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September 1975 



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SEP 1 8 1975 






BEFORE IT DISAPPEARS— Kindergarten students in Newport 
News, Va., get their first close-up look at a railroad locomotive at Ft. 
Eustis, Va., before the mighty iron horse disappears from their fu- 
ture. Sergeant John A. Dinkins, locomotive engineer with the First 
Rail Detachment at the Army Transportation Center, shows these 
four youngsters how to blow the engine horn. Later, while another 
100 of their peers rode the train behind, he showed them how to 
drive the locomotive around the Ft. Eustis track. The children are 
from the Title I education program for underprivileged children con- 
ducted at Newsone Park Elementary School. Ft. Eustis is the only 
Army installation in the United States where military rail personnel 
actually operate a railroad. Throughout the year, when possible as 
part of normal operations, First Rail gives students of the Virginia 
Peninsula railroad tours of the Army post. 



SEPTEMBER 1975 




Vol VI 



No. 9 



craDLOo 



The Official Magazine of 
MILITARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT COMMAND 



MG H. R. Del Mar, USA 
Commander, MTMC 

BG George M. Wentsch, USAF 
Vice Commander 

CAPT C. M. Smith, SC, USN 
Deputy Commander 
COL R. A. Cramer, Jr., USA 
Chief of Staff 

* * • 

BG Orvil C. Metheny, USA 
Commander, Western Area 

BG Franklin ). Glunn, USA 
Commander, Eastern Area 

Richard K. Hutson 
Director, Transportation 
Engineering Agency 

* * * 

MAJ Richard O. Hahn, USA 
Public Affairs Officer 

Patricia A. Thomasson 
Editor 

Robert M. Price 
Assistant Editor 

Larry Krogh 
Eastern Area Editor 

Samuel H. Oakley 
Western Area Editor 

* * • 

Office of Public Affairs 
Graphics Support 

Director of Communications- 
Electronics 
Photographic Support 

• * • 



FEATURES 

AROUND THE WORLD IN 175 DAYS 

Harold L. Craven 2 

A SPECIAL REPORT 

Translog Staff 14 

SERVICE THAT REALLY MOVES 

Lieutenant Colonel Bennett E. Greenfield, USA 15 

AHEAD OF HIS TIME 

Michel Scott 17 

THE LIVING STONES 

Debbie Dunstan 20 



DEPARTMENTS 
TO's Hotline 9 



TRANSLOG is published monthly by the Military Traffic Management Command [MTMC], a single-manager 
transportation agency under the Secretary of the Army. Its purpose is to provide timely and authoritative in- 
formation on policies, plans, operations and technical developments in the Defense Transportation field. 
Readers are encouraged to submit articles, featurettes, photographs and art work. Opinions expressed by 
contributors do not necessarily reflect the official viewpoint of the Department of the Army or MTMC 
Address contributions and correspondence to: Editor, TRANSLOG, MTMC, Washington, DC. 20315. Army 
distribution is based on requirements submitted on DA Form 12-5 to U.S. Army AG Publications Center, 
2800 Eastern Boulevard, Baltimore, Md. 21220. Individual subscriptions: $9.85 annually to domestic or 
APO addresses, $12.35 to foreign addresses through the Superintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, DC. 20402 Single copy 90c. Unless otherwise indicated, material may be reprinted 
provided credit is given to TRANSLOG and the author. Use of funds for this publication approved by Head- 
quarters, Department of the Army, 10 November 1972. 

1 




Around the World in 1 75 Days 



by Harold L. Craven 

This article was reprinted courtesy 
of AIRMAN magazine, where it 
first appeared. 



Translog 



o, 



• 



N THE MORNING of April 6, 1924, the 
World Flight Squadron of the Army Air Service 
set out from Seattle, Washington, to attempt 
the first around-the-world flight. There were 
eight aviators — each with a rabbit's foot as a 
good luck charm — and four open-cockpit bi- 
planes. None of the specially-built Douglas 
World Cruiser airplanes carried parachutes or 
life preservers. 

The aviators had attempted to depart on the 
previous day, but the flight commander, Maj. 
Frederick L. Martin, had damaged the propell- 
er and one pontoon of the flagship Seattle on 
his takeoff run. After a day's delay for repairs 
a new start had been made and the Seattle, 
Chicago and New Orleans were airborne. The 
Boston, too heavily loaded to get off the water, 
was delayed 40 minutes while its occupants 
discarded their rifles, extra boots, personal ef- 
fects, and other cargo. 

As the Seattle, Chicago, and New Orleans 
headed toward Prince Rupert, British Colum- 
bia, 1st Lt. Leslie P. Arnold, flying as mechanic 
in the Chicago, began recording his impress- 
ions in a huge notebook: 

"As I look down on Lake Washington and 
Seattle and see them growing smaller and 
smaller behind us, I keep wondering what the 
people in the streets are thinking... I wonder 
how many of us will get all the way around... 

"Visibility is only fair this morning, but 
above the haze that half veils the earth the sum- 
mit of Rainier stands out as clear as crystal. 
No wonder the Indians call it Tahuma, the 
mountain that is God. I saw Lowell (1st Lt. 
Lowell P. Smith, Chicago's pilot ) glance back 
over his shoulder at it several times, and I'm 
sure the memory of its grandeur will inspire us 
all the way around the world. This undertaking 
somehow makes you feel the presence of the 
Ruler of the Universe as you have never felt it 
before. " 

Enroute to Prince Rupert the airmen en- 
countered rain, sleet, hail, fog, and snow. On 
one occasion they came out of a fog bank at 
wave-top height and narrowly missed an excur- 
sion boat. When the three planes reached 
Prince Rupert in a driving snowstorm the Chi- 
cago and New Orleans landed without damage. 
Major Martin, temporarily blinded by the snow, 
sideslipped the Seattle into the water from a 
height of 30 feet, breaking the outer struts and 
snapping three vertical wires. Martin's mech- 



anic, Staff Sergeant Alva L. Harvey, climbed 
out of the cockpit with a cry of disgust and 
tossed his "lucky" rabbit's foot into the water. 
A few minutes later all six men went ashore 
where they were met, according to Arnold's 
diary, by the mayor who "stood there in the 
snow looking like Santa Claus." 

