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Harvard College 


ArchibaM Gary Coolidge I 






Captain Roos-KeppeVs Edition of tJu Puthiu Text Boohs , 




(The text-book for the Higher Standard Examination) 


Captain G. ROOS-KEPPEL, 


President, Central Committee of Examination in Pushtu, 



Son of 






Price 2*8-0. 

J^KdL qqiT. ^0 



UGI 141954 


HAvma been authorized by the Punjab Govern- 
ment to produce a new edition of the Ganj-i-Pakhtu 
and Tarikh-i-Mahmud-i-Ghaznavi, the text books 
for the Lower and Higher Standard Examinations 
in Pushtu, I have produced translations of each in 
the hope that a literal translation at a low price will 
be of use to students of the language. 

As the translation adheres to the text as literally 
as possible, it is necessarily clumsy in style, and in 
order not to confuse the translation with notes only 
such words have been interpolated as are required 
to render the sense intelligible. These are in 
brackets. The pages noted in the margin refer to 
the text, both of the Kalid-i- Afghani and of my 
edition of Ganj-i-Pakhtu and Tarikh-i Sultan Mah- 




June 1901. ) Captain. 


The History of SttUaa Mahmud of Gh&a&i. 

The collectors of histories have, with auspicious pens, Pas« '•• 
thus written on the pages of their own works, that Sultan 
Mahmud of Ghazni was a King who had the fortune to be 
fortunate (both) in (matters of) religion and of (this world), 
and the fame of his justice and even-handedness had spread 
on all sides. 

And in the work of religious war he had planted the 
banners of Islam and had pulled up the roots of tyrants. 

When he used to start for war, you would say, " This 
must be a flood which flows equally over hill and dale ''; and 
when he used to seat himself upon (his) throne, a man would 
think, *^ This must indeed be the sun whose light shines on 
great and small (lit. the nobles and the common people). 

Wisdom was bis, and power aod good fortune : 

On account of all these be was worthy of a crown and throne. 

But in some books it has been seen that this King was Page 8. 
very avaricious, but (the occusation) regarding avarice 
appears to be beyond (the limits of) justice, because to 
subdue so many countries and to cause so many learned men 
and famous (poets) to sit in (his) assembly cannot be success- 
fully done without giving away wealth and without bestow- 
ing riches. 

And it is an evident fact that without (counting) fixed 
allowances he used to give four lakhs of rupees (a year) ti 
deserving people, and do many kindnesses to them and con- 
fer advantages on everyone* 

age 4. 

( 4 ) 

Tea! if thpse two things are the oause of the King 
(having a) bad name, it may be so. One, that be hurt the 
feelings of Firdosi the poet, the other, that towards the end 
of his life he used to take money from (his) people (by 

It is said that the King in outward appearance was not 
beautiful. One day he looked in a mirror and his face 
appeared to him to be ugly, so he said to a minister (who 
was there), " People say that gazing on the King's face 
improves the sight, and ray complextion is such that by 
looking at it a man's heart becomes sorrowful." 

The minister said to him, " What necessity is there fur 
you to beautify your appearance; it is befititng that you should 
make your habits beautiful so that everyone may love you." 

That saying pleased the King greatly, and he acted upon 
it, and in good habits he reached such a limit (of goodness) 
that he surpassed all (other) Kings. The father of the King 
was the Amir Sabaktagin, and his mother was the daughter 
of a noble of Zabalistan, for this reason he is (sometimes) 
called ^'Zabali," as Firdosi the poet has praised him, saying, 
The Zabali Sultau Mabmad is sach an ocean 
That its ihore do one has seen anywhere * 
A peari from it did not come into my band : 
The ocean is good, but 1 complain of my fate. 

On the night of the Ashura in the year of the Hegira 
357 be was born, and Jirjani, has written in (his) book the 
Minhaj-us-Saraj, that the good fortune of Sultan Mahmud 
was equal to the good fortune of the Lord of the Faith of 
Islam, and a moment before his birth the Amir Sabaktagin 
saw in a dream that from their hearth a great tree sprang 
up, so ((2:reat) that the whole world could find place beneath 
its shadow. When he awoke from sleep, he was thinking 
of its interpretation, when suddenly some one brought him 

( 5 ) 

the tidings saying, ^' Be you fortunate, a son is born to you/' 
The A.mir Sabakbagin was very pleased; and on account of 
that auspicious dream he gave his son the name of Muhmud 
(i.6., the Fortunate One), and became hopeful of ^his attain- 
ing) high rank and honour. 

Then in a little time the planb of his good fortune 
gave such a shade that many people sat under its shade, as 
these couplets of Firdosi bear testimony to the fact. 

In the peign of Mahmud the Ghazi, the King. 
The sheep and the wolf drink water in one place. 
When a boy is first born of his mother 
In his cradle he mentions the name of Mahmud. 

At that time, by order of the Amir Sabaktagin, he de- Page 6. 
stroyed the temple (lit. idol house) of the Hindus which was 
on the bank of the river Sodra and made his fame (lib. good 
fortune) equal to the fame of the Lord of the Faith (of 

And in the first year of his reign a mine of gold in the 
form of a tree appeared from the ground in Seistan, and 
however much one might dig in it (nothing but) pure good 
would come out of it, and it was three yards round. After- 
wards in the time of Sultan Mas'ud that mine was lost by 
reason of an earthquake. 

Again, when the Sultan was free from his war against 
his brother, he set his face to Baikh ; and on account of this, 
that the Governorship of Khorasan (which) was his by 
right, had been entrusted to (onej Bakto^an, he sent a 
messenger to Bokhara to A mir Mansur and explained his 
dissatisfaction to him. 

He gave answer, *' I have given you the Governorship 
of Balkh and Tarmiz and Herat, but Baktrzan is a Well- 
wishing man, and without reason to remove him and to 
dismiss him from office is not proper. 

( 6 ) 

He (i.6., Sultan Mahmud) senb Ab'ul-Hassan of Jammu 
with many presents to Bokhara, and said to Amir Mansur, 
**l hope that you will not foul the spring of friendship and 
sincerity, with the earth and rubbish of indifference, and 
that you will not forget the rights of I and of my father 
which are iccumbent on you, that the thread of friendship 
may not be torn (asunder) and the foundations of submission 
may not be undermind." 

Pige 6. When Ab-ul-Hassan of Jammu reached Bokhara, Amir 

Mansur decided to make him a minister of his own, and he 
gave no reply to the Sulban s message. 

Sultan Mahmud started in the direction of Nishapur, 
and when Baktozan understood his object, he went in an- 
other direction and sent a petition (relating the vhole) of 
his case tc; Bokhara. 

Amir Mansur was intoxicated with the pride and igno- 
rance and vanity of youth. He colUcted his force and 
started for Khorasan and rested nowhere till (he reached) 
Sarkhas. AUhough the Sultan knew well that Amir 
Mansur could not cope with him, yet he feared the reproach 
and scandal of faithlessness, so be left Nishapur to him and 
went to Murghab. 

It happened that Baktozan, with the connivance of 
Faik, behaved treacherously ; he seized Amir Mansur and 
pierced his eyes with a needle and blinded him, an J seated 
on the throne his younger brother, whose name was Abd-ul- 
Slalik, and he himself feared the Sultan (and) fled to 

Th,e Sultan started after him and reached Merv. 

Baktozan and Faik chose a ruinous course and gave 
battle to the Sultan in the plaio, bub victory was in the 

( 7 ) 

destiny of the Saltan. Faik took Abd-uI-Malik. with bim 
and went to Bokhara, and Baktozan fled to Nishapur, and 
some time after he again went to Bokhara to collect his 
dispersed arni)\ ^ 

It chanced that at this time Faik fell ill and. died, and Page 7, 
Ilak Khan went from Kashgar to Bokhara and 8lew< Abd-ul- 
Malik with his dependants and exterminated them, and the 
power of the dynasty of Saman, which had existed for six 
score years and eight, came to its end. 

And Sultan Mahmud became engaged in the govern- 
ment; of Balkh and Khorusan. And when (the splendour of) 
his reign was noised to the four quarter9 of the wo.i^ld, the 
Caliph of Bagdad, who was known as Al-Kadir-6illah-Abbasi> 
sent a robe of honour of, great v^lue to the Sultan, such 
robe of honour as no king had ever sent to another king. 

Then in the year 390 of the Hegira, in the month of 
Miana, he went from Balkh to Herat and from Herat to 
Seistan, and subjected to his orders Hanif-ben-i-Ahmed, 
the Governor of that place, then he reached Ghazni. And 
about that time he started for Hindustan and there captured 
a few fortresses and then returned. In such a way did he 
spread the bedding of Justice on the spacious ground that 
a love to him was born in the hearts of aU. 

And when Ilak Khan with one blew cleared Mawar<^ul- 
Nahr of the descendants of Saman, he sent a letter of victory 
and conquest to the Sultan and congratulated him on (his 
accession to) the kingdom of Khorasan. For this reason a 
firm friendship was engendered between the two kings. 

And Sultan Mahmud sent one Ab-ul-Taiab, whose name 
was Sahal (who) was the son of Suleman Maluki, and (who) 
was the Preacher of the Traditions of the Prophet, as an 
envoy to Ilak Khan in order to arrange for the marriage of PftgeS, 

( 8 ) 

one of hifi princessesi And be sent) ' wibh him various de 
seriptioDS (of presents such as) sapphires and costly rubiei 
and necklaces of pearls, and eggs of ambergris, and vessels c 
gold and silver filled with scents {^nd camphor, and other pre 
sents from Hindustan, plants of aloes, and watered sworde 
and war elephants caparisoned and equipped so that th 
eyes of the spectators would become dazzled, and swift horse 
with golden saddles on thon. 

When the Imam Ab-ul-Taiab reached the land of Tur 
kestan, the people of that country, who had mostly becom 
Musalmans iu the time of Iluk Khan, showed him mud 
respect and honour and politeness. 

And be was detained at Orkand until Ilak Klian gavi 

permission for an audience. After this he brought into th( 

King's presence that pearl after which he had dived in thi 

Idea of Turkestan, together with the costly goods of tha 

country, with pure gold and silver, and with slave girls fron 

Kbita and the milk faced ones of Khotan, together witi 

I ermine and sables, together with other presents. Aftor thai 

I for a long time friendship and affection increased betweei 

I the Sultan and Iluk Khan, until by reason of the evil eye o 

the time and through the exertions of slanderers their friend 

ship and affection was changed into enmity and malice, ai 

will shortly be recounted, if it please God Almighty. 

And Sultan Mahmud, on account of this that he had saic 
that " whenever I am at leisure from the affairs of my king- 
dom " I will spend most of my time in going to Hindustan and 
wage a Holy War, determined in the month of the lesser Id 
in the year 391 of the Hegirci, to Sf t out from Qhazni foi 
Hindustan, and came ^o Peshawar with ten thousand troopers 
And Jaipal came and prepared to fight him with twelve thou< 
sand mouiited men, thirty thousand infanttyi and three 

Page 9. 

( 9 ) 

hundred elephaDts, ^nd joined battle with him on Monday, 
the 8th of the month of Hassan-Hussaio, in the year 392 of 
the Hegira. 

Sultan Mahmud behaved bravely and vicbory fell to bim^ 
80 he become famous as a Ghazi ; and he captured Jaipal 
with fifteen men, who were some his sons and some his 
relations, and he killed five thousand Hindus and brought 
back much plunder. And he took from the necks of those 
prisoners sixteen necklaces, and those necklaces are called 
in the Hindi language *' Mala/' and people fixed the prioe 
of each necklace at one lac and eighty thousand gold ,^ 


Then the Kin^; went from Peshawar to Phanda and 
brought that country (also) under bis rule. 

And us soon as it was spring he pardoned Jaipal and the 
other prisoners, after they had agreed to pay him tribute, and 
Released them from imprisonment. And he killed many 
potverful Pathans, and made some his servants and took them 
with him to Ghazni. 

The custom of the Hindus is any raja who is twice PagelO. 
defeated by the Musalmans, or taken prisoner, is not again fit 
to rule, and his sin cannot be expiated without fire. So fqr 
this reason Jaipal ma^ie his son, whose uame was Auandpal, 
king and threw himself into afire apd was burnt. And 
Sultan Mahmud in the month of Hassan-Hussain, in the year 
393 of the Ucgira, went again to Seistan and that time he 
brought Hanif to Ghazni. 

Then again a desire for Hindustan took birth in his 
heart. In the year 395 of the Hegira be started in the 
direction of the city named Bhatia, and when be had 
traversed the boundaries of Multan he camped there. And 
in that) city th^re was so great a fort that tbQ bird vulture 

( 10 ) 

oould not reach its summit, and round it there was such a 
moat that the sight of the strongest sighted could not reach 
its bottom. The name of the raja of that place was Baji 
Hao, and because of his many elephants and troops he was 
so proud that neither did he care for the nobles of Amir 
Sabaktagin, nor did he submit to Jaipul. 

When Sultan Mahmud in order to crush him led his 
army out, he assembled his troops and drew it up in lines 
parallel to the army of Islam. The two armies fought 
together for iliree d>iy><, bur the Musulmans appeared to the 
}Cing to weaken ; so on iho f.iurch day he gave an order, 
PA;eil. "To-drty will be the royal battle, let old and young, 
servants and followers all equip themselves, so that they 
may be present on the field (cf battle) to fight for Faith. " 
And when Raji Baji Rao learnt this plan, he went to 
his idol house and prostrated himself before the idols and 
begged help from them, and with noise and coercion he drove 
(allj the Hindus out of the city, and they placed themselves 
on the field of battle. 

Then the nobles of I^lam struck their hands to their 
swords and spears and all together charged the infidels. 
From dawn till sunset they fought together, and on every ^ide 
mounds of drad were standing and streams of blood were 
fi )wiiig, but no sign of weakness was visible on either side. 

