(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The transportation of gases, liquids and solids by means of steam, compressed air and pressure water; a complete description of the theory, construction, operation and application of jet machines, montejus, spray nozzles, etc"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



H 




NET BOOK NOTICE 



The prke of thk book is $2.00 (8/6) net 



THE TRANSPORTATION 



OF 



GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS 



BY MEANS OF 



STEAM, COMPRESSED AIR AND PRESSURE WATER 



A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF THE THEORY, 
CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND APPLICATION 
OF JET MACHINES, MONTEJUS, SPRAY NOZZLES, 
ETC., FOR CHEMICAL, METALLURGICAL, MINING, 
MECHANICAL AND CIVIL ENGINEERS 



liY 



OSKAR NAGEL, Ph.D. 

CONSULTING CHEMICAL RNGINBER, AUTHOR OF "THE MECHANICAL APPLIANCES,* 
MEMBER SOC. CHKM. IND. 



TIBlitb 193 f Uustrations 



NEW YORK 
Published by the Author 
P. O. Box 385 
1909 



THE i:EW YORK 

PUBLIC Lr3:\-.:;Y 
482203 



TlL-tlN r . 

R 1 



:. .. J 



Copjrrighted 1909 
By OsKAR Nagel 



PRESS OF 

The New Era Printing CoMPANr 
Lancaster. Pa. 



PREFACE. 

Though the application of steam, compressed air and pressure 
water for transportation purposes has been steadily increasing for 
the last twenty-five years, there is, as yet, no book on the market 
covering the description of these machines. 

Since the present book is the first on this important subject, I 
hope that it will be welcome to chemical, metallurgical, mining, me- 
chanical and also civil engineers. Up to this time the information 
regarding these appliances was widely scattered in engineering 
journals, various books on applied mechanics, text-books on thermo- 
dynamics and in manufacturers' catalogues. 

I have described in every chapter the construction, theory, opera- 
tion and application of each apparatus, and have also inserted the 
necessary tables of dimensions and capacities. The first part of the 
book deals with the transportation of gases, the second with the 
transportation of liquids, the third with the transportation of solids. 
In the fourth part the appliances for atomizing liquids are described, 
while the fifth contains a discussion of jet condensers. The inti- 
mate relation of the fourth and fifth parts will be readily under- 
stood from the respective descriptions. The sixth part deals with 
the theory of the jet machines. 
* Although the book is intended for the industrial engineer, it is 
of equal value as a text-book, since it gives also the fundamental 
principles, besides the latest experimental data and applications. 

OsKAR Nagel, Ph.D. 
New York, October, 1909. 



CONTENTS. 

First Part: Transportation of Gases. 

Steam-jet apparatus for moving air and gases. — Steam- jet 
blower and water spray blower. — Chimney ventilators and 
blast nozzles. — Steam-jet exhausters and compressors. — 
Steam-jet agitators. — Steam-jet gas exhausters. — Lead 
steam-jet blowers and exhausters. — Water-jet exhausters and 
compressors. — Water-jet primers. — Water-spray and com- 
pressed air ventilators. — Forge blowers and air-jet blasts. — 
Patent gas compressors i 

Second Part: Transportation of Liquids. 

Double-tube injectors. — Steam-jet syphons. — Jet acid pumps. — 
Air-jet lifts. — Water-jet eductors. — Hydrokineter. — Auto- 
matic montejus 43 

Third Part: Transportation of Solids. 

Water- jet sand and mud eductors. — Water-jet sand washing 
plants. — Water-jet ash conveyors. — Steam-jet conveyors for 
dust and powder 79 

Fourth Part: Atomizing Liquids. 
Centrifugal spray nozzles. — Spray nozzles in the chemical and 
metallurgical industries. — Spray cooling. — Moist ventilators. 
— Obnoxious vapor condenser. — Spray nozzles for oil fir- 
ing. — Pumping outfits for spray nozzles 88 

Fifth Part: Condensers. 

General remarks. — Single-jet eductor condensers. — Multi-jet 
eductor condensers. — Induction condensers. — Valves 124 

Sixth Part: Theory. 

Mechanical theory of the steam- jet pump. — Calorimetric in- 
vestigation of the steam-jet pump. — Theory of the jet con- 
denser. — The flow of steam through orifices 149 

Appendix : Remarks on the Nature of Machines 164 

Tables 174 



FIRST PART. 

TRANSPORTATION OF GASES. 
Steam- Jet Apparatus for Moving Air and Gases. 

The application of the steam jet for moving air and gases shows 
very great economy and efficiency if the instruments are properly 
constructed and v^^ell proportioned. The variety of application and 
the corresponding difference in the proportion of the instruments is 
practically without limit, depending on the variation of volume and 
comiter-pressure or the degree of rarefaction to be overcome. The 
limit of rarefaction is 25 inches of mercury^ and the limit of counter- 
pressure one seventh of the steam pressure of the actuating jet. 

By regulating the area of the actiiating jet and the steam pres- 
sure, the capacity and general effect of the same instrument can be 
varied within certain limits, so that instruments of certain sizes and 
dimensions can, by proper adjustment, be made correct and effective 
for varying conditions. 

These air and gas blo%vers and exhausters are divided into two 
classes : 

1. Machines for the purpose of overcoming a certain low counter- 
pressure or rarefaction of, say, from one half inch to 6 inches of 
water* These machines attain the desideratum of extreme volumes 
and are called blowers and ventilators. 

2. Machines for the purpose of overcoming a high counter- 
pressure up to one seventh the steam pressure, or exhausting 
against a high rarefaction of from 10 to 25 inches of mercury. 
These machines attain the desideratum of extreme pressures and 
are called compressors and exhausters. 



Steam-Jet Blower and Water-Spray Blower. 

Fig. I shows a jet blower with regulating spindle, Fig. 2 a blower 
without spindle. The steam enters at the steam connection S and, 
by passing at high velocity through the nozzles Mj draws the air 
in at A, the steam-air mixture being discharged at U. i? is the regu- 



TRANSPORTATION OF GASES. 



spindle, both volume and counter-pressure are increased; by the 
reversed operation a corresponding decrease is effected. 





Fig. 3. Blower. 



Fig. 4. Elbow. 
Table I. (See Figs. 3 and 4.) 



Size. Diameter of 
Discharge. 



Blower. Inches. 



A. 



3 
4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

10 

12 

14 
18 

24 
32 



19^ 
26X 
34>^ 
AiH 
46^ 
57l< 
65^8 
75% 
86^ 
III 



7 

8 
II 
12 
14 
15 

I7>^ 
i9>^ 
21^ 
23 



c. 



9>^ 

II 
12 
13 
15 

i7>^ 
23 



Elbow. Inches. 



n. 



4H 
5H 

7 

^^ 

10 



14 
18 



3 

3}^ 
4 
4>^ 

5 

6 

7 
8 

9 
12 



9 
9 
9 
12 
12 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 



3>^ 
4>^ 
5>^ 
6>^ 
7K 
8K 

12^ 

HH 
18^ 



Tablb II. 



Sixc. Diameter of Dis- 


Capacity in Cubic 
Feet per Hour. 


Diameter 


in Inches. 


Max. Coal Burnt per 


charge. Inches. 


Steam. 


Inlet. 
4 


Hour in Pounds. 


3 


10,000 


H 


50 


4 


20,000 


y2 


5 


100 


5 


30,000 


% 


8 


150 


6 


45»ooo 


H 


9 


225 


7 


60,000 


% 


II 


300 


8 


90,000 


H 


12 


450 


10 


120,000 


I 


14 


600 


12 


180,000 


I 


16 


900 


'^ 


240,000 


1% 


18 


1,200 


18 


500,000 


i^ 


24 


2,500 


24 


1,000,000 


2 


32 


5,000 


32 


2,000,000 


2>^ 


42 


10,000 



r^ 



\ ^ \ 



^ 



TRAX SPORT AT lOX OF MATERIALS. 

Applications. — ^The blower, when used for increasing the draft 
tmdcr a boiler, produces a blast perfectly under control and at the 
least expenditure of steain* Its use is of advantage in almost every 
fireplace, but is indispensable when inferior grades of fuel, such 
&g screenings, coke breeze and other refuse products are to be burnt. 

Tlie greater heat produced by a blast naturally increases the 
^y---^ steaming capacity of 



boilers. Furthermore, 
when draft is defective, 
a blower of suitable size 
will create a more per- 
fect combustion. 

The steam- jet blower 
also provides a means of 
increasing the capacity 
of boilers beyond their 
rating, which is of great 
convenience in cases of 
emergency and also 
for boilers, which are 
"' overloaded " for short 
periods only. 

Fig. 5 shows a blower 
installed on a vertical 
boiler, Fig, 6 an instal- 
lation on a reverberatory 
furnace. Fig. 7 illus- 
trates a blower con- 
nected to a horizontal 
boiler. 




|m« I ^hnvt^M WH Ui^Hiuii I Wnuw. 



\\\ MHlftf It* i»lwilil(3 m reduce the noise caused by the action 
\\\ \\\^ l4M^Vt3V, m k\\X m{\A\\% an shown in Fig. 8, should be attached 
\\\ \\\v \\\\\ m( \\w iiiNinunrnt, This conduit should lead straight up 
\\\ \\\^ IMH nf \\\\ litilK'V iMMiu, nr hIkiuM be extended through the 
\\\\\\ \\\ It niiW v\'till I1* thr nwUide. 

y\%s U itlMWi W blMWur on ft rrlort furnace in a gas house. Fig. 10 
ulii^'N I III* iM»nh*>1iMH to n gaa producer. In this application the 
\\\\\\m «i#t3 Ht ihr ih^iUninrnt hii to be selected most carefully. 



L 




calculating 
_ coaL 
H Fig. II illustrates a blower connected to a scrubber. 



attached to the side wall or on a brick flue carried from the ash 
_ pit through the side wall. The passage leading into the ash pit 



must be from the front side or back, as the air, if entering from 
below, would blow a hole through the fire bed and thereby prevent 
the proper distribution of the blast under i"he ^t^Xe.. 




. TRANSPORTATION OF GASES. 
1 




Fig. 12. Blower as Ventilator. 




^' T IF 




TRANSPOKTATION OF MATERIALS. 



When the jet blower is used for exhausting, i. e., as ventilator, 
connection is made to the top flange. The working and capacity 
is not altered thereby. Here also the moving power is a steam jet 
issuing from a nozzle. The jet traverses other nozzles of larger 
diameter, draws the air in and carries it along, imparting a certain 
velocity to same. 

The principal applications of the ventilator are: 
Removing foul air or gases, Fig. 12. 
In mines, workshops and ships, as a substitute for fans. 
The simplicity and low price make it applicable for temporary 
work, where ventilation with other appliances is hardly pos- 
sible, for instance during the sinking of shafts, deep wells 
and foundations. 
Removing vapors from dryers. 

For the evaporation of liquids and the drying of various sub- 
stances, by drawing hot chimney gases through or over the 
liquid or solid substances. 
Cooling Cowper stoves. Fig, 13, For many years the cooling 
of Cowper stoves, when shut down for cleaning or repair, 
has been dependent on the chimney draft. This process of 
cooling was naturally very slow, as the draft decreases with 
the progressing cooling. By the application of ventilators 
the cooling is considerably accelerated, 
as by the sucking action a strong current 
of fresh air is produced. The air is 
drawn in at the open louvres at the top. 
Three ventilators are placed at the foot. 
of each stove. The largest apparatus] 
actually made for this purpose has 
capacity of aboiit 8,000 cubic feet 
per minute. The ventilators are of] 
wrought iron and are easily fitted and| 
removed. 
Water-spray Undergrate Blower. — ^1 
This machine serves the same purposej 
as the steam- jet type of apparatus : it J 
brings air under pressure for firing or othet 
purposes. It can be used in connection^ 
with steam boilers, gas producers and heating furnaces, in fact in all 
places where high counter*pressuTes ate met with and where a 



Fic. 14. Water-Sfbay 
Blower. 



I 



TRANSPORTATION OF GASES, ^ 

steam- jet blower is usually employed. But, while the air dehvered 
by the steam-jet blower is moist, the air delivered by the water- 
spray blower is nearly dry, as the Avater used in the operation is 
separated again. For coals containing a high percentage of moisture 
this apparatus is especially suitable. The flow of the water and air 
is easily understood from Fig, 14. The effective working of this 
blower depends upon a spray nozzle^ which produces a conical jet of 
fine drops of water, thereby offering a large surface to the induced 
air. Economy, reliability, noiselessness, convenience and low first 
cost are the advantages of this apparatus. Table II L shows the 
capacities. 









Table IIL 






:t«r of Discharge 


Capacity in Cubic Feet per Hciur 
a.t 90 Ibi. Water Pressure^ 


Uumeter of Water Pipe 
in Int^hcB, 


6s 
8 






161C1CW 






10 






251 000 




I 


12 
14 
iS 






32,OCX3 

40,000 
60,000 






24 






lOOfOOO 




3 



Chimney Ventilators or Blast Nozzles. 

Chimney ventilators are used to improve the draft of chinmeys, 
if by the latter the products of combustion are not carried away 
with the necessary velocity. The working of a chimney might be 
unsatisfactory on account of its insufficient height or width, or 
because the cross sections of the flues are too small. Other reasons 
are too low a temperature in the chimney or atmospheric conditions. 

The chimney ventilators belong to the class of jet apparatus. 
They contain a series of nozzles, in which the motive power of a 
small steam jet is utilized for moving the gases. Fig. 15 illustrates 
such an apparatus. 

The principal advantages are : Improving of draft, more perfect 
combustion, increase of evaporating capacity of boilers and capacity 
of furnaces, absence of moving parts and ability to resist a tempera- 
ture of 1000'' Fahrenheit. 

The capacities are given in Table IV, 

These ventilators must be placed in the middle of the chimney, 
just above the entrance of the main flue. All sharp corners at 
the entrance of the main flue into the chimney must be beveled at 




lO 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS, 



an angle of 45®. When the ventilator replaces a chimney, as for 
instance in temporary furnaces, it is pnt over the main flue upon a 
brick foundation covered with a cast-iron plate. The ventilator is 
connected to this plate with the flange of its largest nozzle. The 
steam pipe, which must be of the size indicated in the table, has to 
be cleaned out with high pressure steam before connection is made. 



■ ***^ rJi 



Fig. 15. Blast Nozzle, 



Fig. 16, Chimney VENXiLATOit 



Fig. 16 shows a ventilator in a chimney, Fig. 17 a nozzle attached 
to the stack of a heating or puddling furnace, Fig. 18 a nozzle 
suspended in a stack and Fig. ig a nozzle suspended in the ventilating 
flue of a drying room. 

The ventilators are so constructed that they need no steam when 
the fire is started. If the ventilator gives sufficient draft with 
the steam valve closed, then keep the valve closed; otherwise open 
the valve slightly. To stop the action of the ventilator the steam 
valve Is closed. 

These ventilators are specially applicable for coke ovens in order 



12 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



With ventilators this is easily effected. Another advantage offered 
by ventilators is the greater velocity at which the gases are with- 
drawn, so that the ovens can be charged at shorter intervals. 

For the removal of noxious vapors in chemical works these blast 
nozzles are made of lead, either with fixed steam nozzle or with 




Fig. 20. Lead Blast Nozzle. 



removable steam nozzle (Fig. 20). The latter has the advantage 
that the steam nozzle can be replaced without taking the blast nozzle 
from the flue. 

In Fig. 20, which shows a typical installation in a chemical factory 
to keep up a uniform draft on burners and in the chambers inde- 
pendent of the atmospheric conditions, B is the lead blast nozzle 



14 



TRANSPOKTATION^ OF MATERIALS. 



Fig, 21 shows a flanged, Fig. ^2 a screwed exhauster, P is the 
regulating spindle; the steam enters at 5, draws the air or gas in 
at G£, the steam-air or steam-gas mixture being discharged through 

The sizes and capacities are given in Table V, 

Table V. 



SinDnin. 


Camcitir > 
per bonrla 


IHaffi. .' 


Siz« Diin. 


CiMcity 

per Homr in 
Cubic Feet. 


Dtam, 


oC Air Pipe 


of Steun , 


of Air FJpe 


of bteua 


tMlH. 


Cubic Fea. 


Pipe. 


in Int. 


Pipe, 


L ^ 


lOO 


}i 


3 


r2tOoo 


^X 


r ^ 


300 


% 


4 


iS.ooo 


I^ 


r H 


600 


H 


5 


27,000 


3 


I 


1,000 


H 


6 


35.000 


3 


vA 


2rOOO 


u 


7 


48,000 


'^ , 


2 


4,000 


H 


S 


60,000 


3 1 


^% 


6,000 


I 






1 



As a jet apparatus of this kind has no moving parts, needs prac- 
tically no repairs, is of low first cost and is simply inserted in the 
pipe line it is in many cases preferable to an ordinary air-pump. 



Fig. 2^. Filtration-. 



4f^^4^^m^^mi^. 



'v^^^^ 



Tlie exhausters and compressors are used for the purpose of 
drawing gases through liquors, or air through the vacuum box of 
paper machines, to rarefy creosoting tanks, to prime centrifugal 
pumps, to lift tar and acids, to oxidize caustic liquors in alkali 




an exhauster connected to a dls- 
tillitig plant. C is the conden- 
ser, D the vacuum kettle, E the 
exhauster^ K the cooler and S 
the steam supply. If the non- 
condensahle gases attack iron or 
brass, tliese machines are made 
of suitable materiaU 

Viscous liquids and liquors 
which tend to clog up an ordi- 
nary pump, and chemicals that 
attack pumps and cannot be 
lifted by steam- jet syphons on 
account of the diluting effect of 
the steam, are successfully lifted 

by means of these exhausters. The height of the lift depends on 
the specific gravity of the material. Liquids of the same specific 
gravity as water can be hfted 22 feet. Fig. 25 shows such an instal- 



i6 



TKANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



lation. C is the steam- jet exhauster, H the dischargee cock, R the 
suction pipe, T a tank, V the steam pipe. 

The same principle can be used with pipe lines connecting water 
wells^ Fig. 26, In such cases an air vessel A is useful for collecting 
the air. Show glasses G are arranged on the air vessel in order 




"^f^ 



LL±A^..: 



m 



L_.. 




to ascertain when the exhauster is to be started again. E is the 
exhauster, L the syphon pipe, S the steam supply and W the wells. 

Fig, 27 shows an exhauster arranged for pressing air or gases 
through liquids for the purpose of agitating, saturating or treat- 
ing a liquid with air or gases. C is the material to he treated, D the 



iS 



TRANSFORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



i 



Il>*, 



STEAM 



mSCHAffOE 



O 



air discharge pipe and E the exhauster. The application to creosot-" 
ing and impregnating tanks, which is much .simpler and cheaper than 
the use of an air-pump, is illustrated in Fig. 28. E is the exhauster, 
P the suction pipe from the chamber containing the solution for 

impregnating^ S the 
steam supply and T the 
impregnating tank. 

The application of this 
apparatus to a condens- 
ing engine is shown Ln 
Fig. 29, to a centrifugal 
pump in Fig. 30. 

Regarding the opera- 
tion of these exhausters, 
it is to be stated that the 
proper position of the 
spindle at the normal 
pressure of 45 pounds 
is half way down. With 
an increase or decrease 
of the steam pressure, 
the spindle has to be 
screwed in or out re- 
spectively, in order to get the best efficiency. Regulation should 
always be effected by means of the spindle, but never by handling 
a cock or valve in the steam line. 

In an apparatus used for forcing air an increase of steam pres- 
sure and an enlarged steam opening (effected by drawing out the 
spindle) will produce an increase of pressure; this, however, is not 
the case with an apparatus for drawing air. If in such an instru- 
ment the spindle is drawn out beyond a certain point the drawing 
power of the exhauster is decreased and the consumption of steam 
increased* 

Finally we want to mention the steam-jet laboratory exhau=^ter, 
Fig. 30A, which produces a high vacunm (up to 24 inches in mer- 
cury) and is successfully used for removing or rarefy mg ait, for 
filtering and other operations, where no condensable vapors have to 
be handled. With a steam pressure of 50 pounds a vacuum of 
24 inches of mercury will be produced by this instrument in a one- 
gallon vessel in 7 seconds. 



Fig. 2g. Condiinsinc Eki^ine. 



TRANSPORTATION OF GASES. 



t9 



I 

■ 

I 



I 



Steam-Jet Agitators. 
require a means of mixing and dissolving 



As in many cases mechanical 



n 



VALlf£ 



1 



Many industries 
chemicals in water or other Hquids. 
stirrers do not give the desired 
effect, steam- jet agitators are 
widely used. They are of the same 
constrtiction as the agitators 
shown in Fig. 21 and their action 
is based upon tlie same principle, 
i. €., a steam- jet issuing from a 
small nozzle into a larger one 
carries along the surrounding air 
at a velocity sufficient to overcome 
a pressure of fully eight feet of 
waten The air escapes with great 
force through the perforations of 
the pipe provided at the bottom of 
the tank and causes a violent and 
thorough agitation of the liquid 
and the solid materials contained 
in same. These agitators are ex- 
tremely simple in construction, are 
easily connected and conveniently handled. They have no moving 
parts, cost little, do not require any attention and are very econom- 
ical as regards the consumption of steam. 

Fig. 31 shows the installation of an agitator in a tannery pit, 
Fig. 32 the application in a chemical factory. The agitator has to 
be connected in such a manner that its head stands above the 
highest level of the liquid. The air-distributing pipes have two 
rows of perforations, equally distributed and pointing downward, 
Fig. 35. The number of these perforations is determined by the 
rule that the combined area should equal twice the area of the air 
pipe of the agitator. The diameter of the perforations should not 
exceed three eighths of an inch. 

For the treatment of certain chemicals lead pipes have to be used. 
Fig. 32, The pipes rest on lead supports to give clearance between 
the pipes and the bottom of the tank, so that the air can blow 
against the bottom of the tank, thereby keeping the solution in 
motion. 



CEffTBIFUGAL PuMP, 






TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS, 

circulated, whereby the object in view is attained in a most satis- 
factory manner. 

As shown in Fig. 35 the bottom of the tank is usually provided 
with two slanting boards HH, the distributing pipes L being 

arranged about three inches above the 
center. One air pipe should be in- 
stalled for every 20 inches of breadth 
of the tank> For instance, a tank having 
a width of 28 inches should be pro* 
vided with two distributing pipes. 

Steam -Jet Gas Exhausters, 

The moving power in this exhauster, 
Fig. 36, is a steam-jet, which issues 
from a nozzle, traverses a series of 
larger nozzles and thereby creates a 
sufficient suction for the gas to over- 
come the counter-pressure. The regula- 
tion of the suction corresponding to the 
production of gas is effected by a self- 
acting governor. 
This exhauster is simple, economical, efficient, requires no at- 
tendance and repair, and is of low first cost. It increases the 



Fig. z^. Duplex Agitator. 




Ftc. 34. Agitator on Tank, 

quantity of gas produced from one ton of coal, decreases the carbon 
deposit in the retort, and increases the illuminating power of the 
gas. 




^In Fig. 37 D is the drip, E tlie exhauster, G the connection to gas 
main, H the discharge^ S the steam inlet, T the governor, W the 





^4 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



hand wheel for regulating the capacity, CF the base contaiiimg the 
by-pass to the apparatus. 

In gas works this exhauster, which may be attached horizontally, 
diagonally or vertically, is usually placed on the main^ between the 




Fig. 37. iNSTALLATiopr OF Gas Exhauster. 

main and the condenser or between the scrubbers and the purifier J 
In the latter case the gas should traverse a sufficient length of the! 
pine line, as to condense the steam before entering the purifiers, orj 
a cooler should be employed. If placed between the condenser andl 
the scrubber, a steam scrubber should be used in connection withi 



TRANSPORTATION OF GASES, 



25 



Table VI, 



Size. 


Capadty 
Cable Feet 
per Hour, 


SI EC of 


PIpet. 


Size. 


Capadty 
Cubic r«t 
per Hour. 


SJ» i]l 


Pipe*, 


No. 


Sleflin. 


Exbiiuit. 


Ho. 


Steam, 


Exbwutt 


I 


I^OOO 


} >^ 


2 


10 


I2,DOO 


^ 




a 


ip5oo 


11 


iStOoo 


1 ^ 


3 


3 


SfCXJO 


} « 


3 


12 


i8|000 






4 


3,000 


13 


20,000 






5 


4,000 


} >^ 


4 


14 


25,000 


' I 


10 


6 


5.000 


15 


30,000 






7 


6,000 






16 


40,000 


■^ 




3 


$,000 


H 


6 


% 


So;ooo 


■ ^H 


12 


9 


10,000 


) 




60000 







the exhauster/ m order to utilize the condensed steam for scrub- 
bing. A steam trap should always be fixed on an elbow in the 
steam line, right before the exhauster, as otherwise the moisture 



ifilt ArtbAt. 



KJB 4 g>Ht 



Fig. 38, Connection of Gas Exhauster, Fig. 39. Hasb Lead Blower, 

of the steam would interfere with the working. The steam pipes 
should be blown out with steam, before connection is made. The 
governor should be placed as close to tiie exhauster as possible. 
The vacuum pipe under the bell of the governor may be attached to 
the gas main at any place between the retorts and the exhauster, 
Fig. 38. Table VI. gives the capacities. 

Lead Steam-Jet Blowers and Exhausters. 
The blowers and ventilators of this type are used to overcome and 
to produce respectively a counter-pressure or rarefaction of from 



26 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS, 



one half to 6 inches of water. They are constructed, as is shown" 
in Fig. 39, with side inlet for gas and are provided with removable 
end covers in order to be conveniently accessible, without the neces- 
sity of disturbing connections except the small steam pipe. De- 

Tablb VII. 



Sbfi 


Cmmdw 

In Cubic Feet 

per HouTh 


Size of Cannectloiia Id Incfan. 


lAcliea. 


No, 


StCABl, 1 Gu. 


A 


B 


C 


oo 
o 

I 

3 

3 


8,000 
161O00 

30,CX3O 

60,000 

I20,DCK> 


H ■ 4 
}i 5 
•A 1 6 
^ 8 

I [ 10 


20 
33 ^ 
44>i 


% 


5% 



pending upon the application the steam nozzle is lined with platinum 
or some other satisfactory metal or with hard rubber. 

Installations are shown in Figs, 40 and 41. In Fig. 40 A is the 
steam supply pipe, B the blower, C the gas supply pipe and R the 



\i 



FrC. 40. iNSTALtATION DF Lead StEAM-JeT ExHAUSTES, 

chambers. In Fig. 41 A is the tank, E the blower, R the chamber 
and *y the stop valve. Dimensions and capacities are given in 
TahJe VIL, Fig, 42. 



33 



transportation of materials. 
Table VIIL 







DlaEneler pf PLp«i 










CapAclty of Alrjicr 
Hour, in Cu, F^ 


jn laches. 








Air 


Stum. 


yf 


£ 


c 


I 


ijOOd 


I 


H 


4 


a?< 


^% 


tH 


2, coo 


I^ 


>i 


6 


4>i 


3H 


2 


4,ocx> 


2 


■ H 


8X 


5?* 


2,yi 


aji 


6,ooo 


2>^ 


I 


10^ 


f>% 


iH 


3 


I2,000 


3 


ij< 


12 


6K 


4X 


4 


i8,ooo 


+ 


iji 


i5>^ 


7X 


5>6 


5 


127,000 


5 


2 


19 


8^ 


5?^ 


6 


35,000 


6 


2 


22X 


9X 


6j4 


7 


48,000 


2 


2^ 








S 


60,000 


3 









ooc: 



J. 



l^M 



Fig, 44. SuLPHusous Aero Plant. 

Water-Jet Exhausters and Compressors. 
The exhauster works by a water jet and creates nearly absolute 
vacuum even with low-pressure water, for instance with a head of 
15 feet. Howeverj the capacity regarding the volume of the gases 
moved increases witb the pressure. In Fig. 45, which shows sue! 
an exhauster, D is the discharge, V the vacuum and W the pressur 
water. Another construction is shown in Fig. 46. The letters! 
have the same meaning as in the preceding cut 

Tablb IX 



Vftjmta (Iiicbet Heretic?). 


S *o 


«s 


30 S5 


»9K ^ 


Slie. 


Water PreMUie 
la Lb&, 


Time in Seconds. 


TimeJDMiDutei. | 


^ 20 


10 

5 


30 

IS , 


60 
30 


2 
I 


4 10 
2 5 




These exhausters are used m connection with stills if a distilla- 
tion under vacuum is desirable, especi- 
ally in cases where the gases evolved 
attack metals or where the vapors have 
to be condensed at the same time. 
They are reliable, simple and cheap. 
Fig, 47 shows a comiection to a stilL 

Of about the same construction is 
the water-jet vacuum pump, which is 
actuated by a jet of water, having a 
pressure of lo pounds or more. The 
object of this pump is the creation and 
maintenance of a vacuum to assist 
filtration, percolation, evaporation, dis- 
tillation and condensation, either by re- 
moval of air or by condensing; the 
vapors. Fig. 48 shows the application 
for filtration. All connections on this 
pump are one quarter inch and must 
be made air-tight. WTien the pressure 
of the water is varying, a check valve 
has to be inserted in the vapor pipe. 




1 



TRANSPORTATION OF GASES, 



3" 



The water-jet exhausters are widely used m connection with 
vacuum boxes of paper Tuachines, as in the production of tough 



— (H 




wrmiirjiinHUHan^ 



V 



or 

Fic» 49. Exhauster on Paper Machine. 

paper the Avater has to be drained completely , This application is 
shown in Fig. 49, The exhauster X is attached to the vacuum box 
as shown and water is supplied 

to the exhauster under constant j-'^ 

pressure. The pressure is pro- 
duced by means of an overhead 
tank. The discharge pipe 
should be sealed. When the ex- 
hauster is in use both cocks 
should be widely opened. Regu- 
lation is effected by operating 
the hand wheel of a spindle. 
For the extraction of a small 
quantity of water under a high 
vacuum the spindle has to be 
wide open. For extracting a 
large quantity of water under 
low vacuum the spindle should 
be ahnost entirely closed. 

The water-jet air compressor 
shown in Fig. 50 is used for ^^^"^S^SSS^^S^^^ % 

solderinfr purposes, forges and ^^^^ Water-Jet A « Compresso«. 
in laboratories. The upper part 

of the reservoir C is provided with a water- jet air compressor, the 
water entering through opening £. The air is sucked in through the 



r 




S3 



TRANSPOETATION OF MATERIALS. 



small perforations L. In the reservoir the water is separated from 
the air and is discharged through a syphon pipe. The air is dis- 
charged at P. For soldering work the apparatus is made to give 
a pressure of 4 inches of water with a water pressure of 45 pounds, 
which is the usual city water pressure. 



Water-Jet PRiMEJis. 
In places where steam is not available water-] et primers, which 
are just as reliable and simple, are successfully used. The main 
applications are: priming syphon pipes, centrifugal pumps, long sue- 










m 



Fig. 51, Water- Jet Primeh, 



tion pipes of piston piimps and air vessels. Installation is made at 
the highest place of the piping to be evacuated and one or more 
exhausters are connected to it. If two instruments are used they 
should be selected of different capacities. The larger one should 
be used to fill the pipe line or system when starting, and the smaller 
one for the continuous evacuation of the air vessel. The rising and 
falling of the water level can be watched through an indicator glass 
provided on the air vessel. If the volume of the system to be 
evacuated is not very large, only one exhauster is generally used 



J 



TRANSPORTATION OF GASES. 



is 



for filling and evacuating. In such cases it is advisable to 
make the air vessel sufficiently large. 

Table X. gives the capacities of these instruments. 

Fig. 51 shows the application of the apparatus in a s)^hon pipe. 
A is the air vessel, D the water pressure pipe, H the syphon pipe 



W 



U 



PkIMER Co^fNECTED TO ENGINE. 

Table X. 





Capacliy of Air Dnwn 
in at A Vacuum wf 
IS ft. of Water in 
cu. ft, per Hour, 


SiiK 0*' PiFsa. 




WAter-presftiu-e 
Lin«at45 lbs. 


Air Pipe. 


DUcharg* Pipe, 


r 

2 

S 
4 

i 


70 
TOO 

aoo 
380 

570 
900 


I 

2 

3 


H 
I 

I 

3 


2 



•and L the water-jet primer. Fig. 52 shows the exhauster directly 
connected to an engine: L is the water-jet primer, P the pressiire 
pipe, 5 the suction vessel and W the water-pressure pipe for the 
primer. 

These primers work satisfactorily with 30 feet water pressure 
and overcome a suction up to 25 feet. If they are installed with 
4 




34 



TJL^NSPORTATIOK OF MATERIALS. 



centrifugal pumps, the discharge pipes of the latter have to be 
equipped with gate valves, which are vacuum -tight. In order to 
start the primer, first the water valve and then the air cock is 
opened. For stopping, this operation is reversed. If the head of 



M 



Fig. 53. Automatic Primeh. 

the water used is less than 60 feet, the discharge pipes of the 
primer have to be water sealed. 

A type of water-jet primer that works automatically is shown in 
Fig. 53. The jet apparatus is installed inside of the vessel, and* 
the pressure water is started automatically by a float, when theg 
water level drops, evacuating imtil the water has risen to the proper 
height. Then the water supply is shut oft automatically by mcang 
of a float-actuated water-pressure valve. In the illustration A 
the air vessel, C the pressure- water discharge, D the water-pressur 



TRANSrOHTATIOK OF GASES. 



35 



line, H the syphon pipe, L the water- jet primer and V the auto- 
matically operated valve. 

WaTER-SpR^^Y and CoMFRESSED-AiR VENTILATOltS. 

The motive power in the vt^ater-spray ventilator h a fine prater 
spray, produced by water which is forced under pressure through 
a spray nozzle. The water issues .- 

from the nozzles in the form of a ^[ 

cone and strikes against the inner 
walls of the apparatus. The effi- 
ciency of the apparatus is as high as 
50 per cent. 

The air is considerably cooled in its 
passag^e through the cone of spray, 
and is moistened and washed at the 
same time. These features of the 
apparatus are very valuable. As an 
example of the cooling effect of these 
ventilators it may be mentioned that It 

by an apparatus supplied for an un- 
derground engine-room, the tempera- 
ture of the room was reduced from 
96 to 76° Fahr., the temperature of 
the water being 66''. 

A standard apparatus, as shown in 
Fig. 54, is provided witli a water 
separator, but the construction may 
be changed to suit local condi- 
tions. W is the water inlet, E the 
air inlet, A the air discharge and U 
the water overflow. The installation 
of a ventlator blowing air into a 
coal mine is shown in Fig. 55. The 
capacities are given i n Table 
XL 

The jet ventilators worked by com- 
pressed air are especially con- 
structed for ventilating mines exposed to fire damps. These ven- 
tilators have the great advantage that the quantity of air delivered 



[nil 



«t 



Diam. of Wati^r Pipe. 
Inches. 







can be easily and rapidly increased or decreased without stopping 
their action. They can be arranged either to blow the air forward 
or to exhaust it, as shown in Fig, 56* or to exhaust and to blow 
^t the same time, as shown in Fig*. 57, the efficiency bein^ the same 
in both cases. 

Table XIL 



No. of ' 
Apptuacut. 


1fitJ<de Diaraeter 

of Air Condtiits. 

Inches^ 


Air Delivered per Minute in Cubic Feet. 


Inside Diaipetcr of 

Compretaed 

Air Pipe. 

Inchea. 


With Short Air 
Conduiii. 


With Air Conduits 
□f 300 Feet. 