"Gentlemen," said the mayor, "you have ar- 
rived on the worst day in ten years." 

The Boston, carrying 1st Lt. Leigh Wade, 
pilot, and Staff Sergeant Henry H. Ogden, 
mechanic, landed at Prince Rupert 35 minutes 
behind the others. On the morning of April 10, 
after the Seattle had been repaired at a local 
shipyard, the world fliers took off in the rain 
for Sitka, Alaska. They reached Seward three 
days later. 

Trouble continued to plague the Seattle. On 
April 15 the other planes flew to Chignik, with- 
out incident, but Martin and Harvey were 
forced down at Kanatak due to an oil leak. 

The crews of the Chicago, Boston, and New 
Orleans rested one day at Chignik, then pro- 
ceeded to Dutch Harbor where the Boston's en- 
gine was changed and the aviators awaited the 
arrival of their flagship. Dutch Harbor was one 
of several locations along the route where sup- 
ply depots had been established for the World 
Flight Squadron. Because several nations were 
attempting to be first to make an around the 
world flight, elaborate preparations had been 
made to assure the success of the American 
attempt. British, French, Italian, and Port- 
uguese pilots had already entered the race. 

Back at Kanatak the ill-fated Seattle was de- 
layed by maintenance and weather until April 
25, then flown to Chignik. Enroute from Chig- 
nik to Dutch Harbor, the Seattle was 
demolished. Martin flew it into a mountain top 
in a heavy fog. Martin crawled out of the 
wreckage with minor face injuries. Harvey sur- 
vived the crash without a scratch. 

Gathering together as many items as they 
could carry, including emergency rations, the 
two men headed south on foot. Fog and snow 
blended into a white confusion that resulted 
in their arrival back at the wreckage two hours 
later. The first night they slept in the baggage 
compartment, cold, crowded and uncomfort- 
able, then they built a snow shelter. After wait- 
ing two days for the fog to lift they set out in 
spite of it on a trek to the coast. On May 5 
they reached an uninhabited cabin and found 
a small cache of food. They rested there until 



September 1975 





Above right: One of the four world 
cruisers and Cutter "Haida" at 
Atka, Alaska, May 5, 1924. Top: 
Commandant De Lavergne, French 
Air Attache (left ), starting on 5400 
mile transcontinental flight with 
Lieutenant Gish piloting. Above: 
Captain St. Clair Streett, Logistics 
officer who set up advanced supply 
bases for the historic flight. 



May 10, then traveled 25 miles, on foot and by 
canoe, to Port Moller where they radioed 
Washington. 

A week earlier, on orders from Maj. Gen. 
Mason M. Patrick, Chief of Air Service, the Chi- 
cago, Boston, and New Orleans had resumed 
the flight under command of Lieutenant 
Smith. They flew to Atka, where they were 
weathered in for six days, then pushed on to 
Attu. 

From Attu the airmen flew to an American 
ship anchored near Soviet-controlled Koman- 
dorski Island and took on fuel for their flight 
to Japan's Kurile Islands. Because weather 
conditions made immediate continuation of 
the flight impracticable the fliers decided to re- 
main alongside the ship overnight. Russian 
authorities boarded the ship to determine their 
mission, then sent a radio message to the Sov- 
iet government asking permission to invite the 
Americans ashore. Next morning, as the world 
fliers prepared to continue their flight, an 
answer was received, requesting their immed- 
iate departure. 

Plagued by snowstorms and fog the airmen 
flew to the Kurile Islands where hundreds of 
Japanese civilians greeted them. At Hitokappu 
a delegation of children surrounded them and 



Translog 




sang the American and Japanese national an- 
thems. 

Dense fog prevented their departure until 
May 22 when they took off for Minato, Japan. 
They replaced engines on all the planes at 
Kasumigaura and were guests of honor at nu- 
merous official functions between May 7 and 
June 4. In Tokyo Col. L. E. Broome, advance 
officer for Maj. Stuart MacLaren, British world 
flier, informed the Americans that MacLaren 
had crashed in Burma. He had survived the 
crash without injury to himself, but his air- 
plane was beyond repair. Despite the fact that 
the English pilot was a competitor, Lieutenant 
Smith, on his own initiative, made 
arrangements for the U.S Navy to transport a 
replacement aircraft to him. 

The Japanese showered the Americans with 
flowers, paintings, and other gifts. On one oc- 
casion special tribute was paid to the pilots but 
not to their assistants. Smith promptly asked 
that the others be accorded equal honors, ex- 
plaining that the mechanics were as import- 
ant as the pilots. 

"This was mighty decent of Lowell," Arnold 
wrote in his diary, "and we all appreciated it, 
but none more so than Ogden who had been a 
sergeant up to now. Lowell cabled Washington 



and asked General Patrick to make Hank a 
lieutenant like the rest of us. So from here on 
we were all lieutenants." 

On June 4 the New Orleans and Boston 
crossed the China Sea to Shanghai in fair wea- 
ther. It was the first entire day of good flying 
weather the world fliers had encountered. The 
Chicago, having had difficulty taking off, fol- 
lowed on June 5 under less favorable condi- 
tions. In Shanghai the Americans dined on 
shark fins, hundred-year-old eggs, and bird's 
nest soup as guests of Chinese aviation lead- 
ers. 

While flying from Shanghai to Tchinkoen Bay 
the aviators met the French world flier, Capt. 
Peltier D'Oisy, who was flying a replacement 
airplane, having lost his original in a crash 
near Shanghai. D'Oisy terminated his world 
flight attempt in Japan a few days later. 

Enroute from Amoy to Hong Kong on June 
8 the Americans flew through a small typhoon. 
On June 10 they continued to Haiphong in per- 
fect weather. There they learned that two Port- 
uguese aviators, also trying to fly around the 
world, had crashed in Burma, but were now 
continuing their flight in an airplane they had 
obtained from the British Royal Air Force. 

The Chicago was forced down between Hai- 
phong and Tourane, its Liberty engine damag- 
ed beyond repair as a result of a water leak. The 
Boston and New Orleans waited at Tourane 
while a Navy destroyer rushed a new engine to 
the Chicago. When the planes were reunited 
the World Flight Squadron moved on to Kam- 
ponsong Bay, French Indo China, then to Bang- 
kok, Siam, and Tavoy, Burma. 