The Sultan then raised his hands to the presence of 
God, and he brought the holy soul of the Prophet, on 
whom be peace, as his intercessor and himself charged into 
the midst of the (enemy's) army. He broke the infidel 
hoNt and besieged B^ji R<io and gave orders to fill up the 

When he had nearly filled up the moat with stones, 
Qlods of earth, thornbushesi and shrubs, Baji Rao was 

( 11 ) 

confounded. He left bis army in this fight and together 
with a few special men came down from the fort and fled 
^ to a jungle among the forests on the banks of the Iiidus. 

When the; Sultan heard of this he sent a fi>rc3 of brave 
Boldicis after him and they surrounded him in that very 
jungle. When Baji Rao could find no way of escape he P*liel-« 
quickly drew a dagger from his belt and struck it with 
/ great fury into his breast. Tne Gbazis came up with him, 
they cut ofi his head and wcut off with iti to the Sultan, 
and with their unsparing swurds they struck to the ground 
the heads of the companions of Baji Rao and made a heavy 

Eighty elephants and slaves and much plunder and 
property came into their hands, and that city together with 
the surrounding country acknowledged the rule of the 
Sultan, and he vviih victory and conquest returned to Qbazui. 

Then again in the year 39(3 of the Hegira the Suilau 
decided to subdue Multan, and he gave orders to the leaders 
of the army saying, ''Sheikh Hamid Lodi, Governor of 
Multan, used to be loyal to Amir Subuktagin and would not 
free himself from his service, but after him. his grandson, 
Ab-ul-Fateh, whose name was Daud, the son of Nusir, the 
SOD of Sheikh Mamid, and who was a heretic, at first behav- 
ed himself according to the habit of his father and grand- 
father and counted himself among the servants of the Sultan, 
but when the Sultan's army was occupied at Bhatia bad 
news was beard of him and improper deeds were commenced 
to be done by him." 

The King that year, by reason of some design (pretrnd- 
ed to) take no notice and said nothing, but next year he 
determined to take his revcng^. 

( 12 ) 

Vage 13. It appears from the writings of bhe ZaiQ-uI-Akhl)ar that 

in order that he should misunderstand (his intentioD), he 
left) that road and went by another road« And Anandpal, 
son of Jaipal, was stationed on the road to stop the passage 
of the Kin*^'s ami}', but he wad crushed (and) fled to 
Catrhmere. And it is said in the liis'dbry of Alfi that at the 
timo when Ab-uI-Fateh learnt of the^ coming of the Sultan 
he sent a main to Anandpal and asked him for help. / 

Anandpal lin order) to assist Ab-ul-Futeh, went from [ 
Lahore to Peshawar and sent a few (of his) nobles on ahead 
to obstruct the road of the Sultan, in order that the Sultan 
should be prevented from marching to Multan. 

The King in grean wrath gave orders to his army to 
destroy the cities of Anandpal. The army attacked simuN 
taneously and threw into confusion the nobles of Anandpal 
in Peshawar, And when Aimnpal learnD tiim he lied, and 
rhe'army of the Sultan was still thus pursuing him when be 
reached the limits of Sodra on the banks of the Chenab, 
and then he gob frightened (and) turned his face to Cash- 
mere. The Sultan did not go after him (but) started for 
Multan for his own affairs* 

When Ab-uUFateh saw that the rajas of India could do 
nothing, he shut himself (and his followers) up in a fort 
and madei^(litt. displayed) entreaties and excuses, and pro« 
mised that year by year he would send twenty thousand gold 
mohurs for (the King h) service and would promulgate the 
laws of the Sheriat and renounce the religion of the heretics. 

Page H. The Sultan besieged Multan for some days, but on this peacs 
he gave him a binding pruuiisc and pardoned the Governor 
of Multan. Again, when he was (occupied) in preparatioub 
for h'u return, it chanced that envoys from Arsalan Jazib, 
who was Governor of Herat^ reached him and informed the 

C J« ) 

SuUan of the (advance of the) army of Ilak Khan^ The 
Saltan ^th all haste entrusted the affairs of Bhatinda to 
Sakpal, who was the son of a (certain) raja of Hindustan, and 
at tbe hands of Abu All Samjnri had become a Musalman, 
and was also named Absur, and he (himself) went to Qhazni. 

And the account o? the case of Ilak Khan was thus : For 
a long time the Sultan and lUk Khan wer^ as friendly as . 
the ties of father-in-law and sm-in-law (befitted) to such an 
extent as has already been mentioned, tintil, on account of 
the mischief of inlriguets au'i by reason of the efforts of 
slanderers that friendship was chuugeti into enmity. 

And when the Sultan started towards Multan and there 
were no warriors (lit. wrestlers) lefc in the plains of Khorasau, 
Ilak Khan saw his opportunity (lit. found leisure) and deter* 
rained to subdue that country. He sent 8iyawHshtagin, 
who was the commander of his army, with a great army bo 
Khorasan, and he appointed Jafartagiu as Governor in the 
capital of Balkh. Ar^alan Jazib, Governor of Herat, learnt 
of this occurrence and went from Herat to Ghazni in order l*agei5. 
to protect the throne of r.ho kingdom And a party of the 
chiefs of Khorasan, by reason of the long absence of the Sul- 
tan, joined Ilak Khan. When the Sultan reached Ghazni, be 
collected an army like the people of the Day of Resurrection, 
and marched to Balkh, and when Jafartagin learnt of the 
coming of the Sultan, he fled from Baikh to Tirmiz. 

And Arsilan Jazib, by the order of the SuUan, went 
from Herat in pursuit of Siyuwashtagin and started towards 

Ilak Khan asked help from K idar Khan, King of China, 
(and) Kadar Khan with 5,000 men started to the a<%sistauce 
of Ilak Khan, (and) Ilak Khan with the help of Kadar Khan 
crossed the River Jainhun, and when (only) twelve kus of 
road remained to Balkb the army of the Sultan faced theio« 

i 14 ) 

The himself arfangecl the lines of his army. He 
eDlrusted the centre to his younger brother Amir Nasir-nd- 
din, Qiivernor ofJarjan and Abu Nasr Fariun and Abdulla 
Tai. The right wing he entrusted^to Altun Tash Hajib, and 
appointed Arsalan Jazib to the (conimand of the) left wing 
with other Pathan nobles. 

And with five hundred elephants, like mountains, he^ 

made a citadel in front of his line. And on the other side^ 

Ifak Khan himself stood in the centre of his army; and 

iViselS. appointed Kadar Khan to the right wing and stationed. 

Jafartagin on his left. Then both armies, like two rivers of 

mercury, faced one another, and by the noise of (the trampU 

ing of) their horses made the abode of the earth quake ; and 

with the dust of the. hoofs of their horses they made the 

j plain of the sky dark ; and the fire of struggle and battle 

I they kindled with the blast of the (their) attacks. 

if '*■■•'■. 

i On the other side Kak Khan himself became engaged 

! in the battle, and on this |ihe Sultan dismounted from his 

horse and bowed his head in prostration before the Pure 

God and raised the hands of prayers and entreaty and placed 

reliance on the favour of the most kind God, and he mounted 

a fierce elephant and led a charge against the army of Ilak 

Khan. It happened that the Sultan's elephant seized the 

standard bearer of Ilak Khan with his trunk and dashed 

him on the ground ; after that he came to the lines of the 

Turks and destroyed many of them. When the Ghazis saw 

that the Sulian himself had entered the field of battle, then 

involuntarily they rushed forward together and drew their 

swords and killed many Turks in that moment. Kadar 

Khan, panic-stricken, hopeless of life, fled by tricks and 

stratagem from the battle, and when he had crossed the 

waters of the Jaihun, he rested LO'v^bere until he reached his 

own country, and never again had a thought of Kbotasan. 

( 15 ). 

In the history of 7amani it is written that the Sultan 
after the flight of llak Khau pursued the broken army, but Page 17. 
it was wiuter there (and) the cold was limitless (and) no one 
h'id strength (to endure it). Most of the nobles desired that 
they should nut pursue the routed army, but as the Sultan 
was himself exerting himself, they had, whether they liked 
iji or not, to go two m'irches afcer them. On the third night 
they camped in a desert. Jhe whole night snow fell and the 
cold showed it«4 severity beyond limit, and for the 2Sultan 
they pitched a big tent and placed many brasiers in it (and) 
made the tent so warm that. most of the peopje (in it) were 
ready to throw off thair clothes on accounn of the heat. . 

At that moment Wulchak came in at the door of the 
tent. The Sultan said to him us a joke, "Go, Wulchak, and 
say to the Cold outside why do you die, and why owing to 
extreme cold are you at the point uf death ; we here are 
ready indeed to take off o<ir clothes on account of the 

Wulchak instantly went out and, came in again at once 
and said, '' I gave the King's gracious message to the Cold, 
and he says although: my hand cannot reach the Sultan 
and the Sultan's nobles, yet I will so serve his other servants 
tiiat to-morrow the Sultan and his noblfs and chiefs will 
(Jmve to).(itr.end to their horses themselves, and you will 
see no failure in that service of mine/' The Sultan, al- 
though outwardly he treated these words, as a jest, yet in 
his heart he repented him of his design and decided to 

It chanced that that very night news came from Hindus* Pagei , 
tan that Absar had become a renegade and had returned to 
his originrtl religion, and (as) he saw the field open to him,, 
he had driven but all the officials of the Sultan. 

( 16 ) 

The Sulfcan on the morrow turned the reins of bis 
in^ntions towards the plains of Hindustan, and started to 
make the journey by regular marches, and sent on first those 
nobles who were in receipt of free grants pf land in 

They seized Xb^M and brought him to the Sultan's 
audience hall. The Saltan took from him four lakhs of 
rupees and bestowed them on Tagin, his treasurer. And he 
put him ({. e., Absar) in prison and he died there. And 
the Sultan then returned to Ghazni (and) reclined upon the 
bed of comfort and was at ease. 

Once moru in the year 399 of the Hegira, he collected 
his army, and with the intention of revenging himself upon 
Anandpal, who had been disrespectful to him in the Multan 
campaign, he marched to Hindustan. 

When Anandpal learnt of this, he asked help from the 
(t)ther) rajas of Hindustan. As to the Hindus, a war witii 
Musalraans appeared to be a meritorious act, then all the 
rajas, willingly or unwillingly, collected together to such an 
extent that the Rajas of Ujjain and Gwalior and Kalinjar and 
Kanauj and Uelhi and Ajmir, all came to bis assistauce and \^^ 
started for the Punjab with thek respective armies. And as 
they had collected in the time of Amir Sabaktstgin, the army 
Page 19, of this time was far greater than that; and they came to- 
gether with Anandpal to the -plains of Pesbawer. 

Forty days they lay in face of the Sultan, but no one of • 
either army advanced to baHle. But the army of the 
infidels increased day by day, and from every side people 
continued to come to it to such un extent that the infidels of 
Kdcbttr also joined them in that expeditioa» 

C 17 ) 

> And tihey made such efforts in thi^ war fcliat the 
infidel women used to sell .their ornaments and send (money, 
for) expenses after their husbands, so that their males might 
be free to fight. And the woman who had no means would 
spin the wheel and labour and send (money for) expenses to 
the army. 

When the Sultan realized that this time the infidels 
were with great single- mindedness preparing themnelves for 
battle, he dug a trench on both sides of the army and prepar-* 
ed for battle. Then he sent) 1,000 archers in front (and) 
they with tricks and, stratagem excited the infidel army and 
drew them after them, until they had brought the infidel 
army close to their own. And the Musalmiins with great 
unanimity occupied them<9elves in repelling the infidels. 

And in sp^te of the great precautions of the Sultan, an 
army of 30,000 of the infidels of Kakhar, just in the crisis of 
the battle, crossed the trenches on either side and penetrated 
to the midst of the c walry and used their pikes, swords and 
cjaggers and knocked over many men and horses, to such an p*ge20. 
extent (indeed) that in the twinkling of an eye they made 
martyrs of 4,000 men. Indeed, things came to such a pitch 
that the Sultan was ready even on account of the Kakhars 
to leave the field and stop the baittle. By chance the elephant 
of Anandpal got frightened at the noise of the guns and the 
smell of powder (and) fled. The army (of the Hindus) 
thonght that the rajas ha J taken to flight, so all sprend the 
(news of their) defeat (and fled). 

Abdulla Tai, with five or six thousand Arab troops, and 
Arsalan Jazib, with 2,000 Turk, Pathan and Qhilzai troopers 
for two nights and days pursued the broken army, killed eight 
•thousand infidels, and .brought back thirty elephants and 
much plunder and presented themselves b<^fore the Sultan. 
The Sultan after this, to make firm the religion of the 

( 18 ) 

Prophet determiaed (bo wage) a hojy war againqt th« 

iufidelfl of Ntigarkob, and to destroy their idol-housps and 

started. And at thut time that fort was famous as the fort 

of Bbim, (and) when the Sultau reached it, he ordered it tc 

be besieged, aod killed miauy people io the neighbourhood 

And that fort had been constructed in the time of Rajs 

Bbim on the top of ahilli and the Hindus called it Makhzan- 

iiNAsnam or the '' Treasury of the Idols " and the rajai 

of (all^ countries used to send there gold and silver and 

pearls and rubies and coral and other riches, and in doing sc 

they oonsdered it to be an advantage for both worlds, Foi 

pAg«2i. ^^^B reason so great wealth was collected in that fortren 

thai) in the treasury of king were so much riches collected, 

. . . t 

And as that fort was empty of brave men, and there wai 

j; no one in it except Brahmans, then naturally their mindi 

i; were seized with panic, and rained cries to the skies foi 

mercy. And on the third day they opened the doors of the 

fort, and the Brahmans came and saluted Sultan 

', Then the Sultan with a few special men entered! the forl>« 

tj Seven lakhs of gold mohurs and eight hundred maunds ol 

[! gold and silver vessels and two hundred maunds pure gold 

and two thousand maunds of virgin silver and twenty maunds 

»| of aosor^ed jewels which had been collected there since the 

time of Bhimand had come into the possession of the civil 

ri officers, alt fell to the Sultan, and after this theSulan return* 

ed to Qhazni, 

:j And in the year 400 of the Hegira the Snitan when out 

|{ of Die city and placed thrones of gold and silver in the Hall 

of Audience, and turned out into (and arranged) in the plain 

(a!I) the plunder which bad fallen into his hands during bsB 

'"t>i9t) journey, and many people from the city and from the 

AM#.— Onelakh««lOu,000. Ooe maaod—82 ponndi. 