■ ■ 


I 

a 


6 

9 
12 
16 


6007- 750 
1200^1500 
2400-3000 
4500-5500 


iSoo 
33«> 


1 



If the apparatus is to be connected to zinc pipes, the pipe is 
slipped over it at e, Fig, 58. When wood conduits are itsed, the 




TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



■'--=a 



^^ Fig. 58. Co MPE ESS ED- Air Ventilator. 

FoHGE Blowers and Air-Jet Blasts. 
The compressed air forge blower which supplies air for com- ' 
bastion to stationary and portable forges is rigidly connected to the 
latter and the compressed air is conveyed to the blower usually by 
means of a hose. The force of a small jet of compressed air draws 
a large volume of air from the atmosphere and forces it under the 
grate. Regulation of the air is effected by a cock installed on the 
blower. The standard type consumes 2,3 cubic feet of compressed 
air per minute, expressed in atmospheric pressure. In Fig. 59 A 
is the inlet for compressed air and D the discharge. Fig. 60 shows 



*y/*^-7T 



Fig. 59. Forge Blower. 

the installation on a portable forger A is the hose, 5 the forg 
blower^ C the cock. 

The air-jet blast is also used to advantage for cleaning castings 
in erecting shops, foundries, metal refineries, etc. When erecting 
a machine it is of importance to have the parts to be put together 



TRANSPORTATION OF GASES. 



39 



entirely clean. Compressed air is an excellent means to accom- 
plish this result and air-jet blasts, such as shown in Fig. 6i, are 
conveniently used, as they are always ready for operation as soon 
as they are connected to a compressed-air line. The apparatus 
shown in the illustration consists of several concentrical nozzles. 
One of these is used for sucking in the necessarj^ amount of liquid 



Al/ 



y 



V^ 



B 



Jj. 



m 



G Q'\ 



Fia 60. Portable Forge. 

for moistening, connection to the pot containing the liquid being 
made by a rubber hose connected near the handle of the apparatus. 
The nozzle g is provided with perforations hj through which the 
atmospheric air Is drawn, A spring valve installed on the handle is 
set in operation by pressing a push-buttom. If no liquid is to be 
used the hose is simply taken out of the tank containing the liquid. 
Fig, 62 is an illustration showing the successful me of air- jet 




40 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



blasts in foundries to remove the loose sand by blowing out the 
mould. This method does not require as much care as the clean- 
ing by means of hand bellows and is natu- 
rally much more economical as the use of 
direct compressed air. For moistening the 
moulds the air-jet blast is also the most 
„ economical and most convenient means. 

Patent Gas Compressors, 
These gas compressors are constructed 
for compressing acid gases which, if com- 
pressed by piston pumps, attack the piston 
rings, stuffing boxes and other moving parts 
of the pump, thereby causing bad leaks after 
i / ■ \ short use. The patent gas compressor has 
no moving parti^ and is driven by com- 
pressed air, the compressing action being 
performed by means of a neutral liquid, 
which acts as a piston* The kind of liquid 
used depends on the nature of the gas to be 
compressed. For compressing chlorine, for 
Fig, 6t. Aik-Jet Blast, instance, concentrated sulphuric acid is 
used. 
These compressors are of very simple construction, are not 
subject to wear and tear, cannot get out of order and. being auto- 



FiG. 62. AiK Jet Blast in Foundry. 

matic, do not require any attention. They are successfully used for 
compressing chlorine or other acid gases to high pressure and for 



^SES. 



4t 



liquefying same; for leading acid gases' through liquids; for forc- 
ing gases into digesters or other receptacles, in which reactions 
under pressure are to be effected ; for moving chlorine, etc., through 
pipe lines, drying towers, etc., avoiding the inconvenience connected 
with the arising of pressures in the generators; for drawing in 
gases and delivering ^ame at any pressure required. 



Fig* 62 a. Gas Comfeessoe. 

The compressor is shown in Fig, 62 a. Compressed air enters 
through valve A, which is alternately opened and closed by the 
action of the float C, which consists of balls B and B^, When 
valve A is open, the liquid is pressed by compressed air from D 
into E. The liquid in £ is therefore rising and the chlorine, which, 
as will be described below, has been previously sucked into E, is 
compressed and, after reaching the pressure .desired, forced through 
valve F into the delivery pipe. 



42 TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 

As soon as the surface of the liquid in D reaches the lower part of 
ball B, the float drops,.valve A is closed and valve G opened, where- 
by the compressed air is caused to escape. Simultaneously the 
liquid runs from E back into D, creating a vacuum in E, whereby 
the chlorine is drawn through valve H into E, When the upper 
part of the ball B^ is reached by the liquid, the float is raised by the 
buoyancy. Thereby valve A is opened again, valvje G is closed and 
the compressing action begins again. 

The compressor works thus automatically and regularly as long 
as compressed air is available. If the supply of compressed air 
suddenly ceases, the compressor stops working without coming out 
of order, starting up again automatically as soon as the compressed 
air reaches again the necessary pressure. 

In an installation comprising only one compressor, the suction and 
compression are alternately performed. In order to eflfect con- 
tinuous operation two compressors are coupled together in a suit- 
able manner. 




SECOND FART. 

TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUIDS. 

Double-Tube Injectoks. 
The injector which is mainly used for feeding boilers is a com- 
bination of two jets, the lower jet being proportioned for extreme 




I 



Fig. 63, Double-Tube Injector, 

temperature, for quick and strong action and for a maximum 
capacity of suction. Discharge is made into the upper jet, where an 
additional strong impulse is imparted to the water, to carry it into 

43 



TRAXSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 

tlie boiler. The pressure of the lower jet corresponds to the steam 
pressure and the latter must be according to the requirements of 
the upper or forcing jet. The var)^ing volume of the steam at 
varying pressure insures the proper working of the instrument at 
high as well as low steam pressure. Increased pressure admits of 
increased high temperature. On account of its automatic features 
the injector works with the same strong and positive action under 
varying pressures of steam even at very high temperatures. 



j^: 



•iu\i^!!^^ 



n 



'"^. 



^' 



ty 



Fig. 64. Sectional View of Injector. 

Fig. 63' gives the outside view, Fig. 64 the sectional view of a 
double-tube injector. B is the discharge, N the lower water nozzle, 
,¥* the uppe^ water nozzle, the overflow valve, F the lower steam 
nozzle, F' tlie upper steam nozzle, S the steam supply and IV the 
suction. 

The capacity of the injector should be 30 per cent, in excess of 
the maximum capacity of the boiler. Hence the required injector 
capacity may be said to be about 40 pounds or five gallons of water 



TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUIDS. 



45 



I 



per horse-power hour of the boilen For intermediate capacities the 
next larger size is to be selected, according to Table XIIL 

If the capacity of the boiler is unknown, it may be approximately 
figured froni the following data (all dimensions being in feet) ; 



diam. X length : 3* 
sq. of diam. X height : 4, 
. . sq. of diam. X length : 5, 
, sq. of diam. of waist X length over 



Flue boilers, one or two flues 
Tubular boilers, upright . , 
Tubular boilers, horizontal 
Tubular, locomotive type . 

all : 6. 
Water tube boilers . . . total heating area in sq. feet : lo. 
Grate area . . . area in square feet X 3- 
Coal burned per hour, , , number of pounds : 3j4, 

The results from these formulas express the evaporating capacity 
of a boiler in horse powers based on the evaporation of 30 pounds of 
water per horse-power hour. 



Table XIIL 







Steam 50 


Lbs. 




St«un 


i5<^Lfas. 




Sixii. 


Site at IroD 

Pip*. 














Size ofCoppo- 
Pipe, o.b. 


No. 


G«l«. 


H.P. 


48 


H.P. 


ObIr. 


H.F. 


QQ 


'A 


33 


7 


IQ 


60 


13 


X 





% 


S3 


17 


loi 


20 


112 


22 


H 


I 


^ 


112 


23 


143 


30 


180 


36 




2 


H 


172 


35 


210 


40 


232 


46 


H 


J) 


^ 


1 39S 


56 


338 


70 


397 


Sol 
110/ 


H 


80 


473 


95 


547 


4 


I 


533 


108 


622 


125 


720 


150 


t>i 


, il 


iH 


\ S25 


136 


802 


160 


922 


190 1 
230/ 


i^ 


165 


990 


200 


1125 


n 


I'A 


J 1072 
U3SS 


215 


1372 


280 


rSra 


320 > 
430/ 


i^ 


280 


1800 


360 


2115 


9\ 

10 

13 i 


2 


J168S 

\ 2025 

2530 


340 


2100 


420 


2475 


Sool 
570/ 
7r2 


St. & D. :W 


St. ft D. 9 
Sue, 254 


400 
500 


2438 
3050 


iS 


2850 
3515 


^'A 


3000 


600 


363S 


750 


4252 


850 


141 
16/ 


3 


/3S67 
15025 


780 


4635 


930 


5500 


nool 
1400/ 


3>i 


1000 


6075 


1200 


7000 


L 


4 


9000 


iSoo ^ 


10840 


2200 


12525 


2500 


4J< 



The injector takes water of 80 "" Fahr. under suction of 6 feet; 
with water of somewhat higher or lower temperature, or with a 
lift a few feet higher or lower, or with water flowing to the injector, 
the capacity varies about 5 per cent. This, however, has not to be 
considered, as the injectors are built with a liberal margin. But, 
if the suction height is considerably greater (say from 10 to 16 




46 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS, 



feet), then the next larger size has to be used. The limit of the 
height of suction in all sizes except No. o and oo, is 20 feet, but 
it is preferable not to exceed 16 feet. The limit for size o is 15 feet, 
for 00 ID feet. The limits of the feed-water temperature at 6- feet 
suction are with a steam pressure of 100 pounds 150°? with 130 
pounds 140°, with 160 pounds 130°, For a suction greater than 6 
feet the limit of temperature decreases. 



^*^^ 



.r-ri" 



Frc. 65. [NjtcTOR ON Steamship Boiler, 



The attachment on a steamship boiler is shown in Fig. 65, the 
general attachment in Fig. 66. S is a dirt stop, which has a strainer 
attached to cap for convenient removal and cleaning. It should be 
always used for the smaller sizes and in all cases where the water 
is not clear, X, V, Z are stop valves, C is a check valve and F a 
drip funnel* which is connected to a pipe one size smaller than the 
injector connection. 

To start the injector it is opened with handle *A. In order to 
stop it it is shut with handle A. The quantity of feed is regidated 
by valve A'. The steam valve F from the boiler remains open dur- 
ing working hours, starting and stopping being performed exclu- 
sively by operating handle A. A slight movement of the lever from 





m 

Fig. 67. Boiler Tester, Side View. 



««TEi 



J 



48 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



1 



A to D causes a strong suction and the lever remains at D until the 
water discharges at the overflow ; then pull lever wide open in order 
to feed the boiler. 

The boiler tester, which is shown in side view in Fig. 67, in end 
view in Fig. 68, is built along the same lines as the injector, and is 
used for filling and testing boilers with 
hot water for pressures up to three times 
the regular steam pressure. This instru- 
ment is a combination of two machines, one 
is filled the large machine F is shut off, 
boiler and a smaller one to overcome a 
high counter-pressure. When the boiler 
is filled the large machine F is shut off, 
and the small high pressure machine / is 
started to apply the pressure. This small 
machine has just sufficient capacity to make 
up for possible leaks in the boiler under 
test, any excess above this being discharged 
through the automatic overflow safety 
valve D. This valve is loaded with a 
spring, which can be set to the desired 
pressure by means of hand wheel B (while 
looking at gauge). It will then maintain 
the same pressure while the excess water 
discharges at the overflow. In order to fill 
the boiler the main water valve X and the 
main steam valve Y are opened. Then 
valve C IS closed tight and the steam valve 
A opened. In order to apply the pressure, 
steam valve A is closed tight, water valve C opened and the injector 
/ started with handle E. An air cock, which must be provided on 
top of the boiler, has to be opened when the boiler is filling and has 
to be closed again when the boiler is full. ZZ are drain cocks. The 
outside view of such a boiler tester is shown in Fig. 69. 

Fig. 69A illustrates the pieces comprising the double-tube injector, 
I is the body ; ^, hand lever ; ^, side rods ; 4, connecting fork ; 
5, cross head for shaft; 6, nuts for cross head; 7, starting shaft; 
8^ nuts; p, yoke bar; lo, lower steam valve; ii, upper steam valve; 



□L 



Fia 68. BoiLEii Testu?, 
End View. 




TRANSPORTATION OF LTQUIDS, 



49 



12, lower steam nozzle; /j, upper steam nozzle; 14, lower water 
nozzle : 75, upper water nozzle ; 16, front body caps ; ij, side boay 
caps ; 18 J overflow nozzle ; /p, check valve complete ; 20, overflow 
valve complete; ^J, stiifling box; 2^, fol. for stufling box; ^j^ nitts 



\ 



Fia 6j. Boiler Testeh, 

for stuffing box ; 24, cross head for overflow ; 25, links for overflow ; 
26, pin for links; 2jy screws; 28, bell cranks; 2p, coupling nuts; 
JO, pipe nnions; j/, spanner wrench; j^, socket nozzle wrench; 
jjj union for copper pipe- 

Steam- Jet Syphons. 

For purposes where durability, low first cost and simplicity of 
operation is important or where an increase of temperature is de- 
sirable, the steam- jet syphon is the most suitable appliance for mov- 
ing water and other liquids. This syphon is made of brass or iron 
body, with brass nozzle. The moving force is a steam jet. 

Fig. 70 illustrates such a syphon. These instruments are abso- 
lutely reliable, they have no moving parts, show no wear and tear, 
require no belting, gearing or oiling, a steam connection being all 
that is necessary for their operation. 

The proportions of steam pressure and height of elevation to 
which these machines are constructed are as follows : 
5 




ij 



TRANSPORTAl 



LIQUIDS, 



St 



. >-^-.- 



Fig, 70. Steam- Jet Pump, 

Steam pressure in potinds * 20 40 60 80 100 

Total elevation in feet , 20 40 60 80 r 00 

The apparatxis is best suspended a few feet above the surface of 
the liquid, hut it may be immerged under water, or suspended 
above at a greater height, within the limit of suction. These limits 
are as follows : 

Steam pressure in pounds 20 40 60 So roo 

limit of suction in feet Steam full on. ... 18 18 15 12 9 
Steam regulated t 18 20 24 24 24 

For elevations of medium height the syphons are made for 24-feet 
suction and steam turned on fiilh Where the syphons can he placed 
under water, or where water flows to tliem they are built to overcome 
a total elevation double that given above, and they will take water 
of 140'' Fahr., if it flows to them* For water up to 190** the 
syphons are especially constructed, as also the syphons, which over- 
come a proportional higher elevation, at the same time 'maintaining 
the suction. 

The following table gives the steam consumption and the increase 
of temperature; 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



Elevation in feet * ♦ 20 40 60 80 too 

Increase in temperature degrees Fahrenheit . rs 20 24 28 32 

Proportion of steam to water discharged • * * tV A ti «V it 

Table XIV, gives the capacities: ■ 

Table XIV. 



Si^e. locheB. 


DiHRieter of Plp«B. 


Capacity. GaUoni 
per iiQliT^ 


Suction &nd DtftchATS<b 


Steam. 






'h 

s 


200 
400 

I, ICO 


lyi 


i^ 


H 


1,600 


' 2 

3 


2 

3 


1 

1% 


3iQoo 
5,000 
S,ooo 


' 4 
6 


Suction 4 
Disch. 3>^ 
Suction 6 
Discb. 5 


2 

3 


15,000 
30,000 



On account of its simplicity and reliability the steam -jet syphon 
is widely used in the industries; In paper mills for lifting chloride 
solution, milk of lime, thin pulp, etc, ; in sugar plants for lifting 
the sugar juke and milk of lime; in the chemical industries for 
lifting water, moksses, chemicals, etc.; in electric power stations 
for emptying foundation pits, fly-wheel pits, etc. ; in iron and steel 
works for lifting water; in railroading for water stations, filling 
locomotive tenders, etc.; in the navy for bilge purposes and fire 
emergency pumps ; in distilleries and breweries for cleaning cellars 
and raising mash, etc. 

If stoppages should occur in the suction pipe, strainer or in the 
apparatus, they are easily removed by closing a ** shut-off " in the 
discharge pipe, whereby the steam is blown back and the obstruc- 
tion cleared. 

Fig. 71 shows a syphon removing water from a foundation pit. 
D is the discharge, 5^ the syphon. Fig. y2 shows a syphon used on 
a driven well: E h the syphon, S the steam supply, T the tank. 
Fig. y;^ shows a syphon attached permanently near' the source of 
water. If the instrument is to be used a steam hose connection is 
made. Fig, 74 illustrates a syphon permanently installed on a 
locomotive. In order to fill the tender a hose connection is made. 
The dotted lines show the syphon drawing water from the tender 



higher level (but always within its capacity of suction). While the 
larger sizes are used as emergency pumps in case of an accident, 
the smaller ones are used for bilge clearing. 

The most extended application of the syphons is found in the 
chemical industrieSj such as tanneries, bleacheries, paint factories, 




Fic. 75' Syphon on Steamboat. 

etc, where, in addition to the elevating, a heating of the liquids h 
desirable. The use of regular pumps is in many of these cases pre- 
vented by the nature of the material to be handled, while the 
syphons, which can be made of lead, porcelain, stoneware or hard 
rybber, are always applicable. For circulating liquors of any char- 
acter at a certain regular speed and at the same time keeping the 



TRANSiX^KTATION OF LIQUIDS. 



57 



Fig. 80 shows this application. E is the syphon, H the tank, L the 
material to be extracted. An installation of a syphon used for lift- 
ing alternately from two or more tanks is illustrated in Fig. 81. A 
and B are the tanks, C the cocks, 5 the syphon and T the overhead 
tank. 

The same apparatus built in somewhat different shape, so as to 
suit the purpose, is used as artesian well syphon. On account of its 

m 



:! ^ 







^T j^> jATrv"jgy 






^/j<>J^^^My ^J///y^//yy J^X^ 



Fig. 81. Lifting from Several Tanks* 



convenient shape even the largest well syphon can be put into a pipe 
of specified diameter. Provision is made to surround the steam 
pipe by a covering pipe, or rather that part of it which is under 
water Such a well syphon is shown in Fig. 82. A is the syphon, 
D the discharge, E the steam connection and S the strainer. Fig. 
83 illustrates an installation. 

With steam of 100 pounds pressure the syplion will elevate water 
to 200 feet. Allowing a reduction of 25 per cent, from boiler 



TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUIDS. 



59 



feet if the well is weak. In order to start the sj^phon, the steam is 
simply turned on full ; if now the steam should blow through instead 
of discharging water, the steam valve is closed and kept closed 
for 5 to ID seconds. Then the steam is again fully opened. When 
starting, the syphon must be under water. The capacities are given 
in Table XV. 

Table XV. 







Dtuiwter of Hpei 




Mjn 


Capacity. 
Gullaut 
per Hour. 


Inclwt. 

v 

f I 


SuctiDn. 


Dlichjirgit^ 


Steam in 
CoveriDg. 


SteaiQ 
abdve 


CovCTing- 


Diam. of 
Wdl. 


I 


I 


% 


)i 


I 


3K 


TOO 


IX 


i¥ 


iX 


% 


I 


iX 


4Ji 


I|IOO 


^H 


i>^ 


l^ 


I 


iX 


I>i 


5 , 


t»6oo 


2 


2 


2 


13< 


IJi 


2 


s;^ 


3,ooo 


aX 


^% 


^% 


1>4 


2 


^% 


6Ji 


5,ooo 


3 


3 


25^ 


3 


aX 


^% 


7>i 


7,000 


4 


4 


3 


2^ 3 


3H 


lo 


14,000 



For cesspool cleaning or wherever solid matter passes through the 
apparatus the machine is made with full openings, clear passages 
being provided for the liquid. For this machine, which is called 
evacuator or cesspool pump, two strainers are required, one for the 
suction and one for the steam pipe. Such an instrument is shown in 
Fig. 84. D is the discharge, F the pressure steam and S the 
strainer. 

Jet Acid Pumps, 

These pumps are built along the same lines as the syphons de- 
scribed in the preceding chapter and are used for lifting acids, alka- 




Fig. 85. Acid-Lead Syphon, 



6o 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS, 



lies and other solutions by means of steamy wherever a dilution with 
steam is not objectionable. They are made of lead, in an iron shelL 
and are provided with a platinum steam nozzle. Fig, 85 illustrates 
this type. For handling certain materials it is made of porcelain or 
stoneware instead of lead. 

A lead body is used for lifting weak sulphuric acid, sulphtirous 
acid and copper sulphate; a stoneware or porcelain body for tar- 
taric acid, muriatic acid and solution of bleaching powder; a stone- 



Fig. 86. 



Stonewaek Syphons. 



Fig. 87. 



ware body for strong sulphuric acid and oil of vitriol ; an iron body 
for caustic soda. 

The stoneware syphon is shown in Figs. 86 and 87. It is built 
with a capacity of 600 to 2,400 gallons per hour. The capacities of 
the lead syphon are given in Table XVL 

Table XVI 



Site, 


Size af Plp«*. 




lacfaa. 


SijeofPrpei. 


perHout. 


lliche*. 


Uqttld. 


SteiLm. 


Liquid. 


Sleun, 


X 




1 

I 


150 

IS 

900 
1400 


2 

3 

4 


2 

3 
4 


1% 

2 


2400 
3600 
5400 
9600 



TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUIDS. 



6l 



These capacities are with steam at 60 pounds pressure, 20 feet 
elevation and acid of 50° Baume. For lighter acid or more favor- 
able proportions of steam pressure and counter-pressure the volume 
will increase, and vice versa. 







Table XVII. 










Strength of Acid in Degrees Baume. 


Pressure of Steam 




1 1 1 




in Lbs. 


10 


90 30 40 1 50 


60 




Height in Feet to be Forced 


20 


24 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


40 


48 


44 


40 


36 


32 


28 


60 


72 


66 


, 60 


54 


48 


42 


80 


96* 


88 


80 


72 


64 


56 




Fig. 88. Connecting the Syphon. 



TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUIDS. 



63 



D 



AM 



when the operation is stopped. The steam pipe should be blown out 
with high pressure steam before connection is made. If the Uquid is 
dirty a strainer shooukl be attached to the suction pipe. 
The syphon works best 



under certain conditions at 
a certain steam pressure. 
The latter is ascertained by 
throttling the steam by means 
of valve V. Then this valve 
is locked in that position. 
Valve R is used only for op* 
crating the syphon. Before 
starting the syphon, valve 
D should be opened in order 
to draw off condensation. 
Care has to be taken that 
no traps occur in the deliv- 
ery pipe and that the suction 
pipe is perfectly air-tight. 



m 



Air-Jet Lifts. 

In all cases where a di- 
lution with steam or water 
is undesirable the use of 
steam- or water-jet pumps 
is impracticable. For these 
applications the air-jet lift, 
in which compressed air is 
used as moving force, is the 
proper machine. 

The working of these ma- 
chines is as follows: Air is pressed into the lower end of a sub- 
merged pipe. The air mixes with the water in the air- jet Hft and forms 
a mixture of air and water, which has a lower specific gravity 
than water; this causes the column of air and w^ater to be driven 
upwards by the greater specific gravity of the water column. In 
other words, the apparatus works through the difference of specific 
gravity of the two columns. 

The arrangement as shown in Fig. 89 consists of the discharge 



m 

Fig. do. Ais-Jet Lift m Chemical 
Factory. 




64 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 




pipe fF> the air-pressure pipe A and the apparatus proper /, The 
apparatus is so constructed that the air is distributed as uniformly as 
possible over the area of the water discharge pipe. If the machine 

is put in a well, a strainer is 
generally provided at the inlet 
of the apparatus. The dis- 
charge pipe and the air pipe 
are placed as close together as 
possible, so that the apparatus 
can be installed in narrow 
wells. 

The apparatus has to be in- 
stalled as deep under the sur- 
face of the liquid as corre- 
sponds to the height of lift. By 
opening the valve In the air- 
pressure line the operation of 
the apparatus is started and the 
regulation of the quantity of 
liquid to be delivered is effected 
by increasing or decreasing the 
quantity of compressed air. 
These air jets are also extensively used in the chemical industries 
for lifting acids, alkahes, etc, which necessitate the use of such 
substances as lead, porcelain, stoneware, rubber, etc., i, e,, materials 
which cannot be used conveniently in the construction of ordinary 
'* mechanical " pumps. The air- jet lift can be made of any material 
and is therefore well adapted for the handling of corrosive chemi- 
cals, the mor^ so as the lift works without " mechanism, "works auto- 
matically, needs no attention, causes practically no repairs and con- 
sumes a very small quantity of compressed ain Further advantages 
are: The quantity of liquid to be elevated is exactly regulated by 
regulating the quantity of compressed air to be admitted; the 
space occupied is very small and in sulphuric acid plants the ap- 
paratus is easily installed at the foot of the tower in ordinary 
sewer pipes, which are sunk in the ground according to the height of 
the discharge. If the discharge pipes are extended through the top 
of the Glover or Gay-Lussac towers, the air-jet lift will throw the 
acid directly into the interior of the towers; if the acid is forced 



r^-r 



Fig, pi. Water- Jet Eductoh. 



TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUIDS. 



65 



against a plate mside, an excellent distribution is effected* Fig, 
90 shows such an installation. A is the air inlet pipe, B the acid 
inlet pipe and D the discharge pipe. 

Water-Jet Eductors. 
The motive power of these pumps is pressure water from city 
water works^ water columns or pressure pumps, passing through the 



n 



B 



i^l 



'/////fiW///////m///////.'//y///////M^^////M 



Fig. gz. DxAiNrKc Cellars. 

jet of the apparatus with great velocity. This creates a vacuum and 
sucks in the water to be lifted, which is carried by the pressure 
water to the discharge outlet. 

Fig, 91 shows such an f^ductor, Fig. 92 illustrates an installation, 
A is the eductor, Z the height of lift These jet-pumps have the 
following advantages over ordinary pumps: They have no valves and 
no moving parts, they are not subject to wear and tear, they cannot 
get out of order, their first cost is low and their operation very 
economical, they are noiseless and extremely convenient, where high 
pressure water is at disposal. They are especially useful for remov- 
6 




66 



' TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS* 



ing water from pits and quarries^ for emptying foundation pits of 
buildings, engines, etc., for quenching coke, for emptying gas 
holders, etc. 



Table XVIIL 





Diapietcr of Pij^w* 


Cafiadty, GaIIudi 




Suction. 


DiKhHrse* 


Frann Walv. 


per Hour. 


}i 


% 


% 


% 


125 


H 


u 


% 


H 


250 


I 


I 


I 


H 


500 


iH 


IX 


iX 


X 


700 


t^ 


l}i ^ 


1« 


H 


i.oco 


2 


2 


3 


I 


2^000 


^% 


^% 


a^ 


iX 


3.000 


3 


3 


3 , 


«Ji 


5.000 


4 


4 


3!i 


2 


10,000 


6 


6 


5 


^1^ 


2D, 000 



Table XVIIL gives the capacities based on pressure water of 
about 50 pounds and a counter-pressure of about 10 pounds. For 
such work an equal volume of pressure water is used. When the 
proportion of pressure to counter-pressure is greater, the volume 
removed becomes also greater, and vice versa. Where the water 
pressure is varying a check valve should be inserted in the suction 
in order to prevent back flow. 

The pressure in pounds per square inch at the eductor should be 
not less than tw^o and one half times the elevation in feet. For in- 



A 



J^O 



k 




Ftc. 93. Eductor iNSTALLAxroK. Fic. 94. Eductor Installation, 




TIL^NSPORTATION OF LIQUIDS. 

stance, a pressure of 25 pounds should be applied if an elevation of 

10 feet is desired. The eductor will take water of any temperature 

up to boiling. It has a strong suction even with low pressure. 

Where the elevation does 

not exceed 15 feet, it can 

be placed at discharge 

level. 

Fig. 93 shows an eductor 
installed for lifting. E is 
the eductor, P the pit and 
W the water-pressure pipe, 
A non-lifting installation 
is illustrated in Fig, 94, 
D is the discharge, E the 
eductor and W the water- 
pressure pipe- 

For continuous operation 
the automatic eductor 
shown in Fig. 95 should be 
used. This pump turns on 
the full water pressure when 
the pit to be emptied is 
full, and it remains turned 
on until the pit is empty. 
Then the water is auto- 
matically shut off and re™ 
mains shut until the pit is 
full again. 

Some other installations 
of water-jet eductors are 
shown in Figs. 96 and 97. 
Fig. 96 shows the eductor 
installed for pumping out a 

sewer line. This is done in cases where the water cannot flow off 
on account of an exceptionally high water level of an adjoining 
river. D is the water-pressure line, E the eductor, F the river, G the 
discharge, X the sewer and S a foot valve. Fig. 97 shows an in- 
teresting application in water works^ which obtain their supply 
through a canal from the river. If m such an installation the level 



Fig. 95- Automatic Jet Eductob, 




Fig, 97. Eductos in Waterworks. 

waterworks, C the water-pressure line, D the eductors, E the suction 
pipe, F the river and // the discharge pipe. 



L 



TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUIDS, 



«9 



I 



^D 



iP 



Fig. 98 shows the eductor as it is constructed for use in mines, 
tunnels, etc. C is the cover, D the discharge. P the pressure water 
and S the suction. Fig. 99 ilkist rates an eductor operated from the 
delivery pipe of an underground pump, where by a lack of floor 
face the use of complicated ma- 
chinei^ is prevented. E is the 
eductor, the suction hose and P 
the main pump. Fig, 100 shows 
a tail pit of a turbine and conveys 
some idea how, in such a case, the 
fall of a river can be utilized. Fig, 
1 01 shows an eductor to which 
the pressure water is supplied by 
a high pressure pump. D is the 
discharge, E the eductor and P 
the pressure line from the pump 
which creates the water pressure. 
Fig. 102 shows the eductor in- 
stalled in a shaft, taking; the head 
water from the surface and dis- 
charging it into an upper gangway. 
From H the water flows to the 
eductor E and lifts the water from 
sump *S*, discharging it into G, 

An apparatus built upon the 
same principle is the water econo- 
mizer for fountains, which pro- 
duce in fountains a display of large 
quantities of %vater, with only a 
very small consumption of pressure 
water. By using the full city 
water pressure large quantities of 
water are moved at a very small 
expense. If, for instance, the 
water pressure is 60 pounds and the height of the fountain spray 
20 feet, one gallon of pressure water will draw three gallons of 
water from the fountain reservoin 

In these economizers a jet of pressure water is discharged through 
a nozde and forced through the apparatus, thereby sucking in and 



smmiiKa 



Fig. 98, Eductor for Mines. 





one with air suction. A is the discharge, B the pressure water, L 
the air admission and W the suction. The apparatus without air 
admission is installed on the bottom of the fountain and draws 



THA N SPORT AT rON OF LIQUIDS. 



7^ 



water only. The apparatus with air admission is installed near the 
water level in such a way that air can be drawn in through the air 
openings L, These econo- 
mizers draw air and %vater, 
whereby the discharge jet 
assumes a white and pleas- 
ing appearance. Fig. 105 
shows an installation with- 
out air admission. A is the 
discharge pipCj Z? the pres- 
sure water pipe and E the 
economizer. 

At this place another in^ 
strument may be mentioned 
which is also used for pro- 
ducing circulation at low 
expense. This machine is 
called hydrokineter and is 
used for effecting a proper 
circulation of the water in 
boilers by means of a steam 
jet. It draws the cold 
water from the lower points 
of the boiler and transports 
It to the highest water 
level, so that an intense cir- 
culation of the water is 
accomplished. 

A hydrokineter connected 
to boiler is shown in Fig. 
106. A is the air cock, C a check valve, H the hydrokineter, the 
starting cock and W the water stop valve. The hydrokineter must be 
connected one and one half feet above the highest water level, the 
suction pipe being connected to the coldest place of the boiler. The 
discharge pipe is equipped with a check valve and must discharge 
under water. The steam valve is connected to the hydrokineter and 
the air cock is inserted at the highest point between the steam valve 
and the instrument. 

The hydrokineter can be put in action immediately when start- 



it- — ^jP'*j 



^^^T^r 



Fig, ioi. 



Eductor Fed by HiGH-PRESSUttE 
Pump. 



trans:portation of uquids. 



u 



which it has the following advaatages: It costs less, can be placed 
anywhere, occupies less floor space, re- 
quires no attention* works continuously, 
requires a much smaller air compressor 
and has no stuffing boxes. As long as 
the liquid and compressed air or stearn 
are carried to the montejus it works 
absolutely safe and reliable. If at any 
time the supply of compressed air or 
acids ceases, the apparatus resumes op- 
eration at once, when the supply of 
liquid or of compressed air is started 
again. 

The working of the machine, Fig. 107, 
is as follows : The liquid flows to the 
machine by gravity and enters at SL 
through a check valve. We assume that 
the tank is empty and that the full 
weight of the lower float B keeps 
the exhaust valve DA open, so that the 
liquid can freely run into the tank. The liquid will cover the lower 



Fic. 



04. EcQNOMiZEa With 
Air SucTIo^r. 






m 



li'' 



,1*' I" 



U\ 



'i^liOiS^ - ' -^^ 



r.^!^l 



FiGp 105. Ikstallatton of Economizer. 






\ 





Fig. 106. Hydiokineter. 

liquid has fallen under float B, when the weight of the floats is 
large enough to shut the air inlet valve and to open the air reUef 
valve. Now the conditions are again the same as in the start and 
the same operation begins again. * 

As noted in this description, the exhaust air does not escape 
through the delivery pipe ; hence the delivery pipe need not be 
vertical and can he fitted on the same principle as ordinary water 
pipes. The pressure of the compressed air or steam can vary be- 
tween 30 and 70 pounds per square inch without interfering with 
the regular working of the apparatus. 



THANSPORTATTON OF LIQUIDS, 



75 



The great advantage of this montejtis is the fact that it works 
economically also at pressures which are higher than required by 
tile height of the lift and by the specific gravity of the acid. The 
reason for this is, that the weight balancing the float and rod can 
be set so that the air in- 
let valve is closed before ^^B d^ 
the acid level is below 
the lower float. Now 
the air expands and dis- 
charges the liquid J until 
the pressure is even with 
the pressure of the 
liquid. As in practice it 
is often impossible to get 
the correct air pressure _ 
for the montejus, this | ' 
feature is very imp or- | 
tant from an economical ?^ 
point of view. 

The method of instal- , 

la t ion is shown in Fig, 
108. The apparatus has 
to be installed so that the 
liquid flows to it 'If 
possible the inlet SL 
should be about 2 feet 
6 inches below the bot- 
tom of the tank (0^2 
ft., 6 ins.). It is also 
advisable not to fill the 
feeding tank to a higher 
level than one foot under the flange below the valve box, as indi- 
cated in the illustration. 

