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Deceived , 190 . 

. Class No. 


/ Vol. 1. No. 5. 


Jin enalisb Illustrated mafiazinc. 

Edited by [BEN H. MORGAN. 


. BY . 



R. E. COMMANS, MJnst.C.E. 

J. PEARCE ROE, MJ. & S.Inst. 

S. M. COCKBURN, A.MJnst.C.E. (iMt*EK&r 


and Others. 

Annual Subscription to ^Engineering Times " (including Special Issues), 95. post free to any 

part of the "World. 


Telegrams: "Parliamentary, London ' 

Telephone: 324, Westminster. 

. ; '.v&i. >..a;^.,;(ij^o^i; I 

he first Volume of Zhe 'Engineering Cimes" JCibrary. 

Published at ios. 6d. Net cash 8s. Post free. Demy 8vo 
Profusely Illustrated. 


Steam Engines 


Porris t 

A.M.Inst.CE. t MJ.Mech,E. 

Ben fi. Morgan, 

Editor "Engineering Times." 

This work deals with the subject of " High-Speed," " Quick-Speed," and " Quick- 
Revolution " Steam Engines in the most exhaustive manner yet attempted. The world's 
leading engineering firms' practice is described, including that of 





















A. L. IDE & SONS, 

RUSTON PROCTOR, and Others. 

Details are dealt with in separate chapters on Governors, Lubrication, Action of 
Reciprocating Parts, etc. It is a complete guide to the practice of the day. 

The volume forms the first of a series of works on Civil, 
Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering, and kindred subjects, now 
in course of preparation by the Publishers of The Engineering 
Tim es. It is printed in the highest class style, and, contrary to 
those hitherto used in the production of technical works of the 
kind, the engraving and paper are the best obtainable. . . . . 


P. S. KING & SON, 

& 4, Great Smith Street, 
'Westminster, London, S/W. 

The Second Volume of this Library dealing with the "Economic Disposal of Town's Refuse" will 
be ready shortly. Send for a Prospectus. 

L -: J^. /-G: 

" INC 





72, Bishopsgate Street Within, 


Hold the SOLE RIGHT for the Manufacture and Sale 

in Europe of 





For Engines, Loose Pulleys, Fans, Shafting and Machinery. 

As supplied to the leading 

Power Users in all parts. 

Thousands of unsolicited 



Continuous Compensating 

IH any position. On any bearing. 

The very utmost economy. 
Complete control. 


The Ideal Crank 
Pin Lubricator. 

Special Lubricants for all 

Absolute Free Trial Allowed. 

Telegrams : 

"King-fisher, Leeds." 

TELEPHONE No. 1935. 




Temperley Transporter Company, 



Discharging Coal, *<:., from Steamers. 


Serving Lijne Kilns, 

Temperley Transporter Company, 



Discharging Spoil front Barges to Canal Bank. 


/'(>;- Coaling Steamers, 


Bearings & Packings 


For . . 


of Friction 
on all kinds 

of Machinery. 


39, Victoria Street, I 20a, Chapel Street, 

Westminster, London, j Liverpool. 

Telegrams :-"KURKEE." S.W. ! Telegrams : " APPLIANCES." 

Telephone: -305 WESTMINSTER. i Telephone : 7211 CENTRAL. 

The Frictionless 
Engine Packing 
Company, Ltd. . 

CABLE MILLS, Oldham Road, 


* * # 



Hair and Cotton Beltings, &c. 

Sole Makers ot " Karmal," " Railite," 
Ogden's Patent Metallic Packing, &c. 

Telegraphic Address: " PACKLESS, MANCHESTER. 

Highest Awards wherever exhibited. 






Aerial Ropeways. 


m- ING R9 


.... IVIAKEIRS OF* .... * 




This illustration 


represents the 



second span of 

B ^ 

constructed by 

an Aerial Rope- 

BSE- 1 " 


way erected for 

*$U & Co., LTD., 

the Corporation of 

! from designs by 

the City of Cape [ I W.T.H.Carring- 

Town, for the [ 


purpose of carry- I 
ing materials and 

for the carriage 
of passengers and 

machinery needed HH| 


for the construe- ^|g| 


tion of their new 


Reservoirs on 



Table Mountain, 

UP TO 6,000 ft. 

at a level of about 


2,168 feet above 


the City of Cape 



Jk v , TO 3 TONS. 




IN/lining and Hauling 




Registered Office, 72, MARK LANE, LONDON, E.G. 




Importers of LIMITED. 

American Machinery. 


' FLATHER " 141!!. SHAPER. 


Radial, Sensitive, and Upright Drills. 


Grinding Machines, Shapers, Planers, Brass Finishing Machines, &c., &c. 



New Illustrated Catalogue Post Free on Application. 

LONDON - - - 9 to 15, Leonard Street, E.C 

BIRMINGHAM - - 2 to IO, Albert Street. 

MANCHESTER - 5, Cross Street. 

GLASGOW - - 52, Bothwell Street. 


r <, 




BROADHEATH, near Manchester. 

Machine Tools. 


Wood Working 



Couplings, &c. 



For Sharpening 
Files, Cleaning 
Castings, &c. 

Catalogues Free 
on Application. 

No. 6 Vertical Milling: Machine, 



Extract from Testimonial (un- 
solicited) just received : 

" We have found the 
' Crcl ' Expansion Valve 
on Pulsomctcr Pumps 
effect a great economy 
of steam." 

See test by Prof. Beare, published 
in Engineering, Nov. loth, 1893. 

If you are interested in 
Pumping write for a Brief 
Treatise on the Pulsometer 
Pump, which will be sent 
you free by post. 

Pulsometer Eng. Co. 


London, S.W. 

Citv Office & Showrooms 

61 & 63, Queen Victoria St., E.G., 

AND AT . . 


More durable than iron. Cheapest for all spans up to 100 Feet 
Thousands of references 


Lagan Felt Works, BELFAST. 
&812 Old Ford Road. Bow. LONDON. 

Aerial Ropeways. 



Aerial Wire Ropeways supplied and equipped complete for carrying loads up to 
20 tons each. 

Portable Aerial Wire Ropeways in sections, each span self-contained and complete 
in itself, for readily moving about from place to place. 

Aerial Wire Ropeways with Electric Haulage, on absolute automatic block system. 
Light Railways surveyed, installed, and equipped complete. 

e for- our Special L-is-fc, 

Telegraphic Address: "RAILS, WIDNES/ 




A Coil of Steel of Immense Power. 


The Greater the Vibration the Firmer the Grip. 
Will never slack Back. 
Does not injure the Bolt. 
Has the Appearance of an Ordinary Nut. 
No Washer is Required, either Spring or otherwise. 
Is more effective than Two Nuts and a Split Pin. 
Is considerably cheaper than Two Nuts. 
Can be placed in position or removed without any 
difficulty or special appliance. 


Write for Copies of Testimonials, Prices, &c., to 




\A/ o F* K: s -_ XXOTOIM n i i__ i_, I-OIMDOIM, 

Telegrams: Effectible, London. Telephone No. .-Avenue 5833. 

FNGINEERJI Pulsating pumps. 








Watering Cattle, 

Brick and 
Pottery Works, 

Rice and 
Sugar Mills, 

Tea Gardens, 

Etc., Etc. 

Write for 

Illustrated List 

of Prices. 



Mines, and 

The "Waterspout" 

will pump almost 

Needs no Oil, Tallow, 
or Packing. 

Needs no Skilled 

Will work as well 
either hanging by a 
chain or permanently 

The Handiest Pump to 

move from place 

to place. 

The WATERSPOUT Engineering Co., 

Telegraphic Address : 

" Waterspout, Manchester. ' 
A 1 Code used. -^ 

I, North Parade, Parsonage, 



Centrifugal Pumps. 

GWYNNE & Co., 

(Late Essex Street Works, Victoria Embankment.) 


Brooke Street Works, Holborn, London, E.C., 

The Original Firm and Inventors of 


Two 33-inch Compound Vertical Pumping Engines, capable of discharging 12,500,000 gallons of water 

in 6 hours to a lift of 30 feet. 


Of largest sizes 


Contractors to Admiralty and all Government Departments, and the Russian, Italian, Austrian, and 

other Foreign Governments. 

Telegrams : " CWYf^ECR/\M, LONDOfT | /\ 1 & /\ B C Codes used. | Telephone : 65,095, 






Telegrams- . 

Compound Quadruple-Acting Pump, with Pearn's Patent 1893 System of Packing. 

Makers of STEAM PUMPS and all classes of 




Absolute Immunity' from Accident, therefore HO Damages to Pay. 



Chaff Cutters 


The Chaff -Cutting 

Machines (Acci- 

dents) Act, 1897. 

Great . . 

At the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England's 
Birmingham Show, June, 


Sixteen Different Ap- 

pliances were tested 

at the trials. 

The Judges 
awarded the 
PRIZE of 10 

to Richmond 
and Chandler 


Safety Feeder. 

Since which Hie following Prizes have been awarded. 

SILVER MEDAL (First and Only Prize), Peterborough Agricultural Society, }\\\\ 
5th, 6th and ;th, 1898. 

SILVER MEDAL (First and Only Prize), Northumberland Agricultural Society, July 
I3th, I4th and 15111, 1898. 

SILVER MEDAL (First and Only Prize), Leicestershire Agricultural Society, July 
27th and 28th, 1898. 

GOLD MEDAL (First and Only Prize), Wirral and Birkenhead Agricultural Society, 
July 2;th and 28th, 1898. 

CERTIFICATE OF MERIT (First and Only Prize), Adington and District Agri- 
cultural Society, August 3rd, 1898. 



Carnarvon Street, MANCHESTER, 

Richmond & Chandler's Chaff Cutter fitted with " Multiplex " 
Safety Feed Motion and Hinged Flywheel Cover. 

For their " Multiplex " 



a{ Wires Ttopeitiaytf 


Economy in Cost of Working* 

Simplicity of Construction with High-Class Materials, 

Long Spans and Steep Gradients overcome, 

Reduced Wear of Cables and Few Supports, 


Estimates, Pamphlets and Full Particulars on 
application, to the Proprietors of the Patents : 



150, Leadenhall Street, LONDON, E.C, 



Index to Advertisers, etc 


Anderson, D., & Son, lytd. 

Bag-shaw & Sons, Ltd 

Bartle, Jas. & Co 

Blackwell, Robt. & Co. ... -.. . . 

Bolinder, J. & C. G. & Co., I y td 

Bridge, David & Co 

,, ,, ,, Russian Trans. 

Bullivant & Co., Ud 

Churchill, Charles, & Co., Ud 

Clay Cross Economiser Co. 

Commans, R. E. 

Coulthard, T., & Co. 

Crosbie Bros 

Elworthy, H. S 

Frictionless Engine Packing Co., l^td. 

Gwyime, E. & Co 

Helicoid lyocknut Patents Co 

Holzapfels' Composition Co., I y td. 
Ironmongers' Rope Works, I,td. 
Kingfisher Patent Manufacturing Co. .. 
Lancashire Patent Belting & Hose Co. 

x. Lancaster & Tonge, Ltd 

xxiv. Lawton & Parker 

xxxv. Machinery, Tools, &c., Wanted ... 

vi. Manlove, Alliott & Co., Ltd. 
xxxi. Modern Machinery Publishing Co. 
ii. Nicholson, Jos. C., Tool Co. 

xl Pearn, Frank, & Co., Ltd 

vii. Pulsometer, Engineering Co 

viii. Redfern, G. P., & Co. 

xlv. Richards, Ceo., & Co., Ltd 

xxi. Richmond & Chandler, Ltd 

xxxix. Ropeways Syndicate, Ltd 

xxii. Second-hand Machinery for Sale 

xliv. vSiebe, Gorman & Co. 

vi. Telephone Magazine 

xiv. Temperley Transporter Company 

xii. United States Metallic Packing Co., Ltd. 

xxxii. Waterspout Engineering Co 

xl. White Machine Co 

iii. White, R. & Sons 



... xxvii. 


. . . xxxv. 


... xxxii. 







... xliii. 

... xxviii. 


iii., iv., v. 

... xxxi. 

The "ENGINEERING TIMES" Is the best advertising medium for Machinery Manufac= 
turers. Send for tariff and particulars of spaces available. Offices: Granville House, Arundel 
Street, W.C. 


General Patent Office, 

4, Soutb Street, finsburp, Condon. 

(Established I83O.) 


obtained at fixed and moderate charges. 

Designs and Trade Marks Registered at Home and Abroad. 

Circular of information forwarded free on application. 

Telephone No. 691 Avenue. Telegraphic Address:-" INVENTION, LONDON.' 


Nachstehendes Adrcssbuch enthalt die Namen von vertrauenswerthen Fabrikanten, 
und im Interesse auslandischer Kaufer sind die Namen der Speziaiitaten in Deutsch, Eng- 
lisch, Franzosisch, und Spanish angegeben. Sollten hiesigeoder auswartige Kaufer irgend- 
welche Auskunft betreffs Maschinen, VVaaren, u.s.w. vviinschen, so stehen wir denselben 
kostenfrei zu Diensten. Wir bitten die Herren welche von dieser Liste Gebrauch machen, 
in ihrer diesbeziiglichen Correspondenz gefalligst die "ENGINEERING TIMES" zu erwahnen. 

Ackerbau-Gerathe und Maschinen. Sieh Agricultural Machinery. 

Bergwerks Maschinens. Sieh Mining Machinery. 

Blasebalge. Sieh Blowers and Blowing Engines. 

Bohr Maschinen. Sieh Drilling Machines. 

Brunnen-Bohr Werkzeug. Sieh Well Boring Tools. 

Condensationstopfe. Sieh Steam Traps. 

Dampfbark assen und Yachten. Sieh Launch and Yacht Bui'ders 

Dampfmaschinen. Sieh Steam Engines. 

Dampf-Packung. Sieh Steam Packing. 

Dampf hammer. Sieh Steam Hammers 

Dampfkessel. -Sieh Boilers. 

Drehbanke. Sieh Lathes. 

Eisenbahn Material. Sieh Railway Plant. 

Electrische Maschinen. Sieh Electrical Machinery. 

Frictions kuppelungen. Sieh Friction Clutches. 

Gas Maschinen (Motoren). Sieh Gas Engines. 

Guesstiicke, Eisen und Stahl. Sieh Castings, Iron and Steel 

Holzwerkzeug Maschinen. Sieh Woodworking Machinery 

Hydraulische Maschinen. Sieh Hydraulic Machinery'. 

Indikatoren. Sieh Indicators. 

Krahne. Sieh Cranes. 

Lehren. Sieh Gauges. 

Locomotiven. Sieh Locomotive Engines. 

Luft und Gas verdichter. Sieh Air and Gas Compressors. 

Maschinen und Kesselausrustung. Sieh Engine and Boiler Fittings 

Messing Giesser. Sieh Brassfounders. 

Metalle und Legirungen. Sieh Metals and Alloys 

Oele und Echmier-felts. Sieh Oils and Lubricants. 

Petroleum- Maschinen. Sieh Petroleum Engines. 

Pompen. SieJi Pumps. 

Quetsch und Mahlmaschinen. Sieh Crushing and Grinding Machinery. 

Reimen. Sieh Belting. 

Reimscheiben und Kuppelungen. Sieh Shafting, Pulleys, and Couplings. 

Schififsbodenansatz-Verhinderungsmittel. Sieh Anti-fouling Compositions. 

Schmiedestucken. Sieh Forgings. 

Seiltransmissionen. Sieh Rope Transmission. 

Steinbrecher. Sieh Stone Breakers. 

Werkzeugmaschinen. Sieh Machine Tools. 

Ziegelei Maschinen. S'/V// Brick and Tile Making Machinery. 


Este directorio contiene los nombres y senas de algunos de los ingenieros y fabricantes 
de mas seriedad, con los articulos especiales que fabrican traducidos al Frances, al Aleman 
y al Espanol, para uso de los compradores en el extrangero. Los compradores, en el pais 
y en el extrangero, que deseen tener informes respecto a caulquiera de los articulos y 
maquinaria detallados a continuation, pueden dirigirse a nosotros y haremos lo posible para 
procurarselos, sin hacer cargo alguno. Rogamos a todos los que se valgan de este 
directorio que al hacer sus pedidos 6 pedir presupuestos directamente, se sirvan mencionar 
nuestro nombre. _. 

Accesorios de Maquinas y de Calderas. Vease Engine and Boiler Fittings. 

Aceites y Lubrificantes. Vease Oils and Lubricants. 

Arboles, poleas y man gas de union. Vease Shafting Pulleys and Coupling. 

Aventadores y Maquinas de Soplar. Vease Blowers and Blowing Engines. 

Bombas. Vease Pumps. 

Calderas. Vease Boilers. 

Composition anti-ensuciadora. Vease Anti-fouling Compositions. 

Compresore, de Aire y de Gas. Vease Air and Gas Compressors. 

Constructores de Lanchas de vapor y Yachtes. Vease Launch and Yacht Builders. 

Correas. Vease Belting. 

Forjadura. Vease Forgings. 

Fornos. Vease Lathes. 

Fundiciones de Cobre. Vease Brassfounders. 

Fundiciones de Hierro y Acero. Vease Castings, Iron and Steel. 

Gruas. Vease Cranes. 

Guarnicion para maquinaria a vapor. Vease Steam Packing. 

Herramientas Mecanicas. Vease Machine Tools. 

Herramientas para abrir Pozo. Vease Well-boring Tools 

Indicadores. Vease Indicators. 

Locomotoras. Vease Locomotive Engines. 

Maquinas Agricolas. Vease Agricultural Machinery. 

Maquinas a vapor. Vease Steam Engines. 

Martillos a vapor -Vease Steam Hammers. 

Maquinas de Agugerear. Vease Drilling Machines. 

Manquitos de Friccion. Vease Friction Clutches. 

Maquinaria Electrica. Vease Electrical Machinery. 

Maquinaria para hacer Ladrillos. Vease Brick and Tile Making Machinery. t 

Maquinas para Polvoriza y moler. Vease Crushing and Grinding Machinery. 

Maquinas Hidraulicas. Vease Hydraulic Machinery. 

Maquinas Mineras. Vease Mining Machinery. 

Maquinaria para trabajar la Madera. Vease Woodworking Machinery. 

Maquinas Petroleo. Vease Petroleum Engines. 

Material para Ferro-Carriles. Vease Railway Plant. 

Metales Aleaciones. Vease Metals and Alloys. 

Monometros. Vease Gauges. 

Motores a Gas. Vease Gas Engines. 

Quebrador piedars. Vease Stone Breakers. 

Trans-mision por Cuerdas. Vease Rope Transmission. 

Valvalas de Retencion de vapor. Vease Steam Traps. 

GI'NEER' Aerial Ropeways 




For Particulars apply- 





Hbboto Engravers, 


IDalf^onc a line. 







Get annuaire contient les noms et adresses des principales maisons de constructions 
mecaniques et etablissements manufacturers, dont les specialites respectives, pour la 
commodite des acheteurs, y sont indiquees en fra^ais, allemand et espagnol. Nous 
ferons tout notre possible pour fournir gratis tous renseignements dont ils auront besoin, 
>ur les machines et marchandises enumerees dans 1'Annuaire, a ceux des acheteurs qui 
se Jseront adresses a nous. Nous prions tous ceux qui consultent notre Annuaire 
d'indiquer notre nom s'ils transmettent leurs demandes et ordres directement. 

Arbres, poulies et manchons d'embrayage. Voir Shafting, Pulleys and Couplings. 

Accessoires de Moteurs et de Chaudieres. Voir Engine and Boiler Fittings. 

Boites a Vapeur. Voir Steam Traps. 

Broyeurs de pierres. Voir Stone Breakers. 

Chaudieres. Voir Boilers. 

Compositions preservativej; centre salissage. Voir Anti-fouling Compositions. 

Comprimeurs d'Air et de Gaz. Voir Air and Gas Compressors. 

Constructeurs de Chaloupes a vapeur et Yachts. Voir Launch and Yacht Builders. 

Courroies. Voir Belting. 

Embrayage a Friction. I Wr Friction Clutches. 

Fer Forge. Voir Forgings. 

Fondeurs en Cuivre. Voir Brassfounders. 

Fontes. Voir Castings, Iron and Steel. 

Garniture a Vapeur. Voir Steam Packing. 

Grues. -Voir Cranes. 

Huiles et Graisses lubrifiantes. Voir Oils and Lubricants. 

Indicateurs. Voir Indicators. 

Locomotives. Voir Locomotive Engines. 

Machines pour Mines. Voir Mining Machinery. 

Machines pour travailler le bois. Voir Wood- working Machinery. 

Machines a Briques. JWr Brick and Tile-making Machinery. 

Machines a Broyer. Voir Crushing and Grinding Machinery. 

Machines a Gaz. Voir Gas Engines. 

Machines a Percer. Voir Drilling Machines. 

Machines a Petrole. Voir Petroleum Engines. 

Machines a Vapeur. Voir Steam Engines. 

Marteaux a Vapeur. Voir Steam Hammers. 

Machines Agricoles. JWr Agricultural Machinery. 

Machines Electriques. Voir Electrical Machinery. 

Machines Hydrauliques. Voir Hydraulic Machinery. 

Machines Outils. Voir Machine Tools. 

Materiels de Chemins de fer. Voir Railway Plant. 

Metaux et alliages. Voir Metals and Alloys. 

Outils pour le sondage de puits. Voir Well-boring Tools. 

Pompes. Voir Pumps. 

Souffleurs. Voir Blowers and Blowing Engines. 

Tours. Voir Lathes. 

Transmission a Corde. Voir Rop2 Transmission 


No. 5. 

M. Inst. C.E. ; J. PEARCE ROE, M.I. and S. Inst. ; S. M. 

. Frontispieces 


English Orders Placed Abroad'.! Much Ado 
about Little. Lord Charles Beresford as a 
" Commercial Traveller." Trade with Russia ; 
important statement. A utomatic Couplings. 
The Metric System. H'hat to do with our 
Refuse. Electric Traction, etc. 

/ *. Some American Types discussed. 


V. Comparisons of English and American work- 
shop practice. 


III. The Vertical Type Se?f -Starters The 
Future of the Gas Engine Conclusion. 

AERIAL WIRE ROPEWAYS: Their development, use and construction. 

REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . W. T. H. Carrington, M. Inst. C.E. . 287 

W. Norris, A. M.I. C.E. , M.I.Mech.E. 263 

Charles Bright, F.R.S.E., etc. . . 271 
Ewart C. Amos, M. I. Mech. E. . 274 





fixed and semUportable 

J. Pearce Roe. M.I. &S. Inst. . . 305 
R. E. Commans, M. Inst. C.E. . . 319 
J. Walwyn White . . . . .331 

S. M. Cockburn, A.M. Inst. C.E. 


miscellaneous Section. 

(See Folio at bottom of Pages.) 


SC-ton Overhead Electric Traveller (3- Motor). The 
" Archbull-Deeley " process of purifying and 
softening water. The Helecoid Locknut. 




Annual Subscription (including special issues) o = post free to any part of the world. 


Do you buy Shafting, Pulleys, 

Structural Ironwork or Gearihg ? 

DRIVING a Speciality. 

Illustrated Catalogue, Containing- Simple Rules for the 

Transmission of Power by Wheels, Ropes, Belts, 

and Shafts, Post Free. 





This Directory includes the names and addresses of some of the most reliable Engineering 
and Manufacturing Firms, and for the benefit of foreign buyers the names of their leading 
specialities are translated into French, German and Spanish. If home and foreign buyers will 
communicate with us respecting any of the machinery and goods mentioned hereunder we will 
do our utmost to supply them, FREE OF CHARGE, with any information they may require, 
and we ask those who make use of this Directory to kindly mention our name when forwarding 
enquiries or orders direct. 

AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY. Machines Agricoles. - Ackerbau=Gerathe und 
Maschinen. Maquinas Agricolas. 

Name and Address. Telegraphic Address. 

Clayton & Shuttleworth, Lincoln Clayton, Lincoln 

Corbett, T., Shrewsbury Corbett, Shrewsbury 

Fowler, J. & Co. (Leeds Ltd.), Leeds ... ... ... ... ... ... Fowler, Leeds. 

Garrett, R., & Sons, Leiston Works, Suffolk Garrett, Leiston. 

Howes, S., 64 Mark Lane, London, E.G. Barbeau, London. 

Marshall, Sons &^Go., Ltd., Gainsborough ... ... ... Marshalls, Gainsborough. 

Middleton, J.P. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Gee Cross, nr. Manchester. 

Richmond & Chandler, Manchester Mowers, Manchester 

Robey & Co., Ltd., Lincoln . . . Robey, Lincoln 

Ruston, Proctor & Co., Ltd., Sheaf Ironworks, Lincoln Ruston, Lincoln 

Samuelson & Co., Ltd., Banbury, Oxon ... ... ... ... Samuelson, Banbury. 

AIR AND GAS COMPRESSORS. -Comprimeurs d'Air et de Gaz. Luft und Gas 
verdichter. Kompresore, de Aire y de Gas. 

Bailey, W. H. & Co., Ltd., Albion Works, Salford, Manchester Beacon, Salford. 

Clayton, Howlet & Co., Westbourne Park, London, W Brickpress, London. 

Easton, Anderson & Goolden, Ltd., Erith Egyptian, London. 

Hathorn, Davey & Co., Leeds Hathorn, Leeds. 

Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Co., II4A Queen Victoria Street, London, 


Sandycroft Foundry and Engine Works Co., Ltd., nr. Chester ... ... Sandycroft, Hawarden. 

Siebe, Gorman & Co., 187 Westminster Bridge Road, London, S.E. . . . Siebe, London. 

ANTI-FOULING COMPOSITIONS. Compositions preservatives contre salissage. 
Schiffsbodenansatz-Verhinderungsmittel. Composicion Anti-Ensuciadora. 

Kingfisher Ships' Composition Co., Leeds ... Kingfisher, Leeds. 

BELTING. Courroies. Riemen. - Correas. 

Angus, Geo. & Co., Ltd., St. John's Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne ... Ar*gus, Newcastle- 

Fleming, Birkby & Goodall, Ltd., West Grove Mills, Halifax ... Fleming, Halifax. 


Buyers' Directory. 

Packless, Manchester. 
Graysilver, London. 

Name and Address. Telegraphic Address. 

Frictionless Engine Packing Co., Ltd., Cable Mills, Glasshouse Street, 

India Rubber, Gutta Percha and Telegraph Works Co., Ltd., 

Silvertown, Essex ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Lancashire Belting and Hose Co., Manchester C. . . . ... ... ** Macmechan," Manchester. 

Norris, S. E. & Co., Shadwell, London, E. ... ... ... ... ... Vigilos, London. 

Parkes, H. C. & Co., Blue Boar Court, Manchester ......... Tact Manchester. 

Tullis, John & Son, Ltd., St. Anne's Leather Works, Bridgetown, 

Glasgow ... ... ... ... ... ... Tullis, Glasgow. 

Wallach Bros., 57 Gracechurch Street, London, E.C. ...... Hammerman, London. 

Willcox, W. H. & Co., Ltd., 34 and 36 South wark Street, E.C. 

BLOWERS AND BLOWING ENGINES. - Souffleurs.-BIasebalge. - Aventadores a 
Maquinas de Soplar. 

Black, Hawthorn & Co., Ltd., Gateshead-on-Tyne ... 

Blackthorn, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Ventilation, London. 
Opodeldoc, London. 

Blackman Ventilating Co., Ltd., 63 Fore Street, London, E.C. 
Churchill, Chas., & Co., Ltd., 9-15 Leonard Street, London, E.C. ... 
Matthews & Yates, Ltd., Swjnton, Manchester ... 

Samuelson & Son, Ltd., Banbury Samuelson, Banbury. 

Scott, Ernest, and Mountain, Ltd., Close Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne Esco, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

BOILERS.-Chaudieres. - Dampikessel.-Calderas. 

Abbot, Gateshead. 

Abbot, J. & Co., Gateshead-on-Tyne 

Bowman, J. & Co., 19 Nicholson Street, Glasgow ......... 

Cochran & Co., Ltd., Birkenhead ............ Multitubular, Birkenhead. 

Danks, E. & Co. (Oldbury), Ltd., Oldbury, nr. Birmingham ... Boiler, Oldbury. 

Galloways, Ltd., Manchester ............... Galloways, Ltd., Manchester. 

Grantham Crank and Iron Co., Grantham ... ... ... ... Land, Grantham. 

Hawksley, Wild & Co., Sheffield . . - Hawksley, Sheffield. 

Lees, T. & R., Hollinwood, nr. Manchester . . Lees, Hollinwood. 

Manlove, Alliott & Co., Ltd., Nottingham . . . Manloves, Nottingham. 

Oldham Boiler Works Co., Ltd., Oldham ............ Boilers, Oldham. 

Tinkers, Ltd., Hyde, nr. Manchester .................. Tinkers, Hyde. 

Whitehouse, J., Ilkeston ..................... Whitehouse, Ilkeston. 

BRASSFOUNDERS. Fondeurs en Cuivre. Messing Qiesser. Fundiciones de 

Abbot, John & Co., Ltd., Gateshead-on-Tyne ......... Abbot, Gateshead-on-Tyne 

Asbestos Co., Ltd. (Bell's), 59^ South wark Street, London, S.E ....... Belfry, London 

Bailey, W. H. & Co., Ltd., Albion Works, Salford, Manchester ...... Beacon, Salford. 

Carr, Charles, Ltd., Smethwick, Birmingham ......... Bell, Smethwick, Birmingham. 

Smith & Co., Midland Injector Works, Nottingham ...... Injector, Nottingham. 

Smith, Sydney, & Sons, Basford Brass Works, Nottingham ... Smiths, Nottingham, 

Maschinen. Maquinaria para hacer ladrillos. 

Bennett & Sayer, Derby 

Bradley & Craven, Westgate Common Foundry, Wakeneid 

a Briques.- Ziegelei 

..Bennett & Sayer, Derby 
Ciaven, Wakefield. 



Britannia Works, Ardwick, MANCHESTER. 

Lawton's improved Gas Engine 

Silver Medal, Industrial Exhibition, 1898. 
Silver Medal. Brewers' Exhibition, 1898. 



Thoroughly reliable, and can be repaired by any ordinary mechanic, previous knowledge being unnecessary. 

All Engines 
fitted with 
two . . . 

Maximum Brake 
Effective H.P. 


Maximum Brake 
Effective H.P. 









73 10 
94 10 
137 10 

PNGINEER- Divin Apparatus 







*&* % T 







Siebe, London. 


No. 251 (Hop.) 

Diving Apparatus, 

Diving Bells, 

Air Compressors, 


Submarine Electric Lamps. 


Apparatus for Divers. 


Exploding Apparatus, &c, 

Neptune' Works, London, 


5 ING I 

Buyers' Directory. 

Name and Address. 

Clayton, Hewlett <K: Co., Westbourne Park, London... 

Fu\vcett, Thos. cS: Co., Ltd., Whitehouse Engineering Works, Leeds 

Johnson, W. <& Sons, Castleton Foundry, Armley, Leeds 

Whittaker, C. (S: Co., Dowry Street Ironworks, Accrington 

Telegraphic Address. 

Brickpress, London. 

Ronksley, Armley. 
Bricks, Accrington. 

CASTINGS, IRON AND STEEL. -Fontes. Guesstiicke, Eisen und Stahl. Fundi- 
ciones de Hierro y Accra. 

Abbot, John & Co., Ltd., Gateshead-on-Tyne ... 

Askham Bros. & Wilson, Ltd., Sheffield 

Bessemer, Henry & Co., Ltd., Sheffield ... - ... 