( 1» ) 

(surrounding) villages oame to seethe spectacle. And this 
crowd of people remained collected together for three days, 
and enjoyed themselves in various ways. And he distributed 
that wealth among piouQ and poor men and pleased the 
hearts of the people. l*sge !!• 

And in the year 401 of the Hegira he led his army to 
Ghor. Muhammad Ben-Suri, ruler of that country, came 
out with ten thousand mounted men to fight the Sultan, and 
the battle raged from the time of sunrise until midday, and 
the Ghoris behaved with great bravery. 

When the Sultan saw their bravery he gave orders and 
led his amry back as a trick. The Ghors thought that the 
Sultan was routed and emerged from their trenches and 
pursued him. When they reached the middle of the plain 
the Sultan issued (fresh^ orders and (his) soldiers faced 
about and slew many of the Ghoris and brought Muh^^mmad 
Ben-Suri a prisoner to the Sultan. But he from (excessive) 
grief licked a poisoned stone (which he had in his ring) and 
died in the Sultan's presence, and that country also was 
included in the possessions of the Sultan. 

And in the hisbory of Yamani it is witien that the 
rulers of Qhor and the subjects of that place had not until then 
consented to (embrace) the faith of Islam. But the author of 
the Tabkat Nasiri and Mubarak Shah Rozi, who wrote the 
bstory of the kings of Ghor in verse, have said that the 
Ghoris had become Musalmans in the time of the Caliphate 
of the Commander of the Faibhful Ali-ben-Abi-Talib, may 
God be pleased with him; and 4n time of the Bani-Umayaoli 
(when) all Musalmans had spoken ini properly against the Page^. 
descendants of the Prophet, on whom be peace, in. the 
country of Ghor (alone) no one said anything (of the sort) 
and of this laaooo tbftb country is proud OiboTQ all (pther) 

( «o ) 

Afifain in the same year the Sultan ^^ent a second time 
from QhrtZQi to Multan, and he conquered that place by 
force aud conquest, and slew many of the Karamat (sect) and 
(other) heretics and cub off dhe feet and hands of many and 
brought Dnud ben Nasir alive a captive, and took him with 
him to Qhazni and confined him in the fort of Uhor, and in 
that place he died. 

And in the year 402 of the Hegira a longing for holy 
war again was born (in his mind) and he started for Thanesar, 
. which is one of the countries of Hindustan, because some 
one had said to him that ''Tnane°ar is, in the opinion of the 
Hindus, Qod forbid, the comparison, in honour equal to 
Mecca the Great, and that in it there is an ancient idol*house 
in which the Hindus have made many idols, and the great 
idol among them (all) is called Jagsum, and this is the 
belief of the infidels that when the world was born that idol 
was born with it." 

And when thn Sultan reached the land of Punjab then 
by reason of this that he had made a promise to Anandpal 
P^g^ 24. that he would do him no harm he first sent men to him and 
said: ** Anandpal know that my intention is to go to Thanesar, 
It is befitting you that you should send a f^w tustworiihy 
men of your own with our army that there may be no bards.hip 
or oppression (practised) on the people of your country. 

Anandpal in his own interest quickly prepared a 
gr^at entertainment and called (all) the merchants of 
his country, and ordered them to give gratis flour and 
^ ghi,. oil, salt, vessels, wood, everything which would be 
..... required by the king's army, and that they should not 
demand (even) a pice or a pie from anyone. And he sent, 
under bis own brother, two thousand cavalry for the king's 
seriic^, And wrote to him, " I am your slave and attendant, 
whatever j^our order may be I am- ready (to obey) ; but this 

( TJl ) 

IB mypetibioD, that Tbanesar is the place of worship of the 
{»eopIe of this country, and (even) if in the religion cf the 
Musalmans ib is (considered) a meritorious act to brebk idols 
that (meriborions) work was accomplished in the breaking of 
the idols of Nagarkot. Now if the King will accept (as com* 
pensation) the cost of his coming and will fix upon those people 
a yearly tax and will return without molesting them, I also 
will, as a thankoffering that my prayer has been granted, 
send to (the King's) durbar every year fifty elephants and 
many kinds of offerings " 

The Sultan gave answer: '^ In the religion of the 
Musalmans it is (laid down thao this is) a meritorious act 
that any one who may destroy the place of worship of the 
heathen he will reap great' reward on the day of judgment* 
and my intention is to remove entirely idols from the cities 
of Hindustan. How then can I prevent myself from going Psfe26. 

to Tbanesar." 

In short, this news reached the Raja of Delhi, (and he 

prepared himself to war with the Musalmans and sent 
messengers to every part of Hindustan, and said to the 
Rajas : "Sultan Mahmud, with a great army, has started 
for Tbanesar. Now if to this great flood we do not oppose 
by a strong dam, then it will be soon that he will not leave 
the plant of wealth, of small or great, in the plain of this 
country. It is therefore better that we should remove this 
danger with one consent." 

Bub the Sultan reached Tbanesar before they could collect 
together, and when he saw the city empty (of defenders) 
he pitrndered it at his ease, and broke all the idols and 
sent (the idol) Jagsum to Ghazni (with orders that) it should 
be placed in the road, so that every one might pass over it 
iand trample ib under his feet ; and he found so great a 
U^asurs jo the temples tba1i it could not be^ounted* 

( M ) 

And it 18 related by Haji Muhammad Eandahari that in 
one temple a piece of ruby was found, which in weight waa 
450 miakals, and no one bad ever seen or heard of such a 

And the Sultan after that victory determined bo subdue 
Delhi, but his nobles begged him, saying ; "It is then neces- 
sary to go to Delhi when the Punjab from one end to* 
another shall come into our possession and our minds 
be ab ease from our anxiety regarding (the intentions of)' 

Agf 36. The Sultan approved of this counsel, and despatched a 

little less than two hundred thousand slave-gi^ls and slaves 
fj^oni that country and returned to Qhazoi. 

It is said that that year they counted the city of Qhazni 
""i as one of the cities of Hindustan, because many slaves and 

sliAve-girls had fallen to each noble. And in the year 403 of 
the Hegira Altuotash, the Gommaoder-in-Chief, and Arsalan 
Ja^ib conquered Gharjistan and captured Shah Sar known as 
Abu Nasar, (who was) ruler of that country, and brought 
him to Qhazni. 

And while they were taking Shah Sar to Qhazni they 
entrusted him to a slave, and that slave thought to himself, 
'^ it/is right that I should send a letter home that the 
pepole of (my) house shall know of my coming. So he 
sai^ to Shah Sar: " Write a letter for me that I may send it 

Shah Sar forbade him much, but the slave would not 
leave him (in peace). So as he could not help himself he 
took A pen in his hand, and wrote: ^'Oh useless, undesirable, 
•hafneless evil-iiving onel Are you in the belief that I db - 
not kDOW'Of j|»ur coftdttot; aod bow yojx Mp^nd mjf V^ogfn^y 

.( *» ) 

on unlawful (pleasures) as if I do nob know of it. You spend 
the day in drink and the nighb you amuse strange bachelors; 
you have ruined my home and lost my honor. If I ever reach 
you safely, I will reckon with you und give you a lesson." 

When he had finished the letter he putaseal on it (and 
dlosed the envelope (and) gave it to the slave. ' When the 
slave sent the paper to (his) home and (when) his wife undei* 
stood its purportfShe was seized with panic and anxiety waa Page 27. 
born (in her mind). She thought in her heart that some 
enemy might have made a false accusation against her to her 
husband and have slandered her to him. So for fear of her 
husband she took a few female slaves with her and left her 
home, and went and hid herself somewhere in a corner^ 
And when the slave had brought ShabSar to Ghaini he went 
to his home, and what does he see (there); The door i« 
closed, and there is no one in the house. He stood bewildered 
tor a while. Then when he had opened the door his (once) 
inhabited house appeared deserted to him. Neither did he 
see his wife nor did his servants appear. Trre slave asked the . 
neighbours (and) they told him of the paper. The slave 
stood for some time in grief lamenting and sighing, and 
saying: " I said nothing (of the kind)." Then he went f^nd 
fetched his wife and mada many apologies to her. 

And in the first assembly when they brought Shah Sar 
to the presence of the Sultan, then (some) cheerful fricnda 
told the whole story of the slave to the SulUn. The Sultan 
laughed, and said: ** Whoever steps beyond his proper kvel 
and behaves disrespectfully to the great, deserves this very 

Then the Sultan in those very days wrote a letter to 
the Caliph, 4bbasi, whose title was.Al-Eadir-O-bilUbr (and) . 
the purport of it was this "most of the cities of Khorasan 

( « ) 

are in onr possession. I hope (therefore) that) some of the 

Page28. cities of Khorasan, which are in the hands of your salves, will 

also be lieft to these (my) people." As the Caliph had nob 

the strength to go to war, was forced to agree to this 

Another time the Sultan again sent him a letter, and 
wrote in it, "Leave Samaroand also to me." The Caliph 
said, *^ I ask shelter from the Pure God from this. I wil nob 
do this thing, and if you intend to take it without my consent 
I will make the whole world shake upon you." 

The Sultan was very angry at this saying, and said: ''Do 
you wish that I should go to you with thousands of elephants 
and upset your kingdom and level all your villages and cities, 
and having loaded their dust upon elephants that I should 
biing it to Ghazni." 

The messenger heard these words and started off(home.) 
When some time had elapsed, he came again and brought a 

The Sultan took his seat and (his) slaves ntood in lines 
before him, and he posted great elephants at the door of his 
Durbar and got ready his army.- At that moment the mes- 
senger placed a sealed paper on the throne, and said, " The 
Commander of the Faithful says, *Your answer is this.' " 

Khwaja Abu Nesar Zozoi, who was the head of the office 
of letters, opened the paper (and) saw in it first written thia 
<*In the name of God, the Merciful, the CompaMionate" 

Then on the second line these letters were written 
separately in this way — A-L M-A-L-M, and after that the 
letter was thus :— 

Pase 29. ** Praise be to God, Lord of the World, and peace and lafety be on 

hii Prophet Muhammad and on all hie desceudanti.** 

There was nothing more. The Sultan and all the other 

( H ) 

writers were co/ifounded and did nob understand fche meaii'- 
ing of ib in the least.. Then they read every single verst 
of the Great Kuran and saw its c«»rainentary, buti no purporl 
of it could be ascertained. KUwaja Abu B ikr Kahasnani, who 
was nob till then the possessor of (any great) rank, plucked up 
courage, an J said : ''The gracious Sultan had mentioned 
elephants to destroy that country, so it must be that the 
Caliph in reply to your words has written (the verse of the 
Koran> which means) : 

" Oh I do you not ses bow your Qod has treated the f riendi pt Iht 

The Sultan on hearing ^hese words fell down st^nselest 
through fear. When after a whil^ he came to himself, he w» pt 
much and made excuses to the m^ss^nger and sent tiim back 
with many gifts and gave Abu Bakr a sptcial robe of 
honour and promoted him to the dignity of a noble. 

And in the year 404 of the Hegirn, the 8ult{»n led his 
army to the Fort of N^uiduna, whicit is situated on the hill 

And at this, time Anandpal died. His son, who waa 
grandson of Jaipal and was Governor of Lahore, had not the 
etrei.gth to fight him, (and) leaving few warriors in Nauduna, 
went to a (certain) valley of Gahsmere. The Sultan besieged 
that fortress, and prepared what was requisite for making a 
hole and destroying the fnrt; but those people were hard- fugtZO. 
pressed and begged for mercy, and made over the fort laff 
and complete to the Sultan. 

The Sultan took possession of the fort and appointed a 
trustworthy man to (the charge of) it, and went after JaipHl'* 
grandsou to that valley of Cashm^r*' (whicii Ims already been 
xneutis^ued), and Jaipal's grandson thence fl.d elsewhere. The 

( 26 ) 

Sultan plundored much weaUh in that valley, and reconciled 
many jpeople to (joioiug the) Musal man faith, then he 
returned to Ghazni. 

Aiid in the year 406 of the Hegira, the Sultan made a 
plan of (conquering) the country of Cashmere, and when he 
went there he besieged the strong fort of Lohkot; bub 
when a long time had elapsed and much snow fell, and the 
cold became ' extreme (lit. victorious) »ind reinforcements 
beyond numb' r had reached the fort, he raised the siege and 
started back'to-Ghaziii. And in that journey he lost his 
way and reached a place when; lUr. whole plain was full of 
water. Wherever they went they saw nought but water, 
and in that water many men perished, and this was the first 
(minfortune due to thn) evil eye which had b^^f^lK'n the 
Sultan 'ts army in its jtnirneys in Hindustan. After some 
day« they, with many devices and efforts, got, free from that 
water and went to Ghazni. 

And in that very year Ab-uI-Abbas Mamun, king of 
Khoarazm, wrote a letter of friendship to the Sultan (asking) 
for (the hand of) his sister. The Sultan accepted the (offer 
in 1.he) paper and sent his sister to Khoarazm. 

r«geSl» And in the year 407 of the H^^^ira a baud of brigands 

made an attack on the Kin^ of Khoaraztn, and killed liim. 
The Sultan fr'>m G'imz li went to Baikh, and thence started 
for Khoarazm. 
" ' * When he reached Khizr Bandar, on the frontier of 
Khoiirazm, he made Muhammad Tai the Chief of an army, 
and sent him in friuit. Wlien the people of Ghazni 
had encamped and wire slandinK up for the morning prayer, 
Kh'amar Tash, who was the leader of the Ktioajazmis, 
emerged from a place of ambush and surprised ttiem ; he 
killed ttaoy of them and routed them. 

