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Full text of "A translation, in English daily used, of the Peshito-Syriac text, and of the received Greek text, of Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, and 1 John : with an introduction on the Peshito-Syriac text, and the revised Greek text of 1881"

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A TEANSLATION, 

IN BNGI.ISH D&IL.Y USED, 

Oy THE 

PESHITO-SYRIAC TEXT. 



AND OF TBE 



EECEIVBD GREEK TEXT 



OF 



HEBREWS, JAMES, 1 PETER, and 1 JOHN. 



With an Ixtrodtjction-, on the Peshito-Syriac Text, and 
THE Kevised Q-reek Text of 1881. 



By WILLIAM NOKTON, 

Of North Devon. 



W. K. BLOOM, 22a, FURNIVAL STREET, HOLBORN. 
1889 



^onUni^ of tijie ^ntv0l^vtciii:fn, 



PART I. The many Cotintries in which Syriac was spoken, iii.— xi. 

PART II. Proof that very few Israelites in the time of Christ understood Greek, 
xi.— xvi. 

PART III. The DiflFerence between the Syriac of the Peshito-Syriac Text, and the 
popular Syriac Dialect of Palestine, xvil. , xviii. 

PART IV. How we may know whether Books which are said to lae the Word of God, 
are so or not, xviii.— xxvi. 

PART V. The Belief of those Christian Bodies which have used the New-Covenant 
Peshito-Syriac Books, xxvi.— xlvi. 

PART VI. Internal Evidence that the Peshito-Syriac was made in Cent. I. ; and that 
it is not a mere translation of the Greek, xlvi— li. 

PART VII. Characteristic Differences between the Peshito-Syriac Text, and the 
Greek Text, li.— liii. 

PART VIII. The Result of trusting chiefly to certain faulty Greek copies, and 
slighting the Peshito-Syriac, liii.— Iviii. 

PART rx. Testimonies founded on Knowledge and Esteem of the Peshito-Syriac, 
lix.— Ixx. 

PART X. Chief Peculiarities of the Text of the Peshito-Syriac, Ixx., Ixxi. 

PART XI. The Design of this work, Ixxi.— Ixxvi. 

PART XII. Words in the Common Version not well understood hy some, in words 
more familiar, Ixxvi.— Ixxxiii. 

PART XIII. A List of the more important Greek Readings which are followed in 
the Text or Margin of the Revised English Version of 1881, but which do not 
agree with the Peshito-Syriac text, and axe condemned by it, Ixxxiii.— cxi. 

PART XIV. A List of the more important Greek readings, followed in the Text or 
Margin of the Revised English Version of 1881, which agree with the Peshito- 
Syriac Text, and are approved by it, cxi.— cxxiil. 

PART XV. Conclusionj cxxHi.— cxxvii. 

INDEX to Introduction, cxxix.— cxxxii. 



^nivohnciion. 



I.— The many coun-tries m which Syriac was spoken. 

Syriac is a very ancient language. It belongs to the same family 
of languages as the ancient Hebrew. In the time of the Eedeemer 
it was spoken, in slightly different dialects, in many countries. 

Syeiac became the langtiage of Palestine. — Dr. Erederic 
Delitzsch, Professor of Assyriology, in the University of Leipzic, in 
a work on ' ' The Hebrew Language viewed in the light of Assyrian 
Eesearch, 1883," p. 2, says, "The transportation of the ten tribes 
from Palestine to Mesopotamia and Media, and the close inter- 
course of those left behind with people of different nations, as the 
Elamites, Babylonians, and Arabs, who supplied the places of the 
exiled Israelites, struck a deadly blow at the ancient language of the 
kingdom of Israel Nor was it destined to flourish much longer 

in the kingdom of Judah The termination of the Babylonian 

exile marks the beginning of that process," that is, as to Judah, 
*' by which Hebrew gradually disappeared from among living 
languages. It is true that a small portion of the nation, those 
who availed themselves of the permission to return to the holy 
land, still wrote and spoke Hebrew ; but the Aramaic [the Syriac] 
dialect, which had been favoured by the Persian kings, and was 
almost regarded as the official language of the western portion of 
the Persian empire, had already begun to bring its deteriorating 
influence to bear upon it ; and, rapidly advancing, was conquering 
one portion of Palestine after another. This process continued 

under the dominion of the Greeks At the time of the 

Maccabees, Hebrew had already ceased to be a spoken language. 

The learned among the Jews, during the last two centuries 

before Christ, even preferred to write in Aramaic ; and at the time 
of Christ, Aramaic reigned supreme as the adopted language of 
the country." 

Those of the ten tribes who were " carried away into Assyria," 
(2 Kings xvii. 6,) adopted the Syriac language also, as well as 
those of them who remained in Palestine. We have proof in holy 
Scripture that Aramaic, now called Syriac, was spoken by some of 
the Assyrians, when the king of Assyria sent Eabshakeh against 
Jerusalem. For the elders of the Jews asked him to speak to 
them in Aramaic, that the rest of the Jews might not know what 

a2 



IV. INTRODUCTION. 

he said. (2 Kings xviii. 26; Isa. xxxvi, 11.) The language then 
called Aramaic, and now called Syriac, was not the most ancient 
language of Assyria. The Eev. A. H. Sayce says, in his " Assyrian 
Grammar, 1872," pages 1 and 10, that the original Assyrian lan- 
guage was more like Hebrew and Phoenician than it was like 
Syriac. But by degrees the old Assyrian language gave place to 
Syriac. Mr. Sayce says at page 18, " Assyrian passed away before 
the encroaching influence of Aramaean." 

Before the ten tribes were carried away into Assyria, they had 
been brought under the power of the Syrians of Damascus, and 
this may have tended to change their language. "While they were 
in Assyria, they seem to have adopted Syriac wholly, and to have 
ceased to speak their ancient Hebrew tongue. 

Dr. Asahel Grant, (M.D.) a modern missionary to that part 
of ancient Assyria, which is now called Coordistan, published a 
book, the third edition of which is dated 1844, entitled, "The 
Nestorians, or the Lost Tribes." At page 55, he saj^s that among 
the Nestorian Christians whose ancestors dwelt there from before 
the time of Christ, the worship is still conducted and the Scrip- 
tures are read "in the ancient Syriac language," which is now 
*' quite unintelligible to the common people;" so that when the 
Scriptures are read to them, they have to be translated by the 
reader into the modernized Syriac, which is now spoken both by 
these Nestorian Christians, and by the Israelites who are not 
Christians, who dwell near them in Coordistan. He says at pago 
149, that this modernized Syriac is "at this day a living language 
only among the Nestorians and nominal Jews of Media and 
Assyria ; unless an exception be found among the Syrian Christians 
dwelling west of the Tigris ; who may, perhaps, also have a Hebrew 
origin" He says that both the Nestorian Christians, and the 
un christianised Israelites, who use this ' ' vernacular language, 
peculiar to themselves, must have acquired it at a remote period 
of antiquity ; because an entire want of social intercourse forbids 
the idea that they have learned it from each other in modern times." 
Dr. Grant says, that both the Nestorians and the Israelites say 
that they all speak this modern Syriac language because they 
have a " common ancestry ;" and he thinks that their common and 
peculiar language "affords convincing proof that they are both 
alike the children of Israel." 

Dr. Grant was fully convinced that the ancestors of these Nes- 
torians "received the gospel from the apostles and immediate 
disciples of our Saviour," (p. 56); " from Thomas, Bartholomew, 
Thaddeus, and others ; not fromNestorius," from likeness to whom 
they are called Nestorians, (p. 50.) He says that their Scriptures, 
which are like other copies' of the ancient Peshito- Syriac Bible, 
have been preserved by them " in manuscript, with great care and 
purity," (p. 60); that " these Nestorians throughout Assyria and 



INTRODUCTION. V. 

Media have a general and universally believed tradition that they 
are descendants of the ten tribes," (p. 110); that the Israelites 
** admit that the Nestorians are as truly the descendants of the 
Israelites as themselves, (p. 114); and that the Nestorians have a 
tradition that they "came from the land of Palestine,^' (p. 113.) 
Dr. Grant remarks that both the Nestorian Christians and the 
Israelites, inhabit the very country where ' ' the ten tribes were 
placed," (p. 114) ; that they " are the only people in Assyria who 
can be identified with the ten tribes, and consequently that they 
must be their descendants," (p. 140.) He says that Dr. Perkins, 
another missionary, agreed with him that the body of the modern 
language now spoken by the Nestorians and Israelites, comes as 
directly from the venerable Syriac, and as clearly, as the modern 
Greek does from the ancient, (p. 144.) 

Dr. Grant says also, " Nazareans is a term very commonly 
employed by themselves and others to designate the Nestorians. 
It is never applied to other Christian sects. The term Nazareans 
has been well defined to mean Christians converted from Judaism, 

who adhered to the practice of the Jewish ceremonies 

Jerome speaks of them as Hebrews believing in Christ. "We have 
good reason from Acts xv. 5, to believe that the Gentiles never 
adopted the rites of the Jews, nor the name of Nazareans, to whom 
these rites were peculiar. It must then have been applied exclu- 
sively to the Jewish converts. Hence the conclusion that the 
Nestorians must have been Jews," (pp. 153 — 4.) By Jews, he 
clearly means Israelites. Mosheim, in his '' Christianity before 
Constantino," Cent, ii., chap, xxxix., says, "A small band of Christ- 
ians, who joined Moses with Christ, divided into two sects called 
Nazareans and Ebionites. The ancient Christians did not class 
the Nazareans with heretical sects." Dr. Grant says, "It is the 
simple fact, that the Nestorians are what they profess to be — the 
children of Israel," (p. 113.) 

Concurring proofs seem to make it certain that these Nestorian 
Christians received the gospel from some of the apostles ; that 
there has been a succession of them from that time to this ; that 
their copies of the Peshito-Syriac Scriptures are derived from copies 
received at a very early date ; that they have been carefully made 
and preserved, and are of great value in determining the true text 
and meaning of God's word. 

A LIKE SETTLEMENT TO THAT IN COORDISTAN, of Christians 

and Hebrews dwelling near to each other, has also existed from 
the time of the apostles until now, IN Tranvancore and the 
Malabar Coast of India. These Christians, as well as those of 
Coordistan, use the ancient Peshito-Syriac Scriptures in their 
worship at the present day. They believe they have had these 
Scriptures from before A.D. 325, in which year their bishop signed 



yi. IXTRODUCTIOI^. 

his name at the council of Nicaea. There is ancient testimony th:it 
the Gospel of Matthew in Syriac was left with them by the apostle 
Bartholomew, and that the apostle Thomas preached the gospel 
among them. The Hebrews, to whom these Apostles preached, 
must have been settled there at a still earlier period. Dr. Asahel 
Grant said of the Christians of Travancore, " They may be, in 
part at least, a branch of the present Nestorians of Media and 
Assyria. We have good evidence that they were formerly of the 
Nestorian faith, though they have more recently become connected 
with the Jacobite Syrians. It is worthy of inquiry whether they 
have not traditions, rites, customs, or other evidence of Jewish 
origin," (p. 155.) "That the apostle Thomas preached in India, 
we have the testimony of numerous Greek, Latin, and Syrian 
authors quoted by Asseman in his Bibliotheca Orientalis, vol. iv., 
pp. 5 — 25, 435." Grant, p. 156, note. 

Dr. Clauditjs Buchanan, of the Church of England, in 
1806 — 8, visited the Christians of St. Thomas in India, and also 
the Israelites who dwell near them. He found that the Israelites 
*' are divided into two classes, called the Jerusalem or White 
Jews ; and the ancient, or Black Jews." He saw and conversed 
with some of both classes. The White Jews delivered to him a 
narrative, in the Hebrew language, of their arrival in India. It 
stated that their " fathers, dreading the conqueror's wrath, departed 
from Jerusalem, a numerous body of men, women, priests, and 
Levites, and came into this land after the second temple was 
destroyed," which took place a.d. 70. This narrative states that 
other Hebrews afterwards joined them from Judea, Spain, and 
other places, (pp. 200—2.) 

He says of the Black Jews, "It is only necessary to look at 
their countenance to be satisfied that their ancestors must have 

arrived in India many ages before the White Jews The White 

Jews look upon the Black Jews as an inferior race, and as not of a 
pure caste, which plainly demonstrates that they do not spring 
from a common stock in India. The Black Jews recounted the 
names of many other small colonies of the ancient Israelites 
resident in northern India, Tartary, and China ; and gave me a 
written list of sixty-five places. I conversed with those who had 
lately visited many of these stations." Dr. Buchanan seems to 
have regarded the Black Jews as part of the ten tribes. Those to 
whom the apostle Thomas preached must have been settled there 
before his arrival, which probably was many years before the 
destruction of Jerusalem, A.D. 70, and the arrival of the White 
Jews ; so that there is a strong probability that those to whom he 
preached were a migratory part of the ten tribes. Dr. Buchanan 
says, " I inquired concerning their brethren the ten tribes. They 
said that it was commonly believed among them that the great 
body of the Israelites is to be found, in the very places whither they 



INTRODUCTION. Vll. 

were first carried into captivity; tliat some few families had 
migrated into regions more remote, as to Cochin and Eajapoor in 
India, and to other places yet further to the East, but that the 
bulk of the nation, though now much reduced in number, had not 
to this day, removed two thousand miles from Samakia." 
(pp. 206—7.) 

It seems to be certain that in the time of the apostles the lan- 
guage of the Israelites in Travancore must have been Syriac. For 
although the language now most in use, both among the Israelites 
and the Christians, is the Malabar, or Malay alim, which is the ver- 
nacular language of the country, (p. 99) ; yet the ancient Peshito- 
Syriac Scriptures are still used by the Christians in worship, and 
they have to be " expounded to the people in the vernacular 
tongue," (p. 100.) 

The ancient Christians of Travancore and Malabar are still 
called. The Syrian Christians of St. Thomas, and have received 
that name from their use of the Peshito-Syriac Scriptures, and 
from the fact that their ancestors received the gospel from the lips 
of the apostle Thomas. Dr. Buchanan says that the apostle 
Thomas is said by them to have landed at Cranganore, when he 
first arrived from Aden in Arabia ; that not far from Cranganore 
there is an ancient church which bears his name still ; and that 
the tradition among these Christians is, that he afterwards went 
to the Coromandel Coast, and was put to death at the place still 
called St, Thomas's Mount. (Eesearches, p. 114.) When the Portu- 
guese invaded that part of India, and had established at Goa, 
what even the Eoman Catholic Superintendent of sixty-four E. C. 
churches called in the presence of Dr. Buchanan, the "horrid 
tribunal " of the Inquisition ; that tribunal used its utmost power 
to bring the Christians of St. Thomas under the dominion of the 
Pope, By bitter persecution and condemning some of these 
Christians to be burnt, it obtained the possession and use of many 
of their church buildings. The Peshito-Syriac Scriptures which 
they used, like all copies of the original Peshito, did not contain 
2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, Eevelation, and some other 
passages contained in the Eoman Catholic Latin Vulgate. The 
copies of these Syriac Scriptures were ordered by the Inquisition, 
at the Synod of Diamper, to be all conformed to the E. C. Latin, 
and all books containing Nestorian teaching were ordered to be 
burnt. (Decrees of Synod of Diamper, by Dr. Michael Geddes, 
pp. 134, 147, 428.) 

But even in the buildings which were thus obtained, the Eoman 
Catholic Service was still conducted in Syriac instead of in Latin, 
as Dr. J. W. Etheridge states in his History of the Syrian Churches, 
1846, p. 158. 

EusEBius says that in the reign of Commodus, (a.d. 1^0—192) 
Pantsenus, a Christian who had been a philosopher, went as ac 



V^IU. INTRODUCTION. 

evangelist from Egypt as far as India; and was said to have found 
there " the Gospel of Matthew in Hebrew," that is, in Syriac, then 
called Hebrew, " among some who there knew Christ ; to whom 
Bartholomew, one of the apostles, had proclaimed Him." Dr. 
Buchanan says that these Christians now possess the Peshito- 
Syriac Scriptures of both covenants in writing ; that they believe 
they possessed them "before the year a.d. 325," (p. 118;) that 
* ' they have preserved the manuscripts of the Holy Scriptures 
incorrupt," (p. 124) ; and with such care that in one written copy 
which he saw, *' the words of every book are numbered." (p. 118.) 

Syriac was the native tongue of Syria. Two territories were 
called Syria ; one to the east, the other to the west of the 
Euphrates. The capital of Syria, west of the Euphrates, was 
Damascus. In 2 Sam. viii. 6, "The Syrians of Damascus" are 
mentioned. Before the ten tribes were carried captive into Assyria, 
the kings of Syria had reduced them to long servitude. 2 Kings 
viii. 12 ; x. 32 ; xiii. 4 — 7. Dr. Grant suggests that this tended to 
change the language of the ten tribes from Hebrew to Syriac. 
(p. 147.) Syria, to the east of the Euphrates included the impor- 
tant city called Edessa. Bar Hebrseus, a very learned Syrian of 
the thirteenth century, said, "Of the Syriac language there are 
three dialects. Of these the most elegant is the Aramsean spoken 
by the inhabitants of Edessa and Haran, and Syria the Exterior," 
that is, Syria in Mesopotamia. (Walton's Poly. Prol. xiii. 4 ; 
Asseman's Bibliotheca, Vol. I., p. 476.) 

G. Amira, a Syrian of note, and the author of a Syriac Gram- 
mar, made a statement which tends to show how very widely the 
Syriac language was used. He said that "he was able to define , 
the Syriac or Chaldaic tongue to be that which was born, and had 
chief rule in the East ; which could alike be called Assyrian, 
Babylonian, Aramsean, Hebrew, or Christian ; since it was known 
by nations of those names, and used by them." (Wichelhaus on 
N. C. Peshito, p. 21.) Walton also, in his Polyglot, (Prol. xiii. 2) 
says that the language in which the books of the Old and New 
Covenants exist in the east, and which to-day is called Syriac, 
" has been called Chaldaic, Babylonian, Aramsean, Syriac, Assyriac, 
and even Hebrew." The dialect in which the Chaldeans spoke to 
the king of Babylon, Dan. ii. 4 ; and that in which Eabshakeh, 
the Assyrian, was asked by the elders of Israel to speak to them, 
Isa. xxxvi. 11, are both called in those passages, Aramaean, a 
name which includes different Syriac dialects. 

Dr. J. S. AssEMAN, the learned author of the great work 
— Bibliotheca Orientalis, published in four volumes folio ; a 
Maronite Syrian ; said in the Prologue to Vol. I. p. 1, that the 



INTEODTJCTION. ix. 

Syriac language formerly flourished in the immense empire of 
the Assyrians and that of the Chaldees, and was brought to tlie 
greatest degree of amplitude and elegance ; that it was afterwards 
consecrated by the mouth of Deity incarnate and talking with 
men ; that it was known familiarly by the apostles ; that it was 
used in sacred worship every where in the East ; and was made 
famous by being used by eminent writers of the greatest excel- 
lence. It was in this language that the gospel was diffused from 
Edessa and other places throughout the East, as from Antioch in 
Syria it was diffused by Paul in Asia Minor and in Europe. Dr. 
J. S. Asseman, also said in his Prologue, p. 1, " To begin from 
those things which were first written in Syriac, it is a tradition 
certain and uniform, which the marvellous agreement of all the 
eastern nations confirms, and which both Eusebius of Csesarea, 
and Jerome, deemed to be established, that Thaddeeus, or as the 
Syrians prefer to call him, Adgeus, either an apostle or a disciple 
of Christ, immediately after His ascension into heaven, went to 
Abgar, the Toparch of Edessa, and instructed the people of 
Mesopotamia in the Christian faith ; and that king Abgar himself 
received sacred baptism. The gospel was next openly proclaimed 

in those places, churches were built, and the sacred books 

translated out of Hebrew into Syriac Yery many learned men 

began by their word, and by their writings, to deliver the divine 
teaching to the people, and to confute ancient, and more recent 

errors by their published volumes Frequent incursions of the 

Persians, Arabs, and Tartars into Mesopotamia, and the adjoining 
provinces of the Syrians, followed; by which, cities were overthrown 
to their foundations, monasteries levelled with the ground, churches 
consumed by fire, and volumes of the most surpassing worth 
taken away. If any escaped the hands of the barbarians (as it is 
certain that very many did) they either feed the book-worms of 
the desert, or are torn, cut up, and devoted to profane uses by their 
ignorant possessors." Ho afterwards refers to later times, to 1555, 
when the N. C. Peshito was first printed, and to the efforts which 
have been made to discover, and to make use of, such ancient 
Syriac copies, both of the Scriptures and of other works, as may 
still exist. 

JosEPiius is a very important witness in proof of the extent 
to which Syriac was known and used in the first century. He 
took part in the war against the Eomans which led to the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem, a.d. 70. He was taken captive by them, and 
was well acquainted with all the events connected with the war. 
He wrote a history of it in Syriac ; and states how great a multi- 
tude of people, living in different nations, from near the Caspian 
Sea to the bounds of Arabia, could read and understand what he 
had written in Syriac. He afterwards wrote the same history in 



INTBODUCTIOX. 



Greek, tliat those who spoke Greek, and those of the Eomans, and 
of any other nation who knew Greek, but did not know Syriac, 
might read it also. He says, that in order to write the Greek 
history, he used at Eome the aid of persons who knew Greek ; 
that Greek was to him a " foreign language;" (Jewish Antiquities, 
Book I.); and that very few of his countrymen knew it well. (Jewish 
Antiq. Bk. xx., chap, ix.) He says in his two books against Apion, 
that Apion and others " had undertaken to make false charges 
against" his history." In a long defence of it, he said of the 
Greeks, (Bk. I, chap. 8,) "They see that some Greeks of the 
present time dare to write about these things, who neither were 
present at them, nor have taken care to get information from those 
who know about them." " But I have written a true history of 
the whole war, and of the particular events which occurred in it ; 
for I was the general of those whom we call Galileans, so long as 
it was possible to resist ; and I was taken and made captive by 
the Eomans. Vespasian and Titus then kept me in custody, and 
compelled me to attend them." During the siege of Jerusalem, 
*' Nothing was done which escaped my knowledge ; for while I 
was observing whatever was done by the encamped army of the 
Eomans, I carefully wrote it down ; and I was the only person 
who understood what was told by those who delivered themselves 
up. Afterwards, having obtained leisure at Eome, the whole of 
my work being in a state of readiness, I made use of some to 
work with me in respect of the Greek tongue ; and in this way I 
completed my account of those transactions. I had so strong a 
conviction of the truth of that account, that the first persons 
whom I selected to bear witness to it, were the chief commanders 
of the war, Vespasian and Titus. To them first, I gave my books ; 
and I gave them afterwards to many of the Eomans who had 
fought together in the war." It is evident from this account, that 
Vespasian and Titus knew Greek, and that if any of the Jews who 
delivered themselves up to the Eomans during the siege, could 
have spoken Greek, Josephus would not have been the only 
person who understood them. 

Josephus, in the Prologue to his Greek translation of the history 
of the war, says, "I have proposed to translate into the Greek 
tongue, and to relate for those who live under the rule of the 
Eomans, what I before composed in the language of my own 
country, and sent to the upper barbarians." A. M. Ceriani, of 
Milan, speaks of a part of this history as still existing in the 
Ambrosian Library of Milan, in Syriac. There is other proof that 
Syriac must be the language which Josephus calls that of his own 
country. Josephus says, " I thought it Mould be unbecoming to 
overlook the perversion of the truth with respect to events so 
important, and that Parthians, and Babylonians, and the remotest 
Arabians, and those of our own race beyond the Euphrates, and 



INTEODUCTIOX. XI. 

those of Adiabene" — a part of Assyria—" should know correctly, 
by means of my diligence, whence the war began, and amid what 
great sufferings it proceeded, and how it ended ; and that the 
Greeks, and those of the Eomans who were not in the war, should 
be ignorant of these things, and should be deceived by flatteries 
or fictions." If we compare the countries mentioned in this 
passage of Josephus with those named in Acts ii., as countries 
from which devout Jews had come who were then ' ' dwelling at 
Jerusalem," we find in both accounts Parthians, Arabians, and 
dwellers in Mesopotamia. The words of Josephus prove that 
Syriac was well understood in these countries as well as in Pales- 
tine ; and that the tongues spoken by the apostles, which excited 
the surprise of those who came from these countries, must have 
been other tongues than Syriac, which was spoken or read both in 
Palestine and in these countries. Peter, after the miraculous gift 
of tongues, addressed "all" these persons then dwelling at 
Jerusalem, (Acts ii. 5, 14,) and must have spoken in a language 
which "all" could understand ; for he intreated all to " hearken 
to his words." (Acts ii. 14.) This is proof that there must have 
been some language which all understood, and as Josephus states 
that Syriac was so generally known throughout the East, and 
there is no proof that any other language was so generally known 
there, it seems that the language to which Peter intreated all to 
hearken must have been Syriac. So that the events of that 
Pentecost concur with the testimony of Josephus to show how 
widely the Syriac language was understood. 

TI. — Proof that very few Israelites in the time of 
Christ understood Greek. 

Some have supposed that the language of Palestine in the time 
of Christ was either wholly, or in part, Greek. Professor A. 
Neubauer, Eeader in Eabbinical Hebrew in Oxford University, 
published in "Studia Biblica, 1885," an essay "On the Dialects 
spoken in Palestine in the time of Christ." He says that Isaac 
Voss, who died in 1689, was the first who supposed that " Greek 
was the only language spoken in Palestine after Alexander," the 
Great ; that Diodati in 1767, closely followed Voss, and sought to 
prove that " Greek was the mother language of the Jews in the 
time of Jesus ;" that Professor Paulus, of Jena, in 1803, held that 
an Aramaic dialect was then the current language of the Jews in 
Palestine, but that Jesus and his disciples had no difficulty in using 
Greek in their public speeches when they found it convenient to 
do so ; that Dr. Alexander Eoberts, Professor of Humanity in 
St. Andrew's University, and a Member of the Company of 
Eevisers of the N.C. Scriptures, published in 1881, contends that 
" Christ spoke for the most part in Greek, and only now and then 
in Aramaic," (pp. 39- 41). Dr. Eoberts published in 1859 a work 



XU. INTRODUCTION. 

in whicli he discussed the question relating to **The language of 
Palestine in the time of Christ." At p. 62, he said that he thought 
he had " proved that Greek, and not Hebrew, was the common 
language of religious address in Palestine in the days of Christ and 
his apostles." He said, at p. 63, " Christ spoke in Grreek, and his 
disciples did the same, when they reported what he said. Their 
inspiration consisted, not, as some have deemed, in being enabled 
to give perfect translations, either of discourses delivered, or of docu- 
ments written in the Aramaic language, but in being led, under 
infallible guidance, to transfer to paper, for the benefit of all 
coming ages, those words of the Great Teacher which they had 
heard from his lips in the Greek tongue." Few at present are of 
Dr. Eoberts' opinion. The question does not affect the inspiration 
of the Greek text, but it has a very important bearing on the value 
of the Peshito-Syriac books of the New Covenant. 

Professor Neubauer's familiarity with the Jewish writings of 
that time, enables him to discuss the subject with much fulness 
and force. He gives the following probabilities as the result of his 
own examination of the subject : — That in the time of Christ, the 
Galileans understood their own Syriac dialect only, together with 
a few current expressions in ancient Hebrew ; that in Jerusalem a 
modernised Hebrew, and a purer Syriac dialect than that of 
Galilee, were in use among the majority of the Jews ; and that 
the small Jewish-Greek colony there, and a few privileged persons, 
spoke a Judeo-Greek jargon, (p. 50.) He says that the Syriac 
dialect of Galilee was " the popular language;" and that it is the 
language which is called in the New Covenant, "Hebrew," 
(John V. 2) ; and is called by Josephus, and in the Apocrypha, the 
language of the country ; that " it was in this dialect that Josephus 
at first wrote his historical work " on the war ; that the Syriac 
words which are recorded in the Greek N. C. Scriptures, prove 
that this was " a distinct dialect in some respects " from the Syriac 
of the Syrians, and yet was so like it, that " Josephus says the Jews 
could understand the Syrians," (p. 53.) 

Prof. Neubauer has no doubt that the language used by Jesus 
was the popular Galilean Syriac dialect, and that in the Greek 
text we have only a Greek translation of the words which he 
uttered. He says, "Jesus, as is now generally admitted, addressed 
himself to his disciples and to his audience in the popular dialect. 
This appears, not only from the Aramaic words left in the gospels 
by the Greek translators, but more especially from his last words 
on the cross, which were spoken under circumstances of exhaustion 
and pain, when a person would naturally make use of his mother 
tongue ; and from the fact that it is mentioned that he spoke to 
Paul in Hebrew, Acts xxvi 14," (pp. 53, 54.) " The Jews so little 
knew Greek and so much less cared to know it, that Paul, in 
order to gain a hearing, was obliged to speak to them in their 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll. 

Aramaic dialects." " How would the Medes, Elamites, and 
Arabians have understood Peter at Pentecost, if he had spoken 
Greek to the ' men of Jadea, and all who dwelt in Jerusalem,' " 
(p. 54.) 

Prof. Neubauer gives many reasons for his "belief that few 
Jews in Palestine had a substantial knowledge of Greek." One of 
them is, that no events had occurred which could have made 
" Greek prominent in Palestine," (p. 62) ; that no nation ever 
makes so great a change in its language as to adopt " a totally- 
different " one, unless the conqueror transports the greater part of 
the inhabitants, and introduces foreign colonists who are far more 
numerous than the remaining inhabitants ; and that the Greeks 
had never this superiority of numbers in Palestine, (p. 64.) He 
says that few Greek words occur in the Jewish writings such as 
the Mishnah, the Targums, and the Talmud of Jerusalem ; that 
*' no apocryphal book, as far as our knowledge goes, was composed 
in Greek by a Palestinian Jew," (p. 65) ; that " so far as he can 
judge, all that the Jews in Palestine learned of Greek was at most 
a few sentences, sufficient to enable them to carry on trade, and to 
hold intercourse with the lower officials ; and that even this 
minimum certainly ceased after the Maccabean victory over 
Antiochus Epiphanes ; because it was the interest of the Asmonean 
Princes to keep the Jews aloof from the influence of the neighbour- 
ing dialects," (p. 66.) 

Professor Neubauer thinks that those Hebrews who lived in cities 
occupied chiefly by Greeks, " may have acquired a fair knowledge 
of conversational Greek, but not to such an extent as to enable 
them to speak it in public," (p. 67.) He says that even those Jews 
of Egypt and Asia Minor who spoke Greek, maintained a connec- 
tion with the mother-land by going to Jerusalem for feast-days ; 
and that "we may infer that they all still spoke, more or less, 
their native Hebrew dialect, because no mention is made of inter- 
preters being required for them either in the temple or outside of 
it," (pp. 62, 63.) 

The Greek translation of the Old- Covenant Hebrew Scriptures, 
called the Septuagint, which was made in Egypt, existed in the time 
of Christ ; but Prof. Neubauer says, " we may boldly state that this 
Greek translation of the Bible was unknown in Palestine, except 
to men of the schools, and perhaps a few of the Hellenistic Jews. 
It is said in the Talmud that when the Greek translation of the 
Seventy appeared, there came darkness upon the earth, and that 
the day was as unfortunate for Israel, as that on which the golden 
calf was made," (p. 67.) 

The fact that the Jews at Jerusalem who spoke Greek are called 
Hellenists, that is, Grecians, in Acts vi. 1, and ix. 29, shows 
that their Greek speech made them a peculiar class quite distinct 
from the rest of the people. 



Xiv. INTEODUCTION. 

In Antioch of Syria, thougli it was a celebrated Greek city, 
Syriac, as well as Greek, continued to be spoken. Professor 
Neubauer says, " Antioch and other Syrian towns would not give 
up Syriac," (pp. 63, 70.) 

He says also, "Had Greek been generally spoken and taught, 
why should the Talmud record a general exception, in favour of 

Gamaliel; and later, in the second century in favour of the 

family of Judah the saint, the redactor of the Mishnah," a decision 
that they " should be allowed to learn Greek, because they had to 
conduct negotiations with the government," (p. 67.) 

The Greek Scriptures record some of the exact words used by 
Jesus. Many of these are words which were used only in Syriac 
dialects. This fact is often referred to as proof that Christ spoke 
in Syriac. Bp. Walton, in the 13th of his Prolegomena, sec. 19, 
says, "There are many purely Syriac words left in the Greek 
N. T., which cannot be explained without a knowledge of Syriac; 
as raca, Matt. v. 22 ; momuno, riches, vi. 24 ; Bar-de-yauno, son of 
a dove, xvi. 17 ; Kurhono, offering, Mark vii. 11 ; shehakthoni, thou 
has forsaken me, Matt, xxvii. 46 ; Benai-Begesh, sons of thunder, 
Mark iii. 17 ; Tah'tho, kumi. Damsel, arise ; Mark v. 41 ; Khekal- 
den'O, the field of blood, Acts i. 19. Many others occur in Acts v. 1 ; 
ix. 36 ; John i. 47 ; 1 Cor. xvi. 22, — \_Moran etho, our Lord has 
come] ; and elsewhere. Indeed Jesus, the name of our Lord, is 
Syriac for Saviour ; the name Messiah is also Syriac, meaning 

Anointed The writers of the New Covenant first made known 

the heavenly words to the Jews, and to other surrounding popula- 
tions, in this their native tongue, and afterwards wrote in the 
Greek language, but in doing so retain everywhere a flavour of 
Syriac." 

Prof. Neubauer says, with reference to 1 Cor. xvi. 22, written to 
Greeks, "Is not the watchword, Morun etho, [our Lord has come], 
which passed to Greek- speaking populations, a sufficient proof that 
the speech of the first Christians was Aramaic," (p. 54.) A still 
more decisive proof that it was so, occurs in a remark made by 
Luke. He, guided by God's Spirit, said that the word Akeldama, 
(in the Pesthito Khekal-demo), the field of blood, was part of the 
language commonly used in Jerusalem. There is no such word as 
Khekal, field, in Ancient Hebrew. The only languages in which 
Castle, in his Lexicon of the six related languages :— Hebrew, 
Chaldee, Syriac, Samaritan, -ffithiopic, and Arabic, says it occurs, 
are Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic. It does not occur in Gesenius's 
Lexicon of ancient Hebrew. When therefore Luke says — "And 
it became known to all the dwellers in Jerusalem, insomuch that 
in their language that field is called Akel-dama, that is, the 
field of blood," (Acts i. 19), we have infallible proof that the Syriac 
language was the language of Jerusalem. 



ITs^TRODUCTIOX. XV. 

JoSEPHUS is a witness of very great importance on this subject 
also. He was so perfectly familiar with the state of things in 
Palestine, in the first century, and took such care to give correct 
information, that his testimony has great weight. At the end of his 
"Antiquities, (written in Greek,) he said, " I am bold to say 
that no other person, whether a Jew, or of another race, would 
have been able, had he wished, to produce this work for Greeks, so 
accurately ; for I am admitted by my own countrymen to excel 
them far in the learning of our country, and I have applied myself 

with diligence to obtain a knowledge of Greek literature For 

among us those are not esteemed who learn the languages of many 

nations ; but testimony for wisdom is given to those only who 

understand well our laws, and are able to explain the meaning of 
the sacred writings. For this reason, out of the many who have 
toiled at this endeavour, scarcely some two or three have succeeded 
well." This testimony of the most learned and reliable of uncon- 
verted Jews, is proof how few Jews had much knowledge of the 
Greek language. 

Another proof of this, is what he relates of the time when he 
was a captive in the Eoman army on the outside of Jerusalem. In 
defending himself against Apion (Book I.), he says that he presented 
his Greek history of the Jewish war "to the chief commanders 
Vespasian and Titus, and to many Eomans who were in the war," 
and that these all bore testimony to his truthfulness. They all 
therefore knew Greek, and would have understood what those Jews 
who came out of the city, and surrendered themselves, said, if these 
could have spoken only a few words of Greek. But Josephus 
says, — "The things told by those who surrendered themselves, 
only I understood." It is impossible therefore that the Jews of 
Palestine and Jerusalem could have understood either the Eedeemer 
or his apostles, if they had spoken to them in Greek, or in any 
other language but that which Josephus calls the language of his 
own country at that time — a dialect of the widely spread Syriac 
language. 

The conclusion to which such a concurrence of evidence leads 
is that Syriac was unquestionably the language commonly spoken 
in Palestine in the time of Christ, and that very few Jews had a 
good knowledge of Greek. 

This conclusion leads almost of necessity to another ; namely, 
that there must have been some provision in writing, made by the 
apostles for the use of that large body of Christians who knew no 
language well but Syriac. Whatever was revealed as the will of 
God, whether written at first in Syriac or in Greek, was to be 
taught, not to the Jews only, nor to the Gentiles only, but to all 
disciples every where ; that all might know it, aid all be guided by 



XVI. INTRODUCTION. 

it. Peter, writing to Hebrews, said (2 Epistle i. 15), '* Moreover I 
will endeavour that ye may be able after my decease to have these 
things always in remembrance." This could only be done by writing. 
The apostles knew well, and must have remembered as Peter did, 
that what they had taught by voice would soon be unknown to most, 
unless the disciples were well supplied with it in writing. They 
must all, of necessity, have had Peter's desire. They must have 
wished to make provision that what they taught by revelation to 
some one church might be known to all churches, not only while 
they lived, but after they were dead. Paul, who was willing to be 
made a curse, with view to the salvation of the Hebrews, must have 
desired that what was revealed to him for the guidance of GrreekSi 
should be known also to Hebrews; and that it was known to 
Hebrews in his life time, appears from the remark of Peter, who 
laboured chiefly among Hebrews, and who, when writing to 
Hebrews, speaks of "all" Paul's letters as well-known writings. 
In his 2 Epistle iii. 16, he says of Paul, " As also in all hia letters, 
speaking in them of these things ; in which are some things hard 
to bo understood, which those who are unlearned and unstable 
wrest, as they do also the other Scriptures to their own destruc- 
tion." His words imply that all Paul's letters had been extensively 
read by Hebrew Christians, and that they were treated with the 
same supreme regard as " the other Scriptures." They cannot 
have been read by more than a few of the Hebrews in Greek ; it 
seems almost certain that there must have been some Syriac 
translation. Such considerations as these prepare us to receive 
readily whatever proof may exist, that Greek was not the only 
language in which the apostles left written records of God's will. 

Teemellius, a Christian Jew, who was a Professor in the 
University of Heidelberg, and who published, in 1569, an edition 
of the N. C. Peshito, contended that unless God loved foreigners 
more than Jews he must have provided these, as well as the 
Greeks, with the inspired writings in their own tongue. He said 
that it seemed to be '' wholly in accord with truth, that at the 
very beginning of the Church of Christ, the Syriac version was 
made either by the Apostles themselves, or by their disciples ; 
unless indeed we prefer to suspect that, in writing, they intended 
to have regard for foreigners only ; and to have either no regard, 
or certainly very little, for those of their own nation," (Gutbier's 
Peshito, p. 29.) We know that the apostles, instead of showing 
less regard for the Jews than for the Gentiles, always went to the 
Jews first, and showed a surpassing regard for their welfare. It 
seems to be extremely probable that Paul himself took care that 
most of his epistles should be written in Syriac as well as in 
Greek, so as to inform his own countrymen everywhere of whatever 
was revealed to him for the guidance of all Christians throughout 
the world. 



i:ntroddctio^''. xvii. 

III. — The Difference between the Syeiac of the Peshito- 
Syriac text, and the popular Syriac DiAiiECT OF Palestine. 

The Syriac words which are retained in the Greek text have a 
slight difference, in form, from those of the Peshito-Syriac text ; and 
show that the Syriac of Palestine, used by the Eedeemer, differed 
slightly from that of Edessa, for which city the Peshito-Syriac was 
made. Professor Neubauer says, that the Syriac words which are 
recorded in the Greek text, show that the Jewish Syriac " was a 
distinct dialect, in some respects, from the Syriac of the Syrians," 
(p. 53.) No book of the New Covenant writings has come down to 
us, written in the popular dialect of Palestine. The Gospel of 
Matthew is said by all the early Christian writers to have been 
written for the Christians of Palestine in their own Syriac language. 
It has not come down to us in that dialect. But Jerome (who died 
AD. 420) said that he had seen a copy of it. His words are these : — 
" Matthew, the first [writer], composed in Judsea, for those of the 
circumcision who had believed, a gospel of Christ in Hebrew letters 
and words. Who it was who afterwards translated it into Greek is 
not sufficiently certain. Moreover the Hebrew gospel itself is 
preserved even to this day in the Library at Caesarea, which 
Pamphilus the martyr collected with the greatest diligence," (Jer. 
Jones on the Canon, part ii., chap, xxv., sec. 13 ; also Prager on 
O. C. Peshito, p. 36.) The siege and destruction of Jerusalem are 
probably the cause of its having been so rare even at that time. 
It seems also to have been afterwards corrupted and made worth- 
less. But it was much more important that copies of the inspired 
books should be preserved in the more widely used Syriac dialect 
in which the Peshito is written, than in the local dialect of Priles- 
tine. And God so ordered events that though whatever books of 
the New Covenant were written in the Syriac of Palestine, seem 
to have perished, those of the Peshito in the Edessa dialect were 
multiplied exceedingly, and were copied with the utmost care. 

The N. C. Peshito-Syriac, properly so called, never contained 

THE WHOLE OF THE BOOKS WHICH WE HAVE IN THE GrEEK TEXT. 

The books 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and Eevelation, were 
never regarded as part of it, though these books, in a separate Syriac 
translation, were admitted to represent inspired books. The 
extraordinary esteem in which the books of the Peshito were held, 
shows that the Syriac copies of these were regarded as having had 
a far more exalted origin than the Syriac text of the other five. 
The fact seems to be, that at the later date at which the omitted five 
books were written, no inspired men corrected them in the dialect 
of Edessa; and that for this reason the Syriac translation of thess 
five books was not permitted to be associated with that of the other 
books, to prevent it from being regarded as of the same authority. 
Bp. Walton, in his Polyglot, Prol. xiii. sec. 16, says that 



XVm. INTRODUCTION. 

** Sj^riac writers state that 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, andEevela- 
tion, were not in the ancient edition" of the Peshito. 

J. WiCHELHAUS says, "It is very well known that the Syrians 
did not reject " the five books not contained in the Peshito. " We 
deem the sum of the matter to be that by the tradition of the 
Syrians, the Peshito version was made in the time of Abgar the 
King [of Edessal, at the time when the gospel was preached 
there," (p. 63.) The Nestorian Christians deemed it " to have 
been written by Apostolic Authority,'' (p. 153.) At p. 85, Wichel- 
haus says of the five books which are not in the Peshito, that *' by 
the consent of all, they ought to be assigned to the end of the lives 
of the Apostles ;" and that some derive from their omission an 
argument for the antiquity of the Peshito, as having been " written 
before the four epistles and the Eevelation were published," (p. 85.) 

Bp. Huet, in his learned work " On the most illustrious Trans- 
lators, 1683," remarks that the absence of those five books is " a 
great proof of the antiquity " of the N. 0. Peshito, (p. 126.) 

The N. 0. Peshito -Syriac is or special worth for two reasons ; 
first, that there is credible testimony that it was made in the life- 
time of the Apostles ; and next, that the copies of it have been 
made with the greatest exactness and care. Wichelhaus says 
" There was no doubt about its truth and perfectness ; and on that 
account the more effort and labour were bestowed on the text of 
the version, to keep it pure and free from every taint of error and 
variation," (p. 153.) " All persons testify, and the history of the 
Syrians itself clearly proves, that the greatest care was taken 
from the most ancient times, in order that the letter of the sacred 
Scripture might be always perfectly preserved in agreement with 
itself. For of the Peshito version, there was the greatest venera- 
tion," (p. 230.) 

IV. — How WE MAY KNOW WHETHTR BOOKS WHICH ARE SAID TO 
BE THE WORD OF GOD, ARE SO OR NOT. " 

Three things need to be proved to make it certain that any book 
which we have now, contains, "not the word of men, but the 
word of God," (1 Thes. ii. 13.) First, proof by miracles that God 
spoke by the alleged writer, (see John iii. 2 ; x. 38 ; Heb. ii. 3, 4.) 
Secondly, proof by the hand- writing of the alleged author, or 
other means, that the original copy of the book was declared by 
him to be " the word of God." Paul gave this token by his hand- 
writing, in every epistle (2 Thess. iii. 17, 18.) Thirdly, proof that 
the book which we have now is the same book which he delivered, 
and has been copied and handed down to us without alteration. 
The first and second proofs could only be known to those of 
the first centuries. The hand- writing of the apostles, which proved 
the divine authority of early copies, soon perished. What we need 
now is clear and credible testimony that copies, which were in 



INTEODUCTION. XIX. 

pubKc and private religious use in the early centuries, when their 
descent from the originals could be traced, and their likeness to 
them proved, were by most, or universally, believed to be true 
copies of the books which contained, not the words of men, but 
" the words " of God. We need also proof that these copies of 
the first ages were in the following centuries, so exactly copied, 
that we are assured that the copies we have now, are exact copies 
of them. It is evident that if copies whose Apostolic descent was 
firmly believed and well attested in the first ages, have in the 
following ages, been copied in different places far apart; that, 
then, if the existing copies of these separate lines of descent agree, 
it is the most decisive proof possible that they must all have been 
most carefully made through the ages, or they could not possibly 
agree thus now. Proof of exact copying is essential to our know- 
ledge of what the Apostles wrote. For as, when a witness lies, 
no one can tell when he is speaking truth ; so, when the copy of a 
book which contained at first the words of God, is proved to be 
untrue in many places, no one can rely on it as proof of what is 
true, or what is false, in doubtful readings. Copies proved to be of 
true descent, and to have been exactly copied from the first, are 
the only copies fit to be trusted as witnesses on disputed readings ; 
especially because the question at issue is, What words are, or are 
not, the infallible words of God. The exact copying of the 
Peshito-Syriac text is one of the things which gives it such great 
weight. 

P. D. HuET, Bp. of Avranches, in France, a scholar of high 
repute, and chief editor of the Delphin classics, said, with respect 
to the means of deciding whether a work is really what it is said 
to be, " That every book is genuine which was esteemed genuine 
by those who lived nearest to the time when it was written, and 
by the ages succeeding in a continued series " ; and that " this is 
an axiom which cannot be disputed by those who will allow any 
thing at all to be certain in history." (See Jeremiah Jones's work 
on the Canon, 1798, vol. 1, p. 43). Iilr. Jones remarks on this 
axiom, that in the case of Christian books this kind of evidence 
may be stronger than in the case of other books ; that the esteem 
in which the books from the first were held, the use made of them 
by religious assemblies, and the translations made from them very 
early into other languages, may concur to make an imposture in 
their case " almost impossible ;" (pp. 43, 44.) 

JxjSTiisr THE Mahtyr, in his second defence of the Christians, 
written 150 years after the birth of Christ, said that they were an 
*' innumerable multitude," and that every Sunday they met to- 
gether, and read the ' ' Gospels written by the Apostles " (see his 
Greek Apology.) Justin describes himself as being " of Palestine," 
and as writing his address on behalf of those who dwelt there. 
(See the beginning.) Mr. Jeremiah Jones remarks that as the 

b2 



XX. INTRODUCTIOIS'. 

language of Palestine was Syriac, the Gospels which were said by 
Justin to have been read every Sunday, must have been in Syriac. 
He says, " This argument I look upon as conclusive," in proof 
that the Gospels then existed in " the Syriac language " (Vol. I., 
p. 97). No other Gospels but those of the Peshito, are proved by 
other evidence to have been in general use by those speaking 
Syriac. The one Gospel used by the Nazareans, cannot possibly 
be meant by Justin when he speaks of the records made by the 
Apostles, which are called ^'the Gospels^' (Paris edition, 1552, 
p. 162). 

Proof that the Peshito existed in the time of Justin the Martyr, 
and also that it had existed from before the time when the latest 
Apostolic hooks luere written, seems to be given by the fact that it 
does not contain these books. If they had been then written, they 
could not have been then excluded from fellowship with the other 
divine writings without giving the false impression that they were 
not of the same divine authority. But there is proof that those 
five other books were not kept separate from the Peshito, because 
they were themselves denied to be of Apostolic authority, but 
only because the Syriac copies of them were denied to be of 
the same authority as the other Syriac books in the dialect of 
Edessa. The difference made between those five Syriac books 
and the Peshito, was because the five had only some uninspired 
translator. It therefore implies belief that the Peshito had 
been made by persons who were more than mere human trans- 
lators) such as he was who made the Edessene transcript of 
the other books ; it implies that the Peshito was made either 
by persons who themselves wrote what God directed them to 
write, or by others whose work had their oversight and ap- 
proval. For if all the New Covenant books had been written 
in the Edessene dialect by uninspired translators, there is no 
known reason why they should have been kept so separate ; and 
why the Peshito alone should have been treated with such 
superior reverence, and with such faith in its very words, as sacred, 
that it would have been deemed a sin to alter any of them. In 
this view Mr. Jeremiah Jones concurs. He says that " it seems 
most probable " that the reason why the five books are not in the 
[Peshito-] Syriac copies, is "because they were not written when the 
Syriac Version was made ; for had they been written then, those 
so useful Epistles would have been translated, for the same 
reason as the others. This was the argument which, among 
others, convinced Tremellius (see the preface to his Syriac N. T.) 
and the learned Bp. Walton (see the Prolegomena to his Polyglot), 
that this version was made in the Apostles' time " (Jones, vol. 
iii., p. 175). 

Canon Westcott, of Cambridge University, says in his work 
on the Canon of the N. T. (that is, on what books are really part 



INTBODUCTION. XXI. 

of God's Word,) 1875, tliat to justify the acceptance of any book as 
infallible, we need evidence similar to that which Bp. Huet says 
is a sure proof that a book is what it is said to be. Dr. Westcott 
says at p. 12, "It is impossible to insist too often or too earnestly 
on this, that it is to the Church, as a witness, and keeper of holy 
writ, that we must look both for the formation and the proof of the 
Canon. The written rule of Christendom must rest finally on the 
general confession of the Church, and not on the independent 
opinions of its members. . . . The chief value of private testimony 
lies in the fact that it is a natural expression of the current opinion 
of the time." He applies this rule to the Greek Testament, by 
showing that its several books were received at an early date, and 
prized in the following centuries, as divine, by the mass of those 
Greek Christians, who were not gross corrupters of the truth. 
He appeals to " common usage," p. 12; to the mention of these 
books as " received by Churches," p. 13, and to proofs of " a belief 
widely spread throughout the Christian body," as affording decisive 
evidence that these books are genuine and Apostolic (p. 14). 

Dr. Westcott admits that evidence very much like this exists 
also with respect to the Peshito-Syriac books. He says, " The 
Peshito Version is assigned almost universally to the most remote 
Christian antiquity. The Syriac Christians of Malabar even now 
claim for it the right to be considered as an Eastern original of the 
New Testament, and .... their tradition is not, to a certain 
extent, destitute of all plausibility," "It was in the Aramsen 
vernacular language of the Jews of Palestine that the Gospel of 
Matthew was originally written, if we believe the unanimous 
testimony of the fathers ; and it is not unnatural to look to the 
Peshito as likely to contain some traces of its first form." (P. 233.) 
" The dialect of the Peshito, even as it stands now, represents, in 
part at least, that form of Aramaic which was current in Pales- 
tine." (P. 234.) "Edessa is signalised in early church history 
by many remarkable facts. It was called the 'holy' and the 
' blessed ' city : its inhabitants were said to have been brought 
over by Thaddeus in a marvellous manner to the Christian faith ; 
and ' from that time forth,' Eusebius adds, ' the whole people of 
Edessa have continued to be devoted to the name of Christ.' " " Tra- 
dition fixes on Edessa as the place whence the Peshito took its 
rise. Gregory Bar Hebreus, one of the most learned and accurate 
of Syrian writers, .... assumes the Apostolic origin of the New 
Testament Peshito as certain. . . . He speaks of this as a known 
and acknowledged fact." (Pp. 235—6.) Dr. Westcott says also, 
* ' This version was universally received by the different sects into 
which the Syrian Church was divided [after] the fourth century, and 
so has continued current even to the present time. All the Syrian 
Christians whether belonging to the Nestorian, Jacobite, or 



XXU. INTRODUCTION. 

Eoman communion, conspire to hold the Peshito authoritative, 
and to use it in their public services. . . . The Peshito became 
in the East the fixed and unalterable EuLE OF Scripture." 
(P. 239.) " The respect in which the Peshito was held, was further 
shown by the fact that it was taken as the basis of other versions 
in the East. An Arabic and a Persian version were made from 
it." (P. 240.) 

Dr. Westcott has linked the Peshito with the Latin Yulgate in 
a passage which, if freed from reference to the Latin version, to 
avoid any discussion respecting it, says of the Peshito, " Its voice 
is one to which we cannot refuse to listen. It gives the testimony 
of Churches, and not of individuals. It is sanctioned by public 
use, and not only supported by private criticism. Combined with 
the original Greek [and the Old Latin], it represents the New 
Testament Scriptures as they were read throughout the whole of 
Christendom towards the close of the second century. ... It 
furnishes a proof of the authority of the books which it contains, 
widespread, continuous, reaching to the utmost verge of our 
historic records. Its real weight is even greater than this ; for 
when history first speaks of it, it speaks as of that which was 
recognised as a heritage from an earlier period, which cannot 
have been long after the days of the Apostles." (P. 263.) 

Dr. Westcott gives at p. 241, the following information from 
Dr. Wm. Wright, Professor of Arabic in Cambridge University, 
one of the best informed persons on this subject. He says, " Of the 
Syriac manuscripts in the British Museum, the earliest of the N. T. 
which is dated, is A.D. 768." It does not contain the five books 
last written. '* An earlier copy of the oth or 6th century gives 
the same books in a different order. . . . The earliest manuscript 
in which the disputed Epistles occur is dated A.D. 823." 

Dr. Westcott gives, under letter D, in his appendix, " The 
chief catalogues of the Books of the Bible during the first eight 
centuries." Sixteen out of thirty-two of them are those of the 
Eastern Churches. No. IV., by Chrysostom, cent. IV., has only 
*' three catholic Epistles," James, 1 Peter, and 1 John. He omits 
the five books absent from the Peshito. No. VII. is a list by 
Hebedjesu, about 1318, A.D., from Asseman's Bibliotheca, Vol. iii. 
Hebedjesu omits the five books above mentioned. He says, 
"Matthew wrote in Hebrew in Palestine." He describes the 
three Epistles, that of James, 1 Peter, and 1 John, as " The three 
letters which have, written in them, writing by the Apostles in every 
copy and language, namely, those of James, Peter, and John ; 
and which are_ called catholic." The statement that these three 
Epistles were issued by the Apostles in various languages, and 
authenticated in all of them by the handwriting of the Apostles, 
is of special importance. In No. XVIIL, the list of Leontius, 
about A.D. 590, seven letters are called catholic, i.e., universal, 



INTRODUCTION. Xxiii. 

namely, that of James, 1 and 2 of Peter, 1, 2 and 3 of John, and 
that of Jude, and the reason given for this name is, "Because 
they were not written for one nation, as those of Paul were ; but 
universally for all nations ; " he means probably for the Hebrew 
Christians dispersed throughout all nations. The above lists all 
represent the Eastern Churches. 

The Churches which have used the Peshito-Syriac text have 
borne witness as uniformly to its "Apostolic origin" and 
authority, as the Churches which have used the Grreek text have 
declared its Divine authority. Too little attention has been given 
to this admitted fact ; and besides this, many modern critics who 
have treated the Greek text as the only text which has testimony 
to its Apostolic authority, have rejected the general testimony of 
those very Churches which have used the Greek text. These 
critics have slighted the readings best approved by the mass and 
long line of those assemblies ; and have adopted as chief guides 
two copies which have no record whatever of having been generally 
approved by those Churches ; they have also done this in spite of 
internal evidence in these two Greek copies, that they have been 
carelessly luritten. Special attention needs to be given to these 
facts. Even Canon Westcott, who insists so strongly, in his work 
on the Canon, p. 12, that we must depend for proof of what " the 
written Eule of Christendom " is, on the " general confession " of 
Christian bodies, has adopted in connection with Dr. Hort, and 
with view to settle the Greek text upon a sure basis, '* a system " 
which, as Dr. Scrivener says, (Introduction, p. 537), is itself 
" entirely destitute of historical foundation." 

Canon Westcott anu Dr. Hort have made and followed con- 
jectures equally "destitute of historical foundation," with respect 
to THE Peshito-Syriac Text. One of these conjectures relates 
to some fragments of an old Syriac translation of the Gospels, dis- 
covered by the late Dr. W. Cureton, and published by him in 
1858. Nothing is known about it, except that it was brought from 
Egypt to Britain. I have not been able to get a copy, and know 
it chiefly by a review of it published in 1859, by Prof. Christian 
Hermansen, of Copenhagen. This is not the place to discuss the 
peculiarities of that translation. It is sufficient to quote a few 
words from Mr. Hermansen. He says that the Peshito and this 
translation ''greatly differ "and in ''various ways," p. 7; and 
that there is "a wonderful agreement between this translation 
and the Cambridge manuscript called D," (p. 21), of which copy 
Dr. Scrivener, an able judge, says, " It may be said without 
extravagance, that no set of scriptural records affords a text less 
probable in itself, or less sustained by any rational principles 
of external evidence, than that of codex D, of the Latin codices, 
and (so far as it accords with them) of Cureton's Syriac. (Intro- 
duction to N. T. 1883, p. 510.) Dr. Roberts, of Aberdeen, seems 



XXlV. IXTr.ODUCTIOX. 

to be justified in saying of Dr. Cureton's fragments, "Never, 
probably, was there in the whole history of critical publications, 
such a notable example of self-delusion as that under which Dr. 
Cureton has laboured in this undertaking;" (Dr. E., on the 
Original Language of Matthew, p. 131); that is, the undertaking 
to prove that these fragments "more nearly represent the exact 
words of Matthew himself than any copy yet discovered," (p. 122). 
And yet Dr. Westcott and Dr. Hort assume that this " Curetonian 
version of the Gospels " is the first form of the Peshito. Canon 
Westcott calls it the " Old Syriac," (on Canon, p. 233, note 6.) 
He says, " It appears to have been afterwards corrected," but "in 
the absence of an adequate supply of critical materials, it is im- 
possible to construct the history of these recensions in the Syriac," 
(p. 234.) Notwithstanding these conjectured recensions, he speaks 
of "the present corrupt state of the text" (p. 240.) One is 
startled, pained, and almost appalled, by finding that a scholar so 
highly esteemed as Canon Westcott is, can so violate his own 
rules ; by finding that he not only rejects the admitted testimony 
of " Churches " to the '' Apostolic authority " of the Peshito as it 
now exists, but even invents and follows mere fictions, and these 
of a kind fitted and seemingly intended to destroy its reputation. 
Can it be that this amazing inconsistency and impropriety is in 
some degree due to a fact which Canon Westcott mentions in one 
of his notes, when speaking of the Peshito 'f The note is this (in 
his work on the Canon, p. 238,) "In reference to the phraseology 
of the Peshito, it is worthy of remark that Eyiscopus is preserved 
in one place only, Acts xx. 28. Elsewhere it is hashisho (presbyter) 
except in 1 Pet. ii. 25." The Peshito has there " care-taker." 
Dr. Westcott' s note directs special attention to the fact that the 
Peshito has omitted in most places the word, which, by being 
adopted as the name of the prelates who rule the Church of 
England, gives them some show, and but a deceptive show, of 
scriptural origin. It cannot be forgotten that Dr. Westcott has 
stated that the omission of the word bishop from passages in the 
Peshito, is a fact " worthy of remark." 

Des. Westcott and Hort published in ;881, six years after Dr. 
Westcott's fourth edition of his work on the Canon, dated 1875, a 
long and mysteriously made Introduction to a new Greek text, 
full of strange changes. Both editors are responsible for the 
principles, arguments, and conclusions set forth in this Introduc- 
tion, but it was " written by Dr. Hort " (Int. p. 18.) The follow- 
ing suggestions made by them are founded wholly on imagination^ 
without one word of proof. " The popular Peshito version, till 
recently, has been known only in the form it finally received by 
an evidently authoritative revision. . . . An Old Syriac must have 
existed as well as an Old Latin. Within the last few years the 
surmise has been verified. An imperfect Old Syriac copy of the 



INTRODUCTION. XXV. 

Gospels, assigned to tlie fifth century, was found by Careton 
among MSS. brought to the British Museum from Egypt in 1842, 
and was published by him in 1858." This is assumed by the writers 
to be the Peshito " in its original form," and is said to ' ' render the 
comparatively late and revised character " of the Peshito, " a matter 
oi certainty ^' {ip. 84.) Upon this dream of the imagination, con- 
tinued references are made to the Peshito as '^ not coming up to 
the requirements of criticism," etc. (pp. 84, 92, 136, 156, 158^-9.) 
Sadly often have " false witnesses risen up." But it must be 
deemed an alarming proof of the diseased state of biblical criticism, 
if we find even leading men indulging, not only in wild fancies, 
but even in false accusations against the most truthful of witnesses. 
The late Dean Burgon in his work, " The Eevision Eevised, 1883," 
pp. 273 — 8, said in reference to these conjectures, "Not a shadow 
of proof is forthcoming that any such Recension as Dr. Hort 
imagines, ever took place at all.'" He has, " Istly, assumed a 

* Syrian Recension ; ' 2ndly, invented the cause of it ; and 3rdly, 
dreamed the process by which it was carried into execution." 
After reminding Dr. Hort that Bp. EUicott has said that, " It is 
no stretch of the imagination to suppose that portions of the 
Peshito might have been in the hands of the Ajjosile John," the 
Dean said, "The ahominaUy corrupt document known as ' Cure- 
ton's Syriac,' is by another bold hypothesis, assumed to be the only 
surviving specimen of the unre vised version, and is thence- 
forth invariably designated by these authors as the Old Syriac." 
" Not a shadow of reason is produced why we should suppose, 1st, 
that such a Eevision took place, and 2ndly, that all our existing 
manuscripts represent it." "These editors even assure us that 

* Cureton's Syriac ' renders the comparatively late and ' revised ' 
character of the Syriac Vulgate," i.e., the Peshito "a matter of 
certainty. The very city in which it underwent revision, can, it 
seems, be fixed with ' tolerable certainty.^ Can Dr. Hort be 
serious ? " 

These painful details are given for the double purpose of guard- 
ing the reader, 1st, against wrong conclusions as to the Peshito 
itself ; and 2ndly, against placing confidence, without due exami- 
nation , in the conclusions of the most influential critics of the day. 
The habit of substituting mere conjecture for proof, is far too 
common with respect to the Peshito. 

One illustration of the great importance of some of the questions 
which these editiors try to decide by the aid of conjecture, is 
worthy of special notice. In John i. 18, they have placed words, 
meaning that Christ is "the only begotten God." They have 
placed these words in the main text. The Eevisers of the English 
Version have not put these words in the chief place ; but say in 
the margin, "Many very ancient authorities read, God only 
begotten." In two of the three creeds in the Prayer-book of the 



XXvi. INTEODTJCTION. 

Churcli of England tlie semi-Arian "belief is avowed that tlie "Word, 
the second person of the Oodhead, was begotten by the first. In the 
Athanasian creed he is said to have been "begotten before the 
worlds." In the creed used in the communion service he is said 
to have been " begotten before all worlds, very God of very God, 
begotten not made." The Peshito has in John i. 18, " the only 
God," without the word "begotten." He who called himself "I 
am," declared that, like the Father, he, the Word, is self-existent 
(John viii. 58.) God tells us by Luke, that Jesus is called the Son 
of God, in respect of his manhood, not of his Deity (Luke i. 35.) 
But these eminent scholars, by following corrupt copies, have 
introduced the false teaching of the creeds, as to the derived and 
inferior Godhead of the Word, into the Book of God itself. This 
false reading not only ascribes to the Eedeemer a double Sonship, 
one, that of his humanity, another, that of his divinity, of which 
Scripture says nothing ; but it provides a theme for the scoff of 
infidels ; and builds a barrier which prevents the godly from 
asserting the absolute "oneness," and the underived equality of 
the Deity of the Father and the Word. 

Bishop Herbert Marsh, Professor of Divinity in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, in his " Lectures on the Criticism of the Bible, 
1828," maintained, as most persons do, that Conjecture must not 
be " applied to the sacred writings," (p. 26.) It is indeed self- 
evident that conjecture cannot possibly prove a book to be of 
Divine origin ; nor can possibly be a fit reason for believing that 
any words in it have such authority. We have to insist that 
evidence, not fictions, shall guide those who profess to teach us 
what words are those of God, that readings approved by the mass 
of the faithful both of earlier and of later centuries, shall have a 
full hearing ; that mere foundling copies, without a history, full 
of copyist errors, and tainted with semi-Arian untruth, shall have 
a low place and little regard ; that copies exactly written, and well 
attested, as having descended from the very time of the Apostles, 
shall be treated with all the honour which is their due. 



Y. — The Belief oe those Christian Bodies which have 
Used the N. C. Peshito -Syriac Books. 

The fact that the N. C. Peshito Books were never, for many 
centuries, combined with any Syriac translation of the five 
omitted books, though the omitted books were also believed to 
have had a divine origin in some other dialect, is, itself, a proof 
that the origin of the Peshito text was believed to be so much 
above any uninspired translation, that it would have been a sin to 
bind up any uninspired translation with the Peshito. Wichelhaus 
says, "In all copies of the Peshito version, those [five omitted] 



INTRODTJCTION. XXVU. 

books are souglit for in vain" (p. 221.) Yet** it is very well 
known that the Syrians did not reject those epistles (p. 63.) 

There is an account of the use of Syriac books called ' ' The New 
Covenant " by the converts of Thaddeus, one of the seventy who 
were sent forth by Christ himself in His lifetime. Matthew says 
that the fame of Jesus "went throughout all Syria" (Matt. iv. 
24), and the following are not idle tales, but well authenticated 
historical facts. Abgar was the king of a small Syrian kingdom 
called Osrhoene, which, as Gibbon says, "occupied the northern 
and most fertile part of Mesopotamia, between the Euphrates and 
the Tigris. Its capital, Edessa, was situated about twenty miles 
beyond the Euphrates." (Decline, chap, viii.) Eusebiussays that 
he himself, translated into Greek from Syriac, for his history, 
the account then existing in the public records of that kingdom, 
of the manner in which the king and many of the citizens became 
true Christians. Abgar was afflicted with an incurable disease. 
He heard of the cures effected by Jesus. He sent a messenger 
to him asking that he would come and heal him. Jesus is said 
to have replied, that after his ascension to heaven, he would send 
one of his disciples to heal him, and to teach both him, and those 
with him, the way of life. Eusebius says that after the ascen- 
sion of Jesus, the Apostle Thomas, by divine direction, sent 
thither Thaddeus one of the seventy. Thaddeus did great 
miracles. Abgar was healed by him, and many others. 

Dr. Cureton found among the Syriac manuscripts in the British 
Museum a very old one, copied, he said, " certainly not later than 
the beginning of the fifth century.'' Its title is, " The Teaching 
of Thaddeus the Apostle." It relates what Thaddeus did and said, 
and what results followed his teaching, down to the time of his 
death. The Syriac original, and a translation by Dr. Cureton, 
are before me ; also the Syriac, and an English translation of 
another copy published by Dr. George Phillips, President of 
Queen's College, Cambridge. Thaddeus, whose first address to the 
citizens is recorded in this document, spoke in a manner which 
remarkably corresponds with such a divine mission. In the 
course of it he said, " Though ye were not near at the time when 
the Anointed suffered, yet by the sun which was darkened, and 
ye saw [it], learn and understand how great a convulsion there 
was at the time of the crucifixion of him whose message has been 
spread abroad through all the earth, by the miracles which his 
disciples, my companions, are working in all the earth, and who, 
though Hebrews, who knew only the tongue of the Hebrews, in 
which they were born, behold ! to-day are speaking in all 
tongues ; that those who are far off, as well as those who are near, 
may hear, and may believe, that this is he who confused the 
languages of the arrogant in this region of the ancients ; that it is 
he who teaches by means of us to-day, trust in what is true and 



XXVin. INTRODUCTION. 

leal, by [us] the lowly and uncultured, who are from Galilee of 
Palestine. For I also, whom ye see, am from Paneas, from the 
place where the river Jordan goes forth : and I was chosen, 
together with my companions, to be a bearer of tidings. . . And the 
seed of his word I sow in the ears of every man ; and those who 
are willing to receive it, theirs will be a good reward of [their] 
profession : but against those who obey not, I shake off the dust 
of my feet, as he [Jesus] commanded me. Turn, therefore, my 
beloved, from evil ways and hateful deeds ; and turn to him 
with a good and honest will, as he has turned to you in the 
compassion of his rich mercies. . . . Flee, therefore, from things 
made and created, as 1 have said to you — from things which by 
name only are called gods, but are not gods in their nature ; and 
draw near to him who, in his nature is God eternally and from 
everlasting. . . . Because though he clothed himself in this 
body, he is God with his Father." " Get that new mind which 
worships the Maker, and not the things made ; [the mind] in 
which is to be formed an image of what is true and real — of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Spirit of holiness, when ye 
shall trust, and be immersed in the threefold glorious names." 
(See Cureton's Syriac copy, pp. 8, 9, 11.) 