The minimum pressures required are given in Table XIX. The 
dimensions of the apparatus with reference to Fig. 108 are given in 
Table XX. The parts of the montejus, with reference to Fig. 109 
are as follows: /, Cast-iron body; ^, cast-iron cap; j, cast-iron cap; 
4^ Kearsarge gasket ; 5, cast-iron counter flange ; 6, bolts and nuts ; 
7j Kearsarge gasket; S, cast-iron counter flange; 9, bolts and nuts; 



Fit;. 107. Automatic Montejus. 





slotted nut; ^j, steel col- 
lar; ^4, nickel exhaust 
valve with rubber seatj 25, 
nickel seat ; 26, nickel valve 
seat; By, nickel valve; 28, 
cast-iron sleeve ; 2g, steel 
rod ; ^D, steel coupling ; ji, 
cast-iron weight box; j?, 
studs and nuts; 54, cast- 
iron cover; ^5, cast-iron 
weight ; jd, steel cap screw ; 
J7, cast-iron lever; 38, 
nickel pivot pin with 
feather; jp, cast-iron cap 
plug; 40, lead washer; 41 
and 42, clamp set screw; 
44, 46 and 48, square head 
bolts and nuts; ^p, lead- 
covered pipe; 50 and 51, 
cast-iron flanged pipe, lead- 
lined ; 5J, square head 
bolts and nuts; 54, lead- 
covered double float; 55, 
cast-iron cover, lead-lined ; 
^6, cast-iron body, lead- 
lined ; 58, square head bolts 
and nuts ; $g, cast-iron bot- 
tom plug; 60, cap screws; 61, cast-iron hand-hole cover, lead-faced; 
62, steel clamp with set screw ; 64, lead pipe ; 6$ and 68, square head 
bolts and nuts; 66, lead-lined cast-iron tee; 70, cast-iron counter 
flanges; 77, lead-Hned cast-iron bodies; 72, earthenware balls; /j, 
cast-iron covers, lead- faced; 75^ cast-steel clamps with set screw. 



Fig. 108. Installation of Monte jus. 




Fig. log, Pakts of Monte jus. 



78 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 
Table XIX. 



Height of Lift, 
Calculated from the 








Spbcific Gravity. 








Bottom of the 


















Montejus in Feet 


I| z 


i» a 


i»3 


1,4 


x,5 


1.6 


i»7 


1,8 


",9 


15 


r6 


17 


18 


19 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


20 


18 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


25 


21 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


30 


24 


26 


28 


29 


30 


32 


33 




35 


35 


27 


29 


31 


32 


34 


35 


36 


38 


40 


40 


30 


31 


33 


' 35 


36 


3« 


40 


42 


44 


45 


32 


34 


36 


3« 


40 


42 


44 


46 


48 


50 


34 


37 


39 


41 


43 


45 


47 


49 


5? 


55 


37 


39 


41 


44 


46 


48 


51 


53 


56 


60 


40 


42 


44 


47 


49 


52 


55 


57 


60 



Tablb XX. 



Size. 


^ 


B 


z? 


E 


G 


H 


N 


I 
2 

3 
4 


I' 8" 

2' 6" 
3' 3" 


2'3H" 

3' 0" 
2' 2" 

3' 4" 


10' iiV" 

13' 8" 
13' II" 


S'A" 
10" 

JO" 


8' 9" 

9' 6" 

II' 8" 

11' II" 


I' 4" 


3' 3" 
3' ii%" 
4' 4" 

4' 7" 




Q 


R 


Diameter of Pipes. 


Weight 
Including 
Packing. 


Size. 


Liquid Inlet 
Pipes, SL. 


Liquid Dis- 
charge, DL. 


Air Inlet 
Pipe, EA. 


Air Dis- 
charge, Z>i4. 


I 
2 

3 

4 


I' 0" 
1' 0" 
I' 0" 
I' 0" 


2'2X" 
2'2X" 

3'o- 
3'o" 


2" 

2%" 

4" 


2" 

4" 


H" 

H" 

I'A" 

I'A" 


1" 
I" 

I^" 


1,500' 
2,200 
3.000 • 
4,000 



So 



TRANSFORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



and Stirs up the solid matter, which h to be lifted. Whether steam 
or water pressure is preferable depends upon local conditions and 
upon the nature of the material to be handled. The capacities are 
given in Table XXL 

Water-Jet Sand- Washing Plants. VI 

In these plants the problem of properly moving the sand is of 
great importance and we will therefore discuss them at this place. 



a^^a^^ 



3^ 



Fig. 112. Sand Wash ik g. 

Fig. 112 shows an installation using water-jet eductors. Such a 
plant consists of a series .of iron boxes B placed in one or more rows, 
or in a circle, and in each of the boxes is installed a water-jet 
eductor A. In the first box the sand to be washed is admitted at 
/ and is stirred at the same time by means of a clean water jet at 
A^ The sand eductor is operated by means of clean water taken 
from pressure pipe P and lifts the sand to tlie second box. The 
sand or gravel drops to the bottom of the box, while the water 
mixing with the dirt, because of tlie violent stirring, rises and over- 
flows at O. In this manner the sand is perfectly washed simply 
by the use of clean pressure water, without any other mechanical 
means. Such plants are of importance for water works and for 
such industries in which the sand has to be freed of clay and iron 
before being used. 

Movable arms are used to put a greater or smaller number of 
boxes in operation. In a plant of six boxes, for instance, a movable 
arm is placed in the third and sixth box and then the sand may 
be rnn through all six, or the plant may be operated in two rows 
of three boxes each. The water should be as clean as possible and 
the pressure at the eductor should be under a head of 30 to 40 feet, 
depending upon the nature of the material to be washed. 



TRANSPORTATION OF SOLIDS. 



Si 



Water-Jet Ash Conveyor. 

This apparatus is used in stationary plants and on board of boats 
for conveying ashes and cinders from the boiler room. The work- 
ing of these ash ejectors involves the same principle as in the water- 
jet eductors previously described, i. e., a jet of high pressure water 
discharging from a nozzle throws the ashes and cinders, which are 



H 



a 



Fjg. 113. Watf.k-Jet Ash Conveyok. 

carried to the jet by means of a hopper, to the place of destination. 
Fig, 113 shows the jet apparatus with hopper and cock complete. 
The jet apparatus proper E is made of steel to resist the grinding 
action of the material. The piping is also made of steel and the 
elbows, which are exposed to considerable wear^ are plated with 
chilled steel plates and can be easily replaced. These conveyors 
are simple, practically dustless, reliable, of low first cost The 
repairs are slight 

In Fig, 113 A is a cock, C the cover, D the discharge, E the con- 
veyor, H the hopper, L the air valve, P the water-pressure pipe. 
The latter must have a diameter of 3 inches, and the water pressure 
should be at least 150 pounds. In order to start the conveyor, the 
water-pressure pump is started, then the cover C is raised from the 
hopper H and ashes and clinkers are put in as ttniformly as possible ; 
7 




$2 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS, 



the cinders must be crushed in order to pass through the grates in 
the hopper. The air valve L admits air only while the conveyor is 
discharging into D and is automatically closed, when the discharge is 
stopped. In order to stop the plant, the cover C of the hopper is 
closed ; the water pressure is shut off by means of cock A, 




Fig. 114. Ash Conveyor on Steamship. 

Fig. 114 shows a plant on board of a boat. D is the discharge 
pipe, E the conveyor, H the hopper, a rod to operate tlie check 
valve, P the pressure pipe and V the check valve. Fig. 115 shows a 
stationary plant C is the cock, D the discharge pipe, H the hopper 
and P the pressure pipe. 

Steam-Jet Conveyors for Dust and Powder. 
In the preceding chapter we have described the water-jet machines 
for handling ashes and coarse material; we will now describe the 
jet apparatus for moving dust and powdered materials. This con- 
veyor is sliown in Fig. 116 and is constructed with an annular steam 




Fig. its. Ash Qjnveyor is Station arv Planet. 



to precipitate the obnoxions dust. Precipitation can also be accom* 
plished by water sprayed into the discharge pipe, as shown in Fig. 




Fic, 11 6. Dust Ccjave^or. 

117. In this iUnstration C is the dust conveyor, H a hose, M the 
mouthpiece and T the water inlet for assisting the flow. 

This apparatus is well suited for the cleaning of railroad cars. 
Steam is always at disposal in the yards either from stationary 




i 



^ V' :rc- 1 * - - i \^ : %>>=■?-_; l . i .- : : f ;/ > vV.'/'-v *: *' i't' : '^ ^ '* 
Fig, 117. Installation op Steam-Jet Dust Cbj^-VEVOE. 

118 C are the railroad cars, E is the steam-jet conveyor outfit, L the 
locomotive, M the mouthpiece and S are stationary posts to connect 
tile vacuum hose. This arrangment takes very little space^ the plant 
is reliable and the operation simple. 

Where steam is at disposal a similar apparatus is used for re- 
moving dust from carpets, etc., in hotels, offices, private houses, etc. 




T1AXSH>KTATK»X OF SOLIDSL Sj 

Steam-jet cao nyeyo rs are also tised for handling pulveriied paints 
and ctiOBkaK By tising this arrangement for the filling of barrels 
this cppcratioa becomes a dtistJess performance. The material titles 
In the barrel cm account of its low velocity and a small percenta^ 
of die material only passes through the pipe line to the exhauster. 
Here it is caught and collected in a filter installed in from of tlie 
exhauster. Fig. 120 shows such an Installation : A is the air admis- 







RS 



Fig. I jo. Handling Chemicals, 



sion, B the barrel, D the discharge of condensed water, £ the ex- 
hauster, EF the suction foot, EH the discharge head, F the filter, 
G a pulverizer, H the suction hose, A" the discharge from the ex- 
hauster, M the niuffler and V the steam valve. 

Table XXIL gives the dimensions and capacities of these con- 
veyors. 

Table XXIL 



I 



Sixe, Jnchn 


Sixe of Pipea In Inchiw. 


Approx, Lbi of 


Condidt, A. 


Steun, J, 


Alr.C 


Dlii-lkHr^e pw Min. 


3 

4 
6 

8 


3 

i 

8 


I 

3 




130 




FOURTH PART. 



ATOMIZING LIQUIDS. 



Centrifugal Spray Nozzles* 

Spray nozzles are made for various purposes, according to the 
pressure of the liquid to be atomized. The effect obtained depends 
upon the diameter and shape of the orifice. Fig. 121 shows the 
general construction of a nozzle, Fig. 122 illustrates an atomizing 
nozzle, which throws a wide angle spray and Fig. 123 the standard 
and cooling nozzle, which throws a smaller 
angle spray* Table XXIII. gives the capacities. 
In connection w ith this table it should be noted 
that the standard nozzles are used for all pur- 
poses except atomizing and can be operated 
with pressures from 15 to 20 pounds. The table 
gives the capacity at 18 pounds pressure* With 
15 pounds pressure the capacity is 15 per cent, 
less, wnth 20 pounds 5 per cent. more. The 
small atomizing nozzles should be run at pres- 
sures from 40 to So pounds. The capacity 
shown at 40 pounds will be increased 40 per 
cent at 80 pounds. 

The spray nozzles are used for cooling and ab- 
sorbing gases, ventilating, collecting dust, atom- 
izing liquids and re-cooling water. 

Fig. 124 show^s the application of the nozzle for 

precipitating coal dust floating in the dry 

atmosphere of coal mines, whereby the danger 

of explosion is removed at the lowest possible expense with the 

least quantity of water. 

Fig. 125 illustrates a nozzle attachment for carding machines of 
spinning mills, where the material has to be treated with a certain 
oil mixture. Three spray nozzles are provided, one on either side, 
and one in the center, the latter being located somewhat higher. 
Either the two lower sprays or the upper one is used. Regulation 

S8 



Fig. 121: Spray 
Nozzle* 



90" 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



Table XXIIL 



Ske ol Orifice 


Sue Diameter 


StBudcird liQti\a. i'apaciiy 


1 AtamiEii^g Nftj;*]**, Capacity 


in mm. 


of Pipe in 
Incnes. 


ia Gailoi»p«r Hour under 


1 in GaJtonB pe^r Uour under 




tS Lbi^ Pnctaare^ 


40 Lbc4 Pressure. 


^ 


yix 




6 


I 


%A 




10 1 


iH 


%B 




15 1 


i^ 


%€ 




30 


2}i 


%D 


60 


60 


^% 


% 


120 


120 J 


A'4 


^ 


30O 


200 1 


6 


% 


360 


360 1 


1% 
to 


I 


560 
1,000 


560 




12% 


1^ 


1,560 


i 


15 


1% 


2,250 


1 


20 


2 


4,000 


1 


25 


2)4 


6,250 


Note that the sttian uozM 


30 


^ 3 


9,000 


zles, A, B, Q D and X 


40 


4 


16,000 


diflPtr in capacity only* 


50 


5 


25,000 


All are tbreaded for at^ 


60 


6 


36,000 


tacbtnent to one eighth 


70 


7 


49,000 


inch pipe. 


80 


S 


64,000 




90 


9 


81,000 


\ 


100 


10 


100,000 






Fig* 124. Precipitating CoAt Dost. 



Fig* 126 shows the application of a small atomizing nozzle for 
eliminating the sudSj which collects on the plates of paper machines 
and often prevents the uniform distribution of the material on the 
wire cloths. The pressure pipe is installed across the plate of the 
paper machines and a sufficient number of nozzles is provided to 





latter cut a hand pump is provided to produce a water pressure of at 
least 30 pounds, while in places where water of such pressure is at 
disposal the nozzle is simply connected to the water pipe. 



ATOMIZING LIQUIDS. 



95 



An mstallation of a nozzle for atomizing liquid lead is illustrated 
in Fig. 130, The liquid lead is put in the cast-iron tank B and is 
kept liquid by means of a charcoal fire. After closing the charging 
hole the tank B is put under pressure by means of steam or air 
admitted through pipe L, The atomizing is effected partly by nozzle 
S and partly by nozzle D. 

Spray Nozzles in the Chemical and Metallurgical 
Industries. 
Obnoxious vapors of the paint and varnish industries are success- 
fully removed by a water spray issuing from a nozzle. The in- 




Fjg- 132. Condensing Vapobs. 



Istallation is simple, die quantity of water consumed very small, while 
at the same time, by the action of the nozzle, the draft necessary to 
move the gases is created. This application is shown in Fig. 131* 
Hoods C which are connected to a pipe system P are placed on top 
of the furnaces P. The nozzles N are installed in the piping. A 
1^ 





Fig. 134, Nozzles in the Iron Intiusthy. 

Ihroirgh strainer S to the nozzles and is discharged through L. Fig. 
134 illustrates the application of spray nozzles in the purification of 
blast furnace gas. 




Fic, t35. Nozzles Cleansing Oil, 

Perfect cleansing of crude oil at the smallest possible consumption 
of water is effected by the proper use of these nozzles. This ap- 
plication is shown in Fig, 135. 
B 



ATOMIZING LIQUIDS. 



99 



method of injecting steam into the chambers. Fig. 136 shows the 
arrangement of glass or platinnm spray nozzles in a siilphtiriG acid 
plant. The water enters at P, passes through the filter F and then 
through the float valve B into the tank ; from here it is taken by the 
pump and forced at 60 pounds pressure to the 
nozzles installed on the top of the chambers. 
Each nozzle is protected by a strainer. 5' are 
the nozzles, £ a combmation cock and 
strainer, C a cock, G the pressure pipe to the 
nozzles, the pressure pump, R a regulating 
cock for the filter and W an overflow pipe. 
Tlie lead pipe between the nozzle and the 
combined cock and strainer is made long 
enough to conveniently swing the nozzle out 
for inspection, as shown in Fig. 137. The 
nozzles are also made of hard rubber, with 

screw or hose connection for applications where other material can- 
not be used. Hard- rubber nozzles are illustrated in Figs. 138, 139 
H and '140. 

H An installation of hard-rubber nozzles for the absorption of hydro- 
H fluoric acid gas in the manufacture of superphosphate is shown in 



FlC. IJ8, ilARri-RuBBER 
XOZ/LE, 




Fig. 141. A hood, placed over the pit, is connected to a wooden 
tower. At the top of the latter rubber nozzles are provided. A 



\>i^^^^ 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS, 

suitable size for these towers is 6 feet square and a height of 30 
feet. The vapors, freed of hydrofluoric gas, pass through the 
outlet to a chimney or fan. Two styles of hard-rubber nozzles are 
built for this purpose. The one shown in Fig. 139 is arranged for 






i^B^^B=^rr^i:vi';i 



i|i'li;i ! .111:.! 



1 



^\:-W\ 



'«:!': 




rigidly fastening the nozzle to the chamber, while the one shown in 
Fig. 140 is equipped with a water seal, which permits the nozrle to 
be swung out for inspection. 

The nozzles can also be arranged at the bottom of towers, as 
shown in Fig. 142. Fig. 143 illustrates the application of brass 
nozzles for the recover^' of valuable dust in metal refineries. 

Spray Cooling. 

One of the most important uses of the spray nozzles is the re- 
cooling of condensing water, where the water supply available for 
the condenser is insufficient, as in such cases the whole or part ai 
the limited supply has to be used over and over again, which neces- 
sitates the cooling of the hot water. The same principle is used in 



ATOMIZING LIQUIDS. 



all kinds of cooling plants, i. e,, the distribution of water in a spray 
of large area, the cooling being effected by the contact with air. 

The spray nozzles are the simplest means to attain this result, as 
the first cost is low, as they require no repairs and as they operate 
with absolute certainty and at the smallest expenditure of power. 

The water of about 15 
pounds pressure issuing 
from the nozzle is torn 
into spray, is thrown 
through the air and cre- 
ates its own continuous 
current. The disinte- 
gration of the water 
decreases the tempera- 
ture, and this added to 
the effect of the air cur- 
rent reduces the tem- 
perature of the water to 
about the temperature of 
the surrounding air, 
under favorable atmos- 
pheric conditions even 
below that, but always to 
a temperature sufficiently 
low for effective con den* 
satton. The average re- 
duction of temperature 
is 30 to 35'' Fahr. 







Fig. 142. Spray Nozzle m Closed Chamber. 



The temperature of the water to be sprayed must not exceed 115**. 
At a higher temperature the vapors formed would represent a waste 
of water and would be objectionable. 

If the condenser discharge is of higher temperature, some of the 
cooled water is returned to the hot well in order to reduce the 
temperature to 115° or below; in this case the quantity of water 
sprayed is larger than that discharged from the condenser. How- 
ever, this additional quantity^ is ahvays small and is required during 
the hot w^eather only. In winter time the amount sprayed can be 
less than that passed through the condenser. 

To provide, however, for extreme demands, provision should be 



102 



TRANSPOITATIOJST OF MATERIALS. 

s 



I 

I 11 




-smm 



m 




±7^}y^/'///s 



7 ^ t/^/ty A- ///^r/^///^//h \^ 



Frc. T43. Nozzle tn Metal Kefineby. 

made to 'have a pump of sufficient capacity and a sufficient number 
of nozzles, so that the required number of them can be turned on, 
while the pump is run at a speed corresponding to the number of 
nozzles in operation. The spraying capacity should be about 25 per 
cent in excess of the maximum volume needed by the condenser. 

The amount of boiler feed recovered in condensation is equal to 
and offsets the loss by the evaporation in spraying, so that no 
additional fresh water (beyond that required for boiler feed) need 
be provided for in a re-cooling condenser plant. 

Where a fair amount of space is at disposal, this is the best system 
to use. The area required for a spray-cooling plant is about one 
square foot per three cubic feet of water cooled per hour, or four 1 



I04 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



plant, it is necessary to surround the reservoir with a fence of in- 
clined slats, in order to arrest the spray. 

Calculating an evaporation of 30 pounds of water per horse-power 
in the engine, the lipraying capacit>^ required would be one and one 
half gallons per horse-power per minute. 

The power expenditure for spraying in pumping one and one 
half gallons per horse-power per minute against a pressure of 15 




Fig. T45. Spsay CooLmc Plant on Roof. 



pounds, requires theoretically one ninetieth of one horse-power, 
which means an expenditure of less than 2 per cent, at a practical 
efficiency of 60 per cent. 

Table XXIV. gives the capacities. 







Tart-b XXIV. 






Ho. 


in lnch«. 


CupacUy. 
per Minute, 


No. of Erjg, 

NoMltTiikei 
Ca« of. 


Noiile!' are 

Sp*e«l Apart 

ID Feet. 


Between 
Rmn. 


10 
30 


1 

3 


15 
37-5 
150 


10 
100 


8 
to 

15 


mft. 

30 
40 



Fig- 144 shows a spray nozzle plant installed at the Second and 
Wyoming Power House of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Com- 
pany. In Fig. 145, which illustrates a plant on the roof of an 




engine house ^ A is the condenser, B the horizontal check valve ^ Z? the 
free exliaust valve, E the ccntri fugal pump and F the spray nozzles* 
Fig. 146 shows the spray cooling at the electric plant at Deadwood, 




Moist Ventilators. 
This instrument, of which a type is shown in Fig. 147, is used for 
moistening air, for ventilating, for precipitating dust and for ab- 
sorbing obnoxious gases. The motive power is a fine water spray, 
produced by pressure water which is being forced through spray 
, nozzles. The air drawn in by the water spray is moistened by being 





exceedingly simple* does not come out of order, and is not subject 
to wear and tear. The capacities are given in Table XXV* 

A moist ventilator installed in a hothouse for producing a uniform 
humidity of the atmosphere is shown in Fig. 14S. In such apphca- 
tions a hygrometer is always provided in the room and the work of 
the apparatus is regulated accordingly. 





a moist ventilator installed horizontally in a store room or ferment- 
ing room. Other applications of these ventilators are: Removing 
dust in cutleries and glass works; humidifying the cheese cellars of 
dairies and the store rooms of dextrine and paper factories. 

Obnoxious Vapor Condenser. 
Some applications of this instrument have been already mentioned 
in the discussion of *' Chemical Industries/' The vapor condenser 
combines the work of a blower or fan with the work of a condenser 
and absorber, in so far as the driving power of a water spray is 
used to create the necessary draft, the gases being, at the same time, 
forced to pass through the water spray. After they have passed 





Fic. 152. Vapor Condenser. 

greatest part of the moisture, which was used to partly dean the 
gases, is' separated. They are theo discharged into a tank and a 




J 



no 



TltAjrSKJRTATION OF MATERIALS. 



coiicUtit witli spray nozzles, where they receive a further treatment 
for final absorption and purification. 

Solutions of certain chemicals are used in places where the eflfect 
of water is insufficient. This is done^ as shown in Fig. 150, by meati^ 
of a water-jet apparatus, which draws the chemical or disinfectant 
from a tank, and injects it into the uptake, thus covering the gases 
passing through and reacting on them for the prevention of ob- 
noxious vapors. 

The vapor condensers are successfully used m the packing indus- 
tries, in rendering establishments, fertilizer works, cotton oil 




Fig. I S3. Vapor Con denser. 



factories, slaughter houses, etc. Installations are shown in Figs. 
151, 152 and 153. 

Spray Nozzles for Oil Firing. 
In this system of oil firing, which is shown in Fig. 154, the oil 
flows from a supply tank to a central pumping outfit, where it 
passes through a primary heater and flows through filters to a 
pressure piunp. The latter delivers it at a pressure of 30 to 75 
pounds (according to the evaporation required) through a second 
heater to the nozzles, which are installed in front of the boilers. 
In the second heater the oil is heated to 220 to 260"" Fahn, 1, ^., 
above the flash point at atmospheric pressure. The evaporation of 
the oil in the first stage is prevented by the pressure of the pumps. 
However, the moment the oil leaves the nozzles, the pressure is 
removed and the oil is atomized. This *' thermic" atomization is 





Fig. 155, Oil Firing on Stationary Boilers. 



.;^:\--.- ,";r'.:r> 



As compared to the steam-jet system of burning oil, which will 
I be described later, this system has the advantage of greater heat 



d 



TRANSPaKTATrON OF MATHBtALS. 






|w 



'^^^ 



conomy, as in the jet system the steam has to be raised to the 

irnace temperature and, being lost for spraying, is lost to the boiler. 

This is especially disadvantageous in marine boilers, where the loss 

of water, frequently amount- 
ing to IOC per cent, of the 
weight of the oil, has to be 
replaced. 

The centri f ugal spray nozzle 
system is also superior to the 
various compressed air sys- 
tems, as the power consump- 
tion of the former is much 
lower. Only 0.8 pound of 
steam are required to move 
loo pounds of oil under a 
pressure of 75 pounds. For 
two heaters about 8 pounds of 
steam are required per 100 
pounds of oil. 

The installation of this sys- 
tem on stationary boilers is 
shown in Fig. 155. E is the 
exhaust pipe, F the filter, H 
the heater, N the centrifugal 
spray nozdes, OP the oil-pres- 
sure pipe, OS the oil supply 
pipe, R a safety valve, S the 
steam pipe and T a thermom- 
eter. 
The pumping outfit, as shown in Fig. 156, contains all the parts 
required for moving, heating, filtering and controlling the oiL There 
are always two pumps provided, one for reserve. T]ie two filters 
comflected to the apparatus are used alternately; the pressure pipe 
from the pumps is provided with two strainers. The steam used 
for pumping and heating is recovered as condensed steam and 
returned to the boilers. A steam pressure reducing valve maintains 
a constant pressure and minimizes the attendance. An overflow 
and safety valve prevents the oil pressure from rising and thereby 
obviates waste of fuel. An air vessel is provided to maintain 'a 
uniform velocity in the pressure-pipe line. Oil- and steam-pressu" t 



■mA 



Fia 156. Pumping Outfit. 



M 




Fig. tsS. Am ADM1SSI0^' and Brick Linixg. 

each spiral may be removed and exchanged without disconnecting 
the casing from the boiler plate, so that interruptions from obstruc- 
tions are avoided. A cock is provided on each nozzle, and a ther- 
mometer and pressure gauge is placed on each boiler in the old line. 




« 



114 



TILA ASPORTATION OF MATERIALS* 



Fig, 157 shows the spray nozzles on a boiler. A isn spiral, B the" 
springs C the filter and I* the steel tips of the nozzles. 

In order to properly a<!mit the air to the liquid fuel, circular slide 
registers or cylindrical air admission slides are provided. The latter 
construction has the advantage of protecting the fireman from the 
radiant heat ; but it takes a little more room than the circular 
register. Both re^sters regulate the amount of combustion air, the 
path of the air being determined by the brick lining. 

Air admission and brick lining are shown in Fig. 158, -4 is a 
show glass, B the filters, C the steam pipe for blowing out the 
nozzle, D the oil cock, E the handle to operate the register, P the 
centrifugal spray nozzles, F and G the brick lining. 



.^ 



-^ — — 



\ 



o 



O 



O 



O 



o 



o 



o 



o 



o 



Fig. 159. Oil Fiking on Marine Boilees. 




Fig. r59 illustrates the oil firing on marine boilers. In this case 
the full section of the furnace is used, which means a gain in heat- 
ing surface. The heating and the expansion is uniform. The short 
fire-clay lining in the furnace serves as a protection against the high 
temperature of the oil flame and allows a convenient restarting after 
short interruption, as the oil ignites on the incandescent fire-clay. 
In the illustration A is the centrifugal oil sprayer, B the circulating 




Fig. i6o. Oil Fibtng ok Locomotivf.s. 



L valve. iV nozzle, PH pressure heater, RV reducing valve, S steam 
pipe, T thermometer, FF pressure filters, SF suction filters, SH 
suction heater and SF steam pump. 
We will now say a few wisrds about steam-jet oil burners which 
are used in small plants and in places where the fuel is heavy and 



I 

i 

i 




For light fluids, a mixed jet (steam and air) or air only can be 
used, A steam- jet oil burner for tar and also an installation is 
shown in Fig, i6r. In the cut showing the burner, L is a movable 






Fig. 163. ToRPiiix) Boat Equipped with Oil FmiNa 

in the tank to about j 50° Fahr. The flow of the fuel oil is regu- 
lated by means of cocks. 

Fig. 162 illustrates the starting of the fire. A scoop or tray con- 
taining oil is mounted on the fire brick and the oil is Ignited, the 
temperature of the boiler rising slowly and continuously. 




It* 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS* 



TAflLB XXVI, 





QuaDtky of Uquid 
S|»ray«dr per Hour* 




No, 


Steam cr Air Pipe, 
Inch. 


OU Ptpe. Inch. 


I 

t i 

2 

5 


13 

6o 


1 


1 



If there is steam in the tx>iler, the plant is started as follows : Full 
draft is put on so that all gases which might have remained in the 
fire-room will draw off. This is done to prevent explosion. Steam 
is now carried to the heaters and the pump started* so that the oil 




® CDTxCD (D 



feoi 



D 



03— c 




32 



□ OQcnoao 




_^ 




Fig. 164. LssTALLATioN OF Oil Burner. 



ATOMIZING LIQUIDS. 



119 



circulates through the circular pipe until the oil has the proper 
temperature. Then the oil is ignited after the ring pipe has been 
shut off. 

If there is no steam pressure on the boiler, the warming-up 
arrangement should be started. When starting the oil-firing plant, 
smoke will appear until the walls of the fire-room are sufficiently 




Fig. 165. Addetional Oil FiaiKn. 



hot. When stopping the plant, the air admission must be shut off, 
in order to prevent excessive cooling of the boilers. Table XXVI. 
gives the capacities of steam-jet burners: 

We return again to the centrifugal spray oil-burning system in 
order to describe a few installations on board of boats. This system 




Fig. t66. 

R the air register and T a thermometer. Twelve burners are pro- 
vided, six on either front of the boiler, 0.86 to 1.07 pounds of oil 
are consumed per square foot of heating surface. 

Another installation illustrating the arrangement of the burners 
shown in Fig. 164. In order to effect an intimate mixture of the air 
v^ith the oil, fire-brick cylinders are provided. Thereby the air is 





TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



same time, in cases where the boilers have to be forced, and for 
burning oil alone whenever this should be convenient. Modern 
battleships of the various navies are equipped with such additional 



SCHUTTI ft KOE^TtNG CO. 



Fig. i6S- Steam -mivEN Pumping Outfit. 

oil firing. In the installation shown in Fig. 165 A is the admission 
of air, 5 the burner, C the cock, G the gauge and T the thermometer. 
In such installations (see also Fig. 167) the burners must not inter- 
fere with the feeding of the coal fire. They are therefore arranged 
either between the fire doors or over the fire doors, according to the 
construction of the boiler. As the space is usually very limited, the 
^L burner and air register is frequently combined in the construction, 
^P the regtilation of air being accomplished by means of flaps. 




ATOMIZING LIQUtTiS. 

Pumping Outfits for Spray Nozzles. 
The pumping outfits used in connection with spray nozzles are 
either steam-driven, as shown in Fig. i68, or belt-driven, as*shown 
in Fig. i6g. These outfits consist of a pump, a water tank and 
float valve, a water-pressure balanced valve and two strainers, one 
in the supply, the other in the discharge pipe. 




The water-pressure balanced valve keeps up a uniform pressure 
at all times. It is to be recommended to use a pressure pf 60 
pounds. The capacity is regulated by increasing or decreasing the 
pressure and by cutting out a corresponding number of sprays. 

Where the water is dirty a filter has to be installed. For clean 
water it is sufficient to have a strainer in the main supply and main 
discharge pipes. 






In order to economically utilize the fuel in steam plants it is 
necessary to effect a high expansion of steam. For this purpose a 
vacuum is required iu which the steam is ex- 
hausted and condensed, after it has done its work 
in the engine cylinder or turbine. Amon^ the 
different types of condensers built for this pur- 
pose the jet condensers are the simplest and most 
r eh able. 

In the jet condenser the exhaust steam enters 
with the cooling water into the condensing cham- 
her J where the steam is condensed by the water* 
This physical process being completed, the water 
jet together with the condensed steam and the 
non-condensable gases, has to be discharged 
against the pressure of the atmosphere. This 
mechanical work is performed by the same 
water jet, which, in order to produce this effect, 
has to enter the condensing chamber in a solid 
jet The latter, after the steam is condensed, 
enters the discharge cone or tail-pipe with such 
a velocity that it overcomes the pressure of the 
atmosphere, being strong enough to expel the 
air. In order to keep the jet straight it is^ 
surrounded by a combining tube, in which ports 
are provided at a suitable angle. The steam 
from the condensing chamber entering through 
the ports is condensed by the jet. The 
holes are cut in an angle tending to give the water a high velocity. 
These condensers are built either as eductor or induction condensers, 
The eductor condensers may be either of the single-jet or multi-jet 
type. Each t}^pe has its separate and distinct applications. 

124 




Fig. 170. Eductom 

G)NDi:NSER. 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIA I^. 

Table XXVIL 





CoBdcmer 


. 


i 






VaJvd Aod Fiitm£». 






Inches. 


^ 


£ 


c 


) 


Center 

to 
F*cc. 


rWam- 
of 


Di&iti. or 
Bolt Circle, 


No, of 


Blum 

of 
Bolts. 


Thick. 

of 
Fiwigfl. 


tK 


e^ 


S% 


2 


3H 


5 


4 


4 


H 


3 


9 


m 


3X 


ajf 


3l< 


6 


AH 


4 


}i 


§ 


2% 


101^ 


7 


3K 


^H 


4^ 


7 


5}i 


4 


% 


3 


iiK 


s 


4>^ 


3M 


4H 


7K 


6 


4 


% 


H 


SH 


15 


to 


4J^ 


3¥ 


sH 


»)^ 


7 


4 


H 


H 


4 


I7ii 


II 


5 


4 


5H 


9 


7H 


4 


H 


II 


4^ 










6 


^H 


IH 


S 


H 


S 


21 H 


^3 


5^ 


4}< 


6K 


10 


S^ 


8 


H 


n 


6 


35^ 


15 


^% 


43< 


7 


II 


rA 


8 


H 


n 


7 


3oi'^ 


17 


1% 


5 


g 


u^ 


10^ 


S 


H 


li 


8 


355^ 


19 


8 


5J( ' 


8« 


13^ 


11^ 


8 


H 


I 


9 


41 


21*4 


9 


sm: 


9X 


'5 


13% 


12 


H 


I 


lu 


46M 


33K 


10 


5>4 


lo>^ 


16 


H% 


12 


U 


^•h 


12 


53 


27 


11 


7 


13 


19 


17 


13 


H 


i^ 


H 


6i^ 


30 


12 


7K: 


14 


21 


i^U 


12 


H 


ij 


i6 


70 


34 


14 


8« 


16 


33>^ 


21 )i 


16 


H 


iS 


Box 


3B^ 


15 


10 


iS 


n 


22H 


16 


I 


'^^ 


20 


90 


43 


18 


liJi 


20 


27)4 


n 


20 


I 


i^ 


M 


loS 


51 


21 


w;i 


24 


32 


2^^ 


30 


I 


>A 



Table XXVIIL 



Size 

Condenier. 

DiaDieter 


Waicr Cowaumption ptr 
Minute, Mbjciiduiii. 


Diam. Water 
Pipe. 


Evaporation per Home- 


Exbauit. 


Gallon*. 


Cubk Fmi. 


»Ll». 


30 Lbs. 


4oLba, 


^% 


15 


2 


1 


15 


10 


7^ 


2 


36 


3^5 


iH 


26 


17 


13 


2;^ 


37 


5 


^% 


38 


25 


^S 


3 


52 


7 


2 


52 


35 


36 


^H 


75 


10 


^% 


75 


50 


^ 


4 


112 


15 


3 


112 


75 




5 


165 


22 


3^ 


165 


no 


82 


6 


240 


33 


4 


240 


160 


120 


7 


330 


44 


A% 


330 


220 


165 


8 


450 


60 


5 


450 


300 


235 


9 


600 


So 


6 


600 


400 


300 


ro 


750 


100 


7 


750 


500 


375 


12 


1.050 


140 


8 


I 050 


700 


535 


14 


r.435 


190 


9 


1.425 


950 


712 


16 


T,8oo 


240 


10 


1,800 


1.200 


900 


18 


2.400 


320 


12 


2,400 


i,6co 


t»300 


20 


3,000 


400 


14 


3,000 


3,000 


1,500 


24 


4i5oo 


600 


16 


4.500 


3,000 


3»350 



Eductor condensers require a head of water of 20 feet, and work 
with absohite certainty under all kinds of load variations. The air 
and n on -con den sable gases are discharged with tlie water without 
the assistance of air pinnps. The special advantages of these con- 



CONDENSERa 



127 



FREE EXHAUST 
VALVE 



r sieAmER 



Sers can be defined as follows; Absence of air pumps, hence 
sa^ng of power and lower cost of maintenance ; full water open- 
ings, preventing any clogging up of the water supply ; short exhaust 
pipes from the engine or turbine to condenser^ hence no leaks in the 
exhaust pipe J as is fretjnently the case with barometric condensers ; 
the low cost of these condensers permits the adoption of an engine 
for condensation during the 
summer, while during the 
winter the exhaust can be 
used for heating purposes. 