( 27 ) 

The Sulban senb a large army of picked men (liti. slaTes) 
after tlipm, and when they c^me up with bhem they ciEiptured 
Khamar Tash and brought him to the Sultan. 

When the Sultan reached ihe fortress of Hazarasp, the 
soldiers of Khoarazm collected and made a simultaneous 
attack on the Sultan's army> and fought desperately. But 
they were broken, and Alaptagin Bokhari, who was their 
leader, fell into captivity. When the Sultan went to Khoarazm 
be first retaliated on the murderers of Ab-ul-Abbas (by 
killing them), then he gave to the noble Altum Tash the 
title of the King of Khoarazm, and bestowed on hini the 
country of Khoarazm and Arkaud together with its surround- 
ing (country). And when thence he came to Balkh lie 
g»ive the country of Herat to his son Amir Masud, and made '^ ' 
Muhammad Ben Huseriin Zozni his deputy, and sent him 
witih him. And the country of Korkan he gave to his 
son Amir Muhammad and sent Abu Bakr Kabastani with Page 32 

And when the Sultan was (once more) afc leisure frbm 
the affairs of Khoarazm, it was then winter time, and he 
, gave an order (saying) : " We will pass the winter. in Boat 
so that the soldiers may be in comfort." 

And in the early spring of the year 409 of the Hegira, 
when the nights and days are equal '^in length) and the 
soldiery of verdure and flowers was standing in the meadows 
of the plains and groves, and the pure air and fragrant 
breeze had conquered the fortress of the buds, the Sultan, 
with a lakh of sawara and twenty thousand infantry, who 
had assembled with the intention of (j'>iuing) a holy 
war from Turkestan, from Mawar-ul-Nahr and from Khora- 
san and from other countries, started for Kanauj* 

( 2« ) 

Now that country nfter ( the invasion of) Kashtasp till 
Iheo had never fttileii into the hands of any foreign (coo- 
qiierer), and from Ghazni to that place it was three months' 
journey, and there were sevpn very I ^rge rivers to be crossed. 

When the Sultan reached the frontier of Cashmere, 
the Governor of C^shtnere presented many things worth 
offering before the Sultan, and starr.ed at the hetd of bis 
army for (the Sultan s) service. When the s.Jdiers of ^ 
IsUm had traversed many stages and had arrived at Kauauj, 
they saw a great, firm, sbrting fort, so (great) that a spectator 
would think that its bead reached to the sky. And the 
raja of tbat place was called K<>rah, (and) when he saw the 
Tm* 88 (Sultan's) army he was confounded at their grandeur 
an«l pomp and was terrified, in his heart there remained 
uo iilea of fighting, and he seuu some mou to the presence of 
the Sultan, raying : *'l obey the orders of the King," and he 
himself, with affection and sincerity, dt^scended from the fort 
with his great and small sons, and according to the writings 
of Habib-us-Siyar (it appears that) he also embraced Islam. 
And the Sultan after three days started for the fort of 
Meerut. The raja of that fort, who was called llarw&t, 
entrusted the fort to trustworthy men, and himself went 
away to another place (lib. to one side). And the people \. 
in the fort saw that they had no power of resistance, so they 
presented (tu the Sultan) ten thousand times one thousand 
dirhams, which is two lakhs and fifty thousand rupees, and 
thirty elephants, and obtained peace. Again, the Sultan 
from that place started for the fort of Mahawan, which 
fort is built on the banks of the Jun water. And the raja of 
that fort WHS called by the name of Kalchand. He mounted 
an €lephant and determined to cioss the water. The army 
of ttte Strltttii Bfortwtl mttmx bim, (imd) wfara iht suMiwrB ^ 

( 2» ) 

tiear to him, that unlucky t-yrantj drew (his) dagger from (ita) 
sheath (and) first cut uff the head of his wife and soD^ then 
he struck himself on tiie breast and sent himself to hell. 

And in that plase so much plunder fell into the Sultan's 
hands that no one couUi count it. Eighty great elephants 
alone were (found) in ib. When the Sultan was at leisure 
from that affair, some one (caused to) pass to his auspicioiis Page 94* 
ears (the news) that in those patts there was a city called 
Muttra, (and) that Krishn Bas Dev, whom the Hindus call a 
prophet, was born in that city, and (that) in extent (lit. build- 
ings) or population no one had seen in the world a ciby like 
it. And there were so many wonders and curiosities in it 
that no one can (enough) extol them. The Sultan on hear- 
ing this account immediately start^'d for that place. And 
although tliat ciby was subject to the Raja of Delhi, still d'o 
one appeared to stop the King's (advance.) He reached his 
destination without} anxiety and without interference, and 
plundered the city and burnt the idol-houses of the city and 
neighbourhood, and broke the idols and much wealth came 
into his hands. And he was so astonished at tb^ sight of 
those buildings (which he found there) that he' sent a letter 
to the nobles and chiefs uf Ghazni, and wrote this paragraph 
in it: '* In this city there are a thousand buildings with 
foundations (as strong) as the sky and most of them are 
built of marble, and there are so many idol-houses in them 
that they are beyond counting; and if any one should desire 
to build such buildings, then if he were to spend a lakh of 
gold mohurs on expert builders, he would (hardly) complete 
it in two hundred years." . Hajj^'J 

It is said that he found amongst them five idols of pure 
gold, in the eye-sockets of which they pud sapphires (and) 
all those sapphires were valued at fifty thousand rupees. 
There wa« armathw idol of gold in whioh they hM in0er«etl a tu^tf^^ 

( 80 ) 

plate of emeralds, which in weight} was 400 miskals. When 
.they had broken up that) idol eighb thousand three hundred 
miskals of j/old were gob from it, and of idols of silver, ^^reat 
ai^4 small, there were moro than one hundred, (»ind) when 
.they broke them all up thoy loaded a hundred camels with 
theno. After this they set fire to all the buildings, (and) 
ai :i*:5 gWheu twenty [days had passed they marched from thad 

And it is written in the history of Alfi that the Sultan ' 
heard that in those parts there were on the bank of the river 
seven great forts, so he set ouii in that direction. And the 
ruler of those forts used to pay tribute to the Delhi R^ja, 
and when he learnt of this he fl«^«l. The Sultan reached those 
forts and was taking a view of the (surrounding) countries 
(when) it chanced that his eye fell on an idol-house which, 
in the belief of the Hindus, was standing for four thousand 
years. In th^se forts and idol-houses everything that the 
Musalmans found they took possession of, and at the King's 
stirrup they started for the fort of Mauj. 

And in that fort there were many brave men, and they 
had pub supplies (sufficient) for a long time in it. The 
Sultan besieged those people for fifteen days and left them 
no way of going and coming. When they understood that 
the. Sultan would conquer the fort by force, some of them V 
descended form the fort and slew themselves, and some with 
their women and sous threw themselves into a fire, and some 
opened the gate, took their daggers and knives in their 
hands and foughti such a fight with the Uusalmans that 
Pag«3«. they were all killed. 

The Sultan brought the plundered property into his 
possession, and at once started for Chaitd pal's fort. Chand- 
pal himself saw (that he bad) no strength to fi^ht (so) 

( 81 ) 

with his family and property fled to the mountains. The 
Sultan took possession of (all) property remaining in the 

* fort, and divided the stores of grain among his soldiers. 

Then he decided to go to the home of the infidel 
Chand Rai. He also did like Chandpal ; they fled to the 
hills with their prop Tty and possessions. , 

And Chand Rai had an elephant which the Sultan had 
many time's tried, at a great price, bo obtain ; but he could 
not get it. A.nd (about) that, time that elephant, without , 
its attendant, ran away from the camp of Chand Rai, and 
came straight to the Sultan's tent. The Sultan gave 
orders and they seized ib, aud he was much pleased. 

• And he gave that elephant the name of Khodadad (i.e., 
God-given), Thou when the Sultan ariived at Ghazni^ 
he counted up the plunder which he had taken i« the _ 
expedition to ( lit. the phinder of) Kanaui. It turned out 
(to be) twenty thousand gold pieces and a thousand thousand 
rupees and fifby thousand slave, female and male, and three 
hundred and fifty elephants, and ihere was much other 

. property. 

Then the Siillau gave orders, saying : "Build a Mu8Jid*i . 
jarni, which Pabhaos call 'the Friday mosque' gf marble, 

^o that in some placjs there may be .square (blocks of marble) . 
and in some hexag >na), and iii some ociagonal, and in some.;, 
cylindrical, so that spectators may be astounded at (the ?«ge37. 
beauty of) the sight of ib,and when he had builb that mosque ^ , 
he pub in ib such carpets and lamps and other things of 
beauty, that cheerful youths used to call it '* The Bride of 
Heaven," And in the neighbourhood of that mosque he 
builb a school and C')ll'C.«d in it the books of every (kind 
ofj wisdom and endowed tliat mosque and that school with 
(the revenues of) many villages. And as the Sultan did ; 

( J2 ) 

(this work wibh (great) enthusiasm, every noble began to 
build in bis own property mosques, schools and rest-houses 
for travellers. In a little while so many buildings resulted 
that they could not be counted* And in that journey the 
Sultan had brought a bird from Hindustan (which was) like 
a dove (and) should any one mix poison in the food and 
bring that food to the aesem^bly, then that bird would 
Ir.emble restlessly and shod tears involuntarily. He sent 
this wifih many (other) offerings to the Caiiph Al-Kadr-o- 
Biliah of Baghdad. 

And he had found a stone in Hindustan that, however 
much a man was wounded, when they scraped that stone in 
water and put io on that wound, it would instantly begin to 
h^al. And in the year 400 of the Hegira he sent to Baghdad 
a roll of conquests in which all (his) conquests of Hindustan 
were written. The Calf pli of Baghdad, on the day lie received 
nig«S8. that paper, assembled a great gathering aiid ordered that 
that roll of conquests should be read from the pulpits 
before (all) the people, so that the people might be informed 
of the exaltation of the standards of Islam and of the de- 
struction of the (very) root of the heathen and return thanks 
to God and greatly appland Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, and 
pray for his* (further) conquest and victory. And on that 
day there was such rejoicing in Baghdad as one rejoices on 
the day of the Id — and (to do) this was (but) fitting, 
• '- 'inasmuch as just as the companions of the Prophet did a 
(great) work in the cities of Arabia, Persia, Turkey and 
Syria, such a work did the Sultan do in Hindustan (and) 
gained both this world and the next. 

And in the year 412 of the Uegira, the wise and pious 
unanimously petitioned the Sultm, s jyiug: **Ft)r a long time 
.the Sultan goes every year t> Hindustan for a holy war bo 
gaui reward in heaven, and there displays the standard of 

(88 ) 

Islam, but on bha (very) coad to the House of Qod (i*^^, 
Mecca) the dwellers in the desert, and the Karamatas have 
gained the ascendancy and the Abbusi Caliphs have no 
power, so Musalmans Jmve^remained (so) unfortunate (as to 
lose) the rev'ard of pilgrimage. If something would be 
done to help them it would|be well." 

The Sultan accepted their words (of advice) (and) made 
one Abu Muhammad Nasahi, who was the head of the Qazis 
of the Sultan's dominions, Lord of the Pilgrims, and gave 
him thirty thousand pieces of gold for those dwellers in the faftt». 
desert who used to attack the caravans and sent him to the 
House of Gv)d, and many people, nobles and poor and desti- 
tute, great and sm ill, started with him. After many marches 
dwellers, in the desert, according to their ancient custom, 
were holding the road and would not allow the caravan lo 
advance. Qazi Abu Muhammad Nasahi, as peace-offering, 
sent them five thousand pieces of gold, and said to them : 
Take this and leave the road (open) to us/' 

The chief of the dwellers in the desert, whose name 
was Uamad-bin-Ali, would not mnke peace and prepared 
his force and advanced with the intention of. raiding 
towards the caravan. It chanced that in the caravan there 
was a Turk slave who was very skilful at archery; he drove 
an arrow at Hamad and struck him fair in the head, and h# 
fell headlong from his horse. Immediately the desert men 
took his body and fled. 

^ Qszi Abu Muhammad Nasahi, with heart at ease, 
continued his pilgrimage safe and sound, and in peace 
returned (home). 

And in that very year, that is, in the year 41 2 of the 
Hegira, the Sultan heard that the infidels of HindostaiD had 

.( U ) 

Q pqken vf ry. ill of theReja c f Kananj, who was called Korah, 
anid'ha^ blamed him, . saying: "Why have yon obeyed the 
orders of ^iiltau 'Miilunud ?" and Nunda, the R:\jj» of 
.K%li^ij.rv pursued and killed Ft oruh. 

Pig' 4) Wiien the Sultan heard this hevvs he prepared a larger 

force than (he iiud) the' first time and went aft^r Nandu to 
Hindu8(tan. When he reached the river Jun, the grandson 
•^pf Jaip^lj ,l^^0, ,Rjfy* of the Punjab, ,who had often fled 
frpm the Sultan,] advanced to help Nanda to the centre of 
,^ the Snltau'ti. 'ruute,-f to '^oppotse the SuUau's army. But the 
.\^atqr w?i8 dj^flp (lajid) poouL' €*Mild cross to the other .ba»k» 
Suddenly ei,jdit of the Sultan's picked ,8laves, jcrpssed th^ 
TsV^Atei* with u rush,. and th^y threw the whole of the army 
of ^^JuipaPs grandson into confusion and made; them fly 
rbefpre them^ Juipal's grtuidson with a few men fl^d and 
lU/d 4^ight) slaves \yunt on, and tU(^re was a city near and the); 
plumlered :ib and destroyed ,jta jtempled, and it should be 
evidenb to the wise that eight (slave) y puths, cannot >brea|^ 
an army, but those eight slaves were (in reality) nobles (and) 
liad crossed with their own forces, and therefore they liad 
done so great a work. From that phice he took his army 
towards Kilinj-ir. Nanda wiih 36,000 mounted men and 
45,000 footnten and G40 eiepluints came out to (givej battle 
to the Sullan. 