Cam mell, Chas. & Co', Ltd., Sheffield 

Han dyside, A. & Co., Ltd., Britannia Works, Derby 

Hunter & English, Bow, London, E 

Jessop & Sons, Ltd., Brightside Works, Sheffield, England 
Figgott, Thos. & Co., Ltd., Springhill, Birmingham 
Weardale Iron & Coal Co., Ltd., George Yard, Upper Thames 
Street, London, E.C. 

CRANES. Grues. Krahne. Gruas. 

Abbot, Gateshead. 

Askham, Sheffield. 

Bessemer, Sheffield. 

Cammell, Sheffield. 

Handyside, Derby. 

Yenator, London. 

Jessops, Sheffield. 

Atlas, Birmingham. 

Weardale London, 

Bedford Engineering Co., Bedford ... ... ... ... ... Cranes, Bedford. 

Fielding & Platt, Ltd., Gloucester . , . Atlas, Gloucester. 

Grafton Co., Bedford ' ... Grafton, Bedford. 

Joicey, J. & G. & Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne Engines, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Leeds Engineering & Hydraulic Co., Providence Works, Cross 

Stamford Street, Leeds ... Pump, Leeds. 

Owen, Brazil, and Holborow, Vulcan Iron Works, Bristol ... Hydraulic, Bristol. 

Pickerings, Ltd., Globe Elevator Works, Stockton-on-Tees Pickerings, Ltd., 

Yaughan & Son, West Gorton, Manchester ... ... ... ... Yaunting, Manchester. 

CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINERY.-Machines a Broyer.-Quetsch und 
Mahlmaschinen. Maquinas para Polvoriza y moler. 

Baxter, W. H., Gelderd Road, Leeds 

Bradley Pulverizer Co., 34 Clement's Lane, Lombard Street, London, 

Cocks, W. E., Bassingbourne Ironworks, nr. Royston, Cambs. 

Mason Bros., Brandon Street, Leicester 

Richmond & Chandler, Manchester 

Southgate Engineering Co., Ltd., Xew Southgate, London, N. 

Knapping, Leeds. 

Wygo, London. 

Cocks, Bassingbourne. 

Breaker, Leicester. 

Mowers, Manchester. 

Centrifugal, New 


DRILLING MACHINES. Machines a Percer. Bohr Maschinen. Maquinas de 

Addy, Geo., Waverley Works, Sheffield Milling, Sheffield. 

Archdale, James & Co., Manchester Works, Birmingham Archdale, Birmingham. 

Churchill, Charles, & Co., Ltd., 15 Leonard Street, London, E.C. ... Opodeldoc, London. 

Green, J. & Nephew, Cudbear Street, Leeds Green, Nephew, Leeds. 

Niles Tool Works Co., 39 Yictoria Street, London, S.W 


Buyers' Directory 

Name and Address. Telegraphic Address. 

Nottingham Engineering Co., St. Albans Street Works, Radford, 

Nottingham Iron, Nottingham. 

Taite, Howard & Co., Ltd., 63 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.G. Taite, Carlton, 

United States Metallic Packing Co., Soho Works, Bradford Metallic, Bradford. 

ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. Machines Electriques. -Electrische Maschinen.- 
Maquinaria Electrica. 

British, Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., 83 Cannon Street, London, E.G. 
Brush Electrical Engineering Co., Ltd., 49 Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C 

Callender's Cable and Construction Co., 90 Cannon Street, London, 

E.C .. 

Electric Construction Co., Ltd., Dashwood House, London, E.C. ... 

Glover, W. T. & Co., Ltd., Salford, Manchester 

Homes & Co., John, Newcastle on-Tyne 

Jackson, P. R. & Co., Salford Rolling Mills, Manchester 

Asteroidal, London. 
Magnets, London. 

Callender, London. 
Concordance, London. 
Glovers, Salford. 
Holmes, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
... Jackson's, Manchester. 

Johnson Phillips, 14 Union Court, Old Broad Street, London, E.C. 

Mather & Platt, Ltd., Salford Iron Works, Manchester 

Patterson, Cooper & Co., Thistle Works, Paiseley 

Juno, London. 
Mather, Manchester. 

Scott, Ernest & Mountain, Ltd.*Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Taylor & Challen, Ltd., Derwent Foundry, Birmingham 
Turner, John & Sons, Denton, near Manchester 

Esco, Newcastle-on-Tyne 
... Derwent, Birmingham 
Machines, Denton, Lanes. 

ENGINE AND BOILER FITTINGS. Accessoi res de Moteurs et de Chaudieres. 
Maschinen und Kesselausrustung. Accesorios de Maquinas y de Calderas. 

Austen (Beng), 184 St. George's Street, E. ... 
Asbestos Co., Ltd. (Bell's), 59^ Southwark Street, London, S.E. 
Bailey, W. H. & Co., Ltd., Albion Works, Salford, Manchester 
Bennis & Co., Ltd., Lancashire Stoker Works, Bolton 
Browett, Lindley & Co., Ltd., Patricroft, Manchester 

Clay Cross Co., near Chesterfield ... 

Hawksley, Wild & Co., Sheffield 

Kingfisher Patent Lubrication Co., Leeds 

McPhail & Simpsons, Ltd., Wakefield 

Meldrum Bros., Atlantic Works, City Road, Manchester 
Owen, Brazil & Holborrow, Vulcan Ironworks, Bristol 
Pillatt, A. & Co., Furnace Engineers, Nottingham 

Pollock, McNab & Highgate, Shettlestone, Glasgow 

Stewart, D. & Co., Ltd., London Road Iron Works, Glasgow 
Wallach Bros., 57 Gracechurch Street, London, E.C 

Belfry, London. 

Beacon, Salford. 

Bennis, Bolton. 

Sandon, Patricroft. 

Jackson, Clay Cross. 

Hawkslev, Sheffield. 

Kingfisher^ Leeds. 

Simpson, W.akefield. 

Meldrum, Manchester. 

Hydraulic, Bristol. 

Highgate, Shettlestone. 

Stewart, Glasgow. 

Hammerman, London. 

FORGINGS.-Fer Forge.-Schmiedestucken.-Forjadura. 

Clarke's Crank & Forge Co., Ltd., Patent Crank Works, Lincoln 

Darlington Forge Co., Ltd., Darlington 

Hadfield's Steel Foundry Co., Ltd., Hecla Works, Sheffield 
Leeds Forge Co., Ltd., Leeds ... 

Cranks, Lincoln. 

Forge, Darlington. 

Hadfield, Sheffield. 

Vulpes, Leeds. 


White Cycles 


WHITE CYCLES are scientifically built and mathe- 
matically correct in every detail. 

OUR BOTTOM BRACKET (the principal bearing in 
a Bicycle), is built on an entirely new plan. 



All Bearings are Dust-Proof and Oil-Retaining. 

WHITE CYCLES for Ladies or Gentlemen, Girls or 
Boys for all pursuits. 


48, Holborn Viaduct, LONDON, and at Paris. 

BOUNDER'S, Stockholm, Sweden, 


Sawing Machinery and Wood-Planing Machines. 










(Supphea to H.M. Dockyards, and lending Engineers 
throughout the United Kingdom.} 

Diam. of Pipes 
PRICE, each 
Code Words . 

Special Advantages. 

Positive Grip in any position, 
Smooth surface in contact with 
pipe. Binds the pipe uniformly, 
nc bulging. Can be used on 
galvanised pipes, brass or copper 
pipes, turned shafting, as a 
spanner for large nuts, and for 
turning large engine shafts. 

'Proprietors and Sole Manufacturers: 

No. i. No. 2. No. 3. 

i to ij in. jl to 2f in. i J to 4 in. 

IS/" 23- 32- 


No. 4. No. 5. 

2 to 8 in. 3 to 16 in. 

46- 66/ 


National Telephone No. 1532. 
Telegrams" MACHINERY." 

The Jos. C. Nicholson Tool Co., 

Collingwood Street, NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. 





For Steel & Iron Vessels. -^ 


Holzapfel's Composition 
Company, Ltd., 


Trade Mark. 



Agencies and Stocks at all 
Principal Ports. 

FRICTION CLUTCHES. - Embrayages^ Friction. Friction. - Frictionskuppelungen. 
- Manguitos de friccion. 

Name and Addn.-^. Telegraphic Addri-x-. 

Bagshaw, J. & Sons, Ltd., Victoria Foundry, Batley Bagshaw, Batlcy. 

Bridge, D. & Co., Friars Works, King Street, Salford, Manchester 

Harpers, Ltd., Aberdeen... Harpers, Aberdeen. 

Shore, T. & Sons, Albion Foundry, Hanley Shores, Engineers, Hanley. 

Walker Bros., Pagefield Ironworks, Wigan Pagefield, Wigan. 

GAGES. Manometres. Lehren.- Monometros. 

Moncrieff, John, Perth, Scotland 

Schaffer and Budenberg, jj.\ Queen Victoria Street, London, E.G. 
Wallach Bros., 57 Gracechurch Street, London, E.G. 

GAS ENGINES. Machines a Gaz. Gas Maschinen (Motoren) 

Bilbie. Hobson & Co., 80 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.G. 
Blackstone & Co., Ltd., Stamford . . . 

Campbell Gas Engine Co., Ltd., Kingston, Halifax 

Crossley Bros., Ltd., Manchester 

Cundall, R. & Sons, Ltd., Shipley, Yorks 

Fielding & Platt, Ltd., Gloucester . 

Furnival & Co., Reddish Iron Works 

Green, J. & Nephew, Cudbear Street, Leeds ... 
Lawton and Parker, Openshaw, Manchester 

Moncrieff, Perth. 

Pyrometer, London. 

Hammerman, London. 

Motores a Gas. 

Andrew, London. 
Blackstones, Stamford. 

Camgas, Halifax. 
Crossleys, Openshaw. 

Cundall, Shipley. 
Atlas, Gloucester. 

Green, Nephew, Leeds. 

HYDRAULIC MACHINERY. Machines Hydrauliques. Hydraulische Maschinen. - 
Maquinas Hidraulicas. 

Abbot, John & Co., Gateshead-on-Tyne 

Berry, Henry & Co., Croydon Works, Hunslet, Leeds 

Easton, Anderson & Goolden, Ltd., 3 Whitehall Place, London, S.W. 

Fielding & Platt, Ltd., Gloucester 

Middleton, Robt., Sheepscar Foundry, Leeds 

Mills, Edwin & Son, Aspley Iron Works, Huddersfield . 

Owen, Brazil & Holbro\v, Vulcan Ironworks, Bristol... 

Abbot, Gateshead. 

Rivetter, Leeds. 

Egyptian, London. 

Atlas, Gloucester. 

Hydraulic, Leeds. 

Omo, Huddersfield. 

Hydraulic, Bristol. 

INDICATORS. Indicateurs. Indikatoreu. Indicadores. 

Ernest, Scott & Mountain, Ltd., Newcastle-on- Tyne Esco, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Mclnnes, T. S. & Co., Ltd., 41 Clyde Place, Glasgow Indicator, Glasgow. 

Schaffer & Budenberg, 77. \ Queen Victoria Street, London, E.G. ... Pyrometer, London. 

LATH ES. -Tours.- Drehbanke. Tornos. 

Addy, Geo., Waverley \Vorks, Sheffield Milling, Sheffield. 

Archdale, James & Co., Manchester Works, Birmingham Archdale, Birmingham. 

Churchill, Charles, & Co., Ltd., 15 Leonard Street, London, E.G. ... Opodeldoc, London. 

Green, J. & Nephew, Cudbear Street, Leeds Green, Nephew, Leeds. 

Nicholson Tool Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne Machinery, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Nottingham Eng. Co., St. Alban's Work's, Radford, Nottingham ... Iron, Nottingham. 

Richards, Geo. & Co., Broadheath, nr. Manchestir Richards, Altringham. 
Richardson & Co., Well Lane, Halifax... 

"Webster & Bennett, Atlas Works, Coventry Profile, Coventry. 

Wild, A. M Sheffield 


Buyers' Directory. 

LAUNCH AND YACHT BUILDERS. Constructeurs de Chaloupes & vapeur et 
Yachts. Dampfbark assen und Yachten. Constructors de Lanchas de 
vapor y Yachtes. 

Name and Address. 

Cochran & Co., Birkenhead 

Fleming & Ferguson, Ltd., Paisley, N.B 

Owen, Brazil & Holborow, Vulcan Ironworks, Bristol 

Yarrow & Co., Poplar, London, E. 

Simpson, Strickland & Co., Ltd., Dartmouth, S. Devon 

Thornycroft, J. I. & Co., Chiswick, London, W. 

Telegraphic Address. 

Multitubular, Birkenhead. 

Phoenix, Paisley. 

Hydraulic, Bristol. 

Engineers, Dartmouth. 
Thor-nycroft, London. 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. Locomotives. -Locomotiven. Locomotoras. 

Avonside Engine Co., Bristol 

Bagnall, W. G., Ltd., Castle Engine Works, Stafford 

Fowler, J. & Co. (Leeds), Ltd., Leeds 

H uds well, Clark & Co., Leeds... 

Joicey, J. & G. & Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Peckett & Sons, Bristol 

Stephenson, Robert & Co., Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Walker, Bristol. 

Bagnall, Stafford. 

Fowler, Leeds. 

Loco, Leeds. 

Engines, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Peckett, Bristol. 

Rockett, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

MACHINE TOOLS. Machines. Outils. Werkzeugmachinen. 


Addy, Geo., Waverley Works, Sheffield 

Archdale, James & Co., Manchester Works, Birmingham ... 

Berry, Henry & Co., Croydon Works, Leeds 

Bird, John R., 10 Morrison Street, Kingston, Glasgow 
Churchill, Charles & Co., Ltd., 15 Leonard Street, London, E.C. 

Green, J. & Nephew, Cudbear Street, Leeds 

Hamer, S. H., Range Lane, Halifax 

Hulse & Co., Ordsal Works, Salford 

Kendall & Dent, Manchester... 

Nicholson Tool Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne... 

Richards, Geo. & Co., Broadheath, nr. Manchester 

Samuelson & Co., Ltd., Banbury 

Smith & Coventry, Ltd., Ordsal Lane, Manchester ... 

Wild, A. M., Tool Maker, Sheffield 

Milling, Sheffield. 

Archdale, Birmingham. 

Rivetter, Leeds. 

Opodeldoc, London 
Green, Nephew, Leeds. 

Esleep, Manchester. 
Tools, Manchester. 
Machinery, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Richards, Altringham. 
Samuelson, Banbury. 
Gresley, Manchester. 

METALS AND ALLOYS. Metaux et alliages. Metalle und Legirungen.-iMetales 

Carr, Charles, Ltd., Smethwick, near Birmingham ... Bells, Smethwick, Birmingham. 

Delta Metal Co., Ltd., no Cannon Street, London Delta, London. 

Flockton, Tompkin & Co., Newhall Steel Works, Sheffield... Tompkin, Sheffield. 

Magnolia Anti-Friction Metal Co. of Gt. Britain, Ltd., 49 Queen 

Victoria Street, London, E.C. Magnolier, London. 

Phosphor Bronze Co., Ltd., Surnner Street, London, S.E. Phosphor Bronze, London. 

MINING MACHINERY. Machine pour Mines. Bergwerks Maschinens. - 
Maquinas Mineras. Macchine de Miniera. 

Bradley Pulverizer Co., 37 Walbrook, London, E.C. ... 
Bullivant & Co., Ltd., 72 Mark Lane, London, E.C. ... 

Equestrian, London. 
Bullivants, Lcn-.lon. 






This can be done by fitting 
them with Bird's Patent 



which will effect an 

ECONOMY of from 20 to 

30 per cent. 

Patented in America 

and other Foreign 


Used by some of the 
Principal Tool Makers 
and Engineers in the 

Send for full particulars to the 

IAC DADTIC 9, PA WESTERN IRON WORKS, f / vm TI v / v 1 . T lt , 


engineers, NOTTINGHAM, 


Of all types and for all purposes 

PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT.-Owing to the excessive 
demand for the issues of the Engineering Times of December, February 
and March last, copies can now only be supplied to Annual Subscribers. 

Annual Subsrrlption, g/- post free to any part o f the world. 




Are in course of Preparation. They will deal with LIGHT AND 


respectively, for both of which Signed Articles by the most eminent 

authorities of the day have been secured. The 

Light and Portable ^^~ 
~=^v Railway Number 

Will be issued in the course of a few months. 

(For further particulars see future issues.) 


On Engineering Subjects are to be found in a Volume 
of " The Engineering Times," 

Annual Subscription (2 Vols., and including Special Issues), 9/. f post free 

to any part of the world. 

Offices : Granoille Bouse, flrundel Strcef, ondon, W.C. 



Adiliv . 

Hdw. Chester & Co., 120 Bishopsgate Street Within, London, E.G. 
Gates Iron Works, Dept. K., 150 Dash wood House, London, E.G. 

Hardy Patent Pick Co., Ltd., Sheffield, England 

Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Co., ii4A Queen Victoria St., London, E.G. 
Pulsometer Engineering Co., Ltd., Nine Elms, London, S.W. 
Sandycroft Foundry and Engine Works, Co., Ltd., near Chester 
Thames Ore Crushing Co., Ltd., Cannon Street, London, E.G. 
Waterspout Engineering Co., I North Parade, Parsonage, Manchester ... 

Telegraphic Address. 

Calymene, London. 

Hardypick, Sheffield 

Enyam, London. 

Pulsometer, London. 

Sandycroft, Hawarden. 

Waterspout, Manchester. 

OILS AND LUBRICANTS. Huiles et Qraisses lubrifiantes. Oele und Echmier= 
fetts Aceites y lubrificantes. 

Imperial Steam Users' Association, Hatcham Road, London, S.E. 

Kingfisher Patent Lubrication Co., Leeds 

Reliance Lubricating Co., 19 & 23 Water Lane, London, X.C. 

Wells, M. & Co., Hardman St. Oil Works, Manchester 

Stern Bros., 57 Gracechurch Street, London, E.C. 

Trier Bros., 19 Great George Street, London, S.W 

Valporoso, London. 

Kingfisher, Leeds. 

Subastral, London. 

Vaseline, Manchester. 

Centamoir, London. 

Viscosity, London 

PETROLEUM ENGINES. -Machines a Petrole. Petroleum=Maschinen. Maquinas 

Cundall, R. & Sons, Ltd., Shipley, Yorks 

Fielding & Plate, Ltd., Gloucester 

Ilmnsby, R. & Sons, Ltd., Grantham, England 

Piiesiman Bros., Holderness Foundry, Hull ... 

Cundall, Shipley 

Atlas, Gloucester. 

Hornsbys, Grantham. 

Priestman, Hull. 

PUMPS. Pompes. Pompen. -Bombas. 

Beaumont's Pump Works, Stockport 

Drysdale Co., Bon Accord Engine Works, Glasgow 
Evans, Joseph & Sons, Culwell Works, Wolverhauipton 
Gwynne & Co., Brooke Street Works, Holoorn, London, W.C. 

Hathorn, Davey & Co., Leeds 

Isler, C. & Co., Bear Lane, South wark, E.C 

Joicey, J. & G. & Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne ... ... ... 1C 

M 1 11 \ weather & Sons, Ltd., 63 Long Acre, W.C 

Owen, Brazil & Holborrow, Vulcan Ironworks, Bristol 

Pearn, Frank & Co., Ltd., Manchester . . 

Pulsometer Engineering Co., Ltd., Nine Elms Ironworks, S.E. 

Siebe, Gorman & Co., 187 Westminster Bridge Road, London, S.E. 

Scott, E. & Mountain, Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne . . 

Waterspout Engineering Co., I North Parade, Parsonage, Manchester 

Wilcox, W. H. & Co., 34 & 36 South wark Street, S.E. Wilcox, 

Vauxhall Ironworks Co., Ltd., Wandsworth, London, S.W.... 

Pumps, Stockport. 
Bonaccord, Glasgow. 
... Evans, Wolverhumpton. 


Isler, London. 

ngines, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

... Merry weather, London. 

Hydraulic, Bristol. 

Pumps, Manchester. 

Siebe, London. 

Esco, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Waterspout, Manchester. 

Southwark Street, London. 

Wellhole, London. 

RAILWAY PLANT.Materiels de Chemins de fer. Eisenbahn Material. Material 
para Ferro=Carriles. 

Bagnall, W. G., Ltd., Castle Engine Works, Stafford Bagnall, Stafford. 

Birch, John & Co., Ltd., 10 1 1 Queen Street Place, London, E.C. Kiuk-avour, London. 
Dirk, Kerr & Co., Ltd., 101 Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. ... Dicker, London. 

Fowler, J. & Co. (Leeds), Ltd., Leeds Fowler, Leeds, 

Name and Address. 

Laycock, W. S., Victoria Works, Sheffield 

Nottingham Engineering Co., St. Alban's Works, Radford, Not- 

Patent Shaft & Axletree Co., Wednesbury 

Penney, Alexander & Co., 107 Fenchurch Street, London, E.G. ... 

Summerson, T. & Son, Darlington 

White, Richd. & Sons, Widnes 

Telegraphic Address. 

Invention, Sheffield. 

Iron, Nottingham. 
Shaft, Wednesbury. 
Finitimus, London. 
Summerson, Darlington. 

mision por Cuerdas. 

Bagshaw, J. & Sons, Ltd., Batley, Yorks 

Bullivant Co., Ltd., 72 Mark Lane, London, E.G. ... 

Glaholm Robson, Sunderland 

Ironmongers* Rope Works, Ltd., Brykil Street, Wolverhampton 
Rankin, Richard, Manchester Street, Liverpool 
White, Richd. & Sons, Widnes - 

Corde. Seiltransmissionen. Trans= 

Bagshaw, Batley, 

Bullivant, London. 

Glaholm, Sunderland. 

Reliance, Wolverhampton. 

SHAFTING, PULLEYS, AND COUPLINGS.^Arbres, poulies et manchons d'em= 
brayage. Wallen, Riemscheiben und Kuppelungen. Arboles, poleas y man 
gas de union. 

Ashton, T. A., Ltd., 40 Norfolk Street, Sheffield 

Bridge, David & Co., Friars Works, King Street, Salford, Manchester 

Bagshaw, J. & Sons, Ltd., Pulley, Batley, Yorks 

Clark's Crank & Forge Co., Ltd., Lincoln 

Cruikshank & Cook, 78 Galbraith Street, Glasgow 

Fleming, Birkby & Goodall, Ltd., West Grove Mills, Halifax 

Joicey, J. & G. & Co., Ne\vcastle-on-Tyne 

Nottingham Engineering Co., Radford, Nottingham... 
Owen, Brazil & Holborow, Vulcan Ironworks, Bristol 
Pickerings, Ltd., Globe Elevator Works, Stockton-on-Tees... 

Ashton, Sheffield. 

Bagshaw, Batley. 
Cranks, Lincoln. 
Blowers, Glasgow. 
Fleming, Halifax. 
Engines, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Iron, Nottingham. 
HydrauXic, Bristol 
... Pickerings, Stockton- 

STEAM ENGINES. Machines & Vapeur. Dampfmaschinen. Maquinas a Vapor. 

Avonside Engine Co., Bristol 

Broadbent, T. & Sons, Chapel Hill, Huddersfield 
Browett, Lindley & Co., Patricroft, Manchester 
Clayton, Hewlett Co., Westbourne Park, W. 

Cochran & Co., Birkenhead 

Coulthard & Co., Preston ... -... ... 

Fowler, J. & Co. (Leeds), Ltd., Leeds 

Friedenshal, F., Ribble Engine Works, Preston 

Grantham Crank Iron Co., Ltd., Grantham... 

Joicey, J. & G. & Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Lees, T. & R., Hollingshead, nr. Oldham .., 

Manlove, Alliott & Co., Ltd., Nottingham 

Owen, Brazil & Holborow, Vulcan Ironworks, Bristol 

Peckett & Sons, Bristol 

Richmond & Chandler, Manchester 

Walkej, Bristol. 

Broadbent, Huddersfield. 

Sandon, Patricroft. 

Brickpress, London. 

Multitubular, Birkenhead. 

Coulthards, Preston. 

Fowler, Leeds. 

Screw, Preston. 

Land, Grantham 

Engines, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Lees, Holingwood. 

. . Manloves, Nottingham. 

Hydraulic, Bristol. 

Peckett, Bristol. 

Mowers, Manchester 



Engineers, PRESTON. 

Makers of Patent 


Steam Driven Motor Vehicles, 

Capacity 20 cwts. to 3 tons. 



WHITE or PREPARED, made on the 
most modern principles by powerful 
machinery, from HIGH= CLASS COTTON. 

Manilla, Italian, and Russian Hemp Ropes. 
Spun Yarns in all Varieties. 


Telegrams : " Reliance, Wfaampton." 

National Telephone 33. ESTABLISHED 1745. 

Brykil Street, . . . 



t ^s as used in the Largest Installation of 

Hydraulic Machinery in the World. 

PACKINGS of all kinds for ENGINES, PUMPS, &c. 

C M C T E M bl r E M B y A r b M B P M A JK A . 

100 3AKA30B r b oxtcrapbixL 

B-b 1 1-04 b, 
MAPTA, 1898 r. 

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no nopiHTCH." "3a- 
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.Ij'iiiieii B'b iipo^ani'b lie 40 
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HEC'lACTHblE C.iy i IAH. 


KU.IECllOti n BA.lUBuil TPAHCMflCCm. 

4-BjaeT'b orb 3 40 1000 oooporoB'b 

coipaccuiH npw uycKauiu 
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C'b TO'lllOCTbK) 

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D P C TA n H A 4 E >K H A . 

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CnpociiTb nucbMOM'b Hpeiicb-Kypaiirb " R" y B,ia46.ii>ncBb npHBH.i.ieriii n'iiirejbUbixb *ao[)iiKanTOB'b : 




Buyers' Directory 

Name and Address. Telegraphic Address. 

Sandycroft Foundry and Engine Works Co., Ltd., nr. Chester, England . Sandycroft, Ha warden. 
Scott, E. & Mountain, Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne Esco, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Stephenson, R. & Co. Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne ... ... Rockett, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Turner, E. R. & F., Ipswich Gippeswyk, Ipswich. 

STEAM HAMMERS. Marteaux & Vapeur. Dampjhammer. Martillos a Vapor. 

Samuelson & Co., Ltd., Britannia Works, Banbury 
Whittaker Bros., Ltd., Horsforth, Leeds 

Samuelson, Banbury. 
Quarries, Leeds. 

STEAM PACKING. Garnitures & Vapeur. Dampf-Packung. Guarnicion para 
maquinaria a Vapor. 

Ironmongers' Rope Works, Ltd., Brykil Street, Wolverhampton R.eliance, Wolverhampton. 

Lancaster & Tonge, Ltd., Pendleton, Manchester Pistons, Manchester. 

Lincolne & Co., 65 and 67 North Wallace Street, Glasgow Lincolne, Glasgow. 

Loco Packing Co., Boreham Wood Works, Elstree ... ... Packing, Elstree Station. 

The Frictionless Engine Packing Co., Cable Mill, Oldham Road, 

Manchester . . . Packless, Manchester. 

United States Metallic Packing Co., Bradford Metallic, Bradford. 

STEAM TRAPS. Boites Vapeur. Condensationstopfe. Valvalas de Retencion 
de Vapor. 

Holden & Brooke, Ltd., Sirius Works, West Gorton, Manchester 
Lancaster & Tonge, Ltd., Pendleton, Manchester 

Influx, Manchester. 
Pistons, Manchester. 

STONE BREAKERS. -Broyeurs de pierres. - Steinbrecher. Quebrador piedras. 

Baxter, W. H., Ltd., Gelderd Road, Leeds 
Mason Bros., Brandon Street, Leicester 

Knapping, Leeds. 
Breaker, Leicester. 

WELL BORING TOOLS. - Outils pour le sondage de puits.-Brunnen=Bohr 
Werkzeug. Herramientas para abrir Pozo. 

Isler, C. & Co., Bear Lane, Southwark, S.E. Isler, London. 

WOODWORKING MACHINERY.-Machines pour travailler le bois. 
Maschinen. Maquinaria para trabajar la Madera. 


Bale, M. P. & Co., Appold Street, Finsbury, E.C 

Bolinders, J. & C. G., Ltd., Stockholm 

Campbell, W. H. & Co., 25 Boundary Road, Middlesbrough Campbell, Middlesbrough. 

Grantham Crank Iron Co., Ltd., Grantham ... ... ... Land, Grantham. 

Green & Nephew, J., Cudbear Street, Leeds Green, Nephew, Leeds. 

Kirchner & Co., Ltd., 118 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
Lees, T. & R., Hollin wood, nr. Oldham ... 

Pollock, McNab & Highgate, Fir Park Iron Works, Shettleston, 

Kirchner, London. 
Lees, Hollinwood. 

Highgate, Shettle- 
ston, Glasgow. 

Ransome & Co., Ltd., Stanley Works, Chelsea, London, S.W. 
Ryland & Bird, Brixton, London, S.W. 

Sagar & Co., J., Canal Works, Halifax Sagars, Engineers, Halifax. 

Yates & Co., A., Luddenden, via Manchester 


Metallic Packing. 

Tlie Best Metil it 




To all Types of Engines in Europe, Asia, Africa and America. 


"8 "8 



<t ss n 

*< 3 c/j 

rt> 2 > 

r+ u rv 

L 3 

~ '/; C 

O* ' * 


Telegrams : 
Metallic, Bradford.' 



No. 604. 


The Bradford Portable POWER DRILL and REAMER. 

Air Compressors and Pneumatic Hammers. 

Pneumatic Hoists. .. .-. Pneumatic Painters. 

Pneumatic Rivetters, &c., <&c. 


Writer of 




With Ten Illustrations. 


Contributor of 


With Eleven Illustrations. 


Author of 



With Twelve Illustrations. 



Contributor of 


With Twelve Illustrations. 


Writer ot 



With Fifteen Illustrations. 

VOL. I. 

APRIL-MAY 1899. 

No. V 


English Orders Placed Abroad!!! 

There has been a great deal of talk 
about orders for locomotives and 
bridges going to America. The whole 
thing has been greatly exaggerated. 
We do not propose to deny that a 
certain bridge order has been placed 
by one of our Government depart- 
ments with an American firm, nor 
that the Midland and Great Northern 
Railways have done the same in 
respect to certain locomotives. But 
has it ever struck our readers that 
Pullman cars, "and a number of other 
things we might mention, have been 
coming over here for years past, and 
without doing us any harm, nor 
creating the outcry now so prevalent. 
Let us, however, look the facts fairly 
in the face. In the first place, the 
main reason assigned for our makers 
not booking these orders was that 
they were unable to execute them in 
the time asked for, because they were 
so busily engaged night and day on 
other work, and we may well assume 
on exceedingly profitable work, if 
the present rate of prices is any indi- 
cation. Now, if any other reason 
than this were the cause, such as our 
prices being too high, for instance, 
we might well, deplore the condition 
of things, but when we remember 
that these orders could practically 
have been secured by our firms, in 



fact were offered to them, this does 
not appear to us to be sufficient 
ground for the extraordinary views 
which some of our contemporaries 
have seen fit to ventilate. 

It must always be borne in mind 
that outside the railway companies 
themselves, there are, comparatively 
speaking, a limited number of firms 
who lay themselves out for building 
heavy locomotives, and these par- 
ticular firms are now exceedingly 
bus)'. If this extraordinary demand 
for locomotives and Atbara bridges 
were likely to continue, it would 
doubtless pay to establish a big loco- 
motive industry outside our loco shops, 
but such extension cannot be carried 
out at a moment's notice, or at any rate 
quick enough to give prompt delivery. 
Moreover, if our home railway com- 
panies can as a rule meet their own 
requirements our principal market 
would be to our colonies, and such 
continental firms as do not build for 
themselves. These are getting fewer 
year by year, and whatever hopes we 
may have had in that direction some 
of our theoretical George Street 
engineers have assisted to crush them 
by insisting on such severe conditions 
as to frighten our manufacturers. 
But, after all, is there call for all this 
agitation ? We cannot lose sight of 
the fact that America is not only a 

2 5 8 

Engineering Times. 

larger country than this, but possesses 
both a greater railway mileage besides 
more locomotives, and has also en- 
couraged private locomotive building, 
and at a time of great pressure on 
this side is able to supply in shorter 
time than we care to, but that such a 
fuss should be made about a few 
orders for locomotives, and a bridge 
for the Soudan going abroad is too 

absurd ! 