Thaddeus was probably not one of the twelve, though he is 
called an apostle, but one of the seventy sent forth by Christ to 
preach, with power to work miracles, in his life-time. The above 
extracts are given as a portrait of his ministry and teaching. He 
is the person to whose superintending care Syrian writers ascribe 
the formation of the Peshito ; and as he worked miracles, whatever 
he sanctioned as part of God's teaching, had the same authority 
as that which the twelve said was from God. The above extracts 
tend to confirm belief in his fitness to make or obtain for his 
converts divinely attested copies of the sacred books so soon as 
they were written. It is vain to expect to trace all the means by 
which it was effected. It is enough for us to know that those 
who knew the result attest it to be, that the Peshito "was 
written by apostolic authority," (Wichelhaus, p. 153). Thaddeus 
may have died before many of the books contained in the Peshito 
were first written. But the Apostle John lived for some time after 
they were completed, and, whoever may have written some of these 
books in the Syriac of Edessa, it was possible for them to have 
been submitted to him for rectification and divine authority. It is 
stated by an early writer that some books were really submitted to 
John for this purpose. Photius, who is called by Mr. Jer. Jones 
a "most accurate and judicious critic" (vol. i. 240), has given an 
extract from a very ancient book which states that the Apostle 
John, after he had been banished from Ephesus by Domitian, 
who died, A.D. 96, returned to Ephesus when Nerva succeeded 
him, " took the several books which contained the history of our 



INTRODUCTIO?^. xxix 

Saviour's sufferings, miracles, and doctrines, and which were now 
translated into several different languages, reviewed them, rectified 
them, and joined himself to the former three evangelists," i.e., by- 
writing his Gospel in Greek. (Jones on Canon, Vol. iii. 2.) 

A MAJflTSCRIPT OP THE FOUE, GoSPELS 1^ SyEIAC, BEARING 

DATE A.D. 78, is mentioned by J. S. Asseman, in his Bibliotheca. 
The manu&cr-pt was preserved at Bagdad on the river Tigris ; at 
the end it had these words under written ; " This sacred book was 
finished on Wed., the 18th day of the month Conun, in the year 
389," that is of the Greeks, which was A.D. 78, " by the hand 
of the Apostle Achaeus, a fellow labourer of Mar Maris, and a 
disciple of the Apostle Mar Thaddeus, whom we intreat to pray 
for us." This prayer implies that the statement was written after 
the time of Achseus (who is probably the person called also Aggseus), 
and Dr. Glocester Eidley says that Achaeus died a.d. 48. For this 
and other reasons J. D. Michaelis says that the statement " is of 
no authority." (Marsh's Michaelis, 1823, vol. ii., p. 31.) 

The great number oe converts made by Thaddeus, needed 
to be supplied immediately with written Divine records in 
Syriac, to teach them what to believe and what to do. Greek 
books would not have been suitable, for their language was Syriac. 
The ancient Syriac copy of "The Teaching of Thaddeus," from 
which the above extracts are taken, states that not only King 
Abgar, and many of the people of that city, were converted, but 
many also throughout " all Mesopotamia, and the regions round 
about it." It says that Thaddeus " received all those who trusted 
in the Anointed, and immersed them in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Spirit of Holiness " ; that the king gave 
money with which a house of worship was built ; that in it they 
" offered praises all the days of their lives ;" that in the worship 
conducted there, the teachers " read in the Old Covenant and in the 
New, and in the Prophets, and in the Acts of the Apostles every 
day." By the New Covenant seems to be meant the Gospels; for 
the N. C. is distinguished from the Acts of the Apostles, and a 
little afterwards it is said that many people assembled from day to 
day, and came to the prayers of the service, and the [reading of the] 
Old Covenant and of the New in four parts. (See Syriac, pages 13, 15.) 
The Syriac of this narrative is like that of the Peshito itself ; a 
fact which corroborates the statement that the Peshito was made 
by the care of Thaddeus. 

Some doubt, however, attaches to some of the above statements, 
because " The Teaching of Thaddeus " has at the end, received for- 
ged additions. Dr. Glocester Eidley says that Achseus (sometimes 
called Aggseus) a disciple of Thaddeus died ad. 48. Serapion was 
bishop of Antioch about a.d. 192—214 ; Zephyrinus was bishop of 
Eome202 — 217. Yet in this record it is said that when Aggeeus 
died, " Palut received the hand of priesthood from Serapion, bishop 



XXX. rNTRODUCTION. 

of Antlocli, whicli hand Serapion received from ZepTiyrinus, bishop 
of Eome, from the succession, of the hand of priesthood of Simon 
Cephas." So that though the above extracts do not seem to be 
corrupted, some of them may be so. 

Baedesanes was a Syrian writer of note in cent. II. Cave says 
that he flourished about a.d. 172. Dr. Nathaniel Lardner, in his 
Credibility, 1735, vol. ii., p. 673, says, " Eusebius speaks favour- 
ably of him, though most later writers call him a heresiarch," 
Eusebius says that he was " a most eloquent writer in the Syriac 
language " ; and that he wrote several dialogues in his own lan- 
guage against Marcion and other authors of different opinions." 
(See Eusebius' Hist., Cent., iv., ch. 30.) Also that he was at 
first a follower of Yalentinus, and that though he gave up some 
of his errors, he did not get rid of all the filth of his former heresy. 
Epiphanius says that he was a native of Edessa and very intimate 
with the king then reigning there, who was also called Abgar, 
and a professed Christian ; that Bardesanes ' ' went into several 
great errors but continued to use the Law and the Prophets, 
both the Old and the Neiu Covenant, joining with them some 
apocryphal books. (Lardner ii. 677—8.) This is evidence that at. 
that time a Syriac "New Covenant" existed. Canon Westcott 
says also of the controversial writings of Bardesanes that they 
" necessarily imply the existence of a Syriac Version of the Bible." 
(On the Canon, p. 237.) 

Hegesippus lived in the latter part of the second century. 
Eusebius, bk. iv., ch. 22, says, " He sets forth some things from 
the Gospel according to the Hebrews, and from tJte Syriac, and 
from the Hebrew dialect as his own, showing that he was one of 
the Hebrews who had trusted. Dr. Westcott (on Canon, p. 238) 
says, " This testimony is valuable, as coming from the only early 
Greek writer likely to have been familiar with Syriac literature." 
The bare reference of Hegesippus to " the Syriac," leaves it uncer- 
tain to what part of the Scriptures in Syriac he referred ; but it 
shows that he made use of some Syriac copy, and the Peshito is 
the only one which can be supposed to be intended. 

Aphraates, a Persian sage, wrote twenty-two Syriac homilies, 
A.D. 337 — 45. The citations from the gospels met with in these 
homilies, are said by Professor Wright to be very loose ; to have 
some occasional resemblance to Cureton's Syriac, but to be on the 
whole, much nearer to the text of the Peshito. (Scrivener's Int. 
p. 323, note.) 

Ephr^m, of Edessa, was a very eminent Syrian writer. He 
died A.D. 373. J. S. Asseman devotes 140 folio pages to extracts 
from his writings, and to comments on them. They are in the 
same Syriac dialect in which the Peshito is written. Dr. Westcott 
(on Canon, p. 238) says, " Ephrem treats the version in such a 
manner as to prove that it was already old in the fourth century." 



IK-TRODUCTION. XXxi. 

One of Ephrem's similes will show the beauty of his style, and 
though it does not prove that he believed the N. C. Peshito to 
have divine authority, yet his constant use of it seems to imply that 
he was referring to it when he spoke of the New Covenant as a 
harp, the notes of which have been played by the finger of God, 
He said, " Praise be to the Lord of all, who framed and fitted for 
himself two harps, those of the Prophets and of the Apostles ; but it 
is the same finger which has played upon the two, the different 
notes of the two covenants." (Asseman's Bib. Or., vol. i., p. 103.) 

In the Fifth Century, those who used the Peshito began to 
be divided into different sects. But, as Dr. Westcott observes, 
the Peshito has continued to be "universally received" and used 
by these different sects down to the present time. He says, 
' ' All the Syrian Christians, whether belonging to the Nestorian, 
Jacobite, or Eoman communion, conspire to hold the Peshito 
authoritative, and to use it in their public services. . . . The Peshito 
became in the East the fixed and unalterable RuiiE of Sceip- 
tuhe." (On the Canon, p. 239.) 

The Three Chief Sects which, to this day, continue to use the 
N. C. Peshito- Syriac books, are the Nestorians, Jacobites, and 
Maronites. Their names are derived from Nestorius, Jacob 
Baradseus, and Maron. 

Nestorius, or NestorE, became Patriarch of Constantinople, 
A.D. 430. An absurd custom had arisen of calling Mary who was 
the mother of Jesus, '_' The Mother of God." Nestore objected to 
it, and said, as Mosheim relates, that she " was rather to be called 
the mother of Christ ; since the Deity can neither be born nor 
die; and only the Son of Man could derive his birth from an 
earthly parent." (Cent, v.) The Emperor Theodosius called a 
council of bishops which met at Ephesus, ad. 431. This council, 
one of " lawless violence," defended the false title given to Mary. 
Nestore was condemned. He resigned his bishopric, and was after- 
wards banished. Many agreed with him, and held that his senti- 
ments had been taught by Scripture from the beginning. They were 
called Nestorians, not because they derived their sentiments from 
him, but because he was one of the chief defenders of those senti- 
ments. Amrus, a Nestorian, about A.D. 1340, said, that " Nestore, 
whose name was imposed on them, was a Greek, but they were 
Syrians; they had never seen him, nor had he ever trod their 
lands " (Patriarchs, by Aloys Asseman, p. 206). Another council 
of bishops (for prelates had then assumed to themselves the right 
to rule the churches, and pretended that their decisions were 
laws given by the will of God,) met at Chalcedon in Asia Minor, 
not far from Constantinople, about A.D. 451. This Council, by its 
decrees, said that some had dared to corrupt the mystery of the 
gospel, and were denying the application of the word ''Theotokos — 



XXXll. INTEODUCTION. 

mother of God, to the Virgin ; " that this Council held that the 

Son, is " true God and true man begotten by the Father before 

the ages as to his i>e%..... but of Mary, virgin and deipara^ 
Mother of God, as to his humanity ; one and the same Jesus 
Christ, Son of God, Lord and only begotten, made manifest in two 
natures," which two natures " concur in one 'person,'' who is " one 
and the same only begotten Son, the God- Word" (Magdeburg 
Centuriators, cent, v., col. 531.) It is self-evident that things 
which differ so much as Godhead does from manhood, are not 
"one and the same." The first evident error in the above state- 
ment is that the Divine Word is a begotten Deity. The next is 
that the Deity of this begotten God, though declared to be quite 
distinct in nature from the humanity begotten of the Virgin, is 
nevertheless so " one " with it, that because Mary was mother of the 
manhood, she therefore was mother of the Godhead also. A greater 
absurdity is impossible. Yet this is still called, not only by 
E-oman Catholics, but by a member of the Church of England, 
the orthodox faith of the true church. It was this absurdity which. 
Nestore denied. For doing so, he is still called by many a heretic. 
Gibbon remarks, that the doctrine of the Council of Chalcedon, 
namely, that in Christ there is but "one person in two natures," 
was received by Europe during ten centuries of servitude to the 
Vatican, and was then " admitted without dispute into the creed 
of the Eeformers." (Decline, ch. xlvii.) Is it difficult to form 
a correct opinion on this point ? The statement tiiat the Deity 
and manhood of Christ formed but " one person" seems to mean 
that they had only one capability of personal action. In Christ 
" dwells all the fulness of the Godhead bodily ; " Col. ii. 9. Did 
this indwelling make the Godhead and the manhood to be so one, 
that when the manhood was ci ;icified the Godhead was crucified ? 
God dwells, in an inferior degree, in his saints ; does this make 
them to be so one in person with God that when they pray and 
sing, God prays and sings ? And yet for denying that God was 
born of Mary Nestorians are counted heretics. 

Nestorians were also charged with making the SoisrsHip of 
Christ double. (See Magdeburg Centuriators, cent, v., col. 334, 
F.) Almost all the ancient creeds do this, by teaching that 
even the Deity of Christ was begotten, as well as his humanity. 
Nestore s opponents held this creed. But they seemed to have 
imagined that by calling the Godhead and the manhood "one 
person," they made the divine Sonship, in respect of which the 
Creed of Chalcedon says he was " begotten before the ages," to be 
one and the same with the sonship of his humanity. The charge 
against the Nestorians was that by denying Christ to be " one 
person," they left the double sonship unresolved into oneness. 
Nestore and his opponents both held that the Divine W^ord was a 
begotten Deity ; but his opponents added absurdity to error when 



OTRODUCTIOX. XXXUI. 

they imagined that the words "one person" converted tvro sonships 
into one. The word of God says nothing of a begotten God. " I 
am," which denotes underived existence, was used by Christ of 
his Godhead, as well as by God of himself when he spoke to 
Moses. (Ex. iii. 14 ; John viii. 58.) Oneness with the Father is 
the oneness of self- existence. God tells us that Christ is his Son 
because begotten by him of Mary, Luke i. 35. 

Another charge brought against Nestore was that he made 
FOUR PERSOXS in the Godhead. (Mag. Centuriators, cent, v., 
col. 335 F., 338 F.) As if it were impossible to believe that the 
Deity of Christ differs from his manhood, without converting his 
manhood into a second Deity. Such absurdities seem to be 
intended to show that if men assume a lordship which God forbids, 
he makes their wisdom folly. 

These facts are proof that the Nestorians, who suffered the loss 
of all things, and preferred to be under the ban of perpetual 
excommunication, rather than admit the untruth that Mary was 
the mother of God, gave far better proof of being trustworthy 
witnesses as to the origin of their Scriptures, than those of the 
Greek and Eoman bodies who asserted that untruth. 

These charges have been mentioned because they help 
to account for the unwillingness, so strong in some quarters, to 
receive the testimony of the Nestorians respecting their 
Peshito Scriptures. For, strange as it may seem, even Dr. Liddon, 
a Canon of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, in his Bampton Lectures 
on the Divinity of Christ, 9th ed,, 1882, defends the false title 
*' mother of God," (p. 261.) He pleads that it has been used by 
those whom he calls "the whole church, since the Council of 
Ephesus," and justifies them in " attributing to God birth of a 
human mother," (p. 261, note.) He calls the rejection of that false 
title by Nestore, a " vital heresy," (p. 123.) 

Penal laws drove most of the Nestorians out of the Eoman 
empire (Gibbon, chap, xlvii.) But elsewhere they increased 
exceedingly, a large majority of the people of Persia became 
Nestorians. Cosmas, who is called the Indian navigator, and was 
a Nestorian, said of them, in the sixth century, that Christianity 
was successfully preached by them to the Bactrians, Huns, 
Persians, Indians, Medes, and Elamites ; and that the number of 
churches from the Gulf of Persia to the Caspian sea, was almost 
infinite. Gibbon says that, in a subsequent age their missionaries 
pursued without fear the footsteps of the roving Tartar ; that 
some of them entered China, and that under the Mohammedan 
Caliphs, " their numbers, with those of the Jacobites, were com- 
puted to surpass the Greek and Roman commimions.^^ (Gibbon, 
ch. xlvii. Nestorians.) All these churches used the Peshito. 

The best characteristics of the Nestorians are their love 
AND USE of the Peshito, and thetr great care to keep it 



XXXIV. ITv'TRODIJCTIOlSr. 

PUEE. From the first they shared the corruptions of Christianity 
which prevailed in the fifth century ; and Wichelhaus says, in 
reference to about the year 600, ' ' They were often contentious, 
ambitious, covetous; doctrines were adulterated," a hierarchy 
had been founded and was promoted ; they corrupted and depraved 
the doctrines and precepts which they had received pure from the 
Apostles, not less than the Eoman Catholics did, " This thing only 
is to be praised in them, that they always used the Bible, and 
greatly valued learning," (p. 130.) He says that from the eighth 
century, slaughter and desolation overwhelmed both the Nestorians 
and the Jacobites ; that some of the Nestorians fled for refuge to 
the mountains of Coordistan, and some of the Jacobites, partly to 
the mountain regions of Mesopotamia, and partly to the solitudes 
of Lebanon ; (p. 205 — 6). J. Aloys Asseman (a nephew of J. S. 
Asseman, who wrote the Bibliotheca) wrote a history of the 
Nestorian Patriarchs, published A.D. 1775, and showed a constant 
succession of them down to that date. He gives an account also 
of some of their chief writers. One of these, Jesudadus, mentions 
the belief of the Syrians as to the origin of the Peshito. 

Jesudadus, who is sometimes called Soadedus, lived during 
the Patriarchate of Theodosius, A.D. 852 — 858. He said of the 
Syriac version, " The translation of the sacred books into the 
Syriac language was in this order ; the Pentateuch, and Joshua 
the son of Nun, and Judges, and Euth, and Samuel, and David, 
and Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs, and Job, 
were translated in the time of Solomon, at the request of Hiram, 
king of Tyre, his friend. But the rest of the books of the Old 
and those of the New Covenant, in the time of Abgar, king of 
Edessa, by the care and solicitude of Thaddseus and other apostles." 
(J. A. Asseman's Patriarchs, p. 102, note 1.) 

Thaddseus, who worked miracles, could give the same authority 
to what he approved, as the twelve apostles did. The belief of the 
Syrians, therefore, about 800 years from the time of the Apostles 
was that the N. C. Peshito was made under such apostolic care 
that it had the same authority as the gospels of Luke and Mark 
had from being made under the care of Paul and Peter. 

Ebedjesus, who became Metropolitan of Soba, that is, of 
Nisibis, a.d. 1290, was a Nestorian of great eminence. His works 
were very numerous. The list which he gave of the sacred books 
of the N. T. was that of the Peshito, not of the Greek. He states 
that the Gospel of Matthew was " written in Palestine in Hebrew," 
that is, in Syriac, then called Hebrew ; and that the reason why 
the epistles of James. 1 Peter, and I John, were called catholic, 
was because " they had in them words written by the apostles in 
every copy and in every language.^' The Syriac books of which he 
was speaking were those contained in the N. C. Peshito. His 
statements imply the general belief of Syrians that those four 



i:S-rE.ODUCTIOX. xxxv. 

Ijooks, at the least, were written in Syriac, and that tlie Peshito 
contained true copies of them. (See Westcott on Canon, p. 540, 
and Dr. Badger's Nestorians, 1852, vol. ii., pp. 361—3.) 

Ebedjesus gives the following account of the origin of the 
Nestorians, the Jacobites, and the Melchites, in his work called 
" The Jewel," which is translated by Dr. Badger, vol. ii., p. 380. 
Ebedjesus says that Cyril maintained that we ought to call the 
Virgin, " Mother of God," and wrote twelve sentences, excommuni- 
cating all who should draw any distinction between the Godhead and 
humanity of Christ after their union. Nestorius shewed that these 
sentences were erroneous ; that the appellation " Mother of God," 
is unscriptural. He called her *' Mother of the Anointed," the 
Anointed being the word used by prophets and apostles. Eiom 
this difference of creed came slaughter, exile, imprisonment, and 
great persecution. The Council of Chalcedon decided that there 
are two natures in Christ, and two wills, and anathematised all who 
should deny the two natures ; but decided that there is but 07ie 
person. The party of Cyril objected to " two natures ;" that of 
Nestorius to "one person.".. An imperial edict degraded from 
their dignity all who did not agree with the decision, that there 
are two natures and one person. Some submitted. Others did 
not. Hence arose three sects. Those who held one nature and one 
person in Christ. This sect included the Copts, Egyptians, and 
Abyssinians. This is called the Jacobite sect, from a Syrian teacher 
called Jacob. The second sect held that there are two natures and 
one person in Christ. These are called Melchites —the king's party, 
because this creed was imposed forcibly by the king. It is received 
by the Eomans called Eranks, by those of Constantinople who are 
Greeks, and by all the people of the West, such as Eussians, 
Circassians, Georgians and their neighbours. The Jacobites and 
Melchites accept the appellation " mother of God." The Jacobites 
have added the declaration that *' God was cruciified for us." The 
third creed is that of the Nestorians, that there are two natures 
and two persons in Christ. The Easterns have never changed their 
faith, but have kept it as they received it from the apostles, and 
therefore are unjustly called Nestorians, because he was not 
their patriarch, nor was his their language. Nestorius followed 
them, not they hi'/n, and more especially, as to the appellation 
"Mother of the Anointed." Such is the account given by 
Ebedjesus of the three sects. It shews how well informed he 
was, and how important his testimony is as to the books of 
Scripture. 

The Christians of St. Thomas, in India, whose profession of 
Christianity dates from the time of the apostles, maintain that 
Syriac was the original language of Scripture. Dr. Westcott says, 
" The Syriac Christians of Malabar even now claim for the Peshito 
the right to be considered as an Eastern original of the New Testa - 

G2 



XXXVl. INTRODUCTION-. 

ment." (On the Canon, p. 233.) " How shall we know," said 
one of them, speaking to Dr. Claudius Buchanan about the Greek 
Testament, *' that your standard copy of the Bible is a true trans- 
latioji ? We cannot depart from our own Bible. It is the true 
hook of Ood, without corruption ; it is that book which was first 
used by the Christians of Antioch. What translations you have 
got in the West, we know not ; but the true Bible of Antioch we 
have had in the mountains of Malabar for fourteen hundred years, 
or longer." Another of these professed Christians said, "If the 
parables and discourses of our Lord were in Syriac, and the people 
in Jerusalem commonly used it, is it not marvellous that his dis- 
ciples did not record his parables in the Syrian language, and that 
they should have recourse to the Greek ? Surely there must have 
been a Syriac original. The poor people in Jerusalem could not 
read Greek. Had they no record in their hands of Christ's parables 
which they had heard, and of his sublime discourses recorded by 
John after his ascension ? You admit that Matthew was written 
originally in Syriac ; you may as well admit John. Or was one 
Gospel enough for the inhabitants of Jerusalem ?" (Dr. Etheridge's 
Syriac Christians, pp. 166 — 7.) 

The Nestorians never treated the Greek text as of 
HIGHER AUTHORITY than that of the N. C. Peshito. Wichelhaus 
says (p. 187,) that "the Nestorians had no social union with 
Western Christians ; and that they held the text of the Greek New 
Testament in almost no esteem, and deemed the ancient Peshito to 
be in all things authentic." At p. 153 he says, "In the history 
of the Nestorians, it was never found, so far as I know, that 
learned men took the trouble to compare the Syriac text of the 
New Testament with the Greek, and to conform it to that." 
(Also p. 266.) 

The TERMS APPLIED TO THE Peshito prove the general belief 
of its divine origin, Wichelhaus says, (p. 163), " It was extolled 
with the greatest praises ; it was esteemed to be exactly what was 
written in the first times by apostolic authority ; it was called, 
not only ancient, but sacred and blessed." 

The extreme care taken to preserve its text in purity implies 
that every part of it was believed to be from God. The care taken 
was Like that which the Jews took of their inspired Hebrew text. 
Wichelhaus says, " It is a proof of the extreme accuracy of the 
Syrians in treating the sacred text, that, like the Jews, they have 
their Masora,'" a collection of critical comments on correct readings; 
" not only do they divide the text into chapters and lections, but 
they also number the comma-divisions of each book." (P. 156.) 
Mona steries abounded in the East from the fourth century. When 
the city of Edessa was taken by the Saracens, 300 monasteries 
were found in it, (p. 126.) The monks of that period devoted 
their time chiefly to copying the scriptures, and making known 



INTRODUCTION. XXXVll, 

the gospel. Wichelliaus attributes tlie great accuracy of tlie copies 
of the Peshito, and especially of the Nestorian copies, to the 
following causes. 1st. Many copies were written in monasteries, 
by skilled men, from approved examples, and with the utmost care 
and attention. 2ndly. Those copies were read and examined many 
times by ministers and monks. 3rdly. In the time of Ephrsem, 
cent, iv., deep interest was taken in the letter of Scripture, and 
many Syrians are mentioned who had committed almost the whole 
New Testament to memory. 4thly. In schools, in church-assemblies, 
and in monasteries, there was such constant communication 
between the teachers and the taught, that if any differences crept 
into the text, they could scarcely escape notice, nor become fixed 
by custom. 5thly. A large part of the Christians of that region 
had been Jews, they were compelled to discuss points with Jews, 
they had Jewish schools near them, and were thus accustomed 
to consider the words of sacred scripture, to be themselves 
sacred and inviolable, and almost to number the very letters." 
(P. 151.) 

The Nestorians were famous for their schools. In these 
schools the copying of the scriptures was a fi^st part of the educa- 
tion given. For instance, in the school or college at Nisibis, a.d. 
490, the rules required that " the brethren admitted to it, should 
not, except from urgent necessity, cease from writing, reading, and 
expounding " Scripture. As to the writing of Scripture, they were 
" in the first year to write the Pentateuch, and a book of Paul ; in 
the second, the Psalms and Prophets ; in the third, the New Testa- 
ment." (p. 125.) There were secular studies, but the young had to 
begin with the study of Scripture. 

As TO the agreement of different copies : most of those 
■which have been brought to Europe, are not Nestorian, but Jacobite 
copies. But so far as the Nestorian and the Jacobite copies differ, 
the greater reverence which the Nestorians had for the Peshito, 
justifies a higher esteem for the exactness of their text. Wichelhaus 
says, " Testimonies prove that the text of the Nestorians is 
altogether the same as that of the ancient Peshito version." But 
the differences between their early texts, and other texts of early 
date, are so little, that Wichelhaus says, " The texts of copies 
written in cents, v. and vi., in Mesopotamia, and which bear the 
date when they were written recorded upon them, and the text of 
copies written at a later time, alike of Jacobites and of Maronites, 
of Nestorians, and of Melchites, is a text so entirely the same, 
and with such constancy of likeness, that, in the Syriac version, 
no place tuas given for Recensions, such as are said to have been 
made in the Oreek text, even in the first centuries." (pp. 150, 151.) 
This answer, by the voice of fact, denies almost the possibility of 
such a recension of the Svriac text, as Dr. Hort, in his Intruduc- 



XXXVni. rNTRODUCTIOiSr. 

tion to th.e Greek Testament of Drs. Westcott and Hort, 1881, 
first conjectures, and then treats as " certain." (p. 84.) 

2. The Jacobites bear like testimony, as to the origin of the 
Peshito. They are called Monophysites, that is, persons who 
believe that in Christ there is but one nature, as well as one person. 
ApoUinaris, bishop of Laodicea, had taught, before the time of 
Nestore, that Christ had no human onind, that he was only Deity 
and a human body. About A.D. 448, Eutyches, an abbot of 
Constantinople, spread this belief, while opposing the Nestorians. 
(Mosheim, cent, v.) At Ephesus, where the Council of 431 con- 
demned Nestore, another Council in 449, condemned Flavian, 
Patriarch of Constantinople, and others, for excommunicating 
Eutyches. The Greeks called this Council " a band of robbers," 
because it " carried everything by fraud and violence." (Mosheim.) 
Gibbon says, " It is certain that Flavian, before he could reach the 
place of his exile, expired on the third day, of the wounds and 
bruises he had received at Ephesus. The synod has been justly 
branded as a gang of robbers and assassins." (Decline, ch. xlvii.) 
Wichelhaus (p. 134) says that the Emperors Zeno and Anastasius 
were favourable to the Monophysites, (a.d. 474 — 518) ; but that 
when the Emperor Justin (518 — 527), began to remove the 
Monophysite bishops from their sees, the Monophysites, chiefly 
by the influence of Jacob Baradseus, separated themselves from 
the Greek church, and became a distinct body, thenceforth 
called Jacobites, from their connection, it is said, with Jacob 
Baradseus. The Nestorians more abounded in the East of Asia ; 
the Jacobites in the West, and in Egypt. 

A body with such an origin, and such a creed, cannot be said to 
have much claim to general confidence ; but Gregory Bar Hebreeus, 
one of their learned men, is much relied on. Dr. Westcott calls 
him "one of the most learned and accurate of Syrian writers." 
(On the Canon, p. 236.) 

*' Gregory Bar Hebr^us," Dr. Westcott says, " relates that 
the New Testament Peshito was made in the time of Thaddaeus 
and Abgarus, king of Edessa, when, according to the universal 
opinion of ancient writers, the Apostle went to proclaim Christian- 
ity in Mesopotamia. This statement he repeats several times, and 
once, on the authority of Jacob, a deacon of Edessa, in the fifth 
century. . . It is worthy of notice that Gregory assumes the 
Apostolic origin of the New Testament Peshito as certain ; for while 
he gives three hypotheses as to the date of the Old Testament 
Version, he speaks of this as a known and an acknowledged fact.''^ 
(On the Canon, p. 236.) Bp. Walton said that if the Peshito was 
" made by some one of the Apostles, it would have divine and equal 
authority with the other sacred books." It is therefore worthy of 
f=pecial notice that, according to Bar Hebrseus, the Peshito was 



INTRODUCTION XXXIX- 

*' known " to be of " Apostolic origin," and therefore was known 
to be of the same authority as the Greek Text. Even Canon 
Westcott calls attention to the unwavering and unqualified nature 
of this testimony to a " known fact." 

Bar Hebr^us was born 1226, and died 1286. He said, speaking 
first of the O. 0. Peshito-Syriac, — " Eespecting this Syriac transla- 
tion, there were three opinions ; the first, that it was translated in 
the time of kings Solomon and Hiram; the second, that Asa the 
priest translated it, when the Assyrian sent him to Samaria ; the 
third, that it was translated in the days of Thaddseus the apostle, 
and of Abgar, the king of Edessa, when also they translated the 
New Covenant in the same Peshito form ;" that is, in the same 
simple or faithful manner. (See the Syriac words in Prager, on 
O. C. Peshito, p. 7 ; and a Latin translation in Wichelhaus, p. 61.) 

Bar Hebr^us records also, in another place, the fact that Jacob 
OF Edessa says, " that translators were sent by Thaddseus the 
apostle, and Abgar, the king of Edessa, into Palestine, and trans- 
lated the Scripture from Hebrew into Syriac." (See the Syriac 
words in Walton's Prol. xiii. 16.) The words of Jacob of Edessa 
refer to the 0. C. Peshito ; but Bar Hebrseus in the above extract 
says that the N. C. Peshito was made at the time when Jacob of 
Edessa said, in this passage, that persons were sent into Palestine 
to translate the 0. C, Scriptures. 

The Jacobites seem to have altered two passages in some 
of their copies of the Peshito, to justify such expressions as that 
" God was crucified for us," a statement which Gibbon says was 
"imagined by a monophysite bishop." (Decline ch. xlvii. The 
Trisagion.) 

In Acts xx. 28, most of their copies have *' the church of the 
Anointed, which he purchased with his blood ;" which is in agree- 
ment with other copies of the Peshito. But Wichelhaus says that 
Sabarjesus, a Nestorian Presbyter, mentions Jacobite copies which 
had " the church of God ;" and that Asseman found in the Vatican 
library a monophysite copy which has "of God." (p. 150.) Our 
common English Version has *'of God;" but Griesbach and 
Tischendorf adopted " of the Lord," as the true Greek text. The 
general testimony of the Syriac copies is that " of the Anointed " 
is the true text of the Peshito. 

In Heb. ii. 9., most of the Jacobite copies say of Jesus, " He, 
God, in his merciful favour, tasted death on behalf of every man." 
This reading could be used to defend the statement that God was 
crucified. The Nestorian copies have, "For he [Jesus], apart 
from God, (or the Godhead)," etc. Origen, nearly 200 years before 
Nestore lived, mentioned Greek copies which had a like reading. He 
died about a.d. 254. Theodore bishop of Mopsuestia, a celebrated 
Greek writer, who died about a.d. 429, said that some persons 
had removed the reading, " without God," and had substituted, 



Xl. INTEODUCTION. 

" by the merciful favour of God." He said also tliat the context 
shows that the apostle was not speaking of God's mercy, but of 
the relation between the Deity and manhood of Christ. (See 
Tischendorf's 8th edn., under Heb. ii. 9.) Tischendorf says, " From 
these testimonies, it is certain that the reading, without God, did 
not originate with the Nestorians ; for Origen found it in his 
copies," There is no reason, therefore, to suppose that the 
Nestorian text of the Peshito in Heb. ii. 9, is the result of any 
change made by them ; but there is reason, on the contrary, to 
regard it as part of the original text of the Peshito ; and a proof 
that the Greek copies which had the same reading in the time of 
Origen were correct. 

The Jacobites did not con-tinije, as the Nestorians did, to 
treat the Syriac as better than the Greek text. About a.d. 
616, a new Syriac version of the N. C, was made by them. It was 
from the Greek text, and followed it closely. It is called the Philox- 
enian Syriac, from Philoxenus, its patron. Wichelhaus says that 
the Jacobites seem to have thought that it would be wicked to 
supplant the Peshito, and yet to have preferred the new version. 
He thinks that the name Peshito came into use at this time, and 
among them, because the Nestorians had no need of a distinct namo 
for the Peshito. They had not, as the Jacobites had, a second 
Syriac version. 

Wichelhaus says also, that all the Jacobite teachers took delight 
in making changes, called corrections and emendations, (p. 205) ; 
and that after the Philoxenian version was made, they began to 
conform, even their copies of the Peshito, to the Greek text, so 
that, in estimating the worth of copies written after that date, 
inquiry needs to be made whether they are Jacobite or Nestorian. 
(p. 231.) 

3. The Maronites give like testimony respecting the 
origin of the Peshito. Bp. Walton says, " The Maronites were 
so called from ^Blaro, an abbot. They were reconciled to the 
Pope, and to the church of Eome, a.d. 1182, They have a college 
of Maronites at Eome, founded by Gregory 13th," (who died in 
1585), "from which priests and bishops are sent into their 
country." (Walton, Poly. Prol. xiii. 2.) They are an offshoot from 
the Jacobites. About the close of the seventh century many of the 
Jacobites fled, to save their lives, partly to mountains in the north 
of Mesopotamia, and partly to Mount Lebanon. Those who fled 
to Lebanon divided into two parties ; one party submitted to the 
emperors of Constantinople, and were called Melchites, that is, 
Imperialists; the other party maintained a more independent 
existence, and were called Mardaites, that is, Eebels. Of this 
party John Maro became a leader, and a Patriarch. J. S. 
^sseman, in his Bib, Or,, vol, i. p. 517., shows that Maro opposed 



INTRODUCTION. xli. 

both the Monophysites and the Nestorians. Maro seems to have 
been a Monothelite, that is, one who held that in Christ there was 
only one tuill. J. S. Asseman contends that he held the creed of 
Eome, — that of two natures and one person ; but Gribbon says that 
the Maronites, before they joined Eome, were Monothelites. He 
says of them, " The unfortunate question of ove will, or operation 
in the two natures of Christ, was generated by their curious 
leisure. . . . Their country extends from the ridge of mount 
Libanus to the shores of Tripoli. ... In the twelfth century the 
Maronites, abjuring the Monothelite [ — the one luiW] error, were 
reconciled to the Latin Churches of Antioch and Rome. . . . The 
learned Maronites of the college of Eome haye vainly laboured to 
absolve their ancestors from the guilt of heresy," that is, of 
Monothelism. (Ch. xlvii.) 

Gabriel Sionita, is one of the many learned Maronites who 
have become eminent since the erection of the Maronite college at 
Eome. Ancient Syriac writing was a kind of short-hand, in which 
there was little more than the consonants written. While it was a 
living language, the vowels could be supplied by the reader, though 
not without liability to error. By degrees, signs were used, placed 
at the top and bottom of the consonants, to indicate the true vowel 
sounds. Bp. Walton, speaking of the Peshito, says, "That most 
illustrious man, Gabriel Sionita, first put vowel-points to the 
Syriac ; for before that time all manuscripts were destitute of 
vowel-points," or nearly so. This was done by him for Michael 
de Jay, in his splendid work, the Paris Heptaglot, a.d. 1628 — 45. 
Bp. Walton gives the following testimony of Sionita to the 
Peshito. 

Sionita, says Walton, " testifies that the Peshito has always 
been held in the greatest veneration, and held to be of the greatest 
authority by all the populations which use the Chaldaic or Syriac 
language, and has been publicly accepted and read in all their 
most ancient churches, formed in Syria, Mesopotamia, Chaldsea, 
Egypt, and finally, in those which are dispersed and spread 
throughout all parts of the East. In this language they read, not 
only the Scriptures, but liturgies also, and celebrate divine worship, 
even in those places where Syriac is not to-day the mother-tongue; 
although from those liturgies, and the longer responses of the 
people, it is sufficiently evident that those liturgies were commonly 
known and understood tuhen they first began to he iised.'^ (Prol. xiii. 
Sec. 18.) In reference to Scripture, " the greatest authority " is 
divine authority. 

Eaust Nairon, a Maronite, is often referred to by J. S. Asseman 
as a writer of eminence. He was one of the two editors of the 
edition of the Peshito Syriac Version, printed by the side of an 
Arabic Version of the N. T., in 1703, by command of the Roman 
Congregation Be 2>ropaganda fide, for the use of the Maronites. 



Slii. iNTRODUCTIOJf. 

He also wrote tlie preface. In this he said, (p. 2.) "The Syriac 
text excels in antiquity all other texts. By it very many places 
■which in these are obscure, may be made plain." He proceeds to 
endeavour to prove that the Syriac text is more ancient than the 
Greek text of the Gospels. He mentions the common opinion that 
the Syriac Gospels were translated from the Greek, and says that 
there are better reasons for concluding that the Greek Gospels 
were translated from the Syriac. The weak part of his argument 
is, that he considers it certain that the sacred writers could not 
have given details of words and events so numerous and so varied 
as to time and place, unless they had made a luritten record of them, 
when they heard, saw, or were first informed of them. He says, 
that if they did make such a record, it must have been in their 
own language, Syriac. To this it may be replied, that we have 
very little evidence that any of them did make such records in the 
Saviour's life-time ; and that they had no need of them, because 
the Holy Spirit brought all things to their remembrance. (John 
xiv. 26.) But the events which occurred were so extraordinary, 
and Christ so often called attention to his teaching, by saying, 
" He that has ears to hear, let him hear," that those who could 
write, would of necessity think it worth while to keep a written 
record of what they heard and saw, as Joseph us did of the events 
of the Jewish war. Evidence that this was done by some persons 
appears from what Luke says of the many who had " set forth in 
order" the events of the gospel history, (Luke i. 1) ; and when he 
says of himself, that he had '* closely followed up with exactness 
from the first what had been delivered by those who, from the 
beginning, were eye-witnesses;" he seems clearly to intimate that 
what he wrote was from written records made by himself from the 
first of what these eye-witnesses had told him ; so that F. Nairon 
has, in these words of Luke, some support for his remark, that the 
sacred writers in order to construct with accuracy, as witnesses, 
what they knew of the " parables, miracles, and sayings of Christ," 
may have done so, unless the Holy Spirit's aid dispensed with 
ordinary means, from records made in the life-time of Christ ; and 
that as they then knew no langliage but their own native Syriac 
tongue, these records must have been made in Syriac. (Introduc- 
tion, pp. 2, 3, 4.) 

Of Matthew, E. Nairon says, and correctly, that "all the ancients 
bear witness that he wrote his Gospel in Syriac." (pp. 3, 4.) He 
states also that Theophilact says the apostle John translated it into 
Greek. He notices the singular fact that Matthew does not record 
the ascension of Christ to heaven, and he draws from this the con- 
clusion that the gospel was completed before that event took place, 
(p. 6 ) 

Of John's Gospel, F. Nairon says that Alexander, (who was 
bishop of Eome about a.d 109 to 119), stated that John opposed 



IXTEODUCTIOX. xliii. 

and confuted the error of Cerinthus, who in Jerusalem, Csesarea, 
and Antioch, denied the Deity of Christ. F. Nairon saj-s, that 
for this purpose John's Gospel must have been first written in 
Ryriac. He says that Cerinthus afterwards went into Asia Minor. 
Irenseus, who died about a. d. 200, says that John "published a 
Gospel while he dwelt atEphesus, in Asia." (Lardner's Credibility, 
bk. i. ch. xvii.) F. Nairon suggests that this may mean that 
John, to meet the error of Cerinthus there, re-issued his Gospel, 
and in Greek. He says that John, like Matthew, does not mention 
the ascension, and that this implies that his Gospel was written 
before it took place. He says also, that the Syriac modes of 
speech in John's Greek Gospel, imply that it was first written in 
Syriac. (p. 4.) 

Of Mark, F. Nairon says that he preached the gospel in many 
regions, and that some writers say that he wrote his Gospel in three 
languages ; Greek, Latin, and Syriac. (p. 5.) 

Of the Gospel of Luke, F. Nairon says, that from the writings 
of Origen, Ambrose, Theophilact, and Epiphanius, it appears that 
Luke was a Syrian from Antioch, and sent his Gospel first to 
his own countrymen in Antioch, to oppose some false teachers there; 
that for this purpose it needed to be written in Syriac, as well as in 
Greek ; because, though Greek had been introduced by the Greek 
rulers of Antioch, it was not the common language of the citizens. 
He says also, that Greek was not the native language of Luke 
himself, but acquired by him afterwards ; that this appears from 
the statement of Jerome, that he was " a physician of Antioch, 
and not ignorant of Greek." F. Nairon says, that the many Syriac 
idioms in Luke's Gospel show that he was a Syrian. 

Of the Acts of the Apostles, F. Nairon says that Jerome 
states the book was written in Greek, but that Metaphrastes says, 
Luke also wrote it in the language of his own country, which was 
Syriac. 

Of 1 JoHX, he says, that it was sent to Hebrew Christians who 
lived beyond the Euphrates under the rule of the Piirthians, that 
it was anciently called. The Epistle to the Parthians, and must 
have been written in Syriac, the native tongue of the Hebrews 
there, (p. 8.) 

Of Hebrews, James, and 1 Peter, F. Nairon makes no special 
mention ; but his remark, that all the epistles must " of necessity 
have been written in the languages of those to whom they were 
sent, or they could not have been understood by them," applies 
specially to these epistles ; for their contents prove that they were 
written to Hebrew Christians, and their native language, as F. 
Nairon says, was Syriac. (p. 9.) 

Of THE Epistles of Paul, he says, that to them, as well as to 
all the epistles, the rule must be applied, that they must have been 
written in the language of those to whom they" were sent. We 



Xliv. INTRODTJCTION. 

have Paul's letters in Greek, and we have them also in Syriac, with 
abundant evidence that they were written in Syriac in the time of 
the apostles. From what Peter says of Paul's Epistles, it ssenas 
probable that they were circulated among Hebrew Christians in 
Syriac, very soon after they were written. Syriac was the only 
laneruage, as we have found, which was generally, and well under- 
stood by all the Hebrews. Yet Peter, writing to the dispersed 
Hebrew Christians of Asia Minor, speaks of all " Paul's Epistles, 
as if well known among them, and not only those which Paul had 
written " to them." (2 Pet. iii. 15, 16.) This reference to " allhi^ 
Epistles," seems to imply that those which he had written in Greek 
were well known to Hebrews who knew little of any language but 
Syriac ; and tends, by its agreement with the Syrian testimony, to 
show that all the letters of Paul in the Feshito, were written in Syriac 
in the time of the Apostles. 

F. Nairon says in proof that The Peshito, as a whole, is 
NOT A MERE TRA^^SLATION OF THE Greek COPIES, that the number 
of books in it is different from that of the Greek text, which has 
2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and Eevelation. That the order of 
books is also different from their order in most Greek copies ; for 
James, 1 Peter, and 1 John, follow the Acts ; and that the Greek 
text has passages which the Peshito has not. 

He says that Luke xxii. 17, 18, is not in most copies of the 
Peshito. " And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take 
this, and divide it among yourselves ; for I say unto you, I will 
not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall 
come." Bishop Walton says, " These verses are not found in the 
Vienna manuscript, nor in the one which we have mostly used." 
They are placed in brackets by Dr. Lee, 1816, and in the Ooroo- 
miah edition, to show, apparently, that they were not in the copies 
followed. 

The account of the adulteress, John viii. 1—11, which is in many 
Greek copies, is absent from most of those of the Peshito. Bishop 
Walton printed it in Syriac from a copy in the library of 
Archbishop Usher, but said that it was absent from all preceding 
printed editions. In Dr. Lee's edition, and that of Ooroomiah, 
lines are placed across the page at the beginning and end of the 
passage, with evident intention to show its absence from the copies 
followed. 

x\cts xxviii. 29: "And when he had said these words, the 
Jews departed, and had great reasoning among themselves," is not 
in the Peshito. 

Nor is 1 John v. 7 : " There are three who bear witness in heaven, 
the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit, and these three are 
one." F. Nairon remarks that this verse is quoted by Cyprian, 
(bishop of Carthage, 247—258), when writing on the unity of the 
the Church, and that this was before Arius was born. (See the 



INTRODUCTIOX. xlv. 

edition of Cyprian's work by Le Preuse, 1593, p. 297.) Cyprian 
says, " Eespecting tlie Father, and Son, and Holy Spirit, it is 
written. And these three are one." F. Nairon suggests that this 
verse was probably added to the epistle when published in Greek, 
with view to meet more fully the denial of the Deity of Christ by 
Cerinthus; and that its appearance in the Greek text, though 
absent from the Syriac, tends to show that the epistle " was first 
written by John in Syriac." (Nairon, p. 8.) 

F. Nairon' s belief that a record was made in Syriac by 
Matthew, Mark, Luke, or John, of events in the Saviour's history, 
DURING HIS LIEE-TIME, receives some support from the contents of 
the first three Gospels. It has been observed, that there are 
passages in some of the Greek copies of these three Gospels, which 
are in exactly the sam,e words as passages in others. Bishop 
Herbert Marsh, in his translation of the Introduction of J. D. 
Michaelis, vol. iii. pp. 160 — 409, prints an elaborate treatise on the 
origin of the first three Gospels, and gives in Greek many instances 
of these identical Greek passages. He says that it is " wholly 
impossible " that these three historians, if they had no connexion 
with each other, should have written in Greek, passages so identical, 
(p. 168); and that " we are reduced to this dilemma. Either the 
succeeding Evangelists copied from the preceding, or that all the 
three drew from a common source." (p. 170.) After examining 
various attempts made by others to account for this identity of 
Greek words, he comes to the conclusion that internal proofs show 
that these three writers did not copy words one from another, 
(pp. 320 — 330.) At p. 361, he says that the verbal agreements 
and disagreements of these three Gospels, can be solved in a 
manner which is perfectly consistent with the inspiration of the 
Greek Gospels, by admitting that " all three writers used copies of 
a cowmon Hehreiv,''^ that is, a Syriac " document.'''' 

Stephen Evod Asseman, Archbishop of Apamea, a third Syrian 
of the name of Asseman, in answer to an inquiry made by Dr. 
Glocester Eidley, who published a work on the Peshito in 1761, 
said, — " The first [Syriac] version of the N. T., is called the Peshito; 
the Syrians believe that its translation of the Gospels was made either 
by the Apostles themselves, or at least by the Apostle Thaddseus ; 
that the Acts and Epistles were made by Apostolic men, and that 
Ephraem, and other fathers, who flourished in the third and fourth 
centuries, used that version." (Wichelhaus, p. 68.) Dr. N. Lardner 
defines the meaning of " apostolical men," to be " disciples of the 
Apostles, intimately acquainted with them," (Credibility, book i., 
chap. xxii. p. 536); men like "Mark and Luke, companions of 
the Apostles." (chap, xxvii. p. 576.) Such men could obtain from 
the apostles their correction of and authority for what they wrote. 

Translations made from the Peshito for Christian bodies 
are themselves testimonies that its authority was deemed as gre^t as, 



xlvi. INTHODIICTION. 

or greater than that of the Greek text. F. jSTairon, in the Intro- 
duction already named, refers, as Bishop Walton has done also, to 
a Syrian Commentator on Psalm xix., who asserts, in reference to 
the "New Covenant," that "though the Armenians translated 
from the Greek, they afterwards compared their copy with the 
Syriac, and made it agree with the Syriac in particular places." 
(p. 9.) An Arabic version in part, and a Persian version, were made 
from the Peshito. (Wichelhaus, p. 214, also p. 152.) 

In the above testimonies, NO element is wantestg of proof 
HELD TO BE DECISIVE, that a book is what it is said to be. They 
give, by their universal and continuous harmony, from very early 
to the present time, proof that the Peshito had its origin in the 
time of the Apostles, and was made under their care. They fully 
satisfy the rule of Bishop Huet. They equally satisfy the rule laid 
down by Dr. Westcott in his book on the Canon. They are testi- 
monies respecting the belief of large Christian bodies ; a belief 
attested by the treatment of the book as " sacred," and as a Divine 
Eule of faith and practice. The Peshito is a witness, such as the 
utmost efforts have failed to find in Greek copies of early date. 
Yain, as yet, has been everj^ attempt, by means of Greek copies, 
to give a text which is proved to be " brought back to the condi- 
tion in which it stood in the sacred autographs." (Scrivener, Int. 
pp. 6, 520.) But the Peshito, in the opinion of Wichelhaus, who 
has studied it and its history with the greatest care, possesses a 
Syriac text so ancient and so well preserved, that even if it were 
due only to a human translator, it would be proved to represent, 
with a few exceptions, a Greek text " most like to the autographs 
of the apostles." (Wichelhaus, p. 264.) Canon Cook also, the 
Editor of the Speaker's Commentary, says that the Syriac Peshito, 
is the version which probably comes nearest to the autographs of the 
Evangelists, especially in Matthew;" and that to it, and some 
other authorities, "a higher value is to be assigned in some 
cases," than to any Greek copies, because this version is ''more 
ancient, and letter attested than any manuscripts." (First Three 
Gospels, p. 143.) 

YI. Internal evidence that the Peshito was made in 
Cent. I., and is not a mere translation of the Greek. 

Jestjdad said that the N. C. Peshito is " a translation made by 
the care and solicitude of Thaddseus and other Apostles." Books 
written, as the Gospel of Matthew was, in the Syriac of Palestine, 
needed very little change when translated into the Sj'riac of Edessa. 
Paul's letter to the Hebrews, the letter of James, the first of Peter, 
and the first of John, were all addressed to Hebrews, and probably, 
therefore, were first written in Syriac, the language of the Hebrews; 



IXTRODUCTIOX. xlvii 

and needed but few changes when translated into the dialect of 
Edessa. These few changes were probably what Jesudad called a 
"translation," so far as the word had reference to these books. 
The Apostles, when taking the care and oversight of the translation 
of all the books in the Peshito, were not bound as an uninspired 
translator would have been, to follow always the exact words of 
what was translated. They had divine authority to use whatever 
difference of expression the Holy Spirit might guide them to adopt, 
as better fitted for use in the translation. 

If, therefore, in comparing the Syriac with the Greek text, we 
find that they both express nearly the same meaning, but that in 
places a supposed Greek original so differs in ivords from the Syriac, 
that if the Syriac had been made by an uninspired translator, he 
would be justly condemned for licentious departure from his Greek 
copy, the reason may be, that the inspired translator has been 
divinely guided to make that difference ; and if, in some of these 
cases of different wording, the Syriac meaning be more clear, or 
exact, or better adapted for Sj'rian readers than the Greek wording 
is, those very differences become evidence of the correctness of 
the Syrian belief that the Peshito was made " by the care and 
solicitude of Apostles." Por it is evident that an uninspired 
translator could not, as a rule, bring light out of darkness, clear- 
ness out of obscurity, exactness and correctness out of ambiguity 
and uncertainty. Persons familiar with the Peshito admit the 
truth of Faust Nairon's remark, that the Peshito does really some- 
times " make clear, things difficult or doubtful in the Greek." 
(Introduction, p. 9.) 

Bishop Walton quotes with approval the remark of De Dieu, 
that " the true meaning of phrases which often occur in the N. T., 
can scarcely be sought from any other source than the Syriac. 
(Polyg. Prol. xiii. 19.) 

J. D. Michaelis says, *' the Syriac Yersion leads us sometimes 
to just and beautiful explanations, where other help is insufficient." 
(Marsh's Michaelis, vol. ii. p. 44.) 

WiCHELHAUS REJECTS THE SYRIAN TESTIMONY that the Peshito 
was made by •' the care of Apostles," and gives this reason for 
doing so, — that it " does not in all things express and religiously 
follow the Greek text ;" (p. 259.) But these differences, according 
to Syrian testimony, are differences made by some of the apostles 
THEMSELVES, in Writing or revising the same things in two 
different languages. If, in some places, the expressions in the 
Syriac are more exact, and make the meaning more clear, than 
the Greek does, the fact that they difr'er fr(^m the Greek more than 
a faithful translator from the Greek would have dared to differ, 
favours the Syrian belief that they are due to that apostolic 
authority which had a right to vary the mode of verbal expression, 
where this was thought to be desirable, in a different language. 



Xlviii. INTRODUCTION. 

The following are specimens of those differences which Wichel- 
haus mentions, and which, as he contends, compel the conclusion 
that the Syrian belief which has existed from the first ages till 
now, is a complete delusion. The reader will probably think that, 
instead of proving this, there is nothing in them which is incon- 
sistent with that belief. 

The passages which are not in the Syriac, are not on that 
account to be deemed of doubtful authority ; for if they are well 
sustained by Greek copies, that is evidence that they were after- 
wards added by Apostolic authority. Dr. Scrivener says that some 
various readings are probably due to additions made by the sacred 
writers themselves to some copies of their writings after these were 
first issued. He says, " It may be reasonably thought that a portion 
of the variations [in ancient copies], and those among the most 
considerable, had their origin in a cause which must have operated 
at least as much in ancient as in modern times, the changes 
gradually introduced after publication, by the authors themselves, 
into the various copies yet within their reach. Such revised copies 
would circulate independently of those issued previously, and now 
beyond the writer's control, and thus, becoming the parents of a 
new family of copies, would originate and keep up diversities from 
the first edition, without any fault on the part of transcribers." 
(Intro., p. 18.) 

In Matthew, six differences named by Wichelhaus as proof of 
bad translation, are certainly not so. They are cases in which the 
common Greek text is admitted to be corrupt, and the Eevisers of 
the E. V. have followed the Peshito readings. They are v. 27; 
ix. 13; xxii. 44; xxvi. 9, 60 ; xxviii. 9. In xiv. 24 also, some 
Greek copies have, as the Peshito has, " many furlongs distant 
from the land," instead of, '* now in the midst of the sea;" so 
that it is doubtful whether the true Greek text differs from the 
Syriac there. In vii. 14, the Syr. has, how narrow ; the Gk. has, 
for narrow. In x. 10, Syr., staff ; Gk., some copies, staves ; some, 
staff, xiii, 18, Syr., seed; Gk., sower, xiv. 13., Syr., on dryland; 
Gk., on foot. xvi. 27, Syr., holy angels; Gk., angels, xxi. 34, 
Syr., that they should send; Gk., to receive, xxii. 23, Syr., the 
Sadducees were saying ; Gk., the Sadduces who say. xxii. 37, 
Syr., and with all thy might; Gk. has it not. xxvii. 9, Syr., 
by means of the prophet ; Gk., by means of the prophet Jeremiah. 
An error, for the words are in Zech. xi. 12, 13. la Matt, xxvii. 
60, Syr., was hewn; they rolled, placed, departed; Gk., he had 
hewn; he rolled, and departed, xxviii. 18, Syr., And as my 
Father sent me, so I send you ; Gk. has it not. 

In Luke, ix. 34, Syr., And they feared when they saw that 
Moses and Elijah entered the cloud; Gk., and they feared when 
those, (some copies have, when they) entered the cloud. 



INTRODUCTION. xll'x. 

In JoHX, vii. 39, the Syr. has, The Spirit was not yet given ; the 
Gk., The Spirit was not yet. In viii. 1 — 11, the Syr. has not the 
account of the adulteress. In the Gk., some copies are without it; 
but others have it. It probably is due to an addition made by 
John himself after his Greek Gospel was first issued. (See the 
remark of Dr. Scrivener, quoted p. xlviii, from his Introduction, 
p. 18.) It has in itself strong evidence of Apostolic origin. 

In Acts, iii. 21, Syr., until the completion of the times of all 
those things of which God has spoken ; Gk., until the times of the 
restoration of all things, of which God has spoken, v. 37, Syr., 
in the days in which men were enrolled for the head-tax ; Gk., in 
the days of the enrolment, x. 22, Syr., in a vision by a holy 
angel ; Gk., by a holy angel, xii. 1, Syr., Herod the king, who is 
surnamed Agrippa ; Gk., Herod the king. xii. 10, Syr., the iron 
gate ; Gk., the iron gate which leads into the city. xiii. 13, Syr., 
Paul and Barnabas; Gk., those around Paul. xvii. 19, Syr., to 
the house of judgment which is called Areopagus ; Gk., to the 
Areopagus, xviii. 5, Syr., was restricted in speech ; some Gk. 
copies have, was pressed in spirit ; others, was hindered in word ; 
rendered in R. E. V., was constrained by the word, xviii. 7, Syr., 
Titus; Gk., Justus, xx. 4, Syr., Timothy, who was of Lystra ; 
Gk., Timothy, xxviii. 13, Syr., Puteoli, a city of Italy ; Gk., 
Puteoli. xxviii. 29, Syr,, nothing; Gk., some copies. And when 
he had said these words, the Jews departed, and had great reason- 
ing among themselves. Other Gk. copies, and R. E. V"., have 
nothing. 

In Romans i. 1, Syr., Paul, called, and a Chief Messenger. The 
Gk. has not the word and. The Gk. meaning is uncertain. The 
Common and Revised E. Vs. have, called [to be] an Apostle ; but 
the Gk. may be rendered, One called, an Apostle, v. 9, Syr., how 
much more shall we now be declared just; Gk., how much more, 
having now been declared just. xv. 6, Syr., God the Father; Gk., 
the God and Father. So also in 2 Cor. i. 3 ; Eph. i. 3 ; 1 Pet. i. 3. 

In 1 Cor. vii. 35, Syr., but that ye may be faithful to your Lord 
in a comely manner, not setting thought on the world; Gk., but 
for what is comely and serviceable to the Lord, without interrap- 
tion. x, 2, Syr., were immersed by means of Moses; Gk., were 
immersed into Moses. 

In Philippians, ii. 13, Syr., to will and to do that which ye 
wish ; Gk., to will and to do on behalf of [his] good pleasure. 
ii. 15, Syr., pure sons of God, who dwell among; Gk., children 
of God without blemish, in the midst of. 

2 Thess. 1. 7, Syr., with the power of his angels; Gk., with the 
angels of his power. 

1 Tim. ii. 15, Syr., but she is to have life [-bliss] by means of 
her children, if they, [the women], etc. Gk., but she will be saved 
by means of the beariug of children, if they, [the women], etc. 



K IXTRODUCTIO^T. 

In Hebhews, ii. 6, Syr., the Scripture; Gk., one somewliere. 
vi. 2, Syr., the teaching of immersion; Gk., the teaching of im- 
mersions, vi. 4, Syr., have gone down into immersion ; Gk., haye 
been once enlightened, vii. 3, Syr., neither his father, nor his 
mother, was written in family records, nor the beginning of his 
days, nor the end of his life ; Gk., without father, without mother, 
without family record, having neither beginning of days, nor end 
of life. X. 32. Syr., in which ye received immersion; Gk., iu 
which, having been enlightened. 

In the wouds tjsed to describe church elders, there is 
evidence that the Peshito is not a mere word-for-word translation, 
as some imagine, of the Greek Text. The Syrians sometimes used 
the Greek word episcopos, in the form of episcope. It is used in 
Acts XX. 28, "The church — the assembly, over which the Holy 
Spirit has made you overseers ;" for overseer is the meaning of 
ejnscopos, anglicised in the word bishop. But in 1 Tim. iii. 1. 
where the Greek has " the office of overseer," the Peshito has, 
"the office of elder." In verse 2, the Greek has overseer; the 
Peshito, elder. In Phil. i. 1, the Greek has, overseers, the Peshito, 
elders. In Titus i. 7, the Greek has overseer, the Peshito, elder. 
In 1 Pet. ii. 25, the Greek has overseer, the Peshito, care-taker. 
So that the difference of the words used for the same office in all 
these cases but one, shows that the Greek was not a mere transla- 
tion of the Syriac. 

In the names of places, the Peshito shows the same inde- 
pendence of the Greek. In Matt. iv. 13, the Gk. has Capernaum ; 
the Syr. has, The village of Nahum. In John iii. 23, the Gk. has, 
-ZEnon ; the Syr. has. The Fountain of the Dove. In John xix. 
38, the Gk. has Arimathea ; the Syr. has, Romtho ; in Acts xxi. 
7, the Gk. has, Ptolemais ; the Syriac has, Acu. 

Mr. Jer. Jones, in his work on the Canon, 1798, contends that 
the use of the name Acu, for Ptolemais, is a decisive proof that the 
Peshito must have been made not far in time from a.d. 70, when 
Jerusalem was destroyed, (vol. i. p. 103.) He says that the most 
ancient name of this place among the Israelites was Aco, or Acco, 
Judges i. 31 ; that this name was afterwards changed to Ptolemais; 
that some say it had its new name from Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
about 250 B.C. He says it is certain that the old name Aco, was 
antiquated and out of ase in the time of the Eomans, and that the 
use of the old name Acu, in the Peshito, can be accounted for in 
no other way, but by supposing that the persons for whom the 
version was made were more acquainted with it, than with the new 
name Ptolemais ; that upon any other supposition it would have 
been absurd for him to have used Acu. He says, that until the 
destruction of Jerusalem, one may suppose that the Jews may have 
retained the old name Aco still, out of fondness for its antiquity ; 
but, he says, " how they, or any other part of Syria, could, after 



rK-TEODUCTIOX. ll. 

the Ptoman conquest, call it by a name different from the Eomans?, 
seems to me impossible to conceive. . . To suppose, therefore, that 
this translation, in which we meet with this old name, instead of 
the new one, was made at any great distance of time after the de- 
struction of Jerusalem, is to suppose the translator to have substi- 
tuted an antiquated name known to but few, for a name well 
known to all." (pp. 104, 105.) 

Mr. Jones says that a similar proof that the Peshito cannot have 
been made much after A.D. 70, is found in the fact that the Peshito 
often calls the Gentiles, as the Jews were accustomed to do, 'profane 
persons, where the Greek calls them the nations, that is, the 
Gentiles. The Peshito calls them profane, in Matt. vi. 7 ; x. 5 ; 
xviii. 17 ; Mark vii. 26 ; John vii. 35 ; Acts xviii. 4, 17 ; 1 Cor. v. 
1 ; X. 20, 27 ; xii. 2 ; 1 Pet. iv. 3. The expression is used, therefore, 
throughout the Peshito. Mr. Jones says, that it shows that 
the writer was a Jew, for no other person would, have called 
all the world profane ; and that after the destruction of the 
temple, all Hebrew Christians must have seen that other nations 
■were not to be reckoned unclean and profane in the Jewish sense, 
and that therefore this version must have been made either before, 
or soon after, A.D. 70. (On Canon, Vol. i., pp. 106—110.) 

It must be admitted, I think, that the above differences are not 
inconsistent with the proof given by Syrian testimony that " the 
Peshito was written by Apostolic authority." (Wichelhaus, p. 153.) 
Those differences seem to indicate that the Apostles, who had 
authority to deviate from their own words in one language, when 
writing or revising copies in another, did so deviate with re^^pect to 
the Peshito text, and the Greek text. And it is evident that Wichel- 
haus and others, not only reject the evidence on which we must 
rely in order to know the true origin of the Peshito, but also create 
for themselves a difficulty which they do not solve ; namely, that 
an uninspired translator, whom they praise for his great general 
exactness,^ has to be accused by them of practising, in some places, 
a "licentious" freedom of which no mere translator, if faithful, 
can be supposed to have been guilty. 

VII. Characteristic differences between the Peshito- 
Syriac and the Greek. 

^ The following passages, as well as the preceding, tend to illustrate 
differences between the Syriac and the Greek. In some of them, 
it will probably be thought that the Syriac has the truer meaning, 
or expresses the true meaning more clearly than the Greek does. 
The translation of the Greek is that of the Eevised E. Version, 
the marginal readings of which imply some obscurity or ambiguity 
in the Greek text. 

d2 



lii. 



INTRODIJCTION. 



The Peshito-Syriac. 

Heb. V. 7. Also when he was clothed 
with flesh, he offered up prayer. ... to 
him who was able to bring him to life 
from death. 

VI. 2. The teaching of immersion. 



IX. 28. The Anointed was offered np 
once, and in himself he slew the sins of 
many; and the second time he is to 
appear without the sins, etc. 

X. 5. But with a body thou hast clothed 
me. 

X. 12. This IPriest] offered up one slain 
offering on behalf of sins, and sat down 
at the right hand of God for ever. 

X. 38. He who is righteous will have 
life [-bliss] through trust in me. 

XI. 1. Trust is persuasion about things 
hoped for, as if they were things done ; 
iand it is a revealing of those things 
which are not seen. 

XI. 12. Abraham, who was incapable 
from age. 

James 1. 18. The Father of lights willed, 
and begat us by the word of truth. 



II. 10. He who sins in one thing is con- 
demned by the whole law. 

II. 13. Ye are to be exalted by mercy 
above condemning judgment. 

III. 6. The tongue is a fire, and the 
world of sin is like a wood; and the 
tongue being itself in the midst of our 
members, blackens our whole body. 



IV. 5. Or think you that the Scripture 
has said without reason, that the spirit 
whijh dwells in us, covets eagerly 
through envy ? 



V. 11. Ye have seen the ending which 
the Lord worked out for Job. 



The Greek. 

Who, in the days of his flesh, having 
offered up prayers .... unto him that 
was able to save him from death. Margin, 
or out of death. 

The teaching of baptisms. Margin, or, 
washings. 

Christ, having been once offered, to 
bear the sins of many, shall appear a 
second time, apart from sin, etc. 

But a body didst thou prepare for me. 

He, when he had offered one sacrifice 
for sins for ever, sat down on the right 
hand of God. Margin, or, for ever sat 
down. 

My righteous one shall live by faith. 
Margin, Some ancient authorities read, 
The righteous one. 

Faith is the assurance of [things] hoped 
for, the proving of things not seen. 
Margin, assurance of, or, the giving sub- 
stance to. Proving, or test. 

As good as dead. 

The Father of lights, of his own willj 
brought us forth by the word of truth. 

[An incredible statement. The false- 
ness of it is self-evident. W.N.] 

Whosoever shall stumble in one point, 
he is become guilty of all. 

Mercy glorieth against judgment. 



The tongue is a fire; the world of 
iniquity among our members is the 
tongue, which defileth the whole body. 

Margin. Or, a fire, that world of iniquity : 
the tongue is among our members that 
which, etc. Or, that world of iniquity, 
the tongue, is among our members that 
which, etc. 

Or, think ye that theScipture speaketh 
in vain ? Doth the spirit, which he made 
to dwell in us, long unto envying ? 

Margin. Or, The Scripture saith in vain, 
the spirit which he made to dwell in us, 
he yearneth for, even unto jealous envy? 
Or, That spirit which he made to dwell 
in us, yearneth [for us], even unto jealous 
envy ? Or, instead of, he made to dwell, 
some ancient authorities read, dwelleth 
in us. 

Ye have seen the end of the Lord. 



INTRODUCTIOIi. 



liii 



The Peshito-Syriac. 

1 Pet. ii. 21. And he bore our sins, all of 
them, and carried them up in his iDody 
to the cross, that we might he dead to 
sin, and have life [-hiiss] by his righteous- 



III. 20, 21. Into which [ark] only eight 
persons entered, and were kept alive by 
the waters. In likeness to which 
example, ye also have life [-bliss] through 
immersion, (not when ye wash the body 
from filth, but when ye profess God with 
a pure conscience,) etc. 



v. 2. Take care [of the flock] spirit- 
ually. 

1 John iii. 1. Who has called us sons, 
and has also made us sons. 



The Greek. 

Who his own self, bare our sins in his 
body upon the tree, that we, having died 
unto sins, might live unto righteousness. 
Margin. Or, carried up our sins to the 
tree. 

Wherein few, that is eight souls, were 
saved through water ; which also, after 
a true likeness, doch now save you, [even] 
baptism, not the putting away of the 
filth of the fiesh, but the interrogation 
of a good conscience toward God, etc. 
Margin. Were savedj or, were brought 
safely through water. Interrogation, or 
incLuiry, or appeal. 

Exercisingthe oversight. 



That we should be called children of 
God. 



The different translations given by the Eevisers, show how unable 
they were to decide what is the right meaning of the Greek in 
some of the above passages. The different meanings given, leave 
the reader in utter uncertainty as to what the right meaning is. 
The meanings given by the Peshito are not only clear, but most of 
them have the appearance of being also correct. 

VIII. The result of trusting chiefly to certain- faulty 
Greek copies, and slighting the Peshito- Syriac. 

The Greek copies, from having been less carefully written than 
those of the Peshito, abound with various readings, some of which 
make the meaning of important passages uncertain. The result 
is, that the infallible teaching of those parts of Scripture is said to 
be destroyed. 

Dr. Philip Schaff, who was President of the American com- 
mittee which took part in preparing the Revised English Version 
of 1881, says in his Companion to it, 1883, that, as " most of the 
variations" of the Greek text "date from early transcription in 
the first two centuries, an infallible text is impossible." 
(p. 420.) He says this, as one who believes that the Scriptures 
were given to be an " Infallible Guide in all matters of Christian 
faith and duty." (p. 494.) 

Dr. Scrivener suggests, that in the 2094 Greek manuscripts 
now known, the variations may amount to more than 100,000. 
Comparatively few of them affect the meaning of Scripture on 
points of great importance. But a sufficient number of them do 
so, to afford those who undermine the authority of Scripture, some 
seeming reason for saying that if Divine guidance made it infallible 

The aim of Biblical critics has 



liV LNTEODUCTION. 

been, as Dr. Scrivener says, '* to bring back the Greek text to the 
condition in which it stood in the sacred autographs, by separating 
the pure gold of God's word, from the dross which has mingled 
with it through the accretions of so many centuries." (Introduction, 
1883, p. 5.) 