While making takeoff runs at Tavoy on June 
20 the Chicago got into the air safely, but the 
Boston and the New Orleans were damaged by 
rough seas. The Boston continued its flight to 
Rangoon despite broken vertical wires, but the 
crew of the New Orleans, 1st Lt. Erik Nelson, 
pilot, and 2nd Lt. John Harding Jr., mainten- 
ance officer, elected to remain behind and 
make repairs. They rejoined the others later at 
Rangoon. 

On the morning of June 25 the three Ameri- 
can planes passed over the British world flyer, 
MacLaren, between Rangoon and Akyab. Mac- 
Laren had taken refuge in a protected harbor 
to await the passing of the typhoon season. He 
had decided to take no unnecessary chances 
with the airplane delivered to him by the 
American Navy. 



September 1975 




Translog 




Anxious to get out of the typhoon belt as 
quickly as possible, the American aviators left 
Akyab in a heavy rainstorm on June 26 and 
passed through a number of small storms be- 
fore reaching Chittagon, Burma, at 9:40 a.m. 
They refueled alongside the destroyer Preston 
and departed at noon for Calcutta, India, the 
approximate half-way mark on their global 
flight. 

At Calcutta wheels were substituted for 
floats, engines were changed, and wings were 
replaced. Before the planes departed for Alla- 
habad, Associated Press reporter Linton Wells 
hid in the Boston's cargo compartment. When 
Smith discovered the stowaway at Allahabad 
he put him to work carrying gasoline cans, 
then cabled General Patrick for permission to 
take him along as an extra passenger. No ans- 
wer was received, so on the theory that silence 
gives consent, Wells was allowed to share 
Ogden's cockpit on the flight to Umballa on 
July 2. How much further Wells journeyed with 
the world fliers was not disclosed in Lieuten- 
ant Smith's official report to General Patrick 
following the flight. For that matter, Smith neg- 
lected to mention that Wells had ever been a- 
board the Boston. 

The world fliers arrived at Karachi, on India's 
western border, on Independence Day. Engines 
were changed there and three days later the 
flight continued along the rugged coastline to 
Chahbar and Bandar Abbas in Persia. On July 
8 they landed at Baghdad in Mesopotamia. 
They followed the Euphrates River to Allepo, 
Syria, on July 9, then reached Constantinople, 
Turkey, on the following day. After three days 
rest they moved on to Bucharest, Rumania; 
Budapest, Hungary; and Vienna, Austria. 

On the morning of July 14, Bastile Day in 
France, the fliers set out for Paris, hoping to 
get there in time to join the holiday 
celebrations. Thirty minutes out of Vienna they 
encountered rain and low hanging clouds. 

Top left: Major F. L. Martin and Sergeant 
Alva Harvey just after their arrival at Port 
Moller after being lost for ten days, when 
their plane crashed on the flight. Bottom 
left: President Coolidge (third from left ), 
Secretary of War Weeks (immediate right 
of Coolidge ) and the round-the-world fli- 
ers in front of the "Chicago" at Boiling 
Field. Top: The planes try their water 
wings at Seward, Alaska. Left: The chris- 
tening at Seattle, Washington. 



September 1975 



Flying below the clouds they followed the Dan- 
ube past Linz, Austria, then took a winding 
course through mountain passes past Munich, 
Germany, and finally landed at a small flying 
field at Strasbourg, France. The planes were 
refueled quickly and put back on a heading to- 
ward Paris. 

The Americans had looked forward to their 
visit to Paris as an opportunity to see the city 
and have a good time. They arrived in Paris tired 
and sleepy, wanting nothing more than a good 
night of rest. Instead they attended recept- 
ions, met countless officials, participated in a 
radio broadcast, gave press interviews, and 
signed hundreds of autographs. Finally, when 
it appeared they could go to bed, an assist- 
ant cabinet member insisted on taking them to 
the Folies Bergeres. After falling asleep several 
times during the performance they gave up and 
went to their hotel. There one of the aviators 
put this notice on his door: 

PLEASE DO NOT WAKE US UNTIL NINE TO- 



MORROW MORNING UNLESS THE HOTEL IS 
ON FIRE, AND NOT THEN UNLESS THE FIRE- 
MEN HAVE GIVEN UP ALL HOPE. 

On July 15 the airmen put a wreath on the 
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, dined with Gen- 
eral John J. Pershing, and met Olympic dele- 
gates and athletes from all over the world. 
They were offered the Legion of Honor by 
France's President Doumergue. Because they 
had not received special consent from Cong- 
ress to accept foreign decorations they de- 
clined with thanks, and President Doumergue 
gave them autographed pictures of himself in- 
stead. 

The three American airplanes arrived at Lon- 
don on July 16, escorted by a Pathe News cam- 
era plane and a large French passenger air- 
craft. There Britain's First Lord of the 
Admiralty, in recognition of the assistance the 
world fliers had given the English aviator Mac- 
Con tinued on page 13 




President Coolidge and First 
Lieutenant Lowell P. Smith, 
Chicago's Pilot. 



Translog 






PERSONAL PROPERTY 



ALLOCATION OF TONNAGE TO CARRIERS UNDER CF/AC 

Carriers under Common Financial /Administration Control (CF/AC) will be 
treated as individual carriers on the Traffic Distribution Record (TDR). Tonnage 
awarded to one carrier under CF/AC will not - repeat - will not be charged to other 
carriers in the same CF/AC group. (Interim change to DOD 4500. 34R 181, DTG 
281220Z Jul 75.) 

REPORT ON CARRIER PERFORMANCE 

Many of you are continuing to forward DD Form 1781 (Report on Carrier 
Performance) to HQ, MTMC ADP Operations Division, ATTN: Production and 
Quality Control, Washington, D.C. 20315. Interim Change 162 to the PPTMR, dated 
28 January 1975, changed the procedures for handling the DD Form 1781 and 
MTMC- PPM message, 061235Z May 75, further clarified the procedure. There is no 
longer a requirement for you or members to mail a copy of DD Form 1781 to HQ 
MTMC. Please ensure that members are counseled accordingly. 