+ + + 

Much ado about little. 

When we see it stated that 
" American ingenuity, enterprise and 
pluck, have over and over proved 
themselves capable of downing the 
foreigner in his own market," we say 
that such stuff is arrant nonsense, and 
however much our friends across the 
Atlantic may wish this were the case, 
their desire has not yet brought it 
about. The world acknowledges and 
admires the ingenuity and cast-iron 
enthusiasm of our American friends, 
but when they rave and gloat over 
the reception of a few orders which 
for what reasons it matters little 
our firms did not see fit to appropri- 
ate, the situation becomes burlesque. 
All this hubbub reminds us of the 
following which once appeared in a 
Cincinnati paper : 

" This is a glorious country ! It 
has longer rivers and more of them, 
and they are muddier and deeper, and 
run faster, and rise higher and fall 
lower, and do more damage than 
anybody else's rivers. It has more 
lakes, and they are bigger and deeper, 
and clearer and wetter, than those of 
any other country. Our rail-cars are 
bigger, and run faster, and pitch off 
the track oftener, and kill more 
people than all other rail-cars in this 
and every other country. Our steam- 
boats carry bigger loads, are longer 
broader, burst their boilers 

oftener, and send up their passengers 
higher ; and the captains swear 
harder than steamboat captains in 
any other country. Our men are 
bigger, and longer, and thicker ; can 
fight harder and faster, drink more 
mean whisky, chew more bad tobacco, 
and spit more and spit further than in 
any other country. Our ladies are 
richer, prettier, spend more money, 
break more hearts, wear bigger hoops, 
shorter dresses, and kick up the 
devil generally to a greater extent 
than all other ladies in all other 
countries. Our children squall louder, 
grow faster, get too expansive 
for their pantaloons, and become 
twenty years old sooner by some 
months than any other children of 
any other country on the earth." 

+ > + 

Lord Charles Beresford as a "Com = 
mercial Traveller." 

Such was the title that Lord Charles 
Beresford was pleased to confer upon 
himself in connection with his recent 
journey to China when making what 
was the speech of the evening at the 
Annual Dinner of the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers. But it was 
more than evident from the subsequent 
remarks which fell from the lips of 
our popular naval Lord that interests 
other than strictly commercial ones 
had been engaging his attention during 
his journeying in foreign parts. He 
had noticed, amongst other Ifhings, 
that foreign navies were applying 
electrical energy in the controlling and 
driving of the intricate machinery with 
which our modern warship is now 
fitted, to an extent not attempted by 
our engineers, and with results ex- 
ceedingly satisfactory, especially in 
reference to ventilation. 

However unpalatable such infor- 
mation may be to our engineers, it is 
to the credit of his Lordship that he 

Engineering Topics. 


has the courage of his opinion and is 
not afraid to express them to such a 
representative body^as the Institution 
of Mechanical Engineers. This 
country cannot afford to draw too 
deeply upon the credit of its past 
achievements, and such outspoken 
language is the surest safeguard for 
our future welfare. The high tribute 
paid to the professor of mechanical 
engineering both by Sir Henry 
Brockenbury in his capacity of 
Inspector General of Ordnance, and 
the Right Hon. G. J. Goschen, M.P., 
as First Lord of the Admiralty, go to 
indicate the increasingly important 
position now occupied by engineers in 
relation to our Army and Navy. 

+ + + 

Trade with Russia: Important State= 

questioning in the House has, at last, 
elicited from the Government some 
definite information regarding our 
trade relations with Russia. The 
subject is one of immense importance 
for there is no room to doubt that 
in view of the concessions made, and 
about to be made, by Russia, in the 
matter of import duties on machinery, 
the Czar's dominions will become one 
of the most inviting foreign markets 
to British manufacturers. Sir Howard 
recently asked what arrangements 
Lord Salisbury proposed to make to 
second the efforts of the Finance 
Minister of H.I.M. the Czar to develop 
British trade in Russia, to which Mr. 
Brodrick replied that it was the inten- 
tion of the Government shortly 
to take further steps in certain 
districts to develop British trade ; and 
the opportunity for encouraging our 
trade in Russia would be carefully 

This is exceedingly gratifying to 
us, for apart from the benefit which 

must accrue to British trade, we can 
modestly claim to have been to some 
extent instrumental in bringing about 
this encouraging state of affairs. In 
a recent issue we published an inter- 
view which the writer had with Count 
Tatistcheff of the Russian Imperial 
Ministry of Finance and which was 
widely quoted in the daily and tech- 
nical press which has doubtless 
cleared the public mind to a very 

U'ritcr of "Coast Electrical Communication " herein . 

large extent regarding the attitude of 
Russia towards British trade and 
traders. As Count Tatistcheff then 
stated, British traders have the idea 
that in Russia they will not be treated 
fairly. It is an utter mistake, for not 
only will they receive proper treat- 
ment, but our authorities will extend 
to them all the assistance they possibly 
can. English traders are welcomed 
in every part of Russia, and more so 
than those of any other country. 



Engineering Times. 

What To Do With Our Refuse. 

Whilst the problem has been 
solved, and in the most simple way, 
viz., by burning, the difficulty still 
remains in getting local authorities 
to apply the system. We do not 
realise the immense amount of 
energy which is waiting to be ex- 
tracted from what we are pleased to 
term waste products or refuse ; and 
what is at present not only a great 
inconvenience, but a possible harm, 
may easily be converted into some- 
thing useful and beneficial. We also 
know that nothing can be destroyed, 
that all we -can do is simply to change 
the form of things. Moreover, that all 
kinds of force are convertible, and the 
transformation of town refuse into 
electric light is a most desirable 
conversion, besides being a paying 
one, when properly worked. There 
are a number of destructors or fur- 
naces on the market at the present 
time, all claiming to be the best, and 
naturally covered by patents ; but 
where the patent " comes in " in the 
majority of them it is difficult to 
understand. Of course, the method 
of converting refuse into electric light 
is simply to use refuse in place of coal 
for the boiler which generates steam to 
drive the electrical plant. This seems 
simple enough at first sight, and with 
the system of forced draught now 
adopted this is really so, but first 
attempts produced so much dust and 
fumes from the chimney stack that 
much trouble was caused. One of 
the most important features in a dust 
destructor plant is the forced draught. 
Certain makers claim for steam jets 
the best results, and others, that an 
air blast produced by fans is 

As to the efficiency of refuse 
destructors, it may be taken that 
almost any of them can evaporate fib. 

to lib. of water per Ib. of refuse 
burnt, and i|lb. of water per Ib. of 
fuel is likely to be obtained if it has 
not already been done, but taking the 
lower figure, how does this work out 
as against coal ? A fairly economical 
boiler will evaporate, say 81b. to lolb. 
of water from feed water at 100 deg. 
F., and after making all allowances it 
will be noticed that at least five or 
six times as much refuse is required 
to raise the same amount of steam 
But then we must remember that the 
refuse costs practically nothing be- 
yond handling, and this has to be 
done whether it is burnt or not. 

We are preparing an exhaustive 
series of articles on this important 
subject, the first of which will appear 
in an early issue. 

4 4- * 

Automatic Couplings. 

Considerable attention has been 
devoted of late to the important ques- 
tion of automatic couplings as applied 
to rolling stock. Even supposing the 
Government does not see its way to 
legislate on the matter for the mo- 
ment, there is very little doubt that 
an automatic system is bound to come 
sooner or later ; in fact, it is here 
already to a limited extent, as at the 
present time there are something like 
300 vehicles in England fitted with 
an approved foreign coupler which 
has already done good service. The 
report of a number of prominent rail- 
way officials and others who have 
now returned from America, would 
go to show that, apart from the saving 
of life and limb, the saving to the 
railway companies and others has been 
very considerable. Private wagon 
owners in the States at first raised 
objections to the system on account 
of initial cost, but after a short 
time of working they admitted 
that the couplings soon paid for 

Engineering Topics. 


themselves in the saving of the costs 
of repairs alone. 

As to first cost, the statement made 
by wagon owners and colliery pro- 
prietors on this side, that this would 
be something like 10 per wagon is 
excessive, as ^3 is ample to cover the 
price of a satisfactory coupling, and 
this amount might possibly be re- 
duced if new stock was fitted right 
away. In view of the great improve- 
ments that have been made to our 
rolling stock during the last few 
years, it is difficult to understand why 
this much needed reform is so slow in 
coming about, but it is significant that 
80 per cent, of the railway stock in 
the United States is fitted with some 
sort of automatic coupler, and that on 
January ist of next year a law will 
come into operation, making their 

universal application imperative. 

The Metric System. 

We had occasion in our last number 
to briefly indicate approval of this 
system, but more particularly to show 
that any immediate or cumpulsorily 
universal adoption of it was fraught 
with some degree of danger and in- 

As is well known, the principle of 
the metric system lies in the use of 
one fundamental unit for measures of 
length, capacity and weight, and, so 
far as its simplicity and adaptability 
to everyday requirements are con- 
cerned, no one who has ever studied 
the subject would question its value. 
Why do we in this country divide a 
gross into 144 parts, a ton into 
2,240 lb., a rod into 5jyds., or a mile 
into 5,28oft, whilst a nautical mile 
equals 6,080 ft. ? Again, why do we 
have two measures of weight, in the 
one dividing I lb. into i6oz., and the 
other into I2oz. ? These and other 
questions might well be asked, but it 

is very difficult to find satisfactory 
answers. Our system doubtless served 
its purpose when it was originated, 
and has done so with more or less 
success for many years, but we venture 
to think that the time has now arrived 
for us to adopt the metric system. 
There is no doubt that our refusal to 
meet the convenience of our foreign 
clients in this connection especially 
in places where our system of weights 
and measurements is almost entirely 
unknown is one of the reasons why 
German and other Continental firms 
are getting hold of some of our busi- 
ness. The fact that Continental 
makers and merchants use the metric 
system would not alone be sufficient 
to justify our making the change ; 
but when it is remembered that the 
system is immensely superior to ours, 
saving a large amount of time, not 
only at the works, but also in the 
counting house, it is difficult to under- 
stand why we do not at least adopt it 
in our foreign transactions. This 
would not involve any great or sudden 
change, and, whatever inconvenience 
or expense it might entail, the advan- 
tages accruing from it would be found 
to outweigh the cost. Such, indeed, 
is the experience of several up-to-date 
English firms who have adopted it 
with much advantage to themselves 
and their clients. 

+ + + 

Machine Tool Lecture at the Royal 
United Service Institution. 

AN interesting paper entitled " Ma- 
chine Tools" was recently read by 
one of our contributors, Mr. E. C. 
Amos, M. I. Mech. E., before the 
Society of Engineers at the Royal 
United Service Institution, Whitehall, 
and has created considerable atten- 
tion. A large portion of the paper 
was devoted to this country's position 
in relation to its foreign competitors, 


Engineering Times. 

and especially America, and produced 
a valuable discussion, in which ex- 
pression was given by a representa- 
tive technical audience to many of 
the views advanced by our contributor 
in these pages. The paper was illus- 
trated by over 50 half-tone blocks, 
some of which had already appeared 
in this journal ; the majority, how- 
ever, were specially made for the paper 
which was a very creditable produc- 
tion. The difficulty, as expressed by 
some of the audience, of getting 
English tools is just now fairly wide- 
spread, and there is no doubt that 
buyers are better able to get reason- 
able delivery of tools by obtaining 
them from America. The immense 
demand for tools at the present time 
has not only made our makers ex- 
ceedingly busy, but judging from what 
we hear on all sides has produced a 
want of enterprise and forethought 
for the future we regret to have to 
admit it which is much at variance 
with the customary cautiousness of 

Only a few days ago we learned 
from a resident in India, and who is 
well acquainted with that country, 
that he advertised for agencies which 
he proposed to take up. His replies, 
thirteen in number, included letters 
from seven German houses, two 
American, and only four English, 
although the advertisement appeared 
in an English paper. Even supposing 
that this country is well represented 
in India a supposition open to ques- 
tion it still indicates the amount of 
enterprise which our keenest com- 

petitors are exhibiting in the exten- 
sion of their foreign business. . 

+ 4- + 

Electric Traction. 

In 1890 there were 2,525 miles of 
electrically operated track in the 
United States, and 5,592 cars with a 
capital of something like .7,000,000. 
In 1895 this had increased to 10,752 
miles and 35,000 cars, and at the 
present time there are probably 20,000 
miles and some 60,000 to 70,000 cars 
if not more. In this country, in 1896, 
there were some. 200 miles of trat k 
with 300 cars, and even if we quad- 
ruple this for the increase during the 
last three years, and that is probably 
excessive, we see at once that there is 
a big difference. We must not forget, 
of course, that we have a large mile- 
age of horse trams besides steam and 
cable tramways, and this country is 
well studded with heavy main lines, 
but there is a great need for light 
railways in country districts as well as 
near large towns. 

As to working expenses, these are 
distinctly in favour of the electric 
system, as in this system the ratio of 
operating expenses to receipt averages 
is well under 60 per cent, whilst in 
English horse tramways it is not in- 
frequently as much as 75 to 80 per 
cent. On the Continent we find that 
Germany is considerably ahead of us 
in electric traction, and is rapidly in- 
creasing her lines, and we ai^ glad to 
see that we are also going ahead in 
this direction. The growth and 
development of electric traction is a 
subject in which considerable interest 
is now being evinced. 


By W. MORRIS, A.M.I.C.E., M. I. Mech. E. 


engines described in the 
previous articles on high- 
speed steam engines have 
been those manufactured by English 
firms. Whilst on a business trip to the 
United States of America the writer 
had considerable opportunity of 
watching the behaviour of several 

type of Russell Engine. The bed is 
of the "box" type, or a combination of 
the well-known "Tangye" and "semi- 
girder" patterns, with projecting cylin- 
der, free to expand whilst working. 
The guides are bored, and permit a 
certain amount of self-adjustment in 
the crosshead. 



types of high-speed engines built by 
the leading makers in the United 
States of America. 

A type of engine which has been 
highly successful is that known as the 
Russell Engine, built by Russell and 
Co., Massillon, Ohio. 

Fig. 28 is a front view of the simple 

Fig. 29 is a part sectional plan 
through the cylinder and steam chest. 
It will be seen by reference to Fig. 29 
that the admission valve is double 
ported and balanced through needle 
ports leading into steam and exhaust 
ports. The steam chest cover is sur- 
rounded with a light casing, which not 



Engineering Times* 

only gives a neat appearance to the 
steam chest, but admits of ready re- 
moval in case of overhaul. 

The proportions of the main shaft 
and crank pit are somewhat different 
to English practice. The main bear- 
ing is J the crank pit, J the diameter 


of the cylinder. The arrangement 
of oil guards will be clearly seen by 
reference to Fig. 30. 

The governor (see Fig. 31) controls 
the speed of the engine through the 
inner eccentric R, which fits loosely 
on the hub of the governor wheel A, 
and is connected with the weight arms 
F, through the links K, in such a 
manner that the inner eccentric is 
moved round the hub of the gover- 
nor, forward or backward, as the 
weights change their position. This 
forward or backward movement is 
communicated through the inner 
eccentric strap Q to the main eccen- 
tric B, causing this to slide on the 
hub plate C, in a straight line across 
the shaft, thus maintaining a constant 
" lead " for all points of cut off. This 
movement across the shaft is always 
in the direction of reducing the eccen- 
tricity of the main eccentric, conse- 
quently reducing the travel of the 

When the weights are at the inner 
position, the throw of the eccentric is 

at its maximum, and steam is ad- 
mitted | of the engine's stroke. 
When the weights are at their ex- 
treme outer position the throw of the 
eccentric is at its minimum, and the 
steam is cut off at the beginning of 
the stroke. Between these two ex- 
tremes any number of positions of 
the weights and corresponding angu- 
lar positions of the eccentric may be 
had, and as the steam is thus adapted 
to the load in each position, it follows 
that a slight increase or decrease in 
speed must make a change in the cut- 
off, and to bring the engine again to 
standard speed. The free movements 
of the weights F, is opposed by the 
springs H. By tightening the tension 
screw N, the force of the springs is 
increased, and by adding weights to 
the weight arms F, the centrifugal 
force for any given speed is also in- 
creased. Now it is clear that there is 
a point where these two forces exactly 
balance each other, and but for the 





High-Speed Steam Engines. I ^^iVr^-J^N 

unsteadiness produced by the 
equilibrium of these two for- 
ces, this would be the proper 
adjustment for the best regu- 
lation. It is Messrs. Russell's 
practice to give a small pre- 
ponderance to the weights 
F, by reducing the tension of 
the springs just enough to 
overcome the unsteadiness, 
and after the spring tension 
has been thus adjusted, it 
should not be tampered with 
to make any desired change 
in speed as speed should al- 
ways be adjusted at the 
weights and not at the 

Fig. 32 shows very clearly 
Rite's governor, which is now 
fitted to the Russell engine. 

The single cylinder engines are with cylinder i6in. bore x 2oin. stroke, 
made in sizes from 18 h.-p., cylinder making 175 revolutions per minute. 
6in. bore x loin, stroke, making 325 Steam pressure 125 Ib. per square inch, 
revolutions per minute, up to 1 75 h.-p., A very neat type of tandem 

compound engine is 
. made by Messrs. Russell 


^^J0HS ^^^NN, anC * ^'' w ^ cn * s largely 

jjjj^ r : * '- ? ^%k. use( * ^ or Diving dynamos 

^^4m m ^k. direct. See Fig. 33. 

It is well known that 
the greatest economy at- 
tached to the use of the 
compound engine is ob- 
tained when running it 
condensing, as the larger 
area of the low pressure 
piston exposed to the 
action of a more or le^j 
perfect vacuum, adds con- 
siderably to the efficiency 
of the engine. The ratio 
between the cylinders 
should be greater for 
condensing than for 
non - condensing engines 

Entj: Time?. 



Engineering Times, 

to obtain the best results, but 
as already mentioned (see THE 
gines fitted with a condenser, often 
are compelled to be run non-conden- 
sing for a longer or shorter period of 
time, owing to lack of sufficient water 
supply or other causes, and as engines 
originally intended to be run non- 
condensing are later supplied with a 
condenser, Messrs. Russell propor- 
tion the cylinders of their engines so 
as best to meet both these extremes, 
so that whilst recommending the use 

Referring to Fig. 33, this type of 
High-speed Tandem Compound 
Engine possesses several very good 
features, and is admirably suited for 
driving dynamos direct. It will be 
seen that the engine and dynamo are 
arranged on one base. The receiver 
between the high and low pressure 
cylinders forms a substantial support 
for both cylinders, and is well arranged 
for sliding the cylinders. Every part 
of the engine is get-at-able, and is 
altogether a first-class job. The 
tandem engines are made in sizes 


of a condenser in connection with 
their compound engines, they 
claim that with a high steam 
pressure of, say I25lb. per square 
inch, almost as economical results 
can be obtained non-condensing 
as condensing. The writer is 
very much inclined to agree with 
Messrs. Russell on this point, having 
for some considerable time failed to 
see how a condensing plant for a 
small installation of, say, 100 h.-p , 
would warrant the outlay, to say 
nothing of the up-keep. 

from a 9111. x 14111. x 14111. stroke, mak- 
ing 260 revolutions per minuje, up to 
I3in. x 2o|in. x 2oin. stroke, making 
210 revolutions per minute. The 
cut-ofT, non-condensing '30, and con- 
densing, *2O of the engine stroke. 

A representative type of American 
high - speed single - acting engine is 
that so well known as the " Sentinel " 
Westinghouse, as made by Messrs. 
Alley and Maclellan, Glasgow. About 
twelve years ago Messrs. Alley 
and Maclellan started the manu- 
facture of the simple type of 

High-Speed Steam Engines. 





Westinghouse engine, and have 
during that period had a very large 
experience. There are now some 7,000 
engines of this type in operation all 
over the world. The simple engine is 
of the two-cylinder, two-crank type, 
having the cranks set at 1 80 degrees 
and is made in sizes up to 350 i.h.-p., 
and is specially adapted for running 
non-condensing. Fig. 34 is a longi- 


Engineering Times, 


tudinal section through crank shaft, 
and Fig. 35 is a transverse section 
through valve. It will be seen by re- 
ferring to Figs. 34 and 35 that all the 
moving parts, with the exception of 
the fly and belt wheels, are enclosed 
within the frame of the engine, and on 
further examination it will be noticed 
that the internal moving parts consist 

of two pistons, 
two connecting 
rods, crank shaft, 
a single central 
valve, eccentric 
rod for same 
and an automa- 
tic expansion 
governor. Not 
a single gland 
or stuffing box 
is required in 
L the whole en- 
gine. The pis- 
tons are of the 

trunk pattern, and of great length, 
which ensure a long life. It is well 
known that the pistons of the " Otto " 
type gas engines, which are of the 
trunk pattern, fitted with rings only 
at the back end, give excellent 
results, and though the conditions 
such as varying temperature are very 
severe, yet the mechanical efficiency is 


High-Speed Steam Engines. 

remarkably high. Bearing this fact in 
mind, then nothing can be urged 
against a well-designed plunger piston 
for single-acting engines. The steam 
is distributed to the two cylinders by 

Y, 1 * " - " > 




return or up 

exhaust sti 

The governor is of the crank shaft 
variable expansion type, and acting 
direct on the travel of the balanced 

a single balanced piston valve, and acts piston valve, as shown in Fig. 35, 

only on the top of the pistons, making controls the supply of steam at four 

the engine single acting throughout points in each revolution. This 

the whole revolution, the inertia of governor is shown in Fig. 36, and its 

the reciprocating parts being taken action in controlling the steam at 

up by judicious compression of the van-ing loads is shown in Fig. 37. 


Engineering Times. 

All the internal packings are of the 
floating metallic type. Large bear- 
ing surfaces are provided, so that the 
wear is reduced to a minimum, the 
bearings varying in length from 2 to 
3^ times the diameter of the shaft. 
The main bearings are not provided 


with any means of adjustment. Shells 
lined with Babbit metal are provided 
which admit of easy renewal. 

Lubrication is effected in both 
simple and compound types by having 
the crank case half filled with oil and 
water or all oil nearly up to the 
height of the crank shaft ; this, when 
the engine is running, is in a few 
minutes churned into a foam, which, 
while it offers little or no fesistance 
to the moving parts, thoroughly 
lubricates all internal bearings con- 
stantly, and, by using the same oil 
over and over again, economically. 

Governing is effected in the com- 
pound engines either by a variable 

expansion governor, as in the simple 
engine, or by a shaft governor 
operating a throttle valve and capable 
of adjustment while running, and 
such is the sensitiveness that these 
engines are made to govern within 
I per cent, between no load and full 

Fig. 38 shows one 
of these simple en- 
gines of 50 b.h.-p. 
direct driving a dyna- 
mo at 430 revolutions 
per minute. 

The compound en- 
gine, as now made by 
Alley and Maclellan, 
is chiefly of the tan- 
dem type, and, like 
the simple engine, is 
also single acting. It 
is made with two 
cranks generally, but 
when exceptionally 
steady running is de- 
sired it is made with 
three cranks set at 
1 20, the two - crank 
engine having its 
cranks at 180. 

Fig. 40 shows one 
of these engines of 
20 b.h.-p. direct driving a dynamo 
at a speed of 500 revolutions, and 
Fig- 39 shows one of 250 b.h.-p. 
driving an alternating current genera- 
tor at 350 revolutions as supplied for 
central electricity supplied stations. 
Distribution of steam is effected by 
simple piston valves and is >n the 
Cornish cycle, the steam acting on the 
top of the horse-power piston, then 
exhausting to the under side of this 
piston, which forms a receiver into 
the low pressure piston, then again 
exhausting to the bottom side of this 
piston, and finally exhausting to the 
atmosphere or condenser as the case 
may be. 

(To be concluded in next issue). 




AT is meant by coast com- 
munication, is the connection 
by telegraph of the mainland, 
islands, rock lighthouses, and light- 
ships. The points of connection on 
the coast, should, of necessity, be as 
near as practicable to coastgur rd and 
life-boat stations, those stations being 
in continuous telephonic communica- 
tion with one another, and with the 
nearest postal telegraph offices. By 
this means we should have a rapid 
transmission of information along our 
shores, the value of which could not 
be over-estimated, whether in time of 
peace or war. In peace, these lines 
of communication would be of inesti- 
mable use in saving hundreds of 
valuable lives ; in war, they might be 
the means of saving the nation. 

That part of the subject which is 
now occupying a considerable amount 
of public attention is the matter of 
the establishment of telegraphic com- 
munication between rock lighthouses 
and the adjacent mainland. It is 
obviously a work for which it would 
be advisable and, indeed, almost 
necessary to obtain the assistance of 
engineers who have had experience 
in matters connected with the con- 
struction of lighthouses, and it is to 
be hoped that these will give their 
advice to the benefit of a scheme 
which has to a great extent humani- 
tarian objects in view. 

The work of laying submarine 
cables is one which, in the ordi nary 
way, presents no very great difficul- 
ties, and which is now carried out 
with great efficiency ; but there are 
few engineers engaged in this who 
would not be glad of assistance in 
such a ca^e as the laying of a tele- 
graph cable to, let us say, the Bishop's 
Rock Lighthouse. 

It must be pretty apparent to any- 
one that an ordinary type of cable, 
laid in the usual way, would stand no 
chance when exposed to such severe 
conditions as, in this instance, it must 
necessarily be. Such a cable was 
laid to the Fastnet Rock a few years 
ago, but it only lasted a short time, 
and the attempt has, perhaps, done 
harm by establishing a popular idea 
that the carrying out of the scheme 
presents serious difficulties from a 
technical point of view. 

Engineers who have so successfully 
overcome the great difficulties en- 
countered in the construction of these 
very lighthouses with which it is now 
proposed to establish communication, 
will, surely, not think that the carry- 
ing out of this scheme presents any 
but comparatively trivial difficulties, 
to overcome which no exorbitant 
expenditure of money is necessary. 

The method of carrying out the 
work must necessarily vary consider- 
ably with the different condition pre- 



Engineering Times. 

sented by different rocks ; but in 
every case there can be little doubt 
that the telegraph cable must be 
secured to the rock and embedded in 
it to a distance of about five fathoms 
below low water mark, in order to 
protect it from the force of the sea. 
In the case of the Bishop's Rock 
Lighthouse, there is no reason why an 
ordinary type of cable, secured in this 
way, should not prove perfectly 
durable ; but there are other instances 
where the inclines of the rocks are not 
so precipitous, and where no deep 
water and consequent security is 
to be found. In these cases the or- 

(1) The extreme inflexibility of 

such cables, rendering it abso- 
lutely impossible for them to 
fit closely down to the bottom, 
and make use of any irregu- 
larities as actual protection ; 
therefore, we have lengths of 
cable laying in spirals along 
the bottom or hanging across 
from ledge to ledge of rock, 
and unnecessarily exposed, 
with the result that the cable 
soon becomes worn through at 
the nearest point of suspension. 

(2) The small weight of these 

cables in water, as compared 



dinary type of cable should be em- 
bedded in the rock to the bottom of 
the first precipitous incline, from which 
point a specially designed cable should 
be employed, protected by a form of 
chain armour recently invented by 
Mr. Edward Stallibrass,A.M.Inst.C.E., 
which is shown in the accompanying 

The ordinary types of submarine 
cables are quite unsuited to an 
irregular rocky bottom with shallow 
water, and consequently strong tidal 
currents, or it may be even break- 
ing seas. The reason of this unsuit- 
ability is as follows : 

with the surface Cxxposed, ren- 
dering them liable to be 
washed about on the bottom : 
the specific gravity >of an 
ordinary cable used on rough 
bottoms is about 4. 
In the chain armour above referred 
to (see illustration) great flexibility is 
secured by employing a small type of 
cable, made in itself as flexible as 
possible, and protecting it with a 
heavy but flexible chain. The chain 
is composed of castings fastened to- 
gether with wrought iron, and so con- 
structed that the cable, when threaded 
through its links, is afforded absolute 

Coast Electrical Communication. 


protection ; \vhile the flexibility of 
the chain will admit of it being zig- 
zagged about among the irregularities 
of the bottom, thus converting these 
from a source of danger into an abso- 
lute protection. 

On a bottom free from irregularities 
the great weight of the chain would 
prevent any serious movement. 

The cost of the chain would be 

heavy per mile ; but as its use would 
only be necessary for very short 
lengths at exposed positions and on 
rocks this consitutes no grave ob- 

Divers should be employed to see 
that the cable is properly laid ; and, 
this once being done, such a cable 
might confidently be expected to last 
a reasonable time. 


By EWART C. AMOS, M. L Mech. E. 


,HEN dealing with the question 
of British v. American tools 
in these articles, the author 
has largely confined himself to a 
comparison of the machines them- 
selves, rather than to a consideration 
of the reasons that have made it 
possible for the American machines 
to so readily find a market here. It 
may safely be stated that they have 
now got a strong foothold in this 
country, and it may perhaps also be 
found interesting to briefly consider 
how this has come about. In the 
first place, we should not be buying 
American tools to the extent we are 
if we did not find them serviceable. 
The statement more often the excuse 
so frequently made that we only 
buy American machines because we 
cannot get British will not bear re- 
peating any longer ; anyone who is 
conversant with the market at the 
present moment knows this, and those 
who dispute it do so from a want of 
knowledge of the facts of the case. 
Undoubtedly there have been many 
instances when it has been impossible 
to get an English machine in the 
time required, and resort has been 
had to an American tool simply 
because it has been in stock, but that 
alone will not explain the increasing 
demand for the imported article. 
Now let us look into the question of 
cost, which is a very important side 
of the question. It is generally recog- 
nised that the true worth of a tool is 
to be measured not so much by its 

prime cost, as by the amount of good 
and accurate work it will produce in 
a given time, and the correctness of 
this method of valuation becomes the 
more apparent as the rate of wages 
continues to increase. Automatic 
tools have become the order of the 
day ; since although their initial cost 
is high, their productive capacity 
bears a corresponding ratio. It is 
generally supposed that labour in 
America commands a high wage. 
This is perfectly true up to a point, 
but supposing that the American 
workman, in conjunction with Ameri- 
can workshop practice and Ameri- 
can machines can turn out a 
corresponding increase of work, 
we find here the explanation of 
how it is that American tools plus 
freight and showroom expenses on 
this side, can still be sold at prices 
comparing very favourably with our 
machines of a similar quality. These 
are facts which it would be unwise to 
ignore, but still more unwise to simply 
admit without enquiring more,.closely 
into the far-reaching causes* which 
produce them. American engineers 
have found that if they, with a high 
wage rate, are to compete with other 
countries paying a less wage, they 
must dispense with manual labour as 
much as possibb, and their practice 
is briefly this, to construct machines 
so automatic in their nature that it 
has become possible to employ practi- 
cally unskilled labour to a large 
extent, engaging at the same time 

Machine Tools. 


highly-skilled and thoroughly edu- 
cated foremen and managers to 
superintend the setting and keeping 
in order of the automatic machines 
which can then be left in the hands of 
unskilled men, who can only command 
a lo\v wage. Then, again, it must be 
remembered that the American 
mechanic is a different class of man 
to what we have over here, and he is 
so because he receives a better and 
more advanced technical training and 
also works under more congenial con- 
ditions, occupying at the same time a 
superior social position. The same 
shop can be made to turn out more or 
less according to the practices adopted 
and this leads up to the question of 
specialisation. Our tool-makers are 
generally too apt to manufacture a great 
variety of machinery, which calls for 
a big pattern department, and they 
would probably do better were they 
to follow the American and German 
practice of making a number of simi- 
lar machines at the same time, which 
enables additional labour-saving ap- 
pliances in the form of jigs, templates, 
etc., to be profitably employed. In 
the author'sopinion the time is rapidly 
approaching when electricity will play 
a far more important part in the 
driving of machinery and especially 
machine tools than it does at present ; 
belting and overhead gears will be 
replaced by electric motors and 
speed reducing gears, with automatic 
arrangements for taking on the full 
load, without damage to the motor. 
America has already gonein for thisex- 
tensively,and this country will do well 
to direct its attention to a similar 
method of driving. Looking across a 
large shop, one is struck with the im- 
mense amount of belting, pulleys 
shafting, bearings, etc., which are now 
used, but which might be dispensed 
with if electric driving were adoped. 

