 
Roby, P. S., 240, 240. 

Robins, George H., 241. 

Robins, Richard, 241. 

Rolling creek, r^•;. 

Rock camp run, 201. 

Rooting creek, 82. 2r;5, 207 271, 21»t 

Rue, Israel, 50. 

Rufluer, Lewis, 50. 57. 

Rutt'ner, Charles, 50. 

RutTner, James, 50. 

Rufluer, Joel, 50. 



Russell, Thomas, 78. 
Russell, James, 178. 
Runner, Elijah, 02. 250. 
Runner, George, 2"iO. 
Ruble's mill run, 175. 200. 
Ruble, Samuel, 175. 170, 20:?. 
Runyon, Isaac. 24'i 2-2. 
Runyon, Henry, 2t'7. 
Runyon, WiUiam, 270. 



Samsell, John G., 8, 208. 

Sandy fork, 207. 

Sand fork, 202, 272. 207. 

Sandy creek glades^ 74. 

Sandy creek, 7t;, 8-, 01, 171, 1/b, 

240', 251, 200, 20ti. 
Salt Lick creek, 87, 17ii, 17-, 1-0, 

18:5,241, 244, 245, 2i;0. 2-5, 207. 
Sayerson. Daniel, l^^'K 
Salem raid, 174. 
Salisberrv, William, 24^. 
Scotfs run, 170, 170, 178, 240, 241, 

Scott,' James, 17U; 100,241. 251. 
Scott, John, 183. 252, 274. 
Scott, Joseph, 18:>. 
Scott, David, 184, 18i'.. 242, 2-d, Lo'. 
Scott, Hannah, 241, 
Scott, Jacob, 242. 
Schoolcraft, John, 240, 2.2. 
Schoolcraft, Mathew, 272. 
Schoolcraft, M.ithias, 272. 
Schoolcraft, James, 272. 
Schuricht, Herrmann. 201. 
Severn, Absolom, 171. 
Severn, Joseph, 1>2. 
Senator's run, 2'.t'l.. 
Selbv, Enoch, 2:>4. 
Selby, George, 2':'0. 
Seaton, James, 2i!:J. 
Seaton, Francis, 2ii:5. 
See, Charles, I'd. 
Schrewsbur}-, Wil iam D., oO. 
Shinn, George, '.•:'•. 27:'.. 
Shinn, Benjamin. _^U, 2.1. 
Shinn, Samuel, '.'5. 
-Shinn, Levi. 0'>. 271. 
Shinn, Isaac, 101. 
Shinn, Nichoias_. 27:5. 
Shinn's mn, 277. 
Shepherfistowii; 110 
Shreeve, Joseph, 101. 
Shaffer, J. S., 151. 
Shaffer, Adam, 151. 
Shaw, S. C, 1>''8. 
Shively, Philip. 1^5. 24:1. 
S'-iobe," Martin, 1^5. 



Shelby, Isaac. l:Vl. 
Shirley, John -Ird. 
Shirley, Jacob. 2t'.l . 
Shuttleworth, Philip. 274. 
Shaver's fork of Cheat river, 2So, 

295. 
Shaver's run, "JSli. 
Shepherr^ College normal school, 4~2. 
Sims. Job. SO. 
Sims, John, '267. 
Simpson's creek, S3, SJ. S8. 93, 'M, 

191, 250, 2i>o. 2G6, 26S, 285, 297. 
-Simpson. A.. 2ot"i. 
Simpson. John. 271, 273. 
Skidmore. Thomas, 273 
Skinner, Miss Eliza J., 8, 298. 
Slater, Thomas, 70. 
Sleeth, \V.. 25(;. 
Sleeth, Alexander, 2-jo. 
Sleeth, David, 2i!lj. 
Sleeth, John, 27u. 
Smith, B. h!. -Hk 
Smith. Thomas G. 14'>. 
Smith, Henry. 170. 189, 2-53. 
Smith, Alexander, 175. 
Smith, John, 178. 
Smith, William, 183. 1S4. 
Smith. Amos. 184. 
Smith, Augustus, 184. 
Smith, J. A.. !256. 
Smi»h, R., 25(i. 
Smith. T, , 25" 
Smith, \V., 250. 
Smith, Aaron, 273. 
Smith, E. G., 299. 
Smithto^\-n, 2S2. 
Snowy creelc, \n\. 
Snider, iJoll, 171. 
Snider, lienry, ls3. 
Snider. Joseph. 225. 
Snider, John. 2-"0. 
Snodgrass. William. 277. 
Sommerville. Eugene, ri, 300. 
South Branch of Potomac, 90. 
Springer, Jacob, 170. 
Springer, John, 176. 
Springer, Dennis. 177. 
Springer, Zadock, 240. 
Spcrry, M. G., 30]. 
Spring creek, 103, 100. 
Stack's run, 83. 
Strother, D. H., 4. 
Sturgiss, George C, 8. 300. 
Steele, George C. 8, 298. 
St. George, 121. I'Jl. 
Stanton, Frank, S. 10, 197, 298. 
Stanlev, Morris, 50. 
Stackhouse, Jr.'nn. 95, 190. 
Stafford, Jamc^, 81, 247, 252, 274. 