CARRIER NOTIFICATION OF SHIPMENT REFUSAL. 

Information received from the field indicates that some agents will, on 
occasion, arbitrarily refuse shipments without the carrier's knowledge. This can 
create a situation where punitive action is taken against a carrier as a result of a 
continuous pattern of refusals without the carrier having prior knowledge of the 
existence of the problem. When a pattern of refusals develops with an agent, you 
are strongly urged to call or write the home office of the carrier and factually 
outline the problem. If refusals continue, then punitive action may be in order. 

September 1975 9 



OKINAWA TRIAL 

You are reminded that Codes 4 or 5 shipments between CONUS and Okinawa 
will be made in accordance with the special instructions mailed to all ITOs in 
CONUS and Okinawa on October 23, 1974. Further, remember that Codes 4 or 5 
rates in the MTMC Rate Printout will not be used for shipments between CONUS 
and Okinawa during the Okinawa Trial period. Only manual rate tenders are 
applicable. This information was contained in MTMC-PPC message 061728Z 
December 1974. 

PASSENGER 

MEAL TICKET RATES INCREASED 

Maximum meal ticket rates were increased effective July 1 and the separate 
rates previously authorized for meals obtained on carrier equipment and in rest- 
aurants will no longer apply. The increased maximum rates will be $2.50, $4.00 
and $5.50 for morning, noon and evening meals, respectively, and will be appli- 
cable wherever meals are obtained. The increases will be reflected in Joint Travel 
Regulations, Volume I, Change 269, and in a forthcoming amendment to Para- 
graph 317010 of the MTMR. 

CANCELLATION CHARGES GOING UP 

Effective September 2, cancellation charges for most charter buses will be 
increased from $25 to $50. The minimum notification to avoid this charge will be 
seven hours instead of three. Some carriers will assess the full charges that would 
have been applicable to the charter movement unless notified 72 hours prior to dis- 
patch time. 

USE GTRs FOR TRANSPORT OF HUMAN REMAINS 

To enhance the dignity and respect accorded the deceased, paragraph 30901 5 of 
the MTMR has been revised to eliminate the GBL connotation of the movement of 
human remains as cargo. Always use GTRs when procuring transportation for 
human remains. 

PROPER COUNSELING CAN REDUCE TELEPHONE CALLS 

There has been an increase in the number of collect telephone calls from in- 
dividuals and group leaders moving within the transportation system to the HQ 
MTMC Staff Duty Officer when no assistance was really required. Chapter 304012 
of the MTMR (AR 55-355) provides guidance to the origin transportation officer 

1 q Translog 



with respect to counseling the group leader or individual prior to commencement 
of travel and provides specific actions to be taken in the event of unusual delays. 
Advise travelers that they should call HQ MTMC to report delays in transportation 
schedules only in these instances: 

a. When carriers fail to provide suitable alternate transportation; 

b. When delays will affect supplemental transportation; 

c. When delays will adversely impact on mission accomplishment. 

FREIGHT 

REQUESTS FOR NEW SPLCs AND SCACs 

Paragraph 214016 of the MTMR prescribes that Standard Point Location Codes 
(SPLCs) and Standard Carrier Alpha Codes (SCACs) will be shown on the GBL as 
published in the SPLC and SCAC Directories. That same paragraph also requires 
that requests for additions, revisions, or deletions to the published codes will be 
forwarded to the Commander, MTMC, ATTN: MTMC-SYC, Washington, D.C. 
20315. When you request the assignment of a SPLC, information must be 
submitted as required in Item 7 (A through E) of the SPLC Directory. A sample 
copy of the SPLC Assignment Request form is furnished at the end of the Directory 
for your convenience. When requesting the assignment of a SCAC, the carrier's full 
corporate name, address, and operating certificate number (ICC, PUC, FMC, or 
FAA number, as appropriate) will be furnished. Your strict compliance with these 
requirements will expedite development and publication of the requested code. 

PROPER DESCRIPTIONS OF SHIPMENTS 

Primarily as a result of oversight, incomplete or incorrect descriptions of ship- 
ments keep showing up on GBLs resulting in increased transportation costs. Para- 
graph 211004 of the MTMR emphasizes the necessity for determining the proper 
description of shipments. You should take whatever action is necessary to 
minimize this problem. 

SYSTEMS 

ADDRESS INDICATOR GROUP ESTABLISHED 

Address Indicator Group (AIG) 7516 was established by MTMC-SYM message 
282011Z July 1975 to expedite the dissemination of interim changes and to provide 
guidance relating to MILSTAMP application. Thanks to the AIG, messages may 
now be sent directly to over 700 MILSTAMP addressees throughout the world 
without recourse to the time consuming process involved in repeated retrans- 
mittals through subordinate headquarters to the user level. 

September 1975 11 



INTERNATIONAL 

SHIPMENT OF POVs TO ITALY 

You should advise all military and civilian personnel assigned to Rome, Italy, 
APO 09794 or areas south of Rome, and authorized the shipment of a POV, that 
KF1 , Naples, is the proper port of discharge for such POVs. For members sta- 
tioned in Italy north of Rome, the POVs should be loaded /manifested for discharge 
at KF3, Leghorn. 

Vehicle registration and the issuance of license plates for POV owners stationed 
north of Rome is accomplished at the US military headquarters (Aviano, Vicenza or 
Leghorn) having jurisdiction over the area where the member is stationed. This 
same service is performed at Naples for members stationed in Rome and south of 
Rome with the exception of the USAF base at San Vito Dei Normanni (Brindisi) 
which takes care of members stationed in that area. 

For all personnel, the initial customs clearance is performed at the port of initial 
discharge in Italy and later the Italian vehicle permit (trittico) is obtained at the 
member's duty station. 

TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING 

LOADING ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE 

Responsible loading personnel are requested to notify LTC Ingman or Mr. 
Harden, HQ MTMC, MTMC-SA, AUTOVON 289-1771/1777, when questions 
concerning structural integrity of cargo cannot be ascertained locally. A request 
for help may prevent disaster. Recently, a shipment of loaded weapons system 
containers was severely damaged because it was improperly stacked aboard ship. 
The container legs were designed to collapse and cushion the contents against 
shock if the container were dropped. This design precluded stacking of the con- 
tainers for ocean movement and warnings to this effect were noted on trans- 
portability drawings. Unfortunately, these warnings were not marked on the 
containers. They were stacked two-high and collapsed under the loads imposed 
during transit. If you or your loading personnel will be alert to possible stacking 
limitations and direct questions to the persons named above, similar catastrophies 
can be prevented. If additional markings are needed, action will be taken to have 
developers and/or shippers comply. 