The question of space alone, apart 
from danger to the operators, is an 
important item. Compressed air will 
also play a very important part in the 
near future, as it lends itself so ad- 
vantageously to the driving of tools, 
which can be used in place of hand 
tools. As to the commercial side of 
the question, there is no doubt that 
our foreign competitors have fully 
proved the great value of exhibiting 
their machines, and by means of well- 
got-up catalogues and a prompt and 
careful attention to their clients' 
wants, have secured a footing which 
it will be difficult to remove. 

As a set off against this foreign in- 
road into our markets, what do we 
find ? In the first place, that our 
tool makers are as busy as they have 
probably never been before, which 
would show that in the unprecedented 
demand that the world is now making 
for machinery, we are getting our full 
share, or, at any rate, as much as we 
care to take, and that where we have 
built machines on American lines, we 
have been able to more than hold our 
own ; but the danger lies in the event 
of the boom breaking, when it will be 
found that we have got an increased 
competition to face. This nation is a 
nation of engineers, and will, doubt- 
less,- overcome the difficulty which 
will then present itself ; but it is not 
indicative of a want of patriotism to 
call attention to facts, which, although 
unpleasant, have got to be faced. 
History would show that great in- 
dustries have sometimes passed from 
one nation to another, and that times 
of widespread prosperity not infre- 
quently form the period of their 

It has often been stated that 
American machines are merely copies 
of ours, and doubtless this is largely- 
true, but some combination or slight 

2 7 6 

Engineering Times. 

improvement has in many instances 
greatly enhanced the value of a 
machine. This is very noticeable in 
the semi-radial drilling machine, 
which is now illustrated. At first 
sight this would appear to be a pillar 
drill of ordinary design, but on closer 
inspection it will 
be seen that the 
spindle head is 
caused to slide 
on a column 
which rotates on 
balls, thus giving 
a radial notion 
to the spindle, 
which, together 
with the circular 
motion of the 
table, produces 
accurate work 
and ease of 
and combines 
many of the best 
features of both 
the ordinary up- 
right and radial 
drill. The table 
is provided with 
risingand falling 
motions, and is 
also mounted on 
a ball race, 
which permits 
of easy rotation 
even w h e n 
heavily loaded. 
The knee carrying the drill table is 
gibbed to the base, and is elevated by 
crank, bevel gear and screw, placed 
directly under the centre supporting 
the weight, ana ensuring great rigidity 
in heavy work. The power feed has 
three changes, with automatic stop 
motion, and the drill head has a quick 
return, and is balanced. The machine 

weighs a little over one ton, and will 
drill in the centre of 26 inches 

Messrs. J. Buckton and Co., Ltd., 
Leeds, are one of the oldest and best 
known firms ofmachine tool makers in 
this country, and have a reputation for 


keeping pace with modern practices. 
The illustration herewith shows one 
of their Patent Two Spindle Radial 
Drilling machines designed to drill 
two holes simultaneously and over a 
range of /in. to 5ft. apart, on work up 
to /ft. high from base plate. The 
jib can be raised and lowered rapidly 
by power with a travel of 3ft., and 

Machine Tools. 


both spindles will reach to 7ft. radius, 
the jib swinging through an ^rc of 
1 80. The spindles are 2^in. diameter 
with variable self-acting feed balanced 
by counter-weight and with quick- 
hand adjustments, and each spindle 
has I2in. adjustment at right angles 
to the main jib. The two spindles 

drilling and tapping as well as the 
power driving for raising and lower- 
ing the arm are all self-contained, 
and the reversing handle is situated 
upon a shaft running along the arm 
is a convenient position for the 

This machine will turn out more 


can be quickly moved or fed together 
or the feed action of either can be 
disconnected at will. Each of the 
secondary jibs can be quickly tra- 
versed upon the main arm, and each 
spindle head stock can be traversed 
upon its own jib. Counter-driving 
apparatus and reversing gear for 

than twice the amount of work in a 
given time than a single spindle 
machine, and is able to drill simul- 
taneously two holes, however irregu- 
larly they may be situated with 
regard to one another as long as they 
are within the limits of the machine. 
The adjustment of each spindle is 

2 7 8 

Engineering Times. 

independent of its fellow and is 
effected by two rectilinear move- 
ments, while the thrust of the spindles 
and the weight of the arm are carried 
upon specially designed ball bearings 
with hardened steel races and ball 
retaining cages. 

The method of driving the spindles 
by means of right and left hand skew 
bevel gear enables the spindles to be 
brought to the close pitch of ^in., 

agents in this country. As will be 
noted on reference to the illustration, 
the machine is double-headed, and 
will thread or tap two pieces of work 
at the same time from fin. to 2jin. 
diameter, with either right or left 
hand threads. Strength, durability, 
and simplicity are features which 
every machine should possess, but 
they are absolutely indispensable in 
screwing machines. In the " Acme " 


while retaining ample diameter of 
driving gear. The machine is appli- 
cable to all classes of work for which 
the ordinary radial is used and will 
turn it out twice as quickly. 

Another machine possessing some 
interesting features is the " Acme " 
Double Bolt Cutter, as made by the 
Acme Machinery Company, of Cleve- 
land, and for whom Messrs. Burton, 
Griffiths, and Co., of London, are the 

machines the special features are 
(i) the die head, which is of exceed- 
ingly simple construction, being con- 
fined to three principal parts, all of 
which are made to standard gauge 
and interchangeable ; (2) lead screw 
and power feed attachments ; (3) 
special pump arrangement for supply 
of lubricant to the dies, giving a vari- 
able quantity, as desired. 

The machine illustrated, which can 

Machine Tools. 


be worked by one 
man, will do the work 
above specified, and 
weighs about three 

Improvements in 
milling machines are 
so rapid that it is 
difficult to get hold 
of the latest thing. 
Owing to the variety 
of work this type of 
machine will do, it 
becomes an impor- 
tant matter to have a 
large range of feed, 
and, at the same time, 
to be able to rapidly 
change from one feed 
to another. This 
besides being con- 
venient, alsOj insures 
that the utmost 
amount of work will 
be got out of the 
machine. TheGarvin 
Machine Company, of 
New York, for whom 
Messrs.* [Burton, Griffiths, are the 
agents here, make the machine here- 
with illustrated. -In this machine 
eighteen changes of feed are provided 
and any particular feed is instantly 
obtained by simply turning a handle 
to the corresponding number on the 
index disc, seen clearly on the side of 
the column. All these changes apply 
to each of the several feed motions, 
and all of which are reversible. 


There is a gear box set inside the 
column, and the feed is driven posi- 
tively by a bicycle chain in place of 
belts. A slip friction ensures safety 
in case of carelessness in over-run- 
ning. The machine is fitted with 
ample lubricating arrangements, and 
is a powerful, serviceable tool. 

( To be concluded in next issue.) 




have it, and the base may be as large 
as you can find room for. We will 
now give a few examples of this type 
of engine. 

The Duplex " Gas Engine (Fig. 8), 
by S. Griffin and Co., Kingston Iron 
Works, Bath, is entirely new, both in 
design and arrangement of details. 

The essential novelty consists in 
the combination in a single water 
jacket of two cylinders, parallel to 
each other. 

The cylinders are fitted with two 
long pistons, rigidly joined at the 
outer ends by a light steel crosshead 
of box section. Attached to the 
latter is a connecting rod, which 
actuates a crank in the usual way. 

The water jacket extends over the 
cylinder covers, and here are fitted 
the inlet and exhaust valves, which 
open direct into each cylinder. The 
valves are operated by ordinary 
rocking levers, which receive their 
motion direct from a single crown 
cam, mounted on the end of a vertical 
shaft, driven from the crank shaft 
underneath by a two to one bevel 

Governor gear, which is of specially 
sensitive design, actuates a single gas 
valve, which supplies both cylinders. 
There is no graduation of the charge 
by step gearing, the contact pieces 
being of the positive hit or miss type. 
Thus the highest possible economy 

/JrtHERE are a number of people 
who are prejudiced against 
the vertical engine. 

They consider that the fly wheel 
and driving shaft are too high ; that 
the base is insufficient, and, that if 
power is taken from a shaft placed at 
such a height, there will be great 
danger of pulling the engine over 

They forget that man himself is 
but a vertical atmospheric gas engine, 
that his base is small, his centre of 
gravity is high, and so on. Indeed, 
every objection that could be raised 
to the vertical gas engine, might be 
brought with equal force against the 
lord of creation himself. 

It is useless to point out scores of 
cases where such engines have been 
working for years and giving every 
possible satisfaction. The prejudice 
is there, and you cannot remove it ; 
arguments, proofs and facts are alike 
thrown away. The English mind 
loves prejudices, but whether they are 
sane or not it enquires not, and 
matters less to the English mind. 


There is, however, one type of 
vertical engines to which no such ob- 
jections imaginary or otherwise can 
be taken, viz., the inverted vertical. 

In this case the centre of motion 
may be placed as low as you care to 

Modern Gas Engines. 


is insured under every variation 
of load. 

Compression of the charge is car- 
ried to about 45 Ib. per square inch, 
the mean working pressure being 
82 Ib. per square inch. Both cylinders 
are lO^in. diameter by I5in. stroke. 
At 1 80 revolutions per minute, this 
gives 46 i.h.-p., and a b.h.-p. of 40. 
The consumption of gas per i.h.-p. is 
1 8 J cubic feet, and per b.h.-p. 2 1 J cubic 
feet. Although engines of this type 
are working at 46 i.h.-p., they are so 
designed that they can easily be driven 
at 200 revolutions per minute, when 
they will develop 80 i.h.-p. 

A high mechanical efficiency (over 
86 per cent.) is obtained, and this is 
chiefly due to three causes : Firstly, 
the vertical arrangement of cylinders, 
by which friction is reduced to a 
minimum ; secondly, the perfect sys- 
tem of cylinder lubrication, by means 
of which the oil is delivered to, and 
gravitates from, the inner to the outer 
end of the pistons ; thirdly, to the 
fact of obtaining an impulse at each 
revolution without the addition of 
extra weight or gearing of any kind 
beyond that required for an ordinary 
double cycle engine of the same size 
of cylinder, i.e., of half power. 

Its high thermal efficiency is due 
chiefly to two causes, viz : Firstly, the 
entire water jacketing of the combus- 
tion chambers and passages. By this 
means the working charge is kept at 
the lowest possible temperature before 
ignition, in order to allow the greatest 
possible range or fall of temperature 
during the expansion of the ignited 
charge. Secondly, the absence of all 
ports or passages between the valves 
and the combustion chamber, thus 
ensuring the least possible loss of 
heat by conduction after ignition. 

The crank pin and tail pin of the 
connecting rod are oiled from two 

sight feed lubricators fixed to the 
water jacket, the oil, by means of 
suitable pipes, gravitating from wells 
on the crosshead to each bearing. 
Constant and perfect lubrication of 
these two important bearings is thus 
secured for any length of run, a most 
important point in electric light 

When running at the comparatively 
slow speed of 180 revolutions per 
minute, these engines are so free from 
either mean or cyclical variations that 
they give a practically steady light 
even when running at a quarter load, 
the variation in no case exceeding 
I per cent. They have also the advan- 
tage that very little ground space is 
required, while their extreme porta- 
bility when dismounted renders them 
specially suitable for export, or em- 
ployment in positions that are limited 
in area or difficult of access. 


It is a well-known fact in the en- 
gineering world that the attendant on 
a Westinghouse engine, no matter 
how large, has absolutely nothing to 
do. The engine takes care of itself. 

Should a drop of oil be wanted, the 
engine takes it. If a set screw re- 
quires tightening up, the automatic 
slack adjuster takes the matter in 
hand, and all is right as right can be. 

The attendant is usually depicted 
reclining in a comfortable easy chair, 
with his legs at an angle of 79^ de- 
grees with the horizon, his back to the 
motor, serenely blowing his " bacca," 
while studying the latest sporting in- 
telligence in his favourite newspaper. 

Mr. Edwin Ruud, of Pittsburg, 
tells us that, early in 1898, a gas 
engine of the inverted vertical type 
of about 650 b.h.-p., was completed 
in the works of the Westinghouse 
Machine Company. 


The Engineering Times. 

This engine has three cylinders, 
and the speed is 150 revolutions per 
minute. After it had been tested, it 
was erected in the power house of the 
Westinghouse Electric and Manufac- 

in conjunction with one or two steam 
engines, according to the call on these 
units for electric current. It is the 
largest gas engine in the world, but it 
will not enjoy this distinction for a 


turing Company, where it is running 
in regular commercial service of a 
severe character. 

The engine is connected direct to a 
suitable electric generator, and runs 

very long period. The Westing- 
house Machine Company are now 
making drawings and patterns for a 
1,500 b.h.-p. gas engine. This one is 
also of the three-cylinder type, and 

Modern Gas Engines. 

the speed is to be ico revolution^ per 
minute. Great economy is expected 
from this wonderful engine, as every 
possible care is being taken to make 
it a model of modern gas engine con- 
struction. It is hoped that a brake 
horse-po\ver will be developed for 
every 8i cubic feet of natural gas con- 
sumed per hour, or 8,500 
British thermal units per 
brake horse-power per hour. 
This would give a heat 
efficiency of -Jjj-JJ- = 30 per 
cent, at the shaft. 

A gas engine of such size 
and efficiency will run day 
in and day out on less than 
lib. of coal, burned in a 
good producer gas plant per 
brake horse-power per hour. 
This includes banking of 
fires and similar losses. 
It would have to be a good 
steam engine and boiler 
plant that would be able to 
produce regularly a brake 
horse-power per hour on 2lb. 
of coal that is, twice the 
amount of fuel required by 
a gas engine working under 
similar conditions. And so 
it appears that a gas engine 
can hold its own as a prime 
mover, and can be used for 
almost all the purposes for 
which a steam engine is 


This engine (see Fig. 9) 
by the Daimler Manufac- 
turing Company, of Long Island 
City, New York, was formerly in- 
tended to be operated by gasoline 
and illuminating gas. At the present 
time it is, however, so constructed 
that common kerosene oil can be 
used to advantage, and with the same 
efficiency. The Daimler engine is 

now being fitted to a large number 
of street cars, and it is, we believe, a 
very satisfactory motor. 

It is of the two cylinder inverted 
vertical type, and all the working 
parts are enclosed. The oil, or spirit 
which may be used, is contained in a 
suitable tank, or reservoir. When 



the motor, air is pumped 
into the tank by hand in order to 
supply the necessary pressure to force 
the oil up to the float chamber F, and 
the lamps required to keep the 
platinum ignition tubes hot. After 
the engine is running a small portion 
of the exhaust is allowed to escape 


The Engineering Times, 

into the reservoir, and, in this way, 
the needed pressure is maintained. 
On the outward stroke of the piston a 
slight vacuum is formed in the 
cylinder A. The valve E, w r hich is 
entirely automatic, being held up to 
its seat by a spiral spring, opens, and 
allows air to flow through the slots G 
along the horizontal pipe through 
the valve E, and into the cylinder. 
At the same time the spirit is sucked 
through the nozzle at H, and ming- 
ling with the air, enters the cylinder 
to form the charge. On the return 
stroke of the piston the gases are 
forced into the ignition tube C, there 
ignited, and impel the piston forward. 
The exhaust valve shown at E, is 
operated by a cam J through a hit- 
and-miss arrangement by which the 
exhaust may be held open for the 
purpose of governing the speed of the 
engines. The lamp or burner shown 
in the illustration explains itself. 

The important point is that the 
light cover surrounding the upper 
casing of the wick acts somewhat as 
a chimney, and causes a thorough 
mixture of air and spirit vapour, 
which results in perfect combustion. 
A pump is used to keep the water in 
circulation throughout the jacket. It 
will be observed that there is no 
timing valve to regulate the ignition 
of the charge. It is, therefore, of the 
utmost importance that the exhaust 
and admission valves be kept per- 
fectly tight, as otherwise the charge 
would escape at these outlets, instead 
of being compressed with the ignition 
tube C. The Daimler Company re- 
commend that the valves should be 
taken out occasionally, washed in 
petrol (the name given to the gasoline 
product of petroleum), and carefully 
ground with fine pumice dust. 

There does not at present appear 
to be any authentic tests published on 

the performance of the motors from a 
thermo - dynamic standpoint. The 
motors run at about 500 revolutions 
per minute. 


Undoubtedly, when dealing with 
the larger size of engines it is a great 
convenience to have some means of 
starting readily. It is so easy in the 
case of smaller sizes, to give the fly 
wheel a few turns by hand, that we 
do not miss anything. 

But large bodies move slowly, 
and, when a certain size of engines is 
arrived at, the effort of moving them 
becomes considerable, and it is here 
that the want of a self-starter is first 

Although not wishful to advocate 
any particular form of self-starter, 
when there are several good ones to 
choose from, I may perhaps be per- 
mitted to select one of these to repre- 
sent the rest. 

The Edmondson and Dawson 
starter (see Fig. 10) by Joseph Ed- 
mondson, Albert Electrical Works, 
Bradford, Yorks, gives an initial 
impulse automatically according to 
the requirements of the engine at the 
time, and follows this up by a further 
impulse at each cycle until the 
ordinary ignition apparatus of the 
engine takes up the running, when 
the starter may be thrown out of gear. 
At the slow speed of staring by 
any self-starter, the proportions of gas 
and air in the charge drawn into the 
cylinder is frequently not ignitable by 
the tube, hence the difficulty of 
starting an engine by a single initial 
impulse. By this starter a flame is 
injected into the midst of the charge, 
and it will therefore ignite a mixture, 
so badly proportioned, that the tube 
would fail to fire it. 

Hence ignition is certain, and suc- 
cessive impulses are given to the 

Modern Gas Engines. 

piston ; and the engine runs, in spite 
of the temporary failure of tha tube. 

The action of the apparatus is as 
follows : The engine being set on 
the " explosion stroke " with the gas 
cock turned on, and the crank a little 
behind the top centre, the starting 
cam B having the square stud Q 
standing on its "jumping ofT place ; " 
a few stro^kes of gas are pumped into 
the cylinder by the pump . F. The 
pumping being continued, with gas 
and air forming an explosive mix- 
ture the charge isslightly compressed 
till it propels the piston slowly forward, 
and moves the cam B a little clock- 
wise drops the roller P into the gap 
of the cam and releases the lever M. 
The spring R then rotates the plug 
of the ignition valve towards the 
right, ignites the charge in the cylin- 
der, and propels the engine. 

If the pumping be still continued 
gently one stroke for each cycle so 
as to keep the connections between 
the pump and cylinder full of explo- 
sive mixture, the revolution of the 
cam B, by opening and closing the 
ignition valve, and exploding the 
charge at the proper times will give 
successive impulses to the piston, 
increasing its speed until the engine 
is effectively started. 

The starter may then be thrown 
out of gear, by pushing the handle T 
of the lever M to the left, when the 
catch U falls down and holds the 
lever so that the roller P stands free 
of the cam B, and the action of the 
starter ceases. 


A nte victoriam nc canas triumphuin. 
It is notoriously unwise to predict 
until after events have occurred ; but, 
in conclusion, I must hazard a few 
words on the future of the gas 


The efficiency of the gas engine, to 
begin with, was certainly low enough. 
By the introduction of the compres- 
sion principle, its efficiency has been 
very greatly increased. It does not 
seem reasonable to hope for much 
greater improvement in this particular 
direction. The steam engine has 
been improved almost as much as it 
possibly can be, but what improve- 



ments are in store for the gas engine, 
who can say? High as it already 
stands, there is ample room in the 
field of expansion for such further 
efficiency, as will place it far ahead 
of anything that can be hoped for 
from the steam engine. Even now 
the gas engine throws away pressures, 
more than sufficient to keep a steam 
engine going. Already excelling the 
steam engine in some points when 
these pressures are rendered available 


The Engineering Times* 

for work, as they certainly will be, 
what will be the result ? 

The consumption of gas per horse- 
power has been very considerably re- 
duced, and we may look with some con- 
fidence for a further reduction in the 
price of that commodity, which, after 
all, is only a waste product. 

We believe there is at least one 
town in Great Britain whose citizens 
are supplied with gas free of charge, 
and this any corporation could well 
afford to do ; the profits arising from 
the other products of gas manufacture 
being so very large. 

A recent offer of the Brookline Gas 
Light Company, of Boston, Mass., is 
of some importance in this connec- 
tion. This company is prepared to 
furnish coal gas of i8-candle power, 
containing less than 10 per cent. CO, 
for engine use at a rate of one and a 
fifth cents per horse-power per hour 
for engines of 100 h.-p. and less. 

For engines of from 100 to 200 
h.-p. one and one-tenth cents will 
be charged, and above 200 h.-p. one 
cent per horse-power wall be the rate, 
which is very cheap for America. 

The president of this gas company, 
in making a comparison of costs, 
gives the present rates for electricity 
as from three and one-half to seven 
and one-half cents per horse-power 
per hour. 

Everything points to a brilliant 
future for the gas engine. The pros- 
pects are most encouraging. The 
good old steam engine appears to 
have reached its highest possible 
state of efficiency while the young 
and vigorous gas engine still advances 
with rapid strides. 

The conclusion to many minds is 
irresistible ; sooner or later the gas 
engine must supersede the steam 
engine, and not only that it must 
but that it will. 



+ 4 




,HERE properly applied, well 
made, and the right system 
selected, ropeways can do 
excellent work and prove themselves 
superior to other systems of transport, 
both in first cost and working ex- 

It must, however, be understood 
that no one system can be universally 
adaptable, and it is through such 
attempts that the discredit which be- 
fell this means of transport in earlier 
days is no doubt largely due. 

The circumstances which should 
decide the type of ropeway to be used 
are many, e.g. : 

(1) The character of the country 

which has to be traversed ; 

(2) The class of materials to be 

transported ; 

(3) The manner in which such 

materials can be packed ; 

(4) The motive power available ; 

(5) The inclines to be surmounted ; 

(6) The spans to be crossed ; 

(7) The quantity of materials to be 

carried per day. 

It must be clear to anyone ac- 
quainted with the working of wire 
ropeways that, for steep inclines, long 
spans, heavy individual weights, etc. 
one type of ropeway will always pre- 
sent advantages over other types. In 
this way, in each case, advice should 
be given to the purchaser as to the 
selection of the best system for the 

work he requires to do, and the situa- 
tion in which he contemplates to work, 
so as to ensure a thoroughly satisfac- 
tory result. 

The following are the systems of 
wire rope transport now in practical 
operation : 


with carriers hanging therefrom 
and moving with it through 
frictional contact. 

(2) An ENDLESS ROPE, with the 

carriers hanging therefrom and 
moving with it, being rigidly 
fixed in position on the rope. 

(3) The FIXED ROPE, in which the 

carriers are drawn along and 
hang from a fixed rope, which 
acts also as a rail, returning 
on a parallel rope. 

which one carrier is drawn to 
and fro, hanging from a fixed 
rope, by means of an endless 
hauling rope. 

(5) The use of Two FIXED ROPES, 

with an endless hauling rope, 
in which one carrier travels 
in one direction, while the other 
runs on a parallel rope in the 
opposite direction. This is a 
thoroughly serviceable type of 
tramway, capable of being 
used over extremely long 
spans, and of carrying loads 
up to 5 tons. 


Engineering Times. 

(6) The use of ONE FIXED ROPE 
placed on an incline, on which 
carriers, uncontrolled by haul- 
ing ropes, from which are sus- 
pended loads, are allowed to 
run down at a high speed. 
This is generally called a 
" shoot." 

Having all these systems at com- 
mand, it is necessary to study the 
situation in which the ropeway is re- 
quired to be operated and the work it 
has to perform, and to adopt one of 
the five systems named above. This 
is the course the author has always 

with carriers hanging therefrom and 
moving with it through frictional con- 
tact, is most suitable under the follow- 
ing circumstances : 

Where the quantity to be carried 
does not exceed 500 tons per ten 
hours ; where the inclines do not ex- 
ceed i in 3 ; where the individual 
loads do not exceed 6 cwt. ; and also 
where the section of ground does not 
necessitate spans of greater length 
than 600 ft. ; longer spans, steeper 
inclines, greater quantities, and 
heavier loads can be carried by this 
system, but not so advantageously as 
by another system referred to here- 

This system of ropeway is ar- 
ranged as follows : A driving gear 
at one end, fitted with a driving 
drum, varying from 5ft. to loft, in 
diameter, and arranged with suitable 
gearing for receiving the power 
steam, water, or even horse-power in 
the case of smaller lines. At the 
opposite terminal a similar wheel is 
placed and provided with tightening 
gear. Round these two wheels an 
endless band of wire-rope is placed. 
Intermediately between them the 

wire-rope ' is carried on suitable 
pulleys of diameters varying accord- 
ing to the size of the rope, the former 
being carried on posts of iron or tim- 
ber, spaced about 2OOft. apart, and of 
suitable height to enable the carriers 
to clear intervening obstacles, and 
also to regulate, to a certain extent, 
the general level of the line. The 
carriers hang from the rope, and are 
enabled to pass the supporting pulleys 
by means of a curved hanger, which, 
pivoting in the V-shaped saddle 
which rests on the rope, attaches at 
the lower end to the receptacle by 
means of a hook. The saddle, in an 
iron frame, is fitted with wood or 
rubber, or composition friction blocks, 
by means of which the necessary 
friction on the rope is obtained, which 
enables the carrier to pass with the 
rope up steep inclines and over 

The frame which carries these 
friction blocks is usually made of 
malleable cast iron, and has wings at 
each end, which, as the carrier arrives 
at the supporting pulley, embrace the 
pulley rim and pass over it. The 
limit of incline workable under this 
arrangement is probably about i in 3 ; 
other devices may be used for work- 
ing over steeper inclines, but such in- 
volve a reduction in the lasting power 
of the ropes, and in such cas^ it is 
better to use the fixed rope system. 

The frame which carries these fric- 
tion pieces is fitted with two small 
wheels, carried on pins attached to it, 
which are called shunt wheels, and 
are employed for removing the carrier 
from the rope at the terminals and 
at curves, where shunt-rails are 
placed. These rails are held in such 
a position that when the carrier 
approaches the terminal the small 
wheels engage on it, and, running up 

Aerial Wire Ropeways. 


Engineering Times. 

a slight incline, lift the friction or clip- 
saddle from the rope and enable it to 
pass to where the loading and unload- 
ing is required to be done, or round 
the curve wheels. The impetus 
derived from the speed of the rope 
(about four miles per hour) is suffi- 
cient to enable the carrier to clear 
itself automatically from the rope 
without difficulty. Thus, we see that 
the first system consists of an endless 
wire rope driven by suitable gearing, 
with carriers hung on the rope, travel- 
ling with it either by means of friction 
or mechanical clips. 

Examples of this system of rope- 
way are shown on the illustrations 
(Figs. 1,2 & 4), viz., that of a line 
of about i J miles in length in England, 
capable of transporting 200 tons per 
day of ten hours. 

One of the illustrations of this line 
(Fig. 2) shows an arrangement of 
shelter bridge as required by the 
County Council to hide the ropeway 
where it passes over a public road. 
The view fully illustrates the nature 
of any such structure which may be 
necessitated where a ropeway crosses 
a public road or railway. 

Another illustration (Fig. 4) of 
this line represents how a change in 
the vertical direction of the country 
may be surmounted without the use 
of any special apparatus. The rope, 
it will be seen, takes the form of a 
large vertical curve in passing from 
the level ground to a terminus at a 
higher elevation. This arrangement of 
vertical curve may, with care, be car- 
ried out on a much larger scale, so as 
to enable variations in the ground 
level, where they are too large to be 
spanned between two supports, to be 
worked over without fear of the ropes 
leaving the pulleys placed on the posts 
to support them. 

The above-named illustrations re- 
present examples of this system of 
ropeway, of which some several hun- 
dred miles have been erected by 
Messrs. Bullivant and Co., Limited, in 
conjunction with the author, in various 
parts of the world. Of these, perhaps 
it is only necessary to refer to Mauri- 
tius, where some thirty miles are at 
work carrying sugar-cane, etc. ; to 
India, where a number are at work 
for various purposes. Similar lines 
exist in many other parts of the 

Respecting the lasting power of the 
ropes, which are the chief wearing 
parts and the most expensive to re- 
new, it may be of interest to state that 
on a line in Spain constructed on this 
system, carrying 300 to 350 tons per 
day over a length of one mile, the 
rope carried over 160,000 tons. This 
represents an outlay of about Jd. per 
ton per mile for rope renewal. See 
illustration (Fig. 3). 

Including renewals of wear and tear 
and labour, but not fuel, the average 
cost per ton per mile for transport, 
may be taken as varying from 2d. to 
4 d. 

the carriers hanging therefrom and 
moving with it, being rigidly fixed in 
position on the rope. This second 
system is similar to the first in some 
respects, and is especially Suitable 
where very steep inclines and sudden 
and continual changes of level have 
to be operated over. The incline on 
which this system of ropeway can 
be worked seems to have no limit. 
As guard or depressing pulleys may 
be placed wherever necessary, with- 
out obstructing the passage of carriers, 
the vertical angle of the line may 
change at each post. It has the 
driving gear, the tightening gear, the 

Aerial Wire Ropeways. 



Engineering Times. 

endless rope and the pulleys, as in 
System No. i, but the carrier does 
not rest on the rope, but is clipped to 
it by means of a steel band which 
embraces it, tightened by a convenient 
arrangement. The position of the 
carriers, therefore, is fixed ; they are 
placed in position, and where the rope 
goes they must go. As a result, at 
the terminals, they must go round the 
terminal wheels. The driving wheel 

devices, both ingenious and more or 
less efficient, have been devised for 
loading the carrier, either while it 
passes round the driving drum, or at 
a point adjacent thereto, e.g., by means 
of hoppers or cages moving at the 
same speed as the carrier and operated 
by it. It is not unusual with this system 
to arrange the ropeway to run slowly, 
say, at a speed of 2 to 2 \ miles per hour, 
in which case loading and discharging 

FIG. 3. 
This Rope was supplied to a Wire Rofieway (Carringtons System) from Badovalle to Ortuella, and was put to wotk 

at the beginning of July, /<?oj : it -worked continuously until fitly 2oth, iSQ5, carrying 765,000 tons of Iron&re. ft was 
then taken off, as it was thought it had done enough work. That this was not the case is conclusively show^n by the fact 
that the breaking strain of the Rope when new was 29^ tons, and the breaking strain of the Rope when taken off, 
after having done such extraordinary work, was found to be 2j\ tons. 

can be done without any special 
apparatus as the carriers pass the 
terminals, thus dispensing with all 
complicated gear. 

Many lines on this system have 
been erected from the author's 
designs in situations where it would 
have been impossible to use any other. 
For moderate loads they have proved 
an excellent means of transport. 

is generally in the form of a special 
clip drum, and the terminal wheel, 
where the tightening takes place, is 
arranged so that the passing round of 
the carriers is easily effected. 