Dr. Scrivener admits, that notwithstanding the greatness of 
past efforts, difficulties still "defy all our skill and industry to detect 
and estimate aright." (P. 520.) All these difficulties arise, either 
from wilful alterations, or from THE want of exact copying, 
especially in the second century. Hence the extreme value of 
copies of the Peshito, which are proved to have been made with 
the greatest care and exactness from the first. This proof exists 
in the marvellous agreement of all early copies, wheresoever and 
by whomsoever made. 

As Dr. Schaee says, to restore infallibility to the Greek text, 
in doubtful places, by means of Greek copies, seems to be 
" impossible." The only hope of knowing, in such places, what 
is true, and what is false, seems to arise from the exactness of the 
Peshito copies. Even the penmanship of some specimens of these, 
as given by Professor Adler, is of great exactness and beauty ; and 
the Eev. D. T. Stoddard, an American missionary at Ooroomiah, 
in Persia, says of the Nestorian copies, ' ' They are sometimes very 
beautifully written, and the best type can never exceed, and 
perhaps not even rival them in elegance." (Grammar of Modern 
Syriac, p. 21.) This is no slight proof of the care with which they 
have been written. 

Dr. Scrivener says, " The Peshito-Syriac has not yet received 
that critical care on the part of editors which its antiquity and 
importance so urgently demand," and "with such full means of 
information within our reach, it will not be to our credit if a good 
critical edition of the Peshito be much longer unattempted. (pp. 
317-8.) But though a good critical edition is much to be desired, 
there is far greater need of readiness on the part of Biblical critics, 
to give to the Peshito the attention due to it, and the influence 
which it ought to exercise. No great changes are to be expected 
from a new critical edition, though such an edition is so much 
to be desired. 

The Eev. G. H. Gwilliam, M.A., of Oxford University, will, it 
is to be hoped, be enabled to complete his new critical edition of 
the Gospels of the Peshito, " based on a number of copies of very 
great antiquity, and high critical value." (Studia Biblica, 1885, 
pp. 153-4.) He has kindly told us in advance, that in this now 
edition, " A certain number of corrections will be made, but that 
these, for the most part, will be in comparatively unimportant 
points of grammar and orthography." (Same, p. 161.) 

Most critics of the Greek text have been too indifferent to 
the testimony of religious bodies, in reference to Greek 



INTEODUCTION. IV. 

manuscripts. They have trusted too much to copies which have no 
known support from the approval of any such societies. The 
result is, that instead of establishing a Greek text upon a sound 
historical basis, they have given us the result of theories, of specu- 
lations founded on prohahilities, and on a comparison of copies which, 
as Dr. Scrivener says, " are perpetually at variance with each other,'" 
and " scarcely ever in unison,'' (Introd., p. 523.) These copies have 
been unreasonably supposed to be of supreme authority, because 
the substance on which they are written has survived that of other 
copies more in use, and has brought them down from times when 
Greek manuscripts, instead of being pure, were full of the errors, 
both of those, and of preceding centuries. 

The lamentable result is, that by the latest Greek Text, Drs. 
Westcott and Hort seem to have done more harm than any earlier 
Greek editors, by the selection of wrong readings, and by corrupt- 
ing still more a text which they profess to improve. The statement 
of Dean Burgon may, with apparent reason, be regarded as 
lamentably true, that this text is "the most depraved which has 
ever appeared in print." (Eevision Eevised, 1883, p. xxx.) 

The Geeek copies called Aleph and B, are those on which 
Drs. Westcott and Hort chiefly rely. They say that the readings 
of these " should be accepted as the true eeadln'GS, until strong 
internal evidence is found to the contrary." Yet, as Dean Burgon 
has said, these copies " have come to us without a character, with- 
out a history, without antecedents of any kind," (p. 14) ; except, 
indeed, such antecedents as Canon Cook, in his " First Three Gos- 
pels, (188:^)," has shown to be almost ascertained facts. He has 
shown it to be in the highest degree probable, that these Greek 
copies were made when Arianism was in high favour, and under the 
superintendence of Eusebius of Csesarea, whom Jerome calls " The 
standard-bearer of the Arian faction." (Cook, pp. 151, 164, 183.) 
Canon Cook says that the omissions and corruptions of these two 
Greek copies are ' * logically incompatible with an entire faith in the 
Saviour's proper and true Divinity." (p. 177.) He says also, that 
these two oldest manuscripts, Aleph and B, " are responsible for 
nearly every change which weakens or perverts the record of sayings 
and incidents in our Lord's life." (p. 142.) Among these changes 
Canon Cook mentions the following. Drs. Westcott and Hort omit 
the leading point in the title of Mark's Gospel, " ' Son of God,' an 
act of singular temerity." (p. 35.) They reject, as a forged addition, 
the account of our Lord's bloody sweat in Gethsemane ; Luke xxii. 
44. They omit the doxology in the Lord's prayer. Matt. vi. 13, 
" For thine is the kingdom," etc. They reject the first words 
uttered by the Redeemer on the cross, Luke xxiii. 34, " Father 
forgive them, for they know not what they do," (Cook, p. 106.) 
They omit the last 12 verses of Mark, which Canon Cook calls a 
mutilation without parallel in the critical history of the New 



Ivi. INTRODUCTION. 

Testament," (p. 120) ; and one wHcli removes Mark's account of 
fhe ascension, removes the only statement in the Gospels that 
Christ is seated at Grod's right hand ; removes an emphatic state- 
ment of the necessity of faith, " and the most emphatic statement 
in the New Testament as to the importance of baptism." (pp. 121-2.) 

The following eminent critics have endeavoured to correct the 
TEXT OF THE GrREEK TESTAMENT, and have published editions of 
it. John Mill, 1707; John Jacob Wettstein, 1751-2; Griesbach, 
1771-5; Lachmann, 1842-50; Tregelles, 1857-1879; Tischendorf, 
8th ed., 1869-1872 ; Westcott and Hort, 1881. Most of these have 
treated the Peshito-Syriac as of little importance. 

Dr. John Mill, 1707, is spoken of by Dr. Scrivener as having 
rendered " services to Biblical criticism, which surpass in extent 
and value those rendered by any other, except, perhaps, one or 
two men of our time." (Intro, p. 448.) He did not know Syriac, 
but he collected the readings of the Peshito, relying on trans- 
lations of it, and was sometimes misled. (Wichelhaus, p. 246.) 
He speaks of the Syrians as gloryifing their version too much in 
saying that it was made "ft?/ Thaddceus and other Apostles f^ hwi 
he 'seems to concur with Bishop Walton and many of the learned, 
in conjecturing that it was " made by Apostolic men in the age next 
to that of the Apostles." He says that " beyond all doubt it was 
used by the Syrians not long after the beginning of their church," 
which must have been begun about a.d, 35. (Prol., sec. 1237.) He 
trusts to conjecture, and rejects Syrian testimony. 

Wettstein says, that "if you listen to some men, this version 
is the most ancient of all, and made by an Apostle, or Apostolic 
man. . . . This is untrue, as will appear from what I subjoin." 
His proofs consist of differences between it and the Greek text. 
He regards it as the work of an uninspired translator, who, instead 
of always following "the Greek text closely, used licentious 
liberty in substituting some things for others, and in too frequently 
giving a paraphrase." (Prol., p. 109.) The insufficiency of such 
leasons has been shown in the preceding section, with reference to 
like objections hy Wichelhaus. 

Griesbach supposed that there had been three recensions, or 
rectifications of the Greek text, one of which he calls Alexandrian, 
another Western, and the third Constantinopolitan. He says of 
the Syriac Version, " As printed, it is like none of these recensions, 
and yet it is not wholly unlike any of them. In many things it 
agrees with the Alexandrian, in more with the Western, in some 
also with the Constantinopolitan. ... It therefore seems to 
have been again and again revised at different times, according to 
very different Greek copies. (Prol., sec. iii. 15 pp. Ixxi.-ii.) These 
revisions of the Syriac are all pure conjectures ; and he admits that 
his whole Greek text "is only his own judgment of various read- 
ijigs." Wichelhaus says, " Ought not Griesbach to have distrusted 



rNTRODUCTioN-. Ivii. 

his recensions, wlien he found that the text of the Syriac version 
combined the readings of those three recensions ? a version which 
is held to be older than the time luhen those recensions had their origin ? 
But men are accustomed to distrust all things rather than their 
own opinion of them." (p. 240.) 

Lachmais^n did not know Syriac, and he asks, " Of what use 
would it have been to me to have learned the language of the 
Syrians, while the most ancient copies of the Peshito, and those 
worthy of trust, have not yet been classed and presented to view, 
in the way in which I have divided the Latin ones P" (Pref. p. 24.) 
This question has for suitable answer, that those who know 
Syriac, have not only printed editions, but access also to ancient 
manuscript copies. Wichelhaus says of those who act thus, * ' Even 
those who appear to have laid up all store of learning, and to have 
searched all library-shelves, that nothing may adhere which is 
false or foreign to the text of the Bible, care not to study that 
version of it, which all those who are most skilled in it say is most 
ancient ; the numerous copies of which are of wonderful age, and 
easily viewed, and which has been found to be equally one and the 
same, not only in printed editions, but in manuscript copies, and 
throughout the churches of the whole East." (p. 240.) Lachmann 
says of the Eeceived Greek Text, that no learned man deems it 
genuine. How is it then, asks Wichelhaus, that the Ancient 
Syriac Version does not represent those readings which our critics 
call ancient, genuine, best and true, but represents the Eeceived 
Greek text? (p. 268.) " Lachmann praises what is ancient; he 
wishes that nothing be received which is not proved to be ancient. 
I wonder, therefore, why he does not think it worth while even to 
refer to our [Syriac] Version. If his will is to form a [Greek] text 
by readings from Origen, and the most ancient Greek copies ; he 
will not deny that if we produce as a witness the Eastern Syriac 
Version, we have in it documents more ancient still." (p. 268.) 
Wichelhaus gives cases from Luke, in which he contends that the 
Peshito is right, and Griesbach and Lachmann are evidently wrong, 
(pp. 268-9.) 

Dr. Tregelles is more daring still. He makes a statement 
which Syriac copies prove to be utterly groundless, namely, that 
"The Peshito-Syriac was frequently modernized from time to 
time." (Gk. Test. Introductory Notice, p. v.) 

TiscHENDORF Said in an edition of the Gk. T., dated 1858, that 
*' The Peshito was made in the second century." Of this he gives 
no proof, nor have I seen any clear evidence of it given by others. 

Drs. Westcott and Hort assert in their Gk. T., that a foundling 
Syriac fragment which has no known, nor seeming connection with 
the Peshito, " renders its revised character a matter of certai7ity.'^ 
Dean Burgon's rebuke of this untruth has already been given at 
p. XXV. Dr. Scrivener says, " Of this formal transmutation of the 



Iviii. INTRODUCTIOlf. 

Curetonian Syriac into the Peshito, (for this is wliat Dr. Hort 
means, though his language is a little obscure), .... not one 
trace remains in the history of Christian antiquity ; no one writer 
seems conscious that any modification of this translation ivas made 
in or before their times.'^ (Introduction, p. 533.) On Dr. Scrivener's 
testimony we may fully rely. 

This, then, is the state of the conflict : — These critics have all 
BEJECTED the uniform Syrian testimony on a question of fact, — 
the very testimony on which the rules of evidence teach us to rely, 
as the only sure means of knowing the truth on points which we 
cannot ourselves investigate. Dr. Joh^s^ Mill " was a friend of 
truth," and he received the Peshito as a witness of what the Greek 
copy was, from which, as he supposed, it was made, and said, that 
except in some passages, " there could be seen in it, as a mirror, 
the natural face of the Greek text, from which it was formed." 
(Prol. sec. 1243.) But most of the other Greek editors speak evil 
of the Peshito, though they give no proof of the evil ; this evil- 
speaking is disproved by known facts. These charges being all 
both unproved and disproved, the Peshito ought to be free from 
suspicion of being marred and mis-shapen, as it has been said to 
be. Meanwhile the Syrian testimony in its favour, remains uniform 
and universal. "No clear evidence is adduced against that 
testimony," as Bishop Walton says. (Prol. xiii. 16.) The credit of 
the Peshito stands in reality all the higher, for its having passed 
through the ordeal of having had to meet many charges, and being 
untouched by any of them. The conduct of the accusers is viewed 
with surprise and indignation. The harm they thought to do it, 
falls on their own heads. They are distrusted. They are felt to 
be unsafe, if not even dangerous guides. 

On the other hand, the most elaborate attempts to restore 
THE Greek Text to purity by the comparison chiefly of Greek 
copies, is admitted to have been hitherto a failure. Dr. Scrivener 
asks, as if almost in despair, " Is it true that we are thus [by past 
failures] cast upon the wide ocean, without a compass or a guide ? 
Can no clue be found that may conduct us through the tangled 
maze Y Is there no other method of settling the text of the New 
Testament than by collecting, and marshalling, and scrutinizing 
the testimony of thousands of separate documents, now agreeing, 
now at issue with each other." " Elaborate systems have failed, 
as might have been looked for from the first. It was premature to 
frame them in the present stage of things." " The delicate and 
important process, whereby we seek to determine the comparative 
value, and trace the mutual relation, of authorities of every kind, 
■upon which " the attempt to restore " the original text of the N. T. 
is based, . . . will (as we trust) gradually develop facts which will 
eventually put us on the right road, although, for the present, we 
meet with much that is uncertain, perplexing, ambiguous." 
(Introduction, 1883, pp. 520-1.) 



INTRODUCTION-. lix. 

IX. Testimonies founded on knoayledge and esteem of 

THE PeSHITO-SYKIAC. 

Bishop Walton, 1657, had some degree, but only some degree, 
of reliance on Syrian testimony respecting the Peshito. He said 
that ' ' much is to be yielded to the general tradition of the Eastern 
Churches, because no clear evidence is adduced in opposition to it, 
and it is sustained by internal evidence in the Peshito, which 
proves its great antiquity ; for 2 Peter, 2 & 3 John, Jude, and Eev. 
are not extant in the old issue." The real Syrian tradition is, that 
it was made not only in the time of the Apostles, but by the care 
of Apostles ; as that tradition is related by Jesudad. But as related 
by Bishop Walton, " The constant and uninterrupted tradition is, 
that the Peshito was made in the time of the Apostles, either by 
some of their disciples, or by Apostolic men.'^ Even this version of it, 
implies that the disciples, or the companions, of the Apostles, would, 
in the time of the Apostles, submit to them what they wrote, for 
their correction, that it might have, as the writings of Luke and 
Mark have, Apostolic authority. Bishop Walton admits, that if 
*' it were made by any of the Apostles, it would have an authority 
which is Divine, and equal to that of the other sacred books," and 
he says that therefore " he would not readily admit that it was 
made by any one of the Apostles." He says also, that '' no one up 
to that time had affirmed its Divine authority ;" and yet this is 
the very authority which the Syrians seem to say it has. (See 
Chap, v., especially the words of Jesudad, and of the Indian 
Christians.) 

The Syrians have a tradition that the Peshito was made chiefly 
by Mark. Bishop Walton thinks this incorrect, because "many 
parts of the N. T. were written after his death, which Jerome and 
others say took place in the eighth year of Nero," that is, in 62. 
(Prol. xiii. 16.) 

The great utility of the Peshito, in the view of Bishop Walton, 
is, that Syriac was the language spoken by Christ and his Apostles, 
and that the meaning of many expressions which occur in the 
Greek N. T., can scarcely be discovered, except from the Syriac. 
(Prol. xiii. 19.) 

Jacob Martini was Professor of Theology in the University of 
Wittenberg, and wrote a preface to the N. T. Peshito-Syriac, in 
which he said, " It is a version, but of all, it is the first and most 
ancient. . . It is a version, but made either by one of the Evan- 
gelists, or at least, of those who . . . had the Apostles themselves 
present, whom they could consult and hear, respecting many of 
the more obscure places. To this only, therefore, when some 
obscurity or difficulty occurs in Greek copies, can we safely go. 
This only, when doubt arises respecting the meaning or translation 
of any passage, can be consulted with safety and freedom from 



Ix. INTRODUCTION. 

error. By this only, the Greek Text is truly illustrated, and 
rightly understood." (See Gutbier's Preface to his Syriac N. T., 
1663, p. 26.) 

J. D. MiCHAELis, in his Introduction to the N. T., 1787, chap, 
vii., sec. 4., says, '*The Syriac Testament has been my constant 
study." In sec. 8., he says, " The Peshito is the very best translation 

of the Greek Testament that I have ever read Of all the 

Syriac authors with which I am acquainted, not excepting Ephrsem 
and Bar Hebrseus, its language is the most elegant and pure. . . . 
It has no marks of the stiffness of a translation, but is written 
with the ease and fluency of an original." "What is not to be 
regarded as a blemish, it differs frequently from the modern modes 
of explanation ; but I know of no version that is so free from error, 
and none that I consult with so much confidence in cases of 
difficulty and doubt. I have never met with a single instance 
where the Greek is so interpreted, as to betray a weakness and 
ignorance in the translator ; and though in many other translations 
the original is rendered in so extraordinary a manner as almost to 
excite a smile, the Syriac version must be ever read with profound 
veneration." " The affinity of the Syriac to the dialect of Palestine 
is so great, as to justify, in some respects, the assertion that the 
Syriac translator has recorded the actions and speeches of Christ 
in the very language in which he spoke." "The Syriac New 
Testament is written in the same language [as that of Christ], but 
in a different dialect, ... in the purest Mesopotamian." 

The question is, whether the contents of the Peshito are incon- 
sistent with what the Syrians state to be a known fact ; namely, 
that it was made in the time of the Apostles, and by the care of 
the Apostles. J. D. Michaelis did not give the above testimony 
with view to answer that question ; yet, what he says, shows that 
he found the Peshito to be as accurate as it would be, if made 
under Apostolic care. He had found "no version so free from 
error." He found that " this must ever be read with profound 
veneration." And owing to some unexplained cause, when he had 
"difficulty and doubt" as to the Greek, he could with ''much 
confidence consult " the Peshito. 

The Eev. Jeremiah Jones said, " The Primitive Christians are 
proper judges, to determine what book is Canonical, and what is 
not." (On the Canon, vol. i. p. 43.) "The Greek copies, and the 
Syriac ones, were both esteemed the Word of God, though in 
different languages." (p. 103.) 

Professor Wichelhaus, 1850, dwells much on the worth of the 
Peshito. He calls it, " The most ancient witness, a version most 
accurate, untouched and untarnished, ever transcribed and pre- 
served by the Syrians with the greatest care." (p. 236.) He did 
not see why, with some few exceptions, it should not be " most 
like to the autographs of the Apostles." (p. 264.) He said, as Dr. 



IXTRODTJCTION-. 1x1. 

G. Eldley had done, *' The Peshito is older and better than all the 
ancient Latin versions." (p. 77.) The Common English Yersion is 
from a Greek text much like the Peshito. Wichelhaus remarks, 
that ' ' the ancient Syriac yersion represents the Eeceived Greek 
Text." (p. 268.) This is a point of deep interest to all to whom 
the Common English Version is dear. 

He asserts that, with certain exceptions, the Peshito "is to be 
esteemed to be amongst the best and firmest aids for the right 
construction of the [Greek] text." (p. 270.) 

The Eev. Ezka Stiles, D.D., President of Tale College, in the 
United States of America, said, in an Inaugural Oration, "In 
Syriac, THE greater part of the New Testament (I believe) was 
ORiGESTALLY WRITTEN", and not merely translated, iisr the Apostolic 

AGE The Syriac Testament, therefore, is of high authority ; 

nay, with me, of the same authority as the Greek." (Appendix 
to Dr. Murdock's English Translation of the Peshito, New York, 
1851, p. 499.) 

Dr. James Murdock:, Professor of Ecclesiastical History, at New 
Haven, Connecticut, TJ. S., America, and Author of an English 
Translation of the Peshito, 1851, says that Dr. Ezra Stiles was not 
the only person who believed that " the books of the greater part 
of the New Testament were originally whitten in Syriac." 
He thinks that the Peshito " may he something more than a mere 
translation ; that it may have nearly, or quite equal authority with 
the Greek." (P. 500.) 

Dean John W. Burgon, B.D., was the author of three articles 
in the Quarterly Eeview, which, he says, were " wrung out of me 
by the publication on May 17th, 1881, of the Ee vision of our 
Authorised Yersion of the New Testament." In compliance with 
much solicitation, he published them separately in 1883, under the 
title of "The Eevision Eevised." (Pref, p. ix.) He felt conscious, 
after the publication of his first article in October, 1881, that 
enough was even then on record, " to secure the ultimate rejection 
of the Eevision of 1881," and that " in the end, it must be univer- 
sally regarded as — what it most certainly is — the most astonishing, 
as well as the most calamitous literary blunder of the age." (Pref. 
pp. X. — xi.) He knew that " by demonstrating the worthlessness 
of the neiu Greek text of the Eevisionists," he had proved that " the 
English translation of it must be incorrect." He soon found that 
" the Eevised English, would have been in itself intolerable, even 
had the Greek been let alone." (p. xii.) 

Dean Burgon says, " I am able to prove that this Eevision of 
the Sacred Text is untrustworthy from beginning to end." (p. v.) 
" The systematic depravation of the underlying Greek, is nothing 
but a poisoning of the River of Life at its sacred source. Our 
Eevisers, (with the best and purest intentions, no doubt), stand 
convicted of having deliberately rejected the words of 



Ixii. IXTHODUCTIOX. 

IxspiRATiON in every page, and of having substituted for them 
fabricated readings, which the church has long since refused to 
acknowledge, or else has rejected with abhorrence, and which only 
survive at this time in a little handful of documents of the most 

depraved type The Eevisers have, in fact, been the dupes of 

an ingenious Theorist If any complain that I have some- 
times hit my opponents rather hard, I take leave to point out, that 
.... when THE WORDS OF Inspiration" are seriously im- 
perilled, AS NOW THEY ARE, it is Scarcely possible for one who 
is determined effectually to preserve the Deposit in its integrity, 
to hit either too straight, or too hard." (pp. vi. — viii.) *' I traced 
the mischief " (done by the New Greek Text of the Eevisers) " home 
to its true authors, — Drs. Westcott and Hort, a copy of whose 
unpublished text of the [Greek] N, T., the most vicious in existence^ 
had been confidentially, and under pledges of the strictest secrecy, 
placed in the hands of every member of the revising Body." 
(p. xi.) 

In answer to Dean Burgon, it was insinuated that he could not 
disprove the theory of Drs. Westcott and Hort. This, he says, 
compelled him to demonstrate that " in their solemn pages," there 
is only " a series of unsupported assumptions ; .... a tissue as 
flimsy and as worthless as any spider's web," (p. xiv.) 

Dean Burgon says that the Greek Text, which is commonly called 
*' THE Eeceived Greek Text," is confessedly, at least 1530 years 
old." (p. XX.) Dr. Hort admits (see his Intro, to Gk. T., p. 92), 
that ' ' The fundamental text of late extant Greek manuscripts 
generallj^," that is, of copies which have had the approval of 
Christian ho dies, on which bodies we have to rely, as on well- 
informed and credible witnesses to the truth ; he says that the text 
of their " manuscripts generally, is, beyond all question, identical 
with the dominant Greco-Syrian text of the second half of the 
fourth century;" that is, with the text approved by both Greeks 
and Syrians, from A.D. 350 to 400. Of this text the Peshito is one 
member. This is the text which Dean Burgon says is 1530 years 
old. 

But the theory or conjecture which it has pleased Drs. Westcott 
and Hort to adopt, is, that the original Greek text was very 
different from this, and is contained in a few copies of the 
fourth, or next following centuries, which are not known to have 
been approved hy any large bodies free from serious error. To 
account for the fact that the text of these few copies was " gener- 
ally " rejected by Greeks and Syrians, Drs. Westcott and Hort 
gamble with conjecture. They cannot find history to quote, and 
therefore invent fictions. Their chief fiction is, that " a new text " 
was formed, " different from all " preceding texts, of which there 
had grown up three; and that this new text was "a work of 
attempted criticism, performed deliberately by editors," (Intro, to 



iXTRODrcTiox. Ixiii. 

■Ok. T,, p. 133) ; that there was " an authoritative revision of Greek 
texts at Antioch, which revision was then taken as a standard for 
a similar authoritative revision of the \_PesMto] Syriac text ; that the 
Greek text was itself at a later time subjected to a second authori- 
tative revision ; but that the Yulgate [Peshito] Syriac did not 
undergo any corresponding second revision." (Intro, to Gk. T., 
P-137.) 

The invention of what is unsaid in history, under pretence of 
proving the facts of history, and with respect to infallible truth, is 
as rash as it is wrong. But the use made of this invention of revis- 
ions which never took place, is more rash still, for it is assumed 
that the best text of Greek and Syriac copies was rejected by the 
Eevisers in both cases ; that the purer texts were abandoned, and 
the more corrupt adopted throughout both Greek and Syrian bodies 
in all following ages. Drs. Westcott and Hort conjecture that the 
leading Christians in those bodies were so weak, or so wicked, that 
they preferred "acceptability" to "purity of text," and were so 
" capricious," that their " new interpolations," their forged addi- 
tions, " were abundant." (pp. 134-5.) On the ground of this 
slanderous assumption, they please to decide, that any reading 
which is "distinctly Syrian, is to be rejected at once," (p. 163); 
and that the whole line of Greek and Syriac manuscripts in which 
this alleged " new " text is found, is to be rejected also. What evil 
influence can possibly have so possessed and blinded minds trained 
to reason rightly, that they can say what is so unreasonable ? 

On this subject Dean Burgon says : — " We are invited to make 
our election between fact and fictiox." (p. 293.) If there had 
been such a revision, " we should insist that no important deviation 
from such a Textus Receptus as that, would deserve to be listened to. 
In other words, if Dr. Hort's theory about the origin of the Textus 
Heceptus have any foundation at all in fact, it is ' all up ' with Dr. 
Hort. He is absolutely nowhere." (p. 293.) But no such authori- 
tative revision is recorded as having ever occurred. " As a mere 
effort of the imagination," says Dean Burgon, " it is entitled to 
no manner of consideration or respect at our hands." (p. 277.) 
But if it had occurred, then, accordiog to Dr. Hort's theory, we 
should behold on one side the " choice representatives of the 
wisdom, the piety, the learning of the Eastern Church, from a.d. 250 
to A.D. 350. On this side sits Dr. Hort. An interval of 1532 years 
separates these two parties." (P. 288.) " According to Dr. Hort, 
by a strange fatality, — a most unaccountable and truly disastrous 
proclivity to error, — these illustrious fathers of the church have 
been at every ijxstsint substituting the spurious for the genuine, — a 
fabricated text in place of the Evangelical verity. Miserable men !" 
(p. 289.) " The self- same iniquity [was] perpetrated," Dr. Hort 
supposes, in the case of the Peshito, as in the case of the Greek 
text. '• One solitary witness " to the true text, " Cureton's frag- 



Ixiv. INTRODUCTION. 

mentary Syriac, is suffered to escape, and alone remains to exhibit ib 
mankind the outlines of primitive truth ;" a fragment which is in 
reality "utterly depraved."_(R. E., pp. 279,289.) "Who is it 
who gravely puts forth all this egregious nonsense ? It is Dr. Hort, 
at pp. 134, 135," of his Introduction. According to him, those 
primitive fathers have been the great falsifiers of Scripture, have 
proved the worst enemies of the Word of God. And (by the hypo- 
thesis), ' ' Dr. Hort, at the end of 1 532 years, aided by codex B, and 
his own self- evolved powers of divination, has found them out, 
and now holds them up to the contempt and scorn of the British 
public." (R. R. p. 290.) 

Dean Burgon says that the admission by Drs. Westcott and 
Hort of "the practical identity of 99 out of 100 of our extant 
Greek manuscripts," with what they call " the Greco-Syrian text 
of the second half of the fourth century," makes the following the 
only question to be answered, " How is this resemblance to be 
accounted for P" and he replies, " Certainly not by putting forward 
so violent and improbable — so irrational a conjecture as that . . . 
an authoritative standard text wa,s fabricated at Antioch;" but by 
owning that in the similar text of those Greek copies of 350 — 400 
A.D., and of the Peshito- Syriac version, and the mass of Greek 
manuscripts, there is probably a ^^ general fidelity to the inspired 
exemplars themselves, from which remotely they are confessedly 
descended." (R. R., p. 295.) 

" The yery little handful" of Greek copies to which Dean 
Burgon refers as those on which Drs. Westcott and Hort chiefly 
rely in opposition to all other sources of information, are those 
four which are called B, Aleph, C, and D. He says, it matters 
nothing to these editors "that all four are discovered, on careful 
scrutiny, to differ essentially, not only from 99 out of 100 
of the whole body of other extant manuscripts, but even/rom one 
another ; the last circumstance being obviously fatal to their cor- 
porate pretensions," because it proves that "in different degrees 
they all exhibit a fabricated text." He says, ' ' that when compared 
with the Commonly Received Greek Text, B and Aleph have 8972 
omissions, additions, substitutions, transpositions, and modifica- 
tions ; that these are by no means the same in both;" and that 
" these four codices, be it remembered, come to us without a 
character." (R. R., pp. 11, 12, 14.) 

The Rev. F. C. Cook, M.A., Canon of Exeter, and Editor of the 
Speaker's Commentary, published in 1882, a valuable work on 
" The Revised Version of the First Three Gospels." He mentions 
the Peshito thus : — " The Peshito, an independent version, and of 
the highest value." (p. 37.) "Occupying the highest place among 
ancient versions." (p. 81.) He names it as being one of the 
" authorities to which, in some cases, a higher value is to he assigned, 
than to any manuscripts,''' because it is " more ancient, and better 



IXTRODUCTIOX. Ixv. 

attested" fhan these. He saj-s that it Is "the vr>r>ion which 
probably comes nearest to the autographs of the EvangeUsts, especi- 
ally of Matthew ;" and that " It supports the old Eeceived [Gk.] 
Text in the passages which he dwells upon, as of special import- 
ance." " For my own part," he says, " I do not doubt that this 
version is more trustworthj'' than manuscript B, especially as 
evidence against omissions. In fact, in the great majority of 
disputed readings, that which has its decided support, has a. prima 
facte claim to preference, if not to absolute acceptance.''^ (pp. 143-4.) 

His remarks on the two Greek copies, B and Aleph, which are 
relied on as the chief foes of the Peshito-Sj-riac text, are very 
important. He says that they " were certainly written at a time 
when Arianism was in fuU ascendancy ; when Eusebius of Csesarea 
was the most prominent and the most influential leader of that 
party," (p. 244); and that a "combination of facts, external and 
internal, appears to be incompatible with any other hypothesis, 
than that these two manuscripts which have furnished the Eevisers 
of the E. V. with their new Greek text, were among those which 
Eusebius prepared by the order of Constantine." (p. 243.) He 
says that the Peshito-Syriac Version " must surely be regarded as 
the most trustiuorthy ivitness to the state of the text, as received from 
the beginning in Palestine, and all the adjoining districts ; that it 
gives us distinct intimation of the existence of words, clauses, 
entire sentences, which are obliterated or mutilated in those two 
manuscripts ;" and he asks whether '* we can hesitate as to which 
testimony has the best, the only rightful claim to accept- 
ance ?" (p. 245.) 

Of B, Aleph, C and D, Canon Cook speaks as Dean r)ur2:on 
does. He confirms "the charges of corruption and depravation 
made against B, Aleph, C and L," (p. 229) ; and says that i) is, 
" of all manuscripts, the least trustworthy." (p. 214.) 

Of B and Aleph he says, " I hold it as all but certain that they were 
written at Csesarea, between 330 and 340 A.D., under the direction 
of Eusebius," (p. 245); whom Jerome called "the standard- 
bearer of the Arian faction." (p. 166, note.) He says that the 
Greek Text followed by the Eevisers, as well as by L)rs. Westeott 
and Hort, is "virtually identical with B." (pp. 133, 149.) 

Manuscript A differs in character from the rest of " the oldest 
five Greek manuscripts ; Aleph, A, B, C and D." (Dr. Scrivener's 
Intro. 523.) " Manuscript A is the representative," says Canon 
Cook, " according to Westeott and Hort, of their [imaginary] 
Syriac recension. It actually represents the text which was 
adopted and used, without the slightest indication of doubt, by the 
great divines, the masters of early Christian thought in the fourth 
century," (p. 217); it is the text "generally followed" in the 
later manuscripts, " especially in those which appear to have been 
the chief authorities for what is called the Textus Receptus, which, 



ixvi. INTRODirCTION. 

as Dr. Scrivener and others have shown, is the foundation of our 
Authorised Version." (P. 133.) 

Canon Cook says of the general mass of Greek manuscripts, 
which many critics despise, that " they ought not to be disregarded 
on the mere score of inferior antiquity. Because they record the 
tradition of the churches for some ten or twelve centuries, and, as 
Dr. Hort admits, represent the fathers of the fourth century, in- 
cluding Chrysostom, and those who lived after him." (P. 228.) 

The testimony of Canon Cook, therefore, to the value of the 
Peshito-Syriac, is very strong ; and he represents that testimony, 
as others do, to be in harmony with the Greek copy called A, with 
the text approved by early Greek writers, with the text of the mass 
of Greek copies, and with that followed in the Common English 
Version ; and also as being opposed to that of Drs. Westcott and 
Hort, and of the Eevised E. V. 

Dr. Scrivener, Prebendary of Exeter, is said by Dean Burgon 
to be '' facile princeps, without question first, in Textual Criticism." 
(E. Ed. vii.) He is also named by Canon Cook as " that most cautious 
and judicious critic, the very foremost among those who in England 
combine reverence for God's Word with the most thorough appre- 
ciation of every point bearing upon the criticism of the New Testa- 
ment." (OnE. Vn. p. 120.) 

Dr. Scrivener says in his Plain Introduction, pp. 312, 313, "The 
grievous divisions of the Syrian Christians have now subsisted for 
fourteen hundred years, and though the bitterness of controversy 
has abated, the estrangement of the rival churches is as complete 
and hopeless as ever. Yet the same translation of Holy Scripture 
is read alike in the public assemblies of the Nestorians among the 
fastnesses of Coordistan, of the Monophy sites who are scattered 
over the plains of Syria, of the Christians of St. Thomas, along 
the coast of Malabar, and of the Maronites on the mountain- 
terraces of Lebanon. Even though the Maronites acknowledged 
the supremacy of Eome in the twelfth century, and certain Nes- 
torians of Chaldsea [did so] in the eighteenth, both societies claimed 
at the time, and enjoy to this day, the free use of their Syriac 
translation of Holy Scripture. Manuscripts too, obtained from 
each of these rival communions, . , . . all exhibit a text in every 
important respect the same.'' 

Dr. Scrivener says that "The mere fact that the Syriac manu- 
scripts of the rival sects, whether modern, or as old as the seventh 
century, agree with each other, and with the citations from [the 
Syriac Gospels by] Aphraates, a.d. 337-45, in most important 
points, seems to bring the Peshito text, substantially in the 

SAME STATE AS WE HAVE IT AT PRESENT, UP TO THE FOURTH 

CENTURY OF OUR ERA. ... Of this version there are many codices, 
of different ages, and widely diffused. Of the Curetonian but one." 
*' Adler (p. 3) describes a copy of the Peshito in the Vatican, dated. 



rNTRODucTioN. Ixvii. 

A.D. 548. From tlie Peshito, as the authorised version of the Oriental 
church, there are many quotations in Syriac books, from the fourth 
century downwards." (P. 322.) "We are sure that Christianity 
flourished in these regions [that is, the regions of Antioch and 

Edessa] at a very early period The universal belief of later 

ages, and the very nature of the case, seem to render it unquestion- 
able that the Syrian Church was possessed of a translation, both 
of the Old and New Testament, which it used habitually, and for 
public worship exclusively [of any other], from the secoistd 
CEiSTTUEY of our era downwards. As early as a.d. 170, the Syriac 
is cited by Melito on Gen. xxii. 13. See Mill, Prol. 1239 ." 
(P. 312.) 

In strong contrast with this proved agreement of all Syriac copies 
from all quarters, from the fourth and six centuries till now, is Dr. 
Scrivener's reliable account of THE comiuPT state of the G-reee 
COPIES. He says at p. 532, "During the EmsT half of the 
SECOND CENTURY," that is, between a.d. 100 and 150, " must have 
originated the wide variations from the prevailing text, which exist 
in primary authorities, both manuscripts and versions ; variations 
which survive in D, of the Greek, and in some of the old Latin 
codices. The text they exhibit is distinguished as Western." Its 
readings are " the earliest which can be fixed chronologically. . . . 
The chief and most constant characteristic of the Western readings 
is a love of paraphrase. Words, clauses, and even whole sentences, 
were changed, omitted, and inserted, with astonishing freedom. . . . 
There was a disposition to enrich the text, at the cost of its purity, 
by alterations or additions taken from traditional, and perhaps 
from apocryphal, and other non-biblical sources." (Dr. Hort, pp. 
120, — 2-3, quoted by Dr. Scrivener, pp. 532-3.) Dr. Scrivener 
gives passages from B and Aleph, the oldest copies now existing, in 
proof of their corrupt state, (pp. 543—552) ; and says that the text 
which Drs. Westcott and Hort have built chiefly on them, "is 
destitute, not only of historical foundation , but of all probability,'^ 
(p. 542) ; that it is " even visionary." (P. 531.) 

Dr. Scrivener says that " During the whole of the third and fourth 
centuries, changes appear to have been going on without notice ;" 
those of them which are 'called Western, in Africa, France, and 
North Italy ; those of another kind, in Egypt and its neighbour- 
hood ; and of a third kind, in Syria, Antioch, and Constantinople, 
(p. 554); and that " a^Z that can be inferred from searching into 
the history " of the Greek text, " amounts to no more than tliis : — 
that extensive variations .... subsisted in it from the earliest 
period to which our records extend," (p. 519); and that " beyond 
this point our investigations cannot be carried, without indulging in 
pjleasant speculations, which may amuse the fancy, but cannot inform 
the judgment." He says that he is " brought reluctantly to this 
conclusion after examining the principles laid down by Bengel, 

e2 



IXVIU. INTRODUCTION. 

Griesbach, Hug, Scholz, Lacliinann, by his disciple Tregelles, and 
by Professor Hort and Canon Westcott." (pp. 519-20.) He says, 
" Elaborate systems have failed," (p. 520) ; " for the present, much 
is uncertain, perplexing, ambiguous." (p. 621.) He knows of no 
means of giving sure proof, by means of Greek copies, of what 
readings are true, and what false. 

The result of comparing Greek copies, is, in many cases, nothing 
but an opinion about prohahility ; and Dr. Hort admits that these 
fallible opinions show " great diversity of judgment." (Scrivener, 
p. 541.) It is self-evident that decisions of this kind fail utterly 
to establish a sure text, such as God's book must have, to be in- 
fallible. The attainment of such a text in many places, from the 
mere study of Greek readings, seems to be a forlorn hope. 
. How IMMENSELY IMPORTANT, therefore, is the certainty given 
by the agreement of Syriac copies ! They retain almost throughout, 
XhGiv first form, and are, as Dr. Scrivener says, " in every impor- 
tant RESPECT the same." (p. 313.) He states that, " Literary his- 
tory can hardly afford a more powerful case than has been established 
for the identity of the Syriac Version now called the Peshito, 
with that used by the Eastern church long before the great schism 
had its beginning;" that is, long before A.D. 431. (p. 313.) He says, 
' ' The Peshito has well been called the Queen of versions of Holy 
Writ, for it is at once the oldest, and one of the most excellent. ' 
** It is composed in the purest dialect of a perspicuous and elegant 
language. . . . No version can well be more exempt . . . from 
stiffness of expression ; yet, while remarkable for its ease and 
freedom, it very seldom becomes loose or paraphrastic." (p. 319.) 
** It is assigned by eminent scholars to the first century, undoubtedly 
it is not later than the second." (Contributions, 1859, p. 14.) 

As to THE RESEMBLANCE of the Peshito to other texts, Dr. 
Scrivener says that " It habitually upholds the readings of A, one 
of the oldest uncial copies, those of the later uncials, and of 
the vast majority in cursive characters." " I claim for codex A 
and its numerous companions, peculiar attention by reason of their 
striking conformity with the Peshito Syriac." (Contributions, 1859, 
p. 14.) " Beza was the true author of what is called the Keceived 
Text." (Intro, p. 441, note.) " Beza's text of 1598 is found on 
comparison to agree more closely with the Authorized Version than 
any other Greek Text." (See Greek Text with variations of Eevised 
Version, 1881 ; preface, p. 8.) 

The UNTRUTH OE STATEMENTS AND CONJECTURES made by Dr. 
Tregelles, Dr. Westcott, and Dr. Hort, against the Peshito, in order 
to sustain their own Greek texts, is fully shown by Dr. Scrivener. 
Dr. Tregelles collated a Nestorian manuscript of the Peshito called 
Eich, 7157, and has said in Home's Introduction, p. 264, that the 
greater part of the materials afforded by a comparison of manu- 
scripts with the printed text, for a critical revision of it, "relate to 



INTRODUCTION. Ixix. 

grammatical forms and paa-ticulars of that kind." (Scrivener's Int. 
p. 318.) Yet Dr. Scrivener, writing in 1859, said, that though 
" this precious document [Rich, 7157] had been collated throughout 
by Dr. Tregelles, together with several other manuscripts of high 
antiquity in the Museum," and though Dr. Cureton, Mr. Ellis, 
and two German scholars, had found that these " venerable manu- 
scripts exhibit a text singularly resembling that of the printed 
editions," Dr. Tregelles had spoken of the Peshito, in his "Printed 
Text of the Greek N. T., 1854," p. 170, as '* the version commonly 
'printed as the FesMto." *'He would persuade us," says Dr. 
Scrivener, that the sects of * ' the whole Eastern Church, distracted 
as it has been, .... havelaidasidetheir bitter jealousies in order 
to substitute .... a spurious version, in the room of the Peshito, 
— that sole surviving monument of the first ages of the gospel in 
Syria ! Nay more, that this wretched forgery has deceived Oriental- 
ists profound as Michaelis and Lowth." (Contributions, pp. 14, 15.) 

Drs. Westcott and Hort have represented the Peshito, in the 
Introduction to their Greek Testament, as made in the third or 
fourth century out of a corrupt text called the Curetonian Syriac,and 
have implied that all the Syrians have been deceived as to its origin. 
(Intro, p. 84.) Dr. Scrivener says, *' Of this two-fold authoritative 
revision of the Greek text, and of this formal transmutation of the 
Curetonian Syriac into the Peshito, . . . not one trace remains in the 
history of Christian antiquity ; no one writer seems conscious that 
any modification, either of the Greek Scriptures, or of the vernacular 
translation, [the Peshito], was made in, or before their times. . . . 
Yet Dr. Hort regards his speculative conjecture as undoubtedly truef^ 
and, though he believes that this recension was '* made deliberately 
by the authoritative voice of the Eastern Church," he declares that 
all readings so made *'must be at once rejected, (p. 119); thus 
making a clean sweep of all critical materials, — Fathers, versions, 
manuscripts uncial and cursive, comprising about nineteen-twentieths 
of the whole mass, which do not correspond with his preconceived 
opinion of what a correct text ought to be," p. 163. (Scrivener's 
Intro., p. 533-4.) 

These last remarks apply equally to the untruthful statement of 
Dr. Tregelles, in the Introduction to his Greek Testament, that 
"The Peshito-Syriac was frequently modernized from time to 
time." (p. V.) 

When the word of God is in question, it is necessary to know 
and show who are trustworthy, and who are not. 

The above statements, made by persons well informed and of 
faithful mind, will aid some, it is hoped, to arrive at the truth, by 
as short a path as the breadth of the field permits. Most of these 
witnesses reject the Syrian testimony that the Peshito was made in 
the time, and by the care of the Apostles. But they give no good 
reason for doing so, nor is it easy to see why. if Greek testimony 



IXX. INTRODUCTION. 

is accepted as proof of the Apostolic origin of tlie Greek text, 
Syrian testimoiiy should not be received as proof of the Apostolic 
origin of the Syriac text. But it is evident that even on the sup- 
position that the Syriac is but a man-made translation, the three 
facts, that it was made at so early a date, that there is no proof 
that it was greatly altered in the first centuries, as the Greek copies 
were, and that the agreement of existing copies, and of quotations 
from it, show that it has remained without material change from 
the fourth century till now ; these facts prove that its text has a 
purity and a stability which are not only peculiar to it, but are 
providential gifts exactly suited to our present need. They prove 
that it is able to restore to God's word much of that certainty which 
some have impaired, and to affirm parts of it to be genuine which 
they would take away. 

X. Chief Peculiarities of the Text of the Peshito -Syriac. 

1. Books, passages, and words, NOT contained in it. 

2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, Eevelation. 

Matthew x. 8. Eaise the dead. 

,, xxviL 9. Jeremiah, not named. 

,, xxvii. 35. That it might be fulfilled which was spoken 
by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon 
my vesture did they cast lots. 

Luke xxii. 17, 18. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and 
said, Take this and divide it among yourselves : for I say unto you, 
I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God 
shall come. 

John vii. 53 — viii. 11. The account of the adulteress. 

Acts viiL 37. And Philip said, If thou dost trust with all the 
heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that 
Jesus the Anointed is the Son of God. 

Acts XV. 34. But it pleased Silas to remain there. 
,, xviii. 6. Your blood is on your own heads. 
,, xxviii. 29. And when he had said these things, the Jews 
departed, and had much reasoning among themselves. 

1 Tim. iii. 16. The word "God" is not expressed, though 
evidently understood in the words, " He was revealed in flesh." 

1 John V. 7, 8. In heaven, the Pather, the Word, and the 
Holy Spirit ; and these three are one. And there are three that 
bear witness on earth. 

The absence of a passage from the Peshito, is not, of itseK, evi- 
dence that it is not a part of God's word ; for the passage may have 
been added by the inspired writer to a Greek copy issued afterwards, 
If Greek authorities give strong evidence that such a passage is of 
divine origin, its absence from the Peshito implies that the Peshito 
"was made in the life-time of that sacred writer, and before he 



rxTEODUCTiox. Ixxi. 

wrote those words. But if the evidence from Greek authorities is 
not decisive, then the absence of the passage from the Peshito 
strongly implies that it is an unauthorized addition. 

2. Eeadings which diffeb from the Common Greek text. 

In Acts XX. 28, some Jacobite copies have, " The assembly of God, 
which he purchased with his own blood." But most Syriac copies 
have " The assembly of the Anointed,'' etc. Wichelhaus says, " If 
I mistake not, all the Nestorian copies have, ' of the Anointed ;* 
some Jacobite copies have, ' of the Anointed ;' some of them have, 
' of God.' " (p. 150.) Some Greek authorities have " of the Lord," 
others, "of God." Those Greek authorities which have "of the 
Lord," are, on the whole, the more trustworthy. 

In 1 Cor. V. 8, some Syriac copies have, "with the leaven^* 
instead of, "with the unleavened [bread]," etc. 

In Heb. ii. 9, the Nestorian copies have, " For he, apart from 
Godhead, tasted death," etc. The Jacobite copies have, "For he, 
God, in his merciful favour tasted death," etc. Dr. Lee, 1816, 
without giving any authority, has placed the word " God " after 
"favour," and has made the passage read thus, "He, by the 
merciful favour of God, tasted," etc. But unless manuscript 
authority can be produced in proof that such a reading existed, it 
has no title to be considered part of the Peshito. Greek copies had 
" without God," as early as the time of Origen, and as the Nestorian 
copies are, as a rule, so correct, there seems to be no reason for 
doubting their correctness in this instance. 

XI. The Design of this Work. 

The chief design has been to aid in defending the true text 
OF God's word, by means of the Peshito-Syriac. God has pre- 
served the Peshito from being corrupted as Greek copies have been. 
The use recently made of some of these corrupt copies has under- 
mined belief in some parts of God's Book. The testimony of the 
Peshito-Syriac tends to re-establish confidence in most of these 
parts, whether they have been set forth as doubtful or rejected. 
By comparing the translation here given of the Syriac text, with 
that of the Eeceived Greek text, printed by the side of it, the reader 
can see how very much the two agree, and how they tend to fix the 
true meaning of both. The Eeceived Greek text agrees in most 
places with the Peshito, in opposition to the new Greek text con- 
structed by the Eevisers of the English Version. The Common 
English Version is also proved to be, as a rule, more in accord with 
the Peshito, than the Eevised English Version is. 

A hope has also been entertained of making the wayof salvation 
more clear. In the common version the verb to believe is used 
where a verb is needed which agrees with the noun faith. The 
Greek noun pistis is sometimes translated hclief, somQtim.es faith, 



Ixxii. INTEODUCTION-. 

and correctly so. But the Greek verb pisteuo is translated heh'eve, 
even when it means i^o have faith ; and this leaves the impression 
that belief of the truth of ivords is meant, when the real meaning 
is that of trust on God himself, or on Christ Jesus. The word 
believe means, indeed, to trust ; but only to trust in the truth of 
words. The Hebrew, Syriac, and Greek words, which sometimes 
mean to trust in the truth of words, are used also to express trust 
in persons ; and the word believe cannot express this trust with 
clearness and full effect. 

In the Common English Version, those passages in which the 
idea Df trusting ought to be clearly expressed, often fail to convey 
that meaning, from the unfitness of the word believe to do so. We 
do not, in the language of daily life say we believe in, or believe on 
a person, when we wish to express full trust in him, with view to 
some benefit. We say then that we trust in him. 

Who is there who has not felt the difficulty of defining how a 
person must believe, so as to be saved ? Some have said that no one 
really believes a thing to be true who does not act accordingly. But 
this is plainly contrary to fact ; for we may believe a thing to be 
gi)od and right, and yet resolve to have nothing to do with it. 
Others, when asked what it is to believe so as to be saved, say that 
the word believe must be understood in Scripture to have the un- 
usual meaning of rely on. But this is a poor remedy for a faulty 
translation. The mass of readers and hearers have to trust to the 
impression given by the word believe itself, which impression, iu 
mot?t cases, is likely to be, that to believe in the truth of facts and 
doctrines, and in the reality of the Saviour's history, if this belief 
be connected with moralit}', makes salvation sure. 

Some may perhaps ask for proof that the Greek word pisteuo 
does ever mean to trust. 

One proof is, that other passages require repentance, devoted 
love, and unreserved obedience, as necessary to salvation ; and that 
these would not be necessary if salvation were promised to those 
who only believe. 

Abraham is often referred to in the New Covenant, in order to 
show how we may be declared just, and saved. The words in Gen. 
XV. 6, which describe how Abraham came to be declared just, are 
quoted in three places in the N. C. Scriptures; in Eom. iv. 3; 
Gal. iii. 6 ; and James ii. 23. In each of these three quotations the 
Common Version says, "Abraham believed God." It may be asked, 
perhaps, how these passages can possibly mean more than that 
Abraham believed the truth of God's words. It is true that the 
English version of these passages does convey this meaning ; and 
yet this meaning implies that salvation is sure to all who believe 
the truth of what God says, even though they should live in siu, 
and care nothing about him. 

But these tLiue passages must, in reality, have the same meaning 



INTRODUCTIOX. Ixxiii. 

as Gen. xv. 6, of wliich they are a quotation. What do those 
Hebrew words really mean ? The word aman is there used in its 
Hiphil form, of which Gesenius says in his Hebrew Lexicon, "It 
often means to have faith in, as in Job iv. 18 ; xv. 15 ; xxxix. 12 ; 
Psalm Ixxviii. 22, 32 ; cxix. 66. In Gen. xv. 6, [it means] he had 
faith in God," that is, he trusted in God. In Gen. xv. 6, the word 
.meaning to trust is followed by the preposition in ; and the trust 
is said to be, not in the words of God, but " in Jehovah " himself. 
In the following passages the same word with the same preposition. 
in, can have no other meaning than trust in. Job iv. 18, " Behold, 
he put no trust in his servants. Job xv. 15, " Behold, he putteth 
no trust in his saints." Job xv. 31, " Let not him who is deceived 
trust in vanity." Micah vii. 5, "Trust ye not in a friend." In 
these passages the evident meaning of aman with in could not be 
expressed by believe. They prove that the meaning of Gen. xv. 6, 
may be, and seems to be, " Abraham trusted in Jehovah." If we 
substitute "believed in Jehovah," the meaning is, that Abraham 
believed Jehovah to be what he really is. But is it not evident 
that " trusted in Jehovah," must be the real meaning ? Therefore, 
as Gen. xv. 6, not only may mean, but so far as evidence goes, does 
mean, "Abraham trusted in God;" each of the passages, Eom. 
iv. 3 ; Gal. iii. 6 ; and Jas. ii. 23, must have the same meaning ; 
and this meaning is one which agrees with what all other passages 
say of the way of salvation. It does not convey the false im- 
pression which believe does, namely, that to believe the truth of 
what is true, saves. The word trust implies the existence of love 
and obedience, which other passages make necessary to salvation. 

Another proof that ^nsteuo means to trust, when it refers to 
the way of salvation, is the description given by Paul of what it 
meant in his own case ; (see 2 Tim. i. 12,) the committing or in- 
trusting of himself to God. He says, " I know in whom pepisteuka 
I have trusted, and am persuaded that he is able to guard my 
deposit, — what I have intrusted to him, against that day." 

In many passages /ns^ewo means to INTRUST something to the 
care of another. This shows that the idea of trust is really in the 
word. It is used in this sense in Luke xvi. 11, " Who will commit 
or intrust to you the true riches?" Bom. iii. 2, "Because they 
were intrusted with the words of God." (See also 1 Cor. ix. 17; 
Gal. ii. 7 ; Titus i. 3.) 

The Peshito-Syriac uses a word which means to trust where 
the Greek has pisteuo. For instance, in John iii. 36, "He who 
trusts in the Son has eternal life." John vi. 29, "This is the 
work of God, that ye trust in him whom he has sent." Acts 
xvi. 31, " Trust in our Lord Jesus the Anointed, and thou shalt 
have life-bliss." The vSyriac word is the same as the Hebrew word 
used in Gen. xv. 6. It has in Syriac the same meaning which it 
has in Hebrew. It means in Syriac to trust. Wichelhaus says of 



Ixxiv. INTEODUCTION. 

the noun haimonutho, wliicli is derived from tlie verb awaw, to trust, 
** It expresses much more fully than the pistis of the Greeks, the 
true idea of faith ; for it denotes that state in which .... the 
reliance of the heart is placed on that which is most firm and 
certain." (On Peshito, p. 329.) 

A FEW PASSAGES WITH THE WORD TO TRUST SUBSTITUTED FOR 

TO BELIEVE, will show how correctly and how clearly the way of* 
salvation is thus described ; and how fully the wrong or imperfect 
idea which the word believe conveys, is thus removed. No one can 
say that this result is one of slight importance ; for nothing can 
possibly be more harmful than that an English word should be used 
to describe the way of salvation, which may lead some to believe 
that a sound creed is meant, instead of a change of heart, and which 
is the cause to others of ceaseless difficulty, when trying to find out 
the true meaning of Scripture, or when trying to prove to others 
that the belief which has salvation, is not what is commonly called 
belief, but something quite different from it. The following pass- 
ages are selected from those in which the Greek word pistetco is used 
with in, with on, with a dative case, and without in, on, or a dative 
case. 

PiSTEUO followed by in. Matt, xviii. 6, ** Whoso shall make 
stumble one of these little ones who trust in me." John iii. 15, 
*' So must the Son of man be lifted up, that everyone who trusts 
in him may not perish, but have eternal life." John vi. 40, *' And 
this is the will of him who sent me, that everyone who sees the 
Son, and trusts in him, shall have eternal life, and I will raise him 
up at the last day." 

PiSTEUO followed by on. Acts xi. 17, "Since, therefore, God 
gave the same gift to them as he gave to us, who have trusted on 
the Lord Jesus, the Anointed," etc. Eom. iv. 24, *'It was written 
also because of us, (that trust was reckoned to Abraham), of us 
who trust on him who raised up Jesus our Lord from among the 
dead." 

PiSTEUO followed by a dative case. John v. 24, *'* Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, that he who hears my word, and trusts on 
him who sent me, has eternal life." John viii. 31, " Jesus said to 
those Jews who had trusted on him, If ye continue in my word, 
then are ye my disciples indeed." 

PiSTEUO WITHOUT IN, ON, OR A DATIVE CASE. Mark xvi. 16, 

*'He who shall trust, and be immersed, shall be saved; he who 
shall be trustless, shall be condemned." Acts xviii. 8, " And many 
of the Corinthians heard, trusted, and were immersed. 

Another wish has been, to coishstect by likeness of words, 
what is said of atonement in the New Covenant, with what is said 
of it in the Old. The importance of this is evident from the fact 
that what was written in the Older Scriptures, was written in part 
for our benefit, (1 Cor. x. 11) ; and that what was said to be effected 



IXTRODUCTION. IXXV. 

by the old sacrifices, which could not take away sins, is of special 
use to teach us what was really accomplished by the sacrifice of 
Christ, which could take away sins. This use of the older Scrip- 
tures is partly destroyed by the carelessness of translators, when 
they destroy that likeness of words by which God has linked the 
Older Scriptures with the New. The English word used about fifty 
times in the Old Covenant writings, to describe the efficacy of slain 
offerings, is the word ATOifEMENT. But in our New Cov. version 
that word is used but once, and then wrongly ; for it represents in 
Eomans v. 11, a Greek word which means reconciliation ; and re- 
conciliation is the result of atonement, not atonement itself. Atone- 
ment is the cause of forgiveness or reconciliation. In the Ee vised 
Version, the word atonement is not, I think, used at all. There 
are four passages in which the Syriac and Greek words used to 
describe the efficacy of the sacrifice offered by Jesus, are of the 
same meaning as the Hebrew word which is represented by the 
English word atonement, in the O. C. Scriptures. They are Kom. 
iii. 25 ; Heb. ii 17 ; 1 John ii. 2 ; iv. lO, 

In Eom. iii. 25, {hQwov^ propitiation is used both in the common 
and in the revised version. If the word atonement be used, the 
English word has the same relation to the EngHsh word used in 
the Old Covenant, which the Syriac and Greek words have to the 
Hebrew word. The passage then reads thus. "Whom God ap- 
pointed beforehand [to be] an atonement, by means of faith in his 
blood." 

In Hebrews ii. 17, the common version has, " to make recon- 
ciliation." The revised version has, " to make propitiation." If 
the word atonement be used, the passage reads thus, *' That he 
might become a merciful and faithful High Priest in things relating 
to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people." 

In 1 John ii. 2, both English versions have "propitiation." If 
atonement be substituted, the meaning is, " And he is the atone- 
ment for our sins." 

In I John iv. 10, both English versions have propitiation. If 
atonement be used instead, the words mean, " God loved us, and 
sent his Son to be an atonement for our sins." 

The English reader, on meeting with the word atonement in these 
four passages, is reminded of the word atonement in the older 
Scriptures, and there he finds that when it is said that an atonement 
was made for any sin, the words often follow, "and it shall be 
forgiven him." (See Lev. iv. and v.) 

Another passage in which the word atonement should occur, is 
Heb. ix. 0, " The cherubim of glory overshadowing the place of 
atonement." 

Another wish has been to use words, the meaning of which is 
known to the unlearned by their own daily use of them, instead 
of words which are less known, or which are but partly understood 



IxXVi. INTRODUCTION. 

by those who do not know Latin and Greek. There are many 
Latin-English words in the Common version. Those who have 
never learned Latin, have scarcely any clear idea of what some of 
these mean. These words are little better to them than words 
translated out of one foreign language into another. 

Words which do not express their meaning clearly, may also be 
made strongholds of error. They permit a false meaning to be 
given them, and become a storehouse of untruth. Thus the word 
church, which ought always to mean, as the Greek word does, an 
assembly, is constantly applied to bodies which never assemble. 

In the next section a list of words is given which, though well 
understood by very many, are wanting in clearness to a large 
number of people. Their meaning is given in words more familiar 
to most. 

The desire has been to use the English language according to 
ITS USE IN DAILY LIFE. In the Greek and Syriac texts, the words 
used are those which were used about the things of this life. And 
to use in any translation of them forms of speech, which differ from 
those in common use, is to distort and disfigure God's word, instead 
of giving its true likeness. How absurd and unseemly it is to 
prefer to call a person luhich, instead of who, as the revised version 
does; and to suppose that " she runneth,''^ is a more holy expression 
than " she runs.'' 

XII. Words in the Common Version not well understood 

BY some, in words MORE FAMILIAR. 

Acceptance of persons, wrong regard for persons. To adjure, 
to command to answer on oath. Ado, outcry. Adversary, 
foe. Adversity, affliction, distress. Advocate, pleader. 

Allegory, description of one thing by another. Alms, gifts. 
Anathema, a setting aside under condemnation. Angel, 

[heavenly] messenger. Apostle, chief messenger. Apparel, 
clothes, clothing. Appease, quiet. Appertains, belongs or 
relates to. Array, dress. Archangel, chief [heavenly] mes- 
senger. At hand, has come near. Audience, to give ; to listen 
to. Austere, harsh. Avenge, punish for injury. 

Babble, prate, talk foolishly. Backbite, slander. Baptism, 
immersion. Baptize, immerse. (1.) Barbarians, people of 
foreign race and language. Beguile, deceive. Behoved him, 
it was due that he ; or he was bound. Believe, the Greek and 
Syriac words often mean to trust. (2.) Believer, he who trusts, 
one trusting. Betroth, engage to be married. Bewray, betray. 
Bishop, overseer. (3.) Blaspheme, speak evil of, revile. Born 
of water and of the Spirit. John iii. 5. Christians are not horn of 
the Spirit, but hegotten by him ; nor are they begotten by means of 
water, but by means of God's word. 1 Peter i. 23. The Greek 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxvii. 

word used in John iii. 5, is gennaomai, which sometimes is applied 
to birth of a mother, and then means to be born, as in Matt. ii. 1, 
•* when Jesus was born in Bethlehem ; ' ' and sometimes to origin from 
a father, when it means begotten, as in Matt. i. 2, " Abraham begat 
Isaac." In John iii. 5, this word must of necessity be used in 
both of these senses. It must mean horn, as to water, which doeg 
not beget ; and begotten, as to the Holy Spirit, of whom no one is 
horn. So that the correct English translation must be, ' ' Be born of 
water, and begotten by the Spirit." By and by, immediately. 

Note 1. The Syriac word used where the Greek word means 
" was baptized," is amad. Wichelhaus says, " It means, was im- 
mersed, and admirably expresses what baptism properly is ; it 
explains what the Apostles teach, that we are immersed, and buried 
with Christ," (p. 808.) He says also of Heb. vi. 4, where the 
Greek has, " were once enlightened," " The Syriac has ' they des- 
cended to immersion,' from which it appears, first, that the recently 
baptized were said to be enlightened ; and next, that those who 
were baptized descended into a bath." (p. 332.) He says also, " It 
appears from the Syriac words of 1 Peter iii. 21, meaning, ' when 
ye profess God with a pure conscience,' that a profession of God 
was made in baptism." (p. 332.) 

Note 2. Wichelhaus remarks, that the Syriac word haimojiutho, 
which is used where the Greek has pistis, expresses " much more 
fully than" this Greek word does, "the true idea of faith; it 
denotes that state of mind, in which .... the heart places trust 
in what is most firm and certain." (p. 329.) John xiv. 1, is an 
illustration of the manner in which the Syriac sometimes gives a 
meaning which is without ambiguity, when the meaning of the 
Greek is uncertain. A Greek word is twice used, which in each 
case may either be a statement or a command. In the common 
version it is once translated as a statement, once as a command: — 
"Ye helieve in God, helieve also in me" The Syriac has, " Trust in 
God, trust also in me," which commends itself as being probably 
the true meaning. 

Note 3. Wichelhaus says, "To all men who love truth, it is 
sufficiently evident that in the letters of Paul, the office of bishop 
does not differ from the office of elder. This is proved most clearly 
by the Syriac, in which [the Greek words for] both bishop and 
elder are translated by the Syriac word Jwshisho, elder. By this 
testimony of the Syriac, those are refuted who say, persuading 
themselves I know not how, that [modern] episcopacy was instituted 
by John. It is most certain that in the time of the Syriac trans- 
lator there was no episcopal authority in the church." (p. 331.) 
_ Candlestick, Heb. ix. 2, lamp- stand. Carnal, fleshly. Car- 
riages, Acts xxi. 15, baggage. Centurion, captain of a hundred 
foot-men. Chambering, Eom. xiii. 13, deeds of bed-lust. 
Charger, Matt. xiv. 8, dish. Charity, love. Chasten, punish. 



Ixxviii. INTRODUCTION. 

Christ, the Anointed. Church, (both in Syriac and Greek), 
assembly. (4.) Circumcise, to cut the foreskin around. Cloven 
tongues, Acts ii. 3, tongues divided into parts. Commend, Luke 
xxiii. 46, yield up ; Eom. xvi. 1, recommend. Commit, 1 Peter 
iv. 19, intrust. Commune, to share in common, but in Luke vi. 
11 ; xxii. 4 ; xxiv. 15, talk, converse. Communicate, Gal, vi. 
6, Heb. xiii. 16, give gifts ; Gal. ii. 2, to state something to 
(others.) Communication, 1 Cor. xv. 33, companionship ; Eph. 

iv. 29, talking with. Communion, 1 Cor. x. 16, [sign of] com- 
mon interest in; 2 Cor. vi. 14, in common; xiii. 14, gift of, or 
fellowship of (the Spirit.) Compassed with, Heb. v. 2, clothed 
■with. Compassed about, Heb. xi. 30, gone round. Comprehend, 
Johni. 5, Eph. iii. 18, perceive ; Eom. xiii. 9, sum up. Conceive, 
James i. 15, become pregnant. Concision, Phil. iii. 2, those who 
cut and kill. Conclude, Eom. xi. 32, Gal. iii. 22, inclose, shut 
up. Concupiscence, Eom. vii. 8, covetousness, lawless desire. 
Conditions, Luke xiv. 32, terms. Confer, take counsel with. 
Confess, sometimes, profess. Confirm, Acts xiv. 22, make stead- 
fast. Consecrated, Heb. vii. 28, perfected ; x. 20, newly made. 
Consorted, Acts xvii. 4, joined their lot with. Constrain, Gal. 
vi. 12, compel ; 2 Cor. v. 14, presses us on. Contain, 1 Cor. vii. 9, 
have self-control. Conversation, 1 Peter i. 15, conduct, course of 
conduct. Conversion, Acts xv. 3, turning to God. Convert, 
James v. 19, to turn a person to God. Covered, Eom. iv. 7, (sins) 
forgiven. 

Note 4. The Syriac word, as well as the Greek word, for what 
is commonly called a church, means an assembly. Wichelhaus 
says that the Peshito describes it to be "a congregation, an 
assembly, a meeting, in which some fill the office of elders, others 
of servants." 

Deacon, servant. Dearth, famine. Dedicate (a covenant), 
Heb. ix, 18, to make binding, by killing and dividing some living 
creature. (5.) Defer, Acts xxiv. 22, to delay, to adjourn. 
Deliver to Satan, exclude from the Christian assembly. (6.) 
Descent, Heb. vii. 3, family-record. Desolate, of a person, Eev. 
xvii. 16, in want. Desolation of a country. Matt. xii. 25, like- 
ness to a desert. Despiteful, Eom. i. 30, full of spite or scorn. 
Determinate counsel. Acts ii, 23, fixed design. Devotions, Acta 
xvii. 23, objects of worship. Discern, judge of, or between. 
Disciple, a submissive learner. Dispensation, stewardship. 

Disputation, debate. Dissemble, feign. Dissimulation, pre- 
tence. Divination, pretence to foretell events. Doctors, Luke 
ii. 46, teachers. Doctrine, teachment, what is taught. Domin- 
ions, Col. i. 16, Lords. Draught, seat of relief. Dureth, 
continues. 

Note 5. See the custom in Gen. xv. 9 — 18. Wichelhaus says, 



mTRODUCTioN. Ixxix. 

*' The ancients threatened men, that if they broke a covenant, they 
would be cut in pieces, as the animals were cut in pieces over which 
it was customary to take the oath." He suggests that the words 
"shall cut him asunder," Matt. xxiv. 51, probably refer to this 
custom. 

Note 6. The Greek, of 1 Cor. v. 3—5, implies that the lulioh 
assembly was to deliver the person to Satan. Wichelhaus remarks 
that the Syriac uses the words, " that ye deliver ;" showing more 
fully that the act was to be that of the whole assembly. 

Earnest, a gift given to prove fulfilment sure, sure pledge. 
Easter, Passover. Edify and edification, build up, building up. 
Effeminate, 1 Cor. vi. 9, men-harlots. Elect and election, choose, 
choice. Emulation, Eom. xi. 14, zeal; Gal. v. 20, rivalry. 
Ensample, example. Ensue, 1 Peter iii. 11, pursue. Epistle, 
letter. Eschew, 1 Peter iii. 11, depart from. Espouse, 2 Cor. 
xi. 2, engage to be married. Establish, Heb. xiii. 9, make firm. 
Estate, low, Luke i. 48, lowly state. Estates, chief, Mark vi. 21, 
first men. Eunuch, a stoneless man. Evangelist, one who tells 
good tidings. Exorcists, Acts xix. 13, those who pretended to cast 
out devils. Expedient, 2 Cor. viii. 10, useful, of advantage. 
Extortion, unjust exaction. 