Where surface or Imr- 
ometric condensers are 
used the installation of cen- 
tral condensing plants is 
often made imperative by 
lack of space, since in 
such a case a separate con- 
densing plant cannot be 
installed for every steam 
unit, and as in these cases 
it is also desired to avoid 
the complication involved 
by separate condensers, 
each with a number of mov- 
ing parts. Central condens- 
ing plants, however, have 
the disadvantage, that long 
exhaust mains and conse- 
quently frictional and leakage losses between condenser and engines 
can hardly be avoided, that it is difficult to locate the leak, that the 
vacuum on any single engine is affected by leakage on the others 
and that in the operation the constant manipulation of valves, 
usually of gate valves, is necessarJ^ 

The eductor condensers, on the other hand, have no moving parts 
and occupy soch small space, that it is generally practicable to 
attach a separate condenser to each steam nnit, so that the loss of 
vacuum between condenser and engine is reduced to a minimum. 

We will now discuss the water requirements of the eductor con- 
denser. With injection water at a temperature of 60'' Fahr, and 




FOOT 
ELBOW 



Condenser and Fittikgs. 



TE^ XSPURTATIO^' OF MATERIALS. 

incheSj this instrument will maintain a vacuum of 
y column with a proportion of water to steam 25 to 
mosi m stances the quantity of water used is of importance 
only m relation to the power required for operating the plant, and 
from this standpoint the eductor condenser compares favorably with 
the surface condensers. 

For comparison, a compound condensing plant for a i,ooo-horse» 
power engine may be taken. At a steam consumption of 20 pounds 
of steam per brake horse-power the plant would condense 20,000 
pounds of steam per hour, and a i2'inch eductor condenser using 
1,050 gallons of water per minute, would maintain a vacuum of 24 
inches of mercury*. The condenser is 8 feet long, and with 15 feet 
head of water and a discharge pipe 2 feet long, the total difference 
would be 25 feet and the actual horse-power required ( i ,050 X 
25X8.3); (33,000)^6.6. An efficiency of 50 per cent can be 
obtained with electrically driven centrifugal pumps with full allow- 
ance for mot or- pump and dynamo losses. The actual B.H.P. re- 
quired for working such a plant would be (6.6 X 100) : 50 = 13.5 
B.H.R, or less than lyi per cent, of the power developed by the 
main engine. In this calculation no allowance is made for loss by 
friction in pipes or for gravity flow from the hot well, as similar 
allowances have to be made with any condensing plant. 

The advisability of a separate condenser for each steam unit 
(excepting small engines) w^as already mentioned. However, if 
this cannot be arranged, a drum of sufficient area, into which a 
number of engines exhaust, can be provided and the condenser at- 
tached. Such a plant has the advantage of low cost and of sim- 
plicity, as compared to an installation of any other type of condenser. 

The water is delivered advantageously from the pump into an 
intermediate overhead tank, fixed at suitable level to give the neces- 
sary head of water for the condenser, or the water may be delivered 
directly from a centrifugal pump into the condenser. 

When an intermediate overhead tank is used, any air drawn in at 
the pump glands or at the joint or suction pipes escapes at the tank, 
and the vacqum is not affected as in the case when the air is 
delivered with the water directly into the condenser. The tatifc 
also affords the advantage that, when a number of condensers are 
used, any one of the pumping sets can serve for any of the con- 
densing units, thus giving greater elasticity and security against 
breakdown. 




Fig. 173. Condenser Attached to Engine. 



i 



J 





Fig. 174. Condenser Attaceed to Tujebink. 





. / 23 ff 25 

HZJ: ^ 



LjiJi 



JOt>CDP€iC' O f3 O Ci a O Ol 

QO0.O00OO oA^J^agu 

W-m m-m • ■■■*% r ■ ■ ' ~ 



FREE EXHAUST VALVE 




\ 1^1 



) « 33 

34 

9 



29 



WATER CHECK VALVE 




ffft ft ft. 




-^ 



is 




ftft flft 




19 

1 



Ji 



3 21 



I 



20 



Fig. 173. Parts Comprisino Eductor Concenser. 





TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS, 

It has been mentioned already that electrically driven centrifugal 
pumps are an ideal means to procure the water supply for a con- 
denser. However^ where line shafting is available, belt- or rope- 
driven pumps may be used. In such a case the cost of the motors is 
saved, and a somewhat higher efficiency obtained than by electric 
drive. If none of these methods of pumping can be applied, cen- 
trifugal pumps driven by high-speed reciprocating engineSj or by 
steam turbines, may be used. The exhaust steam formed can be 
utilised for heating boiler feed water. When reciprocating pumps 
are used the water has to be delivered into an overhead tank, or 
large air chambers have to be provided on the pump discharge, in 
order to produce an even pressure at the condenser inlets. 

The condenser should be installed vertically, with a clear dis- 
charge^not less than two feet below the bottom flange of the ap- 
paratus^ — to the level of the water in the discharge sump or hot well. 
The end of the discharge pipe should be under water^ unless there is 
a horizontal discharge main, and a trap to the water seal directly at 
the elbow under the condenser Except with condensers of very 
large size, where special allowance has to be made for long suction 
or discharge pipes, a difference of level of 30 feet between supply 
and discharge %vil] usually give the necessary pressure of water at 
the condenser, with full allowance for frlctional losses. 

If a gravity supply of water at sufficient pressure is at hand the 
vacuum secured by eductor condensers is clear gain, as no power, 
except the gravity, is consumed. 

Fig. 173 sho%vs an eductor condenser attached to reciprocating 
engine exhausting through heater. Fig, 174 shows a condenser at- 
tached to a turbine. 

Fig. 175 illustrates the pieces comprising this condensen 57 is 
the body ; 5^j the water head ; 5J, tail ; 5.;, combining tube ; ip, flange 
and bolts ; 20, foot elbow ; 21, flange ; 23, vacuum gauge ; 34, the 
strainer; ^3, its body; ^5, its cover; 26, its bar; ^7, its hinge strap, 
and 38 its screw strap. Free exhaust valve: ^p, body; ^o, cover; 
J J, valve; 33, piston; jj, trunnion; 34, spindle; 35, stuffing box; 
36, follower ; J7, coupling ; jS, lever ; 3p, link ; water-check valve ; 
.;o. body; 41, cover; 43, valve; 43, front link; 44, back link; ^j, 
coupling; 46, follower; ^7 stuffing box; 48^ hand wheel; 49, spindle. 



* 




CONDBNSEBS. 



I 
I 



I 

I 



I 
I 



I 



I 
I 



MuLTi"JET Eductor Condexsers. 

The single-jet condensers give excellent results for vacua up to 
26 inches of mercury; but for large units and for the high vacua 
required in turbine plants, where the water consumption is very 
considerable, the multi- 
jet condenser, as shown 
in the sectional cut. Fig. 
176, is to be preferred. 
This condenser, while 
consuming much less 
water, still maintains the 
essential qualities of the 
single-jet condenser 

With the latter a sin- 
gle condensing jet is 
used, which, as we have 
already mentioned above, 
passes centrally through 
a long cylindrical tube. 
This tube is provided 
with perforations for the 
passage of the exhaust 
steam from the condens- 
ing chamber to the jet. 
The holes are drilled 
obliquely, directing the 
steam at a suitable angle, 
so that it impinges on the 
condensing jet in the di- 
rection of the flow. 
The steam which strikes 
the condensing jet at 
high velocity is con- 
densed, and the particles 
of water into which it is 
converted cut into the jet with the kinetic energy due to the steam 
velocity, and contribute to the momentum, which is needed in order 
to discharge the jet together with the entrained air and the non-con- 
densable gases against the resistance of the atmosphere. 




Fig. 176. Multi-Jet Eductor Condenser. 



■ aens 




134 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 




The multi-jet condenser works on the same principle, but has, 
instead of one central condensing jet, a number of converging jets, 
which, in the lower part of the condensing mbe^ meet and form a 
single jet. This tube is cast in one piece and consists of a series of 
concentric nozzles of gradually diminishing bore. The steam flows 
through the annular passages between the nozzles which act as 
guides, so that it impinges at a suitable angle on the condensing jets. 

The multi-jet condensers are considerably shorter than the single- 
jet apparatus of equal capacity, but, notwithstanding this fact, the 
area of contact between steam and water is larger, A further ad- 
vantage is gained by the shape of the condensing tube, which in 
vertical section is an inverted cone. In the upper part of the tube 
the steam is in contact with the coldest water, and the condensation 
is very intense, so that in this part more steam is condensed per 
unit of area of contact, than in the lower part, where the water 
is hotter. 

It w^ill be seen that with the conical tube the sectional area of the 
steam passages increases from the bottom upwards, whereby the sec- 
tional area of the ports is kept proportional to the volume of steam 
which is to go through. Therefore the steam velocity is nearly 
constant, from the top to the bottom of the tube, and the drop of 
vacuum between the interior of the tube and the exhaust chamber 
can be reduced to a minimum. 

It IS clear that there must be a higher absolute pressure, or, 
in other words, lower vacua in the exhaust chamber than in tlie 
interior of the tube, "as otherwise there would be no flow of steam 
through the ports to the condensing water jets. 

A difference in the vacuum equal to one half inch of mercury 
column is sufficient with a multi-jet condenser maintaining 28 inches 
mercury vacuum, and the actual vacuum obtained is therefore only 
one half inch lower than the highest theoretical vacuum as deter- 
mined by the discharge temperature. The proportion of water to 
the quantity of steam condensed is, for equal vacua, with these 
condensers practically the same as w^ith surface condensers. The 
advantages of the multi-jet condensers are the same as of the 
single-jet condensers, viz., no moving parts, small space, no attention 
and absence of air pumps. 

To insure satisfactory' working under all conditions of load 
variation it is only necessary to supply the water to the condensers 




CONDENSERS. 



1 35 



at a pressure, at the level of the water inlet flanges, equal to 21 feet 
water column, or say, 9 pounds per square inch. When no gravity 
supply is available it is necessary to use a circulating pump, and if 
a motor- or belt-driven centrifugal pump be used, the water may be 




Fig. 177. Installation of Condenser. 

delivered to the condensers as shown in Fig. 178. A safer way to 
get rid of the air is by the use of a standpipe, as illustrated in Fig. 
177. A is the condenser, B the water-check valve, C the free 
exhaust valve, D the strainer, E the foot elbow and 5' the standpipe. 
In the installation shown in Fig. 179 C is the condenser, D the dis- 
charge, F the free exhaust valve, P the pressure pipe and 5' the 
strainer. The dotted lines represent a barometric condenser. 




Fig, 178. Turbine and Multi-Jet Co>r»ENSEiL 




have to be delivered at a pressure equal to 21 feet head at Uie level 
of the inlet flange. The lift for the circulating pump would be 
therefore 6 feet plus 21 feet plus allowance for friction losses and 
difference of level between the pump intake and the condenser 
outlet flange. 

Assuming an allowance of 6 feet would suffice for these last 
items, the pump duty would be 1,200 gallons per minute through a 
total lift of 33 feet, representing 9.9 water horse-powen The com- 
bined efficiency of the motor-driven centrifugal pump should be not 
less than 6d per cent, and the power required would be 11 K.W.» 
or 1,1 per cent, of the full load output of the set. 

With a turbine of the same size requiring a vacuum of full rated 
output of 28 inches of mercury a condenser using 106,024 gallons of 
water per hour would be needed, and the power required would be 
I.I X 106,024/72,800= 1.6 per cent. 




L 



Fia Ijg. COKDENSEE iNSTALLATrON, 




I3S 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



With an exhaust steam turbine of the same capacity, using, say^ 
tv^ice the weight of steam per kilowatt output, the power required 
for working the condenser with 28-inch vacuum would be 3.6 per 
cent, of the full load output. With circulating water at a tempera- 
ture of 70* Fahn, the power required, other conditions being as 
above J would represent about 2 per cent,, 5 per cent and 10 per cent 
of the full load outputs, and at 75"* Fahr. about 3 per cent., jyi per 
cent, and 15 per cent. If recooled water has to be used for con- 
densing, it is important 
that efficient cooling ar- 
rangemejits be adopted, 
as with water at temper- 
atures above 75"^ Fahn 
the quantity of circulat- 
ing water and the power 
required for working the 
condensing plant be- 
R'' \ comes disproportionately 

high. 

In order to prevent 
water from passing from 
__J 1 the condenser into the 
turbines to which they 
are attached, a vacuum- 
breaking device as illus- 
trated in Fig. t8o is 
used. The air admission 
valve V is connected to 
the exhaust pipe as near 
to the turbine as possible. Under normal working conditions the 
valve is held closed by the atmospheric pressure and by the spring 
pressing on the piston, which is attached to the valve spindle. A 
channel in the spindle connects the small chamber above the piston 
with the exhaust pipe,' while a small pipe connects the lower side 
of the piston to the exhaust chamber of the condenser, so that the 
pressure on both sides of the piston is practically balanced. 

If, for any reason, water rises in the condenser exhaust chamber^ 
the float attached thereto opens the small relay valve, and air 
admitted through this valve presses on the lower side of the 
piston and, opening the main air valve, breaks the vacuum. 



Fig. i8o> Vacuum Bbeaking Arrangement, 




CONDENSERS, 



139 



The air admitted into the exhaust connections passes to the con- 
denser and clears the %vater from the exhaust chanfiber. Then the 
float drops and closes the relay valve, and, the pressure on the 
top and bottom of the piston being again equalized, the air admis- 
sion valve is atitomatically closed by the spring. By the adoption 
of this automatic vacuum breaker the necessity for non-retiirn valves 
in the exhaust connections is removed, and the inevitable drop of 
vacuum between the condensers and the engines 
or turbines due to friction in such valves is 
avoided. 

Wherever practicable, a separate condenser 
for each steam unit should be adopted, as was 
already stated, but if this cannot conveniently ^^"*' 
be arranged, the steam from two or more on 
gines or turbines may be carried to a central con- 
denser. 

The condensers work quite well in parallel, 
and for units above S,ooo H.P. it may, in some 
cases, be preferable to use two condensers (twin 
connection) instead of a single large apparatus. 

For large installations it is usually better to 
have a common water supply main with branches 
to each condenser, the circulating pumps being 
installed in a separate pump house, 

Inbuction Condensers. 

Induction condensers lift their own water sup- 
ply and can be used only in connection with 
engines subject to load variation at regidar 
and not frequent intervals. The vacuum is cre- 
ated by the condensation of the exhaust steam 
on a column of moving water, which is induced 
and maintained by the impact action of the ex- 
haust steam through passages inclined in the 
direction of the current, thus assisting a natural 
fall of water, if there be such, or maintaining it 
unaided, if water has to be lifted from a lower level. 

The induction condenser, Fig. 181, is equipped with a regulation 
of water supply and with a sleeve to cover the ports of the combin- 




FiG. 181, Induction 

CoKDENSML 



f40 



TEANSPORTATION OF UATEBIALS, 



inf tube according to the steam consumption. Corresponding to the 
load of the engine, the water ram as well as the sleeve are set, and 
remain in this position as lon^ as the engine runs under the condi- 
tions for which the condenser is set. This condenser is also highly 
adaptable where only a certain head is at disposal, whereas the rest 
of the water has to be supplied by the action of the exhaust steam 
itself. 

The head of the condenser can be turned at right angles or in 
any direction admissible by the bolt spacing, so as to be most con- 
venient for pipe connections or for handling. 

When all the water is supplied under pressure, the tap opening 
marked " steam " and also the opening C are blanked. When water 
is taken under suction, and pressure water used for starting at inlet 
marked ** steam,** the opening C is blanked. When water is taken 
under high suction and steam used for starting, then a check valve 
is attached to opening C, and the overflow pipe so connected that it 
discharges free or into the main discharge pipe. 

The location and connection of the condenser depends upon the 
water supply and the nature of the work of the engine. If the 




Condenser on Mine Pump. 



water can be supplied under pressure or if it can be obtained flowing 
to the condenser, it should be so arranged. When the water supply 
has to be taken under suction, the following conditions must prevail: 
(i) For engines working at uniform load the condenser can take its 
full water supply under suction up to a height of i6 feet, this height 
being measured from the supply water level to the inlet on the 
condenser. (2) For engines working with slightly variable toad 
the condenser will take two thirds of its supply under suction up to 
16 feet, if the rest is supplied at a pressure of 10 pounds or more. 




CONDENSERS. 



141 



y///^//////////// 



^C 



m^mm^^^ 



In the latter case the pressure water is connected to the head of 
the condenser at the inlet marked "steam/' 

Figs. 182 and 182A show the installation of a condenser on mine 
pumps. Fig. 183 the side elevation of a condenser on a steamboat. 

This condenser is also built with auto- 
matic discharge valve to take the water 
supply from a sump and to discharge il 
automatically into the suction pipe of the 
pump. This arrangement is particularly 
desirable in deep mines having a great 
discharge height and consequently a 
greater volume of exhaust in proportion 
to the volume of water pumped. If, 
under these conditions, the discharge 
from the condenser were returned to 
the sump, the temperature of the sump 
water would greatly increase, causing an- 
noyance, damage to the timber and a de- 
crease of the eflficiency of the condenser. By discharging directly 
into the suction of the pnmp, the warm water is removed as it is 
produced, and the sump water remains cooL 

If steam would enter the pump through an accidental stoppage of 
the pump or the condenser, the action of the pump. would be inter- 
fered with. This danger, however, is entirely eliminated by the 



'^;fe5^. 



Flg, 182A, 



condenseh on 
Pump, 



r^. 



Fic. 18^- Con DEN SEE on Steamboat. 

automatic action of the discharge valve Y ^ see Fig, 1S4, which closes 
|when the vacuum in the condenser is destroyed, while the con- 
denser is able to restart through valve X. As soon as the condenser 





Fia 184, Condenser with 
Automatic Dischakge Valve. 



starting and stopping the engine), S the basket strainer, Y the auto- 
matic discharge valve, X the discharge relief valve, X^ the suction 
check and K the air check. 

Another installation is shown in Fig. 185. Z is the condenser, 
IV the water-check valve, H the free exhaust valve, S the basket 
strainer, Y the atitomatic discharge valve, X the discharge relief 
check and X^ the suction check. The attachment of the discharge 
is near the pump, that of the suction near the sump. This arrange- 
ment is particularly suitable if the pump is at a great distance from 




CONDENSERS. 



HS 



I 



ef 



liX 






^-ilr— 



the smnp, as thereby the necessity of providing long discharge and 
supply pipes for the condenser is avoided. The vacnum in the pump 
suction must not be greater than the vacuum in the condenser. 

The condenser can be started before the engine is in operation, 
or it may be started while the engine is exhausting through the 
free exhaust valve. However, it is preferable to start the con- 
denser first, so as not to disturb the free exhaust valve. 

Directions for starting. Fig. 1 86. (i) All pressure water at 
A, B and C blanked. In order to start, tlie water is turned on at A 
and the engine started. In order 
to stop, the engine is stopped and 
A closed. (2) Suction A open; 
one third pressure water at B; C 
blanked. To start, pressure water 
ts turned on at B, the engine is 
started and B closed. In order 
to stop, the engine is stopped- 
(3) Suction A open ; pressure wa- 
ter or steam at B and overflow 
check at C In order to start, pres- 
sure water or steam is turned on 
at B, the engine is started and B 
closed. In order to stop, the en- 
gine is stopped. 

Fig. 187 shows the parts comprising a condenser. I is the body; 
^, the water head ; j^ the tail; 4^ the water nozzle; 5, the combining 
tube ; 6j the sleeve ; 7^ the ram ; 8, the sleeve rod ; g^ crosshead for 
ram ; 10, crosshead for sleeve ; J/, pinion shafts ; 12, hand wheels ; 
7j, follower; 14, coupling; 15, gland ; 16, guides ; 17, bolts ; 18, flange 
and bolts ; ig, flange and bolts ; ^0, foot elbow ; -?/, iiange and bolts ; 
2J^ vacuum gauge. Strainer: 2^, body; 24, strainer; ^5, cover; 
^6, bar; ^/j hinge strap; ^S^ screw strap. Free exhaust valve: 
^p, body ; jo, cover ; j i, valve ; 5^, piston ; ^j, trunnion ; ^4^ spindle ; 
J3j stuffing box; 36, follower; j/, conpling; ^8, lever; jp, Hnk. 
Water check valve: 40^ body; 41, cover; 42, valve; ^j, front link; 
44, back link; 43^ coupling; 46, follower; 4y, stuffing box; 48, hand 
wheel; ^p, spindle. 

The dimensions with reference to Fig. 186 are giv^n in Table 
XXIX,, the capacities and size of connections in Table XXX, 



it! 



Fig. t86. Connections to 

Con DENSER. 



CONDENSERS. 
Table XXIX. 



MS 



Canden&cr. 


Valvei and Fhtiags, 


SUe la 












Center 


DIain. 


Dlim 


No. or 


Di.n,. Thick. 


Inchcftt 


i? 


^ 


F 


G 


I 


CO 


of 


Dp Bolt 


BalB. 


ar Bolt. '^ 














Face. 


t'lange. 


Cir 






Flanae. 


i?i 


2 


2^ 


1 


VA 


2K 


5 


4 




>i 


?^ 


2 


35i 


.^5< 


1% 


8!^ 


2^ 


i ^H 


6 


AX 




% 


s 


^H 


2|< 


.1^ 


8 


qfi 


3 


' 4X 


7 


.■!?; 




>i 


3 , 


3K 


4H 


m 


i^>^ 


3M 


4?i 


7M 


6 




H 


u 


3>i 


3^ 


4;^ 


10^ 


15 


3^ 


5?^ 


*J^ 


7 




'A 


4 


4 


■■5 


iiH 


i7>i 


4 


sH 


9 


7?i 




H 




-4^ 












6 


9J^ 


7^- 


8 


n 




4^ 


s;^ 


13^ 


ai>^ 


^% 


6>4 


to 


8^ 


8 


Ji 


6 


4W 


6M 


r6>^ 


as?i< 


5 ^ 


7 


II 


9^ 


8 


H 


?« 


7 


5 


7X 


I'^n 


30M 


sH 


8 


12H 


io« 


8 


H 


« 


8 


5^ 


S 


21 


35 K 




8?^ 


n>i 


n^ 


8 


H 


I 


9 


5K 


9 


24 


4o?S 


7 


9>^ 


15 


'3.V 


12 


H 


1 


lo 


6>i 


10 


27 


46 J< 


m 


io>4 


16 


I4« 


12 


H 


'A 


12 


7 


ir 


31 


53 , 


s^ 


12 


19 


17 


13 


H 


14 


7H 


12 


56 


61 J< 


9 


14 


21 


i&U 


12 


r:? 


i6 


s^ 


14 


42 


70 


10 


16 


23^ 


2f% ■ 


16 


iS 


3D 




45^ 


7»H 


11^ 


18 


=5 


"Sr 


16 


1 t 


20 


llM 


18 


54 


88 


14 


20 


a?)^ 


as 


ao 



Size of 


Water Consumption 


Diameter of Pipes. 


Approximate Horse-power 


Condenser. 


maximum. 








per Hour. 




Diameter 


Water 


SscaiD* 


Overflow. 




of Exhaust. 




Supply and 








Gals Cu. Ft. 


Dlicbur^e. 

I 






20 Lbs. 


30 Lbs. 


40 Lbs. 


^Vz 


15 2 


X 


% 


15 


10 


75 


2 


26 


3-5 


1% 


^ 


H 


26 


17 


13 


2>^ 


37 


5 


^% 


H 


I 


38 


25 


19 


3 


52 


7 


1 


H 


>V 


52 


35 


26 


3>^ 


75 


10 


^}4 


H 


^H 


75 


50 


38 


4 


112 


15 


3 


I 


i}i 


112 


75 


56 


5 


165 


22 


3f4 


i)i 


2 


165 


no 


82 


6 


240 


32 


4 ^ 


^% 


2}i 


240 


160 


120 


7 


330 


44 


4% 


i^ 


3 


330 


220 


165 


8 


450 


60 


5 


2 


3>i 


450 


300 


225 


9 


600 


80 


6 


2 


4 


600 


^00 


300 


10 


750 


TOO 


7 


2}i 


4ii 


750 


500 


375 


12 


1,050 


140 


8 


2% 


5 


1,050 


700 


525 


14 


i»425 


190 


9 


3 , 


6 


1,425 


950 


712 


16 


1,800 


240 


10 


3M 


7 


1,800 


1,200 


900 


18 


2,400 


320 


12 


4 


8 


2,400 


1,600 


1,200 


20 


3.000 


400 


14. 


5 


9 


3,000 


2.000 


I 500 



The average amount of water required by a condenser is twenty- 
five times that evaporated for use of the engine to which it is 
attached. If, therefore, this is known, the size of condenser is 
selected from table of capacities, in which the maximum water con- 
sumption is given, and it should correspond to the maximum work 
of engine. 



148 TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 

The center of gravity is slightly near the supporting bar, causing 
valve to close. 

This valve is an important safety-device for all condensing 
engines. 

2. Automatic free exhaust valve, Fig. 190. This valve closes 
automatically when vacuum is on condenser, and opens automatically 
when vacuum is destroyed. The noiseless piston prevents hammer- 
ing. By turning the hand lever to the right, the valve is locked 
open. 



SIXTH PART. 

THEORY. 

Mechanical Theory of the Steam-Jet Pump. 

The theory of the flow of steam through nozzles has been made 
clear by experiments carried out in connection with steam turbines. 
It is now well known that an increase of velocity will be imparted 
to steam passing through an orifice into a space of lower pressure, 
which depends upon the difference of the pressures. The increase 
will go on for a certain period, will reach a maximum and will then 
remain unchanged, no matter how much the diiference of pressures 
is increased. This limit is reached when the pressure outside is 
about half as high as in the pressure space orj if we express it 
exactly, if the ratio of the pressures is 

For dry saturated steam — if no heat is transmitted to or abstracted 
from it — n=^k^^ 1,135 ^"d hence the ratio ?i/^ ^0,5774, which is 
about one half. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the 
pressure in the plane of the escape opening is equal to the pressure 
outside, only, if pjp 5 0.5774, but smaller for p^/p < 0.5774. Hence, ^ 
if the outside pressure is lower than 0,5774 P' t^^^ escaping steam jet 
has or retains a certain " interior " pressure, whereby it is expanded. 
In order to impart to the steam jet a higher velocity as the one 
corresponding to the above-mentioned critical pressure, a conically 
enlarging tube, the Laval nozzle, has to be connected to the orifice. 
If we assume the Laval nozzle to be composed of a number of small 
cylindrical pipes of increasing diameter, we can say that the steam^ 
when leaving the first pipe, has still some interior pressure and 
therefore fills the second pipe. When leaving the latter it still 
retains a certain pressure and fills the third, etc. This process, 
going on continuously, takes place also in the Laval nozzle, the 
energy liberated by the expansion of the steam being imparted to the 
steam as kinetic energy ; this explains the immense velocities obtained 
in steam turbines. 

149 



150 TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 

If in a conical nozzle the proportion of the smallest cross-sectional 
area to the area of the orifice is such that the steam passing through 
expands from the critical pressure of the smallest area, to a pressure 
— ^at the orifice — equal to the outside pressure, then it will leave the 
orifice in parallel jets. 

If the area of the orifice is larger, as would correspond to the 
expansion, the steam will have at the orifice a lower pressure as in 
the outside space and the excess of kinetic energy contained in the 
steam jet, will, by its impact to the outside steam of higher pressure, 
be retrans formed into heat, a phenomenon which is accompanied 
by the arising of "pressure waves." 

If the area of the orifice is too small so that the tension at the 
orifice is higher than the counter-pressure, the formation of pressure 
waves will also take place. Hence the nozzle effects an expansion, 
which depends upon the proportion of the smallest to the largest 
area but is independent of the counter-pressure. 

As in injectors the highest possible velocity is desirable, conical 
nozzles are used. As an injector has to work at various steam 
pressures a regulating spindle is provided in order to obtain, in 
every case, the required proportion of the smallest to the widest 
area. 

The kinetic energy of the steam is, in the mixing nozzle, trans- 
mitted to the water to be moved (impact). Assuming that both 
substances are perfectly non-elastic and that the impact is straight 
and central, we get the common velocity after the impact. 

mj + '''2 
In this equation m^ is the mass of steam per second, m^ the mass of 
water per second, v^ the velocity of the steam, z/g the velocity of the 
water. In practice, however, this process will not take place at such 
regularity as is supposed in the equations and the losses of velocity 
will be considerably higher, as with a central non-elastic impact. 
The water and steam will be set whirling in the mixing nozzle. If, 
in consideration of the losses caused thereby, we introduce a factor 
<^, considering also that in the above equation the acceleration of the 
earth is contained in the mass, we arrive at the equation 



THEORY, 



wherein G^ stands for the weight of steam per second and Cg for 
the weight of water per second, ■ ■ 

In order to determine the dimensions of an injector, the quantity 
<fi has to be calculated. Then the onifice of the mixings nozzle would 
be definitely fixed for a certain quantity of svater to be moved and 
for a certain ratio of water to steam. All thfe other dimensions can 
be calculated from the area of the orifice. ^ 

If / is the area of the orifice, t the time, Q the weight of steam 
plus weight of water in time f, the relation between these quantities 
can be expressed by the equation Q ^ftv. 

However, if we apply this relation to practical results, we arrive 
at impossible figures, because the density of the jet is not equal to i, 
as is silently implied in the equation. Hence we have to transform 
the latter into 

Q=yvft 

wherein y stands for the specific gravity of the jeL 

As Q, f, t can.be determined by direct observation, v and / remain 
the two unknown values of the equation. These were determined 
by the German engineer, Ph. Michel. 

At constant temperature and lift the velocity of the jet is neces- 
sarily dependent only upon the steam pressure, the position of the 
regulating spindle and the ratio of the weight of steam to the weight 
of water. The correctness of this assumption is directly evident, 
as the jet jumps freely from the mixing nozzle into the pressure 
nozzle, the two nozzles being absolutely independent of each other, 
Michel has proved this theory by a series of experiments, in which 
at a constant boiler pressure of 6 poimds and a constant position of 
the regulating spindle, a counter-pressure of 2, 6 and 8.75 atoms- 
pheres was provided. In equal times equal quantities were moved. 

The results of Michers experiments are: 

1. The average specific gravity of the " liquid " leaving the mixing 
nozzle is y^ = 0.25 and y^ =^ 048 respectively. At constant pressure 
it decreases with the increased opening of the regulating spindle and 
vice versa. 

2. The factor determining the *' whirling'* losses is in average 
<^i^o.7S and 4$^^o.66 respectively. This factor gets smaller, if 
tHf regnlating spindle is wider opened. 

3. The maximum pressure in the feed line increases with the open- 



I $2 TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. i 

ing of the regulating spindle. Simultaneously the quantity of water 
moved by one pound of steam is decreased, 

4- With increasing height of lift the quantity of water moved by 
one pound of steam is also decreased. 

Calorimetric Investigation of the Steam- Jet Pump.^ 
Let Fig. igi schematically represent our apparatus from whose 
mode of action the occurrences in the injector may be derived. 
A represents a cylinder which contains a piston and Gi pounds of 



^Kl C 



K H 



Fig. 191. 

Steam and water of the pressure />, and of the corresponding tem- 
perature fij the steam quality being x^. 

The cylinder is provided with a conical discharge pipe, whose 
discharge orifice lies in the interior of the casing D^ which is pro- 
vided with a large pipe K, that discharges at F into the open air* 

Casing D is connected by a vertical pipe with an open vessel C 
which is under atmospheric pressure p and contains cold water of 
the temperature t. Let us at first suppose that both spaces A and C 
are shut off by the cocks a and b. If now both cocks are opened, 
steam will flow through the nozzle F, but will immediately be con- 
densed by the cold water coming from vessel C Hence the jet 
passing through the outer orifice F consists of a mixture of cold 
water and condensed steam. 

The pressure p^ in cylinder A can be kept at a constant height 
during the outflow, if the piston in the cylinder is supposed to be 
pushed fprward with the constant pressure p^. Let us also assume 

' See Zeuncft " Technical Thermodynamics," translated by J. F. Klein » 





THEORY. 



153 



I 



that l3ie level in vessel C is always kept in the same position by 
running water so that^ during the entire process, it be at the height 
h above the center of pipe K, and, furthermore, so, that the flow 
of water into the casing D and the flow toward the mixing pipe also 
take place at constant pressure. 

If now the jet, discharging horizontally through the orifice F is 
caught by a second pipe N and is guided by the latter to a second 
cy Under B^ the transferred fluid, in order to find room, must push 
back a piston and overcome a constant back pressure p^. 

Let us now assume that the cylinder B and the receiving tube H 
are removed, and that the water jet flows directly into the open air 
at a velocity w^ and a temperature t^. 

Before the two cocks, a and b^ were opened the heat contents of 
the wet steam in cylinder A were Gj (^i + -riPi), and Gq was the 
heat content of the cold water in vessel C; hence we have for the 
combined heat contents J^ of both spaces, 



A = G,(gi+Xi^i) + Gg 



(I) 



If the cocks are now opened and^ to simplify mattersj the weights 
Gj and G are referred to the period of a second, then Gy + ^ pounds 
of w^ater will discharge through the orifice F in this time, and, since 
the temperature of the mixture is ^2 and its velocity zu^^ the heat 
contents of the whole mass will be 



/.= (G + Gi)(?« + ^^) 



(2) 



I 



where A'it^^/2g represents the kinetic energy of the unit of weight 
of liquid, expressed in heat units. 

The heat contents I^ at the beginning, are by no means identical 
with the vakie J^ at the end of the process as work is absorbed and 
delivered by the mass during the occurrence. 

In cylinder A the piston is moved at the constant pressure p^ 
through the space G^{x^u^-\-^) ; the absorbed work L^, expressed 
in heat units, therefore amounts to 

In the vessel C the surface of the water is under the atmospheric 
pressure p and moves through the space C<r ; to this the work Gh of 
the force of gravity is also to be added; hence the amount of the 




154 TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 

absorbed work Lj expressed in heat units, sums up to 

AL,=AG(pa + h) (4) 

Finally the weight of liquid (Gi + G) flowing through the orifice 
F has the volume {Gi-\-G)<t and must overcome the constant 
atmospheric pressure p during the discharge. Hence the work L, 
in heat units amounts to 

AL,^AiG, + G)pa (5) 

As now evidently the heat contents /j ^t the end are equal to the 
heat contents at the beginning, when increased by the heat, equiva- 
lents of the absorbed work, and diminished by the heat equivalents 
of the delivered work, it follows that 

or, if we consider the relation p^ + ^Pi'^i = ^iy 

\G + G,)(^q, + A'^)=GAq^ + J^^r, + A{p,-p)]+ ^g^ 

G(q + Ah) 

This is the first fundamental equation obtained in this investiga- 
tion. We will now discuss under I a utilization of this equation and 
will continue our investigation on the injector under II. 