12 Translog 



Around the World 

Continued from page 8 

Laren, offered to put the British fleet at Lieu- 
tenant Smith's disposal for patrolling the North 
Atlantic. The U.S. Navy, however, had already 
been delegated that duty. 

At Brough, England, engines were changed 
again and wheel landing gears were replaced 
with floats. The three planes flew to Kirkwall, 
Orkney Islands, through rain and fog on July 
30. 

On August 2 the World Flight Squadron de- 
parted for Iceland. Ten minutes after takeoff 
they encountered a fog bank too high to climb 
over and too close to the water to fly under. The 
pilots flew into it in close formation, hoping to 
maintain visual contact with one another. The 
New Orleans got caught in the propwash of one 
of the other planes and fell into a spin. Its pilot, 
Lieutenant Nelson, made a recovery and came 
out in the clear a few feet above the water. He 
continued his flight to Homafjord, Iceland, un- 
hampered by fog. 

The Chicago and Boston crews, meanwhile, 
had returned to Kirkwall with word of the New 
Orleans disappearance, and surface vessels 
were dispatched to search for Nelson and his 
companion. 

On August 3, after learning that the New 
Orleans had reached Iceland safely, the crews 
of the Chicago and the Boston again departed 
Kirkwall. Ninety minutes later the Boston lost 
its oil pressure and Lieutenant Wade landed 
roughly, nearly wrapping the left pontoon 
around the lower wing. Smith and Arnold 
buzzed the crippled plane but Wade and Ogden 
waved them off. The Chicago crew headed full 
throttle for the destroyer Billingsby, 100 miles 
away near the Faroe Islands. A message 
dropped on the Billingsby was relayed by radio 
to other ships, and soon several vessels were 
on their way to the crippled airplane. 

The British trawler Rugby-Ramsey got there 
first, followed by the Billingsby and the Rich- 
mond. In trying to haul the Boston aboard the 
Richmond the lifting tackle gave way, 
damaging the aiprlane beyond repair. 

Italian world flier Locatelli joined the remain- 
ing U.S. fliers on August 16 at Hornafjord. He 
had made no advance preparation for crossing 
the Atlantic, but was relying on supplies left 
over by the Americans. According to an agree- 
ment between the U.S. and Italian 



governments, Locatelli was to remain one base 
behind the Americans. At Lieutenant Smith's 
request, however, General Patrick radioed per- 
mission for the Italian to fly with, rather than 
behind, the U.S. aviators. Enroute to Fredricks- 
dal, Greenland, on August 18, Locatelli's fast 
Dornier seaplane outdistanced the American 
machines. At Fredricksdal the Americans learn- 
ed that he had gone down in the Atlantic. 
Locatelli was rescued later, but his plane was 
a total loss. 

The world fliers flew to Ivigtut, Greenland, 
through rain and snow, on August 24, and to 
Icy Tickle Bay, near Indian Harbor, Nova Scotia, 
on the following day. There Wade and Ogden 
rejoined the flight in a new airplane, the Boston 
II that General Patrick had sent them so they 
could continue the world flight with their fellow 
officers. 

After some difficulty with the Boston II the 
airmen flew to Mere Point, Maine, on Septem- 
ber 5, then to Boston on the following day. 
There each received a huge silk American flag, 
sabres, Paul Revere silver bowls, silver wings, 
watches and flowers. New York rolled out its 
best red carpet for the fliers on September 8 
and on the following day President Coolidge 
and his entire Cabinet were on hand to greet 
them at Boiling Field near Washington, D.C. 
On September 13, accompanied by a fleet 
of escort planes, the World Flight Squadron 
continued on its way to Seattle, official begin- 
ning and ending point of the global flight. They 
landed at 14 cities along the route and were 
greeted as conquering heroes in each. Upon 
landing at Seattle they were informed that an 
elaborate reception, which would probably last 
three days, awaited them. 

From the time they first arrived back on the 
American continent, the world fliers were de- 
luged with congratulatory messages. Among 
them was this one from General Patrick: 

"There is one way in which we may well imi- 
tate the great explorers and discoverers of the 
past. Without exception these daring men, at 
the end of their voyage or expedition, drew 
apart, knelt in prayer, and thanked God for the 
privilege which had been bestowed upon them. 
All of us now, with bowed head and humble 
heart, offer up our thanks to the all wise Creator 
that this little band we sent into the West has 
come back to us safely out of the East, having 
been the first of all the generations of men to 
circumnavigate this terrestrial sphere by air." 



September 1975 



13 



r F YOU DEAL with international air shipments and foreign 
flag air carriers, you need to know about the International Air 
Transportation Fair Competition Practices Act of 1974. Re- 
cently signed into law by President Ford, the Act contains a 
provision which severely restricts the use of foreign flag air 
carriers. 

Guidelines for the implementation of this provision, Section 
5 of the Act, have been published by Elmer B. Staats, U.S. 
Comptroller General. According to Staats, Section 5 requires 
that, in the absence of satisfactory proof of necessity, expend- 
iture of appropriated funds for Government financed com- 
mercial foreign air transportation by other than U.S. flag air 
carriers (those holding certificates under section 401 of the 
Federal Aviation Act of 1958) will be dissallowed. 

U.S. flag air carriers must be used if the service provided by 
them is available. Passenger or freight service by these car- 
riers is considered available even though comparable service 
by a foreign flag air carrier costs less, can be paid for in ex- 
cess foreign currency, is preferred by the agency or traveler, 
or is more convenient for the agency or traveler. U.S. flag air 
carrier service will be considered "unavailable" only: 

•when the traveler, while en route, has to wait six hours or 
more to transfer to a U.S. flag carrier to proceed to the intend- 
ed destination, or 



Use Of Foreign Flag Air Carriers Restricted 



•when any flight by a U.S. flag carrier is interrupted by a 
stop anticipated to be six hours or more for refueling, re- 
loading, repairs, etc., and no other flight by a U.S. flag carrier 
is available during the six hour period, or 

• when U.S. flag carrier service will take 12 or more hours 
longer from the origin to the destination airports to accomp- 
lish the agency's mission than would foreign flag service. 