Unloading can be readily done by 
allowing the carrier to strike a catch, 
causing the bucket to capsize or open 
at the bottom. Loading, however, is 
a more complicated matter, and 

Aerial "Wire Ropeways. 




Engineering Times. 

One example out of many is illus- 
trated in Fig. 5, and represents a 
ropeway in Ceylon for the carriage of 
tea-leaf ; it is about three miles in 
length, passing over several ridges, 
one having a great elevation. The 
leaf in bags is placed in the great 
carriers, which are in the form of a 
cage, as they pass the driving terminal. 
This driving terminal is operated by 
wire rope transmission, communicating 
the power required from a turbine 
some three-quarters of a mile distant ; 
the carriers with the bags of tea-leaf 
in them travel from the driving ter- 
minal. The ground having such 
frequent changes in the vertical direc- 
tion, necessitates the use of a con- 
siderable number of guard-wheels, by 
which the rope is depressed until the 
load passes, when its weight relieves 
the pressure on the guard-wheels, and 
enables it to pass under the guard- 
wheel, which again performs the office 
of depressing the rope. Over this 
section it is difficult to imagine any 
other system which can give, at the 
same cost, such a good result. This 
ropeway has now been at work for 
several years, and both in efficiency 
and wear and tear has given the most 
gratifying results. On the loads 
arriving at the tightening and dis- 
charging terminal, the bags of tea-leaf 
are lifted out of the carriers, or if 
desired, a projecting bar strikes the 
catch of the carriers, and the bags are 
delivered automatically. 

From the illustration an idea of 
the nature of the ground traversed 
will be obtained. The labour re- 
quired for working this line need not 
exceed four men. 

(3). The FIXED ROPE, in which 
the carriers are drawn along and hang 
from a fixed rope which acts also as 
a rail, returning on a parallel rope. 

The third system of ropeway is that 
in which two parallel fixed ropes are 
used on which the carriers run, drawn 
along by means of a hauling rope. 
It should be employed where the 
quantities to be transported exceed 
400 tons per clay, except in the 
case where grouped lines of the first 
type are suitable, and where the 
loads exceed 6 cwt, also where the 
inclines exceed I in 3, and spans 
exceed 600 ft. 

It is economical in wear and tear, 
but the first cost is greater, and it 
does not lend itself to sudden vertical 
changes, and where the quantities to 
be transported are not large, the 
fourth and fifth type may be found to 
possess advantages. 

The construction of this system of 
wire ropeway, is as follows : Two 
fixed ropes are stretched parallel to 
one another about seven feet apart, 
being supported by posts fitted with 
saddles, about 3Ooft. apart. They 
are anchored at one of the terminals 
and tightened at the other by suitable 
gear. On these fixed ropes the 
carriers run as on a rail, being fitted 
with running heads carrying steel 
grooved wheels, in which the hanger- 
is pivoted from which the receptacle 
hangs. These carriers are moved at 
a speed of from four to six miles per 
hour, by means of an endless^ hauling 
rope, operated by suitable driving 
gear at one end and controlled by a 
tightening gear at the other. The 
attachment of this hauling rope to 
the carrier is an essential point, as it 
must be made by means of an auto- 
matic clip which will release itself on 
touching a bar on arrival at the ter- 
minal station, and at the same time 
will hold sufficiently tight to enable 
the hauling rope to drag the carrier 
up any steep inclines which may 

Aerial Wire Ropeways. 




The rope being run at a low speed, the carriers may be unloaded as they pass the terminal. Pion'ision 
also made Jor automatic discharge. 


Engineering Times. 

occur. This is done by forming a 
knot in the hauling rope, or putting a 
sleeve round the same, or a suitable 
casting inside the rope at certain 
points, so as to make an enlargement 
at the point on which the clip engages 
by a suitable device ; all these devices 
result in undue wear. A better ar- 
rangement is that of a clip by means 
of which the hauling rope is held 
simply by pressure resulting from the 
operation of wedges acting on inclines 
or screws. This method is certainly 
far superior to any device of knot or 
sleeve attachment to the hauling rope, 
and gives better results in the working 
of the rope. Where the inclines are 
only slight, simple pressure may be 
used by pressing two pulleys or plane 
surfaces together on each side of the 
hauling rope. This system has an- 
swered sufficiently well where the pull 
en the hauling rope is slight, but 
where the incline is great, the type of 
clip in which the attachment results 
from the use of an incline or wed ere 


must be used. 

This system of line has shunt rails, 
driving and tightening gears, in com- 
mon with the first-named system. 
At each of the supports, rollers have 
to be provided, in which the hauling 
rope rests where it sags between the 
carriers. These rollers are provided 
with guide bars to increase the range 
of support which guide the hauling 
rope, should it be deflected from the 
vertical, into the above named pulleys. 

Among the examples of this system 
of line may be mentioned a ropeway 
in Japan, of which illustrations (Figs. 
6 & 7) are annexed. This line, about 
i, 800 yards in length, for the greater 
part on an incline of I in ii, is em- 
ployed for the carriage of ore from 
the upper terminal to the lower. 
Such is the power generated by the 

descending loads that it is necessary 
to absorb the greater portion of it and 
thus render the line amenable to the 
control of a hand brake. For this 
purpose a water brake was introduced 
in which a revolving fan drives the 
water against fixed vanes which again 
repels it. In this way some 50 h.-p. 
is absorbed and the speed of the 
ropeway can be regulated to a nicety 
by adjusting the reaction vanes 
against which the water impinges. 
A small supply of cold water is 
provided, to keep the temperature of 
the water employed in the brake at 
a sufficiently low temperature. Illus- 
trated details of this ropeway 
indicate the position of the above 
named brake, etc. Ropeways on this 
system have been constructed by 
Messrs. Bullivant and Co., of London, 
from the author's designs, in various 
parts of the world, and notably we 
may refer to one in Peru, having a 
length of nearly two miles on an 
incline of I in ij. The nature of the 
ground traversed is very severe, and 
the application of the clip named 
above, together with suitable gear, has 
caused the line to work in a most 
efficient and satisfactory manner. 

which one carrier, hanging from a 
fixed rope, is drawn to and fro by 
means of an endless hauling rope. 
The fourth system, or single fixed 
rope with one carrier, was introduced 
by the author, and is most suitable in 
situations where moderate quantities 
have to be transported in heavy loads 
or pieces, and where spans of con- 
siderable length have to be worked 
over. With this system, inclines up 
to I in I, or even steeper, can be 
worked, spans up to 2,000 yards maybe 
operated, and loads up to 5 tons may 
be dealt with. It is cheaper in first 

Aerial Wire Ropeways. 



Engineering Times. 

cost than the third system, and 
simpler to erect, and less costly to 

The arrangement consists of one 
single fixed rope on which one carrier 
is employed, the latter being drawn 
to and fro by an endless hauling rope, 
operated by suitable motive power, 
the driving gear being arranged with 
the reversing motion, so that the 
direction in which the carrier runs may 
be changed by the driver. The fixed 
rope is supported on posts at intervals 
of about 3Ooft., and the hauling rope 
is carried on pulleys fitted with guide 
bars, placed in the centre of the post 
over which the carrier passes, the 
posts being arranged so as to allow 
of the carriers passing through them. 
The return hauling rope is supported 
on an outside pulley mounted on an 
arm of each post. The hauling rope 
is attached to the carrier-head by a 
peculiarly - shaped pendant, which 
causes it to pass under the saddle 
transom. Messrs. Bullivant have made 
this type of tramway for some years 
for transporting large quantities over 
short distances, an important ex- 
ample being that of a ropeway on 
Table Mountain, 5,280 feet in length. 
Commencing at sea level, and follow- 
ing the ground on posts, spaced some 
3Ooft. apart, the cable takes a span of 
i,5ooft, rising to a projecting rock 
some i,48oft. above the starting point. 
Resting on a support at this point, 
the cable again makes a span of 
i,4Ooft. to an upper terminal 62,2Ooft. 
above the lower one. 

An illustration (Fig. 8) shows a 
ropeway on this system erected for 
the carriage of passengers only. 
This is probably the only example 
of a ropeway constructed solely for 
this purpose of any considerable 
length. It is situated in Hong Kong 

in connection with a large sugar 
works, in which a number of European 
workmen are employed, and to secure 
freedom from fever these men are 
transported at the end of their day's 
work to a sanatorium at a high level 
above the sea. The carrier is ar- 
ranged for the accommodation of six 
men at a time. The speed of the 
ropeway is eight miles per hour, and 
as the men leave their work in 
batches they come to the terminal 
and find the carrier prepared to take 
them up. This ropeway has been in 
operation for several years, and has 
given excellent results and performed 
its work with absolute safety to those 
travelling on it. 

Many other similar ropeways have 
been erected from the designs of the 

(5) The use of Two FIXED ROPES, 
with an endless hauling rope, in 
which one carrier travels in one direc- 
tion, while the other runs on a 
parallel rope in the opposite direc- 
tion. This is a thoroughly service- 
able type of tramway, capable of 
being used over extremely long 
spans, and of carrying loads up to 
five tons. This system is one which 
is intermediate between the third and 
fourth, adopting the use of two 
parallel fixed ropes, as in the third 
system, but with the use,, of one 
carrier on each rope, as in th^ fourth 
system. It may be used where the 
quantities required to be moved are 
such as will admit of the ropeway 
being worked by gravity, one carrier 
descending loaded, while the empty 
carrier ascends unloaded. With this 
arrangement spans up to 2,000 yards 
may be made without supports, loads 
up to six tons may be carried, and 
quantities up to 100 tons per day 
transported. In other cases steam 

Aerial Wire Ropeways. 


power may be employed, and the 
loads moved from the lower ^to the 
upper terminal, while the empty car- 
rier descends loaded or unloaded, as 
may be the case. 

By the experience gained in the 
construction of a number of such 
ropeways, great efficiency has been 

The control of the line is effected by 
a breakgear, situated at the upper 
terminal, operated by one man, who 
can perfectly regulate the speed. 

While many ropeways on this sys- 
tem are employed simply to span 
from the upper portion of a mountain 
over a valley to the lower side of 


arrived at, so much o that these 
ropeways may be relied upon to pro- 
vide a safe means of transport for 
passengers, and the speed at which 
the carriers run can be very great 
indeed, not infrequently amounting 
to thirty to forty miles per hour. 

another, others are constructed with 
one or more supports, and skirt the 
side of a steep hill. In this latter case 
a slower speed must be maintained, 
not above ten miles per hour, as the 
passing of the carriers over the sup- 
ports at a higher speed is inadmis- 


Engineering Times, 

sible. As the loaded carrier is usually 
much heavier than is necessary to 
draw up the empty one, a propor- 
tionate amount of material may be 
transported up as well as down ; in- 
deed, in some cases, where water is 
available, it is possible to run materials 
up alone, employing the descending 
carrier as a counter-balance filled with 
water. Where loads are required to be 
carried up the incline and not down, 
and steam power is supplied, rope- 
ways of considerable efficiency have 
been constructed ; in this case an 
engine or other motive power operates 
a driving gear at the lower terminal, 
and a carrier containing the necessary 
passengers or materials to be trans- 
ported moves at a speed of eight to 
ten miles an hour up the incline, while 
the empty carrier descends loaded or 
unloaded as the case may be. 

The annexed illustrations (Figs. 
9 & 10) gives examples of this 
type of ropeway, operated by gravity 
only, which are being worked in the 
Alps and Pyrenees. The long spans 
are clearly shown on these views, and 
an idea can also be obtained of the 
terminal arrangement, and a general 
knowledge of the utility of the system 
can be readily gained by studying the 
situation in which these ropeways 
have been erected. An example of 
this system working in the Alps is 
employed for the upward carriage of 
minerals and for military stores for 
the service of forts on the mountains, 
which are in close proximity to the 
national frontier. On this a succes- 
sion of ropeways (three in number), 
a span of 1,560 yards, carrying loads 
of 10 cwt, has been at work for 
several years. Few renewals have 
been necessary, and the ropes, of the 
highest class made specially for the 
purpose, show but little wear and 
tear after some seven years' work. 

This will give an idea of the low cost 
of maintenance with this type of 
ropeway. Situated at an elevation 
of some 6,oooft. above the sea, ex- 
posed during the winter months to 
the force of all the elements, on 
ground snowed up many feet in 
depth. Indeed, no better example 
can be cited as proving, when pro- 
perly attended to, the lasting power 
of wire rope and ropeway machinery. 

Another example is that of a rope- 
way in the Pyrenees where a series of 
five sections are placed in succession, 
bringing ore from an elevation over 
6,oooft. in height. Each of these 
sections is worked by three men, and 
is capable of transporting some 100 
tons per day. 

Illustration Fig. 10 represents a 
ropeway in which the loads are trans- 
ported up hill, the ropeway being 
operated by power at the lower ter- 
minal. This is erected in Spain, and 
is daily used both for the transport of 
material and workmen. It has now 
been in operation for several years, 
and has proved itself thoroughly 
efficient. The incline is exceedingly 
steep, being about I in i|,the longest 
span being some i,iooft. Loads up 
to locwt. are carried, but this maybe 
increased, when necessary, to indi- 
vidual loads of 1 5 cwt. 

Another excellent example of this 
type of ropeway is one employed for 
the carriage of coal from steamers 
lying alongside a pier and delivery of 
the same into a large depot in the 
centre of a large sugar factory. For 
this purpose a tower some /oft. in 
height is erected where the deposit 
has to be made. From this tower 
three ropeways, as described above, 
are led to the quay side, at which they 
are anchored, and extending to the 
rear of the tower, are there tightened. 
About i ,000 tons a day can be trans- 

Aerial Wire Ropeways. 





Engineering Times. 

ported by this means, the engine 
power being placed at the top of the 
tower, the steam being led thereto by 
a pipe. The coal on arrival at the 
top is dumped into a hopper placed 
machine, by which it is 

on a weigh in 

1,100 Y VRD-j ; L3\> CARRIED, 8 CWTS.. SHOWING 

weighed, recorded, and delivered into 
the general depot. This arrangement 
enables the approaches to the pier to 
be kept perfectly free, and does not 
interfere with any of the buildings of 
the works. 

(6) The use of ONE FIXED ROPE 
placed on an incline un which 
carriers, from which are suspended 
loads, are allowed to run down un- 
controlled one at a time. This is 
generally called a "shoot." This 
system is of a simple nature, and 
used for the transport of undamage- 
able goods. It consists of a light 
wire rope stretched between two 
points, the elevation of one being 
considerably above that of the other. 
On this, loads from I cvvt to 4 cwt, 
hanging from a runner carrying one 
or two wheels, are allowed to run 
down uncontrolled. At the lower 
end, brushwood, or other convenient 
means, are provided to absorb the 
force produced by the running load 
when it arrives at the lower ter- 
minal. This can be considerably 
lessened by regulating the sag of 
the rope where the section of 
ground will admit, so as to reduce 
the speed of the runner with its 
load as it approaches the lower 
terminal. Such type of ropeway 
is largely used for the carnage of 
firewood, coffee, or other like ma- 
terials. Spans can be made without 
support up to 7,oooft, and all that 
is required for fixing the rope is a 
good anchorage at the upper end, 
and another with a tightening gear 
at the lower end. Ropes for this 
purpose up to 3,5Ooft. spans are 
used, made in the form of a strand; 
above this, in order to obtain the 
necessary strength with a moderate 
size of wire, ropes are used consist- 

Aerial Wire Ropeways. 





Engineering Times. 

ing of several strands formed each of 
several wires. The runners have 
wheels of small diameter, and are 
made as light as possible in order that, 
after 50 or 100 loads have been 
delivered, the empty ones may be 
carried up to the upper end for a 
further delivery of material. 

The applications of this system are 
too numerous to recite; probably many 
hundreds of miles are in operation, 
and with a rope or strand of suitable 
material and strength, together with 

well-made runners, the carriage of 
such material as can be treated in the 
manner named above, is alike efficient 
economical, and speedy. 

From the above descriptions the 
need of several systems to meet the 
varying needs of the situations where 
ropeways are erected must be clearly 
realised, and the large number of rope- 
ways on each system which Messrs. 
Bullivant and Co. have erected from 
the author's designs, fully prove the 
efficiency of each system. 


By J. PEARCE ROE, M. L & S. Inst. 

employment of aerial 
ropeways as a means and 
in many cases the best and 
most economical means of transport- 
ing material under certain conditions 
has already been established, though 
the recognition of their merits, or at 
any rate their introduction in Great 
Britain, has been slow as compared 
with many other countries. This is 
doubtless due 
in a measure 
to the general 
proximity of 
quarries, in- 
dustries and 
the like, to the 
number les s 
existing rail- 
ways or their 
and hence the 
more extend- 
ed adoption 
of aerial rope- 
ways in countries less well served in this 
respect. Another reason, to judge by 
the writer's experience, is a conserva- 
tism in adopting new appliances, as 
well as the difficulties not unfrequently 
imposed by landowners, local authori- 
ties and similar bodies with respect to 
way leaves and so forth, and it has 
several times occurred that while the 
would-be purchaser has been prepared 
to adopt an aerial ropeway plant, he 
has had to give up the scheme on 
account of extraneous opposition and 


the consequent expenses he would 
have had to incur in meeting it. 

Incidentally it may be of interest 
to mention that in certain countries 
the utility and public benefit derived 
from ropeways is so well understood 
that special and very liberal laws re- 
lating to the necessary rights of way, 
etc., are in operation, so that the 
status of a ropeway as a means of 

transport is 
officially re- 
cognised in a 
manner that, 
it is almost 
needless to 
add, is un- 
known here. 

In spite, 
however, of 
the facts just 
noted, there 
is unquestion- 
ably a very 
if not a large field for aerial rope- 
way transportation, and the writer, 
on behalf of the Ropeways Syndicate, 
Limited, has already constructed a 
good many lines in this country, 
while evidence is not lacking to show 
that greater interest is being taken 
in this mode of transport for min- 
erals and other materials than for- 
merly existed. 

Aerial ropeways, it is almost need- 
less to say, are not new, and although 
their origin appears to be somewhat 



Engineering Times. 

obscure, it may be said for all practi- 
cal purposes that they seem to have 
taken workable form in the mind of 
Mr. Charles Hodgson, about the year 
1868, when he both patented and 
commenced to operate wire tramways. 

years, has introduced many important 

It may here be observed that rope- 
ways can be broadly divided into two 
types first, that in which a plain, 
endless rope both suspends the loads 


In those days, however, they were 
crude things that naturally lent them- 
selves to improvements, and the 
writer has been one of those who, 
having had an extensive connection 
with these appliances for the past 20 

and moves them along ; and second, 
that in which the loads are suspended 
from runners drawn along fixed rail 
cables by means of a separate traction 
rope. Each of these broad types 
differ again in detail according to the 

Ropeways as a Means of Transport. 



Engineering Times* 

duty or kind of work to be performed. 
For instance, the design and mode of 
operation would be different where 
heavy individual loads are to be 
handled over short distances from 
what would be adopted for 
transporting over long distances 
regular quantities of such material as 
mineral that could readily be sub- 
divided. These points and a variety 


of other factors, such as the nature of 
ground and so forth, determine the 
design of an aerial ropeway, and, as 
the conditions to be met are not alike 
in any two cases, it will readily be 
seen that careful consideration has to 
be devoted to each project upon its 
merits, if the best results are to be 
looked for. 

From the foregoing observations it 
may be realised also that the purposes 

to which aerial ropeways can be put 
are so numerous that it would be be- 
yond the scope of these remarks to 
treat the whole subject, and the 
writer, therefore, proposes referring 
more particularly to recent examples 
of single endless ropeways for the 
transportation of materials in the 
ordinary acceptation of the term, 
particularly as this is the most general 
use for which they are employed. 

It may be observed that while the 
instances are numerous where aerial 
ropeways would compare favourably 
with light railways, even where no 
great difficulties occur in the construc- 
tion of the latter, their merits become 
more particularly apparent where 
rough or mountainous ground has to< 
be dealt with, and in such places the 
methods of the ropeway and railway 
engineer are fundamentally different, 
especially in the choice of ground, for 
while the one seeks easy grades by 
working round contour lines, and thus 
steers clear as far as possible of vertical 
irregularities, the other ignores this 
element within wide limits, and seeks 
rather to avoid curves in plan by 
striking as near as possible a bee line 
from point to point. 

Then, again, with respect to power, in- 
termediate grades being balanced, they 
are, broadly speaking, negligeable, the 
difference in altitude between terminals, 
or, in other words, the meart grade 
only, has to be taken into account in 
relation to power. In many cases, 
where the mean grade is in favour of 
the load, ropeways are self-acting, and 
in some instances develop a large 
amount of surplus energy. 

An ideal ropeway should go 
straight from point to point, and the 
rope should be supported where the 
ground naturally lends itself to this 
without the introduction of high 
standards. In practice, however, this 

Ropeways as a Means of Transport. 



Engineering Times. 

cannot always be absolutely carried 
into effect, but how nearly it has been 
realised in modern practice may be 
judged from some of the accompany- 
ing illustrations of various ropeways 
erected on the Roe and Bedlington 
system in different parts of the 

In the early days of ropeways 
angles and high trestles were of fre- 
quent occurrence, for the purpose of 
avoiding heavy gradients and spans, 
but with the improvements now at 

trict a ropeway of the same length 
and capacity had been previously 
erected where the number of trestles 
amounted to 83, and many of these 
exceeded looft in height. To put 
the matter in another way, the trestles, 
if placed one on top of the other, would 
in one case have reached an altitude 
of about 45oft, and in the other about 
3,6ooft, both installations being of 

*J ' O 

about the same length and daily 

The self- resistance or friction of 


command they are, or should be, the 

An example of what the Roe and 
Bedlington improvements suddenly 
effected may be cited. In the first 
line that the writer designed and 
erected in which these were partially 
introduced, the valleys were spanned 
direct without intermediate supports, 
and the number of these was only 
nineteen in a ropeway having a daily 
capacity of 250 tons, and a length of 
2,750 yards, with intermediate grades 
of i :2 J. 

It happened that in the same dis- 

ropeways, which, by the way, is a fail- 
measure of wear and tear, varies very 
considerably, and is largely dependent 
upon care and suitability of design, 
proper distribution of strains, and 
class of material employed. For in- 
stance, the writer has known lines for 
300 tons that have required power to 
drive them, despite the fact that there 
has been a mean grade of fully 1:6 in 
favour of the load ; whereas, on the 
other hand, in a recent example within 
the writer's practice, surplus power 
has been obtained from a ropeway 
having a mean grade in favour of 

Ropeways as a Means of Transport. 


Engineering Times. 

the load of only 1:23. It is proper to 
say in this connection that the 
mechanical efficiency of a ropeway 
having a considerable capacity is 
somewhat higher than for small 
quantities, and the line just referred to 
was a 350 tons per day installation. 

When the aptitude of a ropeway 
for dealing with rough country as it 
comes is realised, its advantages as a 
means of transport become manifest 
where the quantities are within range 
of its capacity. This is brought home 
in a striking manner by noting the 
difference in altitude between ter- 
minals in some of the ropeways that 
the writer has designed and erected, 
and also comparing the length of the 
ropeways and the length of rail 
track that would be required at 
an average grade of 1:40 to deal 
with the same difference of altitude. 
Thus in one instance the rope- 
way length is only 1,630 metres 
with a difference of altitude of 645 
metres, which would require with a 
railway a length of 1 5 miles, graded 
at 1 140. In another case the ropeway 
length is 2,700 metres, and the differ- 
ence of altitude between terminals of 
403 metres, equal to nine miles of 
rail at 1 140 grade. Analysis of another 
ropeway, where length is 4,200 
metres, shows that 1 3 miles of rail at 
1 140 would be needed for the altitude. 
With such figures as the above in 
the mind's eye, it at once also be- 
comes apparent that not only is the 
capital outlay for ropeway plant in 
many cases much less than that 
required for a railway, but the cost of 
transport from point to point is also 
much smaller, and hence from all 
aspects the ropeway in numerous 
instances is the best and most eco- 
nomical mode of transit that has yet 
been devised a dictum that holds 
good even when taking into full 

& 9+ 

Ropeways as a Means of Transport. 



Engineering Times. 

account that the cost of transit per 
unit of length is in some circum- 
stances higher by rope than rail. 

In well designed and constructed 
installations of modern date, the cost of 
transport per ton per mile is, however, 
remarkably low, although it necessarily 
varies a good deal according to the 
conditions to be met, quantities to be 
handled, etc. On some of the Roe 
and Bedlington lines under observa- 
tion rope costs which represent the 
largest item under the head of wear 
and tear have been reduced to some- 
thing below one-third of a penny per 
ton per mile. 

The illustrations, Figs. 3, 5, 6, 7, 
show different portions of a rope- 
way, having a capacity of 350 tons 
per day, for the transport of iron ore 
from mines in the hills to a railway 
junction in the south of Spain, and 
convey a fair idea of the ready 
manner in which ground of a rugged 
and irregular nature is dealt with. 
It will be seen from the photographs 
to what extent prominent parts of 
the ground are taken advantage of 
for supporting the ropes, and the 
way valleys are spanned so as to 
avoid, as far as possible, high trestles. 
The average height of these is only 
2oft., and average distance apart 1 10 
yards, although the spacing is of 
course really irregular, and there are 
spans of considerable length, one 
being over i,2Ooft. 

The upper terminal station, and the 
manner in which the carriers take on 
to and leave the rope, so as to permit 
of their being run on shunt rails 

H^^^ v:.' '> ' 


Ropeways as a Means of Transport. 


3 i6 

Engineering Times, 

round a bin or bunker for loading 
is shown in illustration, Fig. 7 ; 
and in Fig. 10 is seen the highest 
trestle on this line, with the discharg- 
ing station in the background, where 
provision is made for stocking some 
8,000 tons of mineral. This line 
is self-acting, and an automatic regu- 
lator is fitted to govern the speed. 

The illustration, Fig. 9, has reference 
to a 300-ton daily capacity line having 
a length of 4,500 yards, which is also 
self-acting and is worked in one section. 
It is employed for the transport from 
mines to smelters of argentiferous ore 
in Mexico. The route in this instance 
is over exceptionally rough and 
mountainous ground, and some idea 
of this and the onerous work of erect- 
ing such an installation may be 
gathered from the photographs. It 
may be mentioned, too, that all the 
material for construction had to be 
conveyed by bullock and pack mule 
for some 100 miles over trackless, 
mountainous ground. 

The ropeway, a part of which is 
illustrated in Fig. n, is over easy 
ground, forming a contrast with some 
of the examples already referred to, 
and rough local Spanish timber is em- 
ployed for the trestles, which, from an 
engineer's point of view, do not com- 
pare in appearance with wrought iron 

The illustration, Fig. 4, shows in 
some detail an ordinary form of mineral 
skip and hanger attached to the car- 
rier, which is shown resting upon a 
rope. The whole is constructed of 
mild steel and malleable iron. 

Apart from the photos the writer 
thinks the profile illustrated in 
Fig. 8, will be of interest, as showing 
probably the roughest piece of ground 
ever dealt with even by an aerial 
ropeway. This is laid out naturally, 
the vertical and horizontal scales be- 

ing the same. It refers to a ropeway 
having a capacity of about 60 tons in 
one direction and 30 tons in the other, 
per day. It will be observed that in 
this case there are only 17 supports 
for the whole distance, which mea- 
sures some 4,000 yards, and each 
support is placed on the top of the 
hills, which causes them to be all low 
structures, while long spans are worked 
from point to point, two of these 
clearing distances of nearly 2,oooft. 
without supports. The rope passes 
over a ridge i,52oft. at its highest 
point above the discharging station. 
In this line, too, an altitude is attained 
of i,i3oft. in the remarkably short 
distance of some 1,200 yards. 

The writer has more than once had 
it urged that an aerial ropeway inter- 
feres with a landscape, and in one 
English case a scheme had to be 
abandoned on this account. To what 
extent this is the case may be left to 
more impartial judges than one pro- 
fessionally engaged in ropeway con- 
struction, but a glance at the illustra- 
tion on the opposite page will dissipate 
the notion that there is anything un- 
sightly in either the structural or run- 
ning work of an aerial ropeway when 
well designed. 

The present remarks have pur- 
posely been confined to that class of 
ropeway employed for the continuous 
transport of material over coiisider- 
able distances, but it must not be 
supposed that this by any means ex- 
hausts the uses to which aerial ropes 
can be put by introducing special 
features for the work to be performed, 
and in this connection it will perhaps 
not be out of place to indicate in a 
general manner their adaptability to 
such purposes as the following : The 
conveyance of bales and other material 
from point to point or between build- 
ings, over roofs and yards in factories. 

Ropeways as a Means of Transport. 




Engineering Times* 

For making direct and short con- 
nection across ravines for the convey- 
ance of persons and merchandise by 
which circuitous and long mule or 
cart tracks would be avoided by the 
introduction of a single span, and the 
writer has also proved their usefulness 
and economy for handling construc- 
tive material up precipitous ground 
from lower lying and more get-at- 
able points to sites at an altitude 
where the work had to be erected. 
Other instances of their utility may 
be found in connecting lines of rail- 
way at opposite banks of rivers where 
bridge building would be unduly 
costly or difficult, and lighterage, on 
account of floods, shoals, etc., im- 
possible. In an example of this kind 
plant was constructed by the writer to 
pick up wagons with their loads, 
traverse and put them on track at the 
other side and vice versa. 

Another class of ropeway known as 
suspended cableways is also exceed- 
ingly useful for bridge and dam con- 
struction, as well as in connection with 
certain kinds of quarry work and the 

Thus it will be seen that with the 
variety of purposes to which they can 
be applied, it can hardly be doubted 
that ropeways have a great and in- 
creasing future before them, and that 
as a means of transport alone the field 
for their employment is very exten- 
sive, and will become wider as experi- 
ence of their working displaces the 
want of knowledge and prejudice that 
have to a considerable extent existed. 
Greater familiarity would also tend to 
save the ropeway engineer from the 

many very curious enquiries that 
emanate from would-be users with 
hazy ideas as to the legitimate uses of 
this mode of carrying material. This 
will be understood when reference is 
made to an enquiry for transporting 
waiters and their tea-trays, etc., between 
pavilions in connection with a refresh- 
ment business, and others of a similar 
kind, coupled with suggestions that 
the constructor should take payment 
in gate money. An enquirer also 
occasionally specifies that trees some- 
where or anywhere near the route are 
to be made use of for supporting the 
ropes. There was a slight epidemic 
of this sort of thing after the publica- 
tion of an illustrated reference to 
ropeways in a popular magazine, 
which indicated also that there was a 
prevalent idea that ropeways could be 
supplied at popular prices, some- 
thing in advance of a clothes line. 
Needless to say, they cannot be, and 
there is no immediate prospect of any 
such happy development as would 
meet expectations of the kind. Such 
enquiries are, of course, harmless, and, 
frequently, comical, but it occasionally 
happens that injury is done to the 
reputation of ropeways by th2 class 
of gentleman commonly described as 
" a bit of an engineer," and who goes 
lightheartedly to work in the belief 
that he is fully equipped with the 
necessary knowledge to tackle a rope- 
way problem, and ends in becoming 
a sadder and wiser man, who has in- 
cidentally damaged a good thing 
having- a lar^e and useful future that 

t> o 

would be the better for intelligent 


By R. E. COMMANS, M. Inst. CE. 

QT SHOULD like to preface the 
J^ remarks I have to make by say- 
ing that, although I consider the 
original single rope system of aerial 
ropeways very suitable for short lines 
with easy gradients and small carry- 
ing capacity, I am satisfied that, for 
anything like a permanent installa- 
tion, where large quantities have to be 
carried over rough country, the double 
rope, or " Otto " system is the best. 
For this reason, therefore, I propose 
to confine myself to a description of 
this system. 

It is now a good many years since 
this system was first introduced, and 
to-day there are over 900 of these 
41 Otto " lines at work in different 
parts of the world. 