Fables, 2 Tim. iv. 4, fictions. Faithless, be not, but believing; 
John XX. 27, be not trustless but trustful. Fashion, Luke ix. 
29, and James i. 11, appearance; Acts vii. 44, pattern ; 1 Cor. vii. 
31, plan ; Phil. ii. 8, form. Fellowship, Phil. iii. 10, sharing in ; 
Acts ii. 42, probably, the giving of gifts; 1 Cor. i. 9; 1 John i. 3, 
association with. Flux, bloody ; a flow of blood from the bowels. 
Froward, 1 Pet. ii. 18, perverse. 

Gainsay, Luke xxi. 15, reply to. Gainsayers, Titus i. 9, those 
who speak in opposition. Gainsaying, Acts x. 29, objecting ; Jude 
11, opposing speeches. Gangrene, in margin of 2 Tim. ii. 17, a 
deadly sore. Garner, granary. Garnish, put in order, adorn. 
Gatherings, 1 Cor. xvi. 2, collections. Gender, beget. Genealo- 
gies, 1 Tim.i. 4, family-records. Generation, Matt. i. 1, parentage; 
Matt. i. 17, men of hke age, or of the same period ; Matt. iii. 7, 
offspring ; Matt. xii. 39, men of like character. Gentiles, the 
nations, other than the Hebrews. Gift, Matt. v. 23-4, gift- 

offering. Glistering, Luke ix. 29, flashing like lightning. God 
forbid, by no means. Gorgeous, splendid. Gospel, good 
tidings, good message. Grace, Eom. v. 20, merciful favour ; 1 Peter 
iv. 10, gifts of merciful favour. Grounded, having a foundation 
on. Guile, deceit. 

Hallowed be. Matt. vi. 9, be held holy. Halt, Matt. xv. 31, 
xviii. 8, lame ; those named with the lame seem to be the crippled 
in hand, from xviii. 8, "hand or foot." Handmaid, Luke i. 
38, 48, bond-servant. Heathen, those of the nations not 



IXXX. IXTRODUCTIOX. 

Hebrews. Heirs, sometimes, as in 1 Peter iii. 7, inheritors, in 
possession. Hell, sometimes not the place of torment, but, as in 
Acts ii. 31, of spirits absent from the bod3^ Heresy, a self- 
willed plan. Heretic, one who follows a self- willed plan. Herit- 
age, 1 Peter v. 3, inheritance, possession. Holy Ghost, Holy 
Spirit. Honour, sometimes, as in 1 Tim. v. 3, honour with a gift. 
Hospitality, love shown to strangers. Husbandman, one who 
tills the ground, farmer. Husbandry, God's, 1 Cor. iii. 9, God's 
tilled field. Hypocrisy, false show. Hypocrite, one who 
makes a false show. 

Idol, image. Idolatry, the worship of images. Illumin- 

ated, Heb. X. 32, enlightened. Immortality; in 1 Cor. xv. 53, 
this dying [body] must put on life which cannot die. Immuta- 
bility, Heb. vi. 17, changelessness. Impenitent, Eom. ii. 5, un- 
repenting, without change of mind. Implacable, Eom. i. 31, 
never at peace. Implead one another, Acts xix. 38, prosecute 
one another. Importunity, shameless begging. Impotent, 
John V. 3, sick people ; Acts xiv. 8, strengthless. Impute, 
reckon. Incontinence, want of self-restraint. Incorruptible, 
which cannot perish. Incorruption, 1 Cor. xv. 53, life which 

cannot perish. This perishing [body] must put on [life] which 
cannot perish. Infirmity, weakness. lufidel, 2 Cor. vi. 15, 
1 Tim. v. 8, one who does not trust. Infirmity, weakness. 
Iniquity, Matt. xiii. 41, what is unlawful ; xxiii. 28, law-breaking, 
lawlessness; Acts i. 18, unrighteousness. Inordinate affection, 
Col. iii. 5, passionate desire. Instant, Eom. xii. 12, persevering. 
Instantly, Luke vii. 4, Acts xxvi. 7, earnestly. Insurrection, 
uprising, rebellion. Intercession, intreaty on behalf of others. 
Interpret, Acts iv. 36, translate. Interpretation, 2 Peter i. 20, 
prophetic meaning. Issue, Matt. xxii. 25, offspring. 

Jeopardj^ danger. Judgment, sometimes as in James ii. 1 3, 
condemning judgment. Justify, declare righteous. Justifica- 
tion, the declaring a person to be righteous. 

Kindred, relations of the same family, tribe, or race. Kin'^- 
folks, Luke ii. 44, xxi. 16, relations. Kinsman, John xviii. 26 ; 
Eom. xvi. 11, a relation. 

Lascivousness, lustfulness, gratified lust. Laud, extol. 

Lawyer, a teacher of the Law of Moses, Lewdness, reckless 
■wrong-doing. Life, often a life of blessedness ; as in the words, 
eternal life. In Syriac, life is used where the Greek has salvation, 
and means a life of blessedness. Lineage, line of descent. Low 
estate, Luke i. 48, lowly state. To lust, to long for eagerly. 
Lust, strong and wrong desire. 

Magnificence, Acts xix. 27, great glory. Magnify, Luke i. 46, 
praise greatly. Majesty, Heb. i. 3, greatness. Malefactor, 
wrong-doer. Malignity, Eom, i. 29, crafty malice. Manifes- 



INTIIODUCTION. Ixxxi. 

tation, Rom. viii. 19, revealing to sight. Manifold, Luke xviii. 
30, many times ; Eph. iii. 10, very much varied (wisdom) ; 1 Peter 
i. 6, iv. io, various. Martyr, a witness-bearer. Master, often, 
teacher. Meat, food. Mediator, one who stands between God 
and man ; to stay, as Aaron did, in Num. xvi. 48, God's anger. 
Por a memorial, to bring to memory. Messiah, a Hebrew word, 
like Christ in Greek, the Anointed. Minister, servant. Minis- 
tration, serving. Ministry, service. Mortal, dying. Mor- 
tality, that which dies. Mortify, put to death. Multiply, to 
increase in number, or. Acts xii. 24, in effect. Mystery, a secret. 

Nations, the; Luke xii. 30, those not Hebrews. Nay, no. 
Noisome, Eev. xvi. 2, hurtful. Nurture, Eph. vi. 4, instruction. 

Observation, Luke xvii. 20, outward watching for. Occasion, 
opportunity. Offence, sometimes sin, as in 2 Cor. xi. 7 ; trans- 
gression, as in Eom. v. 15 ; sometimes a cause of stumbling, as in 
Eom. xvi. 17, and 1 Peter ii. 8. Offend, often, to make stumble, 
as in Matt. v. 29 ; sometimes, to stumble, to be faulty, as in James 
ii. 10 ; iii. 2. Omnipotent, almighty. Oracles, words. Or- 
dain, 1 Cor. vii. 17, Titus i. 5, arrange, appoint. Ordinances, 
commands. Overcharged, Luke xxi. 34, be weighed down. 

Palsy, now called paralysis. A parable, a comparison. 

Passion, after his ; Acts i. 3, after he suffered death. Pastor, 
shepherd. Patience, sometimes as in Rom. ii. 7, patient con- 
tinuance ; sometimes, as in 2 Cor, i. 6, bearing patiently. Pente- 
cost, fiftieth day after the Passover ; the feast of harvest-thanks- 
giving. Perdition, destruction. Phylacteries, words of 
scripture worn on the dress. Potentate, mighty. Preach, 
Luke viii. 1, to tell good tidings ; Luke ix. 2, to proclaim, to make 
proclamation ; Luke ix. 60, and Acts iv. 2, to make known ; or 
announce ; Acts viii. 25, to speak. Predestinate, Rom. viii. 29, 
to destine beforehand. Prevent, Matt. xvii. 25, to speak or act in 
advance of another. Prophesy, 1 Cor. xiv. 3, to build up, 
admonish, or comfort by means of a miraculous gift. Propitia- 
tion ; Rom. iii, 25, Heb. ii. 17, 1 John ii. 2, iv. 10, atonement. 
Proselytes, converts to the law of Moses. Provoke, to make 
angry ; but in Heb. x. 24, to urge onward ; in Rom. x. 19, xi. 14, 
to excite to jealous zeal. Publican, a tax-collector. Purloin, 
Titus ii. 10, pilfer. 
Quicken, to make alive, give life to. 

Receive, Rom. xiv. 1 ; Phil ii. 29, embrace. Recompence of reward 
for transgression, Heb. ii. 2, just repayment of punishment. 
Recompense to no one evil for evil, Rom. xii. 17, repay, etc., also 
repav in 2 Thess. i. 6 ; Heb. x. 30. Redeem, set free by ransom; 
Tit. ii 14 ; 1 Pet. i. 18 ; Rev. v. 9, to buy ; and in Gal. iii. 13, iv. 5, 
to buy out (of curse.) Redemption, Heb. ix. 12, freedom by 
ransom. Regeneration, begetting again. This English word is 



Ixxxii. IXTEODUCTIOX. 

used only twice in the N. C. Scriptures, and both times wrongly, 
instead of neiu birth. The Greek word in Matt. xix. 28, means the 
new birth (of the new creation.) In Titus iii. 5, it also means new 
birth : — *' By means of the bath of new birth." The words probably 
refer to baptism, as the birth or manifestation of that new lite 
which the Holy Spirit begets beforehand, by means of God's word. 
See 1 Peter i. 23, James i. 18. The divine act called begetting by 
Peter and James in these passages, is called in Titus iii. 5, the 
renewing of the Holy Spirit. The false rendering, " regeneration,'' 
claims special attention. Because, by means of it many teach that 
new life is begotten by baptism, and deceive many fatally. Ee- 
mission, forgiveness (of sins.) Eemnant, Eom. xi. 5, those who 
are spared, a spared number ; in Matt. xxii. 6 ; Eev. xi. 13; xii. 17 ; 
xix. 21, the rest. Eepent, follow a new mind. Eeprobate, false, 
counterfeit. Eespect of persons, wrong regard for persons. 
Eestitution, Acts iii. 21, restoration. Eesurrection, rising up 
(from death.) Eevenge, 2 Cor. x. 6, punish. Eudiments, Col. 
ii. 8, low-grade lessons. 

Lord of sabbaoth. Lord of armies. Sabbath, (day of) rest. 
Sacrifice, a slain- offering. Sacrilege, robbing a temple. Saints, 
holy ones. Salvation, the Syriac uses the word life, where the 
Greek has salvation. This shows how great is the error of those 
who say that the promise of eternal life is merely the promise of 
eternal existence, instead of the promise of a life of bliss. 
Sanctify, make holy ; the death of Christ is said to make holy by 
the efficacy of his sacrifice, Heb. ix. 13 ; x. 10 ; the Spirit is said 
to make holy, 2 Thess. ii. 13 ; and by means of God's truth, John 
xvii. 17. Sanctification, the being made holy. Sanctuary, a 
holy place. Savour, sweet smell. Eph. v. 2, an odour of sweet 
smell. Savourest not, Matt. xvi. 23, do'st not approve of. 
Schism, 1 Cor. xii. 25, division, split. Scribes, learned writers. 
Scrip, bag for food. Scripture, the writing; some word like 
•' holy," as expressed in Eom. i. 2, and in 2 Tim. iii. 15, is under- 
stood when the words " the writing " refer to God's book. Secure 
you. Matt, xxviii. 14, free you from anxiety. Sedition, Acts 
xxiv. 5, rebellion. Senate, the body of elders. Servant, 
sometimes a bond-servant. Paul calls himself a bond-servant of 
Christ, Eom. i. 1. He calls every Christian so, 1 Cor. vii. 22. 
Sinners are called bond-servants of sin, Eom. vi. 16. Christians 
are forbidden to be bond- servants of men, because they have been 
bought by Christ, 1 Cor. vii. 23. Settled, Col. i. 23, firmly 
seated. Shambles, meat-market. Shew-bread, Matt. xii. 4, 
bread set before God. Shrines, temples. Sleight, subtle 
arts. Sojourn, to dwell without fixed abode. Soothsaying, 
pretence to foretell events. Sorcerer, one who uses arts of magic 
to deceive. Spirits, 1 John iv. 1, men who said that the Holy 
Spirit spoke by them. Stature, size of body. Strait, narrow. 



IXTRODUCTIOX. 1 



XXXlll. 



Straitened, to suffer from narrowness. Straitest sect, Acts xxvi. 
5, strictest sect. Straitly, strictly (charge). Matt. ix. 30 ; Acts v. 
28. Subvert, Titus i. 11, upset. Subverted, Titus iii. 11, quite 
turned away. Succour, help. Succourer, helper. Super- 
scription, words written above. Superstitious, Acts xvii. 22, 
devoted to the worship of demon gods. Sustenance, Acts vii. 11. 
food. Synagogue, a place of meeting. Matt. xii. 9, for Jews ; 
James ii. 2, for Christians. 

Tabernacle, Heb. viii. 5, tent-dwelling; Heb. xi. 9, tents. 
Tempt, the Greek word sometimes means to put to test, as in 
Matt. iv. 7, thou shalt not test, (from distrust) ; Luke viii. 13, iu 
time of trial. Terrestrial, earthly. Testament, always cove- 
nant, even in Heb. ix. 16, 17. Testator, Heb. ix. 16, thesacritice 
which confirmed a covenant. Tithes, tenths. To wit, we do 
you ; 2 Cor. viii. 1, we make known to you. Traditions, com- 
mands delivered ; 2 Thes. iii. 6, by God ; Col. ii. 8, by men. 
Travail, to be in child-birth, John xvi. 21 ; to be in pain as of 
child-birth, Gal. iv. 19. Twain, two. Types, margin of 1 Cor. 
X. 11, picture-lessons. 

Unbeliever, Luke xii. 46 ; 2 Cor. vi. 14, one without trust. 
Unbelieving, 1 Cor. vii. 14, 15, who does not trust. Unbelief, 
want of trust. 

Vagabond Jews, Acts xix. 13, Jews who went about. Variance, 
strife. Vengeance, Luke xxi. 22; Eom. xii. 19, just sentence. 
Vials, Eev. V. 8, xvi. 2, bowls. Victuals, Matt. xiv. 15, food. 
Vocation, Eph. iv. 1, call. 

Washed, often for bathed. Acts xxii. 16, be immersed, and bathe 
away thy sins. 1 Cor. vi. 11, ye have been bathed to cleanness. 
Heb. X. 22, bathed as to the body in clean water. Wax, to 
become, in Matt. xxiv. 12, to become (cool). In 2 Tim. iii. 13, to 
go on becoming (worse). Whit, every, entirely. Not a whit, 
2 Cor. xi. 5, in nothing. Wist, knew. Wit, we do you to ; 
we make known to you, 2 Cor. viii. I. Witness, a witness- 
bearer. I wot, I know. 

CoifDEMXED EeADINGS. 

Xni. The Peshito-Syriac Text, as a faithful witxess, 

COXDEMXS THE FOLLOWIXG CHAXGES, WHICH, IX THE EeVISED 
EXGLISH VeRSIOX OF 1881, WERE FOUXDED OX DEVLATIOXS FROM 

THE Eeceived Greek Text. 

We need to remember that the testimony of exact copies, differs 
entirely, in kind and worth, from the testimony of critics ; and of 
readings selected from conflicting copies. The testimony of an 
exact copy is a decisive pi vof of what the words of the pages copied 

f2 



Ixxxiv. CONDEMNED READINGS. 

were. The faith of the first Christians rested on words proved by- 
miracle to be " words taught by the Holy Spirit," and not "by 
the wisdom of man." (1 Cor. ii. 13.) Exact copies tell us what 
those words were, and enable us to rest, as the first Christians did, 
on words proved by miracle to be those of God. But if we have 
to trust to readings selected by " human wisdom " from corrupt 
copies, our faith, instead of resting on words proved to be those of 
God, is compelled to rest on words which " human wisdom " selects 
for us as likely to be God's words. We have then to rest, not on 
words proved by miracle to be those of God, but on the opinions 
OF ** HUMAN WISDOM " as to what words are his, and what are not. 
This " wisdom " may be blind to spiritual things, may be warped 
by prepossessions or by private purposes, may be guided by con- 
jectures or fictions, and may be marred by pride, self-sufficiency, 
or perversity. As the copies of the Peshito in Coordistan, in India, 
and in Mesopotamia, were made there from copies possessed in the 
first days of Christianity, and yet are substantially agreed ; they 
are proved by this agreement to have been exactly copied from the 
earliest times, and to contain a text which may be appealed to as a 
standard, and test of correctness. 

This list of CONDEMNED CHANGES docs not include those of little 
connecting words, except where the change of these has an import- 
ant influence on the meaning of a sentence ; nor of other little 
changes which do not much affect the sense. 

In the list which follows after this, the principal changes, so far 
as founded on the new Greek text of the Eevisers, which are in 
AGREEMENT WITH THE Peshito-Syriac, are given. 

In these two lists the reader has the complete testimony of 
THE Peshito on all the more important changes in the Eevised 
English Version, which are founded on a new Greek Text. 

The differences which exist between the Peshito and the Eeceived 
Greek text, are shown by the translations of them given in the 
body of the work. 

If the reader duly considers the immense ^lumher of the condemned 
changes in this list, he will see how much reason the late Dean 
Burgon had for saying that "the Eevisers .... have rejected 
the words of inspiration in every page." (E.E. p. vii.) If he thinks 
fit to observe how important the subjects are to which many of the 
mutilations and rival readings refer, including even the underived 
Deity of the Eedeemer, he will see what reason Dean Burgon had 
for saying that the issue of this Eevised Version is one of * ' the 
most calamitous" events of the age. (p. xi.) 

Explanations : Omn, and Adn, mean that the words named 
are an omission from, or an addition to, the Eeceived Greek Text. 
When preceded by M., the omission or addition is one suggested 
in the margin. Words substituted for others are followed by ' ' for " 
or " instead of." The words put in circular brackets do not form 



CONDEMNED READENGS. — MATTHEW. IxXXV. 

part of the changes, but are added to show the position and con- 
nection of the words omitted or added ; for instance, Omn. your 
(fathers), means that the omitted word, your, stands before fathers. 

Square brackets [ ] mean that the words enclosed in them are 
implied, but not expressed in the originals. 

The Eeceived Greek Text chiefly used in making this list is Dr. 
Scrivener's " New Testament in Greek, with the variations in the 
Revised Version of 1881." The title states that the Greek is, 
" according to the text followed in the Authorised Version." The 
Oxford "Greek Testament, with the readings adopted by the 
Revisers," has also been used. 

The Syriac editions which have been used, include that of 
Walton's Polyglot, 1653-7 ; that of Gutbier, 1663 ; the Maronite of 
1703; Schaaf'sof 1709, and of 1717; Lee's of 1816; and that of 
Ooroomiah, in the Nestorian letters of the Coordistan text, 1852, 
reprinted in 1878. 

Matthew i. 7, 8. M. Asaph, for, Asa, twice. 10. M. Amos, 
for, Amon, twice. 25. a son, for, her first-born son. 

Ch. iii. 8. fruit, for, fruits. 16. M. omn. to him. 

Oh. V. 22. Omn. without a cause. 30. go, for, be cast (into 
hell.) 44. Omn. Bless those who curse you, do good to those 
who hate you; . . . who despitefuUy use you, and. 47. the 
Gentiles, for, the tax-collectors. 48. heavenly, for, who is in 
heaven. 

Ch. vi. 1. righteousness, for, alms. 4. Omn. he ... . openly. 
5. ye pray, ye ; for, thou prayest, thou. 6. Omn. openly. 13. 
Omn. For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for 
ever. 21. thy, for, your, twice. 33. the kingdom, for, the 
kingdom of God. 

Oh. vii. 13. M. omn. is the gate. 

Ch. viii. 9. Adn. set (under.) 10. M. in no one, for, not even. 
15. to him, for, to them. 25. they came, for, his disciples came. 
Save, for, save us. 31. send us, for, permit us to go away. 

Ch. ix. 2. 5. forgiven, for, forgiven to thee, twice. 12, said, 
for, said to them. 14. M. fast, for, fast oft. 24. said, for 
said to them. 36. were distressed, for, were wearied. 

Ch. X. 3. and Thaddsous, for, and Lebbseus, who is surnamed 
Thaddseus. 

Ch. xi. 9. Why went ye out ? to see a prophet ? for, what went 
ye out to see P a prophet ? 15. M. omn. to hear. 17. Omn. 
to you (after mourned.) 23. Shalt thou be exalted to heaven ? 
thou shalt go down to Hades ; for, thou which hast been exalted to 
heaven, shalt be brought down to Hades. 

Ch. xii. 4. M. they ate, for, he ate. 6. a thing, for. One 
(greater). 15. many people, for, many multitudes. 22. the 
dumb man, for, the blind and dumb man. 31. Omn. to men (at 
end of verse.) 47. M. omn. And one said to him. Behold, thy 
mother and thy brothers stand without, seeking to speak to thoo. 



Ixxxvi. CONDEMNED READINGS. — MATTHEW. 

Ch. xiii. 9. Omn. to hear. 22. the world, for this world. 34. 
nothing, for, not. 35. M. omn. of the world. 37. said, for, 
said to them. 40. the world, for, this world. 43. Omn. to 
hear. 44. Omn. Again. 51. Omn. Jesus said to them. 
Omn. Lord. 52. to the kingdom, instead of, for the kingdom. 
bb. Joseph, for, Joses. 

Ch. xiv. 15. the disciples, for, his disciples. This substitution 
occurs frequently. It does so in verse 22 ; in xv. 12 ; 33 ; 36 ; 
xvi. 5 ; 20 ; xix. 10 ; xxvi. 8 ; 45. 25. he, for, Jesus. This change 
occurs frequently ; but as the meaning is not altered, the change 
is not always noticed in this list. 29. M. and came, for, to 
come. 30. saw the wind, for, saw the wind strong. 33. Omn. 
came and. 34. to, for, of (Gennesaret.) 

Ch. XV. 2. the hands, for, their hands. 4. the, for, thy (father.) 
6. Omn. or his mother. 14. Omn. of the blind. 15. the, for 
this (parable.) 31, 35. multitude, for multitudes ; twice. 

Ch. xvi. 2, 3. M. omn. When it is evening, ye say, It will be 
fair weather, for the heaven is red. And in the morning. It will 
be foul weather to-day, for the heaven is red and gloomy. Ye 
hypocrites, ye know how to distinguish the face of the heaven, but 
the signs of the times ye cannot. 3. Omn. ye hypocrites. 
4. Omn. the prophet. 8. Omn. to them. ye have, for, ye 
have brought. 11. But beware ye, for, that ye should beware. 
13. that the Son of man is, for, that I, the Son of man, am. 

Ch. xvii. 4. I will make, for, let us make. 11. Omn. to them. 
Omn. first. 20. little trust, for, want of trust. 21. Omn. But 
this kind goes not out except by prayer and fasting. 26. And 
when he said, for, Peter said to him. 

Ch. xviii. 2. Omn. Jesus. 11. Omn. For the Son of man 

came to save that which had perished. 14. M. my, for, your 
(Father.) 15. M. omn. against thee. 28. pay, if thou owest 
anything, for, pay me what thou owest. 29. Omn. at his feet. 
Omn. all. 34. Omn. to him. 35. Omn. his trespasses. 

Ch. xix. 3. Omn. for a man. 4. Omn. to them. M. 
created, for, made. 9. M. causes her to commit adultery, for, and 
shall marry another, commits adultery. M. omn. and he who 
marries her who is put away, commits adultery. 16. Teacher, 
for. Good Teacher. 17. Why dost thou ask me about what is 
good ? one is the Good, for. Why dost thou call me good ? no 
person is good but one, — God. 20. Omn. from my youth, 29. 
Omn. or wife. Many timts more, for, a hundred times more. 

Ch. XX. 6. Omn. hour. Omn. idle. 7. Omn. and what- 
ever is right, ye shall receive. 16. Omn. For many are called, 
but few are chosen. 17. and in the way, for, in the way, and. 
19. he shall be raised up, for, he shall rise again. 22. Ouin. 
and to be immersed in the immersion in which I am to be im- 
mersed ? 23. Omn. and in the immersion in which I am to be 
immersed shall ye be immersed. 34. Omn. their eyes. 



CONDEMNED READINGS.— MATTHEW,— MARK. Ixxxvii. 

Ch. xxi. 4. Omn. all. 12. M. Omn. of God. 13. ye make 
it, for, ye have made it a den of thieves. 31. Oran. to him. 
33. A man, for, a certain man. 44. M. omn. And he who falls 
on this stone, will be broken, but on whom it shall fall, him it will 
scatter [as dust]. 

Oh. xxii. 7. Omn. when he heard of it. 30. Omn. of God. 
39. which is like, is this, for, is like to it. 

Oh. xxiii. 3. say, for, bid observe. 5. Omn. of their garments. 
8. Teacher, for, Chief. 9. the heavenly, for, who is in 

heaven. 14. Omn. "Woe to you. Scribes and Pharisees, hypo- 
crites, for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long 
prayers; therefore ye shall receive greater condemnation. (The 
Syriac places this verse before verse 13.) 17. has made holy, for 
makes holy (the gold.) 19. Omn. fools and. 23. to have left, 
for, to leave. 26. of it, for, of them. 38. M. omn. desolate. 

Ch. xxiv. 2. he answered and said, for, he said. 6.. Omn. all. 
7. Omn. and pestilences. 36. Adn. nor the Son. 38. Adn. 
in those (days.) 42. what day, for, what hour. 45. the Lord, 
for, his Lord. 48. Omn. to come. 

Ch. XXV. 6. Omn. is coming. 15. went. Straightway he, for, 
straightway went. He. 18. the earth, for, in the earth. 20, 
22. Omn. beside them, twice. 31. Omn. holy. 

Ch. xxvi. 3. Omn. and the scribes. 17. said, for, said to him. 
22. each one, for, each of them. 28. covenant, for, new cove- 
nant. 33. if, for, even if. 42. this, for, this cup. 44. Adn. 
(same words) again. 55. Omn. with you. 59. Omn. and the 
elders. 63. Omn. answered and. 65. the blasphemy, for, his 
blasphemy. 75. said, for, said to him. 

Ch. xxvii. 2. delivered, for, delivered him. 4. M. righteous, 
for, innocent. 9. The Eevisers retain Jeremiah, which word is 
not in the Syriac. 23. Omn. Governor, some Syr. copies, Pilate. 
24. M. this blood, for, the blood of this righteous person. 28. 
M. clothed him, for, stripped him. 34. wine, for, vinegar. 
42. He is, for, if he is. 49. M. Adn. And another took a spear, 
and pierced his side, and there came out water and blood. 58. 
it, for, the body (to be given up.) 64. Omn. by night. 

Ch. xxviii. 2. Omn. from the door. 6. M. omn. the Lord. 
17. they worshipped, for, they worshipped him. 20. Omn. Amen. 

Mark. Ch. i. 1. M. omn. the Son of God. 4. John came, 
who was immersing, for, John was immersing. 13. was, for, 
was there. 14. Omc. of the kingdom. 16. passing along, 
for, walking. The brother of Simon, for, his brother. Casting, 
for, casting a net. 18. the nets, for, their nets. 23. Adn. 
immediately (there was.) 27. A new teaching, for. What is this 
new teaching ? for. 28. Adn. everywhere. 29. M. he, for, 

they (most Syr. copies, they.) 31. Omn. immediately. 34. M. 
adn. to be the Anointed. 38. Adn. elsewhere. 39. came, for, 



Ixxxviii. CONDEMNED READINGS. —MARK. 

was (proclaiming.) 40. M. omn. kneeling down to him. Syriac, 
fell at his feet. 41. Omn. Jesus. 

Ch. ii. 4. M. bring him, for, come near. 5. forgiven, for, for- 
given to thee. 7. speak thus? he blasphemes ; for, thus speak 
blasphemies? 9. Omn. to thee. 12. arose and immediately, for, 
immediately arose, and. 15. that he was, for, that while he was 
(lying at table.) 16. the scribes of the Pharisees, for, the scribes 
and the Pharisees. He eats, for. How is it that he eats ? M. 
omn. and drinks. 18. the Pharisees, for, the (disciples) of the 
Pharisees. the disciples of, for, those of (the Pharisees). 21. 
the new filling up of the old takes away from it, for, the new filling 
up of it takes away from the old. 22. will burst, for, doth burst 
(the skins.) the wine perishes, and the skins, for, the wine is 
spilled, and the skins perish. Omn. must be put. 

Ch. iii. 7. followed, for, followed him. 8. were hearing, for, 
had heard. 14. M. adn. whom he also named apostles. 15. 
Omn. to heal diseases, and. 16. M. adn. and he made the twelve. 
19. he came, for, they came. 25. will not be able, for, is not 
able. 29. eternal sin, for, eternal condemnation. Syr. condem- 
nation which is for ever. 

Ch. iv. 10. the parables, for, the parable. 11. is given the 
mystery, for, is given to know the mystery. ^ 12. it be forgiven, 
for, their sins be forgiven, 15. in them, for, in their hearts. 18. 
and others, for, and these. 19. the world, for, this world. 22. 
nothing hid but that it might be made manifest, for, nothing hid 
which shall not be made manifest. 24. Omn. who hear. 28. 
Omn. for. 30. how, for, to what. with what shall we put it 
in comparison ? for, by what comparison shall we compare it. 
31. though it is least, for, is the least. 34. to his own disciples, 
for, to his disciples. 40. why are ye fearful ? have ye not yet 
trust ? for, why are ye so fearful ? how is it that ye have not trust ? 
Ch. V. 1. Gerasenes, for, Gadarenes. 3. No longer with a chain, 
for, with chains. 12. Omn. all the demons. Syriac has, those 
demons. 14. they came, for, they went out. 18. when he 
was entering, for, when he had entered. 23. beseeches, for, 
besought. that she may be healed. Syr., she will be healed. 
that she may live, for, she will live. 25. Omn. a certain. 27. 
Adn. the things (concerning Jesus.) 40. Omn. was lying. 42. 
Adn. immediately (they were astonished.) 

Ch. vi. 1. comes, for, came. 2. M. the many, for, many, 
and such, for, that such. 11. whatsoever place, for, whosoever. 
Omn. Yerily I say to you, it shall be more tolerable for Sodom and 
Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city. 14. M. they 
were, for, he was (saying.) 15. Omn. is (a prophet.) 16. Omn. 
is (John), he . . . from among the dead. 20. was perplexed, 
for, was doing. 22. M. his daughter Herodias, for, the daughter 
of Herodias herself. 24. who immerses, for, the Immerser. 33. 



CONDEMXED READINGS. -MARK. Ixxxix. 

Omn. the multitudes, Syr. many persons. 34. Omn. Jesus. 

36. buy something to eat, for, buy bread, for they have nothing to 
eat. 48. Omn. and (about.) 51. Omn. and wondered. 52. 
but, instead of, for (their heart.) 53. to the land, they came to, 
for, they came to the land of (Oennesaret.) 

Ch. vii. 2. Omn. they found fault. 4. M. sprinkle themselves, 
for, immerse themselves, Omn. of beds. 5. defiled, for, un- 
washed. 8. Omn. immersions of cups and pots ; and many things 
which are like these. 12. Omn. And (ye suffer.) 14. again, 
for, all (the multitude.) 15. from the man, for, from him. 
Omn. those things. 16. Omn. He who has ears to hear, let him 
hear. 17. Omn. concerning. 24. M. omn. and Sidon. 

31. he came through Sidon to the sea, for, and of Sidon, he camo 
to the sea. 35. Omn. immediately. 

Ch. viii. 1. Adn. again. 9. Omn. those who ate. 13. Omn, 
into the boat. 16. M. they have not, for, we have not. 17. 
hardened, for, still hardened. 21. Omn. how is it. 22. they 
come, for, he comes. 23. if thou seest, for, if he saw. 24. 
for I behold them as trees, instead of, as trees. 25. he looked, 
for, he made him look up. The Syriac has neither. 26. Omn. 
nor tell it to any one in the village. 29. asked them, for Syriac, 
Jesus says to them. 34. if any one, for, whoever. 36. to gain, 
and to lose, for, if he shall gain, and lose. 37. for what, instead 
of, or what. 

Ch. ix. 3. Omn. as snow. 3. Adn. so. 6. answer, for, 
say. 7. Omn. saying. 14. when they came, they saw, for, 
when he came, he saw. 16. and he asked them, for, he asked 
the scribes. 17. answered him, for, answered and said. 23. 
if thou canst ! for, if thou canst trust. Omn. with tears. 26. 
torn, for, torn him. 29. Omn. and with fasting. 31. after 
three days, for, on the third day. 33. Omn. among yourselves. 

42. M. who trust, for, who trust in me. 43. shall make, for, 
makes (thee stumble). 44. Omn. where their worm dies not, and the 
(Syriac their) fire is not quenched. 46. Omn. where their worm 
dies not, and the (Syriac their) fire is not quenched. 47. into 
hell, for, into the hell of fire. 49. Omn. and every slain offering 
shall be salted with salt. 

Ch. X. 5. Omn. answered and. 6. he made them, for, God 
made them. 7. M. omn. and shall be joined to his wife. 12. 
if she, having put away her husband, shall marry, for, if a woman 
shall put away her husband, and shall marry. 13. them, for, 
those who brought them. 20. Omn. answered and. 21. Omn. 
take up thy cross. 24. M. omn. for those who trust in riches. 
26. to him, for, among themselves. 29. Omn. answered and. 
Omn, or wife. 32. those who, for, they (followed.) 34. 

after three days, for, on the third day. 35. ask of thee, for, ask. 

43. is, for, shall be. 44. among you, for, of you. 46, a blind 



XC. CONDEMNED READINGS.— MARK. 

beggar, for, blind man. Omn. begging. 49. said, call him, 
for, commanded him to be called. 50. sprang up, for, arose. 

Ch. xi. 2. Adn. never. 3. he sends him again, for, he will 
.^end him. 6. said, for, commanded. 7. bring, for, brought. 

8. do cast, for, did cast. fields, for, trees. Omn. and strowed 
them in the way. 9. Omn. saying. 11. Omn. Jesus. 15. 
Omn. Jesus. 18. for, instead of, because. 23. Omn. what- 
ever he shall say. 24. have received, for, are to receive. ^ 26. 
Omn. But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father who is in 
heaven forgive your trespasses. 28. they said, for, they say. 
or, for, and (who.) 29. Omn. I also. 

Ch. xii. 4. Omn. they stoned him. Dishonoured him, for, sent 
him away dishonoured. 5. Omn. again. 17. marvelled 

greatly, for, marvelled. 19. child, for, children. 21. without 
leaving, for, nor did he leave. 22. And ... did not leave, for, 
and . . . had her, and did not leave. 23. Omn. therefore. 
25. Omn. (angels) who are. 27. Omn. ye therefore. 29. 
(Jesus) answered, for Syr. said to him. Omn. of all the com- 
mands. 30, 31. Omn. this is the first command, and. 31. 
Omn. which is like it. 33. Omn. with all the soul. Much 
more, for, more. 36, M. beneath, for, the footstool beneath. 
37. Omn. therefore. 41. Omn. Jesus. 

Ch. xiii. 8. there shall be, for, and there shall be. Omn. and 
tumults. 11. Omn. neither premediate. 14. Omn. which 
was spoken by Daniel the prophet. 18. Omn. your flight. 22. 
the chosen, for, even the chosen. 27. the, for, his (angels.) 
32. or, for, and (that hour.) 33. M. omn. and pray. 34. to 
each, for, and to each. 

Ch. xiv. 4. Omn. and saying. 5. This ointment, for, this. 

9. the gospel, for Sj^riac, this my gospel. 14. my, for, the (guest- 
chamber.) 19. Omn. And they. 24. covenant, for, new 
covenant. 27. Omn. on account of me this night. 40. he came 
again, for Syriac, he returned again, and came. 45. Omn. Eabbi, 
once. 65. received him, for. struck him. 68. I neither know 
nor understand, for Syriac, I know not. M. what dost thou say ? 
for, what thou sayest. M. omn. and the cock crew. 7U. Omn. 
and thy speech is like (that of Galilee.) 

Ch. XV. 4. they accuse thee of, for, they witness against thee. 
8. went up, for, called out. 12. Omn. do you wish. 23. Omn. 
to drink. 24. they crucify him, and divide, for, when they had 
crucified him, they divided. 28. Omn. And the Scripture was 
fulfilled which says. And he was numbered with the lawless. 
31. M. can he not save ? for, he cannot save (himself.) 34. Omn. 
saying (Eloi.) 39. Omn. (that) having cried out. 45. corpse, 
for, body. 

Ch. xvi. 9-20. The Eevisers state in the Margin that " the two 



CONDEMNED READINGS. — MARK, — LUKE. XCl. 

oMest Greek mauuscripts, and some other authorities, omit" these 
twelve verses. The bad character of those two oldest copies is 
shown by the record which is here given of mutilations which are 
chiefly derived from them. Dean Burgon says, " With the exception 
of those two manuscripts, there is not one codex in existence, uncial 
or cursive, (and we are acquainted with at least eighteen other 
uncials, and about six hundred cursive copies of this Gospel) which 
leaves out the last twelve verses of Mark." (Book on these verses, 
1871. p. 71.) 17. Omn. new (before tongues.) 

Luke, Ch. i. 17. M. come to, for, go before. 28. Omn. the 
angel. Omn. thou art blessed among women. 29. Omn. 
when she saw [him.] the, for, his (saying.) 35. Omn. of 
thee, (after, to be begotten.) 42. outcry, for, voice. 45. M. 
has believed that, for, has trusted, because. 61. of, for, among 
(thy kindred.) 66. for, instead of, and (the hand.) 

Ch. ii. 9. Omn. behold. 14. peace among men of good- will, 
for, (on earth) peace; [God's] good pleasure among men. (Syriac, 
and good hope for men.) 21. him, for, the child. 33. his 
father, for, Joseph. 37. even for, for, of about. 38. God, for, 
the Lord. 40. Omn. in spirit. 43. his parents, for, Joseph 
and his mother. 51. Omn. these (sayings.) 

Ch. iii. 4. Omn. who said. 10, 12, 14. what must, for, what 
shall we do, three times. 17. to clean, ... to gather, Syriac, 
is cleaning, ... is gathering. 19. Omn. Philip. 22. in 

bodily form as, Syriac, in the likeness of the body of a dove. 
Omn. which said. 

Ch. iv. 2. Omn. afterwards. 4. Omn. and said. Omn. but 
upon every word of God. 5. Omn. the devil, (Syriac Satan) 
. . . into a high mountain. 9. Omn. the, (before Son of God. 
The Syriac very rarely expresses the. The Greek, without the, 
may mean either, a son, or, the Son.) 18. Omn. to heal 

the heart-broken. 34. Omn. saying, 41. Omn. the Anointed. 

44. M. of Judea, for, of Galilee. 

Ch. V. 1. and heard, for, to hear. 5. (Simon) said, for, said 
to him. 5, 6. nets, for, net. 7. Omn. who were. 17. to 

heal him, for, to heal them. 20. said, for, Syriac, said to the para- 
lytic. 33. Omn. why ? 34. Jesus, for, he. 36. will cut, 
lor, cuts. will not agree, for, agrees not. 38. Omn. and both 
are preserved. 39. Omn. immediately. 

Ch. vi. 2. said, for, said to them. 9. I ask, for, I will ask. 
10. he did, for, he did so. Syriac, he stretched it out. Omn. as 
the other. 25. Adn. now (after full.) 25, 26. woe, for, woe 
to you, twice. 36. Omn. therefore. 43. nor again, for, nor. 

45. the evil one, for, the evil man. Out of the evil, for, out of 
the evil treasure of his heart. 48. because it had been well 
built, for, because it had been founded upon the rock. 

Ch. vii. 10. Omn. who had been ill. 11. soon after, for, next 



XCU. CONDEMNED READINGS. — LUKE. 

day. 19. to the Lord, for, to Jesus. 22. Omn. Jesus. 28. 
Omn. a prophet. Omn. the Immerser. 32. Omn. to you (after 
mourned.) 39. M. the, for, a (prophet.) 

Ch. viii. 12. have heard, for, hear. 21. do, for, do it. 24. 
he awoke, for, he arose. 26, 3*7. Gerasenes; M. Gergesenes, or 
Gadarenes, for, Gadarenes. 27. Omn. him (after met.) Eor a 
long time had worn, for, had had demons for a long time, and had 
worn. 38. Omn. Jesus. 43. M. omn. had spent all her 

living on physicians, and. 45. M. omn. and those with him. 
Omn. and sayest thou, "Who touched me ? 48. Omn. be of good 
comfort. 49. saying, for, saying to him. 50. answered him, 
ibr, said. 54. Omn. put them all out. 

Ch. ix. 2. M. omn. the sick. 5. the dust, for, also the dust. 
7. Omn. by him. 10. to the city called, for, to a desert place of 
the city called. (The Syriac has not called.) 14. about fifty, for, 
fifty. 34. when they, for, when those (entered. The Syriac has, 
when they saw Moses and Elijah enter.) 35. my chosen, for, my 
beloved (Son.) 43. Omn. Jesus. 48. is, for, shall be (great.) 
54. Omn. as also Elijah did. 55, 56. Omn. And said, ye know 
not of what spirit ye are. For the Son of man has not come to 
destroy the lives of men, but to save. (Syriac, to destroy lives, but 
to give life.) 57. Omn. Lord. 60. Omn. Jesus. 

Ch. X. i. 17. M. seventy-two, for, seventy, twice. 5. M. enter 
first, for, first say. 11. has come near, for, has come near to you. 
15. shalt thou be exalted to heaven ? for, which hast been exalted 
to heaven. 19. I have given, for, I give. 21. Omn. Jesus. 
32. Omn. being (at the place.) 33. saw, for, saw him. 36. 
Omn. therefore. 38. Omn. it came to pass. 40. was leaving 
me, for, has left me. 41. the Lord, for, Jesus. 41, 42. M. 
omn. thou art anxious and . . . about many things. 

Oh. xi. 2. Omn. Our (Father) who art in heaven. Omn. Thy 
will be done, as in heaven, also on earth. 4. Omn. but dehver 
us from evil. 11. M. omn. a loaf, will he give him a stone ? and 
if. 14. Omn. and it was. 29. Omn. the prophet. 34. 
Omn. therefore. 44. Omn. Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites. 
48. ye are witnesses, for, ye bear witness. ye build, for, ye 
build their tombs. 53. when he had come out thence, for, while 
he said (Syriac, when he had said) these things to them. 54. 
Omn. and seeking. Omn. that they might accuse him. 

Ch. xii. 7. Fear not, for, fear not therefore. 18. my corn, for, 
my increase. 22. the life, for, your life. 25. a cubit, for, one 
cubit. 31. his, for, God's (kingdom.) these things, for, all 
these things, 38. Omn. servants. 40. Omn. therefore. 41. 
said, for, said to him. 56. ye know not how to discern, for, ye 
do not discern. 

Ch. xiii. 2. Omn. Jesus. These, for, such things. 9. bear 
fruit afterwards, for, if not. afterwards. 11. Omn. there was (a 



CONDEMIS^ED BEADIXGS. — LUKE. XClll. 

woman.) 15. ye hypocrites, for, thou hypocrite. 18. there- 
fore, for, and (he said.) 19. a tree, for, a p:reattree. 24. M. shall 
not be able when, for, shall not be able. When, etc. 25. Omn. 
Lord, once. 27. I know not whence, for, I know you not, 

whence. 31. (Tn that) hour, for, day. 35. (Your house is) 
left, for, left desolate. 

Ch. xiv. 6, Omn. him (to these things.) 17. Omn. all things. 
21. the servant, for, that servant. 22. that which, for, as. 27. 
Whosoever, for. And whosoever. 34. Adn. therefore. 

Ch. XV. 16. to be filled with, for, to fill his belly with. 19, 21. 
I am, for, and I am; twice. 21. M. Adn. make me as one of 
thy hired servants. 22. bring forth quickly, for, bring forth. 

Ch. xvi. 1. the, for, his (disciples.) 12. M. our own, for, your 
own. 18. Omn. everyone. 20. Omn. there was. 21. Omn. 
the crumbs. 26. in, for, beside (all these things.) 29. 
(Abraham) said, for, said to him. 

Ch. xvii. 2. a millstone, for, an ass-miUstone. 4. Omn. a day 
(turn.) 6. if ye have, for, if ye had. 7. (come) immediately, 
for, (will say) immediately. 9. Omn. that (servant.) com- 
manded ? for, commanded him ? I think not. 10. we have done, 
for, because we have done. 21. or there, for, or (Syriac, and) 
behold there. 23. Behold there, behold here, for, behold here, 
and behold there. 24. M. omn. in his day. 33. Omn. it, 

Syriac, his life, (shall preserve it.) 36. Omn. Two shall be in the 
field ; the one shall be taken, and the other left. 

Ch. xviii. 1. Omn. also (a parable.) 13. his breast, for, upon 
his breast. 24. Omn. that he was very sorrowful. 28. our 
own things, for, all things. 41. Omn. saying. 

Ch. xix. 5. Omn. saw him, and. 15. they had gained, for, 
each had gained. 20. the other, for, another. 26. I say, Syriac, 
He said to them, T say. 29. the, for, his (disciples.) 31. say, 
for, say to him. 40. said, for, said to them. 42. Syriac, the 
things which are for thy peace, at least in this thy day. The E. E. 
V. in this day, even thou, the things which belong unto peace. 
45. who sold, for, who sold in it, and bought. 46. shall be, for, 
is (a house of prayer.) 

Ch. XX. 2. spoke, saying to him, for Syriac, said to him. 9. 
a man, for, a certain man. 13. Omn. when they see. 14. 
Omn. come. 23. Omn. why tempt ye me ? 26. of a word, 
for, of a word from him. 28. be, for, die (childless.) 30. Omn. 
took the woman, and died childless. 

Ch. xxi. 2. Omn. also, 4. Omn. of God. 6. Adn. here 
(one stone.) 34, 35. suddenly as a snare; instead of, suddenly: 
for as a snare. 36. But, for, therefore. may be able, for, may 
be counted worthy. 

Ch. xxii. 14. the Apostles, for, the twelve Apostles. 16. not, 
for, not any more. 18. Adn. from now. 19. M. omn. which 



xoiv. CONDEMNED READINGS— LUKE, — JOHN. 

is given on behalf of you; this do ye in remembrance of me. 
20. M. Omn. in like manner also the cup after supper 
saying, this cup is (Syriac, this is the cup of) the new covenant 
in my blood, which is to be poured out on behalf of you. 22. 
For, instead of, And (the Son.) 30. ye shall sit, for, that ye may 
sit. 31. Omn. And the Lord (Syriac, Jesus) said. _ 37. this, 
for, also this. 39 and 45. the, for, his (disciples), twice. 43, 
44. M. omn. And there appeared to him an angel from heaven, 
strengthening him. And being in an agony, (Syriac, in fear,) he 
prayed more earnestly, and his sweat became as drops of blood 
falling on the ground. 49. said, for, said to him. 61, Adn. 
to-day. 64. Omn. they struck him on the face, and. 68. 
answer, for, answer me, nor let me go. 

xxiii. 6. Omn. of Galilee. 8. Omn. many things. 15. he 
sent him back to us, for, I sent you (Syriac, him,) to him. 17. 
Omn. For it was necessary for him to release to them one at the 
feast. 23. Omn. and of the chief priests. 25. released, for, 
released to them. 34. M. omn. And Jesus said. Father, forgive 
them, for they know not what they do. 38. Omn. written in 
Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew. 39. Art not thou the Anointed ? 
for. If thou art the Anointed. 42. Omn. Lord. into, for, in 
(thy kingdom.) 43. He, for, Jesus (said.) 44. now about, for, 
about. 45. (the sun) was eclipsed, for was darkened. 

Ch. xxiv. 1. Omn. and some with them. 6. M. omn. he is 
not here, but is risen. 9. M. omn. from the tomb. 12. M. 

Omn. and Peter rose up, and ran to the tomb, and stooping down, 
he saw the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wonder- 
ing in himself at what had happened. 17. and they stood still, 
looking sad, for, and are sad. 36. he, for, Jesus. M. omn. 
and said to them. Peace be unto you. 38. your heart, for, your 
hearts. 40. M. omn. And when he had said this, he showed 
them his hands and his feet. 42. Omn. and part of a honey-comb. 
44. my words, for, the words. 46. Omn. and thus it was right that. 
47, 48. M. ye, beginning at Jerusalem, are witness-bearers, for, be- 
ginning at Jerusalem. And ye are witness-bearers. 49. Omn. 
Jerusalem. 51. M. omn. and was carried up into heaven. 
52. M. Omn. they worshipped him. 53. Omn. praising and. 
Omn. Amen. 

John i. 3, 4. M. without him was nothing made. That which 
has been made in him was life ; instead of, without him was no- 
thing made which has been made. In him was life. 15. M. this 
was he who said, for, this was he of whom I said. ^ 18. M. an 
only -begotten God, for, the only-begotten Son : — Syriac, that only 

God. 27. Omn. He it is who was before I [was]. 29. 

Omn. John, 30. on behalf of whom, for, about whom. 42. John, 
for, Jona. 43. Omn. Jesus. Adn. Jesus (said to him.) 49. 
Omn. and said to him. 51. Omn. from now. 



COIs^DEMNED READINGS.— JOnN. XCV. 

Ch. ii. 10. Omn. then. 12. Omn. his (brothers.) 17. will 
eat, for, has eaten (me up.) 

Ch. iii. 2. him, for, Jesus. 13. M. omn. who is in heaven. 
15. Omn. might not perish. 17. the Son, for, his Son. 31. 
M. omn. is above aU. 32. Omn. And (what.) 34. Omn. God 
(gives.) 

Ch. iv. 6. about the sixth, for, Syriac, the sixth. 9. M. omn. For 
Jews have no dealings with Samaritans. 15. come through, for, 
come. 35, 36. M. already he who reaps, for, already white to 
harvest, and he who reaps. 42. Omn. the Anointed. 43. 
Omn. and went away. 46. Omn. Jesus. 47. Omn. (intreated) 
him. 51. Omn. and told him. 51. his son, for, thy son. 

Ch. V. i. M.the feast, for, a feast. 2. M. Bethsaida, or Bethzatha, 
for, Bethesda. 3. Omn. great. 3, 4. Omn. waiting for the 
stirring up of the water. Por a messenger from time to time went 
down into the bathing-pool, and stirred up the water ; and he who 
first went down after the stirring up of the water, was cured of 
whatever disease he had. 12. Omn. thy bed. 16. Omn. and 
sought to kill him. 27. Omn. also. 

Ch. vi. 7. Omn. (each) of them. 10. about, Syriac, (five thou- 
sand.) 14. M. signs, for, sign. 14. Omn. Jesus. 17. had 
not yet, for, had not (come to them.) 22. Omn. that into which 
his disciples had entered. 23. but there came boats, for, but 
there came other boats. 42. how does he now say ? for, how 
then does this [man] say ? 45. Omn. therefore. 47. Omn. 
in me. 61. Omn. which I will give. 55. true, for, truly, 
twice. 58. Omn. your (fathers) .... the manna. 65. the 

Father, for, my father. 69. the Holy One of God, for, the 
Anointed, the Son of the living God. 

Ch. vii. 4. M. he seeks that it may be, for, he himself seeks to 
be. 8. Omn. this (feast.) M. I do not, for, I do not yet ; 
Syriac, now. 15. Therefore, for, and (the Jews.) 16. Adn. 
Therefore (Jesus.) 20. Omn. and said. 21, 22. M. ye all 

marvel because of this. Moses gave ; for, ye all marvel. Because of 
this, Moses gave. 26. Omn. truly (the Anointed ?) 29. I, for, 
but I (know him.) 31. Omn. than these. 39. had trusted, for, were 
trusting. 40. Omn. many. 40. these words, for, his words. 
41. but some, for, but others. 46. Omn. as this man does. 
60. Omn. by night. 60. Adn. before. 52. M. see ; 

because, for, see that (no prophet.) 53. (The words. And each 
went to his house, are not in the Peshito.) 

Ch. viii. 1—11. (These verses are not in the Peshito.) 21. 
Omn. Jesus. 28. Omn. to them. 28. the Father, for, my 
Father. 29. Omn. Syriac, my Father. 38. the Father, for, 
my Father. 38. ye have heard, for, ye have seen. 38. Omn. 

your (father.) 39. if ye are, for, if ye were (the children of 
Abraham) ; M. do ye, for, ye would do (the works of Abraham.) 59. 
Omn. He passed through the midst of them, and went away. 



XCVl. COXDEMNED READINGS. — JOniV. 

Ch. ix. 4. We must, for, I must. 6. Omn. of the blind man. 

10. Adn. (How) then? 11. Omn. and said, Syriac, to them. 

11. Omn. the pool, Syriac, the waters. 14. the day on which, 
for, when. 25. Omn. and said, Syriac, to them. 26. Omn. 
again. 35. said, for, said to him. 35. M. Son of man? 
instead of, Son of Grod ? 41. Omn. therefore (your sin.) 

Ch. X. 4. all his own, for, his own sheep. 12. scatters, for, 
scatters the sheep. 13. Omn. the hireling flees. 14. mine 
know me, for, I am known by mine. 18. M. has taken it away, for, 
takes it away. 26. Omn. as I said to you. 29. M. that which 
my Father has given me, is greater than all things ; for, my Father 
who has given them to me, is greater than all. 29. the Father's 
hand, for, my Father's hand. 32. the Father, for, my Father. 
33. answered, for, said. 38. (that ye may) know and know, for, 
know and believe. 

Ch. xi. 12, 54. the, for, his (disciples) ; twice. 19. Omn. their 
(brother.) 22. And now, for, but even now. 28. (said) this, 
for, these things. M. called Mary, .... saying secretly, for, 
called Mary.1. . . secretly, saying. 30. Adn. still (in the place.) 
50. (expedient) for you, instead of, for us. 

Ch. xii. 7. Suffer her to keep it for the day of my burial, for, Let 
her alone, she has kept it for the day of my burial. 22. (Andrew 
and Philip) come and tell, for, tell (Jesusj 25. loses, for, shall 
lose (his life.) 35. among you, for, with you. 40. I will heal, 
for, I should heal (them.) 41. (said Isaiah) because, for, when 
(he saw.) 

Ch. xiii. 3. Omn. Jesus. 10. M. Omn. his feet. 18. (He 
who eats) my bread, for, bread with me. 24. (Peter beckoned 
to him,) and said to him, for, that he should ask who it would be. 
25. and he thus fell upon ; for, and he, (Syria.c, that disciple) fell 
upon (the bosom of Jesus.) 26. Adn. he took it, and (gave it 
to Judas.) 32. Omn. if God has been glorified in him. 

Ch. xiv. 4. (whither I go,) ye know the way, for, ye know, and 
the way ye know. 5. How do we know ? for, and how can we know ? 
10. (the Father) does his works, for, does the (Syriac, these) works. 

12. 28. the Father, for, my Father, twice. 15, ye will keep, for, 
keep ye. 

Ch. XV. 7. ask ye, for, ye shall ask. 8. M. that ye may be, for, 
so shall ye be. 14. the things which, for, whatsoever things. 

Ch. xvi. 10. the Father, for, my Father. 15. takes, for, shall 
take. 16. Omn. because I go to the Father. 23. If ye shall 
ask anything of the Father, he will give it you in my name ; for, 
whatsoever he shall ask of the (Syriac, my,) Father in my name, 
he will give it you. 29. (his disciples) say, for, say to him. 
32. Omn. now. 33. ye have, for, ye will have. 

Ch. xvii. 1. that the Son, for, that thy Son. 11. (keep those 
in thy name), [the name] which thou hast given me ; for, those 



CONDEMNED READINGS.— JOHN, — ACTS. XCVll. 

"whom (Syriac, that whicli) thou hast given me. 12. (while I was 
with them) omn. in the world, (I kept them in thy name), which 
[name] thou hast given me ; for, those whom thou hast given me (I 
have kept.) 17. the truth, for, thy truth. 21. (that they also 
may be) in us ; for, one in us. 24. (Father, I wish that) that 
which, for, those whom (thou hast given me), etc. 
Ch. xviii. 40. they, for, they all cried out. 

Ch. xix. 3. Adn. and they came to him. 7. (according to) 
the law, for, our law. 13. these words, for, this saying. 16. 
Omn. and led him away. 17. bearing the cross on himself, for, 
bearing his cross. 29. so they put a sponge, full of vinegar, on 
hyssop, for, and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it on 
hyssop. 38. (and took) his body, for, the body of Jesus. 39. 
(who came) to him, for, to Jesus. M. a wrapping, for, a mixture 
(of myrrh and aloes.) 

Ch. XX. 17. the, for, my (Father.) 29. M. hast thou believed r 
for, thou hast believed. 30. the, for, his (disciples.) 

Ch. xxi. 14. the, for, his (disciples.) 15, 16, 17. son of John, 
for, son of Jonas, thrice. 

Acts i. 4. While he ate, for, while he ate with them. 8. my, 
for, to me (witness-bearers.) 15. of the brothers, for, of the 
disciples. 16. the Scripture, for, that Scripture. 17. among 
us, for, with us. 19. in thf^ir language, for, Syriac, in the lan- 
guage of the place. 23. Larsabbas, for, Barsabas. 25. the 
place, for, the lot (of this service.) 

Ch. ii. 7. Omn. one to another. 23. ye, by the hand of the 
lawless, have crucified, for, Syriac, ye have delivered into the hands 
of the wicked, and have crucified. 33. which ye see, for, Syriac, 
which, behold, ye see. 38. (Peter) to them, for, said to them, 
(for the pardon) of your, for, of (sins.) 41. those who received, 
for, those who readily received. 42. in the breaking of bread, 
for, Syriac, in the breaking of the Eucharist-. 

Ch. iii. 1. Omn. together. 6. Omn. rise up and. 13. 
denied, for, denied him. 22. Omn. For (Moses.) the Lord 
God, for, Syriac, the Lord. 25. (with) your, for, our (fathers.) 

Ch. iv. 1. M. the chief priests, for, the priests. 5. Adn. to, 
Syriac, in Jerusalem. 8. Omn. of Israel. 18. commanded, 
for, commanded them. 24. Omn. thou art God. 25. M. The 
Greek text in this clause is somewhat uncertain. Text ; who, by 
the Holy Spirit, [by] the mouth of our father David, thy servant, 
didst say ; for, Syriac, And thou art he who, by means of the Holy 
Spirit, by the mouth of thy servant David, hast said. 33. M. 
of the Lord Jesus the Anointed ; for, Syriac, of Jesus the Anointed. 

Ch. V. 9. (Peter) to her, for, said to her. 28. we strictly com- 
manded, for, did we not strictly command (you) ? 32. M. and God 
has given the Holy Spirit, for, and [so is] the Holy Spirit, whom 
God has given. 33. wished, for, took counsel. 34. the men, 



XCVIU. CONDEMN-ED READINGS. — ACTS. 

for, the apostles. 37. (drew away) people, for, many people. 
39. ye will not be able, for, ye cannot, overthrow them, for, over- 
throw it. 

Ch. vi. 3. M. but, for, therefore. of the Spirit, for, Syriac, the 
Spirit of the Lord. 

Ch. vii. 16. of Hamor, in Shechem, for, Syriac, of Hamor. 17. 
(which God) had made, for, had made by oath. 30. an angel, for, 
an angel of the Lord. 31. (the voice of the Lord came), omn., to 
him. 35. with the hand, for, by the hands. 36. in Egypt, 
for, in the land of Egypt. 37. _ (shall) God, for, the Lord God. 
Omn. him shall ye hear. 51. in hearts, for, in their heart. 

Ch. viii. 8. much, for, great (joy.) 10. (the power) called 

great, for, the great (power.) 18. M. the Spirit, for, the Holy 
Spirit. 22. (intreat) the Lord, for, God. 

Ch. ix. 5. Omn. the Lord said. 12. has seen, for, has seen in 
a vision. 12. hands, for, hand. 25. his disciples, for, the 

disciples (took him .... by night.) 29. of the Lord, for, of 
Jesus. 38. Delay not to come to us, for, that he would not delay 
to come to them. 

Ch. X. 1. Omn. there was. 5. a certain Simon, for, Simon. 
10. (a trance) came, for, fell (upon him.) 11. Omn. bound, and. 
16. Adn. immediately (the vessel.) 17. by, for, from (Cornelius.) 
24. M. he, for, they (entered.) 30. Omn. I was fasting. 32. 
Omn. who will come and speak to thee. 33. by the Lord, for, 
by God. 36. M. he sent the word, for, the word which he sent. 

Ch. xi. 9. Omn. me (a second time.) 11. we were, for, 1 was, 
13. saying, for, saying to him. 28. Claudius, for, Claudius 

Csosar. 

Ch. xii. 5. earnestly, for, earnest (prayer.) 5. for, instead of, 
on behalf of. 9. followed, for, followed him. 25. M. to, 
instead of, from (Jerusalem.) 

Ch. xiii. 19. Omn. to them. 20. he made them inherit for 
about four hundred and fifty years, instead of, he gave them judges 
for about, etc. 23. has brought to, for, has raised up for. 25. 
what, for, whom (think ye) ? 26. to us, for, to you. 33. to 
our children, for, to us, their children. 40. Omn. upon you 
(what was spoken.) 44. M. (the word) of the Lord, for, of God. 

Ch. xiv. 28. Omn. there (they abode.) 

Ch. XV. 8. Omn. to them (the Holy Spirit.) 11. the Lord 
Jesus, for, the Lord Jesus the Anointed. 17, 18. who makes 
these things known from eternity, for, who does all these things. 
Known from eternity are the works of God. 23. Omn. (they 
wrote) these things ; Syriac, thus. 24. M. omn. who went out 
(from us.) 24. Omn. saying that ye should be circumcised, and 
keep the law. 29. things strangled, for, what is strangled. 

30. came down, for, came. 33. to those who had sent them 
forth, for, to the apostles. 34. This verse is not in the Peshito :— 



CONDEMNED READINGS. — ACTS. XCIX. 

But it was tlie wish of Silas to remain there. 40. of the Lord, 
for, of God. 

Ch, xvi. 1. Omn. a certain (Jewess.) 10. God, for, the Lord. 
13. out of the gate, for, Syriac, out of the gate of the city. 13. 
where we supposed there was, for, Syriac, because (a house of prayer) 
was seen there. 31. Omn. the Anointed. 32. M. of God, 
for, of the Lord. 34. the house, for, his house. 36. the words, 
for, these words. 

Ch. xvii. 18. (because he told) omn. them. 23. that which, 
for, him whom (ye ignorantly worship.) 23. this thing, for, him 
(I declare to you.) 26. (has made) of one, for, of one blood. 
30. M. announces to men that all should repent, for, commands 
men all to repent. 

Ch. xviii. 1. Omn. Paul. 3. they worked, for, he worked 
with them. 15. Omn. for, (I do not wish.) 20. Omn. with 
them. 21. Omn. I certainly ought to keep the feast which is 
coming in Jerusalem. 

Ch. xix. 2. Omn. they said. 3. Omn. (he said) to them. 4. 
in Jesus, for, in Jesus the Anointed. 9. of Tyrannus. for, Syriac, 
of a man whose name was Tyrannus. 12. were carried away, 
for, were brought. 13. I, for, we (charge you on oath.) 16. 
(overcame) them both, for, them. 29. the city, for, the whole 
city. 

Ch. XX. 1. sent for, instead of, called to him. 4. M. omn. as 
far as Asia. 4. (Sopater,) Adn. son of Pyrrhus. 5. M. came 
to us, for, went in advance. 15. Omn. and stayed in Trogyl- 
lium. 2L M. Omn. the Anointed. 24. But I make life of no 
account [as] dear to me, for, Syriac, But my life is not e.^teemed 
by me to be anything, ( [unless it be] so that.) 25. the kiu sdom, 
for, the kingdom of God. 28. Omn. therefore. 28. M. (the 
assembly) of the Lord, for, as in most Syriac copies, of the Anointed. 
These copies include the editions of Walton, Gutbier,the Maronites, 
Schaaf, and that of Ooroomiah. Lee has God, but he does not 
state on what authority. He says that other copies have, the 
Anointed. 29. Omn. For (I know.) 32. M. to the Loid, far, 
to God. 32. to give, for, to give you. 

Ch. xxi. 20. among the Jews, for, Syriac, in Judea. 22. 

certainly they will hear, for, Syriac, because therefore they have 
heard. 24. so that they will shave, for, that they may shave, 
and all will know, for, that all may know. 25. M. we have sent, 
for, we have written. 

Ch. xxii. 20. Omn. to his being killed. 30. (he commanded) 
the council to come together, for, Syriac, the assembly of their 
chief men to come. 

Ch. xxiii. 9. Omn. let us not fight against God ; the Syriac has 
instead, what is there in this ? 12. the Jews, for, some of the Jews. 
20. (as if) thou wast, for, they were (wishing to learn.) 28. M. 

g2 



C. CONDEMNED READINGS. — ACTS.— ROMANS. 

omn. I broTight him down to their council. 30. Omn. by the 
Jews. 30. Omn. Earewell. 

Ch. xxiv. 1. with some elders, for, with elders. 5. tumults, 
for, tumult. 6 — 8. Omn. and wished to judge him according to 
our law, but Lysias, the commander of a thousand men, came, and 
with great violence took him out of our hands, Syriac, and sent 
him to thee ; he also commanded his accusers to come to thee. 
15. (resurrection) omn. of the dead. 20. (they found) omn. in 
me. 23. that he, for, that Paul (be guarded.) 24. in the 
Anointed Jesus, for, in the Anointed. 

Ch. XXV. 13. having saluted, for, to salute (Festus.) 16. omn. 
to destruction. 22. (Agrippa) omn. said. 

Ch. xxvi. 3. Omn. I know. 3. I beseech, for, I beseech thee. 
7. king, for, king Agrippa. 16. (one who bears witness) 
of the things thou hast seen respecting me, and of those [in which] 
I will appear to thee ; for, of this, that thou hast seen me, and of 
[when] thou in the future wilt see me. 28. Omn. (Agrippa) 
said. 28. By little, thou art persuading to make me a Christian ; 
for, in a little degree, thou art persuading me to become a 
Christian. 29. Omn. (Paul) said. 

Ch. xxvii. 14. Euraquilo, for, Euroclydon. 19. they, for we (cast 
out.) 37. M. Adn. (we were) about. 39. M. to save, for, to 
drive (the ship.) 41. (by the violence) omn. of the waves. 

Ch. xxviii. 1. M. Melitene, for, Melita ; Syriac, Militi. 13. 
M. we took away [something] all round, for, we made a circuit. 
The change of one letter in a Greek word makes the difference of 
meaning, and is, no doubt, a writer's blunder. 15. they came, 
for, they came out (to meet us.) 17. he, for, Paul (called together.) 
30. he, for, Paul. 

EoMANS i. 8. (I thank my God) concerning, for, on behalf of (all 
of you.) 29. Omn. fornication. 31. Omn. implacable. 

Ch. ii. 2, M. For, instead of, iVnd (we know.) 16. (when 

God) M. judges, for, will judge. 

Ch, iii. 7, But, instead of. For (if the truth.) 22. (righteous- 
ness unto all) omn. and upon all. 28. M. For, instead of, There- 
fore (we reckon.) 30. if indeed, for, because (it is one God.) 

Ch. iv. 1. (that Abraham) M. Omn. found. 11. (to them) 

omn. also. 15. but, instead of, for (where.) 

Ch. V. 1. (being declared just), let us have, for, we have, Syriac, 
we shall have (peace.) 2. (have had entrance) M. omn. through 
trust. 17. Omn. and of the gift. 

Ch. vi. 1. let us continue P for, shall we continue ? 11. Omn. 
our Lord. 15. let us sin ? for, shall we sin ? 

Ch. vii. 18. Omn. I find not. 23. under, for, to (the law of 
sin.) 

Ch. viii. 1. Omn. who walk not after the flesh. (The Syriac has 
not, but after the Spirit.) 26. (the Spirit pleads) omn. on our 



COls^DEMNED READINGS.— ROMANS. CI. 

behalf. 34. (It is tlie Anointed) adn. Jesus (who died.) (who 
was raised) adn. from among the dead. 35. (from the love) M 
of God, for, of the Anointed. 

Ch. ix. 5. In deference to "some modem interpreters," the M. 
puts a full stop after " flesh ;" and in deference to others, a full 
stop after " over all ;" in both cases destroying the statement that 
Jesus is Grod. The Striae is like the Greek when read as one 
sentence. It is, — and from them appeared the Anointed in the 
flesh, who is God, who is over all ; to whom be praises and blessings 
for ever and ever. Amen. 31. (has not attained to the law) omn. 
of righteousness. 32. (by the works) omn. of the law. Omn. 
for (they stumbled.) 

Ch. X. 3. their own, for, their own righteousness. 5. (Moses 
writes,) that the man who does the righteousness of the law shall 
live by it ; for, as to the righteousness which is by the law, that the 
man who shall do those things shall live by them. 9. M. profess 
the word with thy mouth that Jesus is Lord, for, profess with 
thy mouth the Lord Jesus. 15. Omn. of those who tell good 
tidings of peace. 17. (the word) of the Anointed, for, of God. 

Ch. xi. 2. Omn. saying. 6. Omn. but if it be of works, it 
is not of merciful favour ; else, work is not work. 13. Adn. 
therefore (so far as I am.) 22. (but toward thee) the goodness 
of God, for, goodness. 30. (for as ye) omn. also. 31. (that 
they also may obtain mercy) adn. now. 