If any one or all of these situations occur and a traveler goes 
by foreign flag air carrier, the Comptroller General will still 
dissallow payment unless there is attached to the appropriate 
voucher a certificate or memorandum adequately explaining 
why U.S. flag service was not used. 

International air freight forwarders engaged in foreign air 
transportation may be used for Government financed move- 
ments of property, but the rule stated in Section 5 still applies 
to the use of underlying air carriers. In order for bills sub- 
mitted by the air freight forwarders to be paid on presentation , 
carriers must submit with their bills a copy of the airway bill 
or manifest showing the underlying air carriers used. If foreign 
flag air carriers are among those listed, certificates or memor- 
anda justifying their use must be included. 



Translog 



"OUR SERVICE WILL really 
move you". That's not their offi- 
cial motto, but it fits this most 
unique unit to a T\ The move- 
ment control battalion of the 2nd 
Transportation Group is respon- 
sible for whatever DOD traffic 
moves into, thru, and out of the 
Republic of Korea. They clear in 
the mail from home... and they 
take out the return mail; the PX, 
clothing sales store and supply 
rooms can thank the 25th for 
getting their stock to them. The 
transportation of the food eaten 
at the mess hall, or taken home 
from the commissary, was de- 
livered by the 25th. And for any- 
one stationed at one of the doz- 
ens of air defense or radio-relay 
mountain-top sites throughout 
Korea, their water and fuel will 
be there too... courtesy of the 
Transportation Center. 

The mission of this all-encom- 
passing outfit is to perform total 
traffic management service for 
the Eighth U.S. Army, for U.S. 
Force Korea, and for most other 
DOD agencies requiring the 
movement of passengers and 
cargo. Included in their mission 
is the planning, arranging and 
monitoring of all logistical and 
tactical convoys in the southern 
half of the Republic. 

The Headquarters of the 25th 
is located in downtown Seoul, 
adjacent to the country's histor- 
ic and picturesque Main Railway 
Station. The unit is one of the 
very few U.S. activities situated 
off the large Yongsan military 
base in the city. Flying side by 
side over the headquarters are 
the flags of the United States, 
the United Nations, and the Re- 
public of Korea. This little piece 
of real estate in the heart of the 
six million populated capital city 
is a familiar sight, not only to 
the thousands upon thousands 



SERVICE 

THAT 
REALLY 
MOVES 

LTC Bennett E. Greenfield, USA 



of Koreans who pass by the 
headquarters in their daily com- 
muting, but to the countless US, 
UN, and other 'foreigners' who 
enter it's doors to do business 
with the 25th. 

The interface between the cus- 
tomer and the 25th is at the 
Transportation Movement Office 
(TMO) level. The 14 field TMOs 
are located throughout Korea, 
from the DMZ in the north to the 
Port of Pusan in the south. You 
won't find them on a base or 
military installation; look for the 
nearest Korean National Railway 
office, and close by will be 
the TMO. These pint-size in- 
stallation. Transportation Of- 
fices are normally staffed by two 
or three NCOs, whose office 
doubles as their quarters, and 



Transportation Movement Office 
NCOIC inspecting one of the 364 rail 
cars belonging to the Batallion. 



September 1975 




two or three Korean National 
employees. As rail is the lowest 
cost transport mode, this is the 
way much of the 25th's cargo 
moves. Not only are their mis- 
sion and geographies diverse, so 
is their property book. The unit 
has it's own fleet of rail cars— 
364 to be exact,— consisting of 
POL tank cars, box cars, and 
heavy-duty flat cars, with a re- 
placement value of over $23 mil- 
lion. The TMO manages all non- 
unit transportation in it's geo- 
graphic areas. In addition, it 
must keep tabs on the rail cars 
and CON EX containers that 
transit thru. Over 5,400 CONEXs 
are controlled by the 25th Trans- 
portation Battalion through its 
Military Container Control Acti- 
vity, Korea. 

Employing the full range of 
transportation principles, the 
unit provides transportation by 
using its own rolling stock, by 
committing the truck assets of 
the 69th Transportation Battal- 
ion (Medium Truck), or by con- 
tracting with Korean trucking 
firms. Contracted transportation 
is normally used in the haul of 
POL, potable water, reefer cargo, 
and sea-van containers. About 
58% of the cargo entering the 
country is containerized, and the 
25th takes it from the ship's hook 
and follows it into the hands of 
the consignees. The key words 
are Asset Control. Every stick 
of cargo, every container, must 
be accounted for and 'REP- 
SHIPPED' from origin to destin- 
ation to insure that it gets to 
where it is supposed to go in the 
same amounts that were 
shipped!! 

In addition to their cargo oper- 
ations, the 25th controls the 
movement of all DOD sponsored 
passengers in country. Whether 



15 



you're traveling by rail, bus, or 
air in Korea, you've got. to go to 
the 25th for your Transportation 
Request (TR) and ticket. Inter- 
country flights are also their bag. 
All Eighth Army personnel are 
port-called by the 25th. This is 
handled by the unit's Passenger 
Travel Office (PTO) located in 
Seoul. In liaison with the Air 
Force, and with Northwest 
Orient Airlines (the only Ameri- 
can-flag carrier serving Korea), 
the PTO determines the most 
cost favorable way for PCS/TDY 
passengers to return to CON US 
or to intra-theater areas. The Of- 



in the freight business, receiv- 
ing all in-bound shipments of 
Army-sponsored air cargo, as 
well as shipping, via MAC, all 
out-bound air-designated 
freight. 

The multi-missioned 25th runs 
the largest hold-baggage, facil- 
ity in Korea. Located at 'Ascom 
City' near Inchon, it's ware- 
house receives all advanced- 
shipped personal effects of PCS 
soldiers, and insures that they 
marry-up with the owner upon 
his or her arrival. 