The advantages of aerial transport 
are by no means appreciated as they 
ought to be, and the more these are 
made known, the better for both 
makers and ought-to-be users. 

By the single rope, or u Hodgson " 
system, one endless running rope is 
employed, fulfilling the dual functions 
of carrying and hauling. The charac- 
teristic of the double rope, or " Otto " 
system on the other hand, is the 
employment of two ropes a heavy 
fixed rope of large section for carry- 
ing, and a light running rope for 
hauling the buckets along the said 
carrying rope. 

A single rope line, as far as first 
cost is concerned, is therefore evi- 
dently cheaper than a double rope 

line, and for this reason, in certain 
cases, it might be given the prefer- 
ence. Cheap is perhaps a wrong 
term to use ; less expensive would be 
possibly more correct, for if there is 
one thing more than another to which 
the old saying " cheap and nasty " 
applies, it certainly is an aerial rope- 
way. Like a chain, the soundness 
and reliability of a ropewayare entirely 
dependent on the strength of its 
weakest link, so that, no matter how 
good the ropes may be, if any detail 
in the driving gear, or more especially 


in the grips by which the buckets or 
carriers are attached to the rope 
should fail, the \vhole line may come 
to a standstill, resulting in endless 
worry, annoyance, and expense. 

It might be well here to mention 
that anyone is at liberty to use 
double ropes. It is to the numerous 
details which go to make up a com- 
plete ropeway installation that the 
" Otto " patents apply, details which 
have been arrived at only after years 
of practical experience gained in the 
erection and running of these lines. 



The Engineering Times. 


In an article like the present it 
would be impossible, and out of place 
to fully describe these details and the 
many improvements to which the 
great success of this system of aerial 
transport is entirely due. 

To those who have had any experi- 
ence with wire ropes, it will be evident 
that a quick running hauling rope, 
which has to work round grooved 
pulleys, should be as light and 
flexible as possible, in other words, 
should be built up of numerous 
strands of small wires. If the same 
rope be required to both haul and 
carry the load, it is further evident 
that it would have to be of larger 
section than if it had the hauling 
alone to do. This increase of the size 
of the rope means more weight to 
drive, and consequent loss of power, 
and greater wear and tear. Where, 
therefore, heavy loads have to be 
carried, large spans to be crossed, and 
steep gradients surmounted, it is 
highly desirable to employ fixed or 
rail ropes to carry the load, and a 
light rope to do the hauling. 

Numerous forms of carrying rope 
have been tried, and in the earlier 
days even iron rods were used to 
carry the buckets. Two sections of 
carrying rope employed in the con- 
struction of the " Otto " lines are 
shown in the illustrations. Fig. i. 
The ordinary spiral rope com- 
posed of stout round steel wires 
and the patent Otto " Simplex " 
lock-coil rope. Where first cost is 
not of primary importance, the latter 
rope is strongly to be recommended. 
This simplex lock-coil rop<| is a 
comparatively recent improvement, 
and has proved an immense success 
wherever it has been employed, and 
is in fact an ideal section for this 
special purpose. These simplex 
ropes were used for the ropeway 
supplied by me to the now famous 
Lake View Gold Mining Company in 
Western Australia, a view of which 
is shown in Fig. 2. 

This ropeway is employed to trans- 
port ore from bins erected alongside 

"Otto" Ropeways, 

the shaft to the top of the 5O-head 
stamp mill, situated some distance 
off on the hillside. The ore, as raised 
from the mine, is dumped over a 
grizley, or screen, the fines falling 
through direct into the bins below. 
The big pieces pass to a Gates Rock 
Breaker to be further crushed before 
falling into the bins, from which 
through half-a-dozen shoots, the 
ore is rapidly delivered to the 
ropeway buckets. The object of 
placing the mill on the hillside was 
to secure the advantage of natural 
gravitation for dealing with the 
slimes and tailings, the cyanide 
house being situated on the slope 
of the hill about halfway between 
the main shaft and the battery. 
The plant works admirably, and 
has conveyed the ore without 
interruption to the mill ever since 
the ropeway was started. 

It is surprising what vague 
notions many people have with 
regard to ropeways. They seem 
to think nothing could be simpler 
than to run a rope across country 
on top of sundry poles. When 
they are informed that it is not 
possible to work in and out and 
generally round about, and that 
the height of each support, the 
distribution of the loads, etc., all 
require to be most carefully calcu- 
lated, they appear astonished, and 
slowly begin to realise why a rope- 
way cannot be sold at so much 
per ton. 

When entertaining the idea of 
employing a ropeway, the following 
points should be borne in mind : 

The end stations, wherever pos- 
sible, should be so chosen that the 
ropeway connecting them will be in 
a straight line, and also so arranged 
that the loading and unloading may 

be performed with the least amount 
of handling. If the ropeway cannot 
be carried in a straight line from one 
station to the other, one or more 
intermediate, or angle stations would 
be required. These, however, increase 
the first cost of the line, and also add 
to the working expenses of the same. 


The distance between any two 
stations, even over favourable ground, 
should not exceed 3^ miles. Wherever 
there are steep gradients, especially 
wherelargequantitieshave to be carried, 
the stations should be nearer than this 
to one another in order to avoid too 
great a strain on the hauling rope. 


The Engineering Times* 

If it be necessary to divide a line 
into sections for any of the above 
reasons, the positions of the inter- 
mediate stations can often be so chosen 
as to secure a more evenly graded route 
for the ropeway, than if it were carried 
in a straight line between the terminal 

The design of carrier depends on 
the material or class of goods it is 
intended to transport over the line. 
The bucket carrier shown in Fig. 3 is 
very largely used and is suit- 

sacks, barrels, boxes, etc., sling carriers 
are handier than the bucket ones, as 
they permit of the loads being very 
quickly despatched and discharged. 

The supports can be made either of 
wood or iron. Fig. 5 shows a good 
example of a wooden support of an 
" Otto " line at work at the Progress 
Mines in New Zealand, employed for 
the transport of gold quartz. The tim- 
ber for these supports was cut in the 
adjoining forest. This line, which is 
some 7,oooft. long, has at its lower 



able for coal, ore, clay, sand, and 
such like material. The buckets are 
suspended slightly below the centre 
of gravity, which permits of their 
being easily tipped and emptied of 
their contents. 

Fig. 4 gives a very good idea of the 
general arrangement of an " Otto " 
ropeway, and shows the loaded 
buckets being hauled along on the one 
carrying rope, and the empties return- 
ing to the loading station on the 
other. For the transport of logs, 

end a span of i,9Ooft, or neatly two 
and a half times the width of the 
Thames at London Bridge. Where 
timber is scarce, or the white ant in 
evidence, iron supports should be 
used. Such supports are shown in 
Fig. 2 which is a view of the Lake 
View Company's ropeway above 
referred to. 

Where large quantities of ore, or 
similar material, have to be trans- 
ported, it is highly desirable to so con- 
struct the loading stations that the 

"Otto" Ropeways. 


&''* i *. ' fc* - a05MR 




The Engineering Times* 

buckets can be filled automatically 
from spouts connected with bins, or 
hoppers overhead. In this way no 
time is lost, and the carriers can be 
regularly and rapidly forwarded as 
soon as they are filled. 

The unloading stations should also 
be designed so as to reduce as far as 
possible unnecessary handling of the 
material. Fig. 6 shows a fairly 
typical unloading station, with bins 
of large capacity arranged alongside 

very generally employed. These can 
be fixed at either the loading or un- 
loading stations as most convenient. 

The grips for attaching the carriers 
to the hauling rope are automatically 
thrown into gear, and released at the 
loading and unloading stations. These 
grips are the most vital part about a 
ropeway ; there must be no uncer- 
tainty about their action, and no 
matter what the climate or weather 
may be, one must feel quite sure that 


the railway for automatically loading 
up the railway wagons with ore, or 
whatever is brought down by the 
ropeway. This unloading station is 
of an " Otto" line just completed for 
the Mount Lyell Mining and Railway 
Company in Tasmania. 

Where it is desirable to check the 
weight of the material carried over a 
line, weighing machines (see Fig. 7) 
which automatically record the weight 
and number of each bad, are now 

when once a carrier has started on its 
journey it will arrive at theend of it with- 
out a hitch of any kind. As a proof 
of the reliability of the " Otto " grip- 
under most trying circumstances, I 
would mention the case of a ropeway 
in Norway constructed for the Bede 
Metal Company, and used for the 
transport of copper ore. In the 
winter the cold being most intense,, 
it often happens, after this rope- 
way has been standing all night, that 

"Otto" Ropeways. 


when the line is started in the morn- 
ing, the ropes and buckets are 
thickly covered with ice and snow, 
but in no single instance have the 
grips been known to fail. Fig. 8 
shows the loading station of this line 
taken when snow 
was on the ground. 
Heat also has 
its drawbacks, and 
must be allowed 
for in the design of 
these ropeways. I 
well remember a 
rather amusing in- 
cident that was 
told me by an 
engineering friend 
of mine, who some 
years ago was 
present at the 
starting of a single 
rope line he had 
designed for a 
mine in the tropics. 
The line was to 
work by gravity, 
the descending 
loaded buckets 
hauling up the 
empty ones. When 
everything was 
ready, and the sig- 
nal given to start, 
the rope refused to 
budge. My friend 
was at his wits' 
end to account for 
this, as he felt 
sure his calcula- 
tions were right 
although the margin of surplus power 
was small, and, with the patience 
and long-suffering common to his 
class, meekly submitted to the rather 
tropical abuse of the mine manager, 
and chaff of his staff. All of a 

sudden, to the surprise of every- 
body, the line commenced to move of 
its own accord. The laugh was now 
on the side of the engineer, who, in a 
moment, grasped the situation : the 
rope, due to the mid-day heat, had 


become elongated, the tension re- 
duced, and the friction, which had 
been too great, overcome. On in- 
vestigation, it was found that an all 
too conscientious fitter had rigidly 
fixed the tension gear, and as soon as 

3 26 

Engineering Times. 

this was released, the line worked away 

Ropeways have been little adopted 
in this country, due in a great measure 
to the difficulty experienced in almost 
every instance of obtaining the neces- 
sary way leaves. Some landowners 
object, no doubt, conscientiously, and 
are prejudiced against this system 
of transport, under the impression 

upon the unfortunate company or in- 
dividual who is desirous of taking a 
ropeway over their land. Owners of 
bog and moor land, which, before the 
idea of a ropeway was mooted, would 
have been glad to find a purchaser at 
almost any price, suddenly discover 
this same land to be most eligible 
for building, and ask a prohibitory 
amount for a right of way accor- 

<* gf 



that the line will interfere with their 
crops, or that the buckets may dis- 
charge their contents on them, or 
on their cattle. The majority, how- 
ever, I fear, are not so conscientious 
in their objections, but are swayed 
by other motives, and rather look 
upon a ropeway in much the same 
light as they would upon a railway, 
and appear to think that, as a matter 
of principle, it is their duty to impose 

dingly. I could cite a number of 
instances where ropeways, which 
would have been most beneficial to a 
district, have had to be abandoned 
owing to it being impossible to come 
to terms with one or other of the 
owners of the land over which the 
line would have had to pass. As 
already stated, ropeways cannot be 
worked round curves, and, therefore, 
one dog-in-the-manger proprietor, by 

"Otto" Ropeways. 


objecting to grant a right of way, 
may render the carrying out of a 
scheme on a workable basis im- 

had powers, where they see it is de- 
sirable in the interests of the com- 
munity at large, to compel ignorant 
or unprincipled proprietors to sub- 

It is high time that our County or mit their claims to arbitration, or to 
Parish Councils, as on the Continent, accept a fair compensation for any 


Engineering Times. 

slight inconvenience they might be 
put to. 

Ropeways in no way interfere with 
the cultivation 
and natural 
drainage of the 
land like a rail- 
way, and the 
graceful curves of 
the ropes and 
general airiness of 
the whole struc- 
ture, are a 
pleasing addition 
to any landscape. 

The carrying 
capacities of these 
lines may be any- 
thing from 50 to 
500 tons and 
more per day of 
ten hours. When- 
ever the quantity 
carried exceeds 
800 tons it is ad- 
visable to build a 
double line. On 
the well - known 
Garrucha Rope- 
way, in the Sierra 
de Beclar district, 
in the South of 
Spain, although 
this is only a 
single line, as 
much as 800 tons 
of iron ore have 
been carried per 
day of sixteen 
hours. This line 
is 9f miles long. 
The accom- 
panying illustra- 
tion, Fig. 10, 
shows the large span, over 900! t. 
wide, at Villa Reforma. This line 
was constructed and run for a num- 

ber of years by Mr. J. Pohlig of 
Cologne, to whose untiring energy 
and skill the immense develop- 

ment of the "Otto" system on the 
Continent is mainly due. He has 
constructed still longer lines, \2\ and 

n Ropeways. 



Engineering Times* 

19 miles respectively, in Hungary, 
and only quite recently has completed 
the survey of a line for the transport 
of general merchandise over moun- 
tainous country for a distance of 30 

Although ropeways are more espe- 
cially used in connection with mining, 
they may also be employed with great 
advantage to industrial purposes, and, 
as a case in point, I would refer to Figs. 
9 & 1 1, of a short line I supplied some 
years ago to Messrs. Henry Tate and 
Sons for the transport of sacks, barrels 
and their well-known boxes of cube 
sugar, at their factory at Silvertown. 
By means of this ropeway, they 
were enabled to carry goods from 
a warehouse over a yard to the 
wharf side without in any way 

interfering with the shunting of the 
railway trucks below r . In this case 
the sling carriers above referred to 
were used, and have proved a great 

I also supplied a similar ropeway 
to Messrs. Lever Bros, for the trans- 
port of alkali, etc., from lighters into 
their works at Port Sunlight. 

With the improvements constantly 
being made in the material and design 
of the ropes and various parts con- 
stituting a ropeway, these lines are 
bound to come more and more 
into general use, and it is to be 
much regretted that their introduction 
into this country has been so handi- 
capped, as explained above, by the 
difficulty of obtaining the necessary 
way leaves. 


QT T may safely be taken for granted 
J[ that no one will dispute the mam- 
ad vantages that an aerial wire 
ropeway possesses as a means for 
economically conveying goods from 
one point to another, over an ordinary 
railway or tramway, in point of cost 
of material and simplicity in laying, 
especially in rough or hilly country, 
saving, as it does, all the cost of level- 
ling, bridges over streams, and the 
cuttings and embankments so neces- 
sary to prepare a track for a rail- 
way, to say nothing of the saving in 
severance of land entailed by the latter 
mode of conveyance. 

On the aerial ropeway the material 
is carried, suspended in mid air, out 
of the way of ordinary traffic, and 
without interfering with the occupation 
or cultivation of the land. 

Why then have aerial ropeways been 
so severely left alone? especially in this 
country where land is so dear, and 
where the compensation exacted is so 
excessive, even for running a tramway 
across a field. 

The answer, especially in the case 
of heavy traffic, is not far to seek. 

Hitherto the exacting conditions 
requisite for an ordinary ropeway 
have generally more than counter- 
balanced the admitted advantages. 

Chief among these disadvantages 
may be mentioned : 

Firstly The necessity for the rope- 
way to run in straight lines, 
curves being impossible with- 
out costly angle stations. 
Second 1}' The very limited capa- 
city in weight-carrying power, 

the individual loads carried be- 
ing very small, and the conse- 
quent output of material con- 
veyed, very restricted. 
Thirdly The difficulty of taking 
off branches or turnouts from 
the main line of ropeway. 
Fourthly The inflexibility of a 
ropeway, both in alignment of 
plan and in length. 
An ordinary ropeway consists usually 
of a long wire-rope stretched from one 
point to another, and suspended at 
intervals along the line of route, over 
saddles resting on supporting towers 
of wood or iron. Over the top of this 
rope, run a pair of grooved sheaves, 
mounted in a frame, from which the 
load is suspended. The whole being 
drawn along sometimes by animal 
power, but more usually by an end- 
less hauling rope, which travels from 
end to end of the ropeway, running 
around a driving drum at one end, 
and around a tension drum, as it is 
called, at the other terminal. This 
arrangement, of course, requires a 
return carrying rope, which runs 
parallel with the first rope, and usually 
about 6ft. or 8ft. from it. The empty 
boxes or carriers come back by this 
return rope from the discharging ter- 
minal to the loading end, and where 
the ropeway has sufficient gradient or 
fall, in favour of the load, the descend- 
ing loads haul the empty boxes back 
again. In this case the driving drum 
already mentioned is replaced by a 
drum or drums provided with brake 
gear, and occasional!}' there is so 
much extra energy developed by the 



Engineering Times. 

falling loads that power may be taken 
off one or other terminal to drive other 

This briefly describes the usual 
type of ropeway, more commonly 
known as the Bleichert system, 
although in another type of ropeway 
generally known as the Hodgson or 
Hallidie system, only one (endless) 
rope is employed, combining the 
double function of both carrying and 
hauling the load. This system, how- 
ever, is capable of carrying such ex- 
ceedingly small loads, usually about 
loolb. or so of net weight, that I do 
not propose to deal further with it, 
although the objections I have given 
apply equally, if not with greater 
force, to this system of ropeway. 

Now to take seriatim the dis- 
advantages of the Bleichert system of 
fixed carrying rope. 

This rope merely rests on the sup- 
porting saddles, being free to slide 
through them. 
The sides or 
flanges (AB) of 
the saddles 
have necessarily 
1 3 be made very 
low, in order 
not to interfere 
with the free running of the carrying 
sheaves. If, therefore, the slightest 
attempt be made to pull this rope out 
of the straight line in other words, to 
turn the slightest angle it at once 
mounts the flange, and is drawn out 
of its saddle, and falls to the ground. 

It will be seen, therefore, that a 
straight undeviating line must be 
maintained throughout the length of 
the ropeway (in a vertical plane, of 
course), a matter very often of great 
difficulty and entailing a large amount 
of extra expense in going over a hill 
or other obstruction, which could be 

saved if the ropeway could only go 
round it. Where, however, it is abso- 
lutely necessary to turn a corner, then 
an expensive " angle station," as it is 
usually called, has to be introduced, 
This angle station practically divides 
the line into two separate ropeway 
systems. The loads are taken by 
shunting rails, off one carrying rope, 
conveyed by manual labour along the 
shunting rail, to the second carrying 
rope, fixed at the required angle to 
the first one, and there attached to 
the second hauling rope. It will be 
seen this not only involves expense in 
the first cost of the angle station, but 
it limits the carrying capacity of the 
rope and involves a large addition to 
the working expenses by the constant 
attendance of one or two shunters to 
transfer the loads from one ropeway 
to the other. 

And all this trouble and expense is 
involved at every corner or angle the 
line has to make. Truly, a very great 
disadvantage ! 

Taking the second objection, as to 
the small individual carrying power 
of the ordinary ropeway. 

Suppose for the sake of argument 
that a ropeway be three miles long in 
a straight line. It will consist of a 
carrying rope three miles long, 
stretched from end to end, and sup- 
pose, further, that it is required to 
carry ten ton loads along it, spaced at 
intervals of 100 yards apart. Quite a 
small matter compared with a railway, 
and really a very ordinary condition. 
And yet the skilled ropeway engineer 
will at once say, "Impossible, it can- 
not be done!" Exactly, that is the 

Let us see why. 

Three miles of rope contains 5,280 
yards in length, and if the loads are 
to be 100 yards apart, there will be 

Sectional Aerial Wire Ropeways. 


52 loads on the rope at once^ or an 
aggregate of 520 tons in all. Now 
the straining tension on a carrying 
rope may be taken roughly at four 
times the load depending, of course, 
on the length of the spans, and 
amount of deflection allowed. We 
should, therefore, have a total tension 
on the rope of 
some 2,000 
tons,less some 
deduction for 
saddle fric- 
tion between 
the rope and 
the saddle! 
It will be seen 
that we are at 
once out side 
the practical 
conditions of 
use with a 
steel \v i r e 
rope, and 
hence the 
already nam- 
ed, of carrying 
heavy loads 
along an or- 
dinary aerial 
wire ropeway. 
I now 
come to the 
third objec- 
tion to the 
aeriajl rope- 

carriers from the main ropeway and 
shunting them on to the branch line, 
involving a large expense in working 
and maintenance. 

The fourth objection named will 
be self evident from the description 
already given, and this want of flexi- 
bility both in length and alignment 


or turnouts from the main 

w ay 

Obviously the only practicable 
method of doing so, is to establish at 
the point of turnout, an angle station, 
as already described, with its requisite 
attendants for taking the loaded 

(objection No. i) is a very serious 
drawback in practicable working. 

\Ve have now, however, " changed 
all this," and effectually overcome 
each of the objections named, by the 
simple expedient of providing a 
separate and distinct rope for each 


Engineering Times^ 

span. The end of each rope is 
fastened to its own supporting stan- 
dard, and the span is thus self con- 
tained and complete in itself. 

The difficulty of course, was to 
make a good pathway for the carrier 
wheels from one rope to another, 

and after some 
experimenting, the 
author designed 
the simple contri- 
vance of a rocking 
rail, shown in the 
photograph, Fig. i , 
and in outline 
elevation in Fig. 2. 
Here A and B are 
the two adjacent 
carrying ropes, 
turning round the 
guides on the stan- 
dard as shown ; 
between them is 
pivoted at C, the 
rocking rail R, 
which is grooved 
underneath at the 
ends R 1 and R-, 
so as to fit nicely 
on to the ropes 
whilst the top of 
R is turned to the 
same radius as the 

This rockiner 


rail is held normal- 
ly in the position 
shown, by a spring 

or counter-weight, so as^to form (as it 
does in practice) a smooth easy track 
from the rope . to the rail, for the 
carrier wheels advancing in the 
direction of the arrow. 

As soon as the wheels have passed 
on to this rail and the |weight has 
advanced beyond the point of sus- 
pension C, the rocking rail tips over 
slightly to the right, so 'as to rest on 
rope B, on to which it gives a good 
lead for the carrier wheels. The 
counter-weight then brings the rock- 
ing rail back to the original position, 
readv for the next load. 

Sectional Aerial Wire Ropeways. 


Of course it will be understoed that 
the ends of these carrying ropes are 
not only led downwards by the guides, 
but also backwards, out of the way of 
the suspended loads, as shown i:i 
Fig. 3. The end of one rope is 
fastened directly to a hook at the 
back of the rail at H, whilst the end 
of the next rope has a short length of 
open link chain attached as shown at 
K. When it is desired to tighten up 
the rope from wear, etc., a straining 
screw is attached to the chain, and 
connected to the base plate. It is 
then tightened up a link or two and 
fastened by passing the nearest link 


carrier wheels to run upon This 
is simplicity itself. And now let 
us see what advantages such a 
system gives us over the old order of 

1. A much lighter carrying rope 

may be used, as it need only 
be strong enough to carry the 
strain due to the greatest load 
that can come on one span at 
a time. 

2. A much flatter catenary curve 

may be obtained, as a larger 
relative tension can be put 
upon the carrying rope with- 
out unduly straining it. 

FIG. 4. 

in the chain to the holding hook jK 
on the standard, and the thing is 

When the rope has been in use for 
some time, and begins to show signs 
of wear, where the end of the rocking 
rail rests upon it a few links of 
chain are attached to the dead end of 
the rope, so as to allow it to be moved 
a few inches along, through the guides 
in order to expose a fresh surface to 
the rocking rail, and at the same time 
the rope can be given a quarter-turn 
round along its whole length, so as 
to present a fresh surface for the 

3. Should any part of the carrying 

rope get worn or broken, it will 
be only necessary to replace 
the rope of the one defective 
span, instead of, as at present, 
having to renew the whole 
rope or splice new portions 
into it, entailing a stoppage of 
the whole line while this is 
being done. 

4. Curves can be readily made 

without the necessity of special 
angle stations, as at present 

5. u Turn-outs " or " pass-byes " can 


Engineering Times 

be taken from any post, it be- 
ing only necessary to substi- 
tute a switching rail for the 
ordinary rocking rail at the 

6.! loads can 
be carried on the single rope, 
and in case of extra large loads 
of (say) 15 to 20 tons, the 
weight can be equally divided 
on two or more ropes (one 
rope vertically underneath the 

ropes in use they can be readily 
turned round from time to time 
to ensure equal wear all round; 

9. The separate ropes may be in- 
sulated from each other, when 
an absolutely automatic block 
system of electric traction is 
at once provided ; one rope 
carrying the positive current, 
the other rope carrying the 
negative or return current. 

It would be well to inquire how 


other) as shown in the 
companying drawings Figs. 7, 
8 and 9, and photograph Fig. 

/. Each post and its attachments 
being all self-contained, the 
ropeway can be readily re- 
moved about from place to 
place, thus forming a portable 

8. Owing to the short sections of 

these advantages which I claim may 
be substantiated. 

The first, second, and third items 
are self evident, and will doubtless be 
readily admitted. 

The fourth advantage that " curves- 
can be readily made, without the 
necessity of special angle stations as 
at present required " may possibly 
need some explanation, although it is 
really very simple. 

Sectional Aerial Wire Ropeways. 


As we have seen, a curve or angle 
cannot be made on an ordinary rope- 
way, because the rope would be at 
once drawn out of its saddle, were 
a deviation made from the straight 
line, but in this case, the ropes are 
passed over guides leading backwards, 
and the ends fastened, 
so that they could 
not possibly be drawn 
out All that is 
necessary, therefore, 
is to lead off the rope 
to the required angle, 
and to make the 
connecting rocking 
rail curved to suit the 
angle, see Fig 4. In 
the case of a relatively 
sharp curve, the rope 
guides may be turned 
to a corresponding 
angle, though for 
moderate change of 
direction this is not 
necessary. A guy 
rope is then fixed to 
the back of the stan- 
dard, as shown, and to 
take up the side strain, 
and, if necessary, a 
vertical guide roller 
may be placed on the 
front of the standard 
to keep the hauling 
rope within proper 

TheyS///; claim will 
now probably be ad- 
mitted after this explanation, the 
cases being somewhat similar, and 
the same figure, No. 4, will show 
the arrangement, whilst the sixth 
claim will doubtless also be allowed 
on inspection of the drawing : Fig. 
15, showing details of a ropeway 
we have designed for competition for a 

Government departmental inquiry 
and of which the following is a brief 
description of the conditions required, 
The line of ropeway is to be half a 
mile in length in spans of 2Ooft., the 
supporting towers of steel to be 24ft. 
high. The whole is to be capable of 

FIG. 6. 

carrying 10 ton gross loads, and 
arrangements are to be so made, that 
a branch line of ropeway can be taken 
off at any supporting standard, and at 
the same time the whole plant must 
be so portable that it can be readily 
removed during the winter, and re- 
erected again for work in the summer.. 


Engineering Times- 

In the case where still heavier 
loads have to be carried, the loads 
can be supported on two ropes in- 
stead of one, as shown in the Figs. 
7, 8 and 9. 

The weight of say (20) tons is 
equally divided between the two 
ropes, the ends at one standard being 
connected together and passed 
-around a pulley sheave, thus ensur- 
ing that the strain on the two ropes 
shall always be equal. 

This brings us to our next claim, 
No. 9, that a system of absolute block 

electric haulage is provided. In this 
case the top carrying ropes are car- 
ried over varnished or paraffined oak 
guides, in order to insulate them from 
each other, the bottom carrying ropes 
going over the usual steel guides, and, 
in fact, are preferably electrically 
bonded together with copper bonds, 
so as to provide a complete metallic 
circuit for ths return current to the 
dynamo. The positive current is 
taken from the dynamo by a separ- 
ate insulated electric cable running 
the whole length of the ropeway, and 

branches from this convey the elec- 
tric current to every alternate rocking 
rail. It will be seen that only the 
span rope on which the feeding rock- 
ing rail is resting can be supplied 
with electric energy, whilst the adja- 
cent rope, having no electric circuit to 
it, is dead. An absolute automatic 
block is thus provided, as shown dia- 
grammatically in Figs. I, ir, and 12. 
Here A, B, C, and D represent the 
top ropes of four spans of ropeway, 
electrically insulated from each other, 
whilst the bottom rope is shown by 


FIG. 8. 

G, G', the different spans of this 
being electrically connected into 
practically one rope. K is the 
separate main electric cable, and 
branches go from this to the alternate 
top rocking rails, E and F, as shown. 
Suppose the load to be on span A 
(Fig. 10), the current will go from 
K, through the rocker E, which 
makes electrical contact with rope A 
conveying the current to it, thence 
through the wheel L of the carrier, 
through the motor M, bottom carry- 
ing wheel N to the return wire G, 

Sectional Aerial Wire Ropeways. 


and so back to the dynamo.- (See 
also Fig. 7 for these connections.) 
The motor M is connected with worm 
gearing to the two driving wheels L, 
and X, which are thus driven round 
as shown in Fig. 14. 

The rocker E is held normally by 
a counter- weight in the position 
sho\vn in the drawings, Figs. 10, I i,and 
12 (of course exaggerated), but when 
the advancing load tips it over into the 
position shown at E (Fig. 11), it is 
held there by an electro magnet 
shown at Q (Fig. 8) which is in 
electrical connection with rope B, and 
E is thus held down in this position 
(Fig. 11) as long as any current is 
flowing through the magnet, or 
rope B. 

The current is thus cut off alto- 
gether from span A, and consequently 
no load can travel along it, so long as 
there is a load on span B. 

When, however, this load has ad- 
vanced to the next span, C (Fig. 12), 
there will be no current going through 
B (the electricity now coming via 
rocker F), so the magnet Q will lose 
its power, and rocker E will fall back- 
to its original position and once more 
energize span A. 

There is thus provided an auto- 
matic and perfectly effective absolute 
block system, the passing load making 
its own electric connections without 
shock, stoppage or reversal of current, 
or sparking, and no load can ever get 
within a clear span, either of the load 
in front of it or of the load behind it. 

Each load can, therefore, be de- 
spatched on its journey without re- 
quiring the attendance of a man in 

In order to overcome the ascending 
gradient on the approach to a stand- 
ard, the spans are all made of ap- 
proximately equal length, and two 


Engineering Times. 

loads connected together 
at half span distance, as 
shown in Fig. 13, so that 
as one load goes down hill 
it will pull the other up, 
and vice versa. If desired 
the latter load may be 
merely a trailing load, only 
the one carrier being pro- 
vided with an electric motor. 


4L-- t - 

(irO^H * i 

'Having thus proved our^ N^ 
claims to the advantages '\2 
we have named for our 
system of ropeway, let us 
see if we have successfully 
overcome the disadvant- 
ages we quoted at the 
outset to belong to ordinary 

The first of these that 
of the necessity of the 
ropeway to run in straight 
lines is disposed of by our 
fourth claim. The second 
objection of limited 
weight carrying power 
is completely got over by 
our sixth claim, proving ^ 
our ability to carry in- 
dividual loads of 20 tons 
each, and my firm (R. 
White and Sons, of 
Widnes) is now prepared 6 
to supply any ropeway for", 
any loads up to 20 tons 2 
each, with an output of 
] 0,000 tons per day of 10 
hours, if necessary. The 
third objection is complete- 
ly met by our fifth claim, 
and the last objection as 
to the inflexibility of the 
ordinary ropeway is com- 
pletely answered by our 
fourth and seventh claims. 







Sectional Aerial Wire Ropeways. 

With regard to this last, it roay be 
pointed out that, by our system, a 
ropeway can be built up, section by 
section, as it proceeds along, the 
materials for a new section being con- 
veyed along the finished ropeway, 
span by span, thus saving a large item 
of expense in conveying materials 
into distant countries, and avoiding 
the necessity for conveying a length 
of several miles of rope, weighing 



T!ie electric current travels alonsc the tight rope, 
thence to the top carrying ivheel A, dvwn the insulated 
lead B to the motor .V. It returns by lead C to the 
bottom wheel D, and so along the bottom carrying rope, to 
the dynamo. 