Ch. xii. 2. Omn. of your (minds.) 11. M. (serve ye) the oppor- 
tunity, for, the Lord. 

Ch. xiii. 1. by, for, from (God.) those, for, the authorities 
(which are). 7. (Render) omn. therefore. 11. for you, instead 
of, for us (to awake.) 

Ch. xiv. 6. Omn. and he who regards not the day, to the Lord 
he regards it not. 9. (the Anointed) omn. also. Omn. and 
rose. 10. (the judgment-seat) of God, for, of the Anointed. 
18. (he who) in this, for, in these things. 19. M. we pursue, 
for, let us pursue. 21. stumbles, for, is made to stumble. 

Ch. XV. 8. that the Anointed, for, that Jesus the Anointed. 15. 
Omn. my brothers. 19. of the Holy Spirit, for, of the Spirit of God. 
24. (into Spain) I hope, while on my way, to see you ; for, I hope to 
come and see you. 29. Omn. of the good tidings (of the 
Anointed.) 

Ch. xvi. 3. Prisca, for, Priscilla. 5. of Asia, for, of Achaia. 
8. Ampliatus, for, Amplias. 18. (serve not) the Anointed, for, 
Jesus the Anointed. 20. M. Omn. The merciful favour of our 
Lord Jesus the Anointed be with you. 24. Omn. in central text, 
The merciful favour of our Lord Jesus the Anointed be with you 
all. Amen. In the Syriac this verse comes last in the letter. The 
central text of the E. E. V. has like words in verse 20. It omits 
verse 24. 



cii. CONDEMNED READINGS.— 1 COllINTIIIANS. 

1 Corinthians i. 4. M. (I thank) God, for, my God. 13. M. 
(the Anointed) has been, for, has he been ? (divided.) 14. M. 
I give thanks, for, I thank God. 15. that ye were immersed, for, 
that I have immersed (into my name.) 20. (the wisdom) of the, 
for, of this (world) ? 29. (that no flesh might glory) before God, 
for, before him. 

Ch. ii. 9. whatsoever things, for, the things. 10. M. Por, 
instead of, But (God has revealed them.) by the, for, by his 
(Spirit.) 

Ch. iii. 8, Omn, and divisions. 4. (are ye not) men, for fleshly? 
5. What, for, who (is Paul) ? what, for, who (is ApoUos) ? They 
are, for, (who) but (servants) ? 12. on the, for, on this (founda- 
tion.) 

Ch. iv. 6. Omn. to think [of men] (more highly than is written.) 

Ch. V. 1. Omn. is (not) named. M. verse 2, a question. 4. 
Omn. the Anointed, twice. 5. M. omn. Jesus. 7. Omn. on 
our behalf. 10. not, for, but not. 12. Do not ye judge? for, 
Syriac, Judge ye, 13. does not God judge ? for, God judges. 

Ch. vi. 4. the verse made a question. 20. Omn. and in your 
spirit, which are God's. 

Ch. vii. 1. Omn. (have written) to me. 3. what is due, for, 
due affection. 5. Omn. to fasting and. be together, for, come 
together. Syriac, return to the same will. 7. But, instead of, 
For (I wish.) 14. (in respect of the) brother, for, husband. 

15. M. (has called) you, for, us (in peace.) 31. the, for, this 
(world.) 34. Adn. also (a difference.) 37. will do, for, does 
(well.) 38. will do, for, does (better.) 39. (a wife is bound) 
omn. by law. 39. the, for, her (husband.) 

Ch. viii. 2. Omn. nothing. 4. Omn. other (God.) 7. from 
customary [worship], for, from conscientious [reverence] (of the 
image.) 8. will not, for, does not (give access to God.). Omn. 
for (neither if we eat.) 

Ch. ix. 1. Omn. the Anointed. 7. its fruit, for, of its fruit. 
13. Adn. the things (from the temple.) 15. (than that my 
glorying) no one shaU make void, for, anyone should make void. 
18. (the good tidings) omn. of the Anointed. 20. (as under the 
law,) adn. not being myself under the law. 22. Omn. as (weak.) 
23. all things, for, this (I do.) 

Ch. X. 9. the Lord, for, the Anointed. as, for, as also. 11. 
Omn. all (these things.) by way of picture, for, as picture 
lessons. 19. that a sacrifice to an image is anything, or that an 
image is anything, instead of, that an image, etc., or a sacrifice to 
an image, etc. 23. (all things are lawful) omn. for me, twice. 

Ch. xi. 2. Omn. my brothers. 24. Omn. Take ye, eat. Omn. 
(my body) broken (on behalf of you.) 26. Omn. this (cup.) 
27. the bread, Syriac, of the bread of the Lord. 29. Omn. 
unworthily. (the body) omn. of the Lord. 



CONDEMNED READINGS. — 1, 2 CORINTHIANS. cill. 

Ch. xii, 1. Adn. when. 3. Jesus is, for, that Jesus is (anathema.) 
Jesus is, for, that Jesus is (Lord.) 6. Omn. it is (the same God.) 
9. by one, for, by the same (Spirit.) 26. (or if) a member, for, 
one member (is glorified.) 31. But desire the greater gifts, for, 
Syriac, But if ye desire great gifts, (I again will show you.) 

Ch. xiii. 3. M. (if I give my body) that I may glory, for, that I 
may be burned, Syriac, that it may be burned. 10. Omn. then. 
11. when, for, but when (I became a man.) 

Ch. xiv. 5. and, instead of, for (greater is.) 21. by the lips 
of strangers, for, by strange lips, Syriac, in another tongue. 26. 
each, for, each of you; Syriac, he who of you (has a Psalm, let him 
speak.) 34. Let the, for, your (women be silent.) let them 
be submissive, for, [it is required] that they be submissive. 35. 
(it is shameful for) a woman, instead of women (to speak in 
the assembly.) 37. (are) the command, for, the commands (of 
the Lord.) 38. M. if anyone knows not, he is not known; for, if 
anyone is ignorant, let him be ignorant. 

Ch. XV. 2. M. by which ye are saved, if ye hold fast the words 
of the good tidings which I told you; for, Syriac, in which ye have 
life [-bliss], by means of the words which I told you; if (some 
copies have not if) ye keep them in memory, (unless ye have trusted 
in a vain way.) 14. M. our, for, your (trust is useless also.) 
20. Omn. and has become (the first-fruit.) 29. (why are they 
immersed on behalf) of them, for, of dead bodies r* 32. (The 
joining of) if the dead are not raised, with, let us eat and drink. 
44. If, instead of, For (there is a natural body.) (a spiritual) 
one, for, body. 47. (the second man is) from heaven, for, the 
Lord from heaven. 49. M. let us bear, for, we shall bear (the 
likeness of him who is from heaven.) 54. M. Omn. this des- 
tructible shall put on indestructibility. 55. death, where is thy 
victory ? death whore is thy sting ? for, death, where is thy 
sting ? Hades, (Syriac, Shiul) where is thy victory ? 

Ch. xvi. 19. Prisca, for, PriscilJa. 22. (If anyone loves not) 
the Lord, instead of, the Lord Jesus the Anointed. 

2 Corinthians i. 6. (and salvation ; or if we are comforted, it 
is for the comforting of you,) which works in the patient endurance 
of; instead of, and that there may be in you an endeavour to bear 
patiently (those sufferings which we also suffer. And our hope.) 
8. Omn. to us (in Asia.) 10. (a death), and will deliver. The 
Syriac has it not ; nor, and does deliver. 12. with holiness and 
sincerity, for, with simplicity and sincerity. 15, M. a second 

joy, for, a second favour-gift. 17. desired, for, purposed (this.) 
18. (our word to you) is not, for, was not. 20. (are yes) ; there- 
fore also by means of him is the Amen to God, for glory, by means 
of us; instead of, for this reason, by means of him, we give Amen, 
■to the glory of God. 

Ch. ii. 1. M. For, instead of, But. 3. (I have written) omn. to 



CIV. CONDEMNED READINGS. — 2 CORINTHIANS.— GALATIANS. 

you. 9. (the testing of you,) M. by wliich, for, whether (ye are 
obedient.) 10. for what 1 have forgiven, if I have forgiven any- 
thing ; instead of, for that which I also have forgiven to him whom. 
I have forgiven, (it is on your account I have forgiven it.) 

Ch. iii. 1. Oran. or of a recommendation (from you.) Syriac, or 
that you should write and recommend us. 3. in tables [which 
are] hearts of flesh, for, in tables of the heart, of flesh. 

Ch. iv. 4. (might not shine) omn. upon them. 6. M. who 
said, Light shall shine, for, who commanded the light to shine (out 
of darkness.) 14. M. Jesus, for, our Lord Jesus. with, for, by 
means of (Jesus.) 16. our, for, the (inner man.) 

Ch. V. 17, 18. behold [things] have become new. And all things 
[are] of God ; instead of, and all things have been made new by 
God. 21. Omn. For. 

Ch. vi. 15. M. Beliar, Syriac, Satan. 16, we, for, ye (are.) 

Ch. vii. 8. M. omn. for. 12. but that your earnest care for 
us might be made manifest to you; instead of, but that your earnest 
care on account of us, might be made known before God. 

Ch. viii. 4. respecting [their] free gift, and [their] sharing in ; 
for, that they might have part in the free gift of (service to the 
saints.) 19. (for the glory) of the Lord, for, of God himself, 
(and [to show] our goodwill.) 

Ch. ix. 4. (lest we be put to shame) by this confidence ; for, by 
that glorying with which we have gloried. 5. (your bounty) 
before promised, for, of which ye have been reminded beforehand. 

Ch. X. 8. (which the Lord has given) omn. to us ; Syriac, to me. 
13. as a measure to reach, for, that we should come (even as far as 
to you.) 

Ch. xi. 1. (you would bear with me) in a little foolishness, 
instead of, a little, that I might speak foolishly. 3. Omn. so 
(your minds.) 3. (from [their] simplicity, adn. and [their] 
purity. 4. ye do well to bear with [him], for, ye would rightly 
obey him. 6. we have made [it] manifest, for, we have been 
made manifest. 31. of the Lord Jesus, for, of our Lord Jesus, 
the Anointed. 

Ch. xii. 7. Adn. because (that I might not.) 9. Omn. my 
(strength.) 11. Omn. in my glorying. 14. (I will not burden) 
omn. you. 15. If I love you very much, am I loved the less r* 
for, even if, while I love you very much, ye love me the less. 19. 
ye, from of old, suppose that we ; for, do ye again suppose that we 
(are excusing ourselves to you ?) 

Ch. xiii. 2. (now while absent) omn. I write. 4. For, instead of. 
For though (he was crucified in weakness.) 4. (but) we shall 
live, for, we live (with him by the power of God which is in you.) 
7. (And) we, for, I (pray.) 14. Omn. Amen. 

Galatians i. 3. M. our Father, and the Lord, for, the Father, 
and our Lord. 8. (other good tidings) M. omn. to you, 10. 
If, instead of, For if (I still pleased men.) 



CONDEMNED READINGS. — GAL, — EPH.— PHILIP. CV. 

Ch. ii. 16. But knowing, for, because we know. 

Ch. iii. 17. Omn. in the Anointed. 29. Omn. and (inheritors.) 

Ch. iv. 6. into our, for, into your (hearts.) 7. (an heir) by- 
means of God, for, an heir of God, by means of Jesus the Anointed. 
14. the fcrial of you, for, the (trial which was in my flesh.) 25. 
M. And Sinai is a mountain in Arabia, instead of, for Hagar is 
mount Sinai, which is in Arabia. 28. M. ye, for, we (are children 
of promise.) 

Ch. V. 1. With freedom the Anointed has set ua free. Stand there- 
fore ; instead of, stand therefore in the freedom with which the 
Anointed has made us free. 17. for, instead of, and (these are 
opposed.) 21. Omn. murders. respecting which I forewarn 
you, as I have forewarned you ; for, as I have said to you before, I 
also say now. 24. (those who are of) the Anointed, Jesus ; for, 
of the Anointed. 

Ch. vi. 17. (the marks) of Jesus, for, of our Lord Jesus the 
Anointed. 

Ephesians i. 1. M. Omn. in Ephesus. 10. (things) upon, 

for, in (the heavens.) 15. Omn. your love (toward all the holy 
ones.) 16. Omn. of you (in my prayers.) 

Ch. ii. 5. (has raised us to life with), M. [and] in, (the Anointed.) 
21. (Eevised Version), each several building, for, all the building. 

Ch. iii. 6. (and be fellow-sharers of the promise) in the Anointed, 
Jesus, for, which has been given in him. 8. (to tell the good 
tidings) to, instead of, among (the Gentiles.) 9. M. to bring to 
light, for, to make all men see. 14. Omn. of our Lord Jesus 
the Anointed. 21. (to him be glory in the assembly,) and in, 
for, by (Jesus, the Anointed.) 

Ch. iv. 6. in all, for, in us all. 9. (he descended) omn. first. 
17. as the Gentiles, for, as the rest of the Gentiles. 24. M. (and 
that ye put on the new man) who is after God, for, who has been 
created by God. 

Ch. V. 2. (the Anointed loved) you, for, us. M. (and gave 
himself up on behalf of) you, for, us. 5. ye, knowing, know, 
for, ye know. 22. (ye wives) omn. submit yourselves. 27. 
^that he might present) omn. it, Syriac, the assembly. 30. Omn. 
(members) of his flesh and of his bones. 

Ch. vi. 10. Omn. my brothers. 12. of this darkness, for, of 
the darkness of this world. Syriac, of this dark world. 

Philippians i. 11. fruit, for, fruits. 22. M. But if to live in 
the flesh [be my lot], this is the fruit of my work ; and what shall 
I choose ? instead of. But if also, in this life of flesh, I have fruits 
of my labours, I know not what I shall choose for myself. 

Ch. ii. 2. of the same, for, of one (mind.) 

Ch. iii. 3. who worship by the Spirit of God, for, who worship 
God by the Spirit, or in spirit. 12. M. that I may seize, seeing 
that I also have been seized ; for, that I may seize that [prize] 



Cvi. COia)EMNED READINGS.— PHILIP.— COL. — 1, 2 TIIES. 

because of which I have been seized by (Jesus the Anointed.) 13. 
I do not yet, for, I do not (count myself.) 16. let us walk by the 
same [rule], for, let us go on to completion in one course, (and with 
one consent.) 21. Omn. that it may be made (like his glorious 
body.) 

Ch. iv. 3. yes, I also, for, I also (intreat thee.) 13. by him, 
for, by the Anointed, (who gives strength to me.) 23. (The 
merciful favour) of the Lord, for, of our Lord. (be with) your 
spirit, for, you all. Omn. Amen. 

CoLOSSiANS i. 7. (on behalf) of us, for, of you. 28. in the 
Anointed, for, in Jesus the Anointed. 

Ch. ii. 2. The M. of the R. E. Version says that the Greek copies 
" vary much " in the latter part of this verse. Its text has, — (unto 
all riches of the full assurance) of understanding, that they may 
know the mystery of God, [even] Christ, in whom. The Syriac 
means,— and to the understanding of the knowledge of the 
[revealed] secret of God the Father, and [to the understanding] of 
the Anointed, in whom. 7. abounding in thanksgiving, for, 
abounding in it, (faith), with thanksgiving. 11. (by putting off) 
the body of the flesh ; Syriac, the flesh of sins. 18. (searching 
into things which) he has seen, for, he has not seen. 

Ch. iii. 4. M. your, for, our (life.) 5. Omn. your (members.) 
6. M. Omn. upon the sons of disobedience. 13. The Lord, for, 
the Anointed (has forgiven you.) 16. M. (the word of) the Lord, 
or God, for, the Anointed. 20. in, for, before (our Lord.) 

Ch. iv. 8. that ye may know our affairs, for, that he may know 
your affairs. 12. of the Anointed, Jesus, for, of the Anointed, 
and fully assured, for, and completed. 13. much toil, for, much 
zeal. 15. (the assembly) in their, M. her, for his (house.) 18. 
Omn. Amen. 

1 Thessalonians i. 2. (making mention) omn. of you. 5. to 
you, for, among you. ii. 7. M. babes, instead of, gentle. 
15. the prophets, for, their own prophets. iii. 2. (Timothy, our 
brother), and, M. God's fellow-worker, for, the servant of God, 
and our helper. on behalf of, for, concerning (your trust.) 11 
and 13. Omn. the Anointed, twice. iv, 1. Adn. as also ye do 
walk. 8. (God) gives, for, has given (his Holy Spirit.) 13. 
We, for, I (wish.) v. 4. M. as thieves, for, as a thief. 27. 
Omn. (the) holy (brothers.) 28. Omn. Amen. 

2 Thessalonians i. 2. Omn. our (Father.) 8. Omn. the 
Anointed. 10. (in all) who have trusted, Syriac, his faithful. 
12. Omn. the Anointed. ii. 3. M. (the man) of lawlessness, for, 
of sin. 4. Omn. as God. 8. will take away, for, will con- 
sume. 11. sends, for, will send. 13. M. (God has chosen 
you) as a first-fruit, instead of, from the beginning. iii. 4. (the 
things which we command) omn. you. 6. (the delivered command 



COXDEMNED READINGS. CVll. 

2 THESS., — 1, 2 TIM., — TITUS, — PHILE., — HEBREWS. 

which) Text, they; M. ye ; Syriac, he (received from us.) 12. (we 
coriamand) by the, for, our (Lord Jesus the Anointed.) 18. Omn. 
Amen. 

1 Timothy i. 2. the, for, our (Father.) 4. (rather than) 
the steward-ship, for, the building up, (Syriac, of trust in God.) 
12. M. who strengthens, for, has strengthened (me.) ii. 3. 
Omn. For (this.) 9. So, for, So also. iv. 10. we strive, for, 
we suffer reproach. v. 16. Omn. (If any) trusting brother or. 
21. of the Anointed Jesus, for, of our Lord Jesus the Anointed. 
vi. o. in Syriac, ver. 6. Omn. from such withdraw thyself; Syriac, 
but thou go far from these. 7. Omn. it is evident ; Syriac, it 
is known. 17. but on God, instead of, on the living God. 21. 
with you, (plural), for, with thee. Omn. Amen. 

2 Timothy i. 3, 4. night and day longing to see thee, for, in 
my prayers by night and by day. 11. a teacher, for, a teacher of 
the Gentiles. ii. 3. suffer evil with [me], for, suffer evil. 14. 
M. (before) God, for, our Lord. 26. E. E. Version, having been 
taken captive by the Lord's servant, (M. by the devil) unto the will 
of God ; Syriac, (may depart from the snare of Satan) who have 
been captured at his will. iii. 14. (of what) persons, for, person. 
16. E. E. Y., Every scripture inspired of God [is] also profitable ; 
Syriac, For every writing which has been written by the Spirit, is 
profitable (for teaching, etc.) iv. 1. the Anointed, Jesus, for, 
our Lord Jesus the Anointed. and by his appearing and his 
kingdom, for, Syriac, at the revealing of His kingdom. 22. The 
Lord, for, our Lord Jesus the Anointed. Omn. Amen. 

Titus i. 4. from the Anointed Jesus, for, from our Lord Jesus 
the Anointed. ii. 11. which saves, Syriac, which saves all, (has 
been revealed to all men.) iii. 15. Omn. Amen. 

Philemon 2. to Apphia, our sister, for, our beloved. 5. M. 
(hearing) of thy love and trust which thou hast in the Lord 
Jesus, and in all the holy ones ; for, Syriac, of thy trust, and of 
the love thou hast for our Lord Jesus, and for all the holy ones. 
6. M. (in the knowledge of) every good thing which is in us unto 
the Anointed, for, Syriac, of all the good things which ye have in 
Jesus the Anointed. 7. I had, for, we have (great joy.) 12. 
whom, himself I have sent back to thee ; for, Syriac, I have sent 
him to thee ; and do thou so receive him (as my own son.) 25. 
M. of the Lord, for, of our Lord. M. Omn. Amen. 

Hebrews i. 2. at the end of these days, for, in these last days. 
3. Omn. by himself, of sins. The Maronite, Lee's, and the Ooroo- 
miah editions have, our sins. Walton, Gutbier, and Schaaf, have 
not, our. 6. And when he again brings in, for, And again, when 
he brings in. 8. M. Aleph and B, " the two oldest Greek manu- 



CVlll. CONDEMNED READINGS. — HEBREWS,— JAMES. 

scripts read, his," instead of, thy (kingdom.) 12. (as a mantle 
shalt thou roll them up) adn. as a garment. 

Ch. ii. 7. M. Omn. Thou didst set him over the works of thy 
hands. 

Ch. iii. 1. Jesus, for, Jesus the Anointed. 9. (tested) omn. 
me. by proving, for, put [me] to proof. 10. this, for, that 
(generation.) 

Ch, iv. 2. (because those who heard) were not united by trust 
with those who heard ; for, because it [the word] was not united 
with trust in those who heard it. 

Ch. V. 4. but [takes it] when called, for, but he who is called. 

Ch. vii. 14. (concerning) priests, instead of, priesthood. 17. 
It is testified, for, he testiiies. 21. Omn. after the order of 
Melchizedec. 22. (by so much) adn. also. 

Ch. viii. 4. (because there are) omn. priests. 5. thou shalt 
make, for, that thou make. 11. (from the least) omn. of them. 

Ch. ix. 17. not a question; while that which makes it lives. 

Ch. X. 9. Omn. God. 16. mind, for, minds, 34. Omn. 
in heaven. 38. my, for, the (righteous man.) 

Ch. xi. 3. what is seen, for, the things seen. 4. M. " The Greek 
text in this clause is somewhat uncertain." Syriac, and God bore 
witness respecting his gift-offering. 8. to a place, Syriac, to that 
place. 11. Omn. she gave birth. 20. Adn. even (concerning 
things to come.) 

Ch. xii. 7. It is with view to chastening that ye endure, for, 
Syriac, patiently bear chastening, because, (as with sons, etc.) 
15. the many, for, many (be defiled.) 24. than Abel, for, than 
that of Abel. 

Ch. xiii. 18. we are persuaded, for, we trust. 21. (in every 
good) thing, for, work. 

James i. 12. Omn. Syriac, God (has promised.) 19. Ye know, 
for. And ye, (my beloved brothers.) 

Ch. ii. 1. The M. makes the verse a question. It is an exhort- 
ation, in the Syriac. 3. (And say) omn. to him. (or sit) 
omn. here. 5. (the poor) in, for, of (the world.) 18. 
Omn. my (trust.) 20. (trust without works is) fruitless, for, 
dead. 

Ch. iii. 3. But if, instead of. For, behold. 5. (Behold, how 

lar^e a wood,) how large, for, a little (fire sets ablaze.) 6. The 
E. B. V. gives in its text and margin, three different Greek readings 
of this verse. Dr. Murdock translates the Syriac thus : — Now the 
tongue is a fire, and the world of sin is like a forest. And this 
tongue, which is one among our members, marreth our whole body; 
and it inflames the series of our generations, which roll on like a 
wheel ; and it is itself on fire. 8. a restless, for, an uncontroll- 
able (evil.) 

Ch. iv. 4. Ye adulteresses, for, ye adulterers. 5. (that the spirit 



CONDEMNED READINGS. — JAMES, — 1 PETER, — 1 JOHN. cix. 

whicli) he has made to dwell, for, dwells (in us, is prone to envy ?) 
13. a year, for, one year. 14. What is your life ? For ye are a 
vapour ; instead of, For what is our life but a vapour ? 

Ch. V. 5. Omn. as (in a day.) 16. your sins, for, your faults. 
20. M. know ye, for, let him know. 

1 Peter i. 12. for you, instead of, for us (they were setting forth 
those things.) 16. Ye shall be, for, Be ye (holy.) 22. out of 
the heart, for, out of a pure heart. 23. (by means of the living 
word of God, which continues) omn. for ever. 

Ch. ii. 7. (to those who) do not trust, for, do not obey. 21. 
(the Anointed suffered on behalf of) you, for, us ; (and left) you, 
for, us (an example.) 

Ch. iii. 15. Adn. but (with meekness.) 16. ye are spoken 
against, for, they speak against you, as against bad men. 

Ch. iv. 19. to a faithful Creator, instead of, [to him] as to a 
faithful Creator. 

Ch. V. 2. M. Omn. exercising the oversight. Syriac, take the 
care of it spiritually. (willingly) adn. according to God. 8. 
Omn. because (your adversary.) 10. (who has called) you, for, 
us. (by means of) the Anointed, for, Jesus the Anointed. 11. 
(to him) omn. be glory and. 14. Omn. Amen. 

1 John i. 4. (we write) omn. to you. 

Ch. ii. 20. M. and ye all know, for, and ye know every man. 
25. M. (which he has promised) you, for, us. 28. that if, for, 
that when (he shall be revealed.) 

Ch. iii. 2. we know that if, for, but we know that when. 5. 
(to take) sins, for, our sins. 13. brothers, for, my brothers. 14. 
(that loveth not) omn. his brother. 16. (the love) omn. of God. 
Syriac, his love for us. 18. Little children, for, my little children. 
19. By this we shall know, for, And by this we know. 19, 20. 
shall assure our heart before him, whereinsoever our heart may 
condemn us ; for, shall assure our heart. And if our heart con- 
demns us, etc. 21. (if) the, for, our (heart.) 

Ch. iv. 3. M. who denies, for, who does not confess. Jesus, for, 
that Jesus the Anointed has come in the flesh. 16. not in Syriac, 
and God continues in him. 19. (Let us love) omn. him. Syriac, 
let us love God. 20. cannot love God, for, how can he love God 
(who is not seen) ? 

Ch. V. 9. (this is the witness borne by God) because, for, which 
(he has borne.) 10. (has the witness) in him, for, in himself. 
18. (keeps) him, for, himself. 

Some of the above changes, all of which are the result of a 
selection from the multitude of Greek readings, of those which the 
Eevisers themselves thought most likely to be correct, impair or 
ALTER God's testimony on points of great importance. It 
may be acceptable to the reader, if a few passages be named which. 



ex. CONDEMNED READINGS. — TITEIE, IMPORTANCE. 

will be found, on examination, to do this. It will be sufficient to 
name tbem, the nature of the change, and whether made in the 
text, or in the ma.rgin, being shown in the above list. 

A.— The Angels' song, Luke ii. 14. The appearing of Jesus 
after his resurrection, Luke xxiv. 36, 40, 42. The ascension of 
Jesus to heaven, Mark xvi. 19 ; Luke xxiv. 51. Atonement; no 
attempt is made to show that Jesus made the real atonement which 
was made in shadow by the old sacrifices. See also Luke xxii. 19, 
20 ; John vi. 51 ; Hebrews i. 3. 

B.— Baptism, Matt. xx. 22, 23 ; Mark vii. 4, 8 ; xvi. 16. The 
bloody sweat of the Eedeemer, and the visit of the angel in Geth- 
semane, Luke xxii. 43, 44. 

C. — Christians, as members of the flesh and bones of Jesus, Eph. 
V. 30. The chosen of God, Matt. xx. 16 ; Luke xvii. 36 ; given 
to Jesus, John xvii. 11, 12, 24 ; from the beginning, 2 Thess. ii. 
13. The Covenant, the New, Matt. xxvi. 28 ; Mark xiv. 24 ; 
Luke xxii. 20. The Cross, the first words of Jesus when nailed 
to it, Luke xxiii. 34. The inscription on it, Luke xxiii. 38. 

D. — The Deity of the Eedeemer.— Substitution of, a thing, for, 
One greater than the temple. Matt. xii. 6. Worship paid him, 
Matt, xxviii. 1*7 ; Mark i. 40 ; Luke xxiv. 52. The Son of God, 
Mark i. 1. The Word called a begotten God, John i. 18. Who 
is in heaven, John iii. 13. Is above all, John iii. 31. Stopping 
so arranged as to destroy express testimony, Eom. ix. 5. The 
Divine Sonship of Jesus as man : passages in which he is called 
the Son of God, or God is called his Father, altered, John iii. 17 ; 
vi. 65, 69 ; viii. 28, 38 ; ix. 35 ; x. 29, 32 ; xiv. 12, 28 ; xvi. 10 ; 
xvii. 1 ; XX. 17. Destroy ; Christ came not to destroy men, 
Luke ix. 54—56. Divorce, Matt. xix. 9. 

F.— Fasting, Matt. xvii. 21 ; Mark ix. 29 ; Acts x. 30 ; 1 Cor. vii. 
5. Forgiveness, Mark xi. 26. Fore-knowledge of God. Acts 
XV. 18. Future state of those who perish, Matt. xxi. 44 ; Mark 
iii. 29 ; ix. 44, 46. 

G.— Gift of God's chosen to Christ, John xvii. 11, 12, 24. 

H. — House on rock, said to be well built instead, Luke vi. 48. 
Hypocrisy, Matt, xxiii. 14 ; Luke xi. 44. 

J.— Justification. Being declared just, let us have peace, Eom. 
V. 1. Eom. xi. 6 ; Heb. x. 38. 

L.— The Lord's prayer, in Matt. vi. 13 ; in Luke xi. 2, 4. The 
Lord's Supper, Luke xxii. 19, 20 ; 1 Cor. xi. 24—29. 

M.— Man's state of ruin. Matt, xviii. 11. Mark, the last 12 
verses treated as doubtful. Mary, the mother of Jesus, blest, 
Luke i. 28. 

P.— Pierced with a spear, the body of Jesus said to have been 
while he was still living, Matt, xxvii. 49. 

E.— Eesurrection of Christ, evidence of it in Mark questioned, 
Mark xvi. 9—14. Omissions in Luke xxiv. 6, 9, 12. The 



APPROVED READINGS. — MATTHEW. CXI. 

resurrection of Christians, 1 Cor. xv. oi, 55. Eiches, those who 
trust in them, Mark x. 24. 

S. — The sun said to have been eclipsed when Christ was crucified, 
though the moon was full, and an eclipse impossible, Luke xxiii. 
45. Separation from men of corrupt mind, 1 Tim. 6. 5. 

APPROVED READI:N^GS. — MATTHEW. 

XIY. The Peshito-Syriac Text is m agreement with the 

FOLLOWING CHANGES, WHICH IN THE EeVISED ENGLISH YeRSION 
OE 1881 WERE FOUNDED ON DEVIATIONS FROM THE EeCEIVED 

Greek Text. 

Matthew i. 6. (And David) omit, the king. ii. 18. Omit, 
lamentation and. iii. 6. Add, the river (Jordan.) v. 27. Omit, 
to those of old time. vi. 12. (as we also) have forgiven, for, for- 
give. 18. Omit, openly. 34. Omit, the things (of itself.) 
vii. 2. Omit, again. 14, M. How, instead of, Por (narrow.) 
24. shall be compared, for, I will compare him. 29. their, for, 
the scribes. viii. 8. (say) by a word. 28. Gadarenes, for, 
Gergesenes. 32. into the swine, and all the herd. ix. 4. 
knowing, for, seeing (their thoughts.) 8. feared, for, marvelled. 
13. Omit, to repentance. 35. Omit, among the people. x. 3. 
(Simon) the Zealous, for, the Canaanite. 10. staff, for, staves. 
xi. 2. by means of, for, two. 19. (by her) works, for, children, 
xii. 8. Omit, even (of the Sabbath.) 35. Omit, of the heart. 

Oh. xiv. 6. (Herod's birthday) came, for, was kept. 12. corpse, 
for, body. 24. M. (was) many furlongs away from the land, 
instead of, in the midst of the sea. 25. (Jesus) came, for, went. 
32. (had) gone up into, for, entered (the ship.) 

Ch. XV. 4. Omit, commanded and. 6. the word, for, the 

command (of God.) 8. Omit, draw near to me with their mouth, 
and. 17. (Do ye) not, for, not yet (understand) ? 22. (called 
out) omit, to him. 36. (to the) multitudes, for, multitude. 
39. Magadan, Syriac, Magodu, for, Magdala. 

Ch. xvi. 26. will be, for, is (a man profited ?) xviii. 8. (cut) 
it, for, them (off.) xix. 3. (saying) omit, to him. 25. the, for, 
his disciples. 

Ch. xxi. 7. he sat, for, they set him. 9. (went before) add, 
him. 28, (in) the, for, my (vineyard.) 

Ch. xxii. 13. Omit, take him away, and. 23. (Sadducees), aud 
said, for, who say. 32. He, for, God (is not God of the dead.) 
35. Omit, and saying. 44. under, instead of, for the footstool 
of (thy feet.) 

Ch. xxiii. 4. M. Omit, grievous to be borne. 7. Omit, Eabbi, 
once. 8. (One is your) Chief. Omit, the Anointed. 

Ch. xxiv. 18, garment, for, garments. 27. Omit, also. 3L 



Cxn. APPROVED READINGS.— MATTHEW,— MARK. 

M. a great trumpet, for, a great sound of a trumpet. 36. the, 
for, my (Father.) 37. Omit, also. 39. Omit, also. 49. 
shall eat and drink, for, (shall begin) to. 

Ch. XXV. 13. Omit, in which the Son of man comes. 17. Omit, 
he also. 44. (answer) omit, him. 

Ch. xxvi. 9. this, for, this ointment. 20. (with his twelve) 
add, disciples. 36. (said to) his (disciples.) 42. Omit, from me. 
53. Put, now, after, give me. 60. Omit the second, they found it 
not. (came two) omit, false witnesses. 

Ch. xxvii. 2. Omit, Pontius. 10. I gave, as in M., for, they 
gave (them.) 22. Omit, to him. 35. Omit, that what was 
spoken by the prophet might be fulfilled, — They parted my gar- 
ments among them, and upon my vesture they cast lots. 

Ch. xxviii. 8. (they went) away from, for, out of, 9. Omit, 
And as they went to tell his disciples. 

Mark i. 2. in the prophet Isaiah, for, in the prophets. Omit, 
before thee. 5. all they of Jerusalem, and were immersed ; for, 
they of Jerusalem, and were all (immersed.) 11. in thee, for, 
in whom (I am well pleased.) 19. Omit, thence. 24. Omit, 
Let us alone. 27. among themselves, for, them. 42. Omit, 
when he had spoken. 

Ch. ii. 2. Omit, immediately. 3. bringing to him, for, bring- 
ing. 17. Omit, to repentance. 20. in that day, for, in those 
days. 22. else the wine, instead of, the new wine. 26. under 
Abiathar, a chief priest ; Syriac, a chief of the priests. 

Ch. iii. 5. Omit, whole as the other. 18. (Simon) the Zealous, 
for, the Canaanite. 34. Syriac, he looked on those who were 
sitting with him ; instead of, he looked round on those who sat 
round about him. 

Ch. iv. 4. Omit, of heaven. 9. (he said) omit, to them. 18. 
(those who) have heard, for, who hear (the word.) 20. Omit, 
some, three times. 

Ch. V. 9. he said to him, for, he answered and said. 11. on 
the mountain, for, on the mountains. 13. Omit, Jesus immedi- 
ately. Omit, they were. 14. (those who fed) them, for, the 
swine. 19. Omit, Jesus. 22. Omit, behold. 36. Omit, 

immediately. 38. they come, for, he comes. 

Ch. vi. 12. made, for, were making (proclamation.) 15. (a 
prophet) as, for, or as (one of the prophets.) 26. (those reclining) 
omit, with him. 27. to bring (the head), instead of, (the head) 
to be brought. 33. (and knew) them, for, him. Omit, and 

came together to him. 44. were, for, were about (five thousand.) 
51. Omit, beyond measure. 55. (that region) omit, round about. 

Ch. vii. 5. And, for. Then. 6. Omit, he answered, and. 8. 
Omit, ye do. 24. a house, for, the house. 25. (Eor), add, 
immediately. 28. Omit, for (even.) 

Ch. viii. 1. Omit, Jesus. 7. (gave thanks) for them. 13, 



APPROVED READINGS. — MARK, — LUKE. CXlll. 

Syriac, omits, again. 14. they, for, the disciples. 21. not yet, 
for, not. 25. (saw) all things, for, all persons. 28. (they) 
said, for, answered. 36. profit a man, for, shall it profit (him.) 

Ch. ix. 12. Omit, answered and. 24. Omit, Lord. 33. they, 
for, he (came.) 38. (John) said, for, answered, saying. Omit, 
who does not (follow us.) Substitute (because he) did not, for, 
does not (follow us.) 41. naming that ye are, for, in my name, 
because ye are (of the Anointed.) 42. a millstone, add, of an 
ass. 45. Omit, into the unquenchable fire. 

Ch. X. 1. to, for, by (beyond Jordan.) 35. (saying) to him. 
62. him, for, Jesus. 

Ch. xi. 10. Omit, in the name of the Lord. 14, Omit, Jesus. 
19. M. They, for, he (went out.) 29. Omit, answered. 33. 
Jesus said, for, answered and said. 

Ch. xii. 2. (of the) fruits, for, fruit. 17. Jesus said, for. And 
Jesus answered, and said. 23. Omit, when they shall rise. 
24. Jesus said, for. And Jesus answered and said. 27. (but) 
omit, God (of the living.) 32. He, for, God (is one.) 43. who 
are casting, for, have cast (into the treasury.) 

Ch. xiii. 2. Omit, answered and. (left) add, here. 5. Omit, 
answered and. 8. the beginning, for, the beginnings. 9. 

shall stand, for, be brought (before rulers.) 15. (go down) omit, 
into the house. 

Ch. xiv. 19. Omit, and another. Is it I ? 20. Omit, answered 
and. 22. Omit, eat ye. 24. (which is shed) on behalf of, for, 
concerning (many.) 31. Omit, the more. 51. Omit, the 
young men. 52. (naked) omit, from them. 72. (And) add, 
immediately. 

Ch. XV. 3. Omit, but he made no answer. 8. Omit, always. 
41. (who) omit, also. 44. M. were already, for, had been long 
(dead.) 

Ch. xvi. 8. Omit, quickly. 19. (the Lord), add, Jesus. 

Luke i. 26. (was sent) from, for, by (God.) 75. all our days, 
for, all the days of our Hfe. 78. shall visit, for, has visited (us.) 

Ch. ii. 2. This enrolment was the first; for, this, the first en- 
rolment, took place (under the government.) 5. (Mary) his 
betrothed, omit, wife. 15. (that the shepherds) omit, the men. 
22. of their, for, of her (purification.) 38. deliverance of, instead 
of, in (Jerusalem.) 42. Omit, to Jerusalem. 

Ch. iv. 1, 2. Join, for forty days, with, led; instead of with, to 
be tempted. 8. Omit, Get thee behind me, Satan, for. 

Ch. V. 15. (to be healed) omit, by him. 36. (no one) add, cuts 
off, . . . and (puts it on.) 

Ch. vi. 1. Omit, the second-first. 5. Omit, also (of the sab- 
bath.) 9. (on the) sabbath, for, sabbaths. 10. (said) to him, 
for, to the man. Omit, whole. 17. add, a great (multitude of 
his disciples.) 38. with that, for, with the same (measure.) 

H 



CXIV. APPHOYED READINGS. — LUKE. 

Ch. vii. 11. Omit, many of (his disciples.) 28. Omit, For. 
31. Omit, And the Lord said. 42. Omit, teU. me. 44. (with 
the hair) omit, of her head. 

Ch. viii. 3. (who served) them, for, him. 9. Omit, saying. 

20. Omit, [by some] who said. 29. he was commanding, for, 
he commanded. 30. Omit, saying. 34. Omit, and went. 
36. (those) omit, also (who saw.) 40. Omit, it came to pass. 47. 
(Declared) omit, to him. 50. (answered) omit, saying. 51. (To 
enter) add, with him. 52. Add, for (she is not dead.) 

Ch. ix. 1. (his twelve) omit, disciples. 3. staff, for, staves. 
50. (against) you, for, us ; (is for) you, for, us. 57. Omit, it came 
to pass. 

Ch. X. 1. Omit, also. 2. And, for, Therefore (he said.) 11. 
(which cleaves to us) add, on our feet. 20. (rejoice) omit, rather. 

21. in the Holy Spirit, for, in spirit. 35. Omit, when he de- 
parted. 39. (at the feet) of the Lord, for, of Jesus. 

Ch. xi. 34. (is) thine eye, for, the eye. 

Ch. xii. 1. M. Beware ye, first ; for, began to say first. 15. (guard 
against) add, all (covetousness.) 22. your, for, the (body.) 23. 
Add, For, (the life.) 

Ch. xiii. 24. door, for, gate. 35. for I say, instead of, and 
verily I say. until, for, till the time come when (ye shall say.) 

Ch. xiv. 5. Omit, answered and. M. (whose) son, for, ass. 10. 
(in the presence,) add, of all (those who.) 34. (but if) add, even 
(the salt.) 

Ch. XV. 17. (I perish) add, here. 

Ch. xvi. 9. (that when) it, the mammon, for, ye (shall fail.) 14. 
(The Pharisees) omit, also. 25. (he is now comforted) add, here. 

Ch. xvii. 1. his, for, the (disciples.) 3. (if thy brother sin) omit, 
against thee. 7. (will say, in Syriac, says immediately) add, to 
him. 18. This verse a question. 

Ch. xviii, 22. (when Jesus heard) omit, these things. Lee retains. 

Ch. xix. 27. (and slay) add, them. 42. Syriac, Oh, if thou 
hadst known those things which are for thy peace, at least in this 
thy day ! 

Ch. XX. 1. (in one of) the, for, those (days.) 3. a, for, one 
question. 24. Omit, answered and. 32. (last) omit, of all. 

34. Omit, answered and. 

Ch. xxi. 19. ye will possess, for, possess ye (your souls or lives.) 
25. from terror at the roaring of the sea; for, with perplexity, the 
sea roaring. 

Ch. xxii. 3. (Judas) called, for, surnamed (Iscariot.) 16. (eat) it, 
for, of it. 36. Omit, therefore. 57. he denied [it], for, him. 
70. M. ye say [the truth], because I am ; for, ye say that I am. 

Ch. xxiii. 2. (turning aside) add, our (nation.) and (saying.) 
20. (Pilate spoke) add, to them. 35. (the rulers) omit, with them. 
46. I commit, for, I will commit. 51. (who) omit, also himself 
(was expecting.) 



APPKOVED READINGS.— LUKE, -JOHN. CXV. 

Ch. xxiv. 3. (the body) of Jesus, for, of the Lord Jesus. 5. 
(and bowed their) faces, for, face. 11. these, for, their words. 
21. Omit, to-day. 29. (the day has) add, now, (declined.) 47. 
M. (repentance) for, instead of, and (the pardon of sins.) 

JoiOf i. 19. (when the Jews sent) add, to him. 28. Bethany, for, 
Bethabara. 39. (come and) ye will see, for, see ye. ii. 22. (had 
said this) omit, to them. iii. 25. (with) a Jew, for, the Jews. 
iv. 17. (she said) add, to him. v. 30. (the will of) him, for, the 
Father (who sent me.) vi. 2. the, for, his (signs.) 11. (he 
distributed [these] to) those who were reclining ; for, to the disciples, 
and the disciples to those who were reclining. 24. (they) omit, 
also (went into the boats.) 40. (For this is the will) of my 
Father; for, of him who sent me. 43. (Jesus) omit, therefore. 
63. (the words which I) have spoken, for, speak. 68'. (Peter) 
omit, therefore. 71. Simon Iscariot, for, Judas Iscariot. 

Ch. vii. 33. (Jesus said) omit, to them. 34. (ye will not find) 
add, me. 36. add, me. 39. the Spirit, for, the Holy Spirit. 
M. (was not yet) add, given. 52. rises, for, has risen. 53. 
This verse is not in the Peshito. 

Ch. viii. 1-11. These verses, and vii. 53, though not in the 
Peshito, may have been added by the Apostle, after the gospel 
■was first written. 20. Omit, Jesus. 41, 48, 52. Omit, there- 
fore, thrice. 

Ch. ix. 8. a beggar, for, blind. 9. (others) add, No, but (he 
is like him.) 20. (answered) omit, them. 

Ch. X. 26. because, instead of, for (ye are not.) 38. (and I) 
in the Father ; Syriac, in my Father ; for, in him. 

Ch. xi. 12. (said) add, to him. 29. rose, for, rises (up.) came, 
for, comes. 31. supposing, for, saying. 41. Omit, where the 
dead was laid. 

Ch. xii. i. Omit, who had died. (whom) add, Jesus (had raised 
up.) 4. (Iscariot) omit, [son] of Simon. 47. (and shall not) 
keep, for, believe (them.) 

Ch. xiii. 26. Simon Iscariot, for, Judas Iscariot. 

Ch. xiv. 2. Add, because (I go.) 14. (if ye shall ask) add^ 
me. 16. (that he may) be, for, remain. 28. (because) I go, for, 
I said, I go. 30. (the ruler of) the, for, this (world.) 

Ch. XV. 11. (that my joy may) be, for, remain (in you.) 

Ch. xvi. 3. (they will do) omit, to you. 4. (that when) their, 
for, the (hour shall come.) 27. from the Father, for, from God. 

Ch. xvii. 1. (thy Son) omit, also. 20. (who) trust, for, shall 
trust. 

Ch, xviii. 11. the, for, thy f sword.) 14. (should) die, for, be 

destroyed. 18. (and Peter) add, also. 20. all, for, always 
(the Jews.) 29. (went out) add, to the outside. 31. (The 
Jews) omit, therefore, 37. M. Thou say'st [the truth], (because 
I am a king.) 

Ii2 



CXVl. APPROVED READINGS. — JOHN,— ACTS. 

xix. 11. (answered, in Syriac, said) add, to him. 35. (that ye) 
add, also. 

XX. 16. (she said to him) add, in Hebrew. 19. were, for, were 
assembled. 29. Omit, Thomas. 

xxi. 3. Omit, immediately. 25. Omit, Amen. 

Acts i. 14. (in prayer) omit, and supplication. 

Ch. ii. 1. (were all) together, for, with one mind. 22. (as ye) 
omit, also, 30. Omit, would, as to the flesh, raise up the 
Anointed. 31. that he, instead of, his soul (was not to be left in 
Hades, Syriac, Shiul.) 40. (and exhorted) add, them. 43. (by 
the Apostles) add, in Jerusalem. 

Ch. iii. 7. (raised) add, him. 11. (while) he, for, the lame 
man who had been healed. 20. (who has been) prepared, instead 
of, proclaimed (beforehand.) 21. Omit, all (his.) 22. Omit, 
to the fathers. 26. (his Son) omit, Jesus. 

Ch. iv. 17. Omit, severely (threaten.) 27. (truly) add, in this 
city. 36. Joseph, for, Joses. 

Ch. V. 5. (who heard of) it, instead of, these things. 16. 
(round about), omit, unto (Jerusalem). 18. Omit, their (hands.) 
23. (standing) omit, without. 24. Omit, the [high] priest, and. 
25. Omit, saying. 32. Omit, his (witness-bearers.) Omit, 
also, (the Holy Spirit.) 

Ch. vi. 8. full of [God's] favour, for, of trust. 13. Omit, 
blasphemous. 

Ch. vii. 11. Egypt, for, the land of Egypt. 22. Add, his 
(words and deeds.) 32. Omit, God, before Isaac, and before 
Jacob. 43. of the god Eephan, for, of your god Eemphan. 
48. in places, for, in temples (made with hands.) 

Ch. viii. 12. about the kingdom, for, about the things of the 
kingdom (of God.) 13. Add, great (miracles.) 37. Omit, 
And Philip said. If thou dost trust with thy whole heart, thou 
mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus the 
Anointed, is the Son of God. 

Ch. ix. 5, 6. Omit, it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks. 
And he, trembling and astonished, said, Lord, what dost thou wish 
me to do P and the Lord [said] to him. 6. But (stand up.) 8. 
(He saw) nothing, for, no one. 18. (he received sight) omit, 
forthwith. 19. he, for, Saul. 20. (was making proclamation 
about) Jesus, for, the Anointed. 21. From, and had come, to, 
(the chief) priests, not a question. 26. (And when) he, for, Saul. 
31. (in the) assembly, for, assemblies. 

Ch. X. 6. Omit, he will tell thee what thou must do. 7. (who 
spoke) to him, for, to Cornelius. 11. Omit, coming down to him. 
12. Omit, and wild beasts. 21. Omit, who had been sent from 
Cornelius to him. 23. he arose and, for, Peter (went.) 48. 
(of the Lord) add, Jesus, the Anointed. 

Ch. xi. 13. (send) omit, men. 20. (to the) Greeks, for, Greek- 



APPROVED READtN-GS.— ACTS. CXVU. 

speaking [Jews.] 22. Omit, to go (as far as Antiooh.) 25. 
he, for, Earnabas (went.) 

Ch. xii. 13. he, for, Peter (knocked.) 20. he, for, Herod. 

Ch. xiii. 1. Omit, certain (prophets.) 6. Add, the whole 

(island.) (a certain) add, man. 18. M. he nourished them, 
for, bore their conduct, 19. (he gaye them their land) for an 
inheritance, instead of, by lot. 31. Add, now (his witness- 

bearers.) 42. (And as they went out) Syriac, from them, instead 
of, from the synagogue of the Jews. they, for, the Gentiles 
(besought.) 45. Omit, contradicting, and. 

Ch. xiv. 8. Omit, being (a cripple.) 

Ch. XV. 22. called, for, surnamed (Barsabas.) 34. Omit, But 
it seemed good to Silas to continue there. 36. the, for, our 

(brothers.) 37. wished, for, advised. 

Ch. xvi. 7. the Spirit of Jesus, for, the Spirit. 16. to the 
house of prayer, for, to prayer. 17. (she) was following, for, 
followed. (who announce) to you, for, to us. 

Ch. xvii. 5. (the Jews) omit, who were disobedient. 13. 

(stirring up) add, and disturbing. 14. as far as to the sea, for, 
as if to the sea. 26. [their] ordained, for, fore-ordained (times.) 
27. (to seek) God, for, the Lord. 

Ch. xviii. 5. he was restrained in speech, for, was oppressed in 
spirit. 7. Titus, for, Justus. 15. questions, for, a question. 
19. they came, for, he came, 25. (concerning) Jesus, for, the 
Lord. 

xix. 10. (of the Lord) omit, Jesus. 12. (spirits went out) 
omit, from them. 15. (the evil spirit said) add, to them. 35. 
Omit, goddess. 

Ch. XX. 1. (the disciples) add, and comforted [them.] 7. (when) 
we, for, the disciples (were assembled.) 8. we, for, they (were 
assembled.) 19. Omit, many (tears.) 23. (bears witness) add, to 
me. 24. Omit, with joy. 29. (I know) omit, this. 32. Omit, 
[my] brothers. 

Ch. xxi. 8. (We) omit, who were around Paul. 13. Add, Then 
(Paul.) 20. (glorified) God, for, the Lord. 22. Omit, the 
multitude must come together. 25. Omit, that they are to 

observe no such thing, but only. 26. Join, the next day, with, 
took the men ; not with, was purified. 

Ch. xxii. 9. Omit, and were afraid. 16. (calling on) his name, 
for, the name of the Lord. 26. what art thou, for, take care 
what thou art (going to do.) 27. Art thou ? for, if thou art (a 
Eoman.) 30. Omit, from his bonds. 

Ch. xxiii. 6. (the son) of Pharisees, for, of a Pharisee. 9. some 
scribes, for, the scribes. 11. (Take courage) omit, Paul. 15. 
Omit, to-morrow. 34. (When) he, for, the Governor. 

Ch. xxiv. 13. (nor can they prove) add, to thee. 20. what, for, 



CXVIU. APPEOVED READINGS. — ACTS. — ROMANS. 

if any (wrong- doing.) 21. (judged) before, for, by (you.) 23. 
Omit, or to come (to him.) 26. Omit, to set him free. 

Ch. XXV. 2. (the chief) priests, for, priest. 6. not more than 
eight or ten, for, more than ten (days.) 7. (stood round) add, 
him. 18. (no accusation) add, of evil things, Syriac, no evil 
accusation. 20. (as to inquiry aboutj these things, for, this. 

Ch. xxvi. 4. Add, and (in Jerusalem.) 6. (made to) our, for, 
the (fathers.) 12. (and commission) of, for, from (the chief 
priests.) 14. saying to me, for, speaking to me and saying. 
15. the Lord, for, he (said.) 17. Omit, now (I send thee.) 18. 
that they may turn, for, to turn [them.] 25. Add, Paul (said.) 
SO. Omit, And when he had said these things. 

Ch. xxvii. 2. (a ship) which was, for, we were (about to sail.) 
12. (thence) omit, also. 34. (not a hair shall) perish, for, fall. 

Ch. xxviii. 1. We, for, they (learned.) 16. we entered, for, came 
to (Rome.) Omit, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the 
Chief of the army ; but. 25. your, for, our (fathers.) 29. 
Omit, And when he had said these things, the Jews went away, 
and had much reasoning among themselves. 

EoMANS Ch. i. 16. Omit, of the Anointed. 24. Omit, also, 
ii. 17. But if, for. Behold. iii. 2. First, instead of. For first. 
iv. 19. (not weakened in trust) he considered, for, he did not 
consider (his body.) Omit, now. vi. 12. ([causing] you to 
obey) the lusts of it, for, it, in the lusts of it. vii. 6. We have 
died to that, for, that has died (by which we were held.) 

Ch. viii. 1. Omit, but according to the Spirit. 11. (he who 
raised up our Lord) Jesus the Anointed, for, the Anointed. M. 
because his Spirit, for, by means of his Spirit, who (dwells in you.^ 

20, and 21. upon hope that, for, upon hope ; because (the creation.) 
26. our weakness, for, our weaknesses. 28. God works all things 
together ; for, all things work together ; Syriac, God helps in 
everything (for good to those who.) 34. (Who) shall condemn, 
for, condemns ? Syriac, who is to condemn ? 

Ch. ix. 28. Omit, in righteousness ; for a purpose of cutting 
short (will the Lord execute). 33. he, for, everyone (who trusts.) 

Ch. X. 1. (on behalf of) them, for, Israel. 

Ch. xi. 13. But, instead of. For. 21. neither wiU he spare ; 
Syriac, perhaps also he will not spare (thee) ; for, [beware] lest he 
also spare not thee. 

Ch. xiii. 3. a terror to, for, the terror of (good works.) 9. 
Omit, thou shalt not bear false witness. 

Ch. xiv. 4. the Lord, in Syriac, his Lord, instead of, God (is able.) 

21. is made to stumble, for, he trips, or is made stumble, or be- 
comes weak. 22. The trust which thou hast, for, hast thou trust ? 

Ch. XV. 4. (were) written, instead of, fore- written (for our in- 
struction.) 7. (has received) you, for, us. 15. from, for, by 
(God.) 



APPROVED READINGS.— R0"MAKS,—1, 2 COEINTHIANS. Cxix. 

Ch. xvi. 6. (laboured mucli) for you ; in Syriac, among you ; 
instead of, us. 16. Add, all (the assemblies.) 20. Omit, Amen. 
22. have written the letter by the Lord, for, salute you in the 
Lord. 

1 Corinthians i, 22. signs, for, a sign. 23. to the Gentiles ; 
in Syriac, to the Syrians ; for, to the Greeks. 

Ch. ii. 1. the secret, for, the testimony (of God.) 4. Omit, of 
man's (wisdom.) 13. Omit, Holy (Spirit.) 

Ch. iii. 14. shall remain, for, remains. iv. 2. Add, Here 

(moreover.) v. 3. Omit, as (absent.) 7. Omit, therefore 
(purge out.) 12. Omit, also. vi. 2. Add, Or, (know ye not.) 
11. (of the Lord Jesus) add, the Anointed. 

Ch. vii. 13. (let her not leave) her husband, for, him. 17. (as) 
the Lord, for, God (has imparted.) (as) God, for, the Lord (has 
called.) 29. M. that the time henceforth is shortened; for, the 
time is shortened, that henceforth. 38. (he who gives in mar- 
riage) add, his virgin daughter. 

Ch. viii. 11. The verse not a question. (thy weak brother) is 
perishing, for, shall perish. 

Ch. ix. 1. Put, free, and apostle, each in the other's place. 10. 
[should thresh] in hope of partaking ; for, in hope, should be 
partaker of his hope. 

Ch. X. 10. Omit, also (some). 17. M. Because, in Syriac, as, 
there is one loaf, we, who are many, are one body. 28. Omit, 
for the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof. 

Ch. xi. 22. M. Shall I praise you ? In this I praise you not. 
32. M. when we are judged by the Lord, for, when we are judged, 
(we are chastened) by the Lord. 

Ch. xii. 12. (of the) omit, one (body.) 13. (been made to 
drink) one Spirit, for, into one Spirit. 

Ch. xiv. 16. (if thou) dost, for, shalt (bless.) 18. I thank God, 
for, my God. 25. Omit, thus. 40. Add, But (let all things.) 

Ch. XV. 6. (but some) omit, also. 31. Add, my brothers. 

Ch. xvi. 3. M. I will send with letters ; in Syriac, a letter ; for, 
ye shall approve by letters. 7. For, in room of, But. 

2. Corinthians i. 8. concerning, for, on behalf of (our affliction.) 
13. Omit, even (to the end.) "l4. Add, our (Lord Jesus the 
Anointed.) 

Ch. ii. 5. he has not grieved me [only], but, in some degree, all 
of you. 7. M. omit, rather. 

Ch. iii. 14. M. and it is not revealed [to them] that it is done 
away in the Anointed ; for, remains untaken away : which is done 
away in the Anointed. 17. Omit, there (liberty is.) 

Ch. iv. 10. Omit, the Lord. v. 5. Omit, also. 12. Omit, 
For. 14. that one, for, that if one (died.) 18. Omit, Jesus, 
vi. 14. or, for, and (what in common has light with darkness ?) 

Ch. vii. 13. (we have been comforted ;) add, and (in addition to) 



CXX. APPROVED READLNGS.— 2 COR.— GAL. — EPH.— PHILIP. 

our, for, your (comfort, we have rejoiced the more exceedingly.) 
16. Omit, therefore. 

Ch. viii. 1. M. in our love for you, instead of, in youi* love for 
us. 19. and [to show] our, for, your (readiness.) 21. Add, 
Por, (we provide.) 24. M. (and of our glorying) to them, 
instead of, (show ye) to them. 

Ch. ix. 10. he will, or, may he (give [to you],... and increase your 
seed, and make great the fruits of your gifts.) 

Ch. X. 7. (so also are we) omit, of the Anointed. 

Ch. xi. 32. Omit, wishing (to take me.) 

Ch. xii. 1. I ought to glory, but it is not of advantage [to me] ; 
for, It is not of advantage to me to glory ; (for I will come.) 5. 
on behalf of such a thing; Syriac, this thing; (I will glory.) 
(except in) omit, my (weaknesses.) 14. Add, this (third time.) 
20. Strife, envying, for, strifes, envyings. 

Ch. xiii. 4. M. (we are weak) with, for, in (him.) (but we) 
Syriac, live, for, shall live. 

Galatians i. 18. Cephas, for, Peter. also in ii. 11, and 14. 
ii. 14. How is it ? for, Why ? 20. M. and no longer do I live ; 
for, nevertheless I live, yet not I. iii. 1. Omit, not to obey the 
truth. Omit, among you. 12. he, for, the man (who does 
them.) iv. 15. Where then is, for, what then was. 26. our 
mother, for, the mother of us all. v. 19. Omit, adultery. 20. 
strife, for, strifes. vi. 15. For neither is circumcision anything; 
instead of. For in the Anointed, Jesus, neither circumcision avails 
anything, (nor un circumcision.) 

EPHESiAJfS i. 4, 5. M. having beforehand, in his love, designed 
lis ; for, (before him) in love ; having beforehand designed us (for 
himself.) 6. which he has given us, for, with which he has 
favoured us. 18. the eyes of your heart ; Syriac, hearts, for, of 
your understanding. ii. 1. (dead in) add, your. iii. 3. has 
been, for, he (made known to me.) 7. I have been made, for, 
was made (a servant.) 9. (what is) the stewardship, for, the 
fellowship (of the secret.) (who has created all things) omit, by 
means of Jesus the Anointed. iv. 32. M. (has forgiven) us, for, 
you. V. 9. (the fruit of light, for, of the Spirit. 21. Syriac, 
m the love of the Anointed, for, in the fear of God. 29. (as) 
the Anointed, for, the Lord (does the assembly.) vi. 19. boldly 
make known, for, boldly open my mouth. 

Philippl^ns i. 14. (to speak the word) add, of God. 16. Syriac, 
some from good- will and love, for, from love (proclaim the Anointed, 
knowing.) 17. But those who proclaim the Anointed in strife, 
do it, not sincerely, but think to add affliction to my bonds. 28. 
of your salvation, for, to you of salvation. ii. 5. have this mind, 
for, let this mind be (in you.) 12. Omit, as. 26. M. add, to 
see (you all.) iii. 11. from among, for, of (the dead.) 



apphoved readings. cxxi. 

COL. — 1, 2 TIIES. —1, 2 TIM. — TITUSj— PniLE., — HEB. 

CoLOSSiANS i. 2. Omit, and from the Lord Jesus the Anointed. 

3. to God the Father, for, to the God and Father. 6. (the world) ; 
add, and increases, (and bears fruit.) 7. Omit, also. 14. 
(redemption) omit, by means of his blood. 24. in those sufferings 
which are, for, in my sufferings. ii. 1. on behalf of, for, con- 
cerning you. 13. (having forgiven) us, for, you. 15. M. 
(having put off) the Syriac adds, his body ; he made a show of 
principalities and powers. 18. The Syriac seems to mean : — Let 
no one desire, by humiliation of mind, to your condemnation, that 
ye should subject yourselves to the worship of angels. iii. 15. 
(Let the peace) of the Anointed, for, of God. 16. (singing) in 
your hearts to God, for, in your heart to the Lord. 17. to God 
the Father, for, to God and the Father. 22. (fearing) the Lord, 
for, God. 

1 Thessalonians i. 1. Omit, from God our Father, and the 
Lord Jesus the Anointed. 4. my brothers, beloved by God ; for, 
my beloved brothers, (your being chosen) by God. 7. an example, 
for, examples. ii. 12. M. has called, for, is calling (you) 19. 
Omit, the Anointed. iv. 8. to you, for, to us. 11. your hands, 
for, your own hands. v. 3. Omit, For. 5. Add, For (all ye.) 

2 Thessalonians ii. 2. (the day) of the Lord, for, of the Anointed. 

4. (every) person, for, thing (called God.) 8. the Lord Jesus, 
for, the Lord. 16. God our Father, for, our God and Father. 
17. (and make) them, for you, [firm.] 

1 Timothy i. 1. (and of) omit, the Lord. 17. the only God, 
for, the only wise God. ii. 7. (I speak the truth) omit, in the 
Anointed. iii. 3. Omit, not greedy of base gain. 16. He was 
revealed in flesh. The Syriac has not the name of God, but he, 
cannot mean a human soul, for that would be no mystery ; nor an 
angel, (Heb. i. 13) ; and therefore must mean God. iv. 12. Omit, 
in spirit. 15. (manifest) to all, for, in all things. v. 4. (for 
this is) omit, good and. vi. 12. Omit, also (thou hast been called.) 
19. (may lay hold on) what is really life ; Syriac, true life; for, 
eternal life. 

2 Timothy ii. 12. shall deny, for, deny. 13. Add, for, (he 
cannot.) 19. (the name) of the Lord, for, of the Anointed. iy. 
1. Omit, therefore. 

Titus l 4. Omit, mercy. 

Philemon 4. (I thank my God) always, for, always (making 
mention.) 20. (my bowels) in the Anointed, for, in the Lord. 

Hebrews iii. 16. Two questions. For who were they who . . , 
provoked him ? Were they not all who ... by means of Moses ? 
iv. 7. as it has been before said; Syriac, as it is above written; 
for, as it is said. v. 3. Syriac, on behalf of the people ; on 



CXxii. APPROVED READINGS.— HEBREWS,— JAMES,— 1 PETER. 

behalf of himself; on account of his sins; for, on account of the 
people ; on account of himself; on behalf of sins. vi. 10. (and 
the) love, for, labour of love. vii. 4. (to whom) omit, even, 
viii, 11. fellow -citizen, for, neighbour. 12. Omit, and their law- 
less deeds, (or iniquities.) ix. 10. which are, for, and in (rules 
of the flesh.) 11. M. (of the good things which) Greek, are 
come ; Syriac, he effected ; for, were to come. 14. M. our, for, 
your (conscience.) 28. (So) add, also (the anointed.) x. 1. 
they, for, it (can never.) 8. slain- offerings and gift-offerings, 
for, slain-offering and gift-offering. 11. M. high-priest, for, 
priest. 12. this [priest], for, he. (sat down) for ever, for, 
(offered) for ever. 15. Greek, after having said ; Syriac, who has 
said; for, after having before said. 30. Omit, says the Lord. 
34. on those who were prisoners, for, on [me] in my bonds, 
(knowing) that ye have, for, in yourselves that ye have. xi. 13. 
Omit, and were persuaded of [them.] 26. (the treasures) of, for, 
in (Egypt.) xii. 3. (who were adversaries to) themselves, for, 
him. 18. (come near to) what, for, to the mountain which 
(could be touched.) 20. Omit, or thrust through with a dart. 
22. M. Greek, to tens of thousands of angels in general 
meeting ; Syriac, to the multitudes of tens of thousands of 
angels ; for, to tens of thousands of angels ; to the general 
meeting (and assembly of the first-born.) 26. I will shake, for, 
I shake. 28. (with reverence and) fear, for, godly fear. xiii. 
6. I will not fear ; what shall man do to me ? for, and I will not 
fear what man shall do to me. 9. (Be not) led away, for, led 
about (by.) 15. And, for, Therefore (through him.) 21. 
(working in) us, for, you. 

James i. 26. Omit, among you. ii. 5. of the, for, of this 
(world.) 11. (If thou) dost not, for, shalt not (commit adultery, 
but) dost, for, shalt (kill.) 18. Greek, without works; Syriac, 
which is without works; for, without thy works. 24. Omit, 
therefore. iii. 9. (we bless) the Lord, for, God. 12. Greek, 
nor [can] salt water yield sweet ; Syriac, so also salt water cannot 
be made sweet ; for, so no spring can yield salt and sweet water. 
iv. 12. Greek, [Only] one is the Lawgiver and Judge ; Syriac, For 
there is [but] one who appoints law and judgment ; instead of, 
[Only] one is the Lawgiver. thy neighbour, for, another. v. 
11. Who have patiently endured, for, who patiently endure. 

1 Peter i. 22. Omit, by means of the Spirit. 24. (the glory) 
of it, for, of man. ii. 2. (ye may grow up) add, Greek, unto 
salvation ; Syriac, to life [-bliss]. 25. (ye were) going astray, 
for, (like sheep) which go astray. m. 8. (be) lowly, for, courteous, 
or friendly. 9. for, instead of, knowing that (to [do] this.) 13. 
(if ye be) zealous in, for, imitators of (what is good.) 15. the 



APPROVED RE^VDINGS.— 1 PETER, — 1 JOHN. CXxiii. 

Lord, the Anointed; for, the Lord God. 18. M. died, for, 
suft'eie.l. 2L (immersion saves) you, for, us. iv. 1. (has 
ceased) M. Greek, from sins ; Syriac, from all sins ; for, from sin. 
3. Omit, of life. Greek, omits, for us (to have done) ; the Syriac 
has, that ye (have done.) 8. (love) covers, for, will cover._ 9. 
(without) murmuring, for, murmurings. 14. Omit, on their part 
he is ill-spoken of, but on your part he is glorified. 16. in this 
name, for, on this account. v. 5. (all of you) omit, be subject 
(one to another.) (All of you) clothe yourselves, tightly girt, 
with humility one towards another. 14. in the Anointed, for, in 
the Anointed, Jesus. 

1 John i. 3. (we declare to you) add, also. 4. (that) our, for, 
your (joy.) The Syriac has, that our joy which is in you. 7. (the 
blood of Jesus) omit, the Anointed. ii. 6. Omit, so. 7. My 
beloved, for, [My] brothers. (which ye have heard) omit, 

from the beginning. 13. I have written, for, I write (to you, 
little children.) 24. The Greek omits, therefore; the Syriac has, 
And (ye.) 27. Greek, his (anointing); Syriac, the anointing 
which is from God ; for, the same anointing. continue ye, for, 
ye will continue. 29. (know ye that every one) add, also. iii. 
1. Greek, (that we should be called children of God) add, and [such] 
we are ; Syriac, who has called us sons ; [and] has also made us 
[sons.] iii. 16. his (love), for, (the love) of God, 19. (our) 
heart, for, hearts. v. 2. [when we] do, for, keep (his commands.) 
*7, 8. Omit, in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit ; 
and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness on 
earth. 13. (These things I have written to you) omit, who trust 
in the name of the Son of God. (that ye have eternal life), ye 
who trust ; Syriac, have trusted ; for, and that ye may trust (in the 
name of the Son of God.) 21. Omit, Amen. 

XY. Conclusion. 

These pages have been written with view to present known facts 
and testimonies with sufficient fulness to show the true worth of 
the Peshito -Syriac text of the New Covenant Writings. 

It is submitted,— First, that there is ground for belief that this 
text has been so correctly copied, that it has come down to us 

WITHOUT MATERIAL CHANGE FROM THE EIRST CENTURY. As 

Dr. Scrivener says, " The Syriac was cited by Melito as early as 
A.D. 170," and history leaves " no room to doubt what that version 
was." It was the Peshito. Part of it was left in India in the 
time of the Apostles, and the whole book of the N. C. was received 
there, and in Coordistan, as well as in Mesopotamia, not very long 
after the time of the Apostles. The copies in all those places must 
at that time have been alike, because the copies made from them 
do still, at this time, as Dr. Scrivener says, '* exhibit a text in 



CXXIV. CONCLUSION. 

every important respect the same." (See the previous p. 66.) " Lite- 
rary history can hardly afford a more powerful case than has been 
established for the identity of the version of the Syriac now 
called the Peshito with that used by the Eastern Church, long 
before the great schism had its beginning in the native land of the 
blessed gospel;" that is, long before "the middle of the fifth 
century," when the Syrian Christians were divided *' into three, 
and eventually into yet more, hostile communions." Dr. Scrivener's 
Introduction, 1883, pp. 312, 313. 