Stout, Bonani, 94. 

Siout, Thomas. 04. 202. 

Stent, Jonathan. 94, 190. 

Stout. Hezekip.h. 95. 

Stout, Daniel, 249. 

Stephenson, John, 174. 

Stephenson. K. B., 145. 

Stephens. Henry, 170. 

Strader, Christopher, 250. 

Stony run, 249, 297. 

Stone coal lick mn, 179, 297. 

Stone coal creek, 246, 205, 297. 

Ste\vart, J. H., 6. 11, .300. 

Stewart, E. B., 0, 300. 

Stewart, James S., 8. .300. 

Stuart, John, 54, 80. 

Stewart, William, 81, 89, 192, 244, 

247, 277. 
Stewart, George, 95, 265. 
Stewart, John C, 123. 
Stewart's creek, 2(;4. 2(')0, 290, '297, 
Strickler, J. P., 225. 
Staton, M. A., 225 
Stump, Lemuel, 225. 
Sterling, James, 252, 
Stradler, John, 273. 
Straus, William, 299. 
Summers, George W., 56, 258. 
Summers, Lewis, a'I. 
Sullivan, Henry, 145. 
Sutton, Samuel, 171. 
Sugar creek, 185, 297. 
Summerfield, Thomas B., 200. 
Swisher, H. L., 7, 108, 299. 
Swisher, Mrs. D. W., 161, 162. 
Swan, John, 71. 
Swartz, E. C, 118. 
Swartz, C. S., SOO. 
Swearengeu, John, 189, 242, 265. 
Swearengen, Van, 242. 
Swingler, Samuel, 206. 
Sycamore lick run, 270. 
Sycamore creek, 272, 290. 



Taliaferro, W. B., 225. 
Tannihill, Jeremiah. 75, 278. 
Tanner, P:dward, 249, 268, 269. 
Tanner, James, 209, 272. 
Talbott, John. 250. 
Talbott, 1'., 250. 
Talbott, S. A., 256. 
Tal'oott, C. M., 256. 
Talbott, S. M., 250. 
Talbott'. K. I)., 300. 
Tavener, C, 250. 
Taverbaugh run, 276, 297. 
Taylor, William, 205. 



Ten Mile creek, lu. CS, 0'.>. TO, 71, 

03. 18i>, •2.i:. -IVl. -Zi-^. -2^7. Iir,^. 

2r>l,-20-2, 2-;:;. 2ii4, 2i;^, 2i>;, 271, 

297. 
Teabolt. Michael. 72. 
Templin, Moses. 7(i. 214, 2s"). 
Tennaiit. Richard, ]>9. 
Terra Aka. 121. 
Teter's creek, 27S. 297. 
Thaw, Williatn. 222. 
Thomas run, 207. 
Thompson's run. S3, 297. 
Thompson, William. ISi). 2t>o. 
Thompson . J. J., 22-5. 
Thompson, J. V.. 222. 
Thomas. John. SS, 94. 191. 
Thomas, Ezekiel. 94, 191. 
Thomas, Evan, 9o. 
Thomas, Enos, 2t3:3. 
Thomas, Harvey, 2t33. 
Thomas, Owen, 264. 
Thrusher, John. 70. 
Thornton, Robert, 124, ISo, lSi5. 
Thaver, Dorothv, 1-52. 
Thaver, A. H., 22-'^. 
Thwaites. R. G., lOS. 19^,2.0.-). 
Three Forks creek, 'l'.19, 24-5, 247, 