During contingency exercises, 
the 25th relocates many of its 



side-by-side working 
relationship highlights the 
integrated defense team of the 
two countries. 

This impressive array of re- 
sponsibilities is handled by only 
74 US military and 71 Korean 
National (KN) employees of 
the 25th. The continuity of the 
unit largely comes from its KNs. 
Seven of the 71 have been with 
the organization since the Kor- 
ean War, and 24 have been mem- 
bers of the Center for over 10 
years. Providing cost effective 
transportation is the continuing 
goal of the unit. In pursuit of 




fice cuts Transportation Re- 
quests and Military Transporta- 
tion Authorizations (MTA) for 
personnel leaving country on 
MAC (CAT B) or commercial 
(CAT Z) flights. The extension 
of the PTO is the 25th's Army/ 
Navy Air Traffic Coordinating 
Office (ANATCO) at Osan Air 
Base, 40 miles south of Seoul. 
Collocated with the Air Force 
at the Military Airlift Command 
terminal, the ANATCO insures 
the smooth, trouble-free exit 
of all Army and Navy personnel 
and their dependents from 
Korea. Particular attention is de- 
voted to arranging air transpor- 
tation for emergency leave per- 
sonnel, prisoners, and VIP 
travelers. The ANATCO is also 



16 



Downtown Seoul Center Headquart- 
ers, flying the US, UN, and Korean 
flags. 

people to an underground com- 
mand post bunker and operates 
the Eighth Army Combined 
Traffic Center (CTC). Working 
directly with its counterpart, the 
Korean Army 303rd Transporta- 
tion Movement Control Group, 
the CTC controls all United Na- 
tions Command/U.S. Forces, 
Korea, logistical intra-country 
movements. During the recent 
"Focus Lens-FY 75" exercise, 
the bunker was visited by Gen- 
eral Richard G. Stilwell, Com- 
mander-in-Chief, Pacific, who 
lauded the unit for its important 
role and pointed out that this 



this, an intensified traffic man- 
agement program from July thru 
September of 1974 has resulted 
in cost savings of over $300,000 
in the unit's FY 75 budget. A 
recent in-depth analysis of 
container drayage has identified 
an additional $91,000 savings. 
Last fiscal year this small band 
of movement control specialists 
chalked-up traffic management 
service for over 25,000 personnel 
leaving Korea, 30,000 GIs mov- 
ing within the Republic, and 
more than 40 million (that's 
right— 40 million) short ton- 
miles of in-country cargo opera- 
tions. 

If it's Korea, and if it's trans- 
portation, it's the 25th Transpor- 
tation Center. 

Translog 





Captain John Ericsson 



Ahead Of His Time 



by Michel Scott 



JOHN ERICSSON, DESIGNER of the ironclad 
USS Monitor of Civil War fame, will be remembered 
by generations of "men who go down to the sea in 
ships." 

Born in Sweden in 1803, Ericsson served in his 
country's army, worked as a government surveyor, 
and further occupied himself along lines related to 
naval and marine construction before coming to the 
United States aboard the steamer Great Western in 
1839. 

One of his inventions in Europe had been a flame 
engine which used heat to drive a piston. It started 
more quickly than a steam engine and used less 
fuel. Another Ericsson invention, an engine employ- 
ing a fireplace under a piston, was put into use at 
Limehouse, England, in 1827. 

Development of a more efficient, copper-tubed 
boiler system for ships was the inventor's next pro- 
ject. He also was responsible for building engines 
low enough in ships so that they would not be put 
out of action easily in event of an enemy attack. 

John Ericsson's life had many challenging mo- 
ments. On one occasion he was blamed for poorly 
outfitting an arctic survey ship, and the ship's 
master, a Captain Ross, punctuated his accusation 
by sending the ship to the bottom. A writer corn- 



September 1975 



17 




Right: 

Above: 

ship. 



The U.S. MONITOR. 
Officers on deck of the 



merited that the sunken vessel would one day pro- 
vide evidence to historians that the Eskimos had ad- 
vanced ideas on the subject of steam navigation. 

Moving into another area of propulsion, Ericsson 
became a competitor of the great English locomo- 
tive builder, Stephenson. With only seven weeks in 
which to design and build a fast locomotive, he put 
together an engine with a speed of 29.5 miles per 
hour. Although Ericsson's locomotive "shot by its 
competition like a projectile" during a race, it was 
disqualified because it was less sturdy than its 
competitor. 

After moving to the United States, Ericsson began 
development of a revolutionary "caloric" or air en- 
gine for use in ship propulsion. The main selling 
points were fuel economy and lack of smoke. The 
engine's cylinders were so big that a man could sit 
on one of them while they were going up and down. 

A trial voyage of a sidewheel steamer fitted with 
a caloric engine began on January 11, 1853. The 
stated purpose of the trip was to "supply the defin- 
itive answer to questions and speculations that had 
been accumulating." The press accepted informa- 
tion concerning the engine with little criticism, and 
the public was set to watch a revolution in ship pro- 
pulsion take place in the waters of New York Bay. 
During a two and a half hour trial voyage the ship 
traveled about seven miles and returned, and the 
next morning's papers were filled with stories of 
Ericsson's successful new ship. One paper stated 
that "The age of steam is closed. The age of caloric 
opens. Fulton and Watt belong to the past. Ericsson 
is the great mechanical genius of the present and 
the future." 

But the bubble burst. Euphoria disappeared as 
realities became more evident. The caloric engine 
was inefficient despite the inventor's claims. In 




February 1853 the ship, named the Ericsson, made 
her first voyage to Washington, D.C. It was a round 
trip of about 500 miles at a speed reported as aver- 
aging 4.7 to 6.0 knots. The public was assured that 
"she made no attempt to try her speed on the way 
hither, that forming no part of the object of the 
voyage." The ship was visited in Washington by 
President Filmore, President-elect Pierce and dele- 
gations from the Congress. Captain Ericsson con- 
vinced the Secretary of the Navy that a large caloric 
engine could be built that would attain a minimum 
speed of 10 knots with a maximum coal consump- 
tion of eight tons in 24 hours, and Congress was 
asked for an appropriation of $500,000 to have Erics- 
son build such a vessel. But the inventor's confi- 
dence exceeded the actual potential of his creation, 
and fortunately, the money was not appropriated. 
When Ericsson at last admitted to himself that the 
caloric engine would never be practical, he returned 
to working with steam engines and the screw pro- 
peller. 