I. Suppose the jet flowing through F into the open air is collected 
in a measuring tank in which, at the start, Gg pounds of water of the 
temperature t^ are contained ; at the end the tank contains the weight 
(G1 + G2 + G) of liquid. Let the temperature be t^, then, if the 
heat contents at the end are 7^, we have 

J, = (G, + G, + G)q, 
On the other hand we have before the mixture 

J^=G,q, + {G, + G)(^q, + A'^^ 

Now, since no work was consumed nor produced during the mix- 
ture, we have J^ = J^, or, according to the preceding equations, 

{G + G,){q,'+A"'£^={G + G, + GM.-G,q, (7) 



THEORY. ISS 

which is the second fundamental equation for the present case. If 
we combine (6) and (7), we get 

GilQi — q^ + ^iri + Aaip^ — p)] 

= G(q,-q-Ah) + G,(q,-q,^ W 

All the quantities of this equation, with the exception of the 
steam quality x^y can be found by observation. 

If the injector is directly connected to a boiler, we are enabled 
to ascertain whether the steam, flowing from the boiler to the in- 
jector, is dry or wet, and in the latter case we can determine x^. 

If the quantities G and G^ are taken per second, and if Fq is the 
cross-section of the orifice of efflux in pipe K, in square feet, there 
flows from the formula 

FoW, = {G + Go)a (9) 

the efflux velocity ze/o, and from this the kinetic energy measured in 
heat units 

2g 2g\ F^ I 

Furthermore we find from equation (7) the heat q^ of the liquid 
and the corresponding temperature fj oi the water jet in the orifice 

The utilization of equation (9) is somewhat uncertain ; the water 
jet issuing from nozzle F has a milk-white appearance and seems 
to be loose and swollen, so that the specific volume o- is probably 
greater than ordinary water. This point was discussed in our con- 
sideration of the mechanical theory of the injector. 

II. Let us now assume, in addition, that the jet flowing from 
orifice F is caught by the receiving tube H and led to cylinder B, 
where the mass pushes back the piston, overcoming the constant back 
pressure p^- 

At the end, after the expansion, let the temperature be t^ and 
then the heat contents will be J^' = {G -{- G^)q2. The initial con- 
tents J 2 in the orifice F are determined by equation (2). The 
work L, performed in cylinder B, is 

L = {G + G,)(P2-p)a, 

and there follows from equation 



156 TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 

and with the help of the given expressions, 



7CJ 

q2\-'4^=q.' + A(p,-p)a (II) 



If we substitute this value in equation (6) we get 

G[q,' — q+Aa(p, — p)—Ah] 

= Gi[9i — ^2' + J^i*-! + Aa(p^ — pi)] 



(12) 



If we consider the injector as a feeding apparatus and accordingly 
replace cylinder A and B by the boiler, then p2 = Pif and equation 
(12) is transformed into 

G[q2' — q + A<T(p, — p)—Ah] = G,(q,~q,' + x^r^) (12a) 

If we now add G(gi — ^2') to both members of this equation 
we get 

G[q^ — q + A<r(p, — p) — Ah] 

This equation represents the principal result of the calorimetric in- 
vestigation of the steam-jet pump. 

The right member of this equation represents the heat quantity 
required for the operation of the injector. For, G^ is the weight of 
a quantity of steam and water, which in a given time, say one second, 
passes from the boiler to the injector ; it returns to the boiler together 
with the feed-water quantity G and has, after expansion, the temper- 
ature t2. 

Now, the weight (G^-\- G) must be raised from temperature /g' 
to the boiler temperature ^1, which requires the heat quantity 
(G^-\-G)(q^ — q^), and then the consumed steam quantity G^x^^ 
must again be evaporated under constant pressure, at the consump- 
tion of a heat quantity G^x^r^', the heat quantity required for the 
operation of the injector is, in fact, as mentioned above 

Then we have according to equation (13) 

Q-=G[q, — q+A^{p, — p) + Ah] (14) 

when the sign of h is changed and it is assumed that the feed water 
is not forced on the injector from the pressure head h, but has to 



THEORY. 157 

be sucked up the height h through the injector, as is ordinarily the 
case. 

The preceding equation shows that the heat required for feeding 
with the injector is entirely independent of the quantity and con- 
stitution of the steam (of Gj and x^) which is necessarily used in its 
operation; it is also independent of the temperature of the jet in the 
orifice F and of the temperature ^2 at which the water enters the 
boiler, and is, furthermore, independent of the dimensions of the 
injector, provided it works at all and does not fail. 

The two terms Aa^p^^ — p) and Ah are in practice usually so 
small that they may be neglected ; the height of suction h and the 
pressure p have, accordingly, very little influence on the heat quantity 
Q ; it therefore does not matter whether the pressure p is identical 
with the external pressure or identical with the pressure in the mix- 
ing chamber. 

These formulas give no clue as to the dimensions to be given to 
an injector; however, for the starting and setting into action, the 
suction head h and the temperature t of the feed water will be of 
marked influence. 

The comparison of the injector with the ordinary feed pump is 
of technical importance. 

Let A (Fig. 192) be the cylinder of a feed pump, F the cross- 
section of the piston, 5 the piston stroke ; let the pump draw water 
from the open vessel B through the height h. The cylinder is sup- 
posed to be open on the right-hand side, regarded as single acting, 
and the atmospheric pressure p will prevail to the right of the piston ; 
to the left of the piston the pressure will be (p — hy), wher^ y 
represents the specific gravity of the water. Accordingly the differ- 
ence of the two temperatures is hy, the piston force during suction 
Fhy, hence the work L' 

U = Fhys 

During the return of the piston the water is forced against the back 
pressure p^ into the boiler, and the work L" of this forcing action is 

L" = Fs (P^-P) 

Both works taken together give the entire pump work L (neglect- 
ing frictional and hydraulic resistances), which then amounts to 



L = Fsy[t^---^+h]. 



iS8 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



Let Fsy = G be the weight of the feed water, and, as y<r= i, we 
have for the work of the pump 



L = G[(p,-p),r+h] 



(15) 



In the boiler the feed water must be heated from t to t^, requiring 
a heat quantity Q', which is determined by 



Q' = G(q,-q) 



(i6) 



but in the present case the heat quantity corresponding to the pump 
work L is not, say AL, but somewhat greater, even if the pvmip is 




■fern 



^£^3^ 3 



Fig. 192. 

driven by a theoretically perfect engine. If we substitute the heat 
quantity <I>AL consumed in performing the work, where </> > i, there 
follows for the quantity of heat Q, which is absorbed by feeding 
with the feed pump 

Q = G{q, — q) + <l>A[(p, — p)a + h] 

while, according to equation (14 )the amount for the injector was 
found 

Q = G(q,-q)^A[(p,-p)a + h] 

Accordingly the injector, as a feeding apparatus, is superior to 
the feed pump, being, in fact, from the theoretical standpoint, the 
most perfect apparatus for boiler feeding. As a water-raising 
apparatus for other purposes than boiler feeding it is less perfect, 
especially in cases where it is not desired or not necessary to heat the 
liquid to be lifted. j 



\ 



THEORY. 159 

From all the above formulas approximate formulas can be derived, 
by leaving out the terms containing the factor A, 
In this case equation (6) gives 

(G + G^)q^ = G^(q^ + x^r^) + Gq 

or if we assume dry saturated steam, designating the total heat 
qi -f" ^1 by A, and finally, for the comparatively low temperatures 
^2 and t, substitute the temperatures themselves, we get 

Accordingly we determine, approximately, the temperature tz of the 
jet at its entrance into the receiving tube H. 

Neglecting as before, there follows from equation (11) ^2' = ^2 or 

t,' = t, (iia) 

according to which, the temperature tz of the jet, after expansion, 
can be assumed as nearly equal to its temperature ^2 at the entrance 
into the receiving tube and probably in most cases can, with sufficient 
accuracy, be taken as of equal value. 

Equation (6a) has been used considerably, but it was generally 
overlooked that it is only approximately correct. 

If the temperatures t^, t and t^ were known, there would follow 
from equation (6a) 

f =".!',■ («« 

and this would determine the weight of water G which is sucked 
in by the steam weight Gj. In choosing ^2 this formula would give 
the minimum quantity of water G necessary to effect complete con- 
densation. 

Theory of the Jet Condenser. 

In Fig. 193 A represents the cylinder of a steam engine ; suppose 
the piston be at the upper end of the stroke and the cylinder to con- 
tain Gi pounds of steam of the pressure />i and of the quality x^. 

C represents the condenser containing G^ pounds of steam and 
water, under a pressure p2, the steam quality being x^. 

A pipe, opening into the side of the condenser, ends in a spray; 
the pipe is connected with vessel D, which contains G pounds of 
cold water of a temperature t, under the atmospheric pressure pQ. 



i6o 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



The lower part of the condenser is connected by a pipe with a pump 
cylinder B. 

Assuming now the four spaces to be shut off and separated from 
each, other by the cocks a, b and c, the heat contents of the mass of 
steam and water in cylinder A are determined by ^1(^1 + -*'iPi)»* 




Fig. 193. 

the heat of the mass in the condenser by 6^2(^2 + -^2^2) > 2i^d the 
heat in the jet water in vessel D is determined by Gq. Accordingly 
the total heat contents /i, in the three spaces mentioned, are 



Ji = Gi(qi + ^iPi) + ^2(^2 + 't^2p2) + Gq 



(I) 



If now the three cocks are opened, the piston will move forward 
in the cylinder and push the mixture of G^ pounds of steam and 
liquid into the condenser, overcoming thereby the constant pressure 
p2. The jet water G passes under atmospheric pressure p^ from the 
vessel D through the spray into the condenser, and finally the portion 
of the air and hot water pump B draws in, under pressure p^, not 
only the jet water G, but also the weight G^ of steam and liquid in 
the form of water. "^ 

At the end of this process the whole mass is united in the con- 

*Zeuner, "Technical Thermodynamics" (p = inner latent heat). 



THEORY. l6l 

denser and in the pump cylinder, and at this moment the total heat 
contents in the two spaces combined are 

h = G^{q2 + ^2P2) + (Gi + G)q^ (2) 

As we assume the engine to be running normally, the term which 
represents the heat contents of the mass in the condenser must have 
the same value at the end as in the beginning. 

Moreover the mass in the steam cylinder has taken up the work L^ 
and the jet water in the vessel D has absorbed the work Lj, and 
these quantities of work, expressed in heat, amount to 

AL^ = AG^(x^u^ + a)P2 (3) 

AL2=AG<rpo (4) 

Finally there has been given off in the pump cylinder a quantity 
of work Lg which, measured in units of heat, amounts to 

AL,=A(G + G,)ap, (5) 

Evidently the heat contents /g, at the end, are equal to the heat 
contents J^ at the beginning, increased by the algebraic sum of the 
quantities of work received, expressed in unit of heat, and therefore 
amount to 

J, = J, + AL^ + AL, — AL,. 

If we now make use of the preceding equations, we get for the 
fundamental equation of the jet condenser, 

G ^ qi—q2 + ^i(pi + Ap2^i) (Q^ 

Gt q2 — qi — ^<Po — p2) 

from which the jet water G can be calculated. In order to trans- 
form this equation for practical use, t. e,, for obtaining a simple, 
approximate formula, the very small term A(r{pQ — P2) in the de- 
nominator can be neglected; moreover we can take Xj^=i and 
therefore assume dry steam in the steam cylinder and also one 
atmosphere for the final pressure of expansion ; if, besides, the con- 
denser pressure is p 2=^0.1 atm., we must assume ^1 = 100.50, 
^, = 496.30, Ap2U^ = p2/p^'Ap^u^=4.o2, [^1 = 180.90; Pi = 893.34, 
^/>2Wi== 7,236], and therefore 

G 600 Qn 

G, "~ qo — q^ 



1 62 TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 

1080 Jol 



[I 



Q2 — q J 

or, substituting the temperature for the heat of the liquid, we get 

G 600 — t^ 



G, U-t 

r_G ^ 1080— (f^— 3^) ^ 1112—^2 ] 

LG, h — t t, — t J 



(6a) 



A large volume of air enters into the jet condensers, and is 
absorbed and carried along by the jet water. Most of it is given 
off in the condenser, where a higher temperature and lower pressure 
prevails than outside; but our condenser theory is only slightly 
interfered with thereby. 

In order to take account of this fact, it is only necessary to build 
the air and hot water pump in more liberal dimensions. Ordinarily 
it is estimated that the volume of air, which is simultaneously with- 
drawn by the pump with the water from the condenser amounts 
to 11/14 of the volume Go- of the jet water. 

The Flow of Steam Through Orifices. 

It has been known for a long time' that the flow of steam through 
orifices is dependent only (for the one orifice) on the initial pres- 
sure so long as the subsequent pressure, that against which the 
flowing steam expands, is never greater than about 0.58 of the 
initial pressure. A large number of investigations, also, have been 
made toward determining the quantity of flow under this relation of 
pressures, but, in general, these have all been based on the weight 
of steam which is condensed in a surface condenser. A. Rateau 
has undertaken a series of experiments on the subject, according to 
a method which he considers gives very great precision. From 140 
sets of observations he deduced a formula for the amount of flow, 
which formula, he says, furnishes the consurnption very exactly. 

The method is to condense the steam in a stream of water with 
the use of an ejector condenser and measure the total yield of water 
together with the initial and final temperatures of the stream — ^the 
amount of water being determined by discharge through a previ- 
ously calibrated water orifice and the whole arrangement permitting 
the experimenter to make all readings at the same moment, as soon 



THEORY. 163 

as constant conditions are obtained, whereas with the more common 
method referred to, the weighing of water from the surface con- 
denser is required after a sufficiently long period of operation. 
Each experiment does not last more than one or two minutes, which, 
Rateau says, has at least the advantage over the other method, that 
the period is not long enough for any material variation to take 
place in initial steam pressure. 

The supply of steam is received through a pipe 1.97 inches in 
diameter and passes through the orifice into a pipe of 4.72 inches 
diameter. Precautions were taken to separate water from the 
steam, so that the quantity of water never exceeded three thou- 
sandths. Valves were arranged to regulate the pressure both in 
front of and behind the orifice, and a range of pressures, from 1.4 
to 170 pounds per square inch, were obtained. The three converg- 
ing nozzles had diameters at the narrowest parts, as follows: 0.41, 
0.59 and 0.95 inch. The formula for the total flow is as follows : 

H7 = 3.6P( 16.3 — 0.96 logP) 

where W is the number of pounds discharged per hour per square 
inch of area of the orifice and P is the initial pressure in pounds per 
square inch, the logarithm being that referring to the common 
base ID. 



APPENDIX. 



REMARKS ON THE NATURE OF MACHINES, 



According to Noah Webster a machine is in general any com- 
bination of bodies so connected that their relative motions are con- 
strained, and by means of which force and motion may be trans- 
mitted and modified, as a screw and its nut, or a lever arranged to 
turn about a fulcrum, or a pulley about its pivot, etc. More espe- 
cially machines are constructions more or less complex, consisting 
of a combination of moving parts, or simple mechanical elements, 
as levers, cams, etc, with their supports and connecting frame- 
work, calculated to constitute a prime mover, or to receive force and 
motion from a prime mover or from another machine, and transmit, 
modify and apply them to the production of some desired mechanical 
effect or work, as weaving by a loom, or the excitation of electricity 
by an electrical machine. 

This is Webster's technical definition of the term machine. Re- 
garding the common use of this word he says: The term machine is 
most commonly applied to such pieces of mechanism as are used in 
the industrial arts, for mechanically shaping, dressing and combin- 
ing materials for various purposes, as in the manufacture of cloth, 
etc. Where the effect is chemical or other than mechanical, the con- 
trivance IS usually denominated an apparatus, not a machine, as a 
bleaching apparatus. Many large^ powerful or specially important 
pieces are called engines, as steam engine, etc. Although there is 
no well-settled distinction between the terms engine and machine 
among practical men, there 'is a tendency to restrict the application 
of the former to contrivances in which the operating part is not 
distinct from the motor. ' 

All this shows that the definition of the term machine is rather 
uncertain, as it is very difficult indeed to comprise such widely differ- 
ing objects as a lever, a steam engine, a centrifugal pump, a dynamo 
and a steam- jet blower under the same definition. "Hence we will 
now try to arrive at a satisfactory definition, and in order to attain 

164 




REMARKS ON THE NATUKE OF MACHINES, 165 

this end we will first consider a simple machine withotit moving 
parts, viz., a jet machine. We will then try to apply the result 
obtained to the more complicated machines ; finally we will consider 
Ithe relations of machines to matter and life. 

The working of every jet machine is based upon the fact that a 
liquid or gaseous jet passes through another liquid or gas (under 
pressure, from a nozzle), causing a motion in the adjoining parts 
I of the mass, so that a vacuum would be formed, if it would not be 
I immediately annihilated by the motion of the particles of the re- 
spective substance. The jet draws and sucks in the surrounding 
mass, mixes with it and transmits to same a part of its own mo- 
mentum, so that both escape together. If now the common velocity 
fcis reduced by a counter-pressure, a corresponding part of the mo- 
mentum of the mixture is transformed into pressure, which serves 
to overcome the counter-pressure. 

If a steam jet passes through a cooler liquid or if steam is sucked 
[in by a cooler jet formed of a liquid, the steam is condensed in the 
mixing process and the suction will be the more intense, the more 
I complete the condensation, 

^P We see now that in the ordinary jet machine work is produced 
^■by using part of the velocity of the passing steam for the transporta- 
^^tion of other substances and that, in other cases, the heat of the 
steam, liberated by condensation is so transformed that it serves for 
the transportation of other gaseous or liquid substances. In every- 
one of these cases the energy content of the steam is changed. In 
each case a transformation of energ>^ takes place in the steam. The 
jet-" machine" is nothing but the housingp in which certain trans- 
formations of energies occur, and the machine proper is the steam, 
^k, e.^ the matter working in the housing. If, by some meteorological 
: reason, an immense jet of steam or hydrogen issues from the 

Psun, this jet travelling at immense velocity also represents a machine 
with "drawing"' and "sucking" action- But this jet is a machine 
without housing. In fact, the housings (for energy transforma- 
tions) built by men, have no other purpose, from a physical point of 
^^view, but to effect a transformation as complete as possible, in the 
^pdesired manner. We will now thoroughly discuss this important 
physical problem. 



I 

I 





1 66 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



IL 

It is well known that heat or heat-energ}^ always flows from the 
warmer to the colder place, the same as electric energy flow^s from 
the places of higher tension to the places of lower tension. Tem- 
perature and tension are called the intensities of the respective 
energ}^ and the above fact is formulated in the law that in the flow 
of the energies the intensities are decreased. 

We know from the law of the conservation of energies that the 
energy of the world is constant, and that energy is never lost or 
annihilated. Accordingly w^ith the decreasing intensity some other 
factor of the energy must increase, as otherwise some energy would 
be lost. To-day, indeed, everj" energy is conceived as a product of 
two factors, the intensity, which was already mentioned, and a 
second factor, called capacity. The capacity of the heat energy is 
called entropy, the capacity of the electric energy is called quantity 
of electricity. Hence temperature times entropy is heat energy, 
tension times quantity of electricity is electric energy. And the 
flow of energy, i. e., the " happening/' takes such a course that the 
intensities are decreased and the capacities increased. 

The law of the conservation of energies has the most general 
validity, no matter whether the flow of one energy or tlie trans- 
formation of one energy into another is considered. In the latter 
case such quantities of energ^ies, which can be transfonned hito 
each other are called equivalent 

The law of the conser%^ation of energies only expresses the con- 
servation of the product (intensity times capacity) : the product of 
the factors of the energ}^ equals the product of the factors after 
the change. By this law the product is fixed and determined, but 
nothing is said about the quantity of the factors. 

If we transform a certain quantity of heat energy into electric 
energy, there is absolutely no relation between the intensity of the 
heat energy to be transformed and the intensity of the electric 
energy obtained by the transformation. In fact, the mtensities of 
the various energies cannot be compared nor measured with each 
other. We cannot say, that a certain temperature corresponds to a 
certain electric tension. All this follows from the product character 
of the energy. 

Hence it is in our power to fix, to determine or to predetermine 
— in the transformation of energies — the intensity of the energy to 




REMARKS ON THE NATURE OF MACHIXES. 



167 



I 



be obtained by the transformation. The means to this end are 
called machines. 

By a corresponding change of the machine we can change the 
intensity of the energy to be obtained. With a certain waterfall 
we can eilher drive a larger wheel at lower speed, or a smaller wheel 
at higher speed, i. e.^ we can obtain the mechanical energy In the 
intensity desired. According to the construction of a dynamo we 
can transform the mechanical energy of one and the same steam or 
gas engine into electric energy of high or low tension. With the 
fixed working capacity of a pump we can either raise a larger 
quantity of water to a lower height, or a smaller quantity to a 
greater height. We can make the same observ^ation with air-com- 
pressorSj etc. The energ}% the product is fixed; the determination 
of the factors is at our command. 

An industrial machine, therefore, is an apparatus, which allows 
the transformation of one energy into another and the predetermina- 
tion of the intensity of the energy to be obtained by the transforma- 
tion. By connecting two machines in such a manner, that the energy 
produced by the first is rctrans formed by the second machine into 
the energy which was fed to the first machine, we can recover the 
'* first " energy in any intensity desired. This is a way for increas- 
ing the intensities, as foHowing examples will show : 

The energj- of a certain waterfall, i. e., a fall of certain height 
(intensity) and certain quantity of water (capacity) is used for 
driving a water wheel, the latter being connected to a pump. Not 
considering the friction losses we can raise with this pump either 
the entire quantity of the falling water to its original height, or a 
correspondingly smaller quantity to a correspondingly greater 
height. The latter case shows an increase of intensity. 

In the same way we can transform heat into electric energy of any 
desired tension, and the latter again into heat of any temperature. 
From these examples we see clearly that a machine is a means to 
increase the intensity. 

While in the flow of a single energy the intensity is always de- 
creased, we can observe that in the transformation of energies the 
intensity of the energy to be obtained depends upon the construction 
of the machine used. 

We have so far discussed the machines built by man. We will 
now try to apply onr results to the natural phenomena at large. 




[6S 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 




The earth receives from the sun radiant energy, which, by passing 
through the atmosphere of the earth is partly transformed into heat. 
As a transformer of radiant energy into heat the earth is a machine 
and the effect of the work of this machine are the geological and 
meteorological phenomena. Other kinds of machines are the plants, 
in which the radiating energy is transformed into chemical energy. 
By suitable transformation of the chemical energy contained in the 
plants we can produce any desired energy in any desired intensity. 

The animals are machines for transforming the chemical energy 
of the plants into other forms. The higher we go in the evolu* 
tionary series the more efficient are the machines and the greater 
the number of energies transformed by them. 

While in the suns the transformation of chemical, mechanical and 
heat energy into radiant energy plays such an important part, the 
nebulse are apparently machines, in which radiant energy and heat 
of low intensity, by passing through the stages of chemical and 
mechanical energy^ is transformed into radiant and heat energy of 
high intensity, whereby they become suns. 

Hence every part of the world is a machine as regards the energies 
affecting it from all the rest of the universe. For the sun as steam 
engine the rest of the universe is the steam boiler. The planets are 
machines mainly as regards the energy obtained from their sun. 
The planets evolve — in the course of evolution — machines^ the 
organismSi which transform the energies in more *' refined" forms. 
We consider these organisms the more perfect, the more energies 
they transform and the higher the efficiency at which they work. 

We now see that there are ways and means to decrease the 
capacities and to increase the intensities, these ways being based 
upon the fact that only the product of both is fixed, but not the 
factors. This causes the constantly variable change of the natural 
phenomena. If it were not possible to increase the intensities, i e.^ 
if the intensities of the various energies would have a certain ratio 
or relation to each other, then the universe, if it is eternal, would 
have necessarily died into absolute, motionless rest by reason of the 
constantly decreasing intensities. But as, according to the above 
explanation, the systems of suns, the suns, the planets, the nebulae, 
etc., arCj if their functions are considered, machines, just as the 
machines built by man, and as also all the organisms, we can under- 
stand the enternity of the natural phenomena. The eternal circle 




REMARKS ON THE NATURE OF MACHINES, 



l6g 



I 



I 



I 



of phenomena is made possible by the machine character of the 
components of the world, as thereby the intensities can be increased 
and the capacities decreased. 

If we now try to investigate more closely the nature of a ma- 
chine in general, we will find that every matter, be it organic, in- 
organic or organized is a machine, as in all of them a part of the 
affecting energies is transformed into other forms. Every matter 
and, according to our experience, matter only is a machine for the 
transformation of energies. Hence matter has in the universe the 
function of the transformer of energies. The law of the conserva- 
tion of matter insures the eternity of the transformation of energies 
by the eternity and conservation of the transformer of energies. 

It was stated above that the higher we go in the evolutionary 
series, the more varied become the functions of the machines, as 
the number of energies transformed by them is constantly increas- 
ing. The plant requires but a limited number of light rays; the 
lower animals react upon a small field of radiation only, compared 
with man. Sound waves which cause transformation of energies 
in man do not affect plants and low animals. 

Compared to the animals in which through the differentiation of, 
the senses a vast number of energies is transformed, the macliine 
character of inorganic matter is much more simple and primitive. 
Inorganic matter reacts upon a small number of energies only, and 
the efficiency changes with the matter and energy under considera- 
tion. Certain energies are more or less transformed, while others 
pass practically unchanged through the same material. Window 
glass, for instance, allows a large portion of the spectrum to pass 
through unchanged, but acts as a machine in regard to certain ultra- 
rays, while it does not at all react upon electric energy. If heat 
acts upon a copper rod, a part of the heat i^ill be transformed into 
volume-energy, the rod expands; electric energy, however, passes 
practically unchanged through copper, but is transformed into heat 
when acting upon Other materials. Certain inorganic materials 
transform radiant energy, others heat into chemical energy. In the 
formation of sulphur flowers, zinc dust and gray tin, in which the 
surface is increased, we have a partial transformation of heat into 
surface-energy. Much less varied in their functions, as compared 
to inorganic matters, are the machines built by man, as they are 
only capable to transform one energy. The steam engine trans- 



L 



170 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS, 




forms heat into mechanical energ\\ btit cannot be used for the 
transformation of mechanical or radiant energy into electric or other ^ 
energies. 

Hence we can say : All matter, all materials are machines, in all 
of them a portion of the energies acting upon them is transformed 
into other forms. The smallest number of energies is transformed 
in inorganic matters, while in the organisms the number of energies 
transformed and also the efficiency increases with the progressing 
evolution. 

This result also contains the principal difference between chemical 
and physical phenomena: In a physical phenomenon a transforma- 
tion of energ)^ takes place by means of matter; this is comparable 
to an engine, which is being started or in operation. A chemical 
phenomenon, however, means the production of a new machine 
from the parts of one or more old machines, or of two or more new 
machines from one old machine, and is therefore comparable to 
the construction of a new machine. Physics deals with the opera- 
don, chemistry with the construction of machines. 

We will now consider the difference between living and lifeless 
matter. 

We allow a source of heat to act upon a piece of iron. In this 
process not the entire quantity of heat transmitted to the iron, will 
pass through same, as a part of the heat is used for increasing the 
volume of the iron, until the latter has reached the volume cor- 
responding to the higher temperature. From this moment on all 
the heat passes through unchanged. We can say that the iron is 
adapted to the " irritation " produced by the source of heat. Re- 
garding the property of receiving heat from the outside and giving 
it off again, the iron behaves like living matter, through which also 
a flow of energ)^ is passing, without changing its form and con- 
struction. In this respect the iron Is a stationary^ formation, just 
as an organism. The same considerations can be made Avith all 
matters: they are all stationary formations as regards the energies 
of the rest of the world acting upon them. 

From this standpoint the difference between lifeless and living 
matter is the fact, that through the latter a flow of chemical energies 
is passing, while through the former " matte rless *' energies are 
flowing. The process of assimilation in living matter corresponds 
to the transformation of non-chemical energies in hfeless matter. 



HEMARKS O:^ THE NATURE OF MACHINES 



171 



I 



In living matter every transformation of energies leaves a per- 
manent impression, a lasting change. We are not what we have 
been an hour ago, though the difference in many cases is hardly 
noticeable. Lifeless matter also furnishes examples for this " per- 
manent change/' Spelter, which is brittle at ordinary temperature, 
becomes soft and tough if heated to about 120° centigrade and 
retains this property also after cooling. If we heat two pieces of 
steel to the same temperature and then cool the one quickly, the 
other slowly, the way of the cooling will be permanently impressed 
upon every piece. A photographic plate is permanently changed by 
radiant energy. Albumen heated to the temperature of coagulation 
remains insoluble. It is hardly necessary to go on enumerating 
more examples, as we always assume, in our daily w^ork, without 
ever being disappointed, that the results of transformations of 
energies are practically permanent. I feel sure that I will find the 
result of the t^^^pe writer upon this sheet, if I will look at it to- 
morrow. 

The law of the permanent effect is also correct for more delicate 
reactions. A steel beam of the Brooklyn bridge is not the same 
to-day, that it was yesterday. The permanent vibrations, the con- 
tinuous transformation of mechanical energy into other forms have 
caused changes in the crystallization, etc., of the steel. In this case 
we have also a flow of energy, a transforming machine, a stationary 
state and an adaptation, which progresses until the adaptability — this 
property is specific for every matter — is exhausted. 

We return again to the piece of iron, upon which heat energy is 
acting. The energy acts here like an irritation,, and this affection is 
so changed by the iron, that the irritation ceases to be an irritation, 
w^hich is effected by the expansion of the iron, i. c, by the trans- 
formation of heat into Tolume-energy. When the force of resist- 
ance of the iron against the change is exhausted, then it is adapted 
to the irritation. In a similar way a photographic plate gets adapted 
to the energies for which it is a machine. Hence the adaptation and 
the permanent impression (memory) is not a characteristic of the 
living matter. 

Another quality frequently ascribed exclusively to living matter 
is the vital self -conservation and the active resistance (egoism). 
However we find these same qualities, though less varied and 
naturally more primitive, in lifeless matter. The common spelter is 




173 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



also egoistic, it resists its transformation into the "malleable" form, 
and a large quantity of heat energy must be expended to overcome 
this resistance. Iron resists any increase of temperature by *' auto- 
matically " increasing its volume. This " resisting " is a funda* 
mental qualit}^ of matter, as the period of resistance is identical with 
the period of energy-trans formation. Without resistance there 
would be no transformation, as the latter comes only into effect by 
the resistance of matter and the pressure of the outside energies. A 
certain pressure is necessary to coin a gold-piece, just as a certain 
presstire of conditions is necessary to change our conduct or our 
face. The effect of a sudden, great accident is indeed very similar 
to the efiect of a coin-press. Hardly has it happened and already 
we are adapted to it as if we knew it since many years. 

Even the process of regeneration, which is now considerably ex- 
ploited by the " vitalists *' is found in lifeless matter : lo cases, where 
through a change of the chemical equilibrium the concentration of 
the hydrogen ions is decreased, hydrogen ion is *' reproduced." 
Hence also this difference is by no means qualitative, but only 
quantitative. 

The growth of the organisms is identical with the crystallization 
of lifeless matter. 

Adaptation, which from our standpoint is identical with memory, 
is the fundamental phenomenon of the lifeless and living world, 
from the simplest inorganic processes up to the most complicated 
mental processes, which in their highest form are conscious and 
intentional: Upon adaptation is based the imitating behavior of 
animals and man and the adaptation to certain impressions is the 
main factor in human education. 

We now see that all differences betw^een lifeless and living matter 
are only quantitative. Lifeless matter reacts upon a few forms of 
energy only; living matter upon a good many. Lifeless matter has 
a more limited adaptability as compared to living matter. How- 
ever, through both a flow of energy is passing, which' on its way 
is more or less transformed into other forms of energy. 

Finally I want to say a few words about the function of energy. 
We have seen that in the reaction bet^^een matter and energy not 
only the latter but also the former is changed. Hence it is the func- 
tion of energy to act as a transformer of matter. 

We have therefore arrived at the result that the transformation 




REMARKS ON THE NATURE OF MACHINES. 1 73 

of energy and the ttansformation of matter is caused by the re- 
action between energy and matter. The "permanent effect" of 
the transformation of energy in matter is the origin of " memory," 
while " adaptation " is explained by the resistance of matter to the 
process of transformation. Memory and adaptation are the two 
main factors of evolution. 



TABLES. 









TABLE 


OF LOW PRESSURE 


STEAM. 








II 

-v.B 


It 

PQ 


Total Heat '. 
from 32° Fahr. 
B.T.U. per Lb. 1 




1. 

> 


Weight in Lbs. 1 
per Cubic Foot. 


'it 


li 

H 




nP 

i"5-5 


i 

X.26 


> 




p 

Is 


60 


1072.2 


1100.2 


.26 


29.40 


.0008 


1220 


xio 


1037-4 


27-34 


.0038 


263.2 


61 


1071.5 


1100.5 


.26 


29.38 


.0008 


1176 


HI 


1036.7 


1115.8 


1.30 


27.27 


.0039 


256.4 


62 


1070.8 


1100.8 


•'I 


29.36 


.0009 


1136 


112 


1036.0 


IZ16.1 


^•3i 


27.19 


.0040 


250.0 


63 


1070.1 


1 101.2 


.28 


29-34 


.0009 


1099 


"3 


1035.3 


1116.4 


1.38 


27.XI 


0041 


243.9 


64 


1069.4 


1101.5 


.29 


29.32 


.0009 


1064 


"4 


1034.6 


1116.7 


1.42 


27.03 


.0042 


237.5 


65 


1068.8 


HOI .8 


•30 


29^30 


.0010 


1031 


"5 


io33^9 


1117.0 


X.46 


26.94 


.0043 


231.0 


66 


1068.1 


1102.1 


•31 


29.28 


.0010 


1000 


1x6 


1033.2 


i"7.3 


1.50 


26.86 


.0044 


224.7 


67 


1067.4 


I 102.4 


•32 


29.26 


.0010 


970.8 


117 


1032.5 


1117.6 


1-55 


^M 


.0046 


218.8 


68 


1066.7 


1102.7 


.33 


29.23 


.0011 


934^6 


ii8 


1031.8 


1117.9 


1.59 


.0047 


212.8 


69 


1065.9 


1103.0 


•35 


29.21 


.OOZl 


901.0 


119 


1031.1 


1118.2 


X.64 


26.59 


.0048 


207.0 


70 


1065.3 


I 103.3 


.36 


29.19 


.0011 


869.5 


120 


1030.4 


1118.5 


1.68 


26.50 


.0050 


201.6 


71 


Z064.6 


1103.6 


•37 


29.16 


.0012 


840.4 


121 


1029.7 


11x8.9 


1.73 


26.40 


.0051 


196.9 


72 


1063.9 


1103.9 


38 


29.14 


.0012 


813.0 i 


122 


1029.0 


11x9.1 


X.78 


26.30 


.0052 


192.0 


73 


1063.2 


Z104.2 


.40 


29.11 


.0013 


737-4 


123 


1028.2 


1x19.5 


;:li 


26.20 


-0053 


X86.9 


74 


Z062.5 


1104.5 


.41 


29.08 


.0013 


763-4 , 


124 


1027.6 


XX19.8 


26.09 


-0055 


182.7 


75 


1061.8 


1104.8 


.42 


29.05 


.0013 


740^7 ! 