The Sultan ascended a hillock and surveyed the army 
of Nanda ; as it appeared to hinv(to be) very great (in 
itu.mber) ho regretted having come ; he bent bis head in 
prostration and prayed for victory and conquest to Qod. -It) 
happened that that night a great panic feel on the heart 
of, Nanda ; lie lefD all bis property and war material, and 
from fear fl ed away. 

i ^ ) 

' Nex* day the King tnou'nbed (his hr^Tse) arid fiwb hi^ F^gc41t 
searched for (^aahy) places b*Tani>ush; add, whea^fr^^^^^ 
treachery and deceib 6n the '][>aYt of ttW heathens was dis- 
pelled ^ he b^gan to plunrt'er. rxr^y ■ ' hiiml - . 

All kinds and sorts and vfitietrSs of tilings fell into ^e 
hands of the Musalman soldiers Also in those pai'tstbrey 
found 580 elephants in a forest. And as his was iiot'at ea!sS 
in his mind regarding the Punjab (which was) in his'r^SSfJ 
he was^^^t^fi^d that yegti: wi>li (Imving done) that^work 
(And) returned to Gbazni. / . . 

. Againi: in those. vViD«y(?d8|y9 n^vs. r^arche^l^ira ^jja^ 
|)eopfe of JKirat ' and Natdin, , wyph;>are cpun-j^^ 
within the limits of Hindustan Jiadnat plaqed'pf>t,ti))^J^Itj^if 
o€ Islam on their necks^ ai[id :haGl' turned their.iht^cvds-,(a,vv^^^ 
froiSi- the orders of thft laws . of Mul^raip«^c|, i:^^,whp^^be^ 
peaee,-(abd)^ were njostly indulging iueidol^try;^,,; .^j j ^-^ j,,!,. 

The Sulltan t6bk with hindi 'darpenters:afid smiblw 
masons and led his army. He first came to Kirat, and he 
6iibdu6d Kirat;'alrdlQr«Ct is a «odI place (sitilat^d) between 
HrMHiistan arid Tutkestkh (and) many fruits Fgrowdn^tv '4$.!; 

.^^^Wiien the Vuier'of thalj 1?^ 

Sultaasenb Hajib Ali, thfe'son of Art'alan Jazib toTftirtlib; /;. &va1 
He, when he got there," conquered that place (and" mtiiny) 
slave-girls and slaves and (much) properiy<;ame into His 
hands, and. there was a great ^dol-hpuse there, and wliipn ho 
destroyed' ib an engraved stone was fuundJu it (lit. , 
from it) which (showed that tho idol-, house) had been, in 

the-beUef of the Hindus, built for, 40,000 jears. ' 

'■■"■■••• ''- .' ''^^ •' •' .■-: 's'^tn-. ' i^-^-.i 

c : The Saltan went to; thai)' pljAce and built. a fo|it i|i^it^9.uc^ Pige 43, 
made Ali^ the son.of Kadf^r Saljuki, comtpander ofj^, a)a4 
then returned toQtozni, •^ . " -: .• 

t 86 ) 

And in the year 412 of the Hegira he determined (to 
go) to Cashmere, and he (therefore) besieged Lohkot. He 
spenti one month there, but they were firm (in their defence) 
and i.!ie Imnd of the Sulltan was not (victorious) over them. 
He retired from that place (and) went to Lahore (and) sent 
his army in every direction to plunder and raid (and) they 
collected an extremely great quantity of (all sorts of) pro- 
perty and goods. 

And on that occasion when the grandson of Jaipal had 
become weak he fled to the Raja of Ajmere. The SuHan 
went and captured Lahore and entrusted it to a trustworthy 
noble, and the other parts of the Punjab he (also) entrusted 
to trustworthy and loyal men, and he held his hand from 
plunder and begnn to cherish and please the minds of the 
peoploy and he left his army in that country and published 
the "khutba" (sermon) in his name, and in the first 
(beginning) of sprinp; he went to Qhazoi. 

And in the year 413 of the Hegira, on the way' to 
Lahore, he determined to go to the country of Nanda. 
When he reached the fort of Qwalior he made arrangements 
fageiS. ^ blockade it. After four days the raja of that fort sent 
to him very intelligent messengers with (an offering of) 
thirty-five elephants (and) made peace with him. 

The Sultan started from that place for Kalinjar where 
Nanda abode. Nanda sent 300 elephants (as an offering) for 
peace. Wlien the Sultan had accepted the elephants the 
raja turned all the elephants, without their attendants, 
loose in the plain. The Sultan gave orders to his Turks 
and they seized them all and mounted upon them, and the 
people of the fort were astounded at thena* 

< »i ) 

And Nanda in th^ Hinda tongue composed ^ pocim in 
praise of the Sultan and sent it to him. The Sultan 
showed that poem to the learned men of Hindustan and of 
Arabia and of Persia (and) they all cried '' bravo ! " and, 
"well done." 

The Sultan was very pleased and gave him a commission 
as ruler of fifteen fortresseR, of which one was the fort of 
Kalinjar (itself) together with (many) other presents, 
Nanda also presented to the Sultan much riches and many 
pearls (and) then the Sultan started back to Ghazni and 
arrived there safely. 

And in the year 415 of the Hegira he took a muster of 
the army. Without (counting) that army which was in 
(distant) provinces they wrote with pens (upon the muster- 
rolls) 54,000 mounted men and 300 elephants, and with that 
splendour (of retinue) he started for Balkh» 

At that time the people of Mawar-ul-Nahr complained 
of the rule (lib. hand) of Alitagin. The Sultan crossed the 
Jaihuo river, deterinined to remove him. The nobles of 
Mawar*ul-Nahr came out to receive him and brought PAge44. 
offerings worthy of their positions (lit. selves). And Yusuf 
Kadar Khan, who was King of all Turkestan, also came to 
receive him. He was granted an interview with the Sultan, 
(who received him) with great affection and friendship. 
The Sultan was greitly pleased (with him) and they held 
(various) assemblies and presented to one another offerings 
and nrities and parted with peace, and (with well) pleased 
(minds.) When Alitagin learnt this news he fled. The Sultan 
sent men after him and captured him and brought him 
back. And he put fitters on him (and) confined him in a 
^certain) fortress of Hindustan, and he himself m«irclied to 

( 38 ) 

VAod in bhat Very year, i.e.. 416 of ihd Hegira, BOme one 
made'- aP^^tibion fed him (aayiog) thab : "The Hindus &f 
Hintfti'sCiaii say bhab whdn' souls become separated from- 
Kbdies bbey all go bo clo service to SomDabb, and bhab frhd/e 
every soul is mude over bo the body (mosb) suibablis (bo it)'. 
And'^^fibbbher belief of the Hindus is this, thab the ebbing 
add flowing of bhe ocean is for bhe worship 6f Sbmnabfa^. 
Aiid bhe Brahmftns say bhab Somnabh was very angry with 
6bo8efid0ls Which Sulban Mahmud bad ^tbke^n in^ therefore 
bad liob helped bhem, dt' else in the bwirikling of ai^ ^yerb<d 
would have desbroyed them all(i.e., bhe Sulbau's forces). AiJli 
anobll^of their beliefs is this, thab Somdath is a Ring/ and 
tHat (&11) other idols are bis ddbr-keepers ai/A watchmeff."^*'^ * 

PAff945 , When the Sultan was informed of this matter h.e. made 

-tic .- . . ■ • '^ ^ •« ■ ■■ • ■ ' ^. i 

a firm resolve to conquer So^nath.^Ou the 10th day of the 

month of Shabkadar he started for Somnath with a choice 

army and with 30,00() mounted men, warriors of the Faith, 

who had come from Turkestan and other countries^ And 

thab^(i. e.,^§omn'abh) is a gteab city on the bank of the riVer 

jAman, and it is bhe (chief) place of worship of all bhe BiriA- 

mans and^ (oblleVy heabhen and (the idol) Somnabh was 

aTsd'in thab pidk&e. And ib is rela,bed in hisbories bfaab peofjle 

in bhe bime of the propheb of bhe lasb period, on w'hom be* 

{jKB^ce, had fi^ifoughb a great idol named Somnath fram bhe^ 

ICaaba (i. c., Macca), and had taken it to thab place and had 

fourndled that city in its name. But ib would appear from 

bhe booUs'of bhe firsb (of bhe) Brahmans, which books w^re 

c6iiipiW?r"^a thousand years before (th^ era oft Islam, thab 

btiat accoubb is nob true. Indeed, thlbyHay that thatido^Kis- 

of the time of Krishna, and that is tour thousand years (ago)- 

and the Brahmans used bo worship ib, and ucoordihg bb bh<^ 

version of bhe Brahmans, Krishna disappeared (from earbb)' 

, ;/* 

( 89 ) 

in bhab very place. The Sultan on the 15bh of the R<imzan, 
which Pabhans call ♦' bhe raonbh of fasbing, " reached Mulban. 
As he was advancing a waterless and grassless deserb 
appeared before him, so bhe Sultan ordered bhab each one 
should carry waber and grass with him. And as a precaution / y 
the Sultan himself loaded bwenty thousand selected camels / 
'wibh waber and grass. When bhey had traversed' bhab deso- i'«g«46. 
late wilderness bhey reached bhe ciby of Ajmere. ■ 

And bhe raja of that place had wibhdrawn from bhe road 
Xao) bhe soldiers of the Sultan began to filay ftnd plunder; 
But (as) their object was to destroy Somnath, ihey did notj 
wait to carry bhe fort of Ajmere, (but) went on and Seized 
the road before them. And during th^s they upon 
inainy forts Kill of brave men ; bub all were filled wibli fear^ 
aiVd^vithoub anything (in the way of fighting) they agreed 
(bo acknovvledge the Sultan's rule), after that he reached 
l^ahrwala and found bhab ciby empby, (so) the Sulban ordered 
(his men) bb go and febcli from bhab city much grass. 

When bhey had gone and fetched theigrSs^^fthe^ Bet out 
quickly, and wibh bhe ubmosb speed reached Somnabh; ' "' 

And bhere, on the seashore, they saw a great for bt ess (sb 
great) bhab a man would think that its summib touched the 
sky and bhe wabers of the sea warred with its walls, (and) 
many infidels were seated on its summib gazing ab the 
Musalmans. And they were crying with loud voices, 
*' Soninath has led you here, so that with one blow he may 
sfay you all, and he will now take his revenge for all the [ 
idols you have broken in Hindustan." Next day as the suor 
rose the Sultan issued orders bo his army, (and) bhey' went 
sbraighb bo bhe base of bhe walls of bhe forb bo fighb. WbeU 
the Hindus saw bheir bravery and courage they left the 
Summit of bhe fort, for fear of the archers, (and) all fled to 
the idol -houses and begged aid from Somnath. 

( 40 ) 

F«f*47* The Musalman/) planted ladders and olimbed to the 

summit of the fort, and with loud voices chanted, ** Qod is 
great !*' The Hindus also unanimously opposed them, and 
they fought together the whole day. When night came 
both armies rested, and next day the battle joined in the 
Same way (and) until night they were themselves out (and) 
they killed many heathen. On the third day many armies 
came from (all) paits of Hindustan and drew themselves 
up in lines outside on the plain. The Sultan lefo some to 
(carry on) the siege and the rest went and gave battle on 
the plain. And by the coming of the Chiefs of Pramdevand 
Dabishlim, the Musalmans' strength failed. The Sultan in 
great grief went to a corner and seized the mantle of Abul 
Hass<in Kharkani, and prayed to the presence of the Pare 
Qod for victory and conquest. Then he came to the centre 
of his line and charged upon the infidels. Victory was his 
destiny, and he slew five thousand heretics. And when fear 
overcame the people of the fort, they left the fighting and 
the Brahmans and attendants of Somnaih, who were about 
four thousand, went to the bank of the sea Aman and seated 
themselves iu boats and started towards the island Sarandipi 
(i.6., Ceylon). But the Sultan had previously thought of this 
and had posted several ships filled with soldiers on the way 
to Sirandip. When to them the ships of the heathen ap« 
pearedthey pursued them (and) sank them all in the water, 
Paff6 48. '^'**®° ***® Sultan with his sons and nobles entered the fort 
and viewed all its buildings. 

After that (be saw) in the fort an idol-house which had 
been built so long and broad, that it had fifty-six pillarsand 
all were studded with jewels. 

(And Somnath was an idol of stone five yards long, of 
which two yards were in the earth and three yards out.. When 
the Sultan's gaze fell on the idol he had a battle-axe in bit 

hand and atrnck it so in the faoe that he broke the fac«^. 
After that he gave orders (and) took two pieces from it 
(and) sent} them to Glmziii. One lie put* in the doorway of 
the Friday mosque, and the other he put in the palace of 
the King's audience hall. 

For six hundred years those pieces (of the .i'Jol} lay 
:tberQ and.people used to see them. 

And he separated two more pieces of Somnath and*sent 
them to Mecca and Medina (so) thnt they might phic^ tliem 
in the main roads that poor and ^reat^ might walk ove^ 
them.^ : , f . 

And this story is (also) truo that at the time he was 
going to break Somnath, a band of Brahmans appealed to 
the nobles (saying): "If the Saltan will not break thio idol 
we will pay so mucii into the State treasury ." Tl^c nobles 
approved of this suggestion and siid to the Sultan: ** By 
the breaking of this idol idolatry will not be lost to this 
country, and if wealth be taken instead of it many Mu^al- 
mans will benefit by it/' 

The Sultan said : *' Your words are true, but if I do this Pag 41 
thing people will call me < Mahmud, the id«Usel|pr, ' and 
ijTI break io they will call me * Mahniud, the idol-breaker.' 
Now it is better that both in this world and th^ next they 
. should call me * the idol-breaker,' not 'the idol-selhr,' *' ; 
and the advantage of the firm faith of the Sultf^n wan that' 
(when) he broke that idol so many royal pearls came out of 
its belly that they were a hundred times more than the 
Brahmans' price (which they had offered.) 