The armature of the motor is connected to the flexible 
s 'toft E which drives the two worm wheels F and G, which 
gear into pinions on the wheels A and D which are thus 
drh'en around. 

Tlte load is attached to the carrying hook K. 

several tons, on mules' backs, over 
mountain tops, as is now occasionally 


Engineering Times* 

Further, a span need only be made a 
part length at first, where necessary, the 
extra length of rope for the full span 
being coiled up at one end, ready for 
use when required, as shown in Fig. 3. 

I have only dealt here with the 
question of carrying rope, which is, of 
course, the main question, the matter 
of hauling rope and connections with 
the loads being ordinary matters of 
everyday practice with ordinary end- 
less rope haulage. 

I show in Fig. 15 a diagrammatic 
elevation of a length of ropeway, 
showing the separate ropes for each 
span on which the load is carried, and 
in Fig. 9 a similar view, where the 
load is carried on two ropes, from 
which it will be seen that the ends of 
the carrying ropes may either be 
attached to the standards themselves, 
or carried down to the ground and 
anchored there, according to local 

There is no limit to the length of 
the spans that may be used, but 
practical considerations decide a span 
of about 100 yards or so, as being the 
most convenient, although by this 
system of separate ropes, much larger 
spans than usual, can be readily 
employed, if required. 

It is surprising what a poor opinion 
of ropeways a lot of works managers 
possess. I suggested to a firm the 
other day, who at present are carting 
about 500 tons of stone per day a 
distance of two miles from their works 
to the railway, by means of horse 
carts and traction engine, that they 
should adopt an aerial wire rope- 
way for carrying their goods down. 
I was met by the reply that there 
was a want of finality in such a 
scheme, as a ropeway at best could 
only be a temporary arrangement, 
and they would before long require 
to carry down something like 800 to 

1,000 tons per day. My answer to 
this was that my firm would guarantee 
to supply and equip a ropeway 
complete, capable of conveying 1,000 
tons of material per day of 10 hours, 
at less than a third of the cost of a 
railway (to say nothing of the cost 
of the land), and that we would 
guarantee the working expenses in- 
cluding interest on the amount, with 
proper allowances for depreciation 
and maintenance, not to exceed 2d.per 
ton per mile for goods conveyed. I 
was then met with the reply that the}' 
were afraid that a ropeway conveying 
such a quantity of material would 
require to be constantly renewed ; 
my answer to this being that we 
would guarantee the carrying ropes 
to convey an aggregate weight of not 
less than 400,000 tons before the 
carrying cables required any renew- 
ing ; whilst of course the supports, 
terminals and carriers would be good 
for a much greater weight, so that 
even the cost of renewing the cables 
would only be relatively a small 
matter. I further undertook that 
such a line, with a good falling 
gradient in favour of the load, would 
require only a brakesman and a 
despatching man for the carrying 
boxes at the delivery terminal ; that 
the boxes would go to the discharging 
end of the line, there automatically 
tipping their contents into th| storage 
hoppers, and the empty buckets 
returned to the despatching terminal 
without any attention whatever ; the 
tipping of the material being done 
automatically at any point required. 

I think that such a statement as this 
has greatly altered my friend's view 
that a ropeway is nothing but a toy. 



By S. M. COCKBURN, Assoc. M. Inst. CE. 

/gJrtHE " Cableway " may be de- 
fined as a hoisting and con- 
veying device, employing as a 
trackway a suspended cable in one 
span. What are known as " wire 
rope tramways," " wireways," " rope- 
ways," whether inclined or otherwise, 
have no capacity for hoisting, and are 
limited to the sole function of con- 
veying, and unlimited in the number 
of spans. 

In the present article I will deal with 
the cableway only, and particularly 
with a few installations which I had 
the pleasure of seeing in operation in 
America a year or two ago. I am to 
a certain ^extent compelled to deal 
with American practice, as British 
engineers and contractors have yet to 
fully appreciate the cableway as a 
means of hoisting and conveying 

The cableway has a very wide 
range of uses, and up to the present 
has proved valuable in bridge, canal, 
lock, dam, pier and wall construction, 
quarry and open pit mining, such as 
iron and phosphate mines, excavating 
and conveying sand and gravel, sewer 
and trench excavations, and the con- 

veyance of goods from one warehouse 
to another, and such uses. 

Wire rope tramways date back to 
the early part of this century, and 
inclined cableways of short span and 
for comparatively small loads have 
been in use in quarries both in this 
country and America for the last 30 
or 40 years, but the first cableway of 
large span and for handling heavy 
loads, was designed and constructed 
by the Lidgerwood Manufacturing 
Company of New York, and so many 
excellent improvements have been 
made in the speed and capacities of 
the machine that the Lidgerwood 
Cableway is now considered to be the 
most perfect one of its kind available 
at the present time. I shall therefore 
confine my remarks to this system. 

Before proceeding to deal with 
some of the interesting installations 
and apparatus which have come 
under my notice, it may be interesting 
to give one or two points which 
might assist intending purchasers to 
obtain the most suitable available 
systems for their particular work at 
the proper price. If an estimate for 
a ropeway is required particulars 
should be given of (a) the span or 



Engineering Times. 

distance between towers ; 
(b) the maximum load 
(tons) to be carried ; (c) 
the average load (tons) ; 
(d) the daily capacity de- 
sired (tons) ; (e) whether 
the load is to be delivered 
at one point or several : 
(f; whether the load is to 
be taken from one point or 
several ; and (g) what the 
nature of the material is 
which has to be handled ; 
and in order to enable a 
maker to clearly design the 
most efficient installation a 
profile sketch or drawing 
of the proposed cableway, 
with at least approximate 
distances and elevations, 
should be supplied. Makers 
of systems will then be 
placed in a position to 
state what they are best 
able to do respectively to 
suit each particular case. 

In 1890 the Lidgerwood 
Manufacturing Company 
constructed the first 
travelling cableway. It was 
made to the order of the 
contractors of the Chicago 
Drainage Canal, and so 
successful did it prove that 
in a short time over twenty 
similar plants were erected 
along the canal. The 
requirements specified by 
the purchaser called for a 
machine having the ability 
of moving readily parallel 
to the direction of the pro- 
posed cutting at a rate ot 
2 1 ft. to 5ft. per day, and 
being capable of handling 
300 cubic yards per day. 
It was found on trial, how- 

ever, and after a few 
improvements had been 
effected, that (where the 
material broke favourably 
under the blast) as much 
as 600 yards could be 

The sketch (Fig. i) gives 
a general idea of the 
travelling cableway used in 
the construction of the 
Chicago Drainage Canal. 

The span varies some- 
what on the different sec- 
tions, as it is governed by 
local conditions, but is 
generally /ooft., the head 
tower being 93ft., and the 
tail tower 73ft. high. The 
head tower is the one 
carrying the engine, and 
is made higher to add to 
the size of the spoil bank 
as the material is spo led 
on that side of the canal. 
The main cable, on which 
the carriage travels, is 2 Jin. 
diameter steel, and the 
other ropes are of suitable 
size to handle a load of 
eight tons. The operating 
power is furnished by a 
IQX 12 double cylinder 
hoisting engine, which I 
will refer to hereaSfter, ana 
the steam is supplied by a 
locomotive fire-box boiler 
ratc-d at 70 h.-p. A three- 
wheel carriage is used, and 
" Miller " fall rope carriers, 
modified to accommodate 
an extra line for dumping, 
serve to render it easy to 
lower the empty fall block 
rapidly at any point. 

The dumping is effected 
by an auxiliary rope called 

Travelling, Fixed and Semi-Portable Cableways. 


the dump line, which is attached to 
the rear end of the skip or tray. 
When it is desired to dump the latter 
this line is drawn in at a higher rate 

Each of the towers is moved by 
small reversible engines, with 6J x 8 
double cylindersand compound geared 
to give ^high pulling power with a 

of speed than the hoisting rope, the small amount of steam. It has re- 
skip is tilted, and the load dumped versible link motion and a winch 
without stopping the onward progress drum. On the head tower steam is 
of the carriage on the cable. taken from the main boiler, while on 


Engineering Times, 

Travelling, Fixed and Semi-Portable Cableways. 


the tail tower the engine is -run by 
compressed air from the drill pipe 
which runs along the canal. 

A jin. diameter steel rope is 
stretched under the centre of the car 
parallel to the line of the canal, for 
several hundred feet, and anchored at 
each end to a deadman. A bridle 
leads from under the car in each 
direction. The ends of the bridle are 
attached to the 
timbers of the car, 
one end under the 
inner posts, and the 
other to the timbers 
carrying the rear 
axles. A pair of 
single blocks are 
attached to the 
bridle and to the 
anchorage line on 
each side. A rope 
is woven through 
the single blocks on 
one side, then 
several times 
around the drum of 
the engine, and 
through the blocks 
on the other side, 
as shown by the 
sketch. (See Fig. 
3.) As the engine 
is reversible, the 
tower may be 
moved in either 
direction, at a 
speed of soft, per 
minute, but a 
greater speed could 

The track is either laid for some 
distance ahead of the machine, or 
more frequently, I5ft. sections per- 
manently attached to the ties are 
used, and transferred from one side 
of the car to the other. 

The illustration (Fig. 4) shows the 
interior of the engine-house on the 
head tower, and presents a good view 
of the specially-designed engine used 
in working the loads on these travel- 
ling cableways. As already stated 
the latter has 10 by 12 cylinders 
with cranks connected at an angle of 
90 degrees, and is fitted with rever- 
sible link motion. The drums are 


be had if 

Beekman patent friction type with 
strap brakes, and can be operated 
either together or independently. The 
two drums being of the same diameter 
the ropes travel at the same rate of 
speed when both drums are revolving, 
and the load may be carried in either 
direction at a uniform distance from 


Engineering Times. 


the cable. The endless or travers- 
ing drum is shown at the right. 
This drum is turned with a curved 
surface, around which the endless 
rope is wrapped five or more times 
to secure sufficient friction to keep 
it from slipping in the opposite 
direction to that in which the drum 
is turning. The hoisting drum is 
divided into two parts; the wider 
part receives the main hoisting 
rope, and the narrow part the dump 
line. Between these two parts of 
the hoisting drum is the portion 
of the drum with the increased 
diameter on which the dump line 
is shifted when the skip is to be 
dumped. The shifting mechanism 
is shown on top ot the engine, 
and all operating levers are 
assembled in a rack in a convenient 
position at the rear of the engine. 
The engine is designed to lift 
eight tons at a speed of 3<Doft. per 
minute, and to convey it along the 
cable at a speed of i,oooft. per 
minute ; but with increased steam 
pressure it works at much higher 
speeds. The boiler is of the 

locomotive fire-box type, 
70 h.-p., and supplies 
steam for both cableway 
engine and the moving 
on the head tower. 

These cableway 
engines are fitted with a 
patent oiling device for 
the friction pins, which 
prevents heating and 
burning out of the points 
when running con- 
tinuously at high speeds. 

Important features of 
the Lidgerwood cable- 
ways are the carriages 
and fall-rope carriers, 


Travelling, Fixed and Semi-Portable Cableway. 


illustrated in Fig 5. 
The former are 
light in proportion 
to strength, and 
are capable of hoist- 
ing eight tons. All 
the wheels are brass 
bushed into self- 
oiling bearings. 
Attention has also 
been paid to effect 
simplicity in con- 
struction so that it 
may be easily 
repaired in case of 
accident. The fall- 
rope carriers, 
designed and 
patented by Mr. 
Spencer Miller, 
are used exclusive- 
ly on all Lidger- 
wood cable \vays, 
and are light and 
strong, and have 
suitable wheels for 
supporting the 
hoisting or fall rope, 
the dump rope, and 
also the endless or 
traversing rope. 
They ride on the 
horn shown in front 
of carriage until 
they are displaced 
by means of the 
steel buttons on 
the button rope. 
The spaces in the 
carriers are gradu- 
ated in size, as are 
also the buttons, so 
that each button 
will pass through 
every carrierexcept 
the one which it 

pulls off the horn of the carriage. The but- 
tons being made fast to the rope at regular 
intervals suited to the requirements of the cable- 


Engineering Times. 

way it is evident that as the carriage 
passesalong the carrier will bedisplaced 
from the horn at each button, and hence 
the ropes will be perfectly supported. 
The illustrations of the button (see 
Fig. 6), are so explanatory as to render 
a detailed description of it unnecessary. 
As the carriage moves in the opposite 
direction the carriers will be picked 
up by the horn on the carriage as fast 

these carriers the speed at which the 
cableway could be operated was not in 
any way limited. A few remarks 
may be opportune regarding the 
aerial dumpingof loads. Thecarriage 
is moved along the cable by an end- 
less or traversing rope, which passes 
from the carriage over the head 
tower, and several times round a 
winch drum on the engine to secure 


as reached. The importance of these 
fall rope carriers will be seen when it 
is considered that if the fall rope were 
allowed to sag down for any distance 
it would simply be impossible to lower 
the fall block, and the cableway would 
be inoperative, in addition to which 
would be the great wear on the rope 
from chafing on the ground, the danger 
attending same, etc. By the use of 

frictional hold, then back over the 
head tower to the tail tower, and then 
returns to the rear end of the carriage. 
A hoisting rope passes from the 
engine over the carriage to the large 
fall block for raising the load. An 
auxiliary hoisting rope, the dump 
line, comes from the other side of the 
same drum of the engine, and passes 
to a smaller block attached to the 

Travelling, Fixed and Semi-Portable Cableways. 


rear end of the skip. This \ 
line is shown in the illus- 
tration (Fig. 7) just below 
the cable. The hoisting 
rope carries the whole 
weight of the skip, and the 
dump line comes in slack, 
but at the same rate of 
speed. When the spoil 
bank is reached, the dump 
line is thrown on an 
increased diameter of the 
drum, and being thus drawn 
in at a higher rate of speed, 
the load is discharged. 
The load is dumped while 
the carriage is in motion, 
and the engine is im- 
mediately reversed, the 
carriage returning for the 
next load without the 
slightest delay. 

The button rope is iust 
above the cable, one carrier 
is shown arrested by a 
button, while the others 
have already been picked 
up by the horn of the 

The skip ismade ofboiler 
plate about /ft. square, 2ft. 
in height, and has an 
average capacity of about 
r8 yards "place rock." 

The travelling cableways 
have done excellent work- 
on the Chicago Drainage 
Canal, and the cost of 
operating them has proved 
that they are superior to 
any other methods em- 
ployed for similar work. | 
The total operating cost 
for labour, coal, oil, waste, 
etc., may vary from 3 to 
3 1 5s. per day, the capa- 


Engineering Times. 

Travelling, Fixed and Semi-Portable Cableways. 


city may vary from 400 to 6po yards 
per day, and it may therefore be 
assumed that the cost per cubic yard 
for these items is about twopence per 
yard. The cost of operating at night 
is practically the same as during the 
day, and about the same amount of 
material can be handled, the only 
additional expense being a slight 
amount for lights. The cableway has 
proved itself 5^d. to 6id. cheaper per 
cubic yard of rock handled than the 
inclines, and on a run of several 
months, has shown itself 2jd. per 
yard cheaper in the cost of opera- 
tion than any of the other methods 
employed for the same work, while the 
outlay for plant was much less. 

The illustration (Fig. 8) represents 
a 3 \ ton cableway installed at quarries 
at Old Forge, Fa., and designed to 
transport stone across the main line 
of a railway company, in order to 
reach the tracks of a competing line 
with whom it was more desirable to 
make shipping arrangements. This 
plant, which has been in successful 
operation for several years, is another 
example demonstrating the absolute 
safety insured in using a properly- 
designed suspension cableway con- 
tinuously over the main line of a rail- 
way or public thoroughfare. There 
need be no obstruction to travel, nor 
yet danger to traffic or passers-by. 

Where aerial dumping is not re- 
quired, the hoisting engine shown in 
Fig. 9 is used in a Lidgerwood cable- 
way installation. This engine has 
double cylinders, with cranks con- 
nected at an angle of 90 degrees, and 
is fitted with reversible link motion. 
The drums are of the Beekman fric- 
tion type, one to carry the hoisting 
rope and the other is turned with a 
curved surface, as shown in the en- 
graving, and carries the endless rope. 

The hoisting and conveying cable- 

s-ay, shown in Fig. 10, is claimed by 
the Lidgerwood Manufacturing Com- 
pany to be the longest in existence. 
It is suspended over the Kanawha 
River, W. Va., and has a clear span 
of 1, 505ft. The main cable is 2iin. in 
diameter, and has carried loads of 4 

The illustrations (Fig. 11) show the 
application of the cableway to bridge 
construction. The bridge depicted in 
course of building is the Court Street 
Bridge over the Genesee River, at 
Rochester, N.Y. Two Lidgerwood 
cableways were used. They were 
identical in every respect and inde- 
pendent, except that one boiler 
supplied steam for both. The 
capacity or maximum load handled 
by each was four tons, which was the 
weight of some of the heaviest blocks ; 
the smaller stones and other material, 
such as cement and gravel, were 
loaded into skips, which were sus- 
pended from the fall block of the 
carriage. All material, although the 
bulk of it came from one side, was 
picked up and delivered at any point 
along the line with the greatest ease 
and entirely under the control of the 
engineer, a conveying speed of 6ooft. 
per minute being easily attained. 
The wooden towers at either end for 
the cables were 5oft. high, and were 
made of lox loin, pine timber. The 
clear span between the towers was 
63oft., and the diameter of the cables 
I fin., steel. The engines were double 
cylinder 8J x loin., reversible link 
motion, 30 h.-p., with large drums for 
high speed. One 40 h.-p. boiler sup- 
plied steam for both. A very impor- 
tant part of the work assigned to the 
cableways was the removal of the old 
bridge piers, etc., and the removal of 
about 5,000 cubic yards of rock from 
the bed of the river, and at the abut- 
ments. The cableway, being over- 


Engineering Times. 

head, was well adapted for this work, 
as it was out of the way of the blast. 

The last illustration depicts a semi- 
portable cableway used at Orange, 
N.J., for sewer excavation. With a 
single bucket and in good digging 
this cableway easily handled 220 
yards per day, averaging 44 loads per 

hour, and, for a single hour, has fre- 
quently handled 60 loads. The 
problem of rapid and economical 
trench excavation seems to have been 
solved by this type of cableway. The 
whole apparatus can be taken down, 
moved ahead, and re-erected in a few 
hours with very little expense. 


( Manu. acturcrs arc invited to send particulars and illustrations of Hew Machinery for Notice, free of charge, undo 
this Heading. Although the merits of every machine and appliance are investigated by an expert, the Editor 
desires it to be understood that in some instances he is dependent to a large extent on the statements of 


HTHERTO, with regard to trans- 
portation in or about works, any 
contrivance that would lift and 
carry the required load was considered by 
most engineers as "good enough," the 
economy of time and labour being entirely 
neglected, but now, the new economic 
conditions engendered by close competition 
render it incumbent on every progressive 
engineer to provide in his shops, an efficient 
method of handling plant and manufactures 

Although the obvious advantages of 
Electricity as a means of conveying power 
from a stationary to a moving source have 
always attracted considerable attention from 
Engineers, it is only within the last few 
years that electric driving has been adopted 
in engineering shops to any great extent. 

Messrs. Vaughan & Son, of Manchester, 
were amongst the first to grasp its possi- 
bilities with reference to their speciality of 
manufacture, viz., Overhead Travelling 

The 5O-ton Electric Traveller illustrated 
herewith, is one of Messrs. Vaughan & 
Son's latest productions, and is erected in 
the boiler shop at Messrs. Hick, Hargreaves 
& Co.'s, Ltd., Works, Bolton. It has a 
span of 5oft., the girders being con- 
structed of double web mild steel plates. 
The depth of the girders at their centres 
being 5ft. Current is conveyed along the 
gantry to the three switches by two bare 
copper wires, and collected by means of 
a sliding contact. The switches are 
located in the cage slung at one end of 
the crane girders, and control the three 
motors. They are so arranged that the 

operator can manipulate the three motions 
of the traveller either separately or simul- 
taneously as required. The three reversing 
motors are series-wound and suitable for 
continuous current ; they were specially 
designed for this crane, their speeds being 
variable from zero to their maximum, by 
simple movements of the respective switch 
handles. The hoisting and cross traverse 
motors are incorporated, practically in the 
crab sides, the reduction of speed being 
accomplished by means of spur gearing 
suitable for two speeds of hoisting on each of 
the two barrels. The longitudinal motor is 
carried on brackets at the end of girders, 
and by means of suitable spur gearing and a 
connecting cross shaft, motion is conveyed 
to one travelling wheel in each wheel box, 
thus ensuring smooth running and freedom 
from " cross- winding." 

Any risk in hoisting through want of 
attention or carelessness, is removed by 
means of a powerful automatic brake. 
When current is switched on to the hoisting 
motor, it puts into circuit an electro-magnet 
of sufficient power to raise the brake lever, 
and render it inoperative at the moment 
when hoisting or lowering commences. The 
brake lever is " held-up " as long as current 
is switched on to the hoisting motor, the 
act of "switching off" immediately, and 
without any attention whatever on the part 
of the operator, allows the brake to be 
instantly applied. The advantage of such 
an arrangement is obvious, as if through any 
reason during working operations the current 
should fail, the brake magnet would 
instantly release the brake, and allow it to 
take charge of, and sustain the load. It is 
fitted with a patented arrangement which 
enables it to be gradually applied, and, 
whilst securing effectual control of the load, 

Engineering Times. 

prevents any undue shock that 
might arise through the brake 
being too suddenly applied. 

The speeds at which the 5<>ton 
crane works, are as follows : 

Longitudinal Traverse ^ 

20oft.permin. / 
Cross looft. 

With light 
loads or 

Hoisting 50 tons at i;f ft. per min. \ 
,, 25tonsat3^ft. ,, I 
* 7tonsati2ft. ,, \ 
3 J tons at 24ft. ,, / 

It is, of course, quite possible 
to use the same generator for both 
"shop" lighting and the trans- 
mission of power. In Messrs. 
Vaughan and Son's shops, for 
example, a 30 H.P. Dynamo, 200 
amps, no volts, worked from the 
ordinary line of shafting, generates 
sufficient current for working 
simultaneously : 

(i.) A 20-ton three motor 

Electric Crane with full 

load, and all three motions 

at once. 
(2.) Efficiently lighting the 

shops by means of a 

number of arc lamps. 
(3.) Working one or two 

motors in connection with 

machine tools. 

It is a fact that cranes, even in 
the busiest shops are not actually 
engaged for more than about \ of 
the working hours. The rest of 
this time is taken up whilst adjust- 
ing slings, preparing loads, &c. 
In a rope-driven crane, the con- 
sumption of power is constant, 
whether the crane is working or 
not, whilst in an electrically 
driven crane, assuming the dynamo 
is driven from the ordinary line of 
shafting, the belt is, to all intents 
and purposes, as running on a 
loose pulley during these periods, 
and even when working, the 
strictest proportion between the 
actual work done and the power 
consumed is always observed. 

In comparing this with a rope- 
driven crane where it takes 
several horse-power to alone keep 
the rope moving the high 
economy must be apparent. 


Water Purifying and Softening. 

The following particulars of a u-st ni.uh- 
5-ton Vaughan's Hl.'ctrir Tra\vlK-r, 
1:1 about joft. will pro\v inU-ivstin^ : 

Load. per Amps. Volt- JJJJJJJ 

Hoisting .. 

Light i lift. S 100 


5j tons I 5^ft. 



5 \ tons 
Traverse Light 






5^ tons 





A. G. P. 




Gf X a previous issue we dealt in a general way 
with the subject of softening and purifying 
the water for boilers, and therefore no intro- 
ductory remarks on the subject will be necessary 
before proceeding to describe the " Archbutt- 
Deeley "' process 

The illustration below represents a purifier 
suitable for the treatment of from 5,000 to 10,000 
gals, per Jiour. It consists of a cast-iron tank, 

divided into two equal parts bv a transverse par- 
tition. The two tanks thus formed are fitted up 
exact Iv in the same wav, the processes of filling, 
softening and clarifying being carried on in one, 
whilst softened and clarified water is being drawn 
off from the other. 

For 3,000 gals, per hour, and less, one softening 
tank is sufficient if a storage tank is provided, 
For more than 10,000 gals, per hour three or four 
tanks are desirable. 

Flard water is admitted to either tank by means 
of the supply pipe, which is connected up to a 
pump or main. The water is run in up to the 
level of a gauge mark on the side of each tank. 

While the tank is filling, quicklime and sodium 
carbonate (58 per cent, alkali), in proportions 
which depend upon the character of the water, 
are weighed out, and boiled up with water in the 
small chemical tank by means of live steam. 
The lime is first slaked in the hot water, and then 
the alkali is added and stirred until dissolved. 

When the tank is full, and the inlet valve has 
been closed, steam from the boiler is admitted to 
the blower, causing a current of water to cir- 
culate through the rose, the three-way cock, 


Engineering Times, 

(usually ten, but vary- 
ing with different 
waters) the steam is 
turned off, and in 
about one hour very 
nearly all the precipi- 
tate will have settled 
to the bottom of the 
tank, and the water, 
even down to a depth 
of 6ft. from the sur- 
face, will not contain, 
on an average, more 
than about one grain 
per gallon of suspend- 
ed matter. 

At this stage of the 
process the water is 
tested to ascertain if 
it has been properly 
treated. This test is. 
very simple and effec- 
tive, and is easily 
made by the man in charge. 

Uncarbonated softened water is liable to form a 
deposit in pipes, and especially in the feed appa- 
ratus of steam boilers, which may become very 
troublesome. This is not a peculiarity of water 
softened by our process, but is common to all 
methods of treatment. 

The process of carbonating is extremely sim- 
ple, and the extra labour and cost involved are 
inconsiderable, and the operations of carbonating 
and drawing off are automatically and simul- 
taneously effected. 

Experience proves that for boilers, carbonatini; 


down the vertical pipe and back into the tank 
through the perforations in the ^lppe) row of 
horizontal pipes. On opening the small tap 
the prepared chemical solution is slowly drawn 
into the circulating current, and thus diffused 
throughout the body of water in the tank. 

The cock is next opened to admit air 
through the pipe at the top of the blower, and by 
reversing the three-way cock this air is forced 
through the perforations on the under side of the 
lower row of pipes. From these it rises in 
streams of bubbles, stirring up some of the pre- 
cipitate or mud from previous operations which 
lies on the bottom 
of the tank. Before 
being mixed with this 
mud, the new precipi- 
tate, which is very 
finely divided, will 
not coagulate, and 
takes a long time to 
settle ; but when the 
old precipitate, con- 
sisting of coarse par- 
ticles, is stirred up the 
fine particles attach 
themselves to the 
coarse particles, and 
subsidence of the 
precipitate is thereby 
greatly accelerated 
when the water is 
allowed to rest. 

After the blower 



Water Purifying and Softening. 

Engineering Times* 

is not always necessary ; and that where it is 
necessary, occasional carbonating is often suffi- 
cient to prevent any trouble from deposit in 
feed pipes. 

The precipitate is prevented from unduly 
accumulating in the tank, by its partial removal 
at regular intervals ; this*is effected in various 
ways, to suit different circumstances. From the 
nature of the precipitate it is easily dealt with. 
In small plants, a discharge pipe is provided in 
one corner of the tank, and by lifting a plug 
daily, a sufficient quantity of mud can be run 
off. In larger plants, the mud is swept out, at 
longer intervals, through mud doors, into a 
trough which conveys it on to waste ground ; or, 
it is raised out of the tank or trough by a steam 
lifter, and discharged into a cart lined with 
waste furnace ashes, through which the excess of 
water readily drains, leaving the nearly dry mud 
and ashes ready for tipping. 

That steam boilers, and their feed apparatus and 
economiser ubes, can be kept quite free frc m scale 
b the above process of softening the water, ha 
been amply proved at the works where it has 
been adopted. A plant softening 30,000 gallons 
per hour ihas been in successful and continuous 
operation at the locomotive works of the Midland 
Railway Company, at Derby, since 1891. The 
hardest water at present (1898) being treated is at 
a mill in Nottingham ; it has 35^ deg. of hard- 
ness, and contains both carbonate and sulphate of 
lime, as well as a large quantity of magnesium 
salts ; by this treatment, the hardness of the 
water is reduced to an average of 3-2 deg., and 
the formation of boiler scale is entirely prevented. 

All the mechanical operations are very simple, 
and the labour involved is light. So far as 
labour is concerned it costs little more to soften 
20,000 gallons at one time than to soften 2,000 
gallons ; and where the quantity of water required 
per day is not large enough to warrant the cost 
of special labour it is better, where there is room, 
to erect a plant of greater capacity than is abso- 
lutely necessary, because then the number of 
softenings per day is lessened, and, as each 
softening takes only a few minutes, the boiler 
attendant can spare enough time to do what is 

'1 he softening tanks are also storage tanks a 
point to be remembered when considering the 
space occupied. Existing storage tanks can be 
fitted up as softening tanks if of suitable size and 

The steam used by the blower is only sufficient 
to raise the temperature of the water about 2 
degrees F., and, when the water is required for 
boilers, more or less of the heat is returned to the 
boilers, and must not therefore be charged to the 
softening process ; if the whole of it is charged i t 
amounts to very little. 

To remove calcium carbonate (carbonate of 
lime) from water by this process costs very liitle, 
because lime alone is necessary, and is very cheap. 
To remove calcium sulphate (sulphate of lime) 
alkali must be used, which increases the cost. 
For the removal of magnesium salts, caustic 
alkali is required, and the alkali has to be used in 
greater relative proportion ; waters containing 
much magnesium salts are therefore the most 
costly to treat, though in this method of softening, 
the caustic alkali, being made as required by 
boiling lime and alkali together, is cheaper than 
if caustic soda were purchased ready prepared. 
The costliness of softening is, in many cases, a 
measure of the necessity for softening ; and it is 
often more economical to soften a bad vater, 
which can be had for the pumping, than to pur- 
chase a town's water which is itself only less hard 
than the existing supply. 

The makers of the Archbutt-Deeley Apparatus 
are Messrs. Mather and Platt, Limited, Salford 
Iron Works, Manchester. 


E article which appeared in a recent issue 
on " The Essential Features of a Good 
Locknut," has brought us a number of 
enquiries as to where such a nut as there described 
could be obtained, and we think we could not 
reply to our correspondents in a better way than 
by giving them a description of a locknut which, in 
our opinion, is nearest what a locknut s%ould be 
than any other with which we are acquainted. 

Before proceeding with the description, however, 
we might quote from the article referred to as to 
the essentials of a good locknut. It must be easily 
screwed on to the bolt without any special appli- 
ance ; it must remain firmly in position when it 
has once been screwed up, whether tight to the 
bearing or slack ; it must not in any way injure 
the threads of itself or the bolt ingoing on or being 
taken off ; it must be easily removable without 
injuring its locking powers ; it must consist only 
of one piece; it must resemble the ordinary form 

Helicoid Lock Nut, Notes. 

of nut with which "mechanics are familiar ; and 
must be applicable to all purposes. """ 

Experience has shown that these ad vantages are 
to be found in the Helicoid Locknut, which is 
formed by coiling on a mandril a bar of steel or 
other suitable metal of special section, in a cold 
state, in such a manner that a close helical coil is 
formed. This coil is then sawn into suitable 
lengths, according to the size of the nut for which 
it is formed. The blanks are then tapped, faced, 
shaped as required, chamfered and countersunk at 
both ends. 

In tapping the pitch of the threads are cut the 
same as the bolt, but the internal diameter of the 
nut is made slightly smaller than the bolt on which 
it is intended to be used, so that in placing the nut 
on the bolt the former of necessity expands, thereby 
bringing into action the spring of the coil. 