An additional testimony, not mentioned in the preceding pages, 
to the pure and unaltered state of the Peshito down to the middle 
of the fifth century, has lately come to my knowledge. It is the 
testimony of Ibas, bishop of Edessa. In a Syriac letter written to 
a Persian before the year a.d. 449, he said,— *' Those Scriptures 
which have been granted [to us] by God, have not suffered 
the least alteration." A copy of this letter is given by the Eev. 
S. G. F. Perry, M.A., in his work, "The Second Synod of 
Ephesus," 1881, p. 111. The Peshito, from its origin, was used at 
Edessa ; so that this testimony has a direct reference to it, as con- 
taining the Scriptures which God had granted them. Ibas was a 
Nestorian, and suffered, for a time, deposition from his bishopric, 
for denying that Mary was " the Mother of God." (Same, pp. 
145-7.) His readiness to suffer rather than assent to an untruth, 
gives weight to his testimony as to the purity of the Peshito down 
to that time. 

Secondly, It is submitted, that so far as the Eevised English 
Yersion oe 1881, WAS based on a newly-eormed Greek Text, 
the preceding comparison of that text with the Text of the Peshito, 
(see these pp. 83-111,) proves it to be in a multitude of cases in- 
correct ; that this incorrectness proves it to be unreliable ; that the 
Eevisers, by following this faulty Greek text, have rejected passages 
of much importance ; that their changes have removed, and their 
suggestions undermined, many divine testimonies ; that some of 
their suggestions tend to sanction errors; that for these reasons their 
work, though it occupied so many persons, for so long a time, is unfit 
for general use ; and is not without danger of doing harm. This 
comparison of their Greek text with that of the Peshito, sustains 
the strong objections made to it by Dr. Scrivener, Dean Burgon, 
and Canon Cook. (See these pp. 61-70.) 

Thirdly. The freedom oe the Peshito from the many 
faulty expressions and meanings of the Greek text of the 
Hevisers, confirms all other proofs of its purity. Those Eevised 
Greek readings which agree with the Peshito, (see Section xiv. pp. 
111-123) have, as a rule, little or no internal evidence against 
them. But among the Eevised Greek readings from which the 
Peshito differs there are some which prove decisively that the 
Greek copies are corrupt from which they are taken. The follow- 



CONCLUSION. CXXV. 

ing brief quotations from Dr. Scrivener's remarks on some of these 
will show the nature of this evidence. Matt, xxvii. 28, clothed, for 
stripped him : — " a palpable impropriety "; p. 480 ; " an impossible 
reading ;" p. 543. Matt, xxvii. 49. The Saviour pierced before his 
death ; — " this gross corruption ;" p. 543. Mark vi. 22. Herod's 
daughter Herodias danced ; instead of, the daughter of Herodias : — a 
reading which "brings Mark into direct contradiction with Josephus, 
who expressly states that the wretched girl was named Salome," and 
was the daughter of Herod's brother Philip ; p. 544. Mark xvi. 
9-20 : — " all opposition to the authenticity of this paragraph resolves 
itself into the allegations of Eusebius," (an Arian), "and the 
testimony of Aleph and B." " We can appeal to all extant manu- 
scripts excepting two ;" p. 590. Luke ii. 14. The Angelic Hymn 
sung at the nativity; — "By the addition of a single letter to the 
end of the last line, the simple shepherds are sent away with a 
message, the diction of which no scholar has yet construed to his 
own mind." " Solid reason and pure taste, revolt against " it ; p. 
590. The testimony for the common reading " cannot but over- 
power the transcriptural blunder of some early scribe ;" p. 592. 
Luke xxiii. 34. " Father, forgive them :" — " It is almost incredible 
that acute and learned men should be able to set aside " the evi- 
dence for these words, " chiefly because D," — a very corrupt Greek 
copy, ' ' is considered especially weighty in its omissions, and B has 
to be held up, in practice if not in profession, as virtually almost 
impeccable." " We cannot doubt that the system which entails such 
consequences is hopelessly self- condemned ;" p. 604. John i. 18. 
" The only begotten God." " Everyone must feel [the word] God to 
be untrue, even though for the sake of consistency he may be forced 
to uphold it." This reading would introduce " a new, and, to us 
moderns, a strange term into Scripture;" p. 605. Actsiv. 25. Some 
critical editors insert here " that which cannot possibly be right ;" 
the result of " setting up one or more of the oldest copies as objects 
of unreasonable idolatry;" p. 549. Acts. xii. 25, Barnabas and 
Saul, who were at Jerusalem (xi. 30), are said to have returned to 
Jerusalem. " That the two Apostles returned from, not to, Jeru- 
salem is too plain for argument ;" p. 550. Acts xxv. 13, having 
saluted Festus : "The reading is manifestly false;" p. 551. 
Acts xxviii. 13, took away, for, made a circuit : a "vile error of 
transcription ;" p. 551. Eomans v. 1, " let us have peace ;" " a 
reading which is manifestly unsuitable to the context ; p. 625. 

The Revisers were led to give their countenance to the above 
impossible, or evidently false, readings, by the Greek Text of Drs. 
Westcott and Hort. And Drs. Westcott and Hort, in the Intro- 
duction to their Greek Testament, do their utmost to commend 
their own Greek Text in opposition to the Peshito. None of the 
above false readings occur in the Peshito. This fact is one proof of 
its superiority to the Greek copies on which Drs. Westcott and Hort 



CXXVl. CONCLUSION. 

rely. The Peshito is true, where these are grossly false ; it is pure, 
where they are corrupt. 

Fourthly, Have we not in the Peshito, that which all efforts 
have failed to produce by means of Greek copies, namely, — ^A text 

WHICH, WITH SLIGHT EXCEPTIONS, IS PROVED TO BE A RELIABLE 
COPY OF THE INFALLIBLE WRITINGS GIVEN BY THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 

The inspiration of Scripture is being assailed with new energy, and 
from new quarters. The corruptions of the Greek text make it 
impossible to say that it is as pure and infallible as it was at first ; 
and it is admitted that the many most searching and unwearied 
endeavours which have been made to construct a Greek text which 
would have proof of being like the original Greek text, have failed. 
Dr. Schaff in America, and Dr. Scrivener here, have admitted this, 
(see the preceding pp. 53, 54.) Dr. Scrivener says that, '* nothing 
short of a continuous, unceasing miracle," could have secured " the 
complete identity of all copies of Holy Scripture." (Introduction, 
p. 3.) But the marvellous likeness of the Syriac copies is proof 
that care and exactness in copying and in correcting copies, could 
prevent such incorrectness as there is in the Greek copies. It is 
evident that the Syrians, not only copied their Scriptures with care, 
but duly examined and corrected their copies. It is equally evident 
that many who made Greek copies did not do this. The result is, 
that while the Syriac copies prove their correctness by their wonder- 
ful agreement, the Greek copies vary perpetually, and often in 
almost every sentence ; baffling, by tens of thousands of variations, 
all attempts to find a pure text. 

Is it not evident that God has, by his over-ruling care, provided 
for us in the Peshito an attested copy of what he has said, such as at 
the present time is felt to be A great and special need ? Is there 
not reason to believe, with Wichelhaus, that the text from which the 
Syriac copies have been made " was exceedingly like the auto- 
graphs of the Apostles ?" (On the Peshito, p. 264.) And does not 
Canon Cook justify this opinion, when he says, that " the Syriac 
Peshito" is one of the "authorities to which in some cases, a 
higher value is to be assigned, as more ancient and hetter attested 
than any [Greek] manuscripts?" that it is "the version which 
probably comes nearest to the autographs of the Evangelists V and 
that " in the great majority of disputed readings that which has 
its decided support has a 'prima facie claim to preference, if not to 
absolute acceptance V (First Three Gospels, pp. 143-4.) 

Lastly, The early, the continuous, the uncontradicted Syrian 
testimony, that, as Jesudad said, the Peshito was " made by 
THE care of Tttaddtrus AND OTHER Apostles," has an evident 
claim to calm and full consideration. The Syrian testimony that 
the Peshito was so made, lacks nothing which is held to entitle 
such testimony to belief. It is the same kind of testimony, and as 
credible, as that which is held to prove the Greek text to be of 



CONCLUSIO?^. CXXVll. 

Divine authority. Those who use the Peshito in India told Dr. 
Claudius Buchanan that whatever " translations " we might have 
in the west, their own Syriac Scriptures were " the trite book of 
GrOD," which they had possessed " in the mountains of Malabar for 
fourteen hundred years." (Pearson's Life of Buchanan, p. 70.) They 
contended that *' the origlnal language of the four Gospels was 
Syriac." (Buchanan's Eesearches, p. 95.) And even Dr. Westcott, 
when not under the influence of Dr. Hort, admits that ' ' the Syriac 
Christians of Malabar," in claiming for the Peshito " the right 
to be considered as an Eastern origestal of the New Testament," 
make a claim which "is not, to a certain extent, destitute of all 
plausibility." (On the Canon, p. 233.) 

The fact that between the Greek words and the Syriac words, 
there is sometimes a want of that similarity of expression which a 
good translator is bound to use, implies that the Syriac was written 
under the care of persons, who, like the Apostles, had a right to 
vary their mode of expression at will, and tends to sanction the 
belief that both the Greek text, and the Syriac text, were made 
under Apostolic care. 

It is also, in itself, most improbable that God should have guided 
Ms Apostles to make a perfect copy of his revealed will, (which is 
for the guidance of all), in the language of Gentiles only ; and 
should have left his own nation without a perfect apostolic copy 
of .it in their own tongue. 

The Peshito-Syriac Text is therefore of great importance. 



^nhi^x t0 tJjje ^ntvobncttJCfn* 



A, tlie Greek copy called A, resembles 
the PesMto ; resembles tbe Greek text 
used by cblef teacbers in century Iv. ; 
and that of most of the later Greek 
copies, 65, 66, 68. 

ADULTERESS, the, mentioned John 
viii., not in the Peshito, 44. 

AKELDAMA, proves that Syriac was 
the language of Judea, 14. 

ALEPH and B, Greek copies, probably 
made under Arian influence, 65; very cor- 
rupt, 64, 67 ; relied on by W. andHort,64, 
67; and by Revisers of E. V.. 62. 

AMIR A, G, on the nations which have 
spoken Syriac, 8. 

AMRUS says that Syrians who agree 
with Nestore, are not from him, 31. 

ANCIENT writers,on the origin, purity, 
and use of the Peshito ; Justin Martyr, 
19, 20; Melito, 67; Bardesanes, Hege- 
sippus, Aphraates, Ephrgem, 30 ; Ibas, of 
Edessa, 124 ; Nestorians ;— Jesudadus, 34 ; 
Ebedjesus, 34, 35. Christians of St. 
Thomas, in India, 35, 36. Jacobites, so 
called from a person named Jacob, 35;— 
Bar Hebrseus, 38, 39. Maronites ;— Sionita, 
41; Nairon,41— 5; Stephen Evod Asseman, 
45. 

APOSTLES, made known the gospel in 
Coordistan, 4 ; and on the Malabar coast 
of India, 6—8. 

ARAM^AN, an eastern name for 
Syriac, 4, 8. 

ASSEMAN, Joseph Simon, a learned 
Maronite Syrian, on the spread of the 
gospel from Edessa through Mesopo- 
tamia, 9. 

ASSEMAN, Joseph Aloys, his History 
of Nestorian Patriarchs, 34. 

ASSEMAN, Stephen Evod, on origin of 
Peshito, 45. 

ASSYRIANS, the, adopted Syriac in 
the room of Assyriac, 4, 

ATONEMENT, the word should be used 
In the N. C. Scriptures, 74, 75. 

BAPTIZED, the corresponding Syriac 
word means immersed, 77. 

BAR HEBR-ffiUS, on Syriac dialects, 8. 
Says the Apostolic origin of Peshito is a 
sure fact, 21, 38, 39. 



BEGOTTEN as God, the Word said to 
be by a new reading in John i. 18, intro- 
duced by W. and Hort,.and the Revisers, 
25, 32, 125. 

BELIEVE, the word deceives ; substi- 
tute, trust, 72-4, 77. 

BISHOPS, i.e. overseers, called elders 
in the Peshito, 24, 77; a fact specially 
noticed by Dr. Westcott, an Episcopalian, 
24. 

BOOKS of N. C. Scriptures, the fact that 
five are not in the Peshito, a proof of its 
very early origin, 7, 17, 18, 26 ; also that 
it is not a translation of the Greek books, 
44. 

BUCHANAN, Dr. Claudius, his visits to 
Malabar Christians, 6, 7. 

BURGON, Dean, on the fictions in- 
vented by W. and Hort, to destroy trust 
in the Peshito, and the Received Greek 
Text, 25, 62-64. 

CANON, Syriac ; lists of Peshito Books 
of N. C.,22. 

CATHOLIC Epistles, the, written in 
various languages, with autographs by 
the Apostles, 22, 23. 

CERI ANI, A. M. of Milan, on Josephus's 
War, in Syriac, 10. 

CHURCH, ought to be assembly, as in 
Greek and Syriac, 78. 

COMMON English Version, a list of 
words in it, the right meaning of which 
is not known by some; the meaning is 
given which they ought to have to agree 
with the original, 76—83. 

COOK, Canon, says the Peshito is more 
ancient and better attested than any 
Greek copy, 64; that Greek readings 
which have its support, claim preference; 
that it is the most trustworthy witness 
of the original eastern text, 65 ; that 
Aleph and B, Greek copies, were certainly 
written when Arianism was in power, 
and probably under Eusebius, an Arian, 
65 ; that the mass of Greek copies, those 
which many critics reject, represent the 
testimony of churches, 66; that these 
agree with the Peshito, with Greek copy 
A, with the Received Greek text, and the 
Common E. V. ; against W. and Hort, and 
Revised E. V., 65. 



cxxx. 



INDEX TO THE INTRODTJCTION. 



COORDISTAN, tlie Nestorian Christ- 
ians there. 4, 5. 

COUNCILS, The First of Ephesus, one 
of lawless violence, 31. The Second of 
Ephesus, called one of rohhers and 
assassins, 38. Of Chalcedon, 31. 

COVENANTS ratified ty means of slain 
animals, 78, 79. 

CREEDS of Church of England say, the 
Word is hegotten as God, 25, 26. 

CRITICS of Greek text too indifferent 
to testimony of churches, 23, 54, 55, 62. 

CURETON'S, Dr., Syriac fragments; 
Hermansen, on them, 23. Dr. A. Roberts 
speaks of Dr. C.'s self-delusion, 24. Dr. 
Hort assumes them to he the first form of 
the Peshito, 24. This fiction condemned 
hy Dean Burgon, 25, 63, 64 ; this, and the 
untruthful statements of Dr. Tregelles, 
condemned by Dr. Scrivener, 68, 69. 

DELITZSCH, Dr. F. on the language of 
Palestine, 3. 

DESIGN of this work, 71-6. To show 
that the Peshito contains the best text 
of the N. C. Scriptures, 71 ; to show that 
to trust instead of merely to believe, is 
needful to salvation, 71-4; to connect 
the New C. with the Old as to atonement; 
and to substitute words in common daily 
use for those which are less so, 74—76. 

DIAMPER, the Synod of, in India, 7. 

DIODATI mistaken as to use of Greek 
in time of Jesus, 11. 

EBEDJESUS, on the Peshito, 34; his 
account of the Nestorians, 35. 

EDESSA, capital of Osrhoene, in Syria, 
east of Euphrates, 8, 27; its dialect the 
most elegant Syriac, 8; the gospel 
preached by Thaddeus with great suc- 
cess there, 27 ; the ancient Syrian record 
of this, *'The Teaching of Thaddeus," 
27. The Peshito is written in the Edessa 
dialect, and was prepared for use in that 
city, 17; "by the care of Thaddeus and 
other apostles," 34. 

ELDER used in Peshito where bishop 
is used in Greek, 24, 50, 77. 

EPHR.ffiM of Edessa, the Peshito was 
old in his time, 30; a remark by him 
quoted, 31. 

ETHERIDGE, Dr. J. W., his History of 
Syrian churches, 7. 

EVIDENCE, internal, that the Peshito 
is not a mere copy of the Greek text, 46— 
51. Texts quoted by Wichelhaus as proof 
that the Peshito was not made under 

Apostolic care, examined, 47—50 ; Rev. 

Jer. Jones, on Acu for Ptolemais, and 

''the profane " for Gentiles, 50, 51. 
EXPLANATION of words in Common 

E. v., 76-83. 



GEDDES, Dr. Michael, History of Synod 
of Diamper, 7. 

GOD, a statement that one part of God 
has been begotten by another, now, for 
the first time, put into our Scriptures, 25, 
94, 125. 

GRANT, Dr. Asahel, gives evidencelthat 
the Nestorians and Jews of Coordistan 
are part of the ten tribes of Israel, 4, 5. 
Their language is derived from ancient 
Syriac, 4, 5. Their ancestors received the 
gospel from some of the Apostles, 4. They 
still use the Peshito-Syriac Scriptures, 
which they received very early, and have 
preserved in great purity, 4, 

GREEK language, only a few words of 
it known to most Jews, 10—15. 

GREEK N. C. Scriptures, what the chief 
critical editors of them,-Mill, Wett- 
stein, Griesbach, Lachmann, Tregelles, 
Tischendorf, Westcott and Hort, say of 
the Peshito, 56—8. The failure of these 
editors to find a sure and reliable Greek 
text, 58. Admissions of Dr. Schaff and 
Dr. Scrivener, 53, 54, 58, 67, 68. The Nes- 
torians never referred to the Greek text 
as better than the Syriac text, 36. 
General excellence of the RECEIVED 
Greek Text, 62, 65 ; on which the Common 
E. Version is founded, 65, 66. See Aleph. 

GWILLIAM, Rev. G. H., his critical 
edition of the Peshito, 54. 

HERMANSEN, Prof. C, on Dr. Cure- 
ton's Syriac fragments, 23. 

HUET, Bishop, on the origin of the 
Peshito, 18 ; on evidence which proves 
an ancient book to be what it is said to 
be, 1 9. The Peshito has this evidence, 23, 
46. 

INQUISITION, The, of Goa, in India ; 
persecuted the Nestorians of Malabar, 7. 

JACOBITES, so called from Jacob Bara- 
dgeus, 38. Their creed, that Christ had but 
one nature, 35. 38 ; that it is right to call 
Mary the " mother of God," and to say 
that <'God was crucified," 35, 39. Acts 
XX. 28, and Heb. ii. 9, supposed to have 
been altered by them to suit their creed, 
39. They made a new Syriac version, 
founded on the Greek text, 40. 

JACOB of Edessa, on the origin of the 
Peshito, 39. 

JEROME says that Matthew's gospel 
was written in Syriac, 17. 

JESUDADUS, on the origin of the 
Peshito N. C.,34. 

JONES, Rev. Jeremiah, proofs of the 
origin of the Peshito in Cent, i, 19, 20, 50 
51. 



INDEX TO THE INTEODUCTIOIT. 



CXXXl. 



JOSEPHUS shows liow very widely 
Sjrrlac was known, 9—11; says how few 
Jews knew Greek well, 15. 

JUSTIN Martyr, said, A.D. 150, that the 
gospels were read in Palestine, which 
must have been in Syriac, 19, 20. 

LIDDON, Dr., Canon of St. Paul's, calls 
the rej ection of " mother of God " heresy, 
33. 

LIEE, means salvation in Syriac, 82. 

MALABAR Coast of India; Christianity 
founded there by Apostles ; the Christ- 
ians of St. Thomas have used the Peshito 
from very early times, and kept it pure. 
6-8. 

MARONITES, The, of Lahanon, re- 
jected the creed imposed by the Emper- 
ors, 40 ; held that Jesus had hut one will, 
41. Testimonies of their learned men to 
the Peshito, 41-5. 

MARSH, Bishop, excludes conjecture 
from Bihle-criticism, 26; on evidence 
existing in the first three Greek gospels, 
that they were founded on an earlier 
Syriac copy, 45. 

MATTHEW'S gospel written, as all 
ancient writers say, in Sjnriac, 17, 21. 

MELCHITES, so called because they 
received the creed imposed by the 
Emperors:— they were the king's party, 
35, 40. 

'< MOTHER of God," adopted by the 
Greek and Roman Churches, and by some 
in the Church of England, 33, 35 ; also by 
Jacobites and Melchites, 35. The re- 
quired use of this expression caused 
great persecution and slaughter, 33, 35. 

NAZAREANS, the Nestorians of Coor- 
distan are so called, 5. 

NESTORE denied that Mary was 
"mother of God." He therefore was, 
and is still by many, called a heretic, 
31-3,35. 

NESTORIANS, in the Roman Empire, 
were all deprived of oflace and banished, 
33, 35; their numbers became equal to 
Greek and Roman Churches combined,33. 
All of them used the Peshito, 33. They 
have kept its text pure, 4,33,36,37; their 
copies agree marvellously with those 
of Jacobites and Maronites, 37, 68, 69. 
Their schools, 37. 

NEUBAUER, Oxford Prof , on whether 
Jews knew Greek, 12—14. 

NEW Covenant read at Edessa in Cent, 
i., 29. 

OSRHOENE, the kingdom of Abgar; its 
capital, Edessa 27. 



PANT^NUS, Cent, ii., found a Syriao 
copy of Matthew in India, 7, 8. 

PASSAGES which are not in the Peshito 
may have been written by the sacred 
writers afterwards, 48. Passages for 
comparing Syriac and Greek texts, 52,53. 

PAUL'S Epistles are referred to by Peter 
as known to those whose language was 
probably Syriac, 16, 44. 

PAULUS, Prof., mistaken as to use of 
Greek, 11. 

PECULIARITIES, Some, of Peshito- 
Syriac Text, 70, 71. 

PENTECOST, Peter's address probably 
in Syriac, 11. 

PESHITO-SYRIAC N.C. Scriptures still 
used in Coordistan, 4, and in India, 7, 8 ; 
by Nestorians, 4, 31, 37 ; by Jacobites, 39; 
by Maronites, 41 ; by Mechites, 37. Kept 
separate from the other five books be- 
cause of greater esteem and different 
origin, 17, 18, 34, 36, 38; when it was made 
the other five books probably were not 
written, 18, 20. Kept pure by exceeding 
care, 4, 8, 18,36, 37. Called sacred, 36. The 
general belief in its authority proved by 
its general use as an authoritative rule, 
21, 22, 66, 67. The wonderful agreement 
of copies from all parts, 37, 66, 68. 

PHOTIUS, on versions corrected by the 
Apostle John, 28, 29. 

PROOFS deemed sufficient, attest the 
origin of Peshito, 19, 21, 46. 

REGENERATION, used instead of new- 
birth, Titus iii. 5, 82. 

REVISED English Version of 1881, 
changes founded on a new Greek text 
tested by the Peshito; changes CON- 
DEMNED by it given, 85—111 ; changes 
APPROVED by it given, 111-123. 

ROBERTS, Dr. A., on Jewish use of 
Greek, 11 ; on Dr. Cureton's fragments, 
23, 24, 

SAYCE, Rev. A. H., says Syriac became 
the language of Assyria, 4. 

SCRIVENER, Dr., on the sad state of 
the Greek text, 53, 54, 67. Says that 
attempts to restore it to purity have 
failed, 58, 67, 68. States the likeness of 
all Syriac copies to one another, 66—9. 
Defends the Peshito against Dr.Tregelles 
and Dr. Hort, 69. 

SECTS, the Syrian, 31, 35. All their 
copies of Peshito alike, 37, 66—9. 

SEPTUAGINT little known in Pales- 
tine in time of Jesus, 13. 

SYRIAO language, The, how widely 
used in the time of Christ, 3—11. The 
dialect of Edessa, the best of three, 8. 
The Syriac of Galilee was spoken by the 
Redeemer, the Greek a translation of 



cxxxu. 



mDEX TO THE INTRODUCTION. 



wliat he said, 12 ; this dialect differed a 
little from that of Edessa, 17. Proof from 
Syriac words in the Greek Gospels, 12, 14, 
17. 

TEN Tribes of Israel, part of them in 
Coordistan and India, 4-6. 

TESTIMONY of critics who esteem the 
Peshito, to the excellence of its text ;— 
Bishop Walton and J. Martini, 59. J. D. 
Michaelis, Jeremiah Jones, and J.Wichel- 
haus, 60. Dr. Ezra Stiles and Dr. James 
Murdock,61. Dean Burgon, 61^4. Canon 
Cook, 64—6. Dr. Scrivener, 66—9. 

THADDEUS, the wonderful success of 
his mission to Edessa, 27-9. The Peshito 
said by Jesudadus to he due in part to his 
care, 34. 

THEODORE of Mopsuestia on Heh. ii. 
9,39. 

THOMAS the Apostle made known the 
gospel in Coordistan, 4, and in India, 7. 
The Christians of St. Thomas are so 
called after him, 7. 



WALTON, Bishop, his opinion of the 
Peshito 59. 

WESTCOTT and Hort, Drs., make con- 
jectures adverse to the Peshito, 23—25. 
Dean Burgon's severe censure of these 
critics, 25, 63, 64. Dr. Scrivener's reply to 
them, 68, 69. 

WESTCOTT, Dr., In his work on the 
Canon of N. C. Scriptures, admits that 
the belief of Syrians in the Peshito as an 
"Eastern Original" is not ''destitute of 
all plausibility," 21 ; that it is deemed by 
them authoritative, 22; that its testi- 
mony is of great worth, 22. 

WICHELHAUS, J. Prof., says that the 
Peshito resembles the autographs of the 
Apostles, 46. He tries to prove that it 
has not apostolic authority ; his reason- 
ing examined, 47—50. 

WRIGHT, Dr. W., of Cambridge Uni- 
versity, on Syriac manuscripts in the 
British Museum, 22. 



THE LETTER TO THE HEBREWS : 

K TH&NSLMION IN EYERY-DAY ENGLISH, 
#f i^z pesfeito-^griat unb i^e 'gzcnbzH (§mk fats. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS I. 1-11. 
THE LETTER TO THE HEBREWS. 

I. 1. God, in all kinds of parts, and in 
all kinds of ways, spoke with our fathers 
by the prophets from of old; 2, and in 
these the last days, he has spoken with 
us by his Son, whom he has made in- 
heritor of everything, and by whom he 
made the worlds ; 3, who himself is the 
brightness of his glory, and the image 
of what he is, and who upholds every- 
thing by the might of his word; and 
who by means of himself effected the 
purging away of our sins, and sat down 
at the right hand of [God's] Greatness 
in the high [heavens] ; 4, and he in every- 
thing is greater than angels, (a) in pro- 
portion as the name which he has in- 
herited excels theirs. 

5. For to whom from among the angels 
did God ever say,— Thou art my son, I 
to-day have begotten thee ?— And again, 
—I will be to him for Father, and he 
shall be to me for Son ?— 6. Again too, 
when introducing the first-born into the 
world, he said,— Let all the angels of 
God worship him. 

7. In reference to angels also, he said 
this,— Who made his angels spirit; and 
his servants, burning fire. 

8. But in reference to the Son he said, 
—Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever; 
a righteous sceptre [is] the sceptre of 
thy kingdom. 9. Thou hast loved just- 
ness, and hast hated wickedness; for 
this reason God, thy God, has anointed 
thee with the oil of joy, more than [he 
has] thy associates. 10. And again,— 
Thou from the beginning hast laid the 
foundations of the earth; and the 
heavens are the work of thy hands; 11, 
they shall pass away, but thou art firm ; 
and they all as garments shall grow old ; 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS I. 1-12. 

THE LETTER OF PAUL TO THE 

HEBREWS, 

I. 1. God, who of old, by the many 
parts [of his word], and in many ways, 
spoke to [our] fathers by the prophets, 2, 
has, in these last of the days, spoken to 
us by [his] Son, whom he has made in- 
heritor of all things, by means of whom 
he also made the worlds ; 3, who, being 
the forth-shining of [his] glory, and the 
stamped-image of what he himself is, 
and upholding all things by the word of 
his might ; when he had by means of 
himself effected the purging away of our 
sins, sat down at the right hand of 
[God's] Greatness in the high [heavens]; 
4, having become greater than the angels 
(a) in such high degree as he has in- 
herited a name which excels theirs. 

5. For to whom of the angels did he 
ever say,— Thou art my son, I to-day have 
begotten thee ? And again,— I will be to 
him for Father, and he shall be to me for 
Son ? 6. And again, when he introduces 
the first-born into the inhabited [earth], 
he says,— And let all the angels of God 
worship him. 

7. And in reference to the angels he 
says,— Who makes his angels spirits, and 
his chief servants, a flame of fire. 

8. But in reference to the Son,— Thy 
throne, O God, is for ever and ever; a 
sceptre of righteousness [is] the sceptre 
of thy kingdom. 9. Thou hast loved 
justness ; and hated lawlessness. For 
this reason God, thy God, has anointed 
thee with the oil of great joy, more than 
[he has] those in fellowship with thee. 10. 
And,— Thou, O Lord, at the beginning, 
didst found the earth, and the heavens 
are works of thy hands ; 11, they shall 
perish, but thou continuest ; and they 
all, as a garment, shall grow old, 12, and 



(a) Ver. 4. Both the Syriac word, and the Greek word, represented by the English 
word "angel," mean "messenger," that is, "a messenger [of God]." The word 
♦* angel " is the Greek word for "messenger" in an English form. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS I. 12-14. II. 1-9. 

12, and like as a cloak thou shalt fold 
them up, [and] they shall be changed. 
And thou, as thou art, wilt he, and thy 
years will not fail. 

13. But to whom from among the angels 
has he ever said,— Sit thou at my right 
hand until I shall place thine enemies 
[for] a footstool beneath thy feet ? 14, Are 
they not all spirits of service, who 
are sent forth on service, because of 
those who are about to Inherit life 
[-bliss] ? (a) 

II. 1. For this reason we ought the 
more especially to be heedful of that 
which we have heard, lest we should 
fall. 2. For if the word which was 
spoken by means of angels was con- 
firmed, and everyone who heard it and 
broke it, received the punishment which 
was just ; 3, how shall we escape, if we 
Bhall neglect those things which are 
themselves our life [-bliss] ; those which 
began to be spoken by our Lord^ and 
were confirmed to us by those who 
heard [them] from him; 4, things to 
which God bore witness by signs and by 
wonders, and by various deeds of might, 
and by distributed [gifts] of the Spirit of 
Holiness, which were given according 
to his will ? 

5. For he has not put under angels the 
world which is to be, of which we are 
speaking. 6. But as the [sacred] writing 
bears witness, and says,— What is man 
that thou hast remembered him, and the 
Bon of man, that thou hast visited him ? 
7. Thou hast placed him a little lower 
than the angels ; glory and honour hast 
thou put on his head, and thou hast 
made him rule over the work of thy 
hands. 8. And everything thou hast 
put under [him], beneath his feet. Now 
as to his having put everything under 
him, he has left nothing which is not 
put under [him] ; but at present we do 
not yet see that everything is put under 
him. 9. But we see that on the head of 
him who was placed a little lower than 
angels, who is Jesus,therehavebeenput, 
because of his having sutfered death, 
Tooth, glory and honour ; for he, by the 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS I. 12-14. II. 1-9, 

as a cloak thou shalt roll them up, and 
they shall be changed ; but thou art the 
same, and thy years will not fail. 



13. But to whom of the angels has he 
ever said,— Sit thou at my right hand 
until I place thine enemies [for] the foot- 
stool of thy feet ? 14. Are they not all 
spirits of chief service, who are sent 
forth for service, because of those who 
are about to inherit salvation ? 



II. 1. For this reason we ought the 
more especially to give heed to the 
things which have been heard, lest by 
any means we fall away. 2. For if the 
word which was spoken by means of 
angels proved firm, and every breach [of 
it], and disobedience [to it], received just 
punishment, 3, how shall we escape, if 
we shall have neglected so great salva- 
tion, which was at first declared by 
means of the Lord, and was confirmed 
unto us by those who had heard [him] ; 
4, together with whom God bore witness 
by signs and wonders, and by various 
deeds of might, and by gifts of the Holy 
Spirit, distributed according to his will. 



5. For he has not put under angels the 
Inhabited [earth] which is to be, respect- 
ing which we are speaking. 6. But [there 
is] a place where one has borne witness, 
saying,— What is man that thou dost re- 
member him, and the son of man that 
thou dost visit him ? 7. Thou hast placed 
him a little lower than angels, thou hast 
crowned him with glory and honour, and 
hast placed him over the works of thy 
hands , 8, thou hast put under [him] all 
things, beneath his feet.— For inputting 
all things under him, he has left nothing 
which is not put under him; but at 
present we do not yet see all things put 
under him ; 9, but we see him who was 
placed a little lower than angels, Jesus, 
because of his having suffered death 
crowned with glory and honour, in order 



(a) Ver. 14. The Syriac uses the word " life " where the Greek has "salvation;" the 
word " life " is used to denote a state of blessed existence, and is rendered in these 
pages "life-bliss." 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS II. 9-18. III. 1. 
graoioiis favour of God, tasted death for 
every one. (a) 

10. For it TDecame him by means of 
whom [are] all things, and hecause of 
whom [are] all things, and [who] was 
introducing many sons into his glory, 
to fit perfectly the Head of their life 
C-bUss] by suflferings. 11. For he who 
made [them] holy, and those who were 
made holy, are all of them of one 
[family.] For this reason, he has not 
been ashamed to call them his brothers; 
12, saying :— I will declare thy name to 
my brothers ; and in the midst of the 
assembly, (b) i will praise thee. 13. 
And again:— I will trust on him.— And 
again,— Behold, I, and the sons whom 
God has given to me. 14. For because 
the sons shared flesh and blood. He 
also, in like manner, shared the same, 
that by his death he might make power- 
less him who holds the empire of death, 
who is Satan; 15, and might set free 
those, who, by fear of death, were all 
their lives placed under bondage. 16. 
For it was not from angels that he took 
[a body] ; but [it was] from the seed, [the 
offspring] of Abraham that he took [one.] 
17. For this reason it was right that He 
should in everything be made to be like 
his brothers ; that he might be merciful, 
and a high priest faithful in the things 
of God, and might make atonement for 
the sins of the people. 18. For by this, 
that he suffered and was put to test, 
he is able to help those who are being 
tested. 

III. 1. Therefore, my holy brothers, 
who have been called with a call which 
is from heaven ; look at this Chief-Mes- 
Benger (c) and High Priest of our pro- 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS II. 9-18. III. 1. 
that, by the gracious favour of God, he 
might taste of death for every one. (a) 

10. For it became him because of whom 
[are] all things, and by means of whom 
[are] all things, when leading many sons 
into glory, to fit perfectly the Chieftain 
of their salvation by means of sufferings. 
11. For both he who makes holy, and 
those who are made holy, [are] all of one 
[family]; for which reason he is not 
ashamed to call them brothers, 12, saying, 
—I will declare thy name to my brothers; 
in the midst of the assembly, (b) I will 
sing praise to thee.— 13. And again,— I 
will trust on him.— And again,— Behold, 
I, and the children, whom God has given 
to me. 14. So then, since the children 
share flesh and blood, he also in like 
manner shared the same with [them]; 
that, by means of death, he might make 
powerless him who holds dominion over 
death, that is, theFalse-accuser ; 15, and 
might set these persons free ; who all, 
by fear of death, were held, through all 
their lives, in bondage. 16. For he does 
not indeed take on himself [the form] of 
angels; but he takes on himself [the 
form] of the seed, [the offspring] of Abra- 
ham. 17. Hence, he was bound to be 
made in all things like to his brothers, 
that he might become a merciful and 
faithful High Priest in things relating to 
God, in order to make atonement for the 
sins of the people. 18. For in that he has 
suffered, by having been put to test, he 
is able to help those who are being 
tested. 

III. 1. So then, holy brothers, partakers 
of the heavenly calling, consider the 
Chief-Messenger (c) and High Priest of 
our profession, Jesus, the Anointed, 2, 



(a) Ver. 9. Instead of the words rendered, " by the gracious favour of God," other 
Syriac manuscripts have two variations. The Greek does not seem to be correct, 
because the exaltation of Christ did not determine the object of his death. A reading 
older than the time of the Nestor ians, was mentioned by Origen, who died about 
A.D. 254. It is, "For he, apart from Godhead." Some Nestorians adopted this reading. 
The Jacobites seem to have altered the position of " God," to suit their creed. They 
have in their copies,—" He, God, in his gracious favour, tasted death." The Peshito 
edited for the B. and F. Bible Society, partly by Dr. Buchanan, and partly by Dr. Lee, 
and which is founded on some ancient manuscripts, has the reading given above, 
which differs from that of the Jacobites only in the position of the word " God." 

(b) Ver. 12. The word "church," used in the Common Version, does not give the 
meaning either of the Syriac or of the Greek word, both of which mean "assembly." 

(c) Ver. 1. The Greek word is '"apostolos," which, in English form, is "apostle." 
The meaning of the Greek word is, "one sent forth." It is translated "messenger" 
sometimes in the common E.V. See 2 Cor. viii. 23. Phil. ii. 25. The Syriac word has 
the same meaning. ''Chiet-messenger" seems to represent both the Syriac word, 
and the Greek word fitly, when used of the twelve, and o-f Jesus. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS III. 1-19. 
fesslon, Jesus, tlio Anointed, 2, who [is] 
faithful to him who appointed him, 
even as Moses [was faithful] in respect 
of all his [God's] house. 

3. For the glory of this [Messenger] is 
much greater than that of Moses, as to 
the degree in which the honour of the 
builder of a house is much greater than 
[that of] his building. 4. For every house 
is built by a man, but he, [Jesus,] who has 
built all thingSj is God. 

5. And Moses, as a servant, was faithful 
in all [God's] house, to bear witness 
of those things which were to be spoken 
of by means of him. 6. But the Anointed, 
as Son, over his [Grid's] house ; and his 
house we [are], if unto the end we shall 
hold fast [our] confidence, and glorying 
in his hope. 7. Because the Spirit of 
Holiness has said,— To-day if ye will 
hearken to his voice, 8, harden not your 
hearts, so as to make him angry, as [did] 
the provokers ; even as [they did] in the 
day of putting [me] to test, in the wilder- 
nsss ; 9, where your fathers put me to 
test, and to proof. They saw my works 
for forty years. 10. For this reason I was 
weary of that generation, and I said,— 
They are people whose heart errs, and 
they have not known my ways ;— 11, so 
that I sware in my anger,— They shall 
not enter into my rest. 

12. Take heed, therefore, my brothers^ 
lest there should be in any one of yon 
an evil heart which does not trust, 
and ye should depart from the living 
God. 13. But examine yourselves as to 
all days up to the day which is called 
to-day, lest any one of you should be 
hardened by the deception of sin. 14. 
For we have been made to share with 
the Anointed, if from the beginning unto 
the end, we shall continue in this fixed 
firmness. 15. Asit is said,— To-day, if ye 
will hearken to his voice, harden not 
your hearts, so as to make him angry.— 
16. For who were those who heard [him], 
and made him angry? Were they not 
all those who went out from Egypt by 
means of Moses ? 17. And by whom was 
he wearied forty years, but by those who 
sinned, and whose bones feU in the wil- 
derness? 18. And in reference to whom 
did he swear that they should not enter 
into his rest, but in reference to those 
who did not submit themselves ? 19. And 
we see that they were unable to enter, 
because they did not trust. 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS III. 1-19. 
who [is] faithful to him who appointed 
him, even as Moses [was] also in respect 
of all his [God's] house. 

3. For this [Messenger] has been 
honoured with more glory than Moses, 
in reference to the degree in which he 
who has built a house has more honour 
than the house. 4. For every house is 
built by some [man], but he [Jesus], who 
has built all things, [is] God. 

5. And Moses indeed was faithful In 
all his [God's] house as a servant, that he 
might bear witness to the things which 
were to be spoken; e, but the Anointed, 
as Son, over his [God's] house; whose 
house are we, if we retain [our] confi- 
dence and [our] glorying in [his] hope, 
firm to the end. 7. Because, as the Holy 
Spirit says,— To-day, if ye will hearken 
to his voice, 8, harden not your hearts, 
as in the provocation, in the day of put- 
ting to test, in the wilderness; 9, where 
your fathers tested me, they put me to 
proof; and they saw my works forty 
years. 10. Therefore I was angry with 
that generation and said,— They always 
err in heart, and they have not known 
my ways; 11, sol sware inmyianger,— 
They shall not enter into my rest. 



12, Keep watch, birothers, lest there 
should be in any one of you a wicked 
heart of distrust, [shown] in departing 
from the Living God. 13. But call 
yourselves to account for each day up to 
that which is called to-day, lest any one 
of you should be hardened by the decep- 
tion of sin. 14. For we have become 
sharers with the Anointed, if we shall 
retain the beginning of [our] reliance 
firm unto the end ; 15, in [accord with] 
what is said,— To-day if ye will hearken 
to his voice, do not harden your hearts^ 
as in the provocation. 16. For who were 
those who, having heard, provoked [him], 
but all, were they not, who went out 
from Egypt by means of Moses ? 17. And 
with whom was he angry forty years ? 
Was it not with those who sinned, whose 
limbs fell in the wilderness ? -18. And to 
whom did he sware that they should not 
enter into his rest, but to those who did 
not submit themselves ? And we see that 
they were unable to enter, because of 
distrust. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS IV. 1-15. 
rv. 1. Let us therefore fear, lest, though 
the promise of an entrance into his 
rest is firm, there should be found 
any one among you who fails to enter. 
2. For we also have been told of [it], as 
they were. But as to them, the word 
which they heard did not profit them ; 
because it was not united with trust in 
those who heard it. 3. We then, those 
who trust, are to enter into rest ; even as 
he said,— So I sware in my anger that 
they shall not enter into my rest ?— For, 
behold, the works of God had been [going 
on] from the beginning of the world. 4. 
As he said in respect of the sabbath-rest, 
—God rested on the seventh day from all 
his works.— 5. And in this place, he said 
again,— They shall not enter into my 
rest. 6. Therefore, because there was a 
place [of rest] into which one or other 
will enter, and those who had before 
been told of it, did not enter, because 
they did not submit themselves ; 7, again 
he fixed another day, after a long time, 
as it is above written, that David said,— 
To-day, if ye will hearken to his voice, 
harden not your hearts.- 8. For if Jesus 
[Joshua] (*) the son of Nun had made 
them rest, he [God] would not have 
spoken afterwards of another day. 

9. So then, It is firmly sure that the 
people of God are to keep a Sabbath- 
rest. 10. For he who has entered into 
his rest, he also has rested from his 
works, as God did from his. 

11. Let us therefore strive earnestly to 
enter into that rest, lest we fall, like as 
they did who did not submit themselves. 

12. For the word of God has life, and 
works out all things, and is of much 
sharper point than a sword with two 
edges ; and enters even to the severance 
of life and of spirit, and of the joints, 
and of the marrow and bones ; and j udges 
the thoughts and purpose of the heart. 

13. And there is no created thing which 
Is hidden from his presence, but every- 
thing is naked and revealed before the 
eyes of him to whom we have to give 
account. 

14. Because therefore we have a great 
High Priest, Jesus the Anointed, the Son 
of God, who has gone up to heaven, let 
us continue to profess him. 15. For we 
have not a high priest who is not able to 
have fellow-feeling with our weakness, 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS IV. 1-15. 

IV. 1. Let us therefore fear lest, though 
a promise remains of entering into his 
rest, anyone of you should appear to 
have failed [to do so]. 2. For we also have 
been told the good tidings, as they were. 
But the word they heard did not profit 
them, not having been united with trust 
in those who heard [it]. 3. For we who 
have trusted are to enter into [his] rest, 
as he has said,— So I sware in my anger, 
—They shall not enter into my rest,— 
though [till he rested] the works had 
been coming into being from the foun- 
dation of the world. 4. For [there Is] a 
place where he has spoken about the 
seventh day, thus,— And God rested on 
the seventh day from all his works.— 5. 
And [he has said] in this [place] again,— 
They shall not enter into my rest. 8. 
Since therefore, it remains that some are 
to enter into,it,and those who had before 
been told the good tidings, did not enter 
[it], because of insubmission ; 7, again he 
fixes a certain day, saying by David, 
after so long a time,— To-day, as it has 
been said [already],— To-day, if ye will 
hearken to his voice, harden not your 
hearts. 8. For if Jesus, [Joshua] (a) had 
made them rest, he [God] would not 
have spoken afterwards about another 
day. 

9. So then there remains for the people 
of God a keeping of Sabbath-rest. 10. 
For he who has entered into his rest, 
has also himself rested from his works, 
as God [did] from his own. 

11. Let us therefore strive earnestly to 
enter into that.rest, lest any one should 
fall by the same display of insubmission. 

12. For the word of God has life and 
active force, and is sharper than any 
sword of two edges, and pierces even to 
the dividing of life and of spirit, and of 
the joints and marrow, and is a judge of 
the thoughts and purposes of the heart. 

13. And there is no created thing which Is 
hidden from his presence ; but all things 
are naked and laid bare to the eyes of 
him, with whom is our account. 



14. Having, therefore, a great High 
Priest, who has passed through the 
heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us 
hold fast our profession. 15. For we 
have not a high priest who is not able to 
have fellow-focling with [us] in our 



(a) Ver. 8. Jesus is the Greek form of a Hebrew word which is contracted from the 
Hebrew Jehoshua or Joshua. Jesus and Joshua have the same meaning. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS IV. 15-16. V. 1-14. 

■bnt who, put to test In everything as we 
are, [was] without sin. 16. Let us, there- 
fore, go near with confidence to the 
throne of his gracious favour, that we 
may receive mercies, and find gracious 
favour, for aid in time of aflaiction. 



V. 1. For every high priest who Is from 
among men, stands on behalf of men 
over those things which are of God, that 
he may offer gift-offerings, and offerings 
slain on hehalf of sins. 2. And [he 
Is] one who is able to humble himself, 
and to have fellow-feeling with those 
who are ignorant and erring ; because 
that he also is clothed with weakness. 
3. And because of that weakness, he is 
bound to offer [sacrifices], as on behalf 
of the people, so on behalf of himself , on 
account of his sins. 

4. And no one takes to himself the 
honour, but he [takes it] who is called 
by God as [was] Aaron. 6. So also the 
Anointed did not take to himself the 
glory of being High Priest ; but he [con- 
ferred it] who said to him,- Thou art my 
eon, I to-day have begotten thee.— 6. As 
also he said in another place,— Thou 
art a priest for ever, in the likeness of 
Melchizedeo. 

7. Also when he was clothed with flesh, 
lie offered up prayer and intreaty with 
strong outcry, and with tears, to him 
"Who was able to bring him to life ft*om 
death, and he was heard. 8. And though 
he was Son, [yet] from the fear and the 
sufferings which he endured, he learned 
obedience. 9. And thus he was made 
perfectly fit, and was the cause of life 
[-bliss], which is for ever, to all those 
who obey him. 10. And he was named 
by God,— A High Priest in the likeness of 
Melchizedeo. 11. About him indeed, 
namely, this Melchizedeo, we have much 
to say ; and it is difficult to explain it, 
because ye are weak in your ability to 
hear. 12. For ye ought to be teachers, 
because of the time ye have been under 
teaching. But at present ye have again 
need to learn the things first written of 
the beginning of the words of God; and 
ye are in need of milk, and not of solid 
food. 13. Now every one whose food is 
milk. Is unskilled in the word of justifi- 
cation, because he is a babe. 14. But 
solid food is that of the full[-grown] ; 
who, because they search, have senses 
exercised to distinguish good and evil. 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS IV. 15-16. V. 1-14. 

weaknesses, but one who has been put 
to test in all things, like as [we are], 
without sin. 16. Let us, therefore, go 
near with confidence to [his] throne of 
gracious favour, that we may take hold 
of mercy, and find gracious favour for 
seasonable help. 

V. 1. For every high priest who Is taken 
from among men, is appointed [to act] on 
behalf of men in things relating to God, 
that he may offer gifts and also offer- 
ings slain on behalf of sins ; 2, being one 
who is able to deal gently with the ignor- 
ant and erring, since he himself also is 
clothed around with weakness ; 3, and 
because of this weakness, he is bound to 
offer [sacrifices] on behalf of sins, as for 
the people, so also for himself. 



4. And no one takes to himself the 
honour, but he [takes it] who is called by 
God, as was Aaron. 5. So also the 
Anointed did not take to himself the 
glory of becoming High Priest ; but he 
[conferred it] who said to him,— Thou 
art my Son, I to-day have begotten thee. 
6. As he says also in another [place],— 
Thou [art] a priest for ever of the same 
order as Melchizedeo. 

7. He, in the days of his flesh, when he 
had offered up prayers and intreaties, 
with strong outcry and teairs, to him 
who was able to save him from out of 
death, and had been heard on account 
of his godly fear ; 8, though he was Son, 
[yet] learned he obedience from the 
things which he suffered ; 9, and having 
been made perfectly fit, he became the 
cause of eternal salvation to all those 
who obey him : 10, having been named 
by God, a High Priest of the same order 
as Melchizedeo ; 11, about whom we have 
much to say, and it is also diflacult to 
explain, because ye have become weary 
in [your] ears. 12. For indeed, though 
ye ought to be teachers, because of the 
[length of] time, [yet] ye have again need 
that someone should teach you what 
are the simplest parts of the beginning 
of the words of God ; and ye have be- 
come those who have need of milk, and 
not of solid food. 13. For every one who 
partakes of milk is unskilled in the word 
of justification, for he is a babe; 14, but 
solid food is that of the full-[grown], 
who, because of habit, have senses exer- 
cised to distinguish good and evil. 



The Pesliito-Syriac Text- 

HEBREWS VI. 1-11. 

VI. 1. For this reason, let us leave the 
beginning of the word of the Anointed, 
and let n.s go on to full[-growth]. Or are 
yon again to be laying, for another foun- 
dation, the turning from dead works, and 
trust in God; 2, and the teaching of im- 
mersion, and of laying on the hand; and 
the ris-l'ig from the house of the dead, 
and the sentence of judgment which is 
for ever? 3. If the Lord permits, we 
will do this [which we propose]. 

4. But those cannot possibly be afresh 
renewed unto conversion, who have 
once gone down into immersion, (a) and 
have tasted of the gift which is from 
heaven, and have received the Spirit 
of Holiness, 5, and have tasted of the 
good word of God, and of the might 
of the world which is to be, 6, if they 
shall again sin, and shall crucify afresh 
the Son of God, and treat him with con- 
tempt. 7. For land which has drunk 
the rain which many times has come 
on it, and has produced herbage which 
is useful to those because of whom it Is 
tilled, receives blessing from God. 8. 
But if it be [land] which produces 
thistles and thorns, it is rejected, and 
is not far from a curse, but its end is 
burning. 

9. But we are persuaded with respect 
to you, my brothers, of those things 
which are excellent, and are related to 
life [-bliss], though we thus speak. 10. 
For God is not unjust, so as to forget 
your works, and your love, which ye 
have shown on account of his name, in 
that ye have done service to the holy 
ones, and are still doing service. 11. But 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS VI. 1-11. 
VI. 1. Therefore let us forego mention 
of the beginning of [what relates to] the 
Anointed, and go on to fulness [of 
growth], not laying again the founda- 
tion of repentance from dead works, and 
of trust on God ; 2, of the teaching of 
immersions, and of the laying on of 
hands ; of the rising of the dead, and of 
the eternal sentence of judgment. 3 
And this we will do, if God shall permit. 

4. For It Is Impossible to renew again 
to repentance those who once have been 
enlightened, (a) and who have tasted of 
the heavenly gift, and become sharers 
of the Holy Spirit, 5, and have tasted of 
the good word of God, and of the mighty 
[miracles] of the agfe which is to be, 6, and 
have fallen away, crucifying afresh [as 
they do] for themselves the Son of Godi 
and putting him to public shame. 7. For 
land which has drunk the rain which 
is often coming on it, and produces herb- 
age fit for those because of whom It Is 
also tilled, shares a blessing from God. 
8. But if it produces thorns and thistles, 
[it is] rejected, and is near to a curse ; to 
be burned is Its end. 



9. But we are persuaded with respect 
to you, beloved, of those things which 
are better, and which pertain to salva- 
tion, although we thus speak. 10. For 
God is not unjust, so as to forget your 
work, and the toll of that love which ye 
have shown towards his name, inhavingr 
done service to the holy ones, and In 
doing it still. 11. But we desire that 



(a) Ver. 4. The Syriac words, "have gone down Into immersion," occupy the place 
of the Greek word which means, " have been enlightened." In Hebrews x. 32, the 
Syriac has, " The days in which ye received immersion ;" instead of the Greek words, 
♦• the days in which ye, having been enlightened." In both passage.^;, all the Syriao 
editions which I have, contain those s.ime words ; namely, Walton's Polyglot, 1653-7; 
Gutbir, 1663; Schaaf, 1717; British and Foreign Bible Society, 1816, founded partly on 
Indian manuscripts ; the edition printed at Ooroomiah, in Persia, 1852, and believed 
to be founded on ancient Nestorian manuscripts of Coordistan ; and the edition 
printed for the Maronites. from a Maronite manuscript, by the Roman Propaganda 
in 1703. Schaaf gives the various readings found in 13 editions, being the whole of 
those printed before his own ; but there is no various reading in any of them of these 
passages. Of the Greek Text aLso, Tischendorf, in his 8th edition, gives no various 
reading, in either passage, as to these words. Immersion was, in the second century, 
called enlightening. Dr. Scrivener, writing in 1883 (on N.T. p. 511.) says that, " the 
worst corruptions of the New Testament originated within a hundred years after It 
was composed." Justin, the converted philosopher, and a martyr, said, A.D. 150, 
in his second defence of the Christians, addressed to the Emperor Antoninus, of 
baptism, " and this bath is called the enlightening, since those who learn these things 
are enlightened in the mind." The Greek word used by Justin, is the same as that 
of the Greek text in these two passages.— W. N. 



The Peshito-Syrlac Text. 

HEBREWS VI. 11-20. VII. 1-5. 
we desire that eacli one of you should 
show this same earnestness to the 
extent of [having] the fulness of your 
hope even to the end ; 12, and that ye he 
not weary, hut he imitators of those 
who, through trust and long patience of 
spirit, have inherited the promise. 

13. For God, when he made promise to 
Abraham, because he had no one greater 
than he is to sware hy, sware hy him- 
self, 14, and said.-Blessing, I will hless 
thee; and multiplying, I will multiply 
thee ;-15, and so he was long-patient in 
spirit, and received the promise. 16. For 
men swear hy one greater than them- 
selves; and with respect to every conten- 
tion which there is among them, a sure 
endis[put]toithyanoath. 17. Forthis 
reason God wished to show the more 
fully to the inheritors of the promise 
that his promise is unchangeable, and 
"bound it firmly by an oath ; 18, that, 
by two things which are unchangeable. 
In which it Is impossible that God should 
lie, we, who have taken refuge in him, 
might have great comfort, and might 
hold fast the hope which is promised us: 
19, which [hope] is to us like an anchor, 
which keeps our soul from being moved, 
and which enters within the veil; 20, 
which place Jesus entered beforehand 
on our behalf, and has become a Priest 
for ever in the likeness of Melchizedec. 
VII. 1. Now this Melchizedec was 
King of Salem, a priest of God Most 
High. And he met Abraham when he 
returned from the slaughter of the 
kings, and blessed him. 2. And Abra- 
ham separated for him tenths from 
everything there was with him. Now 
his name, if translated, is, King of Right- 
eousness. And again, [he was] King of 
Salem, which is. King of Peace. 3. 
Neither his father, nor his mother was 
written in family records; nor the be- 
ginning of his days, nor the end of his 
life; but his priesthood, like [that of] 
the Son of God, remains for ever. 

4. See ye then, how great this [priest 
was] ! to whom Abraham, the head of 
the fathers, gave tenths and first-fruits. 

5. For those who from among the sons 
of Levi receive the priesthood, have a 
command of the law to receive tenths 
from [their] people; they from their 
brothers, who also have come forth from 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS VI. 11-20. VII. 1-5. 
each of you should show this same 
earnestness to the extent of having the 
fulness of [your] hope unto the end; 
12, so that ye may not be weary, but 
may be imitators of those who, through 
trust and long patience, are inheriting 
the promises. 

13. For when God made promise to 
Abraham, since he could swear by no one 
greater, he sware by himself, 14, saying, 
—Surely, blessing, I will bless thee, and 
multiplying, I will multiply thee ;— 15, 
And so he had long patience, and reached 
the promise. 16. For men indeed swear 
by one greater than [themselves], and 
[their] oath for confirmation, [puts] an end 
to every contention among them. 17. On 
which account God, wishing to show the 
more fully to the Inheritors of the 
promise, the unchangeableness of his 
purpose, put between [them and him] an 
oath ; 18, that by means of two un- 
changeable things, in which it is impos- 
sible for God to lie, we, who have fled for 
refuge [to him], might have strong en- 
couragement to keep fast hold of the 
hope which is set before us; 19, which 
[hope] we have as an anchor of the soul, 
fast and firm ; and which enters into the 
place within the veil; 20, which place, 
as forerunner, Jesus entered on behalf 
of us, having become a High Priest for 
ever, of the same order as Melchizedec. 

VII. 1. For this Melchizedec, King of 
Salem, priest of God Most High, who met 
Abraham returning from the slaughter 
of the kings, and blessed him; 2, for whom 
Abraham separated a tenth part of all 
things also ; who [was], first, if [his name] 
is translated. King of Righteousness, and 
[who was] next also,King of Salem,which 
is, King of peace; 3, without father, 
without mother, without family-record, 
having neither beginning of days, nor 
end of life, but made in likeness to the 
Son of God, continues to be a priest 
perpetually. 

4. Now consider ye how great this 
[priest was], to whom even Abraham,th6 
chief father, gave a tenth out of the best 
of the spoils. 

5. Even those who from among the 
sons of Levi receive the priesthood, have 
command, according to the law, to re- 
ceive tenths from [their] people ; that is 
from their brothers, though theso [are 



The Peshito-Syriac Tezt. 

HEBREWS VII. 5-22. 

the loins of Abraham. 6. Bnt this 
[priest], who is not written in their 
family-records, received tenths from 
Abraham [himself], and blessed him who 
had received the promise. 7. But with- 
out controversy, he who is less, is blessed 
byiiim who is greater than he. 

8. And here men who die receive 
tenths ; but there he [did so] of whom 
the [sacred] writing bears witness that 
he lives. 

9. And as one might say, Levi also, who 
receives tenths, even he gave tenths by 
means of Abraham. 10. For he was still 
in the loins of his father when he met 
Melohizedec. 

11. If therefore perfectness were by 
means of the priesthood of the Levites, 
through which the law was placed before 
the people, why was it needful that a 
different priest should arise, in the like- 
ness of Melohizedec ? In that case [God] 
would have said,— He shall be in the 
likeness of Aaron. 

12. But as there was a change In the 
priesthood, so there was a change also 
In the law. 13. For he respecting whom 
these things were said, was born of 
another tribe, from which no one ever 
served at the altar. 14. For it is clear 
that our Lord arose from Judah, from 
a tribe respecting which Moses said no- 
thing about priesthood. 15. And it is 
still better known, by this,— that [God] 
said, that a different priest, was to 
rise up in the likeness of Melohizedec ; 
16, one who is not [a priest] by the law of 
commands relating to the body, but by 
the might of a life which cannot be 
destroyed. 17. For [God] bears witness re- 
specting him,— Thou art a priest for ever 
in the likeness of Melohizedec- 18. Now 
the change which was made as to the 
former command, [was] because of its 
weakness, and because there was no 
profit in it. 19. For the law perfected 
nothing ; but a hope entered instead of 
it, which is better than it, and by which 
we draw near to God. 20. And [God] con- 
firmed it to us by an oath. 21. For those 
priests were made without an oath ; but 
this priest with an oath, as [God] said to 
him by means of David,— The Lord sv/are 
and will not lie,— Thou art a priest for 
ever in the likeness of Melohizedec. 

22. In all this, better is that covenant 
of which Jesus has become Surety. 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS VII. &-22. 

but descendants] who have come foi'th 
from the loins of Abraham ; 6, but the 
[priest] who has no family record among 
them, received a tenth from Abraham 
[himself], and blessed him who had re- 
ceived the promises. 7. Yet, without 
any contradiction, the less is blessed by 
the greater. 

8. And here men who die receive 
tenths, but there he [received them], of 
whom witness is given that he lives. 

9. And, so to speak, Levi also, who re- 
ceives tenths, has given tenths by means 
of Abraham ; 10, for he was sf ill in the 
loins of his father when Melchizedeo 
met him. 

11. If, therefore, perfectness were by 
means of the Levitical priesthood, for 
the people were put under law [based] 
on it, what need still [existed,] that a 
different priest should arise, of the same 
order as Melohizedec, and that he should 
not be said [to be] of the same order as 
Aaron ? 

12. For the priesthood being changed, 
there has to be of necessity a change of 
law also; 13, for he, respecting whom 
these things are said, is one of another 
tribe, from which no one attends to the 
altar. 14. For it is clear that our 
Lord has arisen from out of Judah, as to 
which tribe Moses said nothing about 
priesthood. 15. And it is much more 
clear still that there arises a different 
priest, after the likeness of Melohizedec ; 
16, one who is made not after the law of a 
fleshly command, but after the might of 
a life which cannot be destroyed ; 17, for 
[God] bears witness,— Thou art a priest 
for ever of the same order as Melchizedeo. 
18. For there is both the repealing of the 
preceding command, because ol its weak- 
ness and unprofitableness, 19, (for the law 
perfected no thing), and also the introduc- 
tion of a hope which is better, by means 
of which we draw near to God. 20. And 
[it is better], inasmuch as he was not 
[made] without an oath. 21. For they, 
indeed, are made priests without an 
oath, but he [was made] with an oath, by 
him who said to him,— The Lord sware, 
and will not repent,— Thou art a priest 
for ever of the same order as Melohizedec. 



22. In such degree Jesus has bocome 
the Surety of a better covenant. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS VII. 23-28. VIII. 1-7. 
23. And those priests are many, be- 
cause they die, and are not permitted to 
remain. 24. But because this [priest] 
stands for ever, his priesthood does not 
pass away. 25. And he is able to give 
life[-bliss] for ever to those who. by 
means of him, draw near to God ; for he 
lives always, and oflfers up prayers on 
their behalf. 



26. For a priest such as this, was also 
suitable for us,— one pure, and without 
malice ; without blemish also ; one sepa- 
rated from sins, and exalted higher 
than heaven. ^7. And he has not the 
affliction of having every day to offer up 
slain offerings, as a chief priest has, 
first on behalf of his own sins, and then 
of [those of] the people ; for [this last act] 
he did once only by offering up himself. 
28. For the law appoints for priests 
men who are weak ; but the word of 
the oath, which was made after the law, 
[appointed] the Son [of God], who Is 
perfected for ever. 

VIII. 1. But the chief of all these 
things Is, that we have a High Priest 
who has sat down at the right hand of 
the throne of [God's] greatness in heaven ; 
2, and has become a servant of [his] holy 
house, and of that true tent-dwelling 
which God fixed, and not man. 3. For 
every high priest is appointed to oflfer 
up offerings [given] and offerings slain ; 
for this reason it was right that this 
[priest] also should have something to 
offer up. 

4. If, too, he were on the earth, he 
would not even be a priest, because 
there are priests who are offering up 
offerings such as those in the law; 5, 
priests who are doing service according 
to the likeness and the shadow of those 
things which [are] in heaven. As it was 
said to Moses, when he was making the 
tent-dwelling,— See, and make every- 
thing according to that likeness which 
was shown to thee in the mountain. 

6. But Jesus, the Anointed, has now 
accepted a service which is as much 
better than that [service], as this cove- 
nant in which he is made Mediator, is 
alsobetter than [that covenant]; and it 
has been given with promises which are 
better than those of that [covenant]. 7. 
For if the first [covenant] had been with- 
out fault, there would not have been any 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS VII. 23-28. VIII. 1-8. 

23. And of those priests many have to 
be made, because by death they are for- 
bidden to continue. 24. But this [priest], 
because he continues for ever, has a 
priesthood which does not pass away. 
25. On this account, he is also able to 
save perfectly in all respects those who 
come to God through him; for he is 
always living to intercede on their 
behalf. 

26. For he [is] such a High Priest as was 
suitable for us,— holy, without malice, 
undefiled, separated from sinners, and 
raised higher than the heavens ; 27, one 
who has no necessity to offer up slain 
offerings daily, as the chief priests do, 
first on behalf of their own sins, then on 
behalf of those of the people ; for he did 
this [last act] once for all, in having 
offered up himself. 28. For the law 
appoints men to be high priests, who 
have weakness ; but the word of the 
oath, which was after the law, [appoint- 
ed] the Son, who is perfected for ever. 



VIII. 1. But that which Is chief of 
the things now said [of him, is] that we 
have a High Priest of such kind that he 
has sat down at the right hand of the 
throne of [God's] greatness in the 
heavens, 2, a chief servant of the holy 
places, and of that true tent-dwelling 
which the Lord fixed, and not man. 3. 
For every high priest is appointed to 
offer up both gifts and slain offerings; 
hence it [was] necessary that this [priest] 
also should have something to offer up. 

4. For if he were on earth, .he would 
not even be a priest, because there are 
priests who offer up the gifts [which are] 
according to the law ; 5, who do service 
in what is a representation and shadow 
of the heavenly things; according to 
which, Moses, when about to construct 
the tent-dwelling, was directed [to make 
it] ; for [God] said,— See that thou make 
all things according to the pattern 
which was shown to thee in the moun- 
tain. 

6. But he, [Jesus], has now accepted a 
service which is as much more excellent 
than [that of the law], as the covenant 
of which he is Mediator is also better 
than [it], and is planned upon better pro- 
mises. 7. For if that first covenant had 
been faultless, no place would have 
been sought for a second. 8. For [God], 
finding fault with them, [the people] 



The Pesliito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS VIII. 7-13. IX. 1-8. 
place for this second. 8. For he [God] 
foiind fatat with them [the people], and 
said,— Behold the days are coming-, saith 
the Lord, In which I will complete with 
the family of the house of Israel, and with 
the family of the house of Judah, a new 
covenant; 9, not like that covenant 
which I gave to their fathers in the day 
in which I took them by their hand, and 
brought them out from the land of 
Egypt ; for they did not continue in my 
covenant: also I despised them, saith 
the Lord. 10. But this is the covenant 
which I will give to the family of the 
house of Israel, after those days, saith 
the Lord ;— I will put, by gift, my law 
into their minds, and upon their hearts 
I will write it, and I will be their 
God, and they shall be my people. 
11. And no one shall teach a son of his 
city,nor his brother, and say,— Know 
thou the Lord,— because they all 
shall know me, from the least of them 
[in age], to the oldest of them; 12, and! 
will forgive them their iniquities, and 
their sins I will not remember any more. 
13. By saying this,— A new [covenant],— 
he has made the first old in date ; and 
that which is old in date, and old in age, 
Is near to vanishing away. 

IX. 1. Moreover in the first [covenant], 
there were commands of service, and a 
holy house in this world. 2. For in the 
tent-dwelling first made, there were the 
lampstand, and the table, and the bread 
of [God's] presence ; and it was called,— 
The holy house. 3. But: the inner tent- 
dwelling, which was within the second 
veil, was called,— The holy of holies.— 
4. And there were in it the golden vessel 
of sweet odours, (a) and the ark of the 
covenant, which was covered all over 
with gold ; and there were in this, the 
golden jar in which was the manna, and 
the rod of Aaron which sprouted ; and 
the tables of the covenant ; 5, and above 
it, were the cherubim of glory, who 
overshadowed the place of atonement. 
But it is not the time to speak of 
each of those things which were so ar- 
ranged. 6. And into the outer tent- 
dwelling the priests go at all times, and 
complete their service, 7. But into the 
tent-dwelling which was within it, the 
high priest goes once only in the year, 
alone, with that blood which he offers 
up on behalf of himself, and on behalf of 
the errors of the people. 8. Now, by 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS VIII. 8-13. IX. 1-8. 
says,— Behold the days are coming, saith 
the Lord, in which I will complete with 
the house of Israel and with the house 
of Judah, a new covenant ; 9, not accord- 
ing to the covenant which I made with 
their fathers, in the day when I took 
their hand to lead them out of the land 
of Egypt ; for they did not continue in 
my covenant, and I cared not for them, 
saith the Lord. 10. For this [is] the 
covenant which I will make with the 
house of Israel after those days, saith 
the Lord ; I will put by gift, my laws 
Into their mind, and upon their heart I 
will write them ; and I will be their God, 
and they shall be my people ; 11, and they 
shall not teach each one his neighbour, 
and each one his brother, saying,— Know 
thou the Lord;— for all shall know me, 
from the least of them [in age], to the 
greatest of them; 12, for I will be merci- 
ful to their iniquities, and their sins and 
unlawful deeds I will remember no more. 
13. By saying,— A new [covenant], he has 
made the first old in date; and that 
which is old in date and in age, is near 
to vanishing away 



IX. 1. Moreover, the first [covenant] 
had also rules of service, and [its] holy 
place in this world. 2. For a tent-dwell- 
ing was prepared ; [there was] the first, 
in which were the lamp-stand, and the 
table, and the setting forth of the loaves; 
which is called The holy [place]; 3, and 
after the second veil, [was] the tent- 
dwelling which is called,— The holy of 
holies; 4, having a golden censer, (a) and 
the ark oi the covenant, covered all over 
with gold, in which was a golden jar 
holding the manna, and the rod of Aaron 
which sprouted, and the tables of the 
covenant ; 5, and above it [were] the 
cherubim of glory, overshadowing the 
place of atonement ; respecting each of 
which things it is not [the time] now to 
speak. 6. And these things having been 
thus prepared, the priests go always into 
the first tent- dwelling, fulfilling [their] 
services ; 7, but into the second, [enters] 
the high priest, alone, only once in the 
year, not without blood, which he off'ers 
up on behalf of himsel'f, and of the sins 
of ignorance of the people: 8, [by which 
means] the Holy Spirit shows this, that 



(;t) Exodus XXX. 36. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS IX. 8-19. 

this means, the Spirit of Holiness makes 
known, that the pathway of the holy 
ones (a) was not yet revealed, so long as 
the first tent-dwelling was standing. 9. 
And this [tent-dwelling] was a resem- 
Ijlance for that time in which offerings 
[given] and offerings slain, are offered 
np, which are not ahle to make perfect 
the conscience of him who offers them ; 
10, hut have reference only to food eaten, 
and to drink, and to the immersion of 
different kinds of things ; which [rules] 
were commands ahout the flesh, which 
were made binding until the time of 
reform. 