And it is written in the " Habib*ul-Siyar " that Som* 
nath is the name of the idol which the Hindnis account 
chief among their id»l>«|. but fr.>in tho word^. of Sheikh 

( 4« ) 

Farid-ud-Din Altar it appears contrary to this, as the follow- 
ing couplet itself bears witness : — 

The array of Mahmnd in the midst of Somnath 
Found an idol and it had the natne of Nalh. 

That is **Som'' was the name of the idol-house and 
" Natb " was the idol iu it. 

And to the writer of these lines it appears that what the 
historians have said is true, and the Sheikh's words are not 
contradictory, because this word (Somnath) is a compound 
ef ** Som '* and •* Nath/ :»nd'*^om" was the name of a 
raja who constructed the idol ui.d '' Nalh ** was the name of 
the idol. Later, by reason of its constant use, both became 
one name, and it was used as the name of the idol and also 
of the idol-house and also of the citv. No, if anyone 
Pag* 50. calls the name of the idol '* Somnath " or says '^Nath " alone 
both are equal, and '* Nath " in the Hindi tongue means 
" venerable/' 

And in the temple of Somnath on nights or days when 
the moon or the sun is eclipsed more than two or three 
lakhs of people would assemble, and from distant countries 
people would bring offerings to it, and all the villages with 
which (various) rulers of Hindustan had endowed Somnath 
weie said to be two thousand (in number.) 

And two thousand Brahmans used continually to wor- 
ship Somnath, and every night they used to bathe it in fresh 
water from the Ganges, in sp^to of the fact that six hundred 
' kos' of road Uy between the Gauges and Somnath. 

And a chain of gold was hung from one corner of the 
temple to the other, (and) belln were suspended from that 
chain. Whenever anyone would shake the chain and the 
Brahmans would hear they would assemble for worship. 

( 48 ) 

And five hundred singing and dancing slave-giria and 
three hundred male musicians lived always in thab idol- 
house, and their food and requirements were suppli^'d from 
the endowment. 

And three hundred barbers used to sit ready to shave 
beards or head^^, and most of the rnjas (of Hindustan) used 
to send their own daughters as an offering for the service of 
Somnath to that idol-house. And so many pearls were 
received into the Sultan s treasury from that idol-house that 
one-hundredth part of those pearls had never been collected 
in the treasury of any king. An in the history of Zuin-ul- ^*^^ • 
Maasir it is related that originally the idol-house in which 
Somnabh was, was dark, and its light was owing to the light 
of the pearls which had been placed in lamps and the lustre 
(which) shone from them. 

And in the treasury of Somnath so many small idols of 
gold and silver were found that people could not count 

As the Philosopher Sanai has said : — 

The idols o! Mecca and Somnath were destroyed 

By the hands of Muhammad and of Mahmud. 

From Mecca Muhammad removed opposition ; 

Somnath was made by Mahmud pure and clean. 

In short, when the Sultan was relieved of the (anxiety 
of the) affair of Somnath, he d( cided to punish Kaja Frumdev, 
who was the great R'ija of Nahrwala city^ because (when) 
the Sultan was engaged in the siege of Somnath kfc iiad t>ciit 
much assistance to the heathens; indeed iwo or ^^rve thou- 
sand Klusalmans had fallen martyrs at the hands tfthin army. 
And after the victory of Somnath, Uaja Framdev &.d /com 
Nahrwala, which was the capital of Uujerat, and fiimly 
established himself in the fort of Khanda. And from Soni'* 
ualb by dry (land) that furt was six-score kos journey. And 

( 44 ) 

When the Sultan reached the limits of chat fort he saw thab 
there was much water all round it and from no direction 
was ihere »ny way of approach to it, 

Pfltf. 63. The diver8 of the army did all they could (lit. took much 

thouglit) but. rhfy c uld non at all understand (any solution 
nf) the c^8H, TiiHii liH bent for the divers of the country 
and a^kt'd ih^m iboui> tiit) (lueuus of) getting to the other 
bank. Ttiey siid : '' lo such and Huch a pUce there is a way 
ol crossing (i.d., a ford), bub NlnMiid thts water^^ come in waves / 
all the people (^wh » are i^rang ti cross) will be drowned." 

'The Sultan sought an omen iu the great Kuran and < 
placi'd his reli^iuce on the favour of God. And with bis 
nobles an i soldiers he rode his horse into the water and in 
safety he reicliod th>.' furt.her bank. The s kving of his own 
lifo. appeared to Pramdev the greatest (of all possible) 
(blessing), an! havmg got beyon.i (thought for) his honour 
or his g(M»d n^m) lie wenti outi of tu» fort by himself iu the 
g irb of a fakir and flt^d to some corner, and the soldiers of 
the Sultan ent^r^red the fore and killed many infidels, and 
made slaves of tiieir women ind b »ys, and ihe property and 
jew< Is of cue raj I they depositied in the Sultan's treasury. 

Tne SaUan,.victJ»rious and conquering, went to Nahr«^ 
wala, and wh^n he SiW che pure air, beautiful youths, and 

, green gardttns, and clear running water, and (*^ver}) other 
thing required lor enj>)mt;nt, he decided to live for some - '^ 
yqars in that country ; indeed he approved of this (thought) 
tht^t he B]{u4^d make that place his capital, and should 
entriist^(ii^ztl# to (iiis son) Sultan M-tsud. From some 

' books^f bi^V^^.j^ app^irs that at that time some few mines 

pf ptii^ goi.d.iha4 been' found there, and that the King for 

l>«g 53. tha('>l^af\on (was inclined to) make that place his oapi()al 

and now no sign of those mines is left. And this has fre- 

c|ueutly bapptnedy that at that lime there would be a mino 

< »8 ) 

aotnewhere and that now ib is losb. For instance, in Seiston 
in the Sultan's time a mine was found j and some time after 
was lost on account of an earthquake. And in the island of 
Sarandip and of Pegu and in other harbours and islands 
mines of gold and sapphires had appeared. So the SuHan 
wanted to seat his army in boats and subdue those countries, 
but the nobles, on account of their well wishing (towards 
him) represented that Khorasin had with great trouble come 
into their possession and innumerable people had been kill- 
ed, now to leave it and to establish Gujerat as capital did 
not appear advisable. Tiiis advice had (its) effect on the 
Sultan's mind, and he determined to return (to Ghazoi) and 
be said: '*Choos9 a man t<> whom to entrust the Government 
of this oountr}'." The nobles consulted together and peti* 
tioned the Sultan saying, " We cannot come and go con* 
stantly in tiiin country, so if it appears desirable to the 
Sultan let him appoint a man of tins country as ruler." 

Tlie SuUan held council with the people of Somnath on 
this subject, (and) they said to him: '* In this place no one 
can come up to the Dabishlim (family j in dignity and in 
(purity of; birth, and at this (very) time there is a man of 
their family here in the garb of a Brahman. If the Sultan Page 64. 
will entrust this work to him, then it would be well. But 
some people said : '* This Dabishlim is a very harsh teinper* 
ed man, and has formerly fought several times for the 
throne, and each time has been taken captive by his brother)B 
and has obtained release by (showing) humility and (by mak- 
ing entreaties. Now perforce be has taken io (the life of a 
recluse, and has (permanently) taken his seatinthe temple. 
But there is another Dabishlim from aniong his relations 
who is very intelligent and understands (matters of Stiktb) 
extremely well. Indeed all the Brahmans admit his (superi* 
6r) undidrstandiog and foreeight. And at the present 

( 4« ) 

momenb he is Qovernor of such and such a piace, bub if the 
Sulban will (deign to) give an order he will come with 
pleasure (lib. with bobh eyes) and will present himself for 
the service (of the Sultan), and as the Sultan may please in 
that way will he protect the interests of the country, and 
year by year will pay the revenue of Hindustan into the 
Sultan 8 treasury. 

The Sultan said ; '^ Were that man present here and had 
himself said those words it would have been more fitting, 
but as I have never seen him or set eyes on him, to give 
him so great a country would be a thing (worthy) of every 
foolish people." 

Then the Sultan summoned that Brahman Dabishlim 
and entrusted him with the government of Nahrwala. He 
took on himself the (responsibility of the) tribute and reve« 
nue (of Nahrwala) and petitioned the Sultan (saying), 
'*Such and such a Dcibishlim (who) is (a member) of my 
family and has great enmity towards me, now when he 
learns of the King's departure and comes to attack me he 
Page Co. ^ill defeat me, as I have not so much power and strength 
(as he, aud) if the Sultan will release me from his intrigues 
I will pay yearly into the Sultan's treasury twice the 
revenues of Cabul and Zabal." 

The Sultan said : " lb is (now) two years since we came 
for this Holy War, nob two indeed bub two and-a-half ; we 
will, however, first come to an understanding wiih him and 
after thit we will think of returning to our native land.*' 

Accordingly he sent an army to the country of Dabish- 
lim and in a little while they conquered that country (also) 
and brought that (other) Dabishlim alive and gave him over 
to the (first) Dabishlim. Dabishlim made a petition (sajing). 
'' In our religion it is not lawful to kill a king. ludeed ib 
is the custom whenever one king is taken prisoner at the 

( *7 ) 

hand of another king, that he should bnild for him a confined 

dark cell under his own throne and make a hole in it in order 

that be may give him water and bread, and that he should 

remain captive in it until one of the two should die. Now, 

as 1 have not suflficient organization to be able to keep an 

enemy a prisoner with safety to myself, and if the Sultan 

should go I fear lest his relations might rebel against me 

and release him from me, so I ask that the Sultan may (be 

pleased to) take him with him to Ghazni, and when my 

strength and power is (sufficienlly) developed the Sultan 

may (kindly) send him (kick) to me." The Sultan granted 

this petition also. Two }ears and a half after (his setting 

out on the expedition to Sonuiath) he returned to Ghbzni. 

Bub as Raja Pramdev and the Baja cf Ajmcre and (muny) luge 56. 

Qtiher rajas had collected a great army and had taken poFses- 

sion of the Sultan's route, the Sultan did not consider it 

advisable to (give them) battle, (and) started for AJultan by 

the said route. The army suffered greatly in every place 

(for want of) supplies, water and grass, and with great 

trouble reached Ghazni in the year 417 of the Hegira. 

And as the Sultan was starting for Multan by the said 
route, he ordered that a man was n quired to accompany them 
to show them road. Accordingly a Hindu agreed (to do 
this) (and) started at the head of the army, and he led the 
army by such a route that there was no sign of water any- 
where on that route. When a night and a day had passed 
such hardships had come upon the army that each one said, 
*' Verily the signs of the Last Day have appeared :" The Sul- 
tan questioned the Hindu (saying) : *' What sort of road is 
this that you have brought us by ?" The Hindu said; "I am 
counted as one of the servants of (the God) Somnath, and 
I have brought you and your army by this route in order to 
destroy you." The Sultan became furious and slew the 

( 4« ) 

HiDdu then (and there). And that very night he left the 
army and went to a desert (spot), and there he bowed his 
face in prostration before the PureQod, and witii maoy lamen- 
tations he prayed for deliverance for himself and his army. 

When one watch of the night had passed, in the south 
a bright light appeared to him. Heat once issued orders to 
Page 57. his army (and) they went in the direction of that light. 

Next day when dawn was breaking they reached the bank 
of a river and by the blessing of the devotion of the Sultan 
they ecaped death. And Dabishlim (had) found strength 
(to establish himself firmly) in the government} of ISomnath, 
(so) after some time ho sent messengers with pearls and 
treasure to the Sultan ani asked for his enemy from him. 

To the Sultan this course appeared to be injudicious, 
and he was perplexed regarding the sending of that youth, 
but (as). the nobles and minis&t^rs were pleased wibh Dabish- 
lim they petitioned the Sultan (saying) ; '' What kindness is 
required to heathens and heretics? and the Sultan had also 
promised to send him back» so it is right that this youth 
should now be sent to him." In short, he made Dabishlim 
over to the messengers and dismissed them. When they 
reached Somnath Dabishlim (the ruler) gave orders and got 
ready a cell according to their well known custoai, and 
himself went out to meet the youth and put upon his head 
his own dish and water jug. And made him run by the 
stirrup of his horse and led him towards the cell (which he 

But as he was going along the road, for joy he was 
making his horse gallop about on one side of road and on 
the other, (and) the heat of the sun overcame him (and) 
he lay down under a tree to rest, and was taking breath: 
aad he spread a red handkerchief over his face. 

( «:) 

It iohAtvoed thftti a9,he was bhus (lying), by th(9 . depree , 
of the, Lord of Mighp, a p)\verful bircjl carne on the scene and 
it. miftpqk that) .'kerchief for (raw) flesh and swooped at it in, 
Buch away that he plunged his claws. into the eyes of. Dabi-^. P«gt58. 
shlvm, and bobh-(eyq8) were blinded. 

A^d at that time the chief cains pf Hindustan would 
not accept: the rule of the crippled, the lame, the blind or of 
anyone in any way defective. A. clamour arose among, the 
army, and. the prisoner Dabishlim came with those denae 
crowds to seethe sight. As there was no one else there fit 
to be a king, they made that very prisoner king and placed 
tbat dish.and water jug on the head of the blind Dabishlim, 
and they put the captive Dabishlim in the saddle (lit. 
stirrup) and took the other quickly to the prison cell. 
Subhan Allah, that is, I mention (the name of) God purely, 
in the twinkling of an eye whatever the Brahman Dabishlim 
had thought of for the other, that very' thing was done to 
him, and the meaning of this tradition of the Prophet, 
<* Whoever diggeth a pit for his brother, ho will assuredly 
fall into it himself " became manifest. 