The nut can be removed and replaced on the 
bolt as often as desirable without in any way 
injuring either the nut or the bolt, or impairing 
the self-locking powers of the nut. 

The nut has the appearance, to all practical 
intents and purposes, of an ordinary nut. No 
washer is necessary ; in fact there is no accessory 
of any sort or kind, nor is any special operation 
required for placing it in position on the bolt, an 
ordinary, spanner being quite sufficient. It is not 
necessary to screw the nut down particularly hard, 
as it will remain in the position in which it is 
placed on the bolt. 

The nut, which is manufactured by the Helicoid 
Locknut Patents Co., Limited, 147, Dashwood 
House, London, F>.C., has been thoroughly tried 
in practical use by the leading railways and 
engineering firms, during the last three or four 
years, and the results have been eminently 


\\'E have received a copy of the new oil-engine 
catalogue of the Campbell Gas Engine Company, 
Limited, of Halifax. It is a capital production, 
and the illustrations are particularly striking. It 
contains every particular concerning the well- 
known "Campbell" Oil-Fngine. The great 
merit of this engine is its extreme simplicity of 
construction, its reliability, and easy management. 
In its manufacture only two valves are used, and 
these are so simple that any intelligent person can 
understand their action. \Ve advise those of our 
readers who are interested in oil-engines to >end 
for a copy. It contains a lot of useful information 

on the subject. 

A SAMPLE of Boiler Covering from M 
La \\son Brothers and Co., of Marsh Works, 
Bristol, has reached us. The makers claim that 
this covering is equal to slagwool, magnesia '>r 
asbestos ; that it possesses great tenacity, adhering 
firmly to iron or metal. It is fibrous, tough, non- 
combustible and impervious to frost, and, further 
and what is an important consideration it is 
cheap, as one ton will cover 400 superficial square 
feet 2in. thick. Judging from the testimony 
which Me.->r>. Maudslay Sons and Field, Me r-. 
J. Lysaght, Limited, and others have borne as to 
its merits, it would seem that the makers are not 
claiming too much for their product. 

THE report of Robey and Co. (Ltd.) for 1898 
states that, after writing off /"6,o8o for deprecia- 
tion, the net profit was ,30,563. After deducting 
debenture interest, and adding .770 brought 
forward, there is a balance of ,24,147 available 
for division. The directors recommend a dividend 
of IDS. per share, and the adding of 10,000 to 
the reserve, carrying forward .352. The directors 
have resolved to pay off during the present year 
the whole of the second issue of debentures, 
amounting to ,46,305. 


MKK>. J. \M> H. (i\\ VNM., LIMITKH, Ham- 
mersmith Ironworks, have commenced the 
erection of a new foundry, and when completed 
their present foundry will be converted into a 
fitting shop. The company's works are on the 
Thames Bank, close to Hammersmith Bridge, 
and the river frontage has lately been increased 
I95ft. by the purchase of adjoining land. 



(Selections from recently published patent specifications. Complete copies may be obtained at the Patent Office Sale 
Branch, 2J, Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. Price Sd. each.) 

No. 3,555 of 1898, C. P. Elieson, of West 
Kensington, and "W. S. Naylor, of Catnden 
Town, for " A combined switch and controller 
f or.'electro motors/' 

With this combined switch and con- 
troller, the speed of electro motors, par- 
ticularly in the case of electrically-propelled 
vehicles, boats, and the like, can be con- 
trolled and regulated in a more simple and 
certain manner than hitherto. 

That part of the shaft f upon which the 
contact arm d is mounted, is made of square 
section as indicated at /, and we make the 
boss of the arm d of a corresponding shape 
so that the said part / is free to slide 
therein. It is to be understood, however, 
that the part j may be of any desirable shape, 
or, if desired, a key working in a key-way 
may be made use of, provided that the 
shaft /"is free to slide up and down, and is 
also able to transmit the rotary movement 
to the contact arm d. 

To the lower end of the said shaft f, a 
contact bar k is fixed, the said bar being 
insulated from the said shaft, and on the 
underside of the plate b are fixed two con- 
tact forks /, / which contact forks together 
with the bar k, are designed to form a part 
of one of the current leads to the motor, 
whereby it will be readily understood that 
when the bar k is in its upper position, this 
part of the circuit of the .motor will be intact, 
whilst when the shaft /"is depressed so that 
the bar k occupies the lower position, the 

circuit will be broken ; that is to say, so 
long as the bar k is in contact with the 
forks /, /, the current can be distributed by 
the contact arms d and e in any desired 
manner by rotating the shaft/, whilst when 
the said bar is lowered out of contact with 
the forks /, /, the circuit is broken, notwith- 
standing that the circuit is closed in sc far 
as the contact arms, d and e, are con- 

The operation of this contact arrange- 
ment is as follows : Suppose that the cir- 
cuit is completed through the bar k, and 
that the contact arm d is in contact with the 
contact piece c' A , which corresponds with the 
fastest speed of the motor ; if now it is 
desired to suddenly shut off the current it is 
only necessary to depress the shaft /"so as 
to move the bar k out of contact with the 
forks /, /, whereas hitherto it has been 
necessary to turn the arm d back to its 
zero position past all the contacts <: 2 , c 1 , 
and c, thereby causing an amount of 
sparking which would rapidly cause the 
deterioration of the said contents. When, 
however, the contact is broken by the bar 
k, the contact arm d can be turned back to 
its zero position without any sparking at all, 
so as to be again ready for starting the 
motor at the slowest, or any intermediate 
speed as desired. By this construction it 
will be understood that practically trfe whole 
of the sparking, if the contacts k, I are 
properly used, will take place on these con- 
tacts, which can be readily renewed, in- 
stead of upon the main contacts. 

(m}. Is a guide bar fixed to the plate b t 
and having engaging with it the forked end 
of a guide arm n fixed to the side of the bar 
k, the said guide bar and guide arm serving 
to maintain the said bar k with its ends in 
proper position relatively .with the contact 
forks /, / during the turning of the shaft/"; 
a, o are adjusting screws for regulating the 
friction between the ends of the bar k and 
the surfaces of the contact forks /, /. 

New Patents. 

In order to indicate to the^ driver of a 
motor when the contact arms d and e are in 
full contact with their respective contacts e, 
c l , c-, r' J , c*, r 5 , c 9 , c r , the spring pin / is 
used, which operates in conjunction with the 
notches/, /of the segment A in a well-known 
manner. An insulating" button q on the 
outer end of the spring pin/ is arranged in 
conjunction with a contact spring r in the 
circuit of an electric bell /- 1 and battery ; so 
long as the pin p is in full engagement 
with one of the notches /, /, the contact 
between the spring rand the corresponding 
fixed contact s is broken. Should, however, 
the segment //, which rotates with the spindle 
/, stop in such a position that the pin/ is 
out of engagement, or only partially in 
engagement with one of the notches /, then 
the said pin will hold the contact spring r 
against the contact s, and close the circuit 
so that the bell will ring ; that is to say, 
when the contact arm d is not in full con- 
tact with one of the contacts c, c 1 , c-, c 3 , 
the bell will indicate this by ringing. 

No. 6,679, of 1898, W. Marchant, of Ashton- 
under-Lyne, for ** Improvements in and relating 
to Valve Seats." 

The improvements refer to the various 
types of valves used for the purposes of 
steam, water, gas, or other uses, in which 
the valve seating forms a separate part from 
the valve body. Hitherto, such seatings 
have usually been either pressed into a 
recess provided in the valve body or screwed 
into a similar tapped recess in the said 

In practice such methods have given con- 
siderable trouble after a brief period of work, 
by reason of the seatings so secured be- 
coming loose and leaky, and rendering the 
valve ineffective thereby. In such cases it 
has proved either impossible to remove a 
seating so secured, or a task of great 
difficulty, and expenditure of time. This in- 
vention obviates these defects, a more 

reliable action of the valve is obtained, and 
increased facilities are provided for repairs 
or renewal of the seatings. To attain these 
objects, the usual annular seating ring is 
employed of either angular, rectangular, or 
other section to suit varying conditions and 
types of valves. 

In the periphery of this seating ring a 
tapered groove or channel is formed around 
its whole circumference, opposite this a 
similar but wider groove is cast in the valve 
body, and next which the seating ring cir- 
cumference rests ; this groove may be con- 
tinuous or intermittent, in the shape of cast 
grooved lugs, as may be found most suitable 
to conditions. Placed within the valve body 
groove is a circular metal clip ring, made in 
any suitable section or material, and formed 
in one piece or any requisite number of 
segments, provided with necessary bolting 
ears or the like, by means of which it is 
drawn together and secured. In this tighten- 
ing operation, one side of the ring is drawn 
in contact with the side of groove cast in 
valve body whilst the opposite side of clip 
ring is pressed against the seating ring 
taper groove side next the valve inlet. 

The contacts thus made between the 
clip ring and edges of both grooves extend 
practically round the whole outer circumfer- 
ence of seating ring. Owing to the edges of 
these two grooves overlapping slightly a space 
is formed which allows the clip to pass into 
the seating ring channel in the tightening 
operation, and in so doing it forces the 
seating ring upon its bed. 

Fig. i is a sectional elevation of an Sin. 
steam junction valve, and Fig. 2 is a plan 
in section on line A, B, also a part plan 
section on line C, D showing the interior of 
the clip ring grooves in both the valve body 
and the seating ring rim as applied to tMs 
type of valve. E is the clip ring, F the bolting 
ears to force and hold the seating ring H 
on its bed or seat, G the compression bolt, 
J the seating ring groove, and the K the 
ring groove in the valve body. 

The seating and clip ring are applied to 
a valve in the following manner : 

Compress the clip ring E until it will pass 
into the groove K, next insert the seating 
ring H in position, bolt the clip ring K 
together and tighten the seating as re- 

To release the seating H, and ring E, 
unbolt the clip ring E, wedge open the 
ears F sufficiently to allow the seating 


Engineering Times, 

ring- H to pass out through the clip ring- E, 
then withdraw the wedge and compress the 
clip ring E sufficiently to let it pass out of 
the groove lip L. 

In small valves the clip ring E may be 
applied in the form of a split spring ring and 
hold the seating by spring compression 
instead of by means of a bolt. 

The specification also shows the inven- 
tion applied to an Sin. clearway stop valve. 

No, 8,039 of 1898, S. B. Bamford,of Uttoxeter, 
for " Improvements in Explosion Engines." 

This invention has for its object to sim- 
plify and improve the construction of oil 
engines working on the " Otto " or " four- 
stroke cycle " principle, and to improve the 
means for governing and regulating the 
speed of oil or gas engines. 

Fig. i is a sectional view of the rear end 
of an engine cylinder having an improved 
vaporizer applied to it ; and 

Fig. 2 is a section partly on the line 3-3, 
and partly on the line 3*~3, Fig. i. 

(a}. Indicates the engine cylinder, which 
is provided with a cooling jacket in the usual 
manner, and b is a vaporizer, which is 
attached to the end of the cylinder, and 

which carries a valve box, c, containing a 
valve, d, which serves to control the admis- 
sion of air through the valve box, and of 
liquid hydrocarbon through the nozzle, e, 
the said valve opening automatically by 
reason of the suction produced during the 
outstroke of the piston in a well-known 

(/). Is a branch pipe upon the vaporizer 
for the escape of the exhaust gases, and g is 
the exhaust valve, arranged in a chamber, 

h, which is preferably provided with a cool- 
ing jacket, and which chamber is con- 
nected with the exhaust pipe by a flange 
joint. The valve, g, is operated by means 
of a cam on the usual side shaft of the 
engine through the medium of a lever 
against a roller, at one end of which the 
cam acts, and the other end of which is in 
contact with the stem ^ -1 of the exhaust 
valve g\ 

(/). Is an igniting tube attached to the 
vaporizer b, which igniting tube can be 
heated by a lamp for starting the engine, 
and its use then discontinued : or if the 

heat generated by the explosion is found in- 
sufficient to maintain the heat of the vapor- 
izer after starting the engine, the use of the 
said lamp may be continued. 

In the arrangement shown the vaporizer 
is formed with a horizontal portion, fi l , 
with a portion, b~, inclined upwards at an 
angle of about 45 degrees, and with the 
vertical portion, /;% the top of which verti- 
cal portion carries the valve box c contain- 
ing the valve d. The inclined portion, /;-, 
is formed with an extension, ///, provided at 
the end with a plug or screw, ;/, the removal 
of which serves to afford access to the in- 
terior of the vaporizer for the purpose of 
cleaning out the same, if necessary. 

It will be noticed that the branch f 
through which the exhaust gases pass, being 
placed at an angle with the vaporiser /;, the 
exhaust gases as they escape from the 
cylinder impinge against the walls at the 
lower end of the vaporiser so as to maintain 
the heat thereof in such a manner as to 
ensure the whole of the oil charges being 
vaporised, and at the return stroke of the 
piston (when the gases are compressed), 

It will also be noticed, that the communi- 
cation between the vaporiser and the 

New Patents. 

cylinder is at the lower part of the latter, 
and that a slight fall is given tolhe passage 
from the lowest point of the cylinder to the 
exhaust valve, whereby any sediment or the 
like in the cylinder will be carried out by 
the gases of combustion through the exhaust 

Modifications of the invention are shown 
and described. 

The governor for controlling the speed of 
oil and gas engines has centrifugal balls 
with arms pivoted in projecting lugs in the 
usual way on the rising head and having a 
removable weight on the top ; the rising 
head has a groove in which is fitted a collar 
pivoted to a fork lever working on a centre, 
the opposite end of the fork lever is con- 
nected by a vertical rod fitted with a 
spiral spring to the horizontal end of a bell 
crank lever, the lower end of which forms a 
stop to the lever arm which opens the 
exhaust valve. 

When the engine speed accelerates, and 
the governor balls rise, the fork lever com- 
niunicates a downward motion to the 
horizontal arm of the bell crank lever, 
whereby, when the lever arm of the exhaust 
valve is pressed downwards by the cam on 
the side shaft for the purpose of opening 
the exhaust valve, the lower end of the bell 
crank lever is moved laterally by the action 
of the governor, and comes into contact 
with a catch placed on the exhaust lever 
arm, thus holding open the exhaust valve. 
The governor, owing to the spiral spring, has 
liberty to fall when the speed of the engine 
is reduced, and when the exhaust lever is 
again pressed by the action of the cam on 
the side shaft, the spring on the vertical rod 
instantly removes the bell crank lever away 
from the catch on the exhaust lever arm, 
thus again allowing the exhaust valve to be 
closed at the proper time for the next charge. 


No. 1036 of 1899, J. Vogt, of Massevaux, 
Germany, for " Improvements in apparatus for 
deep boring/* 

This invention relates to improvements in 
apparatus for boring at great depths, in 
which the boring tool or cutter is rigidly 
connected to the bore rod, which is actuated 
by a rocking beam. 

The improvements are described by way 
of example as applied to a construction of 
boring apparatus, similar to that described 
in the Specification to Patent No. 30,024, 
of December i8th, 1897, in which springs 

are interposed between the bore rod and th > 
actuating beam, as also between this and 
the driving connecting rod. 

Figs, i and 2 show respectively a side 
view and a front view of the apparatus, both 
views being partly in section. 

Figs. 3 and 4 show to a larger scale 
detail views of parts of the apparatus. 

The oscillating beam A, which raises the 
bore rod P. is actuated by the connecting roil 

B, receiving its motion from the crankshatt 

C. The trunnions a of the beam are 
suspended by means of two screws 1), 1) 
held by screw nuts /, carried by the sliding 
support K, which can be shitted horizon- 
tally upon the uprights F, by mean.-, ot a 
horizontal screw spindle c, carried in a 
plate e, fixed to the uprights F. 

The screw nuts b are formed as worm 
wheels at their periphery, and gear with a 
worm /". 

To the uprights F are fixed plates R, 
having vertical grooves, i, i, 2, 2,3,3, com- 
municating at bottom with a horizontal 

groove , and the ends of the trunnions a 
of the beam are provided with blocks _' 
which are adapted to slide in one or other 
of the grooves i , 2, or 3, into which they may 
be brought by first shifting them along the 
horizontal groove if by means of the screw c t 
and then raising them in the required 
vertical groove by means of the worm/", 
which actuates the nuts b of the suspension 
screws D. 

Thus assuming the trunnions a of the 
beam to be in the position shown in full 
lines then on turning the worm /" they may 
be brought to the position a 1 , and on then 
turning the screw they can be brought 
either into the position a' 3 or into the 
position a* ; on then again turning the 


Engineering Times* 

wormy the trunnions of the beam can be 
brought either to the position a' A or into the 
positon a 5 , these several positions of a be- 
ing indicated in dotted lines. 

It will be seen from the above description 
that in shifting the trunnions a of the beam 
from the grooves i, i, of the uprights F to 
the grooves 2, 2 01-3, 3 (the trunnions hav- 
ing previously been disconnected from the 
beam in any suitable manner), the stroke 
of the bore rod P will be diminished, while 
if the trunnions a be shifted from the grooves 
3, 3 to the grooves 2, 2 or i, i the stroke of 
the bore rod P will be increased, so that by 
this means the action of the boring appa- 
ratus can be adapted to suit strata of 
different hardness through which the boring 
has to be made, without requiring to re- 
place the crank shaft C by another for 
imparting to the connecting rod a different 
length of stroke, which operation would 
cause a considerable loss of time. 

When diminishing the stroke of the bore 
rod, its speed can be increased. 

The pivot h of the connecting rod B is 
fixed in a bearing /, fixed on a plate H, 
resting on the springs I, which, as described 
in the said specification No. 30,024 of 1897, 
have for their object to deaden the shocks 
which the connecting rod tends to impart 
to the beam on starting the upward motion 
of the bore rod. On the plate H rest counter 
springs I 1 , and the tension of these springs 
I and I 1 can be regulated by means of screw 
bolts and nuts K. The counter springs 
have for their object to deaden the shocks 
which the beam A tends to transmit to the 
rod B on the downward or percussive motion 
of the bore rod P. Their tension can be 
regulated by means of the bolts K accord- 
ing to the weight of the bore rod, that is to 
say, according to depth at which the boring 
tool fixed to the bore rod is acting. 

The springs M, on which rests the bore 
rod P, and which, as described in Specifica- 
tion No. 30,024 of 1897, have the object of 
deadening the shocks which the bore rod tends 
to impart to the beam A at the free fall of 
the former, are also combined with counter 
springs M 1 placed beneath the beam A, 
and the tension of these springs MM 1 can 
be regulated, according to the weight of 
the bore rod, by means of screw bolts and 
nuts N. The springs M 1 prevent any sud- 
den upward jerks of the bore rod when it is 
being raised. 

By thus deadening the several shocks to 
which the apparatus is liable, any damage 
to the bore rod is prevented, and the speed 
of working can be increased. 

No. 1666 of 1899, L. B. White, of New York, 
for " Improvements in Condensing Motors/' 

For many years attempts have been made 
to operate motors by means of liquefied 
carbonic acid gas or liquefied carbon dioxide, 
but the cost of the liquid carbon dioxide is 
too great to render the use of such motors 
economical under all circumstances, and 
for that reason numerous attempts have 
been made to regain and liquefy the spent 
or exhaust carbon dioxide, but such attempts 
were not successful commercially, as the 
cost of condensing or liquefying such spent 
gases was too great. 

The object of this invention is to provide 
a new and improved motor, to be operated 
by means of liquid carbon dioxide, and in 
which the liquid carbon dioxide is heated 

for the purpose of increasing its tension ; 
and, after the high tension gas has worked 
the motor, the spent gases are condensed 
and liquefied and then pumped into the 
heater to be again increased in tension, and 
so on. 

The liquid carbon dioxide is heatea in the 
heater B, and its tension is raised to a pres- 
sure of from 2,500 to 3,000 Ib. per square 
inch that is to say, by the action of the 
heat, it is converted into a gas of such high 
pressure, and this high pressure gas, acting 
on the piston or pistons of the engine A, 
operates the latter and the spent carbon 
dioxide gas, which escapes at a pressure of 
about 250 Ib. per square inch, passes or is 
forced from the valve chamber of the 
engine through the pipe K into the inner 
or telescopic chamber of the condenser 
G, and, as it is still under this compara- 
tively high pressure, it has an extremely 

New Patents. 

great tendency to escape from the tele- 
scopic sections or chamber. Its only way 
of escape is through the fine annular aper- 
tures or slots M, and, in escaping- through 
these fine apertures or slots, the gas expands 
to an extremely great extent in the chamber 
H, in which there is no pressure, and in so 
e.\p Hiding intense cold is produced and the 
carbon dioxide at once congeals into flakes 
resembling snowfiakes or hail, which flakes 
collect in the bottom of the chamber H and 
there melt, as the bottom and sides of the 
chamber H are in contact with the outer 
air, which is much warmer than the interior 
of rhe vessel H. 

The liquefied carbon dioxide flows from 
the chamber H through the pipe F, and is 
pumped by the small pump E from the pipe 
F into the heater B, and is again brought to 
a high tension, operates the engine A, 
escapes into the condenser, etc. 

The inventor is well aware that the only 
source of power in his improved motor is 
fuel consumed in the burner, in the heater, 
and that the carbon dioxide only serves as 
a medium for utilising this power in the 
most economical manner and to the greatest 
advantage. Of the heat units in the flame 
at the burner, a certain amount are used 
for operating the engine and a certain 
amount are consumed in the expansion of 
the carbon dioxide in the condenser, and 
the reason that the improved motor is so 
effective and economical is that the propor- 
tion of heat units lost in the heater is ex- 
ceedingly small, as the carbon dioxide has 
an extraordinarily great affinity for heat and 
takes up almost all the heat units and 
further, the proportion of heat units con- 
sumed in the expansion of the gas for 
congealing it is very small in proportion to 
the heat units consumed in producing the 
power in the engine ; or, in other words, of 
all the heat units representing power, taken 
up by the liquid carbon dioxide from the 
heater flame, the greater proportion is con- 
sumed in operating the engine, and the 
small balance is consumed in congealing 
the liquid carbon dioxide, which is thus 
brought into its original condition ready for 
taking up new heat units in the heater. 

From the effective power of the engine 
the power for operating the pump must be 
deducted in the same manner that the 
power for operating the pumps of a con- 
densing steam engine must IJK- deducted 
from the effective power of such engine. 

No. 1,668, of 1899, L. B. White, of New York, 
for " Improvements in Carbon Dioxide Motors/ 

Heretofore carbon dioxide motors have 
been operated by carbon dioxide under higli 
pressure, and attempts have also been made 
to heat the carbon dioxide before it enters 
the motor for the purpose of increasing the 
pressure, and, in consequence thereof, the 
effective work of the motor, but mechanical 
difficulties presented themselves which pre- 
vented the successful operation of such 

The object of this invention is to provide 
means for heating the carbon dioxide im- 
mediately before it enters the piston of the 
motor, and thus obviate all losses by cooling, 
condensation, or friction in the conducting 
tubes, and this is accomplished by making 

the heater a part of the chamber for supply- 
ing the carbon dioxide to the motor and by 
locating this chamber and heater in close 
proximity or adjacent to the valve chambers 
of the motor. 

The double piston A in the cylinder B 
works the rock shaft C, which carries cams 
D, that actuate the pivoted arms E, which 
in turn act on the ends of the stems of the 
inlet valves F, and the exhaust valves G are 
operated by the lever T. 

When the inlet valve F is open, the channel 
H is open, and communication is established 
between the interior of the cylinder B and 
the short neck ], which is attached to the 
chamber K containing the carbon dioxide 
to be admitted to the cylinder for operating 
the motor. 

The carbon dioxide is conducted into this 
chamber through a suitable supply pipe L. 

A suitable burner M of any desired kind 
is provided for heating this chamber and the 
carbon diuxide therein, and it is preferred 
to give this chamber an annular shape in 
cross section, that is, to place an inner tube 
O into the chamber K, which inner tube O 
at its ends is open to the air, whereas the 
space between the inner tube O and the 


Engineering Times. 

chamber K is closed at the ends, to com- 
plete and close the chamber, and the burner 
M for heating the carbon dioxide in the 
chamber is preferably located within said 
inner tube O, for the purpose of preventing 
any loss of heat and for heating the carbon 
dioxide rapidly. 

The heated gas, the pressure of which has 
been increased, passes from the said cham- 
ber directly into the cylinder, and thus all 

loss of pressure and power by condensation, 
cooling, or friction is avoided. 

It is evident that any type of carbon 
dioxide motor may be used in connection 
with the heating chamber, located adjacent 
to the inlet ends of the cylinder. 

As the heated carbon dioxide must be 
admitted into each end of the cylinder alter- 
nately, a heating chamber is provided for 
each end of the cylinder. 


By John Goodman, Wh. Sch., A.M. I.C. E., 
M.I.M.E. London: Longmans, Green 
and Co. Price 75. 6d. 

This is a work written expressly for 
engineers and students who have a fail- 
knowledge of theoretical mechanics and 
elementary mathematics, to assist them in 
applying their knowledge to engineering 
problems. The task which the author set 
himself was by no means an easy one, and 
it has been performed with a thoroughness 
which is decidedly creditable. The reason- 
ing is unmistakably clear, and the work on 
the whole characteristically concise. Men- 
suration, Moments, Resolutions of Forces, 
Mechanisms, Dynamics of the Steam 
Engine, Friction, Stress, Strain, and 
Elasticity, Structures and Hydraulics, are 
a few of the headings to chapters in this 
valuable book, which runs into some 600 
pages, and contains over 600 illustrations. 
To those intending to enter examinations 
for the Associate Membership of the Insti- 
tution of Civil Engineers, the B.Sc. and 
B.A. degrees in engineering that are 
conferred by some of the British Universities 
and the Advanced and Honour's Stages of 
the Science and Art Department in Applied 
Mechanics and Machine Construction, this 
work will be found of real assistance. It is 
the best work of its kind available. 

M. Powis Bale, M.I.M.E., A.M.I.C.E. 
London : Longmans, Green and Co. 
Price, 2s. 6d. 

A sixth edition of this little work has 
just been issued. It is a deservedly popular 
book, and should be in the hands of every- 
one having engines and boilers under their 
care. It is pregnant with useful hints, 
which are so arranged under large type 
headings as to be easily referred to in- 
dividually. The author has a w r ay of 
speaking "to the point." There is an 
introduction devoted to the selection of an 
engine and boiler, from which we take the 
following : " In selecting a boiler, of 
whatever type, the chief points to consider 
are: (i) the quality of the feed-water, (2) 
the quality of the fuel, (3) the cost of the 
fuel. ... In selecting an engine the 
chief points to be borne in mind are: (i) 
the nature of the work it has to do, (2) the 
speed and power required, (3) the cobt of 
fuel, and (4) if under skilled management." 
This is a concise style, which appeals to 
practical engineers. " Rules for Engine 
Drivers and Boiler Attendants," " Manage- 
ment of Steam Engines and Boilers," 
" Explosion of Steam Boilers" and "Advice 
to Boiler Attendants" are samples of the 



ncjmccrma Cimcs, 

APRIL-MAY, 1899. 

Advertisement Rates. 

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The charge for line Advertisements, in- 
cluding Machinery Wanted or for Sale, Sales 
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charged at the rate of Thirty Shillings per 

Business Cards, one inch deep, in single 
column, Three Guineas for twelve insertions. 

Rates for Displayed Advertisements on 

Machinery, Tools, <&c., Wanted. 

VERTICAL ENGINE, compound, con- 
densing preferred, to give 200 to 230 
indicated horse, say cylinders about I3in. 
and 27in. if condensing, for steam 150 to 
for this pressure, say lift, diameter. 
Andrew Barclay, Sons and Co., Limited, 
Caledonia Works, Kilmarnock. 

GOOD smalf second-hand MACHINE 
(steam power) for breaking oyster 
shells to quarter-inch ; lowest price for cash. 
Apply E. Cook, Peel Square, Barnsley. 

dition, sliding, surfacing, screw-cutting, 
9 or 10, i6ft. bed. 239, Waterloo Street, Hull. 

about I2in. centres, i6ft. 2oft. GAP 
BED, one loin. SHAPER ; each to be in 
,uoi d working condition, with overhead 
motion. Apply, Broom and Wade, En- 
gineers, High Wycombe. 

DOUBLE or single-ended PUNCHING 
pun -h V ; also set of ;ft. or 8ft. BENDING 
ROLLS. Apply Dean and Lowe, Limited, 
Engineers, Stoke-on-Trent. 

Second-hand Machinery for Sale. 

FOR SALE, two loin. Mackey GoLD 
LEAF PRESSERS : new : no reason- 
able offer refused. Apply, J. Weight & Co.", 
Engineers, &c., Victoria Road, St. Philips, 

FOR SALE, a pair of Vertical STEAM 
ENGINES combined, 4-H.-P. ea-h 
with governor, fly wheel, etc. C'omph 
very good order: a 6-H.-P. Hori/onta! 
SYEAM ENGINE, with Tang 76 governor, 
force pump, fly wheel, etc., complete ; good 
as IH-U M-vrral second-hand LIYIIo and 
always on sale. John II. Hc.dge- ,\ Co., 
Engineers and Machinists, 104, Thomas 
Street, Bristol. 

FOR SALE, two 4-H.-P. hori/oma' 
EN( i I N ES in thorough working order 
one WATER YANK, in thorough repair; 
one4-H.-P. MULTI-TUBULAR i:o!l.ER 
(Loco Type). Apply. G. W. New. Engineer, 
Albert Road Iron Works, St. Philips, Bristol. 

MACHINE, by Shanks & Co.. to 
plane I2ft. 6in., complete, and in good con- 
dition. Harrison & Co., 9, Bridge Street, 

FOR SALE, one hand travelling BOGIE 
CRANE, 2 tons, 4ft. 8A guage, radius 
I7ft., length of gib, 2ift. Harrison v.V Co., 
9, Bridge Street, Sunderland. 

gains, will sell separately or togetherex- 
little used by Corporation of Yaunton, 
including two 25 Norn. H.-P. compound 
side-by-side HORIZONTAL ENGI N ES 
by Ruston, Proctor & Co., rive DYNAMOS 
SHAFT, PULLEYS, etc., complete also 
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Works, Newport, Mon., or Charles D. 
Phillips, Jun., Corporation Electricity Works, 

ENGINE, condensing. VERTICAL 
ENGINES, 3in., 42in., 6in. and I2in. ; 
BOILER, I4ft. 5in. by 4ft. 6in. : 15 ton 
Tyler PUMP: Parker & Weston's PUMP. 
Whitehouse, Ilkeston. 

FOR SALE, new 6in., 7in., 8in., and loin. 
Earnshaw & Co., Lee Mount, Halifax. 

I2in. cylinder, 24in. stoke. MoRTAR 
MILL ; 6ft. pan ; over-driven. HY- 
CUTTING-OFF TABLE, side delivery. 
Various DONKEY IT. MI'S: IRON and 
BRASS INJECTORS, all equal to new. 
New and Second-hand STEAM WI NCHES. 
Price moderate. E. Lace & Son, Ltd., 
Engineers, Cardiff. 





By W. J. ADAMS. 


f( Practical Book for 
. . . Practical 


All previous works on gold metallurgy have devoted 
most attention to the theories, mechanics, chemistry and 
history of gold milling. This book tells 


It is not based on laboratory tests, but on the Practical 
Results obtained by the author in an experience of Cver 
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The articles from which this book is compiled, first 
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Cloth Bound, $ 1.50. 

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Patent Carbonic Acid Process and Apparatus 
Patented all over the UUorld. 

English and Foreign Patents for Sale. Licences Granted. 


Address: H. S. ELWORTHY, 239, Dashwood House, 
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Greater Britain Exhibition, 1899. 



portable crrjct permanent Jfarrow- 
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Crossings, Zurijtables, Zipping Cars 
of every description, Xocomotives, <$c. 





Exceedingly Simple in Construction. 

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