11. But the Anointed, when he came, was 
High Priest of the good things which he 
effected ; and he entered into that great 
and perfect tent-dwelling which has not 
been made by hands, and is no part 
of these created things; 12, and he did 
not enter by means of the blood of goats 
and young bulls, but he, by means of 
his own blood, entered once into the 
holy house, and obtained release which 
Is for ever. 

13. For if the blood of goats and young 
bulls, and if the ashes of a heifer which 
were sprinkled on those who were de- 
filed, made them holy as to the purity of 
their flesh; 14, how much more, then, 
will the blood of the Anointed, who, 
through the Eternal Spirit, offered up 
himself, the spotless, to God, purify our 
conscience from dead works, so that we 
shall serve the living God ! 

15, For this reason he has become 
Mediator of a new covenant,— that by 
his death, he might be the means of re- 
lease to those who have transgressed 
against the first covenant ; so that those 
might receive the promised [gift], who 
have been called to the eternal inherit- 
ance. 16. For where there is a covenant, 
It implies the death of that [animal] 
which made it ; 17, for only upon a dead 
[body] is it made firm ; because as long 
as the [animal] which makes it, lives, 
there is no utility in it. 18. For this 
reason, the first [covenant] also was not 
made firm without blood. 19. For when 
every command had been enjoined by 
Moses, on all the people, according to 
the law, Moses took the blood of a 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS IX, 8-19. 
the pathway of the holy ones (a) had 
not yet been made manifest, while the 
first [tent-dwelling] was still standing ; 
9, which tent-dwelling was a resem- 
blance for the period then following, 
during which both gifts and slain offer- 
ings are offered up, which are not able 
to make perfect, as to the conscience, 
him who serves [God] ; 10, [having refer- 
ence] only to the kinds of food eaten, 
and to drinks,and to various immersions, 
and to rules about the fiesh ; things 
which were made binding until the 
period of reform. 



11, But when the Anointed had come, 
as High Priest of the good things which 
were to come, he, [passing] through that 
greater and more perfect tent-dwelling, 
which has not been made by hands ; that 
is to say. Is not of this [part] of the 
creation; 12, nor by means of the blood 
of goats and young bulls, but by means 
of his own blood, he entered once for 
all into the holy [place], having obtained 
eternal release by ransom. 
13. For if the blood of bulls and of goats, 
and if the ashes of a heifer, sprinkled on 
the defiled, make [them] holy as to the 
purity of the flesh; 14, how much more 
shall the blood of the. Anointed, who, 
through the Eternal Spirit, offered up 
himself, spotless, to God, purify your 
(b) conscience from dead works, that 
ye may serve the living Godl 

15. And the reason why he Is Mediator of 
a new covenant is this,that by[his] death, 
suffered to give release by ransom from 
transgressions against the first cove- 
nant, those who have been called might 
receive the promised [gift] of the eternal 
inheritance. 16. For where there is a 
covenant, it is necessary that the death 
of that [animal] which makes the cove- 
nant, should be brought about. 17, For 
a covenant [is made] firm upon dead 
bodies ; since it is of no force while the 
[animal] which makes it lives. 18. Hence, 
not even the first [covenant] has been 
dedicated without blood. 19. For when 
every commandment had been spoken 
according to the law, by Moses, to all the 
people, he took the blood of the young 



(a) Ver. 8. Hebrews x. 19, 20, 
(b) Ver. 14. Some Greek copies have "our" instead of "your," and agree with the 
Syriac in meaning. 



The Pesliito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS IX. 19-28. X. 1-4. 

heifer, and water, with scarlet wool and 
hyssop, and sprinkled [the blood] on the 
books, and on all the people ; 20, and said 
to them,— This is the blood of that cove- 
nant which has been commanded by- 
God. 21. Also on the tent-dwelling, and 
on all the vessels of service, he sprinkled 
part of the blood. 22. Because, by the 
law, every thing is purified by blood ; 
and without the shedding of blood there 
is no forgiveness. 

23. For it was necessary that those 
things which are a likeness of heavenly 
things, should be purified by those [slain 
offerings] ; but these heavenly things, 
with slain offerings, which are better 
than those. 24. For it was not into the 
holy house which was made by hands, 
that the Anointed entered; which 
[house] is a likeness of the true one ; but 
he entered into heaven, that he might 
appear before the face of God on our 
behalf. 

25. Also it was not [necessary] that 
he should offer up himself many times, 
like as the high priest does [his offerings], 
and enters, every year, into the holy 
house, with blood which is not his own. 
26. Otherwise he ought to have suffered 
many times from the beginning of the 
world. But now, at the end of the 
world, he has offered up himself once, by 
being himself slain, that he might put 
away sin utterly. 27. And like as there is 
appointed for men to die once, and after 
their death, judgment ; 28, so also the 
Anointed was offered up once, and in him- 
self he slew the sins of many ; and then 
the second time he is to appear, without 
the sins, for the life [-bliss] of those who 
expect him. 

X. 1. Forinthelaw there wasa shadow 
of the good things which were to come ; 
it was not the presence o: those things. 
For this reason, the same slain offerings 
which have been offered up every year, 
have never been able to perfect those 
who offered them. 2. For if they [the 
offerings] had made [them] perfect, 
[those who offered] would then doubt- 
less have rested from their offerings; 
because the conscience of those who had 
once been purified, would not thence- 
forth have smitten them on account of 
s ns. 3. But in those slain offerings, 
they call their sius to remembrance 
every year. 4. For it is not possible for 
the blood of bulls and of goats to purge 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS IX. 19-28. X. 1-5. 

bulls and goats, with water and scarlet 
wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the 
book itself, and all the people, 20, sasring, 
—This is the blood of the covenant, which. 
God has commanded [to be made] with 
you.— 21. And he sprinkled with blood» 
in like manner, both the tent-dwelling, 
and all the vessels of [God's] service. 
22. And according to the law, all things 
are purified in part by blood, and with- 
out shedding of blood there is no for- 
giveness. 

23. It was necessary, therefore, that 
the representations of the things in tho 
heavens should be purified by these 
things, but that the heavenly things; 
themselves [should be purified] by slaiu 
offerings better than these. 24. For the: 
Anointed has not entered into the holy 
[place] made by hands, which corres- 
ponds with the true, but into heaven 
itself, to appear now before the face of 
God, on our behalf. 



25. Nor [was it necessary] that he= 
should offer up himself often, like as. 
the high priest enters into the holy 
[place], yearly, with blood other than 
his own ; 26, since [if it had been neces- 
sary], he ought to have suffered often 
from the foundation of the world; 
but he has appeared now once, at the 
end of the ages, for the utter putting 
away of sin, by being a slain ottering; 
himself. 27. And even as there is ap- 
pointed for men to die once, and after 
this, judgment; 28, so the Anointed, 
having been once offered up, that he- 
might take on himself the sins of many, 
will appear a second time, without sin, 
to [give] salvation to those who wait for 
him, 

X. 1. For the law, having but a shadow 
of the good things which were to come» 
not the very presence of those things, 
is never able, by the same slain offer- 
ings which they offer up year by year, 
continually, to perfect those who draw 
near to [God]. 2. For [otherwise] would 
they not have ceased to be offered ? be- 
cause those who serve [God], having 
been once purified, would no longwr have^ 
had any consciousness of sins. 3. But in 
those [slain offerings there is] a calling, 
of sins to remembrance year by year. 4. 
For it is impossible for the blood of bulls, 
and of goats to take away sins. 5. There- 
fore he, [the Anointed], when entering 
into the world says, -Slaiu offering and. 



THe Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS X. 5-23. 

away sins. 5. For this reason, when he 
[the Anointed], entered Into the world, 
he said,-Slain oflferings and gift-oflfer- 
Ings, thou hast not desired; but with 
a hody thou hast clothed me; 6, and 
offerings burnt whole on hehalf of sins, 
thou hast not asked for. 7. Then I said, 
—Behold, I myself come, for in the he- 
ginning of the hooks it is written of me, 
that I may do thy will, O God. 

8. At first he said.-Slain offerings, and 
gift-offerings, and offerings burnt whole 
on behalf of sins, thou hast not desired : 
—which were offered up by the law ; 9, 
and after this he said,— Behold, I come, 
that I may do thy will, O God.— By this, 
he abolished the first, that he might 
set firm the second. 10. For, by this 
will of his, we have been made holy, by 
the offering up of the body of Jesus the 
Anointed, once only. 



11. For every chief priest who has been 
standing and serving every day, has 
been offering up the same slain offer- 
ings, which have never been able to 
purge away sins. 12. But this [Priest] 
offered up one slain offering on behalf of 
sins, and sat down at the right hand of 
God for ever ; 13, and waits, thenceforth, 
until his enemies be placed for a foot- 
stool beneath his feet. 14. For by one 
offering, he has perfected for ever those 
v/ho have been made holy by him. 

15. The Spirit of holiness also bears 
witness to us [of this], for he has said,— 
16, This is the covenant which I will give 
to them after those days, saith the Lord, 
—I will put by gift my law into their 
minds, and on their hearts I will write 
it ; 17, and their iniCLuity and their sins 
I will not remember.— 18. But where 
there is forgiveness of sins, no offering 
on behalf sins is demanded. 



19. We have therefoije, my brothers, 
confidence in entering the holy house by 
the blood of Jesus, and by that pathway 
of life [-bliss], 20, which he has now 
newly made for us through the veil, 
which is his flesh. 21. And we have a 
high priest over the house of God. 22. 
Let us draw near, therefore, with a true 
heart, and with confidence of trust : our 
hearts sprinkled and purified from an 
evil conscience, and our body washed in 
pure water. 23. And let us persevere in 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS X. 5-23. 

gift-offering thou hast not desired, but a 
body thou hast prepared for me ; 6, in 
offerings burnt whole and for sin thou 
hast had no pleasure ; 7, then I said,— 
Behold, I come, [as] in the beginning of 
the book it is written of me, to do, O 
God, thy will. 



8. At first he says,— Slain offering, and 
gift-offering, and offerings burnt whole 
and for sin, thou hast not desired, nor 
hast had pleasure in them ;— which 
are offered up according to the law ; 9, 
then he says,— Behold, I come, to do, O 
God, thy will.— He abolishes the fix-st, 
that he may establish the second. 10. 
By the which will, we have been made 
holy, by means of the offering up of the 
body of Jesus, the Anointed, once for 
all. 

11. And every priest stands doing ser- 
vice daily, and offering up many times 
the same slain offerings, which are never 
able to take away sins; 12, but he, after 
having offered up one slain offering on 
behalf of sins, sat down for ever at the 
right hand of God ; 13, thenceforth wait- 
ing till his enemies be placed for a foot- 
stool of his feet. 14. For by one offering 
he has perfected for ever those who are 
made holy. 

15. And the Holy Spirit also bears wit- 
ness [of this] to us ; for after he had said 
beforehand,— 16, This is the covenant 
which I will make with them after those 
days, saith the Lord ;— I will put by gift 
my laws upon their heart, and upon 
their minds I will write them ;— [he said], 
—17, And their sins and their lawless 
deeds, I will remember no more.— 18. 
But where there is forgiveness of these, 
no longer [is there] any offering for sin. 

19. Having, therefore, [my] brothers, 
confidence for entering into the holy 
[place], by the blood of Jesus, 20, by the 
new and living way which he has dedi- 
cated for us, through the veil, that is, 
his flesh ; 21, and [having] a Great Priest 
over the house of God, 22, let us draw 
near with a true heart, in the fulness of 
trust, having been sprinkled, as to our 
hearts, [and purified] from an evil con- 
science ; and having been bathed, as to 
the body, in pure water. 23. Let us 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS X. 23-38. 

the profession of our hope, and not turn 
aside; for he is trustworthy who has 
promised us. 24. And let us look one on 
another, prompting to love and to good 
works. 25. And let us not desert our as- 
sembly, as'the custom of some is; but 
exhort ye one another ; so much the 
more as ye see that that day comes near. 

26. For if any one should sin of his own 
will, after he has received knowledge of 
the truth, thenceforth there is no slain 
oflfering to be offered up on behalf of 
sins. 27. But there will be judgment of 
might, and the fierceness of the fire 
which is to devour enemies. 28. For if 
he who has broken the law of Moses, 
dies without mercy upon the mouth of 
two and of three witnesses; 29, how much 
more fully, think ye, shall he receive 
capital punishment, who treads on the 
Son of God, and deems the blood of his 
covenant [to be] as that of every man ; 
[that] by which he was to be made holy ; 
and has treated with contempt the 
Spirit of merciful favour. 30. We know 
him who has said,— To me belongs 
avengement, and I will repay.— And 
again,— The Lord will judge his people. 
—31. Great is the fearfulness of falling 
Into the hands of the living God. 

32. Therefore remember the former 
days,— chose in which ye received im- 
mersion, and bore patiently a great con- 
flict of sufferings, under reproach and 
infliction; 33, and in which yo were 
gazing-stocks ; and also took part with 
those who bore these things. 34. And 
ye grieved for those who were imprison- 
ed ; and ye bore with joy the seizure of 
your goods, because ye know that ye 
have a possession in heaven which is 
better, and passes not away. 35. There- 
lore destroy not the confidence which 
ye have, and for which there will be a 
great reward. 36. For patient endur- 
ance is needful for you, that ye may do 
the will of God, and receive what is pro- 
mised. 37. Because little is the time, 
and very little, to when,— He will come 
who is to come, and will not delay.— 38. 
But,— He who is righteous will have 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS X. 23-38. 

maintain our profession of hope unde- 
parted from ; for trustworthy is he who 
has promised. 24. And let us take notice 
one of another, to promote love and 
good works ; 25, not leaving off the as- 
sembling of ourselves together, as the 
custom of some [is] ; but exhorting [one 
another], and so much the more as ye see 
the day come near. 

26. For if we sin willingly after we 
have received the knowledge of the 
truth, no slain offering for sins any 
longer remains ; 27, but a fearful expec- 
tation of judgment, and the fierce- 
ness of that fire which will devour 
the adversaries. 28. He who has 
broken the law of Moses, dies without 
compassion, on [the word of] two or 
three witnesses; 29, how much worse 
punishment, think ye, shall he be deem- 
ed to deserve, who has trodden under 
foot the Son of God, and has regarded 
the blood of the covenant by which he 
was to be made holy, as mere common 
[blood], and has treated with proud 
scorn, the Spirit of merciful favour ? 30. 
For we know him who has said,— To me 
[belongs] avengement; I will repay, 
saith the Lord ;— and again,— The Lord 
will judge his people. —31. It is a fearful 
thing to fall into the hands of the living 
God. 

32. But remember the former days, in 
which, having been enlightened, (a) ye 
bore patiently a great conflict of suffer- 
ings; 33, both by being made gazing- 
stocks by reproaches and inflictions; 
and by having become sharers in com- 
mon with those who were so treated. 
34. For ye had fellow-feeling with [me] 
in my bonds, (b) and ye took joyfully the 
seizure of your goods, knowing that ye 
have in yourselves (c) a better possession 
in heaven, and one which continues. 35, 
Cast not away, therefore, your confi- 
dence, which has great recompense of 
reward. 36. For ye have need of patient 
endurance; in order that.having done the 
will of God, ye may receive what is pro- 
mised. 37. For [after] still a very little 
time,— He who is to come, will come, and 
will not delay.— 38. But,— The righteous 
person will live by means of trust ; - and 



(a) Ver. 32. Compare VI. 4. 
(b) Ver. 34. Some Greek copies, for " with me in my bonds," bave " with the prisoners,' 
like the Syriac. 
(c) Ver. 34. Some Greek copies have only ** that ye have," without "In yourselves." 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS X. 38-39. XI. 1-10. 

life [-bliss] through trust in me.-And - 
If he iDecoraes weary, my soul has no 
pleasure in him.— 39. But we are not of 
the weariness which leads to destruc- 
tion, but of trustj which causes us to 
possess our soul. 

XI. 1. Moreover, trust is persuasion 
about things hoped for, as if they were 
things done ; and it is a revealing of 
those things which are not seen. 2. And 
on account of it witness was borne to 
the ancients. 

3. For by trusting, we understand that 
the worlds were formed by the word 
of God, and that those things which are 
seen, came to be from those things which 
are not seen. 

4. By trusting, Abel offered up to God 
a slain offering, which was much better 
than [the offering] of Cain ; and because 
of it, witness was borne respecting him 
that he was righteous ; and God bore 
witness respecting his offering ; and be- 
cause of it also, though he is dead, he 
speaks. 

5. By trusting, Enoch was taken away, 
and did not taste of death ; and he was 
not found, because God had taken him 
away. For even before he took him 
away, witness was borne respecting him 
that he pleased God. 6. But without 
trusting, no one is able to please God. 
For he who draws near to God must 
trust in that he is, and will be the 
rewarder of those who seek him. 

7. By trusting, Noah, when he was 
spoken to aboat things which were not 
seen, feared, and made for himself 
an ark, to preserve the lives of his 
household ; by which [ark] he condemned 
the world, and became an inheritor of 
the righteousness which is by trust. 

8. By trusting, Abraham, when he was 
■called, obeyed [the command] that he 
should go forth to the place which he 
was, in the future, to receive for an in- 
heritance ; and went forth when he 
knew not whither he was going. 9. By 
trusting, he lived without any fixed 
dwelling in that land which had been 
promised to him, as if [he were] in a 
foreign [land] ; and dwelt in tents with 
Isaac and Jacob, the inheritors of the 
same promise. 10. For he was expecting 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS X. 38-39. XI. 1-10. 
if he draw back, my soul has no pleasure 
in him. 39. But we are not of the draw- 
ing back [which leads] to destruction, 
but of trust, [which leads] to the pos- 
session of the soul. 



XI. 1. Now trust Is assurance of things 
hoped for ; conviction of things not seen. 
2. For by it the ancients had witness 
borne to them. 



3. By trusting, we understand that the 
worlds have been formed by the word of 
God, so that the things seen have not 
come into being from out of things whicU 
are apparent. 

4. By trusting, Abel offered up to God 
a slain offering, which was better than 
[the offering] of Cain ; through which 
witness was borne that he was righteous; 
God bearing witness respecting his gifts; 
and by means of that [offering], hOi 
though dead, still speaks. 

5. By trusting, Enoch was taken 
away, so as not to see death ; and he 
was not found, because God had taken 
him away ; for before he was taken away, 
witness had been borne that he was 
well-pleasing to God. 6. But without 
trust, it is impossible to please [him] 
well; for he who comes to God must 
trust in that he is, and that he will be 
the giver of reward to those who seek 
him earnestly. 

7. By trusting, Noah, having been told 
[by God] about things not yet seen, 
moved by godly fear, prepared an ark, 
for the salvation of his household; by 
means of which [ark], he condemned the 
world, and became an inheritor of that 
righteousness which is according to 
trust. 

8. By trusting, Abraham, when called 
to go forth into the place which he was 
afterwards to receive for an inheritance, 
obeyed, and went forth, not knowing 
whither he was going. 9. By trusting, 
he dwelt without fixed abode in the land 
of promise, as in a foreign [country], 
dwelling in tents, with Isaac and Jacob, 
inheritors with him of the same pro- 
mise ; 10, for he was expecting the city 
which has its foundations; whose De- 
signer and Buildor [is] Gofl. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS XI. 10-23. 

the city whlcli has a foundation, whose 
Desigrner and Maker is God. 

11. By trusting, Sarah, who was barren, 
received strength to receive seed, and 
gave birth when not at the fit time of 
her years ; because she firmly believed 
that he was trustworthy who had pro- 
mised her. 

12. For this reason, by one who was 
Incapable from age, were begotten as 
many as the stars which are in heaven, 
and as the sands which are on the sea- 
shore, which are numberless. 

13. These all died trusting, and re- 
ceived not what was promised them ; but 
from afar they saw it, and rejoiced in it, 
and professed that they were strangers 
and without fixed dwelling on earth. 
14. But those who say these things, 
show that they are seeking their own 
city. 15. And if they had been seeking 
that city from which they had gone out, 
they had time to return, [and] go to 
It again. 16. But at present it is known 
that they were desiring a [city] which is 
better than it; the one which is in 
heaven. For this reason, God was not 
ashamed to be called their God ; for he 
prepared for them a city. 



17. By trusting, Abraham, when put to 
test, offered up Isaac, and lifted to the 
altar his only son ;— him whom he had 
received by promise. 18. For it had 
been said to him,— In Isaac a seed shall be 
called thine. 19. And he thought within 
himself,— The hands of God are able even 
to raise him from among the dead;— 
and for this reason, he was given [back] 
to him in the likeness [of a resurrection]. 

20. By trusting in that which was to be 
In the future, Isaac blessed Jacob and 
Esau. 

21. By trusting, Jacob, when dying, 
blessed each one of the sons of Joseph, 
and worshipped, [leaning] on the head 
of his staff". 

22. By trusting, Joseph, when dying, 
made mention of the leading forth of 
the sons of Israel; and gave command- 
ment about his bones. 

23. By trusting, the parents of Moses 
hid him, after he was born, for three 
months ; because they saw that he was 
a beautiful child ; and feared not on 
account of the command of the king. 



The Greek Text. 



HEBREWS XI. 11-23. 



11. By trusting. Sarah also herself re- 
ceived power for the deposit of seed, and 

' brought forth when past the fit time of 
life, because she esteemed him trust- 
worthy who had promised. 

12. Therefore, even by one, and by him 
when partly dead, there were begotten 
as many as the stars of heaven in multi- 
tude, and like the sands which are on 
the sea-shore, which cannot be num- 
bered, 

13. These all died, trusting without 
having received the things promised, 
but having seen them from afar, and 
having been persuaded of [them], and 
having embraced [them], and professed 
that they were strangers, and without 
fixed dwelling, on earth. 14. For those 
who say such things, make it manifest 
that they are seeking a country of their 
own. 15. For if, indeed, they had been 
calling to mind that [country] from 
which they went out, they would 
have had opportunity to return. 16. But 
at present [we know] that they were de- 
siring a better one, that is, a heavenly 
one. Therefore God is not ashamed of 
them, [Dor] of being called their God ; 
for he has prepared for them a city. 

17. By trusting, Abraham, when put to 
to test, offered up Isaac; he who had 
received the promises offered up even 
his only son, 18, respecting whom it had 
been said,— In Isaac a seed shall be called 
thine ;— 19, for he had taken into account 
that God was able even to raise him up 
from among the dead ; from among whom 
he also received him, by a resemblance 
[of resurrection]. 

20. By trusting, with respect to things 
to come. Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau. 

21, By trusting, Jacob, when dying, 
blessed each of the sons of Joseph, and 
worshipped, [leaning] upon the top of 
his staff. 

22. By trusting, Joseph, when dying, 
made mention of the going forth of the 
sons of Israel, and gave commandment 
about his bones. 

23, By trusting, after Moses was born, 
he was hidden three months by his 
parents, because they saw that the child 
was beautiful ; and they feared not the 
command of the king. 



The Peahito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS XI. 24-38. 

24. By trusting, Moses, when he became 
a man, refused to he called the son of 
the daughter of Pharaoh ; 25, and chose 
for himself to be in affliction with the 
people of God, Instead of, for a little 
time, delighting in sin. 26. And he 
deemed reproach [on account] of the 
Anointed, to be wealth far exceeding 
the treasure of Egypt ; for he was look- 
ing at the recompense of reward. 27. 
By trusting, he left Egypt, and feared 
not on account of the wrath of the king; 
and he hoped as one who saw God, who 
cannot be seen. 

28. By trusting, they kept the passover, 
and the sprinkling of the blood, that he 
who was destroying the firstborn might 
not come near them. 

29. By trusting, they passed through 
the sea of Suph, as if on dry land; 
though the Egyptians were swallowed 
up in it, when they had dared to enter 
It. 

80. By trusting, the walls of Jericho 
fell, when they had been gone round 
seven days. 

31. By trusting, Rahab the harlot per- 
ished not with those who obeyed not; 
because she had received the spies with 



82. What more shall I say ? For I have 
little time to tell about Gideon, and 
Barak, and Samson, and Jephthah, and 
David, and Samuel, and the rest of the 
prophets: 33, who, by trusting, con- 
quered kingdoms, and worked righteous- 
ness ; who received things promised, 
and shut the mouths of lions ; 34, who 
quenched the might of fire, and were 
delivered from the edge of the sword ; 
who were made strong from weaknesses, 
and were mighty in battle, and over- 
threw the camps of enemies. 35. Who 
gave to women their sons, by the rising 
[to life] of the dead. And others died by 
tortures, and did not hope to be de- 
livered, that they might have a better 
rising [to life]. 36. Others moreover 
went through mockingsand scourgings ; 
others were delivered up to bonds and 
prisons ; 37, others were stoned ; others 
were sawn asunder; others died by the 
edge of the sword ; others went about 
clothed in the skins of sheep and of 
goats; and [they were] needy, and 
afflicted, and harassed; 38, men of whom 
the world was not worthy; and they lived 
like wanderers, in desert, and in moun- 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS XI. 24-38. 

24. By trusting, Moses, when he be- 
came a man, refused to be called the son 
of the daughter of Pharaoh ; 25, choosing 
to be lil-treated together with the 
people of God, rather than to have for a 
season the enjoyment of sin. 26. For he 
deemed reproach [on account] of the 
Anointed, greater wealth than the trea- 
sures in Egypt ; for he looked onward 
to the recompense of reward. 27. By 
trusting, he left Egj^t, without fearing 
the wrath of the king, for he steadfastly 
went on as seeing him who cannot be 
seen. 

28. By trusting, he kept the passover, 
and the outpouring of the blood, that he 
who destroyed the first-born might not 
touch them. 

29. By trusting they passed through 
the Red Sea, as by dry land ; which the 
Egyptians, attempted [to pass], and 
were swallowed up. 

SO. By trusting, the walls of Jericho 
fell, after they had been gone round for 
seven days. 

31. By trusting, Rahab the harlot per- 
ished not with those who obeyed not, 
she having received the spies with 
peace. 

32. And why should I say more? For 
time will fail me to tell fully about 
Gideon, and Barak, and Samson, and 
Jephthah, and David, and Samuel, and 
the prophets; 33, who, by means of 
trusting, subdued kingdoms, worked 
righteousness, obtained things promised, 
stopped the mouths of lions, 34, quench- 
ed the power of fire, escaped the edge of 
the sword, were made strong from weak- 
ness, became mighty in war, turned 
back the armies of foreign foes. 35. 
Women received their dead, by their 
rising again [to life] ; and others were 
tortured, and did not accept deliverance, 
that they might have a rising again [to 
life], which was better. 36. And others 
underwent mockings and scourgings, 
and also bonds and Imprisonment; 
37, they were stoned, they were sawn 
asunder, they were tempted, they died 
by murder of the sword; they went 
about in sheeps' skins, and goats' skins ; 
they were In need, were afflicted, were 
ill-treated ; 38, of whom the world was 
not worthy ; they wandered in deserts, 
and In mountains, and in caves, and in 
the clefts of the earth. 



The Peshito-Syriae Text. 

HEBREWS XI. 38-40. XII. 1-12. 
tains, and In caverns, and In clefts of the 
earth. 

39. And of all these to whom witness 
was home on account of their trust, 
none received what was promised ; 40, 
because God had provided, with view to 
our benefit, that they should not be 
made perfect without us. 

XII. 1. For this reason, let ns also, who 
have all those witness-bearers surround- 
ing us like clouds, put away from us all 
weights, also sin which is always made 
ready for us, and let us run with patient 
endurance this race which is set before 
us. 2. And let us look on Jesus, who is 
the Beginner and the Perfecter of our 
trust ; who, for the sake of the joy which 
was to be his, endured patiently the 
cross, and yielded himself to shame, and 
sat down at the right hand of the throne 
of God. 

3. See ye, therefore, how much he pa- 
tiently endured from those sinners who 
were adversaries to themselves, (a) ; 
that ye may not be weary, nor your soul 
become faint. 4. Not yet have ye come to 
blood in the contest against sin. 5. And 
ye have forgotten the teaching which 
speaks to you as to sons,— My son, slight 
not the chastening of the Lord, nor let 
thy soul faint when thou art reproved 
by him. 6. For whom the Lord loves he 
chastens, and uses the rod to those sons 
In whom he delights.— 7. Therefore 
endure chastening patiently. Because 
God is dealing with you as with sons. 
For what son is there whom his father 
does not chasten ? 8. But if ye are with- 
out that chastening with which every- 
one is chastened, ye are strangers, and 
not sons. 9. And if our fathers of flesh 
chastened us, and we revered them, how 
much more, on that account, ought we 
to submit ourselves to ttie Father of 
spirits, and have life [-bliss]. 10. For 
they chastened us, for a little time, 
according to their pleasure; but God 
[chastens us] for our benefit, that we 
may share his holiness. 11. But all 
chastening, while it lasts, is counted a 
thing, not of joy, but of sadness ; yet, in 
the end, it bears fruits of peace and 
righteousness to those who have been 
exercised by it. 

12. For this reason, strengthen your re- 
laxed hands, and your trembling knees ; 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS XI. 39-40. XII. 1-12. 



39. And of all these to whom, through 
trusting, witness was borne, none 
received what was promised; 40, God 
having provided for us what is better, 
that they, without us, should not be 
made perfect. 

XII. 1. Therefore let us also, who have 
so great a cloud of witness-bearers sur- 
rounding us, put away every weight, 
and sin which readily besets [us], and 
run with patient endurance the race set 
before us ; 2, looking away to Jesus, the 
Originator and Perfecter of trust ; who, 
on account of the joy set before him, 
patiently endured the cross, despising 
the shame, and sat down at the right 
hand of the throne of God. 



3. For consider him who patiently 
endured such hostile speech by sinners 
against him (a), that ye may not be 
weary, fainting in your souls. 4. Not yet 
have ye resisted unto blood, contending 
against sin. 5. And ye have forgotten 
the admonition which talks with you 
as with sons,— My son, slight not the 
chastening of the Lord, nor faint when 
reproved by him ; 6, for whom the Lord 
loves he chastens ; and applies the rod 
to every son whom he tenderly em- 
braces.— 7. If ye endure chastening 
patiently, God is dealing with you as 
with sons. For what son is there whom 
a father does not chasten ? 8. But if ya 
are without chastening, of which all 
[sons] have partaken, then ye are bas- 
tards, and not sons. 9. Besides, we had 
the fathers of our flesh to chasten us, 
and we gave them reverence ; shall we 
not much rather submit ourselves to the 
Father of spirits, and live ? 10. For they, 
for a few days, chastened us according 
to what pleased them ; but he [does it] 
for our benefit, that we may share his 
holiness. 11. But all chastening, while 
present, seems not to be a thing of joy, 
but of grief; but afterwards, it yields 
the peaceful fruit of righteousness, to 
those who have been exercised thereby. 



12. Therefore make use anew of the 
drooping hands, and of the unstrung 



(a) Ver. 3. Some Greek copies have, " against themselves." 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS XII. 13-26. 

13, and make right paths for your feet; 
that a lame limD may not slip, but be 
cured. 

14. Pursue peace with every one, and 
holiness, for without this no one sees our 
Lord. 15. And take ye heed lest anyone 
be found among you who is destitute of 
the merciful favour of God; and lest 
any root of bitterness should put forth 
its shoot, and harm you ; and by it many 
be defiled. 16. And lest any one be found 
among you who is a fornicator and loose- 
liver, like Esau, who for one meal of food 
sold his right as first-born. 17. For ye 
know that also afterwards he desired to 
Inherit the blessing, and was rejected; 
for he did not find room for repentance, 
though he sought the [blessing] with 
tears. 

18. For ye have not come near to burn- 
ing fire, and to what could be touched, 
nor to darkness, and to blackness, and to 
tempest; 19, nor to the sound of the 
trumpet, and to the voice of words; 
as to which voice, those who heard 
it intreated that no words might be 
spoken to them again ; 20, for they were 
not able to endure patiently that which 
was commanded, that even if an animal 
went near the mountain, it should be 
stoned; (a) 21, and so fearful was the 
sight, that Moses said,— I fear and 
tremble. 

22. But ye have come near to that 
mount Zion, and to that city of the 
living God, to that Jerusalem, which 
[are] in heaven ; and to the multitudes 
of tens of thousands of angels ; 23, and 
to the assembly of the first-born who 
are written in heaven ; and to God, the 
Judge of all ; and to the spirits of the 
righteous who have been perfected ; 24, 
and to Jesus, the Mediator of the new 
covenant ; and to the sprinkling of his 
blood, which speaks better things than 
that of Abel. 

25. Take ye heed, therefore, lest ye 
refuse [to hear] him who speaks with 
you. For if those escaped not, who re- 
fused [to hear] him who spoke with them 
on earth, how much less shall we, if we 
refuse [to hear] him who has spoken with 
us from heaven. 26. Whose voice shook 
the earth; but, at present, he has pro- 
mised and said,— Again I will, for once. 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS XII. 13-27. 

knees ; 13, and make right paths for your 
feet, that the lame [limb] may not be 
turned aside, but may be cured. 

14. Pursue peace with all, and holiness, 
without which no one will see the Lord. 
15. Take heed, by oversight, lest anyone 
should be destitute of the merciful 
favour of God ; lest any root of bitter- 
ness should spring up, and give trouble, 
and by means of it many be defiled ; 16, 
lest there should be any fornicator, or 
profane person, like Esau, who, in ex- 
change for one [meal] of food sold his 
right as first-born. 17. For ye know that 
also afterwards, when he wished to in- 
herit the blessing, he was rejected ; for 
he found no place of repentance, though 
he sought the [blessing] earnestly with 
tears. 

18. For ye have not come near to a 
mountain which could be touched, and 
which burned with fire ; and to black- 
ness, and darkness, and tempest ; 19, and 
to the sound of a trumpet, and to the 
voice of words, by which voice, those 
who heard it, intreated that no word 
more might be addressed to them; 20, 
for they could not endure what was 
commanded ;— Even if a beast touch the 
mountain, it shall be stoned, or thrust 
through with a dart, (a) 21. And so fear- 
ful was the manifestation that Moses 
said,— I fear exceedingly and tremble. 

22. But ye have come near to mount 
Zion, and to the city of the living God,— 
the heavenly Jerusalem ; and to tens 
of thousands of angels ; 23, to the uni- 
versal meeting and assembly of the first- 
born who have been written in the roll of 
heaven ; and to God the Judge of all ; and 
to the spirits of the righteous made 
perfect ; 24, and to Jesus the Mediator 
of the new covenant, and to [his] blood 
of sprinkling, which speaks better things 
than that of Abel. 

25. See that ye refuse not him who 
speaks. For if those escaped not who 
refused him when speaking on earth, 
much more shall not we, if we turn 
away from him [speaking] from heaven. 
26. Whose voice then shook the earth ; 
but now he has promised, saying,— Still, 
once, I shake not only the earth, but 
also the heaven.— 27. And this,-Still 



(a) Ver. 20. The words, "or thrust through with a dart, 
text, nor in some Greek copies. 



are not in the Syriao 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 



HEBREWS XII. 26- 



XIII. 1-14. 



shake not only earth, but also heaven.— 
27. This then which he has said,— For 
once,— shows the changing of those 
things which are to be shaken, because 
these have been made that those which 
are not to be shaken may continue, 

28. And, therefore, because we have 
received a kingdom which is not to be 
shaken, may we have merciful favour, 
by which we may serve and please God 
with reverence and fear ; 29, for our God 
is a devouring fire. 

XIII. 1. Let love of brothers continue 
among you. 2. And forget not kindness 
to strangers ; for by means of it, some 
have been honoured to receive, without 
knowing it, angels, 3. Remember those 
who are in bonds, as If ye were bound 
with them. Keep In memory those who 
are afllicted, as being yourselves clothed 
with flesh. 

4. Marriage Is honourable In all, and 
their bed is pure ; but fornicators and 
adulterers God will Judge. 

5. Let not your mind love money ; but 
let what ye have Satisfy you ; for the 
Lord himself has said,— I will not forsake 
thee, nor draw back my hands from thee. 
—6. And it is ours to say with confidence, 
—My Lord is my Helper; I will not fear ; 
what can man do to me 7 

7. Remember your leaders— those who 
spoke to you the word of God ; consider 
the completion of their courses, and 
imitate their exercise of trust. 

8. Jesus, the Anointed, is the same 
yesterday, and to-day, and for ever. 

9. Be not led away by teachings foreign 
[from ours], and of varied kinds ; for it is 
good for us to strengthen our hearts by 
merciful favour, not by kinds of food; 
because those who have walked in these, 
have not been helped [thereby]. 

10. Moreover, we have the altar from 
which it was not lawful for those to 
eat who did service in the tent-dwelling. 
11. For the flesh of those animals, the 
blood of which the high priest took into 
the holy house on behalf of sins, was 
burned outside the camp. 12. For this 
reason, Jesus, that he might make his 
people holy by his blood, suff'ered outside 
the city. 13. And therefore, let us also go 
out to him outside the camp, bearing 
his reproach. 14. For we have not 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS XII. 26-29. XIII. 1-14. 
once,— points out the changing of the 
things to be shaken, as of things which 
have been made in order that those 
which are nod to be shaken may con- 
tinue. 

28. Therefore may we, who are receiv- 
ing a kingdom which is not to be shaken, 
havemercifulfavour, by means of which 
we may serve God in a way well-pleasing 
to him, with reverence and godly fear ; 
29, for our God is a consuming fire. 

XIII. 1. Let brotherly love continue. 
2. Forget not kindness to strangers ; for 
by means of it, some, unconsciously, 
have entertained angels. 3. Remember 
those in bonds, as bound with [them] ; 
those who are ill-treated, as being your- 
selves also in the body. 



4. Marriage is honourable In all, and 
[Its] bed [is] undeflled ; but fornicators 
and adulterers God will judge, 

5. Live without love of money; be 
content with what ye have ; for he him- 
self has said,— Surely I will not forsake 
thee, nor, as surely, will I leave thee ;— 
6, so that we boldly say,— The Lord is my 
helper ; and I will not fear. What shall 
man do to me ? 

7. Remember your leaders, those who 
spoke to you the word of God. Consider 
the close of their course, and imitate 
their exercise of trust. 

8. Jesus the Anointed is the same 
yesterday, and to-day, and for ever. 

9. Be not led about by teachings 
various and foreign [from ours] ; tor it is 
good that the heart be made firm by 
merciful favour, not by kinds of food, by 
which those have not been profited who 
have walked in them. 

10. We have the altar from which those 
who do service [as] in the tent-dwell: ng 
have no authority to eat. 11. For the 
bodies of those animals, the blood of 
which, [shed] on account of sin, is taken 
by the high priest into the holy [place], 
are burned outside the camp. 12. There- 
fore Jesus also, that he might make [his] 
people holy by means of his own blood, 
suffered outside the gate. 13. Therefore 
let us come out to him, outside the camp, 
bearing his reproach. 14. For we have 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

HEBREWS XIII. 14-25. 

a continuing city here, but are expecting 
that whicli is to be. 

15. And through him let us offer up 
slain- offerings of praise, at all times, to 
God ; which [praise] is the fruit of lips 
which give thanks to his name. 

16. And forget not kindness and the 
giving of gifts to the poor ; for by these 
slain offerings man pleases God. 

17. Be persuaded by your leaders, and 
submit to them ; for they keep watch on 
behalf of your souls, as those who have 
to give an account of you ; that they 
may do this with joy, and not with sighs; 
because that would not be of advantage 
to you. 

18. Pray for us, for we are confident 
that we have a good conscience ; for in 
everything we desire to conduct our- 
selves well. 19. I more especially beg of 
you to do this, that I may quickly return 
to you. 

20. Now may the God of peace, who 
brought up from the house of the dead 
the Great Shepherd of the flock, by the 
blood of the eternal covenant, who is 
Jesus, the Anointed, our Lord ; 21,— may 
he perfect you in every good work, that 
ye may do his will ; and may he work in 
US that which is good in his sight, by 
means of Jesus the Anointed ; to whom 
[be] glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

22. Now I beg of you, my brothers, that 
ye exercise forbearance under the word 
of exhortation, because it is in few 
words I have written to yon, 

23. Know ye also that our brother 
Timothy has been set free; and if he 
should come soon, I will see you with 
him. 

24. Give my wish of peace to all your 
leaders, and to all the holy ones. 

All those who are of Italy wish you 
peace. 

25. Merciful favour be with you all. 
Amen, (b) 



The Greek Text. 

HEBREWS XIII. 14-25. 

not here a continuing city, but we seek 
that which is to be. 

15. Through him therefore, let us offer 
up the slain offering of praise, at all 
times, to God ; that is, the fruit of lips 
which give thanks to his name. 

16. And forget not to do good and give 
gifts, for with such slain ofteringa God 
is well pleased. 

17. Be persuaded by your leaders, and 
submit ; for they keep watch on behalf 
of your souls, as those who will give 
account ; that they may do this with joy, 
and not with sighing ; for that [would 
be] unprofitable for you. 



18. Pray ye for us ; for we are confident 
that we have a good conscience, and 
desire to conduct ourselves well in all 
things. 19. And I more especially beg 
you to do this, that I may be restored to 
you the sooner. 

20. And may the God of peace, who 
brought up from among the dead the 
Great Shepherd of the sheep, by the 
blood of the eternal covenant, our Lord 
Jesus, 21, may he make you perfect in 
every good work, so as to do his will; 
working in you (a) what is well-pleasing 
in his sight, by means of Jesus the 
Anointed; to whom be glory for ever 
and ever. Amen. 

22. Now I beg of you, [my] brothers, to 
bear with the word of exhortation, for 
in few words I have written to you. 

23. Know ye that our brother Timothy 
has been set free; with whom, If he 
should come soon, I will see you. 

24. Give greetings to all your leaders, 
and all the holy ones. 

Those who are of Italy greet you. 

25. Merciful favour be with you all. 
Amen. 



(a) Ver. 21. Some Greek copies have, " us " instead of " you." 

(b) Ver. 25. The Syriac copies state, at the end of this letter, that It was written 
from Italy. Jacobite copies say,— Finished is the letter to the Hebrews, which was 
written from Roman Italy, and was sent by the hands of Timothy.— The Maronite 
edition of 1703 says,— that it was "written from Italy," and adds, "and to God be 
glory for ever." The Ooroomiah edition of 1852, supposed to represent Nestoriau 
copies of Coordistan, has,~Finished is the letter to the Hebrews, which was written 
from Italy. 



THE LETTER OF JAMES 

TO THE CHRISTIANS OF THE TWELVE TRIBES SCATTERED 
AMONG THE GENTILES. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

THE LETTER OF JAMES, A CHIEF 
MESSENGER. 
JAMES I. 1-11. 

I. 1. James, a servant of God, and of 
our Lord Jesus the A nointed :— 

To tlie twelve tribes which, are sown 
among the Gentiles ;— Peace. 

2.-Let it be all joy to you. my brothers, 
when ye enter into many and various 
trials. 3. For ye know that the testing 
of [your] trust, makes you to possess 
patient endurance. 4. But let there be 
In patient endurance itself, a complete 
work, that ye may be perfect and com- 
plete, and may be lacking in nothing. 

5. But if any one of you lacks wisdom, 
let him ask [it] of God, who gives to all 
largely, and does not reproach ; and it 
will be given him. 6. But let him ask in 
the exercise of trust, without doubting. 
He who donbts is like the waves of the 
sea, which the wind disturbs. 7. And 
let not that man think that he will re- 
ceive anything from the Lord, 8, who 
doubts in his mind, and is disturbed in 
all his ways. 

9. And let the brother of lowly [lot] 
glory in his high position ; 10, and the 
rich in his becoming lowly ; because, like 
the flower of herbage, so he is to pass 
away. 11. For the sun rises in its heat, 
and dries up the herbage, and its flower 



The Greek Text. 

THE LETTER OF JAMES, (a) 
JAMES I. 1-11. 

1. 1. James a bond-servant of God, and 
of the Lord Jesus the Anointed ;— 

To the twelve tribes which are in the 
dispersion ; Joy. 

2. Deem it all joy, my brothers, when ye 
fall into various trials; 3, for ye know- 
that the testing of your trust, works 
patient endurance. 4. But let [your] 
patient endurance do a complete work, 
that ye may be complete and whole, 
lacking in nothing. 

6. But If any one of you lacks wisdom, 
let him ask [it] of God, who gives to all 
liberally, and does not reproach ; and it 
will be given him. 6. But let him ask in 
the exercise of trust, without any 
doubting ; for he who doubts is like a 
wave of the sea, driven by the wind, and 
tossed about. 7. For let not that man 
think that he will receive anything from 
the Lord. 8. A man of two minds [Is] 
unstable in all his ways. 

9. And let the brother of lowly [lot] 
glory in his high position; 10, but let the 
rich one [glory] in making himself lowly; 
because, like the flower of herbage he 
will pass away. 11. For the sun rises, 
with [its] burning heat, and dries up the 



(a) Title. The seven letters,— that of James, the 1st and 2nd of Peter, the 1st, 2nd 
and 3rd of John, and that of Jude, have been called, in the titles of them, in many 
copies, " Catholic," that is, General. Chrysostom (A.D. 386-403) speaks of " three 
catholic letters," meaning probably James, 1st Peter, and 1st John. Cyril of Jeru- 
salem (A.D. 348—386) speaks of *' the seven catholic letters of James, Peter, John and 
Jude." So do Epiphanius (A.D. 403) ; Athanasius (A.D. 326—373) ; and Amphilochius 
(about A.D. 380). Why were they so called? They were not addressed to all Christ- 
ians. Leontius (about A.D. 590) says that '* the seven catholic letters, were called 
catholic because they were not written to one nation as those of Paul were, but 
generally to all." But those of James and Peter state that they were written solely 
to the Hebrews dispersed among the Gentiles. Ebed Jesu, (A.D. 1298-1318) spoke of 
•'the three letters which are called catholic, those of James, Peter and John," as 
•' signed by the apostles in every language." (Dr. Badger's Nestorians, Vol. II. p. 362.) 
As at Pentecost, the Hebrews from all parts heard the apostles speak in all the 
languages of the nations in which they dwelt; so, according to Ebed Jesu, these 
letters were signed by the apostles in them all, and were therefore, at the least, 
written in both Syriuc and Graek. See Westcott on the canon, Appendix D. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

JAMES I. 11-25. 

falls off, and the TDeauty of Its appear- 
ance peii-Sties ; so also is tlie rich man 
to wither away in the midst of his pro- 
ceedings. 

12. Blessed is the man who endures 
trials patiently, for when he shall have 
been proved [faithful], he is to receive 
the crown of life [-bliss], which God has 
promised to those who love him. 

13. Let no one say, when he is tempted, 
—I am tempted by God ;— for God is not 
tempted by evil things, and he tempts 
no one. 14. But each one is tempted by 
his own eager desire; and he desires, 
and is drawn on; 15, and this eager 
desire becomes pregnant, and gives birth 
to sin ; and sin, when it has been per- 
fected, gives birth to death. 16. Do not 
err, my beloved brothers. 17. From 
above comes down every good and com- 
plete gift, from the Father of lights; 
with whom there is nothing of change, 
nor the shadow of change. 18. He him- 
self willed and begat us (a)' by the word 
of truth, that we might be a first-fruit 
of those whom he creates. 

19. Andbeye, every one of you, my be- 
loved brothers, q,uick to hear, and slow 
to speak ; slow also to anger; 20, for the 
anger of man works not the righteous- 
ness of God. 21. For this reason put 
far away from you all pollution, and the 
abounding of evil, and receive with 
lowliness the word which has been 
planted in our nature, which is able to 
mpart life [-bliss] to your souls. 

22. But be ye doers of the word, and 
not hearers only; and do not deceive 
yourselves. 23. For if a person be a 
hearer of the word, and not a doer of it, 
he is like to him who views his face in a 
mirror ; 24, for he sees himself, and goes 
away, and forgets what he was. 25. But 
every one who looks into the complete 
law of freedom, and continues in it, is 
not a hearer of what is heard and for- 
gotten, but a doer of deeds ; and he will 
be blessed in what he does. 



The Greek Text. 

JAMES I. 11-25. 

herbage, and the flower of it falls off, 
and the beauty of its appearance 
perishes. So also will the rich man 
wither away in the midst of his proceed- 
ings. 

12. Blessed is the man who endures 
trial patiently ; for when he has been 
approved, he will receive the crown of 
life, which the Lord has promised to 
those who love him. 

13. Let no one when tempted say,— I 
am tempted by God ;— for God cannot be 
tempted by evil things, and he himself 
tempts no one. 14. But each one la 
temyited by being drawn out and enticed 
by his own ea?er desire; 15, then the 
eager desire becomes pregnant, and 
brings forfch sin; and sin, when com- 
pleted, brings forth death. 16. Do not 
err, my beloved brothers ; 17, from above 
Is all giving of good, and every com- 
plete gifc ; it comes down from the 
Father of lights, with whom there 
can be no change, nor the shadow of 
turning. 18. He willed and begat us, (a) 
by the word of truth, that we might be a 
first-fruit of those whom he has created. 

19. So then, my beloved brothers, let 
every man be quick to hear, slow to 
speak, slow to anger ; 20, for the anger 
of man does not work out the righteous- 
ness of God. 21. Therefore put away all 
filthiness, and the abounding of wicked- 
ness, and receive with meekness the im- 
planted word, which is able to save your 
souls. 



22. But be ye doers of the word, and 
not hearers [of it] only, deluding your- 
selves. 23. For if any one is a hearer, 
and not a doer of the word, he is like a 
man who views his natural face in a 
mirror; 24, for he views himself, and 
goes away, and immediately forgets 
what sort of person he was. 25. But he 
who looks into the complete law, that of 
liberty, and continues [in it], he, not 
being a hearer who forgets, but a doer 
of [what is to be] done, will be blessed 
in what he does. 



(a) Ver. 18. The Common English Version has, " he begat us." The Revised Version 
substitutes for those words, " he brought us forth ;" that is, as a mother brings forth 
children. The word '<he" implies that God, the Father, Is represented in this 
passage as being what is impossible in nature, both father and mother to his children. 
The word ''he" makes the words *' bring forth" utterly inconsistent. No man is a 
mother; and it is diflacult to conceive how Intelligent men brought themselves to 
believe that words so contradictory in themselves, and so much at variance with 
other parts of scripture, express the true meaning of God's word in this place. 



The Peshlto-Syriac Text. 

JAMBS I. 26, 27. II. 1-16. 

26. And if a person thinks that lie Is 
serving God, and restrains not his 
tongue, but deceives his heart, his ser- 
vice is in vain. 27. For pure and holy 
service, before God, the Father, is this ; 
—to visit orphans and widows in their 
aflBictions, and for a person to keep him- 
self unstained by the world. 

11, 1. My brothers, do not retain trust 
In the glory of our Lord Jesus, the 
Anointed, [together] with wrong regard 
for persons. 2. For if there shall enter 
into your congregation a person with 
rings of gold, or in beautiful clothes; 
and there shall enter a poor person in 
dirty clothes ; 3, and ye pay regard to 
him who wears the beautiful clothes, 
and say to him,— Sit thou here in a 
beautiful [seat];— and say to the poor 
person,— Stand thou there,— or,— Seat 
thyself here, before the stool of our feet; 
—4, will ye not have double-dealing 
within you, and be expounders whose 
thoughts are evil ? 5. Hear ye, my be- 
loved brothers ; has not God chosen the 
poor of the world, but rich in trust, to be 
inheritors of that kingdom which God 
has promised to those who love him ? 6. 
But ye have despised the poor man. Do 
not the rich exalt themselves over you, 
and drag you to the house of judgment ? 
7. Do they not revile the Good Name 
after which ye are called ? 8. If in this 
ye fulfil the law of God, as it is written, 
—Thou Shalt love thy neighbour as thy- 
self,— ye do well. 9. But if ye have wrong 
regard for persons, ye commit sin, and 
are accused by the law as law-breakers. 
10. For he who keeps the whole law, save 
that he sins in one thing, is condemned 
by the whole law. 11. For he who said, 
—Thou Shalt not commit adultery,— is he 
who said,— Thou shalt not commit 
murder.— If then thou dost not commit 
adultery, but dost commit murder, thou 
art a breaker of the law. 

12. So speak ye, and so do, as those who 
are to be judged by the law of freedom. 
13. For judgment is to be without mercy 
on him who shows not mercy. Ye are to 
be exalted by mercy above condemning 
Judgment. 

14. Of what use is it, my brothers, for 
a person to say,-I have trust,-if he has 
not the works [of it]? Can his trust 
make life [-bliss] his? 15. If such as a 
brother or sister be naked, and in need 
of food for the day; 16, and one of you 
says to them,-Depart in peace, warm 



The Greek Text. 

JAMES I. 26, 27. II. 1-16. 
26. If anyone among you seems to be 
religious, yet bridles not his tongue, but 
deceives his heart, his religion is in vain. 
27. Pure and undefiled religion, before 
[our] God and Father, is this;— to visit 
orphans and widows in their affliction, 
and to keep one's self unstained by the 
world. 

11. 1. My brothers, do not hold[ycur] 
trust in the glory of our Lord Jesus, the 
Anointed, [combined] with wrong regard 
for persons. 2. For if there should enter 
into your synagogue, a man with gold 
rings, in splendid clothing, and there 
should enter a poor person in dirty 
clothing; 3, and ye regard him who 
wears the splendid clothing, and say to 
him,— Sit thou here in a good place ;— 
and say to the poor person,— Stand thou 
there,— or,— Sit here under my footstool ; 
—4, would you not be, within yourselves, 
partizans, and judges with evil thoughts? 
5. Hear ye, my beloved brothers! has 
not God chosen the poor of this world 
[to be] rich in trust, and inheritors of the 
kingdom which he has promised to those 
who love him! 6. But ye have dis- 
honoured the poor man. Do not the rich 
oppress you? and themselves drag 
jrou to the judgment-seats ? 7. Do they 
not revile that Good Name after which 
ye are called? 8. If indeed ye fulfil 
the royal law, according to the [holy] 
writing,— Thou shalt love thy neighbour 
as thyself,— ye do well. 9. But if ye have 
wrong regard for persons, ye commit sin, 
and are accused by the law as law- 
breakers. 10. For whoever shall keep 
the whole law, except that he fails in 
one [command], has become [by the 
voice] of all, guilty. 11. For he who 
said,— Thou shalt not commit adultery, 
—said also,— Thou shalt not commit 
murder.— And if thou dost not commit 
adultery, but dost commit murder, thou 
hast become a law-breaker. 

12. So speak ye, and so do, as those who 
are to be judged by the law of liberty, 
13. For judgment [will be] without mercy 
on him who has not shown mercy. And 
mercy is to glory in setting aside con- 
demning judgment. 

14. Of what use [is it], my brothers, for 
any one to say that he has trust, if he 
has not works [of trust]? Can such 
trust save him ? 15. And if a brother or 
sister be such as are naked, and in want 
of daily food ; 16, and one of you says to 
them, -Depart in peace, be ye warmed, 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

JAMES II. 16-26. III. 1-7. 
yourselves, and eat till ye are satlsfled ; 
—and yet ye do not give them that of 
"Which the body has need, of what use is 
It ? 17. So also trust which has no works, 
is dead, while alone. 18. For [if] some 
one says [to him],— Thou for thyself hast 
trust, and I for myself have works:— 19. 
Show me thy trust which has no works, 
and I will show thee my trust Toy means 
of my works. 19. Thou dost trust for 
true that God is but one; thou dost well. 
The devils also trust it, and tremble. 20. 
Art thou willing to know, O feeble man, 
that trust which has no works, is dead ? 
21. Was not our Father Abraham de- 
clared righteous by means of works [of 
trust], because he lifted up Isaac his son 
upon the altar ? 22. Seest thou that his 
trust gave aid to his works, and that 
by means of works his trust was made 
perfect? 23. And that the [holy] writ- 
ing was fulfilled which says,— Abraham 
trusted in God, and it was reckoned 
to him with view to righteousness; 
and he was called the friend of God ? 
—24. Seest thou that by means of 
works [of trust] a man is declared right- 
eous, and not by means of trust without 
[them] ? 25. So also was not Rahab the 
harlot declared righteous by means of 
works, because she received the spies, 
and sent them forth by another road ? 26. 
As the body without the spirit is dead, 
so trust, without works, is dead also. 

III. 1. Let there not be many teachers 
among you, my brothers ; but know ye, 
that [if] we are condemned, [our] con- 
demnation is greater. 2. For in many 
things we all err. "Whoever errs not in 
word is a perfect man, who is able to 
keep his whole body in subjection also. 
8. For, behold, we put bits into the 
mouths of horses, so that they may be 
Bubject to us ; and we turn about their 
whole body. 4. Huge ships also, when 
strong winds drive them, are turned 
about by a small rudder, to the place 
which the will of the steerer predeter- 
mines. 5. So the tongue also is a small 
member, and yet it exalts itself. A small 
flame also sets on fire many woods; 6, 
and the tongue is a fire, and the world of 
of sin is like a wood ; and the tongue 
being itself in the midst of our mem- 
bers, blackens our whole body ; and it 
sets on fire the whole train of our gener- 
ations, which run on like wheels ; and it 
is also itself set on fire by fire [from hell]. 
7. For all the natures of beasts and of 



The Greek Text. 

JAMES II. 16-26. III. 1-7. 
and well fed;— and yet ye do not give 
them the things of which the body has 
need,— of what use [is it]? 17. So also 
trust, if it has not works, is dead, by Itself. 
18. But will someone say [to htm],— Thou 
hast trust, and I have works ?— Show me 
thy trust without thy works, and I will 
show thee my trust by means of my 
works. 19. Thou dost trust for true that 
God is but one. Thou dost well. The devils 
also trust it, and tremble. 20. But art 
thou willing to know, O thoughtless man, 
that trust without works [of trust] is 
dead ? 21. Was not Abraham our Father 
declared righteous by means of works, 
when he offered up Isaac his son upon 
the altar ? 22. Seest thou that his trust 
worked in union with his works, and 
that by means of works trust was made 
complete ? 23, and that the [holy] writing 
was fulfilled which says,— Abraha-n 
trusted in God, and it was reckoned to 
him with view to righteousness ; and he 
was called the friend of God ?— 24. Do you 
see, therefore, that by means of works 
a man is declared righteous, and not 
by means of trust only ? 25. And in like 
manner was not Rahab the harlot also 
declared righteous by means of works, 
when she received the messengers and 
sent them forth by another road 7 26. For 
as the body without the spirit is dead, so 
trust without [its] works is dead also. 



III. 1. Be not many teachers, my 
brothers; for ye know that we, [if con- 
demned], shall receive greater condem- 
nation. 2. For we are all faulty in many 
things. If anyone be not faulty in word, 
he is a complete man, able to bridle the 
whole body also. 3. Behold, we put bits 
into the mouths of horses, that they may 
obey us, and we turn about their whole 
body. 4. Behold, ships also, though 
they are so large, and are driven by 
rough winds, are turned about by a very 
small rudder, to the place which the will 
of the steersman may choose. 5. So also 
the tongue is a little member, and yet it 
is very boastful. Behold how large a 
wood a little fire sets ablaze I 6. And 
the tongue is a fire ; it is the world of 
unrighteousness ; the tongue is so placed 
in the midst of our members, that it 
soils the whole body ; it sets on fire also, 
the run of successive generations ; and it 
is set on fire by hell. 7. For every nature 
ofbeastsandofbirds,of creeping things, 
and of things in the sea, is to be tamed, 



The Peshlto-Syriac Text. 

JAMES III. 7-18. IV. 1-7. 
birds, of things moving in tbe sea and on 
dry land, liave been made subject to tbe 
nature of man; 8) but the tongue no 
man is able to tame; this Is an evil 
which cannot be stopped ; It is full of 
deadly poison. 9. For with it we bless 
the Lord and Father, and with it we 
curse men who are made in the likeness 
of God. 10. And from the same mouth 
come forth curses and blessings. These 
things, my brothers, ought not to be so 
done. 11. Is it possible for sweet water 
and bitter to come forth from one spring? 
12. Or can a fig-tree, my brothers, bear 
olives? or a vine, figs? So salt water 
also cannot be made sweet. 

13. Who is there among you who Is wise 
and learned? Let him set forth his 
works, with lowly wisdom, by means of 
good courses of conduct. 14. But if there 
Is bitter jealously among you, or a spirit 
of strife in your hearts, boast not against 
the truth, nor lie. 15. Because this wisdom 
comes not down from above, but is 
earthly, from thoughts of self, and from 
devils. 16. For where there is jealousy, 
and a spirit of strife, there also is dis- 
turbance, and everything which is evil. 
17. But the wisdom which is from above 
is pure, and full of peace ; it is lowly and 
obedient ; it is full of mercy and of good 
fruits ; there is in it no love of division, 
nor wrong regard for persons. 18. The 
fruits also of righteousness are sown in 
quietness by those who make peace. 

IV. 1. From what [cause] is It that 
there are wars and contentions among 
you? Are they not from eager desires 
which wage war by means of your mem- 
bers ? 2. Ye eagerly desire, and yet have 
not; ye kill also, and envy, and yet 
nothing comes into your hands ; ye con- 
tend and carry on wars, and yet get 
nothing; because ye do not ask. 3. Ye 
ask, and receive not, because ye ask in 
an evil way ; that ye may noui-ish your 
eager desires. 4. Ye adulterers, know 
ye not that [to be in] friendship with 
this world, is to act as an enemy of God ? 
He therefore who resolves to be a friend 
of this world, is an enemy of God. 6. Or 
think ye that the [holy] writing has said 
without reason, that the spirit which 
dwells in us covets eagerly through 
envy? 6. But our Lord has given us 
greater merciful help. For this reason 
it says,— God brings low the lifted up, 
and gives merciful help to the lowly.— 7. 
Therefore submit yourselves to God. 



The Greek Text. 

JAMES III. 7-18. IV. 1-7. 
and has been tamed, by the nature ot 
man. 8. But no man is able to tame the 
tongue ; it is an Irrepressible evil ; it is 
full of deadly poison. 9. With it we bless 
him who is God and Father, and with it 
we curse men who are made in the like- 
ness of God. 10. Out of the same mouth 
come forth blessing and cursing. These 
things, my brothers, ought not to be so. 

11. Does the spring send forth from the 
same opening sweet water and bitter ? 

12. Can a fig-tree, my brothers, bear 
olives? or a vine, figs? So, no spring 
[can] give salt water and sweet. 



13. Who among you is wise and learned? 
Let him set forth his works with meek- 
ness of wisdom, by means of [his] 
good course of conduct. 14. But if ye 
have bitter Jealousy, and a spirit of strife 
In your heart, glory not against the 
truth, nor lie against it. 16. This is not 
the wisdom which comes down from 
above, but is earthly, selfish, devilish. 
16. For where jealousy and a spirit of 
strife are, there is disquiet, and every 
bad deed. 17. But the wisdom which la 
from above, first, is pure, next, peace- 
able, gentle, obedient, full of mercy and 
of good fruits, without love of disagree- 
ment, and without hypocrisy. 18. And 
the fruit of righteousness is sown in, 
peace by those who make peace. 



IV. I. Whence [come] wars and con- 
tentions among you ? [Come they] not 
hence? Out of your pleasures which 
make war by your members? 2. Ye 
eagerly desire, and yet have not ; ye kill 
and jealously covet, and ye are unable 
to obtain; ye contend and make war, 
but have not, because ye do not ask; 3, 
ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask 
in an evil way ; that ye may spend [what 
ye get] on your pleasures. 4. Ye adul- 
terers and adulteresses, know ye not 
that [to be in] friendship with this world, 
is to act as an enemy of God ? Whoever 
resolves to be a friend of the world, makes 
himself an enemy of God. 5. Or think 
ye that without reason the [holy] writing 
says, that the spirit which dwells in us 
covets and leads to envy ? 6. But he gives 
greater merciful help. Therefore it 
says,— God resists the proud, but gives 
merciful help to the humble. 7. Submit 
yourselves therefore to God. Oppose 
the False -accuser, and he will flee from 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

JAMES IV. 7-17. V. 1-6. 
Resist Satan also, and he will flee from 
you. 8. Draw near also to God, and he will 
draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, 
ye sinners; he holy in your hearts, ye 
of divided mind. 9. Humble yourselves 
and mourn; let your laughter also he 
turned into mourning, and your joy into 
grief. 10. Humble yourselves before the 
Lord, and he will exalt you. 

11. Speak not one against another, my 
brothers ; for he who is speaking against 
his brother, or is condemning his brother, 
is speaking against the law, and con- 
demning the law ; and if thou condemn- 
est the law, thou art not a doer of the 
law, but its judge. 12. For there is but 
One who makes law, (a) and passes sen- 
tence of judgment; One who is able to 
give life [-bliss], and to destroy. But 
thou, who art thou, who art condemning 
thy neighbour 7 

13. What too shall we say about those 
who say,— To-day or to-morrow we will 
go into a city,— whichever it may be,— 
and do business there one year, and 
trade and get gain;— 14, and yet they 
know not what will be on the morrow. 
For what is our life but a vapour, which 
is seen for a little time, and then 
vanishes, and is at an end. 15, Instead 
of their saying,— If the Lord shall please, 
and we shall live, we will do this or that. 
—16. They glory in their boasting; all 
glorying such as this is of evil [kind]. 17. 
And he who knows what is good, and 
docs it not, has on him sin. 

V. 1. O ye rich ones ! wail and weep 
on account of the miseries which are to 
come upon you. 2. For your wealth is 
to rot and stink ; and your suits of cloth- 
ing are to be eaten by the moth ; 3, your 
gold and your silver will rust, and their 
rust will bear witness against you, and 
will eat your flesh. Ye have made a fire- 
pile for yourselves, for the last days. 4. 
Behold, the pay of the labourers who 
have reaped your lands, which ye have 
wrongfully kept back, cries out; and the 
outcry of the reapers has entered into 
the ears of the Lord of Armies. 5. For 
ye have lived in luxury upon the earth ; 
and in excesses; and have nourished 
your bodies as in a day when [fatlings] 
are killed. 6. Ye condemned and killed 
the Righteous One; and will he not rise 
up against you 7 



The Greek Text. 

JAMES IV. 8-17. V. 1-6, 
you. 8. Draw near to God, and he will 
draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, 
ye sinners, and purify your hearts, ye 
double-minded, 9, Be in distress, and 
mourn, and weep ; let your laughter be 
turned into mourning, and your joy into 
downcast grief. 10. Humble yourselves 
before the Lord, and he will exalt you. 

11. Speak not one against another, [my] 
brothers. He who is speaking against his 
brother, and is condemning his brother, 
Is speaking against the law, and is con- 
demning the law ; but if thou condemn- 
est the law, thou art not a doer of the 
law, but a judge. 12. There is but one 
Lawgiver, (a) who is able to save, and to 
destroy. Thou, who art thou, who con- 
demnest thy neighbour 1 



13, Come now, ye who say,— To-day or 
to-morrow we will go into that city, and 
do business there one year, and trade, 
and get gain ;— 14, ye who do not know 
what will be on the morrow. For what 
is your life 7 It is a vapour, which 
appears for a little time, and then van- 
ishes away. 15. Instead of your saying, 
—If the Lord shall please, we shall both 
live and do this or that. 16. But now ye 
glory in your boastings ; all such glory- 
ing is evil. 17. He therefore who knows 
how to do good, and does it not, has on 
him sin. 



V, 1. Come now, ye rich men, weep and 
howl over your coming miseries. 2, 
Your wealth is to become rotten ; your 
[Chan ges] of clothing also are to be moth- 
eaten ; 3, your gold and your silver are 
to rust, and their rust will be for a testi- 
mony against you, and will eat your 
flesh; ye have heaped up treasures [to 
be] as a fire in the last days. 4. Behold, 
the pay of the labourers who have 
reaped your fields, which is by you, 
through fraud, withheld, cries out ; and 
the cries of those who reaped have 
entered into the ears of the Lord of 
Armies. 5. Ye have lived in luxury on 
the earth, ye have indulged yourselves 
in excesses; ye have nourished your 
hearts as in a day of killing [for a feast], 
6. Ye condemned, ye murdered the 
Righteous One. Is he not fighting 
against you? 