At this time Naval personnel were not happy with 
steam as motive power, partly because the paddle 
wheels then in use were easy to destroy in a naval 
engagement. Ericsson's contributions to ship pro- 
pulsion, incorporating both the screw propeller and 
the engines installed below water-line, provided 
greater protection as well as greater stability, and 
the inventor enjoyed widespread fame. 

While Ericsson's contributions to sea transpor- 
tation were many, his lasting fame came from de- 
velopment of the ironclad Monitor of Civil War re- 
nown. The ship looked more like a submarine than 
a 19th Century surface ship, and it included many 
new and unfamiliar features. Even the ship's toilet, 
installed below the water line, was unique, in that 
it incorporated an air pump flushing device. In ord- 



er to flush it the user first had to close the upper end 
of the pipe, open the lower end, then activate the 
force pump to drive out the water from the pipe, with 
its contents. A ship's surgeon who omitted an es- 
sential part of this ritual found himself suddenly 
projected into the air at the end of a column of 
sea water. 

The success of Ericsson's Monitor proved to the 
world that a new era of water travel had indeed ar- 
rived, and that the day of wooden-hulled sailing 
ships was over, at least as far as the world's navies 
were concerned. The battle record of the Monitor 
showed that she could turn circles around the Con- 
federate ship Virginia, and that she was not affect- 
ed by the latter's shots. The revolutionary use of a 
revolving turret had far-reaching consequences and 
led to the naval ship as we know it today. 

Most of Ericsson's inventive genius was in the 
area of propulsion, and full development of his ideas 
could have made him one of the Nation's wealthiest 
men. But he was an impatient man, primarily in- 
terested in proving to himself that an idea was feas- 
ible. Practical application was, in most cases, left 
to others, along with the profits. It is a little-known 
fact that John Ericsson's interests reached beyond 
ships and locomotives to the study of solar radia- 
tion and the moon. His work in solar radiation dates 
from about 1864, and a published article by the in- 
ventor included a drawing of the moon's surface, 
with Earth hanging in the sky overhead. The draw- 
ing was not too different from the photographs 
brought back last year by the Apollo astronauts. 

It is a safe assumption that if Ericsson were living 
today he would be contributing to the sciences of 
aeronautics and astronautics, perhaps working 
toward a long voyage to several planets of our solar 
system, for truly, he was a man ahead of his time. 



THE 
LIVING STONES 



by Debbie Dunstan 




maginean Egyptian pyramid. Picture the massive space it occupies; 
the size, texture and weight of the stones. Think of the years of dedicated, 
concerted effort put forth to arrive at the finished product, the people 
involved, the initial agony and the final ecstasy. Visualize the basic 
foundation and the placement of each individual stone. 

Now focus on a different pyramid, one which is just as strong and 
massive, yet is intangible. This pyramid is called, for the purpose of 
identification, the American Ideal. Its foundation was laid back in 1772, 
and the stones it is composed of are human lives, ideals, goals, phil- 
osophies and feelings. These are the living stones - as constant as the 
universe; as changing as the tide. Each stone alone represents only a 
minute portion of the entire structure, yet is vital to the effectiveness of 
the whole. 

The Department of Defense (DOD) is part of this pyramid and, in turn, 
has a pyramid structure within itself. The stones of this pyramid are 



Translog 



known as agencies, and the mortar which joins them together is a blend of 
common goals, supported by policies and programs. Many of these 
programs deal with overseas or foreign assistance. In this category, there 
is a special type of program which is different from the rest. It is known as 
Foreign Military Sales (FMS). 

It is different because it is initiated at the Department of State level, 
rather than the Department of Defense. It is also a very personal type of 
cargo exchange, in which close contact is maintained between the State 
Department personnel and the representative for the foreign government - 
who could be an embassy attache, a freight forwarder, or a foreign 
government purchasing mission. 

If the State Department approves the sale, two avenues for filling the 
purchase are open. Either a contract is made between the purchaser and 
an individual manufacturing firm or the matter is turned over to the DOD. 
In the case of the contract, all subsequent transactions and arrangements 
are made by the foreign government through commercial channels. If the 
DOD becomes involved, the first step taken is to decide which Military 
Service can sufficiently satisfy the sales requirement. 

One of the major factors to be considered by the military supplier is the 
transportation aspect. If the purchasing contract stipulates transfer of 
ownership at the point of origin (normally the US depot or contractor's 
loading facility), then the transportation arrangements from this point are 
the sole responsibility of the purchaser. If the terms of the contract 
provide for transfer of ownership at the CONUS or overseas port, or along- 
side or on board the ocean vessel at the CONUS port, then an appropriate 
government agency— the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) 
—becomes involved in the necessary transportation arrangements. 
Usually, if the shipment requires MTMC involvement, is nonsensitive, and 
weighs less than 10,000 lbs., the transportation arrangements are 
handled by the shipper. However, if the shipment exceeds 10,000 lbs., or 
requires a clearance due to the contractual terms or sensitivity of the 
articles, an export release must be obtained from MTMC. This is 
especially important when dealing with highly pilferable items, to assure 
close coordination between the inland and ocean transportation aspects 
of the shipment in order to facilitate arrival of the cargo at the port in 
accordance with the berthing of the vessel. 

Over the past decade, the number of the FMS shipments has been 
steadily growing. This is in keeping with the foundation the "American 
Ideal" pyramid was built upon. It contains many stones which represent 
sincere involvement with various countries around the world; a bartering 
system, so to speak, in which "one good turn deserves another." The 
policy of "goodwill towards all men" is alive in all the pyramid stones - and 
the FMS program is a tangible, working personification of just one of the 
ideals contained in these "living" stones. 



In Defense transportation 
nearly everyone reads 
TRANSLOG . . . 



Translog is published monthly by the Military 
Traffic Management Command, a single- 
manager agency for Department of Defense 
transportation functions under the Secretary of 
the Army. Its purpose is to provide timely, 
authoritative information on policies, plans, 
operations and technical developments in the 
defense transportation field. 



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