125 


1026.9 


XX20.X 


1.93 


26.00 


.0056 


177.6 


76 


1061.1 


1105.1 


•44 


29.02 


.0014 


7i9^4 1 


126 


1026.2 


XI2O.4 


X.98 


25.88 


.0058 


X73.0 
x68.6 


Vs 


1060.4 


1105.4 


•45 


28.99 


.0014 


699^3 1 


III 


1025.5 


1x20.7 


2.04 


25-77 


.0059 


I059-7 


1105.7 


•47 


28.96 


.0015 


675^6 


1024.8 


IX2X.O 


2.10 


25^65 


.0061 


164.5 


79 


1059.0 


1106.0 


•49 


28.93 


.0015 


653.6 , 


129 


1024.1 


XX2X.3 


2.X5 


25^54 


.0062 


160.3 


80 


1058.3 


1106.3 


•50 


28.90 


.0016 


632.9 ' 


130 


1023.4 


IX2X.6 


2.21 


25.42 


.0064 


156.3 


81 


1057.6 


1106.6 


•52 


28.86 


.0016 


613.5 


131 


1022.7 


XI21.9 


2.27 


25*30 


.0066 


152.5 


82 


1056.9 


Z106.9 


•53 


28.83 


.0017 


595.2 : 


132 


1022.0 


1122.2 


2-33 


25^17 


.0067 


148.6 


83 


1056.2 


1107.3 


•55 


28.79 


.0017 


578.1 


133 


1021.3 


1 122.5 


2.40 


25^04 


.0069 


144.9 


84 


1055 -5 


1107.6 


•57 


28.76 


.0018 


561.8 

1 


134 


1020.6 


II22.8 


2.46 


24.91 


.0071 


141.4 


85 


1054.8 


1 107.9 


.59 


28.72 


.0018 


546.5 


135 


1019.9 


1123. X 


2-53 


24.78 


.0072 


137-9 


86 


1054.1 


1108.2 


.61 


28.68 


.0019 


529.1 ! 


136 


1019.2 


XX23.4 


2.59 


24.64 


.0074 


134.6 


87 


I053-4 


1108.5 


.63 


28.64 


.0019 


512.8 


137 


1018.5 


XI23.7 


2.66 


24-50 


.0076 


131-5 


88 


1052.7 


1108.8 


.65 


28.60 


.0020 


497.6 


138 


1017.8 


1x24.0 


2.73 


24^36 


.0078 


X28.2 


89 


1052.0 


1109.1 


.67 


28.55 


.0021 


483^1 


X39 


1017.1 


II24.3 


2.80 


24.21 


.0080 


X25.2 


90 


105 I. 3 


1109.4 


.69 


28.51 


.0021 


469-5 1 


140 


1016.4 


X 124.6 


2.88 


24.06 


.0082 


X22.X 


91 


1050.6 


1109.7 


•71 


28.47 


.0022 


456.6 , 


141 


1015.7 


XX24.9 


2.95 


23.91 


.0084 


XX9.2 


92 


1049.9 


IllO.O 


•74 


28.42 


.3023 


442.5 1 


142 


1015.0 


II25.2 


3.03 


23^75 


.0086 


1x6.3 


93 


1049.2 
1048.5 


1110.3 


•75 


28.37 


.0023 


429.2 


143 


1014.3 


"25.5 


3^" 


2359 


.0088 


113-5 


94 


1110.6 


•78 


28.32 


.0024 


416.7 


144 


1013.6 


II25.9 


3^19 


23-43 


.0090 


XXO.7 


95 


1047.8 


1110.9 


.81 


28.27 


.0025 


404.8' 


145 


1012.9 


XI26.2 


3-27 


23.26 


.0092 


X08.I 


96 


1047.2 


1111.2 


•83 


28.22 


.0025 


393-7 


146 


1012.2 


1126.5 


3^35 


23-09 


•0095 


105.5 


97 


1046.5 


1111.5 


.86 


28.17 


.0026 


381.7 


Wl 


1011.5 


1126.8 


3.44 


22.92 


.0097 


103.0 


98 


I045-3 


1111.8 


.89 


28.12 


.0027 


37o^4 , 


1010.8 


1127.1 


3-53 


22.74 


.0099 


XOO.7 


99 


1045.1 


1112.1 


.91 


28.06 


.0028 


358.8 , 


149 


lOlO.I 


1x27.4 


3.61 


22.56 


.0x02 


98.42 


too 


1044.4 


1112.4 


•94 


28.00 


.0029 


349-6 


150 


1009.4 
1008.7 


1x27.7 


3-Z^ 


22.37 

22.X8 


.0x04 


96.16 


toi 


1043- 7 


1112.7 


•97 


^7-9^ 


.0029 


340- i 


151 


XX28.O 


3.80 


.0x06 


93-99 


102 


1043.0 


1113.0 


1. 00 


27.88 


.0030 


33i^i 


152 


ioo8.o 


XI28.3 


3^90 


21.99 


.0x09 


I03 


1042.3 


1113.4 


i^o3 


27.82 


.0031 


321.6 


153 


1007.3 


XI28.6 


3^99 


21.79 


.ox XX 


89.78 


104 


1041.6 


"13-7 


X.06 


27.76 


.0032 


312.5 


154 


1006.6 


ZI28.9 


4.09 


21.59 


.01x4 


87.72 


'05 


1040.9 


1114.0 


1.09 


27.69 


.0033 


303-3 


155 


1005.9 


XX29.2 


4.19 


21.39 
21.18 


.01x7 


?5-Z^ 


106 


1040.2 


1114.3 


'•i3 


27.63 


.0034 


294.1 
285.7 


156 


1005.2 


XX29.5 


4-29 


.01x9 


lit 


107 


io39-5 


1H4.6 


^•i5 


27.56 


•0035 


III 


1004.5 


1129.8 


4-40 


20.96 


.0x22 


108 


1038.8 


1114.9 


1.19 


27.49 


.0036 


277.8 


1003.8 


1130.1 


4-51 


20.74 


.0x25 


80.00 


109 


1038.1 


1115.2 


1.23 


27.42 


.0037 


270.3 


159 


1003.1 


1130.4 


4.62 


20.52 


.0x28 


78.19 



174 



TABLES. 



175 



ir>ir>^^roroM n ^ ^ O 
- --00000000 



^ ^ ^ ^ ^- i^i^ ^ ^ ^ X JK ^ "NOO t^ t^vO vO »r> »r> ^ Th ro ro 

O O O O O O O O O O O O 0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0^0\OnOnO\ 



ro 0\ "^ 0\ ** 0\ f*)00 fOt^N r^Nt^ — NO •^u^0\'^0\ TfOO rooo 
!r3"3'Sr>^£»*^ '^"* Q Q ^ 2^00 00 »^ ^^ u^ »r> ^ «<[• ro ro « 
O O O O O O O O O O O 0^0\Q\O^Q\Q\0\O^Q\Q\OsOsO\Os 



I o 



t^NNO •-NO O tri O wi Q \n o^ ^00 rooo «r>*NNO t-u^O*'^ 
O O O O O O O O O O OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnO\0\0\0\CK 



r>* moo «^oo fot^N t^« t^«vo ^ »nO»nON^O\ rooo n r^ n 
O O O O O O O O O O OnOnO\0\0\0\OnOnOnOnO^OnOnOnOn 



I 



O »n On ^ On mOO fOOO roOO N t^i-NO i-nO O »OOn^On^On 
^conNi-i^QQOn OnOO 00 r«» r^NO NO u^u^^fOfOM N I-" 
O O O O O O O O OnO^OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOn 



OOOOOOOOC 



M^ Qn ^00 fOOO rot^Nt^NNO ^ tr% O u^ 
OnoO 00 r^ r^NO NO u^u^^^mroN N •- 
OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnCKcKOn 



O 
H 

2 

< 
> 

O 

CD 

o 

H 



8n 
n8 



00 "^ On ■^ On rooO fOOO fOOO N*>*i-«nO "-NO Ow^O ^On ■^00 ro 

'^^S^SiSJiJi^CC^ onoo 00 t^ t^NO NOiou^^ThfON n ^ >^ 

O O O O O O O O OnOnOnOnO>OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOn 



ION t^Nt^«-NO i^NO wvO 
fOfONNi^'^QOON ONOO 
^ ^^OOOnOn- 



O O O O O O 



ir> O -* On TfoO rOOO N t^ m 

- - *^ t^NO u^u^TfTff*-. rON N 

OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnCKOn 



fO O u^ On Tf On fOOO fOOO fOt^N t>»i^NO ^ u^O u^On^ 
rorONi^'^QQON OnOO 00 t^ t^N© nO u^"->TfTfrON N 
O O O O O O O OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOncK 



O t^ N NO "-NO 
rON N 1^ i-i Q 
O O O O o- O 



I u^ O u^ Q '«*• On TfoO fOOO N «>» N 
< O^ OnOO 00 t^vO vO vn vn ^ ^ fO CO 
I OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOn 



§, 



t^ Tj- On f^OO fOt^Nt>»CS«^«vO "-"iOOioOn 

N M 1^ •-■ Q Q On OnOO 00 t^ t^vO vO vn vr> ^ fO 

I OOOOOOOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOn 



8__U^OM^OTfON 
Q On ONOO 00 t^ r^vO vO u^ Tf 
O OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOn 



Tf On '•^ On moO pOOO n t^ 
OnOO 00 t^t^NONO tOvoTf 
OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOn 



I N On Tf OS fOOO fOOO N t^ •- n© •-» nO O 
fi ^ ^ Q Q On OnOO 00 t^ t^N© vO ir^xj^ 
O O O O O OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOn 



• NO O u^ O w^ On 



00 Tf On TfOO fOOO ro t>^ N t^ N 
•-. I- Q O On OnOO 00 t^ I^nO v© 
O O O O OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOn 



VO N t^ N N© »-i V© 



\ TfOO rooO f*)t^ N 
Q On OnOO 00 «^ t^ 
O On On On On On On 



•- u^ Q u^ On 

8 On OnOO t^ 
On On On On 



ir> C4 S© M 

8 Q On On 
O On On 






I ^C 



I 



c 



"5 S 



3 


> 
^ 






Cu 


i/i 




^ 


i/> 




jQ 


8 


5 


u^ 




;l 




I! 


etf 


o 


i 


o 



;x 



(1) 


O 


a 


o 


na 


^ 


<u 










u 




o 


j:^ 


frf 


c« 


v2i 






0) 






j= 










N 


o 




O 


;x^ 




o 


(1) 


O 




Tf 


r/) 


N 


a 


a 


a 


u 


o 


<u 


TS 


a 


c 


^ 


VC 



w3 o 



O »^ 
W N 



NWNNWNNNNWNNNNNfOPnfOrorororo I 



Ijfi 



THANSPORTATIOK OF MATERIALS. 



Flow of Steam througli Pipes, — The approximate weight of any 
fluid which will flow in one minute through any given pipe with 
a given head or pressure may be found by the following formula; 



tV^ 87 






in which ff^ = weight in pounds avoirdupois, rf^ diameter in 
inches, I? ^density or weight per cubic foot, /^^^the initial pres- 
sure, /^a^ pressure at end of pipe, and L^^ the length in feet. 

The following table gives, approximately, the weight of steam 
per minute which will flow from various initial pressures, with one 
pound loss of pressure through straight smooth pipes^ each having 
a length of 240 times its own diameter. 

For sizes of pipe below S-inch, the flow is calculated from the 
actual areas of " standard " pipe of such nominal diameters. 

For horse-power, multiply the figures in the table by 2. For 
any other loss of pressure, multiply by the square root of the given 
loss. For any other length of pipe, divide 240 by the given length 
expressed in diameters, and multiply the figures in the table by the 
square root of this quotient, which will give the flow for i tb. loss of 
pressure. Conversely, dividing the given length by 240 will give 
the loss of pressure for the flow given in the table. 

The loss of head due to getting up the velocity, to the friction 
of the steam entering the pipe, and passing elbows and valves, will 
reduce the flow given in the tables. The resistance at the opening, 
and that at a globe valve, are each about the same as that for a 
length of pipe equal to 114 diameters divided by a number repre- 
sented by I 4- (33.6 -^diameter). For the sizes of pipes given in 
the table, these corresponding lengths are: 



H 


I 


iK 


. a 


^H 


3 


4 
60 


5 


6 


i 


10 


1* 


»5 


18 


30 


as 


34 


41 


47 


S3 


66 


71 


79 84 


S8 


92 


n 



The resistance at an elbow is equal to % that of a globe valve. 
These equivalents— for opening, for elbows, and for valves — ^must 
be added in each instance to the actual length of pipe. Thus a 4 in. 
pipe, 120 diameter (40 feet) long, \vith a globe valve and three 



TABLES. 



177 






O 

o 
PC 

X 
H 

< 

H 

O 



S 

O 



:*i 



asi 



0\ ^^ ^ 0\ ^ fi ^ 






fOOO 0> 0^ N t>. »r> CN ^00 tO^O « 
»r> nJ no vO t^ ONvO 00* l>i t^ »r> CO l>i 

o\i-. M Qoo »nwQ6 ^o\«n »noo 

Tfvo t^OO 00O\OO«»-'NfOTf 



ro ro I>i0q ro »r> OJ* ro ON »n « OnnO 
NO u^nO* I>i N* t-i NO dsOO « N 00 QN 
ro ^ ^ u^nO nO vO r>* t>»oo 00 0\ O 



M^ N NO vO "? ON f^^O fO "^X ro t>. 
cr^oo* « d ^ ^ fo CTv ^ «r> ON « r4 
O u^ O ^ t^ O ro u^oo O « t^ « 
IN N ro ro f*) ^ ^ ^ ^»n»nM^vO 



NO ONvq 00 ON rO fO ^NO ON ON «-« N 
M t4 M M* ON NO t^* »r>00' ON N »/> »r> 
«-« roNO 00 OS O fO ^ w^NO 00 O ro 

MMMMMC4MMNNNrorO 



^ On ^ On CO ^ t^ fO fO OnOO On ^ 
VO* «^ d fONO' l>i 1^ I^NO* rO CS t4oo' 
r>* On «-« « *0 ^ «ONO t^OO On O « 



xn ro »- 
q « ^ ON 
vo' Kvo' uS N ON uS *n' r^ i-T t-^NO 00* 
^»r>NO t^OO W On O O •-« »^ W f*> 



« rONO N ONt^vO « On ^vO ''J- «i 

•-•, q ro ON q^NO q « « t^NO no ^ 



^ 



irjNO 10 ro ON i>i r^oq 
uSoo « Tt- K dv i-t* fo u^NO* 00* »-•* *A ' 
•M M c4 c« N M rorororOfO^^i 



u^Tf Tf30 
•M ir> t^. U-> »-i 


NO rou^u^t^t^*^ 


« TfNO 00 


On »- N 
S « N 


« « N C» fO 


u^OOOO 
VO ON "^ 




ONt^ Tj- 


ONO rO?& 


u^vOOO 


OnO 


d ^ «* 


rofO^»nNO 


ir> Tj- t^ Tj-OO 00 u^ "^ u^nO "^ nO 
"^ On fONO OnM iot>*ONNNO ^ 


N M M 


N fOfOTj-Tj-^Tj-ir> IONO 


NOO N N N^ 


t^ N NO On N^ ^nO «^ 



NWNNMMNrOfOl 



V 

(A V V u 



S V s w 

^C!5 a 



, 4 ^3 V 
O B 13 

■32 



OOOQOOOQOQOO! 



: 3 « 

•- >>o 2. 



:c^ 



I7S 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



elbows, would be equivalent to 120 -|- 60 + 60 + (3 X 40) =3^ 
diameters long; and 36o-^240^=i>4. It would therefore have ij4 
lbs. loss of pressure at the flow given in the table, or deliver 
(i-r^ ViJ^^'Si6) 81.6 per cent, of the steam with the same 
(i tb.) loss of pressure. 

Flow of Steam from a Given Orifice,^ — Steam of any pressure flow- 
ing through an opening into any other pressure, less than thr^e- 
fifths of the initial, has practically a constant velocity, 888 feet per 
second, or a little over ten miles per minute; hence the amount 
discharged in pounds is proportionate to the weight or density of 
the steam. To ascertain the pounds, avoirdupois, discharged per 
minute, multiply the area of opening in inches, by 570 times the 
weight per cubic foot of the steam. 

Or the quantity discharged per minute may be approximately 
found by Rankine's formula : 

W^6ap-^7 

in which J^ = weight in pounds, a = area in square inches, and 
f ^absolute pressure. The theoretical flow requires to be multi- 
plied by fe =13 0.93, for a short pipe, or 0.63 for a thin opening, as 
in a plate, or a safety valve. 

Where the steam flows into a pressure more than % the pressure 
in the boiler; 

in which 8 = difference in pressure between the two sides, in pounds 
per square inch, and a, p and k as above. 

To reduce to horse-power, multiply by 2. 

Where a given horse-power is required to flow through a given 
opening, to determine the necessary difference in pressure: 



2 \4 I4a^i 



Equation of Pipes. — It is frequently desirable to know what num- 
ber of one-sized pipes will be equal in capacity to another given 
pipe for delivery of steam, air or water. At the same velocity 
of flow two pipes deliver as the squares of their internal diameters, 
but the same head will not produce the same velocity in pipes of 
different sizes or lengths, the difference being usually stated to vary 



Ik 



TABLES. 



179 



as the square root of the fifth power of the diameter. The friction 
of a fluid within itself is very slight, and therefore the main resist- 
ance to flow is the friction upon the sides of the conduit. This 
extends to a limited distance, and is, of course, greater in propor- 
tion to the contents of a small pipe than of a large. It may be 
approximated in a given pipe by a constant multiplied by the 
diameter, or the ratio of flow found by dividing some power qf • the 
diameter by the diameter increased by a constant. Careful com- 
parison of a large number of experiments, by different investigators, 
has developed the following as a close approximation to the relative 
flow in pipes of different sizes under similar conditions : 

3.0 ' i/J+3^6 

W being the weight of fluid delivered in a given time, and d being 
the internal diameter in inches. 

The diameters of " standard " steam and gas pipe, however, vary 
from the nominal diameters, and in applying this rule it is necessary 
to take the true measurements, which are given in the following 
table : 

TABLE OF STANDARD SIZES, STEAM AND GAS PIPES. 



W 



■" w+3.6 



i 
•8 

a 


Diameter. 


s' 


Diameter. 


' «r 


Diameter. 


s 


Internal. 


External. 


Internal. 


External. 


Internal. 


External. 


</) 






vn 






Ui 






^ 


.27 


.40 


2/2 


2.47 


2.87 


' 9 


8.94 


9.62 


% 


.36 


1^ 


3 


3.07 


3.5 


10 


10.02 


10.75 


H 


.49 


.67 


3K 


3.55 • 


4 


1 II 


11.22 


12.0 


^ 


.62 


.84 


4 


4.03 


4.5 


12 


12.18 


13 


H 


.82 


1.05 


4/2 


4.51 


5 


13 


13.14 


14 


I 


1.05 


I.3I 


5 


5.04 


5.56 


14 


14.09 


15 


i^ 


1.38 


1.66 


6 


6.06 


6.62 


: i.S 


15.05 


16 


i>i 


1. 61 


1.90 


7 


7.02 


7.62 


16 


16.00 


17 


2 


2.07 


2.37 


8 


7.98 


8.62 


17 


16.96 


18 



The table below gives the number of pipes of one size required to 
equal in delivery other larger pipes of the same length and under 
same conditions. The upper portion above the diagonal line of 
blanks pertains to " standard " steam and gas pipes, while the lower 
portion is for pipes of the actual internal diameters given. The 
figures given in the table opposite the intersection of any two sizes 
is the number of the smaller sized pipes required to equal one of 
the larger. Thus, it requires 29 standard 2 inch pipes to equal one 
standard 7 inch pipe. 



'i iSo 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIAI 





'm*iQ 








- 


t^ H ^^. n " - i4 .A »A o b; .A t^ :^ H k.* " « « -; - B ^« Q 4 


- 




't 




>o 






m 

N 


:0 




2- 


«1n 

m 

< 


m 


3 ^6 F- -* io*jQ *0 pv Okf^ ^- P^ ^^^ii PJ Di*t>Of*^or>h^ai Mien 

5 J S-*^" g^^ jjj^ ^.H^ ^« 4 .' »^ - «V^ ^ ri ^4„^ j^g^ 


en 


O 


« 




s 


: 




N 







a 


C/3 

Q 


Ok 




Ok 


DO 




„ 1 


g 


t* 




1^ 


1 

s 


tCl 




SO 


in 




*J1 


o 

i 


♦ 




^^ 


en 




m 


? 






o 


M 




n 


w 

^ 


^ 




^ 


H 


- 




- 




^ 


r. ph « T^O 131 


• 
lit 




^ 






■iniria 




'nwia 



TABLES. 



i8i 



H 

z, 

I— I 

:^ 

I— I 

<: 

O 
H 

U 

D 






o 
o 

D 
O 
P(^ 



O 
O 



PJ5 



h4 
O 

Q 
Z 

O 
0^ 



-tpanoj Sex 



vO 

-^ CTvoq "^ 

roMQO OOO 





O »^ »n 




^^o^ "^t-oq 


spanoj ooi 






»- N TTvO 0\ 



'spanO({ 06 



\0 t"* t^ O 

>NiAro^>^vO t^ro 

N Ok »^ t^oo ^ 

C4 rou^OO 



'spano j og 



rorON 
CO CO CO w 



r 



'spcmO({ ol 



•spanoj 09 



O C4Q0 

i-T^O't-^iiooO^tN 

•1 vO u^vO W d W 

•1 W "*v5 vO 



•spunoj oS 






CO 'iJ-OO O W ^ W O O 

»H m CO fOvO N »H rO 

»-iWrowv»^0\ 



■spanoj £* 





»H C4 fO-^vOOO 


'spanoj 0* 


^ t^ w '»!■ fOOO t^ fO 'ij- 
»-•»-• fO 4^5 t-* 


'spanoj S£ 


i-i »-i N Tj- ir>t^ 



'spano J o£ 






MOO 



•^ Ov' 



C^ N ro»r> C 
N CO ^vO < 



2 !■ 



'spanO({ Sz 



fO 

fO Tj-VO 



spunoj oc 



Omo 

•1 00 fO 



t^ O ONfOrOt-*00 rt O 
rovO N On t^ t^ 0\ t^ 

■-■ ll M CO Tf ts. 



I 'spunoj Si I 



fe ll 



•spunoj 01 



•spano^i S 



•«panoj z 



CO 00 

O ►"• t^ 10 o o 

>-^ -^vq vq *>* q 

►M vO vO o' *^ t^ O vO t^ vr> O 

WvO O^O ^M N\0^ 

»H >-i d CO ^ vQ 0\ 

00 TfvO »i^ 

q CO CO Tt-oq q q 

' NN i/> »-i' o^ t^vo vo *>» o CO o 

W Tj-OO CO OnvO \n rt-OO 

>•* -^ N C O w> t^ 

*>» 

0\ N in 



rovr>TfNi<vO coO\t^'^0 10 1 
»-• covO On roOO tJ-00 »n0O 

_ 1^ ►.<_ N ro m On 

00 co*>» to ~ 

ro»n">«J-cn">«J-»nQQOOOOOO 

o. *^. ^. '^ *^ ^ Q q vq ";» q q q q 
' N cr\ ►"•' o» 1.^* t>. a»vo esf o u^ 

N C«%\0 00 ".^ m TT m N 
ll ll M COvQ I 






». - H. d I 



l82 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS: 



NUMBER OF THERMAL UNITS (B.T.U.) REQUIRED TO HEAT A 

GIVEN QUANTITY OF DRY AIR A CERTAIN NUMBER OF 

DEGREES FAHRENHEIT, COMMENCING AT 32° F. 



Cubic Feet. 



Heated. 





1 ,0 


100 


; 1.92 


200 


i 3M 


300 


1 5.76 


400 


1 7.68 


500 


9.60 


600 


i 11.52 


700 


13.44 


800 


i 15-36 


900 


1 17.28 



2° 


3- 


4° 


3.84 


5.76 


7.68 


7.68 


11.52 


"5.36 


11.52 


17.28 


23.04 


15.36 


23.04 


30.72 


19.20 


28.80 


38.40 


23.00 


34.56 


46.08 


26.88 


40.32 


5376 


30.72 


46.08 


61.44 


34.56 


51.84 


69.12 



60 



9.60 


11.52 


13.44 


19.20 


23.04 


26.88 


28.80 


34.56 


40.32 


38.40 


46.08 


53.76 


48.00 


57.60 


67.20 


57.60 


69.12 


80.64 


67.20 


80.64 


94.08 


76.80 


92.16 


107.52 


86.40 


10368 


120.96 




WEIGHT OF AIR. 






100 
200 
300 
400 

Soo 
600 
700 
800 



Weight of Dry Air at Different Temperatures, the Barometer Standing at 
29.92 Inches of Mercury. 

32° 35° 40° ; 45° I 50° I 55° ; 60° 65° ' 70° 75° 80° I 85° ' 90° ' 95° I ioqoI 105° iio< 



8.07 
16.14 
24.21 
32.28 
40-35 
48.42 

56.49 
64.56 
72-63 



8.02 7.94 
16.04 15-88 
24.06 23.82 
32.08 31.76 
40.10 39.70 
48.12 47.64 
56.14 55.58 
64.16 63.52 
72.18 71.46. 



7-86| 7.79 
15.72 15.58 
23.5823.37 
31.44 31.16 
39.3038.9s 
47.16 46.74 
55.0254.53 
62.8862.32, 
70. 74I 70.11! 



7 71' 7.64 
15.42,15.28 
23.13 22.92 
30.84 30.56 
38.55 38.20 
46.26 45.84 
53-97 53.48 

61.68 61. 12 

69.39:68.76 



7.571 7.50 
15.14 15 
22.71 22.50 
30.28 30 
37.85 37.50 
45-42 45 
52.99 52.50 
60.56 60 
68.13,67.50 



, 7-43, 7-36 
4.86 14.72 
22.29 22.08 
29.7229.44 
37.15 36.80 
44.5844.16 
52.01151.52; 
59.44I58.88 
66.87:66.24 



7.29 7.23 
14.58 14.46 
21.87 21.69 
29.16 28.92 
36.45 36.15 
,43.74 43.38 
151.03 50.61 
58.3257.84' 
65.61 165.07, 



7.16 7.10, 7.03 6.97 
14.32 14.20 X4.06 13.94 
21.48,21.30 21.09 20.91 
28.64 28.40 28.12 27.88 
35.8o'35.5o 35.15 34.85 
42.96 42.60 42.18,41.82 
50.12 49.7o'49.2X 148.79 
57.2856.80:56.2455.76 
64.44 63.90.63.27 62.73 



HEAT REQUIRED TO WARM AIR. 



100 
200 
300 
400 
500 
600 
700 
800 



Number of Thermal Units (B.T.U.) Required to Heat a 


Given Quantity of Dry Air 






a 


Certain Number of Degrees Fahrenheit. 






1°33 


47.58 


3%. 


4°3e 


5° 37 


6°3S 


! ^" 


8° 40 


9%» 


47-58 


71.37 


' 95.16 


118.95 


142.74 


\ 166.53 


lt% 


2x4. IX 


95.16 


142.74 


190.32 


237.90 


285.48 


333.06 


428.22 


71.37 


142.74 


214. II 


. 285.48 


356.85 


428.22 


1 499.59 


570.96 


642.33 


95.16 


190.32 


285.48 


380.64 


475-80 


570.96 


666.12 


761.38 


856-M 


118.95 


237.90 


356.85 


1 475.80 


594-75 


713.70 


I 832.65 


951.60 


1070.55 
1284.66 


142.74 


285.48 


428.22 


! 570.96 


713.70 


856.44 


I 999.18 


1x41.93 


166.53 


333.06 


499-59 


1 666.12 


832.65 


999.18 


1165.71 


1332.24 


lf.M 


190.32 


380.64 


570.96 


1 761.28 


951.60 


1141.92 


1332.24 


1522.56 


214.11 


428.22 


642.33 


856.44 


1070.54 


1284.66 


1 1498.77 


17x2.88 


1926.99 



TABLES. 



183 



EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE UPON THE MOVEMENT OF AIR. 







. 










Relative 












ReUUve 


Relative 


Power 










Relative 


Pressure 


Power 


Necessary 


Tempera- 
ture in 
Degrees 
Fahren- 
heit. 


RelaUve 
Velocity 
Due to the 

Same 
Pressure. 


Relative 
Pressure 
Necessary 
to Produce 
the Same 
Velocity. 


Relative 

Weight of 

Air Moved 

at the Same 

Velocity. 


Velocity Necessary 

Necessary to Produce 

to Move the the Velocity 

Same to Movethe 

Weight of Same 

Air. i Weight of 


Necessary 
to Move the 

Same 
Volume of 
Air at the 

Same 


to Move 

Same 
Weight of 
Air at the 
Velocity in 

Column 












Air. 


Velocity. 


sand the 
Pressure in 
Column 6. 


z 


a 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


30 


0.98 


1.04 


1.04 


0.96 


0.96 


1.04 


0.92 


40 


0.99 


1.02 


1.02 


0.98 


0.98 


1.02 


96 


50 


1. 00 


1. 00 


I.OO 


I.OO 


I.OO 


I.OO 


I.OO 


60 


1. 01 


0.98 


0.98 


1.02 


1.02 


0.98 


1.04 , 


70 


1.02 


0.96 


0.96 


1.04 


1.04 


0.96 


1.08 


80 


1.03 


0.94 


0.94 


1.06 


1.06 


0.94 


1. 12 


90 


1.04 


0.93 


0.93 


1.08 


1.08 


0.93 


I.I7 


100 


1.05 


0.91 


0.91 


1. 10 


1. 10 


0.91 


1. 21 


125 


1.07 


0.87 


0.87 


I.I5 


1. 15 


0.87 


1.32 


150 


1.09 


0.84 


0.84 


1.20 


1.20 


0.84 


1.43 


175 


I. II 


0.81 


0.81 


1.24 


1.24 


0.81 


1.55 


200 


I.I4 


0.78 


0.78 


1.29 


1.29 


0.78 


1.67 


225 


I.16 


0.75 


0.75 


1-34 


1.34 


0.75 


1.80 


250 


I.18 


0.72 


0.72 


1-39 


1-39 


0.72 


1.93 


275 


1.20 


0.69 


0.69 


1.44 


1.44 


0.69 


2.07 


300 


1.22 


0.67 


0.67 


1.49 


1.49 


0.67 


2.22 


325 


1.24 


0.65 


0.65 


1.54 


1.54 


0.65 


2.36 


350 


1.26 


0.63 


0.63 


1.59 


1-59 


0.63 


2.51 


375 


1.28 


0.61 


0.61 


1.63 


1.63 


0.61 


2.66 


400 


1.30 


0.59 


0.59 


1.68 


1.68 


0.59 


2.82 


425 


1.32 


0.58 


0.58 


1.73 


1.73 


0.58 


2.99 


450 


1.34 


0.56 


0.56 


1.78 


1.78 


0.56 


3.17 


475 


1-35 


0.55 


0.55 


'Po 


''l^ 


055 


3-35 


500 


1-37 


0.53 


0.53 


1.88 


1.88 


0.53 


3-53 


525 


1-39 


0.52 


0.52 


1.93 


1.93 


0.52 


3.72 


550 


1. 41 


0.51 


0.51 


1.98 


1.98 


0.51 


3.92 


575 


1.43 


0.49 


0.49 


2.03 


2.03 


0.49 


4.12 


600 


1.44 


0.48 


048 


2.08 


2.08 


0.48 


4.33 


625 


1.46 


0.47 


0.47 


2.13 


2.13 


0.47 


4.54 


650 


1.48 


0.46 


0.46 


2.18 


2.18 


0.46 


4.75 


675 


1.49 


0.45 


045 


2.22 


2.22 


045 


4.93 


700 


1.51 


0.44 


0.44 


2.27 


2.27 


0.44 


5.15 


725 


1.52 


0.43 


0.43 


2.32 


2.32 


0.43 


5.38 


750 


1.54 


0.42 


0.42 


2.37 


2.37 


0.42 


5.62 


775 


1.56 


0.41 


0.41 


2.42 


2.42 


0.41 


5.86 


800 


1.57 


0.40 


0.40 


2.47 


2.47 


0.40 


6.10 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



-^i 



^ Ills 
2 slsts 



8^«! 



HW I 



it 








M M ej fo^ 

' M M >4 

H H H N H 

M T" ■! N 


-•'si 

n rt li 

*^« 

H » n 

q« * 

cncnrt 


s^ 






M 


■5 






". 1 

M H 


Sr 






33? 


t 






■i'STt 


** ** ^ ** 


J^ « isJ « ft 
n n n M M 


V 






»+ M n w ♦; 






H 


M H H M 4 






4H H H H M 


a 




♦Haw 


f* PH HP ii n 


■^ in r^q\H 

« ' cj « CO 


cocntn 


ii 




M tj mi^ 


k* N « H « 


c^ce o ro tn 


rt * * 


a 




tj rt f^ IS, 


*4 tl n n n 


a M in r^o 

p5i rt m iTi "J- 




^ 




h, HF rt H H Ff 


N fi n n rir> 




Q rt ij 
1^ 1^ in 


H 




ft irj f t^oo *^ » 




fC* * * kr> 


%ss 




* 






4^ «"invi^ 


:ssz 


^ 




11141414 nnnnfn 


n en -* + ■*■ 












■*• 4 ■* *n in 




^iS 




M 




■fl'-L?} 1^ And 




^ M « 


3 J 




t^xQD IT. D 




r*^ r*?* 


s 


M li H 


nnnrtf^ Ti"icin who 




Ml « rt -* 

H K n H N 


OW3« 


fl 


i4 H H n 




yp m;j ** rtl 


m jift-«og 


S'ia 


s 


H M h n r^ 




H S ETJ'S 


JT's^sjr 


m Ti rt , 


a 


•^ N It W m t*l 


^J-TO-c e% ed cj\ ■" '^ "^ 


:f^^3'8 


et f/ltn i>.B 
n N « fl ?h 


^ 


mt^ n 4»^ ^ N « 


^;5^.j a-;r^- 


S'SS^S*^ 


ffi p^ p^ tn ^ 


?:ss? 


»^ 


H *• ■h E*V rt f m** 


Siss:t s^^ssj 


^^•^^% 


%^^:i% 


3^s 


« 


"3~'S, :j:^j'5S 


SITE'S s a'S?^*^ 


^^^^"^ 


g!^a^ 


ss^s 


Ifl 


"S?2,:S 11'^ 


'S^r-sPv st;5:s,is 


jsseis 


k1 M H H 


B*B 


♦ 


? "S+S'S: s-aa-i?!? 


s,5???^ ^k,e:ss; 


1Sr5& 


ifisr 


T^^ 


rt 


5"§, Ari2-» ■«»«»«. 


H HI H n F7 IH S 


?^^n 


um 




M 


rfSi 'SS'S.g.'S, R-as-g-a 


^1?ss SE^sj 


hmi 


mn 


m 


ft 


S^a-a 8MH ||?g* i^Hs iipi 

Hflf^^-sn <jf*«^g ^siTS'ir ^r^S'^ n S( ^ETfT 


rt ^Ij- +^- 


Hlil 


III 


^S^S^ft 


KiJiS;;;!!; 


%srR 



TABLES. 



185 



PRESSURE IN OUNCES PER SQUARE INCH. 
Inches of Water Column and the Corresponding Spouting Velocities. 



Pressures per 


Height of 


Air Velocities, 


Pressures per 


Height of 


Air Velocities, 


Square Inch 


Water Column 


Feet per 


Square Inch 


Water Column 


Feet per 


in < mnces. 


in Inches. 


Minute. 


in Ounces. 


in Inches. 


Minute. 