(He, i-e., the Brahman) was confounded by his own 
action, and in place of tears he wept blood, and kept on 
saying to himself this lament : — 

My heart and eyes themselves have hurled. 

My earthly body into fire and flood. 
Observe my state with both your eyes. 
And in your hearts pity my condition. 

Yes, this is the will of Almighty Qod (that He) takes 
from one his kingdom and hurls him to the earth and 
another he preserves in the belly of a fish. And it is related 
in the Jami-ul-Hikayat that the Sultan saw \n a temple of 
Hindustan an idol which was standing in the air without r PageSd. 
a cbdiiu (bo suspdud it.) No notjaus of its suspension, oould: 

( 50 ) 

be sees, nor did ib move from side to side, nor did it fall 
down. When the Sultan saw that idol, be inclined bis 
tHoughts to it and asked the wise men (raying, ** What skill 
is this (by) which this idol is standing in the air." They all 
replied with one consent, ** This idol is of iron and these 
walls are of loadstone, i.6., thut stone which attracts iron 
to itself, so of course that idol is stationary in the middle, 
and does noc move (either from side to side (or) down or 
up (or) forward or backward. The ISultan gave orders (and) 
they destroyed one wall (and) the idol at that very moment 
fell headlong to the ground. And in that year when the 
S.ultau reached Ghazni, the C«iliph AI-Kadir-o-6illab of 
Bagdad sent him a letter, in which he had written separate 
titles for the Sultan and for his sons. The title of the 
Sultan Was *^ The shelter of Dignity and Islam " and the title 
of the Amir Masud ''Brilliant Star of Dignity and of ibe 
Beauty of the Faith/' and for the Amir Yusuf "TheFore^ 
arms of Dignity and Strength giver of the Faith.'* And 
after this hehaid written, " Whoever the Sultan may nominate 
to the kingdom in his place he will also be accepted by 
us.'' And this letter reached the Sultan in Balkh. 
fags 60. A.nd in that very year the Sultan started to punish those 

Jats who were in the Jodi mountains on the bank of the 
river, because at the time when the Sultan was coming 
(back) from Somnath those Jats behaved disrespectfully to 
the army of the Sultan. When he arrived at Multan, be 
gave orders that four thousand boats should be built,- and 
that in each boat three spikes (lit. horns) of iron should be 
strongly fixed, one spike at the head of the boat and the 
other two at the sides, so that whatever might collide with 
it should not remain uninjured. These (boats) they al| 
launched into the water and in each boat he seated twenty 
m«n with (oheir) arrows, bows and burning glasses and 

( «x ) 

obher muoMoWof WCN? and sttrbed off bo exbermiaabe the 

And when the Jab8 became awar^ (of bhis ) they f^enb 
(their) women, boys and girls to the islands, and bhe men 
alone remained equipped for battle. Then they launqlied 
4,000 boats, some say even 8,000, on the river, and in every -Vj 

boat were seabed many armed men ready for battle. 

When both sides met, they fought agreate battle; bub 
every boab of bhe Jabs, which collided with the spikes of the 
boabs of of bhe Sulban's army, wenb bhen and bhere bo pieces 
and bhe Jabs (in ib) were drowned in bhe river. 

To ( make a long sbory ) shorb, mosb of them were 
drowned and bhe few that remained bhey made pass under 
the sword. And bhe soldiers of the Sultan then pursued Pagef.1. 
their families and brought bhem ail capbive from bhe islands. 
TheSqlban conquering and victorious returned to Ghazoi. 

And in tho year 418 of the Hegira the Sultan deputed 
the Governor of Tus Abul-Harb-Arsalan to go to Abiward 
and Nissa, and gave him orders ^saying) : '' Go and extermi- 
nate those Turkomans who have crossed the river Amu and 
are piaking disturbances there. " 

When bhe Amir of Tus had gone, and had had .n>uch 
fighbing, he wrobe a pebition bo bhe Sultan (saying); *Mf bhe 
Sulban will be so kind (as bo come) himself bhere is a hope 
of success ; if nob, ib la very difficult bo pub down their dis- 
turbances. " 

The Sulban himself seb oub againsb theni aud scattered 
their band. 

And when the Sultan's nobles were victorious over the 
country of Iruk, and took it from the possession of the 
descendants of Boya, he was obliged to go thence to Rae. 

( 52 ) 

The great treasures of Kae which, For many years, the 
. Delmi rulers had accumulated, fell into his hands wibhoub 
fighting and without a strugi^le. And amonf; the followers 
of false religions and Karamats whoever he found, and 
against whoever (the charge) whs proved, he slew them ; and 
be gave tho governments of Rae and Isfahan to Amir Masud 
and he himself went to Qhazni. 

And a little while after consumption, or some other 
severe illness attacked the Sultan, but strenuously pretend- 
Page 62. ^^ ^0 ^'^^ people to be well and strong, and in that state 
(of health) he went to Balkh. When it was spring-timie 
he again came to Ghazni. And his illness became very 
severe there. Then in Ghazni, from that very illness, in the 
year 421 of the Hegira, on Thursday, the 23rd of Rabi-ul- 
Akhir, which Pathans call ** the mouth of the second 
sister" (and) his age was 63 years, he made his journey 
from this world (to Paradise). Now he had reigned for 36 
yeara. And that night while it was raining they took his 
bier and buried him in the Turquoise Palace at Qhazni. 

And Sultan Mahmud was of medium height and bis 
limbs were symmetrical and his face was pitted (with small 
pox). And he was the first (king of Ghazni) to assume the 
title of Sultan. 

And when the Sultan was about to die he gave orders 
two days before (his decease) and they brought from the 
treasury and placed before him in the courtyard (of his 
palticej bags of gold and silver, and various sorts of pearls 
and cloths which he had collected during a long period, and 
I hey converted the courtyard into a small garden, and be 
gazed at them with much regrets, and wept crying, alas 
aliB I AtVdt a short time be sent tb^m (back) to treasury 

( »8 ) 

and (iQ spibe of his beitig) in suoh a sbabe (of health) he 
gave DOfahiag to anyone of all these things. Now for such 
aots as these the King has become (ill)-famed as a miser. 

And next day he seabed himself in a horse-litter and 
went to a plain (near Ghazni). He gave orders (and) sent 
for all (his) horses, mules, elephants and camels, and for a Page 63. 
moment he viewed the spectacle and wept wibh grief at 
(thd sight of) them and started back bo his palace. 

And it is related by Abul Hassan AH, son of Hassan 
Maimandi, bhat one day bhe Sultan asked Abu Tahir Samani 
(saying) *' How many cosbly pearls were collecbed by the 
dynasty of Saman ? " He said to him in reply : <' In the 
time of Amir Nuh Samani seven and-a-half seers of valuable 
pearls were collected in bhe breasury." The Sulban said : 
" Praise bo Qod bhab He has given me so many royal pearls 
that there are even more than twenty and-a-half seers (in 
my treasury).*' 

And it has been said that at the end of his life he one 
day heard bhat a cerbain man in Nishapur owned great 
wealth. The Sultan gave orders (and) summoned him, and 
faid to him : " 1 have heard that you are a heretic or irre- 
ligious. " The other gave reply : *' In me there is no fault 
except this much that 1 am wealthy. I possess much wealth, 
so take all my possessions, but do not put this stigma 
on me. " 

The Sulban book all (his) wealbh from him, and gave 
him a warranb in which he had wribben, "His principles are 
those of bhe Musalmans. " 

And ib is relabed in bhe Tabkat-i-Nasiri that the Sultan 
was doubtful about this (verse of the) Traditions of the 
Prophet, viz,^ '* The learned are the heirs of the Prophet, " 
and (doubtful also) about the (truth of) the day of resur* 

( 84 ) 

reobion and (doubtful of) about the paternity and sonship of 
Fige (M. the Amir Sabaktagin and himself. One night he was going 
somewhere (with; a servant preceding him with a candle 
and a golden candlestick in his hand. A pupil in a school 
was learning by heart his lessons, and when he had need of 
looking at his book (lit. at it) he wculd see that paragraph 
by the lamp of a shopkeeper. The Sultan's heart warmed 
(lit. burnt) towards him (and) he presented him with that 
candle and candlestick. That very night he s^w in a dream 
Muhammad the chosen one, on whom be peace a id greeting 
and he said to Jiim : "Oil thou son of Amir Nasir-ud*din 
Sabaktagin, may Qod give you honour in both worlds alike as 
you have bestowed upon my heirs ! " All his three doubts 
were changed into belief by that saying of the Prophet, and 
henceforth he firmly believed all three matters. And in the 
second year after his decease a great flood came which de- 
stroyed many buildings of the city, and (an) unlimited 
(number o() people died in it, and that dam which Umr-ben 
Lais Safar had built during his reign was so carried awoy by 
the water that no trace of it was left, and the wise said : 
" This terrible event has occurred owing to ihe death /of 
the just Sultan." 

(They said this) because the Sultan's justice had 
reached such a pitch that one d^y a man came lamenting, 
(and) the Sultan said to him, " Speak what do you (wish to; 
say." The other said : '' My request is not (fid) to be said 
Fftfires. optnly, if it be in private I will then (be able to) say it." 
The Sultan summoned him to his own private apartmefiU 
and questioned him regarding the matter. That man aaid, 
** For a long time the Sultan's nephew is (in the habit, of ) 
coming to my house and beating me with a whip. .He 
• '.drivesime out and spends the whole night with my wife 

tS ) 

And'I have been all thU time telling th e nobles and minis- 
ters ; bat they for fear of him could nob bring the matter to 
the Sultan's (notice), and no one had (sufficient) fear of God 
to do me justice. So I had patience and looked to you (for 
help). Now that I have informed you (of it) if you will do 
me justice well (and good), and if cot, I will (still) be patient 
until the Pure God in his justice may right my wrongs 
and take revenge for me on the tyrants (who now oppress 

The Sultan's heart trembled at these words and he 
wept eifcremely and then said to him : ** Why did you not 
tell melhis before." The other said : " For the whole of 
my life this has been my design, but I never had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing you. To-day God has been kind (and) I 
have presented myself before you by many devices, other- 
wise how have poor people like me the power to^bring 
themselves to such a place." 

Th'eSultan said to him. " Do not tell any one that 
you have chanced to inform the Sultan of your state, and go 
home without anxiety. And at whatever time that tyrant 
may come and drive you out of your house do you come 

The uther said : " How will any one let me (approach 
you)?" The Sultan called his door-keepers (and) gave 
them orders (saying) : "At whatever lime this man may Page 66. 
come, do not you forbid him (entrance), let him (in) and let 
him come to wherever I may be. 

And besides this he said to him. secretly, '^ If they 
make excuses to you, such as, ' the King is asleep,' or de* 
fain you by any other pretence, come to sueh and such a 
place and softly (lit. slowly) call out to me and your objpofe 

( M ) 

will be attained." Then that man (with) heart at eaa.e went 
to his home*, bat that (other) man neither came that night 
nor the next night. 

When the third night came the Sultan's nephew, ac- 
cording to his custom, came at midnight and drove the man 
from his house, and without anxiety occupied himself with 
his (evil) work. 

That man came running to the Sultan's gate, but the 
door-keepers said to him : '' Now the Sultan is sleeping iu 
hi4 harem (and) no one can go to him (there) ; had be been 
in the public hall no one would stop you." 

The man (being left) without (any other) remedy went 
to the place which the King has mentioned to him, and 
softly cried out, saying : " Oh kind Sultan, what are yon 
doing ! " The ISuttan replied to him, saying : " Poor man, 
Wait, I am coming;" so he quickly went out, and started 
off with th'it man, Hud when he entered his house what 
does he see (but) his nephew lying on a bed with the man'e 
wife and a candle burning (near) to him. 

The Sultan instantly extinguished the candle and drew 
(his) dagger, and with it he severed his (nephew's) head. 
Then he said to the man : ** Bring me a drop of water that 
I may drink." When the other (had) brought the water, 
and the Sultan (had) drunk it, he said to him : ''Poor man, 
Pi«« id^^ go ! sleep withoutanxiety." 

The man seized the skirt of the Saltan's (robe) and 
said to him : '* I adjure you- by that Qod who has given }*ou 
this kingdom, that you tell me why did you extinguish 
that candle, and why did you send for water and then you 
drank in, and what for did you say to me ' Qo! sleep with- 
etitiiuxietyV " 

The Sultan, said . .to him : *• 1 . released you ^ from the 
tyranny of that tyrant and cub the head off him, so of course 
you become free from anxiety ; and the candle I extinguish- 
ed for the reason that I said (to myself), ' if I see his eyes ib 
may be that on account of (my) love foir (my) relatives I 
shall not be able to strike a blow at him (and) he may 
escape me,' and I asked for water, because on that occasion 
when you told me of your condition, I took an path, saying, 
' I will neithisr eat nor drink until I have freed this poor 
man from the mischief of that tyrant ' ; so to-day it is a full 
three nights and days that I have neither eaten nor drank 
anything. And now that I have removed his misdoings, 
I was very thirsty so I drank water.'' In short, (though) 
every one will have heard tales of the justice of kings, but 
such a deed (as this) no (other) king has probably ever done. 

And in the history of Binai Geti it is related that when 
the Sultan went to Khorasan, it crossed his mind that he 
would go and pay a visit to Sheikh Abul Hassan Kharkani; 
but he thought again that (as) he had come this time for 
worldly affairs there, to see him (when) in prosecution of 
another wo|:k is not. seemly, and that it would be . better (o 
come again to (see) bim. (Sp) on that occasion he returped 
from Khorasan and went to Hindustan. And when he again PageCS. 
came to Qhazni he decided of gaining a future reward by 
seeing the Sheikh (and) started for Eharkan. When he ar- 
rived be sent a man to the Sheikh Sahib, (and) said to him : 
" Say to him that the Sultan has come to Eharkan in order 
to see you, so if you also will be so kind as to come out of 
your place of worship and come to the Durbar, ib lyill be 
very good (of you). " And he (also) said to the man: •* I^ 
he will not come, repeat this verae to him, * Oh ! people, 
who have (been) brougbb (to) the faith (of Islam), obey the 

( 8i8 ) 

orders of God and obey the orders of (His) Propbeb and of 
the rulers (lit. the masters of orders) who may be amoDg you* 

When the messenger conveyed these words to him, the 
Sheikh Sahib said to him: '< I am not going.'' Then thd 
messenger read out to him that verse. 