(a) 



Ver. 12. Some Greek copies ^ave '* one Lawgiver and Judge. 



Tlie Peshito-Syriac Text. 

JAMES V. 7-18. 

7. But ye, my brothers, be patient until 
the coming of the Lord ; like the farmer, 
who is expecting the precious fruits of 
his land, and waits patiently for them, 
until he shall receive the earlier and the 
la,ter rain. 8. So also be ye patient, and 
fix firmly your hearts ; for the coming 
of our Lord has come near, (a) 

9. Do not groan complalningly one 
against another, my brothers ; that ye 
may not be condemned ; for behold, 
judgment is standing before the door. 

10. Take as an example for yourselves, 
my brothers, the prophets who spoke in 
the name of the Lord, that ye may bear 
your afflictions with long-suffering pa- 
tience. 11. For, behold, we ascribe bless- 
edness to those who patiently endured. 
Ye have heard of the patient endurance 
of Job, and ye have seen the ending 
which the Lord worked out for him ; 
because the Lord Is mercifal and kind. 

12. But before everything, my brothers, 
be not swearers ; not by heaven, nor by 
earth, nor by any other oath. But let 
your speech be,— yes, yes, and no, no; 
that ye may not be under sentence of 
condemnation. 

13. If any one of you shall be in afflic- 
tion, let him pray ; and if he shall be 
joyful, let him sing ; 14, and if he be un- 
well, let him call for the elders of the 
assembly, and let them pray over him, 
and anoint him with oil in the name of 
our Lord ; 15, and the prayer of trust 
shall make him well who is unwell ; and 
our Lord shall raise him up ; and if sins 
shall have been committed by him, they 
shall be forgiven him. 

16. Confess also your faults one to 
another ; and pray one for another that 
ye may be restored to health ; for great 
Is the power of the prayer which a right- 
eous man prays. 17. Even Elijah was a 
man who suffered as we do; and he 
prayed that rain might not fall on the 
earth ; and it fell not for three years and 
six months. 18. And again he prayed, 
and the heavens gave rain, and the earth 
gave its fruits. 



The Greek Text. 

JAMES V. 7-13. 

7. Be patient, therefore, [my] brothers, 
until the coming of the Lord. Behold, 
the farmer expects the precious produce 
of the earth, and waits patiently for it 
until he receives the early ai:d later 
rain. 8. Be ye also patient; fix firmly 
your hearts ; for the coming of the Lord 
has come near, (a) 

9. Groan not one against another, [my] 
brothers, that ye may not be condemned. 
Behold, the Judge stands before the 
doors. 

10. Take ye, my brothers, for an example 
of the endurance of evil, and of long- 
suffering patience, the prophets who 
spoke in the name of the Lord. 11. 
Behold, we call those blessed who pa- 
tiently endure, (b) Ye have heard of the 
patient endurance of Job ; and have seen 
the ending [given] by the Lord ; that the 
Lord is very compassionate and full of 
pity. 

12. But before all things, my brothers, 
swear not ; neither by the heaven, nor 
by the earth ; nor by any other oath ;but 
let your yes be yes, and your no, no; that 
ye may not fall under condemnation. 



13. Does any one among you suffer evil? 
let him pray. Is any one cheerful ? let 
him sing to the harp. 14. Is any one 
among you unwell? let him call to him 
the elders of the assembly, and let them 
pray over him, and anoint him with oil In 
the name of the Lord ; 15, and the prayer 
of trust shall save him who is sick, and 
the Lord shall raise him up ; and if he 
shall have committed sins, he shall be 
forgiven. 

16. Confess one to another your faults ; 
and pray, one on behalf of another, that 
ye may be restored to health. The 
earnest petition of a righteous man 
avails much. 17. Elijah was a man who 
suffered as we do ; and he prayed ear- 
nestly that it might not rain; and it 
rained not on tlie earth, for three years 
and six months. 18. And he prayed 
again, and the heaven gave rain, and 
the earth brought forth its fruit. 



(a) Ver. 8. In Matt. x. 23, Jesus said to the twelve,— ye shall not have gonethrotigh 
the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come.— He came in power, though not iu 
person, in the destruction of the Jewish nation and worship. 

(b) Ver. 11. Some Greek copies have "endured" instead of "endure." 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

JAMES V. 19, 20. 

19. My brothers, If any one of yon shall 
err from the way of truth, and one shall 
turn him from his error : 20, let him know 
that he who turns the sinner from the 
error of his way, raises his soul to life 
[-bliss] from death, and covers [through 
forgiveness] the multitude of his sins, (a) 



The Greek Text. 

JAMES Y. 19, 20. 

19. [My] brothers, If any one among you 
shall err from the truth, and one shall 
turn him to [it] ; 20, let him know that 
he who turns the sinner from the error of 
his way, will save a soul from death, and 
will cover [through forgiveness] a multi- 
tude of sins, (b) 



(a) Some Syriac copies have this note at the end of this letter :— " Finished Is the 
letter of James, a Chief Messenger." 

(b) Many Greek copies of this letter have no note at the end. One of them has 
this :— "The end of the letter of the holy apostle James, the brother of God."— Mary 
was called, and is still called by some,— "The mother of God."— By "the brother of 
God," was doubtless meant James the brother of Jesus, who is called by Paul, In 
Gal. 1. 19, *' James, the brother of our Lord.'' Compare Mark vi. 3. 




THE FIRST LETTER OF PETER 

TO HEBREW CHRISTIANS WHO WERE DWELLING IN FOREIGN 
COUNTRIES. 



The Peshito-Syriao Text. 

NEXT: A LETTER OF PETER, CHEEP 

MESSENGER ; SIMON CEPHAS, (a) 

I PETER I. 1-8. 

I. 1. Peter, a Chief Messenger of Jesus 
tlie Anointed ;— 

To tlie Chosen, who have no fixed 
dwelling-place ; who are sown in Pontus, 
and in Galatia, and in Cappadocia, and 
In Asia, and in Bithynia ; 2, who were 
chosen by the fore-knowledge of God , the 
Father, to be obedient, by being made 
holy by the Spirit, and to be sprinkled 
with the blood of Jesus the Anointed :- 

May merciful favour and peace be 
given to you abundantly. 

8. Blessed be God, the Father of our 
Lord Jesus the Anointed, who in his 
great mercy begat us anew, through the 
rising [from death] of our Lord Jesus 
the Anointed, to [give us] hope of life 
[-bliss], 4, and an inheritance which 
cannot be destroyed, nor be defiled, nor 
fade away ; which is prepared for you in 
heaven ; 5, [for you], who yourselves are 
kept by the power of God, and by means 
of trust, for that life [-bliss] which is 
prepared, that it may be revealed in the 
last times; 6, in which [last times] ye 
will be joyful for ever, though at this 
time, ye are saddened a little by the var- 
ious trials which are passing over you ; 
7, in order that the testing of your trust, 
which [testing] is of more worth than 
[that of] refined gold, which has been 
tested by fire, may be seen to be for fame, 
and for honour, and for glory, at the re- 
vealing of Jesus the Anointed ; 8, whom 
ye have not seen, yet whom ye love ; and 
through trust in whom ye rejoice greatly, 
with a glorified Joy, which cannot be 



The Greek Text. 

THE FIRST GENERAL LETTER OF 

PETER, (a) 

I PETER I. 1-8. 

I. 1. Peter, a Chief Messenger of Jesus 
the Anointed ;— 

To the Chosen, who have no fixed 
dwelling-place; who are of those who 
are dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappa- 
docia, Asia, and Bithynia;— 2, [chosen] 
according to the foreknowledge of God 
the Father, to obedience, by being made 
holy by the Spirit, and to the being 
sprinkled with the blood of Jesus the 
Anointed ;— 

May merciful favour and peace be 
given to you abundantly. 

3. Blessed [be] God, the Father of our 
Lord Jesus the Anointed, who, according 
to his great mercy, begat us anew, to a 
living hope through the resurrection of 
Jesus the Anointedfrom among the dead, 
4, [and] to an inheritance which cannot 
be destroyed, nor defiled, nor can fade 
away; one which is reserved in the 
heavens, 5, for you, who are kept by the 
power of God, through trust ; that ye may 
have the salvation [which is] in readiness 
to be revealed in the last time; 6, at which 
[last time] ye are to rejoice greatly, 
though now, since it is needful, ye are a 
little grieved by various trials ; 7, [sent3 
that the testing of your trust, which 
[testing] is of much more worth than 
that of perishing gold, though it be 
tested by fire, may be found to be for 
praise, and honour, and glory, at the re- 
vealing of Jesus the Anointed; 8, whom, 
without having seen, ye love ; in whom[ 
though now ye see him not, yet, trusting, 
ye rejoice greatly with joy which can- 
not be spoken, and is made glorious : 



(a) The Titles given to this letter, both in Syriac, and in Greek copies, vary The 
above occur only in some of the copies. The word Catholic, that is General, occurs 
In many of the Greek titles. The statement of Ebed Jesu (see note on James) that 
the letters called "general" were signed by the apostles in various languages, con- 
firms belief that this letter, which was written to Hebrews, was written or signed by 
the apostle in the Syriac language of the Hebrews, as well as in Greek. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I PETER I. 8-22. 

BpoTcen; 9, because ye will receive, as 
recompense of your trust, the life [-1)1133] 
of your souls. 

10. Respecting -wlilcli life [-bliss], the 
prophets made diligent search, when 
they prophesied about that gift of 
merciful favour which was in the future 
to be given to you ; 11, and they searched 
into what the time was of which the 
Spirit of the Anointed who dwelt in them 
was giving notice, and bearing witness, 
as that in which the sufferings of the 
Anointed, and the glory which was to 
follow them, were to be in the future. 
12. And all that they searched into was 
revealed to them ; because it was not 
about themselves that they inquired; 
but about us, respecting whom they 
were prophesying those things which 
have now been revealed to you by means 
of those which we have announced to 
you, by the Spirit of Holiness who has 
been sent from heaven. Into which very 
things angels also greatly desire to look. 

13. For this reason gird up the loins of 
your minds, be perfectly watchful, and 
hope for the joy which is to come to you 
at the revealing of our Lord Jesus the 
Anointed, 14, as obedient sons; and 
share not again those former strong 
desires which ye had when not in a state 
of knowledge ; 15, but be ye holy in all 
your courses of conduct, as he is holy 
who called you. 16. Because it is written, 
—Be ye holy, as also I am holy.— 17. And 
if ye call him Father, before whom there 
Is no wrong regard for persons, and who 
judges everyone as his works are, con- 
duct yourselves with fear during this 
time of your having no fixed dwelling- 
p a?e; 18, for ye know that it was not 
wiDh silver which wears away with age, 
nor with gold, that ye were set free from 
your worthless works, which ye received 
from your fathers; 19. but with the 
precious blood of that Lamb, who is the 
Anointed, in whom there is no spot nor 
blemish ; 20, who beforehand was set 
apart for this very [purpose], from before 
the foundations of the world, and has 
been revealed in the last of the times, 
because of you, 21, who, through him, 
have trusted in God, who raised him up 
from the house of the dead, and gave 
him glory, that j'^our trust, and your 
hope, might be in God ; 22, that your 
souls misht be made holy by obedi- 
ence to the truth ; and might be filled 
with love which has no wrong regard for 



The Greek Text. 

I PETER I. 9-23. 

9, becanso ye have to receive, as the end 
of your trust, the salvation of [your] 
souls. 

10. Respecting which salvation, the 
prophets made diligent Inquiry and 
search, who prophesied about the gift of 
merciful favour to you ; 11, searching as 
to what the time [was], or what the kind 
of time, which the Spirit of the Anointed 
who was in them, was making known, 
when bearing witness beforehand to the 
sufferings awaiting the Anointed, and 
the glories to come after them. 12. To 
whom it was revealed that they were 
setting forth, not for themselves, but for 
us, the things which have now been an- 
nounced to you by means of those who 
have told you the good message, by the 
Holy Spirit, who has been sent from 
heaven. Into which things angels 
greatly desire to look. 



13. Therefore gird up the loins of yonr 
mind, be perfectly watchful, and hope 
for the gift of merciful favour which is 
to be brought to you, at the revealing of 
Jesus the Anointed, 14, as obedient 
children; and be not conformed to the 
strong desires of that former time when 
ye were in your ignorance ; 15, but like as 
he who called you is holy, be ye your- 
selves also holy in all [your] conduct ; 16, 
because it is written,— Be ye holy, be- 
cause I am holy.— 17. And if ye call 
him Father, who judges without wrong 
regard for persons, according to the work 
of each, pass the time of your having no 
fixed dwelling-place, in fear ; 18, knowing 
that it was not by perishable things,— 
by silver or by gold, that ye were set tree 
by ransom from your useless course of 
life, delivered to you by your fathers, 
19, but by the precious blood of the 
Anointed, as of a lamb without spot and 
without blemish; 20, who, indeed, was 
fore-ordained before the foundation of 
the world, but was made manifest in the 
latest times, because of you, 21, who, 
through him, are trusting in God, who 
raised him up from among the dead, and 
gave him glory, that your trust and hope 
might be in God-. 22. As ye have purified 
your souls by obedience to the truth, by 
means of the Spirit, that ye may hav^o 
brotherly love, which is without hypo- 
crisy ; love ye one another with a pure 
heart, fervently; 23, because ye have been 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I PETER I. 22-25. II. 1-10. 

persons ; that ye miglit love one another 
with a pure and perfect heart ; 23, as 
those who have been begotten anew, 
not by seed, [the life of] which perishes 
with age, but by that which does not so 
perish ;— by the living word of God which 
is firm for ever, 24. Because,— All flesh 
[is as] grass, and all its beauty as a flower 
of the field ; the grass dries up, and the 
flower fades away ; 25, but the word of 
God is firm for ever ;— and this is the 
word which ye have heard spoken. 

II. 1. Therefore put away from you all 
malice, and all deception ; also wrong 
regard for persons, and envying, and 
false-accusing ; 2, and be as little infants, 
and desire earnestly the word, as that 
pure and spiritual milk by which ye will 
grow up into life [-bliss] ; 3, if ye have 
tasted, and have seen, that the Lord is 
good; 4, to whom ye draw near; [and] 
who is the living stone whom the sons 
of men rejected, but who is chosen and 
honoured by God. 5. And ye also as 
living stones have been built up, and 
are spiritual temples ; also holy priests, 
to offer up spiritual (b) slain-offerings 
which are acceptable before God through 
Jesus the Anointed. 

6. For it is said in the [holy] writing,— 
Behold, I place in Zion a stone, chosen 
and honoured, at the head of the corner; 
and he who trusts in it shall not be 
ashamed.— 7. To you therefore who are 
trusting,this honour has been given ; but 
to those who obey not, 8, it is a stone of 
stumbling, and a stone kicked against ; 
and they stumble against it, in that 
they obey not the word; those who were 
appointed to [do] this. 9. But ye are a 
tribe chosen to be priests of [God's] king- 
dom; [ye are] a holy people; a multitude 
delivered, that ye may declare the 
praises of him who called you out of 
darkness into his surpassing light; 10, 
ye, who before were not accounted 
[God's] people, but now are the people of 
God ; ye, to whom also mercy had not 
come ; but on whom mercy has now been 
outpoured. 



The Greek Text. 

I PETER I. 23-25. II. 1-10. 

begotten anew, not by perishable, but 
by imperishable seed, by means of the 
living word of God, which continues for 
ever. 24. Because,— All flesh is as grass, 
and all the glory of man as the flower of 
grass. The grass is dried up, and its 
flower falls off ; 25, but the word of the 
Lord continues for ever.— And this is the 
word, the good message of which has 
been told you. 



II. 1. Therefore put away all malice, 
and all deception ; also hjrpocrisies. and 
envyings, and all slanders ; 2, and as 
babes j ust born,desire earnestly the pure 
milk of the word, that by it ye may 
grow, (a) 3, if ye have tasted that the 
Lord is kind, 4, to whom ye draw near ; 
[even to that] living stone who has been 
rejected by men, but who with God is 
chosen and in honour. 5. And ye your- 
selves as living scones, are buUt up ; [ye 
who are] a spiritual house, a holy priest- 
hood, to offer up spiritual slain-offerings, 
which are acceptable to God through 
Jesus the Anointed. 



6. Therefore this occurs also in the 
[holy] writing,- Behold, I place in Zion 
a stone for the head of the corner, which 
is chosen and in honour, and he who 
trusts on it shall not be put to shame. 7. 
For you, therefore, who are trusting, is 
this honour ; but to those who obey not, 
—That stone which the builders rejected, 
has become the head of the corner ;— 8, 
and,— A stone of stumbling, and a rock 
kicked against ;— [to those] who stumble 
by disobeying the word ; to [do] which 
they also were appointed. 9. But ye are 
a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy 
nation, a people to be [God's] possession, 
that ye may tell forth the noble deeds of 
him who called you out of darkness into 
his marvellous light; 10, ye who once 
were not [God's] people, but are now 
the people of God ; ye who had not 
received mercy, but now have received 
mercy. 



(a) Ver. 2. Some Greek copies add, ''into salvation," agreeing with " life [-bliss]" 
In the Syriac. 

(b) Ver. 5. The word ♦' spiritual " is not in all the Syriac copies. It is inserted in 
the edition printed for the Maronites at Rome ; in that of Ooroomiah, supposed to 
represent Coordistan ; and in that by Dr. Lee, 1816, supposed to represent copies trom 
India. These copies agree with the Greek Text. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I PETER II. 11-25. III. 1. 
11. My beloved, I beg of you, as persons 
away from home, and as having no fixed 
dwelling-place [here], to separate your- 
selves from all those strong desires of 
the body which wage wars against the 
soul; 12, and [to take care] that your 
courses of conduct before all the sons of 
men be good [courses] ; that those who 
speak against you evil words may see 
your good works, and may glorify God, 
in the day which puts [you] to test. 

13. And submit yourselves, because of 
God, to all tbe sons of men; to kings 
because of their authority; 14, and to 
judges, because they are sent from him 
for the punishment of wrong-doers, and 
for the praise of those who do good deeds, 
15. Because it is the will of God that 
thus, by your good works, ye should shut 
the mouth of those foolish persons who 
know not God ; 16, as sons who are free, 
yet not as those whose freedom is made 
by them a covering to hide their malice; 
but as the servants of God. 17. Honour 
everyone ; love your brothers ; fear also 
God; and honour kings. 

18. And those servants who are 
among you :-Submit yourselves to your 
masters, with fear ; not only to the good 
and mild, but also to the harsh and 
severe. 19. For before God there is 
merciful favour for those who, because 
[they have] a good conscience, endure 
patiently sorrows which come on them 
unjustly. 20. But what praise is due to 
those who endure patiently inflictions 
because of their wrong-doings? But 
when ye do what is good, and they aflaict 
you, and ye bear it patiently, ye have 
then great praise with God. 21. For to 
[do] this ye were called ; because also the 
Anointed died on our behalf, and left us 
this example, that ye might walk in his 
footsteps ; 22, in his who committed no 
sin, nor was deceit found in his mouth ; 
23, of him who was reviled, yet reviled 
not ; and suffered, yet threatened not ; 
but committed the judgment of himself 
to the Judge who is righteous. 24. And 
he bore our sins, all of them ; and carried 
them up in his body to the cross ; that 
we might be dead to sin, and have life 
[-bliss] by his righteousness ; for by his 
wounds ye have been healed. 25. For ye 
were going astray like sheep, but have 
been turned now to the Shepherd and 
Guardian of your souls. 

III. 1. So also ye wives, submit your- 
selves to your husbands; thao ye, by 



The Greek Text. 

I PETER II. 11-25. III. 1, 

11. Beloved, I beseech you, as persons 
away from home, and having no fixed 
dwelling-place [here], to abstain from 
fleshly strong desires which make war 
against the soul; 12, and to maintain 
a good course of conduct among the 
Gentiles, so that so far as they speak 
against you as evildoers, they may, on 
account of your good works which they 
behold, glorify God in the day when he 
visits [you.] 

13. Submit yourselves, therefore, be- 
cause of the Lord, to every [authority! 
created by men ; whether to the king, as 
supreme ; 14, or to rulers, as sent, through 
him, for the punishment, indeed, of evil- 
doers, but for the praise of those who do 
what is good ; 15, for it is the will of God, 
that thus, by doing what is good, ye 
should silence the ignorance of foolish 
men ; 16, as free, yet not as having free- 
dom [to make it] a cloak to cover malice ; 
but as bond-servants of God. 17. Honour 
all; love the brotherhood; fear God; 
honour the king. 



18. Ye household servants, submit 
yourselves to your masters with all fear; 
not only to the good and mild, but also 
to the perverse. 19. For if any one, 
because of conscience toward God, bears 
griefs patiently, when suffering unjustly, 
this [has his] merciful favour. 20. For 
what glory [have ye], if, when ye sin and 
are struck with the hand, ye bear it 
patiently? But if ye bear [this] pa- 
tiently, when ye do what is good, and yet 
suffer, this has merciful favour with God. 
21. For to [do] this ye were called; 
because also the Anointed suffered 
on our behalf, leaving us an example, 
with intent that ye should follow ta his 
footsteps ; 22, [in his] who committed no 
sin, nor was deceit found in his mouth ; 
23, who, when reviled, reviled not in 
return ; when he suffered, threatened 
not ; but committed [himself] to him who 
judges righteously; 24, who himself car- 
ried up our sins in his own body on to 
the cross, in order that we might be dead 
to the sins, and might live by the right- 
eousness [of him,] by the wounding of 
whom ye have been healed. 25. For ye 
were as sheep which go astray ; but ye 
have now been turned to the Shepherd 
and Overseer of your souls. 

III. 1. Likewise, ye wives, submit 
yourselves to your own husbands : that 



Tlie PesMto-Syriac Text. 

I PETER III. 1-15. 

good lines of conduct, wMch give no 
offence, may possess those who obey not 
the word; 2, when they see that ye 
conduct yourselves with fear and chaste- 
ness. 3. And do not adorn yourselves 
with outward adornments, such as inter- 
weavings of your hair, or ornaments of 
gold, or finer clothes. 4. But adorn your- 
selves in the hidden person of the heart, 
with a lowly spirit, which is imperish- 
able : an adornment of surpassing excel- 
lence in the sight of God. 5. For so also 
of old those holy women who hoped in 
God adorned themselves, and were sub- 
missive to their husbands ; 6, as Sarah 
submitted herself to Abraham, and 
called him,— My lord. Her daughters 
are ye, by good works, while by no terror 
made to waver. 

7. And ye husbands, likewise, dwell 
with your wives according to knowledge ; 
and hold them in honour as delicate 
vessels; because also they are inheri- 
tors with you of the gift of eternal 
life [-bliss] ; that ye may not be hindered 
in your prayers. 

8. Finally, [I intreat] you to be all in 
agreement ; and to feel suffering with 
those who suffer; and to love one 
another; and to be merciful and lowly. 
(a) 9. And that to no one ye return evil 
for evil ; nor reviling tor reviling ; but 
do the contrary of these, bless ye. 
For to [do] this ye were called, that ye 
might inherit blessing. 10. Let him 
therefore who,— Desires life [-bliss], and 
loves to see good days, keep his tongue 
from evil, and his lips from uttering 
deceit ; 11, let him depart from evil, and 
do good; let him also seek peace, and 
pursue it. 12. Because the eyes of the 
Lord are upon the righteous, and his 
ears [are ready] to hear them ; and the 
lace of the Lord is against those who 
are evil, (b)— 13. And who is he who will 
do you evil, if ye be zealous (c) [in doing] 
things good? 14. Yet if it should happen 
that ye suffer on account of righteous- 
ness, blessed are ye ; and fear not those 
who try to put you in fear, nor be dis- 
turbed; 15, but holily honour in your 
hearts the Lord, the Anointed; and be 
ready, in reply to everyone who asks you 
to speak about the hope in which ye 



The Greek Text. 

I PETER, III. 1-16. 

even if some obey not the word, they 
may, without a word [spoken], be gained 
by means of the [good] conduct of [their] 
wives ; 2, by observing your chaste con- 
duct [joined] with fear. 3. Let your adorn- 
ing be, not that which is outward ; that of 
braiding the hair, and wearing articles 
of gold, or putting on [better] clothes. 4. 
But let the hidden person of the heart 
[be adorned] with the imperishable [orna- 
ment] of a meek and quiet spirit, which 
is, in the sight of God, of great worth, 
5. For thus of old the holy women also 
who hoped in God, adorned themselves ; 
and were submissive to their own 
husbands; 6, as Sarah obeyed Abraham, 
calling him lord; and of her, ye have 
become children, by doing what is good, 
and not being deterred by any terror. 

7. Likewise, ye husbands, dwell with 
[your wives] according to knowledge; 
and give honour to the wife as to the 
weaker vessel ; and [dwell] as joint in- 
heritors of the favour-gift of life, for the 
end that your prayers be not hindered. 

8. Finally, be ye all of the same mind, 
have fellow-feeling, have brotherly love, 
be compassionate, be friendly, (a) 9. 
Return not evil for evil, nor reviling for 
reviling, but, on the contrary, bless ye; 
for ye know that to [do] this ye were 
called, that ye might inherit blessing. 10. 
For,— Let him whose wish it is to love life, 
and to see good days, restrain his tongue 
from evil, and his lips from uttering 
deceit ; 11 , let him depart from evil, and 
do good, let him seek peace, and pursue 
it. 12. Because the eyes of the Lord [are] 
upon the righteous, and his ears [listen] 
to their request; but the face of the 
Lord is against those who do evil, (b) 

13. And who is he who will harm you, if 
ye be imitators of (c) that which is good? 

14. But even if ye should suffer because of 
righteousness, blessed [are ye]. And be 
not terrified by their [attempt] to terrify; 
nor be disturbed. 15. But holily honour 
in your hearts the Lord God. (d) And be 
ye always prepared, [in reply] to every 
one who asks you for an account of the 
hope which is in you, to give your defence 
with meekness and fear : 16, keeping 
a good conscience, so that in whatever 



(a) Ver. 8. Some Greek copies have "humble," instead of "friendly." 

(b) Ver. 12. Ps. xxxiv. 12—16. 

(c) Ver. 13. Some Greek copies have "zealous for," instead of " imitators of." 
(d> Ver. 15. Some Greek copies have "the Anointed," instead of "God." 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I PETER III. 15-22. IV. 1-5. 

trust, to give your defence, witli lowli- 
ness and fear : 16, keeping meanwhile a 
good conscience, so tliat those who speak 
against you as against had men, may 
he ashamed, as those who have misrepre- 
sented the good courses which ye follow, 
by [the will of] the Anointed. 17. For 
it is gain to you that ye should suffer 
evil things while doing good deeds,-if 
indeed such be the will of God, instead 
of when doing evil deeds. 18. Because 
that also the Anointed died for once on 
behalf of our sins, the righteous one on 
behalf of sinners, that he might bring 
you near to God. He died indeed in body, 
yet lived in spirit. 19. And he made 
proclamation to those souls which were 
kept in hold in the abodes of the de- 
parted ; 20, those which of old were 
disobedient in the days of Noah, when 
the forbearance of God commanded the 
making of an ark, for hope of their 
repentance ; into which only eight 
persons entered, and were kept alive by 
the waters. 21. In likeness to which 
example, ye also have life [-bliss] through 
Immersion ; (not when ye wash the body 
from filth, but when ye make profession 
in [the name of] God with a pure con- 
science), and through the rising [to life] 
of Jesus the Anointed ; 22, who has been 
exalted to heaven, and is at the right 
hand of God; and angels, authorities, 
and powers are made subject to him. 

IV. 1. Iftherefore the Anointed suffer- 
ed [death] in the flesh on your behalf, 
arm yourselves to [effect] the same 
purpose ; for everyone who dies as to 
his body, has ceased from all sins; 2, 
so that thenceforth, so long as he is 
in the body, he lives, not [to do] the 
[natural] desires of the sons of men, 
but to [do] the will of God. 3. For the 
time which has passed away, is sufficient 
for you to have done in it the will of the 
profane, by unchaste licentiousness, and 
by drunkenness, and by gratified lust, 
and by song-slnglng, and by the worship 
of devils. 4. And lo ! they now are 
astonished, and speak evil of you, be- 
cause you do not gratify lust together 
with them, as in that former [course of] 
unchaste licentiousness; 5, they who 
will have to give account to God, who is 
in the future to judge the dead and the 
living. 



The Greek Text. 

I PETER III. 16-22. IV. 1-5. 

[it be] that they speak against you as 
evildoers, those who talk spitefully of 
your good conduct in [the service of] the 
Anointed, may be ashamed. 17. For it is 
better that ye should suffer while doing 
good, if this be the will of God, than 
while doing evil. 18. Because the 
Anointed also suffered for once [death] 
for sins, he the righteous on behalf of the 
unrighteous, that he might bring us to 
God ; put to death indeed in fiesh, but 
made to live in [his] spirit ; 19, in which 
he also went and made proclamation to 
the spirits in prison ; 20, which formerly 
were disobedient, when the forbearance 
of God was waiting in the days of Noah, 
while the ark was being prepared ; [by 
entering] into which few, that is eight, 
persons were saved by means of water ; 
21, corresponding to which [event], im- 
mersion also now saves us, (not the 
putting away of the filth of the flesh, 
but the act of a good conscience making 
request to God), through the resurrec- 
tion of Jesus the Anointed ; 22, who has 
gone into heaven, and is at the right 
hand of God ; angels, and authorities, 
and powers, having been made subject 
to him. 



rv. 1. Therefore, since the Anointed 
has suffered in flesh on our behalf, do ye 
also arm yourselves [to effect] the same 
purpose; because he who has suffered 
[death] in respect of the flesh, has ceased 
from sin; 2, with view to live what 
remains of his [time] in flesh, no longer 
in [doing the natural] desires of men, but 
In [doing] the will of God. 3. For the 
time of life (a) which has passed, is suffi 
clent for us (a) to have done the will of 
the Gentiles, by going on in unchaste 
actions, in [gratified] natural desires, in 
drunkenness, in festivities of dance and 
song, in drinking-bouts, and in lawless 
idolatries ; 4, as to which [course], they 
think it strange that you do not run with 
them In the same career of unchaste 
licentiousness, and speak evil of you ; 5, 
they, who will have to give account to 
him who is in readiness to judge the 
living, and the dead. 



(a) Ver. 3. Some Greek copies have not '* of life.' 
last copies agree with verse 4, which has "you,' 
copies agree with the Syriac. 



Some have not ' for us." These 
not "we." In both cases these 



Tlie Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I PETER IV. 6-17. 

6. For because of this [judgment], an- 
nouncement was made also to the dead, 
that they might be judged as men [will 
be who are] in the flesh, and might live 
unto God in spirit. 

7. Moreover, the end of all has come 
near; for this reason be sober-minded, 
and give yourselves watchfully to 
prayer. 

8. And before everything, let there be 
ardent love among you one toward 
another; for love covers [by forgiveness] 
a multitude of sins. 

9. And be ye kind to strangers, without 
murmuring. 

10. And let everyone of you serve his 
neighbours with the gift which he has 
received from God, as good stewards of 
the different favour-gifts of God. 11. Let 
everyone who shall speak, speak as the 
word of God [does] ; and let everyone 
who serves, [do so] as from the power 
which God gives him ; that in ail things 
which ye do, God may be glorified by 
means of Jesus the Anointed; whose 
are glory and honour for ever and ever. 
Amen. 

12. My beloved, be not astonished by 
the trials which come to you, as if some- 
thing foreign [from what ought to be], 
were happening to you; because they 
come to test you. 13. But rejoice that 
ye share the sufferings of the Anointed, 
that so also when his glory shall be 
revealed, ye may rejoice and be glad ex- 
ceedingly. 14. And if ye are reproach- 
ed on account of the name of the 
Anointed, blessed are ye ; because the 
glorious Spirit of God rests on you. 15. 
Only let no one of you suffer as a 
murderer, or as a thief, or as a doer of 
evil deeds. 16. But if one suffers as a 
Christian, let him not be ashamed; but 
let him glorify God on account of [bear- 
ing] this very name. 17. Because it is a 
time in which judgment will begin from 
the house of God ; but if it begins from 
us, what is to be the end of those who 



The Greek Text. 

I PETER IV. 6—17. 

6. For with view to this [judgment] a 
good message was sent to the dead also, 
that they might be judged according to 
men [who are] in the flesh, but live ac- 
cording to God in spirit. 

7. But the end of all things has come 
near ; (a) be ye, therefore, sober-minded, 
and watchful as to prayers. 

8. And before all things have fervent 
love one towards another, for love will 
cover [by forgiveness] a multitude of 
sins. 

9. Receive each other kindly as visitors, 
without murmurings. 

10. According to the favour-gift which 
each has received, use it for serving one 
another, as good stewards of the various 
favour-gifts of God, 11. If anyone speaks, 
[let him speak] as the words of God 
[speak] ; if any one serves, [let him do so] 
as by the strength which God supplies ; 
that in all things God may be glorified 
by means of Jesus the Anointed ; whose 
is the glory, and whose the dominion, 
for ever and ever. Amen. 

12. Beloved, do not look on the putting 
of you into the fire to test you, which is 
happening among you, as strange ; as if 
a strange thing were happening to you ; 
13. but in that ye share the sufferings of 
the Anointed, rejoice; that also, when 
his glory shall be revealed, ye may 
rejoice with exceedingly great joy. 14. If 
ye are reproached on account of the 
name of the Anointed, blessed [are ye]; 
because the Spirit of glory and of God 
rests upon you. By them he is blas- 
phemed ; but by you he is glorified, (b) 
15. For let not anyone of you suffer as a 
murderer, or a thief, or an evil-doer, or an 
overseer of another's [charge], (b) 16. But 
if [one suffers] as a Christian, let him not 
be ashamed ; but let him glorify God on 
this account. 17. For the time [is one in 
which] inflicted judgment is to begin 
at the house of God ; and If [suffered] 



(a) Ver. 7. Compare Matt. xxiv. 14. " Then shall the end come ;" and verse 16, 
" Then let those who are in Judeafleeto the mountains." The end referred to by 
Peter may be that end of the Hebrew dispensation and worship. 

(b. b.) Neither the words, "By them he is blasphemed, but by you he is glorified," 
verse 14 : nor the words, " as an overseer of another's [charge] ;" verse 15 : are in any 
of my copies of the Peshito-Syriac text; namely Walton's, 1653—7; Gutbir's, 1663; 
the Maronite, 1703 ; Schaaf s, 1717, and his readings of all previou?eiitions; Lee's, 1816 • 
andtheNestorianof Ooroomiah,l852. Most of the Greek copies have those wordsj 
but this testimony of the Peshito-Syriac is entirely against them. 



The Peshito-Syriao Text. 

I PETER IV. 17-19. V. 1-12. 

Obey not the message of God? 18. And if 
the righteous man enters life [-bliss] with 
difficulty, where will the ungodly person 
and the sinner be found ? 19. For this 
reason, let those who suffer by the will 
of God, intrust, by good deeds, their 
souls to him as to [their] trustworthy 
Creator. 



V. 1. I also beseech the elders who are 
among you,— I, an elder, your associate, 
and one who bears witness to the suffer- 
ings of the Anointed, and who is to share 
his glory, which is in the future to be 
revealed ;— 2. Tend as shepherds the 
flock of God which is committed to you, 
and take care of it spiritually, not by 
being urged, but willingly ; not for pol- 
luted gains, but with your whole heart ; 
3, not as lords of the flock, but as 
those who are to set them a good 
example ; 4, that when the Chief Shep- 
herd shall be revealed, ye may receive 
from him a crown of glory which fades 
not away. 

5. And ye younger, submit yourselves 
to your elders ; and be tightly wrapped 
round with humility of mind, one to- 
wards another ; because God is opposed 
to those who exalt themselves, and gives 
favour-gifts to the humble. 6. Therefore 
humble yourselves [while] under the 
mighty hand of God, that it may exalt 
you at the flt time. 7. And cast all your 
anxious care on God, for he himself cares 
for you. 8. Be watchful, and mindful ; be- 
cause your enemy, Satan, like a lion, 
roars, and walks about, and seeks for 
someone to devour. 9. Therefore resist 
him, and be firm in trust ; and know that 
these same sufferings are happening also 
to your brothers who are in the world. 

10. Now to the God of favour -gifts, 
who has called us to his eternal glory 
by means of Jesus the Anointed, [and] 
who has granted us that, by bearing 
patiently these little afflictions, we 
should be strengthened, and made firm, 
and be made to stand in him for ever,— 
11, to him be glory, and dominion, and 
honour, for ever and ever. Amen. 

12. These, as I think them, few things, 
I have written to you by means of 



The Greek Text 

I PETER IV. 17-19. V. 1-12. 
first by us, what will be the end of those 
who obey not the good message of God ? 
18. And if the righteous man is saved with 
difficulty, where will the ungodly one 
and the sinner appear? 19. So that let 
even those who suffer, according to the 
will of God, intrust, by well-doing, their 
souls to [him] as to [their] trustworthy 
Creator. 



V. 1. The elders who are among you, 
I beseech,— I, who am a fellow-elder, and 
a witness-bearer to the sufferings of the 
Anointed, and who am to share the 
glory which in the future is to be re- 
vealed;— 2. Tend as shepherds the flock 
of God [which is] among you, taking the 
oversight, not constrained by necessity, 
but willingly ; nor for vile gain, but with 
readiness of mind ; 3, nor as being lords 
of [God's] possessions, but being exam- 
ples to the flock ; 4, and when the Chief 
Shepherd shall be made manifest, ye 
will receive the crown of glory which 
fades not away. 

5. Likewise, ye younger, submit your- 
selves to the elders ; and all of you 
submit yourselves one to another ; (a) 
and wrap yourselves round with humil- 
ity ; for God opposes the proud, but gives 
favour-gifts to the humble. 6. Humble 
yourselves, therefore, under the mighty 
hand of God, that he may exalt you at 
the fit time ; 7, and cast all your anxious 
care on him, for he cares for you. 8. Be 
cautious, be watchful ; for your adver- 
sary, the false-accuser, as a roaring lion, 
walks about, seeking someone to devour; 
9, whom resist, firm in trust, knowing 
that the same sufferings are taking place 
among those of your brotherhood who 
are in the world. 

10. And to the God of all gracious 
favour, who has called us to his eternal 
glory by Jesus the Anointed, [and] who 
himself [is] to perfect you, to fix [you] 
firmly, to strengthen you, and to give 
[you] a sure foundation, by means of your 
having suffered a little,— 11, to him be 
glory and dominion for ever and ever. 
Amen, 

12. 1 have written to you in few [words], 
as I think, by means of Salvanus, the 



(a) Ver. 5. In this verse some Greek copies have no repetition of " submit your- 
selves ; and that part of the verse reads nearly as the Syriac does, thus,—" and all of 
?ou, wrap yourselves round with humility one towards another." 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I PETER V. 12—14. 
Silvanus, a trustwortliy brother ; and I 
persuade [you to believe], and I bear 
witness, that this is God's true gifc of 
lavour,— this in which ye stand. 

13. The chosen assembly which is in 
Babylon, and Mark, my son, wish you 
peace. 14. Give wish of peace one to 
another, with a holy kiss. Peace be with 
all of you who are iu thel Anointed. 
Amen. 



The Greek Text. 

I PETER V. 12-14. 

trustworthy brother, exhorting [yon], 
and bearing witness that this is the 
true gracious favour of God in which ye 
stand. 

13. The [assembly] in Babylon, chosen 
together with [you], salutes you; also 
Mark, my son. 14. Salute yeonaanother 
with a kiss of love. Peace to you all who 
are iu Jesus the Anointed. Amen. 




THE FIRST LETTER OF JOHN, 

ONE OF THE TWELVE CHIEF MESSENGERS. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

NEXT : THE LETTER OF JOHN, THE 
CHIEF MESSENGER. 
I JOHN I. 1-10. II. 1-2. 

I. 1. We declare to you him who was 
from the beginning; him whom we 
heard, and saw with our eyes; [him 
whom] we saw, and touched with our 
hands ; him who is the Word of Life. 2. 
And the Life was revealed ; and we saw, 
and do hear witness, and proclaim to 
you. the Life which is for ever; that 
[Life] which was with the Father, and 
was revealed to us. 3. And that which 
we saw and heard, we make known to 
you also, that ye may be in association 
with us ; and our own association is with 
the Father, and with his Son, Jesus the 
Anointed. 4. And these things we write 
to you, that our joy which is in you may 
be made full. 

5. And this is the message which we 
heard from him, and declare to you,— 
that God is light, and that in him is no 
darkness at all; 6, and that if we say 
that we are associated with him, and 
yet walk In darkness, we are liars, and 
go not in the path of truth ; 7, but that if 
we walk in the light, as he is in the light, 
[he and] we are associated one with 
another, and that the blood of Jesus his 
Son purifies us from all our sins. 8. And 
that if we say that we have no sin, we 
deceive ourselves, and the truth is not 
in us ; 9, but that if we confess our sins, 
he is trustworthy and righteous in that 
he will forgive us our sins, and will purify 
us from all our wickedness. 10. And 
that if we say that we have not sinned, 
we make him a liar, and his word is not 
with us. 

II. 1. My sons, I write these things to 
you, that ye may not sin ; and yet. If any 
one sins, we have One who pleads with 
the Father,— Jesus, the Anointed, the 
Righteous One. 2. For he himself is the 
atonement for our sins, and not on 



The Greek Text. 

THE GENERAL FIRST LETTER OP 

JOHN. 

I JOHN I. 1-10. II. 1-2. 

I. 1. That which was from the begin- 
ning, that which we have heard, that 
which we have seen with our eyes ; that 
which we beheld, and our hands touched, 
as the Word of Life, [we declare to you] ; 
2, and the Life was made manifest ; and 
we have seen, and do bear witness, and 
declare to you the Eternal Life which 
was with the Father, and was manifested 
to us ; 3, that which we have seen, and 
have heard, we declare to you, that ye 
also may have association with us ; and 
our association is with the Father, and 
with his Son Jesus the Anointed. 4. And 
these things we write to you that your 
(a) joy may be made full, 

6. And this is the message which we 
have heard from him, and declare toyou, 
—that God is light, and that in him there 
is no darkness at all ; 6, that if we say 
that we are associated with him, and 
yet walk in darkness, we lie, and do not 
act according to truth ; 7, but that if we 
walk in the light as he is in the light, 
[he and] we are associated one with 
another, and that the blood of Jesus, the 
Anointed, (a) his Son, purifies us from all 
sin; 8, that if we say that we have 
no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the 
truth is not in us ; 9, that if we con- 
fess our sins, he is trustworthy and 
righteous, so that he will forgive us 
[our] sins, and will purify us from all 
unrighteousness : 10, that If we say that 
we have not sinned, we make him a liar, 
and his word is not in us. 

II. 1. My little children, I am writing 
these things to you, that ye may not sin; 
and yet If anyone shall sin, we have One 
who pleads with the Father, Jesus, 
the Anointed, the Righteous. 2. And 
he himself is the atonement for our 



(a. a.) In verses 4 and 7, some Greek copies have—* 'our" for <'your;" and have not 
«» the Anointed." 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I JOHN II. 2-14. 
behalf of ours only, btit also on behalf 
of [tbose of] tlie whole world, (a) 

3. And by this we are made conscious 
that we know him ;— if we keep his com- 
mands. 4. For he who says— I know 
him,— and yet does not keep his com- 
mands, is a liar, and the truth is not in 
him. 5. But in him who keeps his word, 
the love of God is in very truth made 
complete ; for by this we know that we 
are in him. 6. He who says,— I am in 
him,— ought himself to walk in the same 
ways in which he [Jesus] walked. 

7. My beloved, I am not writing to you 
a new command, but an old command, 
which ye received from the beginning ; 
and the old command is that word which 
ye heard. 

8. Again, I am writing to you a new 
command ; which [fact] is true in respect 
of him, and in respect of you ; because 
darkness has passed away, and the True 
Light has begun to be seen. 9. He there- 
fore, who says that he is in the Light, and 
yet hates his brother, is in the darkness 
until now. 10. He who loves his brother 
continues In the Light, and there is no 
stone of stumbling in respect of him. 11, 
But he who hates his brother is in dark- 
ness, and walks in darkness, and knows 
not whither he goes, because darkness 
has blinded his eyes. 

12. I write to you, sons, because your 
sins have been forgiven you, because 
of his name. 13. I write to you, fathers, 
because ye have known him who was 
from the beginning. I write to you, 
young men, because ye have conquered 
the evil one. I have written to you, 
boys, because ye have known the Father ; 
14, I have written to you, fathers, be- 
cause ye have known him who was from 



The Greek Text. 

I JOHN II. 2-14. 

sins, and not for ours only, but also for 
[those of] the whole world, (a) 

3. And by this we know that we know 
him,— if we keep his commands. 4. He 
who says,— I know him,— and does not 
keep his commands, is a liar, and the 
truth is not in him ; 5, but whoever shall 
keep his word, in him the love of God is 
truly completed. By this we know that 
we are in him. 6. He who says that he 
continues in him, ought himself also to 
walk so as he [Jesus] walked. 



7. [My] brothers, (b) I am not writing 
to you a new command, but an old com- 
mand, which ye had from the beginning; 
the old command is the word which ye 
heard from the beginning, (c) 

8. Again ; I am writing to you a new 
command ; which [fact] is true in respect 
of him, and in respect of you ; because 
the darkness passes away, and the True 
Light now appears. 9. He who says that 
he is in the Light, and yet hates his 
brother, is in the darkness until now. 10. 
He who loves his brother continues in 
the Light, and in respect of hun there is 
no stumbling-block. 11. But he who hates 
his brother, is in the darkness, and walks 
in darkness, and knows not whither he 
goes, because the darkness has blinded 
his eyes. 

12. I write to you, little children* 
because your sins have been forgiven 
you because of his name. 13. I write 
to you, fathers, because ye have 
known him [who was] from the begin- 
ning. I write to you, young men, 
because ye have conquered the evil 
one. I write (c) to you, little child- 
ren, because ye have known the Father. 
14. I have written to you, fathers, be- 



(a) II. 2. This letter, like the letters of Peter and James, seems to have been 
written to Hebrew Christians. ''Our sins;" seem to be those of Hebrews, who 
"walked in light," and who were "purified from all sins;" i. 7. "[Those of] the 
whole world," must, of necessity, mean the sins of those in the whole world, who 
"walk in the light, and are purified from sins," as in the case of Hebrews. Atone- 
ment is the "purging away of sins;" Heb. i. 3. Atonement extends to none but to 
those who, by its efficacy, are brought to "trust in the blood of Jesus;" Rom. Hi. 25. 
Whenever sins were atoned for, under the law, they were forgiven. Lev. v. 10, 13, 
16, 18, etc. If sins remain unpardoned, at last, it is proof they were not atoned for, 
were not "purged away." James, Peter, and John laboured chiefly among the 
Hebrews. Gal. 11. 9. 

(b) II. 7. Some Greek copies have, like the Syriac, "beloved," Instead of "brothers." 
(c. c) Verses 7, 13. Some Greek copies have not. '* from the beginning ;" ver. 7 ; and 

some have, " I have written," instead of " I write," ver. 13; and are like the Syriac. 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I JOHN II. 14-27. 

the beginning. I have written to you, 
young men, because ye are strong, and 
the word of God dwells in you, and ye 
have concLuered the evil one. 15. Love 
not the world, nor anything which is in 
It : for in him who loves th e world the love 
of the Father is not. 16. For everything 
which there is In the world, consists of 
what the body desires, and what the 
eyes desire, and what the world glories 
In ; things which are not of the Father, 
but; are of the world. 17. And the world is 
passing away ; both it and what it de- 
sires ; but he who does the will of God 
continues for ever. 



18. My sons, it Is the last period ; and 
as ye have heard,— A false pretender to be 
the Anointed is to come ;— and now there 
are many false pretenders to be the 
Anointed, and from this we know that it 
Is the last period. 19. They went out 
from us, but they were not of us ; for if 
they had been of us, they would have 
continued with us. But they went out 
from us, that it might be known that 
they were not of us. 

20. And ye have an anointing from the 
Holy One, and ye discern what every 
man is. 21. I have not written to you 
because ye know not the truth, but be- 
cause ye know it, and that no lie is a part 
of the truth. 22. Who is a liar, unless 
he be one, who denies that Jesus is the 
Anointed ? And this is a false pretender 
to be the Anointed. He who denies 
the Father, denies also the Son. 23. 
And he who denies the Son, does not 
trust in the Father also. He who makes 
profession of the Son, makes profession 
of the Father also. 24. And what ye 
have heard from the beginning, let that 
continue with you. For if that which 
ye have heard from the beginning shall 
continue with you, ye yourselves also 
will continue in the Father and in the 
Son. 25. And this is the promise which 
he has promised us,-life [-bliss] which is 
for ever. 

26. These things I have written to you 
because of those who try to lead you 
astray, 27. And yet also, if the anointing 
which ye have received from him shall 
continue with you, ye will not need that 
anyone should teach you; but, as the 
anointing which is from God teaches 
you about everything, and is true, and 



The Greek Text. 

I JOHN II. 14-27. 

cause ye have known him [who was] 
from the beginning. I have written to 
you, young men, because ye are strong, 
and the word of God continues in you, 
and ye have conquered the evil one. 
15. Love not the world, nor the things 
[which are] in the world. If any one loves 
the world, the love of the Father is not 
in him. 16. For everything which there 
is in the world, that which the flesh 
desires, and that which the eyes desire, 
and the vain glory of life,— is not of the 
Father, but is of the world. 17. And the 
world is passing away; and what it 
desires ; but he who does the will of God 
continues for ever. 

18. Little children, it Is the last period; 
and even as ye have heard,— The foe of 
the Anointed is to come ;— and now 
many foes of the Anointed exist; from 
which we know that it is the last period. 
19. They went out from us, but they 
were not of us ; for if they had been ot 
us, they would have continued with us; 
but [they went out] that it might be 
made manifest that they all are no part 
of us. 

20. And ye have an anointing from the 
Holy One, and ye know all things. 21. I 
have not written to you because ye know 
not the truth, but because ye know It, 
and that no lie is part of the truth. 22. 
"Who is the liar, unless it be he who 
denies that Jesus is the Anointed 7 This 
is the foe of the Anointed,— he who 
denies the Father and the Son. 23. No 
one who denies the Son, has the Father; 
he who makes profession of the Son, has 
the Father also. 24. Ye, therefore, let 
that which ye have heard from the 
beginning, continue in you. If that 
which ye have heard from the beginning 
shall continue in you, ye yourselves also 
will continue in the Son, and in the 
Father. 25. And this is the promise 
which he has promised us,— the life 
which is eternal. 



26. These things I have written to you 
respecting those who try to lead you 
astray. 27. And as to yourselves, the 
anointing which ye have received from 
him, continues in you, and ye need not 
that anyone should teach you ; but as 
the same anointing teaches you respect- 
) ing all things, and is true, and is no lie, 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I JOHN II. 27-29. III. 1-14. 

has no lie in it, continue ye in that 
which is according to what it has taught 
you. 

28. And now, my sons, continue ye in 
him, that when he shall be revealed, we 
may not be ashamed on account of him, 
but may have confidence when he comes. 
29. If ye know that he is righteous, know 
also that everyone who works righteous- 
ness is from him. 



III. 1. And see ye how great Is the 
love of the Father toward us, who has 
called us sons, and has also made us 
sons. For this reason the world knows 
not us, because it also knew not him. 2. 
My beloved, we are now sons of God, and 
it has not been revealed, up to the 
present time, what in the future we shall 
be ; but we know that when he shall be 
revealed, we are to be in his likeness, 
and are to see him as he is. 3. And 
everyone who has this hope with respect 
to him, makes himself pure as he is pure. 

4. But he who commits sin, works 
wickedness; for all sin is wickedness. 

5. And ye know that he was revealed to 
take away our sins; and that in him 
there is no sin. 6. And everyone who 
continues in him, does not sin; and 
everyone who sins, has not seen him, nor 
known him. 7. My sons, let no one lead 
you astray. He who works righteous- 
ness, is righteous, like as also the 
Anointed himself is righteous. 8. And 
he who commits sin, is of Satan ; because 
Satan himself has been a sinner from the 
beginning; and the Son of God appeared 
for this reason,— that he might undo the 
works of Satan. 9. Everyone who has 
been begotten by God, does not commit 
sin ; because his seed is in him, and he is 
unable to sin, because he has been be- 
gotten by God. 10. By this the sons of 
God are distinguished from the sons of 
Satan ;— everyone who works not right- 
eousness, and who loves not his brother, 
is not of God. 11. Because this is the 
command which ye have heard from the 
beginning,— that ye love one another ; 12, 
[that ye be] not like Cain, who was of the 
evil one, and killed his brother. And for 
what reason did he kill him, but because 
his works were evil, and those of his 
brother righteous? 

13. And be not astonished, my brothers, 
if the world is hating you. 14. We know 
that we have passed from death to life 



The Greek Text. 

I JOHN II. 27-29. III. 1-14, 

continue ye in that which is according 
to what it has taught you. 

28. And now, [my] little children, 
continue ye in him, that when he shall 
be made manifest, we may have confi- 
dence, and may not be ashamed on 
account of him, when he comes. 29. If 
ye know that he is righteous, know ye 
that everyone who works righteousness 
has been begotten by him. 

ni. 1. See ye what kind of love [-gift] 
the Father has given us, that we should 
be called children of God. For this 
reason the world knows not us, because 
it knew not him. 2. Beloved, we are now 
children of God, and what we shall be 
has not yet been made manifest ; but we 
know chat if he shall be made manifest, 
we shall be like him, because we shall 
see him as he is. 3. And everyone who 
has this hope, [founded] on him, makes 
himself pure, even as he is pure, 4. 
Everyone who commits sin, breaks the 
law also ; and sin is the breach of the 
law. 5, And ye know that he was made 
manifest, that he might take away our 
sins, and that in him there is no sin. 6. 
Everyone who continues in him does not 
sin ; everyone who sins, has not seen him, 
nor known him, 7. Little children, let 
no one lead you astray; he who does 
righteousness, is righteous, even as he 
[Jesus] is righteous. 8. He who commits 
sin is of the False-accuser ; because the 
False-accuser has been sinning from the 
beginning. For this end the Son of God 
was made manifest,— that he might undo 
the works of the False-accuser. 9. Every- 
one who has been begotten by God, does 
not commit sin, because his seed con- 
tinues in him ; and he is unable to sin, 
because he has been begotten by God. 
10. By this the children of God are mani- 
fest, and the children of the False- 
accuser ;— everyone who works not right- 
eousness, is not of God ; nor is he who 
loves not his brother. 11. Because this 
is the message which ye have heard from 
the beginning,— that we should love one 
another; 12, [that we should] not be like 
Cain, who was of the evil one, and slew 
his brother. And why did he slay him ? 
Because his own works were evil, and 
those of his brother were righteous. 

13. Be not astonished, my brothers, if 
the world is hating you, 14. We know 
that we have passed out of death into 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I JOHN III. 14-24. IV. 1-4. 
Dy this,— that we love the brothers. He 
who loves not his brother, continues in 
death. 15. For everyone who hates his 
brother, is a murderer ; and ye know that 
life which is for ever, cannot be continu- 
ing in anyone who is a murderer. 

16. By this we know the love which he 
[Jesus] has toward us,— that he gave his 
life on our behalf; and it is also right 
for us to give our lives on behalf of our 
brothers. 17. And he who has worldly 
property, and sees that his brother is in 
need, and shuts up his compassion from 
him ; how can the love of God be in him ? 
18. My sons, let us not love one another in 
words and in tongue, but in works and 
in truth. 19. And by this we get know- 
ledge that we are of the truth, and 
persuade our heart [of it], before he 
comes. 20. And if it be [true] that our 
heart is condemning us, how much more 
[must] God [be doing so], who is greater 
than our heart, and knows everything. 
21. My beloved, if our heart does not 
condemn us, we have confidence before 
God ; 22, and everything which we ask, 
we receive from him, because we keep 
his commands, and are doing things 
which are good in his sight. 23. And 
this is his command,— that we trust in 
the name of his Son, Jesus the Anointed, 
and love one another as he commanded 
us. 24. And he who keeps his commands 
is kept in him ; and he [Jesus] dwells in 
him. And by this we understand that 
he dwells in us, by his Spirit whom he 
has given us. 

IV. 1. My beloved, trust not in all [who 
say they speak by] the Spirit, but decide 
by testing them whether they are from 
God ; because many false prophets have 
gone out into the world. 2. By this the 
Spirit of God is known ; everyone who 
says [that he speaks by] the Spirit, and 
professes that Jesus the Anointed has 
come in the flesh, is from God. 3. And 
everyone who[ say s that he speaks by] the 
Spirit, but does not profess that Jesus has 
come in the flesh, is not from God. But he 
Is from that false anointed one, of whom 
ye have heard that he was to come, and 
who now already is in the world. 4. But 
ye are of God, [my] sons, and have con- 
quered them ; because, greater is he who 



The Greek Text. 

I JOHN III. 14-24. IV. 1-4. 

life, because we love the brothers; he 
who loves not [his] brother, continues 
in death. 15. Everyone who hates his 
brother is a murderer, and ye know that 
no murderer has eternal life continuing 
in him. 



16. By this we know the love of God, (a) 
—that he [Jesus] laid down his life on our 
behalf; and we ought to lay down [our] 
lives on behalf of [our] brothers. 17. 
But he who has worldly property, and 
sees that his brother has need, and shuts 
up his compassion from him ; how can 
the love of God be continuing in him ? 
18. My little children, let us not love in 
word, nor in tongue ; but in work, and in 
truth. 19. And by this we know that 
we are of the truth, and shall persuade 
our hearts [of it] before him . 20. Because, 
if our heart condemns us, [God does so] ; 
because God is greater than our heart, 
and knows all things. 21. Beloved, if 
our heart does not condemn us, we have 
confidence toward God. 22. And what- 
ever we ask, we receive from him, be- 
cause we keep his commands, and do 
those things which are pleasing in his 
sight. 23. And this is his command,— 
that we trust in the name of his Son, 
Jesus the Anointed,and love one another, 
as he gave us command [to do]. 24. And 
he who keeps his commands, continues 
in him, and he [Jesus] in him. And by 
this we know that he continues in us, by 
the Spirit whom he has given us. 



IV. 1. Beloved, trust not in everyone 

[who says he speaks by] the Spirit, but 
test those who [say they speak by] the 
Spirit, as to whether they are from God ; 
because many false prophets have gone 
out into the world. 2. By this know ye 
the Spirit of God ;— everyone who [says 
that he speaks by] the Spirit, and pro- 
fesses that Jesus the Anointed has come 
in the flesh, is from God. 3. And every- 
one who [says that he speaks by] the 
Spirit, but does not profess that Jesus 
the Anointed has come in the flesh, is 
not from God. And this is that foe 
of the Anointed, of whom ye have heard 
that he was to come, and who now 
already is in the world. 4. Ye are of 



(a) Ver. 16. Some Greek copies are without " of God.' 
know [his] love,"— that of Jesus; as in the Syriac. 



The meaning then is, " we 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I JOHN IV. 4-21. 
Is in you than lie who is in the world. 
5. And these are of the world. For this 
reason they speak what is of the world, 
and the world hears them. 6. But we 
are of God ; and he who knows God hears 
us ; and he who is not of God does not 
hear us. By this we understand who it 
is [who speaks by] the Spirit of truth, 
and who by the spirit of deception. 



7. My beloved, let us love one another; 
because love is of God, and everyone who 
loves has been begotten by God, and 
knows God ; 8, because God is love ; and 
everyone who does not love, does not 
know God. 9. By this has been made 
known the love which God has for us ;— 
that God has sent his only Son into the 
world, that we might have life [-bliss] by 
means of him. 10. The love consisted in 
this,— it was not in that we loved God,but 
in that God himself loved us, and sent his 
Son to be an atonement on behalf of uur 
sins. 11. My beloved, if God has so loved 
us, we also ought to love one another. 12. 
No one has ever seen God ; but if we love 
one another, God is continuing in us, and 
his love is made complete in us. 13. And 
by this we know that we are continuing 
in him, and that he is continuing in us,— 
that he has given us of his Spirit. 14. 
And we have seen, and we bear witness, 
that the Father sent his Son [to be] a 
Saviour for the world. 15. Whoever pro- 
fesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God 
is continuing in him, and he is continuing 
In God. 16. And we have trusted in, and 
have known, the love which God has 
toward us ; for God is love ; and every- 
one who is continuing in love, is con- 
tinuing in God. 17. And by this his love 
for us is made complete, so that we shall 
have confidence in the day of judgment ; 
—[namely] because such as he is, such 
also are we in this world. 

18. There is no fear in love, but perfect 
love casts out fear ; because we fear 
[■when] in danger; so that he who fears 
is not made complete in love. 

19. For this reason let us love God, 
because he first loved us. 

20. But if anyone shall say,— I love 
God,— and yet hates his brother, he is a 
liar; for he who loves not his brother 
who is seen, how is he able to love 
God who is not seen? 21. And this 
command we have received from him, 



The Greek Text. 

I JOHN IV. 4-21. 

God, little children, and have conquered 
them ; because greater is he who is in 
you than he who is in the world. 5. They 
are of the world ; for this reason they 
speak what is of the world, and the 
world hears them. 6. We are of God; he 
who knows God hears us ; he who is not 
of God, does not hear us; by this we 
know him [who speaks by] the Spirit of 
truth, and him [who speaks by] the spirit 
of deception. 

7. Beloved, let us love one another ; for 
love is of God, and everyone who loves 
has been begotten by God, and knows 
God; 8, he who loves not, knows not 
God, for God is love. 9. By this has been 
made manifest the love of God in respect 
of us,— that God has sent his only Son 
into the world that we might live by 
means of him. 10. In this is the love,— 
not in that we loved God, but in that he 
loved us, and sent his Son [to be] an 
atonement for our sins. 11. Beloved, if 
God has so loved us, we also ought to love 
one another. 12. No one has ever seen 
God ; if we love one another, God is con- 
tinuing in us, and his love is made com- 
plete in us. 13. By this we know that 
we are continuing in him, and he in 
us,— because he has given us of his Spirit. 
14. And we have seen, and we bear wit- 
ness, that the Father has sent his Son [to 
be] the Saviour of the world. 15. Who- 
soever shall profess that Jesus is the Son 
of God, God is continuing in him, and he 
in God. 16. And we. know, and have 
trusted in, the love which God has in 
respect of us. God is love ; and he who 
is continuing in love, is continuing in 
God, and God ia him. 17. By this his love 
for us is made complete, with view to 
our having confidence at the day of judg- 
ment,— [namely] because such as he iSj 
[such] are we also in this world. 



18. There is no fear in love ; but perfect 
love casts out fear ; because fear has [in 
view] punishment ; and he who fears ia 
not made complete tu love. 

19. Let us love him, because he first 
loved us. 

20. If anyone shall say,— I love God,— 
and yet shall hate his brother, he is a 
liar ; for he who loves not his brother 
whom he has seen, how is he able to love 
God whom he has not seen? 21. And 
this command we have received fro:.a 



The PesMto-Syriac Text. 

I JOHN IV. 21. V. 1-14. 
that everyone who loves God, love his 
brother also. 

V. 1. Everyone who is trusting in that 
Jesus is the Anointed, has been begotten 
by God; and everyone who loves him 
who begat, loves also him who has been 
begotten by him. 2. And by this we 
know that we love the sons of God, when 
we are loving God, and are doing his 
commands. 3. For this is the love of 
God that we keep his commands ; and 
his commands are not burdensome. 4. 
Because everyone who has been begotten 
by God, conquers the world. And this is 
the victory which has conquered the 
world, our trust. 5. For who is he who 
conquers the world, but he who is trust- 
ing in that Jesus is the Son of God ? 

6. This is he who came by means of 
water andof blood,— Jesus the Anointed; 
he came not by water only, but by water 
and by blood; and the Spirit bears 
witness, because the Spirit is [the Spirit 
of] truth. 7. Because there are three 
who bear witness [in heaven,— the 
Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit, 
and these three are one. 8. And there 
are three that bear witness en earth] (a), 
—the Spirit, and the water, and the blood ; 
and these three are [united] in one. 9. 
If we receive the witness borne by men, 
how much more [should we receive] the 
witness borne by God, who is [so] great ? 
and this is the witness which God has 
borne respecting his Son. 

10. Everyone who trusts in the Son of 
God, has this witnessing within himself. 
Everyone who does not trust in God, 
has made him a liar, by not trusting in 
the witness borne by God respecting his 
Son. 11. And this is the witness borne,— 
that God has given to us life [-bliss] which 
is for ever, and that this life [-bliss] is in 
his Son. 12. Everyone who has the Son, 
has also life [-bliss] ; and everyone who 
has not the Son of God, has not life 
C-bliss]. 

13. I have written these things to you 
that ye may know that ye have life 
[-bliss] which is for ever,— ye who have 
trusted in the name of the Son of God. 



The Greek Text. 

JOHN IV. 21. V. 1 14. 
him, that he who loves God, love his 
brother also. 

V. I. Everyone who is trusting in that 
Jesus is the Anointed, has been begotten 
by God; and everyone who loves him 
who has begotten, loves also him who 
has been begotten by him. 2. By this we 
know that we love the children of God, 
—when we love God, and keep his com- 
mands. 3. For this is the love of God, 
that we keep his commands, and his 
commands are not burdensome. 4. For 
everyone who has been begotten by God 
conquers the world; and this is the 
victory which has conquered the world, 
—our trust. 5. Who is he who conquers 
the world, but he who is trusting in that 
Jesus is the Son of God ? 

6. This is he who came by meansof water 
and of blood, Jesus the Anointed ; not by 
water only, but by water and by blood. 
And it is the Spirit that bears witness, 
because the Spirit is the [Spirit of] truth. 
7. Because there are three who bear wit- 
ness [in heaven ; the Father, the Word, 
and the Holy Spirit : and these three are 
one. 8. And there are three that bear 
witness on earth], (a) the Spirit, and the 
water, and the blood, and the three are 
[united] in the one [testimony]. 9. If we 
receive the witness borne by men, the 
witness borne by God is greater ; because 
this is the witness which God has borne 
respecting his Son. 

10. He who trusts in the Son of God 

has the witnessing in himself. 

He who does not trust in God, has made 
him a liar ; because he has not trusted 
in the witness borne by God respecting 
his Son. 11. And this is the witness 
borne,— that God has given to us eternal 
life, and that this life is in his Son. 12. 
He who has the Son, has the life ; he 
who has not the Son of God, has not the 
life. 

13. I have written these things to you 
who trust in the name of the Son of God, 
that ye may know that ye have eternal 
life, and that ye may trust (b) in the name 



(a) Verses 7 and 8. Many good copies, both Syriac and Greek, do not contain the 
words from "in heaven" to "on earth." They are not in the editions representing 
Syriac copies of the Maronites, (1703), of the Nestorians of Coordistan, (1852), or of 
India, (1816). 

(b) Verse 13. Some good Greek copies of this verse are like the Syriac. and read 
thus,-" These things I have written to you, that ye may know that ye have eternal 
liie, ye who are trusting in the name of the Son of God." 



The Peshito-Syriac Text. 

I JOHN V. 14-21. 

14. And this Is the confidence whicli we 
have in him,— that as to everything 
which we ask of him, [which is] in accord 
with his will, he hears us. 15. And if we 
are persuaded that he hears us with 
respect to what we ask of him, we are 
confident that we have received already 
[the gift of] those things which we have 
asked of him. 

16. If anyone shall see that his brother 
is sinning a sin which does not condemn 
[him] to death, let him ask, and life [-hliss] 
shall he given for those who are not sin- 
ning as unto death. For there is a sin 
which is that of death ; I do not say that 
anyone should make request respecting 
this. 17. For all wickedness is sin, and 
there is sin which is not that of death. 
18. And we know that everyone who has 
teen begotten by God, does not sin ; for 
he who has been begotten by God, keeps 
himself, and the evil one does not come 
near him. 

19. We know that we are of God, and 
that the whole world is placed in the 
evil one. 

20. And we know that the Son of God 
has come, and has given us knowledge, 
that we might know the true [God], and 
that we might be in him,— in the true 
[God], [and] in his Son, Jesus the 
Anointed. This is the true God, and 
life [-bliss] which is for ever. 

21. My sons, keep yourselves from the 
worship of images, (a) 



The Greek Text. 

I JOHN V. 13-21. 

of the Son of God. 14. And this is the 
confidence which we have in him,— that 
if we ask anything which is according to 
his will, he hears us. 15. And if we know 
that he hears us, respecting whatever 
we ask, we know that we are to have the 
very things which we have asked of him. 



16. If anyone shall see that his brother 
is sinning a sin which is not unto death, 
he shall ask, and [God] will give him life 
for those who sin [a sinwhich is] not unto 
death. There is a sin unto death. I do 
not say that he should make request 
respecting it. 17. All unrighteousness is 
sin ; and there is sin which is not unto 
death. 18. We know that everyone who 
has been begotten by God does not sin ; 
but he who has been begotten by God 
keeps himself, and the evil one does not 
touch him. 

19. We know that we are of God, and 
that the whole world lies in the evil one. 

20. And we know that the Son of God 
has come, and has given us understand- 
ing, that we might know the true [God] ; 
and we are in the true [God], [and in] his 
Son Jesus the Anointed. This is the true 
God and the life eternal. 

21. Little children, keep yourselves, 
from images. Amen, (b) 



(a) Syilac, verse 21. This note is at the end of many copies.—" Is finished the first- 
letter of John, the Chief Messenger. 
(b) Ver. 21. Some good Greek copies, Like the Syriac, have not " Amen,"