266, 278, 297. 
Thiel College. 21S. 
Thornburg. Thomas, 22-3. 
Tindall. William, 204. 
Tibbs, Francis, 247. 
Tibbs, James, 26'). 
Tomlinson, Joseph, 43, 276. 
Tom's run. 82, 274. 2^2, 2'.)7. 
Transalleghenv Historical Society 

organized, 4" 113, 114. 
Transvlvania, 21. 
Travers, W. 11., 4, 22o. 
Trotter, Frank B., 8, 10, 29S. 
Truscott, F. W., .S, 298. 
Truslow, James. ■')6. 
Troy, Simon. SO, 277. 
Trader, Closes, S2. 
Trader, Amv and Hannah, 17';. 
Trader, Tag'al, 176. 
Trader, Arthur, 176, 2.iO, 263. 
Tucker, James. 70, 2'>i). 
Tucker, Tohn, 179, 2'>0. 274, 27-3. 
Tucker, Henry, 1S8. 
Tucker, William, 190,274, 275. 
Tucker, George, 274. 
Turkey run, 253, 297. 
Tygart's Wnlley run, ISS. 
Tygart's \'allev road. l.?6. 
Tygart's Valley river, 72. 107, 125, 

173, 177, 176, 1^9, i'.-U, 241. 243, 

244, 248, 261 , 263, 2':;5, 267, 273. 

274, 275, 278, 2s6, 297. 



Unio:;to\\n, 124. 
Upenhizer, John. IM. 
Upton, R. B., 25i>. 



Vandalia, 21. 
Vandervort. J. W., 299. 
Vancamp, Isaac. 176. 
Vancamp. Jacob, 241. 
Veach, Daniel, 190, 247. 
Veach, James. 168. 
Veach, 27. 
Veach, Josiah, 75. 
Veuable, Robert, 1">1. 
Van Meter. Isaac. 96. 
Van Jleterj John, 100. 
Van Meter, Daniel, 104. 
Van Meter, Jacob, 104. 
Villers, Isaac, 97. 
Vienna, town of, 98. , 

W 

Washijigton College, 159. 

Washingtou University, 23. 

Washington (Pa.), 105. 

Washington-Jefferson College. 21S. 

Watkins, T. C , 56. 

Watkins, William, 75. 

Watkins, David, 75. 

Watkins, Evans, 240. 

Warth, John, -36. 

Warth, J. A., 22-3. 

Walker, Ezra, 57. 

\\'alker, James, 248.' 

Wannan, Francis, 78, 79, 247. 

Watson, W. M , 122. 

Watson, William, 246. 

Wade, Alexander L., 123, 298. 

Wade, Thomas. 173, 242. 

Wade, Alexander, 185. 

Wade, Hezekiah, 240. 

Waile. Wenman, 241. 

Wade! John, 243. 

Wade, George, 243. 

Wade, Joseph, 243. 

Wade. William, 256. 

Washburn's camp, 94. 

Washburn's run, 93, 265, 297. 

Washburn, Charles, 93, 192, 268, 

270, 272. 
Washburn, Xancy, 251. 
Washburn, Isaac, 251, 267. 
Washburn, James, 270. 
\\'aggouer. C. B. , 225. 
Waggoner, John, '6S. 



\Varder, \V. \V., 2'.»'. 

Ward, Eveniioiit, '22'\ 

Warriiijjton, J. \\'., :'>iiO. 

West Virginia Historical Society 

organized, '^, IIM. 
West Virginia Geological sur^-ej- 

bulletin, l'.t9. 
West Virginia Universit)', 21'^. 
Westfall, William, 27S. 
Weston, 2-Jo. 

West, Edmund, 2-J2. 271, 272. 
West, Alexander, 24',i. 
Westminster College, 21j>. 
West Augusta, 214. 
Western Pennsylvania University, 

21S. 
Westfall 's Fort, I'JS, 2n2. 
West's run, ISU, 2">2, 20o, 277, 297. 
West Liberty, 110. 
West Lancaster, hU. 
West Fork of ^Monongahela, 92, 

124, 170, 1S7, IS-^, 241, 242, 2o2, 

261, 262, 2iJo, 267, 2ti'5! 270^ 272. 