The Sheikh said to him ; '' Acoept my excuses and say 
to the Sultan that I am so occupied in obedience to the orders 
of Qod that 1 am ashamed at (not being able to carry out) 
the orders of the Prophet and never have leisure to (obey) 
the orders of the ruler. " 

Tlie messenger wpnt back and told the Sultan the state 
(of the case). The Suliau'd heart softened (towards the 
Sheikh and) he said : " Rise, let us go. He is not the sort 
o{ mail that we thoughb. " Then he dressed Ayaz in Ins 
own clothes aud dressed up the slave-girls in boys' clothes, 
and he as a test) took the place of Ayaz and put Ayaz in bis 
own placo (and) went to the Sheikh Sahib's hut. When 
ohey all entered the hut, and said ^' Peace be upon you ! " the 
Page 69. Sheikh said, "Aud upon you peace ; " but he did not rise 
frum his place, and he turned his face to the King (and) 
did not even look in the direction of Ayaz. The Sultan 
said to him ; '^ He is the King, but you did not rise to do 
him honour. " The Sheikh Sahib said : " This is all a 
trap, buti I am not its bird. Do you come forward since 
God has made all these stand before you ! " 

The Sultan seated himself, and said to him : *^ Say a 
few words to me. " 

The Sheikh said to him ; " Turn out the not unlawful 
ones [that is, those women that are not unlawful (in marri- 
age for men]. The Sultan^ made a sign (and) the slave-girls 
weut out. Then he said to the Sheikh : Tell me some story 
a^bout Bayazid Sistami. 

( Ii9 ) 

The Sheikh said, Bayazid said (once), ^' Whoever saw 
me is free from Qvil forbune. " 

The Sultan said : " The Prophet, on whom be peace, 
was (even) greater in dignity than Bayazid and Abu Jaha 
used to see him there, how did he remain (so) unfortunate. 

The Sheikh said to him: " Oh ! Mahmud, think. No 
one saw Muhammad, on whom be peace and greeting ! except 
the Four Friends and his disciples, and the proof of this 
assertion is this saying of God Almighty, *And thou art 
looking at them who gaze on thee and they do not see, " 

The Sultan was very pleased, and said to him : *' Give 
me advice. " 

The Sheikh said : ** Choose four things: first, abstinence; 
second, prayer in the mosque; third, generosity ;. fourth, 
love for (your) people. " 

Then he asked him for (his) blessing, and he said, 
" I repeat this prayer after each of my five (daily^ prayers, r«ge70. 
* Oh God ! pardon the faithful men and women.' " 

The Saltan said : " Make a special prayer for me. " The 
Sheikh said: *' Akibab Mahmud Bad, that is may thy 
end be laudable. '* 

The Sultan placed a bag of gold pieces before him. 

The Sheikh brought out for him a cake of bar)ey 
(meal) and told the Sultan to eat it. Ths Sultan began to 
chew a piece of that cake in his mouth, but it would not pass 
(down and) stuck in bis throat. 

The Sheikh said lo him : " Does this morsel (of pake) 
8ti$& (in your throat) atid not pass ^(down), eh ? " 

The Sultan said, " Tes. "^ 

( % ') 

The Sheikh- said : '' Iq the same way al^o bhese' gold 
pieces stick (in my threat). Take them, take them aw4y. 
I have divorced (myself from) them. " 

The Sultan said to him : " Give me some (holy relic 
as a) charm. " 

The Sheikh gave him his own shirt of which the story 
has been told in the (narrative of the) fight with Dabishlim 
and' Pramdev. And it is related in the Jami-ul-Hikayat 
that at) the time when the Sultan came to the Sheikh, he 
said to him : ** There were many works (to be done) in 
KKoi'asaii, but I have come from Qhazoi solely to have an 
interview with you." 

The Sheikh said : ^* As you have come from Qiiazui to 
see me, what wonder is it that people should wish to coo^e 
from Mecca to see you, and (that they should), come ?," 
Praise to God ! The Sultan is a wonderfully great man 
since Sheikh Abul Hassan Kharkani has thus apoken in his, 

. It is related in the Rozat-us-Safa that one day the 
Sultan was fitting in his palace and was looking from side 
Page 71. to side (when) he saw a man who had three cocks with him 
and was making signs to the Sultan. The Sultan sent for 
him, and said to him : Whati have you to say, and what 
are you making those signs for ? " 

He said, *^ Sire, I am a gambler. I had made you my 
partner behind your back (and) now I have won these 
three cocks for you. " 

' The Sultan gave some one an order (and) he took those 
(cocks) from him. 

Aiiotrher day he brought him two (and) another day 
again broirgbt three. 

( *^i : ) 

Oq the fourth day he stood ^tiipiy-httd^ed atidiorrow<» 
fu) below the Sultao'ir palao^, (and) wiiea the Sultan loolced 
at him, he said : "^ Be it well (with thee), why is my partner 
dejected ? " i 

The man said : " I was f^ambling for the Sultan and 
myself, and I have lost one thousand gold pieces. Now the 
opponents have come and ask me for it. " 

The Sultan gave an order, saying : " Qive him five 
hundred gold pieces, and tell him that next time if I am 
not present he should not associate me with himself (in his 
gambling). '» 

And it is related in the Habib-us-Siyar that the first 
minister of the Sultan was Abul- Abbas Fadil, son of Ahmad 
Asfaraini. At first he was a writer to Ring Faik. Then 
when his reign had passed, be became (a servant) of the 
Amir Sabaktagin and got the rank of minister. Then when 
the Sultan became King he also made him a minister ; but 
as Abul Abbas did not know the language of the Arabs, he 
orderd that the correspondence of his office should be 
written in the Persian language ; but when Khwaja Ahmad 
Maimandi became minister, he again started (the use of) 
the Arabic language. And this Abul Abbas understood (all) 
the affairs of State extremely well, and when he had been a Page 72. 
minister for ten years he was turned out of that appoint- 
ment. And from the sayings of some historians it appears 
that the Sultan used to collect large numbers of beautiful 
slaves, and Abul Abbas had also this taste, and on one occa- 
sion some one said to Abul Abbas : *^ In Turkestan there is 
a handsome slave, if one were to send for him it is possible 
(to procure him), and there is no difficulty in (arranging 
for) bis coming. '' 

' Abut Abbas gent a man afoer him and lent far him* 

( l« J 

When the Sultan le^rat (of this) be at once sent a man 
te him and demanded the slave from hiqi. Abi^I Abbs^ 
denied (that be had him), but the Sulban made some pre- 
tence (and) wenb suddenly to Abul Abbas 8 house. 

Abul Abbas was (busily) occupied in serving the Sultan 
and pleasing his heart, (when) in the midst of (their con- 
versation) the slave-boy made his appearance. The Sultan 
on account of his having deoied (the presence of the boy) 
became very angry (and) gave orders (saying) ; *< Seize him 
and plunder his property. '' Then he quickly started him off 
for Hindustan, and some of the nobles, by (reason of their) 
covetousness for his money, put him to such tortures that 
be died there. And after him Ahmad, son of Hassan Mai- 
mandi, became minister, and this Ahmad had sucked the 
same breast as the Sultan (i.e., was his foster-brother) and 
was (his companion) in his lessons. Anvl Hassan Maimandi 
was in the tims of Amir Sabaktagin Governor of Bust. 
There some embezzlemeob was proved against him (and) 
by order of Amir Sabaktagin they executed him. And 
that (statement) which is commonly spoken of among the 
people that Hasoan Maimandi was minister to the Sultap, 
is greatly mistaken and inaccurate. 

And Ahmad, son of Hassan, was a fine penman and a 
F«fi78. far-seeiog (man). At first be used (only) to be employed in 
work connected with writing and papers. Then gradually 
the Sultan advanced him in rank, uutil be made him chief 
of (his) army. Then after some time the control of the 
cities of Khorasan also came into bis hands, and when Abul 
Abbas's affairs got into (a) bad (state), he became minister 
in his place. For eighteen years he got on well. Then a 
party of the nobles, such as Altun Tash and Amir AIi| and' 
others like tbemj got up (evil j reports behind bis birak to 

( W ) 

such ati extent that they turned the King's heart against 
him, and he expelled him from the mininstry. And he en- 
trusted him to a man named Bahram, (and) said to him, 
*' Take this (man) away, and there is a man in the valley .of 
Kashmere Called Jangi, entrust him to that man in order 
that he may confine him in a fort (known) as Kalinjar (lit. 
of Kalinjar)." Thirteen years he was prisoner in that fort, 
until in the time of Sultan Masud he was released. He 
again obtained the rank of ministar and died in the year 
424 ((if the Hegira), and the Sultan after some time made 
Ahmad Hussan, son of Mikal, who was very clever and 
extremely far seeing, (his) minister. And until the Sultan's 
death it was bis destiny (to hold) that post. 

And the masters of history have related an anecdote 
of Ahmad Hassan that at that time when Sultan Mahmud 
was engaged in crushing Abu Ali Samjuri during the reign 
of Amir Sabaktagin, he heard in a certain place that there 
was a mendicant there who was famous for (his) many 
miracles and devotion. And the people call him Zahid Abu Page 74. 
Posh, that i(9, the renonncer of the world and the wearer 
of antelope skin. And the Sultan was very fond of mendi- 
csnts, and Ahmad Hussan used to deny (the truth of) their 
(miraculous) works. So the Sultan said to him; *' Tou do 
not believe in these people, but follow my inclination (and) 
let us go (to him)." So they both went and had an interview 
with the recluse. 

The mendicant spoke words like the saints (of old and) 
the Sultan's belief in him increased, (and) he said to bim : 
'< Do you require any cash or ( other ) things that we may 
present it to you ? " The mendicant raised his hand to the 
air and held Qut his first full of gold to the Sultan, and said 
to him: "He who can obtain pure gold from the invisible 

( «4 ) 

tr<MWury (of heaven), whab heed has he of (bhe oad of) any 
one else." 

When the Sulban saw this deed he was*firmly convinoed 
that it was (indeed) a miracle. 

Then bhe Sultan gave that gold to. Ahmad Hussan and 
when Ahmad Hussan had looked at it (he saw that) the 
seal of Abu Ali Samjuri was stamped upon (each piece of) it. 

When they arose from the company of the recluse, the 
Sultan said to Ahmad Hussan, '' Did you see this miracle 
or not." He in reply made representation (saying) : *' I am 
not a disbeliever in the miracles of the saints, bub this does 
not seem proper to me that the Sultan should war with 
people whose seal is in circulation even in heaven. ' The 
SuUan said: ''Make me to understand the matter as to how 
this (can) be," The other showed him the coins, and his 
PA({«7i« glance fell on the inscription ''Abu Ali Samjuri*'; he was put 
to shame and confusion. But the words of Ahmad Hussan 
are out of place, because such acts (as this) have by God'e 
order been done repeatedly at the hand*) of saints. 

Again, when Sultan Masud became king, he said bo 
Ahmad Hussan, '' when you were coming (back) from 
Mecca, the Noble, you pub on a robe of honour ( given you 
by the hand) of the king of Egyp^ and (yet) he was a heretic. 
So you also have became Batini," that is, outwardly a Musal- 
man (and) inwardly a heathen. And on this pretence be 
executed him in Balkh. Aud (of) famous poets there were 
many in the Sultan's time; for instance, (there were) Asayiri 
and Firdausi, and Minochahir and 'Ansari, and 'Asjadi and 
Dakiki, and Farrukhi ; others like them also used to be 
present ab his assembly. 

( 65 ) 

This book was completed on Monday the 
fifteenth of ( the month of ) the Later Sister in the 
year, 1289,jof the Hegira. It has been translated 
from that book of which the name is Gulshan-i- 
Ibrahimr, and (which) is famous as the History of 
Ferishta, and in the year 1015 of the Hegira 
Mahomed Kasim Astarabadi composed it. 

Oh ! Ahmad (even) if yoar life be for a thottsand yean, 
At last there will be separation from (jour) friends. 
Except Qod are doomed to destruction, 
Be they relatives or friends or strangers. 

Translated at Lundi Eotal by Captain Boos-Keppti and Qm»l 
Abdul Ghani Khan, iOth June, 1901. 


By the Same Author^ i 








Assistant Political OJicer^ Khyher Pass^ 
Member^ Central Committee of Examination in Pushtu. 


Messrs. SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & Co., London, 




Part 1. 
A concise and simple grammar. 
Paht II. 
Chapter L — A graduated course of thirty lessons (includ- 
ing vocabulary and examples) and exercises^ 
starting with elementary phrases and work- 
ing up to a more advanced standard. The 
first twenty lessons will be found sufficient 
for a beginner who is a candidate for the 
Lower Standard Examination. 
Chapter II. — Thirty exercises for more advanced pupils, 
being passages set for translation into 
Pushtu in the Higher Standard Examina- 
tions of recent years. 
Part 111. 
Colloquial sentences, being the whole of the colloquial 
sentences sat in the Higher Standard Examinations of 
fifteen years rendered into idiomatic Pushtu. 
These contain in all some 1«500 sentences. 
l.-A comparative table of types of Pushtulntransitive Verbs* 
IL-A comparative table of types of Pushtu Transitive verbs, 
IIl.'^The regulations for Examination in Pushtu. 

Prtc#i Mi. lOt 

cJ ^U44 U^ I ( bU JO I 

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