2 


3.468 


7338.24 


12 


20.808 


18350.34 


3 


5.202 


9006.42 


^3 


22.542 


19138.26 


4 


6.936 


10421.58 


14 


24.276 


19900.68 


5 


8.670 


11676.00 


15 


26.01 


20640.48 


6 


10.404 


12817.08 


16 


27.75 


21360.00 


7 


12.138 


13872.72 


17 


29.478 


22060.80 


8 


13.872 


I4861.16 


18 


31.212 


22745.40 


9 


15.B06 


15795.06 


19 


32.946 


2341500 


10 


17.340 


16683.51 


20 


34.680 


24070.80 


II 


19.074 


17533.50 









r = 2.0376 inches of mercury, 
I lb. Pressure-! =2.31 feet of water. 



( = 27.672 inches of water. 



AIR PRESSURES IN INCHES OF V^ATER. OUNCES PER SQUARE INCH 
AND THEIR CORRESPONDING VELOCITIES. 



Pressure per Square Inch in 
Inches of Water. 



tV 

H 

/i 

H 

•A 

2 



Corresponding Pressure in Ounces 


Velocity Due to the Pressure 


per Square Inch. 


in Feet per Minute. 


.01817 


696.78 


.03634 


987.66 


07268 


1393.75 


10902 


1707.00 


14536 


1971.30 


[18170 


2204.16 


.21804 


2414.70 


.29072 


2788.74 


.36340 


3118.38 


.43608 


3416.64 


.50870 


3690.62 


.58140 


3946.17 


.7267 


4362.62 


.8724 


4836.06 


I.OI74 


5224.98 


1. 1628 


5587.58 



i86 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



O 

o 



C/5 



X 

o 
o 

H 
O 

;2:; 
<J 

Pk 

< 

O 

o 

H 
U 

»s 

a: 



U 

:s 
;2:; 

8 
2 

P^ 
O 

^; 
<J 

Pk 



isoq •JH* 



•ui 'bs jad "zo 

ui ajnssajj 

jo ssoq 



»■ M M VO tN lO C 



» m moo t% « -^ m t* < 



8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 S S 8 S ?3-?^*8 ?S ?^S H??^^8.?« ^« ?>8v^ 

ddddddddddddddodddddddddddddoMMMMwwcn 



8 nU IHIS 5^?1 Hs,iilHRl§H|lHHHi 

666666666666666666666666^**MtM 



I « « en en-* 



I QM^o>o«MvpeDoooovo t^eo 3 ffv « »^ O <rJvo ■♦ »«^ en »5 ^ « oo o\ ovoo (i oo to 
'uonou JUT xfixR'^'*^''* " '♦■ 0\ «o « 08 ro^ « o\eo JO M VO H r^ <«• mr^M mvC ^^^ ** « 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOMMMfieicn 



, ' 'UI 'bs j»d "zo I 



j^ Ul i« a«»«i *v»i MiowOM-*op\Qco 0*00 g\Noovo t^Qvo cor^M looo M en »^ Q fo »ooo Ov '^ a\ et <«' 
UI ajnsssj j | qqqqqqqq^-MMMScjNcnfn-^-^-^io r^^ q^ 1 <* T^ 'T' ^ 1 'T^ '?^. T 
JO ssoq 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOi' 



I « « « en en -^ 



I M ■♦oo rs. pMO r^>o « vp Q cnvo w o\ h t>»oo 00 00 ■♦ n o\ « rN.00 •♦►< ■♦m ooo\o 10 

•uonnu J ni 8 Q Q a ►^ ^ ^vo Ov cnT> fn o>vo ■♦■♦■♦ rs. r^ lo^ n c« 00 m fn<> lovo owe n S h 10 

JSOT '-T' W I O00000O000000000000«HM«e«cn"«- lONO r^oo o m ■♦go cnoo 

G ■ — 

«o "! "" ■"'" *" I ft 7S w « m io25 dj M env3 cnoo « 10 o «o o 10 tNjJ cnaS »« « 8 Q « »o T. 8 «o "^ 8 
I UI aanssaj J qqqoqqqqHMwSe;«cnrn'*'f»o io\q eo <>rq « -^no 00 q e; -^vq « »^ m q 



JO ssoq 



OOOOOOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOi 



iNciNficncn'^-io 



•UOpDUJ Ul 



•UI 'bs jad "zo 

u; 9Jnss9j j 

JO ssoq 



a I 



•nopDuj UI 



•UI 'bs jad "zo 

UI ajnssaj^ 

|o ssoq 



o M cnr^-*>oQ_o ■♦vo •♦ ■♦ r^ o moo •♦m«o« a cno\m gvo »^ r^ en p ■♦ m lo ■♦>p 

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 S 5 § S S*???^ ??q^ 8 S" ?^ S ^ Sv? S<X»'§. §^| ?5J 

dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddoMMcici 



« vQ •♦ >o O t^oo « o\ o\ « p\oo M r^NQ o\ ■♦ m to en ■♦en'«-g»ioior^«i o Q o\r^eioo ■♦ 
00 w «i ■♦Jor^o « ioo\«v2 M 10 o »o M rN moo m t>.f« « m»o»-^8 «^»« O* »^ h 
q 8 q q q q q H H « H « ^ pp f^ ^ ^ ^ »ovq vq os q n f\o 00 q « lo* q \q <f q» rs. 

ddddddddddddddddddddddHMMMM«cJcJcJenm'*'-*io 



O H m\o ctM'^-MCiovNHOOci lovo t^oo mn m mt^r^ov r^>o m\ovovo ■♦m e«\o 
8 QQ ••• « mior^5\mr^M rs. mo 00 t^oo g\vo 1^ •♦ t^ r^ *0\ « ^ ■♦ ^ tv© •♦mm 

8888 8 8888?SS8S ????^ q S ?J:s^ ?»%^?v?S<?1^^S? 
66666666666666666666666666666666*i*i*ifi 



« r^tN-o^o t^M 0*0 io-*-t^mmt^'*>oo ovmvo r^« « r^\o m •♦mr^ovi^t^t^t** 

8 M m ^no o» m 1000 «>o M\o M r^m8^ ■♦ 0>»C >« •fl'O o\ ■♦ 8 »^*o o «o >o o *© 
000008MMM««mm-*-* >ovo "O r^eS o e» ■♦o 00 m •^\o o* « »o « 8 00 O 



ooooooooooooooooooooo» 



iHcictcie«mm'«-to io\o 



•UOUDUJ UI 

5SOT -d'H 



, 'UI *bs jad *zo 
I UI aanssaj j 
I JO ssoq 



OM«iooooooe«oroom«r^ pvoo >o«t^MQ««-^Moor^»o ■<rop h 00 00 00 o »^ 
Q Q Q Q M M 5j ■♦vSas M ■♦oo N t>>mooo\osb* ■♦ lo m mo ■♦ 10 m« « m m m m -♦ 
5BQ8Q55QQfiaS'^'*2!5?3":f ^^ ^ ** '♦^ wr^tiooiONMOMvo 1000 
oooooooqqqqqqqqqqqqqqMMMNeimm"* >o\o fJ. o* m ♦ t^ 

666666666666666666666666666666666>i>i>i 



qqqqqt>MMMc;eimpn-*io ^vq rN.o5 00 q « »o *t* S *! "O*} T'C'T^'II^^Q 



ooooooooooooooooooooc 



iwweiwmmm-* »o\o vo 00 



I O M « ♦op «•■ m ■♦00 vooo ■♦lOM mM lotom^^-^-ct m io\o 00 •♦ r^ »^ ** O ■♦00 00 

•iinmij J in Q Q Q Q^ ** c* rh ■♦3 oo m ♦oo « r^«oo loS o mv© looo 05 Oxoo « (^iQ\ m m onTJ r^ 

uonouj Ul 8888QQQQQOl5MMM««mm^-ipK.c>M^-t^M lo 0_vo « oo \o m S^vfi « 

I JSCT "^T'W I 8ooo8888o88qoqqqqqqqqqMMMc;c;mm^-^-»ot>.o*H^- 

^ lan ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddMM 



■^ I •UI -bs jad 'ZO 
I UI ajnssaj({ 
JO ssoq 



?S J?5vg^8%^^'R^8v??{?S 5^8 ?S ?8 f:'^8 ?S 8 S 58 K8 5 S 8 

OOOOqMMHCiejen-^-^ io\q t».cio q» 8 m envq oo m looq cjvq q •♦cSen^-ior^q 

666666666666666666ti>^ 



t « « « mm^^^- «o\o 00 00 o 



O O M mo M t^ lovo o\vo vQ osvo r^ m ■♦ o\ o t^oo iohoo OMOo\mo mmm^M r^o 
•iinii'MT Till I 88000'-''^'Nt^ ■♦*« °S O mvo '•■oo ♦ o\ e» 00 r^oo mw ♦m « r^r^Moo t^o m 
uoi)3U j Ul I 858QQQQQQS885a'^5595PSP iP^ <5 ^^^ ovmt^Mv© n ♦■ovK.r^ 
jso'T "rT'H qqQ?Q9ww<5Q^9^^99Q9^9^^9l*1*1'1'^*1'T*T T'O'*?*? o 



oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooi 



"7 I 'in 'b^ jad •zo ♦lomo'wmMrNQOoo mvo >p moo o Q t^M mm^^-m« m q o\vo m »o m io lo m 
^ ui Lw» aju *u M m lo OS mao m8P.-^m«« m^-P.8 moo os m o d en o\oo 8^«ior^mMwm 
SooqqMMCjmm-^ »ovq t^oo <>o « f?T'^*1 '9W^'?*^^°*: 'T^'O't "^ovo m 



UI ajnssajj 
I JO ssoq 

U0113U j UI 

•UI •bs jad •zo 

UI ajnssaj^i 

JO ssoq 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOmmmi 



I « « m m ♦ ■♦ >o lovo r^oo o m m 



I io« « t^^N t^Mvo e» mo\« ■♦ looo lo »o r^ ■♦ o> 
-.--,. I mvo Ox N vo to looo « o»oo ov^m m ♦mio^o m 

J 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 ? 3 S 5 3 8 8 ? JS'S'f 2 2 K"S S J^^J?*?*?:. 

666666666666666666666666666666666666 

•♦eiOOOOvQNVOOvOClQ 0\ Ov 0«ioQvO«O\QvOvOQO\«Q«OvQiOQf«e«0 
O « tooo m 8 t^ to to to r^ 6 mco \ne*QQQ(*dgOintr>Q«nciOf*o6QQQt*t*o 
8ooo>^S«w-^ lovq 00 q\ q N •♦vq cB 6 ejvq « ^^f^^qvo ■♦« qoooo l».oo o ■♦ 8 
dddddddddddddMMMMM«fJc5mm-4-to lovd t^oo oo d- d (i to rv d 



Q Q Q M t* ♦\Q oo N r^ « o\vo tovo 00 MvocnNOoo o rnvo m ov vO oo 
•UOU3UJ Ul i fixX8fi88X'^"'*'^^'?t X*^ *S ??* ^ m ^* c« owo ■♦ ■♦ ♦ P» Jb to 
5So^ 'rTW 0000908888888888883338^ ?S'q"8 00 S 



I ^soTj^H 



000000000 000000000000000000000 



i-zo s ±8^^8 5S 8 2 58^^81: 8 S 51^8 5 S 8^58 5*? 

JO sso^ ^^^^^^^^^, -^ .^.^ ^~» ~ ^ -.« 



000000000> 



I « N m m ■♦ ♦ tovo t^oo o M « ♦vo t^ 



•ajnuiK J^d ,aaj ui , 8 g §^§.8 J g.| §^§ § Hll^^ U |§ § ||J § § || J § HI §| § 

JIVT JO AJlDO|3^ j MMMMMMH** '* ■.»*»** »••»•.. 



iw««««cncnfnroco'^'^'^'*io »c>c 



TABLES. 



187 



iz; 
S 






B 

O 

h 
o 

12 

CD 
C/3 
<J 
Pk 



(3h 
O 

% 

U 

P< 






C/3 

P< 

O 
Q 

cr* 

CD 

U 



53 BB Oq oo do o5**h, F^^tiW &\^\nt>,^^ -^^o B ^ r^ ^ t^^S 'O cj* 'f 



>1i01 dj^ j 



'HI 'bs jad "xo 
JO wnrj 



I ddodoadddddddddddddddddddd 



^ 1^ t^ ^ ^ h« iO\C D HI 

oddddd?^^*; 






I 



dddooddddoooodddddddddpdMN"»-7JMiir*j4- nHy? ^ 



'Ul -bs J3d -XQ 



ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddNM«H 






dddddddddddddddddddddddddwHlwhtMMffi-4- ih-o ^ 






'UE 'Ira Jsd 'ZO I H « giflO trns tntt r* ** H rnnnoH+CT'O ♦« g t^-n ^(O vjc^-«'tnQvi» m fn *to fce 



JOSSO^ J 



Dodg'o'DddodddddddddddddddddddddddHMHM 






g t*irtiw M h* inrtHM o Q M'i fr^un-^TT'^^^CKyiy'^rir, o o O tftnys m« h moo 
5 3 M^^p^NiO^PiT*^f* OM"v««sp +mCi OtftH Sifrfli t*i lOQ tji bi^ r^ **o 
U Sa Sa H*^ "3 PT4knr^*Hi (Tuc a TS ^ irtlr.tiJ n ^irt &. * w rt ^ « in ■^S ^ 
OfiOoqflqciDOflonqwwpHh^^e^r^ifiri t-,q8 S *flDo -^ ^-oo ^j tA 00 « 

dddddddddddddddddddddddddwMwi^flnTifn'fl'HnT^ 



■ ui " DB lad '*D S " fh" S* * fl ^^'^ ""'"^ *^[S ■^■ji?''^^ "^jfl 5 ^J?S '^^ S S* " S ^ (!}rf2 " ^ ^ " S 

JQ SWn 



doddddddddoddddddodddddddddddddwMHMi 






^^8^ 



I 



J -J -' J -- -: -' ^ J -! -: J * J J _' j ■ * ^ > ' * ■ _i ' _J 



^oaoH'HHH.qflie 



'ai'bs jsd^zo 
ui ajn?B9^ 



■1IO[|3UJ UI 



HooodoooQ 00 MMMMMRfli(*Kn + * uT^a t^* da aso i-i ♦mp o « 
dddddddddd dddddddddMWM^MK 



M M " 

Q q 

ddoodddddd 



I a M fn tn g>i e«> p^yg in 

I^SSSfloSSo' 
ladddadddd 



ifloa w o^ & t M •• M irt 3- tf ^ d t^ s^ O fi ffl 1^ -a- <>. r^ 44 
qq qq mm«m ft^im^-iri »^^ e « -^^c o*- « & t^i'o t^ 
dddddddddddddddMMMMM*^"f;mH,('^ 



-in -bs X9d -zD 
ui <Mne!i;aL4^ 






□ I aonisajfi 
"josBiri 



tqqqqoqSMMMMliMejMcvi ^^ J^^o t^oa qs 5^ '^ n rrnS « w ft 

idddddddddddddddddMWMMM-Tp 



1 ?9^&.R!^^?,'S S 



|^5i^^(ji5qqqq' 
iodododddDd 



tfi Ti^MflO hvJH f-i,4H r^,«j i£j g-. Lfl^ mg ifti^o !t%inc [>,„. 

^ ^*E_ :i "^ 'a" vf^ ^--^ 't ?*» s^Ji s-^ -i- o «? « s >« 

q&qflMhMMiip^^' wl^CJ "^ 5^ q « -^-r-a^i/^No * 
ddddddddddddgddd*HMMM«Hfri*4- 



^DQoadddodd 



dddddddddddddddo*H*M4MtHMfJft 



j W] aJTiE^ajcj 

JO HO-l ' 



I ^ q q 3 ^ 
iodddooftoDO 



\l%i\ 



\ mrtn iTvi^O^dyD chM rng *\o o CO no h. * 
J k#i ifl 1^ M BO i^ F- M 3 if] ^t t! iS * ►^ a LTi 75 n Q 
JMTHMM^fir^. ^hn r^-OO H en h^OO rr, o f^iO 



q" S' q* q^ 

dddddddddddoddod'' 



dDOffdddddddddddddddooQdddddMMMMMMtipr- 



'UDCpU j HI I 



I 1*1 tn kn fnao n men + -n t- 



I M M m n +00 ■* fl M M ( 



dddDocodDoddddddddddQdddddMMMMf;;tirq^ 



00000 



'ui-bs jsd'io 
ui imssaj^i 

JD B5Cr| 
•UOIJDUJ UI ' 

•UI "bs jad 'zo 

UI 9JnSS3J({ I 

JO sso^ I 



%n 



q q q o qqq mm mm NwAftcncn^ ^ftsq r^» * o ft m -^-u;! rs k* ih St r 
ddocoddddd' 



igcsoaoaaao?ooooor<i 



» M M M et « n m 



iqqqoqoqooq 
'\ 6666666666 

! 8 8 3 q q^q 
idddddoddod 



•♦ On On fO «0 m 

M S\ 0\ H cn b\' . . . ___..-.-.. 

CO rp 3->b (>.(» N ■'i-CMi^M S\5\0\M -^ONf* 
qqqqqoMHMMNfpfp-^ifi r^oo on m 
dddddddodooooooodoM 






5" M 5h-^r^-^roo\roPO 

■+00 t^ fovo 00 o >o N vo 

" -^ '^ "^O •♦ M u% OS Ci 

— 10 q »o M On 

M N « CO CO' 



-I 

u-)0oo t^OxN r^>«'<it-g\« fON ov ■*oo o\ o^vo n vo t^ m 00 vo ! 
-ii-i^onn »«o\nvo qoooooo o\Q mvo o to m 00 •♦ n toS m' 
MMMNNwrprp-*-^ >ovq »> q\ O m rh -^vo ts. q\ en t^ h vo 

ddddddddoddddoMMMMMMMcJcimcol 



•ajnuTj^ jad jaaj ui 
jiy JO AjiDop^ 



I « « N N N rofncomcr>-*'<ii--*-^io iriv© I 



1 88 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



O 



(3h 






o 

o 

X 
O 



(Z4 
O 

o ^ 

SI 

Q 

:^ 

CD 

;2:; 

8 
2 

tfi 
O 

Q 

< 

D 

CD 
CD 

P^ 
Pk 



•UOl}OUj[Ul j 8 8 8 




'ui 'bs jsd *zo 
JO s»oq I 



•uoijouj tn 
'SOI 'd'H 



•ui 'bs jad 'zo 
JO ssoq 



11- 



•UOIJDUJ Ut 



•UI "bs jad 'ZO 

UI 3JmSS3J({ 

JO ssoq 



•UOTJOUjJ UI 

jsoq -JH 
•UI 'ba-jad 'zo 

UI 9JnSS3J({ 

JO sso^ 



§ 8 i ??? ?3 3 s ? 8 ?! |?flf ?|s ??f I? H>gs5Ht 

do'dddoddddododdddooddododdddddddoooo 

■)op en M meb 
• o5 « O « c>> 

ddddddddddddddddddHHficiforo-^io »^vd t^ d {n^d d> 



000 

Q H C« 



en vr> r^ O cnvo < 



SSSqqqqqdqoqoqqqqqHMMMNwejcjcncptn-^ "flvq »s, 
666666666606666666666666666666666 



§88835 §^f^.*8 q T^ « I?r2>fs Sv*S i?,i S«sl; 8^1^ ??>?'? H 

ddddddddddddddddddddd>-HM««cn'4-'4- «flvd r^ d* « »r>od 



8 8 8 8 8 8 S 3 S si ????S'^f S"*? 2 2 f? 2^3 ?« ??«r??^? 
666666666666666666666666666666666666 



I i« 5\r^ r^ O 

> 8 8 q q 3^ q' q « 

\ 666666666066666666 



\ m 10 

» <> IT) - 

* O ro r^ 



t% r^ Ox t^>p QvOvO "iH «NO «vp r^-^io r^oo <i Q h 
t^ r^ ■♦ o\ « -^ ■♦ ■♦o ■♦►' H Q^FoQoovpvp^ « fnp en 
M>p «o6vo -^ «■▼ Ova^ ■♦0\H 5 i5*3lJ? ^ >o « tn 
« « en en ■^ liivo 00 o «»n.m inn r^enooo r^tN.M o\m 



< H c« c« en en -^ lo iflvo oo m en »^ 



•UOIJDUjJ UI 



888 

d d d 



I lo ov enoo eno«r»e« oxt^Mi-^ 



\ r^ li^ -^ en c« enxo ** oo r^oo O ■♦ P oo.\o m^ \o en 
(vQ r^oo OS M en wioo Q en»o o enF«0 ■♦en«« en 
_^____w_____-0OqOHMMM««Nenenen'*'* invq t^oq 
ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd 



) rN M t^ o> « O t^oQ \o t^ «« -^-oo ei o r^r^ci m oxh (i>ooo ■♦'^^Oxi^mxoq ■♦ 
1 ■♦O'l'i'^'^t^N^ iflosoMnentN -^00 m ■♦ m r^vo en « t^ n g\ envo en m m 5v •« 

>ooqqqqqqHMMeij«en-^-^iot».qcj»nqx enoo en q\xq ■♦ h q e« f. ?«. 

)666666666666666666***^**>^^^^^'* lovd o6 d e« lo 



•UI 'bs jad •zo ' 
UI ajnss9J(£ I 
JO ssoq 



I •♦\o O\«\o ir>0xO eno\t^QNen« m m e« toMoo t^o\<i r^i/i^ior^c« enc« o\ 

1 8 1 8 3 3 § S ?????f S-^S 8^2 2 ? « ^ ? J? 8^ ^^ ? ^'I^S^S 9^% 

\ 666666666666666 6 6 6666666666666666 



•UOUDUJ UI 

jsoT -j-h' 



H moo ei en en t% o e« M o « u , . ^ 
o O M •♦00 -"ii- e* enoo vooB -^u^m end •< 
OOOOoHNen •♦*5 00 m •♦oo n F» fi w - 
qoooooooooqMMMpjejenen-^ 
6666666666666666666666* 



?)^2 5:s2e2 5.g.?Jl5"3 5.,2^ 

1 o tnoo « o^oo <«t ^Q\ en m o^l) r^ 
3\M ♦rNH loo^o eioovo en«\o e« 



I enco'^-^ior^oxH 



•UI "bs jad 'ZO j o h « 
UI ajnssaj^i j 
JO ssoq 



M « ♦ rN o ■♦oo c«oo ♦o t^-*e« hq oenw ♦ooooo OJ-w O m ♦g»oo m h q 

SOOOHMMNNen*-* invo t^co o\ o ii eno oo h moo c^vfi o -i-ONen^mr^o 
OOoOOOOOOOOOOOOOHMMMMtntntnenen-*^-* irivo t«.oo O 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOi 



•uopoujj UI I S « S 



00 •♦oo ♦lo-^ioe* ■♦t>-e«a 



8^ ,^ ,_.,_.„ ,.„_rNenQNQC7\'* ♦xo o « ■♦ c« vo en ■♦ mvp m oo ♦oo 
enr^ei p mo\0\e* O eno enc<\oc6 menei m mvn o\oo moo t^ r^ F» o\ ■♦ t^ o» 
p H S en-^mtN'O envo p ♦ on ■♦ r^en« -*-po ■♦enM\o p OO t^vo ■♦ ■♦ 
OOOpqqqHHMSejNen-* ♦o oo q en\q q> enoo e; oo ♦ q m en 4oo 
6666666666666666666>iH>i*i(i'imm-i- mvd oo* d « 



•UI •bs jad 'ZO 

UI ajnssajjj 

JO ssoq 



§H en moo MmpmMm-i-eipoxoo^pMen o\oo onwoovo t^Qvo ♦♦mM moo m 
ppppHMNMenen-* mvp \q t^co p m « -"ii-r^p ♦r^w mP ♦on'tom eno m 
PPOPPOPPPPPPOPPPHMMHMStuNenen^^-^-mm t^oo <> m 



•UOIJDUJ UI 






.. .. _)vpoi 
\q mM >o c 



_ ... J onoo « en en h c 

.-Onm -il-t^M mpvo NVO OS? 

)PPPPPPP«^MMe>ie^enen-* m<S c 



5 vo N vo ( 
■n en ■♦ mv 
ippppppppppppppddddppt 



■) ♦ m r^ o^ H 



UI 'bs jad 'ZO 

UI ajnssajj 

JO ssoq 



•UOUDUJ UI 

jsoq -dH 



•ui "bs jad •zo 
UI ajnssajj 

JO SSO'J 



9 00 00 g> en e« m ooo p ■♦ « 
ovS t^oo p M N envo p en t^ 

SqPqMMMMMSpiCJ 



««\OenPM\oc«M< 



enc5 m 
oTp «i 



PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPOPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPmi 



t envo p ^« mvo ovv . 

18 8 3 3 3 p S"q*8 



c>p ent-ivo M wvo otr^-* ♦oo vo t^ fi vo M » ♦vo en p p 
ie8v5 t%eneng\pQ5 t--mMoooo '♦■oo en p en « en m m Kq 
O envo P •♦CO ♦ o\ Pt 00 t'.M ene» ♦m S r^r^.cvoo r^p S 
MMMSMNcncn mvo » P envO a>enr^Mvo e« ■♦o\'*«t>. 



POPPPPOPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP* 



I «i en en "^ mvo oo p 



^ moo ♦ p t^ m 

J M M N tn en ♦ -. 
I p p p p p p p 



I en en en m r^ p ♦oo ov en p p en p\oo p menenr^enn m en 
ivQ tN.oo p'P « en^r^M mpvenP»«i<)0 enovmn mHvo en 
OPPoMMMMMf)P)«cnen^^m mvo r^oo p m en 



PPPPPPPPPPPPPOPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPMMM 



I -UOUDUjI UI 

I Jsoq 'd'H 



8p 00 p Ov «^ (^ envo p r^P n mm« ♦?« r^vo ei r^p e<vp p ovenMrnn o\oo oo 
en m p m en envo w 8 m r^vo ov«^P t^P n o^enm owo oo «eio moo m i^mmH 
p H M N en ♦vQ 00 p N mco t^ F«m t^ovcnn h ♦m mvo rnvo « ■♦ m o « ov 
PPPPPPOpMMMMtuftmen ♦vo oo p n moo m m 0\ ^^ o\ m ih m Q\ 



ppppppppppppppppppppppp 



5 t -ui -bs jad -zo I g g J 

^ I ui ajnssajj q q 5 

JO ssoq I o p 6 



I M M (« (1 (1 en en mvo oo o\ 

•Q O ■* O'n (^ poo r^ t^oo Ov « m gv en o^ « ovoo m r^vo ov^enmooo '♦cn^g\ 
TjHMMpjtn^^ mvp r^cQ p m S ♦ m ov envo m mpmM t^eno^ h r>i'4-« 
pqppppppppp7>MMHMMMe«t^enrn-*-^m ir>\q *^ t>. qv p e« •♦ 
666666666666666666666666666666tiHH 



•ajnuij^ jad jaaj[ 

UI Jiy }o Ajpoja^ | 



i Hiyai §.§ I i lip. im i m i § m uuui 



I M f) N N f) N enenenenen^'^'^'^m mvo 



TABLES. 



189 






§ 

I 
1 

.a 
.s 

< 

% 
> 

i 
1 

! 

1 

1 
1 

2 

i\ 

i 


M 


»H* 0\vO fO N d CKOO 00 t^vd vd vO in ir> in -^ 

(4 M M M »^ M 


1 
1 

4) 

1 

08 
«M 


a 
u 

1 

c 

& 

1^ 

s 

§ 

1 

> 

c 

1 

.2 

CO 

a 

1 

en 


1 

1 

e2 


1^ 

.2 S 

!=§ 

11 

'♦3 3 
08 OS 

>■ a 
« — 
a i> 

il 

l« 
II 

ri 

^: 

^^ a 

i - 

• "S 

2i c 
a, "^ 

ll 

^^ 

|i 

J, 3 

i ^ 

II 

•5 .0 


08 

a 

1 

u 

3 
8 

i 
1 

1 

'08 
> 

1 

> 

•s 
1 

'3 

"0 

1 
1 

t 

03 

1 

i 


§1 

•5 g 


(Z4 

H 


1 


in d t^ 4 N »^* d d^oo t"^ t^vd ''6^ in in in 


B a 
s 

'S 

•a * 


8 




1 


vO « in t>.oo coN« M NinO\^OMn«ooin 
i>.No6inf^N*^d cKod fi t^vd \6^ ^^ 


II 

1! 

g 1 


u 


§ 


0"*oi>.»nfONdo d\od 00 t^ t-*vd vd vo 


8 

°. ;z; 


w MOO t^N« inM o\On»n mt^M '^'^CTMn 
N vd »^ 06 vd 4 fo i^* do dvod 00 t>^ t>C.\d vd 


^ Q 

K 


1 


00 vO 1^ m m fOvO »n vO W 

vood'«j-doovo^roc«»-ddv ovod 00 «>. r^ 




1 


vo Ov 00 infOrO'«l-t^ '«tOv"* 

Q d vd N* t^vo 4 fo N « d dvob 00* 00 


II 


S OF FLUE AREA 
GIVEN VELOCl 


1 


»-i t^m •- 0000 Nvo in 
\r^y6 OinWOoovdmcoNN »h* d O dvOv 


^7 





vO i-i CO 'iJ-OO OvvO t^ « t^ t^ t>i Ov »- w^OO fO 
•-J »^ 4dvinN do6t«^in4fON ci »h* d O 

in'«l-fOWN«Ni-i»-i»-i«-i«-i'-'»-'>^'-'*^ 


5 i 

;2; i 


ro vo 00 mw »-• rovo 
Q 00 4 vd 'ij- «' 00' i>.vO m 4 fO W N 

VO">«J-^fOfONNNN»H»H^I-l»H>NM»N 


|l 

lis 

00 2 

III 


•^ 1 
w 

0^ 1 
< 1 


vO ^ OON NVOM OvN'iJ- 

N t^oo "-"'vo No6inTj-ci d dvoo vd vo in 4 

t^in'«l-'«l-fOfONWNNW»-i«»-<-i»-i« 


^ 1 


1 


Ow'O'^'inOvocioi-^inTj-cii-Ioodoo 


s 


1 

J 


vO rovo OvcO NvOfO 


D I 
2; 


Tj- mvo t«*oo OvO "^ N CO -^ mvo t^oo Ov O 


§ 3 ^ 

^ H 03 



190 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



FLUE AREA REQUIRED FOR THE PASSAGE OF A GIVEN VOLUME 
OF AIR AT A GIVEN VELOCITY. 



Volume 
in Cubic 










Velocity in Feet 


per Minute. 








Feet per 
Minute. 


300 


400 


500 


nrn-.. 


TOO 


800 


900 


1000 1 XXQG 


r» 


1300 


1400 


Z500 t6oo 

9.6: 9 


100 


48 


36 


29 


24 


21 


18 


16 


14 13 


12 


II 


10 


125 


60 


45 


36 


io 


26 


23 


20 


18 tt 


>5 


14 


13 12 I 11.3 


150 


72 


54 


43 


i^ 


31 


27 


24 


22 20 


[3 


16 


15 ; 14^ 1 13.5 


175 


84 


63 


50 


4^ 


36 


32 


28 


25 2J 


21 


19 


18 16.8 ! 15.8 


200 


96 


72 


58 


4S 


41 


36 


32 


29 26 


24 


22 


21 19.2 j 18 


225 


108 


81 


65 


54 


46 


41 


36 


32 29 


27 


^5 


23 21.6 20.3 


250 


120 


90 


72 


60 


51 


45 


40 


36 33 


30 


28 


26 24 22.5 


275 


132 


9P 


l^ 


66 


57 


50 


44 


40 , j6 


33 


30 


28 26.4 24.8 


300 


144 


108 


86 


72 


62 


54 


48 


43 1 39 


36 


32 


31 28.8 27 


325 


156 


117 


94 


7S 


67 


59 


52 


47 i 43 


39 


36 


33 31.2 29.3 


350 


168 


126 


lOI 


S4 


72 


63 


56 


50 1 46 


4^ 


39 


36 33.6 31.5 


375 


180 


135 


108 


no 


77 


68 


60 


54 49 


45 


42 


39 36 33.8 


400 


192 


144 


"5 


96 


82 


72 


64 


58 52 


4S 


44 


41 38^ 36 


425 


204 


153 


122 


J 02 


87 


77 


68 


61 56 


51 


47 


44 40.8 38.3 


450 


216 


16^ 


130 


108 


93 


81 


72 


65 59 


54 


50 


46 43^ 40.5 


475 


228 


^V 


137 


114 


98 


86 


76 


68 . 62 


S7 


53 


49 45.6 42.8 


500 


240 


180 


144 


130 


103 


90 


80 


72 65 


60' 


55 


51 48 i45 


525 


252 


189 


151 


I 26 


108 


95 


84 


76 69 


S3 


58 


54 50^147.3 


550 


264 


19S 


158 


132 


113 


99 


88 


79 72 


66 


61 


57 52.8 49.5 


575 


276 


207 


166 


U^ 


118 


104 


92 


83 75 


69 


64 


59 55.2 '51.8 


600 


288 


216 


173 


144 


'23 


108 


96 


86 79 


72, 


66 


62 57.6.54 


625 


300 


225 


180 


150 


129 


"3 


100 


90 S2 


75 ' 


69 


64 60 , 56.3 


650 


312 


234 


187 


r^o 


134 


117 


104 


94 i 85 


78 


72 


67 62u^ 58.5 


675 


324 


243 


194 


[62 


139 


122 


108 


97 ' 88 


81 


75 


69 64.8 60.8 


700 


33^ 


252 


202 


16S 


144 


126 


112 


loi 1 92 


84 


78, 


72 ; 67.2 , 63 


725 


348 


261 


209 


»r4 


149 


131 


116 


104 i 95 


87 


80 


75 69.6 65.3 


750 


360 


270 


216 


iSo 


154 


135 


120 


io8 ; 98 


90 


83 


77 72 67.5 


775 


372 


279 


223 


1S6 


159 


140 


124 


112 lOI 


93 


86 


80 74.4 69.8 


800 


384 


288 


230 


l:>2 


165 


144 


128 


115 |io5 


96 


89 


82 76.8 72 


825 


396 


297 


238 


U)A 


170 


149 


132 


119 108 


99 


91 


85 ; 79.2 1 74.3 


850 


408 


306 


245 


204 


175 


153 


136 


122 III 


102 


94 


87 , 81.6 1 76.5 


875 


420 


315 


252 


210 


180 


158 


140 


126 115 


105 


97 


90 84 ,78.8 


900 


432 


324 


259 


216 


185 


162 


144 


130 118 


108 


100 


93 


86.4 i 81 


925 


444 


333 


266 


222 


190 


167 


148 


133 121 


III 


103 • 


95 


88.8 ; 83.3 


950 


456 


342 


274 


2^8 


195 


171 


152 


137 j 124 


114 


105 


98 


91.2 i 85.5 


975 


468 


35" 


281 


^34 


201 


176 


156 


140 : 128 


117 


108 


100 


93.6 I 87.8 


1000 


480 


360 


288 


240 


206 


180 


160 


144 1 131 


121 


III' 


103 


96 90 



TABLES. 



191 



FLUE AREA REQUIRED FOR THE PASSAGE OF A GIVEN VOLUME 
OF AIR AT A GIVEN VELOCITY. 



Volume 
in Cubic 


Velocity in Feet per Minute. 


Feet per 
Minute. 