274. 
West Liberty Academy, .')0. 
Westsylvania, 21. 
Wells, C. E.. 6, 29?^ 
Wells, Basil. oO. / 

V/elh, Charles, oO. ^ 
Welb, Levi, 17U, 24.S. 
Wells, James, 24:^,. 
Webb, Jonas. 90. 
Webb, Benjamin, 91, 2(VS. 
Webb, Thomas, 92. 
Weaver, George, 170. 
Wetzel, D J., 22-5. 
Whitehill, A. R. . 7, 298. 
Whitelatch, John, ISL 
WhiLeclifl, Charles, 189. 
Whiteley's creek, 297. 
Whitelock, Michael, 243. 
White, I. C, 8, 197, 199, 300. 
Vv'hite, Robert. 4i^ 
White, Jacob, 72. 
White, William R., 1:3-3. 
White, G. W. , loS. 
White, Adam, l-io. 
White, Zachariah, 24:>. 
V.'hite, Ebe.nezer, 249. 
White, S. A., 299, 
White's run, 207. 
White Day Place, 187. 
White Day creek, 190, 248, 297. 
Whittaker, V.'ilham, -j'S. 
Whittaker, Aarr>n. 'iG. 
Whosong, Jacob, 70. 
Wheeling, 110. 
Wheat, James 3 , 22"i. 
W bendy, John, 268. 



Whendv's run. 2t'i8, 2'.'7. 
Willey,'W. T.. 4. 121. 122. 127,1 

20:5, 22"), 2".S. 
Willey. W. P., 8, 2'.!0. 
Wille'y. William, 122. 
Wickwire, John, 94. 9"). 191. 
Wickwire creek, 18"). 2>0, 297. 
Wise, Henry A.. 112. 
Wiley. Samuel T., 121, 168. 
Witichester \'irginian, KJo. 
Winsor, Justin, 16>. 
Withers, Alexander. 168. 
Withers. IM. J. D., 2">6. 
Withers, H. H., 2')6. ^,.,^-' 
Williams, Isaac, 184. ^""^ 
Williams, William, 24i). 
Williams, W. D., 2-:';. 
Williams, George, 2ii2. 
Williams, Elijah, 262. 
Williams, John, 262. 
Williams, Basil, 2'i2. 
Williams, Robert, 2'16, 276. 
Williams' Fork, 207. 
Williams, L. J., 299. 
Wilkin:;on, John, 191. 
Wilkinson, A. J., 300. 
Willis, D. .AL, 8, 300. 
Wilson, Josiah, 7-5. 
Wilson, James, 76. 
Wilson, Benjamin, SO, 14o, 22o, : 
Wilson, George, 91, 187, 188., 
Wilson, Alexander, 91. 
Wilson, William, L., 113. 
Wilson, John, 18"), 187, 188, : 

2-31. 
Wilson, William, 191, 264. 
Wilson, M., 236 
Wilson, S. M , 23;;. 
Wilson, M. A., 236. 
Wilson, David 271. 
Wilson, E. G., 299. 
Woodward, L. J., -36. 
Woodburn Female Seminary, 1; 
Woofter, J,, 236. 
Wch^ds, Samuel V.. 132. 
Woods, Samuel, 225. 
WockIs, J. H., 299. 
WcKxi, T., 236. 
Wood, John, 2(58. 
Wolf, John. 249. 
Wolf, Charles, 24'.i. 
WorLhington, ?,Iartin 277. 
Worthington's creek, 297. 
Workman. James, 277, 28-3, 
Worlej-, Joshua, 181. 
Worley, Anthony, l'<l. 
Worley, Samuel,' 183, 249. 
Worley, Bnice, 188.. 



• Y York, Jo-bua, 242. 

Younginiii, Jacob, 79, 241 

Yeager, George, 1S4. Young, E. H., 2^9. 
Yeager, Joseph. 247. 

Youghiogheny river, OS, 60, VM, Z 

Yorl-; Tesse. 274. Z^ne, Ehenezer, 43. 

York, Ezekiel, ISS, 274. Zane Silas, 44. 

York, Tereruiah. ks^i. . Zetuleii, Bartholomew. /8 



2B4^ 



^^