17CX. 


iSoo 


1900 


acK» 


BIC» 


xxw 


3300 


a^oi 


ii6qo 


1700 


3&» 


3900 


3000 


3KW 


100 


s.s 


8 7.6 


7.2 


6.9 


6.6 


6^3 


6 


5-5 


5^3 


5*1 


5 ' 


4.8 1 4.6 


laS 


10.6 


10 1 96 


9 8.6 


8.2 


7.8 


7.5 


6.9 


6.7 


64 


6.2 


6 1 5^8 


150 


12.7 1 12 II.4 


lOj lOJ 


9.8 


94 


9 


8 


8 


7-7 


7-5 


7.2! 7 


ITS 


i4.S,i4 13-3 


12.6 12 


11.5 


ti 


10.5 


%7 


9-3 


9 


J^7 


U\ 8.1 


200 


16.9 ! 16 


15*2 


14*4113^7 


I3.I 12.5 


12 


11. 1 


'0*7 


10.3 


9^9 


9.6 9-3 


22S 


19,1 1 18 


17*1 


16,2 15,6 


14.7 1 14-1 


^33 


12.5 


12 


11.6 


tl.2 


10.8 


104 


250 


21.2 


20 


19 


18 17.1 


16.41 iS-7 


15 


13.9 


U3 


12.9 


124 


12 


U.6 


27S 


23.3 


22 


21.8 


19.8 iS,9 


18 


17.2 


16.5 


15.2 


14J 


14*1 


137 


13^2 


I2.$ 


300 


25-4 


24 


227 


21.6 |20,6 


19.6 


18.8 


la 


16.6 


16 


154 


14.9 


144 


13-9 


3*5 


27.5 


26 


24^6 


234 122.3 


21.3 


20.6 


"9-5 


18 


17-3 


16.7 16.1 


15.6 


15.1 


3SO 


29.6 


2S 


26.5 


25.2124 


22.9 


21.9 


21 


194 


187 


18 174 


i6,S 16.3 


375 


31.8 


30 


2S.4 


27 125.7 


24.5 ; 23.S 


22.5 


20.8 


20 


J 9.3 1S.6 


18 174 


400 


33.9 


32 


30.3 1 28.S 27.4 ,26.2,25 


24 


22.2 


21*3 


20.6 19,8 


19.2 1 18.6 


4^S 


^t 


34 


32,2. 30.6 29.1 27.8 26.6 


25^5 


n^ : 227 


21.9 21. 1 


20.4 19.7 


450 


3S.1 


36 


34-' 32.4 309 29.5 28,2:27 


24.9 


24 


23.1 22,3 


21.6 20.9 


475 


40.2 


38 


36 I34.2 326 3i'l 29.7 '28.S 


26.3 


25.3 


24*4 


23.6 


22.8 22.1 


500 


4^^4 


40 


37.9 36 34.3 327 31-3 30 


27.7 ' 26.7 


257 


24.8 


24 23.2 


5^5 


.44-5 


43 


39.S 37.8 36 |34^ 33-9 31-S 


29.1 1 28 


26,9 


25 


ZS-2 244 


55° 


46.6 


44 


4t. 7 1 3^-6 37.7 36 ,34-4 


S3 


30^5 ' 29,3 


28.3 


27*3 


26.4 1 2S.S 


57S 


48J 


46 


43.6 41.4 39.4 137^6:36 


3fS 


31^91 30 J 


29.6 


2S.5 


27.6 1 26.7 


600 


SO.S 


48 


455 43-2 40.11 39.3 37^6 


36 


33^^^ 


32 


30.S 


297 


28.8 27.8 


62s 


S2.9 


5<3 147.4 45 42.9 1 40.9 39- < 


37.5 


34-6 


33*3 


32.1 


31 


30 29 


650 


S5^ 


52 49.3 46.8 44.6 ' 42.S 407 


39 


36 


347 


334 


32.2 


31.2.30.2 


675 


57.2 


54,51-2 4^-6 46.3 44.1 42.3 


Ao,S 


37*5 


3^ 


34*7 


33*5 


324' 3 IJ 


700 


S9.3 


56 S3 J 50-4 4S 45^8,43^3 


42 


38.8 


373 


36 


347 


33-^ 32.5 


735 


61.4 


5S 55 S2.2 49-7 47^4 


454 


43-5 


40.2 


3a7 


37.3 36 


34*8 


33.^ 


750 


63.5 


60 S<^-Q 54 514 49*1 


47 


45 


41*5 


40 


38.6 , 37.2 


36 


34.8 


775 


65.6 


62 sS.S 56,3 53J 


50.7 


4S.5 


46.S 


42*9 


41 J 


39-9 ' 3^-5 


37*2 


3^ 


Soo 


67,S 


64 60.6 57,6 54.9 


524 


50.1 


48 


44.3 


42.7 


41-2 ■ 397 


384 


37.1 


825 


69.9 


66 62.5 59,4 56,6 


54 


51.7 


49.5 


45*7 


44 


424 : 40.9 


39-6 


3^3 


85U 


72 


6S G4.4' 61.2 58.4 


S5.6 


53^2 


51 


47^1 


45-3 


43-7 


42.2 


40.S 


394 


S75 


74 


70 67.3 63 60 


57^3 


5A.& 


52.5 


48.5 


46.7 


45 


434 


42 


40.6 


900 


76.2 


72 ,6S.2 64 J 617 


58.9 


56.3 


54 


49.9 


48 


46-3 


44.6 


43-2 


41J 


925 


7S.4 


74(70.1 66.6 63.4 


60,5 


57-9 


SS6 


S1.3 


49-3 


47.6 


46 


444 


42.9 


950 


So.s 


76 1 72 6S.4 65.1 


62.2 


59.S 


57 


52.6 


507 


48.8 


47.' 


45.fi 


44.1 


975 


B2.6 


78 , 73.9 70,2 66.8 


63.8 


6r.o 


s^6 1 54 


52 150.2 


484 


46 S 


45.3 


1000 


84.7 I So i 75^8 72 m,7 1 66 


62.6 


60 1554153.3' S14 


49.6 ; 48 


46.4 



192 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 



VOLUME OF AIR NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN VARIOUS STANDARDS 

OF PURITY. 



Cubic Feet 

of Space 

in Room 

per 

Individual. 



Proportion of Carbonic Acid in xo/xx> ParU of the Air Not to be Exceeded at the 
End of One Hour. 



Cubic Feet of Air of Composition Four Parts of Carbonic Add if xo,ooo to be 
Supplied the First Hour. 




LOSS OF WORK DUE TO HEAT IN COMPRESSING AIR FROM 

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE TO VARIOUS GAUGE PRESSURES 

BY SIMPLE AND COMPOUND COMPRESSION. 

Air in Each Cylinder ; Initial Temperature fe*' F. 





One Stage. 


Two 


Stage. 


Three Stage. 


Four Stage. 


§ 


Percentage of Work Lost in Terms of 


1 


i -i 


iji 


^§ 


.H§ 


! Ǥ 


ii§ i 


•3§ ' 


.H§ 


1 


therm 
pressi 


11 




5? 

1^ 


therm 
pressi 


11 : 


M §. 


II 





1 51 


*!■ 


81 


<i 


: Ji 


<% i 


ji 


< 1 




U 


u 


u 


1 '^ 


U 


'^ 


U 


60 


29.9 


23.0 


13.4 


II.8 


8.6 


l'^ 


4-7 


4.5 


r 


30.6 


23-4 


14.1 


12.4 


8.7 


8.0 j 


6.1 


5.7 


80 


32.1 


24.6 


14.7 


12.8 


9.7 


8.9 ! 


6.4 


6.0 


90 


34.7 


^l-f 


16. 1 


13.8 


10.5 


9.5 ; 


7.3 


6.8 


100 


36.7 


26.8 


16.9 


14.5 


10.9 


9.8 : 


7.8 


7.3 


125 


41. 1 


29.2 


18.5 


15.6 


II. 6 


10.4 ' 


8.8 


8.1 


150 


44.8 


30-9 


20.1 


16.7 


12.3 


10.9 1 


9.1 


8.4 


200 


51.2 


33-9 


22.2 


18. 1 


14.0 


12.3 


10.5 


9.5 


300 


61.2 


37.9 


25.7 


20.5 


16.6 


14.2 


12.0 


10.7 


400 


, 68.7 


40.7 


28.9 


22.4 


18.2 


15.4 ; 


131 


11.5 


500 


70.6 


41.4 


31.2 


23.8 


; 193 


16.2 1 


14. 1 


12.3 


6cx) 


80.4 


44.5 


32.8 


24.7 


20.4 


16.9 i 


14.9 


13.0 


700 


85.0 


46.0 


34.6 


25.7 


21.3 


17.6 


16. 1 


138 


800 


89.5 


47 2 


35.7 


26.3 


' 22.0 


18. 1 


16.2 


139 


900 


930 


48.2 


37.1 


270 


; 22.6 


18.5 


16.6 


144 


1000 


96.1 


49.0 


37.9 


27.5 


! 23.2 


18.8 1 


16.9 1 


14.5 


1200 


102.8 


50.7 


40.3 


288 


24.8 


199 


17.7 ; 


15.0 


1400 


108.6 


52.0 


41.5 


29.3 


! 25.9 


20.5 1 


18.6 


15 7 


1600 


1 134 


53.1 


43.5 


30.3 


1 26.5 


20.9 


19.2 


16. 1 


1800 


II7.5 


54.0 : 


44.8 


31.0 


27.3 


21.2 • 


19.6 


16.4 


2000 


122 


550 1 


45.8 


31 4 


1 27.5 


21.5 


19.9 


16.57 



TABLES. 



193 



o 






2 J 

m 8 

w Z 
p-i B 

w 



H 

,0 

CD 
C/3 

S 



s 

a 




r« rn ^ liA r^QO 
^ f*s u^ f-^ av 
H pi ^ <4 n 









Si 43 ^ 






VO 00 O '-' fOu->\OQC O >^ i^ui^OOO O "-I rO*i^vO00 O 00 1 









j -ajnuij/^ oad ' 

J ' 

I 133 J UI 

peaHJossoq 






i-^nr^nn NP*M*nrOf*ifOfOfOro^ 






00 t^OO N 00 "^VO 3C 



r^r^« fot^ — moo O 



N N N rrifTi ^ ^ ^xTk u-i*0 l^ t^QO 90 O^ O O 1 






Ida J oiqno 

•jaaj Ul 
pBsjj JO ssoq 



00 »^ ">«J- r^ 0\ W »O00 « rovO 0\ N u^OO ^ fOvO 0\ N u-> ^ 



Q\0 -^OOO O\N00»Ou^*>»»h00 t^ao •- t^ ">«J- ro *i^ 0\ O 
NO O fO t^ O ^ 0\ fOOO rOOO '^O\"^>-00 '^►-'OOiON fO 
•^ N N W corOfO'«J-'«J-*i^ u^vO vO *>»00 00 0\ O O •- N vO 



59aj "oiqno 



! o ' 



ro 'iJ-vO vC t-»00 0\ O »- 



NNWNNNNNWfOfOfOfO 



•laaj UI 



00 »H u-> CS fO t"* N t^ W t^ fO OMO -- , 
»N N N W fOfO^'«J-»i^ u^vO NO t^OO 00 0\ 



0\ O N t^ to vrj 
O O *• W fOt 



*9)nui)^ jsd 
jsaj *Diqn3 

pva^ JO sso-^ 



* O Q\ OnoO 00 *>*t^vO'tnu^ ^ 'ij- fO fO O 
fO '^ u^vo vO *>»00 On O ^ W fO ^ mvO *>»00 ro 



00 ^PTHAOt^t^OvO "^U^ONi'^fO '^OO ^ rO 

^rJ)t^ — ^O Qui— SD WOO '^►-•OOu^N OOOvO ^fO»N 

*- w C4 f*irn^^in "^O vO t^oo 00O\O«-'»-'NfO^O\ 






t^OO Q^Ow — «fO^"^ "^^ «^00 



o 2 

^1 



X 

H 

o 

X 



< 

s 



•jaaj ui , 
pBaHJOssoi I 

*9)nuij^ jad I 
jaa J 'oiqn3 | 

M3 ,( Jiqn^ I 



•1 u->O\'«l-O\"^"a\m'-"00 ">«J-«^00nO ^W OOO *>«vO VO «^ 
W W W CO fO "^ ^ u->vO vO t^OO OOONOwMNrO-^u-jO 



u->Nqoi^»-oo io«oo '«f^«^'$0 t^.tP P f*J!r^ ^ 



vC «^ t^OO On < 



> -^ u^ ii->vO «^ t^OO On 0\ N 



« n m t'l ^ 1- LTj'O ^0 1^06 OC on O *^ m r*) t^ '^'^^ *^ **^ 
r^Qfd r^w" ^Cft'j-dw^'-t^ ^^ w r*«oo rnoo * cj^ tn 



•jaaj UI 
pB9JJ JO sso^ 



vO "ivO NQO ">«J-000»OfO'-" o^oo *>* t^ t^ t^ *>*oo o w w 
N ro fO ^ ^ »rjvq vO t^OO CN OJv O "^^ W fO ^ ^^. ^. ^ "? 



•9jnui|^ J9d j 
I J99J Diqno 



_ d 'ifoo* esf t4 

'^ '^ ir^ u^ xr%\0 vO i 



199 J UI 
pB9jj JO ssoq 



N CO ^ u^\0 i>00 q 
W « N 



I •9inuij^ J9d 
! 599 J Diqnf) 



6 fou^t>.cr»»-i ^9*0*^^*^. ^^O*^^*^. ^^. °^. C> N q 



Maa J HI fO O vO ^ "^ O\00 *>«vO *>» *>»00 0\ "-i fOvO 0\ fO *>* "^ \0 vO 

jaajj HI f^ ^ ^ yf^yQ ^ ^QQ On O "-I W ^O *i^vO t-*aO O ►-' fO 'ij- W 

pBaH JO ssoq J^^^^^^^^ <s w w fO 



'ainuip^ J9d 
599 J oiqn^ 

•199 J UI 

pB9ij JO ssoq 



to o^ w vq q* ro *>» q "^ *^ •-'. ^^oo i-^ »r> q n vq q f*? *^ ^ 
fO ir»oo' 0* N 10 1^ d esf '^ *^ cr» •-«* '^vO* 00* •-'* fO iajoo' O* w* 
N N W fOPOfOrO^^Tj-'^T^UMi^u^ ii^vO vO vO vO t^OO 



OnvO ^fOW ►"• ^ N fOu^t^ONNvO Q "^"^ *>»roO t^"-" 

fO 'ij- u->vO t-»00 a O »^ N ro ^vO t^ ON O W CO u-> t>.0O 00 

Mi* H^ NN* »-' i-T I-* »-r M N W N* N N W CO 



'PU039§ J9d 

jaaj UI Xipop^ 



q w "^vqoo q n ^t-vq oo q n ^t-vq oo q n -^Nqoo q q 

N* W N N N* COCOCOCOCO'^^'*'^^M^»/^»r>»/> *r>vo' t^ 



U o V 

•0 .2 ° 

a "^ :s 

^- ^ ^ 

fc- W « 

If 8 ^ 



'2 ^ 



-2 
o\ ^ 



I 

vo" 

.2 



.g ^ CU 

n .0 *© 

*«^ -'^ "a! 

8 « 

T3 VC •«{ 

« p a ' 

^ •? fl 



I 



5 V 



8 

I a * ; 



14 



194 



TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS. 






OQQOg^OOOOO *ri\r%\ 
OmQ^ N.VO i-ivO »-0 
mvO CO C\ "^ M '^ »o *>»00 



MONO »i^00 0O\00»^NfO^t^i 






fOOOOvOOO u^O^OOOvO ■ 
~ "' " " T ro fO "* 



N N W « N N fO« 






LovO Q'-*i^«^0 ON*i^OQOw^QOW00OO OOO 
N u^ 0\ N mao w moo -* »r>oo *• ^oo •- ">«J- 1^ "^ tj- t^ co 
ro ^ u-> t^oo On »H N fO lOvD t^ 0\ O *• ro ^ u^ *>*30 0\vO 



.^J S>8 






!■ O O O O *^ « "* p^ *- ■- " « -■ — -" — ' 









1^ &^ - 



nOaOQinQw^OOO — O' 
« ^ u^ t>.QO Q p^ rn^ ^\£> rr), 
I ^ u^^O r^oC O ►* P« !^ * O 
w « « « M p^t^r^mm-t 












o^gl^o^O^^o^0^5^avc^O^S^ &qo Ch &QO 5msd CO CO I 



finrtr^rtiMMCiHMtn' 



J*3i 3iqfl3 






W f*^QO 000 -^r-^N t-..«r^MsO 



H Pi rt M nr^^c*in^fl-Tj% 












I 



ftiO 'ioo ^ ■ 



&0 ^ ^ O^ u^ H OVQO r^QO O^ -^ ^< 



c# t#>i w, l^ ( 

N* DO ui« ( 









M f* u^ u\ o iri 






3 



1 5 



l-^ 



rt c* Pi I « 



I -i^i m 



fn u^ g IT) -4 ^ t^^o \^ o 'Jc o w-k — 



f*^ fTi f*^ ^ <*- ^ ^ i#^\0 






CO -r O CI H m fl* 



H. 



> ^ « »- O CT^QO r^ -p 
. ^ 'fl- i»r% u^^^ r^ !>%. O 



P«3f{ JO Mcr| 






^H g\ o '^ *ro oo o fl ^ *-. Qv « i^fio ^ * ^ o * r^^ j>, 
O q — i-',^ i-i, « "-"_ N «^ e<^ ri r* f*p r^ f*} ^ ^ ^r lo u^ m *^ i J^ 

MiO **\o Mi^w i>.r4i>.ri r^Pt» mw pfjoc rnoo rn ^ 

in iO\D SD l^r^MJOO OS ^ O O i-» i-i rt M f^ fTt -^ -^ Lti i^ 

« &« '^uM^O^-^ ^^ O^P* *t^O Tfr-O '^^^^i« « 



0) 


• n 


^ 


•*- 




v 


s 


*5i 


(/) 


c 










9 


a> 


$ 


a. 




'S, 


«> 


o 


M 


J3 


a 








I 'amtniY -isd 



■Si' 



'laai^ ({I 
-a'lniiij^ jad 



^'^•J^ u^O i5 *-* t-, t^QO 00 Q^ o> O O '■ 



M IN fnm 



— " a^ 



I'll fcn**co unm*nr^O "*0^0 pon m o^ 

HH r^so QO 11 ^J-hO ^^— *QO rt J3 r> 

K ■■+ '^. ". *1 "- " ^* ^t "* *^ ^ '^ "^ T '^ *0^ "? ^^, ^ ™. 

tr- -It «~O~s0"i>> PO -^IkT^O' -f i^ OsJT-* uy'ti C 00 ^ r*S m"c^ 
r^— Lno^fi^D Q ^t^^ uTiO%rtsD o "^00 ** in CT^ rn - 
p*^ -i- ^ '^ "% MTfisp^ ^O so i:^ r^ ^^ao mo^ctiCTvOoo*^'' 



'}aa.j UI 



ov - ro u->OT O « moo — ^ r- o 



-r ^ m m ut\0 ^ r-^ ■:>. 






w 



'ajriDii^ jad 
■ isaj'aiqn:! 

P«HP*«n 

I _ . . 

■laaj uj 

i>TT?H J" *»" I 

•puoosc; jad 
J03 j UI Xjpup Y 



i Q « r5ini:-.Q0 O « C^mi>.CO Q « 1^ m t-»QO O O^ 
1^ f^ ^ ^ -ff tn m in'^O ^ vO v© i>» i^^ r^at OO 00 Q\ ov ^ I 

; e* -^ in"M'b%Mj"«3 0~i^aC~^~«~i-i «"p* m 0~intr"Q i 
,»- M Nf4f^ irsrnifl^'4-^m myS vo ^ *-. r^ O j 



rfjaSfcn— ^^r*^O\0 «oO ^ 



\0 CO 11 ^vo CN" g^t>^^r4'tnr-,o « md6 i3 rn "^oo" « 
M « f^irrii?nErj'^^'**-'^min m^o ^ iO ^J^ i^ t^, t>. ^^ o^ 



icS S** 



3 
3 m 

1^ 



a^O ^ 0^si3 m w-i-O ^ Th O 0*00 Q\^ tr^t^ OoO DMhi 
** ^^p — ^ t^ O r*it^ ^ -f30 « l>^iii^ winO^ 

i^-r^ ^f4»n f^f*ir^^^fl-m in^ ^ r-. t^-oO oQ 



2' s 



q N Tt-vq 00 q n -^vooo q n T*-vqoo q n rfvqoo q q 



8 -o 



INDEX. 



The numbers refer to pages. 



Absorption by nozzles, lOO 

of vapors, 94 
Agitator, duplex, 22 

steam-jet, 19 
Air-jet blasts, 38 

in chemical works, 62, 63 
lift, 62 

sucking through liquids, 17 
Ash conveyor, water-jet, 81 
Atomizing liquids, 88 

B. 

Blast, air-jet, 38 

nozzle, 9, 12 

application, 11 
Blower, applications, 3 

on boiler, 4 

on Cowper stove, 7 

forge-, 38 

lead-, installation, 27 
steam-jet, 25 

obviating noise, 5 

on producer, 6 

on retort oven, 6 

on reverberatory, 5 

on scrubber, 6 

steam -jet, 2 

as ventilator, 7 

water-jet, 2 

water-spray, 8 
Boiler, blower on, 4 
Boiler tester, 48 
Burner, oil, iii 

C. 

Centrifugal spray nozzle, 88 
Chemicals, conveyor for, 87 
Chemical works, agitator in, 21 

spray nozzles in, 95 

syphon in, 55, 56 



Chimney ventilator, 9 
Circulator, 56 
Cleaner, vacuum, 86 
Coal mine, ventilator in, 36 
Collecting dust, 96 
Compressor, gas-, 40 

steam-jet, 13 

water- jet, 31 
Condenser, 124 

eductor, multi-jet, 133 
single-jet, 125 

induction, 139 
Condensing engine, 18 

vapors, 96 
Conveying chemicals, 87 
Conveyor, ash-, 82 

dust-, 82 

powder-, 82 
Cooling, spray-, 103 
Cowper stove, blower on, 7 
Creosoting tank, 17 

D. 

Double tube injector, 43 
Duplex agitator, 22 

E. 

Economizers, 70 
Eductor, automatic, 67 

condenser, multi-jet, 133 
single-jet, 125 

installation, (^ 

in mines, 69 

sand and mud, 79 

in turbine pit, 70 

water- jet, 65 
Engine, condensing, 18 
Evacuator, 58 
Exhauster, lead-, steam-jet, 25 

steam-jet, 13 

water-jet, 29 
Extracting chemicals, 56 



195 



196 



INDEX. 



Forge blowers, 38 

portable, 40 
Foundry, air- jet blast in, 40 

6. 

Gas compressor, 40 

exhauster, steam-jet, 23 
Gases, transportation of, i 



Hydrokineter, 71 

I. 

Induction condenser, 139 
Injector, double tube, 43 
connection, 47 
on ship boiler, 46 
Iron industry, nozzles in, 97 



Laboratory exhauster, steam-jet, 20 
Lead blast nozzle, 12 

blower installation, 27 

steam-jet blower, 25 
exhauster, 25 

syphon, 59 
Lift, air-jet, 62 
Liquids, atomizing, 88 

lifting, IS 

transportation of, 43 



Metal refinery, nozzles in, 102 

Moist ventilator, 105 

Monte jus, 72 

Multi-jet eductor condenser, 133 

N. 

Noise, obviating, 5 

Nozzles, blast, 9 

centrifugal spray, 88 
in metal refinery, 102 
for oil firing, no 



Oil burner, in 

firing, boiler, 113 
locomotive, 115 
marine boiler, 114 



Oil firing, spray nozzles for, no 
industry, nozzles in, 97 



Paper machine, exhauster on, 31 
Primers, automatic, 34 

water-jet, 32 
Producer, blower on, 6 
Pump, centrifugal, 19 

for nozzles, 122 

steam jet, 51 

vacuum, 30 
Pumping outfit for oil firing, 112 



Retort oven, blower on, 6 
Reverberatory furnace, blower on, 5 
Rubber nozzles, 99 

S. 

Sand washing, 80 
Scrubber, blower on, 6 
Solids, transportation of, 79 
Spray cooling, 103 

nozzles, 88 

application, 90 
in chemical industries, 95 
for oil firing, no 
Steam-jet agitator, 19 

blower, i 

compressor, 13 

conveyor, 82 

exhauster, 13 

gas exhauster, 23 

syphon, 49 

pump, 51 
Still, 30 

Stoneware syphon, 60 
Sulphuric acid plant, nozzle in, 98 
Syphon, application of, 52 

in chemical factory, 55, 56 

on closed kier, 56 

connection, 61 

lead, 59 

on steamboat, 54 

steam-jet, 49 

stoneware, 60 
Sulphuric acid plant, 26 
Sulphurous acid plant, 28 



INDEX. 



197 



Tannery, agitator in, 20 
Tar, burning, 116 
Tester, boiler, 48 
Transportation of gases, i 

liquids, 43 

solids, 79 

V. 

Vacuum cleaner, 86 

distillation, 15 

filtration, 14 
Vapor condenser, 107 
Ventilator, blower as, 7 

chimney-, 9 



Ventilator, in coal mine, 36 
compressed air-, 36 
moist, 105 

W. 

Washing sand, 80 
Water-jet ash conveyor, 81 

compressor, 31 

eductor, 65 

exhauster, 29 

primer, 32 

sand and mud eductor, 79 
spray blower, 8 
Well syphon, 58 
Wells, connecting, 16 



SECOND EDITIOH 



The Mechanical Appliances 



OF THE 



Chemical and Metallurgical 
Industries 

By OSKAR NAGEL, Ph.D, 

A Detailed Description of all Machines, Appliances 

and Apparatus Used in the Chemical and 

Metallurgfical Industries. 

THE ONLY AMERICAN BOOK ON THIS SUBJECT 



CONTENTS 

General. IL Steam and Water Power* IIL Gas Power* 
IV* Electric Power, V, Transportation of SoUds* VL 
Transportation of Liquids. VIL Transportation of Gases. 
VIII. Grinding Machinery* IX. Mixing: Machines^ X* 
Firingf and Furnaces. XI. Separatlngf Machines. XH* 
Purification of Gases* XIII. Evaporatingr* Distilling and 
Condensing. XIV. Drying. XV. Measurement of 
Temperature* Appendix: The Works Chemist as En- 
gineer* 

300 Pages. S^o. 292 lilusiraiions. 

Price, $2,00 

Sent Anywhere on Receipt of Price* 



OSKAR NAGEL 

p. O. Box 385 NEW YORK 





This toofc contains complete descriptions and worfcing 
drawingfs of all successful prodocef g:as fired furnaces used in 
the chemicalf metaliurg'icat, iron^ steelt ^lasSf^brick^ cement and 
lime industries 

The only American book on this subject. 



Price, $2M 



200 Rhsiraiions* 



Sent Anywhere on Receipt of Price* 



OSKAR NAGEL 



R O. Box 385 



Get Our Catalogues 

of Apparatus for the 

Chemical Industry 

Apparatus for Lifting Liquids : 

Syphons, Lead, Stoneware & Porcelain 2-D 

Air-jet Lifts; Brass; Iron; Rubber; Lead 2-H 

Automatic Montejus . . , * 2-0 

Apparatus for Heating Liquids: 

Noiseless Heaters . , , . . 3-A 

Apparatus for Moving Air and Gas : 

Blow^erSj Furnace , , . , * 4'A 

Blast Nozzles, Iron & Lead , . . 4-B 

Gas Exhausters 4-G- 

Exhausters & Compressors . , , 4-E, 

Agitators , ^ 4-F 

Lead Exhausters . . , , . 4-K 

Rotary Lead Fan 4-L 

Obnoxious Vapor Condenser . < , 4-R. 

Vacuum Cleaning System . . . 4-V 

Condensers .,..*. 5-A:B 

Apparatus for Atomizing Liquids : 

Spray Nozzles 6-AtB:C. 

Oil Firing ..,.„., 6-0 

Humidifying * 6'H-M 

Inhaling Plants * . . . , 6-1 

Mass-Mixing Machinery * . . 7-M 

Sulphur Furnaces 7-S 

Valves, Lead ...... 8-L 

CHEMICAL CATALOGUE : Our Chemical Catalogue con- 
tains iUustrations and descriptions of all the apparatus we 
manufacture for the Chemical Industry 1 also description and 
illustration of applicationi. 



r 



SCHUTTE & KOERTING CO. 

New York City I2th Sc Thompson StS,, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Boston, Mass. PHILADELPHIA. Chicago, 111. 



I 




The Mining Journal 

NEW LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 

ON MINING, METALLURGY, 

AND ALLIED SUBJECTS 

Any Book in the foIJowitiK List will be sent Post Free lo any part of the 

World on receipt of remittance to the Proprittors of The Mining Journal, 

46 Queen Victoria Street ^ London, E. C* 



Alloy 0, NofteaOn. By L. Pakky. 73. 6d. 

Aslied and Alloys, Analyala of. By L« 
Pmikv. 5s, 

A^say and Coisage Values for Gold in 
Great BritaiD. By R. J, Hoi.- 

Assay Values for Gold and Silyer Oie 
Cfalculating. By George Hollo- 

WAV. 15, 

Aaaaying (Rapid). By S. M. Lecu- 
ONAj C E, 2a, 6d, 

Chemistry Rhyme i. To assist in re- 
membering the methodieal anal- 
ysis of the simple soluble- salts by 
wet and dry tests, or the metal 
only. 6d. : or per doe*. ^&. 



Copper Handbook , 1908. 
Stevens. 21s. 



By Horace 



Cornish HinlDg, A Key to. 
Mf.yerstein. s^- 



By D. W. 



Cornwall, Mining Map of West. By J. 
S. Henderson . 1 2s. 6d, Mounted 
on Rollers and Varnished. 21s. 

Diamond Mines 0! South Africa, By 
Gardner F; Wiu^iA^wis, late 
General Manager of De Beers 
Consolidated^ U raited. In Two 
Volumes, Illustrated In Buck- 
nam, ^i lis. 6d, 

Genesis of Rocks and Ores. By Brei^- 
Tox Symons. 78. 6d, With Map, 

8s. 6d, 

Gloaaaiy of Mining Terms, with Illustra- 
tions and Geologieal Survey Map 
Signs. By C. C Loncridge. 
2s. 6d. 

Gold Diedging and Mechanical Esccava- 

tOT«. By C. C. LONGRIDtiE, 2d 

Edition. Revised and greatly en- 
larged. 20S, 

Gold and Tin Dredging Practice. By H. 
L. Lewis, is. 



Gold : Its Ge<^logical Occurrence and 
GeQ graphical Bbtrihution, By J. 
Malcolm MACLAliE^2^ D.Sc.» laie 
Minjug Specialist, Government of 
India ; formerly Assistant Gov- 
ernment Geologist, Queensland^ 
Australia, Royal 8vo., 662 ppn 
With one Colored Plate, 37 Plates 
and ar3 Illustrations in TesL 25s. 

Hydraulic Mining. Classification, Test 
and Valuation of Allu vials— Water 
Supply — Methods of Working Alln- 
vials, &c With Append iit on 
Roads for Mining^ Pnr poses and 
Motor Traction. By C C LoNG- 
RIDGE, M.Insl.Mech.E. 30s« 

Metals. Diagrams of Pit ces ( in Colors) 
during the I^asi Twenty Years, 

By ViviAx Younger & Bond, 
SffftLead (without Silver), Stan- 
dard Coppei, Scotch Pig Iron, Cleve- 
land Pig Iron, G. M. Tin, Standard 
Silver. 10s. 6d. 

Mine Report Forms. Form A, for Mines 
in Development Stage. Form B, 
for Mines in Working Order By 
C. C. LoxGRLDOE. Ptr dozen, 

IS. 6d. 

Precioua Stonea. Tahul ar A rr an ge men t 
of the Distinguishing Character- 
istics and Localities of. By Leo- 

POUJ CL-EARftlONT. IS, 

Rare Metals, Analysis, Detection and 
Commercial Value of the. By J. 
Qhly. I2S. 6d. 

Recognition of Minerals. Bv C. G. 
Mook, M A,, FI.C, 7s. 6d, 

Systematic Treatment of Metalliferous 
Waste. By L. Parrv- 5s. 

TackBOte. A Form of Licence to Ex- 
plore wnd Search for Mines, Min- 
erals, &C* IS. 

Tin atid Antimony, Assay ot By L< 

Parry, A.R.S.M, Second Edi- 
tion. 39. 6d. 

Tin Deposits of the World. By Syidnev 
Fawns. Second Edition » Re vised 
and Enlarged, With a Chapter 
on Tin Smelting, 15s. 

Who's Who in Mining and Metallurgy, 
190S. 15s. 



f 



Oskar Nagel, Ph.D. 



Consulting Chemical Engineer 



Consultations on the equipment of plants 
with the most modern and economical 
appliances. 

Consultations on gas power plants^ fuel gas 
plants, transformation of coal fired fur- 
naces into gas firing, and fuel economy. 

Recovery of wastes, utilization of by products, 
improvement of manufacturing processes. 



R O, Box 385, 
New York City. 




Electrochemical 

and 

Metallurgical Industry 



A Monthly Journal devoted to electrochemistry and elcctro- 

mctallurgfy and to chemical and metallurg^ical 
engfineefing in general* 

Its editorial policy is a broad one* Representing the most 
progressive tendencies in modern chemical and metallurgical en- 
gineering, this journal appeals strongly to the engineers, super- 
intendents, and works managers of chemical and metallurgical 
plants. 

Many of the leading chemical, metallurgical and electro- 
chemical engineers are numbered among the contributors to the 
columns of this journal. Because of this fact, the original articles, 
published each month, are of the highest character and value. 
Each issue also contains the following regular departments : 
Synopsis of periodical literature on chemical, electrochemical 
and metallurgical engineering subjects ; Analysis of current 
electrochemical patents; Digest of older electrochemical patents, 
arranged chronologically and according to subject matters ; Recent 
metal Ivirgical patents ; A monthly letter from a London correspon- 
dent on developments in chemistry and metallurgy in Great 
Britain ; a monthly critical review of the iron and steel market, etc. 

Yearly subscription, $2.00 for th* United States, Mexico and the United States 

Dependencies t for all otbef ccHiatries, $2<50 ( Etiiropean exchange 

JO sHLlings, 10 marks, 12,50 franco). 



Siagle copy 25 cents. 



Sample copies on request* 



Electrochemical Publishing Company 

237 West 39th Street, New York City 




CASSIER'S MAGAZINE 

An Engineering Monthly 

Devoted to the 

Latest Devtflopments in Civil, Mining» Mechanical and 

Electrical Engineering and Technology 



Price $3.00 per Year 



25 cents per Copy 



REULEAUX'S CONSTRUCTOR 

A Handbook of Machine Design 

Translated from the 

Latest German Edition by 

HENRY HARRISON SUPLEE 



Price, express prepaid $7*50. 



Mathematics Self-taught 
ARITHMETIC and ALGEBRA 

The Lubsen System 

Adapted to American Use by 

H. H, SUPLEE 



Price, prepaid $2 00. 



THK GASSIER MAGAZINE CO. 

1 2 West Thirty-first St., New Yoik. 




The New Era Printing Company 



LANCASTER, PA. 



IB prepared to execute in FirBt>clast and latii- 
factory manner all kindi of printing: and elec- 
trotypin^^ Perional attention g^iven to all 
work entrusted to our care. 



Books, Periodicals 



Technical and Scientific Publications 
Machinefy and Special Catalogues 
Annoancements, Reports, etc. 

All Kinds of Commercial Work 



Our product wiU be found ranking with the 
best in workmaziihip and material, at tattB- 
Factory pricei. Our imprint may be Found 
on a number of high*claB« Technical and Scien- 
tiftc Books and Pefiodicali. Correspondence 
•olicited. Estimates fumisKed. 

THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY 



I 



f-